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Full text of "History of Bethel, formerly Sudbury, Canada, Oxford County, Maine, 1768-1890;"

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With a Brief SKfeterr^F'' ^'Hanover 


Compiled by William B. Lapham 

"And he called the name of that place Bethel." — Genesis xviii, 19. 




rePYniaiiTEn tx isoi. 

9^ :Wli.L<AM B. LAPHAM. 


To Mk. Timothy ArrLEXox ('hapmax. :mki;chant. 
















fusitory of ^^cthrl 



Awjusta. Maine ^ J(i)i. 7, 1892. 



In eighteen hundred fifty-nine and tlie year folloAving, Dr. Nathaiii*;! 
T. True publislied in tlie Bethel Courier of whicli he was editor, a series of 
articles whicli he called the history of Bethel. Perhaps a more appropri- 
ate name would have been "materials toward a history of Bethel,'' for 
this it really was. In eighteen hundred seventy-four and five, the com- 
piler of this volume, published in the Oxford Democrat, a series of articles 
entitled Early Bethel Families, in which most of the leading early families 
were written up. When Dr. 'J'rue became disabled for work, he suggested 
that his material and mine be united and kept together until a history of 
Bethel could be published in book form. Accordingly he sent to me his 
gleanings, including the chapters in the Courier, with the request that I 
would make such use of them as I should deem best. I had had this 
material by me for more than ten years, adding to it from time to time, 
and arranging it in proper form, before any ettbrt was made to have it 
printed. Meantime, Dr. True had passed to his eternal rest. It was not 
until the generous proposition was made by Hon. Timothy A. Chiipman 
which was seconded by the town, that a way seemed opened for placing 
the history of Bethel in a substantial form to be preserved, and it is but 
simple justice to Mr. Chapman to state here that but for him this volume 
could not have been printed at this time, and peihaps never. Mr. Chap- 
man has also contributed mucli more than any other to illustrate the 
work. Another person who has manifested a deep inteiest in tlie work 
is Hon. Lafayette Grover of Portland, Oregon, who in the higli places he 
has filled and the esteem in which he is held, is second to no son of 
Bethel. He has contributed eight of the illustrations. Others have shown 
more or less interest in various ways so that the compiler lias no special 
cause of comjilaint. 

The gleanings and gatlierings by Dr. True liave been of great service, 
though they have been use<l as material and most of it rewritten. It lias 
been the desire of the compiler that Dr. True should have full credit for 
what he accomplished, and he consefjuently occupies a conspicuous 
position throughout the volume. Though not a native of the town, his 
name will ever be closely associated witli the history of Betliel. It has 
been the aim of the compiler to group the matter which has come into his 


hands in au iut*'llijjent manner, and by means of indexes, to secure easy 
reference. The loss of the plantation and a portion of the town records, 
has been sei-iously felt through all stages of the work. Such a loss is 
most unfortunate because irreparable. No doubt there are important 
omissions, for many things transpii-ed in early Bethel of which no record 
was made, and it is too late to have the advantage of oral testimony. 
Some things of minor impoitance are necessarily left out, for it is not pos- 
sible to crowd all the incidents and doings of a town like Bethel into one 
volume, and keep it within reasonable dimensions. The records of some 
of the societies which have been established for a while and then have died 
out are not accessible, and so exact data concerning them could not be ob- 
tained.. They have either been mislaid or destroyed. Yet it is hoped that 
the intelligent people of Bethel will find many things here to interest 
iheni; that this volume will aid the venerable in years, in recalling the 
almost forgotten incidents of their childhood days, and in bringing before 
the mental vision, faces once familiar but long since lost to sight; that 
till- young may liere learn sonn'thing of the privations and hardships to 
whicli (heir ancestors were cxposfd in making homes for themselves and 
for their i)osteritv in this w ildt-rni'ss, and tinally, that its perusal may re- 
suh ill a moil' ardent love lor tlie dear (dd town and a deeper veneration 
for those wlio tc>und<'d ii. and made it what it is. The personnel 
of the work has l)eeii made prominent, but I trust not unduly so, for the 
chief poiiils of interest in a town's history are those which relate to the 
lives and doings of the principal inhabitants. Personal notices are brief 
and this has been necessary on account of tlie large number noticed. 

I have been deeply interested in my work, for all my early associations 
are with Bethel and her i)eo})le. It was there that I attended the common 
schools and the academy, and the school liouse still standing, where I first 
attt'uded. is the same in whidi 1 first tried to teach. I have been familiar 
with Bethel lor more tlian lialf its vears. I remember the days of luni- 
l)ering stage-coaches, and mails onlv once a week, of the hard times for 
farmers for want of a near market, of the great scarcity of money, and of 
(Miforced economy in household exijenditures. I have witnessed all the 
great changes biouglit about by the introduction of railwaj^s, the tele- 
graph and the telei)hone, and the ai»plication of steam power for propel- 
ling niaeliinerv. I was ae(|iiaiiited with some of the early settlers, and 
wlii-iia Ixiy. I lieard troni tlie lips ol Nathaniel Segar, the story of his 
cajitivity. Ot tlie second generation. I was ac<iuainted with most of them, 
in all parts of tlie town. Many years have elapsed since I ceaseil to be a 
resident : many taiiiiliar laces have gone out and many strangers have 
come in ; a new generation has come upon the stage of action and many 
other and great changes have been wrought, yet my interest in the dear 
old town is unabateil. for whatever clianges may have taken place in poj>- 
ulation, the river, the crystal brooks, the broad intervales, tlie hills and 
mountains and all the varied scenery remain the same, and after the lapse 
ot all these years, can be called in review at will. 

During the ]»rogress of tlie work I have Ixmmi laid under obligation to 


various persons, the chief of whom are Dr. John F. Pratt of Clielsea, 
Leonard B. Cliapman of Deering, Addison E. Herriclc, Goodwin li. Wiley, 
Hon. Enoch Foster andLeander T. Barker of Bethel, Elbridge G. Wheeler 
and Oscar D. Grover of West Bethel, Virgil V. Twitchell of Gorhani, N. 
H., Asa P. Knight of Washington, D. C, and the lilirarian of the New- 
England Historical and Genealogical Society of Boston. Mv thanks are 
also due to all who liave aided in illustrating the volume and tliereby add- 
ing to its interest and value. These almost speaking likenesses will grow 
dearer and dearer as the years roll by, while the glimpses of landscape 
beauty to those who have left the town, will be a constant reminder, and 
will serve to intensify the love and devotion for the scenes of their child- 
hood days. And finally, to the discriminating judgment of Betliel people 
wherever they may be, this history is respectfully submitted, with the 
hope that those w ho have contributed to aid in its publication may feel 
that it has been profitably expended. 

Augusta, Me., January 1, 1892. 


Chapter I. 

Epitome of Maiue Histor}- — The Northmen — Columbus — Other 
Early Voyagers — Claims to the Country — Colonization Schemes 
— North and South Virginia — -The Colonies of Jamestown and 
Sagadahoc — Plymouth and the Massachusetts Ba}' — Maine ab- 
sorbed by Massachusetts — The Separation — State Government 
organized — Maine in tlie War of tiie Hebellion. 1-18. 

Chai'Teu II. 

Grants of Narragansett and Canada Tovvnsliips — King Philips 
War — Invasion of Canada by Sir Williams Phips — Seige and 
Capture of Louisburg — (Jrant of Maine Townships to Soldiers — 
Various Land Grants. 19-27. 

Chai'Tkr III. 

Sudbury Canada Grant— Petitioned for in 17.17 and granted in 
17ti8 — Petition of .losiaii Kichardson in 17()7 — List of Original 
Petitioners — Additional Petitioners — The Proprietors' Records 
Lost — Joseph Twitchell of Sherbouni^ — Karly Convej'anees — In- 
habitants of Newry Petition. 19-27 

Chapter I\'. 

Natural Features — Metes and P)Ounds — Plans of the Township — 
Rivers — Mountains — Surface and Soil — Mineral Spring — Flora — 
Fauna. 29-36. 

Chapter V. 

First Settlers — Jonathan Iveyes — Samuel Ingalls — Eleazcr Twitcliell 
— Benjamin Russell — Abraham Russell — James Swan — Jonathan 


Clark — Benjamin Clark — Jesse Duston — Nathaniel Segar — Amos 
Powers — John York — John Grover — Amos Hastings — Peter 
Austin. 37-45. 

Chapter VI. 

■Snclbury Canada Attacked by Indians — Segar and the Clarks Cap- 
tured — Jonathan Clark Returns — Account of the Journey to 
Canada with Incidents along the way — Arrive at Tribal Head- 
quarters in Canada — Made Prisoners of War — Liberated and 
reach their old Homes in Newton. 45-51. 

Chapter VII. 

Defensive Measures — Great Consternation in the Plantation — Frj'e- 
burg Appealed to — John Grover the Messenger — Prompt Re- 
sponse — Indians pursued but without avail — Fort erected and 
manned — Accounts for Services Presented — Number Four Peti- 
tioned for and refused — Roll of the Garrison. 53-61. 

Chapter VIII. 

Early Statistics — First Enumeration in 1790 — Direct Tax of 1798. 


Chapter IX. 

Increase of Population and Incorporation — AV^here the early settlers 
lived — the Twitchell Mill — Jonathan Bean — Called Bethel at the 
suggestion of Rev. Eliphaz Chapman — Act of Incorporation — 
First Town Meeting. 63-68. 

Chapter X. 

Second Enumeration, 1800 — Large Increase in Population — Total, 
622 69-70. 

Chapter XI. 

The Androscoggin Indians — Worombo's Deed — The Pejepscots 
and Rockomekos — Their Corn fields in Bethel — Their hostility to 
the English — Euphonic Indian names — Lovewell's Fight — The 
Androscoggins emigrate to Canada — Molly Ockett — Metalluk — 
Various Other Indians who visited Bethel. 71-83. 


Chapter XII. 
Military Affairs — Soldiers of the Revolution — Town Militia — 
Petition for :in Artillery Company — Commissioned Officers — War 
of 1812-16— Boundary Contest. 83-93. 

Chaptek XIII. 

Travel and Mail Facilities — Post-riders — First Post Office — The 
.Stage System — List of Post Offices and Postmasters. 93-97. 

Chapter XI\'. 

Later Settlements — Intervales first settled — Francis Hemraingwaj' 
— The "Whale's Back" — Abijah Lapham — Caleb Bessee — Berry 
Hill — Levi Berry and family — The Bryants, Jordans, Cushmaus, 
Birds and Estes — Kimliall Hill — The Locke's Mills and Bean's 
Corner road — The Kiver road — Jeremiah Andrews, Luther Bean, 
The Frosts, Howards and Bartlctts — South Bethel, once Walker's 
Mills. ;)7-]03. 

Chapteh X\'. 

A Chapter of Statistics — Settlement of Oxford County Towns — 
County of Oxford Erected — Its Original Towns — Towns since 
added — Population l)y towns 1 790 to 1820 — Educational JNIatters 
in tiie County — Agricultural Statistics — Titles to the soil — Sales 
and (iiants. lOii-112. 

Chapter XVI. 
Prominent Bethel Men Deceased — .ledediah Burbank — Barbour 
Bartlett — Lt. Jonathan Clark — George W. Chapman — Timothj' 
Cliapman — Robert A. Chapman — El bridge Chapman — Elias M. 
Carter — Phineas Frost, Eli Foster, John (Irover, Senior — Cuvier 
(irover — Tallyrand (trover — Israel Kimball Jr. — Ira C. Kimball 
— John Kiniliall — Samuel Barron Locke — John Locke — Charles 
R. Locke — Closes Mason — Ayers Mason — Dr. N. T. True — 
Eleazer Twitchell — Eli 'i'witchell — Ezra Twitchell — Peter 
Twitchell — Joseph Twitchell — John A. Twitchell — James Walker 
—James Walker 2d— John Williamson. 113-K56. 

Chapter XV'II. 

Abstract of Town Records 1797-18.30 — Early Town Clerks — Char- 
acter and ability of Town Officers — General Town Proceedings 
for half a century. If) 7-1 89. 


Chapter XVIII, 

Picturesque Bethe! — Its Beautiful Situation — Its Landscape Variety 

and Beauty— Its Fine Drives — Various Places Described — ••From 

Sunset Rocl\ Looking Westward" — Lucy Larconi's "On the 

Ledge". 189-1 97_ 

Chapter XIX. 

Churches and Ministers — First Church, West Parish — Parson Brad- 
ley — Rev. Daniel Gould — Abstract of Church Records — Rev. 
Charles Frost and other Ministers — Second Church — The Baptists 
— Act of Incorporation — Rev. Ebenezer Bray and others — Lists 
of Delegates — The Methodists — The Free Baptists — Uuiversal- 
ists— Other Ministers. 198-241. 

Chapter XX. 

Physicians — Dr. Timothy Carter — Dr. iNIoses Mason — Dr. Joha 
Grover— Dr. Robert G. Wiley— Dr. Almon Twitchell— Dr. 
Joshua Fanning — Dr. Ozmon M. Twitchell — Dr. David W. Davis 
— Other Physicians. 241 -•254. 

Chapter XXI. 

Lawyers — William Frye — David Hammons — O'Neil W. Robinson — 

Richard A. Frye — Samuel F.. Gibson — Enoch Foster — Moses B. 

Bartlett— Joel C. Virgin — Addison E. Herrick — Wm. C. P'rye — 

Alonzo J. Grover — Albert S. Twitchell. 255-264. 

Chapter XXII. 
Bethel in the War of the Rebellion — Three Months Men — Company 
I, Fifth Maine — Other Bethel Organizations— Roll of Bethel 
Soldiers. 265-281. 

Chapter XXIII. 
Educational Matters — Early Schools and School Houses — Prom- 
inent Educators — Gould's Academj- — List of Principals and 
Trustees — The Gould and other Legacies — State Aid — Alumni. 


Chapter XXIV. 
Bethel Centennial — Organization for its Celebration — A (irand 
Procession — Dr. True's Address— Professor Chapman's Poem — 
Toasts and Responses — Letters. 295-.3;52. 


Chapter XXV. 

Temperance Reform — Early Drinking Habits — The Lawyers Organ- 
ize — The State Society — Early Societies in Bethel — The Wash- 
ingtonians — Sons of Temperance — Other Organizations — Bethel 
a Prohibition Town. 333-340. 

Chapter XXVI. 

David Robbins — His Appearance at Bethel — His Marriage — Moves 
to the Magalloway Country — The Lost Child — Found Among the 
Indians — Hinds and Cloutman — Perfidy of Robbins — Hinds and 
Sou— Went Hunting and Never Returned — Arrest of Robbins — 
His Escape from Lancaster Jail — Death ofHis Wife. 341-361. 

Chapter XXVIL 

Sketches Personal — Eliphaz C. Bean — Timothy A. Chapman — 
Henry L. Chapman — Charles J. Chapraau — Clark S. Edwards — 
Lafayette Grovcr — Abernethy G rover — David R. Hastings — 
Gideon A. Hastings — Sylvester Robertson — Ceylon Rowe — 
George M. Twitchell— Alice (i. Twitchell. 361-381. 

Chapter XXNllI. 

Industrial — Lack of Water Power — Early and Later Mills— Wool- 
carding and Cloth-dressing — Furniture — Tanning — Hotels — 
Traders — Steam ^Fills — ("mir Factory— Lost Industries- Potash 
Making and Shingle s\eavliig — West Bethel — Blacksmiths — Other 
Trades. 381-390. 


Real Estate Transfers — York or Cuml)erl;ind— -louas and Edward 
Bond— Early and Later Deeds. 391-398. 

Chapter XXX. 

Fraternal Societies — Free Masons — Odd Fellows —Grand Army of 
the Republic — Woman's Relief Corps — Knights of Pythias. 


Chapter XXXI. 

Bethel Hill — Its Attractive Situation — The Common and Lauds 
Bordering — Pearly Buildings — Transfer of Lots — Bethel Hill as 
Seen from Sunset Rock — Village Corporation — Water Company 
— Farmers' CXwh—Bethel Courier. 407-416. 


Chapter XXXII. 

Fragments — Dr. Mason's Wit — He goes to Congress — His Library 
— Uncle Ned's Tick Box — Novel Treatment of Neuralgia — Wild 
Pigeons — Bears — Death of James INIills — Caleb Bradley — The 
Great Freshet — Jonathan Bean — Indian Items — John Holt — 
Orren Foster's Terrible P^xperience — Celebration of the Anni- 
versary of the Indian Raid — Trees Around the Common — 
Bethel Hill in 1859 — Bean's Corner — AVashingtonian Movement 
— "The same to yourself, Sir" — David Marshall — Charge of 
Grover's Brigade — "Tommy" — The Last Wolves — Town of 
Mason — Town of Gilead — Hosea Ripley — "Seven by Nine Glass 
Boys, touch her off" — Jonathan Abbot Russell — A Beautiful 
View — Consider Cole— "Be you the Devil?" — Early Forest Fires 
— Joseph Wheeler — The Stalwart Grover Brothers — Dr. P. C. 
Wiley— The Village Blacksmith. 417-443. 

Chapter XXXIII. 

Official Register — Selectmen— Town Clerks — Justices of the Peace 
— Representatives — Senators — Councillors — Other State Officers. 


Chapter XXXIV. 

Brief Sketch of Hanover— Its Component Parts — Howard's 
Gore — Abstract of Plantation Records — Incorporated as Han- 
over — Town Officers — Patriotic Record. 447-455. 




Jetlediali Buibaiik 113 Mrs. Fauuv Grovor 548 

Dr. Silas P. Kartlett 470 Abernethy" (Jrover 274 

(ico. \\'. Chapniaii 11.". Lafayette (Jrover 868 

'I'iiiKitliy ( liapiiiaii 118 Tallyrand Grover 288 

IJohcrt A. Chaitiuaii .")11 Xatliaii (i rover 5.^2 

Dr. TiinotJiv Caiter 242 Luciuda (J rover 552 

Prof. n. L. Vhapiiiaii 312 David P. Hastinjrs 370 

Tiinotliv A. ( 'hai)niaii Fioiitis (iideoii A. Hastiuii's 560 

(liariesJ. Clmpinaii :',{;:, Ira C. Kimball... '. 133 

(iiliiiaii Cliapinaii .307 Aytns .Mason 143 

(lark S. Edwards 367 Dr. Moses Mason 243 

\\i-\. II. <■. Ivstes 237 Samuel D. Philbrook 597 

i'hiiieas Frost 122 Sylvester Pobertson 606 

Abi;;ail Frost 536 Ceylon IJoAve 379 

Enoch Foster 2.VJ Xatliani<'l T. True 144 

Rev. Charles Frost 212 Joseph I'witchell 153 

William Frve 255 Marv T\\ itchell 153 

Lois Frve .'. .-)3S Peter Twitchell 151 

Pichani A. Frv<- ...295 Dr. Almon Twitchell 249 

Eev. Daniel (Joulil 210 Albert S. Twitchell 263 

Pev. David (Jarland 217 (Jeorjre M. Twitchell 29(» 

(ien. (iivii'r <; rover 126 Alice <J. 'i'witchell 380 

Dr. .lohn (irover 245 Josepli \. 'Twitcliell 633 


Lot (d IJelhel 29 

Church at .>Fiddle Interval 4o 

Lt. Jonathan Claik Mouse 40 

Piver View— Mount Will 439 

View on ( hurch St reel 408 

First < 'oni>re«jational ( hurch 199 

Elipha/ Chapman House 208 

Bethel Hill from Sunset l»'ock 412 

GouhTs Academy 1860 285 

Dr. <;rover Place, now •■'i'hc Kims" 384 

Residence of A. E. Herrick 261 

From Sunset Rock I>ookin<>: Westward 197 

JJethel House 584 

Deacon < ieo. W . ( 'liapman Place, Gilead 116 

■Gould's Academv 1890 416 


indp:x of personal sketches. 

Jonathan Beau li") 

Jedediah Burbaiik 1 lo 

Barbour Bart let t 1 U 

Kev. E. A. Buck 215 

Rev. S. L. Bowler 21(J 

Kev. Ebeuezer Brav 220. 225 

Rev. ^Vul. Beavius! 22<) 

Rev. Frank E. Barton 233 

Rev. Nathaniel Barker ,34:'. 

Dr. Zenas Bartletl '• 20^ 

Dr. Silas P. Bartlett 470 

Moses B. Bartlett 2(10 

Eliphaz ( '. Bean o(il 

JonatVian < 'lark 40, 114 

Benjamin < 'lark..' 41 

(leo. W. ( hapuum 1 ir. 

'I'iniothy < 'iiapnian lis 

Itdhert .V. ( liapinan ll'.i 

Elbri(li>-e ( hapiuan 121 

Elias M. Carter 121 

Rev. Eliphaz ( 'hapnian 207 

Rev. t'alviu < 'hapnian 2;i6 

Rev. Lawsou Carter 2;i7 

Dr. Timothy Carter 242 

Dr. Cullen Carter 2.53 

'J'imothy A. Chapman 3(12 

Heni'y L.'( hapnian 36") 

< 'harles J. ( hapnian 30.") 

Jesse Dnston 41 

Rev. Arthur Driukwater 22.") 

Rev. Benj Dunham 220 

Dr. David W. Davis 252 

Rev. H. C. Estes '. ... 237 

Rev. Sumner Estes 23;» 

Clark S. Edwards 3(17 

Pliineas Frost 1 22 

Eli Foster 124 

Rev. Charles Frost 2i:! 

Dr. .Tosluia Fanuina; 2.51 

Dr. .1. Henry Frost 25;! 

William Frye 255 

IPiohard A." Frve 25s 

Euoeh Foster " 25!» 

Wm. ( . Frye 2(;2 

Reuben B. Foster 532 

John (i rover 42 1 25 

< uvier (trover 12i! 

'I'allyrand (4rovei- 132 

Rev". Daniel (iould 21o 

Rev. Nahum P. (irover 217 

Rev. David (iarland ••••217 

Rev. Alplieus ( irover 23it 

Dr. .lohn (t rover 245 

Dr. I>eander (iage 25;'. 

Dr. (has. W. (Jordou 2.54 

Samuel F. Gibson 25!» 

Alouzo J. G rover 2(12 

I>afayette Grover 3()S 

.\bernethy Grover 37(! 

Daniel ( Jrout 544 

Elijah (irover Jr 551 

Natlian (irover 552 

( ieorge W . Grover 552-3 

Amos Hastings 43 

Kev. Samuel Haselton 22!t 

David irammons 257 

Addison E. IFerrick 2G1 

David K. Hastings 37() 

(Mdeon .\. Hastings 377 

Samuel higalls 42 

Israel Kiniliall .Ir 132 

Ira C. Kimball i;;3 

Deacon John Kimball 134 

Dr. John E. I>. Kimball 253 

Dr. Benjamin W. Kimball 253 

Samuel Barron Eocke 141 

Dr. John Locke i;i5 

Cliarles R. Locke 141 

Kev. John H. ^l. Leland 215 

Da\i(l :Marshall. ..43 

Metalluk si 

Moses Mason 141 

Avers Mason 143 

Kev. Diiniel Mason 225 

Kev. rlavan K. Mason 239 

Dr. Moses Mason 243 

Kev. Wellington Newell 240 

Molly Ocket't 78 

Amos Powers 41 

Benjamin Russell 39 

Al)raham Bussell 40 

Dr. ( harles Kussell 253 

()"Neil W. Robinson 258 

.Sylvester Rol)ei'tson 378 

( eylou Fiowe 379 

.lames Swan 40 

Nathaniel Segar. 41 

Eleazer Twitchell 39. 147 

Keter Twitchell... (14, 151 

Dr. N. T. True 144 

Eli Twitchell 149 

Ezra Twitchell 150 

Joseph Twitchell 153 

John .\. I'witchell. 1.54 

Kev. Zenas Thompson 232 

Dr. .\lmon I'witehell 249 

Dr. Ozmon M. Twitchell 251 

Dr. William 'Twitchell 253 

Albert S. 'J'w itchell 2(13 

(ieo. ]\r. Twitchell 379 

.Vlice (L 'Twitcliell ;580 

Joseph A. 'Twitcliell (VoA 

Joel C. Virgin 2(11 

James ^Valker 154 

.James Walker 2d 155 

John Williamson 155 

Kev. John B. Wheelwright 21<i 

Dr. Robert (i. Wilev 24s 

Dr. Win. Williamson 254 

.John York 42 


Page 43, for Samiud Marshall, I'ead Dacid Marshall. 

Page 85, 7th line from bottom, for Daniel Grant read Daniel (h-ont. 

Page 259. 3tl line from top, for one son^ read one daughter. 

Page 473 — The record of the family of Henry Russell Bartlett is incom- 
plete. In addition to the children there given, he had: 
iv Sebra Frank, b. Sept. 20, 1850, m. Clara A. Wilson. 
V Etta, b. Dec. 28, 1855, m. James M. Bartlett. 

vi Tavie, b. Aug. 30, 1857, m. Fred C. Bean, son of Eliphaz C. Bean Esq^ 
of East Bethel ; he resides on the homestead with his father. 

Page (;2t). 12th Vuw from liottoni. read, "she was drowned soon after." 

Page .502. .John Chase wlio married for second wife, Louisa (Graves) 
widow of Charles .Swan, had l)y this marriage: 
V Edgar E.. b. Oct. 8. 1862. 

vi Harry C. b. April Ki, 1866, m. Barker. 

vii Editli M.. b. .lime 14, 1868. 

Page 537 — 'I'he it^cord of Rev. Charles Frost as there given, copied 
from the town records, is incomplete, and is completed here: 

Rev. Charles Frost was born in TJmerick, Me., Jan. 12, 1796. He mar- 
ried ^lay 11, 1819, Lydia Fernald of Gorham, 3Ie.. who died in Bethel, 
Aug. 5, 1825. He married second. May 9, 1826, Eucinda M. Sheafe Smith 
who was born at Scarboro, Dec. 19, 1794. She was the daughter of Ezra 
Smith of Hanover. Mr. Frost died Feb. 11, 1851, and his widow died 
Nov. 11. 18.59. (liildrcn: 

i Mary 1).. b. April 12, 1820, m. Asa Thayer, 
ii Amanda Eliza, b. Feb. 21, 1823, d. July 18, 1827. 

iii James Henry Paine, b. May 24, 1825, m. 1st Margaret Johnson of 
Virginia ; 2d Mary Ames. 
By second marriage : 
iv Lydia Amanda, b, July 15, 1827, m. Rev. AVellington Newell. 
v Charles Ezra, b. Dec. 25, 1829. 
vi I^ucinda Smitli. b. July 6, 1832, d. Jan. 19, 1851. 
vii John Smith, b. Aug. 23, i336, d. March 2, 1851. 


♦ ♦ ♦ « ♦ 


Epitome of Maine History. 

HE early history of the coast of Maine is enveloped in mys- 
tery. An Icelandic historian has claimed that the western 
hemisphere was discovered by his ancestors, and while the 
evidence he gives is by no means conclnsive, based as it is npon 
tradition which did not become a matter of record until several cen- 
turies after the incidents described are said to have transpired, yet 
there is some degree of plausil>ility in the claim. The Icelandic 
historian states that about the 3^ear of our Lord one thousand, certain 
Icelandic voyagers, some of whose names are preserved and are 
recorded in their sagas, left their island home in the arctic regions, 
sailed to Greenland, thence to Labrador, and subsequently made oft 
repeated voyages to the coast of New England, established colonies 
in Nova Scotia, and perhaps on the coast of Maine, and visiting 
Cape Cod gave to it the name of Viuelaud, on account of the abun- 
dance of grapes they found growing there in a wild state. Historical 
students have differed with regard to the truth of these traditions, 
but a majority of them and among them some of the most eminent, 
have regarded the evidence as too shadow}' and unsubstantial, to 
entitle them to confidence and give them a place in history. But 
the stories of early discovery on the New England coast b}' the 
Northmen have a decided mythological flavor, the geographical 
details being very vague, and the description of the country, its 
climate, soil, and its native population highly exaggerated if not 
wholly fictitious. I am aware that the interest upon this phase of 


Maine history has beeu more active within a few years than form- 
erly, though I do not know that any new evidence has been dis- 
covered. Some of our leading Maine historians have become 
converted to this view, and while their opinions are entitled to great 
weight, I do not consider their arguments by any means conclusive. 
And whether it be true or not that the rude Noi'thmen discovered 
and often visited the coast of New England, is a matter of very 
little importance save from a purely abstract historical standpoint. 
They left no lasting monuments of their occupancy, laid no claim 
to the lands discovered, and if they occupied portions of the land 
for a brief period at points along the coast, they thereb}' accom- 
plished nothing in the interests of human advancement. It seems 
almost incomprehensible that people from Iceland should discover 
the coast of New England, remain here for a time unmolested and 
with no impediments in the way of a permanent occupancy, and 
then voluntarily return to their home in the arctic ocean with no 
apparent thought of reaping any permanent benefit from their 
discovery. But the subject is really of so little importance as to 
demand only a passing notice, and is only referred to because the 
Icelandic sagas giving accounts of these probably mythical voyages, 
have been translated and printed and have become a part of the 
literature of our day. 

It was from quite a different quarter of our globe that discoveries 
in the western hemisphere were made that resulted in peopling it 
with intelligent and civilized human beings. It was left for a 
famous Italian under the patronage of the King and (^ueen of Spain, 
to solve the great problem of a western hemisphere, and Christopher 
Columbus discovered the new world, for whose existence against 
violent opposition and even persecution, in the year of grace, one 
thousand four hundred and ninety-two. Five years later the elder 
Cabot sailed along our coast and described it to the entrance to 
Chesapeake bay. He was followed by various other voyagers who 
came in the interest of different nations. This gave rise to a san- 
guinary contest for the possession of the country, more especially 
between England and France, which continued with varying suc- 
cesses for more than a century and a half. The Indians took an 
important part in the contest and with them it was in part, a 
struggle for their very existence. The French early established 
missions among the Indians, and the Jesuits were untiring in their 
efforts to convert them. This was no difficult task, for the simple 


natives were charmed aud awed by the imposing forms and cere- 
monies of Catholic worship, and a large number of the eastern 
tribes became converts, aud allies of the French. England and 
France claimed the country by priority of discovery, and no doubt 
both countries felt that they had just cause for their claims. The 
French claim was founded first on the discovery of the coast of 
Maine, by Verrazzano, in fifteen hundred and twenty-four, who 
named the country New France ; second, on the discovery and 
occupancy of Canada in fifteen hundred and thirty-five, by Cartier ; 
third, the grant of Henry IV to DeMonts in sixteen hundred and 
three ; fourth, the voyage and occupation of the country under 
DeMonts and Champlaiu, and others who claimed under the same 
charter. The English defended their title on the following grounds : 
first the discovery of Cabot in fourteen hundred and ninety- seven ; 
second, the possession of Newfoundland by Gilbert in fifteen hun- 
dred and fifty-three ; third, the voyages and landings of Gosnold, 
Pring, ^Yaymouth and others, and fourth the charter of sixteen 
hundred and six, and the occupation of the country by the Popham. 
Colony in sixteen hundred and seven and subsequentl}^ aud by 
Gorges and others claiming under it. The great question between 
the two powers, as to the right of possession, turned on the occu- 
pancy of the country under the charter. And as the French based 
their claim largely on the settlement under the charter of DeMonts 
in sixteen hundred and three, so the English claim was based upon 
the settlement in sixteen hundred aud seven, under the Virginia 
chaiter of sixteen hundred and six. lUit as the charter of DeMonts 
had been revoked in sixteen hundred aud seven, and its rights con- 
veyed by a new charter to Madame DeGuercheville, a strong 
advantage in the French claim was lost ; for the Elnglish claimed 
with great force that the English settlement under the English 
charter now gave them absolute priority and indisputable right. 
But the French did not so readily abandon their title. On the con- 
trary, they pushed their settlements and arms and their missions to 
the western verge of their claims. 

A brief account of some of the early abortive efforts to make 
settlements along the Maine coast is of interest in this connection. 
In sixteen hundred and three. King Henry of France granted to one 
of his noblemen, Sieur de Mouts, a territory in the New World 
known as "Cadie" or "Acadia," described as embraced between the 
fortieth and forty-sixth degrees of north latitude. The purpose of 


DeMonts was to found a colony here, and he immediately set about 
it. He equipped two vessels, and accompanied b}- several French 
gentlemen, among whom was Samuel Champlain, a distinguished 
navigator, sailed from France, April seven, sixteen hundred and 
four. He made his first headquarters upon a small island which he 
named St. Croix. It is situated in the St. Croix river, near the 
present boundary line between Maine and New Brunswick. His 
colony was finally established at Port Royal, near Annapolis, Nova 
Scotia. While coasting along through the Gulf of Maine, Cham- 
plain discovered and named Mount Desert Island and Isle an Haut, 
giving them the names they still bear. Continuing, he entered the 
Penobscot which he described, and returning entered Sheepscot Bay, 
which he ascended as far as the northern extremity of Westport ; 
he descended the river on the west side of the island, passed close 
to Hockamock point, pulled the vessel through the upper Hellgate, 
and entering the Kennebec river passed on to Merr3'meeting Bay. 
The return was by the true channel of the Sagadahoc, and the fact 
that his was probably the first vessel that ever plowed the waters of 
this river, gives importance to the event in this connection. It was 
a small vessel called apaWac/<(', and had on 1)oard some seventeen 
or eighteen men. 

The colonization scheme of De^NIonts proved a failure, and prior 
to sixteen hundred and six, his charter had been revoked. It was 
:at this time tliat Sir Ferdinand© Gorges, Sir John Pophum, Capt. 
I?aleigh Gilbert and other distinguished Englishmen, began to take 
active measures for the settlement of the New Worl.., and two com- 
panies were chartered, the one called the London Company, to i)lant 
colonies in Southern Virginia, and the other organized in Plymouth, 
England, was called the Plymouth Company and was to colonize 
North Virginia. This was the second attempt to establish a colony 
within the present limits of the State of INIaine, the first being by 
DeMonts at St. Croix, as already stated. 

In the spring of sixteen hundred and seven, a plan was matured 
for establishing a colony on the Sagadahoc river. A hundred 
emigrants besides mariners were engaged for the enterprise, and all 
necessarj^ supplies, including ordnance stores, were speedily 
secured. Two vessels were chartered, one commanded by George 
Popham and the other by Raleigh Gilbert. They sailed from Ply- 
mouth, England, on the thirtj^-first of jMay, sixteen hundred and 
seven, and steered directly for the coast of INIaine, then called 


North Virginia. They first touched at Monhegan Island, July 
thirty-first, and after exploring the coast and islands, they, on Sun- 
day, August ninth, landed on an island which they called St. 
George, where they heard a sermon delivered by Mr. Seymour, their 
Chaplain. Stage Island, situated on the east side of the mouth of 
Kennebec river, is supposed to be the ancient St. George. It is 
related that they intended to make Stage Island the seat of their 
colony, and that they sunk wells and begun houses, but becoming 
satisfied that they could not have pure water from their wells, and 
for other reasons, they decided to make a change. Their vessels 
were anchored under Seguin Island on the fifteenth. This island 
was variously spelled "Sutguin," "Sequin" and "Seguin" by the 
early voyagers. On the same day, one of the ships, "The Gift of 
God," got safely into the river, and on the following day, the 
"Mary and John" came in, and both vessels came to anchor. On 
the seventeenth, in two boats, they sailed up the river — Capt. 
Fopham in his pinnace with thirty persons, and Capt. Gilbert in his 
long boat with eighteen more. "They found it a gallant river; 
many good islands therein, and many branches of other small rivers 
falling into it." They returned, and on the eighteenth "they all 
went ashore, and there made choice of a place for a plantation, at 
the mouth or entry of the river, on the west side, being almost an 
island, of good bigness, in a province called by the Indians 
"Sabino," so called of a Sagamore, or chief commander, under the 
grand bashaba." 

There has been some disagreement among historians as to the 
precise spot where the colony w^as finally established, but it is 
described as on the Avest side of the river, at the mouth or entry, on 
a peninsula, and what better description of the territory, extending 
from the bluff, near the sea, to Atkins' Bay, could be given than is 
given here? There can be no reasonable doubt that the peninsula, 
upon the easterly side of which stands the United States Fort, is 
the ancient Sabino, and the seat of the Popham Colony, subse- 
quently known as the Sagadahoc Colony. Here they erected a 
commodious house and barn, a church, and quite a number of cheap 
cabins or huts, some say fifty in all. They also built a defensive 
work which they called Fort St. George. Here also they constructed 
a vessel, the first one built in New England, of about thirty tons, 
which they called the "Virginia." Little if any evidence remains 
at the mouth of the Kennebec of the existence of Popham's short- 


lived settlement, after the lapse of uearl}' three centuries, the shift- 
ing sands having long since bnried them from human sight, but the 
* 'gallant river" so described, still flows on to the sea, and the ocean 
waves continue to beat and break upon the sandy beach, as they did 
on the da}' when the emigrants landed and planted their colon}' in 
the ancient and picturesque province of Sabiuo. 

When the Popham Colony broke up in sixteen hundred and eight, 
it has been said the French at once began to settle within their 
limits, though this is doubtful. The struggle, ns already stated, 
was long and bitter, for both parties were impelled by self interest 
and pride, and by an assumed consciousness of right. 

The Great Charter of New England was granted in sixteen hun- 
dred and twenty, while the pilgrims were on their passage to this 
country, and through the influence of Sir Ferdinando Gorges and 
his associates. The corporation was called the "Council of Ply- 
month" in the county of Devon, England, and the charter granted 
the territory from the fortieth to the forty-eighth degree of north 
latitude. The southern limit was in the vicinity of Philadelphia, 
and the northern the Bay of Chaleur, and the grant extended 
through the mainland from ocean to ocean. In sixteen hundred 
and twenty-one, the Council of Plymouth granted to the pilgrims 
the lands which they occu[)ied, and u[)on this charter as enlarged in 
sixteen hundred and thiity, all the legal land titles of the Old 
Colony are based. In sixteen hundred and twenty-nine, the same 
Council granted to "NVm. l^radford and his associates the territory 
on Kennebec river long known as the Plymouth Patent and subse- 
quently as the Kennebec Purchase. Its bounds were somewhat 
iudelinite on account of a lack of knowledge of the country by those 
who drafted the instrument, Init as finally settled in the courts, it 
embraced the lands on both sides of the river, fifteen miles in width, 
and extending from INIerrymecting bay to the falls below Norridge- 
wock. August tenth, sixteen hundred and twenty-two, a patent 
was granted to Sir Ferdinando Gorges and Capt. John INIason, con- 
veying to them the territory between the INIerrimac and Kennebec 
rivers, to their farthest head and sixty-five miles inland, with all 
the islands within five leagues of the shore, which the indenture 
states, "they intend to call the Province of Maine." In ]March, 
sixteen hundred and twenty-eight, a patent was granted to John 
Winthrop and his associates of the Massachusetts I>ay, whieh was 
confirmed l)y royal charter the following year. In sixteen hundred 


and twenty-nine, Gorges and Mason divided their territorj', Mason 
taking that portion situated between the Merrimac and Fiscataqua 
rivers, which he named New Hampshire, and Gorges from the 
Fiscataqua to the Kennebec. The French at this time claimed the 
Kennebec as the western boundary of Acadia. In their eagerness 
to settle the country and build up towns and cities in this wilder- 
ness, the Council of Flymouth was careless and even reckless in 
making grants of land, often overlaying patents and ignoring 
boundaries of previous grants, therebj^ sowing the seeds of contro- 
versies which jnelded an abundant harvest, and were not settled for 
very many years. 

The Great Council of Plymouth having encountered man}' vexa- 
tions, in sixteen hundred and thirty-five, agreed to surrender their 
charter, and determined to divide their territory into eight provinces, 
two of which were within the present limits of Maine. The region 
between the Kennebec and the St. Croix was to be given to Sir 
William Alexander, Earl of Sterling, and was to be called the 
county of Canada. The coast from the Kennebec to the Fiscataqua 
and extending sixty miles into the interior, was assigned to Gorges 
and called New Somersetshire. Efforts Avere made bj' Gorges to 
establish a government in which he partially succeeded, but political 
dissensions in the old world unsettled everything there and in the 
new^, and the troubles which arose from the grants previously made 
within this patent, induced him, in sixteen hundred and thirty-nine, 
to apply for a new cliarter which w^as granted by Charles I. It 
confirmed all the territory within his old boundaries on the coast 
and extended twice as far into the interior. He called this the 
Province of Maine. 

The terms of the Massachusetts charter established their northern 
boundary three miles north of the Merrimac river, "and each and 
every part of it." To this line all had agreed. But when Massa- 
chusetts found it necessary to justify the seizure of jNIaine, her 
citizens conceived a new interpretation of the language describing 
the bounds. The river makes a right angle about thirty miles from 
its mouth, and from that point stretches almost due north ; so 
instead of a line three miles north of the river at its mouth, they 
took a point three miles north of its head waters, and from that run 
a line easterly to the sea, which would give them all of New Hamp- 
shire, and a large part of Maine. In her aggressive movement for 
the capture of Maine, the government of the Massachusetts Bay 


proceeded cautiously, but with a manifest determination to win. 
In sixteen hundred and fifty-two, she was at York and Saco. Four 
years after she had reached Fahiiouth. The next year, an action 
was brought against Thomas Purchas at Brunswick, but he resisted 
and won his case in the courts. Then a new line was run to White 
Head Island in Penobscot buy. There was then an English settle- 
ment at Pemaquid, which many claim was older than Massachusetts 
or Pl^'mouth, and the new boundary was made to embrace it. It 
seemed to have made no difference that the territory' east of the 
Kennebec belonged to the Duke of York. The Duke had purchased 
it from the Earl of Sterling in sixteen hundred and sixty-three, 
including all his American possessions, and the next j^ear received 
a royal charter from his brother Charles II. Massachusetts pre- 
pared to contest his title by occupation, and in sixteen hundred and 
seventy-four, set up a court and organized a local government at 
Pemaquid, naming the territory the county of Devonshire. The 
Duke contested until he ascended the throne as James II, when the 
territory was annexed to the Massachusetts Bay government. The 
eastern limit of Maine was first fixed at the Sagadahoc river, the 
name by which the Kennebec below IMerryraeeting Bay was once 
called, then at the Penol>scot, and finally at the St. Croix, as at the 
present time. The contest for Acadia as this Eastern territory was 
once called, as being the door to Canada by way of the St. Law- 
rence, was long and bloody. Its importance as a vantage ground 
may be understood in the frequency with which it changed hands. 
It was in sixteen hundred and thirty-two ceded to the French by the 
treaty of St. Germains : in sixteen hundred and fifty-five, it was 
repossessed by the English by conquest ; in sixteen hundred and 
sixty-seven, it was again ceded to the French by the treaty of 
Breda ; in sixteen hundred and ninety, it was reconquered by the 
English under Sir William Phips, a Elaine man : in sixteen hun- 
dred and ninety-one, it was united to the Province of the Massachu- 
setts Bay by the charter of William and Mary ; in sixteen hundred 
and ninety-six, it was virtually repossessed b}^ the French, and 
Massachusetts surrendered it back to the Crown of England : in 
sixteen hundred and ninety-seven, it reverted to France by the 
treat}' of Ryswick : in seventeen hundred and thirteen, it was ceded 
to England by the treat}' of Utrecht : in seventeen hundred and 
fifty-five, the Acadians, who still maintained allegiance to France, 
were expelled ; in seventeen hundred and fifty-nine, it was confirmed 
to England at the capitulation of Louisburg and Quebec. 


But the contest between Massachusetts and the Gorges interest 
grew so bitter, and attracted so much attention in England, that 
commissioners were sent over by the crown to investigate the mat- 
ter. Arms had already been resorted to, and the courts established 
by the Massachusetts Bay Colony were protected by troops. The 
question before the High Court of Chancery, the King in Council in 
sixteen hundred and seventy-seven, rendered the just and common 
sense decision that the north line of the Massachusetts Colony was 
three miles from the north bank of the Merrimac river at its mouth, 
and the Province of Maine both as to soil and government, was the 
rightful property of the heirs of Sir Ferdinando Gorges. When 
this decision reached Boston, Massachusetts instructed her agent- to 
make purchase of the title, and the heir of Gorges sold his interest 
in the Province of Maine for the paltry sum of twelve hundred and 
fifty pounds. But Massachusetts did not long enjoy her triumph, 
for in June, sixteen hundred and eighty-four, the charter of the 
Massachusstts Bay was declared forfeited by the King, and a copy 
of the judgment was served a month after. King Charles died, and 
James succeeded him, and then were renewed those commotions and 
oppressions, which in this country were connected with the name of 
Sir Edmund Audros, and the attempt to consolidate and really sub- 
jugate all the northern colonies ; and which in England resulted in 
the revolution of sixteen hundred and eighty-eight, the flight of 
King James and the accession of William and Mary of the House 
of Orange. At the accession of William and Mary, Massachusetts 
had every reason to expect to be restored to her ancient rights, but 
there were now numerous interests to be harmonized ; the sover- 
eigns, though sympathizing with the Puritans, were unwilling to 
restore so liberal a charter, and one which had been so freely inter- 
preted. There had come to be strong shades of difference in 
religious and political opinions among the colonists, but the late 
disturbances and common sufferings had the sentiment of a common 
cause and the need of unity. And so it happened, that in sixteen 
hundred and ninety-one, these elements, whether harmonious or dis- 
cordant. Pilgrim, Puritan or Episcopalian, were bound together by 
a royal charter which consolidated the colonies of Plymouth, the 
Massachusetts Bay, the District of Maine, Sagadahoc and all of 
Acadia into one Province and under one title, the Province of the 
Massachusetts Bay. A few years later the Maritime Provinces 
were receded to the Crown. INIaine was now in fact a part of 


Massachusetts, and the first Goveruorof the consolidated Provinces 
was Sir William Phips, a distinguished son of Maine. This rela- 
tion existed for a hundred and thirt}^ years, till eighteen hundred 
and twenty, when a separation was made b}' mutual consent, and 
Maine became an independent State. 

The colon}' at Saint Saveur was planted by the Jesuits, and 
destroyed by the English during the season of sixteen hundred and 
thirteen. Its site is still pointed out at Fernald's Point near the 
entrance to Somes' sound, and on Mount Desert Island, and the two 
springs described by Father Biard, one of the founders of the 
colony, still supply the purest and coldest of water, though they are 
situated below high water mark, and cannot be seen at flood tide. 
A French Catholic mission was established on the Kennebec river 
in the present city of Augusta, in the autumn of sixteen hundred 
and forty-six. Father Gabriel Druillettes, who established this 
mission, was a Jesuit. He called it the "Mission of the Assump- 
tion," and was in charge of it for several years. Like all of his 
associate Jesuits, he was an ardent worker and wholly sacrificed self 
to the good of the cause. He came here from Quebec by canoe and 
carry, a long and perilous .iourney through a broad and inhospitable 
wilderness. The black-robed Fathers continued their visits and 
ministrations at this point for more than a century. Neither danger 
nor hardship ever ai)peared to cool the ardor or lessen the zeal of 
the apostles of the Jesuit school. The puritans from Plymouth had 
in sixteen hundred and twenty-eight, established a trading house at 
the same point then known as Cushnoc, with John Winslow in 
charge, and here in this wilderness Jesuit and Puritan met face to 
face. Their relations ai)pear to have been very pleasant, for Father 
Druillettes speaks of being warmly welcomed at the PLnglish head- 
C[uarters on several occasions. But how different their mission ! 
The self-sacrificing Jesuit is here to convert the heathen Indians, 
and lead them along the way to paradise ; the puritan comes to pro- 
tect the material interests of Plynioutli colony, and to trade and traflBc 
with the Indians : the one is ready to sacrifice ever^'thing, even his 
own life to promote the spiritual welfare of his charge ; the other is 
here for worldly gain, for the accuinuh\tion of perishable riches. 

"When King Pliilip's Indian war l)roke out in sixteen hundred and 
seventy-five, the coast of Maine was settled from the mouth of the 
Piscataqua to l*enobscot Bay, but during this war the settlements 
were laid waste and the inhal)itants either killed, captured or driven 


away. Desolation reigned everywhere supreme. When the death 
of Philip brought this war to a close, many of the colonists returned 
and hoped to retain peaceable possession of their property, but in 
this they were disappointed. The contest for empire was continued 
with unabated zeal between France and England. The French held 
possession of the territory bordering upon the Saint Lawrence, and 
it was at Quebec, the headquarters of the Jesuits, that the raids 
upon the settlers of Maine were planned : planned by the French 
and executed jointly by the French and Indians. Among the tribes 
that took part in these destructive raids were the Pequakets, whose 
headquarters were at Fryeburg, the Anasigunticooks or Androscog- 
gins, who lived on the great Androscoggin river and the tribe 
whose headquarters were at Norridgewock. But the power of 
the Pequakets was broken by Lovewell and Jiis brave compan- 
ions in seventeen hundred and twenty- five, a few 3'ears later 
the Norridgewocks were completely routed by Captains Har- 
mon, Moultou and Bane, when the Jesuit Priest, Father Rasle, who 
had incited the Indians to slaughter the English settlers, was killed, 
and the Androscoggius fearing a like fate, deserted their ancient 
hunting grounds and removing to Canada, placed themselves under 
the protection of the French. Louisburg, the French stronghold in 
Nova Scotia, was captured by the arm}' under Sir William Pepperell, 
in seventeen hundred and forty-iive, and in seventeen hundred and 
fifty-nine, the army under the brave General Wolfe, on the Plains 
of Abraham, near Quebec, totally defeated the French under Mont- 
calm, captured the stronghold and put an end to French rule in 
Canada. This desiral)le achievement was the beginning of a new 
and prosperous era in tlie history of Maine. New settlements were 
commenced in the interior along the banks of the principal rivers, 
deserted towns were repeopled, and the hum of industry was heard 
all along the line. 

Fryeburg, the first town granted and settled in what is now 
Oxford county, was settled in seventeen hundred and sixty-two, and 
Bethel granted in seventeen hundred and sixty-eight, was settled 
six years later. But in the midst of this general prosperity, the war 
of the revolution broke out which paralyzed all enterprises and put 
a stop to all progress for the space of nearly eight years. Many 
who had just settled in Maine hastened to headquarters and joined 
the ranks of the patriot army, and many others who were just on 
the point of coming, postponed it until the close of the contest or 


even more indefinitely. At the close of the struggle, which resulted 
so gloriously for the colonists, the tide of emigration turned toward 
the eastward with greater force than ever before. The soldiers had 
been paid in a depreciating and subsequently worthless currency, 
and were very poor. Massachusetts offered liberal terms if they 
would settle upon eastern lands, and they accepted and turned their 
faces toward the promised land, the new Canaan, in multitudes. 
Then it was that Gray, New Gloucester, North Yarmouth, Freeport 
and Fryeburg, became the rallying points for settlers who were on 
their way to the interior of Oxford County. Towns rapidly filled 
up and Bethel was peopled, largely by patriots of the war for inde- 
pendence. The census of seventeen hundred and ninety showed 
that the District of Maine had a population of ninety-six thousand, 
five hundred and forty. A decade later, it had increased to one 
hundred fifty-one thousand seven hundred and nineteen, and in 
eighteen hundred and ten, it was two hundred twenty-eight thou- 
sand six hundred and ninety-four. Then came up the question of 
separation from Massachusetts, and the subject Avas agitated from 
time to time and voted upon, until eighteen hundred and twenty, 
when it became an accomplished fact. Massachusetts placed no 
obstacle in the way, and was rather pleased at the separation than 
otherwise. The convention to frame a constitution for the new state, 
convened in Portlaud, October eleven, eighteen hundred and nine- 
teen. Dr. John G rover was the member from Bethel. It completed 
its work and adjourned October twenty-nine to reassemble January 
fifth following, to ascertain the result. It was found that the whole 
number of votes thrown in favor of the constitution, Avas nine thou- 
sand and fifty, and against its adoption, seven hundred and eightj'- 
six. William King was president of the convention, and was 
subsequently elected the first Governor of Maine. 

From sixteen hundred and ninety-one, when under tlie new charter 
granted liy William and !Mary, the colon}- of the Massachusetts Bay 
including INIaine, and Ph'mouth colony became united, to the year 
seventeen hundred and sixty, the county of York covered the entire 
District of Maine. At the later date, the county of Cumberland 
was erected and the county of Lincoln. York retained its present 
limits except it had the towns now in western Oxford. Cumberland 
extended to the Androscoggin river and northwardly to include some 
towns in the present counties of Oxford and Androscoggin, and 
Lincoln county embraced the rest of the District. Washington and 


Hancock counties were formed iu seventeen hundred and eight}^- 
nine ; Kennebec ten years later ; Oxford in eighteen hundred and 
five ; Somerset in eighteen hundred and nine ; Penobscot in 
eighteen hundred and sixteen ; Waldo in eighteen hundred and 
twent3"-seven ; Franklin and Piscataquis in eighteen hundred and 
thirty-eight ; Aroostook in eighteen hundred and thirty-nine ; An- 
droscoggin and Sagadahoc in eighteen hundred and fifty-four, and 
Knox in eighteen hundred and sixty. The State of Maine is 
situated between forty-three degrees, six minutes, and fortj^-seven 
degrees, twenty-seven minutes and thirty-three seconds of north 
latitude, and between sixty-six degrees, fifty-six minutes and forty- 
eight seconds, and seventy-one degrees, six minutes and forty-one 
seconds of west longitude. Its extreme length is three hundred and 
three miles and its breadth two hundred and eighty-eight miles. 
The people of the State are patriotic and loyal to the government, 
both state and national. In the war of eighteen hundred and 
twelve they were neither wanting nor tardy. In the war with 
Mexico many of our citizens joined the army, and in the war for 
the integrity of the union, no State has a more patriotic record.* 
Our agricultural and manufacturing resources are being constantly 
developed, railway facilities are annually improving, new industries 
are springing up on every hand, and willing hands find plenty to do 
at remunerative wages. Our educational s^'stem meets the demands 
of the people, and to conclude, we have an intelligent, thrifty and 
happy population. Maine has ever contril)uted her full share 
toward the public expenses and to the public defence, and as a 
State, has never been derelict in any duty. She has contributed 
thousands upon thousands of her hardy sons and daugiiters to peo- 
ple the far west, and is proud of their achievements wherever they 
have lived. 

* The regular organizations which went forth from Maine into the war for the suppres- 
sion of the rebellion, were thirty-one regiments of Infantry, two regiments of cavalry, 
one regiment of heavy artillery ami seven mounted batteries of light artillery, besides 
companies for Baker's Cavalry, sharp-shooters, unassigncd companies and coast guards, 
numbering iu the aggregate seventy-two thousand nine hundred and forty-five men, 
nearly seven thousand of whom were for the navy and marine corps. This does not take 
into account the several thousands of natives of Maine who were residents of other 
states when the war broke out, and served upon their quotas. 


Grants of Narragansett and Canada Townships. 

'N the French aud Indian contests which prevailed from the 
breaking out of King Philip's war in sixteen hundred and 
seventy-five, to the fall of Quebec in seventeen hundred 
aud fifty-nine, the soldiers of the colony of Massachusetts 
Bay, including the Province of Maine, bore a conspicuous and an 
honorable part. In fact, they formed the back-bone of the Eng- 
lish armies operating against Canada, and sometimes the head and 
front. The trained soldiers of Great Britain, however brave they 
may have been, and of their courage and bravery there was never 
any question, were not familiar with Indian warfare, and alwaj's 
met the wily foe at great disadvantage ; while the men of New 
England brought up in the forest aud trained to every species of 
woodcraft, could generally cope successfully with the aboriginal 
inhabitants, and being better armed and equipped, could beat them 
in their own shrewd tactics. 

The capture of Louisburg, that stronghold at Cape Breton which 
was regarded as impregnable, was accomplished by New England 
troops, under the leadership of Sir William Pepperell, a Elaine man, 
and in all the engagements in the Maritime Provinces, around Lakes 
Champlain and George, aud in the various expeditions against 
Canada, Massachusetts men formed no small part cf the invading 
forces and were ever conspicuous for their bravery. King Philip's 
war was successfully brought to a close by the combined efforts of 
Massachusetts, Rhode Island aud Connecticut. The Avell-planned 
expedition against Canada in sixteen hundred and ninety, under the 
leadership of Sir William Phips, a native of Maine, resulted disas- 
trously. Many of the soldiers never lived to return to tlieir homes, 
and many of those who did return, on account of the hardships and 
suffering they endured, were merely wrecks of their former selves. 


In the early times, the Colony of the Massachusetts Bay had 
little money with which to reward her soldiers and provide for the 
families of those who died in the service, but of land the colony had 
an abundance and was very liberal in bestowing it. To compensate 
the soldiers in King Philip's war, also called the Narragansett war, 
•seven townships were survej'ed and granted, of which two were in 
the district of Maine. The present town of Buxton was laid out as 
Nai'ragansett number one, and the town of Gorham as Narragan- 
sett number seven. The other Narragansett townships were in 
New Hampshire and Massachusetts. Another and larger class of 
townships was granted on petition, to the descendants of those who 
accompanied Sir William Phips in the Canada expedition in six- 
teen hundi'ed and ninety, and these were called Canada townships. 
Eight of these latter townships were laid out in New Hampshire 
from territory' then claimed by Massachusetts ; live of these were 
held by the grantees under an arrangement subsequently made with 
the Masonian proprietors, and the proprietors or grantees of the 
other three, after many years had elapsed, took grants of eastern 
lands in lieu of those they could not retain. These three grants are 
now the towns of Bridgton, Waterford and Turner. Five original 
Canada townships were also laid out in Maine, making eight in all 
of this class of townships within the limits of our State. The 
Canada townships granted from New Hampshire lands by the gov- 
ernment of INIassachusetts, were granted between seventeen hundred 
and thirty and seventeen hundred and forty, while those laid out 
originally in Maine, were granted some thirty or forty years later. 
Besides the name "Canada," some of these townships were given 
the names of the towns from which the soldiers served, while others 
took the names of the captains under which they served, while still 
others had no special designation. Turner was called Sylvester 
Canada, in honor of Captain Sylvester, while Jay, which once in- 
cluded the present town of Canton, was called Pl-ips Canada, in 
honor of Captain David Phips. Livermore was granted for services 
at Port Koyal, and Port Royal was the plantation name of the place. 
Paris was granted in lieu of a township granted from New Hamp- 
shire lands, but for what military service, if any, cannot be ascer- 
tained. The colony of the Massachusetts Ba}" granted about forty 
townships from lands which proved to be in New Hampshire, while 
the contest for the settlement of the boundaries of those states was 
going on. The object of hurrying up these grants was probablj' 


two-fold. The first was to get actual possession of the territory iu 
dispute which is always regarded as equivalent to several points iu 
law, and the second to plant colonies and people them as a barrier 
against invasion by the Indians from Canada. When King George 
II, to whom the matter had been referred, decided in favor of the 
Masonian proprietors, these townships were granted to other 
grantees which caused litigation and trouble which continued for 
half a century. Concord in New Hampshire was twice granted, and 
to compensate the first set of grantees, Massachusetts gave them a 
tract of eastern lands, now the town of Rumford. 

It is probable that the generous spirit manifested by Massachu- 
setts in granting eastern lands was not entirely unmixed with self- 
interest. In addition to a desire to reward those who had fought 
her battles and driven the savages out of her jurisdiction, there was 
a desire to develop her vast resources by extending the borders of 
civilization into the wilds of the District of Maine, so that not only 
bodies of men, but private individuals, provided there was the least 
foundation for a claim, were successful. Samuel Jordan of Bidde- 
ford and Christopher Baker, who had been carried away captive to 
Canada and had returned ; Richard Cutt of Kittery, who for ten 
years had been confined to his bed from wounds ; Ruth Lee, who 
had lost her husband in the Port Royal fight ; the children of Major 
Converse who had lost their father in the Indian wars ; and Richard 
Tozier of Berwick who had suffered grievously from the savages ; 
all of these and many others obtained grants of land, varying in 
area from one to two hundred acres or more, which they were em- 
powered to select from any of the unappropriated lands in Maine. 
Any person severely wounded, bereaved of husband or father, made 
cripple or captive, was upon request properly presented, sure of 
receiving the legislative bounty in wild lands. There was a stand- 
ing committee on lands, through which all grants were made, whose 
favorable report at this time and subsequently, was considered a 
good and sufficient reason for favorable action on the part of the 
legislature, and such reports were passed upon without question or 
delay. When a township was granted there were always certain 
conditions attached, and these conditions disclose in plain terms the 
real animus of the grants. The grantees were obligated to secure a 
certain number of actual settlers upon the grant within a given 
time ; to guarantee that a house of public worship should be erected 
and a regular ordained minister be settled. Reservations were al- 



ways made for the benefit of Harvard College, for the first settled 
minister and in aid of public schools. With this brief outline sketch 
of soldiers' land grants, we are prepared to enter understandingly 
upon the subject of the grant to the heirs of Sudbury, Massachusetts 
men, who were with Governor Phips in the Canada expedition of 
sixteen hundred and ninety. 


V^A^?/»!» Sudbury Canada Grant. 

^ !^^^ early as seventeen lumdred and thirty-seven, the descend- 
ants of those who went from Sudbury, Massachusetts and 
adjacent towns, on the Canada expedition in sixteen hun- 
dred and ninety, petitioned the Massachusetts legislature for a 
township of land, but for some reason not now apparent, the prayer 
of the petition was not granted. Soon after this the boundary be- 
tween Massachusetts and New Hampshii-e was settled against the 
interests and claims of the former, leaving that State with no lands 
to grant, except those in the District of Maine, where, on account 
of the hostile attitude of the Indians, except along the coast, new 
settlements could not, with any degree of safety, be established. 
So the Sudbury claimants allowed the subject to rest, except an 
occasional reminder, until the conquest of Canada had been accom- 
plished, when many of those who first petitioned had deceased. 
Some of them however, survived, and among them, Josiah Richard- 
son, whose affidavit with that of Ebenezer Bartlett and Norman 
Clark of Newton, and Nathaniel Eames, is in the Massachusetts 
archives, and reads as follows : 

"I Josiah Eichardson, of lawful age, do testify and say that ever since 
the year 1737 I have acted as au ageul for a number of Petitioners whose 
Ancestors were in the Expedition to Canada in the year 1690, and in the 
year 1737 I iu behalf of myself and my associates preferi*ed a Petition to 
the Honorable Great and General Court praying for a grant of land to be 
made to us on account of our said Ancestors being in the said Expedition, 
(as many others had) for their great suffering and Service iu the said 
Expedition, and that by a great number of 3Iemorials I have reuewed the 
said Petition from time to time and now I do testify and declare that to my 
certain knowledge there never as yet has been any grant of land made to 
them on account of their Ancestors being in the said expedition. 

Witness my hand this 23d day of May, 1768. 



Middlesex ss. May ye 23d, 17(58. 

The above said Josiah Richardson personally appeared before me. the 
subscriber, one of his Majesty's Justices of the Peace for the County 
of Middlesex, and after l)eing carefully examined and duly cautioned to 
testify to the truth, made oath to the truth of the alcove declaration above- 
said by him subscribed l)efore me, JOSEPH BUCKMIXSTER." 

"We the subscribers whose names are hereto written, do testify and say 
that neither we nor our Ancestors ever had any Grant of land made to us 
on account of our Ancestors being in the Expedition to Canada in the year 

Witness our hands this ■23d of May, 1768. 


on the riglit of Natlianiel Eamos, And on the right 
of John Jaquitli." 
Ebenezer Bautlett, 
Norman Clark. 


'J'o his Excellency Francis Bernard, Esq., Captain General and Com- 
mander in Chief in and over His Majesty Province of the Massachusetts 
Bay iu New England, and Vice Admiral of the same, and to the Honorable, 
His Majesty's Council, and to the Honorable the House of Representatives 
in the Great and General Court assembled at Boston on the 27th day of 
May Anno. Domini. 1767. 

Josiah Richardson of Sudbury, in the County of Middlesex, Esq. and 
Agent for a number of I'etitioners whose Ancestors a\ ere in the Exjicdi- 
tion to Canada in the year 16!)0. 

Humbly remind your Excellency and Honors, that in the year 1737. a 
number of men whose names are hereunto annexed. Preferred a Petition to 
this Honorable Court for to have a Grant of Land for a Township, to J)e 
Laved out in the unapproi^riated land within the said Province, as many 
others for the same merit before had township Granted to them: and this 
Honorable did then sustain the Petition and then ordered the said Peti- 
tioners to make out and prove their Claims that their Ancestors were in 
the said Expedition and come and they should be heard with which order 
of Court the said Petitioners fully complied, and at a great cost proved 
their Claims. Since which l)y a number of Memorials to this Honorable 
Court the said Petition has been revived, but the said Petitioners have not 
as yet had any Grant of Land made to them on that account and by reason 
of the Wars and of the Townhouse being l)urned the same Petition has not 
of late been moved to this Honorable Court, but since this Honorable 
Coui't in their great wisdom and justice was pleased on the 24th day of 
June, 1764, to make a Grant of a Township of laud to Captain William 
Bavmond and Company for the same merit which your ^Femorial is now 


plead; and now your Memorialist, in behalf of himself and Company 
Humbly pray that your Excellency and Honors would take the premises 
under your wise and just consideration and make us a Grant of Land for a 
Township as j'ou was pleased to do to the said William Raymond and 
Company, and your 3Iemorialist, in behalf of himself and Company shall 
ever pray. 


Agent for said Petitioners. 

A list of the names of the original petitioners is also on record in 
the handwriting of Josiah Richardson, in the Massachusetts archives, 
but the original petition bearing their names cannot be found. This 
list of names is here given : 

James Taylor on his own right. 

John Osland on his own right. 

John Mixer on his own right. 

John Jones on his own right. 

John Green on the right of William Green. 

John Green on the right of John Green. 

Ephraim Twitcbell on the right of Joseph Twitchell. 

Isaac Sheffield on the right of William Sheffield. 

Palmer Golding on the right of Edward Clap. 

James Moor on the right of George Walker, Jr. 

Ebenezer Flagg on the right of Richard Flagg. 

Daniel Moor on the right of Jacob Moor. 

Joshua Kibby (Kilby?) on the right of Lodwick Dowse. 

James Taylor on the right of Nicholas Fox. 

Nathaniel Morse on the right of same. 

Charles Richardson on the right of Samuel Ring. 

Thomas Macke on the right of Timothy S. (illegible). 

Richard Ward on the right of Obadiah Ward. 

Daniel Brewer on the right of same. 

Samuel Green on the right of Joseph Green. 

Samuel Stone on the right of same. 

Joseph Stone on the right of Samuel Parkhurst. 

Mich Stone on the right of Daniel Stone. 

John Wesson on the right of Samuel Wesson. 

Ebenezer Twitchell on the right of Edward Twitchell. 

Richard Burt on the right of Thomas Burt. 

Daniel Mackdafillin on the right of Robert Mackdafillin. 

Joseph Meriam on the right of Robert Meriam. 


Peter Grout on the right of John Cotter. 
Samuel Graves on his own right. 
Joseph Trumbull on the right of Joseph Trumbull. 
Ebenezer Rice on the right of Ebenezer Rice. 
John Cogin on the right of John Cogin. 
Caleb Bridges on the right of John Bridges. 
Abner (illegible) on the right of John Fay claimed bj^ Palmer 

John Fay on his own right claimed by Palmer Golding. 

Samuel Lyscom on the right of his father. 

Nathaniel Dike on his own right claimed b}' Palmer Golding. 

Daniel Walker on his own right. 

John "Woodward on the right of Joseph Moor. 

Daniel AValker on the right of Thoitas Axdill. 

Ebenezer Corey on the right of Thomas Corey. 

James Patterson on the right of Andrew Patterson. 

Amos Hide on the right of Daniel Hide. 

Norman Clark on the right of Daniel Macke3^ 

Ebenezer Corey on the right of Samuel Page. 

Peter Bent on the right of Hopestill Bent. 

Edward Ward on his own right. 

James Patterson on the right of Andrew Patterson. 

Noah Parker on the riglit of Eleazer Hide. 

Joseph Bartlett on his own right. 

John Clark on the right of Jolin CMark. 

Samuel Parris. 

Jonathan Parker on his own right. 

Ezra Holbrook on the right of John Holbrook. 

A true cop J' examined by me, 


Clerk of the Petitioners. 

Additional Petitioners. 

Nathaniel P>ames on the right of Nathaniel Fames. 

Nathaniel Eames on the right of John Jaquith. 

Isaac Baldwin on the right of Abraham Biyant. 

Joseph Harrington on the right of his father, Joseph Harrington. 

David Woods on the right of his uncle Woods. 

Isaac Rice on the right of his uncle Joseph Rice. 


Moses Bellows on the right of his uncle. 
Samuel "Whitney on the right of Joseph Beach. 
James Fowle on the right of James Fowle. 
Jonas Bond on the right of Jonas Bond, 

Josiah Fuller on the right of Joseph Win (illegible). 

Thomas Harrington on the right of Daniel Harrington. 

Joshua Fuller on the right of Joseph Winter. 

John Temple on the right of his father Richard Temple. 

Joseph Noyes on the right of Moses Noyes. 

Nathaniel Sparhawk on the right of Nathaniel Sparhawk. 

David Coney on the right of Richard Coney. 

Samuel Fuller on the right of Richard Park. 

Joshua Fuller on the right of Nathaniel Morse. 

Joseph Morse on the right of Joseph Morse. 

In the month of June, seventeen hundred and sixty-eight, long 
delayed justice was done, and a township of land b}' the name of 
Sudbury Canada was granted, situated on both sides of the Amari- 
scoggin river, in the supposed county of Cumberland and District 
of Maine. The township was to be surveyed and run out six and 
three-quarters miles square, and was not to interfere with any 
previous grants. The first meeting of the proprietors of which 
there is any record, was holden on the fifth of December, seventeen 
hundred and sixty-nine. It may as well be stated here as else- 
where, that the proprietors' records, if they are in existence, have 
not been seen by any parties in interest in Maine for nearly a 
century. The plantation records as an entirety, and also the records 
of births, marriages and deaths for the first five years of the town, 
disappeared from mortal sight at the same time as the records of 
the proprietors. I remember of having heard it stated many years 
ago, that these proprietors and plantation records were destroyed 
purposely, by fire. The reason assigned was that there had been 
some irregularities in the proceedings, that some of the holdings of 
certain of the early proprietors were jeopardized and litigation 
threatened, which rendered it for their interest to have all record 
evidence put out of sight. This story is not given here as historj^ 
and the names of the persons implicated by it are withheld, for 
without positive proof, no person should stand accused of so flagrant 
an offence against the people of the town and their posterity. The 
loss of these records is keenly felt in the preparation of this work, 


for the doings of the proprietors and the assignment of rights is a 
matter of great interest. At the meeting of the proprietors ah-eady 
referred to, the following document which being a matter of record, 
is preserved for us, and this is all : 

"Whereas the proprietors of a Township of land granted by the 
General Court to Josiah Richardson and his Associates of the con- 
tents of six miles and three-quarters square and is now Layed out 
on Amariscoggin river, in the county of Cumberland, and at a 
meeting of the said proprietors of said Township on the Fifth of 
December A. D., 1769, they did order their committee to Post and 
Sell every of the said proprietors' rights that Had not Payed their 
tax of Fourty Shillings taxed on their Rights, and we Josiah Rich- 
ardson, Esq., and Cornelius Wood, gentlemen, both of Sudbury, 
and Josiah Stone of Framingham, gentleman, all of the county of 
Middlesex, the said Proprietors' committee by them chosen to sell 
the delinkquent Proprietors' Rights who had not paid said Tax ; 
and we having first observed the directions of the law in that case 
made and provided send greeting : Now know yQ that we the said 
Josiah Richardson, Esq., Cornelius Wood and Josiah Stone, gentle- 
men, all of the County of Middlesex and the Province of the Massa- 
chusetts Bay in New England, In our said Capacity, for the consid- 
eration of the sum of four pounds and one shilling to us in hand well 
and Truly Payed, before the ensealing and delivery hereof, by 
Joseph Twitchell of Sherbourn in said County of Middlesex, gentle- 
man, the receipt whereof we do hereby acknowledge and for that 
consideration Do sell and confirm to him the said Joseph Twitchell 
and to his heirs and assigns forever, two Whole Rights in the said 
Township the first lott of one Right is No. 9 on the South side of 
the River and was drawn on the Right of Joshua Kibby (or Kilbj^) ; 
the first Lott of the other Right is No. 13 or the fourth lott on the 
East end and was drawn on the Right of Nathaniel Morse." The 
deed closes in the usual form, is signed by each member of the 
committee, March twenty-first, seventeen hundred and seventy, 
witnessed by Peter Beth and Cyprian How and acknowledged 
March twenty-sixth,, before John Noyes, Justice of the Peace. 
Similar meetings were held in the years following, chiefly for the 
purpose of selling the rights of those who neglected to paj^ their 
taxes. None of the original grantees ever settled in the new town- 
ship. Some of them sold their rights for a small consideration ; 
many allowed their lands to be sold for taxes, and a few sent their 


sons to occupy their Eights. Joseph Twitchell of Sherbourn was 
a man of affairs. He was chosen President of the Proprietors and 
toolv great interest in the plantation. He became a very large 
proprietor by bidding off lands sold for taxes and by purchasing 
Rights of others, so that he had a nearly controlling interest in the 
soil. Four of his sons became residents of Sudbury Canada, and 
spent the remainder of their days here. Joseph Twitchell was born 
in Sherbourn, Massachusetts, February thirteen, seventeen hundred 
and eighteen. His emigrant ancestor, Joseph Twitchell or Tuchill, 
settled at Dorchester and there took the freeman's oath May four- 
teen, sixteen hundred and thirty-four. He had a son Joseph who 
united with others to extinguish the Indian titles in Sherbourn, and 
who had a son Joseph born in sixteen hundred and eighty-eight who- 
married Elizabeth Holbrook and was the father of Joseph Twitchell^ 
the large proprietor of Sudbury Canada. He was the fourth in 
descent from the immigrant Joseph through an unbroken line of 
Josephs. His children and posterity will be given in another place. 
Rev. Abner Morse, the historian of Sherbourn, thus embalms his 
memory: "Tradition has brought down a high character for this 
man (Captain Joseph Twitchell) and the record confirms it. He 
was Captain of the Militia, Commissary for the Army in the war 
of seventeen hundred and seventy-six, Town Clerk, Repi'esentative 
and Magistrate, and the leading man of the town until succeeded 
by his half brother, Hon. Daniel Whitney." His home in Sher- 
bourn was on the east side of a place still known as "Dirty 
Meadow," on the south side of a steep, rocky hill. Among the 
trusts imposed upon him, was the guardianship of the Natick 
Indians, in settling their estates. Long after these estates were 
settled and he had deceased, the Indians were in the habit of coming 
to the old homestead then occupied by his sou Peter, to see if there 
was not still something due them. 

Joseph Twitchell had been on a business trip to Halifax, and 
while returning, the vessel in which he sailed encountered a violent 
storm, lost her rudder and become unmanageable. The captain 
was in utter despair and considered his ship as good as lost. 
Captain Twitchell examined the nature of the accident, and at once 
suggested a remedy ; a man was suspended head foremost over the 
stern of the ship, being held by his ankles, and in that position^ 
cut a hole through the ship by means of an axe, into the cabin, and 
through this he fasteud a temporary tiller by means of which the 


vessel arrived safely in Boston harbor. At a meeting of the pro- 
prietors holden April sixth, seventeen hundred and seventy-four, it 
was voted to sell to Captain Joseph Twitchell, lot number twenty- 
four in the third range, and lot number twenty-three in the fourth. 
This was known as the Mill Lot and embraced not only the mill 
privileges at the south and west of Bethel Hill, but nearly all the 
land upon which the village stands. The sum paid was fifteen 
pounds in silver. This propertj^ passed to his son Eleazer Twitchell, 
who erected here that same year the first mill built in the town. 
Captain Joseph Twitchell died at Sherbourn of apoplexy,' March 
twelve, seventeen hundred and ninetj^-two. The Rights of nine of 
the proprietors, namely, Nathaniel Dike, Richard Ward, Edward 
Clap, James Paterson, John Fa}^, Joseph Meriam, Abner Newton, 
Joseph Trumbull and Daniel "Walker, were drawn by Elijah Liver- 
more of Waltham, and in seventeen hundred and seventy-four, sold 
by him to Aaron Richardson and Jonathan Clark of Newton, for 
the sum of one hundred and eighty pounds, lawful money. Joseph 
Twitchell, Esq., and Isaac Fuller were appointed a committee to 
run out the township and divide it into lots. The surve3'ors, who- 
ever they were, who performed the work, paid but little regard to 
the prescribed limits of six and three-quarter miles square. They 
extended their survey along the river in order to include all the good 
interval possible, for a distance of more than fifteen miles. The 
intervals were at that time covered by a heavy growth of white pine 
which was another inducement for the surveyors to overstep their 
prescril)ed limits. The interval lands were first surveyed into long, 
narrow lots containing forty acres each. The upland was divided 
into lots of one hundred acres each. The following quitclaim deed 
possesses interest as probabl}' being the earliest conveyance by deed 
of Sudbury Canada lands : 

"Know all men by these presents, that I Ebenezer Twitchell of 
Sherbourn in the county of middlesex and province of massachu- 
setts Bay In New England, Husbandman, In consideration of six 
shillings Lawfull money paid me by Joseph Twitchell of Sherbourn 
aforesaid, gentleman. Have Remissed, Released and forever quit- 
claimed and by these presents for myself my Heirs do Remiss, 
Release and for Ever quitclaim unto the said Joseph Twitchell and 
His Heirs forever, all my Ritte and title to a Township of Land 
granted to Josiah Richardson and others, June, 1668, whose ancis- 
tors ware for the Expedition to Canada in 1690, together with all 


the Rite title and Interest use and property Clame and demand 
whatsoever." The deed is signed by Ebenezer Twitchell, Septem- 
ber seventh, seventeen hundred and sixty-eight, within three months 
from the date of the grant. It was witnessed by Ebenezer Twitchell 
and Abijah Twitchell, and acknowledged two years later, before 
Joseph Perry, Justice of the Peace. As originally surveyed, the 
base line of Bethel ran east twenty degrees north, but there is now 
a variation of about two degrees. 

The following paper copied from the archives of Massachusetts, 
Indicates a desire on the part of the settlers of Sunday River Planta- 
tion, now the town of Newry, to unite with Sudbur}' Canada, and 
is valuable as showing who were the settlers in Xewr}' at the date 
specified : 


To the Honorable Senate and House of liepresentatives in General Covrt 
assembled at Boston, Jlay 30th, 1787. 

The Petition of Jonathan Barker and others, Humbly Sheweth, that 
whereas there is certain tract of unappropriated lauds lying between the 
mountains uorthei'ly of a township granted to Josiah Eichardson and 
others, lying on Audrewscoggiu river and joining to a Grant laid out join- 
ing to said township. Said unappropriated laud contains eiglit hundred 
acres and lyeth on a small river that comes ofl' the mountains and is sur- 
rounded with mountains on every side except that end that joins to the 
Grant aforesaid, so that it cannot be convenient to be joined to auj^ Town- 
ship except it be that, that was laid out on Audrewscoggiu river as afore- 
said, and as your Petitioners are inhabitants of said tract of laud and have 
done much labor thereon for seven years last past they conceives it would 
be reasonable that they should have a Grant of the same. Your Petitioners 
therefore praj's that your Honors ■\\'ould grant the said tract of unappro- 
priated lauds to them, so that they may have a lawful claim to the same," 
either by way of purchase or some other way, as you in your great wisdom 
.shall see fit and as in duty bound prays your Petitioners. 

JoxATHAX Barker, Joxathax Barker, Jr. 

Benjamin Barker, Benja-Min Sleeper, 

Sajiuel Barker, Joseph Jackson, 

Xathaniel Spofford, Jesse Barker, 
Abner Foster, Simon Epes Barker." ■ 


Natural Features. 

HE town of Bethel is situated in north latitude forty-four 
degrees and twenty minutes, and in longitude west from 
Greenwich, seventy degrees and fifty minutes. The lines 
as described above, cross each other not far from the center of the 
town. It is situated on both sides of the great Androscoggin river, 
and is irregular in its shape. Its greatest length by a line drawn 
from the point where the Grand Trunk railway passes into Gilead, 
to a point bounded east by Rumford and north by the Androscoggin 
river, is about ten and one-half miles, and its greatest width by a 
line drawn from Newry line, near the mouth of Bear river, to 
Greenwood line near Locke's Mills, is about six and a half miles. 
Its average width is about five and a half miles, and its average 
length about nine and one-half miles. The area of the town is 
about fifty-two and one-fourth square miles or thirty-two and one- 
fourth thousand acres.* The town is bounded on the east, one mile 
and two hundred and eighty rods by Milton Plantation, and two 
miles and two hundred and sixty rods by Rumford ; on the north, 
five miles and two hundred rods by the Androscoggin river, which 
forms the dividing line between Bethel and Hanover, and six and 
one-half miles on Newry ; on the west, two miles and two hundred 

*There are three plans of Sudbury Canada in the Massachusetts archives. The first 
was made by Captain Joseph Twitchell in seventeen hundred and sixty-nine, the year 
after the township was granted. This is a rude plan, showing only the outline of the 
town, its boundaries and the course of the river. No dimensions are given. The next 
was made by Colonel Eli Twitchell in seventeen hundred and ninety-five. This is also 
an outline plan, but it gives the dimensions as fourteen hundred and sixty-two rods on 
the west, thirty-two hundred and fifty rods on the south, nineteen hundred and ninety 
rods on the east and tliirty-flve hundred and five rods on the uoith. A road is described 
following the general course of the river on the south side, from Gilead to Rumford. A 
road is also mu-ked leading from the mills up Mill brook, and is marked "road to Port- 
land eighty miles." Fourteen Islands are marked in the river. Upon the earliest i)lan, 
a brook flowing northwardly along Gilead line and into the river is called Brackett's 
brook." The thii-d plan was made and returned when the town was incori>orated, and 
does not difl'er materially from the second. No lot plan is on file. 


and sixty rods by the east line of Gilead, one and one-fonrth miles 
by Fryeburg Academy grant, and one mile and two hundred and 
forty rods by Mason ; on the south, three miles and two hundred 
rods by Albany, the same distance by Greenwood, and two miles 
and two hundred and twenty rods by Woodstock. 

The principal river is the great Androscoggin, which enters the 
town from Gilead near the middle of the southerly line of that 
town, and for two miles and a half, pursues nearl}' a due easterly 
course. It then runs obliquely across in a southeasterly direction 
about two and one-half miles to a point nearly opposite Bethel Hill, 
where, describing an angle of about seventy-five degrees, it pursues 
a north northeasterly course with some slight variations, five miles 
to the mouth of Bear river near Newry corner, where it approaches 
very near to the south line of Newry. At the mouth of Bear river, 
the Andi'oscoggin, describing nearly a right angle, turns toward the 
southeast and runs nearly four and one-third miles, forming the 
dividing line between Bethel and Hanover. From this point it 
changes its course and runs a little north of east, still forming the- 
dividing line between the two towns, the distance of about a mile 
and a half, when it enters the town of Rumford. In its meander- 
ings, therefore, the great Androscoggin river, within the limits of 
Bethel, has a length of not far from seventeen miles. There are 
no falls on this river within the town, and no very marked rapids, 
the aggregate fall between Gilead and Rumford being but a very 
few feet. Sunday river enters Bethel from NeAvry some two miles 
westwardly from the mouth of Bear river, and flowing in a course a 
little east of south, empties its waters into the Androscoggin about 
one and one-fourth mile from the point where it enters the town. 
Bear river, taking its rise in Grafton, flows southwardly through 
Newry and empties into the great Androscoggin at a point near 
Newry Corner, where the latter river almost impinges Newr\' south 
line. Alder river, having its source in a number of ponds, situated 
part in Woodstock and part in Greenwood, enters Bethel from 
Greenwood near Locke's Mills, runs northwesterly through South 
Bethel, where it furnishes power, and having received several small 
tributaries, flows into the great Androscoggin through the interval, 
a short distance northwardly from Bethel Hill. A stream also called 
Mill brook or stream, rising in the southwesterly part of the town 
and flowing northwardly, after receiving several small tributaries, 
runs along at the foot of Bethel Hill and flows into the great river 


half a mile below. This stream furnished the power for the first 
grist mill erected in town, and has supplied power for more or less 
machinery ever since. Beside these already named, the waters of 
the Androscoggin as they meander through the town, are re-enforced 
by numerous brooks, some bearing names such as Bog brook. 
Chapman brook. Alder brook, and others having no generally recog- 
nized names. The watershed of the Androscoggin, consisting 
largely of steep and barren mountains, including the easterly slopes 
of some of the White Hills, is such as to cause the volume of water 
in the river to increase very rapidly during severe rainstorms and 
spring freshets, the rise often amounting to one foot per hour for 
several successive hours, the banks soon becoming overflowed and 
the broad intervals presenting the appearance of a raging flood. 
The intervals of Bethel on both sides of the Androscoggin, extend- 
ing through the town from west to east, in extent and fertility are 
not surpassed by those of any town in the State. They are about 
fifteen miles in length and of varying width from a few rods to a 
mile or more. They are formed largely of the alluvium which has 
been washed down from the mountains, and as they are covered 
with water during the early springtime of almost every year, their 
richness is yearly renewed. There are also belts of interval on the 
Sunday river, on Alder brook, and bordering some of the other 
smaller streams. Back from the river, the country is broken into 
hills, the sunny slopes of which furnish sites for numerous upland 
farms, while the higher and rougher portions supply excellent graz- 
ing lands. There are several swells of land wiiich bear local names 
and which embrace some of the very best farming lands in town, 
the rich intervals alone excepted. In the west part of the town 
Grover Hill, named for the early settlers there, has always been 
noted for its fine agriculture and also for its fruit culture. Swan's- 
Hill, situated a little eastwardly of the center of the town and 
named from James Swan, Jr., an early settler, is also a famous 
farming and fruit-growing region. Bird Hill (earlier Berry Hill),. 
Kimball Hill and Howard Hill, situated farther toward the easterly 
part of the town, have good farms and much good pasturage. 
Paradise Hill, situated near Bethel Hill, is noted for the beautiful 
vistas afforded from that elevation rather than for its agriculture. 

There are several mountains in Bethel belonging to the Appala- 
chian range, but in height and grandeur not equal to those at the 
north and west of the town. In the west part of the to-wn near 


the northern border is Ellingwood's mountain, sometimes called 
Anasagunticook, and a little west of Grover Hill, is Sparrowhawk. 
"Waterspout mountain is south of Swan's Hill and near the center 
of the town. Northwardly from South Bethel, once called Walker's 
Mills, is Walker's mountain, so called from the former owner of 
the mills. On the road leading from Locke's Mills to the Andro- 
scoggin river, at what was once known as Bean's Corner, are several 
bald bluffs. The first on the westerly side of the road is known as 
the Goss mountain. Its easterly aspect rises almost perpendicular 
from a small pond to a height of several hundred feet. On the 
opposite and easterly' side is Bryant's mountain, neither as high nor 
as bald as the one last named. North of Goss mountain and sepa- 
rated from it by a hilly pasture known as "Egypt," is a sugar loaf 
mountain bearing but little vegetation, and a short distance farther 
along is another which closely resembles it. I have never heard 
any names borne by these two sugar loaves, and I take the liberty 
of christening the one next to Egj'pt, Foster mountain, in memory 
of Deacon Eli Foster, who was once the owner of the pasture called 
"Flg^'pt," and the other Hodsdon's mountain, from an early settler 
who lived near it. In the eastern part of the town is a group of 
five mountains, none of them \Qvy high or bald. The one east of 
where the Kimball's once lived may be known as Kimball mountain, 
and the southermost one of the group I have heard called John3''s 
mountain. There are two bluffs east of Swan's Hill, for which I 
have not found any names. Locke mountain has two heads, the 
southerly one sometimes called Bessee's mountain, and is situated 
west of Sunday river and near the north line of Bethel ; it is nineteen 
hundred and twelve feet high, and probably the highest in town. 
At the eastward of the road leading from Bethel Hill to Middle 
Interval, and soon after leaving the Mason farm, is Farewell's 
mountain, on the sides of which chrystalized quartz have been 
found in considerable abundance. Barker's mountain, which lies 
mostly in Newry, a small part of it ])eiug in Bethel, is twenty-five 
hundred and fifty-one feet high, and Mount Will, also in Newrj' 
near Bear river, its foot-hills being in Bethel, has a height of fifteen 
hundred and eighty-eight feet. 

The surface of Bethel is composed largely of what is denominated 
drift. Boulders on the uplands are everywhere found far out of place, 
and glacial action is seen in the diluvial markings across the naked 
ledges and in the wide distribution of rounded pebbles and cobble 


stones. The easterly oi' southeasterly aspect of the moimtains is 
generally steep, often nearly perpendicular and sometimes beetling", 
while the opposite sides are sloinng and generally covered with 
vegetation. This is another indication of diluvial currents and 
glacial activity. The uplands are generally composed of a gravelly 
loam, the surface soils intermixed with decayed vegetable matter. 
Such laud is excellent for corn, wheat, rye and potatoes. In some 
places there are sandy areas, though not of great extent, and occa- 
sionally strata of clay suitable for making into bricks. The bottom 
lands are exceedingly rich in fertilizing material, aud produce heavy 
crops of English hay, oats and vegetables. It rarely suffers from 
drouth and so a good crop is quite generally assured. As a whole, 
the town of Bethel presents a pleasing variety of meadow, interval 
aud upland ; of valley, hill and mouutaiu ; of charming rural vistas 
and grand mountain scenery ; such a variety as ought to please the 
most fastidious. A chalybeate spring on the north side of the river 
above Mayville, constantly discharges its healing waters, said to be 
valnable for many of the diseases to which human beings are liable, 
and in which many have great faith. It has been called the Anasa- 
guuticook spring. Speaking from a geological standpoint, Bethel 
is composed of the Azoic series of rocks, above which the other 
series are entirely wanting, until the tertiary clay, diluvium and 
alluvium are reached. As the name of the series of rocks implies, 
no fossil remains are found in them, and they are presumed to have 
been formed before life in any form existed upon this planet. The 
soil is rich in all the elements of fertility, lime only excepted. This 
can be supplied by commercial lime in a hydrated form, known as 
plaster of paris. No gems except the garnet have been found 
within the limits of Bethel, and none of the precious metals to 
excite the cupidity of its people. Even the minerals are of the 
more common kinds and not extensive in variety. When Dr. 
Charles T. Jackson made a geologcal survey of the State, while he 
visited Norway, Paris and Rumford, he did not come to Bethel, 
there being nothing to call him here. But while deficient in minerals 
and metals. Bethel has tljat which is far better, a fertile soil, one 
that is capable of supporting a much larger population than any 
other town in the county. 

The flora of Bethel while the same as in other towns of Oxford 
county, differs from that on the sea-coast in the same latitude. 



The natural growth of wood was white pine ou the intervals and 
upland swells, maple, yellow birch and beech ou the highlands, and 
spruce and hemlock on the mountains. This was not invariably so, 
for a black growth was often found on the uplands, and pines on 
the mountains. On the lowlands and in the swamps were found 
cedar, hacmetac, elm, white maple and fir. White pine was very 
abundant, and clear stuff was used for ordinar}^ building purposes. 
The earl}^ settlers cut it from their interval lands and sold it in the 
river at the rate of two dollars and fiftj' cents per thousand. Only 
the lower cuts would bring this price, and the remainder of the 
trees were either burned upon the laud or made into fence. There 
were scattering Norway and pitch pines in various parts of the 
town. The silver fir in the swamps grows to a large size, and since 
Ihe pine has disappeared, it is much used for shingles. 

Black spruce still grows upon the mountains, of large size and 
excellent for timber or lumber. White spruce is much less common, 
and has little value. White cedar was formerly ver}' abundant, but 
it has been mostly used up. It has supplied material for a large 
portion of the fences in town ; has been sawed into shingles, and in 
more recent years has been utilized for railway ties and telegraph 
poles. Basswood is not common, but an occasional tree is found 
mixed with other growth. Hacmatac was formerly very common 
on low lauds, but there is little left. The red maple shows itself 
conspicuously in the spring b}^ its bright crimson flowers. Its 
timber is highly prized for nice cabinet work. The red oak is the 
only species of this family- that grows wild in this vicinity. 

The white birch was formerly abundant here and furnished mate- 
rial for canoes. It now appears only as a second growth. Poplar 
also comes up as a second growth. It was formerly of little value, 
but is now largely used in the manufacture of paper stock. Horn- 
beam is found sparingly mixed with other growths. Brown and 
black ash w^as quite common once on low grounds but has mostly 
been removed. It was formerly considered of little value, but is 
now highlj' prized for inside finish. The alder grows everywhere 
in swamps. It is not a tree, but a shrub. Cherry trees, black, red 
and choke, are abundant. The mountain ash grows wild in the 
forest and is transplanted as an ornamental tree. The willow some- 
times grows ver}' large. Much of the land in town was burned over 


in seventeen hundred and seventeen, and again in eighteen hundred 
and twenty-five, and a large part of the old growth destroyed. 

The flowering plants in this town exhibit the same varieties as 
in other inland localities in this latitude. The "Wake Robin," two 
varieties, appear early by the woodland streams ; the trailing arbutus 
and the violets quickly follow the disappearance of the snow ; then 
follows, in order, the long train of flowering plants, embellishing 
meadow and pasture, hillside and valley, bordering the waysides 
with crimson and gold, and beautifying even the dark and sombre 
woods. The advent of the golden rod admonishes us that mid- 
summer has come, and asters in great variety close the season, and 
are the harbingers of winter. 

The fauna of this region, once of considerable importauce, is of 
little interest now. A large proportion of the wild animals that 
once roamed the forests in the valle}^ of the Androscoggin', have 
been driven awa3\ Among the valual)le fur bearing animals w] ich 
rendered this region especially valuable as a hunting ground for the 
aborigines, the beaver, the otter and the sable are found here no 
longer. The black bear when driven by hunger from the northern 
forest belt where he now for the most part has his home, sometimes 
at this late day, raids the flock of the farmer or satiates his appetite 
upon the succulent corn, but his ravages are of brief duration, for 
if he does not soon retreat he is sure to be destroyed. The stately 
moose that once roamed through the pine forests and cropped the 
tender herbage from the banks of the Androscoggin and its 
tributaries ; that supplied the larder of the early settlers with 
excellent food, and furnished protection to their feet, is seen no 
more, and the timid deer which the settlers found here in herds 
is now only an occasional visitor. The snarling loupcervier and the 
gaunt wolf have sought wilder haunts than the forests of Bethel 
afford, and the awful cry of the panther no more disturbs the repose 
of the household. The most important of the wild animals that 
now remain, the catlike mink, the amphibious musk-rat, the lively 
red and graj' squirrel, the beautiful chipmunk, the fetid skunk, the 
hibernating woodchuck and the prickly porcupine, are insignificant 
when compared with the lordly brutes that once inhabited here. 
The food fishes have also deteriorated. Salmon once ascended the 
Androscoggin, and the smaller streams and ponds abounded with 


the speckled trout. By clearing the laud aloug the streams and 
cutting the timber from their sources, the quantity of water has 
been much diminished and the temperature raised, so that the trout 
which delights in a cool, deep pool, has become very scarce, and 
the ponds have been stocked with iish of inferior quality as food, 
but with qualities far superior for propagating and perpetuating 
their own species. 


First Settlers. 

is difflcult to determine who was the very first person to 
settle here on account of the loss of the proprietors' records 
and the records of Sudbury Canada Plantation. So far as 
I have been able to ascertain by a careful examination of 
the records in the Cumberland county registry of deeds, the first 
person to purchase Sudbury Canada lands with the view of person- 
ally settling upon them, was Jonathan Keyes of Shrewsbury, Massa- 
chusetts. November third, seventeen hundred and seventy-two, he 
bought of Luke Kuowltou of the same Shrewsbury, one whole right 
of land in Sudbury Canada. The deed states that Knowlton bought 
this right of Nathaniel Gra^', Jr., of Worcester, for the sum of ten 
pounds, and that it was the original right of Joseph Orlando, who 
served in the Canada Expedition of sixteen hundred and ninety. 
On the eighteenth daj' of March, seventeen hundred and seventy- 
four, Jonathan Keyes purchased of James Towle of Woburn, one 
whole right number seven, in Sudbury Canada lands. Just what 
3^ear Keyes came to Bethel is not known. Nathaniel Segar was 
here in seventeen hundred and seventy-four, but does not mention 
him. A deed recorded with the Cumberland records, recites that 
March fourteen, seventeen hundred and seventy-seven, Jonathan 
Keyes of Sudbury Canada, sold to Samuel Ingalls of Fryeburg, 
four hundred acres or four lots of land situated and being on the 
south side of the great Amariscoggiu river, in a place called Sud- 
bury Canada. The deed further recites that upon one of these lots 
Mr. Keyes had made considerable improvement ; had built a house, 
a barn for grain and another for English hay. This would indicate 
an occupancy of two or more years, but whether Mr. Keyes ever 
brought his wife here is exceedingly doubtful. Two of his sons, 
Ebenezer and Francis, were here with him, and on what appears to 


be good authority, the statement is made that on one occasion, Mr. 
Keyes went to Shrewsbury in late autumn intending soon to return, 
leaving his sons behind, but for some reason he did not return until 
spring. Ebenezer was fourteen years of age and Francis nine, and 
they remained in their father's camp in this remote wilderness during 
the long winter months with no other companionship than that of 
the Indians. When Jonathan Keyes sold his laud in Sudbury 
Canada, he moved to New Penacook, now Rumford, where he had 
previously purchased a tract of laud of Dr. Ebenezer Harnden 
Goss, then of Concord, N. H., afterwards of Brunswick and Paris, 
Maine. He was the son of Deacon Jonathan and Patience (Morse) 
Keyes of Shrew-sbury, and was born there January twent3^-one, 
seventeen hundred and twenty-eight. He married January twenty- 
three, seventeen hundred and fifty-two, Sarah, daughter of Ebenezer 
Taylor. He died in Rumford November seven, seventeen hundred 
and eighty-six, and his wife died November fourteen, seventeen 
hundred and ninety-nine. 

Doctor Nathaniel T. True and Doctor Moses Mason have stated 
that Elizabeth, wife of Samuel Ingalls, was the first white woman 
to spend the winter in Sudbury Canada and the first who came here. 
The time is fixed at seventeen hundred and seventy-six, and they 
are said to have come from Andover, Massachusetts ; to have moved 
from Bethel to Bridgton, then returned here, and that Mr. Ingalls 
died here. There seems to be a series of mistakes here. If they 
were living in Fryeburg as the deed from Keyes states, in seventeen 
hundred and seventy-seven, they probably came from Fryeburg to 
Bethel, but a year later than stated by Doctor True. They moved 
from here to Bridgton, but did not return, as stated, and died there. 
At the time of the Indian raid, August third, seventeen hundred 
and eighty-one, Nathaniel Segar in his published account says there 
were then ten families living in Sudbury Canada, five at the lower 
part of the township and five at the upper. Those in the west or 
upper part were Eleazer Twitchell, Benjamin Russell, Abraham 
Russell, Jonathan Clark and James Swan. Those in the lower 
parish, Samuel Ingalls, Jesse Duston, Jolui York, Amos Powers 
and Nathaniel Segar. 

Joseph Twitchell had caused to be built a grist and saw mill on 
the Mill brook at the foot of Bethel Hill in seventeen hundred and 
seventy-four. These, save perhaps a rude camp or two, were the 
first buildings erected in the township. In seventeen hundred aud 


seventy-nine, a house was built for the use of the miller, the first 
framed building erected for a dwelling. 

Eleazer Twitehell moved from Dublin, New Hampshire, in seven- 
teen hundred and seventy-nine, to look after his father's interests 
in Sudbury Canada. He was the third son of his father and was 
born in Sher bourn, January twenty-second, seventeen hundred and 
forty-four. He married Martha, daughter of Moses Mason of 
Dublin. He was very active in promoting the interests of the town, 
and with the means placed at his disposal by his father, he was in 
a position to be the leading man of the township. At the time of 
the Indian raid, he was living on the island where the grist mill 
stood, and still stands, and resided here until the great freshet of 
seventeen hundred and eighty-five, when the house was almost sub- 
merged, the water rising so rapidly that Mr. Twitehell was obliged 
to take his family off in a raft. He made the first clearing on the 
farm in Mayville, aftei'ward owned by Moses and Aaron Mason, 
and cut off the pine timber of which there was a heavy growth, and 
rafted it to the mills at Brunswick. He was largely interested in 
real estate and a part owner of the north half of what is now Green- 
wood. He died in June, eighteen hundred and nineteen. He 
thoroughly repaired the mill in seventeen hundred and eighty-eight, 
and the following year his father gave him a deed of the mill prop- 
erty with the land adjoining. He built a house on Bethel Hill, the 
first one bordering the common, the first clapboarded house in this 
part of the town. In seventeen hundred and ninety-seven, he built 
a large house which was called the castle, and which he opened as 
a tavern. He was conspicuous for his liberality and kindness of 
heart. A deed for which his memory will ever be cherished by the 
people of the town, was the gift of the beautiful common at Bethel 

Benjamin Russell is said to have come from Fryeburg in March, 
seventeen hundred and seventy-seven, but it was probably a year 
later, for Samuel Ingalls was at this time living in Fryeburg, and 
he and his wife were here one winter before any other settler's wife 
came. Mr. Russell was accompanied by his wife and his daughter, 
then fifteen years of age, who married afterwards Nathauiel Segar. 
He was also accompanied by General Amos Hastings, who came to 
see the place. They came on snow shoes, and the wife and daugh- 
ter were hauled on handsleds. At the time of the raid, Mr. Russell 
was living on the interval farm, on the south side of the river two 


or three miles below Bethel Hill. He was born in old Andover, 
where several generations of his ancestors had lived, January 
.(^^ J 7^ twenty-seventh, seventeen hundred and thirty-seven. His wife, 
'^ \^ ' Mary Favor, was born IMarch first, Seventeen hundred and thirty- 
" nine. He was among the early settlers of Fryeburg, a civil magis- 

trate and a leading man in town affairs. After he came to Bethel 
he assumed the same position, and for a long time, being the onlj' 
justice of the peace, he solemnized marriages and performed other 
duties pertaining to his office. He died in November, eighteen 
hundred and two, and his wife six years after. 

Abraham Russell, a brother of Benjamin Russell, came here later, 
but was here at the time of the Indian raid. He married Abigail, 
daughter of James Swan, and moved here from Fryeburg. He 
lived at first on the interval, not far from the bridge across Alder 
river below Bethel Hill. He subsequently moved farther down 
toward Middle Interval, to the place afterward occupied by John 
Russell. Later in life, he moved to Bethel Hill, to the place subse- 
quently occupied by his son-in-law, Daniel Grout. 

James Swan was the son of Joshua Swan of Methuen, and a 
descendent of Robert Swan of Boston and Rowley. He married 
Mary Smith, and moved from Fryeburg to Sudbury- Canada in 
seventeen hundred and sevent3'-niue. He settled on the Ayers 
Mason farm, a mile from Bethel Hill, toward Middle Interval. 
Mr. Swan formerh' followed the sea and was impressed into the 
English service, but he and tAvo others seized the ship and forced 
the captain to pilot her into Boston. This was before the war of 
the revolution, and fearing prosecution, he came to the wilds of 
Maine and v^as among the first to settle in Fyreburg. He was a 
friend of Sabattis, the famous Piquaket Indian, who long made his 
home with Mr. Swan. 

Jonathan Clark came to Bethel as early as seventeen hundred 
and sevent3'-four, but returned to his home in Newton and served 
a term of enlistment in the war for independence. He moved to 
Bethel in seventeen hundred and seventy-eight or nine, and at the 
time of the Indian raid was living on the Jedediah Burbank farm, 
a little west of the Bethel bridge and on the south side of the river. 
He was the son of William Clark, Jr., of Newton, and was born in 
that town March twenty-eight, seventeen hundred and fortj'-seven. 
He married Esther Parker, and died in Bethel, December thirtieth, 
seventeen liiindred and twentv-one. 




Benjamiu, sou of Norman Clark of Newton, was born there 
-April third, seventeen hundred and fifty-nine. He came to Bethel 
when a young man and at the time of the Indian raid was captured 
and carried to Canada. On his return, he married Betsey, daughter 
of Moses Mason, Esq., of Dublin, New Hampshire, and settled on 
the place above Bethel Hill, where his son Norman afterwards live^. 
He died January thirtieth, seventeen hundred and forty-six, at 

Jesse Duston or Dustin, a descendent of the famous Hannah, 
wife of Thomas Duston of Haverhill, Massachusetts, was born in 
Methuen, and was among the early settlers in Fryeburg. He was 
by occupation a house carpenter. He came to Sudbury (Canada in 
seventeen hundred and seventy-eight, and settled on the farm in 
the lower part of the town, now in Hanover, suljsequently occupied 
by Bela Williams. He married Elizabeth, daughter of James Swan, 
and to her was l)orn in seventeen hundred and eightj'-two, the first 
white child born in Sudbury Canada, and his name was called 
Peregrine. The proprietors gave Mrs. Duston a lot of land in con- 
sideration of the fact just stated. Being among the first, if not the 
first carpenter in the plantation, Mr. Duston was in a position to 
render valuable service to the settlers, and tradition gives him a 
good report. 

Nathaniel Segar, son of Josiah and Thankful (Allen) Segar, was 
born in Newton, Massachusetts, January twenty-eight, seventeen 
"hundred and fifty. He came to Sudbury Canada in the spring of 
seventeen hundred and seventy-four, remained through the summer 
and returned to Newton. He served for nearly two years in the 
patriot army, and returned to Sudbury Canada accompanied by 
Jonathan Bartlett and Aaron Barton. He cleared a farm in the 
lower part of the town, now Hanover, near Rumford line, and liere 
he was living unmarried at the time of the Indian raid, but happen- 
ing on that day to be at the upper settlement, he was taken prisoner 
and carried captive to Canada. After his return, he married Mary, 
daughter of Benjamin Russell, Esq. He dictated an account of his 
capture and captivity, which was printed in a small pamphlet. He 
lived to a very advanced age. 

Amos Powers was born in Princeton, Massachusetts, in February, 
seventeen hundred and thirty-two, the month and year of the birth 
of George Washington. He married Molly Parmenter, and in 
seventeen hundred and seventy-nine, bought of Aaron Richardson 


of Newton, interval lot number two on the south side of the great 
river in Sudbury Canada. He came here either in that or the follow- 
ing year. His farm was in the lower part of the town on the 
Rumford road, and the same afterwards occupied by his sou, Arnold 
Powers. He was about forty-eight years of age when he came 
here, and his six children were born in Princeton. Mr. Powers lived 
to an advanced age, and saw the wilderness' in which he came to 
make him a home, cleared away, succeeded by broad fields and an 
industrious and thriving population. 

Colonel John York of Standish, in seventeen hundred and seventy- 
nine, bought of Aaron Richai'dson of Newton, lot number thirteen, 
on the south side of Amariscoggin river in Sudbury Canada. This 
lot is situated on the river road below Middle Intervale and was 
subsequently occupied by Humphre}^ and Samuel Beau. Colonel 
York married Abigail, daughter of Jonathan Bean of Standish, 
afterwards of Bethel. He was a stirring, energetic man, and an 
excellent pioneer. Two of his brothers, Isaac and Job, came to 
Bethel a few years later. 

Samuel lugalls, who made up the fifth family in town at the time 
of the raid, bought his land of Jonathan Kej'es in the spring of 
seventeen hundred and seventy-seven, and was then said to be of 
Fryeburg. Buildings had been erected upon the land by Mr. Keyes, 
so that the place was all ready for occupancy. It is probable that 
Mr. Ingalls moved into the plantation this year, and wintered here 
in seventeen hundred and seventy-seven-eight. Mrs. Ingalls is 
said to have been the first white woman in the plantation. The 
land he purchased was below that purchased l)y Colonel John York, 
and on the same side of the river. At the time of the raid, York 
and Ingalls were quite near neighbors, and Amos Powers lived a 
mile or two below. 

John Grover, the second son of Dea. James (irover, was the first 
of the name to settle in this town. He came when single, but just 
what year cannot be stated with certainty. He was here at the 
time of the Indian raid and was the messenger sent to Fryeburg for 
assistance. He had bravely served in the war for independence, 
was stationed for a time at Dorchester Heights and was in the 
engagements at Trenton and at otlier places under Washington. 
He settled at West Bethel and owned extensive tracts of pine timber 
lands from which he cut the tunber and rafted it to Brunswick. 
Grover Hill perpetuates the name of this man and his family. 


He was a stalwart man in his make up and as brave as he was 
strong. He is said to have entered a den where there were five 
bears and to have killed one or more with a broad axe. His sou. 
Mason Grover, who was serving around Lake Champlain in the 
war of eighteen hundred and twelve, was taken sick. John Grover 
went to visit him and he recovered, but the father was taken sick 
and died on the way. 

Amos Hastings was born in the west parish of Haverhill, Mass. 
He was in the affair at Concord and Lexington, and also in the 
battle of Bunker Hill. He served several years and came out with 
the rank of captain. He married Elizabeth Wiley, a sister of the 
wife of John Grover, and came here from Fryeburg. He settled at 
first at Middle Interval aud for many years his house was the town 
house. Later he moved to a farm on the north side of the river. 
He was earl}^ identified with the militia of the town and held office 
through the various grades to that of Brigadier General. He was a 
man possessed of sound judgment which was often utilized by the 
town when difficult questions came up requiring careful investigation 
and adjustment. He may justly be regarded as one of the fathers 
of the town. 

Samuel Marshall is not mentioned by Segar as a resident of Sud- 
bury Canada at the time of the raid, but it is a fact that he was 
here and had but recently arrived. He had married Lucy, daughter 
of Moses Mason, Esq., of Dublin, New Hampshire, aud she had 
sisters already here. At the time of the raid they were living about 
three miles below Bethel Hill, on the road to Middle Interval, on 
the Sanborn farm, aud Mr. Marshall was temporarily absent. A 
neighbor gave Mrs. Marshall a very exaggerated account of the 
affair ; said there was a large body of Indians in the plantation ; 
that if the Marshall family would remain at home, they would not 
be molested, but if they attempted to escape, they would all be 
killed. From this point we will allow Mrs. Marshall to give her 
own account of the affair, as she gave it some years after, iu writing 
to her son, a document which is still preserved in the family. '"At 
this moment I exclaimed, what shall I do? 'Hide in the woods' 
said my informant. While I was hastening to the woods with 
my children, I saw my husband coming home. I beckoned to him 
to hasten and on his coming up, I hastily related what I had heard. 
He ran to the house and took such provisions as he could readily 
seize and throw into a sack, and then started with his little store and 


family into the woods. We traveled lightl}' and looked cautiously 
around, expecting every moment to see the faces of the Indians, but 
after a few hours, our fears considerably subsided, and we sat down 
to rest. I found myself very much fatigued, and without my ordi- 
nary dress, for during the morning I had slipped off my shoes, 
having nothing on except a thin skirt and a handkerchief over my 
shoulders. This caused my heart to ache, for we had resolved not 
to turn back, but to pursue our way which lay through the wilderness. 
After a short halt, we set out again, and traveled till dark. We 
did not dare to strike a light for fear of being discovered by the 
Indians. We sat there impatiently waiting the morning of the 
sixth, when we renewed our journey, but much slower than the day 
previously. During the afternoon, we were overtaken by a Mr. 
Dodge* who had been sent from Bethel to New Gloucestor for help. 
We requested him to inform the first inhabitants he met, of our 
situation, and give him the course as nearly as he could, and ask 
them to meet us. Mr. Dodge missed his course to Jackson's camp 
in No. 4, which he expected first to reach, and came out at Lieut. 
Bearce's in Hebron. He informed Bearce who immediately set out 
for Jackson's camp, and on his arrival he obtained two men who 
went with him as far as the river in the north part of the township, 
and there struck up a fire and prepared some food, while Mr. Bearce 
<!ontinued in search of us. He first found my son David, whom his 
father had carried a short distance ahead, and left on a log, telling 
him to be quietj while he went back after me. We arrived in a 
short time at the river, took some refreshment, and then proceeded 
to Jackson's camp where we arrived on the ninth of August. We 
remained at this camp three or four days, consequently I was the 
first white woman who took lodgings in what is now the town of 
Paris." Mr. Marshall and his wife continued their journej' to New 
Gloucester where they remained a few weeks, and then settled in 
the town of Hebron, where both lived to an advanced age and reared 
a large family. The family came to Sudbury' Canada from Dublin, 
New Hampshire, but was probably born in Massachusetts. 

Peter Austin from Fryeburg, had also built him a camp on the 
farm afterwards occupied by the Barkers, but he was unman ied. 
He was fortunately absent from his place at the time of the raid 
and thus escaped capture if nothing worse. He continued to live 

*No person of this name is known to have lived in Belliel, and it is iirol)able that he 
Avas only temporarily there. 


upon this farm until about the year seventeen hundred and ninety- 
six, when he sold out and moved to Canton, Maine, where he 
became a wealthy farmer and reared a large family. Persona 
familiar with the topography of the town, from the locations here 
described, will be able to form a very correct idea of the places 
w'here the few scattered inhabitants lived at this time. The vast 
wilderness was only dotted here and there by a few clearings, the 
first settlers had just come to Newry, Rumford and Paris, and only 
a few families had come to Waterford. Also, a settlement had 
just been commenced iu Shelburue, New Hampshire. In Sudbury 
Cauada there were only nine families, and three single men, namely, 
Benjamin Clark, Segar and Austin, when there occurred the episode 
which has been much talked about in town since that time, known 
as the Indian raid, an account of which forms the subject of the 
next chapter. 


Sudbury Canada Attacked by Indians. 

j^ FTP^R the fall of Quebec in seventeen hundred and fifty- 
nine, and the treaty which soon followed by the terms of 
which France relinquished all claims to Canada and the 
Maritime Provinces, the people of Maine were comparatively safe 
from Indian encroachments and depredations. There was no longer 
any necessity for garrison houses ; the farmer could go to his work 
unarmed ; the quiet of the Sabbath was no more broken by the shrill 
war whoop, and the mother as she placed her children in bed and 
retired herself, was measurably certain that their rest would not 
be disturbed and their lives placed in jeopardy by the blood-curdling 
cry and the cruel tomahawk of the ruthless savage. Those that 
remained within the State and sustained tribal relations, the Penob- 
scots and Passamaquoddies, were friendly and peaceable enough, 
while the strolling bands from Canada that visited the settlements, 
hunted and fished and then returned to their homes on the St. 
Francois, made no hostile demonstrations and excited no alarm by 
their presence. They frequently visited the Sudbury Canada settle- 


ments, coming either down the Androscoggin by the waj^ of Shelbnrn 
and Gilead, or cutting across from the Umbagog Lake by wa}' of 
Grafton and Newry. Several of them were here so much and 
remained so long, sometimes for months together, that they became 
well acquainted with the settlers, understood their customs and 
habits, and receiving nothing but kindly treatment, showed nothing 
but a kindly spirit in return. 

The attack of the Indians upon the western settlement in Sudbury 
Canada was as sudden and unexpected as lightning from a cloudless 
sky. It was during the war of the revolution, but the people in 
this plantation were so far removed from scenes of hostility' that 
they had taken no thought for their safety, considering it well 
assured. I have heard several accounts of this attack from the sons 
and daughters of those upon whom the attack was made, and while 
they differ in some minor points, the}' agree in all the essentials. 
But the only account written or dictated by one who suffered most 
from this raid, is the one dictated by Nathaniel Segar, written 
out it is said by Rev. Daniel Gould, and printed at Paris in eighteen 
hundred and twenty-seven. A copy of this now rare pamphlet is 
before me and from it I am to make an abstract of its contents. 
The first pages are devoted to a sketch of the early life of JNIr. 
Segar, his first and second visits to Sudbury Canada, and of his 
service in the army. It has already been said that Mr. Segar settled 
in the extreme eastern part of the township near Rumford line, and 
liad lie been at home when the raid occurred he would have escaped 
all ditliculty, for the lower settlement was not molested. But he 
was at the upper settlement either for business or pleasure, wiien 
the attack was made and so suffered in common with others. This 
abstract is only from that part of the pamphlet giving an account 
of the attack on the settlement and of the captivity of those who 
were taken to Canada, and is given in the third person, while Mr. 
Segar makes his relation in the first. 

On the third day of August, seventeen hundred and eight^'-one, 
there came into the upper settlement in Sudbury Canada, six Indians 
from Canada. One of them named Tomhegan was well known to 
iSegar, often having l)een at his house. Segar, Jonathan Clark and 
Eleazer Twitchell, were standing at a little distance from the woods, 
when five Indians, hideously painted and armed with guns, toma- 
hawks and scalping knives, rushed out upon them, informed them 
that they were prisoners and must go to Canada. Jonathan Clark's 


touse on the Burbank farm, was near hy, and there the Indians 
escorted their prisoners. After binding their captives, they told 
them to sit down and keep quiet or they would kill them. They 
then commenced plundering the house, and finding several gallons 
of rum in the cellar, they filled some bottles and took them away 
with them. The}' also found sixteen dollars in hard money, some 
clothing and many other things which they appropriated and carried 
away. Unseen b}' the Indians, Mrs. Clark hid her husband's watch 
in the ashes and thus saved it. They then attempted to take Mrs. 
dark's gold beads from her neck, but in so doing the string was 
broken, and the beads scattered over the floor. They did not stop 
to hunt them up, and after the}' had left, most of them were found. 
They also attempted to take the silver buckles from her shoes, but 
she berated them so that the}'^ did not take them. She resisted them 
so and talked to them in such a scolding manner, that the prisoners 
feared they would murder her, but her boldness and fearlessness 
doubtless operated in her favor. 

While these things were going on in the house of Jonathan Clark, 
an Indian came out of the woods with Benjamin Clark whom he had 
just taken. In the meantime. Captain Eleazer Twitchell, by watch- 
ing his opportunity had absconded and had so effeetuall}' secreted 
himself in the woods that they could not find him. He remained 
all night in tlie woods and in the morning returned to his home. 
Mrs. Clark, who had also escaped into the woods, and spent the 
niglit by the side of a log, ver}' near the hidi^^g place of Captain 
Twitchell, both being entirely unconscious that they had spent the 
night so near together until they bestirred themselves in the morn- 
ing. After the Indians had packed up their plunder and with their 
prisoners were about to leave the house, they told Mrs. Clark to 
remain at home and she would be safe, but if she went away she 
would be killed, sa3'ing there were hundreds of Indians in the woods. 
She did not believe them, and leaving the house as soon as they 
■were out of sight, she concealed herself in the forest and saw no 
more of the Indians. 

Having accomplished their purpose here, and having unbound the 
legs of their prisoners and loaded them with their plunder, they 
started on the long and tedious journey through the wilderness. 
The arms of the prisoners remained bound, and with heavy hearts 
as well as packs, the}' were driven onward before their cruel captors. 
They traveled about two miles and then encamped for the night, 


and a dismal night it was to tlie prisoners. In the morning at day- 
light, they resumed their march, and came to Peter Austin's camp 
where he had made a clearing, but at this time he was, fortunately 
for himself, absent. The Indians entered the hut and searched for 
plunder, but found little. They found two guns, one of which they 
broke and the other took awa}^ and a quantit}" of maple sugar. 
They spent the second night near this place. Before light, the 
Indians tried to find their packs, wishing to resume their journey, 
but could not find them until daybreak. One of them missed his 
tomahawk and accused Segar of taking it ; he would have given 
him a heavy and perhaps a fatal blow, had not another Indian pre- 
vented it. Wiien it became light enough to see, the Indian found 
his weapon where he had placed it himself. As soon as it was 
light, they started up the river and came to Peabody's Patent, now 
the town of Gilead. They went to a house owned and occupied by 
Mr. James Pettengill, who on their arrival was near the house, and 
walking toward it. On seeing the Indian;- at his house he stopped, 
but they had obsei'ved him and ordered him to approach. The}'^ 
then searched the house and finding some sugar and a tult of cream, 
they mixed it together and made a meal of it. Tlieytold Pettengill 
that he must go with them to Canada, to which he demurred and 
said he had no shoes. They then told him he might stay if he 
would remain in the house, and passed on. Mrs. Pettengill and 
her children were in the house, but received no abuse from them. 
After the Indians had passed the house a short distance, they sent 
two of their number back who soon returned accompanied by Mr. 
Pettengill. They soon after murdered him by shooting him within 
half a mile of his home and family, without any apparent provoca- 
tion. Several days after, Joseph G. Swan and several others from 
Bethel, visited the place and interred the remains. 

They then passed on to Shelburn, New Hampshire, and at a brook 
they found several children at play who Avere much terrified at the 
sight of the Indians. There was a house near by, and one of the 
Indians asked the children how many men there were in that house, 
to which they answered that there were ten, and that they had guns. 
This was a random answer and far from the fact, but the Indians 
were so terrified that they lightened themselves of their packs and 
placed them upon their captives in addition to those they already 
had, and immediately crossed to the other side of the Androscoggin 
by fording it. They crossed with great difficulty, especially the 


prisoners, heavily loaded as tliey were, but they reached the oppo- 
site side iu safety. They then resumed their march and came to a 
small house occupied by Mr. Hope Austin. The family was at 
home but Austin fortunately was absent. The Indians plundered 
the house, taking a little money and some other light articles and 
passed on. They told Mrs. Austin to remain in the house and she 
would not be hurt. After marching a short distance, the}^ halted 
in the woods andTomhegan, taking his gun, went away by himself. 
Soon the report of a gun was heard and Tomhegan returned accom- 
panied by a negro named Plato. They learned from Plato that 
Tomhegan had shot and killed a man named Peter Poor, who was 
on his way to his work after his mid-day meal. Having an addition 
to their party, the Indians informed Segar and the Clarks that one 
of them might return to the settlement in Sudbury Canada. It was 
decided that Lieutenant Jonathan Clark, who had a family, might 
return, but the Indians charged him to keep the road. Clark joy- 
fully turned back but did not obey the injunction to follow the road 
by which they had come, and had he done so he would doubtless 
have been shot, two of the Indians having tarried behind, doubtless 
for the very purpose. Clark crossed the river, then turned into the 
woods and in the course of two or three days, reached his home in 

They next came to a place where Captain Rindge had begun a 
clearing and was stopping with his family. On seeing the Indians 
approach in their war paint, the family was much alarmed, but 
Rindge tried to gain their favor by telling them he was on the side 
of the king. This did not prevent them from rolJbing his house, 
securing plunder of great value. The Indians went out and scalped 
Mr. Poor. Hope Austin was at the house, but seeing the Indians 
approach he tied to the woods and escaped injury. A boy by the 
name of Elijah lugalls was stopping at the house of Mr. Rindge, and 
the Indians proposed to take him along, but being prevailed upon 
by Rindge, they allowed him to remain. The settlements had now 
been passed, and the Indians struck off for Canada direct. After 
traveling two days, they stripped a piece of birch bark and untying 
Segar's hands, directed him to write upon it that if the party should 
be pursued by Americans, they (the Indians) would certainly kill 
their prisoners. After pursuing their journey for two or three days, 
and no longer fearing pursuit, the Indians stopped to rest and 
celebrate their successful raid. They had three scalps for which 



they w6re to receive eight dollars each, when they reached Canada. 
From this fact, it would seem that the attack on the settlements 
was authorized by English authorities in Canada, but I have vainlj' 
sought for auy record of it among the Canadian archives, AVhile 
stopping, the Indians took the scalps and holding them by the hair 
in their teeth, shook their heads, whooped, jumping and skipping 
from rock to rock, and conducting themselves in such an insane and 
awful manner as to frighten their captives almost out of their senses. 

Finally, the fifth day after the capture, the part}^ reached the 
shores of Umbagog Lake, where the savages had left their three 
canoes on their way down to the settlement. Embarking, they 
crossed the lake in safety, and now considering themselves abso- 
lutely safe from pursuit, the}'^ proceeded more leisurely. Here the 
Indians divided their plunder, and gave the prisoners a little flour 
find some scraps of moose meat dried witli the hair on. This was 
the last food they had for several days, except a little maple sugar 
left from the plunder of the settlers. The prisoners were now 
unbound and remained so by day during the remainder of the jour- 
ue}', but their legs and arms were pinioned with thongs by night. 
Passing up the Magalloway river, the Indians shot a moose on 
which they made a feast, but their prisoners could not partake of 
the half-cooked flesh without salt or bread. The Indians cut up a 
part of what was left and put it into the packs of the prisoners, 
and of the skins, they made themselves moccasins. They again 
set out, and as their wa}^ was through thick Avoods, over mountains 
and through dismal swamps, the journey became tedious and the 
prisoners footsore and weary. The}' also suffered much for lack of 
food. The new moccasins of the Indians being worn through on 
the Ijottoms, thej'^ took them off and threw them away, and the 
prisoners picked them up, roasted and devoured them. 

After many days of suffering, the divide of the watershed was 
reached, and they came to the source of the river Saint Francois. 
At first it was only a tiny stream, but as they passed down, the 
volume of water increased, and arriving at the main branch, tliej' 
found more canoes, and a little store of corn which they ])oiled and 
ate with great relish. Remaining here over night, in the morning 
they entered their canoes and commenced the descent of the rapid 
river. On the way, they speared fish and cooked them which, with 
boiled corn, made a very decent diet, compared with what they had 
))een having. There were many rapids and consequent carrying 


places, so that their progress was somewhat slow. The}' came to 
a little farm house ou the bauk, where cows were kept. They 
milked the cows and had a delicious meal of boiled coru and milk. 
At length after fourteen da^'s from the time of their capture, the 
party approached the Indian village, the home of the captors, and 
the prisoners began to fear and tremble, not knowing the things 
that might befall them there. It was dark as they approached, 
but whoop responded to whoop, and with their torches, the Indians 
made their village as light as day. The warriors at this point 
numbered seventy. There was great rejoicing over the prisoners, 
scalps and plunder. The prisoners were surrounded and pulled and 
hauled around, while a terrific howling was kept up sufficient to 
appall the stoutest heart. Tlie Indians had a great frolic over 
Plato, the negro, throwing fire-brands at him and otherwise abusing 
him. But the prisoners were soon rescued by parties in authority, 
and conveyed to the guard house where they were safe. At the 
request of the Indians, on the following morning, Benjamin Clark 
was given up to them. They cut his hair, painted him and dressed 
him in Indian costume, and then requested him to become their 
chief. The captives remained here two clays, and were then taken 
to Montreal and delivered to the English authorities. They were 
guarded on the passage up the Saint Lawrence by ten Indians who 
desired to retain Mr. Clark, but this they were not permitted to do. 
They remained prisoners at Montreal until the following 3'ear, 
when, after the surrender of Cornwallis, there was an exchange of 
prisoners. The prisoners were taken down to Quebec, and after 
long and vexations delays, ou the tenth of November, seventeen 
hundred and eighty-two, they embarked on board a ship, and after 
a pleasant passage, reached Boston. Segar and Clark immediatelj' 
proceeded to their old home at Newton, where they were received 
by their relatives and friends almost as persons risen from the 
dead. Not one word had they heard from them since their capture, 
fifteen months before, and they had abandoned all hope of ever 
seeing them again. They remained at Newton, resting and recup- 
erating, for several months, and then returned to their adopted 
homes in Sudbury Canada. 


Defensive Measures. 

HE Indian raid upon Sudbury Canada, in and of itself, and 
in its results, was not a very serious affair. Two men 
were carried captive to Canada, two were killed, one in 
Gilead and the other probably in Shelburne, and a small 
amount of plunder was obtained. Yet it is no wonder that after 
the marauders had left, there was great excitement and consterna- 
tion in the settlements. It had developed the fact that the border 
settlements were insecure, and it showed the possibilities of the 
savages should they be disposed to continue their depredations. 
The report quickly spread, and the few settlers in New Pennacook 
(Rumford) deserted their homes and went to New Gloucester, where 
they remained until the close of the war. Captain Eleazer Twitchell, 
after remaining in the woods all night, crept out and reconoitered 
earh' in the morning, not knowing what the condition of things 
might be. The Indians had given him to understand that the 
attacking party numbered hundreds, and he did not know but the 
entire settlement might be destroyed. Cautiously approaching his 
house he was espied by one of the family who had passed the night 
in the greatest anxiety. The true state of the case was soon under- 
stood, and a messenger, John Grover, was started on horseback for 
Fryeburg to ask for assistance. The response was everything 
desired. The messenger reached Fr^^eburg at not far from noon, 
and immediately two men were despatched along the Saco who 
summoned all the able-bodied men to repair, with their guns, to the 
house of Nathaniel Walker. When the call for volunteers was 
made, thirty brave men stepped out and volunteered to go to the 
assistance of their friends in Sudbury Canada. Only a few of them 
were in a condition to go, for some were bare-headed, others bare- 
footed, and some had on clothing barely sufficient to cover their 
nakedness. Before nightfall, however, a party was made up con- 


sisting of thirty men, well armed and equipped, and under the 
leadership of Captain Stephen Farrington. 

In Indian file, with Sabattis as guide, they followed the Indian 
trail through Lovell, Waterford and Albany, and as the sun arose 
on the following morning, they reached the house of Captain 
Twitchell. Captain Farrington and Lieutenant Nathaniel Walker 
came on horseback. Sabattis soon discovered the Indian trail, and 
stopping but a few moments at Captain Twitchell's, they pushed 
forward with the utmost dispatch. The Indians had thirty-six 
hours the start. Following their guide, who kept the trail in sight, 
although the whites could see no signs, they at length came to a 
rocky hill where even old Sabattis was at fault. Passing around 
the hill, thej'^ met Jonathan Clark on his return, who briefly gave 
the pursuers what knowledge he had, and informed them of one of 
the conditions upon which he was allowed to return, namely, that 
he should try and stop any party of white men who should go in 
pursuit of the Indians. The men, however, would not be persuaded. 
Their blood was up, and Sabattis having again found the trail, they 
pushed on. They at length reached the point where the Indians 
had posted the piece of birch bark written upon by Segar The 
men now thought that further pursuit was worse than useless, as it 
might jeopardize the lives of the captives, and while Captain 
Farrington wished to push on, he yielded to the majority, and having 
interred the remains of Pettengill, they returned to Sudbury Canada, 
where spending the night, on the following day they returned to 
their homes in Fryeburg. 

In the absence of plantation records, it is somewhat difficult to 
determine just what defensive measures were taken by the people 
of Sudbury Canada, to guard against any future attack. Docu- 
mentary history found in the Massachusetts archives shows that 
the}' built two garrison houses, and applied for soldiers to garrison 
them. One of these garrisons was at the end of Captain Eleazer 
Twitchell's house and was constructed of logs with cabins for the 
men. The other was built on the farm of Colonel John York, in the 
lower settlement. The ^Massachusetts government sent Lieutenant 
Stephen Farrington with twenty-seven men, to garrison the two 
defences, and they remained for the space of two months and at an 
expense to the Commonwealth of two hundred and five pounds, 
twelve shillings and eleven pence. The following documentary 
history, properly conies in here : 


Commonwealth of Massachusetts. 

To the Honorable Senate and House of Bcprescntatives., in General Court 

Assembled^ June 7th, 1784. 

The petition of Joseph Twitcliell, iu belialf and l\v order of the Proprie- 
tors of a Xew Townshij) of Land, late grauted by the General Court to 
Josiah Eichardson and others, laid out on Androscoggin River and known 
by the way of Sudbury Canada, Humbly Showeth, That said Proprietor 
at great expense (by reason that said Township being near 30 miles from 
any Settlement) cleared Roads, built mills and settled a number of Inhab- 
itants, before the War broke out. But several of them that had begun 
there, went into the public service and "dyed,"' but still some of the 
Inhabitants contiinied there and the beginning of August, 1781, the Indians 
came from Canada to that place and took four of the Inhal)itants prisoners 
and plundered several of the Inhabitants of their most valuable effects and 
alarmed the Inhabitants of that and several other places, and it was thought 
Advisable by the Authority to place Garrisons iu that place, as it was 
situated so as to cover a number of other Settlements that would be much 
exposed. If the Inhabitants should be removed and before they could 
have orders from Government the Inhabitants were ol>liged for the defence 
of the settlement to go to work and begin to build forts, to garrison the 
place, and charged the proprietors with the cost, which was allowed by 
said Proprietors and paid them by their Treasurer, amounting to forty 
pounds, five shillings, which will appear by the acompt. And whereas by 
the Eighth Article of the Confederation all charges of war and all other 
expenses that should be Incurred for the common Defence of general 
welfare, &c., shall be defrayed out of a common Treasury, which shall be 
"suplied" bj^ the several States. Therefore your Petitioners Humbly 
pray your Honors would Take their cause under their Wise consideration 
and grant to the said Proprietors the said sum of 401b., os., which they 
have Incurred for the common defence and general ^\•elfare, and your 
Petitioners as in duty bound will ever pray. 

(Signed) Jos. Twitchell, Proprtetors' Treasurer. 

Paid to Benj. Russell for time spent going to Boston, &c., to 

get orders for soldiers to Garrison the place, and to Jona. £ 

Bartlett for ditto 11 

To John Grover for his time at tile alarm going to Fryeburg. . . 1 

" Jonathan Clark for ditto 1 

" Jesse Dusten 9 1-2 days on ye forts at Gs 2 

" Joseph Beau for 14 " '• 6s 4 

" Jona. Bean for 9 " '' 6s 2 

" Daniel Bean for 10 " '' 6s 3 

" Sam'l Ingals for .5 " " 6s 1 

" Isaac York for .5 1-2 " " 6s 1 

" Elea'r Twitchell for 14 days scouting and on ye Fort 4 

" James Swan for 4 days on ye Fort 1 













To John York for 1500 of lioards for fort 1 16 

" Elea'r Twitehell for 1000 boards and cartiuo; 1 13 

" Ben Eussell for 2 days on ye Fort 12 

" Jesse Dusten, Joseph Bean and Isaac York. 1 day each at Gs IS 

40 5 
Taken from the Proprietors" Records 

per Jos. TWITCHELL, 
FropriPtors' Tren surer for Sudhury Canada, so-caUfd. 

The foregoing accotmt does not appear to have been allowed, aud 
auolher petition and account was forwarded three years later, of 
which the following is a copy : 


To the Honoralile Senate and House of liepresentatives in General Court 
assembled, Feb. 12th, 1787. 

The Petition of Joseph Twitehell in behalf and by order of the Proprie- 
tors of a New Townshij) of Land late fjranted by the Grand Court to Josiah 
Kichardson and otliers. [.aid out on Androscoggin Kiver known by the 
name of Sudbiuy Canada, Humbly Sheweth, that said Proprietors had a 
great expense (by reason of said township being abont .SO miles distant 
from an_v Settled Town) building Mills, clearing roads, t^c Settled a few 
inhabitants before the war. But Several of them that had l)egun there 
went into the Servis & Dyed. But still some of the Inhabitants continued 
there & in July or August 1781 the Indians came to that place and took 
four of the Inhabitants Prisoners & plundered Several of the Inlial)i- 
tauts of all their valuable eftects, allearmed the Inhabitants of that & 
several other Places & it was thought Advisable that place should be 
garrisoiuHl, as it was situated so as to cover a Number of other Towns that 
would be very much exposed if the Inhal)itants of that Townsliip should 
be removed, & they went to work to Build Forts to Garrison the Place & 
charged the Proprietors with the Cost which was allowed by said Proprie- 
tors & paid them Ijy their Ti-easurer amounting to Forty five Pounds, 
Seventeen Shillings 4.t£ — 17s — Od which will appear by the accoiuit & 
Receipt. And whereas by the Eighth Article of the Confederation all 
charges of war I'c all other expenses that sluill be Incun-ed for tlie Conunon 
defence or geneial welfare &c should l)e defrayed out of a Conunon 
Treasury, which shall be supplied by the several states: Therefore your 
Petitioner Humbly Pi-ays your Honors would take their case into their 
Consideration. & grant to the said Proprietors the said sum of 45£ — 17s — 
Od ct to Benj'n Barker 1£ — 19s — Od whidi they have Incurred for the 
conunon defence and your Petitioner as in duty 1)0und shall ever Pray. 

(Signed) Joseph 'I'witciiem.. 


1782 Friday Xoveinl^er ye 8th the Proprietors of Sudburj' Canada (so 
■called) voted to allow the account of Sundry persons as FoUoweth. Viz. : 

To Benj'n Russell for going with an Express to Boston to ye 

General Court 190 miles for Soldiers to Garrison the Place £ s P 

with ttc Expenses 18 

To Joua'n Bartlett for two days at Boston 12 

& Cash paid Simon Frye Esq 1 4 

To John Grover For going to Fryeburg on ExjDress 30 M's 1 10 

To Jonathan Clarke For ditto & work on Fort &c 1 10 

To John York For 14 days work on the Fort at 6s 4 4 

To Jesse Dusteu 9 1-2 Days on the Fort at 6s 2 17 

To Josiah Bean For 14 days on the Foil at 6s 4 4 

To Jona'n Beau For 9 days on the Fort at 6s 2 14 

To Dan'l Bean for 10 days work on the Fort at 6s 3 

To Sam"l Ingals For 5 days on the Fort at 6s 1 10 

To Isaac York for 5 1-2 Days on the Fort at 6s 1 13 

To Capt. Elea'r Twitchell 12 Days on ye Fort & 2 days Scouting 

at 6s 4 4 

& to going to Fryelnii'g to agree on a conunauder I)}' order 

of Court 1 12 

To James Swan For 4 days on the Fort at 6s 1 4 

To John York for 1500 of Boards for the Fort 1 16 

To Capt. Elea'r Twitchell For 1000 of Board and carting 1 13 

To Beni"u Russell for 2 Days on the Fort at 6s 12 

The above payment made by Joseph Twitchell, Treasurer 4.5 17 

To Benj"n Barker account of 1 19 

We the subscriljers have received the within sums as are within men- 
tioned & for the Services as within Set forth of Capt. Joseph Twitchell 
Proprietor's Treasurer. 

Rec"d by us (Signed) 

Benjamin Russell Jesse Dlstix 

JoHX York Isaac York 

Daniel Bean Josiah Bean 

Elea"r Twitchell Samuel Ingles 

Jonathan Clark. 

Commonwealth of Massachusetts. 

To Benj'n Barker Debtor to working on Fort at Sudbury Canada sis 
days & Half in August 1781 £ S P 

at 6s per day 1 19 

Sudbury Canada 

November ye 9th 1782 Benj'n Barker. 

Some years later and the demaud had not been settled. A uew 
petition was now presented, asking for a grant of the territory, now 


the town of Greenwood. Their claims were presented at this time 
in aggregates rather than in detail. The prayer of the petition was 
not granted, and the claims 'never settled. Following is a copy of 
the last petition : 

To the Honorahle Senate and the Honorahle Honse of Bepresentatives of the 
Commonv-ealth of 3Iassachnsetts, in General Court Assembled. 

The Subscribers, Inhabitants of the Plantation called Sudbury Canada, 
in the county of Cumberland, humbly pray that your honors would make 
a grant to them of the Towusliip 2s umber Four, lying betAveen said Planta- 
tion and the town of Paris in said county, which although of an ludiflereut 
quality, Avould be of use to them, and as it lies adjoiuiug to their settle- 
ment, might by their attention become a benefit to other Individuals as 
well as to the connnouwealth. And as reasons for their making their 
request they luunl)ly shew, That during the war of the revolution about 
eighteen years ago, some of your i^'titioners, having a grant from the 
General Court, entered upon said Plautation and began a settlement of it ; 
Avhereby others Avere encouraged to settle there, and by means of their 
hard labour and incessant toil, they haA'e brought forAvard the said Planta- 
tion to its present increased and increasing state, insomudi that it is 
noAV Taxed for the support of government, and they exi)ect soon Avill 
become an Incorporated Toaau. That at the beginning of the settlement 
and during their ])rogress in the same, they liad many difficulties to 
encounter ; Avhich they noA\- reflect upon A\ith Avonder as aacII as gratitude 
to that Being Avho supported them in their attempts, relicA'cd them in their 
distresses, and enabled them to Avithstand the difficulties they endured, 
and to couATrt a darl^c and gloomy Avilderness into fiuitful fields, Avhich 
they flatter tliemsehes other citizens of the commonwealth AAill noAv 
deligiit to dAvell in. To those Avho knoAA- or can conceive of tlie evils 
AAhich exist in bringing forAvard the settlement of ucav Townships no 
particulars of the hardshii>s they endured need be mentioned, but duilug 
the settlement of this Plautation the settlers have had peculiar difficulties 
to encounter. They have been exposed to the iuA'asions of the Savages, 
and some of them have been cari-ied into captivity ; they liaA'e been at 
great expense in building Fnrtrcsxes for their protection, and in clearing 
Eoads to the nearest st'ttlenn-nt, AAhich are uoav inconvenient for them to 
travel in, being not only bad in themselves, but lengthens the travel to the 
Sea Port, Avhere they Avould carry their produce to market. It is there- 
fore thought necessary for them to cut a Ncav Road to Cummiugs Gore, 
that they may have a more direct one to Gray and tlience to Portland, to 
Avhich i)lace through their Plantation Coos teams Avould undoul)tedly 
traAt'l. provided there Avere a road, it being nearly Thirty miles nearer 
than their Piesent Route. Your Petitioners (Avithout boasting of their 
Labours or jiresuming to represent anything beyond the truth), — the evils 
they have suftered — presume to saj^ that in consequence of them, tliey 
have nuich promoted the settlement of the adjacent country, andi thereby 


greatly benefitted the Commonwealth at large, and that notwithstanding 
the immediate benefit arising from the sale of waste land to those who 
purchase more for their own benefit than that of the public, the real wealth 
of the State, the solid and lasting advantages it will receive from lands of 
those by whose exertions and persevering Resolutions the "Wilderness is 
subdued, are, in the opinion of your Petitioners, vastly more important 
than such sales. An estimate of the expenses which your Petitioners have 
been at, is prepared to lay before your Honors. This with the reasons 
offered above they flatter themselves will without any other consideration, 
induce your Honors to grant the prayer of their Petition — but if your 
Honors should judge otherwise, thej' humblj" desire it maj- be granted on 
such additional Terms as maj- be able to comply with. And in duty 
bound Avill ever pray. 

.ToxATHAX Clark, Ezra Twitchell, 

John Brickett, Amos Powers, 

John York, Jeremiah Andrews, 

Moses Bartlett, Stephen Bartlett, 

Peregrin Bartlett, Thad"s Bartlett, 

John Holt, Jonathan Bartlett, 

James Swan, Daniel Bean, 

Elea'r Twitchell, Eli Twitchell, 

Joseph G. Swan, Benj'n Eussell, Jr., 

Amos Gage, Daniel Gage, 

Jedediah Grover, B. ErSSELL, 

John Grover, Thad's Eussell, 

James Holt, Eli Grover, 

Zela Holt, William Eussell, 

Charles Stearns, Xathaniel Swan, 

Walter Mason, John Eussell, 

Eliphaz Chapman. 

An estimate of the expense as set forth in a Petition from Sudbury, 
Canada : 

Bulding Fortresses, Clearing Eoads, &c.. ttc. — Cutting out and 
making Eighteen Miles of Eoad, which in Proi^ortion to cut- 
ting out and making other Eoads in that part of the Country 

is estimated at Twenty-five dollars per mile 450 

Cutting ten miles in another direction at Fifteen dollars per mile, 1-50 
Building Fortresses 152 1-2 

752 1-2 
The Amount of the loss Lieut. Jonathan Clark sustained by the 

Indians 80 

Two men who were carried into Captivitj' that were taken at the 
time the aforesaid Clark sustained the aforesaid loss, Fifteen 
months absent 300 

1132 1-2 


The result of the incnrsiou of the Indiaus was for a thiie very 
damaging. The lauds became depressed, aud few uew settlers 
came until peace was declared. It is told, aud raaj' aud may not 
be true, that one of the proprietors sold to Daniel Barker for a mug 
of flip, that part of the village on Main street, from Oilman 
Chapman's house and the store foi'merl}' occupied by Abner Davis. 
After the forts were built, the inhabitants came to them b}- night, 
and during the day went about their usual vocations, the men carry- 
ing their guns with them into the fields. A single gun fired from 
the garrisons, was the signal for all to hasten hither. Besides 
Farrington, who had received a lieutenant's commission, other 
officers in charge were Mr. Hutchinson and Mr. Bradley. Mrs. 
Martha Rowe, who was a daughter of Captaiu Eleazer Twitchell, 
and who lived to a great age, stated before her death, that her 
father's house was on an island and consisted of two rooms, and 
that the garrison was built against one end of the house. It was 
■a breastwork made of hewn timbers with port holes, and of such 
height as to prevent a man from climbing upon it. Inside of these 
walls, were the cabins of the soldiers, the officers occupying one of 
the rooms in Captain Twitchell's house. The parade ground for 
the use of the company was on a plank bridge near where Piuckney 
Burnham's carriage shop afterwards stood. Two men from Frye- 
burg were hired to scout through the woods, and give due warning 
should the Indians again appear, but it is said they spent most of 
their time in hunting and trapping, and made a good thing out of 
their job. But the savages did not again make their appearance 
before the close of the war, and the rascally Tomhegau never again 
showed himself in the settlement. Had he done so, the settlers 
would probably have made short work of him. He was a surly, 
morose fellow, schooled to arms in the French aud Indian wars, but 
he had always been well treated by the people of Sudbury Canada, 
bad warmed himself at their fires, fed at their tables, drank with 
them, and fished and hunted with them, all which go to make his 
course the more perfidious aud cowardly. 

The following is a list, so far as ascertained, of the names of the 
men who came from Fryeburg in August, seventeen hundred and 
eighty-one, aud went in pursuit of the Indians. Peter Austin went 
to Fryeburg immediately after the raid, and returned with the 
others : 



Stephen Farrington, 
John Walker, 
Abraham Bradley, 
Abner Charles, 
Samuel Charles, 
Beuj. Wiley, 
Jonathan Hutchins, 
Barnes Hazeltou, 

John Gordon, 
John S. Sanborn, 
Hugh Gordon, 
Joseph G. Swan, 
Isaac Walker, 
John Farrington, 
Peter Astine, 
Nathaniel Walker, 

James Parker, 
Jesse Walker, 
Joseph Knight, 
Isaac Abbott, Jr., 
John Stephens, Jr., 
Oliver Barron, 
Simon Abbot. 

Following is the roll of the compauy w 
son in Sudbury Canada, under the pay 
Massachusetts, in seventeen hundred and 

Stephen Farrington. 
Hugh Gordon, 
Jonathan Hutchins, 
Rob't Howe or Rowe, 
Jeremiah Chandler, 
Daniel Eastman, 
Moses Hutchins, 
Christopher Hisom, 
John Johnson, 

Benj. Russell, Jr., 
James Swan, Jr., 
Joseph Walker, 
John Merrill, 
Benj. Walker, 
Eli Twitchell, 
Isaac Abbot, 
Levi Dresser, 
Thomas Bragdon, 

hich constituted the garri- 
of the Commonwealth of 
eighty-two : 

Ephraim Davenport, 
David Evans, Jr., 
Ebenezer Macomber, 
Jolin Pierce, 
William Russell, 
Augustus P'rye, 
John Stevens, 
Josiah Wood, 
Isaac York. 



Early Statistics. 

N seventeen hundred and ninety the first enumeration of the 
population of the United States was made, and a census 
has been taken decennially since that time. Sudbury 
Canada had now been settled for a period of eleven years, 
and the enumeration shows sixty families in the plantation and a 
total population of three hundred and twentj^-four. The enumera- 
tion was made by Philip Page, Assistant Marshal, under the direc- 
tion of General Henry Dearborn, Marshal of the District of Maine. 
The settlers at this time were extended along the river from the 
point where it enters the town from Gilead, to the point w^here it 
enters Rumford. Grover Hill was also settled and a few farms had 
been taken up on the upland bordering the intervals. Newry at 
this time contained twelve families settled along the Sunday and 
Bear rivers, and fifty inhabitants. The names of the heads of 
families in Newry w-ere Asa Foster, Abner Foster, John Littlehale, 



Nathaniel Spofforcl, Joseph Jacksou, Jonathan Barker, Jesse Barker, 
Benjamin Barker, Elijah Swan, Joseph Lary, David Blake and 
John Messer. The following is a copy of the enumeration of one 
thousand seven hundred and ninety, from the archives at Washing- 
ton, showing the heads of families : 

Jesse Dustin, 
James Swan, 
Joseph G. Swan, 
Theodore Russel, 
Abraham Russel, 
Benjamin Russel, 
Jonathan Beau, 
Daniel Bean, 
John Kilgore, Jr., 
Jacob Russel, 
Joseph Kilgore, 
Amos Hastings, 
Enoch Bartlett, 
Stephen Estes, 
Matthias Frost, 
Jonathan Bartlett, 
Amos Powers, 
Samuel Goss, 
Jeremiah Andrews, 
Nathaniel Segar, 

Josiah Segar, 
Gideon Powers, 
Silas Powers, 
Stephen Bartlett, 
Moses Bartlett, 
John Abbott, 
John Abbott, Jr., 
Jonathan Beau, Jr., 
William Harvey, 
Thial Smith, 
John Kilgore, 
Benjamin Russel, Jr 
Zela Holt, 
James Swan, Jr., 
John Holt, 
Isaac York, 
John York, 
Josiah Bean, 
Samuel lugalls, 
Thaddeus Bartlett, 

Jonathan Abbott, 
John Mason, 
Deborah Mills, 
Peter Asten, 
James Grover, 
Thial Smith, Jr., ' 
Thomas Frost, 
Eli Twitchel, 
Ezra Twitchel, 
Thomas Stearns, 
Eleazer Twitchel, 
., Eliphaz Chapman, 
Jedediah Grover, 
John Grover, 
Walter Mason, 
Amos Gage, 
Daniel Gage, 
Oliver Feuno, 
Benjamin Clark, 
Jonathan Clark. 


White males of IG years of age and upwards, including heads 

of families, 82 

White males under 16 years, 89 

Females, including heads of families, 153 

Grand total. 


In the year seventeen hundred and ninety-eight, a direct tax was 
imposed b}^ the government of the United States upon the real 
estate of the country. The assessors for the second division of the 
fifteenth Massachusetts district were Simon Frye, principal, Moses 
Ames and Joseph Howard, assistants. At this time there were 
nineteen taxable houses in town. Cheap houses were not taxed, 


and the list does not comprise those who lived in log houses or 

those who were not possessed of lauds, and therefore not liable to 

taxation. The following is a list of such owners and occupants of 

real estate in Bethel at this time, as had taxable houses, each being 

taxed for forty perches of land in addition to his dwelling house. 

The land and buildings were taxed according to their assessed 

value : 

Mary Bartlett ,$200 00 

Thaddeus Bartlett 180 00 

Josiah Beau 250 00 

John Brickett 120 00 

Jonathan Clark 370 00 

Benjamin Clark l.oO 00 

Oliver Feuno ISO 00 

John Holt 110 00 

Asa Kiml)all ISO 00 

Gideon Powers 110 00 

Benjamin Eussell 2o0 00 

Abraham Eussell 120 00 

William Paissell 110 00 

Joseph G. Swan 110 00 

Nathaniel Seo-ar 200 00 

Eleazer Twitchell loO 00 

Eli Twitchell 200 00 

Ezra Twitchell 150 00 

John York 200 00 


Inchease of Population and Incorporation. 

•(Y reference to the accounts for services rendered by the 
inhabitants of Sudbury Canada plantation in a preceding 
chapter, it will be seen that several settlers had come since 
the Indian attack, and prior to November eighth, of the following 
year, when the accounts were made up. Jonathan Bartlett came to 
the plantation with Segar in seventeen hundred and seveut^^-nine, 
but is not mentioned by Segar as being here at the time of the raid. 
He settled on a farm above that occupied by Amos Powers, in the 
lower settlement and on the south side of the river. John Grover, 
a single man, was here at the time of the raid and was the messen- 
ger sent to Fryeburg for assistance. He married Miss Jerusha 
Wiley of Fryeburg, and settled on Grover Hill. Jonathan Bean 
and his son Daniel, the former well advanced in years, settled on 


the farm which David Marshall had deserted the year previous. 
Josiah Beau, another sou of Jouathau, had settled near Samuel 
Ingalls, and Isaac York had settled near his brother, Colonel John 
York. In another account found among the papers of the late 
Jedediah Burbank, the same parties here mentioned were allowed 
for labor on the highway, and in addition to the names here men- 
tioned, were Eli Twitchell, a brother of Captain P^leazer Twitehell, 
Thaddeus Bartlett, who settled near his brother Jonathan, Gideon 
Powers, who settled on the north side of the river in what is now 
Hanover, Moses ]>artlett, w'ho settled on the same side, a short 
distance below Powers, and Jeremiah Andrews, who settled on the 
south side of the river below the Amos Powers place. 

Notwithstanding a few settlers came in one by one, yet the influx 
was not such as to meet the wishes of the proprietors until after the 
close of the revolutionary war, and the establishment of a perma- 
nent place. Then the old soldiers began to look eastward as a sort 
of promised land ; large numbers came, and Sudbury Canada had 
its full quota. Also some young men, through the efforts of Captain 
Eleazer Twitchell, were induced to purchase lands and settle upon 
them, paying for the same in labor. The interval farms were rapidly 
taken up, and some inroads were made upon the uplands. The 
grist mill at Bethel Hill was a great convenience and was patronized 
by every household in town. For several years, there was no regu- 
lar miller. Each person brought his grist to the mill, found the 
door unfastened and the latch-string out, and entering ground his 
grist, and left it for the next visitor. The consequence was that 
the mill soon got out of repair, and as it was propelled by a large 
undershot wheel, it required more water than the little Mill Brook 
could furnish in times of summer drouth. This often gave great 
trouble, and at such times the settlers were either obliged to pound 
their corn in mortars or grind it in hand mills. In seventeen hun- 
dred and eighty-one, the grist mill was repaired, an improved water 
wheel put in which required less water, and there was thereafter 
much less difficulty in supplying the colony with meal. In seven- 
teen hundred and eighty-eight the mill was rebuilt, under the charge 
of Mr. Samuel Reddington from the Kennebec, who was a first-class 
workman. Sixteen years later, tub wheels were introduced, which 
proved a great improvement. 

Captain Peter Twitchell, the youngest sou of Joseph TwitchelU 
came to Sudbury Canada to reside in seventeen hundred and eighty- 


four. He had previously visited the place the first time when he 
was a boy of seventeen, and when his brother Eleazer's house was 
the only one in the west part of the town. It was located on the 
island, near the grist mill, as before stated. Peter Twitchell com- 
menced a clearing on the north side of the river, on the farm after- 
wards occupied by Alphin Twitchell. A more extended notice of 
this man will be given hereafter. Captain Eli Twitchell (they were 
all military men) came to the settlement in the spring of seventeen 
hundred and eighty-two, and made a clearing upon the farm after- 
wards occupied b}' his grandson, Mr. Curatio Bartlett. Dea. Ezra 
Twitchell, another brother of the preceding, came a year later, and 
settled upon the farm near Mayville, afterwards occupied by his 
son Ezra Twitchell, Junior. Moses Mason came to Bethel frohi 
Dublin, New Hampshire, and bought the farm on the north side of 
the river, of his brother-in-law, Eleazer Twitchell, which was after- 
ward occupied by his son, Aaron Mason, and since by his grandson, 
Moses A. Mason. 

Jonathan Bean, the early settler, was born in the town of Brent- 
wood or Kingston, New Hampshire. He moved from that town to 
Chester, where he lived a number of years. A little after seventeen 
hundred and sixty he moved to Staudish, Maine, where he lived 
until his removal to Bethel. He died here in eighteen hundred and 
nine ; it is said that he committed suicide. His sous, Josiah, Jona- 
than, Junior, and Daniel, came to Bethel with him, and lived and 
died here. They were a hardy race of men, and descendants of 
John Bean, who earh' came from Scotland and settled in Exeter, 
New Hampshire. The great freshet in town in seventeen hundred 
and eighty-five, which did a large amount of damage, is noticed 
elsewhere. In seventeen hundred and ninety the first census was 
taken and the returns show over three hundred persons, old and 
young, residing in the plantation. Ten years later the number had 
increased to six hundred and sixteen. 

At the beginning of the year seventeen hundred and ninety-six, the 
population having largely increased within a few years, the inhabi- 
tants of Sudbury Canada began to talk of a more efficient organiza- 
tion of their municipality, and a petition was drafted and forwarded 
to the General Court, asking for an act of incorporation as a town. 
The question of a name excited considerable interest, and Captain 
Twitchell suggested the name of Ai. But Rev. Eliphaz Chapman 
suggested the name of Bethel and it was adopted by the petitioners. 



The town was named for that Bethel so called by the patriarch 
Jacob, formerly known as Luz, and mentioned in the book of 
Genesis. The following is the act of incorporation : 

Commonwealth of. Massachusetts. 
In the year of our Lord one tliousand seven hundred and ninety-six. 

An act to incorporate the plantation called Sudbury Canada, in the 
county of York (Cumberland), and for establishing therein two 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives in 
Genei'al Court assembled, and by the authority of the same that the 
tract of land called Sudbury Canada, bounded as follows, namely : 

Beginning at a beach tree marked S. Y., one mile from Amare- 
scoggin river, and on the north side of Peabody's Patent, thence 
running south twenty-eight degrees east ; four miles and one-half on 
Peabod3''s Patent, and Fryeburg Academy land, to a hemlock tree 
marked I-I-l III. Thence east twenty degrees north, nine miles 
on Oxford and State lands to a l)each tree marked V ; thence north 
twenty degrees, west four miles and one-quarter and sixty rods on 
Newpennicook, to Amariscoggin river ; thence west two degrees 
south, three miles and three-quarters on Howard's Grant to a beach 
tree : thence west thirty-four degrees south on Thomastown (Newry) 
to the first mentioned bound. Together with the inhabitants there- 
on, be and they are hereby incorporated into a town by the name of 
Bethel. Xn(\ the inhal)itants of said toAvn are hereby invested with 
all the powers, i)rivilegcs and immunities which the inliabitants of 
towns within this Commonwealth do, or may, by law enjoy. 

And be it further enacted that Benjamin Russell, Esq., is hereby 
authorized and empowered to issue his warrant directed to some 
suitable inhabitant of said town of Bethel, directing him to notify 
the inhabitants of said town qualified to vote on town affairs, to 
meet at such time and place as he shall appoint, to choose such 
oflicers as other towns are empowered to choose, at their annual 
meetings in the month of March or April, annually. 

Be it further enacted, by the autliorit}- aforesaid, that the said 
town of Bethel lie, and the same is hereby divided into two distinct 
Parishes, to be designated "The East Parish and "West Parish," 
and the following shall be the dividing line between said Parishes, 
viz : Beginning at the south line of the town at a tree marked sixteen 
seventeen, standing on the line between the sixteenth and seven- 
teenth ranges, to the north line of the town, and all the lands in said 
town with the inhabitants thereon, east of said dividing line, be and 
hereby are, incorporated into a separate Parish by the name of the 
East Parish in Bethel. And all the land in said town with the in- 
habitants thereon west of the said dividing line, be and hereby are 
incorpoiated into a separate Parish by the name of the West Parish 
in Bethel. 


And that each of said Parishes be and are hereby possessed with 
all the powers, privileges aud immuuities which other Parishes 
within this Commonwealth are entitled to or do by law enjoy. 

Aud be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, that Benja- 
min Russell, Esq., be and is hereby authorized to issue his several 
warrants directed to some suitable person in each of said Parishes, 
requiring him to notify and warn the inhabitants wherein he lives 
to meet at the time and place expressed in such warrant for the 
purpose of choosing such Parish officers, as may be chosen in the 
month of March, or April, annually, and also to transact any other 
business that may be legally transacted in Parish meetings. 

From the House of Representatives, June 10th, 1796. 
This bill having had three several readings passed to be enacted. 

Edw. Robbins, Speaker. 

From the Senate, June 10th, 1776. 
This bill having had two several readings, passed to be enacted. 

Sam'l Phillips, President. 

June 10th. By the Governor approved. 

Sam'l Adams. 

True cojjy. Attest: John Avekv, Secretary. 

The first town meeting after its incorporation, was held at the 
house of Gen. Amos Hastings at Middle Interval. It may be 
noticed here that it was the custom of that day to bestow the office 
of Hogreeve on the young men who had married within the 3'ear. 

Commonwealth of Massachusetts. 

York ss. To Eli Twitchell, of Bethel, in said County of York, 
Gentleman. Greeting : 

You are hereby authorized and directed forthwith to notify and 
warn freeholders aud other inhabitants of said town of Bethel, 
qualified to vote in town meetings, viz : Such as pay to one single 
tax beside the pole or poles, a sum equal to a single dollar tax ; to 
meet and assemble at the dwelling house of Mr. Amos Hastings in 
said town on Monday the fifteenth day of August next, at one of 
the o'clock in the afternoon, giving fifteen days notice, at least of 
said meeting, for the purpose of choosing officers as other towns are 
empowered to choose, at their annual meetings in the month of 
March or April, annually. First, to choose a moderator to regulate 
said meeting ; 2d, a clerk ; 3d, selectmen ; 4th, a treasurer ; 5th, 
assessors ; 6th, a constable ; 7th, a collector of taxes, aud any other 
officers that the town may think proper to choose. And you are 


hereby directed 1.o make return to me of your doings in consequence 
of this warrant to you directed. 

Given under m}' hand and seal, this twenty-third day of July, in 
the year of our Lord, one thousand seven hundred and eightj'-six. 
By order of the General Court. 

Benj. Russkll, Justice of the Peace. 

Pursuant to the above warrant, I have notified and warned the 
inhabitants of said town qualified as therein expressed, to meet at 
the time and place and for the purpose within mentioned. 

Eli Twitchell. 

At a legal meeting of the inhabitants of the town of Bethel, 
opened on the fifteenth da}' of August, A. D., one thousand seven 
hundred and ninety-six, made choice of Lieut. Jonathan Clark, 
moderator of the meetiug, and by a vote made choice of Benjamin 
Russell, town clerk for the ensuing year. Then, 

Voted, That there be three selectmen chosen for the ensuing year. 
Then by written votes made choice of John Kilgore for the first 
selectman the ensuing j^ear. 

Voted, That Lieut. Jonathan Clark be the second selectman for 
the ensuing year. 

Voted, That Jonathan Bartlett be the third selectman for the 
ensuing year. 

Voted, That Lieut. Jonathan Clark be town treasurer for the 
ensuing year. 

Voted, That Mr. Joseph G; Swan be constable for the ensuing 

Voted, That the person that will collect the town, county and 
State taxes for the least sum on one dollar, be the collector for the 
ensuing year. It was bid off to ]\Ir. Joseph G. Swan at three cents 
on the dollar. 

Then voted for tythingmen for the ensuing year. Made choice 
of Messrs. Jedediah Grover and Gideon Powers. Surveyors of 
lumber, INIr. John York, Lieut. Jonathan Clark. Hogreeves the 
ensuing year, Messrs. John Stearns, James Swan, Jr., and Silas 

York ss. In the month of August, 1796. Personally appeared 
all the above mentioned town officers and were sworn to the faithful 
discharge of the duties of their respective offices before me. 

Benj. Russell, Justice of the Peace. 

York ss. August 15th, 1796. Personally appeared Benj. Russell, 
Esq., and was sworn truly to record all votes passed in this meeting 
and at other town meetings during the year and until another clerk 
shall be chosen and sworn. 

Before Jonathan Clark, Moderator. 

A Second Enumeration. 

HE secoud euumeratiou of the people of the United States 
took place iu the year eighteen hundred. During the 
decade since seventeen hundred and ninety, the population 
of Sudbury Canada, which had now become the town of 
Bethel, had nearly doubled. Forty-five heads of families had been 
added, making a total of one hundred and five. The total popula- 
tion now was six hundred and twenty-two, against three hundred 
and twenty-four ten years previous. Several of the heads of fami- 
lies enumerated in seventeen hundred and ninety, are not found on 
the later schedule, they either having deceased or left the town. 
Enoch Bartlett had settled in Newry, Samuel Ingalls had moved to 
Bridgton, Josiah Segar and Samuel Goss to Rumford, while of 
William Harvey, I know nothing. The Smiths also, Ithiel and 
Ithiel, Junior, had gone to Newry. But the Carters, the Masons, 
the Coffins, the Farewells, the Greenwoods and several other new 
families had come to take their places. 

The following are the heads of families as returned in the schedule 
of eighteen hundred : 

Elisha Adams, Peregrine Bartlet, 

Nathan Adams, Thadeus Bartlet, 

Isaac Adams. Moses Bartlet, 

Peter Adley, Reuben Bartlet, 

Solomon Annis, Stephen Bartlet, 

Solomon Annis, Jr., Aaron Barton, 

Jeremiah Andrews, Benjamin Brown, 

Joseph Ayer, Timothy Carter, 

Josiah Bean,, Thomas Capen, 

Jonathan Bean, Eliphaz Chapman, 

Jesse Bean, Jonathan Clark, 

John Bean, Benjamin Clark, 

Jonathan Bean, Jr., David Coffin, 

Daniel Bean, Daniel Coffin, 

Timothy Bean, Jonathan Coffin, 



Nepthalim Coffin, Joseph Menill, 

Ezekiel Duston, Roger Merrill, 

Jesse Duston, Paul INIorse, 

Ebenezer Ernes, William Newland, 

John Ellenwood, James Noble, 

Richard fastis, Amos Powers, 

Absalom Farwell, Gideon Powers, 

Oliver Feuno, Silas Powers, 

Nathaniel Frost, Benjamin Russell, Esq., 

Moses Frost, Abraham Russell, 

Thomas Frost, Benjamin Russell, Jr., 

Joseph Greenwood, Esq., William Russell, 

Nathaniel Greenwood, John Russell, 

Daniel Gage, Theodore Russell, 

Amos Gage, Josiah Russell, 

Benjamin Goodenow, James Robinson, 

Samuel Gossora, Nathaniel Seager, 

Rev. Daniel Gould, Nathaniel Spofford, 

Elijah Grover, Thomas Stearns, 

James Grover, Charles Stearns, 

John Grover, John Stearns, 

Jedediah Grover, John Stearns, Jr., 

Eli Grover, James Swan, Jr., 

Amos Hastings, Joseph G. Swan, 

Zela Holt, Nathaniel Swan, 

James Holt, Benjamin Sweat, 

Timothy A. Holt, Isaac Towne, 

John Holt, Eleazer Twitchell, 

Phiuehas Howard, Eli Twitchell. 

John Kilgore, Ezra Twitchell, 

John Kilgore, Jr., Cyrus Twitchell, 

Asa Kiml)all, Simeon Twitchell, 

Asa Kimball, Jr., Jonas Willis, 

Samuel Kimball, Jonathan Wheeler, 

Eliphalet Lane, Joseph Wheeler, 

Samuel B. Locke, Isaac York, 

Walter Mason, John York, 
Moses Mason, 

White males under ten years of age, 134 ; females, 137. 

White males between ten and sixteen, 36 ; females, 50. 

White males between sixteen and twenty-six, 43 ; females, 46. 

White males between twenty-six and forty-five, 61 ; females, 53. 

White males over forty-five, 34 ; females, 28. 

Total males 308 

Total females 314 

Total population 622 


r The Androscoggin Indians. 

F this regiou, the aborigiual inhabitants were the Andro- 

scoggin Indians, sometimes called the Anasagunticooks. 
They claimed the territory from Merrymeeting Bay, which 
they called Quabacook, to the head waters of the river. 
They were divided into several sub-tribes, each under a chief and 
all subject to the grand Sagamore. Those between Quabacook and 
Amigoupontook Falls, now known as Lewiston Falls, were known 
as Pejepscots, with headquarters at Lisbon ; those next above with 
headquarters at Canton, were called the Rocomekos, but just what 
the name of the sub-tribe was that lived in Bethel, we have no 
means of knowing. The history of the once powerful tribe of 
Anasagunticook Indians, while it would be very interesting, does 
not properly come within the scope of the history of a single town, 
and therefore only a brief outline sketch will be attempted here. 
Everything goes to show that the tribe that inhabited the Andro- 
scoggin valley was a powerful one and that they were much attached 
to these hunting grounds. Like all the aborigines, they were no- 
madic in their habits and often wandered away and spent their time 
at the seashore, and also in the region of the northei-n lakes. But 
the Androscoggin river and its tributaries, abounded with food 
fishes of various kinds including the salmon, while the forests were 
tilled with every kind of game. The intervals also were easily 
cleared, very fertile and with but little dressing would produce 
luxuriant crops of maize or Indian corn. The land was cultivated 
by the women in a very primitive way, their hoes being the large 
sea shells they brought up from the coast, and their dressing the 
poorer quality of fish from the river. 

It is recorded that the Androscoggin Indians were more implaca- 
ble than those tribes farther east, and generally refused to make 
terms with the white man. After the settlement of Canada by the 


French, the Indians here were completely under their control and 
took a prominent part in raids upon the English settlements along 
the coast. The Androscoggins always claimed that they never 
deeded away any of their lands above Rumford Falls. The deed 
from Worombo to Richard Wharton in sixteen hundred and eighty- 
four reads : "All the land from the falls to Pejepscot and Merry- 
meeting Bay to Kennebec, and toward the wilderness, to be bounded 
by a southwest and a northwesterly line to extend from the upper 
part of the said Androscoggin uppermost falls," etc. If Rumford 
Falls are here meant, the position of the Indians was entirely 
correct. It has been said that the principal cause of the raid upon 
the early Bethel settlers was the fact that they had never sold the 
land, and did not like to have it taken and settled upon by the 
whites. Be this as it may, the Indians continued to hang about 
Bethel after the first settlers came, and wintered here at the time 
Jonathan Keys left his boys here for several months with no white 
settler nearer than Fryeburg. As the deed to Worombo contains 
many references to land transactions, itis given verbatim below : 

" To all to vhom these Presents shall come : Know ye that whei'cas near three 
score years since Mr. Thomas Purchase, disceased came into this Country 
as we liave been well int'ornied, and did as well bj' Power or Patteut 
derived from the King of England as by Consent, Contract and Agreement 
with Sagamores and Proprietors of all the lands lying on the Easterly 
side of Casco Bay & on both sides of Androscogan River & Kennebec 
River ; enter upon and take possession of all the Lauds, lying four Miles 
Westward from the uppermost falls. In saj-d Androscogan River to 
Maqcjuait in Casco Bay on the lands ou the other side Androscogan River 
from al)ove said falls down to Pejepscott & Merrymeeting Bay to bee 
bounded bj^ a South west & North west lyne, to rune from the Upper part 
of said falls to Kennebec River, & all the Land from Mac^quait to Pejepscot 
& to hould the same breadth where your land will beare it, down to a 
place called Atkins his Bay near to Saggadabock on the westerly side 
of Kennebec River & the lauds between the sd Atkins his Bay & 
Small poynt Harboui- the Lands & Rivers & Ponds iuteriacent Contain- 
ing yr. in breadth about three euglisli Miles more or less and whereas 
wee are well assured that ^lajor Nichols Shapleigh in his life tyme, 
was both by purchase from the Indians Sagamores our Ancestors 
& Consent of Wm. Gorge Commissioner possessed and dyed seized of the 
Eemaynder of all the Lauds lying and Adjoying upon the ^layne, and all 
the Islands between the sd Small Point Harljour & Maqquait aforesaid & 
particularly of a neck of land called Meraconeg & an Island called Sabas- 
con Diggins, & whereas the relects it Heyrs of sd. Mr. Purchase and 
Major Nicholas Shepleigh have leseived accomodations for their several 


Familys should all the remaiuder of the aforesaid Lands, & Islands to 
Richard Wharton of Boston Merchant & for as much as the sd. mr. Pur- 
chase did personally possess, improve, & Inhabit, at Pejepscot aforesaid 
near the Centor or Middle of all the Lands afors'd for near fifty years 
before the late unhappy war and whereas the sd. Richard Wharton hath 
desired an enlargement uppon & between the sd. Androscoggan & Kenne- 
becke River & to Incorage the sd. Richard "Wharton to settle an English 
town & promote the Salmon & Sturgeon fishing by which we promise 
ourselves great Siipplies and Relief Therefore & for other good Causes & 
Considerations & especially for in consideration of a valuable sume re- 
ceived from the sd AVharton in Merchandize Wee Warumbee, Darumkine, 
Wehickermett, Weedon, Damhegan, Xeanongasett & Xumbonewett, Chief 
Sagamore of all the afores'd & other Rivers and Lands adjacent, have in 
confirmation of the sd Richard Whartons title & Propriety fully freely 
& absolutely given granted ratified & confirmed to him the sd Richard 
AVharton all the aforesaid Lands from the upper most part of Androscog- 
gan falls foure miles, Westward & so down to Maqquit & by sd River of 
Pejepscot & from the other side of Androscoggan Falls, all the Land from 
the Falls to Pejepscott & Merrymeeting Bay to Kennebecke, & towards 
the wilderness to l)e bounded by a South west and Xorthwesterly direction 
to extend from tlie upper part of the sd Androscogan uppermost falls to 
the said River of Kennebecke and all the lauds from Maqquait to Pejepscot 
& to rune & hould the same breadth where the land will beare it, unto 
Atkins his Bay & Kennebecke River & Small Paynt Harbour. In Casco 
Bay, and all the Islands In Kennebecke and Pejepscot River & 3Ierrymeet- 
ing Bay and within aforesaid bounds especially the afores'd Xecke of 
land called Merryconeage and island called Sabascon Diggiu together with 
all the Rivers, Rivulets, brooks, ponds, pools. Waters, AVater Courses, all 
the Wood Trees of timber or other trees and all mines minerals quarries, 
& especialy the soole Use and benefit of Salmon & Spurgeon fishing in 
all the Rivers Rivulets or Bays of aforesaid and in all Rivers, brooks, 
Creeks, or ponds within any of the bounds afores'd & also Wee the said 
Sagamores have upon the Consideration aforesaid given, granted, bargained, 
& souled enfeofted ct confirmed, And do by these presents give, grant, 
bargain, & sell, allience Interott" & confirm to him the sd Richard Wharton 
all the Land lying miles above the ui^permost of the said Androscoggan 
Falls, in length and breadth houlding the same breadth from Androscoggan 
Falls to Kennebecke River, and to be bounded by the aforesaid Southwest 
& Xorth East lyue & a i^arcell of Lands at five miles Distance to run from 
Androscoggan to Kennebec River as afores'd together with all the profit 
l)rivileges Commodities, Benefits tt advantages & particularly the soole 
property beuefitts & advantages of the Salmon & Sturgeon fishing within 
bounds & lymits afores'd To have and hold to him the said Richard Whar. 
ton, his Heirs and assigns forever, all the aforenamed Land Priviledges & 
Premisses with all benefitts. rights appertenances or advantages y'r now 
do or hereafter shall or may belong unto any part or parcell of the prem- 
ises fully, freely & absolutely acquited & Discharged from all foi-mer & 


other gyfts, grants bargains & Sales Moitgage & encumbrances whatso- 
ever ; and Wee the sd "Worunibee, Darimkine, Whilihermete, Wedon, Dum- 
hegan, Xeonongassett, & Ximbatsett, do covenant & gyant to & with the 
sd Eichard Wharton, that Wee have in ourselves good Eight & full power 
thus to confirm & convey the premises and that Wee our Heirs successors 
shall & will warrant and defend the s'd Eichard Wharton his heirs and 
assigns forever in the Peaceable enjoyment of the Premises and every 
part thereof against all and every person or persons, that may legally 
claim any Eight. Title, Interest or propriety in the Premises by from or 
under us the above named Sagamores, or and of our Ancestors or prede- 
cessors, Provided nevertheless that nothing in this Deede be construed to 
Deprive us the sd Saggamores successors or people from improving our 
Ancient Planting grounds, nor from hunting in and on the said lands being 
not Inclosed, nor from fishing for our own Provision, so long as no damage 
shall be to the English Fishery : provided so that nothing herein contained 
shall prejudice and of the English Tnliabitants or planters being at present 
actually possessed of any part of the Premises and legally deriving Eight 
from sd ^Ir. Purchase, and — or Ancestors. In Witness whereof — We the 
aforenamed Sagamores well understanding the purport hereof do set to our 
hands and seals at Pejepscott the sevetenth day of July in the thirty-fifth 
year of the Eeign Sovering Lord — King Charles the second one thousand 
six hundred eight v-f our. 

This Worombo seems to have been very prominent in the affairs 
of his tribe. He is said to have lived iu a fortified place at Canton 
Point, though the description of the locality is somewhat indefinite, 
and it ma}' have been either at Lisbon or Brunswick. He was a 
celebrated warrior and did much harm to the pioneer settlers of 
Maine. In sixteen hundred and eighty-uine, he with otliers, attacked 
Captain Church at Casco, killed seven of his men and wounded 
twenty more. Worombo's fort had been captured by the whites pre- 
viously, the same year, and the attack on Church was in retaliation. 

Early in the eighteenth ceutur}', the authorities of Canada invited 
the Indians of Western Maine to move to Canada and make settle- 
ments upon the rivers Becancourt and the Saint Francois. Among 
the first tribes that responded, were the Pequakets and large num- 
bers of the Anasagunticooks. They settled upon the Saint B^rancois, 
gave up their ancient tribal names and became the Saint Francis 
tribe. In the subsequent Indian wars, this was the headquarters of 
the Indians that operated in Maine. The Androscoggins, however, 
did not entirely leave this region as a tribe until half a century later. 
Meantime, their numbers had become greatly diminished b}' war, 
and in seventeen hundred and liftv-five, most of those that had 


remained here, put out their council fires never again to be relighted 
on the upper Androscoggin and joined their brethren in Canada. 
They were henceforth as heretofore, the allies of the French, but 
•only for four years, when French power iu Canada received its 
■death blow at the conquest of ("Quebec, and the Indians, many of 
them, moved westward, and others become subjects of the P^uglish. 

In seventeen hundred and fifty-one the Sokokis Indians, whose 
families had been with the English, while they themselves were at 
Louisberg, had of choice, returned to their former places of abode 
and hunting grounds at Pequaket, satisfied with the treatment 
received, and much attached to their English friends. In seventeen 
hundred and fiftj'-four hostilities breaking out, a bouut}' of one 
hundred pounds was offered by the General Court for the scalp of 
any St. Francis Indian, and ten pounds more additional for auy one 
taken alive ; such was public indignation against that tribe. In 
seventeen hundred and fiftj'-five the General Court declared war 
against the Anasagunticook Indians, and all the other tribes east- 
ward of Piscataqua, excepting those upon Penobscot river. In 
seventeen hundred and fifty-six, a small force of men was sent up 
the Androscoggin in whale boats, a distance of sixty-five miles, 
probably as far as Rumford Falls. They found no Indians, but 
measured distance and noted the features of the countr3\ In seven- 
teen hundred and fifty-seven the Anasagunticooks, who originally 
inhabited the banks of the Androscoggin, still viewed the country as 
their own, and often visited it. The}' made an attack on a party of 
eight men near the fort in Topsham, and wounded two at the first 
onset. A severe skirmish ensued, in which the Indians, on seeing 
two of their number fall dead by their side, seized their bodies and 
fled. Two Englishmen were killed farther up the river. In seven- 
teen hundred and seventy-five Sabattis and Natanis accompanied 
Gen. Arnold to Quebec. 

The Indians of New England had their ancient homes on the 
principal rivers. On the Connecticut were the Mohicans, and those 
at its source Nipmucs. On the Merrrimac were the Pennacooks ; 
on the Saco, the Sokokis, and towards its source the Pequakets. 
On the Androscoggin were the several sub-tribes of the Anasagun- 
ticooks ; on the Kennebec, the Canibis and the Norredgewogs, and 
on the Penobscot, the Tarratines. On the St. Georges river were 
the Wawenocks, on the St. Croix, the Passamaqnodd}', and on the 
Saint John, the Marachites. These New England Indians belonged 


to the great Algonquin nation, all speaking one language, though 
broken up into several dialects. The Algouquins called themselves 
Leni Lenapes, meaning original men. They were also called Aben- 
akis or Abenaquois, meaning eastern men. The English called the 
Abenakis, Tarratines, though this name afterwards became restricted 
to the tribes on the Penobscot. The principal chief was called the 
Bashaba, who had control over all the subdivisions of his tribe. 

There is something sad in the coutemplatiou of this lost and 
almost forgotton tribe that once owned and occupied the fertile 
valley of the Androscoggin. The few scraps of their history that 
have come down to us, give us only vague ideas of their habits, 
their strength before the advent of the white man, and their legends 
and traditions. Having no written language, but for the little that 
is recorded of them l)y their conquerors, they would soon be entirely 
forgotten. Their implements turned up occasionally by the plow, 
or laid liare by the freshet, are even now the only substantial tokens 
we have that a rude and unlearned people occupied these lauds long 
before the white race came here. These implements of a stone age 
show some, but not marked progress through a long cycle of years. 
In the older strata they are rough, while in the later they are 
polished, and this is the only material change. That the}' had some 
knowledge of metals, particularly of copper, before they came in 
contact with civilized people, is quite evideut, though its use was 
limited mostly to ornaments. The stone age was nearly or quite 
universal. Arrow and spear heads, gouges, chisels, mortars, sinkers 
and numbers of other implements for domestic use, for the chase 
and for war, are widely distributed and vary but little in their form 
and manner of construction. Stone pipes are found in various 
places, and stone idols are peculiar to certain localities. The 
Indians on the Androscoggin were a brave and warlike race and 
exerted a powerful influence in the councils of the Maine tribes. 
Joseph Bane of York was captured by them in sixteen hundred and 
ninety-seven, and remained with them over six years. He adopted 
their way of living and learned their language, and probably would 
have remained with them but for a general exchange of prisoners 
provided for by treaty. His services were subsequently very valua- 
ble to the government as an interpreter. He was familiar with the 
entire region of the Androscoggin, and with the different sub- tribes 
that dwelt upon it. But he was not a man of letters, and he left 
no account of his adventures and experiences. The Indians of New 


England have passed into history, and we have little to remind us 
of them save in the names of some of our lakes, rivers and moun- 
tains. It is mucli to be regretted that more of the old Indian names 
have not been preserved. Anasaguuticook is applied to the highest 
mountain in this region, but it is generally called by the name of a 
settler. The Indian names are sometimes a little long and tedious, 
but many of them are euphonic, and all of them are expressive of 
some peculiarity or quality, or commemorate some incident. Not 
even in the Greek language, distinguished for its euphony, is there 
anything finer than "Allegash," "Meduxnekeag," "Aziscoos," 
"Ammonoosuc," and "Amariscoggin." That taste is certainly mor- 
bid that prefers for the names of mountains, "Old Spec," "Saddle- 
back," "Goose-eye" and "Waterspout," to such names as "Kineo," 
"Katahdin," "Ossipee," "Chocorua" and "Passaconaway." 

Now that the Indians have left this region forever it is useless to 
moralize over their decay or to speak of their treatment. They 
may have been cheated and in some cases abused, but this is 
inevitable when the iutellectuall}" weak come in contact with the 
intellectually strong. In case of the aborigines of this country, 
history only repeats itself as it is ever doing. The original races 
have been driven out of every country in Europe, and some of them 
have been repeopled several times. The rude Briton, clothed in 
skins, living in caves and offering human sacrifices to his god, is 
hardly the type of the modern Englishman or American. It required 
the amalgamation of several races, and several centuries of time, to 
develop the present race of English speaking people. And to weld 
together these different races, so as to form a homogeneous people, 
has cost oceans of blood and cruelties too horrible to relate. But 
the race thus perfected has accomplished more in the way of human 
progress, and in the amelioration of the condition of mankind, than 
any that has preceded it, or any contemporary with it. The English 
came to America and found here a barbarous people, one that had 
made no progress for centuries, and in their intellectual develop- 
ment, but little above the brute creation. They could not live in 
harmony together, and they could not amalgamate, and so the weak 
must give way to the strong. That is just what happened, and just 
what always will happen under similar circumstances. The Andro- 
scoggin Indians enjoyed life in their way, but they lived at a poor 
dying rate. They hunted, fished and fought, and had a very few 
acres under cultivation. Their successors have filled the valley of 


the Androscoggin with pleasant homes, with school houses and' 
churches, with green fields and broad pastures, and with everything 
that goes to make up a civilized community. We may have sympa- 
thy for the lost tribes, but we cannot deplore a change that has 
been productive of such grand results. 

Molly Ockett. 

The name of this woman is well known to the older inhabitants 
of this vicinity. The Rokomeko Tribe at Canton Point in seventeen 
hundred and fifty-five, numbered several hundreds, but were visited 
about that time by the small pox, communicated by the French. It 
swept away nearly the whole tribe. It is probable that Molly 
Ockett, with the few remaining Indians on the Androscoggin 
river, left for Canada soon after, as she seems to have been 
called a St. Francis Indian by the early settlers of Bethel. 
She came, according to Mr. Nathaniel Swan's account, in whose 
family she lived several years, from Canada to Fr3'eburg, where she 
became acquainted with Sabattis, who is supposed to be the same 
that Col. Kogers l)rought from Canada to Fryeburg when a boy in 
seventeen hundred and fifty-nine. He lived with her as liis assumed, 
though not lawful wife, and had by her three children. She subse- 
quently refused to live with him on account of his intemperate 
habits and quarrelsome disposition. She came to IJethel soon after 
the settlement of the town, and claimed a right to the land as an 
original proprietor. The Indians probably never included the upper 
waters of the Androscoggin in any of their treaties or deeds. She 
was described by Mrs. Martha Rowe of Gilead, who knew her well, 
as a pretty, genteel scpiaw. She had a daughter, Molly Susup, 
previous to her acquaintance with Sabattis. She lived with her 
mother at Bethel, attended school with the whites, and spoke the 
English language flueutl}'. She possessed a vigorous frame, and 
engaged in sports with the boys for whom she was frequently more 
than a match. A circumstance is still remembered when she and 
her antagonist clinched, and in the contest, both rolled down the 
bank of the river together. Capt. Swarson, an old Indian, was 
very anxious to marry her, but Molly Ockett was opposed to the 
match. She afterwards married a Penobscot Indian, who quarreled 
with her, and left her. 

Moll)' Ockett was a good huntress and would often go into the 
woods and over to the lakes and shoot moose and bears, and return. 


to the settlement for assistance in bringing in the most valuable 
portions of the game. She collected duck feathers sufficient to 
make a bed, which she presented to Mr. Swan. Like most of the 
Indians, she was fond of rum. She would drink a pint of beer 
emptyings with the greatest relish. She was- well skilled in roots 
and herbs, and spent the latter portion of her life in going from 
place to place, and giving advice and medicine to the sick. She 
often boasted of her noble descent. Her father and grandfather 
were prominent chiefs in their tribe, and had passed through all the 
exciting scenes of warfare between the French and English durino- 
the last century. 

When the Indians came from Canada and encamped in Bethel, 
she refused to associate with them. At one time she had a camp 
of her own on the north side of the river near Curatio Bartlett's, 
which she had well covered and lined with bark, and where she had 
her bed and slept, but took her meals in some white family. She 
seemed to possess considerable ingenuity. A l)ox made by her of 
birch bark more than seventy years ago, was once in the possession 
of Mrs. John Kimball of this town. Molly Ockett sympathized 
with the Methodists and professed to become a convert. She used 
to call them "drefful clever folks." She sometimes spoke in their 
meetings, but could not divest herself of the idea that she ought to 
make confession to the priest, and occasionally went to Canada for 
this purpose. She was easily offended. She had been out one 
time and gathered a pailful of blueberries, which she carried to her 
friend, the wife of Rev. Eliphaz Chapman, on Monday morning. 
Mrs. Chapman on emptying the pail, found them very fresh, and 
told her that she picked them on Sunday. "Certainl}'," said Molly. 
"But you did wrong," was the reproof. Molly took offence and 
left abruptly, and did not make her appearance for several weeks, 
when, one day, she came into the house at dinner time. Mrs. 
Chapman made arrangements for her at the table, but she refused 
to eat. "Choke me," said she ; "I was right in picking the blue- 
berries on Sunday, it was so pleasant, and I was so happy that the 
Great Spirit had provided them for me." At this answer Mrs. 
Chapman felt more than half condemned for reproving her as she 
did. Who could harshly judge this child of nature by the same 
law that would condemn those more enlightened ? 

The following paragraph respecting her is from Willey's White 
Mountain Sketches : "A Colonel Clark of Boston, had been in the 


habit of visiting annually the White Mountains, and trading for 
furs. He had thus become acquainted with all the settlers and 
many of the Indians. He was much esteemed for his honesty, and 
his visits were looked forward to with much interest. Tomhegan 
had formed the design of killing him, and, contrary to his usual 
shrewdness, had disclosed his plan to some of his companions. One 
of them, in a drunken spree, told the secret to Molly Ockett, a 
squaw who had been converted to Christianity, and was much loved 
and respected b}' the whites. She determined to save Clark's life. 
To do it, she must traverse a wilderness of many miles to his camp. 
But, nothing daunted, the courageous and faithful woman, setting 
out early in the evening of the intended massacre, reached 
Clark's camp just in season for him to escape. Tomhegan had 
alread}' killed two of Clark's companions, encamped a mile or two 
from him. He made good his escape, with his noble preserver, to 
the settlements. Colonel Clark's gratitude knew no bounds. In 
every way he sought to reward the kind squaw for the noble act she 
had performed. For a long time she resisted all his attempts to 
repay her, until at last, overcome b}' his earnest entreaties and the 
difficulty of sustaining herself in old age, she became an inmate of 
his family in Boston. For a year she bore with a martyr's endur- 
ance, the restraints of civilized life, but at length she could do it no 
longer. She must die, she said, in the great forest, amid the trees, 
the companions of her youth. Devotedly pious, she sighed for the 
woods, where, under the clear blue sky, she miglit pra}' to God as 
she had when first converted. Clark saw her distress, and built 
her a wigwam on the Falls of the Pennacook, and there supported 
her the remainder of lieVdays. Often did he visit her, bringing the 
necessary provision for her sustenance." 

She afterwards lived in Andover, and was present at the birth of 
the first child in that town, she and the mother being the only 
females at that time residing there. She nursed the mother, and 
continued to reside in the town until her death, at the advanced age 
of more than one hundred years. The Rev. Mr. Strickland, pastor 
of the church in Andover, conducted the religious services at her 
funeral, and she was buried in the cemetery of that town. 

A short distance south of the outlet of Umbagog Lake is a large 
smooth rock projecting into the water called Moll's Rock. Her 
name is also perpetuated by a mountain named after her in Wood- 
stock, where she had a camp. She seemed to be a person of more 


than ordinary ability, possessed a large frame and features, and 
walked ver}^ erect even in old age. She wore a pointed cap, but in 
other respects dressed in Indian style. She was very loquacious 
and entertained the inhabitants with stories and anecdotes. Her 
name was spelled and pronounced in several different ways, Mol- 
lockett, Molly Ockett, MoUyockett, MoUyloekett, MoUyrockett and 
Mollynockett. These changes arose in consequence of the commu- 
tability of the liquids 1, n and r. Many apocryphal anecdotes have 
been handed down concerning her, but it is believed the foregoing 
sketch embodies all the leading facts of her history that can now be 

Metalluk or Natali.uc. 

The Indian bearing the above name, or something like it. was 
the last of the once powerful tribe that once inhabited the valley of 
the Androscoggin, and he is well remembered b}' many now living. 
Of his early life but little is known. He left the banks of the 
Androscoggin with most of his tribe, and settled on the river Saint 
Francois in Canada, and Segar felt quite sure that he saw him tliere 
during his captivity. The late John M. Wilson, who long resided 
on the Magalloway river, and knew Metalluk well, wrote as follows 
concerning him : "All that I knew of him prior to eighteen hundred 
and thii'ty-two, was obtained from common reports. It was said 
that he was a St. Francis Indian, and was banished from the tribe 
for some misdemeanor. He had three children at least, probably 
by his first wife. His sons names were Parmagummet • ml Wilumpi. 
His daughter married a man in Canada by the name of IMoulton. 
Mettalluc lived several years on the shores of Richardson's lake 
with his second wife, who died there and was buried on a point of 
land since cleared and is a part of the lake farm. He then built 
his wigwam and lived alone some years at the narrows of Uml)agog 
lake, on or near what is now the Stone farm. Leaving this, he 
next took up his residence in township number five, range two, 
where I found him in eighteen hundred and thirty-two. Here he 
subsisted chiefly by hunting, and lived in a camp about ten feet 
square made of spruce bark. He was here some ten or twelve 
years without making any clearing about his camp and would draw 
potatoes from the settlement in winter twelve miles on a hand sled, 
rather than raise them. At this camp he was several times visited 
by Governor Enoch Lincoln, who would stay several days at a time. 


He was very civil and hospitable to strangers, but not very com- 
municative, and the only bad habit he had, probably, was that of 
taking too much fire-water when he could get it. In the winter of 
eighteen hundred and thirty-six, in getting wood at considerable 
distance from his camp, he thrust a splinter into his ej'e, and was 
found in that condition by two men who happened that wa}', in a 
very cold day, perfectly blind, having lost one eye several years 
before. He was unable to reach his camp, and must soon have 
perished without assistance. Without being aware of his condition, 
his daughter and her son arrived here for the purpose of looking 
after him al)0ut the time he was l)rought from his camp, and took 
him with them to Canad.i. 

He was entirely blind and helpless the remainder of his days, and 
died some six or seven years after he left this place, in Stewarts- 
town. New Ham[)shire, having been supported some time at the 
county charge. It is supposed that Metalluck at the time of death, 
was more than one hundred years old. He was a close built man, 
of about middling stature, very athletic and possessed of great 
powers of endurance. He came to my house one morning in the 
winter of eighteen hundred and thirty-live, aliout sunrise, having 
laid out aiiout two miles in the woods, the night before, without 
fire. A damp snow had fallen the day before, and the weather had 
become very cold during the night. He had been on tlie track of a 
moose all day, until dark, 'almost see um,' he said, and when dark- 
ness oltliged him to give up the chase, 'all wet, no strike um.' " 

Ciovernor Lincoln was in the habit of visiting Mataluck and 
camping with him, and left some account of him in his writings. 
One anecdote I believe Lincoln never published. He carried with 
him on his visit to Nataluc, a large penknife fitted up with dilTereut 
blades, awls, saw and the like. Nataluc had his eye on the knife 
and wished to buy it. Governor Lincoln told him he could not sell 
it to him. Nataluc's covetousness was only the more strongly 
excited, and he at last contrived a plan to secure the penknife. He 
had a little island in the lake of about an acre, on which is a sort 
of a cave in which he kept his furs, where they would not be plun- 
dered. He invited the governor to go and see his furs. He took 
his canoe and landed the governor, showed him his furs, and made 
him a most liberal offer of them for the knife. The governor told 
him he could not sell the knife. "Well," said Nataluck, "me no 
carrj' you off" the island if you no sell me that knife." But, said 


the goveruor, I told 3-011 I would uot sell it to 3-011, and I shall keep 
1113' word, but I will give it to 3'ou as a present. Nataliic was over- 
jo3'ed in ihe possession of his knife and of course reckoned Governor 
Lincoln as one of his real friends. He was visited b3' Hon. Moses 
Mason several times while he lived on the Magalloway river. He 
made a map of that river on birch bark, which appears to have been 
executed with fidelity. He had, on one occasion, shot an immense 
moose as he was in the water and dragged him to the shore, and 
cut off the best parts of meat and dried them. The doctor bought 
the horns, which afterward adorned his hall as a hat rack, and whicli 
are now in possession of Hon. David R. Hastings of Fryeburg. 

Military Affairs. — Soldiers of the Revolution. 

^)|t!HTP2L had its full quota of those who had served in the 
war for independeuce. Settlers began to pour into Maine 
and into the valle3- of the Androscoggin soon after the war 
terminated. rhe3' had been paid off in a depreciated currency 
which soon became worthless, and l)eiug poor, they came to the east- 
ward where laud could be had on very reasonable terms. ^lassa- 
chusetts was poor in money but rich in wild lauds, and she was 
disposed to deal very liberally with those who had assisted in 
achieving independence. The following list is believed to eml)race 
all the ex-soldiers Avho settled in this town : 

Lieutenant Jonathan Clark, who came here from Newton, 
served for a time as Commissar3' of Subsistence. 

James Mills, formerl3'of Massachusetts, came here from Dublin, 
N. H. He served two short enlistments. He was killed soon after 
coming here b3' a falling tree. 

Isaac York came here from Standish, and had served in a Massa- 
chusetts Regiment. 

Eli Twitchell, from Sherbourn, was at Bunker Hill. He be- 
came cripi)led for life, 1)3' injuries received in the service. 


John Kilgore served at the mouth of the Piscataqua. He came 
here from old York. 

Zela Holt served in the French and Indian wars and kept a 
diary. He also served in the war of the Revolution, and was at the 
surrender of Burguoyne's army. He was quite old when he came 
to this town. 

Moses Mason was in the battle of Bennington. He came here 
in 1799 from Dublin, N. H. 

Jonathan Bean was living in Standish when the war began, and 
he came to Bethel before it was over. He is said to have served :it 
Kittery and Portsmouth. 

John Grover was at Dorchester Heights and saw other service. 

Ehenezer Eames served three full years. He came here from 
Dublin, N. H., but was previously of Needham, Mass. 

Moses Bartlett, from Newton, is said to have been in the 

Enoch Bartlett, eldest brother of Moses, served as a teamster. 

John Holt served one or more terms of enlistment, but came 
.here before the war was over. 

Benjamin Brown was five years in the patriot army. 

Jeremiah Andrews was in the battle of Bunker Hill and served 
another term before he came here from Temple, N. H. 

Amos Hastings assisted in digging the trenches at Bunk',>r Hill, 
and was in the battle. He also served subsequently and atiained 
to the rank of captain. 

Jonathan Conn served in the Indian wars aud also in the war 
for independence. When a small boy, I greatly enjoyed his thril- 
ling accounts of contests with the Indians. He was at the surrender 
of Burguoyne. He was a pensioner and lived to be very old. He 
came from New Hampshire. 

Absalom Farewell, an Englishman by birth, served in the old 
war and also in the revolution. He formerly lived at Marblehead. 

Rev. Daniel Gould left college to serve his country. He was 
an orderly sergeant. 

Ezra Twitchell was in the battle of Saratoga, and iu several 
other engagements. 


John Walker served oa board a privateer aud obtained consid- 
erable prize money as his share. 

Benjamin Russell came here from Fryebiirg aud to that place 
from Andover. He served in both wars and was quite old when he 
came here. 

Samuel Barker served in the army and was detailed as tailor. 
He had the honor of mending clothes for General Washington, and 
told it with great pride after he came here and Washington became 

Isaac Russell served as clerk in the army. He perished during 
a severe storm of snow to which he was exposed, in Westbrook. 

Jacob Russell, brother of the Russells heretofore named, served 
on board a privateer. 

Others who are said to have served but of which nothing definite 
is known, were Thaddeus Bartlett, Jeremiah Russell, Gideon Powers, 
Col. John York, Solomon Annas, William Staples, James Sprague, 
Samuel lugalls, Asa Kimball, James Swan, James Barker and 
Amos Powers. 

Town Organizations. 

As already stated, many of the early settlers of Bethel had seen 
active service in the war for independence and their military ardor 
was imparted to their sons, so that very soon after the town was 
incorporated, the 3'oung men began to take action for organizing 
the militia. The first company was organized in the year eighteen 
hundred, and embraced the entire town. The first captain was Eli 
Twitchell, and the second Amos Hastings. The following year the 
company w as divided by the parish line, and the captains in the West 
Parish and named in the order of their service, were as follows : 

Daniel Grant, Samuel Barker, 

Jonathan Abbot, Elihu Bean, 

Samuel Chapman, John Harris, 

Thaddeus Twitchell, Isaac Littlehale, 

Timothy Hastings, Samuel Chapman. 

In the East Parish, the trainings were generally at Bean's Cornei 
or in that vicinity, and the captain's were : 


Amos Hastings, Asa Kimball, 

John Holt, Adam AVillis, 

Joseph Duston, Jesse Duston, 

Nathan Marble, Hezekiah Moody, 

Jonathan Powers, James C. Bean, 

Ellas Bartlett, Samuel Bird, 

William Andrews, AYilliam Goddard. 
Amos Andrews, 

A company of Light Infantry was organized in the West Parish, 
soon after the separation of Maine from Massachusetts, and the 
following were captains : 

Eli Twitchell, Walter Mason, 

Norman Clark, Edward Merrill, 

Perkins P. Moulton, Gideon A. Hastings. 
Jedediah Grover, 

A company of Cavalry was also organized in town and Nathan 
Twitchell was the first captain. Still earlier, an artillery company 
was organized, but a radical change was made in the militia laws 
of the State early in the forties, the militia, except in ease of inde- 
pendent companies, no longer being required to do duty of any 
kind. During the existence of the active militia. Bethel had several 
field officers : Amos Hasting was Brigadier-General, Eli Twitchell, 
Thaddeus Twitchell, Samuel Chapman and James Crocker Bean 
were Colonels, and Amos Hills, Peter Grover and William Andrews 
were Majors. 

The May trainings and the fall musters were gala days for the 
boys, and for some boys of larger growth, and there was no little 
disappointment and disgust felt, when they were done away with 
by a change in the laws. In those days, the holidays were few and 
far between. The circus had not then materialized, and except an 
occasional raising or a hauling bee, there was but little to call the 
people together. The training and the muster were generally made 
occasions of revelry, and as there was then no restraint upon the 
sale of alcoholic stimulants, there was generally a great amount of 
drunkenness. On the whole, there was probably more of evil grew 
out of them than good, and the doing away with them was doubtless 
wise legislation. For some years, no man could be elected captain 
who had not the means and the disposition to furnish drinks for his 


company, and this for a company of a hundred men was no small tax. 
Following is a copy of the petition and the signers thereto, for a 
company of artillery in Bethel : 

Commonwealth of Massachusetts. 

To His ExceUenaj the Governor and Commander in ChieJ\ and to the Honorable 
Council : 

The undersigned your Petitioners would represent to your Excellency, 
that the second Brigade in the thirteenth Division of the Militia, is, at 
present composed of two Reghnents of Infantry, is rapidly increasing in 
its numhers and promises soon to become a very respectable Brigade ; That 
in this Brigade tliere is but one company of Artillery which being located 
in the second Regiment a distance, at least, of thirty miles from the cen- 
tral part of the First Regiment, so that this said First Regiment has no 
opportunity of manteuveriug in conjunction with any Artillery, and that 
as a very handsome comi)auy of Artillery can be got up, and principal!}' 
from those who are now exempted by law from doing militarj' dutj' with- 
out reducing any of the standing companies below their competent num- 
bers. Therefore the subscribers respectfully request, that thej^, together 
with such others as may lawfully join within the bounds of the first Regi- 
ment of said second Brigade, may be organized into a company of Artil- 
lery and authorized to elect their officers and fill up the company. 

Timothy Hastings, Joseph Twitchell, 

Norman Clark, Caleb Row^e, 

Ezra Twitchell, Jr., Jacob Elingwood, 

Eleazer Twitchell, Jr., Abbot Holt, 

ROBBiNS Broavn, John Price, 

James Walker, Jr.. John Hastings, 

Charles Mason, Joseph C. Walker, 

Abiel Walker, Daniel Grout, 

O'Neil W. Robinson, Hiram Allen, 

Moses Mason, William Estes, 

William Johnston, Jonathan A. Russell, 

George Crawford, James F, Carter, 

Asa Twitchell, Aaron Mason, 

Calvin Stearns, Ayres Mason. 

Ebenezer Fames, Jr., Greeley Swan. 

Luther Eamf^, Bezaleel Kendall, Jr., — 

William Swift, Jas Beatty. 

Jona. Merriam, 

Approved : William Wheeler, Col. 1st Reg. 2d Brig. 

Amos Hastings, Brig. Gen. 2d Brig. 13th Div. 
Levi Hubbard, Maj. Gen. 13th Div. 

Bethel, December 29th, 1815. 


The following list of Bethel commissioned officers, is from the 
files of the Adjutant General's office in Augusta : 

Daniel Gould, Chaplain, July 2, 1807. 
Peter C. Virgin, Paymaster, April 26, 1813. 
Timothy Hastings, Quartermaster, September 16, 1813. 
Samuel Chapman, Lieutenant-Colonel, August 8, 1818. 
Wm. Kussell, Jr., Brigade-Quartermaster, March 24, 1819. 
John Grover, Surgeon, April 15, 1819. 
Thaddeus Twitchell, Captain, May 4, 1819. 
Ellas Bartlett, Captain, May 4, 1819. 
John Hastings, Quartermaster, December 5, 1821. 
Thaddeus Twitchell, Lieutenant-Colonel, July 5, 1821. 
Elias Bartlett, 3Iajor, July 5, 1821. 
Eli Twitchell, 3d, Captain, May 1, 1821. 
Timothy Hastings, Captain, September 8, 1821. 
Asa Kimball, Captain, September 8, 1821. 
Thaddeus Twitchell, Lieutenant-Colonel, July 5, 1821. 
Eli Twitchell, od, Lieutenant-Colonel, August 10, 1825. 
Norman Clark, Lieutenant, May 1, 1821. 
Asa Twitchell, Ensign, May 1, 1821. 
Luther Eame-, Ensign, ^lay 14, 1823. 
Samuel Barker, Jr., Captain, April 5, 1823. 
Wm. Andrews, Captain, April 4, 1823. 
Elihu Bean, Ueutenant, April 5, 1<S23. 
Andrew "Willis, Lieutenant, April 4, 1823, 
Ebenezer Eames, J2nsign, April 5, 1823. 
James F. Carter, Ensign, April 4, 1823. 
Perkins P. Moulton, Ensign, August 9, 1823. 
Elihu Bean, Captain, May 14, 1825. 
Ebenezer Eames, Lieutenant, May 14, 1825. 
• Eli Twitchell, 3d, Lieutenant-Colonel, August 10, 1825. 
Adam AVillis, Captain, May 14, 1825. 
Norman Clark, Captain, August 31, 1825. 
Ebenezer P^ames, Lieutenant, May 14, 1825. 
Amos Andrews, Lieutenant, Ma}' 14, 1825. 
Perkins P. jNIoulton, Lieutenant, August 31, 1825. 
Luther Eames, Ensign, INIay 14, 1825. 
Israel Kimball, Jr., Ensign, August 31, 1825. 
Nathan A. F^oster, Ensign, September 3, 1825. 


Nathan F. Twitchell, Lieutenant, June 24, 1826. 
Amos Andrews, Captain, May 8, 1827. 
Nathan A. Foster, Lieutenant, May 8, 1827. 
Hezekiah Moody, Ensign, May 8, 1827. 
Wm. Bragg, Adjutant, September 8, 1827. 
Amos Andrews, Captain, May 8, 1827. 
Nathan A. Foster, Lieutenant, May 8, 1827. 
Wm. Bragg, Adjutant, September 8, 1827. 
Wm. Frye, Adjutant, July 21, 1828. 
Perkins P. Moulton, Captain, June 21, 1828. 
Israel Kimball, Jr., Lieutenant, June 21, 1828. 
James Estes, Ensign, June 30, 1828. 
Jedediah Grover, Jr., Ensign, June 21, 1828. 
Nathan F. Twitchell, Captain, October 6, 1828. 
Wm. Frye, Adjutant, July 21, 1828. 
James Estes, Lieutenant, July 11, 1829. 
Chas. McKenney, Lieutenant, June 4, 1830. 
Amos Andrews, Major, November 27, 1830. 
George Chapman, Lieutenant, June 19, 1830. 
Nathan Stearns, Ensign, June 19, 1830. 
George Chapman, Ensign, March 22, 1830. 
Wm. Frye, Aide-de-Camp, March 12, 1831. 

War of 1812-16. 

At the breaking out of the last war with Great Britain, public 
sentiment was much divided. There was a strong party in almost 
every State that doubted the policy of declaring war, and the 
necessity for it, and the State Government of Massachusetts to 
which Maine then belonged, bitterly opposed the action of the 
National Government. But the people of Maine, more especially 
those in the interior of the State, were loyal to the President of the 
United States, and many towns passed resolutions sharply condemn- 
ing the action of Massachusetts iu refusing its support. Men from 
all parts of the District of Maine enlisted and served as regular 
troops, but the rolls are kept in Washington, and it is difficult to 
obtain information from them. Several served in this way from 
Bethel, and among them Mason Grover and Phineas Frost, who 
was wounded. When the Maine coast was threatened, a company 
was made up from Bethel and from some of the neighboring towns» 



and marched to Portland, and the following is the roll of this 
company : 

Roll of Captain Joseph Holt's company in Lieutenant-Colonel 
William Ryerson's regiment, drafted from Bethel and vicinity and 
in service at Portland from the 25th of September to the 9th of 
November, 1814, (with three days additional for travel) : 

Joseph Holt, Captain. 
Jonathan Powers, Lieutenant. 
Aaron Cummings, Lieutenant. 
Eleazer Twitchell, Ensign. 


Isaac Kilburn, 
John Atherton, 
Norman Clark. 

George W. Langley, 
Nathan F. Twitchell. 

Atherton, Ezra 
Andrews, William 
Annis, Solomon, Jr., 
Brown, Herman 
Bell, John, Jr., 
Bridgham, Bryant 
Bridgham, Jabez 
Bisbee, Moses 
Brigham, Luther 
Billings, Daniel 
Brown, Asaph 
Barker, William 
Barker, Samuel 
Bean, Jesse 
Beckler, Francis 
Bean, Daniel, Jr. 
Blake, Benjamin 
Bean, Kimball 


Herman Holt, 
Daniel Scribner, 
Daniel Chaplin, Jr., 
Josiah Brown, 
Ebenezer Colby, 
Joseph Willis. 


Hale, Israel 
Hersey, Caleb 
Hapgood, Sprout 
Haskell, Sam'l, Jr. 
Holt, Timothy A. 
Jordan, Wales 
Jones, Sullivan 
Jewell, John, Jr. 
Jewell, Lewis 
Kendall, Joseph 
Kimball, Isaiah, Jr., 
Kimball, Jeremiah 
Kilgore, Gabriel 
Kilgore, Elihu 
Kendall, Bezaleel 
Locke, Luther 
Libby, Samuel 
Morse, Mariner 



Bartlett, Ebenezer 
Bean, Nathaniel 
Beebe, Robert 
Cummings, Francis 
Cross, Ebenezer, Jr. 
Chamberlain, John 
Chapman, Timothy 
Case, John 
Coffin, Naphtali 
Capen, Timothy 
Cushman, John 
Dustin, Farnham 
Estes, John 
French, John 
Frost, Peter 
Foster, Jeremiah 
Frisbee, Austin S. 
Grover. Elias 
Greenwood, Nath'l, Jr. 
Grover, James, Jr. 
Grover, Peter 
Grover, Asahel 
Grover, James 
Haskell, Parsons 
Hapgood, Oliver, Jr. 
Hale, Charles 
Hale, Benjamin, Jr. 

Moffatt, Stephen 
Plummer, Josiah 
Page, Samuel 
Proctor, John 
Pride, Josiah 
Peabody, Asa 
Russell, Chandler 
Shed, John 
Sanders, Geo. W. 
Smith, Amos 
Sanborn, Nathaniel 
Swift, William 
Stearues, Charles, Jr. 
Stiles, Nathan 
Shorey, Urbane 
Sprague, El bridge 
Totherly, William 
Trull, Silas 
Twitchell, Sylvanus 
Twitchell, Asa 
Warren, Abijah 
Whitcomb, Paul 
Wheeler, Samuel 
Wetherbee, Jude 
Warren, Perley 
Walker, Joseph C. 

The Boundary Contest. 

In the year eighteen hundred and thirty-nine, it was reported to 
the Land Agent that a large number of lumbermen from New 
Brunswick were operating upon certain disputed territory on the 
Aroostook river, and robbing it of its valuable timbers. Thereupon, 
Sheriff Strickland of Penobscot county was directed to drive the 
trespassers away. He went to Aroostook with a posse of two 
hundred men, and the trespassers retreated before him across the 
border. But at the provincial town of Woodstock, they broke into 
the arsenal, and having armed themselves, they turned back to meet 
the sheriff's posse. They captured the Maine Land Agent, and 


Sheriff Strickland believing that bloodshed would be the result of 
the meeting of the opposing forces, hastened to Augusta to lay the 
matter before the Governor and Council. The legislature being in 
session, immediately appropriated the sum of eight hundred thou- 
sand dollars to defend the public lands, and the Governor ordered 
out the State Militia to the number of ten thousand. A draft was 
ordered and there was great excitement throughout the State. There 
was a draft in Bethel but no organization was formed, and parties 
were hired to carry the drafted men to the rendezvous at Augusta, 
(see abstract of town records for that year) . 

The Governor of Maine immediately dispatched a messenger to 
Washington to lay the case before the General Government, and 
Congress approi)riated ten millions of dollars to meet probable ex- 
penses, and authorized the President of the United States, in case 
Governor Harvey of New Brunswick should persist in his supposed 
purpose, to raise fifty thousand volunteers for a term not exceeding 
six months. On the sixth of March, General Winfield Scott and 
his staff, one of whom was the late Robert E. Lee, arrived in Maine 
and opened communication with Governor Harvey. The question 
of boundary was amicably settled in eighteen hundred and forty- 
two, and in due time the State received from the General Govern- 
ment the sum of two hundred thousand dollars as a reimbursement 
for the expenses incurred in defending the integrity of American 

There are many now living in this town who will remember the 
bloodless Aroostook war, but the majority of the people have come 
upon the stage of action since Governor John Fairfield issued his 
flanring proclamation announcing that "Our State is invaded." 
Later developments have shown that the affair was really a trilling 
one ; that the trespassers were in no sense sustained by the Colonial 
Government, and that war was not as imminent as many feared. 
To the enrolled militia who were obliged to stand a draft, it appeared 
to be a real thing, and the varied emotions as depicted upon their 
countenances as they put their hands into the box to ..draw out the 
slip of paper which was to determine their fate, was an interesting 
study to the outsider. It was a bitter cold day, and perhaps it was 
the cold that caused some to shake and tremble as they came forward 
to determine their destiny, but many were full of fun and the jokes 
and sharp repartees that occasionally shot out from the ranks, kept 
every one in fairly good spirits. After the draft, those who did not 

insTony of bethel. 93 

wish to go, found no trouble in obtaining substitutes and at low 
rates, so the draft did not prove so great an evil after all. The 
men went no farther than Augusta, and after remaining in quarters 
a few days, were paid off, discharged and sent to their homes. 


Travel and Mail Facilities, 

RIOK to eighteen hundred and fifteen, there was no post 
office nearer than Waterford, and the next nearest was at 
Norway. The marcli of improvement is nowhere more 
strikingly shown than in the improved facilities for travel- 
ing, and for the transmission of intelligence through the means of 
the mail. The first settlers of Sudbury Canada traveled on foot, 
making the journeys through the woods to Fryeburg, Paris, Norway 
and even to Portland. After roads had been opened, these journeys 
were made on horseback, a great improvement on the old method of 
locomotion. The earliest carriages were of the crudest and clumsiest 
kind, the bodies resting directly upon the axles, and a ride in one 
of them over the rough roads of the period was anything but a 
pleasure. Leather springs were the first improvement, and since 
then, the improvement in durability, ease and style has been steady, 
and has apparently readied perfection. In the early times, the 
mails were brought into Oxford county by post-riders who made the 
circuit on horseback, and lu'ought a mail from Portland once a week, 
when the condition of the weather permitted. The first regular 
post rider into Oxford county, was Jacob Howe, father of the late 
wife of the late John Adams Twitchell of this town. He com- 
menced about the year seventeen hundred and ninety-eight, to bring 
the mails to Bridgton and Fryeburg, and when in eighteen hundred 
and one, post offices were established at Paris and Norway, he 
extended his route by way of ^Yaterford where an office had been 
established in the year eighteen hundred. After a while, he came 
up by way of Gorham and Baldwin to Bridgton, Fryeburg, Water- 
ford and Paris, and returned to Portland by way of Poland, New 
Gloucester and Gray. Waterford was for some years the distril)- 


uting office for western and central Oxford. In eighteen hundred 
and fifteen, an office was established at Bethel Hill, and Dr. Moses 
Mason was appointed postmaster. The doctor often remarked in 
after years, that the most exciting moment of his life was when he 
heard the post-rider's horn and knew that the first regular mail was 
about to arrive at Bethel Hill. The excitement and enthusiasm 
among the citizens was greater by far than when the first train of 
cars reached Bethel thirty-five years later. It would be interesting 
to know the name of the first post-rider to this town, but it has not 
come down to us. 

The amount of mail matter In'ought into town was very small at 
that time when compared with what is brought now. No daily 
paper was then published in the State, and comparatively few 
weeklies. Stationery was expensive, postage high, and the people 
too busy to do much letter-writing. Nevertheless, the weekly com- 
munication with the outside world by means of the post-rider was 
pleasant, and an important era in the progress of the town. These 
post-riders were generally very obliging, and for a small remunera- 
tion would distribute the mail matter all along their route. For 
instance, before leaving Waterford for Bethel, he would take from 
the Waterford office papers and letters belonging to persons resid- 
ing on the way, and just before reaching a house, a shrill blast from 
his tin horn would announce his approach and indicate that he had 
something for its inmates. The next step in the l)rogress of carry- 
ing the mails was a single wngon, and from this, in a few years, 
came the elegant coach and four or six horses which brought us 
mails and passengers direct from Portland by way of Gray, Poland 
and Norway, twice a week, and this was highly satisfactory. The 
route was also extended up the river to Gilead, Shelburne and way 
to Lancaster in the heart of the Coos region. Those old stagers 
were a jolly set of men, but their responsibilities were great and 
they fully realized it. In addition to carrying the mails, they did a 
large amount of express business and were often entrusted with 
large sums of money sent by country traders to their creditors in 
the city. Among the early drivers through this region to the Coos 
country were Grosvenor G. Waterhouse, Oren Hobbs and Addison 
A. Latham, with a host of lesser lights, but these were the leaders. 
After the railway was built and the cars took away their occupation, 
they became railway conductors, but they have long since passed 
the stage of human existence to the unknown worlds beyond. The 


cars commenced runuing to Bethel iu eighteen hundred and tifty- 
one, and a mail from Portland for each week day satisfied every 
one. vSince then mail and transportation facilities through all parts 
of the country have steadily improved, and Bethel, actually situated 
seventy miles from the sea-coast, has by the acceleration of speed 
been brought very near to it, as near as is desirable. The following 
shows the postmasters who have served in Bethel, and the date of 
appointment of each : 


Moses Mason, Jr., January 5, 1815. 
Oneil W. Robinson, December 27, 1833. 
Robert A. Chapman, June 17, 1835. 
William Frye, March 31, 1846. 
Thomas E. Twitchell, June 22, 1849. 
William Y. Merrill, January 9, 1850. 
Thomas E. Twitchell, April 19, 1850. 
Sylvester Robertson, January 7, 1852. 
Richard A. Frye, April 11, 1853. 
Newton Swift, March 24, 1857. 
Daniel A. Twitchell, May 6, 1861. 
Abner Davis, July 13, 1863. 
Melville C. Kimball, May 6, 1865. 
Enoch Foster, Jr., January 6, 1868. 
Leander T. Barker, March 24, 1869. 
Samuel R. Shehan, May 28, 1869. 
Leander T. Barker, June 27, 1877. 
Oneil R. Hastings, August 19, 1885. 
George H, Brown, September 12, 1889. 
Oilman P. Bean, April 15, 1890. 

East Bethel. 

Timothy Carter, April 28, 1824. 
Hiram Holt, April 2, 1845. 
Israel O. Kimball, April 9, 1849. 
Charles E. Swan, August 27, 1851. 
John L. Dustin, January 23, 1858. 
Discontinued, December 28, 1858. 

This office was at Middle Interval, and after it was discontinued 
its patrons received their mail at the Bethel office. 


West Bethel. 

Jacob Holt, January 12, 1837. 
Henry "Ward, February 4, 1842. 
Gilbert Chapman, Januar}^ 5, 1854. 
Milton Holt, April 2, 1857. 
Alpheus S. Bean, October 1*J, 1871. 

North Bethel. 

Phineas Frost, March 2, 1831. 

Eliphas C. Bean, September lU, 1836. 

Discontinued, December 17, 1851. 

Re-established, June 12, 1854. 

John Hamlin, June 12, 1854. 

Discontinued, December 7, 1855. 

Re-established as "East" Bethel, October 28, 1862, 

Discontinued, October 13, 1865. 

Re-established, Septeml)er 24, 1884. 

Francis Carpenter, September 24, 1H84. 

Discontinued, January 21, 1886. 

Re-established, July 8, 1886. 

Eugene Bean, July 8, 1H86. 

Dana B. Grant, March 2Q, 1890. 

Elbridge Crooker, November 20, 1890. 

North Bethel. 

George C. Atherton, March 28, 1862. 

Orange C. Frost, April 24, 1865. 

William D. Hastings, September 30, 1<S68. 

Arvilla Swan. June 9, 1876. 

Discontinued, October 2, 1878. 

This otlice was situated north of Mayville and near the mouth of 
Sunday river, and took the name of the discontinued office at Bean's 
Corner. Former i)atrons of this office are now accommodated at 
Bethel Hill. 

South Bethel. 

Hiram Hodsdon, March 31, 1875. 

Lyman W. Russell, October 20, 1884. 

This office is at what was formerly Blake's, then Abbot's, after- 


wards Walker's and now Virgin's Mills, situated on the Locke's 
Mills road, four miles distant from Bethel Hill. The mail matter 
for East Bethel is taken from the cars at Locke's Mills. The office 
at Bethel Hill is the distributing office for Norway, Grafton, Upton 
and all the lower lake region, including the Magalloway country ; 
also for North Albany. Two mails daily from Portland and 
beyond, are now received at Bethel, and two mails from Gorham, 
New Hampshire, and beyond. 


Later Settlements. 

HE land near the Androscoggin river, and at the westerly 
part of the town, was settled many years before other 
^**^ p" portions of the town were taken up. The belts of interval 
were quickly appropriated, because the soil was rich, free 
from stone and level. The uplands next to the intervals were taken 
up for building purposes, for pasturage and for upland tillage. 
The east and central portions of the town south of the river, is 
much broken by hills and mountains, the soil is rocky and tillage 
expensive. The crops on the burn were luxuriant and cheaply 
raised, but when it became necessary to use the plow, hard labor 
and comparatively poor returns were the experiences of most farm- 
ers. When the Paris and Rumford road was built in seventeen 
hundred and ninety-seven, it passed through the southeasterly por- 
tion of Bethel and brought a few lots of land into the market. The 
road enters Bethel about half a mile from the southeasterly corner 
of the town, and after passing across the corner, enters Milton 
Plantation about a mile from the point where it enters Bethel. The 
road was originally laid out and built aloug a ridge known as the 
"Whale's Back," but in later years it was made to pass through the 
ridge over the bed of a branch of Concord river, and then kept 
along east of the ridge as still traveled. 

The first settler on this road within the limits of Betiiel was 
Francis Hemmingway. He was born in Boston, married Rebecca, 
daughter of William Godwin and settled in Rumford. He moved 


to Bethel as stated, cleared land and built a house, and after a few 
years, he exchanged farms with Benjamin Sweat and moved back 
to Rumford. Benjamin Sweat was the son of Benjamin Sweat, an 
early settler of Rumford, and his wife was Molly Harper, sister to 
the wife of William Godwin. Mr. Sweat lived and died on this 
farm and left it to his son Moses Sweat, who still owns and occupies 
it. Another settler on this road was Porter Kimball, who purchased 
the corner lot next to Hamlin's Gore and Milton Plantation. After 
a year or two, he sold out to Abijah Lapham of Buckfield, who 
came to it about eighteen hundred and twenty-two. His purchase 
amounted to nearly three hundred acres. The place has had many 
owners and occupants since, and the old house built by Deacon 
Lapham is still standing on the west side of the road, the first house 
on the left after passing through the Whales' Back, going toward 
Rumford. The sons of Deacon Lapham, John and Thomas, settled 
upon portions of this land, but they left it after a year or two. 
Isaac Twombly was another early settler here who did not long 
remain. Later James Daniels came from Paris and settled on this 
road, and also his son, Gilman Daniels. Enoch Estes settled upon 
a portion of the Lapham tract, and his sons still occupy it. In 
eighteen hundred and sixty-five Hobbs and Tuttle of Bryant's Pond, 
purchased the two Daniels' farms and made one of them, but they 
soon sold out. 

Caleb Besse of Paris, took up a lot west of the Lapham place, 
and near the Locke's Mills road that crosses what was once Hamlin's 
Gore, now a part of Woodstock. After him, Jedediah Estes came 
in possession and still occupies it. North of the Besse place and 
reached only by a settlers road, Tilden Bartlett, formerly' of Norway, 
took a lot and cleared up a farm. This was about eighteen hundred 
and twenty-six. He died here and his sons Benjamin, Abijah and 
Enoch Bartlett, have lived on the place at different times. On the 
Locke's Mills road across the Gore, near where John Buck of Buck- 
field once lived and more recently William R. Hemmiugway and 
Robert Bearce, is a settlers road leading into Bethel, to the farms 
formerly occupied by Isaac Estes, Hezekiah Moody and Stephen 
Estes. Moody was not the first one on his farm, but he was there 
quite early, and the buildings are long since gone. Still farther 
along on the Locke's Mills road, is a road that leads to the Bird 
Hill, so called, though not much traveled. There are two farms on 
this road early occupied by Joseph Cummings and John Buck, Jr. 


More recently the places were occupied by Elbridge Fifteld, Jared 
Young, and still later, Josiah Moody. East of the Rumford and 
Paris road, on the side of the hill, and not approachable with a 
team from the Rumford road, James Wilbur had a clearing and 
lived here, after his son was stolen from him as was supposed by 
David Robbins, near Rangeley Lake. After an absence of many 
years, the son returned as stated elsewhere, and then the whole 
family returned to Martha's Vineyard. Luther Locke, after his 
late in life marriage with Marilla Kenyon, also lived in this region 
and died here. 

The first settler on the Bird Hill, so called, was Levi Berry from 
Paris. He began on the place afterward occupied by Lyman Bird,, 
and his house stood a little east of the school house. His three 
sons, Levi, Jr., William and Leonard settled around him and the 
place was then called Berry Hill. His son-in-law, John Lapham, 
also lived on this hill. William Berry lived on the place afterward 
occupied by John Bird, John Lapham on the Samuel Bird place, 
Leonard Berry on the place afterwards occupied by Peter Ayer and 
Daniel Dunn, and Levi Berry's house stood opposite the school 
house. Eli H. Cushman began on the place next below the school 
I'ouse and died here. The family still occupy it. Farther on toward 
Locke's Mills, on the left, John Knight took up a lot and lived here 
quite a number of years. After him Richard Jordan had the place 
and he was followed by John Chase whose son, Jacob A. Chase, 
still lives here. Easterly from this place a fourth of a mile, is the 
place where Abraham Jordan began, and where he spent his daj^s. 
His son John had it after him, and later Moses Cummings. North 
of the Chase place above referred to, a little farther on toward 
Locke's Mills, is the place occupied many years by Abraham Bryant. 
He commenced here in the wilderness and by a long life of hard 
labor, he made of it a good farm. His son Benjamin had the old 
homestead, but sold out and moved to an interval farm near May- 
ville. Another son, Charles C. Bryant, occupies part of his father's 
old farm. Farther on from the John Bird place, Eli Estes once 
lived, and a good man he was. He reared a large family here, and 
died of cancer many years ago. The place soon after passed out 
of the family. Through the woods toward Kimball Hill, the road 
leads to where John Estes was living in eighteen hundred and forty- 
five and later. The place has had several owners. Daniel Pastes, 
a brother of p:ii, occupied the next place, and after him Nathan 


Hall. The road now sharply pitches toward the river and Bird Hill 
has become "Kimball Hill." Jacob Kimball had a farm here, and 
after him his sons Jacob, Jr., and Moses. The farm of James 
Estes, who was the brother of John, comes next, and this afterward 
became the town farm. Still farther down the hill and the last 
place before the Locke's Mills and Androscoggin river road is 
reached, is the place once occupied b}' Capt. AVilliam Andrews, and 
later by his son-in-law. Alonzo Howe. Near this place, a short 
road leads to the place once occupied by Chandler R. Duston. 

After leaving Rum ford Corner and passing up the river on the 
south side, the road soon passes into Bethel, and the first place is 
that once occupied by Hezekiah Hutchins, Jr., and now by his son. 
Hutchins was not the first occupant and who was the writer knows 
not. Along farther is the place where Richard Estes long lived, 
and his son Peter. Richard Estes of the third generation now 
occupies it. Samuel Goss was the first settler upon this land ; he 
moved to Rumfoid. Aaron Moor also lived near here and also 
Richard Dolloff. These also went to Rumford. And still farther 
along, Jeremiah Andrews lived. His place was afterward owned 
by William Goddard. f^lihu Kilgore once lived along here on the 
bank of the river, and near his place a settlers road turned that led 
to the farm of Job York, Benjamin Pastes and Samuel J. Howard. 
Joseph Peverly once lived on this road, and on a short road that 
branches off easterly from this, David Adamson lived. Returning 
to the river rOad and passing on toward Bean's Corner, is the place 
once occupied by Stephen Cummings, Jr., although not the first 
who lived upon it by several. Phineas Howard once lived here 
and Thomas Frost. Near this is a settlers road that leads to the 
farm once owned and occupied by John Estes, but for many years 
after by Peter Powers. Southwest of this farm, but reached by a 
road from the William Andrews place, were two farms once occu- 
pied by Phineas Howard, Jr., and William Bartlett. Henr^^ R. 
Bartlett succeeded to the latter and died there. Tliese two homes 
were situated where the outlook was grand and beautiful, but the 
place was bleak in winter. 

There was no road between Locke's Mills and the Androscoggin 
until about the year 1823, and no settlers except near the two 
termini. Solomon Annas, Jr., commenced on a lot just over the 
line in Bethel and lived here many years. Charles Crooker bought 
the i)lace some forty years ago, and his son Washington Crooker 


still occupies it. The next place going toward the Androscoggin, 
was that of Thomas Goss, sou of Samuel Goss. He bought two 
wild lots before the road was built, and cleared up a large farm. 
The next place and on the west side of the road, was occupied by 
Clark Kimball fifty years ago, and uow by Emery G. Young. A 
little farther along and on the opposite side are the buildings put 
up by James Lapham, who long occupied them The next two 
houses have been put up on the same farm in more recent years, 
and the next place, on the east side of the road, is the old home- 
stead of James A. S. Bartlett. He lived here many years, and the 
place is now occupied by his son. The next farm and the best on 
the road, is the Foster homestead. Here Eli Foster, a young man 
from Newry, commenced to clear land about the time that Thomas 
Goss took his lots, and here he worked and managed until he had 
one of the best farms in town. His son David uow occupies it. 
The next place was that of Ebenezer Bartlett, who occupied it 
many years and died here. His son succeeded to it, but sold out 
to Jared Young and left the State many years ago. Near this 
place a settlers road turns westerly to the farm of Jonas W. Bart- 
lett. Phineas Frost began on this farm and built the buildings. 
The road formerly extended to another farm where Daniel Hodsdou 
once lived. After him, Zeri Whitman, Thomas Farrar and others 
occupied the place, but it has long since been dismantled and the 
buildings taken down. The next one of the old places is the one 
formerly owned by Aaron Stevens, where James Dunley once lived. 
Afterwards Evi Needham owned it and lived here. Passing the 
Kimball Hill road and the place where the old school house stood, 
the next place is the one on the right lately occupied by Enoch 
Stiles and previously b}^ Timothy Glines as the tenant of Aaron 
Stevens. This is the last farm before the river road is again 
reached, and was early occupied by Nathaniel, one of the Bean 
family. He moved to the Magalloway. 

Leaving Locke's Mills and traveling toward Bethel Hill, the road 
soon crosses the line into Bethel. The first place is the one occupied 
by Benjamin Stevens. William Whitman first settled this place and 
subsequently several families occupied it until it was bought by 
John Stevens, father of Benjamin Stevens, who was the next occu- 
pant. A collection of small houses on the cross road which comes 
in near here, were built by Charles Crooker and his sons. Farther 
along is the Ethridge house, but not an old oue. Near Walker's 


Mills on the right hand side, a few j'ears ago, conld be seen the 
remains of an old house. This was built and occupied by Elijah 
Swan three-fourths of a century ago. 

The little hamlet now known as South Bethel was begun in 
eighteen hundred and three by David Blake, who built mills there. 
He also built a house which stood a little east of what was once 
known as the AValker house and which w^as taken down soon after 
the Walker house was built. The mills passed from the Blake 
family to Jonathan Abbot and from him to James Walker. Mr. 
Walker built the carding and fulling and cloth dressing mill and 
dug the canal which conveys water to it. This building was after- 
wards used as a bedstead factor3\ Ballard Hatch was the first one 
in charge of the carding and cloth dressing establishment, and after 
him Ebenezer Cram, James Russ, Albion K. P. Dunham and others. 
Stephen A. Russell long had charge of the grist mill. The oldest 
of the houses on the right hand side on entering the village was 
built by Phineas Stearns. It was afterwards occupied by Jonathan 
Blake and has since had many occupants. Mr. Stearns was a 
harness-maker and his old shop is still standing further along on 
the same side of the road. It was afterwards occupied as a store 
by the Walkers and b}^ Erastus Hilborn who sold goods here, in- 
cluding New England rum b}' the glass or quantity. The next 
place on the right is the Walker mansion, long occupied by James 
Walker, the proprietor of the mills. Nearly opposite is where 
Jonathan Clark Robertson, the old cabinet-maker lived, and the 
next on the same side, was built and long occupied by the old 
miller, Stephen A. Russell. Several houses have been put up in 
more modern times, but it is the purpose here to notice only those 
standing half a centurj^ ago. Across the bridge is the house once 
occupied by Ephraim Whitcomb, and the one occupied by Lawson 
E. and Lyman W. Russell. The mills here were built originally 
by David Blake. The sawmill a little up-stream was built by 
Samuel B. Locke. Passing on towards the hill, the Jonathan Abbot 
place is on the left. Jonathan, Senior, and Jonathan, Junior, lived 
and died there, and the place is still in the family. The school 
house stands a little beyond, and here a road turns which now 
extends to liean's Corner, but formerly only to the Chandler neigh- 
borhood and Swan's Hill. Passing up the hill, and once through a 
growth of wood, the first place is that where John Cushman long 
lived and toiled. It is now^ owned by John Chase. The next is the 


Moses Chandler place, now occupied by his son, and then the John 
Stevens place, afterwards occupied by Amos A. Young, who died 
there. Farther along on the road are the Josiah Brown, the Abial 
Chandler, the James Nutting and the Stephen Hodsdon places, and 
as the road continues it passes near where Urban Shorey and others 
once inhabited. Beginning again at the school house and passing 
toward Bethel Hill, the place on the right has been successively 
occupied by Benjamin Blake, Nathan Eames, John Needham and 
Ira Cushman. On the plain below, Dudley M. Needham built a 
house a few years ago, and after crossing the meadows and the 
brook, the site is reached where Tiiomas Cushman once lived. He 
was called "Beaver" Cushman because he located his house over a 
brook. Then comes the swell of land on which Solomon Annas 
once lived and which, excepting that portion assigned to his sou 
Benjamin which still remains in the family ; another son sold to the 
Blakes, who have retained more or less of it since that time. The 
John Case farm is next, afterward and long occupied by Isaac B. 
Littlehale, and this brings us considerably past the center of the 
town. With the exception of the river road from the Cummings 
place, this sketch covers all the roads and settlements in the east 
part of the town. Many changes have been wrought within the 
memory of those now living ; many comfortable hillside homes have 
been abandoned and dismantled, and where half a century ago was 
heard the voice of happy childhood and the hum of home industries, 
is now heard only the sighing of the winds through the old trees 
that once shaded these humble yet comfortable dwellings. The old 
cellar holes in many cases are still visible, and the mints and the 
worts, famous panaceas in the hands of our grandmothers, now 
flourish in wild profusion around them. 


■i A Chapter of Statistics. 

HEN in seventeen hundred and seventy-four, people of 
P^nglish descent came to this place to commence a settle- 
ment, only two settlements had been made within the 
original limits of the county of Oxford. One of these 
was at Fryeburg and the other at Turner. The region north of 
Poland and Minot was, with the exceptions named, an unbroken 
wilderness. When in seventeen hundred and sixty, Cumberland 
county was formed from York, there was some uncertainty as to the 
division line, and early deeds of Sudbury Canada lands often stated 
that the township was either in the county of York or Cumberland, 
and were sometimes recorded in one county and sometimes in the 
other. While much the larger number of the deeds given of lands 
in this town, were recorded with the Cumberland county records, as 
late as eighteen hundred and three, a deed before me of land in 
Bethel, given by Eleazer Twitchell, has upon it the certificate of the 
York county registry. The following shows the date of settlement 
of some of the older towns in Oxford county : 

Fryeburg 1 762 

Turner 1772 

Livermore 1 774 

Hiram 1 774 

Brownfield 1763 

Lovell 1779 

Porter 1781 

Waterford 1 775 

Buckfield 1777 

Andover 1786 

Rumford 1777 

Bethel 1774 

Paris 1 781 

Norway 1781 

Newry 1 780 


The western towns were in the county of York and the eastern 
w^ithin the county of Cumberland, and Bethel being near the center 
was claimed at times by both. Several of the above townships 
settled near the same time are not far apart, and at this date with 
our good roads and facilities for travel, the inhabitants regard them- 
selves almost as neighbors. It was far different in the times of 
which we are writing. There were then no I'oads connecting the 
different colonies, and no communication between settlement and 
settlement was possible save through the rough paths of the forest. 
Spotted trees guided the traveler between the different settlements, 
but when journeying to more distant places, he must depend on his 
own sagacity in part, and in part on the position of the sun, the 
course of the streams and the position of the mountains. Early in 
this century the question of the erection of a new county began to 
be agitated, and conventions were held at Paris Hill to talk it up. 
Finally, an act was passed through the General Court creating the 
county of Oxford with the shire town at Paris. At this day, it 
seems strange that such an inconvenient place should have been 
selected as the shire town, but centers of travel and of business 
were widely different then from what they now are, and Paris Hill 
was the wealthiest village in the county. The act creating the new 
county is as follows : 

"That the counties of York and Cumberland shall be divided by 
a line beginning at a place called the Crooked Kipples on the Andro- 
scoggin river, at the souUieust corner of the town of Turner, from 
thence to run westerly on the dividing line between the towns of 
Turner and Minot, to the most northeasterly corner of the said 
town of Minot ; from thence southwesterly' on the lines between the 
towns of Minot and Hebron ; thence northwesterly on the line 
between Hebron and Otisfield, to the town of Norway ; thence west- 
erly and northerly on the line between the towns of Otisfield and 
Norway, to the southeasterly corner of the town of Waterford ; 
thence westerlj' on the line between said Waterford and Otisfield to 
the northeasterly corner of the town of Bridgton ; thence westerly 
on the northerly line of said Bridgton to the northeast corner there- 
of ; thence southerly on the westerly side of said Bridgton to the 
southeast corner thereof ; thence westerly on the north line of the 
town of Baldwin and Prescott's Grant, to Saco river ; thence down 
the middle of said Saco river to the mouth of the river called the 
Great Ossipee ; thence westerly by a line drawn on the middle of 
the river last mentioned, to the line of New Hampshire, and the 
county of York and Cumberland aforesaid : That all that part and 
parcel of the counties of York and Cumberland situated on the 
northerly side of the line before described, and extending northerly 


and westerly so as to comprehend all the teriitory lying between the 
State of New Hampshire and the count}^ of Kennebec, and ou the 
northerly side of the line aforesaid, excepting the towns of "Wilton, 
Temple, Avon, and township uumlier three on Sandy river, north- 
erly of Avon, which towns shall be considered as belonging to the 
county of Kennebec, shall be and the same is erected into an entire 
and distinct county by the name of Oxford." 

The subjoined list embraces the original towns in Oxford county, 
the date of their incorporation, and the name of their first Repre- 
sentative to the Great and General Court : 

Paris June 20. 1793 Elias Stowell. 

Hebron March 6. 179-2 William ( ". Whitney. 

Buckfield March 16, 1793 Enoch Hall. 

Turner July 7, 1786 John Turner. 

Livermore February 28, 1795 Simeon A^"aters. 

Hartford June 13, 1798 David Warren. 

Sumner June 13, 1798 Simeon Barrett, Jr. 

Norway Marcli 9, 1797 Luther Farrar. 

Fryeburg January 11, 1777 John McMillan. 

Brownfield February 20, 1802 Joseph Howard. 

Lovell Xoveniber 15, 1800 Philip C. Johnson. 

Waterf ord March 2, 1797 Eber Rice. 

Albany June 20, 1803 Asa Cummings. 

Bethel June 10, 1796 Eliphaz Chapman. 

Jay February 26. 1795 James Starr, Jr. 

Dixfield Juue 21, 1803 Silas Barnard. 

Paunf ord February 21, 1800 William Wheeler. 

Gilead June 23, 1804. Eliphaz Chapman Jr. 

Newry June 15, 1805 Melviu Stowe. 

East Andover June 23. 1804 Edward L. Poor. 

The following are the names with the dates of incorporation, of 
the towns incorporated since the county of Oxford was formed : 

Byron January 24, 1833. 

Canton February 5, 1821. (Taken from Jay.) 

Denmark February 20, 1807. 

Greenwood February 2, 1816. 

Grafton March 19, 1852._^ 

Hanover February 14, 1843. (Taken from Bethel.) 

Hiram February 27. 1814. 

Mason February 3, 1843. 

Mexico February 13. 1843. 

Oxford February 27, 1829. (Taken from Hebron.) 


Peru February 5, 1821. (changed from Partridgetovvn.) 

Porter February 20, 1807. 

Eoxbury March 17, 1835. 

Stoneham January .31, 18.34. 

Stowe January 28, 1833. 

Sweden February 26, 1813. 

Upton February 9, 1860. 

Woodstock February 7, 1815. 

Carthage February 20, 1826. 

Weld February 8, 1816. 

Franklin county was erected in eighteen hundred and thirty-eight, 
and took from Oxford county the towns of Jay, Carthage and Weld. 
The town of Berlin, which was formerly an Oxford county town, 
was absorbed in the town of Phillips, and the name of Berlin was 
dropped. Androscoggin county was erected in eighteen hundred 
and fifty-four, and took the towns of Livermore and Turner. The 
following statistical table from Greenleaf's Survey of the State, 
shows the comparative standing of Oxford county towns in popula- 
tion, for the years specified : 


Toii-m. 1790. 1S80. 2S10. 1S20. 

Andover 22 175 264 368 

Albany 09 165 288 

Bethel 362 616 975 1,267 

Brownlicld 2.50 288 388 727 

Bucktield 4.53 1 ,002 1,251 1,501 

Denmarlv 436 395 

Dixfield 403 595 

Dixfield and Mexico 137 

Fryeburg 547 734 1,004 1,056 

Gilead 88 215 328 

Greenwood 273 302 

Hartford and Sunmor 189 

Hartford 243 720 1.113 

Hebron, including Oxford .5.30 981 1,211 1,727 

Hiram. 102 203 336 972 

Jav, including Canton 103 430 1,107 1,614 

Livermore 863 1,560 2,124 

Lovell and Sweden 147 365 

Lovell 201 430 

Mexico 14 148 

Newry 92 202 203 

Xorwav 447 609 1,019 1,330 



Towns. 1790. 




Kumf ord 


Turner 349 

Waterford 150 

























Educatioxal, 1825. 

No. of Xo. of Am^t Anvt PopuJation, 

Districts. Scholars. liaised. ExpotdciJ. 1825. 

Andover 3 173 -$132 00 $150 00 400 

Albany 4 126 120 00 120 00 307 

Brownfield 9 360 249 06 295 80 850 

Buckfield 13 706 529 50 607 16 1700 

Bethel 14 600 468 10 502 84 1400 

Canton 6 290 200 00 239 13 700 

Carthage 4 81 68 99 68 99 210 

Denmark 11 397 299 77 333 28 800 

Dixfield 7 400 240 00 240 00 800 

Fryeburg 14 490 400 00 490 00 1250 

Gilead 3 144 112 00 127 06 400 

Greenwood 9 255 202 00 g2 00 650 

Hartford 15 597 453 00 453 00 1250 

Hebron 17 716 69100 69100 1750 

Hiram 11 381 381 00 381 00 800 

Jay 8 482 339 23 417 29 1800 

Lovell 9 236 100 00 225 08 470 

Livermore 14 966 703 75 871 31 2400 

Mexico 3 109 100 00 100 00 225 

Norway 10 637 550 00 563 79 1500 

Xewry 2 160 122 00 122 00 340 

Porter 5 255 194 80 218 91 620 

Paris 10 817 700 00 830 08 2200 

Peru 6 205 152 23 152 23 450 

Eumford 10 413 306 96 348 99 1100 

Sweden 5 167 100 00 164 00 380 

Sumner 8 497 408 87 416 00 1200 

Turner 16 932 599 00 799 00 2000 

Waterford 9 394 344 82 414 96 1200 

Woodstock 8 211 150 00 16125 450 

Weld 5 282 200 00 200 00 500 


Agricultural Statistics, 1820. 


Andover ■ 



Brownfield | 119 

Buekfield 580 



Denmark . . 




Haitford . • . 


Hebron 400 


Howard's Gore. . 







Paris 580 

Peru 100 

Porter 71 

Pumford 221 

Sumner > 373 

Sweden . . • . 





















Weld 164 


























































































*Fryeburg had 720 acres of fresli meadow yielding 609 tons of hay. 

Titles to the Soil. 

The first eleven townships were granted by Massachusetts either 
for military service or for some other reason, subject to the usual 
settling conditions and reservations for ministerial and educational 
purposes : 

Towx. Acres. Grantees, &c. 

Bethel 24,278 Canada Township. 

Gilend 14,345 Peabody's Patent . 

Fryel)urg 26. .549 grant to Gen. Jo?;eph Frye for military services. 

Hebron «fc Oxford. .36,221 to Alex. Shepard, Jr., for surveying pub. lands. 

Jay & Canton. . . 20,905 Pliii)ps Canada ; in lieu of a former grant. 

Livermore 27,430 military service at Port Koyal. 

Lovell & Sweden.. 37,430 Capt. Lovewell and company. 


Town. Acres. Grantees, &c. 

Paris 23,971 Joshua Fuller et als., iu lieu of former graut. 

Turner 31,359 Sylvester Canada ; in lieu of former grant. 

Rumford 19,170 grant to citizens of Concord, X. H. 

AVaterford 21,192 Canada township, in lieu of former grant. 

The following are the Province sales of townships and parts of 

townships in Oxford county, and the grants to academies which 
soon came into proprietors hands : 

Town. Acres. Grantees, &c. 

Andover 29,433 S. W. Johnson and others. 

Albany 14,1.53 Joseph Holt and others. 

Brownfield 28,866 T. Cutler and others. 

BucMeld 15,959 Abijah Buck and others. 

Berlin 27,650 S. AVetmore and J. Abbott. 

Carthage 23,250 B. Ames. 

Denmark 27,623 Fryeburg Academy, &c. 

Greenwood 22,574 Phillips Academy, &c. 

Hiram 13,612 Peleg AA'adsworth and others. 

Hartford 1 8,821 Joel Parkhurst and others. 

Sumner 15,713 " " 

Dixfield 19,130 J. Holman and others. 

Mexico 12,712 " " 

Norway 25,22 Lee, Rust and Cummings. 

Newry 32,775 Sarah Bostwick. 

Peru 21,499 J. Thompson and others. 

Porter 15,693 J. Hill and others. 

AA^oodstock 24,194 Dummer and Gorham Academies- 

AVeld 32, 775 T. Russell, Jr. 

Howard's Gore 2,012 Phineas Howard. 

Fryeburg Addition 1,199 granted to Fryeburg. 

Bradley & Eastman's 2,800 

Fryeburg Academy Grant .... 4,147 

Xo. 7 23,937 John Derby. 

Xo. 8 25,412 Sarah Waldo. 

Hamlin's Graut 1,270 Cyrus Hamlin. 

Andover Xo. Surplus 15,960 John Ricliards. 

" AVest Surplus 11 ,696 S. Johnson and others.. 

A. Xo. 1 26,165 Phebe Ketchum. 

A. Xo. 2 28,.507 J. J. Holmes. 

Township B, (Upton) 25,600 Hounsfield & Davis. 

" C, " 21,074 Ann S. Davis. 

" D, " 20,500 J.Gardner. 

" E, " 20,600 J. Cummings. 

Xo. 1, R 1, " .... 22,.552 Moses Abbott. 



ToAVN. Acres. 

No. 2, R. 1, (Uptou) 22,080 

" 3, " " 29,440 

" 2, R2, " 2.3,040 

" 3, " " .30,720 

" 2, R3, " 21,000 

" 3, " " 21,000 

" 4, " " 21,000 

" 5, R4, " 23,040 

" " " 23,436 

}i Xo. 1, R 3, (Upton) 11,.520 

" " 4, " 11, .520 

No. 5, R2, " 29,904 

" 5, R3, " 22.717 

" 5, R,5, " .5.760 

" " " 11.520 

Surplns C 12,206 

Bachclder's Grant 28,822 

Tract liotween Hartford and 

TJvciniorc 1,280 

Nine Islands in tlie Androscog- 
gin river 214 

Sundry small grants 9,200 

Grantees, &c. 
Thomas Sewise. 

John Peck. 
W. & G. Gilbert. 
John Peck. 
E. Blake, Jr. 
Dunlap and Grant. 
Josiah Quincy. 
Samuel Watkiuson. 
Canaan Academy. 
Bath Academy. 
Huntington and Pitkin. 
Abel Cutler. 
Hallowell Academy. 
Farmingtou Academj*. 
John Peck. 
Josiah Bachelder. 

]Mon mouth Free School. 

^[onmouth Academy. 
Various Persons. 

The areas of towns in acres as here given, are taken from the 
returns of surveys, in the office of the Secretary of State in Boston, 
for all the transfers here mentioned were made prior to the separa- 
tion of Maine from Massachusetts in eighteen hundred and twenty. 
In many cases, the actual number of acres is considerably greater 
than these returns show. In the case of Paris, for instance, the 
area in acres as returned, was twenty-three thousand nine hundred 
and seventy-one, while the town as originally laid out contained 
more than thirty thousand acres. An important allowance was 
always made in surveying for ponds and rivers, often for poor land, 
and for the "swag" of the four rod chain. A township of six miles 
square, the usually limited size of early grants, would contain 
twenty-three thousand and forty acres, but grantees were always 
greedy and sometimes unscrupulous, while the government was 
generally lenient where the prescribed limits were not exceeded by 
more than one- fourth or one-third. The grant of Sudbury Canada 
was for a township six and one-half miles square, but to take in as 
much of the Androscoggin as possible with its choice bottom lands, 
the length of the town was made ten or more miles and the township 
before Hanover was set off embraced not far from forty thousand 



Prominent Bethel Men Deceased. 

Jedediah Buhbank. 

P^UEDIAH Bur]):mk was born iu the town of Grovehuid, 
Massachnsetts, July eight, seventeen handred and eighty- 
four. It is said that his great grandfather or perhaps a 
generation earlier, came from Scotland and settled in 
Massachusetts. The father of Jedediah Burbanlv moved to the town 
of Gilead, Maine, in eighteen hundred and two, and settled upon a 
line intervale farm where he reared his large family who, when they 
become of age, settled in Gilead, Bethel and in Shelburne, Xew 
Hampshire. In eighteen hundred and three, Jedediah Barbank 
came to Bethel and November eleventh of that year, he married 
Esther, daughter of Lieutenant Jonathan Clark, and settled upon 
the Clark farm where, with the exception of two years, lie spent the 
remainder of his long life. He was early appointed a Justice of the 
Peace and was in commission many years when the otHee was of 
much greater account than it is at the present day. All the early 
justice trials in Bethel were by him. He was a selectman for four 
years and held office for many years longer. He was much inter- 
ested in the prosperity of the town, and whatever trusts the town 
imposed upon him were ably and faithfully performed. 

For many years Mr. Burhank kept a tavern for the accommodation 
of travelers, and in eighteen hundred and thirty-three, he purchased 
the house on Bethel Hill built by Captain Eleazer Twitchell and 
known as the "Castle," enlarged it and opened a tavern known as 
the Bethel House. This house has since been burned. He remained 
here about two years, when he returned to his farm. He was one 
of the first persons to aid in establishing a Sabbath School in town, 
and in eighteen hundred and twenty-eiglit, he assisted in organizing 
the first temperance society iu Betliel. He united with tlie Congre- 


gational church in eighteen hundred and nine and became one of its 
strong supports. He was interested in educational matters, was a 
trustee of Gould's Acadeni}^ for many 3'ears, and one of the few 
residents of Bethel who rendered material aid in placing it upon a 
firm foundation. For his efforts in this direction, he is entitled to 
the lasting gratitude of the many patrons of that school, and his 
name should be held in grateful remembrance. In his intercourse 
with others, he was kind, courteous and geutlemanl}^ and received 
his friends with old fashioned hospitality. He was a skilful and 
progressive farmer and kept his broad acres under the highest state 
of cultivation. His first wife died July tenth, eighteen hundred and 
twenty-seven, and in January, eighteen hundred and twenty-eight, 
he married 3Iiss Frances, daughter of Titus O. Brown, Esq. Mr. 
Burbank died February twenty-nine, eighteen hundred and sixty. 

Baki'-olr Bartlett. 

In his day and generation, Barbour Bartlett, Esquire, was an 
active man in town and much connected with town affairs- He was 
the son of Moses Bartlett, who lived in what is now Hanover, and 
having married a daughter of Captain Eli Twitchell, he settled upon 
the Twitchell homestead. He was a selectman in eighteen hundred 
and fifteen and subse([uently, was town clerk from eighteen hundred 
and sixteen to eighteen hundred and thirty-three, and for some 
portion of the time, collector and treasurer. He also represented 
the town in the Maine Legislature in eighteen hundred and twenty- 
two. He was a Justice of the Peace and while in commission, 
married many couples and performed much other official business 
in the way of conveyancing and in trying causes within his juris- 
diction. He spent his days and died upon the farm below Mayville, 
afterwards occupied by his son Spencer T. Bartlett, and later by 
Benjamin R. Bryant. He was fond of agriculture and the out-door 
life pertaining to it, and kept his fine farm in a high state of 

Lieutenant Jonathan Clark. 

He was a Commissary in the army for a few months, but returned 
to Bethel in seventeen hundred and seventy-nine, during which time 
he cut the first hay in town which grew up the brook, opposite the 
steam mill. The scythe wliich he used is still in existence. He 
afterwards exchanged and obtained two intervale lots, one of 

' \'<^'i. 



whicli is the farm now owned by Albert L. Burbank, Esq. During 
the year seventeen hundred and seventy-nine, he built a plank house 
a few rods east of Mr. Burbank's barn. In seventeen hundred and 
eighty, he married Miss Esther Parker of Newton, Mass., born 
August twenty-sixth, seventeen hundred and fifty-three, and with her 
moved to Bethel the following June. They came on horseback from 
Newton to the head of Long Pond in Bridgton, and the rest of the 
way on foot. They had seven children, all of whom died of con- 
sumption. During the freshet in seventeen hundred and eighty- 
five, he made a raft of the great doors of the barn and carried his 
family to a place of safety. He made a shelter for the night oppo- 
site Mills Brown's house. The water came up to the summer shelf 
suspended from the beams, and spoiled his books and papers. He 
afterwards built the house, which is still standing on the hill and 's 
known as the "Frost house." He died August twenty-third, eigh- 
teen hundred and twenty-one. Lieut. Clark appears to have been 
an active man and enjoyed the confidence of the citizens by being 
elected to fill the various otllccs in town. 

Mrs. Clark appears to have been a woman of uncommon resolu- 
tion. When the Indians came to the house in seventeen hundred 
and eighty-one, and took her husband captive, she manifested such 
courage as but few men could have exhibited. After seeing the 
Indians carrying her husband away pinioned, she fled to the woods 
and there remained during the night all alone. The next morning 
she passed through the woods and went to the house of Capt. Eleazer 
Twitchell, where was the greatest consternation. She died February 
thirteenth, eighteen hundred and fifteen. 

George W. Chapman. 

George Whitefleld Chapman was born at Methuen, Massachusetts, 
on Christmas day, December twenty-fifth, seventeen hundred and 
eighty. When ten years of age, his father. Rev. Eliphaz Chapman, 
came with his family to Sudbury Canada and settled on a place on 
the north side of the river where he had made a little clearing and 
built a log house, the year previous. On this farm the subject of 
this notice grew to manhood, having been subject to all the priva- 
tions incident to life in a new settlement and early becoming ac- 
quainted with the hard work of clearing and tilling land. Becoming 
of age, he went up the river about four miles and selected a lot of 

116 lIlsroBV OF BETHEL. 

laud in Peabody's Patent, in what is now tlie town of Gilead, and 
here he established his home. He married Polly, daughter of 
Nathaniel and Mary (Mason) Greenwood, who bore him twelve 
children, eight of whom passed to tiie better land before their 
father. His first wife died March the seventeenth, eighteen hun- 
dred and forty-nine. Mr. Chapman was a thoughtful man, and his 
thoughts frequently found expression in rhyme, and this was espec- 
ially so during the later years of his life. On the occasion of the 
death of his wife, he penned the following lines : 

'■01 where i^; now my loved one "joiie":' 

I mis? her everywhere: 

I seek her hi tlie walks of life 

But no; she is not there. 

I seek her iu the grove tliafs ne;ir. 

Wliere we were wout to roam ; 

Anil tlieu I wipe the flowing' tear. 

And sit and grieve alone. 

.My home lo me is lone and drear. 
A place ot mournful gloom ; 
A wliis])er strikes my anxious ear. 
'Slie's yonder in tlie tomb! 
Hut Where's lier soul, her hettei' jiarty 
What answer ean l»e given r 
A more than whisper tells my lieart. 
'Nile's safe above in lieaven !' 

.Vnd say my soul, can'sr thou comiilainy 

I auswtM- not a word. 

Unt Join her sjiirit in a stiain 

Of glory to the Loid. 

And now my faitli and hope combine, 

God's gracious aid t' implore, 

That I ere long, may gi-eet her mine. 

On Canaan's ha]>py shore." 

In eighteen hundred and lift^'-one, Mr. Chapman married for his 
second wife Mrs. Hannali (Prince) Buxton of North Yarmouth. 
AVhile a resident of (Jilead, he enjoyed the esteem and confidence 
of his town's peoiile in a marked degree as was shown in tlie fact 
that for fifteen consecutive years, he was a member of the Board of 
Selectmen. In eighteen hundred and twenty he was a member of 
the Maine Legislature when its sessions were held iu the city of 


Portland. He joined the Congregational church when thirty years 
of age, and was soon after chosen deacon. For man}^ years he was 
a leading member of the church and one of its strong pillars. He 
had a good farm, was industrious, prudent and thrifty. He was 
much attached to rural life, and drew inspiration from nature's 
works so lavishly displayed in the valley of the Androscoggin. 

After his second marriage he returned to Bethel leaving his Gilead 
farm in the hands of his son, George Granville Chapman. He 
purchased the Clark farm west of Bethel Hill, which had long been 
occupied b}^ Rev. Charles Frost. He lived here a few years and 
then on account of failing sight, he sold out and moved to Bethel 
Hill. His sight continued to fail until, in a few years, the light of 
da}' for him was shut out forever. INIr. Chapman's second wife 
died in Bethel, April the eighteenth, eighteen hundred and sixty- 
three. The death of his wife was an irreparable loss, for she was 
not only his faithful companion, but he saw tln'pugh her eyes. 
When coal oil first came into use for lighting purposes, this is wliat 
Deacon Cliapman said of it : 

•'The kerosene is clear and bi-ight. 
It oven helps the blind to >;io])t : 
As man and wife are one : 
For I. throuo:li wife do ck'arly soe, 
Therefore tlie kerosene to me, 
Is brilliant as the siui." 

After lie became blind he dictated for another to write, early 
sketches of Gilead, a valuable contribution to the early history of 
that town. After his second wife died, Mr. Chapman divided his 
time between the old homestead in Gilead and the pleasant home of 
his daughter, Mrs. Brown Thurston of Portland. In each place he 
had every care and every attention which filial affection could sug- 
gest and bestow. I visited him in Portland in March, eighteen 
hundred and seventy-five, when he was nearh' ninety-five years of 
age, and had a very pleasant talk with him about a (fairs in Bethel 
during his youthful days. His mind w-as unclouded and his memory 
of early events something marvelous. His poetical compositions 
generally took the form of acrostics of which he wrote nearly a 
hundred. While with him on this occasion, he repeated several of 
them from memory. Soon after I saw him his health began to fail 
him, and he longed for the green fields, the flowing river and grand 


scenery of Gilead. There he was taken and there he departed this 
life on the twenty-ninth day of June, eighteen hundred and seventy- 
five. On the occasion of his seventy-fifth birthday, Christmas, 
eighteen hundred and fifty-five, Mr. Chapman, then blind, wrote a 
little poem in which he expressed himself as near the end of his 
earthly career, little thinking that he still had nearl}^ twenty years 
to watch and wait and suffer. A quotation from this poem must 
close this notice : 

''Hail I blessed Christmas, precious Avord, 
The brightest feature of my date ; 
The birthday of my blessed Lord, 
The glory of his advent great. 

I claim it as mij l>irtbday too: 
Alas I it's fouud me in the dark I 
I turn, its beauty to survey. 
And lol it says I must depart. 

My seventy-tiftb lias come and fled: 
On Jordan's l)rink I lingering stand, 
lieady to mingle with the dead. 
"Whene'er mv Master gives conunand. 

Tlien Jordan's sti-eam I'll fear no more. 
No more I'll dread tlie chilling wave: 
^ly spirit upward then will soar; 
To Jesus, who my sonl b;is siivcd." 

Timothy Ciiai'MAN. 

Timotliy Clutpman, the tliird son and fifth child of Rev. I^liphaz 
Chapman, was born in IMetliuen, ]\lassachusetts, February seven- 
teenth, seventeen hundred and eighty-three. He was a lad of only 
seven years of age when the family came to Bethel, but he well 
remembered, and I have heard him tell the story in his mature 
years, of the long, lonely and tedious journey" from Methueu to 
York, thence across to the Saco, up the Saco to Frj'eburg and 
thence by the old Indian trail through Lovell, "Waterford and Albany 
to Bethel. From Waterford there was no kind of a road, and only 
one team had found the way through before Mr. Chapman came. 
He remembered the log house twent}' feet square, with no partition 
walls, into which the family of ten persons moved ; he remembered 
the small frame house Avhich succeeded the I02; one and which was 



regarded almost as a palace, and also the mansiou house still stand- 
ing, which his father built still later and which was left to him when 
his father and mother had passed awaj^ ; all this he could remember 
and much more. He, as well as his brother, George Whitefield, 
could tell the fourth generation from his father, of pioneer life in 
Sudbury Canada, of the early settlers, how they toiled and suffered ; 
what self-sacrifices they made to secure homes for their children 
and for their children's children ; how from the day of small things, 
Bethel grew to be a great and prosperous town, with fine churches, 
fine dwelling houses, fertile farms, manufactures of various kinds, 
and more marvelous still, his adopted town to which he had come 
through the wilderness, brought en rajjjyort with the great world by 
means of the electric telegraph, and in close relation to the great 
business centers of the country, by means of the steam engine and 
the railway. All this he lived to see, and with faculties unimpaired, 
fully to comprehend their great importance. 

Mr. Chapman was three times married ; firstly, March twelfth, 
eighteen hundred and seven, to Betsey Barker, who died April 
twentj'-fifth, eighteen hundred and nineteen ; secondly, February 
twenty-fourth, eighteen hundred and twenty, to Abigail Blauohard, 
who died August seventh, eighteen hundred and thirty-seven, and 
thirdly, July fifth, eighteen hundred and thirty-eight, to Sarah 
Johnson of Farmiugton, who died June eighteenth, eighteen hun- 
dred and seventy-eight. Mr. Chapman inherited the old homestead 
and spent his days, after his majority, in the mansiou house erected 
by his father. He was an excellent farmer, a diligent worker, 
sagacious and prudent, and became an independent lord of the soil. 
He was genial and hospitable, a doer as well as a believer of the 
word, and in all respects a model citizen. He never sought office, 
but preferred the quiet walks of private life, and his chief objects 
were the care of his farm and the comfort of his family. He died 
July thirteenth, eighteen hundred and seventy-one, aged over eighty- 
eight years. 

Robert A. Chapman. 

Hon. Robert Andrews Chapman, eldest sou and child of Eliphaz 
Chapman, Jr., was born in Gilead, vSeptember twenty-second, eigh- 
teen hundred and seven. He spent his youth upon his father's 
farm, and attended the town schools of Gilead. He had a natural 
aptitude for business, and when still a minor, he found employment 


in the store of O'Neil W. Robinson, at Bethel Hill. His ambition 
was, as I have heard him say, to own that store and do business 
therein in his own name. Though the realization of his ambitious 
hopes seemed to him like something afar off, and perhaps never to 
be realized, yet it was onh- a few years before he acquired the store 
as an actual possession, and continued to operate it for nearly half 
a centur}'. He was very successful in all his business enterprises, 
and at the time of his death was the Avealthiest man in town. For 
many years, he and his brotlier Elbridge were associated in business 
together, and kept the largest assortment and did the heaviest busi- 
ness of any firm in the village. Finally Elbridge moved to Portland 
where he engaged in the wholesale trade, while Robert A. Chapman 
continued the business here, for a few 3'ears in company with Hon. 
Enoch W. Woodbury. 

Mr. CliMpman was one of the most industrious of men. When I 
was attending school in liethel, I was in the habit of occasionally 
rising early and going to Paradise Hill to have a view of the 
gorgeous sunrise seen from that point, and I never passed Mr. 
Chapman's place in the early morning twilight, without seeing him 
about his chores, milking his cows, and feeding his horses, or 
at work in the garden, and getting read}' for his day's employment 
in the store. He was correct in his habits, strictly temperate, a 
liberal supporter of, and a constant attendant at the Congregational 
church. Mr. Chapman was not a politician in the modern sense of 
the word. He never felt that he could afford the time to hold office, 
his own private business being sufficient to absorb all his time. In 
the time of the old parties, his sympathies were with the democrats, 
and as such he was elected to the State Senate in eighteen hundred 
and fifty, and re-elected the following year. When the third party 
in Oxford county was organized in the interest of prohibition of the 
liquor traffic, Mr. Chapman joined the movement, and he followed, 
when that faction became absorbed in the great republican party in 
eighteen hundred and fifty-five. Mr. Chapman was tall and erect, 
but rather slender, lithe and active in all his movements — a marked 
face and figure which impressed one at once as belonging to no 
ordinary man. His penetration and sagacitj', coupled with his 
activity and perseverance, would have assured success in any pro- 
fession or business he might have chosen, but he chose mercantile 
pursuits, and in his success outstripped all his predecessors and 
contemporaries. Probably P>ethel never had a clearer-headed busi" 


ness man t-hau Robert A. Chapman. He married March twenty- 
eighth, eighteen hundred and thirty-three, Frances, daughter of Dr. 
Timothy Carter of Bethel, and had a family of six children, five of 
whom with the widow are still living. 

Elbridge Chapman. 

Deacon Elbridge Chapman, third son of Eliphaz Chapman, Jr., 
was born in Gilead, June twenty-seventh, eighteen hundred and 
thirteen. He came to Bethel Hill when a young man and was long 
in trade with his brother Robert. He was more especially the man 
in the store, while his brother attended to the outside business. He 
was a man of strict integrity and his word was as good as his bond. 
He married Delinda, daughter of John and Lucia (Twitchell) 
Kimball, and had four children. Professor Henrj^ Leland Chapman 
of Bowdoin College is their oldest son and third child. Mr. Chap- 
man early joined the Congregational church, was chosen deacon 
and became a leading member. In the absence of the pastor, when 
a sermon was to be read, the duty generally devolved on Deacon 
Chapman, who was a good reader. He was a prudent and indus- 
trious man, a man with a kind heart and obliging disposition, a 
good neighbor and valuable citizen. He had a deep interest in the 
prosperity and welfare of his adopted town which he manifested in 
many ways and on various occasions. He was a quiet man, domestic 
in his habits and had strong attachments for home and family. 
Sometime in the fifties he moved to Portland and was in the whole- 
sale trade there, first in the grocery business and afterwards in the 
h-y goods business. He never possessed a vigorous constitution 
and after a prolonged sickness, he died at his home on State street, 
Portland, June twentieth, eighteen hundred and sixty-eight. His 
widow has since deceased. She was a most excellent woman and 
will long be remembered in Bethel, not alone for Christian virtues 
and blameless life, but for her fine soprano voice which for so many 
years was heard in the choir of the Congregational church. 

Eli AS M. Cakxkk. 

Elias Mellen Carter, son of Dr. Timothy Carter, was born in 
Bethel September eleven, eighteen hundred and eleven. Few citi- 
zens of Bethel have been more conspicuous in public affairs, and 
none have left a clearer record. He served as town clerk for several 


years, but it was in the capacity of selectman that he appeared at 
his best. He had sound judgment and unwavering integrity, quali- 
ties that admirably fitted him for the position of chief executive 
officer of the town which position he long held, and could have held 
much longer had he consented. He served also as Representative 
to the Legislature, as Executive Councillor, and as County Com- 
missioner, in all which responsible positions he acquitted himself 
with distinguished ability. He was long in commission as Justice 
of the Peace and in the trial of causes, was noted for his candor, 
impartiality and legal acumen. He always resided at Middle Inter- 
vale, was the "squire" of the little village and its recognized best 
man. By occupation he was a farmer, and devoted himself to work 
on his large farm when not engaged in public affairs. His social 
qualities were of a high order, and he was exceedingly popular with 
all classes. 

Phineas Frost. 

Phineas Frost, son of Thomas Frost, (see Family Statistics) was 
born in this town and spent the greater part of his life here. He 
was brought up to labor on the farm and his educational facilities 
were none of the best, for at the age of seventeen years, when the 
last war between the United States and Great Britain broke out, he 
enlisted and served until near its close, in Captain Hull's Company 
of the Ninth United States Regiment of Infantry commanded by 
General, at that time Colonel Winfield Scott. Near the close of 
the war, in an engagement, he was severely wounded by a rifle ball 
which was never extracted and which troubled him more or less 
during the remainder of his life. Returning from the war, he mar- 
ried Abigail, daughter of Josiah and Molly (Crocker) Bean and 
settled on Howard's Gore, now a part of Hanover, where he owned 
and operated a mill. A little later he returned to Bethel and en- 
gaged in farming. For many j^ears he was prominent in town 
affairs, serving as one of the selectmen and for many terms as 
chairman of the board. During those years, he had a greater per- 
sonal following than any other man in town. Every measure that 
he originated or adopted, he was sure to carry through, and in the 
many wordy contests between the upper and lower parish, he was 
ever the leader and champion of the latter. He generally adopted 
the popular side, advocating the cause of the poor, and this in part, 
accounts for his popularity and uniform success. He was a ready 



speaker, bold and defiant rather than persuasive, and pursued his 
object to the bitter end without fear or asking favor. When the 
town received its share of the surplus revenue there was a sharp 
contest over its disposal. Mr. Frost advocated dividing per capita 
among the inhabitants of the town and, after a sharp and long 
debate, he carried it through. He five times represented the town 
in the Maine Legislature, and of that body he was an able and 
valuable member. The last time he was not the candidate of any 
party. It was at the time when parties were badly divided and 
were being reorganized and the Democrats having nominated O'Neil 
W. Robinson, Esq., a very popular man and regarded as somewhat 
liberal in his views, the nomination was supported by the dissenters 
who afterward became Republicans. The district was composed of 
Bethel, and the towns and plantations northwardly and in the lake 
region, and as soon as the nomination was made and ratified, Mr. 
Frost, on foot and with staff in hand, commenced a pilgrimage 
through the district, visiting every leading Democrat therein. The 
result was when election came, that Mr. Frost was elected by a 
decided majority. 

When quite advanced in 3'ears, he commenced to clear up a new 
farm, the one a short distance from the road between the river and 
Locke's Milh, and now occupied by Jonas W. Bartlett. Here he 
erected a substantial set of farm buildings and cleared up quite a 
number of aci'es of land. His younger sons were now with him, 
but when they grew up they were not contented here, and as fast 
as they became of age went to seek their fortunes elsewhere. He 
finally sold out his farm and followed them, and in eigliteen hundred 
and fifty-six he moved to a rural town in Minnesota, where he 
engaged in farming. Later he removed to the shire town, now the 
city of Anoka, where he died on the twentieth day of March, eigh- 
teen hundred and seventy. His wife died October twenty-first, 
eighteen hundred and eighty-three, and their remains repose side by 
side in Oakwood cemetery in the city of Anoka, where several of 
their children reside. Mrs. Frost was a sturdy housewife and an 
excellent mother, and her large family of children were well brought 
up and fitted for the duties and responsibilities of life. This little 
sketch, with the portraits of Mr. and Mrs. Frost, kindly furnished 
by their children, will keep them in perpetual remembrance by their 
numerous surviving friends in this town, and will keep fragrant 
their memories in the years to come. 


Kli Foster. 

Deacon Eli Foster was the sou of Asa and Anna (Bartlett) Foster 
of Xewry, aucl was boru in that town. When he became of age he 
married Dorcas, daughter of Stephen Bartlett of Bethel, and settled 
on wild land situated on the road between Locke's Mills and the 
Androscoggin river, though at the time he erected his house, the 
road had not been built. His laud consisted of lowland and upland, 
and when he selected his building lot, he exercised that judgment 
and foresight with regard to future wants, not often shown by the 
early settlers. The spot selected was where the lowlands joined the 
upland, near a beautiful brook which comes from the hills at this 
point and meandei's through the level ground to Otter brook. He 
left the forest on the high ground in the vicinity of his buildings, 
which consisted largely of the sugar maple, standing, and they are 
standing to this day and constitute one of the finest sugar orchards 
in the town. On the hill east of this maple grove, he cleared land 
for pasturage, and the level ground was cleared up for meadow and 
crops. The broad area ol high interval, almost a dead level, and 
stretching away across Otter brook and to the hills beyond, attracts 
the attention and elicits the admiration of all passers by. Mr. 
Foster's education was somewhat limited, but he had natural abilities 
of a high order. He was a motlel farmer and a first class business 
man. His thrift, which was the result of lu-udence and economy, 
sometimes excited the envy of his k^ss fortunate neighbors, and 
even of those who were often glad to have the benelit of his better 
circumstances. He was kind-hearted and accommodating, social in 
his tastes and habits and rendered needed assistance to the poor by 
giving them employment at seasons when they could tiud it nowhere 
else. His wife was a helpmate indeed. .She was skillcvl in all the 
domestic arts for which the settler's wives were distinguished; 
carding, spinning and weaving both tlax and wool, slie furnished 
clothing for the household, lieginning with the raw material and 
ending with the made up and finished garments. In the evening 
after the household duties had been carefully attended to, she would 
sit with knitting work in hand, ^^nd it was marvelous to witness the 
numerous pairs of hose, linen for summer and woolen for winter 
wear, and mittens, she would produce in a single year. Mr. Foster 
was chosen Deacon of the Baptist church and was filling the posi- 
tion at the time of his death. He was a man of decided views, a 
st;.voug temperance mau. and a few years before his death, gave up 


the use of tobacco, of which he had loug made use. His wife 
survived him many j-ears, dividiug her time between the old home- 
stead occupied by her only son, and the home of her eldest daughter, 
Mrs. Ira Cushman of South Bethel. 

John Gkover, Senkh;. 

Among the earliest settlers was John Grove!'. Res[)ecting the 
genealogy of the family, an interesting communication from his 
grandson, Hon. Lafayette Grover of Oiegon, will be read with 

•'In late researches into the early lustorv of New England, I have 
quite satisfied myself as to what time our family ancestors came to 
this country, I find that John Grover, the first of oui name in this 
coimtry, was livmg in Charlestown, Massachusetts, in sixteen hun- 
dred and thirty-four. He was probably among the first who arrived 
after the landing of the Mayflower in sixteen hundred and twenty. 
John Grover had a son John, born in sixteen hundred and forty, 
(as the old records in Charlestown still show), whose oldest son 
John settled near Andover, Massachusetts, where our great grand- 
father James was lioi'n, Avho. with his five sous and three daughters 
(James, John, Jedediah, Eli, P^lijah, Sarah, Olive and Naoma), 
soon after the close of the Revolution, purchased extensive tracts 
of land in Bethel, iNIaine. from whom all of our name descended, 
who live in this town. Our great grandfather was a man of great 
piety and some learning, and was a deacon in the church. He died 
in Bethel, and was the first man interred in the old cemetery on our 
old farm. John Grover, our grandfather, was the second son of 
the family, served in the Revolution, was at the battle at Princeton 
and Trenton, New Jersey; returned home when the year's service 
expired, married Jerusha Wiley in Fryeburg, (who was a sister of 
the wife of General Amos Hastings,) and settled as a farmer 
at West Bethel. His farm included all the land upon which is built 
the village at West Bethel. Father was the oldest sou and called 
John, which seems to have been a family name for many genera- 
tions. Our ancestors came from England. The name is purelp 
English, and in m}' antiquarian researches into the genealogical 
history of the middle ages, I have found the "coat of arms" belong- 
ing to our family. The escutcheon is surmounted by a crest, and 
an arm, embossed, from the clouds holding a wreatli. There is l)iit 
one "coat of arms" representing the name of Grover iu all Heraldry, 


and that established beyond all question of dates, consequently there 
never was but one original head, so the descent is not questionable." 

Mr. John Grover came to Bethel in company with Capt. Eleazer 
Twitchell in seventeen hundred and eighty. He had a camp in 
company with Mr. Peter Austin on the farm now owned by Capt. 
Samuel Barker. He was engaged the next spring in making sugar 
and in clearing land. When the Indians came to Bethel, in seven- 
teen hundred and eighty-one, the}' visited his camp and destroyed 
the sugar he had made. He happened to be from his camp and 
escaped to the house of Capt. Twitchell, where he and the others 
spent the night, expecting an attack at every moment. The next 
morning he started without ceremony immediately after breakfast 
for Fryeburg, and arrived there, a distance of thirty miles, by noon. 
Capt. Twitchell soon after sent off a man on horseback, but Mr. 
Grover arrived there first. Grover Hill took its name from him. 

An incident or two of him is worthy of record. He was stationed 
for a time at Dorchester Heights, when the British occupied Boston ; 
a detachment was ordered to throw up intrenchmeuts during the 
night for the purpose of annoying the British in the city. A fire 
was incautiously 'ouilt which served as a capital mark for the British 
Artillery. They immediately commenced a brisk cannonade ; the 
balls tiew thickly. One arrested Mr. Grover's attention by cutting 
its wa}' through an oak tree near by him. Another struck a man 
in the chest standing close by, cutting him nearly in two. The 
detachment sought refuge in the rear of the hill where they were 
safe. The next morning a large number of balls were collected by 
the soldiers. Powder carts loaded with sand arrived quite frequently, 
giving the enemy to understand that they were well supi)lied with 
ammunition. Mr. Grover was one of the hard}' pioneers, Avell fitted 
to begin the world in a new country. A few years before his death 
he removed to fiercer, Maine. His son Mason was in the war of 
eighteen hundred and twelve, and being taken sick his father went 
to see him. This was in the direction of Montreal, but the father 
died on the way in eighteen hundred and fourteen. He had ten 
children. His wife died in Bethel, June, eighteen hundred and 

CuviER Grover. 

At the age of fifteen years, Cuvier Grover, son of Dr. John 
Grover, was prepared for college, but declined to go, much to the 



regret of his parents. He would go to West Point Military Academy 
and be a soldier, or he would be a merchant. Not being old enough 
to be admitted to West Point, he went to Boston and secured a 
position as clerk with Mr. Eben D. Jordan, now the head of the 
great commercial house of Jordan, ]\Iarsh & Compau}' of that city. 
He remained with Mr, Jordan two years and was rapidly promoted 
in business, until in the spring of eighteen hundred and fifty-six his 
father procured for him the place he wished above all others, the 
appointment as cadet at the United States Militarj^ Academy. He 
passed his examination for admission readily and took high rank as a 
scholar the first year of his cadetship. But in the second year he 
reached to near the head of his class, and held his place during the 
balance of his course, and his name was annually thereafter pub- 
lished in the Army Register as one of the five "distinguished 
cadets" at the National Military School, where on account of the 
exacting severity of the course of studies and drill, not more than 
one-third of the young men who enter ever graduate. 

His high scholarship entitled him to be appointed to the Corps of 
Topographical Engineers when he went into the army ; but he pre- 
ferred the artillery and was assigned to the Fourth United States 
Artillery as second lieutenant in eighteen hundred and fifty. In 
eighteen hundred and fifty-three, he was assigned by order of the 
Secretary of AVar to engineering duty on the exploring expedition 
through the region now traversed by the Northern Pacific Railroad, 
under the command of Isaac I. Stevens, then appointed to the 
Governorship of the newly organized Territory of Washington. 
This expedition as a leading object, was to examine and report 
upon the feasibility of the construction of a railway to connect the 
head of Lake Superior with the navigable waters of the Columbia 
river and the Puget Sound. This region was then a terra incognita^ 
inhabited only by savage tribes. 

Lieut. Grover took a prominent and active part in this explora- 
tion. Leading journals of the country expressed grave doubts as 
to the advisability of this effort to locate a line for a Pacific railroad 
in that quarter, for the reason that, if feasible grades could be 
found, the depth of snows and the inhospitable climate in the Rocky 
Mountains near the forty-eighth parallel of North latitude would 
forbid the operation of a railroad there. This objection was con- 
stantly in Governor Stevens' mind, and was the talk of the camp 
as the expedition advanced, without being solved by any obtainable 


informatiou. At Fort Benton, a trapping post among the Indians, 
they were told that no one, not even an Indian, had ever passed 
the Rocky Mountains in those latitudes in winter time. Lieutenant 
Grover proposed to remain on the head waters of the Missouri, 
exploring the upper branches of that river till the first of January, 
then cross the mountains in the dead of winter and report the 
climate and the depth of snows, if he could have thirty men to aid 
him. The expedition consisted of three hundred, all told, but 
Governor Stevens declined to make the detail, remarking that the 
proposed service was extra-hazardous and he could not order it, 
however much he desired the knowledge of these facts. Grover 
replied that he would volunteer himself for this work, and perhaps 
a sufHcient number of men would do the same. Stevens ordered 
his command drawn up in line and stated to them the proposed 
duty and the offer of Lieutenant Grover to volunteer for its per- 
formance if he could have thirty men to remain with him. He also 
stated to them that lie had declined to order au}^ men for such 
work, but if the number wanted would volunteer for the special 
service, they were at liberty to do so, and requesting such as were 
willing to volunteer to stejj two paces to the front. Four men 
stepped out of the ranks. And Stevens turning to Grover, said : 
"Lieutenant, you see you cannot have your men." Grover replied : 
"I will take the four." After much hesitancy, the detail was made 
and Lieutenant Grovei' remained with his small force surveying the 
Upper IMissouri and the Milk river for light steamlioat navigation 
and lines for railway approaches to the foot of the Rock}' Moun- 
tains, during the months of October, November and Decemlter, 
eighteen hundred and fifty-three. Then on January first, eighteen 
hundred and fifty-four, made his memoi-able crossing of the Rocky 
INIountains in the dead of winter on snow shoes, drawing his rations 
with a train of dogs hitched to sledges. This duty was performed 
in the midst of hostile Sioux and Rlackfoot Indians, and he and his 
few men stood many a narrow chance for their lives. He found no 
snow de[)ths over eighteen inches in his transit of the entire moun- 
tain range, and the climate of fair winter moderation. This owing 
to the trend of the main chain of tlie Rocky ^Mountains in these 
latitudes toward the Pacific coast, and the ocean breezes drawing 
eastward from the Pacific Ocean up the valley of the Columbia 
river and over the Puget Sound, effecting a decided modification of 
the wintei' climate in those mountain regions, as contrasted with the 


mountain temperatures farther south. So this great climatic prob- 
lem was solved for the first time, and the objections to the feasibilit}' 
of a Northern Pacific Railroad were removed by the report of Lieu- 
tenant Grover of his winter expedition of eighteen hundred and 
fifty three-four. 

In eigliteen hundred and fifty-seven, wliile he was serving as 
first lieutenant of a company in the Tenth United States Infantry, 
his company was ordered to dut}' on the Utah Expedition, com- 
manded by General Albert Sidney Johnston, for the reduction of 
rebellious Mormons. The captain of his company being reported 
on the sick list. Lieutenant Grover took command and marched on 
foot with his company all the way from the Missouri river to L^tah, 
though as commanding oflScer of his company he was entitled to be 
mounted, and he brought his company to the end of this long march 
in such good condition that he attracted the attention of the com- 
manding general, wdio when martial law was declared in Utah, 
appointed Lieutenant Grover Provost Marshal of that Territory. 
In this most delicate and difficult office, he conducted his duties 
with distinction, and to the entire satisfaction of his Commanding 
General. At the close of his service in LTtah he was promoted 
Captain in the Tenth Infantry and was retained on frontier duty at 
Fort Union, New Mexico, at a two company post, where he was at 
the breaking out of the war in eighteen hundred and sixty-one. 
Surrender was demanded by the rebel authorities of all United 
States troops and munitions of war then in Texas and New Mexico. 
While other posts were complying with the demand, on account of 
lack of force to resist. Captain Grover, taking instant notice of the 
situation, devoted all his resources to mount and provision his men 
for a long forced march, and burned and destroyed everything else, 
even the post itself. He then pushed so rapidly North that the 
force sent to capture him, after his refusal to surrender, was too 
far behind to overtake him, and came only to witness the smoking 
ruins of the destroyed post. After being reported in the news- 
papers as captured and killed, he duly arrived with his command at 
the Missouri river, whence he immediately reported himself at 
Washington. After receiving the compliments of the War Depart- 
ment on his exploit, he was tendered the Colonelcy of the First 
Regiment of Sharp Shooters, at that time just being orgauized. 
but he declined the special honor, preferring the broader field of 
the general service. 


At the breaking out of the late war he held the rank of captain, 
but was soon promoted to brigadier-general of volunteers. In that 
rank he served with the Army of the Potomac in the Virginia 
Peninsular campaign. Took part in the siege of Yorktown and 
battle of Williarasburgh. For gallant services in the latter he was 
brevetted lieutenant-colonel in the Regular Army. For like ser- 
vices in the battle of P'air Oaks he was brevetted colonel. General 
Grover was at the battles of Savage Station, Glendale, and Malvern 
Hill. In the northern Virginia campaign of eighteen hundred and 
sixty-two he took part in the action at Bristoe Station and second 
Bull Eun. From December thirty, eighteen hundred and sixty-two, 
to July, eighteen hundred and sixty- four, he commanded a division 
of the Nineteenth Corps in the Department of the Gulf and partici- 
pated in tlie occupation of Baton Rouge and Port Hudson, where 
he commanded the right wing of the besieging army. From August 
to December, eighteen hundred and sixty-four, he commanded a 
division of the Nineteenth Corps in the Shenandoah campaign and 
on October sixteenth, he was brevetted major-general of volunteers 
for gallantry at the battles of Winchester and Fisher's Hill. 

It will be noticed that (Jeneral Grover received no less than four 
brevet promotions during the war, all for conspicuous bravery. 
For a short time in the latter part of eighteen hundred and sixty- 
two, he commanded a brigade in the defences of Washington, and 
to this brigade belonged the Twenty-third Maine Regiment, in 
which were many Bethel men, and none of us will forget how cor- 
dially he greeted his former acquaintances, and how, when he was 
ordered away to the Gulf, we regretted his departure. Bravery 
always excites admiration, and in all the armies of the United 
States during the late war, there was no braver spirit than that 
which possessed and animated the fine and soldierly form of General 
Cuvier Grover. After the war, he took command of a regiment of 
regular cavalry, and as already stated, was most of the time on the 
frontier. The immediate cause of his death was hemorrhage of the 
lungs arising from pulmonary abscess, aftei having been a sufferer 
from nervous prostration for many years, unquestionably due to his 
long and faithful field services duiing the late war, and great ex- 
posures to which he was subjected at different times, as shown by 
the testimony of members of his staff" and medical officers of the 
army. In particular was he a great sufferer from facial neuralgia 
due to extraordinary exposure during General Bank's Red river 


campaign. He died at Atlantic City, whitlier he liad retired vainly 
hoping for improved health, June sixth, eighteen hundred and 
eighty-five. The official organ of the War Department had the 
following notice of General Grover's death : 

"Brevet Major General Cuvier Grover, Colonel of the First United 
States Cavalry, a distinguished officer, died at Atlantic City, June 
sixth, eighteen hundred and eighty-five. A native of Bethel, Maine, 
he entered the Military Academy from that State July first, eighteen 
hundred and forty-six, and graduated fourth in his class, July first, 
eighteen hundred and fifty. He was promoted Brevet Second 
Lieutenant First Artillery, afterwards assigned Second Lieutenant 
Fourth Artillery March third, eighteen hundred and fift3'-five ; 
transferred to First Lieutenancy Tenth Infantry September seven- 
teenth, eighteen hundred and fifty-eight, promoted Captain Tenth 
Infautry. He was on the Utah ex[)editiou of eighteen hundred and 
fifty-seven-eight, and on frontier duty at Fort Union, New Mexico, 
at the breaking out of the war. April fourteenth, eighteen hundred 
and sixty-two, he was made Brigadier-General of Volunteers, and 
served with the Army of the Potomac in the Virginia Peninsular 
campaign. He took part in the siege of Yorktown and the battle 
of Williamsburg in eighteen hundred and sixty-two, and was 
brevetted lieutenant-colonel for gallantry in this battle. For like 
services at the battle of Fair Oaks he was brevetted colonel. Gen- 
eral Grover was at the battles of Savage Station, Glendale and 
Malvern Hill, and in the Northern Virginia campaign of the same 
year, he took part in the action at Bristoe Station, and the battle of 
Manasses (second Bull Run) . From December thirty, eighteen 
hundred and sixty-two, to July eighteen hundred and sixty-four, he 
commanded a division of the Nineteenth Corps in the Department 
of the Gulf, and commanded in the engagements of Irish Bend and 
Vermillion Bayou (both victories), and participated in the siege of 
Port Hudson, where he commanded the right wing of the besieging 
army. From August to December, eighteen hundred and sixty- 
four, he commanded a division of the Nineteenth Corps in the 
Shenandoah campaign, and on October sixteenth, was brevetted 
major-general of United States volunteers for gallantry at the bat- 
tles of Winchester and Fisher Hill. He was wounded at the battle 
of Cedar Creek on the same day. From January to June, eighteen 
hundred and sixty-five, he was in command of the District of 
Savannah, and in March, eighteen hundred and sixty-five, he was 


brevetted Brigadier-General and Major-General of the United States 
Army. He was mustered out of the volunteer service August twenty- 
fourth, eighteen hundred and sixty-five, and most of the time after, 
was in active service on the frontier. July twenty-eight, eighteen 
hundred and sixty-six, he was appointed Lieutenant Colonel of the 
Thirty-eighth United States Infantr}', and in eighteen hundred and 
seventy, assigned to the Third Cavalry. December second, eigh- 
teen hundred and seveiity-five, he was promoted to the Colonelcy of 
the First Cavalry and held that position at the time of his decease. 
He was Inu-ied at West Point with military honors." 

Talleyrand Grover. 

Professor Talleyrand Grover was the son of Dr. .lohn Grover, 
.-and was born in Bethel, August tweut3'-nine, eigiiteeu hundred and 
twenty-two. He graduated from Bowdoin College in eighteen hun- 
dred and forty-three, and was among the first in a large class. 
During his college course he taught sometimes in the winter vaca- 
tion, and was a very capable and successful teacher. He taught 
one terra in Bean's Corner, a school considered rather difficult to 
manage, but he kept it through Avithout trouble. He had great 
facility in acquiring languages. After graduation he was Principal 
of Gould's Academy for a term or two and then opened a school 
for young men in Camden, New Jersey. In eighteen hundred and 
fifty-one, he was elected professor of rhetoric and modern languages 
in Delaware College, and spent sometime in Europe to qualify him- 
self for that position ; he was subsequent!}' transferred to the pro- 
fessorship of ancient languages and literature. Earnest in his desire 
for higher attainment and accomplishment, he visited the north of 
Europe late in eighteen hundred and fifty-eiglit. He was taken 
fatally sick at Upsala, Sweden, and died there June fourth, eighteen 
hundred and fifty-nine. He received kind and delicate attentions 
at the hands of strangers whom he easily made friends, during his 
sickness, who also took charge of his interment. He was zealously 
devoted to his work as a teacher, and was highly successful. His 
death at so early an age was deeply deplored. He was never 

Israel Kimball, Jr. 

It is always pleasant to speak of such a man as Israel Kimball, 
Jr., because pleasant things can be said of him without fear of 

/ ¥ 



adverse comment and without exposing the writer to the charge of 
favoritism. Such men as he are the salt of the earth, and the world 
is better that they have lived. He was honest, industrious, frugal 
and thrifty. He had an abundance of charity, but he bestowed it 
with discrimination and judgment. He despised shams in whatever 
form they were presented. He excelled in everything he undertook 
and as farming was his chief employment, he was one of the very 
best in town. He studied it in all its branches, and sought for the 
best results in which he generally succeeded. Inheriting the broad 
acres of his father at Middle Interval, he kept the farm in the 
highest state of cultivation. He was a man whom everybody re- 
spected, and in whose integrity every one had the fullest confidence. 
He never sought office much, preferring to devote his whole time to 
the care of his farm, but he was often elected on the Board of 
Selectmen and urged to serve. In this position, he always acquitted 
himself with honor and to the entire satisfaction of the people of 
the town. In the neighborhood and town, he was peaceable and a 
peacemaker ; in his family he was kind and indulgent, and to visitors 
or strangers within his gates, he was courteous and hospitable. I 
speak from knowledge, having spent many pleasant hours beneath 
his roof-tree. His wife, Sarah (Webber) Kimball, was a most 
excellent woman, a model Christian mother, and an ornament to 
her sex. The lives of this couple were a constant inspiration to the 
people of the town, leading them onward to higher attainment in all 
that pertains to domestic and country life. Mrs. Kimball survived 
her husband quite a number of years, and both attained to a good 
old age. 

Ira C. Kimball. 

One of the most successful men of Bethel and one whose name 
was ever the synonym of integrity and honor, was Ira Crocker 
Kimball. He was the son of Israel Kimball of Middle Intervale, 
and was brought up on his father's farm. He came to Bethel Hill 
quite early and engaged in trade. His store was the northerly one 
of the block which was burned in war time, and which has been 
rebuilt. He lived in a house north of the store which was after- 
ward occupied by Winslow Heywood and which was destroyed by 
tire the same time as the store. Afterward Mr. Kimball bought, 
remodeled and occupied the house on the corner of the Common and 
Church street, which was afterward occupied and is still the property 


of William E. Skillings. In this store, Mr. Kimball bad a loDg and 
successful business career. He also engaged in outside business, 
dealing somewhat in wild lands and became forehanded. He was 
somewhat conservative in his views and acts, always proceeded 
with deliberation, but his sound judgment was rarely at fault, aud 
his well balanced mind could generally be relied upon in matters of 
business, or upon the public issues of the day. He aided in organ- 
izing the Republican party in the town and county, and in the 
councils of the party his views had great weight. He was the first 
Republican elected to the Legislature from Bethel, and while not a 
talking member, his opinions upon questions of party policy were 
sought after and generally heeded. He rendered substantial aid in 
organizing the Universalist society in Bethel, and in erecting the 
church edifice, and was ever one of its most faithful and active 
members. In war time, his loyalty to the government was given 
without reserve aud his eldest son enlisted early and served nearly 
throughout the struggle. Mr. Kimball's health soon after began to 
fail and he went South hoping to regain it, but the disease had 
taken too firm hold and soon carried him away. 

John Knir.ALL. 

Deacon John Kimliall was born in Pembroke, New Hampshire, 
in seventeen hundred and eighty-three. In eighteen hundred and 
thirteen, he came to Bethel and married Lucia, daughter of Eli 
Twitchell. He was by occupation a farmer, a quiet, undemonstra- 
tive man, yet a man of sterling character and worth. He was best 
known as chorister at the Congregational church for nearly two 
generations. He had a smooth voice of remarkable depth and 
fullness, and in the singer's gallery he was ever master of the situa- 
tion. "When he sang bass, his daughter, Belinda Chapman, the 
soprano, and Mrs. Susie True the alto, it would have been extremely 
difficult to have found better music in any country choir. For many 
years his residence was nearly opposite the academy, and he and his 
wife were well known to the studeuts attending. He died March 
the second, eighteen hundred and sixt3'-three. 

Samuel Baukon Locke. 

The ancestor of the Locke families who have lived in this town 
was William, who came early to this country from England and 


settled in Woburn, Massachusetts. Numbers of his posterity have 
lived in New Hampshire and among others was James, the father 
of the subject of this notice. Samuel B. Locke married Hannah, 
daugliter of William Russell of Fryeburg, and before coming to 
Bethel, had lived in Thetford, Vermont, Lemster and Newport, 
New Hampshire, and in Fryeburg, Maine. His fourth child was 
born in Fryeburg in seventeen hundred and ninety-five, and his 
sixth in Bethel in seventeen hundred and ninety-seven, therefore 
the family must have come to this town between these two dates. 
He settled on Sunday river on the farm still owned and occupied 
by his descendants. He was by occupation a millwright and a man 
of much energy and capacity. He was a natural mechanic, and his 
uncommon ability in this direction was inherited in a greater or less 
degree by his sons. The improvement of water power by the erec- 
tion of mills of various kinds, occupied much of his mind and time, 
and such a man is always a valuable acquisition to any new settle- 
ment. He erected mills on the Sunday river in Bethel and also in 
what is known as Ketchum, and was employed by various parties to 
build mills in other places. About the year eighteen hundred and six- 
teen, fires in the woods killed vast quantities of timber which, if not 
utilized at once, would decay and be spoiled. This induced Mr. 
Locke to buy a tract of land, and erect mills on the outlet of certain 
ponds in Greenwood and ^yoodstock, which outlet has since borne 
the name of Alder river. These mills have since that time borne 
the name of the builder and owner, and are situated in Greenwood 
about half a mile from Bethel south line. Though spending much 
of his time at the Greenwood Mills, Mr. Locke continued to reside 
in Bethel, where he cleared up a good farm. He was of a philoso- 
phical turn of mind and far in advance of his time, in his ideas of 
the natural sciences, and even in matters pertaining to natural and 
revealed religion. He was somewhat eccentric in his habits, and 
stories of his peculiarities have come down to us, doubtless greatly 

John Locke. 

Dr. John Locke was not born in Bethel, but his parents moved 
here when he was a child, and he spent his youth and early manhood 
here. He was the son of Samuel Barron and Hannah (Kussell) 
Locke and was born in Lempster, New Hampshire, February nine- 
teenth, seventeen hundred and ninety-two. He came with his 


parents to Fryeburg, and from there to Bethel, when he was four 
years of age. He was remarkably precocious, and at that early age 
when most boys thhik of nothing but eating, sleeping and play, he 
was studying the problems of nature presented in the lavish display 
around him. He showed strong native talent especially in the 
direction of mathematics and the natural sciences. He was a great 
lover of nature in all her moods. He studied botany in the fields 
and woods bordering the Sunday and the Androscoggin rivers, and 
became proficient without the aid of books or teachers. At an early 
age, he published a text book on botany which was much admired 
for the simplicity of its arrangement, and for the large number of 
specimens described, all of which he had gathered, and examined. 

He finally made his way to Bridgton where he made the acquain- 
tance of Seba Smith, and they became close friends. Afterwards, 
when Smith published his "Jack Downing" letters, Locke remarked 
of them, that "it was the easiest thing for Jack to write them for it 
was his chimney corner language." Smith might have retorted on 
Locke that it was easy for him to be a philosopher and scientist, 
for his mind dwelt upon nothing else. Dr. Locke concluded not to 
go to college, for the regular college course in those days embraced 
many studies that were not practical, and so he entered upon the 
study of medicine as embracing many of the studies in which he had 
a deep interest. He was at Dartmouth College for a time, and then 
took his degree from the medical department of Yale. He entered 
the navy as surgeon, but the sanitary arrangements on board the 
ships of the United States Navy were so slack, and failing to effect 
the needed reform, he abandoned the position. During the trip 
which he was to have taken, ship fever broke out and many valua- 
ble lives were sacrificed, thus proving the wisdom of his suggestions, 
and the loss to the government in not heeding them. 

His varied attainments and his aptitude for teaching, naturally 
led him to adopt this as an occupation, and for this purpose he 
went South and engaged as assistant teacher in an academy at 
Lexington, Kentucky. In eighteen hundred and twentj^-two, when 
thirty years of age, he crossed the Ohio and established a female 
academy at Cincinnati, which for many years was one of the best 
and most successful schools in the west. His school was patronized 
by the first families in the South and West, and among his pupils 
were the daughters of Henry Clay and of many other distinguished 


lu eighteen hundred and thirty-six, he was chosen Professor of 
Chemistry and Pharmacy in the Ohio Medical College, and his 
lectures in a short time gave that institution a reputation and a 
popularity which it had never before enjoyed. He was an original 
thinker and investigator, and declining to follow the beaten paths 
of others, he achieved results by his own methods. He was con- 
nected with the college for seventeen years, and besides attending 
to his duties there, he performed a vast amount of other work. He 
devoted his life to science, and the good he accomplished, and the 
wonderful results he achieved, will be remembered as long as the 
English language is spoken. He was employed by the government 
in surveying the mineral lands around Lake Superior, more especi- 
ally for the development of the mines of copper, and his reports 
will be models for all time. He also made exhaustive geological 
surveys of the States of Ohio and Iowa. This work added greatly 
to his reputation, and his reports are still valuable works of reference. 

Dr. Locke's published works, besides reports of surveys just 
spoken of, consist of his work on botany already referred to, "An 
Account of a large Thermascopic Galvanometer" published in the 
London Philosophical Magazine in eighteen hundred and thirt}'- 
seven ; a valuable report on the explosion of the steamboat Morelle,. 
in eighteen hundred and forty ; papers on the magnetism of the 
United States published in the Transactions of the American Phil- 
osophical Society, and papers on various topics published in Silli- 
man's Journal and in the reports of the Smithsonian Institution at 
Washington. Dr. Locke also had an inventive mind, and by the 
study of horology in connection with the science of magnetism, he 
invented the famous clock which he called the "chronograph," and 
which is still in use in the observatory at AVashingtou. For this 
unique invention. Congress gave Dr. Locke the generous sum of 
ten thousand dollars. The appropriation was suggested by Hon. 
Thomas Corwin, then a member of the United States Senate, and 
Professor Locke's close friend. He was much attached to his 
adopted home, where he resided for more than thirty years, watch- 
ing its growth from a struggling hamlet, to a great and beautiful 
city. Here in eighteen hundred and twenty-five, he married Mar}^ 
Morris of Newark, New Jersey, a pupil of his school. She was a 
most amiable lady and his domestic life was a very happy one. 
They reared a large and interesting family, but one son died young 
and two in early manhood. 


Doctor Locke was a most agreeable and entertaining friend and 
companion. His fund of knowledge upon almost any subject of 
importance, seemed to be inexhaustible. After he settled down in 
Cincinnati, he did not visit his relatives in Maine until he had a large 
family and several grown up children. His reputation, though, had 
reached here and had become national. I well remember when the 
family made their first visit here, and the impression made upon me 
by Dr. Locke. He was a man of fine presence, his countenance 
benignant and open, his hair silvered with gray, in all respects a 
rare specimen of well developed manhood. He had a winning way, 
and a remarkably pleasant voice, and I was at once attracted to 
him as I had never been to any man before, and have never been 
since. When his father deeded the Locke's Mills property to his 
son, Samuel B. Locke, Jr., he reserved a lot to be selected for a 
cemetery, and at the time of Dr. Locke's second visit, the lot had 
not been fixed upon. But it was selected while he was there, and 
I assisted him in laying and staking it out, providing for avenues 
and winding walks, which, had the plan been carried out, would 
have made of it a beautiful place. I remember on that occasion 
how the pebbly ridges, the ravines, the swamps and even the wild 
flowers, formed texts from which he charmingly discoursed, and 
how entranced I hung upon his words and ideas, many of which I 
have not forgotten to this day. The family visit to Maine was 
several times repeat ii I. :\nd w:is mutually enjoyed. But while here, 
Dr. Locke was never idle. He climbed the highest mountains, 
studied their structure and mapped out geologically the entire range 
in Northern Oxford. On his plan he named the mountain in Graf- 
ton wliich is usually called Speckled Mountain, or Old Spec, Lincoln 
Peak, in honor of Governor Lincoln, who had been one of his early 
friends. I well remember an occasion when he led a small party of 
us from Maple Grove, this being the name he gave to the old home- 
stead, to the top of Barker's Mountain, which is twenty-five hundred 
feet above the sea level. The task was a trying one for Professor 
Locke, whose health even then had begun to decline, but his enthu- 
siasm buoyed him up, and when we reached the summit and first 
caught a glimpse of the extended and varied vistas disclosed in 
every direction, Professor Locke was in an ecstacy of delight, and 
the way he raphsodized the Androscoggin river which, like a silver 
thread could be traced through the vast expanse of emerald meadow, 
thrilled us all. He had with him a theodolite with which he took 


the measurement of all the important mountains in sight. 

Dr. Locke had a broad vein of humor and could understand and 
appreciate the ridiculous, as well as those whose minds are less 
absorbed in the study and solution of great problems in nature. 
He also had wonderful powers of mimicry, and though 1 do not 
think he often indulged in it, yet when among friends he would 
sometimes imitate in facial expression, in voice and manner, some 
of the characters in Bethel and Newry which he had known when a 
boy, in a wonderful manner, and in a manner to convulse his hearers 
with mirth. He was generally thoughtful, sober and sedate, and it 
was only on rare and exceptional occasions that he indulged in 
anythiug light or trivial. He was a great and good man, a man 
with a wider and more lasting reputation than any who has ever gone 
out from Bethel, a reputation that is not limited to English speak- 
ing people, but is as broad as the civilized world. The following- 
words written in eulogy by one who knew him well are appropriate 
in this connection: "After almost a half century of unremitting 
exertion, intense application and constant research, he has been per- 
mitted to lay aside his toil-stained garments and assume the spotless 
robes of never-ending rest. The gifted man of science, the pro- 
found scholar, the learned gentleman and amiable citizen who con- 
ferred benefits by his teachings and by his private worth, and excited 
admiration alike by his genius and generous qualities of heart, has 
passed from the sphere of action, he so long and so eminently 

Dr. Locke was in correspondence with the great scientists of the 
world, with Lyell, Liebig, and others, and on many points he was 
a recognized authority. His mathematical genius united with great 
mechanical skill, enabled him to construct the most delicate instru- 
ments for use in magnetism and electricity, in his own laboratory. 
He had the eye and the tastes of an artist, and all his numerous 
drawings are wonderfully true to nature. Dr. Locke died at his 
home in Cincinnati July tenth, eighteen hundred and fiftj'-six, aged 
sixty-four years. He was comparatively a young man when he died, 
but he developed so young that his work- life was really long. His 
precocity coupled with his incessant mental labor, no doubt had a 
tendency to shorten his days. Rarely has a public man been more 
sincerely mourned. Scientific bodies and medical schools all over 
the country passed resolutions of regret. He was much attached 
to his family, and to them the loss was irreparable. 



On one of his visits to the old Locke homestead, he composed for 
the family the following lines which were set to music (America) 
and illustrated with a cut of the Locke mansion : 




AVe eanie from distant lauds 
To join our friendly hands 

With those we love ; 
And here, midst friendship's flow, 
We've all been blest below 
With joys which angels know 

In i-oahns above. 

Here, wliere our niotlier's tears. 
Her liopes, her toils, her fears. 

For us were given ; 
A joyous, youthful train. 
Have found, o'er liill and plain. 
The golden age again, 

The gift of Ilea von. 

Here, wliere tlie rocks and liills, 
Tlie groves and Icajjing rills. 

In beauty sliinc : 
And lofty mountains rise 
Up t'wards their kindred skies, 
Witli wliich llieir grandeur vies, 

In looks sublini<> : 

I\ . 
The spiry tir-trec breathes 
From out pei-cimial leaves. 

Its odors sweet ; 
The nun-muring pine-trees tower 
x\bovt' the humbler bower, 
Defying st(un) and shower, 

<Jn plain and steep; 


White mountains, elad in light, 
Lift up tlieir peaks in sight, 

With snowy glare; 
And here (ireat Spirit dwells, 
Amid the mystic dells. 
So Indian legend tells, 

Our God is there; 

Where Alpine flowers bloom 
Around our father's tomb, 

Since early spring ; 
The Linnean vine is seen, 
The spicy wintergreen, 
The water-lily's sheen — 

Our hymn we sing. 


Where winds salubrious blow'. 
And crystal rivers flow. 

Our health to save ; 
We consecrate the ground, 
Wliere treasures such are found. 
With music's hallowed sound. 

To Kinsman's love. 


And now, again we pait. 
AVhile ev'ry throbbing heart. 

Beats high and warm; 
And though tlie leaf be sear, 
lie tills, our meeting here, 
To mem'ry ever dear, 

Not time sliall harm. 


Our love shall ever live. 
And joj^ shall ever give. 

To souls so Ivind. 
Thus time and space, no power, 
To mar this bUssful hour. 
Or blight so sweet a flower. 

Shall ever And. 


When far away we go. 
Where mighty rivers flow, 

Our hearts shall move. 
Our love shall time def }•, 
Sliall seat itself on high, 
To reign above tlie sky, 

For God is Love. 



Theu ble^is liis lioh- uame 

From whom these raptures came, 

In solemn laj-s ; 
Sing now, ye kindred band. 
In this wild picture land, 
Of his lilest works so grand. 

To God give praise I 

Charles R. Locke. 

Charles Russell Locke, sou of Samuel B. Locke, was born in 
Bethel and alwa3's lived here. At the death of his father, he be- 
came possessed of the old homestead aud here he lived, reared a 
large family, and here he was gathered to his fathers. Though 
following the occupation of a farmer, he possessed the traits peculiar 
to his family and was a natural mechanic. He was a man of sound 
judgment, of strict integrity and therefore a valuable citizen. As 
one of the selectmen of the town, he discharged his duties with dis- 
crimination, and as a Justice of the Peace he aimed to deal out 
exact justice between man and man. He was an intelligent farmer, 
following well tried and approved methods and satisfied with mod- 
erate gains. He was a quiet man and enjoyed the quiet of home 
life. He was a practical man and despised shams of every kind. 
In his household he was kind and indulgent, and hospitable to all 
who came beneath his roof- tree. He was a consistent and devoted 
member of the Methodist Episcopal church. 

Moses Mason. 

It is always gratifying to the biographer to be able to trace back 
the ancestry of his subject as far as possible. Moses Mason was a 
descendant of Capt. Hugh Mason who, with his wife Esther, came 
to this country in sixteen hundred and thirty-four, and settled at 
Watertown, Massachusetts. He was a tanner by trade aud was 
much employed in town affairs. He was commissioned as captain 
in sixteen hundred and fifty-three ; and was elected Representative 
to the Legislature for ten years. He died October tenth, sixteen 
hundred and seventy-eight, in his seventy-third year ; his widow 
died May twenty-first, sixteen hundred and ninety-two, aged eighty- 
two years. He left three sons and five daughters, of whom Daniel 
became a farmer, by whose wife, Experience, he had five children. 


His youngest son by bis first wife was Moses, wbo married in 
Boston, June sixtb, seventeen bundred and forty-nine, Lydia, 
daugbter of Jesse and Mary Knap, and settled at Newton. He 
removed to Sherboru about seventeen bundred and fifty-seven. In 
July, seventeen bundred and sixty-seven, be sold land in Sberborn 
and tben removed to Dublin, wbere be died October first, seventeen 
bundred and seventy-five. His widow removed witb tbe family, in 
seventeen bundred and ninety-nine, to Betbel, Maine, and died 
tbere in eigbteen bundred and two. He bad four cbildren. 

Moses Mason, tbe subject of our sketcb, was born April twenty- 
sixtb, seventeen bundred and fifty-seven. He served as a soldier 
in tbe war of tbe Revolution, and fougbt under General Stark at 
tbe battle of Bennington. As be was marcbiug to tbe assault, bis 
fellow soldier, Absalom Farwell, wbo bad seen bard service as a 
boatswain on board a man-of-war, addressed bim. "Moses," said 
be, "if tbey put my lamp out and don't yours, take my money out 
of my pocket and carry it to my wife, and if tbey put yours out and 
don't mine, I will take 3'ours and carry it to your motber." As 
tbey passed over tbe battle ground tbe next day, Farwell said to 
Moses, "Moses, you were afraid yesterday wben you came on to 
tbe grounds." "No, I wasn't, sir." "Yes you were, for if tbey 
put 3'our lamp out, you didn't care what tbey did witb your money," 
showing tbe old veteran that he betra^'ed fear. 

He picked up an elegant sword and powder-born on the next day, 
which he brought witb bim to Bethel and which are still preserved 
in the family. An incident in the battle was related by him. While 
they were pressing upon the enemy in their retreat, his comrade 
threw his gun with tbe bayonet forward which stuck into the back 
of a retreating soldier and bent forward over bis bead. His son. 
Doctor Mason, bad in his possession the gun used by bim in that 
battle. June twentieth, seventeen bundred and eighty, be married 
Eunice, daughter of William Ayers, and settled in Dublin, New 
Hampshire. In seventeen bundred and ninety-nine, be removed 
to Betbel and bought the farm occupied by Capt. Eleazer Twitchell, 
and now owned by Moses A. Mason, on the north side of Barker's 
Ferry. On this farm was originally a heavy growth of pine timber. 
So cheap was it that tbe fences were made of what would now be 
valuable pine logs. He was an industrious citizen, and a good 
neighbor ; was chosen Representative to the Massachusetts Legis- 
lature for five years. He died October thirty-first, eighteen bun- 



dred aud thirty-seven, aged eighty years. His widow died February 
fourth, aged eighty-five years. They had nine children born in 
Dublin, and two in Bethel. Mr. Mason was endowed with but a 
limited education, yet he was a man of correct judgment, and by 
his practical good sense, often settled the difficulties among his 
fellow citizens without regard to the law. 

Ayers Mason. 

A familiar face to three generations of Bethel people, was that 
of Ayers Mason, who died June fourteenth, eighteen hundred and 
ninety, at the remarkable age of ninety years. He was born in 
Bethel, on the farm his father, Moses Mason, bought of Captain 
Eleazer Twitchell and settled upon in seventeen hundred and uiuety- 
nine, December thirtieth, eighteen hundred, aud at the time of his 
death, was the only nonagenarian in towu. He was brought up on 
his father's farm, and at the age of twenty-five years, married 
Eunice (Hale) Mason, widow of his brother Charles. He settled 
upon the farm on the Middle Interval road near its junction with 
the road to South Bethel and Locke's Mills. This is the farm upon 
which Joseph Greeley Swan settled in the early times, and here 
Mr. Mason spent the most of his remarkably long life. He was a 
good farmer, and also an excellent man of affairs. He was a large 
owner of timber lauds and was more or less engaged in lumbering 
in Bethel, Newry, Grafton and around Umbagog and other northern 
Maine lakes. He was a shrewd man of business, ever on the alert 
for the main chance, a good judge of timber lands, and by good 
management he accumulated quite a large property. 

Mr. Mason was possessed of a kind and amiable disposition, a 
man who would never lack friends wherever he might be. He was 
social in his habits, fond of his family and friends, a good neighbor 
and a valuable citizen. He was a man of strong convictions, and 
where principal was concerned, as firm as a rock. He was an early 
anti-slavery man, and an original Republican, though the members 
of his father's family in politics, were generally on the opposite 
side. He was a man of strictly temperate habits, and his long life 
was doubtless due to this fact. He was rarely sick a day, until the 
crisis came which must come sooner or later to every oue, aud 
from which there is no appeal. He died of old age, the complex 
machinery of his system being worn out, and 
''It was liis time to die." 


He had lived a widower twenty-five ^^ears, in the family of his 
youngest son, AVilliara Wallace Mason, who owns and cultivates 
the paternal acres. 

Nathaniel T. True. 

The ancestors of Dr. Nathaniel Tuckerman True include some 
of the best puritan families in New England, such names as Pike, 
Bradbury, Stevens, Worthley and Hatch. His great grandfather, 
Jonathan True, was one of the early settlers in North Yarmouth, 
and his grandfather, also Jonathan, was born there April thirtieth, 
seventeen hundred and fifty-eight. He was the second settler in 
that part of ancient North Yarmouth, which was set off and called 
Freeport, and subsequeutl}' set oft" from Freeport and called Powual. 
He left nine children, one of whom, John True, born August seven, 
seventeen hundred and eighty-five, married November thirtieth, 
eighteen hundred and ten, Mary, daughter of Abijah Hatch, and 
was the father of the subject of this sketch, who was born March 
fifteenth, eighteen hundred and twelve, and was their eldest child. 
He was brought up at hard labor upon his father's farm in Powual, 
attending the sliort schools of the town, and finally later in life 
than is usually the case, fitting for college under the instruction of 
Dr. Joseph Shuman of North Yarmouth Academy. He was twenty- 
two j^ears old when he entered college, and he remained onl}^ two 
years, when he commenced the study of medicine. In eighteen 
hundred and thirty-five, he taught the high school at Bethel Hill 
and also taught several successive terms. He met with marked 
success and from the first was a popular teacher. In eighteen 
hundred and forty, he received the degree of Doctor of Medicine 
from the Maine Medical School and commenced practice at Pownal. 
He was pleased with the study of medicine, more especially the 
branches of natural science connected with it, for which he had a 
fondness amounting almost to a passion. He liked the study of 
chemistry, ))otany, geology and mineralogy, and became proficient 
in each of them, but he had no love for the practice of medicine, 
and well knowing that he lacked the essential element of success, 
he soon abandoned it. He had a fondness and an aptitude for 
teaching, and laying aside his drugs and instruments, he adopted 
teaching as a life pursuit. He became the principal of Monmouth 
Academy and had charge of it for several years. When Gould's 
Academy was put in operation. Dr. True was preparing for the 

DR. N. T, TRUE. 


medical profession, and wlieu he was ready to teach again, the place 
of teacher was already tilled. But the trustees of Gould's Academy 
and the people of Bethel remembered the success which attended 
Dr. True's efforts as a high school teacher, and as soon as an 
opportunity was afforded, they invited him to tlie academy, and he 
readily accepted, for he was greatly attached to the people and the 
town. It was in eighteen hundred and forty-seven when he returned 
to Bethel, intending to make this his permanent home. Tlie palm- 
iest days of Gould's Academy followed the advent of Dr. True, and 
continued for several years. The academy building was packed at 
each spring and fall term, and on some occasions pupils were turned 
away for lack of room. 

Dr. True remained in charge of the academy until the trustees 
decided that wqw methods should be introduced and an infusion of 
younger blood to put them in operation. After this, while his 
family continued to reside in Bethel, Dr. True had charge of a 
Normal school in Western New York, and afterwards taught at 
Milan and Gorham, New Hampshire. He was editor of the Bethel 
Courier, the only paper ever published in Bethel, for nearly two 
years, and it was in this paper that his chapters on the history of 
Bethel were published. He was a member of the school committee 
in Bethel, and served a term as supervisor of schools for the county. 
At the death of Dr. Ezekiel Holmes of the Maine Farmer in eigh- 
teen hundred and sixty-live. Dr. True was invited to take charge of 
the agricultural department of that paper, which he conducted for 
four years. He was also an efficient member of the Maine Board 
of Agriculture. He wrote much upon the subject of agriculture and 
horticulture, and was the leading spirit in the Bethel Farmers' Club 
during the few years of its existence. He contributed many articles 
upon various topics to the columns of the O-cford Demoi-ra^, Lewis- 
ton Journal and Portland Transcript. He instructed liis students 
at Bethel not only in theory but in practice, and it was his delight 
to take his spring and summer classes in botany, through the Helds, 
pastures and woods and gather and classify the various kinds of 
flowers in their season ; or his pupils who were interested in geology 
and mineralogy, up to Paradise Hill, and sometimes even to the 
mountain tops, where he pointed out to them and explained the 
diluvial markings, and gathered minerals of various kinds. His 
influence was felt throughout the town, and aside from his good 


work in the school room, he was a good citizen and interested in 
every movement calculated to benefit the village and town. 

Dr. True's studies embraced a very wide range, and he was able 
to give instruction in almost every department of useful knowledge. 
They embraced languages both ancient and modern, the natural 
sciences, practical surveying and engineering, scientific agriculture, 
navigation, astronomy and the higher mathematics. If he failed in 
anything, it was trying to cover too much ground, for no man can 
be proficient in everything, and the chances are that if he tries to 
know something about everything, he will be profound in nothing. 
For the benefit of those not personally acquainted with him, and 
his name will be heard by many who can never see him, it may be 
well to add that he was undersized, compactly built, dark com- 
plexioned with dark blue eyes, of a nervous temperament, quick in 
his movements, his natural gait in walking being very rapid, his 
mind so often absorbed as to be oblivious of everything going on 
around him. I have often been amused at seeing him start with 
his family for the church, keeping uniform step with them for a 
short distance, when suddenly his mind would fix upon something 
foreign to liis present surroundings, and he would step off at his 
usual rapid gait, and not come to himself until he was several rods 
ahead of his party. Dr. True was interested in historical and anti- 
quarian matters. Thougli not a resident of IJethel until his mature 
manhood, he soon became tlie historical man of the town. At the 
time of the Centennial celebration, he was selected as the historian 
of the occasion, and later at the Centennial of the Indian Kaid, he 
was again called u})oii to officiate in the same capacity. jMuch of 
the material embraced in this historv, was gathered and preserved 
by him. Soon after his removal to town, he united with the Con- 
gregational churcli and was ever a faithful member. He was chosen 
deacon and officiated in that capacity a number of years. He was 
a ready speaker, and when lecturing on geology and kindred sub- 
jects, always addressing his audience in a familiar and off-hand 
manner and making himself easily understood. He was enthusiastic 
in the school-room, and could always inspire his pupils with the 
same spirit. The ablest men that Hethel has raised and sent out 
into the world, are among those who have been under Dr. True's 
instruction. His last work in eighteen hundred and eighty-three, 
was a resumption of his old employment, this time at Litchfield 
Academy. Here he was stricken with paralysis which ever after- 

Hisrony of bethel. 147 

ward rendered him an invalid and a cripple. He lingered along at 
his old home in Bethel for a year or two, and then passed away. 

For thirty-five years or more before his demise, Dr. True occupied 
one of the most beautiful situations in the charming village of Bethel 
Hill. The place is still occupied by the family. The commodious 
house is shaded by fine old trees, and the broad avenue leading 
thereto, is bordered by trees some of which were set out by his 
pupils forty or more years ago. He also had a small outlying farm 
on the Paradise Hill road, on which he raised excellent fruit and 
other crops. He was one of the most industrious of men, never 
losing any time, and ever an early riser. He was a kind-hearted^ 
genial man and full of sjMiipath}^ for those working for self-education 
with limited means. He was pleasant in the school room, popular 
with his pupils, and hundreds of them scattered over the countr}' 
were grieved at the news of his death. Of his writings, but little 
was ever published in permanent form, and most of them will soon 
be forgotten unless gleaned from the various newspaper files and 
reprinted. His historical address at the Centennial is embalmed in 
this volume. 

Eleazek Twitchell. 

While Joseph Twitchell may be regarded in some respects as the 
father of the town, his son P^leazer is entitled to the credit of liavinar 
been the founder of the village :it Bethel Hill. He gave the Common 
to the West Parish on condition that the i)arish should clear the 
land and build a church edifice upon it. The land was cleaied and 
the meeting-house lot staked out, and a portion of the lumber hauled 
for its construction, while subscriptions were solicited to aid in 
building it. At the same time, Eli Twitchell was making an effort 
to have the meeting-house Ituilt on the banks of the river neai the 
ferry and between that and the mouth of Mill Brook. Both sides 
made a sharp canvass and there was the usual excitement attending 
it. Parties living on the north side of the river were particularly 
anxious to have the meeting-house nearer to them than to the 
Common, and they were successful. Years after, nearl}' half a 
century, when the old church was dismantled and a new one built 
on the Hill, there was the same feeling, and a second church was 
organized, on the north side. Captain Twitchell becoming dissat- 
isfied at the course pursued, fenced the Common into a field, and 
raised wheat and potatoes for several years. Aged citizens still 


remember the Common covered with stumps aud roots and a crop 
of wheat out-topping them all. The captain not only designed it 
as a location for a church but as a place for regimental parade, and 
after a few years, still desirous that there should be a Common, he 
removed the fences. As he had not given any deed of the land, 
after his death, his heirs, Jacob EUingwood and Joseph Twitchell, 
all honor to them, generously deeded the land to the parish on con- 
dition that the stumps and rocks should be removed. This was 
done in eighteen hundred and twenty-nine. The inhabitants volun- 
tarily removed the recks and stumps on the Common and on what 
is now Broad street, so that a regiment could and frequently did 
parade up the street and march down to the Common. The follow- 
ing is a copy of the deed, which will be read with interest : 

"Know all men by tlie>;(' presents that we, Joseph Twitchell, yeoman, 
and Jacol) Elliuwood. cordwaiiier. botli of Bethel, in the ( "ounty of Oxford, 
and State of Maine, aware of the utility to the public from the conversion 
of a plot of ground into what is usually denominated a common, for the 
acconunod.ation of the puhHc nn tlie days of trainiut^ and other popuhir 
collections; Convinced that the title to land appropriated to such use 
should be vested in the public; Desirous that the parcel of laud in this 
town generally called the ( onunon. should be converted and acconuuoilated 
to the public use, ease and convenience; and in considei-ation of one dollar 
and of certain labor. i»aiil. done and performed thereon, by the iidiabitants 
of the West Tarisli in said Bethel, the receipt and performance whereof 
we do hereby acknowledjje, do hereby s^ive, j^rant. l)ar'^ain, sell and con- 
vey unto tlie said inhabitants, their lieirs and successors the above named 
parcel of land situated in said Bethel as aforesaid, and beinj; part of lot 
inuuber tw<'iity-three in the fourth ranj^e of lots on the south side of th(^ 
Androscoirjriu Hiv<M-. and Itounded as follows to wit : beiiinninu at the 
southeast coiner ot land situated in the said lot and deedeil liy Joseph 
Twitchell aforesaid to .bunes Walkei-. 'I'rader. thence ruiminj; south- 
wardly to the northwest coi-ner o\ hiiid d led i)y Elea/.er Twitchell to 

James Walker. Es(j., thence eastwardly on said land to the road leadinj; 
to Xorway. Thence northwardly on said road to southeast corner of 
land, deeded by the said .]ose])b to the said Walkei". Trader, and thence 
westwardly on the said Walker's land to the first mentioned bound, be the 
sami' nioi-e or less for the purpose of using the same as a ('onunon. To 
have and to hold tlie aforegranted and bargained premises with all the 
privileges and appurtaiices thereof, to the said inhabitants, their heirs and 
successors to them, their use and liehoof forever so long as they sliall use 
and occupy tlie same as a Conimon as aforesaid and shall not convert tlie 
same to any other use by erecting buildings thereon or otlierwise. And 
we do covenant with the said inhabitants, their heirs ami successors, that 
we are lawfully seized in tee of the premises: that they are free of all 


iucumbraucc^; ; that we have good right to sell and convey the same to the 
said inhabitants, to hold as aforesaid. And that we will defend the same 
to the said inhabitants, their heirs and successors forever so long as tlu^y 
make use of the saiue as aforesaid against the lawful claims and denuinds 
of all persons. 

In witness whereof we have hereunto set our hands and seals tliis twenty- 
fourth day of April in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred 
and twenty-three. 

Joseph Tvtitchell, 
[l. s.] Jacob Eli.ix(;wooi). 

The captain was generous in his impulses and many poor families 
that came into town received assistance from him, until they could 
get well started. When new families were coming, he would send 
a team to meet them and help them along, and open his house to 
them until they could get into their own quarters. He did a large 
business in farming and lumbering, and employed much help. In 
the winter he cut the large white pine trees growing on the bottom 
lands, on both sides of the Androscoggin, and cutting them into 
suitable lengths, hauled them upon the river when covered with ice. 
After the ice broke up in the spring, the logs were driven to Bruns- 
wick and sold to dealers there, who had them converted into boards 
and planks which they shipped to the West Indies and to other 
foreign markets. The pay was pait cash and part West India 
goods, including sugar, molasses and rum. About two cuts were 
generally taken from each log, jttst so much as was free from knots, 
and the remainder was allowed to rot upon the ground. The price 
paid, landed upon the river, was from two to three dollars per 
thousand. Captain Twitchell not only cut timber from his own 
land, but he purchased large quantities that had been cut by others, 
and had it driven to Brunswick with his own. He was well known 
to the business men of Brunswick. He paid for the timber he 
bought from the settlers, largely in goods which he hauled from 
Brunswick and which he sold from his own house. West ludia 
rum was a leading article in his trade with the settlers, and each 
family consumed more or less of it. After failing to obtain a grant 
of a portion of the town of Greenwood, Captain Twitchell and 
another purchased quite a large part of it, but it proved a losing 

Eli Twitchell. 

Captain Eli Twitchell was the son of Captain Joseph Twitchell 
and was born in Sherburn, jNIassachusetts, February seventeenth, 


seventeen hundred and fifty-nine. He marclied witli others to tlie 
vicinity of Bunker Hill immediately after the battle, and by carrying 
a very heavy gun on his shoulder, he contracted a disease of the 
bone of the arm, a portion of which was removed. This unfitted 
him for severe bodily labor. He came to Bethel probably in seven- 
teen hundred and eighty-two and commenced operations on the fai-m 
afterward owned by his grandson, Curatio Bartlett. He came on 
foot to Bethel in the winter, and was so chilled and exhausted that 
he was compelled to wallv on his hands and knees for the last two 
miles before he reached his brother P>leazer's house. He built a 
comfortable farmhouse on the borders of the interval below Mr. 
Bartlett's house. He kept bachelor's fare for some time, though it 
it is said that the young ladies of the day were fond of visiting him 
every week and cooking up a week's supply of food for him, and, 
receiving in return some of the West India goods which he kept for 
sale. He was the first person in town who brought such things into 
town for sale. He married Miss Rhoda Leland of Sherburn, who 
died in seventeen hundred and ninety-four. His second wife was 
Lucy Segar, who died in eighteen hundred and forty-four. In con- 
sequence of his lameness he directed his attention to mechanical 
pursuits in which he was very ingenious. He made brass clocks, 
and guns, and repaired watches and jewelry. The Indians brought 
their jewelry to him from Canada to be repaired. During the great 
freshet in seventeen hundred and eighty-five, lie stepped from his 
door into a boat and went over to the spot where the Ayers Mason 
house now stands. At the organization of the town he was chosen 
Captain of the Militia. He built a large house on the spot where 
Mr. Bartlett's house now stands, which was burned some years ago. 
He had four children by his first wife, and one by his second. 
Captain Twitchell died in November, eighteen hundred and fort}-- 
five. He was a man of public spirit, and was much of the time in 
town office, as collector, treasurer, clerk and selectman. He also 
was a laud surveyor and Justice of the Peace. 

KzuA Twitch Kij,. 

Ezra Twitchell came to Bethel about the same time with his 
brother Eli, and settled on the farm afterward occupied by his 
grandson, Alphiu Twitchell. He was born in Sherburn, Massa- 
chusetts, June twenty-third, seventeen hundred and forty-six, and 



married Miss Susanna Rice of Framingham. He first resided in 
Dublin, New Hampshire, and afterwards removed to Betliel. He 
was chosen deacon of the 'Congregational church in Bethel, which 
office he worthily filled till his death. He had ten children. The 
eldest four children died .the same day of throat distemper, leaving 
them childless. This occurred in Dublin. So stupefied were the 
parents at the terrible stroke, that they could not shed a tear at the 

Peter Twitchell. 

Captain Peter Twitchell, youngest son of Capt. Joseph Twitchell, 
was born in Sherburn, Massachusetts, July thirteenth, seventeen 
hundred and sixty-one. At the age of seventeen, he made a visit to 
Bethel, when there was no other house in the west part of the town 
except his brother Eleazer's on the island near the grist mill. This 
was in seventeen hundred and seventy-eight. He also visited the 
town in seventeen hundred and eighty-two, when the garrison was 
still standing. He was a man of uncommon strength. He used to 
relate an anecdote of his second visit here. There was a man at 
his brother's who was boasting of his skill at wrestling, when 
Captain Twitchell told him that he could throw him over a house. 
The fellow rather jeered him, when the captain caught his arms 
around him and ran up the shed roof of his brother's house and was 
about to throw him over when he cried, ''enough." In the year 
seventeen hundred and eighty-four, he came to Bethel and com- 
menced clearing land on the north side of the river on .the farm 
afterward occupied by Mr. Alphin Twitchell. He cleared several 
acres of interval, and the next year secured a burn and sowed it 
with winter rye, but the great freshet that year carried the drift 
stuff on to it in such immense quantities, that he lost one-half of 
his ground that year, but the remainder bore a prodigious crop. 
About this time, in consequence of his father's age, and he being 
the youngest son, he returned to Sherburn and took the charge of 
the homestead. He married for his first wife, Miss Sarah Bullard, 
May eighth, seventeen hundred and eighty-three, who died, and for 
his second wife Miss Amy Perry, June tenth, seventeen hundred 
and ninety-three. She was the daughter of Edward West Perry of 
Sherburn,- He had eight children, three by his first wife and five 
by the second. All settled in Bethel except the eldest two, who 
died young. 


Captain Twitchell kept a tavern in Natick, which in those days 
was of no small importance. He was an assessor of the town at 
the time the Federal currency was introduced. He had quite a 
task in teaching the tax payers how to reckon in dollars and cents 
instead of pounds, shillings and pence. He was a soldier under 
General Lincoln and marched to quell Shaj^'s rebellion. He was 
afterwards chosen Captain of the Militia, and did military honors 
on the death of Washington. In the spring of eighteen hundred 
and ten he came to Bethel and commenced a farm on the flat on 
Pleasant river, at the place afterward occupied by his son, Col. Eli 
Twitchell. In eighteen hundred and sixteen, he made a public 
profession of religion and united with the Congregational church of 
Bethel, and till his death was a consistent member. For thirty-five 
years of his life he was a vegetarian. Meat, tea and coffee were 
forbidden articles, and to this habit he attributed his long life. 
When over ninety years of age, he walked four miles to church, 
standing in front of the desk leaning on his long cane, during the 
prayers and sermons on both parts of the day, and then walked 
home after services. This he did through choice of exercise, and 
this he was accustomed to do till a short time before his death. He 
was a man of strong native powers and of a reflective and philo- 
sophic turn of mind. He prepared a manuscript of his own on 
Natural Philosophy. A favorite problem of his which he would 
propose to every educated man whom he met and which he seemed to 
meditate upon much of his time, was what he used to call his philoso- 
phical riddle. The earth and the moon travel round the sun. If 
they travel one way every time they go round the sun, there will be 
one day more than the earth revolves on its axis, and one more 
than the moon travels round the earth. If they travel the other 
way, the earth will revolve on its axis once more than we have days, 
and the moon will travel round the earth once more than we have 
moons. Question : Which way should they travel to have the extra 
day and extra moon? It gratified him very much to have any one 
acknowledge that they could not solve it. He drew a small pension 
from the government. He received an injury by being struck with 
a carriage while out on his walks, and died November eighteenth, 
eighteen hundred and fifty-four, aged ninety-four years and five 


Joseph Twitchell. 

Joseph Twitchell, son of Captain Eleazer Twitchell, was the first 
male child born on Bethel Hill and the first in the West Parish. 
Peregrine, son of Jesse Duston. was the first child born in town, his 
place of birth being what is now Hanover, and Joseph Twitchell 
was, by common consent, the second. He was born in the house 
situated on the island at the foot of Mill Hill, March twelve, seven- 
teen hundred and eighty-two. He spent his minority with his 
father and received such education as the brief terms of school 
afforded. His father was much engaged in lumbering and in this 
branch of his business, Joseph was his able assistant. Much of 
the pine timber growing upon the intervals of Bethel was cut and 
sold to parties in Brunswick, where it was manufactured into lumber 
for the West India market. This valuable pine timber brought 
only a very small price, but little more than enough to pay for the 
labor required to put it into the river, and when Joseph Twitchell 
became of age, it was arranged that he should go to Brunswick and 
take charge of the business at that end of the line. He operated 
mills in Brunswick for some time, but the embargo placed upon 
American shipping during the last war with Great Britain, was very 
damaging to the lumber interests at Brunswick and at other places 
where a foreign market was depended upon, and Mr. Twitchell 
returned to Bethel where he engaged in farming. His place was 
east of what is now Vernon street, and this street is part of the 
road laid out to his premises as shown in the town records. 

Mr. Twitchell was moderate in his speech and movement, but he 
was a man of oi'iginal thought and of sound judgment. He was 
among the first in town to adopt liberal views in regard to religious 
matters, and may be regarded as the father of the Universalist 
denomination in Bethel. His conclusions were reached by a careful 
study of the scriptures, and by applying to them what he regarded 
as a plain, common sense interpretation. He became convinced of 
the truth of the doctrine of universal salvation at a time wlien it 
was very unpopular, but he was outspoken in his belief and lived 
to see it adopted by a large number of citizens, and among them, 
some of the best in town. Mr. Twitchell had a logical mind, and 
in argument upon doctrinal matters, he was not easily overcome. 
He was also a strong temperance man, having lived through the 
period when ardent spirits were generally indulged in, and learned 


from observation if not from experience, of their baneful influence. 
When he became old he and his aged wife went to live with their 
son, Joseph A. Twitchell, who had erected a house on Vernon 
street, and here they spent their declining years, each dying at an 
advanced age. 

John A. Twitchell. 

John Adams Twitchell was the fifth son and sixth child of Captain 
Peter and Amy (Perry) Twitchell, and was born in Sherburn, 
Massachusetts, September seventh,, seventeen hundred and ninety- 
eight. He was a lad of twelve years when his father came to Bethel 
and settled on what was called the Flat in the west part of the 
town, on Pleasant river. He was brought up on his father's farm, 
attended the town schools, and being of a mechanical turn of mind 
he learned the trade of Nathan Twitchell, and became a house- 
wright. For some years he carried on lioth farming and carpenter- 
ing at the Flat, but finally in eighteen hundred and fortv nine, he 
built him a house on Bethel Hill, moved here, and devoted his 
whole time to his trade. He was a su|)erior workman, and some of 
the best work in the village was done under his direction. He was 
a member of the Congregational church, and contributed liberally 
to its support. He was an early temperance man, ])eing one of the 
seven who organized the first temperance society in town. He 
united with the sociilits whicli followed the Washingtonians, the 
Sons of Temperance, and the Temperance Watchmen, and labored 
diligently and faithfully to do away with intemperance in the use of 
strong drink. He was a good man and citizen, and his influence 
was ever on the side of justice and right. He died on April thir- 
teenth, eighteen hundred and seventy-seven. 

James Wai.kek. 

About the year seventeen hundred and ninety-nine, James Walker 
came to Bethel, and opened a store in one of the rooms in Captain 
Eleazer Twitchell's house. This was tlie first regular store in town, 
though Captain Twitchell and his brother Eli had kept a few West 
India goods to accommodate the people. In eighteen hundred and 
two he built a large house and store on the southeast side of the 
Common. This was the second dwelling house on the Common. 
He continued in the store a few years, when, about the year eighteen 


hundred and seventeen, he studied theology and afterwards entered 
the ministry. In eighteen hundred and six, Gardiner Wallver, 
brother of the preceding, built a store on the site of the one long 
occupied by Ira C. Kimball and went into trade. He was a single 
man, and in a few years sold out to his brother Ezekiel. The 
building was afterward used as a saddler's shop, and was moved 
by Phineas Stearns, to a spot near his residence. 

James Walker, 2d. 

James Walker, son of John and Eliza (Calef) Walker, married 
Hannah Barker of Bethel. He purchased of Jonathan Abbot, the 
mill property at South Bethel, and the hamlet there was long known 
as Walker's Mills. He was a man of considerable enterprise, re- 
built the mills and largely increased their capacity. He established 
wool-carding and cloth-dressing mills which were operated as long 
as there was any demand for such mills. He also kept a store, and 
encouraged other industries to be established in the place. The 
place was for some years the rival of Locke's Mills in Greenwood. 
Mr. Walker lost heavily in what is known as the "land speculation," 
in eighteen hundred and thirty-seven or thereabout, and was ever 
after more or less financially embarassed. He was a member of 
the Congregational church at Bethel Hill, and was a constant atten- 
dant -though living four miles distant. He served his town in 
various capacities, and one term as Representative to the Legisla- 
ture. He had a family of eight children, some of whom have 
deceased and others left the town. 

John Williamson. 

John Williamson was born in Manor Hamilton, Ireland, either 
in seventeen hundred and eighty-six or eighty-seven. He celebrated 
the hundredth anniversary of his birth in eighteen hundred and 
eighty-six. He came to Bethel in eighteen hundred and twenty-one 
with his wife and children, and settled in Bethel. He was a shoe- 
maker by trade, but followed farming after he came to Bethel. He 
was a lover of nature and of the land he cultivated. He was well 
educated and well versed in ancient history. He was never natural- 
ized, having a strong attachment for England and her institutions, 
especially the established church of whicli he Avas a faithful member. 


He was also much attached to the land of his adoption aud its free 
institutions. He was a great student of the Bible, which was his 
constant companion, and of which he had committed to memory 
many chapters. He was a very interesting man socially and other- 
wise, and his conversation was always entertaining aud instructive. 
His wife, whose maiden name was Ann McClure, passed on many 
years before him, and during his later years, he was tenderly cared 
for by his daughter, Mrs. Elias M. Carter and her sons. They 
anticipated his every want, accomplished everything that loving 
hearts could suggest and willing hands perform to make his last 
years happy, and smooth the way to the bank of the dark river. 


Ahstract of Town Records. 

1797 TO 1850. 

^P2THEL has been sigually fortunate m the choice of record- 
pj ing officers and as a result its town records are remark- 
ably well made. The town has also been fortunate in 
preserving them from the ravages of fire which has proven so dis- 
astrous to valuable archives in many of our Maine towns. The 
records of proceedings began with the incorporation of the town in 
seventeen hundred and ninety six ; unfortunately the records of 
marriages, births and deaths, for the first five years, are lost. The 
first town clerk was Benjamin Russell, Esq., whose records are 
models of neatness and intelligent expression. He held the office 
for a period of five years, and until near the close of his life. He 
was succeeded by Dr. Timothy Carter, who held the office twelve 
years, and whose records are among the very best in the series of 
volumes. He wrote a plain, open hand, his pages were not over- 
crowded, and are therefore easily consulted. The next clerk, Capt. 
John Holt, was doubtless more familiar with the sword than the pen, 
nevertheless considering the times and the opportunities for a busi- 
ness education, he has left us a very fair page. Barbour Bartlett 
was an excellent recording officer, and held the position seventeen 
years. Elias M. Carter was clerk for many years, and was an ex- 
ceptionally good recording officer. William Frye, Esq., occasion- 
ally filled the position of town clerk, and for a lawyer he wrote a 
remarkably fine hand. He wrote with a quill pen, as did all the 
early clerks, and his letters are uniform, giving great neatness to 
the appearance of his pages. 

Jn substance, the early records are much like those of other 
towns. The business was chiefly routine, and the records present 
but little variety year after year. Money had to be raised for the 
building and repair of roads, for school purjwses, and to meet the 


current expenses of the town. The road ({uestion to the early 
settlers was a serious one. The town was large, and for a number 
of years there were only two thoroughfares through it from east to 
west, and this necessitated a large number of settlers' roads. Aside 
from the Androscoggin, the four rivers in town. Pleasant, Sunday, 
Bear and Alder rivers, required bridges, and being subject to sud- 
den and frequent freshets, to keep them properly bridged required 
no small sum of money. Roads were often indicted, and an agent 
had to be sent to Paris at nearly every session of the court to look 
after the town's interest. The road question stands out prominent- 
!}• in the records and is one of their leading features. 

Notwithstanding their monotony or general sameness, the records 
present evidence from time to time going to show that the Center 
school house, the Center meeting house, and later the town house, 
formed the arena of many a word}' battle. The town was long and 
large, was divided into two parishes in which there were conflicting 
interests, but more imaginary than real. The loaves and fishes, 
even in those days, formed an important element in town affairs, 
and the contest for office often arrayed parish against parish, and 
the side that was beaten frecpiently introduced into the next meet- 
ing a proposition to divide the town : this was alwa^'s voted down 
by a decided majority. Some of the early settlers were good talk- 
ers, and each- parish had those that could defend its interests in 
town meeting. Samuel 1>. Locke was a man of abilit}' and a good 
debater. General Amos Hastings, Capt. Eleazer Twitclieli, Dr. 
John Grover, Barbour Bartlett, Jedediah Burbank and .lames 
Walker were men wlio made their influence felt in moulding the 
affairs of the town. But the two men most potent in management 
and who held sway the longest, were Dr. Moses Mason and Phiueas 
Frost. The former was more affable and a better manager, but the 
latter was the better speaker and possessed that perseverance and 
pertinacity so certain to bring success. Mr. Frost was en rapjwrf 
witli the ground tier, and the champion of the poor. When the 
town received its proportion of the sur[)lus reveiuie, there was much 
disagreement as to what disposition should be made of it, and 
several meetings did nothing but discuss the question, and the 
debate was very bitter. Mr. Frost took ground in favor of dividing 
it per capita among the inhabitants of the town, and linally he 
carried his point. The next year he was elected to the Legislature 
with unprecedented unanimity. Both ^Ir. Frost and Doctor Mason 


were ou the board of selectmen for many years, but rarely at the- 
same time. 

lu politics, Bethel early affiliated with the Democratic party. Id; 
the war of eighteen hundred and twelve-sixteen, this town warmly 
supported the national administration, and bitterly opposed the 
action of Massachusetts in refusing to furnish troops for the prose- 
cution of the war. This probably accounts for the fact, that when- 
ever the question of separation from Massachusetts came up in town, 
meeting, Bethel uniformly voted in favor of the measure. The 
small Whig party embraced some of the most intelligent men in. 
town, but they became divided upon the slavery issue and for several 
years there were three parties in town. The town was in favor of 
the prohibition of the liquor traffic, and when that issue was first 
presented, there was a strong vote for an irregular candidate. In 
eighteen hundred and fifty-four, the town threw a majority of its- 
votes for Anson P. Mori ill, who had been nominated for Governor 
on the Maine Law issue. When a year later, the Republican party 
was formed, this town gave it a hearty support, aud since that time, 
a period of thirty-six years, it has uuiforml}^ given adherance to 
that party. None of the leading old time Democrats joined the 
new party, but lived and died in their early political faith, but the 
young men have been largely Republican. The votes for governor 
from time to time as shown in the following abstracts of town pro- 
ceedings, indicate how parties were inclined and divided. In the 
administration of its own affairs, the town has always been prudent 
and economical, l^reful about incurring indebtedness and prompt 
in the payment of its liabilities. 

The incorporation of Hanover in eighteen hundred and forty- 
three was opposed by the town because it embraced some excellent 
farms and valuable citizens. Not much though could be done or 
said against it, for the people upon this territory were isolated by the 
river, far from the Bethel centers of business and far from the town's, 
voting i)lace. About twenty-three hundred acres of land were taken 
from Bethel, besides Howard's Gore, to form the new town. The 
following abstracts from the town records may not be of special 
historical value, and might perhaps have been properly omitted 
from this volume, were it certain that the original records would 
always be preserved, but town records are often destroyed by fire^ 
and if such should ever be the fate of Bethel town records, these 
few abstracts will be of great interest as showing the time of the 


location of certain roads and the progress of political parties as 
indicated by the recorded votes ; they also give the names of the 
principal actors in the management of this numicipality, who have 
long since passed away. The proceedings of the first meeting are 
given elsewhere. 

1797. The meeting was held the first JNIonday in March. 
Jonathan Clark was chosen moderator and Benjamin Russell, 
clerk. For selectmen, Jesse Duston, Jonathan Clark and Jeremiah 
Andrews. Joseph G. Swan was made collector and constable. For 
tythingmen, Enoch Bartlett, P>.ra Twilchell, Oliver Fenno, Asa 
Kimball, and Jesse Duston. For surveyors of ways, Moses Bart- 
lett, Theodore Hussell, Amos Hastings. P^li Tvvitchell, Josiah Beau 
and Amos Powers. Hogreeves, Simeon Twitchell, John Stearns, 
Thomas F'rost, Nathaniel Swan aud John Russell. Surveyors of 
lumber, Jonathan Clark, Jesse Duston and Amos Hastings. Fence 
viewers, Joseph Greenwood, William Russell, Jesse Duston, Jere- 
miah Andrews and Oliver Fenno. At a meeting on the first Monday 
in April, Moses (iill had fourteen votes for Governor, and Increase 
Sumner the same number for Lieutenant-Governor. At a meeting 
in August, a child which was a town charge, was bid off by Simeon 
Twitchell until eighteen years of age for twenty-four dollars. Voted 
that William Russell have the fourteenth lot in the eleventh range, 
on the north side of the river. 

1798. I'hc meeting was hold at the house of Captain Amos 
Hastings, March fifth. Kzra Twitchell was chosen moderator and 
Benjamin Russell, clerk. Jonathan Bartlett was chosen treasurer, 
p]li Twitchell, constable, and Aaron Barton, collector, who agreed 
to collect for four cents on a dollar. Joseph Greenwood, Joseph 
(i. Swan, John York, Oliver Fenno, Jesse Duston, Walter Mason, 
•lohu Holt and Josiah Bean, surveyors of highways, and Nathaniel 
Segar, Jonathan Bartlett, Amos Gage, Eleazer Twitchell, Amos 
Hastings, Josiah Bean and Walter Mason, school committee. For 
tythingmen, Amos (iage, Josiah Bean, Jesse Duston, Theodore 
Russell and John EUingwood. The school committee was instructed 
to divide the town into school districts. A committee consisting of 
Eli Twitchell, Josiah Bean and Jonathan Clark was chosen to locate 
ferries and the prices of ferriage. At a meeting on the second day 
of April, Increase Sumner had twenty votes for ( Governor, and the 


same number were cast for Nathaniel Wells and Simon Frye for 
senators. At the same meeting, it was voted that there be three 
school houses built in town and three hundred dollars were raised 
for that purpose. Eli Twitchell, John Holt and Josiah Beau were 
made a committee to take charge of tlie building of the school 
houses. Voted not to raise any money for the su[)port of schools, 
and to raise one hundred dollars for the repair of roads. N'oted 
fifty dollars to defray town charges. At an adjourned meeting, the 
committee on the location of school houses, voted that the one for 
the East Parish be near the house of Thaddeus Bartlett ; the one 
for the center of the town be located at Middle Interval, south of 
Captain Amos Hasting's house, and the one in the West Parish be 
near John Stearns' barn. At a meeting May thirtieth, it was voted 
to take the ministerial interval lot into the hands of the town and 
lease what had not been improved. At a meeting the last of 
October, three hundred dollars additional were laised for roads, and 
the committee on school houses was instructed to call a meeting of 
the town and receive proi)osals for furnishing materials. 

1799. The meeting was held March the fourth at the usual 
place. Jonathan Clark was chosen moderator and Benjamin Russell, 
clerk. For selectmen, Eli Twitchell, Gideon Powers and Oliver 
Feuno. Aaron Barton bid off the taxes to collect and was chosen 
constable. The surveyors of highways this year were Moses Mason, 
Walter Mason, Josiah Bean, Gideon Powers, Amos Hastings, Pere- 
grine Bartlett, Jeremiah Andrews, Abraham Russell and Amos 
Gage. Surveyors of lumber, Jonathan Clark, Nathaniel Segar and 
Nathaniel Swan. Fence viewers, Eliphaz Chapman, Amos Hast- 
ings, Thaddeus Bartlett, Theodore Russell and John Grover. 
Hogreeves, Jonathan Cottin, Moses Frost, Eliphalet Lane and 
Timothy A. Holt. Field drivers, John Grover, Reuben Bartlett 
and Thaddeus Bartlett. Voted three hundred dollars for roads and 
sixty for town charges. Eighteen votes were thrown for Increase 
Sumner for Governor. For Register of Deeds for the district north 
of the Great Ossipee, in the county of York, Elijah Russell had 
thirteen votes, Moses Ames, nine, and William Russell, three. At 
a second trial, William Russell had twenty-two, Moses Ames, nine, 
and James Osgood, one. 

1800. Eli Twitchell was chosen moderator and Benjamin Rus- 
sell, clerk. Amos Gage bid off the collection of taxes, and .lere- 



miah Andrews was chosen treasurer. For highwa}' sarve3'ors, Amos 
Hastings, Peregrine Bartlett, Josiah Bean, Richard Estes, Nathaniel 
Segar, Simeon Twitchell. John Russell, Eli Grover, Joseph G. 
Swan, James Grover. Tythingmen, Charles Stearns, Aaron Barton 
and John Ellingwood. For sealers of leather, Benjamin Brown and 
Ezra Twitchell. Voted six hundred dollars for roads, one hundred 
dollars for summer schools and one hundred for winter schools. 
Eli[)haz Chapman and John Evans were chosen a committee to 
examine Samuel B. Locke's mills and ascertain whether he had 
fulfilled his contract with the town. Moses Gill had eighteen 
votes for Governor, and Elbridge Gerry the same number for 
Lieutcuant-Ciovernor. A meeting on the thirteenth of August was 
had at the school house at Middle Interval. It was voted to bnild 
a bridge over Alder river, and Theodore Russell was chosen a com- 
mittee to oversee the work. Other members of the committee were 
Eliphaz Chapman and Pliineas Haywood (Howard). Three hun- 
dred dollars were raised for building it. 

1801. The meeting was held at the Middle school house March 
second. Deacon Ezra Twitchell was chosen moderator and Timothy 
Carter, clerk. Selectmen, Eliphaz Chapman, Timothy Carter and 
Phineas Howard. Joseph (ireenwood, Nathan Adams and Zela 
Holt, tythingmen: John Merrill, Benjamin Russell, Jr., and Isaac 
York, field drivers. For Register of Deeds, William Russell had 
four votes and William F'essenden, fourteen. Voted for highwa3's, 
three hundred dollars, for schooling, two hundred, and for town 
charges, fifty dollars. A road laid out by the selectmen last year, 
leading from the Rumford road to Job York's house, was accepted. 
For Governor, Elbridge Gerry had forty-two votes and Caleb 
Strong, three. At an adjourned meeting Jqne twenty-second, the 
following persons were added to the committee for building Alder 
river bridge : Eli Twitchell, Amos Hastings, Jeremiah Andrews and 
John Holt. July twentieth, a meeting was held and a vote taken 
to build the above bridge in accordance with the plans presented 
by the committee. The building of the same was struck off to 
Eleazer Twitchell for ninety-four dollars. \'oted that the commit- 
tee to settle with Samuel B. Locke for bu-lding mills and for giving 
him a lease of the school lands, consult with the selectmen before giv- 
ing such lease. At a meeting October fifth, it was voted to divide the 
militia company by the parish line. At a meeting called at tlie 


Center school house December seventh, the first business after 
organization was to adjourn to the dwelling house of Capt. Amos 
Hasting for fifteen minutes. A committee consisting of Timothy 
Carter, Jonathan Clark and John York was chosen to settle with 
the builders of the school houses in town Benjamin Russell, Esq., 
was chosen agent to defend the town in actions brought for bad 

1802. The meeting was held March the first. Eliphaz Chap- 
man was chosen moderator, Timothy Carter, clerk, and John Holt, 
treasurer. Selectmen, YA\ Twitchell, John York and John Holt. 
Moses Mason bid off the collection of taxes and was chosen con- 
stable. Voted four hundred dollars for roads, two hundred and 
fifty for schools and one hundred and fifty for town charges. 
Elbridge Gerr^' received twenty-four votes for Governor and Caleb 
Strong, sixteen. Voted to accept the several school houses in town 
in their present condition. At a meeting August nineteenth, Josiah 
Bean was chosen agent to defend the town in actions brought for 
bad roads. Benjamin Kussell, Elsq., died this year. 

1803. The meeting was held March seventh and the principal 
officers re-elected. For highway surveyors, Richard Estes, Samuel 
Kimball, Jonathan Powers, Peregrine Bartlett, Reuben Bartlett, 
Theodore Russell, Jonathan Clark, Amos Gage, Jedediah Grover, 
Simeon Twitchell, P'.li Twitchell and Ebonezer Eames. For select- 
men, Eli Twitchell, Nathan Atlams and John Holt. Amos Bean 
bid off the collection of taxes and was chosen constable. Six hun- 
dred dollars were voted for ways. The sugar privilege on the 
school land on the south side of the river was sold to John Russell, 
and that on the north side to John Merrill. Voted a committee to 
look into the condition of the school lauds. At a meeting April 
fourth, Caleb Strong had thirty-two votes for Governor. A com- 
mittee was chosen to divide the town into school districts, consist- 
ing of Timothy Carter, Jeremiah Andrews and Amos Gage. \'oted 
to grant ferry privileges against Jesse Dustin's place, against John 
Russell's and against Samuel Barker's. The same amount for 
schools as last 3'ear, was voted, and one hundred dollars for town 
charges. At a meeting July twelfth, it was voted to accei)t the 
report of the committee on school districts. The report divided the 
town into six districts, beginning to number from the east part of 
the town. The first line described was between the sixth and 


seventh lots, running on the line to the interval lots, and then 
between John York's and Joseph Ayer's land to the river ; then 
crossing the river and taking Jonas Willis' interval line to the 
north line of the town ; all east of the line described to constitute 
the first district. All the other districts were constituted in essen- 
tially the same way, part of each district being on the south and 
part on the north side of the river. At a meeting the fourth of 
December, it was voted to send Dr. Timothy Carter to Paris to a 
convention called to take into consideration the formation of a new 
county, and voted to petition the legislature for same. The dele- 
gate was instructed to ask to have Norway made the shire town, or 
Norway and Bethel half shire towns. 

1804. The meeting occurred on the fifth day of March. Jona- 
than Clark was chosen moderator and Timothy Carter, clerk. Amos 
Bean was chosen collector and constable. Highway surveyors, 
Nathan Adams, Timothy Bean, Peregrine Bartlett, Reuben Bartlett, 
James Walker, Theodore Russell, Eli Twitchell, Cyrus Twitchell, 
>]li Grover, Jedediah Grover and Solomon Annas. Among other 
new names in the list of town officers this year, were Daniel Grout, 
Joshua Roberts, Peter Twitchell, Jesse Cross and Isaac Town. 
Voted the teachers of the town schools must be approbated as the 
law directs, ^'oted two hundred dollars for schools. James Sulli- 
van had forty-four votes for Governor, and Caleb Strong twenty- 
one. At a subsequent meeting it was voted not to send a delegate 
to Palis, but to choose a committee to write to the convention, 
favoring a new county. Voted to have a road laid out from 
Solomon Annas' house to David Blake's nulls. At an adjourned 
meeting in October, voted to expend one hundred dollars in military 

1805. Meeting was held March fourth, at the Center school 
house. Eli Twitchell was chosen moderator and Timothy Carter, 
clerk. John Holt was continued as treasurer. Samuel B. Locke 
was chosen collector and constable. Among the new names in the 
list of town officers were Paul Morse, Amos Hill, Jedediah Burbank, 
Isaac Spofford and Joseph Twitchell. It was voted that the school 
money be equally divided between the summer and winter terms, 
and according to the number of scholars. Timothy Carter, James 
Walker and Eliphaz Cifapman were chosen school committee. 
Voted that teachers in town not approbated as the law directs, shall 


forfeit their wages. Voted to dispose of the school hiuds if it cau 
legally be done. Voted to choose a committee to appraise the 
school houses. James Sullivau had thirty-six votes for Governor. 
At a subsequent meeting, voted in favor of the Baptist society's 
incorporation plan. The committee to appraise school houses re- 
ported the one in the lower part of the town worth fifty dollars ; 
the one at Middle Interval, ninety dollars, and the one at the upper 
end, fifty dollars. Voted two hundred and sixty dollars for school 
houses ; the first district to have forty dollars, the second, ninety, 
third, none, the fourth, forty, and the fifth and sixth, forty-five 
dollars each. Joseph Rust received seven votes for County Regis- 
ter for Oxford county. At a meeting in November, it was voted 
that Paris be the shire town of Oxford county. Voted unanimously 
against the two half shire towns, and chose a committee to act 
against the petitions from Fryeburg, Brownfield, Porterfield, etc., 
in favor of Fryeburg as a half shire town. 

1806. The meeting was held March third. The same modera- 
tor and clerk as last year were re-elected. Col. John York bid off 
the collection of taxes and was made constable. The new names 
in the list of town officers were Peter York, John Barker, Joseph 
Wheeler, Elliot Powers, Ebenezer Bean, Jesse Beau and Thomas 
Frost. Voted two hundred and fifty dollars for schools, and the 
same amount to be expended on the county road under the direction 
of Nathan Adams, Daniel Grout and John Holt; also voted two 
hundred and fifty dollars for town roads. The selectmen this year 
were Eleazer Twitchell, Nathan Adams and John Kilgore, Jr. 
Calel) Strong had seventeen votes for Governor and James Sullivan, 
fifty-three. Eliphaz Chapman was elected Representative to the 
General Court. Jonathan Clark, Eli Twitchell and Eliphaz Chap- 
man were made a committee to enquire into the condition of the 
school districts. At a meeting in November, it was voted to divide 
the fourth sciiool district and make the great river the dividing line. 

1807. The meeting was held at the third district school house 
March the second. The moderator and clerk were re-elei-ted. 
James Walker was chosen treasurer. Jonathan Abbot bid off the 
taxes and was chosen constable. Among the new names in the 
list of town oHlcers were Jonatlian Abbot, Luther Bean, Timothy 
Bean, Walter Mason, David l>urbank. Voted for schools two hun- 


dred and fifty dollars ; for towu charges, fifty, and for highways, 
six hundred dollars. Voted to raise the per diem pay for labor on 
the road from sixty-seven cents to one dollar. Caleb Strong had 
nineteen votes for Governor and Levi Lincoln fifty-six. At an 
adjourned meeting Timothy Carter, Eliphaz Chapman and Lieut. 
Stephen Bartlett were chosen school committee. The vote on the 
separation of Maine from Massachusetts stood, yeas, fort}' ; nays, 
seventeen. Eliphaz Chapman was again chosen Kepresentative to 
the General Court. 

1808. The clerk and moderator were re-elected. John Kilgore, 
Jr., Isaac Towd and Samuel Kimball were chosen selectmen. 
Timothy Carter was chosen treasurer. Moses Mason bid off the 
collection of taxes at six cents on a dollar. Among the new names 
in the list of town officers were Arnold Powers, Nathan Marble, 
David Blake, Solomon Annas, Jr., Job York, Peter Walker and 
Otis Grover. Timothy Carter, John Holt and Isaac Town were 
school committee. A committee on accounts consisted of Timothy 
Carter, Eli Twitchell and INIoses IMason, and on Alder river bridge 
with the view of rebuilding it, Samuel B. Locke, Eli Twitchell, 
Daniel Grout, Timothy Carter and John York. Voted to make the 
Great river the dividing line between the first and second school 
districts. Two liundred dollars were voted for schools, the same 
for the repair of Alder river bridge, and four hundred for roads. 
Accounts were allowed to various parties and among others to 
James "Walker for hats, sixty-six dollars and sixty-seven cents. ■ At 
a subsequent meeting, Daniel Grout bid off the building of Alder 
river bridge for tliree Inuidrod and seventy-five dollars, and it was 
voted to raise the required sum. Timothy Carter, Samuel B. Locke 
and John York were chosen a superintending committee, to make 
writings with the contractor and to superintend the work, draw on 
the town for the money, etc. James Sullivan had sixty-three votes 
for (Tovernor and Christopher (4ore, twent3'-five. At an adjourned 
meeting, voted to set off all the inhabitants in the third school district, 
on the north side of the river, from Ebenezer Eames and annex them 
to the fourth district on the north side of the river. Eliphaz Chap- 
man was re-elected representative. Voted ^lay second, to set off 
the inhabitants of the first and second school districts on the north 
side of the river into a district by themselves. Voted to set off 
Samuel B. Locke, Ebenezer Eames, Amos Hastings, Nathaniel 


Swan aud John Merrill, from the third school district and annex 
them to the fourth, on the north side of the river. Voted ten cents 
per head for crows and three cents per head for crow blackbirds. 
At a meeting in September, upon the question of petitioning the 
President to have the embargo taken off the town, "voted not to 
have the embargo taken off." Voted to accept the road laid out 
for Eleazer Twitchell, Jr., aud the one from Joseph G. Swan's to 
David Blake's mills. The jury box was revised aud accepted. 

1809. Moses Bartlett was chosen moderator, and Timothy 
Carter, clerk and treasurer. For selectmen, John Kilgore, Jr., 
Samuel Kimball and Jonathan Abbot. The uew names in the list 
of town officers were Daniel Gage, John Ellingwood, Silas Powers, 
Thomas Jackman, Jonas Willis, Abel Gossom and Samuel Robert- 
son. Voted seven hundred dollars for roads, two hundred and fifty 
for schools and one hundred and fifty for town charges. Levi 
Lincoln received seventy-three votes for Governor aud Christopher 
Gore twenty-eight. Eliphaz Chapman was re-elected representative. 

1810. The principal town officers were re-elected, except that 
Peter York was chosen third selectman. Moses Mason was chosen 
collector and constable. Among the new town officers were Thomas 
Cushmau, James Grover, John Case, Thomas Fletcher, Ephriam 
Powers, James Hodsdou and Foxwell Swan. Voted the usual 
sums of money for schools, roads and town charges. Voted to 
have a pound Iniilt and a committee was appointed to look after its 
construction, and to obtaiu a site for it. ^^oted that the school 
committee select l)ooks for the use of schools in town, and lay the 
same before the town for approval. For Governor, Elbridge Gerry 
had seventy votes and Christopher Gore thirty-three. Henry Rust 
had sixty-eight votes for County Treasurer. Voted to set oft" 
Eliphaz, Samuel and Timothy Chapman and Isaac Stearns from 
the fourth school district and annex them to the fifth. John Kilgore, 
Jr., was elected representative. Voted to meet and celebrate the 
Fourth of July at Middle Interval, and the following were appointed 
a committee to have the matter in charge: Lieut. Moses Bartlett, 
Eli Twitchell, Moses Masoy, Capt. p:ieazer Twitchell, Deacon Asa 
Kimball and Col. John York. The committee were instructed to 
engage an orator for the occasion. At a meeting November fifth, 
it was voted to build a magazine on Dr. Carter's land, built of 


brick, aud be round in shape ; to have a platform made with flat 
stones, for the flooring, said house to have Avails of the thickness of 
the length of one brick, and six feet and eight inches in height ; to 
have a good and substantial door to lie fastened by a good lock. 
The job was struck off to Daniel Bean for the sum of seventeen dol- 
lars. Timothy Carter, Major Amos Hills and John Russell were 
made a committee to locate the building and superintend its con- 
struction. A committee was chosen to petition the legislature for 
permission to sell the public lands. 

1811. The meeting was held March fourth. It was voted to have 
a collector of taxes in each parish. Nathaniel Swan was chosen for 
the West Parish and Ephraim Powers in the East. Nathan Swan 
and Ephraim Powers were elected constables. Among the new 
names in the list of town officers were Ezekiel Dnston, Ephraim 
Rowe, Edmund Chapman, "William Elstes, Jeremiah Andrews, Jr., 
William Andrews, John Mills, Elijah Bartlett and Robbins Brown. 
Six hundred dollars were voted for roads, three hundred and fifty 
for schools and one hundred and fifty for town expenses. Voted 
to have two-thirds of the school money expended in winter and one- 
third in summer. P"ll)ridge Gerry had seventy-seven votes for 
Governor, and Christopher Gore thirty-three. \'oted that the road 
on the north side of the Great river be three rods wide. Voted to 
have the great road leading from Captain Twitchell's to Gilead line 
three rods wide. Voted to have the scholars limited to their own 
districts. Moses IVIason was chosen representative. Voted to 
choose an agent to remonstrate against Mr. Howard's road. "N'oted 
that the selectmen open the road through to John Case's land lead- 
ing from Joseph G. Swan's to David Blake's mills, some way or 
other. Voted to choose a committee to view Pleasant river bridge. 
Voted to accept the straightening of the road from Jesse Bean's to 
Gilead line. Voted not to accept the vote on Pleasant river bridge, 
and voted to do something about said bridge. Voted two hundred 
dollars extra to be expended on the roads under the direction of a 
committee. The last vote was rescinded. 

1812. John Kilgore, Jr., was elected moderator and Timothy 
Carter, clerk. Ebenezer Bean bid off the taxes at four cents on the 
dollar and was chosen constable. The highway surveyors this year 
were Isaac Town, Daniel Grout, Walter ^lason, John Holt, Samuel 


Kimball, Amos Beau, Jonas Willis, Thomas Frost, Ezra Twitchell, 
Jr., Cyrus Twitchell, John Case and Benjamin Annas. School 
committee, Timothy Carter, James Walker and Moses Bartlett. 
One thousand dollars were raised for roads and three hundred and 
fifty for schools. Voted that the trustees sell the public lauds in 
such manner as they may see fit. Voted that the selectmen lay out 
a road from Joseph G. Swan's to David Blake's mills. Voted to 
allow Timothy Carter two dollars per year for the last ten years, 
for his services as town clerk, and one per cent, on what mouey he 
had collected as treasurer. Voted not to accept the report of the 
selectmen on the road from Joseph G. Swan's to David Blake's 
mills, and voted to choose a committee to lay out said road. Voted 
that the next annual meeting be held on the first da\^ of April nest. 
At an adjourned meeting in IMay, Moses Mason was chosen repre- 
sentative. Voted to accept the report of a committee appointed to 
lay a road from Joseph G. Swan's to David Blake's mills, beginning 
at a hemlock on the town line, about two rods east of the road as 
now traveled by the Widow Osgood's in said Bethel, and running 
generally more or less west of north by James Annas' place to the 
county road by the guide board near Joseph G. Swan's house, the 
whole length being twelve hundred and twenly-eight rods. The 
road run through land belonging to Widow Osgood, Benjamin 
Blake, Timothy Carter, Solomon Annas, James Annas, John Case, 
James Hall and John Walker. No damage was asked and none 
assessed. A meeting was called July thirteenth, to take action on 
the war with Great Britain. Voted that all able to bear arms should 
equip themselves as soon as possible, and a committee consisting 
of Moses Mason, John Barker, Jonathan Clark, Jonas Willis, 
Samuel Kimball and Nathaniel Segar, was appointed as a conunittee 
of safety. At a meeting August twenty-ninth, voted to send three 
delegates to Paris, one in the Federal and two in the Eepublican 
convention ; chose Amos Hastings, Jonathan Powers and Timothy 
Carter. Voted that notices for town meetings hereafter be posted 
on the Center school house and on each of the two meeting houses 
in town. Voted that the selectmen cause a bridge to be repaired 
on the "Whale's Back" before the next circuit court of common 
pleas for Oxford county. Chose Ephraim Powers agent to defend 
the towm against an indictment for deficiency of powder and balls. 
For Governor, Elbridge Gerry had eighty-six votes, and Caleb 
Strong, forty-one. 


1813. John Kilgore, Jr., was chosen moderator andJohn Holt, 
clerk and treasurer. Ebeuezer frames was made collector and 
coustuhle. Among the new names were Benjamin Goodenough, 
J^dward Richardson, William Staples, Obediah Kimball, Alpheus 
Swan, Barbour Bartlett. Three hundred dollars were voted for 
schools. Voted to lend out all the books in the town clerk's office 
to be returned in one month, and if not so returned to collect twenty- 
five cents of each person so keeping a book. Yox representative, 
Timothy Carter had twentj'-seven votes and Moses Mason sixtj'- 
eight. Guide boards were ordered near Bobbins Browns, near 
Eleazer Twitchell's, near Greely Swan's and one at the river bank 
near Josiah Bean's. Two roads were accepted, one at the lower 
part of the town leading into Job York's road and the other begin- 
ning near John Merrill's on the north side of the river, on the road 
leading to Newry line, at the corner of Nathaniel Swan's field and 
running east of south to the river, then across the river at Sand 
Rips, so called, then up the river to the ferriage place, etc., to be a 
bridle road to the river and over the river to the ferriage place, and 
an open road two rods wide from the ferriage way to the county 
road . 

1814. The meeting was held at the Center school house, April 
fourth. For Governor, Samuel Dexter had ninety-three votes, 
Caleb Strong, fifty-tliree. F.lhnnan Bartlett bid off the collector- 
ship at five cents on the dollar. School committee elected, Dr. 
Moses Mason, Barbour Bartlett and Elias Bartlett. Twelve hun- 
dred dollars were raised for roads, and the usual sums for other 
purposes. Two hundred dollars were voted to help build a meeting 
house at Middle Interval. Ciiose Eli Twitchell and Jonas Willis a 
committee to see to fencing the burying ground. Moses Mason 
was re-elected representative. A road was accepted beginning at 
Ebenezer Eames' barn to the corner of Peter York's fence and to 
the main road against his barn. Also a bridle road from John 
Russell's field to the county road. 

1815. The meeting was held April third. Ebenezer Frames bid 
off the collectorship. The road surveyors chosen for the north side 
of the river were John Bean, Peter York and Edward Richardson ; 
on the south side, Jesse Bean, Eben Greenwood, John Walker, 
Jonas IMerriam, Elias Bartlett and Job York. For school commit- 


tee, Timothy Carter, Rev. Arthur Drinkwater, James Walker, 
Elisha Bartlett, Peregriue Bartlett, Samuel B. Loeke, Barber Bart- 
lett and Jonathan Abbot. Voted to give the assessors power to 
remit the taxes assessed to aid in building a meeting house at 
Middle Interval, to all who are opposed to pacing the tax. Voted 
eight hundred dollars for roads and the usual amount for other 
purposes. At a meeting May eighteenth, it was voted not to divide 
the town. For representative, Moses Mason had sixty-three votes, 
Jonathan Abbot, thirty-seA'en, scattering, ten. The vote on a 
division of the town was taken on a petition for the same signed by 
Eli Grover, Jedediah Burbank, Amos Gage, Amos Hill, Jesse Bean, 
Samuel Burbank, James Grover, John Barker, Benj. Goodeuough, 
Cyrus Twitchell, Samuel Barker, John Mills, Daniel Gage, Jedediah 
Grover, Peter Twitchell, Joseph Greenwood, Joseph Wheeler, 
John Grover, Paul Morse, James Grover, Joseph Wheeler, Jr., 
Robbins Brown, Kleazer Twitchell, Benjamin Annas, Aaron Abbot, 
James Walker, Thaddeus Twitchell and Ezra Twitchell. Voted to 
send a petition to the General Court asking to have the proceedings 
of the town legalized. Voted to allow Daniel Gage ten dollars for 
work he has done on the road laid out from the great road through 
his field to the river. Voted to accept the road down by Bear river. 
Voted to raise money to repair the road on Whale's Back, which is 
complained of. Voted to accept the road in the lower part of the 
town for Ebenezer Bartlett and Enoch Estes. 

1816. Barbour Bartlett was chosen clerk and Eli Twitchell, 
Samuel Chapman and Elias Bartlett, selectmen. Among the 
new town officers were Bezaleel Kendall, P^dmund Chapman, 
Aaron Fi-ost, Calvin Twitchell and James Hodsdou. Hogreeves 
chosen. Rev. Valentine Little, Rev. Arthur Drinkwater, Perkins 
INIoulton, Jonas D. Merriam, Theodore Stearns, Eli Grover, Jr., 
Urban Shorey, James Wheeler, Luther Locke, Nathaniel Green- 
wood, Timothy Capen and Aaron Mason. Voted one thousand 
dollars for roads and three hundred for schools. \'oted to dis- 
continue the road laid out for John Mills and others. Benjamin 
Estes, Jesse Dustou and Jonas D. Merriam were appointed tyth- 
ingmen. At an adjourned meeting, the vote electing Messrs. 
Little and Drinkwater, hogreeves, was rescinded. Voted to divide 
the interest on the school funds among the several schools in 
town. For Governor, Samuel Dexter had eightj'-eight and John 


Brooks forty-eight. Voted to divide the fourth school district 
by the parish Hue. The selectmen were directed to regulate 
the ferries in town. A road was laid out for the benefit of John 
and Cyrus Mills leading from the house of John Mills to the road 
near the Widow Grover's. A resolve passed by the General Court, 
legalizing the doings of the town, was placed on file and recorded. 
Voted that no person should sell spirituous liquors near the school 
house where the town meeting is lield. Samuel Chapman was 
chosen representative. The town voted for separation from Massa- 
chusetts, seventy ; opposed, twenty-two. Barbour Bartlett was 
elected delegate to the Brunswick convention, held with regard to 
separation from Massachusetts. Another vote on separation stood 
eighty- nine in favor, thirty-one opposed. 

1817- ]Met at the school house and adjourned to the Center 
meeting house. . Peter York bid otf the collectorship of taxes and 
was chosen constable. The names of James Beattie, Micajah Blake 
and Dr. John G rover appear in the list of town officers. Henry 
Rust received ninety-nine votes as candidate for County Treasurer. 
The usual sums of money were raised. It was voted to assist the 
seventh school district to build a house. This meeting was held in 
Center meeting house, and it was voted that the constable clear the 
entry of spirituous liquors. A committee was chosen to select a 
site fcr a bridge across Bear river. Voted to accept of a road laid 
out from William Staples' to the town line. Thomas Frost was 
annexed to the first school district on the north side of the river. 
A road was laid out for Peter Grover, beginning at his corner and 
running to the county road between Bethel and Greenwood. Voted 
to build a bridge across Bear river, the expense not to exceed one 
hundred and ninety-five dollars, ^'oted to send Barbour Bartlett 
as agent to Paris. Voted to accept tlie bridle road laid out for 
Elijah Bartlett. Voted a committee to examine the place for a 
road round by Mr. Locke's and across by Col. Hastings, consisting 
of Timothy Carter, Capt. Daniel Grout and Deacon Asa Kimball, 
Voted to ask the town of Newry to build a road to meet the road 
built by Bethel to Bear river. Voted to raise a committee to meet 
a committee from Rumford to settle the legal settlement of Ephraim 
Colby. John Burk and family having become paupers were vari- 
ously disposed of. 

1818. Tlie principal officers were re-elected. Four hundred 


dollars were voted for schools. Peter York bid off the c-oUectorship 
and was chosen constable. The town's poor were disposed of at 
auction. Besides the Hurk fiimily, Mrs. Mary Heminingway was 
bid off by Francis Ilemmingway at one dollar and fifty cents i)er 
week. For Governor, John Brooks had fifty-one votes, and Benja- 
min W. Crowningshield, seventy-one. Voted to approbate the 
selectmen for presenting to the grand jury the names of i)ersons 
who unlawfully sell spirituous li(|uors at town meetings. A road 
was laid out for Elijah Bartlett beginning near Ephraim Powers' 
potash and ending at said Bartlett's lot. 'N'oted not to send a 

1819. The meeting was called at the Center meeting house. 
Dr. Moses Mason was chosen moderator and Barbour Bartlett, 
clerk. Joseph C. Walker was one of the town officers ; also HoUica 
Greenwood, John Y. Dustiu, Hiram Allen, Jonathan A. Russell, 
Jacob Ellingwood. William Russell, 2d, John Stearns and ^Villiam 
Oliver. A road for each of the last two was accepted. Voted to 
raise six hundred dollars for poor and for town charges, fifteen 
hundred for ways and five hundred for schools. Voted to divide 
the first school district, near Mr. Willis' north of the river. Voted 
to assist the second and seventh school districts in building school 
houses. Voted a bounty of one dollar on full grown bears ; also a 
bounty on crow's heads. Voted a committee to make enquiry into 
the property affairs of Samuel Ayer. Dr. Moses Mason was elected 
n'i)resentative. A road was laid out for William Oliver, beginning 
on the bank of the river at Sunda^^ Rips to the road that leads from 
Bezaleel Kendall's to James Beattie's. Another road was laid out 
from Ebenezer Bean's house to the road leading from Gilead to 
Capt. Eleazer Twitchell's mills. Also a road for the benefit of 
Jedediah Grover and others, beginning near Dr. John Grover's 
dwelling house and ending at the house of Widow Lydia Grover. 
A road was laid out l)y Jonathan Abbot, September eighteenth, 
eighteen hundred and nineteen, beginning near Samuel Ayer's and 
Thaddeus Bartlett's, on the line between said Ayer and Bartlett, 
running by Nathaniel Bean's and south of Otter Pond and so on to 
Greenwood line. It was laid out four rods wide and called Otter Pond 
road. It was voted to rebuild Alder river bridge, and a committee 
was chosen to look after it. It was voted to pay one-half in pro- 
duce and one-half in labor and material. Capt. Daniel (4rout took 


the job at one hundred and fort^'-five doUars. Voted iu favor of sep- 
aration from Massachusetts, one hundred and seventeen; opposed, 
twenty-four. Voted to send an agent to Paris to look after indicted 
roads. Voted to petition the Court of Sessions to send a viewing 
committee to see if the road from Gen. Hastings' potato hole, by 
Nathaniel Swan's to John Merrill's cannot be altered. Dr. John 
Grover was selected as delegate to Portland to the Constitutional 
convention. The vote stood : Eli Twitchell, twenty-two ; Timothy 
Carter, four ; Moses Mason, nine ; Barbour Bartlett, seventeen, and 
Dr. John Grover, sixty-three. Voted to build Bethel's proportion 
of Bear river bridge. 

1820. Dr. Carter was chosen moderator and Barbour Bartlett, 
clerk. For selectmen, Timoth}' Carter, Dr. John Grover and Deacon 
John Holt. Peter York bid off the collectorship. Israel Kimball was 
chosen pound keeper. One hundred and forty dollars were raised 
for building Alder river l)ridge. Voted that suit be commenced 
against Samuel 1». Locke provided he does not fulfil his contract 
respecting the public lands. The disposition of paupers was left 
with the selectmen. For (Governor, William King had one hundred 
and twenty-two votes ; scattering, fifteen. For representative there 
vas no choice until the fifth trial. At the first trial. Doctor Timotli}' 
Carter iiad sixty-seven, Doctor John Grover, fifty-four, Barbour 
Bartlett, twenty-eight, scattering, lliirfy. At the fifth trinl. Doctor 
John Grover had sixiy-uine votes and was elected. James Beattie 
bid off the building of the Bear river bridge for one hundred and 
thirty-live dollars, half to be paid in stock and half in produce. 
Voted two hundred and fifty dollars to make repairs and pay the 
fine on the road leading from Aaron Abbot's to the town line. 

1821. Timothy Carter was chosen moderator but was excused, 
he being oliliged to visit the sick. Israel Kimball was chosen first 
selectman, but declined and was excused. Jedediah Burbank bid 
oft" the collectorship. Among the new names iu the list of town 
officers were .lames Swan, .Jr., Edmund Bean, Freeborn G. Bartlett, 
Jonathan Wheeler, Sylvanus Twitchell, .Tames F. Carter and Nathan 

A. Foster. Barbour Bartlett was chosen treasurer, ^'oted that 
the trustees of the ministerial and school funds settle with Samuel 

B. Locke for the lands he holds in consequence of building mills. 
For school committee. Dr. Timothy Carter, Dr. .John (irover, Dr. 


Moses Masou, Barbour Bartlett and Elias Bartlett. The town's- 
poor were set up at auction. William Burk was bid off by Timotliy 
Bean at twenty-eight cents per week for food and lodging, mending 
and tobacco. Ezekiel Whitman had twenty-four votes for Gov- 
ernor, and Albion K. Parris, one hundred and fourteen. This 3'ear 
Dr. Moses Mason was licensed as an inn-holder, and James Walker,. 
O'Neil W. Robinson, John Merrill and James F. Carter as retailers- 
of spirituous liquors. Votes were passed leaving the Ingalls family 
in care of the selectmen, and directing the selectmen to remonstrate 
against a division of Oxford county. Barbour Bartlett was elected 
representative. Voted one hundred dollars additional for building 
Bear river bridge, and that the same be assessed immediately. 

1822. Peter York, Phineas Frost and Samuel Chapman were 
chosen selectmen. Otis Grover was elected collector and Barbour 
Bartlett, clerk and treasurer. Chandler Russell, Elihu Bean. Amos 
Andrews, Simeon Twitchell and William Holt were among the town 
officers. Voted to divide the lower school district on the north side 
of the river, the division line to be between Jonathan Powers' and 
Jonas Willis'. Voted to build a bridge across Sunday river. It 
was voted to allow AVilliam Pote twenty dollars for the support of 
Isaac Frost, provided he will withdraw his suit against the town. 
Susan Farewell and her child were bid off by Reuben Bartlett at 
two and sixpence per week. Timothy Bean bid off William Burk 
at two cents per week. Timothy Bean bid off the building of Sun- 
day river bridge at two hundred and fifty dollars. The selectmen 
were authorized to enquire into the case of Burry Colby, a pauper^ 
and commence snit against Rnmford, if they thought best. J^liphaz 
Chapman was chosen representative. The same parties as last year 
were licensed as retailers of strong drink. Eleven guide boards 
were ordered; one at Robbins Brown's, one at James Walker's^ 
one at Aaron Abbot's, two at Dustin's Ferry, one in the pine woods 
near Kendall's Ferry, one at Nathaniel Swan's, one at Moses 
Mason's, one at John Ellingwood's, one at Asa Kimball's and one 
at Micajah Blake's. 

1823. The principal town officers were re-elected. It was 
voted to divide the fifth school district. Among the town officers 
were John Bean, Leonard Grover, Hezekiah Moody, Calvin Stearns, 
Israel Kimball, Jr., John Cushman. Voted to accept and pay the 


bill for the support of Poll}' Capen. The field drivers this year were 
Eli Twitchell, O'Neil AV. Robinson, Amos Gage, Daniel G. Elliug- 
wood, Moses Bartlett, Eli Twitchell, 3d, Curatio Twitchell, Francis 
Barker, Timothy M. Swan, Aaron B. Swan, Simeon Brown, James 
A. S. Bartlett, Peter Kimball, Calvin Stearns, George Kimball and 
Hezekiah Mood}'. Perkins P. Monlton was chosen collector of 
taxes. For school committee. Rev. Charles Frost, Dr. John 
Grover, Timothy Carter, Barbour Bartlett and Elias Bartlett. 
^'oted to open a road over Jesse Cross' mill stream and build a 
bridge. Captain Daniel Grant was chosen a committee to superin- 
tend the work. Voted to divide the third school district, and that 
each district fence its own burying grounds. The road was again 
located between the river road and the town line near Solomon 
Annas' house. (This is the present road between Bean's Corner 
and Locke's Mills. At this time, Thomas Goss, F^li Foster and 
James A. S. Bartlett had settled along the line of this road.) 
O'Neil W. Robinson, Eli Twitchell, 2d, and Luther Locke were 
licensed to sell strong liijuors. \'oted to accept with some modifi- 
cations, the plan of Amos Hills, for a bridge across Mill Brook. 
Voted to abate the tax of John Burk, who lived with Justus Bean, 
and to accept a road laid out for Perkins P. Monlton. 

1824. Moses Mason was elected modeialor and Barbour Bart- 
lett. clerk and treasurer. Among the names of minor town officers 
•were Jonathan Powers, John Y. Dustin, James Wheeler, William 
Estes, Abijah Lapham, .Joshua Bean, Peter Estes and John Stev- 
ens. School committee, William Frye, Timothy Carter and Elias 
Bartlett. Struck off the child of Sukey Farewell to Benjamin 
Estes, at seventy-five cents per week, and Mrs. Reynolds to Otis 
Orover at forty-six cents a week until her husband returns or some 
other provision is made for her support. Voted to abate taxes in 
Otis G rover's bills against Thomas Coffin, William Grover, Elias 
Russell, Samuel Tyler, Thomas Waldeu, Isaac York, Jonathan 
Fowler and Abiather Bean. Raised five hundred dollars for town 
charges and fifteen hundred dollars for roads. Jonathan Abbot 
was chosen collector. Samuel B. Locke was chosen agent to opi)ose 
a road laid out from Jason Sherman's to Capt. Eli Twitchell's. A 
road was accepted from John Estes to Thomas Cushman ; also a 
road from a point between Timothy Caj^en's and Simeon Brown's 
land and running east of south to Url)au Shorey's land ; also a road 



from Jacob Kimball's to Solomon Annas' land. (The road over 
Berry Hill) ; also a bridle road from John Estes' to Arnold Pow- 
ers' place. Voted to accept the alteration made in the road from 
Grover Hill throngh Amasa Clark's laud. Voted to examine the 
road, that part of the road lietween Thomas Cushman's and John 
Estes', and to accept the part laid out between Estes' and William 
Farewell's. The selectmen were directed to examine the road be- 
tween Abbot's Mills and Locke's Mills, and instruct the agent. A 
road was accepted beginning near Josiah Brown's barn, running by 
James Hodsdon's to the road leading l)y Elijah Bartlett, on petition 
of John Cushman. 

1825- Moses Mason was moderator and Barbour Bartlett, 
clerk and treasurer. Among the minor town officers were Levi 
Berry, Jr., Peter Kimball, Lawson Mason, Luther Eames, Benjamin 
Swett, Simeon Sanborn and Nathan Eames. Voted that school 
districts should cboose their own agents. Timothy Hastings was 
chosen representative, receiving fifty-nine votes to forty-three for 
Phineas Frost. Isaac Twombly bid off the building of the new road 
near Whale's Back (Rumford and Paris road) for one hundred and 
ninety dollars. Voted to postpone the alteration of the road near 
Luther Locke's store. Voted that the highway' surveyors in the 
three nearest districts work out their delinquent taxes on the roads 
leading from the lower part of Bethel to Norway b}' way of Locke's 
Mills, and on the road from Abbot's ]Mills to Locke's Mills, in each 
case, to Bethel line. 

1826. The old board of officers were re-elected, Barljour Bart- 
lett as clerk and Phineas Frost as chairman of the selectmen. Two 
thousand dollars were voted for the repair of roads. Elijah Grover 
was elected collector and constable. Among the highway surve^'ors 
were Eli Estes, Eben Richardson, Edmund Bean, Hiram Holt, 
Jacob Kimball, George AV. Grover and Walter Mason, Jr. Field 
drivers were Aaron Mason, Ebenezer Bean, Foster Farewell, 
Sylvanus Twitchell, Jefferson Howard and Thomas Goss. Voted 
to pay money to the soldiers and not furnish rations. Jacob Little- 
hale bid off Susan Farewell's child at eighty-six cents a week. The 
support of Isaac Frost was struck off to Peregrine Bartlett, and that 
of Calvin Twitchell left with the selectmen. A road was accepted 
leading from James Wheeler's to the road leading from Otis G rover's 
to John Grover's. A bridle road was accepted running from Caleb 



Besse's northwesterly to land owned by John Twombly. George 
W. Chapman of Gilead was elected representative. At an adjourned 
meeting held at Bear river bridge, it was voted to rebuild the bridge 
with long stringers supported overhead with braces. The building 
of the bridge was bid off by Phineas Frost. The transportation of 
Calvin Twitchell, wife and three children, to Oneida county, New 
York, where they belong, was bid off by George Bean, for eighty- 
four dollars and fifty cents. 

1827. Peter Frost was chosen chairman of the selectmen, Adam 
Willis, second, and Jonathan Abbot, third. Highway surveyors 
were directed to keep the town roads open in winter. William 
Estes was made collector of taxes in the West Parish and Adam 
Willis in the East ; the latter declined serving and Elihu Kilgore 
was chosen in his place. Among the highway surveyors were 
Joseph Holt, John Hastings, Caleb Rowe, Ayers Mason, James M. 
Pote, Eleazer Kowe, Abijah Lapham, Edmund Segar, and Israel 
Kimball, Jr. Among the field drivers were David B. Glines, Wil- 
liam Berry, Samuel Bean and Nathan F. Twitchell. Voted to 
supply the soldiers with rations and not money. Voted to accept 
the road from Joseph Sanborn's to Eben Greenwood's. William 
Frye, Esq., was chosen town agent. Voted to give the Berry dis- 
trict twenty dollars to build a school house. (This is the house 
still standing and known as the Bird Hill school house.) The 
pauper child of Abigail Swan was left at the disposal of the select- 
men. Seth B. Newell was a juryman that year. A road was laid 
out from near the house of William Frye to the laud of Ambrose 
C. Cilley, and another from the old Grover Hill road to the road 
leading by the house of Jedediah Grover. Voted to quitclaim to 
Reuben Bartlett an island which was sold to the town by Isaac 
Frost, on condition tliat Bartlett take care of Frost for one year. 
The selectmen were instructed to discharge on certain conditions, a 
note given the town by Return J. Ellingwood and signed by John 

1828. The meeting was held ;March third, at the Center meeting 
house. Phineas Frost, Jedediah Burbank and Timothy Hastings 
were chosen selectmen. The collectors weie re-elected. Baxter 
Lyon, Peter Estes, James Estes, Enoch Estes, Peter Kimball, 
Francis Barker, Moses Chandler, Hannibal Kimball, Barrett Howard 
and William Berry were among the minor town officers. Rebecca 


Beattie and all the poor of that family were left at the disposal of 
the selectmen. A^oted to give the Laphara school district (No. 11) 
twenty dollars toward bnilding a school house. Phiueas Frost was 
chosen agent to oppose the road around Swan's Hill. Voted to 
petition the court of sessions to change the road between Samuel 
Ayer's and Greenwood line. Voted to accept bridle roads over to 
Staples' Ferry and over to Edmund Chapman's Mills. Voted to 
leave the case of Solomon Annas with the overseers of the poor. 
Voted that the town will make the road from Thomas Gosses to 
Greenwood line, if certain complainants will build from Samuel 
Ayers' to Gosses. Voted that the selectmen lay out a road from 
Elijah Grover's store to Jesse Bean's. Voted to accept a new road 
and discontinue an old one near Elijah Grover's Corner. 

1829. Doctor Mason was chosen moderator and Barbour Bart- 
left was continued as clerk and treasurer. Barrett Howard was 
chosen collector and constable. Voted to pay the soldiers money. 
William Estes was re-elected collector for the West Parish. For 
field drivers, Sylvanus Twitchell, Samuel Holt, William Frye, Silas 
Grover, George V. Ellingwood, Peter Estes, Clark Kimball and 
Jonathan Chapman. The trustees of the ministerial fund were 
directed to divide the money in their hands among the several 
denominations. Voted to petition the selectmen to discontinue the 
road over Duston's Ferry, from one county road to the other. For 
Governor, Samuel E. Smith had one hundred and thirty-four votes, 
Jonathan G. Hunton, fifty-six. Phineas Frost was chosen repre- 
sentative. Voted that retailers be licensed by the selectmen as 
they formerly were. Voted that the trustees of the school funds 
sell the balance of the school land, and add the proceeds to the 

1830. Sylvanus Twitchell was chosen moderator and Barbour 
Bartlett, clerk. Moses Mason, Israel Kimball and Elias Bartlett 
were chosen selectmen. The suit Bingham against Bethel was left 
with the selectmen. Delinquent collectors were called upon to 
settle their accounts on pain of suit against themselves and their 
bondsmen. William Estes was chosen constable and collector. 
The road between Jonathan Chapman's and Edmund Chapman's 
mill was accepted. Voted that the ministerial fund shall be divided 
among the several denominations in town, and that each voter be 
requested to state his preference. Thaddeus Bartlett, Timothy 


Ayer, George Kimball, Eli Foster, James Estes, Jacob Kimball, 
William Bartlett and James A. S. Bartlett were allowed to draw 
out their school money and expend the same elsewhere. Samuel 
Bai'ker was chosen agent to open the road from Eben Greenwood's 
to Albany line. A vote was taken on the division of the town and 
decided in the negative. For Governor, Samuel E. Smith had two 
hundred and four votes, and Jonathan G. Huutou, seventy- four. 
James Burbank was chosen representative. The town clerk, treas- 
urer and selectmen were directed to petition the legislature for 
permission to transfer the school funds from the trustees to the 

1831. Sylvanus Twitchell was chosen moderator and Barbour 
Bartlett, clerk, ^'oted to allow Samuel Barker eightj^-nine dollars 
and forty-nine cents for opening the road across the great meadows 
to Albany line. William Frye was appointed agent to make inquiry 
regarding the property of Widow Annas. Spencer Drake was 
■chosen one of the selectmen. Barbour Bartlett was chosen treasurer 
and collector. Voted that Dr. John Grover shall have the land 
belonging to James Grover on the payment by him of the cost of 
the support of said James Grover. Among the highway surveyors 
were John B. Mason, Caleb Bessee, Eli Estes, Peter Estes and 
Moses Bisbee. Eli Grover, Jr., James Grover, Peter Grover and 
Isaac C. Cross were set off from the fifth school district and made 
a separate district. William Frye, Lovel P. Chadbourn and Jotham 
S. Lane were chosen school committee. Isaac Frost was struck off 
to Gilman Hodgman and Return Ellingwood to Peregrine Bartlett. 
Voted to accept the road laid to Stephen Hodsdon's. A road was 
accepted beginning on the road leading from Locke's Mills to Thad- 
deus P. Bartlett's and ending at the road leading from Walker's 
Mills to Locke's Mills, on tlie east side of Bear Brook. A road 
was also accepted to Robert F. Farewell's house, and one from the 
road leading from Samuel B. Locke's to Newr^', and ending at 
Locke's Mills in Bethel. Voted that the selectmen petition for the 
discontinuance of one of the roads, either on the north or the south 
side of the Alder river toward Locke's Mills in Greenwood. Voted 
that James Walker make good the road along by his canal. 

1832. Two thousand dollars had been the standard sum to 
raise for repair of roads for several years, and for schools the 
amount required by law. For school committee, William Frye, 


Charles Frost and Reuben B. Foster. The selectmen were directed 
to have the indictment removed from the road leading from Solomon 
Annas' by Eli H. Cnshman's. Reuben Bartlett and others were set 
off into a school district by themselves. A bridle road was accepted 
from Eli H. Cnshman's to the town line near Isaac Cummiugs'. 
The selectmen were directed to license retailers of strong drink. 
Asa Kimball was elected representative on the fourth ballot. 
Ebenezer Eames was chosen agent to repair Bear river bridge. 

1833. The meeting was held at the Center meeting house as 
usual. Moses Mason, Reuben B. Foster and Norman Clark were 
chosen selectmen. William Estes and Phineas Frost were chosen 
constables. Barbour Bartlett was chosen clerk, treasurer and col- 
lector of taxes. Among the minor town officers were Barbour 
Willis, Orson Powers, Benjamin Russell, Edward Thompsou, Amos 
Gage, Jr., Jonathan Abbot, Jr., Robert A. Chapman, John Jordan 
and Nathan Stearns. Voted not to license retailers to sell liquors 
to be drank at the stores, and that the treasurer call on the retailers 
for tlieir fees. Voted to sell wheat belonging to the town at auction. 
Voted to choose a committee to re-district the town into school dis- 
tricts. Accepted a road from David Sanborn's to the road leading 
to Rumford : also a road from Timothy A. Holt's house to Peregrine 
Duston's house Also a road leading from Aaron Frost's to the 
road laid by the town of Newry. Reuben B. Foster was chosen 
agent to look after complained of roads the ensuing year. Voted 
that the selectmen try and establish the town line at the southeast 
corner of the town. Voted to aece])t the Richard Estes school dis- 
trict as number one, and the Eli Foster district as number two. In 
the list of names placed in the jury box, were Francis Barker, Luther 
Beau, Humphrey Bean, Nathan Grover, Eli Foster, Ayers Mason, 
Elias M. Carter, Robert A. Chapman, Reuben B. Foster and John 
Hastings. An adjourned meeting was opened at the Center meet- 
ing house and adjourned to Dr. Carter's wagon house. Voted to pay 
twelve dollars for the use of the meeting house for town purposes. 

1834. Spencer Drake was chosen moderator and Barbour Bart- 
lett, clerk. George Chapman and William P. Frost were chosen 
constables. The following school agents were chosen : Kpliraim 
Powers, Samuel Holt, Walter Mason, Jr., Gilman Chapman, 
Thaddeus Twitchell, James Grover, Jonathan Abbot, Humphrey 
Bean, Joel Howe, Seth B. Newell, Abner Biown, Fbeuezer Eames, 


Eli p:stes, Leonard Grover, Hiram Holt, Wm. P. Frost, Luther 
Bean and Isaac .1. Town. Twenty-five hundred dollars were raised 
for the repair of ways. Roads on the petition of John Cushman, 
Geo. W. Phelps, Foster Farewell, Phineas Howard, Tildeu Bartlett 
and Hiram Allen, all private ways and mostly bridle paths. Voted 
to hold the next town meeting at the upper meeting house in the 
West Parish, and that the selectmen be a committee to confer with 
the proprietors of the Center meeting house, with regard to holding 
future meetings there. For Representative to Congress, Dr. ]\Ioses 
Mason had one hundred and eighty-eight votes, Timothy J. Carter, 
forty-eight, and Oliver Herrick, seventy-two. Capt. Asa Kimball 
was elected to the legislature. Voted a road from William Bart- 
lett's to the old road leading to John Estes' place ; also an alteration 
of the road from Isaac Estes to the Hamlin's Gore line between 
Sylvanus Bartlett and Robert Bearce. Voted to discontinue so 
much of the road from the school house near John Williamson's, 
by William Farewell's to the John Swift house, as there is from 
where it leaves Timothy A. Holt's road to the Swift house. AVilliam 
Frye was town clerk the last of the year. 

1835. Edmund Merrill was chosen moderator and William Frye 
clerk, also town agent. Stephen Bartlett bid off the collect© rship. 
Among the minor town otlicers were Abraham Jordan, Piram Bis- 
bee, Tyler P. Town, Ball Bartlett, Jonathan C. Robertson, Daniel 
Estes, Sumner Stearns. The election of agents showed that there 
were twentj^-one srhool districts. Four hundred dollars were raised 
for support of the poor, besides ihe usual amounts for other pur- 
poses. Voted that teachers make reports to the school committee 
on blanks furnished at the expense of the town. Voted that the 
September meeting be held at the old Methodist meeting house on 
the north side of the river. (This meeting was held in tlie meeting 
house near Barker's Ferry.) ^''oted to accept the road laid out on 
petition of Samuel Bird and others. Voted that the next meeting 
be at the uew^ meeting house near Capt. Timothy Hastings. The 
Samuel Bird road was laid out from his road through Peter Ayer's 
land to the road near John Bird's. Joseph Twitchell had a road 
accepted running from his house to the county road on Daniel 
Grout's land, to be a bridle road. 

1836. Phineas Frost was chosen moderator and William Frj^e, 
clerk. Phineas Frost, Timothy Hastings and John B. Mason were 


choseu selectmen. Voted to allow Edmund Chapman one dollar 
per week for keeping Betsey Chapman. Aaron Cross was chosen 
collector and constable. A separate school district was formed at 
Walker's Mills. Peter G. Smith was annexed to the fifteenth 
school district. Voted that Hezekiah Moody, Stephen Estes and 
Tilden Bartlett be permitted to draw their school money and expend 
the same in the Hamlin's Gore district. As required by act of the 
legislature, the limitation of the two militia companies was fixed b}- 
the parish line, the lower company commanded by Moses Bartlett, 
and the upper by John Harris. In eighteen hundred and forty- 
three, the lower company was commanded by Captain William God- 
dard. Voted against the annexation of Hamlin's Gore to Bethel. 
Robert P. Duulap had one hundred and ninety-five votes for Gov- 
ernor, and Edward Kent, forty-two. A road was accepted from 
Hezekiah Moody's to the old road leading from John Estes, 2d to 
Eli Estes. 

1837- Phineas Frost was chosen moderator and Elias M. Car- 
ter, clerk. Ebenezer Eames was chosen treasurer. James C. Bean 
and Aaron Cross were elected collectors of taxes, each for his re- 
spective parish. Among the minor town officers were Jedediah T. 
Kimball, Moses Barker, Bartlett Hodgdon, William Goddard, 
Stephen Estes, Benjamin Estes, Aaron M. York and Ephraim C. 
Bartlett. Charles Frost, Benjamin Douham and Thomas Roberts 
were elected school committee. Three thousand dollars were raised 
for roads. The town's poor were disposed of at auction. The re- 
pair of the bridges over Bear, Sunday and Pleasant rivers was left 
with the selectmen. Tilton B. and Joseph Heath were added to 
Peter Twitchell's school district and Thomas Goss to the Eli Foster 
district. At a meeting March thirtieth, it was voted that Bethel re- 
ceive its share of the surplus revenue, and Ebenezer Eames was 
chosen agent to receive the money. Subsequently Jedediah Bur- 
bank and Nathan Grover, together with Ebenezer Eames were con- 
stituted a committee to receive the money. They were required to 
give bonds to the town for the faithful discharge of their duties. 
It was then voted that the money, when received, be loaned to the 
inhabitants on their notes properly secured. Two new school dis- 
tricts were created, one on petition of Jonathan A. Russell and one 
on petition of Dr. Timothy Carter. After several meetings and 
much excited discussion, it was voted that the town's [jroportion of 


the surplus revenue be deposited in the town treasury and be 
divided among the heads of families in town according to the last 
census, as a loan at six per cent, interest. At the next meeting it 
was voted that the money should be distributed as provided, only 
so modified that heads of families should only be required to give 
their personal promise to pay when called upon to do so. Phineas 
Frost was elected representative. 

1838. Aaron Mason was elected collector for the whole town. 
Phineas Frost, Israel Kimball and Moses Mason were chosen select- 
men. Among minor town officers were Chandler Russell, David 
Sanborn, Daniel Estes, John Needham, William F. Kendall and 
Amos Andrews. The following persons were made a school dis- 
trict by themselves : John Williamson, Levi Shaw, John Beattie, 
Richard Garland, Timothy Carter, Elias M. Carter, James F. Car- 
ter, P>eniamin Donham, Israel Kimball, Jedediah T. Kimball, Ed- 
mund Merrill and Mary Mason. Another school district was made 
up of the following persons : Jonathan A. Russell, Timothy Capen, 
Aaron Abbot, Caleb Coffin, David Coffin, John Russell, Leander 
Russell, Eleazer Twitchell, Aaron Abbot, Jr., Ayers Mason and 
George Chapman. The town's poor were bid off bj' Moses Bart- 
lett at five hundred and thirty dollars. A road was accepted for 
Urban Sborey from his house to the house built by Elijah Gossom. 
The trustees of the ministerial and school funds were requested to 
pay over the funds in their hands to the town officers. Timothy 
Hastings was chosen agent to oppose the proposed road from Walk- 
er's Mills to Lovel. For Governor, John Fairfield had two hundred 
and eighty-nine votes and Edward Kent ninety-seven. Phineas 
Frost was elected representative. 

1839. Moses Mason was elected moderator and Elias M. Car- 
ter, clerk. Voted that the town pay a reasonable sum for trans- 
porting the soldiers to Augusta, and that they must be there on 
Wednesday next at nine o'clock in the forenoon. A committee was 
appointed who contracted with John Hastings, Bezaleel Kendall, 
Benjamin Brown, Joseph Twitchell, John Needham, William Fare- 
well and Elhanon Bartlett to furnish teams and take the drafted sol- 
diers from the town of Bethel to Augusta, their expenses to be paid 
by the town, but they are to receive no pa}' unless the State shall 
pay it. Israel Kimball was elected collector of taxes. Elijah Har- 
den was chosen sexton, and Moses Mason, town agent. The poor 


were left iu charge of the selectmen. It was voted to give the use 
of Barker's Ferry to the bridge corporation. Voted that the treas- 
urer burn the receipts given for surplus revenue money. Chose a 
committee to re- district the town for school purposes. Francis Up- 
ton was allowed to expend his school money in Albany. A road 
was accepted from Caleb Bessee's to Tilden Bartlett's, one from 
Rufus Grover's to Jedediah Grover's, and one from Zenas Gary's 
to Gould Spofford's, also a road from Abraham Bryant's house to 
the town road that leads from Solomon Annas' to Eli H. Cushman's. 
Voted to rebuild Bear river bridge. The job was struck off to Ezra 
Twitchell, the lowest Ijidder. The meetings were now held at Mid- 
dle Interval meeting house. A meeting, September ninth, was ad- 
journed to Elias ]M. Carter's new barn. Voted to divide the town. 

1840. Moses Mason was chosen moderator and Elias ]\I. Car- 
ter, clerk. Israel Kimball was again elected collector. Voted to 
accept the report of the treasurer of the ministerial and school 
funds. Among those elected to office were Lyman Bird, John Bird, 
David Elliot, William Whitcomb, Jesse Cross and Elihu Bean. 
The support of the poor was sold at auction, John Russell to Wil- 
liam Andrews, William Grover to Sumner Stearns, Betsey Chapman 
to Edmund Bean, Mrs. Goss to her son Thomas Goss, and Susan 
Farewell's child to Bezaleel Kendall. John Estes was struck off to 
Edmund Bean. Mrs. Sprague and son were left in the hands of 
the selectmen. The report of the committee on school districts was 
read and accepted. District number one was in the lower part of 
the town on the north side of the river. Number two was next to 
it, and called the Willis district ; number three, the Peter G. Smith 
district; number four, the Thaddeus Twitchell district; number 
five, the Simeon Twitchell district ; number six, Richard Estes dis- 
trict ; number seven, Eli Foster's district : number eight, Samuel 
Kimball's district ; number nine, Humphrey Bean's district; num- 
ber ten, Swan Hill district ; number eleven, Middle Interval : num- 
ber twelve, Bezaleel Kendall's; number thirteen, Jonathan Abbot 
Russell's; number fourteen, Abial Chandler; number fifteen, 
Bethel Hill; number sixteen. Dr. John Grover's; number seven- 
teen, Leonard Grover's ; numl)er eighteen, David Holt's ; number 
nineteen, Amos Andrews ; number twenty, Caleb Bessee's : number 
twenty-one, Eli Cushman's (Bird Hill ;) number twenty-two, Jona- 
than Abbot's (Walker's Mills;) number twenty-three, James 


Grover's and number twenty-four, Grover Hill. Moses Mason was 
made town agent. Voted to accept a road from John E. Farewell's 
to Abial Chandler's, it being just a mile in length. 

1841. Moses Mason was chosen moderator and Elias M. Car- 
ter, clerk. Ebenezer Eames was elected treasurer. Wesley Co- 
burn, Pinckney Burnham, Jonathan C. Robertson and John Hast- 
ings, surveyors of lumber. Peter H. Albee, Francis Barker, 
Amaziah Nutting and James Locke, tythingmen, and William 
Frye, Leander Jewett and Eliphaz C. Bean, school committee. 
Voted to build a town house, to stand somewhere between the 
school house in district number twelve and the Sanborn road. The 
selectmen were directed to build a road from Hezekiah Moody's to 
John Estes' place. Voted to divide the fifth school district. A 
road was accepted for Daniel Hodgdon from his house to the road 
leading from Locke's Mills to Bean's Corner, near Ebenezer Bart- 
lett's house, also a road for John D. Gossom, beginning near 
Jedediah T. Kimball's house and ending near a house once owned 
by James Hodgdon ; also one leading from said Kimball's to the 
road leading from Samuel Gossom's to Urban Shorey's. Voted to 
build a bridge across Sunday river like tlie bridge across Bear river, 
and the job was bid off by Ebenezer Eames. At a subsequent 
meeting, the plan for a town house presented by the selectmen was 
accepted. Voted to remonstrate against the petition of Phineas 
Frost, to divide the luwu oy the parish line. For Governor, John 
Fairfield had two hundred and seventy votes, Edward Kent, sixty- 
five and Jeremiah Curtis, nineteen. William Fr^^e was elected rep- 
resentative. For biennial sessions and elections, the town voted 
thirty-five in favor, and one hundred and twenty-seven opposed. 

1842. Aaron Cross was chosen moderator and Eliphaz C. 
Bean, clerk. William Frye was chosen town agent. The school 
committee men were re-elected. The town's poor were left at the 
disposal of the overseers of the poor. The practice of selling their 
support at auction, which had prevailed for several years, was 
omitted this year, A report of the school and ministerial funds was 
made, showing that the}' amounted to eleven hundred sixty-five dol- 
lars and thirty-five cents. These proceedings were considered void, 
in consequence of the moderator not being sworn, and another 
annual was held, called at the town house, on the eleventh daj' of 
April. The officers named above were elected. The town house 


was first used at the annual election in September, eighteen hun- 
dred and forty-one. The question of dividing the town was again 
voted upon and was decided by a large majority in the negative. 
Voted that our representative to the legislature be informed of this 
vote and of the large majority against a division of the town. 

1843. The old moderator and clerk were re-elected. Elias INI. 
Carter was chosen treasurer. Oilman Chapman bid off the collec- 
tion of taxes and was chosen constable. Among the minor town 
officers were Zeuas Cary, Winchester Whitman, Moses H. Frost, 
Gideon A. Hastings, Tyler P. Town, David Blake, Alfred Estes, 
Thatcher York and Benjamin Donham. Voted that cows may run 
at large. A road was accepted for Learned Whitman, between his 
place and Joseph Twitchell's ; also a road from Alvah Wheeler's, of 
two hundred and twenty-four rods in length, and a road on petition 
of Edwin Coffin and others, commencing at the house of John Hib- 
bard. The ministerial and school funds were reported, amounting 
to eighteen hundred and nineteen dollars and seventj'-two cents. 
For Governor, Hugh J. Anderson had one hundred and seventy-five 
votes, James Appleton, thirty, and Edward Robinson, twenty. 

1844. Phineas Frost was chosen moderator and Ira C. Kimball, 
clerk. William Frye, Leander Jewett and Mighill Mason were 
chosen school committee. Gilman Chapman was chosen collector 
and constable. The support of the poor was again sold at auction. 
A road was accepted leading from Thomas P. Howard's to the 
county road near Arnold Powers' place. For Governor, Hugh J. 
Anderson had two hundred and forty-eight votes, Pxlward Robinson, 
fifty-nine and James Appleton, thirty-two. At the presidential 
election this year, the democratic electors had two hundred and 
forty-two votes, the whig, fifty and the free soil, tliirty-six. 

1845. Moses B. Bartlett was chosen moderator and Ira C. 
Kimball, clerk. The usual sums were raised for town purposes. 
The support of the poor was sold at auction to the lowest bidders. 
Isaac Estes was set off from school district number seven and 
joined to six. Voted that John S. Swan's cellar be a pound, ^'oted 
to leave the covering of Bear river bridge in the hands of the select- 
men. Voted that the old clothes belonging to the late Colonel York 
be given to Peter York. A road was accepted from John E. Fare- 
well's to Abial Chandler's. The selectmen were instructed to ex- 


amine the several routes for the Grover Hill road and report on the- 
same. Voted to accept the alteration in Samuel Hassaltiue's road 
as made by the selectmen ; voted the selectmen examine a route for 
an alteration between Walker's Mills and Locke's Mills ; also a road 
for Andrew Stiles ; also a road for Jedediah T. Kimball, from the 
county road opposite Israel Kimball's. 

1846. Phineas Frost was chosen moderator and Hiram Holt, 
clerk. Charles Frost, Elias M. Carter and Mighill Mason were 
chosen school committee. Voted to accept John Jordan's road. 
The poor were left in the hands of the selectmen. Three thousand 
dollars were raised for roads. Voted to give John Cushman his 
bond for the support of widow Conu. A road w^as accepted for 
Joseph Cummings between his place and a point opposite Jared 
Young's house. Voted to instruct the selectmen to petition the 
Supreme Court for commissioners to establish the westerly line of 
Bethel. For Governor, John W. Dana had one hundred and sixty- 
one votes, Samuel Fessenden, forty-seven and David Bronson, 
thirty-one. Henry Ward and Hiram Holt, 2d, were licensed to selL 
spirituous liquors. 

1847. Moses B. Bartlett was chosen moderator and Hiram- 
Holt, 2d, clerk. Voted to leave the cases of Forbes, Boothby and 
Gallison in the hands of the selectmen. The treasurer was directed 
to hire one thousand and fifty dollars for the use of the town. The 
paupers w'ere left in charge of the selectmen. Voted that the town 
fence the burying ground on Alexander P. Wentworth's farm. The 
line between Bethel and Rum ford was perambulated this year. 
The same parties as last year were authorized to sell liquors. John 
W. Dana had one hundred and sixty-three votes for Governor, 
David Bronson, seventeen, and Samuel Fessenden, lifty-four. 

1848. Elias M. Carter was chosen moderator and jMighill 
Mason, clerk. Robert A. Chapman was elected treasurer. The 
poor were left in the hands of the overseers of the poor. A road 
was accepted from Melvin Farewell's house to the county road, 
about five rods west of Pleasant river bridge. Nathan Grover was 
elected representative. The democratic electors of president this 
year, received sixty- seven votes and the opposition had forty-nine. 

1849. Leander Jewett was chosen moderator and Mighill 
Mason, clerk. Among the minor town oflicers w^ere Stephen Cum- 


mings, Tilton Bennett, Nathan W. Ethridge, Joseph jNIeriill, Heniy 
R. Bartlett, Suel Bisbee, Moses A. Mason, Eber Clough, J .nies 
Lapham, John G. Elliot, Samuel II. Chapman, Evi Needham, Amos 
Young and Elias S. Baitlett. For Governor, John Hubbard had 
two hundred and thirteen votes, George F. Talbot, liftj-two, and 
Elijah L. Hamlin, twenty-six. Abernethy Grover had one hundred 
and twenty-eight votes for representative, and Eliphaz C. Bean, one 
hundred and twenty. 

1850. Aaron Cross was elected moderator and Gideon A. Hast- 
ings, clerk. Eliphaz C. Bean, Charles R. J.ocke and Tyler P. Town 
were chosen selectmen. Among the minor town officers were 
Stephen Pastes, Hezekiah Hutchins, John Heselton, Jewett Howard, 
Abijah Bartlett, William Hapgood, Simon Stevens, Prescott Holt 
and Timothy Capeu. ]Moses T. Cross was elected collector of taxes. 
Voted that Hezekiah Moody and Stephen Estes be allowed to spend 
their school money on Hamlin's Gore. A road was accepted begin- 
ning at the road east of Tilton Bennett's and running to the old 
house southwest of Tilton B. Heath's. Voted to build a bridge near 
Mr. George Tucker's, and the job was bid off by Gideon A.* Hast- 
ings, at one hundred and forty-five dollars. Eliphaz C. Bean was 
chosen representative. 


v^^^iy^^ PiCTLRES(,)UE Bethel. 

"ORTHERN New England is very properly called the Switz. 
erland of America, on account of its grand mountain scen- 
ery extending from Mount Katahdin to the Green Moun- 
tains, and even to the Adirondacks in New York. The county of 
Oxford comes within this mountain range, and the town of Bethel 
has scenery as varied, as beautiful and as grand as any town in the 
county. Its physical features have already been described, and its 
mountains and rivers referred to, but the story of its pictures^iue 
views, its combination of mountain, hill and valley, its delightful 
nooks and corners and its shaded driveways, remains to be told. 
Bethel is a large town, and probably has a greater extent of road- 
^way than any other Oxfoid county town, and there is hardly a road 


which, as a driveway, does not possess attractions peculiar to itself. 
It- also has numerous hills and mountains, from the summits of 
which extended views are had, and it is along some of these drive- 
ways and up some of the hills and mountains that I purpose to take 
the reader. 

Beginning at the east part of the town, the road leads along by 
the side of a curious ridge, called by the early settlers' and still 
known as the Whale's Back. The road was originally constructed 
and extended along this ridge for some miles, but after settlers 
came the route was changed for their convenience. The ridge is 
one of the numerous Kames or horsebacks found in Maine, only it is 
better defined and longer than most others. It is composed of sand, 
gravel, and cobble stones worn and rounded, and is without doubt 
the result of glacial action. The road to Rumford is quite level 
and bordered by pleasant farms, but the heights on both sides are 
wooded, and at some points rise into mountains. Passing out of 
Eumford about a mile above the Corner, the road continues along 
the table land, and below, broad intervals stretching away to the 
river. Occasional glimpses in passing, are had of Hanover farms 
once belonging to Bethel, consisting of low and high intervale and 
upland, in some cases extending high up the hill-slopes. At some 
points the road is shaded by overhanging trees, and again it passes 
through cultivated lands and by neat farm buildings indicating thrift 
and prosperity. And so having passed the Ilutchins place, where 
Luther Bean commenced for himself ; the Richard Estes place, 
where Samuel Goss began a clearing ; the Goddard place, where 
Jeremiah Andrews lived ; the Stephen Cummings farm, first occu- 
pied by Eliphaz Powers, and then by the Frosts, Thomas and 
Phineas ; then through the pine woods, though the once beautiful 
pines have been laid low to gratify the insatiable avarice of the lum- 
berman ; then by the place where Amos Powers lived at the time of 
the Indian raid, and the places where Jonathan Bartlett and his 
brother Thaddeus first erected homes, and now we are at Bean's 
Corner, where Joseph Ayer lived. There are two settlers' roads 
leading from the road we have just passed over, southwardly up 
steep hills, and if we choose to follow them, we can get a good view 
of the splendid Hanover farms early occupied by Segar, the Powers 
brothers, Duston, Willis and the Bartletts, backed by wooded hills, 
and in the distance, Puzzle Mountain, where much money was spent 
in mining for plumbago. Here at Bean's Corner the road comes in 


from Locke's Mills and Kimball and Bird Hills, and from the two 
latter elevations, the views are varied and beautiful. From Bird 
Hill the Greenwood and Woodstock ponds are seen and the beetling 
bluffs overhanging one of them. The Locke's Mills road passes the 
Goss and other mountains. This was once called the Otter pond 
road, from a little pond lying at the base of Goss mountain. The 
stream which flows from it is sometimes called Otter brook and 
sometimes Alder brook, either being appropriate enough, and pass- 
ing northwardly, after being re-enforced by several other small 
streams, flows into the great river west of Bean's Corner. The 
road from Otter pond going toward Locke's Mills soon passes into 
the woods and along the side of a ridge, and though the views here 
are not particularly enchanting, the shade is very grateful, provided 
the day be hot and sultry. 

Opposite Bean's Corner, the river is some distance awa}', the road 
forming a nearly half circle, but the intervals here are broad and 
fertile and so low that every spring freshet inundates them. This 
is wliy the road does not keep along near the river bank as above 
and below. Passing upward. Otter brook is passed, and then we 
come to the little church on the left occupied jointly by the Bap- 
tists and Methodists, and opposite is the old Ephraim Powers place. 
The never failing cemetery is south of the church where 

"The rude forefathers of the hamlet sleep."' 

Passing the Asa Kimball and the Samuel Kimball places where 
their posterity still occupy, the road approaches nearer the river at 
the farm where Josiah Bean lived in the early times, and where his 
children's children now live. Here looking backward diagonally 
across the river, is one of the finest interval views in the whole town. 
The road here is quite high, and the view of the broad interval in 
rear of Bean's Corner and across into Hanover, is unobstructed, 
save by an occasional giant elm, with drooping branches as if in 
mourning for its mates which fell victims to the woodman's axe in 
the long ago. One lingers long in this spot, entranced by the va- 
riety and beauty of the landscape, the whole seeming almost like an 
enchanted land. Yet we know that nature, by its slow processes, 
has formed these broad and fertile intervals, these higher table 
lands, and the environments of hill and mountain, while man lias 
done the rest. The road is now quite near the river, and i)asses the 
farms where Samuel Ingalls, Asa Kimball, senior, and John and 


Isaac York early lived, but which have long since been in the pos- 
session of others. South of these places is Swan's Hill, which can 
be reached by several roads from each of which, a different set of 
views is presented, all interesting and worth seeing. The great 
bend in the river begins here, and the road cuts across through Mid- 
dle Interval and approaches the river again near the Capeu farm. 
The intervale views along here are very much the same as has been 
described below, but that part of Middle Interval through which 
the road passes, is a pine plain and continues the same for some dis- 
tance toward Bethel Hill. Here is where Enoch Bartlett, the eldest 
of the six brothers who came from Newton to Bethel, first made him 
a home, and it was here that Amos Hastings, John Kilgore and Dr. 
Timothy Carter first settled. The intervale opposite, in the half 
circle formed by the river is extensive and of excellent quality. 
And so we pass on toward Bethel Hill, by the places where Benja- 
min and John Russell once lived, leaving the Sanborn and Oliver 
places at the right, and Kendall's ferry ; by the Coffin and Aaron 
Abbot places, to the Ayers Mason farm once occupied by Joseph 
O. Swan, an early settler. 

Near John Kussell's place, a road once led up the hill toward the 
mountain to the Jordan place. From this point a charming west- 
erly view is had. The valley of the river can be seen extending be- 
tween the mountain passes away into New Hampshire, through 
which is seen the Androscoggin meandering amid numerous little 
islands, until it reaches the base of the hill at our feet, when it 
turns abruptly to the north toward the mouths of Sunday and Bear 
rivers. The good intervale farms, the neat dwellings, the beautiful 
groves, the lights and shadows on the mountain sides and the full 
view of the different peaks of the White Hills, all unite to render 
this one of the most charming spots in town, and it is within twenty 
minutes ride of the Common on the Hill. By pursuing this route 
to the top of Farewell's mountain, the view is mucli expanded, and 
the line of the railroad can be seen for a distance of ten miles. 

The road from Walker's, now Virgin's Mills, toward Bethel Hill, 
presents no very great variety of scene. When passing through the 
lowland, Waterspout mountain is seen, and at the Blake farm, the 
highest point between the two places once owned by the Annas fam- 
ily, the view eastward is quite extended, but Walker's mountain 
shuts oft" any view in the distance. At the George Chapman place, 
early occupied by John Walker, tailor, the village of Bethel Hill and 


the northward slope to the river bank, shows to good advantage. 
The ride to West Bethel affords tine interval and upland views, es- 
pecially from the top of Robertson's Hill where Oliver Fenno, the 
early blacksmith settled. The road passes the Seth Wight place 
and the Samuel Barker farm, and reaciiing West Bethel, where the 
stalwart pioneer, John Grover once owned, and turning to the left, 
the road to Mason's Mill in the town of Mason, is attractive. This 
town is named for Dr. Moses Mason, who built the tirst mills, and 
there is fine fishing in this region for those who like to beguile the 
wily trout. It is a pretty, rural town, much of it still in primitive 
woods, and herein is the attraction. On returning, when the sum- 
mit of Robertson's Hill is reached, the view of Bethel Hill from this 
point is as pictui-esque as can possibly be desired, and such as to 
enrapture the lover of landscape beauty. The road from West 
Bethel Corner to Gilead presents many pleasant views, especially in 
the vicinity of Pleasant river, called on the earl}' plan, Brackett's 
brook . 

The view from the pinnacle of Paradise Hill, the road to which 
goes to Greenwood, and was once the thoroughfare to Portland, is 
one of the finest, and never fails to excite the admiration of the be- 
holder. It is only about a mile from the Common. The environ- 
ments of this part of the town are clearly seen from this place in 
the form of a circular wall of mountain, broken only at two or three 
points by narrow passes, the hill upon which we stand being the 
center, at the base of which is a valley, within which are swells of 
land of moderate height, exhibiting every variety of landscape. A 
mile and a half away, the Androscoggin in. anders sluggishly along, 
and when the lights and shadows are at their best, and the tieecy 
clouds float along against the azure sky, the mountain scenery from 
this elevation is most enchanting. The mountains in Dixfield, 
Newry, Grafton, Greenwood and Conway are plainly in view. This 
Paradise Hill is the pride of Bethel Hill people, and no visitor is 
permitted to go away without visiting it. A ride up the north side 
of the river, crossing it at the bridge, is enjoyable. A couple of 
miles from the Moses A. Mason farm, is the farm where Rev. Eli- 
phaz Chapman commenced a clearing a little more than a hundred 
years ago. The house he built and in which he died, is still stand- 
ing and occupied by his grandson. Near here are the mineral 
springs, two in number, quite near together yet unlike in character 
and composition. In ante helium times, Mr. John S. Chapman 



made an effort to popularize the water of these springs. He gave 
them the name of Anasagimticook, gave Ellingwood's mountain the 
same name, built a house, which was dedicated July fourth, eigh- 
teen hundred and fifty-nine, and christened it the same, enlarged it 
and laid out a large sum of money, but all to little purpose. The 
war broke out soon after and he enlisted, remained in the south 
after the war was over, held official positions and suffered many 
hardships ; was taken sick, came to Bethel and died, and his dust 
mingles with that of his native town. The water of one of these 
springs no doubt possesses healing qualities, it being a chalybeate and 
operating as a mild tonic. The other throws up simply pure, cold 
water, and with great force, and as a beverage is decidedly prefera- 
ble. If it is desired the trip may be extended through a fine farm- 
ing region to West Bethel, where the river ma}' be crossed at the 
Ferry, and the return trip be made over Robertson's Hill. 

A ride from Bethel Hill to Mount Abram, in Greenwood, is worth 
the while. The route may be made over Paradise Hill, through the 
Irish neighborhood, or by way of Locke's Mills. If by the former, 
fine forest views may be seen on the way. Howe Hill is reached 
with a carriage, but from this point the ascent must be made on 
foot. The view from the summit is very fine. In the vicinity is a 
cave where ice remains all the year round, and parties have fre- 
quently enjoyed the luxury of an iced drink here in midsummer. 
By the side of Twitchell pond, (named for Captain Kleazer Twitch- 
ell,) toward Greenwood city, is an overhanging cliff several hun- 
dreds of feet high, the road passing between the base of the cliff 
and the pond. These places are not in Bethel, but the road which 
leads to them is, for much of the way. The Boston artist, Griggs, 
once painted this cliff" and pond with marked effect, and his work 
was much admired. A pleasant and attractive trip is up Sunday 
river. The bridge is crossed, pretty Mayville passed, the farms 
where Deacon Ezra and Captain Eli Twitchell made clearings and 
built homes, the Locke place known as "Maple Grove" is reached, 
and then we are on Sunday river. The intervale and river views 
along the route thus far, are most charming. The only sign of de- 
cay is the Merrill house which must soon succumb to the ravages of 
time.* Across the river at one point, the Sanborn farm shows beau- 
tifully, like another garden of Eden. The road up Sunday river, 
alternating with farming land and forest, extends through Newry 

*The old ruin has been removed. 


to Riley, ouce called Ketchum. At every point we seem to be sur- 
rounded by impassible mountains, and wonder how we are to get 
through, but the road winds among them and is very level through 
the entire distance of ten miles. There is fine trout fishing in Riley 
and beyond, and game, including deer is very plenty. 

The Albany basins or kettles are within two hours ride of Bethel, 
on the North Waterford road, and are visited by large numbers of 
people. The road is quite level and somewhat monotonous. It 
passes along by the side of Songo pond, and a considerable part of 
the way is bordered by bushes or woods. The basins or kettles are 
depressions worn into the solid rock by the action of water, perfect- 
ly formed and some of them of great size. One is twenty-eight 
feet in diameter, about fifty feet deep. There are at least thirteen 
of these basins, but they are not uniform in shape, and some of 
them are quite imperfect. There must have been a time when the 
volume of water was much greater than now, to bore these immense 
wells. Similar basins, but on a much smaller scale, may be seen at 
Chapman's mill above Mayville, and shows the effects of long con- 
tinued action of water upon the solid rock. 

A delightful trip is down the Androscoggin to Newry Corner, and 
up Bear river to Grafton notch. Leaving the Sunday river road at 
Hastings Corner and crossing Sunday river by the covered bridge 
near its mouth, we pass the Ebenezer Eames place ; the farm once 
occupied by Peter York and later by Leander Jewett, then on by 
where the Smiths lived, we cross Bear river near where it flows into 
the Androscoggin and are in Newry. Bear river is bordered by fine 
farms, but back of these is the forest primeval. Except on the two 
rivers the town is mountainous, and for the most part still covered 
with wood and timber. At the head of the tide is the Poplar tav- 
ern, and a little farther on is the site of Dr. Joshua Eanning's lum- 
ber mill and Screw Augur Falls. Here is a tortuous channel cut 
down through the solid rock to a depth of about fifty feet through 
which the river flows. It is a curious piece of nature's work and a 
view of it well repays a visit. Half a mile above is a singular pas- 
sageway in the river known as the jail. A little farther up is the 
Grafton pass or notch. On the easterly side of it is Saddleback, 
and on the westerly, Old Spec, properly Ivncoln Peak. The moun- 
tain scenery here is among the boldest in the State, and in the notch 
is the head water of Bear river which flows southwardly into the 
Androscoggin, and of the Cambridge which flows northwardly into 
Umbagog lake. 


We have now passed over most of the roads in town and have 
taken note of the chief objects of interest by the way, but most of 
the views described thus far are circumscribed, and necessarily so, 
because the two parishes into which the town is divided are sepa- 
rated by mountains, aud each is nearly surrounded by mountains. 
From Barker's mouutaiu, which lies mostly in Newry, but its south- 
erly foothills in Bethel, the view is widely extended. This is the 
highest mountain in Oxford county and far above any of the moun- 
tains in Bethel. From the summit of this mountain the intervales 
can be seen from Gilead to Middle Interval, and the tortuous 
course of the river like a silver cord can be traced this whole dis- 
tance. The entire western parish is seen as upon a map, and every 
principal road and stream are visible to the unaided eye. The three 
principal villages, Bethel Hill, West Bethel and Middle Interval ai-e 
in sight, while from our much greater height. Farewell mountain, 
Locke mountain and Sparrowhawk appear like mounds or hills of 
moderate size. From Bethel Hill this mountain seems to be con- 
nected with Ellingwood's mouutaiu, sometimes called Anasagunti- 
cook, but there is a valley between them of several miles across. 
No pen picture can do justice to the vistas possible from the sum- 
mit of Barker's mountain ; the}' must be seen to be understood, and 
when seen they cannot fail of filling the observer with wonder, and 
admiration. The mountain observatory is in Newry, but the charm- 
ing landscape views are in picturesque Bethel. 

On the Middle Interval road a little more than a mile from Bethel 
Hill, was the residence of the late John Kussell, Jr., aud here his 
widow now resides. A few years ago this house was enlarged aud 
improved and fitted up for summer guests. It was given the appro- 
priate name of Riverside cottage, and became a favorite resort of 
literary people. Lucy Larcom spent several of her summer vaca- 
tions here. There is a beautiful pine grove in the rear of the house 
with a summer house on its border, and near by is a precipitous 
cliff , known as "The Ledge." An easy path leads round to the 
top of this cliff, and from it a charming variety of landscape views 
are spread out. The fertile valley of the Androscoggin with the 
river meandering through ; the two villages of Bethel Hill and May- 
ville ; tasty farm buildings located here and there ; the neighboring 
mountains already described, and in the distance through the gorge 
formed by the river in its passage through Gilead and Shelburne, 
the lofty peaks of the White Hills. The display is essentially the 


same as that from Sunset Kock. It was in this enchanted spot that 
in the summer of eighteen hundred and seventy-nine, Lucy Larcom 
composed and wrote the following lines : 


Restored uuto life by tlie suii and the breeze ! 
Eich balsams float down from the resinous trees, 
Stirring into quick healtli every pulse of the air. 
Released once again from imprisoning care. 
At the gate of green pastures my soul lieth free, 
And to go in or out is refreshment to me. 

Lo yonder is Paradise ! .Softly below. 

The river that watereth Eden doth flow ! 

I behold through blue gaps in the mountainous AVest, 

Height ascending on height, the abodes of the blest ; 

And I cannot tell whether to climb were more sweet 

Than to lap me in beauty spread out at my feet. 

There sways a white cloud on you loftiest peak ; 

A wind from beyond it is fanning my cheek ; 

Through the oak and the birch glides a musical shiver, 

A ripple just silvers the dusk of the river. 

Though I may not know how, each is a part of the whole 

Perfect flood-tide of peace that is brimming my soul. 

Here is shelter and outlook, deep rest and wide room ; 

The pine woods behind breathing balm out of gloom ; 

Before, the great hills over vast levels lean — 

A glory of purple, a splendor of green. 

As a new earth and heaven, ye are mine once again. 

Ye beautiful meadows atid mountains of Maine!" 



Churches and Ministers. 

First Church, AVest Parish. 

HE inhabitants of the town early gave their attention to the 
establishment of Religious Institutions. Most of them 
were members of some church when they left their old 
homes, and by far the greater number of the church members be- 
longed to what was known as the standing order, or Congregational- 
ists. On account of the loss of the early records we have no infor- 
mation concerning the action of the town upon these matters, but it 
is quite probable that, as in other towns at that time, the people 
were taxed to support preaching of the standing order until they 
were emancipated from this obligation by an act of the General 
Court. Ministers frequently came among" the settlers, gave them 
religious instruction and baptized their children, and among them 
Reverends CotHn, Taft and Fessenden. At a meeting held in the 
west parish September the eighth, seventeen hundred and ninety- 
six, an organization was effected, and the following year it was 
voted to raise one hundred and twenty dollars for the support of 
preaching the current year, and twenty dollars to defray expenses. 
In seventeen hundred and ninety-eight, Caleb Bradley came here, 
taught school for a few months and preached on the Sabbath. He 
was a candidate for settlement but was not engaged and finally set- 
tled in Westbrook where he had a long pastorate. In seventeen 
hundred and ninetj^-nine, Rev. Daniel Gould came, and he was also 
a candidate. There was a difference of opinion witli regard to en- 
gaging him, but he was favored by a majority and was engaged. 
After JNIr. Gould had preached as a candidate, the parish met and 
passed the following votes : 

1. To give Rev. Daniel Gould a call to settle with them as their 


2. Voted to give Mr. C4ould one hundred and eight}' dollars the 
first year, as a salary, and to increase that sum ten dollars a year as 
long as he should remain with them as their pastor. One-third part 
was to be paid in money and the other two-thirds in produce from 
the farm. 

3. Voted to give Rev. Daniel Gould the sum of one hundred and 
fifty dollars, to be paid in labor. 

Chose Esquire Benjamin Russell, Mr. Amos Gage and Lieut. 
Ezra Twitchell a committee to treat with Mr. Gould on the above 

A true copy. Attest : Joseph Greenwood, Parish Clerk. 

Mr. Gould accepted these proposals requesting the Parish to fur- 
nish in addition, a few cords of wood. 

Previous to installing Mr. Gould, the following persons were or- 
ganized into a church : 

Bethel, Oct. 7th, 1799. 

Joseph Greenwood, James Grover, Ezra Twitchell, Zela Holt, 
Eleazer Twitchell, Asa Kimball, Benj. Russell, Sarah Greenwood, 
Susanna Twitchell, Mary Greenwood, Mary Russell. 

Voted unanimously to give the Rev. D. Gould a call to settle and 
to take the pastoral charge of the church in this place. 

At an ecclesiastical council convened at the house of Benj. Rus- 
sell, Esq., The Rev. Wm. Fessenden was chosen Moderator and the 
Rev. Nathan Church, Scribe. 

1. Voted, That Mr. Daniel Gould's confession of faith is satis- 
factory, and that nothing appears at present to prevent his installa- 

2. Upon the Rev. Mr. Gould's exhibiting his church standing, 
an account of his ordination as an evangelist, and after considering 
the opposition, unanimously proceed to the installation. 

3. Voted to receive the Church in the West Parish in Bethel or- 
ganized by the Rev. Daniel Gould as a sister church. 

This therefore is to certify that the Rev. Daniel Gould was this 
day settled over the church and people in said Parish according to 
gospel order. 

A true copy. Attest: Nathan Church, Scribe. 

Bethel, Oct. 9th, 1799. 
This day the Rev. Daniel Gould was admitted into the church arid 
people of the West Parish in said Bethel. The Rev. Nathan 


Church of Bridgton made the iutroduetory praj'er. The Rev. Win, 
Fessendeu of Fryeburg, preached from Heb, xiii., 17. The Rev. 
Joseph Robey of Otisfield made the installing prayer and gave the 

The Rev. Nathan Church gave the right hand of fellowsliip and 
the Rev. Wm. Fesseuden made the concluding praj'er. 

Bethel, April 25th, 1800. 
Lieut. Ezra Twitchell and Mr. James Grover were made Deacons. 

Mr. Gould continued as pastor of the Church and Parish till eigh- 
teen hundred and nine, when it was thought advisable to dissolve 
the relationship existing between them. A council was called May 
third, eighteen hundred and nine, consisting of Rev. Nathaniel Por- 
ter, Nathan Church, Lincoln Ripley and Lieut. Robert Andrews, 
Dea, Stephen Jewett, Dea. Ephraim Chamberlain, ami decided to 
that effect, which was adopted by the Church, May seventh, eigh- 
teen hundred and nine. 

From eighteen hundred and nine to eighteen hundred and nine- 
teen, the church was without a pastor. Money was raised every 
year, and the people supplied with preaching a portion of the time. 
Among these were Rev. Valentine Little and Rev. Timothy Hilliard. 
In eighteen hundred and seventeen there was quite an addition to 
their numbers, and in January an Flcclesiastical Council was held 
to install Henry Sewall as pastor. Rev. David Thurston preached 
the sermon. Rev. Noah Cressey made the consecrating prayer. Rev. 
Wm. Riple}^ the charge. Rev. Samuel Sewall expressed the Fellow- 
ship of Churches, and Rev. Wm. Thurston made the concluding 
prayer. The sermon was afterwards printed, a copy of whicli I 
now have in my possession. His relation with the people did not 
prove the most happy, and he was dismissed May eleventh, eigh- 
teen hundred and twenty. Soon after, Mr. Charles Frost, a young 
man, came to the place as a candidate for settlement, and in Feb- 
ruary, a Council was held, consisting of the following : Rev. Daniel 
Gould, Dea. Hezekiah Hutchius, John W. Ellinwood, Bro. Amnii 
R. Mitchell, Rev. .Josiah G. Merrill, Wm. Spurr, Rev. Asa Cum- 
mings, Jacob Mitchell, Rev. John A. Douglass, Moses Treadwell, 
Rev. Joseph Walker, Daniel Stowell, Rev. Allen Greely, ^Martin 
Bradford, John T. Smith, Aaron Beamen. Rev. Mr. Merrill made 
the introductory prayer. Rev. John AV. Ellinwood preached the ser- 


moD, Rev. Allen Greely made the ordaining prayer, Rev. Daniel 
Gould gave the charge, Rev. Joseph Walker gave the right hand of 
fellowship, Rev. Asa Curamings gave the charge to the people, 
Rev. John A. Douglass made the concluding prayer The sermon 
was printed, of which I have a copy. 

Mr. Frost commenced his ministry under favorable auspices, and 
he continued its successful pastor till his death in eighteen hundred 
and fifty, a period of thirty years. During his ministry one hundred 
and sixty-six persons united with the church. The church and so- 
ciety, as soon as convenient, made arrangements for a successor to 
Mr. Frost. An invitation was extended to the Rev. John H. M. 
Leland of Amherst, Mass., to liecome their pastor. A council was 
held July second, eighteen hundred and fifty, for that purpose and 
on the following day Mr. Leland was installed. The following was 
the order of exercises : Rev. J. S. Gray, invocation and reading 
of the scriptures ; Eliphalet S. Hopkins, introductory prayer ; Wm. 
T. Dwight, D. D., sermon; J. W. Chickering, D. D., installing 
prayer and charge ; George T. Tewksbury, right hand of Fellowship ; 
G. F.. Adams, D. D., address to the people ; Rev. David Garland, 
concluding prayer. Benediction by the pastor. Mr. Leland con- 
tinued Pastor for nearly three years, during which time the church 
became better organized and efficient as a body, but for various rea- 
sons he concluded to ask a dismission, which was granted by a 
council. May tenth, eighteen hundred and fifty-three. 

In March following, the Church and Society extended an invita- 
tion to Rev. Edwin A. Buck to become their Pastor, which being 
accepted, he was ordained May thirty-first, eighteen hundred and 
fifty-four. The order of exercises was as follows : Invocation and 
reading of the scripture. Rev. David Garland ; introductory prayer. 
Rev. L. Rood; Sermon, G. E. Adams, D. D. ; ordaining prayer, 
Rev. Mark Gould ; charge to the pastor. Rev. David Sewall ; fellow- 
ship of the church, H. D. Walker, East Abington, ^Massachusetts ; 
address to the people, A. S. Loring ; concludiug prayer, D. Good- 
hue. Benediction by the pastor. 

Mr. Buck commenced his labors as pastor under favorable 
auspices. He labored earnestly to advance the interests of his 
church and people. His pastoral visits, to which he devoted much 
time, were made over a large extent of territory. During his min- 
istry, forty-one persons united with the church, mostly by profes- 
sion. His labors here were too severe for so slender a constitution 


and he received a dismission from an ecclesiastical council held 
Sept. twenty- first, eighteen hundred and fifty-eight, and settled in 
Slatersville, Rhode Island. 

The last sermon preached in the old meeting house situated on the 
banks of the river was in February, eighteen hundred and forty- 
eight, by Rev. Charles Frost, from the text, "Hitherto hath the 
Lord helped us." 


The following is a complete list of ministers of the First Congre- 
gational church in the West Parish, since its organization October 
seventh, seventeen hundred and ninety-nine, to the present time. 
The names of ministers who supplied for only a short time are not 
included in this list. 

Rev. Daniel Gould, Pastor, from Oct. 9, 1799, till May 3, 1809. 

Rev. Valentine Little, Acting Pastor, from 1809 to 181.5. 

Rev. Timothy Hilliard,' Acting Pastor, from 1816 to 1817. 

Rev. Henry Sewall, Pastor, from July 20, 1819, to May 11, 1820. 

Rev. Charles Frost, Pastor, from Feb. 20, 1822, to Feb. 11, 

Rev. John H. M. Leland, Pastor, from July 2, 1850, to May 10» 

Rev. Edwin A. Buck, Pastor, from May 31, 1854, till Sept. 21, 

Rev. John B. Wheelwright, Acting Pastor, from April 17, 1859, 
to March, 1867. 

Rev. Eugene H. Titus, Acting Pastor, from March 1, 1868, till 
June 1, 1869, and from this time Pastor, till Dec. 6, 1870. 

Rev. Nahum W. Grover, Acting Pastor, from Jan. 1, 1874, till 
June, 1875. 

Rev. Charles L. Mills, Acting Pastor, from June 1, 1877, till 
Aug., 1878. 

Rev. S. L. Bowler, Acting Pastor, from June 1, 1879, and Pas- 
tor, from Oct. 30, 1879, till June, 1885. 

Rev. D. Warren Hardy, Aug., 1885. 


The following shows the Deacons of the church since its organi- 
zation, with date of their election : 
Ezra Twitchell, April 25, 1800. 



James Grover. April 25, 1800. 
Samuel Barker, Oct. 4, 1805. 
Timothy Carter, July 7, 1817. 
Kobbins Brown, Apr. 30, 1829. 
Leonard Grover, May, 1845. 
Elbridge Chapman, July 15, 1845. 
Joshua Fanning, January, 1859. 
Josiah Brown, 2d, June 30, 1866. 
Samuel W. Kilbourne, July 3, 1872. 
Nathaniel T. True, April 11, 1878. 
Edward P. Grover, March 4, 1880. 
Josiah U. Purington, March 4, 1880. 
Timothy H. Chapman, January, 1890. 
Edward C. Chamberlain, January, 1890. 

Following is a list of the names of those who were members of 
the first Congregational church in Bethel in eighteen hundred and 
eighty. A few of them were non-resident : 

Nathaniel Barker, 

Leonard Grover, 

Mrs. John A. Twitchell, 

Peter Grover, 

Francis Barker, 

Mrs. Laura Young, 

Mrs. Kobert A. Chapman, 

Mrs. Joshua Chase, 

Mrs. Silas Grover, 

Miss Iluth Messer, 

Samuel A. Lyon, 

Artemas Mason, 

Mrs. Barbara A. Wight, 

Baxter A. Lyon, 

David F. Brown, 

Mrs. Nancy Brown, 

Robert A. Chapman, 

Mrs. Cynthia Russell, 

Almon Grover, 

Mrs. Olive Grover, 

Mrs. Caleb Rowe, 

Newton Grover, 
Wm. L. Grover, 
Mar}' M. Grover, 

D. Milton Grover, 
Hannibal Grover, 
Caroline T. Grover, 
Catharine Grover, 
Francis S. Chapman, 
Albert L. Burbank, 
Mrs. Robbins Brown, 
Charles Brown, 

Eli M. Barker, 
James L. Dillaway, 
Delphia King, 
Octavia Rowe, 

E. T. Russell, 
Frank Russell, 
Pincknej^ Burnham, 
Samuel D. Phil brook, 
Cullen F. Walker, 
Abby Hapgood, 



Mrs. Johu Grover, 
Mrs. Nancy Barker, 
Benjamiu Spaulcling, 
Mrs. Abigail Grover, 
Mrs. Hester A. York, 
Miss Salome G. Twitchell, 
Nathaniel T. True, 
Mrs. Susannah W. True, 
Miss Austress Cross, 
Daniel Grover, 
Alfred Twitchell, 
Freeman Beau, 
Edmund E. Holt, 
Mrs. Edmund E. Holt, 
Miss Lucretia Beau, 
A. W. Hanson, 
Geo. H. Young, 
Mrs. Stephen Holt, 
Mrs. Albert L. Burbank, 
Mrs. Lois Frye, 
Alfred M. True, 
Miss Ella F. Lyon, 
Moses F. Libby, 
Etta B. Libby, 
Samuel S. Stanley, 
Mrs. Mary Chapman, 
Lucinda S. Godwin, 
Mary Cummiugs, 
Amanda A. Frye, 
Caroline E. Grover, 
Lottie Bridge, 
Mrs. N. A. Harris, 
Miranda B. Mason, 
Wm. R. Godwin, 
Alice B. Grover, 
Flora Foster, 
Mrs. Lucy A. Russell, 
Mrs. Thomas E. Twitchell, 
Rebecca R. Chandler, 
Mrs. Hannah Chandler, 

Mrs. Enoch Foster, 
Mrs. H. S. Cummings, 
Rachel Mason, 
Edmund P. Grover, 
Henry C. Barker, 
Kate H. Barker, 
Mary E. Twitchell, 
Mrs. Gilman Chapman, 
Woodsom Mason, 
Mrs. Woodsom JNIason, 
Mrs. Agnes M. Twitchell, 
Mrs. Susan J. Brooks, 
Mrs. George B. Farnsworth, 
Samuel VV. Kilburu, 
Mrs. Sarah Kilburn, 
Miss Fannie A. Kilburn, 
Charles J. Chapman, 
William Foot, 
Sabina K. Dillaway, 
Anna F. Kimball, 
Corosana B. Burnham, 
Lydia A. Burnham, 
Mrs. Francetta Purington, 
Josiah U. Purington, 
Kate A. Davis, 
Laura C. Hall, 
Lor a H. Loud, 
Mrs. Ellen M. Barker, 
Mi's. Nancy E. Burnham, 
Elberta E. Burnham, 
Mattie M. Burnham, 
Lizzie E. Lane, 
Enoch W. Woodbury, 
Sarah L. Woodbury, 
Enoch Foster, Jr., 
Mrs. Sarah H. (rrover, 
Mrs. jNIirauda IL Town, 
Mrs. Abby H. Godwin,. 
May E. Robertson, 
Joshua G. Rich, 


Sarah E. Leavitt, Mrs. M. M. Rich, 

Sarah L. Hall, Hiram H. Wilson, 

Mrs. Samuel A. M. Grover, Mrs. Mary O. Wilson, 

Abner Davis, Horilla Richardson, 

Mrs. Sarah F. Davis, George H. Brown, 

Emily E. Davis, Mrs. Carrie A. Browu, 

Mary J. Chapman, Flora C. Richardson, 

Gilbert Chapman, John A. Morton, 

Phebe A. Chapman, Fannie A. Holt, 

Mrs. Ellen O. Chase, Mary L. Grover. 

Second Congregational Church. 

There was dissatisfaction at the removal of the church edifice 
from the river bank to Bethel Hill, which at first found expression 
in words and then in action. There had always been an inconven- 
ience in being obliged to cross the river by means of a ferry boat to 
attend church, when the church was on the o[)posite bank, and there 
were times in the spring of the year and during freshets, when the 
river was impassable. When the church was moved to the Hill, in- 
volving a half a mile more travel in reaching it, the people on the 
north side of the river demurred. In September of eighteen hun- 
dred and forty-eight, a petition was presented to the parent church 
by those living on the north side, asking for a separate organiza- 
tion. A vote was taken and the recpiest granted by a large major- 
it}'. An ecclesiastical council was called in accordance with the 
vote, on the thirty-first day of January, eighteen hundred and forty- 

The council was composed of the following persons : Ministers, 
Revs. Isaac Rogers, Joseph Smith, Simeon Hackett, Carlton Hurd, 
Jotham Sewall, Jr. and Calvin Chapman. Delegates, John Barker, 
Stephen Cobb and Benjamin R. Page. Rev. Isaac Rogers was 
chosen Moderator, and Rev. Calvin Chapman, Scribe. The coun- 
cil complied with the request of the petitioners and organized them 
into a separate church. At a meeting held by the church on the 
tenth day of February, Mr. Leander Jewett was chosen moderator 
of the meeting. Mr. Barbour Bartlett was chosen clerk of the 
church. Mr. Nathan F. Twitchell and Edmund Chapman were 
chosen deacons. The church edifice at Mayville was erected for the 
accommodation of the new church. 


Rev. Caleb Bradley. 

Parson Bradley, as he was generally called, was never settled in 
Bethel, but he came here and taught school, and preached here with 
the idea of settling, before Mr. Gould came. He was the son of 
Dea. Amos and I-:iizabeth (Page) Bradley, and was born in Dracut, 
Massachusetts, March twelfth, seventeen hundred and seventy-two. 
His great grandmother on the maternal side was the famous Han- 
nah (Emerson) Dustin, who was captured by the Indians, taken to 
Pennacook (Concord, N. H.,) where she slew her captors, and then 
returned to her home at Haverhill. Mr. Bradley graduated from 
Harvard College in seventeen hundred and ninety-five, and came to 
JMaine that year. He spent some time in Saco, and about the year 
seventeen hundred and ninet^^-eight, he came to Bethel. For some 
reason not now known, he did not receive a call to settle here, and 
after a few months sta}^ he went to Falmouth. In seventeen hun- 
dred and ninety-nine he received a call from the original fourth par- 
ish church in Falmouth, to become its pastor, and was inducted into 
that office in October of that year. He married two years after. 
Miss Sarah Crocker, who died in eighteen hundred and twenty-one, 
and he then married Mrs. Susanna (Webb) Partridge of Sacca- 
rappa. She also died, and he married Mrs. Abigail (Loring) Cod- 
man. He lived in the same house at Libby's Corner until his death, 
which took place June second, eighteen hundred and sixty-one, he 
being eighty-nine years of age. Mr. Bradley bought the place of 
Tiiomas Webster in the year eighteen hundred. It was not a new 
house when he bought it, but it is still standing in a good state of 
preservation. Mr. Bradley was noted for his social)ility, and was 
distinguished for his wit. He was a man of piety, and honest in his 
convictions. His remains repose in Evergreen cemetery by the side 
of those of his first wife, Sarah Crocker, whom he survived forty 

Rev. Eliphaz Chapman. 
Rev. Eliphaz Chapman was never settled over any church in this 
town, but he preached a number of years at Madbury, New Hamp- 
shire, and at other places before he came here. Here he engaged 
largely in farming, and was the founder of one of the most numer- 
ous and distinguished families in town. He was a descendant of 
Edward Chapman who came from the northeast of Kngland (juite 
early, and settled at Ipswich, Massachusetts. He was a miUer, and 


in sixteen hundred and forty-two, married Mary, daughter of Mark 
Symonds. Rev. P^liphaz Chapman was the son of Samuel Chap- 
man, and was born at Newmarket, New Hampshire, March seventh, 
seventeen hundred and fifty. He married secondly, Hannah, daugh- 
ter of Timothy Jackman of Newbury, who was the mother of his 
children. The name of his first wife who died soon after their mar- 
riage, was Sarah Hutchins. He was the ninth in a family of twelve 
children. His brother Edmund settled in Freeport and died early, 
when his widow married James Rogers. P^liphaz Chapman's second 
wife was born July twenty- fourth, seventeen hundred and fifty- 
three, and they were married in seventeen hundred and seventy-two. 
He attended the schools of his town and studied for the ministry 
under the tutorship of Rev. Moses Bradford of Methueu. He 
preached at Madbury and then at Methuen for about fifteen years. 
He owned a small farm in Methuen which he sold when he came to 
Bethel. He came to Bethel in seventeen hundred and eighty-nine, 
purchased a farm on the north side of the river, where his son, Tim- 
othy Chapman afterwards lived, felled trees and sowed winter rye. 
He then returned to Methuen, and the following spring came back, 
accompanied by his son Eliphaz, and built a house on the spot 
where the Indians had lived and grown corn, the hills of which could 
then be seen. This was the first clearing on the north side of the 
river above the Moses A. Mason place. Their oldest daughter, 
Hannah, was left behind till the next year, for the purpose of learn- 
ing the trade of a tailoress, which would be absolutely necessary in 
a new country. She found abundant emplojnnent on coming to 
Bethel, which she did on horseback the next year. The appearance 
of this portion of the town as it existed in seventeen hundred and 
ninety, thus described by the late Dea. George Chapman, sou of 
Rev. Eliphaz Chapman, who came here that year at the age of ten 

The whole country was an unbroken forest, save where it was in- 
terrupted by small openings. On the north side of the river, Col. 
Eli Twitchell had a small clearing where Curatio Bartlett once lived ; 
Dea. Ezra Twitchell where Alphin Twitchell afterwards lived ; 
Capt. Eleazer Twitchell where Moses A. Mason now lives, and Rev. 
Eliphaz Chapman where Timothy Chapman lived. On the south 
side, the largest opening was that of Lieut. Clark which Mr. Albert 
L. Burbank now owns. Then that of Abraham Russell on the 
Grout farm, so-called, on the west side of Alder river, and Grcely 


Swan where William W, Masou now lives. These were the princi- 
pal openings at that time. 

The following description of their log house as described by Dea- 
con George W. Chapman, his son, ma}' be novel to the young. The 
house was made of second growth poplars which grew on the Indian 
clearings to a great height and very straight. These were hewed 
on two sides and laid together. The house at first consisted of but 
one room, but some boards were afterwards obtained and a room par- 
titioned off for the girls. The father and mother slept in the prin- 
cipal room, while the l)oys climbed up the ladder into the garret. 
The fireplace consisted of some rocks placed in one corner. The 
chimney only came down to the chamber floor and was made by 
crossed sticks plastered with cla}'. Some loose boards were laid 
down for a floor. These in a short time became so warped as to 
render it inconvenient for walking, and was the cause of a serious 
accident. Mrs. Chapman had brought with her from Massachu- 
setts some beautiful crockery which was nicely arranged on the 
dresser ; but accidentally while walking across the floor, she stum- 
bled, and thereb}' threw down her crockery and broke the whole of 
it. She could not have been blamed if under such circumstances 
she did give vent to her feelings in tears. During the first winter 
they could get no grinding done at the mill, and they were obliged 
to live on hulled corn, stewed peas and bean porridge. As soon as 
they could have some cows the}' lived well. Their cows found a 
plenty of forage on the intervales, although garlic was so abundant 
as to affect their milk, which unpleasant flavor they avoided by eat- 
ing an onion before taking the milk. 

They succeeded in raising bountiful crops and by cutting timber 
and selling it they were able to purchase a yoke of oxen and two 
cows from Brunswick. They also obtained some sheep and put 
them on the islands in the river. After a few years he built the 
house where his sou Timothy Chapman lived and died. He was 
chosen as the first representative from Bethel to the Massachusetts 
legislature. This was in eighteen hundred and eight, and he was 
chosen for three successive years. He was a Justice of Peace and 
did considerable business in that capacity. He was evidently a man 
of considerable ability. He published two sermons on the Prophe- 
cies in seventeen hundred and ninetj'-nine, which were characteristic 
of the theology of his day. He died of consumption in eighteen 
hundred and fourteen, aged sixty-four years, and was buried in the 



cemetery ou the north side of the river. He preached occasionallj' 
iu the adjoining towns but was never settled over any society after 
coming into Maine. 

Rev. Daniel Gould. 

Rev. Daniel Gould was born in Topsfield, Mass., Dec. eighth, 
seventeen hundred and fifty- three. He was the son of Daniel and 
Lucy (Tarbox) Gould, and tlie fifth in descent from Zaccheus 
Gould, who was born in England about fifteen hundred and eighty- 
nine, came to this country in sixteen hundred and thirty-eight, and 
settled in Topsfield. He graduated at Harvard College, and before 
entering college, and while a student at Dummer Academy he served 
a term in the Continental army. Returning, he studied Theology 
Avith Rev. Mr. Moody of Byefield. He was admitted to the church 
in Topsfield, Dec. seventh, seventeen hundred and eighty-three. 
He came to Bethel and preached as a candidate in seventeen hun- 
dred and ninety-eight and nine, and was installed as the first settled 
minister in Bethel in October, seventeen hundred and ninety-nine. 
He remained here until eighteen hundred and fifteen, when, having 
received a call, he became the pastor of the church in Rumford and 
moved there. He was installed as such May thirty-first, eighteen 
hundred and fifteen. He brought the first chaise into Bethel, and 
was himself a conspicuous figure in his cocked hat, black silk gown 
and breeches which was the ministrial dress of that day. He was 
very social in his habits and popular with all classes. His fund of 
anecdotes was inexhaustible. He wrote his sermons, and when 
reading them held the manuscript near his eyes. In his will he left 
a small sum to Bethel Academy, on the condition that the institu- 
tion should take his name, which was agreed to by the trustees. 
An oil portrait, said to be a correct likeness, has also been presented 
to the Academy by Miss Mary Hurd of Topsfield, a niece of Mr. 
Gould. Mr. Gould married for his first wife, Dec. twenty-fourth, 
seventeen hundred and eighty-two, Mary, eldest daughter of George 
Booth of Hillsborough, N. H. She died October first, seventeen 
hundred and eighty-five. They had one daughter Molly, born Sep- 
tember twenty-eighth, seventeen hundred and eighty-five, and died 
the December following. December twenty-fifth, seventeen hun- 
dred and eighty-eight, he married Mrs. Eunice Parley, daughter of 
Stephen Foster of Andover, Mass., and relict of Jeremiah Perley 
of Topsfield. She came with him to Maine and died in this town. 



She had no children. For a third wife Mr. Gould married Mrs. 
Anna Poor, widow of Capt Abner Rawson of Paris, who survived 
Mr. Gould many years, residing in her native town of Andover, 

Mr. Gould's ministr}^ in this town does not appear to have been 
altogether a happy one. Influences that were brought to bear 
against him at the time of his settlement seemed to increase during 
his ministry in Bethel. He continued as pastor till eighteen hun- 
dred and nine, when he was dismissed. Still the town is much in- 
debted to Mr. Gould for the character of its inhabitants. He 
opened a school for young men in his own house, where they could 
resort and fit for college or for a profession. Many who have since 
distinguished themselves, availed themselves of his instruction. In 
this way he developed the educational interests of the town far be- 
yond that of most towns at that time. Many anecdotes are told of 
him during his residence in Bethel, though few of them are worthy 
of record. It is said that one of his hearers expostulated with him 
for making such long prayers in church. "Well, then, if you are 
tired, sit down," was his reply. As a neighbor he was peaceable. 
On a certain occasion he had lost his corn, and though he had the 
strongest presumptive evidence who was the thief, he refused to 
move a step, but simply replied, "He will be his own greatest 

On a certain occasion a parishioner came to him to pay his tax, 
but not being able to advance tlie mone^', it was proposed that he 
should give his note. As Mr. Gould commenced wu'iting. For value 
received, "That is not true," said the parishioner, "I have not re- 
ceived any value." INIr. G, instead of being offended, laughed 
heartily and gave him his tax, as he belonged to another denomina- 
tion. With his chaise, the first in town, he certainly had advan- 
tages over his less fortunate people. The social element was strong 
in him, and his fund of anecdotes w'as inexhaustible. On a certain 
occasion he was present at a "raising," and as w-as the custom of 
the day, he made a prayer just before the broadsides were erected. 
After the building was up and the toddy passed round, he turned to 
the owner, who was a young married man, and proposed a senti- 
ment : "May you live and enjoy many years of ])rosperity, and, I 
like to have said, may you have a hundred children." In making 
his will he made a bequest to the academy in Bethel, on condition 
that it should be named after him. Unfortunately, but a part of 


what was supposed to belong to the institution was ever realized. 
The fund so received is to be devoted to the purpose of paying the 
teacher for his services. 

He lived in Bethel in the house built by Lieut. Jonathan Clark, 
which is still standing. He married for his third wife widow Anna 
Rawson of Paris, who still survives him and resides in Andover, 
Maine. He never had any children. For some time previous to his 
death he was totally blind. Mr. Gould departed this life very sud- 
denly, while sitting at the table at dinner, May twenty-first, eigh- 
teen hundred and forty-two, aged eighty-eight years. The writer 
of this volume has in his possession one of Mr, Gould's manuscript 
sermons, said to be the first one ever preached by him. It is writ- 
ten in a very plain, round hand on a page about three by five inches. 
Mr Gould was a man of excellent character, and is still referred to 
with respect and reverence by the elderly people of Rumford, though 
he has been dead nearl}' half a century. His second wife died Aug. 
twenty-first, eighteen hundred and thirty, and was l)uried at Rumford 

Rev. Charles Frost. 

The history of every town presents the character of some men 
who have held a prominent position in the affairs of church and State 
for many years. Such was the case in the biography of the man in 
this chapter. 

Rev. Charles P^rost was born in Limerick, Maine, January twelfth, 
seventeen hundred and ninety-six. He was the son of Moses Frost, 
who was born June third, seventeen hundred and sixty-six, and of 
Sally McKenney, who was born March tenth, seventeen hundred 
and sixty-six. They were united in marriage April fifteenth, seven- 
teen hundred and ninety. They had nine children, among whom 
Charles was the fourth. 

Mr. Frost spent a portion of his earlier years in Gorham, Maine, 
when attending the academy. He studied with reference to the 
ministry under the Rev. Asa Rand, pastor of the Congregationalist 
church in Gorham, and was licensed to preach by the Cumberland 
Association at a meeting held at Gorham, November fourteenth, 
eighteen hundred and twenty. From a diary which he kept for sev- 
eral years during the first part of his ministry, it appears that he 
preached his first sermon in Bethel, five days after he received his 
license, November nineteenth, eighteen hundred and twenty. His 



text was in Hebrews, ninth chapter, twenty-seventh verse. One 
who was present on that occasion described him as a young man of 
twenty-four years of age, youthful in appearance and exceedingly 
modest in demeanor, who at first sight would not have impressed 
strangers in his favor, but who soon obtained a strong hold upon the 
afifections of the people with whom he had come to labor. After 
supplying the desk six Sabbaths he returned to Gorham, where he 
continued to preach, and at other places, till March twenty-fifth, 
when he again returned to Bethel where he continued his labors till 
his death. 

At a legal meeting of the Congregationalist church in the West 
Parish of Bethel, held November fifth, eighteen hundred and twenty- 
one, it was voted to extend an invitation to Mr. Charles Frost to 
become pastor of said church. A council was called, which met at 
the house of Dea. Samuel Barker, consisting of the following per- 
sons : Rumford — Rev. Daniel Gould, Dea. Hezekiah Hutchins. 
Bath— Rev. John AV. Ellingwood, Ammi R. Mitchell. Otisfield— 
Rev. Josiah G. Merrill, Wm. Spurr. No. Yarmouth — Rev. Asa 
Cummings, Dea. Jacob Mitchell. Waterford — Rev. A. Douglass, 
Dea. Moses Treadwell. Paris — Rev. Joseph Walker, Dea. Daniel 
Stowell. Turner — Rev. Allen Greely, Dea. Martin Bradford. 
Gorham — John T. Smith. Bridgton — Aaron Beamau. It is worthy 
of remark that a long journey was necessary to reach Bethel through 
the woods in those days. The ordination was held in the meeting 
house, February twentieth, eighteen hundred and twenty-two. The 
sermon was delivered by Rev. John W. Ellingwood of Bath. The 
minister immediately entered upon his labors as pastor. He had 
discriminating minds among his people, and a society that was reg- 
ular in its attendance upon his ministry. With a theological library 
of limited size, he was compelled to draw his arguments more 
directly from the Bible itself, which gave a simple yet effective style 
to his preaching. He always had a large attendance and among 
them were many who were among the oldest settlers in the town, 
while a large number consisted of young people, who presented a 
most interesting appearance at that time. It was an audience of 
more than ordinary intellectual character. His appearance in the 
desk was solemn. He arrested the attention of his hearers l)y a 
clear and argumentative exposition of his subject, wliich he divided 
and subdivided so as to be easily comprehended. On one occasion 
he commenced his sermon by introducing his peroration or close of 


his sermon first. This was done in the most impressive manner, 
and a deathlike stillness reigned over the house. He then proceeded 
with his text and argument, and dismissed his audience, who could 
not fail to be strongly impressed with his subject. 

During his ministry the church received additions from 3'ear to 
year, but it was in the year eighteen hundred and thirty-nine, when 
there was a powerful revival, and many individuals, embracing a 
large number of intelligent and interesting 3'oung people united with 
the church. During his ministry one hundred and twenty-nine per- 
sons united with the church. His relations with the church were 
generally pacific until the year eighteen hundred and forty-eight, 
when it was decided to build a new church in the village, and form 
a new society on the north side of the river. Though he took but 
a secondary part in the matter it seriously affected him. His 
health, which was never very strong, began to give wa}'. Dyspep- 
sia was a troublesome attendant on him. During the 3'ear eighteen 
hundred and forty-uine, he lost two of his children from ship fever, 
which had been introduced into his famil}', and the otlier members, 
together with himself, were sufferers from it, from which he never 
recovered. He died February eleventh, eighteen hundred and fifty, 
after a successful ministr}^ over the same church for twenty-eight 
years. His funeral was attended by a large and mourning congre- 
gation of those who had grown up under his ministr3\ A sermon 
was preached by his co-laborer for about the same length of time, 
Rev. John Douglass of Waterford. He was married May eleventh, 
eighteen hundred and nineteen, to Miss Lydia Fernald, who was 
born February twent3'-second, seventeen hundred and eighty-seven, 
and died August tweuty-seveuth, eighteen hundred and twenty-five. 
He was again married to Miss T>ucinda M. 8. Smith, who was born 
in Scarborough, December nineteenth, seventeen hundred and nine- 
ty-four, and died in Bethel, November twelfth, eighteen Inmdred 
and fifty-nine. 

Mr. Frost exerted a powerful infiuence foi- the good of his peo- 
ple. In the church and in the educational interests of the town he 
was always ready to give his time and infiuence. His mind was 
rather inclined to a mathematical exactness in everything to which 
he directed his attention. Geometry was with him a favorite study, 
and he rightly judged it a valuable study for every young person 
who would cultivate precision in their mental operations. In per- 
son he was of medium height. His hair had become orny and his 


eye was quite expressive. His voice was slightly tremulous, which 
rather gave effect to his public perforniauces. 

He was remarkably uniform in his whole course of life, beinu" 
neither greatly elated by success or depressed by discouragements. 
He commenced his labors over a society that had been but little 
favored with a settled minister for a period of eleven years, but by 
his uniform course of action he left it among the largest in this part 
of the State. His counsel was sought after among his brethren in 
the ministry, and respected. Cautious, though not over and above 
conservative, his opinion was ever valuable. A man who has the 
ability to direct the spiritual interests of a church and society so 
long, is worthy of no ordinary record, and his name is passed down 
to posterity as one who was honored by those who best knew him. 

Rev. John H. M. Leland. 

He was born in Amherst, Mass., graduated at Amherst College 
and at Andover Theological Seminary, and was ordained at Sher- 
burn, Massachusetts. Soon after the death of Mr. Frost, an invi- 
tation was extended to Mr. Leland to be his successor. He 
accepted and was installed pastor of the church and parish July 
third, eighteen hundred and fifty. He remained till May tenth, 
eighteen hundred and fifty-three, when he was dismissed and 
returned to Massachusetts. He afterwards resided at Amherst. 

Rev. Edwin A. Buck. 

He was the son of James Buck of Bucksport, and was born in 
that town. May thirty-first, eigliteen hundred and twenty-four. 
After fitting for college at the academy in Andover, he graduated 
at Yale College in eighteen hundred and fort3'-nine, and at Bangor 
Theological Seminary in eighteen hundred and fifty-two. He was 
ordained in Bethel, May twentieth, eighteen hundred and fifty-four, 
and settled as pastor over the First Congregational church. He 
continued in this relation till February, eighteen hundred and fifty- 
nine, when he was dismissed. He was married to Miss Elmira K., 
daughter of Dean Walker, who was born in Aruendel county, 3Id., 
December ninth, eighteen hundred and twenty-five. They were 
married January nineteenth, eighteen hundred and fifty-three. Soon 
after his dismissal from Bethel, he removed to Slatersville, R. I., 
where he became pastor of a church. 


Eev. John B. Wheelwright. 

Rev. John B. Wheelwright is a lineal clesceudaut of that Rev. 
John Wheelwright who was the classmate of Oliver Cromwell, came 
to this country, was first at Boston, then was one of the founders of 
Exeter, New Hampshire, and subsequently came to Wells and col- 
lected a church there. The descent is John', SamueP, Joseph^, 
Joseph"*, Aaron% Ebeuezer", to John B.'' who was born in Wells, 
Maine, December thirteenth, eighteen hundred and twenty. He 
fitted for college at Kennebunk and at Kent's Hill, and graduated 
from Colby University, then Waterville College, in eighteen hun- 
dred and forty-four. He married Helen A. Barton of Sidney. He 
was pastor of the church in Bethel from eighteen hundred and fifty- 
nine to eighteen hundred and sixty-seven, covering the period of the 
great rebellion. He has since been settled at South Paris and in 
Deeriug. He now resides in Minneapolis, Minnesota. They have 
had two children, a daughter deceased, and a son, John O. P. 
Wheelwright, who is a prosperous lawyer in Minneapolis. 

Rev. Stephen L. Boavlek. 

Rev. Stephen Longfellow Bowler was born in Palermo, Me., July 
twenty-fifth, eighteen hundred and twenty. He fitted for college in 
part at Kent's Hill, and in part at home, and graduated from Water- 
ville College with the class of eighteen huudred and forty-seven. 
After graduating, he spent a couple of j'ears in teaching and then 
commenced the study of medicine under the tutorship of Doctor 
McRuer of Bangor. In eighteen hundred and forty-nine, he at- 
tended medical lectures at Castleton, \'ermont, and later took a 
course in the medical department of Harvard College. He then 
entered the Bangor Theological Seminary, from which he was grad- 
uated in eighteen hundred and fifty-two. He was ordained at 
Machias, January fifth, eighteen hundred and fifty-three. He sub- 
sequently settled in Orono, w4iere. May twelfth, eighteen hundred 
and fifty-eight, he was married to Miss Augusta J. Colburn of that 
town. In eighteen hundred and sixty-three, he entered the service 
of the United States Christian Commission and became the superin- 
tendent of its work at Washington. He was subsequently appointed 
general agent for the State of Maine, and organized the work in 
each county. He edited a part of the history of the commission. 
Soon after tlie war closed, he accepted a call to settle in Hampden, 



where he remained six years, and since that time he has continued 
his labors in the ministry at Saccarappa, Machias, Bethel, Berlin 
Falls, New Hampshire, and at Robbinston, Maine. He came to 
the First Congregational church in Bethel in eighteen hundred and 
seventy-nine, and remained six years. 

Rev. Nahum W. Grover. 

Nahum Wesley Grover is the son of Andrew Grover, and was 
born in Bethel in eighteen hundred and thirty-five. He graduated 
from Bowdoin College in the class of eighteen hundred and sixty- 
four, and from the Theological Seminary at Bangor, three years 
later. He was pastor of a church in Mantorville, Minnesota, at 
Topsham, Maine, in Bethel and in Colebrook, New Hampshire. 
He married in eighteen hundred and sixty-seven, at Bangor, F'annie 
E. Osgood of that city. 

Rev. Daniel W. Hardy. 

Rev. Daniel Warren Hardy was born in Wilton, Maine, July 
twenty-fourth, eighteen hundred and thirty-four. He was educated 
in the common school, at Farmington Academy and at Bowdoin Col- 
lege. He entered college with the class of eighteen hundred and 
sixty-one, and remained two years. He then studied medicine and 
graduated from the Maine Medical School in eighteen hundred and 
sixty-three. He was then appointed surgeon of the thirty-seventh 
Regiment of United States colored troops, and served through the 
remainder of the war. He was breveted Lieutenant Colonel, I'uited 
States Volunteers, March fourth, eighteen hundred and sixty-seven. 
He graduated from the Bangor Theological Seminary in eighteen 
hundred and seventy-one, and preached two years at Prescjue Isle. 
He became acting pastor of the Congregational church in Bethel, 
August first, eighteen hundred and eighty-five, and still remains here. 

Rev. David Garland. 

Rev. David Garland was the fourth son of Dea. John Garland of 
Newfield, Maine, and was born March twenty-second, eighteen hun- 
dred and fifteen. He graduated from Amherst College in eighteen 
hundred and forty-three, and from Andover Theological Seminary 
in eighteen hundred and forty-six. His first labor in the ministry 
was at South Solon, then a year in Sweden, Maine, and a year at 


Burlington, Massachusetts. He commenced his labors with the 
Second Congregational church in Bethel, in April, eighteen hundred 
and forty-nine, and was ordained pastor on the fifteenth daj' of 
August following. He was the first and only pastor of the Second 
church, and labored diligently as such until the time of his death, 
a period of nearl}' forty years. The council called to assist and ad- 
Tise in the service was composed of the following individuals : 
Bethel — Rev. Charles Frost, Josiah Brown ; Eumford — Rev. Eli- 
phalet Hopkins, Otis C. Bolster ; Norway — Rev. Charles Packard ; 
Turner — Rev. John Dodd ; Albanj^ — Rev. Charles F. Tewksbury 
and J. H. Lovejoy ; Sweden — Rev. John Foster and Doctor Nathan 
Bradbury; North Bridgton — Rev. Z. M. Harris and Moses Gould; 
Waterford — Rev. John A. Douglass and Amos Gage ; Portland — 
Rev. John W. Chickering. The following persons performed his 
ordination services : Invocation and reading the scriptures, ILlipha- 
let S. Hopkins; Introductory prayer. Rev. Charles Packard; Ser- 
mon, Rev. John W. Chickering ; Ordaining prayer, Rev. John A. 
Douglass ; Charge to the pastor. Rev. Charles Frost ; Fellowship of 
the churches. Rev. L. AV. Harris ; Address to the people. Rev. I. 
Dodd ; Concluding prayer. Rev. J. P. Foster ; Benediction, the 
pastor. On the seventeenth da}' of September, eighteen hundred 
and forty-nine, he was married by Rev. John J. Carruthers, D. D., 
of Portland, to Miss Mary E., daughter of Thaddeus and Sukey 
(Barker) Twitchell of Bethel, who died January twenty-third, eigh- 
teen hundred and sixty-seven, and he married secondl}', Mary Jane 
Baker. Mr. Garland was the faithful and beloved pastor of the 
church as long as he lived. He worked for small pay and eked out 
his salary by serving on the board of superintending school com- 
mittee and by cultivating a small piece of laud. He was methodical 
in his halnts and a hard-working man. During his pastorate he 
attended sevent}' sessions of the county conference, out of seventy- 
four, united in marriage, one hundred and ninety-five couples, and 
attended over five hundred funerals. He was a genial, companion- 
able man, a good citizen, an accommodating and obliging neighbor 
and a true friend. Without guile himself, he trusted others, and in 
one instance he lost nearly all his little accumulations b}' misplaced 
confidence. He died very suddenly in his pulpit while attending 
upon his regular Sunda}' services, October sixteenth, eighteen hun- 
dred and eighty-four. After his death, the church had a supply for 
a short time, but July sixth, eiahteeu hundred and ninety, the sec- 


ond church voted to disband, and its members united with the 
church at Bethel Hill. The bridge across the Audroscoggiu had 
removed all objections to reunion, and the people had come to learn 
that one strong church organization, other things being equal, is 
preferable to two weak ones. 

The Baptists. 

Among the earl}' settlers were some whose sympathies were with 
the Calvinist Baptists, and occasionally ministers of this denomina- 
tion came here to visit them and preach on Sunday. Some of those 
also, who were not satisfied with the settlement of Rev. Daniel 
Gould, left the denomination and affiliated with the Baptists. 
Among those ministers who early visited here were Elder James 
Hooper from Paris, Elder John Tripp from Hebron and Elder Na- 
thaniel Chase from Buckfield. In seventeen hundred and ninety- 
five, September fourteen, a church was organized, and Rev. John 
Chadbourne preached here, but there was no increase. At the end 
of seven 3'ears the membership was reduced to two. Rev. Benja- 
min Cole from Pejepscot came and preached here in eighteen hun- 
dred, and two years later, three were added to the church. May 
twenty-ninth, eighteen hundred and three, the church consisted of 
six members, and for the first time, partook of the Lord's supper. 
The next year the church enjoyed a special revival. Large num- 
bers were added, and the day of small numbers existed no longer. 

In eighteen hundred and five, an act of incorporation was asked 
for and granted as follows : 

"Au Act to incorporate a number of the iuhabitaiits of the Town of Bethel 
Town of Xewry and Plantation of Howard's Gore, (so-called) in the 
county of Oxford into a Eeligious society, by the Name of the First 
Baptist (Society in Bethel. 

Sect. 1. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Kepn'seutatives. in 
General court assembled, and by the authority of the same, That Asa Khii- 
ball, John Kilgore, Jr., Stephen Eastes, Itliiel Smith, Jr., John Kilooic, 
Samuel Ayer, Ephraim Powers, Samuel Gossou, Joseph Ayer, Jouatliaii 
Smith, Samuel Kilgore, Daniel Beau, Ebeuezer Bean, Moses Mason, 
Thomas Stearns, Asa Foster, Jonathan Clark, William Russell, Isaac 
Towue, Napthali Coffin, Jesse Beau, David Coffin, Walter Mason, Paul 
Morse, Joseph Farrar, Betsy Clark and Enoch Bartlett with their families 
and estates, be, and they are lierel)y incorporated into a religious society 
by the name of The First Baptist Society in Bethel, with all the powers, 
privileges and innnunities to which parishes are entitled by the Const it u- 


tion and laws of this Commonwealth; Provided, That all such persons 
shall be holden to pay their proportion of all monies assessed in the towns 
and plantation aforesaid for parochial purposes, prior to the passing of this 

Sect. 2. Be It Further Enacted : That any person belonging to the said 
towns of Bethel, Newry, or plantation of Howard's Gore aforesaid, being 
of the Baptist denomination, who may at any time hereafter, actually be- 
come a member of, and unite in religious worship, with said Society, and 
give in his or her name to the Clerk of the town, parish or plantation to 
which he or she belongs, with a certificate signed by the minister or clerk 
of said Society, that he or she lias actually liecome a member of, and 
united in religious woi-shij) with the aforesaid Baptist Society, fourteen 
days previous to the town, parish or plantation meeting therein, to l)e held 
in the mouth of March or April, shall., from and after giving in such cer- 
tificate with his or her polls and estates, be considered as part of said 

Sect. 3. Be it further enacted : That if any member of said Baptist So- 
ciety shall at any time see cause to leave the same, and unite in religious 
worship with the parish, in which he or she may reside, and shall lodge a 
certificate of such his or her intention, with the Clerk or Minister of said 
Baptist Society and also with the clerk of the town, parish or plantation 
in which he or she may reside, fourteen days at least before the annual 
town, parisli or plantation meeting, to be held therein, in the month of 
March or April, and shall pay his or her proportion of all monej' assessed 
on said Society previous thereto, such person shall, from and after giving 
such certificate, with his or her polls and estates, be considered as belong- 
ing to the town or parish in which he or she may reside, in the same man- 
ner as if he or she had never belonged to said Baptist Society. 

Sect. 4. Be it further enacted : That any Justice of the Peace in the 
said county of Oxford is hereby authorized to issue his warrant directed 
to some suitable member of said Baptist Society, requiring him to notify 
and warn the members thereof to meet at such time and place as shall be 
appointed in said warrant, to choose such officers as jiarishes in this Com- 
monwealth are by law authori/cd to choose in ilic iiionth of March oi- 
April annually." 

This Act passed .June 1.5. 180.5. 

Rev. Ebenezer Rhav. 

Rev. PLheoezer Bray was ordaiued as pastor iu eighteen hundred 
and seven, and remained live years. Under his ministry, twenty- 
nine were added to the church. Rev. Arthur Drinkwater was the 
next pastor, followed by Elder Daniel Mason, who came from Free- 
port iu eighteen hundred and seventeen, and remained until his 
death, April sixteenth, eighteen hundred and thirty-five, aged fifty- 
four years. He was a faithful worker in his Master's vineyard, and 


literally wore himself out in behalf of the cause. He was a cooper 
by trade and supported his family by the work of his hands, receiv- 
ing but a small compensation for his pastoral work. 

In eighteen hundred and thirty-six, came from Hebron. Rev. ben- 
jamin Douham, a native of that town, and was ordained October 
fifth. He was well educated, taught school winters, and divided his 
time in preaching between Middle Interval, where he had his home, 
and the lower meeting house near Bean's Corner. He was an able 
preacher and an excellent man. When he left the church, the whole 
number of members was one hundred and thirty-two, mostly resi- 
dents of the east parish. The more intlueutial families belonging 
to this denomination, were the Holts, the Kiml)alls, the Estes and 
Kilgores. Among the Deacons have been John Holt, Joseph Holt, 
John Bird, Eli Foster and Moses S. Kimball. At the time the 
Bethel church was organized there was only one Baptist Association 
in the State, the Bowdoinham. It was not until eighteen hujidred 
and four that the Baptist church in Bethel, with five others, was ad- 
mitted to the Bowdoinham Association. The Bethel church then 
had only six members. In eighteen hundred and eleven, the church 
joined the Cumberland Association, and in eighteen hundred and 
twenty-nine the Oxford. Following is a list of delegates from 
the Bethel church to the yearly associations for the years named, 
with the number of members j-eported each year. The pastors' 
names appear in small capital letters. The figures show the num- 
ber of members : 

1805. Asa Kimball, John Kilgore, John Holt — 28. 

1806. Stephen Estes, Samuel Kilgore — 2.5. 

1807. Ebenezer Bray, Samuel Kilgore, John Holt, Asa 
Kimball— 28. 

1808. Ebenezer Bray, Asa Kimball, John Swift — 35. 

1809. Ebenezer Bray, John Kilgore, Solomon Crosby, Asa 
Kimball— 40. 

1810. Ebenezer Bray, John Holt, John Kilgore — 50. 

1811. Ebenezer Bray, John Kilgore, Daniel Bean — 44. 

1812. Asa Kimball, John Holt, Asa Foster, John Kilgore, Jr.— 

1813. Asa Kimball, John Holt, Charles Stearns, Benjamin 
Estes — 44. 

1814. Asa Kimball, John Kilgore — 45. 


1815. John Holt, Isaac Stearus — 43. 

1816. John Holt, Asa Foster, Ithiel Smith, Jonathan Abbott — 

1817. Asa Kimball, John Kilgore, Jonathan Abbot — 46. 

1818. Daniel Mason, Asa Kimball — 49. 

1819. Daniel Mason, Asa Kimball, John Holt — 47. 

1820. Daniel Mason, Asa Kimball, John Holt, John Kilgore 

1821. Daniel Mason — 45. 

1822. Daniel Mason, Asa Kimball, John Holt, Asa Foster — 

1823. Daniel Mason — 42. 

1824. Daniel Mason, Charles Stearns, John Cushman, Jona- 
than Abbot — 47. 

1825. Daniel IVIason, John Kilgore — 48. 

1826. Daniel Mason, Charles Stearns, Jonathan Abbot — 40. 

1827. Daniel Mason, Jonathan Abbot — 41. 

1828. Daniel Mason, Charles Stearns, Jonathan Abbot, James 
Fames — 52. 

1829. Daniel Mason, John Kilgore, Charles Stearns — 57. 

1830. Daniel Mason, Charles Stearns, John Kilgore — 61. 

1831. Daniel Mason, Dea. Jonathan Abbot, John Kilgore, 
Charles Stearns — 62. 

1832. Daniel Mason, John Kilgore, Charles Stearus, Jonathan 
Abbot— 61. 

1833. Daniel Mason, John Abbot, John Kilgore — 57. 

1834. Daniel Mason, Dea. Jonathan Abbot, Dea. John Cush- 
man, John Kilgore — 59. 

1835. Dea. Jonathan Abbot, Dea. John Cushuiau, John Kil- 
gore — 54. 

1836. Benjamin Doubara, Jonathan Abbot, John Cushman — 58. 

1837. Benjamin Donham, A. Abbot, James P^ames, C. Stearns 

183-S. Benjamin Donham, Addison Abbot, James Fames, Jr., 
Charles Stearns, John Cushman, Jonathan Abbott — 84. 

1839. Benjamin Dunham, Addison Abbot, J. Fames, Jonathan 
Abbot, Charles Stearns — 109. 

1840. Benjamin Donham, Addison Abbot, Dea. Joseph Holt, 
Nahum Moulton — 113. 

1841. Benjamin Donham, Addison Abbot, Dea. J. Holt, Jede- 
diah T. Kimball, Charles Stearns — 122. 


1842. Benjamin Donham, Addisou Abbot, Dea. Joseph Holt, 
Jedediah T. Kimball, Eli Foster, James Estes, Hiram C. Estes- 

1843. Benjamin Donham, James Eames, Dea. Joseph Holt, 
Dea. Eli Foster "and four others" — 132. 

1844. Benjamin Donhaai, Dea. Joseph Holt, Jonathan A. Rus- 
sell, Hiram Holt, John Bird, James Eames — 131. 

1845. Benjamin Donham, Jedediah T. Kimball, Jonathan 
Abbot— 128. 

1846. Joseph B. Mitchell, Dea. Joseph Holt, Dea. Eli Foster^ 
Hiram Holt, Hiram C. Estes — 127. 

1.S47. Joseph B. Mithell, Dea. Joseph Holt, Dea. Eli Foster, 
John Bird, Jedediah T. Kimball— 120. 

1848. Hiram C. Estes, Dea. John Cushman, Dea. Joseph Holt,^ 
Dea. Eli Foster, Jedediah Kimball — 119. 

1849. Hiram C. Estes, Dea. Joseph Holt, John Bird — 115. 

1850. Levi Burnham, Dea. John Cushman, Dea. Eli Foster^ 
Jonathan A. Russell — 108. 

1851. Levi Burnham, Charles Perkins, Dea. Eli Foster — 100. 

1852. J. Butler, Levi Burnham, Eli Foster, Jedediah T. Kim- 
ball— 99. 

1853. Dea. Joseph Holt, Dea. Eli Foster, A. Estes — 93. 

1854. D. S. Hawley, Eli Foster, Jonathan Abbot, Jedediah T. 
Kimball — 95. 

1855. R. Donham, Eli Foster, James Estes, Jonathan Abbot, 
Jedediah T. Kimball— 90. 

1856. Dea. E. Foster, J. T. Kimball, Jonathan Abbot, Jona- 
than A. Russell — 85. 

1857. Wm. Beavins, Dea. Eli Foster, Dea. Joseph Holt, Jede- 
diah T. Kimball— 85. 

1858. AVm. Beavins, Dea. Eli Foster, Dea. Joseph Holt, Jede- 
diah T. Kimball— 102. 

1859. Wm. Beavins, Dea. Joseph Holt, Hezekiah Moody, Ly- 
man Bird, James Lapham — 96. 

1860. Wm. Beavins, Dea. Joseph Holt, Ljnnan Bird, Jacob 
Kimball, Hiram Holt, Hezekiah Moody, Humphrey Bean, Thomas 
Stearns — 99. 

1861. Wm. Beavins, Dea. Joseph Holt, Dea. Eli Foster, Jede- 
diah T. Kimball, Lyman Bird, Humphrey Bean — 94. 

1862. Wm. Beavins, Lyman Bird, Hezekiah Moody, Dea. 
Joseph Holt— 89. 


1863. Rev. Rausom Duuham, Dea. Eli Foster, Lyman Bird, 
Wm. Holt— 77. 

1864. T. J. Swett, Dea. Eli Foster, Prescott Holt, Hiram H. 
Beau, Lyman Bird — 76. 

1865. Dea. Eli Foster, Jacob T. Kimball, Ira Cushman, Luther 
P. Holt, Jedediah T. Kimball — 75. 

1866. 75. 

1867. E. M. Bartlett — 77. 

1868. E. M. Bartlett — 79. 
186W. 64. 

1870. Dea. P:ii Foster, Dea. Luther P. Holt, Jacob T. Kimball, 
Moses S. Kimball — 64. 

1871. Otis B. Rawson, Jedediah T. Kimball, Moses S. Kim- 
ball, Dea. Luther P. Holt, Arthur Holt— 62. 

1872. Otis B. Rawson, Dea. Eli Foster, Dea. Luther P. Holt, 
S. Jewett Howard — 59. 

1873. Otis B. Raavson, Jedediah T. Kimball, Samuel J. How- 
ard, Moses S. Kimball — 46. 

1874. Otis B. Raavson, Dea. Luther P. Holt, Dea. Moses S. 
Kimball — 51. 

1875. Dea. Luther P. Holt, Jedediah T. Kimball, Hiram H. 
Bean, Christopher C. Bean — 50 

1876. Moses 8. Kimball, Hiram H. Bean, Samuel J. Howard, 
Jedediah T. Kimball— 49. 

1877. W. M. Harthorn, Dea. Moses S. Kimball, Jedediah T. 
Kimball— 49. 

1878. W. M. Harthorn, C. H. Kimball— 46. 

1879. Dea. Moses S. Kimball, Dea. Luther P. Holt, Jedediah 
T. Kimball, Samuel J. Howard — 39. 

1880. O. B. Rawson, Jonathan Abbot, J. T. Kimball, Samuel 
J. Howard — 44. 

1881. 44. 

1882. Jedediah Kimball, Samuel J. Howard — 43. 

1883. 33. 

1884. Jedediah T. Kimall, Samuel J. Howard, Dea. Luther P. 
Holt— 36. 

1885. Jedediah T. Kimball, Dea. Moses S. Kimball, Jacob T. 
Kimball — 50. 

1886. 54. 

1887. 51. 


1888. 50. 

' 1889. 48. 

1890. 43. 

The first minister of this denomination was Rev. John Chad- 
bourne, who was ordained an f^vangelist at Cornish, Me., in seven- 
teen hundred and ninety-eight. How long he continued to preach 
in Bethel I do not know. He appears to have been an itinerant, 
and the church, as stated, did not increase under his ministry. 


Rev. E)»enezer Bray was ordained pastor of the Calviuist Baptist 
church in Bethel in eighteen hundred and seven, and continued as 
such till eighteen hundred and twelve, when he was dismissed and 
removed to Canada, where he died. 

Rev. Arthur Drinkavater, 

When a licentiate, preached more or less in Bethel from eighteen 
hundred and twelve till eighteen hundred and sixteen, when he was 
ordained pastor of a church in Mt. Vernon. He became one of the 
most respected ministers of the denomination in the State. 

Rev. Daniel Mason. 

Elder Daniel Mason was born in Stratham, N. H., in seventeen 
hundred and eight^'-one. His early advantages were exceedingly- 
limited, but possessing a good share of common sense, and having 
experienced religion, he resolved to enter the miuistr}'. He was 
ordained in Freeport, Maine, October ninth, eighteen hundred and 
eleven, and preached for a time in the Calvanist Baptist church in 
that town. He was settled as pastor over the Calvanist Baptist 
church in Bethel in eighteen hundred and eighteen, and continued 
its pastor for seventeen years, till his death, which occfirred April 
sixth, eighteen hundred and thirty-five, aged fifty-four. He had 
three wives. The first two were sisters by the name of Robinson. 
His last wife was the widow Mary Merrill, a native of England. 
He was strongly attached to the Jeffersonian School of Polities, in 
which he took a deep interest. Being a cooper by trade he earned 
his living by the labor of his hands, and by preaching on the Sab- 
bath without any great hope of an earthly reward. 


Elder Benjamin Donham. 

Benjamin Donbam was born iu Hebron and was ordained pastor 
of the Baptist church in Bethel iu eighteen hundred and thirtj^-six, 
and continued its pastor for ten years. He removed to some town 
in Penobscot county, where he suddenly died of cancer in the 
stomach. Mr. Donham was succeeded by Elders Joseph B. Mitch- 
ell, Levi Burnham and David Hollej', each of whom remained but a 
short time, till they were succeeded by 

Rev. Wm. Beavins, 

Who was born in the Parish of Camerton, county of Cumberland, 
England, November twenty-first, eighteen hundred and nineteen. 
He lived the most of the time in the adjoining town of Workington. 
His parents were engaged in a crockery store, in which the son was 
employed. In eighteen hundred and thirty-seven he united with 
the church, and at the age of twenty was licensed to preach. He 
labored as a licentiate for four or five years, when he emigrated to 
America in eighteen hundred and forty-three. He was first settled 
in the State in Waterboro, where he remained two years. He came 
to Bethel in July, eighteen hundred and fiftj'-seven, where he be- 
come the successful pastor of the Baptist church. In Septem- 
ber, eighteen hundred and forty- four, he was married to Miss Caro- 
line Brown of Lisbon, Ct., who died in Springfield, Mass., October, 
eighteen hundred and forty-seven. In September, eighteen hun- 
dred and forty-eight, he was again married to Miss Mary A. 
SouthAvick of Dover, New Hampshire. 

The Methodists. 

From a small beginning, the Methodists have come to be numeri- 
cally, among the largest denominations in town, sustaining preaching 
in both the upper and lower parish. A record of the first Methodist 
church in town contains the following by Rev. Joshua Taylor : 
"The rise of Methodism iu Bethel circuit was as follows : About the 
beginning of the year seventeen hundred and ninety-eight, Nicholas 
Suething, who was then stationed on the Portland circuit, came and 
preached a few times iu Rumford and Bethel." This pioneer of 
Methodism was of Welsh descent. He became converted to this 
faith in seventeen hundred and ninety-one, was ordained five years 
later and came to Maine as the associate of Elder Finnegan. John 



Martin, a local preacher of Ruraford also came and preached in this 
town, and sent a request to Elder Taylor to visit them. He said : 
"I came with great satisfaction, as there appeared to he some ten- 
derness among a few of the congregation. After this the}' were 
visited a few times by Brother Martin and myself, and as they re- 
quested to have a preacher among them, and a prospect appeared of 
doing good, I strove for it but could not obtain my end till near the 
close of seventeen hundred and uinet3'-six. They w^ere then con- 
nected with the Portland circuit, aud during that winter, they were 
visited about once a fortnight by Brother Merritt, Brother Becker 
and Brother Merick, who rode on the circuit. The spring follow- 
ing, brother Joseph Baker came and staid with the people, and at 
the conference in Lynn, July, eighteen hundred, Bethel was set off 
as a separate circuit and Joshua Baker was appointed as their 
preacher. The following September, a society' was formed with 
only fourteen members. There was no revival of special account 
till a preacher was stationed among them. Although at times the 
prospect has been gloom}', yet there has been a glorious work for 
several months past, and I trust a number have been converted." 
This letter was written May twenty-second, eighteen hundred and 

The following is a list of circuit preachers in the town : Eighteen 
hundred, Joseph Baker ; eighteen hundred and two, Daniel Jones ; 
eighteen hundi'ed and three, David Stinson ; eighteen hundred and 
four, Allen H. Cobb; eighteen hundred aud five, Dan Perry; eigh- 
teen hundred and six, Clement Parker ; eighteen hundred and seven, 
Allen H. Coblj ; eighteen hundred and eight, Jonathan Chaney ; 
eighteen hundred and nine, Joshua Randall ; eighteen hundred and 
ten, Wm. Hiuman ; eighteen hundred and eleven, Ebenezer Blake ; 
eighteen hundred and twelve, Daniel Tilmore ; eighteen hundred 
and thirteen, Beuj. Jones ; eighteen hundred and fourteen, John F. 
Adams ; eighteen hundred and fifteen, Joshua Randall ; eighteen 
hundred and sixteen, John Pain ; eighteen hundred and twenty, Job 
Pratt ; eighteen hundred and twent^'-one, Elijah Spear ; eighteen 
hundred and twenty-three, John Shaw ; eighteen hundred and 
twenty-four. True Page ; eighteen hundred and twenty-five, Daniel 
Wentworth ; eighteen hundred and twenty-six, Ebenezer T. Newell ; 
eighteen hundred and twenty-nine, Caleb Fuller, Isaac Downing ; 
eighteen hundred and thirty, W. T. Farringtou ; eighteen hundred 


and thirty-four, Dan Perry, in charge, Huse Dow, assistant ; eigh- 
teen hundred and thirty-six, Dan Perry in charge, John Cumner, 
assistant ; eighteen hundred and thirty-eight and nine, Isaac W. 
Morse ; eighteen hundred and forty, Geo. Child ; eighteen hundred 
and forty-one, Aaron Fuller ; eighteen hundred and forty-two, Mar- 
cus Wight ; eighteen hundred and forty-three, Daniel Whitehouse ; 
eighteen hundred and forty-five, Jonathan Fairbanks ; eighteen 
hundred and forty-seven, C. Fairbanks. 

This closes the catalogue so far as recorded in the records in our 
possession. Could the early ministers of this denomination be per- 
mitted to tell the simple story of their labors, it would unfold a 
series of events now almost lost to the present generation. 

The following facts were furnished by a circuit preacher, Kev. 
Mr. Davies : "The minutes of last year report that the Bethel cir- 
cuit has one hundred and seventy members, forty probationers, be- 
side some twenty or thirty in Bethel on the other side of the river, 
which belong to Hanover and Newry circuit. The Methodists own 
ihe greatest part of Locke meeting house, and a small part of the 
-meeting house at Bean's Corner. Since I came to the circuit 1 have 
started a subscription paper for a meeting house at Bethel Hill, and 
at Walker's Mills. We have seven classes and seven prayer meet- 
ings in the town, weekly. This includes one of each at Bethel Hill, 
-which we hope will be a good society in that growing place. Some 
nineteen have been converted and some thirteen reclaimed, twenty- 
•six have joined on trial, eleven have joined the church, twent^'-eight 
have been baptized this conference year, this includes eight baptized 
■at letter B. From the above facts you will see that Methodism in 
the town is in a somewhat pi'osperous state, tliough its society is 
scattered far and near, and without boasting we may truly and safe- 
ly say, Methodism is doing as much for the salvation of the town as 
any other society." This was in eighteen hundred and fift3'-uine. 
A neat and convenient church edifice was erected early in the six- 
ties, which was nearly ruined by a hurricane, September eighteenth, 
eighteen hundred and ninety-one. 

Freewill Baptists. 

The Freewill Baptist denomination was the last of the so-called 
evangelical denominations to obtain a foothold in this town, and its 
membership are all or nearly all in the west part of the town. A 
church of this denomination was organized at West Bethel, May 


twenty-third, eighteen huudred and eighteen, with fourteen mem- 
bers. This church soon after it was gathered, united with the Sand- 
wich Quarterly meeting. The names of those composing the coun- 
cil, were Rev. Dudley Pettingill, Deacon Edward Green and Samuel 
Wheeler. In February, eighteen huudred and thirty-five, it became 
connected with the Otisfield Quarterly meeting, where it yet remains. 
The first preachers to labor with the church were Rev. Dudley Pet- 
tingill, Samuel Hutchinson, Zachariah .Jordan, Joseph AVight and 
Geo. F. Smith. Of the pastors, Rev. Samuel Haseltou officiated 
from eighteen hundred and thirty-five to eighteen hundred and forty- 
four ; Rev. George W. Whitney, from the latter date to eighteen 
hundred and forty-eight ; E. H. Hart to eighteen hundred and fifty- 
two ; David Allen to eighteen hundred and sixty-five ; James Potter 
in eighteen hundred and sixty-seven ; PL G. Eaton to eighteen hun- 
dred and sixty-nine. For much of the time since the last date there 
has been no pastor. 

There were no marked revivals in the church and vicinity until 
eighteen huudred and thirty-nine, when forty were added to the roll 
of members. This was under the pastorate of Rev. Samuel Hasel- 
ton, who was assisted by Rev. Stephen Hutchinson, J. Hamblen, J. 
Tracy and George W. Whitney. A church edifice was erected by 
the Society at West Bethel in eighteen hundred and forty-four, 
which was dedicated January first, eighteen huudred and forty-five. 
The occasional sermon was preached by Rev. Stephen Hutchinson. 
The cost of the church was nine hundred dollars. In eighteen hun- 
dred and seventy-four, the pulpit was supplied by a student from 
Bates College, Mr. S. J. Gould. There is no other church edifice 
in the west part of the town. 

Rev. Samuel Haselton. 

Polder Samuel Haselton was born in Windham, N. H., August 
eighth, seveuteen hundred and eighty-one, and learned the trade 
of blacksmith. He did not enjoy the early advantages of an educa- 
tion, but served his time as an apprentice in Methuen, Mass. At 
the age of twenty, he made a profession of religion and united with 
the Congregational church in Methuen. A few years after he united 
with the Freewill Baptist church in Adams, now Jackson, N. H. 
He commenced preaching in Bartlett, and was ordained there Nov. 
twenty-third, eighteen hundred and nineteen, by Elders Daniel 
Elkius and Joshua Quimby. He remained in Jackson and Bartlett 


till the year eighteen hundred and thirty-six, when he removed to 
Bethel. There were several interesting revivals during his residence 
here and under his preaching in other places. One of the most in- 
teresting episodes in the life of Elder Haselton occurred at the time 
of the destruction of the Willey family, by a slide in the White 
Mountains, August twenty-eighth, eighteen hundred and twenty- 
six. The following is quoted from AYilley's Incidents in White 
Mountain History. It describes the funeral services on that occa- 
sion, and to those who are familiar with that event, and who knew 
Elder Haselton, their imagination can easily shadow forth some- 
thing of the scene as here quoted : 

"All these bodies, after suitable time to make coffins from mate- 
rials such as could be obtained there, were made read}' for burial. 
It was decided to bury them near the house of their recent habita- 
tion, and let them remain there till they could be more conveniently 
moved to Conway the succeeding winter. One common, wide grave 
was dug for them, and they were placed on its margin, to remain 
till the befitting and accustomed prayer at burial was performed. 
That prayer was made by a personal friend of my brother, and one 
who often ministered in holy things. The prayer was suited to the 
occasion, coming from a kind, sympathizing, pious heart. It was 
impressive as it came from the good man's lips : and then its im- 
pressiveness was greatly increased from the circumstances under 
which it Avas made. In the echoes that were awakened by his voice, 
the very mountains around us seemed to join with him in describing 
the majesty of God, and imploring his mercy on our stricken hearts. 
When, with slow and distinct utterance, the minister, at the com- 
mencement of his praj'er, referred to the magnificence of the Deity 
as described by the Prophet Isaiah, saying, "Who hath measured the 
waters in the hollow of his hand, and meted out heaven with a span, 
and comprehended the dust of the earth in a measure, and weighed 
the mountains in scales, and the hills in a balance," the echo gave 
back every word of this sublime description in a tone equally clear 
and solemn with that in which they were first uttered. The effect 
of all this was soul stirring beyond description. I shall never for- 
get the tears and sorrows that marked the faces of mauj^ that stood 
around that open grave on that solemn occasion. The minister wlio 
made that prayer was Elder Samuel Haselton, then of Bartlett, now 
living in Bethel. After the prayer we buried the bodies, 

"And then, one summer evening's close, 
We left them to their last repose." 


It was dark before the burial was completed, and we were com- 
pelled to speud the night in the house so- lately left by the buried 
family." He married for his first wife, Alice Bodwell of Methueu, 
Mass., and for his second wife, Miss IMary Taskett of Bartlett. 
She died December twenty-first, eighteen hundred and fifty-eight, 
aged seventy-two. 


Early in the history of the town, there were those living here who 
believed in the paternity of God and the fraternity of man, and who 
could not reconcile this relationship with the idea of future endless 
punishment. There was not enough of them to effect an organiza- 
tion or to support a preacher of their own wa}' of thinking, and so 
for many years they attended the meetings of other denominations 
and listened to their expositions of the word under mental protest. 
They believed in going to church and in bringing up their children 
to go, and as long as they could not have what they wanted, thej'^ 
took what they could get. As time passed, the doctrine which these 
people cherished, became better known and ministers of this denom- 
ination were multiplied. Occasionally one of them came to Bethel, 
and among those who preached here quite early, were Rev. George 
Bates, Rev. Zenas Thompson and Rev. Thomas J. Tenney. There 
was an itinerant Baptist minister by the name of Mighill Jewett, 
who frequently came to this town and preached in the lower parish. 
He supported himself b}^ such contributions as were made for him 
from time to time. On one occasion, a text was given him to preach 
from by Phineas Frost, and the church was crowded, for he was 
considered an able preacher. But to the surprise of every one pres- 
ent and to the disgust of many, he preached a strong Uuiversalist 
sermon, admitting that before that time he had been in error, and 
that the study of the text given him with the context, had caused 
him to change his views entirely. 

In eighteen hundred and forty-seven, Joseph Twitchell and seven 
others associated to form an incorporated religious society in the 
town of Bethel. From the Constitution framed at that time, the 
first article reads as follows : "The society shall be called the first 
Universalist Society in Bethel. This object of this society shall be 
the promotion of Truth." During the next year the Rev. George 
Bates preached a few Sabbaths at the academy, but they did not 
establish public worship for want of a suitable house. In eighteen 


hundred and fifty-three a church was erected at an expense of some- 
thing over two thousand dollars, and the Rev. Zenas Thompson was 
chosen pastor ; he entered upon his duties in June, eighteen hundred 
and fifty-four. Under his ministration the society sustained preach- 
ing through the year, and in autumn of eighteen hundred and fifty- 
nine, a church was organized consisting of forty-three members. 
Among those who joined in this movement were Joseph Twitchell, 
Dr. Almon Twitchell, Joseph A. Twitchell, Albert H. Gerrish, 
Moses Pattee, Benjamin Freeman, Hiram Young, Eber Clough, 
Charles Mason, Oliver H. Mason, Clark S. Edwards, Ira C. Kim- 
ball, O'Neil W. Robinson and Albert Stiles. Rev. Zenas Thompson 
remained here five years, and accomplished a good work for the 
church and society. His successor was Rev. Absalom G. Gaines, 
who was a native of Kentucky. He was a scholarly man and an 
excellent preacher and pastor. He was much interested in educa- 
tion, and in every good cause. He remained here several years, 
was greatly beloved by his people, and respected by every one. 
The blameless life he led, and the true christian character he ex- 
hibited on all occasions was well calculated to popularize the faith 
he held to and the doctrine he preached. Mr. Gaines afterward 
preached at Mechanic Falls, and subsequently left the State and 
became President of the Theological Department of St. Lawrence 
University at Canton, New York. 

Rev. Ezekiel W. Coffin, who was settled over the church at Bry- 
ant's Pond, supplied the pulpit here for a while. Rev. John F. 
Simmons was settled here for a few years, and then came Rev. 
William Bosserman, an Englishman. The society became greatly 
weakened by removals from town and by death, so there was no 
regular preaching for several years, until Rev. Mr. Barton came. 
One of the stiong pillars of the society was Oliver H. Mason, who 
died in eighteen hundred and ninety. By the terms of his will he 
left the Society one thousand dollars, the income only to be used for 
the support of preaching. By this act, he became a perpetual 
subscriber to the society' funds. 

Rev. Zezas Thompson. 

Rev. Zenas Thompson, first pastor of the Universallst church in 
Bethel, and a resident of the town, was born in Auburn, December 
fourth, eighteen hundred and four. He was of Scotch-Irish lineage, 
his first American ancestor, Archibald Thompson, coming from the 


north of Ireland to America in seventeen hundred and twent3'-four, 
and settling at Bridgewater. Capt. John Thompson, the grand- 
father of Zenas, married Jeanette Allen and moved to Buckfield. 
Archibald Thompson was a wheel-maker, and made the first spin- 
ning-wheel ever made in New England. John Thompson of Buck- 
field followed the same trade. The father of Zenas was Hannibal, 
son of John before named, and his mother was a Dillingham of 
Auburn. Mr. Thompson early embraced the Universalist faith, and 
began to preach when quite young. He had settlements in various 
parts of the State, in Farmiugton, Frankfort, Bridgton, Yarmouth, 
Saccarappa, Augusta, Bethel, Bryant's Pond, Mechanic Falls, West 
Waterville and Paris, and in several places in Massachusetts. He 
was among the ablest and best known of the ministers of his denom- 
ination in the State, a profound thinker, a logical reasoner and gifted 
as a pulpit orator. He was among the first in Maine to suggest the 
prohibition of the liquor traffic, and one of its most eloquent advo- 
cates. He was chaplain of the sixth Maine Regiment in the war of 
the rebellion, and malaria contracted in the Chickahominy swamps^ 
in the Peninsula campaign of eighteen hundred and sixty-two, was 
the remote cause of his death. He inherited the mechanical genius 
of his ancestors. He could make an elegant fly-rod or a rifle, and 
was skilful in the use of both. He had marvelous skill in wood- 
carving, and seemed to have an intuitive knowledge of almost 
everything in the department of the useful and ornamental arts. 
He had social qualities of a high order, and was a most agreeable 
friend and companion. He married Leonora Leavitt of Turner, and 
reared a large family. One of his sons, Geo. W., was killed in 
action during the war, and the other two, Zenas and Fred are engaged 
in carriage manufacturing in Portland. One of the daughters, now 
deceased, was the first wife of Prof. Geo. L. Vose, formerlya Maine 
resident, and another, Mrs. Julia Schayer of Washington, D. C, 
is a magazine writer of repute. Mr. Thompson died at his home in 
Deering, November seventeenth, eighteen hundred and eighty-two. 
Mr. Thompson built the fine house afterwards occupied by Oliver 
H, Mason. He closed his pastorate here in eighteen hundred and 
fifty-seven, aud was succeeded by Rev. Absalom G. Gaines, as 
already stated. 

Rev. Frank E. Barton. 

Rev. Frank E. Barton, the present pastor of the Universalist 
church, was born in Saco, Maine, June twenty, eighteen hundred 


and fifty-two, and was the son of Isaac Somes and Roxanua (Miller) 
Barton. He learned of his father, the trade of carriage painter at 
Brownfield, Maine, having previousl}' been educated in the public 
schools of Boston. Making up his mind to engage in the ministry, 
he studied theology at the Seminar}^ connected with the Saint Law- 
rence University at Canton, New York, graduating therefrom in 
eighteen hundred and eighty-nine. His settlement at Bethel dates 
from July first of the year last named. He was ordained June 
twenty-fifth, eighteen hundred and ninety. He found the parish 
much run down, there being no organization and no Sabbath school. 
The society had suffered severely during the few previous years by 
removals by death and from the town of man}' of its most active 
members. AVhen Mr. Barton came, there were only twenty-five 
families in sympathy with the church, but in a year the number had 
laeen doubled, and the Sabbath school numbered ninety attendants. 
Mr. Barton is a very popular preacher and pastor, and the societj', 
though not large, is in a very prosperous condition. Mr. Barton 
married October eleven, eighteen hundred and eighty-four. Miss 
Fannie Elizabeth, daughter of John and Caroline Fogg of Brown- 
field. They have one child, Agnes Linwood, born at Brownfield, 
September eleA'enth, eighteen hundred and eight3'^-five. 

Othkk Minister*;. 

Several native boni citizens of Bethel, and others who have spent 
more or less time in town and who have entered upon the work of 
the ministry but have never had settlements here, are briefly men- 
tioned to close this chapter. 

Rev. Addison AniiOT. 

He was the son of Jonathan Abbot, and was born in Albany, but 
when 3'oung his parents moved to this town. He received a good 
education and was a popular school teacher. He was then licensed 
to preach and resided a long time at North Paris, where he died. 

Rev. Nathaniel Bakker. 

Mr. Barker was the sou of Samuel Barker, and was born in Ames- 
bury, Massachusetts, Januarj' sixth, seventeen hundred and ninety- 
six. He came to Bethel with his father's family and spent his 
youth here. He graduated from Dartmouth College, studied at 


Andover, was ordained and settled at South Mendon. His next 
settlement was at Wakefield, New Hampshire, in eighteen hundred 
and thirty-five, where he remained as pastor twenty years. He died 
at Wakefield, October thirteenth, eighteen hundred and eighty-three. 
The following is an extract from Mr, Barker's funeral sermon : 

"In the beautiful village of Bethel which lies along the margin of 
the river Androscoggin, as it winds its circling course, enriching the 
soil of the intervales, gladdening the heart of the husbandman, mak- 
ing a scene of beauty and adding not a little to that scener}' of vale 
and mountain which has made this village one of the most delight- 
ful as a place of resort in the summer months for strangers, who 
come from far to drink in health and inspiration, and always a glad 
resort, or better, a home for her sons and daughters who come back 
to sit beneath the old roof tree, and live over in thought those hap- 
py days of childhood which the good Lord gave, Mr. Barker was 
born. For bodily health and vigor, for clearness of thought and 
lofty aspirations, even the air they breathe must affect the dwellers 
thereof, and a greater tendency be secured at the start for a health- 
ful moral state than in some localities. C'oupled with this is the 
character of the first settlers of many of our New England commu- 
nities, vigorous, stern, unyielding to the storms of nature or of 
human experience. This was, I judge, particularly true, in the case 
of Bethel. The very name puts its people under an obligation so to 
live as to be not unworthy to have the place of their abode called 
after the first Bethel, where to the weary Jacob came that entrancing 
vision which led him to cry out when he awoke, 'This is none other 
but the house of God and this the gate of heaven.' " 

Kev. William R. Chapman. 

Rev. AVilliam Rogers Chapman, son of Timothy Chai)m'.ui, was 
born in Bethel, February twenty-sixth, eighteen hundred and twelve. 
He attended the common schools of his native town and fitted for 
college under the charge of Rev. Jonas Burnham of Bridgton, hav- 
ing in view at this early date the entry into the Christian ministry. 
He entered Bowdoin College in eighteen hundred and thirty-three, 
and after two years joined the junior class at Dartmouth, where he 
graduated in eighteen hundred and thirty-seven. He tauglit acade- 
mies at Wakefield, New Hampshire, and at Bethel, commenc- 
ing his theological course at Andover, and completed it at New Haven 
in eighteen hundred and forty. He became the stated pastor for a 


few months of the congregation then worshiping in the Marlboro 
Chapel in Boston. 

In September, eighteen hundred and forty, a number of churches 
formed what was termed the Garden street chapel in Boston, over 
which Mr. Chapman was then ordained. During the first year, one 
hundred and fifty members were added to the church, mostly new 
converts. After five years of successful labor here, a union was 
formed with the Green street church, the union being called the 
Messiah church. Mr. Chapman became the colleague pastor of the 
venerable Rev. Dr. Jenks. In eighteen hundred and forty-seven, 
he received and accepted a call from the Eighth street church in 
New York city. In eighteen hundred and forty-nine Mr. Chapman 
visited Europe and was absent fifteen months, travelling in Great 
Britain and on the Continent. While absent he formed the acquaint- 
ance of many distinguished divines, and in Geneva, his efforts to 
form a Sabbath school were successful, and will be long remembered. 

On his return to his native land, he received several invitations to 
resettle in the ministry, and accepted the call to settle over the 
Presbyterian church in Aurora, New York, over which he was in- 
stalled December twenty-fifth, eighteen hundred and fifty. He 
remained here four years, but towards the close of his ministry he 
was brought low by sickness, and for some time his life was 
despaired of. In August of eigliteen hundred and fifty-four, Mr. 
Chapman moved to Hanover, INIassachusetts, where, in the space of 
five months he received twenty-one persons into communion with 
the Second Congregational church. On the eighteenth of January, 
eighteen hundred and fifty-five, he was prostrated with the disease of 
which he finally died. After lingering through the winter, spring 
and summer, enfeebled by an organic disease of the brain, toward 
the last of October, as he was walking through the streets of Hano- 
ver, he was attacked with a stroke of paralysis and died on the 
twenty-fifth of October, eighteen hundred and fifty-five. His 
funeral at Hanover was attended b}' four clergymen, and a large con- 
course of people. Funeral services were again held at Bethel on the 
twenty-ninth, a sermon being preached by Rev. Mr. Sewall of Paris. 
His young son, named for his father, was baptized over the coflin. 

Rev. Calvin Chapman. 

Rev. Calvin Chapman, son of Edmund Chapman, was born in 
Bethel in eighteen hundred and fourteen. He fitted for colleae at 



Millbury, Massachusetts, and graduated from Bowdoin College in 
eighteen hundred and thirty-nine. He taught a few terms at Gould's 
Academy, meantime pursuing a course in theological studies at 
Andover, where he graduated in eighteen hundred and forty-two. 
He has had settlements at Epping, New Hampshire, at Saccarappa 
and Foxcroft, Maine, and at Lakeville, Massachusetts. He has 
also been acting pastor over churches at Eliot, Andover, Standish, 
Mannsville, New York, and Windham, Vermont. He has been 
much interested in educational matters and has often been super- 
visor of schools and on school boards. In eighteen hundred and 
forty-two, he married Miss Luc}^ B, Emerson of Parsonsfield, 
Maine, who died in eighteen hundred and seventy-eight, and he then 
married Miss Sarah A. Ward of Kennebunkport. 

Rev. Lawson Carter. 

He was the son of Dr. Timothy Carter, born at .Sutton, Mas- 
sachusetts, in seventeen hundred and ninety-three, and moved with 
the family to Bethel. He graduated from Dartmouth College, 
studied theology and was settled in the Episcopal ministry at Alders- 
bury, New York. He was subsequently rector of Grace church in 
Cleveland, Ohio. 

Rev. Hiram C. Estes. 

Rev. Hiram Cushman Estes, D. D., sou of John and Sarah 
(Andrews) Estes, was born iu Bethel, July twenty-seventh, eighteen 
hundred and twenty- three. He was brought up on a farm, but early 
developed a love of learning and a passion for books. Like man}' 
other New England youths, he was obliged to depend mainly upon 
his own efforts for the means necessary to a course of study, and iu 
his case as in many others, the fact was demonstrated that a deter- 
mined will is quite sure to open a way. After leaving the town 
school he attended Bethel Academy, the Turner High School, which 
was then in charge of John M. Adams of Rumford, now of Deer- 
ing, and at North Yarmouth Academy, working upon the farm por- 
tions of each year, and teaching iu winter to meet his expenses. 
He entered Waterville College, now Colby University, iu eighteen 
hundred and forty-three, and graduated with honor in eighteen hun- 
dred and forty-seven. He studied Theology at the Cambridge 
(Mass.) Divinity School, and was ordained to the work of tlie min- 
istry at Auburn, in this State, May sixteenth, eighteen hundred and 


fifty. For three years, from eighteen hundred and fifty-two ta 
eighteen hundred and fifty-five, he was agent for the American Bap- 
tist ^Missionary Union in the State of Maine ; settled over the 
church in East Trenton from eighteen hundred and fifty-five to 
eighteen hundred and sixty; at Leicester, Mass., from eighteen 
hundred and sixty to eighteen hundred and sixty-two ; at Jericho, 
Vermont, from eighteen hundred and sixty-two to eighteen hundred 
and seventy-two ; over the Baptist church in Paris, from January 
first, eighteen hundred and seventy-three, to July first, eighteen 
hundred and eighty-three, and from September first, eighteen hun- 
dred and eighty-three, to Sept. eighteen hundred and eightj'-five at 
Winchenden, Mass. While at Trenton he was elected to the Legis- 
lature in eighteen hundred and fifty-eight, and served as chairman 
of tlie committee on Education on the part of the House, to which 
position he was admirably adapted. The degree of Doctor of 
Divinity was conferred upon him by his Alma Maler in eighteen 
hundred and seventy-two, and never has this important degree been 
more fitly bestowed b}' that institution. March first, eighteen hun- 
dred and eighty-six, he was again called to the Baptist church in 
Leicester, and his connection with that church still continues. Dr. 
Estes is a profound scholar, a forcible and interesting writer, and 
whatever he undertakes to do, he does well. He has written and 
delivered several lectures which have been highly spoken of by 
those best (pialified to judge. His only published volume is an 
essay entitled "The Christian Doctrine of the Soul," which appeared 
in eighteen hundred and seventy-three, from the press of Noyes, 
Holmes and Company of Boston. It is a duodecimo of one hun- 
dred and sixty-three pages, and a model of concise and logical writ- 
ing. It was well received by all denominations of Christians. 
Several of his occasional sermons have been printed and widely 
read. He has also prepared and published a history of the Baptist 
church in Leicester, a work requiring much patient research and 
admirably done. 

Dr. Estes was married December eighteenth, eighteen hundred 
and forty-eight, to Sophia Bartlett, daughter of Dea. Eli Foster of 
Bethel, and the following are their children : 

i David Foster, b. Oct. 18, 18.51. lie was graduated from the Univer- 
sity of Vermont, 1871, and from tlie Xewton Theolojjical Institu- 
tion, 1874; pursued special studies in Theolojj^y at the I'uivorsity 
of Goettingeu, 1878-79; ordained at Maiu'liostcr. Vermont. August 


19, 1874 ; pastor of the Baptist church, Manchester, 1874-G ; Bel- 
fast, Me., 1876-8; Vergeunes, Vt., 1880-3; Professor and Actmg- 
President Atlanta Baptist Seminary, Atlanta, Ga., 1883-6; pastor 
at Holden, Mass., since 1886. He married Maj^ 12, 1880, Efligene 
Lydia, daughter of Truman Chittenden Galusha of Jericho, Vt., 
born Sept. 14, 18.58; has one child, Walter Dalton Estes, born at 
Vergennes, Vt., July 22, 1881. 

Walter Dalton, b. July 20, 1855. He was a young man of great 
promise, and while a student at law at Richford, Vermont, he 
drank water from a poisoned well, and thereby lost his life. He 
died Feb. 22, 1878. 

Alice Maud, b. Feb. 13, 1874. She graduated from Leicester Acade- 
my in the class of 1891. 

Rev. Sumxer Pastes. 

Rev. Sumner Estes was the sou of Eli aud Clarissa (Kimball) 
Estes, and was born in Bethel, June eleventh, eighteen hundred aud 
twenty-seven. He fitted for college, entered at Waterville, but re- 
mained only one year. He then commeuced preaching and had 
settlements in Sidney, Roclvport aud elsewhere. On account of a 
disease of the throat aud other infirmities, he was obliged to give up 
preaching and is now an apothecary in Sauford, Maine. 

Rev. Alpheus Grover. 

Rev. Alpheus Grover was the sou of Jedediah Grover of Bethel. 
He graduated from Bowdoin College in eighteen hundred and thirty- 
nine, aud later, at the Bangor Theological Seminary. He died at 
Lewiston on his way home from Bangor, in eighteen hundred and 
forty-three, aged thirty-four years. 

Rev. Javan K. Mason. 

He was the son of Walter Mason of Grover Hill in Bethel. He 
fitted for college at Gould's Academy, aud graduated from Bowdoin 
College in eighteen hundred and forty-five, and from the Bangor 
Theological Seminary. He was long pastor of the church at Hamp- 
den, and later at Thomaston, where he was chaplain to the State 
Prison. While here he became much interested in the movement 
for ameliorating the condition of convicts, and for devising means 
for their mental and moral improvement. He was delegate from 
Maiae to the World's convention, which had these special objects 


in charge. After this he had a long pastorate at Fr^-eburg, aud 
then removed from the State. He is a man of ability and a faith- 
ful worker in his master's vinej'ard. He married Susanna, daughter 
of Thaddeus Twitchell of this town. 

Rev. AVellington Newell. 

Rev. Wellington Newell was the second sou of Seth Bannister 
and Betsey (Kimball) Newell, and was born in Pembroke, N. H., 
January eleventh, eighteen hundred and sixteen. His father re- 
moved with his family to Bethel in eighteen hundred and twenty- 
five and settled on a farm on the north side of the river. Wellington 
attended the district school, the high school at Bethel Hill and at 
North Bridgton Academy, and qualified himself as a teacher, in 
which he was very successful. He was also a good singer, and on 
winter evenings, taught the old-fashioned singing school. Subse- 
quently he graduated at the Normal School in Bridgewater, Mass., 
and then went into business in Boston, where he married Lucinda 
D. Bradford, and had one son, who died at the age of six months. 
The mother died two years later. Mr. Newell then came to Bethel, 
and for a time was employed in the store of Robert and Elbridge 
Chapman. He entered Bangor Theological Seminary and graduated 
in eighteen hundred and fifty-five. 

At Brewer \'illage, he was acting pastor for nine years, preaching 
-also at East Orrington. For many years he was a member of the 
P^xamining Committee of Bangor Seminary. For two years and a 
half, that he might be near liis mother, he preached at North Water- 
ford, and after her death, he accepted a call at East Charlemont, 
Massachusetts, wliere he was installed in eighteen hundred and 
seventy-three. In eighteen hundred and seventy-seven he removed 
to Greenfield and was there over ten years as acting pastor, though 
his health had been failing for two or three years. In the autumn 
of eighteen hundred and eighty-eight, he had a slight attack of 
pneumonia and came to Bethel. In March following, he had 
another attack, and after this, for much of the time until the end 
came he was confined to his bed. He died July eighteenth, eighteen 
hundred and eighty-nine, at the residence of his sister, Mrs. Timo- 
thy H. Chapman. He married a second time L. Amanda, daughter 
of Rev. Charles Frost who was long the pastor of the First church 
in Bethel, and by this union there were five sons and one daughter. 

He was a verj' amiable man, always kind and courteous, yet al- 



ways diguified. He was thoughtful in the little things of every day 
life, ever regardful of the feeliugs of others, aud ever ready with his 
words of kiuduess, to smooth over the rough places in the pathway 
of others. He was a good preacher, and under his ministrations 
the churches over which he presided grew in grace and in numbers. 
The churches at Brewer Village and J:ast Orriugton doubled their 
numbers while he was with them. The example of a blameless life 
had much to do with his success as a pastor. 



iT was some time after Bethel was settled before a phj'sician 
tcame to dwell in the town. The people got along with vei-y 
■^little doctoring, aud probably were all the better for it, but in 
case of accident or severe illness the}^ were oljliged to send to Frye- 
burg for a physician, a distance of thirty miles. A Doctor Martiu, 
a German, was here soon after the close of the Revolutionary War. 
He came to this country' with Baron Steuben and formed the ac- 
quaintance of some of the soldiers who settled here. But he was a 
man of intemperate habits to such an extent as to disgust the peo- 
ple, even in those days of free rum and its liberal imbibition, and 
he soon went away. Doctor John Brickett, wdio came previous to 
seventeen hundred and ninety, was a man of different character. 
He was a young man of good habits, but the field here was not very 
encouraging for a man of his attainments and skill. While here he 
was married at Fryeburg, September thirteenth, seventeen hundred 
and ninety-five, to P^lizabeth Ayer of Haverhill. He soou after re- 
turned to Haverhill and became a distinguished [)ractitioner. 

Molly Ockett often came to Bethel. She was acquainted with all 
the families and was ever ready to prescribe for any who were sick. 
She carried no remedies along with her in her jourueyiugs to and 
fro, but when asked to prescribe she would start for the woods 
where she was sure of finding what she wanted. Her remedies in 
part consisted of blood-root, Solomon's seal, buck-thorn, skunk- 
cabbage, oak, elm, basswood and pine barks, sweet elder, sumach 
berries, mountain ash bark and a great variety of herbs. She had 


great skill in collecting them and also in concocting drinks, in mak- 
ing salves and poultices and in applying them. Many had great 
faith in her remedies and skill, and at some homes she was ever a 
welcome visitant. She was often present at the births of children, 
and was sometimes retained in families for weeks that she might be 
present on such occasions. She felt deeply chagrined when a ph}'- 
sician came, and she realized that she must seek a new field of 

i/Dr, Timothy Carter. 

The first physician who came to Bethel and settled here perma- 
nently, was Dr. Timothy Carter. When he came, the town had been 
settled for more than twenty years, had increased in population and 
wealth, and with the neighboring towns that had no physician, 
could give one a good support. Dr. Carter was born in the town of 
Ward, Worcester county, Massachusetts, November twenty-seventh, 
seventeen hundred and sixty-eight. AVhen he was but eleven years 
of age, his father, who was a house carpenter, fell from a building 
which he was finishing, and was instantly killed. His son Timothj' 
being the eldest child, went to live in a family in Sutton, Massachu- 
setts. He was largely dependent on his own resources for a living 
and for an education, but he had ability and pluck, and made the 
most of his advantages. He worked for the man in whose family 
he lived and who was a dealer in oil, attended the common schools, 
taught school winters, and in this way obtained a good education 
for the times in which he lived. He studied medicine with Dr. 
James Freeland of Sutton, and for several years practiced medicine 
with his teacher. He was married to Miss Fannie Freeland, Jul}' 
twenty-eighth, seventeen hundred and ninety-three, who was born 
Sept. ninth, seventeen hundred and seventy-one, and died in Bethel, 
Nov. fourteenth, eighteen hundred and fifteen. Dr. Carter removed 
to Bethel in seventeen hundred and ninety-nine, at a time when 
there were about eighty families in the town. He settled on the 
spot afterwards occupied by his son, Elias M. Carter, P^sq., at Mid- 
dle Intervale. This section of the town was at that time regarded 
as the centre of influence, as it had increased more rapidly in popu- 
lation than the West Parish. Dr. Carter soon had an extensive 
practice. His rides on horseback extended from Dixfield to Shel- 
burne on the river, a distance of nearly fifty miles, while he was 
constantly sailed to visit families among the mountains and in places 




where no carriage could possibly enter. Much of the time his only 
guide was the spotted trees. In eighteen hundred, the next year 
after he came to Bethel, he was chosen town clerk and treasurer, 
which offices he filled for twelve years. His plain handwriting 
stands very conspicuous on the town records. He was selectman 
for several years, and was Justice of the Peace during his entire 
residence in town. He was also the superintending school com- 
mittee for man}' years of his life, and visited the schools all over the 
town year after year without a cent of compensation. Probably he 
did as much to raise the standard of our common schools as any 
other man. He became connected with the Congregational church 
and was chosen Deacon in eighteen hundred and seventeen, which 
office he held to the time of his decease. For his second wife^ he 
married June twenty-fifth, eighteen hundred and eighteen, "^liss- K ,'i'^*'^*'^, 
Lydia A., daughter of "Theodore Russell, who was born in Bethel,. 
July sixteenth, seventeen hundred and ninety. He stood high as a 
physician, enjoying the confidence of his numerous patrons in a. 
remarkable degree, and he was no less esteemed as a citizen and as 
a man. Several physicians received their medical instruction from 
him, among whom were Dr. James Ayer, Dr. Cornelius Holland, 
Dr. John Barker and Dr. John Grover. He w<is a man of fine 
presence, tall, and rather slender, and straight as an arrow, even 
when advanced in years, and his head as white as the snow. He 
was social in his habits and affable and kindly in his relations with 
his fellowmeu. He was eminently a gentleman after the pattern of 
the old school, and no man ever lived in Bethel that had more warm 
and devoted personal friends. In my boyliood days I have often 
seen this venerable man and good physician, both at his home and 
when riding in his carriage, and I never saw one who more impressed 
me as a person entitled to profound respect. He died suddenly of 
heart disease, February twenty-fifth, eighteen hundred and forty- 
five, and was mourned by a whole town and Ijy many outside the 
town of Bethel. 

Dr. Moses Mason. 

Dr. Moses Mason was a conspicuous figure at Bethel Hill for 
many years. He was portly in size, of fine presence, and in his 
later years, when his hair, which he allowed to remain quite long, 
was white as snow, he was a good example of the patriarch. When 
he was ten years of age he came to Bethel with his father's family. 


Having but limited facilities for obtaining an education, and work- 
ing for his father upon the farm until he reached his majority, he 
found himself at twent^'-one years of age, very near the foot of the 
ladder. Desiring to prepare himself for the practice of medicine, 
he entered the office of his brother-in-law. Dr. James Ayer, and not 
only studied medicine but the rudiments of an education. He 
taught school winters, and after some years, he managed to pull 
through so as to commence practice at Bethel Hill in eighteen hun- 
dred and thirteen, being then twenty-four years of age. He built a 
fine mansion house facing the common, upon land which, when he 
commenced practice was a swamp. He married June fifteenth, 
eighteen hundred and fifteen. Miss Agnes Straw of Xewfield, who 
came to the new town, and with willing hand and heart, aided her 
husband in her appropriate duties towards establishing a home. 
The doctor soon had a respectable and lucrative practice, and won 
the confidence of a numerous class of citizens. Still the doctor was 
never wedded to the practice of medicine. He had early, partly by 
the force of circumstances and partly from choice, engaged in pub- 
lic affairs, which from year to j^ear increased upon him till the year 
eighteen hundred and thirty-three he was elected to Congress, when 
he laid aside the practice of medicine entirely. He was appointed 
the first postmaster in town in eighteen hundred and fourteen. Pre- 
vious to that time the inhabitants had to go to Water ford for their 
nearest office. The doctor used to say that he was scarcely ever 
move excited in his life than while he stood listening to the post- 
man's horn sounding in the distance, announcing the important fact 
that the mail was coming to Bethel for the first time. The first 
arrival of a train of cars created no such an excitement. He held 
the office till eighteen hundred and thirtj'-four, a period of twenty 
years, when he resigned. He was commissioned Justice of the 
Peace in eighteen hundred and twenty-one, which office he held 
most of the time to the time of his death. He united in marriage 
some eighty-six individuals, for which he never received a cent, in- 
variably giving the fees to the bride. He was appointed County 
Conmiissioner in eighteen hundred and thirty, and in eighteen hun- 
dred and thirty-three he was elected Representative to Congress 
from the second District, and re-elected in eighteen hundred and 
thirtj'-five. He was in Congress during the exciting administration 
of Andrew Jackson, where he made the acquaintance of Wright, 
Clay, Webster, J. Q. Adams, and others who took a iiromiuent part 



in the public affairs of tliat day. Few men could better entertain a 
visitor with the congressional history of that period than Dr. Mason. 
He was a member of the Governor's Council in eighteen hundred 
and forty-three and five, and in eighteen hundred and forty-four he 
was appointed a trustee of the Insane Hospital. For fourteen years 
he was chosen a selectman of the town. He was elected President 
of Gould's Academy in eighteen hundred and fifty-four, which office 
he held till his death. For several years before his death, the Doc- 
tor had but little connection with public affairs, but lived in quiet 
retirement on the spot which he first chose for a home, where he 
employed his time in reading and in some mechanical work in which 
he was quite ingenious. He spent much time in adorning the Wood- 
land cemetery, in which he exhibited excellent taste. He was, at the 
time of his death, the oldest proprietor in the village, having lived 
on the same spot more than fifty years. Though decided in his 
political preferences, he had the good sense to respect merit where- 
ever it was found. As a counsellor, especially in political affairs, 
he was unusually sagacious, as long as he was engaged in public 
life, pretty surely predicting the result of any given course of action. 
The Doctor was a large proprietor in the present town of Mason, 
built and operated mills there, and when the town was incorporated 
it was named in his honor. 

Dr. John Grover. 

Dr. John Grover was not only the most eminent physician and 
surgeon that ever resided in this town, but of those who were born 
and reared here and spent the major part of their lives here, he was 
the best educated and possessed of a greater store of useful knowl- 
edge. He was the son of John Grover, the early settler, and was 
born at the homestead of his father in the west part of the town, 
November twenty-second, seventeen hundred and eighty-three. 
During the greater part of his minority he attended to agricultural 
pursuits, assisting his father in cultivating his large farm and in 
lumbering, attending to brief terms of school. He was an observant 
youth, and at an early age became a student of nature whose works 
were so lavishly displayed in the valley of the Androscoggin and in 
the adjacent highlands. 

Jedediah Burbauk. Esq., once remarked that he employed young 
Grover about some work, and going out to visit him, found him en- 
gaged in solving a mathematical question on a post which he had 


hewed smooth for that purpose. Such a mind cau uever be arrested 
iu its onward course, and accordingly John Grover found his way to 
the study of Rev. Daniel Gould, who was at that time in the habit 
of giving instruction in the English and classical studies, to the 
young men of the town. He also went to Monmouth and Hebron 
Academies, which had been recently established. Having a desire 
to study the French language, he went to Montreal, where he pur- 
sued the study under Messrs. Roi & Jobin, for eighteen mouths. 
This rendered him able to speak and read fluently in that language. 
Having acquired an extensive knowledge of the French, Latin and 
Greek languages and the mathematics, he commenced the study of 
medicine under Dr. Timothy Carter of Bethel, and subsequently 
under Dr. John Merrill of Portland. He also attended two courses 
of lectures at Harvard University. 

During the war with Great Britain, he was hospital steward at 
Portland. Having thus had advantages, especially in surgery, 
much superior to most 3'oung men in a newly settled country, he 
commenced the practice of medicine in Bethel iu eighteen hundred 
and sixteen, where he was in constant practice of his profession to 
near the time of his death, a period of nearly fifty years. His prac- 
tice was very extensive, and often of the most difficult and trying 
character. For many years it was very much as a consulting phy- 
sician and surgeon. Few men have devoted their leisure hours to 
reading and study so unremittingly through a long life as he, aud at 
the age of seventy-five was constantly making himself familiar with 
all the improvements in medical science, and iu new and valuable 
remedies. It is not saying too much, that few men in the State of 
Maine could talk so understaudingly on so great a variety of topics 
as Dr. Grover. When visiting the academy as a trustee, he could 
throw out some valuable suggestions on every topic presented 
which was worthy of thought by teacher and student. He was, 
for thirty-five years surgeon of the militia. He was a memlter 
of the convention that met at Portland to frame the Constitution of 
Maine, and was elected Representative to its first Legislature. In 
eighteen hundred and twenty-seven, eight and nine, he was elected 
a member of the Senate. For mau}^ 3-ears he was President of the 
board of trustees of Gould's Academy, and took a more lively aud 
active interest in its prosperity than any other man. He always 
attended the examinations of the classes until enfeebled by age and 
infirmity, and was something more than a mere passive looker-on. 


He was critical in his examination, and liis questions were always 
practical and to the point. In eighteen hundred and fifty-eight, Dr. 
Grover made an extensive journey through the western States, and 
his observations were published in series of letters which were very 
entertaining and valuable. 

For many years Dr. Grover resided at the place previously occu- 
pied by Parson Gould, and more recently by Dr. Robert G. Wiley. 
He sold this place and purchased of Jacob Ellingwood his place at 
the southwest of the common and extending down the Mill Hill. 
Dr. Grover remodeled the house, and here he lived for manj^ years 
and until his family had grown up and most of them had left him. 
This house is now known as the "Elms," and has undergone im- 
portant changes since the Doctor left. The Doctor built a house on 
another part of the lot he purchased of Ellingwood and farther to- 
ward the mill, and here he spent the remainder of his days. In his 
later years he spent most of his time in his oftice, which was sup- 
plied with a large and varied stock of medicines, and where he was 
consulted by, and prescribed for large numbers of people. In eigh- 
teen hundred and nineteen, he united in marriage with Miss Fanny 
Lary of Gilead, who performed well her part in rearing their distin- 
guished family of children. He died July nineteenth, eighteen hun- 
dred and sixty-six, aged eighty-three years. 

For many years Doctor Grover was a familiar figure to the people 
of early Bethel. He travelled on horseback, carrying his drugs and 
instruments in saddle bags, after the manner of the times, and he 
often travelled in this way, thirty or forty miles a day. He was 
better skilled in surgery than any physician in this part of the State, 
and there was not a diflScult case within fifty miles where he was 
not called, either as principal or consulting physician. He was a 
student and an investigator to the day of his death. This was a 
marked trait of his character, and to the last, he took pleasure in 
re-examining the very elements of scientific knowledge as handled 
by some master mind. His life presented points worthy of imita- 
tion of every young man. It showed what a determined purpose 
can accomplish under difficulties. AVhen he was a farm hand there 
were none better, and when a river driver, he had the reputation of 
being the best in the community. When he studied medicine, he 
determined to excel in the profession, and he accomplished his pur- 
pose. As a scientist, he had no equals in his native town. As a 
politician in the modern acceptation of the term, he failed, or would 


have failed, had he attempted it. He would uot practice deception 
upon others nor allow it to be practiced upon himself. He was some- 
times rough in his demeanor and language, but he could be kind and 
courteous when sure that he was not being patronized. Taken all 
in all, Bethel will not soon see his like again. 

Dr. Rokert G. Wiley. 

Dr. Eobert G. Wiley was born at Fryeburg, November eleventh, 
eighteen hundred and seven. After attending to the studies per- 
taining to a profession, he commenced the study of medicine under 
Dr. Ira Towle of Fryeburg, and subsetjuently under Dr. John 
Grover of Bethel. Under their instruction he had an excellent op- 
portunity for becoming familiar with the different phases under 
which disease constantly presents itself, and under which circum- 
stances the physician is instantly called upon to express his judg- 
ment. He was thus prepared to enter at once upon the duties of 
his profession. Having attended the medical lectures at Brunswick* 
and there being an opening at Bethel, in consequence of the election 
of Dr. Moses Mason to Congress, he commenced the practice of 
medicine in Bethel in eighteen hundred and thirty-five. Earnest in 
his profession then as he is now, he could be seen at that time on 
horseback, with his saddlebags behind him wending his way into 
every inhabited recess within his circuit of practice. Dr. Wiley has 
been more exclusively devoted to his profession than is the lot of 
most men. When not in duty, he is always at home in the enjoy- 
ment of his family. He engages in no public matters. His horse 
is harnessed wherever a call is made for his services, and awa}' he 
rides, and so it has been for more than half a century. It would 
seem as though he had had enough amid the storms of wind, snow 
and rain to wear out a common man, but the Doctor still retains his 
hold and is good, apparently, for years to come. A large book 
filled with incidents of domestic life could be written from the Doc- 
tor's experience as a physician. In consequence of this devotion to 
his profession, he has secured an extensive practice and enjoys the 
confidence of a large circle of friends. October seventeenth, eigh- 
teen hundred and thirty-five, he was married to Miss Abigail B., 
daughter of the late Col. Thaddeus Twitchell of Bethel. Their 
course of life has been shadowed by the sudden death of several of 
their children. The Doctor has resided for many years on the 



pleasant spot formerly occupied by Dr. John Grover, a mile and a 
quarter west of the village, where he has a small lot of excellent 
land which he keeps in the highest state of cultivation, and from 
which he obtains a bountiful annual harvest. 

.Dr. Almon Twitchell. 

Dr. Almon Twitchell was born in this tow'u September fourteenth, 
eighteen hundred and eleven, was the son of Joseph Twitchell, the 
first male child born at Bethel Hill, and grandson of Eleazer Twitch- 
ell who built mills near Bethel Hill, and was the earliest settler in 
this i)art of the town. Dr. Twitchell is said by his contemporaries, 
to have manifested in his boyhood, a love of study and a desire to 
fit himself for future usefulness. He enjoyed no special educational 
advantages until he was twenty-three years of age, yet like every 
one who become really successful in life, he set about educating 
himself. He tanght school at the age of eighteen, and to obtain 
means for pursuing his studies, he continued to teach winter schools 
for nearly a dozen years. When the High school was opened at 
Bethel Hill by Nathaniel T. True, among the pupils was Almon 
Twitchell, who took up Latin, Greek and French, and the higher 
mathematics, and was among the best scholars in the school. He 
fitted for college in all the requisite branches, but being somewhat 
advanced in years to take a college course, he decided not to enter. 
At school he was marked among his fellow students for sobriety, 
candor, and attention to study. At the same time there was enough 
of dry humor in his mental make-up, to render him a cheerful and 
entertaining companion. 

In eighteen hundred and thirty-seven, having decided on the 
medical profession, Almon Twitchell entered the office of Doctor 
Reuel Barrows of Fryeburg, where he remained three years, mean- 
time attending two courses of lectures at the Maine Medical School, 
from which he was graduated in eighteen hundred and forty. He 
entered the office of Dr. Ingalls of Bridgton, where he remained one 
year, and then settled down in practice at North Paris. He was 
successful in his practice, which extended into Sumner, Woodstock 
and other neighboring towns, but the country was somewhat sparsely 
settled, the roads hilly and generally much out of repair, so that the 
Doctor's professional work taxed his strength to the utmost. In 
eighteen hundred and forty-five, at the earnest solicitation of his old 


frieuds, he moved to Bethel Hill, where he continued to reside. He 
soon had a large and lucrative practice for a country town, was not 
only a popular physician, but in other respects, one of the most 
popular men in town. 

While at North Paris, in eighteen hundred and forty-three, he 
married Miss Phebe M., daughter of Captain Jeremiah Buxton of 
North Yarmouth, a lady of much ability, in whom he had a safe 
counsellor and a most worthy companion. Dr. Twitchell early 
identified himself with the temperance cause, was strictly abstinent 
in the use of alcoholic stimulants, discouraged its use as a beverage 
in others, and administered it in his practice with extreme caution. 
He oftened lectured upon the subject of temperance from the medi- 
cal standpoint, pointing out the terrible effects of alcohol upon the 
delicate tissues and organs of the human sj'stem. He was originally 
a free soil democrat, and aided in organizing the republican party 
in Oxford count}'. He was twice elected to the State Senate, and 
having the entire confidence of the party, had he lived, he doubtless 
would have received higher honors. His candor and integrity com- 
pelled the respect even of his political opponents, and as a party 
adviser and manager, he had few equals and no superiors among his 
contemporaries in the county where he lived. Of tiie later years of 
his life, I can speak with more perfect understanding, having been 
for nearly four years under his tutorship and for a considerable por- 
tion of the time, one of the household. He was a domestic man, 
fond of his home and his family, and kind and courteous to all stop- 
ping temporarily or otherwise, beneath his roof-tree. 

From the time when he returned to Bethel, he had not enjoj'ed 
perfect health. Exposure to the rigors of our climate brought on 
rheumatic and neuralgic troubles, and while rarelj' confined to the 
house for any great length of time, he as rarely saw a well day. 
Early in the autumn of eighteen hundred and fiftj'-nine, he was 
taken sick with what appeared to be a slow fever, complicated with 
gastric and hepatic troubles. Though suffering more or less, he 
kept about and did some professional business until into October, 
when he was obliged to take to his bed. He continued to fail until 
Saturday evening, October twenty-ninth, eighteen hundred and fift}'- 
nine, at about nine o'clock, when he breathed his last, the imme- 
diate cause of his death being hemorrhage from the bowels. His 
pastor. Rev. Absalom G. Gaines, and the writer hereof, besides the 
family, were the only persons present when he died. On Tuesday 


following his death, his funeral was largely attended, and his pas- 
sing away when but little past middle life, was deeply mourned liy 
a whole community. 

Dr. Joshua Fanning. 

Joshua Fanning, son of James Fanning, was born in Suffolk 
county, Long Island, vNew York, March ninth, seventeen hundred 
and ninety-seven. For several years he attended school with an 
eminent teacher, where he acquired a good English and Classical 
education. Having determined on the choice of the medical profes- 
sion, he entered the office of David Hozack, M. D., a distinguished 
physician and professor of New York city, and graduated at the 
Columbia Medical College in eighteen hundred and nineteen. His 
opportunities for hospital practice were excellent. Under such 
Professors as Doctors DeWitt, Mitchell, Hozack, Post, Mott, 
Francis, names familiar to the profession as household words, the 
student could not fail of receiving such lessons as would prove of 
the greatest value to him in subsequent life. He commenced prac- 
tice at Sag Harbor on Long Island, where he remained till eighteen 
hundred and fifty-four. After spending a year in Ohio, he was en- 
gaged in lumbering operations in Graftou and Newry, Oxford 
county, Maine, iu which he was not as successful as in the practice 
of medicine. In eighteen hundred and fifty-seven, he settled at 
Bethel and re-entered upon the practice of his profession. In Jan- 
uary, eighteen hundred and twenty, he was married to Miss Alma 
Tuttle of Riverhead, Long Island. 

Dr. Ozmon M. Twitchell. 

He was the son of Joseph Twitchell and was born in Bethel, June 
twenty-ninth, eighteen hundred and nineteen. After attending 
school more or less during his minority at Gould's Academy, he 
entered the office of his brother, Dr. Almon Twitchell. He also 
attended lectures at the Medical College in Hanover, New Hamp- 
shire, and Woodstock, Vermont. He settled in Milan, New 
Hampshire in eighteen hundred and fort3'-six. There being no 
physician near, and the country being comparatively new and 
sparsely settled, his rides were often quite extensive. September 
second, eighteen hundred and forty-nine, he was married to Miss 
Rosalba D. Chandler of Milan. In eighteen hundred fifty-four and 


fifty-five, he was elected a Representative to the Legislature of New 
Hampshire, William B. Lapham, his brother's studeut attending to 
his practice during his absence. For many years he was a Justice 
of the Peace and Notary Public. On the death of his brother, Dr. 
Almon Twitchell, he removed to Bethel and engaged in the practice 
of his profession here. A year or two later he moved to Madison» 
Wisconsin, where he has since resided. He had one child, a son 
who resides in Madison. 

Dr. David W. Davis. 

Dr. Davis was born in Effingham, N. H., in eighteen hundred 
and twenty. He graduated at the Dartmouth Medical School, and 
in eighteen hundred and forty-five he commenced practice at Locke's 
Mills. He was very successful and built up a large practice. His 
buildings were burned in eighteen hundred and seventy-seven, and 
instead of rebuilding, he moved to Bethel Hill. He was well known 
in the village and at once had a large and lucrative practice. In 
eighteen hundred and eighty, his health began to fail, and his dis- 
ease, mild at first, developed into a cancerous condition of the 
stomach. He suffered greatly during the last few weeks of his life 
and died March fourteenth, eighteen luindred and eighty-one. He 
was a member of Jefferson Lodge of Masons of P>ryant's Pond, and 
was buried with ^Masonic honors. 

Otuek Physicians. 

(^uite a number of Physicians were born and reared in this town 
who have practiced medicine elsewhere. The first medical student 
who was raised in town was Dr. James, son of Joseph Ayer. He 
studied medicine with Dr. Timothy Carter, and married Thirza,. 
daughter of Moses ^lason, settled in Newfield, and died in eighteen 
hundred and thirty-four. 

John Bakkkh, M. D., was born in Massachusetts, but spent his 
early years in Bethel. He studied medicine under Dr. Carter and 
settled in Wilton, Me. He received an honorary degree of ^L D. 
at Brunswick Medical College in eighteen hundred and forty-six, 
and died in New York city, where he was residing with his sou. Dr. 
Fordyce Barker, the distinguished physician and surgeon of that 

Du. Chakles Steahns, son of Charles Stearns, studied medicine 
witli Dr. John Grover and settled in St. George where he died. 


Dr. Leander Gage was the sou of Amos Gage, one of the first 
settlers iu the town. Having studied medicine with Dr. Timothy 
Carter of Bethel, he settled in AVaterford where he was for many 
years a prominent physician, and where he died. 

Dr. Cullen Carter, sou of Dr. Timothy Carter, studied medi- 
cine and settled in New York city. 

Dr. Thomas Roberts was born iu Bethel, now Hauover, and 
having graduated at Brunswick Medical College settled iu Rumford, 
where he died. 

Dr. Zekas W. Bartlett, sou of P^lhauau P>artlett, was born in 
Bethel, now Hanover, graduated at Brunswick Medical College and 
settled iu Rumford, then removed to Dixfield, where he died. 

Dr. Samuel Birge Twitchell, sou of Ezra Twitchell, graduated 
at Dartmouth College, and subsequently graduated at Geueva Med- 
ical College, and commenced the practice of medicine in Wakelield, 
New Hampshire, and died in Bethel iu eighteen hundred and fifty- 

Dr. Silas P. Bartlett, son of Ebeuezer Bartlett, was born iu 
Bethel, graduated at Brunswick Medical College and settled in East 
Dixfield, where he still resides. 

Dr. Wm. Tw^itchell, son of Eli Twitchell, studied medicine with 
Dr. Isaac Lincoln of Brunswick, and graduated at Brunswick Med- 
ical College and settled iu Caynga county. New York. 

Dr. Chas. Russell, sou of James Russell, studied medicine with 
Dr. Robert G. Wiley and settled at West Paris, then moved to 
Fayette, where he died. 

Dr. J. Henry B. Frost, son of Rev. Chas. Frost, graduated at Skcr&h /i 
Amherst College and subsequently in a Medical College iu Philadel- '^^'^ '■ •» 
phia, and practiced in Bangor. 

Dr. John E. L. Kimball, sou of John Kimball, graduated at 
Woodstock Medical College and went into practice iu Saco. 

Dr. Benjamin W. Kimball, son of Israel Kimball, obtained a 
good education at Gould's and Bridgtou Academies. He studied 
medicine with Dr. Almon Twitchell, attended lectures at Dartmouth 
and Bowdoin Colleges, graduating from the latter. He was 
appointed physician to a tribe of Indians on a reservation in Wash- 
ington Territory for a year or two ; then took a special course in 
pharmacy and spent some years in the drug business in Idaho ; took 
a special course in Philadelphia on diseases of the ear and eye, and 
set up as a specialist in Minneapolis, Minnesota, where he is now 


in practice. He lias married since be settled in Minneapolis, and 
has several children. He is a fine scholar and well educated in the 
various branches of the medical profession. 

Dr. C. W. Gordon of Conway, New Hampshire, married Mary 
E., daughter of Timothy Barker, and moved to Bethel Hill. He 
was in practice a few years, but his health failing, he gave his 
attention to agriculture. He died several years ago. 

Dr. AVm. Williamson, son of John Williamson, was born in 
Manor Hamilton, Ireland, September twenty-second, eighteen hun- 
dred and twelve. At the age of nine years his parents came to 
America and resided most of the time in Bethel. William, mani- 
festing an inclination for stud}', was sent to the high school in eigh- 
teen hundred and thirty-five, and subsequently to the academy in 
Bethel, and then commenced the study of medicine under Dr. B.C. 
Mulvey of Saco. He graduated at the Medical School in Bruns- 
wick in eighteen hundred and forty-seven. He practiced medicine 
about two years in Saco and then removed to Bethel and settled at 
Middle Intervale, where his father resided. After that time he be- 
came deeply engaged in agricultural pursuits. The practice of 
medicine was never congenial with his feelings, and he gave his ser- 
vices after he settled in Bethel, only when he could not avoid it. 

The physicians now in practice at Bethel, with the single excep- 
tion of Dr. Robert G. Wiley, have come here within a few years, 
and none of them are native born. Dr. John A. Morton married 
for his second wife, a daughter of Hon. William Frye. Dr. John 
A. Twaddle and Dr. C. D. Hill are in practice here, and Dr. John 
G. Gehring is a resident but not engaged in practice. Dr. Wm. H. 
Gray, who was formerly an army surgeon resided on Bethel Hill 
and engaged more or less in practice before his death, which 
occurred very suddenly in eighteen hundred and ninety. 



I ETHEL had little need of members of the legal profession 
^?? for the first few years after its settlement. Matters of 
difference which arose among the early settlers were gener- 
ally referred to one of the Justices of the Peace, who was considered 
competent to decide points of law, and where no points of law were 
involved, the services of other disinterested persons were made use 
of and sometimes the assistance of the minister was invoked. 

William Frye. 

AYilliam Frye was the first lawyer who came to Bethel with the 
view of settling here. He was a young man, and here he spent the 
remainder of his years. From a sermon preached by his pastor, 
Rev. Edwin A. Buck, the following obituary notice is extracted: 
"Hon. William Fr3'e was born in Fryeburg, May twelfth, seventeen 
hundred and ninety-six, and was the youngest son of Richard Fiye 
of that town. His grandfather, from whom the town of his nativity 
derived its name, was a General of distinction in the revolutionary 
war. His early studies, in w^hich, as may be inferred from his 
subsequent life, he was chiefly distinguished for accuracy, were 
prosecuted in the academy of Fryeburg under preceptor Cook. As 
an evidence of his proficiency he obtained the prize at the academy 
for a Latin poem, at the early age of fifteen. After that, having 
become fitted for an advanced standing in college, eager to enter 
upon the active duties of life, he entered at once upon the studies 
of his profession, a step which in subsequent life he greatly 
regretted, regarding a thorough collegiate course as highly valuable 
for every profession, and as especially so, for that on which he had 
entered. Having chosen the law for his profession, he commenced 
and prosecuted his studies at Fryeburg under the direction of Judge 


Judah Uaiia and Mr. Stephen Chase. In the fall of eighteen hun- 
dred and twenty, not long after having been admitted to the bar, he 
decided upon a settlement in Bethel, as a place whose situation gave 
promise of favorable circumstances for the honorable pursuit of his 
profession. In September, eighteen hundred and twenty-eight, he 
was married to Miss Lois Twitchell. From the first, highly 
esteemed by those who were so happy as to form his acquaintance, 
ere many years the confidence of his fellow-citizens w^as evinced by 
his election to town offices, in which he served first as one of the 
selectmen, and subsequently as town clerk for the period of six 
years. But the value of his services was known and appreciated 
beyond the bounds of his ordinary practice. Twice he received the 
appointment of County Attorney ; twice he was sent as Representa- 
tive to the Legislature, and twice was chosen a member of the Senate 
of the State. From eighteen hundred and fifty-two, as regularly 
appointed School Commissioner for Oxford county, he visited each 
town in the county, laboring to promote the cause of public educa- 
tion. Thus for the space of eighteen years he served to general 
acceptance in these several stations of public life. 

His interest in the cause of education was ever prominent. View- 
ing it as a bulwark of our free institutions, he sought not simplj' for 
the education of his own chihlren and those in the more immediate 
circle of his friends, but to open facilities for the general diffusion 
of knowledge. As a Trustee of the Academy in Bethel, he served 
faithfully as Secretary' of that board from the foundation of the 
institution to the time of his decease. 

At the age of eighteen he was drafted as a soldier in the war with 
Great Britain. On his arrival at Portland he was seized with a 
fever and returned home, probably satisfied with his experience in 
militar}' life. As a lawyei', Mr. Frye Avas highly and justly es- 
teemed. He was pre-eminently a peacemaker. He discouraged 
litigation, even where there were prospects of large gain to himself, 
if it would incite to or encourage prosecution. His clients not only 
looked to him with confidence for advice, but entrusted to him any 
and every secret with the assurance that their confidence would not 
be betrayed. Being judicious and safe, it was as a counsellor that 
he excelled. Possessed of that integrity and cautiousness, which 
are the prominent characteristics of those who excel before the jury, 
he was most highly esteemed by those to whom he was best known. 
Having continued his habits of study through life, and having now 


attained the full maturity of his iniud, being possessed of an exten- 
sive experience and excelling in accuracy as a scribe, as a lawyer he 
held a position which another will not be able soon to fill. 

As a citizen he was always interested in whatever he regarded as 
conducive to the public good. He even gave counsel to the town 
free of charge, and, in like manner, discharged other public labors. 
He ever encouraged whatever was calculated to elevate society, and 
deprecated that which was injurious. Of marked sobriety, he also 
preserved an equanimity of character, not always to be met with in 
the arena of political life, or in those harrassed by the annoyances 
of vexed legal questions. No profane words from his lips pained 
the christian's ear or corrupted the morals of society, or bespoke a 
spirit \7ithin, regardless of the divine claims. Pure minded and 
upright in his intercourse with others, he sought to cultivate the same 
characteristics in those around him. Courteous in all his dealings, 
he won the respect of strangers, confirmed the love of his friends 
and soon disarmed his enemies, if any such he had." Mr. Frye was 
a man of sedeutar}'^ habits. He was seldom seen elsewhere than in 
his ofHce or at his own home. He was never seen lounging about 
the stores or public places of resort, but was always ready to tender 
his services whenever needed. This sedentary disposition probably 
undermined his constitution gradually, and a chronic disease of the 
stomach troubled him for several years, till he was suddenly taken 
sick, and almost before his neighbors knew of his danger he was 
dead. This occurred February eighteenth, eighteen hundred and 
fifty- four. 

David Hammons. 

Hon. David Hammons was past middle life when he came to 
Bethel, and had a well established reputation both as a lawyer and 
statesman. He was born in Cornish, Maine, May twelfth, eighteen 
hundred and eight. He received a good academical education at 
Limerick Academy, and then studied law in the office of Hon. David 
Gould of Alfred. He was then admitted to the Oxford bar, and for 
many years practiced in York and Oxford counties. He was a good 
lawyer and advocate, and had an extensive practice. In eighteen 
hundred and forty-eight he was elected to Congress from the first 
Maine Congressional district, and at the expiration of his term, 
practiced at Cornish. In eighteen hundred and fifty-nine he moved 
to Bethel Hill, and continued in the practice of law. He enjoyed a 



large practice until age aud impaired health obliged him to abaadon 
it altogether. He was a democrat of the ultra school, aud conscien- 
tious in his way of thinkiug aud acting. He married, September 
twenty-ninth, eighteen luindred and thirty-nine. Miss Martha O'Brien 
of Cornish, aud left a family, some of his sons being lawyers. 

O'Neil AV, Robinson. 

Major Robinson was the son of O'Neil W. Robinson formerly of 
Bethel, where the subject of this notice was born Jul}^ seventeeuth, 
eighteen hundred and twenty-four. He graduated from Bowdoin 
College in eighteen hundred and forty-five, and studied law in the 
office of Elbridge Gerr}^ of AVaterford. Admitted to the bar, he 
opened an office at Bethel and was very successful in his business. 
He was here when the war of the rebellion broke out, and became 
Captain of the Fourth Maine Battery of Light Artillery, and went 
with it to the Army of the Potomac. In time he became chief of 
artillei-y of the third army corps, and did good service wherever he 
was. In April, eighteen hundred and sixty-four, his health became 
much impaired, and he came to his father's house in Waterford on 
leave of absence. He grew rapidly worse and died July seven- 
teenth, eighteen hundred and sixty-four, it being his fortieth birth- 
day. He was never married. He was an honest, square man, and 
as an attorney, entitled to the highest confidence. In making col- 
lections he alwa^^s made it a point to pay to his client the identical 
money collected for him. 

Richard A. Frye. 

Richard A. Frye, eldest son of Hon. AVilliam Frye, was born in 
this town July twenty-second, eighteen hundred and twenty-nine. 
He attended the common schools and fitted for college at Gould's 
Academy. He did not go to college, but entered upon the study of 
the law with his father, was admitted in eighteen hundred and fifty- 
five and succeeded his father in the practice. He is considered a 
good counsellor, and has had a large and lucrative practice. He is 
methodical in hie habits aud pays strict attention to business. He 
succeeded his father as Secretary of Gould's Academy, and has 
served one term as Judge of Probate for the county of Oxford. He 



was married December uineteeuth, eighteen Imndred and fifty-four, 
to Miss Esther Kimball, daughter of Kimball and Rachel ((iodwin) 
Martin of Rumford, and has one son. 

Samuel F. Gibson. 

Samuel F. Gibson, son of Hon. Samuel and Rebecca (Howard) 
Gibson, was born in the town of Denmark, count}' of Oxford, in 
April, eighteen hundred and twenty-three. He read law in the 
office of Howard & Shepley of Portland, (Joseph, afterwards Judge- 
Howard was his uncle) and was admitted to practice at the Cura- 
berland bar. He began practice in Patten, in this State, but having 
received a clerkship in the (Quartermaster's department. United 
States Army, he went to California, where he remained three years. 
He then returned to Maine and settled at Bethel, wherfe after a year 
or two, he opened a law office. He married Miss Abb, daughter of 
Moses Pattee of Bethel, who died after a few 3'ears, and he married 
Agnes M. Ayer. He had five children, two by the first and three 
by the last marriage. When he first came to Bethel he was a con- 
tractor on the Atlantic and Saint Lawrence railroad, and then was 
in trade for a year or two before he resumed the practice of law> 
During the war he served six months as assistant quartermaster, 
with the rank of Captain, having charge of water transportation and 
stationed at City Point, Virginia. He died of apoplexy, in Bethel, 
in eighteen hundred and eighty-eight. 

Enoch Foster. 

Hon. Enoch Foster, son of Enoch and Persis (Swan) Foster, was 
born in Newry, Maine, May tenth, eighteen hundred and thirty- 
nine. He spent his boyhood days upon his father's farm, attended 
the town schools, subsequently attended Gould's Academy and at 
the Maine State Seminary. He pursued a partial course at Bowdoin 
College, studied law in the office of Hon. Reuben Foster at Water- 
ville, graduated from the Law school at Albany, New York, and 
having been admitted to the Oxford bar, he commenced practice at 
Bethel in eighteen hundred and sixty-five. After the breaking out 
of the war of the rebellion, he enlisted and was mustered into the 
United States service as second lieutenant of company H, Thir- 
teenth Maine Regiment, December thirteenth, eighteen hundred and 
sixty-one. He was subsequently promoted to first lieutenant, served 


as provost marshal under General Banks and resigned that position 
to take part in the Red river campaign. He was discharged from 
the service March eleventh, eighteen hundred and sixty-five, his 
term of enlistment having expired. 

In the practice of law Mr. Foster was successful from the start, 
and soon held an enviable position at the Oxford county bar. A 
close student, a fluent and eloquent advocate, and added to this, a 
love of his profession, could not fail of bringing him prominently 
before the public in a short time. He was elected attorney for the 
State for the county of Oxford, and served two full terms of three 
years each, ending January first, eighteen hundred and seventy- 
four. The same year he was elected member of the State Senate, 
and re-elected the following year. March twent3'-fourth, eighteen 
hundred and eighty-four, he was appointed by Governor Robie, an 
Associate Justice of the Supreme Judicial Court of the State of 
Maine, and reappointed by Governor Burleigh in eighteen hundred 
and ninety-one. As a member of the highest Judicial tribunal of 
the State, he has taken high rank, and his decisions in law in nisi 
j)rius, have rarely been overruled by the full court. His opinions 
from that court are clearly and succinctly drawn, and are good ex- 
amples of condensed, yet comprehensive composition. His family 
iStatistics may be found in their proper place. 

Moses B. Bartlett. 

Moses Barbour Bartlett, son of Barbour Bartlett, was born in 
Bethel, and after fitting for college in Gould's Academy, he grad- 
uated at Bowdoin College in eighteen hundred and forty-two. After 
teaching a high school for a season in Brunswick, and Gould's 
Academy in Bethel for one year, he commenced the study of law in 
the office of Wm. Frye, Esq., and settled in Bethel till eighteen 
hundred and forty-eight, when he removed to Norwa3\ and subse- 
quently, after several years, to AVaterford. His practice was (juite 
lucrative, but being anxious to acquire more, and his health becom- 
ing impaired, he moved to Georgetown, Putnam county, Florida. 
Since that time he has removed to Kansas and still resides there. 
Some few years ago he dropped the name of Moses and substituted 
that of Alison. He married Sarah Elizabeth, daughter of General 
Thompson of Brunswick, and has a family. 



Joel C. Virgin. 

Lawyer Frye remained without a competitor till the year eighteen 
hundred and thirty-four, when he was confronted by an individual 
who subsequently became notorious for his thievish propensities. 
It would be pleasant to omit this name from our history, but per- 
haps it may, by way of contrast, exhibit in a clearer light the good 
qualities of other members of the legal profession who have been 
settled here. Joel C. Virgin was born somewhere in New Hamp- 
shire, fitted for and entered Dartmouth College, where he remained 
through his Sophomore year, when he left and commenced the study 
of law. After admission to the bar, he came to Bethel. He 
remained here about three years and became a vagabond. His 
strongest propensity seemed to be that of stealing. Dr. Nathaniel 
T. True had the misfortune to be his room mate while in Bethel, 
and strangely his limited supply of money found its way out of his 
pockets without his consent. Still it was not for years afterwards 
that he mistrusted what became of it. So strong did this propensitj'^ 
become that he would often pilfer things that did not seem to be of 
any importance to him ; consequently he was frequently brought 
before public officers, and the last heard of him here, he was in the 
State Prison at Charlestown. 

Addison E. Herrick. 

Addison E. Herrick was the sou of Benjamin and Maria (Gar- 
land) Herrick, and was born in Greenwood, June twenty-fourth, 
eighteen hundred and forty-seven. He attended the common 
schools, fitted for college at Hebron Academy and graduated from 
Bowdoin College with the class of eighteen hundred and seventy- 
three. He taught in the Abbot Family school at Farmington for 
three years, and for three years was principal of Bluehill Academy. 
He studied law with Hon. Enoch Foster and was admitted to the 
Oxford bar in eighteen hundred and seventy-seven. He then be- 
came partner of Hon. Enoch Foster, and so continued until the 
latter was appointed Judge. He is the treasurer of the Bethel Sav- 
ings Bank, and represented Bethel in the last Legislature. He is a 
good example of a self-made man, having obtained an education 
and a profession by his own unaided efforts. He is made cf that 
stuff that never fails of success. He was married June nineteenth, 


eighteen hundred and eighty-two, to Minnie D., daugliter of Captain 
M. K. Chase of Bluehill, and they have Miriam P^. Herriek, born 
October eleventh, eighteen hundred and eight3'-seveu. 

William C. Frye. 

William C. Frye, second son of Hon. William Frye, was educated 
at Bethel Academy, studied law and practiced for a time in Rum- 
ford. He then settled in the south and married Mrs. Maggie 
Weaver of South Carolina. 

Alonzo J. C4rover. 

Among Bethel young men who emigrated to the west and there 
distinguished themselves, was Alonzo J. Grover. He was the son 
of Jeremiah and Sophronia (Blake) Grover, and was born in Bethel, 
August twenty-sixth, eighteen hundred and twenty-eight. He was 
an alumnus of Gould's Academy, and is well remembered b}' those 
who attended late in the forties and early in the fifties as a fluent 
speaker and prominent in the debating society connected with the 
school. He had, even as a student, radical views upon political 
questions of the day, and was a decided abolitionist. In religious 
matters he was sceptical and delighted in the discussion of questions 
before the Ij'ceum, in which his peculiar sentiments could be 
indulged in. After leaving the academy he studied law, and was 
admitted to the Cumberland bar in eighteen hundred and fift^'-four, 
and immediately went west, settling iu the practice of the law at 
Earlville, in LaSalle county, Illinois. He aided materially in effect- 
ing the first republican county organization in the west, at Ottawa, 
in LaSall^ county, in eighteen hundred and fifty-four. He was a 
very ardent rei)ublican until Horace Greele}', of whom Mr. Grover 
was ever a great admirer, was a candidate, when he gave him his 

INIr. Grover was not only a lawj'er of much more than average 
ability, but he was able as a political writer. In eighteen hundred 
and seventy-four, five and seven, he published many articles in the 
Chicago Tribune in favor of taxing bonds and of a greenback cur- 
rency, and when that paper refused to admit his articles, he started 
the Earlville Transcri2^t, in which he sunk several thousand dollars, 
but sent his greenback candidates, one to Congress and the other to 
the State Senate. In the famous Greenback cami)aign in Maine, 



Mr. Grover was on the stump iu this vState, and by his fluency of 
speech, contributed not a little to the success of the party. Return- 
ing to Illinois, he soon after moved to Chicago and there continued 
in the practice of law, and later was candidate for Judge of the 
Superior Court in that city. During the campaign it was stated in 
his favor that he was honest and upright in his dealings, never per- 
mitting a note to go to protest, and never owed a dollar that he did 
not pay. It was claimed that he was identified by early life and 
experience, with the workingmen, and knew well the hard road they 
had to travel. He never sought office, but much preferred to work 
for those who would carry out his views, and in this case he was not 
a candidate, until the nomination was made and he was urged to 
accept it. Mr. Grover died in Chicago in the early part of eighteen 
hundred and ninety-one. 

Albert S. Twitchell. 

Though a native of this town, Hon. Albert S. Twitchell has spent 
most of his business life in Gorham, New Hampshire. He is the 
son of Joseph A. Twitchell, and was born September sixteenth, 
eighteen hundred and forty. His education was obtained in the 
common schools and at Gould's Acadenn'. He spent some four 
years in teaching, and then entered the law office of Samuel F. 
Gibson. In eighteen hundred and sixt^^-three, he was appointed 
enrolling officer of those subject to draft, and having performed this 
duty, in December of that year he enlisted in the Seventh Maine 
Battery and was appointed quartermaster-sergeant. He was mus- 
tered out with the battery at Augusta, Maine, June twenty-first, 
eighteen hundred and sixty-five. He was admitted to the bar both 
in Maine and New Hampshire, in eighteen hundred and sixty-five 
and settled at Gorham, New Hampshire, which has since been his 
home. In eighteen hundred and seventy-two, he was elected Rail- 
road Commissioner of New Hampshire, which office he held for 
three years. In eighteen hundred and seventy-seven, he was 
appointed postmaster at Gorham, and held the office nearly nine 
years, when he resigned. He was a member of the Staff of 
Governor Cheney with the rank of Colonel, and on that of Governor 
Sawyer as Commissary General with the rank of brigadier general. 
He has served two terms as President of the New Hampshire ^'et- 
erans' Association. He is a member of the Masonic Fraternity, an 


Odd Fellow, and was delegate from the lodge of Good Templars to 
the Right Worshipful Grand Lodge of the World which met at 
Saratoga in eighteen hundred and eighty-seven. He is interested 
in everything that pertains to the welfare of his adopted town of 
Gorham, but has never lost sight of the fact that he is a native of 
Bethel and of the State of Maine, to both of which he has ever been 
loyal. He married April seventh, eighteen hundred and sixty-nine, 
Emma A., daughter of Parker Howland, and has a family. 


Bethel in the War of the Rebellion. 
HEN ill eighteeu hundred and sixty-one the war of the 

rebellion broke out, Bethel in common with other towns in 
the county, had no military organization. There was only 
one military company in the county and that the Norway Light 
Infantry. But Bethel was loyal to the government, and in the im- 
pending crisis, was prepared to do her whole duty. When Presi- 
dent Lincoln called for seventy-five thousand volunteers to protect 
the National Capitol, Maine was asked to furnish one regiment and 
Oxford county one company. The Norway company at once volun- 
teered, and asked for men to fill up the ranks. There was no neces- 
sity for repeating the call, or of urging men to enlist, for they at 
once began to pour in and it would have been an easy matter to 
have filled up several companies. Only a few could be taken from 
Bethel, but eight persons enlisted and went to take their places in 
the ranks of the Norway Light Infantry. Their names were Solon 
Robertson, Alfred M. True, Ai E. Seavey, Charles Stearns, Edward 
Stearns, H. Dolloff, Adelbert Grover and Timothy M. Bean. The 
first call was for three months' men, and the Bethel recruits served 
their term and most, if not all of them re-enlisted. 

A second call speedily followed the first, this time for three hun- 
dred thousand men for three years. Under date of May third, the 
Bethel Courier stated that the military ardor of the people of the 
,towu was aroused, and that about forty men had enlisted, and that 
a company would be organized the following day. In the same 
editorial article it was stated that a company had been raised at 
Bryant's Pond by Dr. Lapham. In its issue of May tenth, the 
Courier stated that the company recruited by Clark S. Edwards, 
known as the Bethel Rifle Guards, was organized on the Saturday 
previous, (May fourth) by the choice of the following officers : 
Captain, Clark S. Edwards; First Lieutenant, John B. Walker; 



Second Lieutenant, C^a-us M. Wormell. Major, now United States 
Senator Frye of General Virgin's staff, Avas present at the organiza- 
tion, and made a very eloquent and patriotic speech. On the fol- 
lowing day the company attended at the Congregational church, 
where a sermon appropriate to the occasion was preached by Rev. 
John B. Wheelwright. In the afternoon they attended at the Uni- 
versalist church, where a very able and eloquent discourse was 
delivered by the pastor, Rev. Absalom Q. Gaines, a native of Ken- 
tucky. In the evening they went to the Methodist church, where 
they were addressed by Messrs. Blackman, Gaines, Wheelwright, 
Dr. True and Dea. George W. Chapman. The roster of the com- 
pany as printed in the Courier was as follows : 

Clark S. Edwards, Captain. 
John B. Walker, First Lieutenant. 
Cyrus M. Wormell, Second Lieutenant. 
Daniel W. Sanborn, Orderly Sergeant. 


Charles C. Barker, 
Benjamin Freeman, 
Simeon W. Sanborn, 
Sullivan R. Hutchius. 


AVashiugtou F. Brown, 
Emery G. Young, 
Peter G. Knapp, 
James L. Parker. 

Asa P. Knight, Clerk. 


Henry F. Barker, 
Stillman N. Littlehale, 
William R. Harper, 
James H. Bowker, 
Charles Dunham, 
Oren S. Brown, 
Joseph B. Hammond, 
John A. Bent, 
Charles R. Bartlett, 
Willoughby R. York, 
George E. Small, 
M. C. Connor, 
Lorenzo Poor, 

Lorenzo D. Russell, 
Henry Vairiancourt, 
Levi W. Dolloff, 
James M. Everett, 
Joseph A. Twitchell, 
L. D. Wiley, 
David E. Andrews, 
E. C. Penley, 
]\Ioses F. Kimball, 
Dustin A. Cook, 
Daniel Griffin, 
John W. Sanborn, 
Wm. H. Pingree, 



Asa D. Jordan, 
Oliver S. Laug, 
Stephen L. P^thridge, 
Lewis C. Beard, 
Edmund Merrill, Jr., 
Andrew J. Ayer, 
T. Spencer Peabody, 
Joseph U. Frye, 
Joseph L. Oliver, 
Win. G. Capen, 
James Seavey, 
John E. Bean, 
Sidney T. Cross, 
David A. Edwards, 
Frank W. Ham, 
Samuel Gray, Jr., 
Elbridge G. McKeeu, 

Washington B. Robertson, 
John A. Bryant, 
Benj. C. Hicks, 
Charles Freeman, 
Henry F. Blanchard, 
Lafayette G. Goodnow, 
Charles M. Wentworth, 
Morrill S. Eastman, 
Albion Adams, 
Nelson Rice, 
Levi W. Towle, 
James C. Aj'er, 
Stephen Burbauk, 
Clement S. Heath, 
Sidney G. Wells, 
Aaron F. Jackson. 

Lieutenant Joshua L. Sawyer came up from Portland to drill the 
company and prepare the men for active service. Before joining 
the Fifth Maine Volunteers as Company I, quite a change was made 
in the rank and fde, a number of those who had enlisted being 
dropped out, and others enlisted to take their places. The Fifth 
Maine Volunteers joined the army of the Potomac in season to par- 
ticipate in the battle of Bull Run, and afterwards bore a conspicuous 
and highly creditable part in all the great battles in which the Army 
of the Potomac was engaged. Captain Edwards received rapid 
promotion, and was soon at the head of the regiment. He was un- 
flinching under fire, often led his men into action and achieved a 
brilliant record for conspicuous bravery. Some of those who went 
out under his command soon returned, others served out their time, 
re-enlisted, and remained throughout the war, while some fell on 
the field of battle and others died of disease. The Fifth was one of 
Maine's best regiments, and Company I was one of its best 

Company I, Fifth Maine Volunteer Infantry was the only com- 
pany organized in Bethel during the war, but several other companies 
were commanded by Bethel oflicers. (iideon A. Hastings com- 
manded Company A, Twelftli Maine, Abernethy Grover, Comi)any 


H, Thirteenth Maine, O'Neil W. Robinson, the Fourth Maine Battery, 
Adelbert B. Twitchell, the Seventh Maine Battery. 

The following list embraces Bethel men who held commissions in 
the volunteer service during the war ; 

Clark S. Edwards, Wm. H. H. Brown, 

Abernethy Grover, John B. Walker, 

Adelbert B. Twitchell, James C. Ayer, 

Harlan P. Brown, James C. Bartlett, 

Melville C. Kimball, John M. Freeman, 

Cyrus M. Wormell, Simeon W. Sanborn, 

Gideon A. Hastings, John S. Chapman, 

O'Neil W. Robinson, Joseph B. Hammond. 
Robbins B. Grover, 

The fires of patriotism which kindled in Bethel at the firing upon 
Fort Sumpter, burned brightly through the entire war. Every call 
for troops was promptly met, and Bethel soldiers took part in all 
the great battles of the army of the Potomac, and in the department 
of the Gulf. The organizations to which Bethel men chiefly be- 
longed were the First, Tenth and Twenty-ninth Maine, the last two 
of which were reorganizations of the First, the Fifth, Sixteenth, Sev- 
enteenth, Twentieth and Twenty-third, all connected with the Army 
of the Potomac, and the Twelfth and Thirteenth which went to the 
department of the Gulf ; also to the Fourth, Fifth and Seventh light 
batteries connected with the Army of the Potomac. The Twelfth 
and Thirteenth took part in the campaign of the Shenendoah under 
General Sheridan, and were in the sanguinary battles of Fisher's 
Hill and Cedar Creek in the autumn of eighteen hundred and sixty- 
four. There were scattering Bethel men in other organizations, but 
the greater part of them were in the regiments and batteries here 
indicated. Harlan P. Brown who fell while bravely leading his men 
in the battle of Antietam, was an otlicer in the Seventh Maine Reg- 
iment. Many natives of Bethel also served on the quotas of other 
states W'here they were residing Avhen the war began, and others 
served in the navy. It is believed that these two classes number at 
least half as many as those who went on the quota of the town. 
The record of these soldiers is every way honorable, and such as to 
reflect credit upon themselves, their town, their State and country. 
Maiiy of those who went to the war never returned. Some fell on 


the field of battle, and others died of disease contracted iu the ser- 
vice. Some occupy unknown graves, some repose in the National 
cemeteries, and in a few cases, their remains were hrouglit home to 
mingle with the soil of their native town. Every year, loving hands 
renew the pledge of remembrance and affection by decorating their 
graves with flowers, and their sacrifices in behalf of liberty, home 
and a united country will never be forgotten. 

It is hoped that the following list embraces the name of every 
soldier who enlisted from this town. Great pains have been taken 
to render it complete, but in some cases the record of service could 
not be obtained. The list is a long one, and will be such a memo- 
rial of the public spirit, the patriotism and the devotion to duty of 
the people of Bethel, as will be a source of gratification and pride 
to their posterity through all coming time : 

Andrew J. Ayer was mustered in C'omf)auy I, Twelfth Maine \'ohui- 
teers, March 17, 1805, and was mustered out with the regiment. 

James C. Ayer was mustered in Compauj^ I, Fifth Maine Vohuiteers, 
June 24, 1861, and died Aug. 7, 1862. 

James E. Ayer was mustered in Company G, Twelfth Maine Regiment, 
Dec. 11, 1861. He was promoted Sergeant and First Sergeant, re-enlisted 
aud was promoted Second and First Lieutenant, was wounded September 
19, 1864. He now resides in Xew Orleans. 

Charles C. Burt was mustered iu the Seventh Maine Battery, D<^c. 80, 
1863, and was discharged iu Washington, D. C, before the battery went 
to the front. 

Harlan P. Brown was mustered as Second Lieuteuant iu Company I, 
Seventh Maine Volunteers, Fel)ruary 28, 1862, and was instantly killed 
while charging at the head of his company at the battle of Autietam. 

Ira W. Bean was mustered in the Fourtli Maine Battery, -lanuary 14, 

1862, re-enlisted February 23, 1864, and was mustered out with the l)attery, 
June 17, 1865. 

Eli G. Brown was mustered in Company H, Thirteenth Maine Volun- 
teers, December 12, 1861, re-enlisted, was promoted Corporal and 
transferred to the Thirtieth Maine. 

Peter T. Bean was mustered in Company 1), Sixteenth Maine Volun- 
teers, August 14, 1862, was takeu prisoner July 1, 1868, was promoted 
Corporal aud mustered out with the regimeut. 

Lawson S. Black was mustered in Company C, Seventeenth Maine 
Volunteers, August 18, 1862, was wounded and taken prisoner May 12, 

1863, aud died. 

Joseph W. Bean was nuislered in the Seventh Maine I'.attery, I )eeem- 
ber 30, 1863, aud was mustered out with the battery, .June 21, isC"). lie 
resides in or near Boston. 


Arthur M. Bean was mustered iu Company C, Twentieth Maine Vol- 
unteers, August 29, 1862, was reported siclv at Baltimore, December 
following, was promoted Corporal and discharged by order 94. 

Edgar F. Bean was mustered in Company C, Twentieth Maine Regi- 
ment, August 29, 1862, was reported sick at Baltimore, December follow- 
ing, and was discharged by order 94. 

Freeborn G. Bean Avas mustered in Company C, Twentieth Maine 
Regiment, August 29, 1862, and was discharged March 4th, following. 

Verano G. Bryant was mustered in Company C, Twentietli Maine Vol- 
unteers, August 29, 1862, and was transferred to the Invalid Corps. 

John H. Barker was mustered iu Company A, Twelfth Maine Regi- 
ment, November 13, 1861, and was discharged for disability, July 17, 1862. 

Reuben B. Bean was mustered as private in Company A, Twelfth 
Maine Volunteers, and was discharged for disability February 19, 1863. 
He re-eulisted iu Company G, Thirtieth, December 28, 1863, and died in 
a rebel prison, June 7, 1864. 

Sylvanus M. Bean was mustered in Comi)any A, Twelfth Maine Vol- 
unteers, June 24, 1861, and was discharged for disability, July 17, 1862. 

Levi N. Bartlett was nuistered in Company G, Twelfth Maine Regi- 
ment, and was transferred to tlie Twelfth Maine battalion. 

Charles C. Bryant was mustered iu Company I, Twelfth Maine Regi- 
ment, March 17, 1865, and was discharged September 4, 1865. 

Farnham L. Bean was mustered as private iu Company B, Twenty- 
third Maine Volunteers; in December he was reported sick in liospital. and 
died at Oftufs Cross Roads, ;Maryland, December 20, 18()2. 

^VILLIAM A. Beavins was mustered in Company B, Twenty-thiid Maine 
Volunteers, September 29, 1862, and was mustered out witli the regiment. 
He has died since the war. 

Franklin C. Bartlett was mustered as an artificer iu the Fourth 
Maine Battery, December 21, 1861, served out his time and re-enlisted. 

James C. Bartlett was mustered in tlie Fifth Maine Battery, Decem- 
ber 21, 1861 ; was promoted Corporal and Sergeant, and wounded ^lay 3, 
1863. He re-enlisted, was promoted Second [lieutenant, February 20, 1864, 
and was discliarged for disability May 5, 1865. He settled in Texas, and 
died there January 28, 1891. 

Ephraim C. Bartlett was nuistered in Company J, Twelfth Maine 
Volunteers, March 17, 1865, and was mustered out witli the regiment 
April 18. 1866. 

Tlmothy M. Bean was mustered in Company I. Twcll'lli Maine Volun- 
teers, March 17, 1865, and was mustered out witli the regiment. 

Henry E. Bartlett was mustered in Company I, Twelftli Maine Vol- 
unteers, March 17, 1865, and was discharged by order, August 31, 1865. 

Henry C. Barker was mustered as Corporal in Company G, Thirtieth 
Maine Regiment, December 28, 1863, was reduced to ranks and transferred 
to Veteran Reserve Corps. 

Fernando S. Bennett was mustered in Company G, Tliirtietb Maine 
Volunteers, December 28, 1863, and discharged by onior. .luue 6, 1865. 


Stephen S. Beeman enlisted iu Company G, First Maine Volunteers, 
May 3, 1861, and was mustered out with the regiment at the end of three 

Timothy H. Bean enlisted in Company G, First Maine Eegiment. May 
3, 1861, and was mustered out with the regiment at the end of three 

Washington F. Brown was mustered as Sergeant in Company [, Fifth 
Maine Regiment, June 24, 1861 ; he was promoted to First Sergeant in 
1862, and was killed in battle, May 3d, 1863. 

John E. Bean was mustered into Company I, Fiftli Maine Regiment, 
June 24, 1961 ; was wounded in battle, May 12, 1864. He was sul)se- 
queutly Sergeant iu the 18th unassigned company, and became a menil)er 
of Company I, Twelfth Maine Regiment. 

Lewis C. Beard enlisted and was mustered in Company I, Fiftli Maine, 
June 24, 1861, and was discharged November 20, 1861. He re-enlisted and 
was mustered in Company D, Sixteenth Maine, August 14, 1862, and 
transferred to the Invalid Corps, March 1.5, 1864. 

John F. Bryant was mustered in Company I, Fifth Maine Volunteers, 
June 24, 1861 ; was promoted Corporal, and was killed at Crampton Gap. 

Orin S. Brown enlisted and was mustered into Company I, Fifth Maine 
Volunteers, June 24, 1861, and was taken prisoner. May 29, 1864. He died 
at West Paris. 

Barzillai K. Bean, Jr., was mustered into Company I, Fifth Elaine 
Volunteers, January 3, 1862 ; he was discharged for disability, September 
18, 1862. 

Wm. H. H. Brown was mustered as Sergeant of Company A, Twelfth 
Maine Volunteers, November 15, 1861 ; he was promoted Second laeu- 
teuant of Company G; he died September 6, 1863, while he was on 
detached service in charge of the Ambulance corps. He was found dead 
in his bed in his quarters at Thibodeaux. 

Elmer J. Bean was mustered in Company H, Thirteenth Maine Volun- 
teers, December 12, 1861 ; was promoted Corporal, re-enlisted, and was 
transferred to the Thirtieth Maine. 

Algernon S. Chapman was mustered as wagoner in the Seventh Maine 
Battery, December 30, 1863, and was mustered out with the battery. 

Archie S. Cole was mustered in the Seventh Maine Battery December 
30, 1863 ; in the report for December, 1864, it is stated that he lias 1)een 
absent, sick, since June 11. He was iu the Hospital at Augusta, and was 
reported to have deserted, March 1, 186.5. 

James C. Chapman was mustered in Company H, Thirteentli Elaine 
Volunteers, December 13, 1861, and deserted December 31, following. 

Jesse A. Cross was mustered as Sergeant iu Company D, Sixteentli 
Maine Eegiment, August 14, 1862, and was discharged November 24. 1862. 

Milton W. Chapman was mustered in Company D, sixteenth Maine 
Regiment, August 14, 1862, was reported absent, sick, in 1862, 1863, 1864, 
and 1865, when the regiment was mustered out of the service. He has 
since died. 


Abial, Jr., was mustered iuto the Fourth Maiue Battery, 
December 21, 1861, was on detached service as Quartermaster in the 
Ambulance corps, and was mustered out at the expiration of three years. 
He resides at Bethel Hill. 

Augustus M. Carter was mustered as Sergeant in the Seventh Maine 
Battery, December 30, 1863, and was mustered out as such with the 
Battery, June 21, 1865. 

Newell Cook was mustered in Company A, Twelfth Maine Volunteers, 
November 24, 1861, and was detailed as ambulance driver. He served 
three years. 

Alexander Cross was mustered in Company I. Twelfth Maine Regi- 
ment, March 17, 1865. and was mustered out with the regiment. 

John 8. Chapman was mustered as Corporal in Company H, Thirteenth 
Maine A'olunteers, December 12, 1861 ; was promoted to Sergeant, and 
subsequently to be Captain in corps d'Afrique. He died in Betliel. 

Albion C. Chapman was mustered in Company H, Thirteenth Maine 
Eegiment, December 12, 1861, and was transferred to the Thirtieth Maine. 

DUSTIN A. Cook was mustered into Company I, Fifth Maine Volun- 
teers, June 24, 1861, and was dropped from tlie rolls l)y order 102. 

Sidney T. Cross was mustered into Compauj- I, Fifth Maine Vol- 
unteers, June 24, 1861. and was discliarged July 8, following. He 
re-enlisted in the Ninth ^Maine \'oluuteers, and died Octol)er 8th. 

Joseph T. Chapman was mustered as a musician in Company A, 
Twelfth Maine Volunteers, November 15. 1861. and was dropped from the 

John Cooper was nuistered in Company A. Twelfth Maine lieginient 
November 15, 1861. lie re-enlisted, was promoted Corporal aud Sergeant, 
and was wounded October lit. 1864. He was discliarged by order, 
Septeml)er 18, 1865. 

Gardiner W. Dalkymim.k was mustered in Company H. Twenty-third 
Maine Begiment, Septemlu'i' 2'.i. 1862. and was disdiarged with the regi- 
ment, July 17, 1863. 

Levi W. Dolloff was mustert'd in Conii)any I, P'iftli Maine Volunteers, 
June 24, 1861, was promoted Sergeant and died at Canq) Franklin, January 
16, 1862. In the report of 1862, he is said to be of Gorham, N. H. 

James Lyman Pastes was nmstered in Company C. Twentieth Maine 
lleghnent, August 29, 1862, and died at Fairfax Seminary Hospital, 
iieptember 28, following. 

Nathaniel S. Estes was nmstered in Company C. Twentieth Maine 
Regiment. August 29. 1862; was promoted Corixnal and Sergeant, absent 
sick, and discharged by order 94. 

Charles Estes was mustered as Corporal in Company C. Twentieth 
Maine Regiment ; was reported absent, sick, in December, 1862, and April 
4, was discharged, having been reduced to the ranks. 

David A. Edwards was mustered as Corporal in Company I, Fifth 
Maine Volunteers, June 24, 1861. He was promoted to Sergeant, served 
out his time, re-enlisted and was transferred to tlie First Maine Veterans. 


Stephen Estes, Jr., vva^ mustered in Company I, Fifth Maine liegi- 
ment, August 30, 1862, and was discliarged for disability, October 23d 
following. He went west and died there. 

Nathan C. Estes was mustered into Company G, Tenth Maine Volun- 
teers, November 27, 1861, and was discharged for disability, from wounds 
received in battle, December 11, 1862. 

James M. Evans was mustered as Corporal in Company I, Fifth Elaine, 
June 24, 1861 ; was promoted Sergeant, and reported a deserter by general 
order 92. In later reports he is said to be of Gorham, N. PI. 

Clark S. Edavards was mustered as Captain of Companjr I, Fifth Maine 
Volunteers, June 24, 1861, his rank as such dating from May 4th; he was 
soon promoted to Major; to Lieutenant Colonel, taking rank from Sep- 
tember 24, 1862; to Colonel, taking rank from January 8, 1863. He was- 
mustered out with the regiment at the expiration of its term of service,. 
July 27, 18(>4, with the rank of Brigadier General by Brevet. 

Isaac W. Estes enlisted and was mustered in Companj- 1, Fifth Maine 
Volunteers, June 24, 1861, and was discharged November 11, following^ 
He re-enlisted in Company C, Twentieth Maine Regiment, August 29, 
1862, was promoted Sergeant, and died of wounds received in battle, July 
14, 1863. 

Zenas C. Estes was mustered into Company I, Twelfth Maine Volun- 
teers, March 17, 1865, and was mustered out with the reghnent. 

George F. Ellingwood was mustered into Company G, Thirteenth 
Maine Volunteers, December 31, 1861, was transferred to Company H, and 
was reported "deserted," February 16, 1862. 

Joshua P. Estes was mustered in Company F, Seventeenth Maine Reg- 
iment, August 18, 1862, and was mustered out with the regiment, June 4, 

Sereno p. Farewell was nmstered in the Fifth ]Maine Hatteiy, 
December 4, 1861, as Corporal, and was soon after discharged. 

Edwin Farrar enlisted in Company F, First Maine Regiment, May 3, 
1861, and was mustered out with the regiment at the end of three months. 
He re-enlisted as Corporal in Company D, Sixteenth Maine Volunteers, and 
died December 26, 1862, from wounds received at the battle of Fredericks- 

John M. Freeman was mustered as Corporal in the Fourth Maine 
Battery, December 21, 1861 ; was promoted Sergeant and First Sergeant, 
re-enlisted, and was promoted to Second and First Lieutenant. He was 
mustered out with the Battery, June 17, 1865. 

Charles W. H. Farewell was mustered as Corporal in the Fifth 
Maine Battery, December 4, 1861 ; he was discharged early. 

Charles H. Freeman was mustered into Company I, Fifth Maine Vol- 
unteers, June 24, 1861, as drummer, was taken prisoner at Bull Run, and 
discharged for disability December 25, 1861. He was only fourteen years 
of age. He was mustered as musician in Company H, Thirteenth Maine 
Regiment, January 23, 1861. 

Benjamin Freeman enlisted in Company I, Fifth Maine Volunteers, 



and was appointed Commissary Sei'geant of tlie Regiment ; he was soon 
after discharged. He died in 1890. 

Nathan S. Freeman was mustered in Company C, Twentj'-third Maine 
Regiment, Septemher 29, 1862, and was mustered out with the regiment, 
July 15, 1863. 

Leander G. Grover was mustered in Company B, Twenty-tliird Maine 
Volunteers, September 29, 1862, and was mustered out witli the regiment. 
He re-enlisted as Corporal in Company G, Tliirtieth ]\[aine Volunteers, 
December 25, 1863, was wounded April 23, 1864, and discharged February 
8, 1865. 

Henry P. Gates was mustered in the Fourtli Maine Battery, December 
21, 1861, and served out his term of three years. 

J. Woodman Gerrish was mustered in the Seventh Maine Battery, 
December 30, 1863, and was mustered out with the l)attery, June 21. 1865. 

Hazen W. Grover was mustered in Company G, Twelftli Maine Volun- 
teers, November 15, 1861, was taken prisoner in action, Oetolier 19, 1864. 

William L. Grover was mustered as Sergeant in Company B, Twenty- 
third Maine Volunteers, September 29, 1862, and was mustered out with 
the regiment, July 15, 1863. 

Albert W. Grover was mustered in Company B, Twenty-third Maine 
Regiment, September 29, 1862, and was mustered out with the regiment. 

ROBBiNS B. Grover was mustered as Sergeant in Company H. Tliii- 
teenth Maine Volunteers, December 12, 1861, was promoted Second Lieu- 
tenant to rank, from April 28, 1862, was transferred to the Thirtietli 
Maine, promoted Captain of Company H, and was mustered out with tlie 
regiment. He resides in Brockton, Mass. 

Abernethy Grover was mustered into service as Captain of Company 
H, Thirteenth Maine Regiment, December 13, 1861, was promoted to Major 
to rank, from April 28, 1862, and was mustered out with tlie regiment. 
He went west. 

Robert B. Goddard was mustered in Company C, Twentieth Maine 
Volunteers, August 29, 1862, was I'eported sick at Fort Schuyler in 1863, 
and as a deserter, July 5, 1863. 

Elbribge G. Grover was mustered as Corporal in Company A, Twelfth 
Maine Volunteers, November 15, 1861 ; in 1863, he was reported as 
detached and on provost duty, and in 1864, he was mustered out with the 

Simeon Grover was mustered as a recruit in Company A, Twelfth 
Maine Regiment, June 4, 1864 and was transferred to the Twelfth Maine 

Edward Goddard was mustered as Corpoi-al in Company G, Tenth 
Maine Regiment, October 4, 1861 ; was made a prisoner at Winchester, and 
was discharged for disability, November 12, 1862. Deceased. 

Frederic O. Gerrish was mustered as a musician in Comi>any A, 
Twelfth Maine Volunteers, November 15, 1861, and was dropped from the 

Adelbert Grover was mustered into Company A. Twelfth Maine Reg- 



imeut, Xoveml>er lo, 1861 ; lie died at Ship Island, April 4. 1802. 

John Grover, Jr., was mustered in Company A, Twelfth .Maine 
Volunteers, Xovember 15, 1861, and was discharged for disal)ilitv. IMarch 
20, 1863. 

James P. Holt enlisted and was mustered in the Fifth Maine Battery, 
December 4, 1861 : he was killed at Chancellorsville, May 3, 1863. 

George Holmes was mustered into the Seventh Maine Battery, Decem- 
ber 30, 1863, and was discharged for disability, June 20, 1864. 

Ensworth T. Harden was mustered into the Seventh :Maine Battery, 
December 30, 1863, and was discharged for disability, January 2, 1864. 

Clement S. Heath was mustered in Company I, Fifth Maine Regiment. 
June 24, 1861, and was discharged August 3d, following. 

George P. Hall enlisted as a musician, and was mustered into Com- 
pany D, Sixteentn Maine Volunteers, August 14, 1862, and was discharged 
with the regiment, June 5, 1865. 

Austin W. Hobart was mustered in Company D, Sixteenth Maine 
Kegimeut, August 14, 1862, was taken prisoner August 19, 1864, and died 
December 14, 1864. 

George E. Howe was mustered in Company B, Twenty-third Maine 
Regiment, September 29, 1862, and was mustered out with the regiment. 
He re-enlisted in the Seventh Maine Batterj-, was mustered December 30, 
1863, and was mustered out with the battery^ June 21, 1865. Resides in 

Gideon A. Hastings was mustered as Captain of Company A, Twelftli 
Maine Regiment, Xovember 15, 1861, was promoted Major, transferred to 
Twelfth Maine Battalion, and mustered out April 18, 1866. 

Orlando E. Harden was mustered in Company A, Twelfth Maine 
Volunteers, January 1, 1864, and was mustered out witli the regiment. 

George W. Harden was mustered in Company A, Twelfth ^hiine 
Volunteers, Xovember 28, 1863, and was mustered out with tlie regiment. 
April 18, 1866. 

Francis O. Hall was mustered in Company A, Twelfth Maine Regi- 
ment, January 1, 1864, and was dischai-ged July 18, 1866. 

Sullivan R. Hutchins was mustered into Company I, Fifth Maine 
Regiment, as Sergeant, June 24, 1861, and was discharged August 3, 1861. 

JOSEI^H B. Hammond was mustered into Company I, Fifth Maine Regi- 
ment, June 24, 1861, as Sergeant, and was discharged September 22, 1861. 
He was commissioned as Lieutenant of Company C, Thirty-second >hune 
Volunteers, to rank from July 22, 1864, and was promoted to Captain of 
Company D of the same regiment. This regiment was consolidated with 
the Thirty-first Maine, December 1, 1864. Resides Xew Gloucester. 

David T. Hodsdon enlisted in Company E, Tenth Maine Volunteers, 
October 4, 1861, and was mustered out with the reghuent. May 8, 1863. 

Charles W. Howe was mustered in as piivate in Company I, Twelfth 
Maine Volunteers, March 17, 1865, and was discharged by order, October 
14, 1865. 

CuviER G. Harden was mustered in Company 11, Thirtecutb Maine Vol- 
unteers, December 12, 1861, and died at Ship Island, June 22, 1862. 


Abel C. T. Hutchins was mustered as Corporal in Company C, Twen- 
tieth Regiment, Maine Volunteers, August 29, 1862, was reported sick at 
Baltimore, December following, was reduced to the ranks and discharged 
by order 94. 

Stephen E. Howard was mustered iu Company C, Twentieth Maine, 
August 29, 1862, and was discharged February 10, following. 

Aarox F. Jackson was mustered into Company I, Fifth Maine Volun- 
teers, June 24, 1861, and died at Lincoln Hospital, January 4, 1862. 

Ithiel H. Kennerson was mustered into Company D, Fifth Maine 
Volunteers, June 24, 1861, lost an arm and was nuistered out in 1862. 

Moses F. Kimball was mustered in Company A, Twelfth Maine Volun- 
teers, November 15, 1861, and was discharged for disability, August 27, 
1862. He re-enlisted iu Company B, Thirty-second Maine, March 10, 1864, 
and died July 28, following. 

David C. Fvennerson was mustered in Company H, Thirteenth Maine 
Volunteers, December 12, 1861, and died at Ship Island, June 18, 1862. 

GuSTAvrs M. Kimball was mustered in Company C, Twentieth Maine 
Volunteers, and was discharged by order, June 8, 1865. 

Melville C. Kimball was mustered as Sergeant in the Fourth Maine 
Battery, December 21, 1861; he was promoted to Second and First 
Lieutenant, and was discharged for disability, December 21, 1864. 

James Locke, Jr,, was mustered iu the Fifth Maine Battery, December 
4, 1861, and was discharged December 15, 1862. 

.John E. Lai'IIAM was umstered on the quota of Bethel in Company I, 
Thirty-second Maine Volunteers, Maj^ 5, 1864. He was wounded Septem- 
ber 30, 1864, at the fight in front of Petersburg, near Peebles Farm, was 
transferred to Company I, Thirty-first INIaine, and then to the Veteran 
Reserve ( "orps. 

Abijah LathA-AI was mustered in Comi)any I, Thirty-second Maine Vol- 
unteers, and tlie day after he joinc^d the regiment, near tlie North Anna 
river, he was accidentally shot by a comrade, and died soon after. He 
was standing in front of a tent when a comrade came out of the tent, 
dragging his musket by the muzzle. From some cause the musket was 
discharged, and the ball passed through young Lapham's body. He is 
incorrectly reported by the Adjutant General's as "lulled in action. May 
26th, 1864."' He w as never in action. 

Amos Eames Lariiam enlisted as wagoner in Company D, Fifth Maine 
Regiment, June 24, 1861 . He was fatally injured by being crushed beneath 
a heavy bar, and died in a hospital in New York, tlate unknown. 

Charles Lapham was mustered in Company G, Tentli Maine Regiment, 
November 27, 1861, and was nuistered out with the regiment. May 8, 1863. 
He re-enlisted in the Seventh Maine Battery, was mustered December 30, 
1863, and was mustered out with the Battery, June 21, 1865. lie resides 
in Greenwood. 

Charles A. Locke was mustered as umsician in Company D, Sixteenth 
Maine Regiment, August 14, 1862, and was musteretl out with the 


Solon H. Mills was mustei-ed iuto Company B, ISTiuth Maine Volun- 
teers, September 22, 1861; he re-enlisted January 1, 1864, and was mus- 
tered out with the regiment, July 13, 1865. After his re-enlistment he 
was a musician. 

Francis Mitchell was mustered in Company A, Twelfth Maine Vol- 
unteers, November 15, 1861, and was discharged to join the Second United 
States Artillery. 

Edmund Mekrill was mustered in Company G, Thirtieth Maine 
Volunteers, and was mustered out with the regiment. 

Samuel H. Merrill was mustered in Company G, Twelfth Maine Vol- 
unteers, February 19, 1864, and was transferred to the Twelfth INhiine 

Alonzo I). Morgan was mustered as private in Companj^ K, Thirteenth 
Maine Volunteers, December 13, 1861, and was discharged by order of 
Major Gardiner, April 17, 1862. 

Sylvester Mason was mustered in the Seventh Maine Battery, Decem- 
ber 30, 1863, and was reported absent sick, when the battery was mustered 
out, June 21, 1865. 

John Mason was mustered in the Seventh Maine Battery, Decemlier 30, 
1863, and was mustered out with the battery, .Tune 21, 1865. 

Oliver Y. Nutting was mustered in the Fourth Maine Battery, Jan- 
uary 14, 1862, was promoted to Corporal, re-enlisted and was mustered out 
with the batterj . He resides at Perham, Aroostook county. 

James Nutting was mustered in C^ompany H, Tenth Maine Volunteers, 
August 21, 1862, was transferred to the Tenth Maine Battalion and thence 
to Company G, Twenty-ninth Maine, was placed on detached service and 
remained until his term of three years expired. He now lives at Perham, 
Aroostook county 

Reuben H. Penlev was mustered in Company G, Ninth Maine Volun- 
teers, September 21, 1861, as a musician; was transferred to Company H, 
and then to Company I of the same regiment ; he was discharged for disa- 
bility. May 10, 1863. He re-enlisted as musician in Company G, Thirti(>tli 
Maine, was reduced to the ranks, and was mustered out with the regiment . 

Charles F. Penlev was mustered in Company C, Seventeenth iSlaine 
Volunteers, August 18, 1862, wounded May 5, 1864, was promoted Coi-poral 
and was mustered out with the regiment, June 4, 1865. 

Le\vis Powers was mustered in Company I, Thirty-second Maine Vol- 
unteers, May 5, 1864, and died in Washington, July 10, 1S64. 

George W. Peabodv was mustei-ed into Company B, Thirty-second 
Maine Volunteers, was transferred to Company B, Thii-ty-tirst iNIaine, and 
was mustered out ^^•ith that regiment. 

Spencer T. Peabody was mustered in Company I, Fifth Maine \'oliin- 
teers, June 24, 1861 ; he was promoted to Corporal and Sergeant, and was 
taken prisoner, December 14, 1863. He is sometimes recorded as "Thomas 
S. Peabody," and sometimes as "T. Spencer Peabody."" He is also in 
some reports accredited to Gilead. 

Lowell B. Pratt was mustered in Company I, Fifth Maine Volunteers, 


Juue 24, 1861, aud was discharged for disability, October 4, 1863. 

Charles H. Putnam was mustered in Company D, Sixteenth Maine 
Volunteers, was promoted Corporal, taken prisoner July 1, 1863, and died 
at Richmond, Va., Xovember 24, 1863. 

Stephen S. Robertson was mustered in Company D, Sixteenth Maine 
Regiment, September 15, 1863, aud was transferred to Company 1 of the 
Twentieth Maine, was taken prisoner and parolled. He was mustered out 
with the regiment. 

AuRELius A. Robertson was mustered as Corporal in Company I, Sev- 
enteenth Maine Regiment, August 18, 1862, was wounded July 2, 1863, at 
Gettysbui-g, and died July 5th following. 

ASBURY T. ROWE was mustered in Company B, Twenty-third Maine 
Volunteers, September 29, 1862, was promoted Corporal, aud was mustered 
out with the regiment, July 15, 1863. 

William Richardson was mustered in Company A, Twelfth Maine 
Volunteers, November 15, 1861, and was discharged for disabihty, July 17, 

Charles B. Ryerson was mustered in Company B, Twelfth Maine 
Regiment. Xovember 20. 1861, and was subsequently transferred to 
Company A, and was discharged for disability in 1863. 

Albeht B. Richardson was mustered into Company H, Thirteenth 
Maine Volunteers, Fel>ruary 29, 1864, and was transferred to the Thirtieth 
Maine, and was mustered out with that regiment. 

Ceylon Russell was mustered in Company D, Sixteenth Maine Regi- 
ment, August 14, 1862, was reported absent, sick, in 1862 and 1863, aud 
was transferred to the Invalid corjjs, Xovember 15, 1863. 

Solon Robertson enlisted in Conii)any 0, First Maine Regiment, ^fay 
3, 1861, and was nuistered out witli tlic regiment at the end of three 

Nelson Rice was mustered in Company I, Fifth Maine Regiment. June 
24, 1861, and was transferred to gun-ljoat service. 

Washington B. Robertson was nuistered iu ('omi)any I, Fifth Maine 
Regiment, was captured at Bull Run, and was i-eported a deserter by vir- 
tue of general order 92; he was also reported discharged Sept. 12, 1862. 

liORENZO D. Russell was mustered in Company I, Fifth Maine Regi- 
ment, June 24, 1861, and served out his full term. 

Frank Roavell was mustered in Company G, Thirtieth Maine Volun- 
teers, December 28, 1863, and when the regiment was mustered out, was 
reported sick in hospital. 

O'Xeil W. Robinson was nmstered as Captain of the Fourth Maine 
Battery, Decend)er 21, 1861; he was promoted Major and died July 17, 
1863, at his father's house in Waterford. 

Solon Robertson was mustered as Corporal iu the Fourth Maine 
Battery, December 21, 1861, and was discharged March 18, 1863. 

Orson H. Sawtelle was mustered on the quota of Bethel, in Company 
G, Thirtieth Maine Volunteers, December 28, 1863, and was mustered out 
with the reginuMit. 


Joseph H. Skillings was mustered in Company G, Thirtieth Maine 
Regiment, June 20, 1864, and died December 6, following. 

OSMYN Smith was mustered in the Fourth Maine Battery, Fe])ruary 12, 
1862, and was discharged for disability, March 17, 1863. 

Edavard p. Stearxs was mustered into Company G, First Maine Regi- 
ment, May 3, 1861, and was mustered out with the regiment at the end of 
three months. He was mustered as Corporal in the Fifth Maine Battery, 
December 4, 1861, re-enlisted, and was appointed wagoner, and was nms- 
tered out with the battery. 

Cyrus Swift enlisted in Company H, Thirteenth Maine Volunteers, and 
died at Fort St. Phillip, La., August 28, 1862. He formerly lived at South 

John Mason Swift was mustered in Company I, Fifth Maine Volun- 
teers, Xovember 9, 1861 ; he was reported a deserter b_v virtue of order 92, 
was subsequently restored to the rolls and discharged for disability. He 
went west. 

Edward X. Stow^eel was nuistered into Company I, Twelfth Maine 
Volunteers, and was mustered out with the regiment. He had previously 
been in the 18th uuassigned company. 

Marcis E. Swan was mustered in Company C, Twentieth Maine Vol- 
unteers, August 29, 1862, was reported sick at West Philadelphia in 1863, 
and was discharged for disability, March 3, 1863. 

Charles P. Stearns was mustered into Company G, First Maine Regi- 
ment, May 3, 1861, and was mustered out with the regiment at the end of 
three months. 

Edward G. Sturgis was mustered into Company I, Fifth Maine Regi- 
ment, Xovember 13, 1861, and was killed in battle. May 3, 1863. 

Daniel W. Scribner was mustered into Company I, Fifth Maine Vol- 
unteers, as First Sei'geant, June 24, 1861. He was reported a deserter, re- 
duced to the ranks, returned, and was detailed on gun boat service. He 
resides in Portland. In some reports he is not accredited to Bethel. 

Simeon "\V. Sanborn was mustered into Company I, Fifth Maine Volun- 
teers as Sergeant, June 24, 1861 ; he was promoted to First Sergeant, and 
to Second Lieutenant to rauk from February 5, 1862; was dropped from 
the rolls by order 163, restored and discharged for disability. 

Daniel M. Stearns was mustered into Compaay I, Fifth Maine Volun- 
teers, January 4, 1862; he was wounded May 3, 1863, and was transfei-red 
to the First Maine Veterans. 

Jerome O. Sanborn was mustered in Company E, Tenth Maine Regi- 
ment, October 4, 1861, was wounded September 7, 1862, at Ihi' liattle of 
xVntietam, lost a leg, and was dischiirged 3[arcli 23, 1863. 

George W. Smith was mustered into Company A, Tw(>iftli Maine 
Volunteers, Xovember 15, 1861, and deserted December 11, following. 

Martin A. Stowell was mustered in Company I, Twelfth ISIaine Kegi- 
meut, and was discharged by order, March 23, 1866. 

Wainsburv B. Seavev was mustered in Company 1. Twclt'tli Maine 
Volunteers, and was discharged with the regiment. 


Austin F. Twitchell enlisted iu the Fourth Maine Battery and was 
mustered January 14, 1862. In Deceml)er, he was reported sick iu hos- 
pital, and was discharged January 7, 1863. He re-enlisted in the Seventh 
Maine Battery, was mustered December 30, 1863, and was mustered out 
with the battery. He resides in Portland. 

Albekt S. Twitchell was mustered as Quartermaster's Sergeant in the 
Seventh Maine Battery, ou account of disalnlity returned to the ranks, and 
was mustered out with the regiment. June 21, 1865. He resides at Gorham, 
N. H. 

"William T>. Twitchell was musteied in the Seventh Maine Battery, 
January 29, 1864, and was mustered out with the l)attery. He died soon 
after from disability incurred in the service. 

Adelbert B. Tavitchell was mustered in Company I, Fifth Maine 
Volunteers, June 24, 1861, and was appointed Quartermaster Sergeant of 
the Kegimeut. He was transferred to the Fifth Maine Battery, was pro- 
moted to be Second and First Lieutenant; was wounded in the battle at 
Chancellorsville: resigned to accept the Captaincy of the Seventh Maine 
Battery, into which he was mustered December 29, 1863: was mustei-ed 
out with the battei-y June 21, 1865, as Brevet Major. l)y reason of the close 
of the war. He resides in Newark, N. J. 

OZMON F. Twitchell enlisted in the 18th unassigned company, ^larch 
17, 1865, and was assigned to Company I. Twelfth Maine Volunteers. 

Alfred M. Trie was mustered into United States service in Company 
G, First Maine Regiment, and was nuistered out with the regiment at the 
end of its term of three months. He re-enlisted in Company A, Twelfth 
Maine Volunteers, and was mustered November 15, 1861, as Corporal, was 
promoted Sergeant, re-enlisted, was transferred to Company A, Twelfth 
Maine Battalion, as Sergeant, and was mustered out April 18, 1866. 

FORUVCE r. Twitchell was mustered iu Company D. Sixteenth Maine 
Regiment, August 14, 1862, and was detailed as hospital inirse. He was 
subsequently promoted to Corporal and Sergeant, and was mustered out 
with the regiment, June 5, 1865. 

Charles J. Twitchell was mustered in Company B, Twenty-third 
Maine Volunteers, September 29, 1S62. and died at Oftufs Cross Roads, 
December 20, 1862. 

Hexry Vaillancoikt enlisted, and was nuistered in Company I, Fifth 
Maine Volunteers, June 24, 1861, and was discharged June 27. following, 
he being a British subject. 

John B. Walker was mustered as First T/ieutenaut of Company I, Fifth 
Maine Volunteers, June 24, 1861 ; he was promoted to Captain to rank from 
July 1, 1862, and was discharged for disability, June 18, 1863. He went 
west and died. 

MiLO C. Walker was nuistered in Company I, Fifth Maine Volunteers, 
June 24, 1861, and was reported a deserter by virtue of oi-der number 162. 

John S. Wormell was mustered in Company I, Fifth Maine Regiment, 
June 24, 1861, and was reported a deserter by virtue of order 92. 

Cyrus M. Wormell was mustered as Second Lieutenant of Comi)any L 


Fifth Maine Volunteer.*, June 24, 1861, and resigned February 15. 1862. 

E. Mellen Wight was mustered as First Lieutenant in Company IJ, 
Twenty-third Maine Volunteers, September 29, 1862, and was discliarged 
December 17, following. He died at Chattanooga. 

Jarvis S. Wight was mustered as Corporal in Company B, Twenty- 
third Maine Volunteers, was promoted Sergeant and was mustered out 
with the regiment, July 15, 186.3. 

Haklan p. Wheeler was mustered in Company B, Twenty-third Maine 
Volunteers, was promoted Corporal and mustered out with tlie reghnent. 

Cornelius M. York was mustered In Company I, Fiftli ]Maine Kegi- 
ment, December 4, 1861, and \\as discliarged for disability. August 23, 

Aurelius L. Young was mustered in Company I. T\\elftli Maine 
Volunteers, and was mustered out witli tlie regiment. 

George H. Young was mustered as Corporal in Company 11. Thirteenth 
Maine Regiment, and was transferred to the Tliirtietli ]Maine Vohuiteei's. 


V^'4^1 Educational Matters. 

iC^y HEN the first school was opened iu Sudbury Canada plauta- 
f^^ ^^on, caunot be stated with any degree of confidence. 
^^^ There were no public schools until some time after the 
plantation became a town, but iu the west parish aud quite likely iu 
the east, private schools were taught quite early. It is knowu that 
in seventeen hundred and eightj'-eight a private school was taught 
in the west parish by Mr. John Mason. About this time, a log 
school house was built near the junction of the Mill Brook road with 
the river road, not far from where the steam mill was afterwards 
built. It was a rude structure, badly lighted, and the seats were 
benches made of slabs. Rev Eliphaz Chapman taught in this house 
in seventeen hundred and ninety-two, and during the following sum- 
mer, the teacher was Sally, daughter of Rev. William Fessenden of 
Fryeburg. The next teacher was Abigail Warren of Waterford, 
then Hannah Chapman, Dr. John Brickett and David Cotiin. Rev. 
Caleb Bradley, who was here as a possible candidate for settlement, 
in seventeen hundred and ninety-eight, taught school in the house 
of Lieutenant Jonathan Clark and had twenty pupils. This house 


was long occupied by Rev. Charles Frost and is still standing, the 
oldest house in the west parish. In the lower parish the terms of 
school were few and far between, and were taught in private houses. 
Abigail Warren taught there in seventeen hundred and ninety-nine. 

In seventeen hundred and ninety-eight, there was provision made 
for the erection of three school houses, one for the east parish, to be 
near the house of Thaddeus Bartlett, one for the center of the town, 
to be located at Middle Interval, and the one for the west parish, to 
be near John Stearns' barn, or near Barker's Ferry. This house 
was moved to Bethel in three years. This year, also, a school com- 
mittee of seven was chosen, Nathaniel Segar, Jonathan Bartlett, 
Amos Gage, Eleazer Twitchell, Amos Hastings, Josiah Bean and 
Walter Mason. The first money raised for schools was in eighteen 
hundred, when one hundred dollars were appropriated for summer 
and the same amount for winter schools. In seventeen hundred and 
ninety-nine, Rev. Daniel Gould was settled over the Congregational 
church at Bethel Hill, and soon after opened a boarding school on 
the farm he then occupied, now the Doctor Wiley place. His suc- 
cess was marked, and no doubt this early school and his other efforts 
in the same direction, had mucii to do in giving character to the 
town. He was a profound scholar, an accomplished teacher and a 
devoted friend of popular education. He took great interest in the 
early schools of the town, visited them often, encouraged the teach- 
ers in their good work, and attached the pupils to himself by words 
of advice and encouragement. His Bethel pupils have, one b}' one, 
either preceded or followed him through the dark portals of the 
tomb, but his memory will be fragrant in this town so long as the 
bell of Gould's Academy shall be heard, calling its pupils together 
for study and for recitation. Some of his early Bethel pupils be- 
came distinguished men and women. The amount raised by the 
town for schools was gradually increased, and in a short time with 
interest on the school fund added, amounted to a respectable sum. 

In eighteen hundred and three, a committee was appointed to 
divide the town into school districts, and at a subsequent meeting 
the committee reported. The report which was accepted, divided 
the town into six school districts, each district extending from the 
south to the north line of the town, and numbered from the most 
easterly district. This division was subject to many inconveniences, 
but the town was sparsely settled, and perhaps it was the best that 
could be made under the circumstances. Each district was divided 


by the great river, and the ouly means for crossing it in summer was 
by boats. This re-districting called for three additional school 
houses, which were erected by the districts with a little aid in some 
cases by the town. As the population increased, the school dis- 
tricts were divided, the river being made the dividing line until 
several new districts were formed. In eighteen hundred and twenty- 
five, Bethel had fourteen school houses, six hundred pupils, and over 
five hundred dollars were expended for schools. In eighteen hun- 
dred and forty, the town was divided into twenty-four school dis- 
tricts, and there has been no regular re-districting since that time. 
Some districts have since been divided, thereby increasing the num- 
ber, but the numbering made in eighteen hundred and forty, so far 
as it goes, is still in force. 

Through the instrumentality of Gould's Academy, Bethel has sent 
out a large number of trained teachers, who have performed excel- 
lent service in the cause of education. The town has not only been 
able to supply its own schools from its native born teachers, but it 
has furnished teachers for schools of every grade, not only in this, 
but in many other States of the Union. Many have done missionary 
and educational work in the South, and some who were there at the 
breaking out of the war of the rebellion, found it difficult to get 
away, and more difficult to remain with any degree of safety. 
Many of the new states of the west have had the benefit of Bethel 
trained teachers, and there is hardly any State where they are not 
found. The clergymen of Bethel, following the example of Parson 
Gould, have ever manifested a deep interest in the success of the 
common schools of the town, and have had much to do with their 
management. Notably among them, may be mentioned Rev. 
Charles Frost, Rev. David Garland, Rev. John H. M. Leiand, Rev. 
Benjamin Donham, Rev. Arthur Drinkwater and Rev. Absalom G. 
Gaines. Mr. Donham, besides attending to his parochial duties, 
taught school nearly every winter while he remained here. Mr. 
Garland was indefatigable in his efforts to elevate the character of 
the common schools, and the scholarly attainments of Mr. Gaines, 
with his long experience in teaching, admirably fitted him for the 
duties of superintending school committee. But few of the early 
Bethel school houses are left. Some have been burned, but most of 
them have been torn down and given place to more convenient and 
more imposing structures. The little school house on the Bird Hill, 
where the writer hereof first attended school, and where he first 


taught, is still standing and still serving the district in the purpose 
for which it was erected. 

A High school was established at Bethel Hill in eighteen hundred 
and thirty-five. The people had long felt the need of an institution 
of this kind. Many young men and women, feeling the need of a 
better education than could be obtained at the common school, had 
attended the academies at Fryeburg, Bridgton, Hebron and else- 
where, and there seemed to be no reason why a part of the expense 
could not be saved by establishing a school at home, where aspirants 
for a higher education and those wishing to prepare for college could 
attend. An organization was effected by the choice of Robbins 
Brown, President ; William Frye, Secretary ; Robert A. Chapman, 
Treasurer, and Charles Frost, Jedediah Burbank, John Hastings, 
Jonathan A. Russell, Jesse Cross, John Harris, Ebenezer EUing- 
wood, Joseph Sanborn, James Walker and Timoth}^ Chapman, 
Trustees. Nathaniel T. True was engaged as Principal and John 
P. Davis, Assistant. The school commenced in the old school 
house, with thirty-five pupils, and was highly prosperous. The 
school house was found inadequate for the increasing number of 
scholars, and in a short time it was moved to the ell of the Bethel 
House. There were eighty-five pupils the first year, and one hun- 
dred and twentj'-three the second. Among those in attendance were 
the following who subsequently became professionally or otherwise, 
more or less distinguished : Dr. Zenas W. Bartlett, Moses B. Bart- 
lett, Rev. Ezekiel AV. Coffin, Hon. eJohn P. Davis, Dr. James H. P. 
Frost, Major Abernethy Grover, Prof. Talleyrand Grover, Major 
O'Neil W. Robinson, Dr. Almon Twitchell,'Rev. Addison A])bot, 
Dr. Samuel B. Twitchell, Dr. Lawson A. Allen, Augustus J. Bur- 
bank, Capt. Gideon A. Hastings, Major David R. Hastings, Dr. 
Moses lugalls, Hon. Lafaj^ette Grover, Gen. Wm. K. Kimball, Eli 
Wight, Robert I. Burbank, Dr. John E. L. Kimball, Rev. Welling- 
ton Newell, Rev. John G. Pingree, Dr. Wm. Williamson, Rev. 
Javan K. Mason, Hiram EUingwood and Dr. Hiram Bartlett. 

In eighteen hundred and thirty-six, the trustees of the High 
school petitioned the Legislature for an act of incorporation as 
Bethel Academy. The. corporators were John Grover, Moses 
Mason, Wm. Frye, Charles Frost, Jedediah Burbank, John Has- 
tings, Stephen Emerj', Barbour Bartlett, James Walker, Levi Whit- 
man, Robbins Brown, Valentine Little, George W, Chapman, 
Timothy Carter, Phineas Frost, Timothy Hastings and Robert A. 



Chapman. The academy building was erected daring that season, 
on the spot where the present academy stands. The corporators 
chose Dr. Timothy Carter, President, Dr. John Grover, Vice Presi- 
dent, and William Frye, Secretary. The teacher of the high school, 
Mr. True, was now engaged in the study of the medical profession, 
and Isaac Randall of Dixfield was chosen Preceptor of the new 
Academy, and continued in that capacity for about two years. 
After that, for some years, changes were frequent, as the school was 
in charge of those who were preparing for professional life, and 
teaching was only a means to that end. William R. Chapman 
taught one term in eighteen hundred and thirty-eight, and Joseph 
Hill the rest of the year. Charles M. Blake taught in eighteen hun- 
dred and thirty-nine, Calvin Chamberlain the following year. Moses 
Soule had charge of the school three years and became a profes- 
sional teacher. Moses B. Bartlett and Abernethy Grover had 
charge in eighteen hundred and forty-two, David R. Hastings and 
Talleyrand Grover in eighteen hundred and forty-four, Joseph 
Pickard in eighteen hundred and forty-six, William C. Hurd in 
eighteen hundred and forty-seven. In eighteen hundred and forty- 
eight, came Dr. Nathaniel T. True, who, since he taught the Bethel 
High school, had graduated in medicine and practiced his profession 
for a time, but not liking it, had determined to return to his first 
love. He continued in charge for thirteen years, and this was the 
golden era in the history of the school. The building was often 
packed with scholars and some had to be turned away for lack of 
room . 

In eighteen hundred and forty-two, Rev. Daniel Gould, failing to 
awaken an interest in the cause of higher education in Rumford, 
proposed to make a bequest to the academy, provided they would 
change the name. The trustees voted to accept the legacy with the 
conditions attached, and a petition to the Legislature caused the 
institution to be called Gould's Academy in Bethel. About eight 
hundred dollars were realized from this bequest. In eighteen hun- 
dred and fifty, the Legislature granted a half township of laud, 
which the trustees sold for twenty-five hundred dollars. These two 
sums constituted the permanent funds of the institution. C^iite 
earLy in the fifties, the interior of the academy was changed by a 
rearrangement of the seats, and in eighteen hundred and sixty-nine, 
the building was enlarged by the addition of eighteen feet to the 
rear. In eighteen hundred and eighty-one, the old academy was 


removed and a new one, much larger, and with important improve- 
ments, was erected on tlie spot. It was completed the following 
year, and the citizens of Bethel contributed over twelve hundred 
dollars to aid in furnishing it. 

In eighteen hundred and fifty-five, Dr. John Grover gave to the 
trustees, the sum of one hundred and sixty dollars, which he subse- 
quently increased to two hundred dollars, the interest of which only, 
can be spent for chemical and philosophical apparatus. The Gould 
and Grover funds are both perpetual, the interest only being permitted 
to be used. The funds accruing from the sale of the land donated 
by the State can be used for an}' purpose connected with the 

In eighteen hundred and ninety, there was serious talk of chang- 
ing to the High School system, and the trustees took a vote to that 
effect, but there were many who desired the continuance of the 
Academy plan, and on application to the Legislature, an annuity of 
eight hundred dollars to be continued for ten years was granted, 
and Gould's Academy in Bethel is still the corporate name of the 
school, and likel}' to continue so. 

The following persons have served as Presidents of the Board of 
Trustees : 

Dr. Timothy Carter, May 2, 1836, to August 29, 1837. 

Dr. .John Grover, August 29, 1837, to December 23, 1853. 

Dr. Moses INIason, December 23, 1853, to November 6, 1866. 

Gilman Chapman, November 6, 1866, to the time of his death. 

Gideon A. Hastings, to the present time. 

The following persons have served as Secretaries of the corpora- 
tion : 

Hon. William Frye, May 2, 1836, to February 22, 1854. 

Hon. Robert A. Chapman, February 2, 1854, to February 10, 

Richard A. Frye, February 10, 1858, to 1878. 

Enoch Foster, from 1879 to 1885. 

Goodwin R. Wiley, from 1885, to the present time. 

The list of trustees of the academy since its incorporation, is as 
follows : 

Rev. Charles Frost, James Burbauk, 

Gilman Chapman, Phineas Frost. 



Ebeuezer frames, 
Peter C. Virgin, 
Alvan Bolster, 
Eliphalet Hopkins, 
Rev. Edwin A. Buck, 
Rev. Charles Soiile, 
Eber Clough, 
Oeorge W, Chapman, 
Gideon A. Hastings, 
Rev. Absalom G. Gaines, 
Abefnethy Grover, 
Dr. George Collins, 
Moses C. Foster, 
Moses T. Cross, 
Charles P. Knight, 
Ceylon Rowe, 
Wm. E. Skillings, 
J. U. Puriugton, 
A. W. Grover, 
A. PL Herrick, 
Robbins Brown, 
Elbridge Gerry, 
James Walker, 

Leonard Grover, 

Timoth}' Hastings, 

Alphin Twitchell, 

Rev. John H. M. Leland, 

O'Neil W. Robinson, Jr. 

Rev. David Garland, 

Albert L. Burbank, 

Rev. John B. Wheelwright, 

David Hammous, 

David F. Brown, 

Richard A. Frye, 

Rev. Eugene A. Titus, 

Enoch Foster, 

Abner Davis, 

Samuel D. Philbrook, 

Samuel B. Twitchell, 

A. W. Valentine, 

Gilman P. Bean, 

H. W. Johnson, 

John M. Philbrook, 

Charles Mason, 

George H. Brown. 

Since Dr. Nathaniel T. True left the Academy in eighteen liun- 
dred and sixty-one. Principals have been employed as follows : 

Wellington R. Cross, fall of 1.^61, to summer of 1862, 
E. P. Morse, fall of 1862. 

Merritt C. Fernald, spring of 1863, to summer, 1864. 
Benj. P. Snow, fall of 1864, to winter of 1865. 
Wm. P. Young, spring of 1865, to spring of 1866. 
George T. Plummer, fall of 1866, to summer of 1867. 
George M. Bodge, fall of 1867, to fall of 1871. 
Charles H. Hnssey, spring of 1872, to winter of 1873. 
S. A. Thurlow, spring of 1873, to winter of 1874. 

D. S. Lowell. 

E. H. Hall. 


John Fisk. 


Henry W. Johnson, three years, from 1882. 
A. F. Sweetsh', one year, from 1885. 
W. R. Howard, two years, from 1886. 
A. C. Dresser, one year, from 1888. 
A. D. Hall, two years, from 1889. 

Gould's Alumni. 

The following list embraces the names of those who either fitted 
for college at Gould's Academy, or who received their academical 
education there, and who have become distinguished in some one of 
the learned professions or in other pursuits : 

Talleyrand Grover, A. M., Prof, of Ancient and Modern Languages iu 
Delaware College, Del., graduated at Bowdoiu College. He died at 
Uppala, Sweden, ou his second visit to Europe. He was an acconiplislied 
scholar and gentleman. 

Abernethy Grover, A. B., graduated at Bowdoin. has represented the 
town and county iu several offices, and was Major in the \'1\\\ Maine 
Volunteers ; moved to the west. 

Lafayette Grover graduated at Law School in Philadelphia, Governor of 
Oregon for several years, and Senator in United States Senate from that 

Cuvier Grover graduated at \Vest Point, Brigadier General of Volun- 
teers in the late war, Colonel of Cavalry iu I'nited States Army ; deceased. 

Sidney Perham, Governor of Elaine and Representative to Congi-ess for 
several terms. He has been pronuneutly engaged in public life for many 

Jairus Perry, LL. D., graduated at Bowdoin and practiced law in Salem, 
Mass., where he died. 

Hiram C. Estes, I). D., graduated at Waterville College and Xewton 
Theological Institution; has been pastor of the iiaptist church in Paris, 
Maine, and elsewhere. He is highly respected in liis denomination. 

Javau K. Mason, D. D., graduated at Bowdoin, settled many years iu 
Thomaston and iu Fryeburg, now in Virginia. 

Edwin \V. Wallace Bartlett, A. M., graduated at Bowdoin, was the ac- 
complished Principal of the High school in Koxbury, Mass., and died 

Jacol) W. Brown was a successful lawyer iu Earlville, ill. 

Alcander Burbank. ^\. 1).. graduated at Bowdoin, resided in Lewiston, 
Maine; died 1883. 

David Evans, M. D.. graduated at Bowdoin, and resides in the eastern 
l)art of the State. 

Henry H. Packard, te.acher, school officer and fanner, died in AVoodstock, 


OB. JUNE, 1859. 


John E. Leland Kimball, M. D., graduated at Woodstock, Vt., and 
practiced in Saco. 

Albion K. P. Sawyer, M. D., graduated at Bowdoin and resides at 

Thomas E. Twitchell, merchant, died in Portland. He tilled .seveial im- 
portant offices and was a prominent citizen. 

Dexter A. Hawkins, A. M., graduated at Bowdoin and was a dis- 
tinguished lawj^er in New York City ; deceased. 

Wm. ^Virt Virgin, A. M., giaduated at Bowdoin, now a Judge of the 
Supi'eme Court of Maine. 

Ralph Cummings, I). I)., gi-aduated at Bowdoin, residence not known to 
the writer. 

Samuel B. 'J'witchell, A. B., M. D., graduated at Dartmouth College and 
died young. 

David R. Hastings, A. ^1.. graduated at Bowdoin. a distinguished lawyer 
in Fryeburg, Maine. 

Moses Ingalls. A. M.. graduated at Bowdoin and settled in Ohio as 

Col. Robert I. Burbank, A. M., graduated at Dartmouth College, is a 
lawyer and resides in Boston. 

Gideon A. Hastings resides in Bethel, has filled several important offices, 
and was Major in the 12th Maine Volunteers. 

Timothy Appleton Chaiinian, a distinguished merchant in Milwaukee^ 

Charles Russell, M. D., graduated at Bowdoin, died in Fayette. 

Samuel A. Allen, M. D., graduated at Bowdoin, settled and died in 
Andover, Maine. 

Theodore S. Carter, merchant in Xew York City. 

Augustus J. Burbank, A. B., graduated at Bowdoin, went to Chicago. 

Osmon M. Twitchell, ]\r. D., resides in Madison, Wis. 

Benjamin AVebber Kimball, iC. D., Maine Medical School, now an (jccu- 
list and aurist, resides at Minneapolis, Minn. 

John Locke, merchant, Frjeljurg, Maine. 

Charles R. Locke, millmau, Chatham, N. JL 

James E. Carter, insurance agent and broker, Portland. 

Philantheus C. Wiley, A. B., Bowdoin College, M. D., same, settled 
Bethel, drowned in Megalloway river, April 26, 1877. 

Richard A. Frye, Lawyei', Bethel ; Judge of Probate. 

Harlan P. Brown, A. B., Bowdoin College; killed in the battle of 
Antietam while leading a charge. 

Cullen C. Chapman, merchant, Portland ; banker. 

Oliver IL Mason, merchant, Bethel; died 1891. 

William B. Lapliam, A. M., Colby Universitj^, M. D., New York, foiin- 
erly editor Maine Farnur, Historical and Genealogical author, Augusta, 

Albert L. Burbank, Clerk of Courts, official in Portland Custom House, 
merchant, Portland. 



Oscar D. Grover, A. B., Delaware College: studied law, but engaged in 
farming and stock-raising in the west. 

Henry W. Hall, writer, deceased. 

Wm. W. Green, M. D., University of Michigan, Professor of Anatomy 
and Surgery in several Medical schools, practiced in Portland, died, and 
was buried at sea on the return trip from Europe. 

Chester D. JefFerds, A. B., Amherst, clergyman, died at Cliester, Ver- 
mont : a fine writer and a true poet. 

Charles AV. K. Locke, settled in Xebraska: postmaster, etc. 

Kev. Uriel AV. Small, A. M., gi-aduated at Amherst College and Bangor 
Theological Seminary. AVent west. 

Keuben Foster, A. M., graduated at Colby University, lawyer in AA'atei- 
ville. President of Senate and Speaker of the House in Maine Legislature. 

Adelbert B. Twitchell, A. B., graduated at Bowdoin, Brevet Major of 
Artillery in civil war, resides in Newark, X. J. 

Rev. Sumner Estes, minister in Baptist denominati(m, is now a druggist 
at Sanford, Maine. 

Daniel AA'. Peabody. A. ^L, graduated at Dartmouth College, lawyer, 
resides in Boston. 

Henry C. Peabody, A. M., graduated at Dartmouth, lawyer, resides in 

Octavus K. Veats, ls\. D., gi-aduatcil at Bowdoin ^Icdical School, settled 
at AVest Paris. 

Benjamin E. Lvmt, druggist. I'ortland. 

Rev. George AV. Carpenter, clergyman in Protestant Episcojial church. 

John Q. A. Twitchell, merchant, Portland. 

Rev. Xahum AV. Grover, A. M., graduated at Bowdoin. and Bangor 
Theological Seminary. 

Rev. Wellington R. Cross, A. M., graduated at Jiowdoin College and 
Bangor Theological Seminary, i)receptoi- of Gould's Academy in 1861-2, 
afterwards tutor in Bowdoin College, clergyman: died 1891. 

Cyrus Hamlin, Brigadier General in civil war: died at New Orleans. 

Charles Hamlin, A. M., graduated at IJowdoin College, Brevet Brigadier 
General in civil war, lawyer in Bangor. 

Rev. Henry L. Chapman, A. M., graduate and Professor in Bowdoin 

Peai'l Martin, M. D.. lived in Lewiston. 

Liberty E. Holden, A. B., graduated at Michigan T'niversity, lawyer in 
Cleveland, Ohio. 

George F. Leonard, A. M., graduated at Dartmouth < "ollege, teacher in 
Boston, now resides at Xewton. 

George M. Twitchell, formerly dentist, resided in Fairfield, now at 
Augusta ; on the Editorial staft' of the Maine Farmer. 

John M. Brown, A. M., graduated at Bowdoin College, Brigadier General 
in civil war, resides in Portland. 

David Hale, lawyer, resides in Bridgton. 

AVm. E. Gould was cashier of First National Bank. I'ortland. 



Sullivau D. Greeu, A. B.. gi-aduatcd at Michigan University, resided at 
Berlin Falls, X. H. ; died. 

Edward L, Parris, lawyer, resides in Xew York. 

Thomas Holt, civil engineer and architect ; died in California. 

John M. Gonld. Major in civil war and historian, resides in Portland. 

Charles F. Estes, student Colby University, died in California. 

Gerardo Bonau, merchant, resides in Sagua la Grande, Cuba. 

Benjamin W. Bryant, lawyer, dead. 

Enoch Foster, Jr., I.. B., graduated at Albany Law School. Albany, N. 
Y. ; resides in Bethel, Justice of the Supreme Court. 

Wm. W. Whitcomb, merchant, resides in Norway. 

Zebulon "Weston, A. M., graduated at Dartmouth College. 

John S. Locke, publisher, resided in Boston. 

George W. Merrill, A. B., graduated at Bowdoin College, lawyer. 

Thomas J. Bridgham graduated at Bowdoin, resided in AVaterford, 
lawyer, deceased, 

George AV. Thompson, captain in civil war, killed at battle of AN'inchester. 

Seth C. Farringtou, A. B.. graduated at Bowdoin, lawyer, resides in 

Albion Pierce, M. D., graduated at Bowdoin, settled in Greene. 

Charles A\'. Gordon, M. D., graduated at Bowdoin, died in Bethel. 

Rev. Amos Harris, A. M., graduated at Bowdoin, and at the Bangor 
Theological school, resides in Massachusetts. 

Rev. J. F. McKusick, A. B., graduated at Waterville College. 

Albert S. Twitchell, lawyer, resides in Gorham, X. H. ; Raih\ ay Coin- 
raissiouer of Xew Hampshire ; soldier in the late war. 

Virgil V. Twitchell, editor Moimtaineer, resides in Gorham, X. IL 

Albert M. Edwards, Colonel of Michigan regiment in civil war. 

Elias S. Mason, A. B., gi-aduated at Bowdoin, resides in Chicago. 

Charles M. Caileton. M. I)., graduated at Pittstield Medical College, 

Jansen T. Paine, dentist, resides in Halifax. X. S. 

Jos. L. Wales, merchant, Bridgton. 

George M. Gage, State Superintendent schools of Maine, resides in 

Edward S. Morse, Ph. I).. Professor Corap. Zoology in Bowdoin College, 
and lecturer. 

Albro E. Chase, A. M., graduated at Harvard, Principal High School in 

Rev. Perry Chandler, A. M., graduated at Middletown University, now 
of Spokane Falls, Mont. 

James E. Burns^ A. B., graduated at Bowdoin, lawyer. 

Ceylon Rowe, merchant. Bethel. 

John O. Winship, lawyer, resided in Portland; removed from the State. 

Daniel M. Phillips, A. B., graduated at Bowdoin, captain in civil war. 
killed at battle of Winchester. 


Ramon M. Qucipo, ineichant in Havana, Cuba. 

J. Bradley Locke, farmer, went west. 

Eicherand Howe, A. B., M. D., graduated at Dartmouth College, dead. 

John F. Richardson, engraver, resides in Boston. 

Mellen P. Burnhani, publisher of Commercial Advocate., San Francisco, 

John A. Douglass, A. M., M. D.. graduated at Bowdoiu College, resides 
in Amesbury, Mass. 

Rev. Henry O. Thayer, A. M., gratluated at Bowdoiu College and Ban- 
gor Theological Seminary, settled in Woolwich, Maine; a well known 
historical writer, now of Jimington, Maine. 

Moses M. Rolunson, A. B.. graduated at Bowdoiu, and is a lawyer in 
Xew York. 

Gustavus A. Robertson, teacher of Grammar school, Augusta. 

Emery O. Bicknell, microscopist, resided in Boston; dead. 

Eli 3Iellen Wight, M. D., graduated at Bowdoiu, Mayor of Chattanooga, 
Tenu. ; deceased. 

Joseph 8. Burns, A. B.. graduated at iiowdoin and in ]Medical school; 
resides at Chattanooga, Tenn. 

C. L. Wilson, M. D., graduated at Maine Medical scliool, resides in 

Solon Bartlett, M. D., graduated at Bowdoiu, resides at Lowell, Mass. 

Weston Hannnous, lawyer, resides in Anoka, Minn. jk 

Everett llannnons, A. B.. graduated at Bowdoiu, lawyer. City Solicitor 
of Anoka, 31iun. 

Wm. R. \Vood, A. JJ., graduated at Bowdoiu, resides in Porland. 

Sidney 1, Smith, Ph. I)., graduate and Professor of Comparative Zoology 
in Yale College. 

Charles J. Chapman, A. M., graduated at Bowdoin, merchant. Portland, 
and ^Liyor of the city. 

Thomas D. Anderson, A. B.. graduated at Bowdoin, lawyer, Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

J. Bartlett Rich, A. M., M. D., graduated at Yale College, Superintend- 
ent City Hospital, Worcester, Mass. 

Buchanan B. Burbauk, B. S., graduated iit Chandler Scientific school, 
Dartmouth College; dead. 

Daniel B. Grover, farmer, resides in California. 

L. Rutilus King, lawyer, resides in Caril)Ou. 

Parker C. Burbaidc, B. S., graduated at Chandler Scientific school, Dart- 
mouth College, clerk in Custom House, Boston. 

Goodwin R. AViley, druggist, resides in Bethel. 

Albert F. Barker, druggist, Monticello, Minn. 

Rev. Lincoln Harlow, graduated at Bangor Theological Seminary. 

Frank Clifford, lawyer, resides in Cornish. 

Amos PL Eaton, Principal Boys" Boarding school in Marlboro, Massa- 


Stephen B. Kenney, M. D., graduated at Bowdoiu, resided at Norfolk, 
Va. ; removed to South Carolina. 
' Chas. ^\. Bailey, M. D. 

John G. Wight, A. M., gi-aduated at Bowdoiu, Principal High school in 
Cooperstowu, N. Y. 

Charles P. French, A. M., M. I)., graduated at Georgetown College, D. 
C, resides in Washington, D. C. 

Charles O. Perle,y, merchant, resides in Bridgtou, Main*'. 

Edgar S. Brown, lawyer at Earlville, 111. 

Moses A. Hastings, lawyer, resides in Lancaster, X. H. 

Wm. W. Hastings, w ith the business firm of Mills & Gibbs, New York 

Frederic O. Gerrisli, lumberman at MinneapoUs, Minn. 

Addison E. Herrick, A. M., graduated at Bowdoin College, Principal of 
the Academy at Bluehill, Maine, now a lawyer in Bethel. 

Pinkuey P. Burnham, mercliant, New York City. 

Amos K. Town, druggist, resides at Gorham, N. H. 

Aaron Mason had cliarge of the Silver King mine, Arizona, at a salary 
of one thousand dollars per month. 

Ezra T. Russell, Clerk in the Custom House, New York C-ity ; dead. 

Louis C. Stearns, lawyer at Caribou, Maine. 

John I. Sturgis, M. D., graduated at Bowdoin, resides in New Glou- 

Jesse Jeflfrej', lawyer, resides in Turner, Maine. 

Marshall W. Davis, A. M., graduated at Bowdoin, ti-aveled several years 
in Europe. 

Edwin U. Gibson, miner, Leadville, Colorado. 

Lucius B. Stiles, with the firm of A. T. Stewart & Co., New York City. 

Lyman B. Shehan, A. B., graduated at Amherst, Principal of the Higli 
school in Westbrook. 

Clarence E. Chapman, graduate of the Law school, Michigan ITnivei-sity, 
Ann Arbor, Midi. 

Hervey W. Chapman, A. M., graduated at Bowdoin and at Andover 
Theological Seminary. 

Edwin C. Kowe, merchant, resides in Bethel. 

Ayres M. Edwards graduated at Bowdoin College, teacher in Lt^wiston, 
Superintendent of schools, author of text books. 

Frank M. Winter, Bowdoin College. 

Wm. ('. Frye enlisted in Company A, Twelfth Maine Regiment, Novem- 
ber 21, 18G1, served out his time, re-enlisted, was transferred to the Twelfth 
Maine Battalion, and was mustered out April IS, 186(3. He then studied 
law and settled in South Carolina. 

Joseph LT. Frye was mustered in the Seventh Maine Battery, December 
29, 1863, and was mustered out with the battery. 

Lydia S. Eames, a fine scholar, assistant to Di-. True, Ix'caiue a distin- 
guished teaclier. Was married and settled in Connecticut. 


Dolly G. Barker became the wife of Thomas E. Twitchell, and died in 

Esther S. Wight, an excellent scholar, became very protlcieut in the 
Greek and Latin languages; graduated at Tilton (N. H.) Seminary; mar- 
ried Dr. Chas. M. Fellows and settled in Lawrence, Mass. ; died a widow, 
December 29, 1876. 

Sophia B. Foster became the wife of Bev. Hiram ( ". Estes and resides in 
Leicester, Mass. 

Phila D. Locke went west and was in business in Bloomington, 111. ; 
returned and resides on the old Locke homestead in Bethel. 

Abb Pattee became the wife of Samuel F. Gibson and died in Bethel. 

Cyrene S. Ayer became the wife of Daniel A. Twitchell, who died in 
Bethel and she married again. 

Agnes S. Hastings was a teacher, she married and went west. 

Frances S. Chapman became the second wife of Thomas E. Twitchell, 
and resides a widow in Portland. 

Mary Ann Lock(> was a tcaclier, married Horace Chapman, wlio died, and 
she married Edwai-d (roddard, Ix^came a second time a widow, and died in 

Sarah PI. Bussell was a tine classical scholar, went to Jveutucky as a 
teacher, married Joseph Odell, and died from the effects of burns caused 
by the bursting of a kerosene lamp. 

Sarah E. Lunt became the wife of George A. Chuicliill of Portland; 
moved to Wasliington, D. ("., where he died. 

Maria A. Mason l)ecame the wife of Geneial Clark S. Edwards; she died 
in Bethel. 

Alice Gray Twitchell, for more than twenty years an otHcial at the 
Maine Insane Hospital, for many years the efficient matron, which position 
she still holds. 

Salome G. Twitclicil was long a teacher in Bradford Academy. 

Mary E. Kiml)all married David B. Gorham and resides in Norwaj*. 

Angelina S. ( hapnian, a most amiable young lady and a good teacher. 
She became the wife of Samuel D. Philluook. and died soon after of 

Mary Heywood, a bright scholar and successful teacher, became the 
wife of Merrit C. Fernald. President of tlie Maine State College at f)rono. 

^^p #^^ 



Bethel Centennial. 

HE citizens of Bethel, feeling that an event so important as 
the time of its settlement was worthy of due commemora- 
tion, a meeting of its citizens was held at the vestry of the 
Congregational church on Bethel Hill, July 14, 1874. The 
meeting was organized by the election of Major Abernethy Grover 
as chairman, and Richard A. Frye, Esq., as Secretary. It was 
voted to have a Centennial Celebration on Wednesday, August 26, 
1874. A committee was chosen to make the necessary arrangements 
for such an occasion, consisting of Nathaniel T. True, M. D., Hon. 
Robert A. Chapman, David V. Brown, Esq., Richard A. Frye, 
Esq., and Moses T. Cross, Esq., with authority to make such addi- 
tions to their numbers as they should deem proper. 

At a meeting of the committee held at Richard A. Frye's office, 
July 15, they perfected their organization by the election of Nathan- 
iel T. True, chairman, and Richard A. Frye, secretary. They 
voted to add ten members to their number to aid them, as follows : 
John D. Hastings and Elias 8. Bartlett for the east i)art of the 
town ; Israel G. Kimball and Augustus M. Carter for the middle 
part of the town ; Samuel B. Twitchell and Moses A. Mason for the 
north side of the river ; Elbridge G. Wheeler, Gilman P. Bean and 
David M. Grover for the west part of the town, and Major Gideon 
A. Hastings for Bethel Hill. David F. Brown, Moses T. Cross and 
Robert A. Chapman were chosen a committee to select a place for 
holding the centennial meeting. 

At a meeting of the committee held July 18, it was voted to ex- 
tend an invitation to Nathaniel T. True, M. D., to deliver the 
historical address at the Centennial Celebration. It was decided 
that the dinner should be a basket picnic, and that such table 
accommodations be procured for each school district as may be re- 
quired. Messrs. Brown, Wheeler and Kiml)all were chosen a com- 
mittee to appoint a person in each school district to see to the 
furnishing of the tables, and to have each district represented in 
the procession. They appointed in School District No, 2, Lorenzo 
Smith ; 3, John I\I. Philbrook ; 4, David Garland ; 5, Scott Wight ; 
6, Wm. H. Goddard ; 7, Alonzo Howe ; 8, Charles INI. Kimball ; 9, 
Hiram II. Bean; 10, John S. Swan, 2d; 11, Timothy C. Carter; 
12, Wm. Farwell; 13, Samuel S. Stanley ; 14, Al)ial Chandler : 15, 


C. I. Kimball aud Newton Grover ; 16, Daniel W. Towne ; 17, 
Wra. L. Beau ; 18, Milton Holt; 21, Jacob A. Chase ; 22. Oilman 
L. Blake and Ira Cushman ; 23, Cyrus Wormell ; 24, Abial Lyon ; 
25, Albert W. Grover ; 26, David T. Foster ; 27, John F. Hap- 
good ; 28, Albert Whitman ; 29, Gilbert Chapman ; 30, Oliver H. 
Mason aud Hiram Twitcbell. Messrs. T. C. Carter, Robert A. 
Chapman aud Hiram H. Bean were chosen a committee on finance ; 
Major (iideon A. Hastings, Marshal of the day ; Major Abernethy 
Grover, President of the day, aud the following gentlemen. Vice 
Presidents: Hon. Elias M. Carter, Mighill Mason, P^sq., Dea. 
Leonard Grover, Charles R. Locke, P^sq., and Eliphaz C. Bean, 
Esq. ; Prof. Henry L. Chapman of Bowdoin College, a native of 
Bethel, was chosen Poet; Rev. David Garland, Chaplain; Hon. 
Enoch Foster, Jr., Toast Master. 

Wednesday, August 26, 1874, was ushered iu by a delightful day. 
Bells were rung at sunrise, and almost before the villagers had 
finished their breakfast, carriages Ijegan to arrive loaded with men, 
women and children. Many of the private residences throughout 
the village were gaily trimmed with evergreens and other decora- 
tions. A large national flag floated across the street between the 
Bethel House and the residence of Major Gideon A. Hastings. 
The procession began to form at 10 A. M., under the direction of 
Major Gideon A. Hastings, Chief Marshal, the right of the line in 
front of the residence of Richard A. Frye, Esq., on Broad street, 
extending across the common and down Church street. The pro- 
cession countermarched down Broad street to the common. On 
entering the grove through an arch inscribed "1774, Bethel, 1874," 
there were arranged on the right, tables to accommodate four thou- 
sand people, and on the left, seats and conveniences for as many 

The seats being tilled, the President of tiie day, Hon. Abernethy 
Grover, made the address of welcome. 

Fellow Citizens: 

To-day we have met to celebrate the one hundredth anniversary 
of the settlement of this good old town of Bethel. We bid a cordial 
and hearty welcome to ever}' son aud daughter of Bethel, every one 
ever a resident among us, or who ever thought of coming, we bid 
you welcome. Some of the children of the eighteenth ceutur}' are 
still left with us to-day. It is nearly one hundred years since their 
fathers and mothers toiled through the woods, guided only b}' 
marked trees — came on snow shoes — with their all ou hand-sleds or 
on horseback, (a luxury) to make homes in the wilderness. They 
and their children have reared noble families, many representatives 
of whom have gone out from the old nest, settled in all parts of our 
country, and to-day the good influence of our good old town is felt 
in every portion of the Union. Our citizens have filled offices of 
trust and honor everywhere, and no Bethel bo}^ has l)rought any- 
thing but an honored uame to his good old native town. We are 
proud of our sous and daughters. We have now killed the fatted 


-calf and bid them all a free and hearty welcome home. Rev. David 
Garland offered prayer, and then the historical address was delivered 
by Dr. Nathaniel T. True, as follows :* 

Mr. President^ NaUce-horn Citizens., Adopted Citizens and Frieyids : 

One hundred years is the involuntary exclamation of everyone 
who contemplates the scenes connected with a centennial celebra- 
tion. A crowd of thoughts rushes upon the mind as one reviews the 
histor}' of our world from the birth of this town to the present occa- 
sion. Time with his busy lingers has placed on record the names of 
more than three thousand million human beings who have lived and 
died during that period. Kingdoms and empires have risen and 
fallen. A republic whose birth was almost co-incident with that of 
the town whose centennial we this day celebrate, has been founded 
on these western shores, containing 40,000,000 souls. The science 
of chemistry had its l)irth one century ago this very month. The 
steamboat, the railroad and the telegraph have been invented and 
found their wa}' to the four quarters of the earth. Scientific men of 
renown, poets, orators, statesmen, warriors and kings have been 
born, fulfilled their career and died. Men are still living who were 
born before all these things transpired. It is only one of the forty 
■centuries of recorded history, but one of the most important in the 
annals of time. This beautiful town has been changed from the 
dark and dense forest to the open fields, beautiful landscapes, and 
the thrifty homes of an industrious, intelligent and virtuous people. 

We welcome to our celebration to-day, the sons and daughters 
who still live on the paternal spot ; we welcome those who have 
wandered away, but who cannot easily forget the homes of their 
earlier years, and have returned to celebrate the da}^ with us. 

One hundred years ago little was known of the Androscoggin 
river above Rumford Falls. The earliest map in which 1 can find 
it laid down is by Charlevoix in 1744. He simply gives the general 
direction of the river as coming from a nameless lake. 

In 1745 a party made a survey' a few miles above Rumford Falls. 
I find no record of any exploration farther up the river till reaching 
Shelburne, N. H., which had received a charter from the crown as 
early as 1668, though it was not surveyed till 1771. 

The Indian name of what is now Bethel is lost. The only Indian 
name remaining within the limits of the town is that of Son.,o, 
applied to a pond on the extreme south border of the town. It 
signifies "the source," or "the discharging place" of one body of 
water into another, and is the principal source of the Presumpscot 
river. The latter meaning applies to Songo river, which discharges 
the waters of Long Pond, in Bridgton, into Sebago Lake. 

On the banks of the Androscoggin, about one mile above the 
bridge, and directly in front of the dwelling house of the late Tim- 
othy Chapman, Esq., there is an elevation of intervale consisting 
of three or four acres. It is a lovely spot. Here was an Indian 

*Dr. True's account of the Betliel churches and of some other matters arc omitteil, as 
It would only be repetition to insert them here. 


village. How long it had been inhabited is not known. It is prob- 
able that they had not occupied the spot since about the year 1750. 
They had cleared about ten acres of the intervale for a corn field. 
Pine trees measuring eighteen inches in diameter had grown up in 
some places when occupied by the first settlers ; the rest was cov- 
ered with bushes. Corn hills were everywhere visible among the 

On clearing the laud, about twenty cellars were discovered, which 
had probably been used as a deposit for their corn. A dozen or 
more gun barrels were found, together with brass kettles, axes,, 
knives, glass bottles, arrows and iron hoes, the latter of which were 
used by the settlers for several years afterwards, while the gun bar- 
rels were wrought into fire shovel handles by Fenno, the blacksmith. 
On one occasion he discharged the contents of a barrel into his 
work-bench while heating it in his forge. 

A single skeleton was discovered wrapped in birch bark. It is 
said that they generally carried their dead to Canton Point for 
burial. Probably the settlement contained one or two hundred 

A mile and a half below the bridge, near the Narrows, is Powow 
Point. Here they had a clearing of three-fourths of an acre, which, 
seems to have been a place of rendezvous for hunters and warriors. 
There is a tradition that a camp was burned there with all its in- 
mates, and that their implements and bones were afterwards found. 
Later the Indians made the point of land on Mill Brook their 
camping ground. 

So common were the Indians during the first settlement of the 
town, that quite a fleet of canoes on the river was a common occur- 
rence. Among many anecdotes related of the Indians I will speak 
of only one which has recently come to my notice. A partj of 
Indians encamped near Alder river, who offered to wrestle with 
Jonathan Barker, one of the first settlers in Newry. They selected 
the weakest first, whom Barker easily laid on his back. The others 
came in turn with the same result, till he reached the strongest. 
Barker found him exceedingly strong in his arms, but he succeeded 
in tripping his legs and laying him solid on his back. The Indian 
rose and exclaimed, "you all mattahondou," which in plain English 
meant, '-you all devil." 

It is a matter of political significance to remark that the Andros- 
coggin river was for a long time the boundary line between French 
and f^nglish influence. The later ludians who visited Bethel used 
to speak of the happy people that formerly dwelt there, away from 
the incursions of the whites. They never conveyed their lands to 
the whites above Lewistou Falls, and the last survivor claimed a 
right to the lands in Bethel as long as he lived. 

Among the many Indians who were well known to the earl}' set- 
tlers was Sabattis from Fryeburg. iNIatalluc was the last survivor 
on Umbagog Lake, who died at Stewartstowu, N. H., about 1840. 

Mollocket, a corruption of Mary Agatha, died in Andover in 
ISK). She was supposed to be the last of the Pequakets. Sergeant 


Lewey and Capt. Phillip were iu the revolutionary war. Captain 
Swarson was also in the war. These were Pequakets. Tomhegan 
never visited Bethel after the raid in 1781. 

The Indians of the St. Francis tribe often visited Bethel to have 
their guns and jewelry repaired by Eli Twitchell, Esq. An ludian 
once came with a box of jewelry for that purpose, but never 
appeared to claim it. 

The following notice respecting the present town of Bethel, stands 
recorded as follows : 

"June 7, 1768. In General Court of Massachusetts. Reported, 
Read, and accepted, and Resolved, That there be granted to Josiah 
Richardson and others, mentioned in the Petition, whose ancestors 
were in the expedition against Canada iu 1690, a Township of six 
and three-cjuarters miles square, to be laid out in the unappropriated 
lands of this Province to the eastward of iSaco river. Provided, the 
grantees within seven years settle eighty-three families in said town, 
build a house for the Publick worship, and settle a learned Protes- 
tant minister, and lay out one eighty-third part for the ministry, 
one eighty-third part for the use of a school in said town, and one 
eighty-third part for the use of Harvard College forever. Provided, 
also, that they return a plan thereof into the Secretary's office in 
twelve months for confirmation. Sent up for concurrence." 

It is worthy of note here that seventy-eight years had elapsed 
before the General Court of Massachusetts recognized the claims of 
the heirs of those who had been employed as soldiers in the expedition 
to Canada. 

This township received the name of Sudbury Canada from the 
circumstance that the original proprietors were principally from 
Sudbury, in Massachusetts, and the new township was located 
somewhere near Canada.* 

A meeting of the proprietors was held the same year, and Joseph 
Twitchell and Isaac Fuller, a surveyor, were chosen to survey the 
township and divide il into lots that year. It is probable that they 
selected the location of the town from the unappropriated lauds 
east of the Saco river, by representations of hunters of the fine 
interval lands on the Androscoggin river. As their location con- 
sisted of six and three-fourths miles square without regard to its 
external shape, they extended their survey along the best intervales 
of the river, a distance of seventeen miles, and around all tlie pine 
timber possible. The lots were long and narrow, consisting of forty 
acres each. On the uplands the lots were divided into squares of 
one hundred acres. Subsequently an addition was made to the ter- 
ritory of the town by a tier of lots bordering on the towns of Albany 
and Greenwood, as it was found that the original surveyors had not 

*This is a mistake, so far as the last word in the uame is concerued. It was called in 
part, "Canada," because it was granted for militarv service in the invasion of Canada in 
1690, and was one of the so-called Canada townships. Turner was called "Sylvester 
Canada," and Jay, "Phips Canada," etc. 


included sufficient land in accordance with their grant, or else be- 
cause there was much good pine timber there. 

After the return of the surveyors, Joseph Twitchell, a gentleman 
of wealth, and am-estor of all that name in this town and vicinity, 
saw and appreciated the future value of these lands, and as many 
of the proprietors refused to pay the assessments, he commenced 
buying up their claims, until eventually he held no less than forty 
shares. It was to his energy and foresight that the town was set- 
tled, though he never resided there himself. Among his purchases 
was the lot covering a large portion of what is now the village at 
Bethel Hill, including all the mill privileges on Mill Brook. He 
purchased this of the proprietors, April 6, 1774, for the sum of 
fifteen pounds, silver mone}'. 

December 5th, 1769, .losiah Richardson, Esq., and Cornelius 
Wood of Sudbury, and Josiah Stone of Framingham, were author- 
ized by the proprietors to sell to Joseph Twitchell, two whole rights 
for the sum of four pounds, in consequence of the uon-pa3'ment of 
assessments. Similar meetings for the same purpose were held in 
1773, 1774, 1777 and 17.S3. 

Among those who purchased a large number of the original rights 
were Aaron Richardson and Jonathan Clark of Newtown, who in 
December, 1774, paid one hundred and eighty pounds in lawful 

What were the relations of Sudbury Canada to the rest of the 
world one hundred years ago? Covered with dense pine forests, 
the hunter did not know the existence of a mountain till he reached 
its base. The Androscoggin, like a silver thread, wound its way 
mid mountains and forests, whose banks were covered with tall 
pines to its water's cilgi*. TIu' pioneer who once reached the place 
must go by spotted trees fortj' miles lo Frycburg through an un- 
broken wilderness ; forty miles down the river to Livermore, and 
forty miles by spotted trees, or by the compass, to New Gloucester. 
Ascending the river to its source, it was an unbroken forest to the 
shores of the St. Lawrence. Consequently, for many years after 
the settlement of the town, when a person came to Sudbury' Canada, 
he was said to go through the woods. 

The breaking out of the revolutionary war prevented the settle- 
ment of the town according to the conditions of the original grant, 
and it was not till 1783 that the General Court gave a full title to 
the settlers for their lands. Every settler was entitled to fifty acres 
of land in addition to his lot, and the duty of surveying these lots 
usually devolved on Capt. ILleazer Twitchell, after lie moved into 
town in 1780. 

Amid some ver}^ shadowy evidence of any attempt towards clear- 
ing lands for a settlement, I must assume that the first man who 
shouldered his axe for this purpose was Lieut. Nath'l Segar,* who 

♦.Jonathan Kcyes, the first settler in Rumford, became the owner of Sudburv Canada 
land in 1772, and in 177G, he hail cleared land, built a house and barn, and made other 
improvements. It is quite probable that he was here a year or two before Seirar. He 
sold his land in the early part of 1777, to Samuel Ingalls, called "of Frveliurg," and 
moved to New Pennacook, now Rumford. 


came to Sudbury Cauada from Newtown, Mass., in the spring of 
1774, and spent several montiis in felling and clearing on the farm 
now occupied by his daughter and her husband, Capt. Wm. Barker, 
in what is now Hanover. 

Lieut. Segar left for Newtown in the fall, and enlisted in the 
revolutionary war, in which he was engaged two years and nine 
months, and returned to Bethel in 1779, in company with Jonathan 
Bartlett. The}^ carried kettles with them for making sugar, and the 
next autumn returned to Massachusetts. The next spring Thad- 
deus Bartlett, and a boy by the name of Barton came back and 
spent their time in making sugar, which they sold to the Indians, 
and in clearing their farms. 

In the same 3'ear that Segar came to town, (1774) Lieut. Jona- 
than Clark came to Sudbury Canada and purchased a lot where 
Lewis Sanborn now lives, but did not make much progress toward 
a settlement, and he returned to his home in Massachusetts and be- 
came a commissar}'' in the arm3% but returned to Sudbury Canada in 
1778-9, and exchanged his farm for the one now occupied by A. L. 
Burbank, Esq. It is said that he cut the first hay in town on the 
brook opposite the steam saw mill, though this is also claimed for a 
meadow on Alder river, where a beaver dam existed, by which six 
acres came into grass spontaneously. 

In 1774, Capt. Joseph Twitchell built a saw mill on the fall near 
Eben Clough's starch factory. The remains of the dam may still 
be seen. This appears to have been the first building erected in 
town, save a few log camps. The same year he erected at the 
lower fall on Mill Brook, a grist mill, on the spot where the present 
mill now stands. On the opposite side of the street, on the little 
island now owned by David Brown, Esq., was erected the first 
frame house in town in 1779. It was built to accommodate the 
workmen in the mill, it had a long, shed roof, reaching nearly to 
the ground, and had two rooms. It has a subsequent history which 
will be noticed hereafter. 

In the fall of 1776, Mr. Samuel IngalU* and wife came to the 
settlement from Andover, Mass., and spent the winter on the farm 
occupied by Mr. Asa Kimball. She rode part of the way on horse- 
back, and the rest of the way traveled on foot. She was the first 
white woman ever within the limits of the town. In consequence 
of this fact the proprietors of the plantation gave her one hundred 
acres of land. He subsequently removed to Bridgtou, and then 
returned to Bethel, and died on the farm of the late Amos Young. 

Benj. Russell, Esq., came to Bethel from Fryeburg, with his 
family, in March, 1777. Himself and Gxen. Amos Hastings, then 
living in Fr3'eburg, being mounted on snow shoes, hauled on hand- 
sleds his wife and daughter, then fifteen years old, and who after- 
wards became the wife of Lieut Segar. They traveled nearly fifty 
miles in two days. They camped the first night near the mills at 

*In a deed from JonaUian Keyes to Samuel Ingalls, dated March 14. 1777, conveying 40O 
acres of land in Sudbury Canada, the latter is said to be "of Fryeburg;" see note on 
preceding page. 


North Waterford. Mrs. Russell was consequenth' the second white 
woman that came to town. Mr. Russell performed the business of 
the plantation, wrote an elegant hand, and celebrated the marriages. 
He used to say that he was the first Justice of the Peace in what is 
now Oxford County. He died Novemlier, 1802, and his wife, 

In 1778, Jesse Duston moved into the town with his wife, who 
was the third white woman. He settled on the farm now occupied 
by Bela AVilliams. Another important event worth}' of historic 
record occurred in 1782, as the result of their advent. To Mrs. 
Duston was born the first child in what was then Sudbury Canada, 
but now Hanover. His name was Peregrine. The proprietors 
were so elated at the prospect of an increase to its own population 
from within its own borders after a lapse of fourteen years from the 
date of their grant, that they in their generosity gave their first-born 
one hundred acres of land, on the farm now occupied hy Vincent 
Chapman. What a farm situated at the foot of Bear mountain was 
valued at at that time, I have no means of knowing. Peregrine 
Duston became a minister of the Methodist denomination, and died 
quite young. 

During the same year, March 12, 1782, Joseph Twitchell was 
born, being the first white child born within the present limits of 
Bethel. He died November 24, 1871, aged 90 j'ears. He resided 
in town during his life, except four years in Brunswick. 

In 1779, James 8wan came from Fryeburg, Me., and settled on 
the farm now occupied by Ayers Mason & Son. He built a house 
east of the road between Alder river bridge and Aj^ers Mason's 
house, on land now owned by Samuel D. Philbrook. He had three 
sons who were young men when he came ; Josei)h Greely Swan, 
who lived with his father; Elijah, who did not make a permanent 
settlement in the town; James, who settled on Swan's Hill, and 
Nathaniel, who settled on Sunday river, in Bethel, and died there. 
Their father was known as the man with whom Sabuttis, a well 
known Pequaket Indian, lived many years in Fryeburg. 

During this yeai , (1779) Capt. Joseph Twitchell, the original 
proprietor of the mills, persuaded his son, Capt. Eleazer Twitchell, 
then living in Dublin, N. H., to move with his family to Bethel, 
and take charge of his father's property. Accorduigly, Capt. 
Twitchell, his wife, and wife's sister, Betsey Mason, five children 
and six hired men, viz. : John Grover, Jeremiah Andrews, Gideon, 
Paul and Silas Powers, and a Mr. B'isk, left Dublin and came as far 
as Fryeburg in the winter of 1780, and in the spring reached 
Sudbury Canada. 

Capt. Twitchell sent his men through the woods from Fryeburg 
to Sudbury Canada to beat a path in the snow on their snow-shoes", 
when they returned to Fryeburg, packed their baggage on hand- 
sleds and started for Bethel, the women following in the rear. 
What earnest man will not be followed by an equally earnest woman, 
even to the wild woods of Sudbury Canada ? He occupied the house 
which had been built on the island near the srist-mill. He at once 


repaired the grist-mill, caught moose on the neighboring hills for 
meat, while his children picked berries in the woods. Capt. T. was 
a great acquisition to the town. He sent his men to aid settlers 
coming into town, ran out the town line and surveyed the lots for 
the new settlers, and aided them in securing homes "for themselves. 
He commenced clearing the farm now occupied by Moses A. Mason, 
cutting the pine timber of the best quality, which w^as put into the 
Androscoggin and floated to Brunswick, while the poorer ([uality was 
used for making log fences. Think of it, ye men whose eyes now- 
a-days glisten with delight at the sight of a pine log, when Capt. 
Twitchell hauled into the river and sold the handsomest white pine 
imaginable for fifty cents a thousand ! It was considered a good 
winter's work in those days when a man could haul lumber enough 
into the river with which to buy a yoke of oxen. 

Thus in the spring of 1781 there had been but ten families settled 
in the town during the thirteen years since the plantation had been 
granted to the proprietors. This occurred during the stormy times 
of the American revolution. Five of these families settled in the 
upper part of the town, Capt. Eleazer Twitchell, Benj. Russell, 
Esq., Abraham Russell, Lieut. Jonathan Clark and James Swan. 
In the lower part of the town were five families, Samuel lugalls, 
Jesse Dustin, John York, Amos Powers and Nathaniel Segar. The 
nearest of these two divisions was six miles apart, while some were 
ten or eleven miles. 

In 1781, David Marshall and wife moved into the town and 
settled on the Sanborn farm, on which the old town-house stood. 
Peter Austin also settled on the farm now occupied by John Barker. 
He had a camp but was not married. This was in 17^0. 

On the 3d of August, 1781, occurred an event which is worth}' of 
note as being the last of the incursions made l)y the Indians on the 
whites in New England. (See Chapter VI, pnge 4o.) 

As the records of the plantation are supposed to be irrecoverably 
lost, I am compelled to leave a lilank of mucii that transpired duiing 
these years. 

The only records of the plantation now known to be in existence 
is the report of a committee to settle accounts with persons who 
had worked on the fort and on the roads, and for scouting. John 
Grover was allowed £1 10s. for going to Fryeburg on an express. 
This was in 1782. Accounts were settled at this time for work on 
the roads. Probably the first road in town was from, near Albert 
Burbank's farm to David Brown's house, and thence toward Water- 
ford, over the highest, driest and rockiest portions of the land. 

In 1784, Capt. Peter Twitchell moved to the town and commenced 
clearing a farm on the land now occupied by Alphin Twitchell on 
the north side of the river. IMany persons remember him as a man 
of strong physical and mental power. He died in 1854, aged 94 
years. In 17'So, occurred the first death in the settlement. James 
Mills, while engaged in felling trees on Grover Hill, was struck by 
a tree and instantly killed. 

I have no record of events during the years 1783 and 1784, till 


October 25th, 1785, wheu there occurred the greatest freshet ever 
yet recorded in the Audroscoggiu river. The inhabitants had built 
their log houses on the intervales of this river, wheu they were 
swept away with all their contents. Capt. Twitchell's house on the 
island was surrounded with water, and he took off his family with a 
raft. This was a severe, but useful lesson, as they rebuilt their 
houses in position above the reach of freshets. One acquainted 
with the location can form an opinion of its height when he is told 
that from Clough's mill to the Androscoggin river there was one 
continuous sheet of water. It rose two feet above the sills of Moses 
A. Mason's dwelling house beyond the bridge. 

We certainly must attribute to the early settlers two unusual and 
disastrous events, the Indian raid and the great freshet. 

I do not learn that there were many additions to the population 
of the town for three or four years after these events. But great 
crops always occur after a great freshet, and the bountiful harvests 
induced otiiers to come through the woods to the Scoggin country 
as it was then called. 

It may give us an idea of the relation of this town to that of 
Paris in this county in 1785, wheu JNIiss Dorcas Harbour, who after- 
ward became the good wife of Stephen Bartlett, left her home in 
Gray, on horseback, behind her father, and rode as far as they 
could go in this manner to Paris Hill. From this place she con- 
tinued her journey on foot or on snow-shoes, accompanied by ]Mr. 
Josiah Segar, who dragged along a sled containing all her goods. 
They reached a camp at night, where they found ditliculty in pro- 
curing a fire for some time, but she always afterwards insisted that 
she spent the night very comfortal)ly with Mr. Segar. The}' reached 
Mr. Keyes' house at Rumford Point the next day, and the following 
day met her sisters in what is now Hanover. 

Among the early settlers was Rev. Eliphaz Chapman, who re- 
moved from Methuen, Mass., to Bethel, in 178*J, ancl settled on the 
site of the old Indian village and their corn-fields, now occupied by 
Timothy Hilliard Chapman. His family came to town the next 
year. This was the first opening on the north side of the river 
above Moses A. Mason's. 

Allusion has already been made to John drover. He and four 
brothers settled on or near Grover Hill. Though rather tardy in 
getting married, yet, Mr. President, as all good citizens should do, 
he married, uniting his fortune with that of Miss Wile}' of Frye- 
burg, of whose children may especially be noted Dr. John Grover, 
for more than fifty years a physician in this town. 

Let us glance for a moment at the condition of these pioneers who 
had come from a country comparatively old, to a wilderness. Their 
route from Massachusetts to Sudbury Canada was either by way of 
Fryeburg, or to Standish, and then across Sebago and Long Ponds, 
on the ice in the winter, or in boats in the summer, and the rest of 
the way through a dense forest. Their most frequent neighbors 
were the Indians, who still occupied the region as their hunting 
ground, and who claimed a legal right to the country. 


The pioneers had uo roads. Spotted trees served as guidel)oar(ls. 
Though exiled from the world, the}- had stout hearts, and the earth 
yielded bountiful crops. Marvellous stories were told by them re- 
lating to their crops of wheat, potatoes and corn on the rich soil of 
the intervales. 

Yet the}' had their luxuries. They employed their time in the 
spring mouths in making maple syrup and sugar. Hulled corn 
boiled in maple syrup is no mean fare. Sage tea took the place of 
tea and coffee. Fresh moose steak was as good then as now-. 
They could raise the finest wheat, which, made into a cake and 
baked before the rousing fire, had a flavor which is sought in vain 
in modern cookery. Dea. George W. Chapman commemorates 
their luxuries in verse : 

"Our blueljerry sauce auel crau1)erry tai't, 

And l)lps«ied maple houey, too, 
Refresh the taste, rejoice the heart, 

And loss of appetite renew." 

Their sleep was just as sweet in a log house as in a palace. The 
blazing hard wood fire in one corner of their house sent out rays of 
comfort to its inmates. A series of shelves in the kitchen held the 
bright pewter plates and the crockery ware in proud array, while 
the cupboard beneath had two kegs, o\\^^ of which contained 
molasses. The}' ate their baked beans in those days with their 
knives instead of their forks, and drank their tea and coffee from 
the saucer if it was too hot. 

A stranger at the table was never waited upon, but was invited 
by the host to help himself to tlie food placed in the centre. A 
man that could not help himself in those days was considered of 
little account. 

Breakfast was had by candle-light in winter so the men could go 
to the woods by daylight. Dinner was had at twelve o'clock, and 
announced by the cliuner horn or by a halloo from the mother of the 
family. Supper in the evening by candle-light. 

The evenings in autumn and winter were largely sjjent by the 
men in husking and shelling corn, making shoes, baskets, brooms, 
bottoming chairs, making axe handles, and perhaps an ox yoke. 
The women worked even later at night than the men. Sometimes 
twelve or one o'clock would find the mother busy with her needle, 
preparing for the wants of her family. Tiiere was no ten-hour 
system then. The hired man was out of bed hy daylight in sum- 
mer, and worked till dark, with only time to eat his meals, and if a 
young man he was expected to see how fast he could work. Mar- 
vellous stories can be told here to-day by old men, of how much a 
man could do in a single day. Fifty years ago it was the best man 
in town that could get ten dollars a month in summer. 

There was a neighborly feeling existing then which is hardly 
known at the present day.' If a neighbor called at another's liouse 
he rarely ever knocked, or if he did he heard the familiar woids, 



"walk in." The apple-paring bee, the husking, the raising, the 
quilting bee were scenes of real hearty enjoyment. Public demon- 
strations were few, and these served as a substitute and a useful 

The family kitchen was the common reception room for every- 
thing. The long poles overhead served for the clothes after they 
had been washed and ironed, while in the autumn they were cov- 
ered with dried pumpkins and strings of dried apple. The old 
musket which had served in the war hung to a beam overhead. 
The huge fireplace was regularly supplied with a great back-log, 
fore-stick, and other wood every morning. The pile of ashes 
served for roasting potatoes and burying up the coals at night. If 
the fire went out during the night recourse was had to the tlint and 
steel and tinder box, or a boy was dispatched to a neighbor's for a 
live coal. Seats were improvised, and the neighbors assembled in 
the kitchen for a lecture from the clergyman, while on Sunday even- 
ing a neighboring 3-outh made his appearance to court the oldest, or 
some other daughter of the family. Candles and lamps and window 
curtains were not needed then. The blazing fire shone cheerfully 
into the faces of those who made their courting a serious matter. 

Evening visits to each others' houses were common in winter. A 
bowl of apples and a mug of cider always made their appearance. 
A bountiful supper, in which doughnuts and mince pies were sure 
to be seen, was followed by stories of pirates and witches which 
abounded in those days, or of the personal adventures in the revo- 
lutionary war, or on some knotty doctrinal subject in theology. 
We smile at these things, but there was a hearty, rational pleasure 
scarcely enjoyed by a more artificial state of society. 

They easily made necessity the mother of invention. A wooden 
sap trough could easily be converted into a cradle by the addition 
of a set of rockers. The manufacture of wooden bowls, plates 
and spoons gave' them emplo^-ment during the long winter evenings. 
For the want of brick to make a chimne}', thej' could make a hole 
through the roof, and top one out with mud and sticks. A moose 
sled of peculiar construction, called by the Indians, tarboggiu, 
answered a variety of purposes during the winter, while at a later 
period long poles lashed to the sides of a horse served for drawing 
in their supplies from the outer world. Everybody could use snow- 
shoes. Holes dug in the ground served as a place of deposit for 
their potatoes, and a crib made of poles protected their corn. 
Hopes of a better home stimulated them, and their increasing fam- 
ilies and bountifu' 'ops were abundant rewards to them for all their 

Among all the inconveniences incident to pioneer life, I have 
never heard of but one instance where a ditticulty occurred which 
could not in some way be overcome. A man by the name of New- 
land had a fine pig which he placed in a large hollow pine stump 
for his sty. The pig grew rapidly, and so large that he could not 
be taken out of his pen without spoiling the stump. 

When coming to Sudbury Canada they spoke of going through 


the woods to the Seoggin country. Everybody knew when a 
stranger came, what was his business, and when he left. 

It may give you some idea of the toils and the strength of the 
men of those da^'s when you are told that Jonathan Barker came 
from Fryeburg on the snow in the spring of 1780, up Sunday river, 
hauling on a hand-sled a five-pail iron kettle, a three-pail iron pot, 
and a grindstone, while he probal)ly had on his shoulders, his pro- 
visions, his gun and axe. He had his camp plundered by the 
Indians. His son, Capt. Wm. Birker, aged eighty-six, and his wife 
Abigail Segar, daughter of Nathaniel Segar, aged eighty-three, 
still reside on the farm first cleared by Lieut. Segar, and in the 
house built by him, which are, with Lieut. Clark's house, probably 
the oldest in town. 

Capt. Barker was born on the farm now occupied by John Rus- 
sell. Edmund Bean, aged ninety in November, and present to-day, 
was also born in this town, and these are the two oldest native-born, 
citizens now living. 

As the Plantation now rapidly increased in population, the citi- 
zens petitioned the Massachusetts Legislature for an act of incorpo- 
ration as a town, which was granted June 10, 1796 — seventy-eight 
years ago. 

It might puzzle most of the present po|)ulation to know what 
place is referred to by tlie following descri[)tiou of its boundaries in. 
the act of incorporation : 

"•Beginning at a beech tree marked S. Y. one mile from Amare- 
scoggin river and on the north side of Peabody's Pataut. thence 
running south 20 degrees east, four miles and one-half on Peabody's 
Patant, and Fryeburg Academy land to a hemlock tree marked 
1-1-1 — 111. Thence east twenty degrees north nine miles on 
Oxford and State lauds to a beach tree marked 1. Thence north 
twenty degrees four miles one quarter and sixty rods on Nevvpenni- 
cook to Amariscoggin rivei- ; thence west two degrees south, three 
miles and three quarters on Howard's Grant to a beach tree ; thence 
west thirty four degrees south on Thomastown to the first mentioned 

Such are the original boundary lines of Bethel. 

The name of Bethel was suggested I)y Rev. Eliphaz Chapman. 

I must pass over the events of the next few years. Settlers now 
poured into the town more rapidly, so that from 17!J0 to 17D6 a 
large number of the intervale lots were occupied. This was espe- 
cially the case in the lower part of the town, where the broad 
intervales early attracted the attention of these pioneers. 

It would be pleasant to notice more fully the name of Moses 
Mason, father of the late Dr. Moses Mason, a man of correct 
judgment, good sense, and a peacemaker among his neighbors. 

Samuel B. Locke came to Bethel in 179(i. Most of us know 
what a family he reared, and that one. Prof. John Locke, became 
distinguished for his scientific attainments. 

Time will not allow me to-day even to name many families who 


moved into town, which have played an important part in its history. 
The future historian must do this. 

Passing on to the close of the last century, it may be well to 
spend a moment in reviewing the ground we have gone over. It 
will be noticed how prominent was the influence of a few family 
names in moulding the character of the town. First — The Twitch- 
ells were the only descendants of the old proprietors. They were 
strong men, and well fitted for pioneer life. 

Then the Grovers, who settled around Grover Hill, should be 
noticed. Some of them seem to have been born good, and they 
liave played an important part in the history of the town. 

The Bartletts have always proved an industrious and thriving 
people, and have done their share towards developing the natural 
resources of the town, and adorning it with tasteful residences. 

The Swans should not be forgotten. They seem to have con- 
verged toward that most lovely spot in town known as Swan's Hill, 
which our summer visitors should not fail to see for the beautiful 
scenery, the maple orchards and thriving farms of its occupants. 

The Russells have hardly kept up their original number. Many 
moved from the town, so that comparatively few of the name now 
remain, though of good quality. 

The Chapmans have been among our most successful business 
men. They seem to have the peculiar faculty of buying dear and 
selling cheap, and yet contrive to thrive by the process. 

The Powers are a name highly respectable and successful in the 
various pursuits of life in which they have been engaged, but have 
nearly all left the town. 

The Farwells have held possession of Mt. Farvvell, which they 
have embellished with fine farms. 

The Masons, fat at forty, are shrewd in business, and prosperous 
vpithout apparent effort. 

The Beans have acted well their part as good tow-nsmen. 

Then there are the Barkers, tiie Estes, the Kimballs and the 
HcJl'ts, and other names of equal importance wiiich might be men- 
tioned, did time allow. 

Capt. Eleazer Twitchell may be regarded the founder of the 
village of Bethel Hill. He looked with jealous care at everything 
^which should bring the Hill into notice. He had a road built from 
the grist-mill up the hill, which gave rise to the name Bethel Hill. 
He had built a large house known as the castle in 17M7, on the 
Common, in the rear of the late Lovejoy Hotel, now burnt, where 
he kept tavern, had a store, surveyed. lands and timber, and had 
charge of a saw and grist-mill. This was the first house on the 
•Common. He gave the Common to the parish in 1797 on condition 
that the-town would clear off the trees and build a church on it. 
The opposition to this measure from the north side of the river led 
lio a compromise by building the church near the mouth of Mill 
Brook, some twenty rods above the great bridge over the Andros- 
coggin. As he died without giving a deed of tiie property, his heirs, 
s Joseph Twitchell and Jacoli Ellingwood, gave it by deed to the town 


in 1H23. It is to be hoped that the ladies of the village will devise 
means to have the rocks removed and the surface graded. 

From Capt. Eleazer Twitchell's account book, vpe have an illus- 
tration of habits of people : 

Jaiiurtvy ye 11, 1796. 

■ To 1 Gall, of Euin $1.33 

1 pt. do 18 

2 (jts. Molases. .40 

1 lb. Tobacco 26 

3 lbs. Fish 21 

1 lb. Sugar 17 

1808. To 1 inug Cyder 05 

>^ mug of Flip 10 

1 gill of Bitters 10 

1 bush. Salt 1.50 

1810. To 1 busb. Pertatoes 1.04 

1811. To lodging one nite ; 16 

>2 mug Toddy 14 

In 1799, James Walker came to Bethel Hill and opened a store 
in one of the rooms in Capt. Eleazer Twitchell's house. This was 
the first regular store in town, though Capt. Twitchell and bis 
brother YA\ had kept a few goods to accommodate the people. In 
1802 he built a large house and store on the spot now occupied hy 
Mr. Barden as a hotel. This was the second house built on the 

There was but one store in the village for many years, and no 
more than two till about the year 1837. Robert A. Chapman com- 
menced trade in the village in 1831, and has continued without 
interruption till the present time, a period of forty-three years, and 
has labored probably more hours during that time than any man in 
town. There are now about thirty stores and shops in town where- 
various articles sre bought and sold. 

Among" the prominent citizens of Bethel, must be mentioned 
Jedediah Burbank, Esq. He settled in 1803 on the farm originally 
cleared by Lieut. Jonathan Clark. As a Justice of the Peace^ 
selectman for six years, and a landlord of a public house for many- 
years, as an active member in the church, and in the cause of tem- 
perance and education, he was well known. He bought the castle 
built by Capt. Twitchell, in 1833, and erected the first hotel of 
modern pretensions in 1.S34, which was afterwards enlarged and 
known as the Lovejoy House. He died February 29, 1860, aged 
75 years. 

The following sketch of the condition of our ancestois will show 
in what respect their condition differed from that of the present 
generation : 

"•They raised fiax which was spun and woven into cloth, from 
which they made checked pocket handkerchiefs, checked aprons 
and gowns, while for Sunday shirts nothing better was expected^ 
Starched shirt collars were not in fashion then. If anything nice 
was wanted, a few pounds of India cotton was woven with the linen. 


From the coarser tow, trowsers were made, and working shirts and 
frocks in summer. No bathing cloth was ever better for the skin 
than a coarse tow shirt, of which your speaker wdll show you a 
specimen woven for him half a. century ago. The wool from their 
sheep was manufactured into blankets, woolen shirts, frocks and 
waled cloth colored blue, while one web went to the fulling mill, out 
of which go-to-meeting clothes were made. They did not suffer 
from the cold. Every farmer carried his calf and cowskius to the 
tanner, who changed them into leather, and often he spent the fall 
and winter evenings in making boots and shoes for his family. A 
pair of calfskin shoes was considered a fine present to the good 
mother and oldest daughter of the family. The boys could wear 
cowhide shoes, which, well greased with tallow, looked nearly as 
well as calfskin. A young man dressed as a dandy was of no 
account whatever. Gradually the well-to-do citizen wore a buff 
vest and a long tailed coat made of J^nglish blue broadcloth, and 
adorned with brass buttons, while a ruttied shirt appeared promi- 
nently in front. A watch chain with a carnelian seal hung from his 
pantaloons. Drawers and undershirts were articles unknown. For 
the older men, a red bandanna pocket handkerchief served a good 
purpose, and a mutHer for the neck in cold weather, while the young 
men had a gay colored silk handkerchief, one end of which, a quarter 
of a yard in length, was sure to hang from the coat pocket behind 
as a flag of truce. No young man in those days was considered 
well dressed without this appendage. 

The ladies wore their dresses with a short waist and a short skirt, 
exhibiting a well turned ankle and foot, which was covered with a 
shoe having a black silk bow or buckle on the top. A vandyke 
surrounded the neck, pinned down at a point itehind and before. 
A rutlie surrounded the neck, and the married ladies had a cap con- 
taining many yards of ruttie. No doubt they appeared very liand- 
some and attractive, especially when a neat row of spit curls 
bordered a comely face. A gentleman with a lady behind him on 
horseback was a pleasant, and sometimes an enviable sight. 

At their huskings, (juiltiugs, and social gatherings, there was an 
artless simplicit}' of manner among the young, which would not be 
witnessed on similar occasions at the present day. Society had its 
conventionalities the same as now. A clergyman in a gray or blue 
suit of clothes would have lost his position in his parish. Every- 
body with a beard, shaved once in a week, either Saturday afternoon 
or Sunday morning. An unchristian, unshaved man did not then 

Fashion had its absurdities as great as those of to-day. The 
huge, protruding bonnet in front can only be excelled by the no 
bonnet at all of the present day. Shoes, with high, slender heels, 
projecting from the sole of the foot, has no corresponding deformity 
now. Huge ear-rings, and combs on the top of the head, were 
extravagances like those in a different way at the present time. 
Large, flowing dresses with long trails -existed then as now. Ladies 
were admired as much then as those of to-day. The powdered wig 


of the last century has no corresponding absurdity to-day, while the 
handkerchief with its several folds around the neck, has given way 
to the more comfortable necktie." 

Twitchells' mill has a history of its own. Built in 1774, it was at 
first without a miller, each patron grinding his own grist. It was 
liable to get out of repair and freeze up in winter, so that the inhab- 
itants were compelled to grind their grain in hand mills. Captain 
Twitchell repaired it in 1781. In 1788 it was rebuilt by Samuel 
Redington, a millwright of Augusta, father of the late Judge 
Redington. In 1802 a tub wheel w^as put in, which was regarded a 
great improvement. 

In subsequent years it ground slow, as if under the direction of 
the gods. Persons living can remember Capt. Twitchell as the 
miller, who would put in a grist and leave the mill to spend the 
evening at a neighbor's, where he spent his time in singing, "My 
name was Robert Kidd as I sailed." 

Sometimes he spent the whole night grinding for customers, and 
sleeping on a seat constructed for the purpose, before a huge fire 
built in the wall of the mill. After him Mr. Jesse Cross was the 
miller. He would put three bushels of wheat in the hopper at night, 
set the mill to running, go home and spend the night, and next 
morning visit the mill and find the grist still unfinished. 

I must here allude to another grist-mill. Mr. Jesse Dustou, who 
came to town in 1778, erected a small water wheel in a brook, on 
or near the Adam Willis' farm in Hanover, and attached a small 
granite stone which turned like a grindstone. Beneath this was 
another stone hollowed out so as to receive the edge of the revolv- 
ing stone. Corn was dropped in by hand. My informant states 
that the meal was not very fine, but that it answered a very good 

We now number a population including that portion of Hanover 
which originally formed a part of Bethel, and was set off February 
14, 1843, about two thousand three hundred souls. It is not a 
manufacturing town. Every occupant of a farm is supposed to own 
it. Every prudent mechanic soon has a home of his own. Ever}' 
man engaged in trade is expected to gain a competency. Bank- 
ruptcy rarely occurs. While in England and Wales, one out of 
every twenty-four persons is a pauper. While in Europe the trav- 
eller is beset by beggars tliat swarm around him, in this town three- 
fourths of its inhabitants never saw a pauper or beggar. Our 
villages and our dwellings, like our landscapes, improve every year, 
indicating taste> refinement and intelligence. Intemperance, the 
curse of many towns, has been but lightly felt here. Its sons and 
daughters with habits of industry may be found in every State in 
the Union, prospering, as a matter of fact. Like a birdling which 
looks out of its paternal nest and desires to fly, so do the young men 
and women fiee away to form homes of their own. We rejoice that 
it is so. We are proud of them in their success. 

If we cannot record among our citizens great orators, statesmen 


or warriors, we can present a long array of names who have become 
good citizens of our Repul)lic in the highest sense of the term. Six 
of its citizens have represented their constituents in Congress. One 
native born is now Governor of a State. One is now a Colonel in 
the United States Army. Three have been Professors in our 
colleges, while many have honorably filled the positions assigned 
them by their fellow citi'zens. The number who have entered the 
learned professions is very large. 

This day is an important event in the history of this town, and 
when the year of our Lord one thousand nine hundred and seventy- 
four rolls round, though scarcely a dwelling now existing may 
remain as a land-mark of the past, yet progress will be stamped all 
over its surface, and our names and the names of our fathers will be 
held in grateful remembrance by those who shall celebrate the next 
centennial of Bethel. 

Mr. President, I want to live one century from to-day, and see 
what changes will have occurred in the world's progress. I want to 
see how this town will look at that time. 1 want to see what 
discoveries have been made in science, what inventions in the 
arts, what advancement in human culture, in virtue and happi- 
ness. Some present may yet have grandchildren who will witness 
and read the annals of a century yet unl)oru. It is a grand thought, 
on which we cannot expatiate, but must leave the problem of man's 
highest destiny to be wrought out by future generations. 

Farewell to the great Past, and welcome to the great unknown 
Future ! May that kind Providence which has watched over our 
fathers still hover over their sons and daughters to remote 

Prof. Henry Lelaud Chapman of Bowdoiu College then read the 
Centennial Poem as follows : 

When Jacob, with his father's blessing crowned, 

Went forth toward Haran — 'mong whose (locks he found 

That Rachel, for whose sake he patient wrought 

Twice seven years and gained the love he sought — 

His steps upon a certain place did liglit. 

And tarried, so the Scripture saith, all night; 

His heart, perchance, went forward in its quest, 

His feet were weary, and they needed rest. 

Wild was the spot the foot-sore pilgrim chose, 

Most fit to urge, but scarce to give repose ; 

Thick-strewn with stones, and frigid 'neath the reign 

Of utter silence, lay that eastern plain, 

Where mother earth so stern and cold did keep, 

How could she lull a tired child to sleep ? 

The shadows deepened, and the pilgrim lone 

Sought his hard couch, and, from the pillowing stone, 

Saw the slow step of night, and in the sky 

Her twinkling footprints as she glided by. 



What though, indeed, the stones that formed his bed 
Gave little comfort to his weary head I 
He saw the solemn beauty of the skies, 
And peace and rest fell on his closing eyes. 
And thus he slept ; when, lo I a fairer sight 
Broke through the shadows of the silent night : 
Floated his senses on a noiseless stream 
Touched with the radience of a heavenly dream. 

A ladder rose, whose countless rounds of light 

Wearied the dreamer's upward-climbing sight ; 

From earth to heaven it stretched — a glorious way. 

From shades of uight to realms of endless day. 

And angels walked thereon, whose shining feet 

Came tripping down in eager haste to greet 

The sleeping pilgrim, in whose quest of love 

The angel host did sympathize above. 

And where the mystic ladder pierced the sky, 

Shrouded in light, and clothed in majesty, 

Appeared the Lord of heaven and earth supreme. 

Whose gracious accents crowned the blissful dream. 

"Lo, I am with thee ! and my love shall trace 

The path that leads thee from thy resting-place ; 

Thy father's God am I, and Abraham knew 

My gracious guidance, and to Jacob, too, 

I promise all the riches of this land. 

And ceaseless blessings from my open hand. 

Yea, like the dust of earth thy seed shall be, 

In number countless ; and all eyes shall see 

It spread from Noith to South, from East to AVest,. 

'Till all the families of the earth are blessed 

In thee, who takest here thy needed rest." 

O mortals, weary with the cares 

That round your pathways throng. 
The hardest resting-place may be 

The fittest ground for song. 

The feet that falter not, tho' faint, 

May reach, at setting sun, 
A spot more rugged than the road 

With which the day begun ; — 

The head no softer pillow find 

Than the unyielding stone. 
The shadows gather round a soul 

That weary is, and lone ; 

But heaven consoles whom earth aftiicts,- 

And opens wide its gates, 
To him, who, reckless of the road, 

On duty ever waits ; 


And ministers of love descend 

With healing on their wings, 
And in sweet visions of the night 

Reveal celestial things ; 

And, best of all, the voice of God 

Falls on his ravished ear, 
And sleep grows sweeter at his words 

Of hope, and peace, and cheer. 

When morning kissed the earth with lips of light, 
And won it from the cold embrace of night, 
Jacob, refreshed, arose, with heart serene, 
And eyes still radiapt from the vision seen. 
And now his feet were eager to depart, 
But lingered at the prompting of his heart. 
The place was sacred ; he had known it not. 
Yet God was here, and graciously had wrought 
Such wonders, and to him such visions given. 
It seemed none other tlian the gate of heaven. 
The wilderness had blossomed ; and its name 
Henceforth was Bethel — chosen word to frame 
Its sacred memories. 

Then, that other da3''s 
Might read the glad memorial of his praise, 
He reared the stone on which his head had lain. 
And journeyed onward in his quest again. 

So we, whose eyes Ijnve seen, whose ears have heard 

How here the desert blossomed, hail that word. 

And in this newer Bethel joyful raise 

A simple, heartfelt monument of praise 

To Him, whom Jacob saw, and whom we know. 

By all the wonders of his love below. 

A hundred years ! Their light and shade 

A wondrous web have wrought : 
The eyes that watched, through smiles and tears. 
The shuttle's flight in by-gone years, 

Perchance some glimpses caught. 
But tarried not, nor saw the i)lan 
That through the widening texture ran. 

A hundred years ! The mellow ray 

Of history o'er us streams, 
Pierces the darkness, and displays 
The garnered light of vanished daj-s ; 

As one, who, lost in dreams, 
Sees gleams of glory through the skies, 
And wonders whence they take their rise. 


A liuudred years I Their stateh' steps 

Fell on no mortal ear ; 
Yet, gathering in this honored place, 
The tell-tale footprints we can trace, 

That marked their progress here ; 
And here a monument we raise, 
In memory of departed days. 

Our verses with our thcughts will chime, 
And wander to that distant time 
Which fills our fanc}', flees our sight, 
Half-hidden in the hazy light 
That tells of day, but hints of night. 
In Sudbury Canada we stand ; 
Above us tower the stately trees, 
Which, stirred by every passing breeze. 
Make murmurous music thro' the land. 
Far from the thoroughfares of trade. 
Remote from all the noise of men, 
A spot of calm and sweet repose, 
Save where the gurgling streamlet flows 
Along some moss3'-haanted glen 
That flickers with soft light and shade ; 
Or where the Androscoggin pours 
Its tide, impatient for the sea, 
Or, with a sound like minstrelsy. 
Loiters along its shaded shores. 
The forest, whose vast realms of shade 
Hide homes that to the birds belong. 
Spreads a green canopy o'erhead. 
All interlaced with threads of song ; 
Beneath the tiny wild-flower shows 
Its petals, moist with lingering dew, 
That trembling stays, and swiftly goes 
Whene'er the sunlight trickles through. 
And through the silence and the shade 
That hover o'er this sylvan scene, 
Among the giant trunks that show- 
Long vistas of repose between. 
The timid hare fears not to take 
Its halting leaps, with awkward grace, 
Nor rifle shot presumes to wake 
The sleeping echoes of the place ; 
Only the red man's stealthy tread 
Falls noiseless on the yielding ground, 
Whose arrow to its mark hatli sped 
Unerring, with no tell-tale sound. 
Here, Beauty dwells, and Silence sweet. 
In natui's's undistui-bed retreat. 


The scene hath chauged ; the white man's eyes- 
Have rested on this lovely spot ; 
And lo ! his feet have tarried not 
To follow and possess the prize. 
With patient toil his arm doth wield 
The glittering axe, and where it falls 
The ancient trees unwilling yield, 
And form his rude but sheltering walls. 
And day by day the sunlight looks 
Upon a slowly changing scene, 
And, searching" out the hidden nooks, 
Of which, in other days, it sought 
A moment's glimpse, and gained it not. 
It lingers lovingly and late. 
And comes again — and while we wait 
To count its visits, lo, its sheen. 
Hath clothed the nooks with living green. 
The sturdy pioneers, whose toil 
Doth thus transform the virgin soil, 
Dwell not, meanwhile, secure from fear ; 
In every rustling leaf the}^ hear 
The footstep of the stealthy foe ; 
In every storm that mutters low. 
In every gale that shrieks, and fills 
With nameless dread the gathering gloom, 
They hear his war-cry, and their doom 
Re-echoed from the circling hills. 
A sense of danger broods around. 
And clothes with dread each slightest sound : 
Prompting the hearts that feel the stress 
Of danger, linked with loneliness. 
To seek the comfort and the aid 
That lie within a neighbor's hand ; 
And, straightway, through the forest shade, 
The conscious want a path hath planned, 
And notched the trees on either side — 
A simple, but unerring guide 
To him who seeks, in peace or war, 
A neighbor's house that stands afar. 
Along the lines, thus faintly traced. 
The postman rides, with ringing horn, 
Or Doctor, whose impatient haste 
Tells plainly, ere the day be passed, 
That some one will be dead — or born. 
Thus lives, 'mid changing hope and fear. 
The stalwart, steadfast pioneer. 
Slowly he conquers ; slowly yields 
The sullen wood to smiling fields ; 
But, dauntless still, he bides the fates, 
And patient works — and working waits. 


Again the scene hath changed ; and fair 
'The meadows stretch ; with peace the air 
Is laden ; and the kind earth yields 
The bounty of her fruitful fields. 
Gone is the wilderness I and where 
It stood, behold the homes of men, 
And bustle where repose hath been. 
But why this later change rehearse 
In cold and inexpressive verse? 
Behold the beauties that before you rise, 
Bethel herself salutes your wondering eyes. ^ 

O ye, whose wandering feet retrace to-day 
The path that led you from these scenes away. 
Within whose breasts, wherever you ma}' roam, 
The faith still lives, that jjoints to childhood's home, 
We bid 3'ou hail I The ohl-time charm still dwells 
Upon these meadows, in these shady dells ; 
The sunlight gilds, with all its ancient grace, 
The winsome beauties of your native place ; 
Still Bethel sits, a queen, in modest pride, 
And calls her willing subjects to her side. 

We bow, most gracious sovereign, at thy feet ; 
Our loving lips thy garment's hem would greet — 
Our age renew the love that childhood gave. 
Our loyal hearts thy lienediction crave. 
Our eyes thy crown of beauty view once more, 
That thrilled our senses in the days of 3'ore ; 
And ere the setting sun bids us away. 
Our heartfelt wishes at thy feet we'd lay. 

Long be thy reign among thy native hills I 

The peace unbroken which thy valleys fills ; 

The river, rushing onward to the sea. 

Bring verdure on its dancing waves to thee ; 

The stately mountains, like grim sentries, stand 

To guard thy sunny fields on every hand ; 

Within the bosom of each wandering son 

The pride be steadfast which thy charms have won. 

Dwell thou in peace, secure of all our love, 

And crowned with countless blessings from al)ove. 

After the poem a blessing was invoked by the Kev. Williaju 
Warren, D. D., and the great crowd repaired to the tables assigned 
to the different districts. Sm-h a sight as was presented here was 
never before witnessed in Bethel. Every kind of food, of ancient 
and modern times, made the tables fairly groan with their burden. 
Everybody was invited to come and bring their friends with them. 
Thev all ate and were filled. 


Hon. Enoch Foster, toast master, read the following toasts : 

''TJie State of Maine, ever true to her motto: INIay her sons and 
her daughters everywhere do honor to her principles by their 
industry, intelligence and virtue." 

Responded to by Hon. Sidney Perham, ex-Governor of Maine. 

Mr. President: I rise to respond to the sentiment just offered 
under more than ordinary embarrassment. It is always embarrass- 
ing to stand before an audience in a place that has been assigned to 
another, l)ut for an ex-Governor — one who has been dropped from 
the calendar of living government — to attempt to fill the place of 
the real live one, is especially so. To this audience it will be like 
bringing out and attempting to adjust to one's person an old gar- 
ment that has been laid aside for years. It is old style — out of 
fashion — ill fitting, and can never be worn as satisfactorily as one 
made especially for the present time. It affords me great pleasure 
to meet so many of the sons and daughters of Bethel on this deeply 
interesting and very pleasant occasion. I congratulate you in the 
prosperity that has marked all the interests of the good town of 
Bethel since the first settlement within her borders. jNIany pleasant 
memories of Bethel rise before me whenever I vi-it 3'our beautiful 

Thirty-six years ago my parents sent me to the academy here, 
giving me twenty dollars to pa}' the cost of board, tuition, and in- 
cidental expenses for one term. This sum I found sufficient, though 
but little could be appropriated for incidentals. It costs more now, 
as those who have children to educate have occasion to know. I 
boarded in the family of Capt. Grout, who lived just this side of the 
present location of the depot. I have some vivid recollections of 
mince pies and doughnuts, of the apple tree in the little orchard 
near the house which I visited every night and morning, and of the 
ride I took one day on an island in your river on the back of a wild 
colt, and what came of it. I do not recollect so distinctly as to the 
progress made in my studies, though it was such that a school agent 
in one of the adjoining towns oft'ered me nine dollars a month to 
teach a winter school in an unfinished room of an old farm-house. 
But I am talking at random. I had almost forgotten that I was 
called to the stand to respond for the State of Maine. In common 
with this whole audieuce, I regr( t that our excellent Chief Magis- 
trate has been prevented by other duties from being present and 
speaking for the State, over whose interests he so acceptably 

AVhat can I say of the State of Elaine that is not known to every 
person in this large assemblage? 1 might point you to our rivers, 
that take their rise in our northern forests, and fed by immense 
lakes, whose waters can be used in time of need, and until mid- 
summer, by melting snow, furnish, in their descent to the ocean, 
facilities for manufacturing opeiations unecpialled in the country; 


to our safe and capacious harbors, sufficient to accommodate all the 
commerce and the navies of the world ; to our extensive shipping 
interests ; to our forests of wood and timber ; to our fisheries ; to 
our inexhaustible quarries of granite, slate and lime, yielding 
already a large income, which is rapidly increasing ; to our ice, 
which has become an important and profitable article of export; 
and last, though not least, to our men and women, who honor not 
only the State of their birth, but every other State in the Union. 
To all these and many other reasons for honest pride in the State 
we love most of all, I might call your attention at length. But little 
of it would be new to you, and the time will be better occupied by 
those who will follow me. 

We stand to-day amidst the scenes that mark the progress of a 
century from the settlement of your town. What changes have 
been wrought. What joys and sorrows have been experienced, 
what hopes and fears have been realized, what progress has been 
made in these hundred years, I will not attempt to recount. The 
occasion is opportune for a review of the past, and a glance at the 
possibilities of the future. But I must not longer occupy your time. 
The road over which the next hundred years will take us, is wisely 
covered with mist and shadows that intercept our vision. But, 
gathering wisdom from the experience of the past, let us apply it to 
the duties of the present, and go forward in the hope that whatever 
vicissitudes await us, our pathway will lead us upward and nearer 
to the realization of our noblest aspiration. 

'•''Our Elder Sister, Fryehurg : She cherished us in onr infancy ,- 
and we honor her in her maturity." 

Responded to by D. R. Hastings, Esq., of Fryeburg. 

'■'■The Clergy of Bethel: Like a good Mason they strive to lay a 
solid foundation on which to erect a superstructure that cannot be 
easily shaken." 

Responded to by Rev. Javan K. Mason of Thomaston. 

Mr. President, ladies and gentlemen of Bethel, and of other towns 
and cities ivhorn this occasion has brought hither : To decline speak- 
ing to such a sentiment as the one just uttered, I should be untrue 
to my own instincts. To be present "on my native heath again," 
environed by these hills, familiar to my boyhood's look and tread as 
to any boyhoods' since ; overarched by the same sky that in my 
childhood I looked upon and wondered at so often. Thrilled by the 
memories which these faces and our historian of to-day have re- 
called, and remain silent, would involve a wrong to my instinctive 
promptings to be ashamed of forever. The clergy of Bethel have 
done good foundation work. Its Masonry will outlive time itself. 
The superstructure erected in institutions, industries, enterprises of 
different kinds, in the intelligence, taste and character everywhere 


evinced, is a monument to be proud of. Incomplete, indeed, to-day, 
but rising higlier, and rising ever ; to present more beautiful pro- 
portions until the glintings of yonder sun on these forest-clad 
.mountain slopes shall cease ; the river fail of its winding way ; the 
sky become starless, and all this charm of nature sketched by artist, 
and admired by lovers of the beautiful, from city and town near and 
remote, yield to another fiat of creative power. The monument 
complete will then remain in all its chief essentials. Truth, princi- 
ples compacted, dovetailed by these "workmen needing not to be 
ashamed," will stand. The "lively stones" built thereon will be as 
enduring as eternity. To have had a succession of such ministers 
of religion as have lived and wrought here from the earliest settle- 
ment of the town, has been a blessing difficult to overestimate. 
Many of them liberally educated, and so prepared and earnest to 
care for the mental as well as the moral and spiritual welfare of the 
people. Our historian has just enumerated and characterized them, 
giving you an index of the kind, amount and success of the work 
they did. I may not, therefore, particularize to any extent, lest I 
seem to be invidious. Still, I love in fancy to run up the years of 
the century, and look in at the old steep-roofed mansion of " Priest 
Gould," (as "sinners" used to name the first settled minister), and 
see the youth, inspired by his love of letters, grappling with sturdy 
will, principles underhnng all thorough education and mental disci- 
pline. That mansion known to me only as the home of "Dr. 
Grover," once a pupil in it — long time after, the owner of it — had 
for me a charm and commanded my boyhood's reverence as no 
■ other ever did. Not for the minister's sake who lived there long 
before I was born, but for the doctor's sake, who nut only dealt out 
to me more physic than all other doctors, but did more to excite in 
me the desire for an education, and to heli) me gratuitously in my 
incipient beginnings with Greek and Latin roots, than any other. 
1 see him now, massive head, hair erect, face radiant with pleasure 
at my success, or frame shaking all through at my blunders in trans- 
lation, somehow, meanwhile awakening an enthusiasm in me, and 
ni}^ then classmate (Gov. Grover of Oregon), which, 1 trust, has 
experienced no abatement to this day. The "Parson's" influence 
on him and others lived and was perpetuated. Others of the clergj- 
who succeeded were not slow to recognize the same need, and meet 
it. Hence it has been that Bethel has sent out more educated men 
and women — many of them distinguished C'luistians, several minis- 
ters of different denominations, — than any other town in the county, 
and more than any other town in the State of equal population. 

The times have changed ; the work of the clergy in its essentials 
is the same as always, yet more multiform and varied in its needful 
adaptations ; the men engaged in it to-day not a whit behind those 
of former years ; as indispensable to the uprearing superstructure 
as the earlier to the laying of good foundations. That you appre- 
ciate the sentiment, 1 have no doubt. That the Bible you have 
been taught to cherish in your homes and in your hearts ; whose 
.principles your children have l)een nursing with their mother's milk ; 


whose influence underlies all good govei-nment ; secures the pui-ity 
and safety of society ; sanctifies every home that is worthy the name 
of home ; and whose light makes the pathway of life plain, and 
reveals glimpses of the great beyond that cheer amid many a trial 
and conflict, heightening, too, many a joy by the way ; that tliis old 
Bible, dear, precious, God-given, is and is to be talismanic, not 
only in its power to i)rotect from evil, but to bless with positive 
good, you have learned to believe with all your heart. 

The century from which we step into the coming to-day. and 
desire to leave here in these services and festivities, our latest track, 
has been one of great changes in church and State ; in letters and 
science; in practicalizing theories and utilizing forces. The march 
has been onward, not backward and downward, as some misan- 
thropes have thought and insisted, and so preached that nothing 
but a miracle could turn the current; nothing but the Omnipotent 
hand by sheer, sovereign act, could arrest and turn back the de- 
structive drift of human kind. The march has been onward and 
upward. The years have been rolling up new or increased light, 
and the day is brightening. The sun, some of whose rays the 
prophets saw, and which in his rising the shepherds of Bethlehem 
rejoiced at the sight of, has been ascending toward the zenith, flood- 
ing the earth more and more, sending his blessings into dark places 
and despairing hearts, assuring the already lielieviug, and convinc- 
ing the skeptical that the promise is on the eve of fulfilment when 
"the earth shall be filled with His glory as the waters fill the sea." 
That croaking that sees nothing good but in the past, that sees 
nothing but premonitions of a coming destruction in these upheavals 
in society ; these clamorings of philosophy and developments of 
science ; these utilization^ of all natural forces seemingly shaped 
toward material ends, may do for a raven's maw, or swell the melody 
of an owlet's song, but the}' shall not disturb us here to-da^'. Ours 
is a faith that looks before and reaches its hand to one that leads 
and lifts to clearer visions and purer joys. Old truths remain, 
afl'ecting and underlying every relation and every hope, but these 
shall brighten and others be seen clustering about them, adding 
brilliancy, beauty and glory, until we shall see that God's plan 
universal, is one grand, symmetric whole, and that the acconii)lish- 
meut of it is as benevolent and wise as it is certain. 

When invited a few weeks ago by your committee to prepare the 
historic address for this occasion, 1 considered myself honored as I 
have seldom been, since a young man, I went out from you to the 
battle of life. The honor of the invitation I api)reciated, hut the 
honor of standing here as your historian, 1 was obliged to decline, 
because it rightfully belonged to another. No man could do it as 
gracefully and well as he. No other man, with my consent, should 
deprive him of the honor. No other could have earned and worn so 
rightfully the laurels with which you crown him to-day. 7V»(?-born, 
n^True man ! skilled in historic lore as well as scientific research ; an 
educating chief, whom Bethel will never forget nor her sons and 
daughters, near or afar, cease to remember with love and respect. 


Friends, this is the last time. The old century has faded, and 
with it many dear to you and me have faded and fallen and they 
sleep among the silent. Peace be to their ashes 1 The future is 
hastening up, bidding us, too — "make haste," — gird well for the 
conflict 1 there is battle ahead \ Earnest, and achieving work for the 
world we live in I "The night cometh !" Some of j'ou are already 
at the sunset hour I One more effort ; one more look of faith ; one 
more inspiration of hope, and the reward shall come ! Some of us 
will have a little longer, and some have just begun — are in life's 

To such let me say, regard you the sentiment uttered hero just 
now by our worthy ex-Governor, "religion, education and labor are 
at the foundation of all good government, and of all local and indi- 
vidual prosperity." The sentiment is true. The world has come 
to believe it. Twenty nations of Europe, b}^ their representatives, 
and as many States of our own have incorporated it as a principle 
into their platform of penal reform. In that Congress of Nations, 
in the city of London in 1872, to which your honorable Governor 
sent me a commissioner, the sentiment was discussed and urged in 
its broadest scope and minutest bearings, and incorporated in the 
special platform by unanimous vote. So the nations are beginning 
to "see eye to eye." The forces are concentrating. Old differ- 
ences are vanishing. Opinions and pur[)oses iu regard to vital 
achievements and reforms are harmonizing. And it is true, thank 
God it is true, that instruments like this 1 now lift in j'our sight, a 
sword that did service in the war of the revolution, resulting iu our 
national independence, will be "l»eat into plowshares and spears 
into pruning hooks." May you and I be co-operators in the work 
that shall result in such a consummation I Now, let me say, Fare- 
well I citizens, friends, all. Let your future, as your past, show 
that 3'ou are not unmindful of the foundations, or those working at 
them, or the superstructure that is erecting. A good masonry is 
needed all the way up, until the top stone with shouting is secure. 

Clergymen of Bethel, you know your work. Well some of you 
have wrought at it these many 3'ears. Others are fresh in it. Your 
memorial will be looked upon by other eyes than those which look 
on you to-day. It shall be honorable. 

Meet, we all shall, but not here. There let it be, in the "Bethel" 
above. Nay, rather, in the "Blessed Home." 

''The Medical Profession: They show by their practice rather 
than by words, what they do." 

Responded to by Dr. N. T. True. 

" Wiley, as some men claim to be, they cannot easily escape jus- 
tice, so long as the legal profession maintains integrity." 

Responded to by Hon. James S. AViley of Dover, Maine. 


Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen : A little more than 
tweuty-four hours ago, 1 was more than one hundred miles away, 
at the mouth of Penobscot Bay, on the verge of the Atlantic. I 
debated with myself for a moment whether 1 would return home, 
a comparatively short distance, or come to Bethel. I did not long 
hesitate. I wished to view once more your unrivaled scenery, to 
gaze once more upon your beautiful and grand panorama of valley, 
river, hill and mountain. 1 longed to greet again with cordial 
grasp the few remaining friends of my youth, and to renew my 
acquaintance with those whom I had known in later years. I con- 
cluded to come, with not the remotest idea, however, of taking any 
part in 3'onr celebration. But your historian, an energetic geologist^ 
famous for discoveriug things, found me out after I had retired to 
my room for rest and repose. He said I must take a part. 1 de- 
clined, (urgiug fatigue and want of time for preparation.) He 
insisted, claiming that J was a son of Bethel ; and as a dutiful son, 
1 obeyed. I am glad I came. I have been highly gratified. I 
have had the pleasure of receiving a heart}' welcome from old and 
dear friends, and of feasting my eyes upon the beauties of nature 
surrounding my old home. Your President has announced me as 
"almost a son of Bethel." 1 do feel, sir, that I may claim to be 
almost a son of Bethel. You have a history of one hundred 3'ears ;, 
concerning forty-eight 3'ears of that history I know something m\'- 
self. I knew the Cliapmaus, the Twitcliells, the Beans, the 
Hastings, the Kimballs, the Masons, and most of the old worthies,, 
some of whom, by their presence, honor our meeting to-day. And,, 
can 1 ever forget your adopted son, our old brother, William Fr^'e.. 
I knew him well, and cherish the fondest recollections of his gentle- 
ness and kindness to me. To him I was accustomed to recite many 
a lesson in m^- schoolbo}' da^'s. A gentleman, a ripe scholar, a 
worthy member of the legal profession, whr)in we delight to honor. 

But, Mr. President, I am expected to sa}' something more par- 
ticular about the legal profession. Tliis subject presents a very 
broad field of discussion, and time will permit me to glance at only 
a few points. 

Law, in its true sense, is the ver}' foundation of all civilized 
society. All nations which have made the least advance bevond 
the lowest barbarism, have found it necessary' to restrain and 
govern themselves b}' rules and regulations for their own good. In 
the earlier stages of society, when the governing power is lodged 
in the hands of a few, these regulations ma}' be few and simple, but 
as nations and communities become more numerous, and their 
affairs more complicated, laws must become more numerous and 
complex. Then there must be a class of men, learned men, who 
are able to make, expound and administer the law. Hence the 

Moses was a great law-giver and lawyer to the tribes of Israel. 
All great lawyers who really understand their profession are states- 
men ; he was such, learned and wise. 

Solon aud L^'curgus were great statesmen, law-givers and law- 


yers, under whose wise administration the Greek nation made 
unprecedented advances in useful knowledge. I trust, sir, it will 
not be considered sacrilege to say that our Savior himself was the 
greatest, wisest and best law-giver the world ever saw. He gave 
us the Golden Rule, the very essence of all true law and justice. I 
fear we do not properly estimate the importance of the legal profes- 
sion in founding, building up and sustaining all great and enlight- 
ened nations. Consider how much p]ngl;uid owes to her system of 
jurisprudence. What would she have been without her great states- 
men, judges and lawyers? I have time only to name Lord Mans- 
field, the great lawyer and upright judge, and champion of English 
liberty, who decided that slaves cannot live in England. "They 
touch our country and their shackles fall I" 

Consider, for a moment, our own glorious United States. The 
fathers of the Republic, the framers of our incomparable Constitu- 
tion were good men, wise statesmen, and most of them, practical, 
sound, learned law^yers. And if we will but consider the matter for 
a moment, I think we may conclude that we are more indebted to 
the legal profession than to any other cause alone for the exalted 
rank which we hold in the scale of nations. As great judges and 
•expounders of the fundamental law of the land, we are proud of a 
Marshall, Taney and Chase ; as great lawyers we may boast of a 
Lee, Livingston, Wirt, Clay, Webster and Choate. In short, our 
Constitution and the whole framework of our government and juris- 
prudence — all the work of the legal profession — are such as justly 
to challenge the admiration of tlie civilized world. A wonder 
indeed. Hut I might repeat the same in regard to almost every 
State in the Union. I cannot omit our own State of Maine. We 
can boast of judges, lawj^ers and a judiciary system which will 
compare favorably with those of any sister State. 

But I am reminded my time is limited. 

The other learned professions are well represented here to-day, 
and I would make no invidious comparisons. There is no antag- 
onism among us ; there should be none. The physician labors to 
eradicate or regulate the evils and disorders of the ph^^sical system ; 
the clergyman strives to inculcate the true principles of morality 
among the people ; while the law3'er, the true lawyer, strives to 
eradicate or correct those evils which infest the body politic. The 
good clergyman teaches the true principles of Christianity, the true 
foundation of all laws ; the lawyer expounds and enforces them. 
So we see that neither is sufficient of himself alone, but each must 
aid and assist the other. Then let us work together, each in his 
own appropriate sphere, striving to tit and prepare the world for the 
coming in of that happy time — 

"When Peace o'er eaith lier olive wand shall sway. 
And man forget his brother man to slay : 
Plenty and peace shall spread from pole to pole, 
And earth's gi-and family possess one soul." 


'■'Our Mother State, Massachusetts: The blood of her citizens 
still courses in the veins of our sons and daughters." 

Responded to by Rev. Mr. Tilden of Boston. 

Mr. PresideyU : I believe this is the first time in my life I was 
ever called to speak for a State, save, when a young man, I popped 
the question for the state of matrimou}'. But as I had sucli good 
luck then 1 shall not hesitate to try again, especially' as I know full 
well that Massachusetts, the dear old mother of States, does most 
cordially reciprocate the kindly sentiment you have just expressed. 
Like all doting mothers she is very fond and proud of her children 
when they do well. Besides, as we all know, she has special rea- 
sons for a tender regard for the sons and daughters of Maine, since 
they are not only bone of her bone and flesh of her flesh, but soil 
of her soil. 

I remember a conundrum I used to hear in vay boyhood, "Why is 
Massachusetts like a sheared horse?" "Because she has lost her 

The good mother, if I remember right, was a little troubled about 
that shearing process, but she soon got over it, and has long since 
seen that it was best every way that her "down P2ast" children 
should have their portion of the farm set off to them and set up for 
themselves. You certainly have shown your capacity' for mantging 
successfully your part of the old homestead, and of becoming a 
strong and worthy member of the great family of States, now 
happily re-united, we trust forever, in the bonds of liberty, equality, 
justice, and so, of peace. 

Mr. President, this is a memorable day for Bethel, and I am right 
glad to be with you, even as a visitor, and share in the pleasures of 
your centennial celebration. A more delightful da}' you could hard- 
ly have had ; a more charming spot you could scarcely liave 
selected. I was greatly interested in your procession, exhibiting 
the handicraft of a former day, and the old-time way of doing 
things. I was pleased with the pioneer woodsmen and hunters, 
though really, I could hardly have believed that you had a dog in 
Bethel a hundred yeais old, if I had not seen with my own eyes the 
veritable animal led by one of the hunters. I was gratified to see 
so fine a representation of glorious old men and women, showing 
the hardy stock from which you sprung, and tlie healthiness of your 
climate, together with the youth and beauty of Bethel so finely rep- 
resenting the 'Old Thirteen" and "the coming woman." 1 have 
been glad to listen to the interesting story of the last hundred years 
told by your historian, and put into sweet and musical rhythm l)y 
your poet. Glad to hear the letters of your absent sons, full of 
filial affection, and the spoken words of those present with you. 
Glad thus to learn that while your forests yield sound timber and 
your valleys rich grain, your homes yield historians, poets, preach- 
ers, physicians, lawyers, and above all, good, honest, industrious 
men and women ; the strong arm of future prosperity as of past 


Mr. President, I was gratified to hear the cordial welcome ex- 
tended to visitors to-day. There seems to be a special propriety' in 
this. For dear as Bethel is to her own sous and daughters, she has 
also a growing interest to visitors from abroad. There is something 
in your charming valleys and background of "everlasting hills" that 
is common property. It can never be bought or sold. Beauty and 
grandeur are above all price. Every appreciative mind claims them 
as its own. Bethel is rich in this kind of wealth, and this will 
always make your pleasant town a place of happ}' and restful resort 
for all lovers of the beautiful. 

And now^, in place of a speech, permit me to offer a responsive 
sentiment : 

Bethel, the child of Massachusetts ! Though in the waywardness 
of her 3^outh she did run aw-ay with the "]Maine" branch of the 
family, taking with her a part of the old homestead ; still, she has 
done so well ever since that she has her mother's forgiveness and 
blessing. May her prosperity be as perennial as the beauty of her 
scener}^ and in all coming celebrations may slie be able, as to-day, 
to select from her own, a "True" man for her orator, a good "Chap" 
for her poet, and a rosy "Garland" for her chaplain. 

''The Merchants of Bethti:' 

Responded to by Abner Davis, Esq., of Bethel. 

"•Our Native-born Citizens from other States: We honor them 
because they have honored their native home." 

Responded to by Jacob Brown, Esq., of Illinois. 

Mr. Fresid nt. Ladies and Gentlemen : My position here to-day 
is a strange and phenomenal one. Not to the Bethel manor born, 
nor yet an invited Bethel-ltoin guest even. I am here by the pres- 
sure of Providence, or, peradventure, as the woildling would term 
it, by sheer accident. Born fifty years ago and more in the goodly 
town of Albany, an important adjunct to the town of Bethel in 
many respects, for tlie past week I have been treading my 
"native heath" again, and lingering around the half- forgotten scenes 
of my boyhood. A view of this dear old town awakens vivid 
recollections of other daj's. 

"There I was hu-olied. there I was lilcd, 
There like a little Ailani fed 
From learnni<>*s woeful tree." 

There my father lived, and there he loved, and there he labored, 
and there he died. And how he died, and how he lal)ored, and how 
he loved, I can well imagine, but how in thunder he lived so long 
and so well in this quaint old town, amid the barren valleys and 
naked mountains, to me is a sealed book — the mystery' of all 


The generation that knew me in boyhood has passed away. The 
present generation knows me not. Along the highways and by- 
ways of this rongh old town, I passed and repassed without recog- 
nition from my fellowmeu. The mountains bent their heads in 
greeting. The hills knew me well. The ponds and the pondlets 
caressed me. As I passed these old-time friends they turned up 
their sunny and familiar faces in hearty welcome and warm recogni- 
tion. I was glad to meet and greet these gray old sentinels of time, 
and gently put my hand upon their furrowed cheeks and wrinkled 
faces, and feel that no change can obliterate our early love. Never 
until the crack of doom shall these stupendous monumental piles 
crumble and lose their terrible grandeur and shivering sublimity. I 
looked around and noted all things else had changed. It was a sort 
of satisfaction to know I, too, had changed past recognition by the 
friends of my early years. 1 love the play-place of my early years. 
As the Esquimaux, who never feels the summer sun nor sees the 
flowers of spring-time, is inspired with patriotic love of country, so 
I can stand upon the hills of All)any, fold my arms around me, and 
coraplacentl}' exclaim with th.' Esquimaux, this, my dear old native 
town, is the finest country the sun ever shown upon. 

But what business has Albany, her living and her dead, in a cen- 
tennial celebration of Bethel? Modestly, I can onh' reply, because 
I am here. Not that I love Bethel less but Albany more. But in 
my present sunny mood I will sing my song of 


Of all the pictures in memory's hall, 

No one dotli me so thrill ; 
As pictures of boyhood davs that were spent 

Down by Pattee's old mill. 

There radiant morn, in her milk-white robes, 

Tripp'd o'er meadow and hill. 
Scattering light, and never so bright, as 

Down by Pattee's old mill. 

And the brave old saw went up and went down. 

Through knot, splinter and frill : 
And the well-worn wheel turned round and around 

Down by Pattee's old mill. 

And the mist crept up from tlie old mill pond 

To pine trees on the hill ; 
ITie rainliow pi-omise of youth gilded all 

Down bv Pattee'-i old mill. 

And, oh I how 1 panted and longed for fame — 

'J'liese longings troulile me still 
When I think ot the boyhood days I sjient 

Down by Pattee's old mill. 

So oft as of life I'm sick— am aweai y. 

Memory liaunts me still : 
Of young romance 1 skim'd in my youtli. 

Down bv Pattee's old mill. 


The dear one I loved with a boyish love, 
Meets me iu dreams at will, 

Aud hallows the scene that memory wakes 
Down by Pattee's old mill. 

Along the wide ways of sin 1 mav fall ; 

O God, be it Thy will ! 
If of Heaven I fail, to ijrant me rest 

Down bv Pattee's old mill. 

Bethel, dear old town I There is uo town in the State which 
possesses so many and so fascinating attractions to the lover of 
nature in her beauty, grandeur and snljlimit}-. Favored above all 
other towns in the State of Maine in the profuse distribution of 
nature's largesses, she has truly husbanded her resources. Her 
soil is tough and so are her people. Her soil has the true grit, and 
so has her people. The town was settled by a proud and heroic 
race of men. The tough soil and the rigorous climate have given 
well-knit muscle, strong arms and sturdy courage and fertile brains 
to her people. Pjethel Hill, the center of the town, has been and 
will continue to be the center of learning and literature, the very 
Athens of Oxford county. Bethel Hill, ])ictures(iue and lovely 
beyond comparison, clings to the bold mountain sides in the back- 
ground, in shadow and sunshine, like the frighted babe to its 
mother's breast. 

No outward-bound sou of Bethel will ever forget to love and 
honor her. As long as the sun in his setting shall throw a flood of 
light and glory over the shivered peaks of New England mountain 
tops, lighting up the whole heavens as with molten gold, as long as 
the mists shall cling around the hill-to[)S, and the rivers seek the 
sea, so long, in the future as in the past, true as the needle to the 
pole, whether upon the land or upon the sea, upon the farm, or in 
the mines, at the bar, in the pulpit, or in the workshop, rich or 
poor, high or low, the true son of Bethel vnll love and honor her, 
and keep green her bays forever. I will now recite my poem, and 
bid you all hail and farewell forever, entitled : 


By l)arren rocks and deeply tangled wildwood, 
Mid valley, lake and glen; 

Here babyhood was cnidled into childhood, 
And boys grew up to men. 

Anear the corner of this (|uaiiit old l)uil(ling, 
With the windows all arow ; 

That stunlv and that stately growing ehn-tree 
Grew thirtjr years ago. 

The Androscoggin still is flowing sea-ward, 

As thirty years ago ; 
Oft down whose gliding waters just at night-fall 

I've paddled my canoe. 


Westward winds tliat little silvery brooklet, 

111 tune to my poor rhyme; 
Life's wreck-besprinkled waters still are surging, 

Against tlie shores of time. 

I look adowu the lane from this old building, 

Down to the dusty street ; 
But gone are all the bright, familiar faces 

Of those I used to meet. 

And stricken dumb is my poor heart with sadness, 

Bright lioyhood's dreams are fled, 
Flowers that bloomed by every humble Avayside, 

All are withered and dead. 

Pool', timid soul I The dead may bury their dead. 

As soldier brave in fight ; 
Conquer the -red-hot battles of fife and learn 

To win and lo^'e the right. 

"T/ie Ladies of Bethel, celebrated alike iu the present as in the 
past, for their uutiriug devotion to ever^' noble enterprise, their 
intelligence, their beauty and their virtue." 

Responded to by the band. 

After the toasts and speeches, the audience, led by the Norway 
band joined in singing the centennial hymn, composed for the 
occasion by Geo. B. Farnsworth, Esq., to the tune of Old Hundred i 


As — when to Jaeol) it was given 

To see, mid Eastern deserts lone, 
A ladder reaching up to heaven 

Along whose steps the angels shone— 

He knew the Lord was surely there, 

And what liad seemed but wildei-ness 
Now God"s own dwelling did appear, 

And "Beth-el," thence he named the place- 
So, when our fathers eastward led, 

Chanced to this lovely vale to roam, 
Seeing its ennn-ald flo<n- outspread 

And spanned by yondei' crystal dome. 

Into whose depths the mountains soared 

Like heavenly ladders angel-trod. 
They said, "Here, surely dwells the Lord I" 

An<l named their liome th(> "•House of God."" 

And here, from youtli to age. they strove 

Their goodly heritage to keep 
For freedom, knowledge, virtue, love — 

Now in the dust, all silent sleep ! 


May we, their childreu, aye defend 
The heritage they loved so well ; 

This heir-loom from the ijast descend 
To children's children, nobler still ; 

A place for homliest labors meet, 
Ever of manly worth tir abode ; 

And aye, a place of woi'ship sweet — 
A temple high — a "House of God I" 

Dwell with us. Thou I And when the stone 
Shall 1)6, at eve, our resting-place, 

Heaven's ladder be to us let down, 
And may we see Thee, face to face I 

Secretary Richard A. Frye, Esq., read the following letters from 
gentlemen who could not be present : 

Augusta, Me., August 18, 1874. 

Dr. N. T. True, Chairman of Committer : 

3Ii/ Dear Sir: — I regret that a prior engagement to l)e present at the 
State Educational Convent ion at Kockland on the 2()tli inst., will prevent 
my acceptance of your kind invitatiou to participate iu the exercises of 
your Centennial Celebration on the same day. 1 have no doul)t tliat the 
exercises of the day will be sucli as to increase the love and veneration 
which every native of Bethel can but feel for a town which has so much to 
Inspire regard, and at the same time to increase tlie reputation which your 
grand, natural scenery and health-inspiring air have so jtistly given you 
elsewhere. Accept my thanks for your courtesy, and believe me as ever 
the warm admirer and well-wisher of the goodlv town which vou have the 
honor to represent. NELSOX DINGLEY, JR., ()i{i:(i(»\, August 7, 1874. 
E. A. Frye, Esq., Serretanj of Centennial Committee: 

Dear Sir: — In acknowleciging tlie receipt of your invitatiou, extended to 
me on liehalf of your fellow-townsmen, to be present at the approaching 
celebration of the centennial anniversary of th(> settlcnu-nt of the town of 
Bethel, on the 2(jtli instant, it is with more than ordinary regret that I am 
impelled by circumstances to forego the pleasure of compliance. 

AVlierever I have wandered in liie, there lias gone witli me, next to the 
love and rememl)rance of parents, the love and remembrance of the hills 
and vales, the free air, the spjirkling waters, the rugged aud ever striking 
landscape, the summers and the winters of my birthplace. 

The bold uplands of Oxford county, and the neighboring White Moun- 
tains of Xew Hampshii-e, have impressed their images upon mv mind, and 
stand as emblematic monuments of a people, hardv. intelligent and 

The tirst settlers of Bethel were remarkable for phvsical, mental aud 
moral strength; and the hazards aud hardships which they endured were 
well calculated to test these <]ualities. 

Their success in sul)duiug tlie A\ilderness and their savage foes, and in 
rearing school-houses, churches, and the higlier institutions of learning, is 
the best evidence of the character and culture of our worthy ancestors. 

May your celebration Ite alive with the spirit of the pioiieers of Bethel 
and with the §-enius of a hundred vears ago. 

Most faithfully yours. " " EAFAl'ETTE GROVER. 

K. A. Fryk, Esq. 


Bkooklyx, N. v.. August 21, 1874. 

Mil Dear Sir: — Your note of the 29th ult., infonnluji- ine of the intended 
celebration by the citizens of Bethel of the one hundredth annivei-sary of 
the settlement of that town, was duly received, and, but for sickness, 
would have been eai-lier acknowledged. 

I thank you very much for your kindly invitation to l»e present and take 
a part in "the ceremonies on that occasion; an invitation [ should most 
gladly accept but for ill health, which at present uutits me for any exer- 
tion whatever, either physical or mental, and confines me to the house 
nearly all the time. 

As my years roll on to near "three-score and ten," each successive one 
brings more vividly to recollection my native town and its inhabitants, as 
they were in the days of my youth. In that homestead, beside its brook, 
and in its new cleared fields, I gamboled many a day with l)rothers who 
have long since passed away; there our father's <|uiet but impressive 
word was law, both Indooi-s and out. Within its walls the echoes of our 
sainted mother's voice still lingers, .and her loving presence yet casts its 
strengthening shadow within sight of that old house; all which was 
mortal of each of these dear parents has found its last earthly resting 
place, and memories such as these may well make Bethel the dearest spot 
on earth to me. 

I grieve that T cannot pei'sonally join with you in the reminiscences and 
festivities that will mark your Centennial Celebration, but I shall be with 
you in spirit, and it is pleasant for me to know that others l)earing the old, 
familiar name, and many of my kindred who still dwell among you, will 
represent (more fitly perhaps than I) the family, on that day. 

In looking back over the history of the yeai-s that have resulted in such 
wholesome and steady growtli to you as a community, I doubt not but you 
will realize tliat to the moral and truthful training of your people, is 
chiefly owing your prosperity. A lesson (it seems to me) that might at 
this time fitly be impressed on the minds of those who are to succeed j-ou 
on life's battle-field. 

But I must not weary you. In conclusion, I pray that God may bless 
you all, especially in your "assembling of yourselves together" on the day 
you will meet to celebrate, and that He will continue His mercy and loving- 
kindness to your posterity for all time to come. 
Yours, in the bonds of common svmpathv, 


Earlvillk, La Salle Co., III., August 23, 1874. 
R. A. Frye, Esq. : 

Dear Sir : — I find it impossible to be with you on the 2(Uh instant, to take 
a part in the celebration of the one hundredth anniversary of the settle- 
ment of my native town; and on account of the pressure of business and 
professional engagements, which just at this time seeni to be under the 
control of my evil genius, I am unable to prepare anything of value to be 
read on that interesting occasion. 

I assure you that no one can be half so regretful and disappointed at this 
privation as I am. It would indeed have been a great happiness to me to 
meet and take l)v the hand my relatives, old school-mates and friends, and 
my honored and now venerable teacher, N. T. True, who is to lie your 
orator on that occasion. I assure you that it is with the utmost self-denial 
that I am able to keep mvself at home on duty under such circumstances. 
But if I could be present"with vou, or if I should attempt to write an ap- 
propriate letter, what should I sayV Standing betwi'en the two centuries 
contemplating on the one hand tlie achievements of the past along the dim 
perspective of a hundred vears, and on the other, the possibilities of the 


future enfolded in tlie unknown and undeveloped resources of the century 
to come. Who sh;ill utter words fitly to be spoken? Whose conceptions- 
can properly eml)race the occasion":' Whose vision is clear enough, whose 
comprehension is broad enough, and whose judgment is just enough, to 
understand and to weigh the history of the last century, aiid to epitomize 
it on such an occasion"? More difficult still, on whom rests the spirit of 
prophecy to forecast the future I Who can fairly state or fully learn the 
great lessons which are taught by the ages which are gone"? Who can un- 
derstand the significance of the '"eternal now,'' or penetrate the veil which 
hides the future ? 

The most we can do on this occasion is to i-ecognize it, to greet each 
other, and in the spirit of faith and ti-ust in the Intiuite Father of us all,'' 
"Await the great teacher Death, and God above.'' 

Thanking vou for your invitation, I am. 

Very truly, etc., A. J. GROVEE. 

chaptp:r XXV. 

Temperance Reform. 

HE earl}- settlers of Bethel iu regard to morality and religion, 
were certainh' abreast of the inhabitants of any other town 
iu the county, and in advance of some, and yet the use of 
intoxicating liquors as a beverage pervaded all classes. It was one 
■of the vices of the period, and general throughout the whole coun- 
try. The people had come to regard them as essential to health, 
and they were also the symbol of hospitality and good fellowship. 
Their universal demand created a supply, and for years after the 
first settlers came to Bethel, they constituted part of the stock in 
trade of every grocery store iu the town.* They were sold l)y the 
glass to be drank on the premises, and in quantities to suit pur- 
chasers to be carried away. As a family supply, they ranked next 
to tea and coffee, and many ranked them second only to bread. In 
all the account books of the early traders, rum, giu, brandy and 
wine are as conspicuous as an}' other family supplies, and sometimes 
make up uearly half the account. Parson Gould did not approve of 
excess iu drinking, but his "excess" would be regarded as liberty 
^t the present day. He partook of the social glass with his parish- 
ioners, both at his own house and theirs, and also at places where it 
was sold. If an}^ of his people drank to excess, in a comuuiuity 
where rum was freely sold and drank b}- all classes, the sin of intox- 
ication could not be regarded as a ver}- grave one, and a reprimand 
from a minister who walked up side by side and took his drinks with 
the one against whom it was directed, could not have had great 
weight, if administered. But the influence of the minister iu this 

*WheD Robert A. Chapnmu went into trade on the Hill, he went into a store where liiiuors 
had always been sold. Mrs. Chapman, who was bitterly opi)oscd to the drinking habit 
as well as to the traffic in ardent spirits, advised her husband to drop that braneli of the 
business, but he expressed doultts aliout the propriety of so doing, and fears that he 
■would not succeed if Ivetlid, but Mrs. Chapman carried her point, and the wisdom of the 
new departure was soon manifest in a better class of customers, increased trade and a 
flood-tide of prosperity. 


regard, was no doubt injurious. The people then followed the 
guidance, not only in spiritual, but in temporal affairs with much 
greater faith and confidence than do the people of our day. 

This condition of things continued with little change for many 
3'ears. Temperance in the use of intoxicating drinks was of slow 
growth, and abstinence much more slow. The profits arising from 
its sale, then as now, blunted the consciences of those engaged in 
the traffic, and blinded their eyes to the enormity of the evil. The 
Massachusetts Temperance Society, the first in the country, was 
organized in eighteen hundred and twelve, but its intluence was little 
felt in Maine, or anywhere else. The American Temperance 
Society was organized in eighteen hundred and twenty-six, and this 
was the result of many years' agitation of the subject ; how many, 
it is impossible to say. The proceedings of the second meeting held 
in Boston, January twenty-eight, eighteen hundred and twent^^-nine, 
were printed. At this time there were two hundred and twenty-two 
temperance societies, of which five, exclusive of Massachusetts, 
were State societies. Thirteen of these societies were in Maine, 
though Maine then had no State organization. Two of the JMaine 
societies, viz. : East IMachias and Prospect, made reports. The 
former reported ninety members, and only two grog shops in the 
place, and after the following September, there was to be no retailer 
in town. The society at Prospect, organized in April, eighteen 
hundred and twenty-seven, with five members, now had one hundred 
and one, of whom forty-six were females. One retailer had struck 
ardent spirits from his list of merchandise, and in one shipyard, it 
was no longer used. The following meml)ers of the American So- 
ciety were reported as belonging in Maine : Bath, Rev. John W. 
Ellingwood ; Portland, Rev. Charles .lenkius, Rev. Bennet Tyler, 
D. D., Hon. Albion K. Parris and Hon. Wm. P. Preble; Saco, 
Ether Shepley, Esq. The East Machias Society organized in Jan- 
uary, eighteen hundred and twenty-seven, may have been the first 
temperance society in the State. The other societies in Maine were 
in Brunswick, Gorham, Portland, (iardiner, Buckfield, New Sharon, 
Saco, Livermore, Norway, Windsor and Brewer Village. The 
Livermore Society, then in Oxford county, was organized July 
fourth, eighteen hundred and twenty-eight, with Rev. George Bates 
as Secretary. In eighteen hundred and twenty-eight, a temperance 
society was formed at Bethel Hill with the following members : Dr. 
Timothy Carter, Dea. Robbins Brown, Leonard Grover, Jedediah 


Burbank, James AValker, Johu A. Twitchell and Rev. Charles 
Frost. On the occasion of its organization, a temperance address 
was delivered by William Frye, Esquire. 

The first annual meeting of the Maine Temperance Society was 
holden at Augusta, January twenty-third, eighteen hundred and 
thirty-three. The printed proceedings do not show that Oxford 
county was represented by delegates. Governor Samuel E. Smith 
was elected President, Hon. Samuel Pond of Bucksport, Secretary, 
Elihu Robinson, Augusta, Treasurer, and Charles Williams of 
Augusta, Auditor. Judge Ether Shepley presided. Oxford County 
Society was reported as having been organized July first, eighteen 
hundred and twenty-nine, with Hon. Luther Cary of Turner, Presi- 
dent, and Samuel F. Brown, Esq., of Buckfield as Secretary. 
Buckfield reported "opposition great to temperance reform, by politi- 
cal demagogues, followed by their supporters half drunk." Frye- 
burg reported, "much opposition from temperate drinkers, 
drunkards and sellers of rum." Hebron reported, "opposition by 
several classes and various characters." Andover, "opposition b}^ 
the intemperate. Sweden, "opposition is composed of men of every 
class — two men, however, who are rival candidates for office, have 
more influence than all others." Sumner, "opposition by intemper- 
ate and moderate drinkers, and by some wdio are professors of 
religion." Thirteen societies are reported in Oxford county, but 
many towns, including Bethel, make no report. The Buckfield 
society is reported defunct. Previous to the organization of the 
Maine State Society, the "Union Temperance Society of Oxford 
County," was organized, presumably at Paris, and originated among 
the members of the Oxford bar. The following is the constitution 
adopted, and the names of the first signers : 

"The undersigned being desirous of exerting their influence in the 
cause of temperance, and recognizing and adopting the principle of 
total abstinence from the use of ardent spirits, hereby form our- 
selves into an association, to be called the Fuion Temperance 
Society of the county of Oxford. 

Art. 1. The officers of this Society shall be a President, Vice President 
and Secretary, to be chosen annually by tin- iucuiIkts at the .Tunc icnii of 
the Court of Common Pleas. 

Art. 2. There shall be a meeting of this association on some day dur- 
ing: each term of the Court of Common Pleas, at the Court lIotis(\ of which 


meeting it shall be the duty of the Secretary to give seasonable notice— 
and it shall be the duty of the President to request some gentleman to 
deliver an address at each meeting. 

Art. 3. Every person signing this constitution sliall become a member 
of this society, thereby engaging to adopt a total abstinence in reference 
to the use of "ardent spirits as a drink." 

Levi Whitman, Stephen Emery, Robert Goodeuow, Wm. E. Goodenow, R. 
K. Goodenow, Isaiah P. Moody, Timothy J. Carter, Daniel Goodenow, 
Reuel Washburn, Heury Farewell, James Walker, Samuel F. Brown, Tim- 
othy Carter, Peter C. Virgin, Levi Stowell, Joshua Randall. Virgil D. 
Parris, Solomon Hall, Thomas Clark, James Starr, John Woodbury, 
Augustine Haynes, John Jameson, Chas. Whitman, Albert G. Thornton, 
Hannibal Hamlin, Cyrus Thompson, S. Strickland, Eben Poor. Wm. War- 
ren, Ira Bartlett, James V. Poor, Thomas Gammon, Elisha Morse, Geo. 
Turner, David Gerry, Ephraim Bass, Erastus P. Poor, Stephen Chase, 
Ebenezer Jewett, Abraham Andrews, Jr., Daniel Chaplin, John S. 
Barrows, Josiah Blake, Simeon Walton. 

At a meeting of the society, Jamiar}' twenty- second, eighteen 
hundred and thirty-three, it was voted that a committee of one or 
more gentlemen in ever}' town in the county be appointed to take a 
copy of this constitution and procure subscribers, and the following 
gentlemen were appointed for the service, viz. : Fryeburg, Benjamin 
Wyman, Ebenezer Fessenden, Jr., Henry C. Buswell ; Brownfield, 
James Steele, Samuel Stickney, George Bean ; Hiram, Peleg Wads- 
worth, Alpheus Spring; Denmark, Samuel Gilison, Amos Poor; 
Lovell, Abraham Andrews ; Sweden, Chas. Nevers, Nathan Brad- 
l)ury ; Fryeburg Addition, Samuel Farrington ; VVaterford, Charles 
Whitman, Daniel IJrowu, Esq., Dr. Leander Gage ; Albany, Aaron 
Cumniiugs ; Liveimore, Reuel Washburn; Jay, Jas. Starr; Can- 
ton, John Hearsey ; Hartford, Cyrus Thompson ; Sumner, Samuel 
Sewall ; Peru, Levi Ludden ; Dixfield, Henry Farewell ; Mexico, 
Joseph Eustis : Hartford, Elder Hutchinson, Joseph Tobin, Edward 
Blake ; Buckfield, Seth Stetson, Zadock Long, Lucius Loring ; 
Paris, Al)ijahHall, Jr., Simeon Walton, Asaph Kittredge ; Hebron, 
Wm. Barrows, Dr. Carr ; Oxford, Jairus S. Keith, S. H. King; 
Rumford, Henry Martin ; Andover, Sylvanus Poor, Jr. ; Bethel, 
Jedediah Burbank : Newry, Josiah Black ; Woodstock, Elder Jacob 

At the second annual meeting of the Maine Temperance Society, 
held at Augusta, February fifth, eighteen hundred and thirty-four, 
Hon. Prentiss Melleu was made President, and the other officers of 



the previous 3'ear were re-elected. There were more reports made 
from Oxford coimty towns than the year previous, showing an in- 
crease of interest in the cause. The officers of the Oxford county 
society were the same as before. Many new towns had formed as- 
sociations, and Buckfield was the only town where the association 
had become defunct. The report from Buckfield showed much op- 
position to the cause. "One deacon both drinks and sells rum," 
says the report. 

The following table shows at a glance the extent of the organized 
temperance reform in Oxford county in 1834 : 


Xo. of 

Tov')i. 0) 


r resident. 





Asa Cumniings, 

P. Haskell, 



Rev. Wm. Gregg, 

E. Poor, Jr., 




Dr. T. Carter, 

L. Grover, 




I. Spring, 

\\\w. Went worth. 




D. Storer, 

D. Stickney, 



J. Adams, 

Dr. A. F. Stanley. 

, 64 



Amos Poor, 

J. Smith, 




E. Fesseudeu, Jr., 

Dr. R. Barrows, 



Rev. E. Whittle, 

John Small, 



G. W. Chapman, 

Wm. Wight. 



N. Bieknell, 

J. Cluu-chill, 



S. My rick. 

S. Perkins; 




Maj. M. Stone, 

Col. D. Merrit, 




Reuel Washburn, 

J. Chase, 


Young Men's, 

J. Leavitt, 

S. Hearsey, 


East I.ivermore, 

C. Haines, 

F. F. Haines, 



Rev. V. Kittle, 

A. Andrews, 




Uriah Holt, 

Benj. Tucker, Jr., 


No. Norway, 




Dr. J. T('\\ ksbiirj-, 

Giles .Shurtk'tf, 


So. Paris, 


Seth Morse, 

Henry R. Parsons 

, 11(> 


Rev. S. Sewall, 

Zury Robinson, 



E. Powers, 

Wm. H. Powers, 



J. Phillips, 

J. R. SI law. 



Dr. P. Bradford, 

J. P. Harris, 



J. Abbott, 

Rev. T.. Perkins, 




L. Gage, 

Wm. W. Stone 


The next great temperance reformatory movement was that called 
the Washingtonian. This began in a small way in Baltimore, 
among a few reformed drunkards, but it spread like wildfire through- 
out the middle and eastern States. It came into Maine about the 



year eighteen hundred and forty-two, like a tornado, and seemed 
likely to sweep everything before it. An Oxford county Washing- 
tonian society was formed, holding its meetings in different parts of 
the county, and there were subordinate societies in almost every 
town. The proceedings as given in the papers of those years, show 
the great interest manifested in the good work, and that leading 
men and women were everywhere in the movement. Thousands of 
inebriates not only reformed themselves, but used every effort to 
bring others into the organization. Hundreds all over the country 
were in the field battling against the common enemy, and every- 
where the greatest enthusiasm prevailed. About the year eighteen 
hundred and forty-two, or perhaps a little later, the movement 
reached Oxford county, and its effect here was the same as else- 
where. Everybody was awakened, almost everybody took the 
pledge, and many kept it inviolate ever after. It did a vast amount 
of good. But the history of all great moral movements plainly in- 
dicated what the fate of this must be. Human passions, however 
noble the cause, have their metes and their bounds, beyond which 
they cannot pass, and the great success of a movement is often the 
first step towards reaction. In the excess of zeal in the Washing- 
toniau movement, there was wanting that concert of action to give 
it permanency. The cause was like a rudderless bark upon the sea, 
without compass or pilot, and freighted with the materials of its 
own destructiou. 

It was when the Washingtonian movement was at its height that 
thoughtful men in New York conceived the idea of an organization 
that would combine and consolidate the discordant elements of the 
movement, invest it with a social character, and leave lasting im- 
pressions of affection and interest on the mind, in connection with 
the great cause and its objects. The outcome of this was, the 
Order of the Sons of Temperance, an organization which has doubt- 
less accomplished more than any other, in giving permanence to the 
temperance cause, after the enthusiasm awakened by the Washing- 
tonian movement could no longer be maintained. The first Division 
of the Sons of Temperance was organized in New York city, at 
Teetotaller's Hall, No. 71, Division street, on Thursday evening, 
September twenty-ninth, eighteen hundred and forty-two. The 
order had a steadj' growth and reached the State of Maine in De- 
cember, eighteen hundred and forty-four. A Grand Lodge for 
Maine was organized at Augusta in April, eighteen hundred and 


forty-five, aucl three years later, there were one hundred and ten 
Divisions in the State, with a membership of over seven tliousand. 
In eighteen hundred and fifty, the movement had reached Oxford 

Bethel Division, number one hui.dred and sixty, was organized at 
Middle Interval near the close of eighteen hundred and fifty. Israel 
G. Kimball was Worthy Patriarch and Albion P. Beatty, Recording 
Secretary. At the close of the year, twenty-nine members were 
reported. The following year. True P. Dustou was Worthy 
Patriarch. The highest number reported to the Grand Lodge was 
fifty-six, and soon beginning to decline, in eighteen hundred and 
fifty-six, it failed to make any report to the Grand Lodge and its 
charter was surrendered. 

Eagle Division, number one hundred and sixty-three, was organ- 
ized in the spring of eighteen hundred and fifty-one. Alfred 
Twitchell was Worthy Patriarch, and Benjamin Freeman, Recording 
Secretary. This year the delegates to the Grand Lodge were 
Alfred Twitchell, James Walker and Thomas E. Twitchell. In 
eighteen hundred and fifty-two, Benjamin Freeman was Worthy 
Patriarch and Alfred Twitchell, Recording Secretary. In eighteen 
hundred and fifty-three, the delegates to the Grand Lodge were, 
Daniel A. Twitchell, Benjamin Freeman, John A. Twitchell, Dr. 
Almon Twitchell, Rev. David Garland, Joseph A. Twitchell and 
Alonzo J. Grover. In eighteen hundred and fifty- four, the number 
of members was sixty-one. Delegates to the Grand Lodge : David 
F. Brown, Dr. Almon Twitchell, David (rarland, Benjamin Free- 
man, Alfred Twitchell, Joseph A. Twitchell. Nathaniel T. True and 
Asa P. Knight. This was the highest wave of the movement, and 
three years later the membership was only thirty-eight. An effort 
was made to revive the order. David Garland was chosen Worthy 
Patriarch, and Dr. Ozmon M. Twitchell was made Secretary. It 
was all to no purpose ; the order had had its day in this community, 
and no return w^as made to the Grand Lodge after this year. In 
eighteen hundred and sixty the charter was surrendered. 

A juvenile temperance society was organized here in the fifties, 
and with good success for a time, but like all similar societies, the 
novelty w^ore off, dissensions crept in and it was soon numbered 
with things of the past. The Good Templars had a lodge here 
which flourished for a time. The Reform Club was also popular, 
and other local temperance societies have been organized, accom- 


plished their ends, and then gone to decay. All these societies 
have been highly beneficial, and the aggregate good they have ac- 
complished can hardly be over-estimated. Bethel is a strong tem- 
perance town, and also a prohibition town. Every time that the 
Maine Prohibitory Liquor Law has been in issue, and every time it 
has been submitted to a popular vote, Bethel has given the princi- 
ple of prohibition a cordial support. Intemperance exists in town 
to a greater or less extent, and always will so long as human de- 
pravity exists, but the popular feeling is against it, and so long as 
it is opposed by the best people in the town, it cannot make great 
headway. The liquor dealer is the enemy of the home, the euen^y 
of morality, virtue and religion, and for years the good people of 
this towni have not suffered the traffic to be openly carried on within 
its limits ; and where the majorit}' against it is so large, the contra- 
band business cannot, for anj^ great length of time, be carried on 


David Robbins. 

HE alleged crimes of David Robbius, coiumitted upwards of 
sixty years ago, are fast fading from memory. At the 
time when these events transpired, they created intense 
excitement in Oxford and Franklin counties, and in Coos county in 
the State of New Hampshire. They were a fruitful topic of conver- 
sation for many years after. Among the names indellibly stamped 
upon my childish memory is that of David Robbins, and I was early 
taught to regard it as the synonym of depravity and wickedness — 
yea, of very fiendishness. Mothers imprudentl}^ frightened their 
children into obedience by the bare mention of this name, and noth- 
ing could strike terror to the hearts of the little ones like telling 
them that *' David Robbins would come for them and carry them 

The evidence against David Robbius was largely circumstancial, 
but it was of such a character as to leave little, if au}', doubt of his 
guilt. Of his minor crimes the proof was positive, while the graver 
charges of abduction and murder, were never fully sustained. The 
principal reasons for this were, that he had his home in the wilder- 
ness remote from courts of justice, and second, that he was never 
brought to trial for his alleged crimes. The great Webster said of 
a person charged with a capital crime, that "suicide is confession," 
and avoiding trial by flight amounts to essentially the same. Sixty 
years ago, when the story of his supposed crimes was known to 
every man, woman and child in northern Maine, and was repeated 
at every fireside, no one for a moment doubted his guilt. 

The early life of David Robbins is shrouded in mystery. It is by 
no means certain that we have his real name, though he was never 
known by any other after he came to Oxford county. It was about 
the year eighteen hundred and twenty, that a young man appeared 
in Bethel, who gave his name as David Hobbins. He came on 


horseback, and the animal he rode and the clothes he wore consti- 
tuted the sum total of his personal estate. 

Whence he came, no one knew ; and concerning his past life, he 
declined to give any account. He was tall but slightly built, his 
complexion sandy, his hair inclining to red, and his nose, which was 
his most prominent feature, was hooked like the eagle's beak and a 
little bent toward the left side. His muscles were hard like whip- 
cords, and his powers of endurance something" marvelous. He 
worked for the farmers in the vicinity of Bethel Hill, and was con- 
sidered an extra hand. In the autumn he would do a day's work 
upon the farm and then husk corn or thresh grain until midnight 
during the entire season of harvest. He was very quiet in his man- 
ner, holding no conversation with any one except what was abso- 
lutely necessary in the performance of his work. In his threshing 
operations he went from place to place. This was before the days 
of threshing machines, and grain was separated from the straw by 
means of a hand implement called a Hail. In tlie winter, Robbins 
worked in the logging swamp in the neighboring town of Gilead, for 
the brothers Aaron and Ayers Mason. 

In the spring of eighteen hundred and twenty-one, Robbins pur- 
chased a wild lot of land in the town of Albany, and in June of 
that year commenced to fell trees with the evident purpose of mak- 
ing him a home. The place where he commenced his clearing was 
near Bethel line, and was afterward settled by Mr. Samuel Brown, 
who occupied it for many years. Robbins spent the following year 
in much the same manner. He worked for the farmers a portion of 
the time, felled more trees ui)on liis own lot, cleared up n piece 
where he had felled the year before, threshed grain and husked corn 
in harvest time, and worked in the lumber woods in winter. He 
never appeared to be tired. He was straight as an arrow and lithe 
as the willow in all his motions and movements. He was very 
penurious, in fact his leading characteristic appeared to be the accu- 
mulation of money. He was grasping and mean, allowing himself 
but little for clothing, and when working for himself, subsisting on 
the cheapest and coarsest fare. AVhile in Bethel he was not charged 
with any violation of the law, though soon after he came, the cloth- 
ing mill operated by Asa Twitchell, was broken open and a large 
quantity of cloth belonging to customers, stolen. The horse brought 
to Bethel by Bobbins was also taken away. The thieves were over- 
taken near Waterford and most of the stolen property recovered. 


It is remembered that there were those in Bethel at the time who 
suspected Robbins of being a party to the theft, and this suspicion 
was strengthened by his subsequent career ; but he was not molested 
and there was probably no very good reason for suspecting him. It 
was also believed by some that the horse he rode upon into Bethel 
was a stolen one. 

It is remembered that in the autumn of eighteen hundred and 
twenty-two, Robbins made a journey to the head-waters of the 
Androscoggin river, a region then but little known in Bethel. He 
was absent three or four weeks, but the object of his visit was 
known only to himself. In the spring of eighteen hundred and 
twenty-three, to the great surprise of the people in the neighborliood 
of Bethel Hill, Robbins was married to Miss Harriet Stearns, 
daughter of Thomas Stearns, one of the wealthiest and most 
respected farmers in town. The ceremony was performed by Bar- 
bour Bartlett, Esq., on the twenty-third day of April. Such an 
alliance was never thought of outside of the contracting parties until 
it took place, and it was said that the parents of the bride were 
equally ignorant of her intentions until the day arrived, and all the}' 
could say or do failed to change her purpose. Bobbins did not set- 
tle upon his Albany lot, but soon after his marriage he packed up 
his few household goods and farm implements, and with his wife, 
set out on the long and wearisome journey through the present towns 
of Newry, Grafton and Upton in Maine, and Cambridge and Errol 
in New Hampshire. They then followed up the Androscoggin river 
to the mouth of the Megalloway, then up this river many miles, to a 
point which he had selected on his former visit, for a home-site. 
He was among the first settlers in th's still remote region, and the 
nearest settlement was in Errol, a day's journey away. He fell to 
work with his usual vigor, and by toiling almost night and da^', he 
soon had a shelter for his wife and a good area of land about it 
cleared up. Fish and game were then abundant in this region, and 
Robbins was an adroit angler and hunter, and kept the larder well 
supplied. He soon had quite a farm in this wilderness. He l)uilt 
him a comfortable house and out-buildings, kept cows and oxen, 
and ere long the prattle of children was for the first time heard in 
this wild region. Robbins was an expert trapper, and the country 
abounded in fur-bearing animals, which became to him a great 
source of gain. He made quite frequent trips to Andover by way 
of Umbagog and Richardson's lakes, and to Faimington by way of 


the Kangeley, where he disposed of his furs and purchased supplies 
which he toted back for the support of his increasing family. He 
seemed to be prosperous and contented, and half a century after, 
his aged wife informed me that this was the happiest period of her 
whole life. 

This season of prosperity did not long continue. Circumstances 
to be related hereafter broke up and made desolate the home at the 
mouth of the Diamond, and scattered the family, never to be re- 
united on earth. Mrs. Robbins must have been fond of her hus- 
band. She was brought up in a home of plenty', if not of luxury. 
She had kind parents and brothers and sisters, and she had spent 
her youth in a neighborhood noted for its social qualities an<l gener- 
ous hospitalities. And yet, in a wilderness, fifteen miles removed 
from Errol, where the only person she would be likely to see year 
after year, save a neighbor or two and the members of her own fam- 
ily, was an occasional hunter or trap[)er, or a strolling Indian, she 
spent the "happiest period of iier life." She was a brave-hearted 
woman. In the trapping season Robbins was often absent for 
weeks together, and she lived alone with her children. Bears 
prowled around her dwelling, and the blood-curdling cry of the 
panther was often heard at night. The sneaking loupcervier, in the 
daytime, would watch her from a distance when she went to the 
spring for water, but he was careful to keep be3'ond the reach of 
her rille, in the use of which she greatly excelled. And so the years 
glided b}', years of care and toil and watchfulness, yet years of con- 
tentment and peace for the little family living on the far off and 
lonely Megalloway. Yet all the while, calamity with dark pinions 
was brooding over this devoted household. The circumstances 
which led to the catastrophe here intimated, I will now proceed to 

In the year eighteen hundred and twenty-six, there lived in Let- 
ter E Plantation, a township situated between Phillips and the 
Rangeley Lakes, a man named James Wilbur. He was the son of 
John Wilbur, and was born in seventeen hundred and ninety, in the 
town of Durham, Maine. Many of the quite early settlers of 
Franklin county moved there from the town of Durham, and among 
them were several members of the Wilbur family. James Wilbur 
was a quiet, peaceable man, not brilliant, but of fair ability, a man 
of integrity, industrious and thrifty. The place he had selected for 
his home was quite remote from other settlements in the county, 


and was on the very border of civilization, toward the lake region. 
There was then only a lumberman's road leading from Phillips to 
Eangeley Lake, and no travel in summer except by fishermen and 
hunters. On his way to Farmingtou to sell his furs and procure 
supplies, David Robl)ins quite often passed by the Wilbur place, 
and was well known to the family. Mr. Wilbur's wife, Sarah, born 
in seventeen hundred and ninety-five, was from Martha's Vineyard, 
and both he and his wife were inclined toward the religious sect 
known as Quakers or Friends. At the time of which I am writing, 
they had several small children, all daughters but one. The son 
was named for his father, but was called "Jim." There were two 
daughters older than he, and he was about three years of age. 

One day in the autumn of eighteen hundred and twenty-six, 
"Jim," with one of the girls, either was sent or went of his own 
accord, accounts differ in this regard, from the house in the direc- 
tion of the woods and the lake. The}' had been away some little 
time when the girl returned to the house without the boy. It is said 
that they engaged in play until they became tired, when they laid 
themselves down upon the leaves and fell asleep. When the girl 
awoke, she missed her little brother, and calling aloud to him, she 
received no answer. Supposing he had awakened and returned to 
the house, she hastened there herself, but found that he had not 
been there. When she awoke she found the little red frock which 
her brother had worn lying upon the ground near her, and this she 
carried to the house. In much alarm the mother hastened to the 
spot and made a careful examination. The garment was entire, 
and there w^as no evidence that any wild beast had been in the 
vicinity. She at once became convinced that the fluid had been 
stolen by some person or persons unknown, and that the garment 
had been left to give the impression that little Jimmy had been de- 
voured or carried away by a wild beast. It was known that Rob- 
bins was at Farmingtou the day before the boy was missed, and that 
he left for his home by the way of the Wilbur place, on the same 
day. But he did not call at Wilbur's at this time, nor did they see 
him pass by. Mr. Wilbur at this time was absent from home. 

The alarm increased with every hour, and the news soon spread 
through all that region of country. Every man and boy joiued in 
the search, which was contiuued for two days and nights. Some 
thought that the child might have thrown off his garment and strayed 
away into the woods, prompted by childish curiosity, and had some 


faint hopes that he might be found. They built huge fires by night, 
and loudly called his name during the day, but the echo of their own 
voices wag' the only response. After two days had passed, and 
ever}' nook and corner within a radius of two or three miles had 
been examined, all remaining hope was dissipated, and they became 
convinced that "Jimmj^" had been captured, either by an Indian or 
white man, and carried away. Circumstances pointed very strongly 
to Bobbins, but the question came up, what could be his object? 
He had children of his own, and if he had none, he could not hope 
to conceal the child from the anxious search of his parents and their 
friends. His place was visited, but no evidence of guilt could be 
brought to bear upon him, and he was not molested. 

From that time forth, melancholy brooded over the home of the 
Wilburs, and their bereavement was such that they refused to be 
comforted. They continued the search for the lost child. They 
interviewed Indians wherever they could find them. They visited 
their encampments, and carefulW scrutinized every child. Reports 
would often come to them of a boy, and later, of a young man of 
English descent seen with some strolling band of Indians, and liv- 
ing with them, and many long, tedious and fruitless journeys were 
taken in consequence of these stories. Mr. AVilbur and his wife 
grew prematurely old in their search, attended by so many disap- 
pointments, and finnlly Idt their homestead in Franklin county and 
moved to Bethel. Their daughters had grown up, and had sought 
employment in the cotton factories of Lowell and Saco, and the old 
people lived alone. Often have I seen them riding out together, 
and a more disconsolate, heart-broken couple I never saw. Though 
hope had long since died out, they still seemed to be watching and 
waiting, with an appearance of inexpressible longing which was 
pitiable in the extreme. Their lost darling seemed to be ever in 
their thoughts, and they never tired of talking of him. 

It has already been stated that the daughters had grown, and had 
left the paternal roof for employment in the factory, but they had 
never forgotten little Jimmy, and being strictly enjoined liy their 
parents, they had made it a point to visit every Indian encami)ment 
in the vicinity of their place of abode. During the summer sea- 
son, strolling bands of Indians had been in the habit of stopping 
in the vicinity of Saco, sometimes at Biddeford Pool, and some- 
times at Old Orchard, where they made baskets and other simple 
wares which they sold to the factory girls, and to the citizens gen- 


erally. Many a time had the Wilbur girls visited these temporary 
Indiau camps, and gone away without results, until it became more 
a matter of form than otherwise. Twenty years had elapsed since 
the disappearance of the child, and not one word of intelligence had 
been received in response to their numerous inquires. The mysterj' 
was as profound as on the day of its occurrence. It was in the 
year eighteen hundred and forty-six, while the AVilhur girls, Persis 
and Hannah, were at work in the factory at Saco, that they learned 
that a party of Indians had gone into camp in the suburbs of the 
city. In accordance with their custom, they embraced the first op- 
portunity to visit the camp, and interview these sons and daughters 
of the forest. Hardh' had they reached the camp, when their at- 
tention was directed to a person wearing the Indian garb, spoke the 
Indian language, and had an Indian wife, and yet had all the ap- 
pearance, in form and feature, of a white man. As they approach- 
ed nearer they were struck dumb, as it were, at the close resem- 
blance between this Indian and their father. Their stature, their 
form and features, making allowance for the difference in their ages, 
were almost identical. He was sunburnt aud swarthy, and filthy, 
as Indians generally are, but notwithstanding all this, the resem- 
blance to the elder Wilbur was very striking. Somewhat recovering 
from their surprise, the girls made inquiries, aud found that this 
young man was indeed of P>nglish parentage, though he had been 
with the tribe fiom childhood. They then entered into conversa- 
tion with him. Like the rest of the party, he could converse in 
broken English, but his early recollections were shadow}- and 
obscure. He did have an indistinct recollection, which he expressed 
in his broken wa}', of living in the family of a wiiite man and 
woman, where there were other children ; of making a long journey 
through the woods with a white man, and being given up by him 
to the Indians. He also rememltered that his name was "Jim," aud 
this was the name by which the Indians had always called him. He 
•was brought up at the Indian village on the Saint Francis River in 
Canada, and there he married his Indian wife. He had frequently 
accompanied bands of these Indians in their summer excursions into 
the States, but this was the first time he had come with them to 

All the circumstances were such as to convince the Wilbur girls 
that their long lost brother had indeed been found, that their long 
and patient search had at last been rewarded. They informed the 


young man of their relationship to him, gave him their account of 
the affair, and spoke of the patient search of their father and 
mother, who they informed him were still alive. He received their 
account with Indian stoicism, almost with stolidity. In fact, he show- 
ed but little interest in the whole subject, much to the chagrin and 
disappointment of his sisters. The story soon became noised abroad 
and hundreds visited the camp, and probably the Indians had never 
before found so good a market for their simple wares. The sisters 
furnished Jim with a new suit of clothes, and when he was dressed 
up, his hair trimmed, and his face washed, the resemblance to his 
father was still more apparent. The aged parents were at once 
notified of the discovery and positive identity of their lost boy, and 
preparations made for a family meeting. These incidents occurred 
about four 3'ears before the railway traversed Oxford count}^, and 
the stage coach was the only public conveyance. The Wilburs 
were at this time on a high hill away from the travelled road, about 
two miles from the stage route. It had been arranged that the 
father should come down from his home to a little hamlet iu Milton 
plantation, and await the arrival of the stage. The meeting took 
place at the house of Amasa H. Merrill, where the stage usually 
stopped to leave and take mail, and is described bj^ those present 
as hn-ing been very affecting. But it was as nothing to the meet- 
ing which took place between mother and son at the Wilbur home- 
stead an hour later. Jim was accompanied by his Indian wife, and 
several persons had assembled to witness the meeting. Pen and 
tongue are wholly inadequate to describe this meeting. The young 
man for once, threw away his stoicism, and falling upon his mother's 
neck wept like a child. The recognition was complete. As 
father and son stood together beneath the roof-tree, no one present 
could for a moment doubt their relationship. Probably the re- 
semblance between father and son was never more marked and 
striking. Jimmy also had time to think over the past, and several 
incidents of his early childhood were recalled by him. Fragments 
of a story told him by his mother were repeated and remembered by 
both. His description of the white man who had led him away, 
so far as it went, tallied with that of Robbins, and there was no 
longer any doubt in the minds of the people that he was the 
abductor. AVhat the object was, can only be a matter of conjecture. 
Not much could be learned from the Indians, who preferred to be ret- 
icent upon the entire subject. There was a story put in circulation,. 


but how much reliance can be placed in it I do not know, that when 
Robbius was leading the child through the woods, he met a party 
of Saint Francis Indians, who were out hunting, and the chief of 
the party asked Robbius what he proposed to do with the child. 
The answer, which seems almost incredible, was that he was going 
to bait his traps with him. The heart even of the savage was 
touched with pity, and he offered Robbius three lieaver skins for 
the child, which offer was accepted. Of course Jimmy was too 
young to understand anything of such transactions, but there was 
nothing in his own story incompatible with this, and if auythiug, 
it was rather corroborative. 

But to return to the Wilbur homestead. It has been stated that 
the meeting betweeu mother and sou were indiscribably tender and 
affecting. Strong men uuused to the meltiug mood, could not 
restrain their emotions, and wept like children. The only pevson 
who was not deeply moved by the spectacle was the Indian wife, who 
seemed to view the proceedings with jealousy as foreboding" evil to 
her. Jimmy remained with his parents a few days and then returned 
to his Indian friends at Saco. I saw him several times while he was 
with his parents, and, if necessarry, I could add my unbiased testi- 
mony to the close resemblance between him and the elder Wilbur. 
Every inducement was held out to him to remain with his parents, 
but without avail. They offered to adopt his Indiau wife, and at 
their death to leave him their property, but this latter consideration 
was without weight with him. He wanted no landed property, and 
he had so long led an indolent and slip-shod life that the very 
idea of responsibility was odious to him. While he dressed like an 
Indian and spoke their language, he had none of their native cun- 
ning and shrewdness, and was regarded by them as a poor Indian, 
and as he was ignorant of most kinds of work, uneducated, slothful 
and lazy, he would doubtless have made a ver}' poor white man. 
The Wilburs continued to reside upon their hill-side farm for some 
years, and eveiy year they received a short visit from Jim, wlio was 
sometimes accompanied by his wife and sometimes not. Finally 
the family moved to Martha's Vineyard, and the old i)eople have 
long since been gathered to their fathers. 

In the year eighteen hundred and twenty-seven, there lived in 
the town of Milan, New Hampshire, a man named Abner Hinds. 
He was the son of Abner and Lydia (IkiU) Hinds, and was liorn 
in Dublin, October thirt}', seventeen hundred and eighty-four. 


Soou after he reached his majority, he married Betsey Pierce of 
Dublin, aud moved to Milau. This town is situated on the An- 
droscoggin River about one hundred miles from its mouth and some 
twenty miles below where this river emerges from Umbagog Lake. 
At the time of which 1 write, the township was unsettled. Hinds 
being among the very first to settle here. Milan is still a border 
town, though the great wilderness belt adjoining, which stretches 
far away into Canada, has been broken here and there by small set- 
tlements. Hinds was a famous woodsman and hunter, and spent 
much of his time in the forest. He was an expert trapper and 
gathered rich harvests of furs in the township where he lived, and 
those lyiug contiguous, which at that time abounded with every 
variety of fur-bearing animal common to American forests in 
this latitude. In his hunting trips, Hinds was often accompanied 
by a man named Seth Cloutman, who was also an early resident in 
Milau. Together they traversed the forest year after year, and 
until the more valuable fur-bearing animals such as the beaver, the 
otter aud the sable had become less pleuty. Then they resolved to 
go farther into the forest and in September, eighteen hundred and 
twenty- seven, they started w-ith all their hunting paraphernalia, by 
means of canoes up the Androscoggin and far beyond the Umbagog 
Lake, expecting to be absent several mouths. From the L^nibagog, 
they passed into Richardson's, then into the Great Mooselucmagun- 
tic aud through it to the Kennebago River, and so on to the Little 
Kenuebago Pond. Near here they proposed to erect their home 

Meantime, David Robbins had continued to hunt and trap on 
Magalloway until he had thinned out the otter and other fur-bearing 
animals, so that his gains had become unsatisfactory. He also re- 
solved to seek new hunting grounds, and taking his birch canoe and 
his traps, he started for the Little Kennebago, a few days behind 
Hinds and Cloutman. It is not at all probable that Robbins knew 
of the prior occupancy of the territory, but on his arrival. Hinds 
and Cloutman claimed the exclusive right to hunt in that region 
under the Indian rules of priority. Robbins appeared very friendly, 
and suggested the idea of putting their traps into one stock and 
forming a co-partnership. He was a very persistent man, had 
come prepared for a long hunt and after much persuasion, induced 
them to accept of his proposition. They built a large camp some 
three miles east of Kennebago Pond, as a general rendezvous, and 


then allotting to each his territory, each departed his way, setting 
traps and each returning to the camp occasionally, to deposit his 
furs and obtain supplies of food. This they followed for about 
seven or eight weeks, and were successful beyond all expectations. 
But winter in this region, which, through its great depth of snow, 
places an embargo on all hunting operations was fast approaching, 
and their supply of provisions was also running very short. Con- 
ferring together, it was agreed that Robblns should go to his home 
on the Magalloway, and bring in what provisions he could to help 
them out until they could close up the season's work. Meanwhile, 
Hinds and Cloutman were to go over the lines and gather in the 
furs and take up the traps. This would occupy them about twelve 
da3?s while they had about five days' provisions, but they thought 
they could trust to their hunting skill to make up the deficiency. 

Soon after this, and before Hinds and Cloutman had completed 
their rounds, the weather became cold and nearly two feet of snow 
fell. After severe suffering they reached the camp or rather 
the site of their camp, nearly at the same time, but their 
late camp was in ashes and the ruins covered deep with snow. 
They were nearly exhausted, were entirely destitute of food and 
fifty miles from the nearest habitation, and felt that death stared 
them in the face. At first, they supposed the burning to be acci- 
dental, but on more mature deliberation, they calculated that 
Robbins had at first plundered the camp, then burned it, and had 
secreted the furs where he could return for them subsequently. 
He had no idea his fellow hunters would ever return, as he sub- 
sequently confessed. Hinds was a man of iron mold, and with 
wonderful powers of endurance. His courage under difficulties 
was a leading trait. Cloutman, on the other hand, though an ex- 
pert hunter and trapper, was easily discouraged, and when he found 
the camp destroyed, and all their hard earned peltry consumed or 
stolen, he completely broke down, and was plunged into the depths 
of despair. Hinds cheered and scolded him by turns, and em- 
ployed every device to arouse his dormant energies, and succeded 
so far as to get him to set out for the nearest settlement. 

The cold weather had frozen the lakes and ponds, and in crossing 
a small pond Cloutman had the misfortune to fall and fracture one 
of the bones of the shoulder. The fracture was reduced by Hinds,, 
and afterwards he carried Cloutman much of the way on his back. 
They shot occasionally a rabbit and a partridge which kept them 


from starving, and they kept from freezing at night by camping in 
some sheltered place and keeping a good fire. At length after al- 
most incredible hardships, they reached the settlements at the foot 
of Lake Umbagog, early in the month of December. Here they 
rapidly recruited, and iu a couple of weeks were able to go back 
over the ground in order to gather up the remaining traps and the 
game that might be in them. They th»n started for home, but 
before they reached the lake they struck the trail of Robbins, who 
with sleds, had been after his plunder. They then pushed on to 
the home of Robbins, and arriving at his house inquired for him. 
His wife, who was evidently ignorant of his treachery, replied that 
he had gone to Farmiugton, to dispose of his furs. At this time, 
Robbins evidently believed that Hinds and Cloutman had perished 
in the forest, and that he could safely dispose of the peltry and 
enjoy the proceeds. 

At this season of the year, the only travel in the lake region was 
by means of snowshoes, and Hinds and Cloutman being supplied 
with these indispensables, determined to waylay Robbins ou his 
return and force him to give an account of his doings. They knew 
his route would be by way of a certain river, and having learned 
from Mrs. Robbins how long he had been absent, they also knew 
that it was nearly time for him to return. The lake country at this 
time was considered almost without the pale of the laws of the 
State : there were certain rules and regulations adopted by hunters 
and trappers which could not be violated with impunity, but in 
other respects, each man was a law unto himself. So Hinds and 
■Cloutman set out to meet Robbins, and about the middle of the 
afternoon they sighted him on the river, and soon afterward they 
met. There was a look of astonishment on the countenance of 
Robbins when he rocognized his former comrades, followed by evi- 
dent signs of fear. He tried to be calm and collected, and address- 
ed them in a friendly manner, l)ut received no word in reply. His 
two antagonists were fully armed with rifles, hatchets and knives, 
but they did not for a moment think of using these weapons upon 
a single man and unarmed. Cloutman was a timid man and left 
the settlement of the question entirely with his companion. Hinds 
knew that all talk would be useless, and when Robbins ex- 
pressed great joy and surprise at seeing them alive and well, he 
answered nothing, but divesting himself of his weapons and pack, 
he squared off and knocked Robbins down. He then proceeded to 


give him such a castigation as the circumstances seemed to call 
for. Robbins begged for his life and made a clean breast of it. 
He promised to make full reparation so far as mone^^ could do it, 
and as money was what they needed and wanted, they listened to 
his proposition. They repaired with him to his house and there 
effected a settlement. They treated him very leniently under the 
circumstances, exacting only their proportion of the proceeds of the 
peltry they had secured. Robbins did not have money enough by 
him to pay the sums agreed upon, so he turned out four head of 
young cattle, and gave his note for the balance. Cloutmau was 
paid in full, and Hinds took the note in his own name. They then 
started for home, but they found it extremely difficult to drive 
cattle through the forest in mid-winter. The}' struck across for 
the Connecticut river, followed this down to the vicinity of North- 
umberland and then crossed over to their home on the Androscog- 
gin. Their families had anxiously looked for them for several 
weeks, and were delighted at their safe return. The perfidy of 
Robbins as related by Hinds and Cloutman, wais soon repeated at 
every hearth-stone along the border, and created intense excite- 
ment and indignation. 

Cloutman had now had enough of life and adventure in the far off 
lake region, and resolved not to venture there again. Hinds, on 
the other hand, was one of those restless men who loved adventure 
and courted danger, and he had no sooner recuperated from his last 
trip, than he resolved to try again. His oldest son Benjamin Frank- 
lin Hinds, born March seventeen, eighteen hundred and thirteen, 
was a precocious youth, a chip of the old block, fearless and fond of 
the woods, and he besought his father for permission to accompany 
him on the next trip. The father somewhat reluctantly consented, 
and they at once set about the necessary preparations. These 
were made and they started for the Kennebago country about the 
middle of February, eighteen hundred and twenty-eight. The 
second son of Hinds, recently deceased, wrote me under date of 
December twenty-seven, eighteen hundred and eighty, that he 
well remembered the morning when his father and brother set out 
on their journey. The rest of the family were out watching them 
as they ascended the high grounds on the left bank of the Andros- 
coggin, and exchanged signals with them a moment before they 
disappeared from view. They little thought this parting was to 
be forever, and that the glimpse they caught of the forms of the 



dear ones as they passed into the forest, was to be the last this 
side of eternity. But such was the case. So far was the distance 
to the proposed hunting-grounds, nearly or quite one hundred miles, 
that the family at home knew they would not hear from them save 
by accident, until their return at the close of the spring hunt. 

Winter passed, the snows melted in field and forest, spring was 
ushered in with leaf and blossom and singing birds, and no tidings 
came of the trappers of the Kenuebago. The mother, sore afflicted 
as the weeks went by after their expected return, said but little on 
account of her children. The neighbors, busy about their spring 
work, thought but little about the matter, until well into June ; 
then they began to be alarmed at the mysterious and continued 
absence of Hinds and his son, and a party volunteered to go to the 
lake region in search of them. They were gone nearly a month 
and then returned. Their search had been fruitless, and if they 
had any suspicions of the fate of the missing ones, they kept them 
to themselves. My correspondent, the son of Mr. Hinds, writes 
that he always believed the searching party were fully satisfied that 
there had been foul play, but they disliked to add to the distress 
of the family by revealing their thoughts. It came out, however, 
subsequently, that they went among the settlers and hunters in the 
lake country, and learned the following facts : That Hinds and 
son repaired to the Keunebago, the place where Hinds, Cloutman 
and Bobbins had hunted the fall before, and that soon after they 
were joined by Robbins. He professed to have become a better 
man, to have made a profession of religion, and expressed a strong 
desire to make further reparation for ,all the wrongs he had done 
Hinds and his companion. He said he had found a place where 
beaver were plenty, and if Hinds and son would join him, they 
should have half the peltry, and that out of his half, he would pay 
the note still held against him by Hinds. So plausible was his 
story, and so penitent did he appear, that Hinds, notwithstanding 
his former experience with him, was won over and agreed to go 
with him. These facts were learned from other hunters who were 
present at the time. They went away expecting to accomplish their 
object in the course of three or four weeks, and then return to their 
camp near the Keunebago. In less than a week, Robbins returned, 
but Hinds and son were never again seen nor heard from. The 
forest held, and still holds the secret of their fate. 

In their investigation the searchers found articles in possession of 


hunters which they believed to have been the property of Mr. Hinds, 
and which, in some instances, they confessed to have bought of 
Robbins. But Robbius was known to be a violent and reckless 
man, and many of the hunters declined to say anything against 
him, or to express any opinion respecting the mj'sterious disappear- 
ance of Hinds and son. 

So the summer passed away, and no further attempt had been 
made to solve the n^yster}'. But the people of Milan and Coos 
county generally, as well as the settlers in northern Oxford and 
Franklin counties, had arrived at the conclusion that there had been 
foul play, and that David Robbins was the guilty party. The story 
of the lost Wilbur boy was yet fresh in their memories, and this 
helped to strengthen their convictions that he had been guilty of 
the greater crime. The people of Milan now determined to have 
Robbins arrested and arraigned for the crime of murder. But who 
would make the arrest? Robbins lived in the wilderness, remote 
from neighbors, was an expert woodsman and knew the country 
and all its numerous places of concealment. 

On complaint of Mrs. Hinds, and some of her neighbors, a war- 
rant for the arrest of Robbins was made out at Lancaster, then 
and still the shire town of Coos county. The warrant was placed in 
the hands of Lewis Loomis, a deputy sheriff, and a noted character 
of that day. He was a stalwart man, six feet and six inches tall, 
well proportioned, straight as an arrow, and possessed of strength 
in proportion to his size. ' He was known for his great strength and 
prowess from Canada to Portland, and was also a woodsman and 
hunter of much experience. The difficult task of arresting Robbins 
could not have been submitted to abler or better hands. Several 
persons volunteered to accompany him, but he declined the offer. 
He said the job was not for a posse of men, but for one man. 
There was a young man then living in Milan, by the name of Daniel 
Ellingwood, and he begged so hard to be allowed to go that Loomis 
consented to take him along, and subsequent events showed that he 
made no mistake in so doing. Loomis at once began to get ready 
for the expedition. He lived in Colebrook, New Hampshire, then, 
as now, a border town, and among the things needed was a light 
canoe. It so happened that an Indian who lived near Colebrook had 
just completed a strong birch canoe, which, after some persuasion, 
he consented to loan him. Well armed and well provisioned, Loomis 
and Ellingwood started up the Androscoggin, and in two days were 


in the Magalloway country, and near Robbins' place of abode. Here 
they met an old trapper of whom they made inquiries about the 
hunting, and whether Robbins was doing anything in that line. He 
said that Robbins had started the day before on a long hunting 
trip. His canoe was loaded down with traps and provisions, and 
he expected to be absent several months. This raade it evident to 
the experienced mind of Loomis that Robbins had some suspicion 
of what was going on, and was making an effort to escape. His i)ro- 
posed hunting excursion Loomis believed to be a blind, and that he 
had started for Canada he had not the least doubt. When- the trap- 
per had passed along, Loomis told Ellingwood that Robbios had just 
twenty-four hours the start of them, and they must put forth ever}' 
effort or he would escape. It behooved them to proceed with ex- 
treme caution, for if Robbins had the least suspicion, that he was 
followed, he would lie in ambush for them, and shoot them down 
without mercy. Loomis felt quite sure that Robbins would push on 
as fast as possible, and make no stop until he thought hin>self safe 
^w>m pursuit. So they followed on, muffling their oars when they 
usedl them, keeping a sharp lookout on every hand, and when they 
camped at night making no fire. Ellingwood was strong and pos- 
sessed great powers of endurance for one of his age. He was also 
:famiiiar with canoeing, and with the water passages throughout the 
teglon they were to pass. The second afternoon of the pursuit they 
slackened their speed somewhat, fearing they might come suddenly 
upon him. Loomis sat in the bow of the boat with a loaded and 
cocked rifle in his hand, while Ellingwood worked at the oars. The 
afternoon passed with no results, and night coming on-, th'ey again 
encamped on the bank, without fire, as before. The next morning 
they resumed their journey with the same precaution as the day 
previous. About two o'clock in the afternoon they arrived at a 
carrying place nearly two miles in extent, where, oo account of the 
rapids and falls, everything had to be toted along the bank. The 
foot-path was well worn, for this was a thoroughfare through the 
great northern forest belt for hunters and trappers, and also for 
smugglers. The pursuers now moved with extreme caution, for 
they felt quite sure they would find some signs of the fugitive in 
this place. They drew their canoe from the water, and hid it in a 
thicket, in order to examine carefully the ground where the foot- 
path commenced. Robbins had evidently taken every precaution 
to baffle pursuit, for a careful examination disclosed no tracks or 
other signs of any person having recently passed that way. They 
were about to draw out their canoe and proceed up the carry, when 


one of them discovered a somewhat blind trail which led from the 
path. Following this a few feet, they found a pack hidden in the 
bushes. An examination convinced them that this was Robbius' 
pack, and they took in the situation at once. He had carried up 
his canoe and traps, and might return for his pack at any moment. 
Ellingwood took position in a little grove of firs, above the place 
where the pack was found, while Loomis concealed himself close by 
the trail, and between the foot-path and the pack, so that Robbins, 
in going for it, must pass within a few feet of him. They had not 
long to wait. In fifteen or twenty minutes they heard the sound of 
footsteps, as of some one coming down the path, and a moment 
later Robbins appeared upon the scene. Loomis had no weapons 
upon him, and if Robbins had, his purpose was not to give him a 
chance to use them. So just when the fugitive was opposite his 
place of concealment, Loomis sprang upon him like a tiger, and 
had him down in a moment. He began to feel for his knife, but 
Ellingwood had now come, whom Robbins seeing, he knew that re- 
sistance would be useless, and so he gave up his weapons and al- 
lowed them to bind his arms strongly with cords, which they had 
taken along for that purpose. They placed him in their canoe, and 
taking the other one in tow, they started on the homeward journey. 
At night the}' camped on the shore, but they had the benefit of a 
fire, which they kept burning all night. They kept close watch upon 
their prisoni'r, taking turns, and keeping in hand their rifle, which 
they informed Rol)bins they should use upon him at the least effort 
to escape. 

At length, after several days had elapsed since the capture of 
Robbins, Loomis and Ellingwood, with their captive, reached Lan- 
caster and lodged him in jail. The party was miich worn out with 
ti'amping through the forest and loss of sleep, and were very glad 
when their task was done. The jail was a rude structure built of 
logs, and when occupied by criminals or persons awaiting trial, it 
was necessary to place a guard around it. Robbins was very reti- 
cent, and for the time being, very docile. There were no newspa- 
per reporters to interview him at that time, and every effort to ap- 
proach him was repelled b}' an obstinate silence. There was great 
rejoicing throughout the entire region at his incarceration, and his 
captors received due attention at the hands of the people in old- 
fashioned hospitality. The next session of court, competent to try 
the case, would not take place before the following April. As the 
time drew near there was intense interest manifested in the case 
which would doubtless have drawn together tlie largest crowd ever 
seen in Coos county. It was understood that the counlsel employed 
by Robbins would in the first place, question the juri-diction of the 
court, or its competency to try th" case, on the ground that if a 
crime had been committed it was not committed in New Hampshire 
but in Maine. The boundary line at that period and for years 
after, was unsettled, and while it was well known that Robbins' 
home was in Maine, it was not so clear in what jurisdiction he had 
committed his crimes. This question, however, was never to be 


raised in court, for on the morning of its sitting, it was found that 
Robbins, some time during the night previous, had made his es- 
cape. The jail, as stated, was made of logs a foot in diameter, and 
spotted so that they would rest one upon another, leaving no space 
between. lu the cell where Robbins was confined, there w\as a win- 
dow hole some ten inches square, for the admission of light and 
air. He was quite broad shouldered and it seemed impossible that 
he could have forced himself through this apperture, but, however 
this may have been, he had vacated his cell, and nothing authentic 
was ever heard of him afterward. It was known that Robliins had 
the means with which to pay well for his liberty, and some thought 
the jailor might be implicated in the affair, while others had other 
theories which began and ended in talk. 

Years afterwards a report was in circulation in Coos county, that 
Robbins had been tried for murder in Canada ; that he was con- 
victed and hanged, and that under the gibbet, he confessed to the 
murder of Hinds and son, and various other crimes, including the 
abduction of the Wilbur boy. No one attempted to follow up these 
reports, and it is not probable that they had any foundation in fact. 
Soon after the escape of Robbins, Mrs. Hinds sold her farm in 
Milan, and moved with her family to the southern part of the State, 
■where her friends resided. Her oldest son, Silas P. Hinds, became 
a famous musician. He settled in Newark, New Jersey, and en- 
gaged in the manufacture of pianos, which have a wide reputation. 
Many appliances used by other manufacturers are the inventions of 
Mr. Hinds, for the use of which he received a royalty. It w^as from 
this man, whose letters are now before me, that I learned the facts 
and incidents, so far as they relate to his father, and the capture 
and escape of Robbins, of this tragic story. He died a few years 
ago as the result of an injury. Some forty years ago he visited the 
scenes of his childhood aud gathered up all the facts he w^as able, 
connected with the disappearance of his father and brother. He 
visited Colonel Loomis at Colebrook, and from liira learned the cir- 
cumstances here related, of the capture and escape of Robl)ins. 
When he visited Milan, in wliich town he was the first cliild born 
of English parents, many were living who knew his fatiier and 
mother, but all, including Colonel Loomis, have long since died. 
The story of the disappearance of Abner Hinds aud his son Benja- 
min, is still told by a later generation, but witli many exaggera- 
tions, and but for the efforts of Silas P. Hinds in gathering up the 
facts and placing them upon record, it is probable that many of 
them would now be hopelessly lost. 

Soon after the arrest of her husband, Mrs. Robbins left the 
Magalloway country and moved out to the settlements. Her chil- 
dren grew^ up, and one of them, a daughter, was married and lived 
in Saco. She subsequently kept a boarding house at Old Orchard, 
and there a few years ago, she died. The otiier daughters died un- 
married, and there were no sons. A granddaughter, the only re- 
maining descendant of David Robbins, died in eighteen hundred 
and ninety. 


lu the year eighteen hundred and eighty-one, I visited Mrs. Kob- 
bins, who was then living with her sister in the town of Newry. 
She was then confined to her bed by sickness, and soon after died. 
Fifty years had then passed since the escape of her husband from 
Lancaster jail, and slie informed me tliat she had never heard from 
him since that time. No message or token had ever come to her to 
inform her whether he were living or dead. She was ready to con- 
verse upon the subject of her husl)and and his alleged misdeeds, and 
she stated most explicitly and emphatically that she did not believe 
him guilty. She said that he was always kind to her and to his 
children. She said he was passionate and would sometimes threaten 
the children with severe punishment, but never inflicted it in quali- 
ty as threatened. He was absent much of the time, but always left 
the family well supplied with food and fuel. She said he alvvays 
told her that he was born at Machias, Maine ; that his father was a 
Baptist preacher, and that some day, when he could afford it, he 
would take her and the children to visit his folks at Machias. She 
said he claimed to be a Free Mason, and said he belonged to a 
lodge at Machias. She expressed the belief that the Free Masons 
assisted him in making his escape from the Lancaster jail,- and in 
getting away to Canada. She admitted, however, that there was 
trouble between her husband and Hinds and Cloutman, in the set- 
tlement of their affairs, and thai, her husband turned out stock to 
balance their claim, but she positively denied all knowledge of any 
subsequent relations between her husband's and these parties. She 
scouted the idea of her husband's complicity in the abduction of 
the Wilbur child, and said his disappearance had been other- 
wise satisfactorily accounted for. She said the Indians them- 
selves had stolen him, and then had trumped up the story of buy- 
ing him from a white man, because they feared punishment. She 
talked candidly and with apparent truthfulness, and being then 
upon the verge of the grave, she would not have been likely to 
make statements which she did not believe Her children were all 
dead, and there was no inducement on their account for her to pre- 
varicate and misrepresent. 

Before leaving the place, I had some talk with her sister's hus- 
band, since deceased, who was well acquainted with Kobbins and 
had been associated with him in various ways. He said that the 
prevailing sin of Robbins was avarice ; that for money he would do 
anything. He spoke of a time when they had made maple sugar 
together, on the lot Robbins had selected for a homestead in Albany. 
When they had finished their work they stored their sugar in their 
camp, and a few days afterward wlien they went in with sleds to 
haul it out, they found the camp in ashes. Subsequently he found 
that Robbins had stolen and sold the sugar, and had fired the camp 
to cover up liis dishonesty. He said, also, that Robbins was re- 
vengeful and malicious, and he had no dou])t he was guilty of all 
the charges laid against him. He said that Mrs. Robbins was 
greatly attached to her husband and was blind to all his failings. 
Robbins was also as much attached to his wife as such natures are 


capable of, aud that so far as was possible, he kept her in ignorance 
of his wroug-doiug. On investigation, I found that no person bear- 
ing the name of David Bobbins had ever been a member of Machias 
lodge of Masons, and that no Baptist ministei' by the name of Bob- 
bins had ever had a settlement or lived in that town. It is clear 
that he deceived his wife in respect to these statements, and in all 
probability he deceived her in regard to others. Sixty-three years 
have now passed since the last act in the drama, the escape of Bob- 
bins took place, and while some of his acts committed behind the 
scenes have never been fully, brought to light there is no proba- 
bility that we shall ever know more of them than we now do. With 
the burning of the court house at Lancaster, all the records relating 
to the case were destroyed, while all those persons of mature age at 
the time, who could possibly throw any additional light upon the 
subject have fallen into that sleep that knows no waking. 


Sketches Personal. 

v^'H )7,"5' Elipiiaz C. Bean. 

t"^^ prominent man f(n- many 3'ears in the easterly part of the 
^:4^; town was Eliphaz C. Bean, Esquire. He was born on the 
- -^-ra: homestead of his father, Mr. Edmund Bean, and was 
brought up on the farm He obtained a good common school edu- 
cation and taught winter schools in various places. He bought out 
the store of Thaddeus P. Bartlett, and from that time to the pres- 
ent, the place has been known as Bean's Corner. He was the sec- 
ond Postmaster in that part of the town, and held the position for 
fifteen years. He also oi)ened his large house as a tavern, and at 
the same time carried on farming. After a few years he gave up 
the store, took down his tavern sign, and since has engaged exclu- 
sively in agriculture. He has a productive interval farm, and has 
enjoyed his occupation. He has been more or less in town office, has 
served as town clerk, selectman, and for many years on the board 
of superintending school committe. In eighteen hundred and fifty- 
one, he was elected to the Maine Legislature. He was early ap- 
pointed a civil magistrate, and did considerable business in the -v^ay 
of conveyancing and uniting couples in marriage. He married in 
eighteen hundred and thirty-eight, Sarah B., daughter of Hall 
Farnhani of Bumford, who died several years ago. They reared a 
family, a record of which may be found with family statistics. 


Timothy Appleton Chapman. 

Like every New England community, Bethel can boast of sous 
whom accident or inclination has carried to distant scenes amid 
which they have risen to distinction and honor. INIost conspicuous 
among them is Timothy Appleton Chapman. Mr. Chapman is of a 
famiI3^ English by descent, which has been identified with New 
England for more than two hundred years. His parents were George 
Whitefield and Mary (Greenwood) Chapman, and he was born in 
Gilead, May 23, 1S24. His boyhood was passed upon his father's 
farm which lies partly in Gilead and partly in Bethel. He was 
educated at the district school of his native town and the academies 
of Bethel and Yarmouth. His first salaried employment was school 
teaching, which he practiced for two winters. But as he progressed 
toward manhood, he realized that to satisfy his ambitions and 
engross his abilities the life of a pedagogue and the restricted op- 
portunities of a countr}' town would never suttice. Before he was 
20, therefore, he cut himself loose from the associations of his 
childhood, and went to Boston to seek his fortune. He entered 
that great city with less than ten dollars in his purse, but with a 
wir}^ constitution, excellent habits and strong moral principles, a 
clear, active intellect, an inflexible will, and indomitable ambition. 

His first six years in Boston were passed as a clerk, most of the 
time in the dry goods store of C. F. Hovey & Co. His early dreams 
and impulses had not been in the direction of trade, but having 
entered upon a mercantile life, the young clerk applied himself 
with all his powers to acquiring by observation and practice all the 
mercantile knowledge which lay within his reach. Private charac- 
ter, as well as mere executive capacity, is part of the business cap- 
ital which may be accumulated by every young young man, how- 
ever small his salary, or limited his opportunities of laying by 
money. Of this desirable foundation for a successful career, IMr. 
Chapman soon had a larger portion than most of the young men of 
his age. His social associations were made with care. He was 
never frivolous, even in his amusements, but sought recreations 
which, besides serving to pass the time, held out a [)romise of im- 
provement. He formed opinions of his own on topics of current in- 
terest, and when occasion invited was not backward in expressing 
them. He was strongly in sympathy with the Abolitionist move- 


meut, and a supporter of Wendell Phillips, Charles Sumner, John G. 
Whittier and William Lloyd Garrison, long before their doctrines 
had become popular. He came to be known as a young man of ideas 
and of sterling qualities. 

His character commended him to the attention of influential peo- 
ple like James M. Beebe, at that time the greatest dry goods im- 
porter in Boston. That gentleman gave him very substantial en- 
couragement, and assisted him to open a dry goods store of his own. 
This enterprise was carried on for seven 3'ears, producing no great 
financial results, but enabling the young merchant to acquire ad- 
ditional experience and confidence, and to secure connections which 
were to become useful to him in a wider field of operations. 

It was in 1857, at the age of 32, that Mr. Chapman took the step 
which resulted in the establishment of a business that was destined 
to give full employment to his matured powers, and to develop into 
proportions exceeding anything that had been realized by the 
wealthiest and most successful merchants in that line in the coun- 
try at the time when he began his apprenticeship to tlie dr}' goods 
trade. This step was his removal to Milwaukee, which was then a 
place of less than -^0,000 inhabitants, but flourishing and promising 
future growth. Mr. Chapman's early employers, C. F. Hovey & 
Co., afforded him financial support, and he opened a dry goods 
store which at once became the favorite emporium of the city. The 
characteristics whicl: 1; liiicd for the store its original success have 
always been maintained. The goods handled were excellent in qual- 
ity and selected with refined and educated taste. They were sold at 
one price. Every department of the store was permeated by a spirit 
of system. 

In 1872, admonished by the growth of the city and of his trade to 
seek larger quarters than he had previously occupied, Mr. Chap- 
man erected and moved into what was at that time one of the larg- 
est dry goods houses in the Northwest. Eleven years later it had 
become inadequate to the growing demands of his trade, and he 
doubled its size. In convenience of arrangement the store had not 
a superior in the country. Not content with building for utility only, 
Mr. Chapman called decorative art to his aid, creating an establish- 
ment which fitly came to be spoken of as "the Palace Store," and 
was the pride of the whole Northwest. On the night of October 23, 
1884, this magnificent structure, with its entire contents — a stock 
valued at more than half a million dollars — was destroyed by fire. 


Milwaukeeans looked upou the fire as a public calamity, rather than 
a merely private loss. Business men asked the question, ''Will Mr. 
Chapman jebuild?" with much concern, for they realized that the 
store was an institution which brought many people and a great 
deal of incidental trade to the city. Petitions were received, signed 
by leading ladies of neighboring cities and towns, praying him to 
rebuild and continue in business. Leading firms throughout the 
country sent him telegrams expressing sympathy and offering finan- 
cial assistance if needed. Mr. Chapman's insurance money and his 
other property would have enabled him to "crown a life of labor 
with an age of ease," had he been disposed to avoid the responsi- 
bilities and risks of beginning anew. But after carefulh' summing up 
the situation, he decided in favor of continued activit}', and before 
the ashes of the fire were cold he had made arrangements for re- 
building upon even a grander scale than before. The structure 
which he erected occupies an area of 17,000 square feet upon the 
ground floor and is five stories in height. It is conceded to have no 
superior in the world for the purposes for which it is designed, and 
in many of its excellent features it is entirely unique. It is so ar- 
ranged that there is not a dark corner nor a deep shadow in the 
whole building. The ventilation is as perfect as science can make 
it. The frescoeing and other works of art are European in their con- 
ception and execution, and give the store the eifect of a reception 
room rather than a place for the sale of goods. Ample provision is 
made for the comfort of the employes as well as for that of the 
patrons of the establishment. One of the salient characteristics of 
Mr. Chapman's business methods is his treatment of his employes, 
who number more than the entire population of the town in which 
he was born. He does not regard people who work for him as mere 
machines, out of which it is incumbent for him to get the greatest 
amount of labor at least cost to himself, and with no thought for 
their personal well-being. 

In the especial field of exertion to which he has mainly devoted 
himself, Mr. Chapman has risen to the highest eminence. It is not 
alone his standing as a business man that gives him his place in the 
esteem of his fellow citizens. Broad-minded, cultured and public- 
spirited, a liberal promotor of important enterprises to benefit the 
community, a patron of art and education, he is looked up to as a 
thoroughly representative man, who has been successful not only in 
business, but successful in life. 


Mr. Chapman was married in Boston, on the 16th of April, ISoO,, 
to Miss Laura Bowker, daughter of David and Eunice (Clapp) 
Bowker, of Scituate, Mass. Mrs. Chapman is a lady of rare intel- 
ligence, fine character, and dignity and grace of manner, and has 
made her husband's home a recognized center of social refinement 
and cultured intellectual impulse. They have two daughters. 

Mr. Chapman's munificent enterprise is not confined to the city 
of his residence. For some years past he has been making practi- 
cal experiments in scientific agriculture, with a view of determin- 
ing the conditions under which farming in New England, and es- 
pecially in his native stute of Maine, can be restored to its old-time 
prosperity. These experiments, conducted on the old homestead 
farm at Gilead, have attracted wide attention, and have demon- 
strated that if the New England farmer will put thought and capi- 
tal in with his hard work, he can make his acres yield him a fair 
revenue. Some of Mr. Chapman's ideas upon the reasons of Maine's 
agricultural decadence, and the means by which prosperity may be 
restored, he has laid before the public in the form of contributions 
to the press. He is a strong believer in the American protective 
tariff, and in response to an attack upon the theory of protection 
which was made in a published criticism of one of his agricultural 
essays, he wrote a defense of the tariff sj'stem which elicited mucli 
approving comment. As may be infen-ed from his stand on the 
tariff, Mr. Chapman's political sympathies generally lie with the re- 
publican party, though he is not a narrow partisan. During the war 
he was a type of the staunchly loyal men who by their outspoken 
devotion to the union cause, and readiness to contribute liberally 
toward the expenses of carrying on the struggle, helped to hold up 
the hands of the martyr President, and to preserve the republic from 
dismemberment. While never shirking his political duties, he has 
never been a politician. When a movement to nominate him for 
office of Governor of Wisconsin was made, in 1888, he declined to 
become a candidate. 

Mr. Chapman is an original thinker, and a man of positive con- 
victions. He despises cant in all things, and shows his character and 
ability more by what he does than by what he says. He is one of the 
living exemplars, and reminders of Carlyle's noble declaration that 
"all true work is religion," and that "the essence of every sound re- 
ligion is, 'know thy work and do it.' " 


Henry L. CuArMAX. 

Professor Heur}' Lelaud Chapmaa was born in Bethel, July 
twenty-sixth, eighteen hundred and forty-live. He attended the 
town schools and Gould's academy until the family moved to Port- 
land. He fitted for college and graduated from Bowdoin in the class 
of eighteen hundred and sixty-six. From the Bangor Theological 
Seminary he graduated in eighteen hundred and sixty-nine, and im- 
mediately accepted a tutorship in Bowdoin College. In eighteen 
hundred and seventy-two he accepted the professorship of Latin 
and was subsequently transferred to the chair of rhetoric and ora- 
tory, and English literature has since been added. He is a pro- 
found scholar, an original thinker, and one of the most valuable and 
popular teachers connected with the college. He has never been 
settled as a pastor, though he has had frequent opportunities of do- 
ing so. He has occasionally supplied vacant pulpits, and is an 
eloquent preacher. He is a ready, off-hand speaker, and on post- 
prandial and other similar occasions, he has few equals in the State. 
He has a remarkably easy flow of language, can be witty or wise 
and can change from grave to gay, with remarkable facility. His 
written addresses are noted for the pure and forcible English in 
which they are clothed, recalling forcibly the manner and style of 
Addison and other English classical writers of that period. Professor 
Chapman sometimes successfully falls into rhyme and poetry, and 
his Centennial poem printed in this volume, does him great credit, 
both as a literar}^ and poetical production. He is now in the prime 
of manhood, in the enjoyment of excellent health, and with every 
promise of a brilliant future. 

Charles J. Chapman. 

Hon. Charles J. Chapman, son of Robert A. Chapman, was born 
in Bethel, January twenty-ninth, eighteen hundred and forty-eight, 
was educated in the public schools and Gould's Academy of Bethel, 
andGorham academy, entered Bowdoin college and graduated with 
honor in eighteen hundred and sixty-eight. The first prize for ex- 
cellence in English composition was awarded him in his senior year. 
After graduation, his health having become somewhat impaired by 
study, he made atrip to Minnesota, where he was employed by the 
Northern Pacific Railroad Company in its earliest railroad construe- 


tion across the State. He remained in the employ of this company 
until his return to Maine in the summer of eighteen hundred and 
seventy, when he became a member of the old established commis- 
sion house in flour and grain, of Norton, Chapman & Company of 
Portland. He has continued with this firm during all its changes up 
to' the present time, having become, in the meantime, its senior 
member. This firm has become the representative of some of the 
largest and best known mills in the West, including the famous 
Pillsbury-Washburn mills, and is recognized as the leading house of 
its kind in the State. Recently, Mr. Chapman has also become in- 
terested in banking, having formed in connection with his brothers, 
Cullen C, and Eobert, the Chapman Banking Company of Port- 
land, Maine ; to this branch of business he devotes a portion of his 
time. Mr. Chapman is a member of the Portland Board of Trade, 
and has always been known as a man of large public si)irit and en- 

In politics, Mr. Chapman is a republican, and from boyhood 
greatly interested in political matters. He was elected to and served 
on the school board of Portland, from eighteen hundred and seven- 
ty-three to eighteen hundred and seventy-five, was chosen member 
of Common Council in eighteen hundred and seventy-seven, eight 
and nine, serving as President of that body in eighteen hundred 
and seventy-nine ; was elected Alderman in eighteen hundred and 
eighty and eighty-one, serving as chairman of the Board in the lat- 
ter year ; was elected Mayor of Portland, first in eighteen hundred 
and eighty-six, and subsequently twice re-elected. During his office 
as Mayor, he planned and carried forward to successful consumma- 
tion the great Centennial celebration of the city in eighteen hun- 
dred and eighty-seven ; also among other results of his administra- 
tion may be mentioned the Back Bay^ improvements, the lease of 
the Portland and Ogdensburg Railroad to the Maine Central, and 
the contract with the Portland Water Company, whereby a new 
reservoir was constructed on Munjo}' Hill. He also accepted, 
in behalf of the city, in fitting speeches, the Longfellow statue from 
the Longfellow Association, and the magnificent Public Library 
building, the free gift of James P. Baxter, Esq. 

Mr. Chapman was appointed by the Governor of the Stale, one 
of the Commissioners to represent the State on the occasion of the 
National Centennial in New York eighteen hundred and eighty-eight, 
and was also chosen as an alternate delegate at large by the Repub- 



licau State Convention to the National Republican Convention to 
Chicago in eighteen hundred and eighty-eight. In religion, Mr. 
Chapman is a Congregationalist. He was married in September, 
eighteen hundred and sevent3'-five, to Annie D., daughter of B. F. 
Hinds of Portland, and has a family of five children, one daughter 
and four sons. 

Clark S. Edwards. 

General Clark Swett Edwards is the youngest son and child of 
Enoch and Abigail (McLellan) Edwards, and was born at Otisfield, 
Maine, March twenty-six, eighteen hundred and twenty-four. His 
father and mother were of Gorham, Maine, and the latter was of 
the distinguished family of McLellan, so closely identified with the 
early history of that town. The}' had an old-fashioned family of 
eleven children, the youngest three of whom alone are now living. 
The subject of this notice was brought upon his father's farm, and 
obtained what education the public schools afforded. In eighteen 
hundred and fortj^-eight he came to Bethel, and with Edwin R. 
Eastman bought out Kimball and Pattee and went into trade in a 
store which stood where the store of Ceylon Rowe now stands at the 
northwest corner of the Common. After a j^ear they purchased a 
building standing southerly and a little back of the store they then 
occupied, which had been used as a shoemaker's and harness mak- 
ing shop, moved it up in line with their store and that of John Har- 
ris, then occupied by Abernethy Grover, which stood farther south, 
and finished the three stores under one roof. This was the block 
that was burned during the war and has since been rebuilt. He 
subsequentl}^ built the store near the railroad, on the spot where the 
store of Woodbury & Purriugton now stands, and traded in com- 
pany with Charles Mason. He sold out to Mason and the store was 
afterwards burned. Mr. Edwards then built a store near the foot 
of Vernon street, where he traded until eighteen hundred and fifty- 
eight, when he sold out. During these years he built several houses 
at various parts of the village, and in various ways contributed to 
the growth and prosperitv of Bethel Hill. 

At the breaking out of the war, when the first call was issued for 
three hundred thousand men, INIr. Edwards took out recruiting pa- 
pers and was chosen Captain of the first company organized under 
this call, in the county. This company became Company I, of the 
Fifth Maine Regiment, and an account of it is given in another 


place. Captain Edwards was rapidly promoted and soon had com- 
mand of the regiment, which he handled in the leading engagements 
of the Army of the Potomac including Gettysburg, until the expira- 
tion of his term in the summer of eighteen hundred and sixty-four, 
except a portion of the time when he commanded a brigade. He 
was a brave and capable officer, and for conspicuous bravery was 
promoted to Brigadier General by brevet. 

Eeturning to his home, General Edwards engaged in agriculture, 
which was ever his favorite pursuit, and this has been his chief em- 
ployment since that time. He has cleared up an extensive tract of 
grass land situated on Alder river, built an immense barn on Ver- 
non street in eighteen hundred and seventy-four, which he fills with 
hay, his usual annual crop being about one hundred tons. He has 
not sought public office, but in eighteen hundred and eighty-six the 
democratic nomination for Governor of Maine was urged upon him, 
and he reluctantly consented to accept it. He polled the full vote 
of his party, but as it was in the minority, he was not elected. In 
eighteen hundred and ninety he was appointed by the Governor of 
Maine, Commissioner for the Columbian Exposition at Chicago, an 
appointment which gave general satisfaction. General Edwards is 
modest and retiring, social and genial in his habits and stronglj' 
attached to his family and friends. In eighteen hundred and fortj^- 
nine, he married Miss JNlaria A., daughter of Ayers Mason, Esq., a 
most estimable woman and devoted wife and mother. She died 
March sixth, eighteen hundred and eighty-five. They reared an in- 
teresting family of seven children, six of whom are still living. One 
oi their sons, Ayers Mason Edwards, graduated at Bowdoin Col- 
lege, was superintendent of schools in Lewiston, and now holds 
the same position at Pittsfield, Massachusetts. He is a prominent 
educator and author of several text books. 

Lafayette G rover. 

Hon. Lafayette Grover, the subject of this sketch, who became 
the first Representative in Congress from the State of Oregon, and 
afterwards Governor of that State and Senator of the United States, 
was the third son of Dr. John and Fanny Grover, and was born in 
Bethel, Maine, November twenty-ninth, eighteen hundred and 
twenty-three, was educated at Gould's academy in this town, and 
at Bowdoin College. He studied law in Philadelphia, under the in- 
struction of the late Asa I. Fish, and was admitted to the bar there 



in March, eighteen hundred and fifty. Late in the autumn of that 
year, he took passage on a merchant vessel bound round Cape Horn 
to San Francisco, where he arrived in July, eigliteen hundred and 
■fifty-one, and in the next month lie arrived in Portland, Oregon, l)y 
the old steamer Columbia, then on one of her early trips. He at 
once proceeded to Salem, the capital of the territory, and estab- 
lished himself as a lawyer. The first regular term of the United 
States District Court was held at Salem in the following month, and 
on the invitation of Chief Justice Nelson, who presided over the 
court, Mr. Grover became the clerk, stipulating that he would ac- 
cept the position temporarily, and until a suitable successor could 
be appointed. He held the otlice six months, obtaining an excellent 
acquaintance with local court procedure, and with jurors, witnesses 
and litigants. The following spring, resigning the clerkship, he 
formed a law partnership witli Benjamin F. Harding, afterward 
United States District Attorney, Seci-etary of the Territory of 
Oregon and United States Senator. With him Mr. Grover at once 
■entered^upon a general and lucrative practice, which lasted for 
several years. 

In eighteen hundred and fifty-two he was elected by the legisla- 
ture, Prosecuting Attorney of the second Judicial District of the 
Territory, which district then extended from Oregon City to the 
California line. In eighteen hundred and fiftN-three he was elected 
and served as member of the Territorial Legislature. During the 
summer of this year, serious hostilities of the Rogue River Indians 
occurredHn Southern Oregon, and Mr. Grover was appointed by 
Governor Curry, recruiting officer to raise volunteer troops to aid 
the settlers against the hostiles. This was promptly done, and a 
company was at once mustered at Salem, of which J. W. Xesmith, 
afterwards 'United States Senator, was elected Captain and Lafay- 
ette Grover First Lieutenant. These troops, with a pack-train 
loaded with arms, ammunition and supplies, hastened south to the 
aid of the hard pressed settlers in Southern Oregon. At the close 
of hostilities in September, Mr. Grover appeared as Deputy United 
States District Attorney in the United States District Courts in the 
southern counties, then being held for the first time, by Judge 
Matthew P. Deady. Congress having assumed the compensation 
of settlers whose property had been destroyed by hostile Indians 
during the Rogue River Indian war of eighteen hundred and fifty- 
three, Mr. Grover was appointed one of the commissioners to assess 



the spoliations, and served as President of the Board in eighteen 
hundred and fifty-four. He was again returned as a member of the 
legislature from Marion county in eighteen hundred and fifty-five, 
and served as Speaker of the House daring the session of eighteen 
hundred and fifty-five and six. 

During this period the combined Indian tribes from the California 
line to the British boundary attacked the frontier settlements in a 
deter;r.ined manner throughout Oregon and Washington, and two 
thousand volunteers were called into the field to co-operate with the 
regular forces for their suppression. In this movement on the part 
of Oregon, Mr. Grover aided in raising troops and served in the 
field throughout the Yakima campaign, on the staff of Col. Nesmith. 
He served the following year as a member of the Military Commis- 
sion, appointed by the Secretary of War under authorit}' of an act 
of Congress, in auditing and I'eporting to the war department the 
expenses of Oregon arnd Washington incurred in suppressing Indian 
hostilities of eighteen hundred and fifty-five and six. On this com- 
mission his co-laborers were Capts. A. J. Smith and Rufus Ingalls ; 
the former served as Major General in the late war ; the latter hav- 
ing been Chief Quartermaster of the Armj' of the Potomac, became 
(Quartermaster General of the United States. 

The people of Oregon having resolved to form a constitution, and 
to ai)ply for admission to the Union as a State, the voters of INIarion 
county elected 'Sir. Grover a member of the convention, which was 
convened for that purpose at Salem in eighteen hundred and fifty- 
seven. In that convention, he served as Chairman of the Com- 
mittee on the Bill of Rights, and as member of several other impor- 
tant committees, and took an active and prominent part in giving 
direction to the work of that body. 

Upon the holding of a general election under the constitution of 
the new state, Mr. Grover was returned as the first representative 
in Congress from Oregon. The chief work of the Oregon delegation 
at this time, w-as devoted to securing the admission of the State to 
the Union, and the assumption of the Oregon Indian w^ar debt. 

Retiring from the thirty-fifth Congress, he devoted himself almost 
exclusively for ten years to professional and business pursuits. He 
formed a law partnership at Salem with the late Honorable Joseph 
S. Smith, subsequently member of Congress, which was afterwards 
extended to Portland, including Judge W. W. Page. This firm 


conducted a very important and lucrative practice throughout the 
State for several 3'ears. 

Taking an early and active interest in the establishment of manu- 
factures in the new State, he took part in the organization of the 
Willamette AVooleu Mauufacturuig Company at Salem in eighteen 
hundred and fifty-six. This corporation had in view the introduc- 
tion to the State Capital, by canal and natural channels, the waters 
of the Santiam river, as power for general manufactures. He be- 
came one of the directors of the company, and remained in this con- 
nection for fifteen years, during which period this, the first broad 
enterprise for manufacturers in Oregon, attained large proportions 
and great success. 

In eighteen hundred and sixty, Mr. G rover purchased the shares 
of Joseph Watt in this corporation, and became owner of one-third 
of all the mills and water power of Salem. From eighteen hundred 
and sixty-seven to eighteen hundred and seventy-one, he was man- 
ager of tlie compan}'. Under his direction, the Salem flouring mills, 
which had been begun, were completed, including the putting in of 
all the machinery and works, and constructing a steamboat canal 
from the river to the mills. These flouring mills were a marked 
success from the start, and were the first direct shippers of Oregon 
flour, by the cargo', to foreign countries. The operations of this 
company were great stimulants to the growth of wheat and wool in 
early Oregon, and facilitated many other business enterprises in all 
directions. The unfortunate destruction of the Salem woolen mills 
by fire, occurred subsequently to Mr. drover's retirement from the 

In eighteen hundred and sixty-sis, he presided over the Demo- 
cratic State convention of that year, and by the convention was 
elected chairman of the Democratic State central committee, which 
position he held for foui years. During this period the democratic 
party attained the ascendancy in the politics of the state, which it 
had not had since eighteen hundred and sixty. 

In eighteen hundred and seventy, Mr. Grover was elected by the 
democratic party as Governor of the State for four years, and in 
eighteen hundred and seventy-four he was re-elected to the same 
position, which he held till eighteen hundred and seventy-seven, 
when he entered the Senate of the United States, having been 
elected to that position by the legislative assembly at its September 
session of the previous year. In his canvass for the Governorship, 


he based the chief issue on the abrogation of the Burlingame treaty 
with China, though the subject was not nieutioned in the platform 
of either political party. 

During Governor Grover's term as Chief Executive, which lasted 
nearly seven years, many changes took place, and unusual progress 
was made in business enterprises, and in the general condition of 
Oregon. His first step as Executive was to put in force a law 
which had been enacted two years previously, but not executed, 
providing for tug boats at the mouth of the Columbia river, and a 
subsidy for their support. This movement gave the first reliable 
basis for a coastwise and foreign commerce from Oregon's great 
river, which took root vigorously, and has increased ever since, to 
its now strong proportions. 

He favored the construction of the locks at the Willamette Falls 
by a private company, assisted by aid from the state. The project 
was successful, and opened the Willamette river to competition with 
the railroads, and reduced freights throughout the Willamette Val- 
ley to such an extent as to stimulate greatly farm production and 
general commerce. 

Another object of his administration was the securing to the state 
the segregation and patenting of all public lands to which Oregon 
was entitled under various grants by Congress, and a recognition of 
her rights to the tide lands which she held by reason of her sover- 
eignty as a state. All these rights became recognized, and a large 
proportion of these lands were secured to Oregon during Governor 
Grover's administration. 

He also favored the erection of permanent public buildings for 
the state, and during his term of office, penitentiary buildings and 
the State House were erected of permanent and enduring structure, 
an example of economy and honesty in public work. One feature 
may be noted in these buildings, they were erected at an expense 
inside of the estimates of the architects, quite unusual in such cases. 
While the State House was not at first carried to full completion, 
its mason work was all done, the entire roof put on, and so much of 
the interior was finished as to render it suitable for the convenience 
of the State offices, the Legislature and the Supreme Court. 

The grants by Congress for the establishment and support of a 
State University and for an Agricultural College in Oregon, having 
been secured and utilized, (Governor (irover interested himself in 
promoting the organization of these institutions, whicli was also 


accomplished during his term of office. There was also, during the 
same period, founded at Salem, the institution for deaf mutes and 
the school for the blind. 

Having labored to secure to the state the indemnity common 
school lands, held in lieu of those occupied by settlers before the 
■public survey's, and the proceeds of their sales having been invested 
for common school revenues, the period had arrived for a more com- 
plete organization of the public school system of the state, and for 
its support out of the public funds thus utilized. This important 
foundation work was also accomplished, and the first distribution 
of public funds by the state in support of common schools in 
Oregon, was made during the terra of Governor Grover as Chief 

In his inaugural address to the legislative assembly in eighteen 
hundred and seventy, he presented the subject of Chinese exclnsion, 
and favored the abrogation of the treaty between the United States 
and China, of eighteen hundred and sixty-eight, commonly known 
as the Burlingame Treaty. The legislature of that session, on his 
recommendation, memorialized Congress to that effect, and from 
that time forward, until from his seat in the Senate of the United 
States, he voted for a bill excluding the Chinese, and for a modified 
treaty with China, both of which prevailed, he never abated his zeal 
in promoting this movement. 

An effort was made in the legislature of *)regou in eighteen hun- 
dred and seventy, to initiate a system of subsidizing railway corpo- 
rations by bonding cities and counties in their favor, as induce- 
ments to the construction of their roads. A bill was passed by 
both houses, b}- more than two-thirds majorities, authorizing the 
city of Portland to issue its bonds in the sum of tln-ee hundred 
thousand dollars, in favor of Ben Holaday, to induce him to build 
the railroad up the west side of the Willamette Valley, making its 
principal terminus at Portland. This bill was considered by the 
Governor as against [)ulilic policy, and as against distinct provisions 
of the state constitution. The bill was vetoed in a message which 
settled the policy of the state on the subject of public grants of 
money to railway corporations, as long as the present constitution of 
the state exists. This veto having been filed subsequently to the 
adjournment of the assembly, went over as an issue in the elections 
which returned the following legislature, and the veto was almost 
unanimously sustained by the Senate, where the l)ill originated, only 

;^74 msronY of bethel. 

one vote being given against it. So that Oregon has been and now 
is entirely free from public debt, both general and local, growing 
out of the construction of railways, which has been the source of 
much embarrass;nent to the new Western states. 

The memorable contest for the Presidency of the United States in 
eighteen hundred and seventy-six, between Hayes and Tildeu, 
raised an electorial question in Oregon. In this case. Governor 
Grover held, on issuing certificates of election, that under the injunc- 
tion of the constitution forbidding a federal officer to be appointed 
a presidential elector, the votes cast for him were void, and as if 
never cast. And he gave the certificate to the candidate having the 
next highest vote. This decision was far-reaching, as the contested 
vote in Oregon held the balance of power in the Electoral College, 
if all other contested votes in Louisiana and Florida should be 
counted for Hayes. And it called for the organization of the 
"Electoral Commission," which overruled the Governor's decision. 
But he desires it understood that on re-examination he adheres to 
-his original view. 

Having been elected Senator from Oregon, he took his seat in the 
Senate of the United States in March, eighteen hundred and seventy- 
seven. In that body he served as member of the committees on 
military affairs, public lands, railroads, territories, manufactures 
and private land claims. 

His chief efforts during his term as Senator, were to secure a set- 
tlement of the Indian war claims of Oregon ; to promote the com- 
pletion of the Northern Pnt-ific Railway ; to obtain lilieral a|)propria- 
tions for the surveys and improvement of the rivers and harbors of 
Oregon, and the Pacific Northwest coast; and the extension of the 
government surveys of the public lands west of the Rocky Moun- 
tains. He also labored constantl}^ for the modification of our 
treaties with China, and for the enactment of laws excluding the 
Chinese from immigrating to this country. He made speeches on 
the extension of time to the Northern Pacific Railway Company, for 
the completion of this road, on the several Chinese Exclusion Bills, 
and in secret session on the ratification of the treaty with China, 
modifyiug the Burlingame Treaty of eighteen hundred and sixty- 
eight, and on other subjects. 

His health being impaired, Mr. Grover determined, on his retiie- 
ment from the Senate in eighteen hundred and eighty-three, to 
withdraw from public life, and in future to devote himself exclusively 


to his personal and private business affairs, which had long suffered 
neglect. Not proposing to return to the practice of his profession, 
he entered vigorous!}' upon the improvement and disposal of tracts 
of real estate immediately adjacent to the city of Portland, owned 
in part b}' himself and in part by his wife. 

Having purchased a quarter interest in lands now known as 
Carter's Addition to Portland, several years prior, he joined with 
the other owners in laying out and establishing that extension of the 
city. In eighteen hundred and eighty-four, Mr. and Mrs. Grover 
laid out and dedicated a tract of high land belonging to her, the gift 
of her parents, in the northwest elevation of the city as "Grover's 
Addition to Portland," naming it "Portland Heights," which name 
became so contagious, that all the high grounds now forming the 
southwest part of the city bear that name. As a business move- 
ment these enterprises have proved a great success, and these 
broken hills, once so forbidding, are now occupied with fine resi- 
dences, and form a most beautiful and attractive part of Portland. 

Mr. Grover has made other real estate investments to the west of 
the city in the path of its future extension. He l)ecame one of the 
original incorporators and stockholders of the Ainsworth National 
Bank of Portland in eighteen hundred and eighty-five, and later, of 
the Portland Trust Company of Oregon. He is also interested in 
the Portland Building and Loan Association, and in the Portland 
Cable Railway Company. He has also invested in coal lands. He 
is an honorary member of the Portland Board of Trade, and takes a 
lively interest in the rapidly increasing commerce of Oregon. 

Mr. Grover was married in eighteen hundred and sixty-five, to 
Miss Elizabeth Carter, youngest daughter of the late Thomas Car- 
ter, Esq.. an early resident of Portland, who was one of the most 
successful merchants and real estate owners of that city, and one of 
the proprietors of the town. It is almost unnecessary to say that 
Mrs. Grover is one of the well-known women of the state ; a lady 
of high accomplishments and culture, and of artistic tastes, pos- 
sessed also of beauty and a graceful and distinguished manner. 
Throughout all the varying fortunes and misfortunes of her husband 
— for he has at times met with adverse currents — she has been his 
steady companion and support. They are communicants of the 
Episcopal church. Their sou, John Cuvier Grover, a young man of 
twenty-three summers, so named after his grandfather and uncle, 
the sole offspring of this union, was educated at the Peekskill Mili- 


tary Academy, New York, and is now completing his studies in 

Aberxethy Grovek. 

Major AV)ernetliy Grover, son of Dr. .John Grover, fitted for col- 
lege and graduated from Bowdoin in eighteen hundred and forty- 
three. Among his classmates were his brother Talleyrand, Joseph 
Dane, Moses lugalls, Dr. .John J^. Lincoln and Joseph Titcomb. 
After graduating. Major Grover taught at Gould's Academy for a 
year, and was then for several years engaged in trade. Then he 
moved to Albany, built mills and engaged extensively in lumberings 
also in clearing lands and farming. In eighteen hundred and fifty, 
he represented the district, of which Bethel formed a part, in the 
Maine Legislature, and in eighteen hundred and fifty-six, he wa& 
chosen a member of Governor Wells' council. When the war of the 
rebellion broke out, Major Grover recruited a company for the thir- 
teenth Maine regiment, which became Company H, and he wa& 
appointed Captain. He was commissioned Major to take rank from 
April twenty-eight, eighteen hundred and sixty-two, and was- 
mustered out with the regiment at the close of its term of service, 
January six, eighteen hundred and sixty-five. He returned to 
Bethel and was engaged in various kinds of business until early in 
the eighties, when he went west. Under the administration of 
President Grover Cleveland, jMajor Grover had charge of the Land 
office at Miles City, Montana. He was man-ied January twenty-six, 
eighteen hundred and forty-eight, to Mary C, daughter of Timothy 
Chapman, who died in eighteen hundred and seventy-one, leaving 
no issue. In eighteen hundred and seventy- four. Major Grover 
married Isabel A., daughter of Samuel R. Shehan, Postmaster at 
Bethel. The only issue of this mari-iage was a daughter, who died 

David R. Hastin(;s. 

Hon. David Robinson Hastings, son of John Hastings, was born 
in Bethel, August twenty-six, eighteen hundred and twenty-three. 
He fitted for college largely at Gould's Academy, entered at Bow- 
doin College in the class of eighteen hundred and forty-four. 
Among his classmates were Judge Virgin, the late Charles W. God- 
dard, the late Joseph Bartlett, Henry P. Deane and Horace Williams. 
On leaving college he taught Gould's Academy for a year, then 



studied law in the offices of Hon. Wm. Frye of Bethel, David R. 
Straw of (Tiiilford and Appleton & Allen of Bangor, and was 
admitted to the Penobscot bar in eighteen hundred and forty-seven. 
He settled at Lovell as the partner of Hon. David Hammons, and 
was long a successful practitioner at the Oxford bar. He was 
County Attorney from eighteen hundred and fifty-three to eighteen 
hundred and fifty-five, was reporter of decisions of the Supreme 
Judicial Court, and published volumes sixty-nine and seventy of the 
Maine Reports. He has for many years been one of the overseers 
of Bowdoin College. In eighteen hundred and sixty-one, he enlisted 
in the Twelfth Maine Regiment, and was commissioned Major to 
rank from October five, eighteen hundred and sixty-one. He was 
among the first to enter the captured city of New Orleans. He 
resigned July twelve, eighteen hundred and sixty-two, returned 
home and moved to Fryeburg, where he has since resided. Aside 
from his large legal practice, he has engaged largely in outside busi- 
ness, especially in timber lands and lumbering. Few men have led 
a more active life, and few Oxford county men have met with more 
marked success. He has always been a leading democrat, has been 
a member of the State committee and candidate for Congress. He 
married in eighteen hundred and fifty. Miss Mary J. P^llis, and has 
one daughter, and a son who is his law partner at the present time. 

Gideon A. Hastings. 

Colonel Gideon A. Hastings, son of John Hastings and grandson 
of General Amos Hastings, the early settler, was born in this town 
and has always resided here. He has always been a prominent man 
in town. He served as town clerk, several years on the board of 
selectmen, and represented the town in the State legislature. He 
also served on the board of commissioners for the county of Oxford. 
Early iu the war of the rebellion he enlisted, and having been 
appointed Captain of Company A, of the Twelfth Maine Regiment, 
he was mustered into the service of the United States, November 
fifteenth, eighteen hundred and sixty-one. His regiment was 
assigned to the Department of the Gulf, and was first stationed on 
Ship Island. The history of the regiment is well known, and it 
need only be said that Colonel Hastings was with it throughout, ex- 
cept a short time when on detached service. He was commissioned 
Major in June, eighteen hundred and sixty-three, was at the sur- 


render of New Orleans, and in all the campaigns of the Gulf 
Department. He also served in the campaign in the Shenandoah 
Valley, under General Sheridan. His regiment then went South, 
and after the surrender of Savannah, Georgia, Colonel Hastings was 
appointed Provost Judge. He also served as Marshal of West 
Georgia, with headquarters at Thcmasville. Afterwards he was 
detailed to serve in the Freedman's Bureau for Southwestern Georgia, 
with headquarters at Albany. Here he held both civil and military 
command over that section of country for ten months. These sev- 
eral positions were highly responsible, requiring tact, good judg- 
ment, firmness and decision, and were filled with satisfaction to his 
superiors in authority. He was mustered out of the service April 
twenty-sixth, eighteen hundred and sixty-six. Since that time he 
has lived at Bethel Hill, and been engaged in farming and lum- 

Sylvester Robertson. 

No face is more familiar in and around Bethel than that of the 
sul)ject of this notice. Born in this town, he has always lived here, 
and is as well posted on Bethel and the Bethel people of his time, 
as any one in town. His father was Samuel Robertson, who lived 
on the Fenno farm on the road toward West Bethel, and here he 
spent his boyhood d:iys in uttciiding school and working upon the 
farm. In eighteen hundred and thirty-thiee, he commenced with 
Isaac J. Town, to learn the cabinet-maker's trade, and having com- 
pleted his apprenticeship, he set up for himself on the Hill, and here 
for half a century, he has plied his trade with good success and un- 
failing patronage. He is an ingenious workman and can do all 
kinds of work belonging to the business, but he has made a specialty 
of chairs and bureaus, and his shop has turned out a vast number 
of these indispensable articles. Though somewhat advanced in 
years, he is yet hale and hearty, and carries on the business at the 
same old place. He is among the last of the old regime, and has 
lived to see Bethel Hill, from a small hamlet, become one of the 
largest, as it always was the pleasantest, village in the county. He 
has never sought office, and the only one of importance he has ever 
held, was that of Postmaster. Many apprentices have learned the 
cabinet-maker's art in his little shop, and if they did not learn it 
thoroughly it was their own fault. Mr. Robertson has a very reten- 
tive memory, and is full of reminiscences of Bethel and Bethel peo- 
ple. His family record may be found elsewhere. 



Ceylon Rowe. 

Of the successful native born business men of Bethel, Ceylon 
Rowe is a good example. He is the son of the late Caleb Rowe, 
and grandson of Ephraira Rowe, who married Martha, daughter of 
Captain Eleazer Twitchell, and was born in Bethel, April first, 
eighteen hundred and thirty-eight. He attended the town school 
and at Gould's Academy, securing a good English education. He 
worked summers when quite young in the carding mill, and also 
learned the trade of a cloth-dresser. In eighteen hundred and fifty- 
nine, he entered the store of Abuer Davis as clerk, and two years 
later was doing business as agent for the Bethel Steam Mill Com- 
pany. In eighteen hundred and sixty-six, a copartnership was 
formed for general trade, under the firm name of Rowe, Grover & 
Company', of which Ce3^1on Rowe was the senior partner. This 
continued for three years, when the firm name was changed, and in 
eighteen hundred and seventy-three, Mr. Rowe took his brother, 
Edwin C. Rowe, as partner. In eighteen hundred and seventy-eight, 
Mr. Rowe sold out to his brother and commenced trade by himself, 
and so continues to the present time. He keeps a large assortment 
of goods, and has found no trouble in attracting customers and 
retaining them. 

George M. Twitchell. 

Dr. George Maurice Twitchell, sou of Dr. Almon Twitchell, was 
born in Bethel, September seventeen, eighteen hundred and forty- 
seven. His father died when he was a lad of eleven years, and left 
him with others, to the care of an excellent mother, who spared no 
pains to give them an education and lead them in the right way. 
George Maurice obtained his education at the town schools and at 
Gould's Academy' ; studied the dentist's art and commenced practice 
in eighteen hundred and sixty-six. He engaged in business at 
Bethel, and was at different times at Yarmouth and Fairfield. He 
succeeded well in his profession, his aim being to acquire something 
more than the mere mechanical part, and the several papers he read 
before the State society showed that his investigations into the 
science of dentistry as well as the art, had been careful and pro- 
found. In eighteen hundred and eighty-four, on account of failing 
health, and feeling that a more active, out-door life would best suit 
his case, he abandoned dentistry to a great extent, and purchasing 
a farm in Readfield, he moved there with the view of giving some 



attention to general farming, and making a specialty of poultry 
breeding, in which he had long been interested and had become au 
expert. He had been a frequent contributor to the Maine Farmery 
and about this time he was invited to take charge of the poultry and 
horse departments of the paper, which positions he accepted and 
still holds. Not being entirely satisfied with his farming operations, 
he sold the Readfield farm and returned to Fairfield. He was 
elected Lecturer of the Maine State Grange, which position he still 
holds by re-elections, and which he fills to great acceptance. In 
eighteen hundred and ninety, he was elected Secretary of the Maine 
State Agricultural Society, and in the early part of the following 
year, was appointed clerk to the Secretary of the Board of Agricul- 
ture. In these several positions, it may well be inferred that he 
leads a busy life. He is a leading Universalist and a frequent con- 
tributor to the literature of the denomination. He married Miss 
Florence Allen of Yarmouth, and they now reside in Augusta. 
They have no children, 

Alice G. TwaxcHELL. 

From her long and highly honorable connection with one of our 
important State institutions. Miss Alice Gray Twitchell is entitled 
to a place in the history of her native town and home of her ances- 
tors. She is the eldest daughter and child of the late Dr. Almou 
and Phebe M. (Buxton) Twitchell, and w;is born July eighteenth,, 
eighteen hundred and forty-four. She attended the village schools 
at Bethel Hill, and finished her education at Gould's Academy. 
Her father died when she was but fourteen yeare of age, the care of 
the family then devolving upon his widow, and Alice, being the eld- 
est child, was of great service to her mother in the performance of 
her difficult and arduous task. In the winter of eigliteen hundred 
and seventy-one, Miss Twitchell was offered a position as clerk and 
telegrapher in the Maine Insane Hospital, which she accepted. She 
had various promotions until she became supervisor of the female 
wards, and then a vacancy arising she was promoted to the respon- 
sible position of matron of the institution, which position she has 
held to the entire satisfaction of the board of trustees and the 
numerous patrons of the hospital. The duties of the position are 
arduous and often very trying, but Miss Twitchell possesses in a 
marked degree, those qualities essential to the successful adminis- 
tration of the affairs of her department. She has marked executive 



•ability, firmness, decision of cliaracter, and perseverance. She is 
even-tempered, kind in. her intercourse with her subordinates and 
with the patients, and respectful and obedient to her superiors in 
the management of the institution. Her town's-people and her 
numerous circle of friends have every reason to be gratified at the 
distinction she has won in the difficult and arduous duties which to 
such an extent, constitute her life work. 



jETHEL is and ever has l)een an agricultural town. To this 
industry, with its broad belts of fertile interval lands, its 
rich hillside slopes and its ample grazing facilities, it is 
admirably adapted. The town embraces an acreage of good corn 
land equal to any other town in this State, and few if any excel it 
in the production of hay. Some portions of the town are not as 
well cultivated as they were half a century- ago, and show deteriora- 
tion in i)roductive capacity, clue to the fact that the second generation 
that occupied them have been gathered to their fathers, and their 
sons and grandsons, many of them, have left the old homestead and 
are seeking their fortunes elsewhere. Yet the land remains, and 
requires only care, cultivation and a restoration of its partially 
exhausted fertility, to bring it back to its old-time productiveness. 
This is sure to come about in time, though perhaps the present gen- 
eration may not witness it. 

On account of the small amount of water power. Bethel could 
never become a great manufacturing center. The great river in its 
meanderings through the town, is sluggish in its movements, and 
affords no ^wwer for propelling machinery. Its tributaries within 
the limits of the town, except in case of freshets, are small, and 
much smaller on the average than they were before the lands along 
their courses were stripped of their wood and timber, exposing them 
and the brooks that feed them, to the direct evaporating influence 


of the great source of heat. The average volume of water in Alder 
river, in Pleasant river, in the Mill Brook, in Chapman brook and 
in Sunday river, streams that early in the history of the town were 
utilized for grinding the corn and grain of the town's people, and 
for the manufacture of lumber for domestic use, is probably less 
than half what it was fifty years ago. Still, by means of improved 
machinery, some of these mills are made to do duty a considerable 
portion of the year, while others, years ago, went to ruin and decay. 
The mill built on Sunday river by Samuel B. Locke, near his home- 
stead, for wdiich he received concessions from the town, disappeared 
from human sight many years ago. 

The early Bethel mills have already been referred to in connection 
with other matters and will only be briefly referred to here. The 
mills built on Mill Brook near Bethel Hill, as a preliminary to the 
settlement of the town, by direction of Joseph Twitchell, a large 
proprietor, and under the direction of his son. Captain Eleazer 
Twitchell, in seventeen hundred and seventy-four, and several times 
repaired and then rebuilt b}' Captain Twitchell, have since l)een sev- 
eral times thoroughly repaired, and again rebuilt, and are still in 
use. Captain Twitchell received the mill property from his father, 
and from him it passed to his son-in-law, Isaac Cross, and since 
that time the mills have had various owners. They are now owned 
by Eben S. Kilborn. Captain Peter Twitchell once built a mill on 
Pleasant river, and a portion of the old dam yet remains. Edmund 
Merrill built a saw-mill on the Elder Mason, now the Tapley Kim- 
ball farm, but there was a lack of water much of the year. Jesse 
Duston also built a small grist mill on a small brook near his home, 
in what is now Hanover. 

The days of wool-carding and cloth-dressing passed away when 
cloth for the household ceased to be of domestic manufacture, but 
they were all important industries previous to that time, and were 
established iu nearly every town supplied with the requisite water 
power. An establishment of this kind was erected on Mill Brook, 
and operated many years by Eleazer Twitchell, James Walker, John 
Harris, Moses T. Cross, and lastly by Eber Clough. Mr. Cross was 
a veteran at the business, and had previously carried it on at Rumford 
Falls. When James Walker purchased the mills at South Bethel, he 
took water from the main stream through a canal, and utilized it for 
running a carding, fulling and cloth-dressing establishment. This 
place was often visited by me in my early boyhood days, and the 


complex machinery which converted the torn fragments of wool into 
soft and beautiful rolls all ready for the spinner's hands, and 
trimmed the coarse cloth until its surface became smooth and glossy, 
was to my youthful mind a standing wonder. The cloth of those 
days, woven at home, then taken to the mill, dyed and pressed for 
ladies' wear, and fulled, dyed and dressed for men's clothing, may 
not have been as stylish as that now worn, but it was good, honest 
cloth, composed entirely of sheep's wool, warm and durable. The 
manufacture of furniture has been carried on in Bethel from quite 
early times. A few years ago Lyman W. and Lawson E. Eussell, 
who had carried on the business of manufacturing bedsteads at 
Locke's Mills, moved their machinery to South Bethel, and into the 
building once used as a cloth-dressing and wool-carding establish- 
ment. One of the brothers still carries on the business. Jonathan 
Clark Robertson came quite early to Walker's Mills, and carried on 
the cabinet and furniture business here until the time of his death. 

The first person to manufacture furniture on Bethel Hill, was 
Marshall Bonney. Sylvester Robertson and Elijah B. Goddard have 
since carried on the business and are still engaged in it. Levi Shaw 
was a cabinet maker at Middle Interval. At this place, also, ,)ouas 
D. Merriam carried on the hatter's trade. John Oliver learned the 
trade of Merriam, and sometimes worked for him. The first trader 
at Middle Interval was Roger Merrill, and James F. Carter was the 
next ; the third was Elias M. Carter, and the fourth Hiram H. Holt. 
Nathan Marble, whose wife was a sister to Dr. Carter's first wife, 
carried on saddle and harness making at Middle Interval, and since 
that time it has been done by Hiram H. Holt, Charles Swan, Nathan 
W. Holt and Lyman P. Duston. Simeon O. Reynolds w^as the 
blacksmith here for some years, and after him Charles M Russell. 
Dr. Carter and Dr. Williamson were the only physicians at Middle 

The tanning business was begun at Bethel Hill by Deacon Rob- 
bins Brown, and after him was carried on on a more extensive scale 
by his two sous, David F. and Robbius Brown, Jr. The shoemak- 
er's trade was a very important one in the olden time. The 
Ellingwoods were a family of cordwainers, and there were many 
who worked more or less at the business. Stephen Abbot made 
boots and shoes, and for fine calf boots Alfred Twitchell long 
excelled. Daniel G. York was a famous shoemaker in his time ; 
also Joseph A. Twitchell, Asa P. Knight, John and William 


Williamsou, Abijah Lapham, Nathan W. E:thridge, and many others. 
The practice was, before the days of sale boots and shoes, for the 
shoemaker with his bench and kit of tools, to go from house to house 
and shoe the families as be went. Cowhide was generally used for 
men and boys, and calf skin for the other sex. The tailor's trade 
was also important before the days of ready-made clothing. Sam- 
uel Barker, Aaron Abbot and John Walker w' ere early Bethel tailors. 
Hannah Chapman, when her parents moved to Bethel, remained 
behind, that she might learn to cut and make men's clothes and be 
of service in the new settlement. Cynthia Twitchell, who after- 
wards became the wife of John Russell, went to Augusta and became 
a famous tailoress after her return. She not only cut and made 
clothes herself, but she instructed many other girls in the art. At 
the lower part of the town, Mrs. Betsey Segar, daughter of Arnold 
Powers, was an excellent tailoress, and with her corps of assistants, 
annually turned out a large number of men's suits. Common, every 
day clothing was made in the household, and the experts were only 
employed to make dress up suits. Patrick H. McClosky was an 
excellent workman, and did a large Vtusiness at Bethel Hill. 

In the early times, medicines in the country were kept only by 
physicians. Later they were kept by traders in a corner of the 
•store, more especially the patent or proprietary medicines. The 
first person to open a drug store in Bethel was Mr. H. B. Hall, and 
in connection with drugs, he also kept books and stationery. Good- 
win R. Wiley was the next druggist, and still carries it on at the 
Hill. His store comes up nearly or quite to the city standard. 

The hotel keepers in Bethel have been quite numerous, and most- 
ly confined to the village of Bethel Hill. In the early times travel- 
lers were generally entertained at private houses, and at the early 
taverns there was not much style. There was plenty to drink and 
to eat, but no extra table was set for guests. Jedediah Burbank, 
William A. Whitcomb, Hiram Ellingwood, Abernethy Grover, 
William Y. Merrill, William Pastes, Benjamin Barden, Frank S. 
Chandler. William H. Chandler, W. F. Lovejoy, Samuel H. Chap- 
man, J. F. Barden, Andrews & Record, Mrs. J. B. Gerrish, Cyrus 
M. Worraell, D. H. Grover and E. Bedell, have been the principal 
hotel keepers at Bethel Hill. John S. Chapman built and operated 
the Anasagunticook house, but this was intended only as a summer 
resort. The Alpine house, kept by Abial Chandler, Jr., is a sum- 
mer boarding house, and there are several such in and around Bethel 


Hill. At the lower part of the town, Ball Bartlett kept his taveru 
sign swinging for man}'^ years, and Eliphaz C. Bean for a time 
opened his dwelling house as a tavern. But this was many years 
ago, in the days when strong liquors were sold and when their sale 
was the chief source of income to the small taverner. 

Jonathan Blake carried on the manufacture of wagons and sleighs 
for some years at South Bethel, and then moved to Norway. David 
Elliot made carriages at P^ast Bethel. Pinckney Burnham came to 
Bethel from Gilead and carried on carriage making at Bethel Hill, 
on an extensive scale for many years. He was a first-class work- 
man and turned out honest work. He has had numerous appren- 
tices and employed many skilled workmen. A few years ago he 
sold out and engaged in trade, but has now retired from active 
business. In more recent years, Frank C. Bartlett and Jarvis C. 
Billings have carried on carriage making in all its branches, and H. 

C. Barker does the wood work of carriages and sleighs. The useful 
trade of blacksmithing has been carried on in very many places in 
town. Probably the first smithy in town was Oliver Fenno, who 
lived and worked on Robertson's Hill. Fletcher Russell is said to 
have been the first in the village. John Hastings wrought out a 
great many horse and ox shoes at his shop on Bethel Hill. Simeon 
O. Reynolds worked at the trade at Middle Interval and also at the 
Hill. Benjamin Brown, Jr., was a blacksmith at the lower part of 
the town, and among the early ones was William Staples, who 
worked at different times in what is now Hanover, and on the oppo- 
site side of the river in what is still Bethel. Ephraim Whitcomb 
carried on the business at South Bethel some fifty years ago. James 
L. Dilloway was a cunning worker of metals at Bethel Hill. For 
many years the people at the lower part of the town have had their 
blacksmithing done either at Locke's Mills or Rumford Corner, 
though E. Bean now operates a shop at East Bethel. W. D. Mason 
and E. Mills now carry on the business at West Beth( 1, Phineas F. 
Hastings at North Bethel and Jarvis C. Jiillings, A. C. Frost, W. 

D. Hastings, E. P. Holt and J. Abbot at Bethel Hill. Captain 
Timothy Hastings was also a blacksmith. 

A steam mill was erected near the mouth of Sunday river in the 
sixties, by Hon. David Hammons and others, for the manufacture 
of lumber, and after having been successfully operated for some 
years, it was burned down and not rebuilt. When the steam mill 
above the Hill was rebuilt, it was as a spool mill, and is still run as 


such. One of the most important manufactures in town is that of 
chairs, by the Bethel Chair Company. The town furnished the 
buildings at a cost of eighty-five hundred dollars, in eighteen hun- 
dred and eighty-five, and .James H. Barrows, formerly in the same 
business at AVest Paris, leased them and operated in them for about 
two years, and then the Bethel chair company was organized with a 
capital of twenty thousand dollars, and James H. Barrows was made 
president and general manager, Josiah U. Purington, secretary, and 
Hannibal G. Brown, treasurer. It is one of the largest chair facto- 
ries in the country, and turns out the finest kind of work, giving 
employment to about sixty workmen. 

The indispensable trade of house carpenter has always been well 
filled in this town. Jesse Duston, Phineas Howard, Amos Hills, 
who built the first church, Ephraim Powers and Nathan F. Twitchell 
were among the early carpenters, and since that time there have 
been a large number including John A. Twitchell, Edmuud Merrill, 
Stephen Holt, Moses Houghton, Alonzo Howe, Samuel Bird, David 
Elliot, Edmund Merrill, Jr., Moses C. Foster, Josiah Button, Syl- 
vanus Mason, Nahum W. Mason, George Kimball, Gilbert Tuell, 
John Holt, Sidney I. French, Hiram Twitchell, Charles H. Douglass, 
L. H. Holt and J. A. Knapp. 

Harness and saddle making was early carried on by Phineas 
Stearns, Nathan Marble and others. Hiram Young long worked at 
the business at Bethel Hill, and his son has succeeded him. The 
saddle part of the business has been dropped, as the call for them 
is very limited in modern times. Within a few years various indus- 
tries have been introduced into town, unknown to the early settlers. 
Oliver H. Mason is said to have been the first to use mineral coal in 
town in eighteen hundred and seventy-three ; now it is quite exten- 
sively used and there are local dealers. The manufacture and trade 
in stoves was unknown to our ancestors ; also in ready made cloth- 
ing and boots and shoes. The Locke family have been the most 
prominent mill-wrights, though others have done more or less of 
this work. Hazen Keach was a mill-wright, and James N. Hods- 
don works at the business now. John Chad bourne was a mill- 
wright at the lower part of the town, near the close of the last 
century. He sold laud to Richard Estes in seventeen hundred and 
ninety-six. Ezra Twitchell, Jr., and his son-in-law, John Russell, 
were brick masons, and laid many of the chimneys in town. There 
have been many who have worked at this business. Among those 


of later years have been John Stevens, Hannibal K, Andrews, Sam- 
uel K. Estes, Thomas B. Kendall and W. B. Kendall. Most of 
these were also plasterers. The public libraries of Bethel have not 
been extensive. The library of Gould's Academy was the principal 
one, until the Bethel Public Library was organized a few years 

It will not be possible to recall all the traders or store keepers of 
early and later Bethel. The number is large, and many of them 
were only temporary residents of the town. It has already been 
stated that some of the early settlers kept a few goods in their 
dwelling houses for the accommodation of the early settlers, before 
stores were established as a separate institution. The first trader 
at Bean's Corner was Thaddeus P. Bartlett, who built the store still 
standing. He sold out to Eliphaz C. Bean, who traded many years, 
and after he sold out, the store was converted into a dwelling house, 
and there was no store kept there for some time. Dana B. Grant 
opened a store there a few years ago and sold out to Elbridge G. 
Crooker, who now trades there. Abial Walker was the first trader 
at AValker's Mills (South Bethel), and after him was Erastus Hil- 
born. Levi Washburn was in trade there a few years, occupying 
part of the old Blake carriage shop, since destroyed by fire. He 
introduced the industry of stripping birch for bed-filling in place of 
straw, shipping the product to Boston. It was a short-lived indus- 
tr3% the manufacture of excelsior superceding it. The traders at 
Middle Interval have already been named, and many of the early 
traders at Bethel Hill. Among those who have sold goods of 
various kinds at the Hill, have been James Walker, O'Neil W. Rob- 
inson, Eli Twitchell, Robert Chapman, Elbridge Chapman, George 
Chapman, Gilman Chapman, John Harris, Ezra T. Russell, Moses 
T. Cross, Ira C. Kimball, Iklwin Eastman, Clark S. Edwards, 
Abernethy Grover, Melville C. Kimball, Newton Swift, Benjamin 
Barden, Amos Merrill, Wm. Y. Merrill, AV. J. Hayden, H. B. Hall, 
Abner Davis, Nahum Grover, Ceylon Rowe, Edwin C. Rowe, Enoch 
W, Woodbury, Josiah U. Purington, Charles Mason, Oliver H. 
Mason, Mighill Mason, Seth Walker, Ira C. Jordan, Pinckuey Burn- 
ham, Hannibal Grover, Susie Russell, Abbie A. Russell, Thirza 
Mason, Goodwin R. Wiley, S. L. Hall, Hastings P>rothers, Samuel 
A. Black, T. H. Jewett, Horatio R. Godwin, (iilman P. Bean, (xeo. 
J. Hapgood, R. E. L. Farewell, Wm. E. and Julius P. Skillings, C. 
E. Benson, Chas. A. Lucas and Frank B. Frost. This list is by no 


means complete, but it embraces many of the past and present mer- 
chants of Bethel. 

A lost industry, and one of which the later generations are igno- 
rant, was the manufacture of potash. To keep comfortable in their 
cheaply constructed houses, the early settlers consumed vast quan- 
tities of hard wood resulting in large accumulations of hard wood 
ashes. The primitive forests cut and burned upon the land when 
cleared, produced a large quantity of the salts of potash, and this 
stored in the soil, was accessible to crops, and in quantity, sufficient 
for many years, so the people had no use for their wood ashes but 
to sell them to the potash makers. The manufacture of potash was 
a simple process. The ashes were leached and the lye boiled down 
until it would crystallize. The traders monopolized the business. 
They bought the ashes and paid for them in goods, and then hired 
help to make the potash. Eight or ten cents per bushel was the 
usual price paid for ashes, and the income arising from their sale 
was of great benefit to families in straightened circumstances. The 
potash when made was put into casks and carried to Portland, and 
having passed through a refining process, much of it came back in 
the form of saleratus. Some men would cut and burn wood in the 
forest merely for the ash product, but this was not a profitable busi- 
jiess, and only the shiftless and thriftless engaged in it. 

Another of the early industries of which the rising generation are 
ignorant, was that of the manufacture of shaved shingles. This 
industry flourished before the pine timber disappeared, and furnished 
winter employment to many persons. The implements required 
were few and simple. After the tree had been felled it was cut up 
into sections of the proper length (sixteen inches for short shingles) 
by means of a cross-cut saw. These sections were then quartered 
and the parts were called shingle bolts. These bolts were riven by 
means of an implement called a frow, driven by another implement 
called a maul, into thin pieces, and were then finished in a shingle 
horse by means of a draw-shave. This was before the days of 
sawed shingles, and they found ready sale at a remunerative price. 
They were often hauled to Portland. Long shingles for covering 
the roofs of barns and out-buildings were manufactured in much the 
same way, only the ends were left of equal thickness, and in laying 
the sides were made to lap over instead of the ends. 

Starch was manufactured more than fifty years ago, and the 
farmers of Bethel and the adjoining towns contracted to plant a cer- 


tain acreage of potatoes and sell the product delivered at the mill 
for twelve and a half cents a bushel. The yield of potatoes to the 
acre then was much greater than now. A variety known as long 
reds or Laplands, was planted, and new or well prepared land 
yielded four or five hundred bushels of this sort to the acre. Later, 
starch manufacture was carried on by Mr. Eber Clough near Bethel 
Hill. With the small yield to the acre, of recent years, the labor 
involved in fighting the potato beetle, and the consequent high 
prices of the tubers, starch making cannot be profitable. 

The ferry boat has been the only means of crossing the open 
Androscoggin river for most of the time since the town was settled. 
These ferries were early established by the town and were kept under 
municipal control. Samuel Barker early had charge of the ferry 
opposite the Hill, and it always bore his name. A little above 
Middle Interval was the ferry operated by Bezaleel Kendall and 
which still bears his name. The ferry below Middle Interval was 
early operated by the Dustins and then by Stephen, son of Pere- 
grine Bartlett. The people at the lower part of the town generally 
crossed at Rumford until within a few years, when a ferry boat was 
put in opposite the village in Hanover. On account of the sudden 
and powerful freshets on the Androscoggin, it has been found diffi- 
cult to support bridges across it. In eighteen hundred and thirty- 
nine, a toll bridge was put across at Barker's ferry, but it was 
carried away the very next winter and the same freshet carried away 
the only toll bridge erected in Rumford. An account of the present 
bridge at Barker's ferry, may be found in abstracts of town records. 
There are times during summer drouths when the river can be 
forded at various places, and of course in this latitude, during the 
winter months, the river is spanned by ice sufficiently firui to bear 
the heaviest teams. 

West Bethel situated in a fine agricultural region, lias always been 
a center of more or less business. Elijah Grover, wlio lived a short 
distance from the Corner, was perhaps the first trader, and the place 
was sometimes called Grover's Corner. It was also long known as 
"Gander" corner, from the circumstance that t'wo frolicsome black- 
smiths stole a gander from a neighboring farmer, roasted him over 
the forge-fire and feasted upon him in the blacksmith shop. Nathan 
Grover kept a tavern at his place, and at the Corner the taveruers 
have been Gilbert Chapman, Jacob Grover and Ormsby Wight. 
Wight was also a trader, and his brother, Seth Wight, Jr., was also 


in trade for a time. Tlien came Heury Ward from Portland and 
was in trade for many years, doing a large business, John S. 
Allen and Gilbert Chapman have also sold goods at the Corner. 
After the Wards, came Lyman W. Alger, and had a large business. 
Fletcher Kendall was an early blacksmith, and others have here 
followed this important business. Milton Holt and George H. 
Brown are now engaged in trade here, but Alpheus S. Bean is the 
€hief business man in this part of the tow^n and a large owner of real 
estate. He is a large farmer, is also engaged in trade and owns and 
operates a large steam mill for the manufacture of lumber, and for 
working up lumber into dowels, boxes and various other useful 
articles. Mr. Bean possesses rare business qualities and gives 
direction and personal supervision to the varied operations which 
his business requires. Pinckney Burnham manufactured carriages 
and sleighs here before he went to Bethel Hill. The ferry across 
the Androscoggin here is known as Mason's, from Sylvanus Mason 
who lived near it on the north side. The onl}^ cliurch here is that 
owned by the Free Baptists, an account of which has already been 

chaptp:r XXIX. 

-^ ^* Real Estate Transfers. 

,N this chapter are given some of the early and a few of the 
later transfers of real estate in the town of Bethel. From 
early deeds and other documents relating to the township, 
it would seem that there was some doubt as to the county 
in which it was situated. Some refer to it as in the county of York 
and others in the county of Cumberland, while a considerable num- 
ber speak of it as "either in the county of York or Cumberland." 
The result of this confusion was that some of the deeds were put on 
record at Alfred, some at Portland, and after the year eighteen hun- 
dred, when a registry was established at Fryeburg, and previous to 
eighteen hundred and five, when Oxford county was formed and a 
registry established at Paris, they were recorded at Fryeburg. 
Many of the early conveyances were not recorded at all, and there 
is no record evidence showing that the parties who occupied the lands 
and who conveyed them away, ever owned them. This was proba- 
bly due to the fact that the registr}^ oftice was situated at some dis- 
tance from Bethel, and in those days when there was but little money 
in circulation, the sum required to pay for recording was not always 
at hand. So the deeds were laid by until circumstances should be 
more favorable, and in some cases were destro3'ed b}' fire, and in 
others were doubtless lost. In some few instances they were placed 
on record fifteen or twent}' years after they were given. 

Jonas Bond of Watertown, Massachusetts, was quite a large pro- 
prietor of Sudbury Canada lands. He was an original proprietor in 
the right of his father, also Jonas Bond, and he also purchased a 
large interest of Thomas Harrington of the same town. Edward 
Bond, son of Jonas Bond, Jr., inherited a portion of these lauds 
including the great island near Bethel Hill, which is spoken of in 
the conveyances as Bond's Island. Edward Bond came to Sudbury 
Canada about the year seventeen hundred ninety-five, with the idea 


of settling here. He cleared land on one of the islands and raised 
an immense crop of corn. He purchased several lots of land 
besides his inheritance, and became a large landed proprietor. In 
eighteen hundred, he married Sarah, daughter of Abraham Russell, 
and the same year bought a large tract of land, embracing over 
three hundred acres in the town of Westbrook, near Stroudvvater 
village, and settled upon it, and there he ever after lived. He 
was the grandfather of Mr. Leonard Bond Chapman, the well known 
local historical student of Deering, who married Ruby, daughter of 
Edmund Merrill of this town. 

The earliest deed of Sudbury Canada lands on record, was given 
in seventeen hundred and sixty-eight (see page 26-7) ; the next, 
and the earliest on Cumberland records, is dated March twenty, 
seventeen hundred seventy, and is a deed given of land for non-pay- 
ment of taxes thereon. The early purchasers of these lands appear 
to have bouglit them on speculation and with no intention of ever 
settling upon them. The speculative fever on eastern lands was 
very active during these years, and we find the same parties buying 
and selling rights in Turner, Livermore, Paris, Jay and Bethel. 

Joseph Twitchell of Sherbouru, to Ezra Twitchell of Dul)lin, N. H., the 
15th intervale lot north side of the river; tlie ISth lot in the 8th range; 
the 13th lot in the 4th range, and 40 or 50 acres <St the lot lying eastwardly 
of the 14th lot, south side of river, September 18, 1787. 

Luke Knowlton of Shrewsbury, Mass., to Jonathan Keyes of same, one 
whole right in Sudbury Canada, which he bought of Nathaniel (iray, Jr., 
of Worcester, and which was tlie original right of Joseph Oi-lando. Novem- 
ber 3, 1772. 

James Towle of Woburn, to Jonathan Keyes of Shrewsbury, one whole 
right in Sudbury Canada, March 18, 1774; 

August 29, 1774, Ebenezer Bartlett of Newton, sold to sou Elisha of 
same, lot number five in the first division and interval lot number 13 in the 
fifth range, land in Sudbury Canada. 

April 16, 1782, Elisha Bartlett of Newton, sold to brother Thaddeus of 
Sudbin-y Canada, the san)e premises deeded to hiiu by his father as al)ove; 
consideration, one shilling. 

June 6, 1789, Joseph Twitchell of,Sherbourn, sold to Stephen Bartlett of 
Sudbury Canada, the third interval lot on the north side of the river. 

September 30, 1773, Aaron Richardson of Newton, l)lacksmith, sold to 
Jonathan Bartlett of same, one whole right in Sudbury Canada, the first 
division l)eing number 33, south of great river. 

November 1, 1788, Nathaniel Parker of Needhani, :Mass., sold to Pere- 
grine Bartlett of Newton, number 8 of the first division: consideration, 
Bartlett to pav taxes and perform settling duties. 


September 10, 1794, Joseph Parker of Newton, sold to Jeremicah Andrews 
of Sudbury Canada, number 3 interval lot at the east end, the loth lot in 
the 7th range, and number 13 in the 3d range. II6 also bought of Abraham 
Russell, lot number 2 in the seventh range, and of Eleazer Twitchell, June 
4, 1781, interval lot number 4 at the east end, and lot number 28 in the 4th 

February 11, 1796, Richard Estes of Sudbury Canada, bought of John 
Chadbourne of same, millwright, the 5th interval lot at the east end, and 
the 3d upland lot in the 8th range. 

October 18, 1779, Jesse Duston of Fryeburg, bought of Thaddeus Rich- 
ardson of Pearsontown, interval lot number 6, north of river, with upland 
lot belonging to it. 

July 20, 1789, Enoch Bartlett of Sudbury Canada, sold to Dominicus 
Frost of same, fifty acres of land next to the river and "just below eighth 
island right." 

INIarch 4, 1783, Sanuiel Ingalls of Sudbury Canada, sold to Xathaniel 
Segar of same, interval lot bounded southerly by river, northerly b_v town 
line, westerly by interval lot number one ; wife Elizabeth joins in the 

December 8, 1794, Proprietors of Sudbury Canada, to Nathaniel Segar, 
an island known as Bellows* Island in Sudbury Canada ; also five acres out 
of interval lot number one, at east end of town. 

June 20, 1793. Benjamin Coffin of Conway, X. H. to Joseph Ayer of 
Brownfield, one right in Sudbury Canada, interval lot number laid out to 
Nathaniel Pike. 

July 19, 1796, Josiah Bean of Sudbui-y Canada, sold to Joseph Ayer of 
same, lot number 7 in the seventh range of lots in Sudbury Canada. 

July 17, 1787, Eleazer Twitchell of Sudbury Canada, to Gideon Powers 
of same, 2d interval lot north of Great river, and a piece of land lying at 
the head of said lot. 

March 8, 1788. Sauie to Paul Powers, .5th intervale lot at east of town- 
ship, and 3d lot in the 8th range. 

1786. Isaac Russell and wife Mary, both of Sudbury Canada, to John 
Holt, nine acres of interval in said Sudbury Canada. 

1793. Peter Twitchell of Sherbourn. Mass., to Eli Grover of Sudbury 
Canada, land in Sudbury C^auada. 

1796. Francis Kimball of Bradford, Mass., to Amos (Jage and Eli 
Grover of Sudbury Canada, land in Sudbury Canada. 

Joseph Parker of Newton, Mass., to Jedediah Grover of Bethel, the 
thirty-first lot in the fourth range, south of river, in Bethel. 

1794. John Grover to Jedediah Grover, lot 28 in the 5th range in Sud- 
bury Canada; witnessed by Benjamin and Nabby Russell. 

1799. John Mason of Bethel, to Jedediah Grover, land in liethel; 
witness, Benjamin and Mary Russell. 

March 20, 1770. Proprietors" committee to Thomas Harrington, two 
w^hole rights in the tirst division of lots, the first, No. 39, south side of the 
river, drawn on the right of Ebenezer Rice, and No. 14, on tlie north side 
of the I'iver, drawn on the right of Daniel Brewer. 


Joualliau Brewer of AYaltham, to 'J'liomas Harriugtou, a certain whole 
right of laud granted to Josiah Kichardson and otliers, it being one-third 
part of the great island, so-called, and is numbered the sixth lot. 

1781. 'J'homas Harrington to Moses Bartlett of Xewton, Xo. 39 on the 
southerly side of the great river. 

1786. Thomas Harrington to John Stearns, Jr., of Watertown, interval 
lot number 14 on the north side of the river, with all the upland lots and 
the common lauds thereto belonging. 

1787. Thomas Harrington to Josiah Fuller, Esq., of Xewtou, four lots, 
each containing 100 acres, viz. : lot 3 in the 3d range west side of river, 
Island lot Xo. 6, and lots numbered 3 and 4 in the twelfth range, on the 
east side of river, provided Fuller put settlers on three of them. 

1792. Thomas Harrington of Watertown, to Jonas Bond of same, all 
rights not heretofore disposed of in a township granted to Josiah Richard- 
son and otliers, being part of the great island so-called, which I purchased 
of Jonathan Brewer and Josiali Richardson ; also an interval lot, being a 
lot lying on the great island, and is Xo. 4, being the same I l)ought of 
Oliver Peabody ; also two whole riglits in Sudbury Canada, granted to said 
Richardson, also all the after-drafts and divisions to the said rights 

1795. Benjamin Clark of Sudbuiy Canada, to Elijah Bond of AVatertown, 
the 25th lot in the 4th range. 

1795. Eliphalet Parker to Elijah Bond, a certain lot, al)()ut 40 acres in 
Sudbury Canada, which lot was numl)ered 37 in the first division, and is 
on the south side of the great liver, drawn to Charh'S Ricliardson in the 
right of Samuel King. 

1799. Leonard Bond and Jonas Bond of \\ atertown, executors to Jonas 
Bond, deceased, and Ruth Bond, in relinfjuishmeut of dower, to Elijah 
Bond of Bethel, quit-claim all riglits in tlie estate of their kite father, being 
and situated in said Bethel. 

1787. Benjamin Russell of Sudbury Canada, to Djinicl Bean of same, 
interval lot number 24, south side of river. 

Benjamin Russell to Phiueas Howard of Temple. \. H., housewright, 
lot number 10 in range 9 in Sudbury Canada. 

1781. Abraham Russell of Sudbury Canada, to .leremiali Andrews of 
same, the second lot in range seven, containing 100 acres. 

August 6, 1781. Eleazer Twitchell to Jonathan Bartlett, lot number 5 
in the 6th range. 

February 7, 1797. Eleazer Twitcbell to Thaddeus Baitli-tt. 3d lot in the 
7th range. 

January 25, 1780. Joseph Twitchell of Sherbourn. and others, to Jona- 
than Bartlett, one whole right in Sudbury Canada, the first lot being num- 
ber 15, drawn on the right of Daniel AVood. 

October 8, 1784. Same to Amos Gage, first intervale lot north side of 
river, drawn to the right of Robert ^Mei-riam. 

James -Walker to Stephen McLellan and William Brown of Portland, a 
piece of land lying near the center of lot 23 in the 4tli rauire. south of the 


road leadiiis; from Eleazer Twitchell's house to the mills with the potash 
thereon coutaiiiing- one-half an acre ; also another piece of land lying about 
fifty rods distant from the last named, containing- half an acre, witli house, 
barn and shed thereon, being the same property 1 bought of Eleazer 
Twitchell in 1802, February 2, 1804. 

Joseph G. Swan to James Walker, seven acres adjoining said Walker's 
laud on the road from Albany to Eumford, on the south side near Alder 
river Ijridge, May 26, 1809. 

Abial Walker of Concord, X. H., to James "Walker, one-half of lot 19 in 
the 4th range, south of river, August 10, 1804. 

Amos Hastings to Timothy Hastings, interval lots nortli of river, same 
I bought of John Russell, March 4, 18077 

Amos Hastings to Timothy Carter, land bounded south by land of said 
Hastings, on the east by laud of Keul)en Bartlett. and on the west by the 
county road, Septeml>er 16. 1806. 

James Walker and Hannah I. Walker to Eobert A. Chapman, beginning 
at the northeast corner of the common, and on said common westwardly 
10 rods, to land of Edmund Merrill ; thence northwai-dly. 20 rods on Mer- 
rill's land and Walker's land ; thence eastwardly to road to Barker's 
Ferry : thence southwardly to first bound, July 2.t, 1882. 

Eleazer Twitchell of Peckersfield, X. H., to John Grover of Sudbury 
Canada, two lots of land in said Sud1)ury Canada, being the 28th lot in the 
5th range, and the 30th lot in the same range ; Grover to pay two-thirds 
of the taxes on one whole right until the town is incorporated, October 
27, 1780. 

Eleazer Twitchell of Betliel, to Moses Mason of Dublin. X. 11., the 16th 
interval lot. 100 acres; more or less; also lot .S3 in the 4tli range, March 
16, 1798. 

Hiram Allen to Kobert A. Chapman, part of lot 22 in the 4th range, 
beginning at the east line of lot 23, on the Runiford road, and on said road 
to Daniel Grout's land : thence on said Grout to a stone wall on Dr. 
Mason's land : thence westwardly on Mason's laud to the east line of said 
lot 23, and land owned by said ( hapman, 6^^ acres, June 24, 1836. 

O'Xeil W. Eol)inson to Eobert A. Chapman, house and store and land on 
Bethel Hill, bounded westerly by the Common, and southerly and easterly 
by laud of Dr. Mason and Hiiam Allen, May 1, 183.5. 

Same to same, parts of lots 22 and 23 in the 4th range, commencing on 
the road leading from the Comniou to Greenwood, on the line between 
Jedediah Burbauk's land and said Robinson's; bounded southerly by Bur- 
bank's laud, easterly by Daniel Grout's land, northerly by Moses Mason's 
land, and westwardly by land of John Hastings. 241^ acres. May 22, 

Hiram Allen to Gilman Chai)man, part of lot 23 in the 4th range, the 
same land conveyed to said Allen by O'Xeil W. Robinson, April 28, 1827, 
and the same conveyed to said RoMuson by Marshall Bonney, (the heater 
between the Rumford and Barker's Ferry roads) April 29, 1836. 

George Chapman to Gilman Chapman, part of 23 in the 4th range, same 


conveyed to liiai by James and Heury Stearns, 3Iay 20, 1835, May 12,- 

Timothy Chapman to Gihnan Chapman, land on both sides of Alder 
river, composed of certain lots he bought of Alanson Tucker, Edward 
Thompson and Amos Hills, Xovember 2i), 1834. (Gilmau Chapman, 
November 29, 1834, conveyed to George Chapman, this land, and also land 
he l)ought of Ayers Mason, and deeded October 15, 1834, it being that part 
of lot 19 in the 5th range, lying on the road to Walker's Mills, and that 
part of interval lot set oft" to ftrst settled minister as lies south of said 

Ebeuezer Ellingwood, shoemaker, to Ezra T. llussell, part of lot 23, con- 
veyed to him by Edmund Merrill, bounded easterly by the connnon, 
northwardly by land of said Eussell, westerly by land of James Walker, 
and southerly by land of John Harris, l)o acres, excepting the small shop 
which stands upon it, August 4, 1835. 

Ezra T. Eussell to Jonathan A. Eussell, all the laud he possessed in 
Bethel, including that described above ; also part of lot 23 situated next 
to mill l)rook, Mith potash thereon, August 8, 1836. 

Jacob Ellingwood to O'Neil \V. Eobinson, land south of river — part of 
lot 23 in the 4th range, joining land of Dr. ^lason, bounded 8 rods on the 
common, containing one acre, September 26, 1821. 

Maishall Eomiey to O'Xeil W. Eol)inson, part of lot 23. begimiing at the 
corner of land once owned by Calvin Stearns, on the east side of the road 
leading to i-iver, on Stearns' line, easterly 13 rods, to land of James 
Walker; thence southerly 8 rods, and thence eastwardly to said i-oad and 
on said road to first bound, August 25, 1826. 

Elijah Bond of Falmouth, to Moses Mason, ten acres of Bond's Island, 
August 4, 1801. 

Elijah Bond to John Merrill and John Grover, part of Bond's Island, 
that part now belonging to said Bond, ilarch 10, 1821. 

Elijali Bond to Samuel Robertson, 4% acres of Bond's Island. 

Elijah Bond to Porter Kimball, lot 1 in range 1, November 19, 1819. 

Elijah Bond to Aaron and Charles Mason, part of the Great Island called 
Bond's Island, namely, all of the western part of the lower island tliat is 
not deeded to John Stearns, Aaron Mason and Samuel Eobertson, it being 
17 acres. 

Elijah Bond of Falmoutb. to William Barker of ]5ethel, lot Nd. 22 in tlie 
second range, July .5, ISIO. 

Porter Kiml)all to Abijah Lapliam, lol number 2 in the first range in 
Bethel; also 26 acres from lot 1, range 1; also 15 acres of land on Ham- 
lin's Gore; also one-half of lot number 3 in the first rftnge, undivided, ly- 
ing on the road from Eumford to Woodstock. 

Elijah Bond of Falmouth, to Daniel Grout, 25 acres oft' from tlie west 
island, lying opposite Capt. Amos Hill's laud, March 16, 180!). 

Elijah Bond to Thomas .Jackman, number 33 in the second range, south 
of "river, March 20. 1801. 

Elijah Bond to George Estes, lot nmnber -1 in th(> 5th range. 


EbenezerEllingwood to Ezra T. Russell, laud bouuded easterly by the 
'Commou, uortherly liy laud of said Russell, westwardly by laud of James 
Walker, aud southerly by laud of Joliu Harris, August 4, 1835. 

Johu Russell, Jr., to Timothy Wight, oue acre of laud begiuuiug at the 
•aorthwest coruer, made by the roads leading from Bethel Hill to Barker's 
S'erry, aud from Gilead to Rumford, September 2, 1834. 

Ebenezer Elliugwood to Isaac Littlehale, the shoemaker's shop at Bethel 
Hill, staudiug betweeu the store of George Chapuiau aud Eduuuid INIei-rill's 
house, September 3, 1834. 

Wm. Frye, administrator of Jacoli Elliugwood, to John Harris, clothiei-, 
^art of 24 iu the 3d rauge, begiimiug at the uorthwest coruer of said lot, 
and ou said lot southwardly to the road leading from Robbius Brown's to 
, Jedediah Grover, Jr. ; thence ou said road to road leading to Gilead. Also 
;another lot beginning at the southwest corner of Robbius Brown's house 
lot, thence south to mill brook ; thence down said brook to other land of 
said Brown, etc., November 8, 1829. 

William Frye, administrator of Jacob Elliugwood, to Johu Harris, part 
'Of lot 24 iu the 3d rauge, beginning at uorthwest corner of land of Moses 
Twitchell, thence southerly 38 rods; thence uortherly to road leading to 
Bethel Hill; thence ou said road westwardly to laud owned by Jesse 
Cross ; then southwardly to southwest corner of Cross' mill yard ; thence 
to a pine tree on the bank of mill brook ; thence up said brook to Harris' 
laud ; thence to Sylvauus Twitchell's laud ; thence to old county road to 
Greeuwood, etc., November 28, 1829. 

William Estes to John Harris, half of lot No. 21, in the second range, 
September 16, 1833. 

William Reed of Norway, to Jol^u Harris aud William Estes, lot 21 iu 
the second range, February 9, 1832. 

Freeman Twitchell to Ezra T. Russell, laud deeded liim by Ednumd 
Merrill, and to said 3Ierrill l)y James Walker, May 25, 1835. 

Moses Twitchell to Sylvauus Twitchell, part of lot 23 in the 4th rauge, 
beginning near the northeast coruer of the shoemaker's shop, formerlj- 
owned by Jacob Elliugwood, deceased ; thence southwesterly iu front of 
said shop, on the line of the common aud on land owned by Ezra T. Rus- 
sell, 35 feet to a bound ; thence westerlj^ to a post ; thence northwesterly 
iu rear of said shop to a bound near the uorthwest corner of said shop, 33 
feet; thence easterly to first bound, July 30, 1833, (Sylvamis 'i'witchell 
sold the above property to Ezra T. Russell, January 7, 1837.) 

Robbius Brown to Wm. Frj^e, part of 23 in the 3d range, ou the county 
road adjoining laud owned by John Price aud land of Sylvamis Twitchell. 

Timothy Carter to Timothy Wight, land conveyed to him by Benj. Rus- 
sell, aud which was conveyed to said Russell by his father's will, except 
parts sold to Timothy Capen and Jonathan A. Russell, April 11, 1834. 
(Wight sold the above to Isaac lattlehale, September 2, 1834.) 

Timothy and Mary Ann Wight to Jolni Harris, homestead farm iu 
Bethel, begiuuiug ou the old county road to Norway, near the garden 
fence of William Frye, thence southwardly 38 rods; thence soutlu\isterly 


86 rods ; thence northeasterly 26 rods ; thence northwesterly to southwest 
corner of his (Wight's) orchard fence ; tlience on said fence to a stake and 
stones near the northwest corner of said orchard ; thence eastwardly to 
southwest corner of said Frye"s orchard fence; thence on said Frye's 
orchard fence to the northwest corner thereof : thence eastwardly to first 
bound, 14 acres, December 25, 1833. 

O'Neil W. Robinson to William Fi-ye, lot 28 in the 4th i-ange, May 20. 

James Walker to Isaac Adams, Eliphaz Chapman, Geo. W . Cliapmau, 
Amos Hills, John Merrill and Eli Twitchell, land with the buildings there- 
on near the house of Eleazer Twitchell, and opposite the dwelling of Capt. 
Timothy Hastings, it being in the corner of the road leading from Capt. 
Eleazer TwitcheH's to Norway, and being \x\\ present place of residence, 
consisting, of nearly one acre of laud and bounded as follows : beginning 
at the corner, running southerly on the road to Norway, eighteen rods : 
thence westerlj^ 8 rods ; thence northwardly by land of Eleazer Twitchell, 
18 rods to the common: thence eastwardly to the first named l)ound, Octo- 
ber 30, 1812. (The grantees were creditors of the grantor and took this 
pro])erty in liquidation of their claims.) 

William Frye, administratoi- of Jacob Ellingwood, to .luhn Harris, un- 
divided south half of lot number 24 in the second range, being all of said 
lot of which the said Ellingwood died possessed, November 28, 1820. 

Sylvanus Twitchell of Orono, to John Harris, all of lot 23 in 3d 
range, wliich he liad not sold to Timothy Wight and \Vm. Frye; also the 
north fourth part of lot 23 in the second range, and all lie then owned of 
lot 23 in the 4th range, January 1, 1836. 

Sylvanus Twitchell to JohuTIarris, lot number IS in the second range, 
January 6, 1836. 

Sylvanus Twitchell of Bethel, to William Frye, land with buildings 
thereon, beginning at the fence on the road leading to Norway, and thence 
on a line front of said Twitcheirs house at a distance of 56 feet from same, 
20 rods; thence at a right angle 8 rods; thence on a line parallel with the 
first, 20 rods; thence at a right angle to first l)ound. ^Nl.iy 16, 1822. 

Lovell P. Chadbourne, wheelwright, to Ezra T. Eussell, half of the land 
on Bethel Hill, deeded him September 1, 1831, by Isaac Adams, Eliphaz 
Chapman and others, said land to be taken from the north end of said lot 
with the buildings thereon, February 5, 1831. (May 16, 1835, Russell sold 
the above property to Jedediah Burliank. 

' rf 


Fraternal Societies. 

Free Masons. 

ULY sixth, eighteen hundred and fifty-nine, on petit'on^ 
Grand Master Hiram Chase issued a dispensation to 
^ Edmund Merrill, Moses Pattee, Cyrus Wormell, Wm. W. 
Mason, William F. Foster, Thomas Holt and Newton Swift, to open 
a lodge at Bethel Hill. They worked under a dispensation until 
May third, eighteen hundred and sixty, when a charter was granted 
for a permanent lodge, to be known as Bethel Lodge, number 97. 
The lodge was duly organized, Thursday, June 14, when there was 
a special communication of the Grand Lodge convened at Bethel,, 
consisting of the following officers : 

Josiah H. Drummond, Grand Master. 
Joseph Covel, Deputy Grand Master. 
J. I. Stevens, Senior Grand Warden. 
John B. Currier, Junior Grand Warden. 
B. G. Barrows, Grand Treasurer. 
Wm. B. Lapham, Grand Secretary. 
H. C. Lovell and Zenas Thompson, Grand Chaplains. 
Caleb Bessee and George W. Sholes, Grand Deacons. 
Daniel Jacobs, Joel Perham, Jr., Wm. R. Howe and I. E. Lovey, 
Grand Stewards. 

John B. Merrill, Grand Sword Bearer. 

In the afternoon a procession was formed, headed by the South 
Paris band, and marched to Mason's Grove, where the Lodge was con- 
stituted in ample form. Under dispensation, the following brethren 
were elected members of the new Lodge : Charles Mason, Oliver H. 
Mason, Barker Holt, Moses A. Mason, Samuel F. Gibson, Albert 
H. Gerrish and John W. Partridge. 


The first board of officers elected under the charter was as 
follows : 

William F. Foster, W. M. 
William W. Mason, S. W. 
Oliver H. Mason, J. W. 
Samuel F. Gibson, Secretary. 
Cja-us Wormell, Treasurer, 
Albert H. Gerrish, Chaplain. 
Charles Mason, S. D. 
John W. Partridge, J. D. 
Barker Holt, S. S. 
Moses A. Mason, J. S. 
Israel G. Kimball, Tyler. 

The new Lodge was ably addressed b}^ Rev. Joseph Covell, Rev. 
Zenas Thompson and Josiah H. Drummond. The procession was 
then re-formed and marched to the lodge room in Pattee's Hall, 
which was dedicated in due and ample form. The exemplification 
of the work in the third degree, closed the proceedings. The acting 
officers under the dispensation were William F. Foster, W. M. ; 
Thomas Holt, S. W. ; William W. Mason, J. W., and Samuel F. 
Gibson, Secretary. 

There were raised during the year eighteen hundred and sixtj^- 
oue, Abner Davis, Ozmon M. Twitchell, William F. Lovejoy, John 
F. Allen, John Black, Charles M. Bean and Bethuel S. Sawyer. 

The following have been the principal officers since that date : 

1862. 1803. 

Wm. W. Mason, W. M. 

Oliver H. Mason, S. W. Same. 

Ozmou M. Twitchell, J. W. 
Samuel F. Gibson, Sec. 

1864. 18Go. 

Oliver H. Masou, W. M. Oliver H. Mason, W. M. 

Ozmon M. Twitchell, S. W. Ozmon M. Twitchell, S. W. 

Charles Mason, J. W. Charles Mason, J. W. 

Wm. R. Fames, Sec. Barker Holt, Sec. 

1866. 1867. 

Oliver H. Mason, W. M. Enoch Foster, Jr., W. M. 

Charles Mason, S. W. H. H. Williams, S. W. 

Israel G. Kimball, J. W. Barker Holt, J. \Y . 

Barker Holt, Sec. Elijah S. Berry, Sec. 




H. H. Williams, W. M. 
B. K. Bean, S. W. 
Elijah S. Berry, J. W. 
James E. Ayer, Sec. 

Edgar Powers, W. M. 
Wm. L. Grover, S. W. 
Llewellyn W. Beau, J. W. 
Leander T. Barker, Sec. 

Samuel F. Gibson, W. M. 
John A. Morton, S. W. 
Gilman P. Beau, J. W. 
J. E. Adams, Sec. 


Goodwin R. Wiley, W. M. 
Eben S. Kilborn, S. W. 
Albert A. Tuell, J. W. 
Leander T. Barker, Sec. 

Eben S. Kilborn, W. M. 
Albert W. Grover, S. W. 
Jarvis C. Billings, J. W. 
Leander T. Barker, Sec. 

P. Cleveland Wiley, W. M. 
Samuel R. Shehan, S. AV. 
Galen Howe, J. W. 
James Vj. Ayer, Sec. 

Wm. L. Grover, W. M. 
John A. Morton, S. W. 
Gilman P. Beau, J. W. 
Leander T. Barker, Sec. 

John A. Morton, W. M. 
Elbridge G. Wheeler, S. W. 
Hamlin D. Roach, J. W. 
Leander T. Barker, Sec. 

Elbridge G. Wheeler, W. M. 
Albert W. Grover, S. W. 
Webster Towne, J. W. 
Leander T. Barker, Sec. 

Jarvis C. Billings, W. M. 
D. Webster Towne, S. W. 
Geo. Weston Haskell, J. W. 
Leander T. Barker, Sec. 


Jarvis C. Billings, W. M. 
D. A\^ebster Towne, S. AY. 
Geo. AVeston Haskell, J. AA". 
Leander T. Barker, Sec. 

Wm. E. Skilliugs, AV. M. 
Marcus AA\ Chandler, S. AV. 
D. T. Timberlake, J. AA^ 
Leander T. Barker, Sec. 

Marcus AA^ Chandler, AA\ M. 
Wilson Hammond, S. W. 
Joshua G. Rich, J. W. 
John B. Chapman, Sec. 



Albert W. Grover, AV. M. 
AVm. E. Skilliugs, S. AV. 
Marcus AV. Chandler, J. AV. 
Leander T. Barker, Sec. 


AVilliam E. Skilliugs, AV. M. 
Mark AV. Chandler, S. AV. 
Wilson Hammond, J. AA^. 
AVilliam E. Willard, Sec. 


Goodwin R. AViley, W. INI. 
Leander T. Barker, S. AV. 
Elbridge G. AVheeler, J. AV. 
Joel B. Chapman, Sec. 




Leauder T. Barker, W. M. 
David Bridge, S. W. 
Elbridge G. Wheeler, J. W. 
John B. Chapman, Sec. 

Same as 1885. 

Chas. M. Anderson, W. M. 
J. Hastings Bean, S. W. 
Joshua G. Rich, J. W. 
David Bridge, Sec. 

Goodwin E. Wiley, AV. M. 
Julius P. Skillings, S. W. 
Nathaniel F. Brown, J. W. 
David Bridge, Sec. 

David Bridge, W. M. 
Harlan P. Wheeler, S. W. 
Chas. M. Anderson, J. W. 
John B. Chapman, Sec. 


Harlan P. Wheeler, W^ M. 
Chas. M. Anderson, S. W. 
J. Hastings Bean, J. W. 
John B. Chapman, Sec. 

Jarvis C. Billings, W. M. 
Julius P. Skillings, S. W. 
Nathaniel F. Brown, J. W. 
David Bridge, Sec. 

There have been many changes by death and removal since the 
lodge was constituted. Among the dead, are William F. Foster, 
John H. Douglass, Lawson C. Smith, Moses Pattee, Oliver H. 
Mason, Nathaniel T. True, Samuel F. Gibson, Daniel W. Towne, 
John Holt, Cyrus Wormell and Newton Swift. 

The following were reported members in good standing in eighteen 
hundred and ninety : 

Hollis Abbot, 
Chas. M. Anderson, 
Horace C. Andrews, 
Arthur V. Barker, 
Eben H. Barker, 
Leander T. Barker, 
Joseph F. Barden, 
Solon Bartlett, 
George O. Bean, 
B. Kendall Bean, 
Gilmau, P. Bean, 
John Hastings Bean, 
Hem an N. Bean, 
Elijah S. Berry, 
J. Frank Ballard, 
Wm. A. Bragg, 

Samuel A. Brock, 
Simeon H. Bean, 
Nathaniel Y. Brown, 
Aldana Brooks, 
E. I. Brown, 
David Bridge, 
James M. Brown, 
AVilliam Beavins, 
Jarvis C. Billings, 
S. W. Butterfield, 
Wm. L. Carter, 
Horatio T. Chase, 
Moses R. Chandler, 
Marcus W. Chandler, 
Fred Clark, 
Ezra M. Cross, 



John B. Chapmau, 
Warren O. Douglass, 
True E. Estes, 
Hiram E. EUingwood, 
Samuel K. Estes, 
Samuel A. Eames, 
Seth C. Farrington, 
Richard A. Frye, 
Chas. A. Frost, 
Enoch Foster, 
Thomas G. Flint, 
Wm. L. Fickett, 
Biou L. Folsom, 
AVm. L. Grover, 
Wm. B. Godwin, 
AlvanlB. Godwin, 
Elijah B. Goddard, 
Edward M. Gibson, 
D. Milton Grover, 
Albert W. Grover, 
George W. Haskell, 
Georae P. Hall, 
Wm.^C. Howe, 
Geo. R. Holt, 
Daniel S. Hastings, 
Charles H. Hersey, 
Joseph Hutchins, 
Charles D. Hill, 
T. O. Jordan, 
Charles S. Johnson, 
Eben S. Kilborn, 
Chas. W. Kimball, 
Calvin M. Kimball, 
Asa Kimball, 
Israel G. Kimball, 
Marcus E. Kilgore, 
C. C. Kimball, 

Wm. F. Lovejoy, 
Davis G. Lovejoy, 
Edwin R. Lane, 
Jonas G. Lary, 
Talleyrand G. Lary, 
Wm. W. Mason, 
Oliver H. Mason, 
Moses A. Mason, 
Charles Mason, 
John A. Morton, 
Harry H. McKeen, 
Elijah K. Morrill, 
Moses Pattee, 2d, 
Charles H. L. Powers, 
Samuel D. Philbrook, 
Wm. Philbrook, 
Ceylon Rowe, 
L3'man W. Russell, 
Joshua G. Rich, 
Newton E. Richardson, 
Wm. O. Straw, 
Simeon W. Sanborn, 
Wm. E. Skillings, 
Julius P. Skillings, 
Adelbert C. Scribner^ 
Nathaniel Trask, 
Rufus J. Virgin, 
Seth Walker, 
Abner W. West, 
Goodwin R. Wilej', 
Elbridge G. Wheeler, 
Harlan P. Wheeler, 
Albert L. Widber, 
Solomon R. Widber, 
Caleb Wight, Jr., 
Oscar F. Whitman, 
Cyrus M. Wormell. 

Odd Fellows. 

Mt. Abram Lodge, No. 31, w^as instituted at Bethel, October 3, 
1873. The charter members were A. M. True, J. T. Chapman, R. 
L. Lurvey, E. W. Scribner, J. F. Pressey, Clifton Jones, O. D. 

Officers were elected and installed as follows : 

A. M. True, Noble Grand. 
J. T. Chapman, Vice Grand. 

R. L. Lurvey, Secretary. 
H. W. Gage, Treasurer. 



Following is a list of officers 
election : 

July, 1874. 

A. M. True, N. G. 
O. D. Clough, V. G. 
J. S. Record, Sec, 
R. L. Lurvey, Per. Sec. 
Charles Mason, Treas. 

July, 1875. 
O. D. Clough, N. G. 
Fred Clark, V. G. 
•C. C. Gerrish, Sec. 
A. B. Stevens, Per. Sec. 
Charles Mason, Treas. 

July, 1876. 

George Brown, N. G. 
Eben Clough, Jr., Y. G. 
J. M. Twitchell, Sec. 
A. B. Stevens, Per. Sec. 
Hiram Youug, Treas. 

July, 1877. 

G. W. Haskell, N. G. 
Milton Holt, V. G. 
J. M. Freeman, Sec. 
A. B. Stevens, Per. Sec. 
Hiram Young, Treas. 

July, 1878. 

T. B. Kendall, N. G. 
Frank Leach, V. G. 
D. C. Rose, Sec. 
A. B. Stevens, Per. Sec. 
Hiram Youug, Treas. 

July, 1879. 
J. T. Beavins, N. G. 
Charles Brown, Y. G. 
D. C. Rose, Sec. 
A. B. Stevens, Per. Sec. 
Hiram Young, Treas. 

July, 1880. 
A. M. True, N. G. 
T. H. Jewett, V. G. 
John B. Chapman, Sec. 
A. B. Stevens, Per. Sec. 
Hiram Youug, Treas. 

elected semi-annually since the first 

January, 1875. 
J. T. Chapman, N. G. 
Fred Clark, Y. G. 
Everett Hammons, Sec. 
R. L. Lnrvey, Per. Sec. 
Charles Mason, Treas. 

January, 1876. 

Fred Clark, N. G. 

C. M. C. Bishop, Y. G. 

R. L. Lurvey, Sec. 

A. B. Stevens, Per. Sec. 

Hiram Young, Treas. 

January, 1877. 
Eber Clough, Jr., N. G. 
G. W. Haskell, V. G. 
A. M. True, Sec. 
A. B. Stevens, Per. Sec. 
Hiram Young, Treas. 

January, 1878. 

A. M. True, N. G. 
T. B. Kendall, V. G. 
J. M. Freeman, Sec. 
A. B. Stevens, Per. Sec. 
Hiram Young, Treas. 

January, 1879. 

J. F. Leach, N. G. 
J. S. Stevens, Y. G. 
D. C. Rose, Sec. 
A. B. Stevens, Per. Sec. 
Hiram Young, Treas. 

January, 1880. 

Charles E. Brown, N. G. 
Joseph S. Mason, Y. G. 
D. C. Rose, Sec. 
A. B. Stevens, Per. Sec. 
Hiram Young, Treas. 

January, 1881. 

T. H. Jewett, N. G. 
Milton Holt, V. G. 
John B. Chapman, Sec. 
D. C. Rose, Per. Sec. 
Hiram Youug, Treas. 



July, 1881. 
Milton Holt, N. G. 
W. E. Skillius, V. G. 
John B. Chapman, Sec. 
D. C. Rose, Per. Sec. 
Hiram Young, Treas. 

July, 1882. 
W. W. Virgin, N. G. 
Wilson Haramons, Y. G. 
John B. Chapman, Sec. 
D. C. Eose, Per. Sec. 
Hiram Young, Treas. 

July, 1883. 
S. I. French, N. G. 
Charles Bisbee, V. G. 
A. M. True, Sec. 
John B. Chapman, Per. Sec. 
Hiram Young, Treas. 

July, 1884. 

W. W. Virgin, N. G. 
Tristram H. Durrell, V. G. 
A. M. True, Sec. 
John B. Chapman, Per. Sec. 
Hiram Young, Treas. 

July, 1885. 
Alfred W. Valentine, N. G. 
Henry Farwell, V. G. 
A. M. True, Sec. 
John B. Chapman, Per. Sec. 
Hiram Young, Treas. 

July, 1886. 

Henry Farwell, N. G. 
Harold B. Chapman, V. G. 
A. M. True, Sec. 
John B. Chapman, Per. Sec. 
Hiram Young, Treas. 

July, 1887. 

S. I. French, N. G. 
Wallace Farwell, \.Q. 
Charles Mason, Sec. 
Alfred AV. Valentine, Per. Sec. 
Hiram Young, Treas. 

January, 1882. 

S. I. French, N. G. 
W. W. Virgiu, V. G. 
John B. Chapman, Sec. 
D. C. Rose, Per. Sec. 
Hiram Young, Treas. 

January, 1883. 

Wilson Hammons, N. G. 

J. F. Leach, V. G. 

A. M. True, Sec. 

John B. Chapman, Per. Sec. 

Hiram Young, Treas. 

January, 1884. 

Calvin Bisbee, N. G. 
George O. Abbott, V. G. 
A. M. True, Sec. 
John B. Chapman, Per. Sec. 
Hiram Young, Treas. 

.January, 1885. 
Tristram H. Durrell, N. G. 
Alfred AV. Valentine, V. G. 
A. M. True, Sec. 
John B. Chapman, Per. Sec. 
Hiram Young, Treas. 

January, 1886. 

Alfred W. Valentine, N. G. 
Henry Farwell, V. G. 
A. M. True, Sec. 
John B. Chapman, Per. Sec. 
Hiram Young, Treas. 

January, 1887. 

Henry Farwell, N. G.- 
Harold B. Chapman, V. G. 
A. M. True, Sec. 
Alfred W. Valentine, Per. Sec. 
Hiram Young, Treas. 

January, 1888. 
Wallace Farwell, N. G. 
William C. Turner, V. G. 
Henry Farwell, Sec. 
Alfred W. Valentine, Per. Sec. 
Hiram Young, Treas. 



July, 1888. 

William C. Tiiruer, N. G. 
Charles E. Beusou, V. G. 
Henry Farweil, Sec. 
Morton G. Bnrbank, Per Sec. 
S. I. French, Treas. 

July, 1889. 

Charles E. Benson, N. G. 
Charles Mason, V. G. 
Henry Farweil, See. 
Morton G. Burbank, Per. Sec. 
S. I. French, Treas. 

July, 1890. 

Charles Mason, N. G. 
Thomas B. Kendall, V. G. 
Chauncey B. Br3^ant, Sec. 
Fred L. Edwards, Per. Sec. 
S. I. French, Treas. 

July, 1891. 
Gustavus A. Burbank, N. G. 
Chauncey C. Bryant, V. G. 
Henry Farweil, Sec. 
Fred L. Edwards, Per. Sec. 
S. I. French, Treas.