(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "History of the Big Spring Presbyterian Church, Newville, Pa. : 1737-1898"







.".la ki&h 2— >> '>'<'"*'?,■'' 




FHill 




SWOPE. 



"• • n c. 



■M!^^% 



^^ ttit ®h(o%,v«| ^ 



^ttin 



PRINCETON, N. J. 






Purchased by the 
Mi's. Robert Lenox Kennedy Church History Fund. 

BX 9211 .N628 S86 1898 

^891: ''^^''^" Ernest, i860) 
History of the Big Spring 




Gilbert E. Swope, 



HISTORY 



OF THE 



Big Spiiiig PiesHylenaD CH 

NEWVILLE, PA. 
•737== '898. 

BY 

(Silbevt Ernest Swope, 

Author of '*A History of the S'wopc Family/' 
With an Introduction by 

REV. EBENEZER ERSKINE, D. D. 



NEWVILLE. PA., 
TIMES STEAM PRINTING HOUSE: 
1898. 



II 



PREFACE. 



In presenting this little liistory of the Big Spring Presbyte- 
rian Church, we feel quite safe in saying that we are giving all 
that is obtainable regarding the congregation, and more than we 
expected to find when we began our work. Owing to the fact 
that there were no records in possession of the congregation prior 
to 1830 except an old trustees minute book, the prospect for ob- 
taining data was not very encouraging. However, by careful 
inquiry among the old families of the church and other means, 
we were enabled to find that herein given. Through the kind- 
ness of Miss Jennie W. Davidson, a great granddaughter of Rev. 
Samuel Wilson, we were given permission to examine a great 
mass of old family papers, the accumulation of more than a cen- 
tury. Among these papers we were fortunate enough to find 
much valuable matter, relating not only to the ministry of Rev. 
Samuel Wilson but also to that of some of his predecessors. No 
regular session books seem to have been kept by the early pas- 
tors, all the records found being on detached pieces of paper. 
The earliest record found bears date Dec. 12, IT68, and records a 
case of discipline. 

We are indebted largely for the matter contained in the sketches 
of the pastors of the church to the "Centennial Memorial of the 
Presbytery of Carlisle." We gi'eatfully acknowledge the interest 
shown and the assistance given by the pastor of the Big Spring 
Church, the Rev. Ebenezer Erskine, D. D. We are pleased to 
api)end the address delivered by Dr. Erskine at the celebrati(m 
of the founding of Log College. 

It is valuable as an historic document, a,nd finds here a fitting 
place because of its treatment on the Presbyterian church in the 
Cumberland Valley. 

Our thanks are also due and very cheerfully given to Mr. 
John W. Strohm, editor of the "Xewville Times," whose interest 
in local history and genealogy is well known, and whose co-op- 
eration has made the publication of this volume possible. 

GILBERT E. SWOPE, 
Aug. IT, 1898. Newville, Pa. 



Ill 



IfntrobuctioiL 



Tliis brief and coin])rehensive volume may be very properly styled a 
documentary history of the Bif^ yprinjj: Presbyterian Church and con- 
gregation, and a genealogy of many of its families. 

Its author, Mr. Gilbert E. Swope, is an enthusiast on the subject of 
genealogy and an exjjert in the discovery and use of old documents 
bearing on the history of families and churches. 

As the result of his patient and laborious researches, the names of 
nearly all the families of this venerable church ami congregation have 
been rescued from an impending oblivion, and a list of most of its elders, 
trustees and families have been preserved. No sessional records are in 
possession of the congregation prior to 1830. It was the custom of 
many pastors prior to that date to keep a roll of members, of admis- 
sions to the church, of baptisms and marriages, and to make a record 
only of cases of discipline and to submit the same to presbytery for ex- 
amination and a]>i)roval, then to consider it of no further value nor 
worthy of preservation. 

Mr. Swope, discovered paj)ers left by the Rev. Samuel Wilson, 
pastor from 1787 to 1799, stored away in an old trunk and found in the 
garret of one of his descen<1ents, and gained access to certain other 
papers which had been left by Rev. Dr. Joshua Williams, pastor from 
1802 to 1829, and found in possession of some of his relatives in the dis- 
tant west. These documents have thrown a flood of light upon the his- 
tory of this church from 177o to 18.30, more than half a century, and 
which if not <liscovered, would have soon been lost sight of forever. 

It is a great matter to have recovered thus the names of all the fam- 
ilies of that period, many of them reaching back to the origin of the 
church, the divisions of the congregation into districts, the names of the 
parents and children, and members of the church in each district; and 
also the names of the elders to whose supervision these districts were 
assigned, and still more several lists of theological questions given out 
annually by Mr. Wilson for the careful study of the people, and for 
an examination on the same, by pastor or elder. 



IV 

The character of these questions indicate not only a high degree of 
religious intelligence upon the part of the minister l)ut also imply cor- 
responding intelligence on part of the people. These, in connection 
with regular examinations of the young on the catechism, and of the 
more advanced on chapters in the Confession of faith, go to show the 
modes of reUgious instruction and training peculiar to that period of 
the church and widely prevalent in other congregations of that day, 
and which in connection with the faithful preaching of the word on the 
Sabbath, had a most important influence in the way of awakening the 
minds of the people in relation to religious subjects, in the quickening 
of religious thought and inquiry, and in the development of well in- 
structed and stable Christians as to matters of doctrine and duty, all 
leading to exemplary and consistent Christian living. 

To trace the origin and progress of individual churches, whose his- 
tory runs back to the hrst settlement of the country, to give the names, 
individuals and families which have composed the same, to put on 
record reliable accounts of the origin, lives and characters of the minis- 
ters, the distinctive characteristics of their faith and modes of conducting 
the worship of their congregations, and of their general pastoral ser- 
vices ; to give a true and reliable history of their growth and progress, 
as has here been done by Mr. Swope, is to render a very important ser- 
vice in relation to the foundation and character of the church in this 
country. 

The Big Spring Presbyterian Church, as indicated by the lists of 
admissions to its membership, has been blessed with revivals of religion 
from time to time, through all its history, giving increased vitality to 
the church as well as considerable accessions to its membership. Such 
seasons, of greater or less power have been enjoyed in 1794, 1822, 1832, 
1833 and 1834. The revivial of 1877 was doubtless one of the most re- 
markable awakenings of the whole conmiunity in the history of the 
church, resulting in the admission of over one hundred and twenty 
members to the church of all ages, on confession of their faith, and of 
some two hundred more to the churches in the town. A careful exam- 
ination into the origin of our early congregations, as to their ministers 
and people, and as to their standards of doctrine and form of govern- 
ment and modes of worship, as learned from their history and records, 
is of special importance, as throwing light upon the actual character of 
the church in these respects from the beginning. Whatever difficulty 
may be experienced in some parts of the country in this respect, none 
need be felt in regard to the churches of this valley, nor of the State of 
Pennsylvania. 

The settlement of the Cumberland Valley and the constitution of its 
churches, is directly traceable to that great providential movement 
which took place among the Scotch Irish Presbyterians settled in the 
province of Ulster, in the north of Ireland, which runs back to near the 



bepniiiiiii of tlio JNtli (viilniv, :iii(l wliii'li led to a steady and increasingr 
stream of emigration from tiiat Province to this country, and which 
added fjreatiy to tlie .strength and character of the Presbyterian Church 
in America. And this state of things in Ulster, was only a ]>art of that 
wider movement wliich took jdace in Scotland, England, France and 
Holland, as well as in Ulster. The history of Presbyterian colonization 
in America, is largely tlie result of pa[)al and ])relatic jjcrsecutions in 
Europe. By the act of uniformity passed in 16(52, two thousand Pres- 
byterian ministers were cast out of the Church of England. A consid- 
erable nundjer of wliom found refuge in this country, cliiefly in New 
England. 

By reason of the persecutions of the Reformed Cliurches of France, 
which were strictly Presbyterian in government and Calvinistic in doc- 
trine, and which was consummated under Louis XIV. by the revocation 
of the edict of Nantes in 1()85, two hundred thousand French protest- 
ants sullereil martyrdom, and about seven hundred thousand were 
driven from the kingdom, many of whom found tiieir way to this 
country. Two thousand churches, witli their ministers, were nearly ex- 
tirpated by that cruel and bloody persecution. 

" Modern history," it is said, " hardly affords a parallel to the cruelty 
an<l oppression under which Scotland groaned for nearly thirty years," 
under the reigns of James II. and of Charles I. and Charles II. and all 
in su])}iort of Fi)iscoi)acy and under the instigation of the Bishops. 
i\I altitudes of learned and pious ministers were ejecte<l from their par- 
ishes, and ignorant and ungodly men substituted in their places, upon 
whose ministrations, unedifying as they were, the i)eople were forced 
to attend under severe penalties. 

The ejected ministers were prohibited from preaching or praying in 
public, even in fields or other retired places. To enforce these oppres- 
sive laws, exorbitant fines were imposed, torture was freely resorted to 
to extort evidence, the ])risons were tilled with victims of oppression, 
soldiers were quartere<l upon defenceless families, and allowed the great- 
est license and many were massacred ujjon the public highways. It is 
no wonder that the Scotch Presbyterians abhorred episcopacy. In 
their views ami experience, it was identical with oppression, despotism 
and impiety. 

Considerintr their long continued persecution, the wonder has been 
exi>ressed, that they did not rise up en masse and forsake the country. 
The hope of overthrowing ejnscopacy and of regaining their liberties, 
constrained the majority of them to withstand their ojipressors. Emi- 
gration from Scotland by reason of such oppression, while not so great 
as might have been exjiected, was yet consiilerable. Four thousand 
Presbyterians are reported to have come into New Englan<l prior to 
l(i4(), many of whom were from Scotland. In 1729 a church was organ- 
ized in Boston, composed of Scotcli and Irish Presbyterians. The 



VI 

First Church in New York City, composed chiefly of Scotch and Irish 
Presbyterians, was organized previous to 1716, and called the Rev. 
James Anderson, a Scotch Presbyterian minister from New Castle, Dela- 
ware, to become their first pastor. 

The emigrants from Scotland to east New Jersey were many and in- 
fluential. They came in such numbers, says Bancroft, as to give to the 
rising commonwealth, a character which a century and a half have not 
effaced. But it was to Pennsylvania and the Carolinas, that a larger 
and increasing stream of emigration from Scotland and the North of 
Ireland came. The latter in much larger numbers than the former. 

The Presbyterians in Ulster were rendered exceedingly uncomfortable 
by reason of the tyrany and exactions of their despotic monarchs, by 
the restrictions and penalties imposed by parliament, the intolerance 
and persecutions instigated by the Bishops and the rapacity and greed 
of the landlords. Among the laws enacted intended to harass and an- 
noy them, was what was called the Test Act, which prohibited them 
from holding any office in DubUn or the province. This was followed 
by the Marriage Act by which they were forbidden to be married by 
their own ministers, and rendered liable to arraignment for immorality 
in the ecclesiastical courts for such marriage. Worse than all, what was 
known as the Schism Act, was passed in 1714, which would have swept 
the Presbyterian Church of Ireland well nigh out of existence, had not . 
Queen Anne died before it could be enforced. 

These and other like acts estranged the people from their country, 
and caused them to turn tlieir attention to the new colonies then being 
planted in America, where they might secure for themselves and fami- 
ilies' future homes, and the blessings of civil and religious liberty, de- 
nied them in their own land. The consequence was that as far back as 
1713, both ministers and people began to come to America. In this 
great movement, the Kev. Thomas Craighead, a minister of consider- 
able prominence, with some others led the way. In 1715 he came to 
New England, in 1724 he removed to Pennsylvania and 17o7, became 
the first pastor of the Big Spring Church. Some six thousand Scotch 
Ii;ish are said to have come in 1720. Later on they are reported to have 
come at the rate of twelve thousand from year to year. Cumberland 
County, which in the outset included Franklin, was chiefly settled by 
them. From 1736 onward, they crossed over at Harrisburg in great 
numbers and settled in this vicinity along the Conodoguinit and the 
Big Spring more numerously than elsewhere, by reason of the junction 
of tliese two streams of water at nearly right angles. Out of these 
sturdy, rugged Scotch Irish people, this church was originally organ- 
ized. 

From here they spread on down the valley into Virginia, the Caro- 
linas and Tennessee, many erossins the mountains over into Western 
Pennsylvania and farther down across into Kentuckv. A thousand fam- 



VII 

ilies are said to liave arriveil in the state of North Carolina i'roni the 
more northerly settlements in 17(54. No other country, says Dr. Ram- 
sey, furnished the ])rovince of South Carolina with so many citizens as 
the North of Ireland. These strict Presbyterians driven here largelj' 
by tlie persecution.s to which they had been subjected at home, the 
Scotch, the Scotcli Irish, the Dutch from Holland and the French 
Huguenots, laid the foundations of the Presbyterian Church in Boston, 
New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, INIaryland, the Carolinas and 
Georgia, through all which sections of country they settled in great 
nund)ers. In 1705, the first Presbytery was organized in Philadelphia. 
In 171() the tirst Synod was formed. In 1729 the Westminster Standards 
were adojtted by the Synod. 

This last event took place eiglit years before the organization of this 
church. The Rev. Thomas Craighead, its first minister, was a member 
of that Synod and voted for the adopting act. 

Before the settlement of the second ])astor, the Rev. John Blair, in 
1742, the church had divided into two branches, the Ul<l and the New 
Side. Both .sides, however, adhered with equal tenacity to the Stand- 
ards adopted, and regarded themselves as identical in doctrine, govern- 
ment and worship with the Church of Scotland. 

While adojiting the Confession of Faith as containing the system of 
doctrine set forth in the Holy Scriptures, and approving the form of 
government and the directory for worship, as conformable to the word 
of God, at the same time all who held to the essential doctrines of 
Christianity were cordially invited and freely, welcomed into the com- 
nuinion of the church. An important distinction has always been made 
between Christian and ministerial comnninion. We are bound to re- 
gard and treat as Christians all who make a credible ]>rofession of faith 
in the Lord Jesus Christ and accept of the essential doctrines of the 
Christian religion. The lowest terms of salvation are the highest terms 
of Christian communion. What will take a soul to Heaven should take 
it in the Church on earth. 

The terms of miaisterial comumnion are different. The conditions 
upon which ministers are admitted to office in the church is not merely 
acceptance of the essential doctrines of the .Gospel, but the .sincere 
adoi)tion of the Confessiijn of Faith as containing the system of doctrine 
taught in the Scriptures. Those called and chosen to be teachers and 
rulers must be .sound in the faith, ami therefore accept the standards 
of tlie church as the church's authorized and accepted interpretatiim of 
the teacliings of God's most holy word. 

No one applying for admission to the Pre.sbyterian Church will be 
rejected, nor any one already a minister of the church be subjected to 
discii>line who is not supposed to reject some of the distinctive <loctrines 
taught in this system .set forth in the Confession of Faith and Cate- 
chisms of the Church. That .system is the Reformed or Calvinistic sys- 



VIII 

tern in contnuliHtinctiun to the Armenian, Pelagian, semi-Pelagian or 
Socinian systems held by other branches of the nominally Christian 
Cliurch. 

It was on this basis the Presbyterian Church was organized in this 
country. On this basis the church has had a remarkable growth. From 
an organization of live ministers and three ruling elders in 17Q5, it has 
grown in less than two centuries into a Church extending over all this 
wide spread land and into all heathen countries on the same doctrinal 
basis. This church contains 7,429 ministers, 1,428 candidates for the 
ministry, 477 licentiates, 7,631 churches, 27,874 ruhng elders and 960,- 
911 church members. May it ever continue to live and prosper on the 
same divine basis. EBENEZEK EKSKINE. 

Newville, Pa., August, 1898. 




■ifflfrc C- i, ' 




Rev. Ebenezeh Erskine, D. D. 



The I3ig Spring 

Iprcsb^tevian Cbuvcb. 




HE lands in the "Kittoclitinny", or present 
Cumberland Valley, were not purchased from 
the Indians until October 1736, and wei'e not, 
therefore, before that time open for sale. But for seve- 
ral years |)rior to that period the agents of the proprie- 
tors knowing the i'eelings of the Indians to be favoral)le 
had encouraged settlers to come hither, and had issued 
to them special licenses for the securing and settlement 
of such lands beyond the Susquehanna as might please 
them. ■•' 

After the lands of the valley were finally thrown 
open to settlers, there was a great influx of emigrants, 
many coming from the old-settled counties of Lancaster 
and Chester, and many directly from Ireland. Most of 
the settlers being Irish and Scotch Irish, very few of 
other nationalities were found here until a much hiter 
date. These people first sought the land bordering on 
the streams of water because of the convenience of an 
abundance of water, and of timber which grew along 
the water courses. Thus we find that very soon after 
the land was thrown open for settlement, the invit- 
ing lands of this vicinity attracted a large population to 
tlie l)orders of the Conodoguinet Creek and the Big 
Spring. One of tlie first acts of our forefathers after 
locating land and building homes lor themselves and 
families was to ])rovide a spiritual home or place for the 
worship of God. 

* Note Hi.st. Franklin Cu. McCaulev. 



10 THE BIG SPRING 



The Presbyterians who settled in the neighborhood of 
the Big Spring organized a congregation not hiter than 
the spring of 1737. On the 22nd of June the people 
of Hopewell petitioned Presbytery for their eoncurrence 
in drawing a call to the Rev. Thomas Craighead. About 
this time the name of this j^eople was changed from the 
people of the Conodoguinet to the people of Penns- 
boro and Hopewell, the line having been run in 1735 
from the north to the south mountain by way of the 
Big Spring dividing the valley. All e^ist of that line 
was called Pennsboro and all west of it Hopewell. By 
the "people of Hopewell" referred to in the call to Mr. 
Craighead no doubt were included the congregation at 
Middle Spring as well as Big Spring. They were both 
known by the general name of "Hopewell" and indi- 
vidually Big Spring as Lower Hopewell, and Middle 
Spring as Upper Hopewell. The congregation of Ui)- 
per Pennsboro objected to the call to Mr. Craighead and 
the establishment of a church on the Big Spring as an 
encroachment upon their territory, as there was a rule of 
Presbytery not allowing congregations to be located 
within ten miles of each other. The Presbytery ap- 
pointed a committee to look over the territory and con- 
fer with the people on the calling of a pastor and the 
location of a house of worship. This conference was 
held at the house of James McFarlane on the Big 
Spring in 1737. The committee reported to Presbytery 
in November 1737, and notwithstanding the urgency of 
the congregation and the imjiatience of Mr. Craighead, 
action was deferred until the next year. On Aug. 31, 
1738, Presbytery appointed Mr. Alexander Craighead to 
install Mr. Thomas Craighead the second Friday in 



I • i; 1 "S 1 ? Y TVAi TAN VU VRCH . 1 1 



Octohcr 5111(1 tlial lie "send ;iii c'dic't to be piiMishcd 
timc'ously iK't'orc." JNIr. Ch'aii;lieud's j)astorate was a 
short one as lie died the fbllowini;' year. At this time lie 
was well advanced in life, but his mental powers con- 
tinued in their full vigor. "He still preached with 
great power and impressiveness. Under his disij )urses 
the peo])le were at times deeply and ])owerfully moved 
and often when dismissed were unwilling to leave. 

On one of these occasions near the close of April 
17o9, at a communion season in the Eig Spring Church, 
wdien having ])reache(l until quite exhausted, he waved 
his hand being unable to pronounce the benediction 
and exclaimed : 'Farewell ! Farewell' and sank down 
and expired in the pulpit." Tradition says that his re- 
mains were buried beneath the present church edifice, 
but this is very doubtful as this church was not l)uilt 
until fifty years after his death. It is more probable 
that lie Avas buried beneath the church he built and in 
which he preached, as was the custom at that time. 



12 THE BIG SPRING 



PASTORATE OF REV. JOHN BLAIR, D. D. 



After the demise of Rev. Thomas Craio'head the Bi2: 
Spring congregation was without a regularly installed 
pastor until 1742. They had been supplied however 
during this time by Mr. James Lyon of Ireland, who 
was then under the care of the Presbyter)^ of New 
Castle, and by others sent out by Presbytery of Done- 
gal. On the 27th of December, 1742, Rev. John Blair 
was installed pastor of the Big Spring Churc^li in con- 
nection with the Middle Spring and Rocky Spring con- 
gregations. The records kept dui'ing his ministry are 
the earliest positive evidence we have of the three 
churches being under one pastor. Although it is very 
probable that Rev.- Thomas Craighead preached in those 
churches at the same time he ministered to the people at 
Big S])ring. Rev. S. S. Wylie, in his history of the 
Middle Spring Church, seems quite positive of the fact, 
and cites very plausible evidence to sustain his position. 
If the people of Big Spring were unable to support a 
pastor alone in 1742, and later, it is not very probable 
that they could do so in 1738. 

We learn from the sessional records of the Middle 
Spring Church (1742) that "the minister and elders of 
Big Spring, Middle Spring, and Rocky Spring, met at 
Middle Spring in order to settle the division of the 
ministers' labors among the three congregations." They 
agreed upon the following arrangemenr, "that the 
ministers' labors be equally divided in a third part to 
each place, as being most for the glory of God and good 
of his people." It was also, "upon motion of the 
elders of Big Spring, left to them, the people, and Mr. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCII. 1 3 



Blair, to converse ainong theiiiselves in respect to the 
snl)scri])tions of the Big Spring Congregation." Mr. 
Blair during his ministry here resided at Middle Spring 
on a farm of two hundred and twelve acres the warrant 
of which bears date ()ct()l)er r)tli, 1743. It is said that 
"he and his wife, with their hired servants, lived in a 
style quite above tlieir ])lain country parishioners. The 
people were extremely kind to jNIr. J^lair and his young 
wife, so that tiiey often had a superabundance of the 
good things of tliis life." Just how long Mr. Blair con- 
tinued in this field of labor is uncertain. Webster in 
his history, and Sprague in his annals of the American 
Pulpit, who, quotes from Webster, both give the date of 
his leaving the "Three Springs" as December 28, 1748. 
The last record in the session book kept during his 
ministry at Middle Spring is dated February 8th, 1749. 
All agree that JMr. Blair was driven from his field of 
labor by the incursions of the Indians. There were no 
Indian troubles in 1749, l)ut after the defeat of Ih-ad- 
dock July 9, 1755, and the retreat of Dunbar, this 
valley was sw^pt by fire, sword, scalping knife, and the 
tomahawk of the cruel savage. Hundreds of people 
left the valley foi- the interior counties and others took 
refuge in the larger towns and forts of the valley. It is 
not imj^robable that Mr. Blair was among those who left 
the valley for safety, and we are inclined to accept the 
opinion of those who give his departure as being 1755, 
or even later. Another evidence of his presence here at 
a late date is the following receij^t in the hands of Rev. 
S. S. Wylie. "Septend)er 11th, 1757, received from John 
Johnson, 2 £ and 2 d. which appears to me to be in full 
of stepens dueRev. John ]>lair "by me, David Megaw." 



14 THE BIG SPRING 



PASTORATE OF REV. GEO. DUFFIELD, D. D. 



Probably owing to the distracted condition of the 
country resuUing from the Indian troubles a successor to 
Rev. John Blair was not called until 1759. In that 
year the congregations of Carlisle and Big Spring united 
in a call to the Rev. George Duffield, I). D., but he was 
not installed until the third AVednesday of September, 
1759. According to the terms of his call, one third of 
his time was to be given to Big Spring and two thirds to 
Carlisle. In 1761, an effort was made by the Big 
Spring congregation to obtain the one half of Mr. Duf- 
field's labors. To this, the congregation of Carlisle 
objected and gave notice l)y commissioners that if Pres- 
bytery would not allow them the two thirds of his time 
they w^ould at the next meeting make application for all 
his time. At the next meeting of Presbytery after con- 
sidering the claims of each party it was decided in view 
of Mr. Duffield not being physically able to endure the 
fatigue of giving one-half his time to Big Spring, that 
he should give one third of his time to Big Spring and 
tw^o thirds to Carlisle as agreed upon when the call was 
made out, and that the salary should be in the same 
proportion. This arrangement continued until 1769 
when Mr. Duffield's relation to Big Spring was dissolved 
on account of the salary promised, having been allowed 
to fall in arrears. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 15 



pastoratp: of rev. wili.iam linn, 1). J). 



The siuressor of Rev. Dr. Duificld ;is pastor oF the 
Big Spring congregation wa« the Rev. William J /inn. 
He received a call from this congregation April 9, 1777, 
and Avas installed October 8, 1777. Tlie congregation 
at this time seems to have increased sufficiently to justify 
them in securing the services of a pastor for themselves 
alone. Mr. Linn remained as pastor of the congrega- 
tion until 1784 when he resigned to become Principal of 
Washington Academy, in Somerset County, Md. The 
relations of ]\Ir. Linn and the Big Spring congregation 
seem to have 1)een very }>leasant. In letters in my poss- 
ession Avritten by him to his friend John Heap then liv- 
ing in Baltimore he expresses much affection for his late 
parishioners the congregation of Big Spring. In one of 
these letters written from Washington Academy June 
28, 1785, he gives the imjiression that the congregation 
of Big Spring recalled him to become their pastor. We 
quote from it as follows "The invitation from Big 
Spring is singular and unexpected, and lays me under 
additional ol)ligations to that people. I would fain 
enough, if it was prudent and consistent with duty, re- 
turn to my old walks and old field. I have not refused 
the invitation from Big S])ring, nor have I greatly en- 
couraged it. The same line I have persued as to }n'os- 
pects held out from Elizabethtown. I am really un- 
determined and know not what to do. Big Spring is 
most eliii;ible l)ecaus(^ most obscure and retired." We 
regret very nuich that a very careful search has failed 
to reveal a record of the ministerial acts of Dr. Linn or 
either of his predecessors. 



16 THE BIG SPRING 



THE PASTORATE OF REV. SAMUEL WILSON, 



After the resignation of Rev. William Linn there was 
a vacancy of three years in the Big Spring Church. 
Just why the pulpit was vacant for so long a time we 
are unable to state, but we know that efforts were made 
to secure a pastor. On the 21st of March, 178(), a call 
was extended to the Rev. Samuel Wilson. The call was 
accepted and Mr. Wilson was installed June 20, 1787. 
His pastorate was one of activity and prosperity for the 
congregation. The different de|)artments of church 
work were well organized and good results followed. 
Many accessions were made to the church, anew church 
building was erected, and the Borough of Newville laid 
out on the church lands. Mr. Wilson was pains-taking 
and accurate in keeping a record of his church work, 
and fortunately the records have been preserved although 
hidden in a garret for a century, and just brought to 
light. These records we are glad to give as they are 
valuable not only to the church but to the community. 
Mr. Wilson after a faithful ministry of almost thirteen 
years closed his life as pastor of the congregation. Mar. 
4th, 1799. 



CALL EXTENDED TO KEV. SAMUEL WILSON, 



"We, the subscribers of this paper, members of the 
Presbyterian Congregation of Big Spring, taking into 
consideration that we have been for a considerable time 
without a gospel minister, by the removal of the Rev. 
Mr. William Linn, our late worthy pastor, and being 
satisfied with the piety, learning, character and minister- 



riUOJSli YTEKl AN ClHJJtM I . 



10 



ial qualifications of Mr. Sanuiel AVilson, preaclicr of 
the gosj)el, of whom we have had trial hy his })reaeliinii; 
among us, do here])y invite, call and entreat you, the 
said Samut'l Wilson, to hee<mie oiii* minister, and to take 
charge and oversight of our souls in the Lord. We 
promise you all due ohedience in the Lord, and that we 
will attend the divine ordinances, administered by you, 
and submit to your discipline according to the rules of 
our Society, and w^e entreat the Reverend Presbytery of 
Donegal, to tJike the said Mr. Samuel Wilson on trial for 
the holy ministry, and on his being found qualified, to 
ordain him as a minister. In witness wdiereof we have 
subscribed this paper at Big Spring, this twenty-first 
day of March, in the year of our Lord, one thousand, 
seven hundred and eighty-six." 



John McKeehan. 
Sanuiel JNTcCormick. 
Hugh Laughlin. 
David Ralston. 
Robert Patterson. 
John Bell. 
S. Cunningham. 
James Graham. 
Hugh Patton. 
Margaret McKcan. 
Jrio. Ewing. 
Solomon Lightcap. 
AVilliam Giffen. 
R(jl)ert Bovard. 
William Hodge. 
Charles Leiper. 
Wni. McFarlane. 



John Reid. 
John Hodge, Sr. 
William Duncan. 
James Irwine. 
John Brown. 
John O'Neal. 
William Douglass. 
Alexander Officer. 
James Officer. 
Thomas Espey. 
James Gillespie. 
Stnnuel Hawthorn. 
James Robinston. 
Ah'xander Leckey. 
John McFarland. 
Richard Woods. 
James Johnson. 



20 



THE BIG SPUING 



Robert Bell. 
Alex. Laughlin. 
Sam'l. Finley. 
Samuel Blair. 
Thomas Jacob. 
Thomas Buchanan. 
Joseph McKibben. 
John Allison. 
John Bell. 
Jos. Pollock. 
Jas. Laughlin. 
Robert Hutchison. 
Atchison Laughlin. 
John Mitchell. 
Samuel Mathers. 
William Wilson. 
Francis Donald. 
James McQuon. 
James Wilson. 
George Little. 
John Brown. 
Jarmon Jacobs. 
John Davidson. 
Alexander Thompson. 
Robert Shannon. 
Joseph Parks. 
William McCracken. 



Samuel Lindsay. 
Matthew Wilson. 
William Lindsay. 
John Whiten, Jr. 
EUzabeth McCullough. 
Thomas Grier. 
Ann Browster. 
John Lusk. 
David Lusk. 
William Lusk. 
Alexander McBride, Jr. 
William Milligan. 
Agnes Irwin e. 
William Hunter. 
Wilham Walker. 
Robert Walker. 
Robert Patterson. 
James Turner. 
Adam Bratton. 
Joseph Walker. 
William Hunter. 
James Huston. 
Catherine Brown. 
Margaret McClure. 
James Armstrong. 
Jared Graham. 
Margaret McFarland. 



SUBSCRIBERS TO THE SALARY OF REV. SAMUEL WILSON. 



"Big Spring, Cumberland Co. Pa., March 21, 1786. 
We, the subscribers of this paper and members of 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 21 



the Presbyterijui C'Ongregiition of J^ig Spring, do lu'ie- 
by bind jind ol)lige ourselves to pay annually to Mr. 
Bamuel Wilson, preacher of the gospel, on his being or- 
dained to be our niinister, and while he shall diseharge 
the duties of the said office, the sum of one hundred 
and fifty pounds, Pennsylvania Currency in specie. 
AVe will also allow him the use of the house and glebe 
])Ossesse(l by our former minister, with sufficient security 
for the payment of the above sum during his incum- 
bency." 

d. 
Alexander Laughlin, 
John Davidson, 
Robert Shannon, 
David Williamson, 
Thomas Buchanan, 
Alexander Thompson, 
James Jack, 
William Denning, 
Andrew Bell, 
John Allison, 
Robert Patterson, 
David Ralston, 
John McKeehan, 
Hugh Laughlin, 
John BelC 
Jeremiah McKibben, 
Jame« Graham, 
Joseph Parks, 
Charles Luper, 

George McKeehan, 1 5 

Hugh Patton, 1 10 



t. 


s. 




10 




If) 




5 




10 




5 




10 




5 








10 




15 




10 




10 




5 




10 












10 








15 



22 THE BIG SPRING 

£. S. d. 

Margaret McKean, 10 

William Giffin, 15 

William Hodge, 1 5 

Alexander McKeeliaii, 1 

William McCracken, 1 10 

William McFarlane, . 1 10 

Samuel McCormick, 1 5 

William Laughlin, 1 15 

Thomas Jacob, 1 

Andrew Walker, 15 

Rannuel Blair, 1 o 

Samuel Findley, 1 10 

S. Cunningham, 1 

Jno. Ewing, 1 

Robert Bovard, 10 

Hannah Bovard, 10 

Solomon Lightcap, 1 5 

Jas. Pollock, 1 

Jas. Laughlin, 1 10 

Atchison Laughlin, 1 

Robert Hutchison, 1 

John Mitchell^ 7 6 

Samuel Mathers, 1 5 

Jarmon Jacobs, 1 

John Reed, 15 

John Hodge, Sr, 5 

AVilliam Duncan, 8 6 

James Irvine, 3 

John Brown, 2 

MEMBERS RECEIVED INTO THE BIG SPRING PRESBYTERIAN 
CHURCH BY THE REV. SAMUEL WILSON. 



PRESBYTEKIAN CHURCH. 



23 



This list is not complete as it does not begin until four 
years after he was installed pastor of the church. 

JUNE 1791. 
Samuel Anderson and William McNicholas admitted 
from Ireland. 



Isaac Shannon, 
. Jean iShannon, 
Margaret McFarlane. 
Jennie iVdams. 
John Connelly. 
Thomas Glenn. 

Martha Ewing. 
Samuel Fenton. 
John Parks. 
Eleanor Reid. 
John Boyd. 
Jean Ewing. 
Ann Fenton. 

Joseph Gourd. 
Isabel Anderson. 
Robert Officer. 
Margaret Gourd. 

F. Work. 

Robert Sterrit. 

Mrs. Sterrit, his wife. 

A. Elliott. 

James Fenton. 

Gabriel McKimins. 



Alexander Glenn. 

Jean Glenn. 

John Laughlin. 

Margaret Carson. 

Ann Espey. 

Ruth Hamilton. 
SEP. 39, 1791. 

Mary Morrison. 

Katherine Jacob. 

William Porterfield. 

Mary Walker. 

Robert INIorrison. 

John Reid. 

John Adams. 
HAY 23, 1792. 

Mary Laughlin. 

David Officer. 

John Anderson. 

Mary Mathers. 
OCT. 18, 1792. 

Jennie Hannon. 

Hugh Bryson. 

Daughter of John Purdy 

Hannah Carson. 

Mary Laughlin. 
MAY 29, 1793. 

John Carson, Jr. 



24 



THE BIG SPRING 



Rosaniia McFarlane. 
Peggy Johnson. 



John Patton. 
Hezekiah Patton. 
OCT. 19, 1793- 



Sidney Forhner. 
Betsy McKeehan. 
Martha Gillespie. 
Daughter of W. Ewing. 
Katherine Forhner. 
Jennie Johnson. 
Alexander Work. 



Kobert Gillespie. 
George Gillespie. 
Thomas Jacob. 
Elizabeth Jacob. 
M. Thompson. 
Mary Johnson. 
Eliz. Sterrit. 
Jane McCormick. 
Mary Wilson. 
James Patton. 
Saml. Emit. 
Robert Johnson. 
John Shannon. 

Matthew Laughlin. 
Phebe Laughlin. 
Priscilla Forhner. 
Mary Forhner. 
Jean Plain. 



Samuel Moyer and wife. 
Elizabeth Martin. 
Betsy McFarlane. 
Nathaniel Gillespie. 
Posanna Work. 
Jared Martin, Jr. 

MAY 1794- 

Mary Shannon. 
Margaret Shannon. 
Joseph Shannon. 
Jane McKinsey. 
Mary Shannon. 
Samuel Bryson. 
Sarah McEntire. 
Thomas McCormick. 
James Lindsey and wife. 
Joseph McCormick. 

McGoffine. 

Major Finley. 
Polly Finley. 
SEPT. 30, 1794- 

James Moor. 
Martha Adams. 
Rob. Kilgore and wife. 
James McGoffine. 



MAY 20, 1795. 

Thomas Morton and wife, Joseph Morton and wife, 



PRE8BYTEKIAN CHURCH. 



25 



j\Hss RjiniHey, James Purdy. 

OCT. 20, 1795. 
Mary Pollock, Kiitli Cook, Nancy Hughs, \>i/c of 
Alex. Glenn. 

JUNE 8, 1796. 

flolin DavidHon. 



Mary Green. 
Adam Wilson. 
Andrew Taylor. 
Hugh Thompson. 
Samuel Thompson. 
Margaret McKeehan. 
Elizabeth Espy. 

Betsy Work. 
Susanna Work. 
Nancy Brown. 
Alexander Thompson. 
Leary McCormick. 
Peggy Thompson. 
David Williamson. 



Elizabeth Johnson. 
Mrs. Isaiah Graham, 



James Montgomery. 

Wm. Connely and wife. 

John Green. 

Sally Green. 

Mary Rjunsey. 

Jolin Peeples and wife. 

Nancv Douc;las. 



Elizabeth Davidson. 

Elizabeth Geddes. 

Dr. John Geddes. 

Nancy Roberts. 

Sam. Lightcap and wife. 

Obadiah Patterson and wife. 
OCT. 1796. 

Tamar Williamson. 

Nancy Shannon. 

Daniel McGuire. 

Theo. McClure. 

Ginny Bell. 

Susanna Hutchison. 

Martha Hutchison. 
JUNE 14, 1797. 

Samuel McElheny. 
OCT. 25, 1797. 

Jenny Eliot. 
AUG. 29, 1798. 

Mrs. Bryson. 

Elizaljeth Espey. 

Robt. Peeples and wife. 

Isaiah Graham. 



26 THE BIG SPRING 



A PETITION FOR THE ELECTION OF AN ELDER. 



"To the Rev. Samuel Wilson and the session of the 
Big Spring Congregation. 

The humble petition of the subscribers shovveth that 
in consequence of the death of Mr. John Lusk, elder of 
this quarter, we were, and still continue to l^e in want of 
such a guardian to preside over us as a ruling elder. 
We therefore petition your honors to grant us your con- 
sent to nominate and appoint one of our number for our 
elder. And in consequence of our return of an elder 
your wisdoms will be j^leased to confirm our choice, if 
no legal objections appear to hinder. And your pe- 
titioners as in duty will ever pray &o. 
James Ramsey. William Browster. 

Nathan Ramsey. John Huston. 

Thomas Woods. Thomas Norton. 

Andrew Huston. Archibald McCullough. 

Samuel Woods. Joseph Turner. 

William Woods, Jr. John Turner. 

Alexander McBride, Jr. William Roan. 

AVilliam Gladen. Nathaniel Eckels. 

Andrew Browster. William Lusk." 

"To The Rev. Mr. Wilson :— Reverend Sir, 
I enclose you the petition of the Southern part of the 
Big Spring Congregation, with a desire that they should 
be heard, and if so it will be convenient for the quarter 
to meet at the house of Mr. James Ramsey to have the 
election, and the sooner the better with conveniency. 
This from your sincere friend, Alexander McBride, Jr. 

Dec. 10, 1789." 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. li 



PKOCEEDINGS OF A IMKKTINCi OF SESSION. 



"The session of the ]>ig Sprinii; Congregation serious- 
ly affected on the one hand with the deehning state of 
religion, the decay of real piety, and on the other with 
the prevalence of vice and profanity, view it as a matter 
truly distressing the many professors of Christ's holy re- 
ligion who attend upon the distinguishing ordinances of 
his church manifest such a dis})Osition to encourage 
balls and otJier criminal amusements. Also that they 
allow themselves in drunkenness, in the proftination of 
God's name, in various species of gambling, a neglect of 
family worshi}), as well as attending upon the jtublic 
means of grace, and notwithstanding live in the belief 
that they have a continued right to the sealing 
ordinances of the church and are offended if these are 
refused to them. Session, very sensible that there' is a 
fault in such conduct, and not desirous to clear them- 
selves, afraid that a charge of unfaithfulness to God and 
the souls of men should justly fall on them lest tliey 
])artake in the sins of others, unanimously agree to en- 
deavor a reformation in these things. They know well 
that wherever the ffiult may lie it is not in the discipline 
of the cluirch whicli makes all the errors enumerated 
censurable, but rather in a lack of discipline among 
ourselves. In order to a reform, tliey are assured that 
some change must take place witli respect to the mode 
of admission. They have no doubt that the evil in 
many cases may lie traced to a delicacy in mendjers 
with persons applying on the Sabbath for the baptism of 
children. If re[)orts have been in circulation unfavor- 
able to Christian character, there is then little time or 



28 THE BIG SPRING 



opportunity to inquire into them, and it has been feared 
that if persons were then kept back, offense would be 
taken, and no doubt reports are sometimes groundless. 
To prevent then the growing evil and the prostitution of 
holy ordinances, the members of session respectively 
engage that they will use every lawful means which be- 
longs to their office in order to a knowledge of those 
who are members of their own district, that they will 
not recommend any one chargeable with any of the 
glaring crimes above taken notice of. It is unanimously 
agreed in session that in the future that any persons 
who have in view to attend upon the ordinances of 
bajotism some time before, signify their intention to the 
member of session in the district in which he lives, 
or if there be no member of session in the district, the 
one most convenient, so that the member previous to his 
recommending him may have an opportunity of con- 
versing with him before he recommends him, and that 
the blessing of God may succeed this attemj^t for the re- 
formation of this society, upon whose account it is essay- 
ed, is the earnest prayer of the respective meml)ers." 



MEMBERS AND ADHERENTS OF THE BIG SPRING 
CHURCH, 1789. 1 



About 1789 Rev. Sanuiel Wilson made lists of mem- 
bers and adherents of the church dividing them into 
districts, and over each district, an elder was placed. 
The lists give the ages of the persons, and states 
whether they were in communion, not in communion, 
and whether they were baptized. The communicant 
memljers of the church are shown in these lists bv a 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 29 

star following a name. There is no date at- 
tached to the lists, but eom})arin_i>- the ages given of 
persons whose ages we positively know, we feel (juite 
safe in saying, the lists were made in 1789. Dating 
back from that time, the number of years given to each 
person, will give al)()ut the year in which they were 
born. 

One of the duties of the elder, was, to visit the people 
and catechise tliem. Questions having been previously 
])repare(l by the pastor and given to the members to com- 
mit to memory, or, at least to obtain a correct under- 
standing of them. These visitations of the elder were 
made annually. 
JOHN Carson's district. questions and members. 

1. Who was the penman of the Book of Genesis? 
When is it generally thought to have been written, and 
wliat length of time does that history contain ? 

2. What are the principal doctrines and events 
recorded in this book ? 

o. What do you understtmd by creation, and is it a 
woi'k peculiar to God only ? 

4. What seems to be the order of creation, and 
wliat was the work of each day ? 

5. What are those called who do not acknowledge 
divine revelation ? AVhat objections do they offer 
against ]\Ioses and his writings, and how are their argu- 
ments confuted ? 

(). What rational arguments can be offered in favor 
of Moses, that his mission was from God and that his 
writings were of divine inspiration ? 

7. What scripture prophesies have been fulfilled 
and what are at present fulfilling or yet to be fulfilled ? 



30 



THE BIG SPRING 



These with the ninth chapter 
Faith to be examined upon. 



of the Confession of 



Eobert Mickie 68, 

Agnes Mickie 64, 

David Mickie 22, 

Elenor Mickie 20, 

Hannah Mickie 18, 
Phillis, a negro. 
Thomas E. Fullerton 21, 

Isabel Fullerton 18, 

John Ackman 30, 

Mary Ackman 28, 

Elenor Laughlin 70, 

Matthew Laughlin 30, 

Paul Laughlin 27, 

Doctor I^aughlin 24, 

Peggy McCune 17, 

Samuel McCune 16, 

John McCune 12, 

William M. Flin 7, 

Isabel IMcCune 50, 

Robert McCune 17, 

Pebecca Parks 13, 

William Parks 11, 

David Parks 9, 

Priscilla Carson 35, 

Elisha Carson 20, 

John Carson 18, 

Hannah Carson 16, 

Joseph McGuffine 32, 

Jane McGuffine 27, 

William McGuffine 9, 



Mary McGuffine 7, 

Robert McGuffine 4, 
William Leman 

Samuel Leman 7, 

Martha Leman 29, 

William Leman 5, 

James Johnston 23, 

Margaret Johnston 22, 

Ro])ert Johnston 20, 

William Auld 30, 

Christiana Auld 25, 

Mary Auld 7, 

Martha Ewing 70, 

Samuel Findlay 35, 

James Denny 21, 

William McCracken 35, 
Elizabeth McCracken 

Betsy Peoples 16, 

Robert Peoj^les 14, 

Martha McCracken 9, 

Jenny McCracken 7, 
Jonathan, a Negro, 

Prudence Farhner 19, 

Robert INIickie 45, 

Isamiah jMickie 35, 

Andrew Mickie 12, 

Mary Mickie 10, 

Thomas Mickie 7, 

John Smith 20, 

Jonathan Kilgore 27, 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 31 



Ruth Kilgore 22, John Caklwell 20, ='= 

John Caklwell a mem- Elizabeth Caldwell 

ber of session. Samuel Caldwell 14, 

Anne Caldwell 45, ''' Ann Caldwell 12, 

James Caldwell 

Families, ^ 24. 

Persons in full Communion, 14^ 



WILLIAM Lindsay's district, questions and members. 

1. What are the different kinds of faith taken no- 
tice of in the scripture ? 

2. A¥hat are the marks by which true faith is dis- 
tinguished from all other kinds ? 

3. Whither does saving faith lie in assent or con- 
sent ? 

4. What reason would you assign wdiy no actions 
are acceptable to God, but such as flow from faith ? 

5. Will it then follow, that wicked and unregenerace 
persons, may as well transgress the law of God, as en- 
deiivor the observance of it ? 

6. Must we turn from sin in order to come to Christ 
by faith ? 

7. Seeing faith is the act of the believing soul, in 
wdiat sense then, is it said to be the gift of God ? 

These, with the eighth chapter of the Confession of 
Faith, to be examined upon at John Woods' AVednes- 
day, Dec. 30th. 



William Hunter 


60, =^ 


David Shannon 


55, 


Jane Hunter 


60, * 


Sarah Shannon 


47, 


John Mclntire 




Lenard Sliannon 


21, 


Bally Mclntire 


18, 


Samuel Sliannon 


19, 


Joseph Hunter 


14, 


Patty Cowley 


8, 



32 



THE BIG SPRING 



William Warrington 9, 

William Walker 50, * 

Jane Walker 50, '"'' 

Elizabeth Walker 25, 

James Walker 19, 

William Walker 18, 

Rachel Walker 16, 

Jane Walker 15, 

Samuel Walker 10, 

Joseph Walker 45, ''' 

Kachel Walker 40, * 

Mary Walker 18, 

Elizabeth Walker 16, 

Jane Walker 12, 
Isabel Walker 9, 

Hannah Walker 7, 

James Walker 6, 

Andrew Walker 40, 

Mary Walker 38, * 

James Walker 18, ='= 

Joseph Walker 11, 
Jane Walker 9, 

Betsy Walker 7, 

Robert Walker 56, ='= 

Margaret Walker 50, ='= 

Mary Walker 19, 

John Walker 17, 

Elizabeth Walker 14, 
Margaret Walker 8, 

Robert Walker 6, 

Gabriel Glen 55, * 

Jane Glen 40, * 



Rachel Mills 24, * 

Gabriel Glen 50, 

William Glen . 9, 

Jenny Glen 7, 

Jared Graham 24, 

Jenny Graham 20, 

John Brown 55, '"" 

Martha Brown 50, '^ 

Mary Brown 20, * 

John Brown 18, 

William Brown 15, 

Agnes Brown 16, 

James Brown 11, 

James McGovern 35, 

Ann McGovern 20, 

Mary JNIcGovern 8, 
Francis Donnel 
George Lightel 
Sarah Lightel 

William Hunter 50, * 

Jane Hunter 50, '*' 

James Hunter 17, 

Agnes Hunter 17, 

William Hunter 15, 

Lcithie Hunter 13, 

Jane Hunter 11, 
Lathie Wilson 

John McTeer 23, =^= 

Agnes McTeer 20, =^ 

Adam Brattan 35, 

Martha Brattan 9, 
John Gilmore 



TRESBYTERIAN CHUKCH. 


3; 


AVilliam Wilson 


(50, =^ 


David Ewing 


24, = 


Mary Wilson 


59, =' 


' Elizabeth Ewing 


22, 


Snnuiel Wilson 


25, 


James Graham 


60, 


Mary AViLson 


20, 


Susannah Graham 


45, 


Margaret Sayers 


17,. 


Thomas Graham 


21, 


James Wilson 


27, 


Arthur Graham 


19, 


Margaret Wilson 


2!2 ■' 


' Isaiah Graham 


18, 


AVilfiam Giffin 


35, " 


James Graham 


14, 


Elenor Giflin 


30, ■' 


'■ Elizabeth Moor 


18, 


Betsy Giffin 


11, 


Margaret ]\Ioor 


12, 


Sally Giffin 


5, 


Robert Boyd 


16, 


Joseph Pollock 


30, 


INIargaret ^IcFarlane 


55, = 


INIary Pollock 


28, 


Robert ]\IcFarlane 




Thomas Jacob 


30, 


Ann McFarlane 


19, 


Illlizabeth Jacob 


27, 


^lary McFarlane 


16, 


Elenor Jacob 


12, 


Elizabeth McFarlane 13, 


Mary Jacob 


9, 


Hannah McFarlane 


10, 


William Patton 


25, 


William Brisby 


40, = 


IMary Patton 


25, 


Sarah Brisby 


35, =^ 


William Ferguson 




Nancy Brisby 


13, 


James ]Marslil)ank 


25, 


Betsy Brisby 


12. 


William Patton 


80, '^ 


■ William Brisby 


10 


Janet Patton 


78, '' 


John Brisby 


8, 


John Patton 


30, 


Elizabeth Wilson 


70, == 


William Patton 


27, 


^latthew Wilson 


28, 


^Margaret Patton 


25, 


Prudence Pen well 


16, 


William Deviiijiort 


23, 


Joseph Edmonston 


25, 


Robert Patton 


12, 


Agnes Edmonston 


22, 


Samuel Bayle 


30, 


Adam Conelly 


17, 


IMartha P>ayle 


25, 


James McFarlane 


27, 


Horace ])rattan 


17, 


i:iizabeth McFarlane 


23, 


Anne Brattan 


15, 


Ceasar and Dick, 





'64: 


THE BIG 


SPRING 




James Johnson 


30, '' 


Joseph Woods 


14, 


Martha Johnson 


28, * 


Adam Hays 


86, 


Peggy Johnson 


10, 


Joseph Hays 


23, 


Jenny Johnson 


6, 


Anne Hays 


18, 


Samuel Lindsy 


60, =^- 


John Green 


16, 


Nancy Lindsy 


55, 


Nancy Allen 


13, 


Samuel Lindsy 




Patrick Gibson 


* 


Robert Lindsy 




Martha Gibson 


^ 


Jenny Lindsy 


20, 


James Connelly 


22 


Nancy Lindsy 


16, 


William Connelly 


20, 


William Lindsy 


^7, 


Elizabeth Connelly 


18, 


Jane Lindsy 




Charity Connelly 


17, 


Robert Huston 


50, 


Joseph Means 


26, =^= 


Martha Huston 


50, * 


Nancy Means 


24, ='•• 


Nancy Huston 


20, 


John McFarlane 


60, 


Peggy Huston 


18, 


Elizabeth McFarlane 


50, 


John Espy 


20, =^= 


Sarah McFarlane 


20, 


William Clark 


24, === 


James McFarlane 


16, 


John Love 


27, 


Robert McFarlane 


14, 


Margaret Love 


25, 


Andrew McFarlane 


14, 


James Love 


25, 


Thomas Buclianan 


30, 


Thomas Love 


22, 


Agnes Buchanan 


28, 


William Clark 


67, ■■'• 


Robert Buchanan 


8, 


Agnes Clark 


•s- 


William Buchannan 


6, 


John Clark 


13, 


Jenny McClellan 


14, 


JoIki Woods 


80, === 


William jNIcFarlane 


56, 


Jane Woods 


80, =^= 


Eliza] )eth McFarlane 


50, 


Richard Woods 


27, 


David Murray 


22, 


Isabel Woods 


35, 


Anne McClellan 


16, 


.Robert Woods 


25, 


James Hall 


9, 


Polly Woods 


18, 






Families, 




44 


:, 




The big spring, northeast of the 

CHURCH, at the old LAUGHLIN MILL 



PKESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 



Wt 



JOHN BELL S DISTRICT. 



QUESTIONS AND MEMBERS. 



1. What do you iiiulerstiUKl by creation? Is it a 
work ])eciiliar to God ? 

2. How will you prove from scripture and reason, 
in opposition to Aristotle and others, that the world is 
not eternal ? 

3. How will you prove both from scripture and 
reason, that the world neither came by chance, nor yet 
made itself? 

4. How will you defend the Mosaic account, which 
asserts, that the world has not existed 6000 years, against 
ancient history, which tells us of Egyptian records for 
more than thirteen thousand years, and the Bal)ylo- 
nians, speak of things done four hundred and seventy 
thousand years before, and the Chinese tell of things, 
still longer done. 

The third chapter of the Confession of Faith also to 
be examined upon. 
Elleanor Gillespie 
Geo. Gillespie (absent)25, 
James Gorly 
Sal, a negro, 
James Gillespie 
Jane Gillespie 
William (lillesj)ie 
Mat. ]\I. Gillespie 
John Tall)art 
Rebecca Armstrong 
James Johnston 
James Johnston 
Alexander Johnston 



67, 


Mary Johnston 


14, 


)25, 


John Johnston, 


10, 


7, 


Jane Johnston 


8, 




James Johnston 


5, 


38, 


Robert Dunbar 




30, 


Samuel Wilson 


26, 


7, 


Samuel Hawthorn 


32, 


5, 


Margaret Hawthorn 


28, 


10, 


James Hawthorn 


9, 


50 ='= 


George Kelsy 


60, 


78, ^' 


Elizabeth Kelsy 


28, 


38, =^= 


Jane Kelsy 


20, 


16, 


George Kelsy 


22, 



THE BIG SPRING 



Elizabeth Bell 


52, * 


Jennet McClure 


25, 


Katharine Brown 


50, * 


Hannah Anderson 


23, 


Kobert Bell 


24, * 


Margaret ]\IcClure 


19, 


Jane Bell 


22, 


Andrew McClure 


21, 


William Bell 


24, 


James Laird 


34, * 


Joseph Bell 


17, 


Jane Laird 


94 * 


George Bell 


15, 


Joseph Halbert 


20, 


John Bell 


13, 


John O'Neil 


40, * 


Thomas Bell 


12, 


Thomas Espey 


50, * 


Katharine Bell 


10, 


Ann Espey 


42, ■■^■ 


Alexander Officer 


60, =^= 


JNIargaret Espey 


20, =^= 


Mary Officer 


67, ■■' 


William Espey 


18, --^^ 


James Officer 


36, ^= 


Rachel Espey 


16, 


Mary Qfficer 


30, =•= 


Ann Espey 


13, 


Jane Gordon 


19, 


Robert Espey 


11, 


Katharine Gray 


20, 


Elizabeth Espey 


9, 


Samnel Miller 


17, 


James Espey 


7, 


William Douglas 


47, ^• 


Robert McClure 


55, * 


Mary Douglas 


41, ='= 


Margaret McClure 


20, 


Margaret Douglas 


16, 


Nancy McClure 


16, 


Agnes Douglas 


14, 


Robert McClure 


14, 


John Douglas 


12, 


Mary McClure 


12, 


Mary Douglas 


10, 


Betsy McClure 


7, 


William Douglas 


7, 


Alexander Leckey 


26, =^ 


Margaret McClure 


55, 


Elizabeth Leckey 


29, =^= 


Families, 






16. 


In full communion, 




27. 



Total number of persons. 



79. 



ROBERT PATTERSON S DISTRICT. 



This was called the Yellow Breeches district, and 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 89 



extended south from the turnpike, to the Yellow 
Breeches Creek, east, to the Cumberland Furnace, on 
the Yellow Breeches, and west to Jacksonville. 



QUESTIONS AND MEMBERS. 

1. What description would you give of Heaven? 

2. Upon what is the believers' title to Heaven 
founded ? 

3. Has (xod |)romiscd Heaven to believers abso- 
lutely, or does he require conditions on their part ? 

4. Can believers under the new covenant dispensa- 
tion, who have once a right to Heaven, by their niis- 
conduct, lose it and forfeit their right ? 

5. Is the doctrine of the saints perseverance founded 
on scripture ? If so, how will you prove it, and defend 
the doctrine arainst those who denv it ? 

6. How will you make it appear from scripture and 
experience, that there is no such thing as sinless perfec- 
tion in this life ? 

7. Seeing Heaven is an holy place, and nothing 
unclean can enter into it at any time, then are believers 
made completely holy and fitted for Heaven? 

These, with the sixth chapter of the Confession of 
Faith to be examined upon. 



Thomas Glen 


(JO, '■■ 


Deborah Patterson 


18, 


Elizal)eth Glen 


54, =^= 


Daniel Kelly 


30, 


Thomas Glen 


21, 


Elizabeth Kelly 


3G, 


Alexander Glen 


19, 


Christian Kelly 


50, 


John (lien 


17, 


William Kelly 


1(>, 


Barah Patterson 


(30, * 


Ann Kelly 


14, 


Obediah Patterson 


25, 


Richard Kelly 


12, 


Zacheus Patterson 


20, 


James Houston 


70, 



40 THE BIG 


SPRING 




John Huston 


24, 


Mary Woods, 


20, 


Andrew Huston 


22, 


Mat, a negro. 




Sarah Huston 


26, ='= 


William Woods 


25, * 


Jane Huston 


18, 


Jane Woods 


22, * 


Thomas Norton 


40, 


Nathan Woods 


8, 


Sarah Norton 


36, 


Samuel Goodling 


15, 


Betsy Norton 


9, 


John Mitchel 


10, 


Thomas Norton 


7, 


Janet Ramsey 


60, '■' 


Elizabeth McCulloch 56, * 


Nathan Ramsey 


25, =^= 


James McCulloch 


20, 


Mary Ramsey 


13, * 


Robert McCulloch 


12, 


Agnes Ramsey 


17, 


Rosian Adair 


8, 


Elizabeth Ramsey 


16, 


William Wagstas 


30, 


Margaret Ramsey 


14, 


Charity Wagstas 


19, 


Alexander McBride 


26, 


Agnes Irwin 


70, * 


Tabitha McBride 


24, 


Thomas Grier 


35, === 


Mary Patterson 


60, =^ 


Jane Grier 


25, * 


Esther Patterson 


20, 


Ann Browster 


60, === 


Ann Patterson 


18, 


William .Browster 


25, 


Sarah Patterson 


16, 


Alexander Browster 


22, 


Elizabeth Patterson 


14, 


Mary Carithers 


28, === 


Thomas Patterson 


12, 


Charles McConel 


56, ''■ 


Robert Johnston 


30, 


Isabel McConel 


46, =^= 


Ann Johnston 


35, 


Eleanor McConel 


17, 


Margaret Harper 


28, 


Martha McConel 


1(3, 


John Lemon 


45, =^= 


Mary McConel 


13, 


Elizabeth Lemon 


35, ='= 


Jenny McConel 


10, 


Jane Lemon 


14, 


John McConel 


7, 


Nancy Lemon 


12, 


William Woods 


60, =•' 


Polly Lemon 


10, 


Samuel Woods 


26, 


Robert Fowler 


30, 


Jenny Woods 


24, 


Elizabeth Fowler 


19, 


John Woods 


22 


John Fowler 


23, 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 



41 



William Ewing 


40, ■■' 


Jane Ewing 


44, ''■■ 


elane Ewiiii;- 


35, ''■ 


Thomas Ewing 


16, 


Nancy Ewing 


14, 


Rebecea Ewing 


14, 


Robert Ewing 


9, 


Anna Ewing 


11, 


William E wing- 


7, 


James Ewing 


7, 


Alexander Ewing 


5, 


Thomas Adams 


30, === 


Ka tlia ri ne Cra wford 


12, 


Agnes Adams 


28, =^= 


Thomas Ewing 


45, ■' 


Jenny Adams 


14, 


Mariany Ewing 


40, ^ 


Samuel Adams 


10, 


John Ewing 


15, 


Richard Adams 


7, 


Rebecca Pawing 


(>, 


David McCurdy 


m, ='= 


Alexander Clark 


12, 


]\Irs. McCurdy 


57, =^= 


Elenor Reigli 


60, ='= 


James McCurdy, 


25, 


Samuel Reigh 




Mary Morris 




Mary Reigh 


16, 


David McCurdy 


20, 


Joseph Gourd 


25, 


Janet McCurdy 


19, 


JMargaret Gourd 


24, 


Nancy Lowry 


18, 


Nancy Homes 




Adam Clelland 


35, * 


John ISIcCurdy 


20, 


Jane Clelland 


45, '' 


Elizabeth JNlcCurdy 


24, 


John Calvert 


20, 


Josepli Van Horn 


30, * 


Eleo Galbraith 


9, 


Annie Van Horn 


25, 


William Appleby 


35, * 


John Ewdng 


50, ='= 


Nancy Appleby 


28, =•= 


Sarah Ewing 


48, ==' 


Eliza Appleby 


14, 


Jane Ewing 


2'^ 


J. Appleby 


12, 


William Ewing 


20, 


Jane Appleby 


10, 


Martha Ewing 


18, 


John Appleby 


9, 


Matthew Ewing 


16, 


James Deeper 


45, =^= 


Mary Ewing 


12, 


Mary Deeper 


40, === 


James Ewing 


10, 


Allen Deeper 


16, 


Rebecca Ewing 


8, 


Martha Deeper 


13, 


James Ewing 


52, =^= 


James Deeper 


11, 



4Z THE 


BIG 


SPRING 






Sally Leeper 


9, 


William 


Hunter 


23, 


Jack, a mulatto. 




Elizabetl 


I Hunter 


21, 


Families, 




• 




33, 


Persons in full communion, 




46 . 


Total number of 


persons, 




148. 



KOBERT LUSK S DISTRICT. 

Robert Lusk, was one of five brothers, who emigrated 
from Ireland at an early date, and settled in this vicin- 
ity. He bought a farm in Mifflin township, known 
as the "Fountain of Health Farm," which had been 
w^arranted to Andrew McElwain, about 1730. Robert 
Lusk married Martha McClure of Adams County. 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS. 

1. Upon what account was the feast of pentecost 
observed, and what remarkable things happened at that 
time ? 

2. What were the different laws God gave to His 
people, and what were their various uses ? 

3. Why are the ten commandments called die moral 
law ? 

4. With what different forms hatli God clothed the 
moral law ? 

o. What do you understand l)y the law of nature? 

6. What do you understand by the law as a cov- 
enant of works ? 

7. What do you understand by the law as a rule of 
life ? 

These, Avith the seventh chapter of the Confession of 
Faith, to be examined upon. 
Mary Sterret 80, * David Sterret 50, '^ 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 



43 



Rachel Sterret 
Rol)ert Sterret 
Bryee I. Sterret 
David Sterret 
Elizabeth Sterret 
John Sterret 
William Sterret 
Elizabeth MeMiillaii 
Sandoii, a negro. 
Ned, a negro. 
Andrew Patterson 
Mdvy Patterson 
Jane Patterson 
Nathan Patterson 
Samuel Patterson 
James Patterson 
Sarali Patterson 
William Stephenson 
Jane Stephenson 
Elizabeth Stephenson 
James Stevenson 
James JNIcElwain 
Mary INIeElwain 
John MeElwain 
Kutli MeElwain 
Andrew MeElwain 
Elizabeth MeElwain 
Elizabeth Mason 
Mary MeElwain 
Ilol)ert ^leElwain 
Jane Melillwain 
Mary MeElwain 



48, =^= 


Robert IMeElwain 


22 


24, 


Elizabeth MeElwain 


2o! 


22, 


John Paten 


50, * 


20, 


Francis Paten 


:i: 


18, 


William Paten 


20, =^= 


16, 


James Paten 


18, 


10, 


John Paten 


IH, 


8, 


Josepli Paten 


14, 




Mary Paten 


12, 




Thomas Paten 


9, 


35, '' 


Robert Paten 


7, 


:i: 


Fanny Paten 


7, 


15, 


Joseph Shannon 


25, 


13, 


Mary Shannon 


26, 


11, 


John MOrroAV 


30, - 


^>, 


Hannah Morrow 


')() :;: 

-^•'> 


8, 


JNlary Morro\v 


8, 


40, === 


David Ramsey 


110, === 


33, === 


Sarali Ramsey 


13, 


12, 


Anne Ramsey 


n, 


10, 


INIargaret Ramsey 


i>, 


37, =^= 


J\Iaiy Ramsey 


7, 


12, 


David Ramsey 


5, 


10, 


Robert Lusk 


27, '' 


7, 


INIartlia Lusk 


21, =^= 


33, =^= 


Jane Lusk 


4, 


30, =^= 


Thomas Martin 




17, 


Mary Martin 


25, 


8, 


Rosa una Martin 


18, 


7, 


John INIartin 


16, 


5, 


Jane Martin 


14, 


70, 


James Hamilton 


:i: 



44 


THE BIG 


SPRING 




George Hamilton 


■•H 


Betsy Johnson 




Eutli Hamilton 




Robert Bell 


48, * 


Andrew Bell 


40, 


Jane Bell 


49, * 


Betsy Bell 


13, 


Walter Bell 


16, 


Samuel Bell 


10, 


William Bell 


15, 


Matty Bell 


7, 


David Bell 


13, 


John Bell 


17, 


Peggy Bell 


11, 


John MeClure 


17, 






Families, 






16. 


In full communion, 




22. 


Total number of persons, 


81. 



SAMUEL M COKMICK's DISTRICT. 

Samuel M'Cormick, was born 1726, and died Sept. 
4th, 1803. He married Eliza Bowman, who was born 
1727, and died Oct. 7th, 1811, He settled in Mifflin 
Township, prior to 1781. He fii-st purchased the farm, 
now known as the Asper farm. This he sold, and 
bought from William McFarlane, the farm below Doub- 
ling Gap, on which he died, now owned by W. H. 
McCrea. That he was greatly concerned for his own, 
and the spiritual welfare of the people over which he 
had charge, is evinced by his many letters to his pastor, 
on these subjects. 





LIST OF 


MEMBERS. 




Isabella Hall 


67 === 


John Montroe 


62, 


Ruth Cook 


14, 


Mary Ann Montroe 


31, 


John Reed 


50, * 


]\Iargaret Montroe 


14, 


Sarah Reed 


34, === 


William Montroe 


9, 


Elizal)eth Long 


10, 


Reul)en Montroe 


6, 


Sanuiel Lowry 


9, 


Sarah Denison 


84, 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 



45 



Martha French 
Tliomas JMatliers 
Mary MatluT.s 
Margaret Mathers 
William Mathers 
Jane Mather.s 
]\Iary Fen ton 
Samuel Fenton 
Ann P'enton 
James Fenton 
Robert Fenton 
Samuel Fenton 
John Fenton 
Andrew Thompson 
IMary Thompson 
Mary Ann Thompson 
Hugh Thorn 1)80 n 
Sanuiel Thompson 
Hannah Tlioiupson 
Andrew Thompson 
James W. Thompson 
James Walker 
Jane Walker 
George Tayloi* 
Elenor Taylor 
George Taylor 
Naney Taylor 
James Patterson 
Mary Patterson 
Naney Pattei'son 
Thomas Patterson 
Robert Patterson 



45, =^= 


Isaac Durbara 


50, '-' 


54, ■■'• 


Jane Durbara 


20, ='= 


50, '' 


Reuben Dui'bara 


20, 


20, 


John Durbara 


18, 


18, 


Alexander McClin- 




10, 


toek 


40, =^= 


80, === 


Sarah MeClintock 


39, === 


40, 


David Dougherty 


19, * 


80, 


John Stars 


19, * 


13, 


Elizabeth Palm 


11, ■■■^■■ 


11, 


James Bran nan 


40, 


1), 


Mary Bran nan 


19, 


7, 


John Brannan 


16, 


40, * 


Thomas Brannan 


12, 


40, ='= 


William Brannan 


9, 


18, 


John JVIcFarlane 


50, '^ 


10, 


Mary McFarlane 


50, ='= 


14, 


James McFarlane 


26, 


12, 


Margaret McFarlane 


24, 


10, 


Elizabeth McFarlane 


il5. 


8, 


Jolm McFarlane 


13, 


2(3, =^= 


Alexander McFarlane 11 , 


25, =^= 


Ann McFarlane 


10, 


60, 


William McFarlane 


8, 


55, 


John Shannon 


33, 


24, 


Agnes Sliannon 


30, 


20, 


Mary Sliannon 


12, 


40, * 


Ann Shannon 


11, 


88, === 


Andrew Shannon 


9, 


15, 


Sarah Sliannon 


7, 


12, 


John AYallace 


32, 


10, 


Elizabeth Wallace 


30, 



46 THE BIG 


SPRING 




William Mophet 


36, * 


Nelly Gallespie 


10, 


Kebecca Mophet 


38, '' 


Grace, a negro. 




Jane Mophet 


12, 


Nathaniel Gallespie 


33, 


Phoebe Mophet 


10, 


Martha Gallespie 


32, 


Thomas Barnes 


70, 


Millie Gallespie 


10, 


Grizel Barnes 


55, * 


Mary Gallespie 


8, 


Margaret Barnes 


27, 


Ann Galle'spie 


(3, 


David Barnes 


20, 


Thomas Pennel 


16, 


Robert Barnes 


17, 


Sarah Majoirs 


45, 


Elizabeth McCormick, 


Elizabeth Majoirs 


21, 


wife of the elder 


60, -'' 


Isaac Majoirs 


11, 


Joseph McCormick 


23, 


Nancy Majoirs 


9, 


Thomas McCormick 


21, 


Hugli Ramsey 


30, 


Ann McCormick 


18, ■-•'■■ 


Margaret Ramsey 


25, '■■ 


Jane McCormick 


16, 


John Mitchel 


25, ■■■'■■ 


John Purdie 


40, === 


Margaret Mitchel 




Margaret Purdie 


40, '' 


Samuel Mitel lel 


35, ^' 


Thomas Purdie 


18, 


Mary ]\Iitchel 


34, ^ 


James Purdie 


14, 


John Mitchel 


14, 


Rachel Purdie 


12, 


Ezekiel Mitchel 


11, 


Mary Purdie 


10, 


James Mitchel 


7, 


John Purdie 


8, 


Alexander Elliott 


35, ''■ 


Robert Gallespie 


45, 


Agnes Elliott 


35, -■' 


Elizabeth Gallespie 


40, 


Jan net Elliott 


13, 


William Gallespie 


19, 


Mary Elliott 


10, 


Samuel Gallespie 


14, 


Catliarine Elliott 


8, 


Nancy Gallespie 


12, 






In full communion, 


31 


5. 


Total number of persons, 12; 


3. 



DAVID EALSTON S DISTRICT. 

David Ralston, was a son of Andrew Ralston, who 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 47 



settled, 1728, on the farm now owned l)y Mrs. Parker, 
opposite the Newville station. David was one of five 
cliikh-en, and came into possession of his father's farm, 
where he H\'ed until 1800, when he moved to West- 
moreland County, and died near Greensburg, 1810. 
He was twice married, first to a Miss Scott, second to 
Miss Elizabeth McCHntock. Both wives died at Big 
Spring. By his first wife, David Kalston had issue: 
Elizabeth married Thomas Jacob; Jane married, first, 
a Mr. McDonald, and secondly, a Mr. Taylor; Elenor 
married a ]\Ir. Miller; James married Ruth Carson; An- 
drew married Miss Kirkpatrick. By his second wife 
David Ralston had issue: Agnes married a Mr. Alls- 
worth; Margaret married a Mr. Moorhead; Ann mar- 
ried Mr. Banks; Mary unmarried; Sarah unmarried; 
David married Lacv McAllister. 





LIST OF 


MEMBERS. 




John Brown 


40, 


John Turner 


60, 


Elizabeth Brown 


38, 


Mary Turner 


56, 


Adam Brown 


18, 


Joseph Turner 


20, 


Mary Brown 


16, 


Sally Turner 


6, 


Margaret Brown 


14, 


Thomas Moore 


60, 


Elizabeth Brown 


12, 


Saml. Moore 




Hannah Brown 


10, 


John Mitchel 




Josej^h Brown 


8, 


I^acy Mitchel 




Ann Brown 


<>, 


Jennet Mathers 


50, 


William Smith 


32, ■■■' 


' Samuel Mathers 




Sarah Smith 


30, ' 


' Isabella Mathers 


33, 


Robert Smith 




John Mathers 


12, 


John Smith 




Tliomas Mathers 


10, 


Elizabeth Smith 




Joseph Mathers 


25, 


Mary Smith 




Eleanor Mathers 


23, 



48 



THE BIG SPRINC4 



Robert Hutchison 
Mary Hutchison 
Nancy Hutchison 
Robert Hutchison 
Mary Hutchison 
Waher, a negro. 
John Adams 
Jenny Adams 
Elizabeth Ralston, 
wife of the elder 
Nancy Ralston 
Margaret Ralston 
Amy Ralston 
Mary Ralston 
Sally Ralston 
David Ralston 
John Reed 
Eleanor Reed 
Sally Reed 
Grant, a negro. 
John Hodge 
Agnes Hodge 
William Laughlin 
Mary Laughlin 
James Lauglilin 
John Laughlin 
William Laughlin 
Rachel, a negro. 
Catherine Atchison 
Atchison Laughlin 
Families, 
Persons in full 



50, * 


Rosannah Hutchison, 18, 


48, ''■■ 


Martha Hutchison 


16, 


14, 


Mary Laughlin 


♦ 


12, 


Margaret McKein 


85, * 


10, 


William McKein 


19, 




Mary McKein 


17, 


27, 


Elizabeth McKein 


14, 


20, 


Mary Patton 


30, '' 




Elizabeth McEntin 


e 28, '-■ 


45, '' 


James Mitchel 


50, * 


14, 


Mary Mitchel 


48, * 


12, 


Eve Mitcliel 




10, 


Elizabeth Mitchel 




8, 


Rebecca Mitchel 


13, 


V, 


James Mitchel 


9, 


5, 


Mary INlitchel 


7, 


20, 


William Duncan 


26, 


25, 


Margaret Duncan 


23, 


7, 


Charity Davis 
James Irw'in 


12, 


81, =^ 


'■ Isa])el Irwin 




60, ' 


'• John Irwin 




61), 


Mary Irwin 




48, 


Mary Irwin 




17, 


Eleanor Irwin 




15, 


Caleb Ardiler 


30, 


1), 


Jane Ardiler 


28, 




Francis Morris 


9, 




Garman Jacobs 


29, 


•■i- 


Katherine Jacobs 


24, 

14. 


communion, 


19. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 



49 



Persons not in communion, 
Total nunil)er of jiersons, 



70. 
89". 



HUGH LAUGHLIN S DISTRICT. 



Jane Laughlin 84, * 

Buhard Brines 12, 

David, a negro. 25, 

Alexander Laughlin 52, ''' 

Charity Laughlin o7, ''' 

Susana Laughlin 15, 

Ann Laughlin 10, 

John Laughlin 8, 
Eve, a negro. 
Jaek, " 
Hall, " 

Robert jMcCormiek 30, 

Esther McCorniick o8, 

Wm. Nisbit, (absent) 28, 

Esther Nisbit 19, 
JamesStewart (absent)28, 
Thomas Martin 

Eleanor Stewart 22, 
Thomas Montgomery 20, 

Rebecca McMullin 13, 

John Allen 20, 

Isal)ella Allen 20, 

Hugh Allen 57, ='= 

Jennet Allen 50, 

Elizabeth Allen 18, 

Alexander Allen 19, 

Jenny Allen 14, 

David Allen 13, 



David Williamson 35, 

Samuel Williamson 13, 

Hugh McElhenny 30, 
Margaret McElhenny 33, 

Hugh Kirkpatrick 13, 

Richard Nicholdson 73, 

Mary Nicholdson 77, 

James Nicholdson 33, 

Mary Nicholdson 33, 

Isaac Shannon 18, 

James Steen 13, 
Sal, a negro. 
Pomp, " 

Robert Shannon 64, 

Jane Shannon 63, 

Sarah Shannon 30, 

John Shannon 33, 

Mary Shannon 20, 

Mary McGuffin 5, 

Robert Morrison 56, 

Elizabeth Morrison 58, 

Robert INIorrison 20, 

Mary Morrison 16, 

William Morrison 18, 

Samuel McElhenny 40, 

Mary McElheiuiy 38, 

Oeorge Sully 16, 

Rebecca McElhenny 66, 



50 



THE BIG SPKTNG 



Martha McCasland 47, 
William Montgomery 14, 
Sarah McGlanghliii 

and family, 
Robert Barr and fam- 

John Gorrel 47, 

Isabella Gorrel 50, 
Isabel Moor 9, 

Joseph Shannon and family 

John McGuffine 30, 

William Hanna 60, * 

Samuel Morrow 60, ''' 

Jane Morrow 50, '•' 

William McGuffine 20, ''' 

John Bell 45, =^= 

Martha Bell 38, •*= 

Walter McClure 16, 
Jenny Bell 8, 

William Bryson 60, * 

Margaret Bryson 53, '"" 

Rebecca Bryson 26, * 
Families, 

JOHN 

James Laughlin QS, 

Mary Laughlin 30, 

Robert Laughlin 24, 

Hugh Laughlin 18, 

William Laughlin 20, 

Elizabeth Laughlin 15, 
Robert M. Gopock 8, 



Samuel Bryson 
Hugli Bryson 
Ellenor DonovA^ay 
Allen Means 
Alexander Wier 
William Carnahan 
Martha Carnahan 
Jose])li Carnahan 
Robert Carnahan 
Judith Carnahan 
Rob't Mathers and f; 
John Wright 
Jennet Wright 
Margaret Wright 
William Thompson 
Ellenor Thompson 
Aaron Hains 
Tom, a negro. 
Hannah " 
Matthew Thompson 
Ann Thomj^son 
Mary Allison 

25. 



77 -l' 



19, 

15, 
10, 

24, 
24, 

77, 

m, 

25, 

24, 

mily, 

30, 

30, 

18, 

81, 

71, 

12, 



30, 

23, 

9, 



ROBINSON S DISTKICT, 



Esther Robinson 
Mary Robinson 
Esther Robinson 
John Robinson 
William Thompson 
Jane Thompson 
Sally Chapman 



50, 
10, 
7, 
5, 
25, 
24, 



PKESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 



51 



Susanna Tliouipson 5i), 
Alexander Thompson 28, 
Leacy Tlionipson 24, 
Peo-gy Tlionipson 22, 
20, 
10, 
50, 
86, 
17, 
14, 
20, 
8, 
82, 

28, 
23, 
21, 
10, 
60, 
25, 
28, 
21, 
17, 



Hugh Thoni])son 
Sally Grier 
Adam Carnahan 
Agnes Carnalian 
James Carnahan 
Agnes Carnalian 
Adam Carnahan 
Elizid)et]i Carnahan 
Joseph Wilson 
]\Iary Wilson 
Joseph Wilson 
William Wilson 
Ann Wilson 
Ann Kennedy 
Jane Jack 
James Jack 
Cynthia Jack 
Andrew Jack 
Hannah Jack 
John Wilt and family 
Agnes McGoffine 
James McCofTine 
John McGoffine 
S. Work 
Sal, a Negro. 
Williaiu work 
Families, 1(5. 



60, 
85, 
88, 



25, 



Elizabeth Work 
Alexander Work 
James Work 
Susanna Work 
S. Work 
John Work 
Maiy Work 
James Carson 
Mary Carson 
Janet Carson 
Solomon Lightcap 
Mary Lightcap 
Samuel Lightcap 
Solomon Lightcap 
Levi Lightcap 
Nancy Lightcap 
Elizabeth Lightcap 
William Lightcap 
Godfrey Lightcap 
Thomas Lightcap 
John Morain 
Sandi Morain 
John Moiain 
John Laughlin 
]\Iargaret Laughlin 
James Carithers 
Jeremiah McKibben 
]\Iary McKibben 
Fan, a Negro. 



28, 

20, 
18, 
16, 
14, 
27, 
28, 
89, 
81, 

9, 
60, 
55, 
25, 
24, 
22, 
21, 
20, 
18, 
16, 
14, 
65, * 
76, * 
30, 
80, 
28, * 

8, 
81, 
29, 



Total number of persons 



Persons in full communion, 11. 

72. 



52 



THE BIG SPRING 



JOHN MCKEEHAN S DISTRICT, 

John McKeehan, was one of four brothers, Avho set- 
tled in West Pennsboro townshij), at an early date. 
His brothers were, Benjamin, James and Alexander. 
He died March 7, 1813, aged 75 years. His wife 
Elizabeth, died June 20, 1822, aged 77 years. 

LIST OF MEMBERS. 



James Turner 


21), 


Rebecca Rijipet 


10, 


Mary Turner 


29, 


Mary Rippet 


8, 


James Walker(absent) 30, 


Matthew Davidson 




Johnson 


43, === 


and famil}^ 




Thomas Johnson 


57, =^= 


George McKeelian 


40, 


Mary Johnson 


21 '' 


Mary jNIcKeehan 


30, 


Jean Johnson 


17, ■■'■■ 


Mary McKeehan 


6, 


Margaret Johnson 


13, 


Jenny McKeehan 


7, 


Johnson 


8, 


Randle Blair 


40, 


William Miller 


i21, 


Charity Blair 


38, 


John Miller 


20, 


John ]]lair^ 


16, 


James Houston 


OO, 


Daniel Blair 


13, 


Isabel Houston 


25, 


Jenny Blair 


9, 


Robert Houston 


6, 


Elizabeth McKeehan 45, 


John Davidson 


42 - 


George McKeehan 


18, 


Leacy Davidson 


38, "'' 


James McKeelian 


16, 


John Davidson 


16, 


John McKeelian 


14, 


James Davidson 


14, 


Samuel McKeehan 


11, 


Ann Davidson 


9, 


Alexander McKeelian 9, 


Bill, a negro. 




Mary Ann McKeehf 


m, 


David Glen 


36, '■■ 


James Atchison 


68, 


Mary Glen 


26, === 


Elizabeth Atchison 


m, 


AVilliam Ha una 


11. 


Jacob Atchison 


^3, 


John' Rippet 


40, 


Benjamin Atchison 


20, 


Elizabeth Rippet 


34, 


Deborah Boyd 


45, 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 55 



John Boyd 


19, 


Peggy McKeehan 




14. 


George Boyd 


15, 


John McKeehan 




13, 


Jaiiies Boyd 


13, 


Betsy McKeehan 




10, 


Eleanor Boyd 


10, 


Margaret Eager, 






Benjamin McKeehan 


30, 


Robert Beard, 






IMargaret McKeehan 


27, 


Elizabeth Beard 




35, 


Elizabeth McKeehan 


25, 


Margaret Beard 




17, 


James McKeehan 


35, * 


James Beard 




12, 


Mary McKeehan 


30, * 


Anne Beard 




10, 


Nancy McKeehan 


16, 








Families, 






17 


. 


In full communion. 




14 


, 


Total number of 


" persons. 


68 


1, 


MARRIAGES 


BY REV. SAMUEL WILSON. 





Appleby, William, and Agnes McCurdy, Feb. 7, 1787. 
Atchison, Joseph, and Elizabeth Moor, Mar. 26, 1789. 
Alexander, James, and Margaret Harper, Oct. 25, 

1792. 
Armstrong, James, and Nancy Lemond, Apr. 8, 1794. 

Armstrong, James, and Liggat, Nov. 4, 1794. 

Armstrong, Robert, and Mary McDowell, Apr. 30, 

1795. 
Anderson, James, and Eleanor Crow, June 27, 1797. 
Barr, Robert, and Elizabeth Allen, May 27, 1788. 
Bell, Roljert, and Rachel Espey, May 29, 1788. 
Browster, William, and Margaret Robison, Mar. 1, 

1790. 

Blair, and Hunter, Oct. 23, 1792. 

Blain, Robert, and Mary Craig, Feb. 17, 1795. 

Bell, Joseph, and Elizabeth Sharp, Apr. 30, 1795. 



56 THE BIG SPRING 



Barr, John, and Sarah Gailly, (?) May 5, 1795. 
Brown, Alexander, and Mary Jacob, Dec. 8, 1795. 
Brown, William, and Rachel Walker, July 28, 1796. 
Bell, William, and Elizabeth Stephenson, Sept. 15, 

1796. 
Boyd, George, and Elizabeth Brown, Mar. 2, 1797- 
Brandon, Thomas, and Mary Fertig, Jan. 9, 1798. 
Clark, Henry, and Mary Lowry, Oct. 25, 1788. 

Crowel, and Walker, July 24, 1789. 

Carson, Elisha, and Margaret Eager, Mar. 29, 1791. 
Carnahan, Robert, and Agnes Wallace, (?) Oct, 10, 

1791. 
Cowdeu, William, and Eliza Whit clock, Apr. 29, 

1793. 
Crowel, Samuel, and Mary Walker; May 26, 1795. 
Carnahan, James, and Katharine Drugon, (?) Jan.- 20, 

1797. 
Crow, George, and Margaret McElwain, Aug. 17, 1797. 
Culver, Levi, and Nancy Agnew, Dec. 22, 1796. 

Durbarrow, and Martin, May 13, 1793. 

Duncan, William, and Nancy McKeehan, May 31, 

1792. 
Davidson, John, and Betsy Young, Sept. 30, 1794. 
Davidson, Francis, and Elizabeth Myler, Apr. 30, 

1795. 
Doudas, John, and Nancv McDowell, Mar. 1, 1798. 
Duncan, James, and Mary Evving, June 5, 1798. 
Emmett, Samuel, and Rebecca Bryson, June 19, 1788. 
Espey, John, and Margaret Huston, Nov. 10, 1789. 

Elder, John, and JNIonemy, (?) Aug. 15, 1793. 

FuUerton, Thomas Elder, and Isabella McCune, Mar. 

27, 1788. 



PRESBYTERIAN CITURCIT. 57 



Fowler, John, and Eleanor INIickie, Feb. 19, 1789. 
Finley, Samuel, and Polly Brown, INIay 5, 1789. 
Fox, John, and Rachel Crowell, Nov. 22, 179G. 
Fleming, James, and Jenny Cloyd, July 17, 1798. 
Frother, Joseph, and Nancy Liggate, Nov. 20, 1798. 
Graham, Francis, and Margaret Randies, May 22, 1788. 
Graham, Isaiah, and Nancy Lindsay, Feb. 12, 1793. 
Geddes, Dr. John, and Elizabeth Peebles, June 17, 

1794. 
Green, John, and Barbara Ridsbaugh, Feb. 24, 1794. 
Glenn, Alexander jind Susanna McKinstre, June 11, 

1795. 
Geddes, James, and Margaret Douglass, Mar. 1, 1796. 
Graham, Arthur, and Nancy McClure, Feb. 14, 1797. 
Gillespie, David, and Rebecca Rippet, ]\Iar. 8, 1798. 
Glendenning, James, and Rebecca Armstrong, June 

12, 1798. 
Huston, John, and Deborah Patterson, Dec. 15, 1789. 
Huston, Robert, and Agnes Bell, Sept. 2, 1793. 
Harper, William, and Esther Patterson, A]:>r. 1, 1794. 
Hughs, Thomas, and Nancy Crawford, May 1, 1794. 

Hanna, James, and Reed, June 10, 1794. 

Hempliill, James, and Cynthia Jack, Sept. 3, 1795. 
Hawkes, John, and Christian Espey, Aug. 1(), 179G. 
Hadden, (?) Thomas, and IVFary Dridge, Mar. 14, 1797. 
Holmes, George, and Sarah Armstrong, Aug. 14, 1798. 
Jones, Hugli, and Anne Gamble, June 21, 1787. 
Johnson, Andrew, and Elizabeth Johnson, Dec. 18, 

1788. 
Jones, James, and Betsy Bell, June 10, 1794. 
Johnston, Alexander, and Mary Armstrong, Dec. 30, 

1794. 



58 THE BIG SPRING 



Kennedy, John, and Martha (Ti-aham, Apr. 2"J, 1787. 
Ker. William and Mary AYoods, May 12, 1789. 
Kilgore, Robert, and Margaret Kelly, Jan. 20, 1791. 
Kirkpatriek, James, and Margaret MeKtx^han, Apr. 

7, 1791. 
Kerr, Matthew, and Elizabeth Work. Jan. 1. 1793. 
Kelly. James, and Sanih Lttnderdale, Jidy lo, 1794. 
Liiughlin, Dr. Thomas, and Betsy Laughlin, Jan. 24, 

1791. 
Leeeo<.'k, William, and Margtiret Falkner, May 30, 

1793. 
Laughlin, Matthew, and Phebe Piper, Apr. 29, 1794. 
Lightcap, William, and Mary MeElwain, Feb. 23, 

179i>. 
Lindsy, Robeit, and Betsy Connelly, Feb. 21. 1797. 
Laughlin, Pr. Thomas, and Nancy Piper. July 18, 

1797. 
MoCleary, John and Elizabeth Ewing, Jidy 5. 1787- 
MoRory, Samuel and Anne Speuee, Dec. 4. 1788. 
McGlaughlin, Daniel, and Elizabeth Lightcap, Feb. 

5, 1789. 
McCurdy, David, and Appelby. Aug. 25, 

1789.* 

McEhvaiu, R.. and McGlaughlin, Oct. 7. 1789. 

Mayes, Samuel, and Barbara Harper, Dei'. 17, 1789. 
McCormick, Joseph, and Leacy Thompson, Jan. 19, 

17W. 
McEhvain Andrew, and Marg-aret Bell, Aug. 26, 

171H). 
McGuffine. William and Elizabeth Porter. Jan. 25, 

1791. 
McCausland, Mark, and Sallv Hunter. 



PRE8BYTEKIAX CHIHICH. 59 



Morrison, Robert and Susanna Work, Oct. 11, 1791. 
McClaran, Thomas, and Hannah Mickey, Oct. 20, 

1791. 

Moor, Samuel, and McConnel, Jan. 7, 1792. 

Mason, Isaac, and Ehzabeth Kirkpatrick, June 7, 

1792. 
Martin, Tliomas, and Widow Stewart, Aug. 16, 1792. 
McCune, Samuel, and Hannah Brady, Dec. 26, 1798. 
McFaden, John, and Nancy Harper, June 10, 1794. 
Michal, John, and Katharine Carrick, June 10, 1794. 
INIurdock, Robert, and Elizabeth Cummins, Nov. 18, 

1794. 
McCormick, Robert, and Elizabeth McCullough, Nov. 

27, 1794. 
Marshall, John, and Jane Leacock, Apr. 21, 1795. 

McGoffine, and Sarah Crair, May 4, 1795. 

Martin, John, and Hannah Thompson, Jan. 14, 1796. 
McKean, William, and Sarah Auld, June 80, 1796. 
McKeehan, John, and Betsy McKeehan, Oct. 25, 1796. 

Murphy, Philip, and Jane Apr. 21, 1797. 

McCormick, Joseph, and Charity Connelly, Apr. 27, 

1797. 
Mathers, Robert, and Nancy Carnahan, Feb. 8, 1798. 
McLandburg, John, and Margaret Young, Feb. 5, 

1799. 
Mitchel, Andrew, and Mary Ann McKeehan, Feb. 13, 

1799. 
Nicholdson, John, and Mary McElwain, July 29, 1794. 
Patton, John, and Elizabeth McEntire, Aug. 18, 1789. 
Patterson, Obediah, and Anne Patterson, INIay 5, 1791. 
Porterlield, William, and Mary Shannon, April 21, 

1795. 



60 THE BIG SPRING 



Patton, Jolin, and Sarah Shannon, May 14, 1795. 
Pennwell, Thomas, and Rachel Rodman, April 19, 1796. 
Plnnkett, Isaac, and Lydia Hanna, May 24, 1796. 
Peebles, Robert, and Jane Kennedy, June 21, 1796. 
Patton, Andrew, and Mary Patton, Oct. 18, 1796. 
Patterson, Nathan, and Nancy Laughlin, Dec. 13, 1798. 
Patterson, Robert, and Armstrong, Sept. 27, 

1792. 
Patterson, John, and Jenny Neal, Oct. 11, 1792. 
Quigley, James, and Grizelda McKinney, March 31, 

1795. 
Rainey, James, and Elizabeth Brownfield, April 23, 

1795. 
Roberts, John, and Nancy Gillespie, May 12, 1795. 
Smith, Archibald, and Mary Anderson, Aug. 24, 1789. 
Shannon, Isaac, and Jane Porter, Feb. 1, 1791. 

Seelly, William, and Morrow, Oct. 31, 1791. 

Shannon, Leonard, and Jane Walker, Jan. 3, 1793. 
Sterrett, James, and Margaret ]\IcClure, Dec. 9, 1793. 
Sterrett, Benjamin, and Peggy Bell, March 27, 1794. 
Scroggs, Allan, and Peggy Craig, Sept. 22, 1795. 
Steel, Robert, and Letty Work, Oct. 27, 1795. 
Scott, John, and Mary McFarlane, April 5, 1796. 
Stephenson, James, and Elizabeth Sterrett, May 10, 

179(). 
Shannon, James, and Elizabeth Gees, March 16, 1797, 
Sharp, David, and Isabella Orr, Aug. 14, 1798. 
Thompson, Matthew, and Ruth Robinson, June 16, 

179(;. 
Taylor, Andrew, and Mary Lightcap, Feb. 6, 1798. 
Vanhorn, Joseph, and Martha Ewing, Nov. 22, 1792. 
Vanderbelt, Cornelius, and Mary Steel. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 61 



Woodbiirn, Matthew, and Katharine Fulton, Feb. 12, 

1799. 
Wilson, Samuel, and Peggy Espey, June 11, 1789. 
Wallace, Patrick, and Safly Officer, Sept. 20, 1791. 
Wallace, Hugh, and Margaret Dearmon, July 2, 1792. 
Woodburn, James, and Nancy Martin, Feb. 14, 1793. 
Woodruff, Anthony, and ]\lary Chapman, March 5, 

1793. 
Young, John, and Sarah McCann, Sept. 18, 1798. 



THE ADDRESS IN THE MARRIAGE CEREMONY USED BY REV. 
SAMUEL WILSON. 

"Regular publication has been made of these persons 
intending to join in the near relation of husband and 
wife. 

No objections have yet been made. I now call upon 
any person, who has any such to make, that he now 
speak, or forever hold his peace. We find no objec- 
tions from without, but as it has been the custom of 
our cluirch, in the solemnization of marriage, to put it 
seriously to the persons themselves, whether they know 
any cause, either by previous contract, or otherwise, 
wliy they may not be joined together in the near rela- 
tion, that they declare it. It is true, such contracts do 
not bind in law, but it is as true, tliat they do bind 
conscience, and persons ought seriously to consider such 
matters before they violate them. Persons may con- 
sider suc'li (luostious improper, as it is not likely that 
they came jniljlicly to declare these things, but consider 
these are matters in which conscience alone is concerned, 
and if persons will injure themselves, it is no reason 
why those wlio are authorized to solenniize marriage 



62 THE BIG SPUING 



should not faithfully discharge their duty. I then ask 
you sir, whether you know any lawful reason, why you 
may not be joined in marriage to this woman Avho 
stands on your left hand — do you know any reason ? 
Do you know madam, any lawful reason, why you may 
not be joined in marriage to this man, who stands upon 
your right hand — Do you know any reason ? Mar- 
riage is an early institution of God's ow^n appointment; 
it took place between our first parents in a state of inno- 
cence, and therefore, is said to be honorable in all, and 
the bed undefiled, but whoremongers and adulterers, 
God will judge. Marriage is to be between one man 
and one woman, and there are certain degrees of con- 
sanguinity, which have been generally forbidden. The 
equal proportion of the different sexes forbids polyg- 
amy, or having more wives than one; the males in every 
age being to the females, as thirteen to twelve, or 
twenty to nineteen, as though infinite wisdom had so 
ordered it, that overplus of males, should make their 
deficiency by war and other dangerous occupations. 

Altliough the form of marriage has varied in every 
age and nation, yet the essential part of it appears to be 
the consent of the parties, declared before witnesses; 
private consent, of whatever kind or nature it may be, 
will never come higher than a contract, and in conse- 
(]uence will not bind in law. 

The design of marriage is, that fornication may be 
avoided, and as our race is more dignified than the 
lower creations, so then, our passions should l)e regu- 
lated l)y reason and religion. It is likewise intended 
for prochicing a legitimate offspring, and a seed for the 
church. There are duties incumbent upon those who 



PRESBYTERIAN (HITRCH. 08 



enter this relation, some of tlieni are equally binding 
upon both ])arties, some uj>on one jiarty, some upon the 
other. First, it is equally binding u])on you both, to 
love eaeh others' persons, to avoid freedom with all 
others, wliieh formerly might have been excusable, to 
keep each others' lawful secrets, fidelity to the marriage 
bed, and if God shall give you an offs])ring, it will be 
mutually l)inding uj)on you both, to consult their spirit- 
ual, as well as their temporal concerns. Secondly, it 
will be particularly binding upon you, sir, who is to be 
the head of the family, to maintain the authority which 
God hath given you. In every society there nmst be a 
head, and in families, by divine authority, this is given 
to the man, but as woman was given to man for an 
helpmeet and a bosom companion, you are not to treat 
this woman in a tyranical manner, much less as a slave, 
but to love and kindly entreat her, as becomes you 
towards one so nearly allied to you. The relation is so 
jiear, tliat a man is said to leave father and mother and 
cleave to his wife, and the twain shall be one flesh, and 
to show that love is due to such, it is added, no man 
ever hated his own flesh, but noui'isheth and cherisheth 
it. Lastly, it is incumbent u[)on you, madam, who is 
to be the wife, to acknowledge the authority of him 
who is to be your hus1)an(l, and for this, you have the 
exam])le of Sarah, who is commended for calling Abra- 
ham Lord. 

It seems to ])e your i)i'ivilege in matters in which you 
and he. cannot agree, that you advise with him, endeav- 
oring in an easy way, by persuasion, to gain him to 
your side; but if you cannot in this way gain your 
point, it is lil and proper that you sul)mit in matters 



64 THE BIG SPRING 



ill which conscience is not concerned. It will be your 
duty in a particular manner, to use good economy in 
regard to those things which may be placed in your 
hands. In a word, you are to he industrious in your 
place and station." 



THE PASTORATE OF REV. JOSHUA WIL- 
LIAMS, D. D. 

After the death of Rev. Samuel Wilson, and before 
the settlement of Rev. Joshua Williams, we find the 
pulpit was supplied by the following clergymen: Revs. 
Robert Wilson, Thomas Greer, P. Davidson, JNIatthew 
Brown, Mr. Burck, Willinm Wilson, Mr. Anderson, 
Mr. Linn, Mr. Herron, Samuel Waugh, Mr. Kennedy, 
Dr. Cooper, Mr, Williams, and Rol)ert Logan. The 
preaching of the latter seems to have pleased the con- 
gregation, as a subscrijDtion pa])er was circulated in 
1800, with a view of raising salary and giving him a 
call. AYliether a call was extended or not, we have 
been unable to find. A call was extended to Rev. 
Joshua Williams, then pastor of tlie churches of Derry 
and Paxton, which was accepted. He was installed 
April 14, 18012. Dr. Williams' ministry of twenty- 
seven years, was one of uninterrupted liarmony and 
kindly feeling, between pastor and people, as usually 
attends the ministrations of an able preacher and a 
faithful pastor. In this congregation, he married oGO 
couples. On the marriage of John Scouller and Jane 
Brown, April 4, 1809, the bans were published the last 
time in the Big Spring Church. He baptized six hun- 
dred and seventy-four children, and admitted four hun- 
dred and fifty-two persons to the communion of the 



PRESBYTEIITAN CHURCH. 65 



church. During the latter part of his ministry, the 
use of tokens were dispensed with at eonnuunion. In 
1817, the first ISabbath school was organizetl in the 
church as a union school. Its organization was largely 
due to the efforts of John INIoor, who afterwards became 
superintendent, in which capacity he served for a num- 
ber of years. For several years, during the ministry of 
Dr. Williams, James Work was clerk or leader of the 
sino-inff. He acted as such, at least from 1817 to 1824, 
at a salar}^ of twenty-five dollars per annum. At a 
later date, John Davidson was precentor. In 1821), Dr. 
Williams severed his connection as ])astor of the church 
owing to failure of health. 



MEMBERS RECEIVED INTO THE BIG SPRING CHURCH BY 
REV. JOSHUA WILLIAMS, D. D. 
MAY 1, 1802. 

Mary Duncan. Andrew Thompson. 

John I^aughlin. Abraham Dunbar. 

OCTOBER, 1802. 
William Cilenn and wife. William Davidson. 
Matthew Thompson and Jane Lindsy. 

wife. Mr. McBride. 

INlatthew Adams and wife. Charles 8haw. 
Jane Adams. Mrs Clendenning. 

Sanuiel Williamson and Rachel Fox. 

wife. 

JUNE 12, 1803. 

Jane INIcCracken. Sanuu'l jMcCracken. 

Mrs. McBride. John Clendenning. 

Widow Ripet. Richard Adams and wife. 

John Martin and wife. Rebecca Lonir. 



66 THE BIG SPRING 



Mrs. Clendenning. Mary Brown. 

SEPT. 11, 1803. 

Alexander McBetli and JMartlia Hamilton. 

wife. Polly Laughlin. 

Samuel Sibbet and wife. Selfridge and wife. 
Charity Laughlin. 

JUi\E 4, 1804. 

Elizalieth Flint. Henry James. 

Lacy Davidson. Susan Davidson. 
John McKeehan, jr. 

OCT, 28, 1804. 

James IMathers. Agnes Kingi)orough. 

JNIary Heden. James Fleming. 

MAY H), 1805. 
Isabella Davidson. Frances Hays. 

Robert Thompson. Widow Vanderbilt. 

Ann Davidson. James Graham. 

OCTOBER 14, 1805. 
Mary Stephenson. ]\Iary Morrow. 

Mary Woods. Nathan Woods. 

MAY 13, 180G. 
Mrs. McEntire. Jane McFarlane. 

Jane Stephenson. 

OCTOBERS, 1806. 
James Sharp and wife. Nathan Means. 

Katharine Elliott. Martha Montgomery. 

Joseph Williams. Kachel Williams. 

Ann Montgomery. 

MAY 10, 1807. 
AVilliam Green. Margaret Buchanan. 



Martha Roberts. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 67 



OCTOBER 4, 1807. 
Tlionias Connelly. Jane Lindsay. 

Mary Garnel. Benjamin Garncl. 

Mary Connelly. Elizabeth Duncan. 

MAY 8, 1808. 
Mary Russel. Jane Boyd. 

Nancy Harper. ]\Iartlia Boyd. 

William Boyd. Catharine Pollock. 

OCTOBER 30, 1808. 
Mary JMcGuffin. Martha Graham. 

Corneliu.s Yanderl)ilt and Snsana Graham, 
wife. 

MAY 18, 1809. 
Daniel Leckey. James jNIcCord. 

David Bine. 

OCTOBER 22, 1809. 
John Benson and wife. Susan Davidson. 

Joseph Duncan and wife. Nancy Davidson. 
John McWilliams and Joseph Baker. 

wife. John Williamson. 

JUNE 2, 1810. 
William Williams. Paul Pierce. 

Sarah Leckey. ]\Iary McGuffin. 

JMartha Sharp. George Leckey. 

James Montgomery. Mary Sharp. 

Sarah Leckey. Philip Warner. 

Mary Williams. Thomas Wallace. 

Mrs. Irvine and daugliter. 

OCTOBER 21, IslO. 
Catharine Laugldin. Barton Gray. 

Martha Donaldson. PLinnah Laughlin. 

Prutlence Davidson. llobert McBride. 



68 



THE BIG SPRING 



Rhoda Thompson. 
Margaret Gray. 
Elizabeth Pollock. 



Jane Donaldson. 
Thompson. 



Eleanor Vanderbilt. 
JUNE 18, 1811. 
Robert Espey and wife. Ann Wallace. 



James Irvine. 
Nancy Gillespie. 
Mrs. Knettle. 
Eleanor Brown. 
Jane James. 
David Davidson. 



William Vandyke. 
]Maria Patton. 
Ralph Ewing. 
Samuel McKeehan. 



John McClellan. 
Eleanor Dahr. 
Rachel Glenn. 
Ann Gillesj^ie. 
William Lindsay. 
John Brown. 
OCTOBER, 1811. 

John Bawyer. 
Ewinc. 



Deborah McKeehan. 

]\Iartlia McKeehan. 
JUNE 1812. 

Catharine Dougherty, 

Robert McElwain. 

Eleanor Mickey. 

Priscilla Carson. 

]\Iartha Lytle. 

Jane McElwain. 
OCTOBER 25, 1812. 
Sally Blair. Jane Davidson. 

Rosanna INIcCord. Andrew JNIcCord. 

George Davidson and wife. John McBride. 
John Ross. 

JUNE 6, 1813. 
AVilliam Bell. John McCune and 

Francis Fulton and wife. 



Eliza McFarlane. 
John Gourd. 
John Means. 
Susana McCormick. 
Nancy Mickey. 
Mary Gourd. 



wife. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 69 



OCTOBER 24, 1813. 
Ezra MoiTi«oii. John McBride and wife. 

AiulreAv Morrow and wife. William McFarlane. 
John Shields. 

MAY 1, 1814. 
William Connelly. Jane Montgomery, wife 

INIartha Cowen. of John. 

John Montgomery. Mary Green. 

Jo8e})h Hershaw and wife. Elizabeth Montgomery. 
Elizaheth Ijyneh. Sarah Lowry. 

MAY 14, 1815. . 
]\rary Alexander. Wm. McCune and wife. 

Wm. Davidson and wife. Maria Laughlin. 

OCTOBER 1, 1815. 

Eliza Geddes. Eliza Fleming. 

jNlary Huston. John Johnston. 

,Tose})h Brown. James Laughlin, jr. 

Eliza Woods. Rosanna McCoy. 

«Jane Wilson. Jane Johnston, wife of 
Xaney Huston. John. 

J)avid Ross. John Brown. 

MAY 12, 181(5. 
John Shannon and wife. Samuel Tvindsay. 

AVilliam Coojier and wife. Jeddiah Hadden. 
Margaret ^McFarlane. Sarah Harper. 

OCTOBER 20, 181(5. 
Widow^ Brown. Eliza Ross. 

Priscilla Leacock. Mary Fi-eneh. 

James Ray. Rachel Crawford. 

Alexander Laughlin and .Joseph Connelly, 
wife. John French. 



70 



THE BIG SPUING 



MAY 1817. 
Nancy Graham. Esther McWilliams. 

William Brattan. John Mathers. 

Alexander Glenn. Thomas Walker. 

Polly McClure. 

OCTOBER, 1811. 
Alexander Donaldson and James Green. 

wife. 
Andrew McCandlish and 

wife. 



Thomas IMcEntire 

wife. 
Mary l^avidson. 
John Gray and wife. 

Elizabeth Thompson 
Mary McEntire. 
Susanna McElwain.' 
Nancy Langhlin. 
Elizabeth Buchanan. 
Mary McKnight. 
Elizabeth McEntire. 



Mary Dunbar. 
Martha Peebles. 
Josiah Hood. 
James Oliver. 
Elizabeth McClure. 
Alexander Williamson, 
Rosanna Dunbar. 
Joseph Thompson. 



Elizabeth Cowen. 
Ann Leckey. 
Elizabeth Kennedy, 
and William McBride. 

Catharine Dougherty. 
Mary Leckey. 
Sarah McElwain. 

MAY, 1818. 

John Dickson. 
Eliza Laughlin. 
Margaret Huston. 
Ma rga ret McK n igh t, 
William McElwain. 
Samuel Culbertson. 
INIary Buchanan. 
OCTOBER, 1818. 

Jane Fleming. 
Eleanor Davidson. 
Mrs. Crowel. 
Isabella Dunbar. 
Mary Thompson. 
William Brittan. 
Arthur Graham. 
James Williamson. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 



73 



MAY 9, 1819. 

Lydin Jacob. 

Ebeiiezer Campbell and 
wife. 
OCTOBER 10, 1819. 

Mary Allen. 
Elizabeth White. 
Nancy Lindsay. 
Moses Williamson. 
John Langhlin. 
Jane G. Williams. 
Thomas Piper. 
John Heagy. 
Eliza Heagy. 
MAY 21, 1820. 

Nancy Buchanan. 
William Lnsk. 
Mary Lnsk. 
Gusilla Kelly. 
Ann Laird. 



Mrs. King. 
Kebecca Pierce. 
Joseph Jacob. 

Mary Wilson. 
Eleanor Morrow. 
JMargaret Carnahan. 
Elizabeth Kilgore. 
Rebecca Murphy. 
Elizal)etli Mickey. 
]\Liry Wallace. 
Jane Cowen. 
William Allen. 



William Morrow. 
Thomas Sibbet. 
Hannah McCune. 
James Barr. 
jNfargaret Langhlin. 
Sarah Buchanan. 

OCTOBER 22, 1820. 
Mrs. McKane and daugh- p]mily Davidson. 



ter. 
Matthew Davidson. 

William Davidson. 
Thomas Leacock. 
]\rary Beatty. 

James Allen. 
Jane Allen. 



James Beatty, jr. 
Harry Culbertson. 

MAY, 1821. 

Jane Ewing. 
Ruth Harlan. 
Jane McBride. 

OCTOBER, 1821. 

Nancy Graham. 
Agnes Brown. 



74 



THE BIG SPRING 



Samuel McCormick 
James Lindsay. 
Margaret Shields. 
Agnes Richie. 



Elizabath Boyd. 
Elizabeth Fitzsimmons 
Lacy Ralston. 
Mary Caldwell. 
Eleanor Thompson. 
Esther Thompson. 
Rachel Sterrett. 
Eliza McFarlane. 
Elsey McElwain. 
Mary McElwain. 
Eliza Vanderbilt. 
Susanna Holmes. 
Eleanor Montgomery. 
David Ralston. 



Sanuiel Graliam 
Elizabeth Graham. 
John Davidson. 
Jacob Stough. 
Margaret Stough. 



Nancy York. 
Nancy Tliornton. 
Joseph McKibben, 
Tabitha McKiblien. 
Mary Donnelly. 
Joseph JMcElheny. 



Isabel Leckey. 
Emily Leckey. 
Eleanor Brittan. 
]\Liry Brittan. 
JUNE 2, 1822. 

William French. 

James Ross. 

Andrew Thompson. 

James McElwain. 

Peter Wilt. 

Pati'ick Fitzsimons. 

James Mitchel. 

Jane Mitchel, wife of 

James. 
James Davidson. 
Eliza Wills. 
Ann Davidson, wiie of 

James. 
Mary jMorrow. 
OCTOBER 13, 1822. 

Mary Williams. 
Elizabeth Ewing. 
Mary Gillespie. 
William Laughlin. 
Mariah McCormick. 
JUNE 13, 1823. 

Jane McElheny. 
Ezra Morrison. 
John McKeehan. 
Tabitha McKeehan. 
Eliz;d)eth Davidson. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 



75 



William Duncan. 
Kev. David SU'rrett 
Tabitha Reed. 
]\Iargaret JMcCune. 
iAfark McKeehan. 

Eliza 8terrett. 
Eliza McCormick. 
Jude Carnahan. 
William Carnahan. 
Margaret 8il)l)et. 
Nancy Kennedy. 
Jane Lindsay. 

Eliza Conn el. 
Mary Brown. 
Isaac Koontz. 
Isabella McKibben 

Joiin Lee. 

Martha Weakley. 
IMargaret Geddes. 
Re^)ecra Miller. 
William Atchison. 
Rol)ert Kennedy. 
rli)hii EwinLi:. 



OCTOBER 5, 1828. 

Eleanor Wilt. 
Esther Wilt. 
Susan Irvin. 
Sarah Koontz. 



MAY 30, 1824. 

Jane Koontz. 
Samuel French. 
John Wilt. 
Benjamin Cooper. 
Sarah Cooper. 
Isabella Richie. 
Joshua D. Williams. 
OCTOBER 10, 1824. 

Mary Brown. 
Isal)ella Johnson. 
Sarah Geddes. 
lA^wis H. Williams. 

MAY, 1825. 

James Logan. 

MAY 26, 1826. 

Isabel Kilgore. 
Jane Buchanan. 
Letitia Work. 
Susanna Work. 
Ellis Thompson. 



Matthew Laird. 
Susanna Laiid 
Matthew. 



JUNE 2, 1827. 

Eliza K. ^Nlelroy. 
wife of JNIargaret Carnahan. 
Hannah McCune. 



76 THE BIG SPRING 



Jane Phillips. Sarah Patterson. 

Jane Smith. Catharine Leckey. 
Mrs. Lindsy. 

JUNE, 1828. 

Jacob Fosnanght. Jane MeBride. 

Mary Fosnanght, wife of James Fulton. 

Jacob. Isabella Fulton. 

William Brown. Robert Adams. 

Jane BroAvn, wife of Wil- Ann Adams, wife of Bob- 

liam. ert. 

Samuel Miller. James Devenport. 



BAPTISMS BY REV. JOSHUA WILLIAMS, D. D. 

The records of Dr. Williams do not give the names 
of children baptized until 1821, consequently this 
record is incomj^lete. 
John Laughlin, son of William Davidson, born Nov. 

10, 1816, baptized May 6, 1821. 
William INIiller, son of William Davidson, born Kov. 

19, 1820, baptized May 6, 1821. 
Robert, son of Isaac Koontz, liorn Jan. 2, 1819, baptized 

June 4, 1821. 
Isaac, son of Isaac Koontz, Ijorn Sept. 27, 1820, baptized 

June 4, 1821. 
M'dvj A., daughter of John McWilliams, born June 12, 

1809, baptized June 4, 1821. 
James, son of John INIcWilliams, l)orn Feb. 21, 1812, 

baptized June 4, 1821. 
Eliza, daughter of John McWilliams, l)orn Dec. 8, 1816, 

baptized June 4, 1821. 
Hetty G., daughter of John INIcWilliams, born June 1, 

1820, bai)tized June 4, 1821. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 77 



Tlieressa J., daughter of George Espy, born Feb. 14, 
1814, baptized June 4, 1821. 

Augustus A., son of George Espy, born June 16, 1816, 
baptized June 4, 1821. 

Addah L., daughter of George Espy, born May 19, 1817, 
])aptized June 4, 1821. 

Mills B., son of George Espy, born Oct. V.), 1820, bap- 
tized June 4, 1821. 

Mary Jane, daughter of Josiah Hood, born June 20, 
1818, baptized June 4, 1821. 

Margaret A., daughter of Josiah Hood, born Feb. 9, 
1820, baptized June 4, 1821. 

Ruth Harlan, aged 27 years, baptized June 4. 1821. 

John M., son of Ruth Harlan, baptized 1821. 

Secustus, son of Jane McBride, born Nov. 2, 1820, bap- 
tized June 4, 1821. 

David, son of Robert McBride, born ISept. 15, 1801, 
baptized June 4, 1821. 

Margaret, daughter of John Gourd, born Feb. 1, 1812. 

William, son of John Gourd, born Sept. 14, 1814. 

Joseph D., son of John Gourd, l)orn April 19, 1818. 

Nancy, daughter of Francis Fulton, born Feb. 16, 1802. 

F. Huston, son of Francis Fulton, born April 16, 1805. 

Isabel, daughter of Francis Fulton, l)orn April 17, 1807. 

Kezia, daughter of Francis Fulton, l)orn Nov. 5, 1810. 

Matilda, daughter of Francis Fulton, born Oct. 15, 1812. 

A\'illiani Harjier Wallace, born May 15, 1819, baptized 
Oct. 18. 1819. 

Elizabeth Ralston Jacob, born July 9, 1818. 

Eleanor Jacol), l)orn May 16, 1816. 

John, son of Henry Drudge. 

Jane, daughter of Henry Drudge. 



78 THE BIG SPRING 



Sarah, daughter of Henry Drudge. 

Wilson, son of Henry Drudge. 

Mary, daughter of Henry Drudge. 

Elizabeth, daughter of Henry Drudge. 

Cassendannah, daughter of Henry Drudge. 

Rosanna, daughter of Henry Drudge. 

Mary Ellen, daughter of Henry Drudge. 

Mary Nicholdson, daughter of Richard and Rosanna 
McElvain, born Oct. 13, 1808. 

Andrew Thompson, son of Richard and Rosanna McEl- 
vain, born June 18, 1811. 

Elizabeth Bell, daughter of Richard and Rosanna McEl- 
vain, born March, 1818. 

Mary Jane, daughter of Richard and Rosanna JNIcEl- 
vain, born March, 18, 1816. 

James, son of Richard and Rosanna McElvain, born 
March 12, 1819. 

Marjory Ellen, daughter of Richard and Rosanna McEl- 
vain, born Sept. 4, 1822. 

Ruth Rosanna, daughter of Ricliard and Rosanna Mc- 
Elvain, born Nov. 13, 1825. 

Margaret Bell, daughter of James and Alice McElvain, 
born Nov. 20, 1824. 

Andrew McKinney, son of James and Alice McElvain, 
born April 11, 1827. 

Jane, daughter of James and Alice McElvain, born 
March 18, 1823. 

William S., son of James and Alice McElvain, born 
Dec. 30, 1829. 



MAKRIAGES 15 Y THE REV. JOSHUA WILLI AMS, D. D. 

Applegate, John and jMary Rightmyer, May 13, 1802. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 70 



Adams, Henry and Mary McKeelian, July 2'2, 1802. 

Asper, John and INFcKinney, INIay 20, 1813. 

Armor, k^amncl and Jrlannali Davis, Ang. 7, 1821. 

Alter, Benjamin and Nancy Lindsay, JNIar. 20, 1823. 

Adams, Thomas and Jane Eliza Adams, Nov. 19, 1835. 

Easier, Thomas and Maria Wynkoop, Oct. 27, 1836. 

Bigler, Jacob and Snsanna Duck, July 11, 1803. Par- 
ents of Governor Jolm I^igler, of California and Gov- 
ernor William Bigler of Pennsylvania. 

Brady, Joseph and Barbara Bheme (?), Mar. 12, 1807. 

Brown, John and Eleanor Gillespie, Mar. 17, 1807. 

Benson, John and Elizal)etli Gray, Dec. 10, 1807. 

Baker, Sanuiel and Jane McElwain, Dec. 1, 1808. 

Bell, George and Mary Willis, Apr. 2(), 1810. 

Butler, Jolm and Nancy Hunter, Mar. 28, 1811. 

Ballentine, George and Letitia Martin, Ai)r. 1), 1811. 

Brackenridge, Andrew and Martha Sharp, Apr. 7, 1812. 

I^erkley, Robert and Elizabeth Martin, Apr. 6, 1813. 

lilain, Thomas and Mary Sliar]), Apr. 14, 1813. 

Baker, Jacob and Mary Kincade, Nov. 23, 1815. 

Blain, John and P^lizabeth Kilgore, Mar. 25, 1819. 

Brown, Joseph and Nancy Richie, July 25, 1821. 

Benner, Josepli and Elizabeth Cook, Oct. 2, 1823. 

Brown, Jo)in and Mary Richie, Mar. 30, 1824. 

Barr, William and Sarah Geddes, July 27, 1825. 

Carnahan, Adam and Rutli McElwain, Feb. 25, 1802. 

Craighead, (ieorge and Polly (Tillespie, Apr. 1, 1802. 

Connelly, AVilliam and Rachel Scroggs, Apr. 20, 1802. 

Clemmons. James and Nancy Hanna, Aug. IH, 1803. 

Carson, Andrew and Mary Fortner, Apr. 8, 180(). 

Charlton, Robert and Pliel)e HoU, July 2, 1807. 

Campbell, James and Elizabeth French, Oct. 3, 1809. 



80 THE BIG SPRING 



Campbell, David and Sarah Cooper, Jan. 30, 1812. 

Crow, John and Sally , Jnly 1, 1813. 

Carothers, Andrew and INIary Hays, Dec. 8, 1814. 
Coulter, Joseph and Mary Wilson, Sept. 24, 1816. 
Connelly, Joseph and Jane Carotliers, Apr. 24, 1817. 
Carson, John E., and Jane Peeple (?), June 18, 1818. 

Clark, Jacob and Margaret , Sept. 22, 1818. 

Carnahan, William and Mary Huston, Oct. 13, 1818. 
Carothers, John R. and Margaret McBride, Nov. 12, 

1818. 
Clendennin, James and Elizabeth l^arr, May, 27, 1819. 
Cull)ertson, Samuel and Mary Ury, May 23, 1820. 
Cope, Philip and Elizabeth Uxor,' Nov. 30, 1820. 
Carothers, Josiali and Mary McNair, Oct. 4, 1821. 
Cook, Thomas and Sarah Scroggs, Mar. 5, 1822> 
Crowell, James and Mary Leckey, Mar. 18, 1824. 
Carnahan, AVilliam and Margaret Cooper, May 27, 1825. 
Carothers, James and Mary C. Carothers, Apr. 24, 1827. 
Carothers, Martin and Ellen Duffy, Oct. 12, 1827. 
Clark, Peter and Hester Ward, Nov. 2(3, 1834. 
Cope, Benjamin and Sarah McDowell, Apr. 25, 1822. 
Duncan, William and Mary JMitchel, Dec. 1,1801. 
Dowds, Robert and Rachel Willis, Apr. 10, 180(3. 
Davidson, James and Jane McFarlane, June 23, 1807. 
Davidson, George and Jennie MeKeehan, Mar. 23, 

1807. 
Davidson, Patrick and Nancy Randolph, May 18, 1809. 
Dahr, Joseph and Eleanor Vanderbilt, Nov. (3, 1810. 
Douglas, George and Grissy MeKeehan, Feb. 12, 1811. 
Douglas, William and Eleanor Brown, Apr. 20, 1812. 
Dearmond, William and Martha Gourd, Apr. 23, 1812. 
Davidson, Alexander and Jane Woodburn, Oct. 14^1813. 



PRESBYTEKIAN CHURCH. 81 



Davidson, William and Mary Miller, Nov. 8, 1814. 
Davidson, Matthew and Emily Woodburn, Oct. 28,1819. 
Duncan, William and Isabella McCune, Oct. 5, 1820. 
Davidson, John and Margaret Walker, Dec. 11, 1823. 
Duncan, William and Nancy Fulton, Mar. 30, 1824. 
Duncan, Joseph and Jane McNickle, Dec. 30, 1824. 
Donaldson, Thomtis and Eleanor Turner, Feb. 10, 1825. 
Davidson, John and Eleanor Thompson, June 9, 1825. 
Duffy, John and Sarah Longwell, Aug. 2, 1827. 
Davidson, William and Ann Leckey, May 1, 1828. 
Davidson, Sanuiel and Catharine Leckey, Oct. 19, 1830. 
Davidson, James and Ann Logan, Apr. 5, 1831. 
Dickson, John and Jane McKnight, June 20, 1822. 
Endsly, James and Elizabeth Walker, Mar. 12, 1805. 
Ewing, James and Eleanor Gillespie, Apr. 25, 1809. 
Espy, Robert and Elizabeth Carson, Mar. 14, 1810. 
Espy, George and Rebecca Glenn, Feb. 4, 1813. 
Ewing, James and Elizabeth Gillespie, Oct. 21, 1813. 
Ege, Joseph and Jane Woodburn, Oct. 7, 1829. 
Fuhrhob, Godlieb and Eva Smith, Dec. 10, 1807. 
Fulton, John and Sa41y Wills, Feb. 29, 1816. 
Fenton, John and Elizabeth Carson, Jan. 28, 1819. 
Fulton, James and Mary McKinnie (?), Apr. 29, 1819. 
Farrier, David and Jane Ryan, Mar. 25, 1824. 
French, James and Jane Cowen, Apr. 5, 1826. 
Graham, Thomas and Mary McKeehan, Mar. 16, 1802. 
Glenn, William and Rosanna Thompson, Apr. 15, 1802. 
Grier, James and Amy Espy, Feb. 12, 1805. 
Glenn, James and ^Mary Reid, ]\Iay 8, 1806. 
Greenwood, John and Catharine Ferguson, Sept. 17, 

1807. 
Gray, Barton and Margaret Mickey,- Feb. 23, 1810. 



82 THE BIG SPUING 



Giffiii, Robert and Catharine McCrea, May 9, 1811. 
Glenn, David and Jane McKeehan, Feb. 11, 1812. 
Geese, Cbristian and Elizabeth Mahon, July 1, 1813. 
Greenfield, Hugh and Nancy Tliompson, Mar. 9, 1815. 
Graham, Rev. James and Rachel Glenn, Nov. 26, 1815. 
Glenn, Alexander and Maria Laughlin, Mar. 5, 1816. 
Graham, Robert and Elizabeth McFarlane, Feb. 10, 

1824. 
Graham, George and Elizabeth Alter, Feb. o, 1830. 
Greason, Samuel Carothers and Mary Davidson, Nov. 

23, 1837. 
Hays, William T. and Polly I\lcKil3l)in, Apr. 24, 1804. 
Hard, John W. and Ann Brown, Nov. 4, 1806. 
Herron, Thomas and Margaret Drudge, Nov. 26, 1807. 
Hudson, George and Catharine Pollock, Feb. 9, 1809. 
Huston, James and Rachel Crowel, Aug. 31, 1809. 
Hamil, William and Mary Allen, Jan. 25, 1810. 
Hays, Patrick and Margaret Mickey, Jan. 30, 1810. 
Huston, Jonathan and Nancy Mickey, Jan. 4, 1810. 
Hudson, James and Mary Pollock, 1810. 
Hutton, John and Harriett HeigH Feb. 18, 1813. 
Huston, James and Sally McCullough, Mar. 17, 1814. 
Hamilton, John and Lydia McKeehan, Mar. 12, 1816. 
Haden, Jedediah and Mary Painter, May 30, 1816. 
Hume, James and ]\Luy McWilliams, Apr. 9, 1818. 
Heagy, David and ]\Iary A. Young, July 9, 1821. 
Holms, John and Elizabeth Albert, Mar. 25, 1824. 
Herron, James and Isabella Johnson, Sept. 15, 1815. 
Huston, Samuel and Ann Fulton, Dec; 22, 1825. 
Irvin, James and Prudence Leckey, Mar. 8, 1808. 
Irvine, Samuel and Rosanna Dunbar, Apr. 14, 1829. 
Jacob, Thomas and Jane Pierce, May 20, 1810. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 



Jacob, THoinas and Catharine INIcDonald, 1810. 
Johnston, John and Jane Hnston, Jan, 26, 1815. 
Jaekson, Jolm and EHzahetli Rouse (?), Mar. 2, 1820. 
Jacob, David and Eleanor Davidson, Mar. 8, 1821. 
Johnston, John and Elizabeth Pollock, Nov. 8, 1821. 
Kelly, Robert and Sarah Norton, Dee. 31, 1807. 
Kean, John and Jane Adams, Mar. 14, 1805. 
Kinkaide, James and Dianna Lee, Nov. 9, 1809. 
Kerr, Alexander and Sarali Galbraith, Mar. 3, 1814. 
Kilgore, Snnuiel and Snsan Thompson, Mar. 14, 1816. 
Kinkaide, William and Elizabeth Scoby, Apr. 1, 1817. 
Koontz, Isaac and Jane Carnahan, Mar. 26, 1818. 
Kennedy, Robert and Nancy Kilgore, May 13, 1820. 
KeiT, William and Eliza Sterrett, June 15, 1824. 
Kennedy, James and Maria Barr, May 3, 1825. 
Kilgore, Ezekiel and Elizabeth Graham, Nov. 9, 1825. 
Knettle, William and Lacy Lindsay, Jan. 3, 1828. 
Kilgore, Jesse and Nancy Sharp, Aug. 13, 1828. 
Kinsley, Jacob and Charlotte Roberts, Apr. 8, 1830. 
Lightcap, Thomas and Widow Delany, Apr. 21, 1803. 
Lemon, Hugh and Rachel Hays, Apr. 24, 1804. 
Leckey, George and Sarah Crowel, Nov. 22, 1808. 
Leckey, Daniel and Ann Davidson, Mar. 16, 1809. 
Lee, George and Sally Latshaw, Mar. 28, 1811. 
Lee, John and Elizabeth Fulton, A])r. 21, 1812. 
Laugldin, John and Margaret Alexander, May 18, 1813. 
Linn, Samuel and Catharine Laughlin, Dec. 2, 1813. 
Laughlin, John and Margaret Jones, June 30, 1814. 
Laughlin, John and Mary Williamson, Dec. 5, 1815. 
IJnn, AVilliam Jind Hannah Laughlin, Apr. 2, 1816. 
Lindsay, Samuel and Elizabeth Atchison, Oct. 23, 1817. 
Lytic, George and Barbara Cami)bell, Feb. 26, 1818. 



84 THE BIG SPRING 



Leacock, Thomas and Elizabeth Fleming, Aug. 5, 1818. 

Lowery, Isaac and Hannah Martin, Dec. 25, 1821. 

Linn, John and Mary McClure, Mar. 11, 1814. 

Logan, James and Ann Laird, Mar. 23, 1824. 

Leckey, George and Nancy Davidson, July 28, 1825. 

Leburn, Robert and Nancy Bell, Feb. 14, 1826. (Col- 
ored.) 

Lefevre, David Alter and Mary H. Wilt, Mar. 20, 1827. 

Logan, George and Nancy Huston, Oct. 4, 1827. 

Lindsay, William and Mary Forbes, June 4, 1818. 

Mason, Thomas and Nancy Kennedy, Mar. 80, 1802. 

McGuire, Thomas and Rachel Purdy, Mar. 1, 1803. 

McKinstry, Alexander and Sarah McDonald, Nov. 27, 
1804. 

McElrow, Hugh and Margaret Duncan, Apr. 29, 1806. 

Morrow, James and Rachel Ingram, Dec. 31, 1807. 

Maxwell, George and Mary Fulton, Feb. 2, 1808. 

McCord, James and Susan Davidson, Feb. 11, 1808. 

McKinney, Andrew and Sarah Young, Mar. 24, 1808. 

INIcElwain, Robert and Jane Shannon, Apr. 12, 1808. 

Martin, John and Ann Montgomery, A}n\ 14, 1808. 

McKeehan, Samuel and Deborah McBride, Nov. 3, 1808. 

McWilliams, John and Sarah Dickson, Nov. 24, 1808. 

McClelland, Elias and .Mary McKinney, Dec. 22, 1808. 

Martin, John and Rebecca Montgomery, Jan. 23, 1810. 

McKeehan, Robert and Mary Trego, Feb. 23, 1810. 

McFarlane, Robert and Eleanor Jacob, Apr. 26, 1803. 

McKeehan, Samuel and Mary McKeehan, Mar. 26, 1812. 

Montgomery, James and Margaret Walker, Apr. 7,1812. 

Montgomery, John and Jane Fulton, Sept. 9, 1812. 

Milroy, William Rodman and Nanc}^ Kingsborough, 
Oct. 13, 1812. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 85 

McCiilloiigh, William and Mary McGiiffin, Nov. 2, 1813. 
JMcCord, Robert and I.acy Davidson, Feb. 3, 1814. 
McKibben, John and l8ai)ella Mitchell, Mar. 3, 1814. 
Mateer, Andrew'and Ann Huston, Mar. 24, 1814. 
Martin, Joshua and Eliza Williamson, Nov. 9, 1815. 
JSrathers, Robert and Mary Ingram, Feb. 1, 1816. 
Mathers, John and Naney Huston, Feb. 15, 1816. 
McLane, William and Hannah McPherson,Feb.29,1816- 
Moore, John and Rachel McCullougli, Mar. 11, 1816. 
McFarlane, Robert and Jane Kilgore, May 2, 1816. 
jNIacfee, William and Elizabeth Sensebaugh, May 27, 

1816. 
Montgomery, William and Sally Barr, Nov. 24, 1816. 
McElhenny, Robert and Margaret Carnahan, Mar. 28, 

1817. 
McBride, Robert and Jane Scroggs, May 15, 1817. 
McDowell, John and Mary Laird, Mar. 12, 1818. 
Morrow, William and Catharine Dougherty, Mar. 25, 

1819. 
McCord, James and Jane Sturges, July 1, 1819. 
Maxwell, John and Jane Buchanan, Aug. 12, 1819. 

McDermond, Joseph and Nancy , Nov. 30, 1819. 

McKibben, Chambers and Jane Bell, Feb. 10, 1820. 
McCullough, William and Jane JMorrow (?), INIar, 2, 1820. 
INIathers, John and INIartha Peebles, Mar. 30, 1820. 
McDonald, John and Elizabeth Moore, Oct. 5, 1820. 
McKeehan, Mark and Elizabeth Vanderbilt,Dec.7,1820. 
McDonald, Daniel and Elizabeth Kennedy, Oct. 18,1821. 
McClelland, John and Eleanor INIorrow, Mar. 27, 1821. 
McNeil, Sanuiel and Ann Irwin, Feb. 7, 1822. 
McKeehan, John and Tabitha McBride, May 7, 1822. 
McFarlane, James and Sarah Shannon, ]\Iar. 12, 1822. 



86 THE BIG SPRING 



Moore, John and Molly Wilson, Mar. 14, 1822. 
McKibben, Jose^pli and Tabitha McCulloch, Apr. 11, 

1822. 
McCune, Thomas and Sarah Fulton, Oct. 7, 1822. 
Myers, Jacob and Nancy McBride, Feb. 27, 1823. 
McCandlish, John and Maria McCormick,Mar.l3, 1823. 
McClelland, William and Sarah Wilson, Mar. 27, 1823. 
McCulloch, Thomas and Isabella Blean, Apr. 3, 1823. 
Mitchel, William and Mary Stephenson, July 3, 1823. 
McCune, Joseph and Mary Davidson, Apr. 27, 1824. 
McCullough, John and Elizabeth Cowen (?), Sept. 28, 

1824. 
McCormick, Samuel and Susanna Alter, INIar. 3, 1825. 
McCaleb, J. and Sarah Uhler, Mar. 24, 1825. 
McCord, Robert and Margaret Woodburn, Oct. 25,1825. 
McCormick, Thomas and Jane Harper, Dec. 13, 1825. 
McFarlane, Alexander and Rosanna jNIcCanon, July 7, 

1826. 
McFarlane, Clemens and Lydia Miller, Mar. 8, 1826. 
Miller, Samuel and Rachel Thompson, Jan. 18, 1827. 
McKinstry, James and Margaret Ha3's, Dec. 3, 1828. 
McKee, James and Isabella Fulton, Jan. 8, 1829. 
Murdock, John and Sarah Saunders, Feb. 27, 1834. 
McCachran, Rev. Robert and Jane Laughlin, Nov. 11, 

1834. 
McCulloch, John and Jane Dunbar, Aug. 12, 1835. 
Miller, Thomas and Margaret Meradith, Nov. 5, 1835. 
Montgomery, James Ramsey and Nancy Kilgore, Nov. 

25, 1823. 
Niven, John and Martha McCrackon, INIay 11, 1802. 
Norton, Thomas and Fanny Gray, Jan. 28, 1802. 
Niven, David and Marv , Feb. 1, 1810. 



PRESBYTEKIAN CHURCH. 87 



Nelson, John and Elizabeth Ewing, Dec. 7, 1815. 
Nisbit, Fisher and J. Adams, Mar. 4, 1824. 
Noble, Daniel and Rachel George, Mar. 16, 1826. 

Nicklo, William and Catharine , Mar. 13, 1827. 

Orr, John and Eleanor Moore, Dec. 24, 1807. 
Oliver, John and Susan Sheldon, Jan. 19, 1815. 
Oxor, John and Elizabeth Roberts, Nov. 4, 1817. 
Oxor, George and Elizabeth Stewart, Oct. 7, 1819. 
Patterson, Samuel and INIary Stuart, Apr. 1, 1802. 
Patterson, James and Betsy Williamson, Apr. 18, 1805. 
Piper, James and Catharine Irvine, Mar. 6, 1812. 
Palm, Adam and Nancy Asken, Dec. 17, 1813. 
Pierce, Andrew and Rel)ecca McKibben, Dec. 3, 1813. 
Patton, Morgan and Elizabeth Campbell, Mar. 21, 1822. 
Richy, James and INTary McElwain, Feb. 4, 1802. 
Russel, William and Mary Elliott, May 31, 1803. 
Rees, John and Margaret Brown, Oct. 3, 1805. 
Ripton, John and Isabella Mathers, June 18, 1807. 
Ross, Simon and Isabella Beaty, Mar. 14, 1810. 
Robertison, Thomas and Elizabeth Shannon, June 18, 
1S12. 

Ross, Joseph and Catharine , Mar. 25, 1813. 

Reynolds, David and Eleanor Orr, Nov. 9, 1813. 
Richie, William and Elizabeth Gourd, Dec. 26, 1816. 
R^dston, David and Leacy McAlister, Mar. 6, 1821. 
Roberts, Robert and Isal)ella Grimes, May 31, 1821. 
Riley, Jolm and Mary Duffy, Sept. 1821. 
Randolj)h, John and Mary Knettle, Jan. 3, 1822. 
Ripton, Peter and Louisa Ross, Apr. 22, 1824. 
Ray, William and Anne INIcDonald, Aug. 12, 1824. 
Ross, John and Esther McWilliams, Jan. 24, 1825. 
Roberts, Andrew and Catharine Crotzer, Mar. 16, 1829. 



88 THE BIG SPRING 



Randolph, Paul and Betsy E. Leckey, June 9, 1829. 
Shulenberger, Henry and Betsy Riglitmier, Apr. 30, 

1805. 
Stevenson, James and Mary Morrow, Oct. 24, 1805. 
Steel, John and Anna Weaver, Dec. 4, 1806. 
Stuart, James and Jane McElwain, May 29, 1807. 
Scroggs, Moses and Peggy Tliom])son, Dee. 10, 1807. 
Stow, John and Mary A. Geese, Nov. 24, 1808. • 
Scouller, John and Jane Brown, Apr. 4, 1809. 
Shannon, Hugh and Ruhanna McElwain, Aug. 3, 

1811. 
Spangler, Sanuiel and Rebecca Eager, Oct. 15, 1812. 
Shields, James and Nanc}^ Martin, June 15, 1813. 
Sharp, John and Martha Huston, Dec. 13, 1814. 
Sharp, John and Jane McCune, Mar. 19, 1815. 

Stevenson, and Sally Hays, Mar. 28, -181(3. 

Smith, George W. and Margaret Weakly, July 29, 

1817. 
Sharp, William and Jane Wilson, June 5, 1821. 
Skiles, Davis and Elizabeth Moor, Oct. 18, 1821. 
Skelly, David and Jane Dougherty, Mar. 28, 1822. 

Skelly, Robert and Wilson, Dec. 12, 1822. 

Sturm, David and Elizabeth Wolf, Feb. 10, 1824. 
Shannon, James and Martha Matliers, June 10, 1824. 
Shaw, John and Hetty Wilt, Mar. 30, 1826. 
Smitli, Joseph and Eliza McCormick, June 28, 1827. 
Smith, William and IMaria Dougherty, Jan, 31, 1828. 
Stough, Samuel and Mary Peeples, Apr. 15, 1829. 
Smith, John and Jane Cooper, June, 23, 1834. 
Snyder, Jonathan and Catharine Lehmon, Oct. 2, 1834. 
Stephens, William L. and Margaret Elliott, June 2,1835. 
Sterrett, Wilson and Ezemiah Hays, Mar. 1, 1835. 






Communion Tokens. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 91 



Thompson, John and Elizabeth King, Nov. 19, 1807. 
Thompson, Hugh and P]lizabeth Scroggs, Jan. 19, 1815. 
Turner, Jose}))! and Rosa una Abernethy, Apr. 4, 1820. 
Underwood, John and Priscilla Leacock, Mar. 18, 1824. 
Vandyke, WiUiam and Nancy Duncan, Apr. 1, 1813. 
Wih, John and Elizabeth Ripton, Dec. 22, 1801. 
AVilson, Robert and Dorcus Hays, Mar. 9, 1802. 
Woods, Matthew and Jane Galbraith, Dec. 23, 1802. 
Weakley, Isaac and Martha Brittain, Mar. 10, 1803. 
Walker, Robert and Jane Long, Dec. 25, 1805. 
Wallace, Samuel and Eleanor Gillespie, Sept. 15, 1807. 

Williams, AVilliam and Mary , Oct. 27, 1809. 

Walker, Alexander and Sarah Martin, Mar. 26, 1812. 
Witlirow, Samuel and Mary Laughlin, Feb. 16, 1813. 
Walker, David and Maria Patton, Dec. 17, 1813. 
Woodburn, James and Eliza Jacob, Jan. 20, 1814. 
Withrow, William and Elizabeth IMcKibben, Feb. 12, 

1818. 
Wallace, Thomas and ^lary Harper, Apr. 7, 1818. 
Weakley, James and p:iiza Geddes, Feb. 23, 1819. 

Wigly, Joseph and Elizabeth , Aug. 23, 1821. 

AVoodburn, Skiles and Margaret McKeehan, Dec. 20, 

1821. 
Wills, Dr. David and Elizabeth Peebles, Feb. 14, 1822. 
Workman, William and Elizabeth Carothers, Dec. 5, 

1822. 
Wightman, William and Mary Dunfee, Feb. 19, 1824. 
Woodburn, William and Margaret Geddes, Jan. 22, 1828. 
AVilliains, Lewis H. and Tabitha McKeehan, Feb. 15, 

1831. 
Wilson, Rol)ert and Martha J. Beatty, Oct. 25, 1832. 
Woodburn, George and Mary C. Williams, Dec. 11,1833. 



92 



THE BIG SPRING 



MEMBERS OF THE FEMALE 

Deborah McKeehan, 
Ann Brittain, 
Nancy Laughlin, 
Eliza Laughlin, 
Eleanor Davidson, 
Jane Wilson, 
Elizabeth Pollock, 
Elizabeth McKain, 
Mary Brattan, 
Elizabeth Atchison, 
Margaret McK night, 
Jane McKnight, 
Mary Davidson, 
Isabel Johnston, 
Jane Laughlin, 
Sarah Leckey, 
Mary Leckey, 
Ann Leckey, 
Jemima Crowell, 
Sarah Shannon, 
Margaret Carson, 
Rachel Crawford, 
Rebecca McCracken, 
Margaret Woodburn, 
Martha Peebles, 
Nancy Gillespie, 



BIBLE CLASS, JUNE 11, 1817. 

Ann Gillespie, 
Nancy Graham, 
Mary JMcKnight, 
Nancy Buchanan, 
Priscilla Carson, 
Nancy Lindsay, 
Alice Thompson, 
Margaret McBride, 
Catharine Dougherty, 
Sarah Geddes, 
Lucy Walker, 
Rosanna Dunbar, 
Eliza Geddes, 
Eliza Peebles, 
Jane G. Williams, 
Ann Wallace, 
Keziah McKibben, 
Margaret Adams, 
Margaret McCandlish, 
Jane McCullough, 
Eleanor Brattan, 
Mary Thompson, 
Elizabeth Piper, 
Priscilla Leacock, 
Ruth Roan, 



MEMBERS OF THE MALE BIBLE CLASS, JUNE 11, 1817. 

Paul Pierce, Chambers McKibben, 

Samuel Lindsay, William Barr, 

George McCarron, Thompson Glenn, 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 



93 



James C. Williams, 
James Lau<;liliii, jr., 
Samuel Davidson, 
John Shannon, 
William Crawford, 
Joseph MeKibben, 
James Davidsoh, 
Andrew Pierce, 
William McCulloch, 
Joseph Brown, 
Dr. John P. Geddes, 
William Lindsay, 
John Mathers, 



Samuel Culbertson, 
James Fenton, 
Ezekiel Kilii;ore, 
John MeCulloch, 
Ralph Ewing, 
John Davidson, 
James Shannon, 
Rev. Alexander Sharp, 
James Weakley, 
Thomas Wallace, 
George W. Woodburn, 
Andrew Cooper, 
Samuel Graham. 



DISTRICTS, ELDERS, HEADS OF FAMILIES AND NUMBER OF 
PERSONS IN EACH FAMILY IN 1808. 



William Stephenson's 
AVilliam Ste})henson 
Joseph McElhenny 
William Brown 
James Shelly 
John Martin 
David Sterrett 
Thomas Martin, 
James Stephenson, 
Hugh McElhenny 
Andrew McElwain 
Andrew Patterson 



Thomas McCormick's District, Lower Mifflin. 
Thomas McCormick 5, Mrs. Mitchel 



District, Upper Mifflin. 




6, 


Walter Bell 


4, 


4, 


John Gorrel, 




5, 


John Allen, 




6, 


John Shannon 


4, 


5, 


John Morrow 


8, 


5, 


James INIcElwain 


4, 




Paul Martin 


6, 




David INIontgomery 


6, 


^^ 


Robert Barr, 




4, 


Thomas Martin, 




8, 







4, 



94 THE 


; EiG 


SPRING 




James Fenton, 




Nathaniel Gillespie 


5, 


Henry Knettle 


4, 


Widow Walker 


5, 


Widow McClintock 


6, 


Robei-t Gillespie 


5, 


John McFarlane 


5, 


William Mathews 


2, 


Joseph McCormick 


7, 


Andrew Thompson 


8, 


Alexander Elliott 


7, 


James Purdy 


4, 


Robert Fenton, 




James McFarlane 


5, 


James Brown's District, Newton Township. 




James Brown 


7, 


Lewis Rightmyer 


11, 


James Beatty 


11, 


Robert Peebles 


5, 


James Irvine 


6, 


Cornelius Vanderbilt 


6, 


Robert Mickey 


7, 


William Mathers 


7, 


James Laird's District, North Frankford. 




James Laird, 




Widow Dickson, 




George Dougherty, 




Robert Gillespie, 




Thomas Officer, 




Alexander Leckey, 




Widow Gillespie, 




James Sharp, 




Colonel Crawford, 




James Clemmons, 




Thomas Espy, 




Joseph Hunter, 




Matthew Wilson, 








William Lindsay's 


District, South Frankford and 


part 


of West Pennsboro townshi 


P- 




William Lindsay 


6, 


James McFarlane 


12, 


Isaiah Graham 


7, 


William Connelly 


3, 


Robert McFarlane 


2, 


Jared Graham 


12, 


James Johnson 


4, 


Thomas Graliam 


3, 


James Graham 




Robert Lindsay 


5, 


Arthur Graliam 


(3, 


Joseph Connelly 


3, 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 



95 



Alexander Thompson's 
Lauglilin — Upper Mifflin a 

Alexander Thompson 8, 

Matthew Thom])son 6, 

Samnel Morrow H, 

William Morrow 8, 

James Nicholdson 2, 

James Work 8, 
Mary JNIcCune, 
John MeCune, 
James Mickey, 

Hngli Thompson 8, 

James McGuffin 8, 

David Morrow 9, 

Samuel Williamson 4, 

Alexander I^aughlin 8, 



District — Succeeded Hugh 
nd North Newton Township. 



Robert INIcCune 
Hugh McCune, 
Jesse Kilgore, 
David IMickey, 
William Thompson 
John Cooper 
Robert Carnahan 
David Williamson 
John Laughlin 
Jonathan Martin 
Samuel McCune, 
William Kilgore, 
John Long 



3, 



12, 
9, 
9, 

12. 
3, 
3, 



2, 



Thomas Jacob's District, 
Newville. 

Thomas Jacob 5 

David George 2 

Jolm Fox 4 

WiUiam Bell 5 

John Fatton 4 

Jeremiah McKibben 8 

James Ross 5 

Thomas Kennedy 7 

Jolni Davidson 12 

Adam Bratton 8 

William Russel 2 

James McFarlane 2 

James Brown 7, 



South Mifflin Township and 

Andrew Thompson 8, 

Mrs. Glenn 5, 

William Walker 7, 

John Roberts 6, 

John Michel 4, 

John Carson 5, 

James Woodburn 4, 

John Davidson 7, 

David Ralston 6, 

Letitia Wilson 2, 

Stephen Rhine 2, 

Dr. John Geddes 5, 

Thomas Clark 2, 



96 THE 


BIG 


SPRING 




John Dunbar 


4, 


William Glenn 


2, 


James Reed 


4, 


Leonard Shuman 


6, 


Mr. Wilson 


3, 


Philip Murphy 


5, 


John Walker 


4, 


Rosa una McFarlane 


3, 


James Kirkpatrick 


4, 


Elisha Carson 


9, 


Gilbert Moon 


3, 






Atchisons Laughlin'g 


» District. 




Atchison Laughlin 


11, 


Widow Ripton 


4, 


Samuel Hays 


3, 


INIatthew Adams 


3, 


Samuel Sibbet 


7, 


William Duncan 


6, 


David Glenn 


9, 


William Pipet 


6, 


Samuel Gourd 


6, 


John Brown 


5, 


John Boyd 


6, 


Richard Adams 


2, 


David Ralston 


3, 


William McDannel,Esq 


'7 


Alexander McBeth 


10, 


Thomas Adams 


9, 


Jas. and Wni. Laughlin 


7, 


Joseph Shaw 


3, 


William Bell 


6, 


Samuel Mathers 


8, 


Nathaniel Eccles 


7, 


Joseph Mathers 


8, 


Robert McBride 


7, 


Thomas Johnson 


5, 



John McKeehan's Distr 
ship. 

John McKeehan 5, 
George McKeehan, 

John Smith 7, 

Matthew Davidson 8, 
Lewis Williams (Pastor's 

father) 7, 

William McFarlane 5, 

James McKeehan 5, 

James Huston 8, 



ict. West Pennsboro Town- 



William Miller 
John Davidson, Esq. 
Richard Woods 
Benjamin McKeehan 
William Ferguson 
John Miller 
John Gray 
Alexander Weakley 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 



97 



Nathan Ramsey's District. 
Nathan Ramsey, 
Thomas Norton, 
Natlian Means, 
Jolin Gray, 
William Ewing, 
Eliza Ramsey, 
Sarah Norton, 
Mrs. Adams, 
Joseph Gourd, 
Nathan Woods, 
Mrs. Gray, 



Thomas Adams, 
Mrs. McKinstry, 
Mrs. Ewing, 
Margaret' Ramsey, 
Ann Patterson, 
James McKinstry, 
Mrs. Gourd, 
Jane Woods, 
Elizabeth Glenn, 
Alexander McBride, 



^=C="JIIIB1-C^^ 




98 THE BIG SPRING 



THE PASTORATE OF REV. ROBERT 
McCACHRAN. 

After the resignation of Dr. Williams the congrega- 
tion became divided in an attempt to call a pastor. A 
portion favoring Rev. John W. Nevin, and others Rev. 
John Kennedy, who was afterwards professor of mathe- 
matics in Jefferson College, Pa. They however finally 
united on the Rev. Robert McCacliran, and in the fall 
of 1830, sent a commissioner to prosecute the call before 
the Presbytery of New Castle, of which he was a mem- 
ber. The call w^as accepted and Mr. McCachran was in- 
stalled pastor April 13, 1831. The diligent, faithful and 
conscientious pastoral work performed by IMr. McCach- 
ran is shown by the large accessions to the church dur- 
ing his ministry. There were received into its com- 
munion, five hundred and seventy-five members. Four 
hundred and eighty-five of these were received on pro- 
fession of faith and ninety on certificate. '""In the 
years 1832, 1833 and 1834 there seems to have been 
almost a continuous revival of religion in the church, re- 
sulting during that time in an accession of over one 
hundred and forty members on confession of faith. As 
an evidence of the deep interest in spirtual things which 
at that time existed, a prayer meeting was instituted and 
sustained for a period, at day light in the morning." 
He baptized three hundred and ninety-eight children, 
and married two hundred and eight couples. 
After the first year or two of Mr. McCachran's ministry, 
the exclusive use of psalms in public worship was aban- 
doned. He resigned the pastoral charge of the Big 
Spring Church October 8, 1851. 

* Memorial Presbytery, Carlisle. 




Rev. Robert McCachran. 



rRESBYTKKIAX ClIUKCH. 99 



.:\FAi;inA(;Ks r.vTiii; i;i;n'. i;()15i;i;t im'cacuhan. 
Adams, p]])liri;mi and Eli/.alx'tli Wavy, Nov. 1(), 1840. 
AllRTt, John and CiitJiarini' i\Ic-l)annell, Nov. 12, 1846. 
Bratton, Georoe nnd Jane Sharp, Jan. 7, 1882. 
BaiT, Sanuiel and Eliza McC'une, Fcl). 5, 18o/). 
Boyd, James and Jane McCnne, Dec. 17, IcSoo. 
Black, Pliili}) and JNlaiy Murray, June 18, 1837. 
Brown, Jose])lj and jNIary J. Davidson, Feh. 18, 1838. 
Bessor, William and Eliza Gri]), Feh. 22, 1841. 
Blankney, George and Margaret Denny, Apr, 7, 1842. 
Belt, Burt and Elizabeth Harris, Aug. (3, 184(3. 
Butler, John and Barali Hart, Sept. 28, 1847. 
J^lean, Jesse and Agnes BroAvn. 
Barr, John and Jane Barr, Sept. 8, LSrK). 
Bartnett, John M. and Lavina Conner, May 22, 1857. 
Brown, Thomas and Susanna Creamer, Aug. 3, 1854. 
Bush, John and Sarah J. McCune, Nov. 28, 1854. 
Bowers, John and Nancy Landis, Feb. 29, 18(30. 
Boyles, Alexander and Jane Blean, Sept. 23, 1869. 
Claudy, George and Catherine Rodgers, Mar. 26, 1833. 
Connelly, Joseph and Eliza Connelly, Jan. 29, 1835. 

Cope, and Eliza Stough, May 81, 1836. 

Cook, Fenix and Elizabeth McDannel, Sept. 21, 1837. 

Casey, John and Martha Hye, Mar. 3, 1842. 

Cremer, Tlieodore H. and Martha J. Graham, June 15, 

1848. 
Cobean, William and IMaiy .McFarlane, Nov. 2 1848. 
Carothers, Andrew and Louisa Bender, June 28, 1849. 

Grain, and Sarah G. Adams, April 12, 1857. 

Cochran, Stephen and JNIargaret Griffin, Dec. 4, 1857. 
Cooper, James and Eliza ^Nfon-ow, Dec. 9, 1857. 
Cole, Sanuiel and Hetty Johnson, Mar. 28, 1867. 



100 THE BIG SPRING 



Carlisle, T. Calvin and Kebecca J. McCachran, Mar. 9^ 

1854. 
Duffield, Kobert E. and MlssTorbet, June 22, 1837. 
Dunlap, Daniel and Eliza Heflleman, Mar. 14, 1838. 
De Peyster, Robert and Virginia E. Bhepherd, July 

17, 1838. 
Davidson, William and Kosanna McFarlane, Sept, IB, 

1838. 
Dunlap, William and Eliza])eth Skiles, Nov. 2(3, 1840. 
Davidson, John and Mary Randolph, Jan. 7, 1841. 
Dallas, William and Elizabeth Boyd, Mar. 16, 1841. 
Dunfee, John, and Sarah Talbert, Sept. 3, 1842. 
Dunlap, James and Lucetta Hays, Feb. 26, 1846. 
Davidson William and Hannah Hoover, Sept, 17, 1846. 
Ervin, James B. and Isabella McEhvain, Nov. 30, 

1831. 
Elliott, John and Dorothy Myers, Sept. 23, 1847. 
Frank, Henry and Eliza Kellen, Nov. 15, 1836. 
Filer, David and Sarah Keller, Oct. 11, 1838. 
Finkenbinder, John and Jane Beaston, Dec. 9, 1841. 
Filer, David and Esther Smith, Oct. 24, 1845. 
Frazer, Wilson and Mary Mechey, Jan. 6, 1848. 
Gaster, John and Sarah Jane Lee, Dec. 20, 1832. 
Graham, William and Nancy Davidson, Jan. 19, 1837. 
Geddes, Thomas M. and Lacy McCord, I\Iar, 16, 1837. 
Gray, James and Mary A. McCune, July 3, 1840. 
Gray, Thomas and Elizabeth Drudge, June 3, 1845. 
Goodman, Alfred and Mary A. Singleton, Aug. 12,1847. 

Gayman, and INIercer, Jan, 1, 1852. 

Garman, John and Emily McKeehan, Jan, 19, 1843. 
Hudson, Jonathan and Widow Thompson, Jan. 21, 

1836. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 101 



Hood, John amlKinih A. AYallace, Nov. !">, 1841. 
Hac'kett, Ivobert and IVIargaret Thompson, Jan. 14, 1843. 
Hume, William D. and Hetty McWilliams, Sept. 12, 

1844. 

Harris, and Susan Wilt, Sept. 4, 1845. 

Holler, John and Sarah Ramp, Apr. 19, 1849. 
Hamil, George and Margaret E. Johnson, May 24, 1849. 
Haekett, Thomas and Ruth E. Davidson, July 30, 1850. 
Hefflefinger, Thomas and Martha McElhenney, Oct. 19, 

1869. " 
Irvine, Dr. James R. and Sarah Bella Davidson, June 

27, 1839. 
Irvine, Samuel and Isabella Kilgore, Mar. 15, 1838. 
Irvine, Dr. James R. and Mary Johnson, May 17, 1842. 
Irvine, Dr. James R. and Jane Morrow, Sept. 25, 1849. 
Johnson, Andrew and Eliza J. Martin. Mar. 23, 1831. 
Johnson, Henry and Kate Hawkins, Nov. 18, 18G8. 
Kelso, John and Matilda Fulton, Nov. 6, 1832. 
Keans, John and Emily Ramp, Jan. 29, 1840. 
Koons, Isaac and Harriet Kilgore, Jan. 29, 1846. 

Kishler, Jacob and Whistler, Feb. 2, 1847. 

Keeper, Augustus A. and Margaret A. Woods, Dec. 16, 

1847. 
Keizer, David and Mary A. Bender, Oct. 4, 1849. 
Kelso, John and Mary Duncan, Dec. 5, 1850. 

Kelley, Cornelius and Brown, 1860. 

Lemon, and Royal, June, 19, 1836. 

Lindsay, James and Jane Brown, Nov. 18, 1840. 
Lindenburg, Charles and Susan Mauer, Nov. 30, 1848. 
Landis, David and Mary A. Albert, Apr. 25, 1850. 
Lenny, William and Catharine Elliott, May 27, 1857. 



102 THE BIG SPRING 

Mullin, William and Eliza Whitecap, Feb. 21, 1833. 
McCoy, Joshua and Sarah McCarroll, Dec. 6, 1831. 
McElvain, John S. and Jane Stej^henson, Mar. 2, 1833. 
McKibben, Joseph and Mary McCord, Sept. 3, 1834. 
McCuUough, James and Margaret McKeehan, Jan. 22, 

1835. 
McKeehan, Joseph and Mary J. Skiles, Dec. 1835. 
McGinness, J. H. W. and Catharine A. Laughlin, Oct. 

23, 1851. 
Markward, Isaac and Jane Dougherty, Feb. 18, 1838. 
McCune, William and Mary A. Hays. Apr. 5, 1838. 
Miller, Joseph and Elizabeth Thompson, Mar. 14, 1839. 

Myers, Jeremiah and ^McKeehan, Feb. 23, 1840. 

Moody, Joseph and Ezemiah Mickey, Feb. 27, 1840. 
McKeehan, Robert and Rebecca C. Skiles, JNIar. 5, 1840. 
McCullough, Samuel and Mary J. McKeehan, Dec. 24, 

1840. 
McKee, Alexander and Francia Bowan, Nov. 15, 1841. 
Middleton, Andrew and Nancy Elliott, Jan. 3, 1843. 
McFarlane, Robert and Lydia B. McKinney, Feb. 9, 

1843. 
McLaughlin, Samuel and Maria Harper, Feb. 21, 1843. 
McKeehan, Benjamin and Kinkaid, Jan. 4, 

1844. 
Myers, Benjamin and Eliza Carothers, Feb. 10, 1845. 
McCoy, Daniel and Mary E. McElvain, Sept. 4, 1845. 
INIcCandlish, Thomas and Mary W. Coyle, Dec. 25, 1845. 
McDannel, William and INIary Martin, Jan. 8, 1846. 
McCullough, W. Linn, and Ann E. Glenn, Nov. 11, 

1846. 
McLaughlin, William and Eliza A. Moore, Jan. 21, 

1847. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 103 



Montgomery, Robert ami Rachel Thompson, Jan. 28, 

1847. 
IMcCnllouo-h, James and INlartha Brown, Feb. 4, 1847. 
Myers, Henry and IMary A. Ram]i, Fel). 17, 1848. 
Matthews, Edward and Velotta Bnsh, Apr. 18, 1848. 
McKinney, Thomas and Jane Rachel Glenn, May 11, 

1848. 
McCnllono-h, William H. and Sarah Mickey, Jan. 18, 

1840. 

IMiller, and Elizabeth Walker, Oct, 14, 1850. 

McCnllongh, T. Henderson and Rebecca Herron, Feb. 

13, 1851. 
McCnllough, Robert and Jane Dnncan, Mar. 25, 1852. 
^[cCune, S. Elder and Margaret J. Langhlin, Nov. 17, 

1859. 
Mart, Alexander G. and Sarah J. Miller. 
McCachran, Robert and JNIattie McCandlisli, Dec. 16, 

1874. 

Nettle. George and Stewart, Jan. 27, 1835. 

North, Andrew and Margaret Myers, Jan. 28, 1841. 
Nave, George and Barbara French, June 17, 1841. 
Noftsker, George W. and Susan Green, Jan. 25, 1848. 
Oliver, James and Mary McCachran, May 15, 1872. 
Patterson, James and Eliza Montgomery, Jan. 10, 1839. 
Pilgrim, Henry and Maria Miller, June 13, 1850. 

Patterson, and Margaret ^lartin, Oct. 14, 1850. 

Peters, John and Alice Baxter, Sept. 10, 1802. 
Richards, Robert and Susan Spear, Jan. 29, 1834. 
Russel, Fauster and Mary Mateer, Feb. 12, 1835. 
Reed, David L. and Mary Fitzsinnnons, Apr. 5, 1836. 
Reed, James and p:iizabeth Elliott, Mar. 20, 1857. 
Richardson, James and Isabella Vanlever, Apr. 15, 1866. 



104 THE BIG SPRING 

Richardson, William and Ann Wilson, Sept. 23, 1869. 
Steel, James and Mary McElvain, Mar. 15, 1831. 
Shaw, James and Catharine Goodhart, Mar. 13, 1834. 
Stoneberger, William and Josephine Roberts, Dec. 12, 

1835. 

Stewart, Mitchel and Miller, June 23, 1836. 

Sailor, Isaac and Lucetta Rutgers, Jan. 24, 1839. 

Smith, John and Brown, Oct., 1840. 

Scouller, William and Eleanor Jacob, Nov. 26, 1840. 
Straw, William and Catharine Albert, Jan. 7, 1841. 
Snodgrass. William and Nancy Fulwiler, Jan. 16, 1844. 
Sharp, Samuel and Eliza A, McKeehan, Mar. 5, 1844. 
Snodgrass, Benjamin and Nancy Buchanan, Mar. 26, 

1844. 
Steel, Robert and Mary IMcCandlish, Nov. 26, 1844. 

Stevick, Jacob and Snoke, Aug. 12, 1847. 

Shover, B. and McDonnel, Sept. 23, 1847. 

Sanders, William nnd Eliza Layburn, Dec. 16, 1847. 
Snyder, Jacob and Hannah M. Randolph, Sept. 9, 1850. 
Stickfield, Michael and Dolly Wilkison, Nov. 24, 1833. 
Spree, John and M. A. Runsher, Feb. 29, 1860. 
Sprigs, David and Margaret A. W.Baxter, Sept. 10,1862. 
Stanton, William and Annie Kennedy, Mar. 8, 1866. 
ShuUenberger, Adam and Adaza Hefflefinger, Nov. 25, 

1869. 
Treat, William and Wilhemina Rudgers, Apr. 16, 1833. 
Thompson, John and Sarah Peebles, Mar. 26, 1835. 
Thompson, James and Isabella Kilgore, Nov. 19, 1835. 
Thompson, Matthew and Elizabeth Jacob, Sept. 1, 1836. 
Thompson, Hugh and Jane Kennedy, Apr. 1, 1841. 
Tritt, Samuel and Julia Heagy, Oct. 17, 1844. 
Torbet, Robert and Mary Mitten, Nov. 30, 1848. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 105 



Topley, Al)sal()iii II. ;iiul Sai-jih K. CJ;inliU'r,Feb. 15, 1852. 
Trego, Jnnics S. and l.i/zit' 1{. Naolc, Mar. 25, 187o. 
Thoiiipsoii, C1iai-lt's and Savilla Jolin.soii. 
Woodrow, Enoch and Jane Vanderbilt, July ol, 1831. 
AVilson, Irving and Ann Weaver, Aug. 7, 18o2. 
AYeaver, John H. and Lacy MeCord, Mar. (>, 18o;3. 
AVallace, Thomas and Mrs. Wilson, Feb. 13, 1834. 
Watson, George and Mrs. Eliza J. Johnson, July 24, 

1834. 
Weidner, James and Elizabeth Spear, May 20, 1836. 
AYoodburn, James and Jane Johnson, Jan. 10, 1837. 

Whistler, Christopher and Filer, June 7, 1838. 

Wolir, George and Eliza Harper, Dee. 27, 1838. 
White, Robert and Jane Ferguson. Feb. 18, 1841. 

Wise, Michael and Donnelly, Sept. 9, 1841. 

Williams, Joseph C. and Sarah J. McKeehan, Jan. 12, 

1843. 
Wilson, Jose})h and Esther Butler, Nov. 20, 1845. 
Woodburn, Benjamin and Elizabeth A. Brown, Jan. 1, 

184H. 
Welcome, David and INIargaret Elliott, Sept. 23, 1847. 
Woods, John and Rachel Layburn, Nov. 22, 1841). 
AVhisler, Elijah and Mary Nyas, Jan. 10, 18-50. 
Watson, Christian and Elizabeth Duify, Aug. 27, 1850. 
Woodburn, John and Lucinda Stewart, Feb. 26, 1859. 
Zeigler, John and Jane Russell, Nov. 28, 1833. 
Zug, John and Margaretta A. Hood, July 28, 1841. 



BATTISJIS J5Y KKV. ROBERT M CACHRAN. 

Atchison, Andrew Mitcliel, son of William and Nancy, 

Aug. 30, 183(). 
Alexander, William, son of William and Anna, July 



106 THE BIG 8PRING 

23,1832. 
Adams, Margaret J., daughter of Robert, May 10, 1834. 
Adams, Jemima, daughter of Robert, July 30, 1836. 
Adams, Susanna, daughter of Robert, Aug. 9, 1839. 
Allen, Jesse K., son of James and Jane, Get. 30, 1841. 
Adams, Martha S., daughter of Ephriam and Elizabeth, 

Barr, Aug. 7, 1842. 
Adams, Rebecca E., daughter of Robert, Oct. 13, 1842. 
Adams Margaret Clark, daughter of Ephriam and Eliz- 
abeth, May 4, 1844. 
Brown, Elizabeth, daughter of William and Jane, Aug. 

14, 1831. 
Brown, Margaretta, daughter of Joseph, Apr. 13, 1832. 
*Brown, Elizabeth J., daughter of John, Oct. 21, 1832. 
*Brown, Agnes R., daughter of John, Oct. 21, 1832. 
Bales, Thomas J., son of Eliza, Nov. 25, 1832. 
Barr Mary A., daughter of Hugh, May 11, 1833. 
Bales, Jane McFarlane, daughter of Eliza. Nov. 25, 

1832. 
Bro"wn, Joseph Tliom])son, son of William, July 7, 

1833. 
Brattan, James Sharp, son of George, INlar. 10, 1834. 
Brow^n, Sarah I., daughter of Joseph, Sept. 7, 1834. 
Barr, Robert Lusk, son of Hugh, June 10, 1835. 
Barr, Alexander, son of William and Sarah, Dec. 5, 

1835. 
Barr, John Geddes, son of William and Sarah, Dec. 5, 

1835. 
Barr Margaret L., daughter of William and Sarah, 

Dec. 5, '1835. 
Brown Caroline, daughter of Joseph, May 15, 1836. 

*Twins. 



,i'.V- 






d..,. -iiMAf 



"V"*-'' ! 







t^-n^^v^r-r- 



V w>'\UV^V 






tf." 



J«' 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, 109 



BniT, J. W., son of Willinni, (apothecary) July 8, 1838. 
BroAvn, iSliiry J., (ljiii<;litcr of Willisnu, Aug. 24, 1838. 
Ijiut, Esther Thoiiipsoii, (laughter of Hugh aiul Martha, 

Dee. 18, 1838. 
Brown, Andrew MeElwain, sou of William, July 11,1841. 
Boyd, Rebecca, daughtei- of James and Jane, Nov. 11, 

i842. 
Brown, Banuiel A., son of John and Lacy, Aug. (), 1843. 
r,arr, Hugh A., son of Hugh and Martha, Oct. 20, 1843. 
j>est, Frances, daughter of Henry, May 4, 1844. 
]>rown, John C, son of William, June 23, 1844. 
Brown, Ellen D., daughter of Lacy, Aug. 10, 1844. 
Best, Richard, son of Henry, Nov. 8. 1844. 
Best, Robert, son of Henry, Aug. 8, 1846. 
Best, Sarah E., daughter of Henry, May 12, 1849. 
Best, James, son of Henry and Catharine, Nov. 8, 1850. 
Coyle, William H.,son of Scott and Nancy, Sept. 13, 1834. 
Coyle, Robert Elliott, son of Andrew and Eliza, Dec. 

22, 1833. 
Carnahan, John McD., son of William, INFar. 29, 1835. 
Coyle, Samuel McCord, son of John and Eliza, Sept. 6, 
"1835. 
Coyle, Martha Linn, daughter of Scott and Nancy, May 

1, 1836. 
Claudy, William B., son of George and Catharine, May 

15, 1836. 
Coyle, David Linn, son of Andrew and Eliza, Dec. 31, 

1837. 
Claudy, Samuel R., son of George and Catharine, Jan. 

20, 1838. 
Cook, Hannah E., June 12, 1842.. 
Cook, Alfred Dewey, son of Samuel, Nov. 11, 1842. 



110 THE BIG SPRING 

Cook, Caroline, daughter ol Samuel and Jane, Nov. 11, 

1842. 
Claudy, Margaret E., daughter of George and Catharine, 

Jan. 19, 1845. 
Cook, George Grove, son of Felix and Elizabeth, Aug. 

23, 1846. 
Davidson, Alex. Leckey, son of Samuel and Catharine, 

Mar. 25, 1832. 
Davidson, Sarah E., daughter of John, June 10, 1832. 
Duncan, James Mitchel, son of John and Harriet, June 

30, 1833. 
Davidson, James Wilson, son of John and Eliza, Apr. 

20, 1834. 
Davidson, Isabella A., daughter of Matthew, Apr. 23, 

1834. 
Davidson, John Blair, son of Samuel, July 29, 1834. 
Davidson, Rebecca E., daughter of Alex, and Jane, Nov. 

22, 1834. 
Davidson, Nancy E., daughter of John and Eliza, May 

7, 1837. 
Davidson, Marjory T., daughter of John and Eleanor, 

Apr. 27, 1838. * 
Davidson, Elizabeth A., daughter of Samuel and Catha- 
rine, May 19, 1839. 
Davidson, John Young, son of William and Rosanna, 

Nov. 1, 1839. 
Dunlap, William, son of Daniel and Eliza, Nov. 1, 1839. 
Davidson, Robert McFarlane, son of William and Ro- 
sanna, Aug. 6, 1843. 
Dunfee, John T., son of John and Sarah, Aug. 10, 1844, 
Davidson, Mary Jane, daughter of John and IMar^^, JNIay 

10, 1845. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. Ill 



Davidson, Ellen Jacol), (l;iui;iitt'r of William and Ro- 
sa nna, flune 7, 1(S4(). 
Davidson, Arabella, dauiihter of (leorjie G. and Jane, 

June 7, 184('). 
Dunfee, Marv E., daughter of John and Sarah, Feb. 5, 

1847. 
Dunla]), Addella, daughter of Daniel and Frances, June 

1(), 1847. 
Dunlap, Mary, daughter of Daniel and Frances, June 

1(3, 1847. 
Dunla]), Virginia, daughter of Daniel and Frances, June 

1(), 1847. 
Davidson, George E.,son of George and Jane, Nov. 12, 

1847. 
Davidson, Samuel Rankin, son of William, Nov. 3, 1849. 
Dunlap, Anna, daughter of Daniel and Frances, Feb. 3, 

1850. 
Dunfee, John Rankin, son of John and Sarah, Nov. 8, 

1849. 
Davidson, Sarah E., daughter of William, Ma}^ 9, 1851. 
Davidson, John H., son of George and Jane, Sept. 21, 

1851. 
Ege, Mary A., daughter of Joseph and Jane, Aug. 25, 

'l835. 
Ege, Frances Hopkins, daughter of Jose})h and Jane, 

May, 24, 1850. 
Ege, Mary E., daughter of Joseph and Jane, May 24, 

1850. 
Fulton, Sarah, daughter of James, Oct. 7, 1832. 
Fulton, Francis, son of James, Mar. 29, 1835. 
Fulton, Elizabeth J., daughter of Houston and Jane, 

Apr. IG, 1836. 



112 THE BIG SPRING 



Fulton, David Blean, son of James and Grizzelda, Oct. 

3, 1836. 
Fulton, Samuel H., son of Houston and Sarah, Oct. 14, 

1837. 
Fulton, Mary E., daughter of Houston and Sarah, Apr, 

24, 1841. 
Fulton, Martha, daughter of James, Aug. 7, 1842. 
Ferguson, David Morrow, son of William and Mary, 

July 20, 1845. 
Fulton, James, son of James, .Aug. 8, 1846. 
Ferguson, Mary J., daughter of William and Mary, Sept. 

6, 1845. 
Fosnot, John C, son of Jacob, Feb. 16, 1832. 
Glenn, Atchison L., son of Alexander and Maria, 1831. 
Givler, Martha J., daughter of Benjamin and Isabella, 

Apr. 1, 1832. 
Givler, Thomas McFarlane, son of Benjamin and Isa- 
bella, Apr. 1, 1832. 
Geddes, William M., son of Dr. John P. and Catharine, 

July 2, 1832. 
Gaster, John Henderson, son of James and Sarah, June 

1, 1834. 
Geddes, Charles King, son of Dr. John P. and Cath- 
arine, Apr. 16, 1836. 
Gillespie, James Stewart, son of Samuel, May 14, 1837. 
Geddes, Williamson Niven, son of Dr. John P., Aug. 

9, 1837. 
Gillespie, Alfred Ewing, son of Samuel, Nov. 1, 1839. 
Graham, John Davidson, son of William and Nancy, 

Aug, 8, 1840. 
Gilmore, David McKinney, son of James and Eleanor, 

Aug. 16, 1840. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 118 



Gillespie, Sarah T., daughter of George and Lucinda, 

Apr. 22, 1842. 
Graham, James MeFarlaiK", son of William and Nancy, 

Aug. 14, 1842. 
Gillespie, Thomas G., son of George and Lueinda, May 

12, 1843. 
Gillesjiie, Sarah E., daughter of Samuel, July, 16, 1843. 
Green, IMatilda I., daughter of Sanuiel and Mary, Feb. 

8, 1844. 
Gilmore, Nancy Jane, daughter of James and Eleanor, 

June 23, 1844. 
Graham, William Finley, son of William and Nancy, 

July 21, 1844. 
Green, Barbara I., daughter of Sanuiel and Mary, May 

17, 1846. 
Gillespie, John A., son of Samuel, May 24, 1846. 
Gillespie, Albert Stewart, son of George and Lucinda, 

Nov. 8, 1846. 
Gilmore, Lydia B., daughter of James and Eleanor, Nov. 

8, 1846. 

Graham, Arthur, son of William and Nancy, Oct. 10, 

1847. 
Green, Joseph E., son of Samuel and Mary, May 27, 

1848. 
Glenn, Anna M., daughter of William M. and Mary, 

Aug. 19, 1848. 
Gillespie, Elizabeth J., daughter of George and Lucinda, 

May 11, 1849. 
Gillespie, Samuel S., son of George and lAicinda, Nov- 

3, 1849. 
Glenn, Robert E., son of William M. and Mary, Aug. 

9, 1850. 



114 THE BIG SPRING 

Graham, Alfred Mateer, 8on of AVilliam and Nancy, 

Sept. 8, 1850. 
Green, John C, son of Samuel and Mary, Apr. 1, 1851. 
Green, Mary G., danghter of Samuel and IMary, Apr. 1, 

1851. 
Harlan, Mary C, Aug. 14, 18ol. 
Harper, Sarah A., Sept. 24, 1831. 
Hood, Jane S., Nov. 13, 1831. 
Herron, Margaret Davidson, daughter of James, Jan. 15, 

1832. 
Harlan, Jacob W., Mar. 7, 1832. 
Harlan, Catharine, Mar. 7, 1832. 
Harlan, Samuel A., Mar. 7, 1832. 
Herron, Mary, E., daughter of James, Aug. 25, 1833. 
Harlan, Eliza J., Sept. 9, 1833. 

Harlan, Caroline, daughter of George, Nov. 10, 1833. 
Harper, Margaret, daughter of William, July 12, 1835. 
Harlan, Jane E., daughter of George, Aug. 25, 1835. 
Herron, James Johnson, son of James, July 30, 1836. 
Herron, William, son of James, Se])t. 3, 1838. 
Hudson, Martha E., daughter of Jonathan, Aug. 24, 1838. 
Hays, John Sharp, son of Robert and Hannah, ]\Iay 

13, 1843. 
Hackett, Ross, son of Robert and ISIargaret, Aug. 17, 

1845. 
Hood, John Wallace, son of John and Sarah, May 18, 

1846. 
Humes, Emma M., daughter of William and Hetty, 

Aug. 8, 1846. 
Hays, Edwin R., son of Robert and Hannah, Nov. 7, 1846. 
Hackett, Mary E., daughter of Robert and Mary, Aug. 

7, 1847. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 115 



lluiiR', James J)avid80ii, son of William and Hetty, 

An--. It), lcS48. 
Hood, Margaret Harpei', dangliter of Jolm and Harah, 

Aug. 8, 1849. 
Huston, John 1). Line, son of James, Aug. o, 1849. 
Hume, Jolm JNIcWilliams, son of William and Hetty, 

Aug. 9, 1851. 
Hood, Walter L., son of John and Sarah, Sept. 21, 1851. 
Irvine, James B., son of James and Isahella, July 7, 

1833. 
Irvine, James Davidson, son of Dr. James R. and Sarah, 

]Mar. 18, 1840. 
Irvine, Susan M. S., daughter of Sanuiel and Margaret, 

May 24, 1848. ' 
Jacob, Joseph A., son of Joseph, Sept. 24, 1831. 
Johnson, John Bell, son of William B. and Ann, Aug. 

25, 1839. 
Johnson, Robert G., son of William B. and Ann, May 

12, 1843. 
Johnson, William Houston, son of William B. and Ann, 

Feb. 5, 1847. 
Koons, Thomas, son of Isaac and Jane, Apr. 13, 1832. 
Kelley, Mary A., daughter of Jane, Aug. 29, 1832. 
Kelley, Alexander, son of Jane, Aug. 29, 1832. 
Kelley, Emaline, daughter of Jane, Aug. 29, 1832. 
Kelley, William, son of Jane, Aug. 29, 1832. 
Kelley, Sarah J., daughter of Jane, Aug. 29, 1832. 
Ker, David Sterrett, son of William and Eliza, Oct. 21, 

1832. 
Kennedy, Alexander Barr, son of James and Maria, 

Dec. 10, 1832. 
Kennedy, Thomas, son of James and Maria, Dec. 16,1832. 



116 THE BIG HPRTNG 

Kennedy, Robert, son of James and Maria, Dec. 16, 1832. 
Kelley, Ann G., daughter of Grizelda, Aug. 2, 1833. 
Kelley, Samuel Kennedy, son of Jane, Sept. 28, 1834. 
Ker, Elizabeth J., daughter of William and Eliza, July 

12, 1835. 
Kennedy, John, son of James and Maria, Aug. 2, 1835. 
Kilgore, Nancy J., daughter of Ezekiel and Elizabeth, 

Aug. 25, 1835. 
Kilgore, Ezekiel J., son of Ezekiel and Elizaheth, Aug. 

25, 1835. 
Kilgore, William M., son of Ezekiel and Elizabeth, Aug. 

25, 1835. 
Kelso, Mary E., daughter of John and Matilda, Jan. 31, 

1836. 
Koons, James, son of Isaac, Apr. 16, 1830. 
Kelley, Margaret, daughter of Jane, Apr. 16, 1836. 
Kennedy, Margaret, daughter of James and Maria, Aug. 

18, 1837. 
Ker, Mary I., daughter of William and Eliza, May 20, 

1838. " 
Kelley, John A., son of Jane, July 15, 1838. 
Koons, Joseph, son of Isaac, Sept. 3, 1838. 
Kilgore, INlary E., daughter of Jesse and IMary, Dec. 25, 

1838. 
Kinsley, George, son of Jacob and Charlotte, Jan. 15, 

1839. 
Kiasley, John R., son of Jacob and Charlotte, Jan. 15, 

1839. 
Kennedy, James JMcFarlane, son of James and Maria, 

Apr. 11, 1841. 
Knettle, Hannah M., daughter of George, Oct. 30, 1841. 
Kelley, Margaret, daughter of Grizelda, Sept. 18, 1842. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 117 



Kelley, George 8., son of Grizelda, Sept. 18, 1842. 
Knettle, J;unes H., son of George, May 12, 184o. 
Kennedy, William L., son of James and INfaria, May 13, 

1848.' 
Kennedy, John G., son of rlames and Maria, May 10, 

1845. 
Kennedy, JNIary Barr, daughter of James and Maria, 

Jnly 25, 1847. 
Knettle, Lauretta, daughter of George, June 11, 1848. 
Knettle, Jane E., daughter of George, July 14, 1851. 
Lee, Sanuiel, Sept. 24, 1881. 
Lindsey, Joseph H., Sept. 24,' 1881. 
Lefevre, Kitty A., May 10, 1884. 
Lefevre, Isaac Lawrence, INIay 10, 1834. 
Lefevre, Mary E., May 10, 1884. 
Lefevre, Peter Wilt, son of David and Mary A., Mar. 

29, 1885. 
Lytle, Annie M., daughter of William, June 18, 1847. 
Lyttle, Sarah E., daughter of William, June 18, 1847. 
McKeehan, Mary, daughter ot John and Eleanor, Apr. 

24, 1881. 
McKeehan, Mar}'^, daughter of Benjamin, Apr. 24, 1831. 
McFarlane, Daniel Ligget, 1881. 
McCune, Sarah ,)., daughter of John and Mary A., Apr. 

1,1882. 
McKeehan, jNIargaret, daughter of John and Eleanor, 

Aug. 26, 1882. 
McElvain, James R., son of James, Sept. 8, 1882. 
Mathers, Susan, daughter of Thomas, Se])t. 8, 1882. 
Moore, Martha, daughter of Mary, Sej^t. 15, 1882. 
Martin, Sarah E., daughter of John, Sept. 15, 1832. 
McFarlane, Martha E., May 2, 1838, 



118 THE BIG SPKING 

McFarlane, Margaret, May 2, 1833. 

McElhenny, Margaret J., daughter of James, June 23, 

1833. 
McElvain, Robert McCacliran,soii of Robert, July 7,1833. 
McElvaiu, Elleu, daughter of William and Susanna, 

May 11, 1833. 
McGaw, Sarah M., daughter of Samuel and Elizabeth, 

July 24, 1833. 
McGaw, James, son of Samuel and Eliziibetli, July 24, 

1833. 
McGaw, Isal)ella, daughter of Samuel and Elizabeth, 

July 24, 1833. 
McFarlane, Jane S., Sept. 7, 1833. 
Mc Williams, John, son of John and Sarah, Feb. 9, 1834. 
McGaw, Jane E., daughter of Elizabeth, May 10, 1834. 
Mickey, Hays, son of Lucetta, May 10, 1834. 
McKeehan, David, son of John and Eleanor, May 10, 

1834. 
Miller, Mary, daughter of Samuel and Rachel, July (>, 

1834. 
McCune, Margaretta, daughter of John and Mary A., 

Sept. 12, 1834. 
McFarlane, Robert, daughter of Clemens and Lydia, 

Sept. 13, 1834. 
McFarlane, Jane M., daughter of Clemens and Lydia, 

Sept. 13, 1834. 
McBride, David, son of Andrew and Hannah, Sept. 15, 

1834. 
McCune, Ellen, Culbertson, daughter of Hugh, Mar. 29, 

1835. 
McElhenny, James, son of James and Eliz{il)eth, Mar. 

29, 1835. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 119 



IMilk'r, Lewis, hoii of Joseph, Aii<i;. oO, 1885. 
MeCncliran, Robert, son of Rev. Rolu'it aiul Jane, Apr. 

1(), 183(). 
Melveelian, Beiijaiiiiii, son of John and Eleanor, Dec. 

11, 1886. 
JNIcCune, Rebecca, daughter of Hugh, Dec. 27, 1836. 
IMcKibben, Susan M., daughter of Jose])h and Nancy, 

Jan. 28, 1887. 
McCachraii, j\Iary C, daughter of Rev. Robert, Aug. 20, 

1837. 
McKeehan, iNlary C, daughter of Joseph and Mary, 

Aug. 21, 1887^ 
Michels, James, son of Jane, Feb. 6, 1888. 
Micliels, Samuel, son of Jane, Feb. 6, 1838. 
Michels, William, son of Jane, Feb. (), 1838. 
McGaw, Scott, son of Samuel and Elizabeth, Feb. 6, 

1888. 
McGaw, Mary, daughter of Samuel and Elizabeth, Feb. 

6, 1888. 
McElhenny, Robert, son of James and Elizabeth, Aug. 

11, 1888. 
McCune, Ezemiah, daughter of William and Mary A., 

Aug. 9, 1839. 
Mickey, Margaret E., daughter of Benjamin and Eliza, 

Aug. 9, 1839. 
McKeehan, John, son of John and Eleanor, Oct. 20, 

1889. 
McCune, Ann M., daughter of Hugh B., July 12, 1840. 
Morrow, Jane, daughter of John S. and Rachel, Dec. 11, 

1840. 
Morrow, William Stevenson, son of John S. aud Rachel, 

Dec. 11, 1840. 



120 THE BIG SPRING 

Morrow, Eliza, daughter of John S. and Rachel, Bee. 11, 

1840. 
Morrow, Rachel, daughter of John S. and Rachel, Dec. 

11, 1840. 
Morrow, John Benton, son of John B. and Rachel, Dec. 

11, 1840. 
Mickey, Rebecca 8., daughter of Benjamin and Eliza, 

Aug. 18, 1841. 
McCune, Hannah M., daughter of AVilliam and Mary A., 

Oct. 30, 1841. 
McKeehan, Albert, son of John and Eleanor, Apr. 22, 

1842. 
McKeehan, Rebecca J., daughter of Joseph and Mary 

J., Apr. 2o, 1842. 
McCune, Samuel, son of Hugh, July 31, 1842. 
McKeehan, Jane M., daughter of Robert and Caroline, 

Apr. 25, 1842. 
McGaw% John, son of Samuel and Elizal)eth, Oct. 13, 

1842. 
McGaw, George W., son of Samuel and Elizabeth, Oct. 

13, 1842. 
McLaughlin, Margaret A., daughter of Samuel and Ma- 
ria, May 4, 1844. 
McFarlane, Jane E., daughter of Robert and I^ydia B., 

June, 23, 1844. 
McKeehan, Ellen, daughter of John and Eleanor, Aug. 

10, 1844. 
MorroAv, Emma, daughter of John S, and Rachel, Aug. 

10, 1844. 
McCune, William A., son of Hugh, Nov. 20, 1844. 
Mickey, Benjamin J., son of Benjamin and Eliza, Nov. 

20, 1844. 



PRESBYTEKIAK CHURCH. 121 



Mc'KeeliMii, (u'orov, son of Robert mihI Caroline, Mar. 

12, 184o. 
McLaugliliii, J);mi('l llar[H'r, son of Saimu-l and Maria, 

Nov.' 8, 1845. 
McLauglilin, Robert, Apr. 20, 184(). 
^MeLanglilin, ^uwm, wife of Robert, Apr. 20, 1846. 
McLauglilin, I.avina, (laughter of Robert and 8usan, 

Apr.\>0, 184(). 
McLaughlin, Eliza E., daughter of Robert and 8usan, 

Apr.'20, 184(). 
McLaughlin, Enialine, daughter of Rol)ert and Husan, 

Apr. 20, 184(>. 
McLaughlin, Zacliariah, son of Robert and Susan, Apr. 

20, 1846. 
McLaughlin, Rol)ert J., son of Robert and Susan, Apr. 

20, 1840. 
McFarlane, John Finley, son of I. G. and Margaret, 

May 18, 184(*). 
^IcWillianis, Albert, son ol Jane, Aug. 8, 1846. 
]McCune, Sanuiel Brady, son of William and Mary A., 

Nov. 7, 1846. 
McCoy, William A. Shann(jn, son of Daniel and Marg- 
aret, Feb. 5, 1847. 
McKeehan, Robert M., son of Robert and Caroline, Nov. 

12, 1847. 
McFarlane, Anna ^I., daughter of I. G. and Margaret, 

Nov. 12, 1847. 
Mickey, Sarah Belle, daughter of Robert and Elizabeth, 

Nov. lr>, 1847. 
McDannel, John Martin, son of William and Mary, 

June, 11, 1848. 
McLaughlin, Samuel J., son of Samuel and Maria, Aug. 



122 THE BIG SPRING 

19, 1848. 

McKiniiey, Maria, daughter of Thomas and Rachel, May 

12, 1849. 
McFarlane, James Graham, son of J. G. and Margaret, 

July 8, 1849. 
McCune, Cyrus, son of Hugh, July 22, 1849. 
Mickey, John E., son of Robert and Elizabeth, Aug. 3, 

1849. 
Montgomery, Hannah E., daughter of Robert and Ra- 
chel, Feb. 3, 1850. 
McDannel, Jane A., daughter of William and Mary, 

Feb. 3, 1850. 
McKeehan, Emma, daughter of Robert and Mary, Aug. 

10, 1850. 
McKinney, David A., son of Thomas and Rachel, Feb. 

7, 1851. 
Mickey, Laura A., daughter of Robert and Eliziibeth, 

Feb. 7, 1851. 
Morrow, Ada, daughter of John S. and Rachel, July 14, 

1851. 
Owens, Benjamin, F., son of Albert and Hannah, Aug. 

10, 1850. 
Piper, Maria E., daughter of Elder and Elizabeth, Nov, 

9, 1850. 
Piper, John A., son of Andrew and Eliza, June 10, 1832. 
Philips, Nancy I., daughter of Edward, Oct. 21, 1832. 
Pierce, William, son of Andrew and Rebecca, Mar. 31, 

1833. 
Piper, James, son of Andrew, May 11, 1833. 
Philips, John G., son of Edward, Oct. 16, 1836. 
Patterson, William O., son of Samuel H., Feb. 6, 1838. 
Richie, Elizabeth, daughter of William and Elizabeth. 



PRRSBYTERIAN CHURCH. 1 2o 



Nov. 6, 1881. 
Rea, John INIcKeehan, son of Joseph and Adaline, Nov. 

27, 1881. 
Ralston, IMary E., dau^^liter David and Ellen, Sept. 15, 

1882. 
Richards, Andrew T., son of Robert and Susan, Aug. 

12, 1887. 
Roberts, John, son of Andrew and Catharine, Jan. 9, 

1889. 
Roberts, AVilliani H., son of Andrew and Catharine, Jan. 

9, 1889. 
Roberts, Elizabeth, daughter of Andrew and Catharine, 

Jan. 9, 1889. 
Roberts, Robert Gillespie, son of Andrew and Catharine, 

Apr. 24, 1841. 
Rankin, William F., son of Dr. A. and Mary J., Mar. 

29, 184(3. 
Ross, Alexander, McWilliams, son of John and Hetty, 

Sept. f), 188o. 
Randolph, Alexander L., son of Paul and Amelia, Dec. 

27, 1888. 
Smith, Lacy J., Sept. 24, 1881. 
Skelly, Robert M., Mar. 4, 1882. 
Sponseler, Jane, daughter of Widow, Apr. 14, 1882. 
Skelly, Margaret J., daughter of Jane, Sept. 8, 1882. 
Sharp, Alexander McNitt, son of Samuel H. and Eliza- 
beth, Sept. 18, 1884. 
Sterritt, Isabella E., daughter of David and Rebecca, 

Aug. 25, 1885. 
Shaw, Peter Wilt, son of John F., Se]>t. 2, 1885. 
Swiler, William Davidson, son of James, Jan. 16, 1886. 
Swiler, Christopher Hume, son of James, Apr. 1, 1888. 



124 THE BIG SPRING 

Sailor, William J., son of Isaac and Lucetta, Apr. 25, 

1840. 
Stewart, Jane A., daughter of John and Rebecca, Apr. 

24, 1841. 
Seitz, John Wilson, son of Abraham, July 11, 1841. 
Smith, Margaret J., daughter of James and Matilda, 

May 17, 1841. 
Stewart, Susan E., daughter of John and Rebecca A., 

Aug. 7, 1842. 
Smith, Sarah I., daughter of James, Ma}^ 13, 1843. 
Swiler, Sarah E., daughter of James, May 13, 1843. 
Saylor, Rebecca J., daughter of Isaac and Lucetta, Nov. 

26, 1843. 
StcAvart, John M., son of John and Rebecca, Aug. 10, 

1844. 
Stewart, Mary E., daughter of John and Rebecca, May 

26, 1846. 
Stewart, Caroline E., daughter of John and Rebecca, 

June 11, 1848. 
Smith, James Houston, son of James, May 12, 1849. 
Thompson, Margaret A., July 7, 1833. 
Thompson, Robert Houston, Sept. 22, 1833. 
Thompson, Alexander, son of Alexander, Dec. 19, 1834. 
Tritt, Samuel R., son of William and Wilhemina, Dec. 

19, 1834. 
Thompson, Alexander, son of John and Sarah, July 30, 

1836. 
Tritt, Elizabeth A., son of Maj. Samuel, Sept. 4, 1836. 
Tritt, Sarah E., daughter of William and Wilhemina, 

Aug. 27, 1837. 
Thompson, Ellen S., daughter of Matthew and Eliza- 
beth, Aug. 11, 1838. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 125 



Tiitl, Jane M., daiightei of Samuel, Apr. 24, 1841. 
Toibet, Josejih Wallace, son of George and Tabitha, 

June 80, 1841. 
Trego, Mary E., daughter of Joseph and Margaret, Mar. 

12, 1845. 
Trego, Margaret D., daughter of Joseph and Margaret, 

Mar. 12, 1845. 
Tritt, Martha E., daughter of Samuel and Julia, June, 7, 

1846. 
Trego, Rachel R., daughter of Joseph and Margaret, Oct. 

10, 1847. 
Tritt, George W., son of Samuel and Julia, Nov. 12, 

1847. 
UnderAvood, William E., Sept. 24, 1881. 
Underwood, JaneE., Sept. 24, 1831. 
Vanderbilt, Jane E., daughter of Cornelius, May 17, 

1840. 
Vanard, Letitia, Peter Wilt guardian, July 29, 1840. 
Vanard, Wilson, Peter Wilt guardian, July 29, 1840. 
Vanderbilt, Enoch, son of John and Jane, May 10,1845. 
Vanderbilt, William A., son of Cornelius and Mahala, 

Aug. 8,1848. 
Vanbeaver, IMary K., daughter of Joseph and Rebecca, 

Oct. 14, 184().' 
Vanbeaver, Isabella Oliver, daughter of Jose})li and Re- 
becca, Oct. 14, 1840. 
Vanderbilt, Jane E., daughter of John and Jane, Mar. 

18, 1849. 
Wilt, John, son of William and Mary, Apr. 14, 1832. 
Wilt, Jane Mary, daughter of William and INIary, Apr. 

14, 1882. 
Woods, Sanuiel, son of William, July, 22, 1832. 



126 THE BIG SPEIXG 



Wilson, John 8., son of Maiy, Aug. 2(>, 1832. 
Wilt, Eliza J., daughter of Hannah, Oct. 7, 1832. 
Wilt, Catharine S.,"aaughter of Hanna, Oct. 7, 1832. 
Wilt, Rachel A. M., daughter of Hanna, Oct. 7, 1832. 
Woods, Dorcas J., daughter of WiUiani, Apr. 12, 1834. 
Woods, Martha I., daughter of William, June 7, 1835. 
Williams, Jane Whiteside, daughter of Louis H. and Ta- 

bitha, Jan. 28, 1837. 
Woodburn, James H., son of George and Mary, Jan. 17, 

1838. 
Woodburn, John J., son of James and Jane, Apr. 27, 

1838. 
Wallace, Samuel Gowdy, son of Thomas, Apr. 28, 1838, 
Wallace, AVilliam Laird, son of Thomas, Apr. 28, 1838. • 
AVoods, William, son of William and Margaret, July 1, 

1838. 
Watson, John M., son of George and Eliza J., Aug. 11, 

1838. 
Work, James Scott, son of James and Margaret, Jan. 25, 

1840. 
Watson, William E., son of George and Eliza J., Dec. 

7, 1840. ^ 
Work, Thomas McFarlane, son of John and Margaret, 

June 18, 1843. 
Watson, Beaty, son of George and Sarah, May 10, 1845. 
Woodburn, Joseph A., son of John and Ann, Aug. 8, 

1846. 
Woodburn, Laura, daughter of John and Ann, Aug. 8, 

1846. 
Williams, Samuel M., son of Joseph H. and Sarah I., 

Feb. 5, 1847. 
Watson, Martha J., daughter of George, Nov. 12, 1847. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 127 



Woods, William, son of Paxtoii and Jane, Aug. 9, 1851. 
Woods, James Woodl)urn, son of Paxton and Jane, Dec. 

22, ISoO. 
Woods, Thomas Jacob, son of Paxton and Jane, Dec* 

22, 1850. 
Woods, Elizabeth J., daughter of Paxton and Jane, Dec. 

22, 1850. 
AVoods, Margaret A., daughter of Paxton and Jane, Dec. 

22, 1850. 
Woods, Samuel A., son of Paxton and Jane, Aug. 9, 

1851. 
Watson, Anna M., daughter of George and Sarah, Aug, 

17, 1851. 
Zeigler, Nancy Herron, daughter of Dr. and Sarah, Aug. 

19, 1850. 



QM^S'-i 



^J^|s>*--^ 



128 THE BIG SPRIXG 



PASTOKATE OF REV. JAMES S. H. HENDER- 
SON. 
At a congTegatiunal meeting held April 19, 1851, a 
luianiinoiis call was extended to Rev. Robert Johnson, 
which call was not accepted. On the 2(3th of the fol- 
lowing July the congregation elected Rev. J. S. H. Hen- 
derson, pastor of the Big Spring Church. Mr. Hender- 
son accepted the call and soon after entered upon his 
pastoral duties. During the ministry of Mr. Hender- 
son very serious difficulties arose between the pastor and 
meml^ers of the congregation, wliich resulted in many 
leaving the church. The trouble Avas taken to Presby- 
tery and that hodj found nolliing to censure in JNIr. 
Henderson. In October, 18(32, tlie pastoral relation ex- 
isting between the Big Spring congregation and Mr. Hen- 
derson was dissolved. The congregation expressed their 
confidence in Mr. Henderson by passing the following 
resolution: "Resolved, that we regret the necessity 
Avhicli impelled Mr. Henderson to ask for the dissolu- 
tion of the pastoral relation; tliat we cordially bear testi- 
mony to the f lithtulness of our beloved pastor during 
the time he was with us, and still have unwavering con- 
fidence in him as a servant of Jesus Christ, and a faith- 
ful messenger of the Church of God; that in going from 
us he bears Avitli him our ])rayers for his success and 
happiness, and we cordially commend him to the love 
and care of the Christain community where his lot may 
be cast." Mr. Henderson received into the church two 
hundred and fifteen members; baptized one hundred and 
sixty children, and married ninety-seven couples. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 129 



PASTORATE OF REV. PHILIP H. MOAVRY, 

D. D. 

Rev. P. H. ]\ro\vry w;is elected ])astor of the Big 
Spring Cliureli October 17, 1863, and entered upon his 
pastoral duties the foUowing December. He was in- 
stalled June, 1864. 

The short niinistrv of Dr. Mowry was marked ])y ad- 
vancement in temporal and spiritual things. Unkind 
feelings of former years were, to a great extent, healed. 
A deep religious feeling pervaded the congregation, ])ar- 
ticularly was this the case during the months of April 
and May, 18(i(). Special services were held by the pas- 
tor which resulted in large accessions to the church. The 
church ediiice was remodeled, and the ])ipe organ now^ 
in use was ])urchased. The use of tables in the adminis- 
tration of the comnuuiion were dispensed with l)y reso- 
lution of the session, September 0, 1864. In October, 
18()8, the pastoi'al relation was severed. The efficient 
work performed by Dr. Mowry and the high esteem in 
which he was held by the congregation is best expressed 
by an extract from resolutions passed by the congrega- 
tion at the time of his resignation. "'Resolved, that the 
jwstoral relation existing betw^een this congregation and 
Rev. P. H. Mowi'v, lias been marked by uninterrupted 
harmony and good feeling; that we have every reason to 
be thankful for the signal manner in which his labors 
in our midst have l)een blest, and that he carries with 
him our highest esteem and warmest affection." One 
hundred and thirty-six mend)ers were added to the 
church during this jinstorate. 



130 THE BIG SPEING 



PASTORATE OF REV. EBENEZER ERSKINE, 

D. D. 

On the 17tli of August, 1869, the congregation elected 
Rev. Dr. Erskine pastor. He accepted the call and en- 
tered his ministerial duties October 9, 1869. During 
the ministry of Dr. Erskine, pastor and people have 
done aggressive church work. Special series of services 
were introduced from time to time, resulting in several 
revivals of religion. The most note w^orthy of which 
was the revival of 1876. In the last week of December, 
1875, Rev. Ed^yard P. Hammond preached for a couple 
of days which was followed by union services by the 
different pastors of the town in their respective churches? 
for six wrecks. These services produced a profound im- 
pression upon the community and resulted in nuicli 
good. Business in the town was almost suspended for a 
time, people giving themselves up to church going and 
conversation on matters of religion. Many accessions 
were made to all the churches, the Presbyterian receiving 
one hundred and two members. The next largest in 
gathering followed the special union services held in the 
different churches of New^ville by Rev. Francis E. 
Smiley in 1892. At that time thirty-three personsj 
united with the Big Spring Church. 

The congregation led by the pastor has taken ad- 
vanced grounds on the moral questions of the day, es- 
pecially in temperance lines. Five Missionary societies 
and a Christian Endeavor Society have been organized 
during Dr. Erskine's ministry. Notwithstanding the 
frequent demands upon his time by the church at large, 
rarely a Sunday passes w^ithout finding Dr. Erskine in 
his pulpit faithfully presenting the offers of siilvation to 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 131 



tlie impenitent, and strengthen ing cliristians in their 
most holy faith. Five hundred and seventeen persons 
have been added to tlie eliurch durino; the ministry of 
Dr. Erskine. We take from the hist report of Dr. Ers- 
kiiie to tlie Presbytery on the State of Eeligion in the 
conoreiration, tlie followini;-: "Number of members of 
the ehurch, three hiindi-cd and thi]'t3'-nine. Four servi- 
ces are held on the Sabbath and one during the week 
the greater part of the year. The attendance has been 
generally good. The catechism is taught in the Sabbath 
School. The Avoman's and young people's missionary 
societies are well attended, and are active and liberal in 
support of the work. The spirituality of the church has 
been much quickened during the past winter by a series 
of special religious services. Five hundred and ninety- 
six dollars were contributed during the year for Home 
and Foreign Missions. The cause of temperance has 
been strengthened and advanced during the year. The 
gospel, however, is our chief dependence in the moral 
elevation of the community when faithfully preached, 
attended by the demonstration of the Holy Spirit, which 
makes it the power of (jod unto salvation to all true 
believers." 




BJII|=S>=4^ 



132 THE BIG SPEING 



CHURCH BUILDINGS. 

The first cliiircli building was erected in 1737 or 1738, 
shortly after the organization of the congregation. It 
was a log structure and stood in the present grave yard 
until 1790. We have nothing descriptive of its appear- 
ance or arrangement. In 1790 the congregation built a 
large stone church in the style then prevailing. It is 
said the plan was furnished by Rev. Robert Davidson, 
then pastor of the Presbyterian Church of Carlisle, and 
afterwards president of Dickinson College. The two 
back ]>ews along the south wall in every tier from east to 
west wall were raised above the floo]*; the one next the 
Avail about sixteen inches. The one in front of it about 
eisi'ht inches. The same was true of the elevation of the 
back pews in the tiers on the east and west of the pulpit. 
Every pew in the church had its price marked on it in 
shillings and pence, varying from sixty shillings the 
highest to twenty shillings the lowest. The raised pews 
at the back walls were about eight shillings higher than 
those before them. The church was heated by three 
stoves placed in the three aisles leading from the front 
doors. The pulpit was placed high against the north 
wall and was reached by a flight of steps on each side. 
The pews had high straight backs. 

In 1832 the propriety of building a new churcli or re- 
modeling the old one was agitated, and in February of 
that year the congregation resolved to build a new 
cliurch and voted three thousand dollars for the ])ur- 
pose. The records of the church show considerable 
confliction of opinion in the matter and, although it was 
frequently brought before the congregation and board of 
trustees, nothing was accomplished for several years. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 135 



Some of the hu-iiiIkts wvw in favor of using the "funds 
of the ehuivli " ^vllit*ll were tlie quit rents and the sale of 
quit rents, others oj-»])Osed this vigoi'ously. Finally 
more tleeisive aetion ^vas taken. On January 25, 1840, 
the congregation instructed the trustees to raise funds 
and proceed to the I'epairing of tlie ehureh, and at a 
meeting held the fifteenth of the following Feln'uary die 
congregation "resolved that the trustees are hereby auth- 
orized and required to appro])riate three years interest 
accruing from the monies and bank stock, together with 
three years quit rents, accruing from the lots in the 
borough of KeAvville, to the repairing and remodeling of 
this house, provided the sum does not exceed seven hun- 
dred dollars. "From this time the work of remodeling 
proceeded without interruption until completion. The 
trustees in conjunction with the congregation decided on 
making the following changes in the church edifice: 
The pul]iit was to lie placed in the east end of the 
church, and a lobby of nine and a half feet was to be 
taken from the west end of the church and over the 
lobljy a gallery was to l)e made. The two jirincipal 
aisles were to be six feet wide, and to run east and west. 
The aisle in front of the pulpit was to be seven and a 
half feet wide. The pews on the right and left of the 
])ulpit were to be eight feet in length, and the two last 
l)ews in the west end were to be raised across the whole 
range, and all i)ews to have panel doors. There were 
to be four windows on each side of the Iniilding and two 
at each end, lowered to the standard of making windows 
in modern churches, each window to contain twenty-four 
panes of glass, twelve by iburteen. There were to be two 
doors opposite the aisle running north and south; two 



136 THE BIG SPrvING 



doors from the west end from the lobby into the church, 
and a large door from the west end to enter the lobby, 
with circular top and glass above. Thi'ee center pieces 
were to be placed on the ceiling, A new floor was to be 
laid. A cupola was to be placed on the west end in 
which a bell was directed to be hung. The bell, hoAv- 
ever, was not bought until 1854. All of these changes 
seem to have been made and the work completed by the 
fall of 1841, for on the second of November of that year 
at a meeting of the trustees a committee w^as appointed 
to settle with the contractor, Jacol) Zeigler. The report 
made of the expense of remodeling the church shows an 
ex]ienditure of two thousand three hundred and thirty- 
nine dollars and thirty-hve cents. Prior to 18oo the 
cupola appears to have become damaged by some means, 
and in the fall and winter of 1858 it was taken down 
and replaced by another. About this time the two 
small rooms in the lobby were removed and stairs to the 
gallery placed at each end of the lobby. A bell was 
purchased and placed in the new cupola at an expense 
of one hundred and seventy-five dollars, and was re- 
ported as being paid for at a meeting of the congrega- 
tion February 12, 1854. In 1865 the gallery of the 
church was taken down and a platform erected in its 
place for the use of the choir and the accommodation of 
the \n\^e organ which was purchased at that time. The 
pulpit was lowered and a new carpet was laid. At a 
a congregational meeting held Novem})er 28, 1880, it 
was resolved to remodel the old church building. This 
was done during the year 1881, and the remodeled edi- 
fice was reopened for worship. 

The improvements consisted of erecting a spacious and 



rRESBYTERTAN CHURCH. 137 



well appointed lecture room at tlie east end of the church, 
the same being divided into two apartments for Sabbath 
School ]iur]wses; the erection of a square tower with 
belfry on the soutli side of the church; the enlarging of 
the audience room l)y adding a recess to the east end for 
the pulpit; erecting a porch at the Avest end serving the 
])urpose of a vestibule, and adding a recess at the north 
and soutli sides in which the stoves are placed. The 
audience room was changed by a broad central aisle 
running east and west, and side aisles along the south 
and north walls. The church was furnished with hand- 
some gothic pews in walnut and chestnut; gothic pulpit, 
furniture in walnut, and crimson carpet. The ceiling 
was raised in gothic shape to the rafters and ornamented 
in stucco work, finished in white. The organ Avas placed 
to the left of the pulpit on a raised platform. The old 
square windows were changed to gothic, memorials to 
the families of James McFarlane, Daniel McDannel, 
Andrew Rdston, Robert. Mickey, Samuel and Deborah 
]McKeehan, James and Susan McCord, Rev. Samuel 
Wilson, Rev. Joslma AVilliams, D. D., Daniel Leckey 
and David McKiniiey. 

When the church Avas remodeled in 1841 the exterior 
was rough coated, after a few vears this coatins: fell off 
in ])atches and gave the walls a very unsiglitly appear- 
ance. It was aojain coated in 1881. In 18U4 it was all 
removed showing the solid stone masonry erected by 
the fatliers over a century ago. 

In the summer and fall of 1896 the interior of the 
Church was greatly beautified, largely due to tlie exer- 
tions of the ladits of the congregation. The walls 
were handsomely frescoed; a brussels carpet in green 



138 THE BIG SPRING 



was laid; the pews cushioned throughout; an artistic 
brass rail was placed around the organ loft, from Avhieh 
was hung curtains of green A^elour; all ])resenting a har- 
monious and pleasing effect. The amount ex]iended on 
these improvements, Avas seventeen hundred and sixty- 
four dollars. 

Tradition says, that a log study or session house was 
built near the first church, but we have no records 
showing the fact. In 1796, a stone building was erect- 
ed at the north side of the church, at a cost of about 
$500. Archibald McCoy, was the contractor. This 
]juilding was called by some, a study house, by others, 
a session house, and was also known as the school house 
from the fact that a Latin school was taught there for a 
numl)er of years. This building stood until about 
1840, when it was taken down and a Inick building 
erected at the east end of the churcli. This building 
served for school and sessional pur]:)oses until the erec- 
tion of the present lecture room in the rear of the 
church in 1881. 

OCCUPANTS OF PEWS IN 1790. 
NO. 

1. Rev. Banuiel Wilson. 

2. John Davidson, Andrew Patterson. 
8. liobert Patterson, Andrew Patterson. 

4. James Graham, Jared Graham. 

5. Samuel Woods, William Wotjds, Joseph Pollock. 
(3. John Leniond, Thos. Glenn, W. Woods, 

7. John McKeehan, James Huston. 

8. Alexander Ofhcei-, William Douglas. 

9. Matthew Davidson. 

10. Samuel Blair, William .Alitten. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHITRCH. 
WEST 



130 



<I ^ -J 

Ol I- M 



DOOR 



SMALL WEST ENTRY. 



hi 


05 


8 


S 


s 


S3 




g 


2 


a 








S 


A 


ii 


fe 




_o 


Ol 


s 





MIDDLE OR GREAT ENTRY. 



a 




















<r> 
m 

2 
< 

UOOQ 








it^ 


O 


g 


CO 


iS 


g 


2? 


S: 


i 


I. 


1 

z 


\ 

?. 










!/" 


Ix 






1 
i 

it 


^^ 


1 




1 







SMALL EAST ENTR> 


r. 




1 
i 


1 

8 


1. 


K 


g 


s 


ae 


5 


c: 


Oi 


!b 


1 


1 
OT 


1 
IT 


1 



XSV3 



140 THE BIG SPRING 



11. William Clark. 

12. Benjamin McKeehan, George McKeehan. 

13. William Given, William Wilson. 

14. Thomas Johnson, John Bo3^d. 

15. Joseph Connelly, John Connelly, William French. 

16. John McDonald, John Davidson, A. Leckey. 

17. James McCune, William Auld, John Monroe. 

18. Thomas Espey, James Johnson. 

19. William Brattan, John Brattan. 

20. John Ewing, William Ewing. 

21. James McFalane, Widow McFarlane. 

22. William McFarlane, Alex. Buchanan, Alex. Boyle. 

23. James Laughlin, William Laughlin. 

24. John Hays, James Woodburn. 

25. James Graham, Samuel Lindsay. 

26. George Lefevre. 

27. Samuel Reauge, Maiy Reauge, R. Beard, D. Craw- 

ford. 

28. John Espey, George Espey, John McDowell. 

29. John Beale, James Johnson. 

30. John Rippet, John Shannon. 

31. Widow Cummins, James Kirkpatrick. 

32. Richard Woods, Gabriel Glenn. 

33. David Stevick, James Nicholson. 

34. James Irwin, Matthew Ramsey. 

35. Thomas Jacobs, David Ralston. 

36. Paul Martin, Thomas McGuffin, I. Dearborough. 

37. Robert Hutchinson, John Patton. 

38. James Turner, John Turner. 

39. Samuel Mathers, Joseph Mathers. 

40. John Reid, W. Hunter, A. Brown, D. Gallespie. 

41. James McKeehan, Jarman Jacobs. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 141 



42. William Liisk, John Caldwell. 

48. IMatthcw Walker, Samuel Fiiiley. 

44. Jere McKibben, Benjamin Stewart, James Brown. 

45. John Brown, James McCulloch. 

46. Robert IMcClure, James Laird, Matthew Wilson. 

47. John Huston, Thomas Norton, Alexander Mc- 

Bride. 

48. William ]^rys<)n, Hugh Allen. 

4U. John Carson, Samuel Emmett, Joseph Parks. 

50. John McCune, Samuel Wier. 

51. Hugh Laughlin, Alexander Laughlin. 

52. Robert ^leFarlane, William Thompson. 

53. Samuel Morrow, Samuel McCormick. 

54. R(jbert Mickey, James Jack. 

i)~). Robert Shannon, William Stevens. 

5(i. Solomon Lightca]), Daniel McLaughlin. 

57. Robert AValker, James AValker, Samuel AVilson. 

58. James INIcGuffog, William McGuffog, John Rob- 

inson, 

59. John AVork. 

60. Nathaniel Roberts, Gillespie. 

6L Alexander iNIcClintock, Adam Carnahan. 

62. John Morain, Dr. Laughlin. 

{'}'.]. Adam r>ratton, George Gillespie, Thomas Gillespie. 

64. Robert ^lickey, Andrew ^lickey, Carna- 
han. 

60. Thomas McDonald, William McDonald, William 
Hunter. 

()(>. James Mickey, ^^'ilbam Kilgore. 

1)7. d()sc])h Vanhorn, riohn Kelley, fJo!&ej)h Kclley. 

()8. William Duncan, John Doyle, Henry Clark. 

6U. Alexander Elliott, Thomas Mathers. 



142 THE BIG SPEING 



70. Samuel Walker, McCiine. 

71. Win. Walker, Andrew Walker, D. Walker, Rol)- 

ert Officer. 

72. Tlionias Kennedy, John Bratton. 

73. Samuel McEllienn}^ and sons, John Morrow. 

74. Joseph Wilson, Jesse Kilgore, Robert Kilgore. 

75. Andrew MeElwain, John Bell. 

76. John Purdy, David Ramsey, rfohn Walker. 

77. John Brown, Widow Wallcer. 

78. John McFarLuie, John Mitchell, 'Samuel Mitchell. 

79. Alexander Thompson, William Thompson. 

80. James W. Appleby, James McCurdy. 

81. Rol^ert MeElwain, Nellie Stewart. 

82. David Williamson, Andrew Thompson. 

83. Robert Beale, Andrew Beale. 

84. James Hamilton, Robert Lusk. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHTTRCH. 148 



THE GLEBE. 

The (jlel>e or land belonging to the church, consisted 
of eighty-nine acres and some perches. A Avarrant for 
this tract was issued from the Land Office of the Prov- 
ence, Ma rcli 2, 1744, to William Lemond, James Walker, 
Alexander IMcClintock and David Killough, for the use 
of and in tract for the Presbyterian congregation of Big 
Spring. This trust was called "Eeliance" and was held 
under the original warrant until the 23rd of September, 
1794, when it Avas patented by the State authorities. 
The congregation built a stone parsonage on the glebe 
on the high ground on the north side of JMain street 
near the Big Spring, the ruins of which stood until a 
few years ago. The parsonage was occupied by the pas- 
tor until some time after the- settlement of Mr. Wilson. 
He bought a fju-m on the north side of the Conodoguinet 
where he built a stone house. The farm is now 
owned by his great grand son, James W. Sharp. Dur- 
ing Mr. Wilson's residence over the creek the parsonage 
was rented. On Jan. 10th, 1707, the parsonage prop- 
erty was offered at pu])lic sale. Rev. Samuel Wilson 
jnirchased it at £35 8d. per acre for about live acres. 

The propriety of laying out a town on the glebe land 
]i;i<I been discussed several years before it was laccom- 
])lished. The first record of a meeting of the trustees or 
congregation when the expediency of laying out a town 
was considered, is taken from the trustees minute book 
of ] 7S(S; the first Ixxik u^cd after tlie church was incor- 
l^orated. The cluirch was inc()r])orated Fe])ruary 27, 
1785, under the style and title of "The First Presbyter- 
ian Church in Newton townshij) in the County of Cum- 
berhmd. The resolutions t<iken from that book are as 



144 THE BIG SPRING 

follows: 

"Aug. 16, 1700. — It was moved find agreed that the 
time for laying off the town ujwn the glebe be defered 
until the next meeting." 

"Friday, Aug. 20. The trustees met for laying off 
the town upon the glebe land, agreeable to instructions 
from the congregation, and their own resolutions of the 
last meeting, but on Rev. Mr. Wilson's opposition 
thereto, the trustees agreed to postpone the prosecution 
of the business until they had further instructions from 
the congregation." 

"Sept. 9, 1790.— The trustees met and laid off sixty 
lots of ground, sixty feet front aud one hundred feet 
back; after which they directed Mr. Vanhorn to make a 
drawing of the same, and appointed the president, Mr. 
Mathias, INIr. Vanhorn and the secretary, a committee to 
meet the following Tuesday at the office of the secretary 
for the purpose of making a plan, &c., for the disposi- 
tion of lots." The plan drawn consisted of one street. 
Main street, to run from the spring to the west, with 
Glebe alley running parallel on its south, and Cove 
alley on its north; to be crossed by the streets Corpora- 
tion, High and West; the former two to extend north to 
the boundary of the glebe. Building lots were laid out 
on these streets, and all the remaining land of the tract 
was divided into parcels of from two to five acres for pas- 
ture and tillage. 

"Sept. 16. — The trustees met. The committee sub- 
mitting the plan of the town and the conditions of sale 
to them; it was agreed as follows: That the town shall 
be called Newville, that the lots already laid off be dis- 
posed of by lottery, at a rate of six dollars a ticket re- 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 145 



serving one and forty-fonr, which shall be sold at public 
vendue. That all the lots fronting on INIain street be 
subject to a ground rent of ten sliillings. No. 1 of 
the reserved lots to be subject to a ground rent of twelve 
shillings, and No. 44 to sixteen shillings and eight pence. 
That adventures j)ay one-third of the ju'ice of their tick- 
ets in hand, and give their ol)ligation for the balance, 
])ayable in three months." 

Oct. 28. — The day appointed for the sale of reserved 
lots, and likewise for the drawing of the lottery. The 
sale and drawing was postponed until Thursday of No- 
venibei". 

Nov. 4. — The trustees proceeded to tlie s;de of lot No. 
1, which was duly ])urchased l)y William Laugldin, 
sen., for the sum of eighty pounds currency, and lot 44, 
by George INIcKeehan, for the sum of eighteen pounds, 
twelve shillings. The sale being over, they proceeded 
to the drawing of the lottery. The following scale of 
drawing was the result: 

Sixty lots were drawn at about three pounds each. 
On the 12tli of December, six were sold for six dollars 
the lot. The balance of the lots w^re not drawn but 
were sold at jnivate sale. The ])asture lots were sold at 
from $24 to f27 per acre. Al)out eiglit acres of the 
north-east corner, was reserved for parsonage use, and 
subsequently sold to the Rev. S. Wilson. The reason 
lots Nos. 1 and 44 were considered more valuable, was 
their water ])rivileges, they bordering on the spring. 
All of the lots were deeded in limited fee with a reserv- 
ed incuml)rance, which was to yield an annual six per 
cent rent to the church. The incumbrance on the 
front lots, as given in the foregoing resolutions, was 



146 , THE BIG SPEING 



|22.22, each making an annual quit rent of $1.33; on 
the back lots, $17.90 each, with a quit rent of |1.07; 
and upon the out lots, |lo.38 per acre, with a quit rent 
of eighty cents. 

The collection of these rents as well as the other rev- 
enues of the church, was ahvays annoying, and the rec- 
ords abound in different methods that were employed 
for their collection. Borne v/ere of a rather severe char- 
acter and would hardly l)e tolerated in this day. On 
one occasion, we find that "Pews will l)e declared vacant 
and given to others if rent is not ])aid at the end of the 
year." On another, "Resolved that all persons who are 
indebted to the congregation, be notified to pay in six 
weeks, or suit will be instituted for recovery of the same. 
Provided that in no case, suit be brought against any 
desolate or indigent female, or any other individual 
wdiom the trustees may consider from sickness, poverty, 
or like cause, to be unable to pay at present." For 
many years the collectors of the church funds were giv- 
en five per cent of their collections for tlieir troulde and 
to stimulate them to greater activity. The trustees of 
the church in 183(>, resolved to abolish the quit rents 
by collecting the incumbrance and giving the owner of 
the property a deed in fee simple. Many persons took 
advantage of the offer, but some of the quit rents were 
held by the church as late as 1884. Ha])pily for all 
parties, the contentions which existed for so many 3a^ars 
between the church and the town over the right of the 
congregation to collect the ground rents, have passed 
away, and now all things move along smoothly. It is 
thought by many, that those eaily difficulties over the 
ground rent, served to retard the growth of the town. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHUJICH. 147 



Tlie original purchasers of lots from the trustees were 
Lu(hvip; Andrews, David Auld, Wm. Auld, Henry 
Aughinhaup,h, Pliilij) l>eek, Isaiah Bhiir, ,John Boyd, 
James Boyd, John Ih-atton, Wm. Cowden, George Car- 
mer, Sanmel Crowel, John Clark, Joseph Crawford, John 
Davidson, John Dunl)ar,Sanuiel Finley, Thomas George, 
James CJraham, Patrick Greer, Andrew Harvey, Abra- 
ham Hiklebrand, Hugh Holmes, John Jacob, Isaac Jam- 
ison, (icorge Keiser, William Leiper, William Laughlin, 
Felix Scott, Martha Lusk, Robert Lusk, Thomas Lusk, 
David McClintock, Sanuiel ]5^IcCullocli, Archy McCoy, 
Henry JMcDermond, Sanmel Mcllheny, William McEl- 
wain, Jere. McKibben, Daniel McQuire, P]zra McCall, 
George ]\IcKeehan, William McFarkme, William Mc- 
Gonegal, Isaac ]\Iason, Jolm Mason, Titus Miller, John 
Moore, Sanuiel JNIorrow, John Nickle, James Nicholson, 
David Ogler, Robert (Officer, James Patrick, William 
Poiteiiield, Williaiu l^^tton, Samuel Silver, Leonard 
Shannon, Daniel Souri)ike, Brice Sterrett, Matthew 
Thompson, John Turner, J. I). Waltenl)erger, John 
Wcily, Sanuiel Wilson, Hugh Wallace, David William- 
son, Thomas Wilson, James AVoodburn, Alexander 
Work. 

The folhjwing is a co]\y of one of the first deeds 
granted by the Big S})ring Church, dated Aug. 25, 1797: 

"Tliis Indenture Witnesseth, That John Carson, 
George McKeehan, Samuel Matthias, Thomas Jacobs, 
dolin Davidson, ^Ir., Alex. 'l'h()m])son, John Geddes, 
Ks(js., the present trustees of the incorporated congrega- 
tion of Big Sj)ring, in Cumberland County, and State of 
I'cnnsylvania, have in virtue of the trust reposed in us 
by the said congregation, and in considenillon of the 



148 THE BIG SPEIXG 

sum of two pounds, two shillings and two pence in full, 

have bargained, &q., to , of Newville, Newton 

township (here follows a description of the lot); being 
the same lot drawn at the lottery of the said town lots, 
on the 4th of March, 1790; and it is part of a tract of 
land surveyed in persuance of a warrant dated March 20, 
1744, granted to William Lemond and others, in trust 
for the said congregation, containing 89 acres and 105 
j^erches, and allowances as expressed in the patent 
granted by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania under 
the hand of Thomas Mifflin, Esq., Governor, and the 
seal of the said Commonwealth, to the said John Carson, 
&c., and successors of said congregation, dated at Phila- 
delphia, September 23, 1794, together with all the sing- 
ular, &c., to have and to hold, &c. Attest, John Ged- 
des, John Dunbar, John Carson." 

The house in which Kevs. William I^inn and Samuel 
Wilson lived having passed out of the possession of the 
congregation, no necessity for a parsonage was felt dur- 
ing the ministry of Dr. Williams or j\lr. McCachran, as 
they owned farms upon which they lived. After the loca- 
tion of Mr. Henderson this necessity arose. The congre- 
gation on January 26, 1854, authorized the trustees to sell 
the remaining quit rents on borough lots, and invest the 
proceeds of such sales in a lot on which a parsonage was 
to be erected. The lot was not, however, purcliased until 
January 28, 1857, when the trustees l^ought from Peter 
A. Ahl, one acre of ground on what is now Parsonage 
Street, this ground included lots Nos. 55, 53, 51, 49, 47, 
and 32 feet in width of lot No. 45. The price paid was 
four hundred dollars. Immediately after the purchase 
of a lot a comfortable and commodious brick ]:)arsonage 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 



149 



was built at a cost ot twenty-thi'ee hundred and twenty- 
two dollars. This was improved in 18(36, by the ad- 
dition of a porch in front of the house, and in 1888 the 
property was enclosed by an iron fence. 



- — ^=0"fIIS«' 




150 THE BIG SPRI^'G 



RULING ELDERS OF THE CHURCH. 



SABBATH SCHOOL AND SOCIETIES OF THE CHURCH. 

The first elders of whom we have an account, we 
find taking part in a joint meeting of the sessions of the 
Big Spring, Middle Spring and Rocky Spring churches 
in 1743.''' They Avere probably among the first or- 
dained after the organization of the congregation. 
Their names were: David Killough and Samuel Lem- 
ond. 

We find James Walker and Alexander McClintock, 
associated with William Lemond and David Killough, 
in obtaining a warrant for the glebe land in 1744, and 
presume they were also elders, but we have nothing defi- 
nite to prove it. 

The elders in 1790 and dui'ing the ministry of Rev. 
Samuel AVilson, were William Lindsay, John Carson, 
Robert Lusk, John Lusk, William Bell, Thos. Jacob, 
Samuel jMcCormick, Robert Patterson, John Robinson, 
Hugh Laughlin, John Bell, John McKeehan, David 
Ralston, John Caldwell, William Stevenson. 

During the ministry of Rev. Joshua Williams, the 
following elders were ordained: 

Nathan Ramsey, Alexander Thompson, Thomas 
McCormick, Isaiah Graham, Richard Woods, John 
McCune, James Brown, Atchison Laughlin, James 
Laird. 

The following were ordaiiied by Dr. Williams, Sept. 
29, 1827: 

Robert McElwain, Nathan Woods, Sanuiel McKee- 
han. 

♦Session Book of Middle spring Chuixli. 



PRESBYTEKIAN CHURCH. 153 



The following were ordained July 80, 1836: 
David Ralston, William Davidson, James Laughlin, 
James McElhenny, Andrew Coyle, Samuel Davidson. 
The following were ordained Nov. 17, 1848: 
William Ker, William Green, James Fulton, Joseph 
Jacob. 

TJie following were elected Nov. 22, 1858: 
Thomas Stougli, William Brown, Wm. Mills Glenn, 
Robert Mickey, James B. Leckey. 

The following were elected Nov. 19, 1870: 
George Gillespie, D. D. G. Duncan, and William 
Green, re-elected. 

The following were elected Nov. 17, 1877, and ordain- 
ed f>b. 16, 1878: 

Samuel A. McCune, Peter Ritner, John Wagner, 
David A. McKinney, Edwin R. Hays. 
Tlie following were elected June 27, 1893: 
Dr. John C. Claudy, James Cunningham, George W. 
Swigert, John F. Kendig, Dr. E. J. Zook. 

The Sabbath School was organized in 1817. It was 
not exclusively Presbyterian. It was called a union 
school although most of its officers and teachers were 
Presbyterians. Rev. Alexander Sharp, D. D., then a 
vouns; man attending Latin school in Newville, was the 
first sui)erintendcnt. The following in the order they 
are given have l)cen superintendents of the school. We 
have been unable to fix the exact date of the incumbency 
of all. Alexander Sharp in 1817; Nathan Reid, John 
Moore, several years prior to 1831; Andrew Thompson, 
rTames Laugldin, James R. Irvine, the first sn])erintend- 
cnt after the school was made exclusively Presbyterian; 
Andrew Coylc, W. B. Johnson, Josei)h C. Williams, 



154 THE BIG SPRING 



John M. Davidson, J. Hunter Herron, in 1860; J. Blair 
Davidson, in 1862; James R. Brewster, in 1865; Thomas 
Stongli, W. H. Thompson, David A. McKinney, 1877 
to 1880; Thomas Stongh, 1880 to 1892; Edwin R. 
Hays elected 1892 the present incumhent. 

On July 5, 1814, a Ladies' Bible Society was organized 
under the name of the Newville Bible Society as an aux- 
iliary of the Philadelphia Bible Society. As the society 
has always been officered by a Presbyterian it has 
been looked upon as an organization of that church. 
The society organized with fifty-six members each of 
whom were to pay an annual membership fee of one 
dollar. The treasurer Avas the principal, and for many 
years has been the only officer of the society. The 
treasurers have been in the order given, ]\Irs. Elizabeth 
Davidson, Mrs. Jane McCandlish, Mrs. Agnes Wood- 
burn, IMrs. Ann Davidson, Mrs. Jane McFarlane, jNIiss 
Jennie W. Davidson and Mrs. Jane McCandlish the 
present treasurer. 

The first Home Missionary Society of the church was 
organized February 14, 1867; Rev. P. H. Mowry, pres- 
ident. The Society of Ho})eful Workers was organized 
1871; Miss Mamie McCandlish was tlie first president. 
The Young Ladies' Branch of Workers, organized 1873, 
with INIrs. ]\Iargaret Stough as president. The Ladies' 
Foreign Missionary Society was organized Nov. 1, 1879; 
Mrs. J. B. Morrow was the first president. The Young 
Ladies' Branch of Hope, organized Nov. 15, 1878, with 
Mrs. J. B. Morrow as president. The Boys' Band organ- 
ized March, 1878; Mrs. Jennie E. Hays, president. The 
Christian Endeavor Society was organized Dec. 8, 1889; 
Mrs. Belle McK. Hays Swope, was its first president. 



PJlEyUYTEEIAN CllUKCII. 155 



SONS OF THE CHURCH WHO HAVE EN- 
TERED THE MINISTRY. 

James Graham was a. son of James Graham who lived 
in Westpennsboro township. He was born October 16, 
1775, and died June 5, 1848. He was graduated from 
Dickinson College, 1797. He read theology, and was 
licensed to preach in November, 1800. He accepted a 
call to the Beulah Presbyterian Church, in Allegheny 
County, Pa., and was ordained and installed pastor of 
that church October 18, 1804, and so continued until 
his death. He married Elizabeth ISIartin, of Sunbury, 
Pa., June 14, 1804. 

Alexander Williamson was a son of David and Tamar 
Williamson. He was born in Mifflin township, Septem- 
ber 17, 1797. He wns graduated from Jefferson Col- 
lege in 1818. He entered Princeton Seminary in 1819, 
from which he was graduated in 1822. He died at 
Corydon, Ind., July 14, 1809, after having served 
faithAdly, laboriously and with much self denial as a 
home missionary, in building new churches in a mala- 
rious region of country, for a quarter of a century. 

IMcKnight Williamson, was a son of David and Ta- 
mar AVilliamson. He was born in IMifflin township on 
his father's farm, Feb. 28, 1800. He graduated at Jef- 
ferson College in 1820. He entered Princeton Theolog- 
ical Seminary in 1822, and graduated in 1825. His 
first pastorate was the Dickinson congregation, not more 
than a dozen miles from his home. He was ordained 
and installed there, Oct. 20, 1827. Most of his minis- 
try was spent in the State of Ohio. 

Moses Williamson, was also a son of David and Ta- 
mar Williamson. He was born on his father's farm 



156 THE BIG SPEING 

near Newville, May 7, 1802. He made a public pro- 
fession of his faith and was received into the Big Spring 
church in the seventeenth year of his age. He was 
graduated from Dickinson College in 1824. He en- 
tered Princeton Theological Seminary in 1825, from 
which he was graduated in 1828. He was licensed by 
the Presbytery of Carlisle, April 28, 1828. He after- 
wards spent six months in study at Andover Theolog- 
ical seminary, and subsequently became paetor of the 
Presbyterian church, at Cold Spring, Cape May Co., N. 
J., where he remained for over a half a century. He 
married Sept. 15, 1834, Emily H., daugliter of Hum- 
phrey Huges, of Cape May. He died Oct. 80, 1880. 

J. Davidson Randolph, was a son of Paul and Betsy 
(Lecky) Randolph. He was born May 16, 1831, died 
May 23, 1897. He graduated from the College of New 
Jersey, 1858, and from Princeton Theological Seminary 
1861. He was licensed by the Carlisle Presbytery, June 
13, 1860. He was ordained and installed pastor of the 
Presbyterian church at Frenchtown and Kingwood,M<iy" 
16, 1864, and later served the congregations of Pitts- 
grove, Daretown, Christiana and Atglen, where he died. 

William McCandlish, although not born within the 
bounds of the Big Spring Church, was reared here and 
can be called a son of the church. He was born in 
Scotland, Sept. 12, 1810. His father, Alexander Mc- 
Candlish, came to this country in 1817, and settled near 
Newville, and died there in 1821. William, after many 
struggles against poverty, entered Jefferson College, 
from which he was graduated, 1834. He entered the 
Western Theological Seminary in 1834, graduating in 
1837; licensed Sept. 1837, by the Presbytery of Car- 



PRESBYTEillAN CHUKCH. 157 



lisle; ordained May 1839 by the Presbytery of Wooster, 
O. He ^vas actively engaged in the ministry of the 
Presbyterian Church for forty-five years and died in 
Omaha, Neb., Aug. 4, 1884. 

Samuel Davidson, was a son of John and Nancy 
(Sterrett) Davidson, of Westpennsboro township. He 
entered the ministry of the Presbyterian Church and 
supplied the churches of Derry and Paxton, between 
1790 and 1800. He died prior to 1800. 

Williamson Nevin Geddes, Ph. D., son of Dr. John 
P., and Catharine I. (McClay) Geddes, was born in 
Newville, Pa., Dec. 28, 1836. He was graduated from 
Jefferson College in 1854, entered Princeton Theolog- 
ical Seminary, from which he graduated in 1858. He 
taught several high grade schools in Virginia, Mary- 
land and New Jersey; was stated supply at Charlestown, 
W. Va., in 1869 and 1870; was ordained by the Pres- 
bytery of Carlisle, May 5, 1871; pastor of the Presbyte- 
rian Church in Waynesboro, Pa., in 1871. In 1872 he 
accepted the chair of Latin and mathematics in Han- 
over Colleire Ind., where he remained until 1876. He 
was one of the editorial staff of the "Standard Diction- 
ary" recently published. 

John Hood Laughlin, son of John and Jane (Hood) 
Laughlin, was born at Newville, March 23, 1854. He 
was graduated from the College of New Jersey and from 
Princeton Seminary in 1877. He was ordained April 
13, 1881, by the Presley tery of Carlisle, a missionary, 
and sailed for China September 1881, where he still 
labors. He married first, July 9, 1881, Annie Johnson 
who died in China, leaving an infant daughter. He 
married secondly, Aug. 17, 1886, Jennie Anderson. 



158 THE BIG SPRING 



PASTORS OF THE BIG SPRING CHURCH. 



REV. THOMAS CRAIGHEAD, 

Rev. Thomas Craighead belonged to a family of mi- 
nisters. He was a son of Rev. Robert Craighead, a 
native of Scotland and pastor in Derry and Doneagh- 
more, Ireland. He was a brother of Rev. Robert Craig- 
head, Jr., who was moderator of the Synod of Ireland. 
Thomas Craighead was born in Scotland and studied 
medicine there, but afterwards read theology under his 
father in Derry, and was licensed to preach the Gospel, 
was ordained and settled some ten or more years in 
Ireland. In consequence of the numerous grievances 
to which the Presbyterians were subject in Ireland, he 
joined a company of emigrants and came to America. 
He first settled in Freetown, Mass., Avhere he continued 
for some time, but became dissatisfied because of a want 
of sufficient support. Cotton Mather, the distinguished 
minister of Boston at tliat time, urged his friends at 
Freeport to "provide for his continuance and spoke of 
him as a man of an excellent spirit, and should he be 
driven from among you it would be such a damage as is 
not to be thought of without horror." In January, 1724, 
he became a member of the New Castle Presbytery and 
accepted an invitation to preach at White Clay Creek 
and Brandy Wine. In 1733, he was called to Pequea, 
Penna,, where he was very active in gathering and 
building up new congregations. He was released from 
Pequea September 19, 1736. 

At a meeting of Presbytery, October 27, 1736, Rev. 
Thomas Craighead was appointed to supply Conodo- 
guinet for six months. The following year he was called 



PRESBYTEEIAN CHURCH. 159 



to !su|)ply the people of Hopewell, but was not installed 
until October 13, 1738, on account of the difficulty in 
locating the church on the Big Spring, and a trouble in 
his own family, he having without consulting his ses- 
sion suspended his wife from church })rivileges, because 
she failed to live in peace in the same house with her 
daughter-in-law. He did not live to minister to the 
congregation on the Big (Spring more than seven months, 
but died suddenly the latter part of April, 1739, just 
after preaching an eloquent discourse to his people. His 
doctrinal views were in strict accordance with the West- 
minster slandards, to which^ he was warndy attached, 
and which he had adopted both in the Presbytery of 
New Castle and Donegal as the confession of his faith. 
Mr. Craighead left four sons, Thomas, Andrew, Alex- 
ander and John. John was a farmer and lived south of 
Carlisle. 



RKV. JOHN BLAIR, D. D. 

Rev. John Blair was born in Ireland in 1720, and 
cjune to this country when quite young, and most prob- 
ably his father settled ne^ir Brandy wine or Red Clay 
Churches in Chester County, Pa., as the name of AVil- 
li:nn Blair occurs as an elder from there in 1729 and 
1732. He and his brother 8anmel received their classi- 
cal and theological education under William Tennent at 
the IjOg College at Neshaminy, Bucks County, Pa. He 
was licensed to preach by the New Side Presbytery of 
New Castle, and was ordained pastor of the congrega- 
tions of the Tliree Springs, Big, Middle and Rocky, De- 
cendjer 27, 1742. During his pastorate here he made 
visits to Virginia, the last in 174(>, preaching with great 



160 THE BIG SPRING 



power and effect in various places, organizing several 
new congregations, and leaving where ever he went an 
abiding impression of his learning and piety. It is 
st<ited by some writers that he resigned his pastorate of 
the churches of the Three Springs December, 1748, but 
this is probably incorrect. Whilst the exact date of his 
resignation is involved in much uncertainty, the weight 
of evidence points to the year 1755. In 1757 he ac- 
cepted a call to the church at Faggs Manor, Chestei- 
County, which had been made vacant by the death of 
his distinguished brother. Rev. Samuel Blair. Here he 
remained ten years, taking his brother's place both as 
pastor of the church and principal of the classical school 
which his brother had conducted. In 17G7 he was 
chosen to fill the newly founded chair of divinity in 
Princeton College, and was also chosen vice-president, 
and was its acting president until Dr. Witherspoon en- 
tered upon his duties in 1769. It soon became evident 
that the fund contributed to endow the chair of divinity 
was insufiicient for the supjwrt of the professor. Ac- 
cordingly Dr. Blair resigned his position and Dr. With- 
erspoon performed the duties of both positions. Dr. 
Blair then accepted a call to Walkill, Orange County, 
N. Y., where he continued until his death, December 8, 
1771, at the age of fifty-one. Dr. Blair was without 
doubt among the foremost preachers of his time. Dr. 
Archibald Alexander expressed the opinion that "Dr. 
Blair as a tlieologion wa^ not inferior to any man in the 
Presbyterian Church in his day. He was a judicious 
and persuasive preacher, and througli his preaching sin- 
ners were converted and the children of God edified. 
His disposition was uncommonly patient, placid, benev- 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 161 



olent, disinterested and cheerful. He was too mild to 
indulge in bitterness or severity." Dr. Blair married 
the daughter of John Durburrow, of Philadelphia. The 
Rev. John 1). Blair, D. D., of Riehniond, Va., was his 
son. His daughter was married to the Rev. Dr. William 
Linn, one of his successors in the church of Big Spring. 
His jnddished writings are Animadversions on 
"Thoughts on the Examination and Trials of Candi- 
dates," "The Synods of New York and Philadelphia 
Vindicated," "A Treatise on Regeneration," "A Treatise 
on the Nature and Use of the Means of Grace." 



REV. GEORGE DUFFIELD, I). I>. 

Rev. George Duffield was born in Pequea township, 
Lancaster County, Pa., October 7, 1782. He was the 
third son of George and IMargaret Duffield who came to 
that place from the north of Ireland, between 1725 and 
17o0. His parents were of French Huguenot extrac- 
tion, the family having first taken refuge in England 
and later settled in the north of Ireland. The name was 
originally Du Field. The subject of this sketch was 
pre[)ared for college at the Academy of Newark, Dele- 
ware, and graduated at Princeton in 1752. He studied 
theology under Dr. Smith at Pequea; w\as tutor in Prince- 
ton College from 1754 to 1756, and was licensed by the 
Newcastle Presbytery, Ncav Side, March 11, 1756. He 
was called to the churches of Big Spring and Carlisle, 
New Side, some time in 1757, but was not ordained un- 
til September, 1759. In 17(58 Mr. Duffield was called 
to the second church in Philadelphia, which had l)een 
organized out of the followers of Mr. Whitefield, and of 
which Rev. (filbert Tennent, one of the most remark- 



162 THE BIG SPRING 



able preachers of that day was the pastor. This call 
was not accepted, and in 1768 it was renewed, but Pres- 
bytery declined to place it in his hands. In 1769 his 
relation with the Big Spring church was dissolved, and 
in August of that year a call was presented for one-third 
of his time from the newly organized congregation of 
Monaghan. This call was accepted and he was released 
from Big Spring and was installed there Nov. 14, 1769. 
May 21, 1772, a call was presented from the Third 
Presbyterian Church of Philadelphia, w^hich after much 
consideration was accepted. He was installed pastor of 
that church notwithstanding the opposition of its elders, 
the Presbytery and the trustees of the First Church, and 
continued in this relation until Iiis death, February 2, 
1790. His remains w^ere buried beneath the central 
aisle of that church. Dr. Duffield was a man of ardent 
temperment, an earnest, zealous and popular preacher, in 
hearty sympathy wdth the great revival movement, and 
with the followers of Whitefield. He was equally zeal- 
ous and patriotic in the cause of his country, and threw 
himself with all the ardor of his nature into the cause 
of independence. He was chosen Chaplain of the Con- 
tinental Congress, and was often found following the 
army, doing all that he could to encourage, comfort and 
stimulate the soldiers, and in preaching to them the gos- 
pel and administering to them its consolations. Dr. 
Duffield was the first stated clerk of the General Assem- 
bly. He was twice married, first to a daughter of the 
Rev. Samuel Blair. She died September 25, 1757, at 
Carlisle. He married secondly JMargaret, sister of Gen- 
eral John Armstrong, of Carlisle. By this marriage he 
left U\o children, one of them being the father of the 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. Ifio 



late Dr. Duffiekl of Carlisle and Detroit. 



REV. WILLIAM LINN, D. D. 

Rev. William Linn was born in Lnrgan township, 
Franklin County, Pa., February 27, 1752. He was 
the oldest son of William Linn, a rulin<!; elder in the 
Middle Sprinp; Presbyterian Church. His mother is be- 
lieved to have (bed in 8hippensburg, Novend3er, 1755, 
where the family had taken refuge in consequence of the 
Indian raids at that time. His grand father had come 
from Ireland in 1732 and settled first in Chester County, 
and from tlience had come, prior to 1750, to the Cum- 
berland Valley and purchased and settled upon a tract 
of land where William was born. After persuing a 
]H'eparatory course under Rev. George Duffield and in 
the school of Rev. Robert Smith, at Pequea, Mr. Linn 
entered Princeton College and graduated in the class of 
1772. He studied theology under his pastor, Rev. 
Robert Cooper, D. D., and seems to have been licensed 
and ordained by the First Presbytery of Philadelphia, 
or that of New Castle, in 1775 or 1776, and was ap- 
pointed Chaplain to the Fifth and Sixth Pennsylvania 
Battalions, February 15, 1776. Shortly after Magaws 
battalion was ordered to Canada, when Mr. Linn re- 
signed because circumstances would not admit of his 
protracted absence from home. He received a call to 
the Big Spring Church, April 9, 1777, and was installed 
pastor of that church October 3, 1777. Here he con- 
tinued until 1784, performing faithfully the duties of 
j^astor and preacher. He was then elected principal of 
Washington Academy, Somerset County, jNId. At the 
end of one year on account of sickness in his family he 



164 THE BIG SPRING 



was obliged to resign and remove from that region. He 
accepted a call to the Presbyterian Church at Elizabeth- 
town, N. J., in 1786, and in 1787 he was called to be 
collegiate pastor of the Reformed Dutch Church in the 
city of New York, which position he accepted and occu- 
pied until 1805. After entering upon his work here he 
was chosen the first Cha])lain to Congress, May, 1789. 
In his position in New York, Dr. Linn rose to great 
eminence in the ministry, find attained a reputation 
tor talents and eloquence second to no other minister at 
that time in the city. Dr. Linn resigned the pastorate 
in New York in 1805, on account of declining health, 
and removed to Albany, N. Y. He there engaged to 
supply the church, preaching once each Sabbath for one 
year. In the meantime he was chosen president of 
Union College, Schenectady, N. Y., but was unable to 
accept the position on account of rapidly failing health. 
He died in Albany, January, 1808. Dr. Linn Avas 
thrice married, first January 10, 1774, to Rebecca, 
daughter of Rev. John Blair, by whom he had seven 
children, one of which was Rev. John Bkiir Linn, D. D. 
He married secondly, Catharine, widow of Dr. Moore, 
of New York and had one son. He married thirdly, 
Helen Hanson, they had one son. 



REV. SAMUEL WILSON. 

Rev. Samuel Wilson was born 1754, in Letterkenny 
township, Cumberland, noAV Franklin County, Pa., in 
sight of the old Rocky Spring Church, in which his par- 
ents worshiped, and in tlie grave yard of which several 
generations of his fimily are buried. He was the fourth 
son of John Wilson, a farmer of Scotch Irish parentage. 



PRESBYTEKIAN CHURCH. 165 



and his wife Sarah Reid. The youngest son of the 
family entered the army where he contracted camp fever 
and came home and died in 1778. Samuel attended 
his brother during his sickness and also contracted the 
disease and was very ill. During this sickness he re- 
solved, if his life was spared, to devote it to the service 
of God in the work of the christian ministry. Accord- 
ingly, on his recovery, he relinquished farming and 
went to Princeton College, from which he was gradu- 
ated in 1782. He studied theology under Dr. Cooper 
at ^Middle Spring; was licensed by the Presbytery of 
Donegal, Octol)er 17, 1786; called to be pastor of 
the Big Spring Church, and ordained and installed June 
20,1787. "He continued to labor faithfully, acceptably, 
and usefully in the Big Spring congregation until his 
death." Soon after his settlement in the ministry he 
married Jane, daughter of Archibald ^lahon, of Ship- 
pensburg, Pa., and grand daughter of David and Martha 
JNlahon, of Rai, County Donegal, Ireland. They had 
two children, John, who died January 80, 1800, aged 
sixteen years, and flane, who married Dr. William M. 
Sharj), of Newville, and who died there July, 1876. A 
number of the great grand cliildren, and great, great 
grand children of Rev. Samuel Wilson, are now mem- 
bers of the Big Spring Church. He died March 4, 
171M), and rests beneath a large marble slab which the 
massive walls of the church he built in his earl}^ minis- 
try shade from the slanting rays of the setting sun. 



iu:v. .losHCA willia:\is, d. d. 
Rev. Joshua Williams was of Welsh descent. His 
grand father, Joshua, came to this country prior to 1764, 



166 THE BIG SPKIXG 

and located in the Welnli settlement in Chester County, 
Pa. He had two sons, Louis and Joshua, both of whom 
served in the Revolutionary war. Louis married Mary 
Hudson and settled at Dillsburg, York County, Pa., 
w^here they raised a family of eleven children. The 
Rev. Joshua was the third son and was ])orn March 8, 
1768. He jH-epared for college at Gettysburg, Pa., un- 
der the tuition of Rev. Mr. Dobbin, and entered Dickin- 
son College from which he was graduated 1795. He 
read theology under Rev. Dr. Cooper, at Middle Spring, 
and was licensed to preach the gospel by the Presbytery 
of Carlisle, in 1797. In the following year he was called 
to become the pastor of the churches of Paxton and 
Derry, and was ordained and installed by the Presby- 
tery of Carlisle, October 2, 1799. After laboring there 
with increasing usefulness for two years, he received a 
call to the church of Big Spring, which lie accepted, and 
was installed there April 14, 1802. Here he continued 
for twenty-seven years, the able minister and faithful 
pastor of this people, when, in 1829, in consequence of 
imjiaired health, he resigned. 

It is said that "few men in tlie ministr}^ of the Pres- 
byterian Church of the eminent talents, learning, piety 
and usefulness of Dr. Joshua Williams, were so little 
known to the church at large. This was doubtless ow- 
ing to the quiet and retired life which he lived, and to 
the absence in him of everything like a spirit of self as- 
sertion, or obtrusiveness. He was by nature possessed 
of an acute and vigorous intellect. His judgment was 
regarded as sound and discriminating, and he had a re- 
mai-kable taste and aptitude for metaphysical reasoning. 
His mind was richly stored with the results of extensive 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCir. 107 



reading, cloye observation and miu-li reflection, all sys- 
tematically arranged and at his command. As a 
})reaclier of the gospel, Dr. Williams was grave and 
solemn in manner and richly scri^jtiiral and instructive in 
matter. The great doctrines of the cross were not held 
by him as mere theoretical beliefs, but constituted the 
very life of his own soul. As a pastor he was regular 
and faithful in family visitation and in the catechetical 
instruction of all classes of people". He married, June 
15, 1800, Eleanor Campbell, who died April 28, 1856, 
aged seventy-six years. They had six sons and three 
daughters. Dr. Williams died Aug. 21, 1888, and rests 
in the grave yard of the Big Spring Church, Newville. 



REV. ROBERT M CACIIRAN. 

Rev. Robert McCachran was descended from a Scotch 
ancestr3\ His great grand father, accompanied by his 
wife, four sons and one daughter, emigrated from Can- 
tyre, near Campl)ellstown, Scotland, about 1725, and 
settled in the Forks of the Brandywine, Chester County, 
Pa. Robert McCachran, the second son of John Mc- 
Cachran and Isabella Cunningham, was born at the 
Forks of the Brandywine, Chester County, Pa., Septem- 
ber 24, 1798. He early manifested a strong desire for 
a liberal education, and as there was no school in his 
immediate neighborhood where the higher branches of 
an English education were taught, he walked daily three 
miles in winter to a school affording those advantages. 
This he continued to do for some time, when a classical 
school was opened at Brandywine manor, by the Rev. 
John Grier. ISlr. jNIcCachran entered this school and 
remained there until its removal from the place, when 



168 THE BIG SPEING 

he entered the Academy at West Nottingham, Md., in 
charge of Rev. James W. Magaw, a successful and po[)- 
ular educator in those times. At the end of the course 
of study in this Academy, INIr. McCachran entered the 
junior class in Dickinson College, Carlisle, where he re- 
ceived his collegiate training. After completing his 
course at Dickinson, he taught for a season in the Acad- 
emy at Newark, Del., and then entered Princeton Theo- 
logical Seminary in 1824, from which he was graduated 
in 1827. He was licensed to preach the gospel liy the 
Presbytery of New Castle, April, 1827, and in the Au- 
tumn of the same year a field of labor was opened to 
him at Middletown, DeleAvare County, Pa. In connec- 
tion with his Avork in this church, he gave half of his 
time to missionary work in Deleware and adjoining 
counties. He was ordained at New Castle, Del., May 
19, 1829. In 1830, because of ill health, he resigned 
his charge. After his resignation he made a journey on 
horse back in quest of health and another field of labor, 
up through Lancaster, York, Cumberland and Franklin 
counties, preaching as the opportunity presented. He 
preached several sermons in the church at Newville, 
which had recently become vacant by the resignation of 
Kev. Joshua Williams, and so pleased were the people 
with his ministrations that they gave him a call which 
was accepted, and he was installed pastor of that church 
April 13, 1831. Mr. McCachran labored Avith great 
diligence and success in the Big Si)ring Church for 
twenty-one years, resigning October 8, 1851. He then 
turned his attention to the establishment of a classical 
school for the training of young men for college and the 
ministry. He erected a suitable building near Newville 




Rev. Philip H. Mowry, D. D. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURl'H. 171 



avIhtc 1k' siRressfiilly coiuliU'tcd tlic scliool until 1864, 
when it was discoiitiinu'd iKraiist* of a loss of students 
occasioned hy tlie civil war. "]\lr. IMcCacliran was a man 
of great simplicity of cliai-actei-. He was sincere in his 
religious convictions and conscientious in the i)erform- 
ance of duty. He was well read in the ancient classics 
and in the works of tlie old divines of the seventeenth 
centur}'. He was in the constant habit of daily reading 
the New Testament in the original Greek language. As 
a preachei" he was sinij)le, plain, scriptural and orthodox. 
He was generally regarded as excelling most of his 
brethren in the brevity, comprehensiveness and felicity 
of ex])ression in his prayeis." For many years he was 
stated clerk of the Presbytery, and always an active 
member of the jstanding committee on languages, and 
conducted his examinations with due consideration and 
acceptableness. In his j)rivate life he was ipiietly and 
unostentiously charitable to the poor, and especially so 
to the colored })eo})le, many of whom were greatly as- 
sisted by his counsels and liberality." It can be truly 
said of him that his entire life was in all respects most 
exemplary and blameless, and his end Avas in peace." He 
died February "2'}, 1885. On November 11, 1834, he 
married Jane Laughlin, who was born August 3, 1802, 
and died Novend)er 27, 1871. 81ie was a daughter of 
Atchison Laughlin, a ruling elder in the church. To 
them were born two childien, Mary and Robert, the 
lallcr is now a successful attorncy-at-law in Newville, 
and re])resented his district in the Legislature of 
Pennsvlvania from 1878 to 1882. 



REV. JAMES S. 11. IIEXDERSOX. 



172 PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 



Rev. James S. H. Henderson was born in Frederick 
County, Md., September 20, 1815. He pursued his the- 
ological studies in Union Theological Seminary, N. Y,, 
and Princeton Seminary, N. J,, graduating from the lat- 
ter in the year, 1842. He was ordained by the Presby- 
tery, of Nashville, Tenn., 1842, and spent some time in 
home missionary work. In 1844 he was installed pas- 
tor of the Presl)yterian Church at Augusta, Ky., where 
he remained ten years. In 1852 he accepted a call to 
the Big Spring Church, New^ville, Pa, He resigned the 
church at Newville in 1861, and removed to Montgom- 
ery County, Md., where he became stated supply of the 
church at Neelsville. He ministered to this congrega- 
tion for nearly eighteen years, until his death, August 
17, 1882. His ministry there was very successfuL 
although the church at Neelsville was a small one. He 
organized a congregation at Boyds and these two became 
one pastorate. Both congregations built handsome 
church edifices prior to his death and were in a flourish- 
ing condition. He was married in 1842 to Rosanna J. 
Neel, daughter of James Neel, one of the original mem- 
bers of the church bearing his name, who with a 
daughter and six sons survive him. One of the latter is 
a clergyman of the Presbyterian Cliurch. 



REV. PIITLir H. MOWRY, P. D. 

Rev. Philip Henry Mowry was born in Allegheny, 
Pa., March 6, 1837. His flither, a graduate of the 
Western University of Pennsylvania, and of Jefferson 
Medical College, Philadelphia, practiced medicine in Al- 
legheny from March, 1880, until his death, March 14, 
1895. His grand father, Philip Mowry, was born in 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 17o 



Pittsburi;;, Pa,, 1777, where liis great grand fatlier, 
Christian M. Mo wry, a soldier of tlie RevoUitionary 
war, settled hut a short time before. His mother, A. 
Rebekah Riddle, was a daughter of James M. Riddle, a 
lawyer, born in the Chimberland Valley, and wdio set- 
tled in Pittsburg in 18P2, after marrying Elizabeth 
Weaver, of CumbeT'land County, Pa. Rev. P. H. 
iNIowry graduated from Washington College, Cannons- 
burg, in 18r)8, and from the Western Theological Sem- 
inary in 1S()1. On leaving the Theological Seminary 
he was called to the Fourth Presbyterian Church of 
Philadel})hia and ordained by the Presbytery of Phila- 
delphia, October 8, 1861, and at the same time installed 
pastor of the church. In October, 1868, he was called 
to the Big Spring Church, Newville, and entered uj)on 
his ministerial work here the following December. After 
a very successful })astorate of five years he resigned the 
Rig Spring Church and accepted a call from the second 
Presbyterian Church of Springfield, Ohio. He remained 
in Springfield five years when he accepted a call to the 
First Presbyterian Church of Chester, Pa., entering upon 
his pastoral work October 1, 1873. There he remains 
greatly beloved by his people and respected by all. Dr. 
Mowry married, October 2o, 1861, Catharine A. daughter 
of William H. Richardson of Greensburg, Pa. She died 
January '20, 1881, leaving children — Fllizabeth, Henri- 
etta, Robert Bruce, Fred, Philip, Rebecca and jNIary. 
Dr. Mowry married secondly, April 18, 1889, Sarah 
W., daughter of William E. Du Bois, of Philadelphia. 



RFA". F.I}ENi:ZER P:R8KTNK, P. I). 

Rev. Ebenezer Erskine is a son of John Erskine and 



174 THE BIG SPKING 



his wife Margaret Trainer. John Erskine wan the fifth 
in descent from Rev. Henry Erskine, father of Revs. 
Ebenezer and Ralph Erskine, founders of the Secession 
Church, of Scotknd. He came from County Down, Ire- 
land, to this country at the close of the Revolutionary 
war, and after remaining for a time in Philadelphia, set- 
tled in Ridley township, Deleware County, Pa. There 
the subject of our sketch was l)orn, January ol, 1821. 
He prepared for college in the celebrated classical school 
of Joseph P. Engles in Philadelphia, and entered Jeffer- 
son College, in 1839, from which he was graduated in 
1848. In 1844 and 1845 he was principal of the Potts- 
town Academy. After resigning this })Osition, he en- 
tered Princeton Theological Beminary October, 1845, 
from which he was graduated May, 1848. He was 
ordained and installed pastor of the Penn Presbyterian 
Church, Philadelphia, September 11. 1849. There he 
remained until 1851, when he accepted a call to Colum- 
bia, Pa. He remained as })astor of the church at 
Columbia until 1857, when he resigned to accept a call 
to the Presbyterian Church at Sterling, 111. He resigned 
the church at Sterling in 18(35, to undertake, at the re- 
quest of several of his ministerial brethren, the founding 
of a Presbyterian College in Northern Illinois. TJiis led 
to the establishment by him of the "North Western 
Presbyterion " at C/hicago, in the fall of 18G5, of whicli 
he was editor and proprietor. This paj^er was a means 
of communication with the cliurches. The attempted 
founding of the college was delayed on account of the 
church controversies arising out of the civil war, the re- 
union of the two branches of the Pres})yterian Church, 
and in relation to the Theological Seminary of the 



PRESBYTERIAN CllUIU'lf. 17-" 



Northwest. In 1809 lie neeepted a iinaninious call to 
become pastor of the J>ig S])riiig Presl)yteriaii Churcli in 
NewviHe, where he yet remains, faithfully diseharging 
his ))a8toral duties. Dr. P]rskine has occupied many 
jiositions of importance and res})onsil)ility in the Pres- 
hvterian Church. He has heen moderator of the Synod 
of Harrisl)urg; moderator of the Synod of Pennsylvania; 
a mend)er of five tGeneral Assemblies; a director in the 
North Western Theological Seminary, Chicago, from 
l.S(>") to 1(S()9, and has been a director of Princeton The- 
ological Seminary for the past twenty years. At the 
meeting of (Tcneral Assenddy at Paltimore, 1875, he 
was aj)pointed a mem])er of the comnuttee of conference 
on fraternal relations between the General Assenddies 
north and south. At the meeting of General Assembly 
at Saratoga, in 1890, he was chairman of the committee 
on revision that rej^orted the plan of revision to the 
General Assembly which was unanimously adopted. He 
was also author of the resolution instructing the com- 
mittee on revision not to report anything that would im- 
pair the integrity of the Reformed or Calvinistic S3^stenl 
as set forth in the confession of faith. He was also a 
mend)er of the permanent committee on the revision of 
the AVestminster Confession of Faith which continued its 
work for two years, and on its being reported to the 
General Assembly and handed down to the Presbyteries 
was not accepted. Dr. Erskine and Drs. Patton and 
Cireen of Princeton were among the conservative mem- 
hers of the connnittee and unfavorable to some of the 
changes reconnnended by the majority. In 1889 Dr. 
Erskine together with Dr. George Norcross and Rev. 
Mr. West [>ublislied a history of the Carlisle Presbytery 



176 THE BIG SPRING 



including biographical sketches of deceased members. 
This is a very full and complete work, the result of much 
pains taking labor, and a valuable contribution to the 
history of Presbyterian ism in this countr}-. 

Possessing more than ordinary intellectual endow- 
ments, Dr. Erskine ranks high in the Presbyterian 
Church as a well read and sound tlieologion. He is a 
man of strong and decided convictions, and of great 
courage and strength of purpose. His sermons are full 
of thought and instruction; his matter solid and rewards 
the attention of those who are serious and thoughtful 
and who care more for sound scriptural and theological 
instruction, than for ornaments of rhetoric and mere 
empty declamation. He is noted for a remarkably clear 
voice, an earnest, persuasive and impressive manner well 
adapted to his matter. He is faithful and conscientious 
in the discharge of all his ministerial work allowins; 
nothing to interfere with what he considers duty. 

Dr. Erskine married, October 7, 1874, Helen M., 
daughter of James and Margaret (Sharp) McKeehan, 
a descendent of two of the oldest and most respected 
families in the vicinity of Newville. They have two 
daughters, Helen and INlary, residing at home. 




. — ^c=c>.i3lI».{?<;p^^^^>^^§-<|i-<:^^4=^X}-«^ — • 



THE BIG SPKING 177 

IN THE GRAVE YARD. 

The earliest burials clustered around the old oak tree 
with its l)roa(l s[)readini;' branches in the south-eastern 
]>art of the i!;raveyard, and near where the old log 
church stood. To the superficial observer, there seems 
to be nuicli unoccu])ied space there, but this is not the 
case. In nearly every foot of ground rests the remains 
of the pioneer settlers and their children, although no 
tablet luai'ks their resting place. There are very few" of 
the first and second generations of the residents of this 
section who sleep in marked graves. Among many we 
have in mind, we mention the Fenton family of thirty 
persons, the grave of not one of whom is marked. The 
first of the family was Samuel Fenton. His son Sam- 
uel was a soldier in the Revolutionary Avar, and his 
son James was a Colonel in the war of 1812. In the 
]irogress of time, the graveyard gradually extended 
towards the church, the lower or south and eastern part 
bordering upon the spring, being very rocky, was used 
as quarries from an early date, and thus became a source 
of revenue to the church. In 18G8, that portion was 
sold off, leaving sixteen feet along the fence for a road. 
In 1 858, the western side of the graveyard was made on 
a line with the eastern side of Corporation street. This 
change in the boundary, left a number of graves of 
colored peo})le outside of the enclosure in that part of 
the street between the fence and the property now owned 
by Sanuiel Ernst. The first record we find of an en- 
closure, is Sept. 17115, when Archibald McCoy was paid 
fi)r 'MS perch of stone, at one dollar and forty cents 
]>cr perch, for a graveyard wall. Four years later, the 
trustees "Resolved to cover the graveyard wall and en- 



178 THE BIG SPRING 



close a yard around the meeting house." Home okl per- 
sons remember when they were young, of seeing the re- 
mains of this wall on the south side oi' the graveyard, 
along the spring, near the water's edge, and to this day 
can be seen running east and west, through the grave- 
yard, about forty feet from the present fence dividing 
the church from the graveyard, a ridge of stone covered 
with earth ami grass, which was doubtless the founda- 
tion of the wall. This ridge extends from the eastern 
extremity of the graveyard, west to the Boyd lot where 
it is broken by the terracing of the lot. 



OUK FATHERS RESTINCt PLACE. 



BY )!KI-rJC M KINNEY SWUPK. 



Tall trees lift vip their to\verin<,' heads 

As if upon the sky to trace 

Their shades, and o'er the church they sherl 

A stately dipjnity and grace. 

Within those ancient walls of stone, 

Each generation as it passed. 

Found Christ's own hlootl could guilt atone, 

At His blest feet their burdens cast. 

And drifting silently away, 

Time faded into endless day. 

On the sloping turf by the old gray walls, 
The sunlight casts its slanting beams 
Across the path where the shadow falls. 
And touches the graves viith golden streams. 
The soft wind sighing among the pines 
Whispers of perfect peace o'erhead, 
And the spring as onward it slowly winds 
Murmurs a requiem for the dead. 
Its waters caressing the grassy steep 
Where heroes and loved ones sweetly sleep. 

Ivife's turmoil in each year that passes. 
Disturbs no rest in that calm s])ot, 
And silently the waving grasses 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 170 



Mark moutuls of earth too .soon forgot. 
Some slumber on in nameless places, 
Some lie 'ueath monuments of stone, 
.\nd hearts were sore to lose the faces 
That gather now around the throne. 
Peaceful the soldier's quiet sleep, 
Laurels of fame his winding sheet. 

Oh. sacred spot of hallowed sorrow 

Guard well the dust in thine embrace; 

The brightness of a glail tomorrow 

Dawns o'er our fathers' slumbering place. 

Thrice holy sejtulchre, to thy 

Blest shadows tender memory twines. 

Where pastors in thy bosom lie. 

And consecrated earth enshrines. 

Faithful they were who rest from the strife, 

'Neath the sha<les where they offered the 

Bread of J.ife. 

Fair home for the reapers' treasured spoils 
Life's sweetest hopes lie in thy breast. 
And mortals cease from wearied toils, 
For unto all He giveth rest. 
Time steals no beauty and the air 
Breathes heavenlv benedictions there. 



INSCRIPTIONS FROM TOMBSTONES OF PERSONS BORN 
PRIOR TO 1800. 

Adnms, Robert, b. Oct. 2, 1798; d. May 14, 1874. 

Adams, Margaret, b. 1766; d. 1840. 

Allen, John, b. 1791; d. Feb. 10, 1817. 

Allen, James W., 1). June 25, 1789; d. June 19, 1869. 

Auxer, Elizabeth, wife of Geo., b. Oct. 2, 1796; d. April 

11, 1845. 
Wiwv, Sarah, dau. of Dr. John Geddes, b. 1802; d. Jan. 

27, 1888. 
]>arr, Alexander, b. 17()4; d. Hept. 4, 1881. 
i^ryson, William, 1). 1728; d. June 13, 1800. 
Brownson, Mary, dau. of Thomas, b. 1764; d. Sept. 8, 



180 THE BIG SPRING 



1807. 

Brown, James, b. Dee. 81, 1778; d. Get. 11, 1822. 
Brown, Martlia, wife of James, b. Aug. 10, 1792; d. 

Feb. 7, 1852. 
Brown, John, b. Sept. ID, 1752; d. Jan. 10, 1842. 
Brown, Margaret, wife of John, b. 1748; d. Sept. 17, 

1886. 
Brown, Mary, b. April 12, 1788; d. Sept. 16, 1862. 
Brown, James, b. 1777; d. July 81, 1862. 
Brown, Nancy, wife of James b. July 5, 1800; d. Oct. 

15, 1835. . 
Brown, William, 1). 1797; d. May 18, 1864. 
Brown, Jane, wife of William,^ b. Sept. 21, 1802; d. 

Mar. 10, 1877. 
Brown, Rachel, b. 1769; d. Mar. 24, 1805. 
Brown, Joseph, b. 1777; d. July 81, 1862. 
Brown, Nancy, wife of Josepli, 1). July 8, 1800; d. Oct. 

18, 1885. 
Bratton, Adam, b. 1741; d. June 6, 1820. 
Bratton, Ann, wife of Adam, h. 1752; d. Dec. 26, 1840. 
Bratton, Samuel, b. 1796; d. Aug. 16, 1864. 
Bratton, William, b. 1791; d. Mar. 11, 1862. 
Bratton, George, b. 1784; d. Sept. 18, 1860. 
Bratton, Mary, b. 1786; d. July 28, 1857. 
Bratton, Eleanor, dau. of Adam, b. 1780; d. Sept. 20, 

1848. 
Bratton, William, son of Adam, b. 1796. 
Buchanan, Mary, b. 1768; d. Oct. 16, 1828. 
Buchanan, William, d. July 7, 1843. 
Buchanan, Ezekiel, d. Aug. 81, 1831. 
Buchanan, Robert, d. May 8, 1888. 
Buchanan, Elizabeth, d. Aug. 25, 1863. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 181 



Buchanan, Gen. Tlionias, b. 1747; d. Oct. 13, 1823. (A 

soldier of the Revolutionary War.) 
Binner, Marv E., b. 1772; d. Aug. 1853. 
Boyd, William, b. Jan. 5, 1778; d. Fel). 2, 1846. 
Boyd, Martha, wife of William, b. Dec. 14, 1779; d. 

Apr. 8, 1848. 
Butler, Samuel, b, P^eb. 2, 1778; d. Apr. 27, 1850. 
Butler, Sallie, wife of Samuel, b". Apr. 4, 1793; d. Mar. 

15, 1881. 
Carnahan, Judith, wife of Robert, b. 1763; d. May 21, 

1835. 
Carnahan, jNFary, wife of William, b. 1793; d. Sept. 7, 

1823. 
Garson, Hannan, b. 1774; d. April 5, 1844. 
Garson, Priseilla, b. 1791; d. Aug. l(i, 1864. 
Campbell, William, b. Oct. 26, 1789; d. Apr. 1, 1864. 
Cobean, William, b. 1795; d. Aug. (5, 1859. 
Cobean, Mar}' McFarlane, wife of William, b. 1805; d. 

Oct. 4, 1855. 
Conway, Mary, b. 1765; d. May 8, 1823. 
Cook, Sanuiel, b. 1799; d. July 18, 1841. 
Cook, Jane, b. 1794; d. Aug. 31, 1843. 
Cox, Mary, b. 1800; d. Dec. 3, 1866. 
Davidson, George, b. Oct. 27, 1777; d. June 12, 1856. 
Davidson, Jane, wifi' of (leorge, b. Mar. 13, 1779; d. 

Dec. (), 1863. 
Davidson, Ann, b. Nov., 1788; d. Feb. 16, 1866. 
Davidson, John, b. Dec. 15, 178(>; d. Jan. 9, 1840. 
David.son, Eleanor ]{., b. Apr. 15, 1797; d. Jan. 3, 1877. 
Davidson, James, b. 1790; d. Sept. 27, 1858. 
Davidson, Ann, wife of James, b. 1794; d. June 8, 1827. 
Davidson, Ann, wife of James, b. 1791; d. Sept.l7, 1867. 



182 THE BIG .SPRING 



Davidson, William, b. Dec. 2. 1788; d. Aug. 25, 1843. 
Davidson, Mary, wife of William, b. Nov. 18, 1796; d: 

Apr. 3, 1848. 
Davidson, Alexander, b. June 14, 1787; d.Oet. 19,1865. 
Davidson; Jane, wife of Alex., b. Nov. 29, 1790; d. 

Aug. 19, 1879. 
Davidson, John, b. 1743; d. 1823. 
Davidson, John, b. Feb. 27, 1772; d. May 10, 1810. 
Davidson, li^lizabeth Young, wife of John, b. 1772; d. 

Sept. 14, 1823. 
Denning, William, b. 1737; d. Dec. 19, 1830. (The 

maker of the first wrought-iron cannon of the Revo- 
lutionary War.) 
Dougherty, George, d. aged 82 years. 
Dougherty, Rachel, wife of Geo., b. 1789; d. 1856. 
Duey, Conrad, b. 1769; d. Oct. 15, 1833. 
Duey, Rachel, wife of Conrad, b. 1779; d. Feb. 22, 1854. 
Dunbar, Isabella, b. 1799; d. Sept. 25, 1824. 
Dunbar, Mary, b. 1772; d. Jan. 30, 1830. 
Dunbar, John, b. 1767; d. Oct. 18, 1829. 
Duncan, Eliza Smith, wife of Capt. David, 1). June 8, 

1789; d. Aug. 7, 1863. 
Ewing, Elizabeth, dau. of Geo. Gillespie, b. 1790; d. 

Jan. 16, 1846. 
Elliott, Nancy, b. 1772; d. Apr. 16, 1798. 
Elliott, Thomas, b. 1787; d. Mar. 19, 1849. 
Elliott, Mrs. Elizabeth, 1>. July 13, 1794; d. Feb. 19, 

1859. 
Ferguson, William, b. 1758; d. Apr. 23, 1834. (A 

soldier in Revolution, and maker of the carriages for 

the cannon of William Denning.) 
Fulton, Francis, b. 1764; d. Oct. 16, 1843. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 183 



Fulton, Sarali, wife of Fniiicis, b. 1768; d. Aug. 4,1834. 
Fulton, Jiinies, 1). Ot. 10, 1795; d. Aug. 17, 18()0. 
(;:iill)r:iitli, Willinm, 1). 1731; d. Nov., 1815. 
(};iill)niitli, Sarah, wife of William, b. Oct. 4, 1748; d. 

Jan. 1>2, 1827. 
Geddes, Dr. John, b. Aug. 16, 1766; d. Dec. 5, 1840. 
Geddes, KH/alx-th lV('l)les, b. Fel). 8, 1772; d. May 20, 

183<). 
Geddes, Dr. John P., b. Oct. 10, 1799; d. Dec. 8, 1837. 
Geese, Christian, b. Jan. 17, 1788; d. Nov. 24, 1814. 
(liffin, Catharine, b. 1786; d. Jan. 15, 1834. 
Gillespie, Nathaniel, b. 1744; d. Aug. 16, 1824. 
Gillespie. JNIartha, b. Apr. 20, 1747, d. June 25, 1819. 
Gillespie, Ann, b. 1782; d. Nov. 16, 1827. 
Gillespie, Nancy, b. 1786; d. Aug. 21, 1835. 
Glenn, Alexander, b. Feb. 22, 1787; d. Nov. 13, 1835. 
Glenn, Maria, wife of Alexander, b. May 17, 1792; d. 

May 28, 1841. 
Graham, Martha, b. 1731; d. July 22, 1779. 
Graliam, James, b. 1725; d. Sept. 2, 1807. 
Graham, Isaiah, b. 1769; d. Aug. 27, 1835. 
Graham, Nancy, wife of Isaiah, b. Aug. 17, 1772; d. 

Fel). 17, 1841. 
Graham, Nancy, b. June 17, 1798; d. Jan. 19, 1863. 
(Graliam, Robert, b. 1800; d. Jan. 24, 1873. 
Graham, Eliza, wife of Robert, b. 1799; d. Dec. 6, 1855. 
Green, John, 1). Aug., 1769; d. Feb. 12, 1846. 
Harlan, James, b. 1791; d. June 21, 1832. 
Harlan, George, b. Jan. 13, 1794; d. Mar. 11, 1873. 
Harlan, Eliza])eth H., wife of George, b. Apr. 9, 1811; 

(1. Aug. 9, 1858. 
Harlan, Ruth, b. .Mar. 15, 1792; d. Feb. 2, 1854. 



184 THE BIG SPRING 



Hays, Patrick, b. 1760; d. July 28, 1856. 

Hays, Margaret Mickey, wife of Patrick, b. 1770; cl. 

Jan. 25, 1837. 
Haiina, Samuel, b. 1792, cl. Fel). 8, 1825. 
Hamia, Else, wife of Samuel, b. 1772; cl. Feb. 10, 

1850. 
Haiina, Jolni, ]). 1765; cl. Oct. 11, 1823. 
Hamil, Mary, wife of Wm., b. 1787; d. Oct. 13, 1811. 
Hackett, Henry G., b. Feb. 12, 1792; d. Dec. 7. 1845. 
Hackett, Mary, wife of Henry, b. Dec. 4, 1794; d. Sept. 

28, 1854. 
Harper, John, husband of Jean, who, his journey fin- 
ished and got to his rest Sept. 12, 1804, aged 73 yrs. 
Harper, Robert, b. 1770; d. Nov. 19, 1802. 
Harper, Samuel, b. 1775; d. Apr. 15, 1802. 
Harper, Sarah, wife of Samuel, b. 1768; d. Mar. H\ 

1848. 
Harper, David, h. 1774; d. June 3, 1801. 
Harper, Maj. John, b. Nov. 29, 1793; d. Oct. 11, 1846. 
Harper, Andrew, 1). 1799; d. Jan. 19, 1827. 
Harper, Elizabeth, b. July 1806; d. Oct. 10, 1827. 
Harper, William, b. 1761- d. INIay 18, 1824. 
Harper, Esther, wife of Wm., b. 1762; d. Apr. 13, 

1827. 
Harper, Jean, wife of John, b. 1735; d. Mar. 16, 1808. 
Hari^er, James, b. 1757; d. Fel). 13, 181(i. 
Harper, JNIargaret, dan. of James b. 1798; d. Aug. 8, 

1817. 
Harper, John, b. June 22, 1795; d. June 5, 1847. 
Harper, Margaret, wife of eJohn, and dan. of John, of 

Adams Co., b. 1811; d. May 21, 1836. 
Harper, Elzabeth,, wife of John, b. 1772; d. Mar. 27, 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 185 



IcSlP,. 

House, John, I). 1782; (1. Nov., 1872. (A soldier of 

tl.c Warof 1812.) 
House, Elizal)etli, wife of John, 1). 1784; d. 1863. 
Hustou, Jauies, b. 1784; d. June 17, 1825. 
Huston, James, b. 1782; d. June 17, 1828. 
Hunter, Joseph, b. 177-"); d. June 28, 1835. 
Hood, Josiali, b. An- 11, 17l>4; d. Oct. 2, 1873. 
Hood, Sarah, wife of Josiah, b. Sept. 28, 1794; d. 

Mar. 18, 1852. 
Hefflenian, Michael, b. Mar. 9, 1780; d. July 24, 1845. 
Heffleman, Mary, wife of Michael, b. Dec. 22, 1785; d. 

Fel). 2, 1837." 
Heap, John. 

Irvine, Samuel, b. 1747; d. Mar. 9, 1806. 
Irvine, Mary, wife of Samuel, b. 1744: d. Oct. 28, 1819. 
Irvine, MisJ Eutli, b. July, 1777; d. Dec. 21, 1859. 
Irvine, Rosaona, Avife of Samuel, b. 1797; d. April 4, 

1834. 
Irvine, Samuel, 1). 1785; d. May 10, 1849. 
Irvine, Isabella, wife of Samuel, b. 1803; d. July 12, 

1839. 
Irvine, ^largaret McClelland; wife of Samuel, b. Sept. 

21, 1803; d. Sept. 2, 188(3. 
Irwin, James, h. 1776; d. Feb. 22, 1854. 
Ii-win, Prudence, b. 1784; d. Oct. 20, 1818. 
Jacobs, Adam, b. Oct., 1787; d. Aug. 17, 1872. 
Jacobs, Marjory, wife of Adam, b. July 1, 1795; d. Apr. 

30, 1865.' 
Jacobs, Sarah Leuney, wile of Adam, b. 1787; d. Aug. 

30, 1834. 
Jacob, Joseph, b. 1782; d. Oct. 9, 1864. 



186 THE BIG HPKING 



Jacob, Lydia, wife of Joseph, b. 1785; d. Dec. 20, 1849. 
Johnson, John, b. 1780; d. Sept. 8, 1841. 
Johnson, EUzabeth, b. 1788; d. Unr. 2, 1847. 
Kelley, John, b. 1791; d. March 1, 1804. 
Kelley, Grizelda, b. 179H; d. March 23, 1864. 
Ker, Sarah, wife of Alex., b. 1784; d. June 29, 1838. 
Ker, William, 1). Jan. 1, 1755; d. Oct. 8, 1845. 
Ker, William, b. Oct. 30, 1791; d. Sept. 20, 1874. 
Ker, Eliza B., wife of William, b. Sei)t. 16, 1806; d. 

Dec. 24, 1844. 
Kennedy, Thomas, 1). 1744; d. 1831. 
Kennedy, Margaret, wife of Thomas, b. 1759; d. Jan, 

16, 1826. 
Kilgore, William, b. 1756; d. Oct. 11, 1823. 
Kilgore, Isabella, wife of William, b. Oct. 1761; d. Feb. 

18, 1826. 
Kilgore, Jesse, b. Dec. 13, 1773; d. Aug. 19, 1823. 
Kilgore, James, b. March 20, 1771; d. Dec. 5, 1834. 
Kilgore, Bobert, b. Sept. 7, 1799; d. Aug. 27, 1878. 
Kinsley, John, b. 1780; d. Dec. 13, 1851. 
Klink,"^ George, b. May 23, 1792; d. Jan. 30, 1869. 
Klink, Elizabeth, wife of George, b. 1795; d. March 24, 

1875. 
Knight, Thomas H., b. Nov. 8, 1795; d. Apr. 30, 1852. 
Knight, Elizabeth, wife of Thomas, b. Mar. 11, 1805; d. 

Apr. 17, 1863. 
Knettle, Henry, b. 1774; d. July 5, 'iS4r). 
Knettle, Hannah, wife of Henry, b, 1778; d. Oct. 27, 

1854. 
Koons, Isaac, b. Sept., 1792; d. Nov. 19, 1874. 
Laughlin, James, b. Sept. 14, 1783; d. Feb. 11, 1851. 
Laughlin, Atcheson, b. 1756; d. Jan. 11, 1825. 



PREKI5YTKKIA.V CIHIK H. 189 



LiUii;liliii, M;irv, wife of Atclicsoii, 1.. ITflO; d. Oct. 22, 

1842. 
L;iu-liliii, AVilliani K., 1.. Vv\k C, 17S1; d. Fcl). 12, 1835. 
L;iui;li]iii, JjiiiK's, 1). April IS, 1770; d. 18r)2. 
]j;iiii;Iiliii, rioliii, 1). i\l;ii('li 1"), 177'"); died ;it se;i. 
Ltmoldiii, AVilli:mi 1). An--. 17, 1778; d. duiic 21 , 1844. 
L;iiii;liliii, dniiics, 1). Si'j)t. 14, 178'); d. I'd). 11, 1851. 
Liiughlin, AgiK's, 1). Aug. 7, 171)4; d. Aug. 18, 1871. 
Laughliu, P:iiz;dH'tli, b. Nov. 1(), 171H); d. Feb. 21, 1864. 
Laughliii, Atdiesoii, b. Vvh. 8, 1799; d. July 7, 1876. 
Laird, C'atliarine, b. Juue, 17()4; d. fhiiie lo, 1850. 
Laird, Hugh, ]). 1787; d. Sept. oO, 1815. 
Laird, Thomas, b. 1794; d. April 19, 1880. 
Laird, James, Es(j., 1). 1753; d. (At. 10, 1884. 
Laird, Robert, b. 1789; d. Jan. 15, 1848. 
Lenney, Isaac, h. 1793; d. Aug. 14, 1848. 
Lenuey, Haunah, wife of Isaac, b. 1797; d. Aug. 16, 

1869. 
Lenney, Elizabeth, b. 1782; d. Jan. 17, 1847. 
Lenney, iSarah, wife of Adam Jacobs, b. 1787; d. Aug. 

30, 1834. 
Lenney, William, b. 1782; d. Oct. 20, 1823. 
Lenney, Sarah, wife of William, b. 1789; d. March, 17, 

1862. 
Leckey, Haiah J]., b. Sept. 1, 1789; d. Oct. 6, 1823. 
Leckey, Alexander, b. 1740; d. Mar. 16, 1818. 
Leckey, Elizabeth, wife of Alexander, b. 1765; d. Nov. 

16, 1817. 
Leckey, Daniel, I). Sept. 4, 1783; d. March 3, 1854. 
Leckey, Ann Davidson, wife of Daniel, d. Sept. 5, 1843. 
Leckey, Sarah; dau. of Alexander, b. July 5, 1787; d. 

Dec., 1859. 



190 TJIE BIG SPRING 



Leckey, Isabella, b. 1799; d. Dee. 1862. 
Leckey, 8arab, b. July 5, 1787; d. Dec. 1859. 
Lindsay, William, b. July (3, 1798; d. Jan. 23, 1838. 
Lindsay, Mary Forbes, wife of William, b. April 27, 

178(5; d. Oct. 26, 1842. 
Lindsay, Jane, b. Oct. 1760; d. INIay 4, 1837. 
Logan, James, b. 1782; d. Oct. 26, 1828. 
Logan, Alexander, b. July 22, 1795; d. Nov. 12, 1870. 
Logan, Martha, wife of Alex, b. 1797; d. Nov. 7, 1873. 
MaUiers, William, b. 1760; d, Oct. 18, 1850. 
McCacliran, Isabella, 1:». at Abbington, near Philadel- 
phia, Jan. 8, 1765; d. Jan. 12, 1851. 
McCachran, Rev. Eobert, h. Sept. 24, 1796; d. Fel). 25, 

1885. (Pastor of Big Spring Presbyterian Cluircli.) 
McCachran, Jane Laughlin, wife of Rev. Robert, b. 

Aug. 3, 1802; d. Nov. 27, 1871. 
McCachran, James, b. Jan. 1, 1797; d. Aug. 25, 1885. 
McCachran, Rachel, wife of James, b. Feb. 1803; d. 

Dec. 22, 1859. 
McCormick, Samuel, b. 1726; d. Sept. 4, 1803. 
McCormick, Eliza]:>etli, wife of Samuel, h. 1727; d. Oct. 

7, 1811. 
McCormick, Thomas, b. May 29, 1766; d. Jan. lij, 1835. 
McCormick, Margaret Young, wife of Thomas, b. Jan. 

20, 1766; d. Feb. 20, 1824. 
McCandlish William, b. 1768; d. Apr. 9, 1827. 
McCandlish, Jane, wife of William, b. 1781; d. Aug. 

4, 1827. 
McCandlish, Maria, wife of John, b. 1802; d. Oct. 1, 

1827. 
McCulloch, James, son of John. b. 1761; d. Aug. 13, 

1825. 



tf^ 



y rRENJiYTKUIAN (IHIRCH. 191 



MeCulloeli, Swu IIi-ihUtsuii, wife of John, ]). 1773; 

(1. June 24, 1(S47. 
McCiilhx'li, John, 1). 1741; d. May U), 1808. 
McCulloch, Elizah(.(h Hueston, wife of John, b. 1740; 

d. 181:5. 
MeCulloeli, William, h. 1778; d. Nov. 8, 1824. 
MeCidloeh, 8arah M., b. 1782; d. April 4, 1834. 
McCulloch, John, of Dickinson, b. 1771; d. Feb. 5, 1847. 
McCulloch, Mary Williamson, wife of John, b. 1773; d. 

Sept. o, ]8()2. 
McCulloch, David, )). Dec. K;, 171)8; d. Nov. 22, 1859. 
McCulloch, l^x'tsy Covle, wife of David, b. Sept. 3, 1804; 

d. Dec. 28, 1882. 
McCulloch, Jane Dunbar, wife of John, b. 1805; d. 

Minvh 7, 1838. 
McCrea, William, b. 1759; d. 1837. 
McCrea, Margaret, wife of William, b. 1759; d. 1822. 
McCrea William, 1). July 21, 1800; d. Oct. 25, 1885. 
McCracken, Capt. William, b. 1753; d. Jan. 1(), 1803. 

(A Revolutionary soldier.) 
McDannell, Daniel, b. in Ireland, Nov. 11, 1722; d. 

March 27, 1789. 
McDannell, Jane, wife of Daniel, b. in Ireland, Jan. 1, 

172(5; d. June 28, 1795. 
McDannell, Mrs. Elizabeth, 1). Oct. 18, 1790; d. May 

25, 18()(3. 
McDajinell, Margaret, b. March 6, 1797; d. May 8, 1809. 
McDannell, Daniel, b. July 18, 1751; d. June 26, 1811. 
McDannell, Daniel; son of Daniel, b. March 23, 1792; 

d. Nov. 13, 1825. 
McDannell, Jane, b. 1765; d. Feb. 18, 1842. 
McDannell, John, b. 1729; d. Jan. 1, 1800. 



192 THE BIG SPRING 



McDowell, Margaret, b. Dec. 80, 1792; d. June 9, 1851. 
McDowell, Elizabeth, b. Nov. 16, 1797; d. June 8, 1851. 
McDowell, Mary, b. 17(58; d. Dec. 24, 1884. 
McDowell, 8amuel, b. 17(54; d. Apr. 24, 1880. 
McDowell, Mary, b. Sept. 18, 1794; d. Apr. 28, 1863. 
McDowell, John, b. 1778; d. Jan. 9, 1829. 
McDowell, Margaret Laird, wife of John, 1^. Dec. 19, 

1790; d. Maf 30, 1855. 
McElwain, Ilobert, b. 1781; d. Jan. 18, 1853. 
McElwain, Jane, wife of Robert, b. 1790; d. May 12, 

1869. 
McElwain, Andrew, jr., 1). April 19, 1785; d. Aug. 10, 

1840. 
McElwain, Mary, wife of Andrew, b. July 16, 1798; 

d. Oct. 27, 1868. 
McFarlane, William, b. 1757; d. Jan. 29, 1802. 
McFarlane, Esther, b. 17(59; d. Feb. 18, 1789. 
McFarlane, Eleanor, b. 1776; d. Oct. 19, 1814. 
McFarlane, Elizabeth, b. 1767; d. March 16, 1816. 
McFarlane, James, b. 1757; d. Dec. 1(3, 1807. 
McFarlane, Elizabeth, wife of James, b. 1764; d. March 

26, 1814. 
McFarlane, Robert, b. Nov. 15, 1784; d. April 24, 1838. 
McFarlane, Lydia, wife of Clemens, b. Aug. 1799; d. 

March 20, 1846. 
McFarlane, William, I). 1744; d. April 3, 1811. 
McFarlane, Robert, b. Oct. 23, 1776; d. Sept. 14, 1847. 
McFarlane, Jane, wife of Robert, b. Nov. 21, 1799; d. 

Feb. 1, 1882. 
McFarlane, Jane, wife of Rol)ert, b. 1787; d. March 11, 

1833. 
McFarlane, Rosanna, b. 1734; d. Nov. 26, 1812. 



ria':.si)VTi;i;iAx (iirucu. 193 



j\rrFm-l;nus PntnVk, I). 1727; d. :\I:»ivli Ki, 1702. 
Mrlllu'iiiiy, ^r;irL;;irc't, wife of Ivohcrt, 1). 171)2; d. Apr. 

22, 188r). 
Alclntire, Jolin, 1.. MI'k d. Aui;-. H\, 1«30. 
Mc'Tntii'c, M;ir<;ai'('t, wife of Join), 1). 17r)l*);d. 8e])t. 17, 

1830. 
Mt'Keehaii, iH-iijainiii, 1). An--. 2, 1718; d. (Jet. 23, 

1814. 
McKeelian, Margaret, wife of ])eiijaiiiin, It. Feb. 22, 

1758; d. A|>r.*24, 182*1. 
INIeKeeliaii, Samuel, 1). 178(>; d. Dee. 12, 1870. 
MeKeehaii, Deboi'ah, wife of Samuel, b. 1780; d. x\pril 

30, 18(;7. 
MeKeehan, Rol)ert, b. Oet. 13, 1784; d. April 26, 1868. 
MeKeeliau, jNlary Trego, wife of Rol)ert, b. March 24, 

1782; d. Feb. 28, 1854. 
:\leKibbeu, Joseph, 1). 1704; d. Nov. 13, 1836. 
MeKinstry, James, b..l805; d. Jan. 30, 1846. 
MeMouigal, AVilliam, b. 1766; d. July 14, 1813. 
:MeMonioal, xVgues, b. 1755; d. May 10, 1812. 
MeWilliams, Robert, b. 1786; d. Mar. 10, 1813. 
Megaw, James, b. 1775; d. May 26, 1838. 
Megaw, Sarah, b. 1770; d. May 24, 1846. 
Mickey, Robert, b. Dec. 21, 1746; d. Dec. 3, 1827. 
Mickey, Ezemiah, b. 1755; d. Dec. 8, 1830. 
Mickey, James, b. 1705; d. 1835. 
Mickey, Lucetta, wife of James, b. 1802; d. 1862. 
Miller, Henry, b. Jan. 1, 1777; d. Jan. 23, 1838. 
jNlorrow, John S., b. July 26, 1788; d. April 16, 1863. 
MolHt, Robert, b. iNIay 6, 1700; d. Sept. 14, 1856. 
Nicholson, Richard, b. 1713; d. Dec. 18, 1702. 
Nicholson, Marv, b. 1708; d. Jan. 5, 1703, 



194 THE BIG SPRING 



Nickey, Jacob, b. Jan. 4, 1797; d. Jan. 1, 1886. 

Neal, James, sr., d. Feb. 27, 1793. 

Neal, Sarali, wife of James, d. 8ept. 13, 1814. 

Over, Keziah, wife of Samuel, b. Sept. 23, 1800; d. July 

28, 1861. 
Pollock, Mary, wife of Joseph, b. 1758; d. Aug. 1838. 
Pierce, Paul, b. 1716; d. June 7, 1794. 
Pierce Joseph, b. 1756; d. Aug. 30, 180(3. 
Pierce, Jane, wife of Joseph, b. Dec. 1768; d. Feb. 25, 

1827. 
Patterson, Elizabeth, b. 1772; d. Mar. 8, 1798. 
Patterson Andrew, b. 1730; d. Nov. 10, 1792. 
Patterson, Mary, wife of Andrew, b. 1734; d. March 

15, 1827. 
Patterson, Thomas, son of Andi'ew, I). 1773; d. Dec. 10, 

1822. 
Patterson, Obediah, b. 1762; d. March 10, 1804. 
Patterson, Ann, wife of Obediah,. b. 1798; d. March 5, 

1840. 
Patton, Elizabeth, b. Jan. 3, 1797; d. Feb. 4, 1870. 
Peebles, Capt. William, killed at the battle of Flat Bush, 

L. I., 1776. 
Peebles, Capt. Robert, b. 1776; d. Jan. 7, 1830. 
Phillips, Edward, b. 1796; d. Dec. 25, 1857. 
Phillips, Jane, wife of Edward, b. 1793; d. Dec. 22, 

1870. 
Randolph, Mary Knettle, wife of John, b. 1800; d. Dec. 

12, 1841. 
Ralston, Mary, b. 1779; d. Feb. 13, 1852; 
Ralston, David, b. 1783; d. March 8, 1849. 
Ralston, Lacy, wife of David, b. 1790; d. Jan. 28, 1863. 
Reed, James, b. 1789; d. May 12, 1842. 



rni:sr.YTi;i;iAX ciiukch. 195 



Reed, llii^ii, 1.. I7S:5; <1. IS'iil 

Riehy, William, h. 1 7('.(); d. Feb. I), 1cS30. 

JSliarp, Janu's, h. Jan. 27, 177'J; d. Feb. L^S, 1823. 

Starrett, James, 1). July, 17()<S; d. June 18, 1812. 

HtenvU, David, 1.. April, 17(')7; d. July 2(), 1825. 

Htarrett, Martha, wiJ'e of Robert, daughter of Thomas 

Woods, b. in Lancaster County, July 25, 1801; d. 1838. 
Sterrett, David, 1). 17-1(1; d. Nov. 2, 1790. 
Sterrett, David, b. Apr. 4, 1800; d. INIay O, 1864. 
Sterrett, Rebecea, wife of David, b. Aug. 11, 1802; d. 

Mar. 7, 18()5. 
Sterrett, Rachel, 1). 179(i; d. Dee. 28, 1823. 
^teel, Robert, h. 1766; d. Aug. 17, 1836. 
Steel; Mary, wife of Kobert, b. Fel). 1, 1776; d. Aug. 

19, 1859. 
Stevenson, John, b. 1739; d. Aug. 19, 1777. 
Stevenson, Rachel, wife of John, dau. of Alex. Scroggs, 

b. 1756; d. Apr. 30, 1780. 
Stevenson, Jane, b. 1758; d. 1818. 
Stevenson, William, b. 1741; d. Dee. 1, 1817. 
Stevenson, Margaret, d. Aj)r. 1, 1821. 
Stevenson, John, 1). 1780; d. Jan. 1, 1835. 
Stevenson, John, b. 178(); d. Fel). 14, 1835. 
Stevenson, Mary, b. 1783; d. Feb. 11, 1837. 
Stevenson, William, b. Sept. 22, 1792; d. Nov. 27, 1848. 
Smith, Hugh, b. 1750; d. Mar. 17, 1823. 
Smith, Elizabeth McCormick, wife of Hugh, b. 1764; d. 

.A[ay, 22, 1822. 
Smith, Renjamin, b. 1747; d. Oct. 16, 1838. 
Thompson, jNIatthew, b. 1754; d. Oct. 19, 1823. 
Thompson, Joseph, b. 1786; d. Nov. 5, 1832. 
Trego, Rebecca, wife of Moses, b; 1762; d. Oct. 7, 1823. 



196 THE BIG SPUING 

Wallace, John, h. 1744; d. Dec. 12, 1814. 

Wallace, Agnes, h. 17(17; d. May 28, 1827. 

Wallace, Margaret, b. 1792; d. A]ni\ 2, 1855. 

Wallace, John, b. 1798; d. 1876. 

Wallace, Mary, wife of John, b. 1801; d. 1887. 

Wallace, Thomas, b. Nov. 27, 1792; d. Sept. 30, 1832. 

Wallace, Mary, wife of Thomas, 1). Nov. 22, 1796; d. 

Apr. 13, 1838. 
Weakley, Samuel, b. 1755; d. Fel). 10, 1829. 
Weakley, Hetty, b. 1755; d. Oct. 1, 1819. 
Weakley, John, 1). 1778; d. Nov. 22, 1826. 
Weakley, INIartha, b. 1778; d. Oct. 1, 1857. 
Wilt, Peter, b. 177(); d. July 23, 1842. 
Wilson, Samuel, 1). 1748; d. Apr. 3, 1837. 
Wilson, Matthew, 1). 174(r, d. Jan.6, 1824. 
Wilson, Rev. Samuel, 1). 1754; d. Mar. 4, 1799. (Pas- 
tor Big Spring Presl)ytcrian Church.) 
Wilson, Jane, wife of Rev. Samuel, b. 1761; d. May 29, 

1835. 
Wilson, John, son of Rev. Sanuiel, b. 1793; d. Jan. 30, 

1809. 
Williamson, William, 1). 1791; d. Apr. 24, 1837. 
Williamson, Tamar, wife of David, b. 1763; d. Mar. 23, 

1813. 
Williams, Catharine, wife of George, b. Aug. 5, 1780; 

d. Mar. 5, 1862. 
Williams, Rev. Joshua, D. D., b. 1767; d. Aug. 21, 1838. 

(Pastor Big Spring Presbyterian Church.) 
Williams, Eleanor, wife of Rev. Joshua, b. 1780; d. 

Apr. 28, 1856. 
Williams, James C, son of Rev. Joshua, b. 1801; d. 1822. 
Whitley, Andrew, b. 1769; d. Dec. 7, 1848. 



o 



H 
I 
rti 

?; £^ 

> m 

-< 

> 

> O 

1 ■ 




PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 199 



SOLDIERS BURIED IN THE GRAVE YARD. 

Allen, J. K., Kebellion. 

Boose, Jonatlian, War 1812. 

Brandon, Thomas, Rebellion. 

Barr, John, Rel^ellion. 

BaiT, Alexander, Rebellion. 

Brown, John, b. Bept. 19, 1752; d. Jan. 10, 1842, Rev- 
olution. 

BroAvn, George, Co. E, 187 Pa. Inft. 

Butler, Corp. Elliott, Co. A, 127 U. S. C. I. 

Buchanan, Gen. Thomas, b. 1747; d. Oct. 13, 1823, 
Revolution. 

Crawford, Sargt. G. W., Co. G, 45th U. S. C. Inft. 

Denning, William, b. 1737, d. Dec. 19, 1830, Revolu- 
tion. 

Fenton, Samuel, Revolution. 

Fenton, John, War of 1812. 

Fenton, Col. James, b. 1776, War of 1812. 

Fulton, Robert H., d. Aug. IH, 1891, Rebellion. 

Fry, Cai)t. Jesse R., b. 1832; d. 1893, Co. D, 77th Regt. 
Pa. Vol., Rel)ellion. 

Ferguson, William, Revolution. 

Graham, Sargent George W., b. May (>, 1841; killed 
May 10, 1803. 

George, 8. C, Co. E, 127 Pa. Inft. 

Hays, John S., 1). 1842; d. Mar. 29, 1877. Sargt. 130 
Reg. Pa. Vol. 

House, John, b. 1782; d. Nov. 1872, War of 1812. 

Hackett, Thompson, b. Dec. 28, 1844; d. Apr. 14, 1893, 
Rebellion. 

Howard, Nicholas, d. Nov. 18, 1847, War of 1812. 

Hood, Josiah, 1». Aug. 11, 179^1; d. Oct. 2, 1873, AVar 



200 THE BIG KPRING 



McElwaiii, Thomas, War of 1812. 

MeCuUough, Leo, b. May, 27; 1842, Rebellion. 

Mc Williams, John, War*^of 1812. 

Moffitt, David 8., b. Sept. 18. 1818; d. May, 8, 1888, 

Rebellion. 
MeCracken, Ca])t. William, b. 1758; d. Jan. 1(3, 1803, 

Revolution. 
Nehf, George, Co. I, 12 Reg. Pa., Reserv. Vol. 
Neal, Col. Joseph, d. Mar. 25, 1838, War of 1812. 
Perry, Abram, Co. K, U. S. C. Inft. 
Peebles, Capt. William, killed at the battle of Flat 

Bush, L. I., 1776. 
Peebles, Capt. Robert, b. 1776; d. Jan. 7, 1830, War of 

1812. 
Roberts, Capt. John, War of 1812. 
Richardson, John H., Rebellion. 
Stewart, Samuel I., Co. K, 158 Reg. Pa. Inft. 

of 1812. 
Ickes, Charles, Rebellion. 
Jenkens, George, Co. B, 23rd U. S. C. I. 
Johnson, William H., d. July 16, 1869, Rebellion. 
Johnson, John Bell, U. S. N. 
Kinsley, J. R., Co. H, 3rd Pa. Cal. 
Kyle, Samuel, War of 1812. 
Kennedy, John, War of 1812. 
Knight, James, U. S. Navy, Rebellion. 
Laughlin, William, killed at the battle of Fredericks- 
burg, Dec. 13, 1862. 
Martin, Sargent D. E., Co. I, 201 Pa. Inft. 
McCune, J.' A., Co. M, 7th Pa. Cal. 
McElwain, Robert, b. 1781; d. Jan. 18, 1853, War of 

1812. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 



201 



Snowdei), Sargt. Samuel S., Co. G, 8th U. S. C. Inft. 
Snowden, James H., Co. A, 24tli U. S. C. I. 
Tiirbet, William, Mexican War. 
Vanderbilt, C. H., Rel)ellion. 

Zeio-ler, Samuel R., b. Oct. 22, 184G; d. Mar. 15, 1897, 
Ilebellion. 



<— ?=o>p)»- 




=^X}-«Wf=C=4 — • 



202 



THE BIG .SPRING 



API^EISTDIXES. 



APPENDIX A. 



Ill giving the adherents of the Big Spring Church in 
John Carson's district on page 30, the following ])ersons 
were inadvertently omitted 



Samuel McCune 14, 

Hugh McCune 12, 

John McCune 60;'= 

Mary McCune 40,='" 

Adam Fullerton 16, 

James Fullerton 14, 
Alexander Fullerton 11, 

John McCune 9, 

Robert McCune 7, 

Samuel Weir 66,''' 

Jane Weir 30,''' 

George Weir 30, 

Margaret Weir 25, 
Agnes Marten, 
George, a Negro, 



Elizabeth Kilgore 
Jei;*se Kilgore 
Kobert Kilgore 
William Kilgore, 
Isabel Kilgore 
Mary Hawks 
James Mickey 
Agnes Mickey 
Joseph Parks 
Rebecca Parks 
Thomas Parks 
Joseph Parks 
Anna Parks 
John C. Parks 



70,'^^ 
19, 



21, 

24, 

19, 

o5,''' 

50,'=^ 

20, 

18, 

16, 

14. 



PJRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 203 

APPENDIX V>. 

The Presbyterians of the Cum= 
berland Valley. 

An Address at the Celebration of the Founding of the 
Log College, at Neshaminy, Pa., September 5, (889. 

i5Y ni:v. i:i'.i-:ni:zkk khskim:, d. J). 

Mr. Cli(tirman and (Jirifitiaii lUdJircn: 

There is an instiiK'tive tciidi'iH-y in llic liiiinan miiKl 
to trace all things to tluir natui-il and proper origin. 
Discoverers and ex})l()rers follow rivei's to their sonrees. 
Naturalists seek to traee all animal and vegetable organ- 
isms to their original germs. Philologists run back 
Mords to their roots. The great problem of the ages, in 
all the speculative schools of thought has been, what is 
the origin of moral evil? What is the origin of the ma- 
terial u;iivi'rse? 

It is under the inlluence of this j)rinciple of causation, 
of antecedent and consequent, that we are here gathered 
to-dav to celebrate the founding of the Log College by 
the elder William Tennent, as the first academical and 
theological school witliin the bounds of the Presbyterian 
Church of the United S^tates for the training of young 
men for the work of the ministry. On this historic spot, 
with all its interesting historic envii'onnicnts, we have 
assend)]ed, that here, Avith uncovered heads we may ac- 
knowledge, with gratitude to God, the obligations we 
ai-e under to the consecrated, self denying founder of an 
humble institution, which sent out an infbience that has 
])ei'vack'd the church and the nation. 

We are here not from any su])erstitious regard for this 
histoiic ])lace; nor with any mere affectation of interest 
in i]i(<(' liistoric scenes which we ck* n(»t feel; but to call to 



204 THE BIG SPRING 

mind the life, character and labors of William Teniient, 
the history of the school which he here established, and 
to inquire what were the faith, the spirit and the princi- 
ples which animated and governed him and which found 
expression in the young men of talent and energy whom 
he here trained. The orthodox, Calvinistic faith, the evan- 
gelical spirit, and the consecrated life of William Tenn- 
ent, which he impressed upon and infused into the 
young men here trained, are what made the Log Col- 
lege so famous in the history of the Presbyterian Church. 
AVilliam Tennent lived in those he here trained, more 
than in his work as a minister of the Gos]:)el or any 
other thing which he accomplished. From this school 
went forth young men who, like Barnabas, were full of 
faith and of the Holy Ghost. The character of the 
school m this respect was the seo'et of its great power 
for good. This line of thought I cannot further pursue. 
I have been asked by the committee in charge of these 
services to say something in regard to the Presbyterians 
of the Cumberland Valley, and tlieir relationship to the 
Log College. 

THE CUMBERLAND VALLEY. 

Perhaps there are those here to-day who would like 
to know just where and what this Cumberland Valley is. 

I answer, that it is a part of that extended valley 
which lies between two chains of that great Appallachian 
range of hills and mountains whicli runs in a northeast- 
erly and southwesterly direction across the eastern half 
of this continent and which is trom twelve to twenty 
miles in width, the whole length of it. Starting out 
from the southern part of the State of Vermont, under 
different names at different stages of its progress, it runs 
down through eastern New York, crossing the Hudson 
at Newburg; coming on through Pennsylvania, it crosses 
the Delaware at Easton, the Susquehanna at Harrisburg 
and the Potomac at Harper's Ferry; and running on 
down through Virginia, it crosses the James River at 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 205 

Lyiiclibnrg and then runs around through Tennessee 
and on down into Alabama. 

Now, that Y>i\v{ of tills extended valley which is called 
Cund)erland \'alley, is that part which lies between the 
Susquehanna and the Potoni'ac rivers and takes its name 
from Cunil)erland County, the first county organized in 
it, and which name was taken from that of a county in 
the North of England, bordering on Scotland. 

By many it has been much regretted that it had not 
been allowed to retain its original Indian name, that of 
the Kittatinny Valley, the valley of endless mountains. 

ITS SCENERY, SOIL AND CLIMATE. 

From the Susquehanna to the Potomac, the Kitta- 
tinny, or the North ]\Iountain, as it is commonly called, 
lifts up its long and almost level line of summit to the 
height of from seven to twelve hundred feet above the 
surfaceof the valley, ])resenting to the eye all along, a 
varying aspect of extended forests with here and there 
intervening patches of rocks, the changing draper}'^ of 
floating mists, the fleeing shadows of ever passing clouds, 
and all the diversified lines of spring, summer and 
autumn foliage. To the dwellers in the valley it is ever 
a most pleasing object of sight and very restful and 
grateful to the eye. 

The Soutii Mountain, which runs along the other side, 
slopes more gi'adually into the valley than the North and 
is broken into knobs and sjmrs with deep intervening 
recesses, and is alike an object pleasant to behold. 

The surface of the valley itself, is varied by hills, 
plains and dales, and is noted for the fertility of its soil, 
for its numerous great and evei' flowing springs and its 
clear running streams, for its abundant crops of grain 
and its pure and l)racing atmosphere. In all these re- 
spects it is perhaps unsurpassed l)y any other valley of 
equal extent in any part of the American continent. 

Attractive as this valley thus is, its settlement was 
delaved bv reason of the Indian claim to it, which was 



206 THE BIG SPRING 



not purchased until the year 1736 and also somewhat 
by reason of the controversy pending between the two 
Provinces of Pennsylvania and Maryland in relation to 
the boundary line between them which was not adjusted 
until 1787, nor confirmed by Mason and Dixon's survev 
until 1763. 

EARLY SETTLERS. 

By whom w^as this beautiful valley first settled? The 
answer is almost exclusively by the Scotch Irish Presby- 
terians, a people of the same race and of the same relig- 
ious faith and worship with the founders and alumni of 
the Log College. 

It is not for me to tell you in detail here to-day who 
the Scotch Irish Presbyterians were. That task has been 
assigned to our friend Dr. Muchmore, who has been 
everywhere and knows everybody, and like most editors, 
almost everything. 

I must ans^Yer the question, however, who were the 
Presbyterians, that were the chief original settlers of the 
Cumberland Valley? In doing so let it suffice here to 
to say, that they w^ere Scotch Irish Presbyterians; and 
that they were very much a Scotch colony, induced by 
James the First to settle on the forfeited lands of the 
Earls of Tyrone and Tyrconnel in the Province of Ulster, 
with its nine counties in the North or Ireland. The 
story of the English conquest of Ireland is one of great 
interest at the present time. AVhen Pope Adrian in 
1166 made a grant of Ireland to England, it was on two 
conditions. The first was that they were to have Ireland 
when they could get it. The second was that the Pope 
was to liave an annual tax in perpetuity of a penny a 
family. This was the origin of Peter's pence, wliicli they 
still continue to pay. 

England found the native Irish a peo])le hard to con- 
quer and still worse to govern.' Their troubles in this 
respect are still not ended. For a long time they tried 
to i:)lacate their Irish sul^jects ))}' a liberal bestowment of 





CRCCTtC «Y nt ST»Tt Of 
rCNDSTLVANU 

m MCMOirr or 

WILXJ&M DENNING 

1HC PATRIOTIC BUCJCSIifTM U 

rORCCR OF DKOUGHT IROX UVUflj 

I I OURINC THE hcvximowunr cm.' 

eOM 1737 -DttD 1810. 




PKESBYlKinAN (liUllCH. 207 



titles of nobility, and restoration of lands, but in vain. 
For a ])eriod of more than three hundred years the Eng- 
lish rule was limited to Dublin and its vicinity. Half 
of the people of Ulster perished in the successive rebel- 
lions and conflicts, they were wasted by wars, starved by 
famines, and rethieed to the lowest state of ])overty and 
wretchedness. Still they hated English domination. 
The break of Heniy the Eighth with the Pope did not 
improve tlie situation. Elizal)etli's distinctive Pretestant- 
ism made her I'cign still more offensive. It was not 
until the Scottish James came to the throne, and resorted 
to tlie old Roman })olicy of confiscation that Ulster was 
subdued. He confiscated five hundred thousand ncres 
of land in various parts of the Province. On these 
lands the hardy and loyal Scotch gentry and ]ieople 
were induced to settle. To do so, they left the hills and 
glens and lowlands and mists of Scotland, where they 
had so heroi(*ally battled for the rights of conscience and 
the Crown riglits of Christ, and came and sojourned for 
a time beneath the moister skies of Ulster, and there 
took on a milder type of character and a more evangeli- 
cal and warmer type of religion, b}' reason of the 
gracious revivals of religion with which their churches 
Avere blessed. These were the Scotch Irish Presby- 
terians. 

As soon as America was open for settlement, the 
Scotch and the Scotch Irish wei'c among the earliest em- 
igrants, and with their restless energy and spirit of ad- 
venture, they touched the American coast at almost 
every point from Nova Scotia, to which they gave its 
name, to the Carolinas. But their main settlements 
wen^ in Pennsylvania and the Carolinas. The reason of 
this was, the laws of the Provinces of New York and 
Virginia, and their Provincial officers were unfriendly to 
the coming of any ministers except those of the Church 
of England. This was illustrated in the experience of 
the Rev. James Anderson, an able and thoroughly edu- 



208 THE BIG Sl'KING 



cated minister of the Church of Scotland, sent over in 
answer to overtures from Mr. Makemie, McNish and 
others, for the express purpose of settling in Virginia, 
but who after a stay of six months, for the reasons stated, 
abandoned the attempt and came north and settled in 
1710, at New Castle, Delaware; and in 1716 was called to 
be the fij'st pastor of the First Presbyterian Church in the 
city of New York ; and on the other hand by the arrest, 
imprisonment and prosecution of the Rev. Mr. Makemie, 
the father of the Presbyterian Church in America, "as a 
roving minister" in the city of New York. The tidings 
of these things Avent back to Ulster and Scotland, and 
had the effect of largely preventing the people from 
going where they could not take their ministers with 
them. Wherever this people went, they brought their 
Presbyterianism with them. 

The Scotch Irish were far more numerous among the 
earlier emigrants into Pennsylvania than the Scotch. 
Not being allied to Ireland by any long standing tra- 
ditions or sacred memories, and being there greatly 
oppressed and harassed by the tyranny and exactions of 
a despotic and profligate monarch, and the restrictions 
and penalties imposed by an obsequious parliament, and 
by the intolerance and persecutions instigated by a 
haughty hierarchy, these things, with the rapacity and 
greed of the landlords, determined great and increasing 
numbers of them to come to America. And learning 
that under the liberal charter and the free laws of the 
Province of Pennsylvania, equal rights and all the 
advantages of civil and religious liberty were guaranteed 
alike to all the settlers, they were attracted in large num- 
bers to the free Province of Pennsylvania. 

As they left their homes with their fmiilies, for the 
reasons stated, to seek new homes across the seas and in 
the wilderness of another continent, the reasons actuating 
them had come to be in their minds solemn and grave 
considerations. Tliev had suffered for the ri<»;hts of con- 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 200 



science and liberty to worship God in both their former 
homes. 

These early Scotcli Iiish Presl)yterian settlers were 
<»;enerally agriculturists. When therefore they landed 
at Wilmington or Philadelphia, they were not drawn to 
the towns or cities, l)ut went at once into the rural dis- 
tricts and settled generally on lands along the streams of 
water, or in vicinity of the great springs which abounded 
in the country; as along White Clay creek in Delaware, 
the Ih-andywine and Octorara creeks in Chester county, 
Pa., on the Neshaminy and other streams here in Bucks 
county, or fai'ther on up as at the Forks of the Delaware 
in Northampton county; along the Pequeaand Donegal 
streams and springs in Lancaster county, and on the 
banks of Swatara and Fishing creeks in what is now 
Dau])hin county. 

Then when encouragement was given and licenses 
were granted they began to cross over the Susquehanna 
at Harris's ferry, now Hairisburg, from 1726 to 1786. 
Crossing over at Harrisburg they settled along the Cono- 
doguinetand about the Big Spring, Middle Spring, Fall- 
ing S})ring and Rocky Spring, in tlie central part of the 
valley, and on up along the Conococheague and its sev- 
eral brandies, in the vicinity of what is now Chand)ers- 
burg and ^lercersburg. 

Land wai-rants were sold from 173(5 onwards. From 
that time a great tide of emigration set into all these reg- 
ions in the valley. From thence this tide of enn'gration 
flowed on to the Potomac and on down the valley of 
Virginia into the Carolinas and Tennessee and across 
into Kentucky. 

When the valley was thus fully open to settlement, 
its a [tractions were so great, that a large influx of peo- 
ple at once set into it. Those who came were princi- 
])ally immigrants from the north of Ireland, Scotch Irish 
Presbytei'ians, or peojile of tlie same nationality and of 
the same religious iaith and order from the earlier settle- 



210 THE BIG SPRING 



ments in the Province of Pennsylvania. They were 
generally snbstantial farmers, men of steady habits, hardy, 
energetic, industrions and enterprising, with sufficient 
capital for the improvement and extension of their farms. 
They selected their lands with a vie^v to permanent resi- 
dence and as future homes for their families. Many of 
the dwelling houses of these first settlers in Cumberland 
Valley were built of hewn logs, two stories high, well 
and strongly built, with several apartments above and 
below. As early as 1744, many stone houses of two 
stories were erected in different parts of the valley. Some 
of these are still standing, and are substantial and com- 
fortable dwellings. 

Nine-tenths of all who came thus into the valley at 
that period were Scotch Irish people. They were a 
people who had been trained up under the Westminster 
Confession of Faith and the Larger and Shorter Cate- 
chisms. They were generally an intelligent, sincere, 
honest. Christian people, with a religious c)iaracter and 
life based upon the doctrines and duties set forth in the 
standards of the Presbyterian Church and diligently in- 
culcated upon their minds from their youth up. 

As the settlements progressed, congi-egations were or- 
ganized. By 1740, there were about one thousand 
families in what is now Cumberland and Franklin 
counties, and out of these there were at that time eiglit 
or nine congregations organized. These were Silver's 
Spring and Meeting House (Carlisle), Big Spring (New- 
ville). Middle Spring, Rocky Spring, Falling Spring 
(Chambersburg), Upper, Lower and West Conoco- 
cheague (Mercersburg, Greencastle and Welsh Run). 

It was within the jjounds of the first of these last three 
congregations mentioned (Mercersburg, called after Gen- 
eral Mercer who fell in the battle of Princeton), that the 
mother of our worthy and excellent Chief jMagistrate, 
Mr. Harrison, who has honored us by his presence here 
to-day, and the part he has taken in these services, had 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 211 



her birth and religious training. All these congrega- 
tions erected at once church buildings, and not satisfied 
^vitli licentiates or untrained ministers, they all sought 
cihicated, well trained and settled pastors. 

Tlie early Presbyterian ministers of the valley were 
all, witli but one exception, of Scotch or Bcotcli Irish 
antecedents and all graduates of some college or univers- 
ity. These people had been trained up under such 
niinistei's at tlieir former homes and they would be satis- 
fied with none other here. They were intelligent enough 
to know the difference between thoroughly educated 
ministers, men sound in the faith and skilled in matters 
of casuistry and those who were mere smatterers in 
divine knowledge and christian experience. 

Sinniltaneously with the organization of churches, was 
the erection of school houses in every neighborhood, and 
the procuring of suitable sclioolmasters, men of good 
moral and religious character and of the other necessary 
(]ualifications. In these schools the common branches 
of an ordinary English education were taught. In all 
of them the Bible was the standard daily reader and the 
Shorter Catechism was recited each day and reviewed on 
Saturday morning. 

The government of this extended community in the 
early history of these settlements was largely patriarchal 
in its character. The father of each family was the 
])ro})het, priest and king of his own household. He 
taught and trained his family in the knowledge, worship 
and service of God. Subordination to parental authority 
was a matter of universal inculcation, and obedience to 
])arents was the settled rule with respect to the youth of 
the entire communit)'. 

The great instrumentalities for the instruction and 
training of the young were the home, the school and the 
church. "Their religion," as Carlisle has somewhere 
said, "was the chief fact about them." It was the con- 
trolling thing in the family and in all their social inter- 



212 THE BIG SFEIIsTI 



course and domestic relations. Witli them the "chief 
end of man," was practically to serve and glorify God. 
With Sir William Hamilton, they could have said that 
"the great end of man is man," realizing that the more 
highly and perfectly man was developed physically, in- 
tellectually, morally and s])iritually, the more he would 
honor and glorify his Maker. "They were a people of 
a book, and that book was the Bible." It was read daily 
in the family at family worship, and in the schools, and 
not only read but ably and clearly expounded on the 
Sabl^ath. With Dr. Thoinas Arnold, of Rugby (but 
not with his degenerate progeny), they regarded the 
school not merely as "a place where a certain amount of 
general learning might be obtained, but as a sphere of 
intellectual, moral and religious discipline, where 
healthy and vigorous characters are formed, and where 
the youth are trained for the duties, struggles and re- 
sponsibilities of life." With them no system of educa- 
tion Avas complete, in which thorough moral and relig- 
ious discipline was omitted. Tlie great conservator and 
arbiter of right among them was the well regulated re- 
ligious and moral sentiment of the comnuinity. 

As these original settlers were chiefly farmers, they 
went on improving their farms, educating their children, 
and in providing for the subsistence of tlieir families find 
the support of their schools and churches. 

As I have said, in 1740 there were in Cumberland 
and Franklin counties about one thousand families and 
eight or nine organized churches, none of them nearer to 
each other than from eight to ten miles. In 1850, as 
shown by the census, there were in these two counties 
four thousand and eighty-nine farms, the greater part of 
which were still in the hands of the descendents of the 
original settlers. 

Now the peculiarity of the Presbyterians of the Cum- 
berland Valley is, that here for forty years was to be 
seen a Scotch Irish Presbyterian settlement more uni- 



PKESBYTEKIAN CllUJlC'H. 213 



versal and extended, than was to be seen anywhere else 
iijxtn this continent, a people not only of the same 
nationality but of the same religious faith and worsliip; 
of the same homogeneous tastes and dispositions, dwell- 
ing together in peace and harmony, and ])erforming 
towards each other all the offices of good neighborhood; 
a people of great integrity and uprightness of character, 
of pure and lofty j)atriotism and of intelligent and con- 
sistent jiict}-. Here was the Pres])yterian Church of 
Ulster transferred to American soil, existing undei* a 
government where equal rights were guaranteed to all its 
citizens, a people knowing their own rights and respect- 
ing the equal rights of others. To what was their pecu- 
liarity as a religious community due? Is it to be as- 
cribed to any peculiarity as to race or blood? to their 
Celtic sprightliness combined with their Teutonic obstin- 
acy and firmness? to soil or climate? We answer no. 
Whatever may be due to these elements of soil, climate, 
race or blood, their chief peculiarity was due to the prov- 
idential and religious tniining which they had received. 

Coming as they did out of those fierce and protracted 
persecutions which they and their fathers had endured 
in Ireland and Scotland, they came with their Bibles and 
Confessions of Faith in their hands, and well stored 
away in their minds. 

They came ready to inscribe in bold characters u|»on 
their banners here, the three great fundamental ])rinci- 
])les of Presbyterian ism and also of religious and civil 
liberty, for which they had so bravely struggled, viz.: 
loyalty to Christ as the supreme and only head of the 
church, the parity of the ministry, and the right of every 
congregation to choose its own officei's. Of the truth 
and importance of these fundamental principles, the 
Scotch and Scotch Irish Presbyterian ministers and peo- 
ple, were so fully pursuaded that no sacrifice was too 
great to be endured, rather than either renounce or be- 
trav them. 



214 THE BIG WPEING 

The Presbyterians of Scotland and Ireland having 
been called as the}" had been to contend amid the niosl 
cruel and bloody prosecutions, under which many thou- 
sands of them had sacrificed their lives for the supreme 
headship of Christ over his church, and as a consequence 
for its freedom from kingly and priestly domination, they 
became the foremost friends, advocates and defenders of 
religious and civil liberty, as against the usurpations and 
tyranny of both ecclesiastical and civil rulers. 

The union of church and state had been so close and 
dependent, and the relations of religious and civil liberty 
so intimate in their bearing on each other, that those 
who contended for the former, soon forfeited the favor of 
the kings and prelates. No portion of the earl}" settlers 
of this country so clearly comprehended the separate 
spheres of church and state, as tlie Scotch and Scotch 
Irish Presbyterians; and, as a consequence, while they 
were unwilling to allow the cliurch to be interfered with 
or controlled by the secular power; so for fear of such 
usurpations as they had already suffered from, they 
would neither ask nor receive aid from the state nor 
sul)mit to its dictation or authority in matters of relig- 
ious faith and v*'orship. 

In their ])ast experience, the natural and constant al- 
lies of civil despotism had been the Romish and Episco- 
pal hierarchies, and the Presley terians of Ireland and 
Scotland in their resistance to tyranny and oppression 
ha.d suffei'cd more from the latter than from the former, 
for the reason that the Episcopal Church was more fre- 
quently in the ascendancy and her prelates had much 
greater influence over their civil rulers and oppressors. 

The greatest friends and promoters of religious and 
civil liberty in this land, liistory shows, were the Scotch 
and Scotch Irish Presljyterians, the Puritans of England, 
the Dutch of Holland and the Huguenots of France. 

Presbyterian ism, as it came therefore into the Cum- 
berland Valley a century and a half ago, was not a thing 



PRESBYTEKIAN rHUKCH. 215 



crude in its priiici])les and cliaotic in its elements, but on 
the contrary was a clearly defined and tliorouglily devel- 
oped system of religious faith and order. It did not 
come here as something that was passive and plastic, to 
be determined in its character and history by the force 
of circumstances, or by the accident of its mere environ- 
ment, but its earliest propagators came with positive 
o})inions, with well settled ])rinci])les and with deep and 
strong convictions of truth and duty and with clear con- 
ceptions of their mission in laying tlie foundations of the 
church in this new world. 

The early Presl)yterian ministei's came with a system 
of doctrine that was distinct and sharply defined, with a 
form of government conformed to the word of God, and 
with a mode of worship that was at once simple, h?crip- 
tural and spiritual. 

In tracing back, however, the lines of influence that 
entered into the formation of our earliest Churches and 
Presbyteries in this land, the student of history cannot 
stop at Ireland or Scotland or England or France or 
Holland. All the lines along which the faith of the 
Keformed churches and also of religion and civil liberty 
and popular education, are traceable, stop not in any of 
these countries, but all run through and l)eyond them to 
that valley whicJi lies eni])Osomed in the mountains of 
Switzerland and to the banks of that beautiful lake on 
wliich stands the city of Geneva, whicli has for its great- 
est distinction, and will have through all time, that it 
was the home and the scene of the labors and achieve- 
ments of Jolin Calvin, t)ie great tlieologian of the Refor- 
mation. Here it was that John Knox, many learned 
P^nglish Puritans in the bloody times of Mary, as well 
as the Huguenots of France, fleeing fi-om the persecutions 
at home, found their way, and there acquired a more 
thorough knowledge of the great doctrines of the Re- 
formed faith and of the principles of religious and civil 
liberty, and there Ijchekl a people governed l)y laws of 



216 THE BIG SPRING 



their own making, a commonwealth without kings or 
nobles, a church without priests or prelates, and which 
acknowledged no head but Christ, and whose doctrines, 
government, laws and officers were all drawn directly 
from the word of God, and which had no authority to 
bind the conscience of any one, any further tlian they 
were sustained by the express statements of the Scrip- 
tures, or by plain inference from their expressed teaching. 

It was thence that our earliest ministers received their 
chief impress. They were cast in the mould of that 
system of religious faith and worship known as the 
"Calvinistic," a system, says Froude, "which has ever 
borne an inflexible front to illusion and mendacity, and 
has preferred rather to be ground to powder like flint, 
than to bend before violence, or melt under enervating 
temptation." To Scotland belongs the great distinction 
of having perhaps more fully and clearly perceived and 
held fast the Reformed Calvinistic faith than any other 
country. Says Macaulay: "To the attempt to enslave 
Scotland, England owes its freedom," and it may be 
added, the United States their religious and civil liberty. 
This was due to their rigid adherence to the principles of 
Knox and Calvin. These were the principles which 
revolutionized Western EurojX^, emancipated the masses 
of the people from civil and religious despotism and 
secured civil and religious liberty for the United States 
of America. 

Let some people think and talk as they may, the 
American revolutionary war Avas a Presbyterian war, 
waged chiefly by the English Puritants (half of whom 
were originally Presbyterians), and the Scotch Irish 
Presbyterians, for the securement of independence of 
Great Britain and the enjoyment of civil and religious 
liberty. As soon as the trouble rose at Boston, with the 
mother country, the cry rang out from the Presbyterians 
of North and South Carolina, Pennsylvania, New Jer- 
sey, Delaware, Maryland and Virginia in favor of inde- 



I'KEISEYTEKIAX rilLKCH. 217 



pendcnce. The immortal AVithcrspoon voiced the sen- 
liiiieiil in the Continental Congress. Patrick Henry 
re-eclioed it in the valle}' of Virginia. The Presbyteri- 
ans of the Cnml^erhuid Valley rose up cnmasse and min- 
ist(>rs and people joined the war of independence. Gen- 
erals Armstrong, Irvine and the gallant Mercer com- 
manded the trooi)s, Reverends John Steel and John 
Craigliead went forth as cajilains of companies, and Drs. 
John King, Robert Coojier and George Duffield as 
chaplains in the army. 

The reason of all this readiness to go, over and above 
the love of liberty and their sense of right and justice 
inspired by their religion and regulated b}- the Divine 
law, was that they held in remembrance the grievances 
which they had endured. They had come through the 
iircs of fierce and prolonged persecutions. They liad 
forsaken their homes as the President has so well said 
to-day "for God and liberty," and by the help of God, 
they were determined that the shackles of oppression 
should not be rivited upon them here. 

Such is the estimate which in this brief and hurried 
survey, we place ujion the character, principles and hab- 
its of the Scotch Irish Presbyterians of the Cumberland 
Valley. We do not claim for them peifection by any 
means. We do not deny that they had their defects, 
which neither we nor they would seek to palliate or 
justify. But like the sun, which has its spots, so what- 
ever defects they may have had, they were all over- 
powered and obscured by the greater effulgence of the 
mass of excellencies wliich adorned their charactei*s, and 
were exemplified in their lives. 

Without any disparagement of the Quakers or the 
( Jermans, the other two general divisions of the early 
settlers in the Province of Pennsylvania, we speak thus 
more earnestly with resj)ect to the Scotch Irish Presl^y- 
terians, from the conviction that as a ]U'Oj)le, justice has 
not vet been done them either in the historv or the liter- 



218 THE BIG HPKING 



ature of the country. 

THE LOG COLLEGE. 

Now what of the relation of the Presbyterians of the 
Cumberland Valley to the Log College? 

Soon after the withdrawal of the New Side party from 
the Synod in 1741, the people of Hopewell, which in- 
cluded Big Spring, Middle Spring and Rocky Spring 
congregations, and the New Side portions of Derry, Up- 
per Pennsboro, Conococheague and other parts of con- 
gregations, sent supplications to the New Side Presby- 
teries of New Castle and New Brunswick for supplies, 
and Revs. Campbell and Rowland were sent to visit 
them. 

Rev. John Rowland was an Alumnus of the Log Col- 
lege and licentiate of the Presbytery of New Brunswick. 
Although his licensure was irregular and became the 
occasion of a violent controversy, which issued in the 
division of the churcli, yet he was a strong and impres- 
sive preacher, and his ministry was extraordinarily 
blessed in what is now Lr.wrenceville and Pennington, 
New Jersey, to the bringing about of a great revival of 
religion in both congregations. When he came into the 
Cumberland Valley he came fresh from these revival 
scenes, and much in the spirit of Whitefield and the 
Tennents. Mr. Rowland's preacliing is represented as 
having been with great 1)0 wer and marked residts 
through all these congregations. 

In 1742, Big Spring, Middle Spring and Rocky Spring 
churches united in calling Dr. John Blair, an alumnus 
of the Log College and licentiate of the Presbytery of 
New Castle to become their pastor. Mr. Blair continued 
pastor of these three congregations until 1748, and most 
probably until 1756, when the incursions of the Indians 
led to his withdrawal. In 1757 he succeeded his de- 
ceased brother Samuel, at Faggs Manor. In 17{)7 he 
was chosen Vice President and Professor of Divinity in 
Princeton College, from wliich position he modestly re- 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 21 1) 



tired in 1769, in favor of Dr. Witherspoon. He died in 
AVnlkill, New York, in 1771 in tlie fifty-second year of 
liis age. 

John Blair, like his brother Samuel, was among the 
most talented and gifted ministers of his day. He is 
believed to have had no snj)erior as a theologian at that 
time. He was a man of clear and strong convictions 
with respect to the do(;trines of grace, and preached them 
witli great clearness and force. His ministry to the 
three congregations in the Valley was eminently blessed 
to the awakening of the impenitent and the edification 
of the peo])le of God. Its influence in favor of an ortho- 
dox faith and a warm evangelical l)iety, is felt in these 
congregations until this day. 

Few men ii] the history of the church have had so 
many distinguished persons named after them. Dr. 
Samuel Stanhope and Dr. John Blair Smith were the 
children of one sister, and the Kices of Virginia were the 
childien of another sister. Dr. William Linn was his 
son-in-law and Dr. John Blair Linn his grandson. 
Francis P. Blair, the editor of the Globe in Washington, 
and father of Montgomery and General Frank P. Blair, 
was also a grandson. In the inscription upon his tomb, 
he is spoken of as a man of genius, a good scholar, an 
excellent divine, an eminent Christian, a man of great 
])rudence and a laborious and successful minister, who 
lived 2;reatlv beloved and died ij;reatlv lamented. 

Rev. John Roan, an alumnus of the Log College, and 
a l)old and fearless preachei* was settled over the united 
New Side congregations of Paxton, Derry and Conewago 
in 174o, and labored there until his death in 1775, and 
lies buried in the graveyard at Derry. On his tomb is 
inscribed, "Here lies the remains of nn able, faithful, 
courageous and successful minister of Christ." And 
finally, Dr. Benjamin Rush and Governor John Dickin- 
son, pu])ils of Dr. Sanuiel Fiidey, an alumiuis of the Log 
College, while at Nottingham, Maryland, and therefore 



220 THE BIG SPRING 



graiiclsous of the Log College, were the founders of Dick- 
inson College. 

Few parts of the Church or country therefore received 
a more direct or deeper impress from the Log College 
than the Cumberland Valley. 

Notwithstanding the distractions and the divisions oc- 
casioned by two violent religious controversies, the deso- 
lations caused by three protracted wars, and that great- 
est of all calamities, the loss of Dickinson College to the 
Presbyterian cause, the Churches of the Valley continue 
their existence and many of them have had a steady and 
solid growth. They have been distinguished all through 
their history generally for a strict adherence to the West- 
minster Standards, for a warm evangelical piety, for zeal 
in the promotion of revivals of religion, for their mis- 
sionary spirit, and for their regard for higher Christian 
education. And although these churches have been 
subject to a constant depletion from the great attraction 
of the larger towns and cities of the older states; to a 
perpetual stream of emigration to the more fertile ])rairie 
lands and growing towns of the great west, and to the 
steady influx of the German population from the Ger- 
man settlements in the State, still the general roll of 
membership has not been diminished, and the highest 
j^oint of Christian benevolence ever attained was reached 
the past year. 

What Ulster has long been with res])ect to the whole 
religious world, the Cumberland Valley has been in re- 
lation to all parts of this wide spread land. A perpetual 
stream of emigration has gone out from it to strengthen 
the churches of the older towns and cities and to form 
new ones in all ]^arts of the Great West. 



PRESBYTEKIAN ClIUKCH. 221 



CHURCH ORGANIZATION 1898. 



PASTOR. 

REV. EBENEZER ER8KINE, D. D. 

RULING PXDERH. 

EDWIN R. HAYS, ROBERT MICKEY, 

JOHN F. KENDIG, GEORGE W. SWIGERT, 

ELIJAH J. ZOOK, M. D. 

TRUSTKl^S. 

W. ALEXANDER McCULLOUGH, Pres., 

ROBERT H. SOLLENBERGER, 

DANIEL LECKEY, 
HON. HARRY MANNING, 

ATCHISON LAUGHLIN, 

W. LINN DUNCAN, 
JOHN S. ELLIOTT. 

TREASURER. 

JOHN S. ELLIOTT. 

CHOIR MASTER. ORGANIST. 

WILLIAM J. LAUGHLIN, REBECCA WAGNER. 

SUPT. OF SABBATH SCHOOL. 

EDWIN R. HAYS. 

ASSISTANT SUPT. SA IJBATII SCHOOL. 

GEORGE W. SWIGERT. 

SUPT. OF INFANT SCHOOL. 

MRS. MARY ELLEN AHL. 

SEXTON. 

JOSEPH WILT. 



222 



THE BIG SPKING 



CONTENTS. 



Introduction by Kev. K. Erskiue, D. L>. 

Pastorate of Rev. Thomas Craighead, , 

Pastorate of Kev. John Blair, D. D., . 

Pastorate of Rev. George Duffield, D. D., 

Pastorate of Rev. William Linn, D. D., 

Pastorate of Rev. Haniuel Wilson, 

(Jail of Rev. Samuel Wilson, . 

Subscribers to the Salary of Rev. Samuel Wilson, 

Members Received into the Church by the Rev. Samuel Wilson, 

Petition for the Election of an Elder, 

Proceedings of a Meeting of Session, 

Members and Adherents of the Church in 1789, 

John Carson's District, 

William Lindsay's District, 

John Bell's District, : 

Robert Patterson's District, 

Robert Lusk's District, 

Samuel McCormick's District, 

David Ralston's District, 

Hugh Laughlin's District, 

John Robinson's District, 

John McKeehan's District, 

Marriages by Rev. Samuel Wilson, 

Address in the Marriage Ceremony of Kev. Samuel Wilson 

Pastorate of Rev. Joshua Williams, 

Members Received into the Church by Rev. Joshua WiUiams, D.D. 

Baptisms by Rev. Joshua Williams, D: D., 

Marriages by Rev. Joshua Williams, D. D., 

Members of tlie Female Bible Class in 1817, 

Members of the Male Bible Class in 1817, 

Districts, Elders and Heails of Families in 1808 

Pastorate of Rev. Robert McCachran, . 

Marriages by Rev. J^obert McCachran, 

Baptisms by Rev. Robert McCuchran. . 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 



223 



Pastorate of Rev. James S. H. Henderson, 

Pastorate of Rev. Philip H. Mowry, D. D., 

Pastorate of Rev. Ebenezer Erskine, D. 1)., 

Church Buildings, 

Occupants of Pews in 17i>0, 

The Glebe, . 

Ruling Elders and Societies of the Church, 

Sons of the Church who have Entered the Ministry 

Pastors of the Church, 

Rev. Thomas Craighead, 

Rev. John Blair, D. D.. 

Rev. George Duffield, D. D., . 

Rev. William ]Jnn,D. D., 

Rev. Samuel Wilson, 

Rev. Joshua Williams, D. D., 

Rev. Robert McCachran, 

Rev. James 8. H. Henderson, 

Rev. Philip H. Mowry, D. D., 

Rev. Ebenezer Erskine, D. D. 

In the Grave Yard, 

Oiu- Father's Resting Place (Poem), 

Inscriptions from Tomb Stones, 

Soldiers Burie<l in the Grave Yard, 

Appendix A, . . ■ 

Ai>pendix B. Address by Rev. E. Erskine, D. D., 

Church Organization 1898, 



128 
129 
130 
132 
138 
143 
150 
155 
158 
158 
159 
161 
163 
164 
1(35 
167 
171 
172 
173 
177 
178 
179 
199 
202 
203 
221 



ERRATA. 

On p;io;e 105, iniuTia<<e of John M. Woodhnrn ami Lnr-imla Stewart, 
should be Feb. 26, lcSo7. 

On page 14o, "This trust was called Reliance," read. This tract was 
called Reliance. 

On page 110 -'John T. Dunfee," read James T. Dunfee. 

On page 191, "McCulloch Jane Henderson," read McCulloch Mary 
Henderson, wife of James. 



Princeton Theological Seminary Libraries 



1 1012 01217 2013 





DATE DUE- 






t!L___ 






™ 












" 






















~ 










" 




























































■ 
































— 




































CAVLORO 




•IIMTeO INU.S.A. 















'Tzzz. '^°' 



^ ^f -^""""^f Lfe^'^P ■E't^S^I' "S'^^^'' 
: -" "i — '. 



s.sa^'S 



■'Esp'y--- - ; 

















- T I — « ^~ J- ^ * 



4 



Eg, »i!I .