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wm m 







Pioneers and Prominent Men. 








188 2. 



The design of tlie present voluoie has been to furnish a conipreiiciisive and reliable history 

of Bergen and Passaic Counties, New Jersey. In grouping these counties together in one vol- 

/ ume respect has been had to that ancient tie of lineage and race which has given and will pre- 

^ serve in both sections an identity of interest, and also to the fact that for more than a century 

and a half tiiese counties were one in territory and munici[)al government. It is therefore fitting 

that tiiey should be classed together in their history. '^ / 

I It is not necessary to ask the reader to pause iiere upon the tiireshold of this volume to 

I listen to a lengthy description of what it contains, or to a eulogy calculated to bins his judgment 

in favor of it in advance. The work will speak for itself. We ask only the reader's candid 

verdict after the volume shall have been impartially perused. 

I There are but a few words of explanation necessary in these prefatory remarks. The work 

.. f compiling this history was begun scarcely more than a year ago. Of course it coidd not have 

iXien so soon completed by a single writer. The plan has been to employ several writers upon 

\ ■ ^-.fferent departments. This plan has been carried out, and the present volume is the result of 

their united labors, amounting in all to several years' work for a single individual. 

The writers who have assisted in the compilation of this work are William Nelson, A.M., 
of Paterson, the late Judge Nehemiah Millard, of tiie same city, Rufus T. Peck, Esq., Charles 
K. Westbrook, A.B., and Edgar O. Wagner, Esq., of the publisiiers' regular staff of assistants. 
The three last mentioned gentlemen have written a large siiare of the biographical sketches. 

All the work thus furnished, except a part of the biographies and the history of the city of 
Paterson, by Mr. Nelson, has been submitted to the revision of the responsible historian, whose 
duty it has been not only to write the general history of both counties, but to so handle the whole 
mass of matter entering into the volume as to make it one liomogeneous, orderly, and consecutive 
work throughout. This latter task has been comparatively easy, owing to the excellence both in 
style and matter of most of the township histories furnished by the assistant writers. 

The name of Mr. Nelson attached to his part of the work is a sufficient guarantee that so 
much of it at least has been well done. And it has been tlie conscientious endeavor of the 
general historian to attain to a like excellence throughout the entire volume. It should be men- 
tioned in this connection that for the interesting early history of schools in the townships we are 
indebted to the carefully prepared centennial manuscript of Mr. Demarest, Superintendent of 
Schools in Bergen County. 

Our thanks are due for many courtesies extended to us and our Assistants in both counties, 
and for matter whicii has been gratuitously and cheerfully furnished by a number of per- 
sons. We desire also to acknowledge our indebtedness to the county and town officials and to 
members of the press generally throughout the counties. 


Philadklphia, Murch, 1882. 




General and Topographical Features 13 

Geology lii 


Discovery and Occupation of New Netherland 22 

Indian Occupation 24 


Indian Hostilities. 

Final Disposal of tUo Delawares 29 


Old Bercen Town and Township. 

First Indian Deed — Pavonia — Ordirmnco Creating a Fortified Town — 
Repurchase from the Indians — Settlement of the Village — Meaning 
of the Name Bergen — Surrender to the English — NewCliarter of Ber- 
gen — Lands in the Township — Cliaiter of Carteret 32 


Other Ancient Settlements. 

Settlements in 1685 — New Barbadoes Neck — Northwestern Part of the 
County 39 


Land Patents in Bergen County. 

Capt. John Berry's Patent— Demarest Patent — Willock's and Johnston's 
Patent — Frenchman's Garden 42 

Manners and Customs of the Hollanders — Nomenclati-re, 
Domestic and Social Habits — Learned Clergy — Dutch 
Nomenclature 46 


Expeditions Against the French — The Schuylers 48 


Bergen and Passaic Counties in the Rkvolution. 
T!io Preliminary Stage of the War — Bergen County Resolutions — Prep- 
arations to resist the British— Development of Loyalty to tlie King — 
Active tnovemeuts begun — Washington in Hackensack 49 

Bercen and Passaic Counties in the Revolution (Con- 

Exploit of Col. Aaron Burr— Clinton's Raid— Msj. Leo's Gallant At- 
tempt to Capture Paulus Hook— General Poor's Death— Raid of Hes- 
sians and Refugees 53 

Bergen and Passaic Counties in the Revolution {Con- 
The Massacre near Old Tappan , 66 


Bergen and Passaic Counties in the Revolution (Continued). 
Gen. Wayne's E.\peditiou 69 


Bergen AND Passaic Counties in the Revolution {Continued). 

Miscellaneous Notes and E.\tracts— E,vtract8 from the Minutes of the 

Council of Safety, 1777 .'. 64 


Confiscated Estates in Bergen County. 

High Treason— Listof Confiscated Estates from the County of Bergen 67 


Bergen County Men in the Revolution, Etc. 

Incidents of the Revolution in Passaic County 71 


The Old Township of Hackensack. 

Original Boundaries and Extent of the Township— Grants of Land — 

Traditions of Van Der Horst and others — The Patent of John Dema- 

rest — Civil Organization of tlio Township— Tlio Township in 1840 — 

Early Schools — Property Destroyed by the British 74 

Civil Organization of the County of Bergen go 

Civil List of Bergen County 81 


Internal Improvements. 
Roads— Bridges— Ferries — Railroads— The Morris Canal 85 


Early Courts op Bergen. 

Espatin — Courts at Bergen 89 

Courts after the Organization op the County. 
Colonial Laws and Courts in Bergen — Conrt-Houses, Clerks' and Sur- 
rogates' Offices !('t 

The Bench and Bar of Bercen County 99 


The Medical Profession in Bergen County. 
District Medical Society of Bergen County 110 

The Press op Bergen County. 
The Bergen County Democrat— Tho Hackensack Republican — The 
Bergen Index— The Englewood Times— The Bergen County 
Herald US 



Tmb Sriptv* BKvrM'K— ficnooL Frxn 


S<Ki>Tiiv \M> l!«i<ii;ioH.iTrp Com'AMK- 01' IIehckx Coi .itv. ; 

1 Cbunl.T ItiMe Sodoly— IWrrgon Couiiiy SmiJii>-Scliool As- 

:t~Tb«B«r^<-i> Coaiilj Farniera* Mutual Fire In«uninc« Com. : 

|4Dj— Bersvn (Vtuiiiv Aaaunioce AawcUUoD, IlAckoonck... 122 


Briiiikn ami I'as.-m. Coi'S'tiks in tiik Waii iif the Uebf-llion. 

8ltiiatluii In IS4I— FInil Brigade — Second Brigade— Exc«lslor Bri- 

t;n<l« » 126 


UKHni:<i Axi) Passaic CooxTlE.s is tiik Wak or the Hebel- 

I.IOX {Coniiiiuiil). 
Thr KiBlli lUglucnl— The Tonlh Brgimriil— The ThirMeDlh Rrgi- 
mcnt 1^2 

IIkhoc!! asd Pa&saic Counties is tiik War or the Kebel- 

I.IOX {C»nli«iic<l). 
Twentx.*#cond Rpgimont — Flag PrcMiitatiuii - 137 

Bkroex Axn Passaic Cou.xties i.x the Waii or the Redei.- 

I.IOX ( Conlinned). 
Twi-nlj'-flrih Rcgimriil— Twentjr-third Regiment 144 


lin .iiii> iir i>(ssAIc CouxTV Mex in the Waii of the IIebfi.- 
i.iox 162 


New UAHBAtioEs. 

Ancient and Modrrn B^iundarieo— Phyaical Feature*— Meaning of Hack. 
rii«iA. k- I'-irlv s.-itl. iner.t« — Civil OrganlrAlion— Frfeliolders of Sew 
llorl.nilo*.*— Vlll^^^;.•- ;iiid lliinilfta — Newspapera- CInircltM arid llii'lr 
tjirljr lllilury— .HcliKila— Cliarterrd Cuni|>anirii and Societiea— Bank- 
uig Initltullona— FolruKUnl and Cliorr^ Hill— Uurlal-I'lacet lOO 


SaIiM.I. ItlVEIl. 

Baunilailr. and lleneral I)e<crii>llun-Natnral Fealiira— Karly Settlo- 
nienu .-^ li .!• lllKtiwayi-Organiiatian— CiTil IJat — Churctapa- 
Iiurml-i'li. . . Ilui.irical Nolca 194 


Niine.Mloallnn aiHl |loMn<tariee— riiyilol FralurM— Early dettlemenln 
''"" ■ ■» and UaniUla— Schoob— Oioroliai— 

" i-' I *M 

i'i.onlIt«rTlpli..»-i:.r|yi>. i{ Ml.i,.rT— a»IIOnpioliaUon 

ri.c~of IIMnrtcal lnlanM~VllU,i«andlUmleU— Ohurebea. »10 




120 I Washixctox. 

' Natural Feature*— Early Selllenieula— Sclioola- Early Highway*— 
' Burial-Place*— Ur):aniiatlaQ— Ciril LUt— Village* and Hamlet*— 
Ciiurilie*- Fricndslilp Lodge, Ko. 10^ F. and A. M.— Historical Note* 
and Incident* MS ' 



riiVBical FMluree— Eirly SettlcmenU— Clill Organiiation- Village* and 
llanilfl*— School*— CliurtrliiM—luduslrU's 24.S 


Phynicul Feature*— Organixatlon— Early &etlU>ment— Plncesand Event 
of Ilii«torical Interest — Village* and Hamlets— ScliooU-Cliurclii** and 
Societie* 2j7 



Fbyaical Feature*— Early Settlement*— Civil Organitallon—Placn of 
Hiaturic Iulere*t — Village* and Hamlet* — School* — Cburchee ^Al 



Originkl Purrha*« — Natural Feature* — Early Settlement* — School* — 
Early Iligliways— Organiulion— CItII Lial- Village* and llamleto— 
Sociclio* and Ordere — Cliurvhes— Lyudhurat — Klngsland— Schuyler 
Mine 298 



Natural Feature* — Early Settlements- School*— Earl) Iligliwa.vs~ 
Organixjition — Civil List — KiilgewiNMl — Mauufacluring Intermt* — 
Cliii rrhrw—lliitial. Place*.... ^ ;109 


Mini AM>. 
Natnral Fcatiirei*— Early Settlement*- Early llifrliwuy* — Oi;;'*""'' 

— Village* and Hamlet* — Chtirrhe*— Burial.Place* 


HoHOKI S. ■ 

General l>p«criptJun— Natural Foaturva— Tlio Early Famllie* of Hoho- 
ku* — School*— Early Ilighways- OrgHuiutlon- Civil List — Village* 
and Hamlets— Mniiufacluring lulervete 9VI 


OnnAXItATlOX liF Passak' Cot NT v. 

Donndarie*— Civil Pivision*- Area and Taxaldo Valualion 34>^ 

PAH.<iAit' ii'iNM i'i\ii, List 

FiHRT CoDim Axn RLKmnxa. 

Omnty lliilMlngii— FInl Elscllon 3.M 

Bbxcb Axn Bak or Passaic Corxir .i.vj 


The jMedicai. Piiofessiox. 

UiimiiiT Medical Societt ass 

NEWsPArEKs or Passaic Cocxrr 3M 



Passaic County Bible Society 374 



General Desciiption— Physical Features— Naoie of the Township— Early 
Soltienient^ — TheHoagland Patent— Acquackanonk itil77S — Develop- 
ment of tiie Water-Powcr at Passaic — Tlie Dundee Water-Power and 
Land Company — Incorporation of Passaic — Water- Works — Newspapers 
— Passaic Manufactures — Steamboats, etc. — Education — The Itefornied 
I'rotestant Dutch Church of Acquackauonk — Blethodiet Episcopal 
Church— The True Reformed Church of Passaic — Baptist Church of 
Passaic — North llefornied Church of Passaic — St. John's Church — 
St. Nicholas* Church (Roman Catliolic)— First Presbyterian Church- 
German Presbyterian Church — The First Holland Church of Passaic 
—The Union Chapel— Washington Place Holland Church — Societies 
— Military — Miscellaneous Notes 376 


City ok Paterson. 

Early History— Founding of Paterson 403 


City of Patkrsox (Continued). 
Municipal History 408 


City of Pa.terson (Continued). 

Manufacturing Interests — The Cotton Industry — Enterprise Manufac- 
turing Company — R. & H. Adams' Mill — Minor Cotton Manufactures 
— Plummer & Prince 410 


City of Paterso.v {Conttnucd). 

Th« Iron Industry — First Machiue-Shop in Paterson- Danforth Loco- 
motive and Machine-Works 421 


City of Patersox (Continued). 
Rogers' LocomotiTe-Works 429 


City of Paterson (Contimied). 

Other Locomotive aud Iron-Works — Grant Locomotive- Works — Ma- 
chinists' Association— Benjamin Buckley & Co.— J. C. Todd &. Simon- 
ton's Machine-Works — John E. Van Winkle — Thomas J. Wrigley — 
Watson Machine Co.— Paterson Iron-Works — John Royle A' Sons — 
Bradley, Godden & Piatt, Holden Machine Co., Industrial Works— 
Jerrold & McKenzie- Samuel Smith, Boiler-Maker — Tube Manufac- 
turers-Union Bolt-Works— Whitney Sc wing-Machine Co.— Peter 
Oberg & Co.— Wire-Drawing— Roller-Making— File-Cutters—Kearney 
& Foot 436 

City of Paterson- (Continued), 
Bra*.«-Founding, etc. — McNab & Harlan Manufuctnring Company- Wil- 
liam H. Hayes— Benjamin Hilton— Baldwin & Robert Taylor— 
Grtst-Mills- John Bentley— S. C. Merrill— Screen-Plates for Paper- 
Mills— Ashmuu Screen-Plate Company— Annandale Screen-Plate 
Company 450 


City of Paterson {Continued). 
The Woolen Industry— John Barrow A Sons— Lawton & Cutler— Bach- 
man 4 Co. —Union ManufacturiogCompany— Johnson & Austin 454 

City of Paterson (Continued). 
Flax, Hemp, and Jute— Colt's Duck-Mill— Phuenlx Flax-Mill- Dolphin 
Mill— J. C. Todd & Co.— Barbour Flax-Spinning Company— Butler 
& MeldruDi 456, 


City of Paterson (Continued). 

The Silk Industry— Christopher Colt— Geo. W. Murray— John Kyle- 
Giles Van Ness — C. Colt & Co. — John C. Benson — James Wnlthatl — 
Stolle& Walthall— The Pho-nix Silk-Mills— J. H. Booth & Co.— Dale 
Manufacturing Company— Dunlup &, Malcolm— Geo. Frost & Sons — 
Dexter, Lambert & Co. — William Strange & Co. — Grinishaw Brothers 
— Pelgram & Meyer— Doherty A; Wadsworth — Crescent Mill— How- 
ell & Scholcs — Freeman A Smallwood — Ashley & Bailey — J. Phillips 
McKay — Barnes Jt Peel — Nightingale Brothers — Louis Frank** Mill 
—Dale Mill 462 

City of Paterson (Continued). 
Velvet, Silk Plush, etc, — American Velvet Company — Silk-Dyeing — 
> The Wiidmann Silk-Dyeing Company — The American Silk-Finish- 
ing Company— Chemical Works— Bobbin-Tnrnei-s — Van Riper Jlan- 
ufacturing Company — Daggers & Row — Leather Belting — Shirt 
Manufacture- Manhattan Shirt-Mills— M. Price & Bros.— The Pas- 
saic Falls 483 


City of Paterson (Continued). 
Ecclesiastical History^Reformed Churches 490 

City of Paterson ((7oH^(Mi(«rf). 
HiPtory of Schools in Paterson — Paterson and other Academies — 
Elm Street Infant School rill 


City of Paterson (Continued). 

Banking Institutions — Passaic Water Company — Gaslight Compa- 
nies — Horse- Rail roads 516 


City of Paterson (Continued). 
Secret Societies — Cemeteries 621 


CtTY OF Paterson (Continued). 
Biographical Sketches 623 


Natural Features— Early Settlements— Schools— Early Highways- 
Civil List — Manufacturing Interests — Preakness Reformed 
(Dutch) Church— Organization 653 


Natural Features— Early Settlements- Schools— Early Highways- 
Civil List — Villages and Hamlets — BuriabPlaces — Manufacturing 
Interests — Organization 559 

LiTTi-E Falls. 
Natural Features— Early Settlements— Schools— Early Highwuys— 
Villages and Hamlets— Civil List— Churches— Manufactures — Act 
of Organization — Notes and Incidents 564 



Physical Features— Early Settlements— Civil Organization- Places 
of Historical Interest— Villages and Hamlet* — Schools— Churches 
— Industries — Comparative View 569 



Physical Features— Civil History— Early Settlements— Historic 
Places and Events— Villages and Hamlets— Schools— Churches- 
Industries ^76 


B I O C3- K/-A. I' H I O .A. L. 

Acker, D»Tld D 202 j 

Ackcrniau, A. N -. 399 

Ackenon, G*rret G.,Sr 10* 

Ackeraon, Garral, Jr 106 

Ailitnia, H. W 193 

AdHius, llpnry ^l"^ 

Adoma. Prwr 525 

Agnew, John ^* 

Andenion, Wm. S 399 

Atkinson, Jame^ ^5 

\Tiaon, John between 650, 551 

Banks. H. M 118 

BsntB, J. H. T 188 

Bwita, Wm. S 10* 

Barbour, Tbomu *61 

Bubonr, Wm ■"» 

Burthoir, Abraliam 280 

Bcckwilh, F. C *29 

Bentlo), John 6*5 

Berdan, J. H 650 

Berdan, John 393 

Berdan, Rlnear J between 202, 203 

Berry, John 1 232 

B«Ter1dge, Thonind 546 

BIbl.y, J. S 361 

Blauicll, Garret 1 650 

Blaurelt, Ijaac D 652 

Board, Peter„ 3:t0 

Bogart, Gilbert D 203^ 

Boggs, W.J *02 

Booth, Jamee 523 

Boyd, Adam 19* 

Brown, John J 6*8 

Burdett. Abraham S facing 194 

iSunpbeli, Abraham D 106 

i>mpbell, Robert 192 

(Tliapman, Lettieus, Jr 278 

Ohrittio, C 107 

Chrystil. Thomna B 120 

Oiarch, Cbarlei A 366 

Clark, Edward between 532,533 

<k>Ilignan, aanilins 217 

Colllgnott, Nicholaj 218 

Oonklln, George W 194 

Cooke, John _ 420 

i^Kjper, Corneliiu 3 206 

i^ioper, Juhn facing 326 

Oraby, H. n _ „ 535 

Oroaalt, William S,37 

Rorria, D. A 116 

Hanfortb, Charlee 424 

OaTenport, Miln 651 

Day, \V. n 115 

Decker, W. F 366 

UrawMl, G. l> between 218, 210 

Ileownat, I'oler S „ .'. 234 

Drmarwt, Ralph 8 „ facing 218 

DeSloit, Jacob J„8r _ 208 

D«rT«>m, Andrew „ facing 144 

Dlckemn, rhileman 353 

Dorvmue, Jaix>l' W ^ facing 201 

I>oremua, John II »..,» „., 201 

narte, Paler I 207 

Dnryea, John B , 493 

Edwarda, John 428 

fair, OiorSB _ 180 

Franks, Loitia 526 

<l«nnlt, 0. V „...„ between SCO, 3«1 

lladhlll, Joaeph „ .. S2» 

Godwin, A. H „ „ 524 

tonld, Thomaa 546 

>3ra«n, Aahbel „ _ 103 

Greppo, Clando 527 

Haas, Nelson facing 183 

namil, Robert 472 

naring, A. B 218 

Haring, G. A 200 

Hnring, John J nc 

Hasbrouck, Cliarlcs facing 114 

Ilening, CornelluB J " 219 

Herring, G.R ' 244 

Herring, Henry C •• 326 

Hcrrinp, Thomaa H 253 

Hoadley, David „ 272 

Hobarl, Garret A 358 

Holdrnm, Abram C 246 

Holt, Samuel, Sr. facing 419 

Homans, Jr., 1. Smith 276 

Hopper, Hcnr>* A 114 

Hopper, Henry A 201 

Hopper, Jacob 1 233 

Hopper, John 354 

Hoxaey, Thomas D s«s 

Hudson, William S 4.16 

Hughes, Roberts 435 

Huntoon, Josiah 1* 5.14 

Hnyler, George 292 

Huyler, John -. 187 

Jacksim, James 528 

Jacobus, CorneliuB I — 294 

Jiinsen, John N 574 

Jones, J. Wyman 274 

Kent, Ridley 364 

KIngsland, Joseph 401 

Kingsland, Richard 402 

Kinne, Theo. Y 368 

Knapp, M. M lOS 

Lydecker, G. A - 277 

Mabie, John 25* 

Magennis, Patrick 63S 

Mat»h, Klias J 368 

Martin, Joe. A 208 

Martling, Stephen 256 

Mclrf-an, Andrew 418 

McNully, Win 803 

Millard, Nehclniah 108 

Miller, Eire S43 

Myers, Clias. F. W - 361 

Neer, II. C between 118, 119 

Nightingale, Jamee 633 

Ogden, E. B. D - 363 

O'Neill, Cliarlee 630 

O'Neill, John 631 

Ontwater, Richard 401 

Paullson, John P - »3 

Peel, James 644 

Pennington, Aaron 8 354 

Pheliw. Wm.W M8 

Planten, G - - 663 

Pope, Samuel « 631 

Poet, (^melius H 6*8 

Bafferty, Philip — ~ 6*1 

Rogers, Alel. W 366 

Rogers. J. S 431 

Rogers, Thomas 430 

Romeyn, Jamee 180 

Ronieyii, Tlie<i. B , 170 

Rncknian, Elisha 217 

Ryle, John ~ ««6 

Schuyler, Cornolius 676 

Selbert, George - 490 

Sherwood, John D 270 

8lmp*in, J. M - 117 

Smith, Daniel D 274 



Speer, Alfred 397 

Spcer, R. S facing 403 

Stauton, Elizabeth C 294 

Steinlc, Frederick facing 192 

Terhune, Garrit 300 

Tailor, Samuel facing 193 

Terhune, HicliardP Wl 

Terhune, Jacob C 254 

/Torhun.-.J. V. H 265 

Terhune, Richard A 366 

Tilt, lienjamin B 469 

Todd, Joseph C 540 

Torbet, K. M facing 538 

Tuttle, Socrates 355 

Van Brunt, John 267 

Van Buskirk, John I 279 

Van Buskirk, Jacob facing 327 

Van Djk, Francis C 539 

Van Riper, Cornelius 362 

Van Kiper, C.S between 360, 361 

Van Kiper, Geo 20O 


Van Saun, Samuel ' 528 

Van Valen, J.M facing 108 

Van Winkle, Daniel 308 

Van Winkle, John E 538 

Van Winkle, Michael 234 

Vermilye, W. K 269 

Voorhis, Henry H 328 

Voorbis, John H 329 

Ward, R. C. A...... 190 

Waterhouse, James 400 

Westervelt, Benjamin J facing 296 

Westervelt, Henry D 276 

Westervelt, Samuel D 191 

Williams, Henry A 358 

Wilson, Peter 183 

Winton, Henry D 119 

Woodruff, A. B 356 

Wortendyke, Cornelius A 209 

Wortendyke, Isaac 109 

Zabriskie, John C facing 324 




Acker, David D facing 203 

Ackerman, A. N " 399 

AckeiHon, G., Jr " 105 

AduiiiP, Henry " 417 

A.lanis, H. \V 193 

Adiiiiis, P facing 525 

Adams, R. & U., Mills of. " 415 

Agnew, John " 534 

Audei-son, W. S " 398 

Arkwright Silk-Mills " 479 

Atkinson, James " 545 

Avison, JdIiu between 550, 551 

Bjinks, Hardy M facing 118 

Banta, J. H. T '* 188 

Banta, William S.... " 104 

Biubour, Thomas '■ 461 

Burboiir Thread-Works " 459 

Barbour, William " 460 

Barlholf, Abraham 280 

Beckwitli, F. C facing 428 

Bentley, John between 544, 545 

Berdau, John facing 393 

Berdan, John U " 550 

Berdan, Rinear J between 202, 203 

Bergen County Clerk and Surrogate's Office facing 98 , 

Berry, John I " 232 

Bevcridge, Thomas '* 546 

Bibby, James S " 361 

Blauvelt, Garret I " 551 

Blauvolt, Isaac D between 552, 553 

BotTd, Peter 330 

Bogait. Gilbert P facing 202 

Bot.'g9,W. J 403 

Booth, James facing 523 

Brown, John J " 549 

Biirdett. Abrahams " 194 

Campbell, A. D " 106 

Campbell, Robert 192 

Chapman, Lebbeus, Jr facing 278 

Christie, C " 107 

Church, Chas. A 367 

Chrystal, Thomas B , facing 120 

Clark, Edward between 532, 533 

CoUignon, Claudius 0. 218 

CoUignon, N 219 

Conklin, Geo. W 194 

CooUe, John facing 426 

Cooper, Cornelius S 297 


Cooper, John facing 326 

Court-House and Jail, Paterson " 352 

Crosby, H. B " 536 

Crossett, Wm " 537 

Currie, D. A " 117 

Danforth, Clias •• 404 

Danforth Locomotive- Works " 421 

Davenport, Miles between 552, 553 

Day, W. H facing 116 

Decker, W. F '• 366 

Demarest, G.D between 218, 219 

Demarest, Peter S 235 

Demarest, Ralph S facing 218 

De Mott, Jacob J.,Sr 298 

Derrom, Andr.w facing 144 

Dexter, Lambert & Co., Mills of " 475 

Doremus, Jacob W •' 20I 

Doremus. John B 201 

Durie, Peter 1 297 

Duryea, John H facing 493 

Edwards, John " '^7 

Fair, George " 189 

First National Bank, View of " 518 

Frauke, Louis •* 526 

Franke, Louis, Mills^of. " 481 

Garuett, 0. V between 3G0, 361 

Gledhill, Joseph " 528,629 

Godwin, A. H facing 624 

Gould, Thomas " 547 

Green, Ashbel " 103 

Greppo, C " 527 

Grimsbaw Bros., Mills of. " 477 

Haas, Nelson " I83 

Hamil, Robert " 472 

Haring, Abraham B " 216 

Haring, G. A. 291 

Hiiring, J. J 117 

Hasbrouck, Charles facing 114 

Herring, Cornelius J " 219 

Herring, G,R " 244 

Herring, Henry C " 326 

Herring, Thomas H " 253 

Hoadley, David •• 272 

Holdrum, Abram C " 245 

Holt, Samuel, Sr " 419 

Homans, I. Smith " 276 

Hopper, H. A 115 

Hopper, Henry A 202 






Hopp«r, J» U I f"''"*! 

Hop|>er, JotaD 

Hntlaon, Wm. S ■ " 

Huglirs, Robert S " 

Hunloon, Joslab P 

Huylcr. George •• 

HiiyltT, Juhn..... ^ 

JackMU.Jame* between 52f, O. I > f«'"B 

JiiDseD, Jolm N ■ 

Junes, J. Wyoinn 

Jate-BagKiiig Mills 

Klng»lauJ, JiwiT'i between 402, 40.1 

402, 40:) 


Klngelan.l, Kkbai-J 

Kinnie, Theo. Y f»<:'"K 

Kniipp, M. M 

Lydecker, G. A 

Mable, John " 

llagt<ntiit», I'litrick 

Map of Bergen ami Punic Counties between 12, 13 

Map of Lake Pa'salc ""^'''i: -' 

Map ur Prili-nitin City 

MarllM, J. A 


liotweon 4(14, 4<I5 

Hartlitig, Stephi^ii . 


McKk}-, J. I'lilllipe, Mills of. f"'ln(? *»< 

Ml Sully, Wllliuni 5<» 

MllUnl, X 1"S 

Mlllrr, r.ira facing 343 

Mvirs, Charlo F. W between 3li0, 301 

N«r, II, f ■' "». "« 

Nighlingale ilrolhers, Silk-MllU of. " 4SU. 481 

Nlghtlngnle, Jiimes « fating 633 

O'Siill. CImrles " 530 

O'Neill, Jobn between 5:10, .Wl 

Oulwater, RIchanI facing 401 

Passaic Knl In '!"' 

Passaic Ili.lllng-Miil facing 438 

Pauliwn, John P " 293 

Peel, Jumps between M4, 545 

Pelgram i Meyer, Mills of facing 478 

Phel|«, Wni. Walter 

PlKiMiix Manufacturing Com|iany • 

Planlen. O 

Pope, :^mnel 

Pnsl, <". II 

Public Scllixll So. 

KalTerty, Plilllp 

Kirgers, J, S 

Iti^iTi Loountoti re- Works 



Rogers, Thomas facing 430 

Itomeyn, James " 180 

Ruckman, Ellslia " 217 

Ryle, Jobn " 4<15 

Schuyler, Cornelius 575 

Seiberl, Geo _ 29« 

ShcrwuoJ, John I) faciog 270 

Sinii>*on, J. M 117 

Sniitb, Daniel D facing 274 

Speer, Alfred " 397 

Spoer, RinenrS " 403 

Stanton, Eliiiabelh Cady " 295 

Steinle, Frederick " 192 

Stocks and Pillory 98 

Strange, William & Co., Mills of (aclng 476 

Taylor, Samuel " 193 

Terbunc, Garril " 360 

Terliune, J. V. H Iietweeu 244,255 

Terlinne, Jacob C " 254, 254 

Terbune, R, I' " 190, 191 

Todd, J. C lacing 540 

Tilt, Uenj. B " 469 

T..da, J. C, Machine- Works of " 441 

Torbel, It. M " 658 

Tuttle, Sucralcs " »« 

Van Brunt, John " 267 

Van Uusklik, .lacob " 327 

Van Buskirk, John 1 " 279 

Van Dyk, Francis C " 539 

Van Riper, C. S between 360, 3GI 

Van I'.lpcr, Cornelius .' facing 302 

Van l!i|wr, Geo " 2<« 

Van Saun, Sannud " 528 

Van Val.n.J. M -.. " lOB 

Van Winkl... Daniel " 308 

Van Winkle, J. E " M( 

Van Winkle. Michael " 234 

Vermilye. W. R " 209 

Voorlil., Henry II " 328 

Vmnbis, J.din II 8«» 

Ward, H. C. A facing tW 

Walerhouse, James '* 400 

WcHlcrvelt, llcnj. J " •-'«« 

We»lervilt, II.Miry D U-tween i;TlJ, 277 

Wesleividl, iSannlel D facing 191 

Winton, Henry D " •''■' 

WoiKlruir, A. B... ■' 356 

Worlendyke, C. A " 209 

Zabriskie, Jobn C " 324 






That portion of New Jersey the history of wliich 
is comprised in the present volume is situated chiefly 
between the Hudson and Passaic Rivers, with a small 
strip of land lying southward of the latter. Its south- 
eastern base or terminus is the peninsula of Bergen 
Neck, resting upon the Kill Van Kull, which sepa- 
rates it from Staten Island and forms the channel, now 
known as the Kills, between the Bay of New York 
on the east, and Achter Kull, or Newark Bay, on the 
west. The eastern boundary of this territory, along 
the North River, is quite straight, excepting the in- 
dentation caused by New York Bay between Con- 
stable's Hook and Paulus Hook, at Jersey City. The 
southwestern boundary pursues a somewhat zigzag 
course, following the Passaic River for some distance 
above its confluence with Newark Bay, then crossing 
it and running along the northern border of Essex 
County to the Morris County line, which it follows to 
the eastern line of Sussex County, and thence, by a 
direct line, passes to the boundary between New York 
and New Jersey. The territory, therefore, is bounded 
on the north by the New York State line. 

In its topographical features it is interesting, while 
in its commercial and manufacturing importance it is 
second to no other district of equal extent in the State. 

The rivers which flow through this territory, or 
form its boundaries, including the Hudson, though 
rising at points widely remote from each other, con- 
verge towards a common outlet as they approach the 
twin bays of Newark and New Y^ork, as if guided by 
a sort of instinct of nature to seek the centre of com- 
mercial activity of the Western Continent. As 
anciently all roads led to Rome, so in these modern 
days all roads, no less than the rivers we are describ- 
ing, lead to the city of New Y'ork. 

The importance, commercially, of the eastern part 
of this territory as the iie.ruf: with New York of all 
the railroads and lines of transportation to and from 
the great West needs only to be mentioned in this 
connection. Every year adds to this section greater 
population, greater commercial value, and increased 
facilities for connecting the vastly-accumulating busi- 
ness of the great West with New York City ; and its 
value will only be still more enhanced when a wise 
economy shall have located the great warehouses for 
western-bound goods arriving from Europe on the 
New Jersey side of the Hudson. 

These are a few of the considerations which indi- 
cate the commercial importance of our territory. 
The falls and water-powers of the Passaic River are 
noted for the facilities they afford for manufacturing. 
Already on the principal fall of that river has been 
built up a manufacturing city of nearly sixty thou- 
sand people. And at Passaic and other points along 
its valley the banks are lined with mills and factories. 

The scenery of this section is picturesque, in many 
places imposing. The Palisades, with their bold and 
rugged fronts, form its eastern wall along the Hudson 
from a few miles above Hoboken to Tappan, a dis- 
tance of nearly twenty miles. Remarkable for their 
picturesque and sublime appearance, they are justly 
regarded as among the most interesting objects of 
natural scenery in America. In some places they 
rise almost perpendicularly from the shore to the 
height of five or six hundred feet, and form for miles 
a solid wall of dark, frowning rocks, impressing the 
stranger, as be sails along their base or views them 
from the speeding cars on the opposite shore, with 
their grand and imposing aspect. The summit is a 
slightly undulating table-land, averaging in width 
about two miles, largely covered with natural forest 
trees, interspersed with cleared farms, drives, and 
parks, from which the ground descends gradually 
to the beautiful Hackensack Valley, on the west. 




to wonder at the marvels of modern phenomena be- 
cause of their very abundance and familiarity, but 
the " forjjotten lore of liy^one ages" excites in the 
mind of tiic student an ever new and fresli delight. 

Bergen, in her old undivided state, passed through 
the pha-ses of colonization and civil rule under the 
Dutch of New Netherland, with which her beginning 
as a settlement was contemporaneous; through the 
transition to an English colony aud the government 
of the Proprietors of East Jersey; llirough the ex- 
citing scenes of the early Indian wars, the period of 
colonial authority under the kings and queens of 
England, and the stirring events of the struggle for 
independence. She passed through the formative 
period of the State and the Nation, the subse<iuent 
war with Great Britain, and liehl her territory un- 
divided for a quarter of a century after those great 
events had occurred. 
That portion now included in Hudson County was 
in their position. From the smooth basin below, the | in many re-spects the theatre of the most important 

From many elevated points along the western side of 
this table-land the Hackensack River, witli its many 
windings, can be seen for miles in extent, shimmering 
like a sheet of silver in the rays of the sun, or on a 
cloudy day presenting a darker line in contrast with 
the foliage and meadows along its banks. 

The Passaic, in its rapid descent through a more 
hilly region, has cut for itself through the trap rock 
and red shale several falls and cascades which add 
beauty and variety to the scenery. The most impor- 
tant of these is at Paterson, the ancient Totowa Falls 
of the red men, where the height, including the dam, 
is ninety feet, between two perpendicular walls of 
solid rock, the water passing over by a sort of flank 
movement, and falling the whole distance to a level 
below almost as placid and still its that of the surface 
of the waters in the lake above. The effect is like 
that of waters falling into a deep well. The rocks on 
either side are rectangular and almost perpendicular 

water, as if waiting for a few moments to recover 
from the stunning sensation of the fall, again starts 
on, and plunges and foams down a succession of rapids 
which mark the course of the river for some distance, 
or rather, we should say, they did so before they were 
chiefly diverted into artificial channels to drive the 
wheels of the many industries of the busy city and 
to supply its iidiabitants with good and wholesome 
water. The fall has been moditied somewhat from 
its natural state by these artificial appliances, but 
still presents at a fair stage of water a scene which 
may be cla-ssed among the truly ])icturesque. 

The territory thus briefly described, comprising 
old Bergen and 1'a.ssaic Counties, has been variously 
marked by its lines of civil division. Its eastern 
border, along the Hudson, constituted the first or- 
ganized municipality in East Jersey, having been 
incorporated lus the town of Bergen in IG.'iS. In lfi64 
the township of Bergen, comprising the present 
county of Hudson, east of the Hackensack River, was 
added to it. In Iti.SS the county of Bergen was 
erected, and included the territory ea-st of the Hack- 
ensack from the Kill Van Kull to the State line. In 
1709 the county of Bergen was enlarged, and from 
that time till 1K:{7, when Passaic County wits set ofl', 
it includeil the latter, with the exception of the small 
part southward of the Passaic (taken from Essex), and 
the county of Hudson, which was set tflf and erected 
into a separate county in 1840. 

Our history will of course include the latter as a 
part of the old county of Bergen. During the two 
hundred years and upwards which preceded the last 
division of Bergen, while her ancient domain wius yet 
intact, many of her most imporUmt historical events 
occurred. While we do not underrate the marvel- 
ous progress of the Wust half-century, which has 
literally transformed the face r)f the whole country 
in a great variety of raspects, yet in history that 
which is most ancient is most interesting. We cease 

events, so far as the people of Bergen were concerned. 
It was the earliest settled and the nearest the centre 
of the most important operations of early as well as 
of modern times. Hence to leave out this portion of 
the territory wholly would be to omit a very essential 
part of the history of Bergen County. We need not 
so much regret that we can glance at this portion of 
the history only briefly, inxsniuch as Hudson County 
has recently had a very complete an<l carefully pre- 
pared history in the work written and published by 
Mr. Charles Winfield, of Jersey City, a work upon 
which we have drawn largely for materials in this 

Streams.— The |)rincipal streams of this territory 
are the Hackensack, Saddle River, Passaic, Ramapo, 
Pequannock, and Ringwood, with lengths in the State 
and drainitge in square miles as follows: 

Hackensack, from the State line to Newark Bay, 
length 30 miles, dniiiiage I'VI square miles. 

Saddle River, from the State line to its junction 
with the Hackensack, length 18 miles, drainage 57 
square miles. 

Passaic River, lengtli So miles, drainage 8(»0 square .^ 

Pequannock, length 4 miles, drainage 82 square 

Ringwood Creek, from the State line to the Pomp- 
ton, li'nglli li> miles, drainage 72 square miles. 

Elevations. — The Ramapo Mountains are the 
highest land in these counties, and are a portion of 
the Highland range, on the southciust border of this 
chain of mountains. The Highlands, ociupying a 
belt of country in New Jersey twenty-two miles wide 
on the New York State line and ten miles wide on- 
the Delaware, comprise a number of mountain ranges 
which from 300 to GOO feet above the valleys, and 
in some places, as at Rutherford's Hill, on Hamburg 
Mountain, to an altitude of 14SK feet above the seji. 
The Musconctcong Mountain, near the southwest end 



of the range, is 986 feet above sea-level. The Morris 
and Essex Railroad summit, near Stanhope, is 922 
feet. The summit near the turnpike from Berkshire 
valley to Sparta is 1209 feet. The summit of the 
turnpike from Hamburg to Snutftown is 1184 feet. 
The Wawayanda Mountain, near the New York line, 
is 1450 feet above mean tide. We give below a table 
of elevations at different points within the counties of 
Bergen and Passaic, as taken from actual surveys : 

NoRTHKUN Railroad op New Jersey. 
From a frofik/uniiaheil by T. W. Demorest, Esq. 


BiiKom of niai-sh near Wi'ehawken (below ti'ie) 30.0 

Jlislii'Ht point .if licrgeii Hill 175.0 

.Siiiniiiit I'l'twBcii Kngluwood urid Nurtli Englewood 60.0 

^^||lmnit lit-tweeii Closter and Col. Blanche's 76.0 

New York and Erik Railway. 
CommisBioner^B Report. 

Jiosey City S.8 

Hergeii Hill, New Jersey Riiilroad track 40.0 

Hacken.'irtLk River 14.0 

Boilint; Spiinj; 50.0 

lioiling Spring Summit 57.0 

I'iissaic River 25.0 

Hnyler's 52.0 

Fitteeiitli-mile Summit 110.0 

i'atersou 7G.8 

I'jiasaic River 45.0 

iiudwinsville 137.4 

llolnikus ., 197.5 

Allendale „ 3'29.0 

Level just above Ramsey's 347.5 

Hollow between Ramsey's and SulTorne 272.0 

SnITerns, N. Y 301.0 

Monroe, N. Y 605.G 

Heights near Patersun. 
Barometric Meaaurement^ by Paul Cook. 

Morris Canal 174.0 

Top of sandstone 406.2 

Top of mountain above 506.4 

Second crest 523.5 

Garret Rock 534.4 

High Mount, three and a half miles north of Paterson.... ti68.8 

nF.iGUTs ON P. C. Co.'a Projected Line across New Jersey. 
By D. E. Culver, Civil Engineer. 

Huiison River 00.0 

^Veellawken Hill 170.0 

Rutherford Park 58.0 

Passaic River at Belleville 00.0 

Kingsland Park Pond 32.0 

Near Eaton's stnne residence 130.0 

Notch in First Monutain 324.0 

Peckman's River, near Stanley's Mill 172.0 

Little Kails Methodist Church 190.0 

Beatty's Mills, Little Falls 165.0 

Sigac Creek 165.0 

Pumpt<Mi and Newark turnpike, near Wm. Allen's 170.0 

Morris Canal at 5Iead's Basin.. 175.0 

Oppnsite iiillen's Hotel, Pompton Plains 195.0 

Oppo.sile Reeve's, Hloomingdale 258.0 

Stony Biook, near Peter De Bann's 309.0 

Paterson and Hamburg turnpike, near Thomas Little's.... 396.0 

Trap Ridges. — The red sandstone region of New 
Jersey is traversed by various and irregularly dis- 
tributed ridges of trap rock. The principal of these 
are Sourland Mountain in Hunterdon and Somerset 
Counties, Rocky Hill in Somerset, Round Valley 
Mountain in Hunterdon, Bergen Hill and Palisade 
Mountain in Hudson and Bergen Counties, and the 
First, Second, and Third Mountains which form the 
long, narrow, and parallel ridges that rise in Somerset 
and run across Union, Essex, Morris, Passaic, and 
Bergen Counties. These high, rocky and wooded 
ridges are remarkable for their occurrence in the 
midst of a rich, highly-cultivated, and productive 
agricultural district. They vary in height from a 

very slight elevation to several hundred feet above 
the rolling country around them. High Point, in 
Passaic County, is the highest trap ridge in New 
Jersey, and is eight hundred and sixty-eight feet 
above tide-water. ]5ergen Hill, at the southwest end, 
is very little above the ordinary level, but rises grad- 
ually till at the New York line it is four hundred 
and eighty-nine feet above the Hudson River. From 
the hard and durable rock of which they are com- 
posed, they present a strong contrast to the soft and 
easily disintegrating red sandstone in which they 
occur; and the courses in which they run have given 
direction to all the lines of communication in the 
State, modifying, to a very large extent, its develop- 

The range of trap forming Bergen Hill and Palisade 
Mountain can be traced from Bergen Point to the 
State line, and beyond that in New York as far as 
Haverstraw, where it changes to a westerly course 
and terminates near Ladentown, close to the gneiss 
of the Highlands. Its length from the Kill Van 
Kull at Bergen Point to the terminus at Ladentown 
is forty-eight miles, of which twenty-eight miles are 
in New Jersey. Throughout this length the out- 
crop is unbroken. At Bergen Point the rock is but a 
few feet above mean tide-water mark ; at High Thorn, 
south of Haverstraw, the highest point attained in the 
range, it is one thousand and eleven feet above the 
Hudson. High Thorn is a prominent and character- 
istic feature of that portion of it called the Palisades. 

Out of the salt meadows west of Bergen Hill, south 
of the Erie Railroad, and east of the Hackensack 
River, rise the trap formations known as Little and 
Big Snake Hills. The larger of the two hills meas- 
ures about a mile and a half in circumference, and 
has its greatest diameter in a northeast and southwest 
line. A straggling growth of cedars, with a few oak, 
hickory, and butternut trees, crown this rocky mound. 
It is surrounded by tide-water and salt marsh except 
on the north, where a narrow strip of swamp slightly 
above high-tide mark connects it with the low upland . 
of Seccaucus, the whole forming a rocky peninsula 
with this bold promontory towards the southwest. 
The western base of the latter is washed by the Hack- 

About a quarter of a mile southeast of Big Snake 
Hill is the small circular island of rock known as 
Little Snake Hill, surrounded by salt marsh, making 
it an island in the tide-flowed meadows. The trap of 
this hill rises .abruptly from the marsh on all sides 
except the south, where the slope is very steep. 

Prominent in the red sandstone district are the two 
long and parallel ranges of trap rock known as the 
First and Second Mountains. The former rises at 
Pluckamin, in Somerset County, passes eastwardly for 
seven miles to the gorge of Middle Brook, thence an 
east-northeast course to Milburn, a distance of sixteen 
miles, where it is cut through by a valley one and a 
half miles in width ; from Milburn to Paterson, fifteen 



miles, the course of the mountain iH a little east of 
north, and here again it is cut througli by tlic Pa-ssaic 
River, forming one of the most remarkable waterfalls 
in the whole country, which gives business to a large 
and growing manufacturing city. Beyond Paterson 
the ridge gradually attains its general height, and, 
curving slightly to the west, terminates near Sicomac, 
having pursued a course of forty-three miles from its 
rise at Pluckamin. Besides the two great depressions 
at Milburn and Paterson, there is the Notch east of 
Little Falls, and the gaps occupied by Middle Brook, 
Stony Brook, and Green Brook, through which the 
waters between it and tlie Second Mountain find their 
way to the sea. 

Parallel to the First Mountain is the range known 
locally as the Second Mountain, which is separated 
from it by a long and narrow valley bearing the names 
of Washington Valley, Vernon Valley, etc. This 
mountain is longer than the first, being forty-eight 
miles, extending from Bernardsville, in Somerset 
County, to the gneiss of the Ramapo Mountain. The 
most considerable depression in the Second Mountain 
is at Little Falls, where the level of the canal is one 
hundred and seventy-four feet above mean tide -water. 
The ma.\imum elevation is reached in High Moun- 
tain north of Paterson, which rises eight hundred and 
si.xty-eight feet. E.xcepting the gap at Little Falls, 
there are no breaks in the range, although it is in 
places much lower than the average altitude.' 

On both of these mountains the rugged surface is 
mostly covered with timber, the trap outcrop being 
too strong to admit of cultivation. 

The range known as the Third Mountain covers 
also a portion of the area counties, including 
the Packanack, west of Pearkness Valley, Hook 
Mountain, and Riker Hill. The range is in length 
about seven miles, and in width from one-half t(i 
three-f|uartcrs of a mile; although at the dam at 
Pompton Furnace, where it is cros-sed by the Ramapo 
River, its breadth is scarcely more than a hundred 
yards. On the north the trend of the range is south- 
east, while the remaining half pursues the arc of a 
circle to Mead's Basin. The range gradually nears 
the road going to Paterson, and at the first forks the 
trap crosses it. In this part of its course the trap 
forms the crest, while the western slope is covered 
with drift. 

" In Bergen County, west of Ramsey's Station, and 
bordering the Ramapo Valley, are two outcrops of the 
trap rocks. The southernmost is a broad anil elevated 
ridge and very rocky. The valley road piLsses over 
the foot of this trap, at the north point of the hill, 
and also at the southwest, near Yahpo. Opposite the 
Wynokie road the trap recedes from the valley, and 
the ridge is, conscijuently, some distance east of it. 
The road from Wyckotl' to the valley is parallel to 
the southern point of the trap outcrop." 

The name trap, applied to these rocks, signifies a 
.stair, and is so given because the rocks of this class 
occur in large tabular masses, rising one above an- 
other like steps. The trap is an igneous rock, of a 
greenish-black or grayish color, consisting of an in- 
timate mixture of feldspar and hornblende. In some 
of the trap ranges, ;is in Bergen Hill, the rock is 
light-colored, and, although hard, shapes readily under 
the hammer. These qualities make it valuable as a 
paving-stone, and for many years square blocks of it 
have been quarried and used for paving the streets of 
our cities. Great quantities are dressed at Bergen 
Hill and along the Palisades. The brown-gray vari- 
ety is not fit for paving, being stubborn and hard to 
break under the hammer. 

Whence came the four long and concentric ridges 
of trap represented in Bergen and Rocky Hills and 
in the First, Second, and Third Mountains? It is 
evident that they are not aquecms, but igneous forma- 
tions. The materials of which they are composed 
have been subjected to a liquefying heat, in which 
condition they either broke through the sandstone 
all at once after it had been deposited, or rose in 
successive series while the sandstone was in pro- 
cess of deposition. Dr. Cook favors the latter view, 
for he says, "The outer ridge which is nearest the 
base of the series is by far the most crystalline in 
structure, and its upper surface is the hardest and 
the most worn, leading to the inference that it is the 
oldest and has been crystallized more slowly and 
further from the surface of cooling."- Dr. Cook 
gives several other valuable reasons for this theory, 
but we have not space to enumerate them here. 



• On»l<>g7 of Now Jeraaj, p. ISO. 

Azoic Formation.— Gneiss. — The area of this for- 
mation in Bergen and Passaic Counties is very limited. 
Profes.sor Cook, in his description of its boundaries, 
says, " West of Denmark a spur of gneiss cxtemis up 
the narrow valley between the Copperas and Green 
Pond Mountain, quite to Green Pond. From Den- 
mark north to the IViuannock River, and thence 
ill Passaic County to We-st Milfonl, a valley separates 
the Highlands on the eitst from the conglomerate 
ranges of Copperas and Kaiiouse Mountain, although 
the dividing line between the two rocks runs upon the 
ea.stcrn slope of these two ranges. Beyond West Mil- 
ford the drift of the valley bounds the gneiss to 
Greenwood Lake." 

The gneiss is the principal rock of the Azoic for- 
mation. It is a stratified crystalline rock, composed 

• nild., p. 337. 



of feldspar and quartz, with small quantities of mica, 
hornblende, magnetite, or other simple minerals. The 
quartz is generally in grains, which are flattened in 
the direction of stratification. The gneiss differs in 
appearance in different localities. East of Copperas 
Mountain it is of a fine granular composition and of 
a reddish color. In other specimens the feldspar is 
white, the quartz has a smoky appearance, while the 
hornblende is green or blackish. Generally the color 
depends upon the shade of the feldspar contained in 
the specimen. 

Crystalline Limestone. — "In the southeast belt 
of the Azoic formation are four small outcrops of the 
crystalline or metamorphic limestone, viz.: two in 
the Wynokie Valley, a third north of Montville, near 
Turkey Mountain, and the fourth near Mendham, in 
Morris County. In the Wynokie Valley this rock 
appears on lands of David Kanouse, east of Ringwood 
Creek, and about half a mile from the village of 
Wynokie, occupying a limited area at the foot of 
Ramapo Mountain. About one mile west of the 
valley road is another larger outcrop, trending north- and southwest along the border of the plain for 
nearly two miles. Its breadth is irregular, ranging 
from one hundred yards to a quarter of a mile. At 
several points it has been quarried for lime-burning. 
The stone is quite impure, being mixed with other 

It is in the gneiss and the crystalline limestone of 
the Azoic formation that the magnetic iron ore of 
New Jersey is found. It was supposed by the early 
geologists, as well as by many intelligent persons 
engaged in practical mining at an early day, that 
the mines of ore in the iron-bearing sections of New 
Jersey were veins of igneous origin, and that they had 
been forced into the positions they now occupy in a 
melted state. But Dr. Kitchell and his assistants, 
and all the later geologists, upon a more thorough 
examination of the subject have come to the conclu- 
sion that the magnetic iron ores of New Jersey are of 
sedimentary origin, and have been deposited in beds 
just as the gneiss and crystalline limestone have been 
deposited. Dr. Cook says, " From the observations 
of the present survey, no other conclusion can be 
reached but that the magnetic iron ores of this State 
have originated from chemical or mechanical deposits, 
just as our hematites and bog-iron ores do now; that 
they have afterwards been covered by strata of sand, 
clay, and carbonate of lime ; that with these they 
have since been upheaved, pressed into folds, and, 
under the influence of pressure and water for an 
immense length of time, they have undergone chemi- 
cal and mechanical changes which have brought them 
to their present condition. They occur both in the 
limestone and the gneiss ; they are entirely con- 
formable to the other rocks in stratification ; they 
contain lamin;e of gneiss, hornblende, etc., just as the 
rocks do, and at their edges they frequently pass from 
the ore to the rock by such insensible gradations that 

one cannot tell where the ore ends and the rocks 

We append the following list of mines of magnetic 
iron ore in Bergen and Passaic Counties : 

Butler Mine, Hohokus, Bergen County; Kanouse 
Mine, Pompton, Passaic County; Wynokie Mine, 
Pompton, Passaic County ; Ringwood Mine, Pomp- 
ton, Passaic County.' 

Palaeozoic Formation. — Potsdam S.\ndstone. — 
This rock, which takes its name from Potsdam, St. 
Lawrence Co., N. Y., where it is finely exposed, has 
but a limited area in Passaic County. It is seen at 
various places along the Green-Pond Mountain Range, 
where it resembles a red shale, being soft, crumbling, 
and easily converted into mud ; but it is more fre- 
quently a conglomerate, consisting of white and red 
quartz pebbles of the size of pigeons' eggs, cemented 
in a quartzose paste of a purplish color. This variety 
of the rock is hard and indestructible. It is evenly 
stratified, and some of the conglomerate beds are very 
thick. In most cases this rock is found along the 
sides of valleys dipping inwards and passing under 
other rocks which occupy the middle of the inter- 
vening space. In the Green-Pond Mountain Range 
this rock has a thickness of not less than seven hun- 
dred feet. It forms an interesting outcrop in the 
mountains north of Passaic, — Bearfort and Bellvale ; 
the Copperas Mountain, with its extension known as 
Kanouse Mountain, and the ridge running thence to 
the village of West Milford. 

Magnesian Limestone. — " In West Milford town- 
ship the magnesian limestone crops out at three points 
along the eastern side of the conglomerate ridge. 
Their positions as related to the gneiss and conglom- 
erate are very similar, being separated from the gneiss 
by a thin band of sandstone. Going north, the first 
outcrop is on the farm of Richard Gould. This forms 
a series of low knobs about three hundred yards long 
from northeast to southwest, and not over fifty yards 
in breadth. A meadow one hundred yards in breadth 
separates them from the conglomerate ledges on the 
west. It is separated from the gneiss to the east of it 
by a narrow belt of quartzite and sandstone, nowhere 
one hundred feet thick, and generally but a few yards 
across. About an eighth of a mile south of the lime- 
stone is Macopin Pond. The limestone dips 60° N. 
60° W. . . . It is mostly of a pale-blue color, com- 
pact and fine-grained. Some of the beds are silicious 
and quartzose ; others contain masses of conglomerate 
and reddish quartz rock imbedded in the calcareous 
matrix, indicating a formation since the deposition of 
the conglomerate of this region. . . . The quarry at 
this locality has yielded a very large amount of stone 
for making lime. Analysis shows it to be magnesian 
in character. 

"About one and a half miles northeast of Gould's 

1 See description and history of tlieae mines in the respective township 
histories in this worlc. 



is the next outcrop of this rock. Its extent from 
southwest to northeast is about three-quarters of a 
mile along a little vale east of the ridge of conglom- 
erate. . . . The next and hist nuti-rop on the south is 
on the west side of the stream, and near L. Payn's. 
.... It is three-quarters of a mile from the northern- 
most outcrop, or Cisco's quarry. The extreme breadth 
does not exceed one hundred yards. At Payn's 
quarry the dip is 60' X. 55" W. . . . The rock varies 
in color from a reddish to a light blue." 

Hl'Dsos River Si..\te. — Ne.xt in the series of pahe- 
ozoic rocks comes the Hudson River slate, so named 
from being the prevailing rock along the Hudson 
River from Newburg upward. It extends through 
the northwestern half of the Kittatinny Valley of 
New Jersey, and is also found in some of the lime- 
8tf)ne valleys farther southeast. At Upper Longwood, 
Petersburg, Oak Hill, and at other points in the 
valley west of the Green-Pond Mountain, it outcrops, 
and at frequent int«rvals in the valley of West Mil- 
ford from the Pequannock River to the State line. 
The finest exposure is in the West Milford Valley. 
where "the slate crops out in long, low swells ami 
rocky knobs from West Milford village south to within 
a mile or two of Newfoundland. North of the former 
place it occurs west of Greenwood Lake, and north of 
the road going west over Beartbrt Mountain. The 
most southern exposure of the rock in the valley is 
about one mile north of Newfoundland. Thence to 
the village of West Milford there is no doubt of its 
being a persistent rock-mass, underlying the whole of 
the valley between these points."" I 

This slate is the darker and harder variety. It 
stands nearly vertical, being a closely-folded syn- ! 
clitial, and has a strike nearly parallel to the direction 
of the valley. The rock is very slow to disintegrate, 
and therefore does not crumble down to form as rich 
and productive a soil as the softer variety of the same 
slate in Sussex County. It is, however, equally fine 
and sinoolh-graincd. 

Triassic Formation.— Red San'dstone. — Hergen 
and Pii-ssaic Counties arc chiefly included within llie 
area of the Triassic or red saiuUtone formation, which 
is comprised in a belt of country having the Highland 
Range on its northwest side, and on its southeast, a 
line almost straight from 8taten Island, near Wooil- 
bridge, to Trenton, and thence by the Delaware River 
till it joins the Highland Range again in the .Musco- 
netcong Mountain. The color of this rock and of 
the red shale which forms so much of the soil of this 
area of the State is supposed to be caused by the 
presence of oxide of iron. The average dip of the 
red sandstone, as shown along the Delaware I{iver, is 
about ten degrees, ami the thickness of the fornnition 
is supposed to be about twenty-seven thousand feet, 
or more than five miles. It wiu* probably a deep sea, 
of which the Highlands formed the northwestern 

shore, and was ages in filling up to its present level. 
The precise age of the formation is difficult to deter- 
mine on account of its containing very few organic 
remains. "The stems of plants are found fossil in this 
rock in the quarries at Newark, Belleville, Plucka- 
min, Milford, and probably at many other places. 
Coal has been found in seams from an eighth to half 
an inch thick in several places. It can be seen in 
the quarries at Martinville, Somerset Co. Enough 
was seen at Basking Ridge, and also at Chatham, to 
induce persons to bore for coal. Near I'nion Village 
coal is said to have been found three or four years 
since. It has been found near Spring Mills, in Hun- 
terdon, and also near Pompton, in Passaic County. 
. . . Fossil fishes have been found in the quarries at 
Pompton, and in several other |>laces. . . . The plants 
found evidently belong to orders higher than those 
of the Carboniferous age. And the footprints are 
those of air-breathing animals, probably of the Rep- 
tilian age."' 

Surface Geology. — The rocks hitherto described 
include in a regularly .tscending .series those which 
are more or less covereii by the surface formation 
known jis the Drift. Ages before man came upon the 
globe, this territory was covered by a Polar sea, which 
drifted vast masses of ice and dlbrin of broken rocks 
into all its valleys and depressions and high upon the 
sides of its loftiest mountains. This sea stood at the 
height of twelve hundred and fifty feet above mean 
tide in the present ocean, as is shown by the drift de- 
posits left upon the hills north of Budd's Lake, the 
highest point in the glacial formation in New Jersey. 
The period at which this glacier, or sea of ice, covered 
a portion of the earth's surface is known to geologists 
as the Chaniplain epoch. The course of the glacier 
was from the north, and it spread its freight of world- 
building material over Northern New Jersey as far 
south as Amboy, and thence, by a line somewhat 
varying, from the mouth of the Raritan to Belvi- 
dere, on the Delaware. Says Dr. Cook, in his late 
report on the Surface Geology of New Jersey, "The 
sovithern boundary line of the great terminal or fron- 
U\\ moraine across New Jersey has a general north- 
northwest course from the mouth of the Raritan 
River, at Perth Amboy, to Morri.stown ; thence a 
north course to Denville, where the direction changes 
to the west, which course is maintained to the Mus- 
conetcong Valley, where it again turns, and thence 
bears west-southwest to the Delaware River, at Bel- 

It would be interesting to follow Dr. Cook in 
his detailed description of the drift along this ter- 
minal moraine, but it is unneces-sary to our purpose, 
being outside of the territory in which we are imme- 
diately concerned. Wc will only give his table of 
elevations of the ilrift at different points along iu 
: southern border : 

' Gn>1oK7 of Now Jpr»*y, p. 14a. 

> Ililil., p. 114. 



Elevations above Mean Tide of Glacial Drifts oti the 
Line of the Terminal Moraine. 


1. Poplar Hiil, Wuodliriilgc 2W 

2. Summit. Second Mountain 3S0 i 

3. Long Hill (Mil) 

4. Madison (ridge sontlieasl) 366 

5. Southeast of Mori'istown 382 

6. Green in Morriatowu 370 

7. Morris Plains 405 

8. Kotchiim Pond (Boontou Branch Railroad) 556 

9. Snake Hill (nortli end) (670) 

10. Southeast ot Rockaway (between two lines of Morris a?id 

Essex Railroad) (670J 

11. Gravel Hill, southeast of Dover (645) 

12. Dover (moraine north of the town) (640) 

13. Near Mount Hope (960) 

14. Canal level. Port Oram 668 

Vk Jackson Hill Mine (960) 

16. Sucaisnnna I'laius (north of) (760) 

17. Hills cast of Drakesville depot (870) 

15. Hills near Drakesville and Stanhope road (1100) 

19. Hills southeast of Waterloo (one and one-half miles north of 

Budd's Lake) (1250) 

20. Valley north of Hackettstown (650) 

21. Ridge near A. R. Da.vs, northwest of Hackettstown (900) 

22. Side of mountain near Amos Hoagland's (600) 

2.i. Townsbury (580) 

24. Side of mountain at Townsbury (660) 

'.^5. Mount Midiepinoki, west of Townsbury (950) 

26. Hill south of Oxford Furnace (600) 

27. Hill east of Oxford and Bridgeville road (520) 

28. Hill we'itof Bridgeville (490) 

29. Hill east of Belvidere (H. J. Butler's place) (.500) 

30. Manunka Chunk Mountain (56o) 

Within this great terminal moraine are other uio- 
raiiies of recession, of less magnitude. " As the con- 
tinental glacier nielted away at the south and re- 
treated northward, it left the materials carried on its 
surface, and these were deposited somewhat as they 
were grouped on the ice. A gradual recession strewed 
more or less of the whole surface with the bowlders 
and bowlder earth, which made the mantle or drift- 
sheet reposing upon the underlying rock formations. 
Whenever this retreat was for a time stopped, and the 
glacier halted, there was an increased accumulation 
at its foot, and thus a succession of terminal or frontal 
moraines, but of limited extent, would be formed. 
The distribution of the glacial drift over this part of 
the State is very uneven. It is not a continuous forma- 
tion, nor is there any uniformity in its thickness. . . . 
The trap-rock hills west of Paterson, and many others, 
are quite bare, and show thin rocks in many out- 
cropping ledges. Others are so deeply covered that 
it is often difficult to ascertain the nature of the rocks 
in them. . . . 

"The drift in the valleys north of the terminal mo- 
raine is generally stratified. The great volume of 
water from the melting of huge bodies of ice flowed 
in these valleys as broad streams or filled them a.s 
lakes. And in this way much of the ground or fun- 
damental moraine, and parts of the terminal moraines, 
which marked the recession of the glacier front, were 
worked over aild redeposited in water. This rear- 
rangement of materials was probably in progress to a 
very limited extent during the whole glacial epoch. 
Warmer seasons or periods must have been marked 
by the melting of great masses of ice, and a recession 
for a time, attended by large streams flowing from 
beneath the glacier and carrying to lower levels au 
immense quantity of sediment. Subsequent advances 
of the glacier would move over some of these sedi- 

mentary deposits and mingle with them, or cover them 
with its unsorted debris. No doubt such alternate 
advances and recessions produced some of the drift 
phenomena now observed. The final retreat and dis- 
appearance of the glacier appears to have given rise 
to great streams and large lakes which, in part, ob- 
literated the great terminal moraine and deposited 
glacial drift over wide areas south of it. These beds 
of stratified drift, found in many of our northern vil- 
lages and on the plains of the central part of the 
State, are consequently of later age than the terminal 
moraine or the sheet of glacial drift covering the sur- 
face north of it. The size of the streams and the force 
of water are measured by the wide-spread gravels and 
bowlders and the disposition of the stones in many 
localities. The decreasing size of the gravel pebbles 
and the fine sediment evenly deposited in thin layers 
show the lessening force of the water as it flowed for- 
ward in broad channels and emptied into broader 
lakes and bays. As the trend of nearly all of these 
valleys is approximatel)' northeast and southwest, 
and as towards the north they were choked by the 
receding barriers of ice, it is safe to assume that the 
general course of the rivers draining away the waters 
from the melting ice front was a southerly or south- 
western one. And we may consider our existing river- 
system as a diminutive representative of that marking 
the close of the glacial ejioch. The valleys of the 
Hackensack, Passaic, Ramapo, Ringwood, Rockaway, 
Pequannock, Succasunna, Berkshire, Musconetco^g, 
Pohatcong, Pequest, Wallkill, Paulinskill, and Dela- 
ware all served as outlets and channels for the rivers 
of that epoch. And for a long period they may have 
continued to receive sediments derived from sources 
to the north and from higher lands bordering them. 
The waters finished the trans|)orting work begun by 
the ice, leveling, sorting, and distributing over a wide 
area the uneven glacial drift. The terrace epoch was 
a time of elevation, when the land gradually rose and 
the streams and lakes were lowered by the erosion of 
thin beds and outlets deeper in the drift which was de- 
posited during the Champlain epoch. As there were 
no longer any glacier-fed streams, the volume of water 
was diminished and broad river-beds were left dry, 
and the streams withdrew to the deeper channels. 
Many of the lakes were drained ofl' or dried up in 
part, and the whole drainage-system of the country 
began to assume the jiroportions of the historic period. 
These changes have been going on ever since, slowly 
modifying the surface, although retaining the general 
features which marked the Champlain epoch." 

The following extract from Dr. Cook's report will 
indicate the distribution and character of the glacial 
drift in different parts of Bergen and Passaic Counties : 

"1. .If.bsey ClTV. — The glacial drift can be seen at a few places only in 
an undisturbed condition. It cont-xins sufficient red shale to give color 
to it, and with the slialy earth there are large blocks of trap rock from 
Bergen Hill, of hard, indurated, banded shale; also from Bergen Hill, 
white, angular, feldspathic sandstones, gneisses, gi-anites, and syenites, 
cobble-stones of the same rocks, and pebbles and angular fragments of 



a gmt Tttriety of rockt. West of Jonwy Avenue, between Twelfth and 
Thlrtornlh Strpet«, the drift Ik's on a reddUh itratified sund. The tra|>- 
ruck Muck* are uut much worn or rounded on the edges, and are, io a 
few 8iicciniens, ten to flfteen ftH't long. The other crystiilline rocks, and 
•ome of the gray oandHtoueo, are well ruuuded and striated. A few of 
the trap*n>ck buwiderv api>ear much flecomjiosed and quite friable. They 
may r«>|>resent the rock of the urigioul surfiice of Bergen Hill. This 
drift i« thin, — not mure than three feet thick in placee. On the lilll In 
the weatiTU part of the city the more cuuimun liowldeni are trap rock, 
riHl samlBtone, gneissea, and indurated nhaleit. The natural drift surface 
can 1k) seen aUtui Comniunipaw, along the line of the Central Railroad 
of New Jersey. The nrte«ian wells which have been bored in the city 
have found rock at varying depths fruni fifteen to ninety feet. At Ma- 
thieaen Ai Wtecher's sugar refinery the surface earth was found to be 
twenty feet thick ; at Cox's brewery, un Grove Street between Seventh 
and Eighth Streets, there waa tMkwlder clny un«l earth to a depth of sev- 
enty feet; at the steel works, Lafayette, the rock was ninety feet deep. 
Constable's Uook is an upland island, surrounded by mursh iiimI water, 
and is a re«Mi-sh-yellow stratified sand-drift with many bowUters of trap 
rock,altere<l slialo, red (wndstone, and gneiss rocks. The sand is in thin, 
gently undulating layeni. The Uiwideni appear to have been dropped 
here by Hoaling ice, and they resemble in general the rock of Bergen 
Neck. The drift on Be<lloo's Island, in New Ynrk harbor, is very much 
like the surface of Constable's llook. They are, apparently, of the same 
origin. The shallow excavations on the latter have failed to strike the 

"2. Palisadb and the Cue.vt Sanbstonk Vallky.— The 
broad Red Sandstone Valley of Bergen, Essex, and Hudson Counties, 
lying between thtj Palisade Mountain and Bergen Hill on the east, and 
tlie lUniaiM) and Wutchuiig ]!tIountains on the west, is furrowed by nar- 
row and deep valleys, which trend sonlh-e<JUthwcst. The ronds running 
east and west cross tjio ridges and depressions, whereas those up and 
down the valley follow the valleys or the ridges. One of the best roads 
for otiaorring this feature of the surface is from Nyack to Suflerns, in 
Rockland Connty, N. V. An<«ther is that connecting Knglewnod and 
Pararous. On the finit-niontioned road these ridges are high and com- 
paratively bruail, attaining a height above tide of about si\ hundred feet. 
And the depretwlons are narrow. The ridges become lower towards the 
southweet and the valleys widen out Into flats, coalescing alwut the 
euutfiwcfltern ends of the ridges which here disapi^ear. The junction of 
the west and of the middle branches of Saddle River near the New York 
line in iit the soutli end of n ridge. Tea Neck, near Hackennack, and 
tlie Arlington Ridge, disupi>earlng at East Newark, are other examples. 
Tills feature of to[Migraphy haa determined somewhat the extent and 
character of the drift cuvoring. On the ennteru side of this great valley 
we see the top of the Palinade Mountain, covered in places by a thin 
sheet of glacial drift. R4>ck outcrops are commtui.and these bear every- 
where glacial markings. (Fordirection of striie and grt^toves, see Annual 
Rejiorts for 1877 and 1878.) Scattered bowlders are very numerous, half 
Imbedded in the drift soil or perched on the jiollshcd ledges. One of 
theee, known as 'Sam|woii*s Ri>ck,' in the rear of Wm. II. Dana's re«i- 
dence, Knglewoo^l, lias attracted attention, and was described in the 
Amnit:>in Jnurtfit «/ Science ami ArU, vol. xl,, 'id series. It is of coarao 
red «n<l!<tiine, and is ten by seven by nine feet. 

"On the luwer i>art of the western slope of the Pullsailo range and on 
the sandstone ridges of tliis valley the drift is nnstratined, and on the 
latter It is so uniformly spread and so thick as to conceal the santlsione, 
excepting In a few very small outcrops, tlonerally it* surface is snioother 
and correa|>onds more to the rock sIo|H)s than it does In the heaii* ami 
Dumnds of the terminal morainoa. Between Clodtcr and KngtewiKMl 
there is much drift in the form of »liort hiUn. Near the funiier place 
they staiiil In the bonier of the plain ; southward they rise in the tra|H 
ntck slope. Their billowy surface Is very pnmilnent in the toixigrnphy 
of that |>art of the valley. S4>iiie of Iheni are at lca«t lUie hundred feel 
high. They look as tf they hod lieen the lateral moraine of a glacier 
whirh fllle'l the valley but no longer overtopped the nionntain. The 
c<>ni|NMltinn of the glacial drift varies greatly on the two sides of this 
valley. Near the I'alisnde Mountain the drift earth Is niontly rod shale 
and sand from the rod sandstone. The IniU'dded iKtwIden are sand- | 
sbuiM, then gneJMlc and granitic rocks. Ouing west, the proportion of 
sliale diiidnlshea, and the iHiwbler earth has a grayish-white color, ami 
Is largely ilerlviwl from gnetsslc ntcks. There are fewer sandstonee, and 
an lin reuswl numtn-r of crystalline hhU with (ireen-Pond Mountain » on- 
glonipnito. Till' gnelNMu and rongbunerate make u)i ninety per cent, of 
the l»wldeni in the drift along the Raniapo Mountain, and they are larger 
than Utoae to the oast. The largest which has Iteen oli«erved in thin |>arti>f 
the country Is In Ruckland County, a few rudi south of the Pierniunt Rail- ' 

road, and one and a half mllea loutlieast of Suffems. It appears to be 
mostly above ground. Its dimensions are forty-five by thirty, by twenty- 
five fevt, audita estimated weight Is one thousand five hundred tons. Tlie 
rock is a foldspathic gneiss, traversetl by veins of syenite. It may not 
have traveled far, aa the nearest outcrop of crystoJline rock is not more 
than two miles away. While shales, sandstones, conglomerates, gneiss, 
granite, and syenite are to be seen everywhere, no limestones have been 
otiaerved in the unstratified drift of the valley. Glaciated i>ebb1esand 
bowlderv abound. In the northwestern part of Ik>rgcn County tliere is a 
great accumulation of drift, l>oth assorted and stratiAed. The several 
cuttings on the New York, Lake Erie and Western Railway and the 
New Jersey Midland Rallroail expose fine si'clious. In one of these 
cuts, a little way north of Ramsey's Station, the drift at the southern 
end is glacial ; whereas to the north of it there Is a long section of 
grayish-white stratifit-d sand and gravel. The country south of Paterson 
and ea»t of the Watchung Mountain, or Orange Mountain, is ver}' gen- 
erally covered by glacial drift. It is here largely made up of red shale 
earth and retl sandstone b<»wlderB. The cuts on the lino of the New 
York and Gret^nwood Lake Railroad, near Bloomtield, Montclair. and 
the Notch, show good sections thruugh the drift down to the glaci- 
ated ledges. Along the Newark and Patcrson Railroad both forms of 
drift are seen. At the Newark brown-stone <)uarrief> the red shale drift 
earlli holds many large bowlders of retl sandstone, trap rock, gneise, 
Green-Pond Mountain conglomerate, and a multitude of sul>-angular 
fragmenta of shale. Flat pebbles of shale and Kindstone are also abun- 
dant. The stria- on many of the trai>-ro<-k and re^l sandstone l>owlder8 
are very finely cut. No traced of any stratificatiiiii were ot«ervod. Tlie 
moan thickness is about ten feet. The top earth is of a yellowish color ; 
the lower drift is reddish brown. The grading for streets in East New* 
ark and tlM> railroad cuts give long and good sections of the drift. But 
hero It is, in part, stratified. 

"Along the wcetern foot of the Palisade Mountain and Bergen Hill 
there is much variety in the forms which the drift aasumes. At a num- 
ber of localities the glacial drift is found lying ni>on a reddish sand, 
which In tuin rests upon the i>olishod and striated trap riH'k. At 
Marion the following section was noted : 

•'1. A gravelly bed 3 feet, 

2. Glacial drift 10 " 

.'1. Fine red sand 

"The same series was beautifully ex|>o8ed on the new straight line 
cut of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company, in Bergen Cut. The section 
at this i>oint was: 

" 1. Y'ellow, tnippean clav snll and aubaoll 2 feet. 

2. Re-1 shale, glacial ilr'ifl 10 ** 

:t. CoarHC red sand and fine gravel 1 to 3 " 

(4.) Glaciated trap rock 

" At the west end of Bergen tunnel, the south side of the cut consisted 
of the following members, vit.: 

"1. Yellow, Irappean clay loam soil and subsoil 

2. Glacial drift 3to6f»et. 

3. Stnitilied sand, gravel ami cobblv-stonos^ 3to6 ** 

4. Glaciol drift 6 " 

6. Stratified red sand at bottom 

*' In the glacial drift on Bergen Hill the bowlders of rml nandstone 
and shale pretlominato. The (vercentage of trap rock Im small, and there 
are few of <iuartr.lte ami conglomerates. Of gneisses also there are 
com|iaratively few. At Bayonne, and elsewhere on the line of the Cen- 
tral Ralln>ad, the glacial drift was cut thmugh, twenty-five to thirty feet 
thick, down to the polished and striated HK-k. The cuttings for streets 
encountered the same ilrift. Many largo and well-rountlod gneiss bowl- 
deni and angular blocks of induratetl striped shale are found. The latter 
are evidently n>>t far fmni the parent b'dges. Tnip n>cks and red sand- 
ntonu preilomlnat)' in mass, and there 1^ much shale in smaller and an- 
gular fragments. No serpentine has been ol«(>rved. The conijHKdtioh 
of thf drift indicates here, as elsewhere In the red sandstone country, a 
southeastern movement. The alluvial formation of the Newark mea- 
flows is supposed to rest up(^>n drift. Several weltn In the niarshes west 
of the Ilackennack River, near the Newark plank n>ad, go tlin>ugh the 
alluvium anil Into a <lrift. Four of them, sunk in 1S71, get their supply 
of water from gmvel at a depth of nearly twi.* huadred feet. The well 
of Hiiyler and Itntan, nl^ar the riviT at Mackensack, |)assed through 
one hundreil and ftmr feet of meadow mud and bine and nnl ilays. In 
Newark, the well of MrMtm. K. Hiillwch \ S<in, at their smelting-works, 
liaased through alxuit one hundred feet of sainl and gravel and then 
entsHMl the ro*\ Nandstone. That of P. Bnllantine .V St•n^ ut their 
brewery, went through ninety fwt of earth. The w»dl at the works of 
Lister Brothers, on the bank of the Paasalc, was sunk one hundred and 




I \ ltnrijui 

I ]'/»-»(/< I \Knl.Smiilxliiir ^/tril'l 

/Itntvwtnl 'St-n/r /i/tit/rj tvt/ir htrh 
Virtinil •'iriilr nl'.^rrtiiti KMnif* Inlhr itirli 



ten feet in earth. These figures show the great thickness of drift and 
the depth uf the rock basin. 

*' In explanation of tlieir origin we may consider these levels or ter- 
races as marking tlie successive heigtita at which the waters stood in 
this great valley after the retreat of the glacier had begun, during the 
Chani|tlain epoch, and continued through the Terrace epoch. The melt- 
ing of the ice in the valley and oti the Highlands north and west pro- 
duced an enormous volunn'of water, which filled the great iiasin, form- 
ing u luke thirty miles long and eight miles wide. Tlie top of tlie 
terinitiiil moraine was leveled eft ami a piirt of its material was carried 
»Mithuard and silted on Iho bottom of the lake, where are now the great 
swamp and the Dead River flats. The gaps through the trap-rock ranges 
at Paterson and Little Falls were filled with drift by the glacier. The 
extnivation of these drift-fiUeil gaps began as it disappeared, and the 
outlet again follnwed the line of the old channel into the red sandstone 
couTitiy on the east. Two causes contributed to the lowering of the 
lake level. They were the diminished volume of water in the Cham- 
plain epoch after the great masses of ice had disappeared from the sur- 
rounding hills, and the cutting down of the drift dams along the outlet 
between Paterson and Little Falls. The former source of supply soou 
closed, and the natural drainage of the water-ghed with the rainfall on 
its surface were the sole feeders. The upper terrace is most plainly 
marked on tlie surrounding hill and mountain sides. It was the broad 
pebbly shore of a lake into which poured torrents of water from the 
neighboritig hills, carrying cobble-stones and bowlders into it and de- 
positing them so Confusedly together as in places to resemble a glacial 
deposit. The accumulations of drift at Bernardsville and Basking Ridge 
m y liave come in that way. Tln' lower level-topped hills mark the mure 
quiet watere as they subsided and slirunk into narrow limits. Pompton 
Plains and the fiats along the Passaic and Whippany Rivera mark their 
further contraction into irregular-shaped ponds within the bounds of 
the old lake basin. The erosion through the drift at Little Falls was 
probably the gradual wear of the Terrace epoch until the hard trap- 
rock reef was reached. At that level tlie drainage stopped. The slow 
work of excavation through this barrier and the recession of the falls 
have been in progiess since that time; and a gorgi- three hundred feet 
wide at the east, narrowing westward to the falls, and between thirty 
and forty feet deep, has been cut hack about six hundred feet iu the 
rock. As the falls have not yet materially clianged since the earliest 
records of it, this recession must have required a long period. The fur- 
ther w<»rk of cutting through the harrier of trap rock must he very 
slow, and hence the drainage of the old lake basin may be considered 
as i)ractically at an end, unless furthered by the agency of man. We 
see to-day the undrained meadows and swamps occupying the sites of 
the later ponds. The process of filling them with sediments derived 
from surface-wash of the surrounding hills is going. on, and is destined 
to fill tliem eventually, unless the flow of the stream is accelei-ated by 
an altenition in the fall. It would be extremely interesting to trace out 
the borders of this ancient lake, and locate tlie streams which fed it, 
and note the islands of Hook Mountain, Riker Hill, Horse Hill, and 
others in it, and then follow its contracting outlines until it disappears 
and then was left the present wet meadow bottom. Its history is im- 
pressed upon the topographical features of the country so plainly that 
the enthusiastic and diligent student can, by the aid of good maps, 
restore it. 

A Glacial Lake. — The Passaic River formed anciently the outlet of 
a great glacial lake. Professor Cook says in his report, "Tlierewere 
many lakes of this sort in New Jersey, which can now be traced by the 
marks which their water-surfaces left upon their hanks. One of the 
most remarkable and interesting of tliese is the one which was between 
the Watchung Mountain and the Highland range. It was fully thirty 
miles long, from six to eight miles wide, aiid in most jdaces two hundred 
feet deep. It covered the country where Madison, Chatham, New Prov- 
idence, Basking Ridge, Hanover, Whippany, Troy, PoTupton, and Little 
Falls now stand. Long Hill, Riker's Hill, and the Hook Mountain were 
islands in it. And its shores were made by the Second Mountain from 
Paterson to Bernardsville, by the Highlands from Bernardsville to Pomp- 
ton, and from thence to near Paterson by the Second Mountain again. 
The only outlet to this lake was by the valley of the Passaic at Paterson, 
and this was at that time closed by the ice of the receding glacier, and 
its then terminal moraine still fills most of the valley where the Boouton 
branch of the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railway crosses the 
Passaic. The insufficiency of these hanks is plainly evident to any one 
familiar with the country spoken of, and the level of the water in if is 
to be seen everywhere by the sand and gravel banks which have been 
made by the natural wash from the surrounding country, which were 
carried down into the water and there deposited. The surface level of 

this lake was about three hundred and eighty feet above the present 
level of tide-water. The plain country between Madison and Murristowu 
is of this lieigbt, and so is the moraine ridge from just south of Chatham 
to Madison and Morristown. The terrace-like hills near Montville, those 
at the india-rubber works above Bloouiingdale, those at Pearkness, the 
sandy banks near the top of the Hook Mountain, and many others 
around this old lake border remain to give testimony for this hitherto 
unnoticed lake. [We give on the next page a cut of this lake, which we 
have engraved for this work by permission of Dr. Cook.] 

"There are many other places where great bodies of water have been 
shut in for a time, and then burst out to remove or modify the great 
masses of glacial drift which were first deposited in the various terminal, 
lateral, and ground moraines. To study out and make connected descrip- 
tions of these is one of the objects of this work ; and the detailed descrip- 
tions which follow are the part which must first be done before safe and 
comprehensive conclusions can be reached. 

"The Great Red Sandstone Vallet.— .Vs has been stated in the 
account of the glacial drift of this valley, the ridges are covered very 
geneially by a thick mantle of unsorted drift, while the valleys lying 
between these ridges are lined with beds of earth, santl, and gravel, ex- 
cepting at their northern ends. As they widen southward tliese stratified 
beds form broader terraces and extensive flats. In a few of them, as 
along Spraat Brook, along the Hackensack, from Old Hook to New Mil- 
ford, and at the State line near Tappan, the flats are so level as to give 
rise to swamps and wet meadows. The materials of this drift are finer 
going southward or down the valleys. Northward there is more gravel 
and cobble-stones; to the south, reddish, sandy loams prevail. Vertical 
sections of these stratified drift beds are seen at Orange Mills, Rockland 
Co., N. Y., near Westwood, at Paramus, Tenafly, Closter, and at many 
other points, especially along the Northern, New Jersey and New York, 
and the Jersey City and Albany Railroads. Near the Hackensack, 
between Westwood and Old Hook, there is a sandy level of considerable 
extent. But the largest of these stratified drift levels is that of Paramus, 
bordering on the west the Saddle River, and extending west to Hohokua, 
and nearly to Ridgewood, where it is a mile wide. The height of the 
level above tide is nearly one hundred feet. The Paramus Reformed 
Church stands on it. About a quarter of a mile north of the latter there 
is a long depression or sink in it, about two hundred and fifty yards long 
and twenty-five feet deep, the bottom of which is partially covered with 
water. Very few small bowlders from one to three feet long are to be 
found on the surface of the plain. The glacial waters flowing through 
the gorge of the Saddle River and the Hohokus Creek here spread out 
in a broad shallow stream, and a mile or two farther south they met the 
sea-level of that epoch. The lower levels, fifty to sixty feet high, prob- 
ably represent a sea-border formation and the shores of the same geo- 
logical time. 

"The terrace.s along the Ramapo River, at Sufferns, N. Y., mark the 
sufcessive heights of that stream. The highest of these is at the east 
side of the village, and the Episcopal and Methodist Churches are on it 
It is between ten and fifteen feet above the middle terrace, on which 
most of the business part of the village is placed. The third, or lowest 
terrace, is about twenty feet below the railroad level or middle terrace. 
Following the valley of the Ramapo, we see banks and level-topped hills 
of sand, gravel, and bowlders thickly disposed, leaving but little of the 
meadow flats on its border. The drift hills average seventy to eighty 
feet high, and the wells dug in the drift are thirty-five to sixty-six feet 
deep. A boring made several years ago for coal, near the residence of 
PK-Governor Price, struck the rock at a depth of one hundred and seven- 
teen feet, showing that thickness of the valley drift. South of flakland 
the valley becomes broader, and there are some remarkable level-topped 
hills and ternices. The upper oae of them is about a mile square, and 
is approximately three hundred and fifty feet high. On it are what are 
known as tlie mud ponds. — very sliitUow basins with abrupt sides about 
thirty feet deep, and with wiiter four to eight feet deep in them. They are 
quite grown up with reeds, and look more like reedy marshes than ponds. 
They are in fuct undrained sink-holes. To the eastward there are lower 
terraces and much stratified drift. Oakland is on a lower terrace to the 
west, and the Crystal Lake is in another south of this highest level or 
terrace. Of the tlrift materials in the Ramapo Valley about ninety per 
cent, are cryst^illine rocks of the Highlatids. Some of the bowlders of 
these rocks are very large. Many smaller bowlders and much of the 
giavel is made of slate and sandstone, A verj' few blue limestone and 
Oriskany sandstone bowlders have been observed. The Green-Pund 
Mountain conglomerate is recognized in a few specimens. The small 
proportion of red shale and red sandstone in the gravel is quite remark- 
able. This series of terraces, at such different elevations, points to a 
broad e.vpau8eof water, — a large lake-basin which was gradually drained 


ofT souUiwnrd dowu the ralley of the lUninpo hilo llif Pamlc. The 
mad poods and the Crystal and l'uii)|itoii Lnkc« arc the vestlgee uf the 
aDcIent lake. 

'"Tlie cut-in gmvfl at 3lahw'ah nnd thv aiiigiilar gravel ridgo on 
which the BantRey Riflumietl Church sfHiidn are aUu (.oiitiected in eoniu 
way uiih the ternce foroialiun uf thu RauiaiH>, hut their eleTnlionfl art* 
Dut ktidwn. 

" Proceeding wjuth and sonttienst in the red sandstone idain, we notice 
a long cut in stratifle4l snndii and gravel at Ilawthurni', north of Fater* 
son. The level-lo|)|»etl hills eaat of the Now York, Lake Erie and 
Western Railway, in Patenson, are also a nuKlifled drift formation. The 
cuttings at the southern end show lines of stratiflcMlion in the re<1dish 
sandstone grrivel. At the tnp uf tho l>ank there are many largf* bowlders 
of gneisaic and granitic and red sandslono rocks, with a few of Green- 
Pond Mooutain conglomerate, uf trap rock and tria&tic conglomerated, 
all )ni)>edt|iMl in a red, t«liiily earth. They appejir also in lines in the 
earthy drift Thette liilln correspond in height tu tlie Hitnd and gno'el 
hills northwest of the city, towards Iliilcdon. They are one hundreil 
and sixty feet high, and lM>th are Che ramalna uf a terrace whoee further 
extent has not yet been tntceil. 

"In the lower iMirti>in of the red sandhtune plain, aUmt Newark nnd 
Elizabeth, and along the foot of the Palisade Moiinliiin and Itergun Mill, 
there are flat knolls and levels of red, sandy loam ami tine gravel which 
may belong to the Champlain ejHKh, or may he more recent. Some of 
them are but a few feet above high>iide level. The excavations along 
the Newark nnd New York and the Pennsylvaida Itailronds mIiow the 
nature and arrangement of the niateriHl. There U a good ex|ht.>>nre 
near New Durham, on the siiie of the Ilackenstti-k turnpike, in a giiivel 
pit twenty feet deep, and in which the reddish mtnd i^^ interstratilied ir- 
regularly with layeiB of gravel. The latter is mainly red Haiidstone, 
gneiss, and white quartz |K;bblea. 

" Passaic Vallev.— The modified drift of the Pawwic Valley, or tliat 
part of the retl sandstone plain iHiundeil on the northwest by the High- 
lands and on tho other nblea by the sweep of the Second MountJiin range, 
from Pompton to Hernanlsville, is remarkable for ila extent, thick ne«K, 
and it« long lines of tcrmce levels fringing these mountains about iL 
. . . From the number of hills t>f drift in the neighltorhood of Hanover, 
Columbia, Whlppany, Troy, ati<l Frnnktin, wliicli are fn)m two hnmlred 
and forty to two hundred and eighty feet high, it would seem as if there 
had been a terrace at nlnfut that heipht. The kmdis cut by the Litlh-- 
toD and Whip|iany n>ad are atfto of the same height. The satid ami 
gravel hills along the Paiwiic near Totowa mark the site of the dam of 
drift which occasioned the f(»rmation of this terrace. The Pompton 
Plains is perhaps the mont remnrkable level in all this valley. As IIm 
name indicates, it is a plain, ami is boundud on the north and wext by 
the gneiss ridges of tho Highlands, nn<l on the oust anil soutli by the 
Packanark and Townkhow or l](M>k Mountains. The same level stretihes 
north of Pompton Furnace and Ponipton Village up the Wynokio Val- 
ley a longdistance, and Incluilos Furnace Pond williln its bt>undi4. It8 
mean elevation is two hundred feet, duKamlliig slightly southward, in 
w hich direction its drainage Is elTectc^l. . . ." 



Early Explorers.— In 1525 the harbor or hay of 
New York wili liiscovered by Estevan Gomez, Crotii 
whom the natives obtiiiiu'd the maize, or Spiiiiish 
wlioat.' .\s early as tliat piTiotl the search iiail Ixcii 
undertaken by nierrhant-s anil Kitst Inilia traders fur 
a shorter route to the Kaat by some passage through 
the continent of North America. Kings anil emper- 
ors, seeking to defeat their rivals and to secure the 
monopoly of the trade with tho Kastern nations, fitted 
out expeditions to diseover the supposed Northwest 

> I..MIK I.IiiikI HUI. Sue., I. 2Ti. 

Gomez was sent out by the Emperor Charles V. of 
Spain, " who had fitted out the expedition for the 
purpose of discovering a shorter passage to the Mo- 
luccas."' He appears to have made a map of the 
continent, so far as it was then known, extending iis 
far north as the strait beyond Nova Zembla. This 
map wiis embodied in the sailing directions to Henry 
Hudson ; and that portion of the country extending 
from New Jersey to Rhode Island is called the land of 
Estevan Gomez.' The tradition that the Spanish 
visited New York before the Dutch was extant among 
the Indians as late as 1076. Stuyvesant also claimed 
that Verrazzano, sent out by Francis I., King of France, 
in l.i24, visited the Bay of New Y'ork.' This is liighly 
probable, as Verrazzano sailed "southwest from the 
Cape of the Bretons a good five hundred leagues 
towards the coast of Florida."^ He took possession 
of the whole country in the name of the King of 
France; and in 1529 the French geographer Crignon 
was sent out with the famous navigator Parmilier, to 
collect information and make a map of the country. 
This map, containing the geographical information 
furnished by Crignon, was published in Italy in loot!." 

By virtue of the discoveries of Verrazzano, the 
charter of Henry IV. of France was granted to De 
Monts in 1(J03. upon which was b;ised the French 
claim and the long struggle for ascendency between 
tlie English and French colonies. The charter to De 
Monts (called the charier of .-Vcadia) embraced all 
that jiortion of the country lying between the fortieth 
and forty-si.vth degrees of north latitude, and conse- 
quently included the greater part of New Jersey. 
But the grant of the French king was ignored by 
.lames I. of England, who, upon the discoveries maile 
by the Cabots, Weymouth, and others, granted, in 
l(iO(), "to Edward Maria Wingfielil and his a.s.soci- 
atcs, under the name of the tioiit/i Mrijiiiin or I.nudun 
Company, the land between the thirty-fourth and 
forty-first degrees of north latitude, and to the North 
Virffiiiia or Plymouth Company the land lying between 
the thirty-eighth and forty-fifth degrees of north lati- 
tude." These companies respectively sent out colonies 
in the year 1G07, — the former the colony which set- 
tled permanently at .famestown, Va., and the latter 
the Popham colony, which settled at Monhegan Island, 
in Maine. 

Henry Hudson. —The E;ist India merchants and 
niariiiiiie powers of Europe were meantime zealous in 
the pursuit of their favorite discovery, — the North- 
west piuwage. The English in lt>(>7 and U1U8 sent out 
Henry Hudson, whom the Dutch called the "bold 
Englishman," on two voyages with this express ob- 
ject in view. He was disappointed in his search, but 

I Dlilillc'a Lih uf ChIkiI, 271. 

> llucUi.ri'i .SiiniiiK DIrocUoiK, 46.— Wlnflold'a Hiat. Iltiit. Co., t. 

* Kuiiiu(it<'« llnllaii Oeogni|iliy.— Map uf New France. Publlalied in 

^ Sltijrvc«ant'a " Maiilfoalo" It* the uf Maryland. — Bancroft, 
f.S, I. 17. 

• Maine Hill. Cull. 



was not discouraged. With unshaken faith in his 
final success, he applied in 1609 to the Dutch East 
India Company at Amsterdam ; and, as Columbus had 
been successful in Spain, so was Hudson successful in 
Holland. The Company, favoring his enterprise, put 
him in command of a yacht or " Vlie-boat," built to 
navigate the Viie, or Texel, called " De Halve Maan" 
(Half Moon), of thirty lasts'' burden, and manned by 
a crew of twenty men, partly Dutch and partly Eng- 
lish. The following throws some light upon the pur- 
pose and conditions of his voyage : 

" By his agie^'nient with the Company, tinted January 8, 1609, he was 
tit sail abi>ut tlie fii-st uf April in search of a passage to the north of 
Nova Zenihla, and to continue along that parallel until he was able to 
sail south to the latitude of si,\ty degrees, and then hasten back to re- 
port to his employers. For this service he was to receive eight hundred 
guilders, and in case he did not come back witiiili a year, they were to 
give his wife two hundred guilders more. In case he found the pasKige, 
the Company were to reward hirn for his dangers, troubles, and knowl- 
edge, in their discretion."- 

Hudson set sail from the Texel, April 6, 1609, and 
sailed to Newfoundland. His anxiety to discover his 
favorite passage led him to disregard his orders, and 
he coasted southward as far as Chesapeake Bay, and, 
returning, cast anchor inside of Sandy Hook on the 
3d of September. The scenery around delighted hiin, 
and he pronounced it " a very good land to fall in 
with, and a pleasant land to see." 

Here Hudson met the natives for the first time. 
The journal says, " The people of the country came 
aboard of us, seeming very glad of our coming, and 
brought green tobacco and gave us of it for knives 
and beads. They go in deer-skins loose, well dressed. 
They have yellow copper. They desire clothes, and 
are very civil."'* On the 6th of September, John 
Coleman, an Englishman of the crew, with four men, 
was sent to sound the river opening to the north, — 
the Narrows. They sailed through and found "a 
very good riding for ships." They found also "a 
narrow river to the westward between two islands," — 
the Kill Van KulL Passing through this two leagues 
they came to an open sea, — Newark Bay. The Dutch 
called it Achtn- Cull — that is, the after bay, because it 
lay behind the Bay of New York. It was called by 
the English After Coll,^ and sometimes, corrupting 
the word, they called it Arthur Cull. It is sometimes 
applied to the territory bordering on the bay, as well 
as to the bay itself-" On their return they were at- 
tacked by a hostile party of twenty-six Indians in 
two canoes; Coleman was killed by an arrow which 
struck him in the throat, and two more were wounded. 
It is thought that these Indians came from Staten 
Island, as the Jersey Indians visited the ship the next 

1 A last is nearly two tons. 

s " Henry Hudson in Holland," by H. C. Murphy.— Winfield, 4. 

s Juet's Journal of Ilinlson's Voyage. N. Y. Hist. Coll., 323. 

* Col. Hist. N. r., ii. 576. 

5 On Vandnrdonck's map of New Netherland (1656), the " Achier 
Rtvkr^^ evidently means the whole bay and sound to the mouth of the 
Raritan, including the two rivers, Hackensack and Passaic, which were 
regarded as branches. 

day and were ignorant of what had occurred. The 
next day the body of Coleman was buried on Sandy 
Hook, and the place where it was interred still bears 
the name of Coleman's Point. Returning again 
through the Narrows, Hudson cast anchor on the 
11th of September in the harbor of New York, "and 
saw it was a very good harbor for all winds." His 
first landing appears to have been at a point about 
six miles up on the New York side. 

Having thus familiarized himself with the bays and 
inlets about Manhattan, he prepared next to explore 
the noble river which bears his name, and which he 
still hoped might be the long-sought passage to the 
Indies. With what feelings of joy this thought must 
have inspired him for a time, and how great must 
have been the disappointment when he found the 
river gradually growing less and less navigable, and 
saw before him the lofty mountain ranges among 
which it has its source ! The precise point at which 
he terminated his voyage northward is not material, 
though it is believed that he stopped at a point in 
what is now the town of Half-Moon, in Saratoga 
Count}', some eight or ten miles above Albany.* He 
returned on the 2d of October, and in consequence of 
an attack from the Indians at the head of Manhattan 
Island, " he bore gradually across the river, and 
anchored in Weehawken Cove, just above Castle 
Point.' On the 4th, with fair weather and a north- 
west wind, he weighed anchor, passed through the 
Kills to Amboy, and thence stood out to sea." 

Occupation of New Netherland.— The report of 
Hudson's discovery on his return to Holland created 
a great stir among the merchants. It had opened a 
new field for trade which they were eager not only 
to occupy, but to monopolize. In 1610, it appears 
that at least one ship was sent hither by the East 
India Company for the purpose of trading in furs, 
which it is well known continued for a number of 
years to be the principal object of commercial at- 
traction to this part of the New World. Five years 
after Hudson's voyage, a company of merchants, who 
had procured from the Stales-General of Holland a 
patent for an exclusive trade on Hudson's River, had 
built forts and established trading-posts at New Am- 
sterdam (New York), Albany, and the mouth of the 
Rondout Kill. The latter was a small redoubt on the 
site of what is now a part of the city of Kingston, 
N. Y. It was known as the " Ronduit," from whence 
comes the name of Rondout." The fort near Al- 
bany was upon Castle Island, immediately below the 
present city, and the one at New York was erected 
on what is now the Battery. It was finished and 
occupied later than the others, on account of the hos- 
tility of the " fierce Manhattans," who were not dis- 
posed to allow the Dutch to gain possession of the 

* He explored the river, according to his own account, a distance of 
fifty-three leigues from its mouth. 

' Juet's .lournal.— N. Y. Hist. Coll., N. S , i. 331, quoted by Winfleld. 
» Brodhead's Uisl. N. Y., vol. i. p. 7. 



island. On the e.Tpiration of the prant of the United 
Company of New Netherland, the States General re- 
fused to renew it, but they continued to trade thither 
until 1(523 or 1(324, when the Dutoli West India Com- 
pany, a powerful mercantile as.sf)ciation chartered in 
1621, took possession of the lands temporarily granted 
to their predecessors. In 1624, Peter Minuit was ap- 
pointed Director of New Netherland, built Fort Am- 
sterdam, and brought over colonists who settled on 
Long Island. Staten Island and Manhattan were 
purchased of the Indians, and up to 162!( the settle- 
ments were merely trading-posts. In that year the 
West India Company's Council granted to certain in- 
dividuals extensive seigniories or tracts of land with 
feudal rights over the lives and persons of their sub- 
jects. Under tliis grant Kiliaen Van Rensselaer, a 
pearl-merchant of .Vmstcrdam, secured in 1630 and 
subse<iuently a tract of land twenty-four by forty- 
eight miles in extent, composing the present counties 
ot Albany, Rensselaer, and part of Columbia, and other 
wealthy patroons obtained large grants for similar 
seigniories in other portions of New Netherland. 

The Dutch at the same time were engaged in col- 
onizati(m on the Delaware, which they called the 
South River and regarded as a part of New Nether- 
land. This river had aLso been discovered by Henry 
Hudson, who sailed into it a short distance prior to 
entering New York Bay. The West India Company 
attempted to settle this jxirtion of their colony as 
early as the [jortion on the North River, and to put it 
all under the government at New Amsterdam. In 
1623 the company dispatched a ship under the com- 
mand of Cornelius Jacobse Mey, with settlers fully 
provided with means of subsistence and with articles 
of trade. Mey entered the Delaware Hay, and gave 
his name to its northern cajie, — Cape May. After 
exploring the river he landed, and etfected a settle- 
ment below Camden, erecting Furl Nassau on a small 
stream called by the natives Susarton. 

On the 12th of December, 16.30, David Pieterson de 
Vries left Uie Te.xcl in command of another vessel, 
and arrived on the Delaware in the course of the 
winter. He found none of the Kuropeans who had 
preceded him, and Kort Nassau had fallen into the 
hands of the Indians. Misfortune also awaited the 
new settlers. Having erected a fort, the commander 
returned to Holland; and during his absence a feud 
arose with one of the native tribes which at length 
terminated in the miuisacre of every one of the col- 
onists. De Vries returned shortly afterwards with a 
new company, and was only saved from a similar fate 
by the kindness of an Indian woman. Disheartened 
by repeated disiLsters, the colony soon after abandoned 
the country, and for some years not a single Kiiropean 
was left upim the shores of the Delaware. The 
Swedes next visited it, but into their history it is not 
our purpose here to enter. 

De Vries, having been driven from the Delaware, 
next turned his attention to the Hudson, where in 

a few years be became an influential patroon of New 

About 1640 he purchased of the Indians a tract 
of about five hundred acres at Tappan, to which he 
gave the name of " Vriesendael." "It was beautifully 
situated along the river-side, sheltered by high hills; 
and the fertile valley through which wound a stream, 
aflbrding handsome mill-seats, yielded hay enough 
spontaneously for two hundred head of cattle. Build- 
ings were soon erected, and Vriesendael became for 
several years the home of its energetic owner."' 



It would seem from Hudson's journal that the In- 
dians on the east side of the Hudson River held no 
intercourse with those on the west side, and that the 
former were a much more fierce and im|>lacable people 
than the latter. This probably arose from the fact 
that those cast of the Hudson and along its upper 
banks were allies of the Iroipiois, which were then 
the dominating confederacy of the red republicans of 
the forest. They had not only carried their conquests 
along the Hudson to the ocean, but along East River 
and Long Island Sound to the Connecticut, exacting 
sul)missi<)n and tribute I'rom all the tribes of this 
region of country. They had also carried their con- 
quering arms southward along the Sustjuehanna and 
the Delaware, reducing t<i submission the .\ndastes 
and the Leiini Lenape ; and even the Anticokes, or 
tide-water jieople, along the Delaware ami Chesa- 
peake Bays, trembled at their vindictive prowess. 

Rev. Mr. Abeel, quoted by Moulton. says that on 
the point where New York is now built Hudson fcmiid 
a very hostile people. But those living on the western 
side, from the Kills upward, "came daily on board of 
the vessel while she lay at anchor in the river, bring- 
ing with them to barter furs, the largest ami finest 
oysters, Indian corn, beans, pumpkins, squashes, 
grapes, and some apples, all of which they exchanged 
for trifles." 

That Hudson and the traders who followed him had 
gained some knowledge of the strength and resources 
of the Iroquois country is evident from the fact that 
they astablished their first trading-post at .Mbany 
instead of Manhattan. They nuist have also learned 
that the Iroquois, especially the Mohawks, the eastern 
branch of the confederacy, hold an ascendency over 
the lower tribes, and on this account sought first to 
gain the friendship and trade of the former. No 
d(mbt such an alliance with the masters enabled them 
the better to control the subjects, and [irepared the 
way for their successful erection of a trading-post at 

> DnxiliMd, ni>li>r]r ot New Yiirk. 



Manhattan after they had carried on a successful and 
uninterrupted commerce at Fort Orange for at least 
ten years. During this time they had cemented such 
a friendship with the Mohawks as availed them for 
assistance in their subsequent struggle with the sev- 
eral tribes inhabiting this region. 

Most writers on Indian antiquities have considered 
the tribes of the lower Hudson and of East New 
Jersey as branches of the general Delaware nation or 
Lenni Lenapc, which means original people. Those 
most intimately connected with this region were the 
Minsies and Mohicans — the former being the inhabit- 
ants of the range of country from the Minisink to 
Staten Island and from the Hudson to the Raritan 
Valley. The latter inhabited the east side of the 
lower Hudson to its mouth. The Dutch called them 
respectively the Sanhikans and the Manhikans. Ac- 
cording to Brodhead,' the former were also called 
Wabingi, or Wappinges, the latter, as Heckewelder 
claims, being derived (rom the Delaware word icapinq, 
signifying opossum. These were divided into numer- 
ous tribes, and these again into clans. In this section 
of New Jersey they were called Raritans, Hacken- 
sacks, Pomptons, and Tappeans. On the Island of 
New York dwelt the fierce Manhattans, whom De 
Laet calls " a wicked nation," and " enemies of the 
Dutch." On Long Island, called by the natives Se- 
wan-hacky, the land of shells, were the savage Meton- 
wacks, divided into several tribes. The names of 
thirteen of these tribes have been preserved, viz., the 
Canarse and Xyack Indians, settled at the Narrows 
in Kings County ; the Rockaway, Merrikoke, Marsa- 
peagne, and Matinecoe tribes, in Queens County; 
and the Nissaqnage, Setauket, Corchaug, Secataug, 
Patchogue, Shinnecoe, and Montauk, in Sufiblk 
County. These Indians sold their lands to the whites 
in 1702-3, except about five hundred acres, on which 
lived a remnant of the Montauks as late as 1829. 
Great efforts were made to civilize them by means of 
missions and schools, Rev. Azariah Horton being mis- 
sionary among them in 1741 ; but all these efforts 
proved unavailing ; they gradually became extinct.^ 

Tie Delawares, or Lenni Lenapfe.— The Dela- 
wares — tne Indian people with which this history has 
principally to deal — occupied a domain extending 
along the sea-shore from the Chesapeake to the 
country bordering Long Island Sound. Back from 
the coast it reached beyond the Susquehanna Valley 
to the foot of the Alleghany Mountains, and on the 
north joined the southern frontier of their domineer- 
ing neighbors, the hated and dreaded Iroquois. This 
domain, of course, included not only the counties of 
Bergen and Passaic, but all of the State of New Jer- 

The principal tribes composing the Lenni Lenape or 
Delaware nation were those of the Unamis or Turtle, 

> Brodhead, i. 73. 

- Furman'3 Notes to Denton's " Brief Description of New York," pp. 

the L^nalachtgo or Turkey, and the Minsi or Wolf. 
The latter, which was by far the most powerful and 
warlike of all these tribes, occupied the most northerly 
portion of the country of the Lenape and kept guard 
along the Iroquois border, from whence their domain 
extended southward to the Musconetcong^ Mountains, 
about the northern boundary of the present county of 
Hunterdon. The Unamis and Unalachtgo branches 
of the Lenape or Delaware nation (comprising the 
tribes of Assanpinks, Matas, Shackamaxons, Chiche- 
qHaas, Raritans, Nanticokes, Tuteloes, and many 
others) inhabited the country between that of the 
Minsi and the sea-coast, embracing the present coun- 
ties of Hunterdon and Somerset and all that part of 
the State of New Jersey south of their northern 
boundaries. The tribes who occupied and roamed 
over the counties of Bergen and Passaic were those 
of the Turkey and Wolf branches of the Lenni 
Lenape nation, but the possessions and boundaries of 
each cannot be clearly defined. 

The Indian name of the Delaware nation, Lenni 
Lenape, signifies, in their* tongue, " the original peo- 
ple," — a title which they had adopted under the 
claim that they were descended from the most ancient 
of all Indian ancestry. This claim was admitted by 
the Wyandots, Miarais, and more than twenty other 
aboriginal nations, who accorded to the Lenape the 
title oi grandfathers, or a people whose ancestry ante- 
dated their own. The Rev. John Heckewelder, in his 
" History of the Manners and Customs of the Indian 
Nations," says of the Delaware nation, — 

"They will not admit that the whites are superior beings. They say 
that the hair of their heads, their features, and tlie various colors of 
their eyes evince that tliey are not, like themselves, Lenni Len^ipe^ — an 
oriijintil people, — a race of men that has existed unchanged from the be- 
ginning of time; but that they are a mixed race, and therefore a trouble- 
some one. Wherever they may be, the Great Spirit, knowing the wick- 
edness of their disposition, found it necessary to give them a Great 
Book, and taught them how to read it that they might know and ob- 
serve what He wished them to do and what to abstiin from. But they 
— the Indians — have no need of any such book to let them know the 
will of their Maker; they find it engraved on their own hearts; they 
have had sutficient discernment given to them to distinguish good from 
evil, and by following that guide they are sure not to err.'* 

Traditions amongf the Delaware Tribes. — Con- 
cerning the origin of the Lenape, numerous and 

3 " The Wolf, commonly called the Minsi, which we have corrapted 
into Monseys, had chosen to live back of the other two tribes, and formed 
a kind of bulwark for their protection, watching the motions of the 
Mengwe and being at hand to afford aid in case of a rupture with them. 
The Bliusi were considered the most warlike and active branch of the 
Lenape. They extended their settlements from the Minisink. a place 
named after thetn, where they had their council-seat and fire, quite up 
to tlie Hudson on the east, and to the west and south far beyond the Sus- 
quehanna. Their northern boundaries were supposed originally to be 
the heads of the great rivers Susquehanna and Delaware, and their 
southern that ridge of hills known in New Jersey by the name of Mus- 
kanecuui, and in Pennsylvania by those of Lehigh. Conewago, etc. 
Within this boundary were their principal settlements; and even as late 
as the year 1742 they had a town with a peach-orchard on the tract of 
land where Nazareth, in Pennsylvania, has since been built, another on 
the Lehigh, and others beyond the Blue Ridge, besides many family set- 
tlements here and there scattered." — fHxtonj, M<ntnerg, an<t Customs of 
lite Indian Ntttions tcho oncf inhabiled Pennst/lvttnia, by Jtev. John Hecke- 



essentially differing traditions were current among 
the various tribes. One of these traditions is men- 
tioned by Loskiel in liis " History of the Mission of 
the United Rretliren among the North American In- 
dians," as follows : 

"Among the DeUwar^j, ttii>4eur the Minni or Wolf tribe say thmt iu 
the l^gliiiiing they dwelt Id the earth iiu<Jer a luke, and were fortu- 
nalolj extriciited from IhN tinph'uiuint nlKMie by the discovery wliich oiio 
of their men niiide iifa hide, ttirough which lie ascended tu tlio Bllrface ; 
on which, ii« hu wait walking, he found a deer, wliich ho carried back 
>wilh him into his eubtormneouB habltntiuii; that the deer wan oaten, 
and he and his couilMiliiuns found the meat eo good that tliey unatii- 
mouslj determined to leave their dark abode and remove to a place 
where Uiey could enjoy the light of heaven and have each excellent 
game in abundance. 

"The two other trihea, the riiamis or Tortoise, and the Uiialaclitgufl 
or Turkey, have much similar notion!, but r^ect the story of the lake, 
which Boeoia peculiar to the Miimi trilie.*' 

There was another leading tradition current among 
the nations of the Lenapt^, which was to the effect 
that, ages before, their ancestors had lived in a far-off 
country to tjie west, heyonil great rivers and moun- 
tains, and that, in the belief tliat there existed, away 
towards the rising sun, a red man's ]), — a land 
of deer and beaver and salmon, — they had left their 
western home and traveled eastward for many moons, 
until they stood on the western shore of tlie Namisi 
Sipu (Mississippi), and there they met a numerous 
nation, migrating like themselves. They were a stran- 
ger tribe, of whose very existence the Leiiapt' had 
been ignorant. They were none other than the Meng- 
we; and this was the first meeting of those two peo- 
ples, who afterwards became rivals and enemies, and 
continued such for centuries. Hoth were now trav- 
elers and bound on the same errand. 15ut they found 
a lion in their path, for beyond tlie great river lay tlie 
domain of a nation called AUegewi, who were not 
only strong in numbers and brave, but mor6 skilled 
than themselves in the art of war, who had reared 
great defenses of earth inclosing their villages and 
strongholds. In the true spirit of military strategy, 
they permitted a part of the emigrants to cross the 
river, and then, having divided their autagonist.s, fell 
upon them with great fury to annihilate them. But 
when the Lenapi"* saw this they at once formed an al- 
liance, offensive and defensive, with the Meiigwe. 
The main body cros.sed the river and attacked the Al- 
legewi with such desperate energy that tliey defeated 
and afterwards drove tlit-ni into the interior, where 
they fought from stronghold to stronghold, till finally, 
after a long and bloody war, the Allegewi were not 
only humiliated, but exterminated, and their country 
was <iccupie<l by the victors. After this both nations 
ranged eaMtward, the Mengwc taking the northern 
and the Lenain"- wtill keeping tlie more southern route, 
until, after long jcmrncyingH, the former reached the 
Mohicanittuck (Hudson River) and the latter rested 
upon the banks of the l^'napi"' Wihittuck, — the beau- 
tiful river now known as the Delaware, — and here 
tlicy found that Indian eiysium of which they had 

dreamed before they left their old homes in the land 
of the setting sun. 

These and other similar Indian traditions may or 
may not have some degree of Ibundation in fact. 
There are to-day many enthusiiistic searchers through 
the realms of aboriginal lore who accept them as au- 
thentic, and who believe that the combined Lenape 
and Mengwe did destroy a great and comparatively 
civilized people, and that the unfortunate Allegewi 
who were thus extiiiguislicd were none others than 
the mysterious Mound-Builders of the Mississippi 
Valley. This, however, is but one of the many profit- 
less coffjectures which have been indulged in with 
reference to that unknown people, and is in no way 
pertinent to this history. All Indian tribes were fond 
of narrating the long journeys and great deeds of 
their forefathers, and of tracing their ancestry back 
for centuries, some of them claiming descent from the 
great Mauitou himself. Missionaries and travelers 
among them who were, or professed to be, familiar 
with their language and customs have spoken with 
apparent sincerity of Indian chronology running back 
to a period before the Christian era, and some of the 
old enthusiasts claimed that these aborigines were 
descendants of the lost tribes of Israel.' But all the 
traditions of the Indians were so clouded and involved 
in improbability and so interwoven with superstition, 
and the speculations of antiquarian writers have almost 
uniformly been so baseless and chimerical, that the 
whole subject of Indian origin may be dismissed as 

Totems or Tribal Badges of the Indians.— The 
Indians, from the earliest times, considered themselves 
in a manner connected with certain animals, :is is 
evident from various customs jireserved among them, 
and from the fact that, both collectively and indi- 
vidually, they assumed the names of such animals. 
Loskiel says, — 

•' It might Indeed be euppoeed that thoire aniniaia' naniee which they 
have given to their eovenil tribes were mere liailKvs of diBtiliclioii, or 
' coats-of-arms,' as Pyrlaeus calls them; but it >vc pay utii'iilion to llie 
rcaaoiiri wliicli tlioy give for those tlenoiiiiiialionH, the idea of a supiiosed 
faiiiliy conntcUon Ik eaally discerMible. The TrMloiM— or, as they are 
commonly called, the Tarllc— tribe, among the l.ena|«', claim a 8U|i»- 
rioilty and aeceiidelicy over the others, because their relation, the great 
Torli>iM,tL fabled monster, the Atlas of their uiylliology, liears, acconling 

' In a nnall, quaint, and now very rmre rolunio entitled " .\n llistorical 
Dewrlptlon of the I'rovince and (Country of West New Jersey in America, 

Never made fublick till now, by Ijabriel Tl las, Uindon, lll'JS," and 

deilicated "To tlio Kiglil Honourable Sir John M.Hir, Sir Thomas Ijine, 
Knights and Ableriiicn of the City of lAjiidon, and to the n^al of the 
Worthy .Memboniof the West Jersey Proprietors," is found the following 
in reference to the aborigines of llibi region : " The lint InhabitJinU of 
this Cciuntrey were the /nWiiias, being suplKisei! to l-e part of the Ten dis- 
persod Tribes of Itr.ul, for Indeed they are very like the Jmt in their 
Persons, and s<mietliing in their rmctlcos and Worship; for they las the 
rcnsllvania In.liiinsI olwrve the .V«ir ,Woo». with great devotion and 
Kereronce ; And Uielr flmt Fnilts they offer, with their Com and Hunt. 
ing.(;anie lliey get in tlie whole year, to a Kals<- Deity or Sham (i>Hl 
whom they must please, else iiis Iheyfancyi many nilsforlunes villi be- 
fall them, and great Injuries will be done them. When they bury their 
Dead, they put Into the tJniund with Iheni some House I'teiisils and 
some Money (as tokens of their Love and Affection i, with other Things, 
•ipecting they shall have Occasion tor them In Uie other World." 



to tlieir tradiliuns, this threat inlnnil uii liiu back,^ aud also because he is 
anipliibidiis and c:tti live butli on land and in the water, wliich neither 
of the lieada of the otlier tribes can do. The merits of the Turkey, wliicli 
gives its name to the second tiibe, are tliat he is stationary and always 
remains witli or al>o\it them. As to tlie WulJ\ after wliicli tlie tliii'fl tribe 
is named, lie is a rambler by nature, nuining from one place to another 
in quest of his prey ; yet tliey consiiler him as their benefactor, as it was 
by his means tliat the Indians gut out of the interior of the earth. It 
was he, they believe, who by the appointment uf the Great .Spirit killed 
the deer which tiie Bloiisey found who first discovered the way to the 
surface of the earth, and which allured them to come out of their ilamp 
and dark residence. For tluit re.tson the wolf is to be honore<l and his 
name to be preserved forever among them. 

"These animals' names, it is true, they all use as nat'onsl badges, in 
order to distinguish their tribes from each other at home and abroad. In 
this point of view Mr. Pyrlaeus was right in consideiing them as 'coats- 
of-arnis.' The 7'»j7Ze warrior draws, either with a coal or \^ith paint, 
here and there on the trees along the war-path, the w hide animal, car- 
rying a gun with the muzzle projecting bjrward ; and if be leaves a mirk 
at the place where he has made a stroke on his enemy, it will be the 
picture of a Tortoife. Those of the Turkeij tribe paint only one foot uf a 
turkey, and the ll'o(/' tribe sometimes a wolf at large with one foot and 
leg raised up to serve as a hand, in which the animal also carries a gun 
with the muzzle forward. They, however, do not generally use the word 
' wolf when speakingof their tribe, hut call themselves l*Mnk-sit, which 
means roun>i foot, that animal having a round foot, like a dog." 

Indian Population in New Jersey.— It does not 
appear that the Intiians inhabiting New Jersey were 
very numerous. In an old publication entitled " A 
Description of New Albion," and dated a.d. 1648, it 
is found stated that the native people in this section 
were governed by about twenty kings ; but the in- 
significance of the power of those " kings" may be 
inferred from the accompanying statement that there 
were "twelve hundred [Indians] under the two Rari- 
tan kings on the north side, next to Hudson's River, 
and those came down to the ocean about Little Egg- 
bay and Sandy Barnegatte ; and about the South 
Cape two small kings of forty men apiece, and a third 
reduced to fourteen men, at Roymont." From which 
it appears evident that the so-called " kings" were no 
more than ordinary chiefs, and that some of these 
scarcely had a following. Whitehead, in his " East 
Jersey under the Proprietary Governments," con- 
cludes, from the above-quoted statement, " that there 
were probably not more than two thousand [Indians] 
within the province while it was under the domina- 
tion of the Dutch." And in a publication'-' bearing 
date fifty years later (1698) the statement is made 
that " the Dutch and Swedes inform us that they [the 
Indians [ are greatly decreased in numbers to what 
they were when they came first into tiiis country. 
And the Lulians themselves say that tw-o of them die 
to every one Christian that comes in here." 

Conquest of the Lenni Lenapfe by the Iroquois. 
• — Before the European explorers had i>enetrated to 
the territories of the Lenape the power and prowess 
of the Iroquois had reduced the former nation to the 
condition of vassals. The attitude of the Iroquois, 
however, was not wholly that of conquerors over the 

t And they believed that sometimes the grandfattier tortoise became 
weary aud shook himself or changed his position, aud that this was the 
cause of earthquakes. 

3 Gabriel Thomas' "Historical Description of the Province and Coun- 
try of West New Jersey in America." 

Delawares, for they mingled, to some extent, the 
character of protectors with that of masters. It has 
been said of them that " the humiliation of tributary 
nations was to them [the Iroquois) temi>ered with a 
paternal regard for their interests in all negotiations 
with the whites, and care was taken that no tres- 
passes should be committed on their rights, and that 
they should be justly dealt with." This means, 
simply, that the Mengwe would, so far as lay in their 
])ower, see that none others than themselves should 
be permitted to des])oil the Lenapii. They exacted 
from them an annual tribute, an acknowledgment of 
their state of vassalage, and on this condition they 
were permitted to occupy their former hunting- 
grounds. Bands of the Five N.ations, however, were 
interspersed among the Delawares,' probably more 
as a sort of police, and for the purpose of keeping a 
watchful eye upon them, than for any other purpose. 
The Delawares regarded their conquerors with feel- 
ings of inextinguishable hatred (though these were 
held in abeyance by fear), and they also pretended to 
a feeling of superiority on account of their more an- 
cient lineage and their further removal from original 
barbarism, which latter claim was perhaps well 
grounded. On the part of the Iroquois, they main- 
tained a feeling of haughty superiority towards their 
vassals, whom they spoke of as no longer men and 
warriors, but as women. There is no recorded instance 
in which unmeasured insult and stinging contempt 
were more wantonly and publicly heaped on a cowed 
and humiliated people than on the occasion of a 
treaty held in Philadelphia in 1742, when Connossa- 
tego, an old Iroquois chief, having been requested by 
the Governor to attend (really for the purpose of 
forciii;/ the Delawares to yield up the rich lands of 
the Minisink), tirose in the council, where whites and 
Delawares and Iroquois were convened, and in the 
name of all the deputies of his confederacy said to 
the Governor that the Delawares had been an unruly 
people and wei-e altogether in the wrong, and that 
they should be removed from their lands ; and tlien, 
turning superciliously towards the abashed Delawares, 
said to them, " You deserve to be taken by the hair 
of your heads aud shaken until you recover your 
senses and become sober. We have seen a deed, 
signed by nine of your chiefs over fifty years ago, for 
this very land. But liow came you to take it upon 
yourselves to sell lauds at all? We conquered you; 
we made women of you ! You know you are women 
and can no more sell lands than women. Nor is it fit 
that you should have power to sell lands, since you 
would abuse it. You have had clothes, meat, and 
drink, by the goods paid you for it, and now you 
want it again, like children, as you are. What makes 

3 The same policy was pursued by the Five Nations towards the Sha- 
wauese, who had been expelled from the far Southwest by stronger 
tribes, and a portion of whom, traveling eastward as far as the country 
adjoining the Delawares, had been permitted to erect their lodges there, 
but weie, like the Leuape, held in a state of subjection by the Iroquoia. 



you sell lands in the dark? Did you ever tell us 
you had sold this land? Did we ever receive any 
part, even to tlie value of a pipe-shank, from you for 
it? This is acting in the dark, — very differently from 
the conduct which onr Six Nations observe in the 
sales of lanil. Hut we find you are none of our 
blood ; you act a dishonest part in this as in other 
matters. Your ears are ever open to slanderous reports 
about your brethren. For all these reasons we charge 
you to reinore inttautlij .' We do not give you liberty to 
think about it. You are women ! Take the advice of 
a wise man, and remove instantly ! You may return 
to the other aide of the river, where you canie from, 
but we do not know whether, considering how you 
have demeaned yourselves, you will be permitted to 
live there, or whether you have not already swallowed 
that land down your throats, sis well as tlie land on 
this side. You may go either to Wyoming or Shamo- 
kin, and then we shall have you under our eye and 
can see how you behave. Don't deliberate, but go, 
and take this belt of wampum." He then forbade 
them ever again to interfere in any matters between 
white man and Indian, or ever, under any pretext, to 
pretend to sell lands; and as they (the Iroquois), he 
said, had some business of importance to transact with 
the Englishmen, he commanded them to immediately 
leave the council, like children and women, as they 

Heckewelder, however, attempts to rescue the good 
name of the humbled Delawares by giving some of 
their explanations, intended to show that the epithet 
" women," as applied to them by the Iroquois, Wiis 
originally a term of distinction rather than reproach, 
and "that the making women of the Uelawares was 
not an act of compulsion, but the result of their own 
free will and consent." He gives the story, as it wius 
narrated by the Delawares, substantially in this way : 
The Delawares were always too powerful for the 
Inxjuois, so that the latter were at length convinced I 
that if wars between them should continue, their own 
extirpation would become inevitable. They accord- 
ingly sent a message to the Delawares, representing i 
that if continual wars were to be carried on between i 
the nations, this would eventually work the ruin of I 
the whole Indian race; that in order to prevent this 
it wa.s nece.Hsary that one nation should lay down 
their arms ami be called the womnu, or meiliator, with 
power to command the peace between the other na- 
tions who might be disposed to persist in hostilities 
against each other, and finally recommending that 
the part of the womeri should be assumed by the 
Dr-lawares, as the mi«st powerful of all the nations. 

The Delawart^, upon receiving this message, and 
not perceiving the treacherous intentions of the Iro- 
quois, consented to the proposition. The Iro<|uois 
then appointed a council and feast, and invited the 
Delawares to it, when, in pursuance of the authority 
given, they made a 'solemn speech, conUunlng three 
capital points. TJie first was that the Delawares be ' 

(and they were) declared women, in the following 
words : 

" We dress you in a woman's long habit, reaching 
down to your feet, and adorn you with ear-rings," 
meaning that they should no more tiike up arms. 
The second point Wiis thus expressed : " We hang a 
calabash filled with oil and medicine upon your arm. 
With the oil you shall cleanse the ears of other na- 
tions, that they may attend to good and not to bad 
words: and with the medicine you shall heal those 
who are walking in foolish ways, that they may re- 
turn to their senses and incline their hearts to peace." 
The third point, by which the Delawares were ex- 
horted to make agriculture their future employment 
and means of subsistence, was thus worded : " We 
deliver into your hands a plant of Indian corn and a 
hoe." Each of these points was confirmed by de- 
livering a belt of wampum, and these belts were 
carefully laid away, and their meaning frequently 

"The Iroquois, on the contrary, assert that they 
con(iuered the Delawares, and that the latter were 
forced to adopt the defenseless state and appellation 
of a woman to avoid total ruin. Whether these differ- 
ent accounts be true or false, certain it is that the 
Delaware nation has ever since been looked to for the 
preservation of peace and intrusted with the charge 
of the great belt of peace and chain of friendship, 
which they must take care to preserve inviolate. Ac- 
cording to the figurative explanation of the Indians, 
the middle of the chain of friendship is placed upon 
the shoulder of the Delawares, the rest of the Indian 
nations holding one end and the Europeans the 

It wiLs not a lack of bravery or military enterprise 
on the part of the Delawares which causcil their over- 
throw; it was a mightier agent than courage or en- 
ergy : it was the gunpowder and lead of the Iro<]Uois, 
which they had procured from the trading Dutch on 
the Hudson almost imme<lii'.tely after the discovery 
of that river, which had wrought the downfall of the 
Lenapc. For them the conflict was a hopeless one, 
waged against immea-surablc odds, — resistance to the 
irresistible. Under a reversal of conditions the Del- 
awares must have been the victors and the Iroquois 
the vanquished, and no loss of honor could attach to 
a tlefeal under siuh circumstanci-s. It is a pity that 
the tribes of the Lenapc should vainly have expended 
so much labor and ingenuity upon a tule which, for 
their own sake, had better never have been told, and 
in which even the sincere indorsement of Heckewelder 
and other missionaries has wholly failed to produce a 
general belief 

When the old Iroijuois chief Conno.ssatego, at the 
treaty council in I'hiladclphiu, before referred to, 
commanded the Delawares instantly to leave the 
council-house, where their presence would no longer 

1 NiilM un tbp Indliiiti, hj PaTfd ZrUlwrKer. 



be tolerated, and to prepare to vacate their hunting- 
grounds on the Dehiware and iis, tributaries, the out- 
raged and insulted red men were completely crest- 
fallen and crushed, but they had no alternative and 
must obey. They at once left the presence of the 
Iroquois, returned to the homes which were now to 
be their liomes no longer, and soon afterwards mi- 
grated to the country bordering tlie Susquehanna, 
and beyond that river. 

The Indians were great sticklers for the cnmmon 
right which they held in the soil. They did not 
recognize even in their chiefs any right to convey it 
.away without the general consent of the tribes, and 
often tliey refused to submit to treaties so made. 
Usually, treaties were made by their representatives 
chosen by the popular voice, who met the whites in 
council and for their respective tribes ratified the 
deed disposing of lands. In the first conveyances 
made to the Dutch in East Jersey, conveying the 
lands where Hoboken and Jersey City are situated, 
Aromeauw, Tekwappo, Sackwomeek, Hikitoauw, and 
Aiarouw represented themselves in the deeds as 
" inhabitants and joint-owners of the lands" named 



The first hostility of the Indians towards the Dutch 
was directed against their plantations on the Delaware, 
which they wholly destroyed. De Vries tells us that 
in the year 1630 thirty-two men were killed. In the year 
1640, an expedition was fitted out against the Indians 
on the Raritan, who had been accused, though wrong- 
fully, of committing theft and other trespasses. Some 
of the chiefs were so maltreated and abused that re- 
taliatory measures were resorted to against the settlers 
on Staten Island, who were killed and their planta- 
tions broken up.' 

The outbreak of 1643 was induced by various causes. 
One cause was the exacting of a tribute from the In- 
dians by Kieft, the Director-General, in 1639 ; another 
was the killing of a white man by an Indian in 1641, 
in retaliation for the robbery and murder of one of 
his tribe many years before. While the fort at New 
Amsterdam was being built in 1626, a Weckquaesgeck 
Indian, from the east of the Hudson River, with his 
nephew, then a young boy, and another Indian rela- 
tive, came to sell his beaver-skins to the Dutch traders. 
Before he reached the fort he was met by some of the 
servants of Minuit, who robbed him of his peltries 
and murdered him. According to Indian custom, 
life must be taken for life, and the next of kin must be 
the avenger. He is the young boy who thus witnessed 
the wanton murder of his uncle. But he is a boy, 

> New York Historical Col ections. 

and the execution of vengeance must be delayed till 
he should reach manhood. Years passed, but the 
outrage done his relative was not forgotten. In 1641 
he appeared, now grown to manhood, to execute the 
behest of the unwritten law of his people, unheeding 
as to which of the pale-faces should be the victim of 
the deadly stroke of his tomahawk. It happened 
to be an inoffensive old man, Claes Cornells Smits, a 
" raad maker," living near Canal Street. Pretending 
to desire to barter some beavers for duffels,^ he watched 
his opportunity, killed Smits, robbed the house, and 
escaped with his booty.''- Satisfaction and the sur- 
render of the savage were promptly demanded. But, 
as he had only acted in accordance with the custom 
of his race, the sachem refused to surrender him. 
Kieft wished to seize upon this occasion to punish 
the natives, but he did not dare to act independently 
of the people, who desired peace. He therefore 
called them together for consultation. They chose 
twelve select men* to determine everything in connection 
with the Director and Council. This popular branch 
of the government stayed for a time the impetuosity of 
the executive and those immediately under his con- 
trol, and for a brief period secured peace. But the 
air was full of rumors of Indian troubles. In 1642, 
De Vries, who had established a colony at Tappaen, 
in passing through the woods towards Ackensack,^ 
met an Indian who said the whites had " sold to him 
brandy mixed with water" and had stolen his beaver- 
skin coat. He said he was going home for his bows 
and arrows, and would shoot one of the " roguish 
Swanekins," as the Indians called the Dutch. He 
was as good as his word, and shot Garret Jansen Van 
Vorst, who was roofing a house at Achter Kull. The 
chiefs, being alarmed at what was done, offered to pay 
two hundred fathoms of wampum to Van Vorst's 
widow, in order to purchase their peace. But Kieft 
would accept of nothing but the surrender of the 
murderer. The chiefs would not agree to this ; they 
said that he had gone two days' journey among the 
Tankitekes," and that he was the son of a chief. 

In 1643, Kieft espoused the cause of the Mohawks, 
who were at war with the Weckquaesgecks, Tankite- 
kes, and Tappeans. In the depth of winter these fierce 
warriors swept down upon their enemies, killing sev- 
enteen and making prisoners of many women and 
children. " The remainder fled through a deep snow 
to the Christian houses on and around the Island of 
Manhattan. They were humanely received, being 
half dead of cold and hunger, and supported for four- 
teen days ; even some of the Director's corn was sent 
to them." They did not suspect that the Director 
was secretly in league with their most dreaded and 
deadly foes, and that, although the people were friendly 

3 A coarse kind of cloth. 
2 Brodhead, 1. 310. 

^Winfield: ** This wiia the first representative hody iu New Netlier- 
^ Hackensack, in ladiau Low-land. 
" Haverstraw Indians, of whom Pachani was chief. 



and hospitable and treated them with great kindness, 
the commander of the army of Xew Xetlierland was 
abuul to let htose upon them his ruthless soldiery to 
murder and slaughter tliem iiidisrriminatoly. liut 
such was the fact. Being alarmed lest the Mohawks 
should fall upon them at Manhattan, they tied, most of 
them, to Pavonia, where the Ilackensacks were bi- 
vouacked one thousand strong.' Says Mr. Winfield, — l 

"They came over to this eiJe of the river on the 2.'JU of Fehruary, ' 
1943, and encamped on thi- westerly eJpe of Jnn Je Lacher'n Iloeck, I 
behiml the settlement of Egbert Wuuterasen and adjoining the bouwerie i 

of JaQ Ewersteu Bout The light of th« ^.'jth of February, 1643, 

was fading, and the iihadowtt of the black winter night were drawing i 
oTor tlie l^eantifvil Wy. Huddled and shiToring on the western tlope of 
Jan do Lacher's Hoeck, under the pr(.>tection uf the Dutch, the unsus- 
pecting ludiaiifl thought themselves safe fmm the tierce Mohawk^*. But 
while they drew around the camp-firoa, or dreamed of their forsaken 
wigwams, Manhattan w&g nil aetir with the movement of trooii« and 
citizens. The noble-hearted Pe Vrlcs stood beside the Director as the 
soldiers under Sergeant llodolf {kaseed by tlie furt on their way to Pavo- 
nia. * Lot this work alone,' said he; 'you will go to break the Indians' 
heads, but it is our nation you are going to murder.' ' Tlie order haa 
gone forth; it siiall not be recalle<i,' won Kieft's dogged reply. The iter- 
geant, with his eighty sohliore armed for slaughter, marched down to , 
the river, and, embarking in boats prepared for the purpose, silently 1 
rowed tttwartls the shores of Pavonia. Rounding the s<.)utherly point of 
Paulus Hoeck, under the guidance of Hmmb Stein, they pulled for the | 
high point at the mouth of Mill Creek. Here they landed. Climbing | 
the ttank, they {lamed close to the house of Egbert Woutervsen, and cau- 
tiously approfiched their sleeping victims. Suddenly the sound of mus- 
ketry and the wild shrieks of tho Indians rang out in the midnight. 
Kven at thiH distance of time, * the horrors of tliut night cause the Mesh . 
to creep as we |>onder over them.* Captain De Vriei^, who, in contem- 
plating the conBe<|Ueuce-s of the expedition, could not sleep, says, * I 
remained that night at the Governor's, and b)ok a seat in the kitchen 
near the Are, and at midnight I heard loud shrieks. I wont out to the 
parapets of the fort anil looked towards Pavonia. I saw nothing but the 
flash uf the guns, and hoard nothing more of the yells and clamor of the ; 
Indians who were butchered iiuring their sleep.' Neither age nor sex 
could stay the hamls of the unrelenting soldiers. Sucklings were torn 
from their motliers' bn-a«ts, butchered in the presence of their parents, 
and their mangled limbs thrown into the lire or water. Others, ' white 
fastened to litUe l»oanls,'— the rude cradle of tho papoose, — were cut 
through, stabbed, and miserably massacred. Some were (hntwn alive 
Into tho river, and when their fathers, obeying the prtunptings of nature, 
rushed in to nave Itiem, the soldiers prevented their coming to shore, 
and thus |mronts atid children porishod. . . . De Vrlos says, 'Siiine came 
running to us fnun the country having their hands cut off. Some, who 
bad their legs cut off, were snpiMjrting their entrails with their arms, 
wtiilf others were mangled in other horrid ways, in part too shocking 
to t>e concelTt<l ; and these miseraldu wretches did not know, as well as 
some of our people did not know, but they had l>eon attiickod by the 

Such a warfare could not fail to exasperate the 
native** ; and as soon as they became aware that these 
massacres were hy the whites, they resolved upon a 
relentless war. To render their retaliatiini more effec- 
tive, seven tribes entered into an alliance. They killed 
all the men they could find, dragged the women and 
children into captivity, burnt houses, barns, grain, 
hay-stacks, and laid waste the farms and plantations 
on every hand. From the Uaritan to the (.'onnecticut 
not a white person was safe from the murderous toma- 
hawk and 8cal|>ing-knife except those who clustered 
about F'ort Am>t4'rdam. The war continued in all its 
fury for several months. In March a peace was con- 

I O'Caltaghan, N. T., 1. 20:. 

t Wlnfleld's History of llndson County, 30, 40. 

eluded, which, however, lasted only until October, 
when, three or four soldiers stationed at Pavonia for 
the protection of a family having been attacked, war 
was renewed ; and so serious was itj* character that 
in March, 1*J44, the authorities of New Amsterdam 
proclaimed a solemn fiist to placate the anger of 
Jehovah. Peace was permanently secured the fol- 
lowing year. 

** This day, being the 30tti day of August, 164-^, appeareil in the Fort 
Amstordatn, before the Director and Council, in the presence of the 
whole commonality, the sachems or chiefs of the savages, as well in their 
own behalf as t>eing authorized by the neighboring savages, namely : 
Oratanky, chief of .-IcJtiMi^WwcJii/ (Hackensack); SFjj;SEKi:MrK and Wil- 
liam, chiefs of Tapptan and Uetkawairattk ; Pa^'iiam and PknNhwink 
(who were here yesterday and gave their jMjwpr of attorney to the 
former, and also to<:>k upon themselves to answer for those of Owtnc^ 
and the vicinity of MajaHioetinntmm, of Marechoicu-k^ of Ntfock and its 
neighborhood), and Aepjen, who personally api^-ared, speaking in behalf 
of Wappitur, \yiijtuie$kfckx, SitiMtruckt, and Kicitinroons. 

"First. They agree to conclude with us a solid and durable peaco, 
which they promise to keep faithfully, its we also obligate oUTBelvea to 
ilo on our part. 

'SECOND. If it hap(>en (which God in his mercy avert) that ther« 
arise some difhculty between us and them, no warfare shall eDsue Id cod> 
sequence, but they Hhall complain to our Governor, and wo shall com- 
plain to their sjicheniH. 

"If any person shall bo killed or murdered, justice shall be directly 
administered upon the raurdorer, that wo may henceforth live in peace 
and ninily 

"TiiiRU. They are not to come ou Manhattan Island, nor in Uie 
iieighlKirhood of Christian dwellings, with their arms; neither will we 
approHcli their villages with our guns, except we are conducteti thither 
by a savage to give them warning. 

"Kdirtu. And whereas Uiero is yet among them an Knglish girl, 
whoni they promiswl t4> conduct to tlie English at Stamford, they sUIl 
engage, if she is not already a>nducted there, to bring her there in 
safety, and wo promise in return to pay them the ransom which has 
been promised by tho English. 

"All which Is pn>mise<l to be religiously perfonued Uiruughout the 
whole of New Netlierland. 

" Done in Fort Amsterdam, in the open air, by the Director and Council 
in New Netlierland, and tho whole commonality, called t4>gether for this 
puriKwe, in the presence of the Maqias' ambassa<lon(, who are solicited 
to assist in this negotiation as arbitrat'irs, and Cornelius Anihonissen, 
their interpreter, and an arbitrator with them in this aoleoin affair. 
Done as above." 

No further troubles appear to have occurred with 
the Indians under the Dutch rule until K)')*). The 
nearest approach to it wjis in March, 1()41>, when Si- 
mon Walingc^ was found <lead at Paulus Ilocck, hav- 
ing been, as was sup|>osed from the arrows and wounds 
in his head, killed by the Indians. It was ascertained 
to have been done either by the Raritans or by some 
stranger from the south, antl the local Indians hast- 
ened to renew their covenant (d' friend.ship. (tovernor 
Stuyvesant presented them with about twenty florins 
and some tobacco, and a gun to Oratanius. The 
Indians were delighted, reaflirmcd the treaty, and 
returned to their homes.^ 

In 1()5.'>, during the absence (»f (Jovernor Stuyve- 
sant to expel the Swedes from the Delaware, troubles 
again arose with the Indians which bore disaslnnisly 
upon the settlements on the west side of the Hutlson. 
Ilentlrick Van Dyck, having his orchard robbed of 
some of ita tempting fruit by Indians who landed at 

> Valentino's Manual <1R63), M«. 



night in their canoes on Manhattan, attempting to 
drive off the intruders, accidentally in the darkness 
shot an Indian girl. News of the outrage spread, and 
the Indians determined on signal vengeance. With- 
out giving warning of their purpose, on tlie night of 
the l.'Jth of September, sixty-four canoes, carrying 
five hundred armed warriors, landed at New Amster- 
dam. They searched through the town until they 
found Van Dyek at the house of a neighbor named 
A'an Diegrist, whom they cut down with a tomahawk, 
and in the affray wounded Van Dyck in the breast 
with an arrow. The town and garrison being aroused, 
the Indians were driven to their canoes, and sought 
safety by flight to the west side of the river. In re- 
taliation they set the houses on fire, and soon all Pa- ^ 
vonia was in ashes. From thence they passed down 
to Staten Island and laid that W4iste. In this assault ' 
one hundred persons were killed, one hundred and 
fifty carried into captivity, and over three hundred 
deprived of their homes. The savages of Hackensack, 
Tappaen, Ahasimus, and others were present in this 
fearful devastation, and perpetrated inhuman barbar- 
ities, notwithstanding their solemn pledge to adhere 
to the terms of their treaty. When Governor Stuy- 
vesant sought to bring them to terms, they hesitated 
and delayed, promised and failed to fulfill their [)ledges, 
in hopes to extort from the government a ransom for 
the prisoners. Finally, the Director wished to know 
how much they would take for " the prisoners en masse, 
or for each." " They replied, seventy-eight pounds of 
powder and forty staves of lead for twenty-eight per- j 
sons." The ransom was paid, and an additional pres- 
ent made by the Governor. This proved the final 
settlement with the Indians, so far as the Dutch were 
concerned. During all these troubles most of the 
mischief was done in that part of New Netherland 
included in the ancient territory of Bergeu County. 

The Pomptons and Minsies, having sold their lands, 
removed from New Jersey about 17.37. 

The Pompton Indians were engaged with the Del- 
aware Minsies in the war of 1755, under Teedyes- 
cung. This war was waged on account of the decep- 
tion practiced upon the Indians in procuring the lands 
in Northampton and Pike Counties, Pa., and was 
carried across the Delaware into New Jersey. During 
the year 1757 and the first part of 1758 the western 
borders of the province were in much alarm on ac- 
count of the Indians raiding upon the .settlers across 
the Delaware. From May, 1757, to June, 1758, tweaty- 
seven murders were committed by the Indians in Sus- 
sex County.' 

Final Disposal of the Delawares. — In June, 1758, 
Governor Bernard, of New Jersey, consulted with Gen. 
Forbes and Governor Denny, of Pennsylvania, as to 
the measures best calculated to put a stop to this un- 
pleasant warfare; and, through Teedyescung, king of 
the Delawares, he obtained a conference with the 

1 See History of Sussex and Warren Counties. 

Minisink and Pompton Indians, protection being as- 
sured them. . . . The conference look place at Bur- 
lington, Aug. 7, 1758. . . . The result was that the 
time was fixed for holding another conference at 
Easton, at the request of the Indians, that being, as 
they termed it, the place of the "old council-fire." 

At the treaty of 1758 the entire remaining claim of 
the Delawares to lands in New Jersey was extin- 
guished, except that there was reserved to them the 
right to fish in all the rivers and bays south of the Rar- 
itan, and to hunt on all uninclosed lands. A tract of 
three thousand acres of land was also purchased at 
Edge Pillock, in Burlington County, and on this the 
few remaining Delawares of New Jersey (about sixty 
in number) were collected and settled. They remained 
there until the year 1802, when they removed to New 
Stockbridge, near Oneida Lake, in the State of New 
York, where they joined their "grandsons," the 
Stockbridge tribe. Several years afterwards they 
again removed, and settled on a large tract of land 
on Fox River, Wis., which tract had been purchased 
for their use from the Menominee Indians. There, 
in conjunction with the Stockbridges, they engaged 
in agricultural pursuits, and formed a settlement 
which was named Statesburg. There, in the year 
1832, there remained about forty of the Delawares, 
among whom was still kept alive the tradition that 
they were the owners of fishing and hunting privi- 
leges in New Jersey. They resolved to lay their 
claims before the Legislature of this State and request 
that a moderate sum (two thousand dollars) might be 
paid them for its relinquishment. The person selected 
to act for them in presenting the matter before the 
Legislature was one of their own nation, whom they 
called Shawuskukhkung (meaning "wilted grass"), 
but who was known among the white people as Bar- 
tholomew S. Calvin. He was born in 1756, and was 
educated at Princeton College, at the expense of the 
Scotch missionary society. At the breaking out of 
the Revolution he left his studies to join the patriot 
army under Washington, and he served with credit 
during the Revolutionary struggle. At the time when 
his red countrymen placed this business in his hands 
he was seventy-six years of age, yet he proceeded in 
the matter with all the energy of youth, and laid 
before the Legislature a petition in his favor signed 
by a large number of respectable citizens of New 
Jersey, together with a memorial, written by his own 
hand, as follows : 

"Mt Brethren: I am old and weak and poor, and therefore a fit 
representative of my people. You are young and strong and rich, and 
therefore fit representatives of your people. But let me beg you for a 
moment to lay aside the recollections of your strength and of our weak- 
ness, that your minds may be prepared to examine with candor the sub- 
ject of our claims. 

" Our tradition informs us — and I believe it corresponds with your 
records — that the right of fishing in all the rivers and bays south of the 
Raritan, and of hunting in all uninclosed lands, was never relinquished, 
but, on tlie contrary, was expressly reserved in our last treaty, held at 
Crosswicks in 1758. Having myself been one of the parties to the sale, 
— I believe, in 1801, — I know that these rights were not sold or parted 



"We now offer to tell Uibm priTllegot to the State of New Jersey. 
Tbey were once of frrpRt raliie to us, and we apprehend that neither time 
nor iJlslaiirp nur the noii-uBe of our ri^tite hoa Ht all affected then), Irnt 
that tlie coiirta here wniiM consider our claims Tiilid w<Te we to exercise 
tham ouroelvtv or delej^ate them to otlien. It is ni>t, however, our wUh 
thiu to eKcile lliigalion. We consider the State Le^slature the prxiper 
purchaser, and throw ourvelree upon its twnerol^nce and magnanimity, 
trusting that fe«liiigB of justice and liberality will induce you to ^vo us 
what you deem a comiwiiSHliun. And, as we tiave ever looked up to the 
leadiuR chanicteni of the United States (and to the leading characters of 
this SUle in particular^ as our fathora. prt>teclora, and friends, we now 
look up to you as such, and hunihly l>eg that you will liMk upon us with 
that eye of pity, as we have reason to think our poor untutored foro- 
fathen looked upon yours when they first arrived upon our then exten* 
live but uncultivated dominions, and sohl theni their lauds, in oiany 
iutaoces for triflea, in coniparisiin. as ' li>;ht as air.' ' 

"From ynur humble |>eliiioner, I 

'* Baktholomkw S. Calvin, 
" In bf}utl/ of himself and hu red hreiltren." 

In the Legislature the subject was referred to a 
committee, which, after patient hearing, reported 
favorably ; whereupon the Legislature granted to the 
Delawares the sum of two thousand dollars — the full 
amount asked for — in consideration of this relinquish- 
ment of their last rights and claims in the State of ^ 
New Jersey. Ui»on this result Mr. Calvin addressed 
to the Lcgi.slature a letter of thanks, which was read , 
before the two houses in joint session and was received 
with repeated rounds of most enthusiastic applause. 



The most ancient and historically interesting part 
of the old county of Bergen is that portion of it 
which was set off to form tlie county of Hudson in 
1840, after having borne the name of Bergen for 
nearly two hundred years. Lying along the west 
side of New York Bay and Hudson River, in close 
proximity to the Dutch headcjuarters on Manhattan, 
it early attracted attention, and became the subject 
of the first jmrclixHe from the Indians in East Jersey. 

First Indian Deed.— On the 12th of July, 16:U), 
this portion of territ^)ry was purclut-sed of the Indians 
by the Director-* leneral and Council of New Nether- 
land, for Michael Pauw, Burg<»master of Amsterdam, 
and Lord of Achtienlioven, near Utrecht. The fol- 
lowing is a copy of the c<»nveyance, which is the first 
deed of record in New Netherland : 

** We, Director and Council of Now NVtherland, residing on the Island 
of Uanhalas and the Fori Amstenlani, under the authority of their High 
Mlf(htin«<M thn l/onlii Statna-Oeneral of the Unlte^l Netherlands and the 
Incorporate Wrat India t'<)m|>any, at their (1iaml>«n at Anisfenlam, 
do hereby witness and dm'lare that on this day, the date hereof un- 
derwritt«'n, l^fore nn In their pro|>er p<>rs»ns Bpi>enred and Bhowi<d 
themtnlvea, to wit Arometimtr, Tektr<tpi*o, and .'vtrl-ir.imTA:, inhahllantii 
and Joint owueni of tlie lands callDl llolxK-an' llackint;h, lying ovor 
acatnat the aforeaald Island Manhatas, wh>i both for themselvea and 
raJo oDrtfTM, for the remaining Joint owners of the same land, declared 
tlial for and In c<inside ration of a carlain quantity of marchaodisa, which 

1 llotMiken is an Indian name slgnirving r<>fiari-(»-pt/)s. ** llacklngh.** 
afflte-l to It in this decl. mmtni /'KKf or ytnre ; thuti glrluK »• /<iHii or 
plaet o/ the Utbaeett-ytpe ; frum the stone obtained h'*rr> oiii ..r uKi.lith* 
naUvM ranred pipe*.— WmMd't Uiti. Hud, Co., \h. 

they acknowledged to hare recelred into their own hands, power and 
poasesaion, before the passing of these preeeuts, in a right, true, and free 
ownership, have »rdd, transporte<l, ceded, conveye«l, and made over, and 
by these presents they do transport, cede, and itinvey to and for the Ite* 
hoof of Sir. Michael Pauw, absent, and for whom we, e-r oficio, accept 
under suitable stipulations, viz.: the aforesaid lands by us named Hot-o- 
can ll'ickit'jh, extending on the south sidt*, Ahaslnins; eastwanl, the 
river Mauritius, and on the west side surrounded by aralley and mnraas, 
ihruugh which the boundaries uf suid Ittnd can be r>een with sufficient 
clearness, and be distinguished ; and thai, with all the jurl3<lii'ti<>n, right 
and equity, t4.> them, the grantors. In their quality ufor>Sfti<l It-lnnging : 
Constituting and putting in their places and stead the already mentioned 
Mr. Pauw, in the real and actual p«>88e8sion thereof, and at ttie same 
time giving full and irrevocable power, authority, and special command 
to the said Mr. Pauw |>eaceably to enjoy, occupy, cultivate, have and hold 
the aforesaid land taH'ptam actor et prixrur'Uor in rem mam ac propriam ; 
and also to do with and dispose of the same as he might do with his own 
lands to which he has a good and lawful title ; without their, the grantors, 
in their quality aforesaid, saving or reserving any pari, right, action, or 
authority Ihereunio in the least, either of ownerohip or juriedlction ; hut 
allogfther to the l»oh<Mif as aforesaid, henceforth, forever, wholly and 
finally deeisliog, renouncing, and quil-ctaiming ; prDuiiDing hereby, more- 
over, not only to keep, maintain, and fulfill thid their grant, and what- 
ever shall be done by virtue thereof, Inviolable and Irrevocable forever, 
hut also to keep and maintain the same land against all persons free from 
any claim, cliHllenge, or incumbrance to be made thereon by any peraon ; 
AS aleo to cause this sale and grant to t>e approved of and held valid by 
the remaining joint owners as they are by right obligated to do; all in 
gtK>d faith without fraud or deceit. 

* In witne«is whereof, theee preaonta are confirmed with our usual sig- 
natures and with uur seal thereto affixed. 

*' Done at the aforesaid Island of Manahataa, in Fort .\msterdam, thia 
I2th July. 1630."! 

Pavonia.— On the 10th of August, 1630, Pauw also 
obtained a deed from the Indians for Staten Island^ 
and on the 22d of November, 1(I3(», a deed f<»r the 
western shore of the Hudson between Commiinipuw 
and Weehawken, where Jersey City is now situated. 

This purchase on the Jersey shore of the Hudson 
was named Paronia, the name beinp derived from 
latinizing the name of Mr. Pauw, the purchaser; and 
it was applied to the general colony on the west bank 
of the Hudson for a number of years. When and by 
whom the first settlement was made in Pav(tnia is 
uncertain. It is generally believed that there was 
some kind of a trading-post established here contem- 
porary with or immediately succeeding the Dutch 
settlement on Manhattan, about 1«>18.* But there 
seems to be no p(»sitive proof of the assertion. By 
the third article of the " Freedoms and Exemptions/* 
Pauw was obliged, within four years, to plant a colony 
of fifty .'*ouIs, upwards of fifteen years old, within the 
bounds of his purcha.'*e. How strictly he complied 
with this condition we are not informed; but in the 
year l«i;j;5 (here wa-s a colony in Pavonia under the 
charge of .Michael Paulusen or Paula/. De Vries 
visited him in May of that year, and made the follow- 
ing entr>' in his journal: "Coming to the boat on 
Long Island, night came on, and the tide began to 
turn, so that we rowed to Pavonia. We were there 
received by Michael Poula/, an (tfiicer in the service 
of the Company." The West India Ctunpany appears 
at this time to have had an agent there in the interest 
of the proprietor or Patroon. In the latter part of 

' Land Paper (Albany) G. G.. 1.-WinfteM*s Und Titles, 3. 
* Smith's lliiU N. J.— Taylor's Anoals. etc. 



1633 the Company ordered the erection of two houses 
ill Pavonia. One of them was built at Communipaw, 
and was afterwards owned by Jan Evertsen Bout; 
the other was erected at Ahasimus, and was subse- 
quently owned by Cornelius Van Vorst. These were 
frame houses thatched with flags ; at least, we have 
authority for saying that such was the Van Vorst 
■''mansion," in which lived the "head-commander" 
of the Patroon of Pavonia, the noble Lord of Achtien- 
hoven and Burgomaster of Amsterdam. We quote 
the following from Winfield's History of Hudson 
County : " No sooner had Van Vorst become settled 
in his new home than the dignitaries of New Amster- 
dam, representing both church and state, resolved to 
pay him a visit, as well to a.ssure hira of their distin- 
guished consideration as to sample his newlj'-arrived 
Bordeaux. On the 25th of June, 1636, Wouter Van 
Twiller, who was always 'glad to taste good wine,' 
but on whose shoulders rested the weighty cares of 
the New Netherland State, and Dominie Everardus 
Bogardus, the old Dutch preacher and husband of 
Anneke Jans, accompanied by Capt. De Vries, came 
over to Pavonia. Van Vorst entertained them with 
princelj- hospitality from his newly-filled wine-cellar. 
As time passed on and the sampling of the wine was 
repeated, the Governor and the Dominie grew warm 
and disputatious, if not angry, with their host. The 
modest entry in De Vries's journal that they ' had 
some words with the Patroon's Commissary' plainly 
means that they quarreled with him. The subject of 
the dispute was a murder which had been recently 
committed in Pavonia. Although the discussion ran 
high, and bad blood for a while threatened the peace 
of the occasion, yet another bumper or two was like 
oil on the troubled waters, for ' they eventually parted 
good friends.' Leaving their host and his good 
Vrouwtje, they entered their boat and started for New 
Amsterdam. Van Vorst, determined to deepen their 
impression how royally the rei>resentative of the Pa- 
troon of Pavonia could entertain such distinguished 
guests, fired a salute from a swivel' mounted on a pile 
in front of his house. How the reverberations of 
that primal salute must have rolled over the hills of 
Ahasimus ! and what a brilliant illumination followed 
to light the way of the parting guests ! ' A spark un- 
fortunately flying on the roof, which was thatched 
with reeds, set it in a blaze, and in half an hour the 
whole building was burned down.'^ Thus ended the 
first recorded entertainment in Pavonia." 

The colony of Pavonia did not prosjjer. Difficul- 
ties arising between the Patroon, ilr. Pauw, and the 
Directors of the Company, the latter finally succeeded 
in purchasing Pavonia for twenty -six thousand florins. 
Part of it (Ahasimus) became known as the " West 
India Company's Farm," and was leased by Jan 
Evertsen Bout. 

• St'-eii-atuk, a stone gun. 

s Bi-odliead, i. 26:1.— N. Y. Hist. Soc., N. S., i. 259. 

Meantime, under the reckless and arbitrary policy 
of the Director-General, Kieft, from 1638 to 1646, the 
Indians began to be troublesome and to threaten the 
extermination of the colony. Traders, disregarding 
the exclusive privileges of the Company, and actuated 
by a desire for gain, had unlawfully furnished the 
savages with arms and ammunition, which, upon the 
first serious provocation, became instruments of de- 
struction in their hands far more eftective than their 
aboriginal bows and arrows. To hasten the impend- 
ing conflict, Kieft, in 1639, resolved to exact of the 
Indians a tribute of maize, furs, and wampum. In 
1643 the storm broke out, which ended in the destruc- 
tion of the settlements. " Pavonia and the adjoining 
district suffered more than any other section of New 
Netherland. So thoroughly wa.s the destruction of 
the settlements accomplished that from Tappan to 
the Highlands of the Nevesink the country was once 
more in the possession of its original masters." A re- 
port to the States-General says, " Every place almost 
is abandoned. We, wretched people, must skulk with 
our wives and little ones, that still are left, in poverty 
together, by and around the fort on Manhattes, where 
we are not one hour safe." 

These troubles kept the country in an almost disor- 
ganized condition till the close of the first Indian war, 
in the spring of 164.5, when a number of tribes con- 
cluded a treaty of peace with the authorities at New 
Amsterdam. The war had been carried on for eigh- 
teen months with but slight intermission. On the 
return of peace the owners and tenants of farms on 
the west side of the Hudson returned, and rebuilt 
their desolated homes. 

Petrus Stuyvesant, assuming command as Director- 
General, arrived at Manhattan on the 11th of May, 
1647. Although Stuyvesant pursued a just and con- 
ciliatory policy towards the Indians, trouble soon 
again broke out. The shooting of an Indian girl by 
Hendrick Van Dyck, while in the act of stealing 
fruit from his orchard in the vicinity of Fort Amster- 
dam, was the immediate occasion. On the 15th of 
September, 1647, sixty-four canoes, carrying five 
hundred armed warriors, landed without warning at 
New Amsterdam and scattered themselves through 
the streets. Pursuing Van Dyck to the house of a 
neighbor, Vandiegrist, they wounded the former with 
arrows and cut down the latter with a tomahawk. 
" The town was aroused ; the guard attacked the 
savages and drove them to their canoes. They then 
crossed over to the west side of the river, and in the 
twinkling of an eye a house at Hoboken was in flames, 
and all Pavonia was soon on fire. From one end of 
the settlement to the other the torch and the toma- 
hawk did their work. Excepting the family of Mi- 
chael Jansen, at Communipaw, every man who did not 
seek safety in flight was killed. All the cattle were 
destroyed and everything burned. From Pavonia they 
passed over to Staten Island, and laid that waste. The 
attack raged for three days with all the fury of savage 



warfare. The Dutrh lost one hundred in killed, one 
hundnni and Hfty were carried into captivity, and 
over three liundrcd were deprived of their homes."' 
Peace was finally made, and the captives restored. 
Ordinance Creating a Fortified Town.— The 

experience of scattered srttlenieiits having hitherto 
prove<l the dilliculty of adequate protection from the 
attacks of the Indians, Stuyvesant, with the advice 
of his council, in imitation of the plan adopted hy 
the colonists in New England, resolved to order that 
henceforth the settlers should collect in close, com- 
pact villages, in situations easy of defense; and, 
in pursuance of this |)arpose, issued the following 
"Ordinance of the Director-General and Council of 
New Netherlands for the formation of villages, and 
the prohibiting straw roofs and wooden chimneys." 
Passed January 18, 165G : 

"M'liF.ReAA, Sud experienro linth fn>iii time to time pmvml tlial, in ; 
coiiaequoncc of (he sepanite dwellingv uf the country peuple lucatu^l on 
the FlHthind in diveni hookm und places, in coniplete opiKiBitton !<• the 
Onler and good tniontiiinnrtlie Ilunonitik' Company and its goTernmcut 
here, nuuiy niurden* of IViplc, killini; and deatrnction n{ rnttlo, ami 
burning of IIuubcs, have bet^-n L-tminiitted and per]>cti'ati'd hy the Indt> , 
aua, nativeM of this Conntry, the most of whicti niiglil )nive ht>et), with 
GoiVs hulp, prpveiitf><) and avoidixl, if the good InhabilAntti of this prov- 
ince bad »ettto>l thumHelvctt togeltior in the form of Townft, Vinages.and 
tiamlels, like our noighbon* of AVir Ewjlaud, wlio, hecauso of their com- 
bination and compai-t re«idenceet, liave never been ttubjoct to such, ul 
least not to so many and such general, disastorn, which have been causetl, 
next to GimI's rlghl<'uiis chiistisentent. on account of uur sins, l"y tempi- i 
Ing the Ravage barbarians thereunto by thu Hei>arate residences of the 
Country people; the one not being able, in time of neeil, to come to the 
•Mistance of the other, in consequence of the distance of the places, and 
the im|Mifl(iibility of the IHrector-GmiPral and Council to provide each 
Mpamte country house with sgnanl. To this, tiien, l>osidcN the Murders, 
I>amBgM, and the destruction of divers IViplo, Itouwries, and PliittUi- | 
tiuDS already sufTered, Is owing als«> the last, to the serious loss and bin- I 
dnince of Ihfs c^iunlry and ttie people tiiereof, ttie recurrence of wliich 
is to l>e apprehendfHl Hiid expt'< ted bfreaftcr no loss than now and hen-- 
toforc, nnh'NS the K'mhJ Inbabitntits are taught l>y their lo8.»tvi and Uwmv 
of uUient to he wiser and more prudent, uud to allow tliomselves to bu 
tnlluenced by goo<l law, as they are l>ound to, to form compai:t dwellings ' 
in suitalde places In fonn and manner as will be hiid down by the Diroc* ' 
tor-General and ('oiincil, or l>y their Commisslonere, when the Director- 
Generai and Council will l>e alilo to assist and maintAin thotr subjects, 
with the power intrusted to th«'m by Got! and the Supremo government. 
" In order timl tbiM may )>e the belter executed and obeyed in future, 
the l>lr(H;tor General and (VnMM'll aforesaid ilo hereby ln>t only warn 
their good subjects, but likewise charge and command Ibcm to conceu- 
tmle Ihemsetveis, by next Spring, in the form of Towns, Villages, and 
Hainli-ts, Ho that Ihey may be tlie more elTectnally protected, niainl.iined, 
and di'fi'iidiHl against all amautls and attacks of the Itarbartans, by ea< h 
other and liy the military enlrusled to the Director-General and Council : 
Warning all thosi' who will, conlhiry hereunt*!, lenmiu hereafter on 
their iftdatod pInnlatioitH, that they will do mt at their iieril. without 
obtaining, in timeof ii(m><I, any assistnncf fn>m the IMreclor-Genenil and 
Council. They shall, moreover, l>e flneii annually tliesuni of 26 guUdorv 
for the Itehoof of (Imi puldic. 

" rnribennnre, the l)|r«H:tur-Genenil ami Council, in onler to prevent 
a tiMi sniMen connngnlion, do ordain thnt from now henceforth no 
Housea shall be roverea) wltli Stniw or Reed, nor any more Chimneys 
tie cnnstnictotl uf ClnpUianls t>r W(M>d. 

"Thus 'lone. r««idv(Mi, rmumed, and enacted in the Asseuibly of tlie 
IMrector-<«eneral and (Vmncll, holden at hWt Ain»lerilitm In A«ir A'rfA#r- 
land, Dalml as nlM*Te."3 

This onlinance wiw not iinincdiatcly carried into 
efiect. owing to the reluctaincc of the people to abandon 

I WlnnHd's nistorjr of llndaon Oiunty, pp. M, &f>. 
* N. Y. Ctd. UHA^ vl. 2ifl; W.nnfld, Ah. 

their old plantations and to adopt a mode of living 

not only novel, hut attended hy a sacrifice which many 
felt ill prepared to make. The ordinance was reaf- 
finned the next year, and the people were commanded 
to c<mcentrate in villajres. 

Repurchase from the Indians.— Preparatory to 
the erection of sucli a settlement as the ordinance re- 
(juired, the Director and Council deemed it pru(h*nt 
to remove all doubts as to tlie satisfaction of the In- 
dian claim to the land in Pavonia, altlu»ugh it had 
been regularly purchased by Cornelius Pauw, the 
Patroon, in 1()30, and by him conveyed to the Privi- 
leged West India Company. Accordingly, on the 
30th of January, 1658, the Director-General and 
Council obtained of the Indians a deed of which the 
following is a translation : 

*' Tliis day, the dale here underwritten, appeared before the Honorable 
Directof-Geueral, I'etrns Stuyvesant, and the gentlemen of the Council 
of New Nelherltindt, Therincques. Wawapehack, Saghkins. Kogkhen- 
uigh, Itoniokan, Meiuiwokan, Same*, Wewemitokwee, for themselves, 
and in the name of Moiko|>i>s. l*eiH>ghon, I'arsoiliques, andotheni, part- 
ners of the lands hereafter mentioned. Who declare to l>e the right 
owners of the lands lying on the west side of the N«irili River In New 
Nethorlandt, beginning by the Great Rock aUive Wlehacken.^ and from 
thence acrotss through the Inuds, till alH>ve the Islandt Siskakes,* and 
from tlience along the channel side till Constable's Hoeck. And from 
Constable's Hoeck again, tilt the aforementioned UfK-ktaliove Wiehacken, 
with all the lands, inlnndK, rliannels, valleys, therein comprehendeil, in 
such manner iw the ub>renieutioned |»4rcel of lands are surrounded nnd 
eti(.ompassed by the North River, the Kill Van Koll, and the aforesaid 
direct line from the Rock above Wlehackeii. till aln»ve Slskakes, where 
it is divided by the Channel. Which lands tlicy offer abeidutely to sell 
into the Directur-GeuerHl and Council on the one side, and the aforesaid 
Indians, ftir tliem^elvevi and them that are abtient, have acconled and 
agreed in the manner following, in the presence of the bereiuafter men- 
tioned Cbrititian and Indian wiiueMes: The aforesaid Indians do ac- 
knowletlge to have sold, reeigned, and lrans|>urted,as they do by these 
presents, nil the landK heretofore mentioned, to the aforesaid Director- 
General and Council and their snccessorn, for eighty fathom of wampum, 
twenty fathom of cloUi, twelve kettles, six guns, two blankets, one 
double kettle, and one half-barrel of strong beer. Which effects they 
hereby acknowleilge to have enjityed and recelrod l»eforvtlie poMlng and 
signing of this. 

"Wherefore they do declare, for tliemwlves anil them which are ali- 
MDt, to resign and tranap^ift tlio lands before mentbirie<i, to the alwtve- 
mentioned General and 0«niucil, in full, free, and perfect property, de- 
sisting of all actions and cluims which th**y could or might pretend to 
the lauds before mentioned— the trauBp^trters promlss now or hereafter, 
Dot to nmke any itretonsions thereon ; but to keep and hold this trans- 
port firm, sure, and inviolable, rn^mising also to the said Director and 
Council to free and warrant the said lauds against all claims any other 
Indians might pretend ti, and if it should happen that in future times 
! any of the Dutch, by any Indian, should l-o damagetl vm pretensbm they 
were nut fully paid for the lands aforeanid, they, the setllem, do pnmiise 
to repair and sivlisfy tlie damages. It is »\t»* stipulated and agrei^l, the 
aforesaid Indians kIibII depart au>t rem.»ve by thi- first convenient opiH>r- 
tunity off the lauds aforeMiid ; and tliat none of their nallon shall come 
and continue to dwelt upon It, without knowledge or consent of the 
Director-General and Council. Thus dune at the fort Amsterdam, and 
ilgnid with the marks of the Imliaits, after the cargi>es were dellrered 
to their hands, on the :imb day of January, Anno Domini 1&'>8. 
" T, the mark of Tberincquss made " K, the nnirk of WawajH-hack. 

by himself. 
'*(, the mark of Seghkow. 
'* F, tlie mark of Same*. 
'*t, tlio mark of Kughkenmingh 

Warlmus Con woe. 

" F, the mark of n<unokao. 
"t, the mark of Wowenatokwee. 
"F, the mark of Memlrookau. 
" F, the mark of Saines a* wlim-ai 
otherwise railed Job. 

■ Weehawken. 

* In I uiWtkn^th* ptac^wker* the anale kulr*. Dntch," Slanghenbergh ; 
Engllih, ^p•'l*« Hitt. 



" We, the dubacribers, witnesses hereunto, desired by the Director- 
General and Conncil, do certify and declare, by this present, that the 
above bargain for the lands before mentioned, is so made before ns, and 
the lands by the sellers transported to the Director-General and Conncil ; 
on the conditions and terms comprehended in the bill of sale, the con- 
ditions and substance plainly told, acquainted and declared to the sellers 
by the interpreters. Govert Loocquernians, Peter Wolpliertson van 
Cowenhoven, and Claas Carstensen, and also by Wharinies van Couwe, 
formerly an owner of the land aforesaid ; and whereupon the sellers have 
consented to the bargain, transported the lands, and received the men- 
tioned cargoes and wampum, signed the conditions with the above 

" In witness hereof, have we subscribed this, the day and year afore- 
said, at the Fort .Amsterdam, in New Netherland,in the Council Chamber. 
" JoH. Meoapolensis. " Petrus Stuyvesant. 

"Sabidei, Prisius. " NicASius De Sille. 

"Oloff Herensin. " Pieter Tovneman. 

" Govert Looquermass. '* Pieter Cowenhoven. 

" Machiei. Yansen. *' Jan Evertsen Bout. 

'• F, the mark of Claas Carsten- 
sen Noreman. 

"T' Present. 

"Cornelius van Ruyven, S^cre/ury." 

This deed conveyed all that part of old Bergen 
County (now Hnd.son) east of the Hackensack River 
and Newark Bay, and comprised the territory of the 
old township of Bergen. 

Settlement of the Village.— On the 22d of Jan- 
uary, 1658, a petition signed by the following named 
persons, farmers who had been driven away by the 
savages in 1655, to wit : Michael Jansen, Claes Jan- 
sen Backer, Claes Petersen Vos, Jans Captain, Dirck 
Seiken, Dirck Claesen, and Lysbert Tysen, was pre- 
sented to the Director-General and Council, setting 
forth that they " should incline to reoccupy their 
former spots of residence, to restore their buildings 
and cultivate their former fields," and praying that, 
in view of the injuries and losses which they had sus- 
tained, they might be favored " by an exemption of 
tithes and other burthens during a few years." The 
exemption was granted for a period of six years ; but 
the Director-General and Council were firm in de- 
manding that they should "concentrate themselves 
in a village, at le.ast ten or twelve families together, 
to become in future more secure and easier to re- 
ceive aid for their defense in similar disastrous oc- 
currences ; without which the Director-General and 
Council deem the reoccupation of the deserted fields 
too perilous; if it might nevertheless happen, con- 
trary to their order and placard, the Director-General 
and Council consider themselves not only excused, 
but declare that the aforesaid concession or exemp- 
tion during six years shall be null and void."' 

No village had yet been located. But on the 1st 
of March, 1660, Peter Van Vleck and Peter Eudol- 
phus sought permission " to settle on the maize lands 
behind Gemocnepaen." This request, as well as a 
second petition which followed it, was refused, and 
the matter was dropped till the 16th of August, 1660, 
when a petition of " several inhabitants" was granted : 

"Provided that the village shall be formed and placed on a convenient 
spot, which may be defended with ease, which shall be selected by the 
Director-General and Council or their commissioners. 

^ Albany Records, xiT. 27. 

" Secondli/, that all persons who apply and shall share witli others by 
lot, shall be obliged to make a Iiegirming within the time of six weeks 
after the drawing of lots, atid to send hitlier at least one person able to 
bear and handle arms, and to keep him there, upon a penalty of forfeiting 
their right, besides an amende of twenty llorins, in belialf of the village, 
and to pay besides his share in all the village taxes which during hia 
absence have been decreed and levied." 

The precise date of the laying out of the village is 
not known. Mr. Winfield has shown that it was sur- 
veyed and laid out, and a name given to it, between 
the 16th of and some time in November, 1660. 

Meaning of the Name "Bergen." — The name of 
Beroen was given to the village, and subsequently 
applied to the township and county. This name is 
regarded by the early writers as derived from Bergen 
in Norway. Smith, Whitehead, and others take this 
view, alleging that there were among the early set- 
tlers certain Norwegians who gave the place its name, 
or caused it to be so named. Others take a different 
view. Dr. Taylor, in his "Annals," says it was 
"named from Bergen, a small town in the north of 

As to the first of these conjectures — that the name 
is of Norwegian origin — it is sufficient to remark that, 
although it is not disputed that there may have been 
among the early Dutch colonists some Norwegians, 
or their descendants, who emigrated at an early time 
to Holland, and thence to New Netherland, it does 
not appear that they were the influential parties in 
the founding of the town, and therefore not entitled 
to the deference which such an origin of the name 
implies. Had it been a Norwegian town, with a few 
Dutch among its founders, this origin of the name 
would be entirely natural and probable, and, in the 
absence of any proof to the contrary, might be taken 
as decisive of the question. But Bergen was a Dutch 
town, founded and governed by a Dutch colony, and 
as much a part of New Netherland as New Amster- 
dam itself. It is therefore the most rational conclu- 
sion that it received a Dutch name, or a name derived 
either from the geography or the language of Hol- 
land. We think that Mr. Winfield furnishes the most 
satisfactory clue to the origin of the name when he 
suggests that local circumstances which gave the 
name to Bergen in Holland gave it also to Bergen in 
this country. His language is : 

"Bergen in Norway received its name from the hills which almost 
surround it. Bergen op Zoom, eighteen miles north of Antwerp, stands 
on a hill surrounded by low marshy ground, which, with its fortifications, 
afforded great security. Thus it will be seen that the two supposed 
godfathers of our Bergen received their name from local circumstances. 
Are not the same circumstances existing here to give the same name to 
tlie new village? On two sides of the hill was marsh, and the only 
other place for settlement was along the river. To the eye of the Hol- 
lander, accustomed to look upon marshes or lowland redeemed from the 
sea, the ridge growing in height as it extended north from tiie Kill Van 
Kull, was no mean affair. To him it was Bergen, the Hill, and, like the 
places of the same name in Europe, it took its name from the hill on 
which it was built. This I believe to be the true origin of the name." 2 

The hill on which Bergen was built is now called 
the "Jersey City Heights." The town was laid out 

s History of Hudson Couuty, p. 71. 



in a square, the sides of wliicli were eight huiidreJ 
feet long. Around this square ran a street flanked on 
the exterior by palisades, inclosing the whole town. 
Two streets crossing each other at right angles divided 
the town into four quarters. At the ends of these 
streets, on the four sides, were gates leading through 
the palisade. A small square or common ground oc- 
cupied the centre of the plot. The land adjoining 
the town was laid out into lots called " Huyten Tuyn," 
Outside Gardens. 

The village grew .so rapidly that in May, IGOl, not 
an unoccupied lot remained inside the fortification. 
On the .Ith of September an ordinance was passed 
erecting a court of justice at Bergen. It begins as 
follows: "Petrcs Stuyvesant, on behalf of the 
High and Mighty Lords States-General of the United 
Netherlands, the Honorable Directors of the Incor- 
porated West India Company, Director-(,n<neral of 
New Netherland, Curac.'oa, Bonaire, .Vruba, and their 
dependencies, together with the Council ; to all those 
who shall see these Presents, or hear them read, 
Greeting," etc. 

The first officers of the court appointed under the 
ordinance were Tielman Van Vleck, Sellout ;' Iler- 
manius Sineeman and Casparus Stuymeta, Sche])ens.' 
These officers were required to subscribe to the fol- 
lowing oath : 

" We prumlai' antl swear, in the preseuco of Aliiiit^lity Oud, ttint we 
will bo litithful lo tlio sovureiguty of the liigli mid liiiglity Lords the 
Stuffld-Geuuiul, the I^jrds Pirectora of tile privileged West India Com- 
pany, Dei»artnioiit ol Aiiistcrdum, na uur Lords and Patroons, tlio Direc- 
tor-General and Council, now placed over ns or to bo appoiiited; that we 
will reapect and execnto their commands, that we will exorcise goml 
Jnstice to onr best knowledge, repel all mutiny, troubles, and disortlera 
to our best abilities, maintain the Kefurmed Heliglon, and no other, and 
Bupptirt the same, and roruliict oursolves punctually in conformity to the 
instruction which wo have already receivotl or may yet receive, and 
further act as gi>od and faithful magistrates aro in <luty liound to do. So 
help us Ood Almighty.*' ' 

We give from Winfield's " History of Hudson 
County" the following list of officers of this court 
under the Dutch rule, with dates of their appoint- 

Sckoutt, IVrnifnif— Tlolman Van Vleck, Sept. ,'), ll!f,l ; nalthnrjir Ilaynnl, 

March 17, Ifi04; Claw Arentao T.Kjni. August 18, lli7:i.< 
Tom (•/«•*•— The Sellout, Sept. 5, 1661 : Balthazar Bayard, March 17, 

1644 ; Clara Areuloi Tihts, August 18, 167.1. 
8cA«jjffiM — Michael .lansen, Herman Smecman, Ca'<par Stelnmetes, Sept. 

B, 1601 ; Caapar Sleinnioliw, Engelbert Sleonhuysen, Gerrel Oerrot- 

Mh, Oct. 16, l&Ul'. 

Surrender to the English.— The surrender of the 
New .Netherlands to the Crown of (iroat Britain, in 
WA, was followeil by a grant or charter from Charh's 
II. to his brother .lames, Duke of York, of the terri- 
torj- from the western side of the Connecticut River 
U> the eastern side of the Delaware River,— including 
New York ami New Jersey. In the same year James, 
Duke of York, by indenture of lease and release, 

' Sherlir. 1 Magiitralea. 

• AlUny Itacorda, xlx. 282.— WInllolil, p. 80. 

• Dutch giiTernmant rotored pi lor to this last data. 

granted and sold to John, Lord Berkeley, Baron of 
Stratton, and Sir George Carteret, of Saltrum, the 
territory of Nova Cicsarea, or New Jersey. Under 
their charter from the Duke of York, Berkeley and 
Carteret proceeded to establish civil government in 
New Jersey. For this purpose they had a constitu- 
tion drawn up in England, entitled "The Concessions 
and Agreement of the Lords Proprietors of the Pro- 
vince of New Csesarea or New Jersey to and with all 
and every the Adventurers, and all such as shall settle 
or plant there." This instrument was engrossed on 
parchment, and signed by them on the 10th of Feb- 
ruary, 1(>G4. Philip Carteret was appointed (Jovernor 
of the province, but did not arrive thither till August, 
1665. In the mean time New Jersey was placed un- 
der the jurisdiction of Col. Richard Nicoll, Governor 
of New York. During the interval a legislative 
Council or Assembly convened at Klizabethtown'' on 
the 10th of April, 1664. Bergen was represented in 
this Assembly — the first ever held in the province — by 
Engelbert Steenhuysen and Herman Smeeman." This 
government was continued over the Province of New 
Jersey until. the establishment of the separate Propri- 
etary governments after the division into Eiist and 
West Jersey. 

With the Western division our history has nothing 
to do, and therefore we shall pass over the subject of 
the partition lightly. On the 1st of July, 167r), par- 
tition was made of New Jersey by deed,' so that the 
eastern jiart, known as East Jersey, was allotted to 
Sir George t'arteret. Sir George, by his last will and 
testament, dated Dec. 5, 1678, devised the same to.Iohn, 
Earl of Bath, and others, lus trustees, to sell the same, 
and appointed Elizabeth Carteret sole executri.x ; and 
she, with the other trustees, by deed of lease and 
release, dated 1st and 2d of February, 1680, sold 
and conveyed all East .lersey to William Penn and 
eleven others, which twelve persons \;ere known by 
the name of the "Twelve Proprietors of East Jersey." 
Th&se twelve proprietors, by twelve separate deeds, in 
1682, conveyed each one-half of their respective inter- 
ests in E;ust .lersey to .lames. Earl of Perth, and eleven 
others, whereby East Jersey became held by twenty- 
four General Pi-oprictors, each holding in fee one- 
twenty-fourth part or propriety of the same. Thus 
from these proprietors have issued from time to time 
their deeds for the portions of territory .sold by them 
in East .Jersey, their office being at Perth Amboy, 
where all such conveyances and other records have 
been kept. 

Philip Carteret, soon after his arrival at Elizabeth- 
town as Governor, in August, 1(!6.'), reorganized the 
Ctmrt at Bergen, commissioning Capt. Nicholits Var- 
let, who was m:ide jiresident, to "constitute and ap- 
point a court of judicature for the inhabitants of 
Bergen, Geniocnepaen, .Miasymes, and Hoobooken, 

A .So namod In honor of Ellzabatli, wife of Sir George Carteret. 

• Umdhrad, p. 729. 

' Quinlaparlito Deed, Learning and Splcer, 61. 



to be held and kept as often as occasion shall require 
in the aforesaid town of Bergen." This was the first 
court under the English rule. Herman Bmeenian and 
Caspar Stuynmets, of Bergen, and Elias Micheelssen 
of Comniunipaw, were appointed magistrates, to sit 
in the court as assistants. This court had a " Reg- 
ister," or clerk, to keep a record of all actions, and a 
" sergeant," or " statesboade," to execute alt its acts 
and warrants. All writs and warrants were in the 
name of the king, and no appeal to the Governor and 
CouncU was allowed under the sum of ten pounds 
sterling. " And this," says the Commission, "to con- 
tinue till Wee shall otherwise provide for the settle- 
ment of those aflairs, and no Longer." 

The judges of this court up to the time of the di- 
vision of the province were, Nicholas Varlet, Presi- 
dent ; Herman Smeeman, Caspar Steinmets, Julias 
Michielsen, Ide Van Vorst, Assistants, Aug. 30, 16G5 ; 
Tynaraent Van Vleck, Clerk ; William Sandford, 
March 8, 1669; Samuel Edsall, Lourens Andriesen 
(either to act as pi-esident), Feb. 15, 1674 ; John Berry, 
President; Samuel Edsall, Lourens Andriesen, Elias 
Michielsen, Engelbert Steenhuysen, Assistants, March 
13, 1676. The same persons were reappointed Feb. 
16, 1677.' 

New Charter of Bergen. — On the 22d of Septem- 
ber, 1668, a new charter was granted to Bergen, con- 
firmatory of the rights as to land possessed by the 
"Freeholders and Inhabitants" under the Dutch 
charter of 1658. It also contained some new pro- 
visions and privileges, and defined the boundaries of 
the township of Bergen, as follows : 

"The boiinda and limits of the aforesaid town and corporation of Ber- 
gen is, to begin at tlie north end thereof, from a place called Mordavis 
Meadow, lying upon the west side of Hudson's River; from thence to run 
upon a northwest line, by a three-rail fence, that is now standing, to a 
place called Espatin, and from thence to a little creek surrounding north- 
northwest, till it conies into Httckensack River; containing in breadth 
from the top of the hill one and a-haif miles, or one hundred and 
twenty chains. From thence it runs along said Ilackensack River upon 
a south-sontliwest line, till it comes to the poiut or neck of land that is 
over against Staten Island and Sllotiter's Island, in Arthur Cull Bay, 
containing in length about twelve miles. From thence to run eastward 
along the river called Kill Van KoU, that parts Staten Island and the 
main, to a point or neck of land called Constable's Point or Constable's 
Hook, and from thence to rnn up northward, all along the bay up into 
Hudson's River, till it comes to Mordavis Meadow aforesaid; so that 
the whole tract of upland and meadow properly belonging to the juris- 
diction of Uie said town and corimi-ation of Bergen, is bounded at the 
north end by a tract of land belonging to Capt. Nicholas Varlet, and Mr. 
Samuel Edsall ; on the east side by Hud oil's River; on the south end by 
the Kill Van Koll, that parts Staten Island and the main; and on the 
west side by Arthur Cull Bay and Hackensack River. The whole, both 
upland, meiidow and waste land, containing, according to the survey, 
eleven thousand five hundred and twenty acres, English measure." 

This charter granted the utmost liberty of con- 
science in matters of religion; provided for a court 
of judicature for the trial of all causes actionable 
between party and party, as well as criminal causes ; 
made provision also for the support of the church 
and a free school for the education of youth. Rarely 

^ See chaptei- on Courts in this work. 

do we find in any charter of rights and privileges, of 
so early a date, so many truly libera! provisions. 

Under this charter the government of the township 
was maintained until the 14th day of January, in the 
12th year of the reign of Queen Anne, 1714, when a 
petition from Andrew Van Buskirk, Barrent Chris- 
tian, Enoch Freeland, Kutt Van Home, Hendrick 
Cuyper, Winder Deverichs, and John Deverichs, 
freeholders, in behalf of themselves and the other 
freeholders of the town, setting forth the previous 
possession and enjoyments of their ancestors, of divers 
lands, tenements, and hereditaments, and their exer- 
cise of divers privileges and immunities, by virtue of 
the charter of September 22, 1668, and that many 
of the lands were lying undivided, and were subject 
to great damage and waste of wood ; and that by 
said charter sufficient authority was not given to pre- 
vent such damage, as well as for other purposes, and 
that, in consequence, relief was needed from the 
government. An act was passed of that date, in the 
reign of Queen Anne, giving the petitioners a new 
charter, as a township or body corporate, by the name 
of " The Trustees of the Freeholders, Inhabitants of 
the Township of Bergen," with more extensive 

When New Netherland was retaken by the Dutch 
in 1673, a summons was sent from the fleet'' in New 
York harbor to the citizens of Bergen to surrender 
and renew their allegiance. It was addressed 

" To the luhabiidHls of the Villitge of Bergen, iind the Hamlets and Bouwries 
thereon depending : 

" You are hereby ordered and instructed to despatch Delegates from 
your Village here to us, to treat with us on next Tuesday respecting the 
surrender of your town to the obedience of their High Mightinesses the 
Lord States-General of the United Netlierlands, his Serene Highness the 
Prince of Orange, or on refusal so to do, we shall be obliged to constrain 
you thereunto by force of arms. 

" Dated at the City Hall of the City of New Orange the 12tli of August, 

"Cornelius Evertse, Junior, 
Jacob Benches. 
" By their order, 

N. Bayard, Secretary." 

The people surrendered, and on the 21st of August 
a number of the leading citizens, repairing to New 
York, now New Orange, were qualified as magistrates 
by taking the prescribed oath of allegiance. On the 
following Sunday the officers crossed over to the vil- 
lage to administer the oath to the rest of the inhab- 
itants. "They found the number of the burghers of 
Bergen and the surrounding dependencies to heseventy- 
eighl, sixty-nine of whom appeared at the tap of the 
drum and took the oath of allegiance."" 

The Dutch authorities, however, remained but a 
short time in possession of the country, for on the 9th 
of February, 1674, peace was established between 
England and Holland, and by the sixth article of the 
treaty of Westminster, New Netherland was restored 

- A fleet of twenty-three vessels, carrying sixteen hundred men. 
3 Winfield, p. 117. 



to the English. On the 10th of November following, 

the final surreuder took place. 

This event was fullowed by a second grant to the 
Duke of York by Charles 11. , June 29, 1G74.' The 
duke, July 2Uth of the same year, reconveyed to Sir 
Georpe Carteret that portion known after the division 
as Kasi .IiTscy. 

Lands in the Township. — The original grants of 
lands in the old townsliip of Hergen were all derived 
from the Dutcli government. The titles to these 
lands were respected in the articles of capitulation, 
wherein it wits stipulated that all people were per- 
mitted to enjoy their lands, homes, and goods, and 
dispose of them at i>leasure. Subseijuently the free- 
holders in the township, feeling insecure on account 
of the treaty of Hreda, took out confirmatory grants 
from the proprietors of East Jersey, subject to a quit- 
rent of one halfpenny per acre yearly. lu the charter 
of Carteret this was eom|)oundod for fifteen pounds 
sterling per annum, which wiis paid for a time. Upon 
its refusal a controversy arose between the pro[irictors 
and the freeholders of Bergen. Cornclus Van Kipen 
was arrested for the debt. A compromise was effected, 
and in consideration of the payment of one thousand 
five hundred dollars the freeholders of Bergen re- 
ceived a full release, signed Oct. 5, 1809. 

The common lands of the township were surveyed 
and divided by commissioners appointed by the Leg- 
islature in 17(>4. The title of the act is as follows : 
"An Act appointing Commissioners for finally set- 
tling and determining the deverul Rights, Titles, and 
Claims U) the Common Lands of the Township of 
Bergen, and for making a partition thereof in just and 
e()uitablc I'roportions among tliose who shall be ad- 
judged by the said Commissioners to be entitled to 
the same." The partition directed by the said Act 
was performed by si.\ of the seven commissioners 
therein appointt-d, — to wit, .Jacob Spicer, Charles 
Clinton, William Donaldson, Azariah Dunham, John 
Berrien, and .Xbraham Clark, Jr. ; Samuel Willis, the 
seventh, declined to serve. Not one of these commis- 
sioncn* lived in the county of Bergen. Jacob Spicer 
lived in Cape May, wiis a wealthy land-owner, mer- 
chant, and surveyor, and with Aaron Leaming [ire- 
pared the revision of the laws known as " Leaming 
and .Spicer's Collection." Charles Clinton lived in 
Ulster County, New York, where he was appointed 
•Surveyor-General and Judge of the Common Pleas, 
and served in the campaign against Fort Krontenac in 
17-'>t;. He Wiis the grandfather of De Witt Clinton. 
William Doruildson lived in Somerset County, anil 
wiLs a surveyor. Azariah Dunham resi<led at Morris- 
town, and was a very prominent man, both in civil 
aflaira and in the position he held as a surveyor and 
civil engineer. Ho laid out many of the important 
public roa<U in New Jersey, was member of the 
General As.**embly, the Provincial Congress, and the 

I Gurilon'a niil. N. J., p. 72. 

Council of Safety, and one of the most active and 
zealous patriots during the Revolution. John Ber- 
rien was an Associate Justice of the Sujireme Court, 
appointed by Governor Franklin, Feb. 20, 1764. Abra- 
ham Clark was of Elizabethtown, where he was born, 
Feb. 15, 1726. He was High Sheriff of Essex County 
and Clerk of the Assembly under the Colonial Gov- 
ernment. During the Revolution he was one of the 
most active patriots, serving on the Committee of 
Public Safety, as member of Provincial Congress, the 
National Congress, and other important bodies. After 
the Revolution he served as member of Congress for 
many years, retiring with the adjournment of that 
body, June 9, 1794. He died in the autumn of that 
year, and was buried at Railway.' 

Such were the commissioners appointed to survey 
and divide the common lands of Bergen. These 
lands, according to Winfield, amounted to about 
8000 acres, while the lands appropriated by individ- 
ual grants amounted to about SoOO acres. "The 
owners of private grants encroached upon the com- 
mon domain, while unauthorized persons pastured 
their cattle thereon and wasted the timber. For this 
there did not seem to be any remedy, owing to defects 
in their charter." The new charter granted by Queen 
.Vnne, Jan. 14, 1714, did not remove the ultliculty. 
Encroachments on the comnKm lands continued as 
before. The freeholders then attempted to settle the 
matter by "Articles of Agreement" entered into on 
the 16th day of June, 1743.' But these articles were 
never carried into effect, and, matters growing worse, 
the people (letitioned the Legislature for relief, which 
was granted in the act a|«pointing the commis- 
sioners for surveying and partitioning the common 
lands and settling finally these disputes. The com- 
missioners so appointed caused to be surveyed every 
foot of land lying east of the Hackensack in Bergen 
township, and the result is rei'orded with great care and 
particularity in their field-book and maps, which were 
filed iis directed in the seventh .section of the act. 
" By an act of the Legislature, approve*! March 3, 
1848, the Field-Book and Maps on file in the Clerk's 
office of Bergen County were required to be filed in 
the office of the Clerk of Hudson County. They 
were so filed. But the copy in the Secretary of State's 
office being in better jirescrvation, and of no jiarlicu- 
iar utility in that place, there was a general desire 
among the people of the county (Hudson) to secure 
it, whereupon, by an act of the Legislature, approved 
March 3, 18.'')3, the Clerk of Hud.son County returned 
the one then in his office to the Clerk of Bergen 
County, and received anil filed the one then In the 
office of the Secretary of State." ' 

The field -book and map of the Commissioners 
have ever since been regarded as authoritative and 
conclusive on questions of title in that part of Old 

I Wlnnolil'i lj>liil TIIlM— NolM loFlrld-Book, pp. 3U, Ml. 
' Arllrlm In full In Winn.'M'» Liilid Tlll,n. 10, 17. 
« Unil Titlri, |<. 24. 



Bergen now Hudson County. On account of their 
great value in this regard, the Board of Chosen Free- 
holders of Hudson County, through an appropriate 
committee appointed Jan. 12, 1871, authorized Charles 
H. Winfield, Esq., to edit and publish them in book 
form. Hence the " Land Titles in Hudson County," 
to which the reader is referred, not only for a full ac- 
count of the lands apportioned by the Commissioners 
of 17(5-1, but a vast amount of valuable information 
respecting the earliest patents and patentees under 
the Dutch government and that of the Proprietors, 
in that part of the ancient county of Bergen which 
was set off under the name of Hudson in 1840. 

Charter of Carteret. — The charter of Carteretf 1668) 
made provision for the educational and religious inter- 
ests of the town. The sixth article provided that all 
the freeholders, or a major part of them, should have 
power to choose their own minister for preaching the 
word of God and administering the holy sacraments, 
and, being so chosen, all persons, as well as freeholders, 
should contribute according to their estates and means 
for his support, or should lay out such a portion of land 
for the minister, and for the keeping of a, free school 
for the education of youth, as they shall see fit, which 
land, being once laid out, is not to be alienated, but 
to "remain {oiever free from paying any rent or any 
other rate or taxes whatsoever." In accordance with 
these provisions, three lots were early set apart for the 
purpose of a free school, — one village lot and two out 
or pasture lots, — numbers 177, 178, and 179, respec- 
tively, of the Field-Book. In this book, made by the 
commissioners for the division of the common lands, 
they are designated "For the Free School of the town 
of Bergen." For many years the school of the village 
was kept under the direction of the Church, " the 
Consistory appointing the schoolmaster, who, in ad- 
dition to the ordinary instruction in the elementary 
branches of education, was required to hear recitations 
in the catechism, and at stated times to receive the 
pastor or elders of the church, when all the pupils of 
the school were to be catechised. . . . For several 
successive generations this was the course pursued." 
" The author has heard," says Rev. Dr. Taylor, "some 
of the most aged people of his pastoral flock refer to 
the days of their childhood, when from all parts of 
the township, as it then existed, including Hoboken, 
Jersey City, and 15ergen Point, they and their school- 
mates were busied with their lessons in Dutch and 
English, using principally as a reading-book the 
Psalter and New Testament, and rather dreading the 
day for the good old Dominie's catechism." 

" ]5ergen Columbia Academy" was an institution 
which existed many years. The date of its charter is 
not given in the history furnished by Dr. Taylor, but 
the large brown-stone building erected for its accom- 
modation in 1790, this author thinks, was the third 
building used for the school.' 

> Taylor's Aunals, p. 102. 

The old Reformed Dutch Church of this town was 
the earliest organization of the kind in East Jersey. 
In 1662, four hundred and seventeen guilders ($166.80) 
were raised by tax in the township for building an 
edifice of worship. In this year there were twenty- 
seven communicants. The building was not erected 
till 1680. It was an octagonal building in the shape 
of a lantern, the roof being exceeding steep, with a 
cross extended to a considerable height above its 
apex. The windows were on the eight sides, and 
quite small and high from the ground. This building 
was standing in 1764.'^ 

A new building was erected in 1773. In a stone 
over the front door was this inscription : 

"Kerk Geljouwt in Het Taer 16SII. Her Bouwt in Itet Yacr 1773."' 



We will now notice some of the other settlements 
in the old township of Bergen and other parts of the 

Communipaw, adjoining Jersey City on the south, 
was one of the earliest settlements on the west bank 
of Hudson River. Its first settler was Jan Evertse 
Bout in 1634. He was the agent of Nicholas Pauw 
until the patroon sold to the West India Company^ 
and about 1638 rented the Company's farm. This 
farm or bouwrie included all the upland lying be- 
tween Communipaw Creek on the south and the 
meadow on the north. Bout afterwards received a 
patent of the farm as a gift. 

" Up to February, 1643," says Winfield, " no set- 
tlement had been made north of Hoboken. At this 
place a farm-house and brew-house had been built, 
and a bouwrie cleared and planted. Here Aert 
Teunissen Van Putten resided." Van Putten was 
the first white resident of Hoboken. He leased the 
farm Feb. 15, 1640, for twelve years from Jan. 1 

"At Ahasimus was the family of Cornelius Van 
Vorst, deceased, at the head of which was Jacob Stof- 
felsen, who had married Van Vorst's widow. 

" At Paulus Hoeck were Abraham Isaacsen Planck 
and his tenants, Gerrit Dircksen Blauw, Claes Jansen 
Van Purmerendt, alias Jan Potagie, and Cornells 

" At Jan de Lacher's Hoeck, or Mill Creek Point, 
as an under-tenant of Bout, resided Egbert Wouters- 
sen with his family. . . . 

" On the blutf immediately in the rear of Cavan 
Point, and just where the Central Railroad crosses 
the Morris Canal, lived Dirck Straatmaker." 

2 See cut in Wiufield's History of Hudson County, p. 381. 

3 For full history of this and other churches in the old township, see 
Taylor's Annals, and Winfield's History of Hudson County. 

* N. y. Col. MSS., i. 187. 



These settlements were destroyed in the Indian war 
of 1644. After tlie war Bout retunu'd to liis farm at 
Communipaw. He soon sold part of it to Michael 
Jansen for eight thousand florins, and the rest to 
Clacs Pietersen Cos for one thousand four hundred 
and forty-four Horins and three stivers. Jaiisen in 
1046 and sul>se<iuently was a representative of the 
Conimoiiality in Stuyvesant's Advisory Council. His 
farm was nourishing, and most of the old settlements 
along the river had heen renewed, when the Indians 
again laid the plantations waste. This was in 1655, 
when the Indians, having heen driven to their canoes 
by the guard at Fort Amsterdam, crossed the river 
and destroyed all the settlements in Pavonia. A 
number of the inhabitants escaped to New Amster- 
dam, and there remained till 1658, when Michael 
Jansen, Claes Jansen Backer, Claes Pietersen Cos, 
Jans Captain, Dirck Seiken, Dirck Claesen, and 
Lysbert Tysen petitioned for permission to return to 
their deserted plantations. Communipaw w;us ex- 
empted from the general order for the inhabitants to 
gather in the town of Bergen, and was laid out into 
lota and surrounded by palisades for defense against 
the Indians. It grew to be ipiite a rival to Bergen. 
The first ferry across the Hudson, connecting the 
Jersey shore with Manhattan Island, was established 
at this point in Ititil, arul William Jansen was the 
legalized ferryman.' In 1680 Communipaw was a 
village of twenty families.' 

The peninsula of Paulus Hook, on which Jersey 
City is now situated, belonged from a very remote 
period to the Van Vorst family. In 1804 it was 
vested in Cornelius Van Vorst. On the 10th of 
November, 1804, an act to incorporate the associates 
of the Jersey Company was pa.sscd by the Legislature, 
to whom the title was conveyed. On the 28th of Jan- 
uary, l.H'iO, an act to incorporate the city of Jersey in 
the county of Bergen wa.s passed ; under which, and 
the various su|iplements and amen<lment.s thereto, the 
city has existed to the present time. Jersey City was 
a township in Bergen County from 1838 to 1840, and 
during those two years was represented in the board 
of chosen freeholders by Dudley S. Gregory and 
ThomiLs (ieurten. 

Settlements in 1685.— In liW,"), (icorgo Scott, who 
Wif granted live hundred acres of land by the Eiust 
Jersey proprietors in Monmouth County, published 
a book in Edinburgh, entitled "The .Model of the 
Ciovernment of Eiust Jersey." In this work is a 
general view of the plantations anrl settlements in 
this country, ;ls he observed them jirior to the date 
of his publication, between 1680 and 1685' 

> N<w Nith. RaiiUtor, 117. 

> Smilli'ii lllat. Nrw Jirwjr. 

■ (In till. 'JMtli of Jtiljr, lOHA, In cnnsldnnitlun of cortnln act« promotive 
of lt<« MlTnnlftK* And lntf>r»i>l of Kiwt Jerery, tlio |)roprlotoni In Knylanil 
Krvntvii Ar« ),iiiiilr*(l Bcrm of lan<l toOeorK* ScoK, on cundlUnn Ihsl tin 
■honlj rraMit In lUr provlnm wlUi liU family. Vivn tlioM "certain 
UU,'° etc., the wrllln( of tllii iNwk < ThU IrBCl of lanil wu In Mon- 

Afler speaking of the settlements to which we have 
already referred, he says, — 

"Tlicre ar« other plantHtioiiH upon Hackonsnck RJTer, which go«a a 
great WAV up the countrr, nlnioet n^irthweflt ; olherH, also, on the M0t 
diili' of another creek or river at llackensack River. 

" A large Deck or tract of land for which one Mm. Sanih Kiratead, uf 
New York, had a patent given by an old Indian sachem in recomp«osa 
for Interpretint; the Indian language Into Dutch, IV* there was occasion; 
there are some little families thereon. 

"Two or three miles up, a great plantation settled hy Capt. John Berry, 
whereon he now lives. 

*'.\nulher plantation a'ljoinlug, iM'longing to his snn-in-law, Michael 
Smith: another tu Mr. Baker. This neck of land is in brea^lth from 
Capt. Berry's new plantation on the west side, where ho lives, over to 
his old plantations, to the east at Hudson's River side, al>out three mllM^ 
which distance serves to Constable's llixik, npwanlrt of ten Diilefi. 

"To go back to the south part of Itergen Neck, that b opposite to 
Statan Island, where is but a narrow luissage of water, which ebbfl and 
flows ttetween the said island and Bergen Point, called Constable's Hook. 
There is a considerable plantation on that side of Constable's Hook, ex- 
tending inland aliout a ntile over from the liay on the east aide of the 
neck that leads to New York, to that on the west that goes to Hackeii- 
sack and Snake Hill, the neck running up between lioth, from the south 
to the north of Hudson's River, tt» the utmost extent of their Ujunds. 
It was first settled by Samuel Kdsall in Col. Nichol's time, and by hitn 
sold fur £600." 

Other small plantations along the Neck to the east 
are named. Among them one 

"belonging to George I'mpane (Gomouueepan) which is over against 
New York, where there is about forty families,* within which, about the 
middle of the neck, which is here aUnit three miles over, stands the town 
of Bergen, which gives name to that neck. Then, again, northward to 
the water's side, going up Hudson's River, there lies out a iH>int of land 
where is a plantation and a water (mill) belonging Ui a merchant in Nflw 

" Southward Uiere is a small Tillage, of about five or six familiea, which 
is commonly called the liuke's Farm. Further up is a good plaotaUon 
in A neck of laml almost an island, culled Hobuck; it did belong to a 
Dutch merchant, who formerly in the Intlian war bwl bis wife, children, 
and servants tiiiuwacred by the Indians, and bis house, cattle, and stock 
destroyed by them. It is now settled again, and a mill erected there by 
one dwelling at New York. 

** Up iiorthwiinl along the river side are the lauds ncMir to BIr. William 
Lawrence, which is six or seven miles further. OpixisltD thereto there 
is a plantation of M r. I'/Uull, and al^ive that <'a|it. llienlleld's plantation ; 
tills lost is iilmost opiNisite the northwest of >laiiliatla's Islsitd. 

" Here are the utmost extent of the nortliem boumU ol Kast JnrMy, 
as always contemplalMl. 

" Near the mouth of the bay, upon the side of Overlieck's Creek, ailja- 
celit to Ilackensack River, sevet al of the rich valleys were settled by the 
Dutch ; and iiejir Snake Hill is a line plantation owneii by rinliome A 
KIckbe, for half of which rinliorii.' is said I.1 have |>ai.l JWKI. 

"The plantations .ui Isilh sides of the neck to its utmost extent, ■• 
also tho.-o- at llaikensack, ar<> under the jurisdiction of Bergen Town, 
^ilUllte ulmut tlie mid. lie of tile nwk." . . . 

New Barbadoes Neck. — That portion of the an- 
cient territory of Bergen known as New Barbadoes 
Neck was probably first settled by the Kingslands 
soon after the settlements above described. It is not 
certain that Juilge William Samlford ever .settled 
upon his patent in this section of the c<mnty. He 
w!is presiding judge ol the court at Bergen in \l'u'^. 
and died some time |irior to ITtHi, as in that year his 
widow, Sarah Sandford, conveyed to her friend, Kath- 
erine Van Einburgh, a portion of the estate left her 
by her husband, between the Hackcnsiack and Pas- 
mouth County, and waa aOerwards ownad by Dr, John Jubralune, who 
married Scott's daughter. 
I * Twenty, according to Smith's History. 



saic Rivers. Nathaniel Kingsland, the ancestor of i 
the Kingsland femily, of New Barliadoes, purchased 
a large tract of Judge Sandford. His son William : 
was the first to settle upon it, about 1690. He enii- [ 
grated from the island of Barbadoes, and built a 
mansion-house on what is now the Hackensack road, 
about two miles above the Schuyler copper-mines. 
William Kingsland was the father of Edmund Wil- 
liam Kingsland, and the grandfather of the late Mrs. 
John Arent Schuyler, Mrs. Nesbitt, Mrs. Adams, and 
the late Gen. Kingsland, of Newark. j 

Edmund W. Kingsland was taken prisoner by the 
British during the Revolution, and carried down the 
river in his own boat, and conveyed to the Sugar- 
House in New York, where he was kept for some 
time. He said it was the only time in his life that he 
regretted having a new hat of such a kind as the one 
he wore ; for it was a stiff beaver, and his captors 
amused themselves during the journey by beating 
him over the head with it. The Kingsland family 
plate was buried during the war at the foot of a pear- 
tree near the mansion. A tankard tliat was hidden 
there is now in the possession of the family. Tiie 
British once made a visit to the house, and were kept 
out for some time by the inmates, who barricaded the 
doors and windows. At length the assaulting party 
threatened to break in a door where Edmund W. 
Kingsland was stationed. He had a pistol in each 
hand, and declared he would shoot the first man who 
made an attempt to enter the house. One of the 
party then picked up a young negro belonging to the 
plantation, and placing him in front, challenged Mr. 
Kingsland to " fire away." Not wishing to hurt one 
of his own servants, he desisted, but the faithful slave 
cried out, " Let 'em shoot, massa ; never mind me !" 
This is supposed to have occurred at the time Mr. 
Kingsland was captured. The English and Hessians 
took possession of the house and occupied it for sev- 
eral months. Mr. Kingsland had previously hollowed 
out a board in the mantel-piece and secreted his money 
in it, put in a block and painted it over. He found 
it undisturbed on his return from imprisonment. 
The Kingslands were Episcopalians, and through 
their instrumentality the church of that faith was 
founded at Bellville. 

John Richards, who was connected with the Kings- 
land family by marriage, owned a large tract of land, 
a part of which is now Rutherford Park. He was 
murdered in the Bergen Woods by refugees during 
the Revolutionary War, while on his way home from 
New York. 

A part of the Kingsland tract was purchased by 
Arent Schuyler about the year 1700, and contained 
the Schuyler copper-mines, afterwards discovered by 
one of Captain Schuyler's slaves. Schuyler had pre- 
viously settled in the Ponds Neighborhood, in what is 
now the western part of the town of Franklin, but 
about the time of the purchase he removed to New 
Barbadoes. The discovery of the copper-mines, to- 

gether with his large landed interest, made him 
wealthy. The old Schuyler mansion which stood on 
the east hank of the Passaic, below the Belleville 
bridge, was built by John, a son of Arent Schuyler 
by his second wife. John was for many years the 
manager of the mines. The house was more than 
once visited and violated by the British during the 
days of the Revolution, and pictures pierced by 
British bayonets are still preserved among the de- 

Northwestern Part of the County. — Settlements 
were made in the northwestern part of the county, 
in the neighborhood of the Ponds Church, before the 
beginning of the eighteenth century. In 1700 there 
were some ten families around the Ponds and some 
four or five in Pompton. Arent Schuyler and An- 
thony Brockholst, in 1G97, lived upon the place oc- 
cupied by the late Dr. William Colfax and William 
W. Colfax. In 1730, Cornelius, son of Arent Schuy- 
ler, settled on the north side of Ryerson Pond, where 
his grandson of the same name now resides. The 
Garretsons, from Bergen, settled at an early time on 
the property owned by the late John Post. The 
Van Aliens owned six hundred acres on the Pond 
flats, and their residence was near the house of David 
Bush. The Berdan family, consisting of two brothers, 
settled in Preakness about 1720, or perhaps before 
that date. This family first settled on Long Island, 
then came to Hackensack, and thence the two brothers 
emigrated to Preakness, and purchased four hun- 
dred acres of land at eighteen cents an acre. One 
was married, the other single. The single brother 
commenced building a house with a view to taking 
a companion, but before its completion he sickened 
and died. The descendants of the other brother still 
live on the spot where their forefather located. John 
Stek (now Stagg) settled back of Knickie's Pond in 
1711. On the 19th day of May, 1724, Yan Romaine, 
yeoman of Hackensack, purchased of Willocks and 
Johnstone six hundred acres, the tract now occupied 
by John B. Romeyn, Nicholas Romeyn, William 
Winters, John Snyder, and Henry Hofter. He sold 
two hundred acres of this to Roelef Van Honten, 
March 17, 1737, for seventy pounds. It is the prop- 
erty now occupied by John V. Hennlon, William De 
Baaw, and John Ackerman. Simeon Van Winkel 
settled on the property of the late Tennis Van Slyke 
in 1733. He came from Belleville, and is said to 
have been the owner of the first wagon in this region 
of country. Its wheels were without tires, and it was 
in existence more than three-fourths of a century 
after. On the 17th of August, 1720, John and Wil- 
liam Van Voor Haze, yeomen of the county of Ber- 
gen, bought of John Barbetie, Peter Fauconiere, and 
Andrew Barbetie, merchants of New York City, five 
hundred and fifty acres lying at Wikehoft', in the pre- 
cinct of Saddle River. On this tract the church of 
Wyckoff stands. For some cause unknown to the 
writer, they were compelled to repurchase this land, 



April 2, 1745, of John Hamilton, Andrew Johnstone, 
and John Burnet. William Van Voorlia/.c (Van 
Voorhis) was twice married, — first, to iSusanah Larue, 
May, 1717, and second, to Martha Van Gclden, Jan. 
21, 1728. He died July 17, 1744, leaving five sons 
and four daughters. His lands he left to his sons. 
An extract from his will may not be devoid of inter- 
est, as it is one of the oldest wills preserved : 

" I giwc mnd be<iuealli tintu my i>li)(«t son, Jacobus Van Voorhecs, the 
big bybi'l, fur bis tiret birtli-riglil, as being uiy lieir at law ; and 1 will 
ttiat my yuungeet (later, which I have by myn dear beloving wife, which 
is named Mary tie Van Voor Ha7.«, dat slie shale have for her {tortiou the 
sum of £19." 

To his Other daughters he gave twelve pounds each. 
His son Jacobus never married ; he entered the king's 
service, and died Sept. 20, 17G7. His son Albert 
lived on the farm now or lately owned by Josiah 
Quackcnbush, and Abraham on the farm of Lewis 
Yeomans. John lived on the farm of Henry Hlauvelt. 
The lands of the two brothers were not divided 
among their heirs until May 18, 1767. 

A tract near Paramus of five hundred and fifty 
acres was bought by the Albertises for one hundred 
and si.\ty-five pounds, Aug. 17, 1720, of the same 
New York parties as sold to Van Voorhis. The 
Albertises also leased of the same five hundred and 
fifty acres adjoining, for which they were to pay the 
annual rent for every hundred acres of "two young 
fat fowls on or before the feast of St. Michael the 
Archangel." At the same date (1720) Pit Van Hlar- 
com wa.** living on a tract between Van Voorhis and 
Albertis, of five hundred and fifty acres, as the Alber- 
tis deed refers to his line. The Winters, Courtcns, 
Youngs, Storms, Ackermans, and Quackenbushes 
settled in this section from 1740 to 17f)0; the Van 
Gelders about 1730, where Abraham Van (icider now 
lives. They came from the Red .Mills, being attracted 
by the large number of deer which came to the ponds 
near by. Among others in this neighborhood were 
the Pulisfelts (now Pulis) and Uogerts, about 171)0. 

It is only intended in this chapter to give a general 
survey of the early settlements. For further details 
the reader is referred to the subject of early settle- 
ments in the history of each township. 

Cli .\ 1'TI;K VIII. 

AMoNfi the original land-owners in the countjr^of 
Bergen we name the following: 

Abraham Isaac«en Plank purcha.'^ed Paulus Hook 
of the Dutch Weat India Company May 1, 1638. 
The dcetl was confirmed by Philip Carteret May 
12, 166K. Martyn Andriesen obtained a patent for 
Weehawkr'O from William Kieft, l)ireclor-( ieneral of 
New Nelherland, May 11, 1617; confirmed by Philip 
Carteret, April IH, 1670. Andrieseii wsu* a freebooter 

and a desperate character, and was chiefly responsi- 
ble for the terrible massacre of the Indians in 1643. 
Being charged with this re-sponsibility by Governor 
Kieft, he attempted to shoot the Governor, for which 
he was arrested and sent in irons to Holland for trial. 
He returned to New Amsterdam, and purchased Wee- 
hawken in 1647. He was born in Holland in 1600, 
and came first to this country in ItiSl. Nicholas Varlet 
obtained a patent of Hoboken of Petrus Stuyvesant, 
Feb. 5, 1663; confirmed by Philip Carteret, May 
12, 1668. Mr. Varlet was one of the noted men of 
his times. His second wife was Anna, sister of Gov- 
ernor Stuyvesant, and widow of Samuel Bayard. In 
1657 he was appointed commissjiry of imports and 
exports, and in 16.")8 became farmer of duties on 
exports and inii)orts to and from New England and 
Virginia; was admitted to the right of " Great Bur- 
ger," and appointed searcher, inspector, and com- 
missary of the West India Company stores; in 1660 
was sent with Brian Newton an ambassador to the 
Colony of Virginia ; in 1664 was a|>|>ointed one of the 
commissioners to agree upon terms of capitulation to 
che English ; in 1665 was commissioned captain of 
the militia of Bergen, Communipaw, Ahasimus, and 
Hoboken ; same day was made a member of the court 
at Bergen, and the year following a member of Gov- 
ernor Carteret's Council. He died in 167.'). 

Ide Cornelison Van Vorst received of Governor 
Stuyvesant a grant of land at Ahasimus, April 5, 
1664: confirmed, with an additional grant, by Philip 
Carteret, March 13, 1668. This )iroperty wsis inher- 
ited by his only son Cornelius, and from him de- 
scended to Cornelius of the seventh generation. It 
is now the finest part of Jersey City. 

Jan Evert>se Bout obtained of the Governor and 
Council of New Netherland a tract of land at Com- 
munipaw, of which the following is a copy ot the deed: 

*• We, Willii*m Kieft, Governor-General and r<iuncil nnder the High 
and Miglity Lords Slates-Genenal of the United Nt-tlierlands, ills High- 
ness of Orange and tlie Honorable the l>iri>clors of the anthorixetl Wi*at 
Inflia (Vim|>any, re-iding in New Netherlands, make known and divlare 
that on tliis day underwritten, we have given and granted Jan Kvertse 
Itoiil A piece of land lying on the North Kiver we.>tward fr\mi Fort 
Amsterdam, before then pastured anil tilletl by Jan Kverlse, named 
t^,am<i€ne|>at'ii and Jan de I.acber'B Hoiick, with the meadows as the 
same lay within the [Hjst-and- rail fence, containing eighty-four morons. 

" In Icsliniony whereof Is these by us signed and with our Seal cou- 
flrme<l in Fort Anislenlam in New Netherlands, the wlibrh land Jan 
Kvertso took poses—Ion of Anno 1638, aud began then to plow and so 

This farm was sold to Michael Jaiwen by Bout for 
eight thousand florins, Sept. 9, 1656, and, Janscn 
dying, part of it was confirmed to his widow, Fitje 
Hartman, by Philip Carteret, May 12, 1668. 

Caspar Steinmets purchased of Philip Carteret, 
May 12, 1668, two tracts of land and meadow ni^ar 
the town of Bergen. He resided at Ahaaimus, and 
during the Indian troubles of 1655 retireil to New 
Amsterdam, where he wits licensed in 16.'>6 to "tap 
beer and wine for the accommodation of the Bur- 
gliery and Strangers." In September, 1657, he was 



made lieutenant of the Bersrcn militia, and in 1673 
was promoted to captain. He was deputy from Ber- 
gen in the Council of New Orange (after the Dutch 
had retaken New York), lli74, and a representative 
from Bergen in the first and second General Assem- 
blies of New Jersey. He died in 1702. His descend- 
ants at one time were quite numerous, but have long 
since died out. 

Adrian Post obtained a patent of Governor Car- 
teret dated May 12, KJGS, for " sundry parcels of laud 
lying in and about the Town of Bergen." He was 
the ancestor of the Post family in Bergen County, 
and had numerous descendants. The first we hear of 
him he was agent for the Baron van der Capellen, 
and in charge of his colony on Staten Island when 
the place was destroyed by the Indians in IfJOS. In 
October of that year he was appointed to treat with 
the Hackensack Indians for the release of prisoners. 
He was ensign of the Bergen militia in 1673, and was 
the keeper of the first prison in East Jersey, the house 
of John Berry in Bergen being used for that purpose. 
He died Feb. 28, 1677. 

Englebert Steinhuysen received a deed of "sun- 
dry parcels of land in and about the Town of Ber- 
gen," from Philip Carteret, July 22, 1670. This land 
comprised seven lots, amounting in all to one hundred 
and fifty acres.' This patentee was a tailor by trade, 
and came from Soest, the second city in Westphalia. 
He arrived at New Amsterdam in the ship " Moes- 
man," April 25, 1659. He was licensed by the Di- 
rector-General the first schoolmaster in Bergen, Oct. 
6,1662. He was commissioned schepen in the Bergen 
Court, Oct. 13, 1662 ; and with Harman Smeeman rep- 
resented Bergen in the " Landtag" in 1664.'^ i 

Harman Edward purchased of Petrus Stuyvesant 
" sundry parcels of land lying in and about the 
Town of Bergen, Sept. 14, 1662." He was one of the 
commissioners to fortify Bergen in 1663 ; and with 
Joost Van der Linde, Hendrick Jans Spier, and 
Hendrick de Backer, June 15, 1674, petitioned the 
government for laud on Staten Island at the mouth of 
the Kill Van Ku!l.» 

Balthazer Bayard obtained, with Nicholas Varlet, 
a grant of land from Philip Carteret, dated Aug. 10, 
1671, lying in and about the town of Bergen. Bay- 
ard was a brewer and a brother of Nicholas. He was 
appointed schepen in Bergen, Dec. 17, 1663, and March 
17, 1664 ; represented Bergen in the first and second 
General Assembly of New Jersey, 1668. Shortly 
after this he became a resident of New York, where 
he was schepen under the Dutch (New Orange) in 1673, 
and alderman in 1691. Of the lands in Bergen the 
patentees held as joint-tenants. Varlet died before 
any division was made, whereupon Bayard took the 
land by right of survivorship.* 

1 Winfleld'8 Land Titles, 91 . 

2 Brodlii-ad, i. 729.— Land Titles, 91. 

' Col. Hist. N. Y., ii. 721.— Land Titles, 95. 
< Land Titles, 109. 

Tielman Van VIeck obtained by patent from Philip 
Carteret, dated March 25, 1670, a grant of sundry 
parcels of land near the town of Bergen. Van Vleck 
was a lawyer. He studied under a notary in Amster- 
dam, came to this country in 1658, and was admitted 
to practice the same year.'' He has the honor of 
having been the founder of Bergen, and was made 
the first schout and president of the court, Sept. 5, 

Hans Diedrick was granted by Philip Carteret sun- 
dry parcels of land lying in and about the town of 
Bergen, May 12, 1668. Hans kept the second hotel 
in Bergen, licensed Feb. 13, 1671, and was appointed 
lieutenant of the Bergen militia, Sept. 4, 1673. He 
was one of the patentees of A(]uacknonck, May 28, 
1679, and died Sept. 30, 1(!98. He " probably left his 
land to his son Wander, who died intestate, Aug. 13, 
1732. His children Johannes, Garret, Cornelius, 
Abraham, Antje, wife of Johannes Vreeland, and 
Margaret Van Rypen, widow, sold to their brother 
Daniel, Feb. 17, 1764, a lot called ' Smiths land,' 
seven morgans, also a lot of meadow, also the Steen- 
huysen lot, and lot 114. They partitioned iu 1755."" 

Gerrit Gerritse was granted by Philip Carteret a 
patent for sundry parcels of land lying in and about 
the town of Bergen, May 12, 1668. "This patentee 
was the ancestor of the Van Wagenen family. By 
his will, dated Oct. 13, 1708, he gave all the land 
included in this patent, and a preceding patent, to 
his eldest son Johannes. By the will of Johannes, 
dated July 24, 1762, proved Nov. 8, 1759, he gave all 
his lands in Bergen to his son Johannes, who was the 
owner in 1764." 

The Secaucus patent was granted by Petrus Stuy- 
vesant to Nicholas Varlet and Nicholas Bayard, Dec. 
10, 1663, and confirmed by Philip Carteret, Oct. 30, 
1667. In the deed of Carteret it is recited: "The 
said plantation or parcel of land is esteemed and 
valued, according to the survey and agreement made, 
to contain both of upland and meadow, the sum of 
two thousand acres English measure." It comprised 
all the land between Penhorn's Creek and the Croma- 
kill on the east and the Hackensack on the west. 
The Indians, in 1674, claimed that their right to this 
land was not included in their deed to Stuyvesant of 
1658, that the said deed included only " Espatingh 
and its dependencies," and that they were, therefore, 
still owners of Secaucus. The Dutch Council at 
Fort William Hendrick settled the controversy with 
them by making them a present of an "anker of 
rum." Nicholas Varlet died while the tract was in 
the possession of the patentees, and his administra- 
tors, Samuel' Edsall and Peter Stoutenburgh, joined 
Bayard in selling it to Edward Earle, Jr., of Mary- 
land, April 24, 1676. Earle .sold to Judge William 
Pinhorne, March 26, 1679, for five hundred pounds, 

s N. Y. Col. MSS., viii. 932.- Note to Land Titles, 114. 
» Land Titles, 118. 



one individual half of the tract, also one-half of all 
the stock, " Cliristijiii and negro servants." The 
following sclieiliile of iiro|>ert_v was annexed to the 
deed: "One dwelling house, eontaining two lower 
rooms and a lean-to below stairs, and a loft above; 
five tobaceo houses ; one hers, one mare and two colts, 
eight oxen, ten cows, one bull, four yearlings, and 
seven calves; between thirty and forty hogs, four 
negro men, five Christian servants." This was the 
Pinhorne plantation referred to by George Scott in 
his "Model of the (Government of East Jersey."' 

In 1668 Capt. William Sandford obtained of the 
Indians a deed for New Barbadoes Neck, extending 
northward seven miles and eontaining fifteen thou- 
sand three liundred and eight acres of upland and 
meadow. A considerable portion of this land Capt. 
Sandford devised in his will to his wife Sarah, who 
on the 7th of December, 1709, gave by deed about 
five hundred acres, including one hundred and fifty 
acres of meadow on the Passaic, to her " dear friend 
Katherine Van Emburg." A part of Sandford's tract, 
.soon after his purchase from the Indians, was bought 
by Nathaniel Kingsland, who had been an ollicer in 
the island of Barbadoes, and from this circumstance 
it received the name of New Barbadoes. 

Capt. William Sandford was presiding judge of the 
Bergen court-s in 1676, and a member of the first 
Council of East Jersey, under Governor Kudyard, in 

Isaac Kingsland, son of Nathaniel, of New Barba- 
does, was a member of Governor Neill Campbell's 
Council in 1686. 

Capt. John Berry's Patent.— In 1669, Capt. John 
Kerry and a-isociatts obtained a grant for lands lying 
northward of Sandford's, "six miles in the country." 
This grant extended from the liackensack River to 
what is now Saddle River, and probably included the 
site of the present village of liackensack. In the 
same year a grant was made to Capt. Berry of land 
lying between Ilackcnsaik River and Overpeek I now 
English) Creek, bounded on the south by lan<ls of Wil- 
liam Pardons, and running north, containing about 
two thousand acres. This must have included a large ' 
portion of what are now Ridgefii'ld, Englewood, and 
Palisade townships, — that pr)rtion of them, at least, 
lying between the creek and the liackensack River. 

John Berry was a large land-owner. lie resided at 
Bergen, where he also owned six meadow-lots and 
six upland lots, besides two lots in the town purchased 
of Philip (Carteret, July 20, 1669. Most of this land , 
was in the Newkirk family in 17i'>4, when the lands 
were surveyed by the commissioners. John Berry 
was jire-sidiiig Judge of the I'ourtj* at Bergen, and one 
of the magistrates before whom Thomas Kudyard, the 
Deputy-l tovernor of Eiutt Jersey under Barclay, was 
sworn into office, Dec. 20, 1682. His house in Bergen, 
on the 19tli of .Inly, 1673, was made the "prison for 

< Lniicl Tllln. l:l<l. 

ye province" until a house could be built for that pur- 
pose, and Adrian Post, constable, was made keeper.' 

The oldest deed on record in the county clerk's 
oflice at liackensack is one from John Berry to 
/uarian Westervelt, dated Jan. 13, 1687, conveying a 
portion of his estate in the old township of Hack- 
eusack. March 26, 1687, he conveyed another piece 
of land to Walling Jacobs, of the county of Essex. 

Demarest Patent. — .\nother early patent was one 
for three thousand acres of land in the old township 
of Hackcnsaek, extending along the easterly side of 
the river from New Bridge to a point beyond Old 
Bridge, and easterly as far as the line of the Northern 
Railroad. This was granted to David Demarias ( Des- 
meretz) and others, by Philiji Carteret, June 8, 1677.' 
The patentee was a Huguenot, and came from France 
to this country with his three sons, David, John, and 
Samuel, about the year 1676. He was the ancestor 
of the numerous family of Demarests in this country. 
It is said that, as far back as 1820, one interested in 
the family found by search seven thousand names 
connected with it, — branches of the original stalk.' 

.\ccording to tradition. Mr. Demarias first settled 
at Manhattan Island, where he purchased the whole 
of Harlem; but he soon afterwards disposed of that 
property and removed to the liackensack, where he 
made the inirchase above mentioned, his design being 
to establish a colony of some thirty or forty families, 
to be transported from Europe. It wius probably in 
view of this declared purpose that the patent was 
granted him; for it must have been known by the 
Governor or the land-otfice that the grant was 
already covered, in large part at, by the 
])rior patent of two thousand acres given to ,Tohu 
Berry. It is stated that Mr. Demarias and his asso- 
ciates were so hara.s.sed by the claims of different 
persons during half a century that the land was 
purchased by them no than four times. Berry, 
however, at the request of the Governor, waivetl his 
claim for a time in view of the prospective settle- 
ment, and, in case of its failure, was promised a like 
grant in some other locality. On the 1st of July, 
1709, Demarias having failed to fullill his stipula- 
tion in regard to the settlement, Berry petitioned 
the "Captain-General and (Jovernor-in-Chief of the 
Provinci's of New Jersey and New York, eti-.. to listen 
to a demonstration of the invalidity of a pretense of 
John Demarest & Company to three thousand acres 
of land which they received from the Indians.'" The 

» Book 3 cif l><>«ll, 03, Trniloli. 

' Deed on reconi at IVrUi AiulKiy. 

* Rpv. T. 1). Ronipyn's lIlHtorirnl UltH-oiintp. 

& riircliiwera of pniprlrUry IkikIii nt tlinf tiiup, Hlifl Mrllor, hnil to ex- 
tliiKtilRli lli« f ntltaii clniniH Tor tbt<niHflvcii on tlio l)v«t Ifrnm ttiry could 
makp. .^mipliniM tlioy iHd It in n'lvanco !•/ tm.vliiK of the Iiidlniii tlrat 
anil thon KuttloK tlipir Irulian ilt><<«U ronnrnuxl. and wttnolinioii l>.v icrtting 
t))plr depiU flnit of ttie ((overiinirnt and rxlingnt«tilnK tli« Indian claim 
aftprwarda. TIkwp -hrpu-d in the l>naliiPM could untlalljr do 11 fur a verjr 
•mall trldp. r»|<pcli<llv If mlipd »pll with thp liiprluhla alrong l>«>r or 
brandy. In no caso wtm an Indinn dpcd lipid valid unlciia ctuiArmad by 
Uie guTproment. 



Governor subsequently withdrew the grant from the 
sons of David Deniarest, according to Berry's repre- 
sentation, and gave them a smaller grant, which in- 
cluded a part of the two thousand acres of Berry.' 
This latter grant was known as the French Patent, 
proliably because the Demarests came from France. 

Willock's and Johnston's Patent. — George Wil- 
locks and Andrew .Johnston were the patentees of a 
large tract of land in what are now Ridgewood and 
Franklin townships. It extended from the Big Rock 
at Small Lots (now called Glen Rock) northward to 
the Ramapo River, about one mile in width, and has 
been known as the "Wilcox and Johnson Patent," 
both names, however, being erroneously spelled. 

Gjorge Willocks was born in Scotland, and came 
to this country in 1684. He is said to have been a 
brother of Dr. James Willocks, of Kennery, Scotland, 
from whom he inherited a large estate. He was the 
agent of the East Jersey proprietors for the collection 
of the quit rents, and obtained various grants of land 
from them. Upon the issuing of the writ of quo war- 
ranto by James II., with the view to vacating the pro- 
prietary government of New Jersey and placing the 
whole North American colonies under one governor- 
general, in l(i86, Willocks and Lewis Morris took 
strong ground in favor of the proprietors. Through- 
out that memorable contest between the |iroprietors 
and the king, which was not finally settled till 1702, 
when the proprietors surrendered their claim to the 
civil jurisdiction of the province to Queen Anne, 
Willocks and Morris were stanch adherents to the 
rights of the proprietors. In 1699, Willocks was their 
representative in the Assembly, and was dismissed 
from that body by the famous act of the opposition 
excluding from the Assembly "any proprietor or rep- 
resentative of one." The people of Amboy elected 
Lewis Morris in his stead, and the historians tell us 
there were "serious apprehensions of an insurrection 
under the leadership of Willocks and Morris." Wil- 
locks never settled on his patent in this county; he 
resided chiefly at Perth Amboy, where he died in 1729. 

Andrew Johnson (Jonstone), the other patentee, 
was born Dec. 20, 1694. When a young man he was 
a merchant in New York. He subsequently became 
associated with the proprietors of East Jersey, and 
was chosen president of the Proprietary Board. He 
was also a member of the Provincial Assembly, and 
for several years Speaker of the House ; and was one 
of the commissioners for running the Lawrence line 
between East and West Jersey in 1743. For some 
time he was treasurer of the College of New Jersey. 
He died at Perth Amboy, June 24, 1762.' 

The lands south of this tract on the Passaic, in- 
cluding a portion of the site of Paterson, were pur- 
chased of the Indians in 1709 by George Ryerson 
and Urie Westervelt. The original deed was in the 
possession of the late John J. Zabriskie, of Hohokus, 

^ Land Papers, New York. 

2 Whitehead's New Jersey under the Proprietors. 

and is among the ])apers left in the hands of his 
widow, now living in Paterson. In this deed an 
exception is made of Sicomac, which was an Indian 

"Frenchman's Garden." — In a note relating to 
lot No. 18 in Winfield's " Land Titles" we find the 
following : 

* Lot No- 18 forms part of the present Macpelalj Cemetery, and was a 
part of the * Frenclinian's Garden.' Concerning this garden I have met 
with the following poetic and somewhat sonot'ons accounts. 

" ' In a wild and romantic situation on Beigen Creek, nearly opposite 
the city of New York, thirty acres of land were purchased for a garden 
and fruitery by tile unfortunate Louis XVI., who as proprietor became 
a UHturalized citizen liy act of tlie Legislature.' — Wartlen^s llUtortj of the 
Uiiilfd States, ii. 53. This statement of Warden seems to have been based 
on a notice relating to this garden in the Netc Jersey Jnxtrmil, June 27, 
1787, in which it is said : ' Part of this space is at present inclosed with 
a stone wall, and a universal collection of exotic, as well as domestic 
plants, trees, and flowers are already begun to be introduced to this ele- 
gant spot, which in time must rival if not excel the most celebrated 
gardens of Europe. The situation is naturally wild and romantic, be- 
tween two considerable rivers, in view of the main ocean, the city of New 
York, the heights of Staten Island, and a vast extent of distant moun- 
tains on the western side of the landscape.' As ' tall oaks from little 
acorfis grow,' so these exaggerated statements had their origin in the fol- 
lowing simple fact. On March .3, 178U, Andre Michaux, in his petition 
to the Legislature of this State, set forth that the king of France had 
commissioned him as the botanist to travel through the United States, 
that he had power to import from France any tree, plant, or vegetable, 
that might be wanting in this country, that he wished to establish near 
Bergen a botanical garden of about thirty acres, to experiment in agri- 
culture and gardening, and which he intended to stock witli French and 
.\niericau plants, as also plants from all over the world. The Legisla- 
ture granted his petition, and permitted him, as an alien, to hold not 
exceeding two hundred acres of land in this State. 

'"He came to this country fortified with a flattering letter of intro- 
duction, dated at Vienna, Sept. 3, 1785, from the Marquis de Lafayette to 
Washington.' — Correspondeni'e of the .■imeri^'iln Revolution, iv. 116. 'He 
was attached to the Jarden des Plants in Paris. He brought with him 
the gardener, Paul Saunier, who took the title to the ground bought for 
the garden. The place was stocked with many plants and trees, among 
which was the Lombardy poplar. From this garden this once celebrated 
tree was spread abroad through the country, and pronounced an exotic 
of priceless value.' — Old New York, 23." 

The above garden-lot was part of the common land 
of the Secaucus Patent, not partitioned with the other 
common lands of the township of Bergen, but sur- 
veyed and divided under a "Supplementary Act" in 
1785. The commissioners were Abraham Clark, Aza- 
riah Dunham, Silas Condit, John Carle, and Daniel 
Marsh. In the field-book containing the survey and 
allotment of these lands, page 6, the commissioners 
say, " We then caused an actual survey to be taken 
of the commons, after tvhich we proceeded to consider 
the claim put in by the Agent of Forfeited Estates for 
the County of Bergen to all the common lands al- 
lotted to the Patent of Secaucus as formerly claimed 
and forfeited to the State by William Bayard ; the 
same William Bayard having claimed the same as 
heir-at-law to Nicholas Bayard, one of the original 
patentees of Secaucus and survivor to Nicholas Var- 
let, the other patentee." These patentees having sold 
to Edward Earle, and the latter to Judge Pinhorne 
and others, the claim of the agent of the county was 
not sustained. Bayard, however, was a loyalist during 
the Revolution, and left the country. 

3 Historical Discourse by Rev. W. B. Van Benschoteu. 





The Dutch settlers were generally persons of deep 
religious feeling, honest and conscientious, and add- 
ing to these ([ualilies those of industry and frugality, 
they generally became ])rosper<)Us. The style of their 
buildings they doubtless brought with them from 
Holland, their fatherland. They were built with one 
story, with low ceiling, with nothing more than the 
heavy and thick boards that constituted the upper 
floor laid on monstrous broad and heavy beams, on 
which they stored tlieir grain, the loft being used for 
a granary and for the spinning of wool ; sometimes 
parts of it would be divided into sleeping apartments. 
Their fireplaces were usually very large, e.xtending 
generally without jand)s, and sufficient to accommo- 
date a whole family with a comfortable seat around 
the fire.' The chimneys were so large as to admit of 
having their meat hung up and smoked within them, 
which was their usual practice. When jambs were 
added, they were often set around with earthen glazed 
tiles imported from Holland, ornamented with Scrip- 
ture scenes, which furnished the children and others 
with amusement and instruction. Such tiled jambs 
and mantles are now seen in the old Zabriskie resi- 
dence (now the Mansion House) in Hackensack, and 
in other buildings of the more wealthy Hollanders in 
Bergen County. But they were generally the prod- 
uct of a date ranging from fifty to a hundred years 
after ihi- lirst settlements. 

Domestic and Social Habits.— Their early style of 
building corresponded well with their habits, which 
were simple, unaffected, and economical, contributing 
materially to their independence and solid comfort. 
They brought their children uj> to habits of industry. 
Almostevery son was tauglitsome mechanical art, and 
every daughter wiis re<|uired to become well acquainted 
with all knowledge necessary to housekeeping. Tlie 
farmers burnt their own lime, tanned their own 
leather, often made their own shoes and boots, and did 
much of their own carjientering, wheelwrighting, etc. 
The spinning and woolen wheels were set in motion in 

1 Onlllinrlly tlili niiK)>t l»e trtio, t'lit Ihnro worn mmift fainllif>H whielt 
wouM n«»J ft very wlilc flo'Iiliwe for thflr ac(U>nilniKlation. We tHko 
tlio follnwlng from tlia recotil of lilrtlin in llcrgrn County : 

Cupanii Csdmui 12 chllilron. 

Jorlft CaillntiH 11 " 

MaltliPiiN CoroelUe 12 " 

WllllBiii CoiilliT l:l 

Jn-.>l. i'uliliitly » " 

Wllllaiii Ihiy 7 

MUholl n.nmt 7 

JoliHiiriU l>.n.|rlrk 8 

Miiltticiiii Kvfnwi.. 11 " 

Ilov. Wni. J«'ki»m 10 •■ 

JiMinh Mwriitilower H " 

MomelK Mc.r.i-ll« U) " 

O-rrll Ni.wklrk 12 " 

AilrUii l"—l IS ■' 

Hi'lmliili lUi'lufao 10 

iVlpr sniyvn*»fil • " 

John V»ii Clliif. « 

lliilild Vnn ni<<r Srbllil 

ilclmlgli Vnn ll<iul.Mi.ll " 

1li-rrl<k Vim Hyj>i>n....1 1 " 

C^trnelniN Vnn \onit...lO " 

(niifi« wlvi-it.) 
Alirnlmni Vnn WInklr.lO 
linnilriik Vno Wlnkli'.ll 
Jacob Jih:oImo Van 

Wlnklr in 

Jorli VruhiTMl ll> 

Mklin"! Vrnlan.l U 

(Ihrrp wlvi-n ) 
Jo«4<|ih Walilrun 18 " 

(four wlTM.) 

John Wfl.h 9 " 

Mnrlln WInns IS " 

ifonr wItm.) 

proper .season, and all materials for clothing the fam- 
ily, white as well as colored, were iiu\nufactured at 
home. No female was considered a suitable candi- 
date for matrimony who could not show some stores 
of domestic linen and other evidences of industry and 
economy. So economical were the females of their 
time that they frequently took their spinning-wheels 
with them when they went to spend a social afternoon 
with a neighbor. They often hel])ed the men in the 
field in times of planting, harvesting, and in other 
busy seasons. Such a thing as a carpet waa not known 
among the rural inhabitants. The floors of their 
houses were scrubbed and scoured, and kept as clean 
as their tables, which were used without cloths. Their 
floors were -sanded with sand brought from the beach 
for that purpose and put in regular heaps on the floors, 
and becoming dry, it would be swept with a broom in 
waves, or so as to represent other beautiful figures. 
Frugality, industry, and economy characterized all 
their actions. They lived chiefly within theniselves, 
and knew but little of the dangers and diseases in- 
cident to lu.\ury and indolence. As to religion and 
education, Rev. Dr. Taylor says, " They paid early 
attention to the public worship of God, and when 
their numbers warranted they organized and estab- 
lished churches, modeled after those of the father- 
land. The Calvinistic religion of Holland was thus 
transplanted to the New Nctlierlands. The settlers 
soon sought the aid of the Dutch West India Com- 
pany in procuring ministers. Their cause on this 
behalf was furthered by the reverend clergy of the 
Cla.«sis of Amsterdam, and ministers were sent forth 
by that judicature under advice from the Synod of 
North Holland. This mode of obtaining ministers 
seems to have continued in full operation until lGt>4, 
when the British became possessed of the colony of 
New Amsterdam. 

" During this period churches were established at 
New Amsterdam (New York), .\lbany, Esopus(King9- 
ton), and Flatbush, L. I. And in KitUt, Kev. Henry 
Sclyus, in a letter addressed to the Classis of Amster- 
dam, says, " Besides me there are in New Netherland 
the Dominies ,Ioannc-s Megapolensis and Samuel 
Drisius in New .Viusterdam, (Jidcon Schajits at Fort 
Orange, and .lounnes rcillicmus at Midillewout and 
New .Vmersfort, ami llernumus Blum at the Esopus, 
— in all si.\.' 

"In 161)2 the inhabitants of Bergen taxed them- 
selves for the erection of a church, and four hundred 
and seventeen guilders were tlius raised for that pur- 
pose. I'ntil 11>G4 the religion of the Hel'ormed Dutch 
Church was the established religion of the country. 
It ceased to be such with the change which then took 
place in political affairs. Yet, at the surrender, and 
afterwards by a treaty of peace in 1(176, ' Rightii of 
conscience with regartl t<i worship and discipline were 
secured to the Dutch inhabitants.' It was, juiwevcr, 
for years the most respectable denomination in the 
colony. This period extendeil from 1664 to 161)3, 



when an act was passed by the Assembly of the 
colony of New York, whereby the Protestant Episco- 
pal Church became the religion known to the law, 
and from 1693 to 1776, besides supporting their own 
ministers, all non-Episcopal inhabitants were forced 
to contribute to the support of the Episcopal Church." 

Dr. Taylor, speaking of the character of the early 
Dutch settlers, says, " They were reluctant to form 
acquaintance with strangers, lest they should be im- 
posed upon. But when such acquaintance was formed 
and appreciated, it was not easily terminated. What- 
ever may liave been their family broils, when any 
one of the community was wrongfully involved in 
trouble, especially in litigation, they were as one man. 
When such oeciisions occurred it was no uncommon 
thing for almost all the men to resort to the county 
town, and support and encourage their assailed 

Learned Clergy. — The ministers sent out from Hol- 
land were a learned body of men, and mixing largely 
with the people, who had reverence for their learning, 
piety, and example, they exerted a very powerful in- 
fluence in moulding and shaping the early society. To 
what extent the minds of the people were enlightened 
and the ruder manners and customs modified by the 
influence of these learned clergy it is impossible to 
say, but doubtless to a very great extent. They were 
the earliest, and for a long time the only, learned and 
professional class within the limits of Bergen County, 
and, to an extent, in New Netherlands. It strikes one 
as peculiarly illustrative of the spirit of the times in 
which the country was colonized that religion, par- 
ticularly theology, was placed in the forefront in the 
early settlements. The cast of mind of the clergy 
was peculiarly theological. While the great contro- 
versies in Holland had been settled, and the decretals 
of the Reformed Church formulated by the Synod of 
Dordrecht, the discussion of these doctrines formed the 
staple at the theological schools. Ministers came with 
their minds fully imbued with them to this country, 
and here theological discussion constituted a very 
large part of the pulpit efforts of ministers. This is 
said not disparagingly, but as an illustration of the 
spirit of the times. The ministers, both in Holland 
and in this country, were full of zeal to spread the 
doctrines of the Reformed Church. The fact is 
noticed in the journal of Count Zinzendorf that in 
1742 the young minister, Jan Casparus Fryenmoet, 
late from the Classis of Amsterdam, and settled in 
Walpack, on the Delaware, sought to draw him into 
theological discussion during the interval between 
two sermons on Sunday. The count says, " to avoid 
which I went into the woods and read Josephus." 

Some of the great controversies which engaged tlie 
attention of ministers of the Reformed Church at a 
later period grew out of their relations to the Classis 
of Amsterdam, which for a long time insisted upon 
their exclusive right and privilege of ordaining 
ministers for the American churches. Another fruit- 

ful source of controversy which divided the church 
in the early part of the present century was the in- 
troduction of doctrines believed to be at variance with 
the standard of orthodoxy set up by the Reformed 
Church of Holland. These matters will be found 
alluded to more fully in the histories of the old 
church at Hackensack and Scraalenburg. 

Dutch Nomenclature. — In connection with the 
many names of Holland origin to be found in this 
work, it may be well to otter a few remarks on the 
custom of Hollanders and their descendants in this 
country with respect to nomenclature, showing the 
difliculty, not to say the impossibility, of tracing the 
genealogy of Dutch families in the absence of a com- 
plete and continuous record. Hon. Henry C. Murphy, 
United States minister at the Hague, contributed an 
able article on this subject to the Brooklyn Eagle, 
from which we quote. Speaking of the difliculties 
imposed upon the genealogist by the system of names 
adopted in Holland and continued in this country, 
Mr. Murphy remarks, — 

" Tlie first uf these, in point of time, was ptitroinjmic (fatliei-nsiine), by 
which a child took, besides his kiptisnial name, that of his father, with 
the addition of zoon or sen, meaniug son. To ilhistrate : if a cliild were 
baptized Hendiick, and the baptismal name of his father was Jan, the 
child would be called Hendrick Jansen. His son, if baptized Tennis, 
would be called Tennis Hendrickeon ; the son of the latter might be Wil- 
liam, and would have tlie name of William Teunisen. And so we might 
have the succeeding generations called successively Garret Willem-^on, 
Marten Garretson, Adrian Martensen, and so on thiough the whule cata- 
logue of Christian names ; oi-, sii more frequently happened, there would- 
be a repetition in the second, third, or fourth generation of the name of 
the first, and thus, as these names were common to the whole people, 
there was in the same community ili^erenl Hiteaijes of iileutu'ttUtj tlie same 

"This custom, which had prevailed in Holland for centuries, was in 
full vogue at the time of the settlement of New Netherland. lu writing 
the termination sen, it was frequently contracted into 5e, ~, or e. To give 
an example both of tJie patronymic and the contraction of the name : the 
father of Garret Martense, the founder of a family of that name in Klat- 
bush, L. I., was Marten .\driaense, and bis father was Adriac Ryerse, 
who came from Amsterdam. The inconveniences of this piactice, 
the confusion to which it gave rise, and the ditficulties of tracing 
families led ultimately to its abandonment, both in Holland and in this 
country. In doing so the patronymic which the person originating the 
family bore was adopted as the surname. Most of the families thus formed 
and existing among us may be sard to be of American origin, as they 
were first fixed in America, though the same names were adopted by 
others in Holland. Hence we have names of such families of Dutch de- 
scent among us as Jansen {Aiiijlice Johnson), Garretson, Cornelison, 
Simosen or Simonson, Tyson (son of Mathias), Areeend (son of Arend), 
Hanson, Lambertsen, or Lamhutson, Panli^on, Remsen, Ryerson, Everts, 
Phillips, LetTerts, and others. To trace connection between these families 
and persons would be impossible, for the reason just stated, without a 
regular record. 

"Another mode of nomenclature, intended to obviate the difliculty of 
an identity of names for the time being, but which rendered the con- 
fusion worse confounded for the future genealogist, was to add to the 
patronymic name the occupation or some other personal characteristic 
of the individual. Thus Laurens Jansen, the inventor of the art of 
printing, as the Dutch claim, had affixed to liis name that of Coster, that 
is, sexton, an olBce of which he was in the possession of the emoluments. 
But the same addition was not transmitted to his son; and thus the sou 
of Hendrick Jansen Coster might be called Tunis Hendrickson Brouwer 
(brewer), and his grandson might be Willi, im Tunison Bleeker (bleacher.) 
Upon the abandonmeut of the old system of names this custom went 
with it ; but it often happened that while one brother took the father's 
patronymic as a family name, another took that of his occupation or 
personal designation. Thus originated such families as Coster, Brouwer, 
Schoonmaker, Stryker, Schuyler, Cryger, Snediker, Hagemen, Hoffman, 



Dykeman, BlMkman, Wortniaii. and Tinman. Lika otiiora. tliey are not 
aDclcDt family nantea, aod are nut alt Ut be traced tu Uullaud as the place 
where tlu'jr tint N'^-ame flxoil. . , . 

" A third praclici*. evidently designed, like that referred tu, to ultTiate 
the confusions of thi' finit, wits to ap|>en<l the nunie of the place where 
the |>enk)n resided, not often of a lart^e city, hut of a particular limiteil 
locality, and frequently of a particular or natural object. This cust4>ui 
U denoted in all the fuiuily nanu-s which have the prefix of I'dii, Vamttr^ 
Ver (which is a cjntraction of I'uri(/er), and Ttn, meaning respectively of, 
of OiSt and lU Ihf, KruDl towns in Holland we have the faniiliet* of Van 
Cleef, Van Wyck, Van Sliaack, Van HerKen, and othen; fixiui Gelderland, 
those of Van Lindern, Van Dyk, and Van Bnren : from Utrecht, Van 
Winkle; from Friesland, Van Neas ; fruni Zeeland, Van Duyne, Some- 
tiDiea the I'liM has been dropped, as In the name (tf Boetum, of the Prov- 
ince of Friesland ; Covert, of North Ilrulrant ; Wcsti-rvelt, of Drentho ; 
Brevoortand Wessels, in Gelderland. The prefixes Vttmleror IVraudTeB 
were adopted when the name was derived from a particular spot, thus: 
Vanderreer (of the ferry >, Vanderliurg (of the hill), Vanderbilt (of the 
bildt, — i.f., of certjiin elevations, of ground in Gelderland and New Ut- 
recht), VanderU-ck (of the brook), Vandorhuffiuf the court), Vel-planck 
(of the planck). Verhullz (of the holly), Verkerk (of the church). Ten 
£yck (at the oak). Ten Droeck (at the marsh). Some were derived, as 
we hava observed, from particular farms, thus Van Cowenhuveu (cold 
farms). The founder of that family in America, Walphat Gehissen Van 
CuwenhoTen, came from .\niersft.Ktt, in the Province of Utrecht, and 
settled at what is now called Flatlands, iu Kings County, N. Y., called by 
faim New Amerefoot. 

"Some names iu the claaslflcation I have attempted have undergone a 
slight change in their transfer to America. Barculo ift from Borenlo, 
a town in Gelderland; Van Anden is frum .\ndeln, in the province of 
Groningen, Snediker should be Snediger. Bonton, if of Dutch origin, 
should be Bonten (son of Bondwign,or Baldwin), otherwise it is French. 
Van Cott 4as proljably Van Catt, of South Holland. The Catti were 
the original inhabitants of the c«mntry, and hence the name. There are 
a few names derived from relative siluations to a place, thus Voorhls is 
simply before or in front of Ilrt^, a town in Gederland ; Onderdonk Is 
bfh'ic Dunk, which is in Bml»ant. There are a few names more arbitrary, 
such as Middagh (mitlday), Conrad (cold counsel ), llagedorn (hawthorn), 
B'lgaat (orchard), Blauvolt (blue field), Rosevelt (rose field), Stuyvesant 
(•|uick sand), Wyckoff (parish court), Hoogland (high land), Durland 
(arid land), Opdyke (on the dyke), Ilasbrock (hare's marsh), and affoni 
a more ready means of identification of relationship. . . . 

"Some names are disguised in a Latin drees. The practice prevailed 
at the time of the emigration to this country of changing the names of 
those who haii gone thntugh the university and received a degree from 
plain Diitcli to sonorous Roman. The names of all our early ministers 
were thus altered. Johannes or Jan Mecklenburg became Johannes 
Blegapolensis ; F'.vert Willpmse Bogart U-canie Evoradus Iktgardus; Jan 
Doris Talheen l.»H;aine Johannes Theodoruf* I'alemus. It may be set 
down as a general rule that the Damss of Dutch fiilnilles ending iu us 
have thus lieen I«atinlzed." 




In 1708, Colst. Vetcli and Xit^liol.son olitnined the 
authority of Qui'cn Anne to tit out an expedition for 
the reduction of Canada. This autliority was accom- 
panied by a small force from Kn^hiiid, and instruc- 
tions to the several (iovernorsof the colonic.-* to a.H.Hist 
the enterprise all they coulil. t'ols. Vetch and Nichol- 
son came to America in the spring of ITIiit, with the 
promise of a licet of ships soon to follow them. In 
tliis expedition against the French it wa.s proposed to 
employ the Indians of this |)art of New Jersey under 
Col. Peter Hi'huyler. We find the fdllowing record of 
transactions at Amboy relating to this matter. "The 
Cols. Nicholson and Vetch both appearing at a coun- 

cil held at Amboy, the 30th of May, 1709, it was con- 
cluded that George Riscarricks .should be forthwith 
sent to Weequehald, the Indian sachem, to acquaint 
him that tlie Lieutenant-Governor Ingold.sbv expected 
his attendance on that board forthwith, and that Capt. 
Arent Schuyler should forthwith send for Machcou- 
tuinst, Cohcowickick, Ohtossolonoppe, Meskakow, and 
Teetee, sachems of the Minisink and Shawhona In- 
dians, who appearing soon afterwards joined in the 
undertaking; and I ngoldsby, Governor of New Jersey, 
G.Saltfliisall. Governor of Connecticut,and C. Gookin, 
Governor of Pennsylvania, jointly commissioned Col. 
Peter Schuyler, the 23d of May, 1709, to be over these 
and other Indians on this expedition ; and soon after- 
wards the said three Governors joined in a petition to 
Ni<liolson that he would take upon him the chief 
command of the expedition, after which he bore the 
name of Gen. Nicholson." 

The expedition was finally gotten up, consisting of 
thirty-six sail, one regiment of English marines, and 
tliree regiments from New England. New Jersey 
paid £3000 towards the expenses. Nova Scotia was 
captured, and ("ol. Vetch made Governor of that 
province. The design against Canada was abandoned 
on account of a change of ministry in England. 
While tliis expedition was being raised Col. Schuyler 
went to England with some of his Indians, who were 
a great curiosity, and were feted and dined by the 
queen and nobles, and receivetl many presents and at- 

Capt. Arent Schuyler and Col. Peter Schuyler were 
at this time residents of Hergen County. Capt. Schuy- 
ler was the father of the colonel, and was the sixth 
son of the celebrated Pietersen Van Schuyler, who 
came from Holland in lli50, and married Margaret 
Van Slecliteuhorst. "There are few names on the 
pages of American history around which cluster more 
of tlie associations of bravery, romance, and heroism 
than belong to those of Philip and Margaret Schuyler 
and some of their descendants." The Schuylers of 
Holland are represented lus having been wealthy mer- 
chants engaged in the West India trade. They had a 
country-seat near Dordrecht. Pieces of silver plate, 
with the family coat of arms, are yet in the possession 
ofsomeof the descendants of Philip Pietersen Schuy- 
ler. Philip is represented as a s|>iriled ytiung gentle- 
man, who defended his brother-in-law, young Van 
SIcchtenhorst, single-handed against a furious mob. 
Schuyler and Margaret were married in 1650, in the 
presence of all the dignitaries of Fort Orange, now 
Albany. Margaret wa.s twenty-two at the time of her 
marriage; she had ten children, ami survived her hus- 
band more tlian twenty-five years. .Viuong the excel- 
lent things attributed to her was that she taught lier 
sons U> treat the Indian as a brother, and never to de- 
ceive him in word or deed. On more than one occasion 
in public life she displayed a bravery amounting to 

< Smith's New Jersey, 3«<.i-M; Hutchinson's Hist. Masa., !t07. 



lieroisiu. Such was the great-grandmother of Gen. 
Philip Schuyler, the companion of the brave Mont- 
gomery, whom Washington regarded as one of "the 
main supports of the Continental army, and upon 
whose success depended the salvation of our bleeding 
country." Philip Schuyler married Kitty Van Rens- 
selaer, and wrote in the Bible, under the record of 
that marriage, " May we live in peace and to the glory 
of God." 

The precise date of the settlement of Capt Arent 
Schuyler in this county is not known. Rev. Mr. Van 
Benschoten says he lived in 1697 upon the property 
owned by the late Dr. William Colfax and W. W. 
Colfax. Smith, in his " History of New Jersey," says 
Col. Peter Schuyler was born in Bergen County. " In 
tliis county," he says, "are the Schuyler mines;" and 
again, "the Schuylers have here two large parks for 
deer." We find the names of both Arent and Peter 
Schuyler on the record of county officials in 1755. 
The following account of the discovery of the mines 
is given by a correspondent of cue of the Newark 
daily papers : 

"Arent Schuyler, thougli owning a large tract of laud and several 
slaves, was comparatively poor. About the year 1710 a negro, while 
plowing, found a stone tliat was so heavy that it excited his curiosity to 
such a degree that he carried it to hia master. It was sent to England 
to be examined, and found to contain about eighty per cent, of pure 
copper. Mr. Schuyler, wishing to reward his servant for this valuable 
discovery, gave him his freedom and told him to make three wishes, 
which should be granted. The negro's first wish waa that he might re- 
main with his master as long as be lived and have all the tobacco he 
could smoke. The second was for a dressing-gown like his master's, with 
big brass buttons. These being granted, he was at a loss to make a third 
selection. After studying for some time he scratched his head and said, 
' Well, massa, guess I take a little more tobacco 1' 

'* These mines for many years yielded abundant treasures of ore. Arent 
Schuyler was twice married. By his first marriage he had two sons, 
Philip and Casparus; by the second three sons and two daughters. Tlie 
sous were John, Peter, and Adonijah. John was employed to lake charge 
of the mines. For some time the ore was ient to Kngland for smelting. 
The first steam-engine ever brought to America was brought by John 
Schuyler to these mines. He built the house known as the old Schuyler 
mansion, on the hanks of the Passaic, below Belleville bridge. Tliis 
house was more than once visited and violated by the British during the 
Revolution." . . . 

Peter Schuyler commanded a New Jersey regiment 
in an expedition to Canada in 1746. In June, 1755, 
he was appointed colonel by Governor Belcher. He 
was appointed to command a battalion of five hun- 
dred New Jersey troops in the expedition to Crown 
Point. History tells us that his popularity was such 
that the battalion was soon filled, and more men 
offered than were wanted. Col. Schuyler and his bat- 
talion were transferred to Oswego in the summer of 
1756, and he was captured with half his men. They 
were held as prisoners for several months, and were 
released upon parole. He afterwards marched to the 
North with his regiment, and in September, 1760, he 
entered Montreal as a victor. The war with the 
French then terminated, peace being declared upon 
the surrender of Canada to the English, and confirmed 
by the treaty of 1763. Col. Schuyler died in 1762. 

Smith says of him in his history, — 

'* By the liest judges of military merit he was allowed to rank high in 
that charactei-. He had qualities b'-sides that greatly recommended him 
to his aci|uaintance, being of a frank, open behavior, of an extensive 
generosity and humanity, and unwearied ia his endeavors to accomplish 
whatever appeared of service to his country. He was taken at Oswego 
when that post was given up to the French, and long detained a prisoner 
in Canada, where, having letters of credit, ho kept open house for the 
relief of bis fellow-sufferers, and advanced large sums of money to the 
Indians in the French interest for the redemption of captives, many of 
whom be afterwards, at his own expense, maintained whilst there and 
provided for their return, trusting to their abilities and honor for repay- 
ment ; and lost considerable in that way, but seemed to ^hink it well 
bestowed. As to person, he was of a tall, hardy make, rather rough at 
first view, yet a little acquaintance discovered a bottom of sincerity, and 
that he was ready to every kind oflice in his power. In conversation he 
was above artifice or the common traffic of forms, yet seemed to enjoy 
friendship with its true relish; and in all relatiuns what he seemed to 
b« he was." — 'Mail. vii. 20. 



The Preliminary Stage of the War. — The causes 
which led to the outbreak of the war for independ- 
ence produced much the same feeling and action in 
this portion of New Jersey as were manifested simul- 
taneously throughout all the colonies, and which had 
agitated the American people for at least a decade 
before the actual conflict of arms. The acts of 
British oppression, which for many years had been 
earnestly protested against, culminated in the un- 
warranted closing of the port of Boston in the spring ' 
of 1774. From this time till the firing of the first 
gun at Concord was a period of passing resolutions 
at town and county meetings, and of appointing Com- 
mittees of Safety and Correspondence. 

Bergen County Resolutions.— At a meeting of 
the freeholders and inhabitants of Bergen County, 
held at the court-house in Hackensack on Saturday, 
the 25th day of June, 1774, Peter Zabriskie, Esq., 
chairman, the following preamble and resolutions were 
adopted : 

"Tbis meeting being deeply affected with tbe calamitous condition 
of the inhabitants of Boston, in the Province of Massachusetts Bay, in 
consequence of tlie late Act of Parliament for blocking up the port of 
Boston, and considering the alarming tendency of the Act of the British 
Parliament for the purpose of raising a revenue in America, 

" Do i?eJ!oIt'?, 1st, That they think it their greatest happiness to live 
under the government of the illustrious House of Hanover, and that 
they will steadfastly and unifonnly bear true and faithful allegiance to 
His Majesty King George the Third under the enjoyment of their con- 
stitutional rights and privileges. 

" 'h\. Tliat we conceive it to be our indubitable privilege to be taxed 
only by our own consent, given by ourselves or by our representatives; 
and that we consider the Acts of Parliament declarative of their right 
to impose internal taxes on the subjects of America as en- 
croachments on our national rights and privileges as British sut'jects, 
and as inconsistent with the idea of an .American Assembly or House of 

"3d. That we will heartiiy unite with this Colony in choosing dele- 
gates to attend at a general congress from the sevei al provinces of America 
in order to consul ton and determine some effectual method to be pursued 
for obtaining a repeal of the said Acts of Parliament, which appear to 
UB evidently calculated to destroy that mutual harmony and dependence 



between Great Britaio aod her colonlee which are the buds and taf^rt 
of iKilh. 

"And we do appoint Theunis Day, John Demareet, Peter Zabriskle, 
CorneliiiB Van Vomt, and John Zahrisklo, Jr.. l->quirvs, to be a pommit- 
tee for corrMpontiing with the cnmniittees of the otiier counties In tliin 
PrwTince. and particularly to meet witli tlie ulher county committees at 
New Bruiutwiclt, or such uther place its shall l>e afn^wd up^>n, in onler 
to elect delejfatee to attend the general coni;rees of delegates of the 
AlnericaD Coluniee fur the purpose aforeeaid." 

These resolutions were signed by three hundred and 
twenty-eight citizens of Ik-rgeu County, and a local 
Committee of Safety was organized, of which John 
Fell was chairman.' Little, however, is known of the 
operations of the committee or of local atlairs in 
Hergen County till the spring of 177fi. 

Preparations to Resist the British. — Early in 
177(1, intelligence having been received that Lord 
Howe had left Boston for New York, an attempt was 
made by Lord Stirling, then in command of the 
militia in this vicinity, to fortify the eastern border of 
the county along the Hudson and at Bergen Point, 
opposite Staten Island. The Provincial Congress, then 
in session at Burlington, — 

" Ordfred, that all ufhcers who have enlisted men, properly armed, 
under the late ordinance for raising three thoUKiind three hundred men 
iu this Colony, proceed ininie^liately with such numli«r as ttiey huve col- 
lected or can collect to New York, assigning a due prol)Ortion of officers 
to the men, that tliey may he ready, and leaving other offlcere as occa- 
sion may require to collect the remainder. All officers, (laymastera, and 
otiiers are required to be diligent in their respective stations, and all the 
friends of iil^rty througliont the Colony are most earnestly entreated 
Dow to exert themselves for the preservation of their country, their 
lives, liberties, and pniperty. 

"This (.'ongrees <lo likewise earnestly desire all persons to lend arms 
or other necessaries on the present occasion, and they may rest assured 
of the public faith to make amends for any loss or danger they may 

" Oritrrtd^ that Cornelins Van Vorst be UeuteDaDt.colonel, Richard 
I>ey, first m^Jrir, and John Martinlus Gootschius, second m%|or of the 
battalion of fool militia in the rounty of Bergen.'* 

A regiment of light-horse was raised, ami 
.Tacobus Post was appointed major. He rcsignetl his 
commission Feb. .3, 177t). 

> John Fell was a devoted patriot, tie resided at Parainus, where he 
was well acquainted with the Tory Col. Van Buskirk, before the de- 
fection of tlie latter fn>m the .\merican cause. In 1777, Judge Fell was 
arretted at his home and taken to Paulus Hook ss a prisoner, lie was 
r(H-ognl7.4>d by theTrjry c<di»nel, when the following convenuilion ensued: 

" Timea are altered since we last mot," said the colonel. 

•' So I perceive," coolly replied the Judge, looking at the coloners 

" Well, you are a prisoner, and going over to New York, where you 
will be presented to Uen. Ilol»ertson, with whom I linve the honor to lis 
acfpiainte^i. I will give yon a letter of introduction," salti the colonel. 

The Judge thankml him and accepte'l the letter, wlilcli he afterwards 
pr<*i>ente4l to (Irn. lbj|H>rts.>ti. It so liapp<>ned that the Judge and lien. 
Ri>l,ertMin bad been friends at i'ensarola after the old French war in 
170.1 The purport of Van Uusklrk's letter of intr,Hlurllon was that 
J'thn f'ett tr<u n notnriotis rthtl ami ro'c.ij .' anil ad%ised that line care 
ih.oild l,e Uken of him. Oen. ihibertson handeil the letter b> the Juilgo 
and said, " My old frientl. John Fell, you must be a very altered man 
and a very great rascal indeetl if you e<|ual this Col. Van llusklrk." 
Notwilhstandlng this nxpre«sii>n of friendship. Fell was treate<l with 
•urh severity that llie •■.puncil of Safety of New Jersey, Nov. 17, 1777, 
unlere*] J>ini(« Parker stid Waller UntherropI to lie conflned In Jail at 
Morristown until Fell and Wynant Van Zant should be discharged or 
released from cunAnelnent in Ni-w York. — .1/iiiu/rs o/ ( banci'l o/ jwi/«ty, 

Continental Congress having furnished the Pro- 
vincial Congress with two tons of powder, it was dis- 
tributed among the counties in the following order : 

Bergen Count)- 4(in lbs. Essex County 600 Iba. 

Morris " 400 " Middleeex " !SO0 " 

Hunterdon " 400 " Uonmouth " 700 " 

Somerset " 400 " Burlington " ..too " 

Lord Stirling immediately took measures to place 
Bergen in a condition of defense, and to open means 
of communication with tlie interior of the province. 
His i)lan, )>ro|iosed as early as the 18th of March, con- 
templated the construction of two good roads, — one 
friim Paulus Hook to Brown's, and the other from 
Weehawken to Hackeiisack Ferry, — and to set several 
hundred of the Bergen militia at work upon them. 
He devised forts at Paulus Hook and at Bergen Neck, 
the former to prevent approaches from the city of New 
York and the latter from Staten Island. Part of this 
comprehensive plan had been carried into eti'ect be- 
fore the arrival of Gen. Washington. The latter or- 
dered the immediate construction of the work at Pau- 
lus Hook, which was soon completed and garrisoned; 
but before the work could be constructed at Bergen 
Point the British had arrived and occupied i^tatcn 
Island. On the 29th of June the advance of .\dniiral 
Howe's fleet of forty sail appeared in sight, bearing 
the British forces under Gen. Howe ; and " in two 
days thereafter other arrivals swelled the number of 
men-of-war and transports to one hundred and thirty. 
The troops landed on 8taten Island, and the fleet (Mst 
anchor off tlie mouth of Kill von Kull.'" 

Development of Loyalty to the King.— Of course 
at this stage ol the war there were many in the vicinity 
who needed only the presence of the British army to 
stimulate and encourage their loyalty to the king. 
Such hastened in large numbers to avow their alle- 
giance, and many who had hithertn taken part with 
the patriots now looked upon the struggle of the col- 
onies as hopeless and joined the British. A number 
of these accepted commissions in the British service, 
and were the vindictive and unscrupulous leaders of 
atrociipus bands of marauding refugees, who infested 
the settlements and plundered or murdered their 
former neighbors with remorseless atrocity during a 
considerable portion of the war. In 1776 the follow- 
ing action for disarming such disaffected persons 
throughout the province was taken by Provincial 
Congress : 

" WiirBRAS, by a regulation of Uie late Congress, the several commit- 
te«« In this Colony were authurlMKl and directetl to disarni all the oon- 
asstH-iators and persons notorlnusly disalTecteii within their liounds; 
.triif leftersti', it appears that the said regulation hath not been carried 
into effect in some iwrls of the Colony; and il being aljaolntely neces- 
sary, in the pres4Mtt dangenius state of publlck affslis, when arms art* 
much wantoil for the publick defense, that it should bo instantly exe- 
cuted : It i* thfTrforr ilirfeleii iiarf rtmdvril^ That the several Colnnels in 
this Colony do, a ilhout delay, proceeii to disarm all such persons within 
tlielr dislrirts a buee religious prinriples will not allow Iheiu to liear 
arms; and likewise all such as have hitherto refuseti and still do refuse 
to bear artns; that the arms so taken be appraised tiy some Indifferent 

> WInAeld's lludaou County, I3S. 



person or persons ; that the said colonels give vouchers for the same, 
and that the appraisement and receipt be left in the hands of the persons 

Fearing an attack from Staten Island, Gen. Mercer, 
who bad been sent to Paulus Hook to receive the 
Pennsylvania militia upon their arrival at that point, 
and who had his flying camp at Bergen, was ordered 
by Washington, on the 4th of July, 177fi, to station 
a guard of five hundred men at Bergen Neck, and 
also to guard the ferries over the Hackensaok and 
Piissaic Rivers, being promised that on the next day 
an engineer should be sent over from New York to 
erect works for the security of those places.' A fort, 
afterwards named Fort De Lancey, was erected at this 
time a short distance below the present canal at Ba- 
yonne, and Gen. Wadsworth's brigade was sent over 
to Bergen, where it was joined by a battalion of 
Jersey troops. 

Among the precautions taken before the arrival of 
the British, as early as Feb. 3, 1776, was the removal 
of the records from Perth Amboy to Burlington for 
safe-keeping. John Demarest, of Bergen County, 
was the agent for their removal, as appears from the 
following minute of Provincial Congress, under the 
date above mentioned : 

" Ordered, That Mr. Demarest do attend the papers, books, and records 
removed from tlie secretar.v's at Perth Amboy, and deliver the same to 
Charles Pettit, Esq., on Thursday next at Burlington ; on delivery thereof 
he is hereby authorized to take Blr. Pettit's receipt, agreeably to an order 
of this Congress." 

Still the British did not attack that portion of New 
Jersey, as they easily could have done with the force 
at their command in the immediate vicinity. It is 
estimated that at the time Gen. Mercer anticipated 
their crossing the Kills they were at least eight thou- 
sand strong on Staten Island ; and yet they showed 
no disposition to cross, although menaced by inferior 
numbers on the Jersey side. Gen. Mercer, therefore, 
formed a plan for attacking them upon the island, 
which, though well conceived and prepared for, mis- 
carried on account of bad weather, which prevented 
his forces from crossing the Kill von Kull. 

On July 17, 1776, the committee of Newark pre- 
.sented a petition to Provincial Congress, requesting 
that this Congress would procure, or cause to be built, 
four gondolas or row-galleys, mounted with cannon, 
to ply between the mouths of Passaic and Hackensack 
Rivers and Perth Amboy. Robert Drummond and 
Lewis Ogden, of Essex ; Jacob Quackenbush and 
Daniel I. Brown, of Bergen ; and Dr. Moses Bloom- 
field, of Middlesex, were appointed a committee to 
consider the propriety of granting the petition. The 
matter was referred to Continental Congress, through 
Mr. Ogden, but was not acted upon in season to meet 
the exigency. 

Active Movements Begun. — Meantime the en- 
emy's forces had been augmented by arrivals, until, 

1 Ameiicaa Archives, vi. 1263. 

in the harbor of New York and upon Staten Island, 
they numbered thirty thousand men.''' The bay and 
river were alive with their vessels. As two of the 
British men-of-war — the " Phu'nix," of forty guns, 
and the " Rose," carrying twenty guns — swept up the 
harbor on the afternoon of the 12th of July, taking 
advantage of both wind and tide, the first fire of pa- 
triot guns was opened upon them from the sand-hills 
of Paulus Hook, and was returned by a broadside as 
the vessels glided by the fort comparatively unharmed, 
their sides being protected by a wall of sand-bags. 
" On the same evening Lord Howe sailed up the har- 
bor, greeted by the booming of cannon and the huzzas 
of the British." ■' 

On the 15th of September the British captured New 
York. The only incident connected with Bergen 
County on that day was another attack upon the 
post at Paulus Hook by the British ships-of-war, the 
" Roebuck," " Phwnix," and " Factor." The garrison, 
however, was not surrendered, but remained in the 
possession of the Americans for a short time under 
command of Col. Durkie.* " During this time 
ington would occasionally leave his camp at Har- 
laem, cross over to the Jersey shore, and, in company 
with Gen. Greene, who had succeeded Gen. Mercer 
in command on the Jersey shore, reconnoitre, some- 
times as far down as Paulus Hook, to observe what 
was going on in the city and among the shipping." ^ 
The account of the capture of Paulus Hook is fur- 
nished by the following report of Gen. Greene, writ- 
ten from Fort Constitution, afterwards called Fort 
Lee : 

'*Camp Fort CoNSTiTtJTioN, 
" Sept. 2i, 1776. 
" Deab SlK, — The enemy are landed at Powley's Hook ; they came up 
this afternoon and began a cannonade on the batteries, and after can- 
nonading for half an hour or a little more they landed a parly from the 
ships. Gen. Mercer had ordered otf from the Hook all the troops except 
a small guard, who had orders to evacuate the place from the first ap- 
proach of the enemy. Gen. Mercer mentions no troops but those landed 
from the ships, but Col. Bull and many others that were along the 
river upon the heights saw twenty boats go over from York to Powley'a 
Hook. This movement must have happened since Gen. Mercer wrote. 
I purpose to visit Bergen to-night, as Gen. Mercer thinks of going to his 
post at Amboy to-niorrow."^ 

In a later letter it is stated that " nothing fell into 
the enemy's hands but the guns, which had been ren- 
dered unfit for further service. Our army is posted at 
the town of Bergen, and our advanced party has pos- 
session of the mill just back of Powle's Hook."' 

Bergen remained headquarters until the 5th of Oc- 
tober, 1776, when Washington found it necessary to 
collect his forces preparatory to his retreat to the 
Delaware. A letter written on the 4th of October, 
says: " To-morrow we evacuate Bergen," and assigns 
the following reason for the act : 

- Irving's Washington, ii. 300. 
3 Hist. Hudson County, 142. 

* Valentine's Manual, 1866. 

» Irving's Washitigton, ii. 367. 

* American Archives, 5th Series, ii. 494. 

7 Jacob Rion's mill, near the Point of Rocks. — Wiufield. 



" Bergen is a iiorruw neck of laud turcfuwililp on threi' »ldee by water, 
and e.t{t4i6ed tu a rariety uf atlackn in difTorviit iditces at on? and the 
pame lime. A large bodv of the enemy Diiglil infallibly take pojsseeniim 
of the place wlienerer they pleaded, unlet« we kept aittronger force than 
our nunibera will allow. The sjk)! itnelf f« nut an ohjei-t of our arms : 
If they attack it would but cut off thoHe who defendml it and secure the 
grain ami military dtores. The(*e Imve l>t'fn removed, and when we are 
gone rt naked (tp^il is all thoy will find. . . . We k*> to Fort Constltntioii 
an wton H» we have seen the trooim marched off. We shall leave a guard 
of ubflervation bfhind un: this may prevent the enemy's diacoTering our 
removal for a day or two." ' 

It appears from the authority above quoted that as 
outjruartls Gen. Greene had posted at Bergen, Hoe- 
buck, Bull's Ferry, Hackensack, and opposite Spyt- 
den-Duivel one hundred and sixty-eight officers and 

When Fort Lee was evacuated on the 2iith of N(»- 
vember, 177<J, the army retreated to Jlackensack and 
thence to the Dehiware. East Jersey w:us left to the 
enemy. They stationed a considerable body of troops 
at Paulus Hook, and strengthening the post, placed 
it in command of Ivieut.-Col. Van Buskirk, of Saddle 
River, wlio had joined the British. Tlie fort, also, on 
Bergen Neck, was occupied, principally by '* refu- 
gees/' and was named Fort De Lancey in honor of 
Oliver De Lancey, of Westchester, a noted adherent 
to the British cause. 

The following account of the evacuation of Fort 
Lee was written by Thomas Paine, author of "The 
American Crisis:" 

"As I was with the troop« at Fort Lee, and miirrhed with them t" Ihe 
edge of Pennnylvauiu, 1 nm well ac<iuainted with many circumstance.-^ 
which those who lived at a distance knew little or nothing of. Our situ* 
tttion there was exceedingly cnimpud, the place being on a narrrow neck 
of land between the North Klvpr and Ilackensnck. Our force was incon- 
siderable, being not one-fourlh as groiit an Ilcjwe conhl brinp against iis. 
Wu liad nu anny at hand to have relieved the garrisitii had we shut oiir- 
•elvee upaiid stood on the defense. Our ammunition, light artillery, iind 
tlie beet pari of our stores had been removed n|K>n the apprehension that 
Huwo would endcovor to penetrate the Jerseys, in which case Fort Lee 
could be of no use to us, for it ninsi iM^rur lo every thinking man, whether 
in the nrniy or not, that these kind of fluid-forts aie only for teui|H)niry 
purjMMies, and Inat in use no longer than the enemy directs his force 
against the particular object which forts are raised to defend. 

"Such was our situAtlon and condition at Fort I.eo on the morning of 
the 20th uf NovemU'r, when an officer arrived with information that the 
vnemy, with two hundred boats, hud landed about seven or eight miles 
ftbove. Mi^.-Oen. Greene, who commanded the garrison, immediately 
ordore4l them under armtt, and sent an exprens to Ilia Kxcellencv Oen. 
WaahinKton, at the town of lluckensaik, diKtant by the May of the ferry 
ilx mile*. Our flntt obJe<.'t was lo si'ciire the bridge uvi*r the Ilackrnwtck, 
which laid up the river, l>etween the enemy and nf,— itlxiut six miles from 
ns and three from them. Gen. Washington arrived In about three-tpmr- 
tors of an hour, and marched at the head of hit troo))* towards the bridge, 
At which place I expecti>d we should have a brnsh. However, they did 
Dot cliooee to dispute It with us, and the greatest |>art of our tn>o|iit want 
over the bridge, the re«t 4iv«>r Ihe ferr}', except some wbirh p>is«ed at a 
mill on a small creek bi>tween Ihe bridge and the ferry, and mmie their 
way thnpugh some marshy ground up to the town of llackensack, and 
theri' p-imrd llii< river. Wp brunght off as ntiirh l>uggage as the wagons 
could rontnln, the rent was lost. The simple object wan to bring off the 
gsrrlson and to rnarrh them on until they could l>e stn'iigthenetl by the 
Pennsylvania or Jvmry militia, mi aa to be enaldtxl to make a stand. We 
■t*ye*l four days at Newi«rk, collected In our onl|MMtfl, with some of the 
Jtnny militia, and marchei) out twice to meet the enemy nn informailon 
of their being ailvanclng, thi>ugli our numl)er« were greatly Inferior to 

> Am. Arch., &lh S«>rii-s, 11. HtiT. 

I The above account is very accurate in the main, 
though it contains one expression calculated to mis- 
lead the reader. In speaking of the few troops who 
did not cross the river with tlie main body, the writer 
says they " made their way through some marshy 
ground up to the town of Hackensack, and there 
pa-ssed the river." It should have been down to the 
town, for they crossed at Old Bridge, about four miles 

Washington in Hackensack.— Washington en- 
tered Hackensack with about three thousand men, 
having sent forward his baggiige to Acquackmonck, 
Ad eye-witness hs^ given the following statement: 

'* It was about dusk when the head of Ihe tn^ops entered Hackensack. 
The night wmk <lark, cold, and rainy, but I had a fair view of them from 
the light of the windows lut they paased ou our bide of the Btreet." They 
marched two alirfiist, Ioi>ked rHj;tH'<l, s<.)nif without a whoe lo their feet, 
and mot^t of them wrapped up in their blankcUt. M'nshiiigton then, and 
for Some time previuuH, bad his headquarters at the residence of Mr. 
Peter Zabriski**, a private hoube, now called ' The Mansion Houae,' the 
supplies (or the general's tJkble being furnished by Mr. Archibald Camp' 
bell, the tavern-keeper. The next evening after the Americans had 
pasiteil through the British encamped on the oppt^ieite side of the river. 
We could see their flres, about one hundred yards ajiart, gleaming bril- 
liantly ill the glmmi of night, extending some diplance Udow the town 
and more than a niih> up towanlh NVw Bridge. Washington was still at 
his <|uarteiit, and had with hiui liiH suite, life-guard, a Lomimny uf ftkot, a 
regiment of cavalry, and some soldient from Ihe rear of the army. Id 
the morning, l»efore tin* general left, he nxie down to the dock, where 
the biidge now is, viewed the enemy')* encampment about ten or fifleen 
minute«, and then returned to Mr. fanipbetl's door and calle«l for 8f>m« 
wine and water. After he had drank, and Mr. Tampbell had taken the 
glass from him, the latter, with tearv ntrcaDiing down his face, said, 
'General, what shall I t|u '! I Uuw a family of small childien and a little 
pro()erty here; shall I leave tliem ?' Washington kindly took hia hand* 
and replie<l, ' Mr. Campbell, stay by your family and ktep neutrat ;* then 

j bidding him good-by, rode off. 

I "About noon the next day the British took posMwIoD of the town, 
and ill the aft«-rnoon the green was covered with Heasians, a horrid, 
frightful sight to the inhabitanlD. There were tN>tween three and four 
thoiutand, with their whiskers, brass ca|«, and ketUes or liaas drums. 
A part of theae troojis were taken prisoners two months after at Tren- 

j ton."* 

' Although this Hritisli force which had crossed the 
Hudson followed the retreat of the Americans to the 
Delaware, it was not hmg before «)lher bodie-s of the 

\ enemy visited the village. " In December, 1776, it 
was reported that there were at Harkensiick about one 

, thousand of the enemy, and the siiggeMion of Hunt- 
ington to Maj.-Gen. Heath was to intercept them in 
their foragings. The latter on the 14th expressed his 
purpose to sweep the village, which he did the next 
day. Making a forced march l»y the way (if Tappan, 
became upon the inliabitants by surprise ; but the 
enemy had left. He says, *'The enemy ha<l left the 
town some days since, except five, whom we took, 
two of them being sick. We have taken about fifty 
of the disaffected, and about fifty or sixty muskets, 
the greater part of which had been taken from the 
Whigs, it is stipposed. and sl4)red. At the dock we 
found oneslo<»p loaded with hay, house-furniture, and 
some spirits, etc., which we have this day unloaded. 

* There were ftbout thre« tliouaand m«D. 

I Hlstorlciil ftddma bj Bar. Thvodore D. Romeyn. 



etc. A brig, loaded, ran down the river about seven 
miles and grounded. I am afraid we shall not be able 
to secure the effects. A schooner loaded with hay, 
furniture, etc., which had sailed from the dock, ran 
on the bank of the river, the wind being very fresh, 
and in the night overset, by which the goods are dam- 
aged, if not lost. Two or three companies have been 
raising here and in the vicinity, and field-officers ap- 
pointed; one Van Buskirk, colonel. At hi.s house 
we found fifty barrels of flour, a number of hog.s- 
heads of rum, and at one Brown's, who is lieutenant- 
colonel, about one thousand pounds of cheese. One 
Tenpenny is major. They are all gone to New York 
to have matters properly settled, get ammunition, 
arms, etc., and were to have returned yesterday. I 
believe we have luckily disconcerted them. Such in- 
habitants as are friendly received us with joy, but are 
almost afraid to speak their sentiments, and, indeed, 
little or no intelligence can be got from the inhabit- 
ants," etc' 

Mr. Romeyn says, " The brigantine which grounded 
just below the village was subsequently boarded, but 
was retaken by the enemy. Among other articles taken 
from her was a large chest of plate, said to belong to 
a Mr. Yates, but it had been put iu his possession for 
safety at Hackensack by Mr. William Wallace. -It 
was worth about fifteen hundred pounds."^ 


LUTION— (Continued). 

Exploit of Col. Aaron Burr. — It was during one 
of those raids of the British and Tories in the vicinity 
of Hackensack, in September, 1777, that Col. Aaron 
Burr gained his first military distinction. Hearing, 
at the point where his regiment was lying (in the 
Clove, near Suftren's), that the British had marched 
out of New York and were devastating the country, 
and were within thirty miles of him, he started to 
meet them with his small force. About ten o'clock in 
the evening, when within three miles of Hackensack, 
he received certain information that the most ad- 
vanced of the enemy's pickets were only a mile dis- 
tant. His men having marched thirty miles since 
breaking camp, and being extremely fatigued, he or- 
dered them to lie down and keep silent until he re- 
turned. In a few moments they were all asleep. 
Meanwhile Col. Burr went forward alone to recon- 
noitre. Stealthily he felt his way towards the picket, 
and found them lying on the ground guarded by two 
sentinels. He was near enough to hear their watch- 
word. He ascertained by making a wide detour that 
this picket was so far in advance of the main body as 

1 American Archives, iii. 123-4. 
- Konie.vo'd Histurical Discounte. 

to be out of hearing. In gaining this information so 
much time was spent that it was within an hour of 
daybreak before he returned to his regiment. Quietly 
and quickly waking his men, he informed them of his 
purpose to attack the enemy's picket, and ordered 
them to follow at a certain distance, and forbade any 
man to speak on pain of instant death. So accu- 
rately had the colonel noted the locality and calcu- 
lated the position of the sentinels that he was able to 
lead his men between those two unsuspecting individ- 
uals at the moment when they were farthest apart, 
and he was almost upon the sleeping picket before 
a man of it began to stir. When at a distance 
of ten yards Burr was challenged by a sentinel, 
whom he immediately shot dead, and then gave 
the word of attack. One officer, a sergeant, a cor- 
poral, and twenty-seven privates fell into their hands 
on this occasion. Only one of the pickets be- 
sides the sentinel made any resistance, and he was 
overpowered after he had received two bayonet- 
wounds. He attempted to march away with his 
comrades, but after going a short distance was com- 
pelled to lie down exhausted and fainting from loss 
of blood. 

" ' Go a little further, my good fellow,' said Burr, 
' and we will get a surgeon for you.' ' Ah,' gasped 
the dying veteran, ' all the doctors in America can do 
me no service, for I am a dying man ; but it grieves 
me sore to the heart that I have served my king up- 
wards of twenty years, and at length must die with a 
charged musket in my hand.' " ' , 

Col. Burr immediately sent off an express to Para- 
mus to order all the troops to move, and to rally the 
country. His exploit had so encouraged the inhab- 
itants that they turned out with great alacrity and 
put themselves under his command. But the enemy, 
probably alarmed by these threatening appearances, 
retreated the next day, leaving behind them the 
greater part of the plunder which they had taken.* 

Clinton's Raid. — In September, 1777, Sir Henry 
Clinton, then in command at New York, planned a 
raid into New Jersey. He divided his force into four 
columns. The general point of rendezvous was the 
New Bridge, above Hackensack. One column, under 
Gen. Campbell, entered New Jersey by the way of 
Elizabethtown ; one, under Capt. Drummond, by way 
of Schuyler's Ferry ; one, under Gen. Vaughn, by 
way of Fort Lee, and the other, under Lieut.-Col. 
Campbell, by way of Tappan. On the 12th the ex- 
pedition set out. Clinton himself followed, passing 
up Newark Bay to Schuyler's Landing, on the Hack- 
ensack (Dow's Ferry). From this point he marched 
over the Belleville turnpike to Schuyler's house, where 
he found Capt. Drummond with two hundred and 
fifty men. During the night Gen. Campbell arrived 
with his detachment and the cattle he had collected 
en route. The different columns met as designed on 

3 Ronieyu, from Partoii'6 Life of Aaruii Burr, 101. 
< New Jeraej- Hist. Col., 84. 



the 15th. On the following day Gen. Campbell j 
inarched his force from English Neighborhood to 
Bergen Point, whence he passed over to Staten Island. 
The result of the raid was the capture of four hundred 
cattle, four hundred sheep, and a few horses, taken 
from the people of Essex and Hergen. In exchange, 
they had eight men killed, eighteen wounded, ten ^ 
missing, and five taken prisoners. 

As an offset to this raid, we find the following ac- 
count of an expedition by the ()|>pnsite |)arty over the 
same ground : 

" A party of rebel light-horse came down as far as 
Bergen Point last Tuesday night (July 28th), and re- 
turned next morning towards Hackensack. They 
visited Hoebuck on their way and carried off a great 
number of cattle from the inhabitants.'" 

The following interesting item is taken from 
Sinythe's Diary, quoted by Winfield : 

"Tbii afternoon a party of our liorse brought tu two roliel privates 
from PowIo'b Hook. One of tln^ni in very intelligent and communicative, 
but the other in tlie nioitt wbiniitical tony 1 ever have Been. Wherever 
,be goes he carries with liini a birge gniy cat, which lie says came into 
the reliel camp on the nit;ht after the tiattle of Freeliolil Meeting-House, 
and wtiich he first discovered liipping a sjiot of dry blood on Iiis sleeve as 
he lay on his arms expecting another dash at the British. His affection 
for the <:at is wonderful, hs her's In for bin), fur they are insejmrable. He 
iaye if we don't alb>w lilni extni rations for bis cat lie shall be obliged to 
allow tbt-ni out of hi.^ own.*' 

Maj. Lee's Gallant Attempt to Capture Paulus 
Hook. — The post at Paulus Hook was held with great 
tenacity by the British, and is said to have been for 
gome time the only post held by them in New Jersey.' 
It was a convenient and safe |)oiiit at which they could 
land their troops for incursions in various directions. 
Here, on the night of Feb. 24, 177'.t, landed portions 
of the Thirty-third and Tliirty-fourtli Heginients of 
British, under Lieut.-Col. Sterling, on their way to 
attempt the capture of Governor Livingston at Eliza- 
bethtown. They marched across the hill to Brown's 
Ferry, whence they were taken in boats sent from 
New York for that |iurpose around by the Kill von 
Kull.' The i>apers of this i)eriod record many raids 
made from this point in various directions by the 
British and Tories. 

The most interesting episode in this portion of our ' 
history is the attempt to capture the fort at Paulus 
Hook by Maj. Henry Lee. This gallant aiitl dash- 
ing ollicer, who had frequently been employed by 
Washington as a scout along the west bank of the 
Hudson, had discovered that the British fort at Pju- , 
lus Hook, although a strtmg place, was negligently 
guarded, and he conceived the idea of its capture by ' 
a night march and a sudden surprise. Not that it 
was ileeme<l practical to hold the position in face of 
the British forces in New V()rk, but the brilliant 
exploit would "give Iclat to tho Continental arms." 
Washington at first looked upon the project with 
disfavor, but liiially yieliled and gave orders for an 

1 New Vork M-^r«rf, Aug. :i, I""". 
• New Jen»y OotUr, Oct. 2S, 1778. 
> llatn«bl> IIMory of EllialM-lh. 

immediate preparation. Lee moved from his encamp- 
ment at New Bridge about four o'clock in the after- 
noon of Aug. IS, 1779. following what is known as 
the lower road which intersects the present Hacken- 
sack road, near the English Neighborhood church, 
having taken the precaution to .send forward boats in 
charge of Capt. Peyton, with instructions to have 
them at Dow's Ferry at a certain hour of the night, 
for the purpose of taking his troops over the Hack- 
ensack ; he also detached i)atrols of horse to watch 
the communications with North Uiver, and postfcd 
Lord Stirling at New Bridge to cover his retreat, if 
necessary. The whole movement was conducted with 
such secrecy that they arrived at the fort without 
being discovered, notwithstanding the fact that, on 
account of the ignorance or the treachery of their 
guide, they were compelled to wander three hours in 
the woods between Union Hill and the fort, and the 
still more remarkable fact that they were in danger 
of encountering Col. Van Buskirk, who had left the 
fort at Paulus Hook about the time that Maj. Lee 
■started, with a force of one hundred and thirty men 
on a raid to the English Neighborhood. That these 
two forces, one of them at least straggling and floun- 
dering upon a misdirected course through the wilder- 
ness and in the darkness of night, should entirely 
escape each other seems incredible. But such is 
the well-attested fact. Perhaps their getting lost 
and marching out of the direct course may have been 
the very means of their escape. Be this as it may, 
"Maj. Lee reached Prior's Mill at three o'clock on 
the morning of the l!Hh. The day was nejir at hand, 
and the tide that would fill the ditch and overflow 
the road between Warren and (irove Streets (Jersey 
City) was rising. Not a moment was to be lost. The 
punctilios of rank and honor were discarded, and 
the troops ordered to advance in the order which they 
then held. Lieut. Rudolph, who had been sent for- 
ward to reconnoitre the passage of the ditch, now 
reported to Maj. Lee that all was silent within the 
works, that he had fathomed the canal and found the 
|)assage possible. This intelligence was pa.ssed along 
the line, and the troops pushed forward with resolu- 
tion, order, and coolness. Lieuts. McCallister and 
Budolph led the forlorn hope, who marched with 
trailed arms in silence. They reached the ditch at 
the intersection of Newark ,\venne and Warren 
Street at half-past three o'clock on Thursday morn- 
ing. The guards were either asleep or took the ap- 
jiroaching force to beCol.Van Buskirk's men returning 
from their raid. They were not undeceived until the 
advance had |iliinge<l into the ditch. Immediately a 
firing began. The block-house guards ran out to see 
what was the matter, and were seized. The forlorn 
hope, supported by Maj. Clarke, broke through all 
opposition, and soon became masters of the main 
work, with the cannon, etc. So rapid were they in 
their movements that the fort was gained before a 
piece of artillery was fired. The troops came pouring 



through the abatis, and in a few minutes were victo- 
rious. Unfortunately, in crossing the ditch the am- 
munition was destroyed, and thus their firearms were 
useless. As soon as Maj. Southerland, then in com- 
mand of the fort, comprehended the situation, he 
threw himself into a small redoubt, with a captain, 
subaltern, and forty Hessians. Maj. Lee had no time 
to dislodge him or to remove or destroy property. 
Daylight was at hand, and he had some anxiety 
about the boats at Dow's Ferry. Besides this, the 
firing had aroused the British in New York, who 
could in a few minutes throw a large body of troops 
across the ndver. He therefore ordered an immediate 
retreat, and sent Capt. Forsyth to Prior's Mill to col- 
lect such men as were most fit for the action and take 
a position on Bergen Heights to cover the retreat. 
Maj. Clarke was in the advance with most of the pris- 
oners ; Lieuts. Armstrong and Reed formed the rear- 
guard. Lee now rode forward to look after the boats 
at the ferry. To his dismay not a boat was there to 
receive them. Capt. Peyton, owing to the lateness of 
the hour, had removed them to Newark. Lee imme- 
diately countermarched his troops to the Bergen road 
en route for New Bridge, communicated with Lord 
Stirling, and returned to the rear-guard at Prior's 
Mill. His prospects were now discouraging. With 
troops worn down, ammunition destroyed, encum- 
bered with prisoners, fourteen miles of retreat before 
him on a route liable to be intercepted by troops from 
New York, with no way of escape to the left, he could 
only depend upon the invincible courage of his men. 
On reaching the heights opposite ' Weehock,' Capt. 
Handy moved on the main road to facilitate the re- 
treat. Here Capt. Catlett came up with fifty men 
and good ammunition. One party was then detached 
in the rear of Maj. Clarke on the Bergen road, and 
one to move along the bank of the river. In this 
manner a sudden attack was prevented. At the Fort 
Lee road Col. Ball, who had been forwarded to Lee's 
assistance, met him with two hundred fresh men. 
Shortly afterwards a body of the enemy appeared 
upon the right and opened fire on the retreating Amer- 
icans. Lieut. Reed immediately forced them, and 
Lieut. Rudolph threw himself into a store-house 
which commanded the road. This disposition checked 
the enemy and gave the force time to cross the Eng- 
lish Neighborhood creek at the Liberty pole, now 
Englewood. Jus.t at that moment Maj. Southerland, 
who had followed Lee, came up, but halted, and 
finally fell back without venturing an attack. Maj. 
Lee arrived safely at New Bridge about one o'clock 
in the afternoon. He had captured one hundred 
and fifty-nine of the garrison, including officers, and 
lost two killed and three wounded." 

The report of this enterprise by Maj. Lee cannot 
be here quoted in full, but we cannot forbear to men- 
tion one item in it very creditable to his humanity 
and magnanimity as a soldier. " I intended," he 
says, " to have burnt the barracks ; but on finding a 

number of sick soldiers and women with young chil- 
dren in them, humanity forbade the execution of my 

This exploit of Maj. Lee was regarded with great 
admiration. Washington, in a letter to Congress, said, 
" The Major displayed a remarkable degree of pru- 
dence, address, and bravery upon this occasion, which 
does the highest honor to himself and to all the officers 
and men under his command. The situation of the 
fort rendered the attempt critical and the success 

James Duane, afterwards mayor of New York, 
wrote to Alexander Hamilton, Sept. 10, 1779, — 

"One of the most daring and InBolent assaults tliat is to be found In 
the records of cliivalry, — an achievement so brilliant in itself, eo roman- 
tic in the scale of British admiration, that none but a hero, inspired by 
the fortitude, instructed by the wisdom, and guided by the planet of 
Washington could, by the exploit at Panlus Hook, have furnished mate- 
rials in the page of history to give it a parallel."' 

The principal actors concerned in the afl^air were 
honored by congratulatory resolutions passed by Con- 
gress, Sept. 24, 1779 : 

" i^eso^Jed. That the thanks of Congress be given to his Excellency 
Geu. Washington for ordering, with so much wisdom, the late attack on 
the enemy's fort at Powles Hook. 

" Betolved, That the thanks of Congress be given to MaJ.-Gen. Lord 
Stirling for the judicious measures taken hy him to forward the enter- 
prise and to secure the retreat of the party. 

" Resolved, That the thanks of Congress be given to Maj. Lee for the 
remarkable prudence, address, and bravery displayed by him on the 
occasion; and that they approve the humanity shown in circumstances 
prompting to severity as honorable to t!ie arms of the United States, and 
correspondent to the noble principles on which they were assumed, 

" liefoh-ed, That Congress entertain a high sense of the discipline, for- 
titude, and spiiit manifested by the officers and soldiers under the com- 
mand of Maj. Lee in the march, action, and retreat; and while with 
singular satisfaction they acknowledge the merits of these gallant men, 
I hey feel an additional pleasure by considering them as part of an army 
in which very many brave officers and soldiers have proved, by their 
cheerful perforinance of every duty under every difficulty, that ttiey 
ardently wish to give the truly glorious examples they now receive. 

" liesiih'eil. That Congress justly esteem the military caution, so happily 
combined with tlaring activity by Lieuts. McCallister and Rudolph in 
leading on the forlorn hope. 

"Ilau'h-ed, That a medal of gold, emblematical of this affair, be struck 
under the direction of the Board ot Treasury and presented to Blaj. Lee. 

" lleKi'lred, That the brevet and the pay an'l subsistence of captain be 
given to Lieut. McCallister and Lieut. Rudolph respectively." - 

Congress also placed in the hands of Maj. Lee fif- 
teen thousand dollars to be distributed among the 
soldiers engaged in the attack. 

Gen. Poor's Death.— In September, 1780, the Amer- 
ican army lay at Kiuderhamack, in what is now Wash- 
ington township, Bergen Co. While here, on the 8th 
of September, occurred the death of Brig.-Gen. Enoch 
Poor. A military journal of the next day says, — 

" We are now lamenting the loss of Brig.-Gen, Poor, who died last night 
of putrid fever. His funeral solemnities have been attended this after- 
noon. The corpse was brought this morning from Paramus, and left at 
a house about a mile from the burying-yard at Hackensack, whence it 
WHS attended to the place of interment by the following procession; A 
regiment of light infaDtry in uniform, with arms reversed; four field- 

1 Hamilton's Works, i. 80, 87, cited by Winlield, 161. 
- itournal of Congress, v. 368. 



piecM; U((J. Lt>p*e rogiment of Itglit-hono; Oeii. Hnnd und his brigade; 
the major on horseback; two clmplainii ; the hone of tbo deceased 
with hilt botttj) and Dpiint siispended from the Middle, led by a Herraiit ; 
the corpse, l>orne by four sergeants, and the ]>ull HUpiHjrted by six gen- 
eral offlcers. The coffin wiih of mahogany, and a puir of pistols and 
two BWonlit cniSfing each othir were placed on the top. The cort^o 
was full. .wed by thu ufflcers of the New Hampshire brigade of light in- 
fantry which the di'cea*ed bad lately coQininnd'-il. fHher ufflcen* fell in 
proDiit«cuouiily, and w«re followed by his Kxctdlenry Oeii. Wjuliinktuii 
and other general ofticers. Having nrrived at the burying-yard, the 
troops opened tu the right and left, resting on their arms reversed, and 
the procession passed tu tlie grave, where n short eulogy was delirereil by 
the Rot. Mr. Kvnns. A band of niuttic, with a number of drums and 
fifes, played a funeral dirge; the drums were mutHed with black cnip*, 
and the olDcors iu the procession wore cnipe round the left arm. The 
regiment of light Infantry were In )i»ndHonie uniform, and wore in their 
caps long feathers uf black and red. The elegant regiment of horse cmi- 
miindeil by Miij. Lee, in complete uniTorm and widl diMriplined, exhibited 
a martial and iiuble appearance." * 

Gen. Pof)r's ri'iiuiins were interred in tlie buryinp- 
isrround of the old Kel'ormed Duteh Chnrrli. in Haek- 
ensack, where the following inscription will he found 
upon his tablet : 

"In memory of the Hon. Brig.-Gen. Enoch P.Kir, of the Stale of New 
Hampshire, who departed tliis life on the Sth day of Septeml»er, ITSii, 
aged 44 years." 

Washington, Lafayette, and a portion of the Amer- 
ican army attended the funeral of Gen. Poor. In 
1824 Lafayette revisited this grave, and turning uway 
much affected, exclaimed, " Aii ! that was one of my 

Brig.-Gen. Enoch l*oor was a native of New Hamp- 
shire. He was a colonel in the Continental army in 
the expedition against Canada in 1776, where he 
served with distinction. He was afterwards at Crown 
Point, and was one of the twenty-one inferior officers 
who signed a remonstrance against the decision of a 
council of olHcers there consisting of Gens. Gates, 
Schuyler, Sullivan, Arnold, and Woedtke, when it 
was resolved that the post was untenable, and that 
the army should retire to Fort Independence. He 
was appointed brigadier-general in 1777. He was 
in camp at Valley Forge and at the battle of Mon- 

Raid of Hessians and Refugees.— The Historical 
Collections of New Jersey contains the following: 

"In the latter jmrt of March, 1780, a party of aUmt four hundred 
Hrldah IIe<w|iiiiit nnd refug(M>s passed thp>ugh lluckensack on their way 
to attack ftume IVniiiylvanla Inniiw at rantmus. It wim at>ou( tliree 
oVIock In the night wh^n they entered the |.»wer jMirl of the town. All 
was qxilvX. A sniittl cumpaiiy of twenty or thirty miUilii, under Cupt. 
John Untwater, had retired for the night Ui the Imrrucks, barns, and 
outhouses, where tho*H< filendly to (he American ctiuiH* generally resorted 
to rest. Uno-hair of the enemy marchwl riulutly thntugh. When the 
rear, con^iflttng mostly of Ht-Mslans, arrlve<l they broke open the d.wrs 
and window*, rubl>«d and plundered, and tiMik priiHineni a few peacenble 
inhabitants, among wlioni was Mr. Archibald Campltell. Thli* gentle- ' 
man, who had l»ern for several week-* conflned to his l»e«l with the rheu- 
matism, they fon o<l Into I|m' fltr«>et iiml con)|>elled to follow them. Often 
In Iheir rear, Ihey tlirealen*>d t.. nh<r.)t him if hu did not haitten his |mco. 
In the Hulmetiuent confmiion he owbik^I and hbl In the cellar of a hoime 
opiNMile thf New Itridge. He IIto<I until I7HM, .m.l ntrer ej-yrrirnrr<l n 
rtlum 0/ ihe rhfumnlum 

"The HtwtUuii burnt two dwelllngi and tha cimrt-house. Th«> hitler 

1 Thnlrher's Jonrnnl. I'l i. 

' Muors's Illary of tli<< Kvrtdniluh, fjuuled by Romeyn. 

stood on the west side of the green,' eight or ten rods from Campbell'i 
tavern. Fortunately, the wind was from the west, and dn>ve the flaniefl 
andttparks over the green, and the tavern was saved by the family throw- 
ing water over the roof. At iliri time those in the outhouses were aroused, 
and (he militia haf>tened across the fields, mounted hor»eti, nnd alarmed 
the trooi>s at I'aramus. By the time the enemy had arrived nt what is 
now Re4l Mill!«. ft»ur mih'S fnun IlackenMick, they asoertaine^l the Amer- 
icans were on their way to meet Ihem. Disappointed, they retnice<l their 
ste)vt, ami when near HackeiiMiik turned off to the nurih, on the ruad 
leading tu the New Itridge,* to the left uf which there is h range al)out 
hnlf a mile distant from the ruitd, the intervening ground being level. 
Here the Continentals and militia were hurrying over, kept, however, 
at a distance bv large flanking parties of the enemy, who, tm arriving 
at the bridge, were detaiue<l about two houm in re]tlacing the plank torn 
up l>y the Americans. In the mean time tlieit pfirtles were skirmishing 
with our |>eople. Having crotwed over, they marched down the ea**t eiide 
uf the Hitckensack through the Knglish NeightM>rho<.>d, being pursued 
twelve miles, to a considerable distance w*iihin their lines, down Iu Iter- 
gen Wi>odB. They lost niany kilUnl and wounde<l. There were none 
killed on our side. A youne man of the town was wounded by a spent 
ball, which cut his upper lip, knocked out four frunt teeth, and was 
caught in his nioulh. Captalti Outwater received a l>all Wlow the knee, 
which \\n» never extracte<l. He carried it for many years, and it wm» 
buried with him." 

Another of these raids is thus described : 

" Northwanl from llackensuck a few miles some of (he nK>st serioua 
depreilalions were nmile. Aniong these was a Tory raid of an hundred 
men, led by C<A. Van Buskirk. who, on the Ituh of May, 1779, entered 
by wuy of CloBter, and carried off a numl»er «if iidiabitanti, tiring build- 
ings, outniging females, a^ well as destroying life. Another detachmeDt 
swept des«dation on the 17th, and not a house of a Whig escuped. In 
the first of these raids CorneliuH Tallman, Samuel l>emarest, Jacob Colo, 
George lluKkJrk were captured, rornellus Demaiettt wan killed, and 
Hendrick Hemarest, Jeremiah Westervelt, and l*«iw Westervelt were 
woundeil. The buildings of I'eter Pemaresl, Matthew Itogert, Cornelius 
Ilnyler, and Samuel Demarest were burned. In the latter Abnihara 
Allen and (ioorge ('ampl»ell wore munlert^d. Jacob /ubriskie wasstnbbed 
in fifteen places, and two uegru women were shut down."^ 


LUTION— (Continuwl).' 

The Massacre near Old Tappan. — The year 1778 
of the Itcvdlutionary ]nTi(>(l is not only memorable 
on lUTonnt of the terrible sullerinfrs of the Conti- 
nental army at Valley Forge ami tlie hot fifiht on 
the field of Monmouth, but for three brutal ma.^saeres 
|)er|)et rated in three of the middle eolonies. 

On the ;?d day of July a band of Tories and Indians 
murderc<i the inhabitants of the peaceful Valley of 
Wyoming, and eommitted .sueh dreadful outrages upon 
Pennsylvania homes as to arouse tlie indignation and 
revenge of her citizens. On the 1 1th day of Novem- 
ber a party of a similar character, headed by the 
notoriou.s Joseph Kraut, having killed the officer iu 
command of the litt'e fort at Cherry Valley, N. V., 
massacred indiscriminately the men, women, and 
children of that little hamlet. The third instance we 
propose to narrate more in detail. It occurred on the 

-' Soi> (' it,v BtilMiugi«, C-uiirta, vtc.. In thil work. 

Mll.l llri.jgo. 

1 ItiitiiryirH IM.*cuMnMt; G<in1iiii*« llUliirjr of N«w JenM'y. 

* Hjr Wllllain S SlrykiT, aflJiilnii|.g*'iii.rMl uf New Jer*i*y. 



28th day of September, on the soil of New Jersey, but 
near Tappan Village, N. Y., a place afterwards so 
noted for the confinement and execution of Maj. 

The British commander, Sir Henry Clinton, having 
just returned from the Bedford expedition, resolved to 
send some of his force along the lower Jersey coast 
to capture, if possible, some of the American priva- 
teers, to retake some of the prizes, and to destroy the 
grain-mills and salt-works of that district. 

To divert attention from this predatory expedition, 
as well as to procure fresh supplies of meat and forage 
for the army. Lord Cornwallis was ordered with five 
thousand men to pass over the Hudson River into 
Bergen County. N. J., that rich land of Dutch farmers 
so frequently pillaged by the British. 

With Cornwallis was sent Maj. -Gen. Charles Grey, 
who before this had executed the orders of Clinton in 
stealing or destroying provisions, military and naval 
stores and vessels, and levying heavy contributions on 
the villages of Fairhaven, Bedford, and Martha's Vine- 
yard. The German general, Knyphausen, was also 
ordered to march with three thousand men up to 
Dobb's Ferry, on the east bank of the Hudson River, 
and to collect a large number of boats there, so that 
within a few hours he could reinforce Cornwallis if it 
was found important, or Cornwallis could be brought 
over the river to his support if he found himself in 

Gen. Washington had at this time just left. White 
Plains with his division of the American army, had 
crossed the river and had encamped at Fredericksburg, 
then a precinct of what is now a large portion of the 
county of Putnam. His quarters were at Paterson, in 
that county, a village almost due east from West 

It appeared to the American chieftain, by the move- 
ments of the two columns of the enemy, that an expe- 
dition up the Hudson River was intended, and he or- 
dered Col. George Baylor with the Third Regiment 
Light Dragoons of Virginia to move from their sta- 
tion at Paramus, a small hamlet ou Saddle River, 
about six miles northwest from Hackensack, and 
post themselves on the Hackensack River to watch 
the movements northward of the force under Lord 
Cornwallis. Col. Baylor had up to this time proved 
himself a very gallant officer. In the campaign of 
1776 he had been a member of Washington's own 
military family, being his personal aide-de-camp. At 
the battle of Trenton he was the first to report the 
surrender of the routed Hessian force, and for his 
valor that day he had had the honor of being the 
bearer of the dispatches of Dec. 27, 1776, to Con- 
gress, then in session at Baltimore, and of presenting 
a captured Hessian standard to that body. Congress 
on receiving them voted him a horse properly capar- 
isoned, and recommended him to be promoted to the 
command of a regiment of light-horse, which promo- 
tion had been conferred upon him. 

It was just at twilight, Sept. 27, 1778, when Col. 
Baylor and his troopers came to the little stream of the 
Hackensack, somewhat over three miles .southwest 
from Tappan Village. Here he learned that Brig.- 
Gen. Anthony Wayne was but a short distance north 
of Tappan with a body of militia. So, fearing, perhaps, 
the superior rank of Wayne, and not wishing to lose 
his detached authority, he halted his men on the Over- 
kill Neighborhood road, and quartered his dragoons 
in the barns of the thrifty farmers. His force con- 
sisted of twelve officers and one hundred and four en- 
listed men. Col. Baylor, with his regimental staft- 
officers, knocked at the farm-house of Cornelius A. 
Haring, and his son Ralph, who had just been mar- 
ried, opened the door for them. They told Mr. Ha- 
ring of their desire to spend the night there, and he 
received them willingly, although he informed them 
that he understood the British were lying at New 
Bridge and might at any time come upon them. Col. 
Baylor did not appear alarmed at this statement, but 
alter seeing that his men were well provided for, and 
after posting a guard of a sergeant and twelve men 
at the bridge over the Hackensack, about half a 
mile south of Mr. Haring's house, with strict orders 
to keep a patrol of two men on each road to watch 
them a mile below and to be relieved every hour, 
he retired to sleep in fancied security. 

This house was torn down about sixty years ago, 
but the property is still in possession of Cornelius 
R. Haring, a grandson of the Revolutionary owner. 
It is now within the bounds of the post-village of 
Rivervale, Washington township, Bergen Co. 

Lord Cornwallis at this time had his division posted 
on the Hackensack River, at Liberty Pole and New 
Bridge, about three miles from Hackensack and nine 
miles from Col. Baylor's out-guards. Full particu- 
lars of Baylor's position at Paramus, of his move- 
ments to the Hackensack River, and now of his un- 
soldierly condition and insecure post had been given 
by some of tlie disaffijcted people in the neighbor- 
hood to Cornwallis, and he formed a plan to surprise 
and capture the regiment, as well as to make a simul- 
taneous attack by Knyphausen's men upon Gen. 
Wayne and his militia force. There were two roads 
which led from the camp of Cornwallis to Overhill 
Neighborhood, one on each side of the Hackensack 

As soon as Gen. Knyphausen at Dobb's Ferry had 
heard from Lord Cornwallis of Col. Baylor's position, 
he ordered a detachment under command of Lieut.- 
Col. Archibald Campbell, commanding officer of the 
Seventy-first or Highland Regiment, to cross the river 
immediately and attack Gen. Wayne's militia near 
Tappan. The boats were manned without delay, and 
the party began the passage of the river just below 
the Tappan Zee. To Maj.-Gen. Grey, the famous 
marauder, was assigned the duty of attacking the 
sleeping Baylor. He had acquired the name of " No- 
flint General," from his habit of ordering his troops 



to take tlie Hints from thoir guns, so as to make them 
depend solely on the use of the bayonet. lie was 
just the man then for this bloody work. 

The troops ordered on duty were the twelve com- 
panies of the Second battalion Light Infantry to lead 
the column, with the Second Regiment of Grena liers. 
the Thirty-third and Sixty-fourth Kegiments of th ■ 
British Line as a supporting force. 

The troops just before midnight, September 27th, 
marched on the road on the west bank of the Hack- 
ensack River silently and in perfect order until they 
arrived within half a mile of the patrol on that road. 

Here they halted, and, guided by some Tories win 
knew the ground, a party of picked men from six 
of the companies of the Second Battalion Light In- 
fantry, under the command of the Hon. Maj. John } 
Maithind, of the Seventy-first Regiment, made a 
detour to the left through the fields, and then 
passed to the rear of the sergeant's guard at the bridge 
and the patrol on the river road, and without the 
slightest difficulty made them prisoners. One at least, 
however, escaped. This being accomplished without 
any or alarm, the force under Gen. Grey pushed 
on towards Old Tappan. Maj. Turner Straiibenzee, of 
the Seventeenth Regiment of Foot, but now detached 
in command of the other si.x oomjianies of the Second 
Battalicm Light Infantry, was in the advance, and it 
was this party which first arrived at Baylor's quarters 
and surrounded the house and barn of Cornelius ' 
Hariug. It was, as stated in British account-s, be- 
tween one and two o'clock in the morning of Septem- 
ber 2Sth when they came up to the post of the sleeping 
American dragoons. The sentinel who had escaped 
from the sergeant's guard at the bridge awoke Ralph 
Haring, who aroused his father. Mr. Haring, half 
dres-sed and with a candle, came to the front door just 
as it was burst in, and under the orders of Gen. Grey 
to " show no ijuarler to the rebels," the brutal and 
profane soldiery rushed in to bayonet the inmates. 
Col. Baylor was aroused by the noise, and by the in- 
quiries made for him, and he and Maj. Alexander 
Clough tried to conceal themselves up the large Dutch 
chimney in the house. Both, however, were .soon 
discovered and brought down severely wounded, their 
blood running over the Hoor. Maj. Clough .soon after 
died from the terrible bayonet-thrusts. Cornet Robert 
Morrow, adjutant of the troops, also received seven 
wounds, and after having surrendered begged for his 
life. buli|uarter was refuseil, and he wasstabbed again 
anil stripped of his clothing. Dr. Thomas Kvans, the 
surgeon's mute, was also wounded, but carried off a 
prisoner. Leaving the house, they also burst open 
the door of the barn and freely used the bayonet 
tliere. Lieut. John Stitli had his company in the 
barn, and he finding they were surrounded calleilout 
that they surren<lcre<l, but he was then iriliumaidy 
struck on the head with a sword which knocked him 
to the floor. Recovering himself, he made a despe- 
rate effort, and with some of his men escape<l from 

the barn, jumped the fence, and plunged into a dense 
thicket near by. 

While this was being done, the supporting column 
of Gen. Grey's forces, Maj. Maitland's party having 
rejoined them, came up and also took part in the 
affair. Other houses and barns in the neighborhood, 
owned by the Blauvelts, the Demarests, Holdrums, 
Harings, and Bogarts, were visited and scenes of like 
character enacted. The cries for mercy of the de- 
fenseless soldiers were answered only by acts of sav- 
age cruelty. Thomas Talley, of the .Sixth Troop, re- 
ceived six wounds in his brejist and wits stripped of 
his clothing. Private Benson, of t'.ie Second Troop, 
had twelve bayonet-wounds inflicted under the dis- 
tinct orders given by the British officer to " stab all 
and take no prisoners." Private Southward, of the 
Fifth Troop, although be himself escaped, saw five of 
his company bayoneted to death after they had sur- 
rendered. Private Cullency, of the Troop, re- 
ceived twelve wounds and saw wounded men knocked 
in the head with guns. The dragoons, surprised, in- 
capable of successful defense, with no prospect of in- 
flicting injury on their foe, could only sue for pity. But 
the bayonet was still at its bloody work, and thrust 
after thrust Wits given whenever any sign of life 

Lieut. William Barret succeeded in escaping ; 
Capt. John Swan, Lieut. Robert Randolph, and three 
cornets were taken prisoners; Adjt. Morrow, badly 
wounded, wius left in a barn for dead, but next nutrn- 
ing was carried away by Lieut. John Stith and a party 
of the escaped men from Baylor's regiment. 

A part of Sir James Baird's company surrounded a 
barn in which sixteen dragoons were sleeping, who 
fired about a dozen pistols, killed an enlisted man of 
the British Second Battalion, and then struck at the 
foe with their broadswords. Nine of the dragoons 
were bayoneted and seven were taken prisoners. 

The Fourth Troop of Baylor's regiment, although 
taken prisoners, were the only ones uninjured, be- 
cause of the humane di.sobedience of orders by a Brit- 
ish captain. The result of this slaughter wils that 
out of the one hundred and sixteen men of the regi- 
ment, eleven were instantly bayoneted to death, sev- 
enteen left behind covereil with bayonet-wounds and 
expected to die, and thirty-nine were taken prisoners, 
eight of whom were severely wounded. The rest of 
the troopers escaped in the darkness. All the arms 
and seventy horses were part of the booty captured. 

Nothing can be said in ilefense of the conduct of 
Col. Baylor. He had been one of the party twenty- 
one months previous to prove to the Hcjvsian Rahl 
that in war it is dangerous to undervalue your enemy ; 
that it is unwise when in the vicinity of your foe to 
throw out a weak ginird and leave the flanks nnpro- 
tectcil. I'orgetting the surprise and the fate of the 
German soldier, he acted himself in the same careless 
and unsoldierly numner, and came near paying the 
same penalty for his folly. 



Gen. Grey's force remained in that vicinity until 
daylight, when they marched to Tappan with their 
prisoners, turning the old church there into a hospital 
and prison. While all thi.s was going on Lieut.-Col. 
Campbell was marching from Sneden's Landing, on 
the Hudson River, by a direct road towards Tappan 
Village, having been delayed by the tedious pas.sage 
of the river. But he found that Wayne's militia, 
having heard of his approach at the critical moment 
from a deserter, had quietly retreated, and his expe- 
dition was thus rendered fruitless. 

A strong feeling of indignation spread over the 
country when this cruel massacre was announced. 
The army at Fredericksburg and at West Point were 
greatly exasperated, and plans of revenge were dis 
cussed, as appears from letters written to the camp. 
The atfairj while it seemed so very brutal, was also 
certainly very impolitic, as the killing of a tew de- 
fenseless men in the night would hardly reward the 
enemy for the bitter hatred engendered in the hearts 
and openly expressed in the homes of the patriots. 

Congress, too, felt called upon to show their abhor- 
rence of the act, which they did by a resolution, Oct. 
6, 1778: "That Governor Livingston be requested to 
use his utmost diligence in obtaining the best informa- 
tion upon oath of the treatment of Lieut.-Col. Baylor 
and his party by the enemy." 

Maj.-Gen. Lord Stirling directed Dr. David Grif- 
fith, of Col. George Weedon's Third Virginia Regi- 
ment, then on duty as surgeon and chaplain of Brig.- 
Gen. William Woodford's brigade, Continental Line, 
who attended Col. Baylor and his wounded men, and 
who was the same officer who appeared at Washin^;- 
ton's quarters the night before the battle of Mon- 
mouth and, it is said, gave him such valuable secret 
information, to collect all the evidence in his power 
and aid Governor Livingston in the search for the 
truth of this barbarity. This was done, and the 
statement of the facts in the case was fully obtained 
and published to the world. The affair served to in- 
crease the bitterness felt by the Continental soldier at 
this brutal sacrifice of the lives of his comrades, and 
the massacre near Old Tappan added much to that 
feeling of hatred of the British foe which for at least 
two generations thereafter was felt by American 


LUTION— (Continued). 

Gen. Wayne's Expedition. — The old block-house 
which stood on Block-House Point, above Bull's 
Ferry, is associated with Wayne's defeat and with the 
sarcastic poem entitled "The Cow Chase," written by 
Maj. Andre, the unfortunate British ofticer who was 
executed as a spy just beyond the border of this 

county, near the village of Tappan. The block-house 
appears to have been built by the Tories as a retreat 
or shelter for themselves while engaged in getting off 
wood from the hill in that vicinity to supply the Brit- 
ish in New York during the severely cold winter of 
1779-80. They were pretty well fortified all along 
the Neck, having earthworks at Bergen, east of the 
town, the fort at Paulus Hook, besides Fort De Lan- 
cey. " At the latter place Capt. Tom Ward held com- 
mand. His force consisted of negroes and vile char- 
ac;ers of his own race. They became as notorious 
as himself. They were a band of plunderers, thiev- 
ing and raiding by night over to Elizabethtown, New- 
ark, New Barbadoes Neck, and along Bergen Hill as 
far up as Closter and New Bridge. Ward is repre- 
sented as having been a horrible wretch. It is said 
that he once hired three negroes to kill a man in Ber- 
gen to whom he was indebted. ' Little Will,' owned 
by Van Ripen, was one of the three. Tom Cadmus, 
another Tory, was sergeant, and ordered the fire. 
The negroes were afterwards caught and hung in the 
swamp north of Brown's Ferry road, near the present 
Glendale House, and their bodies left hanging for 

The block-house was located on the high point 
above the ravine which extends back from the river 
on the north side of Guttenberg. It was protected 
on two .sides by perpendicular rocks which rise from 
the shore and the ravine, and surrounded on the other 
sides by abatis and stockades, with a ditch and par- 
apet. The only entrance to the block-house was a 
covered way large enough to admit but a single per- 
son.' Col. Cuyler being temporarily absent from this 
post, Capt. Tom Ward was in command of the sev- 
enty men stationed there. Washington, then near 
Suffern's, having been informed that tliere were a 
number of cattle on Bergen Neck exposed to the en- 
emy, sent Gen. Wayne to bring them ofl' and to destroy 
the block-house at the same time. On the afternoon 
of July 20, 1780, the First and Second Pennsylvania 
Regiments, with four pieces of Proctor's artillery and 
Moylan's dragoons, in all about one thousand men, 
started from their camp on the expedition. They ar- 
rived at New Bridge about nine o'clock in the evening. 
Here they rested four or five hours, and then pushed 
on for Bull's Ferry. Maj. Lee, the hero of Paulus 
Hook, was sent to Bergen with his cavalry to bring 
off the cattle, while the remainder of the force marched 
against the block-house. Gen. Irvine, with a part of 
his brigade, proceeded along the summit of the ridge, 
and the First Brigade, under Col. Hampton, with the 
artillery of Moylan's horse, by the direct road. About 
ten o'clock on the morning of the 21st part of the 
First Brigade reached the post. Moylan's horse and 
part of the infantry remained at the forks of the road 
leading to Paulus Hook and Bergen, prepared to re- 
ceive the enemy should he approach from that quar- 

l Peinisylvanin Patket, July 25, 1780. 



ter. Gen. Irvine was posted so as to prevent the en- 
emy's landing should he approach by vessel. Near 
Fort Lee two regiments were concealed, prepared for 
the enemy. One rejritnent was po.ste<I in a hollow 
way on the north side of the block-house, and anotlier 
on the south side, with orders to keep up a constant 
fire into the port-holes to favor the advance of the 
artillery. When the field pieces arrived they were 
placed sixty yards distant and a cannonade com- 
menced, which continued from eleven o'clock till 
noon without intermission. Up t<» that time but little 
impression had been nuule on the block-house, and 
orders were given to retire. Just at that moment one 
regiment burst through the abatis and advanced to 
the stockades. They were received with such a gall- 
ing fire from the Tories that they were compelled to 
withdraw. Tradition says that when the attacking 
party withdrew the Tories had but one round of am- 
munition left. Boats were now beginning to move 
up and down the river, but no attempt was made to 
land. The sloops and wood-boats at the landing were 
destroyed, and three or four prisoners taken. The 
cattle were driven otf as originally intende<l, but the 
other part of the expedition w;ls a failure. CJen. 
Wayne says that he lost fifteen killed and fifteen 
wounded. The enemy claimed that " the brave Capt. 
Ward pursued the rear upwards of four miles, retook 
twenty cattle, killed one rebel, and look two prison- 
ers.'* The refugees admitted the loss of four killed 
and eight wounded.' Among the latter were George 
and Absalom Bull, residents of the immediate neigh- 

Gen. Wayne was chagrined at his failure, and 
on witnessing the slaughter of his men shed tears. 
Washington deeply regretted the misfortune, and 
hastened to explain away the bad effect which the 
failure of the attack upon the block-house might 
have upon Congress. The following is a copy of his 
letter to His Excellency Samuel Huntington, P>q. : 

" IlKADQrAftTr.RS, IIf.rokk Co., July 21, 1784). 

"Sir, — llftviiif; received Infornmllon tlint tlioro wore C4iiiHl<l(>rnt)le 
niimbcreof caUle an<l liorst-a in IterKon Neck, wttlilti ruurti uf the en- 
emy, mill hftTlng reiiMoii ti siiNitect tliat tliey meiuit aliortly lo driiw all 
tuppllfHnr tlint kin<l within t)M<ir HncN, I itrimtK-tl ltrlK--(**'n. Wiiyno 
on tlio '^<ith, with tho Fint iind Scronrl I'etniHylviinia BriKmliii, with 
fuur [ii(H-«i of artillury nttacliud to thpni, ntui C'ul. >li)ylan'H refcimeitl of 
(IrnKoonR, (o htiiig them ofT. I had It al»o in rontemplnlion ^> attempt 
at Ihe Knnic lime the dndtnictiun uf a Mock-huuse erected at Itiill*t 
Ferry, which siTTed the purp<w<' i>f coTcrlng the em-niy'ii wiMxI-ruttcri 
and fcivlnfc necutity tu a l»udy of rpfug*'^ I'T whuni it was K^rriMtned, 
and who cumniitted dopredaUtini niion the well^afToctod Inhabltanta for 
mile* arutind. 

" Gi-n. Wnyni' haTlng dis|Mwd till tn>opA in Ruch a mnDtior im t^ gi^'krd 
thf difTcront lMiidli)K-plnr)>H on Ihr Ih'tKen Mhiiie, ii|H)n which tlit> enemy 
miRht ihruw oTtT iruiiiM fr<>ni Niw Yurk Ulnnd to Int'Tiept hlo retreat, 
and having sent down (he r«valry to sxecute tin* hiinlno^iiof driving off 
the RiiKik. procet-ilnl with thu Kind, Hocund, and Tenth Hegtmenta and 
the artillery to the liluck-h«uM>, whlcli waa •urnmndod l>y an alHtllN and 
•tockailn. It<* for nome lime iriwl the effect of hi* fli'hl-piece« up<in It, 
hut though tlie ftro was ki-pt up for an hour, they were found loo light 
to peu'-trate the log* of wlilih it waa colMtnirted. Th** troo|« during 
thUtlme lK>lng galled l>y acotwlant Are from the loop-holeaof llie houae, 

1 rt[«rka' Wuhinglon. t11. 110. 

and weing nu chance of making a t<reai.'h with cannon, thoae of the 
Fint and Second Regiments, notwithstanding the utmost efforta of the 
offirent lo rebtrain them, rushed through the abatis to the foot of the 
stockade, with a view of forcing an entrauce, whicli waa found imprac- 
ttciihle. This act of intemperate valor was the cjiuac of the loaa we 
HUettiiined, which auiounte«l in the whide to three officers wounded, flf- 
teeii imu-comuii««ioued officers and prlvaloti kille«i, and forty-six uou- 
cuninu»8ioned officent and prirntes wounded. The woundeJ officers are 
Lieutenants Hammond and Crawford, of Ihe First, and Lieutenant 
D'Hnrt, of the Socond, since dead. I cjinnot l>ut mention his death with 
regret, as he was a young gentleman of amiable (inalities, and wlio 
promised fair lo be cerriceable to his country. 

"The dragix>ns in tlie mean time drove off the stock which were found 
in the Neck ; the sloops and wood-boats in the dock near the block-house 
were burnt, and Ihe few people on board uf them made prisoners. 

" I have been thus particular lest the account of this affair should have 
reached I'hiUdelphia much exaggerated, as is commonly the case upon 
such occasions. 

" I have the honor to be, with the greatest respect, sir, 

" Your Excellency's most obedient servant, 

"Geokok Wasbington. 

"To His Excellency Savvcl HcNTtNOTOM, Esq." 

This expedition was greatly exulted over by the 
enemy. Sir Henry Clinton sent a complimentary 
dispatch to the refugees, and even King George the 
Third sent over from England a congratulatory mes- 
sage asking the commander-in-chief to assure "the 
survivors of the brave JSeventi/ that their behavior is 
approved by their sovereign.*' 

We give below the poem of Maj. Andr^% with the 
introductory remarks, as we find them published in 
\\'infieUrs ** History of Hudson County": 

*'The expedition was very neatly caricatured in a nuKk-henuc poem 
wiiuen by M^j. Andre, on thu model of (.'hery Chase. The whole la 
in three cantos. The first was published in Airtfiy<OH*ii GazfUe, Aug. 1G, 
17H0, the second August 3Uth, and the third September '£3*\, The laat 
canto was sent to the paper the day t>efore Audr^< left New York to meet 
Arnold, and publiNtieal the very day he wns captured at Tarr^'towri. Ite 
coiiii><)!titlon may have been suggesteil by the fiu:t thai Andre had boarded 
with John Thompson, the wood-cutting agent at New Y'ork. It was writ- 
ten at headquarters. No. I Broa<lway, except the ftmi ciinto, which waa 
written at Klizabnthtown. Its title was 'The (\»w Chase, in three C«ntofl: 
Published on occasion of the Rebel General Wayne's attack iif Ihe Bef- 
uge««' Dlock'house on Iludimn's River, on F'riday, the 21st of Jtily, 1780.' 
The following is au exact copy of the poem na it appeared in the liateltf : 

"Eliiabcth-Tows, Aug. 1, 1780. 


Major AsDRr:. 

"Canto I. 
'To drive the Kino one summer's niurn. 
The Tanner' look his way. 
The Calf Khali rue that is uuUtrti, 
The jumbling of that day. 

" And Wayne descending Steera shall know. 
And tauntiUKly deride. 
And rail lo mind in every Low, 
The tanning of his hide. 

"Yet Bergen Cows shall ruminate 
Unconaclons in the stall, 
What mighty menna were usett (o get. 
And lose Ihem nflrr all. 

" For many Heroed bold ami brnve 
Pn>m New Bridge and Ta|<nan 
And thoeo thnt drink Tassaick's wave. 
And those that eat .Soupaan,* 


< Gen. Wayne wu of that oceupatlon. 
> The Indian dlab of mush and milk. 



" Aud sons of distant Delaware 

"The Sounds Confused of boasting Oaths, 

Anil still remoter Shannon,! 

He-echoed through the Wood, 

And Major Lee with lioi-ses rare, 

Some vowed to sleep in dead Men's Cloths, 

And Proctor with bis cannon. 

And some to swim in blood. 

" All wonderoua proud in arms they came 

"At Irvine's nod. 'twas fine to see 

What iiero ctiuld refuse? 

The left preimre to fight, 

To tread the nigged path to fame 

Thf white the Drovers, Wayne and Lee, 

Who had a pair of shoes. 

Drew ofl" uiwn the Right. 

"At six the Host with sweating buff, 

*' Wliirh Irvine 'twas Fame don't relate, 

AnivL-d at Freeihiiii'a Pole,2 

Nor can the Muse assist her, 

Wtien Wa^vne who tbouglit he'd time enough 

Wliether 'twas be that cocks a Hat,& 

Thus specified tlie whole. 

Ur he that gives a Glister. 

**0 ye wboin glory dotti unite, 

" For greatly one was signalized, 

Wlio Freedom's cause espouse. 

That fought at Chestniit-Hill, 

Wliether tlie wing that's doomed to flight 

And Canada immortalized 

Or tliat to clrive tlie Cows, 

The Vender of the Pill. 

'* Ere yet you tempt your further way 

" Yet the attendance upon Proctor, 

Or into action Come, 

They bytb might have to boast of ; 

Hear soldiers what I have tn say 

For then there was business for the Doctor, 

And lake a pint of Kum. 

And hats to be disposed of. 

"Intemp'rate valor then will string 

"Let none uncandidly infer 

Kach nervous arm the better, 

That Stirling wanted Spunk, 

So all (he land shall I sing 

The self-made Peer had sure been there, 

And read the Gen'ral's letter.^ 

But that the Peer was drunk. 

"Know that some paltry Refugees 

" But turn we to the Hudson's Banks, 

Whom I've a mind to fight, 

W*here stood the modest Train, 

Are playing H 1 amongst the trees 

With Purpose firm and slender Rank, 

That grow on yonder height.* 

Nor cared a Pin for Wayne. 

"Their Fort and Block-House we'll level, 

" For then the unrelenting Hand 

And deal a horrid slaughter; 

Of rebel Fury drove, 

Wf'll drive the Scoundrels to the Devil, 

And tore frum every genial Band 

And ravish wife and daugliter. 

Of Friendship and of Love. 

" I under cover of th' attack 

"And some within a Dungeon's Qloom, 

Whilst you are all at blows, 

By mock Tribunals laid, 

From English Neighborhood and Tiuack 

Had waited long a cruel Doom, 

Will drive away the Cows. 

Impending o'er their heads. 

"For well you know the latter is 

" Here one bewails a Brother's Fate, 

Tlie serious operation, 

There one a Sire's demands. 

And fighting with the Refugees 

Cut off alas ! before their date 

Is only demonstration. 

By ignominious Hand. 

"His daring words from all the crowd 

" And silvered Grandsires here appeared, 

Such great applause did gain 

In deep Distress serene. 

That every man declared aloud 

Of reverend manners that declared 

For serious work with Wayne. 

The better days they'd seen. 

" Theu from the Cask of Kum once more 

"Oh curs'd Rebellion these are thine. 

They took a heady jill, 

Thine are these Tales of Woe, 

When one and all they loudly swore 

Shall at thy dire insatiate Shrine 

They'd fight upon the hill. 

Blood never cease to flow? 

" But here — the Muse has not a strain 

" And now the Foe began to lead 

Befitting such great deeds, 

His Forces to th' Attack ; 

Huzza they cried, huzza for Wayne, 

Ball whistling unto balls succeed 

And sboutiug — did their Needs. 

And make the Block-House crack. 

"Canto II. 

" No shot could pass, if you will take 
The General's word fur true ; 

"Near his meridian pomp, the Sun 

But 'tis a a d ble Mistake, 

Had journey'd from the horz'n. 

For every shot went thro'. 

When fierce the dusky tribe moved on 

or Heroes drunk as poison. 

"The firmer as the Rebels pressed. 
The royal Heroes stand ; 
Virtue bad nerved each honest Breast, 
And Industry each Hand. 

1 Irish in the Pennsylvania Line. 

- "Liberty Pole," where Eriglewood now stands. 

3 Letter of Gen. Washington, referred tu above. 

< It is said that the wood-ciitters cleaned the whole hill from Bull's 

& One of the Irvines was a hatter, the other a physician. Dr. 


Ferry to Bergen Point, not leaving a stick large enough to make a whip- 

Irvine, after two years' captivity in Canada, now commanded th 

e Second 





"' In Valor's I'lirenxy,'* HaniiUun 

" But Wayn<% of sympathizing heart. 

Rode like a Soldier Big, 

Required a relief 

Ami Sevretiiry HArri»on, 

Not all the blewjugs could imimrt 

Willi IVii Mliick ill his Wig. 

Of battle or of beef; 

*" But t(Mt tho Chivflaiii WaHliington 

" For now a prey tu female charms. 

Slioidil niouni tliem in the MuDipa," 

His soul took mure delight In 

The fate of Witheriiigtuii3 to fltnin, 

A lovely HamadryadVaruis, 

Tliey fought hehlmi Ihw Stuiups.' 

Thau Cow drivin or fighting: 

" But ah, Thaddpus I'useet, why 

" A nymph, the Refugees had drove 

Shuuld thy I'oor Soul elope, 

Far fruui her naiivf tree. 

And why aliouWI Titus Hooper* die. 

Just happened to be on the move. 

Ah die — w ithout a rope ? 

When up came Wayuc and Lee. 

" Apostate Murphy, thou to whom 

*' She in mad Anthony*s fierce eye 

Fair Shela ne'er waa cruel, 

The hero saw portrayed, 

/h (Uiith, flutU In-ar h.r uiouni thy Doom, 

And all in tours she took him by — 

Auch wou'd you diu, my Jewell? 

Tho bridle uf liiH Jade. 

"Thee Nathan Pumpkin I lament, 

" Hear, sitid the nymph, great Commander I 

Of melancholy Kate, 

No human lamentations; 

Tlie Grey Goose stolen as he went, 

The trees you see them cutting yonder 

In his Heiirt's lilood wns wet.'' 

Are all my near relations. 

" Now as the Fight was furiber fought. 

" And I, forlorn I implore thine aid, 

And Balls liegati to thicken, 

To free the sacred grove ; 

The Fray asBumed. the General thought. 

So shall thy pr^twess bo repaid 

The Color of a licking. 

WMth an immortal love. 

"Yet undismayed the Chiefs Command, 

*' Now some, to provt- she was a Goddeas, 

And to retleeni the Day, . 

Said this enchanting Fair, 

Cry, S01.DIEKS Chakok! they hear, they stand, 

Had late retired from the Borfie*,' 

They turn and run away. 

In all the pump of war; 

"Canto III. 

"That drumH and m»'rry fifes had played 
To honor her retreat, 

" Not nil dolightB the bloody spear, 

And Cunningham'* himself conveyed 

Or horrid din of battle. 

The lady through the street. 

There are, I'm sure, would like to hear 

A word about the Cattle. 

*' Great Wayne, by s<»ft compaasion swayed, 
To no inquiry stotijis. 

"The Chief whom we beheld of lute, 

But takes tbf fair, anilcled maid 

Near fk-hfalenlmrg liMrnriKiiig, 

lihjht into Yan Van Poop's. 

At Yhii Van Poitp's uinoiisoious sat 

Of Irvine's hearty banging ; 

"So Roman Anthony, they say, 
Di9grHce<l the imi^erial banner, 

"Whilst raliftiit Let-, with courage wild. 

And for a gliwy lost a day. 

Mtwt bnivnly illd oppoMO 

Like Anthony the Tanner. 

The team of woman and of child, 

Who tM.>ggod he'd leave the Cows. 

"Tho Hamadryad bad but half 

Receivetl retlreac from Wayne, 
When drums and colors, cow and calf. 

1 " Col. Hamiltan, mentlonml In Lee's trial us flourishing liis sword 

and being in a sort of ' phrenzii 0/ m/or.* llarriiH>n, mentioned in this 

Came down the road amain. 

Terae, bad met Andr^ at Amiwy."— Hi.iriWd, 176. 

"All In a cloud of dust were seen 

1 Muniiw pre%*allod In the American tines. 

The sheep, the horse, the gtwt. 

*"*For Witherington must I waylo, 

The gonth' heifer, ass obscene. 

As one In doleful dumpM; 

The yearling and the shout ; 

For when his legs wore smitten ofT 

IIo fought ui*on bis stuiiiprt.' 

" The pack-homoi with fowls came by, 

"The battle of Chevy Cliasf. or (»ttcrlMmrne. on the borders of Scot- 

Befealbered on each sbie. 

land, was fought Aug. 5, l.'WS, between Iho fumllles of Percy and Pong- 

Ukc IVgasus. the lionw that I 

laM. Th)> song was prolmbly written much after that time, though long 

And other |KMt* lido. 

before 1A88, as Ileartie supiNiaes. In Ihe old copy of the ballad tho llnw 

run thus: 

"Subllmo upon hlssHrrnps rose 

"• For Wlthnroyngton my harto was wo 

The mighty Lee l^ehlnd, 

That i>%'er ho >laytie shulde l>e, 

And dntve the terror-smitten cows 

For when IhiIIi hi* legge's wore hewyne in to 

Like chaff before the wind. 

II«! knyled and fought upon his kne.' "—Ibid. 

" But sudden see the woods above 

< Titus Ilopiwr, who llvi'd aU.vo Afpiai-kanourk, near Hopper's Mill, 

Pour dt.wn itnothor curpe, 

on the east side of the Paanalr Ulvyr. IIo was murdtTi'd by the Tories 

All liplter-skelter In a drove. 

under John Van do Il^Kler, a nrlgbbor, who entered his house in the 

Like that I sang before. 

night, and after sb>K»ting him through th>> head, compoltod his wife to 

hold a candle while they thrust nineteen iMiyonels into him. 

' " Against Sir Hugh Montgomery 

• A deity of the woods. 

Si> rlQbt the Shalt li>- roU, 

7 A cant appellation of tho corps which formed His MiOosty's 


The grey go«Mie uinu that was thereon 


In hl« heart's blo«Ml was w«ii," 

"Cunnlnghim was proviwl -marshal i-f N-* V-tU mk.I.-. Ho- British. 



"Irvine and terror iu the van, 
Ciinie flying "H aliroad, 
And cannon, colors, horse and man 
Ran tumbling to the road. 

"Still as he tied, 'twas Irvine's cry. 
And his example too, 
Run on my merry men. For why? 
' The shot will not go through,' i 

"As when two kennels in the street, 
Swelled with a ret-ent rain. 
In gushing streams together meet 
And seek the neighboring drain, 

" So meet these dung-born tribes in one, 
Asswift in their career. 
And so to New Bridge they run on, — 
But all the cows got clear. 

" Poor Parson Caldwell,^ all iu wonder, 
Saw the returning train. 
And mourned to Wayne the lack of plunder, 
For them to steal again. 

*' For 'twas his right to seize the spoil, and 
To share with each commander, 
As he had done at Staten Island 
With frost-bit Alexander.3 

" In his dismay the frantic priest 
Began to grow prophetic, 
You had swore, to see his laboring breast, 
He had taken an emetic. 

" I view a future day, said he. 

Brighter than this day dark is, 
And you shall see what you shall see, 
Ha! ha! one pretty Marquis.^ 

" And lie shall come to Paulus Hook 
And great achievements tliink on, 
And make a bow and take a look, 
Like Satan over Lincoln. 

"And all the land around shall glory 
To see the Frenchman caper, 
And pretty Susan tell the story 
In the next Chatham paper.^ 

" This solemn prophecy, of course, 
Gave all much cons<ilatiun, 
Except to Wayne, who lost his horse 
Upon the great occasion. 

" His horse that carried all his prey. 
His military speeches, 
His corn-stalk whiskey for his grog. 
Blue stockings and brown breeches. 

> "Five Refugees ('tis true) were found 
Stiff on the block-house floor, 
But then 'lis thought the shot went round 
And in at the back door." 

2 Rev. James Caldwell, of New Jersey. His wife was shot by one of 
Knyphausen's men. When Knyphausen made his incursion to Spring- 
field, Mr. Caldwell collected the hymn-books of his church for wadding. 
" Put a little Watts into them," said he to the soldiers. He waa shot by 
James Morgan, at Elizabethtown Point, Nov. 24, 1781. Morgan was sup- 
posed to have been bribed to do the act. He was tried and executed in 

8 Lord Stirling, who in a foray into Staten Island in January, 1780, 
had five hundred of his men frost-bitten. 

* Lafayette. 

6 The New Jersey Gazette was published at Chatham during the war, 
and Susanna Livingston, sister of Governor Livingston, and afterwards 
third wife of John Cleves Symmes, wrote occasional articles for its col- 

" And now Tve closed my epic strain, 
I tremble as I show it. 
Lest this same warrior-drover, Wayne, 
Should ever catch the poet." 

Alas, poor Andre ! He was caught soon after, and 
althongh Washington would fain have spared him, 
and was anxious to exchange him for the traitor Ar- 
nold, yet he was obliged to execute him as a spy, in 
accordance with tlie hiws of war. The place where 
Maj. Andr6 was executed is about a quarter of a mile 
west of the village of Tappan, within a few hundred 
yards of the New Jersey line. It is on an eminence 
overlooking to the east a romantic and fertile valley. 
A small heap of stones thrown carelessly together, 
with an upright stake for a centre, marked the place 
of his execution and grave. 

The following account of the execution of Andre, 
which took place Oct. 2, 1780, is given by an eye- 
witness : 

" T was at that time an artificer in Col. Jciluthun Baldwin's regiment, 
a part of which was stationed within a short distance of the spot where 
Andre suffered. One of our men (I believe his name was Armstrong), 
being one of the oldest and best workmen in the regiment, was selected 
to make his coflBn, which he performed, and painted black, agreeably to 
the custom of those times. 

"At this time Andre was confined in what was called a Dutch church, 
a small stone building with only one door, and closely guarded by six 
sentinels. When the hour appointed for his execution arrived, which I 
believe was two o'clock p.m., a guard of three hundred men was paraded 
at the place of his confinement. A kind of procession was formed by 
placing the guard in a single file on each nide of the road. In front 
were a large number of American officers of high rank on horseback. 
These were followed by the wagon containing Andre's coffin, then a 
targe number of officers on foot, with Andre in their n idst. The pro- 
cession moved slowly up a moderately-rising hill, I sbuuld think about 
a fourth of a mile to the west. On the top was a field without any in- 
closure. In this was a very high gallows, made by r-etting up twu poles, 
or crotches, and laying a pole on the top. The wagon that contained 
the coffin was drawn directly under the gallows. In a short time Andr^ 
stepped into the hind part of the wagon, then on his coffin, took off 
his hat and laid it down, then placed his hands upon his hips, and 
walked very uprightly bnck and forth as far as the length of his coffin 
would permit, at the same time casting his eyes upon the pole over his 
head and the whole scenery by which he was surrounded. He was 
dressed iu what I should call a complefe Brilish uniform : his coat was 
of the brightest scarlet, faced ur trimmed with the most beautiful green. 
His underclothes, or vest and breeches, were bright buff, very similar to 
those wnru by military officers in Connecticut at the present day. He 
had a long and beautiful head of hair, which, agreeably to the fashion, 
was wound with a black ribbon and hung down his back. All eyes were 
upon him, and it is not believed that any officer iu the British army 
placed in his situation would have appeared better than this unfortunate 

" Not many minutes after he took his stand upou the coffin the execu- 
tioner stepped into the wagon with a halter in liis hand, on one end of 
which was what the soldiers iu those days called a hangman's knot, 
which he attempted to put over the head and around the neck of Andre, 
but by a sudden movement of his hand this was prevented. Andre took 
off the handkerchief from his neck, unpinned his shirt-collar, and de- 
liberately took the end of the halter, put it over his head, and placed 
the knot directly under his right ear, and drew it very snugly to his 
neck. He then took from his coat-pocket a handkerchief and tied it 
over his eyes. This done, the officer that commanded (his name I have 
forgotten) spoke in rather a loud voice, and said that his arms must be 
tied. Andre at once pulled down the handkerchief he had just tied over 
his eyes, and drew from his pocket a second one, and gave it to the exe- 
cutioner, and then replaced his handkerchief. His arms were tied just 
above the elbows and behind the back. The rope was then made fai* to 
the pole overhead. The wagon was very suddenly drawn from under the 
gallows, which, together with the length of the rope, gave him a most 
tremendous swing back and forth, but in a few moments he hung en- 



tfrely gUW. Duriu^ thv whult> inin»actiuii h** H{ip4-nn*d aa Utile ■Jniioted 
as Mr. John Ilogfrw wliuii be vmu aUnit to l>« )>uriit Ht llie ttiuke, l>iit blB 
counlenaiico wiis rather pale. He reiujUiie«l banking, I obuiihl tbiuk^ 
from twenty to thirty niinutee, nud tltirjng thni tinu* the cbatnl»erB of 
death were never stiller than the niultitu<le hy which he wasrinrroimded. 
Orders were given to cut the mpo nnd take him down without letting 
him fall. This was done, and his l>ody carefully laid on (be ground. 
Shortly after the guard watu withdniwn, and HiK-rtnlorH wert.' allowed to 
coDie forwani and vii>w the corpse, hut tlie crowd wsut *. f:reat that \t 
wn« »ome time before I couhl get an opportunity. When I wiu ithlo to 
do thifl his coat, vest, and hreecbtw were tak^-n off, and his body laid io 
the coffin, covered by some uuderclotlietf. The toji of the coffin was not 
put on. I viewed the corpse more carefully than I had ever done that 
of any bnntnn being before. Hix head was very iniich on one side, in 
consequence uf the manner in which the halter drew upon his neck. 
flis face uppeare<l to be greatly swollen and vi'r>' blark, much reuembliog 
aliigh degree of morlincation. It wtkn indeed u Hhorking eight to heliotd. 
There were at thii tiuie standing at the f(^K)t of bis conin two young men 
of uncommon short stature, I should think not more than four feet high. 
Tlieir dre^s wo;* the most gaudy I ever beheld. One of them had the 
clothes juftt taken from Aadrv hanging on his artn. I took itarticular 
pains to learn who they were, and was informed that they were liis ser- 
vants, sent up from New York to take caro of his clothes, but what otlier 
busineM I did not learn. 

" I now turnM to take ti view of the executioner, who was still stand- 
ing by one of the |HMtM of tlie gallows. I walked nigh enough to him tu 
have laid mv hand u|K>n his shoulder, and lo<>ke<l hint directly in the 
face. lie appeared to I>e altout twenty-five years of age, his lieard of two 
or tliree weeks' growth, and liis whole face covere<I with what appeared 
to me to be a blacking taken front the outside of a greasy pot. A mora 
frightfuMooking being 1 never beheld; his whole countenance bespoke 
hiui to be A fit instrument for the business he had been doing. Wishing 
to see the ch>sing of the whole business, I remained upon the spot until 
scarce twenty persons were left, but the coffin was »titl beside the grave, 
which had previously l»een dtig. I now relurm-d to my lent, with my 
mind deeply imbued with the shocking scene I hiul t>een called to wit- 

In 1821 the remains of Maj. Andrt'' were disinterred 
by order of the Duke of York and taken to West- 
minster Abbey, where they now rest. When Dean 
Stanley wa-s in tins country, in ()ctol>cr, 1878, he and 
Mr. Cyru.s W. Field, his host, visited the spot where 
Andre* Wiw executed and originally buried. The cedar- 
trees which originally marked the spot had been dug 
up and removed with the remains in 1821, and two 
wild-c!ierry tree.s, which are still standinjr, planted in 
their jilace. A curious fact in this connection is that 
a peach-tree which had sprung up <»ti the j;rave was 
found to have wrapped its roots around Maj. Andre's 
skull. Mr. Grove, of Mnci»i(hn*s M(if/(iziiit\ who ac- 
companied Dean Stanley and Mr. Field, in recalling 
this incident, referred to Tennyson's well-known lines 
in (Hie of the openinj? stanzas of "In Memoriam," 
and said that possibly they liad been suggested by it. 
The lines are: 

"Old yew, which gmitpeth at the stones 
That mime the unilerlying dead. 
Thy fibres net the dreamk-M hvnd, 
Thy roolii are wnippo«l alN<ut the iKiues." 

In 1870, Mr. Cyrus W. Field purchased thirty acres, 
including the site of the execution and burial of An- 
tlr/', aiifl erected thereon a granite nionumciit, which 
contains tlic following inscription, written by Dean 
Stanlev : 1 

♦* Here died. October 2, ITSO, 
Major John A^nRBof the Urltisb Anuy, 

who, entering the American lines 

on a secret mission to Heneilict Arnold 

for the surrender of Weiit Toint, 

was takeu prisoner, tried, and condemned as a spy. 

Ills death, 

though according to the Ntern code uf war, 

moveil even his enemies to pity ; 

and both armies mourned the fate 

uf one so young and so brave. 

In 1821 his remains were removed tu Westminster 


A hundred years after the execution 

this stone is placed above the spot where he lays 

by a citizen of the United States against 

whom he fought, 

not to per|>etuato the ie<--oitl of strife, 

but in t4iken of those better feelings 

which have since united two nations, 

oue in race, in lLinguaKe,and in religion, 

with the hope that tliis friendly union 

will never be broken." 

Under the inscription is the name, 
Penrhyn Stanley, Dean of Westminster." 


' Arthur 

■ N*w Jonwjr llUt I'ol., |>|i. 77, 7H. 


LUTION— (ContinucJ). 

Miscellaneous Notes and Extracts. — In the 
luimitos 111' the liouni uf .lustitcs and I'rt'fholders, 
July 4, 1775, tlie (juestion was raised " whether the 
County Committee should have the riglit in case of 
emergency to take the county arms out of the court- 
house." The board unanimously agreed that they 
had such right. It appears in March, 177i), that the 
Continental Congress had purchased part of the arms, 
for we find the following: "Ordered liy the board 
that the remaining five guns, with the accoutrements 
belonging to four guns, shall be sold by Peter Za- 
liriskie, Esfj., at the same price that the Continental 
Congress allowed for the others, and that the money 
arising from the sale be paid into the hands of the 
County Collector." 

Of the .same date is a " Ueceipt from Jo-seph Meeker' 
for 7!l Guns, liayoneta, and ISelts, and 78 Cartridge 
Pouche-s and iiells, 42.') Flints and !).*<(» Belts, with an 
order from the Hoard of Justices and Frei'holders to 
call on Messrs. Ilendrick Fisher and Samuel Tucker 
for payment. The Hoard ordered that Mr. Job Smith 
call on Messrs. Fisher and Tucker for payment for 
the said arms ami aceoutrement.s, at the price the 
Congress allows, and also fcir the Hint.s and balls at 
the usual prices for those articles, and that Mr. Smith, 
when he receives the .said money, pay the same to the 
t'ounty Collector." 

Fines for the non-service of the militia were col- 
lected in 1780. "The Board ordercil that the Jus- 
tices order any number of men to guard the Consta- 

> UiyJ. JoM|>ti Blc«kor, uf .SuiMX County. 



ble in collecting tlie said Fines, and that 25 Dollars 
per Day be allowed to each man for their services." 

During the war the tax levies upon the county 
were enormous. The records show that from April 1, 
1780, to March 1, 1781, the total amount of tax col- 
lected in the county was £424,222 17(i. 6d. This will 
give the readersome idea of what a financial burden the 
war was ; yet, for the most part, it was borne cheerfully 
by the people. Had the whole county been united in 
support of the struggle for independence the burden 
would have been much lighter, but the county was 
divided on that question, as was more or less the case 
throughout the colonies. Too great honor cannot be 
accorded to those noble patriots, who not only pledged 
their lives, their fortunes, and their sacred honor to 
uphold the cause of free government, but who made 
that pledge good through peril, hardship, and suffer- 
ing, and even at the cost of life itself Perhaps the 
hardest trial which many of them had to endure was ] 
to see .some of their own friends and neighbors turn 
their backs upon the cause of liberty and join the 
enemies of their country. 

There was an Englishman by the name of John 
Berry, called " John the Regular," who was a terror 
to this section of the country during the Revolution. 
The government at one time offered a thousand 
pounds for his apprehension. During one of those 
frequent raids from the old block-house, some com- 
panies of militia under Capts. Blanch and Van Valen 
were sent out from their rendezvous at Tappan to in- 
terrupt a foraging-party of British and Refugees. 
They met the party near Liberty Pole, now Engle- 
wood, where an engagement took place. In this en- 
gagement Berry, who was with the enemy, was shot, 
and was discovered concealed under a fallen tree by 
Samuel Van Valen and James Blauvelt, who knew 
him to be Berry and raised their guns to fire upon 
him, whereupon he begged for his life and surren- 
dered. He was then mortally wounded. He was 
brought in a wagon to Hackensack, and was buried 
near the present Kansas Street. 

Extracts from the Minutes of the Council of 
Safety, 1777.— June 21, 1777, Peter Fell, of Bergen 
County, declined accepting the appointment of com- 
missioner (to look after abandoned property), and 
Teunis Dey was appointed iu his place, July 8, 1777. 
A number of persons apprehended on suspicion of 
being disaffected and imprisoned were upon exam- 
ination discharged or exchanged for prisoners taken 
by the British. Such was the case with Isaac and 
Cornelius Van Saan, of Bergen County, who had 
been some time in jail at Morristown. On June 24, 
1777, these men were brought before the Council of 
Safety, and nothing being found against them were 
discharged. But Chief Justice Morris, happening to 
enter the Council at that moment, gave, probably 
upon rumor, such information as induced the Coun- 
cil to remand them again to jail. 

On the 27th of June a " petition of sundry inhab- 

itants of Bergen was read to the Council, setting forth 
that Isaac and Cornelius Van Saan, inhabitants of 
the county of Bergen, and now under confinement 
at Morristown, have not acted in opposition to the 
United States or aided the enemy otherwise than by 
compulsion, and praying that they may be released 
on certain terms therein specified." The motion was 
at that time laid on the table, but the Council after- 
wards agreed " that Isaac Van Saan and Cornelius 
Van Saan, now in confinement at Morristown, be ex- 
changed for John and David Demarest, now in con- 
finement in New York, and that Col. Boudinot, 
commissary-general of jirisoners, negotiate the ex- 
change." ' 

Aug. 20, 1777 : 

Jgre€dy7hat Cnpt. Abmliam Harring be directed and authorized to 
eiiliat ii company of thirty-six men, and to chooae one otlier commis- 
sioned officer, to serve a^ vohuiteera of tiie militia of tlie county of 
Bergen, to he employed for three niontlis, unless sooner discharged, as a 
guard for tlie North and East frontier parts of said County ; and that the 
said captain he authorized to purchase provisions for the said party wheu 
on actual service, or to appoint some proper person to purchase the same, 
and transmit proper accounts thereof to the Legislature, or in their 
recess to the Council of Safety, and that Mr. Camp do furnish Col. Teunis 
Dey with thiity-five pounds cash to purchase ammunition for said party, 
and that the said Camp do accovint for the expenditure of such ammu- 
nition when the said service is over.'" '^ 

Dec. 5, 1777 : 

"Agreed, That Maj. Mauritius Qoetschius be authorized to raise a com- 
pany of sixty men, with one lieutenant and an ensign, for the defense of 
the Northern parts of Bergen County, and to prevent the depredations 
of the enemy and disaffected persons, and the illicit trade and intercourst 
carried on between the county of liergen and New York, and that they 
continue to serve during three months unless sooner discharged." 3 

"Agreed, That John Alter, John Blinkerhoof, John Smith, and John 
De (Iroot, who have gone over to the enemy, have permission to return 
to this State, upon condition of their hringingwith them Peter Weater- 
velt, Jacob Westervelt, John Weslervelt, Henry Vervalier, and Jacob 
Fredon, now prisonei-s in New York." ^ 

Dec. 8, 1777 : 

"Jacob Bogert, Samuel Demarest, Henrick Zabriski, Cornelius Acker- 
man, Isaac Stags, and John Ackerman having been apprehended for 
going int«i and returning out of the enemy's lines without the passport 
required by law. Agreed, tliat they have five days to consider whether 
they will enlist in one of our battalions during the war."' 

The following are extracts from letters published 
in the newspapers of the time : 

Erlraclfriim a letter dated New BarUadoes, Bergen Co., April 22, 1779. 

" Yesterday evening Capt. Jolin Hopper, a brave and spirited officer of 
the militia of this county, was basely murdered by a party of ruffians 
from New York. He discovered them breaking open his stable-door, 
and hailed them, upon which they filed and wounded liim. He returned 
to his house; they followed, burst open the door, and bayoneted him 
in upwards of twenty places. One of them had formerly been a neighbor 
of Ilia." 

Ejirnctfrom u leUer dated Closter, Maij III, 1779. 

" This day about one liundred of the enemy came by the way of New 
Dock, attacked this place, and carried off Cornelius Tallman, Samuel 
Demarest, .Jacob Cole, and George Buskirk, killed Cornelius Demarest, 
wotinded Hendrick Demarest, Jeremiah Westervelt. Dow Tallman. etc. 
They burnt the dwelling-houses of Peter Demarest, Matthias Bogert, and 

1 Minutes of the Council of Safety, June, 1777, p. 70. 
- Ibid,, p. 122. ^ Ibid., p. 169. 

< Ibid., p. 169. ■' Ibid., p. 170. 



Cornelius Huyler, Samuel Deniareat'sliouBeand barn, John BAiita> house 
anil l>arii, and runielhis Bogert'o anil John WedtorrAlt*t! barns. They 
atttrnipted to 1<iirii every liiiililing tliey entered, but the fire was in »iine 
pincee exliiiguislied. They <l<>8tro>'ed all the fnrnltiire, etc., in niiuiy 
huusefl. aiitl abused many of tbe women. In their retreat they were no 
clu«ely pursni-d by the militia and a few Continental troope that they 
t<Hik ofTnn cuttle. They wereuf Bnukirk's eor|M,6ome of our old Cluster 
»hd Tappan neighUm, joined by a party uf negroes. I should have 
Diuntioued the negroe« first, in order to grace the Itritish anus.*' 

Extract/rom a letter dtited Seic BuWhiJom, July 22, 1779. 
" On Sunday afternoon, the luth iuKt., a party of Rerngeea and Toriee, 
In number about twenty, under the couiDnind uf Lieut. Waller (as it is 
mid), landed at Closter Dock, and atlvanced to the iieiKhborhood called 
Cloeter, from which ihey collected and drove ofT a considerable number 
of cattle iind horeeii, in order to carry them on Imard a sloop which they 
had brougtit up for that pur|K>8e. Tliey were pursued by Cajit. Ilarring 
and Thomnn Itninch, Keq., ut the heud of u few of their nejgliliors, 
haitlily collected, who recuvereil all the i-attio except two and a ctilf.and 
all the horacH save one and an old mure, which they had got ou board 
previous ti» the arrivitl of Capt. Ilarring. The captain Unyk. iwu primon- 
ere, seven Ktandof urms, and three suits of clotlic(<,atid obliged the enemy 
to cut their cable, conceal themselves below deck, and let tht-ir vessel 
drlvt9 with the tide, iiotwilhsianding above twenty vessels in the river 
attempted to pnitect them by cannonading Capt. Harring.'* 

The following miscellaneous items were printed in 
the newspapers in 1780: 

** An inhabitant of Bergen named Van Wagener was taken by the 
Refugees on his return from tbo rebels. He had gone, after recon* 
nnltring the Refugees* Post, to give intelligence of the situation. It is 
n\»'> said that the rebels hit vr carried otT Mr. .lohii Phillips, u quiet itihiib- 
ilnnl, on a suspicion of his huvirig l>een friendly to our pe«»ple.*' — New 
York GaxeUe and H'cekhj ,lfej*-iij/er, Oct. 16, 17H0. 

"The rebels on Saturdiiy burnt Col. William Bayard's new house and 
l>nrn at Cttstile, on the north end of Iloebuck, and destroyed all the for- 
age and timber to be found there to a very large amount." — AVir )*or|: 
Mercury, .\ug. 2«, 1780. 

"Gens. Washington, Lafayette, Greene, and Wayne, with many other 
ofBcers and lari^o iNxlles of rebels, have been in the vicinity of Bergen 
for many diiys past. They have taken all the fonige fmni the inbnb- 
itaiits of tliHtplac*'. Their officers were down to Prior's Mill last Friday, 
but did not seem iucUned to make any attack.** — Same paper. 

*' In one of these visits to Bergen, Wasliington and 
Lafayetto dined under an apple-tree in tlie (orchard 
hack of Ilartinan Van Wagener's liouse, close by the 
Bergen Square. Tliis w;lh blown down by the great 
gale of Sept. 3, 1821. A pleasing reference was made 
to thi.s incidrnt when the marquis visited this country 
in 1X24. ( )ti Thursday, the 2:{d of September in that 
year, he liinded in Jersey City. At Lyon's Hotel he 
was introduceii to Governor William.son and others. 
Accompanied by a large retinue he moved on towards 
Newark. At the Five Corners the Bergen people had 
gathered in large numbers to do him honor. He was 
preseiittMl with a superb cane, made (»f the apple-tree 
under which he and his chief had dined, elegantly 
mounted with gohl, with this inscription: 'Shaded 
the hero and his friend Washington in 1771); pre- 
sented Ijy the Corporation of Bergen in 1824.* " It was 
aceompanie<l by the following addr(\Hs by Dominic 
Cornelison : 

"GcNKRAL, — In behalf of my fellow-cftlzens, I bid ymi a hearty and 
oonllal welcome to the town of llergen, a phice t)irt>iigh which yon 
trmveleil during our llevidutlonnry struggle for Ijlwrty and Independ- 
ence, AiMK-latoil with our llluslriouk Wnshlngtou, yoiir example In- 
spired roumge anri patrloiliim In the heart of every true .\nierican. 

" You, sir, left your abotle of ease, aflluenre, and happinriw to endure 
llie hardahiiM and prlfatlons of the i-anip. To nnuniernte your marllst 
deeds is st this lime iinneceMary, yet they awaken and call forth our 

warmeet gmtitude. As a tribute of esteftoi and veneratton, permit me, 
sir, to ask the favor of your acceptance of this small token of respect, 
taken from an apple-tree under which you once dine<t, nnd which once 
offered you n shelter from the piercing mys of noonday ; and, although 
it possesses no healing virtue, may it still be a support. And may you, 
sir, after ending a life of usefulness and piety, be adndttinl into the 
regions of everlasting joy and felicity." — Sentitul of Preedomt Sept. 28, 

, " A party of rebels came to and plundered Bergen last Friday.** — N*%e 

I I'orJt Merrury, April 2, 1781. 

"Last Friday night a party went from Newark and captured two 
sloops lying near Refugee Post, on Bergen shore, out of which they took 
eight prisoners, who were sent to Morristown.*' — .V<*r York I'uckel, Aug. 
30, 1781. 

** Last Wednesday night a party of Ward's plunderers fh>Di Bergen 
Neck came to the neighborliood of Hnckensack, where they collected a 
number of cattle, which the inhabitants retook, and killotl and wounded 

, several of the miscreatits." — A>ir Jeru'y Journal, Sept. 5, 1781. 

"On Wednesday evening last a party of eleven men under Capt. Wil- 
liam Harding went from Fort De Lnncey, on Bergen Neck, to Closter 
and oiptured a rebel guani of six men and Unpen cattle, and took tliem 
safely to the fort,*' — AVir York Mercury, Sept. 17, 1781. 

It was from Fort De Lancey, the stronghold of the 
Refugees on Bergen Neck, that the following address 
to Prince William Henry, the third son of George 
III., and afterwards William IV., emanated. In Sep- 
tember, 1781, the prince arrived in New York as mid- 
shipman under Admiral Digby. The Refugees at 
Fort De Lancey availed themselves of the oi>portunity 
to display their obsetinious loyalty, and on the 1st of 
October laid before His Royal Highness the address 
which we give below : 

"To His Roval Hioiiness Puince William Hlnsy: 

" We, His Majesty's dutiful nnd loyal subjects, the Kefngeee stationed 
on Bergen Neck, beg leave to address your Royal Highness (through the 
channel of our commanding officer) on your safe arrival In America. It 
is impossible for us to express the satisfaction thai is visible in the (ace 
of ever>' Individual l>olouging to our immll iwrty at m) dlHtinguisbed au 

'■ honor paid to the loyal inhabitants of (hie continent by the arriral of so 
amiable and distinguished n character as the son of our royal sovereign. 
"The mensures pursued by a designing, base set iif men early lu this 
unnatural contest obliged ns to leave our habitations and tly for safety 
to His Majesty's troopt^, since which we have let our )H.<rse<-ulor8 (who 
meant our dwtruction) feel the ofii*cts of our resentment, and ct>uviuced 
them that we contended for that which every man, at the risk of his life, 
ou^ht to defend. 

"Therefore we flatter onrs«*lveH that your Royal Highness is ciinvinced 
of our sincerity, of our attachment to their Mt^esties and the royal pro* 

, geny iwhlch we are always willing to give frefh priKifs of), praying for 
that day when rebellion nmy bo crushed and |H)ftce eetablislteil through- 

\ out this continent, und His Majesty's standard <Iisplaye«l triumphant by 
land and sea. May Heaven protect your Royal Highness to time of 

I danger, and permit you to n^turn cimwuihI with th** launds uf victory to 
your niyal parents. 
"Fort I>r. Lanckv, os Rkroen Neck, 1st October, 1781.'* 

This address was presented to the prince by Maj. 
Thoma.s Ward and his ofticers. Through Admiral 
Digby the prince replied: 


I "Niw YoKK.Oct. 3, 1781. 

"The hnndde addnwi of llirt Majesty's dutmil and loyal subjects, the 
Refugees Htatione<l on Rergon Neck, has l>een received by Ills Royal 
I Highness. 

"Ills Royal HighiiMs has ieen with pleasute the lt>yal sentiments 
contained In Iheaildress.and Rear- Admiral IMgby will take cnrr to make 
them known to His M'ljraty. Roni-.RT Dioiir. 


AT UKitur.N Nkck." 

About the Ist of September, 1782, Fort iK- Lancey 
was evacuated and burned. On Saturday, October 



5th, Maj. Ward, with his despised and motley crew of 
Refugees, embarked for Xova Scotia, carrying with 
them implements of husbandry, one year's provisions, 
and the undying hatred of all Americans. The 
patriots who had suffered at their hands rejoiced at 
their exile, and in song sneered at their future home: 

" Nova Scotia, that coUi, barren land. 
Where they live upon shell-fish and dig iu tlu' sand."' 



Among the first acts passed by the Legislature of 
New Jersey were those relating to the security of the 
government and the punishment of treason. At the 
first session under the Constitution, held at Princeton, 
from the 27th of August to the Sth of October, 1776, 
an act was passed, on the 19th of September, repeal- 
ing the old oath of loyalty to the king, and prescrib- 
ing the new oath of allegiance to the government 
formed by authority of the people. The oath of 
abjuration of the kingly authority is in the words 
following, to wit : 

" I, A. B., do sincerely profess and swear (or, if one of the people called 
Cfuakers, nffirml That I do not hold myself bound to bear Allegiance to the 
King o/ Great Britain. So help me God." 

The following is the oath of allegiance to the popu- 
lar government : 

" I, A. B., do sincerely profess and swear (or, if one of the people called 
Quakers, affirm) That I do ond wilt bear true Faith and Allegionce to the 
Government established in this State under the A uthority of the People. So 
help me God." 

In an " Act to punish traitors and disaffected per- , 
sons," passed Oct. 4, 177G, it is provided in the fourth 
section — 

" That any two Justices of the Peace shall and they hereby are em- 
powered and directed to Convene by Summons or Warrant any Person 
whatsoever whom they shall suspect to be dangerous or disaffected to 
the present Government, and to tender and administer to him the Oaths 
of Abjuration and Allegiance set forth in an Act entitled ' An Act for the 1 
Security of the Government of New Jersey,' passed the nineteenth 
of September, One Thousand Seven Hundred and Seventy-Six.2 And if 
any person to whom the said Oath shall be tendered shall neglect or re- 
fuse to take the same, the said Justices shall hind him over with suJB- 
cient Sureties to appear at the ne.\t Court of General Quarter-Sessions of 
the Pea^^e, and to be in the meanwhile of good Behaviour ; and in de- 
fault of sufficient sureties, or on refusal to be bound, the said Justices are 
hereby empowered and directed to Commit such Offender to close Gaol, ' 
and Certify the same, witli the cause of commitment, under their Hands 
and seals, to the next Court of (Juarter-Sessions of the Peace, where, if 
such offender refuse to take the said Oaths, he shall continue bound to I 
his good Behaviour, or be fined or imprisoned, as the said Court shall 
deem necessary." 

In the early stage of the war many persons had 
been induced to leave their homes and their friends 
and join the army of the king of Great Britain. 
Others who had been guilty of treasonable practices 
against the State secreted themselves to escape punish- 

ment. " In compassion for their unhappy situation," 
and desirous that every means should be employed to 
restore such to their allegiance and to the benefits of 
a free government, the Legislature of New Jersey, on 
the 5th of June, 1777, passed " An Act of free and 
general pardon, and for other purposes therein men- 
tioned." This act provided that all such offenders 
who chose to return to their allegiance or join the 
cause of their country before the 5th day of August 
next ensuing should meet with amnesty on the part 
of the government, and upon taking the prescribed 
oath before the judge of the Supreme Court, or of the 
Court of Common, or any justice of the peace, should 
receive the following form of certificate : 

*' I, C. D. (one of the Justices, etc., as the case may be), do lierehy Cer- 
tify that A. B., being one of the Offenders described in an Act of the 
Legislature of New Jersey, made and passed the fifth day of June, One 
Thousand Seven Hundred and Seventy-seven, intitled * An Act of free 
and general Pardon, and for other Purposes therein mentioned,' having 
volnntarihj appeared before me and claimed the Benefit of the said Act, 
hath this day taken and Subscribed the Oaths (or Affirmations, as the 
case may require) prescribed in tlie said Act. Given under my Hand and 
Seal the Day of Anuo Domini 1777. 

• C. D. 


On presenting this certificate to the clerk of the 
county of his residence, to be recorded in a book kept 
for that purpose, the offender should be " freely and 
absolutely pardoned, released, and discharged from 
all Treasons and other offences specified in an Act 
of the Legislature of the State made and passed at 
Princeton on the fourth day of October, in the year 
of our Lord One Thousand Seven Hundred and Sev- 
enty-six, intitled ' An Act to punish Traitors and 
Disaffected Persons,' " and should be thereupon " re- 
stored to all the Rights, Liberties, and Privileges of 
other and good subjects of this State."'' If, on the 
contrary, they declined or refused to accept of the 
generous offer of the government within the time 
specified in the act, commissioners appointed by law 
were to take possession of their estates, real and per- 
sonal, and under certain conditions lease or sell the 
same for the benefit of the gtate. That part of the 
act relating to this subject is as follows : 

" That the commissioners for the respective counties hereinafter ap. 
pointed, or any or either of them, shall and may, with all convenient 
speed after the publication of this act, make a true and perfect inventory 
of all the personal estate and effects of every such offender, and dispose 
of all the perishable part thereof; and in case they shall apprehend any 
danger of such pereonal estate or effects falling into the hands of the 
eneniy, then to sell and dispose of the whole thereof, and keep in their 
hands the monies arising from such sale for the loie o/ t/ie ojriier, who 
shall as aforesaid appear and take said oaths on or before the said first 
day of August next, and the same to him pay, deducting therefrom for 
their trouble over and above all reasiuiable charges and expeuces at the 
rate of five per cent. ; and if such owner shall not appear and take the 
said oaths as aforesaid within the time aforesaid, then such commissioner 
or commissioners shall pay the same, deducting as aforesaid, to the treas- 
urer, for the use of the State, whose receipt for the same shall be a 
sufficient discharge." 

In case the personal estate and effects were not con- 
sidered iu danger of being taken or destroyed by the 

t New Jtrgey Journal, Sejit. 1 1, 1782. 

'- Chap, ii.. Acta of 1776. 

» Chap, v., Laws of 1776. 



enemy, they were not to be sold, but kept safely for 
the owner, wlio should receive tliern, abating the cost 
and commission, upon liis return and acceptance of 
the conditions of pardon by takin-r the prescribed 
oath of allegiance. But " in case the said owner shall 
not appear and take the benefit of the said Pardon, 
then such Personal Estiite and Effects shall be and 
are hereby declared to be forfeited to this State, and 
shall be disjKised of by some future Law of the Legis- 

The commissioners appointed for taking charge of 
the abandoned personal property in Bergen County 
were James Board, Hendrick Kuyper, and Peter Fell, 
appointed by the act of June 5, 1777. Under this 
act only personal property of fugitives wa.s taken care 
of or sold, accordingly as it was found exposed to de- 
struction by tlie enemy or otherwise. Considerable 
property of the latter sort was sold by the commis- 
sioners in Bergen County, on account of the more 
exposed condition of this section. But we have no 
records showing the amount ami kind of such prop- 
erty sold. 

On the 18th of April, 1778, the Legislature passed 
" An Act for taking Charge of and Leasing the Real 
Estate, and for Forfeiting the Personal Estates of 
certain Fugitives and Oflenders, and for eidarging 
and continuing tlie Powers of Commissioners ap- 
pointed to seize and dispose of such Personal Estates, 
and for ascertaining and discharging the lawful debts 

This act empowered and authorized the commis- 
sioners, or any or cither of them, to make returns to 
any justice of the peace in the county of the name and 
place of the late abode of each person whose personal 
estate or effects had been seized, and thereupon such 
justice wa.s required to issue a written precept to any 
constable of the county to convene a jury of twenty- 
four freeholders, who should make inquisition into 
the matter before the said justice of the peace upon the 
evidence presented by the commissioners, and such 
other evidence as might be obtaineil in the premises. 
At least twelve of the jurors were reipiired to agree 
in their verdict, which should be in writing under 
their hantis and seals, and slioiild be returned by the 
justice to the next Inferior Court of Common Pleas 
held in the county. The manner of proceeding in 
the Court of Common Pleas is set forth in the act as 

"2. Antt hr U/urther eaatlnt, TliM Oie ln<|ilisltion rerUOnl ai sf(ir«8aid 
ahaU l*o rctiiriKMl !•>- ttio Justice Wforo wlioiii it wnn tnkiMi \ln the next 
Inforiur Cuiirt of (Vmititoii I'Iniui hulilon in the L-outity ; aii<l |iriM-laiiiA- 
tion tliall DirfiiiHii) hv niiulo in opoii cmirt tliat \t tiu< )t«nion a^iiitt 
whom aiK-ti inqiilniliftn hatti 1h>pii fnmieii.or an; p^'imiii on lilj l>f>hair,or 
who Riiall think hinmoif IntfToato*) in tlio prpiiiisiNi, Mtii a|i)K-aran<l tni- 
TerM» the naid ln<|iiiflllon, ami put in leciirity in tlip snni nf viir Utomnntl 
jtouniU, or ancli otliir mini aa llifi court nia> ilirprt, Ijy rrcotcniranre or 
tiond, to tho OoTprniir or i-oniinnn<<f of liif SIntr for tln' llnio 
bciiifE, ami iiia Huixrawim, for liii< nito of tiirStato. Willi ronilitloii to pnw- 
ixnit)* ttio traTPRM* to I'ffn t, nnri li> |>a)' ail inili cohIp iu liiaii t>f> nwiirili^l 
in ra»(' jniifiniKiit Rlinll ).«* icivon ai^liint tin* ppiwin mi imvprninK; iIm'ii 
Iha aalii triivi<r»« aliali iw ri^ii'lTiHl aii<l a trial liiarroii awan|p.l ; hut If no 
|>«rion ihall apixiar ttilravrnip tlip rfliTt of tlip mhl prticlaiiiatlon ahall 

be adv«cliM(l hy Uie couMiiiiiaioiier ur commiHiunpra who applied for the 
precept ait afort'said in liw uf tiit- moat pnhilc piace« in the county, and 
ttl*) inserteii ill the A'eir Jrrtey GuMflte, if the wtnio elioll be tlien puli- 
iiiihetl, within thirty dayn after hucIi court; and if the por»un n^initt 
wlioni such iii(|uiKitioii bIihII have K-un found, or any {lenion in hi« lie. 
Iiiilf, or who shall think hiuinelf interented in the prenii6e«, shall at the 
nextcourt afler the return of inch llitiiiit.ition appear and offer to tra- 
verse the same as aforeeaid, and put in security as aforei«id, the said 
tniTerse blinll tlion he received and a trial thereupon awanled ; otherwise 
liuch intinisition shall be taken to be tine, and final judgment shall be 
entered Uiereon in favor of the Slate. And all and sini^lar the goods 
and chattels, rights and croihls, and other personal estate whatsoever of 
the offender against wiioin judgment is so entered shall lie and ai^ 
hereby declHred to be forfeited to and for tlie use of the State ; and the 
ciininiissioners, or any or either of llieni, shall thereupon sell at public 
venilue all such of the goods, chattels, and personal estate of such of. 
fender as remain unsold, giving si least ten days* notice of the time and 
place of sale l>y ndvertisenients set up in not less than Ave of the moat 
public idaces witliin ten mill's of the |ilace of sale, tliereiu describing Uie 
principal articles to lie Hold.'* 

Real estates, left without legal or rightful occupants, 
and subject to great waste or damage by the enemy, 
were by the eighth section of the act of April 18, 1778, 
to be leased by the commissioners until the Legisla- 
ture should take further action therein, and the ten- 
ants were made responsible for the rent and proper 
care of the premises. This was a wise provision, in- 
asmuch as the property would otherwise have greatly 
depreciated in value before the lime of sale, and the 
State tliereby sutler considerable It w:us, there- 
fore, made lawful for the commi.ssioners, immediately 
upon inquisition found, and without waiting for entry 
of final judgment, to fjike into their care, jwssession, 
and management all such hereditaments, real estates, 
lands, and lenements, ami to let and lease them, as 
provided in the act, for a term not exceeding one year 
from the 21st of March, 177>!. .Vll sales made by the 
(illcnders alter joining the enemy were declared void. 
Quartermasters of the army taking forfeited property 
were made aeconntable therefor. 

High Treason. — The crime which worked the for- 
feiture and confiscation of real estates in New .Jersey 
was that of high treason, and is thus defined in the 
act of Dee. 11, 1778, entitled "An act for forfeiting 
to and vesting in the State of New Jersey the real 
estates of certain fugitives and offenders, and for 
directing the mode of determining and satisfying the 
lawful debts and demands wliicli may be due from or 
made against such fugitives and ortenders, and for 
other purposes therein mentioned" : 

"JUU tttrtcM hp the Authortin n/ortmid. That each and every InhaU 
Itaiit of this stale, seized or |MiBSesM>d of, interested iu or entltleil to any 
KstHte, Ileal or I'erfxiniil, within the same, who hath, since the nineteenth 
T>ay of Al>ril, One Thousand Seven Hundred and Seventy. live, and be- 
fore the fourth I>ay of October, One Thousand Seven llunclred aiel Sev- 
enty-six, aided and amisted the enemies thereof, or of the United States, 
by Joining their Armies uilliin this Stale, or otherwise, or who hath 
voluntarily gone to, taken refuge or continued with, or en<leavttre<l to 
continue with the Enemy aforesaid, and aiil them by Counsel or other- 
wise, and who hath not shire returned and lieeome a Sul^i>et in Alle- 
giance to the present Goveriinieiit by taking tlie (laths or Alllrniations 
proscribeil in the Act eiitllbHl ' An Act the Seeurily of the liovern- 
nient of Now JenHiy,' |iasaa<l the niiioloeiith Ilay of Septamlwr, One 
Thnusanil Seven Hiindred and S-venty-six, when re<)ulred, each and 
every bik-Ii Teraon is hereby t*eolare<i to be guilty of High Treaiatll 
against thb Slate; and on Convictluii thereof by luqalsltiuu found, and 



final Juilgment thereou entered in favor of the State, as hereinafter de- 
clared, s'lch Conviction sliall amonnt to a full and absolute Forfeiture 
of such Person's Estate, both Real and Personal, whatsoever, within 
this State, to and for the Use and Benefit of the same: Proviped Al- 
ways, That such Conviction sliall not extend to affect the Peraon of any | 
such OtTender, but shall operate ag-ainst his or her Estate only."l 

Under the provisions of the foregoing acts estates 
were confiscated and sold in New Jersey in 1778 and 
1779. But the war still continuing, the poverty of i 
the country and tlie depreciated state of the currency ■ 
made it necessary to discontinue their sale to a more 
favorable time. Hence on the 26th of June, 17S1, an 
act was passed by the Legislature of Xew Jersey, en- 
titled " An act to suspend the sales of real estates 
which have or hereafter may become forfeited to and 
vested in this State." Under an act passed Dec. 20, 
1781, Hendriek Kuyper was appointed agent to take 
charge of forfeited estates in Bergen County. Some 
of the confiscated estates disposed of in this county j 
were sold by the commissioners, James Board, Garret ' 
Lyndecker, Hendriek Kuyper, Peter Fell, and others, 
previous to the act of suspension. After that they I 
were sold by the agents, Hendriek Kuyper and Cor- [ 
nelius Haring, who executed the deeds to the pur- j 
chasers, which are found recorded in the clerk's office 
of Bergen County. We have comjiiled from these deeds, 
as matters of pulilic record, the following: 

List of Confiscated Estates in the County of 
Bergen. Sohlbytlie Cr»ntnis«ionrrt< fnnn June 10, 177'J, 
to March 8, 1787.— Estate of Albert Zabriskie, " late of 
Schraalenburgh, township of Hackensack, who joined 
the army of the King of Great Britain on or about Dec. 
7, 1776," consisting of 14.'-!i acres, bounded south by 
the land of David D. Demarest, east by the land of 
Seaba Banta, north by the land of Joost Zabriskie, 
and west by Hackensack River. Sold to Isaac Nicoll, 
of Orange County, N. Y., for £4734, June 10, 1779. 
Book D of Deeds, page 97. 

Estate of John Merseles, " late of the township of 
Hackensack," consisting of 100 acres and appurte- 
nances, in Schraalenburgh. Sold to Peter Wilson, for 
£3367, Nov. 3, 1779. Book D of Deeds, page 287. 

Estate of Daniel I. Brown, of Hackensack, 8? acres. 
Sold to Peter Wilson, for £204 16,'i., Sept. 6, 1780. 
Book D, page 317. 

Estate of John Myers, New Barbadoes, 33.1 acres, 
with tenements, in the township of New Barbadoes, 
aforesaid. Sold to Isaac Vaii_ijiessen, for £974 10.«., 
June 3, 1779. Book D, page 320.^"^' 

Estate of Daniel S. Demarest, of Hackensack town- 
ship, 25 acres and buildings, lying south of the land 
of John S. Demarest. Sold to Beekman Van Bueren, 
for £1125. Book D, page 351. 

Estate of Aaron Demarest, of the township of 

Hackensack, consisting of 103 acres, more or less. 

Sold to Weist Banta and John W. Christie, for £2178, 

Nov. 4, 1779. Book D of Deeds, page 354. 

^ Estate of John F. Byerson, of Saddle River, bounded 

1 Chap, cxxii., Acta of 1778. 

north by the Ramapo Patent, containing 262 acres. 
Sold to John Van Allen, for 4;9775 16s., Nov. 5, 1779. 
Book D of Deeds, page 389. 

Estate of John F. Ryerson, aforesaid, containing 
49 acres more or less, bounded south by the Pas- 
saic River, etc. Sold to John Van Allen, for £1825, 
Nov. 5, 1779. Book D of Deeds, page 393. 

Estate of James Van Bueren, consisting of lots and 
tenements, south of Jacobus Bogert's. Sold to Adam 
Boyd, of New Barbadoes, for £2428 is. 6rf., Nov. 3, 
1779. Book D of Deeds, page 425. 

Estate of Daniel Jessup, of Hackensack township. 
Sold to Adam Boyd, for £234 7.«., June 3, 1779. Book 
D of Deeds, page 433. 

Estate of David Peck, of Schraalenburgh, adjoining 
Abraham Quackenbush's land on the west, running 
east to Owspeck Creek, 122i acres. Sold to Henry 
Folks, for £1921 lO.-*., June 3, 1779. Deed recorded 
in Book E, page 224. 

Estate of Abraham Van Embergh, of New Barba- 
does, 74] acres, north of the land of Arent Schuyler, 
on the east side of Passaic River, with tenements, etc. 
Sold to William Clark, for £638 6». 9(;., June 3, 1779. 
Book E, page 349. 

Estate of Hendriek Doremus, "late of Saddle 
River," containing "304 acres more or less," with 
buildings, etc., in Saddle River township. Sold to 
Adolphus Waldron, for £6575, Nov. 1, 1779. Book 
F, page 99. 

Estate of Jacobus Fox, " late of Franklin town- 
ship," containing 100 acres more or less, with tene- 
ments and appurtenances thereunto belonging, etc. 
Sold to Hendriek Bogert, for £1457 ll.«., Nov. 3, 1779. 
Book F, page 331. 

Estate of Abraham and John Haring, " late of the 
township of Harington," containing 200 acres, with 
houses and tenements, lying on the Hackensack River, 
west side, and bounded south by the land of Cornelius 
Blauvelt. Sold to Henry Wisner, for £3778, Nov. 2, 
1779. Book G, page 35. 

Sold by James Board et al., Commminners. 

Estate of John Merseles, "late of the township of 
Hackensack," 100 acres, with buildings, etc., bounded 
east by the land of the Schraalenburgh parsonage, etc. 
Sold to Peter Wilson, for £3367, Nov. 3, 1779. Book 
D, page 287. 

Estate of Hendriek Bush, " late of the precinct of 
New Barbadoes," containing 24 acres more or less, 
with buildings, etc. Sold to Peter Wilson, June 10, 
1784, for £150. Book D, page 309. 

Estate.of John I. Ackerman, " flfty-six acres more 
or less," with buildings, etc., lying north of the land 
of Peter Van Blarcom. Sold to Cornelius Van Home, 
for £2437 10«., Nov. 4, 1779. Book D, page 405. 

Estate of John Lukins, 13 acres and appurtenances, 
in two lots of 6i acres each, in New Barbadoes. Sold 
to Adam Boyd, for £726 lOs., May 11, 1784. Book D 
of Deeds, page 429. 



Estate of Abraham A. Quackenbush, " late of the 
township of Hackensack, in said county of Bergen," 
lands and tenements situatetl on tlie Ilackensack 
River, bounded west by tiie land of Isaac lUaiivelt, 
south by the land of Cornelius Van Home, etc. Sold 
to Samuel Sayer, for £1320 10». 9rf., Nov. 3, 1779. 
Book E, page 14. 

Eiitate of Herman Van Hlarkum, " late of Par- 
amus," l.'>.» acres, buildings, etc. .^old to Albert 
Hopper, for 413400,' Oct. Id, 1779. Book P of Deeds, 
page 191. 

Sold by Corneliits Harinij, Agent. 

Estate of John Spier and Jacob Demarest, lands 
and tenements, in Ilackensack township, beginning at 
Hackensack River on the line of Peter Wilson ; thence 
south eighty-eight and a half degrees fourteen chains, 
all along the land of said Wilson to the road ; thence 
north fourteen and a half degrees, east seven chains 
and ten links to the land of said Van Bueren ; thence 
north eighty degrees, west seven chains ; thence north 
five and a half degrees, east nine chains to the Ilack- 
ensack River; thence southerly along said river as it 
runs to the place of beginning. Containing 12 acres 
and three-quarters. Sold to Beekman Van Bueren, 
Aug. 25, 1784. 

Estate of Thomas Outwater. Sold to Jacobus 
Pauelse, Oct. l.i, 1785. Book D, 261. 

Estate of William Bayard, .564 acre^, in the town- 
ship of Bergen, at Hobokcn. Sold to John Stevens, 
Jr., July 26, 1784, for the sum of £18,360 lawful 
money of New Jersey. Deed recorded in Book D, ' 
page 437. 

Estate of William Bayard, 1 25 acres, in the township 
of Bergen. Deeded to John Stevens, Aug. 25, 1784. 
Lib. D of Deeds, 440. j 

John F. Ryerson, Saildle River, 130 acres, formerly 
surveyed for John Fane Ryerson and Dick Ryerson. 
Bought by Benjamin Shotwell, Jan. 16, 1787. Lib. 
E, page 21 of Deeds. 

John F. Ryerson, 93 acres, in the Ramapo Patent. 
Purchased by Benjamin Shotwell, Feb. 24, 1787. Lib. 
E, page 24. 

John Zabriskie (see Book E of Deeds, ]>age8 87, 
88). Bought by .Joseph Johnson. 

.lohn F. Ryerson, ^<addle River, 4(t,*,,'„ acres. Sold 
t" Isaac Nicoll for £1069. Book V. of Deeds, page 94. 

William Bayard, land on Norths River, adjoining 
Wcehawkeii. Sold to Daniel Baldwin, Dee. 1, 1784, 
for £800 lawful money of New Jersey. Lib. E of 
Deeds, page 136. 

William Bayard, 104 acres, adjoining Hoboken 
Creek. Sold to Jacobus J. Bogert, May 11, 1784. 
Lib. E, page 1.53, Deeds. 

Michael Van Tuyl, township of Bergen, 20 acres at 
Bergen Point. Sold to .\n<lrew Van Tuyl el ul., June 
20, 1787. 

.Irilin Richanis, loO acres and appurtenances, in the 
township of New Barbadoes, being a tract of land 
conveyeil by Warner Richards and Mary, his wife, 

to the said John Richards. Sold as confiscated prop- 
erty to James Thompson, Dec. 6, 1786, for £3100. 
Lib. E, page 239. 

Garritt Lyndecker, township of Hackensack, 180 
acres and tenements. Sold, Aug. 2, 1784, to Oarritt 
Lyndecker, Esq., for £3712. Liber F, Dee<ls, page55. 

William Bayard, 23 acres, bounded west by north 
of lot No. 17, ca-st by Jacobus Bogert, south by lot 
No. 19, township of Bergen. Sold to William Jack- 
son for £502, .May 1, 1744. 

William Bayard, 25 acres, bounded northerly by 
the road or lot No. 10, east by lot" No. 4, south by 
lot No. 12, township of Bergen. Sold to William 
Jackson, of the township of Bergen, for £550, May 10, 

Christian Pullisfelt, of the township of Franklin, 
100 acres, bounded southerly and westerly by lands 
belonging to the general proprietors of East Jersey, 
northerly by Jacobus Bogert, easterly by Jacobus Pul- 
lisfelt, township of Franklin aforesai<l. Sold to Peter 
Ward, of Saddle River, for £800, July 2, 1784. Lib. 
F, Deeds, page 198. 

John F. Ryerson, of Saddle River, 229 acres, in 
Saddle River township, lying on the- southeast of 
High Mouiitain, adjoining a tract belonging to John 
Ryerson and Cornelius tiarretson. Sold to John Ste- 
vens. Jr., Esq., for £300, March 8, 1787. 

Albert Zabriskie, 5 acres on the Ilackensack River, 
beginning at Doe's Creek, on the southerly corner of 
John Romeyer's meadow. Sold to Isaac Nicoll, for 
£48, May 1, 1785. Lib. G, Deeds, page 310. 

Nicholas Hoffman, 5.35 acres, in township of Hack- 
ensack, '' being the lands on the meadows formerly 
belonging to Mr. .\braham Oouvernor, of the city of 
New York," and "the other equal half-part being 
formerly granted by David Ogden, Ks<i., to Abraham 
Ogden, Esq." Sold to Martin Hoffman el <il., for £220, 
Dec. 1, 1786. 

Robert Drummond, of Esse.K County, 63 acres, in 
Franklin township, bounded northerly by lands of 
Peter Van Zile, easterly by the land of Simeon Van 
Winkle, south by the said Van Winkle, west by the 

land of Romine. Sold to Peter Ward, July 16, 

1784, for £765 lawful money of New Jersey. Lib. H, 
jiagc 43. 

Edmund Simmons, " late of the precinct of Hacken- 
sack," 6J acres, " beginning at a dock on Hackensack 
River, below New Bridge, so called, and near the house 
formerly occupied by Dr. Van Bnskirk," etc. Sold 
by the agent to Capt. Gyles Mead, of Hackensack, 
for f4<M), July 1, 1784. Lib. K, Deed.s, 128. 

Niclnihis Loshier, " late of the precinct of Hacken- 
sack," lands and tenements in Hackensack township. 
Sold to Arie Westervelt el al., for £153 15*., Sept. 21, 
1784. Lib. O, Deeds, page 231. 

Peter P. Bogert, " late of the township of Harring- 
ton," lands urnl tenements in that township (14S acres, 
"strick measure"!. Sold to John Stevens, Jr., for 
£1800, March 1, 17.S7. 



William Bayard, *'late of Hoboken/' in the county 
of Berg-en, lot containing 4-] acres, extending from 
Hudson River on the east to vSecaucus Commons on 
the west. Sold to Cornelius Huyler, for £702, Aug. 
25, 1784. Lib. E 2, page 67. 

As a specimen of the deeds given by the agent, we 
copy the following:^ 

*' Tu all to whom these presents shall Come, ur may Concern, Greet- 
ing: Whereas lately, that is to say, of the Term of January last, a Writ 
or Process, directed to me. Cornelius Haring, Agent of forfeited Estates 
in the County of Bergen, in the State uf New Jersey, issued" out of the 
Court of Common Pleas lield at New Barbadues, in and for the County 
of Bergen, setting forth that of the Term of March in the year of our 
Lord one tliousand seven hundred and seventy-nine, in tlie Court of 
Ctinimon Pleas held at Pompton in and for the County aforesaid, before 
the Judges of the same Court final Judgment was had and entered in 
favor of the State of New Jersey, pursuant to the Laws, against Lewis 
Miltenberry fur joining the army of the King of Great Britain, Ac, and 
returned to the said Court : And thereupon I the said Agent wasin and 
by the w rit or process aforesaid commanded and required to sell and dis- 
pose of all and singular the lands, tenements, and hereditaments so held 
iu fee or for term of life and personally all Estate Real of whatsoeverkind 
belonging or lately belonging to the said Lewis Miltenberry within the 
said County of Bergen, as iu and by the said Writ or Process, and the 
Record thereof in tlie Clerk's Office of the said County of Bergen, refer- 
ence l)eing thereunto had, tliese things will more fully and at large ap- 
pear; and whereas the Premises hereinafter mentioned and described are 
or were reputed to be or lately to have been the property of the said 
Lewis Miltenberry, I the Agent aforesaid, pui-suaut to the Command 
and direction to me in the said Writ or Process specified and Contained ; 
and also by furce and virtue of Certain Acts of the Legislature of the 
State of New Jersey, in such case made and provided, did Expose and 
Cause the said Premises to be sold at public sale or vendue to Albert 
Wilson, of Franklin aforesaid, the Seventeenth day of June, a. d. one thou- 
sand seven hundred and eighty-four, then and there being the highest 
bidder for the sum of seventy-four pounds lawful money of the said State 
of New Jt-rsey, first having duly advertised and published the sale 
thereof : 

"Now Know ^e that I the said Cornelius Haring, the Agent afore- 
said, by virtue of the Writ or Process aforesaid to me directe<i and deliv- 
ered, and by force and virtue of the laws in such case made and provided, 
and fur and in Consideration of the sum of seventy-four Pounds to me 
well and truly in hand paid by the said Albert Wilson, the receipt 
whereof I hereby acknowledge, have granted, bargained, sold, &c. . . . 
to the said Albert Wilson, his heirs and assigns forever, all the estate, 
right, tille, interest, property, claim and demand whatsoever, either in 
law or equity, which the said Lewis Miltenberry hath or lately had, or 
ought to have had, of, in and to all that certain messuage, tennameut 
huuse and piece or parcel of land situate lying and being iu the Town- 
ship of Fmnklin aforesaid, beginning at the road and at the line of 
Abraham Hopper; thence North seventy-three degrees, we^t five chains 
and fifteen links; ihence South seventy-three degrees, E;iSt four chains 
to the road; thence all along the road to the place of beginning: Con- 
taining two acres he tlie same mure or less, bounded northerly by Abraham 
Hopper, westerly by the lands formerly the property of J. M. Provost, 
and southerly by the same lands, and esislerly by the road. ... To have 
and to hold, etc. ... In witness whereof the said Apent hath hereunto 
set his hand and seal this Second day of December, Anno Domini one 
thousand seven hundred and eighty-four.'* 



Under the act of Dec. 26, 1780, eight hundred and 
twenty men were ordered to be raised to .serve till 
Jan. 1, 1782. The quota of Bergen County was one 

hundred and twenty men. They were organized in 
two companies. 

First Company. — John Cutwater, captain ; Joseph 
Catterline, lieutenant; Abraham Hoagland, ensign. 

Second Company. — Thomas Blanch, captain ; David 
Demarest, lieutenant ; Jacobus Bogart, ensign. • 

Another call for troops was made Dec. 29, 1781, for 
service until Dec. 15, 1782. A force of four hundred 
and twenty-two men was organized and placed in com- 
mand of Maj. Samuel Hayes. The officers of the 
Bergen company were Peter Ward, captain; Joseph 
Catteline, lieutenant; Samuel Verbryke, ensign. 

Under the act of Aug. 16, 1775, Bergen County 
had one company of militia in the service and four 
companies of " Minute-men." These latter were 
'* held in constant readiness, on the shortest notice, to 
march to any place where assistance might be required 
for the defense of this or any neighboring colony." 
They were to continue in the service four months, 
and they had precedence of rank over the "common 
militia" of the province. The companies from each 
county formed a battalion, — in all ten battalions. 

In 1776 three companies from Bergen were joined 
in battalion with three from Essex and two from 
Burlington, under Col. Philip Van Cortland, Lieut.- 
Col. David Brearley, and Maj. Richard Dey. The 
regular militia of Bergen County was organized in 
one regiment, as follows : 

Teunis Dey, colonel; John Zabriskie, lieutenant-colonel; Cornelius 
Van Voorst, lieutenant-colonel; Peter Fell, lieutenant-colonel; 
Richard Dey, captain, first major ; John Mauritius Gu'schius, captain, 
second major; George Eyerson, adjutant ; Abraham Van Boskirk, 
surgeon. , , 

GijjtoiJts.— Cry nes Bartholf, Thomas Blanch, Joseph Board, James Christiile— 
Samuel Demarest, Abraham Earring, Cornelius Earring, Abraham 
A. P. Earring, John Eopper, Jonathan Bopper (murdered by Tories 
at New Barbadoes, Bergen Co., April 21, 1779), Adam Huyler, John 
Buyler (twice a prisoner of war). Jacobus Jaraloman, Henricus 
Kuyper, David Marinus, Henry Obest (wounded near Backensack, 
March 17, 1780), John Ontwater (wounded March, 1780), Elias Ro- 
mine, Jacob Terhnne, Nicausa Terhune, David Van Bossum, Conner 
Van Bouten, John Vreeland, Peter W'ard, John Willis. 

Lieulenants.—UeM\y Bardan, Thomas Blair, David DufTe, William Den- 
niston, David Doremus, John D. Earring, David Van Busse, Peter 
S. Van Order. 

First I i/'Hfpii ants. —Cornelius D. Blauvelt, George Brinkerhoff, Peter 
Sand ford. 

Second X(>i(/eiia»i(5.— Gilliam Bogart, John Uriancy. 

Sergeants. — Anthony Beam, Cooms, Jolin F. Earring, Carpenter 

Kelley, James Riker, Benjamin Romine, John Haahrook, Cornelius 
P. Westei-velt, Epson Van Winkle, Albert Wilson. 

Corporals, e(c — Abrara Vreeland; Abraham King, drummer; William 
Blair, drummer ; Garrett Post, farrier, " Lee's Legion," Continental 
army ; Jacob Vanderpool, bombardier, Continental army. 

1 Book D of Deeds, {uge 156. 

Ackerman, Abraham. 
Ackerman, Johannes. 
Arrainson, Garret. 
Arrainson, John. 
Arrainson, Resolvent. 
Baker, William. 
Baldwin, Israel, 
Baldwin, Thomas. 
Baiita, Daniel. 
Banta, Dirck. 
Banta. Hendrick. 
Banta, John. 

Banta, Peter. 
Banta, Samuel. 
Banta, Weirt. 
Bardan, Isaac. 
Barkedale, Henry. 
Beam, James. 
Beam, John. 
Beagle, Thomas. 
Bennett, Jeremiah. 
Berdan, Benry. 
Berlolf. John S. 
Blair, Robert. 



Blarvum, Henr). 
IMauvelt, Abraliam.l 
Itlmir«>lt, Abraoi. 
UlHUvelt, AltrHltAni T. 
Blnuvrli, Frederick. 
Blaiivfit, IiMMC- 
Ultiuveli, llHrlaii. 
^luuvelt, Jaiuli. 
Blaiivrlt, Jacobiiti. 
Bluuvelt, Janie^ J. 
Blauvelt, Janiea T. 
Blauvelt, Juhauaea. 
Blauvelt, John. 
Blauvilt, Juhn A. 
Boitrfl, Cornelius D. 
Bugcrt, Cuflpurus. 
Bo(;ert, John, 
Bug4'rt, Mat' hew. 
Bugert, (Jttrtielhis. 
Bogert, Nicholas. 
Bogert, JnDieH N. 
BroHK, Ht^riuau. 

\ Brewer, AUraui. 
Brewer, .^Urutn J. 
Briiikerhufr, Curnellus. 
Briiikerhuff, Garret. 
BiiiikerhofT, Hfiiry. 
BrinkerhofT, Jacubus. 
Brinkorhufl, JHtnes. 
BriukerhufT, Necause. 
Brocaw, John. 
"^—Brower, Abmm. 
Brower, David. 
Brower, Jacob. 
Brower, John. 
Browor, William 
Brown, Anthoii}'. 
Burdan, Henry. 
Burk, ThoniiiM. 
CadniiiH, Aiidreitd. 
Canip, Nathaniel. 
Camiibell, Archtbah). 
Campbell, David. 
Campbell, jHOi>b. 
CAniplicU, John. 
CaDipl»ell, SadiuoI. 
Carr, Thoman. 
Cawndi-, John. 
Caton, John. 
Chap|»f>l, John. 
Chttp|>«l. Thoniaa. 
Chnriii, I'l-ter. 
Chrimli', Daniel. 
Cbriitio, John, 
airiille, John W. 
Chriiitie, Peter D. 
Clark. William, 
(xigh, Cafl|>ani*. 
Cogh, Elian. 
Colo, Henry. 
Cole, 8amiiol. 
Coml«, Mo«eii. 
CooiKtf, IhTrick, 
Cornollwtn, John.' 
Corueliaon, Michaal.* 
Cunetcr, William. 
Cniiiel, Henry. 
iHiTldi. David. 

Davis, Richard. 

Day, Klia8. 

Degmw, Waltpr. 

Degrofi, Walter. 

Dt-hiDiHter, .\bmni. 

Dennireet, .\dani. 

Deniarpttt, BtMijaniin. 

Deninrpfit, Cornelins. 

DeniHieDi, Daniel. 

Denmreift, David. 

D<-niJire8t, Gilliam. 

Deinart."'t, Ilvndrick. 

Deniar«it, Henrj*. 

Dt-marest, Jacob D. 

Deniurt-st, Jacob P. 

Pemartrtit, Jnmee. 

Denmrcst, John. 

Demiirvst, Ji>8'-ph. 

Deniarubt. rct«?r. 

Df'nmrfBt, IVtcr B. D. 

Dcnmifsl, IVter D. 

Den^l^e^t, rfl«T J. 

DeniHrt-Ml, Peter P. 

DeniHre.xt. Philip. 

Denmreet, RoelirS. 

Demurest, Simon. 

Demurest, Williaiu. 
I Denny. Henry. 
/ Devoe. John.-' 

Dcy, B^^njamin. 

Dey, David. 

Dey. John. 

Dey, Peter. 

Dickiniwtn, Walter. 

Pood, Rolierl. 

Doud, Samuel N. 

Dogherty, Charles. 

Pon-nius, George. 

Duniar, JuHtln. 

Purham, NatliHiiiel. 

Eckorson, Cornyliui*. 

E< kor»on, Thi»mas. 

Eilwardn. Jficuh. 

EmhiiTgh, Jonathan. 

Erem. « 

Ever84tn, Baniet. 

Kerdun, Abram. 

Fenlon, Jactib. 

Fertlon, WMhelm. 

Fenlon, .\ndrew. 

FiHher. Immc. 

FIjiher, Peler. 

Folk, Henry. 

Freoland, Putor. 

Garland, John. 

Guble, Abraham. 

Green, J<din. 

Grimib, Benjamin. 

GriOlth, DH%ld. 

Guilluni, Michael. 

Harlng, Abnini. 

Ilaring, Abram J. 

Haring, David. 

Haring, Darld P. 

Haring, Fre^lerick. 

Haring. Garret. 

Haring, Garret F. 

Haring. Ger^eo. 

Haring. Jubu J. 
Haring, Jtiseph A. 
Ilaring, Peter A. 
Ilaring, Peter G. 
Uenuion, David. 
Henniiin. John. 
Hefisell, Frelick. 
Huagland, Joseph C. 
Hugencamp, Evert. 
IlogeucHnip, John. 
Hogencanip, Martin. 
Hopper, .^bntm A. 
Hopper, Andrew. 
Hopper, John J. 
Hopper, Peter A. 
Hup]>er, Richard. 
Hopper, Riiianl. 
Huysnian, Jacobus. 
Jones, Stephen. 
Jone»-, Henry. 
K»i r, Peler. 
Kennedy, Thomiis. 
Kenny, Willlani. 
Kent, James. 
Ktpp, Amo8. 
Kipp, C-oiuelius. 
Laliach, It<>aac. 
Lacy, Williuni.* 
Leforce, Levi.^ 
Lofoy, Abraham.' 
Lofeey, Abram.i" 
Low, William.^* 
Lozier, Peter.'- 
Lynch, Daniel. 
Lyon, Samuel. 
Magdalen, Abraham. 
Mariut«, Sylv-ster. 
Marcelles, Edo 
McDonald, Alexander. 
Mitchell, Joseph. 
Murray, Thomu." 
Naugle, Barent. 
Nangle, Itarunl J. 
Nuiigle, Harent II. 
Naugle, David. 
Naugle, Ifoutc. 
Odol, Garret. 
(.Xiver, Jamefl. 
Parcell, Jacob. 
Peitnon, Thomns. 
Pennington, Nathan. 
Perry*. Jithn. 
Persal, Jacob. 
Picket, Francis. 
Pope, Chrii^lopher. 
Pope, Jeremiah. 
Pofit, Abraham. 
Pofil, Adrian. 
Pimt, Ansi>y. 
Po«t. John. 
P.«t. John C. 
Pont, John H. 
Ponlen, Jacob. 
Ponleeon, Martin. 
Puwelsiui, MartlD. 

PowK^on, James. 
Quackenbusb, ComelluB. 
QuiNloir, Peter. 
Biggs, (.*yrenu8. 
K*>bards, Ichabod. 
Kollins Stephen. 
Romlne, Nicholas. 
]io«s, Isaac. >< 
Rutan, JoliD.i^ 
Ryerson, 31art1n G. 
Ryersoii. Ryor. 
Sedam, Cornelius R. 
Simonson. Siuieon. 
$isc4), Nathaniel. 
Sisco, Peter. 
Sisco. Peter J. 
Smith, StAftts. 
Smith, Stadus. 
SpiuHge, El>ene»er. 
Springer, Jacob. 
StAgg. Cornellun. 
Stagg, John. 
Singg, Powlos. 
Stephoiuif John^ 
Storms. Joho. 
Tant, Thomaw. 
Tatller. John. 
Taylor. John. 
Terhune. John D. 
Totlur, John. 
Tunie, Jacob. 
Tursc. Jtdin. 

Ynlentine, Jacob. 

Van Duffee. John." 

Van BuHkirk. George. 
Van BuMen, Philip. 

Van Dalsen, Henry. 

Van Dat»en. William. 

YonderlK'ck, .\liram. 

Vamlcrbeck, Barent. 

Viui>lert>eck, Jacob. 

Vanderl*eck. Powles. 

Vandorvoort, (Vmellus. 

Vandervoort, Peter C. 

Van Kuiburgh, John. 

Vau Gleson. Henry. 

Van (iieson, John. 

Van Houien, Adrian. 

Van lionten, t'arinus. 

Van Houten. Hendrick. 

Van Hoiiten, Jacob. 

Van llouten, Powles. 

Von Houien, Ralph. 

Van Houten, n^vMt. 

Van Norden, John. 

Von Norden, Peter. 

Van Nonlen, John. 

Van Pelt, Peter. 

Van ViHirhoes, Albert. 

Van Voorhees, AU>ert P. 

Van ViM)rhre*, Peter. 

Van V.N.rbees. Williuni. 

Van Winkle, Henry. 

Vm Winkle, Luk«. 

1 Woand«d.1791. 

•Also Llent-C4il. Fell'- UtiAlhin State Tn»oi>». 
> .\l»( I. lent -r'ni. Frll'ii liailallon Slate Troops. 
4 Also l.feui M^'ol. Fell's Imttftllon SUte TnHi|wi. 

^ CM\tt .'^amunl DeniarestVconiiiany ; wonndcl and taken prleouerMay 
20. 17hl ; exchanged. 

^ Capt. Cutwater's comtiany State l:uups. 

T Also MiO- Gottclilus* battalion. 
" Also Mf^J. Gietachlus* bntUUon. 
A1m> Lleut.-Cul. Fell's l>attalion State troops. 

I > AlfKi Llent.-Ctd. FelPs Inttnllon; nlm> i'ontlnental army. 

II Also Lleul.-Cd. Fell's UtUlioii Slnle triKi|«. 
I- Also Lleiit.rol. Fell's battaUon Stale trooiw. 
^ Also Lieut -Col. FetPii battalion Slals troo|i«t. 
I* Also MiiJ. Go-tschiufi' bnllnllMii Hints !nK)|)S. 

I-' AlsoCigii. Samuel Deuinrcnt's coni))aiiy ; woundnl. 
lA Woundeil May i:i, 1777. 



Van Z)lc, Alljerl. 
Varrick, Abraiu. 
Varrick, John. 
Vercler, Samuel. 
Verbryck, Samuel. 
Vervelen, Abrum. 
Verveleu, John. 
Vervelen, Samuel. 
Vreelaiid, Peter. 
Walker, James. 
Ward, James. 

Weiidover, Flcrcules. 

Werte, Willi.un. 
Westervelt, Albert. 
Westervelt, Ileiijamin. 
Westervelt, IJenjjinilii I*. 
Westervelt, t'asparus. 
^Vestervelt, Jereiniali. 
Westervelt, Johannes. 
Westervelt, John. 
Westervelt, Uriah. 
Young, William. 

Incidents of the Revolution in Passaic County. 

■ — " At the time of the Kevolutioii Pas.saic County 
was almost exelusively .igricultiiral. Only at three 
points were there any considerable hamlets, — at Ac- 
quackanonk Landing, where were the merchants and 
shippers, and at Pompton and Ringwood, where the 
iron works were. In 1775 some of the Acquackanonk 
people held a meeting to concert measures with those 
of Newark and other towns for the common defense 
against Britisli aggression, but there were leading 
men who discouraged any such movement. 

" Contrary to what might have been expected, con- 
sidering his position as agent of the London Company, 
Robert Erskine took sides from the first with the colo- 
nies, and though he fully expected that the British 
king and ministrs' would recede from their insane 
policy before reconciliation should be too late, yet 
from the start he prepared for the worst, and so early 
as August, 1775, he fully equipped a company of Con- 
tinental militia at the Ringwood works at his own 
expense, one of the very first companies organized in 
the State for war. The Provincial Congress warmly 
commended his zeal, and ordered that he be commis- 
sioned captain of the company. He did valuable ser- 
vice to the American cause in running the works 
during subsequent years, supplying cannon-balls and 
other necessaries to the army. Moreover, his knowl- 
edge of the topography of the country was great, and 
Washington made him geographer and surveyor-gen- 
eral of the army, which position he doubtless held 
until his death in 1780. He is buried at Ringwood, 
not far from the ruins of the old Ringwood furnace, 
and near the road running from Ringwood to Long 
Pond. He was forty-five years of age when he died. 

" Just here let us notice an old slander, which is 
sometimes repeated to this day. It is said that one of 
the Ryersons, who owned a furnace and forge at Pomp- 
ton, made cannon-balls and secretly delivered them 
on board of British war-ve.ssels at New York. The 
story really originatid at the time of the war of 1812, 
and did not relate to transactions during the Revolu- 
tion. In 1821 Mr. Ryerson traced the report to two 
well-known citizens, and compelled them to acknowl- 
edge over their own signatures in the public prints 
that they did not believe there was any foundation 
for the rumor. 

" After the disastrous defeat at the battle of Long 
Island, the American army crossed the North River 
at Fort Lee and retreated through New Jersey, pass- 
ing through Acquackanonk in November, 1776^ It is 

said that the British were in such close pursuit that a 
few shots were exchanged, and to check the progress 
of the invaders the Americans, after crossing the 
river, cut away the bridge. Edo Merselis, of Preak- 
ness, a lad of fourteen or sixteen, was driving a load 
of wood to market. The soldiers took his horses from 
the wagon, attached them to a caisson, and made him 
drive this strange load to New Brunswick, whence he 
made his way back with his team to his alarmed 

" The battle of Monmouth in 1778 caused the British 
to retreat hastily back through Jersey, and a detach- 
ment of them appear to have been chased all the way 
to Acquackanonk, where there was a little skirmish, 
and several were wounded on both sides. 

" In December, 1778, Gen. Putnam's division of the 
Continental army marched through Paramus and Ac- 
quackanonk, the event being marked by no noticeable 
incident. Surgeon Thacher, who belonged to the di- 
vision, received a pleasing impression of the people 
and their surroundings. 

Oct. 7, 1780, the American army, then at Newburgh, 
was ordered to Totowa, one column, under command 
of Lord Stirling, marching through Paramus, where 
the headquarters were established next day, and or- 
ders given to repair the road thence to ' Totoway 
bridge.' On the 9th the headquarters were estab- 
lished at Totowa, where they remained for six weeks. 
The main army was encamped at the foot of the 
Preakness Mountain, extending along for two or 
three miles. Gen. Washington being quartered in a 
fine brick house, still standing, a mile or two west of 
Paterson, in what was long known as the ' Hogencamp 
house,' although he occasionally passed a night with 
some of the Van Houtens, of Totowa. The grand 
parade was on the level plain used as a cricket-field 
a few years ago, near the Falls. Col. Mayland's 
regiment of cavalry was stationed near Little Falls, 
and Maj. Parr's rifle corps in a ravine near the Great 
Notch, both being enjoined to watch the roads through 
the Notch to Newark and Acquackanonk, to guard 
against surjirises. Lafayette was stationed along the 
river at and below Wagraw, his headquarters being at 
Gaffi'L When he revisited this part of the country 
in 1825 the spot where he had encamj^ed in 1780 was 
conspicuously marked. The whole army was kept in 
a constant state of readiness for active operations, the 
advanced corps being placed under the command of 
Lafayette, the right wing (Pennsylvania and Con- 
necticut brigades) under command of Lord Stirling, 
and the left wing (the four Massachusetts brigades) 
under Maj. -Gen. St. Clair. A flying hospital was es- 
tablished at Demuud's, on the old Pompton road. On 
the 23d the light infantry were ordered to a new 
position, the better to command the Notch and Crane- 
town Gap, and .so protect the right wing. It is said 
that the bold hill on the east side of the Notch was a 
favorite lookout of Gen. Washington at this time, and 
that from this point he once detected a raiding-party 




of British sallying out from Eli/.abethtowii, and 
promi)tly dispatching a troop of cavalry behind the 
hills to Springfield, intercepted the foragers as they 
were niakingoM'with a fine lotofcattlcand other booty. 

" While the army was encamped at Totowa there 
was a great deal of straggling. Washington rebuked 
this in a general order, in which he stated that in a 
ride which he took the other day he found the sol- 
diers as low as Acquackanonk bridge on both sides of 
the river, and, as far as he has ever yet gone around 
the environs of the camp, the roads and farm-houses 
are. full of them. 

"An incident is handed down by tradition that 
probably grew out of this habit of straggling. On 
one occasion a party of American soldiers were chased 
by a daring company of red-coats, even to the Passaic 
River, near the present Main Street bridge. The 
Americans got across safely, and partly cut down the 
old bridge. The impetuous British, bent on pursuit, 
diished into the water, the officers mounted on the 
privates' shoulders, but ere they had got half-way 
across a hot fire from the troops encamped on the 
other side compelled them to beat a hasty retreat. 

" A number of incidents are related of Wa.sliing- 
ton's personal intercourse with the people during this 
brief sojourn of the army, but space forbids relating 
them here. 

" On the morning of November 27th the army broke 
camp and marched, with two days' rations cooked. 
Part of the army went to the Hudson River, and part, 
including the Jersey Line and the Pennsylvania Line, 
went into winter quarters between Pompton and Mor- 
ristown. The condition of the troops was deplorable, 
and to add to their misfortunes hundreds of the sol- 
diers who had enlisted for only three years were being 
unjustly detained by their officers, while a bounty was 
paid to new men who entered theservice. The Penn- 
sylvania Line, two thousand strong, mutinied, and so 
far succeeded in their revolt as to get most of the 
concessions they demanded. ( )n the night of Jan. 
20, 1781, a part of the Jersey brigade, stationed at 
Pompton, arose in arms, made the .same demands as 
their Pennsylvania brethren had succCAsfnlly asserted, 
and marched to Chatham to incite the rest of the 
brigade to revolt. Washington was incensed at this, 
and immediately ordered Cien. Howe with a special 
detachment of five hundred New Kngland troops to 
the scene of the juuliny, which they reached by forced 
marches in five days, passing through Ririgwood on 
the way, where the officers were lodged by Mrs. 
Erskine. Suys Surgeon Thacher, — 

" * Wo wrre fintertiiilKHl wUh nil i^legniit i>iip|>f<r aiiil e\<'(*l]i<iit wine. 
Mri Knikino i* n iK-tiiilMi* niMl nrr<iiii|ihit)i«xl woniiiii who lIvM in a stjrle 
uf ■niiionrf nliil fnjitiiun ; p\rr,>tliltit( IridiniUii woiiltti,Itutto, niiil npli-ndor, 
ttliil nIk' tukoM iilKiuiire ill oiitt'rluiiilni; the frii'iidi of tier Inle hiislwnd 
with golieniiiH liiwlillality.' 

"On the morning of .lanuary 27tli the insurgents' 
camp was readied, and the mutineers, to the number 
of two or three liunilred, were rom|ielhd to surrender. 

Three of the ringleaders were taken out, tried by 
court-martial on the spot, and sentenced to be shot 
immediately by twelve of their comrades. Two were 
thus executed ; the third was jiardoned. The muti- 
neers were buried where they fell, a mile or two north- 
east of Pompton, in a secluded, neglected spot among 
the hills, where a few stones rudely heaped together 
are the only monuments to two misguided men, who 
were about as much sinned against as sinning. 

"On Aug. 21, 1781, an army psissed through Ac- 
(piackanonk for the last time. It was the American 
forces hurrying towards Virginia to attack Lord Corn- 
wallis, whose surrender followed two months later. 

" In addition to what has been related there were 
sundry minor incidents of the Revolutionary struggle 
occurring in Pa.ssaic County that cannot be dwelt 
upon here, but which throw much light upon the state 
of public sentiment at the time. 

" The records of the county courts show that all 
the people were not patriots. Not a few were attjiinted 
of treason and their property confiscated to the State, 
and many more were sent within the British lines at 
New York for disaffection towards the American cause. 

" The most prominent active British sympathizer in 
this part of the State, if not in New Jersey, was Rob- 
ert Drummond, a wealthy ship-owner ami merchant 
at Acquackanonk Landing, who had nuvrrietl Jan- 
netje Vreeland. He was a member of the Provincial 
Congress in May, June, and .Vugust, 177'), and 
acquitted himself so satisfactorily to his constituents 
that they re-elected him in September, but when 
active hostilities began he placed his services at the 
disposal of his king, and organized the Second Bat- 
talion of New Jersey Volunteers, of which he was 
commissioned major. It is said that upwards of two 
hundred members of this battalion were his neigh- 
bors, who had been persuaded to eidist under his in- 
fluence. This, however, is certainly an exaggeration ; 
at least no such number of Acquackanonk men enlisted 
in the British army. . . Most of his battalion fell 
victims to the climate in the Southern States or per- 
ished in battle. Maj. Drummond himself went to 
England after the war, with his wife, and ilied at 
Chelsea in 1789. As an instance of the division in 
families during those trying times, his brother David 
did valiant service in the patriot army, and after the 
war was rewardcil with a tract of land in New York 
Stale, while Robert was given a farm in Nova Scotia 
and a pension by the British government.'" 


Tin: 01. 1) rowNsiiii' uk iiackensack. 

We propose in this chapter to condense some facts 
respecting the old township of Iiackensack, which 
ceased to exist in name in 1872. The histories of the 

' I>iini|ililoi Hiilury uf Pamaic Coiiiiijr, liy Willlimi NoUon. 


newly-formed townships which at present cover its 
. area on the map of the county are given in their ap- 
propriate places, but a more thorough treatment of 
the old township is needed than the necessarily brief 
allusions to it in those histories. 

Original Boundaries and Extent of the Town- 
ship. — In 1682 Bergen County embraced only the 
territory between the Hackensack and Hudson Rivers, 
from Constable's Hook up to the province line, — a 
narrow strip of land along the west side of the Hud- 
son, at no place over five or six miles wide, and from 
twenty-five to thirty miles in length. The old town- 
ship of Bergen, from the date of its charter, in 1658, 
comprised the southern portion of this strip of terri- 
tory, as far up as the present northern boundary of 
Hudson County ; and the settlements above that, 
being regarded as " outlying plantations," were at- 
tached to Bergen for judicial purposes, and so re- 
mained until 1693, when an act defining the bound- 
aries of townships was passed by the General 
Assembly. That act recites as follows : 

" Thiit the Township of Hacksack* shall include all the land hetween 
Hackinsack and Hudson's River that extends from the Corporation Town 
Bounds of Bergen to the Partition line of the Province." 

It appears from this act that the township of Hack- 
ensack was bounded on the north by the province line 
of New York, on the east by Hudson River, on the 
south by the corporation line of Bergen, and on the 
west by the Hackensack River. It covered nearly 
the whole table-land of the Palisades Mountains, and 
the beautiful valley of the Hackensack on its eastern 
side from the New York State line to the northern 
boundary of Hudson County. The scenery of this 
region, including the Palisades and the views of the 
Hudson and its valley from their summits, is among 
the most picturesque and romantic in America. Here 
the Indians loved to roam before the advent of the 
white man, and their bark canoes glided down the 
smooth waters of the Hackensack to their summer 
resort on Staten Island. This was their avenue from 
Tapaan to the Kill van Knll, and out among the bays 
and inlets around New York. 

Grants of Land. — Among the early purchasers of 
land from the Indians in this township were Casper 
and Alattys Jansen. We find the following allusion 
to them and their lands in 1684, in the records of the 
Governor and Council of East Jersey : 

" The petition of Casper Jansen and Alattj-s Jausen, setting forth that 
about seven years since (lf>77) the pclitionerB obtained by gift from the 
Indians a parcel uf Land lying at Hackinsack, on the north side of the 
creek, which gift was then also acknowledged by the said Indians before 
the late Governor Carteret, who promised the petitioners a Confirmation 
4bthe same, only delayeil the full grant or patent till the adjoining lands 
should be purchased from the Indians and laid out into Lots, and that 
since one Jacques Le Row hath entered upon the said Lands and taken 
possession of the same without having any Indian deed of gift. The pe- 
titioners praying a warrant to lay out thesame directed to the Surveyor- 
General in order for a patent, which being read and the petitioners 
called in, who brought with them two Indians that had formerly given 
the said land to the petitioners, and the Indians being examined con- 

1 So spelled Id the act. 

cemiDg the premisee. Declared that they never made any deed to Jacques 
Le Row of the said land, but that the same did belong to the petitioners, 
whereuiKin it was ordered that both parties attend this board the 27tli 
9b« next, that they bring with tliem the Indiaus concerned, and that 
.Jacques La Row have notice thereof." 

This extract from authentic records carries us back 
to 1677, when lands were purchased from the Indians 
by Casper and Alattys Jansen. They show that the 
Indians were still residents of the township, and were 
ordered brought before the Governor and Council at 
Elizabethtown. The " creek" referred to in the In- 
dian grant, on " the north" of which lay the lands in 
dispute, was probably that of English Neighborhood. 
One Jacques La Row was then a settler in that vi- 
cinity, for he is complained of as having " taken pos- 
session without any grant or warrant" from the 

The name of the township and that of the river 
which formed its western boundary had been derived 
from the Indians, who had lived along its banks and 
had fished in its waters from time immemorial. 

Most of the early purchases of lands from the In- 
dians and grants from the government within the 
bounds of the township are referred to in another 
portion of this work, and need not be repeated here. 
The early settlers were of the same class as those who 
colonized the township of Bergen and gradually ex- 
tended themselves from the Neck northward between 
the two rivers. 

Traditions of Van der Horst and Others,— There 
can be little doubt that the lands between the Hudson 
and the Hackensack were selected in the early days of 
New Netherland settlement as the manors of some 
wealthy patroon from Holland. Myndert Mynderlsen 
Van der Horst, of Utrecht, was one of these, and in 
1641 he had a plantation, purchased of the Indians, 
extending from Achter Kull, or Newark Bay, far up 
the valley of the Hackensack. It is said that he se- 
lected for his town site the beautiful situation on the 
Hackensack now known as Little Ferry, and that, in 
consequence of the introduction of strong drink among 
the Indians, he and his settlement were doomed to 
destruction. The house of Van der Horst was burned 
on the night of Sept. 17, 1643, and his plantation made 
desolate. This story is not wholly traditional ; there 
are enough historical facts to warrant the conclusion 
that Van der Horst was an actual resident of the vi- 
cinity, although it is difficult to tell precisely where 
his house was located, or what his plans were with 
rei'erence to the establishment of a town. On the 
oldest map of New Netherland, that of Vanderdonck, 
published in 1656, we find the colony of Van der Horst 
laid down. It is called the "Colonic van der Heer 
Neder Horst," and is situated on the Hackensack, as 
described above. 

The Baron Van der Capellen also essayed to estab- 
lish a colony in the old township of Hackensack. He 
ha purchased Staten Island of the Indians, and 
fou ed a colony there, which was destroyed in 1655. 
1 He I 1, through his agent, " concluded a treaty with 



tlie Indians, with submission to tlie oourU; of justice 
at Hospating, upon Wearkaniius-Connie, near Hack- 
ensack." This was in lt>57. The place " Hospating" 
("Espatin," a hill) was on Union Hill, between the 
Hudson and the Hackensaek, and on the boundary 
line between the old townships of Hackensaek and 
Bergen. (See chapter on Early Courts in this work.) 
This attempt to establish a settlement and courts of 
justice was temporary. If it existed till the conquest 
of 1664, it was probably given up at that time. Traces 
of the foundations of buildings were known to exist 
in that locality not more than a century ago. A gen- 
tleman by the name of Earle, residing not far from 
there, now about ninety years of age, related to the 
writer' that ruins of old buildings were known to exist 
at or near the place indicated as " Espatin" when he 
was a small boy, and that the early settlers had no 
trailitioii as to their origin. 

The Patent of John Demarest, located in this 
township, is thus referred to in the records of the 
Governor and Council of East Jersey, May 30, 1684, 
page 109 : 

"The l)etitfon of Jotm De Marin fcir liceiiae to pi;rcli&ie 2<)0 dcnsa of 
laud of ttie ItidJAOa at Kinderkauiacke, at Hucki'iiBacke, Hl>uve the niill. 
ill order to patoDting tliereof. Ordered that lie have licellAe granted him 
to purchaoe, making use of such peraoQB aa the Governor shall appoint 
for Nictiolaii De Vow and others, who presented their petitions yeater- 

In the same records, on page 30, it appears that 
David De Maris presented a petition, and w:is a.sked 
by the Council 

" what lands he had purchased of the Indiatm for the supply of his saw- 
mill, although the land is not imtentcil to him and his sons. The land 
purliase*] is about two miles in l>reailth, anrl coming to a |K)iiit, and six 
miles in lungtli. Agreed that David De Mans have patents for tlie lands 
which is surveyed t* liini and his Mjnt« at two sliiliingsaii ii>-re. Hut that 
we cannot see renAin to grant liherty to cut Ilie timber from tlie land he 
takes not up until further matters appear than what is yet niiinifcstcd, 
and that our purpose Is to view the same." 

It is of record that Peter Faiu-oiiier purchiused of 
AVilliam Davis :i4"J4 acres of land on the eiust side of 
till- HackciisMik ill 170'.i. 

Civil Organization of the Township.— .Vftcr 1693 
the township had its local court for the trial of small We find this several times referred to in dif- 
ferent records, but in no instance in such a manner 
as to indicate where in the township the court was 
held. Probably English Neighborhood was the chief 
place, iLs that was one of the important early 

The minutes of the board of justices and freeholders 
from 171') (the earliest extant in the clerk's office at 
Hackensaek) to .May 10, 1769, while they give the 
meetings an<l transactions of the board, do not indi- 
<nite the representatives iVoiii the piirliculiir townships. 
At the meeting, May 111, 1769, Martin ^owleson aji- 
))earetl for Hackensaek township, and \vas freeRolder 
in 1770, '71, '72, '73, '7.'>, and in the May meeting of 
1776; Jacob 1769, '70, '71, '72, '73, and '7.'). 

I The hltlorlau of this work. 

They were also freeholders in 1768, and Demot in 
1767; John Henson in 1773, '74, '75, '76, and Yost 
Zabriskie in 1774. 

There was no meeting of the board from May 15, 
1776, to May 13, 1778. The last entry in 1776 is, 
"Ordered that this book be kept in the charge of 
William Serrell, clerk." Serrell had been clerk of 
the board from May 10, 1769. The stormy times of 
1776 admonished them of the uncertainty of their 
next meeting, and so they made this order. When 
they met again a new order had superseded the old 
provincial system, and New Jersey had been nearly 
two years a State. Hence on the 13th day of May, 
1778, when they assembled again, the first entry in 
the^book, in round, bold letters, is, 

"State of New Jersey." 
Some of the members of the board just before and 
during the Revolution had suffered loss of property 
anil life in maintaining the cause, which in 1778 was 
still one of doubt and uncertainty, although the cam- 
paign in New Jersey had ended in defeat to the Brit- 
ish, and the authority of the latter had been superseded 
by a republican form of government. 

From 1794 the following were freeholders of the 
township : 

1794, 180(1-2, John Deinott; 1794, John Hurler; 179.'V-9«, 1S17, John G. 
Beneou; 179:>, Nicholas Wratervelt; 1798-97. Dawes Westervelt; 
1797-99, 18in;-lo, John 1". Durie ; 179»-!>», Isaac Nladl; ISOO, Cor- 
nelius UantH; 1801, Cornelius Westervelt, Junes Westervelt; 1HU3, 
Il.niy Deniolt ; lSiH-5, .Mliert A. WValcrvelt ; lS'S.-7, (ieo. lliiiiker- 
liolT; ISOS'l.'i, Kichiiici I'oweln ; IHI.-i, laaiiih Jidins-in; 181G-18, John 
Wexterveit, Jr., I'etcr C. We"tervelt; 1817, S. DrinksrholT; 1819, 
1821-24, 1827--28, I'etor C. Westervelt ; INIK-W, l.Si7-2.s. John West- 
I errelt, Jr.; 182U-2B, 1829-33, WilliauiKly; 1820, John Kd>all:1825- 

211, Richard Paulison ; 1S2'.I-3:1, Jacob V. Terhune ; 1834-30., John I. 
Demarest, Jr.; 1K34-:I6, 1M8-,MI. John R. i'aulistm ; 18:17 -!t9, Peter 
C. Westervelt ; 18;t7-38, Garret A. Westervelt ; Ig.l9-«1, 184(i, Abra- 
Imni Kly; 184IM2, 1849~5I, Jacob II. Urinkerhofl; IS4J-I4, Teter R. 
llogert; lS4;l-4.'i, John C". Westervelt ; 184.V47, Jacol. 1". Westervelt; 
1847 -4S, John W. Westervelt ; iafil-.''>3, Janiw Kly; 18.Vi-M, Thomiui 
W. Demarest; 1854-50, John J. Ilertli.df: ISflfl.John A. V. Terhune; 
1867-fill, I'aul R. I'aulison; 18'i7-MI, David I. WssUTveU ; l8ao-«2, 
I'eter llogert, Jr.; 18«l-6-\. Samuel Degns.t; l«a-m, ISWi. George 
Huyler; 18(H-rifi, Albert J. Uogert ; 18ir7-«, Garret A. I.ydecker; 
1868-09, I'etor P. Westervelt ; 1 s<i»-70, Joseph Sugg; I "70, Samuel 
S. Demarest. 

This old township during the Revolution was the 
theatre of some battles and of many exciting scenes 
and raids by the British and Tory refugee*. At every 
accessible point along the Hudson from Weebawken 
to Tappan the British .soldiery penetrated to the in- 
terior, driving oil' cattle, seizing and destroying the 
property of the .settlers, burning buildings, ami olten 
slaughtering in cold blood men, women, and defense- 
less citizens, whose only crime was their patriotism 
and hatred of British oppresision. The story of the* 
tragic events is told in our chapters on the Hevo- 
lulioii. In this township stood Kort Lee and the old 
block-house, so famous as the place of refuge for a 
band of the most unscrupulous Tories of the Revolu- 
tion. We will only give one extract here from the 
records of that period. It is contained in a letter 
dated Clostcr, May 10, 1779: 



" This day about one hundred of the enemy came 
by the way of New Dock, attacked the place, and 
carried off Cornelius Tallman, Samuel Demarest, 
Jacob Cole, and George Buskirk ; killed Cornelius 
Demarest ; wounded Hendrick Demarest, Jeremiah | 
Westervelt, Dow Tallman, etc. They burnt the houses I 
of Cornelius Demarest, Matthias Bogert, Cornelius ] 
Huyler, Samuel Demarest's house and barn, John 
Banta's house and barn, and Cornelius Bogert's and 
John Westervelt's barns. They attempted to burn 
every building they entered, but the fire was in some 
places extinguished. They destroyed all the furni- 
ture, etc., in many houses and abused many of the 
women. In their retreat they were so closely pur- 
sued by the militia and a few Continental troops that 
they took off no cattle. They were of Buskirk's 
corps, — some of our Closter and old Tappan neigh- 
bors, joined by a party of negroes. I should have 
mentioned the negroes first, in order to grace the 
British arms." 

Hendrick and Cornelius and Samuel Demarest were 
probably descendants of the old proprietor of Hack- 
ensack of that name. Their neighbors had turned 
Tories, and in that awful contest for their firesides 
and their homes, brother may have fought against 
brother and father against son. 

Nearly four years before these calamities at Closter, , 
New Jersey had declared herself independent of the j 
British crown, and nearly three years before all the 
American colonies had joined in the same patriotic 
declaration. The burning dwellings and barns and 
the insults to their women only served to fire the 
hearts and nerve the arms of the people of Hacken- 
sack in defending their country. 

The Township in 1840.— Ex-Judge Millard, who 
has furnished some of the material for the history of 
this township, thus speaks of it in 1840 : "The town- 
ship was then ten miles long and from three to five 
miles wide. It then largely supplied the New York 
markets with garden vegetables. Its annual sales of 
these products amounted to near $42,000, a large town- 
ship income at that day, more than doubling that of 
any other township in the county. Its four bridges 
crossed the Hackensack River, viz., at Hackensack 
Village, New Milford, Old Bridge, and New Bridge. 
At these places and at Schraalenburgh, Closter, and 
Mount Clinton were a few dwellings, scarcely enough 
even then to call any of them a hamlet. English 
Neighborhood, in the southern part of the township, 
was thickly settled, and had one Reformed and one 
Christian Church. The township then contained five 
stores, nine grist-mills, six saw-mills, six schools, and 
two hundred and eighty-one scholars. It had a popu- 
lation of 2631. 

By the census of 1865 the old township of Hacken- 
sack had a jiopulation of 7112, and by the census of I 
1870, which was the last enumeration before the di- 
vision and final cessation of the township, it had a j 
population of 8039. ' 


Early Schools.' — Previous to the passage of the 
scliool act of 1846 the schools were supervised by 
township school committees, elected at the annual 
town-meetings. It is not remembered how many 
years this economy existed, but it is remembered that 
prior to 1842 the school committee of Hackensack, as 
well as other townships, never had reported to the 
board of trustees of the school fund, as the law re- 
quired them to do. They passed over to their succes- 
sors in office a bundle of papers, in which there was 
nothing of importance except a description of the 
school districts as they had been formed by them- 
selves, and a loose copy of apportionments of the 
very meagre appropriations to the schools in their 
charge. The newly-appointed committee in Hack- 
ensack township, in conformity to a resolution 
adopted by the people assembled at town-meeting, 
were instructed to report at the ensuing town-meeting 
the condition of the public schools in the township. 
A reproduction of their report may not be uninter- 
esting at this time, as it serves to exhibit the differ- 
ence between their condition then and now. It was 
as follows, viz. : 

" Report read at the AnniKtl 7\''tni-Me€ti»g, lOlh April, 18-13. 

"The school committee choseu at the last aiiuual tuwn-nieeting report 
as follows, viz.: 

"Tliat when they accepted their office, they did so with a mutual un- 
derstanding that they would discharge their duties according to law. 
The reasons they would assign for coming to this determination are 
that no report had at any time pieceding the last year been received by 
the trustees of the school fund from the towusliip of Hacliensack, that 
their predecessors had performed their duties in part only, and that it 
seemed to be the wisli of many that information should be publicly com- 
municated this day respecting the expenditure by tlie trustees of the 
different schools, of the interest of the suri>lus revenue which tlie people 
of the town had benevolently appropriated to the use of schools. The 
committee have mainly directed their attention towards acquiring the 
necessary information in this particular, so as to make it satisfactory to 
the public tliat the money baa been judiciously expended. 

"Section thirteen of tlie act to establish public schools in the State of 
New Jersey imposes upon one or more of tlie members of the school com- 
mittee to visit and examine the schools in their respective townships at 
least once in every six montlis, and on or before the first Monday in 
March report their stale and condition, tlie number of scholars taught, 
the terms of tuition, the length of time the schools have been kept open, 
the amount of money received of the collector, and the manner in which 
the same has been expended. 

"In obedience to the mandate contained in this section, the school 
committee did visit a majority of the schools last fall. In the early part 
of February last they sent circulars to the trustees of all the scliools, 
inclosing a blank form of a legal report, and requesting the trustees to 
complete the same, for which the committee would call on or before the 
first Monday iu 5Iarch. 

"On the Friday preceding the first Monday in March the committee 
' visited school No. C, New Bridge, and No. 7, Scliraalenburg. The com- 
mittee feel gratified in stating that in both of these schools they met the 
' trustees, who with the teachets politely furnished the information asked. 
I At the New Bridge the average number of scholai-s taught is thirty-four; 
terms of tuition, S1.5n, 81.75, and 82.tM). The school has been kept open 
all the year ; the amount of money received of the collector S74.80, which 
has been expended for the education of poor children, and for the ex- 
penses of the school-house. 

"The average number of children taught at Schraalenburg is forty- 
seven ; terms of tuition, S1.50 ; school kept open the whole year ; amount 
of money received of the collector S83.60, all of which, except a balance 
of go.48, has been expended for the tuition of poor scholars, for extin- 

t Centeonial Hist. Schools in Bergen GouDty, by Supt. Demarest. 



guitbing th» dobl on the •cliool-hoUM and paying the expenaea of the 

"Some time previously the coDimilloe vi»itod scbool No. 4, at the 
Liberty Pole, on the day of the examination. Thie school is in good con- 
dition. The average niinilwr of s^liolarii taught i« forty-five ; price of 
tuition, 81.7'i; school kept open the whole year with the umlsnion of a 
few days ; received of the collector SlWI.lo, 8<!>.Si of » hicli has been ex- 
pendeil for the education of poor children; the surplus funds of laat 
year, added to the remainder of this year, have iK-eu used for erecting a 
cupola on their echool-house and the purchase of a bell, for keeping the 
school-house in repair and providing the necewary articles for the use of 
the school. 

" So. 2, at Fort Lee, was visited on the first Monday in March. The 
school building nppiars tu he the liest, largest, anil niwt commodious of 
any in the township. .\ becoming spirit animates all in the furtherance 
of popular education. The average number of scholars taught is fifty- 
two; the terms of tuition, Sl.50 and S2.00; the bcIkhjI has been kept 
open the whole year; the amount of money received, S'J2«. Out of 
this sum was |>aid for interest due on the school-house debt, SKi ; to pay- 
ing teacher, SM); for stove and fuel, $24 : leaving an unexpended balance 
of S3.4I1. Poor children arc udmitle<l fne of charge, the teacher being 
engaged by tlip year at a fixed comlH'nsation. 

■' So. :l, at the English Neighliorhood, wn-s next visited. The school 
at the time co»laine>l only eighteen scholars, whilst the uumber residing 
in the ilistrict is eighty. The principal cause of this discrepancy is that 
another school is taught in the district. It is the opinion of this com- 
mittee that this could be made one of the best districts in the township 
If the inhabitants would lake a more lively interest in the alTairs of the 
scliool; price of tuition, $i.OO; school kept open eight months in the 
year ihisi : received S79.'20, of which J4^.17 has been expended for school 
furniture, for cleaning and repairing school and paying the teacher. The 
reason assigned for so large a balance (?) SiC.03 remaining unexpended 
was that, the school not having been kept open more than eight months, 
the money was not required. 

"Scliool No. o, at Teaneck, was next visited. There were about sixteen 
scholars preeent. The only report we have obtained from the trustees 
merely mentions the number of children in the district, which is fifty- 
six, and the number taught, which is twenty-eight, and the amount of 
money received, lieing §4y.5<i. Why the trustees failed to connnunicate 
to the coinniiltec the terms of tuition, thi- length of time the school had 
been kept open, and the manner in w liicii the money received had been 
expended Is unknown to ns. When this committee submitted to the 
trustewi of the dilTerent schools blank forms of reixirhi, requesting them 
to cnniplete the sauie, they were not prompted thereto by idle curiosity, 
but simply Ui comply with the requirements of section thirtecTi of the 
school law. How It is iwsslhlo for this mmmitlee to make out their re- 
port conformably to this section when trustees fall to give the ueceeaary 
information we are nnalde to determine. 

"School No. ^V, at Liqier Teaneck, was next visited. The average 
nnniber taught is thlrtyeight ; price of tuition, SI.60; received ..f the 
culleclor S5'.i.40, which, according to the statement of the trustees, ' has 
been ex|i«ndcd for the use anil support of the school.' No vacancy the 
past year. 

"The relKirt rvcolved from port District No. 8, at the Flabj, says that 
the niimlwr of scholara taught Is twenty-three; price of tuition, Sl.oO 
and 81 .T.'i ; no vacancy the paat ywir ; $.11 .911 money received ; T.'i cents of 
this has l«en oiliendiil for re|>alr8, and the remainder eyaciHy dii idiil 
among t/tt children. 

•• The roi«ort of part District No. 0, Closter, marely glree the number 
of children of legal school age realding In the district, which Is thirty- 
four, which liorely enahlea them to receive their portion of the school 

" Keii..rt of imrt District No. 1, «l Bull's Ferry, gives the average 
nunilier of jM-holan taught at sixteen; terms of tuition, »2; recelvo.1 of 
riiUiiliir SIT.fiD, which has lieen ei|>ended in repairing schoobhouse and 
purchasing fuel. 
" .Ml of which Is reaiMKtfully submitted. 

(Slgne<l> "Joiix V,M< BaHNT." 

Property destroyed by the British.— Tlu- follow- 
ini{ Im im iiiviiitorv (if tin- .'oocis ;in<1 i-linttol,s destroyed 
livtlif Hritiuli ill tlifolil township of HiickensHck from 
177i; to UH'I, as valiiid liy tlie awarding coinmittec. 
The record from which it i.'* taken is entitled "The 

Book of the Precinct of Hackensack," and is No. 172 

in the State library at Trenton. 

This inventory was made in accordance with "an 
act to procure an estimate of the damages sustained 
by the inhabitants of this .State from the wtiste and 
spoil committed by the troops in the service of the 
enemy and their adherents, by the Continental army, 
or by the militia of this or the neighboring States," 
passed Dec. 20, 1781. In pursuance of this act ap- 
praisers of damages were appointed in each county. 
Those for Bergen County were James Board, Henry 
Mead, and John Hogan, Jr. 

£ t. .1. 

I'etrus Bogert, Hackensack, June. 1780 19 1" 

Philip Mnrra, Uaikensack, Sept 1778 :!! 18 U 

(jornelius Hoagland. 177i; to March, 1780 '21 8 6 

Mary Van Osdeu, Hackensack, 1776, 1T78 4» 13 10 

Johannes Demaicsl, Hackensack, Sov. 1776 60 o 

Johannes Terbune, Hackensack, Nov. 1776 to Oct. 1778 109 14 11 

David Demarest, Hackensack, Sept. 1776 to Sept. 1781 156 19 10 

AlbertTerhune, Hackensack, Sov. 1776 to Sept. 1778 185 9 6 

Jacobus Bliukerhof, Hackensack, Nov. 1776 to Oct. 1778 334 15 9 

Joet Zabri»kie, Hackensack, 1776 to Sept. 1778 657 14 11 

Eva Conniiver, Huckonsiick, 177« to Oct. 1778 675 5 10 

Peter Christie, llackensiick, 1770 to 1779 31 2 3 

John D. Deniaresl, Hackensack, 1776 to 1778 8» 8 7 

Wicrt D. Banta, 1770 to Sept. 1778 101 18 3 

Abraham D. Demarcsl, Nov. 1776 to Nov. 1778 81 13 3 

William Campbell, 1776 to Sept. 1778 400 9 1 

John Haves, 1776 lo 1782 _ 86 14 

fharles try Weslervell, 1778, 1779 20 8 6 

Marv Vandike, 1776 89 3 3 

HenVv Kreilon. 1770 to 1782 «l 3 

JobuCanipbell, Oct. 1778 71 4 11 

Alinibani Devoe, 1770to 1781 347 9 

Jumes P. Deniaresl, 1776 to 1778 331 12 

Isaac W. Kipp, 1776 to 1779 80 12 

Samuel llanll^ Nov 1776 165 10 

Nicausie Blinkeihof, 1776 to 1778 „ 417 15 6 

Hem V Deniarcst, N"V. 1770 to 1782 141 3 4 

SamuVl Demaicsl. 1779. 1780 _ 61;) 1 8 

John Demarest, Sov 1770 to Sept. 1778 407 19 8 

Benjamin Demarest, Sov. 1776 to Sept. 1780 47 10 6 

Klizabeth Moore. 1776 to 1778 65 7 6 

Cornelius Lvdecker, Nov. 1776 to tX-t. 1778 :136 14 

Johannes Weetervell, Nov. 1776 to t)ct. 1778 l.'>2 8 

J.ihannes Bogert, Nov. 1776 to 1782 19t) 11 9 

Jacob Bogert. Sov. 1776 hi 1778 l.'iO 14 6 

Leah Kipp, Nov 1776 to 1779 101 16 

Eva Banta, Nov. 1776 lo 1778 146 6 6 

Jane Deniareet, Nov. 1776 to Oct. 1778 61 

Benjamin Komiiie, Nov. 1776 lo 1782 46 17 6 

John Brower. 1777 to 1781 _ 57 8 6 

Koelef B-'gert, Nov. 1776 to Nov. 1781 106 18 3 

Sanmel S. Demarest. Nov. 1776 to 177H 201 9 9 

Abraham l.o/.ier, Nov. 1776 to March, 1781 104 1 6 

llaninih It ine. 1776 to 1778 140 18 8 

David P. Deniaresl, Nov. 1776 to May, 1779 149 1 2 

Samuel Deliinre-I, Nov. 1770 to 1782 _ 188 3 2 

John Montanye, Nov. 1776 ~ 152 II 9 

Daniel Chrislle, Nov. 1776 to Oct. 1778 122 IT 4 

John Nelson, Sov. 1776, 1777 2«2 10 6 

Jacob W. lilauvell, N.iv. 1776 to April, 1779 294 12 2 

. John W,«lervelt, Nov. 1776 to Sept 1778 19 7 8 

Klias Ibiniine. Nov. 1776 to June, 1779 157 2 2 

John Christie, Nov. 1778 lo 1778 29 11 3 

John W. Christie, 1777, 1778, 1780 27 II 6 

Jani,» Christie, Nov. 1776 26 7 

Kliiu. Dav. S,.v. 1776 160 16 

Wiilter Van Osden, 1778 U » » 

.Sl,.iilieii Hogert, Nov. 1776 03 13 

Kli/Jibeth Banta, Nov. 1776 lo 1780 163 9 « 

James lllinkerhof. N.,v. 177(1. 1778 310 13 

D..wer Weslervell, 1777 lo 1779 22 14 

Jane Weslervell, 1777 b. 1779 25 10 

Peter Weslervell, 17711 lo 1779 '269 S 

Albert Bauta, 1771. to 1779 634 3 3 

Marv Hogirl, 1776 1,1 1770 4111 8 8 

Heiidriek ll,igert, 1770 10 1778 _ - 128 4 8 

Kvi. Hiivler, 1776. 1779 28 4 6 

Heiirv lb liikerlii.f, 1777 lo 1781 160 2 

AlU-rl C. Zidirlskie. Nov. 1776 to 1779 384 1> 8 

Peter Demareel, 1778, 1779 19 3 

John Jai-.di Banll^ 1776 58 12 3 

Jn.obNagel, 1776IO 17M0 _ 79 9 

Marv lluvler, 1770 to 1780 „ 90 11 2 

JuhliCWestervell. 1770 10 1779 316 4 8 

Coinelliis llMgert, 1776 409 13 4 

Davl.l Vnii Osden, Nov, 1776 106 13 6 

Daniel S Deniaresl. Nov. 1776 to Oct. 17T8 108 II 6 

, Derrick Banta. 1776 to 1780 440 2 4 

Janie. Slagg, 1776 171 8 

' Mary Moore, 1776 to 1778 310 7 « 



£ a. d. 

John H. Banta, 1776 to 1779 437 4 3 

Kev. D RonieyD, 1776 to 1782 387 11 7 

David B. Demarest, 1777 to 1780 549 4 3 

Peter Bourdett, 1770 lo 1781 209 7 6 

Samuel Campliell, N'uv. 1776 to Sept. 1778 146 14 9 

William Christie, Nov. 1776 to 1780 790 3 8 

J'.hn Mauritius, Nov. 1776 to June, 1780 361 10 

Ganet Lvilecker, Nov. 1776 to 1778 1064 12 

J.-hii Beuson, Nov. 1776 to 1780 154 16 G 

Aruie Banta {widow of David Banta) 710 1 3 

David Samuel Demarest, 1776 to 1780 721 17 

Mary Dav (wid..w), 1776 to 1779 233 12 8 

Samuel Demarest, 1776 to 17S2. 74 11 4 

Thomas Ricknmn, 1776 83 19 9 

David Hammond, 1776 15 

Jacoh Fredon, Nov. 1776 to June, 1780 800 16 9 

Abraham Montanye, Nov. 1776 to Aug. 1777 275 5 9 

Peter Demarest, Sept. 1777 to Oct. 1778 213 6 

Arie Westervelt, Nov. 1776 to 1779 230 9 6 

William Hammond, Nov, 1776 to 1781 62 9 3 

John Moore, 1776 to 1778 122 14 6 

jHiues Campliell, Nov. 1776 to 1778 54 15 

Peter Westervelt, Nov. 1776 to 17S2 44 10 6 

Daniel N. Demarest, 1776 to 1782 145 16 9 

John Hudson, 1776 to 1779 97 6 

Rachel Allen, 1778 142 13 6 

Hendrick Kuyper, Oct. 1776 to 1777 1644 3 

The inventory of Mr, Kuyper is worth giving in 
full to show what a Bergen County farmer possessed 
in those times. The items are charged as follows : 

£ s. (I 

Tu two hundred bushels of wheel in Barn 65 

" :J5 Bushels of Barleiij 7 17 6 

'' two Tuus of hay .^ 6 

" 150 bushels of Indian Corn in field 28 2 6 

" 100 bushels of potates 10 

•* five WagKon Ixjads of Sax 17 10 

" a=> Bushels of flax seed 13 2 6 

" one wind mill to dene giain 4 10 

" four Spinning Weele.i 4 

■" two Wnoling Weeis 16 

*' twelve bushels of malt 4 16 

" lire Petaunger'J Copls Burden 40 

" Ci iipannel of fence one half new 54 

" oi;0 Lome (loom) hs good as new 3 4 

•■ t\'0 Plows with tlie fnll sets of Gears 4 

" ore iruuTuth (tooth) harrow 12 6 

" two Spads, 5 hoes 1 bog hoe 2 4 

" eight new barrils 1 12 

'■ fciirSiths with all their acutrementa 2 8 

■• three Sith to cut weet 2 5 

" four beef Tubs and Ley Cask 2 

" one pare handirons 1 10 

" one Large Cubbei-d 2 Large Tables 8 

*' two Wood Sleays 1 10 

" one Iron Shod Sleay half worn 2 

" one Louse (loose) Corner Closet and one small Cubbert * 5 

" two young Cows 9 

** on Hundred acres of Wood Land cutoff 500 

" three horses 1 of 4 years 14.% high 10-7 do 14J/f; 10-9 do 

14 .* 60 

•* on Waggon and Geai-s good. 12 

*' two Negro Wenches, value £60each 120 

" thre Negro Children one garrJl (girl) of 8 years one boy 

i>f three years one boy of 1 year and 8 mouths 68 

'■ four milks Cows 19 

■ one mare and yearling Colt. 30 

" one Sute of broad clotli Close good 8 

'• one Waggon New 18 

'■ one Sute of Soutc half worn 3 

■' one Barcelona Handkerchief 8 

" one pure of new shoes an plated buckets (i 15 

" one Shuger Box seven pound of Shuger 7 6 

'* twelve gallons of Westindia mm 2 14 

*' one Gammon of Bacon 7 6 

" two Sheatsone Callego Coverled quilted ^^ 10 

■' one blanket and one great Coat 2 5 

" one Docket Book wasted 6 

" Hard Money Eight Dollars :j 

" Continental Money one hundred pounds 2 10 

" one pare Silver Studs and pare Silver Buttons 7 6 

" one pare Silver Shoe buckels cost £1 12 1 10 

" one gallon of rum 4 

•' two Caster Hats one lialf worn 2 6 R 

" one new black bonnet 13 

" seven yards of linen 13 4 

" two Check Aprons 10 

■* one puter Viason 5 6 

" one new featherbed 6 

" four pare of troweersone check 17 6 

*' six behives with hunney 6 

" six wemens caps at 2 shillings each 12 

" two Looking glasses, one cost £4 one £o 9 

" an Armed Chair 7 6 

" one gun fowling piece 3 10 

*' one new piggon net 12 6 

" one Psalm Book Silver Clasps 10 


To two buckechin bi inkers half worn 1 

" two Sets of Curtens almost new 10 

" one Dutch Bible cost £4. 

" ten Shirt^ 

" four toble Cloths 4 Towels. 

** 8 Linnen Sheets 

'* 35 Eels of new Linnen 

" one Callego Bed Spred , 

" one fether bed two Bolsters two pillows 10 

" one House Clock 8 

" one Tea Kiltie and 1 Coffee Pot — copper 

" one Large english Bible 

" one Brass Kittle.. 

" three iron Pots 

** one Gridiron, Tiivit and Toster 

" one frying Pan 

" oue Side Saddle , 

" one Steer and one Heffer 

" one Large Trunk 

" one Negro man about 60 years old 

" a Dwelling House 54 feet in front 25 in rear. 

" one Dwelling House 18 by2o feet 

" one Barn 48 feet long 45 wide Seder roof. 

" one out house 18 feet square 12 

*' one small Barn 30 by 20 feet Seder roof 15 

" Cow house •J.S by 12 feet Seder roof Kt 

*' half of one Brew House 30 by 20 feet 15 

" half of a Copper Brew Kittle, held 5 barrels 20 

" half of the other Brewing Utencels 8 

" one Bote 24 feet long 3 feet 6 inches wide 8 

" half of one fish net near lOOfadam.... 15 












«. d. 






Total £1644 3 

" Hendricus Kuyper being duly sworn and says the above Inventory 
is just and true, and that no Satisfaction or Restitution has been made 
for the same. 

"Hendhicus Kxitpfk. 
" Sworn before me George Doi emuc, Nov. 20, 1782." 

£ 8. d. 
To one Young Man's Companion 5 6 

Inventory of William Campbell : 

To one Chany Bowl Containing three quarts.. 

" one of two Ditto 

" four of oue Ditto 

" twelve wine glasses 

" two quart Tumblers ... 

" four quart Decanters 

" two large puter dishes 

" Twenty-four Eels of New Liasy Woolsy. . 

" two good lanterns 















Among Rev. Mr. Eomeyn's books were : 

L. Eihard's History of England 

C. Beubroglio's History of the Ware of Flandere.... 

Cniden's Concordance.. 

Furguson's Lntore - - 

Godfrey's Poems ., 

Connie on the Catechism 

Beddirus on the Passion of Christ 

Taynman on Job 2d Vol 

Helenbrook on Isaiah 2d Vol 

Cocceyusou the Ephesians 

Maccovius System on Divinity , 

Driesen Sermons 

Van Stavereii on E.Kodu8 

Wingate's Arithmetick 

Cole's Dictionary, Latin and English 

Johnston's Do., 2d vol., English 

Smith's Longinus 

Evan's Sermons, vol. 2 

American Miigazine 

W'ine's History of AmenVa, 2d Vol 

Dr. Watts' Sermons, 2 vols, in one 

English Psaln) Book bound in Mnrocco 

Edwards on the Wilt 

Do. on Original Sin 

Do. on Religious Affections 

Do. on Moral Virtue, etc 

Do. Life and Sermons 

i Perries' Longinus. Latin and Greek 

Six volumes of Swift's Works at 5« 

Spectator, 8 vols., at 5s 

I Milton's Poetical Work8,2 vols 

' Milton's Paradise Lost in Prose 

I Thre volumes of Pntdius Remuneration, at 7«. 6d.. 
j Rolin's llelle Le1tres,4 vols, at 6c 

Thre volume)* t)f Calo's Letters at 6« 

I McLaurin's Essays 

Cambray on Eloquence 

I Duncan's Logic 

! Boston's Four Field State 

j Preceptor 

' Bucban's Family Physician 




































































In December, 1682, the Assembly of East Jersey 
passed an act ilividing tlie province into four coun- 
ties, viz. : Bergen, Essex, Middlesex, and Monmouth.' 
Bergen included all the settlements between the 
Hudson and Hackensack Rivers, and extended to the 
northern boundary of the province. Bergen and its 
outlying plantations comprised about si.xty thousand 
acre.s of land. In the act of Jan. 21, 1709, " for de- 
termining the bounds of the several counties," those 
of Bergen were e.\tended, as follows : " Beginning at 
Constable's Hook, so up along the bay and Hudson's 
River to the partition point between New Jersey and 
the province of New York ; along this line and the 
line between East and West Jersey- to the Peipianeck 
River; down the I'equaneck and Passaic Rivers to the 
Sound ; and so following the Sound to Constable's 
Hook, the place of beginning." 

In 1693 the counties were divided into townships. 
But those of Bergen County — viz., the townships of 
Bergen and Hackensack — had e.\isted for many years ' 
and been organized municipalities, the former under 
the Dutch government of the New Netherlands,' and : 
the latter under the proprietary government of East 
Jersey. No court e-xisted at Hackensack in 1G82. 
Smith says, in his " History of New .Icrsey," under ! 
date of this year: " The plantations on both sides of 
the Neck, as also those at Hackensack, were under the 
jurisdiction of Bergen Town, situated about the mid- 
dle of the Neck." The act of organization established 
the county courts at Bergen, where they remained 
until the enlargement of the county in 1709. 

Bergen, in 1080, is thus described by (Icorge Scott, 
of Edinburgh, who published a book entitled "The 
Model of the Government of the Province of East 
Jersey in America:" 

" Here is a Town Court Ili-Id by SeUcI Mm or iirrrtrrr*, wli.i iiw'il to he 
four or liiitn- OM thoy iOohho to chuoflo ^tnnually to try tvuilt rimtft, oj in <i// 
the rtMt tif the T^'imn ; <ind two Oourl$ of Setfwn$ in the year, front which, if 
the caune rjceed twenty poumte, they tnoy appeal to Ifie Guermor and Council 

and Court of DeputieA ill their AMcmhty, who n ( once a year. The town 

i> coni|«ct, >iiil hutli Inieii fortineil ugainst Hit Inilluiia. Tlioro aro not 
»l«vi> Mivnnly fiimlllM in it. Tlio ocren liilion up liy llio town nmy bo 
■IhiuI 1U,i<x>, anil for llio Out PlanlationM, .'.O.liW, and tlio niinilior of In- 
habllaiiln aro computed to Iw 350, but many raoro aliruad. Tlio groatoit 
part of the Inliabltnntawliicli arc In thi« jurindiction aro Dutch, uf which 
■omo liur*' noltlod horo upwards of forty ypara ago." 

' In onlor ro rniiw Ilflv pound*, the Logltlatiiro couionml in 108.1 laid 
aiueaimontJi to lio raliod In the four countira ai followa : Ilorgon, £11; 
MhbllnH'X, £10: h>iiox, £14; Monmouth, £15. 

Ill low Iho iiuni ol £70 I2j. 9.1. wa» awSMxl for Ilergoii County: 
Borgon, £7 Oi. >1 , Ilackouiiack, t3 18a. 0<l. 

3 Tito line U'tweon Koal and Wrat Joney, liera referred tu, la not tlia 
line nnally ad<ipto<i and linowii aa Iho Lawrence line, which w«a run 
liV Jolili Lawrolue in Soplember and October. 174:1. It wan the com- 
prxsmlae line agreeil uiion between (Jorernora Cole anil Barclay in lfl«2, 
which ran a little north of Morrlatown tu the PaaNlic UiTor; Uienco up 
the PiKiuannk to rortyH>ne degroea of luirlh latiluiie; and thence liy a 
alralKhl line due oaal Ui the New York Stale line. Thia lino IK-Ing afler- 
watdn ol.Jrcled to by tlie F.nal .leraey proprietor*, the latter procured lb* 
ninniuii of the Lawrence lino. 

^ Tlie Dutch goTornnient formeil no countle* In New NelhorlaiiiU. 

We have been particular to underscore a part of 
this quotation, inasmuch as we find it in some local 
histories misapplied to Hackensack Village, which 
latter place, it is well known, was in Essex County 
till 1709, and only upon the enlargement of Bergen 
County in that year was made the county-seal of the 
same. This was done l)ecause it was a thriving village, 
more centrally located than any other in the enlarged 

County officials in the reign of George the Second 
had to subscribe to certain oaths which sound strange 
to their descendants of these days in republican 
America. We give a list found attached to an old 
liarchment roll in the clerk's office, dated 17')5, 
wherein the names are subscribed to the following 
oaths : 


**I do heaitily and uiicerel.v acknowlodge, profeaa, teatify, and declare, 
in roy conacience, before God and the world, that our sovereign lord, 
King George the Second, is lawful and rightful kin^ of threat Uritain and 
all otliiT his Mi^eaty's dominions iind couutnos thereunto belonging; 
and 1 do solemnly and sincerely declare, and I do believe in my con- 
science, that the person pretending to be the Prince of Wales during the 
life of the late King James, or since bis decease, pretending to assume 
to himself the title of King of England, by the name of Jamee the Third, 
or James the Eighth, or the full title of tiie King of Great Britain, or by 
any riglit or title whatever to tht.- crown of threat Britain, or any otlier 
dominions tiiert-unto belonging; and I do renounce, refuse, and abjure 
any and all allegiance or obedience to lilm; and I do swear tliat I bear 
faithful luid true allegiance to bis Mnjeoty King George the Sccontl, and 
him will defend to the utmost of my iKivver against all tmitorona con- 
spiracies or attempts wtiatsoever to l)e made against his person, ct)WD, 
or dignity, and 1 will do my utmost endeavors to disclose and make 
known to his Majesty and his bucccssoib ail treast-)ns and traitoroiil cun* 
spiracles which I shall know to be against him or Ilo-ni; and I di> fallll- 
fnlly promise to tlie utmost of my [niwer to uphold iiml defend the sacrtHl. 
ness of llie crown against him, ttie said James, under any title w iiatao- 
over ; v^iiicb succession, by an act entitled ' .\n act for tlie succession of 
the crov\'n and the better securing the riglits a»d lilierties of the sub- 
jocts,* is limited to the Princess Sophia, electress and duchess dowager of 
Hanover, and the heirs of her body, tieing Proleetaiils. And all these 
things I do plainly and sincerely acknowledge anij swear according to 
tlie express words by me s|Hikeii, and according to the pbiiii sense and 
nnderstaniiing of the same, without any e<)nivocation, mental evasion, 
or soi'ret reserVHlluli wliatsoevor. And I do make tliis recognition, ac- 
knowb-dgmetit, alijunition, renunciation, and promise heartily, willingly, 
and truly, iilsin tiie true fallli of a Christian. 

'* So help ino God." 


" 1 do swear that I do from my heart ablior, deli>8t, and abjure aa ini* 
pious and heretical tliat damnable doclline and poeitlon that princes ex- 
communicated by the Po|>e or any authority of the See of Ibuno may be 
dejiosed or iiiunlereil by Iheir siibjiH'ts or any other t'uthidtcs; and I d.i 
promise timl no foreign prince, |>enioii, prelate, or potentate siiali or 
ouglit to lake any jurisdiction, su|ierlority, pre-eminence, ur authority, 
eillier ecclesiastical or civil, within the re«]ni of Gieat Britain. 

" So help me God. 
"William Kingsland, AroDt Schuyler, Johannes Van ilouten, Michael 
Vreeianiit [Ilia (M. V.t mark], John Cardan, Isaac Kingsland. Joel 
Van lloskirk. Wallngh Van Winkel, Johnnnrs Dougart, Philip 
Schuyler, Jan Van Oideii, Jacobus Wynkoop, Pieler IVigert, George 
Royonte, Jr., Ilooled Van Der l.iliiler, Tlii-unis Day. Simon Vreeiand, 
Allairt Zabrlskio, Jacidius Van lliiskirk, Abrmliam Iwiydecker, Jacob 
Home [Ills (X) mark], Theodore Vailon, Hoberl Van Ilouten, llel- 
inago Van Home, Jacob Van Noalrand, Jr. [his (C) mark], Luke 
Itoyeme, Albert Heniali, Jiicoii Sitsofi, .\nisen Keraoria, Garret llid- 
lenlieck, Jidin S< liiiyier, William J. Kiiigsbind, Jacoli, hia aun, Isaac 
Kingsland, Jacob Van Bnakirk, Helmage Van Houle, Abraham 
Gonvenier, Isaac Sclmyler, Jiicobua Van Winkel, Jobannoa Vree- 
latidt [Ills (J. V.) mark]. George Vreolandt. Jan Terliiiyn, Ilendrlck 
lioremus, Johannes Reyone, Johaniies llougart. I'loter Domarest, 



Sorens Jan Van Buskiik, David Van Buskirk, Henry Van Dalinda, 
Cornelius Wynkoop, Roelef Van Bouten, Derick Cuyper, George 
Reverse, Juliannes Post, Bejof Lyndaker, Abraham Ackernian, 
Micliael Noorland [liis (M.) mark], David Demarest, Timothy Ward, 
Henry Van De Linda, Jacoben Wyckoff, Picter Post, David Terliiiyn, 
Samuel Bogert, James Board, Peter Schuyler, John Berdan, Jacob 
Magel, Johannes Van Houten, Johannes Wagner [his (V. W.) mark], 
Roelef Westervelt, Heudrick Yeshopp, Abraham Dirick [his (A. D.) 
mark], Dirick Guysen, Peter Marsetin, Jansen Post, Jacobus Buck, 
Keynier V. Giere, Timothy Moore, Jr., Jacob Mead, Joliaunes Rey- 
erse, Dirick Cuyper, Samuel Moore, Jacob Dobson, Cornelius Bo- 
gert, Houseus Van Buskirk. Casparns Schuyler, Simon Juland. Wil- 
liam Van Emburgh, Johannes Demarest, Ephanus "N'an Home, Wa- 
bigh Van Buskirk, Peter Bogert, Rydsley Jecken, Jacobus Jeter, 
Isaac Kingaland. 
' Qualified as vendue master this 23d May, 1765, before me.i 

"John Schuyles." 



At the head of this list we give the board of justices 
and freeholders from 1715 — the date of the earliest 
records to be found — to 1794, when the justices ceased 
to act in the board with the freeholders, and the board 
from that time forward was composed only of the 
latter. The freeholders will be found named, so far 
as data could be obtained, in their respective town 
histories : 

Justices and Freeholders. 

1715. — Ju6(icc«— Thomas Larence, George Ryerson, Jobn Berdan, Martin 
PowlBon. Freeholders— John Flagg;, Ryer Ryerson, Rutt Van Home, 
Cornelius Blinkerhof, Xicliolas Lazier, John Bogart. 

1716.— Justices— David Provost, Thomas Lawrence, Thomas Van Bus- 
kirk, George Ryersou, John Flagg, David Demarest. Freeholders— 
Hendrick Cooper, Cornelius Blinkerhof, Miholes Lasire, Jacob 
Blinkerhof, Ryer Ryerson, David Danjelse, Peter Garretson, Cor- 
nelius Van Voi-st, John Van lioute, John De Mutt, John Huyler, 
Isaac Van Der Beck, Jr., Arent Schuyler, Jacob Be rdau, Abraham 
Haring, Abraham G. Hariug. 

1717.— Jnflitc«s— David Provost, Thomas Lawrence, Thomas Van Bus- 
kirk, George Ryerson, John Flagg. Freeholders — Andries Van Bus- 
kirk, Rutt Van Home, Jacob Bantaw, Jacobus Blinkerhof, David 
Ackernian, Harp Garrebrantse, Peter Garretson, Thomas Garretson. 

1720. — Jtistices — David Provost, Thomas Lawrence, Thomas Van Buskirk, 
George Ryerson, John Berdan, Frefholdi-rs — David Ackernian, 
Lucas Kinstud, Lawrence Van Buskirk, Rutt Van Home, Roelef 
Bogert, Roelef Westervelt. 

1721. — JH/!^'ces— Thomas Lawrence, Thomas Van Buskirk, George Ryer- 
son, John Berdan, John Flagg. Freeholders — Hendrick Cooper, Rutt 
Van Home, Charles Lezier, David Demarest, Michael Van Winkle, 
David Ackernian, William Flagg, Arent Turce. 

1722. — Justices — Thomas Lawrence, Thomas Van Buskirk, George Ryer- 
son, John Flagg. Freeholders — Hendrick Cooper, Garret Turyance, 
David Demarest, Audriese Van Orden, Thomas Fredrickson, Johan- 
nes Nefie, Johannes Walingson. 

1723. — Justices — Thomas Lawrence, Thomas Van Buskirk, George Ryer- 
son, John Berdan, John Flagg, Wander Deadrick. Freeholders — 
John Wright, Egbert Ackerson, Andriese Van Orden, William Dey, 
Cornelius Blinkerhof, David Danjelson, John Hopper, Peter Tebon. 

1 This probably refers to the last person named, Isaac Kingsland. The 
following note fron- the records will throw some light upon the office of 
"vendue master:*' 

*' It is ordered by the Board of Justices and Freeholders of the county 
of Bergen that Jacob Titshort shall be vendue master to sell arms and 
accoutrements, and to receive for his trouble 6 pence per pound. 

"Oct. 4, 1763." 

These were arms and accoutrements used in the French war. They 
were sold at the court-house in Hackensack on Monday, Oct. 17, 1763. 

1724.— JuB/ices— Thomas Lawrence, Thomas Van Buskirk, John Berdan, 
Ryer Ryerson. F/«e/ioMer8— Philip Schuyler, Garret Garretson, 
Martin Powlson, John Loats, Cornelius Blinkerhof, Johannes Gar- 
retson. Johannes Ackernian. 
1725.— J^iw^iVes— Thomas Van Buskirk, Isaac Van Geren, Jnhn Berdan. 
Freeholders— PhUip Schuyler, Garret Garretson, filartin Powlson, 
John Loats, Cornelius Blinkerhof, Johannes Garretson, Johannes 
1726.— Ji«( icea— Thomas Van Buskirk, Thomas Lawrence, Isaac Van 
Gesen, John Berdan, Thomas Oldwater. Free/toMe)-8— Cornelius 
Blinkerhof, Johannes Van Wagen, John Bogert, Jacobus Blinker- 
hof, Michael Van Winkle, Egbert Ackerman, Johannes Garretson. 
1727.— J«8(jce5— Thomas Van Buskirk, John Berdan, George Ryerson. 
Freeholders— Ueury Brockiiolst, Derrick Barenteon,. John Guest, 
Egbert Ackeiman, Claes Lazier, John Bogert, Johannes Garretaon, 
Cornelius Blinkerhof. 
1728.— J««Aicc«— Thon)as Van Buskirk, George Ryerson, Isaac Van 
Gesen, Ryer Ryerson. Freeholders— VhiUp Schuyler, Derrick Bar- 
entson, Abraham Ackerman, Tury Westervelt, Johannes Van Wa- 
gene, Claes Lezier, John Zabriskie. 
n^,— Justices— Thonisis Van Buskirk, Thomas Lawrence, Isaac Van 
Gesen. Freeholders— M&thias De Mott, Hendrick Cuyper, Joliannes 
Van Wagene, John /-abriskie. Arie Bunta, Hendrick Van Der Linde, 
Egbert Ackernian. 
1730.— Jw«((ce8— Thomas Van Buskirk, Isaac Van Gesen, Thomas Old- 
water, George Ryerson, Roelef Van Houten. Freeholders — Hendrick 
K. Kuyfer, Cornelius Blinkerhof, Arie Banta, Derrick Van Houte, 
Derrick Blinkerhof, Hendrick Van Der Linde. 
1731. _jHs(iVes— William Provoost, George Ryerson, Isaac Van Gesen, 
Ryer Ryersun, John Flagg, Henry Van Der Linde, Derrick Kuyper, 
Mathias De Mott, Richard Edeall, Benjamin Demarest. Freeholders 
— Henry Van Der Linde, Hendrick Kuyper, Cornelius Blinkerhof, 
Arie Banta, Thomas Fredericks. 
1732. — JiLsiiVes— William Provoost, Ryer Ryerson, Henry Van Der Linde, 
Benjamin Demarest, Derrick Kuyper. jPr^e/io/rfci-s— Egbert Acker- 
man, Hendrick Kuyper, Hendrick Van Winkle, Jacob Hendrickse 
Banta, John Christian. 
1733. — Ji(«(tc(?s— William Provoost, George Ryerson, Ryer Ryerson, 
Henry Van Der Linde, Derrick Kuyper, Benjamin Demarest, 
Mathiaa De Mutt. Freeholders— John Romine, Reynier Van Gesen, 
Hendrick Kuyper, Martin Powlson, Jan Duryea, Hendrick Van 
Winkle, Johannes Garretse, Garret Garretse. 
1734.— Ji«(ure^— William Provoost, David Provoost, Isaac Van Gesen. 
Freeholders — Martin Powelson, Jacob Dey, John Romine, Rynier 
Van Gesen, Philip Schuyler, John Garretson, Henry Cooper, Henry 
Van Winkle. 
1735.— Justices- William Provoost, David Provoost, Henry Van Der 
Linda, Poulus Van Der Beek. ^'rec/ioWers— Martin Powelson, Yost 
Zabriskie, Derrick Dey, John Garretson, John Van Orden, John 
Van Home, Henry Van Winkle, Garret Hopper. 
1736.— JiMi(rce«— William Provoost, John Flagg, David Provoorst, Paul 
Van Der Beck Freeholders — John Garretson, Yost Zabriskie, Jacob 
Day, John Van Home, Henry Van Winkle, Derrick Dey. 
1737. — /?i«(iofs— William Provoost, David Provoost, Paul Van Der Beck, 
Henry Van Der Linde, James Duncan. Freeholders — John Garret- 
son, Jacub Day, John Poet, Garret Halenbeck, Eden Sipp, John Van 
Home, Egbert Ackerman. 
nSS.— Justices— D&rid Demarest, Paul Van Der Beck, Henry Van Der 
Linda, James Duncan, Benjamin Demarest, Garret Halenbeck. Free- 
holders-John Romine, Cornelius Wynkoop, Henry Kipp, Arie Siebe 
Banta, Jacobus Pick. 
1741. — JtwiiccN- Paul Van Der Beck, John Berdau, Jacobus Bertholf. 
iiVceftoWers— Michael Van Winkle. Jacob Dey, Derrick Dey, Rynier 
Van Gesen, Juhn Duryea, Derrick Van Gesen. 
1742.— jM«(i,e«— David Provoost, Paul Van Der Beck, Henry Van Der 
Beck, Henry Van Der Linde. Freeholders — Cornelius Van Voss, 
Derrick Dey, Derrick Van Gesen, Cornelius Lydeker, Cornelius 
Wynkoop, Michael Vroeland, Jacobus Blinkerhof, John Duryea, 
Cornelius Van Vorst, John Van Hoin, Derrick Van Gesen, Jacob 
Oldwater, Jacobus Bertholf, Rynier Van Gesen, Jacobus Bertholf. 
1743.— ./Hsfices — Paul Van Der Beck, Henry Van Der Linde, John Ber- 
dan. Freeholders — Luke Ryerson, Garret Garretse, Jacobus Bertholf, 
Cornelius Van Vorst, Cornelius Wynkoop, Cornelius Leydeker. 
, 1744. — Justices — David Demarest, Hendrick Van Der Linde, Cornelius 
Wynkoop. Freeholders — Jacobus Bertholf, Cornelius Leydeker, 
Jacobus Blinkerhof, Abraham Ackerman, Garret Garretson, Lnke 
i Ryerson, Cornelius Van Voi-st, Derrick Cadmus. 



1746. — JitMicta — Hendrick Tan J>eT Linde. Abraham Ackennan, Law- 
rence Van BiiBkirk. Frirtholder$ — Jacobus BUnkerbofT, Joliti Ber* 
dan, Oomplius Loydoker, Derrick Doy, Garret Garretsou, Derrick 
Catluiiia, CoriieliiiH Vau Vurat. 
174B. — Jtuticfa — Garret Ilalenbeck, John Vnii Nurdo, Derrick Leydeker, 
John Bogert. FVefholden — Dorrk-k CailmuB, Cornelius Van Vomt, 
JacobuH Uliiikerhof, Cornelius Leydeker, Derrick Dey, Garret Gar- 
retsoD, Jacobud Bertliolf. 
1747. — Jutticf^ — Derrick Kuyper, Garret Ualeiibeck, Jacob Oldwater. 
Freeholders — Derrick Dey, Jacobus Bliukcrhuf, Cornelius Van Yorst, 
Jubn Van Home, Cornelius Leydeker, Garret Garret«ou, Jacobua 
Herthuir, Jnhu Herdnn. 
1748. — Ju»tice» — Derrick Kuyper, Garret llaleubcck, Jacob Titsort. Free- 
holders — Jacobus BertholT, Jacobuti Blinkcrhof, John Berdnn,Jobn 
Tan Horu, Derrick Dey, Garret Garretsou, Cornelius Van Vuntt. 
1749. — Justice* — Jacobus Peck, Jacob Titaort, Garret Ilnlenbeck. 
1760, — JiuUce* — George Ryergon, Derrick Kuyper, Garret Haleul>eck, Ja- 
cobus Peck. Freehohieri — John Van Horn, John Durie, Cornelius 
Van V«)rst, Coruelins Leydecker, Derrick Geisen, Garret Van Wa- 
ge ne. 
17&I. — JualicfM — Derrick Knypsr, Keynier Van Geisen, Abraham Van 
Buskirk. Freeholder*— John \ an Horn, Cornelius Vnn Yoret, Cor- 
Deliiis Leydocker, John Darje (Durjea?), Derrick Vau Geisen, Gar- 
ret Van Wageoe, JacoI> Titaort, John Zabriskie. 
1762. — Jtuticet — Derrick Kuyper, Jacobus Peck, Jacob Titsort. fVee* 
holder »— Isaac Kingsland, Garret Gnrretse, iiendrick Van Winkle, 
Derrick Van Geisen, John Van Horn, Johnnnee Bogert, Lawrence 
Vau Buskirk. 
1753. — Jtuticee — Jacobus Peck, Samuel Moore, Rcynlor Van Geisen. 
iiVeeAo/'i*r«— Garret (iarretse. Derrick Van Cieison, Isaac Kingsland, , 
Cornelius Leydocker, Barent Cool, Ilendrick Van Winklf, John Van 
Horn. I 

17M. — ./M*/k'M— Jacobua Peck, Jacob Titaort, Samuel Moore. hWekold- 
ers — Peter Zabriskie, Ilendrick Van Geisen, Barent Cool, Cor- 
nelius Leydocker, John Van Horn, George Vreeland, Derrick Van 
G risen. , 

1766. — ./kWicm— Jacobus Peck, John Demaresl, Jacob Titsort. Freehold- i 
rr* — Peter /abrisklo, Jacob Oldwater, John Van Horn, George Vree- : 
land, Dorrfck Vau Geisen, Turja Pieterse, Lawrence Vau Buskirk, I 
Johannes Bogert, I 

1766.— ./tti/icea — I>awrence Van Buskirk, Jacoluis Peck, Johniiuea Dema- ' 
reel. Freeholder»—3o\\\\ Van Horn, Hendrick Kuyper, Jacob Old- i 
walei, Lawrence Ackermiui, Barent Cool, Cornelius Leyiiocker, I 
Turjii Pioterse, Derrick Van Geifcn. 
1767. — Jtuticet — Jacobus Peck, Lawrence Van Buskirk, Johannes Denia- 
rest. Freeholdert — Ctirnellns Leydocker, Barent Cool, John Vau 
Horn, Hendrick Kuyper, Lawrence Ackeruian, Jacob Oldwateri 
Turio Pleterse, Derrick Van Geisen. i 

176S.—./i«/(Ve«— Jacobus Peck, Keynier Van Geisen, Lawrence Van Bus- 
kirk. I'reehoUhrn — .Jacob Oldwater, Lawrence Ackemiiin, Hendrick 
Kuyper, ('ornolius Leydocker, MIrhacI Do Mott, Barent <'ool, Then- ' 
nls Doy, Derrick Van Geisen. 
1769. — JtutuM — Reyuler Van Gteson, Jacob Titshurt, JolntiiueK Deniarest, 
Lawrence Van Buskirk. /VrcfcoMfTn— C^ornelius Leyiiocker, Barent 
Cole, Hendrick Kuypvr, Micbatd De 3Iott, Tennis Dey, Albertus 
Ti'rhuuo, John Zabriskie. 
1760.— JttJiirrj.— Keynier Van Geisen, Lawrence Van Buskirk, Jacob Tit- 
short. fVe^Ao/'ierji— Cornelius Lr>yd(tck<-r, Barent Cole, Teuuis Dey, i 
Derrick Vau Geisoti, Lawr<'tif<' Ackerinaii. 
nQl.—jMticr* — Jacobus ■*•-< k, Keynier Van liflnen, l^wronco Van Bus- 
kirk. Jiixdi Tltshurt, Hariman Blinkerhuf, Daniel Mariug, Derrick 
Van Geisen, Roelor Westervelt, Cornelius Van Vorsl, Hi-ndrick Kuy- 
1702. — Jii«lic^j— Keynier Van Qolsan, Lawrencn Van Buskirk, Jacob Tlt- 
slmrt. ^Vs«AoW«r»— Derrick Van GolBen, K<»eler Westorvelt, P«ter 
Zabriskie, Lawrence Ackerman, Ilartnian Bllnkorbof, Dauit*| ||a- 
riug, Cornelius Van Vorst, ILnidrirk Kuyper. 
17e:t.—./iu/trr>— Keynier Van Gi'lsen, lUielef W<'st4>rvelt. JacubTlUhort. 
FrefholtUrt—l'ptvr Zabiliikl«>, Lawrence Ackerman, Jacobus Berlo, 
Kdo Maraellse, Michael De Mott, George Cadmus, Johannes Dema- 
resl, John Duryi»a, 
1704.— ./iM<i/-e»— Keynier Van GeUf-n. Jacob Tltsh<irt, John B^rry. Free- 
holder*— Vctor Zabriskie, I<awrencti Ackerman, Jacobus Berio, Kdo 
MarcrleM, Johannes Domarrat, John Duryaa , Michael Do Molt, 
Tores Cadmus. 
1766.—./iu/u:«*— Ijiwrencc Van Buskirk. Jacob Tltshorl, Gourge Vree- 
land. fViieAol'(«ri— Ueudrirk Bllnkerhiir, Cornelius Garrebrantse, 

George Bllukerhof, l*eterZabriakle, John Zabriakle,Ar«ot Schuyler, 
Edo Marcelese. 

1766. — i/u*/tr«(i— Keynier Van Geisen, Peter Zabriskie, Hendrick Kuyper, 
lioelef Weetervelt. /V«AoWeni — Cornelius Vau Von«t, (^melius 
Gerrabrantae, Jr., Abniham Van Buskirk, Derrick Terbune, George 
Bllukerhof, John Demari>st, ArenI Schuyler, Edo Marcelese. 

1767. — Justtcej-- Keynier Van Giescii, Lawrence \'an Buskirk, Jacob Tit- 
short. Freehold'-rs—Aretit Scliuyler, Edo Marcelese, Abraham Van 
Buskirk, John Terhuue, Jacob De Mott, John Dcmarest, Hendrick 

176H.—Ji«/icM— Keynier Van Geisen, Lawrence L. Van Buskirk, Peter 
Zabriskie. >Vre/ioWrT«— John Demurest, Jacub Do Mult, Ilendriik 
Blinkerhof, Coruelius Garrabrante, John Terbune, Edo Marcelese. 

1769.— Ju«<ic«#— Keynier Van Geisen, I*awreuce Van Buskirk, Peter Za- 
briskie. l-WeholderB- John Terbune, Isaae- Van Der Beck, Idumus 
Marcelese. John Kyoraon, Sfartiu PauUson, Jacob De Mutt, Helmer 
Van Houten, Abraham Prior. 

1770. — JiWi'e«— Keynier Van Geisen, Peter Zabriskie, Lawrence Van 
Buskirk, Roelef Westervelt, Thomas Moore. FrefWJer*— John 
Terhune,i Samuel Berry,' Hendrick Vau Huuten,' Abraham I'rior,^ 
Jacob Do Motl,^ Blathios Uoulse,' Edo Marcelfse.* 

1771. — Jt«/ic«"«— Reyni<'r Van Geisen, Lawrence Van Buskirk, John Tell, 
Roolef Wester^elt, Thomas Mtvore, Freeholder*— JoXiu Terhune, 
Samuel Berry, Abraham Prior, Hendrick Kuyper, Jacob De Mott, 
Mathius Ruulse, Jacob Post, Edo Slun'clese. 

1772.— JhWicwi- Keynier Van Geisen, Peter Zabriskie. Roelef Westervelt. 
fVeeAoWrrj— Samuel Berry.i Heudricus Cooper.s An>ert Bant*,*M«- 
thios Roulese,^ Kdo Marcelese,* Hendrick l)orenins.* 

1773,_ji«/Mr«*— Lawrence Van Buskirk, Peter Zabriskie, Roelef Wester- 
velt. Fre«/ioWcr(i— George De Mutt, Mathias Koulese,' J-din Benson,^ 
leoac Vau Der Beck,' Nicause Terhune,' E<lo Marceles, Hendrick 
Doremus, Albert Ackerson,'' Janie« Ikmrd.-"* 

1774.— Jiw/ic«— lAwreuce Van Buskirk, Peter Zabriskie, K«)elof Wester- 
velt. Freeholdm— Isaac Van Dor Beck, Nicause Terhune, Hendrick 
Kuyper.= John Vau Home.- John Benson, Yt»st Zabrif«kie, Albert 
Ackerman, .lames Board, Edo 3IurceK^, Hendrlrk lK>remufl. 

1776. — /iij/icM— Lawrence Van Buskirk. Peter Zabriskie, Roolef Wester- 
velt, Thomas Moore, Abraimm Monlayne. /Vr<-A<i/«/fnr— Hendrick 
Kuyper, John Van Hurne. John BenB^>n, Marten Rouleso, Isaac Van 
Der Beck. Nicause Terhune, Edo Marceles, Ilendrick Doremus, Ja- 
cobus Bertholf, Corneliu{< La/.ler. 

1776._j„*fMv^_]Vtcr Zabriskie, Tbumaa Moore, Stephen Baldwin, Abia- 
hoin Moutanye. /V«Aol*/eT<.— Ilartnntn Brinkerbofl, Job Smith, 
John Benson, Martin Roulese, John Rlchanls, Coruelius Cooper, 
Hendrick Doremus, Garrabrante Vau Houten, Garret Hopper, David 
Board, John Vau Boaklrk,*^ Jacob Cole.« 

There is no meeting of the board recorded (or 1777. 
The first ineetin^^ under the State of New Jersey wjus 
held at the liouse of Stephen Hugert, ai Haring's 
Plain (Harrinjrton ti)\vnship?), May 13, 1780. The 
members of the board were : 

Justice*— Kuolef Westervelt, Jacob Roam, Abraham Ackerman. *V*e- 
A<>Mrt-»— John Ryerann, Edo Blarceles, David BoanI, I^awrence 

No biisines.s wa.s transaeleil, exeept the appoint- 
ment of Abraham Westervelt ii» county cttUeetor, in 
the place of Jacob J. Deniarest. 

Tlie next meeting was on the 12th of September, 
1778, at Garret Hopper's house in Paranius, the 
board being: 

./kWiVc-— Roelef Wcatenrelt, Hendrick Kuy|>er. Abraham Ackerman, 
Peter llaring. hyr^hotdrtt — John Ryerson, Edo Marceles, David 
B4>ard, Lawrence Ackermnn. 

The former collector, Jacob J. Deniarest, at thia 
meeting rendered an account of C142 17x., being part 
of a tux raised in the county by order of the Conti- 

I Now Barbadooa. * Bergen. * Hackenaack. * Saddle River. 
^ Franklin township, first represented in the board. 
narrlngton township flral reproeented 



nental Congress in 1776, and £357 Ss. 9^/., " received 
for the county arms sold out of the court-house at 
New Barbadoes." He also turned over the balance 
of the sinking fund in his hands, amounting to £95 

Abraham Westervelt was ordered to take charge of 
the record-book of the board. 

1779.1— JuafKes—Heudrick Kuyper, Peter Haring, Garret Lyndaker, 
Abraham Ackernian, Jacob Tcrhune. Freeholders — William Cliris- i 
tie, David Banta, David Terhiiiie, Jacob Zabriskic, Edo Marcelese, 
Adrian Post, David Board, Lawrence Ackerman, Daniel Raring. 

17SI).— Jnefict'S — Hendrick Kuyper, Peter Haring, Garret Loydacker, 
Isaac Van Der Beck, Dand B. Demarest, Jacob Terhnne. Freehohl- 
ei's — William Christie, David Batita, David Terbune, Martin Ryer- 
sou, Daniel Haring, William Nagal, Jacob Zabrigkie, Lawrence 

1781. — Justices — Hendrick Kuyper, Abraham Ackerman, Henry Mead, 
David Demarest. Freeholders — Lawrence Ackerson, Andrew Hop- 
per, Garret Van Houten, Peter Demarest, Jacob Demarest, John 
Kuyper, Albert Banta. 

1782;-i — Justices — Abraham Ackerman, Peter Ilaring, Yost Beam, Henry 
5Iead, David Demarest, John Benson. Freeholders — Garrebrant Van 
Houten, Edo Marceles, Lawrence Ackerman, Andrew Hopper, Peter 
Demarest, Thomas Blanch, Peter Bogert, Jacob Zabriskie, John Ter- 
hune, Samuel Demarest. 

17S;i.'' — Justices — Abraham Ackerman, Peter Haiing, Isaac Van Der 
Beck, Jacob Terhune, John Benson, David Demarest, Daniel Van 
Riper. Freeholders — Job Smith, 51. Garrabrant, Garret Leydacker, 
Jost Zabriskie, Jacob Znbriskie, Edo Slarceles, Lawrence Ackermau, 
Thomas Blanch, Abraham Haring. 

1784.5— /us/ices — Peter Haring, Isaac Van Der Beck, Jacob Terbune. 
Freeholders — Job Smith, Nicholas Toers, Jost Zabriskie, Garret Ley- 
dacker, David Terhuin', Eden Merselis, John Mead, Lawrence Ack- 
erman, Abraham Haring. 

17so.3 — Justices — Peter Haring, Jacob Beam, John Benson, Jacob Ter- 
hune, Isaac Van Der Beck, Daniel Van Reipen, Isaac Blanch, Isaac 
Van Der Beck, Jr. Freeholders — Nicholas Toers, Daniel Van Win- 
kle, Jacob Zabriskie, John Berdan, Garret Leydacker, John Mauri- 
tins Goetshius, David Haring, Abraliam Blauvelt. 

1786.^' — Justices — Peter Haring, Jost Beam, John Benson, Isaac Van Der 
Beck, Isaac Bl^mcfi, Garret Leydacker, Albert Van Voorbis. Free- 
holders — Nicholas Toers, Garret Van Reipen, John Cutwater, Abra- 
ham Huysman, Abnihani Westervelt, Cornelius Haring, William 
Christie, J, Mauritius Goetshius. 

1787. — Justices — Peter Haring, John Benson, Isaac Blanch, Garret Ly- 
decker, Jacob Terhune, Isaac Van Der Beck, Henry Spier, Albert 
Van Voorhis. FVeeholiers — Job Smith, Cornelius Garrebrant, John 
Dey, Mauritius Goetachius, Cornelius Hinsman, Garret Duryea, 
Abraham T. Blauvelt. 

17S8. — Justices— Peter Haring, Isaac Van Der Beck, Isaac Blanch, Jacob 
Terhnne. Freeholders — Job Smitli, Cornelius Garrebrant, J. 31. 
Goetshius, John Day, Peter Zabriskie, Nicausie Van Voorhis, Samuel 
Van Zaen, George Doremns, Abraham Westervelt, Peter Ward, 
Abraham T. Blauvelt, Albert Bogert. 

1789. — Justices — Peter Haring, Garret Lydecker, Daniel Van Riper, Al- 
bert Van Voorhis, Henry Spier. Freeholders — Helmigh Van Houten, 
Garret Van Geisen, John Day, Albert C. Zabriskie, Samuel Van Zaen, 
George L. Ryerson, Garret Ackerman, John W. Hopper, Albert Bo- 
gert, Jacob Vlauvelt. 

179u. — Justites — Peter Haring, Jacob Terhune, Albert Van Voorhis. 
Fri-eholdcrs — Garret Van Geisen, John Van Horn, Jr., Albert C. 
Zabriskie, Isaac Kipp, Nicausie Van A'oorhis, Henry Kingsland, 
Samuel Van Zaen, George L. Ryerson, John Haring, Jacob Blauvelt, 
John H. Camp. 

1791. — Justices — Peter Haring, Jacob Terhune, John Outwater, Abraham 
Westervelt, Daniel Van Reype, Garret Lydecker, Garret Duryea. 
Freeholders— Garret Van Geisen, John Van Home, Nicausie Van 
Voorhis, Henry Kingsland, David Board, Albert Zabriskie, Isaac 
Kipp, Samuel Van Zaen, Jacob Blauvelt. Jolin Hogan Camp. 

• Met this year at Pompton. 

2 Met in Paranus, at the house of Capt. John Ryei-son. 
■' Met at the house of Archibald Campbell, in New Barbadoes (village 
of Hackensack). 

1792. — Justices — John Benson, Jacob Terhune, Daniel Van Reype, Abra- 
ham Westervelt. Freeholders — Cornelius Van Vorst, John Van 
Houte, Isaac Nicoll, John I. M'estervelt, Christian Zabriskie, Nicau- 
sie Van Voorhis, George L. Ryerson, Peter Day, Peter Ward, Abra- 
ham Demarest, David Duryea. 

1793. — Justices — John Benson, Jacob Terhnne, Abraham Westervelt, 
William Davis. Freeholders — Cornelius Van Vorst, John Van Houte, 
John Westervelt, Christian Zabriskie, George L. Ryerson, Peter 
Day, Peter Ward, John Hagan, Abraham Demarest, David Duryea. 

1794. — Justices — Peter Haring, John Outwater, Jacob Terhune, Abmham 
Westervelt, Adam Boyd, William Davis, Peter Dey. 

Freeholders of Bergen Township.-* 

1794, Cornelius Van Vorst ; 1794-95, John Van Houte; 1795, Garret Van 
Geisen; 1796-1805, John Van Home; 1796, Garret Van Reyland; 
1797-1800, John Smith; 1797, Jasper Zabriskie; 1798-99, 1807, Gar- 
ret Freeland ; lSi)0, Cornelius Van Vorst, Jr. ; 1801-2, 1805-6, 1808-9, 
Cornelius Doremus; lSOl-4, Jacob Van Wagoner; 1S03, Casparus 
Cadmus; 1804-13, Richard Cadmus; 1806-11, 1816, Peter Sipp; 
1810-12, Thomas Dickersou ; 1812, Elias Biuger; 1813-14, Rynier 
Van Geisen; 1814-15, John Goodman; 1815, James Van Buskirk ; 
1816, Cornelius Van Riper ; 1817-18, Casparus Prior; 1817-18, Adrian 
Post; 1819-20, 1822, Casparus Prior; 1819-20, Adrian Post; 1821-2G, 
1828-29, 1831, Peter Sip; 1821, Stephen Vreelaud; 1822-26, 183], Cor- 
nelius Van Winkle; 182.3-25, 1827, 1833-35, 1839, Harlman Van 
Wagoner; 1827-28, 1830, 1832-34, Abel I.Smith; 1829, Cornelius 
Van Vorst ; 1830, Jacob D. Van Winkle ; 1832, Merselis Merselis ; 1835, 
Garret Vreeland; 1S36, Asa Wright; 1836, Mitchel Saunier; 1837, 
Dudley S. Gregory ; 1837-38, Garret Sip ; 1838-39, William C. Vree- 

Judges of the Covrt of Common Pleas. 


Eilniuud \V, Kingsland 1789 

Petrus Haring 1789 

Ganet Lydeclier 1789 

Daniel Van Eeyan 1790 

Petrus Haring 1791 

John Benson 1791 ; 

Jacob Tcrliune 1797 : 

William Oolfax 1800 

John Oulwater 1800 

Abraham Westervelt 1800 

William Davis 180O | 

Abraham Eyerson ; 1800 

Martin llyerson ISOO I 

John Hopper 1801 

Daniel Van Ryan 1801 \ 

Adam Boyd 1S03 i 

Isaac Nicoll 1803 

Benjamin Blacklidge 1803 

Henry Van Dalsom 1803 

Lewis Moses 1804 

Jacob Terhune 1804 

Garret Durie 1804 

Martin I. Ryerson 1805 

Abraham Westervelt 1806 

David P. Haring 1805 

Adam Boyd 1805 I 

Abraham Ryerson 1805 i 

John Hopper 1806 

William Colfax 1806 

Daniel Van Reyan 1806 

William Davis 1806 

Samuel Beach 1807 

Benjamin Blacklidge 1808 

JohnCassidy 1808 

John Westervelt 1808 

Peter Ward 1808 

Jacob C. Terhune 1809 

LewisMoore 1809 

Garret Durie 1809 

Martin I. Ryerson 1809 

John Outwater 1810 

David P. Haring 1810 

Abraham Westervelt 1810 j 

Garret Van Houten 1811 

John A. Berry 1811 

Daniel Van Reyan 1811 

John D. Haring 1»12 

Christian Zabriskie 1812 

Elias Brevoort 1812 

Dower Westervelt 1812 

Cornelius Merselis 1812 

John Al. Voorhis 1812 

John Hopper 1812 

William Colfax 1812 

Jacob C. Teihune 1813 

Adam Bovd 1813 

Jacob Banter 1813 

John Westervelt 1813 

Lewis Moore 1814 

Jacob C. Terhune 1814 

Martin I. Ryeraon 1814 

William Colfax 1R14 

John T. Banta 1815 

B. V. Haring 1815 

Simon Mead 1815 

Garret Van Houten 1816 

Garret Durie 1816 

John D. Haring 1817 

John Outwater 1817 

Christian Zabriskie 1817 

Elias Brevoort 1817 

John Al. Voorhis 1817 

Dower W'pstervell 1817 

John Hopper 1817 

Adam Boyd 1818 

Peter Sip 1818 

Cornelius Van Winkle 1819 

Cornelius Merselis 1819 

Henrv W. Kingsland 1819 

Jacob Banta 1819 

William Colfax, 1820 

John T. Banta 1820 

Garret Van Houten 1821 

John D. Haring 1821 

Peter I. Terhune 1821 

David I.Christie 1821 

Dower Westervelt 1821 

John Outwater 1821 

Elias Brevoort 1821 

Cornelius Van Winkle 1821 

Christian Zabriskie 1821 

John Al. Voorhis 1821 

Henry B. Hagerman 1822 

John A. Westervelt 1822 

Adam Boyd 1822 

Charles Board 1822 

John Cassidy 1823 

Peter Sip 1823 

Jacob Banta 1823 

Henry W. Kingsland 1823 

Garret P. Hopper 1824 

David I. Christie 1824 

Garret Ackerson 1825 

Garret Van Honten 1825 

* This list contains the names and years of service of the chosen free- 
holders of Bergen township, which became the county of Hudson in 
1840. They are given from the close of the above list (1794) until the 
township ceased to exist as such. 



Marcus B. Ituuglass 18i5 

Wllliulu Calfui 1K26 Zabruklo Ifid 

Jolili I> llnriiig 1826 

PHer I.Terhuno 182C 

Nalliaiiiel Ujard 1826 

John Al. V.jurhis 1826 

Heur>- U. llaKeniian 1827 

Albert G. DorcDius 1827 

John lloGpxit 1S27 

Adam Bovd 1827 

John A. Wc»terv6U 1827 

Cornelius Vau Winkle 1827 

J.WellB 1827 

Clmrles Bourd 1827 

Henrv \V. Kingslund 18'28 

Peter I.Terliune 1828 

John Caxidy 1828 

John A. Borr) 1828 

Peter Sip 1828 

Cornelius Vnn Winkle 1829 

Henry 1). Baula 1829 

Kichurd Ackermuu 182<J 

Uarrnt P. tlupper 1829 

John G. AL'kernian 1830 

Charles Kluwv IKU) 

Peter 1>. Westfrvelt 1830 

Garret Vau iloulen 1830 

Garret Ackonton IKiO 

Marcus B. IK.uglajs 18;!0 

Junu-a K. Mullnny IKU) 

Cornelius Van Winkle 183(1 

William Colfax 18:il 

Perrignin Sandford 1831 

Peter l.Terhune 

Nalliauiel Board 18;ll 

John Al. Voorhil 18^11 

Adam Boyd 18.12 

Charles Board 18:12 

J. Wells 1832 

Henrv B. Uagerman 18.a 

William V. Itiithlnme 1833 

Albert G Dor<<mu« 1833 

John DeOnK.t 1833 

John A. Westervelt 1833 

Albert Van lleuren 1833 

Samuel li. Berry 1833 

John Cassldy I8.'»3 

C. It. Zaiiriskle 18;i3 

PelorSIp 18;« 

Cornelius I. Wealervell. 1833 

John H. 7jibriekie 1833 

David 11. Keen Wtl 

Davis D. Van Bubsudi 183:t 

lorneliuB Van Winkle 18.14 

Garret P. Hopper 1834 

John U. Hopiier 1834 

Josei.h Post I'i:i4 

Thomas M. Gahagan 1S34 

William Jenner 1834 

Henry I. Spear 18:15 

Jacob Beidan 18:1.') 

Cornelius Van Reypon IKIO 

Charles Kinsey 1835 

Garret Ackeraon lK:t/) 

Francis Price 18:16 

Wllllaiii Colfax 1K3B 

I'erreguin Sandford 18.36 

Peter l.Terhune 18.17 

Stephen H. Sulkins IKI' 

I'eter 1. Ackerman 18.17 

Abraham Westervelt 1837 

Chandler Dayton 18.37 

Andrew H. Hopper 1837 ' 

Martin Van Houten 1837 

Henry W. KIngsland 1837 

John A. Berry 1837 I 

David I Chrietle 1838 

John K. Blauvelt 1838 

William I'. ItHlhUme 1838 

Henry II. Banta 18;i8 

II. SiiUllimayd 1838 

Cornelius Van Winkle 1838 

Peter Sip 1839 

George C. De Kay 1839 

Kolwrt S. Gould 1840 

Charles Kinsey 1840 

Abmhani Westervelt 1840 

Geroge Zabriskie 1841 

Henrv B. Hugeroian 1841 

Albert G. Duremus 1842 

Andrew II. Hopper 1842 

Abruham Westervelt 1843 

John A. Blauvelt. 1843 

David I. Christie 1843 , 

Abrnham I. .Ackerman 1843 

Peter I. Ackerman 1843 

Henry H. Banta 1843 

Martin Van HouteD, Jr 1843 

Samuel H. Berry 1843 

Abraham Carlock 1813 

John G. .\ckernian 184:1 

Peter D. Westervelt 1843 

tiarret Ackers«m 1843 

I-aac I. Hariiig 184:1 

Peter 1. Terhune 184.3 

Abraham J. Terhune 184:1 i 

James Van Houten 1843 

John II. HopiK-r 1843 

David I>. V.iri Busaum 1843 

Garret P. Hopper 1813 

Joseph Post 184:1 

Garret A. Zabriskio 1844 

Chrisllan De llaun 1844 

John H. /.abriskie 1844 

Stephen Bonlan 1844 

Gariet S. Demarcst 18+5 

Jalne.4 Hennie 1845 

James P. Demarest 1846 

Audr.-w H. Hopiwr 1847 

Peter I. Ackerman 1848 

Abniham J. Ackerman 1849 

Garret S. Deraarest 1850 

Jacob I.Zabriskie 1851 

Samm-I II. Ilerry 1852 

Albert J. Terhune 1853 

Jacob J. Brinkerhof 1854 

Henrv II. Voorhis 1857 

Albert J. Terhune 1858 

Peter I. Ackerman 1859 

John II. /abriskia 1862 

Albert J. Terhune 186:1 

John H. Post 18B4 

Tlnmiaa t'limming 1807 

William Grelg. 1867 

Richard B. Pauliaon 1868 

Charles II. Voorhis 1868 

John R. Post 1869 

Aslilwl Green 1869 

William S. Banta 1872-77 

Peter 1, Ackerman 1872-77 

Nehemiah Millard 1874-79 

Garret G. Ackerson 1877-82 

William K. Skinner 1878-83 

, Williams. Banta 1879-84 


Adam ll.ivd 1789 

Wllllnm M. Betz 1791 

Albert I'. Zabriskio 171P8 

Lawrence Ackerman 1800 

Caspanis llogert 1801 

JohriT. Ilanu 1810 

.■<amuel II Ilerry 1813 

James II Brlnkirhoir. 1816 

Samuel II. Ilerry 1819 

Andrew P. Hopp«r 1821 

Andrew II. Hopper 1824 

John U. Blauvelt. 1827 

Garret Van Dion 18;lO 

John G. Ackeraon 1833 

Jacob C. Tarhune 1836 

George II. BrlnkerbolT. 18.39 

David D. Demareat 1841 

Peter Van Kmburgh 1844 

John A. Hopper 1847 

John V. II. Terhune 18.W 

Abniham H. Haring 1843 

Cornelius L. Blauvelt 1855 

James J. Brinkerhon 1859 

Henry A. Ilopiwr 1862 

John II. Banta 1865 

Jacdi C. Van Blarum 1868 

David A. Pell 1871 

Garret II. Hering 1874 

David A. Pell 1878 

Peter StoulenburKb 1728 

Nehemiah Wade 1789 

Henry Van Dalsi>m 1804 

Abraham Westervelt 1811 

Abraham Westervelt 

Samuel II. Berry 1835 

John H. Berry 1840 

Garret G.Acketaon 1845 

Cornelius L. Blauvelt I860 

Thomiu! W. Demareat 1870 

Thomas W. Demareat. 1875 

Samuel Taylor 1880 

Hemdebs or THE CoC.KCIL. 

Peter Haring 1702-06 

John Outwator n»$-1807 

Peter Ward 1807 

Adrian Post 1815 

John I). Haring 1816 

Martin I. RyersoD 1817 

Adrian Post 1818 

John D. Haring 1819-22 

Chrisllan Zabriskie 1822-24 

Charles Board 1824-27 


John A. IViyd 1808 Iiaac Wortendyke 1868 

David I.tnirlslU 1828 Isani Worlendyke 1872 

Abraham o. Zabriskie 1838 John M. Knapp 1877 

Richard R. Pauliaon 1848 

Paoac iToRa or Tiir. Pi.«.i». 
Lewis D. Ilardeiiburgh 1836 Garret G. Ackerson 

Nathaniel Board 1827-30 

Charles Board 1830 

Jacob M. Rveraou 1831 

Charles Riard 1832-34 

Christian Zabriskie 1834-:ie 

Samuel R. Demareat 1836-38 

Francis Price 1S38 

Albert G. Doremus 1840 

John Caseedy 1841-43 

John H. Zabriskie 1843-44 


Richard R. Panlison.. 1814-47 

Isaac 1. Haring 1847-49 

John Van Brunt' 1849 

John Van Brunt 1850-51 

Abraham Hopper^ 1851 

Daniel D. Depew 185.1-56 

Thoniioi H. Haring 1856-59 

Ralph S. Demarcst 1859-62 

Daniel HoUroan 1862-65 

John Y. Dater 1865-68 

James J. BrinkerholT. 1868-71 

Cornelius lydecker 1871-74 

George Davton 1874-77 

OirneliuB S. C<iop«r 1877-80 

Isaac Wortendyke 18*0-83 

Abraham (I. /.abriskie 1842 

.Manning M. Knapl 1851 

William 8. Banta 1861 


Abraham D. Campbell 1870 

Abraham D. CampUII 1875 

Abraham I). Oampball 1880 

Members or Assehblt. 
1792.— Henry Berry, Jacob Terhune, Peter Ward. 
1793.— Peter Ward, Henry Berry, .\dam Boyd. 
1794. — Adam Boyd, Peter Ward, BenJamiD Blackledge. 
1795. — Adam Boyd, Benjamin Blackledge, John Haring. 
1796. — J<din Haring, Henry Berry, William C. Kingsland. 
1797.— Thoniiis Blanch, Robert Campbell, Peter Ward. 
1798 —Peter Ward, Robert Campb-ll. Benjamin Blackledge. 
1799-1801.— Peter Ward, Thoniaa Blanch, John Dey. 
1802.— Thomas Blanch, Peter Ward, Isaac Kipp. 
1803.— Thomas Blanch, Isaac Kipp, Martin I. Ryenwn. 
18(H-5,— Peter Ward, B. Thomasanch, Adrian Post. 
1806.— Isaac Kipp, Adrian Post, William Colfax. 
1807.— John Van Il.irn, Abraham Foreshee, William Colfax. 
1809 —Adrian Post, William Colfax. John Hopper. 
18l.'i.— Martin Van Houten, John Outwater, William Colfax. 
1816.— Peter Sip, Jacob Bantu, Cornelius Meraelis. 
1817.— Albert C. Zabriskie, Cornelius Mersolls, Jacob Banta. 
1818.— Caspams Prior, Nathaniel B..nnl. .lohn Hopper, 
1819.— Cornelius Van Winkle, Caaparns Bogert. Seba Brinkerhoff. 
1820.- Soba Brinkerhoff, Cornelius Van Winkle, Charles Board. 
1821.- Peter Sip, John Weetenelt, Jr., Charles Board. 
1822.— Poter Sip, John Westervelt, Jr , David I. Christie. 
1823.— Garret Ackerson, John Weatervelt. Jr , David I. Christie. 
1824.— Garret Acket>(on, Jidin Van Wagenen, Nathaniel Ikiard. 
1825.— Cornelius Van Winkle, Henry B. Ilngerman, David I. Christie. 
1826.— Cornelius Van Winkle, Charles Kinsey. David I. Clirlstlo. 
1827.— David 1. Christie, Peter I. Terhune, Cornellii" |l. Van Ril>»r. 
1820.- Cornelius Van Winkle, John Want, Andrew P. Hopper. 
18.10.— Peter 1. Terhune, Samuel R. DemaresI, John Ward. 
1831.— Garret Sip, Andrew H. Hop|H>r, John It. Blauvelt. 
18.12-31. — John M. Coriielison, .«amuel R. Iieniaresl, Garret P. Hopper. 
1834.— Abraham Lydecker, John H. Hoi)per, IMer I. Ackerman. 
1835— Abndmm Lydecker, Michael .'Uunier, John II. Ilopiwr. 
1836.— Michael Saunier, Henry Doremus, Jeter R. Riggs. 
1837-38.— John CaasiHly, Albert G. Lydecker. David D. Van Bussum. 
1840.— John G. Ackerson. AlWrt J. Terhune. 
1841-42.— James I. DemaresI, Jcdin H. Zabriskie. 
184.1-44 —William G. Hopper, Jacob C. Terhune. 
1845-46.— John G Banta, Jac<ib J. Brinkerhoff. 
1847-48— John Ackerman, Jr., Henry II. Voorhl^ Jr. 
1849-fiO.— John lluyler, Jidin II. Hopjier. 
1851.— John lluyler, J.din H. Zabriskie. 
1862-53,— Jactdi I. DemarMt. Abraham Van Horn. 
1854-44.— Thomaa W. Demareat, Italpli S, Demareat. 
1856-47.— Daniel llolsnutn, Aaron II. Westervelt 
1848.— Kno. h Brinkertioff, Andrew C. Ca<lmua. 
1859.— Enmh Ilrinkeriioff, John II. IIop|>er. 
iHiui — \brabam Carlock, John R. Poil. 

< To All plat* of Is.vac I. Haring, deceuad. 
' To All place of J. Van Brunt, raalgued. 



1861.— Thomae Ward, John K. Post. 
1862-63.— Thomas Dunn English, John T. Dater. 
1864-65.— laaac Demarest, Abraham B. Ilariug. 
1866.— -Abraham Van Emburgh, CoiiieUns Christie. 
1867.— Comelins Christie, Henr)' G. Bering. 
1868.— Eben Winton, Henry G. Heriug. 
1869. — Henry A. Hopiier, Eben Winton. 
1870.— Jacob G. Van liiper, Henry A. Hopper. 
1871.— Jacob G. Van Riper, George J. Hopper. 
1872. — George J. Hopper, Jolin J. Andei-son. 
1873-74.— Henry C. Bering, John W. liogert. 
1876-76.— Jolin H. Winant, Barney N. Fn-Jon. 
1877.— M. Corson Giilam, Sovithy S. Parraniore. 
1878.— Jolin A. Demarest, Southy S. Parraniore. 
1879.— John A. Demarest, Oliver Dral;e Smith. 
1880-81. — John Van Bussum, Elias H. Sisson. 

Members op the Phovinci.vl Congress of New Jersey from Bergen 


June and AunMl, 1775. — John Fell, John Demarest, Henilrick Kuyper, 

Abraham Van Boakirk, Edo Merselese. 
October^ 1775. — John Demarest, Jacobus Post, Abraham Van Boskirk. 

Members of the Co.nstiti-tionai. Conventions. 
1776.— John Demarest, Jacobus Post, John Van Boskirk, Jacob Qnack- 

enbush, Daniel Isaac Brown. 
1844.— Abraham Westervelt, John Cassedy, of Bergen County, Elias B. 

D. Ogdeii, .-Vndrew Parsons. 

Members of Congress. 
Hon. Adam Boyd, 1803-5; to fill vacancy, 1809, and in Twelfth Congress, 
1811-13; Hon. John Huyler, 1857-59; lion. William Walter Phelps, 
1873-75; Hon. Charles H. Voorhis, 1879-81. 
Hon. Rodman M. Price, 1854-57. 

Jcstice of SrPREMK Court. 
Hon. Manning M. Knapp, 187.5-82. 



Roads.— The first road in the old county of Bergen 
was the one leading from Communipaw to the village 
of Bergen. It was probably laid out in the latter 
part of the year 1660. In 1679 it was described as 
" a fine broad wagpn-road." The first commissioners 
of highways for Bergen County, and the first known 
to have been appointed in the State, were John Berry, 
Lawrence Andries (Van Boskirk), Enoch Michielsen 
(Vreeland), Hans Diedrick.s, Michael Smith, Hen- 
drick Van Ostrum, and Claes Jansen Van Pnrmerendt. 
They were appointed by an act of the General As- 
sembly, and it is doubtful if there exists anywhere a 
record of their proceedings. They appear to have 
held office a long time, for in 1694 Gerbrand Claesen 
was appointed in the place of Van Purmerendt. 

By resolution of the General Assembly, adopted 
Sept. 9, 1704, the grand jury of each and every county 
was authorized to appoint yearly at the February and 
March terms of court, with the approval of the bench, 
two persons in each county, precinct, district, or town- 
ship, to lay out all necessary cross-roads and by-roads, 
which were to be four rods wide, and also "to settle" 
what is proper to be allowed to those who shall be 

appointed for their services in laying out the said 

On the 3d of June, 1718, a road was laid out from 
" Cromkill to Whehocken Ferry." Mr. Winfield is of 
the opinion that this was part of the present Hack- 
ensack turnpike. If so, it fixes the date of the lay- 
ing out of at least a portion of this important public 

Tlie road from Bergen to Bergen Point was among 
the important early thoroughfares, though the date 
of its construction is not known. On the 2d of No- 
vember, 1743, James Alexander, of the Council, re- 
ported a bill "for continuing the king's highway 
which leads from Bergen Point to Bergen Town to 
some convenient place on Hudson's River, for cross- 
ing that river to New York." The bill "passed in 
the negative." On Oct. 10, 1764, a king's highway 
was laid out from Hendrick Sickles' barn to a point 
opposite the Dutch church on Staten Island, and the 
old road was vacated. The new road became part of 
the great stage-route from New York to Philadel- 

The Bergen Turnpike Company was incorporated 
Nov. 30, 1802, for the purpose of constructing a road 
"from the town of Hackensack to Hoboken." It 
was constructed in 1804, and is known as the Hack- 
ensack turnpike. 

One of the most important roads in early times was 
that from Paulus Hook to Newark over the Hack- 
ensack and Passaic Rivers. Commissioners were ap- 
pointed to lay out this road and to erect ferries across 
the rivers by act of June 20, 1765. One of these 
commissioners was Thomas Brown, of Bergen, who 
owned the land on the east side of the Hackensack at 
the crossing of the road. He erected the ferry at that 
point, known as " Brown's Ferry." The road leading 
across this ferry from Paulus Hook to Newark was 
for nearly thirty years the only thoroughfare from the 
Hudson to Essex County and the country beyond. 
It was therefore a great object of the Americans to 
keep it open and to secure the safety of the ferries 
during the Revolution. 

" On the 7th of August, 1776, Richard Stockton, a 
delegate in Congress from New Jersey, sent to the 
New Jersey State Convention, then in session at Bur- 
lington, certain resolutions of Congress requesting the 
convention to make such provisions for keeping open 
these ferries as would be effectual." 

The convention on August 9th passed an ordinance 
for that purpose, putting the ferries into the hands 
of William Camp and Joseph Hedden, who were au- 
thorized to provide scows for each ferry, supply a suf- 
ficient number of hands, and stretch ropes across the 
rivers. The ferriage to soldiers was made one-third 
of the regular rates.' After the capture of New York 
the ferries were suspended, but were repaired at the 
close of the war, and remained in use till the bridges 

I 1 Am. Archives, 4th Series, vi. 1659. 



upon the turnpike were built. Falling into disuse for 
a while, tiiey were again repaired in 1805, and con- 
tinued to be used until they were supplanted by the 
bridges built in connection with the plank-road across 
the meadows. 

Bridges. — The bridges across the Hackensack and 
Pa<saie Rivers on the road from Jersey City to New- 
ark were constructed in 179.J by Samuel Ogden and 
thirty-six other contractors, who obtained a lease of 
them for ninety-seven years from Nov. 24, 1792. On 
the 7th of March, 1797, they were incorporated as 
"The Proprietors of the Bridges over the Rivers 
Passaic and Hackensack," and under their charter 
claimed the exclusive right to erect bridges over these 

May 12, 1819, the Board of Freeholders adopted the 
following : | 

" Itetohedy That a committee be appointed to superintend the foUowing 
bri'lKet, viz., OM Bridge, New Bridge, ami Ilaikeusack Bridge. | 

" Brioliril, That UeMn. P. C. Woatorvell, .1. A. \Ve«tervelt, iind P. A. | 
Terhune be iitti<l coniniittee. 

*' ItttoUt^d, Tliat the committee be and they are lioreby authorized to 
pnuteciite all offenses that may be for the future committed ii;:aiii8t the 
act of the Council and Gonural .Xssenibly of the State of New .loriiey, 
entitled 'An Act to prevent the Draws of certain Bridges in tlic Count.v 
of Bergen being left open.' " 

In 1828 an act was passed by the Legislature to en- 
large the draws in the bridge over the Hackensack 
River. In pursuance of this a committee was ap- 
pointed, consisting of Peter C. Westervelt, John A. 
Westervelt, and Henry W. Banta. to construct an en- 
larged draw in the bridge opposite Hackensack Vil- 

New Bridge wa.s constructed in 1820. In that year 
we tind the record of the sale of Old Bridge timber , 
amounting to i!>31.57. 

A new bridge across the Pa.ssaic River, "opposite ' 
the house of Gerrebrand Van Riper, in Saddle River 
township/" was built by subscription in 1819.' 

Ferries. — The ferries which connect the old por- 
tion of Bergen County with New York City are 
numerous. There are (1) the Coinmunipaw, (2) the! 
Weehawken, (3) the Jersey City, (4) the Hoboken, 
(.')) the I'avonia. Besides these, which are still in 
operation, there were several otliers of an early date 
whiili have long since ceii-setl to exist. These latter 
were Budd's Ferry, from Budd's Dock, in Harsimus 
Cove, to New York, established in 1802, and con- 
tinued a few years; Bull's Ferry, at tiie upper line of 
the jireseiit county of iliid.son, well known during 
the Revolution, which took its name from a family by 
the name of Bull residing there. Winlielil gives the 
names of the lessees of this ferry as follows : Corne- 
lius Uuyler, 1788 to 1792; Theodore Brower, 1792 to 
180.1; Garret Neefie, 18(t5; Lewis Concklin, 1806; 
Abraham Iluyler, 1808. 

De Klyn's Ferry wa.s started liy .lohii Towne I 
anil Harnct Dc Klyn, from the wharf (south and 

north) of the State Prison to Hobokeo, in 1796. No 

record is found of this ferry later than 1806. 

For many years the fanners and others in tlie 
northern part of Bergen County reached New York 
by means of the Weehawken Ferry, established by 
Samuel Bayard about the year 1700. In the charter 
granted to Stephen Bayard by George II. in 1752, 
the limits of this ferry extend from the " Bergen 
north line along the shore half a mile below, or to 
the southward of a place called the Great Slaugh." ' 

Incidentally connected with this portion of our 
territory is the ferry to Elizabethtown Point, of 
which we find the following in Winfield's " Historj- 
of Hudson County" : 

" About the year 1808 it was puriMiased by Col. .Varon Ogden, and by 
Uim leased tu John U. and Robert J. Livingston, who owned a monojwiy 
of navigaling New York water;* by steam. They placed on the ferry the 
' Karitan,' tlie tirst steamer l>etwi.en New York and Eli/jibeUitown 
Point. It was uot long, however, before Col. Ogden had built, by Cor' ' 
nelius Joralemon, of Belleville, a Uiat fourteen feet b«jim and seventy 
feet keel, in which Daniel Dodd, of Medham, put a twelve-horse engine. 
It was called the 'Sea tfol-se.' This boat the colonel placed on this 
ferry, but to avoid seizure under the New York navigation laws, ran her 
to .lerscy City. On the 18th of May, 181:1, she was advertised as 'an 
elegant steamboat, provided to run l*tween Klirjibethtown Point and 
Paulusllook; fore, four shilling^*.* Shu made two tri|isaday. The fare 
was afterwards reduced to three shillings anil sixpence. On the '21st of 
June, 1814, she was advertised to meet the steamltoat * SubeUtuUon' at 
Paulus HiMtk, which would carry the passengers to New Y'ork. 

" 'The Bellouo,' owned by Gibbous, ran Ironi Kli/abethtown to Jersey 
City ; fare, twelve nuil a half cents. In the advertisement was tlung to 
the breeze a banner inscribed with the motto, ' New Jersey must b« 
free !' " — SeHtiutl <*/ Freedom, July :U, 18'Jl. 

The Hoboken Ferry was established to connect 
the C«r|)oration Dock at the Bear Market in New 
York with Hoboken in 1774, and was leased to H. 
Tallman for £50 a year. It was advertised in May 
the following year as "the New Established Ferry 
from the remarkable pleasant and convenient situate 
place of ^^'illiam Bayard, Esq., at the ' King's Arms 
Inn'; from whicli place all gentlemen Travelers and 
others who have occasion to cross that ferry will be 
accommodated with the best of boats of every kind, 
suitable to the winds, weather, and tides, to convey 
them from tlicnce to the New Market near the new 
Cor|ioration Pier, at the North River opposite Ve.sey 
Street, in New York, at which place a suitable house 
will be kept for the reception of travelers |>a.ssing to 
and from his house, and will have his boats in good 
order." The advertisement closes by saying, "The 
boats are to be distinguished by having the name 
'The Iloobook Ferry' painted on the stern." 

During the Revolution this ferry was subject to the 
control of the army ocrupyiiig New York, anil in 
1776 the British placed a subaltern and twenty men 
to examine the i)assengers crossing going to and fro. 
In 1789 the ferry was owneil by .John Stevens, the 
proprietor of Hoboken, and after its comparatively 
unsuccessful management by several lessees, Mr. 
Stevens in 1810 proposed to place a steamboat upon 
the ferry, and completing his boat about the middle 

' Freeholders' Iteomls. 

< WIntleld'. IIIM llu.l. ('o,'J4l. 



of September, 1811, he shortly after " made the trial- 
trip of the first steam ferry-boat in the world." It 
was immediately put into use, and on the 23d of Sep- 
tember, 1811, made sixteen trips, with an average of 
one hundred persons each trip." ' Col. Stevens, how- 
ever, soon abandoned the use of steamboats on the 
ferry, which were not again applied till the 22d of 
April, 1822, when he made a trial-trip with the 
" Hoboken," which thereafter made trips "every 
hour by St. Paul's church clock." - 

The Pavonia Ferry. — Letters patent were 
granted for the establishment of this ferry by King 
George II., Jan. 17, 1733, to " Archibald Kennedy 
his heirs and assigns." Capt. Kennedy failed to fulfill 
the conditions of the charter, and for over one hun- 
dred years nothing was done save the ottering now and 
then for the establishment of a ferry from " the west 
end of Pearl Street," or " from the foot of Chambers 
Street to Harsimus." Petitions of this sort were 
presented in 1753, in 176r), and in 1818, but nothing 
was done till the completion of the Bergen Tunnel 
by the Long Dock Company in 1861. 

The Erie Railway Company, lessees of the Long 
Dock Company, revived the Pavonia Ferry.' It be- 
gan business May 1, 1861, with three old boats — 
"Niagara," "Onalaska," and " Onala"— from the 
Brooklyn ferries. The Erie Railway Companj- have 
since put upon the ferry the " Pavonia," built in 
1861; "Susquehanna," built in 1864; "Delaware," 
built in 1865. 

Dow's Ferry over the Hackensack, a little north 
of the present bridge of the New Jersey Railroad, 
was a noted place during the Revolution. Mr. Win- 
field thinks it was established " about the time that 
Col. John Schuyler constructed the Belleville turn- 
pike, during the French war, and remained in opera- 
tion until superseded by the bridge erected in 1794. 
It received its name from John Douw, a friend of 
Col. Schuyler." The ferry and Douw's tavern were 
on the west side of the Hackensack. It was at this 
ferry that boats had been provided on the night of 
Maj. Lee's attack on Paulus Hook to facilitate the 
retreat of his forces. 

The ferry at Jersey City was e.stablished June 18, 

The New Tor/.- Mn-curi/ of July 2d of that year 
says, "The long-wished-for ferry is now established 
and kept across the North River, from the place called 
Powless's Hook to the city of New York ; and boats 
properly constructed, as well for the conveniency of 
passengers as for the carrying over of horses and car- 
riages, do now constantly ply from one shore to the 

This ferry was established as a part of the new 
route from New York to Philadelphia via Bergen 
Point and Staten Island. Across the Kill van KuU, 

1 Srnlinc! 0/ Frefdom, Oct. 1, 1811 ; quoted by Winfleld. 

■ See full list of boats on tbis Hue in Winfield, 268. 

■^ The Pavonia Ferry Company was incorporated Feb. 28, 1849. 

between the two latter places, a ferry had been pre- 
viously in operation, and in 17.50 was kept by Jacob 
Corson, who that year petitioned the government of 
New York for letters patent, which were granted, for 
the purpose of erecting his ferry into a public ferry. 
The ferry at Jersey City was owned by Cornelius Van 
Vorst, the proprietor of the adjoining land, up to 
the 2d of February, 1804, when he sold the Hook and 
ferry to Anthony Dey, who leased the latter to Maj. 
David Hunt, who operated the ferry till the property 
was sold to the associates of the Jersey company. 

In December, 1810, the New York Evening Post 
announced that arrangements had been made with 
Fulton for the construction of steamboats for this 
ferry. In May, 1811, two boats were being built by 
Charles Brown, and were eighty feet in length and 
thirty feet in width. " One peculiarity is, they never 
put about." On July 2, 1812, one of them, the "Jer- 
sey," was finished and put in operation, but owing to 
some needed alteration was taken off again for a few 
days. On Friday, July 17, 1812, it began its regular 
trips. A writer on the following day says, "I crossed 
the North River yesterday in a steamboat with my 
family in my carriage, without alighting therefrom, 
in fourteen minutes, with an immense crowd of pas- 
sengers. I cannot express to you how much the public 
mind appeared to be gratified at finding so large and 
so safe a machine going so well. On both shores were 
thousands of people viewing this pleasing object." 

This was a new era. It practically made New York 
and New Jersey one community, by overcoming a 
barrier which never till now was felt to be a pleasure 
to cross. Henceforth the passage of the Hudson was 
to be one of the most pleasurable experiences in going 
to and returning from the metropolis, especially in 
pleasant weather, when passengers could see the great 
variety of boats and vessels crowding the broad ex- 
panse of the river and harbor, and survey the scenes 
of busy activity on every hand ; and in unpleasant 
i weather the warm and capacious cabins of the boats 
would furnish a comfortable and agreeable shelter. 
The change for the few minutes required to cross 
the river by the steamboats would henceforth be only 
an agreeable alternation in the mode of conveyance in 
which the traveler would go to or come from the city, 
whether it should be by stage or carriage, as in the 
early days, or by railroad, as in more modern times. 
The application of steam to the ferry-boats of the 
Hudson and the construction of railroads in all direc- 
tions from New York have enlarged the bounds of the 
city far beyond their possible limits in the absence of 
these inventions, extending her suburbs far out into 
the country, over the adjacent islands, and for many 
miles into New Jersey. Thousands of people from 
all these quarters, where they can live cheaper, and 
breathe the pure country air for at least twelve hours 
out of the twenty-four, now find pleasant and rapid 
transit to and from their places of business in the 



The Hudson River front of old Bergen County was ' 

important territory in tlie early days, when the native 
tribes were wont to a.ssemble liere for tlie i)urpose of 
carrying their peltry over to Fort Amsterdam, and in 
modern times its situation has given it increasing 
commercial importance. 

It is the ea.stcrn terminus of all the railroads and 
lines of transportation which leave New York for the 
West, and jirobably there is no place in the world 
which within the same number of miles contains so 
many well-devised fccilities for landing the passen- 
gers and freights of so many miles of railway. Within 
the distance of a few niile-s, from Communipaw to 
Hobokcn, are the depots, docks, warehouses, etc., of 
the great Pennsylvania, Hound Brook, New Jersey 
Central, Midland, Morris and Essex, New York and 
New Jersey, New York, Lake Erie and Western, 
and other lesser railroads, besides the canals which 
terminate here also. And all these by an admirable 
system of engineering are brought into immediate 
communication with the steamboats which connect 
them with the city of New York. 

Railroads. — The first railroad in America was laid 
in old Bergen County. Mr. L. Q. C. Elmer, of Bridge- 
ton, N. J., says in the Springfield Reptthlican, — I 

" Roa.llni; tlio very intcrostiiig nccuunt of the Hoosac Tunnel in your 
p«pir of N'lvcmlier 28tli, I And u new Mlustration of the dimciilly of ob- 
taining correct historical data. The writer atatea that in 1S2C Dr. Phelpa 
presented tile tirst proposition ever niado for a ntilmad before any legia- 
laliTe body in the United Status. This 1« a mistake. AIjouI April, 1811, 
Col. John Stevens, of Hot>ol{eD, N. J., presented a memorial to the Legis- 
latiire to authorize u niilruad in Now Jersey, and in February, 1SI5, a 
law was passed incon>orating 'The New Jersey Railn^ad Company, au- 
thori/Jug a road from Trenton to New Brunswick.' Tills mad was not 
bulll. In 1S20 I saw at lluboken Col. Stevens' short railroad, laid as an 
experiment. Is>comolive steam-engines had not been perfected, mid the 
l»«st eUKincers did not supjKise there would be sufncb'nl traction in plain 
wheels to draw a lieavy weight. The railway put up by Stevens was 
pnivideii with a middle rail having teolli for a driving-track. This gen- 
tleman was father of the Messrs. Stevens who built the llrst railroad in 
New Jersey by virtue of the act of 1S42. He entered into competition 
with Fulton to run the (Irst steanilKiiit on the waters of the Hudson, and 
thus obuin the monopoly grnnttKl by Iho law of New York, but falling 
a little beliind in time, he sent liis boat round to the Delaware, and 1 
was canied hy her in 1812. The family maintained a line of lioals uu 
the Dclawaro individually or by the company ontll tlieir death." 

TiiK Pater.sox ANii Urnsox Bivkr Raii-koad 
CttMPA.VY was incorporated Jan. 121, IH.'U. The road 
went intfi operation between Paterson and .\(]uacka- 
nonk (now Passaic) June 22, 1832. The rolling- 
stock at that time consisted of " three splendid and 
commodious cars, each capable of accommodating 
thirty piuwcngers," which were drawn by " fleet ami 
gentle liDrses." It wa.H thought to be a " rapid and 
dcli^'htful mode of traveling." The trial-trip over 
that part of the road was June 7, 1832. It connected 
with the New Jersey Railroad at West End. The 
road was leased to the Union Railroad Company 
Sept. 9, 18.12. This leiLse was assigned to the Erie 
Railway Company, and the road is now part of the 
main line of the New York, Luke Erie and Western 
Railroad. The assignment and transfer of the road 
was confirmed by the Legislature March 14, 18.'i3. 

The New" Jersey Railroad and Transporta- 
tion Company was chartered March 7, 1832. The 
road was constructed from Jersey City to Newark, 
and the first excursion was run over it Sept. 1, 1834, 
in the passenger-car "Washington." Regular trips 
began Sept. 15, 1834, the cars being drawn by horses. 
Eight trips were made daily, the cars stopping at the 
hotels to receive passengers. Previous to Jan. 1, 
1838, when the Bergen Cut was completed, the cars 
were drawn over the hill. The first engine, the " New- 
ark," passed over the road Dec. 2, 1835. This road 
wa.s consolidated with the Camden and Ainboy Rail- 
road, under authority given by the Legislature, Feb. 
27, 1807, and the consolidation was leased to the 
Pennsylvania Railroad Company in 1870. 

The Morris and E^sex Railroad Co.mpany 
was incorporated Jan. 29, 18.35. At first this road 
was connected with the New Jersey Railroad at New- 
ark, but Wius extended to Hoboken by the completion 
of the Newark and Hoboken Railroad, Nov. Ill, 1862. 
It was leased to the Delaware, Lackawanna and 
Western Railroad Company Dec. 10, 1868. 

The Erie Railway Company was first recog- 
nized by the laws of New Jersey. March 14, 1S.")3. as 
the New York and Erie Railroad Company, then 
as the Erie Railway Company. After leasing the 
Paterson and Hudson River Railroad and the Pat- 
erson and Raniapo Railroad, which two roads formed 
a direct line from Jersey City to Sutferns, Pier- 
niont was abandoned as a terminus, and the cars 
were run to the depot of the New Jersey Railroad 
Company in Jersey City until May, 18l)l. "The 
Long Dock Company," incorporated Feb. 26, 1856, 
in the interest of the Erie Railway Company, com- 
pleted the Bergen Tunnel Jan. 28, 1861. The first 
passenger train jiasscd through it May 1, 1861, at 
which date the Erie traffic was transferred to its (ires- 
ent terniinus at Long Dock. In 1865 the Eric Com- 
pany constructed a telegraph line through the Bergeu 
Tunnel, so that managers of signals at either end 
could be duly warned of approaching trains, and col- 
lision thus nvoideil. The interior of the Bergen Tun- 
nel was arched over in 1867. 

MiKi-ANi" Railroad. — The New York and Os- 
wego Midland Railroail Company was incorporated 
Jan. 1, 181)6. Construction began June 29, 18t!8. The 
first train ran over the western end of the road Nov. 
5, 1860, and the first through train Aug. 18, 1873. 

( >ii Miinday, Dec. 19, 1871, the first locomotive was 
j)Ut on the New Jersey Midlaml at Hawthorne, a sta- 
tion on the Erie, one mile from Paterson. The loco- 
motive was built at the Rogers' LtKomotive Works in 
the city of Paterson, and was named the " Passaic." 
Another locomotive jml ii|ion the road the following 
.Tilly wa-s named " Bergen," this plan of iianiiiig the 
locomotivts after the counties traversed by the mad 
being adopted by the coinpHiiy. 

The New Jersey Midland Company was incorporated 
March 18, 1867. March 18, 1870, it was announced 



that $75,000 had been subscribed by those interested 
in having the road go through Hackensacli. Addi- 
tional sums were subsequently raised, increasing the 
amount to 8100,000, the sum required to be raised by 
Hackensack and vicinity. Other liberal sums were 
contributed along the entire route. (_)n Monday, 
^Slarch 18, 1872, the first pa.ssenger train ran through 
between Hackensack and Paterson, at 8.30 a.m., car- 
rying about thirty passengers. After that trains ran 

The opening of the road was signalized by a grand 
excursion to EUenville, given to the citizens of Bergen 
by the president, Hon. C. A. Wortendyke. The day 
was not auspicious, but suitable provision had been 
made for a large number of excursionists at the hotels, 
so that, notwithstanding the rain which set in, the 
occasion passed off pleasantly. Many of the people 
of Bergen attended with their wives and daughters. 
Among the guests was the venerable centenarian, 
Richard Paulison, who had witnessed the changes of 
nearly a hundred years, and none of them probably 
had awakened in him stranger emotions than those in 
which he that day participated. He was truly the 
representative of a bygone generation. Among the 
other guests were A. Luther Smith, of Nyack, Sherift" 
Pell, of Bergen, and A. Brownson. Of the Midland, 
President Wortendyke, Vice-President Loomis, James 
N. Pronk, Cornelius Vreeland, and Hon. Isaac Dem- 
arest. Of Sussex County, Hon. Robert Hamilton and 
Hon. Thomas Kays. 

At the dinner Mr. H. 1). Winton, of the Bergen 
Democrat, being called upon for a toast, oflered the 
following : " Hon. C. A. Wortendyke, projector of the 
New Jersey Midland Railway." This brought out 
Mr. Wortendyke with a happy response. Ex-Gov- 
ernor Price followed with a speech of considerable 
length and animation, in which he paid a glowing 
tribute to the energy and enterprise of Mr. Worten- 
dyke in securing the completion of the road. He 
said President Wortendyke had spent his time and 
money to accomplish a result of which every one should 
feel proud. James N. Pronk was then called upon. 
He represented the New York and Oswego Midland, 
and clasped hands with the Hon. C. A. Wortendyke, 
of the New Jersey Midland. The energy of the two 
had accomplished great results, and the county of 
Bergen .should feel truly proud of the enterprise and 
genius of her son. 

The Hackexsack and New York Railroad 
Company was incorporated March 14, 1850. Work 
was begun on the road in the spring of 1809. It was 
opened northward to Hillsdale, twenty-one miles from 
New York, and the first excursion train ran over it on 
Saturday, the 4th of March, 1870. The officers of the 
road at that time were D. P. Patterson, president; G. 
S. Demarest, vice-president; H. G. Herring, secre- 
tary : and J. D. Demarest, treasurer. The extension 
of the road to Grassy Point, about two miles above 
Haverstraw, on the Hudson, was chartered bv the 

New York Legislature in the spring of 1870, and 
during the fall was put under contract to Messrs. 
Ward & Lary for construction. From a report made 
in January, 1872, we learn that through the untiring 
exertions of Mr. J. A. Bogert, of Nanuet, $90,000 had 
been subscribed, over $40,000 of which had been paid 
in. Subscriptions also to the amount of $230,000 had 
been secured by Mr. Patterson, the president of the 
company, and of this sum $130,000 had been paid in. 
At the northern terminus at Grassy Point the com- 
pany received a donation of two thou.sand five hun- 
dred feet of river frontage from Mr. David Munro. 
The eastern terminus of this road is in the Erie depot, 
at Long Dock, and it is under the same management 
as the Erie. 

The Northern Railroad Company of New 
Jersey was chartered Feb. 9, 1854, and the road was 
completed Oct. 1, 1859. In 1869 it was leased to the 
Erie Railway Company. This road passes through 
the eastern part of Bergen County, along the table- 
land of the Palisades, many portions of which it has 
been the means of redeeming from forests and con- 
verting into beautiful parks and villas. Englewood, 
on this road, one of the most delightful suburbs of 
New York, has been entirely built up since the road 
was opened. 

The Jersey City and Albany Railroad was 
opened to Tappan, July 30, 1873. This road passes 
through Bergen County from the Midland, at Ridge- 
field Park, in a direction nearly parallel with the 
Northern road. 

The Morris Canal. — The Morris Canal and Bank- 
ing Company was incorporated Dec. 31, 1824. It was 
authorized to construct a canal from the Delaware to 
the Passaic. The canal was completed in 1831. On 
Jan. 28, 1828, authority was given to extend the canal 
to the Hudson River, at or near Jersey City. This 
extension was completed in 1836. The canal and its 
appurtenances, with the chartered rights of the com- 
pany, were sold, under a decree of the Court of Chan- 
cery, Oct. 21, 1844. By an act of the Legislature, 
Feb. 9, 1849, banking privileges were taken from the 



Espatin. — In the vicinity of Union Hill, upon the 
Hudson County line, was an ancient place called 
"Espatin," where "courts of justice" were held as 
early as 1657, — the earliest courts of which we have 
any account in East Jersey. The Baron Van der 
Capellen, a wealthy and influential Hollander, whose 
interests appear to have been independent of those 
of the authorities at Manhattan, bad formed a colony 
on Staten Island, which was destroyed by the Indians 
in 1655. Van der Capellen, through his agents resid- 



ingin the colony, had assumed the right to make trea- 
ties with the Indians and to purcliase lands of them, 
irrespective of tlie authority of the Dutch {.'overn- 
ment, which declared his action in this respect unau- 
thorized.' He was active La conciliating the Indians, 
and settling terms of peace with them at the close of 
the war of 1()55, and seems in that year to have co- 
operated with the director and council through his 
agent, Adrian Post, who, in October, It).').'), was "ap- 
pointed to treat with the Hackensaek Indians for the 
release of prisoners." ' Undoubtedly his powerful 
iufluence over the Indians caused his agency to be 
sought in this direction. Post was succeeded in the 
agency by Van Dincklagan, who died about 1658. 
While he wa.- agent he was a successful negotiatttr 
with the Indians, and purchased their entire interest 
in Staten Island, and probably "Espatin," in the 
vicinity of the settlements of the Tappan and Hack- 
ensaek Indians, where the establishment of a trading- 
post and a court for the adjudication of such causes 
as might arise with them and the white settlers, en- 
abled him more directly to oversee the movements 
of the Indians and keep them under control. 

The court at Espatin seems to have been a rival 
court to that at New Amsterdam, for to the former 
rather than to the latter the agent of Van der Ca- 
pellen required the subjection of the Indians. We 
find that " in 16.57, Van der Capellen, through his 
agent Van Dincklagen, concluded with the Indians 
a treaty, with submission to the courts of justice at 
Ilospating, near Hackensaek, on Wacrkimius Conne,' 
in New Netherlands." ' 

This record, brief as it is, reveals the fact that the 
IJaron Van der Capellen sought to establish an au- 
thority on the west side of the Hudson entirely inde- 
pendent of the director-general and Council at Man- 
hattan. Hence it ajipcars in the records of the latter 
that he received their severe censure. He was no 
doubt one of those wealthy Hollanders, who desired to 
establish a barony of their owti in the New World, an<l 
having selected Staten Island, and the country be- 
tween the Hudson and the Hackensaek, he proceeded 
to acquire a title from the native owners, and to 
establish a court to which they should be subject. 
This court be established at " Espatin," the hill, on 
a site overlooking the grand domain of which he 
conceived himself the prospective lord. 

It is evident that the director-general and Council 
at Manhattan were jealous of such rival authorities, 
ancl often specified in deeds that the grantees should 
submit to the courtw at New Amsterdam. Thus in 
the deed of I'aulus Hoeck to .Mirabain Isaacson 
Planck, M;iv 1. 1i'i:is. it is slatiil that "the purcba-ser 

3 llrtKllirnil.i. 041-42. 

' Thin li» Uip imDio »'f tiiio uf llic IndtniiB wliu itiKiitt'l tli*. ilrt-il in )„iv- 
enior SluyvMimt c(«iito>Iiik llii' Uii'Ib In IUtkimi, of wlilt-li S«caucllii 
Wliu ancrwnriln clulruwl liy tliMii on nol iiicluili'il In llio mIo. 

> O'Ciil. N. N., M. 42». nro<ll)ij«il, I. 041 . 

and landsman aforesaid pledge their persons and prop- 
erty, real and personal, present and future, without 
any exception, subyiiittinij to the Prorincia/ court of 
Holland, and to all other courts, judges, ami justices, 
and in acknowledgment of the truth, these presents 
are signed by the parties respectively," etc. 

The place where this ancient court was held is 
designated Ilosjinting, Eii/iittinrj/t, Espatin, and means 
"a hill." Our reason for locating it on Union Hill 
is ;is follows: It is mentioned as one of the points in 
the boundary line of the old township of Bergen, in 
the charter of that township by Governor Philip 
Carteret, in 1664, and lay in a " northwest course" 
from Mordavis' Meadow, which formed the north- 
ern boundary line of the townshiii on the Hudson. 
"Thence northwest, by a three-rail fence that is now 
standing, to Espatin, and from thence to a little creek 
surrounding north-northwest, until it comes into the 
Hackensaek." Espatin was, therefore, between Mor- 
davis' Meadow and the creek, in a northwest course 
from the former, upon a hill, as its name implies. 
This highland is upon the narrowest portion of the 
Neck northward between the Hudson and Hacken- 
saek Rivers, commanding a view of both valleys, 
and the best situation in the whole region, not only 
for pro.ximity to the Indian settlements, but to watch 
their movements southward by the Hackensaek 

" Espatin" is named in 1664 in the charter above 
cited. In the same instrument it appears that this 
section of the Neck was settled, for it is said that the 
tract therein laid out for a township " is bounded at 
the north end by a tract of land belonging to Ca])t. 
Nicholas Varlet and Mr. Samuel Edsall." This land, 
of course, lay over the line in Old Hackensaek (now 
Ridgefield) township. If the record could be traced 
back of these proprietors, it would no doubt show 
others of an earlier date, and perhaps reveal some- 
thing still more positive respecting the settlement and 
the court. Probably it was abandoned when the au- 
thorities at New Amsterdam obliged the settlers to 
concentrate in fortified towns, and was gradually su- 
perseded by the court established at Bergen in 1661, 
or at least was given up when the Dutch surrendered 
to tlie English in 16()4. 

On the south side of the line Nicholas Varlet and 
Nicholas Bayard owned a large tract of land, " granted 
by Petrus Stuyvcsant" Dec. 10, 1663, and confirmed 
by patent of Philip Carteret Oct. 30, 1667. A portion 
of this lanii, extending from the north end of what 
is now Hudson t'ounty to a certain "stake standing 
on Pinhorne's Creek," containing " about two thou- 
sand two hundred acres," is marked lot No. 283 on 
the field-book of the commissioners to divide the 
eoiiinion lands of the townshi|> of Bergen.'" 

Courts at Bergen.— The Co\irt of Burgomasters 
and Schepens, organized in New Amsterdam in 1652, 

« S«« lot Nil. 2«3, Wlnflold'a Lanil Tlllea, p. 19a. 



undoubtedly exercised judicial authority over this 
part of New Jersey till about the 4th of August, 1661. 

In September following a local court was estab- 
lished at Bergen, subject to an appeal to the Director- 
General and Council at Manhattan. The ordinance 
making provision for this court, dated Sept. 5, 1661, 
very properly says, "In order that all things may be 
performed with proper order and respect, it is neces- 
sary to choose as judges honest, intelligent persons, 
owners of real estate, who are lovers of peace and 
well-affected subjects of their Lords and Patrons, 
and of their supreme government established here; 
promoters and professors of the Reformed religion 
as it is at present taught in the churches of the 
United Netherlands, in conformity to the word of 
God and the order of the Synod of Dordrecht." 
The court was to consist of one schout, or sheriff, 
and three schepens. Grotius informs us that schout, 
or schuld, or schuld-rechter, was a criminal judge. 
The schout was to be a local official, who was 
empowered to convoke the schepens, and to pre- 
side and act also as the clerk at their sessions. As 
magistrates they were to be men of probity and worth, 
who had commanded the respect of the people. Thus 
the schout and three schepens con.stituted the court. 
These officials were all appointed by the Director- 
General and Council. 

The first schepens were Michael Jansen, Harman 
Smeeman, and Casper Steinmets ; they were to hold 
office for one year from the 20th of September, 1661. 
Jansen, Smeeman, and Steinmets thus stand out 
prominently as the first associate judges of a local 
court for this section of country, which a few years 
after was to become the county of Bergen. Jansen 
was a farmer, and had been honored ten or twelve 
years before as a member of the Representative As- 
sembly, which had been convened to advise with the 
government, and he seems to have been active and 
influential in public affairs. Smeeman was a West- 
])halian from Iserlow, in the county of Mark, and at 
tlie time of his judicial promotion was thirty-seven 
years of age. He had been admitted to the rights of a 
small burgher, and had been a member of the Land- 
tag under Governor Stuyvesant, and had years before 
striven to establish himself as a proprietor of the soil 
in this section of the country, having already pur- 
chased a farm of his associate, Jansen, for nine hun- 
dred florins. Steinmets, like his associates, had prior 
to his appointment attempted a settlement also in this 
section, but had been driven out by the Indians. 
He had also been a resident of New Amsterdam, 
where he had been licensed to keep a tavern. He 
had also figured in military aftairs as a lieutenant and 
then captain of the Bergen militia, and in after-years 
became a deputy in the Council of New Orange and 
a representative from Bergen Village iu the First and 
Second General Assemblies of New Jersey, and died 
in 1702. Thus hi? record bespeaks the high character 
and standing of the man. 

The court thus constituted seems to have been com- 
posed of what is sometimes called "solid men," com- 
manding the respect and consideration of the whole 
community. This tribunal could render definitive 
judgment to the amount of fifty guilders and under, 
and for a larger sum, but with the right of the ag- 
grieved party to appeal to the Director-General and 
Council. The schout, as we have said, was the presi- 
dent of the court, and also its secretary or clerk. The 
judges were bound to respect the law of their father- 
land and the ordinances and edicts of the Director- 
General and Council. It was a court of civil and 
criminal jurisdiction, and very similar to our Court 
of Common Pleas of to-day. Subject to the Direc- 
tor-General and Council, it had some legislative pow- 
ers also to pass ordinances respecting surveys, high- 
ways, outlets, posts and fences, the laying out of 
gardens and orchards, the building of churches, 
schools, and similar public works, with power to pro- 
vide the means " how and by which the same are to 
be effected." 

Before these magistrates could enter upon their 
duties they were obliged to take the following very 
comprehensive oath of office : " We promise and 
swear, in the presence of Almighty God, that we will 
be faithful to the Sovereignty of the High and Mighty 
Lords, the States-General, the Lords directors of the 
privileged West India Company, Department of Am- 
sterdam, as our Lords and Patrons, the Director- 
General and Council now placed over us or hereafter 
to be appointed ; that we will respect and execute 
their commands ; that we will exercise good justice to 
our best knowledge ; repel all mutiny, troubles, and 
disorders ; to our best abilities maintain the Reformed 
Religion and no other ; and support the same and 
conduct ourselves punctually in conformity to the 
instruction which we have already received or may 
yet receive ; and further act as good and faithful 
magistrates are in duty bound to do. So help us, 
God Almighty." 

Bergen Village was predestined under its permanent 
and well-defined charter, with the protecting care of 
New Amsterdam, to lead the way to the county of 
Bergen and the State of New Jersey ; and thence to 
perform its part, at length, in the harmonious whole 
of a great nationality. It is well for us thus to go 
back to the beginning, in order to form a just compre- 
hension of the whole structure. We have now given 
an account of the first judicial organization in the 
future county of Bergen, and of all the members of 
the court except the schout, or presiding judge. We 
have purposely left his name to the last as most worthy 
of honorable mention. Tielman Van Vleck may 
justly be called the founder of Bergen Village, and 
probably is entitled to that honor as to the whole 
county itself. He came from Bremen, had studied at 
Amsterdam under a notary, and was admitted to prac- 
tice law in this country in 1658. Foreseeing the needs 
of civilization in a new country, he sought to found a 



village in the present State of New Jersey. He was 
probably tlie first lawyer, a* he was also the first 
judge to iireside over a judicial tribunal iu New 

The bar of the State might well erect some suitable 
monument to this her first conscript father of a nu- 
merous and honored fraternity. 

Tliis pioneer court at Bergen Village, with its schout 
and schepens, its presidentand associate judges, partly 
to enact laws but more to administer them, over two 
centuries ago, in its historical relations to us must 
justly command our respect and admiration. Civili- 
zation had sought a foothold in New Jersey for a 
quarter of a century previously, but it had made no 
permanent headway before the establishment of this 
local village and tribunal. As the otficials in this 
court were appointed only for one year by the terms 
of its organization, Tielman Van Vleck continued 
Bchout by annual reappointment to March 17, 1664. 
He was then succeeded by 15althazar Bayard, a de- 
scendant of a jirofessor of theology in Paris, who, 
being a Huguenot, was driven to Holland by religious 
persecution. The Bayards, who for three generations 
in succession have honored the Senate of the United 
States from the State of Delaware, claim their descent, 
as we are told, from this honored ancestry. Balthazar 
Bayard was succeeded by Claes Arentse Toers, Aug. 
18, 1()7;5. The schepens following annually to Aug. 
31, 1674, were Caspar Steinmets, Eugelbert Steen- 
huysen, Gerrit Geretsen, Thomas Fredericks, Elias 
Michielse, Peter MarccUissen, Cornelis Abramse, 
Walinck Jacobse, Eugelbert Steenhuys, Enoch Mi- 
chielse, and Claes .Tanscn. In the course of time the 
Dutch supremacy in New Netherland passed over to 
the English. The court at Bergen was reorganized 
under British authority about the month of July, 
166.'). As will be seen elsewhere, it was not a total 
destruction but only a reorganization of the court, and 
of the local government itself Philip Carteret had 
just become < lovernor of the new province of Nova 
Ca-sarea, or New Jersey. Heappointe<l Capt. Nichohw 
Varlet to con.stitute a court of judicature for the in- 
habitants of the village of Bergen, and of the settle- 
ments of Gemolnepaen (Comniunipaw), and Hoo- 
boocken (Hoboken), and .Miasymes (part of i)resent 
Jersey City), to be kept in the village or town of 
Bergen. Varlet was to be the president; his com- 
mission is dated Aug. 30, 166"(. Under the English 
rule, with Varlet as president, from Aug. 30, 1665, to 
March 13, 1()7(!, the a.H»ociate judges were Harman 
Smollman, Ca.H|>ar.'^teinmet.s, Elias Michelse, Ide Van 
Vorst, Tynament i probably the same as Tielman) 
Van Vleck (who became clerk March 8, lliOit), and 
William Sanford as president; ami Samuel Ivlsall 
and Lourens Andriescn (alternately acting ilm presi- 
dent in 1(>74), March 13, lti76 ; and John Berry lus 
prcsidint, and Samuel Ivlsall, Lr)urens Andriescn, 
Elias Michiclsen, and Eugelbert Stcenhuysen as as- 
sociates, were reappointed, and all were commissioned 

Feb. 16, 1677. A special Court of Oyer and Terminer 
wa.s appointed .Tune 13th to be held June 24, 1673, 
over which William Sandford wa.s president, and John 
Pike, John Bisho|>, Samuel Edsall, and Gabriel Min- 
vielle were associates. We are unable to give any 
very full account of any of the proceedings in these 
courts. Nearly all their records are lost. Had they 
been preserved, however trivial they might have 
seemed at the time, they would have afforded us much 
knowledge of the laws, manners, and customs of those 
early settlers at a most interesting period in the his- 
tory of our country. In Liber 3 of Deeds {Trenton ) 
1 there is preserved an extract from the book of the 
minutes of the Bergen court, from which we make the 
following abstract, which informs us somewhat of the 
pleadings, modes of proceeding, and the law as then 
employed in that court. The title of the cause is 
"The schout, Claes Arentse Toers, plaintifl', contra 
Capt. John Berry, defendant." 

The schout was, by virtue of his office, the ))ublic 
prosecutor or attorney-general, and was thereby au- 
thorized in his own name to institute suits and public 
proceedings on behalf of and for the benefit of the 
people. This suit appears on the minutejs Nov. 11, 
1673. The Dutch at this time had retaken New York, 
naming it New Orange. The comjjlaint is made by 
Capt. Sandford to the Right Honorable the Gover- 
nor-General of New Netherland, for the removal and 
taking away from Maj. Kingsland of some hogs 
without the knowledge of any officer. The gist of the 
charge, of course, is the unlawful taking and carrying 
away. The schout, therefore, prosecutes or sues for 
value. The defendant answers acknowledging the 
taking of the hogs to bis own licmse, |ileailing there- 
for the statement of Sandford's negro, Tjick ; and 
the defendant further claims that the hogs were his. 
The schout then states the proposition of law that 
no one can be his own ju<lgeon the naked saying of a 
negro, and therefore prosecutes on a charge of thelh 
The magistrates then call on the defendant for his 

j further answer, if any, and the defendant makes no 

j further answer, except he still claims they were his 
own hogs. The schout then demands criminal con- 
demnation of the defendant with a fine of five hundred 
guilders, ami that the hogs be restored to Kingsland's 
possession. The magistrates then condemn the de- 
fendant, and impose a fine of two hundred and filly 
guilders, — one-half to the officer, presumably the 

i prosecutor, one-third of the remaining half to the 
church, one-third to the poor, and the remaining 
third to the court. Thus we have the officer first, 
ami with the lion's share; then the church, with only 
the third of a moiety ; and next the poor, and then 
the court last, with like shares. The court also orders 
that, unlc-ss further proof is furnished, the hogs be- 
long to the defendant, and he be required to deliver 
them to the olficer of the jurisdiction of Bergen, 
with costs of prosecution, with the following entry: 

■ "Agrees with the aforesaid Register, quod attestor." 



The captain appealed. He neither liked the law 
nor the condemnation, and of course he appealed to 
the Higli Court at Fort Amsterdam. The court at 
Bergen was too local for him, and he concluded he 
would invoke some other justice from afar. His 
argument on the appeal is very lengthy in the record, 
and probably was much longer iu fact. The whole 
difficulty seems to have grown out of an absence of 
the captain for six months on a voyage to Barbadoes. 
Sandford's plantation and his were near each other. 
Both of these gentlemen were undoubtedly men of 
high honor, but they owned careless slaves or ser- 
vants, who had heedlessly allowed some of their 
masters' hogs to stray ; and, as the captain says, in- 
veighing somewhat against " Dutch law," as he 
styles it, " but not knowing that I knew no better than 
that I might carry these hogs home, as I presumed 
they justly belonged to me, finding them so near my 
land, and the place to which I had carried so many, 
communicating my intention therein to the person i 
(that is, CajJt. Sanford) who set up a claim to them." 
Then Capt. Berry proceeds to justify in his second 
point by saying, " Had I let them run about they 
would have perhaps fared no better than the other 
two, which I left loose, as well as my sow that has 
not turned up, but apparently has gone the same road 
as the rest of my hogs and their offspring have gone, 
there being some people in the world who consider 
all as fish that comes into their net." This last, of 
course, is intended as a home-thrust at Capt. Sand- 
ford. Then Berry stands upon his honor and man- 
hood, repelling the notion that " he carried them 
away silently without informing any one ;" that he 
promptly and fully informed the schout when inter- 
rogated on the subject ; and that he had no intention 
" to perpetrate dirty actions," and concludes thus : 
" The high-prized pledge of an honorable name, 
which I esteem far more than all riches, hath caused 
me to do so" (to make this appeal). " I conclude with 
my prayer that the Divine Wisdom may be pleased to 
endue your Honor with intelligence and understand- 
ing not to justify the guilty, and not to condemn the 
innocent, both which are an abomination in the eyes 
of a righteous God. 17 Proverbs v. 15." Then he 
says, according to the English law the ease would 
have been tried by a jury of twelve men ; that it 
would not have been tortured into a criminal offense, 
but would have been called an action of trover and 
conversion ; and that had he been aware that the 
Dutch law was otherwise, making it a theft, he 
would not have offended against any such law. Then 
he proceeds : " The word of God declares that where 
there is no law there is no transgression. At least 
a misconception ought not to be viewed through a 
magnifying glass, as the schout of Bergen tried to do 
in the avaricious craving for a fine." The court on 
appeal, it appears, reduced the fine " to one hundred 
guilders, on condition that the defendant return the 
hogs, or prove them to be his, within six months." 

Capt. John Berry must have come out of all this 
litigation of 1673 quite triumphantly, as, three years 
afterwards, he was commissioned schout or president 
himself of this same Bergen court, where he claimed 
his rights had been so ruthlessly cloven down. The 
records of this court show that negroes were whipped 
for theft, and were punishable with death, in manner 
and form as the court should think fit, for setting on 
fire dwellings and barns ; and the punishment was to 
be made awful, as a terror and example to others. 
But at that very early day it seems the offender must 
have been found guilty by a jury to pass sentence of 
death. At a later day, as we shall see hereafter, this 
right of trial by jury was taken away from the negro. 




The province of East Jersey was not divided into 
counties till 1682, although the General Assembly 
of the whole colony in 1675 had laid out several 
counties with boundaries rather indefinite, for the 
purpose, among other things, of establishing County 
Courts therein. By an act passed on the 30th of No- 
vember, 1675, Bergen and the plantations dnd settle- 
ments in its vicinity were declared to be a county, and 
undoubtedly to be called Bergen County, though the 
act does not say so in so many words. This act made 
no change in the location or character of the courts, 
which were still held at the village of Bergen. 

Old traditions have located a County Court in the 
present village of Hackensack as far back as 1665, 
but the mistake must be apparent upon reference to 
the acts we have quoted. The act of 1682 further 
provided that the County Courts and Courts of Ses- 
sions shall be held in the public meeting-place in the 
county of Bergen, without further or more particu- 
larly designating where that public meeting-place 
was. The sessions of the court were on the first Tues- 
days in March, June, September, and December. This 
act also provides that there shall be in each town a 
court for the trial of small cases. Tax were to 
be tried by three persons, without a jury, after the 
manner undoubtedly of the old Dutch court at Ber- 
gen Village. It had jurisdiction of all matters of 
forty shillings and under, with right of appeal to 
either party upon request and at his cost. This court 
does not appear to have had criminal jurisdiction, as 
that jurisdiction was confined to the County Court. In 
1709 Bergen County was enlarged, taking in all the 
territory on the west side of the Hackensack to the 
Passaic River, northward to the boundary of the prov- 
ince, and southward to Constable's Hook. The village 
' of Hackensack, in New Barbadoes, then became a part 
1 of Bergen County. With this large addition of ter- 



ritory to old Bergen, and by addition of population 
in the northern part of the county, Hackensack be- 
came central, anil beitifr the most important place so 
situated, wjis maili- the county-seat. About 1709 the 
first court-house wits erected. This structure stood on 
the Green, near Main Street. 

Above the courts for the trial of small causes and 
the County Courts, the act of 1682 also provided for a 
Supreme Court, which was then desiy;nate<l as the 
" Court of Common Right," which could hear, try, 
and determine matters, causes, and cases, capital and 
criminal, or civil causes of equity, and causes triable 
at common law, to which court all causes could be re- 
moved of five pounds and upwards, and all criminal 
cases by warrant, writ of error and certiorari, and said 
court was to consist of twelve members, or six at least. 
This court sat at Eli/.abethtown, then the capital of 
the province. To the end that British sovereignty 
should be recognized and maintained, all warrants 
with process and attachments were issued in the name 
of the king of England. In 1688 the court for the 
trial of small causes wa.s to be held monthly at the 
house of Lawrence Andriss, of New Hackensack,' and 
also "at the house of Dr. Johannes, on the Hacken- 
sack River, then in the county of, and for the 
inhabitants of New Rarbadoes and Aequickanick." 

Anv knowledge of the courts and of their proceed- 
ings at that time re<iuire-s us now to look into the code 
of laws which the General Assembly had enacted for 
the government of the province. The laws of Solon 
were not in some respects more wise, nor in others 
more .severe. They indicate the wisdom, while they 
betray the, and sometimes the supersti- 
tions, of those infant times in our early history. The 
gallows-tree and the l)urninp stake were the awful in- 
struments in the [>unisliment of many crimes for which 
a more enlightened age has aflixed a lighter penalty. 
In I'hilip Carteret's time, in 1608, the General As- 
sembly consisted of the Governor with his Council of 
seven members, composing the Upper House, or 
Senate, ami ten burgesses, or the Lower House, cor- 
responding to the j)re8ent House of Assend)ly. In 
the General Assembly of 1668, Jlcssrs. Caspar Stein- 
mefa and Haltliazar Bayard, former judges in Bergen 
Village, were burgesses for the county of Rergen. 

In the code adopted by this Assembly no less than 
twelve distinct cla-sses of crime-s are punishable with 
death. These may be briefly enumerated as follows: 
Maliciously or wittingly setting on fire any dwelling- 
house, house or barn, fencing, corn, hay, wood, or 
Hax, or any other combustible matter, to the prejudice 
or damage of a neighbor or other person. The of- 
fender W1I.S to be committed to prison without bail or 
main prize, that is, liberty to the otfender only within 
the bars, and who must nuike full satisfaction ; anil if 
not able, then to stand to the mercy of the court, to 

' Th" (•reclxi lorollty cif tliln court li not known, but It w«i out of 
tb» IlKkenMcli Wifr, In Bcrgvn County. 

be tried for life or other punishment as the court 
might judge fit. Willful destruction of human life, 
by poisoning or in any other way, was punishable by 
death. Wittingly or willingly rising up to bear false 
witness, or purposing U> take a man's life, was pun- 
ishable with death ; so was also perversion of nature 
by man or woman with a brute. Of course human 
nature revolts more at the necessity for such a law 
than at the law itself The unnatural abuse of male 
with male w;ls punishable with death, unless the 
victim was under fourteen, and then i)unishment 
should be left to the discretion of the court. Steal- 
ing a human being was punishable with death. 

Burglary and robbery in those days were widened 
into the comprehensive crimes of breaking open any 
dwelling-house, store-house, warehouse, or house or 
barn, or any other house whatsoever, either by day 
or by night, — so we infer from the reading of the law, 
— and robbing in the field or highway, subjecting the 
offender the first time to branding in the hand with 
the letter T, with full satisfaction of the things stolen. 
If such branding did not stop the otfender, then for 
the second otleiise, besides full retribution, tlie fore- 
head was branded with the letter R. If olTending 
again, then death closed upon the incorrigible offender. 
Treble restitution was required for stealing any goods, 
money, or cattle, or other beast of any kind, for the 
first and second otienses, and such additional punish- 
ment as the court might adjudge, and if incorrigible 
to be ])unished with death. In case such offenders 
could not make restitution, they could be sold to 
secure satisfaction. 

One of the first acts of 1668 required every male 
between the ages of sixteen and si.xly to be armed 
and equipped, at his own cost, " with a good, service- 
able gun, well fixed, a pound of |)owder, and twenty- 
four bullets suited to the gun, a pair of bandeleers or 
a good horn, a sword, and a belt ;" and away went 
goods and chattels to pay a fine if any one offended 
against this law. The law then said, if any person 
be found to be a witch, either male or female, they 
shall be put to death. 

Conspiracy to surprise a town or fort within the 
province was punishable with death. The crime of 
rape was punishable with death, rndiitifid children 
over sixteen, of sullicicnt undcrstaiKling, who should 
uniirovokedly smite or curse their natural jparcnts, 
exce|)l to escape death or maiming, on complaint of 
the offended |>arent could be punished with death. 
Thus we fiml a code of laws which provides the pen- 
alty of death for the punishment of twelve distinct of crimes. That penalty, in this State, has 
been abolishcil in nearly all classes; and per- 
haps the wisdom of the worhl may tiiiil a way of safety 
in dispensing with this penalty altogether. 

Such were some of the early laws enacted by the 
Legislature under the proprietors of New Jersey. 
Some of them were wise and beneficial, at least In 
intent and purpose. No man's life could be taken 



away under any pretense whatever but by virtue of 
some law enacted in the province, and upon proof 
establislied by the mouth of two or three sutficient 

Profane swearing and cursing in 1682 cost tlie 
offender one shilling, — one-half to the informant and 
one-half to the province. One of the early hiws en- 
acted as follows : 

'* Concerning that beastly vice, drunkenness, it is herel>y enacted tliat 
if any person lie found to be drunlt lie sIi.tII pay one sliillin^ tine for tlie 
first time, two shillings for the second, and for the third time, and for 
every time after, two shillings and sixpence; and such as have nothing 
to pay shall suffer corporeal punishment ; and for those that are unruly 
and disturbers of the peace, they shall be put in the stocks until they 
are sober, or during the pleasure of the officer in chief in the place where 
lie is druuk.'^ 

Sovereign power in the province in 1688 was guarded 
and upheld by the most solemn sanctions. Every 
judge and every lawyer ministering in the courts in 
those days, as well as every officer in the province, 
was obliged to take such oaths of office. 

Colonial Laws and Courts in Bergen.—During 
the century and a half preceding the Declaration 
of Independence, the Dutch, as the first settlers 
of New Netherland, were in the ascendency, under 
the supremacy of the States-General of Holland, 
less than forty years, but by their well-known na- 
tional characteristics of patience and perseverance 
they wrested a wilderness from barbarians and paved 
the way to a permanent civilization. They founded 
the great metropolis of America, and first sowed the 
seeds of empire in New Jersey, and the great city of 
New York and the State of New Jersey still remind 
us of many of the laws, customs, and institutions of 
the fatherland. The language of Holland is still 
spoken by many in Bergen County, in somewhat 
broken accents it is true, but every descendant from 
the fatherland may safely join in this petition : 

"Sint Nicholaay, myn goden vriend, 
Ik heb u altyd wel gediend ; 
Als gy my nu wat wilt geben, 
Fal ik u dienen als myn leven."' 

The concessions under the charter of the Duke of 
York were most liberal and republican in character. 
New Jersey was partitioned into East and West Jer- 
sey, and thus remained, under two co-ordinate govern- 
ments, till 1702. The laws of the two provinces were 
not printed till many years after their enactment. 
They were sent in manuscript to the several counties, 
eight in all, of East and West Jersey, and publicly 
read to the people. When Queen Anne ascended the 
throne in 1702, the two provinces were consoliihited 
under one government, and thus remained, under 
royal authority, till the Revolution of 1776. The 
Governor and Council were empowered to erect, con- 
stitute, and establish such courts as they should deem 

1 Saint Nicholas, my dear good friend, 
To serve you ever was my end ; 
If something you will now me give. 
Serve you I will long as I live. 

proper, and to appoint and commission judges and 
other officers, without limitation of time in these com- 

A Court of Chancery was early recognized. By an 
ordinance of Lord Cornbury, the Governor or the 
Lieutenant-Governor, or any three of the Council, 
could constitute a court to hear and determine causes 
in equity, as in the lOnglish Court of Chancery. 

Governors Hunter and Franklin exercised chancery 
powers under the colonial system, and so that court 
was presided over long after the Revolution, and until 
a chancellor was provided for under the State consti- 
tution. Ecclesiastical jurisdiction was exercised over 
the province by the Bishop of London, excepting " the 
collating to benefices, granting licenses of marriage, 
and probate of wills," which were confined to the 
Governor. The Bishop of Loudon thus became the 
ordinary and metropolitan of the Prerogative Court. 
But surrogates were soon appointed, but vested only 
with the clerical powers they now have; and Orphans' 
Court were established in the several counties in 1784. 
The original jurisdiction of the ordinary remained 
unchanged till 1820. Surrogates were appointed in 
joint legislative meeting till 1822, and afterwards were 
elected by the people, as at i)resent. The Supreme 
Court always had plenary jurisdiction, civil and crim- 
inal. There were also special commissions for terms of 
the Oyer and Terminer, but to be held at tlie regular 
circuits. They were presided over, as now, by a jus- 
tice of the Supreme Court and the associate judges of 
the Common Pleas in each county. Before the county 
organizations were established special terms of the 
Oyer and Terminer were sometimes appointed to be 
held at Woodbridge, and frefjuently at the capital of 
the province. A judge of the Supreme Court and 
special judges were then appointed to hold that court. 

Benefit of clergy was prayed for and allowed, as in 
England. When the Circuit Courts were first estab- 
lished, the high sheriff, the justices of the peace, and 
certain municipal officers of tlie county town, and all 
the officers of the court in the county were required 
to attend on the chief justice and his associates in 
coming into and in leaving the county in going the 
circuit. As they may have ridden on horseback in 
coming and going to hold the circuit in Bergen 
County, a little more than a century ago, owing to 
the inferior roads of that day, a lung cavalcade would 
startle the lookers-on of so much judicial dignity pro- 
ceeding to hold court. The supreme judge on the 
bench wore a robe and sometimes a wig, and in 1765 
required the counselors, when appearing in court, 
and especially in the Supreme and Circuit Courts, to 
wear a bar-gown and bands like the English barris- 
ters, to advance the dignity, solemnity, and decorum 
of the court. This observance continued till 1791. 
Perhaps, where all true dignity and grace abound, 
they are only covered up by robes and gowns. The 
justices of the Supreme Court of the United States still 
wear robes, as in England ; but wlio ever thought a 



robe could add anything to the dignity of a Mansfield 
or a Marshall ? 

In common with the other colonies, slavery came 
to the province of New Jersey at a very early day. [ 
The existence of this institution called for peculiar 
laws and for jieculiar courts for their administration. 
No slave could be tried in a white man's court, or a 
court for the adjudication of wliite men's causes : they 
were amenable only to the board of justices and free- 
holders, which tried them without a jury and with- 
out counsel. These trials, and the executions which 
followed them, were often of a most summary char- 
acter. In the twelfth year of the reign of Queen 
Anne (1713) an act was passed entitled "An act for 
regulating slaves." This act forbade any traffic with 
any Indian, negro, or mulatto slave without the con- | 
sent of the master. A slave five miles away from 
home without a pass from his master could be sent 
back; and the like treatment could be imposed on a 
slave escaping from another province. If he should 
kill, or conspire, or attempt the death of any of Jler 
Majesty's liege people, not slaves, or should commit 
a rape, or burn or attempt to burn any house, or stack 
of hay or corn, or should maim any of Her Majesty's 
subjects, not slaves, or should murder any slave within 
the province, and should be convicted before three 
justices of the peace, in conjunction with five of the 
principal freeholders of the county, seven of whom 
shr)uld agree and should give judgment and sign a 
warrant for the execution, then the olfender should 
sulfer death in such manner as the justices and free- 
holders should adjudge, according to the aggravation 
or enormity of the crime. A justice could issue the i 
warrant of arrest, a prosecutor was provided to ])rose- 
cute, but there was no provision for the appointment 
of counsel to defend a slave. He was permitted to 
testify in his own defense, but tliere was no jury be- 
fore whom that testimony could have any weight. 
On the simple clnmplaint of a single magistrate this , 
anomalous court could be hastily convened, and a 
summary trial and conviction coulil close upon the 
victim within a few hours. If the owner, however, 
on another's cnmpbiint ilesired a jury ho <M)uld have 
it, showing that the law was n)aile wholly in the in- 
terest and for the benefit and protection of the master, 
not for the slave. When the slave was executed the 
owner could recover by sLssignmcnt, lus it was called, 
for every man slave thirty pounds, and for every 
woman slave twenty pounds, |)rovided the owner re- 
sided in the provin4'e. .Stealing to the value of six- 
pence ami under five shillings, according to this law, 
demanded forty .stripes on the bare back by a con- 
stable, wIki should be paid by the niitster or mistress 
of the slave five siiillings for laying on the stripis. 
Negroes could not become freeholders even when 
freed ; and inasmuch as they were declared to be an 
idle and slothful people, they could not be emanci- 
pated without security wius first given by the master 
in two huiiilri-d pounds to pay yearly to such negro 

twenty pounds during his life. In order that Her 

Majesty's subjects should not be burdened with ^uch 
freemen, manumission was void unless it was thus 
made burdensome upon the former master. To the 
thoughtful minds, even in that age, the burdens and 
the embarrassments of slavery more than equaled all 
of its advantages. The necessity which called for 
such laws also involved their enforcement. In the 
minutes of the justices and freeholders for the county 
of Bergen, in 1735, is found the following entry of a 
trial of a negro slave : 

" New Joreey, Bergen County, the l.'i of .\iigu8t. 1735. Upon Infor- 
niutionmade tu William provouet, I-^i'tliHt Ilie Negro man of peter Kipp 
called Jack, Imving Iwaten his b<) uia»ter and threatened Si-verul Tilijea 
to murder him, his said master and his Kon and Altio to Iturn down hia 
House Whereupon tlie Said Wm. provoost Es<i» Granted a Warrant Di- 
rected to the Constal'le tu take the Said Negro Jack Into Custoily and 
Was Committed hy the Said Wm. provuost Ksq' to Goal. 

"This Is In his M^estyes Name to Will and ]tt'i)nire you to Sum* 
monds Thre or more .Int^tices and five priiH-ipal freeholdera for Said 
County to ap|K>ar nt the Court House for the said County on friday Diurn- 
ing Ht Nine of the dock. Iteing the tifleenth l>iiy of this Instant August 
tu tiy the Negro of petre Kipp Named Jack, for having iteaten his Said 
Miister and Threatened several times t«i munler liiln and his son and 
Also to Hum Down his House on Wednesday the Thirteenth day of thil 
Instant and In this you Are Not to fail. 

" Given I'nder my Hand this fourteenth Day of August In the Ninth 
Year of our Iteign : ITIlo 

(ul) ** WlLLlAH Provoost. 
"To David Ackeman 

*' High Coil8tnl>le 

** This Is In his Majesties name to Will anil Retpiire you to Sumninnd 
these Under Named to Appear at the Court House on Friday the fj Day 
of this Instant to Give Evidence In the llehalf of Our Ix^rd the King 
Against the Negro of Peter Kipp called Jack A In this you are Not to 
fail. Given Umler my Hanil this 14 day of August, 17;t.^ ami In the 
Ninth year of our Reign. 

" Pi.rr.R Klpi- 
"ToDwin Ackeman "Kijsuk Kipi- 

" High Constalilo " Their Son 

" HKNnv Kirp 
" Di-.uri^chTkriii-nk 
"Jacobus lloraHAN 
" Isaac Kipp 

" New Jentey, Bergen Cly. Whereas William pruviiosl K»qf Being In- 
formed tliat the Negro of peter Kipp Called Jack liaving Beaten his S-t 
Master and often times threatentHl the Lifes of his S'' master and Ills 
Son and Likewise to Hum his S'' Masters House and then Destn.>y him- 
self on WoHlnesday the 1:1 day of ,\ugust 17;Ci fur which We liere I'nder 
Suhscrilted Was Sununond liy the Justices to appear at the Court House 
of the Said County the IS Day of the S' luslant to Try the Said Negro 
Jack According to the Direction of Act of (ieiienil Assemhiy Kiititnlt.d 
an Act for Uegnlaliug Slaves Whereu|H>tt having Dully Examined the 
Kvldence According to y* direction of tlie Aforesaid Act fituiid the Afore- 
said Negro Jack Guilty of the Said Crime Alledgeil Against him— 
(•*!) " Wm. Provoost 
" Isaac Van Gisin 
" Present "JoUN Stauq 

"Hknht V^nuri.knda 
" l'A(' Van DEUBRltK 
" AiiR \nAM Vack 


" Prnaont " KoBf.RT Ackkhman 


" Garret Hoppe 




" New Jersey, Bergen County : Alt a Meeting of the Justices A freo- 
holden for the Trying of the Negro Man of Peter Kipp Called Jack at 
the Court House for the said County on friday the 16 Day of August \T.Vt, 
Prevent the alaive Nametl Justices and freehohlera, the freehidderi Being 
Sworn k pr,M'eeilpd to Tryal. 

" David ProviKNil fji.i' Being Apl«>inted liy the Justices to Pnaecuta 
the said Negio Man of Peter Kipp called Jack, tlentlemon I am ap- 




pointed by the Justices to Prosecute the Negro Man of Peter Kipp 
Called Jack for having on tlie 13 Day of this Instant August struck his 
Said Master Severall {blows) and offered to kill him With an Ax and often 
times Siiid that he wouUl kill his Said Master, and Master Son, Burn his 
Master's House and then Destroy himself Which I am Ready to Make 
Appear by Good and Lawful Evidences that the abovesaid Negro Jack Is 
Guilty of Both Striking his Master Several Blows and Attempting to 
Kill liim With an Ax atid Likewise of Tlireatening Several times to 
Kill his Said Master and his Master's Son and 8ett tire to his Masters 
House and then Destroy himself For Which Reason I Desire Tour 
honoure that the Above Said Negro May Be tryed as the Law Directs 
that the King May have Justice Done, which was Granted by the Jus- 
tices and freeholders and Did proceed Accordingly. 
" The Eiridences — Declaration . 

" Peter Kipp Declared upon the Holy Evangelist that he was Going to 
cue of his fields With his Negro Slan Jack and on the Road he Gave 
the Said Negro a Blow which at tlio Said Negro Risisted & fought with 
his Master, Striking him Several Blows and Afterwards taking up an Ax 
threatened to kill him his Said Master and his Son and then Destroy 
himself. Upon Which his Said Master Ran away for assistance and 
sometime after he Was Tyed he Said that he would In the Night When 
his MasterSIept Sett his house on fire. 

" Henry Kipp Declared Upon the Holy Evangelist that he being one 
of the Assistance at the Taking and Tying of the Said Negro that when 
they came to the Said Negro they found two Axes by him and after hav- 
ing tyed him he said that when his Master Slept he would Sett his 
House a fire. 

" Then Isaac Kipp and Jacobus huysman declare likewise with Henry 
Kipp. Then Henry Kipp declares that his fatiier gave the negro a blow 
at which the negro resisted and fought his father: strickinghim Several 
blows and taking ui> an ax and threatening to kill him and then destroy 
himself: and then the record proceeds as follows; Then the prisoner 
With-Drew and the justices and the freeholders proceeded. The justices 
and freeholders having taking the matter into Consideration and Did 
Give Sentence of Death Upon him as followeth : 

"That is to say that y Said Negro Jack Shall be brought from hence 
to the place from Whence he came, and there to Continue untill the 16 
Day of This Instant August till Ten of The Clock of the Morning, and 
then to Be Burnt Untill he Is Dead, at some Convenient place on the 
Road between the Court House and Quacksack. 

•'This Is therefore to Will and Reqiiir you to take y^ Body of the 
Negro Jack Into your Custody & See him Executed According to the 
Sentence given, and for your so Doing this Shall be your Sufficient War- 
rant. Given Under our hands this 15 day of August, In the 9 Year of 
his Majesties Reign, Annoy Domini ITiJ.j. 

"To PROCLUS PARMERTON, High Sheriff of the County of Bergen, and 
signed by the Justices and Free holders, whose names are mentioned at 
the beginning of this proceeding." 

By Ji brief analysis of this proceeding (it can scarcely 
bedigiiified with the name of trial), itwill be seen that 
the negro Jack was going to the field with his master 
on Wednesday, Aug. 13, 1735; that the master gave 
Jack a blow. He was, therefore, the first assailant, 
though, as a master, he deemed himself empowered 
to chastise his slave ; that the negro struck back, and 
made, in his anger, sundry threats ; that all the formal 
proceedings were done and the matter disposed of 
Friday following, and sentence passed directing the 
sherifl* of the county to burn the negro on Saturday 
morning, Aug. 16, 1735, "till he is dead." 

On Wednesday the African offended, and on Satur- 
day morning he was burned to ashes, and all this was 
done lawfully and under the British Constitution in 
1735, less than a century and a half ago. No matter 
what the provocation, or how much our ancestors 
may have feared their slaves, the whole British Em- 
pire, Constitution and all, should have trembled to 
their very foundations at the perpetration of such a 
vrime in the name of justice. Have not the merciful 

angels from heaven wept over the spot, on the soil of 
America, " on the road between the court-house and 
Quacksack," where such a crime was perpetrated? 

A little less than four years earlier, on Dec. 13, 1731, 
"a negro man, the property of Garret hoppe," called 
Harry, was also tried, under the same act, for threat- 
ening the life of his m:xsler and for poisoning a negro 
called " Sepeo." The record says Harry took '* a lit- 
tle bottle of his pocket, with some licquer, which he 
called a dram, and maliciously persuaded Sepeo to 
drink it full out, which Sepeo did, and was poisoned, 
and died on Wednesday night." Harry was found 
guilty, and, according to a warrant, "on the other 
side of Sunday," was condemned to death, and was 
hung Dec. 14, 1731, and the justices and freeholders, 
according to the act of the General Assembly, 

£. 8. d. 

**Did Value the Negro of Garret hoppe that was executed the 

sum of. 30 

by niances Bergor 1 10 

by peter Stoutenberg as per Do 1 19 8 

by poiilus Van Der beck as per Do 5 14 

by Abrani Ackerman, Constable 16 

by the Justices & Freeholders fees & charges '. 5 16 4 

45 10 0" 

In pounds, shillings, and pence — no, there are no 
pence, eight pence and four pence make just one shil- 
ling — the master was paid for the negro, and the ofl&- 
cers for their services, in just forty-five pounds, ten 
shillings, and no pence. The constables in each pre- 
cinct then gave a warning to the people to have six 
shillings per head, and the money had to be paid to 
the collector before the 26th day of December, 1732. 

In 1741 two negroes, charged on suspicion of having 
set seven barns on fire, were convicted and burned to 
death at Yellow Point, on the east side of the Hack- 
ensack River, near the house of Dierech Van Horn. 
This act, as appears from the records, was frequently 
invoked, and continued even down to the Revolution. 
During this period the stocks, the whipping-post, and 
the pillory, "at convenient places" in different parts 
of Bergen County, performed their part also in pun- 
ishing petty crimes, and misdemeanors also of greater 
magnitude. At the October term of the General Quar- 
ter Sessions, sitting at Hackensack, in 1769, we have 
the following record, showing how the prisoner was 
punished. The case is entitled 

'The King 


Quack, a Negro Man belonging to 
Mary Terhune. 

The prisoner arraigned on his Ind- 
dictment pleaded guilty, and sub- 
mits himself to the mercy of the 
Court. On motion of Mr. Brown 
for the Lord for judgment, the 
Court ordered that as in the War- 

" To the Sher^T of the Chxinlij of Bergen : 

"Thomas Quack, a Negro Man, belonging to Mary Terhune, was this 
day indicted before us, George Ryerson, Rynear Van Gieson, Lawrence 
L. Van Boskirk, Peter Zabriskie, John Fell, and RuliffWestervelt, Esqrs., 
His Majesty's Justices of the Peace in and for the County of Bergen, one 
whereof bin of the Quorum of the Court of General Quarter Sessions of 
the peace, holden this day in and for the Citunty of Bergen, for feloni- 
ously stealing, taking, and carrying away from the dwelling house of 
Isaac Kipp, Junior, certain goods, and has pleaded guilty to his said In. 
diet. Therefore, in His Majesty's name, you are hereby commanded 
forthwith to take the said Negro Quack from this Bar to the public 



Wbipi>fng-I*ost, at the Court-Uuuse, aud tbere cause the saitl i^aack to 
recoire flflpeii lashod, well luid un his bare buck, and from ttiPDce you 
tin to take him tyed iit a Cart's tail to the corner uf the Lane opposite 
Benier Van Gieeoii, I'^(^, and tbeu cause the said <juack to receive fif- 
teeD lasbeu more aa aforesaid, and from tbence, at the Cart's tail, take 
him to tbe corner uf the Lane opposite to J. Isaac Kyereon, and there 
cause said Quack to receive nine lashes more, in niHnncr as nforesaid, 
and on Friday next, at 3 oV-lock in the afternoon, yo!i are again to take 
th« said Quack to tbe Whipping Post aforesaid, and cause him to receive 
flfteeo lashes more, In manner arDresiiid. and from tbence tu tbe Street 
facing Mr. William Provoost, and there cau^e said Qu;ick to receive flf- 
t«eD lashes more, in manner as nfore!«aid, and from tbonce to the lane 
opposite to Mr. Isaac Kip]>'s, and cause him to receive nine Inshes more, 
in manner afiiresai<l, and on Monilay next yuu are again to take tbe said 
Quack to tbe Wliipping Post aforesaid, and cause liim to receive fifli-eD 
lashwmore in manner aforesaid, and from thence over tbe Bridge, oppo- 
site to Blr. lieorge Campbell's House, and there cause him, suid Quack, 
to receive Afieen lashee more, in manner aforeaaid, and from opp'wite 
Mr. Jacob Zahriskoy's dwelling-Ilouite, and cans** the said Quack to re- 
ceive nine lashes more, in manner aforesaid, and tbi* several mnstableB 
of this County of Bergen are hereby commanded to attend and assist 
yon. Given under our bands and seals this Twenty-fifth Pay of Octol«r, 
Anno Domini 1769. (Signed) 

"Gkoboe Rtf.rsk. 

" Pkteb Zabbiskit. 


"John Fr.i.i,." 

Witliin a week the negro, in nine whippings on 
three several days, and at the whipping-post and 
other public places in and about the village of Hack- 
ensack, was scourged one hundred and seventeen 
lashes. It is said that two slaves, named Ned and 
Pero, in attempting to rob in the night, had broken a 
man's skull in an atrocious assault, whereby his life 
was endangered, and on conviction they were sen- 
tenced to receive five hundred lashes eacli, one hun- 
dred lashes to be inflicted on each succeeding Satur- 
day till the punishment was complete. These several 
whippings were to be imposed in different public 
places in the county. <lne of the slaves survived the 
five hundred lashes, but the other died on the fourth 
Saturday, after having received four hundred lashes. 
No record of this affair has been found. It is stated, 
however, on information which is deemed reliable. 






The wliipping-poHt, Blocks, ami jiillory continued long 
afliT llip Revolution, but the awful scene!* of liurninf; 
at the «tiike, let us liope, were too abhorrent to have 
been of frequent occurrence long before 1776. 

Court-Houses, Clerk's and Surrogate's Offices. 
— We have seen alreaily that no court-house could 
have been built in Hackonsack for the county of 
Bergen earlier than about 17i)i) to 1710. Then the 
first court-house was built on the Green, fronting on 
Main Street. That structure comprised a jail and 
court-house built together. The history of the public 
buildings for county judicial purposes, from the earli- 
est times to the present, may be stated as follows: 

1. First court-house and jail, on the Public Green, 
built in 1709 to 1710, and destroyed by the British 

' in 1780. An account of this disaster is given else- 
where in this history. 

2. Tlie second court-house and jail were built at 
Yougli])ough, in tbe townshii)of Franklin, during the 
Revolution, and the courts were held there for a few 
years, as deliberative Justice during that stormy pe- 
riod found itself too near the British lines and Brit- 
ish invasion in attempting to sit statedly at Hacken- 
sack. Of course, Youglipough (|)ron<)unced in inod- 

I em times Yoppoi was only the county-seat '/'/ interim, 
and until Justice could resume her more ancient seat 
in peace and safety at Hackensack. There was a log 
jail built at Youghpougli, but the courts seem to 
have been held there either in the Pond Reformed 
Clnirch or even at private houses in tbe vicinity, to 
such juilicial extremities had the British driven us 
during the Revolution. It is related that Xoah Col- 
lington, or Kellinghani, a Tory, was hung near the 
log jail at Youglipough. He had been indicted for 
murder and robbery in this county. In attempting 

' to escape in disguise across the Hudson near Fort 
Lee, in order to get within tbe British lines, he 
was captured near that place and brought to the 
jail. Upon trial and conviction he was sentenced 
to be hung. Pending the inclement winter weather 
he was allowed a lire, whereui>on he attempted one 
night to burn down his prison-house and make his 
escape. Vanderhotf, the miller, while watching his 
dam during a freshet, discovered the threatened con- 
flagration, and giving the alarm the fire was soon 

I extinguished, while Cidlington in manucles was sub- 
jected to a much closer confinement. All this hap- 
pened during the temporary absence of Manning, 
the shcritl' of the county. Upon his return he was 
so infuriated as to exceed the bounds of official pa- 
tience and beat his prisoner most severely with a 
club. A physician came to alleviate his short-lived 
sulVerings, but CoUington, the robber, murderer, and 
Tory, was hung early the next morning. Tlie mound, 
the place of cxpiytion, is still pointed out to-ilay by 
the dwellers in the vicinity. 

3. The third court-house, and first after the Revolu- 
; tion, wa.s built at Hackensack, near Main Street, near 

the brick store-house of Richard Paul Terbuiu-. The 
land for that purpose was conveyed to the county by 
Peter /abriskie as grantor. His deed is dated Oct. 
27, 1784, and bounds tbe lot as follows: Beginning 
one hundred feet from the street or highway leading 











through the town of New Barbadoes, and on the east 
side of the same, at a certain road intended to be 
laid out by the said Peter Zabriskie towards Hacken- 
sack River; thence running northerly, along the lines 
of Jacob Brown and Jacob Bennett, one hundred and 
fifty feet; thence easterly, at right angles to the last- 
mentioned line, forty-five feet; thence again south- 
erly, at right angles to the said road, fifty feet; thence 
along the said road so to be laid out forty-five feet to 
the place of beginning ; being in length one hundred 
and fifty feet, and breadth forty-five feet. 

( )n May 18, 178.5, Peter Zabriskie executed another 
deed to the county, in consideration of eighty-two 
pounds lawful currency of New Jersey, of a lot de- 
scribed as follows : Beginning at the public road lead- 
ing through the town of New Barbadoes, at the south- 
west corner of a lot of ground belonging to Adam 
Boyd, and on the east side of the said road ; thence 
running easterly, along the lot of the said Adam ' 
Boyd, one hundred feet ; thence northerly, along the 
line of the said Adam Boyd, fifty feet ; thence east- i 
erly, along the line of the said Peter Zabriskie, one 
hundred feet to the new road to be laid out by the i 
said Peter Zabriskie from the aforesaid public road 
easterly towards Hackensack River; thence along 
said new road one hundred and fifty feet westerly to 
the said old road leading through the town ; thence 
along said old road northerly fifty feet to the place of 

On May 9, 1793, Peter Zabriskie deeded to the 
county an additional piece of land, " adjoining the 
east side of the court-house lot in Hackensack, be- 
ginning at the southeast corner of said lot, and from 
thence extending along the line of said lot northerly 
in the breadth of four feet the whole length of the 

The first of these lots was given by Mr. Zabriskie 
to the county, and for the second he was paid eighty- 
two pounds. Two hundred pounds was ordered to be 
raised by county tax to build the court-house. That 
court-house was built and finished so as to afford a 
place of meeting of the board of freeholders there. 
July 3, 178(3, Nehemiah Wade, Esq., deeded the land 
on which the former clerk's oflice stood. The clerk's 
ofiice was built prior to 1819 (between 1812 and 1819), 
on land belonging to the county, conveyed as afore- 
said, a little north of the Midland Railroad, on the 
west side of the street, and where it remained till 1853. 
No efibrt was made to locate the court-house there 
also, but Robert Campbell, Esq., oftered the property 
in the lower village as an inducement to locate the 
court-house there {the court-house of 1819). That 
proposition was accepted by the board of freeholders, 
and the land deeded to the county free so long as it 
should be used for county purposes, about 1817 to 
1818. There was much strife between the up-town 
and the down-town people, but the latter, with Robert 
Campbell, prevailed, and thus was located 

4. The court-house of 1819, so familiar to the eyes 

of all the people in the county to-day, with its jail in 
the rear, and the present clerk's and surrogate's ofiices 
near it in going to the Hackensack River. This 
court-house begins to look ancient, but it will safely 
meet the wants of the next generation. The Green 
in front, and the clerk's and surrogate's offices near it, 
and the spacious Reformed Church, ancient and his- 
toric, with other substantial buildings in the vicinity, 
shaded beautifully with lofty trees and much verdure, 
with a copious fountain of pure water holding its 
prominent place in this scene, render the court-house 
and its surroundings an ornament to old Bergen 



The bar of Bergen County has always been at- 
tended by able lawyers. Tielman Van Vleck, already 
a lawyer in 1661, was the presiding judge of the first 
court probably ever held within the present territory 
of the State of New Jersey. There were then other 
lawyers at Fort Amsterdam, who were probably present 
at the early sessions of that court. As a class they were 
soon found indispensable in all the American colonies, 
though Penn tried to get along without them at first 
in his, but only to discover his folly and mistake after- 
wards. Grotius and Guffendorf had made the profes- 
sion honorable and illustrious in Holland, as had also 
Selden and other famous lawyers in England. At that 
early day very many well-educated lawyers from the 
European universities, and with a legal training in 
England or Scotland or on the continent, came to this 
country. When occasion required it able lawyers were 
always present at the bar of Bergen. The early records, 
however, do not indicate that they became residents 
and practicing lawyers here, with but few exceptions 
perhaps, till long after the county was organized. Our 
records are scanty and almost silent as to these pioneer 
fathers of the profession in this country. The minutes 
of the courts aftbrd us some information as to such 
lawyers as were apparently in actual practice, though 
many others more eminent as counsel may not have 
appeared in these minutes at all. The early list of 
lawyers in this county, and antedating its organization, 
with much chance for additions and corrections, is as 
follows, and down to 1776, with the date of their ad- 
missions as attorneys or counselors : 

1661, Tielman Vau Vleck, admitted as attorney in 1660. 

1664 to 1678, Claes Arentse Toere, Balthazar Bayard, and William 
Pinhorne, admitted (probably) attorneys about 1661. The latter was 
also a merchant. 

1707, John Pinhorne, admitted as attorney in 1707. 

1720 to 1750, David Ogden, Mr. Dnane, and Mr. Lodge, admission as 
attorneys unknown. 

1750 to 1756, Robert Morris and John De Hart, admission as attorneys 

1756 to 1761, Mr. Legromsie, Mr. Nicoll, and D. Isaac Brown, admission 
as attorneys unknown. 



Klisbtt Itoiltlinot, appoiut«<l ftcr^'vant-Ht-liiW in 1792. 

Cortlaiitlt Skinner, appointed atturnuy-genunii July 10. 1754. 

George Kom^, Lewis Of^en, A. Mooro, and Isaac Ogden, adiuiflaion as 
attorneys uultiiowo. 

1776, Joiin ClietwooU and AbraliHOl Ogden, ailmissiuii hs attorneys un- 
it nown. 

After the Revolution the list continues as follows 
to the present : 

1787 to 1795. Sir. Boudinut and Mr. Williams, admission as attorneys 
unknown; Col. Neheniiah, niaile attorney in 1784. 
178S, William GriOitli, admitted as attorney in 17S8. 
1805, William A. De Peyater, admitted as attorney in 1805. 
1805, Philip Williams, ndmilteil as attorney in 1804. 
1805, Eliiis Van Ar^ditle, iidmitted as attorney in 1795. 
1805, William Hulsey, admitted as attorney in 1794. 
1805, James Kearney, admitted as attorney in ISOt. 

1805, Joseph C. Hornblower, admitted as attorney in 1803. 

1806. Kohert Campbell, admitted as attorney in 1790; John G. Slc- 
Whorter, admitted as iittorney in 17%; John A. Boyd, admitted as at- 
torney in 1799. 

1809, Josiah Hornblower, admission as attorney unknown. 

1810 to 1811, George Cassedy and Benjamin Wiiitaker, admitted as at- 
torneys in 18<i9; Theodore Frelinghuysen. admitted iis attorney in 1S()8. 

1812. Gabriel II. Ford, admitted as attorney in 1789. 

1818 to 1819, PliileniMii Dickenton, counselor in 1817; Samuel Cas- 
sedy, ailmitled as attorney in 1810; Benjamin Willanl, admitted as at- 
torney in 1815; Anize Dudd, admitted as attorney in 1817. 

1819, Archibald Campl>ell, admitted as attorney in 1819. 

1819, James W. Burnell, aiimission as attorney unknown. 

1821 to 1822, Abijnh Williams, admission as attorney unknown ; Syl- 
Teater D. Uussell, admittetl as attorney in 1797; William Pennington, 
adroUted as attorney in 1817. 

1822 to 182:i, Oeorite K. Drake, admitted as attorney in 1812 ; Bei^a- 
min W. Vandevovirl. admitted as attorney in 1822. 

1824 to 1825, William W. Miller, admitted as attorney in 1818; Aaron 
S. Pennington, ailmilted as altoroey In 1821 ; Elias B. D. Ogden, admit- 
ted as attorney in 1824. 

1820 to 1827, Archer GilTord and Aaron O. Dayton, admitted arattnr- 
neys in 1818; Matthias Ugden, admitted as attorney in 1814; Williuni P. 
Anderson, admitted as attorney in 18411. 

1827 to 1828, William Chetwood, admitted as attorney in 1796; Walter 
Kirkpatrick. admitted as attorney in 1820; Asa Whitehead, admitted as 
attorney In 1818. 

1828, John P. Jackson, adniitterl as attorney In 1827. 

1829, Smith .'<cuddor, admitti-d lu attcrrm.y In 1808. 

1830 to 18.11. J. Dickinson Miller, ailmitled as attorney in 1827 ; Robert 
L. ArmstronK, admitted as attorney In 1806; Abraham 0. Zabrlskie, ad- 
mitted as attorney in 1828. 

1831 to 1832, Ilichurd E. Darrah, James II. Perry, and Daniel Barka- 
low,a.lmlltcd as attorneys in 1820; Jesse D. Pitt, admitted as attorney 
In 1827. 

1832, John 8. DIaurelt, counselor in 1829. 

1832, James Spier, admitted as attorney in 18:10. 

18.12, James J. ,<:choneld, ailmitled as attorney in 1829. 

18.32, Aaron O. De Hart, admllli-daH attorney in 1828. 

183;i, Benson Mllledoler ami William S. Kaitoutr,a'lmitte<l as attorneys 
In 18.30; Thomas I). James, admitted as attorney In 1829. 

18;i4, Jcwcplius W. Sanders, admltte<l as attorney in 1K33 ; Peter Bent- 
ley, ailniltted as attorney In 18.34 ; Silas D. Canflold, admitteil as attorney 
in 1832. 

18.V), Andraw 8. Oarr, admitted as attorney In 1833; Daniel Hainea, 
admitted as attorney In 1823; Staala S. Morris, admitted as atlomry In 

1836. I. Beam, admission as attorney unknown. 

1837 to 18.18, John llopiKT, admllli'd as attorney In 18.36; Lewis D. 
Hanlenlrergh. a<lmitte<l as nitomcy In 1825 ; John A. Taylor, admission 
as attorney unknown; Archsr liitlord, admitted as attorney In 1821; 
Banjamin K. Van Clere, admltlr<l ss attorney in 1K30. 

18.18, Darlil A. Hays, •dmllte<l as attorney In I8;t4. 

1K40 to 1841. Kdward P. Illllyer, (^iward J. Ilogers. and Martin Ryer- 
son, a<lmltted as attorneys In 1836; Kdwln H. V. WriBht and Thomas W. 
Jam™, admllird as attorneys In 1K19 ; Ulrhard It. I'aullson, admitted as 
attorney In lK.18 ; John M. Gould, ailmltted as attiirney In 1839; William 
8. Oaawly, admitted as attorney in 1840. 

1845, Grant S. Van Wagoner, admitted as attorney in 1844 ; Frederick 
T. Frelinghuysen, admitted as attorney in 1839. 

1847, Manrdiig M. Knapp, admitted as attorney in 1846; G(>orge W. 
Cassedy, admitted as attorney in 1845; David J. Beard, ailmitted as attor- 
ney in 1844. 

1847, Edward X. Dickerson, adntitted as attorney in 1846. 

1848, William S. Banta and Robert Gilchrist, admitted as attorneys 
In 1847; Benjamin W. Vandevoort, admitted as attorney in 1822; Altsa- 
lom B. Woodruff, admitted as attorney in 1844. 

1849, William Gledliill, admitted as attorney In 184G; Theodore Run- 
Son, admission as attorney unknown ; Adonijah S. Boyd, admitted as at- 
torney in 1847. 

1850, h^wanl W. Scudder, admitted as attorney In 1844 ; Socrates 
Tuttle, admitted as attorney in 1848. 

1851, R. D. McClelland, admitted as attorney in 1851. 

1852, Charles L. C. GilTord, admitted as attorney in 1847. 

1853, J. R. Wortendyke, admitted as attorney in 1853 ; John Dun Little, 
admitted as attorney in 1847. 

1854, Jacob Wenrt, admitted as attorney in 1852. 

18.V> to 1856, ILnry I. Mills and Edgar B. Wakeman. admilled as at- 
torneys in 1843; Henry A.Williams and Jonatbati Cory, admitted as 
attorneys in 1849; William H. JcellifT, admitteil lu* attorney in 185:1; 
Frederick U. Ogden, admitted as attorney in 1850; Walter Rutherford, 
admitted as attorney in 18:14 ; James Flemniing. admitted as attorney in 

1850, Charles H. WInfleld, admitted as attorney In 1855. 

1857, (Tharles 11. Voorhis, admitti-d as attorney in 1856. 

1870, Cornelius Christie, mlmitted as attorney in 18<>0. 

1878. William E. Skinner, admitted as attorney in 1860. 
1863, Garret AckcrBon. admitted as attorney in 1863. 
1876, Daniel B. Harvey, admitted as attorney in 1863. 

1874, Augustus Hobart, admitted as attorney in 1806; Mauceillia C. 
Gilliam, ailmitted as attorney in 1873 ; James M. Van Valen, admitted as 
attorney In 1875 ; Samuel R. Deniarest. Jr., admitted as attorney in 1870; 
Cornelius W. Benlan. admitted as attorney in 1878; Isaac Wortendyke 
and Raymond P. Wortendyke. admitted as attorneys in 1869 ; tVorge R. 
Dutton. George H. Coflfey. .\bram D. Camiiell. Abram De Baum, and 
Milton Deniarest, admitted as attorneys in 1877; Walter Christie and 
William M. Johnson, tulmittcd as attorneys in 1879. 

1879, Nehemiah Millard, Peter W. Stagg, and James Romaine, ad- 
mitted as attorneys in 1879; Walter tiilliam, admitted as attorney in 
1880; Luther Shafer, admitted as attorney in 1873. 

Of this long list of lawyers many have become dis- 
tinguished, either in the annals of the State or the 

William Pinhorne, who came to this country from 
England in 1678, was second .judge of the Supreme 
Court of New .Tersey in 1704, judge of the Ilergen 
County Coninion Plea.-* in 170.'), and of the IJergen 
Oyer and Terminer in 17(19, and of the Common Pleas 
in 1709. He had previously been judge of the Su- 
preme Court of New Jersey, and at one time president 
of it-s Council, and coniiuander-in-chicf or (iovernor. 
He died in 17Iil. His .son .lohii wius ch'rk of this 
county in 1705, and was admitted to the bar .luno 15, 
1707, and practiced in this county, and probably re- 
sided at Hackensack or Hoboken. His sister Martha 
married Roger Mompesson, who was chief justice of 
New York and Pennsylvania, and in 1704 was also 
chief justice of New .Jersey. The Ogdens, Isaac and 
Robert, probably residing at Newark or Klizalieth- 
town, practiced here very extensively in nT)") and 
prior to that time. Elisha Roudinot, born in 1742, 
and by descent a Huguenot, bad a large practice here 
upon his admission in about 17l>2. His brother I'.lijah 
was the ilistinguishcd niciiiber of Congress from this 
State, anil the first preHidcnt of the American liible 
Society. Elisha Boudinot rexided at Newark. He 



became a justiceof the Supreme Court Slarch 9, 1708. 
RobertTVIorris,alsoin extensive practice here in 1750, 
was the son of Robert Hunter Morris, chief justice of 
New Jersey till his death in 1764. Robert Morris 
became chief justice of the State of New Jersey in 
1777. He resided at New Brunswick. In 1790 he 
was appointed by President Washington judge of the 
District Court of the United States for the State of 
New Jersey. Cortlandt Skinner, an able lawyer, 
was prosecutor in this county in 1775, and was at that 
time attorney-general of the colony. He was an ac- 
tive royalist, and in 177(1 left, taking refuge on a man- 
of-war, and his name from that time disappears from 
the records of our courts. John Chetwood resided at 
Elizabethtown. He became a justice of the Supreme 
Court in 1788. Col. Nehemiah Wade resided at Hack- 
ensack, was admitted to the bar in 1784, was county 
clerk, and in an extensive practice here, and was 
known and beloved as a most patriotic and estimable 
citizen, and died July 29, 1805, at the early age of 
forty-five. While he was borne to his grave in the 
churchyard on the Green, his sword and chapeau rested 
upon his coffin, and he was followed to his grave by 
an immense concourse of citizens. He was one of 
those rare men who seem to be beloved by every- 
body. William Griffith practiced occasionally in this 
county, but resided at Bound Brook. He became one 
of the judges of the Circuit Court of the United States, 
having studied law in the office of Elisha Boudinot, 
with Gabriel H. Ford, Alexander McWhorter, and 
Richard Stockton, all eminent in their profession af- 
terwards. Mr. Griffith was a learned and eloquent 
lawyer and writer upon various legal subjects. 

Robert Campbell was born at Coleraine, County An- 
trim, Ireland, in 1766, and died July 5, 1846. He 
lived in Hackensack nearly his whole life. He was 
admitted to the bar in 1790, and was a prominent and 
thoroughly honest and reliable lawyer here till his 
death. He was gifted with the powers of eloquence. 
The persecutions of his native land and the war of the 
Revolution, in which his father, Archie, had taken a 
patriotic part, sometimes aroused his fervor, and when 
the citizens of the county were to be addressed on any 
important occasion Robert Campbell was expected to 
be present as the orator of the day. Archie Campbell 
and Robert Campbell are revered names, and still be- 
.loved in the history of this county. John A. Boyd 
was admitted to the bar and commenced practice here 
nine years after Mr. Campbell. For years they were 
in extensive practice here as the prominent lawyers 
in Bergen County. Joseph C. Hornblower, chief 
justice of the Supreme Court for fourteen years from 
1832, is well remembered as having quite an exten- 
sive practice here from almost the beginning of this 
century, though residing at Newark. He was an im- 
pulsive man, and was sometimes thrown oft' of his 
balance by some cooler antagonist when trying a 
cause before a jury, and thus an advantage was gained 
over him, as is almost always the case under such cir- 

cumstances. He was a most able advocate however. 
His judicial opinions are sometimes lacking in logi- 
cal precision, as if written in haste, and partaking 
somewhat of that same impulsiveness of the advocate, 
but they are clear and forcible, and entitle him to the 
rank of an able judge. George Cassedy resided at 
Hackensack, and commenced a very extensive prac- 
tice here in 1809. He studied in the office of Robert 
Campbell. He was an able and most logical speaker, 
but sometimes tedious in his argument, and any im- 
patience on the part of the court or jury only seemed 
to lengthen his summing up. But it was only his 
well-known fidelity to his client which sometimes led 
him to continue his argument for hours. He was a 
great Democratic politician and member of Congress 
for one term. He died lamented at fifty-eight, about 
the year 1842. Theodore Frelinghuysen, illustrious 
for his legal attainments, but more illustrious for his 
undoubted and genuine piety, though residing at 
Newark, also practiced law quite extensively in Ber- 
gen County from 1811. He spoke with so much so- 
lemnity and earnestness to the jury that his speech 
seemed almost a sermon in the calm persuasiveness of 
his eloquence. He won the minds if he did not con- 
vert the hearts of many a juror. Grandson of Rev. 
John Frelinghuysen, from Holland in 1720, and of 
Juftrouw Hardenbergh, his wife, daughterof a wealthy 
merchant of Amsterdam, and herself and her husband 
renowned alike for their intellect and their piety, son 
of Gen. Frederick Frelinghuysen, distinguished in 
the war of the Revolution, and an eminent lawyer 
and a member of the Senate of the United States from 
New Jersey, inheriting or at least possessing the same 
undoubted piety of liis ancestors, Theodore Freling- 
huysen could never willingly have been anything 
less as a man, a lawyer, and a Christian. No lawyer 
in America, except it could have been William 
Rawle, also standing in the very front rank in his 
profession in Philadelphia from 1793 to 1832, ever 
excelled Theodore Frelinghuysen in the beautiful 
sincerity of his Christian life. He rose to the Senate 
of the United States and a nomination for the Vice- 
Presidency with Henry Clay to give strength to the 
ticket, but his greatest encomium is that while he was 
a great lawyer and able statesman, he shed more lus- 
tre still on his life as the devout and faithful follower 
of his Master. Gabriel H. Ford, who had a limited 
practice in this county prior to 1818, then became 
judge of the circuit embracing Bergen, Essex, Morris, 
and Sussex, and presided on the circuits held in 
counties for twenty-one years. Philemon Dickinson, 
brother of Mahlon, resided in Paterson, and prac- 
ticed law extensively in this county for many years 
from 1818; became Governor of the State in 1836, and 
in 1841 judge of the District Court of the United 
States, in which office he continued till his death in 

Archibald Campbell, nephew of Robert Campbell, 
and brother of Robert Campbell, Esq., now residing 



in Hackensack, lived also in Hackensack, commenc- 
ing a practice tliere in 1819. He died at the early 
age of thirty-two, greatly lamented as a lawyer of 
promise and a most estimable citizen and a devout 
Christian. William Pennington's name is frequently 
found in the records of our courts from 1822. He was 
the son of Governor William S. Pennington. He was 
born in Newark in 1790, graduated at Princeton Col- 
lege in 1813, and became an attorney-at-law in 1817, 
and in 1837 was elected Governor of the State of New- 
Jersey, and for six years was chancellor of the State. 
His is the name which was connected with the " Broad 
Seal war," to which we can only refer thus briefly. 
No lawyer i)rohably ever succeeded better with that 
invaluable faculty of great, good common sense. To 
this he resorted constantly, more than to learning or 
labor, or even industry, as his unfailing resource 
wherewith to command success. He honored re- 
ligion, and was said to have been a faithful disciple of 
Christ. He died in 18l!2. 

William W. Miller died at the early age of twenty- 
eight. He was one of those very brilliant men who 
seem to die early, too early. His name appears oc- 
casionally on our records as having |)racticcd here in 
1S24. He was a native of Hunterdon County, and 
came to the bar in 1818. In 1825 he was opposed to 
Thomas Addis Emmett in the trial of a slander case 
in the city of New York, in which Miller was re- 
tained as counsel for the plaintiff. The case and the 
young orator attracted the attention of the whole city. 
He spoke for three hours, when he sank back ex- 
hausted in his chair, and was embraced by his an- 
tagonist. He gained his cause by his eloquence, and 
against that almost matchl&ss orator Thomas Addis 
Emmett, but it cost the young lawyer his life. He 
died in France a few months afterwards, and is buried 
in I'<'re-la-Chaise. 

His brother, Jacob W. .Miller, also an eminent 
lawyer in this State, was elected to the Senate of the 
United States in 1846. The name and face of Elia-s 
H. D. Ogden are quite familiar to many men in this 
generation as the immediate predecessor of Judge 
Bedle on this cin'uit. He wils born at Elizabethtown 
in 18(10, graduated at Princeton nineteen years after- 
wards, and was an attorney-at-law in 1824. He was 
the last lawyer raised to the dignity of a sergeant-at- 
law in this State, which occurred in 1837. He prac- 
ticccl law at Paterson, anil thus came fre<|Uently to 
Hackensack to attend the courts, and as early as 
182.">. He became a justice of the Supreme Court in 
1848, and continued on the bench till IStio, having 
received his appointment from Governors Haines, 
Price, and Olden. Abraham O. Zabriskie, long a 
resident of Hackensack, wius admitted to the bar in 
182X, and early entered upon an extensive practice in 
this county. He was a learned lawyer and a most 
logical rea-soner, relying more upon the substantial 
attainments of his learning, with a most thorough 
preparation of his ca-ses, and bringing to bear all the 

resources of sound reasoning, whereby to command 

success !us a great lawyer, rather than upon the more 
dazzling but certain resources of brilliant oratory. 
He had pre-eminently a judicial mind, capable of 
seeing and comprehending both sides of a case. In 
this respect he possessed one of the great i)rerequisites 
laid down by Cicero as essential to a great lawyer. 
He studied well not only his own side of a case but 
that of his antagonist also. Knowing and recog- 
nizing these qualities of his mind, as well as the great 
integrity of his character, parties on both sides of a 
controversy frequently resorted to him, and alter 
hearing them with entire impartiality, he frequently 
settled disputes in the preliminary forum of his own 
conscience, and in his own office, before they had a 
chance to reach the courts. In any one case such a 
course was more profitable to his clients, pecuniarily, 
than to himself, but it tolil in the long run, when he 
came to command the respect and esteem of the whole 
community. He was an able prosecutor of the pleas in 
this county for many years, and then surrogate, and 
upon his removal to Jersey City he became chancellor 
of the State in 186G. He dignifietl that great office 
with his learning and judicial impartiality till his 
death in 1S73. 

Daniel Haines practiced occasionally at the Bergen 
bar as early aa 1835. He was admitted in 1823, 
though his practice was chieHy confined to Sussex 
County. He became Governor of the State in 1843 
and in 1847, and justice of the Supreme Court in 
1H52, and held that office for fourteen years. From 
early life he was a most consistent and active mem- 
ber and afterwards an elder in the Presbyterian 
Church. He was most active in religious and be- 
nevolent enterprises, and died a few years since much 
honored and beloved. 

Richard K. I'aulison resided at Hackensack. He 
came to the bar in 1.S38, and after practicing his pro- 
fession ten years was elected surrogate, succeeding A. 
O. Zabriskie, and held that office for ten years from 
1848. In 18()8 he was appointed presiding judge of 
the Court of ("ommon Pleas, and died that year, only 
a short time after having entered his judgeship. He 
was much esteemed as a lawyer, and the whole county 
felt the loss of a good judge in tin' untimely death of 
Mr. Paulison. 

Jacob R. Worfendyke, a most thorough scholar, 
not only of the law, but in every branch of study 
which could tend to promote his usefulness and suc- 
cess in the |)rofession, was born' in this county, in 
1818, and died in 1S(;8. He graduated at llutg;ers 
College in 1838, giving great promise of success and 
usefulness. Besides his other accomplishments, while 
a student at law he ai-cpiireil a knowletlge of Hebrew, 
and could read the < )ld Testament scriptures in the 
language of inspiration. He sought no short road to 
success, but his promotion was ra|)id. He came to 
the bar in 1853, and three years afterwards he was a 
member of Congress from the State of New Jersey. 




He was a solid, substantial lawyer and a most excel- 
lent Christian man, but died early in the very midst 
of success. 

We come now to the names of many who are still 
living and prominent actors at the Bergen County 
bar. It is to be regretted perhaps that the living 
may not receive their just round of praise with the 
dead. But the, with the dead, cannot rebuke 
us for that praise which time has made certain and 
secure and cannot reverse those awards which are 
final after the mortal shall have put on immortality. 
Here the story of our judicial institutions in this 
county for more than two centuries must find its 
close. It is one of the oldest bars on the American 
continent. As we have seen in the perusal of these 
pages, it was established to protect and to promote 
civilization in its very earliest struggles on these 
shores. Its lawyers and its ■advocates stood up ably 
and manfully for us in the great cause of the Revolu- 
tion, and their successors have .shed light and lustre 
upon the tribunal ever since. While we have thus 
sought to recall and to rescue from oblivion some of the 
lineaments of those illustrious men who have adorned 
the bar iu the past, let us not forget that it is not the 
armed soldier nor even the statesman in the senate- 
house who alone are to fight for the empire. When 
we seek to maintain the cause of justice in defending 
the poor and oppressed, when we seek to vindicate 
the lives, or the fortune, or the fame of our fellow- 
citizens, then all learning, and all eloquence, and all 
wisdom should be at the command of the advocate at 
the bar of justice, for he also is defending the cause 
of the empire. 

JlANNHTtt M. Knapp, the subject of this sketch, 
although a resident in Hackensack for many years, is 
not a native of Bergen County. He was born at New- 
ton, in the county of Sussex, in this State, on the 7th 
of June, 182.5. He studied law at Newton, in the 
office of the late Col. Robert Hamilton, and was ad- 
mitted as an attorney at the .luly term of the Supreme 
Court in the year 184G. In the winter of that year 
he removed to Hackensack, where he has since re- 
sided, practicing in his profession down to the time of 
his appointment on the Supreme Court bench. In 
January, 1850, he was licensed as a counselor. The 
late Chancellor Zabriskie having about this time re- 
moved from Hackensack to Jersey City, vacated the 
ofiice of prosecutor of the pleas of Bergen. Chief 
Justice Green, who then presided at the Bergen Cir- 
cuit, appointed Mr. Knapp to prosecute for the State 
until the office should be filled by executive action. 
Acting under this appointment until February, 1851, 
he was then given the office by Governor Fort, and 
held it under that and subsequent appointments until 
February, 1861. When appointed prosecutor he was 
acquiring and soon was engaged in an active practice 
in the civil courts. This he retained during all the 
time that he remained at the bar. 

Upon the election of Judge Bedle to the office of 

Governor of the State a vacancy was created on the 
Supreme Court bench, and Governor Bedle nominated 
Mr. Knapp to be his successor. Upon confirmation 
by the Senate Mr. Knapp entered upon the duties of 
the office, taking up the work which Judge Bedle had 
laid down. 

The judicial district presided over by Judge Bedle 
embraced the counties of Hudson, Bergen, and Pas- 
saic ; the work in it was extremely onerous for one 
judge. In consequence of this the Legislature, in 
1875, divided the district and set off Hudson County 
as an entire one. To this new district Judge Knapp 
was assigned by the Supreme Court, and has since 
presided at that circuit. The large population of 
Hudson County necessarily presents a heavy work in 
the courts, and renders the district, although compris- 
ing that county alone, not a light one in its judicial 

Judge Knapp has always held to the political views 
of the Democratic party, but he has never held or 
manifested any desire to hold political office. His 
aspirations seem not to have gone beyond or outside 
of success in his professional career. 

In 1850 he was married to Anna Mattison, a daugh- 
ter of Capt. Joseph Mattison, of the navy. She was 
born in Woodbridge, Middlesex Co., in this State. 
They have two children, a son and daughter, the issue 
of the marriage. The elder, Anna M., wife of Walter 
V. Clark, re.sides in Hackensack. The younger, Jo- 
seph M. Knapp, is temporarily in Colorado. He, it 
is understood, is preparing for admission to the bar of 
this State. 

Judge Ashbel Green, son of James S. Green, 
of Princeton, N. J., was born Dec. 17, 1825. He was 
graduated at Nassau Hall in 1846, studied law in 
the Law-School of Princeton under Chief Justice 
Hamclomer, Richard S. Field, and his father, and 
was admitted to the New Jersey bar in July, 1849. 
He at once removed to New York City, and entered 
into partnership with Henry M. Alexander, and the 
law-firm of Alexander & Green is .still in active prac- 
tice in that city. 

They are the legal advisers of many influential 
corporations and individuals, and have been employed 
in many of the most important litigations which have 
taken place in that city for the last quarter of a cen- 
tury. In 1863, Mr. Green became a resident of 
Bergen County, N. J., and retains his residence there 
at the present time. He has constantly refused ofiice, 
except to accept the appointment of the Legislature, 
on joint ballot, as presiding judge of the Court of 
Common Pleas of Bergen County, which, however, 
after discharging the duties of the office for two years, 
he resigned in 1872. 

Judge Green was, however, supported by a most 
respectable and influential number of the members 
of the Democratic party to succeed the Hon. Freder- 
ick T. Frelinghuysen as United States senator in 1877. 
He was one of the counsel delegated to take charge 



of the case of Messrs. Tilden and Hendricks before 
tlie Electoral Commission in 1877, and conducted the 
e.\amination oC witnesses, and made one of the closing 
arguments on the submission of tlie question of the 
vote of Florida before tiie commission. 

Judge Green edited the American edition of Brice's 
celebrated work on " Vlira Vire*, or the Powers of 
Corporations," which lias passed througli two editions, 
and is the standard authority on tliiit subject. 

His father, James S. (ireen, of Princeton, was well 
known as a lawyer and member of the Legislature 
from Somerset County for many years, and as one of 
the original projectors of the Delaware and Raritan 
Canal, and also as a manager of the United Railway 
of New .lersey until his death. 

Judge Green's grandfather was the Rev. Dr. Ash- 
bel Green, first chaplain of Congress, president of 
Princeton College, and a leading Presbyterian divine. 
Rev. Dr. Green's father was the Rev. Jacob Green, 
of Morris County, N. .J., who was the chairman of 
the committee of the Provincial Congress of New 
Jersey which framed the first constitution <if the 
State, adopted July 2, 1776, two days before the Dec- 
laration of Independence, and was famous in his day 
as a Wliig ])arson, and especially obnoxious to the 
Tories of his neighborhood. Jacob Green's ancestors 
came from Maiden, Mass. 

JfnoE William S. Baxta is the great-grandson 
of Yan Banta, grandson of Hendrick Banta, and son 
of Henry H. Banta and Jane Sickles. The family of 
Bantji was of Hungarian origin, and became early 
settlers of Bergen County, locating at English Neigh- 
borhood, now Fairview, from which place Yan Banta 
removed about 17.')0 and settled at Pascack, Wash- 
ington township, where he died, and was succeeded 
by his eldest .son, Hendrick, who was born May 27, 
174!i, and died Feb. 15, 1803, leaving some five hun- 
dred acre.s of land, which was divided among bis sons. 

Of his five sons and three daughters, Henry H. 
Banta, father of our subject, born at Pascack, Se|)t. 
30, 1784, was a shoemaker by trade, but spent his 
active business life as a farmer and merchant. Prior 
to 1833 he w;i8 for many years a business man in his 
native place, but in that year lie removed to Hacken- 
sack, and in partnership with his brotlier Theunis 
opened a general mercantile traile on the corner of 
Main and Pa.ssaic Streets, which he continued until 
his death in 1849. His residence in Hackcnsack was 
that known as the old Campbell homestead, adjoining 
the Dorenuis homestead, where his brother Theunis 
rtstided. Henry II. lianta led an active busiiieHs life; 
was a man of strong force of character, good business 
ability, marked energy, and strict integrity. He was 
successively a member of the Reformed Churches at 
Pascack and Hackcnsack, and officially connected 
with these eburches as elder. He was appointed 
postmiusler at Hackensark liytien. Francis (iranger, 
and held thai otlice for several years, and was con- 
nected with the old Stale militia, iin<l ranked as adju- 

I tant. Mr. Banta wielded a strong influence in local 
politics, and his counsel and judgment commanded 
the confidence of his fellow-men. 

I By a]>|>ointment he served as judge of the Court of 
Common Pleas for three terms, viz. : from 1829 to 

, 1884, from 1838 to 1843, and from 1843 to 1848. His 
wife died at the age of seventy-six, in 1870. Their 
children are Margaret, Judge William S., and Jane, 
wife of John Dc Peyster Stagg, of Hackcnsack. 

Judge William S. Banta was born at Pascack, 
Bergen Co., Dec. 12, 1824. He received his prepara- 
tory education in the public school at Hackcnsack, 
and in the private classical school of Rev. John S. 
Mabon, an eminent teacher of the same place, and 
entered Rutgers College in 1841, from which he was 
graduated with the usual honors in 1844. 

Immediately after his graduation he became the 
law student of Chancellor Abram O. Zabriskie, of 
Hackcnsack, with whom he remained until his ad- 
mission to the bar as attorney in 1847. He was ad- 
mitted as counselor-at-law in 18,51. In the spring of 
1848 Mr. Banta opened a law-office in the old bank- 

I ing-house in Hackcnsack, where he continued a suc- 

' cessful practice until his retirement from the more 
active duties of the profession in 1867. 

He Wius appointeil prosecutor of pleas in IStJO, and 
hel<l the office until 1867, when he resigned. In 1872 
he w:is appointed to fill the unexpired term caused 
by the resignation of Judge Green as law judge of 
the Court of Common Pleas for Bergen County, and 
by reappointment held the office for a full term of 
five years, beginning with 1873. In 1879 he wits ap- 
pointed a.ssociate judge of the same court, and is the 
incumbent of that office in 1881. 

' During his active business life Judge Banta has 
been interested in and lent his aid to all worthy local 
objects in the vicinity where he resides. Especially 
has he been interested in educational work ; was 
school superintendent of New Barbadoes under the 
old law, and he wius sul)sei|Uently appointed by the 
board of freeholders, with Rev. Albert Anierniau, 
one of the board of examiners, which place he effic- 
iently filled for several years. 

The judge is an active member of the Republican 
party, and has often been selected as candidate for 
official place. He was deputy internal revenue cid- 
lector of Bergen County from 1862-6.'i. 

In 1850. Judge Banta was united in marriage to 
Sarah, daughter of John ami Katy Ann (Hopper) 
Zabriskie, of Hohokiis, who died in 1853, leaving a 
son, who died in infancy. His second wife was 
Adelia, a sister of his first wife, who died in 1><69. 
His present wife is Jane Anne, daughter of Abrain H. 
and Maria (Anderson) Berry, of Hackensack, and a 
descendant of John Berry, one of the original pat- 
entees in Bergen County. 

Ci)l.. (iAiiKKT G. AcKKIlsos. — Far back of Revo- 
lutionary times the first Ackcrson known in this 
country. Garret, great-grandfather of Col. (iarret G. 







D T; \1{ 0: 

.."■ !Iie ri':. 

, iNini^ifr iM iiiii-L. ( 

lo of tViai 

;u)t of the clerk's 

upon which he settled hie oldest son, John, at Pas- ; hnilion was stored in lat it became 

cack, leaving his two yr - '""omelius ■"■'! — ■'<';■'• to divide it i , .., . ._ea ap'i ^' ir 

Abram.' at his death in i horaeste.. Obscure places iu the Imildinp i 

' '. .ii;i- ol our -ubject, luid ... ... 'y after ht dm '■! '.o 

. who bo'p him twoob'!- <Rn of the Demo- 

•Jreii, Garret and Hannah, who ' 
v;,-Ii,,bi; 7 .liriskie, John Aiv ' 

at Pascack i: .>n of the- ^ party. ^ 


Morris being the only three counties in the northern 
partof the State at *'■■<• •■> . 'f- i-^' '-■— - ■•— 
— John, Cornelius 
erson was bof 
He w.M" edii 

charge, retaininsr t 

.18 own. . Qeoteduess ot liii. . 

. isiMri,, ;; 'w: i.r n.irtv caused u : .- -- hard woi' i! \vm.~ ._ _ ___ _ _ 

•), and it became in cod- time urr engaged in commereiai enter- 

j'.ii\Kaf . 1 n!M riarrington townships. It , prises. 

wa.M pn i that did not suit everybody, and lnlH72 Col. Ackeraon became active in -orL'anizin^ 
i troublous time socially 
>' lioth partie.^ to put for" 

the best men they couid command for political office sident. Me died, and w 

Mr. Garret G. Ackersoh v ■ .1. ...,i .1 . . , n, who retaiuel •' 

thus commenced hi.s politic;i' ■ ■ closed. Oh the i 

, .ma tlic .ijn .^;u: ^eut as a ju '_ 

:aal footsteps. »Vt I whinh be w 
iH wiis made captain of ;: 

. I _ .MU, whiflh 1> -■•■.,ri hr r I, • 

ten years. In 1845 he was > ^lerk over i turer, coiiinierci;i' 

John N. Berrv '■-:•-- •' ' i lUd-thenew ; waysbeen afavon.. .. 

constitution, and therefore ' who recogii'y.e him af 

left his home at 

•:ii'k, where lip f>! .,a whnlM-vesfnHi*'' 

d by till' iansot thi- 

"' " ■ ;r reijuireu 

' three terms in fied. )r 

Ll.l-^iMl * '.1> Tirnt' gnili-i " ' .- 'it his honesty.)! 1 \t-: n. i.';'; ..■t-L... 

way to if the party. -she any of'lhe r ind who, like the fi.' 




Ackerson, came from Holland and settled at Old Tap- 
pan, in Bergen County. He sometimes spelled his 
name Px'kerson, as do most of the older branches of 
the family to-day. He bought a large tract of land, 
upon which he settled his oldest son, John, at Pas- 
cack, leaving his two younger sons, Cornelius and 
Abram,'at his death in possession of the homestead at 
Tajipaii. John was grandfather of our subject, and 
married Garritje Hogencamp, who bore him two chil- ; 
dren. Garret and Hannah, who became the wife of 
Nicholas Zabriskie. John Ackerson was born in 
1743, and died at Pascack at the age of ninety-four 

Garret, his only son, was born in 1779, and died in 
1857. He married Hannah, daughter of .John Ho- 
gencamj), whose family were originally from Rockland 
County. Garret Ackerson was considerable of a poli- 
tician and a military man ; was twice elected as a 
member of the Legislature, and was major of the old 
State militia, stationed with his command at Sandy 
Hook during the war of 1812-14, and afterwards was 
a major-general of the northern militia of the State of 
Kew Jersey, — the counties of Bergen, Essex, and 
Morris being the only three counties in the northern 
part of the State at that time. He had four children, 
— John, Cornelius, Garret (t., and James. Garret G. 
Ackerson was born at Pascack on the 9th of April, 
1816. He was educated at a public school, of which 
George Achenbach was at one time the teacher, and 
Jacob R. Wortendyke a schoolmate. His father, who 
was then engaged in farming, had also a cotton-mill, a 
distillery, and store on his premises, and of these his 
son took charge, retaining the general superintend- 
ence until the year 1840, when he transferred his 
efforts to another farm and established a woolen-mill 
of his own. 

In 1839 the old Whig party caused a division to be 
made in Harrington township, and it became in con- 
sequence Washington and Harrington townships. It 
was an innovation that did not suit everybody, and 
the result was not only a troublous time socially, but 
a period that persuaded both parties to put forward 
the best men they could command for political office. 
Mr. Garret G. Ackerson was elected assessor, and 
thus commenced his political experience. His father 
was then major-general of militia, and the son was 
destined to follow in the paternal footsteps. At 
the age of fifteen he was made captain of a company 
of uniformed militia, which position he retained for 
ten years. In 1845 he was elected county clerk over 
•Tohn N. Berry, being the first elected under the new 
constitution, and by a large majority, and therefore 
left his home at Pascack and removed to Hacken- 
sack, where he entered on the duties of his office. He 
found himself surrounded by the old politicians of the 
county, and to make inroads against them required 
almost superhuman efforts. He filled three terms in 
this office, afld during this time gradually fought his 
way to the leadership of the party. Besides this he 

came to be the counselor and banker of most of the 
old people of that day, the vault of the clerk's office 
oftentimes containing thousands of dollars in gold and 
silver awaiting investment. At one time so much 
bullion was stored in the building that it became 
necessary to divide it in small packages and store it 
in all the obscure places in the building to prevent 
thieves carrying it all off". Shortly after he moved to 
Hackensack he was made chairman of the Demo- 
cratic E.xecutive Committee, in place of Judge Garret 
Hopper, who had occupied the position almost since 
the organization of the Democratic party. 

During his career as county clerk, between 1845 and 
1860, he raised a company of Continentals, of which he 
was captain, and was elected lieutenant-colonel of an 
independent battalion which had been organized by 
special act of the Legislature, and which remained in 
existence till 1861, when most of the men volunteered 
and made up the Twenty-second State Regiment for 
active service in the war. As the supervising mind 
of the committee on volunteers, he filled the whole 
quota of Bergen County. In 1858-59 Hackensack 
was without a railroad, and Mr. Ackerson with other 
citizens resolved this should be the case no longer. 
They subscribed sufficient to build a road from this 
point to intersect with the Erie, and it became known 
as the Hackensack Railroad. Mr. Anderson, the first 
president of the company, resigned before the com- 
pletion of the road, and Mr. Ackerson took his place 
by unanimous election. Although the road sunk 
$10,000 every year during the first three years of its 
existence, Mr. Ackerson contrived to make it a pay- 
ing institution before separating himself from control 
of its affairs. At one time he and Judge Zabriskie 
became personally responsible for about $60,000 in- 
debtedness of the road, and it may be imagined what 
hard work it was to clear off this load. From that 
time until 1872 he was engaged in commercial enter- 

In 1872 Col. Ackerson became active in organizing 
the Bergen County Bank. The bank building was 
erected in 1874, with George Achenbach, Esq., for its. 
first president. He died, and was succeeded by Col. 
Ackerson, who retained the position until the bank 
was closed. On the 1st of April, 1877, he took his 
seat as a judge of the Court of Common Pleas, to 
which he was appointed in the winter of 1876-77 by 
Governor Bedle, and whether as judge or colonel, 
freeholder, bank president, county clerk, manufac- 
turer, commercial man, or private citizen, he has al- 
ways been a favorite with the people of Bergen County, 
who recognize him as one of the leading and influen- 
tial men. 

Persons who have studied character much in various 
parts of the United vStates would read Judge Acker- 
son upon meeting him as invariably courteous, digni- 
fied, friendly, and sociable, who recognizes no dis- 
honesty or trickery, or whatever it may be called, in 
any of the relations of life, and who, like the old cav- 



alters of the South, the latch-strings of whose doors 
were always down in the days gone by, who considered 
it a reproach u|iiin tlieir hospitality for any respect- 
able man to pass their doors without calling in, bring 
back to the thoughtful and exjicrienced some memo- 
ries of American life and manners that ought never 
to have been effaced from history. There is an ex- 
pression of content, self-respect, and cordiality which 
is unmistakable as emitted from his face, and in com- 
parison to which the details of his technical biogra- 
phy are of but little moment. 

The patriotism of the Ackersons never was ques- 
tioned. During the Revolution all the men of the 
family participated actively in the struggle for inde- 
pendence, and surtered in common with others. They 
lost property and friends by their devotion to the 
American cause, and were often stigmatized a.s 
" rebels" by an influential Tory element. They were 
sure they were right, and then they " went ahead." 
It is characteristic of the Ackersons that they believe 
in the maxim, " Whatever is worth doing is worth , 
doing well." 

Judge Ackerson married, in 18.37, Sophia, daughter , 
of James I. Blauvelt and Martha Wortendyke, of 
Washington township, who was born July 4, 1821, 
and has borne him one son. Col. Garret Ackerson, 
Jr., and one daughter, Mattie, wife of H. V. Randall, 
of Fall River, Mass. 

Col. Oakuet Ackkrson, .Ik., was born at Pas- 
cack, Sept. LO, 1840, and during his minority received 
a good education in the public and private schools at j 
Hackensack, and for some time he was a student in 
the ])opular and thorough private schools at Nyack 
and Claverack ; the latter being conducted by the 
eminent and well-knowti teacher, Prof. Alon/.o Flack. 

In June, 1850, he commenced the study of law in 
the office of Hon. Jacob R. Wortendyke, of Jersey \ 
City, where he remained until he had completed his 
law studies, and was admitted a.s attorney iit the .Mine 
term of the Supreme t'ourt, held at Trenton, in 186;?. 

On Julv !l, I8(i;j, Col. .Vckerson n)arricd.\nn ICIiza- 
beth, daughter of John A. /abriskie and Mary An- 
derson, by whom he has three sons, — John Zabriskie, 
James B., and Garret G. Ackerson, Jr. 

The same munlh of his nuirriage Col. .\ckerson 
opened a law-otlice in Hackensack, and about one year 
afterwards removed to the olKcc he now occupies in 
the same village, where he has continued tlic practice 
of his profession since, a period of eighteen years. 
He was admitted an counselor-at-law in 1878, and was 1 
appointed i>rosecutor of pleas for Hergen County in 
ltS»;i>, which position, on account of the pressure of 
other business, lie alt<'r some two years resigned. 

In early life .Mr. Ackerson began to take an active 
part in local politics, and for many years has been 
among the leailers and influential men of the Demo- 
cratic party in the county and .State, and he has also 
been identified with the militia, intcriuil Improve- 
ment.s, an<l various local enterprises in Hergen anil 

adjoining counties during most of his active business 

In 1867 he was appointed judge-advocate of a bat- 
talion of militia in the county; was elected captain of 
Company C of the .Second Battalion National (iuards 
upon its organization in 1872, which position he re- 
signed in 1875; and he was appointed judge-advocate- 
general of the State of New Jersey, with rank of col- 
onel, by Governor George B. 1S79, which 
ottice lie holds in 1881. 

Col. Ackerson has been president of the Hacken- 
sack Railroad since 1879, is a director of the New 
Jersey and New York Railroad Company, has been 
one of the board of the Hackensack Improvement 
Commission, was secretary and treasurer from 1863 to 
1867 of the Bergen County Mutual .\ssurancc Asso- 
ciation, and a director of the same since 1863, and a 
stockholder and trustee of Hackensack Academy. 

Although active and earnest in his political affilia- 
tions, he has never been solicitous of place or the 
emoluments of ofiice. In 1876 he was a delegate from 
the Fourth Congre-ssional District to the St. Louis 
Democratic Convention that placed in nomination 
for the Presidency Hon. Samuel J. Tildeu, and in 
the fall of 1880 he received the unanimous nomina- 
tion by acclamation for State .senator, which, how- 
ever, he declined. Col. Ackerson is the present chair- 
man of the County Democratic Executive Committee. 

.\iiKAH.\M D. Cami'HELI,. — HIs paternal great- 
grandfather, John, who was of Scotch origin and a 
native of New Jersey, settled in Washington town- 
ship, at Pascack, just after the close of the Revolu- 
tiomiry war. There he established a wampum-factory 
and carried on a considerable liusiness, supplying all 
the Indian agents and traders of the day with this 
commodity. He had eight children, all of whom 
settled in the vicinity of the homestead. One son, 
.\braham A. Campbell, married Margaret Demarest, 
who bore him four sons who grew to manhood, viz.: 
John .\., James .\., David .\., and .Miraliam \. For 
a time the father sons resided at Pi'arl River, 
in Bergen County, where in a small way he manufac- 
tured wampum, but prior to 1812 returueil to Pascack, 
where he established the first and only foundry ever 
there, ami during the remainder of his life was en- 
gaged in farming and in tnanufacturing agricultural 
implements and W!im|ium. He owned some one hun- 
dred acres ol land at Pa.scack, which has been the 
homestead of the Campbell family since. 

He served in the war of 1812 at Sandy Hook, and 
his musket and kiuipsack are relics of that war now 
in possession of the family. Abraham .\. ("anipbell 
was one of the founders of the Reformed Dutch 
Church at I'a.scack, and e<|Ually with a Mr. Worten- 
dyke donated five acres of land for the church prop- 
erly. During the early days in the history of the 
church there his house was ever the welcome stop- 
ping-place and hospitable home for the pastor who 
on his circuit came there to preach, and his charity 


, //Ayi^y-^^f^ 



and hospitality were only bounded by his means to 
bestow. He was among the first elders and deacons 
who had a membership in that church, where the 
family still retain their cluirch relations. 

Of his sons, David A. Campbell is father of our sub- 
ject, and was born at Pascack, Jan. 10, 1812. He was 
apprenticed and learned the carpenter's trade during 
his minority, and for some time prior to and after his 
marriage followed that business in New York and at 
Pascack. About 1850 he, in connection with his 
brother James, invented a machine for drilling wam- 
pum hair-pipe, which is manufactured from conch- 
shells and clam-shells. This brought about such an 
activity in the business, which had been carried on by 
his ancestors, that his other brothers, James A., John 
A., and Abraham A., who were all mechanics, at once 
gave their attention to the business, and since that 
time the four brothers have made the manufacture 
and sale of wampum goods their main occupation, 
with their factory located on the homestead at Pas- 

David A. Campbell's wife is Sally, daughter of 
Abraham Haring, of Scotland Mills, Rockland Co., 
N. Y., who has borne him the following surviving 
children: Maria, widow of the late William I. Cour- 
tier; Abraham D. ; Margaret, wife of Abraham Post, 
of Jersey City ; John D. and James D. (twins) ; Dan- 
iel H. ; and Elizabeth, wife of Benjamin X. Mackey, 
of Paterson, N. J. 

Abraham D., sou of David A. Campbell, was born 
Oct. 10, 1842. His early education until eighteen 
years of age was obtained in the common school of 
his native place, and for one year following he was 
a teacher at Washingtonville. He then attended the 
school at Hackensack for a few months, and during 
this time was elected school superintendent of his 
township, which position, however, he resigned after 
a short time, and in February, 1861, entered the State 
Normal School at Trenton, from which he was gradu- 
ated in the class of '63. After spending one year as 
teacher, he entered the law-office of Col. Garret Ack- 
erson, Jr., at Hackensack, as a student ; was admitted 
as attorney at the June term in 1869, and as coun- 
selor-at-law in 1872. 

A few months after his admission as attorney he 
opened a law-office in Hackensack, and Aug. 7, 1870, 
he was appointed prosecutor of pleas, to fill the va- 
cancy caused by the resignation of Col. Ackerson, Jr. 
On September 1st of the same year he was appointed 
by Governor Randolph to fill that office until the end 
of the next se.ssion of the Legislature. He was ap- 
pointed April 5, 1871, for a full term ; filled the office 
until Nov. 10, 1874, and resigned ; but on December 
7th following he was reappointed, and by reappoint- 
ments March 18, 1875, and March 18, 1880, he has 
remained since the incumbent of that office. 

Mr. Campbell became interested in the militia or- 
ganization soon after taking up his residence in Hack- 
ensack ; was mustered as a member of Company C, 

' Second Battalion, Oct. 8, 1872, and commissioned 
as quartermaster, and on March 15, 1876, he was com- 
missioned captain of the company, which office he 
holds in 1881. 
Capt. Campbell was united in marriage Sept. 22, 

j 1869, to Ann Elizabeth, daughter of Jacob H. Hop- 
per and Lydia Bogert, of Hackensack, and by this 
union has five children, — Luther, Eva, David, Harry, 
and Nicholas Demarest Campbell. 

Cornelius Christie was born Dec. 6, 1835, at 
Leonia, in the township of Ridgefield, at the time of 

I his birth known as English Neighborhood, in the 

I township of Hackensack. 

I On his father's side he was of Scotch descent. His 
great-great-grandfather, James Christie, a native of 
Scotland, died at Schraalenburgh, now in the town- 
ship of Palisades, April 16, 1768, aged ninety-six or 

j ninety-eight years. William, son of James, born 

i Aug. 9, 1720, married Catalynthe Demarest, Sept. 22, 
1743, and died Sept. 13, 1809. To William and Cata- 
lynthe Christie were born twelve children. James, 
their eldest child, was born Aug. 20, 1744, married 
Maria Banta in 1772, and died July 3, 1817. To 
James and Maria Christie were born eleven children, 
of whom David, the eighth child, was born Dec. 1, 

I 1789, married Anna Brinkerhoff March 12, 1814, and 
died April 8, 1848. To David and Anna Christie 
were born fifteen children, of whom Cornelius Chris- 
tie, subject of this sketch, was tlie twelfth. 

On his mother's side Cornelius Christie is a de- 

I scendant of Joris Derickson Brinckerhoff (the cin the 

1 name having been since then dropped by the family), 
a person of honorable Flemish extraction, who, with 
his wife, Susannah Dubbels, emigrated to this coun- 
try from the United Provinces in 1638 and settled in 
Brooklyn, N. Y., where he died Jan. 16, 1661. Hen- 
drick, one of the four children of Joris, married 
Clausie Boomgaert, and, June 17, 1685, bought a tract 
of land on the east banks of the Hackensack, at a 
place formerly known as Old Hackensack, now as 
Ridgefield Park, in the township of Ridgefield, where 
he removed with his family. Here he died shortly 
afterwards, leaving three sons, of whom Jacobus and 
Derrick took the paternal acres at Old Hackensack, 
and Cornelius removed to Bergen. Jacobus and his 
wife Agnetie had four, and Jacob, son of Jacobus, 
had seven, children. Albert, son of Jacob, was born 
March 21, 1763, married Kesia Voorhis in 1796, and 
died Dec. 8, 1844. Albert and Kesia Brinkerhoff had 
three children, of whom Anna, wife of David Chris- 
tie, above named, was the eldest, and was born May 12, 

The above-named ancestors of Cornelius Christie 
on both sides were without exception characterized 
by the severest integrity, a Calvinistic orthodoxy, and 
a devoted patriotism. Their religious connection was 
with the Dutch Reformed Church. In the war of in- 
dependence they were ardent and fearless patriots, and 
some of them rendered valuable service and suffered 



serious hardship in the patriot cause. James Christie, 
father of David, bore a commission an captain of the 
militia in that war, and tasted some of its bitterness. 
In reward for the zeal of his family the homestead of 
William, the father of James, was burned to the ground 

on the same ticket. Having a ta-ste for journalism, in 
1871 he temporarily abandoned his profe.-ision and 
started T/ie Xeir Jersey Citizen, a weekly pa|)er, at 
Hackensack, as editor and proprietor, devoting it to 
the promotion of local interests and the improvement 

by ecjually zealous royalist.*, and John, a brother of of journalism in the county, in ])olitics making it iii- 

James, at the same time with Lucas, a brother of 
Albert Brinkcrhofl", above named, .suflered for a time 
the horrors of imprisonment in the famous Sugar- 
House. The feelings engendered by the war rankled 
long in the hearts of the survivors, and manifested 
themselves in striking ways. It is told of William, 
the father of .lames, that when he wa.s afterwards 
pressed by his neighbors to accept the office of justice 
of the peace he persistently declined, and being asked 
the reason finally answered that if he were made jus- 
tice he would feel bound to do justice to all alike, but 
he felt that he could not do justice to the Tories. 

They were all chieHy engaged in agricultural pur- 
suits, in connection, incidentally, in some cases with 
another trade or profession. John, a brother of David, 
was a minister of the Dutch Reformed Church, and 
settled at Warwick, Orange Co., N. Y., where he died 
after a long and faithful pastorate. Peter, another 
brother of David, wa.s for a long time a surgeon in 
the I'nited Ijtates navy, and died at Erie, Pa. 

Upon his marriage to Anna Brinkerhotl" David 
Christie, who with his ancestors above named had 
always continued to live at Schraalenburgh, removed 
to the city of New York and engaged in the business 
of stone-cutting, the trade to which he had devoted 
himself By skill and energy he prospered from the 
first, and by his high character commanded the es- 
teem of all who knew him. In IS.*}.') he purchased 
the homestead farm of Garret Meyer, at English 
Neighborhood (now Leonia), retired from business, 
and removed there with his family to spend his re- 
maining days. At his death he left his widow and 
ten children, of whom his widow and si.\ children, 
including Cornelius Christie, subject of this sketch, 
still survive. The widow, now in her eiglity-sixth 
year, is still living on the old place at Leonia, well 
preserved in health and faculties for one of her years. 
Of the children, James Christie, present collector of 
the township of Ilidgefield, l)y a singular coincidence 
won a commission as captain in the late war, as his 
grandfather of the same name did in the Revolution. 

Cornelius Christie, after a preparatory course with 
the Rev. Dr. Malion, lately elected to the pr(>fes,>ional 
chair in the theological seminary at New Brunswick, 
entered Yale College, and taking the full curriculum 
graduated in IS.'j.'J. He chose the profession of the 
law, and in 1860, having spent a year at Harvard Law- 
Hchoiil and finished his studies with the late Chan- 
celli)r /abriskic, was ailniittrd to the New Jersey bar, 
and shortly afterwards opened a law-office in Jersey 
City. In lH()ti, while engaged in practice there, he 
was elected to the Lower House of the New Jersey 
LegiHiature as a Democrat, and in 1807 was re-elected 

dependently Democratic. He continued to publish 
the Citizen for six years, three as a weekly and three 
as a semi-weekly, and then in 1877, other interests 
and duties imperatively demanding his attention, 
ceased the publication. 

In 1879 he resumed the practice of the law at Jersey 
City, where he is still located. His residence has 
always been at Leonia. He has never married. 

Judge Nehe.mi.\h Millarp is the son of Wil- 
liam, the son of Jonathan, the son of Robert, the son 
of Nehemiah Millanl. first ancestor of the family in 

.Vmerica, who settled in Rehoboth, R. I., in ItJGO. The 
family came originally from Normandy, in France, 
where the name exists to-day ; thence to England, 
and then to this country. Robert, the second in the 
line of descent, was a Baptist clergyman, living to 
the age of ninety years, and an ardent and active 
patriot in the Revolution. .Tonathan was a tanner in 
Dutchess County, N. Y., and William, the father of 
thejudge, was also a tanner in Delaware County, N. Y., 
having settled there early in an almost |»rimeval wil- 
derness. He accumulated properly, was prominent 

The Van Vulfciis are found in Bergen County as early as 
17(H, as deeds now in possession of the subject of this sketch 
bearing date that year show the purchase of some two thousnnd 
six hundred acres of land by the Van Valens from Lancaster 
Syms, being all the Palisade lands from the Jay line extending 
from the lluilson on the east to Overpeek Creek on the west. 
The names of the purchasers are Johannes, Bernardus, Gideon, 
and Rynier Van Valen. 

Upon examination of the records of the Reformed Dutch 
Church at Old Tajipan, Rockland Co., N. Y., where M:ijor Andri- 
was tried, the name of Johannes ^'^an Valcn appears among its 
founders in 1686; hence it is reasonable to suppose the family 
were among the first settlers from Holland in this county. 

Bernardus Van A'alen, great-grandfather of Jauies M. \'an 
Valen, resided at Closter, was a minute-man, and belonged to 
the militia. During the Revolutionary war he was taken 
]irisoner and confined in the " Old Pugar-llouse" in New York 

He built a stone house on his farm, still standing near the 
present railroad depot at Closter. He died in 1S20, aged eighty 
years, leaving five children,— James, Andrew, Cornelius, Isaac, 
and Jane. 

His grandfather, James Van Valen, was a farmer at Closter, 
but removed to Clark^town, where he died in August, 1786, at 
the age of twenty-six years, leaving three children, — liarney, 
Sarah, wife of Henry Westervelt. and Cornelius. Of these 
children, Cornelius, who was father of our sketch, was born 
May 21. 17S6, at Clarkstown, Rockland Co., N. Y. In ISflS he 
was united in marriage to Elizabeth Biaekledge, and shortly 
after removed to New York City, where he was engaged as a 
contractor and builder for a number of years. In 1832 he 
bought a farm in Englewood. then Hackensack township, 
Bergen Co., where he resided for some seven years, and tben 
sold his property and purchased another farm at Teaneck, 
where his wife died soon after. 

The children of this union who grew up are Caroline, wife 
of David Anderson, and Cornelius. 

His second wife was Jane, daughter of Abram Zabriskie, of 
Paramus, who bore him three children, — Eliza, wife of Edward 
Bower, who died in 1867, James M., and Sarah A., wife of 
Cornelius D. Schor, of Leonia, Bergen Co. 

James M. Van Valen, son of Cornelius and Jane (Zabriskie) 
Van Valen, was born at Teaneck, July 21, 1842. His boyhood 
was passed at home, where he received a common-school edu- 

At the age of twenty he enlisted in Company I, Twenty- 
second Regiment New Jersey Volunteers, commanded by 
Lieut. -Col. Douglass, and subsequently by Col. A. G. Demarest, 
of Closter, Bergen Co. This regiment was composed of men 
who enlisted for nine months, and after being in AVashiugton 
and stationed at Georgetown for some time it became a part of 
the Army of the Potomac, and was in service at Aquia Creek 
until January, 1863, when the regiment was ordered to Belle 
Plain. A part of it was in the battle of Fredericksburg and 
on the celebrated '* Mud March" of Gen. Burnside. It composed 
a part of Gen. Wadsworth's division. First Army Corps, that 
made a feint on the left in the battle of Chancellorsville. Re- 
turning to the neighborhood of Fredericksburg, the regiment 
remained on picket duty for most of the summer, and then re- 
sumed the march to Centreville, Md., and was mustered out of 

After his discharge Mr. Van Valen returned to New York, 
where he was engaged in business until 1866, and for five years 
afterwards was a teacher, devoting all his spare time to study. 

In November, 1S71, he entered the law-office of Col. Garret 
Ackerson, Jr., at Hackensack. was admitted as attorney in 1875, 
and as counselor in 1878. Upon his admission as attorney be 
formed a law partnership with Col. Ackerson, which has con- 
tinued since. 

In 1872. Mr. Van Valen was a member of the New Jersey 
National Guard, Company A, then in command of Maj. Moore; 
but soon after settling in Hackensack he raised the New Jersey 
National (Juard, Company C. .Second Battalion, and took the 
rank of first lieutenant, with Col. Garret Ackerson as captain. 
The companj- is now under the command of Capt. A. D. Camp- 
bell. In 1876 he resigned his position of first lieutenant and 
was commissioned (juartermaster of the battalion, which posi- 
tion he resigned the same year. He was a member of the 
Masonic lodge in Hoboken in 1866, was made a member in 
Hackensack in 1875, and has been Master of the lodge since 
December, 1S80. 

Mr. Van Valen is a student of his profession, and has a nat- 
ural taste for reading and study. Self-reliant and persevering, 
he has made his way unassisted to bis present position as a 
lawyer, to which profession be has given almost his entire at- 
tention since he began the practice of the law. 

He was united in marriage to Anna A., daughter of Theo. 
Smith and Catharine Van Nostrand, of Nyack, N. Y., now of 
Jersey City Heights. Their only surviving child is James A. 
Van Valen. 



in public affairs, was supervisor in the county sixteen 
years in succession, but declined more offices than he 
would accept. He died, much honored and beloved, 
in 1853. Millard Fillmore, late President of the 
United States, and William Millard were cousins. 

Nehemiah, the subject of this sketch, was born in 
Delhi, Delaware Co., July 18, 1828, in a family of 
eleven children. He attended the schools from the 
age of three years, graduating at Union College, 
Schenectady, N. Y., in 1848, and on the " merit-roll," 
iis it was called, in a class of over one hundred stu- 
dents, he stood at the head in general scholarship and 
scholastic attainments. Gen. Arthur, President of the 
United States, Judge Charles C. Nott, of the United 
States Court of Claims, and several others who have 
since become prominent were members of this class. 
Mr. Millard's father and grandfather had been teach- 
ers, and his mother, Anna Loomis, also, and he be- 
came the principal of an academy after graduation. 
He studied law in Delhi, in the office of Col. Parker; 
in Albany with Hon. Azor Taber, a leading lawyer 
in his day ; at the Ballston Spring Law-School, and 
was co-student with ex-Governor Bedle, of this State; 
and then in the office of his brother, A. B. Millard, 
in New York City, and was admitted to the bar 
there in 1850. He commenced practice in Marquette 
County, Wis., in 1851, and was special public prose- 
cutor in some important criminal cases there; thence 
he returned to the city of New York, opened an office 
with his brother, and continued in active practice 
there for twenty-five years. He became prominent 
as counsel in the Tibbets cases, in which Luther C. 
Tibbets, while a member of the Corn Exchange, 
owned or controlled in speculation nearly one million 
bushels of corn. Tibbets was indicted for assaulting 
and attempting to kill the janitor of the Corn Ex- 
change, and was for a long time involved in many 
civil litigations growing out of this unfortunate con- 

His skill as an advocate extended the practice of 
Mr. Millard through all tlie courts, and as counsel 
to the highest Court of Appeals. In 1868 he moved 
to New Jersey, still continuing his practice in New 
York ; but in 1874, by the unanimous vote of both 
jiarties in the New Jersey Legislature, on joint bal- 
lot, he was elected a judge of the Court of Common 
Pleas in Bergen County, and serving faithfully in that 
office through a term of five years, he was greatly 
drawn away from the active and responsiljle duties of 
his profession in New York City. It was certainly 
a great pecuniary sacrifice, whatever judicial honors 
the office may have conferred. Since the judge left 
the bench he has been practicing law in Bergen 
County and in New York, having been admitted to 
the bar of New Jersey several years since. He is an 
able lawyer, a ready speaker, and an eloquent and 
persuasive advocate before a jury, and especially in 
criminal cases. He is a close student, fond of the study 
of the languages (being familiar with the Greek and 

Hebrew and some seven or eight other languages). 
He is a forcible writer, and has contributed much to 
the newspapers and ])ublications of the day. His 
wife, Lydia M. Millard, is also a frecjuent contributor 
to the current literature of the present, and her 
poetic translations from Scandinavian languages, 
mainly the Swedish, have attracted the favorable 
notice and commendation of some of the leading 
poets and scholars in this country and Europe. Their 
family consists of one son (a graduate of Princeton 
College) and three daughters. 

Isaac Wortendyke was born at Newtown (now 
Wortendyke), Bergen Co., N. J., on Oct. 2, 1823, 
His father, Abraham Wortendyke, and his mother, 
Catharine Demarest, were of Holland ancestors. His 
employment in his younger years in his father's cot- 
ton-factory or upon his father's farm was not relished, 
as he was more inclined to books and study. At the 
age of sixteen he taught a village or country school, 
and continued teaching until it was determined by 
his father to give him a collegiate education. He pur- 
sued his preparatory studies with the late Hon. Jacob 
R. Wortendyke until he entered the sophomore class 
at Rutgers College, at which institution he graduated 
in 1846, being awarded the first honor of his class. 

He then resumed the occupation of teacher, and 
was principal of Claverack Academy, New York, from 
1846 to 1849. 

He began the study of law at Hudson, N. Y., with 
Claudius L. Monell, Esq. ; and when Mr. Monell re- 
moved to New York City, Mr. Wortendyke followed, 
and continued his legal studies at the office of Messrs. 
Sutherland & Monell, in New York City, and was 
admitted to practice in New York as attorney and 
counselor-at-law in 1851. 

From January, 1868, to January, 1878, a period nl 
ten years, Mr. Wortendyke, having made his resi- 
dence in New Jersey, filled the office of surrogate ol 
his native county of Bergen. After the expiration of 
his term as surrogate he was admitted by the New 
Jersey Supreme Court as an attorney-at-law in New 
Jersey. He is now engaged in the practice of law, 
having his office at Hackensack, and residing at Mid- 
land Park, N. J. He also holds by appointment the 
positions of master and examiner in chancery, notary 
public, and New York commissioner. 

In 1880 he was elected to the New Jersey Senate 
by a majority of 626. 

In the Legislature of 1881, Mr. Wortendyke served 
on the following committees: Militia, Corporations, 
and Elections, and on the joint committees on Treas- 
urer's Accounts, State Prison, and Public Grounds 
and Buildings. 

In the Legislature of 1882 he served on the follow- 
ing committees: Revision of the Laws and Militia, 
and on joint committees on Public Grounds and 
Buildings and Sinking Fund, and on a special com- 
mittee in relation to the finances of the State. 

His term as senator will expire in 1884. 





There were few physicians in tlic immediate ter- 
ritory of this fouiity at an early time. Holland 
seems to have sent forth none regularly bred to the 
profession, although her university at Leyden wa.s 
among the most renowned for chemistry and kindred 
sciences in Europe. Her learning, however, at the 
period of the colonization of New Netherland was 
chiefly scholastic, and pertained more to the intel- 
lectual and religious wants of the community than to 
the laws of physical liealth and well-being. Indeed, 
the science of medicine was in its infancy all over 
the civilized worlii; what is now understood by that 
term has been the growth chiefly of the last hundred 
years. There was no such thing as a school of medi- 
cine, not even a course of lectures on this subject in 
America till the middle of the eighteenth century. 
Dr. Williain Hunter, of Newport, K. I., a Scotch 
physician, was the first to introduce lectures to stu- 
dents, in 17')4, and the first attempt at instruction by 
dissection was made in New York by Drs. Hard and 
Middleton in 1750. The first medical school was 
founded in Philadelphia, in connection with the col- 
lege, in 171)5, Drs. Shippen and Morgan being ap- 
pointed |)rofe.ssors. In New York the first medical 
school was foundeil, in connection with King's Col- 
lege, in 17(i7, but only eleven degrees were conferred 
previous to the breaking out of the Revolution, which 
8us|)ended all operations in that direction till after 
the war, in 1784. In connection with t^ueen's Col- 
lege, New Hrunswick,' there was a Medical Depart- 
ment from 1702 to 1810, but this department was 
located in the city of New York. It wa.s founded by 
the eminent pliysician. Dr. Nicholas Itomaine, and 
others, who, being unsuccessful in their effort to con- 
nect it with Columbia College, ajiplicd to the trustees 
of (iuecn's, anil obtained under llicir charter author- 
ity to complete their organization. During this time, 
from 1792 to 1816, only thirty-si.x medical degrees 
were conferred. Princeton College had no Medical 
Department till 1825, and it wa.s soon after arrested 
by the death of Dr. .lohn Van Cleve, in whose abil- 
ity as a distinguished physician the college relied to 
carry their plan into execution. In 1818, and for 
some time later, there was no means or method in 
New Jersey by which the degree of Doctor of Medi- 
cine could be conferred upon anybody.' 

1 (ni»rten'«l imnia cliniifte*! lu Kiitffen in IBI^'i. 

3 TliA Mwllcal Society nt New JerMy in Mny, 181s, iiiiiNiliitiMl u com. 
niilloo " t" 'li-viM «inie hioIIkmI l.y wlilch tlio tlegrpe of Mmlirinu- IKntor 
ni«y li* ronfKrrwl" in Now Jel»ry. The iiiliject wu |)rcM>nt«Ml to thi* 
tm«le«« of tlio rollogn (at i'rliicelun) liy l>r. Vnn Clovp, « tmntco, %^ lio 
wu m\vt one of tlio ruinmlttro of tlio ■ocloty, Willi tlin in()tilry " wlu-thor 
any nrrangpniviit l-oii1i1 !■« niado with tlip iKiant with r«ganl tii conforrltiK 
tloK'*"**-'* ^ folnnilttiMi to wlioni (hoiiilijocl w«« rrforretl rrportwl April 
i:i, IHIO, "That in lliolr tipinlon 11 woiiM !»■ iiii>x|>nl|piil to ontor Into 
■urh an arrnnf[enialit jirorloiiH to the eatal<litihmt>tit in tin* Itialltnllon uf 
a ronnM* of Inalrinrllon In liiofllitml iclencc. "—3fac/c.m'* i/Uf. l^unft"» 

Students of medicine in New Jersey generally 
sought their instruction in Philadelphia; this was 
especially the with those in the western part of 
the State, and to a considerable extent in the eastern, 
and remains so still, excepting those more immedi- 
ately contiguous to the Hudson River. 

In the early years of its history New .lersey had 
among its medical men a very limited tew who had 
received their training in the schools of Europe. The 
profession was at the first largely composed of those 
who, without liberal education, spent a few years or 
months with some practitioner, and read a few books 
on medicine which came within their reach. One of 
the most noted books relied upon by early [iractilion- 
ers was "Salmon's Herbal," a folio of thirteen hun- 
dred pages, published in 1G06, describing the medici- 
nal i)roperties of plants and herbs. Allibone says of 
the author, " He was a noted empiric." Dr. Stephen 
Wickes says that this was the text-book of a New 
Jersey physician of large practice, and, in his day, of 
much reputation, who, being a man of property, sent 
a messenger to England to obtain it. The cost of the 
volume was £50. 

Dr. John Blanc, in his " Medical History of Hun- 
terdon County," referring to the practice of the early 
days, says, — 

" Every neigiilKirhooti noi'mn lu liavi> Imtl aunie one who i-oniil iileed 
and I'Xtmct leetii ; si>ine (Koneraily Gorriiniiii) i-oniii cu|>. Occajiionaliy 
a * liatidy man' cuilld Hlruightoii a cnnikoil lioiio if it wan hrokoli, get 
great credit for doing no, unit was called a iluctur. Kcmilv ac<-<m<Jifun 
wero liluntiful, particnlxrty among the (jerman and Ruglixh part of the 
popnlHllon. In neiiriy ail caaee the rellieiliea were the gruwtli of the 
Boil, but %'cry little ■ ajKitlieCMry inediclne* l«iiig need, and tliat of the 
must vinilde kind. Lingering ca^ee among the wealthy receive<l alten- 
tiuli fnini a great distance, — Biirlingtun, lliicks ruunty, and riuladel- 

What was true of Hunterdon L'ouuty in those days 
was also true of Rergen. Indeed, a similar state of 
things existed in the new settleiiieiits throughout all 
the colonies. Those most subject to local malarial 
diseases hail greatest cause for remedies, and in such 
localities the homely healing art of the times would 
make most rapid progress.* Such places would natu- 

* As showing liie lieultlifiilneMluf IWrgen Cuuiily, even tu this day, llie 
fullowin.- atatiHllcs of longerlly. taken frtim Ihe lltrgtn County l^tmocrM 
uf April zri, ls7'.i. are appended: 

Illchanl I'anllKon. Uldgefleld IXI JMin. 

John Kd>.all, llidgelleld 83 ** 

Daniel Westervell, Tonally W " 

Sarah I anipbell. Tonally W " 

Peloi Hel ler. ric»tor 90 " 

Mrs. .Haniuei It lieiiiiirent, Oloeter S4 *• f\KH~T, Neiv .Milfonl I«V " 

Roliert Annott, Korl l.eo , 69 " 

Kllen Van Waggimor, New Mllfurd 8S " 

I'eler llogeil, llackoiiiiuik 8» " 

Mm. .Saiiliini, Iladii-nnack 87 ** 

Mr. Wanl, llnekensaik «7 " 

Aaron itigorl, llai keiiaack 84 ** 

Mrs. I'.'ter Ileiiitire-I, llackeiinck S.*! ** 

John llerrinir, llai-keniiaek 82 ** 

I'elor IV.gert, llneknnsack 80 ** 

ilainalioi Hose, II,ukoii-«rk 80 " 

l<al|ili ChriMie, .S. hrualonhurxh 88 " 

Jiiroli f'lirislie. Si-hnialonlinrKll 8'^ *' 

■ lohn Jentey, I'luieiirk 8A " 

>lni lliiiilol Oenmirftt, Pasenrk 8'^ " 

I'elor Iloiterl, Vmi\ Mai^konrack 84 " 



rally have the largest number of "doctors." Among 
the Hollanders of Bergen County there was little need 
for physicians for many years after the first settle- 
ments began ; the climate was healthy, and they 
were of a hardy and enduring constitution. Malarial 
and other local diseases [irevailed quite extensively 
among the early settlers of West Jersey, while those 
in the eastern portion were comparatively free from 
them. All the early writers and correspondents who 
describe the condition of the country, either in books 
or letters to their friends abroad, unite in pronouncing 
East Jersey a very healthy country. The absence of 
early physicians in the immediate locality of Bergen 
County, or resident physicians within its limits, is 
also accounted for by the fact that the more wealthy 
of the citizens obtained their medical assistance from 
places around them, such as New York, Elizabeth- 
town, and Newark. In these places there were at an 
early time some of the most distinguished physicians 
in the country, and their proximity to the interior 
settlements rendered their services available in cases 
of emergency. At a period somewhat later Bergen, 
Belleville, and Hackensack were supplied with phy- 
sicians of their own. 

Medicine as a profession in New Jersey may be 
said to have received a new tone and impulse from 
the founding of the Medical Association of the prov- 
ince in 176t). This was the first provincial medical 
society in any of the colonies, and it speaks well for 
New Jersey that there were within her limits a suffi- 
cient number of intelligent and able physicians to 
bring about the organization of such an institution. 
The initiative of the organization appears, from the 
following notice published in the New Yort Mer- 
curij, to have been taken by the physicians of East 
Jersey : 

" A oout^iJerable number of the practitiuuers of physic and surgery iu 
East New Jersey, having agreed to form a society for their mutual im- 
provement, the advaucement of tiie profession, and promotion of the 
public good, and desirous of extending as much as possible the useful- 
Ufss of their scheme, and of cultivating the utmost harmony and friend- 
ship with their brethren, hereby reciuest and invite every gentleman of 
the profession iu the province that nuiy approve of their design to attend 
their first meeting, which will be held at Mr. DufTs. in the city of New- 
Brunswick, on Wednesday, the -I'M of Jvily, at which time and place the 
constitution and regulations of the society are to be settled and sub- 

'• East Nkw Jersey. June 27, 1766." 

Sixteen physicians responded to the call, and on 
the day appointed the Medical Society ot New Jersey 
was organized. The constitution that day adopted is 
signed by the following physicians : 
RoBT. McKean, Thos. Wiggin,s, 

Chris. Maxlove, William Adams, 

John Coohrax, Berx. Budd, 

Moses Bloo.mfield, Lawrence V. Derveer, 
James Gillilaxd, Johx Griffith, 
Wm. Burxet, Isaac Harris, 

JoNA. Daytox, Joseph Sackett, Jr. 

The society continued to hold its semi-annual meet- 
ings till 1775, when they were interrupted by the 

Revolution, and remained suspended till May, 1782. 
They were regularly held from the latter date till 
1795, when they were again suspended till 1807, at 
which date an act of the Legislature was passed to 
ratify and confirm its proceedings. The society has 
continued in operation till the present time, notwith- 
standing the organization of a formidable rival by 
Dr. Micheau, of Elizabethtown, called "The East 
Jersey Medical Society," in 1790. For a time this 
latter society drew heavily from the interests of the 
old organization, on account of the majority of the 
physicians being located in East Jersey; but the 
latter, after a few years' suspension and a few more 
j of struggle, gained its rightful supremacy over the 
profession in the State, which it has continued to 
hold from that day to the present. 

This society, while it closed the avenues of practice 
to many quacks and pretenders to medical knowledge, 
opened the door to many honest and conscientious 
student-s who had not the opportunity of obtaining 
diplomas from medical colleges. It adopted a stand- 
ard of medical qualification and ethics which ele- 
vated the profession and gave it dignity and charac- 
ter throughout the State. From the first it gave 
licenses to students to practice, but only to such as 
fulfilled the high conditions which it required. The 
honor of membership in such a body and the passport 
which it furnished to public favor and acceptance 
were a constant stimulus to young men of honorable 
ambition to do their best in the way of attainments 
and character in the profession. 

In this organization, from its beginning to 179G, we 
do not find the names of any members from Bergen 
County, excejit that of Joseph Sackett, Jr., who prac- 
ticed at Paramus during the Revolution. 

Little information exists respecting the very early 
physicians of this county. Dr. Van Emliuro- is the 
first one mentioued in the records. He is alluded to 
as a " Doctor of Physicke" in a deed to his widow, 
Katheriue Van Embugli, dated the 7th of December 
1709. The deed was given by Sarah Sandford, widow 
of a wealthy land-owner of New Barbadoes, who in 
his will had devised his property to her. Mrs. Sand- 
ford had a very high regard for the widow of the 
doctor, who was her equal in education and social 
standing, though notendowed with so large au amount 
of " this world's goods." She generously concluded 
to divide with her friend. There can be no doubt but 
that the deed was a free gift, although, in compliance 
with the conditions of the law, a " consideration" is 
mentioned in it. The deed recites : 

"In consideration of a valuable sum of good lawful money, I there- 
fore, by hese presents, give to my dear friend, Katheriue Van Emhurg, 
a certain tract of land and meadows, situated in New Barbadoes, con- 
taining 450 acres of English measure; 3U0 of upland, beginning' at a 
dogwood tree that stands over against the Second River, it being the 
boundary between the said Sarah Sandford and Capt. Edward Kingsland 
and others, according to a line which runs by John Harman upon a 
southeast course from the ahovesaid Dogwood Tree, across said neck of 
New Barbadoes into the meadows on the southeast side of sai.l neck, and 
thence southwesterly along the neck 30 and 6 chains and 7 yards 2 links. 



" Sec. 4, DlBcipUn* of members ihall be of three gmdes or degree*. 
Til. : Admonition, for which h majority vole shall be eiifficiciit ; Suppen- 
fion, for wliich H two-lhirile vote shall U* necessary* ; anj ErpuUion, for 
which a three-fourths vote shall be required. 

**Skc. 5. If an appeal lie taken from the action of the society to tbe 
Medical Society of New Jersey by any ili.Hciplitkeil member, or by any 
rejecti'd applicant for memliervhip, a wrillen notice of such npp«'al shall 
l>e served on the 8<-cretary by the aggrieveil party at least sixty days bo- 
fore the next annual meetiog of the Medical Society of New Jersey. 

" Chaptcb VII. — Meetingt of Otf SM;t«tif. 

**8ko. 1. The society shall meet annually, in the village of Hackeu> 
sack, OD the second Tues^lay of April. 

"Sec. 2. The semi-annual meetiiif; of the society shall be held iu the 
same place, on the second Tuesday of Octolier of each year. 

'* Sec- :1- Quitrterly meetings of the society may also be held on the 
second Tuesdays of July and January, prodded the society shall so 
order at the next preceding regular meeting. These quarterly meetings, 
if held, may be held iti any part of the county the society may elect. 

"Sec. 4- Five members shall constitute a quorum for the traosaction 
of business at any meeting of the society. 

"CUAPTF.K VIII. — Oriler of ^utin^u. 

"1- The m-ciety sIimM I* called to order by the president; or in liis 
absence, by the vice-proident ; or in the absence of l>oth these officers, 
by a president to be chosen pro tempore. 

" 2. The roll shall be called by the secretary ; or in his absence, by a 
secretary to be chosen pro tempore. 

" 3. A quorum lieing present, the minutes of the last meeting shall be 
read and appnived. 

"4. The reiiort of the treasurer shall be receive«l and acted u|k)u. 

" 5, Applications or projiosals for membership shall be received and 

" C. Report of {>ernninent commiltee ou applications for membership 
and election of members shall be iu order. 

" 7. Reports of regular commlttoea, in their order, shall be r\-ccived 
and discussed. 

"8. Ueptirts of special committees, in the order of their apiKiintment. 

"9. Rep^irts of cases, communications, etc, by Individual memlien). 

"10. KsBjiy or atldn-ss by the president or vice-president. 

"11. Anicndmenis to the by-laws shall be proposed, and amendments 
previously proposed shall be acteil upon. 

" 12. Mis«-ellaneous business not embraced under the foregoing heads 
shall l>e in order. 

" IU. Officers, delegates to the Medical Society of New Jersey, etc., etc., 
shall be elected. 

" 14. The president shall appoint the committees. 

" 16. Motion to a^ljourn. 

"CllArTElt l\.—.imnilmenl U) By-laia. 
"These by. laws may lie amen<Ied at any regular meetlnR of the society 
by a v<ite i»f the majority of the members present. pro>i,ted such amend- 
ment sliall have been pni|>osed at a previous regular meeting." 

lloLi. or MKiinKRS Admittzd vr to 1876. 



A. Ib.plier >> IHM 

W. 11. Hay >' 18,'>4 

C. Ilasbronck > lH.->4 

H. A- Ilop|ier> l»i« 

0. B. Ilru»n" 1H64 

D. Hasbrouck ) > \*.'A 

A..S. Burdett \KA 

B. (tblenis' 18.V, 

J- J- llaring \KM 

1. J Weils* IWJS 

w. II. Hall • _ mr* 

J. T. DeMund •. IKlUi 

H. C, Seer IWJS 

Names. Admitted. 

F. M. WriKim IMS 

J. M.SImiiaoli 1861> 

R. Stewart 18(i9 

S. J. /.abriskie 1870 

A. P. Williams 1870 

II. A Crary 1871 

W, Fnincis'' 1871 

I). A. Currie 1872 

M. S. Avers 1872 

1). C, Tarr 1874 

O. f. Simpwn* 1874 

F. A. Davis 1874 

A. Cleudinen 1878 

Pkeskkt MEMnKRS, ANP Scnool.s AT WHICH TiiEY REcrivr-n 


Henry A. Hopper, Ctdh-ge I'hyilcians anti HnrgminB, New Yi>rk, 1H47; 

A. 8. Bunlrlt, (Villeue rhyslclans and Surgeons, New York, )K,'>2 ; II. 

C. Neer, Berkshire Medical <'ollege, IM); P. Augustus Currle, 

Unlvenlly of BulTslo, lsi'>4, Inlvenlty of hUllnburgh, I8C7; M.S. 

1 Charter Members. * Deceaae<l. 

' Withdrawn an<I ilroppeil from the roll. 

* R«uiove<l from the county and dnipped trum the rx>ll. 

Ayers, Long Island College, 1871 ; G. C. Terhnne, New Tork Siedi- 
cal College, 1853; Charles H. Hasbroeck, College Physiclanti and 
Surgeons, Fairfield. N- Y , 1A.19; D. St. John. Bellevue, 1879: Alex- 
ander Clendinen, University of Maryland, 1859; Milton Terhnne, 
Kentucky School of Medicine. lK7t',; J. M. Sini|Mon, Bellevne, I8«e; 
S. J. Zabrlskie, Inlversity Medical College, New York. 18.')6; J. J. 
llaring, Jefferson Medical College, 18V>; A. P. Williiims, College 
Physicians and Surgeons, New York, 180O; E. M. fiarton, t'uiversily 
Medical College, 1878; G. G.Brown, Odlege Physicians and Sur- 
geons, New York, 1875; C. L. Uemarest, Bellevne, 1876; Thomas 
Reld, University Medical College, New York, 1876. 

We give below a list of the presidents and secreta- 
ries since the organization : 

1864, William H. Day; Is.'s^-iG, Abraham Hopper; 18.'.;. William H. 
Day; 18.M1, I. J.Wells; 1808. Charles Hasbrouck; 18r.9-70, A. S. 
Bunlett: 1K71-72, John J. Haring; 1871, F- Mar.o Wright; 1874, 
H. C. Neer; 1876, A. S. Burdott ; 187C, D. Augustus Currle; 1877, 
Henry A. Hopper; 1878, A- S. llurdett ; 1879, S. J. /.abriskie; 1880, 
Milton Tunnure; 1881, Henr^' .\. Hopper. 

1854-68, aiarles Hasbrouck; 1808, I. J. Wells; 1869. J. T. Deninnd; 
1870-76, Charles Hasbrouck; 1877-78, A. S. Burdett ; 1879, Henry A. 
Hopper; 1880, Alexander Clendinen ; 1881, D. A. Cnrrie. 

Officers for 1881. 
H. A. Hopper, HRckensacfc, president; D. St. John, Hackensack, vice- 
presfdent and treasurer; D A- Currle, Englewoo<I, secretarj" and 
diFitrict reporter. 

Henry A. Hopper, M.D. — Dr. Abram Hopper, 
father of Dr. Henry A. Hopper, was born at Hoho- 
kus, Bergen Co., N. J., April 26, 1797, where his boy- 
hood was spent on the farm of his parents. His 
academic education wa.s received in the city of New 
York, after which he' returned to his native place and 
began the study of medicine with Dr. .Inhn Koscn- 
crantz, with whom he remained one year. 

He further pursued his medical studies in the office 
of Dr. Valentine Mott, of New York, and attended 
lectures at the College of Physicians and .Surgeons, in 
that city, from which he was graduated upon reaching 
his majority in the spring of l.^^lJi. 

In the following year Dr. Abram Hopper settled 
and commenced the practice of his profession at 
Hackensack, Bergen Co., where he remained with 
very little interruption until the time of his death, 
Dec. 14, IH72, thus giving to tiie people of his native 
county the whole energy aiul ccperience of an active 
and laborious professional life. I'pon his first settle- 
ment at Hackensack the village was small and the 
surrounding country .sparsely inhabited. He had a 
particular fondness for surgery, was the only operating 
surgeon in the county for many years, and enjoyed a 
wide reputation as skillful in that branch of his pro- 

He wiLs H man of industrious habits, well read in 
the current medical and scientific literature of his 
day, and highly esteemed for his intelligence, integ- 
rity, and honesty" of purpose in all the rehitions of 

His son. Dr. Henry .\. Hopper, was gradu;ited from 
the time-honored institution, the College of Physi- 
cians and Surgeons in the city of New York, in the 

--^^^..'^^^^^a.;^^^^^.^ /^'^. 

The family of Hn-bronck in Ulster County, N. Y., trace the 
line of descent from the uM lliii^nenot ancestry who fled their 
country foUowin.::^ tlir* in ii^sacre on St. Bartholnmew's Day in 
France, and sought ictiii^e in the wilds of America. 

Charles Hasbrouck was born at Marbletown, Ulster Co., 
N. Y., April 11, ISIS, and is a lineal descendant from Abraham 
Hasbrouek, who settled in Esopus in 1675, and shortly after 
removeil to New Paltz. 

Abraham, gr.iridson of Abraham before mentioned, and son 
of Joseph, born in 1707, removed from New Paltz to Kingston, 
where lie carried nn mercantile business until 1776. when liis 
good^ and store were destroyed by fire. He was Heutenant- 
eolonel of a regiment of militia in Ulster County, and served 
for twenty years as a member of the Provincial As?embly, and 
also as a member of the State Legislature from Ulster County 
in 1781-82. He died in 1791. 

Lewis r. Hasbrouek, father of Dr. Charles Hasbrouek, was a 
farmer in Marbletown, and there reared a family of eight chil- 
dren, of whom Charles was fourth. One son, Dr. Moses C. was 
a prominent physician of Nyack, N. Y., for many years, and 
died there in 1870. In early life Dr. Charles Hasbrouek gave 
evidence of a superior mind, and even in boyhood was possessed 
of so retentive a menn)ry that a former tutor of his says of 
him. "I w»uild frequently, in his recitations, send him to his 
seat for want of time to hear lessons, page after page of which 
he was prepared to render ]>erfeetly." 

At the age of eighteen years he commenced the study of 
medicine with his uncle, Dr. Matthew De Witt, completed his 
studies with his brother, Dr. Moses C. Hasbrouek, then in practice 
at Middletown. ami was graduated in 18.39 from the College of 
Physicians and Surgeons, of Fairfield, N". Y. He was urged to 
take the practice of his brother, who contemplated removing to 
Nyack. but declined ; and, with :in outtit consisting of a horse 
given him by his father, he located at Schraalenburgh, N. J., 
as the active partner of Dr. Kipp, an aged practitioner there. 
After the death of Dr. Kipp. his practice becoming too laborious, 
Dr. Hasbrouek associated with him Dr. J. J. Haring, who con- 
tracted a regard and admiration for his partner which time has 
only served to deepen and strengthen. 

In 185.5, Dr. Hasbrouek, feeling the wear of the long rides in- 
cident to an extensive country practice, removed to Hacken- 
sack, where he remained engaged in a lucrative practice until 
bi.^ last illness, which resulted in his death Nov. 25, 1877. 

Dr. Hasbrouek ranked high amonir his professional brethren, 
and his counsel was sought far and near, and during the lat- 
ter years of his practice much of his time was taken up in consul- 

tations. His marked specialty in practice was obstetrics, and 
in this he displayed very superior skill. He was an active 
member of the Bergen County Medical Society, and frequently 
contributed valuable papers of medical interest to its members. 

He was also a member of the State Medical Society, elected 
its president in 1S71, and in 1876 he was chosen a member of 
the International Medical Congress which convened at Phila- 

Not alone in his profession was he progressive; the welfare 
of the people he cherished as his own, and every worthy enter- 
prise received from him prompt and generous encouragement. 
He was a hard student until nearly the close of his busy life, 
and took a deep interest in educational work, and was influen- 
tially and intimately identified with the Hackensaek Academy 
from its commencement, and served on the board of trustees 
with great acceptability to his fellow associates and the people, 
always being judicious in his counsel and learned and honorable 
in his advice. 

The commanding personal appearance of Dr. Hasbrouek was 
in perfect keeping with his noble manhood. Upright, truthful, 
and generous to a fault, he was the soul of honor; retiring and 
unassuming as a child, he sought neither popular applause nor 
favor. He aimed simply to do his best for the profession he 
honored, and for those to whom he ministered. He worked by 
the sick bed of the poor without hope of reward; indeed, 
like his Master, he went about doing good, and the conscious- 
ness of well-doing was to him abundant reward. Dr. Hasbrouek, 
though dead, still lives in many homes, both of affluence and 
poverty, where his ministering has brought hope and contidence 
and life; lives in the esteem of his professional brethren, who 
deeply deplore his loss, and will ever live in the memory of his 
family, whose bereavement cannot be estimated. 

The doctor's first wife was Ellen Christie, who died in 1S54, 
and by whom he had fnur children, viz.: Sarah, wife of Dr. I. 
J. Wells, of Nanuet, N. Y. ; C. De Witt, of New York; Mary 
Ellen ; and Margaret Van VIeck, wife of Archibald ('. Niven, of 
Hackens.ack. His second wife is Catherine W., daughter of 
Adolphus W. and Eve (Myer) Campbell, of Hackensaek, grand- 
daughter of the late Dr. John Campbell, once an eminent 
physician in Hackensaek, and great-granddaughter of Archi- 
bald Campbell, a native of the Isle of Man. who came to Hack- 
ensaek about 1765, and kept an inn where the Bergen County 
Bank now stands, in which Gen. Washington made his head- 
quarters for some time during the Revolutionary war. By 
this second marriage they hod one daughter, — Eva Myer 



spring of 1847, and has been since a practicing phy- 
sician and surgeon in Hackensack, a period of thirty- 
five years, and for many years covering nearly the 
same field of Libor enjoyed by his father. The growth 
of the vilhige has been so rapid during tliis time that 
for some time Dr. Ho|i]ier's jiractice has been confined 
mainly to tlie vilhigc po]iulation. 


His specialty as a surgeon, as well as his success as 
a practitioner of medicine, and his ready diagnosis of 
disease luive given him rank with the first in the pro- 
fession, and a high standing among his fellow-citi- 
zens. Dr. Hopper is known professionally throughout 
the State, and lias been and is in 1882 officially con- 
nected with imjiortant and honorable positions. He 
is a member of the American Medical Association, a 
member of the New Jersey State ]\Iedical Society, 
president of the New Jersey State Sanitary Associa- 
tion, president of the Bergen County District Medical 
Society, and president of the Board of Health of 
Hackensack, N. J. As a citizen, Dr. Hopper has 
ever been in hearty support of every enterprise tend- 
ing to the prosperity of Hackensack and vicinity and 
the welfare of the peojile. His own stately residence 
on North Main Street, with its beautifully laid out 
grounds, is an index of his enterprising spirit, his 
thrift and cultivated taste. 

His son, Dr. John \V. Hopper, was graduated also 
at the College of Physicians and Surgeons, in New 
York City, in the spring of 1879, and did full service 

in the Surgical Department of Roosevelt Hospital of 
that city. He is the third in regular line of descent 
in a family of physicians who have graduated at the 
same medical college, and he is further prosecuting 
his medical studies by observations in the hospitals 
on the continent of Europe. 

William H. Day, M.D.— Among those wlio have 
practiced medicine in Bergen County none deserve 
more favorable mention in the medical history of this 
volume than Dr. Day, whose clear mind, excellent 
judgment in the diagnosis of complicated cases of 
disease, and devotion to those whose lives were in- 
trusted to his care made him esteemed by all who 
knew him, not only in the discharge of his professional 
duties but as a citizen of the community. He was 
never known to refuse to respond to a professional 
call, whether coming from the poor or those in opu- 
lence, and his services were given with the same anx- 
iety and care to those from whom he could not possi- 
bly expect remuneration as to those whose abundance 
would be no sacrifice to meet his regular fee. 

Dr. Day was the only son of Henry Day, who, al- 
though a wheelwright by trade, spent most of his 
active business life as an inn-keeper at Fairview, where 
he was the " hospitable landlord" on the old stage- 
route from Albany to New York. Henry Day died 
in 1852, aged seventy-seven, and was born at Leonia, 
in Old Hackensack township, where his father had 
kept a hotel during Revolutionary times. Henry 
Day's wife was Catharine Banta, who died in 1840, 
and whose family were residents of Closter, and by 
whom he had one .son, subject of this sketch, and 
several daughters,— Polly, Katy, Betsey, Rachel, Sally, 
Jane, and Margaret,— all being dead in 1881 but Mar- 

Dr. Day was born at Fairview (English Neighbor- 
hood), .July 1(5, 1810, received his pi-eliminary educa- 
tion in the scliool at his native place, and early in 
life began to study for the profession which he in 
after-life honored as one of the most skilled physi- 
cians of his time. He practiced medicine for many 
years at his native place before the law regulating its 
practice in New Jersey required him to take out a 
license. His diploma was granted by the State Medi- 
cal Society, and dated May 28, 1852. He continued 
his practice at Fairview until 1867, when, to avoid 
the long rides and incessant labor night and day in- 
cident to his growing practice which was wearing his 
life away, he removed to Fort Lee, where he remained 
attending to his professional duties until his death, 
which occurred June 23, 1876. Dr. Day was one of 
the founders of the District Medical Society of the 
county of Bergen, and from time to time contributed 
valuable papers upon important subjects to its inter- 
ests. He was often called in consultation by his pro- 
fessional brethren, and held in high esteem by them 
for his candor, integrity, and skill in all branches of 
his profession. 

Dr. Day was a member of the Reformed (Dutch) 



Church at Fairview, and u liberal contributor to that 
and kindred interests. He was a student of his pro- 
fession, and outside of this he acquired no mean place 
among literary men a.s a poet, us many of his choice 
poems extant bear witness to his literary ability in 
that direction. 

Dr. Day wits united in marriage, Dec. 31, 1839, to 
Eliza, daughter of Peter Wake and Elizabeth llat- 
field, of Fort Lee. Her father was a native of Eng- 
land, and carried on business in New York most of 
his life, dying in 181G. Her mother was born at Eliz- 
abeth, N. J., and survived licr husband only six years. 
Mi's. Day was born Nov. 7, 1810; survives her husband, 
and resides at Fairview. Their only child is Anna 
Blanchard Day, wife of Benjamin R. Burdett, of 

Dr. D. a. CfHKiK is a grandson of Dr. James 
Currie, F.R.S., wiio was born at Dumfriesshire, Scot- 
land, May 31, 175G, and who died Aug. 31, 1805. Dr. 
Currie was one of the most prominent physicians of 
his day, and is said by Dr. Austin Flint, of Now 
York, to have been seventy-five years alicad of his 
time. He studied medicine at Edinburgh I'niversity, 
and located at Liverpool in 1781, where lie enjoyed 
an extensive practice. Besides contributing excellent 
papers to the various medical journals, lie was the 
author of a learned and valuable work, published in 
1808, entitled "Medical Reports of the Effects of 
Water, Cold and Warm, as a Remedy in Fever and 
other Diseases." Dr. Currie also became widely 
known in connection with the revisal aii<l |)ubtication 
of Burns' poems in 1800. This he did for the bene- 
fit of the widow and chifdrfin of the poet, and real- 
ized thereby fourteen hundred pounds. 

The parents of Dr. D. A. Currie were Thomas and 
Nancy (Lemon) Currie, both of whom were natives 
of Scotland. In the earlier portion of his life Mr. 
Currie engaged in tlie manufacture of .sails auil sail- 
cloth in his native country, but he subsequently re- 
moved to America, and pursued the same line of 
business at Patcrson, N. J. He has resided for a 
number of years past at Scarsville, Orange Co., N. Y., 
where he engages in agricultural operations and stock- 

Dr. D. A. Currie is the youngest of a family of 
ten children, of whom seven are living, and was born 
Oct. 10, 1842, at Scarsville, N. Y. He grew up ujion 
the paternal farm, and bis earliest education was ob- 
taine<l at the district school of his locality. He 
subscfiuently attended the academy at Montgom- 
ery, N. Y., and was fimiUy prepared for college 
by a private tutor at Paterson, N. J. Abandoning 
the idea of entering college. Dr. Currie, in 18."><), 
entered himself as a student in the office of Dr. Sand- 
ford IJistmaii, of Buffal'i, N. Y., ami Professor of 
Anatomy in the Tniversily of lUill'alo. He also at- 
tended lectures at that institution, and was graduated 
with the degree of Doctor of Medicine in 18G3. On 
October 1st of that year he commenced the practice 

of his profession at Bloo<ningburgh, Sullivan Co., 
N. Y., where he remained until the fall of 1865. He 
then went to Edinburgh, Scotland, and, with a view 
of still further perfecting himself in his profession, 
studied at Edinburgh University for two and a half 
years, becoming a pupil of Sir James Y. Simjison, Pro- 
fessor of the Diseases of Women and Children, and of 
Dr. James Syme, Professor of Clinical Surgery in the 
Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh. Dr. Currie became 
a licentiate, in due course, of the College of Physi- 
cians and Surgeons of Edinburgh, and a member of 
the Royal Medical Society of Edinburgh, and of the 
Royal Obstetrical Society. For six months of that 
time he wiis resident physician at the Royal Hospital 
for Sick Children. At the close of the year 1867 he 
returned to the United States, and on Jan. 1, 1868, 
entered upon the practice of his profe-ssiou at Mid- 
dletown, N. Y., where he did a large and successful 
business until his settlement in Englewood, Bergen 
Co., March 1, 1872, where he has since held front 
rank as the leading allopathic jdiysician of his local- 
ity. His specialties in practice are surgery and the 
diseases of women and children. The late Dr. Has- 
brouck, of Hackensack, empli>yed Dr. ("urrie to per- 
form all of his surgical operations in the later years 
of his practice. He enjoys wide [lopularity in Engle- 
wood, and has been township treasurer for two years, 
and a member of the town committee several terras. 
For two years past he has also been the physician of 
the Hoard of Health. He was president of the IJergen 
County Medical Society in 1876, and has been secre- 
tary of that body for the |)ast two years. He has 
been a member of the American Medical Association 
since 1876, and is a member of the Sydenham Siciety 
of Ix)ndon. 

Dr. Currie was married in 1867 to Fannie Wills, 
daughter of the late .\ndrew \\'ills, of Blooming- 
burgh, N. Y. 

Joiix J. IIaiu.n<;, M.D., was born on JIarch 15, 
1834, in Rockland County, N. Y. He came from an 
ancestry whose sterling i|ualities won general esteem, 
and whose habits of industry and economy secured 
them a com|ietence. 

Availingbimself of the best educational advantages, 
he had at the age of eighteen secured a thorough aca- 
demic education. Choosing medicine as a profession, 
he entered the office of Dr. M. C. Hasbrouek, at that 
time the leading physician and surgetui in Rockland 

After the usual period of stuily, taking meanwhile 
two courses of lectures in the New York medical 
colleges, he graduated by preference, at the close of 
a third course, from the Jefferson Medical College of 
Philadelphia. He then formed a i)artnership with 
Dr. Oharles Hitsbrouck, practicing inSchraaleuburgli, 
Uergen Co., N. J., which continued successfully for 
two years. At the end of this time he succeeded to 
the joint practice by the removal of the senior part- 
ner to Hackensack, N. J. This left him a very ex- 


Abraham S. Burdett, M.D., was born iit English 
Neigliborhood, now Leonia, in Bergen County, Nov. 
6, 1830. His grandfather, Abraham Burdett, resided 
at Englisli Neighborhood, and there died in 1803, and 
his wile, Nancy, daughter of John Smith, also died 
about the same time, leaving an only child, John S. 
Burdett, who was reared by Abel Smith, a brother of 
his maternal grandfather. John S. Burdett inherited 
the property of his maternal grandfather, and was a 
farmer during his life in the vicinity of his birth. He 
was a deacon and influential member of the Reformed 
Church there, and after living a quiet life, engaged 
in business pursuits, freed from a desire for oflScial posi- 
tion, he died in 1847, aged forty-eight. His wife was 
Sarah, daughter of John P. Bogert, of New York City, 
who died in 1871, aged seventy-three years. Their 
children are two sons, — Abraham S., subject of this 
sketch, and Dr. John B. Burdett, who was graduated at 
the College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York, 
and has since been a practicing physician in Jersey City. 

Dr. Abraham S. Burdett obtained his preliminary 
education in the private classical school of Kev. John S. 
Mabon, Hackensack, and at a high school in New York ; 
studied medicine with Prof. Lewis A. Sayre, a prominent 
physician and surgeon of New York, and was graduated 
at the College of Physicians and Surgeons in that city 
in 1862. For one year previous to and one year follow- 
ing his graduation he was assistant physician in the 
Kings County Hospital, on Long Island. In 1853 he 
settled at Fort Lee, in his native county, where he re- 
mained in the practice of his profession until 1857, when 
he associated himself with the late Dr. William H. Day, 
of Fairview, and continued his professional relations with 
him until 1860. For three years following he practiced 

medicine on Staten Island, and in 1863 was appointed 
deputy health ofiicer of the port of New York, which 
position he creditably filled until 1867, and then settled 
in Hackensack, where he has since remained in the con- 
tinuous discharge of his professional duties. 

Dr. Burdett is a devoted, judicious, and skillful i>hysi- 
cian, and has the confidence of a large community in the 
surrounding townships to which his ride extends. As a 
citizen he is interested in all that pertains to the welfare 
of the people and to the prosperity of the place where he 
resides. During his thirty years of professional labor 
he has not been an idle student, but kept well read in 
the most successful treatment of disease extant, and be- 
sides has given time and study during leisure hours from 
professional duty to the subject of theology. In 1856, 
Dr. Burdett was licensed to preach in the Methodist 
Episcopal Church ; in 1860 he was ordained deacon, and 
in 1872 he was ordained elder. He is one of the founders 
of the District Medical Society of the County of Bergen, 
has served it as secretary for two years, was its presiding 
otBcer, and has represented the district society in the 
State Medical Society of New Jersey. Dr. Burdett has 
been a member of Pioneer Lodge, No. 70, Hackensack, 
since 1867, and is a member of Crescent Chapter, No. 
220, R. A. M., of New York City. 

His first wife, whom he married in 1854, was Rachel, 
youngest daugh'.er of Henry Burdett and Rachel Scott, 
of Fort Lee, who died in 1870, leaving children, — Sarah 
Louisa, wife of William B. Lomas, of New York, and 
Estelle. His present wife, to whom he was united in 
marriage in 1871, is Mary J., daughter of James and 
Mary L. Curran, of New York, who has borne him the 
following children : Edward Ames, Cora Mary, Charles 
Hasbrouck, Florence Mabel, and Emily. 

^■^BKja^\jj^\j^)AXAnA^ J^ . 



tensive practice, to which he devoted himself with 
great assiduity. For ten years he was tlie recognized 
medical attendant in one tliousand families, occupy- 





ing a medical field ot twenty-five square miles in 

Always answering to the call of duty, an immense 
amount of professional labor and responsibility de- 
volved upon him during these years. Finding it de- 
sirable to curtail his professional work, he purchased 
a plot of ground at Tenafly, on the Northern New 
Jersey Railroad, built a fine residence upon it, to 
which he removed, and where he has since resided, 
continuing to the present time actively engaged in 
professional work. 

J. M. S1MP.SON, M.D. — George Simpson, the great- 
grandfather of the subject of this biographical sketch, 
was born in Yorkshire, England, and during the year 
1831 emigrated to Canada, having settled in James- 
town, in the province of Quebec. He married before 
his emigration Miss Mary Foster, of Yorkshire, Eng- 
land, and had children, — George F., Jane, Nancy 
(Mrs. William Steele), Mary (Mrs. David Town), 
Georgianna (Mrs. Robert Smith). Mary, now Mrs. 
David Town, married in early life Mr. Julius Man- 
ning, who died leaving one son, Julius Manning. 
This lad, who is the subject of this biography, on the 
death of his father was adopted by his grandfather, 
George Simjison, of Jamestown, whose name he as- 

Julius was born in Jamestown, Feb. 22, 1839, and 
spent his life until the age of twelve in the province 

of Quebec, Canada. During the year 1851 circum- 
stances occasioned his removal to Fort Edward, Wash- 
ington Co., N. Y., where the residence of his uncle, 
George F. Simpson, became his home. Here he en- 
gaged for a while in agricultural pursuits, and later 
in the occupation of a teacher. After a preparatory 
course of study at the Fort Edward Institute, he de- 
cided upon medicine as a profession most congenial to 
his tastes, and began the study of this science with 
the late James D. Norton, M.D., of Fort Edward. 
Having removed to Saddle River, N. J., in 1863, he 
continued his studies with Dr. S. J. Zabriskie, of that 
place, and graduated at the Bellevue Hospital Medi- 
cal College in March, ISiiti. The same year he came 


to Schraalenburgh, and became associated with Dr. 
J. J. Haring in practice, which association continued 
for a period of two years. 

Dr. Simpson was. May 24, 1874, united in marriage 
to Miss Kate A., eldest daughter of Mr. James H. 
Grovesteen, of New York City, to whom three chil- 
dren were born, — Mamie A., who died in childhood ; 
Hattie, aged eight years ; and Willie, who is three 
years of age. 

Tlie doctor is a member of the Bergen County Med- 
ical Society, and has been honored with the oflices of 
both vice-president and president of the association. 
His political views are in harmony with the platform 
of the Republican party, though the demands of a 
growing and successful practice preclude official as- 
pirations, even were they in consonance with his 



tastes. Dr. Simpson is a consistent member of the 
Reformed (Dutch) Church of Schraalenburgh, and 
one of its most earnest supporters. 

Dr. Hardy M. Baxks. — The ancestors of Dr. 
Banks were of i)ure English descent. His paternal 
grandfatlier, Bciijaniin Banks, was a colonist from 
England, and took up a settlement in North Carolina 
at an early day. Tlic wife of Benjamin Banks was 
Martha Murfree, a si-ster of Col. Hardy Murfree, of 
Revolutionary fame. Col. Murfree held the rank of 
major in the patriot army at the storming of Stony 
Point. He had command of two companies of North 
Carolina troops, and was the second member of the 
assaulting party to enter the fortifications of the 

Hardy M. Banks, son of Benjamin and Martha 
(Murfree ) Banks, was born in North Carolina on Dec. 
18, 1789. He married on Sept. Ifi, ISIU, Martha 
Sketchley, a representative of an English family that 
settled in North Carolina at the opening of the present 
century. She was born on Jan. 11, 1795. Hardy M. 
Banks resided during his life at Murfreesboro', N. C, 
where he was a planter. He belonged to the old type 
of Southern agriculturists, was of an and happy 
frame of mind, and enjoyed with a relish the sports 
of the field and brook. He was jjarticularly fond of 
a good horse, and owned many fine specimens of 
horse-flesh in his day. In the community in which 
he lived he occupied a prominent and iiilhiential 
place. He died in 1841. 

Dr. Banks was the youngest of the five children of 
Hardy M. and Martha (Sketchley) Banks, and was 
born on Aug. 9, 1830, at Murfreesboro', N. C. The 
earlier years of his life were ])assed at home, and he 
obtained a thorough English eriucation at the Mur- 
freesboro' .Vcadcmy, and at Buckhorn Academy, a 
famous .school seven miles distant. In 184li he com- 
menced the study of medicine with Dr. James B. 
Gilbert, of Savannah, Ga., with whom he remained 
a year and a half He then entered the office of Dr. 
John F. (iray, a leading homo'opathic physician of 
New York City, and also iittcndcd lectures at tlie 
Me<lical l)ei>artment id' the University of the City of 
New York, from which institution he was grailuated 
in 1849. Not l)eing of age at the time of his gradu- 
ation. Dr. Banks went to Paris in December, 1849, and 
for nearly two years attended the lectures of the 
" Faculty r)f Mc<licine," 8U|iplemcnting his studies 
under private instructors in the liospilal wards and 
at the " Hotel DIeu." While in Paris Dr. Banks was 
particularly fortunate in being able to attend the lec- 
tures of that famous writer on medical therapeutics, 
Dr. Trous-sean ; and although the latter was a pro- 
feswed believer in the palliative treatment of allopathy. 
Dr. HaTiks rlcrivcMl from his lecture's, and from his at- 
tacks on what he called the treatment of disease on 
the "substituted plan," a very decided impression 
that the learned authority was practically a believer 
in that plati, and really a homu-opathist at heart. 

This seemed particularly clear to his mind upon a 
study of the "cases" that Dr. Trousseau used as in- 
stances of cures in his lectures, in which it appeared 
to him that the great majority of the latter had been 
etl'ectcd by substituting a well-defined medicinal dis- for a morbid condition of the system. 

Returning to Now York in 18.'>2, Dr. Banks received 
his dii)loma from the University of the City of New 
York, and at once entered upon the practice of his 
profession in that city. He soon as.sociated him.self 
with Dr. A. D. AVilson, a leading honueopath of New- 
York, with whom he remained until l.^iilO. In the 
summer of that year he located at Englewood, Ber- 
gen Co., N. J., where he hjis continued in uninter- 
rupted and succe.ssful practice since. While engaged 
in practice in New York Dr. Banks paid particular 
attention to surgery, for which, being a skillful anat' 
mist, he had a special taste, and as the head o) 
private clinic of homceopathic physicians perforr 
most of the capital operations for years. His ski' 
the general practice of his profession is best att 
by the large practice that he has enjoyed for a -■ ^ 
of years among the best fatnilies of Englewood un' 
vicinity. He is recognized jis one of the pioneers ii. 
the settlement of the village, and has always been 
identified with the progressive and elevating move- 
ments that have been undertaken in that community. 
Personally he is very popular, and has exerted a wide 
influence in local politics for many years. As presi- 
dent of the Protection Society of the village for five 
years, he held the oflice of justice of the peace. 

Dr. Banks wiu* married .lune 1, ISlil, to Harriet B., 
daughter of Joshua and Cornelia (Wilson) (tilberl, 
of Jersey City. The children are Virginia, Hardy 
Murfree, and Harriet Sketchley. 


Tin: i'Ki:s.< ok nKiuiE.\ coi ntv. 

The Bergen County Democrat.— Previous to isr.o 
several alliMipl> had hiiii made to establish a news- 
paper in Hackensack, but all of them proved abor- 
tive from various causes, chief of which, it seems to 
the writer, may be attributed to the lack of persistent 
cfl^irt, coupled with that umlivided attention to the 
details of a country newspaper which is absolutely 
nece-ssary to success. There was not lacking a field 
in Bergen County for succe.ssful journalism at the 

1 period of which we write. Prominent business men 
evinced their readiness to support a non-partisan 
newspajier, and their |)atronage was freely bestoweil 
on the liiri/in ('oiinti/ Jnuniul. Nevertheless, after 
futile attempts to keep it alive, it went down in IStJl. 
The./'<»r;i'i/was a stock concern, owned by Democrats 
and Republicans in about etpial proportion, .\fter 

1 the closing up of the establishment, C. C. Burr was 

'Lnrctoj t/l/^(/^^iA^ 


The !Neer familv arc of German extraction, and were | 
first represented in America by Carl Xeer, a former 
resident of Baden, on the Ithine. Soon after his arrival 
he enlisted in the iiriny of the Revolution, and received i 
the commission as orderly sergeant in the famous Black 
Plumed HiUcuuii, where he served with credit, and , 
attained distinction as an expert marksman. 

At the close of the conflict he settled in the town- 
ship of Summit, Schoharie Co., N. Y., and having j 
married a Miss Hydlie, had children, — John, Charles, ! 
Samuel, George, Philip, Elizabeth, Catherine, Lana, i 
and Hannah. Mr. Neer engaged iu agricultural pur- I 
suits on his retirement to civil life, and spent the re- i 
mainder of his days in Schoharie County. His son 
Samuel was born on the homestead June G, 1V90, where 
his life was spent. He was united in marriage to Miss 
Lucinda, daughter of John Morrison, of Livingston 
Manor, on the Hudson, to whom were born twelve chil- 
dren, — David, Charles F., Josephus, Cyrus, John, Henry 
C , Catherine, Sarah, Mary B., Delana, Jane Ann, and i 
Louisa, of whom ten survive. 

Henry C, the youngest of this number and the sub- 
ject of this biographical sketch, was born at Summit, 
the paternal home, Nov. 10, 1838, where the years of 
his boyhood were spent. The public school atforded 
him early though limited advantages of education, and 
his later studies were pursued at the New York Con- 
ference Seminary, at Charlotteville, N. Y. 

At the early age of fifteen he began a career of inde- 

pendence which may be regarded as the precursor of 
future success. Some time was spent in teaching, and 
the profession of medicine having been decided upon, 
he, in 1856, entered the office of his brother David, 
where four years were devoted to study. He then re- 
paired to the medical college at Castleton, Vt., and 
on the 20th of November, 1860, received his diploma 
from the Berkshire Medical Institute, of Pittsfield, 

Dr. Neer soon after chose his native village as a favor- 
able point for the practice of his profession, where he 
remained for five years. 

In 1865 he removed to Pascaok, his present residence, 
where fidelity to the interests of his patients, together 
with a profound knowledge of his profession, readily 
secured for him an extended practice, which is steadilj' 
increasing. Dr. Neer is a member of the Bergen 
County Medical Society, and an honorary member of 
the liockland County Medical Society. He has filled 
the office of president of the former organization. In 
politics the doctor is a Democrat, though not an aspirant 
for official distinction. In religion he espouses the 
creed of the Reformed (Dutch) Church, both himself and 
wife being members of the Pascack Church. Dr. Neer 
was, June 16, 1861, united in marriage to Miss Louisa, 
daughter of Cornelius Terpenning, of Summit, N. Y. 
They have had nine children, — Avis, Sarah E., Corne- 
lius (deceased), Parepa Rosa, Charles S., Josephine 
(deceased), Mary L., Henry Otis, and Axena. 




invited by prominent Democrats of the county to 
publish a Democratic newspaper at Hackensack upon 
its ruins. Accordingly Mr. Burr assumed the t.isk and 
projected tlie Bi:rgeii Cniiiitij Democrat mid Rochhind 
Cuuiifij Journal in the latter part of the summer of 
1861, the paper being entirely printed in New York. 
Knowing nothing of the important details in the 
publication of a newspaper, however, in a few weeks 
Mr. Burr became involved in difliculties which threat- 
ened the continued existence of the paper. At this 
juncture Mr. Eben Winton, who had but recently 
severed bis connection with a newspaper in Warren 
County, was induced to visit Hackensack upon the 
representation of the late Mr. Jacob Vanatta, that the 
county of Bergen was a good missionary fielil for a 
Democratic organ. Neither were aware at that time 
that Mr. Burr had entered upon the field. The result 
was that Mr. Winton purchased the material of the old 
Journal, made a business connection with Mr. Burr, 
under the name of Burr & Winton, and in October 
of that year the title of Mr. Burr's venture was 
changed, and the first number of the Bergen County 
Democrat and Neu' Jersei/ State liegister was issued 
from the old office of the Juurnal, having been entirely 
printed at home. The concern, however, was finan- 
cially top-heavy, and the result was the partnership 
terminated in March, 1862, and Mr. Winton assumed 
the entire control of the Democrat. Its success was 
almost immediately assured. Its circulation and gen- 
eral business increased from year to year, when, from 
ill health and other causes, Mr. Winton transferred 
his entire interest in the establishment to his son, 
Henry D. Winton, in 1870. Since then the Democrat 
has been doubled from its original size of six columns, 
and with a rapidly-growing constituency it has con- 
tinued to keep pace with the advancing interests of 
the county of Bergen. From the time of its start to 
the present the people of Rockland County, which 
adjoins Bergen County, have given it a liberal sup- 
port, and at present it leads all papers published in 
Bergen or Rockland Counties in point of circulation. 

Henry D. Winton, the subject of this sketch, 
the editor and proprietor of The Bergen County Dem- 
ocrat, published at Hackensack, is descended from a 
family of journalists, representing in himself the 
third generation of his family who have engaged 
actively in journalistic labor and duties. 

He was born Feb. 14, 1848, and in 1863, at the 
early age of fifteen years, he entered the office of the 
Democrat, where by assiduous attention to his duties 
he became a practical, thorough printer. In 1870, a 
young man of twenty-two, he became jiroprietor, and 
assumed control of the journal, which under his judi- 
cious management has steadily grown in influence, 
and as steadily has its circulation been increased and 
extended, ranking it among the most readable, pop- 
ular, and influential weekly journals of the State. 
An independent writer, interested in every work cal- 
culated to promote and enhance the real interests of 

his section, he is, though yet young in years, one of 
Old Bergen's most influential citizens. His ambition 
has ever been to increase the usefulness of his journal, 
over which he presides so ably, and not to secure 
political place or preferment, ever refusing, though 
often urged, to accept office in the county or State ; 
the only exception being in 1880, when he repre- 
sented his congressional district as a delegate in the 
Democratic National Convention at Cincinnati. 

By perseverance and close application to his pro- 
fession ho has made for himself an honorable name 
in the community, and his prominence and popular- 
ity justly entitle him to a place in our biographical 

He was married in 1870 to Miss Annie Lozier, 
daughter of George Lozier, Esq., of Schraalenburgh, 
Bergen Co., and to them have been born four chil- 

The Hackensack Republican.— In 1872 an asso- 
ciation was formed for the jiurpose of establishing a 
Republican newspaper in Bergen County. The plan 
of the association contemplated the purchase of an 
existing pa]ier at Hackensack, called Tlie Watclitnan, 
which had been founded by Mr. L. D. Hay, and which 
for several years had maintained a rather feeble and 
precarious existence. Still, it was deemed advisable, 
in order to found such a paper as the Republicans 
desired to represent and advance the interests of 
their party in this section of the State, that the good 
will and i)roperty of T/ie Wnlc/inian should be secured 
and thus a fair field opened for the new enterprise. I'lie 
Watchman was accordingly purchased. The new pa- 
per was issued in September, 1870, under the name of 
The Xeir Jerxei/ Republican. Arnold B. Johnson, chief 
clerk of the Light-house Board, was secured as its 
editor. Mr. Johnson continued to edit the paper till 
the spring of 1874, when he retired from its manage- 
ment and resumed the duties of his former office. 
The association then employed Mr. Hugh M. Her- 
rick, now of the Paterson Guardian, with the' under- 
standing that he should edit the paper until an 
opportunity occurred to transfer it to other parties, 
when he was authorized to dispose of it for the asso- 
ciation. This was effected in the spring of 1875, 
when Messrs. W. H. Bleecker and T. H. Rhodes 
became the ostensible heads of the establishment, 
and Mr. Herrick returned to the Paterson Guardian, 
of which he has since remained one of the editors. 
Mr. Rhodes soon retired from the Republican, and 
Mr. Bleecker conducted it alone until March 14, 1878. 
At the last-menlioned date Mr. Thomas B. Chrystal 
purchased the interest of the establishment, and has 
since continued to be its editor and proprietor. On 
Aug. 12, 1878, he changed the name of the paper to 
TJte Hdckenmck Republican, the name which it still 
bears. The Republican is a good local newspaper ; 
thirty-two columns, twenty-six by forty ; Republican 
in politics, as its name implies, and is issued weekly 
on every Thursday. 



Thomas B. Chrystal. — His grandfather, Bernard 
Chrystal, was a native of New York City, and was 
prominently identified tiiere as an officer of the State 
militia, and died about 1838, leaving four children, — 
John, Jane, Thomas, and Rohert. The mother of 
these childreir died soon after her liusband. 

John, son of Bernard Chrystal, was born in New 
York City in 1819. At the age of twelve, soon after 
the death of his father, being thrown upon his own 
resources for his support, he went to sea, and by his 
earnings not only supported himself, but contributed 
largely to the support of the other children. By his 
integrity and ai)tness for the duties on board a vessel 
he rapidly won his way to the highest official place, 
until for several years before he left the sea lie was 
captain of a vessel and a popular mariner, whose many 
successful voyages to the East Indies and China made 
his name a proverb among shipping merchants. 

At the age of twenty-nine he married Catherine 
Bogardus, whose mother was Martha Cromwell, a lin- 
eal descendant of ( )liver Cromwell, the Protector, who 
bore him children; — Martha J., Thoma.-; B., John O., 
and Margaret. After the death of his wife he mar- 
ried her sister, Elizabeth F. Bogardus, by whom he 
had the following children : Joseph H.. Catherine, 
William H., and Annie E. 

After his first marriage Mr. Chrystal settled in 
Brooklyn, N. Y., and began the manufacture of sails 
for ships in New York City. This business of sail - 
making he continued there successfully as long iis he 
lived. In 1857 he removed to New Rochelle, N. Y., 
and in 1807 to Maywood, Bergen Co., N. J., where he 
resided until his death in May, 1877. 

Thomas B., son of John Chrystal, was horn in 
Brooklyn, Sept. 18, 1852, and from nine to fifteen 
years of age was a student at Belts' Military .\i-ademy, 
at Stamford, Conn. For five years following he was 
a clerk in the store of Colgate & Co., New York City, 
and from 1872 to 1877 he was the traveling salesman 
for Ernest Thoraa, a jeweler in the same city. 

The sudden demise of his father necessitated the 
withdrawal of Mr. Chrystal from active commercial 
vocations, his time being occujiied with business mat- 
ters connected with the estate; and the following 
year, March 14, 1878, he purchased The New Jertey 
RcjiuhlUan, a weekly newspaper, published at Hack- 
ensack, then having a quite limiteil circulation, and 
the following fall rhaMgcd its name to The llnrkensuck 
Hi/iii/i/irtin. This paper he h:Ls since conducted, 
has largely increased its I'ircuhilion, and through it 
wielded a salutary influence throughout the Repub- 
lican party of the county, at all times giving due def- 
erence to the opinions of his opponents representing 
other political factiims. 

Mr. Chrystal is ayoung man of great perseverance, 
and although he hiLs only been connected with the 
newspaper business for a few years, he has rapidly 
risen in favor with tlio editorial fraternity and the 
reading public a.s the sole proprietor of The Hark- 

ensaci Republican, one of the best-known journals 
published in the State. 

Mr. Chrystal was married Oct. 22, 1870, to Kate 
M., daughter of Capt. S. Lozier, of Hackensack, by 
whom he has one sun. 

The Berg's!! l!idex was established at Hackensack, 
as a weekly pai>er, Feb. 27, 1875. by William N. Clapp, 
who conducted it till May 23, 1877. His brother, Mr. 
S. E. Clapp, then assumed the publication and editor- 
ship, and continued it as a weekly paper till Nov. 12, 
1878, when he changed it to a semi-weekly. The 
size of the paper is twenty-two by thirty, twenty-four 
columns; it is independent, and devoted to local 

The Englewood Ti!nes was started by its present 
proprietor, Mr. Eben Winton, in March, 1874. It 
was the intention of its founder to make it a strictly local newspaper, without partisan bias or 
affiliation. This idea liiLs been system.-ilically carried 
out. Although the field of its operations was very 
limited, and consequently not very promising, the 
Timeg soon became a general favorite among all 
classes in the community. In view of the fact that 
Mr. Winton is an old and experienced journalist, it 
has been no difficult matter to suceessfuily maintain 
that position. Indeed, the measure of its future ])ros- 
perity is oidy limited by the growth of the population 
of Englewood and its vicinity. 

The Berget! Coui!ty Herald' was first issued in 
1871, iiijilcr the :iii-.|iic('> :iiiil management of Mr. 
Henry (ierecke, of Carlstadt, and mainly devote<l to 
the interests of the various " land societies," vereins, 
and organizations of a similar character in the town- 
ship and vicinity. The publication remained under 
his control until 1873, when it jiassed into the hands 
of a company consisting of Hon. Charles H. Voohris, 
Henry Kip, .lohn Bartholph. and .lacob P. Wester- 
velt. With this change its columns were devoted 
principally to the interests of the Republican party. 
In .\pril, 1875, it was purcha.sed by Messrs. Haywood 
and liookstaver. The latter gentleman wiis also asso- 
ciated with the Xcw York Trihunr, and his laborious 
duties in connection with the latter publication com- 
pelled his withdrawal from the firm in 187(i, since 
which time Mr. Haywood has been sole owner. The 
HeriiM is conducted upon the ba.sisof an independent 
journal with a decided Democratic bias. Under the 
present numagemeiit it has met with lair success, and 
as a family paper is deservedly popular. 

CIl A I'TKK X X \' i I. 


In 1837 the Legislature of New Jersey passetl an 
act appropriating the surplus revenue of the general 
government for school purposes in the several coun- 

< t'liion liiwiiMtilp. 



ties of the State, placing the several amounts appor- 
tioned to the counties under the management of the 
respective boards of chosen freeholders. Upon the 
passage of the law the collector of Bergen County re- 
ceived from the State treasurer the followijig notifi- 
cation : 

"New Jersey Treasury Office, 
"Trenton, March 20, 1837. 
" Andrew P. Hopper, Esy., Collector of the County of Bergeo : 

*'SiR, — By Hn act of the Logishiture of the State of New Jersey, enti- 
tled 'An Act making provision for the ileposit and distribution of so 
much of the surplus revenue of the United States as now is or may here- 
after be apportioned and received by this State,' it is made my duty aa 
treasurer of the State to notify the collectors of the several counties of 
thie State of the sums apportioned to each county respectively. In com- 
pliance with f>aid act, I hereby notify you that the sum apportioned to 
the county uf Bergen is $16,566.88. I alsff send herewith a form of the 
pledge of the county, to be signed by the director of the Board of Chosen 
Freeholders, provided they elect to receive the same. 

''Jacob Kline, Treasnrcr." 

Andrew P. Hopper was appointed by the board to 
" fill out the pledge and transmit the same to the Gov- 
ernor, treasurer, and Speaker of tii£ House of Assem- 
bly Avithout delay." At the adjourned meeting on 
the 19th of May, 1837, a committee appointed to 
draft resolutions concerning the surplus revenue 
fund, consisting of Messrs. Gregory, Sip, and Kipp, 
reported the following : 

" Resolved, That tlie surplus money now received be loaned out by the 
whole board. 

" Ee^olved^ Thai the offer of loaning the same be made first to the in- 
)iabitauts of the several townships in proportion to their quota of State 
tax, provided that application be made for the same according to the 
terms and time required by tlie board. 

*' Resflveil. Tliat no incorporated company shall receive any loan in 
their corporate capacity without security upon real estate to tlie amount 
specified below. 

" Hesolved, That all loaning be made on bond and mortgage, and the 
real estate proposed to be mortgaged be worth at least double the amount 
to be loaned. 

'•That certificates from at least three respectable freeholders residing 
in the neighborhood of the property offered for security, having no in- 
terest therein, giving their opinion of the value thereof, and also a certi- 
ficate from the county clerk certifying that there are no prior judg- 
ments or mortgages, to be delivered by the applicant. 

"That the expense of recording the mortgages for the money loaned 
by the board, and fur every necessary search, be paid by the person to 
whom tlie loan is to be made. 

" That the amount to be loaned be in sums of not less than $500, nor 
above S iOOO. 

"That the loans shall be made at lawful interest, payable on the let 
of May in each year, and for no lunger jieriod than one year." 

Due notice was given throughout the county by the 
posting of hand-bills that on Friday, the 26th day of 
May, the board would be ready to meet applicants 
who should come properly prepared to make loans. 

A rejiort made to the board on the 2d day of May, 
1S38, showed that the sum of $41,182.14, surplus rev- 
enue, had been received from the State treasurer, 
and that the same had been loaned out in various 
sums through the county. The interest on this money 
has been collected annually on the 1st of May and 
devoted to the support of public schools. 

Upon the division of the county the following 
adjustment was made of the surplus revenue : 

"Statement made in pursuance of the 24tli section of the act to create 
the county of Hudson, passed Feb. 22, 1840. Division of surplus revenue 
between the counties of Bergen and Hudson. The quota of said revenue 
to the county of Bergen was made on the State tax of 183G. The aniouat 
of said quota is $41,147.82. It is presumed that the division is to be 
niadf oil till' amount of State and county tax for 1836. 

" The following exhibits the tax for 1836 in Bergen County for State 
and county purposes: 


Bergen, inchiding Jersey City 8G64.75 S1047.44 ?1712.16 

Lodi 2.V2.40 658.65 911.05 

Saddle River 324.34 875.57 1199.91 

Hackensack 267.90 830.65 1098.55 

Harrington 346.12 1127.44 1473.56 

Franklin 292.57 874.18 1166.75 

New Barbndoes 201.82 457.80 659.62 

Pompton 142.84 381.54 524.68 

West Mitford 147.35 376.43 523.78 

82640.06 S6630.0O 

;7( .06 

"Before the division of the sni-plus revenue took place a part of the 
county of Bt-rgen was annexed to the county of Passaic, and the follow- 
ing sums are to be deducted therefor: 


West Milford $147.35 $:J76.4:i S525.78 

Pompton 142.84 381.84 524.68 

Saddle River (part) 200.00 540.00 740.00 

S490.19 $1298-27 $1788.46 

Leaving Bergen County, 1836 $2149.87 $5331.73 S74S1.60 

"On the sum of S2149.87 of State tax the county of Bergen received 
of surplus revenue the sum of ^1,147.82, and this sum is to be divided 
on $7481.60 of State and county tax for 1836 between Bergen and Hud- 
sou Counties. 

"The county of Hudson is ereqted entirely from Bergen County, 
taking therefrom the whole of the townships of Bergen and Jersey City, 
and a part of Lodi under the name of Harrison. Jereey City was made 
a separate township in 1838, and taken entirely from the township of 
Bergen. To ascertain the tax of 1836 paid in Harrison for 1836 it has 
been assumed that the ratio ought to be 35^^^ for Harrison is to 25 for 
Lodi, making the division 60f^'^B. 

"The tax of 1836 (State and county) paid by the township 

of Bergen was $1712.16 

"Same by the township of Lodi 911.05 

Total $2623.21 

" Deduct for that portion of Lodi remaining in the county 

uf Bergen (25 in 60.75) 375.00 

"Which leaves as the proportion of State and county tax 
for 1830 paid in the new county of Hudson 2248.21 

"Then as Bergen County divided on $7482 of surplus revenue 
$41,148, what is the proportion to the county of Hudson 
on $2248? Answer 12,303.00 

" From which is to be deducted the amount of said revenue 
paid over by the county of Bergen to Jersey City in pur- 
suance of the 13th section of the act to incorporate Jereey 
City, passed Feb. 22, 1838, divided on the basis of State 
and county tax of 1838, being of principal ;3556.47 

" Leaves an amount of principal to be set over by the chosen 
freeholders of Bergen County to the treasurer of the 
State for the county of Hudson 8806.53 

"The mt creating the county of Hudson contemplates the payment 
also of the quota of interest due thereon, after deducting all expense 
accruing against it. As the money has been loaned out on interest pay- 
able on the Ifit of May, yearly, it has been deemed proper to make com- 
putation to the 1st of May, 1840. 

" It appears that there is a balance of interest in arrears 
due May 1, 1839, of. $886.01 

" Add one year's interest on $37,591.33, on loan by the county 
of Bergen {having deducted the Jersey City quota of 
S:i556.47 from the amount originally accrued of $41,147.82).. 2255.50 

" Total interest due 1st May, 1840 3041.51 

"The expenses to be charged against the interest is found 

to be 298.44 

A fraction less thau one per cent. 

"Leaving off interest to be divided, $2843.07; the propor- 
tion thereof to be paid over to the county of Hudson be- 
ing then $37,591, producing $2843 (the proportion on 
$8806), is $066.00. 




■Principal due Hndaon Oonntjr iUj 1, 1840 8806.63 

■iDterett " " '■ " " «C«00 

' From wliich is to be deducted llie expense attending the 
transfer thereof to treiuurer, which is 


" It is proixT to note in this place that Jereey City, hiivinK receivwi its 
- ^uota of princii>ai, and collected tlio interest for itself, the income of the 
amount of principal to l»e in hands of the clioeen freeholders of Hudson 
County is to be divided to the townshipt of Bergen and Harrison ex- 
" Approved by the Board of Chosen Freeholders, May 6, 1840. 

".\LIIKIIT G. DoRKMfS, i>ir<fWor. 

■' D. D. DEMARr.ST, Clerk." 

Tlie first apportionment of the school fund of the 
State was made to Bergen County by the trustees in 
IS.Sl.'and consisted of $1299.02. Renjaniin Ziibris- 
kie and Cornelius Van Winkle were ai)pointed a 
committee of tlie board of cho.sen freeholders to ap- 
portion the amount among the several townships. 
They apportioned it as follows : 

Bergen $214.50 

Lodi 10(1.38 

Saddle River 1B«.19 

NewBarbadoes 9410 

Hackcnsack 8142.04 

Hjirrington 226.^.1 

Franklin l«l.i.'> 

Poniplon 163.6.5 

The same amount was apportioned in 1832, in the 
same manner, by Garret Ackerson and Abel I. Smith, 
committee, and continued the same each until 1837. 

In 1837 the school fund for the county was $1615.50, 
apportioned among the townships as follows: 

Bergen .J124 12 Harrington *)38.10 

Jersey City 250.13 Franklin 261.74 

Hackensack 25n.l8 New Barbadoee 142,28 

Lodi - 178.24 Saddle River 73.51 

After the division of the county in 1840 the amount 
apportioned from the .school fund wa.s .*1000..")0, di- 
vided among the townships as follows, and so remained 
until the new school api>ropriation was made: 

New Ilarliadoca 8138.09 

Lodi 60.45 

Saddle River „ 52.41 

Hackensack 234.09 

Kmnklin 8216.02 

Wiiahiligton 174.09 

Harrington 118.75 

Lodi _ 8164.40 

Hackensack 174.50 

Franklin 190..')n 

Saddle River wi.OB 

The interest on the surplus revenue began to be 
available for school purposes May I, 1838. The sum 
of .^14110 had then accrued, an<l was divided among 
the townshiim as follows : 

Harrington..... 8225.36 

.New Barbadoee .' 131.40 

llergen 298.70 

Jersey City 131.12 

At this date a balance of interest waa due on the 
fund loaned out of $728.45. 

In 1839 the interest on the fund amounted to 
$2655.38. In 1840 the interest was $;ill2.(i5. 

CM .\ I'TKK X X V I II. 



The Bergen County Bible Society.— At a meeting 
held in the Reformed Dutch Church of Hackensack, 

< t'nder art |>aM«d Feb. 16, 18.31. 

June 16, 1847, for the purpose of considering the 

practicability of forming a Bible Society for the county 
of Bergen, Rev. H. II. Warren was called to tlie chair, 
and Cornelius Blauvclt wili chosen secretary. The 
meeting adjourned to the first day of July, at which 
date an organization was ettected and the following 
officers chosen : Rev. W. Kiting, D.D., president ; 
Revs. Barnabas V. Collins and John Mauley, vice- 
presidents; Christian De Baun, secretary ; and A. O. 
Zabriskie, treasurer. Executive Committee, Rev. A. 
H. Warner, Henry H. Banta, Peter Westervelt, Jr., 
Jacob Van Buskirk, Andrew H. Ilojiper, Edward B. 
Force, Robert Rennie. 

The society has been from its organization an 
effective au.xiliary of the .\merican Bible Society, and 
has worked in co-operation with the parent in.stitution. 
The custom has prevailed of having occasional ser- 
mons preached at the annual meetings, frequent 
meetings of the executive committee to devise and 
carry out plans of work, and agents or colporteurs to 
thoroughly canvass every portion of the territory. 
These, with encouraging reports rendered from time 
to time, and often published in the newspapers of the 
county, have kept alive an active interest in the cause 
and dirtused it widely among all Christian deuomina- 
tions. It has been an anti-sectarian organization, and 
one devoted i)urely to the disseminatifin of the sacred 

The first anniversary of the society was held at tlie 
North Dutch Church in Schraalenburgh, March 14, 
1848. Dr. Elting was re-elected president, and Chris- 
tian -De Baun, secretary. .Vgents were ap|>ointed to 
canvass the different townships, and Bibles were 
obtained from the parent society. The colporteurs 
reported the first year 1859 famili&s visited, $;^ti(i.75 
worth of books sold, $20.00 worth gratuitously ilis- 
tributed, $102,36 collected from contributions, 73 
destitute families supplied, and $392,75 |)aid for 
Bibles and Testaments, 

At the secoinl anniversary, held in Hackensack, 
Feb, H, 1849, Rev, John M, Me.Vuley |>reached the 
occasional sermon. Rev. S. Irn-nus Prime, one of 
the secretaries of the American Bible Society, ivius 
present and delivered an able address. Rev. Dr, 
Elting was re-elected (iresident, and Cliristian I)e 
Baun, secretary. The meeting was largely attended, 
and the exercises unusually interesting. We cannot 
follow through all the minutes of proceedings in de- 
tail, and shall only attempt to give such items as 
will illustrate the workings of the society at several 
interesting periods of its history, and a few extracts 
from its reports. 

The sixteenth anniversary of the society was held 
in the Reformed Dutch Church at Raniapo, on Tues- 
day, Oct, 21, 1861, The president. Rev, William 
Demarcst, occupied the chair, and the opening prayer 
wim offered by Rev, J, T. Deinarest, 1),D, Reports 
were presentcii and read from the executive com- 
mittee, the treasurer, and the depositary. 



Rev. Dr. W. J. R. Taylor, one of the secretaries of 
the American Bible Society, was present, and made 
an interwting address, embodying the general facts 
respecting the working of the parent society, going 
to show tlie prodigious amount of work done by that 
institution and the large and pressing claims upon it. 
The thanks of the society were voted to Dr. Taylor 
for "his presence and his very interesting and ac- 
ceptable address." 

Rev. Dr. George Sheldon, State agent for the Ameri- 
can Bible Society, spoke of the work in the State, and 
particularly of tlie Bibles prepared especially for dis- 
tribution among the New Jersey soldiers in the field. 

This Bible, a copy of which was shown by Dr. 
Sheldon, is of a style and binding superior to that 
of the Bibles with which the soldiers of other States 
are supplied. At the conclusion of Dr. Sheldon's 
remarks the following resolution was adopted : 

*' Remlvetl, That this society has heard with mucli interest t lie state- 
meuts of Eev. Dr. Sheldou with regard to the supply of New Jersey 
troops with copies of tiie New Testament, especially with regard to the 
supply of the troops from this couuty, and that the society pledges its 
support to the parent society in all the expenses incurred in behalf of 
the Bergen County volunteers." 

The following were chosen as the executive com- 
mittee for the ensuing year : Rev. W. R. Gordon, D.D., 
Rev. A. H. Warner, Rev. S. M. Stiles, Rev. A. B. 
Taylor, Paul R. Paulison, Peter R. Terhune, Wil- 
liam Williams. The treasurer and secretary are ex 
officio members of the committee. 

Officers of the society were chosen as follows : Pres- 
ident, Rev. Ephraim Deyoe ; Vice-Presidents, Rev. 
John T. Demarest, D.D., and Rev. William Dema- 
rest; Treasurer, Rev. John A. Parsons; Secretary, 
Rev. James Demarest, Jr. 

The treasurer reported $222.,38 in the treasury. 

In June, 1S6.3, the society was reported a-s well sus- 
tained, clergymen and a large number of leading citi- 
zens bearing a part in its affairs. The receipts during 
the fiscal year were §577.71. 

By a report made in June, 1865, it appears that 
7595 soldiers' New Testaments had been distributed 
to the volunteers from New Jersey during the war. 
Twenty-one county Bible Societies existed at that 
time in the State. These societies, during the year 
ending .\pril 1, 1865, contributed to the funds of the 
American Bible Society the sum of S23,010.41. The 
Bergen County Bible Society is reported this year "in 
a vigorous condition," and its receipts were S513.51. 

During the year 1867 the executive committee 
had the couuty canvassed, in order to ascertain the 
families, if any, destitute of the Scriptures. Nearly 
five hundred families were found without the Bible 
in their houses, and measures were taken accordingly 
to supply them. 

The twenty-first anniversary of the society was held 
at tlie Reformed Dutch Church in Paramus on the 
8th of October, 1867. 

The annual meetiug in 1868 was held at the Re- 

formed Church in Ramapo on the second Tuesday in 

The annual meeting for 1870 was held at the Pres- 
byterian Church in Englewood, beginning on Tues- 
day, October 11th. During the year the hotels in the 
county and the sailing-vessels on the Hackensack 
River were supplied with Bibles, at a cost of $217.91. 

In 1872 the annual meeting was held at the Re- 
formed Church in Ridgefield, beginning on the 8th of 
October, at half-past two o'clock. The house was well 
filled. On application, a grant was made of fifty 
Bibles for the use of the chajilain of the State prison 
at Trenton. The treasurer reported having received 
for the year $850.55. It was resolved to meet the 
next year at the Presbyterian Church in Rutherford 
Park. The officers chosen for the ensuing year were: 
President, Rev. Dr. Gordon ; Vice-Presidents, Rev. 
Mr. Craig and Rev. Mr. Johnson ; Secretary, Rev. 
T. B. Romeyn ; Treasurer, Mr. William Williams; 
Executive Committee, Rev. John Coyle, Dr. Burdett, 
David Brower, Paul Paulison, R. W. Farr, James 
Vanderbeck, David Bogert. 

The donations made to the society annually since 
1876 have been as follows ; 1877, 1464.57 ; 1878, S576.77 ; 
1879, .1*2575 ; 1880, $610.92. In 1879 the late Mrs. C. 
Fredericks, of Hackensack, made in her will a be- 
quest to the society of S2000. 

The society was incorporated under the general law 
of the State, Oct. 8, 1877. 

The following statement respecting the county dis- 
tribution and the proportion of each township is taken 
from the treasurer's report for 1880: 

ToTAi. .Amount of Cou.vty Distribution. 

Townships. Bibles. Tests. Vols. Value. 

New Barbadoes 80 66 l;i6 S17.90 

Union lot 4.50 

Midland 711 IS 97 26.90 

Lodi 7 II 18 9.10 

Englewood 70 19 89 33.88 

Harrington 4 17 'il 4.10 

Washington 6 6 12 1,80 

Franklin 20 (J 20 11-.50 

RidgeBeld 16 u 10 10.0.5 

Saddle River 51 52 26.20 

Hohokus 24 24 10.60 

Total 358 127 485 $186.63 

The present officers are : President, Rev. E. A. Bulk- 
ley, D.D., Rutherford ; Vice-Presidents, Rev. J. C. 
Van Deventer, Paramus ; Rev. J. G. Johnson, En- 
glewood ; Secretary, Rev. E. M. Garten ; Treasurer, 
Prof. William Williams, Hackensack ; Executive 
Committee, Rev. T. B. Romeyn, Hackensack; Judge 
H. H. Voorhis, Spring Valley ; Hon. J. A. Demarest, 
River Edge ; James Van Derbeck, Esq., Englewood ; 
Judge William E. Skinner, Hackensack; Hon. Isaac 
Wortendyke, Midland Park. 

Bergen County Sunday-School Association. — 
This organization was formed in 1867, and has been 
largely participated in by clergymen and Sunday- 
school workers throughout the county. To show the 
manner of conducting the meetings of the association, 
as well as its general object and spirit, we will take one 



of the reports, say thatof tbe annual meeting for 1872, j 
held in tiie Presbyterian Ciiurch at Englewood. 

Tlie inorniiigs&ssion wasopened at9.4o with a prayer 
service by the president, followed by Revs. H. M. 
Booth, J. Coyle, and Mr. Peters. The opening hymn 
of praise was then sung, and at its conclusion the 
county secretary, Mr. Williams, submitted his report. 

He alluded at length to the aims and objects of the 
association: "To engender more activity in pastors, 
superintendents, parents, and teachers in the Sunday- 
school work ; to arouse teachers to the absolute neces- 
sity of more earnest study of the great truths of the 
Bible, convincing them that our schools never can 
accomplish the great end for which they were designed 
until the teachers themselves are better qualified to 
impart the information that the children require. 
Therefore, we contend that to make the Sabbath- 
schools of our county successful we must have co-op- 
erative action ; we must come together in conference 
and instruct each other, trying to do good, and willing 
to communicate." He had visited thirty schoolsduring 
the past year, and was happy to announce that the de- 
sire for the information needed in Sunday-schools was 
earnestly sought for. He alluded to the want of uni- 
formity, and urged, with the greatest emphasis, the 
adoption of a Cougnian's series of lessons for the whole 
county. After pointing out other easily remedied 
errors and omissions, and giving profitable advice re- i 
specting them, Mr. Williams said he had received ; 
reports from seven of the township secretaries. These ! 
reports gave the statistics of 34 schools, leaving 2fl 
to be heard from, the whole number in the county 
beingC3. Thenumberof school officers, 115; teachers, 
408, of whom 323 were church-members ; number of 
scholars, 3019 (112of these church-members) ; number 
of hopeful conversions, .')2; volumes in the library, 
9380 ; copies of |)apers distributed, 27S7 ; amcmnt ex- 
pended for sustaining .schools, l?31."i.'i.lil> ; for benevo- 
lent purposes, $.3(i89.25, one school alone jiaying $l.")Oil 
of this amount. Teachers' meetings had been held in 
14 schools, and 27 had kept open during the whole 

Mr. Williams concluded his interesting report by 
exhorting the "to continue the noble work 
with greater energy, more al>iding faith, and a firmer 
resolve than ever." Special addresses were made on 
such subjects as the following : " Our Sunday-school 
Work, its Successes, its Probabilities, and its De- 
mands," by Rev. H. M. Booth; "The Earnest 
Teacher," by Amirew A. Smith, Tvs(|. ; "Co-operative 
Work in the," by W. II. Sutton, V,si\. ; 
" The iMiniily and the Sunday-school," by l")r. C. S. 
Kobinson ; " Christian Work by Laymen," by Rev. 
Dr., etc. One hour in the morning was devoted 
to " Illustrative Teaching," and an interesting feature 
in the afternoon was the opening of the "(Question 

Tile presidents of the ajwociation have been as fol- 
lows: William Williams, Esq., was elected first presi- 

dent. He remained in office two years. Judge Thomas 
Gumming Wius elected Sept. 13, 1870; Benson Van 
Vliet, Sept. 12, 1871, re-elected Nov. 7, 1872; Rev. J. 
A. Lippincott, Nov. 6, 1873; Rev. Henry Mattice, 
Nov. 5, 1874 ; William G. Vermilye, Oct! 15, 1875 ; 
Rev. Goyn Talmage, Oct. 3, 1876; Rev. J. W. Mar- 
shall, Nov. 1, 1877; Rev. D. Thomas MacClyraont, 
Nov. 7, 1878 ; Rev. H. M. Booth, D.D., Nov. (5, 1S79; 
Rev. Peter V. Van Huskirk, Nov. 4, 1880. 

Prof William Williams has been secretary of the 
association since its organization in 1867, and has 
been one of the most active workers in the cause. 

The county is divided into three districts, the first 
being that portion lying between the Hudson River 
and the Hackensack, comprising the townships of 
Ridgefield, Englewood, Palisade, and Harrington ; the 
second being that portion lying between Hackensack 
and Saddle Rivers, comprising the townships of I'nion, 
Lodi, New Barbadoes, Midland, and Washington; the 
third being the territory between Saddle River and 
the Pa.ssaic, comprising Saddle River, Ridgewood, 
Franklin, and Ilohokus townships. The vice-presi- 
dents of the association are ex officio presidents of their 
respective districts, one being elected for each an- 
nually, and they preside over their several district 
nieetiugs, one or more of which is held in each ilis- 
trict each year. In addition to this it is the purpose 
of the association to organize the townships into au.\- 
iliary and co-operative bodies. The vice-presidents 
or ex officio presidents of the districts for the year 
1881 are S. M. Riker, Esq., Eastern Division ; John 
A. Demarest, Central ; Hon. Isaac Wortendyke, 

Each township has a secretary, elected by the as- 
sociation at each annual meeting; whose duty it is t<> 
furnish statistics in a report each year to the county 
secretary, who makes his report annually to the sec- 
retary of the State association. Thus a volume of 
valuable .statistics on Sunday-schools throughout the 
State is c<mstantly accumulating. 

Since the suggestion made by Secretary Williams 
in his report for 1S72 favoring uniform lessons for the 
whole county, that practice has gradually been gain- 
ing acceptance, an<l the time is not far distant when 
all the children in the Sunday-schools of the county 
will be studying and reciting the same lessons. The 
secretary says in his report for 1880, "The Inter- 
national Series of Sunday-school Lessons may be 
found now in almost every school in the county, and 
I am glad to notice the beneficial n-sults enuinating 
from this method of study." 

We learn from the last report of the secretary that 
this a.ssociation since its organization kept steadily 
on its way, without the intermission of a single meet- 
ing. It has been constantly increasing in usefulness, 
so that Sunday-school work in the county will now 
compare tiivorably with that in any other county of 
the State. It ajqiears from the report of 1880 that 
the number of schools in the county is 89, of which 



58 made a report ; number of officers, 254 ; teachers, 
624; average attendance of officers and teachers, 640; 
number of teachers church-members, 559 ; number of 
scholars, including primary classes, 5121 ; average 
attendance of scholars, 3319 ; number of scholars 
church-members, 472 ; number of primary schools, 
1176 ; number of conversions or confirmations, 76 ; 
amount contributed for State and county associations, 
$73; o2 schools keep open all the year, and 27 have 
regular teachers' meetings. 

The Bergen County Farmers' Mutual Fire In- 
surance Company. — This institution is located at 
Spring Valley, Bergen Co., N. J. It was incorpo- 
rated May 1, 1849, by the following-named persons, 
viz. : Jacob Van Buskirk, Nicholas C. Durie, Charles 
Hasbrouck, Benjamin Z. Van Emburgh, David A. G. 
Demarest, John G. Demarest, Isaac D. Demarest, 
Garret S. Demarest, Henry N. Voorhis, George T. 
Brickell, Garrett A. Eckerson, Henry H. Voorhis, Jr., 
John Ackerman, Jr. 

The company was organized with Garrett S. Dema- 
rest as president, and Henry H. Voorhis as secretary. 
These gentlemen have occupied these positions re- 
spectively ever since, a period of thirty-two years. 

The plan of insurance adopted by this company is 
set forth in Section 5 of the charter, as follows : 

"5. And be it etmcted^ That every persun who shall become a member 
of sail! company by effecting insurance therein shall, before he receives 
his policy, deposit his promissory note for such a sum of money as shall 
be cietermineil by the directors to be the premium for said insurance, and 
an amount not exceeding thirty per ceutum on the amount of such pre- 
mium shall be immediately paid ; and the said dei>osit note shall be pay- 
able, in part or the whole, at any time when the directors shall deem the 
same requisite for the payment of loss or damage by fire, and such ex- 
penses as shall be necessary for transacting the business fur said com- 
pany ; but no member shall be held liable beyond the amount of his, her, 
or their promissory note; and at the exjiiration of the term of insurance 
the said note, or such part of the same as shall remain unpaid, after de- 
ducting a just and fair proportion of all losses and expenses occurring 
during said term, shall be relinquished and given up to the maker thereof; 
and it shall be lawful for said corporation to loan such portion of their 
money in hand as may not be immediately wanted for the purposes of 
said corporation." 

This portion of the charter was amended Feb. 11, 
1864, so that cash payments can be substituted for the 
premium notes. By this amendment the time of the 
charter — limited at first to twenty years — was ex- 
tended for thirty years from May 1, 1869. 

We give the following statistics from the report of 
the proceedings of the company from May 1, 1849, to 
May 1, 1881, thirty-two years: 

The whole amount of cash premium received since the for- 
mation of the company is 8133,030.49 

The interest received on the same ia 13,798.26 

Cash, premium and interest, accruing from same is 8146,828.75 

Of which there has been paid for current expenses $33,421.67 

Loss and damage done by fire 88,660.40 


Surplus in hand S24,746.68 

The current expenses have been as follows, viz. : 

For printers' bills, reports, and advertisements $3,008.59 

" books 329.29 

" postage, stationery, and other expenses G73.19 

" counsel fees 20.00 

" counterfeit bills * 26.30 

" policies canceled not collected 5,543.15 

" paid for re-insurance 946.88 

" taxes 3,008.64 

'* costs in cases of arbitration 78.81 

" safe for oflice 965.00 

" oflice furniture 99.78 

" compensation of oflicers 18,617.04 

" Secretary of State, fees on annual report 105.00 

Total $33,421.67 

Aiuouuts of LoSK$ Paid in the diff'erent Townships in the Counties of Bergen^ 
Passtiii; Essex, Somerset, Morris, Sussex, and Hudson, in tfie Stale of New 
Jersey, and in the County of Rockland, in tlie SOtte of New York. 

Bergen Countt. 

New Barbadoes 12 fires 55,277.40 

Hackensack 7 " 2,798.17 

HarringtO[i 14 " 7,746.05 

Washington 21 " 7,752.19 

Hohokus 9 " 4,770.00 

Franklin 20 " 8,577.99 

Saddle River 9 " 6,840.00 

Lodi 10 •' 7,573.89 

Union 1 fire 34.38 

Midland 8 fires 4,804.91 

Palisades 1 fire 135.72 

Englewood 1 " 1,800.00 

Kidgewood 3 fires 2,408.50 

Passaic County. 

Wayne 10 fires 

Manchester 5 " 

Pompton 7 " 

West Milford 4 " 

Acquackanonk 5 " 

Paterson 7 " 

Little Falls 1 fire 


, $3,858.64 


South Orange 1 fire.. 

3 fires 1,500.00 

Essex County. 

Somerset County. 
Union Village 1 fire 


. $2,100.00 

Morris County. 

Chatham 3 firea 

Montville 3 " 

SusSE.x County. 
Vernon 4 fires 


Hudson County. 
North Bergen 1 fire 

Rockland County, N. T. 

Ramapo 2 fires 

Orangetown 7 ** 

Clarkstown 1 fire 


$1,800 00 


.50 00 









Statement of the .imount of Capital in Premium Notes and Cash in hand, 
and the Amount at risk at the end of each year. 

Prem. Notes. 

1850— May 1 $5,128.26 

1851 " 6,776.38 

1S52 •' 8,569.69 

1853 " 9,810.81 

1854 " 17,071.47 

1855 " 21,904.80 

1856 " 23,793.86 

1857 " 25,421.16 

1868 " 27,776.95 

1869 " 32,768.42 

1860 " 34,954.72 

1861 " 37,415.07 

Cash. Risks. 

$1,413.16 $409,666.00 

l,73i.OS 527,704.00 

2,696.88 661,030.00 

2,323.77 753,227.00 

3,627.40 1,213,920.10 

6,917.06 1,411,764.00 

6,916.72 1,497,722.00 

5,581.92 1,569,957.00 

5,011.29 1,659,677.00 

4,389.74 1,758,928.00 

7,195.83 1,732,357.00 

8,096.03 1,800,858.00 



Prem. Notn. Gush. Rislu. 

1862— May 1 _ $39,100.00 88,186.87 Sl,842,.V2O.0O 

18«3 " 39,858.47 7,632.44 1,871,500.00 

1864 " 39,924.70 10^69.03 1,874,240.00 

18»5 •' 39,218.96 12,547.98 1,844,720.00 

188« " 41,764.29 13,444.01 1,957,516.00 

1867 " 45,356.88 14,257.W 2,077,193.00 

1868 " 51,629.00 16,015.37 2,264,641.00 

1869 '■ 58,870.52 19,319.31 2,466,462.00 

1870 " 70,359.11 23,893.75 2,842,522.00 

1871 " 79,951.42 23,810.70 3,116,950.00 

1872 " 93,098.16 24,066.17 3,466,658.00 

187S " „ 101,991.00 25,366.78 3,682,267.00 

1874 " 108,247.90 3O.422.70 3,597,454.00 

1875 - 112,559.19 25,025.38 .3,478.128.00 

1878 " 113,816.37 26,304..'i4 3,366,173.00 

1877 " 114,286.47 29,2.52.02 3,296,048.00 

1878 " 112,1160.60 29,0O7..VJ 3,187,410.011 

1879 " 107,l:t5.33 33,llM.0S 3,002,121.00 

1880 " 99,485.15 31,820.02 2,794,228.09 

1881 " 95,105.86 24,746.08 2,653,2r3.0O 

Tlie company organized bj' farmers upon the 
mutual principle, in order to furnish to the farmers of 
IJergen and the adjoining counties a cheap and safe 
insurance, — the cheapest insurance consistent with 

Its business has been done by farmers, and with the 
greatest prudence and strictest economy. 

The current expenses, including the fees paid to its 
officers and costs of books, stationery, printing, and 
all other expenses, have not averaged over $1044.43 
per year. An examination of the foregoing state- 
ment will show that it has furnished a safe and at the 
same time a cheap insurance. 

No assessment hiis ever been made by this com- 

The names of ])erson8 who have served as directors 
since the organization of the company, viz. : 

Garrol S. I)«niar«t From 1849 to 1881—32 yean. 

OeorRe T. Ilrlckcll " ' 32 " 

Henry H. V.x.rhlD " " •' " 32 " 

l*an'- D. l>i)nmri'9t '* " *' " 32 " 

Jacoli Van niiitkirk ** " *' 18.'»0 — 1 year. 

nenJHiniii /.. Vtm Kmburgh " " " " 1 " 

(iiirrft A. l-^rkernon " " "1861 — 2 years. 

Daviil A. (;. Drniumt " 2 " 

John Ackorniftii IS-ie — 7 " 

Jolin .1. Deriinri'St " " "1864 — 15 " 

CliarlM llaHhr..iick, M.D ' '.857— 8 " 

llentv N. V.mrliln " " " 18.'k')— 6 " 

Nlclioloo C. Dnrie " " " 18.'*— » " 

Jacoli J. Fenlon " 1860 " 1871— 21 " 

I'etor lloanl '1852—2 •■ 

Blrliaril T. c-o.,|«.r " 1851 " " 1 year. 

Ciiii|ifr P. Wfyilervelt " " " " 1 " 

William Bliilr " 1852 " IS-lfl— 7 yean. 

John .T. Itinklrk " " "1871—19 " 

Andrew f./jilTiBkle I8.V3— 1 viar. 

«Virnellii» r. /jil.rlakle - " 1853 " 18.'i9— yuare. 

Jai-nli Van llunklrk " 185.1 " 1881— 26 " 

John T. Ilnrini! " 1860 " 1881-25 " 

III. hanl Ackerman " 1867 " 1862— 5 " 

John 1). Biinialno _ " 18.58 " 186,'>— 7 " 

Cornellui A. Wnrtondyke " 1860 " 1881—22 " 

I'elerl'eack " 18.'.9 " 1870-11 " 

llenrv <'. Herring " 1802 " 1881—19 " 

John II.Zal.rl«kle " 1»04 " 1881— 17 " 

Aaron O CiirrlKm " 1805 " 1881—16 " 

Alirm. S. ZalTlnkle " 187(1 " 1881— 11 " 

Ralph S. Il..|n«re«t " 1K71 " 1881—10 " 

Abrni. Van Dolien " 1171 •' 18X1— 10 " 

The officers have been : 

Garret .« Ih.niarnet, prealilent From 1849 to 1881— .12 yean. 

John AckiTnmn, Tice-preiideiit. " 1849 " 18.'.6— 7 " 

WlUUni llhilr. vl.e-pre.lilenl " lK,'.fl " I,\',9— 3 " 

Rlrhnril A. kernian, rlr^-prenldent " 18.'i9 " 1862— 3 " 

Henry C. Herring, rlre-preel.lent " 1802 " 1881— 19 " 

Henry II V.K.rliU,»ecreUry " 1840 " 1881— 32 " 

laaac I). Heninrrnl, treaaurer " 1849 " 1881 — 32 " 

Bergen Connty Assnrance ABSOciation, Hack- 
ensack, N. J. -This a.i.sociati<>n wu.h iiuorponitod 
March U), l''^41, and commenced buslnc.>i.s upon that 

date, William De Wolfe, president ; Simeon Zabris- 
kie, secretary and trea.surer. Mr. De Wolfe was suc- 
ceeded in the presidency by Judge Doremus. who 
held the office two years, when Mr. De Wolfe was re- 
elected, and remained president until Jan. 1, 1878, 
since which time William S. Banta has held the 

! office. The secretaries have been Simeon Zabriskie, 
Myers Anderson, Garret Ackerson, Jr., William S. 
Banta, C. L. Blauvelt, and G. W. Wheeler since 
May, 1874. 

The company has been in active existence forty-one 

I years, and its risks have been confined chiefly to 
Bergen and Passaic Counties. It has been operated 
upon the purely mutual plan, each policy-holder be- 
coming a member giving his note for his policy, and 
being iissessed thereon in case of losses by fire. 
During these forty years a large amount of business 
has been done by the a.s30ciation, and it is still active 
and vigorous. 

rll.Vl'TER XXIX. 


Situation in 1861. — When the civil war l>roke out 
in 181)1 no one dreamed of the magnitude to which 
it would extend. The President of the I'liited States, 
on the loth of .Vpril, issued a proclamation calling 
for seventy-five thousand militia out of the existing 
organization of the States, to serve for three months 
unless sooner discharged. The quota of this call for 
New Jersey was three thousand one hundred and 
twenty men, or four regiments of seven hundred and 
eiglity men each, to be detached from the four gen- 
enil military divisions of the State. The War Depart- 
ment also retpiired that, in addition to the reginientfi 
called for, the reserve militia in the several States 
should be organized ius rapidly as possible. 

Governor Olden received the requisition oflhi War 
Department on the 17th of .\pril. and iiiinu'(lialely 
issued a proclamation directing all individuals or 
organizations willing to respond to the call to report 
themselves within twenty days. On the same day he 
notified the War Department that the call for troops 
would be attended to ii.s rapiilly as possible, and is- 
sued orders to the nnijor-generals of the several 
military divisions of the State to detitil each one 
regiment of ten companies, and also to organize im- 
mediately the reserve militia in the respective bri- 
gade.s. The nuijor-generals, in detailing the regi- 
ment.s required, were directed to accept the services 
of volunteers; but if the requisite number did not 
offer, they were re<iuired to dral^ from the reserve 
militia to make up the deficiency. No such neces- 
sity, however, was anticipated, ami the re.sulf fully 
justified the confidence of the autliiirities. The [)eople 
everywhere responded with enthusia-stic alacrity to 



the call for troops. The exLsting military organiza- 
tions at once opened recruiting -stations; public 
meetings were held in every town and city ; churches 
and ministers engaged with enthusiasm in the work ; 
committees were appointed to encourage and super- 
intend enlistments. While everywhere the popular 
heart beat responsive to the sj)irit in which the call of 
the nation's head had been made, in New Jersey the 
feeling was active and intense. Within a few days 
over one hundred companies of volunteers, equal to 
ten thousand men, had offered their services under 
the Governor's proclamation, and the military depart- 
ments were so swarming with men and companies 
offering and pressing their services that many who 
could not be taken were obliged to wait till a second 
call was made by the government or go into regi- 
ments of other States to have their ambition to enter 
the public service gratified. During April, 1861, 
quite a large number from Bergen and Passaic Coun- 
ties, under these circumstances, entered the Excelsior 
Brigade and other organizations in New York and 
Pennsylvania, and were never accredited to the State 
of New Jersey. 

New Jersey's quota under the first call was filled in 
a few days. The first regimental offer was made by 
the First Regiment of the Hunterdon Brigade on the 
day following the Governor's proclamation ; on the 
same day Capt. J. R. Cunningham tendered the ser- 
vices of the Camden Zouaves, and these were rapidly 
followed by similar offers from all part.s of the State. 
The four regiments accepted were formed into a bri- 
gade known as the New Jersey Brigade, and placed 
under the command of Brig.-Gen. Theodore Runyon, 
of Newark. The First Regiment of this brigade was 
raised in Newark and vicinity, and the Second in 
Jersey City. It contained no organized company 
from Bergen or Passaic County, but quite a number 
of individuals from these counties entered tiie ranks, 
among whom were Mr. Baldwin, formerly editor of the 
Bergen Journal, and Bayard Goldsmith, connected 
with the Paterson Guardian. The brigade was mus- 
tered into the United States service at Trenton, May 
1, 1861, and arrived at Washington on the 6th, being 
tile first organized brigade to report to the President 
for the defenseof the natidual capital. Fort Runyon, 
one of the first forts in the line of fortifications at 
Washington, was constructed by the brigade. In the 
battle of Bull Run, July 21, 1861, the brigade was 
held as a reserve, but not engaged. 

In Bergen and Passaic Counties the feeling was as 
intense at the outbreak of the war as in any other 
section of the country. The first great war-meeting ' 
in Paterson convened in front of the City Hall, in j 
Main Street, on Tuesday afternoon, April 23, 1861, at 
three o'clock p.m. The principal buildings in the 
vicinity, the buildings along Main Street, and the 
public buildings were festooned with the red, white, 
and blue, and the national flag floated in the breeze. 
Mayor Prull presided ; Andrew J. Sandford and 

Horace O. Hedge were chosen secretaries. Prayer 
was ottered by Rev. Mr. Arndt. Vice-presidents were 
I appointed as follows : North Ward, N. Lane, Pere- 
grine Sandford; East Ward. Daniel Barkalow, Charles 
Danforth ; West Ward, Patrick Agnew, Thomas 
Seager ; South Ward, James Peacock, C. L. Wester- 
velt ; Fifth Ward, C. S. Van Wagoner, Samuel Pope. 

Messrs. Daniel Barkalow, John N. Taylor, Thomas 
] D. Hoxsey, William Douglas, and John J. Brown 
were appointed a committee to draft resolutions. 

The baud played " Hail Columbia," and a stirring 
and patriotic address was delivered by Rev. W. H. 
Hornblower, pastor of the First Presbyterian Church. 
Speeches were also made by Messrs. Buckley, C. 
Inglis, Jr., Daniel Barkalow, D. G. Scott, Henry A. 
Williams, T. D. Hoxsey, Rev. Mr. Graves, and A. B. 
Woodruff. At this meeting a war committee of 
twenty-five citizens wiis appointed, consisting of the 
following-named gentlemen: 

Charles Danforth, Samuel Pope, Henry M. Low, 
Albert A. Hopper, Benjamin Buckley, Joseph N. 
Taylor, John J. Brown, Philip Rafl'erty, David G. 
Scott, Andrew J. Sandford, Jacob S. Rogers, John 
Hopper, Henry B. Crosby, Robert Carrick, Morgan 
Colt, Edwin T. Prall, Cornelius Van Winkle, Daniel 
Barkalow, Samuel Smith, Andrew Derrom, John 
Quinn, Stephen Allen, Charles H. O'Neill, Jetur R. 
Riggs, and John C. Westervelt. 

Bergen County was aroused. In Haekensack flags 
were flying from almost every public and i>rivate 
building. A large meeting of citizens was held on 
Monday evening, April 22, 1861, presided over by 
Hon. J. A. Zabriskie. A committee was appointed 
to draft resolutions, and after remarks by William S. 
Banta, Esq., presented the following, which were 
unanimously adopted, to wit: 

" W'herkas, The union of the States is in danger, and the Constitution, 
framed at so great a cost by our fathers, which contains within itself all 
needful provisions for the necessities of the government, has been set at 
defiance: and whereas our national flag has been insulted and govern- 
ment property invaded and seized by armed traitors, therefore 

*^ Resolved, That the Union shall be preserved at all hazards, the Con- 
stitution upheld, the right of the government vindicated, and the Decla- 
ration of Independence maintained in its full spirit and power. 

" Besolrnl, That for the defense and maintenance of our countrv and 
its institutions we are prepared, if need be, to sacrifice our wealth, shed 
our blood, and lay down our lives. 

" Resolved, That our country is the best country in the world, and that 
we are not prepared to witness its destructioti without first exerting all 
the means at our command for its perpetuation. 

'* Resolved, That Bergen County will stand by our nalional banner in 
the eventful crisis, and those who go luit from among us to the tented 
field to uphold that sacred banner nu-iit and will receive our warmest 
sympathy and aid. 

"Reached, That a committee of six be altpointed by this meeting to 
provide means for the suppoit of those left destitute by the absence of 
their husbands or fathers who may volunteer in the defense of their 

The following gentlemen were appointed such com- 
mittee: D. A. Berry, Garret G. Aekerson, W. S. 
Banta, John L. Earle, John H. Banta, and John J. 
Anderson. A book being then opened for volunteers, 
a large number of names were enrolled. 



The Passaic Brigade at this time was in a partially 
disorganized state. Thomas D. Hoxsey was briga- 
dier-general ; M. V. Spencer,- aide-de-camp ; John J. 
Brown, brigade paymaster ; Philemon Dickerson, 
deputy adjutant-general ; and Kev. William H. 
Hornblower, chaplain. The offices of brigade in- 
spector, quarterrasister, and judge-advocate were va- 
cant. The First Regiment, belonging to this brigade, 
and located in Pater.son, had the following officers: 
Colonel, Absalom B. WoodrulV; Lieutenant-Colonel, 
Philip Rafterty; Major, James Kershaw; Quarter- 
master, Abraham H. Goodwin ; Surgeon, Frederick 
S. Weller. The other staff-officers, as well as those of 
the comi)anies, were vacant. 

Steps were immediately taken to enlist and organ- 
ize a regiment of National Guards to be in readiness 
for service either at lionie or at the seat of war. The 
first meeting with this object iu view was held at 
Derrom's Hall, in Paterson, on Tuesday evening, 
April 23, 1861, when it was resolved that the regi- 
ment should be composed of one troop of cavalry, one 
company of engineers, one company of artillery, and 
eight comi)anies of infantry. Committees were ap- 
pointed to assist in raising the regiment, as follows : 
Cavalry, Samuel Smith, F. C. Heckwith, Thomas 
Thorpe; engineers, Andrew Derrom, John Berdan, 
John Halliday ; artillery, Thomas O. Smith, Richard 
B. Chiswell, David llennion; infantry, Company A 
(Old tiuard), Stephen Allen, Gritiith King, John Ed- 
wards; Company B, Enoch J. Ayres, William Rutan, 
John Slingerland ; Company C, James Inglis, Jr., 
William Fortune, James Lane ; Company D, John R. 
Daggers, Alfred Stoutenborough, John O'Neill ; Com- 
pany E, Francis Scott, Hugh lleid, Abraham Hurd ; 
Company F, John N. Taylor, John Bustard, C. E. 
Johnson ; Company G, George Gould, R. McLough- 
lin, Samuel Lair ; Company H, James G. Scott, Sam- 
uel Brooks, John Vandervoort. 

The committee above named immediately opened 
as many recruiting-stations in the city, and lively 
work ii) enlisting went on. Five of the com|ianies 
were immediately filled. On April 24th some changes 
were made in the committees : J(din Ramage was put 
in the place of John Berdan on the committee on engi- 
neers ; (I. Kane, J. Agncw, P. Lawrence, I), tjuack- 
enbush, .V. McGill, A. Tliomi)son, J. 1. King, and J. 
Morrison were added to the committee of Company 
D; P. .Vtherton to the committee of Company O; 
and J. IL Wright and George Vercclius to that of 
Coiii|i:iiiy IL 

First Brigade.— The First Brigade of New Jersey 
Volunteent I three years' men) was mustered into ser- 
vice under the second call of the President for troops, 
issued May 3, 1861. The call was for thirty-nine 
repiniente of infantry and one of cavalry to serve for 
three years or during the war. At the special re<|Uest 
of (iovertior Olden, who had from time totimeimpor- 
tuned the War D<-|iartinent to receive more soldiers 
from this Stale, three regiments were assigned to New 

Jersey, with the command that the number should in 
no case be exceeded.' This number of over three 
thousand men was easily furnished, a sufficient num- 
ber of companies to com|)lete the regiments being 
already organized, waiting to be mustered into the 
service, and others (such as Capt. Johnson's company 
of Paterson), impatient with the inexplicable delay, 
had gone into the service in other States. Three of the 
regiments composing the brigade were at once mus- 
tered in, and left Trenton June 28, 1861, arriving in 
Washington and reporting to Gen. Scott on the fol- 
lowing day. One month later another call for five 
additional regiments from the State was received, and 
these were also promptly furnished, the regiments 
being numbered respectively Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, 
Seventh, and Eighth Regiments of New Jersey Vol- 
unteers, and all but the Fourth organized with the 
Second Brigade. The Fourth Regiment reached 
Washington August 21st, accompanied by a battery 
I of six pieces, furnished by the State, and commahded 
by Capt. William Hexamer, who had been waiting 
for six months for an opportunity to enter the ser- 
I vice. This regiment was iissigned to the brigade 
I of Brig.-Gen. Kearney, and with the First, Second, 
j and Third Regiments com|)osed the First Brigade of 
New Jersey Volunteers. 

In this brigade— Company F, Second Regiment, 
Capt. .\aron Young, succeedcii by Capt. Henry Vree- 
; land ; Company G, Second Regiment, Capt. James H. 
Close; and Company K, Third Regiment, Capt. John 
H. Whelan — were a number of men from Pater.-on and 
vicinity. The Second Regiment included in its ranks 
a large proportion of the members of the City Bat- 
talion of Newark, an organization which had a wide 
reputation for superiority of drill and general sol- 
dierly proficiency. All the regiments were well offi- 
cered, and all furnished during their service instances 
of the rarest gallantry in the field. 

The Second Regiment maintained its organization 
till the close of the war. It was first attached to Gen. 
Runyon's division of reserves i militia) at the battle 
of Bull Run; then to the First Brigade (Kearney's), 
Franklin's division ; afterwards to the First Brigade, 
First Division, First .Vrmy Corps; then to the First 
Brigade, First Division, Sixth Army Corps ; and at 
the close of the war was assigneil to what was known 
as the l'riivi!.ion»l Corps, Army of the Potomac. 

Second Brigade.— In the Second Brigade, or the 
New Jersey troops mustered under the call of the 
President issued July 24, 1861, there were nearly two 
full companies from Passaic County, viz. : Company 
G of the Fifth Regiment New Jersey Volunteers, 
and Company <i of the Seventh Regiment, com- 
manded respectively by Capt. Edward C. Hopper and 
Ca)(t. James McKlernan. In this brigade was also 
Company A of the Eighth Regiment, raised and com- 
numded by Capt. Peter M. Ryersou, afterwards major 

> A<UulaDt-0«iiorml'ii Rupurt, 1861. 


of the same regiment, who was killed at Williamsburg, 
Va., while gallantly leading his command in a charge 
against the enemy. Under the head of the Eighth 
Regiment will be found a sketch of the life of Maj. 
Ryerson, who was a native of Pompton, and a very 
wealthy and influential man in that section before 
the war. The rosters of the officers and men from 
this county who served in the Fifth, Seventh, and 
Eighth Regiments of the Second Brigade, together 
with the final record of each man, so far as it has 
been po-ssible to obtain the necessary information, 
will be found under their appropriate heads in a suc- 
ceeding chapter, to which the reader is referred. 

These companies, and the regiments to which they 
belonged, made a grand record during their period 
of active service. At Williamsburg, where the enemy 
made his grand stand after the evacuation of York- 
town, on the 3d of May, 1862, the Fifth Regiment was 
sent by Gen. Hooker to .support the batteries thrown 
forward on the right of the road in front of Fort 
Magruder ami the strong line of rebel works which 
Hooker had decided to attack. The Sixth, Seventh, 
and Eighth Regiments were simultaneouslysent to the 
left of the road, occupying a wood in front of a line of 
field-works. The rain was falling in torrents, and the 
men stood half-leg deep in mire and water. Steadily 
advancing through the underbrush the gallant regi- 
ments soon came upon the enemy's forces and at once 
opened a vigorous fire. Here for three hours the 
conflict raged with desperate fury. Commanding 
the ground at every point, the fire of the enemy was 
pitilessly destructive and did not slacken for a mo- 
ment. But the brave fellows into whose faces it was 
poured stood firmly and unflinchingly, sometimes, 
indeed, pushed back a little space, but as surely 
hurling the rebels, bleeding and shattered, back to 
their works. From the nature of the ground there 
was no opportunity for the bayonet, but the rapid 
volleys of our heroic troops were scarcely less ef- 
fective. And thus the battle raged, the enemy, re- 
inforced again and again, directing .^gainst these 
three regiments all the fury of their attack. At last, 
their ammunition exhausted, their muskets rusted 
by the drenching rain, their ranks terribly thinned, 
these heroes of the day fell slowly back ; but they had 
held the enemy in check and saved the division from 
being driven in disaster from the field. 

"Meanwhile the Fifth Regiment, supporting the 
batteries on the right of the road, had bravely main- 
tained the reputation of the brigade. For six hours 
it had been exposed to the fire of the fort in front 
and that of an earthwork on the flank, and later in 
the day, our engineers being driven from their guns! 
charged forward and at once engaged the enemy, con- 
tinuing its fire without cessation for four hours longer. 
During the whole of this time officers and men alike 1 
fought with the utmost courage, and achieved the 
very highest place in the confidence of all who wit- 
nessed their gallantry." I 

The sequel of this engagement is well known to the 
reader of history. Hooker's division, pitted against 
the whole rebel force, was not adequate to victory ; but 
it held the position spendidly until Kearney, pushing 
impetuously forward, threw the full weight of his 
division into the scale and triumphantly carried the 
day. Hooker alone lost nearly sixteen hundred men, 
and of these over five hundred were in the New 
Jersey Brigade. Here Maj. Ryerson fell mortally 
wounded, having just a few moments before received 
the command of the Eighth Regiment from his fallen 
colonel, the gallant Col. Johnson, of the Eighth, who 
had been pierced by a rebel bullet about one o'clock 
on the day of the battle. 

The historian, speaking of this engagement, says, 
" There was no question in any mind after that bloody 
day as to whether New Jersey troops would fight. 
The whole country rang with their'' 

The. following sketch of Maj. Ryerson was prepared 
by A. Q. Keasbey and published in the Xewai-/: Mer- 
cury : 

" New Jersey lias lost one of lier worthieet citizens and bravest soldiers 
in Mftj. Peter M. Kyersou, of the Eiglitii Repiment, killed iu the b.ittle 
at Williamsburg. 

" Tlie training of his whole life had fitted him for the gallant part he 
was to act in the service of his country. The qualities which marked 
him as a citizen were such as always make the soldier faithful and brave. 
He was born at Pompton, on the 20th of June, 179S. He inherited from 
his father a large property, and early came into possession of the iron- 
works of that place. He built the rolling-mills and works at Pompton 
and at Winockie, and conducted the business on an extensive scale. He 
was a large stockholder and director in the Morris Canal Company, and 
for several years was superintendent of the works of the company in that 
region. Soon after be had completed the iron-works and was prepared 
to reap the reward of his vast outlay and exertions, the reduction of the 
tariff embarrassed his operations, financial difficulties ensued, beneath 
which he struggled with tlie most untiring energy for many years, until 
at last, in the fall of 1859, he was forced to abandon the unequal contest, 
and giving up to his creditors the home of his ancestors, where he had 
passed so many years of toil and anxiety, he removed to Newark with 
his family. But his was not a spirit that could brook a life of idleness, 
even at sixty-three, if any field of honorable labor opened to him; and 
such a field was opened iu the war for the Union, and he entered upon 
it with all the zeal and vigor of his early manhood. He had always been 
a romm'tmler. With thousands of acres as his domain, and Jiundreds of 
men under his control, he had always sliown those qualities that are sure 
tu distinguish the soldier. And now his old energy awoke at the call of 
his country. He went up to the beautiful hills of his old home, and 
called upon his former retainers to join him, or to send their sons to act 
again under his command. He formed Company A of the Eightli Regi- 
ment, chiefly from these sturdy forgemen and axemen of his native 
place. He was the senior captain of the regiment, and was afterwards 
promoted to be major, which position he held at his death. 

"He delighted in his military duties. He seemed as oi-ect and vigor- 
ous as at any period of liis life. Tall and athletic, of a fine soldierly ap- 
pearance and bearing, prompt in word and act, attentive to all the re- 
quirements of his position, he had gained the reputation of a thorough 
and faithful soldier before he went upon hia first battle-field, from which 
he was never to return. 

"Upon that field he met his death -as he would have chosen to meet it. 
His reginioTit wais sorely pressed by superior numbers on the left of the 
bloody field of Monday. At one o'clock Col. Johnson was severely 
wounded, and the command of the regiment devolved upon Maj. Ryer- 
son. Their ammuintion was exhausted, and they were slowly falling 
back before the greater force of the enemy seeking to turn their flank. 
The fate of the day, and perhaps of the army, depended on their firm- 
ness. Maj. Ryerson, with his old habit of command, rallied them to the 
charge. Again they wavered, having nothing to fight with, and again 
and again he rallied them, standing in advance, a too conspicuous mark 



for the fo*. At two o'clock h* »u itrnck by t ballet Id the dde u be | 

wu cheering on his men. Lieut. Sinee came to him and led liim to a 
tree. Ho felt that the wound was fatal, he saw that the eueuiy were 
approaching in overwhelming force, and calmly begged Lieut. Siuee to 
leave him and not UBeleesly sacrifice his own life. 

" Brief inter^-al remained for the dying thoughts of the soldier, but 
enough for the Christian patriot. The hoet of the enemy came rushing 
orer him, — 

" ' So underneath the belly of their steeds. 

That stained their fetlocks in his smoking blood. 
The nol>Ie gentleman gave up the ghost.' 
" Now Jetaey will honor his familiar name as that of the firat of her 
flald-olBcers who fell in the war for the Union." j 

Excelsior Brigade. Gi:x. Daxiki, E. Sickles. — 
Several coiii|i:iiues of New Jersey soldiers early in the 
war, being rejected at home, applied to Maj.-Gen. 
Daniel E. Sickles, of New York, and were placed in 
the brigade which he was engaged in raising, known 
as the Excelsior Brigade. This brigade, though ac- 
credited to the State of New York, was made up from 
several i^tatcs, and was in every respect a cosmopolitan 
organization. In its first regiment alone (Seventieth 
New York) were to be found three companies re- 
cruited entirely in New Jersey, while two others were 
recruited in great part from the same State. One 
company was from We.stern Pennsylvania, one from 
Michigan, and one from Ma-<.sachu8ctts. In the three 
remaining companies there were a number of men 
from New Jersey and Pennsylvania. The same mi.xed 
organization prevailed to a greater or less extent 
throughout the brigade, with the exception of the 
Fourth Hegiment, which was recruited e.vclusively 
from the city of New York. It was computed at the 
headquarters of the brigade in December, IStJl, that 
over twelve hundred citizens of New Jersey were then 
serving in it. The following companies were exclu- 
sively from this State and entered the brigade as 
completed organizations : First Regiment — Company 
A, Capt. ,T. M. .lohnson, afterwards Capt. H. W. IIox- 
sey, recruited at Paterson ; Company F, commanded 
for a time by Capt. J. M. McCawly, of Newark ; 
Company I, Capt. E. J. Ayers, afterwards Capt. A. 
Belcher, recruited at Paterson ; Company K, Capt. 
Frederick (iruett, recruited at Newark; Companies 
G, B, an<l I), commanded respectively by Capts. 
O'Reilly, Mahaii, and Price, were at least one-half 
recruited in New Jersey. Second Regiment (Seventy- 
first New York) — Company D, Capt. William H. 
Greene, recruited in Newark ; Company E, Capt. 
Toler, raised in Newark ; Company F, Capt. Murphy, 
raised in Orange. Third Regiment (Seventy-second 
New York) — Company F, ('apt. Leonard, recruited 
in Newark, and one other company composed of 

Of Company D of the First Regiment, rai.sed in 
Paterson, Capt. Johnson resignetl in the winter of 
1861-62, and was succeeded by Capt. Oakley, who in 
turn resigned in October, 1862, and was succeeded 
by Capt. n. W. Hoxsey, who held command a.s cap- 
tain of this company till the muster-out in July, 
1864. Capt. Ayers, of Company I (the other Pater- • 

son company), resigned at the same date as Capt. 
Johnson, and was succeeded by Capt. Mitchell, who 
was killed at Williamsburg, Va., May 5, 1862. 

The brigade, at the time it was joined by the two 
Paterson companies, was crowded into the City 
Assembly Rooms, No. 444 Broadway, New York, 
and was afterwards, during the month of May, re- 
moved, first to the Red House at Harlem, and thence 
to Staten Island, before its muster into service. The 
suft'erings of the men from insufficient clothing, badly 
cooked food.and close confinement to uncomfortable 
and ill-ventilated quarters from May 1 to June 1, 
1861, were not exceeded by those of any one month 
of their active service afterwards. From the first 
Gen. Sickles had encountered nothing but opposition 
from Governor Morgan, of New Y'ork. The clothing . 
and rations so liberally supplied to all other regiments 
then forming were refused to his brigade, and it was 
only on the pledge of the personal credit of Gen. 
Sickles that their supplies were obtained. 

The two companies raised in this county were in 
the First Regiment of the brigade, and were placed in 
Gen. Hooker's division, aided in erecting Fort Stan- 
ton and several other works in the defenses about 
Washington in the fall of 1861, made some exi>edition9 
into Virginia, and after the evacuation of Yorktown 
was the first to come up with the enemy at Williams- 
burg and drive in their skirmishers in front of their 
works. The history of that contest is well known : 
the enemy finding himself pressed by inferior num- 
bers turned and gave battle, moving out from his 
works and attacking the First and Third Brigades 
with .such force as to drive them hack from their posi- 
tion, and passing the left of their line, inflicted very 
heavy loss, cjtpturing a battery, which, on account of 
the death of its horses, could not be removed. It was 
at this moment, when the Third Brigade (Fifth, Sixth, 
Seventh, and Eighth New Jersey Regiments) were 
being forced from their line, that the Excelsior Bri- 
gade, or rather its First Regiment, was brought into 
the heavy "slashing" on the left of tlie road, and was 
formed parallel to it to check the advance of the 
enemy towanls the road. The regiment wius at once 
onlered to commence firing, but never received another 
order in the fight. Forever two hours it stood in the 
darkness of its own smoke, and when its ammunition 
was exhausted the .surviving supplied themselves from 
the cartridge-boxes of the dead. It held its line until 
the enemy actually advanced over it. (toing into the 
fight with six hundred and fifty men, it lost three 
hundred and fifty-one in killed, wounded, and miss- 
ing. Nine oflicers and ninety-six men of this regiment 
were buried the next morning. The other regiments 
of the brigade were moved up in succession, and only 
suflere<l less because the enemy's elVorts were much 
weakeneil by the prolonged resistance of the First 
Regiment. The loss of the four regiments of the 
brigade in this action amounted to upwards of eight 
hundred men. The New Jersey troops in the brigade 


suffered particularly ; the lo3S in Company A of the | 
First Regriment, commanded by Capt. (then Lieut.) 
Hoxsey, was the largest of any company in the bri- 
gade, amounting to forty-one out of sixty. Lieut. ; 
Hoxsey was wounded, Lieut. Kilburn killed, two out 
of three sergeants killed and one wounded, and all six ' 
of the corporals killed. Both of the other Xew Jer- 
sey companies suffered severely. 

At Fair Oaks the New Jersey companies came in I 
again for a heavy share of the loss. Throughout the 
whole campaign of the Peninsula and the unfortu- j 
uate campaign of Pope, terminating with the second 
Bull Run, these troops bore a conspicuous part. At 
Bristow Station, Aug. 27, 1862, the loss was again 
heavy. Lieut. Hoxsey, coming to the command of 
the regiment during the action, was severely wounded 
through the hip while ordering its advance. Through- 
out the campaigns of Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, 
Mine Run. and the grand final campaign of Gen. Grant 
from the Rapidan to Petersburg, this brigade, side 
by side with the Second New Jersey Brigade, emu- 
lated its gallantry, and is entitled to equal praise. 

Of the two companies, numbering two hundred and 
ten men, recruited at Paterson, about fifty returned at 
the expiration of their term of service ; four-fifths of 
the remainder died on the field of battle or lingered in 
hospitals till death ended their sufferings. Many of 
the New Jersey men in the brigade re-enlisted at the 
expiration of their term of service, members of the 
First Regiment being attached to the Eighty-second 
New York, and remaining in the service till Lee's 

Compnny G, Sevenlh Re</iment — {Capt. James McKiernan). 

Ackennan, Edward, private, enl. Sept. 17, 1861; Corp. June 8, 1863; 
must, out Oct. 7, 1864. 

Ackermau, T)iomas, private, enl. Sept. 17, 1S61 ; trans, to Co. D ; re-enl. 
Jan. 4, 1S64 : Corp. July 8, 1864. 

AUcn, George Huft, private, enl. Sept. 17, 1861; final record unknown. 

Agnew, Thomas, 1st lieut., enl. Sept. 19, 1861 ; res'd Feb. 6, 1802. 

Balist, John, private, enl. Sept. 17, 1S61 ; final record unknown. 

Bailey, William, private, enl. Sept. 17, 1861 ; trans, to Co. D ; re^enl. Jan. 

Baelow, Michael, no record. 

Beck, Thomas R., Ist sergt , enl. Sept. 17, 1861 ; 2d lieut., vice Evans, pro- 
moted, Feb. 13, 1862 ; res'd J<lne 17, 1862. 

Berdan, George A., corporal, enl. Sept. 17, 1861 ; sergt. July 1, 1862 ; Ist 
sergt. Oct. 2, 1S62 : 2d lieut., vice Douglass res'd ; killed in action at 
Cliancellorsville, Va., May .3, 1862. 

Briggs, Moses, private, enl. Sept. 17, 1861 ; trans, to Co. D; re-enl. Jan. 
4, 1864. 

Burke, Henry, private, enl. Sept. 17, 1861 ; must, out Oct. 7, 1864, with 

Burke, Mich.iel, corporal, enl. Sept. 17, 1861; private Sept. 15,1862; 
must, out Oct. 7, 1864. 

Burgoine, W'iUiam, private, enl. Sept. 17, 1861. 

Brady, John, private, enl. Sept. 17,1861 ; missing in action at Bull Run. 
Va., .\ug. 29, 1862 ; supposed dead. 

Banker, Robert, private, enl. Sept. 26, 1861 ; discb. at Convalescent Camp, 
Alexandria, Va., Dec. 21, 1862, for disability. 

Clark, John E., corp., enl. Sept. 17, 1861 : disch. at U. S. Hosp., Washing- 
ton, D. C, Jan. 8, 1863, for disability. 

Clark, .Tames, private, enl, Sept. 17, 1861 ; trans, to Vet. Res. Corps Aug. 
l.l, 1863 ; died at Camp Fry, Washington, D. C, March S. 1864. 

Cocker, Thomas, private, enl. Sept. 17, 1861 ; Corp. June 9, 1863 ; pa- 
roled prisoner; disch. at Trenton, N. J., Feb. 3, 1885. 

Cooney, James, private, enl. Sept. 17, 1861 ; killed in action at Chancel- 
lorsville, Va., May 3, 1863. 

Carenaugh, James, private, enl. Sept. 17, 1861 ; killed on picket near 

Petersburg, Va., Sept. 1, 1864. 
Douglass, John, sergt., enl. Sept. 17, 1861 ; 1st sergt. March 1, 1862 ; 2d 

lient., rice Beck, res'd, Jan. 13, 1863; res'd Dec. 5, 1863. 
Diamond, James, Corp., enl. Sept. 17,1861 ; disch. at camp near Falmouth, 

Va., Feb. 16, 1863, for disability. 
Dunkerley, Robert, private, enl. Sept. 17, 1861 ; trans, to Co. D ; re^eul. 

Jan. 4, 1864. 
Doughty, William, private, enl. Sept. 17, 1861 ; must, out with regiment 

Oct. 7, 1864. 
Dougherty, James H., private, enl. Sept. 17, 1861 : must, out Oct. 7, 1864. 
Devoir, John, private, enl. Sept. 17, 1861 ; disch. at U. S. A. Hosp., Phil- 
adelphia, Pa., Sept. 25, 1862. for disability. 
Diamond, Peter, private, enl. Sept. 17, 1861 : trans, to Vet. Res. Corps, 

Sept. 1, 18fti; disch. therefrom Sept. 16, 1864. 
Doremus, Peter J., private, enl. Sept. 26, 1861; cor]>. Dec. 6, 1862; 

died at D. S. A. Gen. Hosp., Philadelphia, Pa., July 6, 1864, of wounds 

received in action before Petersburg, Va., June 19, 1864; buried at 

Philadelphia, Pa. 
Donahue, .\rthur, private, enl. Sept. 26, 1861 : disch. at Camp Hooker, 

Sept. 27, 1862, for disability. 
Evans, William J , 2d lient., com. Sept. 18, 1861 ; 1st lieut., rice Agnew, 

res'd, Jan. 13, 1863 ; pro. to capt. Co. B, Feb. 23, 1863, rice Sloat, res'd ; 

killed in action at Spottsylvania, Va., May 12, 1864. 
Fanning, Edward, Corp., enl. Sept. 17, 1861 ; sergt. March 1, 1862 ; 2d 

lieut. Jlay 26, 1863; 1st lieut., rice Ramage pro., Sept. 10, 1863 ; res'd 

on account of disability, July 26, 1864. 
Fanning, James, private, enl. Sept. 17, 1861 ; trans, to Co. D. 
Feeney, Benjamin, private, enl. Sept. 17, 1861 ; must, out Oct. 7, 1864. 
Flannigan, Martin, private, enl. Sept. 17, 1861 ; trans, to Co. D ; corp. 

Dec. 15, 1863 ; re-enl. Jan. 4, 18M. 
Flannigan, Thomas, private, enl. Sept. 17, 1861 ; killed in action at Get- 
tysburg, Pa., July 2, 1863 ; buried there. 
Fanning, Henry, private, enl. Sept. 17, 1861; disch. at Camp Hooker, Va., 

Sept. 27, 1862, for disability. 
Fletcher, James, private, enl. Sept. 17, 1861 ; died at Gettysburg, Pa., of 

wounds received in action, July 8, 1863; buried there at National 

Franey, James, private, enl. Sept. 21, 1861 : must, out Oct. 7, 1864. 
Fallen, Patrick, private, enl. Sept. 17, 1861 ; most, out Oct. 7, 1864. 
Graul, Kindle, private, enl. Sept. 17, 1861 ; corp. Feb. 17, 1863 ; must, out 

Oct. 7, 1864. 
Gilmore, Michael, private, enl. Sept. 17, 1861 ; disch. at Washington, 

D. C, Sept. 29, 1864. 
Gibbons, Stephen, private, enl. Sept. 20, 1861. 
Howard. William, private, enl. Sept. 17, 1861 ; trans, to Vet. Res. Corps, 

Sept. 1, 1863 : disch. therefrom Sept. 17, 1864. 
Hartgrove, John, private, enl. Sept. 17, 1861 ; no record. 
Heald, Thomas, private, enl. Sept. 17, 1861 ; trans, to Co. D; Corp. Sept. 

15, 1862 ; sergt. June 9, 1863 ; re-enl. as private Jan. 4, 1864. 
James, John, private, enl. Sept. 17, 1861 : trans, to Vet. Res. Corps, Sept. 

30, 1863 ; disch. therefrom Sept. 17, 1864. 
Jacobus, Peter, private, enl. Sept. 17, 1861 ; disch. at Budd's Ferry, Md., 

June 13, 1862, for disability. 
Kidd, John, private, enl. Sept. 17, 1861 ; trans, to Co. D. 
Lawler, Michael, private, enl. Sept. 17, 1861 ; must. out. Oct. 7, 1864. 
Logue, Owen, sergt., enl. Sept. 17, 1861 ; 1st sergt. Dec. 5, 1862 ; killed in 

action at Chancellorsville, Va., May 3, 1863. 
Mack, John, private, enl. Sept. 26, 1861 ; died of chronic diarrhuia near 

Falmouth, Va., Jan. 19, 1863. 
Marshall, David, private, enl. Sept. 17, 1861 ; disch. at camp in the field, 

March 15, 1862, for disability. 
McKiernan, James, com. capt. Sept. 18, 1861; com. raaj. Sept. 4, 1863; 

not mustered. 
McCrossin, Thomas, musician, enl. Sept. 17, 1861 ; disch. at camp near 

Harrison's Landing, Va., July 23, 1862, for disability. 
McKewen, David, wagoner, enl. Sept. 17, 1861 ; must, out Oct. 7, 1864. 
McCormick, Edward, private, enl. Sept. 17, 1861 ; disch. at convalescent 

camp, Ale.\andria, Va,, May 4, 1863, for disability. 
McEenna, Andrew, private, enl. Sept. 17, 1861 ; disch. at U. S. A. Gen. 

Hosp., Philadelphia, Pa., Oct. 14, 1862, for disability. 
McMann, Thomas, private, enl. Sept. 17, 1861; disch. for disability at 

Fort McHenry, Md.. Oct. 31, 1862, 
Mawhinney, Edward, private, enl. Sept. 17, 1861 ; killed in action at Get- 
tysburg, Pa., July 2,18&i. 
McCousker, James, private, enl. Sept. 17, 1861 ; trans, to Vet. Res. Corps 

Sept. 1, 1863; disch. therefrom Sept. 17,1864. 



UcLaughliu, George B., private, enl. Sept. 26, 1861 ; diach. ot Wnshliig- 

tun, D. C, fur illlalillity, Nov. 30, 1861. 
McN'alib, Juscpti, [irivate, eiil. Sept. 17, 1861; Iruns. to Co. 1>; re-cni. 

Jan. 4, 18C4. 
McDonald, Tbonma, privair, enl. Srpl. It, I8C1 ; traus to Ci. 1); iiergt. 

June 13, 18CJ; must, out July 17, 1K65. 
Montgomery, Joaepli, private, enl. Sept. 17,1861 ; trans, to Co. D. 
Martin, John, private, enl. Sept. 17, 1861 ; discli. at camp in tbe Held, 

March 15. 1862, fordieability. 
M^lr^^by, William, private, enl. Sept. 17, 1861 ; corp. June 1,1863; re-enl. 

Jan. 4, 1864; sorgl. Sept. 19,1864; pro. to 2d lieut. Co. D, Nov. 13, 

1864; Ist lieut., rice Poutoz, pro. March 14, leG."!; must, out July 17, 

S'ettleton. Chandler G., private, enl. Sept. 21, ISOl; must, out Oct. 7,1864. 
Nolan, James, private, enl. Sept. 21, 18C1 ; must, out Oct. 7, 1864. 
O'Tool.Jamee, Corp., enl. Sept. 17, 1861 ; scrgt. Jan. 1, 1863; 1st aergt. 

June 1, 1863; disch. at Trenton, N. J.; paroled prisoner Feb. 3, 1865. 
Ostrander, Daniel H., private, enl. Sept. 26, 1861 ; killed in action at 

Williamsburg, Va., May 5, 1862. 
I'outoz, Louis, sergt.; enl. Sept. 17, 1861 ; private Jan. 24, 186:i ; re*enl. 

Jan. 4, 1864; pro. to 1st lieut. vicf Fanning, promoted; trans, to 

Co. D; pro. to cnpt. Co. I, March 2, 1865; must, out July 17, 1865. 
Pope, William, private, eul. Sept. 26, 1861 ; pro. to second lieut. Co. D, 

Nov. 1861 ; resd Jan. 5, 1862. 
Phalon, Michael, private, eid. Sept. 21, 1861 ; must, out Oct. 7, 1864. 
Quackenbusb, George, private, eul. Sept. 26, 1861 ; trans, to Co. I); ro*eul. 

Jan. 4, 1864; Corp. .\pril 17, 1865; must, out July 17, 1865. 
Quiulan, Patrick, private, enl. Sept. 17, 1861 ; trans, to Co. D; re^enl. 

Jan. 4, 1864 ; disch. at ward of U. S. A. IIosp., Kewark, S. J., May 

12, 1865, by order of War Dept. 
Roberts, Samuel, private, enl. Sept. 17, 1861 ; disch. at camp in the field 

for disability, March 15, 1862. 
Robinson, John, private, enl. Sept. 26, 1861 ; must, out Oct. 7, 1864. 
Roth. John, substitute, eul. Aug. 29, 1864; died Dec. 26, 1864, of wounds 

received before Peten*burg, Va. 
Ryerson, Gilean, private, enl. Sept. 26, 1861 ; trans, to Co. D ; Corp. Fob. 

18, 1862; sergt. Feb. 17, 1863; re-enl. March 10, 1864; disch. at Tren- 
ton, N. J., May 12, 1865, by onler of War Dept. ; paroled prisoner. 
Ramage, William, private, enl. Sept. 17, 1861 ; corji. March 1,1862; sergt.; 

1st sergt. May 18, 1863; Ist lieut. May 26, 1863; pro. to capl., rice 

McKieman, must, out; trans, to Co. D ; must, out July 12, 1865. 
Senb.r, George 11., private, enl. Sept. 17, 1861 ; must, out Oct. 7, 1S64. 
Schoonmaker, Ilonry, private, enl. Sept. 17, 1861 ; must, out Oct. 7, 1864. 
Schaus, John, private, enl. Sept. 17, 1861 ; no record. 
Sweeny, William, private, enl. Sept. 21, 1861 ; trans, to Co. D. 
Swift, John, private, enl. Sept. 26, 1861 ; died of chronic diarrbuea at 3d 

DIv. U. S. A. lluep., Alexandria, Va., Nov. 2.3, 1862. 
Tiffany, Jamea, private, enl. Sept. 26, 1861 ; corp. Feb 18, 1862; sergt. 

June 9, 1863; must, out Oct. 7, 1864. 
Tlasell, William, private, enl. Sept. 17, 1861 ; trans, to Vet. Res. Corpe, 

Aug. 15, 1863; returned to co. June 14, 1864; must, out Oct. 7, 18S4. 
Townsond, John, Corp., enl. Sept. 17, 1861 ; private Nov. 14, 1862 ; must. 

out (let. 7, 1864. 
Van Winkle, Fre<lerlck, private, eul. Sept. 17, 1861 ; must, out Oct. 7, 1864. 
Van Hlfer, Henry, private, enl. Sept. 17, 1861 ; trans, to Vet. Rc«. Corpe; 

disch. Sept. 21, 1864. 
Vreeland, ItichanI, private, eul. Sept. 21, 18SI ; must, out Oct. 7, 1864. 
Vreelanil, I'eter, private, enl. Sept. 17, 1861 ; must, out Oct. 7, 1864. 
Wataun, James, Corp., enl. Sept. 17,1861; kille<l In action at Wllllams- 

l.urg, Va., May 6, 1862. 
Walthall, Tlionios, private, enl. Sept. 17, 1861 ; must, out Oct. 7, 1864. 
Worden.IVtur J, private, enl. Sept. 17, 1861 ; discli. for disabllily at COD- 

valeecrnt camp, Alexandria, Va., Feb. 28, 186.1. 
Weet, George W., private, enl. Sept. 17, 1861 ; must, out Oct. 7, 1864. 
Walden, George II., private, enl. Sept. 17, 1861 ; must, out Oct. 7, 1864. 
Willis, William K., private, enl. Sept. 17, 1861 ; must, out Oct. 7, 1864. 
Whitly, John, prlvote, enl. Sept. 17, 1K61 ; must, out Oct. 7, 18(14. 
WikkI, Wllllom II., pHvate, enl. Sept. 17, 1861 ; disch. for disability at 

Fort Mcllenry, Md., Slept. 22, 1862. 


OF THE REBELLION— (Continuc.1 1. 

The Ninth Regiment. — The Ninth Regiment of 
New Jersey Volunteers was recruited as a rifle regi- 

I ment, under a requisition from the War De|)artment, 
in the fall of 1861. It wiis made up from ditl'erent 
parts of the State. About fifty men enlisted in it 

I from Passaic County, who contributed their full share 
to the honor which it achieved in the field. It was 
one of the best regiments sent out by the State, num- 
bering on- its muster-rolls at the time of its departure 
from Camp Olden for Washington, Dec. 4, 18(il, one 
thousand one hundred and forty-two men. The regi- 
ment remained in camp at Meridian Hill until the 
3d of January, 18(i2, when it was brigaded under 
Gen. Jesse L. Reno (First Hrigadei, and assigned to 
Burnside's expedition in North Carolina. On arriving 
at Hatteras Inlet, January loth, a disaster occurred 
which cast a gloom not only over tlie regiment and 
army in that quarter, but over many anxious friends 
at home. Having cast anchor off the Inlet, the field 

I and statl-oflicers went on shore to rejiort to tien. Hurn- 

, side; returning the boat was capsi/ed and swamped 
in a heavy surf, and all on board left to struggle with 
the merciless waves. Col. Joseph Warner Allvn, com- 

' mander of the regiment, and Surgeon Frederick S. 
Weller were drowned. Lieut. -Col. Heckman, Adjt. 
Abram Zabriskie, and Qiiartcrma.ster Keycs narrowly 
escaped. The secunU unite, sent from the ship in 
charge of the boat, was also drowned. Lieut. -Col. 
Heckman and Adjt. Zabriskie, being expert swimmers, 
made several heroic attempts to rescue the colonel and 
Surgeon Weller, but were unsuccessful. These two 
brave men, battling with the waves till their strength 
was nearly exhausted, succeedeil in making a signal 
of a sailor's shirt lifted upon an oar, which was seen, 
and the steamer " Patuxeiit" at once hastcne<l to their 
relief. So overcome were the survivors by their ex- 
ertions that upon reaching the deck of the steamer 
some of them sank into insensibility. Lieut.-Col. 
Heckman remained in a state of prostration for sev- 
eral days. The Imdies ot Col. Allen, Dr. Weller, and 
the second mate were recovered during the day, and 
every effort made to resuscitate them, but in vain. 
Adjt. Zabriskie, who struggled so heroically to save 
his drowning comrades, was a native of Hackeiisack, 
Bergen Co., ami Dr. Frederick S. Weller, surgeon of 
the Ninth Hegiment, was born in I'atersoii, where he 
was for many years a higlily-esteemed citizen and a 
successful ])ractitioner of his profession. We shall 
revert to Adjt. Zabriskie farther on in the history of 
this regiment. Meanwhile we place on record the 
following brief sketch of Dr. Weller: 

Frederick S. Weller was licirn in I'atersun on .March 
6, 181'.i, and was drowned at Hatteras Inlet, N. (.'., 
Jan. 10, 1862. He was of German descent on bis 


father's side, his ancestors haviug settled in KentiKky 
about the beginning of the present century; his 
mother's parents were of Irish extraction, and were 
among the earliest residents of Paterson. 

Dr. Weller lost his father when he was five years 
of age, and was brought up by liis mother, a very 
worthy and respectable lady. At the age of eighteen 
he entered upon the study of medicine in the office 
of the late Dr. Marsh. He graduated at the Old 
School College, Crosby Street, New York City, in 
1837, practiced medicine two years at Gaines, N. Y., 
when he returned to Paterson, and soon after, owing to 
ill health, took up his residence at St. Augustine, Fla., 
where he married Mrs. E. A. Loring. In 1845 he re- 
turned to Paterson, and devoted himself to the prac- 
tice of his |)rofession with constantly increasing suc- 
cess up to the time of his appointment as surgeon of 
the Ninth Regiment. In the service he was self- 
sacrificing and devoted to his duties, esteeming it his 
highest reward to serve his country. His services 
were highly appreciated, and he was made acting 
brigade surgeon by order of Gen. Casey. His body 
was sent home for interment, and the esteem in which 
he was held by his fellow-citizens was attested by one 
of the largest funerals ever held in Paterson. 

Upon the death of Col. Allen, Lieut.-Col. Heckman 
assumed command of the regiment. Considerable 
time was spent in getting the vessels through the 
Inlet, but at length, the fleet having all arrived in 
Pamlico Sound, on the (ith of February the signal 
was given, and the dozen gunboats under command 
of Commodore Goldsborough led the advance towards 
Roanoke Island, the stronghold of the rebels, which 
they held in force and had fortified with batteries and 
rams. This island, which commanded the strait be- 
tween the two Sounds, Pamlico and Albermarle, 
was the direct object of Burnside's attack. It was a 
grand and imposing spectacle, the sight of that fleet 
of boats as it passed up the Sound, each gayly decked 
in its trimmest bunting, the flag-ship bearing at its 
mast-head the significant motto, "To-day the country 
expects every man to do his duty." At nine o'clock 
the gunboats opened on the picket-boats of the rebels, 
and the first action was inaugurated in which the 
Ninth Regiment took a part. The history of the 
action records that " from first to last the conduct of 
the Ninth was in the highest degree courageous. 
They occupied a swamp over which the enemy had 
constructed a causeway for their own convenience, 
and up to their hips in mud and water advanced to 
the edge of the timber commanding the road, about 
one hundred yards from the fort, which up to this 
time still defied the assaults of our forces. Here the 
regiment opened a vigorous fire on the enemy, which 
was returned for a time with great vehemence. Pres- 
ently, however, owing to the heavy fire of the Ninth, 
the musketry fire from the fort visibly slackened, but 
the batteries still poured a storm of shot and shell 
into our ranks. Under these circumstances Col. Heck- 

man directed that particular attention should be given 
to picking off the cannoneers, and the result was soon 
apparent. So accurate was the fire of the men that 
the rebel guns were now but seldom discharged, and 
then altogether regardless of their aim. . . . On being 
driven from the fort the enemy retreated to the imme- 
diate fortifications along the shores, but, finding that 
further resistance would be useless, they surrendered, 
giving into our hands five forts, thirty-three pieces of 
artillery, and two thousand eight hundred prisoners." 
By the capture of the island the key was gained to 
all the inland waters of North Carolina. This first 
victory was truly an important one, and may well 
have inspired the victors with great confidence and 
enthusiasm. "The enemy, after the battle, admitted 
that they had never supposed a body of troops could 
operate in the swamp, and it was undoubtedly the 
occupation of this swamp, by which operations upon 
the rebel flank became possible, which secured the 
great success of the day." 

It was probably in recognition of this fact that 
Gen. Burnside promulgated an order on the evening 
of tlie 10th of February that the Ninth Regiment 
should have the words " Roanoke Island, Feb. 8, 1862," 
emblazoned on their banners.' 

The island became the drill-ground of the brigade 
until the advance was made on Newberne on the 11th 
of March. Here the rebel fort, mounting sixty-nine 
cannon, was taken by our army. In this action the 
Ninth Regiment soon silenced the rebel guns by 
picking oft' the gunners with deadly accuracy of aim. 
When their ammunition had been reduced to ten 
rounds Gen. Reno ordered up the Fifty-first Penn- 
sylvania to take their place, but Col. Hickman beg- 
ging that he might be permitted to charge, the order 
was finally given. " That charge settled the contest. 
Dashing eagerly forward, leaping from ditch to ditch, 
now wading knee-deep in mire, now rushing over 
pitfalls, through an almost impenetrable abatis, the 
irresistible assailants swept up to the earthworks, 
climbed their blood-stained, slippery sides, and a 
moment after had captured the whole line of fortifi- 
cations in their front, with six guns, one stand of colors, 
many prisoners, and field, staff", and artillery horses. 
Almost simultaneously the flags of the Ninth waved 
from two of the enemy's redans, while the right 
guidon floated from a third, which but a moment 
before had been occupied by the enemy. The Ninth 
was followed by the Fifty-first New York, Col. Ferrero, 
on the right, and soon after by the entire division, 
which took complete possession of the rebel works, 
mounting some sixty-nine cannon." ' 

The New York Tribune, reporting this battle, said, — 

'* In the capture of Newberne the Ninth New Jersey Regiment sus- 
tained the honor of their State with characteristic gaUantry. Though 
their position in that brilliant engagement was one of great exposure, 
they bore themselves through the conflict like veterans, suffering more 

1 Netvark Daily Advertifer, quoted by Foster, p. 2U. 
- Foster's "New Jersey in the Rebellion," p. 213. 



severely than any other regiment in the field. Out of a tutal Io« of 
three hundred and sixty-four killed and wounded, tlipy lost sixty-two, 
or oue-eixth of tlie wliole, ollhougli twelve reginiouts were in tlie battle. 
Bravo for the Jomey Bluos !'* 

Two days after this battle Lieut. -Col. Heckman re- 
ceived his commission as colonel of the regiment, 
while Maj. Wilson was notified of his promotion to 
the lieutenant-colonelcy. At the same time Adjt. 
Zabriskie was promoted to the majority, and Lieut. 
Abel, of Company E, was made adjutant. 

We do not propose to follow the regiment through 
all the details of its campaigns and engagements. Its 
brilliant beginning was well sustained to the close of 
its period of service. The achievements of Koanoke 
Island and Newberne shed a lustre upon the arms of 
New Jjersey, and inspired the poetical genius of Corp. 
Gould, of the Ninth Regiment, to compose the fol- 
lowing regimental song, which is well worthy of a 
place in this record : 

"Ais—'ScoU Wha Hut; etc. 
"Sous of Jereey, swell the song. 
Let yutir notes be loud and long. 
Make the Tuion army strong, — 

On tt> victoi'y ! 
Roanoke has felt our power, 
Newberne, too, can tell the hour 
When the rebels had to cower 
'Neath our Infantry. 

" Jersey's sous stood front in Hght, 
Jersey's sons have shown their might, 
Jersey's sires rtyoico to-night 

Fur our chivalry. 
With our colonel at our head. 
There we rained our showers of lead, 
Strewed the field with rebel dead 

From our niii!4kelry. 

" Let our friends at homo rejoice, 
With a loud and cheerful voice 
f*ing the iiraiso of Jersey boys 

With all Jollity. 
Tell the tale to old and young, 
How llio Niiitli, so proud and strong, 
Have their glorious laurels won, 

All ftir victory. 

"Sing the praise of those who bled. 
Mourn with us the gallant dead, 
Who their richest bloofl have shed 

For our IilK>rty. 
Long they stemmed the battle's tide, 
Bravely fought ami bravely died; 
Spread their praises far and wide, 

Dear their memory." 

Gkorox C. Qovld, Company C, Ninth New Jeraey Regiment, July, 

Corp. Gould entered the service from Paterson ; he 
was made a corporal in Company C, Sept. 10, 18(!1, 
and re-cnli-itcd at the expiration of his term of service, 
Nov. 25, 186;{. 

The close of the year 1802 wa.s marked by several 
important cliaiiges in the ollicial roster of the regi- 
ment. Col. lli'ckman, on the 2"2<1 of December, re- 
ceived hi.s commission as brigadier-general, dated ( )ct. 
29, 1862, announcing his promotion for " signal ability 

I and meritorious services." He was at once asisigned 
to the command of the First Brigade, ,Second Divis- 
ion, Eighteenth Army Corps, consisting of the Ninth 
New Jersey and Third, Eighth, and Twenty-third 
; Massachusetts. On the same day Dr. A. W. Wood- 
hull, who succeeded Dr. Weller as surgeon of the 
Ninth Regiment, was made brigade surgeon. On the 
I 24th a beautiful stand of colors was presented to the 
i Ninth, accom])anied by a series of resolutions from 
I the State Legislature. The first of these resolutions 
reads as follows: 

" Rt^ohed, That the Nintli Regiment of New Jersey Volunteers, by 
their patient endurance under privalinn and futigne, and by their cour- 
age at the ever-to-be-remeniliered battles of K,>anokc and Newberne (a 
1 courage evinced by the havoc nmde in their own unwavering columns 
1 better than by the reports of partial journalsi, have suslaiiieil the high 
reputation which since the days of the Revolntiitn has belonged to the 
soldiers of New Jersey, and as evidence of our appreciation of that acme 
of every manly virtue, * patriotic devotion to country,' the Governor of 
' the Stjite is requested to have prepared and forwardeil to said regiment 
! a standard on which shall be inscribed these words : ' Presented by New 
] Jersey to her Ninth Regiment, in remembrance of Roanoke and New- 
berne.' " 

The year 186.3 opened with the Nintli in cainp and 
Lieut.-Col. Abram Zabriskie promoted to the col- 
onelcy. .After an uneventful expedition to Port 
Royal, S. C, with a view of joining in a general 
movement upon Charleston, Heckman's brigade was 
ordered to return to North Carolina to aid (Jen. 
Foster at Little Washington. On their approach 
the rebels under Hill evacuated the i)lace. Three 
companies of the Ninth Regiment had been left 
behind in the hasty embarkation at Helena Island, 
and had marched to join their comrades, making the 
distance from Newberne to Little Washiiigt<in, some 
forty miles, in a day and a night. This march has 
been set down as one of the most extraordinary of the 
war. The Ninth returned to Newberne by steamer, 
and on the ISth of May Col. Zabriskie assumed com- 
mand of the District of Reaufort, during the tempo- 
rary absence of Gen. Heckman. I'p to the :i<ith of 
July the brigade operated in destroying the Weldoii 
and other important railroad communications. < >n 
the 13th of August Maj. -Gen. Peck took command of 
the District of North Carolina, relieving Gen. Heck- 
man, and on the 2()tli, many meiiiliers of the Ninth 
being sick with cliills and fever, the regiment was 
sent to Carolina City, where it remained unemployed 
for a month and a half At this time nearly tliri'e 
hundred men were reported sick and unfit for duty. 
On the 18th of October the regiment again broke 
camp, and with the remainder of Heckman's com- 
mand proceeded to Newport News, Va., where the 
regiment went into camj) near the James River and 
remained during the rest of the year. 

On the 16th of January, 1864, Gen. Heckman bade 
' farewell to his brigade, having been luwigned to tin- 
command of the District of Sutlblk. The term for 
which the Ninth had enlisted having nearly expired, 
on the 21st of .laiiuary I'ol. Zabriskie addressed his 
conimanil on the subject of n-eiilis|ineiit. Two-tlii(ds 


of the entire number at once enlisted for "three years 
or the war," and upon " veteran furlough" embarked 
on the 31st of January for a short visit to New Jersey. 
They arrived in Jersey City on the 4tli of February, 
where they were received by the city authorities, and 
after suitable entertainment proceeded to Trenton, 
and thence to their homes, where fond ones awaited 
their coming. 

" On the 15th of March the gallant Ninth, strength- 
ened by a number of recruits, once more set its face 
towards the field." On the 17th it arrived at Ports- 
mouth, Va., and proceeding to Getty's Station, again 
united with Heckman's command. The regiment 
from this time till September 17th was engaged in 
the principal campaigns in Virginia, being in the 
actions in front of Petersburg from June 20th to Aug. 
24, 1864. Subsequently it served in North Carolina 
till the close of the war. 

The five days' battle at Drury's Bluff, from May 12 
to 16, 1864, wa.s the most disastrous to the Ninth 
Regiment of any in which it was engaged during the 
war. At twelve o'clock at night on the 15th the 
rebels began a flank movement on the extreme right 
of Heckman's brigade, held by the Ninth Regiment, 
an open space being between it and the James River. 
Gen. Heckman, who had expected such a movement 
all day, had asked for reinforcements, first of Gen. 
Smith and then of Gen. Butler, but these commanders 
either could not withdraw their troops from other 
points or did not share Gen. Heckman's apprehen- 
sions of his exposed situation. At all events no re- 
inforcements were obtained. Early on the morning 
of the 16th Heckman's brigade was attacked by five 
brigades of picked troops. The general, having ex- 
pected the assault, was ready for it, and received 
them with a galling fire at short range, forcing them 
back. In three subsequent attacks they were re- 
pulsed with great slaughter. The enemy being more 
than five times the number of the Union force, and 
the right of the latter being open, Gen. Heckman 
ordered the brigade to retire to a new position. In 
executing this movement, after having placed the 
Ninth in position, the general passed through a 
breach in the lines and was taken prisoner. The 
morning was very foggy ; it was impossible to see the' 
length of a company. Before the general was cap- 
tured he said truly, and with bitterness, " I am 
outdone this time, when, with only two sections of 
artillery and with one regiment and a half of in- 
fantry as reinforcements, I would have been able to 
prevent the sad catastrophe." According to subse- 
quent reports made by rebel ofiicers, the loss of the 
rebels in front of Heckman's brigade doubled in 
number the whole of that brigade. The loss of the 
Ninth was ten killed, seventy-seven wounded, and 
seventy-five missing, making with losses for the pre- 
vious days a total of twelve killed, one hundred 
wounded, and seventy-five missing. 

In this engagement fell the gallant Col. Zabriskie. 

While engaged in encouraging his men, a ball struck 
him on the front part of the throat, and passing 
through the windpipe, lodged in the vicinity of the 
spinal column in the neck. The wound, upon ex- 
amination, was pronounced fatal. He survived eight 
days, and died in Chesapeake Hospital, on the 24th 
of May, 1864. 

Col. Abram Zabriskie was the third son of Hon. 
A. 0. Zabriskie, late chancellor of New Jersey, and 
was born in Hackensack, Bergen County, on Feb. 18, 
1841. He entered the College of New Jersey in 1856, 
and graduated with honor in 1859, immediately com- 
mencing the study of the law, which he prosecuted 
until he entered the army. From his earliest child- 
hood he had been distinguished by vigor and clear- 
ness of intellect, no less than by his great intrepidity 
of character, and these characteristics made him a 
man of mark from the moment he enlisted in the 
nation's service. At the time when the Rebellion 
ripened into open hostilities, Zabriskie had just com- 
pleted his preparations for a tour in Europe ; his 
state-room had been engaged, and he confidently ex- 
pected to sail with Hon. William L. Dayton, our 
minister to France. But he was not one to consult 
his own pleasure when the country was in peril, and 
instantly, upon hearing of the fell of Sumter, he de- 
cided to abandon the trip, to which he had looked for- 
ward with so much satisfaction. Soon after, having 
deliberately determined upon his course, he entered 
the service as adjutant of the Ninth Regiment, with 
which he was identified until he fell upon the field. 
Although only nineteen years of age, he commanded 
from the first the profoundest esteem of his comrades, 
among whom his influence was unbounded. Ability, 
courage, the most sterling patriotism were all his, 
and wherever placed these high qualities found con- 
spicuous manifestations. As colonel of the Ninth 
Regiment his record was not merely .spotless, it was 
lustrous. Even in his last hours, when the shadow of 
death lay upon his face, and life's beauty and joy 
faded like a ))leasant picture from his darkened 
vision , his thoughts were of his country and of the 
comrades who were still, with heroic endurance, brav- 
ing the perils of a doubtful field. 

" The high estimate placed by the public upon Col. 
Zabriskie's services was clearly exhibited in the ex- 
pressions of the press, as well as the action of public 
bodies, immediately upon his death. The Common 
Council of Jersey City, at a special meeting called for 
the purpose, adopted a series of resolutions warmly 
applauding his patriotic course, and lamenting his as a loss to the country at large. The mem- 
bers of the bar of Hudson County issued a memorial 
commemorative of his virtues, while all the leading 
journals pronounced glowing eulogies upon his char- 
acter. His remains were interred in Greenwood 
Cemetery, on May 28, 1864, four days after his death, 
and twelve after receiving his fatal wound. He fell 
near Drury's Bluff, on the 16th of May, being struck 



by a ball in the front part of the throat, which passed 
through and lodged in the spine, while encfiuraging 
his men. Capt. Lawrence, who was near at the time, 
was directed to inform Lieut.-Col. Stewart, with di- 
rections to him to assume command. But Lawrence 
also fell soon after, shot through the leg, which being 
amputated, he died two weeks later. Seeing that 
most of liis officers were disable<l. Col. Zabriskie, al- 
though weak from loss of blood, went himself in 
search of the lieutenant-colonel, to whom he trans- 
ferred the command, and then staggered to the rear. 
On the 17th he was sent to Chesapeake Hospital, 
where he lingered till the 24th, when, witii friends 
and relatives around him, he breathed his last. One 
who served under him in all his cami>aigns says of 
him, ' He was not only highly esteemed by his 
officers, but they looked upon him with a reverence 
founded on an impulse more noble, more sublime 
than that of rank, — a reverence springing from a 
superiority of principle, of knowledge, and of virtue 
rarely found in one so young.' " 

The principal battles in which the Ninth Regiment 
was engaged were the following: Roanoke Island, 
N. C, Feb. 8, 1862 ; Newberne, N. C, March 14, 1862 ; 
Fort Macon, N. C, April 25, 1862 ; Young's Cross- 
roads, N. C, July 27, 1862; Rowell's Mill, N. C, 
Nov. 2, 1862; Deep Creek, N. C, Dec. 12, 1862; 
Southwest Creek, N. C, Dec. 13, 18(!2; Kinston, 
N. C, Dec. 13 and 14, 1862; Whitehall, N. C, Dec. 
16, 1862; Goldsborough, N. C, Dec. 17, 1862; Com- 
fort, N. C, July 6, 1863 ; near Winton, N. C, July 26, 
1863 ; Deep Creek, N. C, Feb. 7. 1864 ; Cherry Grove, 
N. C, .\i)ril 14, 1864; Port Walthall, Va., May 6 and 
7, 1864; Swift Creek, Va., May i> and 10, 1864; 
Drury's BluM', Va., May 12, 13, 14, 15, and 16, 1864; 
Cold Harbor, Va., June 3-12, 1864, ten days in suc- 
cession ; Petersburg, Va., June 20 to Aug. 24, 1864; 
Gardner's Bridge, N. C, Dec. 9, 1864; Foster's 
Bridge, N. C, Dec. 10, 18(54; Butler's Bridge, N. C, 
Dec. 11, 1864; near Southwest Creek, N. C, March 
7, 186r. ; Wise's Fork, N. C, March 8, 9, and 10, 1865 ; 
Cioldsborough, N. C, March 21, 1865. 

Tenth Regiment. — "This regiment was raised by 
iiicli\ iiluaU, iini aiilliorized by the State, and accepted 
by the War Department a-s an indei>endent organi- 
zation, some time in the fall of 1861, ami was not 
known by the State authorities until it was j)laced 
under their care, Jan. 29, 1862." 

Such is the statement indorsed on the original ros- 
ter. The organi/ation was at first known as the 
"Olden Legiiin.'' It was reeruitecl at Beverly, where 
it had it« liea(h|Uarters, by William Hryan, who be- 
came its colonel, and proceeded to Washington in 
December, 1861. Company F of this regiment was 
raised chiefly in Passaic County, and was under Wil- 
liam Keiinywon as captain, Isaac T. Thackray as first 
lieutenant, and Stephen W. ,\llen iis second lieuten- 
ant. Capt. Hennyson entered the company ils first 
lieutenant, Dec. 31, 1861, and was promoted to the 

captaincy to fill an original vacancy, March 28, 1862. 
He resigned .Tan. 26, 1864, and First Lieut. Thackray 
Wiis promoted to fill his place. The latter died of 
wounds received in action at the battle of the Wil- 
derness, May 6, 1864, and Second Lieut. William 
Todd, of Company K, was made captain of the regi- 
ment. Second Lieut. Stephen W. Allen was pro- 
moted to first lieutenant upon the promotion of Ren- 
nyson to the captaincy. Allen resigned June 12, 
1863, and his place was filled by Joseph R. Horner, 
afterwards captain of Company E, Thirty-fourth 

When the regiment was accepted by the State it 
was in a measure reorganized, and placed under com- 
mand of Col. William R. Murphy. It was detailed 
for provost duty at Washington in February. 1862, 
and so remained until the spring of 1863. much to 
the dissatisfaction of Col. Murphy, who resigned in 
consequence of the regiment not being ordered in 
active service. His place was filled by Col. Henry 
Ogden Ryerson, who fell in the battle of the Wilder- 
ness, May 6, 1864. 

From the time the Tenth Regiment engaged in the 
more a(itive and perilous duties of the war it made 
for itself a most brilliant record. " It shared in all 
the battles of the Wilderness, and fought with its 
corps all the way to Petersburg, on every field dis- 
playing conspicuous gallantry," and when transferred 
with the First Brigade to the Shenandoah \'alley, it 
made in the several campaigns of that region an 
eijually honor.iblc record till the close of the war. 

Thirteenth Regiment.— This regiment had two 
companies — C and K — raised in Passaic County, and 
commanded resjiectively by Capts. David A. Ryerson 
and Hugh C. Irish. The regiment was raised under 
the call of the President for three hundred thousand 
volunteers to serve for three years or during the war, 
dated July 7, 1862, and although not mustered into 
the United Sti\tes service until the 2r)th of .Vugust, 
the (|UOta required of the county of Passaic 
raised by the prompt and energetic action of her 
war committee in fourteen days. The two companies 
shared the fortunes of the regiment and contributed 
to its honorable achievements till the close of the 
great struggle for the preservation of the Union. 

The Thirteenth Regiment was mustered in at Camp 
Frelinghuysen, Newark, and left the State en mule 
for Washington Aug. 31, 1862, arriving in that city 
on the 2d of September, and going into camp near 
Fort Richardson, on .Vrlington Heights. Here it was 
assigned to the Third Brigade, First Division, Twellth 
Corps, .\rniy ofthe Potomac, ami immediately moved 
fi>rward with the army, assisting in preventing the in- 
vasion of Pennsylvania and Maryland by the enemy. 
The regiment was attached to the .Vrmy of the Poto- 
mac until Sept. 24, 1863, at which time, by order of 
the War Department, it was detached, with the en- 
tire Twelfth Corps, for service in the West. They 
' were then assigned to the .\rmy of the Tennessee, and 



remained therewith until November, 1864, when the)' 
joined the array of Gen. Sherman on his march 
tlirough Georgia and the Carolinas. At difterent 
. times during the years 1863, 1864, and 1865 the 
strength of the regiment was increased by the joining 
from draft reservations, Trenton, N. J., of large num- 
bers of recruits. The regiment continued its organi- 
zation and remained in active service until the close 
of the war, and those coming under the provisions of 
General Order No. 77, War Department, April 28, 
1865, were mustered out near Washington, June 8, 
1865 ; the remainder were transferred to the Thirty- 
third Regiment, in accordance with General Order 
No. 12, Headquarters Twentieth Army Corps, near 
Washington, and were mustered out with that regi- 

The regiment was first attached to the Third Bri- 
gade, Firet Division, Twelfth Corps ; then to the 
Second Brigade, First Division, Twelfth Corps. The 
following list of engagements in which the regiment 
participated will give some idea of the extent of its 
services. It was engaged in the battles of South 
Mountain, Md., Sept. 14, 1862; Antietam, Md., Sept. 
17, 1862 ; Chancellorsville, Va., May 1-3, 1863 ; Get- 
tysburg, Pa., July 2 and 3, 1863 ; Rocky Fac*e Ridge, 
Ga., May 8-11, 1864; Resaca, Ga., May 15, 1864; 
Cassville, Ga., May 16, 1864; Dallas, Ga., May 25, 
1864; Pine Knob, Ga., June 16, 1864; Gulp's Farm, 
Ga., June 22, 1864; Kenesaw Mountain, Ga., June 
27, 1864; Nancy's Creek, Ga., July 18, 1864; Peach- 
Tree Creek, Ga., July 20, 1864 ; siege of Atlanta, Ga., 
July 22 to Sept. 1, 1864; Sandersville, Ga., Nov. 26, 
1864 : near Savannah, Ga., Dec. 6, 1864 ; capture of 
Savannah, Ga., Dec. 15-21, 1864; Averysboro', N. C, 
March 16, 1865; Bentonville, N. C, March 18-20, 


OF THE KEBELLIOX— (Continued). 

Twenty-second Regiment (Bergex County 
Rei;imkn-t|. — The Twenty-second Regiment was or- 
ganized under the provision of an act of Congress, 
approved July 22, 1861, and was mustered into the 
United States service for nine months on Sept. 22, 
1862. A draft had been ordered for this date to fill 
a requisition made upon the Governor for ten thou- 
sand four hundred and seventy-eight men, to serve 
for nine months unless sooner discharged. Such was 
the enthusiasm throughout the State to raise the re- 
quired quota by voluntary enlistments and thus pre- 
vent the draft that by the time for the latter the 
quota for the State was entirely filled. To this credit- 
able result Bergen County contributed one regiment, 
the Twenty-second Infantry, which was made up 

chiefly from the bone and sinew of her agricultural 
population, and composed of as respectable and 
worthy a class of young men as entered the service 
during the war. The total number of officers and 
men was 939. The regiment left the State for Wash- 
ington, D. C, on Sept. 29, 1862, and upon arriving at 
its destination was ordered into camp ten miles north 
of Georgetown, D. C, having been assigned to a pro- 
visional brigade, Casey's division, defenses of Wash- 
ington. It remained in this position until about the 
1st of December, when it proceeded to Aquia Creek, 
Va., and was assigned to provost duty, guarding the 
railroad, transferring wounded, prisoners, etc. In 
January, 1863, the regiment was assigned to the First 
Army Corps, and joined the Army of the Potomac. 
It continued its organization and remained in active 
service until the expiration of its term, when it was 
ordered to return to New Jersey for its discharge, 
and was mustered out of service at Trenton, June 25, 

The regiment was first attached to Casey's division, 
defenses of Washington, then to Patrick's brigade, 
provost-guard Army of the Potomac, then to the 
Third Brigade, First Division, First Army Corps. It 
took part in no important engagement except the 
movement on Chancelloi'sville, Va., May 2 and 3, 

The original field, staff, and line-officers of the 
regiment were as follows : 

Field and Staff. — Cornelius Fornett, colonel ; Alex- 
ander Douglas, lieutenant-colonel ; Abraham G. Dem- 
arest, major; John F. Satterthwaite, adjutant; Ural 
B. Titus, quartermaster; Jacob B. Quick, surgeon; 
Samuel A. Jones, assistant surgeon ; John E. Gary, 
second assistant surgeon; Abraham G. Ryerson, chap- 

Non-commissinned Staff. — John Fredon, sergeant- 
major; James T. Grinnelly, quartermaster-sergeant ; 
Frederick P. Van Riper, commissary-sergeant ; Ben- 
jamin S. Meunier, hospital steward. 

Lhie- Officers. — Company A, Robert W. Berrj-, cap- 
tain ; Jacob Post, first lieutenant ; Jacob S. Lozier, 
second lieutenant. 

Company B, Abraham Van Emburg, captain ; Ja- 
cob Z. Van Blarcom, first lieutenant ; Benjamin Z. 
Van Emburg, second lieutenant. 

Company C, Samuel D. Demarest, captain ; Wil- 
liam J. Demarest, first lieutenant ; Joseph P. Vree- 
land, second lieutenant. 

Company D, John C. Westervelt, captain ; Walter 
H. Rumsey, first lieutenant; Nicholas Collingnon, 
second lieutenant. 

Company E, William Chippendale, cajitain ; Wil- 
liam Drew, first lieutenant ; John Gilham, second 

Company F, James M. Ayers, captain ; Jacob 
Titus, first lieutenant ; George W. Cubberley, sec- 
ond lieutenant. 

Company G, John H. Margerum, captain ; Richard 



H. Ivory, first lieutenaut ; William C. Vanderwater, 
second lieutenant. 

Comimny H, Daniel D. Blauvelt, captain; Thomas 
G. T. Paterson, first lieutenant; George Kingsland, 
second lieutenant. 

Company 1, Thomas II. Swcnarton, captain ; Jo- 
seph A. HlauvL'lt, first lieutenant; David C. Bhiu- 
velt, second lieutenant. 

Company K, Richard C. Dey, captain ; Gerret J, 
Christie, first lieutenant ; James Christie, second 

The following incidents in the history of the regi- 
ment during its period of service are taken chiefly 
from correspondence of the Bergen County Democrat, 
and^will be read with interest by many survivors of 
the regiment and their friends. 

The regiuuMit left Trenton for Washington rather 
hurriedly, iirevcnting the presentation of tlie regi- 
mental flag which had been provided for the Twenty- 
second by the State. It was, however, forwarded to 
them at their camp near Georgetown, and in due time 
fornially presented to the regiment. 

The first letter from "Camp Bergen, Washington, 
D. C," was written on the 2d of October. This letter 

" We arc in the aiiny. Vic are amung^t the number manj of whuni 
are liattliiig for the Uiiiun rh il is, not im it vm». But we )iiteu<l to do 
our duty juatly, fairly, und uprightly. We truit we shall be an honor 
to the name of Bergen County and the glorious HCtle State of New Jer- 
iey. ... 

"TheTwenty-secotid nuoiber^ about 9i>0 men, and its fine a net of men 
aa ever left the Stale, they being mostly farmers' t»ons. . . . Wceroi|uar< 
tered on F^t Cui>itol lUll, in Gen. r^isey'd division. It begins lo look 
like fight with us. Thirty thousand men have left Washington fur the 
rpi>er PutAtnac witldri the last two days. 

"October '>. The Twenty -second Id-ginient Is od the more. Our plny- 
ing days have gone by. anrl it begins to look as If w© were going to be 
pushed forward to tlio scene of a great conflict. . . . There was .luit*- ii 
sad accident in ('oni|iany K, Capt. Dey's, ou Siimlay morning last. The 
6th Sergeant of the company broke )iis leg just lielow the knee, caused 
by runidng round thn.>ugh the tents. On the Hth of Octol>er (be regi- 
ment occupied Camp Fornett, one hundred men being loft behind to 
guard the tents and baggage. They bmught up the reiir the next day." , 

Writing from Camp Fornett, a correspondentsays, — 

" We marchei! to Tenallytown, six miles distint from (be Cnpibil and 
Moven from Camp Bergen. A post-olllce, teb'graph-tjfllce, and a small 
store and blacksmith-shop constitutes the town. We re^Ktrted ourselves 
at ' Fort Pennsylvania,' near the town, after which we were oidered to 
bivouac in a small grove neiir by for the night; ue to<.ik the heavens 
for our covering, and our kuap«i( ks for our pillows. It was tin- r()ol«st 
night that has Iwen ex|N)riencod by us (bus far, many of thi- b<»ys being 
so tired they could He down and sleep In almost any place." 

(")n the !»lii of ()ctol)er, the ro^inient having joined 
the Army of tl»e Potomac, a corn-Mpondent writes, — 

"The Twenty-eecond Hegiment were on the 9tli Instant aruiml with 
•hovels and pickaxoa, to help ronstmrl a road l>etween Fort Alexandrln 
and Fort IVnnsylvnido, a distance of »onie thref miles. ... A private be- 
longing to Capi. W«*«lervelt'*rom|>any, having tmen at work on the road, 
Injomptng ai:i<Mm a ditch with an axe in his hand, cut the forellnger 
and thumb of his right hand, nearly severing them iKJth at the ftrst Joint. 
He will pndtably be diivharged. This Is the second accident Ihnt has 
fK-rurrwd In the n-glmmt witliln a short time." 

Flag Presentation.— f>n the luh of October, 18(i2, 
:i iM-aiiliriil rt>;iminlal Hng wum presented to the 

Twenty-second hy a committee consi.sting of several 
gentlemen, accompanied by the following address: 


" In behalf of the citizens of Bergen County, we have the honor to 
present to you these flags. The one Is to remind you that you are citi- 
zens of the imtriotic State of New Jersey, and the other that you are part 
of the brave and invincible defenders of the Union. Be assured that they 
are the oflferings of loving hearts, following you in the aspirations of love 
from the fireside uf home to the field of war, and appreciating your loy- 
alty and patriotism in daring to live or die for your country. Centred in 
them are the contributions of a kind father, a noble brother, and many a 
strong and steadfast friend ; and while they are carried aloft In defense of 
your country and the right, do not forget the loved ones at home. What 
more beautiful emblem of their devotion to their country could be pre- 
sented? They see their country assailed by the most formidable and 
wicked rebellion that ever desolated the peace of nations or of the 
World. They see this unholy war waged iigainst the very life of the re- 
public, and threatening to overthrow tht- foundations of the noblest 
structure of national greatness and prosperity the world ever saw. They 
see tlio bloody hands of Itase conspirators violently desftoiling the holy 
altar of liberty. And in tlie presentation of tliese emblems they say to 
you, crush the rebellion, our republic and country shall never be de- 
stroyed, consjiiracy must be punished, and llial punlchuient must be as 
terrible as the crime is fiendish. They say to you, thei»e flags are the 
emblems of our nationality, not of a broken and dissevered nation, but of 
the * Union, now and forever, one an<l insepantble.' When the Union 
shall be dissolved let the flags be laid aside and KH>ked upon as the relics 
of our former greatness, and let them be a reproval to us that we had 
become too weak, too mean, and too disloyal to pndect and defend 

"They have no fear that you will prove recreant to your high calling 
and noble trust. They know they have placed these flags in true and 
patriotic bands, and that they shall never be surrendered while a veatige 
of rebellion shall Ua leit unpunlshe<l. In protecting and defending these 
flags you also protect and defend the land of Washington, of yourfathers, 
and of yourselves. In this hour of your country's iR'ril noble hearts and 
strong hands must stand by her, and when she comes out of this fiery 
struggle with unholy rebellion, as she must and will, you may rely ui>on 
the blessing of your own and many future generations; you will then be 
happy, and have the assunince that you have aided your beloved but 
struggling cttuntry in her noble endeavore to strike down the traIton>iu 
arm of the Idoody assassin who would destroy her national pn>sperity 
and greatness and take away her natural life ; you will al»> have rooMin 
to thank your Cod that in your short tlay and generation ' the Star- 
S|Hingled Banner' in reality * doth M'ave o'er the land of the free and the 
home of the brave.' To each oneofj'ou let us say, in the Wautifnl woida 
of Longfellow, — 

"'Take Ihy Banner! may it wave 
Pntudly o'er the gvK>il and bruve ! 
When the battle's disUnt wall 
Brejiks the Sabbath of the vale, 
When the rlariou music Ibrills 
To the heart" of tlio«« lone bills, 
When the spear in ronfli<'t shak'-w. 
And the strong tancr shivering breaks, 

"'Take tb\ banner! and iM-neatli 
The battb-cloud's eniin^ling wreath 
Onarfl it till our homes an« free ! 
liuard it ! <(od will prosjier thee! 
In the ilark and trying hour, 
In the breaking forth of |»ower. 
In the rush of steeds and men, 
His ri^bt hand will shield thee then.* 


"John ]. Bbrtholf, 

" I)*vn> TKHIirNE, 

" CommiUtf. 
" II.vckekrjick, Oct. 9, Irtfi'J." 

In answer to tlie ahnve the folKiwing reply came: 



"Headquarters Twenty-sbcond Reoiuent, 
" Camp Fobnett, Oct. 13, 18G2. 

"To Committee of Presentation: 

•'Gentlemen, — Your letter, togetlier with your beautiful presentation, 
was received jeatenlay afternoon. Everything arrived safely. The nohle 
banners were unfurled and presented in due form at the evening ptirade. 
Dpon the reading of the accompanying speecli the cheers of the officers 
and men of tho regiment re-eclioed far and near along the banks of the 
old Potomac. The enthusiasm of the men at the sight of our glorious 
ensign was very great. Cheer after cheer were given for old Bergen, for 
her loyal men, for her devoted women, for the Stars and Stripes, and for 
the good old Union. 

" In answer to your appropriate and patriotic address my pleasant duty 
is to make a reply, in doing which, if I may be able to express our grat- 
itude to you as donors and the ennobling spirit of respect and love 
you have inspired in our every breast, I shall feel doubly happy. In 
behalf of the officers and men of the Twenty-second Volunteers, I return 
you our must sincere thanks for these dearly-loved banners, fit tokens of 
your luyalty and devotion to our country's cause and of your evinced 
interest iu our welfare as a regiment. Forcibly does the one remind us 
of our citizenship in patriotic Jereey, and of the ties of afiection which 
there bind us. With pride and devotion do we look upon the otlier, the 
starry flag of our noble republic, under which our glorious land has so 
long and prosperously existed. Full well do we know that your loving 
hearts with their most earnest prayers will follow us, and we are happy 
in this knowledge. Never, for your sake, for uur country's sake, shall 
we prove recreant to our importaut trust. E-trnestly will we strive to 
imitate the worthy example of our patriotic sires, and show to the world 
that the blood of our sacrificing forefathers still courses in our veins. 
Influenced by no sinister motive, we go forth to endure the fatigues and 
privations of a soldier's life, ready, if necessary, to sacrifice all, even life 
itself, in the protection of our national honor and glory. It shall be ; 
our highest pride to be worthy of your trust and affection, and to add j 
lustre to our already shining name among the constellation of States. I 
Our hearts shall constantly burn with affection for you all, and when 
the din of battle shall have ceased and the dreadful rebellion, with all ' 
its concomitant horrors, shall have been overwhelmed and eternally de- 
stroyed, then the proud consciousness of having faithfully discharged 
our duty as soldiers and of liaving manfully assisted in the restoration i 
of onr land to its former greatness and glory sliall be our most happy 
reward. Sedition and conspiracy must bite the dust. The Union shall 
live and triumph. With many thanks and kind wishes, I am yours, , 

" Lt.-Col. Alex. Dottglas, 
" Commmuliug Twenty-second Regiment N. J. V. 
"To Messrs. Rennie, Bertholf.Teruune, and Jacobson." I 


Oct. 20, 1862, a member of the regiment writes, — 

*' still at Camp Fornett. Each inati of the rpgiment was furnished 
with thirty rounds of ammunition on Tuesday niglit last iu expectation 
of a raid near us. It made the hoys open their eyes and hrighten up 
their ideas. But nohody came. We were ordered to sleep on our arms 
fluring the night, with accoutrements on. Pickets are sent out some 
three miles every night. . . . Every man was presented with an overcoat , 
and knit jacket on Wednesday This completes our outfit. ... 
The men of Company C are talking of getting up a general debating so- 
ciety and Bible class. . . . The Bergen Democrat is much sought after by 
tlie boys in camp from Bergen County." ' 

November 16th. "The 'long roll' was beaten in 
camp on Saturday night, and after the smoke, flurry, 
and bustle had subsided proved to be a false alarm. 
The regiment was ready for battle in live minutes after 
the call had been sounded. It is about the quickest 
time we have ever heard of for a raw regiment." 

On the 24th of November quite a number were re- ! 
ported sick in camp, owing to the damp and chilly 
weather. On the 22d, Private Blauvelt De Mott, of 
Company I, died of typhoid fever. He belonged to 
North Englewood, and left a wife and one child to 
mourn his loss. 

Thanksgiving (Nov. 27, 1862) was spent by the 
regiment in camp. After the services by the chap- 

lain were over the whole regiment joined in singing 
the patriotic and soul-stirring song, " My country 
'tis of thee." A correspondent, speaking of the day, 
says, "It is now numbered with the annals of the 
past, which will ever be remembered by many of us. 
. . . We have as yet no colonel in command of the 
regiment. It is about time we should know whether 
we are to have such an officer or not." Col. Abraham 
G. Demarest was not commissioned colonel of the 
regiment till Jan. 26, 1863. 

The regiment left Camp Fornett on Saturday night, 
November 3(>tli, and at about six o'clock p.m. reported 
at Fort Carroll. They crossed Long Bridge about 
three o'clock on Sunday morning, having marched 
fifteen miles. After resting for the night in a small 
woods by the wayside, at eight o'clock on Monday 
morning they resumed their long journey through 
Maryland to Liverpool Point, on the Potomac, oppo- 
site Aquia Creek Landing. They had marched four 
days, making a distance of seventy-five miles, and 
had lived upon "twenty crackers and about one 
pound and a half of salt pork." ' From Liverpool 
Point they were ferried across in a steamboat to Aquia 
Creek, A correspondent writes, " It is winter with 
us, and the snow lies upon the ground. Friday night 
it rained and snowed nearly the whole time. The 
last few days have taught the boys what a soldier's 
life is. . . . We are quartered in small tents, called 
'shelter-tents,' which look like chicken-coops, being 
open at both ends. ... We are now living upon nine 
hard crackers, some raw pork, and two cups of coflee 
per day." 

The regiment lay at Aquia Creek till after the battle 
of Fredericksburg, December 11th to 13th. They did 
not participate in that sanguinary and memorable 
slaughter of Union soldiers. The Fourth, Seventh, 
Fifteenth, Twenty -third. Twenty -fourth, Twenty- 
fifth, Twenty-seventh, and Twenty-ninth New Jersey 
Regiments were engaged in the fight, every one 
sufl'ering more or less in killed and wounded. The 
correspondent of the Twenty-second Regiment wrote 
after the battle, " The past week has been a very stir- 
ring time with us. There is no end to the wounded 
that have been arriving here from the last battle-field. 
But very few prisoners were among the number. We 
have been badly defeated. The whole army ha.s re- 
crossed the Rappahannock with a loss of some thirty 
thousand killed and wounded, and not an inch of 
ground gained. The wounded that arrived here pre- 
sent a most heartrending scene. Their groans were 
terrible as they lay in the cars." 

At this time Dr. Jones, of Englewood, the surgeon 
of the Twenty-second, was appointed brigade sur- 
geon ; Corp. Van Brunt, of Company I, was ap- 
pointed brigade commis.sary's clerk. The regiment 
received Sibley tents, and rejoiced in the comfort 
they afforded. The correspondent says. "They feel 

' CoireBpondent Bergen Democrat. 



like home again on cold nights. Our chicken-coops 
will come in play when we go out on picket duty. . . . 
Tiie wounded from the last fight (Fredericksburg) 
have been coming in every night during the past 
week. We have been busily engaged in unloading 
the cars and loading them again on steamboats as 
fast as they arrived here, some nights till twelve 

The following is an extract from a letter dated at 
the camp of the Twenty-second Regiment at Aquia 
Creek, Dec. 28, 18tj2 : 

" A and I umcle onr meal to-night of baked i>oti»toe8, bard brwui, cof* 
foc% boiled rice, and raw oninns. Our joint cooking utenuils cunslst of 
the top of the stove, one quiirt cup, two iiint cups, one tin platf, and one 
knife and fork. Each makes bis cofioe and drinks it out of tbe suniu 
cup. It iii well rellsbed, howt-v.-r, and I enjoy my little nieentclinum 
pipe after Hupper as much as if I had eaten boiled turkey with oyster 
Bauce. Each article of consumption is kept in a paprr by itself and de- 
posited in the .7o#ei, which is the lluor at ttie end of the bunk, and a 
small shelf nailed to the foot of haid bunk. The things get a little diaty 
sometimes, but that don't make much difference, ^ly chair is an empty 
cracker box; my aimtlestick ii little scjnare block with a hole in it. Our 
stove was purchased on board of acanal-Umt lyirin here. Our stove-pipe 
I ' won' from ' I'ncle Sam* directly under tli** nostcs of five guards (col- 
ored) who were watching it. Our /wZ/iM-bed is made of hay. procured 
In the same way as the stove-pipe." 

Earlv in January,' 1863, the Twenty-second Re<ri- 
ment was removed" to Belle riainsTiiid attaelied to 
the left wing of Gen. Franklin's division, bri^de of 
Gen. Paul. On the 1st of February, 1803, Lieut.-Col. 
Alexander Douglas resigned liis commission. He 
had coninian<U'd the regiment from the first, but was 
an uniHtpular otHcer. A corre.six.ndent writing of his 
resignation says, " His five nionths' career with us as 
lieutenant-colonel of the Twenty-seeoml Regiment 
hjus been very remarkable. He never attained the 
position he held fairly, . . . He promised much but 
fulfille<l little. A majority of the line-officers who 
voted for him in 'Camp Bergen' turned their backs 
upon him in *Cam|) Fornett' when a petition was 
drawn up to have him colonel." 

( )n Tuesday, February 3d, the regiment received two 
months' pay, and raised a contribution of $100 for 
the widow of comrade Jolin Stamp, A brigade re- 
view t<iok place by Brig.-Oen. Paul. Cnirrei Camp- 
bell, orderly sergeant, wjls promoted to fill the office 
of second lieutenant on the 4th of February. A few 
days later the Twenty-second Regiment removed 
from tlieir old camp (Dcmarest) to a more convenient 
place for fuel. In a letter dated Potomac Creek, Va,, 
Feb. 22, 1863, a correspondent of the Bergen Demo- 
crai says, — 

*' QhU« a change has taken place In the regiment since my lost letter. 
M^. Domarrst rerelve<l his commlMion on Friday Inst as c<)h>nel of the 
TwentVHMMttnd Upgiment, Capt. Van Emburg ns Ilentcnant-colonel. and 
Capl. S. n. Peniiinst as mnjor. The change M>em» to give giwl satlsfoc- 
lion to the men. ... It has been nothing hut storm after storm during 
the month of Febniary. The liwt unowsb.rm. on the 22d Infant, was 
a drwMlful cold one on the stddlora. We will pmbiibly remain here for 
oome time yol. . - . Throe private* dle«l in lb* Twenty-socond on Sun- 
dMy,— one fhiro Company I, namatl Abraham Do Uaiin ; Bei^amln Evor- 

I January 12th. 

son, of Company D; Henry BriiikerholT, better known as ' Bully Hank.' 
of ConiiMiny H. The first one died with intormiUcut fi*ver. There are 
some more dangerous cases in the h<.>«plia1.*' 

In a letter to the Democrat in March, 1863, a mem- 
ber of the Twenty-second thus reviews the army-life 
of the regiment: 

" It seennt like the lapse of years [time we were at Trenton ; the jour- 
ney to our rump on East Capitol Hill fs like something read of rather 
than experiencei] ; the two mouthr* on the ' Defenses of Washington* are 
well remembered — like sunshine In rain — iH'cause of the comforiable 
quarteis at Camp Fornett. Then comes the pbantasiuaguria of a l»ng 
march through Maryland, whore knajisacks were so heavy and chickens 
St) plt-ntiful. That was a week of wild life : up with the sun, knupNiiks 
slung, and ufl ; brief Iniltiugs fur rest, a short noon fur dinner ; then ihe 
halt Ht night, tbe roads ringing with voires and gleaming with a thun- 
sand tire!«, ut which were cookeil the chickens, ducks, geese, and oir* 
keys, upon whom a' Yankee' had ' tried hisritle.' How sweet sleep pieemeil 
in those tpiiet old woods, though wo had no tents and saw GlhI's stars In 
the ceiling. And while we sat around our camp-fires, smoking our 
pil>es, how timidly the 'contrabands' of neighboring fnrmers would 
steal up to our gi-oup and listen to onr talk, ami tell u<t of other soldiers 
who had passed through there. Some of thene ' niggers' did desire lo l>e 
free, and were welt inlormed upon the topics of the day ; others seemed 
lo know nothing of freedom, and cared Ivsa. 

'• We do remember our landing at .\iiuiii Creek, for there we spent one 
night in a violent snow-storm without a tent in the whole regiment. . . . 
We remember Aquia Creek bacouse it grew under our eyes fi-om a wil- 
derness into u village, and such a busy one! It was thoie we were 
taught to gni>ss how much the war is costing ; there, too, we h^ard the 
thunders booming at Fredericksburg, and there we helped the thousands 
of wounded on their way to the Washington bospitais. Then came our 
'move* to Belle I'laiu; tiur * move' upon Frpdorick^burg. frustrated by 
the elements; our three days in the wuods, mud, and sloiin-stityed ; our 
march back ; our slay in one place until the wood is gone, an<) then onr 
* changing camp,' for we are chasing forests that seem to melt before us. 
We are called an * army of occupation;' our work seems to l>e tlearing 
Virginia. . . . From where I sit I look out upon a gently-rising mound, 
and on its summit 1 see a dark-lu-own heap, marked at each end tty a 
strip of board. One morning he who sleejts there was well, lie awoke 
at the reveille and did a soldier's duty for tlie day. Tloit night he whs 
' sick,* and with the next day's setting sun he lay down never again to 
hear a rtveilte." 

In the spring of 1803 a number of deaths occurred 
in the regiment. Among tliem were Corp. John 
Christie, of Company K ; Privates John Ducher, 
Company I; Charles Beckwitii, Company K (April 
l')th) ; and Corp. David Bogert, Company I. 

April 2Uth a correspondent writes, — 

" The health of Ihe regiment in fast Improving. Some twelve privates 
belonging to the dlflTerent cumpanles were laken to the general hospital 
ul Washington on Saturday, (he 18th hisl. . . . We have been und«r 
mmchitig orders for the last five days. On Monday, April 2oth, the 
regiment broke camp and removed atK>ut two miles. The whole of the 
brigade shifted quarters and engaged In pre|Mirutlifii for summer cum- 
|>aignhig. On tlie 2^th Governor Parker, of New Jersey, (laid us a visit, 
and WHS onthuslrtstli'dly rect?lved by th<< regiment drawn up In line widi 
oprn ranks. Three musing cliecrs wiTe given him as he departeil on 
a similar visit to other Now Jersey troopa." 

On the 28th of April the regiment and brigade 
^ joined in the general advance towards tbe Rappahan- 
] nock. " At daylight on the 29th,'* says a correspond- 
I ent, "the ball was opened by the rebels. They fired 
1 a brisk volley from their ritle-pit** upon the engineers 
; while they were stringing llic |n)ntoon-bridges. Gur 
I skirmishers (the F»mrth Brooklyn) returned the fire 
I very lively. After the skirmishing had been going on 
some time our batteries got in position and jioured 
I the shot and shell into the pits thick and fast. Finallv 



the Fourth New Jersey crossed the river a little lower 
down, unbeknown to them, and outflanked them in 
their pits, and captured them all, some one liundred. 
In the afternoon the Third Brigade (Gen. Paul's) 
crossed over the bridge, and we located ourselves be- 
hind a high bank out of range of the rebel guns." 
In this position they remained during the next day, 
watching the rebels. The firing ceased about seven 
o'clock P.M., and that night the Twenty -second lay on 
their arms. On the next day (Saturday) the whole 
army recrossed the Rappahannock, and the rebels 
again occupied the Heights of Fredericksburg. The 
Federal loss in this movement was about twenty-five 
thousand in killed, wounded, and prisoners. 

"Almost immediately after the hard-fought battle 
of Chancellorsville a court-martial, composed of offi- 
cers from three-years' regiments, found Lieut. D. C. 
Blauvelt, of Company I, guilty of cowardice before 
the enemy, and sentenced him to be dismissed from 
the service," etc. His character was ably vindicated 
by a member of his regiment, who. In a letter dated 
May 24, 1863,- stated for publication in the Bergen 
Democrat the simple facts of his military career, 
showing him to have been a brave and efficient officer. 
The editor of the Democrat adds the following remark 
to the letter : 

" The above letter of our correspondent ig in keeping with man}- others 
which have been received in town on the same subject, rII indicating 
that Lieut. Blauvelt has been the victim o^ political freachery. But a few 
days will elapse when all the authors in this nefaiious transaction will 
(we trust) be again at home, when the matter in question will receive a 
rigid and searching investigation. Until tlmt time Lieut. Blauvelt is 
willing to rest his case, leaving that great corrective, public opinion, 
to decide aa to whether he is a coward or a victim sacrifiCBd to the hatred 
of his political enemy, who happened to be his superior in rank." 

The time of service of the regiment having expired 
on the 18th of June, 1863, they returned home. Pre- 
vious to being mustered out at Trenton they were 
given a magnificent reception by the ladies and citi- 
zens, Maj. Frank Mills, of that city, delivering an 
appropriate address on the occasion. The companies 
returning to Hackensack were also received with warm 
congratulations, and a collation was served at the 
Mansion House. 

The following is a roster of the non-commissioned 
officers and privates in the Twenty-second Regiment 
from Bergen County : 

Company A. 

Sergeants, — 1st, Garret M. Campbell ; 2d, Kicbolas R. Royce ; 3d, Stephen 
G. Harper; <th, Milton Birley; Sth, John R. Fulton. 

Corporals. — 1st, Richard A.Terhuue; 2d, Heury II. Batita, 3d, CVjmelius 
Van Horn; 4tli, George A. Brinkirhoff; 6tli, \Vm. W. Harper; gth, 
Wm. H. Van Buskirk ; 7th, \Vm. Burt ; Sth, Jacob Terhune. 


Ackerman, Wm. H 
Boyd, James. 
Bell, Jacob J. 
Boyd, John A. 
Bross, Nicholas. 
Began, Timothy. 
Earle, Barney V. 
Eaglin, Benjamin. 
Everson, Jacob. 

Falter, Alexander. 
Ferdoii, Jamea S. 
Guildersleve, Thomaa. 
Guildersleve, Dtivid. 
Guildersleve, Henry. 
GriniBiiaw, William H. 
Garris')!!, Jacob J. 
Hunton, Heory. 
Hill, Cornelius. 

Jervis, James. 
Kennedy. Tln-niaa. 
Lozier, Daniel C. 
Leibizh, Joseph. 
Myers, Wm. 
McCiie, John. 
McCano, Frank. 
McGuire, Wm. 
Mangfl, Bernard. 
Opdyke, Edwin S. 
O'Conner, Jamea. 
Quackenbush, John. 
Remsen, James. 
Ryan, Daniel. 
Scott, Wm. C. 
Stevens, Charles. 
Simms, George. 
Smith, Albert G. 
Smith, Michael. 
Terhune, John J. 

Terhune, Martin J. 
Terhuup, James. 
Tervis, Albert D. 
Van Houten, John H. 
Van Huuteii, James. 
Van Horn, Albert 
Van Dcrbt'ck, David. 
VaudpnilUeon, E. 
Van Nt'83, Rubert. 
Van Buren, Theo. F. 
Van Buren, Peter. 
VoorhiB, Nicholas H. 
Vreeland, Henry G. 
Vreelaud, Nichohis D. 
Wygant, John H. 
Wood, George W. 
Wygant, Wm. W. 
Westervelt, Peter. 
Zflbriskie, John J. 
Zabriskie, Jacob B. 

Company B. 

Sergeants. — 1st, Andrew Van Emburg; 2d, Charles Van Riper; 3d, Tbos. 
Eckerson; 4th, James A. Osborne ; 5th, Theodore V. Terhune. 

CorporaU.~let, Aaron Van Derbeck; 2d, Abraham 11. Hopper; 3d, Cor- 
nelius D. Ackerman; 4th, Daniel Van Blarcom; 5tb, Stephen D. 
Bartholf ; 6th, Theodore Bamper ; 7th, John Acker ; 8tb, Walter S. 


Abrame, Henry.^ 
Abrams, Elias.i 
Ackerman, Peter. 
AUer, Heury T. 
Banta, Thomas T. 
Brower, Robert D. 
Berthulf, Peter. 
Cooley, Edward. 
Conklin, John E. 
Cap, George. 
Durling, John. 
De Bauu, Isaac V, B. 
DoremuB, Wm. 
Doty, Thomas E. 
English, Wm. 
Edwards, James W. 
Fincli, Isaac P. 
Finch, John. 
Finch, Joseph. 
Howard, Cornelius. 
Hopper, Henry L. 
Hopper, John A. 
Hopper, Albert G. 
Hopper, Garret U. 
Hopper, Joseph B. 
Hopper, David. 
Hennion, Garret G. 
Hennion, Andrew. 
Harrop, John. 
Jenke, John G. 
Kent, Cornelius C. 
Lutkins, John H. 
Lutkins, Richard. 
Lake, John. 
Lenox, George. 
Marsh, George W. 
Masker, Lewis. 
Magrofl, Martin. 
Miller, Wm. H. G. 
Myers, John J. 
Myers, Martin J. 
Marinus, Christian. 

Messenger, Philip. 
May, John J. 
Meeker, Wm. D. 
Mabey, Frederick B. 
Osborne. Wm. A. 
Peterson, Barney. 
PuUm, Jacob. 
Perry, James. 
Ryan, Patrick, 
RyersiMi, Albert B. 
Schmide, Simon. 
Stun. Daniel. 
Stun, IsiHC. 
Thi'mpaou, John H. 
Thompson, James, Jr. 
Trumper, Harmau. 
Tbonipaou, Wm. H. 
Terhune, Ji'Spjih F. 
Terhune, Janios E. 
Terwilliger, James H. 
Tbursloi), Anthony. 
Terhune, Henry H. 
Thompson, AckerxoD. 
Tinker, James. 
Turse, Jacob Y. 
Thompson, J"hn J. 
Terhune, Ab-xander. 
Terhune, Andrew A. 
Van Vorat, Heury. 
Van Riper, Peter. 
Van Horn, Wm. 
West, Cba-Ies. 
Wyknff, Samuel B. 
Waldron, John L. 
Wanamaker. Josiah. 
Whitmore, James. 
Whitmore, William H. 
Winters, William. 
Waid. Pfter. 
Teonians, Mynch-rt. 
Teomans, Josiab. 
Yeonians, Samuel J. 

Company C. 
Serj^ean/*.— let., Peter L. Conklin ; 2d, David W. DewHreat; 3d, David C. 

Blauvelt; 4tb. Asaph T. Campbell ; Sth, Cornelius Huyler. 
a>rporoifl.— let, David J. Blackledge ; 2d, James S. Bogert ; 3d, James W. 

1 From Weit Milford, Passaic Co. 



Wtlej; 4th, John D. Chiiitl*; 5tfa, Conieltus Vreeland; 6th, John 
Ack«rnian; 7th, Samuel Dawson; 8th, WllliaDi H. Mnnroe. 


Ackerman, Peter I. 
Brown, Carl. 
Bloom, CliarlM. 
Bogert, Samuel B. 
Blackledge, Isaac X. 
Butler, Jame« J. 
Urinkerliuff, Abram C. 
Byftnl, John. 
Itroeti, Barney. 
Burr, Charlee A. 
Beam, ErneBt. 
BrinkerholT. Ilalph L. 
Blauvi'lt, Diivid D. 
Bross, Abraham. 
Babcock, George W. 
Campl'ell. Theodore. 
Christie, IV-tor J. 
Clusc, Pliilii> P. 
Conklin, Aaron. 
Christie, Emsnnis. 
Couliffc, William U. 
Cluss, John 1>. 
Conklln, James. 
De Graw, Robert. 
Doremns, John K. 
DemarcHt, Gilbert. 
Daweoii, John H. 
Domarest, Duvld J. 
Ely, John Bunt'*. 
Feeder, Morris. 
Gott. William 0. 
HarinK. Henry J. 
Hawkey, Oeormi W. 
IlickerHon, Tnliimn. 
JurgnD, Chrldtopher. 
LowBiithal. Lewis. 
Miller. Peter. 
Murray, Bernard. 
Mornett, Andrew. 
Moran, Martin. 
Moore, AlbiTt. 

UHglton, WilUani. 
Matonia, Charles. 
O'Oonuell, Stephen. 
Pickle, George. 
Perry, John. 
Quay, Tfiomas. 
Rosf), Joseph. 
Rii-r, Michael U. 
Sears, John H. 
Seam, Peter. 
Sear*, Jacob. 
Schmidt, Charles. 
Seber, Joseph. 
Schmidt, Henry. 
Sinpor, Alhert. 
StroBS, William. 
Snook, Martin. 
Smith, John V. D. 
Stamp, John. 
Slieir, Christopher. 
Sears, Allison. 
Searv, FranciH. 
Solvers, Martin. 
Sears, Anilrew. 
Steel, Jacub. 
Terhnne. David W. 
TalK, Juhn. 
Tillman, William A. 
Terhnne, Albert W. 
Van GieAon, Isaac. 
Van Saun, Levi. 
Van Saun, Isaac H. 

Van I>erbeck, Kbenezer. 

Van Iterbeck, Isaac I. 

Vreeland, David D. 

Voorhis, John W. 

Van Wetering, F. P. 

Van Wotering, Seanion. 

Wygant. Michael M. 

Westorvelt, John S. 

Wcelorvelt, Simeon. 

Young, George. 

Utll, Thomas E. 
Jones, Joseph E. 
Jertey, John J. 
Kent, Cornelius J. 
Klngsland, Theodore. 
Kitchel, Isaac M. 
Lock wood, David. 
Howerson, John Jacob. 
Monroe, Stephen. 
Monroe, David. 
Nangb', Jolin D. 
Ottienon, John C. 
Pulis, Peter D. 
Post, RubLTt J. 
Perry, Jolin H. 
Post, Julm J. 
RuniBey, Owen I. 
Kaulet, C. Louis. 
Uiker, Abraham A. 
Smith, Daniel W. 

suiter, Samuel. 
Storms, AbrBhaoi C. 
Schilte, Marinus. 
Straus, Itichard. 
Terhnne, Albert J., Jr. 
Towiihend, John. 
Ulnier, Fre^lerick. 
Van Saun. Isaac. 
Van Kiper, Frederick A. 
Van Orden. William. 
Van Busklrk, Benjamin. 
Van Derlinder, Jitcob. 
Van Buitkirk, Charles E. 
Van Dien, Juhn. 
Westervelt, Henry P. 
Wood, Abraham. 
Waring, Peter P. 
Wortendyk<<, Abraham. 
William, Juhn. 
WannaniaktT, John H. 

OiHI'ANY £. 

8€rg«anU.—Ut, Edwin Bebbington ; 2d, John W. Doremus; 3d, Frank y. 
Bowen; 4tli, Adrian Hughes; 5th, Juhn 

Corporals. — Ist, Abraham Kreeland; 2d, Fredi-rick Frowh ; ;id, Aarun 
Buach ; 4lh, Willium H. Ciidmus ; 5th, Abmbani Whartnn; 6lh, Henry 
U. Van Idemtlne; 7th, Simeon V. R. Alyea; Uth, John P. Jones. 


Com PANT D. 
S«-f,Mnt*.~Ul. Altrabam C. Herring; 2d, Thomas DemareM ; :jd. John 

A. Marinus; 4lh, Nicholas Colllngnon ; 6th, Jasper J. WostervnU. 
OirpoTnU.-Ui,\Ku\c D. B.>gert; 2d, Gonest M. Oltignon ; 3d, James B. 
• We*tervelt ; 4th. Charles M. Westervelt ;, J.iine8 A. Ottlgnun ; 6th, 
John F. Herring ; 7th, Henry Swin ; 8th, Homy Clay Humphrey. 


Acki-rson, John C. 
Ackennau, George W, 
Arkorman, James P. 
A.kcrman, Garret. 
Ackt'rntan, Abraham B. 
Ackerman, Jamea W. 
Blanvelt, Abraham D. 
B<.gort, Abraham B. 
B<igert, Jnmm M. 
Ilaiitn, Aarcin V. 
BlaiiT'-ll, John J. 
niauvcU, Lucaa C. 
Bl'tuvolt, Abraham J. 
Btauvilt, William. 

Bakir. Geurge. 

Bartuw, Jamofl. 

Bradley, Joacph A. 

noiir>rt, r<>rn»llus J. 

BiMiU. Abraham P. 

nRunor. -lamfs. 

Itlanvrlt, Al<rnhani 

Cniuler, Jiuii** 

Cnmler, Cornelius P, 
(Visker, Felix A. M. 
CulUngnon, AuguHtua M. 

Colo, iMUiC. 

C^^ok, FmncU. 
DemaK'st, Peter J. 
DfUiareDt, John. 
DemnreHt, Coriiidlus E. 
Demarcst, John J. 
Dow, John. 
Eiirl, Daniel. 
Eckerson, John G, 
EckoriHin, D.ivtd D., Jr. 
Eckorwon, Edward T. 
l-kkuriMin. Jacob B. 
Everson, B^-nJamln. 
FliKxl, JamcN. 
(lurn«'e, David. 
HopptT, Abraham A. 
Herring, John P. 
Hnrrlng. Daniel J, 
Herring, Abraham P. 

Alyea, SIdiod V. R. 
Bu§h, Abraham P. 
Butlui , Josiah. 
Broughton, Joseph. 
Conklin, Albert B. 
Conner, David. 
('armichHel, Robert. 
Crot>k, Henry. 
Curley, James. 
Clark, Peter. 
Coon, Charles. 
Donn* can, William 
Derr, Kiiglevman C. 
Dykemiin, William H. 
De Kelsor, John. 
Deiuareet, Jacob P. 
Doring, Henry. 

ElllH, Joseph. 

Erdto, Christian. 

EdiMill, John. 

Finher, John. 

Fraser, Juhn. 

Fn*eJand, John. 

Foekenbronch, Rudolph. 

Go«ger, Jacob. 

Garrceaon, George H. 

llindle, George. 

Harnor, Allmrt. 

liopiier, Peter G. 

Hiipimr, laaar A. 

Hop|K>r, John A. 

HudiM>ii, James. 

Ilendr>', William. 

Kofit, Cornelius. 

I.ain>eiitu«>s, Jacob. 

Morrison, James, 

Morrison, Andrew. 

Miller, JHDiee R. 
Mercer, William. 
MeuEi4>, Daniel. 
Mills, Juhn. 
McCabe, Patrick. 
MariuUH, Christian. 
Muhuti, Henry F. 
Nikonburgh, Jacob. 
Naugte. Bernard. 
Plialon, Thomas. 
Phitlou, Nicholas. 
Biker, Samuel. 
Stapg, John J. 
Singer, John. 
SIgler, Alfred. 
Schell, (*oorge. 
Tattorsall, Christopher. 
Tan 1 8, Jacob. 
Tattersall. Daniel. 

Terhnne, Stephen. 

Terhnne. John A. 

Tfrwllligir, James H. 

Thurston, Aiithniiy. 

Van Dermasl, Krleii. 

Van Derhook, Henry. 

Van Dervleet, Marine. 

Vnu Iderallnr, Henry J. 

Vreelanil, Benjamin P. 

Van Deliiidii, Samuel. 

Van Idomline, Henry H. 

Wlllium. Fn^torirk. 

WhUmi,. John. 

Wharton, John. 

Termnce. Andrew. 

T«rance, ChrlHtopher. 

T«mnc«, Garret. 

Company H. 
SfTgtamtt.—\%K, Gilbert D. Bogert; 24l, George J.Greer. 

Alliiioii, John W. Brown. Gettrge Bl. 

Adams, Henry K. 
BogTt, William. 
Urowcr, Jtdin. 
Booth. Thomas. 

BrlnkerhufT, Henry K. 
Bush, John, Jr. 
Bonham, George. 
Bogert, John II. 



Clifford, Williani. 
DiitL-htT, Jacob. 
Doyle, Richard A. 
Farmer, Frank. 
Gardioer, Nelson. 
Heudersoii, Robert. 
Hudson, John. 
Hickley, Edward. 
Higgiris, Thooiaa. 
Haltmen, Albert. 
Hunt, George "W, 
Idell, Francis A. 
Jordan, Thomaa. 
Jordan, Jiihn J. 
Kirk, Thomas. 
Kearney, John G. 
Luther, Allen. 

Liddone, Andrew. 
McKann, James. 
Meaner, August. 
Older, John. 
Pierson, David. 
Peterson, Anson R. 
Parks, James. 
Stalherg, Lewis. 
Shuters, Barney. 
Singlar, Theodore. 
Selfuyler, Richard. 
Sanderson, James. 
Smith, Timothy. 
Scott, John (missing). 
Van Wagoner, JoeL 
Wagoner, Peter. 

Company I. 

Sergeants.— UU John A. Van Buskirk ; 2d, William C. Herring; 3d, Garret 
I. Demarest; 4th, John B. Kip ; 5th, John J. De Mott. 

Corporals.— I bt, Adriance Van Brunt; 2d, David Bogert ; 3d, Alexander 
L. Orser; 4th, Garret Fordon ; 5th, Peter M. Johnson; 6th, Wil- 
liam Galfield ; 7th, Alonzo Baker; 8th, David N. Dune. 

Drummer. — James A. Ferdon. 

Teamster. — James H. Demarest. 


Ackerson, Edward. 
Ackernan, Peter. 
Anthony, Peter. 
Atkin, T. W. C. 
Blauvelt, Abraham. 
Blauvelt, Samuel D. 
Blauvelt, John D. 
Beers, Darius M. 
Baker, John A. 
Brinkerhoff, John D. 
Blanch, William. 
Bai r, Charles. 
Bauta, John H. 
Cole, Abraiiam A. 
Conklin, Abuer. 
CoQsilyea. John D. 
Cooper, Curneliua C. 
Cuzine, Walter. 
Dougherty, George. 
Demarest, David. 
Demarest, Vreeland. 
Demarest, Henry G. 
Demarest, Abraham. 
Demarest, Frederick J. 
De Bann, .\hraham. 
De Mott.J. B. 
Davis, William C. 
Dutcher, John. 
Dobbs, Henry. 
Dobbs, Warren. 
Fredon. William. 
Fredon, Abraham. 
Fetheringhitm, S. 
Galloway. Gilbert I. 
Green, David. 
Herring, Jacob. 
Herring, Henry. 
Herring, Juhn N. 
Herring, Tunis A. 
Herring, David E. 
Jones, John E. 

Jones, Samuel A. 
Kip, Joliu H. 
Kip, Isaac. 
Lewis, John C. 
Lawrence, George H. 
Lozier, Daniel W. 
Meyers, Thomaa. 
Meyers, Cornelius. 
McLean, Adam. 
Martin, Hampton. 
Powela, David. 
Piftt'els, Matthew. 
Powela, Jacob. 
Parker, Henry G. . 
Post, Henry. | 

Quarry, John. 
Ryder, Peter B. 
Shea, Andrew J. 
Sanderson, Levi. 
Sanderson, Eugene. 
Smith, Robert N. 
Smith, Richard C. 
Smith, Freeman P. 
Smith, Gilbert S. 
Swennerton, John A. 
Springer, William. 
Truax, Isaiah. 
Taylor, Moses. 
Van Derbeck, C. H. 
Van Valen, James N. 
Voorhis, John H. 
Voorhis, Jacob I. 
Van Skiver, John J. 
Wilson, Samuel W. 
Westervelt, James P. 
Westervelt, Jasper. 
Willey, Andrew J. 
Wyvill, Samuel W, 
White, David. 
Zabriskie, James A. 

Company K. 

Sergeants.— \^X, Albert Forbnsh ; 2d, George A. Wood ; 3d, Abyah Smith ; 
4th, Peter Burdett; oth, Henry F. Edsall. 

Corpora/s.— Ist, John S. Townsenfl, Jr. ; 2d, Williani Cowperthwaite; 3d, 
Alfred Debevios; 4th, Abel S. Edsall ; 5th, Emanuel G.Gismond; 6th, 
Josiah M. Tompson ; 7th, Court L. Vauderbeck ; 8th, George P. Jen- 

Armstrong, James. 

Anderson, Robert. 
Anderson, John W. 
Benson, Robert W. 
Beckwith, Frederick A. 
Burditt, Francis. 
Biechelar, Leopold. 
Biechelar, Leonard. 
Biechler, Albert. 
Brower, M. J. 
Burditt, John F.,Jr. 
Bagley, Josiah. 
Bagert, Edwin J. 
Bailey, J. S. 
Buckley, J. H. 
Christie, John H. 
Cozine, Tiiaddeus S. 
Campbell, Arthur. 
Collum, W. C. 
Creamer, Frederick. 
Connolly, John. 
Dods, Henry, Jr. 
Dean, James. 
Demarest, B. S. 
Ebbs, Charles T. 
Eari, Pliilip. 
Earl, Matthias. 
Felton, Eli H. 
Green, John H. 
Gouches, George. 
Glaeear, Matthew. 
Hartnian, Wni. 
Idell, Jatnes 0. 
Johnson, John E. 
Johnson, W. J. 
Keenan, James. 
Kelly, Wni. 
Kelly, Pittrick. 
Kelly, James. 

Kline, Cliarlea. 
Klink, Nicholas. 
Kyle, Samuel. 
Key. Wm. 
Lynch, Patrick. 
Lyons, James. 
Mabey, John J. 
McDonald, G. W. 
Mabey, Abel S. 
Machaer, Alois, 
Moore, Thomaa. 
Maguire, A. 
Maceley, David, 
Niser, Martin. 
Post, Theodore. 
Prosser, Wm. 
ProBser, John. 
Raymond, James. 
Rapp, David. 
Springer. Charles W. 
Scudder, George W. 
Sullivan, Nicholaa. 
Smith, Robert R. 
Souoaar, Wm. 
Sefferein, Lewis. 
Stable, Ralph. 
Sipp, Richard. 
Scott, Walter. 
Sedore, A. 
Taylor, C. W. 
Touaey, J. W. 
Van Derbeck, John. 
Van Zee, Wm. 
Westervelt, H. 
Wood, John. 
Wood, A. J. 
Williamson, H. 
Walling, A. 
Wharer, George S. 


Maj. Abraham G. Demarest, promoted to colonel Jan. 26, 1863, 
Capt. Abraham Van Emburg, promoted to lieutenant-colonel, vice Alex- 
ander Douglass, resigned, Feb. 20, 1863. 
Capt. Samuel D. Demarest, promoted to major Feb. 20, 1863. 
First Lieut. Jacoi) Post, promoted to adjutant Jan, 1, 1863. 
Assist.-Surg. William S. Janney, promoted to surgeon March 27, 1863 ; 

died of typhoid fever in camp near White Oak Church, Va., June 1, 

Second Lieut. Jacob S. Lozier, promoted to captain Jan. 16, 1863. 
First. Lieut. Joseph A. Blauvelt, promoted to captain May 18,1863. 
Second Lieut. George Kingsland, promoted to fiist lieutenant Nov. 20, 

Second Lieut. James Christie, promoted to captain May 18, 1863. 
Second Lieut. Benjamin Z. Van Emburg, promoted to captain Feb. 21, 

Second Lieut. Joseph Vreeland, promoted to captain Feb. 22, 1863. 
Sergt. Stephen G. Hopper, promoted to fii-st lieutenant March 11, 1863. 
First Sergt. Garret M. Campbell, promoted to second lieutenant Jan. 16, 

Corp. Richard A. Terhune, promoted to second lieutenant March 11, 1863. 
Sergt. Milton Birley, promoted to first sergeant Sept. 1, 1862. 
First Sergt. John A. Van Buskiik. promoted to first lieutenant Sept. 2, 

First Sergt. Albert Forbush. promoted to first lieutenant May 18, 1863. 
First Sergt. Gilbert T. Bogert, promoted to second lieutenant Nov. 20, 

1862, and to first lieutenant May 18, 1863. 

Sergt. George A. Ward, promoted to first sergeant Jan. 1, 1863, 

First Sergt. Andrew Van Emburg, promoted to first lieutenant Feb. 21, 

1863, and to capfciin May 18, 1863. 

Sergt. Charles Van Riper, promoted to first lieutenant May 18, 1863. 
Sergt. Thomas Eckerson, promoted to first sergeant March 8, 1863. 
Corp. John S. Townaend, promoted to sergeant June 1, 1863. 
Corp. William Cowperthwaite, promoted to sergeant Jan. 1, 1863. 
Corp. Nicholaa P. Royce, promoted to sergeant Feb. 4, 1863. 



Corp. Coroelius Vkd Horn, promotod to sergeant March 11, 1863. 
Corp. George \. Brinkerhuff, promoted to sergeant March 11, 1863. 
Corp. Aarun Vaiiderbeck, promoted to sergeant March 18, 1863. 
Corp. Abraham II. Hopper, promoted to sergeant March 16, 1863. 
Corp. DaTtd J. Dlackledge, promoted to sergeant .\pnl 7, 1863. 
Private Peter L. ('onklin, promoted to second lieutenant Feb. 22, 1863. 
Corp. Isaac D. Bogert, promoted to sergeant March 1, 1863. 
Private Cornelius Koert, promoted to corporal March 1, 1863. 

Bogert, David, of typhoid fever, at Belle Plain, Va., April 6, 1863. 
Beers, Darius, typhoid fever. Belle Plain, Va., .^pril 6, 1863. 
Brinkerhotr, Henry K , in camp at Belle Plain, Vo., Feb. 22, 1863. 
Campbell, Theodore, found dead on the road May 1, 1863; buried Id Na- 
tional Cemetery, Fredericksburg, Va. 
Conklin, John E., remittent fever, camp Dear Belle Plain, Va., March 6, 

Conklin, .\aron. disease of the brain, in camp, Feb. 5, 1863. 
Dikeman, William II., inflammation of the brain, at Belle Plain, Va., 

March 2, 1863. 
De Baun, Abraham, typhoid fever. Belle Plain, Va., Feb. 22, 1863. 
De Mott, Jehn B., tjplii|Jd fever, camp'near Georgetown, D. C, Nov. 22, 

Dntcher, John H., typhoid fever. Belle Plain, Va., March 30, 1863. 
Evemon, Beiyamiu, typhoid fever. Belle Plain, Va., Feb. 23, 1863. 
Farmer, Francis, typhoid fever. Belle Plain, Vo., March 26, 1863. 
Gardiner, Nelson, typhoid fever. Belle Plain, Va., March 15, 1863. 
Barring, Johff P., "typhoid fever, C. S. A. Hosp., Washington, D. C, 

March 26, 18631 
Hopper. John A.- typhoid fever, U. S. A. Hosp., Washington, D. (^, May 

24, 1863. 
Hugheir, Abraham, typhoid fever, U. S. A. Hosp., Waahington.D. C, Feb. 

27, 1863. 
Kent, Cornelius J., typhoid fever, U. S. A. Hosp., Washington, D. C, 

April 30, 1863; buried in National Cemetery, Fre<terickHblirg, Va. 
Osborn, William A., died at Div. Hosp., Aquia Creek, Va., April 23,1863 
Sump, John D , at lien. Hosp., Washington, D. C, Dec. 25, 1862. 
Terwjlliger, James II., typhoid fever, Kogt. Hoep., Belle Plain, Va., March 

24,1863. , .. 

Thompson, James R., typhoid fever, Regt. Hoep., Belle Plain, Va , Feb. 

25.1863.' "* 

Tonrney, John, Th-owned in the Delaware at Philadelphia, June 19,1863. 
Weelervelt, jKiiilii, dieil ul Wiiidiuill Polnl, Ta., April 29, 1863.- 
Wood, Abraham, tjrpjioid fever. Belle Plain, Vo., March 10, 1803. 


THE REBELMOX— (Continuod). 

*> Twenty-fifth Regpiment.— <)[i the 4th of August, 

\^ " 18<)1, tlip I'rcsidfiil I.I the IJnitccl .States ninde a lirafl 
upon the Governor of New .Jersey for ten thousand 
four hundred and seventy-eight men to serve for nine 
months unless sooner discharged. The draft was not 
to interfere with the regular recruiting, but nil enlist- 
menti up to Sept, 1, lSti2, were to lie credited to the 
State. It wius thought (h-.siralile to the <|Ucitji hy 
voluntary enlistment and so avoid the draft ; accord- 
ingly a number of earnest men addre-ssed themselves 
to the work, and by the 3d of September, 18t?2, the 
time appointed for the commencement of the draft, 
the State's quota wa.s filled ami accepted. 

Among tlic regiincntH raised under tliis impulse was 
the Twenty-fifth New .Jersey. Five companies of this 
regiment were raised in the .southern part of the State, 
and the remaining five in Passaic County. The latter 

were chiefly enlisted through the energetic labors of 
Col. Andrew Derrom, who had been appointed chair- 
man of the war committee of Patersou, intrusted 
with the raising of troops under the calls of 1862, 
and through whose exertions, supported by those of 
the committee, the first quota of Passaic County was 
filled in fourteen days. In the call for tlie nine 
months' men he and his committee raised the ijuota 
of the county — five hundred men — in two days, and 
were obliged to refuse many .who offered in excess of 
the required number. Desiring to see the five com- 
panies properly placed, Col. Derrom proceeiled with 
them to Trenton, and succeeded in having them con- 
solidated with five companies from the southern part 
of the State, then in camp at Beverly, N. J. The 
officers of the regiment thereupon unanimously 
elected him colonel, and although his busines.s — that 
of an architect and builder — needed his personal 
superintendence, he promptly accepted, joined the 
command on two days' notice, addressed himself at 
once with vigor and enthusiasm to the work of pro- 
moting the discipline of the regiment, and remained 
with it during its entire period of service, discharging 
with marked promptness and efficiency every duty 
laid upon him. 

The field and stafl" of the Twenty-fiftli Regiment 
New Jersey Volunteers were as follows: 

Colonel, Andrew Derrom, architect and builder, 
Paterson, N. J. ; commissioned September. 1862 ; 
mustered in Sept.^29, 1862; mustered out June 20, 

Lieutenant-Colonel, K. J. Ayres, grocer, Paterson, 
N. J.; commissioned Sept. 1, 1862; mustered in Sept. 
29, 1862; mustered out June 20, 1863. 

Major, J. Kelly Brown, mirserynian, Camden, N. J. ; 
commissioned September, 1862; mustered in Sept. 29, 
1862; must, out June 20, 186.'?, 

Adjutant, Daniel B, Murphy, mechanic, Camden, 
N. J. ; commissioned September. 1862 ; mustered in 
Sept. 29, 1862 ; dismissed. Columbus Force, Oct. 15, 
1862 ; Dec. 2.'), 1862. Charles J. Field, tobacconist, 
Camden; commissioned Sept., 1862; mustered out 
June 20, 1863. 

(iuartermiuster, James Inglis, Jr., stationer, Pater- 
son, N. J. ; commissioned September, 1862 ; mustered 
in Sept. 29, 1862; mustered out June 20, 1863. 

Surgeon, James Reiley, .M,D,, Morristown, N. J,; 
commissioned Sept.. 1862; mustered in Sept. 29, 
1862; mustered out June 20, 1863. 

First Assistant Surgeon, Robert McBateman. M.D., 
Bridgeton, N. J.; commissioned Sept., 1862; mus- 
tered in Sept. 29, 1862; mustered out June 20. 1863. 

Second As-sistant Surgeon, Seflriiie Daily, M.D., 
Newark, N, J,; commissioned Sept,, 1862; mustered 
in Sept. 20, 1862; mu.sU'red out June 2ii, 1863. 

Chaplain, Francis K. Butler, Presbyterian, Pater- 
son, N. J.; commissioned Sept., 1862; mustered in 
Sept. 29, 1862; mortally wounded at Sulfolk; died 
May, 1863. John H. Robinson, Methodist, Paterson, 




Col. Andrkw Perrom was boru on 
Nov. 30, 1S17, wliile his father was in 
the military service of the British 
pnveriiment. His parents were Rich- 
art! and Mary (Winders) Derrom, the 
former of wliom was Ixirn near Man- 
chester, Enpland, and the latler at 
Leeiis. Kichard Derrom passed his 
life in the service of hit* country, 
6pendiiig a portion of the time in tlie 
army and at other times in the civil 
brancli of the service. 

Col. Derrom was the second of the 
six children who grew to years of 
maturity. His earliest recollections 
extend back to the year 1820 or 1821, 
when his father was stationed on the 
island of Malta, where important 
fortifications were lieing constructed. 
He remembers also having resided on 
the isle of Corfu, and on that of Zaut. 
famous for tin* beauty and splendor of 
its gardens. When fix years of age 
lie resided on tlie island of Cepha- Argostoli^ where he received 
his earlitst instiuction at a in-ivate 
school, and also special lessons in 
writing at the military clerk'a office 
of the department. Here also he 
received moral and religions instruc- 
tion from Rev. Dr. Kennedy and wife, 
missionaries of the English Church, 
at whose house he was often accus- 
tomed tit meet Lord Byron, who was 
on the island training Ins army of 
silver-bespangled Suliols foi- bi< de- 
scent on Greece. In 1S24 he was 
taken to England, and attended a pri- 
vate school at Plymouth for some 
months, and subsequently received 
instruction at the grammar-school of 
the same place. He next attended 
the grammar-school attached to St. 
John's Church, Glasgow, Scotland, 
and after that resided at diffoient 
points in Ireland, and finally at Lon- 
donderry, where his father was stationed in the civil service, and where 
he attended Creigliton's Grammar-School, situated on the wall above 
Governor Walker's testimonial. For three years thereafter he was 
instructed by a private tutor in connection with his brothers, James 
and John, the former of whom is an architect and nuyor of the Victoria 
Rifles, ill New Zealand, where the family finally located, and where both 
Richard Derrom and his wife died. 

After leaving Londonderry, in 1S34, Col. Derrom went to Deal, Kiig- 
land, where he studied higher mathematics with a friend, — a branch of 
science in which he took great delight, — it being his intentitni to tit 
himself for the profession of a civil and military engineer. In IH'M he 
left Deal for the United States, mainly for travel and to bett'-r prepare 
himself for his profession, and upon arriving in this country entered 
a lithognipher's office, having commenced at as early an age as eight 
years to study drawing, and being an adept at both that and coloring. 
In November, \8'iG, he came to Patersun, where he found employment 
under C. S. Van Wagoner to survey, lay out, and map the city, etc. He 
made the first map of Passaic city also, for John Lloyd, an old resident 
of that place. In March, lS'i7, for the purpose of obtaining a |)raclical 
knowledge of architecture, he apprenticed himself to a carpenter and 
builder in Paterson, and after three years was placed in charge of the 
business. Prior to this, however, he had been in charge of the books 
and of the drawing department. In 1844 he began on bis own 
acciMuit in Pa'erson,and carried on one of the largest building enter- 
prises in the State until the breaking out of the war in 1861, when, 
owing to his early military education and his admitted executive ability, 
he was chosen chairman of the war committee to raise troops, and suc- 
ceeded in filling the several quotas of soldiere without the necessity of 
a draft, in one instance within three weeks. In 1802, when President 
Lincoln called for "300,0(»0 men, and ;JOn,fiUO more,'" making COO,(iiiU in 
all, a draft was ordered if the quota was not filled by volunteers. Col. 
Derrom, by energetic appeals to the patriotism of the people, seconded 
by his active personal exeitions, succeeded in mising the quota for Pat- 
erson within three days. Failing in his efforts to have Passaic County 
soldiei-8 commanded by Passaic men, it was arranged to have a regiment 
formed composed of five companies from Paterson and five from the 
southern section of New Jersey, of which he was unanimously elected 
colonel. He received his commission from the Governor, and was mus- 
tered into the service of tlie United States on Sept. 29, 1S62. In a few- 
days he had the regiment— the Twenty-fifth New Jersey Infantry— in 
perfect order ami discipline, and proceeded to the seat of war in October 
following. On arriving at Wiisbington he wsis appointed to conmiand 
a brigade of Vermont, Massachusetts, and New Jersey titiops; hut ex- 
pressing a desire to do duty with his own regiment, many of wluun had 
been induced to enlist by him, lie resumed his duties as colonel. The 
regiment performed valuable service in the field, and participated in a 
number of important engagements. At the battle of Fredericksburg, 
after the day was really lost, the regiment, with Col. Derrom at its head, 
was the only one to advance to the enemy's works at the time, and the 
night being dark was controlled by the whistle-calls of it-* leader alone. 
Throughout his entire service in the field Col. Derrom earned the warm 
approval and indoi-sement of his superior officers, ami performed his 
duties in a soldierly and successful manner. His engineering talents 
came into active play upon the occiision of the attack of Longstreet 
upon Sufl'olk, Va., in 1862, when, within eight hours, roadi were built 
and bridges constructed over Broer's Creek under his supenision and 
direction, prevontingadetour of five miles and bringing the troop>i on the 
Nansemoud River into close and rapid commuuicatiou with each other 

anil with Suffolk, contiibuting essen- 
tially to the successful termination of 
the siege. 

After the expiration of the regular 
term of service, Od. Derrom returned 
to Paterson, expecting to rejoin the 
army with his regiment reorganized 
as veterans ; but he found his private 
business afTairs in such a disastrous 
condition that it was necessary for him 
to remain at home and look after the 
interests of his family. Within three 
yearshe restored his business, paid all 
indebtedness, ami employed from four 
hundred to i'lVQ hundred men. For 
years he had vi\e of the largest build- 
ing enterprises in the country, and 
many of the nuuiufaeturing, public, 
and private building:^ in Paterson 
were designed and built by him, in- 
eluding such structures as the Dale, 
AiU\\ 1 ight, Kmpire, Waverly. aiul 
l''rauUIiii Mills. In many of the fac- 
toii«'Sid" the city, after the adoption 
of the tariff provisions of 1842, he de- 
signed and built the machinery with 
the assistinco of expert mechanics. 
He was the first in the United States 
lo make ct^mplete sectional buildings 
that could bo built iu one place and 
transported to another and put up, 
and received a bronze medal from the 
American Institute Fair in 1862 for 
his mechanical genius, and in 1872 
both a silver and special gold medal 
from the New Jersey State Fair at 
Waverly. In 1870, having acquired 
a handsome competency, he retired 
from active business, and established 
the Derrom Buil^liug Company, put- 
/ ting in seventy-five thousand dollare 

//) . of liis caiiital, and adding more from 

y (/ ^ )/ y /' W\xi<i to time. The corporate enter- 

^\,jC0^i\,yK.y'^^\^'^'^^^ prise was at finst very successful, but 

owing to the approaching business 
dei)ression, signs of which had al- 
ready begun to appear, it met with subsequent disasters, and finally col- 
lapsed. Even at this critical time Col. Derrom did not hesitate to take 
of his private means to liquidate the indebtedness of the concerji. Ho 
was subsequently invited to go to Caracas, Venezuela, where he estab- 
lished large construction shops on the American system, and filled the 
position of supervisor and architect for nearly four years. He returned 
in 1879, and is now with his sons, Andrew and James A. Derrom, in 
their business as sttpervising architects, in Pntefson. 

Besides his success ius a mechanical engineer and as a commanding 
officer of brave soldiers in the field. Col. Derropi been since his first 
residence in Paterson one of its most active and useful public men, and 
has been closely identified with many of the improvements and institu- 
tions of the city. From 186S to 1872 he purchased and developed the 
whole of -the east side of the city, laying out lots and streets, building 
houses, and rendering that section attractive and desiiable as a plare of 

He was also instrumental iu establishing the People's Park on Matl- 
ison Avenue, and in developing other sections of the city. In poli- 
Iic.-< he wa.s originally an Old-Line Whig, but since the organization of 
the Republican party ha- acted almost entirely with that party. Upon 
the first organization of the municipal government of Paiei>on he was 
electeil alderman from the West Ward, and took a prominent part in per- 
fi?cting the city government. He drew most of the ordinances passeil 
by the board (in the rough), and his services were especially vabiable in 
the arranging and correcting of street grades and lines. He was elected 
to.serve asecond term in the board from the same ward. In 1853 he was 
chosen president of the City Council of Patereori ns an independent can- 
did tie, a position that was equivalent to mayor, and in which only two 
olliers had preceded him, viz.. Judge Philemon Dickerson and Charles 
Danforth. During his administration of municipal aftairs taxes were 
light, expenses small, and the debt of the city not only reduced, but a 
balance left In the treasury. In 1854, under a law suggested by liim, a 
bill was passed by the Legislature of New Jerijey to correct the sellingof 
llic schoid children to the person who would teach the greatest number 
lor the lesist money. In the spring, under this law, Col. Derrom, as its 
father, was appointed the fii-st president of the board of education and 
superintendent of public schools, and it was he mainly who had the organ- 
izing and perfecting of the public school system of Paterson. He re- 
nniined witli the board for five years, and so thoi'ongli were the public 
schools that private schools could not be sustained against them. Col. Der- 
nun has also been actively connected with other loc;il institutions of Pat- 
ers'Hi; was the fii-st vice-president of the savings-hank and of the Passaic 
Water Company, and in church matters has been for a number of years 
an elder in the Fit st Presbyterian Church. He was formerly a very active 
supporter of the Sabbath-school cause, wiis for a number of years a lead- 
ing superintendent of tlie Sal>bath-school of that church, and during the 
seventeen years of his connection with the Fii-st Dutch Reformed Church 
was an active worker in the Sabbath-school and choir. He was married in 
1842 to Elizabeth Vreeland,a representative of some of the fii"st settlera of 
Paterson. The childi'en have been four in number, viz., Andrew, James 
A., Mary L., wifeof Casiano San tana, a banker of Caracas, Venezuela, and 
Elizabeth M. N. Derrom. Miss Jennie L. Derrom is an adopted daughter, 
anil occupies a chei'ishnd jdace in the household of which she forms a part. 
Andrew and James A. Derrom are carrying on the business of architects 
and superintendents at No. 209 Main Street, the firm-name being A. Der- 
rom, Jr., & Co. Col. Derrom is a prominent member of the orders of Free- 
masonrv and Odd-Fellowship, and has held a number of high oflSces in the 


N. J. ; mustered in Sept. 29, 1862 ; mustered out June 
20, 1863. 

Sergeant-Major, Charles J. Field, tobacconist, Cam- 
den, N. J. ; mustered in Sept. 29, 1862 ; promoted to 
adjutant; mustered out June 20, 1863. Granville 
Leach, Cape May, N. J. ; mustered in Sept. 29, 1862 ; 
promoted lieutenant ; mustered out June 20, 1863. 
Charles Thiskett, Passaic, N. J. 

Quartermaster-Sergeant, John Murchamp, clerk, 
Camden, N. J. ; mustered in Sept. 29, 1862 ; mustered 
out June 20, 1863. 

Commissary-Sergeant, J. R. Putnam, lawyer, Pat- 
erson, N. J. ; mustered in Sept. 29, 1862; mustered 
out June 20, 1863. 

Hospital Steward, James Van Blarcom,» lawyer, 
Paterson, N. J. ; mustered in Sept. 29, 1862 ; mustered 
out June 20, 1863. 

Assistant Hospital Steward, George Gravelius, 
barber, Paterson, N. J. ; mustered in Sept. 29, 1862 ; 
mustered out June 20, 1863. 

Drum-Major, A. J. Williams, cigar-maker, West 
Milford, N. J. ; mustered in Sept. 29, 1862 ; mustered 
out June 20, 1863. 

Fi'w officers in the service were better qualified than 
Col. Derrom both as an organizer and disciplinarian. 
For a short time he was placed in command of the 
brigade with which his regiment was organized, the 
First Brigade of Casey's division, consisting of the 
Twenty-fifth and Twenty-seventh New Jersey, the 
Twelfth and Thirteenth Vermont, and the Twelfth 
Massachusetts Battery. 

The regiment left camp at Beverly on the 10th of 
October, 1862, and arrived in Washington on the fol- 
lowing day, going into camp on Capitol Hill. Here 
the brigading took place, and the assignment of Col. 
Derrom temporarily to the command of the brigade. 
For a short time in November the regiment was as- 
signed to detached picket duty at Fairfax Seminary, 
Virginia, then, on the 30th, commenced their eighty- 
mile march to Liverpool Point, opposite Aquia Creek, 
whence they were transported across the Potomac 
and proceeded to Falmouth. Here, though wearied 
by a long march, the regiment was no sooner brigaded 
anew with the First Brigade, Third Division, Ninth 
Army Corps, than the tocsin sounded for active ser- 
vice, and they were with Burnside in the famous 
Fredericksburg engagement. "The Ninth Corps," 
says an account of this action, " lying immediately 
opposite Fredericksburg, was particularly exposed to 
the enemy's fire, but crossed with great gallantry, the 
First Brigade of the Third Division being the second 
to occupy the place, one of its regiments crossing 
some time before the bridges were laid. The Twenty- 
fifth, immediately upon reaching the south bank, 
threw out pickets along the streets, and so remained 
until the morning of the 13th, when the Ninth Corps 
went into action. The duty before this corps was 
arduous and dangerous, being to attack the enemy 
advantageously posted in the woods and hills lying 

back of Fredericksburg, and where he had con- 
structed formidable earthworks which were defended 
by numerous batteries. The odds were fearful, but 
the brave troops of the Ninth pushed steadily forward, 
clearing their way to a plain at the foot of the first 
ridge. There the order was given to storm the 
enemy's works, and two divisions advanced to the 
perilous task, marching dauntless across the plain 
until within a dozen or twenty rods of the ridge. 
Then the rebel infantry, stationed behind a stone 
wall, opened a murderous fire. For a moment the 
head of the column was thrown into confusion, but 
rallying, it was reinforced, and again moved forward. 
But the attempt to dislodge the enemy was vain. 
From the moment the brave columns left the shelter 
of the ravine where they had formed for the assault 
until they reached the foot of the hill the rebel ar- 
tillery and infantry poured a terrific concentrated fire 
upon the advancing line, and again it came to a halt, 
then broke and retired. But now, the situation grow- 
ing desperate, Getty's division of the Ninth Corps, 
including the Twenty-fifth, was ordered up, and 
charged directly upon the intrenchments at the Tele- 
graph road near the Marye House, the Jerseymen 
forming the centre of the attacking force. Pushing 
steadily forward a distance of some eight hundred 
yards, over fences, ravines, and swamps, the regiment, 
just at dusk, then alone charged with a cheer to a 
plateau only fifty paces from the wall held by the 
enemy, exposed all the way to a murderous fire, but 
bravely pressing on and holding their advanced po- 
sition. But this was but for a little time. At length, 
the supports having fallen back, and the darkness 
rendering it impossible any longer to manreuvre with 
safety, the enemy, moreover, having perfect com- 
mand of the position, the regiment was reluctantly 
withdrawn, still, however, fighting gallantly, and 
pouring in volleys of musketry as it fell back. By 
this time other parts of the line had also been finally 
driven back, and the enemy having reoccupied his 
advanced position, the Twenty-fifth, with its division, 
bivouacked on the ground from which it had moved 
to the assault. The loss of the regiment in this battle 
was nine killed, fifty-eight wounded, and eighteen 
missing. The conduct of the men was excellent 
throughout, being much more steady, indeed, than 
that of some of the other regiments. The following 
congratulatory order, dated ' Bivouac, Street of Fred- 
ericksburg,' was issued by the colonel commanding 
on the day after the engagement : 

" I. Tlie colonel conimantling takes great pleasure in giving credit to 
the officers and men in general of this regiment engaged in the action 
of yesterday. Their coolness under the trying circumstances in which 
they were placed stamps them as worthy comrades of tiie veterans of 
the army. 

" II. Tlie few who in the time of danger skulked from tlu ir duty to 
their country will in due time receive tlieir reward. 

*' III. Tlie noble men whom we have lust (killed in action) we mourn 
for, and sympathize with their families in their affliction while we hope 
that tlieir and our loss will be the eternal gain of our late comrades. 



"IV. In coDgratulntiug all on the ttold front tho rfgimrnt displayed, 
and for our preaenration from greater loas under the terrlDc Are of the 
enemy, It If proper that we should render thanks unto God for His mer- 
ciful prorideiice. 

"Asi>RKW Derbom, Colontt Comm»Hding" 

It is not our purpose to follow the regiment through . 
all its movements. After remaining in the old camp j 
at Falmouth until early in February, 1863, the regi- 
ment was transl'irred to Newport News, and thence 
on the 13th of March to Sutt'olk, Va., where it en- 
camped a siiort distance Irom the Dismal Swamp, 
near Fort Jericho, a work commanding the railroad 
running to Portsmouth. In April the enemy, some 
thirty thousand strong, liaving crossed the Black- 
water and taken |)ositioii in our front, the regiment 
was put into the iiitrenchnicnt'i, a i)ortion manning 
the completed works, while others constructed new 
defenses, built bridges, and opened necessary roads. I 
The purpose of Longstreet seemed to be to cross the \ 
Nansemond, overwhelm the garrison, seize the roads 
to Norfolk and cut off the Federal su|)i)lies. This 
would have placed botli Norfolk and Porlsniouth at 
the mercy of the rebels. It was therefore imperative 
that the position of our forces on the Nansemond , 
should be inflexibly maintained. This involved the 
command of the river for a distance of eight miles, 
bordered by lagoons and marshes which could only 
be rendered p!is.sable for troops and reinforcements 
by the construction of long roads, bridges, and cause- 
waj's. This work, at once arduous and important, 
was performed largely by the Twenty-filth New Jersey, 
while the bridges were in almost every instance con- 
structed under the direction of Col. Derrom. Two 
of these bridges, one over liroer's Creek, near Sullolk, 
and the other over Jericho Creek, were not only built 
but designed by the colonel, and were constructed 
almost entirely without tools, the workmen using only 
wood-axes, one auger, and one small chisel. Each 
bridge was built in from five to ten hours, and though 
subjected to the severest tests, — columns of troojts, 
trains of loaded wagons, and the heaviest field ord- 
nance and siege-pieces repeatedly crossing over them, 
— they stood unshaken. 

A writer, giving an account of these works, says,— 

"The lirlclge o»cr Uroor's Crti-k, over aoTonl.v feet In length, and the 
foundation resting on a muddy Lottum In ten feet of water, was thrown 
across In Bto houm, the whole stnioture, Inrluding the .ultlng down of 
the Unilmr and thi. cordur.)) Ing of tho npprom line Ihnaigh a thick wood, 
being coniplol.d In Iom than a dajr with a dotall of sixty men. Col. 
Derrom appears to havi. ■ugg|.al>'<l this whole »y» of roads anil 
bridges, by nifaus of whiih, mainly. I/ongatreot was ihickmated, 

" A latter from Oen. fietty to Gol. Derrom says, • More c-8|»cl«lly were 
your suggeatlons on the subjwl of military hri.lges of value. The bridgra 
constnicted by you, and aft.-r your own Invention, oror llmiT's Cn>ek, 
during the siege of Suffolk, In April last, were of the greatest Import- 
ance. Thiuwn with great rapidity, ond at a critical niomenl, by cutting 
olTa detour of Ave mlle«, anil thus bringing the lriHi|« on the Nanse- 
monil Hirer Inbi cloa.! and rapid rommunicjitlon with ikcIi other and 
with SulTolk, they contril.iite<l essentially to the succmsful termination 
of the siege.* '• 

After the abandonment of the siege by l^ongstreet, 
the Twenty-fifth Regiment built a fort near Sufl'olk, 
which Gen. Uetty, in compliment to the State, named 

Fort New Jersey. The loss of the regiment during 
the siege was small, two killed and nine wounded. 
Among the former was Chaplain Rutler. who was 
mortally wounded while moving about the field, al- 
leviating the sufferings of the wounded soldiers. He 
was a man of the most exalted character and the 
purest patriotism, and was universally beloved by the 
men in service he so bravely died.' 

The regiment having completed its term of service 
returned home, and was mustered out on the 20th of 
June, 1863. (See record of the ofticers and men in the 
regiment from Passaic County in a subsequent chap- 

Comptiny A.- — (John McKierxas, Captain.) 
Ackennan, Jacob, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862 ; must, out June 2". 1883. 
Anderson, Abraham, private, enl. Sept. 2, 1862 ; must, out Juuf 20, 18(0. 
AngiB,John,privale, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; must, out June 20,1863. 
Attenborough, Samuel, private, enl. Sept. 1. 1862: musL out June 20, 

Avison, Jeremiah, private, enl. Sept. 1,1862; must, out June 20, 18C3. 
Bohen, Jamea. corp, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; wounded in the head at battle of 

Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 13, 1862; rejoined company for duty March 

22, 1863; must, out June 20, I»M. 
BotI, Frederick, con>., enl. Sept. 1, I8C2; must, out June 20, 1863. 
Boyd, William, private, enl. Sept. 1. 1862; must. out June 2fl,186<. 
Boyle, Jame«, private, enl. Sept 1, 1802 ; must, out June 20, 1863. 
Burton, George, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; must, out June 20, 1863. 
Campbell, John, wagoner, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; must, out June 20, 1863. 
ConartoD, Michael, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862 ; must, ont June 1», IMS. 

• Francis E. Butler was l*orn at Suffleld, Conn., on Feb. », 1825. Be 
woa the i*oii of Asa Butler, u pupeT-nianufnctnrer of Suffleld, Conn., and 
for a numl>er of yean* previoun to entering college was engaged In the 
office of the large papor-liouse of bis brothers, Henry V. and William 
Butler, in Sew York and I'aterson, S. J. lie graduated with honorable 
distinction at Yale Colb-ge in the cla«s of 1857, and after studying di- 
vinily at Princeton and at I'nlon Theological Siniinary in Sew Y'ork, he 
became pastor of the CVmgregalional Church of Pater»»>n, where he re- 
nkained till he elilentl tho service aj« chaplain. 

Ue nianifeeted on all occasions the spirit and courage i>f the tnie sad- 
dler, OS well ai o( the faUhfiil > bnpliilo. ofl.oi putting lilmself In |m»Is of 
danger to do extra service over and aliove what the duties of his station 
ri-i)nired. It was In one of those situations, while taking care of wounded 
comrades on the Held, that he received the fatal shot which ended his 
useful and promising career. In all his relations Chaplnin Butler was a 
man of high honor and of an exalted character. Ills people, whelher of 
the church or of the regiment, all love<l and honored him, and his 
memory is greatly levered by his surviving frieii'b. 

It is said, in explanation of the military knowUilge and enthusiasm 
which Chaplain Butler lUsplayeil while in lliu army, llmt this was a s-irt 
of april ill! corpn ImhllKil in early life, for when ipiile young, at home 
in Suffleld, tijun., ho organlzeil and equipped a military coni|>any of his 
own, and drille.1 them in the tactics which he hiniself leariie.1 for that 
purp«>ae. It is well known to those familiar with Ihe hlsloiy of the regi- 
ment that he rendereil lmp«>rtant service to the officers in command, and 
a brilliant career was predlctol for him In the army had his life been 

2 We Dud the following note attacheil to the reiord of this comliany : 
"Company A, formed from a nucleus of meniliers of Wiulilngton 
Fire Kiiglni' Company (I'aterson. N. J.), were men of average height, 
stnmg and liealthy. and Invariably re|«irled more men for duty each 
day than any other company In the regimint. The coni|>any lieing 
comiwsed of mechanlca, were detaileil to assist In building all of Col. 
Derrom's patent bridgea, iioUbly tho one crossing the creek near Suf- 
folk. Oen. Getty said to Capt, McKlernau that If this bridge was com- 
pletitl by a certain time II would be worth a million dollara to the gov- 
emmi-nt. The bridge was completed In the time, lieing overs»'venty feet 
long, and thruwn across In the sl<ice of Bve hours. (Japt McKlernau, of 
Co. A, was compllmente<l by C.d. Derrom on the efficiency and wllling- 
neM with which hia men worked, In some inslancea up I" their waist in 
mud and water. This bridge aaveil Gen. I'eck from being driven from 



Conoly, James, private, eul. Sept. 1, 186'ii ; muBt. out Juue 20, 1863. 
Connor, Michael, private, eul. Sept. 1, 1862; must, out June 20, 1863. 
Dean, Jolin, sergt., eul. Sept. 1, 1862 ; wounded in left shoulder at battle 
of Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 13,1862; rejoined company for duty 
March 22. 186:1 ; must, out June 20, 1863. 
Dean, William, private, eul. Sept. 1, 1862; discU. at Eckingtou U. S. A. 

Hosji., Washingtou, D. C, Jan. 13, 1863, for disability. 
Deats, Ezra, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; disch. at reg. hosp-, camp near 

Falmouth, Va,, Jan. 12, 1863, for disability. 
Demarest, Peter S.. private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; must, out June 20, 1863. 
Dougherty, Johci, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; must, out June 20, 1863. 
Dingie, Peter M., private, enl. Sept. 1,1862; teamster at convalescent 

camp, Alexandria, Va, ; final record not known; absent at muster. 
Duffy, John, private, enl. Sept 1, 1862; must, out June 20, 186:1. 
Englehart, Frederick, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862 ; must, out June 20, 1863. 
Folly, Elias, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862 ; must, out June 20, 1863. 
Folly, John B., private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; must, out June 20, 1863. 
Frank, John K,, private, enl. Sept. 1,1862; killed in action at Freder- 
icksburg, Va., Dec. 13, 1862. 
Gordon, John, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862 ; must, out June 20, 1863. 
Gallagher, William, corp, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; must, out Juue 20, 1863. 
Gibson, James T., 1st sergt,, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; wounded in left wrist and 
taken prisoneratbattleof Fredericksburg,Va.,Dec. 13,1862; paroled 
Jan. 9, 1862 ; com. 2d lieut. 5Iay 1, 1863; rejoined company for duty 
June 8, 1S63; must, out June 20, 1863. 
Hart, Henry, M.D., private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; wounded and taken pris- 
oner at Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 13, 1862 ; died of wounds at Rich- 
mond, Va., Jan. 22, 1863; buried at National Cemetery, Richmond, 
Hagan, Ale.\andei-, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862 ; must, out Juue 20, 1863. 
Haycock, William, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862 ; must, out Juue 20, 1863. 
Hodge, James, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; must, out June 20. 1863. 
Howard, Thomas, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; must, out June 20, 1863. 
Heline, Thomas, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; died of typhoid fever at reg. 
hosp., camp near Suffolk, Va., March 26, 1863; buried at National 
Cemetery, Hampton, Va. 
Heske, Gottleib, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; killed in action at Freder- 
icksburg, Va., Dec. 13, 1862. 
Huff, .Jacob, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862 ; must, out June 20, 1863. 
Hyde, Joseph, private, eul. Sept. 1, 1862; discli. at reg. hosp., camp near 

Suffolk, Va., Blarch 13, 1863, for disability. 
Ingham, William, private, enl. Sept. 1,1862; must, out June 20, 1863. 
Ingrund, John, private, enl. Sept. I,lf62; must, out June 20,1863. 
Jackson, John, private, enl. Sept. 1,1862; must, out June 20, 1863. 
Jantz, Michael, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862 ; must, out June 20, 1863. 
Kay, Alfred, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862 ; must, out June 20, 1863. 
Keife, Andrew, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862 ; killed in action at Fredericks- 
burg, Va„ Dec. 13, 1862. 
Keer, John, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; must, out June 20, 1863. 
Kegan, John C, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862 ; must, out June 20, 1863. 
Kidd, William, private, enl. Sept. 1. 1862; must, out June 20, 1863. 
Kime, Aaron, private, enl. Sept, 1, 1862; must, out June 20, 1863, 
King, Charles A,, [irivate, enl. Sept. 1. 1862; must, out June 20, 1863. 
Lawless, Henry, private, eul. Sept. 1,1862; must, out June 20, 1863. 
Lee, James, corp,, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; sergt. March 1, 1863; must, out 

June 211, 186:j. 
Mahoney, Timothy, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; must, out June 20, 1863. 
Mara, Philip, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; must, out June 211, 1863. 
McBride, John, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; must, out June 20, 1863. 
McDermot, .John, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; must, out June 20, 1863. 
McKiernan, John, captain, com. Sept, 1, 1862; must, out June 2(1, 1863. 
McKiernan, Samuel G., corp., enl. Sept. 1, 1862 ; sergt. Sept. 30, 1862 ; 
pro, to 1st lieut., Jan. 11, 1863, rice Rogers, pro.; wounded slightly 
at l.atlle of Suffolk, Va., May 3, 1863 ; must. out. June 20, 186:). 
McNeill, Joseph, Corp., enl. Sept. 1, 1862; sergt. March 1, 1863; must. 

out June 20, 1863. 
McComisky, Francis, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862 ; must, out June 20, 1863. 
McGill, Jumea, musician, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; must, out June 20, 1863. 
McGill, Bernard, private, enl. Sept 1, 1862; must, out June 2(i, 1863. 
McGuirll, Anthony, private, enl. Sept. 1,1862; must, out June 20, 1863. 
Maher, Patrick, private, eul. Sept. 1, 1862; corp. Dec. 22, 1862: must, out 

June 2(», 186:1. 
Munday. John, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; must, out June 20, 1.%:!. 
Morrison, Thomas, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; wounded in lelt shoulder 
in action at Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 13, 1862; must, out June 20, 
Morgan, John, private, enl. Sept, 1, 1862 ; must, out June 20, 1863. 

Newton, William, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862 ; must, out June 20, 1863. 
Oliver, Richard, musician, enl Sept. 1,1862; trans, from Co. E; must. 

out June 20, 1863. 
Otto, Adam, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862 ; must, out June 20, 1863. 
Parker, John, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; dIsch. at U. S. Hosp., Fort 

Schuyler, New York Harbor, Jan. 23, 1863, for disability. 
Phalon, John. Corp., enl. Sept. 1, 1862; must, out June 20, 1863. 
Pallett, Richard, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862 ; must, out June 20, 1863. 
Pettigrew, Matthias, sergt., enl. Sept. 1, 1862; must, out June 20, 1863. 
Quiulan, John, private, enl.. Sept. 1, 1862; must, out June 20, 1863. 
Reed, William, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; must, out June 20, 1863. 
Robertson, James, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862 ; must, out June 20, 1863. 
Richards, B., 2d lieut., enl. Sept. 2, 1862 ; res'd May 18, 1863. 
Rogers, Andrew, Ist lieut,, enl. Sept. 1, 1862 ; pro. to capt. Co. F, Jan. 11, 

1863, vice Blenkow, res'd ; must, out Jane20, 1863. 
Ross, Richard, private, enl. Sept. 1,1862; wounded in breast at battle of 

Fredericksburg, Va,, Dec. 13, 1862 ; rejoined company forduty, March 

25, 1863; wounded in thigh at battle of Suffolk, Va., May 3, 1863; 

must, out June 20, 1863. 
Ryan, James, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; must, out June 20, 1863. 
Scanlan, James, private, enl, Sept. 1, 1862 ; must, out June 20, 1863. 
Spindler, Charles, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; must, out June 20, 1863. 
Stone, James, private, enl. Sept, 1, 1862 ; must, out June 20, 1863. 
Sutton, Michael, private, enl. Sept, 1, 1862 ; must, out June 20, 1863. 
Sweeney, Patrick, private, enl. Sept. 1. 1862 ; must, out June 20, 1863. 
Thomas, Benjamin, private, enl. Sept. 1 , 1862 ; must, out June 20, 1863. 
Vail, Johns., private, enl. Sept. 1, 1802; must, out June 20, 1863. 
Van Dyne, James, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862 ; wounded in left thigh in 

battle of Suffolk, Va., May 3, 1863 ; rej()ined comi)any for duty June 

10, 1803 : must, out June 20, 1863. 
Van Ness, Ephraim N., private, enl. Sept. 1, 18B2 ; must, out June 20, 

Van Ness, John K., private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862 ; must, out Juue 20, 1863. 
Veader, John H., private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; must, out June 20, 1863. 
Veader, David, corp., enl. Sept. 1, 1862 ; died of malarial fever at Armory 

Hospital, Washington, D. C, Dec. 22, 1862. 
Veasey, Nicholas, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862 ; Corp. March 1, 1863 ; must. 

out June 20, 1863. 
Walls, Michael, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862 ; must, out June 20, 1863. 
Watt, Alexander, private, enl. Sept. 1,1862; killed in action at Freder- 
icksburg, Va,, Dec. 13, 1862. 
Warren, Peter, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862 ; must, out June 20, 1863. 
Ward, William J., sergt., enl. Sept. 1,1862; private Oct. 21, 1862; pro. 

to 2d lieut. C^i.E, Dec. 30, 1862, rice Marsh, promoted; must out June 

20, 1863. 
Watson, Edward J., private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862 ; corp. Sept. 30, 1862 ; must. 

out June 20, 1803. 
Way wood, Henry, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; must, out June 20, 1863. 
Wise, John, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; Corp. Dec. 22, 1862; wounded in 

action at Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 13, 1862 ; rejoined company for 

duty June 10, 1863; must, out June 20, 1863. 
Winters, William B., private, eul. Sept. 1, 1862; must, out June 20, 1863. 
Wood, John, private, enl. Sept, 1, 1862 ; must, out June 20, 1803. 

Compatiy C. 

Allen, Oscar, private, enl. Sept. 2, 1862 ; must, out June 20, 1863. 

Anderson, John, private, enl. Sept. 2, 1862; must, out June 20, 1863. 

Barker, Dayton, private, enl. Sept. 2, 1862; must, out June 20, 1863. 

Barker, Marinus, Corp., enl. Sept. 2, 1862; private Oct. 13, 1862; must, 
out June 20, 1863. 

Bell, John, corp , enl. Sept. 2,1862; sergt. May 3, 1863 ; must, out June 
20, 1863. 

Binson, Robert, private, enl. Sept. 2, 1862 ; disch. at Armory Square 
Hosp., Washington, D. C, Dec. 26, 1862, for disability. 

Brown, Alexander, private, enl. Sept. 2, 1862; must, out June 20, 1863, 

Buckley, Joseph, private, enl. Sept. 2, 1862; disch, at Falmouth, Va., 
Jan. 17, 1863, for disability. 

Bush, James, private, enl. Sept. 2, 1862; must, out June 20, 1863. 

Burton, George, private, enl. Sept. 2, 1862 ; must, out June 20, 1863. 

Clark, Andrew, private, enl. Sept. 2, 1862 ; must, out Juue 20, 1863. 

Clark, Redmond, private, enl. Sept. 2, 1862: must, out Juue 20,1863. 

Condron, Patrick, private, enl. Sept. 2, 1862 ; must, out June 20, 186;i. 

Coyle, Henry, private, enl. Sept. 2, 1862; must, out June 20, 1863. 

Clinton, Francis De Witt, private, enl. Sept. 2, 1862; disch, at Stanton 
U. S. A. Gen. Hosp., Washington, D. C, Feb. 2, 1863, wounds re- 
ceived in action at Fredericksburg: leg amputated. 



OoDMljrea, Alexander, private, enl. Sept. 2, 1862; diKh. at Fairfax Sem- 
inar;. Vs.. Jan. 8, 1863, for diaability. 
Doremui, Andrew, Corp., enl. Sept. 2, 1862; gergt. Mnj 11, I8G3; muat 

out June 20, 1863. 
Doremiu, Albert C, prlTate, enl. Sept 2, 1862 ; must, oat June 20, 1S63. 
Doremus, Stephen, priviite, eiil. Sept. 2, 18G2; must, oot Juno 2U, 1863. 
Doremus, Tbomaa C, private, eol. Sept. 2, 1862; must, out June 20, 

Decker, David N., private, must, in Oct. 31, 1862; must, out June 20, 

Devine, llugb, private, eul. Sept. 2, 1862; must, oat Jane 20, 1863. 
Drew, .Martiu R., private, eul. Sept. 2, 1862; must, out June 20, 1863. 
Drew. Alexander, private, enl. Sept. 2, 1862; must, out June 20, 1863. 
Eakins, WilliHm, ser^t., eul. Sept. 2, 1862 ; 2d lieut., rice Parmley, rcs'd, 

Jan. 7, 18)j3; must, out June 20, 1863. 
Eakins, Kubrrt, private, eul. Si^pt. 2,1862 ; must out June 20, 1863. 
Everaou, Matthias, private, eul. Sept. 2, I8C2; must, out June 20, 1863. 
rine, George, private, eul. SepL 2, 1862 ; must, out June 20, 1863. 
7orce, Columbus, Ist lieut., eul. Sept 2, 1862 ; acting adjt. from Oct. 15 
to Dec. 20, 1SG2 ; pro. to capt. Co. O, Dec. 25, 1862, vice Powell, re- 
Bi^cned ; must, out June 20, 1863. 
Fredericks, Jiicob, private, enl. Sept. 2, 1862 ; must, oat June 20. 1863. 
Findon, Job H., private, enl. Sept 2, 1862; must, out June 20, 18G3. 
OannoD, John, private, enl. Sept. 2, 1862; must, out June 20, 1863. 
Graham, Archibald, capt., com. Sept. 2, 1862; must, out June 20, 1863. 
Haycock, Muhlon, private, enl. Sept 2, 1862; must, out Juno 20. 1863. 
Montgotupr}. John, private, enl. Sept. 2, 18C2; must out June 20, 1863. 
Mulligan, John, private, enl. Sept 2, 1862; must out June 20, 1863. 
Huun, James, private, eul. Sept. 2, 1862; must, out June 20, 1863. 
Mullen, John, private, enl. Sept. 2, 1862; disch at U. S. A. Gen. Hosp., 

Newark, N. J , March 13, 1863, for disability. 
Page, Willinin, private, enl. Sept. 2, 1862 ; must, out June 20, 1803. 
Paine, John, private, eul. Sept 2, 1862 ; must nut June 2(i, 180.3. 
Perry, lletthual, private, eul. Sept 2, 1862; must out June 20, 1863. 
Pulhamus, David, private, onl. Sept 2, 1862 ; sergt, Jan. 1(1. 1863; pri- 
vate May II, 18&I; must out June 20, 1863. 
Lamond, John, private, enl. Sept. 2, 1862 ; Corp., Jan. 10, 1863 ; must oat 

June 20. 1863. 
Leslie, David, private, eul. Sept. 2, 1862; Corp., Jan. 10, 1803; must out 

June 2(1, 1863. 
Luck, William, private, onl. Sept 2, 186;; must, out June 20, 186.3. 
Ltldwb'k, Jacob, private; no record. 

MarKhall, Ceorge W., private, enl. Sept. 2, 1862 ; must out June 20, 1863. 
Maasaker, John, private, enl. Sept 2, 1862; must out June 20,1863. 
Mcliaw, Tliomoa, private, onl. Sept 2, 1862. 
Maher, Thuinas, sergt., eul. Sept 2, 1862 ; Corp., Oct IS, 1862; scrgt, Jan. 

10, 1^63; must, out June 20, 1863. 
Miller, John, private, enl. Sept 2, 18S2 ; must out June 20, 1863. 
llarwoixl, .labe/., Corp., enl. Sept 2, 1862. 

Hudson, Itobert, private, enl. Sept. 2, 1862; must, out June 20, 1863. 
Jones, TIsdel B.. private, enl. Sept. 2, 1862; must out June 20, 1803. 
Kay, Jamee S., private, enl. Sept 2, 1862; must, out June 20, 1863. 
Kay, Selh H., private, onl. Sept. 2, 1862; must out June 2(>, 1863. 
Kelly. Itobert, private, enl. Sept 2, 1862 ; must out June 20, IN6.3. 
Kimball, Henry, private, enl. Sept 2, 1862; must, out June 20, 1863. 
Kendall, 4te.irgo II., private, enl. Sept. 2, IH62; must out June 20, 1863. 
Prcelon, Daniel II., private, enl. Sept 2, 1862 ; must out June 20, 1863. 
Poat William F., private, enl. Sept 2, 1862; sergt, Jan. 10, 1863; most 

out June 20, 186:1. 
Nor^l^ William II., Corp., enl. Sept 2, 1862; sergt., Oct IS, 1862; lat 
sergt, Jan. In, 1863; Oct 15, 1862, color sergt, until Jan. 10, 1863; 
must, out Juno 20, 1803. 
Parmley,>.Tt, 2d lieut, com. Sept 2, 1862 ; ri's'd Jan. .'i, 1863. 
Prealun, (ieorge II., private, enl. Sept 2, 18G2; most out June 2(1, 1863. 
Preaton, Jamee W.. private, enl. Sept. 2, 1862 ; must out Juno 20, 1863. 
Preaton, William K., private, «nl. Sept 2, 1862 ; must, out June 20, 186:1. 
Bee<l, Thiimaa, private, enl. Sept 2, 1862; must out June 2U, lHi;3. 
BIley, Jiunen, private, inl. S'pt 2, IN62 ; must out June 2", IHCM. 
Roberis, Jidiu J., cor|>., enl.Sept 2, 1862; must, out June 20, 1x6:1. 
Quarkenbush, John, i»rp., enl. Sept 2, IN62 ; munt out June 20, 1863. 
Scott Henry I,., private, enl. S<ipt 2, lHn2; must out June 20, 11163. 
Slsro, Krancis, private, nnl. Sept 2. 1862; must, out June 2(', 186.3. 
Sllngrrland, John, private, enl. .Sept. 2, IH62 ; must ont June 2(1, 1863. 
Btavenson, William J., private, enl. Sept. 2, 1862 ; Ist sergt ; pro. to lat 

lieut., rir« Force; must, out June 20, 186:1. 
Suitor, William, private, enl. .Sept 2, 1862 ; Corp. May :l, 1863; must out 
June 20, 1863. 

Swin. Edward, sergt, eul. Sept 2, 1862 ; must out June 20, 1863. 
Spring. tein, James, private, onl. Sept 2, 1862 ; corp. Jan. 10, 1863; must 

out June 20, 1861. 
Smith, Cbarlea W., private, enl. Sept 2, 1862; must out June 20, 1863. 
Smith, James, private, enl. Sept 2, 1862; must, out June 20, 1863. 
Spear, William II., privato, eol. Sept 2, 1862; must out June 20, 1863. 
Spittle, Charlce, private, enl. Sept. 2, 1862 ; must, out June 20, 1863. 
Spittle. John R., private, onl. Sept. 2, 1862; must out June 20, 1863. 
Van Ordeu, William, private, enl. Sept. 2, 1862 ; must, out June 20, 1863. 
Van Orden, Henry, private, enl.Sept 2. 1862; must out June 20, 1863. 
Van (jrden, .\ndreu, private, onl. Sept 2, 1862; must out June 20, 1863. 
Van Orden, Garret, private', enl. Sept 2, 1862; must out June 20, 1863. 
Van Onlen, Charlee, private, enl. Sept. 2, 1862; died of ulceration of the 

bowels at hospital, Philadelphia, Pa., Dec. 31, 1862. 
Van Orden, Giles, private, enl. Sept 2, 1862; supposed to have died In 

Gen. Hosp. 
Vreeland. J.din J., private, enl. Sept. 2, 1862; must out June 20, 1863. 
Weatcrvelt, Martin V., private, enl. Sept. 2, 1862 ; must, ont June 20, 

Wilds, William, corp., enl. Sept 2, 1862 ; disch. at U. S. A. Gen. lloap., 

Washington, D. C, Dec. 26, 1862, for disability. 
Paleman, Richard, private, enl. Sept. 2, 1862; missing in action at Fred- 
ericksburg, Va., Dec. 13, 1862; supposed killed. 
SUnnor, William, sergt, enl. Sept 2, 1862 ; killed in action near Suffolk, 

Va.. May 3, 1863. 
Garlick, Scth, private, enl. Sept. 2,1862; Corp., May 11, 1863; must oat 

June 20, 186:1. 

Company E. — (Alexander HoLMiis, Captain.) 

Bsboock, Anthony M., private. West Hilford, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; must. 

out June 20, 1863. 
Babcock, Minard, private. West Miiford, enl. Sept. 1, 18(;2; must out 

June 20, 1863. 
Banta. Charles G, private. West Miiford, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; must out 

June 20, 1863. 
Barnard, John, private, Acquackanuuk, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; must out 

June 20, 1863. 
Berry, John, corp.. West Miiford, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; disch. at U.S. A. 

Gen. Hosp.. Waaliingbjn. D. C. Jan. 31, 18M, for dLsabillty 
Brinkerhoof, E. Itoardman, mmtician, Paterson, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; must. 

out June 20, iwu. 
BuBh,Goorgo D., private, Acquackaaonk, enl. Sept 1, 1862; must out 

June 20, 1863. 
Gary, William R., private. West Miiford, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; mast out 

June '20, 1863. 
Oarlin. George D., private. West Miiford, «nl. Sept 1, 1862; must out 

June 20, 1863. 
Cole, William F., private, West Miiford, eol. Sept 1, 1862 ; must out June 

20, 1803. 
CJole, Frederick S., private. West Miiford, enl. Sapt 1, 1862; must, out 

June 20, 1863. 
Cook, Martin, private. West Miiford, enl. Sept. 1, 1862 ; must, out June 

20, 1863. 
Conklin, George K., Corp., enl. Sept I, 1862 ; private Oct 1, 1862. 
Conklin, Samuel J., private, West Mllfurd, enl. Sept 1, 1862; must out 

Juni- 20, 1863. 
Croft, William, private, PaUraon, enl. Sept 1, 1862; must out June 20, 

Ojnsolyea. I^lward, private, Paterson, enl. Sept 1, 18C2; disch. at Ward 

V. S. A. Hosp., Newark, N. J., April 18, 1863, of wounds received in 

action at Fredericksburg, Va. 
Oronk, Joseph, private, Pompton, enl. Sept 1, 1862; must out June 20, 

Crotber, Sidney, private, Manchester, enl. Sept 1, 1862; must, out Jans 

20, 1863. 
Day, Horace P., private. West Miiford, enl. Sept 1, 1862; disch. at ramp 

near Falmouth, Va., Jan. 12, 186.3, for disability. 
Daven|><>ri, (iarret, private. West Milfonl, enl. Sept 1, 1862; must out 

June 20, 188:1. 
Davis, Horace, private. West Milfonl, enl. Sept I, 1862; Corp., Oct. 1, 

1862 ; must out June 20, 1863. 
Decker, Henry, corp, Paletaon, enl. Sept 1, 1862; ssr(t, Oct 1,1862; 

must out June 20, 1K63. 
Bdwnnls, Samuel B., private. West Miiford, enl. Sept 1, 1862 ; must, out 

June 20, 1863. 
Freeman, George P., West Miiford, pro. to 1st lieut, Sept. 16, 1862; res'd 

Dec. 22. 1862. 


Freclericks, Henry I., private, West Milford. enl. Sept. 1, 1862; must. 

out Jure 20, 1S63. 
Gilmore, David F., Pat«r8on, Ise sergt., enl. Sept. 1, 1S62; disch. at U. 

S. A. Hosp., Hampton, Va., May 11, 1863, for disability. 
Gorniley, Thomas H., West Milford, Corp., enl. Sept. 1, 1862; sergt. 

.Ipril 4, 1863; must, out June 20, 1863. 
Hand, William H., private. West Milford, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; must, out 

June 20, 1863. 
Hadley, Edmund V., Paterson, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; corp. Oct. 1, 

1862 ; must, out June 20, 1863. 
Hartwick, William, Paterson, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862. 
Henderson, Thomas, Paterson, private, onl. Sept. 1, 1862; must, out 

June 20, 1863. 
Henderson, Martin, Wast Milford, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862 ; must, out 

June 20, 1863. 
Herman, Martin, Acquackanonk, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862. 
Holmes, Alexander, Paterwon, capt., must, out June 20, 1863. 
Hopkins, Daniel, West Milford, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862 ; must, out 

June 20, 186:!. 
Irvin, Martin, West Milford, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; must, out June 

20, 1863. 
Jennings, John, West Milford, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862 ; niuBt. out June 

20, 1863. 
Kay, John, Paterson, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; Corp., Doc. 12,1862; 

sergt., Jan. 20, 1863; must, out June 20, 1863. 
Kay, William H., Paterson, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; must, out June 

■M, 1863. 
Kimlple, George, West Milford, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862 ; disch. at H. 3. 

.\. Gen. Hosp., Washington, D. C, Doc. 7, 1862, for disaliility. 
Kiml>le, James, West Milford, private, enl. Sept 1, 1862 ; must, out June 

•20, 1863. 
Luke, George, Paterson, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862 ; must, out Juno 20, 

Margeson, Richard P., West Milford, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; died at 

regt. hosp., near Falmouth, Va., Dec. 22, 1862. 
Mar-ih, Charles M., 2d lieut., com. Sept. 16, 1862 ; 1st lieut., vice Freeman, 

resigned, Dec. 30, 1862 ; must, out June 20, 1863. 
Merrion, Robert R., West Milford, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862 ; must, out 

Juue 20,1863. 
Herrion, Nicholas, West Milford, private, onl. Sept. 1, 1862; must, out 

June 20, 1863. 
Uerrion, Martin, West Milford, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862. 
Mains, Henry, Paterson, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; disch. at camp near 

Falmouth, Va., Jan. 12, 1863, for disability. 
Morse, Aaron, West Milford, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862 ; must, out June 

20, 1863. 
Morse, William, West Milford, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; must, out 

June 20, 1863. 
McCauloy. Daniel J., private, enl. Sept. 26, 1862 ; must, out June 20,1863. 
McGurk, Arthur, West Milford, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862 ; Corp., May 

11, 1863; must, out June 20, 1863. 
Odell, Henry, Pomptou, privjite, enl. Sept. 1, 1862 ; must, out June 20, 

Oliver, Richard, Paterson, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; trans, to Co. A, 

Nov. 26, 1862 ; must, out June 20, 1863. 
Oxer, William, Paterson, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862 ; must, out Juno 20, 

Pittll, Henry, West Milford, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862 ; must, out June 

20, 1863. 
Price, George, Paterson, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; must, out June 20, 

Post, George, Paterson, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; disch. at U.S.A. 

Hosp., Fort Wood, Now York Harbor, Dec. 28, 1802. for disability. 
Banney, Jefferson, West Milford, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; must, out 

June 20, 1863. 
Bear, William H., Paterson, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; must, out June 

20, 1S63. 
Biker, Obadiah, Paterson, sergt., enl. Sept. 1, 1862; disch. at U. S. A. 

Husp., Washington, D. C, Jan. 19, 1863, for disability. 
Scott. Thomas, Acquackanonk, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; must, out 

June 20,1863. 
Sbay, Abrani, West Milford, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862 ; must, out June 

20, 1863. 
Smith, Daniel, West Milford, private, enl. Sept. 1,1862; disch. at U. S. 

A. Gen. Hosp., Fort Wood, Jan. 17, 1863, for disability. 
Shippey, John, West Milford, sergt., enl. Sept. 1, 1862 ; disch. at Carver 

n. S. A Hosp., Washington, D. C, April 7, 1863, for disability. 

Snyder, James, West Milford, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; died at regt. 

hosp., near Falmouth, Va., Dec. 28, 1862. 
Stickle, Cyrus H., West Milford. sergt , enl. Sept. 1, 1862; 1st sergt.. May 

11. 1863; must, out Juno 20, 1803. 
Staltor, Robert, West Milford, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; Corp., Jan. 26, 

1863; must, out June 20, 1863. 
Stalter, Jeremiah, West Milford, corp , enl. Sept. 1, 1862 ; disch. at camp 

near Fairfax Seminary, Va., Nov. 28, 1862, for disability. Retained 

in service by mistike, and wounded in action at Fredericksburg, 

Va., Dec. 13, 1862. 
Struble, Francis, West Milford, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862 ; must, out 

June 20, 1863. 
Taylor, Edward, Paterson, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; must, out June 20, 

Templeton, Isaac F., Acquackanonk, Corp., enl. Sept. 1, 1862; deserted 

Jan. 24, 1863, at camp near Falmouth, Va.; returned to duty May, 

1863 ; left at Norfolk, Va., Juno 4, 1863, for trial as a deserter ; final 

record unknown. 
Tborne, George E., West Milford, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; must, out 

June 20, 1863. 
Torbert, Matthew G., Paterson, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; must, out 

June 20, 1863. 
Van Orden, Peter, West Milford, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; must, out 

Juno 20, 1863. 
Van Ordon, George, West Milford, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; must, out 

June 20, 1863. 
Van Orden, Henry J., West Milford, private, enl. Sept. 1,1862; must. 

out June 20, 1863. 
Van Orden, Samuel, West Milford, corp., enl. Sept. 1, 1862; must, out 

June 20, 1863. 
Vanzili, Eber, Paterson, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; must, out June 20, 

Vanzili, Theodore, Patei-son, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; must, out June 

20, 1863. 
Vreeland, Richard, West Milford, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862 ; must, out 

June 20, 1863. 
Vreeland, Ralph, Pompton, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; must, out June 

20, 1863. 
Vreeland, Henry, Pompton ; must, out Juno 20, 1863. 
Warhurlon, James, West Milford, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; must, out 

June 20, 1863. 
Whelan, James, Paterson, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862. 
Williams, Andrew J., West Slilford, musician, enl. Sept. 1, 1862 ; must. 

out June 20, 1863. 
Woodruff, John J., West Milford, Corp., enl. Sept. 1, 1862; sergt.. May 

11, 1863; must, out June 20, 1863. 
Woolston, Charles, private, enl. Sept. 26, 1862; must, out June 20, 1863. 

Company H. 

Alexander, Donald, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862 ; must, in Sept. 18, 1862 

must, out June 20, 1863. 
Alexander, James, private, enl. Sept. 1,1862; must, in Sept. 18,1862 

must, out June 20, 1863. 
Burris, James P., private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; must, in Sept. 18, 1862 

must, out Juno 20, 1863. 
Burris, Andrew J., private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; must, in Sept. 18, 1862 

must, out June 20, 1863. 
Boardman, William J., private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862 ; must, in Sept. 18, 1862 

must, out June 20, 1863. 
Braddock, William, private, enl. Sept. 1,1862; must, in Sept. 18, 1862 

must, out June 20, 1863. 
Bergia, Harvey, 1st lieut., enl. Sept. 18, 1862 ; oapt., rice James Inglis, 

com. ; resigned Dec. 28, 1862. 
Bogert, David C, sergt., enl. Sept. 1, 1862 ; com. Sept. 18, 1862 ; must, out 

June 20, 1833. 
Bogert, Cornelius, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1892; must, in Sept. 18,1862; 

must, out Juue 20, 1863. 
Cadis, James, private, onl. Sept. 1,1862; must, in Sept. IS, 1862 ; disch. 

at U. S. A. Hosp , Washington, D. C, March 9, 1863, for disability. 
Carlough, George N., private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; must, iu Sept. 18, 1862; 

disch. at U. S. A. Hosp., Newport News, Va., March 8, 1863, for dis- 
Carson, George W., private, enl. Aug. 30, 1862; must, in Sept. 26, 1862; 

must, out June 20, 1863. 
Cheesboro, Charles P., private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862 ; must, in Sept. 18, 1862 ; 

must, out June 20, 1863. 



OoatB, Joseph, prirtte, <nl. Sept. 1, I8fi2; muit in Sept. 18, 1862: muft 

out June 'M, 1863. 
Cook, Thuniu, private, eul. Sept. 1, 1862; nium. in Sept. 18, 180'J; Diust. 

out June 2U, 1863. 
CdIHus, Jeue T., private, rul. Sept. 1,1862 ; must, in Sept. 18, 1862 ; mast. 

out June 20, 1863. 
Collins, Samuel U, private, enl. Sept. 1,1862; must, in Sept. 18, 1862 ; 

must out June 20, 1863. 
Oampl«ll, John 0., private, enl. SepL 1, 1862; must, in Sept. 18, 1862; 

must, out June 20, 1803. 
Demarest, William, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862 ; must, in Sept. 18, 1862 ; 

must out June 20, IS&'i. 
Demarest Abram, private, enl. Sept 1,1862; must in Sept 18, 1862 ; 
disch. at U. S. A. Hasp.. Philnilelpliia, Uarcb 14, 186^!, for disability'. 
Devour, William, private, enl. Sept 1, 1862; must in Sept Is, 1862; 

must, out June 20, IS&t. 
Pulclier, Cliarles, private, enl. Sept. 1,1802; niunt. in Sept 18,1862; 

niu»t out June 20, 186:t. 
Demarest, William, private, enl. Sept. 1, 18li2 ; must, in Sept 18, 1862 ; 

must, out June 20, 180^1. 
I»ewer, Jttnies, private, enl. Sept 1, 1862; must in Sept 18, 1862 ; corp. 

Jan. 1, 1863 ; must out June 20. 1863. 
Dutcher, Cliaries, musician, enl. Sept 1, 1802; must in Sept 18, 1862; 

must, out June 20, 1863. 
Fisber, Caspar, private, enl. Sept 1,1862; must in Sept 18, 1862; disch. 

at U.S. A Hosp., I'liiladelpbia, Pa.. June 6, 180:1, for disability. 
Gravelius, George, corp., enl. Sept. 1, 1862; assistant hospital steward 

Oct 12, 1802; must out June 20, 186:1. 
Glune, Adolph, private, enl. Sept 1, 1862; must in Sept 18, 1862; must 

out June 20, 1863. 
Garrison, Slepliou, private, enl. Sept 1, 1862; must in Sept. 18, 1862; 

must out June 20, 186:1. 
Badle.v, Benjamin, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; must in Sept 18,1862; 

must, out June 20, 186.3, 
Hilton, John T, private, enl. Sept 1,1862; must in Sept 18, 1862 ; must 

o<it June 20, 180:1. 
Hogencamp, Martin, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; must out June 20, 1863. 
Hopper, Andrew J., musician, enl. Sept 1, 1802; must out June 20, 1803. 
Hopper, Thoraue A., private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862 ; must out June 20, 186.3. 
Hopper, Jacob, recruit, enl. Oct. :il, 1862 ; must, out June 20, 1863. 
Hartrick, Charlis, private. enl. Sept 1, 1862; niu»t out Jnuo 20, 1863. 
Haycock, I*el<T, private, enl. Sept. I, 1802; must, out June 20, 1863. 
Houghton, John, private, inl. Sept 1, 1862 ; disch. at U. S. A. Hoap., Wash- 
ington, D. C, .March 27, 1863, for disability. 
Hutchinson, Wm., private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; must, out June 20, 1863. 
Inglis, James, Jr., capt, com. Sept 2, 1862 ; com. quartermnhter Sept. 2.'), 

Irving, James, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862 ; roost out June 20, 1863. 
Jacobus, Peter, corp., enl. Sept 1, 1862; private, Jan. 1, 186:1; must out 

June 20, 1803. 
Jacobus, Peter, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; must, out June 20, 1863, 
Kenney, Martin, corji , enl. Sept. 1, 1862 ; diach. iit Klkinglin l'. S. Army 

Gen. Hoap., Washington, D. C, Jan. 19, 186:1, for disability, 
Kreiger, John F., private, eul. Sept. 1, 1802 ; must out June 2t), 1863, 
King, William M, sergt, enl. Sept 1, 1862; must out June 20, 1863. 
Kingslaod, Jacob, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862 ; must out June 2<t, 1863. 
Lair, Samuel, sergt, enl. Sept 1, 1862; 1st sergt, Oct. 1, 1862; must out 

June 20, 186:1. 
I4iblaux, Ktnile, private, enl. Sept 1, 1862; died uf typhoid fever at camp 

near Suffolk, Va., April 20, 1861. 
l.orery, Simon, private, enl. Sept 1, 1802; must, out June 20, 1863. 
Morehead, James, private, enl. Sept. I, 1862; must out June 20, 1803. 
Hoaely, Joseph, sergt, enl. ,S«pt. I, 1862; must out June 20, 186:;. 
Moael.v, Klcbanl, private, enl. Sept 1, 18A2 ; killed in action at Freder- 
icksburg, Va, Dec. l:i, 1862; buried there. 
Measengcr, Iw^wis, private, enl. St^pt 1, 1862 ; must out June 20, 186:1. 
Mrntruch, Philip, private, enl. Sept 1, 1862; must out June 20, 18S1. 
Miirtania, Isitac, private, ••nl. Sept. 1, IH62; must, out June 20, 1H63. 
Mc,\unlan, Dun>-an, private, enl, S4>pt, I, 1862; adjt's clerk ; must, out 

Jnn*- 20. 1803. 
Packir, Willlnm P., private, enl. Sept 1, 1862: Corp., Jan. 12, 1863; must 

oat June 20, 1H6.3. 
Perry, Theodore S.. private, enl. Sept 1, 1862 ; must out June 20, 1863. 
Perry, John, prlvalo, enl. !<ept I, IMI2; must out June 20, 186:t 
Petry, ,\ndrew, private, enl. Sept 1, 180i; must, out June 2o, 1863. 
Petry, Ge«)rge W., private, enl. Sept 1, 1802; Corp., Jan. 12, 1863; must, 
out June2o 1803. 

Poet, Anthony G., corp., enl. Sept, 1, 1802 ; died of typhoid fever in hos- 
pital, at camp near Falmouth, Va , Dec. 27, 1862, 
Post Garret J , private, eul. Sept 1, 1862; must out June 20, 18<i3. 
Pope, Austin, private, eul. Sept. 1, 1802; must, out June 20, 1863. 
Putoam, Joaeph B., private, enl, Sept. 1, 1862 ; pn>. to oom.-aergt., Sept. 

.30, 1862; must, out June 2U, 1863, 
Preston, James, piivate, enl, Sept. 1, 1862; disch. at U. S. Army Hoap., 

Philadelphia, Pi> . Feb. 7, 186:1, for disability. 
Pruden,, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862 ; must, out June 20, 1863. 
Pont James M., private, enl. Sept 1, 1862; must out June 20, 1863. 
Beid, John 1... privnli, enl. Sept 1,1802; must, out June 2o, 186:1. 
Reid, John, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862 ; must out June 20, 1863. 
Biker, John II., private, enl. Sept 1, 1862; must, out June '2ii, 1863, 
Spear, John, private, enl. Sept 1, 1862; must out June 20, 1863. 
Stephens, Henry, private, eul. Sept 1, 1802 ; must out June 20, 1863, 
Shaffer, Lewis B,, corp,, enl. Sept 1,1842; disch. at camp near Falmouth, 

Va., Jan. 9, 18li3, disability. 
Sigler, Daniel M., Corp., enl. Sept 1, 1862; must, out June 20, 1803. 
Terhuiie, John, jirivatu, enl. Sept 1, 1862 ; disch. at Army General Hos- 
pital, Washington, D. C, Mny9, 1863, disability. 
Tiffany, Charles H. D., private, enl. Sept 1,1862; must, out June 20, 

Torbert Ge^irge M.. private, enl. Sept 1, 1862 ; must out Jum- 20, 1663. 
Vandcrbilt, Richard, sirgt., enl. Sept. 1, 1862; must out June 20, 1863, 
Vanderbilt Abraham, 1st sergt, enl. Sept 2, 1862 ; Isl lieut, ric« Beyea, 

pro., Sept. 20, 1802 ; must, out June 20. 180:1. 
Van Wagoner, Cornelius, 2d lieut., com. Sept 2, 1802; must in Sept 16, 

1862; ambulance lieut,; must, out June 20, 1863, 
Van Saun, Cornelius, private, eul, Sept. 1, 1862; must, out June 20, 1863. 
Van Saun, .Klbert, private, enl. Sept 1, 1862; must out June 20, 1863. 
Van Wagoner, Garret private, enl. Sept. 1. 1862 ; disch. at camp near 

Falmouth. Va., Jan. 9, 1863, disability. 
Van Winkle, Simeon J., private, enl. Se|it 1, 1862; must out June 20, 

Vanderbilt,Cornelius, private, enl. Sept. 1,1861; disch. at L'. S. Army 

Hoepilal, Philadelphia, Pa., Feb. 21, 1803, disability. 
Van Blarconi, JiiniiB, private, enl. Sept 1,1862; sergt. audlio.^p. steward. 

Sept 30, 1862; must, out June 20, 1863, 
Van Houten, Isaac, private, enl. Sept 1, 1862; Corp., Oct, 12, 1862 ; must 

out June 20, 186:1, 
Warden, John, corp,, enl. Sept 1, 1862; must out June 20, 1863. 
WHiite, William, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; ninst. out June 2", 1863. 
Williamson, Charles, private, enl. Sept 1, 1802; must, out June 20, 1863. 
Willis, Cornelius A,, private, enl. Sept 1,1802; must, out June 20,1863. 
Worthington, BIchard, private, enl. Sept 1,1862; must out June 20, 

Wilson, James, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; must out Juno 20, 180.1. 
Wright, Andrew, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; must out Juno it', 186:1, 

Companii IT,— (Enoch J. ,\YRES, Captain.) 
.\ckerman, I»avid, Acijuackanonk, wagoner, enl. Sept. 1, 18*i2 ; must. 

out Juno 20, 1863. 
Alysn, Itlchard P., .\cquackanonk, private, enl. Sept 1, 1862; corp,, 

April 20, 1863 ; must out June 20, 18C3. 
Ayres, J. Enoch, Patersou, capt, enl. Sept. 1, 1862 ; pro, to lieut,-col. Sept 

24. 1802, to All original vacancy ; must, out June 2", 1863. 
Baganal, Jamea, Acquackanonk, private, enl. Sept 1, 1862; must, out 

June 211, 186.3. 
Beldin, John, Acquackannnk, private, enl. Sept 1, 1862 ; must out June 

Beach, Stephen, Acquackanonk, private, enl. Sept 1, 1862; must, out 

June 211,186:1. 
Belcher, Adam, Pomplon, corp,, enl. Sept 1, 1802 ; wouioled at flrst bat- 
tle of Freilerirksburg, Dec, 13, 1802; sergt, Jan. 1, 186:1; must out 

June 20, 1863 
Bogart, William, Acquackanonk, private, enl. Sept 1, 1862; must out 

Juno 20, 1863. 
Bowman. Peter, Acquackanonk, private, anl. Sept. 1, 1862; must oiil 

June 20, 186.3, 
Brooks. Abraham, Acquackanonk, private, enl. .lept 1, 1862: niiint. out 

June 20, 1863. 
Brewer, George W., Acquackanonk, musician, enl. Sept. 1. 1862: must 

out June '20, 180:1. 
Bngsbee, William, Pompton, private, anl. Sapt 1, 1802; must. lOil Juna 

'20, lUVi. 
Carroll, llryan. Acquackanonk. private, enl. Sept 1, 1862: must, out 

June 20, 1803. 



Cieco, Thomas A., Acquackanoiik, corp., enl. Sept. 1, 18G2 ; must, out 

June 20, 1863. 
Clark, Henry, Acquackanonk, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; must, out June 

20, 1863. 
Colib, John, Acquackanonk, private, enl. Sept. 1,1862; must, out June 

20, i»m. 
Cole, Abraham H., Pompton, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862 ; must, out June 

20, 1803. 
Collins, John J., Pompton, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; must, out June 20, 

Conklin, Levi, Pompton, private, enl. Sept. 1, 18G2 ; must, out June 20, 

Conklin, Walter, Pompton, private, enl. Sept. 1 , 1862 ; must, out June 20, 

Conklin, Andrew, Pompton, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1S62; must, out June 

20, 1863. 
Cook, Francis H., Pompton, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1SG2 ; final record not 

Cunier, Lawrence, Acquackanonk, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; must, out 

June 20, 1863. 
Davenport, William H., Pompton, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; must, out 

June 20, 18C3. 
Decker, Barney, Pompton, sergt., enl. Sept. 1,1862; private, Jan. 1,1863; 

must, out June 20, 1863. 
Deiiliolm, Charles, Acquackanonk, Corp., enl. Sept. 1, 1862 ; must, out 

June 20, 1863. 
Degraw, John, Pompton, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862 ; must, out June 20, 

Degraw, Peter, Pompton, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; must, out June 20, 

Deeths, John, Acquackanonk, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862 ; must, out June 

2(1, 1863. 
Deitcli, Henry, Acquackanonk, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862 ; must, out 

June 20, 1863. 
Dodd, Amzi, Acquackanonk, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; must, out June 

20, 1863. 
Elston, Jesse K., Acquackanonk, private, enl. Sept. 1,1862; 1st sergt., 

Sept. 24, 1862; 2d lieul.. ii.c G. M. Post, res'd, Dec. 25, 1862; must. 

out June 20, 1863. 
Ennis, Abraham, Acquackanonk, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; must, out 

June 20, 1S63. 
Faulkner, Leonard, Acquackanonk, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862 ; must, out 

June 20, 1863. 
GarTBbrant, Garrett, Acquackanonk, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; must. 

out June 20, 1863. 
Gould, Thomas, Pompton, sergt., enl. Sept. 1, 1862; must, out June 20, 

Greenwood, Philip, Pompton, corp., enl. Sept. 1,1862; sergt., Jan. 1, 

1863 ; must, out June 20, 1863. 
Hamm, Aaron, Acquackanonk, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; must, out 

June 20, 1863. 
Hamm, Louis, Acquackanonk, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862 ; must, out June 

20, 1863. 
Hardy, John, Pompton, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; must out June 20, 

Hann, Jeremiah, Acquackanonk, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862 ; must, out 

June 20, 1863. 
Hanke, Bernard, Acquackanonk, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; must, out 

June 20, 1863. 
Henchliffe, James, Manchester, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; must, out 

June 30, 1863. 
Henderson , Samuel M., Pompton, sergt., enl. Sept. 1, 1862; must, out 

June 20, 1863. 
Holloway, David, Pompton, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; must, out June 

Holloway, John, Pompton, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862 ; must, out June 20, 

Jacobus, John-H., Acquackuuonk, musician, enl. Sept. 1,1862 ; must, out 

June 20, 1863. 
Jenkins, Jacob, Manchester, private, enl. Sept. 1,1862; must, out June 

20, 1863. 
Kilby, Joseph, Acquackanonk, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; disch. at 

Washington, D. C, Nov. 28. 1862, for disability. 
Lee, George W., Acquackanonk, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; 1st sergt. 

Dec. 25, 1862; must, out June 20, 1863. 
Maby, John H., Acquackanonk, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; disch. at 
Chestnut Hill Hospital, Philadelphia, March 25, 1863, for disability. 

Maynard, Floyd, Acquackanonk, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; must, out 

Juue 20, 1863. 
McKay, Simon, Pompton, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862 ; must, out June 20, 

Miller, Garret, Acquackanonk, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; must, out Juno 

Miller, Charles, Acquackanonk, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; must, out 

Juue 20, 1863. 
Mowry, John, Acquackanonk, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; must, out Juue 

20, 1803. 
Morris, Jesse B., Pompton, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; died of typhoid 

fever at camp near Falmouth, Ya., Dec. 29, 1862. 
Nix, John, Acquackanonk, private, enl. Sept. 1. 1862; Corp. Jan. 1, 1863; 

must, out June 20, 1863. 
Oakes, Richard, Acquackanonk, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862 ; Corp. Jan. 1, 

1863; must, out June 20, 1863. 
Odell, Arthur, Pompton, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; must, out June 20, 

Passage, Jacob, Pompton, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; must, out June 20, 

Personette. George, Acquackanonk, private, enl. Sept. I, 1862; must, out 

June 20, 1863. 
Piaget, Louis .\., Acquackanonk, com. 2d lieut. Sept. 18, 1862; 1st lieut., 

vice Spear, promoted, Sept. 24, 1862; must, out June 20, 1863. 
Post, George M., .Vcquackanonk, 1st sergt., enl. Sept. 1, 1862; com. 2d 

lieut., vii:e Piaget, promoted; res*d Dec. 22, 1862. 
Quemau, Thomas, Acquackanonk, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; disch. at 

U. S. A. Gen. Hosp, Philadelphia!, Pa., April 16, 1863, for disability. 
Ryan, William, Acquackanonk, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; must, out 

June 30, 1863. 
Redner, Joel, Pompton, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862. 
Spear, Job ji R., Acquackanonk, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862 ; must, out June 

20, 1863. 
Spear. Edward R., Acquackanonk, com. 1st lieut. Sept. 18, 1862; capt., 

rke Ayres, promoted, Sept. 24, 1862; must, out June 20, 1863. 
Spear, Josiah M., Acquackanonk, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; disch. at 

camp near Suffolk, Va., April 2, 1863, for disability. 
Schulstor, Francis A., Pompton, Corp., enl. Sept.l, 1862: must, out June 

20, 1861. 
Shippee, William H., Pompton, Corp., enl. Sept. 1, 1862; killed in action 

at Fredericksburg, Va , Dec. 13, 1862. 
Sindle, Christopher, Acquackanonk, Corp., enl. Sept. 1, 1862; must, out 

Juue 2", 1863. 
Severn, Benjamin R., Acquackanonk, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862 ; disch. 

at U. S. A. Hosp., March In, 1863. for disability. 
Snyder, Henry, Acquackanonk, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; must, out 

Juue 20, 1863. 
Snyder, John, Acquackanonk, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862 ; must, out June 

20, 1863. 
Storms, David, Pompton, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862 ; must, out June 20, 

Stockard, Leonard, Acquackanonk, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; must, out 

June 20, 1863. 
Straut, Andrew, Acquackanonk, private, enl. Sept. 1,1862; must, out 

June 20, 1863. 
Shurtz, John, Pompton, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; disch. at camp near 

Suffolk, Va., April 2, 1863, for disability. 
Thompson, Wm. H., Pompton, private, enl. Sept.l, 1862; must. out June 

20, 1803. 
Tuers, Joseph S , .\cquackanonk. private, enl. Sept. 1,1862; must, out 

June 20, 1863. 
Tuers, John, Jr., Acquackanonk, 5th sergt., enl. Sept. 1, 1862; sergt., 

Jan. 1, 1862 ; must, out June 20, 1863. 
Turner, John Y., Acquackanonk, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862 ; must, out 

June 20, 1863. 
Yanatta, George, Pompton, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862: must, out June 

20, 1863. 
Vanatta. Harmon, Pompton, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; must, out June 

20, 1863. 
Vanatta, Horace, Pompton, private, enl. Sept 1, 1862: must, out June 

20, 1863. 
YanattA, John, Pompton, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862 ; must out June 20, 

Van Riper, George, Acquackanonk, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862 ; must out 

June 20, 1863. 
Van Riper, Philip H., Acquackanonk, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; must 

out June 20, 1863. 



Y»n CWen, Jompb, Pompton, prirate, enl. Sept. 1, 1882 ; mu«t. out June 

2(1, 1S03. 
Van OkIod, D«Tld, MaDcheeter, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1662; most, unt 

June 20, 1863. 
V«nzili, laaac, Pompton, priTate, enl. Sept. 1, 1862 ; must, out June 20, 

VreclHnd, Garret, Acquackanonk, private, enl. Sept. 1,1862; must, out 

Juue20, 1K63. . 
Vreelaud, Garret I., Acquackanonk, private, enl. SepL 1, 1862 ; most, out 

June 2il, l»6:l. 
Vreelaud, Peter, Pompton, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862. 
Willinnui, Patrick, Acquackanonk, private, enl. Sept 1, 1862; Corp., Jan. 

1, 186.1 ; muBt. out June 20, 1S0.1. 
Ward, William W., Acquackanonk, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; must, out 

June 20. 186,1. 
WeutluTwalk», George, Pompton, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; must, out 

June 2", 1863. 
While, Martin, Pompton, corp, enl. Sept. 1, 1862; private, Jan. 1, 1863; 

must out June 20, 1863. 
White, John, Pompton, private, enl. Sept. 1, 1862 ; must, out June 20, 

Thicket, Charlea, Acquackanonk, private, enl. January, 1863 ; sergt-mi^J., 
ri'ce Leach, promoted ; moat, out June 20, 1863. 

Thirty-third Regiment.— Company D of the 
Thirty-third Ilegiiueut wu.s raised in Piissaic County. 
Companies A, B, C, and F were raised in Newark ; 
Company G was raised in Morris, Hudson, and Essex 
Counties; Company E in Camden and Essex; Com- 
pany H in Hoboken, and C()nii)any K in Jersey City. 
Company D, from this (.ouiity, was otliwrfd as fol- 
lows: Captain, Charles Courtois ; First Lieutenant, 
James T. (Jibson ; Second Lieutenant, AVilliam A. 

The Tiiirty-tiiird was the first " veteran rejriment" 
raised in New Jersey, under an authorization issued 
in the summer of 18G3 U) Col. Mindil, formerly of 
the Twenty-seventh Regiment. It was recruited at 
Newark, and mustered into the United States service 
on the .3d of September. On the 8th it embarked 
upon transports lying in the Pa.s.saic River, and pro- 
ceeded to Washington ; tlience on the 24th it was 
ordered to join the Army of the Cumberland. It 
participated in the movements about Chattanooga, 
the Atlanta campaign, Sherman's march to the sea, 
and through the Carolina.s, and in pursuit of John- 
ston, at Smitiifield, N. C, fired the shots of the 
war into the retreating reliel cavalry, whom they had 
successfully fought for half a day. The Thirty-third 
was retained in service until Aug. 2, 18ti."), when it 
was ordered to be mustered out, and proceeded to 

In a little less tlian two years this regiment had 
traversed a distame of two thousand five hundred 
miles, over seventeen hundred of which were accom- 
plished by marching. It fought in eight battles and 
engaged in over a dozen skirmishes. Altliough but 
two years in service, the losses of battle and cam- 
paign were such that the regiment was twice filled. 
The numlier of brevets conferrol upon it.s officers 
ghow how highly the regiment was appreciated by 
the government. 





Weller B. Honey, eecond lieutenant. 
SerjMBtt.— Orderly, Arch itiald Belcher; iBt, John Baxter; 2d, John E. 

Van Houtin; 3d, William Wilson; 4th, John Johnson. 
Cbrporal*.— let, Joseph Winters; 'id, Charli-s Gaukel ; 3d, Jamee Rovran ; 

4th, Jesse Jackson ; 5th, Charles Maury ; 6th, Charlea Ryerson. 

Acton, John. 
AahHeld, James. 
Byer, William. 
Campbell, Asaph. 
Carey, Jamee C. 
Clark, Samuel. 
Clark, David. 
Clark, Isaac. 
CorHgan. Edward. 
Cavanagh, John. 
Counsulyeii, John. 
Davenport. Slartin. 
Dougherty, Stephen T. 
Enl»i»U.', Robert. 
Elliaon, leoac. 
Goulding, Sidney. 
GiTTieon, John H. 
Hare, John. 
Harvey, R^»bert. 
IlalloM.ll, David, 
llallowell, TIf.mas. 
Healey, John. 
Jenkins, William. 

McCann, William. 
Marshland, Benjamin. 
Miles, E.l»anl. 
McNabb, William. 
McGrogan, Edward. 
McTtlnllon, John. 
McKenney, Jnmea. 
SIcl'ready, John. 
Merkel, Joseph. 
Piilhamua, Albert. 
Rlker, Henry. 
Rikor, Ol»adiali. 
Ryerson, C. V. 
Shaw, John. 
Spencer. Joseph. 
Speer. Ji»eiah. 
Slater. John. 
Tolesoii, Jamee. 
Van Vantlemchen. 
Van Dien, Garret, 
Weetervelt, James. 
Whitford, John. 
Wlielehan. John. 


Edwin E. Post, private. 

SerjeanU.— let, William H.Levi; 2d, O. 
4lh,C. H. Calkins. 

Ackcrnian, William. 
Ackernian, Jamee. 
Allen, Alexander. 
Barnnm, 11. M. 
Bergen, Timothy, 
llamfonl, Thomaa. 
Blniichanl. A.J. 
ItouKe, John. 
Bnggln", C«'rge. 
Burke, John. 
Bn-wn, William. 
Cjirs*', Daniel. 
Oirnel, Andrew. 
Cavnnaugh, Thoma*. 
Circt, Jamee. 

Cletfg, James. * 

C.illler, Kli«». 
Conklel, John. 

Catanaugh, William. 

Ihuiglaw, C. M. 

DnlTy, Thomas, 

Drake, Nathan. 

IKioglierly, Thomas. 

Drew, J. U. 

Elliot, William. 

Kttlnger, Joseph. 

FiK«.iirk, (■. C. 

Goggins, Joeepb. 

liariibrant. I. II. 

Gueet, IWiiJiiniin. 

Oarribranl. G. II. 

CoKPANT I, First Bkoimeiit. 

M. Garnbrant ; 3d, C. J. Mosely ; 

Geddea, Willinm. 
Halstead, James. 
Hammond, GarieU 
Hillun, Jonathan. 
Hum, William. 
Hughes, John. 
Hough, Thomaa. 
Irwin, Peler. 
Jamee, William II. 
Know I Ion, H. C. 
Kohler, AnUiouy. 
Kisaock, Henry. 
Konor, Patrick. 
Kilcliell, Joseph. 
Lloyd, J. C. 

Lomon, Daniel. 

Lonion, William. 

Ltitlan, llngi). 

Mabie, George W. 

Mallisiin, Jt-teoph. 

Marshall, RoU.rt. 

Mtwenger, Thomas. 

Moakhouse, John. 

Mickel,J. A. 

McCorly, Patrick. 

McGIII, Michael. 

McKenoii, Martin. 

Monke, Peter. 

Uidgely, Samuel. 

O'Brien, Ktlward. 

O'Cotinell. Michael. 

Perty, Gisirge. 


Whitehead, W. M. 
Whitehead, E. 
Ward, Thonias. 
Wildey, James E. 
Waldrean, Garret. 
Williams, I. M. 
Wright, J. M. 

Petry, G. M. 
Byan, Michael. 
Shervin, Janjes. 
Simpson, Robert. 
Steel, G. W. 
Steel, John. 
Shervin, William. 
Toules, J. M. 
Killed, Wounded, and Muting in Compania A and I (EiceUior Brigade) at 
Williamsburg, Va. 
Company A. 
Killed.— J. E. Van Houten, Robert Harrey, sergts.; J. Winters, Cliarlas 
Gankle, Charles Ryerson, corps. ; Thomas Hallowel, U. Hallowel, J. 
Slater, John Witford, privates. 
Wounded.— B.W. Hoxsey, lieut.; A. Belcher.sergt.; James Bowen, James 

Westervelt, privates. 
afi»rin<;.— Edward Corrigan, James Ashfleld, A. T. Campbell, J. Cava- 

Company I. 
yiUed.— Edward Birley, Corp. ; Michael Ryan, Jonathan Hilton, Henry 

Kissock, privates. 
Wounded.— John Conkie, Corp.; Joseph Kitchell, Peter Erwin, privates. 
aflMinj.— A. Marshall, corp. ; Timothy Bergen, George Buggin, Thomas 
Cavanaugh, James Clegg, Thomas Haigh, W. H. James, John Lester, 
Samuel Medgely, privates. 

Aikens, James. Escott, Thomas. 

Bell, William. Griffin, James. 

Coats, William. McBride, John. 

Company F. 
Bohen, John, private, enl. May 28, 1861 ; must, out June 21. 1864. 
Campbell, Cornelius R., private, enl. May 28, 1861 ; died of dysentery at 

Culpeper, Va., Oct. 4, 1863. 
Carroll, John, private, enl. May 28, 1861 ; must, out June 21, 1864. 
Curran, Thoma."!, private, enl. May 28, 1861 ; disch at Sickel U. S. A. 

Gen. Hosp., Alexandria, Va., G. 0. 77, Par. 6, War Dept., A. G. O., 

Waahington, D. C, April 28, 1865. 
Brooks, David, private, eul. May 28, 1861. 

Ellison, Anthony, private, enl. May 28, 1861 ; must, out June 21, 1864. 
Feeney, James, private, enl. May 28, 1861 ; must, out June 21, 1864. 
Fine, Cornelius, private, enl. May 28, 1861 ; must, out June 21, 1864. 
Jackson, Samuel, private, enl. May 28, 1861 ; killed in action at Gaines' 

Farm, Va., June 27, 1862. 
McNab, John, private, enl. May 28, 1861 ; must, out June 21, 1864. 
Paxton, Isaac, private, enl. May 28, 1861 ; trans, to Vet. Res. Corps, Nov. 

1, 1863; disch. therefrom June 27, 1864. 
Post, Sylvester J., private, enl. May 2S, 1861; trans, to Vet. Res. Corps, 

Nov. 1, 1863; disch. therefrom June 27, 1864. 
Russell, John, private, enl. May 28. 1861. 
Sherron, Patrick, private, recruited Sept. 19, 1801 ; trans, to Co. B, 15th 

Regt. ; disch. at camp near Clifton, Va., Sept. 19, 1864. 
Terhune, William, private, enl. May 28, 1861 ; disch. at Camp Seminary, 

Va., March 2, 1862, for disability. 
Van Allen, Peter, private, enl. May 28, 1861 ; disch. at U. S. A. Gen. 

Hosp., Newark, N. J., Nov. 25, 1862, for disability. 
Wilson, William, private, enl. May 28, 1861 ; trans, to Vet. Res. Corps, 

Nov. 16, 1863; disch. therefrom May 28, 1864. 

Company G. 
Conklin, Edward I., private, enl. May 28, 1861 ; corp., Nov. 1, 1862 ; must. 

out June 21, 1864. 
Eitel, Jacob, private, enl. May 28, 1861 ; must, out June 21, 1864. 
Phalon, Patrick, private! enl May 28, 1861. 
Potts, William, private, enl. May 28, 1861. 
Richardson, Joseph, private, enl. May 28, 1861. 

Company I, Second Regiment New Jersey Volvnteebs. 
Allen, John, 1st lieut., enl. May 30. 1861 ; res'd Dec. 5. 1861. 
Allen. Stephen W., private, enl. May 30, 1861 ; pro. to 1st lieut. Co. F, 

loth Regt., April 27, 1862 ; res'd June 12, 1862. 
Allen, Wallace W., private, enl. May 30, 1861; disch. for disability at 

Paterson Park U. S. Hosp., Baltimore, Md., Sept. 3, 1862. 

Ackerman, Andrew H., private, enl. May 30, 1861 ; pro. to 1st lieut. Co. 
A, 11th Regt., July 21, 1862, to till original vacancy; pro. to capt. 

Co. C, March 6, 1863. 
Andrews, Chauncey, private, enl. Sept. 30, 1861; recruit; disch. H. S. 

Hosp., Philadelphia, for disability. 
Atchinson, James, private, enl. May 30, 1861. 
Atchinson, William, Corp., enl. May 30, 1861 ; trans, to Vet. Res. Corps, 

July 27, 1863. 
Babcock, Frederick, private, enl. May 30, 1861 ; disch. at camp near 

White Oak Church, Va., for disability, March 12, 1863. 
Beardsley, James, private, enl. May 30, 1861 ; must, out June 21, 1864. 
Beggs, James, private, enl. May 30, 1861 ; must, out June 21, 1864. 
Berdan, Albert, private, enl. May 30, 1861 ; disch. for disability at tamp 

near White Oak Church, Vh., April 15, 1863. 
Brooks, William H., private, enl. Sept. 11, 1861; recruit; killed in action 

at Gaines' Farm, Va., June 27, 1862. 
Broughton, tirinishaw, private, enl. May 30, 1861; Corp., Oct. 1, 1862; 

must, out June 21, 1862. 
Brower, Cornelius W., private, enl. May 30, 1861 ; died U. S. A. Hosp., 

Fairfax Seminary, Va., Sept. 30, 1862. 
Brower, Francis M., private, enl. May 30, 1861 ; must, out June 21, 1864. 
Buck, Chester H., private, eul. May 30, 1861 ; disch. for disability, U. S. 

A. Hosp., Philadelphia, July 22, 1862. 
Buckley, John F., private, enl. May 30, 1861 ; pro. to 2d lieut. Co. A, 11th 

Regt., May 27, 1862; capt., rice Kearny, pro.; res'd for disability 

July 19. 1864. 
Buckley, William I, Corp., enl. May 30, 1861; sergt. ; pro. to 2d lieuL 

Dec. 21, 1861; pro. to capt., wice Danforth, killed; must, out June 21, 

Burnhani, Sylvanus B., private, enl. May 30, 1861 ; died U. S. A. Hosp., 

Chester, Pa., Aug. 18, 1862, of wounds at Gaines' Farm, Va.; buried 

at Chester, Pa. 
Brooks, William, private, enl. May 30, 1861. 
Cain, Randolph P., musician, eul. Sept. 24, 1861 ; recruit; trans, tu band; 

trans, to 1st Regt. (?) 
Chadwick, Leonard, private, enl. May 30, 1861 ; diach. for disability at 

Camp Seminary, Va., March 29, 1862. 
Clogan, James, private, enl. May 30, 1861 ; must, out June 21, 1864. 
Cooper, Samuel, private, enl. May 30, 1861; disch. U. S. A. Gen. Hosp., 

West Philadelphia. Pa., Dec. 15, 1862, for disability. 
Courtier, David, private, enl. May 30, 1861 ; disch. at convalescent camp, 

Alexandria, Va,. Feb. 25, 1863. 
Courtier, William H., private, enl. May 30, 1861 ; recruit. 
Crawford, Robert W., private, eul. May 30, 1861; disch. at convalescent 

camp, Alexandria, Va., for disability, July 31, 1863. 
Cuudell, Charles H., sergt.. May 30, 1861 ; disch. at Fairfax Seminary, 

Va., to accept commission. (?) 
Davison, George W., private, enl. May 30, 1861 ; killed in action at Gaines' 

Farm, Va , June 27, 1862. 
Davison, William, Jr., sergt., enl. May 30, 1861 ; disch. U. S. A. Hosp., 

Newark, N. J., Feb. 2, 1863, for disability. 
Danfortii, Charles, Jr., pro. to 2d lieut., June 12, 1861 ; pro. to capt , vice 

Griffith, ros'd, Sept. 9, 1861 ; killed in action at Gaines' Farm, Va., 

June 27, 1862. 
Donaldson, William, private, enl. May 30, 1861; disch. at camp near 

White Oak Church, Va., Jan. 3, 1863, for disability. 
Driscoll, John A., private, enl. May 30, 1861 ; must, out June 21, 1864. 
Douglass, Theodore F., private, enl. May 30, 1861; must, out June 21, 

Dunkersley, William B., private, enl. May 30, 1861 ; trans, to Vet. Res. 

Corps, Nov. 15, 1863; disch. May 31, 1864. 
Evans, Lemuel E., private, eol. May 30, 1861 ; disch. for disability, U. S. 

A. Gen. Hosp., Philadelphia, Pa , July 11, 1862. 
Finklemeyer, Nicholas, private, enl. May 30, 1861; disch. near Cloud's 

Mills, Va., for disability, Aug. 6, 1861. 
Flavel, John W., private, enl. May 30, 1861 ; died at Chesapeake U. S. A. 

Gen. Hosp., Fort Monroe, Va., Aug. 25, 1862. 
Fielding, Thomas, private, eul. May 30, 1861 ; must, out June 21, 1864. 
Ford, Edward G., 1st sergt., enl. May 30, 1861 ; pro. to 2d lieut., Dec. 9, 

1861 ; pro. to Ist lieut., vice Allen, disch., Dec. 28, 1861 ; res'd Oct. 29, 

Goetschius, Peter V. H-, private, enl. May 30,1861; disch. at U. S. A. Gen. 

Hosp., Newark, N. J., for disability, Dec. 31, 1861. 
Goodrich, Radford R., private, enl. May 30, 18G1 ; Corp., Dec. 25, 1861 ; 

private March 8, 1863; must, out June 21, 1864. 
Griffith, George, capt., enl. May 30. 1861 ; res'd Sept. 6, 1861. 
Hamilton, William, Corp., enl. Oct. 10, 1861; sergt., May 13, 1S62; pro. 



to 2d ll«ut. Co. G, 23d Kegt., Feb. 14. 1883 ; pro. to Ht lieut, Co. H, 

April IS, 1863; not must. ; must, out June 27, 1863. 
Hartley, Jo«(ph, w.guuer, enl. May 30, 1861 ; niu.t. out June 21, 1864. 
H»rtfy, Henry, private, enl. May 30, 1801. i?) 

Hay. .. William, private, enl. May 30. 1861 ; pro. to 2d lleut. Co. C, 13th 
Uegt., \ag. '.iS, 1862; pro. to let lleut., rice BuckUlb, ree'd, Nov. 1, 
18U2; res-d March 29, 1863. 
Haycock, C'harlo^ private; no record. 

HIghle, Edward, Corp., enl. May M, 1661 ; disch. at U. S. A. Hoep., New- 
ark, N. J., Dec. 30, 1862, for disability. 
Hoff. Loulu, private, enl. May 30, 1861 ; muM. out June 21, 1864. 
HolMiee, Alexander, private, enl. May 30. 1861 ; di»ch. at U. S. A. Geo. 

Hoep.. Philadelphia, Pa., July 9, 1802, for disability. 
Hoy, Willian, II , private, enl. Sept. 30, 18111 ; traf.8. to Vet. Re«. Ci.rp., 

July 1 1804; iliBch, therefrom Sept. 30, 1864. 
HulM.r, Henry, private, enl. May 30, 1861 ; dlsch. at Camp Sem., Va , Feb. 

16 18tVi,for geneial disability. 
Irvin, James, private, enl. May .30, 1861 ; diech. at U. S. A. Gen. Hoep.. 

Fortrees Monroe, Va., Feb. \:i, 1863, for disability. 
Johnson, William, private, enl. May 30, 1801 ; dlsch. at UeCamp U. S. A. 
Gen. Hoep., Ih.vid's Island, X. V. Harbor, Dec. 26, 1802. for wound, 
received in action. 
Keenau, John, private, enl. May 30, 1801 ; trans, to Vet. Kes. Corpa Sept. 

I, 186;l; disch therefrom May 30, 1864. 
King, Robert W.. private, enl. May 30, 1861 ; disch. at Fortres. Monroe, 
Va Aug. 28, 1802, lor wounds received in action at Gaines' Farm, Va. 
King, Henry II.,' private, enl. May 30, 1801 ; disch. at convalcscenl camp, 

Alexandria, Va., for disability, Jan. 20, 1803. 
Lamb, David, private, enl. May 3ll, 1801 ; disch. at camp near White Oak 

Church, Va., Dec. 22, 1862, for disability. 
Laing James, Corp., enl. May 30, 1861. (?) 

Law, Jo«,ph, (?) Corp., enl. May 1, 18lH ; must, out June 21, 1864. 
Loan, William F., private, enl. May 30, 1801; tmns. to Weatern gunboat 

service Nov. 0, 1863. 
Mal|«s, Alfred, private, enl. May 30, 1801 ; disch. at H«rri»>u-a Landing, 

Va , July 8, 1802, to accept a commiseion. (?) 
McGill,' Alexander, private, enl. May 30, 1801 ; dlsch. at camp near 

White Oak Cliurcli, Va., Jan. 8, 1803, for disability. 
Mcl'K.ud, Samuel F., private, enl. May ;10, 1801 ; trans, to Vet Res. Corps, 

Nov. 6, 1803; disch. therefrom May :io, 1804. 
McCloud, William, private, enl. May 30, 1801 .killed in action at Cr»mp- 

tun's i'a»«, Md., .<<ept. 14, 1802. 
Mamrell, James, private, ei.l. May 30, 1861 ; orp., January, 1802; sorgt., 
Oct. 1, 1802; 1st sergt., Miirch 8, 1803; trans, to Vet. Res. Corp., 
Sepl. 1, 1861; disch. thcrelrom May 31, 1804. 
Mlll.r Janus, private, enl. May 3ii, 1801 ; must. ..ut Juno il, 1804. 
Milbr! Williiim H., private, enl. May 30, 1861 ; 'id lleut., Co. K, 13th 
Kegt., Aug. M, 1802, to Bll original vacancy ; lei liout., Co. A. Nov. 

1. 1862. 
Munroe. Martin R.. private, ei.l. May 3ii, 1801 ; pro. to sergL-maJ., tht. 

7, 1861. 
Montgomery, El.eneier. private, enl. May 30. 1801 : pn.. to M liei.t. to. 

K, Wd Regt., Jan. 8, 1863 ; must, out June 27, 180;i. 
Moiehea.l, private, ei.l. May 30, 1801 ; mu.t. out June 21, 1804. 
O'llrien, Michael, private, enl. May 30, 1861; Corp., Oct. 1,1802; mu.t. 

out June 21, 1864. 
Ott, Jacob, private, enl. May 30, 1861 ; killed in action at Wilderne-e, 

Va., May «. 1804. 
Perkins, Daniel, private, enl. May 30, 1861 ; mu.t. out June 21. 1864. 
Paxlon. Abram A., Corp., enl. M..y 30.I861; l.t .ergt.. Dec. '29. 1861 ; 

color aergeant ; must. ..ul June 21, 1804. 
Ratter Felix, private, enl. May 30, 1801 ; mu.t. out Juno '21. 1864. 
R„l„.rl., William II., private, enl. May 30. 1861 ; mu.t. out June 21, 

Scott, Ge..r,e, private, enl. May 3o, 1801 ; f..r dl.ahllity at Camp 

Seminary, Va., March 3, 1802. 
Sherrmn, William, private, enl. May 3", 1861 ; mu.t. out June 21, 1804. 
»>.n. He Win. private, enl. Mi.y 30, 1861 ; dlKh. |Kir ..nler of War 

UepL, to accept a cowm-lou a. 2d lleut. Co. I. 261h Regt.; not 

Smith ll.d-.ri o, .ergt, enl. May 30. 1801 ; mu.L out June 21, 1864. 
Smith, An,,, T.. private, enl. May 30. l««l 1 Corp., March 17, 1862; mu.t. 

out Juii" 21, 1864. 
.8mith, John, i.rlvale, enl. May 30, IH61. 
Hip, Vreeland, private, enl. May 30, 1801 ; dlKh, Aug. 5, 1863. to engage 

In Kiinb'.at .ervice. 
■ Sllng.rlan.l, John T., private, enl. May .10, 1861. 

Slater. John J., private, enl. May 30, 1861 ; must, out June 21, 1864. 
Van Boulen, Wallingaon, private, enl. May 30, 1861 ; trans, to Vet. Re.. 

Corp., March 16, 1864 ; disch. therefrom June 4, 1804. 
Van Giewn. iMac, private, enl. May 30, 1801 ; mlaeing in action May 8, 

1864 ; reported to have died at Florence, S. C. 
Walkington, Sam. B., Jr., private, enl. May 30, 1801 ; Corp., Oct. 1, 1862; 

1st .ergt., June 1, 1863; paroled priwner: diKh. at TrenloD, N. J.; 

mu.t. onl Feb. 28, 1865. 
Walthall. Jame., private, enl. May 30. 1801 ; dlKh. at convalewent 

camp, Alexandria, Va., July 15, 1863, for .Usability. 
Watta, George, private, enl. May 30, 1861; diach. at C. S. A. Hoap.. 

Newark, N. J., Feb. '28, 1863, for disability. 
While, John G. B., private, enl. May 30, 1801; pro. com.-aergt., Feb. 23, 

Winter.. William, private, enl. May 30, 1861 ; dUch. at camp near White 

Oak Church, Va., April 13, 1803, for disability. 
Winlield, Daniel H., private, .nl. May 30, 1861 ; corp., March 17, 1862 ; 

2d lleut., July 0, 1802; l.t lieut , rice Whitehead, tran.ferred, Oct. 

22. 1863 ; must, out June 21, 1804. 
Whitney, Samuel S., private, enl. May 30, 1801; disch. at conv.l«Ken» 

camp, Alexandria, Va., Jan. 30, 1803, for disability. 
Zabriskie, John, private, enl. Sept. 30, 1801 ; recruit; killed in icxlon at 

Gaines' Farm, Va., June '27, 1862. 



/Vicoie*., William H. 
Perry, Joseph. 
Rear, William U. 

Cromln, Jamea 
Farrel, David, 
llinchy, Maurice 

Birmingham, Patrick, privale, enl. June 4, 1801. 
Cotter, John G., private, enl. May 10, 1801 ; nmst. in June 4, 1861 ; dlsch. 

at Washington, D. C, May 22, 1802. for disability. 
Grimley, Patrick, private, enl. June 4, 1801 ; pro. .ergt., April 30, 1863; 

uiust. out June 23, 1804. 
Ihukett, Joseph, private, enl. May 10, 1801; muat. in Juno 4, 1801 ; 

must, out June 23, 1S04. 
Kierniun, Mahael. private, enl. May 10, 1801 ; mu.t. In June 4,1801; 

disch at Fort Worth, Va , for diMbllity, April 4, 1862. 
O'Neill Thomas, private, enl. May 10, 1801 ; must. In June 4, 1801 ; pro. 

to c.irp., Dec. 24, 1862 ; killed In action near Spottsylvania, Va , May 

a, 1804. 
Rose, Henry, private, eul. July 8, 1801 ; trane. to Co. C. 15th Regt., June 

4 1804 ■ at Tri'nUin, N. J., Aug. 10, 1804. 
Stone'r William, private, enl. June 4, 1801 ; mu.t. out June 23, 1804. 
Schaus, Henry, private, enl. May 10, 18.11 ; mu.t. In June 4, 1861 ; disch. 

at C. S. A. Gen. llosp., Philadelphia, Pa., Feb. 19, 1863, on account 

of wounds riWln-d in action. 
Watson, Georg.., privale, enl. July 8, 1801 ; must, in July 8, 1861 ; dlKh. 

al Mcllenry, Md., Sept. 29, 1802, fur disability. 


CollUM O. 

Bergen, Martin, musician, mu.t. In Aug. 22, 1861 ; mu.t. out Sept. 7. 

Dougheriy, Charle. W., private, enl. Aug. '22, 1861 ; dlwh. at codt.Iw. 

cent camp, Alexan.lriH, Va , March 14. 1803. for dlaability. 
Duer, Alain, privaf, onl. and must. in. \ug. 22. 1801. 
Fairhursl, William, private, enndled and must. In Aug. 22, 1861 ; dlKh. 

„l Div Gen. Ho.p, Alexandria, Va.. May 23, 1804, for diwiblllty. 
Feahan, William, private, mu.t. in Aug. 22, 1861 ; must, out Sept. 7. 


Fre.lan.l',John H., private, enl. and must In Aug. 22, 1861 ; .lied at For- 
tree. Monroe, Va., »lay 20, 1862. „f wound, received In aclion at W il- 
llamaburg, Va.; I.nrie.1 at National Cem.lery. Hampton. >b., R-.w 
13 Sec D, Grave 40. 

Grave.' James, private, enlisted and mu.t. In Sept. 2. 1861 ; dl«:h. at 
U. S. A. Uo.p., Philadelphia, Pa., April 1», 1863, of wound. rec«lv«l 

In action. 0.7 laiu 

Hal.tea.l, Albert, private, niu.t. Sept. 2, 1