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'^\A ^ojjuei] Boohstoiie. 

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Copyright by Hunry A. Hazen, 1882. 

Harden & Rowell, Lowell, Printers. 


Aiilli^torical 3Iemoir of BilJerica. i)uh\iii]wd by John Farmer, in the 
year ISK!, was, perhaps, thn earliest history of a Massachusetts town in- 
tlcpendently printed and publi-ihed. It is a pamphlet of 36 pages, printed 
at Amlierst, X. H. Its intrinsic excellence and the subsequent fame of its 
author have given it celebrity as a rare treasure of local history, and it 
has recently been reprinted. 

The need of a fuller history has l>cen felt. and. as early as 1869, the 
town appointed the Conunittee under whose auspices this volume has been 
l)re])ared. This Committee consisted of (iardniM- Parker. Esq.. Dudley 
Foster, the [Ion. Thomas Talbot, and the IJev. Christo])her C. Hussey. For 
some years this Conunittee failed to secui-e any arrangcMuent for the prose- 
cution of the work. In 1S77. uuich to his own surj)rise, a fifth member was 
added to this Conunittee. Had he foreseen some of the consequences, he 
Avould have hesitated to accept the honor; but, with a hearty interest in the 
o))ject proposed. h(» was not unwiUing to aid, if he could, in its furtherance. 
The steps by whicli the result has been reached are not of consequence to 
the public ; but the result is that he must accej)t the responsibility of the 
volume here offered to the town and the public, and. dro])])ing tiie third 
person, will add a few explanator}' words. 

Xo single vohnne can so fully and adequately describe the life of a 
town, that there will not remain ample materials for other volumes, which 
may have equal reason for their being. This is true of Billerica. The rec- 
ords alone would furnish voluuies, which should be printed; and. beyond 
these sources, are exhaustless stoi'es of meniorj^ and tradition, fact and 
fancj^ which would enrich the pages of a recorder who could glean dili- 
gentlj'- and sift judiciously. Xot a native, or long a resident,' of the town, 
I have done my work at some disadvantage in this direction, and many 
will seek here for details which thej^ will not find. My aim has been to 
go back to the beginning, to lift the veil from a past m hich lias been al- 
most forgotten, and to trace the foundations on which the modern siq)er- 
structure is reared. Tlie later history, for the last hundred years, is more 
accessible and familiar, and 1 have not intended to traverse it with much 
detail. The limitations of this volume would not allow similar and ade- 
quate fulness in both the earlier and later periods, and it has seemed to me 


due to the fathers, that our lirst ott'ort be to recover and record the story of 
their i>loughhig and seed-sowing, of wliich our modern life, since ITOO, is 
only the fruit. 

I have drawn the materials for these pages chiefly from the records, 
and from other original and hitherto unpublished sources. With more 
time to explore and digest the very copious material, I could have satisfied 
my own ideal much more fully; but the opportunity is wanting, and such 
as it is, I submit the volume to the use and charitable. judgment of that 
lar^e and increasing number who are intei*ested in our local New England 
history and genealogy. 

The separate paging of the Genealogical Register is due to the fact that 
it was first completed and printed, and the families being arranged alpha- 
betically, the paging is in that part not important. If the question arises 
^^ by any family, now resident in town, is not recorded in the Register, the 
answer is, that the I'ecord was not furnished. At two town meetings, and 
on other occasions, citizens were invited to furnish their family record for 
this use, and none which were furnished are omitted. 

For encouragement and aid in tlie work, thanks are due to friends more 
nuraei'ous than I can mention. Many, not named, are not forgotten, if I 
refer to a few, whom it Avere unpardonable to omit. The kindness and co- 
operation of each member of the Historical Committee have been constant 
and unstinted, and I record it here most gratefully ; while to Mr. Foster 
and his good wife (whose recent death makes their pleasant home deso- 
late) , I am specially indebted for the lists of town officers, and for the use- 
ful alphabetical copy, made by thein, of the Baptisms found in the records 
of the First Church. Mr. Franklin .Taquith copied the inscriptions in the 
South BurjMng Ground, and those in the Old Corner Burj'ing Ground were 
as kindly copied by Mrs. Holt. Mr. Jaquith also prepared with great care 
the list of soldiers from Billerlca in the late war. Dr. C. E. Hosmer ren- 
dered important aid in preparing the Map of Ancient Billerica. The use of 
valuable surveys and papers has been generously granted by Mrs. Samuel 
Sage, Mr. Leander Crosbj% Mr. Merton Simonds, of Bedford, Peter E. 
Vose, Esq., of Dennysville, Me., and the Rev. Henry M. Dexter, D. D., 
of New Bedford. Mr. and Mrs. A. B. Cutler, of Bedford, have most kindly 
given me every opportunity to use the invaluable Lane Papers in their pos- 
session. The Hon. Samuel A. Green, M. D., Mayor of Boston, has not 
only given free access to the library of the Massachusetts Historical So- 
ciety, but, by constant and valuable suggestions, aided me very materiallj'^ ; 
and Mr. John Ward Dean, of the New England Historic, Genealogical So- 
ciety, has been not less helpful. The Congregational Library, rich in local 


history and genealogy, has been always at mj^ service, while to IMiss Mary 
E. Stone, its assistant lil)rarian, especial thanks are due, for invaluable aid, 
most cheerfully rendered, in reading proof of nian^y of these pages. In n)y 
researches among the Massachusetts Archives in the Secretarj' of State's 
office, the aid of Dr. Edward Strong has been of great service ; and thanks 
are due to Mr. David Pulsifer, of the same office. Others, who should be 
named in the same spirit, are, Mrs. Bennett and Mr. W. W. AVarren, Dr. 
Augustus Whiting, of Charlestown, Mr. and Mrs. L. W. Faulkner, Mr. C. 
H. Hill, Mr. E. J. Hill and Dr. F. V. Noj^es ; and the volume might have 
an appropriate dedication to the memory of Cai)t. Charles A. Kanlett, to 
whose historic interest much was due in the inception of the enterjti-ise. 

In closing, I may be permitted to record the satisfaction which I have 
found in the researches and labors which this work has involved. My 
experience in such inquiries was limited ; if it had been greater I should 
scarcely have consented to accept the responsibility *of the undertaking. 
But it is only the truth to say, that it has largely been a labor of love, giv- 
ing its own constant reward. I have learned to honor the founders of this 
town, and the generations which have builded upon their foundations. If 
this volume shall aid to any extent in setting their work and memory in 
clearer light, and securing a more just appreciation of their toils and sac- 
rifices, I shall be content. At the same time I have more faith in the as- 
surance that the former days were not better than these, but that there has 
been substantial progress. The candid and careful student of the ancient 
records can reach no other conclusion. The golden age is not in the past. 


AuBURNDALE, 1 Dec. 1882. 


CHAPTER I. — Early Grants — Shawsiiin. 

Grants to Govs. Winthrop and Dudley. 3, 4; "'The Two Brothers," 4; to 
otlicrs and to Mrs, Winthrop, 5; Cambridge. 6-9; Dudley farm sold* 
10; Grants from Cambridge, 12-4; petition of Shawshin, 16-8; named 
liillciica, and extended west of Concord river. 19; Cambridge, agree- 
niciit and separation. 20-2. 

CHAT. 11.— F1K8T Settleh.s — Locations and KELATiONSiiirs. 

The ••Farm" and the ••Township," 23-5; settlers from Cambridge, Wol)urn 
anil Braintree, 26-9. 

CHAP. III. — Land Distribution. 

•■Farm" and •"Township" agreement, 31-2; early diyisionsi of land, 34-9; 
Cliurch farm. 40; College farm. 41; farms of Champnej' and others, 
41; ••Naticott" grant to Billeriea; its sale to Brenton, 42-4; John 
Cromwell. 45; Cand)ridge ''Great Deed,'' 46; grant of 4000 acres, 47; 
sold to Parker. 48. 

CHAP. IV.— The Stouy as tolu in the Records. 

Account of the •■Kecord" volumes, 51-3; Rights, acre-lots. 54; rating, 55; 
house for minister. 57 ; first town otticers, 59 ; instructions to Select- 
men. 61 ; Maj. VVillard, letter from, 62; the common herd. 63; killing 
■wolves, 65 ; yoking swine, 60 ; shade trees and buiying place, 67 ; Cam- 
bridge titles, 68 ; sale of mill-lot, 68 ; town charges, 1663. 69. 

CHAP. V. — Boundaries. 

Andover. 73-5; Concord, controversy, 76-81; Woburn, 82-6. 

CHAP. VI. — Roads and Bridges. 

Early ways, 87; road'to Woburn. 88; Ctmcord, 89; Andover, 90; Wamesit, 
91; East road, 92; Lexington. 94; Charnestaffe lane, 95; West St.. 96; 
treble-cove and rangewa3\ 97; bridges. 97-101. 

CHAP. VII. — The Indians and Wamesit. 

Wamesit reservation, 103; chiefs, 104; John Eliot; Gookin's narrative, 105; 
Philip's war, 109 ; garrisons. 109; Chelmsford assailed, 114; Groton, 
petition, 115; soldiers from Billeriea, 117; the Christian Indians; their 
wrongs, 117; alarm at Billeriea; the reported massacre, 119; hard- 
ships, 121 ; Kennebec expedition, 122. 


CHAP. VIII. — Indian and Military. 

Indian deeds, 123; sale, of Wamesit, 124; the Winthrops seek lo recover, 
125; military company, 125; Canada expedition; Dunstable assailed; Lt. 
Wilson at Cocheco, 126; Billerica's first massacre, 127; second massa- 
cre, 129 ; Mrs. Toothaker, 130 ; militai-y life and trials, 132 ; Hunt's gar- 
rison, 134 ; Col. John Lane, 135 ; Queen Anne's war, 136 ; soldiers from 
Billerica, 137 ; Dunstable attacked, 140 ; Lovewell's expedition, 141 ; 
Louisburg, 142 ; service on Connecticut river, 143 ; sad day for Biller- 
ica, 143 ; Josiah Crosby, 144 ; French and Indian war, 145 ; soldiers 
from Billerica, 147 ; the French neutrals, 151. 

CHAP. IX. — Religious History. 

Mr. Miller. Mr. Whiting. 153 ; meeting-house, 154 ; Danf orth and the Chelms- 
ford church, 15G; difficulties of church organization, 159; at last ef- 
fected, 160 ; the first pastor, 163 ; covenant, 163 ; half-waj' covenant, 
164 ; minister's rate, 165 ; arrears. 166 ; repairs and neAV meeting-house, 
168 ; seats, 169 ; Mr. Whiting's character. 170 ; frees his slave, 170 ; col- 
league, 172; his death, 174; Mr. Euggles' ministry. 174; third meet- 
ing-house, 175; pew ground and seats. 176; bell, 177; list of sittings, 
178 ; Mr. Chandler settled, 181 ; death of Mr. Ruggles, 182 ; brief and 
troubled pastorate of Mr. Chandler, 183. 

CHAP. X. — Gleanings from Records. 

Testimonial of loyalty, 185; fat ox for Mr. Davie, 186; basis of rates 
changed, 187; Crosby's public house, 188; aid to the poor; tything- 
men, 189 ; oath of fidelitj^ 191 ; subscription for Harvard College, 192 ; 
early tax lists. &c.. 193; mill swamp drowned, 195; entertainments at 
public house, 196 ; witchcraft ; Mrs. Carrier, 196 ; receipts and expen- 
ses of town, 1714, 201 ; tax Usts, 1733 and 1755, 203. 

CHAP. XI. —Land Distribution. 

List of rights, 1685, 208 ; other claims, 209 ; extensive divisions, 210 ; grant- 
ees, 213; west side, 214; ministry lot; sale of land to Capt. Reed. 215. 

CHAP. Xn. — Dismemberment. 

Wamesit ''Purchase," 217; Bedford, 218; Tewksbury, 220; Wilmington, 
222 ; Carlisle, 223. 

CHAP. XIII. — The Revolution. 

Resolutions, 1768, 226; non-importation, 227; resolutions, 1773, 227; Bos- 
ton port bill ; the toAvn's response, 229 ; will not use British goods, 231 ; 
militia. 232 ; committee of inspection ; minute men, 233 ; Ditson tan-ed 
and feathered, 234 ; the 19th of April, 235 ; committee of correspond- 
ence, inspection and safety, 237 ; Bunker Hill ; independence, 238 ; calls 
for troops, 239 ; inflation of the currency, 240 ; aid for soldiers, 241 ; 
list of soldiers, 243 ; tax-list, 1776, 247. 

viil. CONTENTS. 

rilAr. XIV. — Education. 

Catochising. 252; Joseph Toinpson, schoolmaster, 25.S; others, 254; squad- 
rons. 2r»r>; school-houses; school-danies, 25G; Peinbertou Academy, 
Billcrica Academy. 257; Howe school, 258; Boy's school, 2.59. 

CHAP. XV. — Religious History. 

Henry Cumings settled, 2G0; ''recollections'' of him, 2G1; new meeting- 
liouse, and pew-list. 263; the pastor's theological position, 2G4; extract 
trom sermons. 2G5 ; colleague settled; death of Dr. Cumings. 2GG; Mr. 
Wliit man's ministry ; disturbing elements ; town ceases to rapport, 267 ; 
his resignation. 2GS ; successors. 2G9 ; First Baptist Chun h, 269 ; pas- 
tors; Congregational Church, 270; other churches, 272. 

CHAP. XVI. — Canal, Turnpike and Railroads. 

Middlesex Canal, 273; stages; Boston & Lowell Railroad, 275; the ''Nar- 
row Gauge," 276. 

CHAP. XVn. — Mills — Manufactures. 

Early mills, 278; grant to Osgood; its history, 279 ; contest with towns 
above, on Concord river ; Faulkner's mills, 280 ; Talbot's mills ; Hill's 
machine shop ; Patten's manufactory, 281 ; Jaquith's glue factory, 282. 

CHAP. XVHI. — Billerica in the Rebellion. 

Raising troops, 283; monument, 284; record of soldiers, 285. 

CHAP. XIX. — The Mother-Town op Billericay. 
Description. 293; historic items, 295; meaning of name, 29G. 

CHAP. XX. — Miscellaneous and Final. 

Billerica graduates; lawyers and physicians, 302; town officers, 304; post- 
masters, 307; population, 309 : census. 310; voting list, 1880, 312; li- 
braries, 315; celebrations; Indian names, 316; surroundings and scen- 
ery, 317. 


I'OI.'TIJAIT OF 'I'lIOMAS TALIiOT Front is|)i«'C('. 

Mat of Ancucnt Rii.lkhioa ]). 1(» 

(jAKiiisox JIoi .SE. Fn'iiclrr' ill 

Howe Hciiool '2'u 

FJovs" Hcirooi.. M. C. MnciiEij 2r)S 

First Chuhch and Coai.mox ■2(\:i 

P.ArxiST Chuhch 'ifi!) 

('ox(;he(;ati«)NA[. CnuKCir 271 

lUi'TisT Chuijcii, Xoktii Hili,ki;ica 272 

KAir.KNEU Mii.i 27!) 

Taluot Mi\A 280 

Soldiers Monujient 2S4 

UiLi.ERiCAY. Ex<;.. Main Street 2!)4 

Parish (HrRcn 29S 

liENXFyrr Library .{IT) 


I'ORTRAIT OF liKV. IIeXRV C'lMIX(iS. I). D .'i:! 

Daxforth GAin!isf»x IIolse ;^4 

I'oRTRAiT OF Francis Fafi.kxer 52 



Ilii.i. Garrison Holsk (i^ 



•K DKTxs Homestead 80 

Kesidexce of Thomas 14(1 

HUFUS K, l^NDERHIEl l-")2 

Portrait of Dea. Saaiiee Whitixc; 1;")!> 




The Pilgrims came to Plymouth in the yesiV 1G20. Dover and 
Portsmouth were occupied in 1623. Then five j^ears passed, and 
Endecott, with the first Puritan company, arrived at Naumkeak 
and laid the foundations of Salem. In 1629 the charter of Mass- 
achusetts was granted by King Charles, and other settlers occupied 
Weymouth, Mi shawum (or Chai-lestown) , and Saugust (or Lynn). 
The arrivals in 1630 were more numerous, fourteen 'sail' and fifteen 
hundred passengers, with Winthrop and Dudley- among them. Some 
of the Charlestown people moved across the Charles river to Shaw- 
mut, or Trimountain, where, for some years, a solitary- Episcopal 
clergyman named Blackstoue had been living a hermit life, and thus 
Boston was born. Mattapau (or Dorchester), Roxbury, Watertown 
and Meadford were occupied the same A^ear. Connecticut was 
chartered in 1631, and Newtown was occupied with the intention 
of fortifying and making it the chief town of the colony. Governor 
Wintlnop and Assistant-Governor Dudley began to build there, 
but Winthrop and some others becoming dissatisfied or convinced 
that it was an error to leave Boston, returned, and the early rivalry 
between Caml^ridge and Boston resulted in favor of the latter town. 
The year 1633 was memorable for the coming of John Cotton, the 
eminent divine and friend of Cromwell, who brought the name of 
his own English Boston, and gave it new fame b}' supplanting the 
T'ldian name Shawmut. Thomas Hooker and his compau}- also 
arrived that year and settled in Newtown ; but after three years, 
nding that they had not room enough, removed to Hartford. 
Agawam (or Ipswich) and Hingham were also settled. With 1635, 
Newbury was occupied, and the first plantations were made inland, 


at Miisketaqnifl (Concord), and Springfield; and there followed 
Dedhain, in ICuMj ; Sudburv, in 1G37; Enou (or Wenham) , Glouces- 
ter iind Kowlev, in 1(531); Salisbnrv, Lynn Village (Reading), 
W()l)urn and Braintree, in 1G40; Pentucket (Haverhill), and 
Nantasket (Hull), in 1G41 ; Topslield, in 1642; Bradford and 
Coehicliawick (Andover), in 1(J43 ; and Nashawa}' (Lancaster), 
and Maiden, in 1 048. In twenty years the Massachusetts Colony 
had i)Ianted thirty-one towns, not including Dover, Portsmouth, 
Hampton and Exeter, now in New Hampshire, but then in her 
jurisdiction. Tlie Plymouth Colony in 1648 numbered seven towns; 
Connecticut, fifteen ; Rhode Island, four ; and in Maine there were 
three : York, Saco and Wells. In all New England there were 
sixty-four towns at this time. 

The d'.'sire of the earl^' colonists for ample room in their settle- 
ments was natural. They came from a country where landed pos- 
sessions were largely the basis of wealth and rank. They were 
laj'ing foundations here and looking to the future with large views 
and large faith, and the opportunity naturally awakened t'le purpose 
to endow their children with acres enough upon which to build a 
prosperous future. So with Boston on one side, and Watertown on 
the other, Hooker and his company felt themselves straightened in 
Newtown, and removed to the inviting meadows of the Connecticut ; 
and Charlestown, Lynn and Ipswich were soon seeking for room to 
expand. Reading and Woburn grew up the children of these 
parent towns, and Billerica drew her first life from Cambridge, which 
Newtown had become with the planting of Harvard College there. 

The first pulsation of the life of Billerica ma}' be found in a 
record of the General Court, "■ 1635-6, 3 March. The Goun'', Dep- 
uty Gonn', and John Winthrop, Sen"', Esq"', or any two of them, 
are intreated to vewe Shaweshin and soe to informe the next Genall 
Court whither or noe it may not be a fitt place for a plantacon." 
Concord had been occupied the previous year, and the vicinity 
would naturall}' receive new attention. This governor was Mr. 
John Haynes who removed in October of the same 3'ear with 
Mr. Hooker's company to Hartford, and became the first governor 
of Connecticut Mr. John Winthrop was the eminent first governor 
of Massachusetts. The removal of Mr. Ilavnes may have interfered 
with his exploring Shawshin ; and there is no evidence that the next 
General Court received the information desired. But we may infer 
that Mr. AVinthrop did not personally neglect it, and we soon find 
him receiving nn important grant here. 


About this time the name of Shawshiu is heard iu England. 
Mathew Cradock Avas the first governor of the Massachusetts 
company, and invested his wealth very freely for the promotion 
of the colony. He was the founder of Medford, and Wiiithrop 
succeeded him iu office when the colony was sufflcientl}' developed 
to need a resident governor. In a letter to Governor Winthrop, 
bearing date 1636, Sept. 13, he adds a postscript, afterwards 
cancelled, as follows : ^ 

'■Sir: I have a purpose to apply myself to tyllidge & increasing 
my stock of Cattel, & having had recourse to a plase caled Shawe 
Shynn, where 1 hear none comes but myselfe, I desire your ffauour, 
when tlie Court Slialbee moved in my belialfe, that I may have 2000 
Acres there allotted to me where I shall find it most convenient ffor 
mee. I know the orders made heere in Courte allowe me maney 
thousand acres more than I intend to demand or looke after. This 
my suite 1 liope will give oftenee to none, & when I shall putt up 
a tenement & a dame, as I have herewith given order thereabout, I 
hope in a short time others will ffoUowe, if on(!e a good minister be 
plased there, and I am persuaded the more English Corne is eherised 
the better it will be for the whole plantacion. I once more take my 
leave & Rest." 


For some reason Mr. Cradock did not pursue the matter, and 
the settlement of Shawsbin was perhaps delayed by this failure. 
Possibh' Cambridge was already on the outlook for the grant subse- 
quentl}' made to that town. A 3ear passed and the Court moves 
again in August, 1637. *'Cap' Jeanison & Leif Willi: Spencer 
were appointed to veivve Shawsbin & to consider whether it be fit 
for a plantation." Still no report ; but three months later, 2 Novem- 
ber, the Court makes. a large grant of land which fell within the 
bounds and bore important relations to the settlement of Shawsbin. 
"The Deput}-, M' Dudley, hath a thousand acres granted him 
wheare it ma}' not piudice an}' plantation granted, nor any plantation 
to bee granted w"'out limiting to time of irapv'." "The Goveruo'^ 
M*^ John AVinthrope, Senior, hath graunted him a thousand acres 
of land upon the same tearms as M"" Dudley hath his." This 
grant was enlarged and located 1638, May '201, as follows : — 

"It was ordered by this p'sent Coart that John Winthrope, 
Esq'', the p''sent Governo"", shall have 1200 acres of land whereof 
1000 was formerly granted him, & Thomas Dudley, Esq', the 
Deputy Governo% his 1000 acres granted to him by a former Courte, 

I Winthrop Papers In Massachusetts Historical Society Collections. Fourth Series. 
Volume 6, page 121. 


])otli ot tln'in nhoiit (I miU'S from Concord, northwards; the said 
Govenio'' to have his 1200 acres on the sontherly side of two great 
stones standing neare together, close by the ryver-side that comes 
fro Concord, & the Deputie Governo' to have his thousand acres on 
the northerly side of the said two great stones (yv"^ stones were 
lately named the Two Brothers) . The Deputie Governo' is to run a 
line easterly from the said stones so that hee may take in a meadowe 
on the other side of a hill, & so to extend his thousand acres as fan- 
northerly as hee will, & as the thousand acres will heare, & the 
Governo' to io^'UJ in the said line runing Easterh', & to extend his 
lot as farr Southerly as his twelve hundred acres Avill beare, w"^'' 
2200 acres are by this Court established to the said p''ties, gener- 
ally-, «& their severall heires." 

Governor Winthrop has left us in his journal' an account of the 
location of these farms, too graphic to be omitted. These two 
eminent men came up to view the proposed. location from Concord, 
and "going down the river about four miles, they made choice of a 
place for one thousand acres for each of them. They offered each 
other the lirst choice, but because the deputy's was first granted, 
and himself had store of land alread}, the governor yielded him 
the first choice. So, at the place where the deputy's land was to 
begin there were two great stones which they called the Two 
Brothers in remembrance that the}' were brothers by their children's 
marriage, and did so brotherl}- agree, and for that a little creek near 
those stones was to part their lands. At the Court in the 4th month 
after, two hundred acres were added to the governor's part." This 
sentence fixes the date of this memorable visit, in January, 1 03 7-8. 
The Two Brothers were better landmarks than the 'trees' so often 
used in designating boundaries, and still lie on the East bank of the 
Concord river, a short distance South of the Bedford line. They 
must be the earliest landmark in Billerica.^ A 3'ear later (1039, 
June 0) the Court "granted to John Winthrope, Esq., the p'sent 
(iovernor, a p'cell of meadow containing about sixetie acres, more 
or lesse, by estimation, l^'ing within a mile or two of his farme, 
beneath Concord, towards the Southeast of the said farme, to have 
to him & his heirs, p' vided that it lye not w"'in the bounds of anj- 
towne formerly granted." Mr. Dudley's farm was also increased to 
1500 acres by the addition of his share of a grant to Roxbury. 
This was 400 acres which were "made" 500 by the Court. 

- Winthroji's Journal, Volume 1, page 2iyi. 
» In the early part of this history, until the period of separation of Bedford, Tewksbury 
and Carlisle, I use the name as the fathers did, including the ancient hounds of the town. 


Soou after, the Court granted lands on the west side of Concord 
river. "ICaO. Nov. o. the Court granted Increase Nowell his 500 
acres " [granted in June] •' on the north side of the bounds of Concord, 
beyond the rvver, over the Governo'* 1200 acres ioyning 
to the bounds of Concord. Mi-. Thorn : Allen is gi-anted his 500 
acres "to ioyne to Increase Xowell on the north side of the said 
Increase Xowell, his grant." Mr. Xowell was a prominent citizen 
of Charlestown and secretary of the colony ; and Mr. Allen was the 
'teacher' of the church in Charlestown. Then follows a grant, 
made at the same time, June. lOoO. but not located till October. 
1(34(». which came within the bounds of Billerica. ••M'^ Thom : 
AVelde. pasto' of Roxbury. is gi'auted 533 acres next to Mr. Thom : 
Allen, teacher of Charles Towue. beyond Concord Ryver, w''of 200 
was granted by the country. & the other 333 is p""! of the 4000 acres 
granted to Roxberry." This farm occupied the south part of 
Billerica. west of Concord River, and was afterwards bought by 
the town. 

One other and still larger grant remains to be mentioned. 1640, 
May 13, •• There is 3000 acres of land granted to Mrs. AVinthrope, 
the wife of Mr. John Wiuthrope, our late Goveruo"". to bee at her 
disposeing. for her and her sonns, where they shall desu-e it. w'^'out 
piudice to any former grant." And 1641, Dec. 10. "Mrs. Maro-' 
Winthrope hath her 3000 acres of land, formerly granted her. to bee 
assigned about the lower end of Concord Ryver. near Merrimack, 
to bee layde out by Mr. Flint & Leift. Willard. w"^ ^^r. Oliver 
or some other skilful in mea=iuring. so as it may not hinder a 
plantation. & any p"t thereof they may pnrchase of any Indians that 
have right to it." This grant was between the Merrimack and the 
Concord, on the east side of the latter, and was subsequentiv 
laid out by Jonathan Danforth, "in a true circle." including a 
part of Lowell and the adjacent section of Tewksbury. 

With 1640. a new force was turned into the currcut setting 
towards the settlement of Shawshin. To appreciate its significance 
we need to recall certain facts in the general condition of the colony. 
This was a time of hardship and financial embarrassment. The 
meeting of the Long Parliament.' and the increasing power of the 
Puritans in England, had checked the emigration to Xew England, 
and the Pequot war had taxed the new settlements. The financial 
difficulties of many of the colonists were serious, and Mr. Shepard 
and the Cambridge people were particularly involved. As a 
measure of relief they seriousl}' considered the question of follow- 


iiiu; .Ml-, llooki'i- and his coinijauv, whose houses and lands they 
had l»(tu<>lit in ('anil)iid,<>e, and joining them in Connecticut. 
JNIr. Shepard iiad married the daughter of Mr. Hooker, who 
strongly urged the removal of liis son-in-law.' 

The authorities of Massachusetts naturally deprecated a second 
disrui)tion of Camliridge. Its influence on the colony and the infant 
college would h:' disastrous. And they strengthened their argu- 
ments with Mr. Shepard and his church by the proposal to enlarge 
their bounds nearer home. On the same da}', 1640, Oct. 7, when 
Charlestovvn received a grant four miles square, which was the germ, 
of Woburn, the Court took the following action: — 

"The town of Cambridge is granted a month to consider of 
Shawshin for a village for them, & if they like it not, the town of 
Roxberry hathe liberty to consider of it for a village for them 
till the nexte Crene'all Courte." The result was, 1641, June 2: 
"Shawshin is granted to Cambridge, p''vided the}- make it a village,, 
to have 10 families there setled Av"'in three 3'ears ; otherwise the 
Court to disj)ose of it." 

But the time was not ripe, and Cambridge was not ready to 
grapple with the difficulties of a new settlement so far in the 
wilderness. The General Court, however, at last secures a report 
descriptive of Shawshin ; but it was so far unfavorable, that whether 
intentionally or not, it must have discouraged the hopes of such as 
contemi)lated a settlement. This report bears date 1642, June 14, 
as follows : — 

'•A\'ee. whose names are underwritten, being appointed to viewe Shaw- 
shin, & to take notice of what fitness it was for a village, & accordingly to 
o"" apprehpntion'5 make returne to the Co't; wee therefore manifest thus 
nuich : that f(jr the quantity it is sufficient, but for the quality in o'' 
app''liensions no way fit. the ujiland being very barren & very little medow 
there about, nor any good timber almost fit for any use. Wee went after 
wee came to Shawshin house, by estimation, some 14 or 16 miles at th? 
least, in compass ; fro'" Shawshin house wee began to go downe the ryver 
4 or 5 miles near East ; then wee left that point & went neere upon north, 
came to Concord liy vej-. a little belowe the falls, about one mile or neare ; 
then wee went up the ryver some 5 miles untill came to a place called 
the Two Brethren ; and fro'" thence it is about two miles & i to Shawshin, 
& the most p' of all the good land is given out already ; more land there is 
at the south side of the house, between the side of Concord line & the 
lieade of Cambridge line, but littell medow. & the upland of little worth ; 
& this is what we can sav hearin.'' 



*S«e hli letter to Shepard In History 0/ Cambridge, page 46. 


The signers of this report were prominent citizens of Concord 
and Woburn, and neighbors are not always best friends. "We need 
not doubt the intention of these gentlemen to do justice to Shawshin, 
if we do suspect that they were unconsciously influenced b}* the 
thought that some advantage and possible enlargement might come 
to their own towns, if Shawshin were not occupied as a distinct 
settlement. The ''Shawshin house," wh^re their route begins, must 
have been on the Shawshin river, in Bedford, at the place where 
Vine brojk, ''the riveret from Woburne," empties into it. Going 
down the river about to the present line of t!ie railroad, they ma}- 
have followed that line to North Billerica. Thence to the Two 
Brothers, and across Bedford to the starting point, would make 
about the distance estimated ; and if they did not leave this route, 
they saw little of the better portions of Shawshin. I'his Shawshin 
house was the first building in the town. B\- whom it v,'as built, or 
for what purpose, or how .long it remained, we know not. If 
Mrs. AVinthrop availed herself of the leave granted b}' the Court the 
previous October, "to build a house & a hog or goate pen by the 
lower part of Concord Ryver," this ma\' have been the second 
civilized structure in Shawshin. 

After receiving this report, the General Court at the same session 
renewed the grant to Cambridge, giving Shawshin for the first time 
specific bounds. '-All the land lying upon Shaweshin Ryver, & 
between that & Concord Ryver, & between that & Merrimack 
Ryver, not formerly granted b}' this Co't, are granted to Cambrido-e, 
so as they erect a village there w"'in o yeares & so as it shall not 
extend to preiudice Charlcstowne village or the village. of Cochitawit, 
nor the farms formerly granted to the now Gove''uor of 1260 ae''s, to 
Thorn: Dudley, Esq., 1500 ac's, & 301)0 ac'"s to Mrs. Wiuthrope ; 
& Mr. Flint & Mr. Stephen Winthrope are to set out their heade 
line towards Concord." Remembering that Cochitawit was Andover, 
and Charlestown Village, Woburn, the terms of this grant are very 
clear. Mr. Flint and Mr. Stephen Winthrop were survevors, and 
are instructed to make the line of Concord the South- West bound? 
as it was in fact, of the Winthrop farm. The time within which the 
settlement must be effected is, b}' this grant, extended from 1G4J: to 
164:7. The difficulty of the undertaking, however, seams to have 
made it doubtful whether Cambridge could fulfil the conditions, even 
in the extended time, and inducements to remove to Connecticut 
CDutinuiug to influence her leading citizens, the Court again modified 


the terms of tlu^ grant, in order to hold Cambridge to the Shawshin 

i' l(;.l;3_4, March 7, Shaweshin is granted to Cambridge, w^'out 
any condition of making a viUage there, & the laud between them 
& Concord is granted them, all save what is formerl}- granted to the 
military company or othei-s, p'vided the' church & p'"sent elders con- 
tinue at Cambridge." The proviso shows distinctly that these 
grants, with tlieir increasing inducements, were designed to prevent 
the removal of Mr. Shepard and liis friends. And the polic}- was 
successful. They remained in Cambridge, and some of them 
became early inliabitants of Shawshin. It is hardly too nuich to 
suppose that this Shawshin grant prevented a second disruption 
of the mother town. 

Cambridge could now proceed at her convenience in the settle- 
ment of Shawshin, without fear of losing the grant, and she made 
haste slowly. The only allusion found for four years to the place 
comes incidentally from AVoIxn-n. 1G44, May 9, the Court "ordered 
that the ryver at Shawshin shalbe called b}- the name of Shawshin 
Ryver, not only belowe, but a'lso above the riveret w'^'' falls into 
said ryver in AVooburne bounds above halfe a mile from Cambridge 
line." The interest of the Court in this name of the river was not 
purely geographical. The western bound of Woburn was contin- 
gent upon it. In the original grant of "Charles Towne village," the 
Court says "they shall not crosse Cambridge line nor come w"Hn a 
mile of Shaweshin Ryver." Vine brook, as it is now known, runs 
westerly from Burlington, then a part of Woburn, and crosses the 
line "above half a mile from Cambridge," now Lexington. If the 
Shawshin could be held to begin at the point where this riveret 
comes in, the western bound of Woburn might legally have been 
extended above, so far even as to meet Concord. But if the river 
were the Shawshin from its rise in Lincoln, the bound of Woburn 
was limited accordingly. A petition, therefore, was presented from 
Woburn, signed b}- Edward Johnson, Edward Converse and John 
Mousall. " Humbly Beeseaching this Honored Corte to give direction 
for sending in a cleere way. About the laying oute the Bounds of the 
s'^ towne next Shawshin River ; first, whether it be mente wee shall 
keepe one mile fro the place called Shawshin, from whence wee 
conceave the River hath its Denomination, or whether wee must 
keep one Mile From any of the Riverets ; "ind, AVhether wee must 
wave our bounds out & in as the River doth (Being Straightened 


Beyond Exi)ectations by Liu Village one the other side) . Would 
ucrt Willingly delude ourselves with vayue Hopes Againe, But if it 
prove we Are Straightened by Shawshiu River, likewise, wee may 
Indevor the gaineing (if it Be possible) some Handicraftsmen unto 
us, that the Blessed ordinances of God may Be upheld, the Lord 
helping in the use of means," etc. But the Court guarded the 
interests of Cambridge and .Shawshiu, and answered Woburu in the 
action given above. 

The policy of "gaining some handicraftsmen" was, however, 
fairly successful in our sister town. The}' have been able, in spite 
of this defeat of their hopes, to maintain "the Blessed ordinances 
of God," and to give portions to three thrifty daughters, even from 
their contracted bounds. 

The earliest action of Cambridge for the settlement of Shawshin, 
of which the record has been preserved, was taken, 1648, April 9.* 

'•It was agreed at a general meeting, when the whole town had special 
warning to meet for the disposing of Shawshine, that there should be a 
farm laid out of a thousand acres, to be for a public stock, and improved 
for the good of the church, & that part of the chuix'h that here shall 
continue ; and everj' person or persons that shall from time to time remove 
from tlie church, do hereby resign up their interest therein to the I'emaining 
part of the church of Cambridge. This thousand acres of land, given to 
the use aforesaid, shall be laid out, either all together or else severally, 
part in one place & part elsewhere, according to the discretion of the men 
that are appointed to lay out the land." 

"Also, there were granted to several brethren that had no house-right 
in the town, if they did desire it, farms at Shawshin," ''Imprimis: 
Capt. Googine a farm, if he buy a house in the town; also to Bro. Edward 
Oaks,. Tho. Oakes. and Eichard Hildreth. each of them a farm for their 
encouragement, if they see it may make for their support and desire it. 
Further, it is granted to Mi-. Henrj^ Duuster and Edward Collins. Hberty 
to have their small farms at Shawshine, and. to be considered in their 
quantity more than others in regard of their work ond place." 

1649, April, one year later, the town "Agreed that Mr. Hemy 
Dunster, President of Harvard College, should have 500 acres 
whereof four hundred is granted by the town to his own person and 
heirs, to enjo}' freel}', forever, and the other 100 acres, for the use 
of Harvard College. Item, unto Mr. Daniel Googine, 500 acres. 
Item, unto Mr. Edward Collins, in lieu of his small farm within the 
town bounds, with some addition in respect of his place in the 
Deacon's office, it was agreed that he should have' 500 acres." 

6 History of Cambridge, page 57. 


The next movi'iiu'iit on record preparatory to the occupancy of 
Shawshin was in in:)!. Governor Dudley, whose farm of 1500 acres 
embrac?d an attractive part of the town, petitions the Court, Oct. 15, 
for a d;Minition of his river hound. Aftar statement of the grant, he 
says : ''but is not expr3ss2d how far th3 said 1500 acres should go 
along bv the ryver-side (although the said Thomas Dudley took it 
for granted, & yet does, that he might goe as farr by the ryver side 
as he would) yet to make it certain, & that no difference or questions 
may arise in times to come, the said petitiouor does now intreat of 
this honored Court that it may be recorded that the 1500 acres so 

granted unto him may be laid out two myles & a halfe along by 

the ryver side, and so that he may make upp for 1500 acres from 
the ryver side to the land ward, ifor which he shall render due 
thanks," etc. He received favoral)le answer, and the way was thus 
prepared for the sale of his grant. This took place 28 Feb., 1G51-2, 
to three citizens of Woburn, Thomas Charaberline, James Parker, 
and Isaac Learned. This was the earliest sale and one of the 
largest which was ever made of land" in Billerica, and for these 
reasons, as well as for illustration of the methods of exchange of 
that daA', I quote its provisions at some length. 

'•This witnesseth that VAhereas, by several grants of divers General 
Courts, there is conveyed to Thomas Dudley, the Deputy Governor. & his 
hoyres. 1500 acres of laud, lying & being about 6 miles northerly from 
Concord. * * Now, the said Thomas Dudley, for & in consideration of 
one hundred & ten pounds of lawful money, to be payed unto him * * 
b}' Thomas Chamberline. Isack? Ijearnsd, and James Parker, all of 
Woburne, in Xew England, in such goods & at such times as hereafter 
hoercin appeareth. ba;b granted * * all the right * * which he, the 
said Thomas Dudley, or his hsja-es, hath therein, by virtue of tb? said 
grants of the general Courts, or by any purchase from any Indian * * 
together with all woodes, tr.ees, waters, fishings. & other appurtenances to 
th3 same belonging. To have and to hold * * Provided always, that if 
the said * * shall not well & truly pay * * the summe of fifty & five 
pounds of lawful money, oxen, steers, cowes. heifers, or calves, sound & 
good cattle, none of them to be above six years old, at his now dwelling- 
house in Poxburv. in New Enghmd. upon the eight & twentieth day of 
Aprill which shall be in the year of our Lord 1053; & the like suuune of 55 
pounds, in like cattailo or in corne at the place aforesaid, in such kind of 
corn? as hereafter foUoweth : that is to saj', Twenty pounds thereof in 
Wheate, & five & thirty pounds thereof in Rye, pease, or Indian corne, of 
each a like equal quantity, all good and clean dressed, upon the eight & 
twentieth day of Aprill, which sliall be in * 1G54; the said cattle & corne 
to be valued at the several times of deliverance thereof by one man chosen 


by said Thomas Dudley, and another man chosen by the [purchasers] ; 
and if these two cannot agree, then by a third man to be chosen l)y those 
two. And it is agreed, that if the [purchasers] shall pay any part of the 
last pajnnenc in c jrna. they shall give 3 months warning in writing * * 
how much they will so pay in corne, & if they shall pa,v but part of the 
last payment in corne, then it shall be proportioned according to the kinds 
of corne before expressed." 

Governor Dudley's signature to this deed is witnessed b}' Thomas 
Dudley, Jr., Tobias Davis, and John Remkens, and the agreement 
is added ' ■ that what oxen shall be payed, may be seven years old 
and no more." The deed was recorded b^- Thomas Danforth, 
19 Sept., 1G56 

These three men. who purchased so large an interest in Shawshin, 
all became citizens of Chelmsford, wliich was receiving its earl}' 
settlers at the same time. But James Parker resided here three or 
four years, and John Stearns, whose name is so prominent in our 
history, was the brother of Isaac Learned's wife, Mary. William 
Chamberline, who settled in Shawshin, was probably a relative 
of Thomas ; and George Farley, Henry Jefts, and the Hills were 
their neighbors in Woburn, and purchased of them parts of the 
Dudley farm. 

Cambridge also soon began to take more eft'ective measures. 
There had been, doubtless, debates going on how the settlement 
might be effected with some profit to those citizens of Cambridge 
who had no intention of removing to Shawshin. But the problem 
was not eas\' of solution. The clearing and occupancy of the wilder- 
ness was felt to entitle the pioneers to the full benefit of their toil 
and sacrifice, and immigrants could not be induced to make their 
homes here and subject themselves to an\' considerable tribute to 

Some things indicate, also, that the question whether the benefit 
of the grant of Shawshin was to a crue to the church or the town 
of Cambridge created embarrassment. Town and church were in 
those days so nearly identical that it was not always easy to draw 
the line, and sometimes it was left obscure. While the grant of 
Shawshin is not specifically to the church, but simply to Cambridge, 
the language does imply that the General Court had the church in 
view in making it. And although the action, making grants in 1G48 
and 1649, had been by the town, it appears from the next quotation 
that the Shawshin grant was really held by the church. 1G52, 


.hine !) (four months alter Diidloy had sold his fann) "it was agreed 
by the ehnrch that Shawshiue should be divided as foUoweth : — 

"'J'o Mr. Michcll. live ImiKhed acres. To Edw. Okes, three hundred 
aeros. To Thomas Okes. on? Imudred and fiftj^ acres. 

"It Avas a""rocd that these thres above named should have their lots 
laid out by a committee with as littJ!' prejudice to any lot as may be, and 
so not to draw any lot. 

"Also, the Church d ith agree, that although the land be, by grant of 
the General Court, jjeculiar to the rimrch only, yet the whole town. viz. : 
such as are owners of liouse and lanil in tlie town, shall come into the 
division thereof. 

'•Also, it is agrei'd. that every man shall have a proportion f)f land, 
more or less, according to the proportion now allotted him. 

'"Also, that every man shall have a part of the meadow in pi'oportion 
with his upland; to l)e laid out after th? same rule that the upland is, both 
by lot and quantity. 

"Also, it is agreed, that, after the farms formerh' granted are laid out. 
the remainder of the land shall be divided into three breadths, viz. : t\A o 
of the said breadths to lie between the rivers, and the third on this 
side Shawshine Kiver. The first lot to begin upon a line continued over 
Shawshine River, the same that is between Woburn' and us, running 
towards Concord, until it meet with Mr. AVinfrop's farm; and so the said 
first lot to butt South upon that line & on Shawshine River and Mr. AVin- 
trop's farm ; and so each lot to proiieed one after another, by due parallels, 
until they come clear of the farms already laid out. and then to extend in 
two divisions between the Rivers, and a third division on the east side 
Shawshine River; and so every man's lot to follow one another, taking all 
the three breadths at once, the nearest laud to the first center being still 
always the next lot in order. 

"The nuuiber of ev(^ry man's lot & quantitj- of acres is as followeth 
on the other side." 

Here follows a list of 113 names' regularly numbered, and two 
others appended, of persons to whom grants varying from 10 to 450 
acres were made in Shawshin, amounting to a total of 9800 acres. 
Add th3 2450 acres above mentioned, granted specially' to six 
leading citizens, and the whole numV)er of acres granted b.. 
Cambridge to individuals reaches 12,250. Most of these grants 
were never located, but were sold to Billerica, as wdll subsequentl}' 
appear. For convenience of reference and comparison with the 
later list in the deed of sale, I give these names, recast alphabeti- 
cally, with memoranda added as to the disposition of'the rights. 



I also insert, without numbers, the six names of other citizens 
who had large grants in JShawshin, but were not included in the dis- 
tribution by lot. The figures at the left of the names give the num- 
ber of acres. The original list may be found in the History of 
Cambridge, pp. 58-9. The original spelling is preserved, except 
that the initial 'ff,' often used, gives place to the capital 'F.' 



Arrington. See Erringtoii.] 


Cracbone, Gilbert. 



Andrews. Mr. [Samuel." 



Cutter. Eichard. 



Angler. Mr. [Edmund.] 



Cutter, WMdd. 



Banbvieke, Widow. 



Dana. Eich. 



Bancroft, Eog'. 



Danforth, Tho. 



Beal. Tho. 



Day, Steven. 



Bek'her. And. 



Dixon. AVill'". 



Betts, John. 



Druse, Vineet. 



Blogget. DanielL 


Dunster, Henry. 



Boman, Mr. 



Ecles. Eichard. 



Bordman, W'". 



Eirington, Abra. 



Boutell, John. 



Fiske, David. 



Bower, Ben. 



Fownell, John. 



Bradshew, Humphrey. 



Fox. Thomas. 



Bridge. John. 



Frances. Rich. 



Bridge, Matt". 



French, John's children. 



Bridge, Tho. 



French, Eichard. 



Briggam. Tho^. 



French. Lt. William. 



Brodish, Eobert. 



Frost, Mr. Edmund. 



Browne. Robert. 



Gibson, Jolm. 



Bucke. Eoger. 



Goffe. Edw. 



Bucke, Win. 


Gookin. Daniel. 



Bull, AVilliam. 



Greene, Nath. & Mother 



Bush, Ranold. 



Greene. Sam". 



Cane, Christopher. 



Hall, Ed^. 



Champnis, Elder. 



Hall, John. 



Cheaver, Daniell. 



Hall, Th. 



Chesholme, Tho. 



Hamlet. AVill. 



Clearke, Jonas. 



Hammond, Goodm. 



Cleraniance. AVilliam, Seii. 30 


Hancocke, Wid. 



Clemmance, William. 



HassuU. Eichard. 


Collins, Edward. 



Hasteings, John. 



Cooke, Josseph. 



Hide, Jonathan. 



Cooke, Phil. 



Hides, Sam". 



Cooper. John. 



Holmes, Eobert. 



Corlet, Mr. Elijath. 



Homan, AVilliam. 




















Jacson, John. 50 

Jaoson. m. 200 

Jacson, Mv. 400* 
Konipster. Daniell. 80 

I^onghorne, Thomas. 60 

Man. William. 70 

Manning, Will'". 60 

Man-ct, Tho. 200 

Michell, Mr. 500 

MiclK'lson, Edw; 150* 
Miller, Joseph. 15* 

Moore, Fr., sen"". 50 

Moore, Fr., junior. 50 

Moore, Golden. 100* 

Cakes, Edward. 300 

Oakes, Thomas. 150 
Oldam, Ei: 60 

Padlefoote, Jonath. 15 

Parke. Richard. 100 
Parker. John. 10* 

Parker, Robert. 60 

Patten, William. 90 

Prentise, Henry. 80 

Prentise, Tho. 150* 

Kobbins, Richard. 90 

86. Russell, Will'". 60 

90. Russell, John. SO* 

107. Shepard, Edw. 80 

43. Shepard, John. 60 
66. Sill, Widd. • 40 
93. Simes, Mrs. Sarah. 50 

84. Sparhauke, Nath. 140 

85. Stedman, John. 300* 

39. Stedman, Robert. 90* 
29. Stevenson, And. 60 

44. Stone. Daniell. 50* 
31. Stone, David. 50* 
63. Swan, John. 20 

40. Swoetmau, Tho. 70 
'2-i. Taylor, John. 60 
72. Towne, Will™. 70 

20. Watson, John. 80 
79. Whitmore, Franc. 50 

100. Wilcocke. \Y"\ 90* 

23. Wilkerson, Wid. . 60* 

57. Willowes, George. 60 

[91.] Wines, Daniell. 10* 

49. Winship, Edw. 200 

70. Withe, Nicho. 90 

21. Woodes, Richard. 10* 

All the titles which are not marked with a star in this list were 
convoyed to Billerica in the Great Deed, which will be described 
hereafler. Some of the rights had been sold to William French, 
Golden More, and others, but the larger number wei'e deeded "by the 
original grantee to the town. Of those not contained in the Great 
Deed, Mr. Bowman sold his 20 acres to Billerica for 20 shillings; 
Thomas Bridge's grant was held b}- his son-in-law, Daniel Champney ; 
Robert Brodish's 80 acres (not 30, as in Cambridge list) was located 
to the heirs of Thomas Danforth in 1708; William Clemance's 
grant was laid out to Samuel Waters ; Stephen Day, Robert 
Stedman, David Stone, and the Widow Wilkerson sold to Jonathan 
Danforth, and he sold to the town ; the sons of Edmund Frost 
received each a five-acre right on account of their father's grant ; 
Edward Goffe sold his 450 acres to Billerica, 1673, Jan. 27, for 
thirteen pounds sterling; William Hamlet occupied his own right; 
Thomas Prentice's grant was sold to Francis and John Wyman, and 
located one-half to Francis Wyman in 1695, and the other half to 


Joseph Walker in 1684; John Russell's grant was laid out to 
Ebenezer Hill, 1703, May 26 ; John Stedman sold his 300 acres to 
Billeriea in 1678 for 20 pounds, and Daniel Stone's right was held 
by his heirs in 1707. The disposition of the following titles has not 
been traced : Ranold Cush, Vineet Druse, David Fiske, Mr. Jack- 
son, Edward Michelson, Josei)h Miller, John Parker, AYilUam 
Wilcoek, Daniel Wines, and Richard Woods. 

Besides the farms of Collins, Dunster, Gookin, Mitchell, and 
tlie brothers Oakes, Cambridge grants above 9800 acres to 115 
proprietors. Of this number, 89 titles were conve3-ed to Billeriea 
b}- the Great Deed which covered 7480 acres; 16 others were 
conveyed to Billeriea, or located for citizens, and ten, as above, are 
not accounted for, including 770 acres. The grant of 400 acres 
to Mr. Jackson, forms the larger part of this number. 

In October, 1652, Woburn petitioned the Court for the appoint- 
ment of. a committee to lay out the farms "nere Shawshine, 
graunted to J"" Winthrope, Esq.. deceased, & to Thomas Dudley, 
Elsq., Dep*- Gouv'." Seven commissioners were appointed. The 
work to be "donne before the twentv-fowerth day of the fowei'th 
month next." No report of these commissioners appears on the 
record, but the easterl}' line of the farms may have been fixed by 
their action. The other bounds could not have been then in 
question. As tlie east bound did not reach Shawshin river, which 
was a mile west of Woburn limits, the neighborl}- solicitude of her 
citizens in the matter is interesting and perhaps suggestive. 

This brings us to the settlement of the Shawshin wilderness, 
unless the Shawshin House, already mentioned, but of which we 
know so little, constituted an exception. In what year, at what 
place, or liy whom the settlement was begun, is not known. It is 
pi-obable that Henry Jefts was here in 1652, for his infant daughter, 
Hannah, died in the town '•3-'' first weeke" of May, 1653; the 
earliest event noted in the Town Records. A j-ear later, the "last 
week, 1th Month," {March), 1654, Samuel, the son of George 
Farley, was born — the first birth in the town. And in October, 
1654, a petition to the General Com-t bears fourteen signatures, and 
"the most of" the "petitioners are already- seated" here. 

This petition was the first utterance of Shawshin which has been 
preserved, and gives information of the earliest enlargement of the 
bounds of the town. It may by found in the Massachusetts 
Archives, in the^'oflace of the^Secretary of State, Vol. 112, p. 70, 
and is as follows : — 


humbly intreat this honrd courte at this [ ? ] to gratify yr humble 

petitioners with a speedy and expected ans''. So shall you ever bind us to 
serve you wherein you shall command. 
Y"^ humble Servants, 

Daniel Gookin. George Farley. 

Richard Champney. John Parker. 

William French. James Parker. 

Robert Parker. Henry Jeftes. 

John French. Jonathan Danforth. 

Ralph Hill. John Sterne. 

Ralph Hill, Jr. William Chambe[rline]. 

[Ore back of Petition.'] 

The To*vn desireth the Name of Shawshin henceforth may bee cal^ 

In answer to ys petition of Shawshin, we conceive y' p' of ys petition 
may be granted ; viz. y^ tract of land mentioned, if no former grants be, 
which we do not understand. 

2diy. Y' the name of their Town be Billericay. 

Humphrey Atherton. Thomas Clarke. 
Richard Browne. Edward Jackson. 

The deputies approve of the returne of y* committee in answer to ys 
pet'' & desire o>e horn*'' majisty consent yreto. 

William Torrey, Clerk. 
23 (8) 1654. 

The Magistry consent hereto, Provided that 500 acres of this land be 
laid out for a farme for the next president of the coUedge, in the nearest 
and best place of y^ grant where y® said President shall choose; & 
Mr. Danfoith & whom y® President shall Joyne with him, is hereby 
appointed & desired to lay it out, desiring their brethren, y« deputies, 
consent hereto. 

Edward Rawson, Secy. 

2 November, 1654. 

The deputies do not consent hereto as conceiving it to be very prejudi- 
cial to this plantation, if not that which will be destructive thereunto, but 
are willing to graunt the lands in some other place where it may be found, 
according to law, provided that y^ president continue in y' place three 
yeai-s, & all w''' reference to the consent of o^ hon^i-*! majist^ hereto. 

William Torrey, Clerk. 
30th. 3. 1655. Consented to by y^ majist^. 

Edward Rawson, Secrty. 


This petition unfortunatel}' has no date, but was presented to the 
General Court before 23 October, 1654, as on that day the favor- 
able report of a committee upon it was approved by the deputies and 
sent to the magistrates for concurrence. They, on the 2d Novem- 
ber, consent to it, with a proviso that "the President of the 
College" have five hundred acres "in the nearest and best place." 
The deputies, for reasons assigned, which were sound and friendly 
to Shawshin, did not assent to this proviso, and final action on the 
petition was delayed by this difference of the two Houses until the 
session in 1G55, May, when the magistrates "consented" to the 
action of the deputies. The precise date of this action, com- 
monly but not very accurately recognized as the incorporation of 
Billerica, is not clear. The "30th, 3, 1655," as it stands on the 
petition, may refer either to the final action of the deputies or to 
the subsequent concurrence of the magistrates. In either case, in 
the absence of move conclusive testimony. May 30 can best claim 
recognition as the natal day of Billerica." 

Of the signers of the petition, Daniel Gookin and Richard 
Champney were leading citizens of Cambridge and large land 
owners in Shawshiu, but never resided here. Probably the remain- 
ing twelve had all made their homes in Shawshin before the date of 
this petition, and all deserve honorable remembrance as pioneers of 
the town. 

This petition records, incidentally, the fact that an earlier petition 
had met with favor and secured for Shawshin an extension on the 
west side of Concord River. Its first bound, west and north, was 
the Concord and Merrimac Rivers. The language implies that this 
earlier request had been made by settlers here, and it is not probable 
that tlie Court would have granted such an extension, except to 
actual settlers whose prospects of success warranted the favor. 
And this probability adds weight to the assumption of a number 

May 29 has been accepted as the day of incorporation, and was celebrated by the town 
at the Bi-Centennial in 1S55. The only autliority for this date is the Kecord of the 
Magistrates as it stands in Volume IV of the Colonial Ilccords. But tlie Kecord of the 
Deputies (Volume III of Colonial Records) gives May 23 for the same action. May 23 was 
in fact the first day of the session, and it renuiins in the margin of the Record, covering 
all the i)roceedings of the session, which extended into June. The .Secretary of the Magis- 
trates liiijjpened to insert "May 2'J" in the margin, apparently to tix the date of a certain 
"hearing" ; but a comparison of the two Records, as to matters of common action, shows 
that neither date, "23" or "29," has any authority in lixing the day during the Session in 
which any action was taken. The linal date on the original petition is therefore the most 
definite authority yet discovered in the matter. 


already here in 1653, or even in 1652. It appears too, that for 
some unexplained reason, this first extension west of the Concord 
did not lie along the river, but farther west, and omitted the tract 
described in this second petition, six or seven miles long, and of 
undetermined width. 

This petition is also memorable as containing the first sug- 
gestion of the name which was henceforth to supplement the 
euphonious Shawshin and connect itself with the rising town. It 
was natural that these English colonists, leaving homes that were 
dear behind, should cultivate the home feeling by the transfer of 
familiar names to the wilderness. They could scarcely appreciate 
the melod}-, beauty, and flavor of the soil, for which the taste of 
a later day sighs in the supplanted Indian names. And when 
Shawshin had secured a compan}^ of earnest English families, they 
began to inquire for the English name it should bear. Their choice 
fell upon a name unique and peculiar. There is but one Billericay 
in England, and but one Billerica in the'United States. While other 
names have been repeated in newer States, this remains our own. 
To unfamiliar ears it is a little awkward and unattractive ; but it is 
quite as true that generations here have learned to love it, and in 
their loyalty would not subscribe to an expression of regret that the 
early and admirable Shawshin was not retained as the name of the 
town. That some of these first inhabitants were from Billericay, in 
England, we can not doubt, and the tradition is probable that Ralph 
Hill came from that town. 

The favorable answer of the General Court to this petition is put 
upon its own Record in these words : — 

*' In ans'' to the petieion of severall proprieto's & inhabitants of Shawshin, 
humbly desiring a tract of land lying nere the lyne of the farnies of John 
and Robert Blood, & so along by the side of Concord River, &c. The 
Com-t grants theire request in that respect, so as it hinder not former grants, 
and graunt the name of the plantacion to be called Billirikeyca." 

Error as to spelling the name came in early. It is also worthy 
of note that in the original petition where the name first appears, it 
is given as in England, where the name is now spelled with the ' y ' 
final. On the other hand it is probable that English usage in the 
seventeenth century, often, if not commonly, omitted the 'y' ; and 
there may be truth in the suggestion that we in New England have 
preserved the earlier form of the name. 


This action of the Court has usually been described as the 
incorporation of the town. But the facts scarcely warrant such 
interpretation. It was simpl}' an enlargement of a settlement 
already organized and recognized, and a change of the name by 
which it liad been known. 

At the same time the Court ratified the agi-eement which had 
been made between Cambridge and Shawshin. The Records of 
Cambridge under date 1654-5, January 29, say: — 

In answer to a letter sent to the town from our neighbors of Shawshine, 
alias Bilracie. wherein they desire that whole tract of land may be disen- 
gaged from this place and be one entire body of itself. The town consented 
to choose five persons a connnittee to treat and conclude with them con- 
cerning their request therein ; at which time there was chosen Mr. Henry 
Dunster, Elder Champney, John Bridge, Edwai-d Goffe. and Edward 
Win ship. 

The i-esult of their negotiations with the Shawshin settlers is 
found in the Records of the General Court of the above date. 

'*In ans' to the desire of our beloved brethren & neighboi's. the inhabi- 
tants of Shawshin, requesting imunityes & freedom from all publicke rates 
& charges at Cambridg. and that all the land of that place, as well those 
appertaining to the p'nt inhabitants of Cambridge, as those granted them 
by the Court, might belong entirely to that place, for the better incourage- 
ment & carrying on of publicq charges that will necessarily there fall out. 

Wee, whose names are underwritten, being impow'^d by the inhabitants 
of Cambridge, at a publicke meeting of the toune, the 29th of January, 
1654. to make such proppositions & conclusions therein as to us might seem 
most meete & aequall, doe make tlieise following proppositions w"^"^ reffer- 
ence to the compliyance of the above named, o^ beloved brethren & 
neighbors, the inhabitants of Shawshin, and the approbation of the 
Gennerall Court, for the full conclusion thereof. 

1. That all the lands belonging to that place called by the name of 
Shawshin, with its appurtenances or latter grants made by the Gennei'all 
Court, as well those the proprietye & peculiar right whereof belongeth 
to any particular person, as those granted by the toune or church of 
Cambridge to that place for a towneshipp, as also those given by the 
inhabitants of Cambridge for the furtherance and incouragement of a 
plantacion there, shall be one entire towneshipp or plantacion, alwayes 
freed & acquitted from all manner of connnon charges «& rates of what 
nature or kind soever du(^ or belouging of right to be payd unto Cambridge 
by virtue of any graunt of that place unto them by the Gennerall Court. 

2. That whensoever any of the inhabitants of Cambridge, theii'e heirs 
or assigns, whither in that place or elsewhere, shall make any improove- 


ment of theire lands above premised, more or lesse, by fencing, building or 
breaking up. or mowing of the meadows, every such person shall pay to 
the common charges of that place, i.e. Shawshin, suitable to his or theire 
improovement of the aforesayd kind, in due proportion w"> the rest of the 
inhabitants in that place, the whole estate and improovements of the place 
being layd at an aequall & proportionable rate. 

3. That the inhabitants of Shawshin shall at all time & tymes heere- 
after forever, acquitt & discharge the inhabitants of Cambridge from all 
common charges, rates, dues, dutyes, & incumbrances by any manner of 
wajes or meanes due by them, to be payd, executed, or jierformed by vertue 
of theire interest in that place given unto them by the graunt of the Genne- 
rall Court. 

4. That whensoever any of the inhabitants of Cambridge shall alien- 
ate theire i)''nt interest in any of the above named lands from themselves 
& heirs, then the sayd lands shall in all respects be liable to common 
charges of that place, as though those particular persons had theire 
graunts thereof, made them from the sayd toune or plantacion of Shaw- 

5. That no person or persons which either have had or hereafter shall 
have any lott or allotment graunted them in the above named towneshipp 
of Shawshin, in case they make not improovement thereof by building and 
fencing, especially the houselott. shall have any power to make any sale or 
guift thereof to any other person, but such land and alotments shall 
retourne again to the toune, i. e. Shawshin ; and in case after such like 
improovements. any person shall then remoove to the deserting and leaving 
tlieire bi'ethren and neighbors, that have adventured by theire encourage- 
ment to setle there w"^ them, no such person or persons, for seven yeares 
next ensuing the confirmation hereof, shall have power to make either sale 
or guift. or any aljenation thereof, to any person or p^ons whatsoever, save 
only unto such as the greater part of the inliabitants then resident in 
Shawshin. shall consent unto and approove of. 

6. Tliat in case any grievance shall hereafter happen to arise, which 
for the present neither side foresee, nor is heereby clearely determined, that 
then all such matter of greivance or difference shallbe from tyme to tyine 
heard and determined by meete persons, three or five, indifferently chosen 
by the prudentiall men of Cambridg & Shawshin. 

And these aforemintjoned proppositions to be subscribed by all che 
pres"t inhabitants of Shawshin, and by all such as heereafter shall have 
any alottments granted them there, and retourne hereof made to the inhab- 
itants of Cambridg w"'in tenn dayes after the end of the first session of the 
Gennerall Court. 

Given under our hands this 17th. 12"". 1651. I)y us, 

Hkxhy Duxster. 


euwaku goffk. 
John Bridge. 


These proppositions are accepted of and consented unto by us, the 
present inhabitants of Shawshin ; and we doe humbly crave this honnored 
Court to confirm and record the same. 
Yo'' humble Servants. 

Ralph Hill. Sen'. William French. 

Jn". Sterxk. W"!. Patten. 

George Farley. Ealph Hill, Juii. 

Jno. Croe. James Parker. 

Jonathan Danforth. Hen: Jeftes. 
W". Chamberlyn. J"o. Parker. 

Robt: Parker. 
"Theire request was granted by the Court." 



The fathers of New England builded wisely, perhaps more 
wisely than they knew. They went about separate settlements in 
the same spirit and on the same principles with which they shaped 
the colony. Each town was to be a republic in miniature, coherent, 
and with sufficient vitality to maintain itself and support religious 
ordinances, — not a random collection of squatter-sovereigns, but, 
from the start, a compact body, competent to welcome or reject 
those who sought a place among them. The colonial policy was not 
narrow but wisely self-defensive, which declined to open the door 
to all the restless adventurers who might be disposed to come in 
and make trouble. And when a town was taking shape, time, 
correspondence, and long consultations, were necessary- to secure 
the concurrence of a sufficient number of suitable families in the 
enterprise. Former neighborhood and famil}- relationships would 
be important factors in determining these adjustments, as the early 
group of Billerica families illustrates. 

We may assume that several families came near tlie same time 
to occupy Shawshin, and that this first settlement took place in 
1652 or earh' in 1653. Most of tlie twelve signers of the petition in 
1654, October,' had, no doubt, their homes here at that time. 
Jonathan Danforth was married the next mouth, and John French 
and Ralph Hill, Jun., some years later. Probably, therefore, there 
were nine families in Shawshin in 1651, and of these, seven were 
located on the Dudley Farm, and perhaps eight. 

John Parker settled on the farm reserved for the Church in 
Cambridge. This farm was located on both sides the Shawshin, 
a mile wide, from the Woburn Road, down the river. His house 

1 See pp. 16 and 17. Gookin and Champney did not settle in Billerica. 


was near the residence of Mr. Slack, on the East Road, and was 
an important centre in the earl}- life of the town. Town meetings 
were held in it, and there Jonathan Danforth came for his bride, 
who was Mr. Parker's step-daughter. James Parker, one of the 
three purchasers of the Dudley Farm, had a house-lot on Long 
Street which was ci'ossed by the Andover Road. 

The other settlers were on "the farm," as Mr. Dudley's gi'ant 
is designated in the early records. This farm, beginning at the 
Two Brothers, on Concord River, extends down the river two and 
a half miles to the Middlesex Turnpike, and is bounded north-east 
I)}- the line of Charnstaffe Lane, extended from the river to a 
point just east of Ash Swamp and the narrow-gauge railroad; 
south-east by a line of which Tufts' Lane is a fragment, and which 
crosses Nutting's Pond near its west end. The south line, four 
hundred aud thirt}- rods long, crosses the Bedford Road at the 
point where the road from Hill's Bridge intersects it, and meets 
the east line very near the railroad. 

John Stearns and George Farley occupied the north end of this 
farm, the Bedford Road, where it turns south from Charnstaffe 
Lane, forming the dividing line between them. Stearns's house 
was south of Charnstaffe Lane, probably near the Deacon Whiting 
place ; and Farley's house near the Jaquith place. Next, on the 
south, was Ralph Hill, Sen., near Mrs. Judkins' ; and, east of his 
farm, Lieut. William French had his home, towards Indian Hill, as 
the hill north of Nutting's Pond was called. Robert Parker's lot 
was on the east side of the farm, and his house-lot then, or 
afterwards, was east of the farm and south-east of Dr. Noyes's 
pi'esent residence. ■ William Chamberline and Henry Jefts were 
between Parker and Stearns, but their exact location is undeter- 
mined. Jefts was on or near Indian Hill, and Chamberline probably 
nearer to the Woburn Road. 

The location of the succeeding families, and of the future 
village, was determined by a grant made "by the Church of 
Cambridge for a Towneship." This Township and its inhabitants 
are often mentioned in the early records. It consisted of four 
hundred acres, bounded south by Charnstaffe Lane, and west b}* 
the river. John Trull's farm, known as the Bridge place and now 
owned by Mrs. Farmer, included its north-east corner ; and the lane 
leading from Long Street to this house is a few rods north of the 
Township line. House-lots, twenty to thirty acres in size, were 


granted within this Township to most of the first settlers, and "they 
upon the township" held, by agreement, a prior claim over "those 
on Mr. Dudley's farm," in the future distribution of common land. 
Here Jonathan Danforth built his house on the north side of West 
Street in 1654, unless his house-building followed his marriage. It 
was perhaps the first house in the village, and unless it was replaced 
by a second house before 1675, which is not probable, it stands there 
today, and after two hunched and twenty-three years we may still 
gaze upon its venerable and (alas ! that we must add) vanishing 
form.^ William Patten, or Thomas, his son, perhaps both, came 
the same year, and his house stood near Mr. Frank Richardson's. 
Ralph Hill, Jun., had a house-lot on what is now Mr. Kimball's 
farm, which he sold soon after to John Poulter, the brother of 
Danforth's wife. And in May, 1656, Mr. Hill bought of William 
Baker the farm south of his father's. His house, a garrison of 
1675, stood where Mrs. Boyden lives. It had been built and 
occupied by Edward Chamberline, and Baker's occupanc}' was brief. 
B}' 1660, the number of families had increased to forty. 
Without attempting to give the exact order of their coming, or 
location, the following may be taken as an approximate statement: 
William Hamlet was on the north-east of Bare Hill, (the hill south 
of the village,) near the Crosb}' place ; James Kidder was opposite 
Danforth, where Mr. Gardner Parker lives ; John Rogers was near 
Mr. Charles Parker's ; William Tay, near Dr. Noyes's place, just 
south of the village ; John Baldwin, near Mrs. Bennett's, and Jacob 
Brown, near Mr. Whitman's, (he sold out to John Stearns about 
1663). Samuel Champney, son of the notable Elder Richard, of 
Cambridge, early had purchased, and in 1669 sold again to Richard 
Daniel, the five hundred acres granted by Cambridge to Edward 
Collins, and his house was south of the Woburn Road, near the 
Shawshin River. Simon Crosby was on the north side of Bare Hill ; 
Samuel Kemp, on the East Road, near Miss Sophia Allen's ; and 
Samuel Kinsley, south of Fox Hill and near Mr. Harding's place. 
John Marshall was "partly on and partly off the towneship," on the 
east side, beyond Ash Swamp, and south-east of Mr. Kimball's. 
Golden Moore bought James Parker's place, before mentioned ; 
James Paterson, "on the north side of the township," between the 
late Dr. Pillsbury's place and Mr. Sanborn's ; John I'oulter, on 

- See picture of it elsewhere. 


Andover Street, near Mr. Kimball's ; and John Sheldon bej'ond 
him, near Mr. Johnson's place ; John Trull had lived, before 1659, 
on Captain Gookin's farm, and perhaps in the " Shawshin House" ; 
he then received a grant at the Bridge place, east of Long Street ; 
George Willice sold in 1659 his place south of the Baptist Church to 
Daniel Shed. Web has left his name on "AYeb's Brook," and lived 
beside it, near Mr. Maynard's ; Simon Bird was west of Long 
Street and south of the corner, (his grant included most of the 
Spalding Farm and Mr. Stackpole's) ; and beyond were John 
Bracket, between the two brooks ; John Durrant, whose grant 
extended to Mr. Jones's north line ; and William Haile, whose 
grant was farther on towards the "Great Bridge," or Ford way. 
Thomas Foster was east of Bare Hill, near Mr. McKay's ; Joseph 
Tompson, at the Tuft's place, south of the north-east corner of 
the Dudley Farm ; Peter Bracket, east of Tompson and south of 
Marshall ; John Kittredge, near Mr. Knowles's, south of Bare Hill ; 
Thomas Hubbard, west of Long Street and north of the Township, 
or between Dr. Pillsbury's place and Mrs. Wild's ; Dr. Roger 
Toothaker, at the old Rogers' place, near North Billerica ; and 
last, but not least. Rev. Samuel Whiting, whose place was east of 
Concord Road and north of Charnstaffe Lane. His house stood 
opposite the old Deacon Whiting place, just where Charnstaffe Lane 
descends from the west to the brook. 

Forty families are here enumerated having homes in Billeri(;a 
in 1660. It is a matter of interest to note the places froni which 
thev came and the various relationships and interests which drew 
them together and helped to compact the rising community. In 
examining this subject it will be convenient to anticipate dates a 
little and group with these names several others who came in the 
next twenty years. 

The larger number came naturall}' from Cambridge. Fifteen of 
the flftv-five earliest names belong to the mother town. Champnej', 
Crosby, Danforth, French, Frost, Hamlet, Hide, Hubbard, Kidder, 
Manning, More. Parker, Patten, Ross, and Willice ; and probably 
John Parker and Poulter should be added to this group, and by his 
marriage, at least, John Trull. Samuel Champney was a son of 
YAder Richard Champne}', one of the foremost men of Cambridge, 
and a large proprietor in Shawshin. He married a sister of Thomas 
Hubbard, who died here in 1662 ; and his sister married Jacob 
French. Jonathan Danforth married a sister of John Poulter, whose 


widowed mother had become the wife of John Parker. James 
Fi'ost married a daughter of William Hamlet, who had married Mrs. 
Hubbard, the mother of Samuel Champne^'s wife. Jonathan Hyde 
married Dorothy, daughter of James Kidder, but did not long stay 
in Billerica. Kidder married a niece of Golden More, who had 
himself manned the widow of John Champne}-. Samuel Manning's 
wife was Elizabeth, sister of John Stearns, and Isaac Learned, one 
of three purchasers of the Dudley Farm, married another sister. 
The connection of the Parkers, John and Robert, can not be 
affirmed, but is probable. Thomas Willice married Grace, daughter 
of William Ta}', who came from Boston to Billerica, and John 
Trull manied Sarah French, niece of Lieut. William French, of 
Cambridge, and sister of Joseph French, the son-in-law of Thomas 
Foster, who lived near him. 

The contribution next in number and importance to the Billerica 
compan}' came as naturally from Woburn. It includes eleven names : 
Bacon, Baldwin, Brooks, Chamberline, Fai-ley, Hill, Jefts, Richard- 
son, Walker, Wilson, and Ay3'man. . 

Michael Bacon and John Baldwin married daughters of Thomas 
Richardson, of Woburn, and their brother Thomas became the 
occupant of the Church Farm after the death of John Parker in 
1668, and a leading citizen of Billerica. William Chamberline was 
probably- connected with Thomas, one of the Dudley Farm purchasers, 
who afterwards manned Danforth's mother-in-law, the widow of John 
Parker. George Farley and Henry Jefts married sisters, we need 
not doubt, as they bore the unusual name of Births. Ralph Hill, 
Sen., had taken a second wife, Margaret, the mother of Roger 
Toothaker; and in his will he calls William French, "brother." 
Ralph Hill, Jun., married Martha Toothaker, his step-sister. Joseph 
Walker was the son-in-law of John Wj^man, of the family which 
held much land in Billerica as well as Woburn. 

Braintree gave to Billerica an important circle of eight families. 
The mother of Simon Crosb}' had married, some years before, the 
Rev. Joseph Tompson, of Braintree, his second wife. In his 
parish, Capt. Richard Bracket lived, an active and exemplars- 
deacon in his church. Naturally enough, the minister's son Joseph, 
and step-son Simon Crosby, found wives in the deacon's family, and 
one Samuel Kinsley was equally fortunate. These sisters had 
twin brothers, John and Peter, and the five brothers and sisters all 
came to Billerica and formed as many homes here. John Bracket 


had another attraction here, as his wife was a daughter of William 
French. Thomas Foster, Daniel Shed, who married Ruth More, 
daughter of Golden, and Christopher Web, make up the Braintree 
families, most of whom were located south and east of the village. 
John Rogers came with John Stearns from Watertown, and Job 
Lane from Maiden. He was the purchaser of the entire Winthrop 
Farm, which he divided b}- his will between his son. Col. John, and 
two grand-sons, Samuel Fitch and Mathew Whipple. His wife 
was the daughter of Rev. John Reyner, pastor of Plymouth and 
Dover, whose son Jolin became his father's colleague and successor. 
A few came from England direct to Billerica. Richard Daniel, 
"Gentlemen," as he is often called in the records, and mentioned 
with deference, bought the farm of the Cambridge Church of seven 
hundred acres and Samuel Champney's farm of five hundred acres, 
in 1669. His wife was daughter of Sir John Pye ; and about 1678 
they returned to England. Edward Farmer came from Warwick- 
shire, ancestor of a notable family ; and John Kittredge, whose 
descendants have been man^^ aijd honorable, came in the service of 
John Parker, who is called his "master." James Paterson was a 
Scotchman, of whom Savage says : "He is one of only four or five 
that prospered here among the great crowd of romantic young 
followers in Scotland of Charles II, who in the blood}' days * * 
of 1650 and 1651 were captured on the fields of Cromwell's glory at 
Dunbar and Worcester, and transported to the colonies to be sold." 
Several hundreds were brought to Boston. Paterson and Richardson 
married sisters, daughters of Andrew Stevenson, of Cambridge. 
Some years later another Sccjtchman, John Levistone, brought also 
good blood to Billerica. And if we could trace the connections of 
other names, as Bird, Dunkin, Durrant, Dutton, Fasset, Grimes, 
Haile, Kemp, Marshall, Sanders, Sheldon, and Trull, they would no 
doubt furnish points of similar interest. 

Facts like these taken sepatatel}' have little intez-est ; but group 
them and they show that the men and women who laid the founda- 
tions in Billerica were no random collection of adventurers. They 
formed from the outset a community bound together b}' a network of 
ties which assured mutual sympathy and helpfulness. This was an 
essential condition of their success. Societ}' is not a mere conglom- 
erate of individuals. Throw men and women together of diverse 
antecedents and inharmonious qualit}', and they will not be long in 
falling out and going asunder. Man}' an ambitious and promising 


attempt at planting a colony in America, and elsewhere, has made 
shipwreck for this reason. Pl3-mouth and Massachusetts were more 
successful, because the}' sought carefully and held tenaciously such 
elements as coiild be moulded together, and repelled those which 
were foreign and discordant. And what was true of the colony 
was true of the town. Such a union of harmonious and desirable^ 
elements could not be had at short notice ; and the delay of a few 
years, during which neighbors in Cambridge and Woburn were 
consulting and corresponding with the design of planting a company 
of settlers in the Shawshin wilderness, was well used in securing the 
growth and combination of such germs. It was better to make 
baste so slowly that the town might prove, as it did, homogeneous 
and successful. 



The equitable apportionment of the lands of the town among the 
settlers was a matter of sufficient importance and difficulty to engage 
much attention and tax their wisdom. The whole town included, 
after its enlargement west of the Concord River, about thirty thou- 
sand acres. The adjustment of what the first settlers should receive, 
with wise reservations for later grants as others should join them, 
and for future distributions, must have been very carefully debated. 
Their territory embraced the three large grants to Mrs. Winthrop, 
Governor Winthrop, and Governor Dudley, (5,760 acres in all) ; 
one thousand acres reserved b}^ the Church in Cambridge ; five 
grants of live hundred acres each to Captain Gookin, Reverend Mr. 
Weld, Reverend Mr. Mitchel, President Dunster, and Mr. Collins ; 
and other grants, to more than one hundred citizens of Cambridge, 
amounthig to 10,300 acres. About two-fifths of the whole town 
only was really free and common land, open to the occupancy and 
disposition of the settlers, when they first came to Shawshin ; but 
the subsequent grant from the General Court of eight thousand acres 
at Naticott enabled them, b}^ purchase and exchange, to secure most 
of the small Cambridge titles, and hold about eight thousand acres 
more for their own benefit and that of future proprietors. 

The Dudle}' Farm exerted a vital influence in giving shape to the 
settlement. Extending two and a half miles down the river from 
the Two Brothers, its north-east boundary fixed the position of 
the four hundred acres "granted b}- the Church in Cambridge for 
the Towneship," or village part of the town, Charnstaffe Lane 
being the line between them. And the first settlement has the 
practical aspect of an agreement between the Woburn men who 
had bought the larger part of the "Farm," and the Cambridge 
men who had received the Township grant. 


The Farm, containing fifteen hundred acres, was divided into 
twelve lots of one hundred and twentj'-flve acres each, and this 
number became the unit of measuring shares throughout the town. 
Each share was called a ' ten-acre lot,' and consisted of one hundred 
and thirteen acres of upland and twelve acres of meadow, and 
carried with it the right to "all town priviledges, after additions 
and divisions of land and meadow." Only six proprietors held 
more than a single share. Ralph Hill had a twenty-eight-acre 
lot ; his father and Elder Champne}', twenty-five-acre lots ; and 
Farley, French, and Stearns, twenty-acre lots. There were thirteen 
ten-acre lots, and thi'rtj'-six smaller: eight, six, five, and two-and- 
one-half-acre lots, the larger part being five acres. The twelve 
shares of the Dudley Farm were held : two and one-half, by Elder 
Charapney ; two, by John Stearns ; one and one-half, by Ralph 
Hill, Sen. ; and one each, by William Chamberlain, George Farle}-, 
Lieut. William French, Ralph Hill, Jun., Henr}' Jefts, and Robert 

It can hardly have been accidental that the rights on the Town- 
ship were granted b}- Cambridge in so nearly the same number of 
shares. Four P"'arm proprietors, Farley, Stearns, Ralph Hill, Jun., 
and Robert Parker, had also lots on the Township. Omitting 
these, the lots on the Township were also twelve in number. Their 
owners were Jacob Brown, who soon sold to Stearns, John Baldwin, 
Jonathan Danforth, Captain Gookin, of Cambridge, a non-resident, 
James Kidder, John Marshall, Golden More, William Patten, John 
Rogers, John Trull, George Willice, and Reverend Mr. Whiting. 
Of this number, Baldwin onl}' was a Woburn man ; while but a 
single Cambridge man, French, had his home on the Farm. In 
the outset, the Township and the Farm thus nearly represented 
Cambridge and Woburn in the settlement, which proceeded on the 
basis of the following agreement between them: — ^ 

*'A Transcript of a Covenant or Agreement between tugs which 
WERE Proprietors vpon Mr. Dudley's Farme and they that 
were inhabitance on y^ township, which is yet a standing 
Order in the Towne. 

'•'■9. 9m. 165S. The proposition is as followeth: — 
"That such as either have ah-eady, or hereafter shall take up any 

alotinent in the towne, (vpon grant,) shalbe equally accomiuodated with 

1 See Grants, p. 169. 


upland & meadow Avith thos vpon Mr. Dudley's farme; to have the 
one-half of their lands about home, either adjoining to their house-lots, 
and, in case their benot sufFetient for them there, then to have it made 
up vpon the first next convenient place. And as for their second divitions, 
they shall have it laid out to them remote from the towne, acording as 
they have their second divitions, which are vpon Mr. Dudley's farme. 
Provided allways^ That all such persons takeing up such alotraents shall 
contribute to them vpon Mr. Dudley's farme (according to the proportion 
they sliall take vp. whither a tenne-acre, eight, six, or five-acre lot, or 
any other proportion.) vntill they on Mr. Dudley's farme have received 
half so nmch as their first purchase cost; and as for any moneys that 
shall come in to y« towne, vpon this account afterward, it shalbee disposed 
of to ye publick use of the towne, acording as y^ towne shall order; 
all which payments shalbe made within two yeare after their perticular 
grants, and the first half within one yeare. Provided allwarjs^ That no 
person shall have any proportion more than a single share of Mr. Dudley's 

"This was voted on y« afffermitive & subscribed. 

"William ffi-ench. John Parker. 

John Rogers, Sen. John Poulter. 

Will"! Pattin. Jonath. Danforth. 

Will'". Hamlett. John Marshall. 

Jacob BroM^ne. John Baldwin. 

William Tay. Henery Jeiffs. 

John Sheldon. George ffarley. 

Golden More. Will™. Chamberline. 

James Kidder. John Sternes. 

"It was also, at y^ same time, agreed vpon by y® towne: That a 
ten-acre lot on j^ towneshlp, and a single share, or twelfe part of 
Mr. Dudley's farme, should be equall, both civill and ecclesiasticall ; and 
that all lesser grants (as an eight, six, or five-acre lot, or any other lesser 
or greater grants,) should all pay in proportion to their grants, to all 
publick charge as aforesaid." 

In fulfillment of the agreement that the other inhat»itants should 
pay to the Farm proprietors one-half of what it had cost them, we 
find the following : — 

'■'• 10 :9 :'59. Ye Rate for ye half e payment of ye purchase. 

£ s. d. 
"Jonathan Danforth, 2- 5-10 

John IFrench, 2-5-10 

Willi Pattin, 1-16- 8 

John Marshall, 1-7-6 

John Baldwin, 1-16- 8 

Daniel Shead, 1-16-8 

John Sheldon, 2- 5-10 

Will' Sheldon, 1-16- 8 


John Rogers, 1-16- 8 

Willi Tay. 2- 5-10 

Goldinge More, 2- 5-10 

Jacob Browne, 1-16- 8 

James Kidder. 2-5-10 

John Poulter, 1_16_ 8 

Willi Haralett, 2- 5-10 

Willi BrowTie, 1-16- 8 

James Paterson, 1_ 7_ 6 

Simon Burd. 2- 5-10 

• Tho: fibster, 1-16- 8 

Christopher Web,^ 1_ 7_ 6 

John Gurney, 2- 5-10 

Samuell Kinsley, 2- 5-10 

Y« 6 acor Lott, 1_ 7_ 6 

44-18- 4" 

The price of the Dudley Farm was one hundred and teu pounds. 
The balance of the fift3'-five pounds, which would make up the half, 
was probably assessed on later purchasers in the town. 

The earliest settlers whose house-lots were on the common 
land of the town, or off the Township and the Farm, were William 
Hamlet and William Tay, in 165G. The grant to Hamlet exhibits 
the common form used, with slight variations, in case of all the 
early settlers ; and I quote : — 

•'They have granted to him and assignes forever, one tenne-acre lot, 
or one single share ; that is, one hundred and thutene acres of upland and 
twelve acres of meadow land, together with all towne priviledges, after 
additions and divitions of lands and meadows made or to be made, or 
granted by the towne, acording to any their *^^owne orders, covenants, or 
agreements, to anj' free denison amongst them, acording to y^ proportion 
of a ten-acre lot, and on this account are the following grants." 

His first grant is of fiftj^-six acres, more or less, "on the 
North-East corner of bare hill, and on y'^ south of hogrooten 
meadow." This meadow of unsavory name lies south-east of the 
Tompson or Tufts place, and the hill is between the Boston and 
Lexington Roads, south-east of the village, and east of Dr. Noyes's 
house. Hamlet's house must have stood near the Crosby place. 
Ta}' was on the west of the same hill, at Dr. Noyes's place. 

The Braintree compan}" came soon after, and, bj- 1G60, had well 
occupied the line south and east of the village, along Loes^ Plain as 

2 Framlingham, in England, the native town of Danforth, was in "Loes Hundred." 
He gave the name to the plain and a meadow south of Fox Hill, and extending as far as 
the Church Farm. 


far as Fox Hill. North from the Township ran another line of the 
earliest farms, Paterson, Hubbard, Bird, Durrant, and Haile, who 
was near the Great Bridge, or Fordwa3% with Toothaker at the 
extreme point, the old Rogers place of a later da}', by the canal. 

The allotment of the common lands to the settlers began 
promptly, and it was almost one hundred j-ears before this land 
fund was exhansted. The earliest assignments were made to 
several of the Township proprietors in Loes Plain ; bnt the first 
general distribution was of meadow land, which was specially 
important and valuable, before clearing and culture had made 
higher grounds productive of the needed supply of grass for winter 
use. The Farm settlers did not share in this first meadow 
distribution, which was intended to equalize the privilege of the 
Township men with these Farm purchasers. 

There were twenty-one shares in the first distribution in 1658, 
in a total of onh' thirt^'-nine acres, and these were located in two 
places. The first lot began between C'helmsford line and Concord 
River, on the west side, and, running up the river through Broad 
meadow, the last of the thirteen lots was just south of the Great 
Bridge, or Fordway. The other eight lots of this first division of 
meadow began at the mouth of Long Pond, and, following the 
Alewife or Content' Brook, the last lot, John Baldwin's, was near 
Pattenville, and Danforth's lot at the right hand of the Andover or 
Depot Road. The agreement for this division and the following 
stands thus : — * 

"It is agreed by the joynte consente of the Towne, that for the 
devition of meddows for the several inhabitants [ ? ] to begin at the 
Lower end of the medow on the other side Concord [river] Next toward 
Patuckett at Chelmsford corner, and so upward to the [?] above the 
Bridge, and so to begin again at the pond below foxes hill, and so down 
Alewife brooke. and so to take the spanges of medow to the Colage 
meddow, and so down to Andover Line, and take all the lueddow on both 
sides Shawshin river, to be devided by lott according as shall be adjudged 
by A co^itee, for what is rubish nieddowe to be layed out quantitive, 
y' every man may be aco"'idated alike, as nere as the said comittee can 
judge; the eomitee apoynted for the meshuringe and Laying out the said 
meddow lands and Lots of uplande are • 

"Jonathan Danforth, 

[Other names torn off.'] " [Henry Je]ftes." 

2 Tlie earliest name of this brook was "Alewife." The plain beyond soon probably 
received the name "Content"; then the meadow, and before long brook, meadow, and 
plain were all "Content." * Records. Vol. I, p. 8. 


"For the first devitions: y*' devitiones of meddow to begin as afore- 
said, on the other side Concord river, soe upward ; & from y«= ponde down 
the brook to Content bridge; & so Lay out the several lotts, crosse the 
meddows on both sides the brool<. 

The second devitione to begin on the South side of foxes 

Meadowii jjju . gQg taking all the spanges before vs untill we come 

lying in Lotts , , r^, ... ,,.,,. 

of upland for prt. dowuewarde upon Shawshm river, on both sides the river, 
of proportions of ^q tijp Lower eaudc of the collage fanne: then to extend 

meadows. , , ,^, , . . ,,.,,. 

downewarde upon Shawshin river, on both sides the river, 
taking in all that is meadow before vs y*^ is in o"" Boundes to Woeburne 
line, vntill we come to Alewife brooke, and so to run vp that brooke vntill 
we come to Contente bridge; then to extend from ye mouth of Alewife 
Brooke upon Shawshin river untill we come to heth Brook; then to take 
all the medow y' is on that Brooke, so far as there is any toward contente 
meddow ; then to begin again where we left of upon the river, and so to lay 
out the meddow, till we come at the mouth of Strongvvater brooke, and so to 
Andover Boundes ; then to take all before us who^ewards, untill we come 
at the great meadow; then to begin at the Bound pine upon Hors brook, 
between Andover and o'' Towne, takeing all before us toward merimake 
river ; and for such meddows as in any man's Alotment of upland, he 
shall [have it as part] of his first devition [of meddow], any nere meddow 
conven[ient to other] men, it is left with the Com[mittee to dis]pose of 
to acomidate such [persons with] the said meddows, (upon [?] as afore- 
said,) dividing them [with '?] equalitie, acordinge to ther [own] discretione. 
without respect of [persons] . 

•'It is agreed that the second lot in order shall begin at the stake at 
ye Lower end of Concord river meddow ; and it is also agreed that the second 
devition of the several alotments of meddow shall be a third part of there 
proportione, and what is yet remaining shall be made up in the third 

"The Lotts were drawne by the severall inhabitantes, whose Names 
are here underwritten, to the Number of Twenty and three Lotts, besides 
the meddows for the minister; which Lots of meddow for the minister 
were joyntly agreed upon to be Layed out, in the firste place, acordinge to 
the best disci'etione of the Comittee apoynted for the worke. 

1th. 2th. 3th. 
•'William Tay drew 
Jacob Browne 
Jonathan Danforth 
Will' Patten 
Will' flfrench 
James Kidder 
Goldinge More 
John Sheldon 
John Rogers 
Will' Hamlitt 
John Poulter 


































!4 lU 
8 19 



John Baldwin 
John Marshall 
George Willowes 10 20 20 

"9 lots drawn for by the Towne, that were then vndisposed of, and 
taken up since, as tolloweth : 3 ten-acre lots, and 3 8-acre lots, and 3 
6-aere lots. 

" [10] acor lot Simon Bird. 

" [G aco]r James Paterson." 

The second division began on the Shawsliin below tlie College 
Farm, at a place called by the Records the "willow spang" ; 
and including twent\'-foar lots on botli sides the river, extended 
nearly to Strongwater Brook, or half way tlirough Tewksbnrj. 

The third division of meadow was made also in 1658, and, after 
assigning four lots farther down the Shawsliin to Andover bounds, 
passed over to tlie great meadow south-east of Prospect Hill, which 
is a mile north of Tewkslnuy Junction, and follows the meadow on 
Strongwater Brook back to the Shawshin River again. Tliis remote 
division was as large as the other two, and gave all the settlers. an 
average of ten acres of meadow in the tliree widely separate fields. 
The conditions of this pioneer farming were certainly not the most 
attractive, when the Townehip farmer must travel three miles north 
one da}', and four miles east the next, by roads which consisted 
mostl}' of blazed trees, to bring home the meadow hay, on which his 
cow and horse were to subsist when winter came. This process of 
taking possession of the wilderness, in the name and for the benefit 
of civilization, tested and developed the manhood of these brave 
men and women. 

The next general division consisted of upland ; and the Farm 
proprietors sliared with those on the Township. It was made in 
1659, November, and included thirty-nine lots and fort}' persons; 
Peter Bracket and Joseph Tompson holding in common the right of 
John Gurnc}', of Braintree. - The Record describes this division as 
"in the great common field, on the East side of Concord river, 
below the great Bridge." It began "at the little swamp next below 
the falls," or a little south of North Billerica village, and extended 
' ' down Concord river, towards Pawtucket, so far as the brook called 
Bacon brook," which is just south of the Salem Railroad crossing 
of the Concord River ; ' ' and the breadth of the said land to ly 
along as the cart-path that leads down towards Pawtucket," near, if 
not identical with, the present highway. Tliis division averaged 


twentj'-two acres to each person, or eight hundred and eighty' in all. 
When the line of Mrs. Winthrop's farm was run, it was found to 
extend south of Bacon Brook, and cut off the north eight lots of this 
division. For these the owners received other lots near the head of 
Heath Brook in a plain called, no doubt for this reason, Recompense 

At the same time another important division was made, in which 
the Farm proprietors did not share. It is often referred to in the 
Records as the "second division." It was "on the right hand of 
the wa}' Leading toward gloab hill, by Shawshin River, and so 
joining to Shawshin River and the College farme on the southward 
part, and abutting on the ends of those Lots at Loose pla3'ne on the 
Weste ; and in case there be not suffitient thare, then to take it 
between heath brook mouth and the highwa}' before mentioned, and 
so come homeward again. And for the devition of the said lands, 
it is agreed it shall be devided into two devitions, until 3'ou come so 
far as ailwife brook, which deviding Line shall be about the middle 
of the Land between the above mentioned highway and Shawshin 
river, butting upon Loose playne and Ailwife brook. The 1st Lott 
shall begin next Samuel Kinsley, his Lott, and so goe on until you 
come to Ailwife brook ; then begin at the west end of the other part 
of the devition, and so goe on until 3'ou come to ailwife brook ; then 
to begin bej'ond the brook and run from the highway to the river, 
and so goe on till you come to gloab hill ; then returne homeward, 
between the highway and heath brook, if need be." 

Globe Hill is near the Shawshin, in Tewksbury, and is probablj' 
the same on which the State Alms-house now stands ; and the road 
named is the present highway through Patten ville. This description 
includes the territory between Loes Plain and Fox Hill on the west, 
the Shawshin meadows south-east, and the Church Farm south-west. 
The Rangeway, which separated the First and Second Parts, as they 
were called, of this Second Division, began near the Asa Holden 
place, and passed the present fork in the roads where Mr. James 
Page lives. The two rows of lots were laid right and left from it, 
towards the road and the river. The first row of nine lots began 
with Thomas Hubbard's, south of Fox Hill, which passed very soon 
by his death to Samuel Manning. Others between the road and the 
Rangeway were Daniel Shed, William Patten, James Kidder, Thomas 
Foster, James Paterson, John Baldwin, John Marshall, and John 
Parker, who also bought Marshall's and owned a lot of eighty acres 


near I'attenville. The second part of this division began farther 
south, near the Deacon P^dmands place, and ran farther down the 
river, inchuling seventeen lots. The twenty-six lots of this division 
included 1,103 acres, more or less. 

In 16G3, December, another division of meadow land took place, 
and was to all the inhabitants. It began in the remote south-west 
part of the town, now Carlisle ; four lots had Chelmsford line north, 
and three were in Fort-wall meadow, which reached Concord line a 
mile be3ond Carlisle village. Coming thence, homeward, three lots 
were in Fort meadow, as many in Brook meadow, ten in Treble-cove 
meadow, four on the Concord River, two on the Pond Bi'ook, four 
in Patch meadow, three in Long-hill meadow, one south-west of 
Gilson's Hill, and the last three on the river again opposite the 
Township. These lots averaged two acres each, or eight}' in all. 

A month later, in January, 1663-4, allotments of upland were 
made in several places to forty-five proprietors. Fifteen lots were in 
a field, beginning opposite the lower end of the Township, on the 
west side of Concord River, and running down the river. Nine lots 
ran along the Shawshin on the east side, beginning at the College 
Farm; twelve were in the "pine plain be3ond Content" Brook, or 
near the Tewksbury line ; three were north of Fox Hill and Brook, 
east of Mr. Nason's place ; and six on the plain on this side of 
Strongwater Brook, as near as might be "to their own meadows 

Grants made at various times and places, in this wa}', could not 
alwa3s satisf}' the men who received them. One would prove less 
valuable or convenient than another, and in 1665, December, a 
committee was appointed to make a Gratuity Division, as it was 
called, or grants to various individuals, and exchanges with them for 
common land, such as equity' called for, or would silence complaints. 
Thirty persons received such special grants ; but Farley and Stearns 
had no share, as the committee "Judge that their divitions on the 
Towneship, already- laid out to them, is more than in proportion is 
granted to other men lying as convenient." John Marshall has 
" two acres by his house instead of six elsewhere." John Sheldon 
has ' ' 3 acres & 33 pole joining to his east line of his home lot, or 
else 10 acres, at foxes." John Kittredge "one-third part of five 
acres, adjoyning to the South side of his house-lot, & he is content," 
and so on. James Kidder received two and a half acres taken from 
the highway north of his house-lot, now West Street. 


In the winter of 1665-6, a large meadow lying north-east of 
Prospect Hill was divided into fort^'-two lots, and granted to as 
many persons. In this division it was agreed that there should be 
no allowance of "quantity for quality," such as had been common. 
Another distribution was made at the same time, with the privilege 
to each man of choosing where his lot should lie, the quantity being 
one and one-quarter acres to each ten-acre lot. Seven chose lots 
west of Concord River, near the Great Bridge, and fourteen accepted 
Heath meadow for forty acres, holding it in common, and subject to 
such future division as the\' might agree upon. 

The last general division of land which was made before 1685 
took place in January, 1665-6. It was a meadow division, located 
"in the great meadow North-East of Prospect Hill," and near 
Andover. The following condition was attached to this action : — 

"It is agreed by y" Joint consent of the Towne, before the 
alotments of the northerly medow at Prospect Hill, that in case 
Cambridge men shall recover any meadow in our precincts, in 
reference to their lots in this Towne bounds, granted them by 
Cambridge, that then the}^ shall have it in this northerly meadow ; 
and then the alotment of this meadow shall be a nullity, vnlesse 
the towne shall see cause to satisf}^ such persons (whose alotments 
shalbe taken away) in some other place, to their content." In other 
words, they did not intend, if the troublesome Cambridge claims 
could not be adjusted and were enforced upon them, to permit their 
location in any of the near and, to them, more desirable parts of the 

The Record proceeds : ' ' We do agree that y^ northerly meadow 
at Prospect Hill shalbe alotted acording to towne order, to y'' whoU 
inhabitance concerned therein ; and for the order of the lying of y* 
said alotments, we do agree that there shalbee first a dividing line, 
from this end of the meadow to y" further end, rufiing as convenient 
as ma}' be about y^ middle of the meadow ; and the first lot shall 
begin at this hither end, on y^ left hand or west side of y* dividing 
line, and so take y"' in order going round, coming homeward on the 
East side of the meadow, so that }-'* last and y" first lot will lye neer 
east and west of each othere. 

"Further we do agree that in this divition their shalbee noe 
consideration of allowing quantity for quality to any person. Also, 
it was agreed that Joseph Tomson and John Bracket should have 
liberty to draw one lot for both their proportions. 



At the same meeting y" alotments drawne were as followeth : — 


Willinm Iliiilo. 


.lohn StiMiios. 


.lohii FiTiich. 


Cliiistopher Web. 


Thomas Pattin. 


Thomas Willice. 

John Baldwin. 


Jolm Roofis. Sen'" 


Jolin Shildon. 


Eld"" Chanme. 


John Poulter. 


Capt. Bracket. 


Samuel Maning. 


Peter Bracket. 


Jpnath : Danforth 


Mr. VV^hiting. 


Jacob French. 


John Parker. 


j John Bracket. 
I Joseph Tomsoq. 


Ben: Parker. 


Georffe Farley. 


John Durrant. 


James Frost. 


John Kitteridge. 


Simon Bird. 


James Paterson. 


Daniell Sheed. 


Simon Crosbee. 


Nath: Hill. 


Samuel Chamne. 


Will'" Chamberline 


Will'" Hamlet. 


John Marshall. 


Thomas Foster. 


Will-" Tiry. 


Thomas Paine. 


Golden More. 


Ralph Hill. 


William French. 


John Trull. 


Samuel Kemp. 


James Kidder. 


Henery Jeiifs. 

"It was agreed that John Trull's allotment in y*^ above named 
meadow should be put out, Because he had above his just pro- 
portion in heeth brook meadow." 

This division included about fort}' acres. Mr. Danforth was to 
divide, measure, "make a plott of, and record the whole," for fort}' 
and two shillings ; and persons concerned, who did not "seasonably 
attend" to the laying out of their own lots, were to pay "niuepence 
a person to those that do y" work." 

This account of the distribution of lands in Billerica, in the 
beginning, would be far from complete without notice of the large 
grants and farms, held under Cambridge titles, in the south-east part 
of the town. The largest of these was the farm reserved by the 
Church in Cambridge for its special use, when it permitted the whole 
town to assume practical possession of the larger part of Shawshin. 
It consisted of seven hundred acres lying north of the Woburn Road, 
and extended from Woburn line to the south-east line of Mr. Hart's 
land on the west. Its north-east line may still be seen west of the 
river, a distinct ditch and ridge, with a wall in some places, which 
two hundred and twenty j-ears have not made even obscure. Here 


John Parker lived, certainly foremost in many respects among the 
earliest settlers. 

The remainder of the thousand acres constituting the Church 
Farm was located north of Fox Hill, and took name from that fact 
as "Fox Farm." Mr. Daniel bought both parts. He subsequently 
sold the larger part to Richardson and Walker, and the Fox Farm 
to Joseph Davis, in whose family the place remained for about one 
hundred and fifty 3'ears. 

North-east of the Church Farm, down the Shawshin, and mostly 
on the east side of it, was the College Farm. Our Records do not 
describe its bounds ; but a plan, by Danforth, is preserved in the 
archives of the Massachusetts Historical Societ}-. Whether it 
formed a part of the grant to President Dunster, or was an 
independent grant to Harvard College, does not appear. It was 
sold about 1750 to William Gleason. 

In the other direction, above the Church Farm, and with the 
same extent east and west, was the farm of five hundred acres, 
granted to Deacon Edward Collins, and sold by him to Elder 
Champney. It was occupied till 1669 by his son Samuel, who sold 
it to Richard Daniel ; and it was here that Mr. Daniel lived, 
south of the Woburn Road, near Shawshin River. Above this 
farm, President Henr^' Dunster, of Harvard College, had another 
five-hundred-acre farm, which he sold, 10 May, 1655, to Francis 
and John W^'man, of Woburn, for one hundred pounds ; and 
bej^ond was Daniel Gookin's grant of five hundred acres, near 
the mouth of Vine Bi-ook, and mostly east of the river. Mr. 
Mitchel, pastor of the Cambridge Church, had also a five-hundred- 
acre grant south-east of Gookin. All these grants, except Mr. 
Mitchel's, bound on Woburn line; and this reached "somewhat 
above the falls," in Bedford. Be^'ond was the three-hundred-acre 
farm of Edward Oakes, sold by him in 1661 to George Farley, 
and the Ralph Hills, father and son. This probably reached the 
Concord line. Another farm known as the Oakes Farm consisted 
of one hundred and fifty acres, given to Captain Gookin in exchange 
for his lot on the Township, and by him sold to Thomas Oakes. 
It included the Bedford Springs. West of all these was Job Lane, 
who coming from Maiden had purchased, 2 August, 1664, Governor 
Winthrop's large grant (already described) of his grandson, Fitz 
John Winthrop, of Connecticut, and lived probably at the Duttou 


Billerica had also certain land-grants and dealings beyond her 
own bounds which furnish an important chapter of her earl}' history. 
The small grants which Cambridge had made in the bounds of 
Shawshin, numbering more than one hundred and embracing ten 
thousand acres, were found not easy to dispose of in a way that 
would not embarrass the settlement. They were not valuable and 
attractive enough to draw many of these Cambridge families here to 
occupy them ; but the owners would naturally- seek to make as good 
a sale of them as they could. While these rights .were thus held in 
suspense, the chance that they might be enforced in some unwelcome 
form would embarrass the measures of the settlers, and make the 
rights in Billerica less attractive to persons who might otherwise 
purchase and settle here As a measure of relief from this difficulty, 
application was made to the General Court for a grant of lands 
elsewhere, which met with tavor, as follows: — " 

"In ans"" to the peticon of the inhabitants of Billirrike3% tills Court 
doth graunt the toune of Billirrikey eight thousand acres of lands, for the 
ends desired, in any place or places that are fFree. & not capeable of 
making a toune, provided that the sajd lands be laid out before the next 
Court of Election, and that the inhabitants of Caiubridg doe accept thereof 
& disingage the lands desired at Billirikey, & also that the toune of 
Billirrikey be seted w"^ twenty familyes at least w^'in three yeares, 
yt the ordinances of God may be setled & encouraged in the sajd place of 
Billirikey; & it is ordered, y* Majo"^ Willard, Cap'. Edw. Johnson, Mr. 
Edward Jackson, or any two of them, w"' Thomas Danforth, or any other 
surveyor, shall lay y" same out at the peticoners charge, making retourne 
to the next Court of Election." 

Jonathan Danforth, the j-ounger brother of Thomas, was not then 
as well known to the General Court as he became in later 3'ears, and 
to him fell the task of locating this eight thousand acres. Beyond 
Chelmsford he had the whole Merrimack Valley to choose from, 
or even the Connecticut and Champlain Valley's, if it had suited 
Billerica's profit to go so far. The survey which Ire made, and 
returned through the above Committee, on which the location was 
finall}' sanctioned, is fortunately still preserved, in the office of the 
Secretar}- of State ; ^ and on this authority some facts long forgotten 
have recently come to light, and we are able to reclaim our own. 
As described and approved by the Court,' it was located as follows : 

« Colonial Records. Vol. IV, Part i, p. 2G9. 

<> Ancient Maps and Plans. Vol.11. Index: "Billerica." 

' Colonial Records. Vol. IV, Part i, p. 302. 


"Layd out to the vse of the inhabitants of Billirrikey, eight thousand 
acres of land, lying vpon Menemacke Riuer, on both sides thereof, taking 
in the trucking hovvse now inhabitted by J"o. Cromwell, the sajd land being 
lajd out about sixe thousand three hundred acres, on the East side the 
riuer, and about seventeene hundred and fivety acres on the west side the 
sajd riuer, and is bounded by the wildemes surrounding the same, as is 
demonstrated by a plott thereof, taken and made by Jonathan Danforth. 
survejor, and exhibbited to this Court by Major Symon Willard and Cap'. 
Edward Johnson, appointed by this Court, Octob. 14, 1656, to lay out the 


'■• Symon Willard. 
•"Edward Johnson." 

"The Court allowes & approoves of the retourne of these co'"issioners 
in reference to the land herein expressed. — 1657, May IS." 

This survey was the earliest ever made, it is safe to say, in the 
Merrimack Valley' beN'ond Chelmsford, and is the starting point in 
the history of Dunstable. The location was in a part of the valley 
commonly called Naticook, but which Danforth spells "Naticott." 
The name was derived from a little brook which, according to Fox,* 
comes into the Merrimack on the west, "just above Thornton's 
ferry." The grant began at the Penichuck Brook, which forms the 
north bound of Nashua, and extends on the west of the river as 
far north as the Souhegan River. Then it follows the Merrimack 
nearly a mile, passing two islands, the larger of whi(!h received the 
surveyor's name "Jonathan," then runs eastward two or three miles 
and southward five or six, returning to its starting point. This 
Naticott grant remained for a year in the hands of Billerica, when 
John Parker received authority to dispose of it. (Grants, page 7.) 

''9th, 6m., 1658. It is jointly agreed by vs, the Inhabitance of 
Billerica, That John Parker hath given to him (by the towne) full power to 
make sale and give assurance of that eight thousand acres of land granted 
to us, and for our use, by the Ilono'^'i Generall Court, which land lyeth at 
Natticott, upon merimack River. And we do hereby, fully, clearly, and 
absolutely give up our whole interest, right, and title in the same unto the 
aforesaid John Parker, to make sale of and dispose of as he shall see good 
for himself & his assigns. Provided always, that the aforesaid John Parker 
shall purchase, for ye vse & behoofe of the Towne of Billerica aforesaid, 
all the severall lotts, to the valine of eight thousand acres, (granted by the 
towne of Cambridge to their inhabitance,) which grants are already entered 
in their towne booke, which land lyeth within the bounds and limits of our 
towne. * * And in case any of ye proprietors of the aforesaid alotinents 

* Dunstable, p. 10. 


shall rofiise to sell or give them, then the said John shall returne vnto the 
towne of IJillerica six pence per acre for so maiiy acres as shall remain 
unpiirchiised, to y^ valine of (or short of the number of) eight thousand 
acres, which money shall remain to Public Towne use.'" 

Fourtoon names are subscribed : Jonathan Dauforth, William 
French, Samuel Chamne, Ralph Hill, Sen., John Baldwin, John 
Rogers, Sen., Ralph Hill, Jun., George Farley-, Henery Jciffs, 
Willm. Patten, AVill'" C'hamberline, John Sternes, John Marshall, 
John Shildon. 

A month later Parker had sold the land, and agrees with the 
town as follows : — 

^' [ ?] day of the 7"' month, 1G58. 

"This jDresent Writing witnesseth. that I. John Parker, doe hereby 
jugadge to purchase & clere y^ severall lotts to y'' valine of 8.000 acors, 
belonging to Cambridge, Lying in o'' Towne boundes, viz'., of y^ Towne of 
Billerica, excepting y'' farmes Lying on Shawshin River, and the farmes 
given by Cambridge, to the two brothers, the Okses, y' is to say, Edward 
& Thomas Okes, for & in consideration of the su'" of two Hundred pounds 
I'eceived by me of Mr. William Brenton for the 8,000 acors of land granted 
to the aforesaid Towne of Billericay. Lying at Xaticot ; which was given 
to o'' Towne of Billericay by the Genrall Courte, for the disingadging of 
the Lands aforesaide ; and I, y<^ said John Parker, doe also ingadge to bare 
all the charges, past or shall be, for Laying out the 8,000 acors, or any the 
charges concernhig the purchasing the said Lotts, and also to be by me 
procured a deed of sale for the use and in the behoofe of the towne of 
Billericay aforesaid, acording to the Law of the Countrj'^ ; and what lands 
shall appear not to be clered, by gift or sale, from the said inhabitantes of 
Cambridge to y^ Number aforesaid, I doe promise to returne to the towne 
and for the towne's use, 6p. p"" an acor, for so many acors as shall appear 
not to be assurance made of, as aforesaid ; for performance of the same, 1 
doe hereby binde myselfe, my heires, and Assignes, to o"^ Towne aforesaid, 
firmlj' bjr these presents. Witness my hand the day and yeare above 

"John Parker."' 

'■2:5:1000. The town did order John Parker to bring in an account 
to the town concerning" [remainder tcora]." 

William Brenton, who bought the Naticott land of Billerica, 
was a Boston merchant and leading business man : often one of 
the Selectmen. He removed soon after this date to Rhode Island, 
and Avas Governor of thai Colon}' in 1GG6-8, and died in 1674. 

» The above original agreement with Parker has been preserved, and was recently 
discovered, as a loose slip, in the First Volume of Billerica Records. 


Litchfield, which was taken from Dunstable and incorporated in 
1724, was known as "Brenton's Farms." John Farmer surmised 
that he had an earl}- grant of land there, and other writers have 
accepted the theory and repeated it as history. Our Records have 
fortunately preserved the true account of the matter and demonstrate 
that the Naticott grant, the earliest in New Hampshire west of 
Rockingham County, was made to Billerica. 

One circumstance connected with the Naticott grant is interesting, 
and may be noticed here, "The trucking howse now inhabitted by 
John Cromwell" was fonnd by Danforth, when making his surve}' in 
the winter of 1 656-7, just above Thornton's Ferry, on the west of 
the river, and is entered there on his plot returned to the Court. 
These houses for trade with the Indians, pushed on beyond the line 
of settlements, were a feature of the early life of New England. 
Pro])abh' our niA'sterious Shawshin House belongs to this class. 
But the man who lived at Naticott in 1G56 must have been much 
the earliest J^nglish inhabitant of all that part of New Hampshire, 
and as Billerica found him there she owes recognition to his memory. 
Tradition has been busy with his name, but as some of the reports 
have been wide of the truth, we ma}' suspect others are fabulous. 
The tale has been that he had a house first in Tj-ngsborough and 
later at Thornton's Ferr}' ; that in his Indian traffic he used his 
liaud and foot for weights, incurring the hate of the red men, until 
they came, burnt his house, and would have killed him ; but, getting 
a hint of their coming, he just escaped, before his flight burying 
money and treasure, which was foinid many 3'ears after in Tjngs- 
borough ; all which has been said to be "as early as I660." 

The facts which are proved are, that Cromwell was living at 
Thornton's Ferrj' in 1656 ; and that, two or three 3'ears later, he 
purchased of Capt. Edward Johnson a grant of three hundred 
acres of land, made to him in 1658, and situated just north of the 
Nacook or Howard Brook in Tyngsborough. To this place Cromwell 
removed, built a house large for the time and had a large store, 
but soon died in 1661. His inventor}', in the handwriting of John 
Parker, is preserved. It was taken in January, 1661-2, and 
embraces household, farming, and trading stock, such as suggest 
no lecent Indian raid, and could hardly have been gathered there 
save b}' a wealthy madman, which he plainly was not, in the fixce 
of danger of such attack. Any later discovery of buried treasure 
cannot be used to reproach his memory, for he died in his bed, and 


would not have left his widow in need of it, to mortgage and loose 
the place there, as she was compelled to do. His wife was Salome, 
daughter of William Batcheller, of Charlestown, and he left two 
sons, John and Benjamin, and a daught?r, Rebecca, who were living 
in 1702. It is not certain that Cromwell was a model Puritan ; but 
the case against his memor}' is shadow}-, and he is entitled to the 
benefit of the doubt. He was an active, enterprising man, as the 
pioneer at that da}- in the Merrimack Valley needed to be. The 
"l30und weight" stor}- is charged to various men, and more than 
doubtful in any case ; and it is not clear that John Cromwell is not 
entitled to honorable remembrance, or that he brought any reproach 
upon the great famil}- name which he bore. 

The result of Parker's negotiations with the Cambridge propri- 
etors took shape in an instrument known in the Records (p. 137) 
as "our great deed." I quote, omitting technical and immaterial 
portions : — 




"We whose names are subscribed, for sundry good consideracons. vs 
thereunto moving, and for valluable consideracon to us respectively payd * 
have sold * vnto the Inhabitants of Billerica * * and such others 
as shall from time to time be by them admitted as free denizens of the said 
place. & to the enjoyment of the priviledges thereof, all o"" respective rights 
& interest therein or vnto any part or parcell of the said land, now called 
bj- the name of Billerica, al^ Shawshin * * (only excepting & reserving 
our Joynt & respective interests that any of us have in the farme, whei'ein 
John Parker now dwelleth. eo"'only called by the name of the Churches 
farme, i. e., the church at Cambridge, with free liberty on all the co"'ons of 
the said place, for the Inhabitants on the said farme, fi-om time to time, for 
herbage, timber, & firewood, as any other of the Inhabitants, and a Joynt 
intei-est therein, together with the said Towne and inhabitants thereof). 
To have & to hold * * Provided alwmjs, this instrum' is to be vnderstood 
of every man's engagem' to be only for & in the behalfe of himselfe, his 
own heires * * & no further or other. In witness whereof wee have 
put to o'' hands and seals this 25th day of March, Anno Dom. 165(?)." 

The last figure is lorn off in the original, but should probably 
be ''9." The Deed was not recorded until 1G71, and it must 
be a slip of the recorder's pen which makes the year 1650. One 
of the signers, Martha Bradshaw, did not acquire that name by 

•0 Parchment Deed in Town Archives. 


her marriage until 1665, and it is probable that several years passed 
before all these signatures were obtained. The names of the signers 
ma}- be found on pages 13 and 14, being those not starred in the 
list there given. 

One other important grant to Billeriea enters into our early 
history. In the Records of the General Court for 1661, Ma}' 22, 
we find the following : — 

''In ans"" to the petition of the inhabitants of Billerikey, the Court, 
having considered of this peti<=on. together with the petii^on of Mr. Deane 
Winthrope for laying out the lands graunted his mother. & being certainly 
informed that the toune of Billerikey is a hopeful plantation, & that they 
have & doe encourage & mainteine the ministry amongst them, & have 
waded thr" many difficultjes in purchasing nmch of theire land. & never 
had so much as one-third part of lands graunted them by this Court, as 
other villages inferio'' to them have had, doe therefore graunt the sajd 
toune fower thousand acres of land, in such place or places where they 
can find it w^'in this jurisdiction, for the redemption of the sajd lands, 
provided it shall not pjudice a plantation or any former graunt; & that 
Cap'. Edward Johnson, Thomas Addams, w"' Jonathan Danforth, surveyo™, 
be appointed to lay it out & make retume to the next Court of Elections." 

The disposition which Billeriea made of this four thousand acres 
was as follows {Grants, pp. 3 and 11) : — 

''They do grant to him, y^ said Jonath. Danforth, with his father-in- 
law. John Parker * * joyntly and together, one thousand acres of land 
in the wilderness, which land is part of that 4,000 acres which was 
granted," etc. * * ''on condition that they the aforesaid John & Jonath. 
shall be at all cost & charges in and about discovering & laying out of the 
whole 4,000 acres," etc. 

"They do grant to * * John Parker 3,000 acres of land more, which 
was y« remainder of that 4,000 acres formerly spoken of, all which lyeth 
up & downe in the wildernesse * * for & in consideration of forty 
pounds sterling, which the said John was to pay to Mr. Sanmel Whiting, 
our minister, & for satisfaction in full for charges due to y^ said John 
about building of our meeting house. And also upon the validdity of this 
grant, the said John Parker * * stands bound & ingaged to the Towne 
of Billeriea, that he * * shall purchase & i^rocure, in the behalf of & 
for the use of the Towne * 500 acres of land & upward, lying on the 
West of Concord river, that is to say, that wholl farme which was some- 
time in y*" possession of Mr. Thomas Weld, of Eoxbury * * and make 
it sure to them according to law." 

This four-thousand-acre grant was thus used to secure for 
Billeriea three things : Two-thirds of Mr. Whiting's salary for 


the year 1662; the completion of then- first meeting-house; and 
a good title to the Weld Farm of five hundred and thirty acres 
of land, which la}' along the Concord River on the west side, 
beginning nearly opposite the Two Brothers. 

Of this four thousand acres, one thousand were given to Danforth 
and Parker for expense of discover}^ and survey of the remainder. 
The Records of the Court do not show where this land was located. 
. The remaining three thousand acres were located in three places. 
The first and largest fraction was in what became Dunstable. The 
description of it is found in the deed to Thomas Brattle, executed 
1662, Jul}' 16, and signed by John Parker, Jonathan Danforth, and 
Thomas Henchman, of Chelmsford. They sell "1,600 acres more 
or less," and "in the wilderness on the west side Merrimack river, 
upon forrest-field hill and Salmon brooke, beginning at the South 
west corner of Mr. Samuel Cole's last grant, & is bounded by him 
on the east." [His farm of four hundred acres was on Merrimack 
River, at and be3'ond T3ngsborough depot.] "Edward Cowell's 
farm South west," [which consisted of two hundred acres and began 
at Mashapoag Pond,] "and elsewhere by marked trees." Thomas 
Brattle, the purchaser, was a leading Boston merchant, and one 
of the wealthiest men in the Colony. His son, Thomas, was 
Treasurer of Harvard College and founder of Brattle Street Church. 
The father was the first signer of the petition in 1673 for the 
incorporation of Dunstable. Like Brenton he has also been credited 
with a "grant" of his large farm in Dunstable, and the fact that it 
was originall}' Billerica land has been forgotten. AVhen he procured 
a deed from the Indians, as he did in 1671, confirming his title, the 
tract is said to contain two thousand acres. It included the present 
village of Dunstable. 

The second part of- this grant was located as follows : — " 

"•1663, 6,. Tune. 
"Lajd out to the toune of Billirrikey one parcell of land conteining 
eight hundred acres, more or lesse, lying in the wildernesse on the north 
side of Merreniacke Bluer, begining at the southeast angle of Mr. Dummers 
farme & being bounded vpon him twenty two pole; also bounded by 
Mr. Webb's furnie (which joynes to hhn there) thirty five pole (vpon his 
northeast corner) westward. & sixty fower pole southward ; from thence 
it runns In a long sprulsc swamp, about half a point northward of the east, 
fower hundred & <'ight pole ; then rufiing in a strelght Ijne from thence to 
Long Pond ; being i)artly bounded by that pond and partly by Mr. Batters 

1' Colonial Records. Vol. IV, Part ii, p. 79. 


fanne at this end of the pond, which line, in all, is fiue handled & fower 
pole ; from thence it runnes almost due west to another pond, called by the 
Indians, Mascuppet, vnto a. great rocke, called by the English. Tray Table 
Rocke; on the northwest it is bounded by Mascuppet Pond and another 
little pond vntill you come to Mr. Dumer's line, wliere wee began, all which 
is more fully demonstrated by a plott taken of the same. This eight 
hundred acres is part of the fower thousand w'^'' was lately graunted to the 
toune of Billirikey, & there remains ordy fiue Imndred yet to lay out to the 
whole graunt. 

"• By Jonathan Daj^forth.^ Surveyor. 
Edward Johnson. 
Tho: Addams. 

•'The Court allowes of this retourne.'' 

Mascuppet Pond is called Tyug's Pond on the modern maps ; 
and this location can be easil}' traced in the west part of Dracut, 
including a portion of Tyngsborough. When and to whom this 
land was sold, I have not discovered. 

The rem^jining five hundred 'acres were located by the General 
Court, as follows: — '^ 

"1667. Oct. 9. 

'"Lajd out to Billirrica fiue hundred acres of land in the wildernesse, 
on the north side of Merremack Riuer & on the East side of Beavar Brook, 
a little below Patuckett. It is bounded on the south & on the southeast 
wholly by lands formerly graunted to Richard Russell. Esq., and on the 
west by the aforesaid Beavar Brook, elsewhere by the wildernesse. The 
line on the east side of it is one hundred ninety sixe pole in length, ruriing 
halfe a point westward of the north w*='' is exactly the continuance of the 
long line on the east side of Mr. RusselFs farm ; also both the lines on the 
north side of it are exactly paralell to the lines on the south side of it, the 
most nortlierly of which is one hundred & sixty pole long & runns halfe a 
point westward of the most southwest ; tlie other lines runns two degrees 
westward of the southwest & by south fower hundred eighty & seven pole, 
\v<:h closeth to the brook, all Avhich are sufficiently bounded by markt trees 
& pillars of stone. The form thereof is more fully declared on the other 
side, by a plott taken of the same. 

•'By Jonathan Danforth, Surveyor. 

•'The Court allowes and approves of this retourne aboue mentioned." 

Beaver Brook comes into the Merrimack from the north in Lowell ; 
and this tract of five hundred acres was held for exchange and was 
at last exchanged for the similar "farm," on the west side of the 

12 Colonial Records. Vol. IV, Part ii, p. 352. 


Concord River, which had been early granted to Reverend Mr. 
Weld, of Roxbury. This farm extended down the river from the 
Allen grant, which became a part of the Blood's farms. Probably 
the Weld Farm was never exacth' located. The town had assumed 
possession and granted portions of it long before the title was finally 
transferi'ed. Parker's death occurred before he had completed this 
part of his engagement, and it was not until 1694, March 6, that 
deeds were exchanged with Mr. Palsgrave Alcocke, of Roxbmy. 
who then held the Weld Farm title ; he receiving the five hundred 
acres of land above described. Mr. Alcocke previousl}' owned the 
grant of sixteen hundred acres to Mr. Russell, which laj- between 
the Billerica land and Merrimack River. 

It appears from this survey of Billerica's ancient possessions, 
that the villages of Bedford, Carlisle, Tewksbur^' and North Tewks- 
bur}-, Dunstable, Merrimac, and Litchfield, are all located on land 
which once belonged to this town. 



Thz Records of Billerica furnish the warp and much of the woof 
of its history. As a whole, they have been well made and very 
well preserved. Their publication in a full and literal transcript, 
for at least the first hundred years, would be a useful contribution 
to the history of N'ew England, and have great local value. To 
guard against the possibility of future loss, the town would be 
wise in printing them, and it is perhaps not out of platv here to 
commend this important question to the intelligent consideration 
of its citizens. 

During the early years, it will be expedient to quote the Records 
extensively : and a description of these volumes, their character and 
contents, may properly introduce this chapter. 

The town has been fortunate in the services of intelligeut aud 
careful clerks. Dauforth, after Parker, was clerk for twenty-one 
years, 1665-86. aud gave character to the system, which remained 
substantially unchanged for two hundred years. Few records made 
today are as clear and easy to read as are those of Dauforth. 
And a peculiarity of liis method, for which those who ct>usult the 
Billerica Records may be grateful to his foresight, is found in the 
separation of the records of births, marriages, aud deaths, from 
those of current towu action, and their ari-augemeut in special 
volumes : not chronologically, as was usually the case, but by 
families. By this method, with the aid of the alphal>etical index, 
the record of any family as far as it was made can l>e found fully 
and immediately. 

These Town Records consist of : — 

I. The series of volumes recordiuir current town action. 

II. Two volumes of land-srauts. 


III. Successive volumes of births, marriages, and deaths. 

Of the Records proper, Vokime I has lost its binding and three 
leaves, or six pages. Fortunately', the first leaf has been preserved, 
the missing leaves containing pages 3-0 ; but portions of these 
pages were transferred to the Book of Grants, and very little is 
reall}' lost. The Reverse of Volume I contains seventy-eight 
pages, mostly devoted to record of the earliest land-grants, the 
substance of which was also transcribed in the volume of land- 
grants. The first leaf, or two pages, of this Reverse of Volume I 
is missing, and we have no clue to its contents. Pages three, six, 
and seven, of the Reverse, are specially important, as they contain 
Parker's earliest record of the births,, marriages, and deaths, prior 
to 1660. These were transcribed by Danforth in the new volume 
which he soon after began ; but the copy contains one important 
error, and the existence of this earlier authority has been commonly 
overlooked. . The original agreement with Mr. Whiting is also found 
on page 4 of the Reverse; a cop}' being also in "Land-Grants," 
page 67. 

Volume I extends to 1685 ; Volume II, to 1706 ; Volume III, to 
1749 ; Volume IV, to 1780 ; and Volume V, to 1796. 

All these volumes except the first are substantially bound, and 
nothing appears to have been lost from them. For more than a 
hundred years they record not only town action, but also that of the 
selectmen, and the disbursements of the treasurer. The tax-lists 
were unfortunately not recorded until 1733, but, after that date, the 
series is continuous. Prior to 1733, the onl}' list which has been 
preserved is the "minister's rate" of 1663. 

Two volumes are occupied with land-grants. The first Book of 
Grants was prepared by Danforth in 1665. In it, he was instructed 
to transcribe all previous grants which had not become void ; and, 
after a careful examination by individuals, it was ratified hy the 
town, and pronounced authoritative. All later grants to 1685 were 
entered in this volume, which is mostly in Danforth's fine hand- 
writing, and is certainl}' one of the best preserved and handsomest 
volumes of records, two hundred years old, to be found. The Grants 
are arranged under the name of the recipient, and the alphabetical 
index makes it easy to trace the possessions of each inhabitant. 
The volume contains also the "Whiting agreement," descriptions of 
the more important carl}' roads, and some of the earl3' covenants 
and "standing orders." Volume II of the Land-Grants continues 


the record after 1685. It contains a larger number of highway 
descriptions, and is ahuost entirely in the good handwriting of 
Oliver Whiting, who was town clerk 1704-23. 

The third series consists, prior to 1850, of four volumes, con- 
taining "Births, Marriages, and Deaths." The first was prepared 
by Danforth in 1665, as above suggested, and continued in use until 
about 1730. But in the later j'ears, after 1700, the number of 
entries falls oflf, in a way which suggests that the record was much 
less complete than it had been while Danforth kept it. The difficulty 
in tracing many family lines during this period strengthens this 
probabilit}' that the record was imperfect. The second volume was 
prepared in 1730, and a large part of the contents of Volume I 
was copied in it. But the transcript was not complete, and it was 
probably the design to omit all femilies the representatives of which 
were not still resident in town. For this reason the Bedford families 
do not appear. 

The Third Volume came into use about 1790 and continued until 
1844, when it was displaced by a thin volume, used for ten 3'ears, 
following the chronological, and not the familj', order. In 1855, 
the system was changed again by the State, and separate volumes 
are used for births, marriages, and deaths, each with a second index 
volume. Whoever has occasion to trace a familj- through this 
period must explore six volumes, and if his experience is like this 
compiler's, he will sigh for the simplicity and convenieiy:'e of the 
earlier S3'stem of Danforth. 

The earliest record is as follows. A few words obliterated in the 
margin are supplied in brackets. 

'^[?] November, 1654. 

''Sertin Orders made by vs the present inhabitantes of the Towne of 
Billericey, for y" weall of y« [town] : 

''I'J'. [That wh]at person or persons soever [shall] propound them- 
selves to be [inhabi]tantes ainongste vs, to p'take of [the pr]iviledges of 
the comons, devitions [of la]ndes, &c., if not known to vs, he or they shall 
bring with them a certificate from the place from whence they come, such 
a testimony as shall be satisfactory to o"" towne, or select pi'sons of the 
same, before they shall be admitted as inhabitants amongste vs. to p'"take 
of any priviledges as aforesaid with vs; and after their Admission they 
shall subscribe their names to all the orders of the Towne, with o'selves, 
y' are or sliall be made for the public good of the place, as also foi- baring 
vp their proportions in all publique charges, in Clun-cli, Towne, or comon 
weall, with those persons that came vp at the first, and so shall have their 
priviledges in equall proportion. 


'•2'>'. Summering Kattell. Tli;it no person whatsoever that hath any 
propriety in tlie place, either by purchase, Lease, or otlier wayes, sliall 
keepe any kattell in the surainer time but such as the keepe of ther o[wn] 
or for there ovvne use with[out the] consente of the Towne, [any] kattell 
so taken to be cepte [not according] to this order, he or they shall forfeit 
for every [offense] shillings to be payed to the [town] . 

'"S'y. Swine. That no person shall keepe any [swine] but his owne 
without the consente [of] the towne ; and every swine of [one year] old 
and upwards shall be suffit[iently] ringed from year to year, and every 
swine that goeth [un-] ringed one day after due warninge given by any 
Neibour, he shall forfeit [?] pence, y^ one-half e to the Towne and the 
other halfe to the informer, and that all swine that goe unyoaked from the 
first of April to the last of .September and doe damage, they shall pay for 
y^ damage acordinge to Law. 

'''4"i. Lots to be inhabited within a yere. That what person soever takes 
up any accom Ida [tions] in this place for propriety" * * * 

" Laying out his house lott " * * * 

[The remainder of this paragraph must be inferred from the caption.] 

'' [I'y] If any person shall leave any wood or Timber lying anywhere 
on the coman Lande above the full time of twelve months, it shall be 
forfeit, and free for any man y' is an inhabitant to take [ ?] for his owne 
use, excepting all such wood or timber as is fallen for the publique use 
of the Towne. 

'•2'5. It is ordered that if any man fall [any wood] or timber in any 
p^t of the comons belonging to this towne, he shall pay five shillings p'^ tree 
for every tree, or five shillings p'' Loade every Loade, so carried away into 
any other towne boundes to lie improved, without the consente of the 

'•'3'y. It is ordered that for hoppoles. if any person doe fall any on 
o' comons, as aforesaide. and cary or sell them to be made use of in any 
other towne, as aforesaide. thev shall foi-feit for ever}' hundred of poles the 
sume of twenty shillings ; all which forfetures shall be taken up by the 
constable then being, from time to time, for the use of the towne." 

"S; Oniii 1658. It is ordered and joyntly agreed, that such as either 
haue already or hereafter shall take vp any Alotments in the tonne vpon 
grant from th"" toune shall be equally acomidated with those vpon Mr. 
Dudley's farme, no person exceeding a twelfth pr' of the saide farme, 
which is one hundred and thirteen acors of vplande and twelve acors of 
meddow, which [is] granted a ten acor Lott. and so in [proportion] to 
others that haue eight or six [or fiue] acor Lotts : the inhabitants that doe 
[take up] alotments of the toune as aforesaid [shall pay] to the purchasers 
of the aforesaid farme of Mr. Dudley, he that takes vp [ten] acors for his 
house lott the one halfe of what a twelfth p''t of the said farme at the first 
did cost of the aforesaid Mr. Dudlej' : which 12"> p't is usually called a 
single share ; which pay is to be made by those that take vp ten acors for 
a house Lott, as aforesaid, and so others aeording to ther proportions and 
at such times as is agreed vpon and written in a paper written the day and 


yere aboue specified, the times of payment is, the one halfe the next yere 
after the [alotment] and the other halfe the yere. [after] that first payment, 
in corne [ ?] currant and merchantable." 

The remainder of the second page is torn off, and the next four 
pages are missing. Page seven begins with the following, which is 
numbered "7," implying that it is one of a series of " orders." The 
contents of the first six orders can be only conjectured. 

'•[It is agreed by the to^vn] that for the raysinge publique charges, 
shall continue in the way we are at present in, for the building a house for 
a minister and for tlie maintenance of a minister, that is acordinge to 
o»' severall proportions -of land and meadowes; and it is agreed, that all 
devitions of Lands and meadows and comons and all other priviledges shall 
be devided and layed out acordinge to o"" publique charges ; also, this way 
of i-ateing shall continue without alteration vnlesse it be don by the joj-nte 
consente of the whoU inhabitants : and the devitions in comon feilds from 
time to time shall be devided bj^ Lott for propriety, both to us, the present 
inhabitants, and also to all others y' shall hereafter be excepted and 
entertained as inhabitants amongst vs. But for such farmes as doe Ly 
within the boundes of o'' Towne vnoccupied, or such as are occupied by 
non-residents, shall haue no priviledge in devitions of lands, nor comonage 
of wood and Timber and feed for kattell as o'selves. nor be rated alike, nor 
no other wayes than the propriety and free denizens y* are inhabitants shall 
agree. And it is furdi" agreed, y' when any furder Adition of meddows be 
made to the inhabitants, or any of them, there publique charges shall be 
borne vp acordinge to the former proportions, excepting such meddows as 
are made by any person out of swamp or other wayes that is not granted 
by the Towne [o6scM>-e] meddows; all such medows so [made] are freed 
from all publique [charge which] consems the Towne." 

Agreements eight and ten relate to highwaj's, and are quoted in 
the chapter devoted to that subject. Agreement nine, on page 8, is 
this: "It is ordered that no proprietor or inhabitant within the 
boundes of our Towne shall at any time receiue an}- inmates or 
Tenants without the consent and approual of the Townsmen, he 
or they y' shall soe do, shall forfeit to the Towne the sume of 
twenty shill p'' week for euerj- person so receiued & entertained as 
aforesaid." [And in the later handwriting of Clerk William Tay, 
it is added:] "And euer}' p'° that shall inhabit [ ?] the p''cincts 
of the town w'out the Towns consent shall forfeit twent}' shill : p'' 
weeke for euer}' week abiding as [ ?] " 

And in article eleven, "it is ordered that not an}' inhabitants in 
this towne shall turn out any cattell in the Springe tyme from yere 
to yere without a keeper, until the herd goe oute, Leaste he thereby 


doe damage to his Neighbors meddows." Article twelve relates to 
the first division of meadow lands, and will be found in the chapter 
on that sni)jcct. 

These earliest I'cc-ords show us the questions which the town had 
to meet at the beginning. It is noteworthy that the care of the 
fathers for the character of those who were to make homes here 
inspires their first record. There was no welcome for such as could 
not l)ring good testimonials. The policy was that of the towns 
generally, and it was not illiberal Init wise. If the doors had been 
open in our New England towns to all the restless and unworthy 
adventurers sure, in an age like that particularly', to seize such 
opportunities, the evil leaven would have lowered the standard of 
character and exposed the settlements to mischief, if not shipwreck. 

And the fathers did not wait for the official sanction by the Court 
of their new English name before they began to use " Billerica." It 
stands at the head of the first page of Records, in 1G54, and in the 
Boston record of Danforth's marriage. 22d November of that 3'ear, 
it also appeared. 

In 1658, when Mr, Whiting came to Billerica, he found twenty- 
five families in town ; eleven on the Township, seven on the Dudley 
Farm, and seven elsewhere, of whom but one was north of the 
Township, Paterson, and he adjoined it. His own house was built, 
but not yet finished ; the meeting-house was not begun. There was 
a road to Woburn, another to Concord, one to Chelmsford, and one 
to Andover ; whether the road to Cambridge was distinct from the 
Woburn Road west of the Shawshin is very doubtful. These roads 
were little more than paths in the woods ; indeed the woixl "path" 
is not infrequently' applied to them in the Records. Fences were 
not yet built, and the care of cattle and swine was a matter of 
common concern. A herd in the care of a keeper, driven out in the 
morning and home at night, was the natural convenience of their 
primitive life. Sometimes the herd would go in one direction, and 
then in another. Fox Ilill and its western slopes long furnished 
the herd a range, and another extensive common field was beyond 
North Billerica. 

The cai-e of the common lands of the town already claimed 
attention. Citizens had privileges of use for cutting wood and 
timber and feeding "commonage," as the right was called; but 
it was restricted to their own use, and unauthorized traffic was 



There was much sun^eying to be done m those early days. The 
woods and meadows would be carefully explored in all directions for 
lots and ranges likely to prove most valuable and convenient ; and 
it gives one a sense of weariness to sit down, with the book of 
Land-Grants in hand, aud think of Danforth's travel and toil in 
running the thousands of lines there described. For his services in 
surveying, plotting, and recording the several lots "drawn by the 
whole inhabitants," the town agreed with Danforth, "10: 9: 59," 
that he should receive two and one-half pence for every acre, "to 
be pa3-ed vnto him out of y* Towne stock collected b}' Rate," etc. 

It needed hardv, courageous, self-relying men and women to 
plant homes in this wilderness ; men and women who could live 
happil}' without luxuries, or what their children deem conveniences, 
and fertile in resource to suppl}' their own necessities. Such, it 
is plain, were these Billerica men. They had discouragements, 
dangers, hardships, in plenty, but they were of too sturdy stuff to 

While they were laying these foundations, thej' were watching 
with keen interest the course of events in Mother England. Those 
were the da3-s of the Commonwealth, which enkindled all their 
Puritan sympathies. Cromwell's own name of Oliver found its wa}', 
not by the force of personal admiration, but following naturally the 
line of family relationship, to the second son of the Billerica pastor. 
Parker and Danforth and their neighbors would often talk over, by 
their winter fires, the latest news of the Protector's policy and 
battles, and were thrilled with the tidings of his death a few weeks 
after Mr. Whiting's removal to the town. The Commonwealth in 
England had nowhere more earnest friends than in New England. 
It can not be doubted that the seed then sown in the hearts of 
the fathers bore legitimate fruit a century later in the American 

The building of the minister's house and the raising of his salary 
brought heavier common expense, and a collector was needed. So, 
"11* 11""° 1658," John Parker was empowered "to gather, receiue, 
and take up all and euery p't and p'sell of the severall sumes due 
vpon the rate made for the building and finishinge A house for A 
minister, and all other pay that is or shall be due from* any of the 
inhabitantes or an}' other proprietors y' are non-resident, as is or 
shall be by him, the saide John Parker, requested to receiue and 


disburse for the use of the towu as aforesaid ; and we doe also 
impower the saide John Parker to make distress vpou the goodes 
or Landes of any such person as shall refuse to pa3- there dues." 
The}- promise to defend him in any suit to which his lawful acts in 
this office may expose him ; require a true account of all his receipts 
and disbursements ; and undertake to make good any deficienc}' 
if his authorized pa3-ments exceed receipts. This agreement bore 
at first the signatures of the inhabitants ; but the Record does not 
preserve the names. 

During tlie year 1659, arrangements for building a meeting-house 
were made, as elsewhere related. "Goodman Shead and Goodman 
Kinsle}' shall have HogTooten Lett, if they doe desire it" ; perhaps 
the name repelled them, and they did not. A committee are 
instructed "to ad such Lande to fox hill Lott as they shall see 
meet for the incouraging such persons as shall enjoy the same"; 
and Goodman Walsley [ ?] was granted ten acres of land to set a 
house on, "on the East side of bare hill, leading towards Shawshin ; 
also he is granted 10 acors of medow" ; but both these last grants 
were made "null" afterwards. July 15, Lieut. William French was 
chosen "Coihitioner for making the cuntry rate and caring in a 
duplicate to }'* shiere meeting, and George Farle}' and Jonathan 
Danforth is joyned with him for this worke." "John Durante is 
granted ^ of a ten acre lot of uplande to set a hous on, and it is 
lefte to y^ comitee y' La^'s out all other Lots, to lay it out where is 
most convenient : y" it was determined b}- John Durant to have 
y^ Land next Miles Reding, and the Towne gi-anted he should have 
y' to Will Hail's." Reding's land became John Brackett's at the 
"Corner," and this grant to Durant embraced the present homestead 
of Mr. Anthony Jones. A grant follows to Edward Iron, which 
became a nullity. William Sheldon asked that the committee might 
view a piece of land which he wished, and act upon his request as 
they might deem ' ' most advantageous to the publique " ; but his 
petition was not granted. He held his grant on condition of 
building "a mill to grind corn," and in 1663 the town " siezed 
the forfeiture," the condition not being performed. 

"6 : 12 : ^)\). The Town doe agree that there shall be a Towne 
meeting for the wholl inhabitants the first second day in euery month 
from time to time ; aud all those that are y" present inhabitants shall 
pay [for ?] absence one shilling ; and also those that doe meet what 


our acts shall be de[clared?] shall stand as vallid acts, and the fines 
shall 1)6 gathered b}- the constable then l)eing from [time to tune?] 
and shall be disposed of as them that doe meet shall see cause, and 
the time of meeting is to begin about the sunn one our and a halfe 
hy ; and whosoever is Not at y^ meeting [within one our ?] after the 
time set, shall pay the fine vnlesse he can giue a good account of his 
being absent." There would be murmurings at least if citizens were 
now fined for absence from a monthly town meeting ! 

The first record of Town officers appointed is made in March, 
1659-60. Samuel Champney is chosen constable ; Jonathan Dan- 
forth and Henry Jeftes, surveyors; and "John Parker is added to 
them to help be(?) over the work about the bridge and casway at 
Shawshin," which was near his house. The Selectmen were John 
Parker, Leift"'. Will French, Ralph Hill, Sen., Thomas Foster, and 
Jonathan Danforth. John Sterne and John Baldwin " are apointed 
to vew fences." John Parker was "chosen to carry the votes for 
Nomination of Magistrates and Country Treasurer," and also to 
attend upon the next General Court with the Town's petition "for 
Attaining of Mr. Weld's farme on the other side Concord River, to 
the Towne as other Conion Lands, if the Court pleased to grante 
the same and to give Mr. Weld some land elsewhere." But the 
petition, if presented, failed, and the town did not gain full title to 
this land for thirty years, although it early began to make grants 
upon it. 

John Hall receives l)ut declines a grant of land. George Farley 
is chosen to serve on the grand jury, and Ralph Hill, Jun., on the 
jury of trials. Jonathan Danforth "is chosen deputy for the town 
to joyne with the Comitee to isew the buseness about County- bridges 
and also to answer the presentments about Shawshin bridge," which 
Jiad been complained of. 

" 2 : 5 : 60. The town do consente to Captin Gookin y' he shall 
haue 40 or .'^O acors of land in some convenient place where it 
shall be found for convenient cituation to build vpon and break vp, 
in lew of which p'cell of Lande y* is granted to him by the Town 
Lying on the Township, and a committee is appointed to make the 
exchange." His lot on the Township was^on the south corner of 
Long and West Streets, where the Library, Church, Post-Offlce, 
and Town Hall now stand, and his fifty acres in exchange were 
laid out "on the south side the Town, and a little southeast of 
Nuttin's pond." 


During this year, the town "accepts" as inhabitants the brothers 
Peter and Jolui Bracket, and Josei)h Tomson and Simon Crosby, 
whose wives were sisters of the Brackets, all from Braintree ; also 
of John Kittredge and Roger Toothaker. And Benjamin Scot, 
brother of Christopher Webb's wife, had "leave to live in town," 
but did not accept it. 

'•'John Bracket, requesting of the Town a small skirt of Lande 
Lying between his hous Lott and the highwa}' on the East, together 
with a small Angl of Laud Lyinge crosse the upper road wa}- at 
Abot's Bridge and Simon Burd's fence according to two trees 
already marked b}' Jonathan Danforth, and so ruuninge to the hither 
corner bounde mark of John Durant's house Lott, the Tbwne grant 
his request, provided that John Bracket at his owne charge shall 
make a good and sufficient Bridge over that durty place (called 
Abots Bridge) both watter course and all the bad way on each 
side so far as is needful, which sufficient way shall be Judged and 
accepted of by the present surveyors and the work to be done by 
the said John Brackett by the Last of the Nexte month ensewing, 
or else this grant to be voyde." Bracket's house stood between the 
brooks at the corner, and this record identifies the locality, but does 
not explain the source of the name, of Abot's Bridge. 

In December, IGGO: "At a Meeting at Leiffcent. French's, the 
major prt of y'' Townsmen did agree y' Will Browne shold wayt sum 
time for the disposinge of his acomidations y' was granted him by 
the Towne, in reference to the getting of his charges \^ he had 
expended upon the premises by way of improvement of the same 
himself, or by such other person as the Towne shall approue on, 
by his procuring or otherwise procured by the Towne ; it was also 
yielded to the saide Will Browne that it sholde be propounded to the 
towne and move to another vote whether Simon Crosby shall inj(w 
the Bargain soulde to him by the saide Will Browne, whether the 
said Simon shall injoy the same notwithstanding the vote y' is paste 
by the towne alread}-, or whether he shall not injo}' it." The result 
was no doubt in favor of Simon Crosby, as he henceforth appears as 
a citizen. This action, it will be observed, is of the "Townsmen," 
a frequent earl}' name for the officials commonl}' known as Selectmen. 
Was not tl|is early word better than that which usage has adopted? 

It was soon found important to define the functions of these all 
important officials of the New England Town. The Town itself 
was an experiment in local government such as the world had never 


tried until tlie fathers set it in motion on tlaese shores ; and its 
successful working was and is still fundamental in the American 
sj'stem. Upon the Selectmen much of this success depended, and 
Billerica thus outlined their duties : — 

''19: 9: 7660. The severall p'ticulars drawne vp for instructions 
for the Townsmen, acordinge to which they are to act in the Town affairs. 
This Mas voted by the major prt of the Towne. 

ujtii_ xhat what worke or business is by order of Courte Assigned on 
the Selectmen, or injoyned on the 'J'owne, the Selectmen shall take due 
care to effect the same so as may best conduce to the publique good, and 
no damage by the neglect thereof. 

"2'>'. As often as they shall see Needful, they shall giue publique 
notice to the Inhabitance to meet together. & what orders or determinations 
shall be passed by publique vote of the Town, made by there Selectmen, 
the Selectmen shall take due care to execute, fulfill, and acomplish the 
same without respect of any man's person. 

•'3'>'. They shall take due care for the maintenance, repairing, and 
well ordering of all such things wherein the Towne hath a comou interest, 
as the meeting house, Amunitione, pounde. stocks, common highways, 
common herdes, and the like. 

'•'4'h. They shall make such prudentiall orders and impose such 
penalties, and duly publish and execute the same, as may best ef ecte the 
execution of the premisses for the publique weall of the Towne. 

'Soiy. That the nessary charges expended on the premisses in the 
execution thereof be discharged by an equall Rate made by the Townsmen 
and levied by the Constable on the severall Inhabitants and Proprietors 
acordinge to orders. 

"6^y. The Constable at ye end of his yere shall giue in his acountes 
vnto the Townsmen (and any other person that shall receiue anything of 
the Townes debts or money in Like manner) of what they haue receiued 
of the Towne by way of Eate or otherwayes, of the publique stocke, and 
how they haue disbursed the same, which shall be cept vpon record in a 

"7'y. The Surveyors of the highewayes shall take order for there 
work from the Townsmen, and shall take due care for the repairing of all 
Country Eoades in the Towne, (and of no other without p'ticular order) , 
and they shall keep vpon record (in a book fairly written) 4:he names of all 
such persons as are improued therein during there yere and deliuer the 
same to the Townsmen then in place. 

•'8'>'. The Townsmen shall carefully examine Town records which 
are already recorded, and wherein any of them are not so fully expressed 
as to the true intent of the Towne they shall corect and amende the same. 

"9«'. Whatever damage they shall aprehende to come to the Towne 
by any person within or without the Towne, by appropriating, intruding. 
or damnifling or exceedinge there owTie due proportion in any wise, in any 


of the Towne comons, Lands, or woods, or other publick stocke, Libertyes, 
or interests in y^ Towne, aoordinge to there best discretion they shall 
timely preuent and remoove y*^ same ; and wliere any Lands are in question 
at the present, whether they are or shiiU be the Just right of such prsons 
as Lay claime to the same, the;' shall Judge acordinge to there Best 
discretions and either more fully confirm the same or else vindicate such 
Lands to the Towne. 

"lO'y. In case complainte be made by any man wantinge his due and 
Just proportion granted him by the Towne, they shall take due care that it 
be made good acordinge to there beste discretione. 

*'ll"i. All lands which are to be recorded to tlie propriety of any. a 
copy of the same shall first be vewed and approued by the Townsmen 
before they are entered in the Towne booke. 

"12"=. The Townsmen shall demande and carefully examine & receiue 
and pay all Towne debtes, and in case any refuse to pay, to destraine by 
the constable acordinge to the former orders. 

" 13tii. They shall haue no power to grant any house Lott or acomida- 
tions to any person, vnless it be in makeing satisfactione to i^ersons damni- 
fied by the highwayes going cross y' propriety, the which they shall haue 
power to act in acordinge to y' best discretione. 

"■19. 9. 1660. this was uoted on y*' aftlrmative.'" 

"27: 12: 64. The Town A^oted these instructions be not in 
force, but as they are voted by tlie Town from yeare to j^eare." 
And a frequent vote of later j-ears was to repeat previous instruc- 
tions to the Selectmen. 

In the Treasurer's accounts for tliis 3"ear, Henry Jeffcs lias credit 
for "300 briks for 3'"^ minister's chimney"; Ralph Hill, Sen., and 
Thomas Patten are charged thirteen shillings each for "not tra^^n- 
inge" ; and Will Sheldon, James Patersou, and John Kitti'edge, 
for "defect in traj-ninge," two shillings. 

"17 December, 1660. Lefteu'. Will" French is chosen Deputy 
for this Town for the Next Genr'. Court, and no longer." Two 
days later he was in his seat at Boston, the first Deputy from 
Billerica to the General Court. 

On page 2?, an important letter is found : — 

"18: 11* mo. 1660. A copy of a lettei' from Major Willard, directed 
to John Parker: the contentes follow: 

" Loving and kind ffriend, you haue heard of the many notions between 
my son Blood and myselfe about the farme adjoining to the New addition 
to your towne; also you remembej- the agreemente that we made about 
running the Line between you and the farme, which, when I came with 
the men of Concord to [run?] it out, I had forgott: therefore, to prevent 


any further troubles. I pray, let that agreement [with?] y^self, Goodman 
Hill, and Gou. ffarley, which my sonn Blood and myselfe made, let it 
[stand?] and continue; and to this eande I commit the thinge to my son 
Blood, wholly : in witness whereto I set my hande. 

"Dated this 18: January, 1660. SlMON Willakd." 

This forgetfulness of the good Major was apparently the basis 
of a claim made by Concord about 1700, and of a controversy 
carried up to the General Court, concerning these lines. 

In 1661, the town agreed that the clerk should have "twelve 
pence per a page," and for every land-grant entered in the book 
sixpence from the grantee ; and sixpence for ever^- copy taken out 
of the book. 

"The town did agree with John Parker to look out some land 
for the towne, to the vallew of four thousand acres granted to the 
town b}^ the General Court ; and for what time the said John dotli 
expende in looking for the said Lande, they do covenant to pay vnto 
him six shillings a day, and also to pay him for what other charges 
he shall necessarily be at in hireing Indians to discour or otherwayes, 
except his own provitions, which he is to bare himself." 

The location and disposition of this grant are described else- 
where. The pa}'' was probably not large enough to tempt Mr. 
Parker to devote any more time than was necessary' to the service. 

In 1661, we find an order concerning the "common herd": — 

" 5 ; 2 : 61. The Townsmen do order : 

"1. That there shall be a comon Herde kept in the toune; or more 
herds if it is more convenient for the inhabitants who Liue remote from 
the senter of the Toune. 

''2iy. That all such persons as Liue convenient to tura there catell to 
the comon herd, shall pay their full proportion to the same, whether there 
catell be turned to the herd or not, if they goe without a cow [?] keeper. 

"3>y. That all such persons as liue remote from the Toune, who can 
not so conveniently turne there cattell to the comon herd, shall put there 
cattell vnder a suffitient keeper, or pay half so much to the comon herd as 
others doe who Hue convenient for the same. The persons which we judge 
to Liue remote, and are Lyable to pay but half, or else herd there owne 
cattell, are such as dwell upon or about Loes playne, and about foxes hill 
and which liue on the east and south of bare hill, and beyond theni that 
way, except Shawshin farmes. 

"4'n. They do grant vnto the inhabitantes y' Liue about a mile from 
Shawshin house to make vp there herd if they wante, to the Number of 
three score. 


■•o'y. Thc}^ doe order that thelisual places at wiiieh the Herdsmen in 
the toune shall take and deliuer there cattell are at Ralph Hill, senior's, and 
Jonathan Danforth's south east corner of his house lot. 

"6'>. That Jonathan Dantorth and James Kidder shall agree with 
herdsmen or a herdsman, and to draw vp orders that consernes the same, 
in behalf of the Avhole. 

'••T'y. They doe order that all such vplands wch. ly vnfenced, which 
are the propriety of any particular person or prsons whatsoever, shall be 
accounted comon for the free feed of cattell, without any Lett or hindrance 
f rtJni the particular proprietors of the same. 

'•S'^. It is ordered that the herdsmen shall driue out there herd thease 
severall ways hereafter mentioned, in theire severall da\'s, towards the 
falls and bejamd thafr way; and ouer Concord riuer when the water is 
Low. that the C'atell may pass through the riuer; and beyond goodman 
Hills and arounde the ponde and beyond it; and by Nuttens towards 
Capt. Gookins farme; and round fox Hill (but not to keep the herd about 
any of the houses of such as pay half ^the herdage, whose cattell cannot 
'goe conveniently with the herd) ; also to keep the herd out of all meadows, 
as they will answer the neglect of it at their own peril. 

"9'.^'. It is also ordered that what person or persons soever shall refuse 
to pay there proportions to the comon herd, they shall pay one-quarter so 
much more than there wholl proportions ; and to be Levied by distress by 
the constable, acording to Law, or such other person as the Townsmen 
shall apoynt. And that all such cattell as either goe with the comon herd 
(or are Lyabie to pay to the same) three weeks in either half year, in the 
Time of herdinge, shall be Lyabie to pay for the whole half." 

Soon after, "it is ordered that any person being Legally warned 
to keep the comon herd vpou the sabbath day. and he refuse and 
neglect the same, shall pay for a fine five shillings." A fine of 
sixpence was also laid b}- the Townsmen, "if any one of them doe 
neglect to appear at the usual da3's of meeting, b}' eight of the 
clock, in the forenoon," and, "if any of them shall deprt at any 
time, without special leave from the rest of the compan}'," he was 
fined two shillings and sixpence. 

In 1660, "Simon Burd is sworne Clerk of the Trayne Band," the 
first record of the military life of the town. "24: 8: 61. James 
Kidder is chosen sarjent, Thomas Foster, eldest corporal, George 
ffarle}', corporal, Samuel Kemp, drummer, and Will' Hamlitt, Clarke 
to y* company." 

Four days later, the town made a distribution of meadow lots 
to forty-one inhabitants, which was afterwards annulled, probably 
because it was found to belong to the "great meadow" of Governor 
Winthrop's farm. 


An important agreement bearing the same date follows : — 
"We, whose Names are vnderwritten do Agree that John Parker 
and Jonathan Danforth shall haue one thousand acres of Land (to 
there owne propriet}-) out of the four thousand acres of Land granted 
to the Towne by the Last General Courte, provided that they Lay 
out the other three thousand Acres at penicooke, or sum of it nerer 
home in either place or places, as the Towne shall Apoynte, and 
be at all charges about it, returning a record of the buttings and 
boundings of the same, with a platt of it, to the Generall Courte for 
their confirmation of the same. 

" Mr. Samuell Whitinge. Hamuell Champney. 

Leift. Will* ffrench. John Rogers, Sen'. 

Will* Tay. John Marshall. 

'George ffarley. John Kitterige. 

Henery Jefts. Thomas Pattin. 

Simon Burd. Samuell Kemp. 

Samuell Kinsley. John Poulter. 

Daniell Shead. John Baldwin. 

Cristopher Webb. Jacob Browne. 

Willi Chamberlin. John ffrench. 

John Trull. Will* Haill. 

James Patterson. John Durante." 

A glimpse of the pioneer side of life follows: "5: 9: 1661. 
It is ordered that what person soever shall kill a wolfe or wolues 
shall haue, for euery wolfe killed and brought to the constable 
acordinge to law, he shall haue for euery wolfe Twentj^ Shillings, 
which shall be payd by the constable then being, in the towns behalf 
* provided that either English or Indian shall make proof to the 
constable or select men that it was killed within the boundes of o' 
Towne." Ralph Hill, Jun., and John, Indian, received each one 
pound from the town for wolves killed, in 1661. At the same time 
a committee was appointed to make recompense to ' ' the several 
inhabitants for Highways taken out of there lands." 

A large share of the town action of this period is devoted to 
grants of land, general and special. Much of this record can not 
be quoted here, but some items have special interest and may be 

"19: 9: 61. The Towne doe grant vnto Francis and John 
Wyman that prcell of Lande y' Lyeth between Oberne Line and the 
farme that they purchased of Mr. Dunster, which is by estimation 


four score acres, more or less, and is bounded on the south or south 
east with Captain Gookins farme Line, wliich prcll. of Land the 
Towne doe grant to the aforesaid Wymans for propriety" ; and also 
the Towne doe grant them Liberty to mow the meadow that L^'eth 
in o' bounds Nere to Oberne Line, on Stop brooke, from yere to 
yere, vntill it shall be otherwise disposed of, if it fall not into 
Captin Gookiu's farme, when that farme Line come to be perfected." 
"John Parker is chosen juryman for Cambridg cort. S'"". '62." 
"Will' Tay was chosen comitioner for y*" cuntry rate. '62." 

An early custom, long disused, is brought to light in this item : 
"22 : 10 : '62. John Kitrigc is desired to se to the fulfilling of the 
order about ringing and yoaking of swine ; in case any of our 
inhabitants doe not ring and yoake their swine acording to the 
order, we doe impower him the said Kittrige to ring and j'oake ; 
he shall haue for euer^' swine he doth ringe, after three days warning 
giuen to the owner off them, he shall haue for euer}' swine he rings 
sixpence a swine. Levied on the persons that doe neglect ; and for 
euery swine shall be yoaked by him, after such notice giuen as 
before said, he shall haue 9 p. pr. 3'oak for all that he suffitiently 
yoakes." The record is John Parker's, and he intends his language 
to be explicit, if it is sometimes a trifle redundant and ungram- 

"8: 10: 62." Christopher Web asks for about two acres of 
land, "on the brook aboue his house, Next brother Foster's fence," 
but the town declined to grant it. On the same da}', "Joseph 
French is accepted of b}' the major prt. of the towne, to be an 
inhabitant in the Town on Golden More's lot." But Mr. French did 
not remain on More's lot. He married soon a daughter of Thomas 
Foster, and three j^ears after has leave to cut timber for his house, 
which stood, as his "grants" show, east of the Woburn Road, near 
Mr. Foster's. 

"2: 12: 62. The Townsmen doe order that the meadowe 
belonging to y" Mill Lott, and the meadowe called bj' the Name 
of y^ Cow-keeper's meadowe, shall not be mown by any person 
whatever without leave from the Townsmen, and an agreement made 
with them what Rent they shall pay for the same, or any pr'. or 
prcell. thereof." "John Sternes is ordered to pa}' for the grass that 
he did mow the Last Summer on the Mill Lott, or any other comon 
meadows, 6 p." The cowkeeper's meadow was south of the falls 
and present mill-dam at North Billerica. 


"23: 12: 62. At a town meeting it is agreed that there shall 
be trees marked on the Highways to stand for shade for cattell 
from time to time ; and what trees soever are fallen b}' any prson 
w'soever, that is or shall be marked with T, shall forfeit for any 
tree so fallen paj^ tenn shillings ; if any such trees be Lopt, they 
shall pa}' the like penalty." 

"The Towne did agree y' Leiftnt. ffrench and George ffarley, as 
a comittee in the Towne's behalf, shall treate with Ralph Hill sen'', 
about a peece of land, about half an acre for a buring place." The 
result was, " 10 : 2 : 63. Ralph Hill Sen' gaue to the Towne half an 
acre of Land for a buring place, on condition that the Towne shall 
fence all against it Next unto his own Land from which this ^ acre 
shall be taken." This was the origin of the Old South Burying 
Ground. Mr. Hill died a few days later. 

"16: 1: 63. John Baldwin and John Trull are chosen to vew 
fences on the west side of y^ Rode y' Leads between Concord and 
AndcA^er. Tho. ffoster and Benjamin Parker to vew all the fences 
the east side of that Rode." 

"The Townsmen doe order that all fences shall be made suffitient 
by the 1"^ day of Aprill Next ensuing after the date hereof, about 
all corn fieldes, on penalty of paying four pence pr. euer}'^ poll y' 
Neglects ; and all fences shall be good, fine rails, or one equivalent 
to it ; and that fence y' is three feet and eight inches high shall be 
acounted a suffitient fence : the fine set shall be Lyable to be payd 
by all prtj's. defective when the time is out, y' is alowed by y* Law 
to vewers of fences ; the four pence pr. poll fine to be payd, the one 
half to the vewers of fences & the other half to the Towne." 

Town meetings were, at first, held frequently and whenever busi- 
ness required, and town officers were chosen as convenience called 
for them. The first appointment of a regular town-meeting day was 
made as follows : " 10. 2. '63. James Kidder is chosen cons'ble for 
y* yere insuinge, till the Last second day of March ; and the Towne 
doe agree that from yere to yere, the last second day in the 1"* 
month shall be the day of Election for Constable and Townsmen and 
all other oficers to be chosen in the Towne, acording to Law." 

The following extract illustrates the persistency of the disused 
name Shawshin : " 5 : 11 : '63. At a Towne meetinge at Shawshin, 
the Towne did agree that those prsons y' haue had their Lands taken 
away from the conion field, by Mrs. Winthrop's farme Nere Concord 
Riuer, shall haue their lands laj'd out to them, in Lew of the same, 


vpon the playne beyond the mill Brooke, called content Brooke : 
that prt of the playne that Lyeth on the North side of heath swamp 
meadow ; to be La3"ed out b}^ a comittee at their best discretion to 
act between the Towne and the prsons conserned therein ; and they 
are ordered to La}' out golden more's 50 acres of Land that y"^ Town 
granted to him, to be Layed Next adjoining to the comon field Lotts 
at that end Next toward the Indian's plantation. The comittee 
appointed and impowered to do the work are these : George flfai'ley, 
Jonathan Danforth, Henry Jefts." On the same day, "The Towne 
doe except of Samuel ffroste and his brother, James ffrost, as 
Inhabitants in this Towne, in case they can by or hire acomodations 
in the Towne to lilie vpon." 

Farther action was also taken in the matter of the Cambridge 
lots. John Parker's agreement to clear the titles of eight thousand 
acres is given in the preceding chapter. Now, -'the Towne doe 
request and impower John Parker to purchase the Remainder of the 
Lots of Cambridge that Ly in this Towne Boundes, for the vse of 
this Towne ; he is not to exceed six pence pr an acor ; and the 
Towne doth ingade to pay A'nto the saide John Parker, in cattell or 
such corne as he can, with the owners of the Lotts for, at or before 
the Twenty and ninth da}' of december Next cominge After the date 
hereof. And they doe agree to pay to him six pence an acor, at the 
least, for what he shall soe clere to the Towne more than the eight 
thousand acres formerl}^ agreed on to be clered by him to the 

The Cambridge lots numbered ninety-eight hundred acres, so 
that if Mr. Parker had lived to carr}' out his former bargain fully, 
there would have remained eighteen hundred acres to which this 
stipulation would appl}'. 

"17: 12: 63. The Townsmen did order that all records and 
copies of records, and all platts of lands and meddows that con- 
serned the Towne, shall be kept in the hands of the Townsmen, or 
their order, for the Town's vse & benefit for the future." 

Mr. Parker came to Billerica as lessee of the Church Farm, and 
did not acquire any claim in the common lands until the following 
grant was made to him : — 

"25. 11. 63. The Towne did sell vnto John Parker, the mill Lot, the 
House platt to be removed Nere to the great bridgp, 44 acors ; and the 
former place is Lade by the Town at present comon to the Town's vse; 
(but the TowTi hath sould vnto the aforesaid John Parker the said lot, 


called ye mill lot, formerly laid out and recorded to Will' Sheldon, vpon 
conditions which were not performed by the said William,) the said John, 
his Heirs, executors, and assigns, by the Town's agreement shall have, 
hold, possess, and Jnjoy, all that Lott, together with all devitions of Land 
that are Layd out, or hereafter shall be due to be layd out, of upland and 
meadow land, and all other priviledges as doth or may belong to an eight- 
acor Lott; for and in consideration whereof, the said John doth consent 
and agree to pay vnto the Towne for their vse this present Town Bate, 
to the valew of Twenty and five pounds, now in hand, acording to the 
Townsmen's order ; and the suine of Thirty pounds more in such pay as 
shall Answer the Town's ends, for present oi- future comon charges, for 
laying out Landes or puch like publique ocations, to be payd by the said 
John, his Heirs or assigns, to the Townsmen of the Towne of Billirica, or 
to their order, as the said charges publique shall necessarily arise in the 
Towne to be paid, as abovesaid, vntill the just sume of fifty and five 
poundes in all be discharged." 

Town charges and taxes were not a light burden to the hardy 
men who were clearing the forests and lading the foundations here. 
Most of the pioneers had not much to begin with, except their own 
strong arms and brave hearts ; and the providing of the plainest 
necessaries for the comfort of their families was often quite as much 
as the}^ could secure. It was natural and legitimate therefore, for 
them to appropriate the grant of four thousand acres from the 
General Court, to the payment of their heaviest early charges for 
the meeting-house and Mr. Whiting's salary ; and provision for 
other obligations bj- grants of their common land, as in this case, to 
Mr. Parker, were reasonable in their circumstances. 

The Records have fortunately preserved exact account of these 
public charges, which the town was called upon to meet, and this 
chapter may fitly close with a transcript of the accounts of the town, 

"'I; 12: 63. The Townsmen did order the Town debts and credit 
shall be recorded in y'^ Towne booke. 

"The Towne of Billerikey is creditor from John Parker, due to the 
Towne since the Eates made 1661. 

" Ralph Hill Seni- JSTot trayninge '62: 0-4-0 

Willi Tay pajd y' he was behind for ye same 0-4-0 

due for the old stok of amunition, 15 p powf^'', 2 p 

bullets & 12 p match. 2 - 15 - 8 

John Blood gave twriJ. y*^ u)inistry prt^ of y^ pay for 

killinge two wolves 1 - 10 - 

Simon Crosby payd, for Will' Tay, for 2 acors of 
Nuttin's meadow, to the Towne 2-0-0 


••for the Aruunirion Eate gathered in 61 5-0-10 

for a to^\-ne Rate gathered m 61 6-9-0 

for grass niowne by John Sterne on y« mill Lett, on 

Shawshin Riuer 0-6-0 

diie for the mill Lett and all the devisions of lands 

and meadows and privilidges belonging to the 

same, by John Parker 55 - - 

28 : 1 : W. John Blood £ave to y« Towne y^ was due 

to him. from y« Towne 10 p tt from y« Cuntry 20 1-10-0 
due to the to'w-ne to the 07 : 9 : 64. y« sum of 74-19-6 

So there is due still to the Towne 13 - OS - " 

The above balance is obtained bv subtracting the following 
charges : — 

"since Eates made '61 Towne of BUlerikeT Debtor, 

••is due to John Parker, for y* Townsmen"? diners, to 

28 : 10 : 63 in all 13 meetings 2-4-6 

payd for fixinge vp the Drum. New head and snares 

and cord - 15 - 

pay^ for keepinge y* meeting hovse. 62. to Daniell 

Shead 1-0-0 

charges expended at o'' Lecture. 62 0-10-0 

pay^ John Bracket for fetching 3Ir. Miller from 

y* bay. to preach here 1 Lord's day when 31r. 

Whiting was absent 0-4-0 

for Recording y« mill Lett. 2 de^ntions. tt pay for 

helping Lay it out. in all 
paid for helping Lay out y« minister's 2 devitions 
charge about 31r. Whiting's paster fence 
for a pane of glass for 3Ir. Whiting's window 
pay^' John hapeny. jndian. for killinge a wolfe 
pay* John Stem for hriks not paid for 
pav" John Sterne for Eufiinge obem line 
27 : 2 : 63. charges when y* cousell of Elders and 

Messengers from other chiuches. 2 m. »!c chs.' 
pay^ to John Blood for killinge 2 wolves 
pay<i y* deputy's charges & dyet at Court. 63 
to }-« smith, for 2 staples for y^ bridge 
pav*' to Heuery Jefts for Euninge Con'd line 
pa}"^^ Jacob ffrench for ruiiinge y' Line 
pa}-*^ Jonathn Danforth for publique service, for the 

To^^^le 3-10- 

1 1 interpret the obscure original of the last clause by the fact !hat two churches were 
present. If the fignrts are "V2," as they look, it is not clear what the abbrcTiations 
following mean. 

0- 3- 

0- 2- 



0- 1- 


1- 0- 





2- 0- 




0- 2- 





"for SO p. powder 4: 140 p. bullets & 2S matoh. for a 

Towne Stock 10 - 14 - 

pair' for a cushion for t* pulpit «& making of it 1-1-6 

charges at gathering a ch'^ch. and ordaining Mr. 

Whitinge 6 - 1 - S 

charges about the meadows on t* west side Concord 

rirer 6-17- 

pavi Simon Burd for provisions he caried in to Mr. 

Whiting's 0- 9- 

to George ffarley for vewing the meadows. 2 days. 

and Ralph Hill ct John Sterne - IS - 

to the County Treasurer for a presentment 0-2-6 

for a gallon of Liq'^ to the Towne from hr Tay. when 

T* mill Lott was solde - S - 

Due more in John Parker's book on aconte to the 

07 : 9 : 64 14-16-10 

Sume is just 61 - 11 - 6 " 

••pay^ to Jonathan Danforth for Laying out Land, and other work, by 
the Towne order, since the 22 : 1 : 63. as followeth : 

••for Laying out the mill Lot. 44 acres, platting i 

recordinge it. at 2 p i pr acr. - 9 - 2 

for Laying out 12 acres for Eoger Toothaker. for 
land exchanged with the Towne; boimding and 
recording it 0-2-6 

1 day's work before as one of the cominee about the 
exchange with him ,t John Eogers. and bounding 
and recording both - 2 - 6 

2°» : 64 Laying out ^2S3^ acres to severaU men for 
recompense laud at 2 p -i pr acr. 2 - 19 - 

for Laying out , 33S^ acres in the comon feild. on the 
other side Concord river, to several! men at 2 p ^ 
pr. acr. 3 - 10 - 6 

y« STune paid to Jonathan Dan : is 7 - 3 - S 

6S-15- 2 
7 : 9 : 64. Reckoned with the Townsmen of all aconts, 
y« consems the Towne and Jolui Parker, and there 
remains due to the Towne to that day the just 
sume of 6-4-4 



Shawshin was bounded on the southwest by Concord, southeast 
by Cambridge and Woburn, north bj^ Andover and the Merrimack 
River, and west by Concord River. By the changes since made, 
these lines have been so completely modified, that the only fragment 
of the Shawshin bound which Billerica retains with the same neigh- 
bor, is the short portion of Concord River between the Tewksbury 
line on the east and the Pawtucket stake on the west, where the 
Chelmsford line leaves the river. The Burlington line is also a part 
of the early boundar}', but "Woburn, not Burlington, was then the 
neighbor of Billerica there. 

The first change was made when Shawshin became Billerica, in 
1655 ; the part of the town lying west of Concord River being then 
added. The line of this enlargement began at Pawtucket stake, 
on the west side of the Concord River, nearly three miles from its 
mouth, and ran 43° west of south, the present Chelmsford line, four 
miles, to a point about one-half mile south of the Carlisle line. It 
then turned westward 36° for three hundred and thirty-two rods, and 
reached Major Willard's farm. It was then bounded by this farm, 
south 46° west one hundred and sixteen rods, south 41° west three 
hundred and eighty-four rods, to a point in the old line of Concord 
about three miles and one-quarter west of the river. Following the 
Concord line one mile, to the Blood's farms, its course was along 
Blood's line, northerly, easterl}', and then southeast, to the river, 
which it reached between the Two Brothers and the present line of 
Carlisle. Or, if we assume Billerica's early claim, afterwards jdelded 
to Concord, of the Blood's farms, this old line of Concord and Biller- 
ica ran a straight course south 53° east about seven miles, to a point 
forty rods east of the Shawshin, passing along the southern slope of 
the village of Bedford, between the Main Street and the depot. 


Leaving the Concord "old line," the boundaiy with Cambridge, 
afterwards "Cambridge Farms," and Lexington ran northeast to 
"the pine at Cambridge," which was also the southwest corner of 
Wobnrn. If any surve}' or description exists of this Cambridge 
line, I have not found it ; and I can not say whether it was direct or 
angular. But the present bound between Bedford and Lexington, 
running southwest from the Burlington corner, would, if extended 
in a straight line, meet the Concord "old line" so nearly, if nbt 
exactl}', at the point in question, that there can be little doubt that 
this was the old Cambridge and Billerica bound, and that this was a 
straight line about a mile in length. From "the pine at Cambridge," 
or southwest corner of Woburn, the Billerica line ran a nearly straight 
course one mile east of Shawshin River until it reached Andover, 
a distance of about eight miles. The course of the Shawshin is too 
winding to make such a line easy to determine, and a controversy 
naturally arose with Woburn in reference to it. But the skill of the 
early surveyors, Jonathan Danforth and John Sherman, stood the 
test, and the line first run b}' Danforth was finally accepted by both 
parties. It still remains as the west line of Burlington and the 
east line of Tewksbur}- ; but Billerica has lost the short portion 
of it which Wilmington took from Woburn, that corner east of 
the Shawshin having been granted to Wilmington soon after its 

Andover retained a section of meadow by agreement with the 
Billerica proprietors, east of the Shawshin, which would have 
belonged properly to this town ; but, from the Shawshin to the 
Merrimack, the line was direct and about five miles long. Thence, 
the line of Billerica followed the Merrimack and the Concord Rivers, 
until it reached the Pawtucket stake again, a distance not far from 
three miles on each river. All these lines gave ancient Billerica a 
circumference of 35.5 miles. Ever}' change, except the transfer to 
Wilmington, has reduced the extent of the boundary-, which is now 
about twent3'-five miles. 

The Andover boundar}' was apparently drawn perpendicular to a 
line connecting the two meeting-houses, and was to be six miles from 
the Andover meeting-house. This was a nearly equal division of the 
distance, and obviously so intended, between the two meeting-houses. 
For some compromise or consideration, which is not explained in the 
Records, Andover was allowed to hold the meadows on the east of 
Shawshin for nearly a mile beyond this line. 


The earliest reference in the Records to the Andover line appears 
thus : "3 : 7 : 60. Jonathan Danforth, John Parker, and [^no name 
given,'] chosen a committee to prove the line between Andover and 
o' Towne on both sides the river of Shawshin." 

No record is given of the action of this committee, but the 
following letter appears eight months after, and explains itself: — 

''a letter to Andever, 6:3: 1661. 

•'■ Loueiuge ftriends and Neibors : Conserninge the meaddows that were 
granted to y^ Towne by the Generall Courte within our boundes, Nere 
Shawshin River, it is agreed that if yu will except of the Line that was 
Last staked at the olde pine that is fallen downe, acordinge to trees then 
marked, it will be an issew ; other wayes, if you will not except it there, our 
towne's mind is that it shall be measured ; y" are intreated to send y"' answer 
speedily whether y" will will meashure the medow or except the Line; but 
the Towne doe not consente at presente to alter the Line of the upland." 

Andover probably accepted the line already run ; as, if it had 
been again measured, the appointment of a committee for the 
purpose would hardly have failed of record. In March following 
a committee was appointed to run the line with Andover ; and 
"23: 8: 1665, Ralph Hill, Henery Jeiffs, and Jonath : Danforth, 
are appointed to run the line between Andever and oure towne, on 
y'' east side of Shawshin River, and to lay the bounds b}' measure 
from their meeting house." 

These adjustments, however, were not final, and almost twenty 
years after the question came up again. 

"At a meeting of the Selectmen, 17, 2"', 1683. They do appoint and 
impower these psons. whose names are vnder written, to state & establish 
the bounds between Andover and our towne, on the east side ot Shawshin 
River: Provided always, that they state it but six miles southward of 
Andover meeting house; (which, as we vnderstand, is according to y^ 
Hon'' gen" Court's grant to them in that place,) or that they state it from 
Woburn line, that is, from y® North west angle of Woburn land toward 
Andover, & so to square to Shawshin River, & not otherwise. The com- 
mittee are ens. Joseph Tompson, Corp". John french, Jonathan Danforth 
Sen"" Jonathan Danforth Jun""." 

Three days later the committees of the two towns united in the 
following agreement : — 

"Whereas the bounds between Andover and Billerica on y^ east side 
Shawshin river was never yet fully agreed on by the saide townes ; by an 
agreement of a committee chosen by each towne, with full power for that 


end abouesaid, they have mutually agreed that what meadows and vpland 
Andover hath laid out to perticular persons, on the east or southeast side 
of Shawshin river abovesaid, before the date hereof, (excepting a peice 
of meadow laid out to Steven Johnson of Andover,) shall belong to 
Andover, though it should fall without y^ limmits the generall Court hath 
granted them ; and what vpland Andover hath laid claime to, hitherto, that 
shall fall without their claime, vpon the measure of their six miles, shal 
belong to Billerica. 

''In witness that this is our mutuall agreement, we have herevnto set 
our hands, this twenty of Aprill 1683, and that six miles shall be the stated 
bounds between town & town, only as abouesaid excepted. 

''•a greed upon for Billerica, 

"Jonathan Danforth Sen"", Joseph Tompson, John french. 

'• By Andover, 

"Dudley Bradstreet, John Osgood, Thomas Chandler." 

When this agreement came before the selectmen, we find the 
following curious and significant record. To appreciate it, we 
must remember that the three members of the committee were 
all selectmen, who, with Ralph Hill and Samuel Manning, composed 
the board. 

"The selectmen, comparing the committee's order by which they were 
to act with what they returned in writing vnder their hands, as abouesaid : 
And they find that y^ said committee acted beyound the power committed 
to them ; and therefore do wholly disallow of what they did, acording to 
what they returned in writing. 

"But, the said committee, declaring that their agreement was not fully 
WTitten at that time, for want of paper sutable for such a purpose, and that 
their plaine and honest agreement was. that the stated boundes betwene 
the two townes shalbee acording to y^ generall Court's grant, i. e. six mile 
from Andover meeting house, and that what land Andover towne had 
granted & recorded in their towne book before that day, to any of their 
inhabitants, (excepting only a parcell of meadow granted to Steven Johnson 
of Andover,) shall belong to the severall psons to whom Andover hath 
granted them, as if such lands had bin granted to y'' s^ psons by Billerica 
towne; and that this their agreement should be preferred to y^ Hon^d 
Generall Court for their confirmation thereof. 

"The Selectmen doe alow and confirm such agreement as this, in case 
Andover do consent to it ; or els they declare all which was done by y« 
comittee to be anul<i and of none effect." 

A committee was appointed, "4 : 9 : 61, to run the Line Nexte 
to Chelmsford," consisting of Ralph Hill, Sen., Henry Jefts, and 
Jacob Brown, and, in 1678, Jefts was again a member of a committee 
for the same purpose. But, beyond the occasional appointment of 


such committees, the Chelmsford line has no notice in the Records. 
Consisting of the river and of a straight line, no controversy ever 
arose concerning any part of it. 

The Concord line, however, west of the river, was complicated 
with Blood's farms, and the disagreement as to its location was 
serious, requiring the interposition of the General Court to decide 
the question. The germ of the controvers}' is revealed in the letter 
of Major Willard, given in a previous chapter;^ but it was not 
developed until a generation later. The following petition brings 
its elements into view : — 

"COXCORD, Feb^. 7, 169|. 
" To the Honfile General Court : &c. 

'•The humble petition of the selectmen of Concord and Chelmsford, on 
behalf of s'' towns, Sheweth : That whereas there is a considerable pcell 
of Land Lying between the towns of Concord and Chehusford and the 
Blood's farms, part of which is challenged by Billerica, and another part 
by Robert Blood. Sen. ; to a great part of which we do Imnibly conceive 
the said Billericah & Blood have no legall or just title; And whereas the 
said land lyes at a great distance from the said Billericah. but joins upon 
the said Concord & Clielmsford; Your humble petitioners do tlierefore, 
with submission to this Hon'^d Court's pleasure & wisdom, pray that a 
committee maybe appointed to examine the claims that are by them made 
to s^ land, and the lines tliat they pretend unto ; and that, in case their just 
right to tlie premises can not be demonstrated, that then this Honored 
Court will be pleased to bestow the say'' lands upon the aforesaid towns of 
Concord & Chelmsford, as an iulargement, and your petitiones shall ever 
pray," etc. 

"James Hildreth. Simon Davis. 

JosiAH Richardson. Humphare Barat. 

Joseph Farwell. Francis Fletcher. 

Stephen Peirce. John Wheeler. 

Thomas Browne."' 

In response to this petition, the Court appointed Capt. Thomas 
Brown, of Sudbury, Lieutenant Fiske, of Cambridge, and Mr. 
Joseph Sherman, of Watertown, "a committee to view the lines 
between Concord, Chelmsford, Billerica, Weymesett, and the Blood's 
farms, or any lands thereabouts in controversy between the towns 
adjacent, farms, or cuntr}- lands, near said Towns, and make report 
whether there be any Cuntry lands left there, according to their 
particular grants, and of their doings therein, at the next session 
of this Court." 

1 See p. 62. 2 See Massachusetts Archives. Vol. CXIII, 24. 


This contest with Concord and Chelmsford had a twofold basis : 
the indefinite terms of the grant to Billerica, in 1665, and the 
question whether it was designed to include all the then ungranted 
land between Concord and Chelmsford ; and the uncertain bound 
of Major Willard's farm, which was one of the Blood's farms. The 
Bloods had made an exchange of land with Billerica, and this 
controverted line was included in the exchange. Major Willard's 
farm Of one thousand acres, which had been given b3' him to Robert 
Blood, who married his daughter, was located north of Concord line 
and on both sides of the present Ijoundary between Acton and 
Carlisle. It bounded Billerica on the west, and gave occasion for 
the following: A committee report, "22: 12: 58. We did meet 
the Major and stated y" Line of his farme, and b}' the Major's 
advice and aprobatione ; and also we then made an exchange for 
pr' thereof with Robert Blood for sume scurts of Landes adjoining 
to his farme that he purchased of Mr. Hough, of Redinge." A few 
days later the town voted that this agreement should be perfected 
b}' the same committee; and, "6: 3: 61, the whole agreemente 
with Robert Blood and the said committee was confirmed fully, as 
appears by writings drawne and sealed and subscribed between the 
said Robert and vs, in behalf of the towne." 

At the session of the General Court, in Maj', 1655, when 
Shawshin received its enlargement west of Concord River, Concord 
also received a grant of five thousand acres, known in her later 
history as "Concord Village," now the substantial part of Acton. 
In the petition for this grant, the petitioners sa}',^ "we finde about 
seven thousand acres left out, of which Major Willard hath two 
thousand acres, except a little part of one end of his farme, which 
Lyes in the place or parcell of vacant land that was since given to 
Shawshine." This Concord petition has curious interest to Billerica 
in two particulars. It recognizes the grant to Billerica of the ver\^ 
same tract which, in 1693, the representatives of Concord and 
Chelmsford sought to wrest from Billerica. And the date of this 
recognition is so earl}', in that ver}' May, 1655, as apparentl}' to 
imply that the action of the Deputies in October, 1654, granting 
the petition of Shawshin, as already given,* was recognized as 
binding, although not confirmed by the Magistrates until May 30, 

3 Shattuck's Concord, p. 39. * Ante, pp. 17 and 18. 


By the exchange made with Blood, Billerica gave hhn a strip 
adjoining Mr. Hough's grant, and received an equivalent from the 
Willard Farm, and with it the question afterwards raised as to its 
boundary. In 1G65, Danforth surveyed and mapped Blood's farm; 
and his description was produced in a controversy which arose in 
1683.* At that time, Blood, in his petition dated May IGth, recites 
facts given above about the meeting with Billerica committee, and 
adds, "afterwards, y^ said Major Willard, meeting with a committee 
of Concord, did with them so state the bounds of the farme, without 
the knowledge either of y^ towne of Billerikey or y^ aforesaid Robert 
Blood, which was recorded in the town book of Concord, which was 
not then in his power to do, having already- set the bounds in part 
and left it with the said Robert to perfect them, as appears in a 
letter of his, sent to Mr. John Parker." 

The letter of Major Willard® confirms this statement. The 
whole transaction shows that good men were as liable to err then 
as now, and that human nature has not changed much in two 
hundred A^ears. 

But the result of Blood's controversy- with Concord, at this time, 
was an arrangement by which, with certain privileges, he and his 
farms should henceforth belong to Concord, and his prior and rather 
undefined relation to Billerica was terminated. 

Ten 3-ears later. Concord and Chelmsford, as shown in the 
petition given above, sought to wrest from Billerica the western 
part of its early extension, and divide it between themselves. 
The reply made by Billerica has not been preserved ; and it 
might, perhaps, have been made more conclusive, had Billerica 
been aware of, and able to quote, the above admissions of Concord's 
representatives in 1655. But the controversy remained undecided, 
and, 1698, November 17, a petition of Billerica gives her statement 
of the question at issue : — '' 

"Whereas your honours well know that our humble petition for the 
confirmation of a tract of land, granted by this Honourable Court to our 
Towne, for our incouragement, to settle a plantation where we now live 
(about 40 years since) have been before your Honours; and about four 
years last past, we followed it at severall sessions, and again renewed our 
peticon the last May; and since that, as we understand, this Honourable 
Assembly have spent very considerable time about it, and yet no issue ; we 
yet again humbly pray, that an aspect of your favour might be towards 

6 Massachusetts Archives. Vol. XXXIX, 859. Blood's petition is No. 858. 
« See p. 62. ' Massachusetts Archives. Vol. CXIII, 198. 


US, to prevent our plantation from breaking up or brealiing in peicess, after 
all that charge we have been at, And hazards that we have run, to keep our 
ground hitherto & not broke wliolly in piecess. We humbly pray, that the 
wrong information that the Court hath had from Abraham Parlier, or any 
other person ill-minded to us, may not be taken notice of, who hath much 
conserned himself for his own private interest, and far beyond what he 
had order for from their To\^^le to do in this case. We still asert, as we 
did before, our case is Honest. We have neither deceived the Court, nor 
wronged any of our Neiglibors. We had real need when we beg"! it, and 
now shall be left ten times worse, if taken from us, than if it had been 
never granted ; for we lotted out all that was good in it to our inhabitants 
about 35 years since; and many persons have sould their alotments to 
others, and themselves now dead, & their children not able to make good 
their father's sale ; neither hath our town any meadow yet Ij'ing in common 
to recompense them that shall lose their meadoAvs therein. We still own 
that our first petieion, which was about 43 years past, was worded too 
short ; it wanted Bounding at the west end ; we could not then help it, for 
Concord had not then laid out their village, neither had Mr. Willard laid 
out his thousand acres, neither was Mr. Hough's farm of fower hundred 
acres laid out, nor Mr. Weld's farm of five hundred and thirty acres 
laid out. Hence, we could not Bound it, and it is not yet three years 
since some of them was finished, or but little past; but now we know 
what is left in common. And now we pray this Honourable Court to 
confirm to us, the inhabitants of Billerica, our heirs and sucksessours, all 
the common and waste land, not formerly granted by this Court to any 
other, lying between Concord Eiver & Chelmsford line on the North, 
Concord toAvnship & their village line westward, and southward by the 
fSrms granted to IVIr. Nowell, Mr. Alin & Mr. Hough, which land is now 
possessed by Robert Blood ; and that Robert Blood might be ingadged to 
shew us the bounds of his land, for this forty years hath he refused to 
shew them ; of some of them no record is to be found in Court rolls, nor 
of any confirmation of them as he hath laid them out. Now, we humbly 
pray this honourable court to consider our necessity and grant to us our 
humble request at this sessions ; And as for the charge the Committee was 
at about it, we are willing to discharge it; But as for Abraham Parker's 
bill, we pray it may be considered we can prove it unreasonable, and 
above half the charge without any order from Chelmsford. So shall your 
humble petitioners continue to pray & remain your humble servants. 
'•In the Name and behalf of the Town: 

"Jonathan Danforth. John Lane. 
Joseph Tompson. James Frost. 

Jonathan Hill." 

The results of this petition and progress of the controversy 
appear in another petition of Billerica,* in Ma}', 1700: — 

8 Massachusetts Archives. Vol. CXIII, 217. 


a * Whereas report hath formerly been made unto this honourable 
house, as if the town of Billerika did encroach upon the Countrj^'s land. <fe 
that report so far received by this honorable house, that our town hath 
bene sent unto by this honoi'able house to Render our Eesons, if any we 
had, why such land might not otherwaj'S be disposed of; the which we 
gave in March 5, 1694-5, which we hope have been considei-ed of by this 
house; and have divers sessions been waiting upon this honorable house 
for the confirmation of the bounds of our plantation, that part thereof 
which lyeth on the west of Concord river, but still we remain unsettled, to 
the great discouragement of our plantation. Our last petition we presented 
unto this honorable house was granted iune 20, 1698 ; but it pleased not the 
honorable Council at that time to concurr therewith, but rather to appoint 
a Committee to go upon the ground, which yet hath not bene done. The 
circumstances of our plantation hath sometime bene laid before this 
honora))le house, & before several of the Council more particularly. That 
the fathers, or first planters of our plantation, petitioned the General Court 
for a tract of land between Concord line & Chelmsford line, on the west of 
Concord river, is clere upon record, bearing date May, 1655, and that our 
petition was granted the same Court for our incouragement to make a 
plantation. And although the petitioners, the beginners of our plantation, 
did not. in their petition, fully express what they intended, for doubtless 
they petitioned for all that waste land, in that place, which bj'^ the Artis' 
return in the survey thereof, amounts to or contains about six thousand 
acres; and in regard the whole of our Township, that we have planted 
upon, we had not one foot of it granted by the Country unto us ; it was 
granted unto the Town of Cambridge & laid out in farms & divided into an 
hundred & fiftene alotments, which we have been purchasing of them as 
we could, & have not yet clered them ; so that our plantation never yet 
hath had that incouragement from the countrye as other plantations had 
then at their beginning. We prayed, in our first petition, for a small tract 
of land, but then could not be so particular in the boundary thereof, because 
there was fouer farms contained therein to be laid out before we could 
know what was certainly our own, the last of which hath been but lately 
laid out. And, because we understood that, by the answer of our petition, 
we were not to touch upon any propriety, we did hope that what was not 
appropriated had been ours & accordingly have alotted out the same, bought 
& sould & have run our lines with our neighbors plantations, about fourty 
year, Chelmsford Northwai'd of us & Concord Westward, without any 
disquietment * * by reason of our public calamityes have been long 
laboring under many discouraging circumstances, being a frontier & having 
been at sundry times broken in upon by the enemie, but have stood our 
ground hitherto, but have reson to feare if your petitioners be not favored 
we shall be broken * * that your petitions may quietly possess what 
this honorable house shall confirm unto us, that so our harts & our hands 
maj" be strengthened to discharge those dutys that we do owe unto God, 
our Soueraigne, & your honours, & be farther obliged to pray for Divine 
asistance upon this great asembly in y^ management of y^ weighty concerns 
before them. Your humble supplicant, Joseph Tompson, 

"In the behalf of the Town of Billerika." 


These petitions may not be models of condensation, but the^^ 
deserve the careful study of all who seek to understand the position 
and feelings of the founders of the town. They repeat the fact, 
often mentioned and with justice, that the connection with Cam- 
bridge at first, instead of aiding the settlers, had been a serious 
tax to them, in the necessity of purchasing the Cambridge titles, 
when a grant direct from the Court would have involved no such 

This burden was in part relieved by the successive grants west 
of Concord River, af Naticott, and the later gift of four thousand 
acres ; but the relief was onl}^ partial, and the embarrassment would 
certainly have been disastrous if their title to the first, after fort}^ 
years' oecupanc}', had proved invalid. 

The Court answered this petition by the appointment of a 
committee, consisting of Col. Elisha Hutchins, Esq., Maj. James 
Converse, Capt. Benjamin Garfield, and Maj. Jonathan Tyng, "or 
any three of them, to view and settle the lines between the town 
of Billerica & the farmes of John & Robert Blood, & the line 
between said town and the Towns of Concord & Chelmsford." 

The report of this coftimittee, and action of the Court, were as 
follows : — ® 

"Anno R R* Gulielmi decimo tercio. 

"At a great & generall Court or Assembly for his majesty's province 
of Massachusetts Bay, begun & held at boston, upon Wednesday, 28"> of 
May, 1701. 

"■Whereas Major Jonathan Tyng. Maj''. James Converse & Capt. Benja- 
min Garfield, a Committee [as above] have reported their doings therein, as 
f oUoweth : 

"That is to say, that as well by their own view of the lines, Court 
Grants and Deeds produced to them, as on hearing of what was otferred by 
the agents of the severall Towns, they find the land of Billerika bounded 
by the line of Chelmsford northward, beginning at Pautucket stake, so 
called, by Concord Paver, where Chelmsford & Billerika & the Indians do 
meet, then Chelmsford line runneth south fourty three degrees west to 
pillar of stones : then it rufieth south, seventy nine degrees west, three 
hundred thirty & two poles ; which reacheth unto Major Willard's faruie 
to a great heap of stones lying in Chelmsford line ; then the Major's farm 
ruiieth southwardly fourty six degrees west, one hundrd. & sixtenc pole to 
a little white oake. Then it ruiieth south, fourty one degrees west, three 
hundrd. eighty & fower pole, which reacheth to a marked pine, in Concord 

3 Reco7-ds, IT, p. 231. 


village line, near to a place cab^ bery corner ; then it is bounded by Concord 
line, one mile on the southwest ; it is bounded southward by a line which 
was run by the above said coniinittee. betwixt the Bloods & Billerika, which 
Ran from a pine called Allin's corner, south, eighty & five degrees west, 
five hundrd. & sixtene pole, to a great white oake marked B. B. ; then it 
runs from thence fourty degrees west, one hundrd. seaventy & four pole, 
which reached unto Concord line againe, It is bounded north east & south 
east, east, & south east, by Concord RfVer. 

'•'Besolved, That the s<i report be accepted & approved & the Boundaries 
& lines of the Towns & lands above named, stated & setled accordingly. 

'•Isaac Addington, Secretary.'''' 

The survey which accompanied and explained this description is 
fortunately preserved in the office of the Secretary of State. This 
makes plain points which are obscure, giving the length of the first 
named Chelmsford line from Pawtucket stake, four miles. It shows 
also that, in running the line between Billerica and the Bloods, the* 
committee began at the northwest corner of the Allen grant, and 
ran back to the point previoush' reached in the Concord line. This 
issue of the contest gave Concord and Chelmsford nothing, and 
vindicated the justice of the claim of Billerica. Whether it gave 
Billerica any less than she claimed, on the side of the Bloods, does 
not appear. 

The Woburn boundary is first descrilbed in the following record : 

'•15'i' and 16"' days of y*^ 9'^ mo., 1659. 

''the line betwene this towne and Wooberne was Eun and marked and 
agreed upon to stand for propriety by Captin Edward Johnson and John 
Wyman and James Convers for Wooberne ; and Ralph Hill. Sen'', and 
George Farley and John Parker for Billericey, and Jonathan Danforth, 
Artiste, who did j-e work for both townes. The line was run two poynt 
and half easterly of y<^ North, set of from the river in o'" old line formerly 
Run from Cambridge Boundes. from a black oake Nere y^ cait path, 
Leading from Billericey to Wooberne ; y'= line continued about 3 miles, and 
then by agrem* of the comite and Artiste, set on againe two poynts of the 
compass toward the river, and so continued to Andevere boundes." 

The designation of the road to Woburn as "the cart path" gives 
us a glimpse of the character of the principal highway' through the 
town, in 1059. The "set of" near that road was made to preserve, 
approximatel}', the distance of one mile from Shawshin River, which 
was to be the west bound of Woburn, according to its original 
grant, and may be seen on an}' map of Burlington and Billerica. 
The other "set on," three miles north, has disappeared with 


the cession to Wilmington ; but the difference in hearing between 
the present west hne of Burlington and east line of Tewksbury 
corresponds with this original description. 

But this line did not escape contention, of which the following 
record gives the outline : — ^^ 

'• 1666, 23 Mmj. 
"In answer to a motion made to this Court by M'. Humphry Davy, in 
the behalfe of Billirikey, that tlie bounds may be settled between them and 
Woobome, it is ordered that Mr. Edward Collins, Capt. Timothy Wheeler, 
& Left. Richard Beers, do repaire to the place where the ground of the 
dilference doe arise, and according to wliat sliall appeare to be the right of 
eacli place by grant from this Court, & not otherwise determined by the 
mutuall concession of the grantees or their assignees, to settle the lines 
betweene the sajd tonnes, being authorized & impouered as a comittee 
to that end; and what they shall doe herein to be a final issue of that 
controversy, & returne it to this Court to be recorded." 

This Committee made report in October : — 

'' * * We haue determined that the Ijne of divission betweene the 
tounes shall run from the pinetree at Cambridge Corner, by a streight Ijne 
to the marked tree nere the old foote path from Wooberne to Billirrikey, at 
the corner of Elder Champney's farme ; & what euer land hath biun layd 
out by Wooborne toune, one that side next Billirica to John VV^ymans & 
ffrancis Wyman, shall remain to the said Wymans; and that the Ijne of 
divission betweene the sajd tounes, in all other places, shall runn as it is 
stated by the order of the Generall Court, i. e. a mile from the river." 

This report was confirmed by the Court. The arrangement, 
however, was of short continuance, and the whole question was 
soon reopened, as appears from the following: — 

"petition ABoirr woburn bounds." 

"The tovene of Bilrica humbly present to this honnored Courte : That 
whereas they have formerly se^ral times made application to this honnored 
Courte for settlinge the lyne between Wooborne and them accordinge to the 
first graunt of the Courte to bee a mile from the Riuer. The magistrates, 
as sensible thereof, hauing since passed somethinge in order thereunto, 
which yet is not consented to by the Deputies. The said Towne of Biller- 
ica, findinge themselues agreeved by what hath been ah-eady done about 
Drawing? the line, as hath been formerly declared to this honored Courte : 

i» Colonial Records. Vol. IV, Part ii, pp. 300-325. Also Town Records. Vol. I, p. 80. 
" Masmchtisetts Archives. Vol. CXII, Nos. 195 and 19(>. 


"They humbly intreate the Consideration of what farther they haue to 
Demonstrate in a few words: first, That Whereas it is alleadged, that the 
first parte of the lyne was Ran by Cambridoe and Wooborne before Billerica 
was a towneship. & therefore to stand, although 114 pole nearer the riuer 
than a niyle ; which is contrary to the courts graunt. To which we say, 
first, that there is no record to be found thereof & onely one person of 
Cambridge alive who did act therein. & he doth testifie that their agreement 
concerning it was. that the wrong done in coming too neare in that part of 
the line should be made good in Drawing the rest of the line, which was 
afterwards ran By Ensign Sherman, but no satisfaction made for the former 
Defect, as doth appeare by this draught, for he onely intended a myle from 
the riuer according to a common line. And, Secondly, we finde that where 
he began this last line, it wants 47 pole of a mile from some part of the 
riuer & it wants 30 pole from the utmost angle of the riuer in a direct lyne, 
and from the end of the old lyne at the Crooke to the riuer it wants 114 
pole of a mile to the riuer. as hath been proved bj^ IJeut. Fisher about a 
week since, & therefore no satisfaction is made nor any agreement past 
between both towns that should take off" the force of the Court's order. 
Therefore, once more we humbly intreate this honored Courte, that the 
crooke which is in the lyne may be made straight & that allone will satisfie 
us; also, it will easily be done in one day by an artist, without further 

"May it please this honnered Courte to considt r that it is not the 

quantity of the land that we strive for, but it Is the loss of the benefitt of 

a great farme, which the Wyman's bought in our tow^ne, & carry the profit 

of it to Wooburne, who are farr better accommodated to beare their own 

charge than for our poor towne to loose 8 or \0^^ p annum (of what should 

help beare up our charges) to maintain theirs, besides the loss of so much 

land, which is yet our just right, accordinge to the honnored Genneral 

Courte graunt. 

•'P. Humphrey Davie for 

"ye towne of Billerica."' 

"This may Certify wiiomsoever it may consern, that I, Joshua Fisher 
of Dedham, being at Billerica about the 10 of May. 1669, with my instru- 
ments, was desired to try the length or distance from the line betw^een 
Obourne & Billerica, at a place where there is a settinge off in that line, to 
try how far it was from thence to Billerica, riuer ; which accordingly I did 
& found it to be from the end of the old line formerly run by Cambridge 
men & Obourne, as I was informed divers years since the rimninge, & there 
I f(mnd it to be 206 rod to the riuer, or so farr as a parralell line to that line 
cutts the riuer in divers places, and froui the end of that line froui the river 
ward, where there was a set off into Oburne bouue. as I was informed, done 
by Ensign Sherman not long since, to a stake by him or his direction 
piched. I found it 67 rod, so that from that stake to the riuer it is 290 rod, 
which want 30 rod of a mile to the riuer, which was measured into a point 
of upland that runs in at that place, the riuer being on both sides of it 


divers rods nearer the stake from whence we measured, so that I doe 
conceive that if a straight line were run from c to d, as it is marked in the 
plat, it would [indecipherable, mostly lost,'] answer the grant of the General 
Courte made to Billerica, though it would not be a mile from the riuer in 
divers places, & the proprietie of the land might remaine to each grantee, 
if it be granted out by either of the towns, and the jurisdiction belong to 
each town accordinge as the straight line should devide them. I judge not 
the case, but only inform how I found it & so leave it to them concerned. 

"Joshua ffisher. 
"Dediiam. 24 May, 1G69." 

'"In answer unto this .motion made by Billerica Inhabitants, the case 
being fully heard at last Gen'' Court, both ptyes then appearing. This 
Court do judge meet and for a finall issue of all complaynts conclude that 
a committee of equal minded & judicious men be nominated & impowered 
to run & determine the lin^ between Woburne & Billerica from one end to 
another, attending the Courts graunt, not to come within a mile of Shawshin 
riuer ; viz*, the comon line of the Riuer duly to be taken & sett by some 
able Artist; and in case it do appeare that the eomplayut of Billerica hath 
been causeless, they shall then defray all the charges thereof. The Majistry 
have passed this, their brethi'en the deputies thereto consenting," etc. 

The result was that a committee of the Court and representatives 
of both towns united, 1669, October 1, in recommending "that 
the line of divission between the two tonnes, last made b}' Ensign 
Sherman, by order of the Committee of the General! Court, shall 
stand as it doeth. And whereas Francis & John Wej'mans Seniors 
haue their present habitations neere the Ijne aforesajd, & enjoying 
much of their liuelyhood & benefit at both tonnes, &. ma}" pertake 
of the publicque ordinances in both places, they, the sajd Wej-mans, 
shall contribute equally to both tonnes in all publicke charges, both 
ciuill «fe eeclesiasticall." 

This recommendation the Court consented to and confirmed, "to 
be vnderstood the half of what they should haue payd to either 
toune, if they had been wholly in either of them ; and that Wooborne 
S:^all take the valluation of the Weymans estates for the country 
rate, as formerly, and give a true account of the same aiiually to 
Billerrica, who shall haue power annually to demand & receiue all 
tonne charges (according to that order) of the sajd Wej-mans, as 
if they were inhabitants." 

This adjustment did not satisfy the Wymans, who petitioned the 
Court for relief; and, in response,^- "27: 3™: 1672. The Toune 

»2 Records. Vol. I, p. 102. 


hailing considered the ease, after much agitation, doe agree (with 
one consent) to stand to 3" generall Court's order conserning y" said 
agreement, desiring y*' continuance of y^ same, vnlesse y'' Hon''^^ 
Court would please to giue vs our streight line, which we should 
haue had at y** first, according to Court grant ; neither will y^ toune 
consente to take it out of y'^ hands of y'^ Honore*^ Court, to put it 
into a Comittee's hand to end." 

But the town was not successful in this issue with the W^mans. 
At least, the agreement was soon after declared void. Whether the 
rectification of the town line was secured in connection with this 
rupture of the agreement does not appear, but is probable. The 
line is, and has been, a straight line, and no other date or occasion 
for making it so is indicated in the Records,. and on this supposition 
the policy of the town was in fact successful. 

No other question arose as to the boundaries of the town, and 
no other changes were made until the incorporation of Bedford and 
Tewksbury, in the next generation. 



The earl}' highways were ver}' primitive. A path through the 
forest, marked by blazed trees, was sufficient for this distinction ; 
and the marking was often so imperfect that questions would arise, 
after a few years, as to the actual location ; different wood-paths 
becoming the subject of neighborly contention. But the fathers 
understood the importance of roads quite as well as their children. 
Among the earUest town orders is one relating to this subject.^ 

'•'•9: 9: 58. Also for our work in ye highways, it is agreed that it 
shall be done as followeth : i. e. every male of sixtene years old & upward 
shall come in to Avorke in y® highways, acording as due warning shalbe 
given by j" Surveyours, chosen for y^ well ordering of the same. And so 
all that have oxen shal come in with their teames also, vntill y« worke be 
done in y« country highways. 

''And for such as ai-e proprietors with us. and are non resident in this 
toune. They shall all do their proportions when they come vp, both psons 
and teames, themselves or others for them, such as the surveyors shall 
approve of for y* worke. both persons & teames. Also y^ surveyors shall 
keep a true account of everv man's work from time to time. 

"And it is further ordered & agreed, that the surveyors shall have no 
power to make or mend any but country roads at y^ towne charge, without 
ye consent of tlie whole towne and by their order. And for non-appearance 
after due warning given as aforesaid, both persons & teames, any person 
neglecting liis duty acording to this order shall pay two days' work for one."' 

We have here, in distinct outline, the system of supporting the 
highway's which is still the prevailing one in New England, and 
which has only ver^' recentlj' given place in Billerica to the method 
of appointing a town agent, under whose direction the appropriations 
for highway's are expended. 

1 1 quote from Danforth's copy of this Order, Book of Grants, I, 170. The original 
partly obliterated may be found in Records, Vol. I, p. ". 


The principal roads loading from town to town were for man}' 
years designated "country" roads, and were at first the onlj' roads 
to receive public; care as a matter of course and without special vote 
of the town. The roadS to Woburn, Chelmsford, Andover, and 
Concord, appear to have been at first the only roads thus distin- 
guished. The first record of surveyors is, "1 mo. lGCO-1," when 
James Kidder and John Baldwin were chosen. The road to Wobnrn 
is mentioned, "n : 1) : GO. At a town meeting the tonne doe choose 
to joyne witli a comittee from Oberne to lay out the highway from 
Oberne to o' meeting-house, Ralph Hill, jun', & John Parker." 
The report of this committee is not recorded, but ten jears later we 
find this record : — - 

'•The country road to Woburn thro Shawshin farmes. 

"Shawshiunock,or Billerica, 10. 10'". 1670. 

"Whereas the country road leading from Woburn to Billerica was laid 
out by a comittee legally chosen by each towne formerlj% but thei-e not 
being a record of the same to be found, where it Avas exactly laid, and 
there arising some difference in apprehention where y^ way was laid thro 
Shawshin farmes ; At y ' request of Mr. Ri : Daniel. Gent''", the comittee 
of each towne did meet together at Shawshin farme; and, hearing w'hat 
could be said every way, and taking an exact viewe of the most comodius 
way for the country road to passe in, did determine that the Avay from 
billerica to woburn througli Shawshin farmes should henceforth bee and 
continue, beginning at the westerly end of the said farmes, and so continue 
streight through y« dirty swamp, and so along vpon the high land, taking a 
black oak tree marked with D (which stands in the side line between the 
churches farm and Samuel Chanmes farme) in the middle of the highway ; 
and so passing over the small swamp or runnitt above Shawshin house 
where it is the firmest ground, there being a great white oak stump 
standing by the side of that valle on the north ; from thence it continues 
streight along, going over y^ ridge, where the oldest highway went neer 
Samuel Chaume's bouse on the north of it, and so through his old field 
vntill you come to y*" casey neer Shawshin river, tliere being at this time, a 
ditch plowed almost all the way through these farmes, on the northerly 
side of this bigliway ; and so the road is allowed seven pole wide southerly 
from the ditch aforesaid, there being sundry trees marked, some on y^ west 
side, some in or about y^ middle, and ye ditch on the north of y** s^ way. 
And on y^ easterly side of Shawshin river, y'^ road lyeth much whereabouts 
it is now trodden, and passeth over the brooke at y« east end of y^ plaine in 
ye middle way that hatli been trodden over that brook. Tliis was agreed 
upon by us, tlie whole comittee being present. 

•'John Skires. John Wyman. James Kidder. 
•'Ralph Hill. Jonathan Danforth." 

- Hon?: of Gravts. I, IfiO. 


This record does not add much to our knowledge of the Wobnrn 
Road, except the fact that it was originally- seven rods wide ; but it 
gives interesting illustration of the phraseolog}' and methods of the 
men who laid it out. 

The Concord Road is thus described : — ^ 

''iS; 12mo., 1660. Concord country road to o'' Towne. 

''The highway from Billerica to Concord laid out by the Coinittee 
appinted for y^ same Bj- both Townes was laid out as followeth: 

"It beginneth at the country road iu long street and runneth in a 
straight line [from?] North east corner of y"^ fence of John Rogers, Sen''., 
i. e. of his house lot, being laid out four pole wide anent y"^ North-west 
corner of Billerica meeting house, being bounded onward toward Concord 
by John Rogers' fence as now it do stand on the west ; by Jacob Browne's 
and Daniell Sheed's fence (as now it stands) on ye east; and so going 
streight on forward to the pounds, through Mi'. Whiting's lott, then it 
turnes westward, ruiiing down charnstaflt' lane, vntill you come to y*' bound 
corner stake between George fFarley and Jn". Sternes, on Mr. Dudley's 
farm, whose dividing line between them is tlie center of the higliway vntill 
you come neer y^ lower stake of y<^ divitions at that place, anent which 
stake it lyeth wholly on the east side of it ; so running to y^ fence of lieut 
ffrench, his field, (which was sometimes the lot of Joseph Parker,) which 
fence bounds y^ highway on the south-east. Then running over y^ swamp 
at the Island between brooks, or over two brooks, being bounded by 
marked trees in the Center of y® highway, vntill you come to the paster 
fence of Ralph Hill, Sen"^., which fence bounds it on the west; so rufling 
on ye south east of Ralph Hill, jun"^., his barne, vntill you come to y^ old 
road which leads to Concord, trees being marked for y^ center of it ; and 
from this place it keaps (generally) y^ old beaten road to Concord swamp 
acording to center trees ; and it is agreed that it shall lye four poles wide 
from long street, vntill you come to Mr. Dudley's farme; and from ye 
entrance of Mr. Dudley's farme, until you come to Concord great swamp, 
it shall Ij-e at least six pole wide ; and from ye great swamp to Concord 
towne, Center trees are marked aboute ye old road vntill you come to the 
south corner of the widow foxes' land; then leaving the old dirty road on 
the right hand, and passing through an opening of the swauip. acording 
vnto trees marked in ye center of it, we continued to Cramfield gate, and 
from thence keeping the comon road, to ye meeting house. 

"The comittee which laid out this highway were as followeth : 

"• for Billirica : for Concord: 

Sarg"t joHX Parker. Robert ffletcher. 

George ffarley. Joseph Wheeler." 
JoxATH : Danforth. 

3 Book of Grants. I, 161. 


The record of the Andover Road immediatelj' follows the pre- 
ceding : — 

"26*; 12m. 1660. Andever hUihimy. 

•'Wee whose names are hereunto subscribed, being a comittee choesen 
respectively by y"^ Townes of Andever and Billerica, to lay out tlie country 
road leading from the one Tovvne to the other, have laid out y^ said road 
in maimer as followeth : 

'•'•Wee began at the country road that leads from Chelmsford towards 
the bay, or in long street, neer the meeting Viouse, of Billerica, and soe ran 
Crosse ye house lots of James Parker and Kalph Hill, Sen'., (about ye 
middle of them,) laying it four poles wide through y« said feilds, acording 
to marked trees ; from thence we ran by the North line of John Shildon's 
house lott Towards foxes hill, and on the east side of the said hill, in y* old 
drawne way, vntill you come to a meadow, called Content meadow, being 
six poles wide from y^ former house lots to Content meadow, and four 
poles wide at y" saide meadow, between the lots of Jonathan Danforth and 
Samuel Kinsley, and from the meadow to Strongwater brook six poles wide ; 
and at Strongwater brook it lyeth crosse the meadow, about the middle of 
y« lot belonging to John Poulter, and from thence to a meadow belonging 
to George Abbot, Sen^, of Andover, at the north east end of the meadow 
and runeing to y^ drawne road, which leads from Andever Towne towards 
Shawshin River meadows; and so to enter the said road, at a hill called 
east hill, and so down the plaine to y^ bridge that lyeth over Shawshin 
River, neere to y" house of William Ballard, still continuing six pole wide 
acording to trees suftetiently marked from y^ foresaid content meadow to 
Shawshin bridge. And from that bridge toward andever Towne, vntill you 
come to y*^ houses of John Johnson and Thomas Johnson, wee judge meet 
that y" highway shalbe where it is now drawne ; and it shall lye in the wet 
swamps and rocky places ten poles wide at the least, and in y'^ hardway 
elsewhere to. be eight poles wide at least, and between the houses of y* 
Johnsons aforesaid and the town of Andever, it shall lye as now the fences 
are already set up, and from the corner of y^ aforesaid Thomas Johnson's 
fence next toward y^ Towne of andever, the way shalbe six poles at the 
least, vntill you come to the shop of John ftVye, and from the shop of y^ 
said John ffrye to Mr. Bradstreet's yard corner, right against the way 
j^ leads down to Andever meeting house, it shalbee four poles wide at the 
least, being the way which is Now drawne ; further it is agreed that from 
the Hill, called east Hill aforesaid, down to the Bridge ou^ Sliawshin River 
aforesaide, neere j" house of William Ballard aforesaid, the highway shall 
be but four poles wide. 

'•This highway was laid out by us. 26 : 12'". 1660. 

'•'' Billirica Comittee : Andever ComiUee : 

Sarg"t John Parker. George Abbot, Sen'^. 

Sargn"^ James Kidder. Sarg"' Jx^ Ossgood." 

Jonathan Danforth. 


Mr. Danforth's presence was not as a member of these com- 
mittees, but professional, as "artiste" or survejor, employed by 
both towns. 

Of the Chelmsford Road no (jlescription is recorded. 

These four roads ai-e all in use still, substantially as at first laid. 
The most important changes are, that the Woburn Road first ran 
over the top of Bare Hill, instead of turning around its northerly 
side as now ; that the Concord old road ran a nearl}' straight course, 
still easil3' traced, through the swamp about a mile west of Bedford 
Village, turning from the present road to Bedford near Huckins 
Street ; and the Chelmsford Road crossed the river at the Fordwa}^ 
and not as now at the Corner. 

Another important early road was that leading to Wamesit, of 
which we have this record : — * 

'' 9m. 1659. The Great Comon-feild. 

"•It was agreed before the laying out of the alotments, in the great 
comon feild which lyeth below y'^ great Bridge, [i. e. at the ford way,] on 
the east side of Concord River, That there shalbee a convenient highway 
alowed throughout the wholl feild, cross all the lots, for foot, horse & cart, 
either Avhere it is already Trodden, or elsewhere, as shalbe Judged to be 
most convenient, which is to be noe open highways, but may bee taken in 
' with in there lands & fences. 

"March, 1664. The Towne appointed a Comitt: to lay out this high- 
way, which made this returne, vnder theire hands, following : 

"It begins at the east side of Samuel Trull's fence as now it stands, 
and so to lye two pole wide, and runs from thence crosse the lott of Koger 
Toothaker, the east side of y^ highway, crosse that lot is bounded by a 
stub which stands by the comer of Samuel Trull's fence, on y" eastward 
of it about 4,000 [ ! So the record ; probably it should be four] poles, and 
so runes to a rock, w'=i> Eocke stands a little on this side of y* brooke; 
from thence acording to marked trees all along, vntill you come to y^ going 
down to y^ mill place ; and Thus far y" trees are marked only on y^ east 
side of the way, but onward the middle of the highway is marked, vntill 
you come to William Hamlet's swamp, and from thence the way is to lye 
as the road is now trodden, toward bacon brooke ; and the agreement is 
that ye way shall be. all of it, two pole wide. 

"The Coniittee that did the worke was William Hamlet, James Kidder, 
Ralph Hill, Junr." 

This road, passing the houses of Toothaker and John Rogers, 
(see Rogers, 2, in Genealogical Register^) ran near the present site 
of the depot in North Billerica. The road recently opened from 

* Book of Grants. I, 164. 


the Fordwa}- to North Billorica must be near the line of this early 

Another road to the great plain and great common field, which 
were towards and beyond North Billerica, followed the present Long 
Pond Road to the foot of P''ox Hill, on the north, and then ran 
directl}' across the swamp and fields, where its disused route is still 
easily traced. The road which run east from the "I'ollard" place, 
to and beyond Mr. Nason's place, existed very earl^' and was known 
as the road to Jeffs Cove, or Trull's Cove. 

From the Andover Road, sometimes called East Street, the road 
running south, at the foot of Fox Hill, was of course in earl}' use. 
For convenience, I refer to this as the "East Road," and the 
following record must refer to it : — 

'•^1658. The hicjhimij at Loes-Plaine. 

"At the laying out of the alotinents at and about loes plaine, it was 
agreed : 

"1. That tliere shall be a convenient highway alowed out of the lots 
Just below the Rockes and hills by the side of loes plaine, and so through 
the land of Samuel Keinp, for a cart to pass vpon any ocation, which land 
(if the proprietors please) they may take within their fence. 

"2. "i'lier is also laid out another highway four poles wide, on the 
North side of Sanmel Kemp's lot, so ruiiing ouei* the brooke on the north 
of Simon Crosbee's land & on the South of Jacob Browne's land. 

"3. There is also laid out a highway of two poles wide betweene the 
East side of Sam'i Kemp's line and the heads of those lots y' lye on y<^ east 
of Samuell Kemp's lot, which is for the use of those proprietors." 

Samuel Kemp's lot was near Miss Sophia Allen's, and this record 
outlines vaguely the East Road to that point and the road leading 
towards the Shawshin from it, early known as Marshall's Lane, John 
Marshall living near the turn. We ma}' suspect that the latter road 
had a westerly extension, which would pas§ Peter Bracket's, and 
connect directly with Tufts Lane. From Kemp's, southward, the 
East Road appears in a later record. 

"19. 1"' 1611. The Townsmen doe order Sarg"' John Parker, 
Tho : foster and John Marshall to lay out y^ highwa}' from John 
Marshall's house to y*" country road, that 13'eth through the churches 
farme, and make returne thereof vnder their hands to y*" Towuesmen." 

The road "through the churches farm" indicates the highwa}' 
north of the Woburn Road, as the latter did not pass through, but^ 
south of, the Church Farm. 


A later record,^ 1670-1, March 21, states that, as no report of 
this committee was found, and Mr. Parker was dead, the selectmen 
directed Messrs. Foster and Marshall to renew the work, and pro- 
ceeds to say that the}', "finding a convenient wa}' by y* bounds of 
Shawshin farme, from Thomas Richardson's lot to a new bridge, and 
over which is a ditch leading to the country road, did, with John 
French and Thomas Richardson, address j'^selves to Richard Daniel, 
gent., proprietor of Shawshin farme, for his consent, who, to gratify 
his said neighbours, did freely condescend, that they should have a 
private way to pass .for carts, &c., in y^ bounds of y*^ said farme, 
from y" said Thomas Richardson's lot to y*^ afores** new bridge, and 
from thence five pole on y'' outside of y*' side [said?] ditch that lead 
to y* said couutry road ; and y*' s*^ comittee & y" s*^ John French & 
Thomas Richardson did thankful]}- accept of y'' same," and appointed 
this a private highway from Richardson's house to the country road. 

Mr. Daniel represented wealth and rank, his wife at least belong- 
ing to the nobility ; and there was no other citizen to whom the town 
officially showed such deference, or from whom it sought as favors 
what it would have taken from others as its right. Whether the 
present East Road follows the line of this early location is uncertain. 

Farther north, on the Andover Road, an early and long forgotten 
way turned not far from the Cemetery and ran to the Shawshin near 
the Crosby place, reaching the river at a point called the "Willow 
Spang." "^ This grant refers to it: "There is three acres of land 
alowed in James Kidder's lot where it may be most conveniently 
taken, for a way from the country road at fox hill to y* second part 
of the second divitions. Also allowance is made to Simon Crosbe's 
lot, for y^ highway to pass from James Kidder's lot toward Shawshin 

A highway which had always been an important one is described 
in the next record. 

'^1661. Content highway. 

'•It was agreed before the laying out of the 2^ divition Partaineing to 
y« Towneship, That there should be a highway from the south side of fox 
hill, ouer little content brook, and so ouer ailwife brook, streight away to 

5 Boole of Grants, p. 159. 

° Daiifortli often uses llie word "spang" to designate some point in field or meadow; 
tlie same word wliich Webster spells "spong." William Tay had land at this place; and 
the copyist of his will, in the Suffolk Registry, evidently had trouble in decipliering the 
original, for his transcript reads, "the willow spangs." Some future editor or archaeologist 
may find here occasion for a learned explanation of the pangs of the willow ! 


Shawshin Rluer oij the north of globe hill, and so ouer heeth brook, cross 
Christopher AVeb's meadow lott & continueing onward ouer Strongwater 
brooke, at the narrow neck betvvene William Tay's meadow, and so onward 
to andever meadow." 

This, the Pattenville Road, was in JJaiiforth's common nsage the 

'•road to Globe Hill." It left the Andover Road near Mr. Holt's 


house, and crossed the "little content" brook higher up that stream 
than does the present road near I)ea. Samuel King's house. 

The next description may refer to the road from Pattenville 
towards Wilmington. "Also one highway vpon content plaine from 
this road, beginning upon the hill eastward of two little round 
swamps, and so ruiiing anglewise about y" middle of y' part of y^ 
2** divitions, which lyeth on the east of ailwife brook," etc. 

The following description more clearl}' refers to the road from the 
depot to Pattenville: "1664. It was ordered at the laying out of 
3'* comon feild on the plain which is on the east side of Content 
meadow, that ther shalbee a highway from y^ country road leading 
to anclever, to Shawshin Riuer, beginning on y^ east of content 
bridge, & so passing through y^ lots of Nath. Hill, leiut french, 
Jonath Danfortli, John Rogers, El**"^ Chamne, Golden More, William 
I'attin, Peter Brackett, James Kidder, & Capt. Brackett, which 
enters it into y^ road which comes from John Balden bridge, leading 
to globe hill, and at y* most easterly corner of Simon Crosbes lot 
begins that highway which goeth to William Pattin's meadow at 
Shawshin River." The references in the closing paragraph • are to 
the two roads named in the preceding descriptions. 

A highwa}-, which probably never had much use and was soon 
forgotten, was laid between the two parts of the Second Division. 
It was "on each side of the dividing line from loes plain until you 
come to ailwife brook" ; or from a point near Mrs. Asa Holden's, 
and passing towards the brook by the corner at Mr. James Page's, 
on the Wilmington Road, where "Marshall's lane," extended from 
the Crosby place, comes into it. 

The Lexington Road, early and long known as the road to 
Bacon's mill, or Fitch's mill, is first mentioned, "16: 1 : 63. Will' 
Tay & George farley are Apoynted to Lay out a highway from 
the Towne, leading to Mr. Michell's farme, and to y' land y' was 
La^'' out for Mr. Edward Oaks' farme, on y" south East end of 
Mr. Winthrop's great meadow, to be layd out four polls wide." 

Nineteen vears later it needed relocation. "23. 1"\ 82. At a 


meeting of 3'^ selectmen : Whereas Mr. Muzej' makes a complaint 
for want of y* knowledge of y^ highwa}' from his farme, that hee 
bought of Timothy Brookes, to the towne ; The selectmen do order 
George ffarley, that was one of the comittee that lajd it out at y^ 
first, * & corp^ Jn° ffrench, forthwith to go and renue y" markes 
of y* said way, that it may be obvious to all travellers ; also to draw 
vp a record as distinct as ma}' bee how it lyes, that so it. ma^' be 
found afterward without much difficulty." 

The road farther east is not described in the Records. But it 
was in existence, and -known as a country road as early as 1670, 
when Joseph Walker's grant was bounded east by it. The survey 
of Mr. Daniel's farms shows that this road formed in large part the 
west line of the Champue}' Farm. 

That there was a road farther south from the Concord Road 
towards Cambridge is certain, but no description of it is recorded. 
It must have been substantially the same as that which now runs 
southeast over the hill, a mile north of Bedford Village. 

The following record gives a good example of the private high- 
ways often laid out for the convenience of adjacent farmers :^ " 1658. 
It was agreed, That there should be reserved three pole wide (vpon 
the Towneship) by the river side, from the angle of the township 
neare George ffarley's, vntill you come below abbott's Bridge, which 
is to be no open highway, but for any vse for cart, or for landing 
of goods, hay, corne, etc., which liighway is to be taken into euery 
man's dividuall (i. e. his propriety or alottment) if hee please. And 
an}' man taking downe any bares or opening any gates, to passe by 
the Riuer's side vpon any such ocation, shall safely put them vp 
againe ; and in case of neglect, as aforesaid, shalbc lyalile to pay 
whatever damage any person shall sustain by his neglect therein." 

The town also reserved the same liberty to pass from Charnstaffe 
Lane to this river highway. "Also, it was agreed, That the Brook 
which lyeth in" the middle of the township should ly open (for y* use 
of y^ inhabitance in generall) from long-street downward to y* line 
of Mr. Dudley's farme, and six pole wide on each side of the brook, 
to ly in coinon for publick vse." This "brook-highway" bounded 
Mr. Whiting's grant on the east, and has other mention ; and this 
description proves the identity of Charnstaffe Lane and the line 
of the Dudley Fai'm. 

' Grants, I, 168. 


West Street is mentioned at the same time.** "1658. At tlie 
laying ont of the lots vpon the Towneship, It was agi-eed that y^ 
highway cal'^ the west street should rune from long street, beginning 
at the southeast of Jonathan Danforth's house lot, and lye six pole 
wide southward of his line, the whole width of his house lot, and 
then it should be laid twelve pole wide, from thence to y" riuer, y« 
former ^ix pole continuing, and so to take six pole northward of a 
rock in a valle}' b}^ a willow tree, (which rock is y" southwest corner 
of Jonathan Danforth, his house lot,) and onward it is to be laid on 
each side y* swamp and brook, that so y'^ water may lye open for 

In November, 1660, the town voted that Danforth and Kidder 
might have the land included in West Street, either for a certain 
sum, or "if tlie}' could purchase a convenient highway elsewhere to 
the Riuer, to the Town's content." But this grant was for some 
reason not consummated ; for in 1665 Mr. Kidder received a grant 
of two and one-half acres, on the south side of this road, and 
extending to the river ; this grant being instead of ten acres 
elsewhere. And, ten years later, the road is again granted to 
Danforth and Kidder, with the reservation of a right to a private 
highway', as described above. The consideration of this grant was, 
disbursements made for the town, Mr. Danforth having expended a 
thousand and a half of shingles to purchase Cambridge lands for the 
town. AVhen West Street was reclaimed as a public highway is not 
certain; but the process was gradual. It was a " bridle-wa}' " in 
1730, when proposals for building the Centre bridge came before the 
town, and the selectmen were instructed, in preparation for that 
measure, "to state & settle the bounds of the highway." 

A road was laid out, in 1661, to run from the Concord Road, 
near the present route of the Middlesex turnpike, going by Henr^^ 
Jefts and Lieutenant French's to William Taj-'s, and ending in the 
"road to the ba}'," on the "top of the hill Next to Thomas Foster's 
fence." After the appointment of one or two committees, this road 
was abandoned ; but the location of its terminus proves a point 
of interest in the early geography, namely, that the Woburn Road 
at first went over and not around Bare Hill. When the change 
was made is not recorded, but it may be indicated in this action : 
"May 16, 1711. * Deacon James Frost and Lt. Samuel Hill 
were appointed to vew a highway' pi'oposed to be exchanged with 

8 Grants, II, 167. 


Crosby, upon bare Hill, and to make a Return of their Judgment • 
concerning it." Their report is wanting, but we ma}' conjecture 
that it favored the easier route, around the northerly slope of the 
hill, where the road has long been. The road north of Fox Hill, 
leading east from Long Street at Abot's bridge to the Davis place, 
was in early use, and doubtless continued as far as the Andover 
Road ; but no description is found in the Records. * 

West of Concoi:d River, the larger part of the land remained 
"common," until the great distribution soon after 1700, and tire 
roads before that date .wei'o few and onl}' incidentally appear in the 
Records. The earliest was, no doubt, the "treble-cove" road," 
beginning at the Fordwaj^ and running southwest on the line, 
substantially, of the present highwa}' east of Gilson's Hill and 
northwest of Winning's Pond, and so towards Concord. It derived 
its name from the "treble-cove," a locality often named in the 
Records, and situated near the Carlisle line. This road is often 
called the "road to John Hill's," who doubtless lived near it. 

The "rangeway" road, as its name indicates, followed the 
dividing line between the first and second ranges of lots in the great 
land division of 1708. The first range, bounding on Chelmsford 
line, was about half a mile in width, and the road still follows the 
line thus indicated. 

A bridge over Concord River was an early necessit}- . The first 
bridge was at the Ford way, a half-mile above North Billerica. The 
date of its erection is not certain, but is probably indicated by the 
action of the General Court, 1G57, May 15, when the importance to 
the country' of bridges at Billerica and Mistick was affirmed, and 
assessment of expense, for building and maintaining them, upon 
adjoining towns and plantations was provided for. The bridge was 
'in use in 1659, as William Haile's grant, which was near by and 
made in that j-ear, mentions "y" great bridge." The "great comon 
field," which was divided in 1659 among the proprietors, is also 
described as lying on the east side of Concord River, below the 
great bridge. 

This early bridge was, of course, rude and, primitive and soon 
needed repairs. "25: 7: 60. Ralph Hill jun' and James Kider 
are apoynted to join with Chelmsford in the repayring of y^ bridge 
Leading to Chelmsford ; and they are to doe what work they, with 
the comitee of Chelmsford, shall judge meet to be done, and to 
Leuie the charges acording to the General Cort's order ; and they 


have power given them to call in for helpe aeordlnge as they shall se 
meet, from time to time, till the work be done, provided they be 
such persons as ai'e behinde in high wa}' work, to the Number of 6 
days of them that hath done y" moste." "1662, 4, 9," it was 
agreed that Thomas Foster should "goe to the great bridge" and 
"br Hill Seur, if James Kider could not go." John Parker was 
also requested "to goe to the work, if his ocations would give wa}-," 
and a note was sent to Chelmsford "for their comittee to meet at 
the work." 

In 1664, complaint was made to the Court at Charlestown of 
"great defect in Chelmsford Bridge," and the selectmen of the two 
towr.s were enjoined to take order for the repair thereof forthwith;'' 
and, November 29, the "Townsmen did choose Will' Hamlett to 
join Avith a man from Chelmsford to repajr the great Bridge." 

In making these repairs, in 1662, Billerica furnished five hands 
and Chelmsford four, "a day in the water," charging 2s. 6d. per day. 
Besides, there is a charge for two quarts of liquor, 4s., showing that 
one day's work would pay for a quart of liquor and a quarter. 
In 1665, the whole charge for previous repairs was " 7p. 1C^ 6".," of 
which Billerica paid "4p. l^ 6p." and Chelmsford " 3p. 9^" Groton 
does not seem to have been called upon at this time, but for the 
charge in 1665, Groton paid its proportion. "21p. 2'**. 2^." were 
raised on the county rate, Chelmsford paying "10^. 3^," Billerica, 
"7P. 8'. 4P.," and Groton, "3^. 14". 7p." It was to be expected, 
that a partnership like this would not long work smoothh' ; and the 
following record will surprise no one. 

" 12 1" 16||. Whereas, the selectmen of Chelmsford (bj- writing 
vnder ther hands) have declared (to the selectmen of Billerica) their 
absolute refusall any longer to assist in maintenance of the great 
Bridge vpon Billerica riuer, as also giving Notice to them to repair 
the same acording to law. Hence the selectmen of Billerica (for 
y* preventing of dangers and hazards b}' travellers) do order that 
some of the plaukes of that bridge be taken away, that so there 
may be no passing over it ; and some provision made on each side 
the breach to give warning of the danger to any traveller." Whether 
any compromise of the difficulty was made, or the l)ridge continued 
impassable for two years, the Records do not tell us ; but a higher 
power interposed ; and, 1667, October 9, the General Court takes 

" Records. Vol. I (Reverse) p. 87. 


action as follows: "In answer to a motion made by the deputyes 
of Billerica & Chelmsford, in reference to the bridge over Billerica 
River, it is ordered by this Court * that the sajd bridge shall be 
repa3'red & vpholden b}' the tonnes of Billerica, Chelmsford, & 
Groaten, and all such farmes as are there granted," and these towns 
were to be free from the maintenance of all other bridges, "except 
in their own bounds."^" 

In execution of this order the County Court at Charlestown, 
1667, December 17, "did nominate and empower Mr. John Webb, 
alias Evered, Mr. Thomas Hinksman, Mr. James Parker & Jonathan 
Danforth, to agi'ee with some able and honest artificer for erecting a 
bridge over Billerica River, as speedily as might be." 

This committee emploj'ed Job Lane to build the bridge, and 
the contract made with him is preserved." It was made, 1667, 
.January 11, and the work was to be completed before the 29th of 
September following. The size of timbers and form of structure 
are minutelj'^ specified. The arches wei-e to be sixteen feet wide, 
and the flooring of oak plank four inches thick. He was to receive 
in paj'ment, "seven score and five pounds starling": ten in cash, 
ten in wheat, ten in malt, and the remainder in corn and cattle, not 
exceeding one-half in cattle, which must be under seven years old. 
If the parties could not agree, they were to be appraised by two 
men properly chosen, and the corne was to be good and merchantable 
at such rates as the country rate set. One half was to be paid at 
or before the first of May, and the balance within the next year. 
Payments were to be delivered at Capt. Adams's mill in Chelmsford, 
or in Billerica town. If Mr. Lane chose, Chelmsford or Groton 
payments might be delivered near the bridge until it was finished, 
and after that in Billerica. 

Mr. Lane was distinguished as an "artificer." He paid for his 
large farm by the erection of a mansion for Fitz John Winthrop, at 
Norwich, Connecticut, and he built one of the College buildings at 

In 1676, there was again complaint of the bridge, and united 
action of the towns in repairing it. After that, the bridge is hardly 

w Colonial Records. Vol. IV, Part ii, p. 356. 

" Among the valuable mss. Lane Papers, now in the pos.session of Mrs. A. B. Cutler, 
of Bedford, a descendant. Mr. William H. Whitmore, of Boston, has given an account and 
abstract of these Lane Papers in The New England Historical and Genealogical Register. 
Vol. XI, pp. 102 and 231. 


mentioned until twent}' 3'ears later, when it was carried away by a 
flood, a disaster which ended the existence of the Fordway bridge, 
after an existence of forty years. This, no doubt, happened shortly 
before the date of the following action. Clerk Joseph Tompson, 
without date, says: "'Receiued an order from Chelmsford, dated 
about the first of December, 1698, desiring of our selectmen, or 
Town, to send a person or persons empowered to join with them 
and Groton and Dunstable about the new building of a bridge over 
Concord riuer." The selectmen appointed Captain Danforth and 
Mr. Tompson to attend this meeting, on December 6, but, "Capt. 
Danforth, being presented with the selectmen's order, wholl}' refused. 
Joseph Tompson went alone." He met there Major Jonathan TA'ng, 
for Dunstable ; [Thomas ?] Williams and James Blanchard, for 
Groton; and Major Thomas Hinchman, Solomon Keyes, Sen., 
and Cornet Nath : Hill. The result of the deliberations of this 
committee must have been, although our Records leave us to infer 
the fact, that the new bridge should be built farther up the river, 
at the "corner," where it has since stood. Groton, for some 
unexplained reason, refused to participate, and resort was again 
found necessary- to the General Court, to bring this intractable town 
to terius. An act was passed, 1699, March 20, authorizing the 
Court of Sessions to assess and collect of Groton, "24^. 10"''.," and 
to pay it to "Major Hinksman, Major Ting, & Mr. John Lane, 
undertakers for the building of the bridge latelj- erected in Bilrica." 
There were good reasons why Billerica desired to change the location. 
With but one bridge over the Concord, it was important that it 
should be neai'er the centre of the town, and not make so long a 
circuit necessary' to reach the west part of it. In fact, it was for 
Billerica a question of removal, or the maintenance of two bridges ; 
while to the towns above the difference was trifling. This view 
prevailed, and the most important bridge in town found a location 
which has been so far permanent. How long the other towns 
were called upon to aid in its maintenance, I can not saj', nor 
how many times it has been rebuilt. In 1737, the bridge fell down 
and was rebuilt after some discussion as to the location. In 1873, 
the old wooden bridge gave place to a handsome and light iron 

The ghost of the Fordway bridge did not, however, rest with 
perfect quiet. >Jinety years later, in 1789, a subscription was made 
and committee appointed to 1)uikl a bridge at the old place. The 


record of that committee is preserved.'^ The first meeting was 
appointed by people in Chehnsford'Neck, now Lowell and vicinit}-, 
and held, 1789, January- 23, at the house of Isaac Sprake. Others 
were held at Jonathan Manning's and Esquire Barron's, and Aaron 
Chamberlin was moderator and William Manning clerk. A com- 
mittee was sent to Concord and Sudbury, who reported that ''there 
was not much danger of opposition from those towns on account 
of flowing their meadows." It was found that the subscriptions 
amounted to £59, 10s., and the subscribers "voted to Go on and 
Build" ; and a committee of niue was appointed to collect the 
subscriptions and cari-y on the work. March 3d appeared the 
selectmen of Billerica and sundrj- others, ''and forbid our going on 
to build on perill of paying all Dammage that should arise therefrom 
to said Town." In April, a committee was sent to Woburn, 
doubtless to see if aid could be had there. The}^ brought back 
unfavorable report, and, May 19, the meeting adjourned without 

The Centre bridge was built in 1737. The vote for its erection 
was passed, 1736, November 16, and in 1738 the building committee 
received £95 from the treasurer, which was perhaps its entire cost. 
It was built "against the bridle way, betwixt Mr. Enoch Kidder and 
Oliver Whiting, Jun". lotts." 

Hill's bridge first appears in the following record, 1736, July 22 : 
"Whereas, a number of Persons in the neighboring Towns have 
Petitioned the General Sessions in Middx. for a highway from 
Westford meeting-house cross Concord River over Lt. Joseph Hill's 
bridge to Lexington," a committee of five was chosen "to manage 
that aff'aire in the behalfe of the Town." Lieutenant Hill probably 
lived on the west side of Concord River near this bridge, which he 
may have built for his own convenience and that of the neighborhood. 
It would seem that the Court approved the petition, for, 1737, 
May 16, the town instructed the committee "to manage the affaire 
in Defense of the Town"; to proceed either by appeal from the 
Sessions, or by laying the matter before the General Court, or both. 
The town was soon called upon to pay £59, 10s., which implies that 
the case was decided in favor of the petitioners. 

The Hill bridge contributes no other noticeable facts to the 
history, except an episode, which greatly stirred the town at the 

12 Loaned to me by Jliss Lucinda Manning, of Chelmsford. See Manning, 11. 


time and lingers in the memory of the older inhabitants still. After 
the opening of the Middlesex turnpike, the Hill bridge and road 
crossing it fell into disuse and decay ; and at last the bridge, 
falling, was for some time not rebuilt. But a demand arose for 
the rebuilding of the bridge and a straightening of the road leading 
to it, wliich had been somewhat devious. A route more direct and 
less hilly than the turnpike was sought, in this improvement, from 
Chelmsford and towns above to Lexington. Mrs. Joseph Foster 
gave the right of way through her land for some distance on the 
west side of the river, and others set about the work and built one 
of the abutments. But the majority of the people did not relish the 
proposed diversion of travel and business to a line so far from the 
centre of the town. When other means of opposition failed, some 
of the citizens, and, tradition affirms, some of the most respectable, 
determined to take the case into their own hands and proceeded to 
destro}' the offensive abutment. The mob, for such it seems to have 
been, and perhaps the only mob known in the town, did its work 
thoroughly. Suits followed and were decided against the town, 
which was compelled to build the bridge and road and has since 
maintained it. 



The Shawshin territory was a favorite resort of the red men. 
Ttie Pawtucket tribe occupied tlie vicinity- of the moutla of the 
Concord River, on both sides of it, as their headquarters. From 
this place they went fortli ; to this they returned ; here they planted 
their corn. Wamesit, or We3'mesit, was originalh' the name of the 
eastern angle, between the Concord and Merrimack Rivers, around 
Fort Hill and the modern ''Belvidere" of Lowell. Here many, if 
not the majorit}', of the Indians lived, giving ancient Billerica a 
large Indian population, though the town never probably exercised 
civil jurisdiction over them. This Indian settlement confronted the 
fathers of Billerica as they looked northward. Their road down the 
Concord River was the road to Wamesit. 

This Indian reservation, specifically granted by the General Court, 
was surveyed and described by Danforth in 1664, April, as follows :^ 

u * * 'X'liere is laid out unto the Indians, who are the inhabitants of 
Waymesick, flue hundred acres of land on the east side of Concord Riuer 
and joyning to the sajd riuer & to Merremack Eiuer; it runnes upon 
Concord Riuer about one mile & three quarters, which reacheth to Bacon 
Brooke, & bounded by the sajd brooke on the south fower score poole; it 
runnes from the mouth of Concord Ryuer doune Merremaeke Riuer two 
hundred & fifty poole, where it is bounded by a red oake marked; from 
thence it runnes according to the bound mai-ke trees w"^ two angles, unto 
Bacon Brooke; all which doe more plainly appeare by plott of it under 
written. This flue hundred acres is part of that three thousand w^'' was 
layd out to M'^. Winthrop formerly, only in the returne of sajd three 
thousand there is mention made of one hundred acres allowed in that 
faruie, in refference to land the Indians had improoved w"Hn the bounds of 
it. This worke was done by the Coraittee appointed to y^ same by this 
Generall Court. Symox Willard. 

John Parker. 

Jonathan Danforth, Surveyor.''' 

1 Colonial Records. Vol. IV, Part ii, p. 108. 


Ill place of this four hundred acres taken out of Mrs. Winthrop's 
farm, her heirs were granted six hun(h'ed acres elsewhere. The 
moutli of Bacon Brook, which hounded this Indian plantation south- 
erly, is a few rods south of the Salem Railroad hridge. The present 
boundary of Lowell on the east of Concord River falls a little below 
the lines of the Indian survey. There is no evidence that these 
Pawtucket Indians were ever troublesome or unfriendly neighbors. 
In common with other tribes, their numbers had been greatly reduced 
by a desolating pestilence not long before the period of the English 
colonization ; and the wise and Christian missionary labors of P^liot 
and Gookin among them did not fail to bear important fruit. Had 
the Indian policy of the country been moulded in later years by 
the same spirit of benevolence and justice, the nation would have 
been saved much disaster, expense, and reproach. 

John Eliot, pastor of Roxbury, 1632-00, began to devote himself 
to labors among the Indians about the time that the Shawshin 
settlement became a practical question. Beginning at Nonantum, 
now Natick, the success of his efforts encouraged their extension, 
and he soon sought out these Wamesit Indians. Passaconaway, the 
aged sachem, became friendly, if not Christian, and, in 1G60, in a 
farewell speech to his children and people, he "warned them to take 
heed how they quarrelled with their English neighbors, for though 
they might do them some damage, yet it would prove the means of 
their own destruction." His death did not follow immediately, for, 
in 1662, he asked and received from the General Court a grant of 
land "about Naticot, above Mr. Brenton's lands, where it is free, 
a mile & a halfe on either side Merremacke River in breadth & three 
miles on either side in length." "Mr. Brenton's lands," here men- 
tioned, were the early grant of eight thousand acres to Billerica, 
which the town had sold to that gentleman, and this grant to the 
sachem was beyond the Souhegan, near Manchester. 

In 1670, Wanualancet had succeeded his father as sachem, 
inheriting his peaceful spirit also. He yielded to Eliot's faithful 
persuasions and avowed himself a Christian, 1674, May 5. The 
account given by Captain Daniel Gookin, of Wamesit and its 
population and the conversion of this chief, is interesting^ and 
important as a contemporary narrative, and I give it entire. It was 
written in 1674, and the writer is himself the "English magistrate" 

- Massachnsetts Historical Collections. First Series. Vol. I, p. 186. 


"Wamesit is the fifth praying town; and this place is situate upon 
Merrimak river, being a neoli of hind where Concord river falletli into 
Merriniak river. It is about twenty miles from Boston, north north west, 
and witliin five miles of Billerica, and as much from Chelmsfoixl, so that it 
hath Concord river upon tlie AVest Xortliwest, and Merrimak river upon the 
north north east. It liath about fifteen families, and consequently, as we 
compute, about seventy-five souls. The quantity of land belonging to it is 
about twenty-five hundred acres. The land is fertile and yieldeth plenty of 
corn. It is excellently accommodated with a fishing place, and there is 
taken variety of fish in their seasons, as salmon, shads, lamprey eels, 
sturgeon, bass, and divers others. There is a great confluence of Indians 
that usually resort to this place in the fishing seasons. Of these strange 
Indians, divers are vitioiis and wicked men and women, which Satan makes 
use of to obstruct the pi'osperity of religion here. The ruler of this people 
is called Numphow. He is one of the blood of their chief sachems. Their 
teacher is called Samuel, son to the ruler, a young man of good parts, and 
can speak, read and write English and Indian competently. He is one of 
those that was bred up at school, at th(» charge of the Corporation, for the 
Indians. These Indians, if they wei-e diligent and industrious. — to which 
they have been frequently excited, — might get much by their fish, espe- 
ciall}'^ fresh salmon, which are of esteem and good price at Boston in the 
season; and the Indians being stored witli horses of a low price, miglit 
furnish the market fully, being at so small a distance. And divers other 
sort of fish they might salt or pickle, as sturgeon and bass, which would 
be much to their profit. But notwithstanding divers arguments used to 
persuade them and some orders made to encourage them, yet their idleness 
and improvidence doth hitherto prevail. 

■'At this place once a j^ear, at the beginning of May, the English 
magistrate keeps his court, accompanied with Mr. Eliot, the minister; who 
at this time takes his opportunity to preach, not only to the inhabitants, 
but to as many of the strange Indians that can be persuaded to hear him ; 
of which sort, usually, in time of peace, there are considerable nuuibers at 
that season. And this place being an ancient and capital seat of Indians, 
they come to fish ; and this good man takes this opportunity to spread the 
net of the gospel to fish for their souls. Here it may not be impertinent to 
give you the relation following. May 5. 1674, according to our usual 
custom. Mr. Eliot and myself took our journey to Wamesit, or Pawtuckett; 
and arriving there that evening, Mr. Eliot preached to as many of them as 
could be got together out of Matt, xxii, 1-14, the parable of the marriage 
of the king's son. We met at the wigwam of one called Wannalancet, 
about two miles from the town, near Pawtuckett falls, and bordering upon 
Merrimak river. This person, Wannalancet, is the eldest son of old Passa- 
conaway, the chiefest sachem of Pawtuckett. He is a sober and grave 
person and of years between fifty and sixty. He hath been always loving 
and friendly to the English. Many endeavors have been used several years 
to gain this sachem to embrace the Christian religion ; but he hath stood off" 
from time to time and not yielded up himself personally, though for four 
years past he hath been willing to hear the word of God preached and to 


keep the Hnbhath. A gient reason that hath kejit hun oft". I eonceive. hath 
been tlie indisposition and averseness of sundry of liis chief men and rela- 
tions to pray to God ; which he foresaw would desei-t him in case he turned 
Christian. But at this time, May 6, 1674. it pleased God so to influence 
and overcome his heart, that it being proposed to hiui to give 1 is answer 
concerning praying to God. after some deliberation and serious pause, he 
stood up and made a speech to this effect : Sii's, You have been pleased 
for four years last past, in your abundant love, to api)ly yourselves partic- 
ularly unto me and my people, to exhort, press, and persuade us to pray to 
God. I am very thankful to you for your pains. I must acknowledge, 
said he. I have all lyy days used to pass in an old canoe (alluding to his 
frequent custom to pass in a canoe upon the river) and now you exhort me 
to change and leave my old canoe, and embark in a new canoe, to which I 
have hitherto been unwilling ; but now I yield up myself to your advice, 
and enter into a new canoe, and do engage to pray to God hereafter. 

"■This his professed subjection was well pleasing to all that were 
present, of which there were some English persons of quality, as Mr. 
Eichard Daniel, a gentleman that lived in Billerica, about six miles off; 
and Lieut. Henchman, a neighbor at Chelmsford; besides brother Eliot and 
myself, with sundry others. English and Indians. Mr. Daniel, before named, 
desired brother Eliot to tell this sachem from him, that it maybe while he 
went in his old canoe, he passed in a quiet stream : But the end thereof 
was death and destruction to soul and body. But now he went into a new 
canoe, perhaps he would meet with storms and trials ; but yet he should be 
encouraged to persevere, for the end of his voyage would be everlasting rest. 
Moreover, he and his people were exhorted by brother Eliot and myself, to 
go on and sanctify the sabbath, to hear the Word, and use the means that 
God hath appointed, and encourage their hearts in the Lord their God. Since 
that time, I hear this sachem doth persevere, and is a constant and diligent 
hearer of God's Word, and sanctifieth the Sabbath, though he doth travel to 
Wamesit meeting every Sabbath, which is above two miles; and though 
sundry of his people have deserted him since he subjected to the gospel, 
yet he continues and persists. 

*' In this town they observe the same civil and religious orders as in other 
towns, and have a constable and other officers. This people of Wamesit 
suffered more in the late war with the Mohawks than any other prajang 
town of Indians, for divers of their people were slain ; others, wounded ; 
and some cai'ried into captivitj^ ; which providence hath much huidered the 
prosperous estate of this place." 

The picture of this faithful magistrate and friend of the Indians, 
accompanied by his "brother" Eliot, on this annual visit to Wamesit, 
dispensing justice and the Gospel to the red men there, is full of 
interest; and the convei'sion of AVannalancet might furnish a painter - 
with au attractive subject. Its interest to Billerica would be increased 
l)v the presence in it of Mr. Daniel, our "English gentleman," who 


for ten 3'ears resided here with his ''noble" wife, and then returned 
to England. 

Wannalancet is credited with building the fort from which "Fort 
Hill" takes its name ; and traditions which seem trustworthy fix the 
site of the log chapel, in which Mr. Eliot preached to the Indians, 
very near the fine edifice of the Eliot Church. 

In the summer of 1(375, when the alarm and peril of King Philip's 
War assailed the Colony, these Indians retired to the wilderness, at 
Penacook, (Concord, New Hampshire,) to avoid being inyolved in 
it. Still, the}- were suspected, and in September a company of one 
hundred men was sent to ascertain the position of Wannalancet in 
regard to the war. On their approach, the Indians concealed them- 
selves in the woods, and their deserted wigwams were wantonly 
burned. But, though thus sorely tempted to join Philip in retalia- 
tion, the sachem did not forget his father's counsel, aud restrained 
his young warriors, who were eager to attack the whites. He soon 
after went farther, to the head waters of the Connecticut, and there 
spent the winter. The next year the Indians were allured to Dover 
and unjustl}' imprisoned ; but the}* were soon set at libert}^ and 
returned to their Merrimack home. After the conclusion of the war, 
the sachem visited the Reverend Mr. Fiske, of Chelmsford. To his 
question, whether Chelmsford had suflTered much, the clergyman 
replied that they had not, and devoutly thanked God. "Me next," 
said Wannalancet, implying that he had restrained the Indians under 
his control. Billerica perhaps owed her security during those dark 
days to the same friendly sachem. 

But the Indian occupation of Billerica w^as not confined to 
Wamesit. The frequency with which their arrow points and other 
articles are fouud, shows how numerous tbey once were. Graves 
and the site of a wigwam are still shown north of Jaquith Brook, 
near Concord River ; and the north shore of Nutting's Pond was so 
distinctively theirs as to be sold by them in IGGo. The hill north 
of this pond was known as Indian Hill. In May, 1665, the town 
granted to Henry Jefts, "four acres of land, lying at the Indian Hill 
on the north of y" Indian field at Nuttins pond." In December, 
"the bounds of his land purchased of the Indians at Indian Hill by 
the pond were taken by Ralph Hill and Jonath : Danforth, which are 
as followeth : i. e. on the south it is bounded by the pond, and on the 
southwest, west, and somewhat northerly, it is bounded by that land 
[above mentioned] ; it runnes easterly to a maple marked in the 


swamp and a white oak marked beyond it ; both which are oil the 
west of the high cleft of rocks \ and from thence a little rounding to 
the N. E. corner of his fence, * and from thence it turnes towards 
the pond to a red oak with a rock by it, and from thence it turns a 
little inward to a bunch of maples by the pond side." 

Danforth records the death of his Indian servant, John Warrick, 
1686; and, in 1681, James Speen, Indian, receives "eight pounds 
due to y^ Indians for four wolves heads," and other records occur of 
the same sort. These dusky forms must have been frequently seen 
in the early homes of Billerica. Did their coming excite fear or 
confidence, repugnance or pleasure? Whatever it was, the sensation 
was a familiar one. And, however they had learned to trust their 
Wamesit neighbors, as the}' observed the labors of the saintl}' Eliot 
among them and the fruit the}' bore, the fathers could never be 
long forgetful of the darker fringe of savage humanity beyond, the 
working of whose policy or passion might at almost any moment 
involve them in peril or ruin. This danger hung over the pioneers 
of Billerica for more than fifty years, and their slumbers were likel}' 
to be broken by a warwhoop. In our estimate of their faith and 
courage in planting the town, this fact should be remembered. 

The earliest indication of this danger afforded b}' the Records 
occurs in "1667, 9™, 11. At a meeting of the selectmen. It is 
aoreed concerning fortification in this Town, That ther shall be a 
house built of stone & brick w^"' a chimney at y*^ west end of it, }'* 
dementions of y'' house to bee twenty-six foote in length, twentN'-two 
foot wide from outside to outside, with a doore three foot wide on y* 
south side, near y'' west end, & two windows, one at y" east end & }'* 
other on y" south side, being each window three foot wide & two foot 
& a half in height, all in y^ clear ; y'' walls of y^ house shalbe nine 
foote in height from y" floore to y^ under side of y* plate ; also, a 
floore, lying one foot below y*' plate, with crosse rufiers, y'' long girt 
lying cross y" house ; also, ther shalbe iron barres in each wijidow & 
one window at y** gable end on y^ east ; y^ roofe of y* house to be 
sawne stuffe, covered with bords, chamfered & after shingled. And 
for y* effecting of y" premises, we do agree that hands shall forthwith 
be employed to digge clay and stones, & y" rest of y* work to be 
cairied on with as much convenient speed as may be, according to 
y" order of y*" gen'^ Court." 

The order of the General Court was passed in May, 1667, 
requiring every town to erect, " either inclosing the meeting-house, 


or iu some other convenient place, a fortification, or fort, of stone, 
brick, timber, or earth, as the place maybe most capable, of such 
dimensions as may best suit their ability, where women, children, & 
the aged ma^-be secured iu case of sudden danger, whereby the 
souldjers maj^be more free to oppose an enemy." 

But this fortification never was built, whether because the tax 
was too great, or the alarm less, we can onl}- conjecture ; but this 
description is interesting in depicting the house the fathers would 
have built for such a purpose. 

Plight 3'ears passed, find the peril came in earnest, the most 
critical hour, perhaps, in the history of New England. The Indians, 
alarmed at the growing numbers and strength of the settlements, and 
incited by resentment for fancied and, perhaps, some real injuries, 
rose in a determined eflJbrt to exterminate the colonists. Philip, 
chief of the Pokanokets, was the leader, enlisting the Narragansetts 
and as many, others of the natives as he was able. They fell upon 
Swanze^', and soon after Brookfield suflTered. Deerfleld was burned, 
and Hadle}' attacked. Springfield, Northfield, Lancaster, Medfield, 
Wej'mouth, Groton, and Marlborough were successively the victims 
of savage assaults ; and where the next blow might fall was an ever 
present dread in ever}' hamlet and home. Had the Wamesit Indians 
joined in the fray, Billerica would probably have been among the first 
to suffer. The town and perhaps the Colony owed its salvation to 
their friendly neutrality. Eliot and Gookin had such reward as they 
did not foresee for their benevolent labors. Other reward they had 
too, in the suspicion and bitter denunciation of many of the people, 
because they would not turn away from the friendly Indians, when 
the popular feeling included all red men in a common conspiracy and 

The alarm came unexpectedly upon the town. On the third of 
May the selectmen ''order the constables watch to cease this present 
sumer unless greater need appear." The need. did appear, and the 
following pages of the record are of sufficient interest to be exactly 

"13. 6'". 75. At a publick Towne Mei'ting. 

"The Towne, considering- the providence of God at the pi-sent calling 
us to lay aside our ordinary occations in providing for our creatures and 
to take special care for tlie p^serving of our lives and the lives of our wives 
and children, the enemy being near and the warnings by gods providence 
upon our neighbors being very solenme and awfull, do therefore order & 


agree joyntly to p^'pave a place of safety for women and children, and that 
all persons and teams shall attend y* said worke untill it be finished ; and 
account of y« whoU cliarge being kept, it shalbe equally divided upon the 
inhabitants witli other Towne charges. Also they appoint Serj"f ffoster. 
gpi-jiit Tomjison, Sam" Manning & Jonathan Danforth to be overseers of y'^ 

•••S. 8™. 75. At a meeting of ye selectmen <& comittee of millitia. 

'•In persuance of an order from the Hon<i Councill. sent unto them by 
warrant from y"^ worshp" Simon Willard Esquir, Serg"!^ Major, in i-eference 
to the gathering tlie inhabitants of the towne into severall garrisons 
according to their best capacity. 

'■^ Imprs. They liave ordered serg"' Hiirs house to be a garrison for 
that end of y^ towne, taking to it Nathaniel & Jonathan Hill. Tho : Dutton 
Jun^ 1/. W"". ftVench, Will'" Chamberline Sen% & Isaac Cliamberline, & two 
soldiers ; nine soldiers & five houses. 

"2. flfor y*' South end of y^ towne Serg"' flfoster's house is appointed & 
so to take to it his son Joseph fibster, James ftVost, Joseph fiVench, Joseph 
Walker, Daniel Rogers, John Kitteridge, Thomas Richardson, and two 
soldiers; ten soldiers and six liouses. 

'^'3. They appoint Simon Crosbees house for garrison and to receive 
Mr. Daniel, in cases, William and Jacob Hamlet, Jonathan Hides, Serj'. 
Tompson. Peter Bracket and three soldiers; 7 families. 

''4. They order to the Reverend Mr. Samuel Wliiting, his house, 
Thomas Dutton Sen'' & his son John, Daniel Shed Sen'' & his son John 
Shed, John DuiTant, John Rogers Sen"^ & his three sons, John. Thomas & 
Nathaniel Rogers, and two soldiers; eleven soldiei's & six families; & this 
to bee y'^ maine garrison & y^ last refuge in case of extremitj^ 

"5. They appoint Thomas Pattins house for garrison and to entertaine 
Goldin Moore, Samuel fi'rost, Jno Kidder, Roger Toothaker & John Trull ; 
seven soldiers & five families. 

•'G. They appoint James Patterson's house for garrison & to enter- 
taine John Baldwin, Edward & Tho^. Farmer, Henery & John Jeitts & two 
soldiers; 8 soldiers & 4 families. 

"'7. Whereas severall at y^ north end of y^ towne have already 
departed their own Habitations & several of y'" vnwilling to returne to y"" 
againe at ye present. Hence they order them to be entertained in y^ body 
of ye towne. 

"8. They order Serg"^' Kidder & Jonathan Danforth's houses to be 
garrison houses, & to entertaine as shall after be ordered to theui. 

"9. They order that y'^ ij^ons ordered to each garrison shall dispose of 
their corne (acording to ye order of y« Councill) neer unto their owne 
garrisons, unless they can els where better secure the same. 

"10. They order that every p^on afores<i shall equally contribute in 
labour or otherwise to fortify each house of garrison to which they are 
api)olnted and seasonably to attend y^ same, acording to y^ Councill's order, 
both psons & teames to attend ye same as in y® order of highway worke is 


reciuired, untill y*^ worke be clone. Only in case Mv. Daniel and Mr. Laine 
fortify themselves (they being very far from neighbours) they shall then 
be freed from fortifying y" garrisons to which they are appointed. And 
are also Empowered to keape a watch at their owne and to examine p^ons 
as other watches may do. 

'■11. They order that the Comitee of millitia & selectmen, each person 
that do pertaine to any garrison, shall oixler & regulate y® worke of y*^ same 
as overseers, & Serg°' Kidder is appointed overseer of Mr. Whiting's 
garrison, Joseph Tompson of Thomas Pattin's, & Jonathan Danforth of 
James Paterson's garrison, & that any three of y^ s" Comitee & selectmen 
may determine what shalbe done in reference to the fortifying each gari-ison 
& to determine any difference that may arise respecting y^ same. 

'"12. They order that all brush & underwood near y^ aforesaid garri- 
sons shalbe cutt up and cleared away, acording to the Council's order, each 
person to attend ye same both for time & place as they shall have after 
order. Also they order each inhabitant to attend their severall watches, as 
formerly, untill further ordei'." 

"14. 8m. 1675. At a meeting of y^ Hon'' major .Willard, The Select 
men, & Comittee of millitia. These severall orders were read before y^ 
Hon"i Major afores'^, considered and allowed by him, & ye inhabitants 
enjoyned to attend y^ same. 

"At the same time George ffiirley's house is allowed for garrison and 
to entertain more as it may be capable in time of extremity, as shalbe after 
ordered to him. 

''Also Jacob Frenches house is allowed for a garrison and to entertain 
John French, Corp' Marshall, Thomas Rosse, Will™ Chamberline Jun^ & 
two soldiers ; seaven soldiers & four houses ; and Corporal Marshall to be 
y<^ overseer & master of the garrison. 

'•Also, to Sargent Kidder's house is ordered Daniel Shed Jun, Samuel 
Trull & John Brackit, James Kidder Junr. and two soldiers ; 7 soldiers & 
4 families. 

"To Jonathan Danforth's house is ordered Samuel Manning. John 
Dunkin, Jonathan Danforth Junr, & 2 soldiers; 6 soldiers & 3 families. 

'•The Masters of y<^ severall garrison houses are the Rev^' Mr. Whiting, 
Sergn' Kidder, Serg"* Foster,^ Sei'g"f Hill, Serg"' Tompson, Corp" Marshall, 
Jonathan Danforth, Thomas Pattin & James Paterson. 

"Also, Timothy Brookes house is allowed for garrison & to entertain 
Michael Bacon's family, & to have two garrison soldiers to defend ye mill 
& himself y" master of the garrison. 

"Also, it is ordered that the severall soldiers sent hither to garrison 
shall assist in fortifying y severall houses to which they are appointed, as 
also to clear away such brush as is near such houses appointed for garrison, 
as they shall be ordered from time to time. 

•'Also, it is ordered that no hsted soldier of the Troop, or of y« foot 
company, shall remove their habitations & abode out of the town without 
lihertv first had & obtained from the Major of y*^ regiment or Comittee 


of millitia & selectmen of the town, on y^ peril of such a fine as shalbe 
imposed on them by such authority as shall have power to determine y® 

"■Neither shall any soldier af ores'* absent himself out of the towne 
about any private occations of his owne without leave first had and obtained 
from ye master of the garison to which tliey belong, vnder the penalty of 
five shilling's p day for every such defect, to be levied bj'^ y** Clark of ye 
band, as other fines for defect in training days are levied. 

"■And fiuther, it is ordered, in case of an alarme every soldier shall 
repair to y*" garrison vnto which he is appointed. 

"And in case any garison house be set upon by y'= enemje, Then y« 
garrisons next to them shall send reliefe to them as they are capable, not 
leaving their owne garrison without competent security for the time. 

"And in case of need, the women & children shall be conveyed to y^ 
inaine garison, if it may bee Avith safety, that so there maybe the better 
supply in case of need, the cheife officer to order and regulate the same, 
where there may be time so to do. 

"Also, the soldiers in garrison with us and the rest of the inhabitants 
yet remain vnder y^ comand of y<^ cheife officer, for ranging and scouting, 
as the case ma}' require, still securing y® towne in general. 

"Also, it is ordered, that every pson that shall shoot off" a gun, small 
or great, without leave from a coinander or in case of offence or defence 
against an enemie, shall pay as a fine two shillings & six pence, or set oft 
so much of their wages if they be garison men. 

"Also, the Selectmen & Comittee shall have further power to act in 
and about the premises (keeping to the order of the Hon"! Council afore- 
said) so as may best conduce to the benefit of the wholl, although in some 
respects altering what is alreadj^ ordered. 

"Also. Job Laine was allowed to fortify his owne house, and to have 
two soldiei's for garrison men to defend his house, in case y® country could 
spare them. 

" All this is allowed & confirmed by me, 

"Si: Willard. Serj.-3Iajor.''' 

It needs no lively imagination, reading between the lines of this 
record, to depicit something of the tumult, hardship, and peril through 
which Billerica was passing. Families fled from their homes to the 
garrison-houses, or the greater security of the lower towns. The 
labors of the field gave place to fortifying, scouting, and watching. 
The corn must be removed to safer receptacles. They organize a 
military company with Jonathan Danforth, lieutenant, and James 
Kidder, ensign. Some of their own brave sons enlist in the service 
of the Colony and march to peril and death. Timoth}' Farley was 
killed at Quaboag, August 2, in the assault on Lieutenant Wheeler's 
company, and John French carried through life the effect of the 


wounds received there. And two mothers approaching their con- 
finement sought comfort and safet}' in Charlestown — the wives of 
John Marshall and of the pastor ; nor is it too much to infer that 
the anxiety and hardship they had suffered may explain the death, in 
a few da3-s, of the sons born to them there. ^ 

Forty-eight families are enumerated in the list of assignments 
above given. In 1677, a question arose and it was decided by the 
General Court, that the families who "departed the town" at this 
time should pay their war tax in Billerica. The names of seven are 
recorded as involved in this decision. Three of these are included 
in the above forty-eight : Timothy Brooks, Michael Bacon, and 
Joseph Foster. The four others who fled from the town were John 
Blood, Robert Blood, Josiah Bracket, and John Poulter. But the 
Blood brothers, notwithstanding this decision, seem to have been 
doubtfully* attached to Billerica, and were soon after recognized as 
belonging to Concord. Billerica had then fifty families, in 1675. 

The location of these garrisons was substantially as follows : 
Sergt. Ralph Hill's house was near Mrs. Bo^'den's and opposite the 
late Captain Ranlett's. It stood till about 1850. Sergt. Thomas 
Foster's house was near Mr. Mason's, southeast of Bare Hill ; and 
Simon Crosby's was northwest of the same hill, near the fork of the 
Lexington and Woburn Roads. Rev. Samuel Whiting's, the main 
garrison, was just north of Charnstaffe Lane and west of the brook. 
Thomas Patten's was near the house of Mr. Frank Richardson. 
James Paterson's was the most northerly garrison, near Mr. Sanborn's. 
Sergeant Kidder's and Jonathan Danforth's were opposite each other 
on West Street, the former on the south side, where Gardner Parker, 
Esq., lives ; and Danforth's still standing, or rather just disappearing 
as this is written, in 1879, the only structure in town which is an 
incontestible relic of that day. George Farle^-'s was near the Jaquith 
place, southwest of the village ; and Jacob French's was near, if not 
identical with, the house in which Mr. James Fletcher resides, a 
half-mile east of the village. Mr. French's house, j-ears later, stood 
on the east side of the road, but he may have changed his own 
residence ; or, as uncertain as roads often were in those daj-s, this 
may easily have been turned from one side of the house to the other. 
Certainly the brick-lined walls and general structure of this venerable 

3 See baptismal record of the First Church, Charlestown, in Historical atid Gemalogicai 
Register. Vol. XXVI, p. 155. 


building represent the architecture of that period, and probably they 
are the same within which five families kept their drear}^ and painful 
watch and ward, in 1675. Timoth}' Brooks owned the mill at the 
falls of the Shawshin, in the east part of Bedford. Mr. Daniel, who 
had leave to fortifj' his own house, was on the south side of the 
Wobum Road, near the Shawshin River ; and Job Lane, who bought 
the Winthrop Farm, lived very near, if not in the same ancient 
house, just north of Huckins Street, in Bedford, where Mr. Hiram 
Button now lives. 

How much labor was spent in fortifying we may gather some 
idea by gleaning from the record the fact that the work done on 
Mr. Whiting's house, under the charge of Peter Bracket, employed 
thirty men, with several cattle, a little more than two days each, and 
the amount credited was eight pounds, six shillings, and nine i>ence. 
But the blow so long dreaded and guarded against did not fall, and 
the town was mercifully spared more than its common share in the 
burdens and losses of Philip's War. That share was sufficiently 
trying, and bore heavily upon the inhabitants. 

Chelmsford was not quite as exempt. A letter from that town,* 
dated "25: 12*". 1675," rejwrts that scouts found three dwellings 
burnt, "near where Joseph Parker was formerly shot," (he with 
others having been fired upon by Indians, but not killed,) and other 
signs of hostile Indians, and the more remote inhabitants had fled 
into the body of the town. Indians had been seen from Billerica on 
the west side of the Concord River, and fires, which were suspected 
to be signs of their presence. The letter asks an order to Billerica, 
"or otherwise," to secure "the bridge between them & us," and 
adds that some of their men are out, on Major Willard's order, and 
some on the other side of the Merrimack, to secure the corn of 
Colburn and others residing there, which Lieutenant Henchman had 
orders to do, and carry it over to his own house. 

A petition from Groton illustrates the situation of Billerica as 
well, during this anxious-and tedious winter of 1675-6.^ It " humbly 
shows" : — 

''That, whereas it seemeth meet to your worships to cOmmerid unto 
our honored Major Willard and impose upon hiui the maintaining a con- 
tinued scout of forty troopers and dragoons, to i-ange between Groton, 
Lancaster, and Marlborough and those parts; we make bold humbly to 

* Massachuttits Archives. Vol. LXVIIl, 1-14. ° Sec History of Groton, p. 71. 


present our conceptions upon that account. For Marlborough we do con- 
ceive the present supply left there in garrison do answer the end more 
fully, and will also render our scout an unnecessary burden ; for Lancaster 
and Groton we find by experience that the safety is little advanced in this 
way, by reason of so long absence and so great distance of this scout, 
necessary in this method. Besides the incumbrance lying upon us for 
quarters for horse and men, besides the drawing up of our men from 
several towns to such a limit, seems to carry inconvenience with it; the 
towns from whence our forces are raised, especially Chelmsford and 
Billerica, being weak and in want of more strength at home, and danger 
occurring to them by the sudden and suspicious removal of the Weymessit 
Indians, whose troopers do hereupon desire a release. Moreover, the con- 
ceptions of the towns related, conceive humbly, that a scout of garrison 
soldiers, though of a less number and these footmen, whom the towns may 
out of themselves make dragoons, by order from authority as occasion 
may present, would be more for the security of the towns; besides the 
hazard in which so small a number must needs go in, as we have sufficient 
gi"Ound to suspect by experience, and many emergencies which may sud- 
denly fall out before address be made to your worships. We humbly 
present to your honors consideration, and if it seem rational, to alter or 
add to this matter, according to your discretion. 

'•Your honors humble supplicants, 

"■James Parker. 
Tho: Wheeler. 

"Groton, Feb. 6, 1675-6. Henry Woodhouse." 

Mr. Parker had been an early citizen of Billerica, and this 
petition was dated only three or four days before the burning of 
Lancaster, and five weeks before that of Groton. It was written by 
Rev. Samuel Willard, of Groton, afterwards President of Harvard 
College, and son of Major Simon Willard, who was now devoting 
the last energies of his useful life to the defence of the Colony ; his 
death occuring April 24th. On March 29th he was in Chelmsford, 
and ordered the fortifying of Billerica bridge at the request of the 

At the same time Jonathan Danforth was in Cambridge, employed 
as the following paper shows : — ^ 

" Cambridge, 28 : 1 : 1676. 

"In obedience to an order of the Honorable Council, March, 1675-6, 

appointing us whose names are underwritten as a committee to consult the 

several towns of the County of Middlesex with reference to the best means 

of the preservation of our out-towns, remote houses and farms, for their 

» Groton, p. 72. 


security from the common enemy ; we having sent to the several towns to 
send us their apprehensions by some one meet person of each town, this 
day we consulted concerning the same and have concluded to propose as 
f olloweth : 

"1. That the towns of Sudbury, Concord, and Chelmsford be sti'ength- 
ened with forty men apiece, which said men are to be improved in scouting 
between town and town, who are to be commanded bj- men of pnidence, 
courage, and interest, in the said towns, and the parties in each town are to 
be ordered to keep together in some place commodious in said towns, and 
not in garrisoned houses ; and these men to be upon charge of the country. 

"2. That for the security of Billerica there be a garrison of a number 
competent at Weymessit, who may raise a thousand bushels of corn upon 
the lands of the Indians in that place ; ma}^ be improved daily in scouting 
and ranging the woods between Weymessit and Andover and on the west 
of Concord river, on the east and north of Chelmsford, which will discover 
the enemy before he comes to the towns and prevent lurking Indians about 
our towns. Also, that they shall be in a readiness to succor any of the 
three towns at any time, when in distress ; also, shall be ready to join with 
others to follow the enemy upon a sudden, after their appearing. 

"3. That such towns as Lancaster, Groton, and Marlborough, that are 
forced to remove, and have not some advantage of settlement (peculiai") in 
the Bay, be ordered to settle at the frontier towns that remain, for their 
strengthening ; and the people of the said towns to which they are appointed 
are to see to their accommodation in the said towns. 

"4. That the said towns have their own men returned that are abroad, 
and their men freed from impi-essment during their present state. 

•'S. That thei-e be appointed a select number of persons in each town 
of Middlesex, Avho are, upon any information of the distress of any town, 
forthwith to repair to the relief tliereof ; and that such information maybe 
seasonable, the towns are to dispatch posts, each town to the next, till 
notice be conveyed over the whole country, if need be. 

"And in reference to the line of stocadoes proposed to the serious 
consideration, after our best advice upon it. it is conceived by ourselves and 
by all the persons sent by the several towns, that it is not admissible for 
the reasons following : 

'•1. The excessive charge to effect it, maintain and keep it, tlie line 
being conceived, by those that know it best, to be longer than is proposed ; 
neither can several fords fall in the line, unless it be run so crooked that 
it will be more disadvantage than profit. 

'••2. The length of time before it can be accomplished, in which time 
it is to be feared that many of the towns included will be depopulated, 
unless other means prevent. 

''3. The damage it will be in taking off laborers, which in this season 
of the j^ear had need be improved in sowing and planting, help in many 
places being very scarce. 

"4. The usefuhiess of it, when it is done, it being so easy a matter 
to break through it, and the rivers which ai-e to fence a great part of these 


towns are fordable in several places, and in all other places passable by- 
rafts, &c., which is much in use by the Indians at this day. We might add 
the great discontent and mourning of the people in general, so far as we 
have had opportunity to discover concerning it, that we fear the imposing 
of such a thing would effect an ill consequence. These things considered, 
besides several other reasons of weight that might be added, cause us to 
present our apprehensions, as in the first place we did, that the drawing of 
this line at this time is not admissible ; but all with humble submission to 
your Honors in the case. 

"•Your humble servants, 

"Hugh Mason. 
Jonathan Danforth. 
Richard Lowdon." 

The share that Billerica took in the military service is suggested 
by items like these 'J Samuel Whiting is enrolled among the troopers ; 
Job Lane is impressed ; and Daniel Rogers, from December to Feb- 
ruar}', 1675. And wben, fifty years after, Massachusetts rewarded 
the soldiers in this war somewhat tardily by laud-grants, the following 
Billerica men or their heirs shared in these "Narragansett" grants, 
proving that they had been in the service : Samuel Hunt, John 
Needham, James Paterson, Nathaniel Rogers, John Shed, John 
Sheldon, John Stearns, Joseph Thompson. 

These and possibly others are the men alluded to in the following 
action of the town, in June, 1676: "The selectmen, considering 
the necessity of some speedy care to be taken that y" corne of those 
souldiers that are now in the country service should forthwith be 
dressed, do order the constables to take special care of y^ same, & 
* * to impress persons into that worke, as need shall require ; 
& that y® constables lay not the burden of this worke upon some few 
particular persons, but as much in general as may bee, only taking 
them most that may bee in y^ best capacity to attend it with least 

The position of the Christian Indians at Wamesit and other 
"praying towns" was one of especial embaiTassment and hardship 
during these dark days. Gookin was their candid judge, as well 
as their true friend, aifd his estimate of their attitude was amply 
vindicated by later developments.* They were honestly friendly, 
and desired to act on the former advice of Passaconaway. Gookin 
wished that advantage be taken of this fact, and that their forts at 

7 Massachusetts Archives. Vols. LXVni, LXIX, and CXIV, p. 104. 

8 See his account of the Christian Indians, in Archeologia Americana. Vol. II, p. 411. 


Fort Hill and elsewhere should be manned by a few English soldiers, 
who could direct and use the activity of the Indians in the public 
defence. But the excited imaginations of the English, generally, 
could appreciate no distinction of friendly and hostile Indians, and 
every red man was a foe to be dreaded and distrusted, if not shot at 
sight ; and Captain Gookin's wise plan of defence stood no chance 
of being accepted. The hostile Indians, of course, sought every 
opportunity^ and found manj', to foment this jealous}', if they could 
not win the Christian Indians to their side. 

Wannalancet, the Wamesit sachem, had retired at the beginning 
of the war to the vicinity of Penacoock (Concord) , and subsequently 
to the region of the upper Connecticut, resisting overtures from the 
English to induce him to return. A portion of the tribe remained 
at Pawtucket. James Richardson, of Chelmsford, was for a time 
in charge of them ; and a barn or haystack belonging to him was 
burned by skulking hostile Indians, as were two or three houses in 
the same town. The unfortunate Wamesits were falsely charged 
with these acts ; and a party of fourteen Chelmsford men, under 
pretence of scouting for Philip's forces, went out to assail them.^ 
Calling the unsuspecting Indians from their wigwams, two of the 
party fired. Five women and children were wounded, and one boy 
was killed. The others were restrained from their murderous 
purpose, and the outrage was severely condemned by the better part 
of the English. The murderers were tried ; but the juries, swayed 
by the popular feeling, would not convict them. The Indians saw 
that however friendly they might be their lives were in peril, and 
fled to the woods for safety. The Council sent Lieutenant Henchman 
to persuade them to return, but at first without avail. After three 
weeks of great suffering for want of food, most of them, however, 
did return. The Council directed Major Henchman to treat them 
kindly, and sent Rev. John Eliot, with Majors Gookin and Willard, 
to encourage them and try to persuade the Chelmsford people to 
treat them better. 

It is not easy to determine the order of events, and the following 
incidents were probably concurrent with or prior to some of those 
above mentioned. The Court, as well as the Chelmsford men, 
undertook to punish the Wamesits for wrongs of which not these 
but others were guilty. They were summoned, and brought down 
to Boston ; convicted, on no good evidence, of the Chelmsford fires, 

» FelVs Annals. Vol. II, p. 578. 


and for a time imprisoned. Most of them were soon liberated and 
sent home, under conduct of Lieutenant Richardson. But a military 
company was encountered at Woburn on their way, and one of the 
soldiers against orders fired and killed a young brave. The murderer 
was acquitted by a jury. The Indians, alarmed by these repeated 
wrongs, again fled. They left behind six or seven persons too old 
or invalid to accompany them ; and the wigwam in which these 
unfortunates were left was set on fire by inhuman white men and 
consumed with all its inmates. The wretched remnant of the 
Wamesits, convinced at last that there was no peace for them in 
their Pawtucket homes, finally joined their chief in the depths of the 
forest, and did not return until the war was oA^er. 

It would not be strange if in retaliation for their wrongs some of 
the "Wamesits were responsible, as was charged, for later assaults. 
Mr. Hubbard, the pastor of Ipswich, in his Indian Wars, thus 
explains an attack at Andover. He records the burning of a house 
there and wounding of one Roger Marks, and adds: "Two more 
houses about Shawshen, beyond the said Andover, were burned 
about March 10 ; also they killed a young man of the said Town, 
April 8, the son of George Abbot. And another son of his was 
carried away the same day, who yet was returned some few months 
after, almost pined to Death with Hunger." Mr. Abbot lived on 
the Shawshin, in the west part of Andover, and the inference which 
has been drawn from Hubbard's language, that the houses "about 
Shawshen" which were burned were in Billerica, has no good foun- 
dation and is improbable. 

Joseph Abbot, of Andover, was slain, as we have seen, on 
April 8. The next da}^, which was the Sabbath, a special alarm 
occurred in Billerica, and troops from below were summoned to the 
defence of the town. Increase Mather tells us :" "This day, being 
the Lord's Day, there was an alarum at Charlestown, Cambridge, & 
other towns, by reason that sundry of the enemy were seen at 
Billerica, and (it seemeth) had shot a man there." A letter from 
John Cotton is also quoted, saying, "the Indians beset Billerica 
round about, the inhabitants being at meeting." 

Read Mather's doubtful statement about " a young man murdered 
there," in the light of Hubbard's record that Joseph Abbot was killed 
at Andover the day previous, and it becomes clearly probable that 

10 History, (Reprint of 1862,) p. 133. 


the trouble and bitterness of that anxious daj' were not intensified by 
the actual death of any one here. This probability is strengthened 
by the fact that Danforth, who records carefully by name all the 
victims of the massacres in 1692 and 1695, makes no such record 
at this time, as he sui'ely would not have omitted to do, if one of 
the sons of Billerica had then fallen, in circumstances so sad and 

Another glimpse of this Sabbath alarm is preserved in the 
following curious paper. John Seers, constable of "Wooburne," 
petitions the Court, 1676, May 10, complaining of John Wiman, 
"for resisting his impressment of a horse, when some time last 
April, Capt. J"". Cottier marched through oburn with several soldiers 
to go to bilerekye against the Indians, he having a warrant from our 
honred. ma3-gor Willard, late deseased, to m^'selfe & the constable 
at bilerekye, to impress horses or anything. * * because of the 
stir at bilerekye, about 20 of the best of our horses & men were 
gone up to help them, & horses were veiy scare." He goes on to 
recite the hard words and resistance of Wyman, and prays "for 
such action as will prevent such abuse, * * that soe I & other 
constables may not goe in fear of our lives, when we are upon the 
execution of our ofess," etc. 

Plainly the dsij when twenty troopers from Woburn came to the 
rescue of Billerica was one of serious alarm and agitation here. But 
the days of this dark trial were approaching an end, and, August 1, 
it was ordered, "that the gai'ison soldiers of Billerica, Chelmsford, 
& Groton be dismissed," unless those towns should within six days 
make the necessity of their continuance appear to the Council. 
Philip was killed on the 12th of August, and peace ensued, except 
on the eastern border, where the war dragged on another season. 
But its alarms no longer thrilled the homes of Billerica. Families 
could return to their houses and resume their accustomed duties. 
Farmers could plant and reap without expecting to hear a warwhoop ; 
and Mr. Whiting could write his sermons undisturbed by a sentinel's 
tread, and preach without having guns stacked at the church. 
Groton was less fortunate, in its greater suffering, and it was not till 
the spring of 1678 that its exiled inhabitants were able to reoccupy 
their deserted homes. 

Of the condition in which the town was left at the close of 
the war, we have fortunately a description in the language of the 


selectmen, whose petition to the General Court, "167G, 8™, 12," 
is preserved : — " 

'^ Whereas, by an order of this Hon^d Court, May the last, for the 
levying of 10 single country rates, it was ordered that the frontier towns, 
which wei-e considerably Aveakened in persons or estates by reason of y 
enemie, should represent their condition to this Court. 

"•These are humbly to entreat this Hon'^'^ Court to consider the condition 
of our towne, being weakened both in psons & estates by reason of the 
distress of the war. by reason of some persons removing from us the last 
winter & spring into other inland towns, & have paid their last 10 rates in 
those places to which they went ; others put off their cattell or took them 
to other towns, (for fear of losing them here by ye enemie.) & so are 
lyable to pay rates where they are, or else have spent great part of them in 
billetting gamson souldiers. 

''Six persons & their families removed out of town & paid elsewhere, 
so that. Whereas, our single country rate in Aug.. 1675, was 14. 07. 09; 
when we took an exact list of all, according as the law directs, y^ whole 
was but 11, 10, 3. We humbly intreat this Hon^d Court to give order to the 
country treasurer to abate us such a proportion as our rate falls short of 
what it was, that so our inhabitants may not be burthened beyond the true 
intent of y^ law, especially considering that part of that estate that paid 
in our town the last year, do pay these 10 rates in other towns, & we 
nevertheless pay o^ full rate, according to law. Also, we humbly intreat 
this Hon'"'^ Court to consider o'^ poor towne in reference to the great charge 
we have been at in keeping garrison soulders for the defense of towne & 
country, both the last j^ear & this sumer, which in all does amount to as 
much as 12 men's billet 35 weeks, or 120 weeks of one man, the bm-den of 
the same lying upon some few men, others there not capable to do it ; also 
many of our inhabitants are grown very low, several persons at this time 
having no bread corne; yet considerable families to provide for; & in 
genei-al we all drew very heavily, not knowing how to pay our dues & 
maintain our families. 

'"We humbly intreat this Hon""*! Court to consider our low condition & 
abate us in our after rates, as in your wisdom you shall see meet; so shall 
you further oblige your 

•'Humble Servants, 

''Jonathan Danforth, 
Ralph Hill, 
Joseph Thompson, 
John French, 

The Selectmen of Billerica.'''' 

Chelmsford and other towns presented similar appeals for relief, 
and were answered favorably ; but for some reason which does not 

" Massachusetts Archives. Vol. LXIX, f>9. 


appear, answer to Billerica was not made until 1677, October, and 
after a second petition had come from the selectmen. Then the 
Town Record says :^^ "the Court ordering that those families which 
did depart y* towne should pay their ten rates to us, notwithstanding 
their payment of them elsewhere." Seven names follow of the 
persons concerned: "John & Robert Blood, Mih : Bacon, Tim: 
Brooks, Josia Bracket, J"° Poulter, & Jos : Foster" ; and the sum 
which the constables are ordered to collect was thirty-one pounds, 
"and to add or abate for transportation." 

In June, 1677, an expedition, numbering two hundred Indians 
from Natick and forty English soldiers, was sent, under Captain 
Benjamin Swett, of Hampton, to the Kennebec, where the Indians 
were reported to have six forts well furnished. It ended in disaster ; 
and one Billerica soldier who was involved has left a record of it in 
his petition for relief. ^^ Thomas Button states that he "was imprest 
from Billerica and sent to the eastward." He was in "that fatal 
scirmish in which Capt. Swett, the worthy commander, was slain, 
and almost all his offisirs, with about 50 men and 21 more wounded." 
Button was one of the wounded ; "shot through the side of my belt 
& through the left knee, «&; fell down not able to help" himself. He 
recites a long story and asks, with apparent justice, for relief from 
the General Court. 

" See also Records of Massachusetts. Vol. V, p. 173. 
IS Massachusetts Archives. Vol. LXIX, 209. 




From the close of Philip's War, in 1676, a period of peace with 
the Indians ensued for fifteen years. These j^ears were not, however, 
free from anxiety and frequent alarms. The most interesting incident 
in the Indian history of Billerica during this period was the procuring 
of an Indian Deed. It is found in the Middlesex Records, Vol. IX, 
p. 274, and, omitting much legal phraseology, affirms, "that Sarah 
Indian, daughter of John Tahattawan, John Thomas and his wife 
Robert, John Nomphow and his mother Bess, all of Weymesitt, and 
Thomas Waban and his mother, the relict of old Waban, of Natick, 
deceased ; For and in consideration of the full and just sume of 13 
pounds sterling, silver. New England coj^ned, to them well and truly 
payd, by Jonathan Danforth, of Billerica, for the use of said town 
of Billerica ; i. e. to Sarah aforesaid, 5 p., to John Thomas and his 
wife, 50 shillings, to John Nomphow and his mother, 3 p., to Thomas 
Waban and his mother, fift}- shillings, etc.. Have granted * * all 
and all manner of Indian right and claim to that whole parcel of 
land, granted b}^ the General Court of this Colony, to be called by 
the name of Billerica, lying on both sides of the Shawshin river, and 
on both sides of Concord river, bounded by Merrimac river North, 
Andover North east, Woburn South, and Concord West, to have and 
to hold * * without the lawful claim of any Indian whatsoever." 

The date of this deed is, 5 June, 1685. Whether the motive 
which led to the acquisition of an Indian title at this late day was 
purely benevolent may be doubted. A conflict of claims as to the 
bounds of the town on the west side of Concord River had arisen. 
The bounds of the grant from the General Court were obscure, and, 
in 1684, the Bloods had obtained an Indian deed to quite a large 
tract, claimed also by Billerica, in the vicinity of the present Carlisle 


Village. The line described in the deed to Blood was "to begin at 
the North corner of Mr. Allen's farm," or not far from opposite the 
Two Brothers rocks, "to begin to state a straight line over the highest 
place of the great hill, called by y* Indians Puckatasset, till it come 
to Chelmsford line," inclnding all the land between the Bloods farms 
and Chelmsford line, "till j'ou come to a little brook at Concord 
village, [now Acton line,] and so down to the great river by Concord 
old bonnds." This description includes meadows which Billerica had 
gi'anted to her own citizens twenty j'ears earlier, and to which her 
right was confirmed, in 1700, by the General Court. When Billerica 
obtained her Indian deed, it was probably felt to be prudent to 
secure whatever title the natives could give, and not leave the benefit 
of it to the unjust claim of the Bloods. 

With the increase of English neighbors, the Indians at Wamesit 
found their home there less satisfactory-, or the prices offered for their 
lands more so, and gradually sold their reservation. "Wanalanset, 
Sachem," and others sell to Jonathan Tyng, 1687, December 2, two 
parcels, of which one was on the east of Concord River, and is 
described as containing " the old Planting ground, which the Indians, 
who were the former proprietors thereof, and their associates, used 
to employ & improve, by planting, fishing, & Dwelling thereon, for 
many years past, and contains 212 acres, more or less; and is 
bounded by Merrimac river four score pole, and so runs in a straight 
line nearest the south, to take in the greatest part of the old Fort 
Hill ; and bounded south b}' the fence of the old Indian field, and 
West by Concord river." ^ 

Tliis description includes less than half of the five hundred acres 
granted by the Court to the Indians there ; but it is improbable that 
they would have sold this angle between the rivers first, and, if the}^ 
did not, then this is the date when the Indian title there ceased. 

Mr. Tyng, however, deemed his Indian title not quite sufficient, 
and petitioned the Governor,- reciting that he had given satisfaction 
to the Indians to leave the same, and pra3'ing for a grant of the said 
lands, under "such moderate quit-rents and acknowledgment as to 
yo"^ Exc^' shall seem meet." 

The Winthrops had alread}' raised the question, whether the lapse 
of the Indian title would not open the way for them to reclaim thej 
full bound of their earlj' grant. When the Indian reservation at 

1 Middlesex "Deeds." Vol. XVI, p. 647. 

- Massaclmsetti Archives. Vol. CXXVIII, 274. 



Wamesit was taken from their grant, the Court gave them leave to 
locate an equivalent elsewhere ; but, for some reason, they did not 
avail themselves of this permission. Thej^ may have anticipated 
the depai-ture of the Indians, and preferred to retain the chance 
of recovering here. For this purpose, as early as 1679, Mr. Wait 
Winthrop presented a petition to the Court. ^ After reciting the fact 
and motives of the grant to his grandmother, he adds that "about 
y^ yeare 1661 or 1662 some psons, zealous To settle 3" Indyans in 
some civil and ecclesiastical state, moved y'' Gen' Court to gi'ant pt 
of s** laud, called, as I suppose, Waraeset, for an Indian plantacon, 
which y" Gen' Court granted, ordering y^ like quantity or value of 
other lands To be laid out to us in Lew thereof." He explains why 
the interests of the family were not defended, in opposition to this 
action, and proceeds to say, "that noe land hath been laid out since 
for our family ; and Though God has pleaded our Right by expelling 
y* Indian inhabitants and leaving 3'^ land in statu quo prius, 3"et I 
have informatcon that some English have, 1)3' Addresses to 3'" Honr*^ 
Court, petitioned for 3* same or part thereof. M3' humble request 
therefore is, that That which was soe long agoe, and upon such good 
and grateful consideracons granted to us, ma3' not be disposed from 
us, or, if an3' grant to that purpose be alread3' made, the same ma3' 
bee suspended Till our Cla3'mes and right ma3', at 3'*^ Appointment 
of this Hon'ble Court, further appeare." The Court, however, seems 
not to have favored Winthrop's petition, and Mr. T3'ng secured the 
title, which he sold to Borland, in 1687. 

The peace secured by Billerica and other towns from Indian 
assaults was precarious and maintained onl3' b3' constant vigilance. 
In 1689, Dover suffered a deadl3' assault, in which Major Richard 
Waldron, one of her oldest and foremost citizens, was barbarousl3^ 
murdered. European policy was perhaps the occasion of this out- 
break, for the Revolution in England gave the French, who ruled 
Canada, a pretence for instigating this attack. Five da3's litter, 
July 12, Lieutenant Henchman reports^ Indian spies around the 
garrisons in Dunstable and asks for relief, "20 men or more," a 
request soon repeated b3' the selectmen of that town. 

There was need enough for the military company which existed 
in Billerica, and of which an interesting glimpse is preserved in a 
report to the "onered govinev and counsel and jentlemen represent- 

3 Massachusetts Archives. Vol. XLV, 173. 
* Massachusetts Archives. Vol. CVII, 198. 


atives," giving account of the choice of officers, 1689, June 17.* 
Captain Danforth led the company out, gave them liberty of choice, 
manifested his own unfitness for the place and willingness that 
another be chosen. Only those who were twenty-one j'ears old 
voted. They took Captain Danforth at his word, and gave him only 
twelve votes, to thirty-five for Lieut. Joseph Tompson. Sergt. John 
Marshall was chosen lieutenant and Oliver Whiting ensign. Samuel 
Frost, whose spelling is marvellous, if he was "Clark," makes this 
return, and craves confirmation of the company's choice from the 
authorities. The representatives confirm it, but the governor and 
council "consent not"; and, disregarding the popular will, they 
"insist that Danforth remain Captain and Tompson Lieutenant, 
though Oliver Whiting is allowed as ensign." 

In 1690, the English, moved by these constant perils, and feeling 
that there would be no security as long as the French held Canada 
and sent their Indian allies on such blood}^ expeditions, laid their 
plans for the reduction of Canada. The result was disastrous. 
With great effort and cost an expedition set forth under Sir William 
Phipps against Quebec. But the delays were so great that it did not 
arrive in season for action, and could onl}' return discomfited. 

In this expedition Billerica was represented by no less a person 
than Captain Danforth, as appears from an order, ^ dated July 15, 
1690, "that Capt. Danforth, now going forth in their Maj'^' service, 
in the intended expedition for Canada, have liberty to hire some meet 
person in said town to serve his domestic occasions in his absence, 
and that the said person be exempted from impress to any public 
service other than attending duty in town during said expedition." 

In "1691, the Indians fell upon Dunstable, September 2d, and 
murdered Joseph Hassell, his wife Anne, his son Benjamin, and Mary 
Marks. Hassell's father Richard lived for a few years in Billerica, 
and was a ty thing-man here in 1679. They came again to Dunstable, 
September 26th, and killed Christopher Temple and Obadiah Perry. 
The latter, when fleeing from Dunstable on the alarm of 1675, had 
been permitted to hire in Billerica and resided here for some j'ears. 

The following winter an expedition was sent "to the Eastward," 
in which a son of Billerica did good service. Belknap, in his 
History of New Hampshire, repeats the account of it from Mather's 
Magnalia : "A young man being in the woods near Cochecho was 

5 Massachusetts Archives. Vol. CVII, 118. 
Massachusetts Archives. Vol. XXXVI, 166. 


fired at by some Indians. Lieut. Wilson immediately- went out with 
eighteen men, and finding the Indians, killed or wounded the whole 
party, excepting one. This struck a terror and kept them quiet the 
remainder of the winter. But on the tenth day of June, an army 
of French and Indians made a furious attack on Storer's garrison at 
Wells, where Capt. Convers commanded ; who, after a brave and 
resolute defence, was so happy as to drive them off with great 

Capt. James Convers was from Woburn, and his plucky lieutenant 
was John Wilson, of Billerica, who richly deserves to have his long 
forgotten part in this expedition recorded here for remembrance in 
Billerica. He came from Woburn in 1683, and built the mill, which 
long bore his name, on Vine Brook ; and there no doubt he lived. 
In 1700, he was granted three pounds for service and use of his own 
horse at this time. 

The Indian assault so long dreaded and guarded against fell at 
last upon Billerica soon after, and two homes were made desolate. 
This sad event occurred, 1 August, 1692, and the place was near the 
turn in the road by Mr. Russell's house, a half-mile south of North 
Billerica. In the earl}^ clays, there was a "cross-roads" at this 
point, an old road running south towards Fox Hill and the village. 
On the east side of this I'oad, and south of the other, now leading to 
the Rev. Elias Nason's place, was the home of John Dunkin, who, 
in 1670, received twent3'-fiVe acres of land here for the "fat ox," 
presented by the town to its deputy, Mt. Huraphrej' Davy, of Boston. 
He married Joanna, daughter of Henry Jefts, and died in December, 
1690, of small-pox, leaving seven children. His widow married 
Mr. Benjamin Dutton, whose father Thomas lived not far south on 
the same road. 

The other fated family lived opposite, or on the northeast angle 
between the two roads. Zachary Shed was the son of Daniel Shed, 
one of the early settlers. He married Mrs. Ann Bray, in 1677, and 
their home was blessed with five children at the time. 

Of the circumstances of this attack we know nothing. None of 
the histories of the period mention it ; and Danforth's record, giving 
the names and adding simples "all slain by y^ Indians," is our only 
iauthority for the fact of this first Billerica massacre. Lancaster 
suffered a similar attack two weeks earlier. Whether the same or 

' History of Woburn, p. 178, and Massachusetts Archives. Vol. LXX, 196. 


other Indians came here, and whether it wei-e in the morning, at 
noon, or in the night ; wliether the homes were burned or left to the 
smitten surAdvors, we can not tell. We only know that in each, the 
mother with her eldest and youngest child perished at the bloody 
hands of the savages ; but that is enough to stamp the dark da}' in 
the memor}' of Billerica, and make it fit that we glean and record all 
the little that we can of such sufferers. Mrs. Button was thirty-six 
years of age, one of the earliest natives of the town. Her daughter 
Mary Dunkin was sixteen, and her son Benoni, "son of her grief," 
was less than two, born two months after his father's death. If 
Mrs. Shed's age were the same as her husband's, she was also 
thirt3'-six ; her daughter Haunah was thirteen, and Agnes was a 
child of two 3'ears. None seem to have been made captives in this 
assault. Four families at least were living as far north, or beyond, 
which were for some reason spared b}' the savages. Mr. Shed's 
brother Daniel lived beside him. Beyond wa's Roger Toothaker, 
who at this ver}' time was wasting his time and substance in pursuit 
of the witchcraft delusions at Salem, and leaving his famil}' to 
charitable aid ; and farther north were John and Thomas Rogers, 
and probably John Levistone ; names all involved in the still more 
dreadful experience to come. The wives of both the Rogers brothers 
were sisters of the Sheds, and of these four brothers and sisters 
living within a mile of each other and of North Billerica, the family 
of Daniel Shed onl}' escaped in both attacks. 

The Records, Februar}' 27, 1692-3, show us the vigilance which 
the town needed to maintain under these trying circumstances. 
" At a meeting of the milicia in Bilerika, both of horse & foot, in 
observance of a warrant from our honoured Major, for the renueing 
of watching and scouting in our Town, ordered b}' the militia presnt 
that the watch at Capt. Hill's & in the centure of the Town, & a 
corporall for the end of the Towne, be careful!}^ observed, & notice 
unto the other outskirts of the Town to stand upon their gard, & to 
require to keep such a watch in their several quarters as the}' are 
capable of keeping. 

' ' At the same time it was agreed upon by the milicia, both gf the 
hors and foot, that a petition be drawn up in behalf of the Towne, 
to be sent by our deputie, Capt. Hill, & b}' him to be presented unto 
his excellency & y^ honoured Cowncell & Representatives assembled, 
or when assembled, for some easement of our scouting required 
of us, or metigations iu our public charges ; this was agreed upon 


by the milicia and b}' the selectmen & severall other inhabitanee 

Another aspect of the life of these anxious patriots comes out in 
the subjoined line of the record : ' ' We expended this evening at 
Bro. Crosbey's two pots of Rosted cider." 

Six months later we find the following order, addressed by 
Thomas Hinchman, Sergeant-Major, to Lieutenant John Lane, of 
Billerica, 23 August, 1G93 :* "By virtue of an order from the 
hour''' Lt. Govern'', bearing date 22 Aug., 1693, these are in his 
majisty's name to require you forthwith to Impress eight Troopers 
out of yo' troop und"" yo"" command, well appointed with arms and 
ammunition for his majisty's service ; four of which are to be daily 
Imployed as a scout about yo' town, especially towards the great 
swamp. The other foure you are to send to me, upon moon-day 
morning Nexte : you are also to send to me the names of the sold'* 
imprest who are to enter into sarvice on said moon-day. Wreof you. 
may not fail." 

With watching and service like this, diversified with witchcraft 
excitements and trials at Salem, and with an assault on (iroton, 
27 July, 1694, in which William Longlej-, the town clerk, his wife 
and five children, with two other children, were slain, the people of 
Billerica passed these trj'ing 3'ears. The second massacre fell upon 
them, 1695, August 5, four days more than three years after the 
first. The town clerk, who rarely turns aside from official record to 
mention incidents, gives four lines to this massacre:^ "This day 
received that awful stroke by the enem}' of fivetene persons slain & 
taken, more sad than that we met withall three ^-ears before, when 
we mett upon the like occasion." Mr. Farmer's narrative of this 
event was the result of careful inquiry- sixty ^ears ago, and is as 
follows '}° 

"•In the northerly part of the town, on the east side of Concord Kiver, 
lived a number of families, who, though without gan-isons and in a time of 
war, seemed to be under no apprehensions of danger. Their remoteness 
from the scenes of Indian depredations might have contributed to their 
fancied securitJ^ The Indians came suddenly upon theui in the day time. 
Dr. Mather, the only early writer who has mentioned the event, says it was 
reported they were on horseback, and from that circumstance • were not 
suspected for Indians, till they surprised the house they came to.' They 
entered the house of John Rogers, son of one of the earl}' settlers, about 

« See p. 99. s Records, Vol. II, p. 58. 

" Farmer aud Moore's Historical. Collections. Vol. II, p. 71. 


noon, and while from the fatigues of the daj' he was enjojing repose upon 
his bed. they diseliarged one of their arrows, wliieh entered liis neck and 
pierced the jugular vein. Awakened with this sudden and unexpected 
attack, he started up. seized tlie arrow, which he forcibly withdrew, and 
expired with the instrument of death in his hand. A woman being in the 
chamber threw herself out of the window and. though severely wounded, 
effected her escape by concealing herself among some flags. A young 
woman was scalped and left foi- dead, but survived the painful operation 
and lived :for many years afterwards. A son and daughter of Mr. Rogers 
w'ere taken prisoners. The family of John Levistone suffered most severely. 
His mother-in-law and five jn)ung children were killed and his eldest daughter 
captured. Thomas Rogers and his oldest son were killed. Mary, the wife 
of Dr. Roger Toothaker. was killed, and Margaret, his youngest daughter, 
taken prisoner. Fifteen persons wei'e killed or taken at this surprisal. The 
records of the town give the names of fourteen who were killed and 
taken into captivity. Ten were killed, of whom five were adults. Though 
the Indians were immediately pursued by the inhabitants of the center of 
the town, yet so eftVctually had they takeu precautions in their fiight. that 
all ettbrts to find them were unavailing. It is said they had even tied 
up the mouths of their dogs with A\ampum. from an apprehension that 
their barking would discover the direction they had taken. The shock 
given to the inhabitant's by this melancholy event was long had in painful 
remembrance." And, in his BiUcrica. Mr. Farmer adds: "Through the 
lapse of years, it is difficult to give a very circumstantial account of it, 
and the few particulars I have collected ought, perhaps, to receive some 
deductions from the brevity of human memory." 

The name of one sufferer on that day has escaped record. The 
other fourteen belonged to the four families already named. The 
family which was smitten most heavily was that of John Levistone. 
The site of his house has not been identified, but it was doubtless 
near that of John Rogers, probably southeast^ He was a Scotchman, 
and first appears in the employ of Carrier. He had married, in 
IG81, Margaret, the daughter of Thomas Ross, another Scotchman, 
who lived on the west side of Loes Plain, near Miss Allen's, and 
whose wife was Seeth Holman, of Cambridge. She had now been a 
widow about four months, and was cither visiting or living with her 
daughter, Mrs. Levistone, when death came so terribly at tlie hand 
of tlie savages. The parents escaped and their eldest son John ; 
but the daughter Sarah, aged eleven, was made captive, and the five 
younger children were all slain. Their names were Seth, Thomas, 
Mary, Margai-et, and Alexander. A more desolating sorrow could 
hardly fall upon a happy home in an hour. 

John Rogers lived nearly north of Mr. Talbot^s, about eighty 
rods. The well by his house may still be seen, and bricks from 


England may be dug from the cellar. He was nearly fift3^-four yeai's 
old and had lost his wife, Mary Shed, seven years before. Of his 
six children, four escaped ; but Daniel, aged twelve, and Mercy 
were made captives. 

Thomas Rogers, a younger brother, lived near. The spot has 
not been identified, but it was probabl}^ ver^' near where the village 
hall and school-house now stand. His first wife had been Hannah 
Shed, and after her death he married Mary Brown, a step-daughter 
of his father. He perished with his eldest sou Thomas, while his 
wife with two children escaped. It is a reasonable conjecture that 
the father and son were surprised awa}' from their home. 

There was one other victim of that bloody day, whose case was 
if possible more tragic. She was the wife of Dr. Roger Toothaker, 
and her home stood at the point where, in later yeai's, the Middlesex 
Canal left the Concord River. Tradition sajs it is still standing, as 
the ell of the old brick Rogers' house. Her personality and trials 
deserve special notice. Her name was Mary Alleu, and she was 
sister of that Martha Allen who married Thomas Carrier and was a 
victim of the witchcraft delusion at Salem three years before. Not 
only was Mrs. Toothaker's sister thus fatally involved, but her 
husband, with more freedom and foil}', neglecting the claims of his 
family and disregarding the a^Dpeals of the selectmen to return to his 
duty, left wife and children to the charity of his neighbors. Two 
of the children were apprenticed b}- the selectmen to Joseph Walker 
and Edward Farmer. Trials like these were mingled in the bitter 
cup of Mrs. Toothaker, with the Indian alarms and the massacre of 
her neighbors. At last the warwhoop of the savages sounded her 
death-knell, at the same time that her j'oungest daughter Margaret 
was borne into captivity-. If the remembrance and sympathy of 
later generations could aflTord any compensation for the sorrows of 
such a life, we might search far to find a person better entitled to 
them than Mary Allen Toothaker. 

The agitation and alarm which ran through the town, as the 
tidings of this bloody work spread, we can form slight conception of. 
The day was Monday, not, as some traditions affirm, the Sabbath. 
The "garrisons" would be soon filled with excited women and 
children ; the men would prepare for defence and attack, for pursuit 
of the retreating foe was the first impulse ; every nook, every tree 
and bush would be watched for a concealed foe ; and for many days 
the dread of another and deadlv blow must have shaken their hearts. 


Three weeks passed and the alarm continued. Colonel L3-nde, of 
Charlestown, was commissioned to pursue the foe, and his report 
discovers to us glimpses of what Billeriea was passing through. 

'•Aug. 23. 1695.^^ Receiving commission from the Honorable William 
Stoughton. Lieutenant-Goveinor, Comniander-in-Cliief over all the province 
of ^Massachusetts, with instructions for his Majesty's service in the county 
of Middlesex : persuant whereunto I went that night to Billeriea, where I 
found about tliree liundred men in arms from Woburn. Reading, Maiden, 
Medford. Cliarlestov\n. Cambridge, AV'atertown. under conduct of ]\rajor 
William Johnson. Major Jei-emiah Swaine. Major Wade, Capt. William 
Greene, Capt. John Greene, Lt. Remington, Lt. Homan, Capt. Gerfield," 
Sergeant Bond, and Mr. Sherman. 

"That night we maivhed to the river of Merrimack, guaixled the fords, 
there being three between Andovei- and Chelmsford, with about foity men 
at each foi-d, and with about one hundred men encam])ed that night at 
Prospect Hill, that lies between Chelmsford and the river, on the northern 
side of the great swamp ; leaving the remaining forces to guard the town. 
As soon as it was light, on the 24th of August instant, we sent men to thi^ 
top of the said hill, where we had a view of the said swamp and the 
country far about, but could discover no fire anywhere. Thence we pro- 
ceeded to range the woods between Andovei' and Chelmsford, but finding 
no sign of our enemies, we rendezvous at a place called Sandy Pond, about 
eight miles from Billeriea eastward; from whence about eleven of the 
clock that day we went to the great swamp, dismounted half our men. the 
other half talcing their horses. We caused the men on foot to pass through 
the swamp in a rank, each man at a distance as much as was convenient ; 
appointed to i-endezvous again at Prospect Hill ; Major Johnson, with about 
forty men, compassing the swamp on the west side, and mj-self with the 
rest of the soldiers on the east side. Our men on foot, with nuich difficulty 
having got through the swamp, gave us account that they saw a new track 
and smelt Indians in one place, but did not judge by their track there were 
above two ; having again rendezvous about four o'clock, afternoon, near 
Prospect Hill, having before noon ranged the woods belonging partly to 
Andover to the eastward of Prospect Hill, we proceeded to range the 
woods towards Chelmsford; rendezvousing again near the time of sun 
setting at the chief fording place on the Merrimack below Hunt's gan-ison, 
where 1 advised with all our officers. Having no prospect of doing service 
against the enemy, considering the evil that had accrued by drawing oft 
all forces at once, 1 left a guard of ten men to guard that ford, under the 

11 Massachusetts Archives. Vol. LI, 41. 

12 This "Capt. Gerlield" was Benjamin Garfield, of Watertown, and his name has 
already appeared (p. 81) as a member of the committee appointed by the General Court to 
run the important lines and decide the contest between Uillerica, Concord, and Chelmsford. 
He was the sou and grandson of successive Edwards, of Watertown, and was the aucestor 
of James A. (iartield, our lamented President, whose recent death has filled the world with 
sorrow. The line of descent is Edward, i Edward,- Benjamin, ^ Thomas,'' Thomas,'"' Solo- 
mon," Thomas,' Abraham,* who married Eliza Ballou, and settled in Ohio. 


direction of Hunt and Foster, of Billerica. until the 29th day of August 
instant, at night, and then to be dismissed witliout further order. Marching 
then up to Billeriea town in diverse parties, we rendezvous at the Ordinary, 
wliere paying off the army with thankful acknowledgments for their ready 
and willing service, at their request I dismissed them according to their 
desire, to make the best of their way home, whicli without doubt they 
attended: though with difficulty by reason of the darkness of the night. 

'"So concluding. I am. sir. 

"Your servant, 

Joseph Lynde, Lt.-Col. 

•'Dated at Charlestown. Aug. 25, 1695." 

"P. S. We have left about five hundred of bread in the hands of 
Capt. Datiforth, who was ilot so prudent in the disposal of some of wliat 
was silent as. in my way home I was informed, he should have been. I 
directed him at my coming away to preserve wliat was left until furtlier 
order. Yours, as above. J. L. 

Eight months later, we read the situation in the following from 
the Town Records : — 

"Aprill 6, 1696. Training day evening. At a meeting of the com- 
mision officers, both of horse and foot, by vertue of a warrant from our 
Major, we new erected our watches and ordered the repairing of garisons, 
and appointed the masters of them and the number of souldiers belonging 
to them, and otlier persons & families. 

"At the same meeting the comitiou officers with the selectmen ordered 
that the remainder of the old pouder be dispersed among the severall 
gai-isons acording unto the number of souldiers appointed unto them, to be 
eaqually distributed, and the master of the garison or the masters of the 
severall garisons unto whom the pouder is distributed to becom responcible 
for it. and to secure it and return it, or tlie valine of it in money, except 
there be occation for to make use thereof in tlieir own defence. 

••The same day the selectmen compounded with our drummers, John 
Shead & Samuel Frost, To pay forthwith unto John Shead twenty shillings, 
to clere with him while that day ; & to pay to Samuel Frost ten shillings, 
& to clere with him while that day ; but it hath not been attended." 

Account was taken in July of the ammunition stock in the hands 
of Capt. Danforth. It consisted of a barrel of powder, 110 pounds, 
part of an old barrel, 68 pounds, lead, 120 pounds, flints, 130, 
bullets, 38, and match "sufficient." 

These savage and desolating assaults on Billerica are incidents 
of what is known as "King William's War," dascribad by Mather, 
in his De(:('n)iiinii Lnctiio,siu)i, and extending from 1688 to 1698. 
There is no evidence that either of these attacks were preceded by 
any warnings, or that any other towns suffered at the same time. 


The dusky foe chose to fall upon some unsuspecting settlement and 
beat a hastv retreat before neighbors could rally to the i-eseue. This 
method of warfare must have been peculiarly trjiug, and demanded 
ceaseless vigilance. Of the situation and anxiet}' of the time, we 
have a picture in a letter of Christopher Osgood, of Andover, which 
must apply nearly as well to Billerica. It is dated, 1696, Aug. 14,^' 
and describes the danger, a number of men having been impressed 
from the town for the eastward expedition, the river being low and 
fordable, and the enem}' coming between Exeter aud Haverhill. 
"The people of our Town ai'e under such discouragements to stand 
their ground, that they are in y'' amazement of their spirits about 
contriving to break up and Remove, and every one to shift for their 
lives, though it be to y*" loss of their estates ; and some garrisons 
already are upon removing, and extremity of fear and dangers will 
not suffer men to know their duty"; for which and other reasons, 
he "makes our speedy application to y"" honor for present relief." 
Another letter relates, "that William Peeters, belonging to Samuel 
Blanchard's garrison, went to his house with one Hojt to fetch his 
horse, and not returning search was made and* both men were found 
killed and scalped. The house was about half a mile from the 
garrison, on the Bildrekey road, in an open plaj-n plase." 

During all these years of danger, the inhabitants must have 
grown unpleasantly familiar with the trouble and annoj'auce, as 
well as the peril, of garrison life. Houses not ample for a single 
family must be made to serve often a half-dozen families for shelter 
and defence ; and the comforts of life could have had small consid- 
eration. No list of the "garrisons" is given after 1675, but that 
changes and additions were made after so long a time is certain. 
The tradition is probable, that the Manning house, still standing on 
the Chelmsford Road, was in use as a garrison ; and it is certain 
that Samuel Hunt's house at Wamesit was so, and from its exposed 
situation it was probabl}' the most important. It stood a half-mile 
south of the Merrimack, at "Hunt's Falls," on what is now the farm 
of John Clark, somewhat south of a line connecting Mr. Clark's 
house and that of General Butler, and about equally distant from 
them. It was just east of the limits of Lowell. Here scouting 
parties must often have made a rendezvous, as they passed and 
repassed from Chelmsford to Andover, Prospect Hill, and the Great 

'2 Massachusetts Archives. Vol. LI, 59. 


Swamp. - The latter were plainly points of special interest and 
solicitude to the watchful inhabitants. 

In the history of these Indian Wars, the name of .John Lane 
conies into view as the leading militar}' man in the town. He 
appears in rapid succession as lieutenant, captain, and colonel, and 
is often mentioned. He is in command of a troop in 1693, and, in 
1696-7, Februar}' 12, received this order from Maj. Jonathan T^mg, 
of Dunstable:" "Having advice from the Lt. -Governor, that at 
the spring near approaching, it may be expected that the enem^^ will 
make fresh attacks, both by sea and land, I do therefore order that 
you make inquiry into the state of y^ troopers under your command, 
and see that every one of them be mounted on a good, serviceable 
horse for war, and furnished with a good, well-fitted carbine, besides 
pistolls, and to see that the whole troop be in Readiness to pass upon 
duty ; and in case of alarum upon * Discovering the approach of 
the enemy by sea, you are hereby ordei-ed with the several Troopers 
under your command, forthwith to repair to the port or place wuthin 
your county where the Alarum is first given, there to receive and 
attend to further orders," etc. But no call came to such service, 
and the nearest approach of the Indians during the years 1696 and 
1697 was at Dunstable, Haverhill, and Lancaster. 

Captain Tyng, of Dunstable, writes, 1696, September 1,'* of one 
person killed and one taken captive -'yesterday, both belonging to 
my garrison." He sent a negro and a Spanish Indian to do some 
haying across the river, and a soldier, a Plymouth Indian, to guard 
them. As they did not return and the dogs barked and howled, he 
became alarmed and sent word to Dunstable and to Captain Bowers, 
of Chelmsford, who speedily mustered twenty men, crossed the river, 
found the men dead and the Spanish Indian asleep. 

In 1697, Mai'ch 15, came the attack on Haverhill, immortalized 
by the heroism of Hannah Dustin, who was taken captive and borne 
as far as the Contoocook. There, on an island in the Merrimack, 
aided by her nurse and a lad who were taken with her, she joined 
consummate womanly tact and masculine heroism, killed and scalped 
ten of her captors, and reached her home safely with her trophies 
not man}' days after. 

A treaty of peace between France and England was signed, 
1697, September 11 ; but there were no ocean cables or steamships 

1* Lane Papers. *^ Massachusetts Archives. Vol. LI, 63. 


to bring the glad news to America, and, eleven days later, the 
treacherous Indians fell once more upon the settlements at Lancaster, 
burned two garrison-houses, and killed twenty-one, wounded two, 
and took six captives. This massacre brought special sorrow to 
Billerica, for one of the victims was the Rev. John Whiting, the 
3'oung pastor of the church, and .son of our Billerica pastor. It is 
said that he was oftered quarter, but chose rather to "fight to the 
last than resign himself to those whose tender mercies are cruel." 

The welcome peace was little more than an armistice, and, in 
1703, another ten years' war broke out, known as "'Queen Anne's 
War." A practical sign of its coming took the form of an order 
from Major Tyng to Capt. John Lane, 1702, April 22, requiring him 
"forthwith to take effectual care that there be strict execution of 
the act for regulating of y^ Malitia," and especially to inspect the 
force and see that it was duly provided with arms and ammunition. 
This order was not neglected. In the T>\a.ry of Judge Sewall, we 
have a glimpse of the fruit which it bore,'" and also of Billerica's 
aged pastor. Monday, 1702, October 26, he writes: "Waited on 
Gou"" to Wooburn ; dined there. From thence to Billericay. Visited 
languishing Mr. Sam' Whiting. I gave him 2 Balls of Chockalett 
and a pound of Figgs, which very kindly accepted. Saw the 
Company in Arms, led by Capt. Tomsou. Went to Chelmsford." 

At this point, the Lane Papers contribute a useful letter from 
Gov. Joseph Dudley to Major Lane. 

"Cambridge. 5 Nov., 1702. 
'"Sir: I desire you with two of your troops to repayr to the towns 
of Marlboro". Lancaster, Groten, Chehnsford, and Dunstable, and there 
deliver severally the letters given you. and encourage the officers in their 
duty, agreeable to the several Directions. You are also to labor, by all 
means, to speak Avith Wotanunmion and the Penacooke men, and to assure 
them of friendship with the Gouernor and all the English; but that we are 
fearful the french Indians will be amongst them soon and do mischief to 
the English, and that therefore we must have our scouts out. and if they 
will come and reside in any propper place near the English, they shall be 
welcome; if their hunting will not allow that, they must keep a good 
Distance from the English towns, and send one man only to Colonel Tyng, 
when they would speak with me, and they shall be welcome at all times, 
and 1 will never depart from my friendship to them if they will continue 
friends. Let the officers in the several towns use all prudence not to make 
the first breach, and let me hear from them on every ocation." 

•8 Massachusetts Historical Society's Collections. Fifth Series. Vol. VI, p. 67. 


Of training and guard duty, we may be sure that the Billeriea 
farmers had enough ; and the kind of service often called for is 
suggested by another order from Colonel Tyng to Captain Lane, 

1703, September 3:'" "These are to order 30U forthwith to give 
out your warrant to 3'our soldiers in Chelmsford, to watch, Two in 
a night and the daj- following, at the wading place at Wamesit ; and 
to continue in that service till they have gone Round. The soldiers 
are to keep at the said wading place till they are relieved, as the 
custom hath been, by Capt. Bowers' men." In 1704, more serious 
work awaited these soldiers. Early in that 3'ear, or in February, 
1703-4, a party assailed Northampton, surprised the guard, and 
made captives of Rev. John Williams, the pastor, his wife, and 
manv others. Mrs. Williams, with two of her children and more 
than twenty other captives, were put to death. Mr. Williams was 
afterwards redeemed, and published The Redeemed Captive. 

In July following, a force of seven hundred French and Indians 
again invaded Massachusetts, and finding Northampton well guarded, 
turned eastwai'd and fell upon Lancaster, Jul}" 31. The Boston 
News-Letter tells the story briefly : ' ' On Monda}^ morning past, the 
enemy, French and Indians, fell upon Lancaster, about four hundred 
of them, assaulted six garrisons at once, where the people defended 
themselves verj' well until assistance came in from all parts by the 
governor's order, so that in the evening there were three hundred 
men in the town. And the enemy was beaten off with loss, but are 
3'et hovering on the head of those towns, to make some farther 
impression if not prevented." The meeting-house was burned, with 
several dwellings and barns, and Lieutenant Wilder was killed and 
three soldiers ; but the rail}- was so prompt and the defence so 
vigorous, that the loss of life was smaller than in the previous 
assault. Among others, twelve Billeriea soldiers went to the rescue, 
and fortunately Captain Lane has preserved their names for us. 
They were " Samull Hill, Corporal, John Needham, Clark, Raph Hill, 
Centinell, John Farmer, Samull Hunt, Andrue Richardson, Thomas 
Ross, Nathanell Bacon, Samull Hill, Junr., William Grimbs, John 
Hunt, Steven Richardson," with four men from Chelmsford and three 
from Groton. "These nineteen were sent out * August y'' forth, 

1704, with ten days' provisions, and marched to Lancaster to inforce 
Major Taylor ; and they never as yet received anything for their 

" Lane Papers. 


provision ; there fore, they pray that they may be considered." It is 
to be hoped that so reasonable a request was properly answered. 

In November, Colonel Tyng received from the (General Court £24 
for building four blockhouses, one in Dunstable, two in Chelmsford, 
and one in Billerica. A blockhouse is referred to in the Records,'^ 
"nere Andouer line," and may be the same. 

It was probably in the same year, 1704, that Robert Parris was 
murdered, with his wife and daughter, at Dunstable ; and Joseph 
Hassell, Samuel Butterfield, and Samuel Whiting, Jr., taken captive. 
Thus a second time did the bittei'uess of these trying times enter the 
home of the aged pastor of Billerica. This son afterwards returned, 
but the injuries and sufferings borne probably shortened his life. 

To this period belongs an incident reported b}' tradition. It is 
good enough to be true, and comes with sufficient directness to 
strengthen its probability. We have it from Mr. Leander Hosmer, 
who is a grandson of the heroine, Mary Lane, daughter of Colonel 
John Lane. During a period of alarm, the familj- was left with only 
one man on guard. A certain stump excited the suspicion of Mar}-, 
as she looked out of the window, and she called upon the man to 
shoot it. He declined, and laughed at her apprehensions. At last 
she told him that if he would not shoot, she would take the gun and 
do it herself. This she did, and the stump rolled over, a dead Indian. 

The 3'ear 1705 passed without special incident, but, in 170G, a 
second attack at Dunstable alarmed Billerica and called out her 
militia in defence. A scouting party under command of Captain 
Pearson, of Rowley, was surprised at Weld's garrison, the Indians 
being equally- surprised, and a blood}- encounter followed in which a 
number were slain. Another party fell upon Blanchard's garrison, 
and killed Mr. Blanchard, his wife, a daughter, and Mrs. Hannah 
Blanchard. Seven days later, July 10, there was another encounter 
between the troopers and Indians, in which Joseph Kidder and 
Jeremiah Nelson, of Rowley, were killed, and John Pickard, of 
Rowle}', was mortally wounded, dying in Billerica, August 5th. 
Billerica was prompt in sending relief, and the Papers of Captain 
Lane give us : — 

•' A List of the Xaiues of the Troopers which sei'ved under my com- 
mand to the reliefe of Dunstable. July the fourth, seventeen hundred and 
six, being- twenty-nine men, two days, with the sustenance. 

'8 Vol. II, 246. 



"Thomas Eoss. 
Thomas Richardson. 
Andrew Richardson. 
Jonathan Richardson. 
John Farmer. 
Ohver Farmer. 
Thomas Pollard. 
Sam" Hill. 
Daniel Hill. 
Ralph Hill. 
John Stearns. 
Sam" Fitch. 
Mathew AVhipple. 
Josiah Bacon. 

Nathi' Page. 
Nath" Bacon. 
Henry Jeflfs. 
Benjamin Bacon. 
Sani> Sadey(?). 
John Hill.' 
Edward Spaldin. 
Sam" Chaml)erlin. 
Benoni Periliam. 
John Colborn. 
James Dutton. 
Quar'. Joseph Foster. 
Corp Sami Hill. 
Josiah Fasset.'* 

Another list follows : — 

"Those which served under me in my march to Groton and Dunstable 
and Dracut, from the 11'^ August to the 13*, by Command from his Exel- 
ency, are as followeth ; and served 3 days and found their own sustenance. 

Corp'. Thomas Tarbell. 

"Henry Jefts. 
Isaac Stearns. 
Nath" Hill. 
Thomas Richardson. 
Thomas Pollard. 
Jonath. Richardson. 
Jonath. Hill. 
Josiah Fasset. 
Simon Crosbe. 
Oliver Farmer. 

Josiah Bacon, Trumpeter. 
Benjamin Bacon. 
Danniel Hill. 
Edward Spaldin. 
Benoni Periham. 
Sam" Sadey(?). 
Sam^i Barron. 
Henery Spaldin. 
Samii Cliamberlin." 

Of the names on this roll, Edwai'd Spalding and those which 
follow probabl}' belonged to Chelmsford, and Tarbell was of Groton. 

Two other rolls are found which must be of a date near this time, 
but the nature of the service is not mentioned, except that one roll is 
headed: "The Names of the men that went the rouns with INIager 
Lane." Most of the above names reappear, and these in addition : 

Jonathan Bacon. 
Joseph Bacon. 
Nathaniel Bacon. 
Hugh Ditson. 
Thomas Farmer. 
William Grimbs. 
John Hunt. 
Samuel Hunt. 
John Kittrege, jr. 

Jobe Lane. 
John Lane. 
John Xeedham, Clerk. 
Kendall Patten. 
Steven Richardson. 
Isaac Stearns. 
John Stearns. 
Benjamin AValker. 
Jacob Walker. 


These names of men who were ready to meet the hardships and 
dangers of this Indian warfare, in defence of their imperilled homes, 
are as worthy of honored remembrance from a grateful posterity as 
those which we carefully record and tenderl3'' cherish, in the later 
wars of the Revolution and the Rebellion. . 

In the unsuccessful expedition of 1707 against Port Royal and 
that which had a better issue, in 1710, we may assume that some of 
the sons of Billerica had a part, as well as in the disastrous invasion 
of Canada by way of the 8t. Lawrence, in 1712. But the only 
record found of this period is another roll among the Lane Pitper.s, 
giving the names of twenty-six men all found above. The service 
is thus explained : — 

"BiLiHACY. September 18, 1708. 
"Reseved of Capt. John Lane the sum of eight pounds, three shillings 
and sixpence; 1 say. reseved by me foi' the solgers that bilar3' [sent?] unto 
Chelmsford and Groton. 

"James Dutton." 

Another ten years' peace came, in 1713, with the treaty of 
Utrecht, and was most welcome to the wear}' colonists. But the 
time had not arrived when they could safely remit their vigilance. 
In 1723 came another outbreak. It was more brief than the earlier 
wars, ending in two 3'ears ; but it is stamped more deeply in the 
memory and imagination of later times, by the heroism and tragic 
incidents of the Love well expedition. 

This was preceded, in 1724, by an attack at Dunstable, which 
Penhallow, in his Inrlhin Wars^'^^ describes: — 

••September 4th. they fell on Dunstable, and took twO in the evening; 
next morning. Lieut. French with fourteen men went in quest of them ; 
but being wav-l:iid. both he and one half of his company were destroyed. 
After that, as many more of a fresh company engaged them, but the enemy 
being much superior in number overpowered thera, with the loss of one 
man and four wounded.'' 

A muster-roll is preserved,^" dated 1722, July to November, 
which gives these Billerica names, under command of Sergeant 
Jonathan Butterfield, of Dunstable : John Farmer, William French, 
P^benezer Frost, John Patten, Joseph and Thomas Pollard, William 
8tickney, and John Whiting. They were probably employed in 

1" Collections of The New Hampshire Historical Society. Vol. I, p. 109. 
*" Massachusetts Archives. Vol. XC, 30. 


scouting and guard duty. When the outbreak came, one soldier 
from Billerica, and no doubt others with him, were emplo3'ed in 
more distant service. Tliomas Westbrook writes from York, 1724, 
April 21, that "Lt. John Lane has been so imprudent as to suffer 
his men to kill sundry Creatures belonging to the people of the 
Count}' of York." On summons, "he did not deny the fact, and 
made satisfaction to the people." 

A few months later, the government offered a bount}' for the 
scalps of Indians, as a measure of defence. Capt. John Lovewell, 
of Dunstable, at once raised a company of thirty men and set out 
on an expedition into the wilderness ; struck the Indian trail about 
forty-four miles above Winnipesaukee, and soon returned w^ith one 
scalp and a captive boy, for which they received, January 7, £200. 

Again he set out, January 30, with a larger company- of eighty- 
eight men, came up with the Indians by the pond which has since 
borne Lovewell's name, in Wakefield, New Hampshire, killed the 
whole party of ten, and returned to receive a bount3' of £1,000. 

The third and more memorable expedition set out with forty- 
seven men, 172.0, April lo. Its story has been often told and can 
not be repeated here. The swift march into the wilderness, the 
discovery of the Indians by Lovewell's Pond, the fierce encounter, 
in which the leader, with Chaplain Frye nnd nearly a third of his 
com|)any, lost their lives, at a cost to the savages of their chief, 
Paugus, and so many of his men, that the tribe never rallied from 
the blow : sermons and songs, chapters and volumes, have been 
devoted to the recital. 

Beyond the general interest of the Colony in this brave and in 
fact successful, though costly and sad, enterprise, Billerica had 
special connections with it. Jonathan Kittridge, who fell with 
Lovewell, was from this town, as was Solomon Keyes, one of the 
survivors. Chaplain Jonathan Frj^e, of Andover, who died of his 
wounds, and is commemorated in the name of the town of Fryeburg, 
Maine, was a teacher in Billerica, in 1724. And Lieutenant Seth 
Wyman, who succeeded to the command when Lovewell was killed, 
and with a« much skill as courage continued the contest and brought 
off the survivors, had a Billerica wife, Sarah Ross, and was of that 
Wyman family which lived just east of the Woburn line and was 
often intimately connected with l^illerica history. 

This vigorous and telling encounter gave the fathers a peace of 
twenty years. Then the mazes of European politics involved them 


again, and a declaration of war between England and France, in 
1744, stirred New England with the summons to arms. During the 
peace, the French had fortified and garrisoned Louisburg. It was a 
very strong fort, and in hostile hands was a constant and serious 
menace to the English colonies. Governor Shirley at once instituted 
a correspondence with the Government and the other colonies, which 
resulted in an expedition under Sir William Pepperell, who sailed 
from Boston, 1745, March 24. His entire force consisted of four 
thousand troops I'rom the various colonies ; and he was aided by 
four war vessels, mounting one hundred and eighty guns. The siege 
was prosecuted with singular courage and skill, and resulted in the 
surrender of the stronghold on the sixteenth of June. The whole 
enterprise was well conceived and bravely executed, and reflected the 
greatest credit upon the New England j'comanry, whose character it 
illustrated. "The plan for the reduction of a regularly constructed 
fortress," it has been well said, "was drawn b}' a lawyer, to be 
executed by a merchant, at the head of a body of husbandmen and 

Billeriea was well represented in this expedition. Only scattered 
and imperfect rolls of this heroic service are preserved f^ but glean- 
ing from these and ignoring, as we are entitled to do, the lines then 
recently drawn of Tewksbury and Bedford, we may record these 
names, most of which certainl}' and all probably belong to the old 
town : Captains Josiah Crosb}', Peter Hunt, and John Stearns, 
Lieutenant John Lane, Ensign Samuel Hunt, Corporal Solomon 
CrosV)y, and Privates Nathaniel Cumings, Samuel Farmer, Samuel 
Galusha, John Hill, Francis Kidder, Thomas Richardson, Jr., and 
David Tarbell ; and perhaps William Thompson, as the difljereuce in 
spelling does not weigh against the identity of this soldier with our 
William Tompson, so prominent a citizen during the Revolution. 
Doubtless other names should be added to this roll of honor. 

Emboldened bj' this splendid achievement. Governor Shirley 
pushed forward plans for an invasion the next year of Canada. 
France, on the other hand, alarmed by the fall of Louisburg for the 
safety of her American possessions, sent a powerful fleet under the 
command of Duke D'Anville. The design was supposed to be the 
rectovery of Louisburg, the desolation of the New England towns, 
and perhaps the conquest of the Colonies. The alarm was great 

=1 See articles by Charles Hudson, in The New England Historical and Genealogical 
Register. 1870, October, and 1871, July. 


and not unreasonable, and the troops found service nearer home 
than Canada, repairing forts and awaiting the dreaded attack. 
Praj'ers went up from the churches for the discomfiture of the 
enem}'. And when the glad news came that storms and dissensions 
had utterly disabled the mighty armament of France, the relief was 
widely recognized as the interposition of God in answer to pra^'er, 
and jo3'ful thanksgivings were offered to him. 

In the defensive military operations on the Connecticut River of 
this period, soldiers from Billeriea had a share, and in one disaster 
were the principal sufferers. Fort Dummer, in Brattleborough, was 
the earliest post establ'ished above Northfleld, in 1724, and twenty 
3-ears later a fort was built at ''No. 4," which was the origin of 
Charlestown. Around these posts very vigilant and useful scouting 
and some bra\e fighting were done, under the command of Capt. 
Josiah Willard and Capt. Phineas Stevens. In the muster-roll of a 
company which served under Captain Willard from February 10 to 
October 6, 1748, at Ashuelot, now Hinsdale, New Hampshire, the 
following Billeriea names are found : Josiah Crosby, Jonathan 
French, John Frost, Samuel Hill, Benjamin Osgood, and Joseph 
Kichardson, and probably Daniel Farmer. Whether William Hill 
and Reuben Walker were unrecorded sons of the town is not 

On June 16, a squad of fourteen men set out from Ashuelot for 
Fort Diunmer by way of Colonel Hinsdale's fort.^- The party was 
waylaid opposite the mouth of Broad Brook by a large company of 
Indians. The surprise was complete and disastrous. Three men 
were killed and scalped, and, by a singular fatality, they were all 
from Billeriea,— Jonathan French, John Frost, and Joseph Richard- 
son. Seven were taken prisoners, of whom one was killed at the 
first encampment, William Bickford, and his body buried a month 
later. Four escaped across the river, one of whom, Daniel Farmer, 
was severely wounded. In response to the great gun from Fort 
Dummer, a relief party went up the next day from Northfield. 
They found and buried our Billeriea dead, scoured the country and 
found ''great signs of the enemy," showing that a large Indian force 
had been in ambush around the forts for several days. 

Of the captives, Benjamin Osgood, of Billeriea, and William 
Blandiard, of Dunstable, reached home Oct. 15 ; Henry Stevens, 

22 See History of Northfield, by Rev. J. H. Temple, p. 262. 


of Chelmsford, November 12, and Joel Johnson, of Woburn, earl}' 
in October. They all suffered great hardships, were imprisoned till 
August 29, and Osgood with most of the others had to run the 
gauntlet. All were feeble and emaciated on their return, and 
Osgood died soon after from the effect of his sufferings. 

Josiah Crosb}' was one of the four who escaped ; and of his 
experience we have an interesting account in a letter from John 
Farmer to Hon. Nathan Crosby. ^^ It differs somewhat from Mr. 
Temple's narrative outlined above, and on these points is less likely 
to be accurate. 

''In 1748, he was a soldier on Connecticut river. He, with 
fifteen more, commanded by a lieutenant, was ordered from Fort 
Dummer to Fort Hinsdale, about four miles, and when they were 
within one mile of Fort Hinsdale the}' fell into an ambush of one 
hundred and twenty Indians and French, who rose and fired. The 
commanding officer ordered each man to take care of himself. Two 
men escaped by secreting themselves ; one reached Fort Hinsdale. 
Crosby ran up the river towards Fort Dummer followed by an 
Indian, who, coming up within a few rods of him, discharged his 
piece at him. The ball passed near his right ear; he then turned 
and fired at the Indian, who fell, and he saw no more of him. He ' 
pursued his wa}' up the river until he came opposite Fort Dummer, 
where he attempted to swim the river, but before he could reach the 
opposite shore his strength failed him, and he sank to the bottom 
and was taken out by men from the fort." So narrowly escaped the 
onl}' one of the five sons of Billerica known to have been in that 
fatal encounter. Few daj's have brought as deep and sudden sorrow 
to so many families in our old town ; none, perhaps, except those 
of the Indian massacres in 1G92 and 1G95. 

All these tedious conflicts and trials of the colonists were 
incidents of the contest between England and France for supremacy 
in America. The prize was a brilliant^ one, and for more than fifty 
years it had been carried on steadil}- on the fields alternately of 
diplomacy and war. It reached at last a decision through a contest 
more general and severe than any which had been before undertaken, 
extending over seven 3'ears, from 1754 to 1761, and involving large 
armies, extensive expeditions, and incidents discreditable, disheart- 
ening, and glorious. The history of this final French and Indian 

23 A Crosby Family, p. 11. 


War has never been adequatel}^ told, and justice has not been done 
to many of its actors and incidents. The later war of the Revolution 
has thrown this in a measure into the background, and Americans 
toda}' scarcelj^ realize its proportions or significance. Certainl}-, if 
France had retained power in the North and West, there would have 
been no room for the later developments of the Anglo-Saxon in 
America, and the Revolution with all its fruits would have been 
precluded. And the cost to the colonists is clearly and impressively 
brought to view in the list of Billerica's soldiers engaged in it. 

The overture of this contest in 1754 finds Washington marching 
to a disaster in the west', and proposals for a union of the Colonies, 
which, if not at once successful, were prophetic. In 1755 Brad- 
dock appears on the scene, dying bravely but not nobly, while the 
young Virginia surveyor wins distinction from disaster. To the 
eastward an expedition of six thousand men takes the forts of 
Acadia, a success which led to the removal of the French neutral 
inhabitants, who refused to take the oath of allegiance, from then- 
homes, and their dispersion among the colonists. This war measure, 
certainl}- harsh, perhaps necessar}', has supplied our great American 
poet with the material for an epic, by which the memory of it will 
be perpetuated wherever the language is spoken. In the north the 
issue of the campaign was less decisive. An army of six thousand 
troops marched from Albau}' for Crown Point. Fort Edward was 
.built, and a detachment under Colonel Williams was defeated, with 
the death of its leader, whose name is perpetuated in the college, the 
foundation of which he wisely laid. This disaster was compensated 
by the repulse soon after of a large French army and the death of its 
commander, the brave Dieskau. Still the enemy held and fortified 
Ticonderoga ; and an expedition from Oswego against Niagara was 
belated and abandoned. 

In 175G Montcalm led the French against Oswego and held 
Ticonderoga and Crown Point successfully, the wishes and plans 
of the Colonies for their capture being frustrated b}* the incapacity 
and irresolution of the English leaders. Still darker seemed the 
English cause in 1757, when the army for the second reduction of 
Louisburg returned unsuccessful from Halifax, and Fort William 
Henr}- was sacrificed by a cowardly surrender to Montcalm. This 
surrender produced great excitement and alarm in New England, as 
it opened the wa}" for an invasion. Companies were immediately 
organized and marched to the rescue, thirty men enlisting from 


Billerica. But it soon became clear that Montcalm did not intend 
to push southward, and after a march of forty or fifty miles the 
troops generally returned to their homes. 

A change came in 1758, when the hand of the great Earl of 
Chatham was laid upon the helm in England. Louisburg capitu- 
lated to General Amherst, with an army of fourteen thousand, and 
Forts Frontenac and Du Quesne were taken. Abercrombie, with an 
arm}' of sixteen thousand, was repulsed in his expedition to Crown 
Point, and the death of the accomplished General Howe added to 
the disaster. Still the result of the campaign inspired new hope 
and prepared the way for the final and decisive struggle of 1759. 
To this end the war was carried into Africa, i. e. Canada. One 
column w'as to descend the St. Lawrence, another under Amherst 
was to go down the Champlain, while General Wolfe ascended the 
great river, the fortress of Quebec being the central point. The 
campaign proceeded with energ}' and decisive success. Pl'ideaux 
assailed Fort Niagara, and although he fell. Colonel Johnson, his . 
successor, soon received its capitulation and held control of the 
upper St. Lawrence. General Amherst led a force of eleven thou- 
sand men towards Lake Champlain, and the French abandoned 
Ticonderoga and Crown Point without a contest. But he failed to 
advance with energy and lost the opportunity to share and aid the 
attack on Quebec. To this, Wolfe came direct from England, 
with an army of eight thousand men and nearly fifty vessels. 
He arrived June 26, and pushed the siege with skill and courage 
until September 13, when he succeeded in gaining tlie Heights of 
Abraham, above the cit}', and compelled the bewildered Montcalm 
to give battle. He fell victorious, his brave antagonist being also 
raortall}' wounded, and the sceptre of France passed away, Amherst 
receiving tlie. capitulation of Montreal soon after. America w^as 
to be English and not French, and the issue of that day was 

In all these years of arduous service the hardy yeomanrj' of 
New^ England bore their full share. Not for the first time, nor the 
last, the}' gave proof how successfidly they could turn from farm 
and shop to campaign and battle. In the office of the Secretary of 
State are ten huge volumes, filled with the mss. rolls and records 
of the military service of this period. They are replete with the 
materials for histoiy, and any careful student of them must l)e 
surprised at the extent and variety of the ser\dce of these yeomen. 



BilleriCca did her part. I give below the names of her soldiers, 
as far as I have been able to glean them from these militar}' rolls. 
The list is necessarily imjoerfect. Of course I have been able to 
examine but a small part of the whole number, being guided by a 
general index in selecting such rolls, as by locality or names of 
known officers were likely to include names of Billerica men. Some 
of the rolls give the town from which the soldier came, but many 
do not, and the explorer is left in such cases to cull, if he can, 
by similarity of names or other circumstances, the men who should 
be credited to an}' town. In this process some names will be 
improperh' included, but others will be omitted. In this list the 
names which are unusual and do not appear, for instance, in the 
family' part of this volume, are given on the specific authorit}^ of the 
rolls. Their number is sufficient to prove that where this authority 
is wanting, some will of course be missed. I do not doubt that 
future and more careful inquiry will add names to this record. 

For the convenience of students I arrange these names alpha- 
betically, and indicate by an appended letter and explanation in 
most, but not all, cases, the general date and direction of the 
service. For the same reason I include the names recorded in the 
earlier war of 1745-8. The whole period of eighteen years includes 
thirteen of active hostilit}'. Billerica could hardly have contained 
at the time more than one thousand inhabitants. It is certaiulj^ 
creditable to the coui'age and patriotism of her citizens that during 
this period she furnished more than two hundred men in arms to the 
service of the State. 


Angler. Robert. 
Bacon. Ebenezer, /. 
Baldwin. Abel. 
Baldwin. Benjamin, b. c. d. 
Baldwin, David, d. 
Baldwin, John. 
Baldwin, Thomas, f. 
Beard, Josiah, d. 
Bedient, John. 
Bennett, James, d. 
Black. Bill, b. 
Blanchard, John. 
Blanchard. Simon. 
Bonner. William. 

Bootiiian, Jonathan. 
Bosworth, Joseph, /. 
Bowanuan. John. d. 
Bowers. William, a. 
Boj'nton. Richard, b. 
Brittan, Samuel. 
Brown, David. 
Brown, Josiah. 
Brown. Samuel, d. 
Brown. William, d. 
Buttei'fleld, Joseph, /. 
Butterfteld, William, d. 
Canada, James, d. 
Canada. John. (7. 




Chamberlain, John. d. 
Chamberlain, Thomas, d. 
Chamberlain, William, b. 
Chapman, John, c. 
Clai'k. Timothy. 
Coburn, James. 
Crosby, Daniel, e. 
Crosby. David, e. 
Crosby, Ephi-aim. 
Crosby, Francis, b. 
Crosby, Hezekiah, d. 
Crosby, Jacob, /. 
Crosby, Jesaniah. 
Crosby, Jolin, d. 
Crosby, Joseph, e. 
Crosby, Capt. Josiah. 
Crosb3% Josiah, c 
Crosby, Simon, b, d. 
Crosby, Solomon, l. 
Crosby, Thomas, d. 
Crosby, William, c. 
Cumings, Nathaniel, /, I. 
Danforth, Elijah, c, d. 
Danforth, John, d. 
Danforth, Jonathan, a. 
Danforth, Xiekles, c. 
Danforth. Samuel, a. 
Danforth, William, c. 
Danly, John. c. 
Ditson, Seth, a. 
Dowse. Eleazer, b. 
Dowse, Samuel, b. 
Dunekle, John, d. 
Dunekle, Nathaniel. 
Durrent, Abraham, «, d. 
Durrent, Henry, a. 
Durrent, Jonathan, d. 
Durrent, Thomas, c. 
Dutton, Timothy, d. 
Farley, Caleb, a. d. 
Farley, Timothy, d. 
Farmer, Andrew. 
Farmei", John. 
Farmer, Jonas, d. 
Farmer, Oliver. 
Farmer, IVter. a. 

Farmer. Samuel, I. 
Farmer, Thomas. 
Fassett, Ens. Josiah, c. 
Fassett, Samuel, d. 
Fletcher, John, a. 
Foster, Henry. 
French, Ebenezer. «, d. 
French, Jonathan, e.* 
French, Ens. Thomas, I. 
French, William, d. 
Frost, Ebenezer. 
Frost. John, e.* 
Frost, John. a. 
Frost, Samuel, a. 
Fuller. Thomas. 
Galusha, Samuel. I. 
Gardner, Edward. 
Gleason, William, c. 
Godfrey, Lieut. Simon, d.* 
Goodwin, Thomas, c. 
Gould, Benjamin, d. 
Gould, Nathaniel. 
Gould, Reuben, c. 
Gould, Sergt. Simeon. «, d. 
Gould. William, d. 
Gould, William. Jr., d. 
Gray, Joseph. 
Hall, Isaac, 6, c, d. 
Hall, Jacob. 
Hall, Tliomas, a. 
Hall, William, d. 
Hanes, Charles, d. 
Hardy, Ebenezer, c. 
Harris, Joseph, b. 
Hastings, Peter. 
Henry, John, d. 
Hill, John, /. r. 
Hill, Jonathan, d. 
Hill, Nathaniel, p,. 
Hill, Ralph, b. 
Hill, Samuel, e. 
Hopkins, Samuel, a. 
Horsley, James. 
Howard, Samuel. 
Hunt, Capt. Peter, I. 
Hunt. Sanuiel, e. 




Hunt. WilJiam, e. 
Jaquith, Ebenezer, a. 
Jeffs, William. 
Jonson. Josiali, a, c, d. 
Kemp, Joseph, d. 
Keys, Abner, c. 
Kidder, Ens. Benjamin, d. 
Kidder, Sergt. Ephraim, a. 
Kidder, Solomon, /. 
Lane, Lt. Johii, I. 
Lane, Thomas. 
Laws. Thomas, c, d. 
Levinston, William, e. 
Lewis, Benjamin, Jr., d. 
Lewis, Ebenezer, d. 
Lewis, John, d. 
McElvane, Daniel. 
Mace, Thomas, c. 
Manning, Abner, a. 
Manning, Benjamin, a. 
Manning, Lt. William, c. 
Merrill, Nathan. 
Moore. Jacob, /. 
Needhara, William. 
Newton, Philip, d. 
Nicholas, James, d. 
Nicljolas, Robert, d. 
Noyce, Isaac, d. 
Noyce, Nicholas, d. 
Osgood, Benjamin, e.* 
Parker, John. 
Parker, Nathaniel. 
Parry, James. Patten, John. 
Pemberton, James, 6, d. 
Perry, James. 
Pollard, Asa, a, d. 
Pollard, Benjamin, d. 
Pollard, John, e. 
Pollard, Jonathan. 
Pollard, Joseph, d. 
Pollard, Solomon. 
Pollard. Thomas. 
Ranking, Samuel. 
Richardson, Joseph, e.* 
Richardson, Thomas, Jr., I. 
Richardson. William. 

Robeson. John, c. 
Rogers, Thomas, d. 
Sanders, Amos, c. 
Sanders, Benjamin, a. 
Shed, Daniel. 
Shed, Samuel, c. 
Shed, William, /. 
Shed, Zaccheus, a. 
Silver, Daniel. 
Spaulding, Edward, d. 
Stearns, Charles. 
Stearns, Lt. Isaac, a. 
Stearns, Capt. John. I. 
Stearns, John, /. 
Stearns, Oliver, b. 
Stearns, Thomas, e. 
Stearns, Timothy, c. 
Stearns, Zachary. 
Stevens. Caleb. 
Stevens, John. 

Stickney, Sgt. Abraham, c, d. 
Stickney, Benjamin, d. 
Stickney, David. 
Stickney, Jonathan, d. 
Stickney, William. 
Tarble, David, c, I. 
Tarble, Jolm. 
Tompson, Ebenezer. 
Torapson, William, I. 
Totman, John. 
Trull, Samuel, e. 
Walker, Sergt. Joseph, c. 
Walker, Joseph. 
Walker, Reuben, e. 
Walker, Samuel. 
Walker, W^illiam. 
Wesson, William. 
Wliiting, John, c. 
Whiting, Jonathan. 
Wliiting, Thomas. 
Wilkins, Isaac, a. 
Wilson, Jacob, a, d. 
Wilson, Jonas. 
Wilson, Leonard, d. 
Wilson, Reuben, a. 
Wjanan, John. 


The letters refer to the following various services, the (*) indi- 
cating death. 

(/.) In Lonisburg expedition under Pepperell, in 1745. 

(e.) Service near the Connecticut, at Northfield, Fort Dummer, 
and "No. 4," in 1748. 

(/. ) "Expedition to the Eastward," 17o4. 

(a.) In the army operating against Crown Point, 1755-6. 

(6.) "Army for the reduction of Canada," serving in the same 
direction, or nearer home, 1757. 

(c.) "Relief of Ft. William Henry," 1758. The capture of this 
fort by Montcalm aAvakened great alarm of an immediate invasion, 
and companies were hastily organized all over the State for defence. 
The Billerica men are found enrolled in two companies. One, com- 
manded by David Green, had Josiah Fassett as ensign, and Joseph 
"Walker sergeant ; included seventeen men from this town ; and 
marched "unto y'' town of Marlborough, being about 25 miles." 
The other, with Capt. Thomas Flint, had Lieut. William Manning 
and Sergt. Abraham Stickney ; included fourteen from Billerica, and 
went as far as Shrewsburj^, " about 34 miles." On information there 
received they returned home and were disbanded. 

(d.) Service towards Crown Point and Lake Champlain, 1758-9. 
Here Lieut. Simon Godfre}*, from Billerica, was killed in a skirmish 
near Fort William Henr}', 1758, July 20, a few daj's after the death 
of Lord Howe. Some of these men may have gone down Lake 
Champlain with General Amherst and been present when Montreal 

Of the men whose service is not designated, a large number 
went, in 1762, on an expedition be3'ond "Albany river," or the 
Hudson, the object I am not able to give.^* 

The forcible removal of the French neutral inhabitants of Acadia 

2* The following references to The Massachusetts Archives give the volumes and the 
numbers of the rolls from which the above list has been gathered. I do not doubt that 
more extensive and careful examination than I have been able to make will discover addi- 
tions and corrections for this interesting record. 

Vol. XCI, 66-7, 170. 

Vol. XCII, 29, 79, 119, 26, 60, 82. 

Vol. XCTII, 29, .30, 35-6, 71, 1.3i, 6, 8, 181, 8. 

Vol. XCIV, 59, 80, 105, 23, 85, 97, .325, 48. 

Vol. XCV, 83, 101, 75, 481, 2, 503. 

Vol. XCVI, 46, 416, 54, 73, 5. 

Vol. XCVII, 159-63, 75, 81-3, 207, 20, 364-5. 

Vol. XCVIII, 93, 228, 55, .302, 13. 

Vol. XCIX, .36. 112, 4, 22, 53, 208. 19, .39, 45, 6. 56. 



entailed upon Massachusetts a heavy burden, in the cave of these 
homeless strangers. They were distributed to the various towns, 
and a large fjimily came to Billerica. Their presence appears in the 
treasurer's accounts for 1755. He is charged with bills exceding 
£11), the largest of which was for sundries, to the merchant Nathan- 
iel Davidson. Otlier citizens are paid for board, pork, rye, meal, 
meat, beans, and medical care. In 1758, Mr. Davidson agreed to 
provide for the family one year for £30, and the selectmen presented 
a bill to the State, ^ "for providing for John Kiiig, his wife, and 
seven small children, and Ann King and her child," for the year 
preceding. The items amounted to £25, 3s., lO^d., including 10s., 
id. for seven months' rent. In 1759, the constable is ordered to 
receive from the State treasurer £30, 13s., 2d. for the same purpose. 
In November, 1759, a petition^" from the selectmen recites some of 
the facts and prays for relief. The family had been sent to Billerica 
in Januar}", 1755. King had then six children, and Ann his kins- 
woman had a child born soon after. She afterwards married John 
Mitchel, who had been quartered at Londonderry, but seems to have 
joined the family here, where a child was born. King's eldest 
daughter was also married and had a child, and there were fourteen 
in the family. King was an old man with a young wife, and all 
were in a pitiable state of dependence. The selectmen add that the 
wretched house they had occupied could not be rented longer, and, 
at that season, the}' could not build a new one suitable for so large a 
family. Other towns had been burdened less, and they therefore 
pray for the removal of the family or for other relief. 

The Court granted their prayer, and directed the removal of the 
family at Billerica's expense to Dunstable, which was to receive and 
make suitable provision for them. 

25 Massachusetts Archives. Vol. XXIV, 80. 
2c Massachusetts Archives. Vol. XXIV, 234. 



The New England town was not a finished structure until it 
had a church and a pastor. Charters and grants embodied this 
condition, and were forfeit if it were not fulfilled in a reasonable 
period. The Puritans thought "the blessed ordinances of God's 
word" indispensable to any community, and did not desire to be 
associated with or responsible for the existence of any town where 
these wervi not enjoyed. 

In the petition of 1654-5 for the tract of land west of Concord 
River, mention is made of "Eevn'^. Mr. Miller and those that come 
along with him, who were so ingaged to us, your petitioners, that we 
are dayly in expectation of their coming." This was the Rev. John 
Miller, who had been ordained in England, had preached some time 
in Rowley as assistant of Rev. Ezekiel Rogers, the pastor, and 
then been for some years pastor of the church in Yarmouth. The 
negotiation to enlist him in the settlement of Billerica failed, and 
he remained at Yarmouth until 1662. He then went to Groton with 
the first settlers of that town, received a grant of a twenty- acre lot, 
and would have been installed the first pastor in Groton, but his 
sudden death, 1663, June 12, prevented. 

The first pastor of Billerica was to be a young man, who might 
here put on the harness, and identif}- his name and influence with 
the histor}' of the town. Providence held in reserve the man for 
the place and the place for the man. 

Three years pass, during which the number of families increased 
from ten to twenty-five, and the name of Whiting appears. 

'•^16^ 6m., 165S. At a Towns meeting. By vs, the inhabitance of 
Billirica, these severall propositions were discuste and agreed vpon by vs, 
(whose Xaraes are hereunto subscribed,) which are hereafter expressed: 


••1. Wee do agree to give Mr. Samuel Whiting, Junr.. (our minister,) 
that house which is now vpon 7"= towneship, comfortably finished, for him, 
and his heirs, if he continues amongst us during his life. But if he shall 
remove from amongst us, then the said house with all the acomodations of 
the same shall returne againe to the towne. to be at their dispose ; or, if 
Mr. Whiting shall dye with vs. then the towne shall have the refuseing of 
the said house and all other acomodations aforesaid belonging to the same, 
if Mrs. Whiting do sell y^ same. 

'•■2. We do promise to give to him y" sume of fourty pounds per year.^ 
for his maintenance, for the first two years of his setling with vs, and for 
the third year fifty pounds, and for the fourth year sixty pounds, and for 
afterwards we do promise and ingage to better his maintenance as tlie Lord 
shall better our estates. 

••3. We do Joyntly pmise to cary at o' owne charge, from year to 
year, so much of the pay (as doth amounte to twenty pounds) as shall be 
brought in to him in wheat or in otlier graine, or porke ; to deliver the same 
either at Mistick mill or at Charlestowne, which Mr. Whiting shall apointe, 
and to deliver the same at such prizes as such pay shall or doth at such 
times pass fro man to man, vnless Mr. Whiting and the Towne shall make 
any other agreement concerning the same. 

"4. We do promise to pvide his firewood & to bring it home to his 
house, from year to year, at our owne cliarges. 

"5. We do promise to fence him in a paster for to keape his horse in, 
as convenient as we may. 

^'ult. for his acomodations, we do promise to lay to y*' said house, a 
ten-acre lot, for his house-lot, and twelve acres of meadow, with other 
acomodations convenient to the same, 1. e. to grant to him all other divi- 
tions of lands and meadows, with other lots of y^ like quantity. 

■••The persons subscribing to the premises, who were then the inhabi- 
tance, were : 

•'Ralph Hill, Sen'. Johx Parker. 
Will™, ffrexch. James Parker. 

John Rogers, Sen^ Will™. Tay. 
George parley. Will™. Chamberline. 

Will™. Pattin. John Trull. 

Sam". Chamne. James Paterson. 

John Sternes. John Marshall. 


Ralph Hill, Ju"". Henery Jeiffs. 

John Baldwin." 

*' Also, at a Towne Meeting of y^ iuhabitance, ye 16, 10™., lOGl. 

"It is agreed. That whatever charges Mr. AVhiting shall be at, in 
makeing his house and land more convenient for his comfortable susistence 
and livelyhood amongst vs, in erecting anj' more building, fenceing, or 
breakeing of laud, or clearing of meadows, and the like ; That in case the 
providence of god so- orders it that afterwards he shall remove from us, 
and so (by our former agreement) leave all his acommodations to the use 


of the Towne, the towne do proniise that what the whole premises shall be 
the better, at his leaving it. bj^ reason of liis cost and charges upon it. It 
shall at that time be returned to him by the towne. as it sliall be adjudged 
by men indifferently chosen." 

It speaks well for the courage and faith of these founders of the 
town that, numbering only nineteen men, thej' were ready to put 
their hands to such an instrument and assume all its responsilnlit}'. 
It speaks well for the young Harvard graduate, of good birth and 
sterling ability, that he was ready to identifj- himself with the rising 
town and make liis home in this wilderness, when not even the little 
meeting-house of logs and thatch was yet erected. 

Where Mr. Whiting preached for the first two years, we can only 
conjecture ; perhaps at John Parker's, where earl}- town meetings 
were held ; perhaps in his own house. 

A year later, the following vote appears: — 

"It Is agreed, bj^ the major prt of the Towne, that Mr. Whiting shall 
liave 50 p. for this year, for his maintenance, and caring down corne, and 
making a well and hovell for his catell ; which is 10 p. more than o"" agree- 
ment for his yerely maintenance ; the caring his corne or other pay do^vTie 
to towne and getting his firewood included, to be done at Mr. Whiting's 
own charges." 

In the accounts of the town, credit is given to John Baldwin, 
George Farley, and Ralph Hill, Jr., for "oxen to help fetch Mr. 
Whiting"; and to Ralph Hill, Sr., Samuel Kemp, John Marshall, 
James Paterson, and John Rogers, "for John for going for Mr. 
Whiting." It was no small undertaking to help the minister remove 
to Billerica, at that day. 

When the earliest families had been five and six 3-ears .in town, 
when their number had increased to thirt}' and the}' had secured a 
minister, thej- were at length prepared to grapple with the serious 
problem of a house of worship. 

'•09. 9. 59. it is Agreed by the major prt of the Towne, that there 
shall be a meeting house built this winter foiling ; tliirty f oote Longe and. 
twenty and f oure foot wide, and twelve foot high ; the studs to be 3 foot 
asunder, the Comittee apoyuted to agree with workmen, to bild and finish 
the said house, are Ralph Hill, Sen^., George Farley, Jonathan Danforth ; 
it is agreed, also, that the sides and ends shall be covered with bords and 
the Roof with thatch.'' 

This primitive meeting-house stood south of the centre of the 
present common, having its length east and west. Probably the 



inhabitants contributed labor and lumber liberally to its erection, but 
John Parker was the principal builder, as appears from the following : 

''le. 10. 61. The town doe apoynte Will™ Tay, AVill'" Hamblet, & 
Jonathan Dauforth, as a Comitee to examine the acontes about y^ bildinge 
and finishing the meeting house, and to consider some way to propose to 
the towne for satisfying John Parker for his disbursements, what they in 
their judgment shall se meet, and in their best understanding shall eonseive 
ritasly due to him for the work done/' 

"6 : 11 : 61. the comitee abovesaide did meet together with the Towns- 
men, and examined the aconts, and they make this return foUowinge : to 
the Towne, we doe finde that acordinge to his aconts (which we judg to be 
Just and equall) there is due unto him The Just surae of eighteene pounds, 
fifteen shillings, three pence, we say, 18 : 15 : 3, and in consideration of the 
nature of the pay disbursed by him, exceedinge the quality of the pay 
received by him from the Towne, we Aprehend that the Towne may do 
well to make up the former sume full Twenty poundes. 

•'this was excepted and granted by the Towne." 

How Mr. Parker was paid has already appeared, in the account 
of the use made b}- the town of the land-grant of four thousand 
acres, received from the General Court, in Ma}-, 1661. {_See p. 47.] 

No record remains of the completion or dedication of this house ; 
but we may be sure that the devout fathers of Billerica did not fail to 
consecrate it to the service of God, with due solemnity and rejoicing. 
A humble structure, it was in harmony with its surroundings ; and 
worship fervent and true went up to God from its lowly walls. 

Provision was made soon after for the usual appendage of a New 
England meeting-house. 

"25, 7. 1660. The towne doe give leave that Ealph Hill, Sen'".. George 
Farley, Will™. French. Ealph Hill, Jun^., and John Parker, and such other 
persons as make use of their horses to Ride to y^ meetinge, shall have 
liberty to make sum housing or housings to sett up for horses from time to 
time, without molestatione ; and to sett up y" saide houseing below the Hill 
between the meeting house and Goldinge More's barn, or in sum other 
place conv«enient for them." 

More's barn was on Paul Hill's land, perhaps as far south as 
Deacon Lund's place ; and the sheds were probably near, or just 
south of, Mr. Hill's house. 

In 1661 the town '^appoint Lieut, ffrench, John Parker, Ralph 
Hill, Sen., and Will. Tay, to sett in the Deacon's seat; and also 
the town do appoint & impower these four men, joyned with Mr. 
Whitinge, to appoint the rest of the inhabitants and proprietors 
belonging to the town, there severall places where they shall sitt in 


the meeting house, acordhige to their best discretion. * * Also, 
it is agreed, if any person or persons be agrieved in their being- 
seated, and they doe make known their grievance to the persons 
above said ; they are to consider of their grievance, and acte as 
they in their discretion shall see meete, in seating them elsewhere," 
No church was yet organized, and the citizens of Billerica sought 
occasional church privileges with neighboring churches. The Rev. 
John Fiske, pastor of Clielmsford,^ mentions such courtes}' to Ralph 
Hill and George Farley, and the case of Jonathan Danforth is given 
at length. The latter is too interesting an account of the way the 
fathers felt and acted on such questions to be abbreviated. 

" Jonathan | He. about 7 of 12, '56, proposing himself e to this ch. 
Danford. j j.^^. fyUy^ygjiip. jf ^^s concluded to answer him as 
follows: Jonathan Danford. his desire being proposed to this ch., ['? 7 of 
12], to joyne himself in fellowship w* vs, it was considered of, and 
agitated, and in fine determined by joynte assent to returne him tins 
answer, in effect as folloM^eth: Namely, 

"That in case y^ ch at Cambridge shall graunt him a permission so to 
doe, yeelding vp wliat right thej^ have in him vnto this ch, and we shall 
receive satisfactione touching his being meetely qualified for y^ enjoj^m' of 
all church Priviledges, we shall v.illingly attend his desire to y'' receiving 
of him: otherwise we know no Kule of orderly proceeding with him, in 
this way ; he being by vertue of his father's covenant vnder the immediate 
inspection and charge (as we conceive) of y'' ch. of Cambridge. 

•"Afterward, y" Elders of Cambr. Ch., writing to vs as from themselves 
their apprehensions as to this effect, they conceived we might, notwith- 
.stauding, receive y said Jonathan without offence to that ch." 

" vpun 22 of l-^t-j 5G-57. It was returned thus: Jonathan Damford, 
his desire being vpon this day a 2"> time proposed to this ch, with L''^ from 
ye Elders of Cambr. Ch. The result of our ch. agitation amounted, in 
effect, to this, viz: that we, supposing he may be fitt to enjoy all ch. 
priviledges, can not otherwise but sympathise w''' him ; and therefore, as 
ye case to vs appears at present, we are not apprehensive we are orderly 
called as yet to satisfy his desire, for our parts, conceiving he belongetli to 
them whose w'e think he is, either plainely to disowne him or to dismisse 
him ; and, in case neither of these inaybee, we know no rule or reason 
why he may not firstly joyne himself in personall covenant with that ch, 
and afterward, as just cause is offered, to be either reconnnended or dis- 
missed, or both, vnto vs. Or else, if by reason of his distance fi'om that 
ch, this be refused, whereas yet thei-e are, as we suppose, members of y'' 

1 AfSS. Record, now in possession of Mr. David Pulsifur, at the State House. For 
permission to make extracts from tliis Record, I am indebted to the courtesy of Rev. H. M. 
J^exter, D. D., wlio has a copy of the obscure origiual, which was made for liim by Mr. 


said ch residing nigher to him than any of ours, he seems called, for his 
owne parte, to sit still a while & wayte till God more fully shew vp his 

Almost three years pass, and the case is reopened. 

''In 7, 59, ll™o, Jonathan Dafford brings L^^ from ye ch of C'ambr.. 
wherein they resign vp all their right in him vnto vs to proceed with him. 

•'After some long agitation, at 3 several times, and divers qu. in poj^nt 
of order proposed, y" case at length came to be stated, and ye case, as 
touching order vpon several grounds, concluded; and thereupon ye whole 
ch. agreed to send a l^ to y"^ Brethren at Billerica, to take off occasion of 
offence, and to cleere mor.e fully our way, as foUoweth : 

Ye Lr to 1 
Billerica. [ 

To or Beloved Brethren, &c. at Billerica, &c. : 
Bel. Bii. Whereas, 

"Jo: Danf : an Inhabitant amongst you. hath, for some time since, 
proposed himself as desirous to joyne w'^ vs in ch. fellowship, and hath 
obteyned Liberty from y« ch at Cambridge so to doe. as by JJ^ to vs from 
that ch is manifest to vs. And whereas we have been in some doubt about 
it since that time, as being hopefullj^ persuaded that ye longing desires of 
their soules, after ye enjojang of ye Ordinances of X. amongst yourselves, 
would have set them vpon y'' worke of Gathering a ch and ordeyning an 
Officer in y^ place; and that ye experience and observation of ye said 
Jonathan would have led you to have encouraged him in his desire after 
ye Ordin : in taking him amongst you in ye s'' worke and vnto the same : 
or otlierwise, in case of personal exception ag^' him, as regularly unmeete 
for fellowship, to have cleered yo'selves in the matter. But perceiving 
that neither this nor that is attended by you, so as we. for o^ partes, 
are readj^ to apprehend, had we been in yo^ case, it had concerned vs; 
Therefore, we have thought fitt to write vnto you, to desire you would 
speedily and with the first opertvmity ^nforme vs of these two things : 
First, whether indeed you bee, or doe intend soone to bee, in hand w"i y® 
s^i worke of gathering a ch. and within what space of time tliere is an 
intendment or likeljhoode of accomplishing the same? and whether j^ou. 
doe intend to accept of ye s<5 Jonathan amongst you vnto the worke? and, 
if not this or not that, then, if we maybe so far in yo'' favor, we should 
look at it as an act of Brotherly Love, to be enformed from you, of the 
grounds w'^^', if we may apprehend Just, you shall have vs (thro' y^ grace 
of Christ) in a readiness to strengthen yo"^ hands in what maj' concern vs. 
If otherwise, we shall desire to act o"" owne apprehensions as in what we 
shall conceive o^ duty, and in particular in reference to s*! Jonathan, with- 
out just cause of offense to you, in case you doe not lay before us grounds 
of conviction to the contrary. How meete we ma}^ find liim for Fellowship, 
we can not yet determine. To rob you of him, in case meete, far be it 
from vs. To receive hiin, you regularly judging liim unmeet, and so to 
retayne him to vs, when once you have a ch amongst you, be it as far from 
vs as ye other. Testimony from amongst you. we doe (in part at least) 


expect; and on y^ other side, as you will approve yo'selves faithful to 
Jesus X., and to the soule of y^ s<^ Jonathan, we doe looke you should, and 
hope you will, orderly remove matters of just offence, if any there be, or 
I seasonably and regularly enforme us. 

"Seriously we doe desire you would not slight (as we dare not con- 
clude you will) this, o^' Addresse vnto you, by a silent Answer, or by 
retarding a returne to vs from you, but that you would let us, within a 
short time, heare from you. and for the interim we commend you to y'= 
Guidance of y good Spirit of God and rest, Yo''* &c. 

''Chelmsfoud, 29 of 11, '59." 

"■12 of 2, '61. Also about Jon: Daford: when voted that we should 
proceed to tryal witli him, in order to his joining. A Testimony vnder 
Mr. Whiting's. W'". French. Jam : Parker's hand being Eedd." A month 
later. "12 of ;J, '(51. On this day Jonath. Daftbrd joyned in covenant with 
this ch. promising to attend y" IJule & order of y** Gospel, as touching 
joyning tlie ch at Billerlca, if once gathered, or else to remove his station 
to this or sonje other Towne where a church shall bee." Mr. Danforth 
kept his promise and took letters of dismission to the church in Billerica. 

The formation of a church was felt b}' the fathers of New Eng- 
land to be serious business, not to be lightly or hastily undertaken : 
and the importance of membership was viewed in the same light. 
We can not read this record between the lines without suspecting 
some difference of opinion among these Billerica men, and that the 
dela}- of the church organization is partially explained by that fact. 
To the valuable record of the Chelmsford pastor we are indebted for 
fuller light on this subject. The church in Billerica was organized, 
1(563, November 11 ; but the accounts of the town treasurer^ inti- 
mate the pi'esence of a council here in the April previous. Of this 
hitherto mysterious council, its object and result, IMr. Fiske fortu- 
_ nately gives us the full ^tor3'. His record brings out the fact that 
Billerica was agitated by the question, so serioush' disturbing the 
churches of the day, respecting the relation of baptized children to 
the church, and whether they could acquire, b}' infant baptism alone, 
the rights of citizenship in the State. 

The Chelmsford record is as follows : — 

" Billerica's case. 
"On 12 of 2'^ 63, Ave received let^ fro M'' Whiting & ye Breth" for ye 
Pastor & Bi-ethren to joj^ne with y*" other messengers of X^ in counsell to 
be given y"' about y''^ proceeding to X'^ state. Bro. Burge being chosen 
with ye pasf. Attendance was accordingly thr given on 27'ii of 2^, as 
appoynted, whr met us the messengers of ye X of Ooburne : but Cambr 

2 See ante, p. TO. 


& Watertowne messengers ea not, being as seemd by L>'s Hindred by Prvd. 
The messengers of y^ 2 s'' X^ befoi-esfi. being p^sent, were desired by y« 
Breth of Billericay, notwithstanding, to hr y« case & if possibl.y to help 
yn ; Accordingly, it was Attended upon tlie desire. & on the 2d daj% being 
the sitting day. Mr. Whiting & the rest, on both apprelieusions. met. But 
we could not co to state y"^ qu between them till the Afternoon. So after we 
had made many assaies with them togethr & ap^te. At length finding: 
1. That yf was a willingness & desire on both p^tes, to joyne together 
in ye worke of gathering a X & carrying on of y^ ordin : amongst them, 
notwithstanding y^ ditterance of y'' Appi'hensions aboute Children's state in 
y'' X concerning y^ [?] 2. That ye dissenting brethren to Mr. AVhiting's 
p'te had declared thereof : 

'•1. That y childr of parents in full colon were to be Baptized. 

"2. yes children, being baptized, are vnder the care of ye Church, w<='' 
is to see to y^ pious [nurture?] in ye heart & feare of God, & to be cate- 
chized. &c. Onely so' of y'" would not have y™ vnder ye pow'' of ye X to 
be censured, tho so' of y'" yielded it y' [?] now members, & might be *ex- 
co'icated if desei'ving. only )'« could not convej' any right of membersh to 
y'' Childr. nor could thr childr be i-eputed meuibrs, vnless y'^' Imediate piits 
were in full colon vpon this account. The following question being drawne 
vp & p posed, was consented to, on all hands, to be The Question." 

"The Copy of ye qu: & Answer given by ye Counsel to the Billericay 
Brethren is as follows : 28 of 2'', 03, Billei'icy. 

"Qu. Suppose an equall number of persons differing in thr opinions 
aboute childrens intereste in the Church (both Infants &, Adult) & both 
willing to practice their Opinion: How may such psons Joyne together 
according to a Rule & live together in church state according to a Eule? 

"A. We conceive as followeth : 

" 1. That the two dissenting parties doe each of them choose equality 
(su])pose fower). each of y'" of y"^ owne App'hensions, to be the matter of 
ye foundation. 2. That these all mutually & joyntly doe take & give 
satisfaction, each to other, touching there meetnes vnto this greafee worke. 
as in all other Respt^. 3. That if there app any just cause of laying by any 
one of these vpon the fores^^i account, that then One othr pson be chosen, 
according to ye first fposal, in his Roome : 4. That each trouble not the 
Other as to the nuitter of there appf'hension aboute the question betweene 
them, othrwise than by a Meeke, Brotherly & modest reasoning out the 
case of difterence by the Word of God. as occasion is offered, for the mutual 
help one of another. 5. That the matter of difterence as to the case of 
children simply beco no barr or lett to anj% othrwise fitt to be received 
in, or added to them. 

"Postscr. And we doe hope, thro the Lord's help, that if you can 
thus joyne in all Brotherly love & goe on together in the due exercise of 
the same Love, forbearance & Tenderness: you may longe continew to- 
gether with the Lord's blessed p'sence in the I'nidst of you, cleering up his 
will & way more fully to you in his owne season : wh'^'i we shall pray for 
on yo'' Behalves. 

••Subscribed: Jo: ffiske. 

Tho : Carter. 
Edw. Johnson. 

Jo". BURGK." 

The men who were interested Iq and moved bj- such questions 
as these had mental powers of no mean order. It is not eas}' for 
us fully to understand their position, but it does uot become us to 
underestimate them or smile at their difficulties. They were dealing 
at first hand with fundamental problems of church and state, and 


they had not the light of two hundred and fifty years' experience 
to guide them. This possible church, outlined by the April council, 
smacks suspiciously of Presbj^terian eldership and authorit}'. It can 
hardl}' be the same as the foundation which was actually' laid six 
months later. Again the Chelmsford record aids us : — 

•^1 of 9, 03, Billerica. 

■'Messengers fro y* eh. attended y^ eh. gathering at Billericay where 
they all made a Relatio of y^ worke of grace & consented in a written pro- 
fession of faith ; & Mr. Whiting ordayned pastor. y« daj'^ comfortable. 

The assembling of this council and its proceedings must have 
formed a notable day in the lives of the fathers. It will help us 
revive the memory of the scene, if we recall the names of those who 
were likely to have composed it. 

Roxburv was represented certainly- 1\y its junior pastor, Samuel 
Danforth. He was the colleague of John Eliot, the devout and 
active Indian missionary, whose marvellous translation of the Bible 
into the language of the Indians was printed that ver}- year. His 
labors among the natives at Wamesit must often have led him 
through Billerica, and it is pleasant to think that he also was prob- 
abh' present. Lynn must have sent her pastor, Samuel Whiting, 
Sen., the father of our candidate. And the mother church at Cam- 
bridge would not fail to share with her pastor, Jonathan IMitchel, in 
the joys of the day. Chelmsford, which had received as settlers a 
church already organized, with its pastor, John Fiske, gave gladly 
the hand of fellowship to a nearer sister. Concord, Woburn, and 
Andover would complete the circle of neighboring churches, and 
their pastors were Peter Bulklc}', the cousin of Mr. Whiting's mother, 
Thomas Carter, and Francis Dane. The first minister of Boston, 
John Wilson, ma}' have been present with his church; and Thomas 
Shepard, who had been Mr. Whiting's classmate at Harvard College, 
as pastor of Charlestown. Maiden, Reading, and Watcrtown would 
make up twelve churches, and their pastors were Michael Wiggles- 
worth, the poet, John Brock, the devout, and John Sherman, the 
eminent mathematician. 

Whether all these were present or not, it was a grave and rev- 
erend council which convened here on that November da}'. Our old 
town perhaps never had a more notable assembly. The candidate 
was most carefully examined in his doctrine and experience. He 
would have occasion to exercise all the logical skill acquired in his 


Harvard training and displa^-ed in his graduating thesis, on the 
question, ''An detur Maximuui et Minimum in Natura." There 
was at least one sermon, and the organization of tlie chnreh at the 
same time ma^' Iiave required anotlier ; and, if the custom of a hiter 
day then obtained, the candidate preached his own ordaining sermon. 
The possible duration of these public services is suggested in the 
Woburn experience. There, when the church was organized, Mr. 
Symmes introduced the services and ''continued in pra^'er and 
preaching about the space of four or five hours." What would 
follow such an introduction wc may imagine ! Whatever the order 
or length of the services, that litde thatched m?eting-honse was well 
filled In- a congregation too much interested, as well as too devout, 
to betray weariness or to thank their descendants for sympathy. 

It is due to this first and eminent pastor of Billerica that we 
glance at the home and influences which had aided in moukUng his 
character. The}' will help us to understand better, not onl}' this 
man himself, but others of his charge, fathers of the town. Rev. 
Samuel Whiting, of Lynn, was the father of our Samuel. Like 
John Cotton, of Boston, he gave the name of the English towh in 
which he was first pastor to his New England home. His father, 
John Whiting, and two of his brothers were mayors of the English 
Boston, and warm friends of their pastor, John Cotton, in whose 
Puritan convictions the}' shared. Samuel Whiting was born, 1597, 
November 20, and took the degrees of A. B. and A. M. at Emanuel 
College, Cambridge, 1G16 and 1620. Receiving orders, he was 
three years a famil}- chaplain, and then installed at Lynn R-'gis, in 
Norfolk. Here, after three years, his earnestness and iijdependence 
made him obnoxious to the Bishop of Norwich, and charges of non- 
conformity were made against him. But tlie d.'ath of King James 
relieved him, and ""the Bishop v.-as willing to promise his friend the 
Earl of Lincoln, who interceded for him, that he would no furth.^r 
worry him, in case he would begone out of his diocese where he 
could not reach him." He therefore removed to Skii'beck, near 
Boston his old home. Here he labored for some years, not less 
faithful to his non-conformist pi'inciples on account of persecution, 
until the pressure of the times under Charles drove him forth, as it 
did Cotton, Hooker, and so man}* of the noblest and best men and 
women of England, in search of peace and "freedom to worship 
God," in America. 

While living at Skirbeck Mr. Whiting married, 1629, August 6, 


his second wife, Elizabeth St. John, and here our Samuel, her eldest 
child, was born, 1G33, March 25. His mother was of a family still 
older and more notable. She was the daughter of the Riglit Hon. 
Oliver St. John, a member of Parliament. Her brother Oliver 
married a cousin of Oliver Cromwell, and was one of the first 
law3-ers and most progressive men of Ei^gland. He defended John 
Hampden in the great case in which he resisted the King, on the 
question of the payment of ship money, and made that name immortal 
among the defenders of liberty. Later he became, under Cromwell, 
the Lord Chief Justice of England. 

His sister, Mrs. Whiting, added grace to her name by tlie beauty 
of her person and the worth of her character. Her noble and gentle 
blood proved its true quality, by the faithfulness with which she 
performed . the dnt^' and bore the hardships of her 'position as the 
wife of the humble country minister. Her rank and w^ealth did not 
bind any fetters around the freedom of their religious convictions ; 
and when the Puritan minister would leave all that must have made 
England dear, she w^as read}' to face the hardships and perils of the 
wilderness with him and prove herself his true helpmeet. Coming 
of such a stock, from such a home, with the best training which the 
times had to give, the 3'oung pastor of Billerica was qualified to 
magnify his office and make his mark upon the rising town. 

No records of the church are in existence until the ■ settlement of 
the third pastor, in 1747, and on what basis of doctrine or covenant 
it was organized we know not. A renewal of covenant took place 
at that time, and it is sufficiently probable that the covenant then 
used, and found in the first book of the church's records which has 
been preserved, was identical with that wdiicli was adopted by the 
fathers. It is as follows : — 

"The Covenant of the Church of Christ in Billerica. 

'' We, the Church of Christ hi Billerica, hoping it will have a tendency 
the better to preserve peace and Order among us, and cause us to be more 
circumspect in our walk and conversation, renewedly to covenant with God 
and one another, thereby binding ourselves by an act of our own to walk 
in tlie way of God's comniandnienta, being sensible of our proneness to 
backslide; Tho we are unworthy of such a transaction, yijt IJenouuciug 
all confidence in our Selves and llelying on Christ alone for help, do cove- 
nant as follows, viz : 

'•We believe the Scriptures of the Old and Xew 'J'estament to be given 
by Inspiration of God, and promise by the Help of the Divine Spirit to 
govern om- Selves, both as to faith and practice, according to that perfect 


Rule; and we also engage to walk together as a Ch of Christ according to 
all those holy Rules of the Gospel respecting a particular Church of Christ, 
so far as God hath or shall I'eveal to us his mind in tliat respect. 

"AV'e do accordingl}^ Recognize the Covenant of Grace, in wliich we 
acknowledge our Selves professedly devoted to the fear and service of God, 
Our Supreme Lord, and to the Lord Jesus Christ, the High Priest, Prophet, 
and King of his Church, unto ^yhose Conduct we submit ourselves, on whom 
alone we wait and hoi)e for Grace and glory, to whom we bind ourselves in 
an Everlasting Covenant never to be broken. 

*" We likewise give our Selves up one to another as fellow membei's of 
one Body in brotherly Love and holy "Watchfulness over one another, for 
mutual Editication. and to Subject our Selves to all the Hol}^ administrations 
appointed by him who is the Head of his Church, dispensed according to 
the Rules of the Gospell. and to give our constant attendance on all the 
Publick Ordinances of Christ's Institution ; Walking orderly as becometh 

'•We do likewise acknowledge our Posterity to be included with us in 
the Gospel Covenant, and, Blessing God for so Rich a favour, do promise 
to bring them up in the Xurture and admonition of the Lord, with the 
greatest care ; and to ac^cnowledge them in their Covenant Relation accord- 
ing to tlie Rules of the Gospel. 

'"Furthermore, we promise to be careful to our utmost to keep vip all 
the Ordinances of the Gospel among us. and to admit to our Counnunion 
all Such as shall desire to Join themselves to us. If in a Judgment of 
Charity we can be satisfied they ai-e qualified therefor. And to walk in 
all Regular and due Communion with other Churches of our Lord Jesus 

"And now. since we have thus bound ourselves in Covenant to God 
.ind to one another, may the good Lord pity us and pardon our frailties; 
Humble us out of all confidence in our Selves; and may the grace of 
Christ, which is sufiieient for us, be aftbrded unto us; and he who is 
the great Shepherd of our souls Lead us into the paths of Truth and 
Righteousness for his Xame's sake, and at the last Receive us all into his 
heavenlj' Kingdom. Amen. 

"BiLLEKiCA, August 14, 1747." 

"■The Church met, havhig been Regularly notified & warned, & unani- 
mously voted and testified their consent to the aforewritten Covenant, and 
then- Resolution to adhere to and govern themselves bj' it. 

"'Test. Sa.muei.l Ruggles, Pasior."' 

The last clause suggests the influence of the question which early 
agitated the churches, as to the terms of comnuinion and church 
membership. At the beginning, in New England, only members of 
the church could vote or hold office. This fact did not result from 
the bigotrj' of the fathers. It would be as reasonal)le to reproach 
them for not having invented the steam-engine or discovered the 
circulation of the blood. Church membership was everywhere the 


rule of civil pri^ilogos. The very occasion of their trouble was, 
the extension, before unknown, which they were giving to those 
privileges and the right of suffrage as a factor of their new Common- 
wealth. In England the practice was to baptize all children in 
infanc}", and regard all as church members who had not been 
excommunicated. Persons appointed to office, civil or militar}', 
must "qualify" by receiving the communion in the church, and many 
received it for this purpose and neglected it for every other. The 
fathers had been educated in this school and had no experience in 
an}- differing ftom it. It was to them a large and doubtful assumption 
that civil privileges in the Christian State they were rearing could be 
safelj' extended to non-communicants. But their spiritual enlighten- 
ment convinced them that to sprinkle an infant with water did not 
make him a child of God, and they could not recognize tlio disciple- 
ship of those who gave, in mature 3'ears, no "credible evidence of 
regeneration." They were thus brought into practical difficulty. A 
generation of baptized children were coming to maturity, many of 
whom had not united with the churches and were by that fact 
excluded from rights and duties in which their activity was important 
to the common welfare. Moreover, the children of these non-com- 
municants were growing up withont baptism, which, in the mother 
country, the}' would have received. What was to be done? The 
debates grew earnest and serious, and the result was the calling of a 
synod by the General Court, consisting of the elders and messengers 
from all the churches. This was held in 1GG2, and Samuel "Whiting, 
the father, was a moderator of the body and had much influence in 
shaping its result. What is known as the Half- Way Covenant was 
the fruit of these deliberations. Some of the ablest divines in the 
synod opposed, but the majority decided : "a"". Church members, 
who were admitted in minority, understanding the doctrine of faith 
and publicly professing their assent thereto ; not scandalous in life 
and solemnly owning the covenant before the church wherein they 
give up themselves and their children to the Lord and subject them- 
selves to the government of Christ in the church, their children are 
to be baptized." 

On this compromise the practice of the church in Billerica rested. 
In fifty years of Dr. Cumings's ministry he admitted one hundred and 
ninety-nine persons to the Half-Way Covenant and three hundred 
and seven to full communion. The practice fell into neglect ; there 
is no record of its formal discontinuance. 



From the Town Records we glean items illustrative of the 
religious life of the church and its relations with its pastor. 
The first sexton was William Haile. 

'•12: 12: 02. by order & advise of y Townsmen, I did agree [John 
Parker Avas clerk and first 'townsman,' or selectman, and speaks in the 
first person] witli Will' Haill to Iveep y^ meeting-house clean for 1 year for 
2!)s. Also he doth ingadge to digg y*^ graves for sueli persons as shall dye 
in tliis Town, he being paj-d for y^ same 18 pr a grave, or more, if it doe 
apere to ))e worth more, as the Xater of the digging shall require or the 
season of the year shall fall out. to hinder him in the work by frost or the 
like, then the said Will' is to have a hand to help him if Xeed require." 

This service he continued to discharge until 1668, in which j-ear 
he died. John Trull succeeded him. 
A list of curious interest is 

The Rate for Mr. Whiting's m 

Ralph Hill 03 : 12 : 

Nathaniel Hill 03: 17; 

Captin Gookin's farme 03 : 02 : 

John ff'rench 01 : 11 ; 

George fi"arley 03 : 02 ; 

Will'^ French 01: 11; 

AVilliam Chamberlin 01 : 00 ; 

Heuery Jefts 01: 11: 
Eldr Richard Champncy 03 : 17 ; 

John Stern 03 : 02 : 

Daniell Shead 01 : 04 : 

Benjamin Parker 01 : 11 : 

Thomas Pattin 01: Oi: 

Jacob Brown 01 : 04: 
John Stern 

James Patterson 00 : 18 : OS 

John Rogers. Sen"- 01 : 04 : 10 

James Kidder 01 : 11 : 00 

Jonathan Dauforth 01 : 11 : 00 
Golden More & 

Joseph ttreneh 01 : 11 : 00 
Golden lO^, Joseph 1 : 01 

John Poulter 01 : 04 : 10 

John Baldwin . 01 : 04 : 10 

John Marshall ' • 00: 18: 08 

John Trull 00: 18: 08 

John Sheldon 01 : 11 : 00 

Willo Tay 01 : 11 : 00 

••7: 9: 64. the Townsmen did 
shall be paj-d him acordinge to y 
vere 64." 

lintenance for y^ yo.av 63. 
Willo Ilamlett 
John Parker 
Samuel Champneys 
ff"rancies Wyman 
Jolm AVynian 
Samuel Kemp 
Simon Crosbey 
Simon Bird 
Will" Haill 
Thomas Foster 
Christopher Webb 
Joseph Tomjison 
Peeter Brackett 
Captin Brackett 
Simon (Jrosby for 
Kinslej'Vs lot 
AViddow Hubart 
John Durant 
John Kittrige 
John Brackett 
Thomas Willice 
Roger Toothacre 
Samuell Trull 
Ja. fir o St 

Sume is 


11: 00 
17: 06 
03: 02: 00 
01: 11: 00 
01 : 11 : 00 
00: 15: 06 
01: 04: 10 
01: 11: 00 
00: 07: 09 
01 : 04 : 10 
00: 18: 08 
00: 15: 06 
00: 15: 06 

01 : 11 : 00 
00: IS: 08 
00: 07: 09 
00: 15: 06 
00: 15: 06 
00: 07: 09 
00: 03: 00 
00: 03: 00 
00: 15: 06 

71: 01: 8 

71: 9: 

agree that Mr. Whiting's maintenance 
' several sums above specified for ye 


The following are added in the handwriting of the succeeding 
clerk, WilU am Tay : — 

Roger Toothaker 00 - Of) - 02 

Jhon Rogers 00-14-02 

Sa. Trull 00 - 09 - 07 

Jos. flrench 00-09-10 

(?) 00-10-05 


74-01- 4 

The last name is ohf.curc ; it ma}' be Ranalls, but is not found 
elsewhere. These pa^'ments of the minister's rates were often, 
perhaps commonl}', made directly to the minister and his receipt 
taken ; a practice which might easily produce some confusion in 
the accounts of the town with him. When persons fell into arrears, 
in "clearing with Mr. Whiting," the case would be reported to the 
selectmen, as thus appears : — 

'''19. Om 66. The selectmen do order and inipower the constable to 
collect of several! y^ inhabitauee & proprietors amongst us those severall 
suuies of money, due to Mr. ^yhiting. our minister, according to a bill 
given in to the selectmen under ]N[r. AA'hiting's hand, for his yearly mainte- 
nance ; and in case any person shall neglect or refuse to pay in y"" same, 
aeording to order to Mr. Whiting, then the constable shall distraine such 
persons for their areers, aeording to law." 

'•^29 : 11 m 67. In town meeting it was agreed that for the futer Mr. 
Whiting shall have all his corne paid in to him at such prises as the court 
shall set for y« country rate annually. Also it was farther declared that 
the towne had formerly agreed to give Mr. Whiting one pound of butter 
upon every milch cow. annually, in part of pay." 

1670. '"It is agreed that y- minister's rate should annually be comitted 
to the constable's care, as y^ other town rates are." 

In 1G71-, the town voted: — 

'•That in case y« constables be forced to distraine any pson or psons 
for their dues to Mr. Whiting." * * they "shall not ttdce any lands or 
horse flesh, or anything that is not equivalent to wheat or other graine or 
porke at the countr}^ rate prise, both for the supply of jMr. Whiting's 
family and for the market,- which is the specia mentioned in the towne 
covenant with Mr. Whiting * * to be delivered at ^Ir. Whiting's house 
at their charge w^io are distrained. 

"Also. Job Laine's proposition to abate him, auually. part of his dues 
to Mr. Whiting was projjounded to the town, but not accepted." 


The matter of arrears in salar}* occurs in the Records every three 
or four years, the constables I'eceiving charge to see that delinquents 
"cleared with Mr. Whiting." In 168"), a list is given of forty 
persons whose arrears amount to £32, 18.s\, 10c/. 

At the town meeting, l()92-3, March 6 : — 

"The Kevereud Mr. Whiting propounded that the one part of the 
Covenant on the toAvn's part with him had not in his api'ehencion been 
fulfilled, the town haveing engadged above the seventj' pound per annum 
for to -better our pastour's maintenance as god should better our estates,' 
which had not yet bene done by any town act : for altho tliere had fre- 
quently^ bene over plus in the Rates, it had bene disposed of by the Towne 
for the payment of what afiually could not be gotten; y'^ Eevereud Mr. 
AVliitiug at the same time declared his readiness to comply with anything 
which was Kationall, and the town at the same time manifesting their 
thankful acknowledgement unto Mr. Whiting that had so far accepted 
what this pore place had been capable of dohig for him," etc. * * "The 
town do agre to make good the severall Rates that have bene comitted unto 
the Reverend Mr. Samuell Whiting, in the severall sums as they have bene 
comitted unto him, ever since the beginning of eightj^ four, & to see that 
they are paid in unto Mr. Whiting upon the account of making good the 
other part of the covenant above or besides the seaventy pounds ; & for 
the future we do engadge to alow Mr. AVhiting his firewood, auually, above 
his seventy' pound, in the same specie as before. 

■•the above said voat sent unto the Reverend Mr. Whiting by two of 
the inhabitance, to propound unto his consideration. & was Readilj'' aoepted 
unto the great satisfaction of the inhabitance." 

In 1698, December, the arrears due Mr. Whiting were found 
to amount to £64, 15s., 4cZ., almost a year's salary. The pastor 
desired that if anj* one claimed to have paid ivhat had not been 
credited to him, it should be allowed; The constables and selectmen 
were enjoined at length to secure the paj-ments due ; and, in case 
of their failure, the town promised "to satisfie rationally the person 
or persons that shall bring this discharge" from Mr. Whiting. 

Four years previously, when the second meeting-house was built, 
Mr. Whiting had made an offer to the town "either to give fivetene 
pound to the Town in desprat delfts, such as he should point out 
unto them, or ten pound in the undertaker's [builder's] hand, or six 
pound in sillver toward the purchasing of a bell"; in return for 
which he' was to have "a seat for his famil}' for his propriety." The 
town accepted the first offer, and in 1698 voted to "grant unto the 
Reverend Mr. Samuel Whiting that pue that his famih' now sits in, 
so long as he contiuues our minister. * * And in ease an after 


ministei* shoukl request that puo, rather than another, then the town 
do cngadge to build another of the same demencion and workman- 
ship, and to confirm it unto Mr. Whiting as his propriety forever." * 
Whereni)on Mr. AVhitiug ''did discount fivetene pound of the debts 
given in to tlie Town this dnv." 

• With tlic growtli of the town the primitive meeting-house Ijecame 
too small, and, in 1G79-80, it was shingled and a gallery put in. 
Samuel Frost covenanted to build the galler}- for '20 shillings in 
silver, and G pounds, 10 shillings "-in this present town rate." He 
was to erect it 

'■upon the beainos; * * to make one seat in front. & to floor it on 
the backside to the rooffe of the house; & set a bench behind it, such an 
one as that place will admit of. And two seats on ea(;h side, upon the 
beames, the foremost of each seat to come down as low as the undor side 
of the beames, that Is. the under side of the Joyce to be even with the 
chamfering of -the beames, & so all three fore seats to be even at y« bottom. 
The seats of the fore side seats shall be over the beames, and but a little 
above them. The hindmost side seats shall be behind and above the 
beames. each seat to be comely closed with rails and booi'ds. as is usiall in 
such work, the fore seat with ballisters. The floors made comely and 
close joynted, to preserve th;^ dirt from falling- downe. All the seats to be 
finished comely, aconling to the usiall mafier of such worke. with a 
suilieient paire of staiers to them, and a floor to cary to the seats, the hind 
seat at the west end to reach from roofl'e to rooffe. And to make a 
casement window of two foot square in the cleare. and put it up at y^ 
east end of the house above the collarbeame. To find all the stuffe and 
nails and boords and carting. at his owne charges; all the timber to be 
sound and good, and the work all well wrought, workmanlike, acording to 
y"-" nature of such worke (glass exempted), and the work to be done by y** 
last of March next." 

With this improvement the house served the fathers for worship 
fourteen j-ears longer, when the following record is found : — 

"8. 10™o, 1693. In reference to a new Meeting house, the town voted 
their willingness, and desire that Capt. Hill, Mr. Crosbey. Leift. Willson, 
and Sergt. Eichison should uudertake the same, to begin and finish. Redding 
fleeting house to be the pattern in most respects ; also, the;, are willing to 
<jive three hundred pounds, one quarter of it in money and y*-' seats of y® 
old raeetingliouse what may be of use, acording to disc;ours about it. The 
Town Appoint Capt. Danfoi-th, Leift. Tomson. Cornit Starns. and Joseph 
^Valker, Sen., to draAV up a bai'gain with the aforesaid undertakers; to 
order when the said house shall be finished and when the money shall be 
paid, and in what and at what tearines the inhabitants shall be imployed 
about it. Also, they order that when y« Court shall have approved our 


Town orders, a list of every man's estate shall be taken acording to former 
agreement, and y^ charges of said house assessed and to be collected 
according to agreement with the undertakers." 

July 9, 1694. Provision was made for staging for raising the 
nieetiug-house. Sundry inhabitants were appointed to provide posts 
and others to dig holes for them ; '"the next second da_v, being the 
16 of July," was appointed, and "all persons capable of labor" 
were "to apear b}' seven o'clock in the morning at the second beat 
of the drumb." The clerk, good Deacon Tompson, completes his 
account : — ^ 

••The service was .jitcnded upon the dav apointed by about forty and 
five hands of our towne the first day. and the towne generall}' came together 
the second day, and manj^ other out of other Towns, sum that came to 
inspect us and several that were helpful to us of other Towns ; and the third 
day we concluded our worke with our own Town's help ; perticuler persons 
provided for them selve? and friends; no considerable harm done, not a 
bone broken ; we had the heipe of our Reverend ])astour to desire god's 
blessing and protection, and when we had finished our work we concluded 
with a psalm of praise and returning thanks unto god by our Keverend 

In December it was voted tliat there should be two pairs of 
stairs, not four, to the gallery ; and a proposition was rejected to 
have the pulpit set forward far enough to haA-e one seat behind it. 

The matter of seating persons in the meeting-house cost the 
fathers no little anxiety. As early as IGGl this appears in the 
record, already given:'' "2!'), 11'", 166.;," it was ordered, "That 
the Towns men in being shall order the seating of persons in y*" 
meetinghouse which are not seated at the p'"sent, and to remove, 
alter, and change prsons already- seated, acording to their best discre- 
tion." After this a special committee is appointed occasionally, once 
in two or three years, to discharge this duty, until in 1679 it was again 
committed to the selectmen. Rank, wealth, and social standing 
were the factors in determining the place where persons should sit, 
and there was ample room for jealousy and trouble, even among the 
plain 3-eomanrv of Billerica, on this subject. "Mr. Richard Daniel, 
Gentleman," whose wife was a daughter of a knight in England, 
had, it is safe to say, one of the best seats. 

On the completion of the new meeting-house the question of 
"seats" gained fresh importance and a larger committee was 

' Records. Vol. II, p. 51. 3 g^ p. i55 above. 


appointed, "Namely, Capt. John Lane, Corp" Jonathan Hill, 
Mr. Simon Crosbe}-, Serjt. Jacob French, Serjt. Samnel Manning, 
Mr. Edward Farmer, Mr. Joseph "Walker, John Shcad." * "At 
the same meetng the Town apointed Capt. Jonathan Danforth & 
Lt. John Sternes and Joseph Tomson, to apoint such persons where 
they should have their places in y^ meeting house and their waves, 
who were appointed to place the other inhabitants." Which of these 
committees was first to assign the other their seats is not clear ; but 
it is to be hoped that the}' knew and had no heart-burnings about it. 
The result of their labors gave so little satisfaction that it was voted 
a nullity the next year, and a new cammittee of five was to bo. 
appointed. But no record was made of the appointment or action 
of a second committee, and probably the effort to improve the 
previous arrangement did not succeed. 

The material for the spiritual history of tlie town is very meagre. 
For the first centur}' we have almost nothing, except hints of the 
town record relating to the pastor and the successive meeting-houses. 
Of Mr. Whiting's personality we have no glimpse, nor of the qualit}- 
of his preaching. The collection of his mss. sermons, once in 
possession of the late Rev. C. B. Thomas, of Concord, Xew 
Hampshire, which was taken b}' him to Missouii, would give light 
on this point, but has probably gone the w:ay of the Alexandrian 
Library. That he was a faithful minister, worth}' of the respect and 
love accorded to him by two generations here, can not be -questioned. 
He brought the earnestness of a Puritan and the culture of Harvard 
to his long and self-den3-ing labors ; and the absence of an}- hint of 
doubt or disaffection in all the years of his ministrj' bears testimony 
to the wisdom with which he filled his high oflice. His house was 
the "main garrison" of all the dark war days; and he was the 
trusted counsellor of Danforth, Tompson, and others, in all their 
important and trying secular matters, as well as spiritual. Ihe 
wisdom of this world was combined with that from above to a 
degree rarely equalled in the earl}' Xew Elngland ministers, and 
Mr. Whiting held an honorable place among them. 

That he had opinions and convictions far in advance of his 
century is pleasantl}' shown in this record, 30 October, IGDo :■* "At 
this meeting our Reverend Paster, Mr. Sam\ Whiting, did set at 
liberty and free from his service, Simon Negro, who hath been his 

'' Records. Vol. II, p. 35. 


servant about thirty and one years, being now about forty years old. 
The which said Simou Negro the town of Billerica doth accept as an 
inhabitant amongst themselves." Does the countr\- aftbrd an earlier 
prophecy of the great Emancipation Proclamation ! This faithful 
servant, it ma}' be added, received, in 1709, a grant of seventeen 
acres of land; and, in his will, which bears date a few days after 
Mr. "Whiting's death, "in consideration of the respect which I have 
and do bear to my Master's family," he gives them his homestead 
and the land west of Concord River, granted as above. In the 
recital of Mr. Whiting's children he names "Samuel, of Dunstable, 
now in captivity." 

But the labors and hardships of his ministry began to show their 
effect, after more tiian forty years. A hint of this has been given 
from Judge Sewall's Diary;"' and the coincidence, even of language, 
is curious, that Mr. Tompson makes this record two months earlier 
than Judge .Sewall's call. A town meeting was to be held "August 
10, 1702, to agree about providing of help to suppl}- the Reverend 
Mr. Samuell Whiting's place, being in a weak & languishing condi- 
tion." The action taken was as follows : "The}' do agree to make 
a free Contribution to gratify persons imployed by us, to the valine 
of ten or twelve shillings pr. day, to be given unto him by the 
Deacon out of such contribution ; who, with the Asistauce of Mr. 
Simon Crosby, are desii'ed both to receive the Contribution & to take 
speciall care that we be suplied with a minister from Daj' to day, 
untill further order, or that our Reverend pastor is sum what able to 
suply as formerh'." 

Another meeting was held, October 12, and committee sent to 
consult with Mr. Whiting "whether we should call one at present, 
in order to a settlement among us, or to desire some help onelj- for 
this winter season." The lesult was that a temporarj' supply was 
deemed expedient. Mr. AVhitiug proposed, if his salary were made 
up in full, to "diet the minister that might come to help." There 
was much discourse about the matter, but on account of his weak- 
ness, naturally several were "averse unto it." "After much debate 
it seemed no help that could l>e [)rocured to suph' in the ministiy at 
present, except that it was done out of that which we had usulj' 
& annually granted unto the Reverend Mr. Samuell Whiteing. A 
matter ver}- grievous unto severall amongst us." 

See above, p. 155. 


A committee was appointed to seek help until spring. '• Mr. John 
Fox was desired and Mr. John Whiting next to him." ]\[r. Fox 
proposed to supply until May, for fifteen shillings per Salibath, in 
silver, and his expenses. The town proposed that he should "find 
himself," and he, it seems, consented, as he was paid for eighteen 
Sabbaths, £13, lO.s. Mr. Fox was the son of the pastor at Woburn. 
His father died while he was preaching in Billerica, and in November 
he was himself settled in Woburn, remaining pastor until his death, in 
1756. Mr. John Whiting, above named, was the son of Rev. Joseph 
Whiting, brother of the pastor here. He was settled at Concord, in 
1712, and for man}' 3'ears was pastor there. We ma^' infer that 
Mr. Whiting was able to resume his labors in May, and we know 
that ' ' he did not see his way clear at present to abate of his salary 
for the encouragement of another."'' He continued to discharge his 
miuistrv five 3'ears longer, when his disability, by reason of age or 
infirmity, became such that the town proceeded to employ a colleague. 

"•At a general Town meeting, Jul}' 7, 1707, the inhabitants of 
the Town made choj'ce of Mr. Samuel Ruggles, of Iloxbur}', to help 
Mr. Whiting in the work of the ministry, for one 3'ear next ensuing, 
in case the Town & Mr. Ruggels can agree upon terms." Captain 
Tompson and Captain Lane were appointed to treat with Mr, 
Ruggles. Mr. Whiting proposed to abate £20 of his salary if the 
remaining £50 were paid him, and the town voted to pay Mr. Ruggles 
£40 per 3-ear Avhile Mr. Whiting was able to assist him, and £80 for 
a settlement. The latter was increased to £100. The}' also voted 
that "four or five acres, or as much as can be conveniently spared, 
of the comon land, westward of the meeting house and Rubish 
meadow, shall be sold to help pay the hundred pounds to Mr, 
Ruggles, he to have the refusal of said laud." And it was finalh' 
stipulated that "after Mr. Whiting's decease the Town will make 
Mr. Ruggles his sallery as good as ever Mr. Whiting's sallery was 
befour Mr. Ruggles came to Town." 

September 8, 1707, the town granted him "eight acres of land, 
for four pounds an acre, on the common westward of the meeting 
house, bounded by Enoch Kidder west, b}- Rogers south, In' a 
highwa}' nortli, and east by a streight line from the southeast corner 
of Capt. Danfortli his paster to the northeast corner of Rogers his 
orchard, by the pound." This was the familiar corner on which now 

" Records. Vol. II, p. 228. 


stand Mrs. Osborn's house, the Beuuett Library, and the First 
Church. It ma}' have inckided the site of Mr. Morey's store and 
the Post Office. Here Mr. Euggles built his home and lived for 
forty 3'ears. 

The formal agTeement embodying these stipulations is recorded, 
(Vol. II, p. 267). It was also agi-eed that he should receive ten 
pounds annually and provide his own firewood ; and that, if he 
removed without the consent of tlie major part of the town, he 
should return the hundred pounds "settlement." The fact is note- 
worth}-, that we have no hint of the church being consulted or having 
any voice, as distinct^ from the town, in all these negotiations. In 
fact the town and the church were felt to be one, and no distinction 
occurred to these good men. Sixty years later, when Dr. Cumings 
was settled, they had reached the stiige of a separate consciousness. 
The employment of Mr. Iluggles for a year was evidently at first as 
a candidate onlj* ; but the result being favorable, he was ordained, 
1708, May 19. 

The venerable senior pastor was spared for five years longer, 
rounding out, in serene age, one of those pastorates which constitute 
an epoch in the history- of any community. His parish was wide, 
extending with the town from Concord and the modern Acton to the 
Merrimack and Andover. For fifty-six years he preached the gospel 
to hearers who came five and six miles to listen. They heard two 
sermons, and we ma}' be sure they were not short ones. The modern 
demand for a sermon not over half-an-hour long would have surprised 
these fathers as much as would the railroad, the telegraph, or a daily 
newspaper. They sought at church not merel}' spiritual food, but 
much of the intellectual and social stimulus which their children draw 
from other sources,, and hence would listen without weariness and 
eagerly, and go home to discuss sermons which a modern audience 
would not tolerate. The demands of such a ministry- Mr. Whiting 
satisfied with honor to himself, ''holding forth the word of life," and 
winning souls to his divine Master. He baptized the children and 
buried the dead ; but he did not alwaj's, probablj' not often, perform 
the marriage service. The fathers thought that it smacked of popery 
for the minister to many them, and went to the magistrate instead. 

Casting in his lot with the 3'oung town, and meeting patiently 
and bravely the hardships it involved, he reaped his reward in the 
respect and aftection which surrounded his old age. His influence 
was stamped upon the character and histor}' of the town. At last 


his work wns. done. Jonathan Danfbrth, companion and friend of 
many years, died in September, 1712. Then, on Febrnary 15, the 
dearer companion of all his joys and sorrows was taken away. 
Witliout her tlie good man could not live, and death separated them 
but thirteen days. On the last day of February, 1712-3, the faithful 
shepherd went to his rest. Cotton Mather tells us, and we may 
thank him for the item, that he died "an hour before Sunset." 
And, not for their poetry but their truth, we may repeat the lines : 

"Whiting, we here behold, a starry light, 
Burning in Christ's right hand, and shining brigljt; 
Years seven times seven sent forth his precious rays, 
Unto the Gospel's profit and Jehovah's praise." 

The pastorate of Mr. Ruo-gles continued a few months more than 
forty years, and was terminated by his death, 1748-9, March 1. 
Little is known of his ministry and character, and the family history 
given elsewhere includes nearly all that can be said of him. The 
rapidity with which oblivion covers the lives and deeds of men has a 
striking illustration in the scantiness of our knowledge of Billerica's 
second pastor. For more than a generation this gentleman lived 
and labored, a foremost figure in the life of the town, preaching the 
gospel from week to week in the pulpit and by the way, satisfying so 
well the lofty Puritan ideal of a pastor that no whisper of dissatis- 
faction is preserved. Yet what manner of man he was, or what 
were the characteristics of his ministry, we have no hint. But lives 
happy and useful are often quiet, sounding no trumpets, and this is 
the just account of many a rural pastor whose record is on high. 

A negative inference is suggested b}' the, absence of Mr. Kuggles' 
name from all the narratives and testimonies which, in his later 
years, grew out of the presence of Whitefield in New England, and 
the controversies which accompanied him. Jonathan Edwards was 
settled at Northampton in 1727. With the insight of a master mind 
he detected currents in the life of the churches of perilous tendency. 
The old Half- Way Covenant was filling them with members who 
gave "no credible evidence of regeneration," and even opening the 
pulpits to men of the same class, while the duty of communion as a 
"means of grace" was urged upon unconverted men. Edwards, and 
after him Whitefield, brought all their great powers to bear against 
these errors, and no small stir was the natural consequence. If the 
churches accepted the revolutionaiy doctrines, man}' feared the loss 
of civil privileges along with those of communion. Edwards was 
di'ivenfrom Northampton to the wilds of Stockbridge, and Whitefield 


was assailed with bitter opposition. lie was not tlie first or last 
reformer not always temperate or wise, and good men were divided 
in opinion. Testimonies and counter-testimonies multiplied and the 
lines were tighth' drawn on every hand. There were few of the 
ministers whose names do not appear and whose position was not 
recorded on one side or the other. Mr. Ruggles was one of the few. 
This may be partiallv explained by the fact that the infirmity of age 
began to tell upon him early. Yet the suspicion is natural that he 
s.ympathized with the position of his son-in-law, Mr. iNIorrill, of 
AVilmington, of whom tradition relates, that when Mr. Whitefield had 
an appointment to preach there, he rode all over town and warned 
"his people not to attend the service. The result Avas natural; a 
first-rate notice and a great congregation. 

The building of the thii-d meeting-house occurred during Mr. 
Ruggles' pastorate. The vote to build was passed, 1737, Septem- 
ber 15th, and a building committee was appointed in November, 
consisting of Dea. Samuel Hill, Benjamin Tompson, Esq., Joshua 
Abbott, P"ns. Benjamin Shed, and Sergt. Benjamin Frost. Timber 
was to be made ready for building the next summer. The size of 
the house was to be G0X40, and 26 feet "between joynts." It was 
to be thirt}' feet north of the former house, and must have stood 
near the present Soldiers' Monument. The raising took place, 1738, 
Ma}- 24th, and March Gth following, the town voted, "after large 
debate," to "sell the pue ground in our new meeting house, under 
such Restrictions and Regulations as the town shall hereafter see 
best, which money coming b}' the sale of the pues shall be improyed 
towards the finishing our new meeting house." In May, it was 
voted, "that when any pue is granted to any man, in our new 
meeting house, that the man and his family shall sit in said pue, 
if there be conveniency of room in said pue." In the earlier 
meeting-houses pews had been few. The first mention of one is 
in 1670, December, when Mr. Daniel had "liberty to make a pue in 
the east end of y^ meeting house, where he did desire it" ; and 
Mr. Whiting had a pew in the new house in IG'Ji. If thei-e were 
any other pews before 1712, they are not alluded to. But, 1711, 
November 16, the town granted "liberty to build pues in the vacant 
Ijlaces in y*^ meeting house, and to cut of two or three feet of tlie 
deacon's seat." March 17, it was "voted, that those persons that 
had the grant of pues in the meeting house shall be at the whol 
charge of building them, and that those two persons that shall Joyne 


upon that place that is granted for Mr. Whiting's pue shall be at the 
charge to finish that pue. Also, that every man that shall have the 
grant of a pue shall be oblidged himself and his wife to sit there, 
and to keep it filled with such a convenient number as shall be 
judged fit l^y the committee that shall be appointed to Kegulate that 
affair. Also, it was voted, that there should be liberty to build pues 
behind the body of seats below, taking away the hind seat, and so 
taking as much of the Allej' as is convenient, and not to streighten 
the passages." .Simon Crosby was granted a place "on the North 
side, between Mr. Whiting's pue and the old pue at the east end of 
the pulpit"; Captain Tompson, "between Mr. Whiting's pue and 
the East door"; Lieut. Samuel Hill, "between Mr. Ruggles' pue* 
and the West door, Mr. Ruggles his pue to be taken in to the middle 
of the window"; Enoch Kidder and Simon Crosby "ters, that 
place between the west door and the stay"; Quarter. Nathaniel 
Page and Job Lane, Jun^, "that place behind the bod\' of seats, at 
the upper end of the men's seats"; Joseph Crosb}', "behind the 
women's seats, joining to Mr. Page and Job Lane" ; Dea. Samuel 
Hunt, "behind the men's body of seats, joining to Mr. Page." It 
was also voted, that the west door should be cut and hung to open at 
the middle; and the three deacons, with Major Lane and Oliver 
Whiting, were appointed a committee to regulate the matter of the 
pews. The deacons were Joseph Tompson and, probably, Joseph 
Foster and John Sheldon'. 

From this record it seems that ten pews were built in the old 
church before and behind the two rows of long seats or benches on 
which the men and women sat, separated by the central passage. 
Tn the new church, the committee chosen to "order who shall have 
the pues" were instructed, "so far as they have respect to pa\% to 
govern themselves only by real and personal estate." But the town 
was not pleased with the result and appointed another committee "to 
assess the value of the pue ground." Their report assesses twent}'- 
two choices at sums from £15, 18s., to £5, 12s., reaching a total of 
£254. It was then voted, 1739-40, March 4, that "the highest 
payers of the two Rates that was granted for the building our new 
meeting house shall have the offer successively of the pue ground at 
the price set on them," and the next Monday a meeting was held, at 
which "the heirs of the pue ground" were to declare their "accept- 
ance or refusal of their right." The twenty-two tax-payers who 
would be entitled, on this condition, to the pues, if all accepted 


their right, were in order as follaws : John Stearns, Simon Crosby, 
William Stickue}', Jonathan Bowers, P^lizabeth Osgood, Benjamin 
Tompson, Andrew Richardson, William French, Seth Ross, Joseph 
Farley, John Shed, Joseph Davis, Samuel Sheldon, John Needham, 
Oliver Farmer, Joshua Abbott, Benjamin Shed, William Crosby, 
John Hill, Nathaniel Richardson, Thomas Ross, and Jacob Walker. 
These pews were placed doubtless around b}' the walls, leaving the 
centre to be filled with long seats, where those not provided for in 
the pews would find a place. 

The old house was sold for £40, the town "reserving such seats 
as the}- had occasion for in finishing the new, and the glass of the 
pue in the south front galerie, provided l)y the proprietors of the said 
pue, and the window that Mr. Samuel Uanforth provided." It would 
be interesting if we had a sight or intelligible description of this 
reserved glass and window. The cost of the house was provided 
for by one rate of £500, two of £250 each, and b}- the sale of the 
pews for £250, making a total of £1250. Whoever is curious to do 
so, can trace minute details of the expenditures as they are recorded, 
(Vol. Ill, pp. 101-2, 137-38) . For "framing," Ens. Benjamin Shed, 
Sergt. Benjamin Frost, and John Button were paid " 13 - 06 - 08," 
each, and a large proportion of the names of citizens appear, credited 
with labor, lumber, nails, or other items. This house served the 
town for sixty years, when the present First Church was built, in 
1797. The old house was then sold to the contractor for building a 
town- and school-house and reconstructed, with reduced dimensions, 
[on the east side of Main Street near. There it was so used for a 
generation, and many of the older people of to-day attended school 
pin this venerable building. It then passed into private hands and 
was used as a hall and store until 187G, when it was burned with the 
adjoining hotel, which stood on the corner of Andover Street. 

The early years of Mr. Ruggles' ministry were signalized by the 
appearance of a bell. At a meeting, 1710-11, March 9th, it was 
voted, "that the money that the land was sold for to Capt. Reed, on 
the west of Concord River, shall be laid out, to buy a bell for the 
meeting house." Captain Lane and Lieutenant John Stearns were 
appointed "a committy to provide a Bell for the Town, not exceeding 
sixty pounds prise." The land sold to Captain Reed was a tract 
remaining after the land divisions of 1708-10, and consisted of five 
hundred and sixty acres, bounded "southwest by Concord, one mile ; 
and on the Nor west by the Major's farme, upon a streight line about 


384 poles, and partly by Verginia meadows ; on the north east by 
the la«d of Kendal Patten about 323 poles ; and south east by the 
Bloods' land, in a crooked line, about 292 poles." Previous grants 
of meadow were excepted. The price is not stated, but was prob- 
abl}' £50, as more than that sum is said to be in bank, and the 
balance of the £60 was to be raised if necessary by a town rate. 
For the hanging of the bell, the town agreed, 1713-14, January 18, 
with James Hosle}' and Ben. Frost. They were to do all the wood 
work, make the stairs, platform, and door, and provide the "Irone 
work of good Irone," for which they were to have pa^', and hang the 
bell "fit to ring" ; for all which they were to receive £4 and aid in 
raising the bell. 

This bell was used until 1753, January 23, when a committee 
was appointed "to take down the bell and convey it to Boston and 
dispose of it in the best way the}' can towards the procuring another ; 
and indent with some Gentleman for another, * and to Run tlie 
hassard of said Bell from Ingland to Boston ; the bell to l)e i)rocured 
by said committee is not to exceed five hundred pounds in weight." 
At the same time the town voted to sell "so much of the hind seats 
on the lower floor on the south side of our meeting house, on each 
side the middle or broad aWoy, as will be convenient for six pues, 
three on a side, to be sold to the highest bidder, * in order to 
purchase a meeting house bell." 

This second bell, it appears, came from England, and was 
probably the same which was "cracked" by violent ringing on 
July 4th, 1842. The memory of our older citizens recalls the fact 
that it bore an inscription including the name "Billericay," a form 
of the word which English workmen would be very likely to use. 
But the facts disprove the pleasant tradition that the first bell in 
town was a gift, suitably inscribed, from the English Billericay. 
And it is hardly possible that such an incident could have occurred 
at any later date and left no trace in the Records of either town. 

Of the congregation in Mr. Ruggles' da}' we have an interesting 
glimpse in a seating list, which has been fortunately preserved. It 
is without dale, but must belong to the old meeting-house, and after 
1733. If we assume its date as 1736, we can not be far from the 
fact. The occupants of the ten pews are, of course, not included, 
and, if two families occupied each pew, these would add twenty 
names to the one hundred and fifty of this list. But about thirty 
of the 3'oung men seated in the side gallery were not married, and 



the number of families iu the congregation, judging from this record, 
must have been near one hundred and forty. The deacons were 
seated in front of the pulpit, and their wives with the widows, and 
two other ladies are speciallj' provided for. In the two front seats 
we see the twenty men who are dignified with the title of "Mr." 
Of the first ten, Mr. Richardson, aged fifty-six, was the youngest. 


^'■Fore seat heloio : 

Front fore seat : 

6th seat below : 

Mr. Enoch Kider. 

Dani. Sticknej^ 

James Crosbe3^ 

Mr. Saini. Danforth. 

Jacob French. 

James Frost. 

Mr. Isaac Stearns. 

John Baldwin. 

W"\ Tarbell. 

Mr. Tho : Pattin. 

Sami. Brown. 

Nicolas Danforth. 

Mr. Nathan Crosbey. 

Jacob Danforth. 

Isaac Marshall. 

Mr. Thomas Baldwhi. 

Stephen Richardson. 

Joseph Hill, Jun''. 

Mr. John Needhani. 

Thomas Crosbey. 

Hezekiah Duntley. 

Mr. Jonathan Hill. 

Thorn. Ross. 

Joseph Kemp. 

Mr. W'". ]\lanning\ 

Sam'. Danforth, Jun^^. 

Natti. Pattin. 

Mr. Natt'. Eichardson. 

Benj. Frost. 

Richard Farmer. 

2d seat below : 

4th seat below : 

7th seat below : 

Mr. Hugh Ditson. 

Timothy Farley. 

Sami. Hall. 

Mr. Sam'. Hill. Jun^ 

Robert Blare. 

John Frost. 

Mr. John Wilson. 

Jonathan Kemp. 

W"'. Needham. 

Dr. R. ToothacKr. 

Nicolas Sprake. 

Eleazer Whiting. 

Mr. Jolm Leavenston. 

Jolm Blanchrd. 

Jacob Willson. 

Mr. Oliver Farmer. 

Seth Putnam. 

Jeremiah Abbott. 

Mr. Benoney Spaldwin. 

Benj"'. Hopkins. 

Jonathan Kemp, Juni". 

Mr. John Durrant. 

Edward Pollard. 

James Sanders. 

Mr. Jolm Walker. 

John Brown. 

Peter Hill. 

Mr. Oliver Wliiting. 

Thorn. Horsley. 

John Blanchard, Jun"", 

3d seat below : 

5th seat below : 

8th seat below : 

Josiah Crosbey. 

Eben Dowse. 

Benj. Manning. 

John Sanders. 

W"'. Shed. 

James Ditson. 

Ralph Hill. 

Sami. Danforth, Ters. 

Jeremiah Baldwin. 

Edward Farmer. 

Joseph MnnRoe. 

Joseph Walker. 

Benj. Walker. 

Abraham Durrant. 

Richard Snow. 

Jona". Danforth. 

Saud. Richarson. 

John Horsley. 

Josiah Brown. 

Jamos Farley. 

Natt'. Pollard. 

Seth Ross. , 

AV'". Manning-. Jun^ 

Eben Hill. 

Enoch Kidder, Jun^ 

John Pattin. 

Tho. Leavenston. 

John Pollard. 

Clement Chamberlin. 

Nicolas French. 




Fore seat^ side Gallerie . 
W"". Kidder. 
David Baldwin. 
W'". Baldwin. 
Ealpli Hill, Jun^ 
Eben Fren(ih. 
Samuel Wliiting. 
Nicolas Sprake. Jun'". 
Sanii. Hill. Ters. 
Thomas Ditson. 
Jonatlian Richardson. 
Benj. D arrant. 
John Durrant, Ters. 
Joseph Patten. 
John Parker. 
Andrew Farmer. 
Jolin Trull. 
W"\ Bowrs. 
W'". French, Ters. 

2d seat. Front Gallerie : 
W"". Medoel [McDowell]. 
Josiah Crosbey, Junr. 
James Laws. 
Jacob Mannino'. 

Arthur Mullin. 
John Willoughbey. 
Dan'. Shed. 
Jona. Hill, Jun''. 
Josiah Kemp. 
Roger Toothaker, Jun''. 

2d seat, side Gallerie : 
John Dows. 
Tim Farley. Jun^. 
Joseph Farley, Jun''. 
James Freeland. 
Joseph Osgood. 
Sam'. Hill, quar's. 
Henry Jeffts, Jun''. 
Natt'. Ranger. 
Seth VVillson. 
Robert Walker, 
Sam'. Blanchard. 
Sam'. Crosbey. 
Jona. Danfo]-th, Jun"". 
Thomas Davis. 
Josiah Dutten. 
John Hagott. 
Dan'. Leavenston. 

Obediah Sanders. 
David Sanders. 
Joseph Walker, Jun"". 
Ezekicl Walker. 
Uriah Leanord. 
Benj. Walker, Jun''. 
Natt'. Brown. 
Nathan Crosbej'. Jun'. 
Oliver Crosbey. 
Jon*. Crosbej'. 
Benj". Dowse. 

In ye fore seat below : 
Deac". Davis' wife. 
Deae". Hill's wife. 
Deac". Abbott's wife. 

Natt'. Richardson's and 
\ym Mafiing's wives in 
ye 2<i seat below. 

Widow Rogei'S, 3^ seat 
below; Widow Whit- 
ing, 3^' seat below. 

The question of a colleague for the pastor came before the town, 
1746-7, March 3, and a committee, Benjamin Tompson, Esq., Capt. 
Thomas Kidder, and Dea. Joshua Abbott, was appointed, to confer 
with Mr. Euggles. The}' reported that be was "very free," and 
"desired that the town would proceed in that affaire." Another 
committee, of seven, was then directed to "desire Mr. Ruggles to 
assis with them in calling in some of the neighboring ministers to 
keep a Day of prayer, to seek divine direction in that affaire." Ou 
the report of this committee, April 6, the question arose, whether 
' ' the Town would proceed to hear any Gen" to preach upon proba- 
tion," and "it passed in the negative by a great majorit}'." Plainly 
the mind of the town was made up as to the call to be given, and a 
j-oung Harvard graduate, who taught the school in 1746, had won 
their hearts. It is not in evidence that the proposed "Day of 
prayer" was held. The church waived its legal right to the first 
vote in the choice of a pastor, and, "at a General Town Meeting," 
April 28: "The church and town unanimously voted and made 


choyce of M"". John Chandler, of Andovev, to settle in the work of 
the ministry amongst ns, witli the Rev*^. Mr. Saranel Rnggles, our 
aged Pastor." They promise him, "in a Reasonable time," £600, 
old tenor, as a settlement, and a salar\' of £200 while Mr. Rnggles 
was able to carry on a part of the- work, and to add £100 more after 
Mr. Rnggles' death. The answer of Mr. Chandler was delaj'ed for 
farther negotiations. He asked that the settlement be paid in two 
years, and, if he outlived Mr. Rnggles, that the ministrj' land, which 
was west of Concord River, might be sold, and "laid out either for 
mowing or pasturing within half a mile of the meeting house," he 
to have the improvement of it, during his ministrj', in either location. 
Tiie town consented. But the uncertain value of the currency' still 
embarrassed them. To meet the difficulty the town voted that the 
salary should be at a standard of twelve shillings a bushel for Indian 
corn and sixteen shillings for rye. Mr. Chandler proposed instead, 
that the standard be between ten and twelve shillings for corn and 
thirteen and fifteen for rj'e, and to this the town assented. They 
also offered him £20 a year for " fewel for his fire," but, "it 
appearing that it was more accommodating to Mr. Chandler to have 
wood in the stead of it," they promised him twenty cords of wood 
annually. The salary was payable semi-annually. 

When tliese engagements were embodied in a formal covenant, 
the way was prepared for Mr. Chandler's ordination, which occurred, 
1747, October 21. "Eight churches came together to carry on the 
solemnity. The Rev'^ Mr. Rogers, of Littleton, began with prayer ; 
the Rev"* Mr James Chandler, of Rowley, [brother of the candidate,] 
preached, from John, iii : 11 ; the Rev** Mr. Phillips, of Andover, 
gave the charge and also added an exhortation to the people, wherein 
he pressed upon 'em the particular duties of a people towards their 
minister ; and the Rev'^ Mr. Bowes, of Bedford, gave the Right 
hand of fellowship. No objections were laid in against their pro- 
ceeding in the ordination b}' an}' person whatsoever." 

An ordination was a great event in those days. In preparation 
for this the town appointed a committee to "make suitable and 
descent provition, at the Town's cost, for Mr. Chandler's ordination, 
at one or two places, for all the ministers and messengers, and 
IMr. Chandler's Relations, and for steudants of harvard CoUedg, 
according to their best prudance." The}' also reserved the front 
seats for members of the council, and the front seats in the gallery 
for the church members. 


Mr. Ruggles' work was nearly done, and his colleague and 
successor was installed none too soon. He died, 1749, March 21 ; 
and the town voted £150, old tenor, for the expenses of his funeral. 

A formal and soleitin renewal of covenant was made soon after 
Mr. Chandler was ordained. The articles of faith then used and 
recorded have been given above. Whether this was the first form 
of confession, or an earlier confession was then repeated, and, if so, 
whether with or without change, we are not told. 

The pastorate of Mr. Chandler began under bright auspices, and 
for eleven ^-ears was prosperous. He was a man of good ability, 
and the church was united and happy in his ministry. But a cloud 
arose, and the end came soon and in trouble. It is due to the truth 
of history that the facts, condensed from many pages of the church 
record, be stated. Mr. Chandler's wife died, 1757, June 28. It is 
charitable to suppose that grief for her loss and the absence of 
her good influence ma}' have prepared the way for a measure of 
indulgence in "spiritual" consolations which were not from above. 
That he kept the means for such indulgence the contents of his 
cellar, as shown by his inventor^', reveal, though it is doubtful if he 
had more than the best of his neighbors. He was married, 1759, 
January 18, to Elizabeth White, of Haverhill, a cousin of his first 
wife. Soon after the church record tells us : "Feb. 18. The Sac'. 
omitted, by reason of some being dissatisfied at y*" chearful behavior 
of y" pastor at _y*^ bringing of a second Wife into his house, when a 
large concourse of people assembled. The Pastor sta3-ed the church 
after services and gave leave for the congregation to stop also ; and 
represented his case to 'em in what he then apprehended its just 
light, upon which they A'oted to pass over the offense, sit down 
satisfied, and that the Sac'' should be administered to 'em by the 
Pastor the next Lords Day." This record, like the long account 
of following troubles, stands in the very neat handwriting of Mr. 
Chandler himself, who shows througiiout a frankness and apparent 
honesty which wins respect and sympath}- for his weakness. 

The trouble, however, continued, and was too deep to be so easily 
disposed of; and, in August, articles of complaint were laid before 
a Council, with specifications of four cases in which the pastor's 
weakness had been manifested. The Council met, September 18, 
consisting of the First and Second Churches in Cambridge and that 
in Chelmsford. They found three of the charges sustained ; but, in 
view of a confession, to be read to the church and congregation, 


the}' recommended its acceptance, and that "whatever hath been 
orievous and ofl'ensive in y" Pastor" be overlooked. The}' proceed 
to a frank and faithful statement to Mr. Chandler, and appeal to him 
tenderly to free himself from reproach by a sober and godly life, and 
remind the church of the good character he has maintained among 
them "till of late," and that "the sin which he has fallen into is 
what you have not * so much as suspected him of till y^ last 
winter" ; for which reason they urge the members of the church to 
pray and strive together for the recovery and usefulness among them 
of one who might be so good a pastor. But the evil could not be 
exorcised, and, 1760, June 5th, another Council convened and the 
church with them, when a show of hands so "discouraged the 
pastor as to tarrying," that by advice of the Council he tendered his 
resignation and it was accepted. Two years later Mr. Chandler died 
here, at the early age of thirty-eight. 

This sad stor}' does not stand alone. Concord had a similar 
experience. Nor need the occasional lapse in this way of a minister 
surprise us. "When every cellar \vas stored with cider, and good 
Deacon Abbott would be as sure as an}' other to invite the minister 
to drhik whenever he called, the wonder would l)e if here and there 
one did not stumble. But, while we give sympathy to the unfortu- 
nate young pastor, the bright morning of whose ministry was so 
soon and sadl}' overcast, we may also with joy set up a waymark 
of progress, and deny tliat "the former days were lietter than 



The limits of this volume permit but meagre \use of the earl}' 
Records ; and beyond the selections on special topics, in other 
chapters, we can only glean items here and there. The following 
explains the origin of our first and admirable "Book of Grants": 
"12, 10, 1665. The Town did agree with Jonathan Danforth, to 
collect and transcribe all former grants and records of lands, granted 
to perticular persons by the Towne of Billerica, into another booke, 
so farre as perticular persons interested therein shall desire it ; and 
the}' agree that the said Jonathan shall for his laboure have fourpence 
for every perticular grant or record that shall be thus transcribed 
by him." In making this transcript he was authorized, conferring 
with the selectmen and proprietors concerned, to "put an eshew to 
all difficult things," or adjust questions and conflicts of lines and 
bounds. When the work was done, "27, 9"% 1666, The Townsmen, 
with much pains and care having examined the same, comparing 
them with the originall copies, The Towne, by this deliberate act of 
theirs, allow, approue, owne, confirme, & establish y'' same, to stand 
and remaine as legall and ethentic. And, by this act of theirs, do 
disallow, disowne, and make a nullit}' of whatever record or grant 
has been recorded in y^ old towne booke, or in any other scroule or 
paper, so farre (and no farther) as the}' artj in any wise repugnant 
and contrary to what is recorded in y'' new towne booke." 

The Restoration of Charles II, in 1660, in England, displacing 
the Commonwealth, gave much anxiety to the Puritan Commonwealth 
here, and its enemies used the opportunity, striving to produce 
embarrassment and trouble. It was represented that the people 
were dissatisfied ; and, to repel this charge, man}' of the towns 
presented addresses to the General Court. The following is' that of 
Billerica : — 


'•^To the Honavd Generall Courts held at Boston, October 19, 1664 :^ 

"'The Humble Representation of the Inhabitants, both ffieenien and 
others, of the Town of Billerica, Humbly Shevveth : That whereas we 
have vnderstood that there have bin complaints made vnto our Soveraigne 
Ivord the king concerning our dissatisfaction in this coUony with the 
present Government, we whose Names are subscribed, tlie Inhabitants of 
the Towne above mentioned, being not a little Sensible what occation of 
Discouragement would be laid upon j^ou, and what reproach and blame 
would Justly fall vpou vs, if such complaints should be true, have thought 
it our dutj^ (both for the vindicating of our owne Innocency and for the 
promoting of anything, in an orderly way, which may tend to the 
incouraging of your hearts and strengthening of your hands, in the 
discharge of your great jtrust) to testify vnauinujusly that Ave doe Rest 
Satisfied in the present Government, and that we have cause to bless God 
for our i^ast and present pretious and peaceable enjoyments, desireing that 
God would make you farther Instrumental for the continuing of our 
mercjes and pl'iveleges. both civil and ecclisiasticall. to his honour and the 
good of vs and our posterity. And we doe reingage ourselves and promise 
(by the help of God) to be faithful, obedient, and servicable (to our vtmost 
power) to the present Authority (so long and orderly established by patent 
amongst vs) in all things, according to God, as by duty, equity', or oath 
wee are bound therevnto ; thus hoping that this our Aplycation vnto yoiu* 
selves shall be accepted as a testimony of our vnfeigned fidelity and 
sincere Aftection to y'" selves and to the good of this comon wealth, wee 
comit you to him who is Able to direct you in all the weighty matters you 
have in hand and remaine y's in all humble observance. 

•'John Parker. Wllm Chamberlain. Nathanell Hill. 

William Tay. Ralph Hill. AVille Haille. 

George ftarley. Simon Crosbee. James Patterson. 

Tliomas fi'oster. John Durant. Benjamin Paiker. 

James Kider. John Marshall. John Rogers, jun''. 

Jonath : Danforth. Joseph Thompson. Roger Toothackar. 

John Sheldon. Sanuiell Chaui5aies. Sanuu^ll Kemp. 

_ William Hamlet. Thomas Willis. John Trull. 

■ Jolin Rogers. Thomas Paton. John Poulter. 

^k iohn brackie. Josepli ftrench. Jonathan Hill. 

^K Henery Jeifts. Steven Willis. Samuell Trull."' 

^Hb Peter Bracket. Simon Bird. 

If these signatures were autographs this paper would have added 
interest, but nearly all are in the handwriting of Parker or Danforth. 
Those of Ralph Hill and the Brackets are probablj' exceptions, and 
possibly one or two others. 

The town guarded carefully the disposition of "rights," held by 
individuals, in the common land. Its consent was necessarj^, by 

I MSS. in possession of G. M. Elliott, of Lowell. 


agreement December, 1606, to aii.y sale or gift to a person not an 
inhabitant, or even to a resident, except that a person holding more 
than a ten-acre right might so transfer a five-acre right or less. 
And parents could give rights to their children if the town on 
request declined to do so. Timber cut on the "commons" was 
after a short time to l^e free to any person, "in case such timber be 
not hewen, or riven, or fier wood cut fit for carting" ; and, in IGGG, 
all were forbidden "to cut an}' green trees upon y'" comans for fier 
wood for the space of two years," upon penalty of two shillings per 
tree, large or small. 

"24, 4"% 67. The selectmen, meeting at shawshin house, did 
there receive of the towne stock which was in sarg"' Parker's hand" : 
68 lbs. of powder, at £6, 16s., bullets and lead, 5S lbs., and match, 
50 lbs. This was ten clajs after Mr. Parker's death, and the place 
was of course at his residence, and this record proves, in comparison 
with early usage (see ante. p. 7), that more than one place w^as 
known as Shawshin House. 

"26, 6'", 69. The town did order & impower the selectmen in 
being to procure a fjxt beast (with some of the townes land) and 
send it to ]Mr. Davie as from the towne, ly way of thankfulness for 
his good service for the towne." The gentleman thus rewarded was 
Mr. Humphrey Davy, of Boston, who had represented the town in 
the General Court, 1666-69. Two months later: "By vertue of y" 
former order. The selectmen bought a fatt beast of John Dunkin & 
agreed Avitli him to give him land for it." He was to drive the 
animal to Boston and present it to Mr. Dav}', and was to receive 
twenty acres, if he had choice of location, or twenty-fiA'e acres, if 
the selectmen laid it, ' ' as the}' Judge maj* be most advantage for y*^ 
town." The result is given in the grant to Dunkin elsewhere. 

The following gives an idea of the eai-ly life here : "11, 9, 70. 
Thomas Richardson, Ijeing convicted of taking two loads of cedar 
from our swamps and transporting y" same out of town contrar}- to 
our towne orders," is fined thirty shillings, which Thomas^ Foster 
paid for him, he agreeing to build twentj'-two poles of "four-raile 
fence" for Foster. Benjamin Parker and Samuel, Manning incurred 
similar fines, as did John Tidd and Robert Eames, of Woburn. 
The latter promised to pay his fine ' ' in shoes at James foules at 
Woburn," and the former in "cooper's ware." Plainly currenc}' 
was scarce in those days, and barter in some form the condition of 
most pa^'ments. March 27, 1671, "Mr. Whiting is granted liberty 


to take in a peece of comou land by Tliomas Button's fence, by 
y'' swamp side, to make a garden of for several 3eers, but not 
for propriety." In 4670 one share of the minister's rate of John 
Stearns, who had died, was laid upon Thomas Duttoii,.Jiiid we ma}' 
infer that Mr. Button had purchased Mr. Stearns' land. 

The question of the basis of rates was now seriously agitating 
the town. The earl}' method {see p. .55) was to la}' assessments 
upon the "rights" or fractional parts thereof. But progress and 
changes, as some prospered and others did not, would make this 
basis very unequal. The subject was debated in 1668, but a change 
required substantial unanimity, to which some were not ready to 
consent. In 1671 the town voted, that all public charges for the 
future should be borne by persons and estates, and divisions of land 
be made, one-half in the same way, the other half by "rights," as 
formerly. But the agitation was not ended, and, "4, 10, 72. It 
was agreed to desire the help of Lieut. Hinchman, Sargent James 
Parker, & Mr. Jn". Smedley, to give us their advice in these our 
difficulties." This committee came as requested Becember li), and 
the next day the town was called together, and every person present, 
thirty-flve in all, signed an "order" for the future." They recite 
the agitation and great difficulty which lay "in either peaceably 
maintaining our wa}' of raising our publick charges, agreed upon in 
our first foundation order ; or getting in to another way with such a 
vnanimous consent as might tend to righteousness and peace" ; and 
refer to meetings held, and propositions of a "major part" to which 
some would not assent. The "order" proceeds: "That whereas, 
acording to our first agreement in giving out our accommodations, 
all pul)lick charges was laid vpon euery alotment acording to the 
proportion of their grants, whither a ten, eight, six, five, or three 
acre lots, and that whither persons were resident in the town or not. 
* Now, for y*^ easing some persons amongst us and proprietors with 
us (tho not inhabitants at p''sent), who complain of their burthen in 
y^ former way, The Town do agree that for the space of three years 
next ensuing, from y" first of May last past, we will lay two third 
parts of our publick charges in the town, both civill & ecclisiastical, 
vpon persons & estates in the town acording to the valluation of y" 
country rate, and the other third part vpon y*" alotments or first 
grants, acording to y" first foundation order, whither persons be 

2 Grants, 1, 171. 


resident or not ; and that after these three years be expu-ed, the 
major part of the inhaljitants, agreeing, ni:iy alter this way, which 
being orderly done and entered in their town book, this agreement 
shall be nullified ; otherwise the town shall continue in this way." 
The names of Ilamlet and Kemp are not signed to this ordei'. In 
Noveml)er, 1685, the town agreed, "that from this day forward all 
pHviledges shall cease to pay Towne charges." 

The Cambridge "rights" to land in Billerica were not yet all 
purchased, and mone}' received by the town was oc-casionally appro- 
priated for this purpose. In 1672 a rate for the same object was 
levied equal to half the minister's rate. For the "encouragement" . 
of those who paid this tax leave was given to take cedar for a 
thousand shingles for each ten shillings paid, while those who refused 
were to be "abated" so much in the next division of land. As a 
farther measure of relief from the burd?n of Cambridge claims the 
selectmen were ordered, "29, 10"', 1673," in case they have an^' 
encouragement, "to petition >•* generall Court for a further grant of 
lands, to help us cleare those entanglements." This they did in 
May, 1674, asking for one thousand acres in the wilderness, but 
receiving a negative. The petition was repeated the next year and 
encouragement given, as they had liberty "to find out a parcel of 
waste land and present to the next session of y' C*ourte, who will l)e 
read}' to accommodate them so farr as may hv done." But the 
disturbances of "Phillips War" probably delayed the matter, and it 
was not until 1681, October, that Billerica appears again at Court, 
describing "two parcels, one on the .Souhegan and another next 
Nathaniel Walker's farm, north-west of (Iroaten," as suiting their 
needs. The magistrates "consent," but "the deputies consent not," 
and the town failed to obtain the aid it sought." Forty years later, 
1716, November 12, the town voted, that "a petition be preferred 
to the General Court for the land that was asked for in the j-ear 
1676" ; but the Court was still deaf to their ap[)e;d. 

A record is found, "27, 11, 72," -like many of similar tenor 
afterwards: "Simon Crosbee is chosen to keep a house of public 
entertainment." The price of corn was fixed, in 1672, thus: "the 
towne do order, that y^ prise of corne for y" rates to be paid at tliis 
year (the court not having set y* same) shall be paid at : indian 
corne three shillings p bushell, and other graine at y* prise y'' Court 
set it at last 3^ear ; only in case that afterward it shall appear that 
indian corne is not worth four pence p bushell more than it was 


3'^ last year, in y" market in generall, then ever}^ man shall be 
responsible to their severall rates four pence p bush : and have it 
added to each man his just proportion 3-^ next j-ear." 

The brothers Champney had returned, after a few 3-eai-s' residence 
here, to Cambridge, and serious differences had arisen with them 
about taxes, the arrears amounting to £8. These were adjusted in 
1673, the town accepting an offer from Daniel Champney, who "did 
tender to resigne up all future claims of priviledg in reference to 
what was granted to his father b3' our towne upon y^ resignation of 
his lot of three hundred and fifty acres, sealed in our great deed, 
and to give 3-^ towne a full title to that fift3' acre lot that was by 
Camliridg granted to Thomas Bridge, and to pay y" towne in hand 
twenty shillings by Simon Crosbee & so quitt scores." 

The " swinej'ards" were important offlcers in the early life of the 
town, and in 1674 a full page of record is devoted to rules b3- which 
they were to be governed. Yokes, to be sufficient, must be "in 
length perpendicular, three inches below the bottom sole and six 
inches above the cratch or upper sole, and three inches wide outside 
on each side of y'' crosse peices." And every swine was to be 
"ringed in the Nose, either with one sufficient ring in y^ middle of 
y'^ nose or else with two rings within half an inch one of 3*^ other." 
The penalty for neglect was to be sixpence each, one-half of which 
the officer had for his troul)le, and if he could not fiud the owner the 
animal was to be imi)Ounded and the officer had the whole fine. 

Items concerning the "diet" and care of "old Stephen Fisher" 
recur often from 1668 to 1682; and aid was occasionall3- given to 
others. "17, 9'", 76. John Durrant's famil3- being in an aflflicted 
condition, it is agreed that they shall have some relief from the town, 
& do desire & order Samuel Manning to see to their necessitves & 
relieve their extremities, so farr as he can obtain anything suitable of 
y*' neighl)ours," and those contributing were to receive an allowance 
•in the next town rate. 

The first record of tithing-meu appears : — 

'SS. 8"', 77. Aeonling to y order of y generall Court, The Towne 
was divided in severall parts and tithing men appointed aeording to law. 

''Joseph AValker tithing man & vnder his care are 
Michael Bacon Serj. foster Thomas Richardson 

Thouuis Osban Joseph foster Tliomas Ross 

Tiiuoth : Brooks Obedia perry and their families. 

Joseph freneh Widdow kitteridge 

190 illSfORt Oi* BlLLEfttCA* 

"George fFavley tithlug man & vnder his care 
Job. laine Jonafhu Hill Will"' Charaberline 

?*rath. Hill Samuel farley And their familief?. 

Serj Hill Lt. W"> ffreuch 

"Serj Tompson titliing man & vnder his care 
Corpi. marshall Jacob Hamlet Nathaniel 'i'ay 

Jacob french ( 'orporall french AVill'" Hamlet 

Peter Bracket James ffrost & their families. 

Simon Crosbee 

"Richard Hassell tithing man & vnder his inspection 
ye Rever"'!. INIr. Whiting John Baldwin goldin more 

Thomas pattin Daniel Shed Sen'' John Shed 

John Rogers Sen'' Samuel ffrost and their faniilyes. 

Jonathn Danforth widdow kidder 

"Samuel Manning tithing man & vnder his inspection 
James paterson Samuel Trull John Durrant 

John Sanders Daniel Shed Jun'' John Dunkin 

Thomas Wilkinson John Trull John Rogers Jun'^ 

John Bracket Henery JeiflFs Thomas Dutton Sen"" 

and their families." 

These groups of families are b}' neighborhood ; the first southeast 
of the village, the second southwest, the third east of and partly in 
the centre, the fourtli in the centre, and the last nortli. The omission 
of Carrier, Daniel, Farmer, and Toothaker is worth^^ of note. Mr. 
Daniel had probably returned to England, and Mr. Farmer was in 
Woburn. Another list is given in 1679 in which Simon Crosby takes 
the place of Joseph Tompson and John Sheldon that of Richard 
Hassell, as titbing-men, and the names appear of James Butler, 
Edward Farmer, Peter Fassitt, George Grimes, Daniel Mackginnis, 
David Meades, John Stearns, Roger Toothaker, and John Whitticur. 
In 1682 the last list is given. James Frost and Jacob French take 
the place of the two last-named tithiug-men ; and new names are 
those of Thomas Carrier, Benjamin Muzz}', and John Wilson. 
Tithiiig-men are mentioned occasionally, but their appointment and 
lists of families are not recorded. 

An important early custom was the annual summons to brush- 
cutting by the highways. In 1677 the record mentions the summons 
b}' squadrons, the work being in charge of Sergeant Hill, Sergeant 
Foster, Corporal French, Sergeant Tompson, Jonathan Danforth, 
and Samuel JManning. Some names appear in this, but not in the 
tithing-men's list of same date, as Thomas Carrier and "his man 
John Levistone," Edmund Chamberline, Simon Black, Daniel Bl}^, 



Isaac and Samuel Stearns. The east squadron was to woi"k one da}' 
at home and "3-^ 2"'' day vp at towne." And the condition of things 
"at towne *^ is more vividly suggested b}' the fact that Danforth's 
men were to do their work "•between his house and y*^ meeting 

The "oath of fidelity" was administered as follows: — 

''1606, April 23. before Capt Gookin 

Peter Bracket. 
John Bracket. 
Tliouias Patten. 
Royer Toothaker. 
Daniel Shed. Jun''. 
Aaron Jaquish. 

''4, 12"\ 77. before 
Jonathn Danforth Jun"^ 
James Kklder 
Joliii Kidder 
Epln-aiin Kiddor 
Jolm Jeiffs 
Thomas AVilkiiison 
't^omas Dutton 
Jolm Dutton 
Thomas Carrier 
John Levistone 

Caleb Farley. 
John Rogers. Jan. 
John Dunkin. 
Hopestill Foster. 
Ijoseph Foster. 
John Cbamberlin. 

their cheife officer 
Samuel Stearns 
Isaac Stearns 
Thomas Rogers 
Xathaniel Rogers 
Daniel Rogers 
John Shed 
Zachary Shed 
Samuel Shed 
Sanuiel Farley 
John Lane 

■'8. 7'", 1G81. 

^Ir Samuel AVhiting Jun Sanuiel ^Manning Jun'" 

Simon Crosbee Jun'" John Hinds 

John Whittaker Jun"^ Thomas Care 

"18. 3™. 1085. before Jonath Danforth Sen^ 

Henery Pellington. 
Jonathn Hill. 
Peter Scott. 
John Smith. 
Sanuiel Kemp. 
John Poultcr. 

Edward Tuder 

Josepli A^'alker 

John Durrant 

Isaac Fox 

Timothy Brooks Jun'' 

Xathaniel Tay 

John Sanders 

Jacob Hamlet 

Isaac Chamberline 

William Chamberline, jr 

Edmond Chamberline 

Enoch Kidder 
Abraham Chamberline 

Mr. Oliver Whiting 
George Browne 
John Baldwin 
Thomas ifrost 
Thomas Crosbee 
Joseph Elliee 

John Manning 

Caleb Farley Jun' 

Hugh Didson 

Xathaniel Patten 

Xathau Shed 

Peter Frederick Subloon Samuel Danforth" 

Xathaniel Stearns 
Steven Kidder 
James Kittredge 
Jacob French Jun' 
Thomas Ross 

The following explains itself: — 

"19. 1, 1675 ^^e received an order from y^ selectmen of Cambridg to 
run yf' bounds between us, on y« 29 day instant. The selectmen sent their 
order back again, and underwrlt the same as followeth : 

" 'Gent'", if this your order had come to our hand one day sooner, our 
towne might have had y'^ cognizance of it & have impowered us to have 
acted in it. All that we can say at present is this : That this time six j-ears 
j'our selves sent to us to con)e down to you, to come to an agreement about 


it. We attended your order, and made two Journeys to you about it. We 
offered to chuse a committee of indifferent men to determine it (which was 
acording to our articklcs of agreement), but you refused to act, for want 
of power from your towne. Wee have heard notliing from you since that 
time, tho we have expected it; for us to send to meet at y*" line acording to 
your ordeuis but loss of time, vntill we come to an agreement what to do 
and wliere^to run. We are yet ready to wait upon you for an agreement 
about it, as soon as you please ; in y^ mean time we remain your 
Humble serv"'*, 

Jonathan Danforth, 
Joseph Tompson, 
Samuel Manning, 
'"Dated 20. 1"% 77-78. Selectm. of Billerica. 

'"Pray let us know your mind by a line or two from your selves.'" 

The place which Harvard College had in the hearts and plans of 
the Colon}' is shown in a record, "20, 10", 1678. Simon Crosbee 
was appointed to collect w' was 3'et behind to 3'^ colledg contribution 
& to transmit it to y*" colledg oner seers, acording to y^ order of 3*^ 
gen'. Court." A letter,^ dated " 14, 8, 1678," illustrates the subject 
more full3' : — 

"Mr. laine: This day Mr. Whiting and the Selectmen made choice of 
yourself to returne an answ'' to y^ Ilonr^i generall Court, vpon y" 18"> day 
of this instant, (which is acoi'ding to their order,) in reference to our 
contribution to y^ colledge ; and our Answer which we desire your self to 
returne is this : AYee have bin very diligent to gather what is at present 
to be had, and sent it into Mr. Manning, of Cambridg, acording to y*^ court 
order; and there yet remaines about six pound, 8 shill. 10 p; y^ most of it 
we hope we shall get as soon as corne is marchantable ; we have faire 
promises for it; but some psons that did contribute with us are gone to 
England and left no order for y'= payment of it, therefore we question 
whither we shall ever get it ; for those that yet are in this country (tho 
removed out of our towne). we shall do our utmost indeauor to gather y^ 
same spedily as maybee ; not further to add but o"^ Humble service psented 
to y*^ Hon'^'' Court, we take leave, earnestly praying for y'^ Lord's presence 
& blessing to bee with you in all yo"' weighty affairs. 

"In y" name and by y'= order of y"^ Reverend [Mr.] Samuel AVhiting & 
y^ rest of y^ selectmen. 

"Jonathan Danforth." 

It cost these plain farmers of Billerica something in their povert3' 
to raise such a sum for the College. But they understood its impor- 
tance to them and their children, and cheerfulh' taxed themselves to 
do their part. 

3 Loaned by George M. Elliott, of Lowell. 



In 1679 the government called upon the towns for a general 
statement of their condition. Billerica answered: — 

'•In observance of a warrant from ye Hon'<i Deputy Goun"". bearing- 
date the 30"\ lO"". 1679, our answer is as folio weth: 

'• As to a list of the number of males & rateable estate in our towne, 
wee have sent the list that was taken the last August, and returned from 
the commissioners meeting. As to the number of families, there is al)out 
liuety that are able to bare vp publick charges ; there is more of the aged, 
that are Helpless, y^ widdows & poor persons, that want releife, ten in 
nuuiber, which is all. 

■•As to ye annual alowance to our reverend paster, our agreement is 
seventy pounds p anni, in Country pay. as for scliools. we liave no gramei" 
schooles ; ensigne Tompson is appointed to teach those to write & read 
that will come to him ; also severall School Dames. As for tithing men, 
we haue flue in number; their names are [as above], and all swoi-ne to the 
faithful discharge of theire seruice acording to law. As for j'oung psons 
and inmates, we know of none amongst us but are orderly. And Ensign 
Joseph Tomi^son is chosen to attend the Honourd f'ourt. acording to said 

The tax-list^ above mentioned 
polls, and amount of tax: — 

exhibits the following names, 


Seij Hill 
Nath Hill 



£U 7 



Dan ^Mackginnis 
Jam Paterson 

No. polls 


£0 3 2 

Jonath Hill 




Tho Pattin 


Hen Jeifts 


J no Rogers Sen' 

Michael Bacon 



Jno Rogers Jun' 



Tim Brooks 




Tho Rogers 


James Butler 


Tho Ross 


Pet Bracket 
John Bracket 

Tho Richardson 
Corpi Shed 



Simon Crosbee 




Dan Shed Jun'' 


W"' Chainbeilain Sen 


John Shed 


J"° Chamberlain 



Zack Shed 



\ym Chamberlain jun 



John Sanders 


Tho : Carrier 
Mr. Daniel 
Jonath Danforth 





John Shildon 
Ens Tompson 
Nath Tay 



Corpi ffrench 



Sam Trull 


Jacob ffrench 
Patrick ffacit 
Sam ffrost 
James Kidder 
Job Laine 
Serjt Marshall 
Sam' Mailing 





James ffrost 
Serj ffoster 
Geoi-g ffarley 
Sam ffarley 
Joseph Walker 
Tho Wilkinson 
Sum total 


£10 6 



* New England Historical and Genealogical Register. Vol. V, p. 173. 



One other early list has hy good chance been preserved, and foi- 
comparison here follows: — ^ 


'•'list of y*^ Numbor of M;iles and 
son, Coniinssnr. & their Selectmen, y 

Henry Aldin, 1 pson & estate *01 
Michael Bacon, 3 pson & est 12 
John Baldwin. 2 pson & est 07 
jonath Baldwin, 1 pson & est 02 
Peter Bracket, 1 pson & est 04 
Simon Crosbe, 2 pson & est 11 
Simon Crosbe Jun, 1 pson 01 
Tho Crosbe, 1 pson 01 

Will™ Chamberlin, 1 pson 01 
Edmund Chamberlin, 1 pson & 

cow 01 

Capt Danforth, 3 pson & est 12 
jonath Danforth, Jun, 1 p & est 04 
John Dunkin his estate 03 

Tho Dutton, Sen, 1 p & est 03 
Tho Dutton, Jun, his estate 04 
John Dutton, 2 pson & estate 04 
Joseph Ellice, 1 pson & est 03 
John f rencli his estate 02 

Jacob french. 3 pson & estate 12 
Patrick Fassit, 2 pson & est 08 
Stephe Farr, 1 pson & estate 03 
Sami' frost, 2 pson & estate 07 
James frost, 3 pson & estate 09 
Joseph foster, 1 pson & estate 06 
Georg farlee, 1 pson & estate OG 
Sam' farlee his estate 02 

Edw<* farmar, 2 pson & estate 08 
Left Hill. 3 pson & estate 12 

Nath Hill, 4 pson & estate 13 
Jonath Hill, 3 pson & estate 10 
Georg Grimes, 1 pson & est 04 
Abra Gorton, 1 pson & estate 03 
Heny jefteson. 2 psons & est 06 
James Kidder, 1 pson & estate 03 
Eaph Kidder, 1 pson & estate 02 
Steph Kidder. 1 pson & estate 02 
Enoch Kidder. 1 pson & est 02 

Rateable estate, taken by Li(ft Tomp- 
*■ 24 of August, 168S. 

s d 

John Kitterage, 1 pson & est 03 06 
John Lane, 1 pson & estate 13 02 
John Levistone, 1 i)son & est 04 00 
Sam' Manning. Sen, 2 p & est 07 10 
Sam^ Planning, Jun, 1 p & est 02 08 
John Marshall, 2 pson & est 09 01 
James i)attison. 2 pson & est 07 03 
Benj Parker, 1 pson & estate 03 02 
Tho Pattin, 4 pson & estate 13 09 
• Nath Page, 2 pson 08 09 

Widdow Rogers, 1 pson & est 03 10 
John Rogers, 2 pson & estate 08 00 
Dani Rogers. 1 pson & estate 02 02 
Nath Rogers, 1 pson & estate 03 06 
Tho Richison, 1 pson & estate 07 06 
Daniel Shead, 1 pson & estate 05 01 
jolm Shead, 1 pson & estate 03 09 
Zach Shead, 1 pson & estate 03 02 
Sami Shead. 1 pson & estate 02 02 
John Sandern, 1 pson & estate 04 07. 
John Sheldin 2 pson & estate 08 04 
Isack Starns, 1 pson & estate 04 04 
Tho Starns, 1 pson & estate 02 11 
Leift Tompson, 3 pson & est 09 05 
Xath' Tay, 1 pson & estate 03 06 
John Trull, 2 pson & estate 06 05 
Sam" Trull, 1 pson & estate 03 03 
Joseph Walker, 1 pson & est 05 09 
John Wilson, 1 pson & estate 07 01 
James Kitterage, 1 pson & est 02 03 
Roburt Sharp, 1 pson & estate 03 01 
Obe Johnson, 1 pson & estate 02 03 
John More, 1 pson 01 08 

Georg Smith, 1 pson & cow 01 11 
Hugh Ditson. 1 pson 01 08 

John Parker, 1 p & one cow 01 11 

Sum totall 

£19 11 05 

* New England Historical and Genealogical Register. Vol. XXXI, p. 303. 



These lists afford interesting information and comparisons. The 
first inchides forty-seven names and forty-five polls ; the later, 
seventy-three names and one hundred and three polls, marking the 
comparatively rapid progress of nine 3"ears. In 1679 it snrj>rises 
us to find that, next to Mr. Lane and Captain Danforth, Thomas 
Carrier has the highest list. At that time Mr. Lane is the only 
person who pays more than half-a-pound ; in 1688 Mr. Patten is 
highest, and there are eight who pay more than half-a-pound. The 
absence from the list, in 1679, of the names of Baldwin, Kittredge, 
and Stearns is observable, while that of 1688 adds, among others, 
Ditson, Dunkin, Dutton, Farmer, (Trimes, Page, and Wilson. 

In May, 1680, ule selectmen order the constable to " forbare 
sitting y'^ watch at y^ present, and vntill there appeared more 

In November, 1680, Samuel Manning was granted six acres of 
swamp, on condition of his building "a good and sufficient Damm 
or Damms, to drowne that swamp commonly called the mill swamp." 
He was to raise the water "one foot higher than at present," and 
"to keep the said swamp vnder water two j-ears together from the 
time of the first finishing of the same, and to maintain the wholl 
worke of damms, slewces, and water courses, for the space of seven 
years from y^ first finishing, as aforesaid ; and to keep the same 
vnder water all the winter seasons," and to leave all in good repair 
at the end. This Mill Swamp was on Content Brook toward the 
outlet of Long Pond. 

Another side of the life of those da}'s is seen in the record, 
"16, 1, 1681," when James Speen, Indian, received £8 for four 
wolves' heads, brought to Constable Sheldon. 

The following curious record occurs : "8, 11"', 82. The select- 
men at the same time did order, that whereas Edmond Chamberlain, 
b}' order of j*" Count}- Court, * was ordered to submitt himselfe to 
y^ gouermeut of 3-'^ select of this towne, the^' do order him, y* 
said Edmond Chamberlain, to live with his master, Joseph Walker, 
for y* space of six moneths next ensuing, after the manner of a 
Journeyman, to attend family orders and gouerment therein acording 
to law. Also, not to make an}' bargain with any man without his 
master's approbation ; and at the end of six moneths, as aforesaid, 
to declare to the selectmen where he intends to reside and what 
courses of life he intends to lead, and his said master engageth to 
have a speciall inspection unto his s'^ seruant in y^ interim, and to 


inform y*^ seloctmeii in case he cannot keep him to good order and 
diligence." We may liope that Chamberlain profited by such care. 

Jn 1084 a measurement of Captain Gookin's farm proved that it 
contained one hundred and fifty acres more than the grant, whicii 
was five hundred acres. It was then owned by Robert Thompson, 
Esq., and the town sold him the excess on pa_yment in his behalf, l)y 
AVilliam Stoughtou, Esq., of £23 in silver. ''18, 10'", 1G84. Lt. 
Tompson laid out in mone}' at Boston eighteen shillings. G'', for 
Roger Toothakar's family, for which hee bought 4 pair of shoes, one 
pound whalebone, 1 yard farrindine for caps, and one blue Apron." 

In 1686, "Simon Crosbee, who formerly hath kept a house of 
publick entertainment, doth now refuse to hold it any longer, & 
Nathaniel Tay being desirous to take it up is alowed, b}^ authority" 
of the selectmen, to do so. But Mr. Crosby did not long refuse to 
entertain the public, and in 1688 the selectmen at their meetings had 
"victuals and Drink" of him. His license as innkeeper is preserved 
at Cambridge, and he was commonly the earl}- landlord of the town. 
The charges for which he received pay are now amusing and remind 
us of Falstaff's "intolerable deal of sack," including such items as 
" cydar 14P, liquour 2^"; "four suppers 16", drink 8"" ; "2 potts 
of cydar" ; "a pot of rosted cyder" ; "half a pint of rhnm," and 
many like these. In Januar}-, 1692-3, a meeting was held with the 
County Commissioners, Major Thomas Henchman and Mr. Mather 
Johnson, for the inspection of the list. One day they had "eight 
diners, besides our drink, 00-04-00." Another da}' : "we had 
drink before dinner, a pynt of rum, 00- 01 ; a pot of cyder and jill 
of Rhum, 00-00-05, and six pots of cider, 00-01-00 ; and a dinner 
for eight persons, 8 pence per man, 00 - Oo - 04 ; and eight pots of 
cider, 00-01-02." The list made up at this meeting included 111 
oxen, valued at £2 per ox ; 220 cows, valued £1, 10s., per cow ; 77 
horses, at 40s. per horse, and 280 sheep, at £4 per score. The 
number of polls, besides the superannuated, was 92, assessed 10s. 
each; and "cituations & stock" were assessed "21, 05, 02." 

This was the period of the witchcraft troubles and trials, to 
which, however, the Billerica Records make no allusion. The aid 
given to Toothaker's family betrays his neglect of them while 
engaged in the Salem fooleries ; and the .deaths of Mrs. Rebecca 
Chamberline and John Durrent, "in y*" prison at Cambridge," in 
September and October, 1692, suggest the inference of Mr. Farmer, 
that the charge on which they were imprisoned was probably witch- 


craft. A Billerica woman, whose later residence had been Andover, 
Mrs. Martha Carrier, became one of the most notable of the sufferers, 
being executed at the same time with the Rev. George Burroughs. 
Her bearing at the trial is distinguished by courage and good sense, 
and must challenge the admiration of those who examine the drearj^ 
literature of this terrible delusion. Her own child of eight testified, 
that her mother made her "touch the book; it was in Andrew 
Fuller's pasture, Elizabeth Johnson was thei'e * her Aunt Toothaker 
and cousin, when she was baptized" ; and Roger Toothaker bore 
swift witness in language too filthy for quotation.® That good men 
could trust such testimony, and rest such action upon it, is an 
unexplained marvel of human credulity. 

The following official document belongs to this period: — '' 

''To ye Constable of Billerica. Greeting: 

•^ Wee command you to warn & give notice unto Capt. Danforth, John 
Rogers, [and others], that they and everj- one of them be and personally 
appear at y^ Court of Oyer & Terminer, to be held by adjournment at 
Salem, on Tuesday next, at Ten of y"^ Clock in y^ morning, there to testify 
ye truth, to the best of their knowledge, on certain Indictments to be 
exhibited against Martha Carrier, of Andover. And hereof they nor you 
are to fail at your utmost peril, making return hereof vnder your hand. 
Dated in Salem, July 30, 1692. & in ye fourth year of our Reign. 

''Stephen Sewall, CZA-." 

James Paterson was the constable, and endorses this return : 
"According to this warrant I have showed it to Capt. Danforth, 
and his answer is, that he can say nothing in y" case that is worth 
mentioning. I have warned John Rogers & he saith he will attend, 
if his garrison may [be] guarded in his absence. Billerica, August 
1", 92." Mr. Rogers had been near neighbor to Mrs. Carrier, who 
lived on the road to Wamesit, at North Billerica, but he does not 
seem to have been anxious to testify' against her, and did not ; and 
it is a pleasure to find that, unlike so many others, Mr. Danforth 
could "say nothing" in this case. This sad record is revived in 
1710, when Mr. Carrier appealed to the authorities for pa3'ment of 
expenses he had incurred. At the demand of the'sherifli' he paid 
fifty shillings, and prison fees to the keeper, for his wife and four 
children. £4, 16s. His "humble request^ is that the Attainder may 

^ See Upham'-s S'aleiii Witchcraft, Vol. II, pp. 145 and 208 ; and MSS. Deposition in the 
Archives at Salem. 

' See Boivditch Papers, of The Massachusetts Historical Society, No. IS. 
* Massachusetts Archives. Vol. CXXXV. 


be taken oft," and that he ma}" be paid the loss sustained, £7, 6s. 
He adds : "I found ray wife and children provisions during their 

In February, 1692-3, the question arose of '"dismissing one 
theire deputies, whereas the Town had hither unto sent down two," 
and the town did dismiss Joseph Tompson and continued Capt. 
Ralph Hill "in that service." Records of the annual election of a 
deput}- are not always found, and none appears for ten 3'ears after 
1680. Perhaps a deputy once chosen was expected to hold the 
office until the election of his successor ; or, as the towns then paid 
the charges of their representatives, they may have omitted to send 
occasionally and saved the expense. In 1693 the town, to prevent 
so much loss of time as was generall}' spent without profit at the 
town meeting, agreed that distinct notice be given of the hour of 
meeting, and "that the town clerk shall constantly attend at that 
time, and that any vote or grant passed by the inhabitants orderly' 
within one hour after the time set * shall be always accounted 
vallid, although there ma}- want man}' of the inhabitants ; and that 
no vote passed at any time after y" sun is set shall be * vallid ; 
and the town clerk (in cloud\' weather) shall delare when the sun 
is set." 

The preservation of shade trees received attention, and a com- 
mittee was appointed, "15, 12, 93, to mark with the letter T so 
man}^ trees as they shall judge needful upon y^ Country roads and 
town Comons * from the house of Joseph Walker to the house 
of Capt. Brackit, and from Capt. Hill's to y" Brow of Rockie Hill, 
leading to Andover." This included for several miles the two main 
highways, which crossed each other in the village. 

The instructions to the selectmen (see p- 61) were annually 
repeated, with slight variations. They were usually read in public, 
and sometimes recorded anew. But, after the reading in 1694, 
March 23, the clei'k adds: "answered by the Town, that the law 
hath provided for what was contained in the instructions ; our 
instructions laid aside for the year" ; and they do not reappear. 

A committee, in 1694, April, was directed "to lay out a suphi- 
cient highway from Mr. Michael's farm through Mrs. Page's land to 
Shawshin River ; and over Shawshin River unto Lt. John Willson's 
mill, and to Cambridge line ; and from the same road to lay out 
a suphicient highway through Mrs. Page's land unto the land of 
Patrick Fassit, unto the house of Patrick Fassit ; and from thence 


to state th? highway iu the most convenient place from Patrick 
Fassitt's house, leading up to Concord Road, and from tliere to 
Mr. Laine's." JNIr. Fasset lived near the residence of Mrs. Lane, 
on the main street, a half-mile east of Bedford ; but this description 
can hardly belong to the present Bedford Sti-eet, for if that had been 
laid out before 1708, it must have been mentioned in describing the 
grants then made to Hill and Fasset, which were separated by it not 
long after. Probably this record belongs to the " ])iae-hill road," 
alluded to above (p. !).t). 

May G, 1694, the town appointed John Wilson, Sen., and Joseph 
Torapson ''to search the Countr}' Records to find both the grant & 
the returne of Mr. Winthrop's farm, that lyeth on the mouth of 
Concord Riuer" ; and the selectmen, Avith Captain Danforth, were 
directed "to prosecute the Town's inteiest in wemessek land to 
efect, and the town doth engadge to stand by them in the same." 
This record may explain one which follows soon after. The town 
"had enformation that sum persons have eregularly marked out 
Land in our Towne comons, without our knowledge and appro- 
bation" ; and Thomas Richardson, Edward Farmer, and Joseph 
Walker, Sen., were sent "to deface & extinguish & abolish all such 
marks, & to pluck up all such stakes or boundes of land so bounded 
or marked ; in as much as in them lyeth to make all such markes 
and stakes to be a niility." 

The various expenses of the town from year to year are recorded. 
From these we gather that the deputy to the General Court had three 
shillings per day ; that the widow Ruth Shead had sometimes £1 and 
sometimes twenty-five shillings for "sweeping the meeting house"; 
that, in 1694, £12 was paid for ammunition ; in 1696 seven shillings 
was paid for transporting two impotent persons "to oborn, by order" 
of Major Henchman ; that the cost of the land controversy west of 
C'oncord River, in 1696, was about £8; and that the clerk, Mr. 
Tompson, received £2, 5s., for keeping the records and making five 
town rates. A town meeting was held, 1695, December 3, at Mr. 
Farmer's, and the town clerk adds, "Terible cold." July 17th, 
"our inhabitanee (being warned before by a warrant, given to 
the constables) sware alegiance unto King William before Major 

The primitive method of aiding the poor appears from a record, 
14 January-, 1696-7, which was "a day of humiliation," and a con- 
tribution was taken, amounting to thirty-two shillings and eightpence, 


for Thomas Stearns. In Februar}', another "collection in public" 
was taken of fourteen shillings and sixpence ; and three persons 
appearing before the selectmen, "it being a low time with them," it 
was agreed "to divide that small matter equally between them," and 
to give each a bushel of Indian corn. 

The arrears in minister's rates were a constant source of trouble. 
In February, 1696-7, an obligation was presented for subscriptions 
by persons who would promise to pa}' their arrears before Ma}' 20 ; 
"otherwise the constable to make distraint forthwith upon such as 
shall refuse." In November these prices were fixed for payments of 
minister's rates : corn at three shillings and fourpence, rye at four 
shillings and sixpence, and wheat at five shillings and eightpence per 
bushel ; pork at fourpence per pound, if merchantable. Whoever 
paid in money might have an abatement of one-seventh. The next 
year the prices fixed were less. 

At this period Mr. Farmer's house seems to have been the tavern 
and place where the selectmen met. In 1699, Samuel Hnnt also is 
approved of b}' the selectmen to sell victuals and drink "only three 
months in y*" 3-ear," April, May, and June ; and Jonathan Bacon 
received the same license, not limited to three months. 

Clocks and watches were few, and in 1697 Captain Dan forth was 
paid for an hour-glass and for repairing the horse-block, six shillings 
and twopence. Th? town also voted, that "every Tythingman bring 
his staff at oui" next annual choice of Town officers ; otherwise to 
continue in that place if the Town do se meet." 

1703, May: "Complaint being made of the want of a watch 
house," a committee was appointed "to vew the old meeting house," 
who reported that it might be made feasible and comfortable "to 
answer the end of the same." The report, was approved. 

A careful account was taken of the stock of ammunition in the 
hands of Captain Danforth ; and, in August, "there did appear so 
great danger of the iuem}', and many of our inhabitants being in 
great want of Ammunition," a distribution was made to Thomas 
Dutton, Samuel Rogers, John Dunken, Daniel Shead, Corp. John 
Frencly Samuel Hunt, Nathan Crosb}', Samuel Fasset, Captain 
Tomson. Dr. Samuel Frost, and John Chamberlin. After this 
military use of the old meeting-house, it stood until 1708 and was 
disposed of. The following pecuniary record will not only be of 
interest for itself, but as an illustration of the method annuall}' 



"At a meeting of the selectmen. Decem. 9, 1714. Mr. Ruggles his 
sallery Eate and the Town Rate was made. Mr. Euggles his rate wiis 
made 81-13-08 the town Rate was made 40-16-10 

''And unto Daniel Kittredge, Constable, was committed to collect of 
Mr. Ruggles his sallery Rate 41 - 04 - 04 and of the town Rate 20 - 12 - 02 

"and you are ordered to pay out of the Town Rate as foUoweth : 

to Lt. Stearns as Deputy 04-05-00 

to Daniel Chamberlain 02-05-00 

to Joshua Abbot for Ringing ye bell "00-17-00 

to John Farmer for the Bridge 00 - 15 - 01 

to deacon Sheldon for the Bridge 00 - 08 - 00 

more for hiin as assessor 00 - OG - 00 
more to him for rufiing Andouer line & labor about Sam Trull's 

funeral 00 - 04 - 00 

to sargt Brown as assessor 00 - OS - 00 

for ruJiing Wobourn & Andouer lines 00 - 05 - 00 

for work at ye Bridg & for Sam' Trull 00 - 08 - 06 

to Sargt Dutton, 1 day at the Bridge 00 - 02 - 06 

to Ephraim Kidder for Wobourn line 00 - 02 - 06 

to Sargt^ Danforth for Ruiiing Chelmsford line 00 - 02 - 06 

more to him for thre pine trees for the bridg 00 - 05 - 00 

to George farley for two trees 00 - 04 - 00 

to John Blanchard for taking the Inuoice 00 - 09 - 04 

[ Tivo obliterated items] 00 - 09 - 00 


"and unto Jaines Hosley, consta', was committed to collect of Mr. 
Ruggles his salleiy Rate 40 - 09 - 04 and of the town Rate 20 - 04 - 08 

"and you are ordered to pay out of the Town Rate as folio weth : 

to Lt. Stearns as deputy 05 - 00 - 00 

more to him as assessor 00 - 08 - 00 

for rufiing Chelmsford and Lexington lines 00 - 05 - 00 

for answering a presentment and paying 2^ at Ccmcord 00 - 05 - 00 

to Oliver Whiting as assessor 00 - 09 - 00 

for writing the Warrants & orders to y" Constables 00 - 03 - 00 

AVriting in ye Town Book 00 - 05 - 00 
nore for y 2 pair of gloues for Sam^ Trull's Burial & 2 shillings 

paid at Concord 00 - 04 - 00 

to Mr. Kidder for selectmen's expenses the last year 00 - 06 - 08 

for this year 01 - 01 - 00 

to ens Shed for a coffin for S. Trull 00 - 06 - 06 

to Sam' Danforth for y grave . 00-03-00 

to Lt. Hill for Lexington line 00 - 02 - 06 

to Sam' Fitch for Concord line 00 - 02 - 06 

to Josiah Fasset for s'^ line 00 - 02 - 06 

to Ephraim Manning at ye bridg 00-01 ? 


to Oliver Whiting Jun' at y bridgv 00 - 01 ? 

to John Baldwin 00 - 08 ? 

To Coi-pi Sniuiu'l Fassot 00 - 09 - 00 

to Jonathan Daiiforth 00-08-00 

to 'J'iniothy Farley 00-08-00 

In 1721, the State, as a measure of relief for extensive financial 
embarrassments, established a Loan Ftind, which was distributed 
proportionally to the various towns, and under the charge of trustees 
loaned to citizens. The share of Billerica was £396, and her 
trustees. n[)[)ointed November 6th, were Ebenezer Farley, Joshua 
Abbott, and Jolin Neodhani. They were ordered "to let out the 
said money to Interest at live per cent, for the use of the town, to 
be dis|)osed of as the town shall order from 3-ear to year, until the 
time set in the act-l)e expired, taking good Personal securit}' for said 
money, no person to have above ten pounds nor under five ; also, it 
was voted, that the said Trustees shall have twenty' shillings apiece, 
given them out of the whole principal of said mone}-, and. a fifth 
part of the Interest of the said money for their services as trustees 
from year to year, for letting out and taking care of said money." 
Persons borrowing from this fund gave mortgages to the Loan 
Commissioners, and man}- of these mortgage deeds are on record 
at the Middlesex l^cgistry. The interest for the first year was 
appropriated towards the town charges. The loan was repaid to 
the State in five annual instalments, 1726-30. But the process w^as 
found so agreeable that it was repeated, and, in April, 1725, the 
town voted to '-Receive their pro[)ortion of the £60,000 Loan," and 
chose Joshua Abbott, Benjamin Tompson, and Dea. William Patten, 
Trustees. The part of Billerica in this second loan was £496, o.s. 
It ran for ten years instead of five, the first payment of one-fifth 
part to the State being made in 1734. 

In 1733, the clerk, then Joshua Abbot, began to enter the tax- 
lists in the Records, aud from that date these valuable lists are 
found regularly. The tax-payers were divided into two lists, the line 
of division being Long Street or the Woburn and Chelmsford Road ; 
designated North and South Lists at first, but after 1735 as E^ast and 
West. In 1733 the Province tax was £54, 10s., 8d., the minister's 
rate £143, lis., lid., and the town rate £104, 10s., making a total 
of over £300, old tenor. The list follows, recast alphabetically, 
giving only the minister's rate and designating by the letters "•N" 
and "S" the list. Noi'th or South, on which the name occurs. 




'.. s. 
S. 1 

Abbott, Jeremiah. JS. 

Abbott. Dea.. Joshua, S. 1 
Artherton. Dr. Benj-, ^''- 
Baldwin. John. .V. 
Baldwin, John, Jun"^.. (S'. 
Baldwin, John. Ter\ X. 
Baldwin, Jonathan, Jun 
Baldwin. Josiah. 6'. 
Baldwin. En*'. Thomas, 
Baldwin. Thomas, Jun'. 
Baldwin. William, .V. 
Beard. p]benezer, *S'. 
Beard. John, -V. 
Blanchard, .fohn. S. 1 

Bowers. ('<iiJt. Jonathan. S: 1 
Brown. Eijhraiui. *S'. 
Brown, (apt. George, S. 
Brown. John, iV. 
Brown. Joseph, (S'. 
Brown, Josiah, S. 
Brown. Samuel. S. 
Brown, AVilliam, S. 
Campble, Thomas, N. 
Cannada. Jolin, iV. 
Chamberlain, Abi'aham, N. 
Chamberlain, Clement. N. 
Chamberlain, Clement, J'., X. 
Chamberlain. William, N. 
Cornell. Peter, .S'. 
Crosbey, James, S. 
Crosbey, Sargt. Josiah, S. 
Crosbey, Josiah, Jun''., <S'. 
Crosbey, Nathan, /S'. 1 

Crosbey, Simon. Sen., S. 
Crosbey, Ens. Simon, S. 
Crosbe}% Simon, heirs, S. 
Crosbey, Thomas, K. 
Crosbey. William, iS. 
Dantorth, Jacob. S. 
Dantorth, L'. Jonathan, N. 
Danforth. Nicholas, N. 
Danforth, Mi-. Samuel, N. 1 
Danforth. Samuel, Jun'., S. 
Dant'orrh, Samuel. Ter, N. 
Dantorth. Thomas. \. 
Daves, Dea. Joseph, Y. 1 

Davidson, Eobert, N. 
Davidson, William. N. 
Dean, Ebenezer. A. 
Ditson, II ugh, *S'. 1 

Ditson, James. S. 
Ditson, Thomas, S. 
Dows. Ebenezer, JV. 
Durant, Abraham, A'. 
Durant. Benjamin, A'^ 
Durant, Heiiry, N. 
Durant, John, N. 

G Durant, John, Jun^.. X. 

8 10 Durant, Thomas. A'^. 

ft C, Dutton. Srg'. John, A". 

12 02 Dutton. Samuel, A. 

11 08 Dutton, Thomas, A'^. 

7 02 Farley. George's heirs, S. 

14 05 Farley, James, A. 

9 06 Farley, Joseph, *S'. 

17 10 Farley, Samuel. X. 

12 10 Farley, Timothy. S. 

7 OS Farmer, Andrew. A'. 

13 06 Farmer, Edward, A^. 

18 03 Farmer, John. X. 
3 10 Farmer, Oliver, X. 

6 6 Farmer, Kichard, X. 

6 10 Farmer, Thomas, A. 

12 Farmer, Thomas, Jun., X. 
17 10 Foster. John, S. 

8 1 1 Foster, Thomas. ,S'. 
11 7 French. Ebenezer, X. 
10 2 French, Jacob, ^. 

n 6 French. Srg'. John, A. 

6 6 French, Nicholas, A^. 

9 4 French, Sarg'. AVilliam, S. 
9 7 French. William, Jun'., <S'. 

10 3 Frost, Benjamin. *S'. 

6 10 Frost. Daniel, A. 

7 8 Frost. Edmond. X. 

9 6 Frost, Srg'. James. A^. 

9 8 Frost, James, Jun'., A'. 

11 3 Frost, Joseph. -S'. 

7 7 Frost, Joseph. Ter". S. 

8 7 I'rost, Samuel, A^. 
6 6 P'lost, Thouias, A'. 

19 T) Hall, Richard, A^ 

2 5 Hall, Richard, Jun'.. A. 
11 1 Hall, Samuel, A. 

13 8 Hardey. Zachariah, A". 

10 4 Haseltine, Samuel. X. 
17 11 Haseltine, Stephen. ^V. 

6 6 Hill. Capt. John. X. 

9 Hill, Jonathan, S. 

11 2 Hill, L'. Joseph, ;S'. 

8 8 Hill, Joseph. Junr., S. 

13 1 Hill. Nathaniel. S. 

6 2 Hill. Peter. .S'. 

6 6 Hill. Ralph, S. 

6 6 Hill. Ralph. Jun^. S. 

7 7 Hill. Capt. Sanmel, ^S". 

3 1 Hill. Sanmel. Jun'.. S. 

6 6 Hill. Samuel. Ter", S. 

7 7 Hopkins. Benjamin, 6'. 
6 Hopkins. Richard, S. 
Hopkins. William. S. 

6 10 Hosley, Joseph, S. 

G 6 . Hosley, Mariah, S. 

13 G Hosley, Thomas, S. 



1 •) 


1 z 









1 2 




























1 2 




1 4 




1 2 

































1 11 












1 3 




















TAX-LIST, 1733. — Continued. 

Hunt, En\ Jeremiah, N. 
Hunt. -John. N. 
Hunt. .loseph. N. 
Hunt. Peter. iV. 
Hunt. Sjunuel. Jun., X. 
Jaquith. Abraham. S. 
Jefts, Henry. S. 
Jefts. Henr3% Jun'.. N. 
Jefts. Henry. T.r«. S. 
K'emp. Jonathan. N. 
Kemp. J<iseph, N. 
Kidder. Mr. Enoch. N. 
Kidder. Enoch. Jun'., N. 
Kidder. Ei)liraim, ;S'. 
Kidder. Ephraim. Jun'.. S. 
Kidder. James, h^'irs, S. 
Kidder. L'. Thon)as, N. 
Kidder. William. JSf. 
Kittredg-e. L'. Daniel. N. 
Kittredge, Daniel. Jun ., iV. 
Kittredge. Francis, i^. 
Kittredgc, James. ^V. 
Kittredge. James, Jun., (S". 
Kittredge, James. Ter". N. 
Kittredge, Dr. John. S. 
Klttredge. John. Jun'., S. 
Kittredge. Joseph. S. 
Kittredge. Thomas, N. 
Kittredge. AVilliam. N. 
Levestone. Jolm, N. 
Levestone. Srg'. John. X. 
Levestone, John, Ter**, N. 
Levestone, Seth, N. 
Manning, Benjamin, .V. 
Manning. Eliphalet. S. 
Manning. En^ William. N. 
Manning, .William. J'., X. 
Marshall. Isaac. S. 
Marshall. John. 8. 
Marshall. Thomas. X. 
Marshall. William. *S'. 
Needham. John. S. 
Osgood. Cap' Cliristopher. X. 
Osgood. Steplien. S. 
Parlier. Benjauiin. Jun'.. S. 
Parlver. John. S. 
Parlver, John. Jun'., 8. 
Patten. John. A^. 
Patten. John. Jun''., 8. 
Patten. Josepli. 8. 
Patten. Kendall. X. 
Patten. Nathaniel, X. 
Patten. Xathaniel. Jun''., 8. 
Patten. Sarg'. Thomas, 8. 
Patten. Thomas. Jun^, X. 
Peacock. Samuel. ^V. 
Pollard, Edward, X. 




Pollard, John, X. 





Pollard. Nathaniel. X. 






Pollard, Walter, X. 





Putnam. Seth, 8. 





Richardson, Amos, 8. 





Richardson. Andrev\'. 8. 

1 3 


Richardson, Andrew, J'., A 





Richardson, John, .S'. 




Richardson, Xathaniel, iS'. 

1 8 



Richardson, Samuel, 8. 




Richardson, Stephen, 8. 





Richardson, Thomas, *S'. 





Rogers, John, X. 

1 5 




Rogers, John, Jun'., X. 





Rogers. Wid. Mar3\ X. 




Ross. Seth, 8. 





Ross, Mr. Thomas, 8. 




Ross, Thomas, Jun^, 8. 





Sanders, James, X. 





Sanders, John, X. 

1 o 




Sanders, John, Jun' ., X. 



Shed, Ens. Benjamin, 8. 






Shed. Daniel. 6\ 





Shed, Ens. John, 8. 





Shed. John. Jun'., X. 





Shed. Xathan, Jun--., ^S". 





S!i-d. William. 8. 





Sheldon. Samuel. 8. 





Snow. Richard. *S'. 





Sprake, Nicholas. X. 






Sprake. Nicholas. Jun""., A^. 





Spaulding. Benoni, A^. 





Stearns, Isaac. 8. 




Stearns, Isaac, Jun''., 8. 





Stearns. L'. John, *S'. 

1 3 





Stickne, Abraham, X. 





Stickne, Daniel, 8. 





Stickne, William, A^. 

1 3 




Tarball, John, *S'. 

1 1 




Tarball, John, Jun'".. 8. 





Tarball, Thomas, 8. 






Tompson. Benjamin. 8. 






Toothaker. Dr. Roger. X. 





Trull. John, X. 



Trull. Sanuiel, A^. 





Walker. Andre\A'. A^. 




A\'alker. Benjamin. *S'. 

1 2 




Walker. Jacob. 8. . 

1 1 




AValker. John. *S'. 





^VTliting•. Eleazer. 8. 





Whiting. Col. John. X. 





AVhiting. Oliver, Esq'., 8. 





AVhiting. Oliver. Jun'., .V. 





AVhiting, Samuel, ^V. 





Williams, Job, A'. 





Wilson, Jacob, 8. 





Wilson. En^ John, 8. 





The followino- were non-residents : — 

Ballard, En^ Joseph heirs. 
Bhnicliard, Jonathan 
Blanrhard, Jonathan, Jim' 
Blani'liard. Hamuel 
Blunt. William 
Foster, Mr. William 
Frye. < apt. James 

Co)icord . 

Blood. John 

Cht^Imsfnrd : 

01 00 

Kidder. Thomas, guai 



00 09 

three Eichardsons 

01 OS 

00 07 

Spualding-. Henry 

01 01 

0-2 07 

01 00 

Wnhnrn : 

iVA 07 

Wymau. ^Irs. Esther 

00 11 

00 0!) 

Wyman. .losiah 

01 04 

Wynian, .Samuel 

00 11 

Wyman, Thouuis 

11 04 

01 Of) 

Wyman, Tiuiothy 

11 04 

Wyman. Sarg'. Williaui 

00 11 

I give also the list for 1755, as intermediate between the date 
of the above and that of 1775, which will be found in the chapter 
on the Revolutionary War. 


Ahbot. David. E. £00 03 06 1 

Abbot. Uea. Joshua. E. 04 05 
Abbot. Joshua, Jan.. \V. 07 05 1 

Abbot. Oliver. E. 04 05 

Akin. Matthew, W. 02 05 1 

Baldwin, Benj*.. E. 02 04 1 

Baldwin, David. E. 11 05 2 

Baldwin. John, E. 12 01 2 

Baldwin, Sam"., E. 04 06 2 

Baldwin. W'"., E. 05 03 

Beard. Ebenezer, E. 14 06 1 

Blanchard, John. W. 08 02 2 

Blanchard. Samii., W. 05 00 1 

Blanchaid, Simon. W. 05 11 2 

Blodget, Amos, W. 02 07 
Bowers. Mrs. Hannah. E. 00 08 

Bowers, Josiah. W. 08 00 1 

Bowers, Mr. W™., E. 09 06 1 

Brown. John. W. 01 08 

Brown, Josiah, W. ' . 08 04 

Brown, Nath'i., W. 03 04 2 

Brown. L'. Samuel, E. 07 07 
Brown, Samuel. Jun., E. 02 03 

Brown, Tho^, IF. 03 01 

Centei-, John. E. 02 09 2 

Chandler, Tho^., E. 02 03 

Cheever. John, E. 03 07 

Clark. James, W. 03 08 1 

Crosby. Ephraim. E. 05 06 1 

Crosby, Francis, W. 04 01 3 

Crosby, Wid. Hannah, W. 00 08 

Crosby, He^, W. 05 10 1 

Crosby, James, E. 02 03 

Crosbv, Jasaniah, W. 08 08 

Crosby, Xathan, W. 04 01 2 

Crosby, Samson, E. 02 03 

Crosby, L'. Simon. E. 05 08 1 

Cumings, L«. Nath'., W. 03 OS 1 

Danforth, Beni\. E. 02 09 

Danforth. David. IF. 09 02 1 
Danforth. Wid : Elijah, W. 01 00 2 

Danforth, James, E. 04 11 

Danforth, L'. Jonat"., E. 04 04 1 

Danforth. Sam".. E. 04 11 
Danforth. Doe^ Timothy, £". 05 04 3 

Davidson, Nathn., E. 10 11 2 

Davis, Joshua. E. 10 07 2 

Ditsou, Thos., E. 05 03 3 

Dows. Ben)-'., W. 03 11 

Dows. Ebenez(^r, IF. 0607 1 
Dows. Ebenezer. Jun.. IF. 03 09 3 

Dows. Sam'.. W. 02 03 

Dunklee, Hezekiah, E. 06 03 2 

Durant. Abraham. IF. OS 08 2 

Durant. John. Ju'., IF. 04 07 

Dutton, Jolm. IF. 05 03 2 

Farley, Caleb. IF. 05 02 

Farley, Ebenezer. Tl^. 09 09 

Farlev, James, W. 01 05 1 

Farmer, Mr. Andrew, TF. 07 10 2 

Farmer, Oliver. E. 14 01 

Farmer. Oliver. .lu'.. E. 02 04 1 

Foster. Isaac. E. 00 09 2 

Foster. Jaeob. E. 03 02 2 

Fox, Abel, IF. 02 02 1 

French. David. E. 04 05 

French, Ebenezer, E. 12 04 1 

French, Jacob, E. 06 07 

French, John, E. 04 08 2 

French, Sam".. E. 04 03 

French, Lt. W™., E. 15 05 2 

French, W"., Ju'-., E. 12 08 2 



TAX-LIST, 1755. — Continued. 

Frost. VVia. Esther, W. 
UlH.-isoii. \V'".. E. 
Gi)ud\v'in. Tho"., E. 
Gray. Hi-avitor. E. 
Ha^'it. Thoiiias. E. 
Hall. Sa;iii'.. E. 
Hai'dy. EbfMiezer. E. 
HartxVt^ll. Will. Mary. W 

06 00 
02 07 1 
02 09 1 
02 OJ 
02 03 
02 03 
02 03 
01 02 2 

Hennery. John, W. [onhj province tax.~\ 

Hill. John. W. 07 10 I 

Hill. Jonathn.. W. 09 07 2 

Hill. Joseph. W. 13 02 2 

Hill. P(>ter. IF. 06 0-t 

Hill. rai)t. Ralph. W. 06 07 

Hill. Ralph. Jan., W. 02 03 

Hill. Sanri., W. . 07 09 1 

Hosley. 'J'ho^. E. 08 08 1 

Hosley. Thos.. Ju».. E. 02 07 

Jaquith. Abraham, W. 13 03 1 
Jaquith. Abrahan), J.u"., W. 07 06 1 

Jaqiurh. Ebenezer, W. 02 03 

Jefts. Ileniy, ]]'. 06 04 1 

Jet't.s. Henry, Jan., IF. 04 09 

Jelcs, Simeon, IF. 04 03 2 
Kidder. Capt. Enoch. IF. 12 09 1 

Kidder. Ephraiin, E. 06 06 

Kidder. Sam".. W. 05 06 1 

Kidder, Solomon. W. 02 03 

Kidder. Tho^. Esq.. E. 07 07 

Kidder, En^. W'".. E. 08 03 

Kindal. Reuben. E. 04 01 2 

Laws. James. TF. 06 04 2 
Leveston, Wid. Ruth. E. 01 02 

Leveston, Seth. IF. 03 04 

Leveston. Thos.. E. 07 00 1 

Lewis, Benja., E. 09 00 

Lewis, Benja.. Ju".. E. 03 11 

Lewis. Jonathan. E. 03 00 

McDowell. W™., £". 04 00 1 

Manning. Benj.. IF. 03 0") 

Manning. Jacob. IF. 07 11 

Manning, En^. W™., IF. 02 03 
Manning. L*. W™., Jun.. W. 09 01 3 

Mansfield. John. IF. 02 03 

Marshall, Isaac, £". 09 02 1 
(Munroe, Joseph. IF. [no mijiisler's 
J Munroe, Joseph, Ja^, IF. 7rite ; 
I Munroe, Joshua. IF. jjrcift. paid in 
[Munroe. Nathan, IF. Carlisle.^ 

Needham, Benj^.. W. 09 04 

Needham. W™., IF. 06 10 2 

Nlckles, Geo., }i\ 02 08 1 

Nickles, James. IF. 03 09 

Nlckles, Rob'., IF. 02 11 

Noyes, Nicholas, E. 02 03 

Osgood, Josepli, IF. 03 04 1 

Parker. Benj=i„ IF. 03 10 2 

E'arker, David. E. 02 03 

Parker. John. E. 09 10 

Parkhurst, John, E. 02 03 

Patten. John, E. 07 00 2 

Patten, W"\, IF. O.'i 05 2 

Pollard, Edvv".. E. 03 11 1 

Pollard. John. E. 09 04 1 

Pollard. Jonathan. E. 02 03 

Pollard. Soloinoji. E. 04 00 2 

Rankins. James, IF. 02 07 

Richardson, Ebenezer, E. 07 09 

Richardson. Jonathan. E. 06 04 1 

Ri(-liardson. Sam'i., E. 09 03 1 

Ric'hardson. Stephen. IF. 09 012 

Rogers, Sam''., E. 05 11 3 

Rogers. Tho*., E. 04 06 2 

Rogers. Zebadiah, E. 08 02 3 
Rolfe, Daniel, [no minister's rate]. 

Ross, Wid. Hannah, E. 01 00 

Ross, John. IF. 02 03 

Ross, Joseph, E. 02 09 2 

Ross, Seth, IF. 07 11 

Rixggles. Joseph. IF. 04 05 2 

Sanders. Amos. E. 02 11 

Sanders, Benj^i.. E. 03 04 1 

Sanders, David, E. 02 112 

Sanders. James, E. 06 04 2 

Shed, Capt. Benj^., IF. 07 06 1 

Shed. Benja.. Jun., IF. 03 08 1 

Shed, Daniel, E. 04 05 2 

Shed, John, IF. 11 04 2 

Shed, Sami., ^^. 02 03 

Shed, W™.. IF. 09 09 

Sheldon. Sam".. E. 14 04 3 

Snow. Richard. E. 02 07 

Spalding, Asa, IF. 05 08 1 

Spalding. Edw^., IF. 02 06 

Sprake. John, IF. 02 03 

Sprake. Nicholas, IF. 13 00 2 
Si)rake. Nicholas. Jun.. E. 02 03 3 
Sprake. Nicholas. Te'., IF. 02 04 1 

Sprake. Sam"., IF. 03 03 1 

Stearns. Edw".. IF. 04 11 2 

Stearns, Lt. Isaac, W. 02 02 

Stearns, Lt. John. IF. 14 02 

Stearns. Sam"., 11^. 05 01 2 

Stearns. Tho^.. IF. 07 06 2 
Stickney. Capt. Daniel. IF. 10 08 

Stickuev. David. W. 02 08 1 

Stickney. Dea. W™.. IF. 07 09 

Tarbell, David. E. 02 03 

Tarbell. John. E. 05 03 

Tarbell, Jonathan. E. 02 04 1 

Tarbell. W™.. E. 04 04 2 

Taylor. Thomas. E. 02 03 

Tompson. W°'.. E. 13 05 2 
Toothaker, Doc'. Roger. E. 05 07 5 


TAX-LIST, 1755. — Continued. 


Totman, John. E. 

03 00 2 

CnrUslr : 

Trull. Wid. Marv. E. 

01 04 

Blood. John 

10 02 

Trull. Sam'.. E. 

04 08 1 

[V] Isaac 

02 03 

AValkcr, Ezekiel. E. 

0.-) 03 

Parling, David 

00 09 1 

Walker, Jacob. E. 

00 05 3 

Eussell. James 

00 02 2 

Walker, Joseph, E. 

04 09 2 

Walker. Robt.. W. 

04 11 


Walker. AVid. Sarah, E. 

00 06 2 

Keyes. Eph'. 

01 00 

Wessoji. Sam".. E. 

03 09 3 

Robens. Jonas 

00 10 2 

AVhite, Ens. John. E. 

09 05 2 

Spalding. Henry 

00 05 1 

AVhitino;. John. Tf^ 

02 03 

Spalding. John 

00 04 

Whiting. Jonathan. W. 

05 01 

Spalding. En*. Jonathan 

02 02 2 

Whiting. Oliver. W. 

08 03 

Spalding. Thi)\ 

01 00 1 

Whiting. Dea. Sami'., E. 

04 11 1 

Whiting. Sam'., Jun.. ^. ' 

02 05 2 

Teickshuri/ : 

Wilson. Jacob. W. 

07 07 1 

Foster. Jonathan 

00 04 

Wilson, John, W. 

02 03 

Kittredge. Tho^. 

00 01 1 

Wilson. John. Jun.. E. 

02 03 

Levestone, John 

00 04 

Wilson, Seth. E. 

05 04 2 

Merrell. Stephen 

00 04 

Winning, Alexander, W. 

03 07 1 

Patten, Kendal 

00 05 1 

Obed. Abbot, as guardian 

]V()hurii : 

for Seth Crosby. W. 

05 05 1 

Bennet. James 

00 0(3 2 

W'". Kidder, do. for Jonas 

Wyman. Joshua 

00 04 

Sanders, E. 

00 08 

Wyman. Xath'. 

00 06 2 

Wjman, Sam". 

00 05 1 

Bedford : 

Wyman. Timothy 

01 01 1 

Griuxes. Jonathan 

01 00 

Wyman. W"\, heirs 

01 09 1 




A PREVIOUS chapter gives accoiint of the early distribution of 
lands. Small grants were of course often made, but there was no 
general division again until 1685, November 19, and this was only 
of some remaining meadows, amounting to 287^ acres, in various 
places. The allotments were to be laid out by Jonathan Danforth ; 
and Ensign Hill and Sergeant Manning were to aid him, as a com- 
mittee, "fully empowered to determine all matters of difflculty." 
The}' were "to begin at flag meadow be3ond Nuttin's pond : Then 
over Concord river upon _y^ spangs beginning at brook meadow cove : 
* Then in }•* great swamp * bv Gilson's hill. Then that peece 
over Shawshin river below Strongwater brook. Then sace meadow, 
beginning next 3-^ great swamp * to the dam place appointed above 
the pond. Then, b}' y^ sides of y*" great pond, beginning at y" upper 
end. Then in y* mill swamp that was drowned. * Then on the 
north side fox brook. * Then below Sergt Manning's meadow, 
upon the great brook." A list follows, giving all the original rights, 
with the changes which had been made. Another list gives the 
names in the order of drawing, the amount of each man's "privi- 
ledge," and the number of acres drawn. This second list follows, 
omitting the last item, and arranging the names alphabetically' : — 


Aure privi 






Baldwin, John 




, John 



Bracket, John. & his father 


D Litton. 

, Thomas, Jun. 



Bracket, Peter 







Chamberline. WilMam 







Champney, Daniel 







Crosbee, Simon 




, Edward 



Danforth, Jonathan, Sen. 







Danforth. Jonathan, Jun. 







Duukin. John 




, Jacob 



Durrant, John 




. Jolin 




No. Acre privi 

5!) French. Widow 

26 Frost, James 

9 Frost, Samuel 

215 (irvmes. George 

48 Ilii!. .lonatlian 

57 Hill. Nathaniel 

22 Jliil. Fnsii-n Ralph 

51 Jeffs. Henry, Sen. 

47 .It'tfs, Henry, Jun. 
45 Kidder. James 

02 Kidder family 

21 Kittredge, John 

41 Kittredge [no name'] 

;M Levistone. John 

44 jManning, Sergt. Samuel 

35 Marshall. Sergt. John 

48 Moore, Golden 

15 Parker, Benjamin 

25 Parker. John 

52 Paterson. James 
4 Pattin. Thomas 

49 Poulter. John 

32 Piehardson, Sergt. The : 

Acre privilege. 











10 Rogei's, John, Sen. 
40 Rogers. John, Jun. 

,58 ^ "■ " 

Rogers, Nathaniel 
Rogers. Thomas 
Ross, Thomas 
Sanders. John 
Shed. Daniel, Sen. 
Shed, Daniel. Jun. 
Shed, John 
Shed, Zaehary 
Shildon, John 
Stearns, Isaac 
Stearns, John 
Steai'ns. Samuel 

13 Tay. Nathaniel 

3 Tom])son, Lieut. Joseph 

14 Toothaker, Roger 
19 Trull. John 

31 Trull, Samuel 
12 Whiting, Mr. Samuel 
24 AValker. Joseph 
50 Wilson, John 









This list includes sixty-five lots ; but for some reason the last 
three are not numbered. The total amounts to fort3'-seveu ten-acre 
lots. Bacon, Lane, and some others did not share in this allotment. 
They represented rights acquired b^- original purchase of earl}' 
grants, and not town grants, and no claim on their part to share 
in the common lands was recognized. But the lapse of ^-ears gave 
force to such a claim. After they had shared for a generation in the 
common Ijurdens and sacrifices which the settlement had involved, 
the distinction as to the origin of their titles lost much of its force, 
and it was natural that the}' should claim a share in the lands which 
remained to be divided. The earl}- proprietors, however, and their 
successors of course questioned this claim. 

The adjustment of the lines west of Concord River was made by 
the committee of the C4eneral Court, in 1701, [see p. 81 above]. A 
meeting was held, 1702, April G, "to consider of the most righteous 
way for the diuideing of our undeuided lands." The ownership of 
the various "rights" was canvassed and recorded with changes which 
had taken place. ^ The question was carefully debated, whether the 
division should be by " priveledges " onl}', or one-half on this basis 
and the other half by "stock and state." The majority, both of 
proprietors and of "rights," ftivored the latter basis. But the 

1 Records. Vol. II, pp. 118-19. 


question whether Lane, Bacon, and other citizens should share with 
the proprietors, was undecided, and action was dehxyed no doubt 
for this reason. It resulted after three years in an appeal to the 
General Court. The petition,^ 1705, Ma}' 30, is signed by John 
Lane, John AVilson, Thomas Frost, Jonathan Bacon, and Thomas 
Richardson, Jun., in l)ehalf of themselves and others. They repre- 
sent that the}- have been niony years inhabitants and paid their full 
proportion of rates, taxes, and charges, Avith their neighbors, who 
were the first [)roprietors, and that now the}' are to be excluded from 
sharing in a division of the common lands. This course seems to the 
petitioners ''against all Justice and Equity," and they "pray for an 
order which shall stop the proceeding until the matter can be freely 
heard and determined." This petition was not limited to those who 
had no share ; but some, like Mr. Richardson, who had similar claim 
to more than the small "right" they had acquired, joined in it. It 
was ordered that a "stay be put to the Division, till a hearing be 
had before this Court" ; and, after a postponement, decision was 
reached, November 16, 1705, "that Capt. John Lane and others, the 
Petitioners that are Fi'eeholders ai»d Inhabitants of the said town of 
Bilrica, be Intituled to and have a propoitionable share with others, 
the Common Proprietors and Inhabitants of the s"^ Town, in all 
future Divisions of all undivided and Waste lands belonging to the 
s"* Town, according to the propoition to the Town Charges, for the 
space of seven years past." And the town, 1707-8, January 29, 
granted to the purchasers of Cambridge Church Farm a ten-acre 
right, "to promote and maintain peas and quietness among us," 
this grant to be a final issue of differences between them. 

This important point being settled, the town was ready to proceed 
to the allotment of the extensive tracts of land which still remained 
common. The "commons," as they were familiarly known, still 
included sections in various parts of the town. The largest was 
west of Concord River, embracing al)out five thousand acres, or most 
of that part of the town. Nearly as much was towards Andover, in 
the Great Swamp and vicinity, by IStrongwater Brook, and between 
and around the ponds. Six hundred acres were between Captain 
Lane's farm and the Shawshin Farms, taking in most of the present 
village of Bedford. Another section was near Nutting's Pond ; and 
lastly, Fox Hill, between the Andover and Long Pond roads, still 

2 Lane Papers. See p. 99 above. 


was held in common. In all, not less than twelve thousand acres 
remained for distribution, or not much less than two hundred and 
fift}' acres for each ten-acre privilege. Captain Lane and others 
who had gained the right to share from the General Court seem to 
have received their entire portion west of Concord River. 

The first step was taken, 1705, June 11, a few da^'s later than 
the petition of Captain Lane and others, and before a decision was 
reached upon it. The agreement then made was to divide some of 
the smaller parcels of "commons" among groups of proprietors who 
would be best accommodated by them. The process was, however, 
suspended for two 3'ears, and the division was not made until 1707. 

The "North part of the Center Squadron"^ included John Bald- 
win, Samuel Danforth, John Durant, Thomas Button, Edward 
Farmer, John Jefts, Samuel Manning, William Patten, David 
Rogers, and John Wilson, who seems to have acquired the right 
of the Widow Paterson. The section granted them was east of 
Long Street, beyond the lots already granted, and extending from 
John Trull's land to Samuel Danforth's, beyond the old Corner 
Burying-Ground, which was reserved and appropriated to this use, 
1707, April 4. 

The "Middle part of the scenter squadron" received grants as 
follows: John Button and Ebenezer Fai'ley had "all the land on 
the Northwest of the highwa}- leading to Joseph Bavis' " ; Nathaniel 
Rogers and Enoch Kidder received the angle on the south of the 
Rocky Hill Road ; and north of that road ran the lots of Captain 
Banforth and his son Jonathan, Nathan Shed, Mr. Whiting, and 
Dr. Frost. Captain Banforth's lot was twentj'-three and one-half 
acres, "on the north side of the Road downe Stoney Hill: it is 
bounded on the South by said Road about 206 pole, * east by fox 
hill about 30 pole, * west, b}' the Road leading to Joseph Bavis', 
about 54 pole & a half." 

One reason why Fox Hill was so long "common" may be found 
in this record,* which is probably of date 1659: "The Mineral 
company- are granted all such mines as shall be b}^ them or their 
Asignes found in the sircomfi ranee of one hundred acors of land on 
fox hill, the south eande thereof, the Hill beinge devided ; as also 
they have free Liberty for wood and Timber for theare use as there 
need shall require, to improove about the said mine untill it doe 

^ Boole of Grants. VoL II, p. 29. * Booh of Grants. Vol. I (Reverse), p. 29. 


apear they doc find nietell ond no Longer." Ti-aditions or suspicions 
of mineral wealth to he found in this locality have always existed ; 
but it has never been developed and is probabl.y a myth. 

The ''Pond S(|uadron" receiv^ed "all the land upon Bare hill to 
Bacon's farme and between Nutten's pond and Oakes' farme," and 
included John Blancliard, Peter Bracket, John Chamberlain, Joseph, 
Nathan, Simon, and Thomas Crosby, Timothy Farley, Joseph Foster, 
James Frost, John Needham, Benjamin Parker, John and Zachariah 
Shed, Isaac Stearns, heirs of Thomas Stearns, and Joseph Tompson. 

The "Squadron on the South of Oaks' farme" received the tract 
of six hundred acres between the "AVinthrop farm," Concord, the 
Shawshin Farms and Wiuthrop's "great meadow," and the Oakes 
Farm (see p. 41 above). The first lot was granted to Lieut. Samuel 
Hill, including sevent3'-six acres bounded two hundred and fort}- rods 
on Concord aud sixty-four rods on "Winthroi) Farm. The main street 
in Bedford was afterwards laid on the north line of this lot, and the 
"old line" of Concord is n<)w to be traced sixty-four I'ods south 
of that street and parallel with it. The second lot of twenty-three 
acres was Fassett's, and became the property of Israel Putnam, as 
did the third, granted to Joseph Hill. The fourth lot was ninety-one 
acres, laid out to Jonathan Hill, next to Oakes Farm ; and others 
following southerly were Nathaniel Hill, Joseph Farley. Daniel Hill, 
John Stearns, Henr}' Jefts, John Parker, and Job Lane, the last 
reaching Mr. Page's farm. 

Near East Street a range of lots was granted "from Serg'. 
Richardson's to the north end of Serg*. French's paster." INIr. 
Fi^ench, living near the foot of "rock}' hill," had that "pies of 
land between the three paths." Others who shared here were 
Jacob and John French, Fphraim Kidder, John ]\[arsliall, Nathaniel 
Patten, Thomas Kichardson, Thomas Ross, and John Sheldon. 
John Wilson had a lot near his mill pond; flohn Farmer and 
Thomas Pollard had lots near Mr. I'ollard's ; Dr. John Kittredge 
had his two divisions beyond Strongwater Brook near the Shawshin ; 
and John Sanders, John Dunkin, Timothy Farley, John Levistone, 
Samuel and Thomas Rogers, and Roger Toothaker had "their 
diuision between John Sanders his lott & Mr. Winthrop's farme." 

The second division was made in the spring of 1708, and 
embraced lands in the Tewksbury part of the town.' The largest 
section was along Andover line, and a rangeway was run parallel 

6 Grants. Vol. II, pp. 33-37. 




with that line and about eighty rods distant, dividing two rows of 
lots which were laid laid between Andover and the Great Swamp. 
East of this double row of lots apparently was another, extending 
from Andover line southerly to the Shawshin meadows ; a third was 
between the latter and Strongwater Brook, and a fourth in the same 
vicinity. A fifth range was beyond the Shawshin, and i^ sixth 
between the ponds ; and lots near Content lirook completed the 
circuit. Eighty-one proprietors shared, as did Colonel Foxcroft and 
Daniel Stone, of Cambridge. 

The following list gives names, the ''acre-rights" belonging to 
each, and the number of acres receiA'ed, omitting fractious: — 

Acre rights 























Bi-.H-kot. Peter 
BiiUlwin, -Foliu 
BaUlvviii, .lonithau 
IJaldwiu. Thoinas 
Brown, (ireoi-t^f^ 
Chaiiihcrlahi, .lohn 
Crosbey. Mr .Simon 
Crosbey, Xatlian 
Crosbey. Thomas 
Danforth. Capt Jonathn 
Danforth. Jonatlni 
Danforth, Samuel 
Dunkin, John 
Dutton, .lohn 
Dutton, Thomas, Jun' 
Farley, Caleb 
Farley, Ebenezer 
Farley, Josej)h 
Farley. Tiniotliy 
Fanner, Edward 
P'asset, Patrick . 
Foster, Jijseph 
Foxcroft, Thomas 
French, Jacob 
French, John 
French, William 
Frencli, Et AVilliam, lielrs 
Frost, Dea James 
Frost, James, Jun 
Frost, Dr Samuel 
Frost, Thomas 
Grimes. George 
Ilaile, William, heirs 
Hill. Daniel 
Hill, Jonathan 
Hill. Joseph 
Hill, Nathaniel 
Hill, Palpli 
Hill, Samuel 
Jefts, Hemy 
Jefts, John 
Kidder, Enoch 







Kidder, Ephraini 




Kidder, James 




Kirtridg, James 




Kittridg-, Dr John 




Eane, ,Job 




Eevistone. Jolm 




Manning. Ens Samuel 




Manning, William 



Marshal. John 




Needhain. John 




Parker. Benjamin 




Parker, Jolm 




Patten, Nathaniel 




Patten, Thomas 




Patten, William 




Pollard. 'I'homns 




Kichardson, Tliomas 




IJichardson, Thomas, Jr 




Rogers, Daniel 




Rogers, Natlianiel 




Rogers, Samuel 




Rogers, Thomas, heirs 




Ross, Thomas 




Sanders, John 




Shed, Daniel, Jun 




Shed, John 




Shed, Natlian 




Shed, Zechariah 




Sheldon, John 




Spaldin, Dea Andrew 




Stearns, Isaac 




Stearns, Lt John 




Stearns. Thomas, heirs 



Stone. Daniel 




Tompson, Joseiih 




Toothacher, Dr Roger 




AValker, Joseph 




Whiting, Oliver 




Whiting, Mr 8" 




W' ilson^ Lt John 




W'ilson, John, Jr 





The same proprietors received grant of the "great swamp" two 
3'ears later;" it was not divided, but sold in bullv not man}' years 

The lands west of Concord River were divided in 1708. Here a 
rangewa}' ran parallel with the Chelmsford line, about half-a-mile 
distant, ^following also its westerly deflection. The familiar "range- 
way road" follows nearly this old line, along which, right and left, 
ranges of lots were laid out. The first range, beginning at Broad 
meadow, was betAveen Chelmsford line and the rangeway ; the 
second range, southeast of the rangeway ; the third, running from 
"treble cove" to the river and Winning's Pond, southeast of the 
first and second ; the fourth, along the south line of Chelmsford, 
and designated as "west of the P' and 2""^ ranges" : the fifth, over 
against this, is called "the south range of the last two ranges." 

The following list gives in order the grantee and the number 
of acres in each lot : — 

First Eange : 

Crosby, Thomas 


Fasset, Patrick 


Frost, Thomas, Jun. 


Dutton. Thomas 


Grimes. George 


Grhnes, William 


Frost, Samuel 


Kidder, James 


Pollard, Thomas 


Hill, Lieut. Samuel 


J efts, John 


Ross, Thomas 


Farmer. John 


Fitch, Samuel 

Richardson, Andrew 


Stearns, Lt. John 


Ditson, Hugh 


Stearns. Thomas, heirs 


Chamberlain, Clement 


Spaldino^, Dea. Andrew 


Hill, Corp". Jonathan 


French, Jacob 


Davis, Joseph 


Second Bange : 

Frost, Dea. Jnmes 


Farmer, Edward 


Kittredge, Dr. John 


Dunkin. John 


Pollard, Thos., by right of Hale 


Richardson, Thomas, Jun. 


Patten. Thomas 


Parker. John, heirs 


Blanchard, John 


Farley. Caleb. Sen. 


Durrant, John 


Corneal, Peter 


Page. Nathaniel 


Hill, Joseph 


Baldwin, Jonathan 


Shed, Daniel 


Hill. Jonathan, Jun. 


Dutton, John 


Marshall, John 


Hill, Samuel. Jun. 


Kittredge, James 


Richardson. Nathaniel 


Bacon. Jonathan 


Crosby, Simon 


Stearns, Isaac 


Walker, Joseph 


Shed, Xathan 


Crosby. Nathan 


Whiting, Mr. Samuel 


Parker, Benjamin 


Baldwin, Thomas 


Baldwin. John 


Sheldon. John 


Lane. Capt. John 


Kidder, Ephi-aim 


Shed, John 


Bacon, Nathaniel 


Brown, George 


6 Grants. Vol. II, p. 319. 



Simon, negro 
Tonipson. (!"apt. Joseph 
Hill. Ralph 
Rogers. Daniel 
Rit-lianlson. Thomas 
Frost. Dr. Samuel 
Crosbj-. Corpi'. Josiah 
Hill. Corp". Jonathan 

Third Ennge, hcginninrj at Blood 
farms : 
Hill, Nathaniel 
Bacon. .Josiah 
French. .John 
Crosby. Joseph 
Danforth. Capt. Jonathan 
Hosley, James 
Kittredge. Daniel 
Foster. Joseph 
Kidder, Enoch 
Frost, Thomas 
Patten, William 
Rogers, Samuel 
Chamberlain. John 
Trull, Sanuiel. heirs 
Wilson, Lt. John 

The last lot is between the road, the 
river, and the pond. 


Fourth Range, west of the First 



Second Manges : 


Farley. Ebenezer 



Hill, John 



Rogers. Xathaniel 



Lane, Job 



Blanchard. John 



Patten. Nathaniel 


Danforth. Jonathan, Jun. 



Durrant. Thomas 


Bacon, Jonathan 



Manning, William 



Sanders. John 



French. William 



Farley. Caleb, Jun. 



Jefts. Henry 



French. Lt. William, heirs 



Paterson. James, heirs 


Fifth Range, ''south of two last 


ranges"' : 


Manning, Ens. Samuel 



Shed, Zachariali 



Richardson, Stephen 



Wilson, John 



Farley. George 


Hill, Daniel 


Whiting, Oliver 


Toothaker, Dr. Roger 


Hunt. Dr. Samuel 


Patten, Kendall 


A lot "for the Ministry" was laid out, 1708, November 13, 
consisting of forty-eight acres, "south of the road to longhill 
meadow"; and, when this division w^as completed, the town sold 
five hundred acres remaining in the remote southwest to Captain 
William Reed, of Cambridge. In February, 1713-14, a part of the 
"great swamp" was granted to the proprietors ; and, in 1718, a list 
of proprietors and rights is given (Grants, vol. ii, p. 313) for "a 
draught of the lots on the land in the scenter of the town " ; but no 
record is made of the lots, which must have been small. The same 
is true of "a second Diuition of scirts of land," in 1719, and of 
"an account of the small tract of land laid out in the centre of the 
town of Billerica, May 6, 1719," though the eight3--one proprietors 
are all named as above in each case. 

In February, 1722-3, "the quadron south of Okes" received a 
grant of sixty-one acres between mill-meadow and the long pond, 
"to make up their first Divition," which is described above ; and, in 
1731, a section remaining of Fox Hill was disposed of. Description 
of the lots in this distribution may be found in the Records. 


Ill all the earl}' years no distinction is made between "town" and 
"proprietors" in the Records, but, as the non-proprietors multiplied, 
meetings of the proprietors are held and record is made separateW, 
but still in the town books. In 1740, April 4, such a meeting voted 
"to make sale of all the slips of land that may be found in Billerica 
(or that was formerly Billerica), tliat belonged to the propriety." 
A year later the treasurer was granted fourteen shillings which were 
in the treasury, for his services in "dividing and paying out to each 
proprietor his proportion that came by the late sale of slips of pro- 
priety land." The sum was £48, or "two shillings to each acre 
right." A few other records not imjiortant are found ; and the last 
one occurs, 17o5, February 3, when report was made that there 
were £60 in bank, and the ti'easurer, Josiah Bowers, was instructed 
"to pa}' out to each proprietor two shillings and two pence, Old 
Tenor, upon an acre Right." 

So ended almost exactly' a century from its beginning the town's 
care for, and distribution of, its common lands. The questions 
involved in this charge had been many and delicate, and the wisdom 
of the fathers in dealing with them should be recognized. The}^ 
w^ere not lavish or parsimonious in the use of their land fund, but 
employed it in a proper and generous "encouragement" of such as 
bore the burden of la^'ing the foundations, while they guarded it 
from any unjust appropriation by individuals. The record proves 
them true and honest men. 

The two "Land-Grant" volumes of Records give minute details 
of the location and bounds of all these grants, grouped under the 
names of persons receiving them ; and the alphabetical indexes 
make it easy to trace what every man had. Many highways and 
byways are also described, a large part of which have been long 
disused and forgotten ; and the account given in chap, vi contains 
most which can be gathered of present interest on this subject. 
Those who have occasion can trace man}- details, and the material is 
here for an early map of the town, locating ranges, roads, and a 
large proportion of individual lots with substantial exactness. It is 
to be hoped that some son of the old town, with tact as surveyor 
and antiquarian, will yet find congenial emplo3-ment in retracing the 
work of Jonathan Danforth and his son Samuel and constructing 
such a historic map of Ancient Billerica. 


D I S IM E M B E R M E N T . 

As the population increased in the more remote parts of the 
town, questions of division arose. Convenience of public worship 
was the controlling principle in shaping the earl}' towns, and the 
same principle demanded new adjustments. But the demand was 
one which would naturally be unwelcome, and met with debate and 
oppositioif. After seventy-five years the process began, and did not 
cease until the old town was shoi'n of more than half of her ancient 
territory. The earliest movement towards this end was made, 1725, 
December 4, in "a petition of .Jonathan Bowers, Samuel Hunt, and 
divers others. Dwellers on the Land called Wamesick Purchase and 
Wintlu'op's farm, wc'' lands ly adjacent to Billerica, between Pau- 
tucket and Chelmsford Line, praying, for reasons therein assigned, 
to be erected into a separate and distinct Town."^ This petition 
was referred to tlie next session of the General Court, but there is 
no record of action upon it. It was probably abandoned, in conse- 
(jfuence of the successful opposition of Chelmsford, which sought and 
secured the annexation of that larger part of the Wamesit Purchase, 
which was on the west side of Concord River, the whole Purchase 
being nearl}' coextensive with the present bounds of Lowell south 
of the Merrimack. The petition of Chelmsford for this annexation 
was granted, 172G, June 13.- 

Tlie friends of the earlier project did not, hovveA^er, abandon their 
efforts, and were so far successful that the General Court, 1729, 
April 9,"' considered favorably a bill to establish Wameset Parish, 
with these bounds : ' ' the line to begin at Concord River, between 

1 Massachusetts Records. Vol. XIH, p. 53. 

2 Massachusetts Records. Vol. XIII, p. 155. 

3 Massachusetts Records. Vol. XIV, p. 242. 


the lands of John Rogers, jr., and Enoch Kidder, and so on that 
line to the Way leading to Wintlu'op farm, so called" ; thence on a 
"strait line to the S. E. end of Prospect Hill, six score rods north of 
the Honse of James Kittredge, continuing the same line to Andover 
Line"; then following that line and Merrimack River to "Chelms- 
ford Old Line, (which was the Bound between the said Town & 
Wamasset or Indian Purchase,) keeping said Line to Concord river, 
to a stake called Patucket or Wamasset ; thence crossing Concord 
River to the bound first mentioned, which includes Wamasset or the 
Whole Indian Purchase." Final action was not taken at this session, 
and, in December, a proposal to revive the measure and incorporate 
Wamesit Precinct was fjivorably considered and acted upon b^- both 
Houses, "the former order of this Court referring to Wamasset 
Purchase Lands notwithstanding." This proviso seems intended 
to repeal the above act of annexation to Chelmsford ; but, if so 
intended, the failure of the Wamesit Precinct was probably held to 
revive its force. The Precinct was required, within three years, to 
erect and finish a good and suitable house for public worship, "where 
the committee that have already viewed the said lands shall appoint," 
and "settle a learned orthodox minister of good convc>rsation, and 
make Provision for his comfortable and honorable support." This 
was not done, and Wamesit failed to secure a place among the 
municipalities of the State. 

Bedfoud. In the opposite direction the movement was more 
successful. The General Court received, 1728, June 18,* "the 
petition of Andrew Watkins, John Wilkins, and John AVilson, and 
a considerable number of other^, setting forth their great difficulties 
by reason of their distance from the meeting houses in Concord and 
Billerica, to which the}' belong, and that they have been necessitated 
to get a minister among them for the winter season, and therefore 
praying that the}' ma}' be set off a separate Township." The peti- 
tion was referred to the next session, with order of notification to 
the Towns of Billerica and Lexington. In July the Court, on farther 
petition, directed a, already sent to examine the lines of 
the proposed Wamesit Parish, to extend their labors and go over the 
proposed bounds of Bedford. 

■• Massachusetts Records. Vol. XIV, p. 91. Mr. Slmttuck {History of Concord, p. 255,) 
mentions a petition, dated 1725, as if it related to Bedford. But he ijrobably referred to the 
petition quoted in the first paragraph of this chapter, mistaking the Identity of the " AVin- 
throp's farm" there mentioned, which was in fact the farm near Wamesit. 


Billerica had heard of the proposal, and as earlj as May 14, 
1728, voted, that the}- "will act no farther at this time on the 
petition of the southerh' part of the town as to their being set off 
as a Township." The matter came up again, January 27, and the 
town chose a committee of eleven, who were "Impowered to manage 
the affair Referring to our brethren, the petitioners of the southward 
part of our Town, according to their best discretion, in agreeing 
with said petitioners at home concerning the line between the Town 
and them (if they can), but if not, then to draw up what they think 
proper by way of petition to the General Court and to choose two 
men out of said committee to manage s'^ affair at said Court." This 
committee was not able to agree upon the line of division, and 
petitioned the Court, 1729, April 2, "praying that the new town, 
proposed to be erected in the Count}- of Middlesex, to be called 
Bedford, and which is principally taken out of the town of Billerica, 
may not be extended according to the lines set forth for making 
said Town, but that some of the families may remain in the town of 
Billerica." The petition, however, was dismissed, and Bedford was 
incorporated, 1729. September 23. The line of separation began at 
the Two Brothers, on Concord River, either following the Winthrop 
Farm line or more [)rol)abh' diverging a little to the north of it, and 
thence extending nearly as at present to Woburn, now Burlington. 
It was changed, by consent of the two towns, in 17G6, so as to 
transfer Edward Stearns and his farm to Bedford. The change in 
the line began at what was known as Page's Corner, passed between 
the land of Lieut. Isaac Stearns and Edward Stearns, came to the 
brook "al)out two pole southwest from the saw mill," and followed 
the brook to Concord River. 

The claim that Bedford was principally^ taken out of Billerica 
has been overlooked, but is correct. The old line with Concord 
was parallel with the present Main Street in Bedford and sixt^'-four 
rods south of it, as shown above (p. 212). It is still easily traced, 
crossing the depot street at the Merriam place, nearh' touching the 
railroad at the curve east of the station, and marked in the swamp 
be3-ond b}' a pair of tall pine trees. Its easterly point is shown in 
the record of a committee, February 11, 1699-1700. They "began 
at Concord southeast corner, which was a stake and stones about it, 
standing on the southeast of Shawshin River about forty poles from 
it." This point would be very near an ancient Page house, standing 
pn the old road south of the main road to Lexington, and on the 


County Atlas of 1875, marked by the name of Bronnan. Westward 
of the cedar swamp, where the marks could not he found, the com- 
mittee ran, by mutual agreement, north fift3-three degrees west to 
Concord River. This line includes about three-fifths of Bedford. 
Of the families transferred no list is known to remain. Of the first 
church members Mr. Shattuck,' with sufficient probability, credits 
these names to Billerica : Obed Abbott, Jonathan Bacon, Thomas 
Dinsmore, Samuel Fitch, Jacob Kendall, Benjamin Kidder, Job 
Lane, John Lane, Christopher Page, Nathaniel Page, and Israel 
Putnam ; and Josiah Fassett should doubtless be added. Of other 
citizens there was John Wilson, and probably more than as man}' 
others, younger members of the same families and of other families. 
Of the division of the property of Billerica we have an approximate 
assurance. The Province tax assessed in 172D amounted to £125, 
5s., 8f^, of which the part belonging to Bedford was £18, 12s., 3d. 
Samuel Fitch was the first town clerk, and Israel Putnam Avas the 
first constable of the town and the first deacon of the church. 

TKWKsr.URY. The success of the Bedford petition encouraged 
a renewal of the movement in the north part of the town, but 
Chelmsford held all west of the Concord River so firmly that 
the i)roposal took a turn farther eastward. The consciousness of 
separate interests appears frequently in references to the inhabitants 
of \\'inthrup Fu-in. In 17.'31 they prepared a draft and laid it 
before the town of a road which they desired, and received favorable 
answer. In 1733, May 13, they asked the town to ''erect a meeting 
house in the center of the town, or so as to accommodate the 
northerly part of the town, upon the Town's cost, or set them ofi', 
so that the}' may maintain preaching among themselves." This the 
town was hardly ready to grant ; but they had discovered that it 
was useless to oppose the separation, and a town meeting was held, 
December 19, at which the above request was renewed, or, as an 
alternative, that the town would "please to set them oft', with 
two-thirds of the land lying between Andover and Billerica meeting 
house, from AVilmington line to Concord River, for a Township." 
Others desired that the organization should be a "Precinct, for 
their better accommodation in public Avorship." At this meeting, 
a committee, consisting of JMr. Samuel Danforth, Lieutenant Daniel 
Kittredge, Lieut. Joseph Hill, Mr. Samuel Hunt, Jr., and Lieut. 

6 History of Concord, p. 263. 



Joseph Kidder, was appointed to "view the land" and report, which 
they did, January 9, 1780-4, and the town voted, ''that the northerly- 
and northeasterly [)art of the Town, according to their petition, be 
set oti' as a Township, (irantino- them two-thirds of the land from 
Andover line to our meeting- lionse, by a parallel line with said 
Andover line, extending from Concord River to A\'ilmington line, 
(if the inhabitants on the southeasteily side of Shawshin River be 
willing to join with them)." 

This final condition called out a petition from Samuel Hunt and 
others to the General Court, '•'i)raying an absolute grant of this 
Court for their being made a Towne with these bounds," or the 
appointment of a committee to examine and report. The latter 
was done, v>'ith the result that Tewksbur}- was Incorporated, 1734, 
December 23. The new town was taken wholly- from Billerica, 
receiving in round numbers nine thousand acres of the twenty-five 
thousand which remained after the separation of Bedford, which had 
taken nearly or quite foiu' thousand. The following list of families 
included in Tewksburv is imperfect, but will have interest: — 

Brown, Joseph 
Brown. William 
Fanner, Eichanl 
Farmer. Thomas 
Freneli, John 
French, Thomas 
Frost. Daniel 
Frost. Edmund 
Frost, Joseph 
Hall, IJichard 
Hall, Samuel 
Haseltine, Samuel 
Haseltine, Stephen 
Hunt, Jeremiah 
Hunt, John 
Hunt, Joseph 

Hunt. Peter 
Hunt. Samuel 
Kiddei'. Eplnaim 
Kittredge. Daniel 
Kittredge, Daniel, Jr. 
Kittredye, Francis 
Kittredge, James 
Kittredge, James. Jr. 
Kittredge. .Tames, ters. 
Kittredge. Di-. Jolni 
Kittredge, John. Jr. 
Kittredge. Josepli 
Kittredge, Thomas 
Kittredge. William 
Levestone, .John 
Levestone, Seth 

Manning, Eliphalet 
Manning, Thomas 
Marsliall, Thomas 
Needham, .Tohn 
Osgood, SteiJien 
Patten, John 
Patten, Kendall 
Patten, Nathaniel 
Peacock, Sanuiel 
Richardson, Andrew 
Pogers, Nathaniel 
Shed, Nathan 
Stickney, Ahraliam 
Trull, Samuel 
Wliitins,-. John 

To these forty-seven names enough should probably be added to 
make the number sixty. 'J'hey include all then on our list of the 
names Hall, Haseltine, Hinit, and Kittredge, a loss too serious not 
to be felt. The latter family had become so numerous in that part 
of the town exclusively, that it is not strange the}- have been credited 
with original settlement there. In fact, as noted elsewhere, their 
ancestor, John Kittredge, lived and died southeast of Bare Hill, in 


Wilmington received the next segment taken from Billerica. 
That town was incorporated, 1730, September 25, consisting of the 
north part of Woburn. The line on the west inchided "tlie farm" 
of Abraham Jaquith, whicli was partly in l^illeriea. The qnestion 
arose, whether the Court intended to inchide this part which was in 
Billerica or to follow the old Woljurn line: and, 1733, April 12, 
our selectmen petitioned the Court, praying "that Billerica "ma>' be 
continued in the uninterrupted possession of her ancient Bound." 
After receiving the answer of Wilmington, the question was put, 
whether, in the act, "it was intended by the words relating to Mr. 
Jaquith's farm to include the whole of that farm in Wilmington, and 
it passed in the affirmative." Some of the Billerica neighl)ors of 
Mr. Jaquith, on the east of Shawshin River, w^re also inclined to 
the new town; and, 1733, January 28, Wilmington voted, "that 
the Bildrica neighbors on y* Est Side of Shawshin River be annexed 
to Wilmington Towne and Towneship, and to have full right in y" 
meeting-house and to all other Towne Priviledges, if y^ great and 
Generall Cort see good to. annex y'" to us." 

In March, 1737-8, Billerica received a "Petition of several 
persons, on the southeasterh' side of Shawshin River, to be dis- 
missed from the Town of Billerica to be annexed to the second 
preicenct in Woburn, in order to be Erected into a Township." On 
the question of granting this petition, "it passed unanimously- in 
the negative." Two months later^ the General Court received the 
petition of John, Ebenezer, and Jacob Beard, Jonathan Baldwin, 
Peter Cornell, and Richard Hopkins, saying that their farms were 
convenient to Wilmington, and that they had attended worship in 
the meeting-house there since its erection, as it was two miles 
nearer than Billerica, and at some seasons the}' could not cross the 
Shawshin. The^- refer to the petition to be set otf which Billerica 
had refused, and ask that their request be granted without reference 
back to Billerica. To this petition the House, in June, refused 
consent; but, in December, 1737, the Council gave a favorable 
hearing, and A'oted that the petitioners be annexed to Wilmington, 
provided the}' should pay their proportion of charges for the meeting- 
house which Billerica was building. The House concurred, and this 
section of six hundred acres was transferred to Wilmington. 

Carlisle. After these losses on the, south, north, and east, it 

6 Massachusetts Archives. Vol. CXIV, 180. 


remained only to complete the cii-cuit in the west ; but, although 
the movement there began earl3', it was not consummated for more 
than a generation. At the same meeting, in March, 1 To 7-8, when 
the town refused the AVilmington petition, it postponed one of 
similar tenor from "several persons on the westerly side of Concord 
River," wlio desired to be set off "to Joyn with part of the Towns 
of Concord and Chelmsford, to be erected into a Township." After 
debate, the town, May 11, ''voted their willingness (wlien it was 
the Hon''' General Court's pleasure to erect them into a Township) 
to set them off by the bounds following, viz : to begin at the west 
side of Concord River- thirty poles below the bridge, that is, ouer 
Concord Riv^er, at Hill's land boating place bj' the river ; then 
ruiaing with a streight line to the southwest corner of Andrew 
Farmer's paster land, on the east side of treble cove path ; from 
thence with a streight line to Chelmsford line at the north easterl}^ 
of Jonathan Snow's land." But sixteen years passed before the 
General Court incorporated Carlisle, '^ 1754, April 19, as a district 
of Concord. In 1755 Billerica refused the consent once given to the 
separation, and the elements seem to have been inharmonious or the 
location of the meeting-house a knotty problem, for after struggling 
with their difficulties until 1757, January, the people in Carlisle were 
granted a dissolution of the Di.strict. In their request for this they 
say, * that onl}' a small majority originall}' favored the District, and 
that after many trials in various ways to come to some amicable 
agreement for l)uilding up the place all means fail, and they apprehend 
the utter impossibility of ever coming into an}' further agreement. 
Details of these "trials" may be seen in the "History of Concord." 
Some of the Cont^ord people had previously sought to return to 
Concord, but a petition of Chelmsford and Billerica citizens had 
opposed them ; and to this the}' now reply that Concord was willing 
to receive them again, and "those who lived most remote were most 
anxious to return." 

The dissolution of the District did not bring peace, and a petition 
to the Court followed, 1757, .hine 1, bearing fift\'-one signatures, of 
which Timothy Wilkins is the fiist. •' The following Billerica names 
occur : Abraham Duren, Widow Mary Duren, Ebenezer Hard}', 
Amos Kidder, John Kidder, Ebenezer Kittredge, Joseph Monroe, 

' Shattuck's History of Concord, p. 321. 

8 Massachusetts Archives. Vol. OXVII, 204. 

9 Massachusetts Archives. Vol. CXVII, 290. 


Joshua Monroe, Nathan Monroe, George Niekles, Edward Spalding, 
Job Spalding, Leonard Spalding, Thomas Spalding. 

The}' say that they, "By the Disposal of the Providence of that 
God who setteth Bounds to jMeu's Habitations, Live very Remote 
from the INIeeting Houses of the Several Towns to which w'e 
Respectively Belong, Jiy Reason whereof we and our Families are 
subject to Many Difficulties in the Discharge of tlie Duty Licumbent 
on us; And Especially' the Great and hnportant Duty of Attending 
upon the Public Worship of God." For relief they ask to be erected 
into a Townshij) or District, with such others as were included, with 
the "Limits following, that is to say, half the Lands with the Inhal)- 
itants on the same Between Concord Meeting House and Chelmsford 
Meeting House, in this manner, that There be made an East and 
West Line, in the Centre, between" these meeting-houses, and half 
the land on each side this line towards each meeting-house to be 
included. In the other direction a line was to be drawn between the 
two meeting-houses, and from this line the bounds w^ere to be two 
and a quarter miles east and west. The petitioners had agreed that 
the meeting-house should be built at the place where these lines 
crossed, if a Convenient place ; if Not, the Next nearest Convenient 

In March, 1760, the sul>ject was again before the town, which 
voted to set off the inhabitants on the west side of Concord River, 
b}' the following line: "Beginning at Clielmsford Line, at a Stake 
and Stones near an old cellar ; Runing thence to a white oak Tree 
near the House of William Bonner, standing in the Land of Asa 
Spalding, Taking in s'^ Boners ; from thence Runing in a straight 
Line to the southwest corner of W" Shed's Land ; Then Running a 
Strait Line to the Southwest of Benj'' Parker's Barn, and so on. Still 
on a Straight Line to Concord Line." But this permissive action 
would hardly be held as favorable, proposing to restrict the limits 
of Carlisle and not allow them to reach Concord River. The new 
meeting-house was begun at this time, but not finished for several 
years ; and the town itself was only a name and an endeavor for 
some 3*ears longer. The subject was revived b^- petition to the 
General Court, 1772, June 1. The petitioners say that the desired 
bounds include about sevent3'-six families,^" and that they have 
erected a meeting-house. The bounds which the}' asked were to 

10 Massachusetts Archives. Vol. CX\^II, 624. 


include "the house and land of Joshua Monroe ; thence east, includ- 
ing house and land of Jonathan Swallow ; still runing East, including 
house and land of Amos Kidder ; thence southeast, including house 
and land of Nathaniel Hutchinson ; thence on a strait line to the 
Rangeway, wliere the conntiy road crosses the same ; thence East, 
by the South side of said Country road, to Concord Kiver." But 
Carlisle's long struggle for life did not end in success until 1780, 
though Billerica again gave her consent, 1779, March 1, when a 
committee reported on the bounds desired : "Beginning at Chelms- 
ford line, at the end of the wall between the land of Lt. Jonathan 
Spaulding & Land of Lt. Asa Spaulding, Ruiiing East forty Degrees 
South half-a-mile to the' Rangeway ; then ruhing southeasterly to th6 
northwest corner of the land of John Nickles, Jun. ; then ruiiing 
between s*" Nickles' land & land of Asa Spaulding to the southeast 
corner of said Nickles' land ; then ruiiing south thirty-one degrees 
west half-a-mile to a heap of stones in Capt. Daniel Stickney's land ; 
then runing southeasterly to the northeast corner of the land of 
Assachar Andrews ; then Runing between the s'* Andrews' land & 
land of Mr. Joseph Hill to Concord River. Voted, that Joseph 
Munroe, Joshua IMunroe, Nathan Munroe, John Henr}', John Henr}' 
2^"^, Josiah Heald, Aaron Munroe, James Nickles, Joseph Nickles, 
Jonas Robbins, Asa Spanlding Jun'', with their land, and all included 
within that line, l)e set otf as a Township, agreeable to the lines 
above mentioned." 

This was the final action of Billerica upon the subject, which 
had recurred at intervals for fort^'-two 3'ears ; and at last she 
seems to have given her youngest daughter a send-off with hearty 
good- will. Tiie list of names above for some reason omits these : 
Timothy Crosby, Charles Hans, Ebenezer Hard}', Joseph Osgood, 
Levi Parker, Nathaniel Parker. Here ceased the process of dis- 
memberment of Ancient Billerica. After the lapse of a century, it 
is fair to hope that it will not be resumed again. 



In the contest through which the British Colonies acquired 
independence and became a nation Billerica bore her part. Her 
minute-men were at Lexington, and the first soldier who fell at 
Bunker Hill was Asa Pollard, one of her sons. As earh' as 1731, 
September 14, the underlying principle of the national contest found 
expression in a vote, "that it is our opinion that our Representative 
hold fast all our charter priviledges ; and, in particular, that he 
give his voice in no suply of the Treasur}', that .deprives the house 
of their priviledg in passing accounts before payments." In 176G 
' ' the late troubles " in connection with the Stamp Act came before 
the town, on the question of recompense to the sufferers, and "it 
passed in the affirmative," with a reference to the discretion of their 

December 21, 1768, a town meeting "took into Consideration 
the present Distresst and Impoverished State of this Province, That 
some effectual measures might be agreed upon to promote Industry, 
Oeconomy, & Manufactures, thereby to prevent the unnecessary 
Importation of European commodities, which threaten the Country 
with poverty & Ruiii." Resolutions were unanimously passed, favor- 
ing home manufactures and disapproving the use of imported 
articles, of which a long list is named, beginning with loaf-sugar. 
A committee reported a form of subsci'iption, pledging those who 
signed, to promote tiiese objects. "The late regulations respecting 
Funerals" are special!}' emphasized, and the signers agree that they 
"will not use any Gloves but what are manufactured here, nor 
procure any new Garments upon such an occation l)ut what shall 
be absolutely necessar}'" ; to all which the patriots of Billerica it is 
quite certain generally agreed. This non-importation action became 
very general, and produced no little effect on the popular mind. 


In September, 1708, resolutions from the Town of Boston were 
responded to; and, "taking into Consideration the Critical State of 
our public affairs, more especially the present Precarious situation of 
our Invaluable Rights and priviledges, Civil and Religious," the town 
voted to choose "one person a committee for s"^ Town, to meet at 
Boston at Funel hall, the 22'^ inst., to act for them in a Convention, 
with such as may l)e sent to join them from the several towns in this 
province, in order that such measures maj' be consulted and advised 
as his majesty's service and the peace and safety of his majesty's 
subjects in tlie province may require." William Stickney, Esq., was 
chosen delegate to this convention. In this way the towns furnished 
the basis for effective discussion and action on the vital problems 
which stirred the colonies ; and it is not strange that the English 
Ministry were alarmed and incensed at the activity of these miniature 
republics. They were in fact the palladium of our rising liberties. 

The non-importation agreement naturally did not secure universal 
assent, and became inoperative, to the great joy of the Tories ; and 
the Boston IMassacre, l)y British soldiers, 1770, March 5, intensified 
the popular feeling. Royal instructions were resisted, as not having 
the force of law ; and the action of Governor Hutchinson and the 
judges, in receiving their salary' from the Crown and not from the 
Colonies, increased the sense of danger in the minds of the clear- 
headed patriots. In Boston, under the grand leadership of Samuel 
Adams, a committee was appointed, who reported to a town meeting, 
1772, November 20, a paper which stated the rights of the Colonists, 
enumerated their violation, and called upon the towns for expressions 
of their judgment. It was the most radical exposition which had A'et 
been made of rights and grievances, and the response was hearty. 

In Billerica a town meeting was held, 1773, February 1, and 
there is littledoubt that its action took shape under the hand of her 
able and patriotic minister, Henry Cumings. It stands thus : — 

''The inhabitants, liaving- deliberately Considered tlie Critical and 
alarming' Situation the Colonies upon this Continent are Keduced to, by 
reason of the unconstitutional proceedings of the British Ministry and 
parliament of late j^ears; & also the expediency of theii', as well as the 
Inhabitants of every other town, Adopting some method to Communicate 
their Sentiments in Kegard to tlie Disputes Subsisting between Great 
Britain and the Colonies, more especially on account of the late change in 
the American Department, that his Lordship the present Secretary of State 
for the said X)epartment may be Convinced that a General Uneasiness pre- 
vails throughout the Country in Consequence of the late measures of tlie 


British Adininistiation, notwithstanding any Eepoits to the Contrary, & 
may thereby be Influenced 'to use liis best Interest and endeavours to 
procure a Removal of the causes thereof, and a Restoration of tliat peace 
& Harmony vvliich so long Subsisted Betw^een the Mother Country & her 
Colonies, & are undoubtedly Necessary to the political Happiness and 
welfare of each : Unanimously Voted and Resolved, 

"1. That the late Acts of Parliament for laising a Revenue in the 
Colonies; the establishing a Board of Connnissioners with exorbitant 
powers; the granting of such extensive powers to the Court of Admiralty; 
the fixing a sallar}^ on the Governor of the province, and on the Justices of 
the Superioi' Courts. Independant of tlie Grants of the General .Assembly; 
the extending to America the late Acts of parliament. Entitled an Act for 
better preserving bis Majesty's Dock yards, &c; the Stationing fleets and 
armies to enforce a Compliance with Ministerial & parliamentary measures, 
together with many other things that might be mentioned, are Repugnant 
to the principles of the British Constitution. Subversive of their Charter 
Rights and privileges, & therefore Intolerable Grievances. 

''2. That those Reports which Represent the Inhabitants in General, 
in the Countiy, as acquiescing in and ready to Comply with the late 
measures of Administration, are. as far as they Respect them, false and 

"3. That they will heai-tily Concur with and faithfully assist their 
brethren in the common cause, throughout the Continent, in all prudent, 
legall, and Constitutional measures that shall be Adopted, to obtain a 
Redress of their present Grievani-es & a Restoration of their Just Rights 
and priviledges ; and will also at all times Unite with them in Zealously 
and Streanously Asserting their Rights and Vigorous!}' maintaining their 

"4. That they would take this Occation publickly to Declare their 
' Cordial Aft'ection & unfeigned loyalty to his present majesty George the 3*^, 
and to express tbeir Sincear wish that the Union Between Create Britain 
and her Colonies may never be broken, but be preserved upon Such an 
Equitable foundation as Shall Conduce to the prospei'ity & Advantage of 
both. Wlierefore, 

•'5. That they Commit in trust to our Representative in the General 
Court, to use Such measures as his i)rudence & wisdom Shall Dictate, to 
obtain in a Constitutional way a Redress of all (Jrievances. 

'••O, That the foregoing votes be Recorded in the town Book, and that 
the town Clerk transmit a Co])y of the same to the Connnittee of Corre- 
spondence of the town of Boston." 

Other towns took action of like tenor, and the effect yvas very 
great. The people were still loyal, but their rights were sacred and 
could not l)e sacrificed. If the two claims were not hai-monized, 
there was no doubt which must yield ; and from that spirit came 
independence and union. 

Instead of couciliation, England pursued a policy of exaspera- 


tion, by sending a commission to Rhode Island for the trial of 
persons concerned in the destrnction of the schooner "Gaspee," 
and more offensively by the Tea Act, which involved the issne 
of taxation withont representation. The patriots met the issue, 
1773, December 16, by throwing the first cargo of tea into Boston 
Harbor, receiving the exulting approval of the people in all the 
Colonies. Then followed the Boston Port Bill, which extended the 
feeling of union ; for the colonists espoused the cause of Boston, 
rather than see her suffer alone for an act which all approved. 

The Boston Committee again appealed to other towns, and 
Billerica responded, 1774, June G. Captain Enoch Kidder was 
moderator, and a committee consisting of Mr. E;i)enezer Bridge, 
Capt. Josiah Bowers, and Capt. Ralph Hill, reported as follows: — 

"The Inliabitants. having taken into Consideration the oppressive 
Measures, adopted and prosecuted of hite, by tlie British Ministry and 
Parliament against the Colonies ; and more especially having Considered 
the very alarming and vindictive act passed for the Blocking up of the 
harbour of Boston and ])utting a stop to the trade, unanimously (>auie into 
the following Resolves : 

"1. That a Right in the British Parliament to Tax his Majestj'^'s 
American Sidijects and to make laws Binding upon them in all Cases, 
without their Consent by Representatives, effectually deprives them of 
those Rights and Priviledges which as men and as Britisli Subjects they 
have a Just Claim to ; and has no better foundation in Reason & Equity 
than the mdimited Prerogative, contended for by those arbitrary and 
misguided Princes. Charles the first and James the second, for the which 
the one lost Ids life and the other liis Kingdom. 

•'2. That tlie Colonies are as Justifiable in opposing this unrighteous 
Claim of the British Parliament & all Acts Resulting from it, with all the 
attempts to Carry the same into execution, as the people of England were 
in opposing Charles t<:; James, & Setting William, Prince of Orange, of ever 
Glorious Memory, upon the Throne in tlie Room of the latter, Since the 
measures of those Arbitrarj^ Princes were not more Inconsistent with the 
Liberties of tlie People of England than the late measures of the British 
Parliament, in consequence of the al)ove-mentioned claim, are with the 
Lilierties of the People in Amei-ica. 

'•3. That our Vigorous Contests for our Liberties, in Opposition to 
the said Claim of Parliament and the Oppressions with which we have 
been loaded in Consequence thereof, Cannot Consistentl}' be Denominated 
Faction and Rebellion by any who are friendly to tlie Principles of the 
Revolution upon whicli his Present Majesty's Rigiit t(j the Crown Depends; 
and tlierefore there is Reason to Suspect that those who call our manly 
Struggles for Liberty Opprobi'ious names are disaftected to the Hannoverian 
Succession, & aiming to Restore the Racce of the Stuarts. 

"4. That the act for Blocking up Boston Harbour is Hostile, Arbitrary 


& Cruel, and a Solemn Alarm. Sniiiided to all America, to Unite as one man 
and Stand more tlrm than ever in Defence of its Liberties, as it Discovers 
implacable Kesentment in tlie British Ministry and a fixed Intention to 
treat these Colonies as Kebels, without even the fornuility of a trial, and to 
condemn & punish them unheard if they Do not yield a tame Submission 
to their Sovereign Mandates, which is a mode of proceeding" against IJeal 
offenders Scarcely to be parrelled bj^ any instance in tlie most arbitrary ct 
tyrannical Reigns. 

"■5. That we consider tlie Blow Struck at Boston as aimed at the 
Province in General, and as a Prelude to something further. Equally 
Vindictive, yet in Store for this and the other Colonies, and as we have a 
fixed Reliance upon the Vhlue of our Brethren in Boston to persevere in 
the noble Cause of Liberty, which they have hitherto maintained with Such 
laudable fortitude and Resolution, and, looking upon our Selves as Bound 
to annimate and encourage them, we hereby promise & Declare our Readi- 
ness to Support and Strengthen them in the present conflict to the utmost 
of our power, and to joyn with them in anj^ measures that shall be Judged 
expedient for our Common Safety and Defence, and for Defeating every 
vengeful machination of those that would punish us for Shewing our Selves 
men, and Dragoon us into Slavery because we Disdain patientlj' to take the 
Yoak upon our Necks at their Bidding. 

''6. That, if the Respectable Body of Merchants throughout the 
Colonies might come into an agreement to import no British Goods and 
carry on no foreign trade whereby the merchants in England should 
Receive any Greate Benefit or Emolument. Ave humbly Conceive that a 
plan would be laid for the Speedy Removal of our Difficulties ; and that 
we should have nothing to Do but to Sit Still and See the Salvation of 
our Country. We therefore Ardently Reconnnend this measure to them, 
promising that nothing shall be wanting upon our part for the Encour- 
agement of the Same. 

'■'Lastly. That, as it would be an Indellible Disgrace and a Violation 
of the Sacred Obligation we are under, to God, 'J'o our Country, to our 
Selves, and to Posterity, for us tamely and Pusillanimously to give up 
these invaluable Liberties, which our worthy Ancest(*rs purchased for us 
at Such Vast Expense of Blood & Treasure, AVe are Determined to use our 
utmost efforts to maintain them, and nqt part with them at a Cheaper Rate 
than they were at first Obtained." 

These resolutions were recorded, and transmitted to the "Com- 
mittee of Correspondence in Boston." It was also voted to choose 
a Committee of Correspondence, which consisted of Mr. Ebenezer 
Bridge, Mr. Joshua Abbott, Capt. Josiali Bowers, Mr. Kalpli Ilill, 
Doctor Timotliy Danforth, Mr, William Tompson, and ]\Ir. Solomon 

On June 27, after considering two covenants, sent from Boston, 
"The Town, after Serious Deliberation upon the Difficulties & 
Distresses in which the Province, as well as the Colonies in General, 


are involved, at the present Day ; also upon what Method will have 
the greatest tendenc}^ to Cause a Suspension of all Commercial 
Intercourse with the Island of Great Britain, (that being adjudged 
a Measure the most Salutary- and Prudent that can be adopted, and 
most likely to etfect the end proposed,) Voted, That the Inhabitants 
of this Town come into an Agreement, faithfully and Religiousl}'^ to 
be observed, that the}- will not I1U3-, purchase, or Consume, or suffer 
any person b\', for, or under them, to purchase or Consume, in an}' 
way or manner whatsoever, an}' Goods, wares, or merchandise that 
«hall arrive in America from Greate Britain aforesaid, from and after 
the 31 Day of August ilext ensuing, for and until such time as they 
shall have Received the Result of the Continental Congress, upon 
whose wisdom, Prudence, and Integrity they Rely, & to whose Deter- 
mination they shall Readily Conform. A'^oted, That if any person 
or persons shall Discover such a want of regard for the Interest and 
Good of the Country, as to import any kind of merchandise from 
Great Brittain aforesaid, after the aforesaid 31 Day of August until 
the publication of the aforesaid result, they wall not purchase of them 
any article of British goods, whatever, when, or howsoever imported. 
Voted, That a Covenant comprising the Spirit and intention of the 
foregoing \"ote be forthwith Subscril)ed to I)}- the Inhabitance of the 
Town," and a committee was appointed for the purpose. 

September 12th, it was "Voted, that the Tow^i Justifie the 
Committee of Correspondence for their Going to CouQord, to join 
with the committees of the other towns of this County, to Consult 
upon measures proper to be taken at the present important day," 
and ''that the town fully accept of the Resolves passed at said 
meeting in Concord." At the same time the town voted to choose 
two persons, " as a Committee to attend at the Provincial Congress, 
to be held at Concord on the second Tuesday in October." William 
Stickney, Esq., and Mr. Ebenezer Bridge were chosen. Already the 
First Continental Congress was in session at Philadelphia, and the 
active union of the Colonies was taking practical form. Two weeks 
later, Mr. Stickney was also elected Representative to the General 
Court, " to be held at Salem," October ; and he was instructed " to 
pay no Regard to the King's new mandamus Council, as a Council, 
nor proceed to act with them" ; and, "if the Governor Should Dis- 
solve, prorogue, or adjourn the Court, that our Representative joine 
the House in forming themselves into a provincial Congress," and in 
the latter case, Mr. Bridge was also to attend it. 


The progress of sentiment and action was rapid, as appears 
6 December, 1774, when the town adopted a conunittee's report as 
follows: " When we Reflect on the alarming & Critical Scituation 
of onr Pu1)lick affairs, it is with pleasnre we behold the Remarkable 
Unanimity that prevails Through the whole Continent ; we are 
Greatly pleased to find that the very Methods by which a Corrupt 
Ministry- Sought to Divide the Colonies have Served Happily to 
unite them, and by every New Act of Oppression more and more 
to Strengthen the Union, So that the people Seem in Every (Quarter, 
almost to a man, to be P^ngaged in the Common Cause. And we 
Earnestly Recommend it to this people, that since the}' have Endeav- 
oured to Collect the United wisdom of the whole Continent, by their 
Selected Delegates, also the General Sence of the province, now 
assembled in Congress, that the^' would pay a proper Regard to their 
Resolves and Recommendations ; it is with most painful Sensations 
we see the supineness and inattention to our Common Interest that 
seems to prevail in the minds of many people in this town ; we are 
sorry that there is so much uneasiness in the minds of some People 
in Regard to settling the melitia. We heartil}- wish that this people 
were more fully Convinced that good polic}' Consists much in learning 
the use of arms and the art of war ; and the times may soon Demand 
their Service and the utmost Exertion of them. And Since it is 
submitted to us, as a committee, to Draw some plan for the Town to 
adopt in order to settle the melitia, we Give it as our humble opinion 
that it would be best for the [men to be] called Together : both the 
\larm List and the Training band ; and in the first i)lace to Resolve 
that they will abide the Vote of a Majority-, and then proceed to the 
Choice of officers for each Compan}', and when the Compan\^ are so 
settled, that each Company meet to G ether as often as they can 
conveniently in order to learn the art military, and that the companies 
all attend & stiictly obey the lawfull commands & orders of said 
officers. With Regard to the Company' under the Command of Mr. 
p]benezer Bridge, we can't but Justif}' upon the principles they set 
out, which, we take for Granted, was to Learn the Military Art, and 
we Rejoice to see that the}', as well as the other Companies, have 
made such noble Improvements, and we hope that Company will act 
so much upon Ilonnor as not to make any Devisions in the other 
Companies, and if they go on to Enlist men, that they be Restricted 
to a Certain number." Monday, the twelfth, was assigned for the 
election of officers, and Mr. Bridge's compau}' was limited to fort}'- 


eight privates. It was none too soon for the miUtia to be arniing 
and training; as the}' were qnickly needed. Volunteer movements, 
it appeared, had alread}^ been made before the action of the town. 

Another vital step was taken when the constables were instructed, 
December 19, to pay the Province taxes to Henry Gardner, Esq., of 
Stowe, who had been appointed b}- the Provincial Congress Receiver-^ 
General. The State was to have the means in friendly hands to 
carry on its legitimate work. A Committee of Inspection was also 
chosen, consisting of Ebenezer Bridge, Joshua Abbot, Solomon 
Pollard, Joshua Davis, William Tompson, Timothy Danforth, Reuben 
Kendall, John Parker, and Oliver Abbot, "to see that the Resolves 
of the Continental, and Provincial, Congress, be adliei-ed to, so far 
as they Respect ns." In January, 1775, AVilliani Stickney was 
chosen delegate to a Provincial Congress which met in Cambridge ; 
and another important committee was thus provided for: "The 
Difficulty aud Dangers of the present Day into which we are fallen, 
when the Course of Law & Justice is Interrupted, and the Danger 
of people being Disorderly & Tumultuous to the Disturbing the 
Common wealth and the peace of the Good people of the Town, 
taking the Advantage of the times ; voted, to choose a Committee 
of twelve persons, as Conservators. Chose William Stickney, Esq., 
Mr. Ebenezer Bridge, Mr. Joshua Abbot, Captain Daniel Sticknej', 
Captain Josiah Bowers, Mr. Joshua Davis, Lt. Asa Spaulding, Mr. 
Benj. Lewis, Mr. Henry Jefts, Mr. Zebadiah Rogers, Captain Ralph 
Hill, & Mr. Paul Cooke, whose business it shall be, as nnich as in 
them lies, by all prudent methods, to prevent & Discountenance all 
Disorders, Mobs, & Tumultuous Assemblys in the s'' Town, and to 
heal all Diferances by persuading all Contending persons to be at 
peace, or to leave their Differences to men to settle for them ; aud to 
P^ncourage people as much as possil)le to lead (^uiete # peacable lives 
in all Godliness & honesty. And where persons prove obstinate 
and erreclaimable, to bring such matters before the town for their 
Consideration & Determination, ^"oted, that seven of s'' Committee 
be a Corum." These good men intended to pi-ove and did prove that 
they could guard the public peace in times of transition and danger. 
It is also evident that Dr. Cumings did not always write or criticize 
their public utterances. He would have secured better grannnatical 
coherence ; but what the fathers meant to say is usually clear. 

At the town meeting in March, it was voted to raise a companj- 
of fifty minute-men, who should meet weekl}' for training, and be 


pnid one shilling for even' half-days' training, except when this day 
was the same as the general training-day. The oflieers, appointed 
by a committee of the town, were Ca[)tain Ebenezer Bridge, Lieuts. 
Jonathan Stickney and James Lewis ; and the minute-men were to 
pass muster before Colonel Tompson, Captain Pollard, and Captain 
Farmer. Another committee was ''to perfect the alarm List; the 
Rule to go by is, all above the age of fifty-five." 

4- few days later occurred an incident in Boston which has made 
the name of a young man from Billerica famous in the history of 
these days, and produced much effect upon the minds of the patriots. 
Thomas Ditson, Jun., being in Boston, was seiised by the British 
troops, March 8, on the pretence that he was urging a soldier to 
desert ; without any examination kept a prisoner until the next day, 
when he was stripped, tarred, and feathered, and dragged through 
the principal streets on a truck, attended by soldiers of the Forty- 
Seventh Regiment, led by Colonel Nesbit, to the music of Yankee 
Doodle, the original words of which, it is said, were then first used. 
The outrage produced great indignation, and the selectmen of Boston 
sent a letter reporting the case to the selectmen of Billerica, who 
presented a remonstrance to General Gage, and submitted the case 
to a town meeting, on March 20. The town thanked them '' for the 
wise and i)radent measures" they had taken, expressed its dissatis- 
faction with the reply of General Gage, and instructed them to carry 
the case to the Provincial Congress. 

Debates and events were becoming ver}' serious, and the drilling 
of train-l)ands and minute-men foreshadowed too well the work 
before them. The stern resolve of the patriots expressed itself in a 
vote, the same day, "to look up the old Bayonets" ; and, April 14, 
four days before the Lexington and Concord alarm, they voted to 
" furnish the mfiuUe-men with Bayonets and Cartridge Boxes." It 
was also voted, that "as every method ought to be pursued which 
may tend to promote the arts & manufactures of the Country, espe- 
cially tliat of wool. The Inhabitants of this town Shall not Kill any 
lambs for the markett till after the first Day of August next ; and 
also that no one ought to sell an}- to any Butcher or Petty Chapman, 
at any time whatever." "Voted, That the Inhabitants of this Town 
will, on the Death of a friend or Relative, Conform to the 8"' article 
of the American Association, & go into no further mourning than 
such as is therein Recommended, and will entirely Discontinue the 
Giving of anv Gloves whatever at Funerals." 


To prevent the troops in Boston from being snpplied with materials 
for hostile operations, the town voted not to permit any team "to 
Load in, or, after loaded, to pass through, the Town, with Timber, 
Boards, Spars, Pickets, Tent-poles, Canvas, Biick, Iron, Waggons, 
Carts, Carriages, Intrenching Tools, Oats," etc., without satisfactory 
certificate from the Committee of Correspondence, as to load, desti- 
nation, and abode. Meanwhile, General Gage was preparing for an 
expedition to seize the military stores which had been gathered at 
Concord, with little suspicion what preparation the Provincials had 
made, and how promptly the}' would deal w4th such a movement. 
It was about eleven' o'clock on the night of April 18th, that Paul 
Revere and William Dawes set out on their ride to give the alarm 
and summon the minute-men to resist the advance of the British 
troops. The story of that day has been well told, and can not be 
here repeated. It was certainly to Billerica one of the most exciting 
and important days in her history. The midnight riders spreading 
the alarm were likely to come b}' the Woburn. Ijcxington, and Bed- 
ford roads, and probably reached Billerica by two o'clock. The 
Ditsons on the Woburn Road would be among the first to receive 
the summons, and very ready to respond to it after their recent 
experience. Colonel Tompson and Lieutenant !Stickney, living in 
the southeast part of the village, would be promptly notified ; and 
El>enezer Bridge, who was captain of the minute-men, and lived at 
the Farmer place and nearl}' opposite Colonel Stickney's. There 
was huriTing to and fro, we may be sure, and in the early dawn, 
when the first encounter took place at Lexington, few families, if 
an}', had not heard the call to arms. Muskets and accoutrements 
were hastil}' made ready and donned ; the alarm-list no doubt turned 
out as well as the train-band and the minute-men ; and gathering at 
the Common for muster and orders, the}- hurried off towards Concord. 
IMeanwh'le, the British had pushed on to Concord, and after the fight 
there found reason for hurrj'ing back towards Boston. They had 
not gone far when, at IMerriam's Corner, the Billerica troops came 
and joined in the assault and pursuit of the retreating foe. Mr. 
Frothingham states that the}' came under the command of Colonel 
William Tompson, a fact which suggests that the force was not 
limited to the company of minute-men under Captain Bridge, and it 
is not likely that the veterans would be slow to turn out at such a 
call. Some Billerica men w'ere naturally in the Bedford company 
and arrived earlier, and when Capt. Jonathan Wilson was killed, the 


eonunniKl devolved upon his Bilk'rica lieutenant, Edward Stearns. 
Nathaniel Wvnian of the same company was killed, who was prob- 
ably from Billeriea, although his name is also credited to Lexington. 
No other man from this town was killed, but John Nickles and 
Timothy Blanchard were wounded. 

Tlie day of Lexington and Concord decided the issue of Avar ; 
and there followed a rapid nuistering of Provincial forces. Billeriea 
I'urnished her share of men, as appears from this action. May 15: 
'•('hose Messurs Samuel Kidder & Isaac Foster as a Comt'''' to pro- 
\ide Blanketts for those persons in this town that have Inlisted into 
the provincial service." Another vote was, "thttt the Commanding 
officer of the Caddett Company make Keturne to the field Officers, 
the State of the Compan}', as the other Militia Captains do, and also 
that they Ije Read}' on any Ocation to take their part in any Burthen, 
acording to then- number, with the other Companys." A committee 
was also chosen "to provide straw for the army at Cambridge." 
Deacon Hill was excused from the Committee of Correspondence, 
and Captain Daniel Stickney and Lieut. John Parker were added to 
that important committee. Two weeks later, the town voted, that 
the article in the warrant "Respecting the Dissolution of the Caddett 
Company be put over to the fall meeting" ; but there is no record 
of farther action. Probably this was a compan}- of bo3'S, too young 
for service and too patriotic to neglect preparation for future duty. 

A conmiittee was chosen, June 2G, "to purchase GO hogsheds of 
salt & ten hogsheds of MoUasses, for a town Stock." This salt 
was bought at Beverly, and furnishes many items among the town 
charges for the year. Other items are "a pair of shoes for William 
Britton," "an old coat and a pair of stockings" for the same soldier, 
and "sundries Delivered to Mary Britton," no doubt his Avife. "To 
Jacob French for fixing 5 Bayonets to their Onus, 9% 5, 2," and "to 
AY'" Baldwin for making 7 Cataridge Boxes for the minute-men, 
1, 8, 0" ; "a pair of shoes for Ro])ert Augier, 6% 0" ; "a Jaccoat 
for AV" Britton, 2% 0" ; "3 cords of wood for Mary Britton, 1,0, 0." 

The siege of Boston occasioned the departure of many of its 
l)atriotic inhabitants, who sought refuge in the surrounding towns ; 
and at the iNLirch meeting in 177G a committee was appointed "to 
take care of and provide for the Donation persons that came from 
the towns of Boston and CbarlestoAvn." The Committee of Corre- 
spondence was reconstructed, William Stickne}', Esq., taking the 
place of Colonel Bridge, who was absent in the army. Other 


members were "Josluua Al)l)ot, Co'. W"\ Tompson, Capt. Daniel 
Stickne}', Capt. Josiah Bowers, Dr. Timothy- Daufortli, Dea. Joshua 
Davis, Lt. John Parker, Mr. Henry Jefts, Mr. Isaac Foster, and 
Mr. Benj". Lewis." Their duty is defined, "to serve as a Committee 
of Correspondence, Inspection, and Safet}', whose Business shall be 
to Communicate with Dispatch an}^ matters of importance to the 
publick that may come to their Knowledge to the Committees of the 
same Denomination of an3' other town, Count}', or Colony, which it 
may particularly concern, or to the General Assembly- of this Colony, 
or in their Recess to the Council ; and also to Inspect whether there 
[are] any Inhabitants of or Residents in their Respective towns who 
violate the association of the Continental Congress, or any other the 
Resolves, Directions, or Recommendations of said Congress, or Acts 
and Resolves of the General Court & preceding Congresses of this 
Colony, Respecting the present Struggles with Great Britton. And, 
if any such are found, that the}' proceed with them in Such manner 
as tl^ Resolves of the Continental Congress or the laws or Resolves 
of this Colony Do or shall Direct ; That the}' make known to the 
General Court or to the Council all Gross Breaches of trust in any 
officers or servants of this Colony that may come under their oljser- 
vation ; That they use their utmost influence to promote peace and 
harmony in their Respective towns." These were extensive powers 
and duties, and the exercise of them was liy no means nominal. 
Viny nuich was due to the vigilance and discretion with which these 
committees discharged their various and delicate functions. 

At a meeting. May 23, the town voted ''to send another Repre- 
sentative this year," and chose Colonel Tompson. It then adds a 
resolution which showed the progress of public sentiment after a 
year in the school of war? and that they were finding out tliat loyalty 
to Great Britain could not much longer be made consistent with the 
defence of their rights. "The Question was put whether the Town 
will, in Conformity to a Resolve of the Hon^'*^ the House of Repre- 
sentatives of this Colony, advise our Representatives that, if the 
Hon'''*^ Congress Should for the Safety of the Colonies Declare them 
Independent of Great Brittain, they the said Inhabitants will engage 
with their lives & fortunes to Support them, and it passed unani- 
mously in the affirmative." They were patriotic men who were ready 
for this action. With such leaders as Dr. Cumings and William 
Stickney, we may he sure it was not taken witliout intelligent con- 
sideration of its significance and what it was likel}- to cost them. 


The l)attle of Bunker Hill was fought on June 17, mid in that 
Ijattle the company from Billeriea served in the redoubt under 
Prescott. Its foi-mer captain was now Colonel Bridge, and Lieut. 
Jonathan Sticknej' was in command. Asa Pollard, whose home was 
near the "fordway," was the first soldier killed, and was buried on 
the field. Sanmel Hill was also killed, and probal)ly Benjamin Easte,. 
who was reported as dead soon after ; and Timothy Toothaker died 
a few days later of wounds received. Colonel Bridge was wounded 
on the head and neck b}' a sword cut, and was one of the last to 
retreat. In the severe scrutiny which followed, he did not escape 
charges of misconduct, in seeking too cautioush' the cover of the 
redoubt. He was tried, but acquitted on the ground of indisposition 
of body. ' 

It is beyond the proper range of a local history to attempt to 
follow the current of national affairs ; and the great Declaration, 
with the important events following, can only be suggested as 
occurring at this point. The town voted, October 7, to open the 
salt store, selling the salt for five shillings per bushel, not more than 
a bushel and a half to each family-, and no credit was to be given. 
At the same time it was voted, "that the Rev. Henrj- Cumings, 
Joshua Abbot, Dr. Tim". Danforth, Capt. Josiah Bowers, & Col. 
Tompson, be a Committee to Draw up some proper vote to present 
to the town * relative to a hand bill sent to the town." This 
committee reported, October 14, as follows: — 

"'The town of Billerica being assenil)led this clay, ou adjouninient of 
a legal meeting, wai-nod in Compliance with a Eeeonuiiendation from the 
house of Represeutatives, in order for the Freemen of said town to express 
their mind Kelative to the erecting some form of Government in this State, 
after Deliberatel.v Discussing the matter, came mto the following votes: 

"■]. Tliat tlie Tyranny of Greate Brittaine, (whi<*h lias eomptdled the 
United provinces of America to Dissolve their Connection with hei-.) having 
broken up the Constitution of this province, it has now become necessary 
for the prevention of anarchy, for the preservation of internal peace & 
good order, and for the umtual Security of the Inhabitants in the enjoy- 

1 Siege of Boston, p. 1"C. Mr. Frothiiighain's JKlinirable record iiiid iiiialv.sis of the 
events around Ko.stou in 1775-76 make liis volume an indispensable authority to all students 
of those campaigns. Its value is impaired by a failure to recognize the e.xtent and impor- 
tance of the services of the New Hampshire soldiers under StiU'k at the rail-fence and 
breastwork; and by a tendency to nuignify the position of Colonel Prescott, who had com- 
mand in the redoubt. A corresponding injustice is done General Putnam, the only general 
otficer present, who certainly exercised authority in the larger Held beyond the redoubt, and 
the only American whose position, as if he were the chief otiicer, is recognized, both by 
contemporary letters and art, British and American. 


ment of their property and Just I'ight.s, that some form of Government be 
speadily erected ; and therefore, 

•'2. That it be Submitted to the present house of Representatives, in 
Conjunction with tlie Council, to Draw up such a phm of Government as 
they in their wisdom shall judge best adapted to promote tlie lasting wel- 
fare and happiness of this State, Depending on it that before such plan of 
Government be ratified & established by an act of the Court, it be made 
publick. for the inspection of the people, that they also may have an 
opportunity to judge of it, and to propose such alterrations as thej' may 
think best to be made, if it should appear in any Respect Disagreeable to 
them, voted, the above I'eport be accepted." 

Ill 1777, May, the town instructed its representative to favor 
the course thus indicated, which was adopted by the Court, and a 
Constitution was submitted to the people ; but it did not please 
them and was rejected. Two years later a convention was called 
for the purpose of framing a Constitution, to which Billerica sent 
her pastor, Rev. Dr. Cumings. The result of its deliberations was 
approved by the people, 1780, June 5th,. the first Constitution of 
Massachusetts. Billerica desired an alteration of a clause, but 
consented to it without conditions. Until this was adopted, the 
towns acted on a theor}- of their semi-independence ; for instance, 
"the Question was put whether the town will heartily Submitt to 
the Reagulating bill, & it passed in the affirmative." 

As the war went on, and the calls for troops were repeated, the 
people found it more difficult to respond. The country, in fact, was 
poor, and the tax of maintaining the contest in both men and money 
was severe. 1777, March 10, the town chose "a committee of five 
persons to Indent with persons to Inlist into the Continental service," 
consisting of Capt. Solomon Pollard, Capt. E^dward Farmer, Capt. 
Jonathan Stickney, Lieut. Jacoli Richardson, and Oliver Crosb}- ; 
and they were allowed fourteen dajs to procure men and make 
report. On the 24th, the town continued the committee, adding 
Lieut. Elijah Danforth, and voted an additional bounty- of £24 to 
"such persons as will now Inlist into the Continental Army." 
Probabl3- fort}^ of the men who are numbered (3) on the ensuing 
list of soldiers responded to this call, a number which would demand 
nearly £1000 to fulfil this stipulation. A committee of nine was 
chosen, "to form some plan how the money shall be raised for the 
aditional bounty." Their report was : — 

•'First. That every man according to his Interest shall be taxed to 
paj^ the aditional bounty to hire men to Engage in the Continental Army. 


2^y. That each person that liave latelj^ arriven to the age of sixteen years 
be Exempted from any part of the charges that hath aheady arisen l)y the 
hite levy of men. ;5'>'. That each Lanlord pay this tax upon the farines 
IJented. 4'>. Tliat those tliat engaged in tlie service at Cambridge for 
eight montlis. in the year 1775, be allowed credit for each man. £'J, 0. 0. 
5'>'. That those that served six weeks be allowed credit for each man, 
1. 0. 0. G'>'. Those that sei'ved Two montlis have credit each man, 1, 4, 0. 
7'-^ . Tliose that served in the Continental army in 1776 witliout hire have 
credit each man. 18, 0. 0. 8'y. Those that went to Ticondirogue without 
hire have Credit each man, 12, 0, 0, 9'y. Those that went to the lines 
without hire have credit each man, 2, 0, 0. lO^y. Those that went to New 
York 2 months without hire have credit each, G, 0, 0. ll'y. Those that 
went to New York 3 months without liire have credit each, 12, 0, 0. Those 
men that have advanced money to hire men into the army have credit for 
what money they paid."' 

A list of "what each person hath done in the "War" was reported, 
liut unfortunately not recorded ; it would l)e verj- interesting. The 
town accepted the repox't, "save the 2^* article," and voted to raise 
£900, as a "tax to be levied on Interest" ; also, that the services of 
ap[)rentices and .sons under age be set to their masters and fathers. 
But the tax on interest was objected to, and reconsidered at the next 
meeting, when the town voted, that it be raised "on polls and estate 
in the usual wa}-" ; and that apprentices and minors should receive 
one-half of the credit for their services. The latter item was still 
not satisfactory, and in May the committee was instructed "to Drop 
the Credit tluit was to be set to INIinors as to the Back Charges," but 
"to keep an account of s*^ Credit for their Benefit in some futer time." 
The jjccuniary embarrassments became more and more serious as the 
Continental currency depreciated ; and persons with fixed incomes 
suffered most. This appears in a vote, 1777, December 1, "that 
the selectmen make Mr. Jonathan Kidder, our Schoolmaster, an 
addiquate reward for his services in some measure, as things haA'e 
risen." The extent of this inflation is illustrated in the salary- of 
Dr. Cumings. This was £80. But for the year ending in July, 
1779, he received £380 ; for the next half-year, £830 ; and for the 
year 1781, £9000. In other words, this "Continental currency" had 
fallen to less than one per cent, of its face value. It had become 
too attenuated to be reclaimed, and the unfortunate holders of it, 
soldiers as well as citizens, suffered greatly in its utter loss. In 
1782 the taxes were raised in specie, and the pastor's salary' was 
again £80. 

But the town was not unmindful of its patriotic soldiers, and 


cared for their nxmilies in eases of need. Snch aid is recorded, in 
1777, for the wives of Abijah and Josiah Beard, William Britton, 
William Currier, Jesse Danfoitli. John Edes, and Roger Toothaker. 
In giving this aid, Mrs. Cnrriei- had sevent^'-three quarts of milk, 
at ninepence a quart ; live months' house-rent for £3 ; one cord of 
wood for £1, lO.s. ; and a bushel and a half of Indian meal for the 
same. In 1778 the selectmen are instructed "to take care & provide 
for the families of the soldiers that are out in the Continental 
ami}', according to their Several Circumstances, and keep accounts 
thereof." The treasurer is also instructed "to borrow money to pay 
for the Cloathing, provided b^' the Selectmen for our Soldiers in the 
Continental Army." 

In 1778 the proposals for the Confederation came before the 
town, January '23; and they sav, "although they apprehend, some 
things therein Contained are no so agreeable, yet considering the 
vast Importance of the whole for the well being & Hai)piness of 
the united States of America, A'oted & agreed to the whole of s"^ 
Confederation, and that Col. W". Tompson, our Kepresentative, be 
and he is hereby Instructed to Jovne with the honorable house of 
Representatives in any measui'cs they Judge best, in order to forward 
the same to Congress." 

Another call for recruits, in 1778. was met by the town's offer 
of £30 to such able-bodied men "as siiall Inlist themselves to Joyne 
Gen. Washington's army for the space of nine months, except sooner 
Discharged, in order to fill up the Continentall army" ; and £00 to 
such persons "as shall Inlist themselves as militia men to go to the 
North River for eight months." The selectmen were empowered to 
borrow mone}' for this purpose, and, at a later meeting, £10 were 
added in each case to these offers. In October, 1778, we have a 
glimpse of the hopes which cheered them during these tr3'ing 3'ears 
in the report of a committee, appointed to estimate the back services 
in the war, who say: "That, considering the many services done 
since our appointment and the Diflficulty of estimating them Sepa- 
ratel}', and the hopeful pros[)ect that this sumer's campaign will 
put a finall end to services of this sort, it is our oppinnion that one 
Committee Consider the whole." Whereupon the town appointed a 
committee of seven, "to estimate the back services since the}' went 
to Ticonderogue, since the war rate was made in 1777, having 
Refference to the former settlement Respecting some grievances 
that some persons sustained in said settlement, according to their 




















Discretiou." This coumiittoe iiuide a report in December, wliich 
was recommitted for revision and adopted, 1770, January 4, as 
follows : — 

"'MMy. 1777. Two months to Rhode Island, set at 

July, 1777. Six months to IJhode Island. 

August, 1777. Three months and a half to Bennington, 

Ortoher. 1777. Forty-one days to Saratoge. 

February. 177S. Three months to Boston, 

April, 1778. Three months to ('aml)ridge, 

July, 1778. To Rhode Island; all hired men. 

July, 1778. Six Months to the Hill. 

August, 1778. Six "Weeks to IMiode Island. 

September, 1778. Three months to Boston, 

If we had the names of the men employed iu these A'arious 
services, the record would have greater interest ; but it is safe to 
assume that the town was represented in all ; and there was work 
for the comniittee again appointed, Ma\' 13, consisting of Jonathan 
Hill, Ebenezer Richardson, Jonathan Pollard, Samuel Rogers, Josiah 
Crosby, Joshua Davis, Jacob Manning, Thomas Allen, and Jonas 
French, "to provide for the families of those persons that are Gone 
out of this town into the Continental Army." At the same meeting, 
" the Question was put whether the town at this time will have a new 
Constitution or form of Government, and it passed in the Negativ^e 
]>3' fort}' Votes." 

More men were needed in 1779, and, June 22, a committee was 
appointed to procure the town's quota, '"to go into the Continental 
army and to Rhode Island." July 5, a tax was levied, of "■thirteen 
thousand dollars," for the purpose of paying and securing the needed 
men ; the first use of the word "dollar" in the Records. As prices 
rose and the value of the currenc\' became more doul)tful, men had 
reasonable fears as to enlisting and trusting pronnses of future pa}'- 
ments. A State Convention was held, and resolutions were passed 
"for the Retreiving the Credit of our Currency," which Billerica 
adojited, also appointing delegates to a County Convention, August 5, 
at Concord, " to regulate the pi'ices of produce and manufactures," 
whose proceedings were also adopted ; and a connnittee of fifteen 
was "chosen of Observation to see that the Resolves and Recoih- 
mendations of the State and Count}' C'onvention be imnctually 
compl^-ed with." But the task laid upon them was much more 
hopeless than that of linding men wdiose patriotism would respond 
to the call of Washington ; and althougii a wei'k later the Selectmen 


and Coimiiittee of Corrc'si)oii(li'iice were united with this one, and 
"Impowered and directed in the most Vigorons Manner to see 
that there l)e no breaking over or evading the doings of the said 
Convention, and tliat the breakers tliereof be proceeded against 
according to their offences ; and more especiallj' to see that there 
be no bartering in Gold and Silver, to the Ingur}' of onr paper 
Cnrrency," prices continued to rise, the regulations could not be 
enforced, and the end came in thi' utter worthlessness of the paper 
currency thev strove so resolutely- to sustain. 1780, June 14, another 
committee was appointed, "to procure our (juota of men now called 
for, to joinc the Continental army"; and, July (3, the town voted, 
that *'the sum of £'31,710 be granted as a tax to ))e levied upon 
polls and estates, in the usual manner, for hiring nineteen militia to 
serve three months in tlie army ; also, to hire four men to join the 
Continerital ai'my for six months." Some of the men who, in 1777, 
had enlisted "for three years or the war," had returned, and the 
town voted that they be rated for their poll tax. Again, 1781, 
January 1, a committee was api)ointed, "to procure our quota of 
men * upon the most easy terms they can." A tax of £27,000 
was levied, "to procure our (^uota of Beef for Supplies for the 
army." In Juh' another tax was raised for the same purpose, but 
the terms of the tax were changed to £180 "in Specie." The poor 
Continental currency could be used no longer, and they return to 
the specie standard. Another and a[)parently the last call for men 
appears, July 15; and a tax of £2.")0 in specie is levied, "to pay 
the hire of the men now called for." Lieut. Isaac Barron was to be 
allowed •'equal hire with a Private." Yorktown closed the campaign 
of 1781, and the long and exhausting contest was practically ended. 


Abbott. f4eorge. 7. Balihvui. ^licah. 4. 0. 7. Beard. Josiah. 1, 2, 4. 

Abbott. -lolni. 5. l',:il(hviii. 44iom:is. 1. Ik'll. .John. 1. 2. 

Allen. Jert'uiiah. 1. I'.nldwiii. Scrgt. Win.. Ik'inictt, Steijlicn, .3. 

Angler, Jesse, U.S. 1. 2. ;J. r>l:uu-hanl. Aliijali. 1. 2. 

Angier. IJobert. 2. liallard. John. 0. Hlaneliard. Isaac, (i. 

Baley. Jonathan. ;{. Uarrett. Luke. <;. Blauchard. John. 1. 

Baldwin, Benjamin. 1. Barrett, ytephen. 1. 4. Blaneliai-il, Josiah. 2, 3. 

2, 'S. 4. G. Barron. Lt. Isaac. 8. Blanehard, Jotliani. 2,3. 

Baldwin. Benj.. jr., 2. Beard. Abijah. 1. 2. 4. Blanehard. Justus. 1. 2, 

Baldwin. Isaac. 4. G. Jieard. Benjamin. 1. 4.6. 

Baldwin, Jacob, :^. G. Beaiil, Isaac. 1. II. Blanehard. Nath"!. 1. 4. 6. 

Baldwin, Jeremiah. 2. 3. Beard, Isaac, jr., S. Blanehard, Paul. 2. 




Bliinchiird. Samuel. 1. 
BlaiK-liaril. Timothy. 1, 

•2. -A. 7. 
Bowel'.*. Benj.. 1. "2. 'u 
Bowers. Denison. 8. 
Bowers. John. 1). 
Bowers. ,I(Miathaii, 4. (J. 
Bowers. .Josiah. 1. 
Bradeii. Kiehard. 1. 7. 
Bridge, ('ol. Eheuezei'. 
Bridiie. Samuel. 2. 
Britton. Win.. 1, 1. (;, S. 
Brown. Thomas. 2. (I. 7. 
Bush))}-. Jlol^ert. (J. 
Butler. John. !). 
Cajoe, John. (i. 
Caldwell, ]Medtord, 4. 

6, 8. 
Calley, Peter, G. 
Carleton, John. 1. 
Ciirleton. Solomon, li. 
Cary. Samu<d. 1. 2. 
Chaniherlain, Sil:is, 2. 
Clark. Samuel, '.i. 
Colwell. William, 2. 
Conant. Fortune, 4, 6. 
Cook, Sears, 1. 
Corey, Jacob, 1. 
Craige, Thomas. G. 
Crosby, Jai-ob. 3, *1776. 
Crosby, Jeremiah, ">. 
Crosby, Joel. 4, G. 8. 
Crosby, John, 5, 6. 
Crosby. Josiah, 1. 
Crosby. I.t. Oliver. 1. 2. 
Crosby, Simon. 2. 3. 
Ci'osby, Timothy, 2, 3. 
Currier, AVilliam. 4. G. 7. 
Danforth. Abtd. 2, *. 
Danforth. David. 3. 
Danforth, Capt. Elijah. 

1, 2. 3. 
Danforth, Isaac. G. 
Danfoith. Jacol). G. 
Danforth. Jesse, 2. 4. 8. 
Danforth. John, 2. 4. 8. 
Danforth. Corp. Josiah. 

1. 2. 3. 
Danforth. Peter. G. 7. 
Danforth. Seth. 7. 
Danforth, Corp. Wm.. 

2. 3, 5. G. 

Danly, Corp. John. 2. 

4, 8. 
Davis, Benj., 1, 2. 3. 
Davis, John. G. 
Davis, Joseph, 1, *1777. 

Davis. Timothj', 1. 
Dike. John, 7, 8. 
Ditson. Benjamin, 3. 
Ditson. John. 2. 
Ditson. Samuel, 1. G, 8. 
Ditson, Seth. 4. 
Ditson. Thos.. jr.. 1,4, G. 
Dixon. John. G. 
Dow. Nathan, proh. 3. 
Dows. l?enjamin. 1.2.3. 
Dows, Klea/er, (i. 
Dows. Josepli. 3. 
Dunklee. Isaac. 8. 
Dunklee, J(tseph. 5. 
Dunklee. \ath;in. 
Duii-ent. Joseph. ."). 
Dutton, Benjamin, 1 . 2. 
Dutton, 'J'imothy, G. 
Easte, Benj., 1. *]776. 
Easte. Benj.. jr.. 7. 
Edes. John. 4, (). 
Farmer. Aaron. G. 
Farmer. ( 'apt. Edw. 1 . 3. 
Farmer. Edward, 1. 2. 
Farmer, Edward, a. 
Farmer, Lt. John. 1. 
Farmer. Joseph, 1. 
Farmer. Oliver, 1,3. 
Farmer, Oliver, jr.. 8. 
Faruier. Thomas. 3. 
Fish. Jonathan. 2. G. 
Fletcher. Sanniel. 2, G. 
Foster, Abiel. S. 
Foster, Isaac. T). 
Foster, John. 1. 2, 4. G. 
Foster, Joseph, 1. 
Foster. Sauuiel, G. 
Foster. Smith. 6. 8. 
Fox. Joseph. 1. 
French. Ebenezer. 2. .").*. 
French. John. 3. 
French. Jonathan. 1. 
French. Jonathan, jr.. 8. 
French. Nicholas. 1. 2. 
French. Sanmel. 3. G. 
French. [« dritmmf'r'\.H. 
Fi-ost. Joshua. 2. 
(Jleason. Thomas, 2. 
<;leason. W iiiiam. 1 . 
(Joodw in. ^^'illi.•^m. 2. 
(iray. IJraviter. (>. 8. 
(irav. Timothy. 2. 
(Jriltin. Sergt.' Uriah. 3. 
Hans. Charles. 3. 
Ilarily. Nehemiah, 3. 
lleckel, William, 8. 
Ileywood, Benjamin. 2. 

Hill. Alpheus. 3. 

Hill. David. G. 7. 

Hill. Jeremiah. 1. 2. 

Hill. Peter. 1. 

Hill. I'aul. 

Hill. Lt. Sanuifl. 1. 2. 

*177G, June 17. 
Hill. William. 3. 
Hill, [name lost^. 3. 
Holt. Isaac. 1. 2. 
Howard. Samuel. 2. 
Inii'als. Moses. 8. 
Jaquith. Abraham. 3. 
Jaquith. Daniel. G. 
Ja(puth. El)ene/er. 2. 
Ja(piith. Joseph. 3. 
Jaquith, Samuel. 3. 
Jaquirh. Timothy. 8. 
Johnson. Jonah. 6. 
Johnson. Timothv. 6. 
Kemp. William. 2. 
K<'ndall. IJeuben. 1. 
Keys, Elijah, prob. 3. 
Kidder. Euijch. 3. 6. 
Kidder, Isaac, 2. 
Kidder. John, f). 
Kidder. Jonathan, 4. 
Kidder. Cor]). Sam'. 1. 2. 
Kidder. Lt. Solomon. 2. 

3, *177G, Nov. 20. 
Kidder. Thomas. 4. G. 
Kiilam. Corp. Daniel, 

1. 2. 
Kittredge. Daniel. 3. 
Kittredge, Jonathan. G. 
Kittredge. Nathaniel. 3. 
Kittredge. Sergt. Wm.. 

0. G." 

Ead. Nathaniel. G. 
Landerkin. Matthew. 7. 
Laws. John. 2. 
I^eeman, Ebene/er. 3. G. 
I>evistone. David. 2. 4. G. 
Levistone. Isaac. 1. 2. 
Ijcvistone, Seth, 2. 
Levistone. Thomas, 3. 
licvistone. William. 5. G. 
Lewis, Corp. Benjamin. 

1. 2. 3.*. 

Lewis. Lt. James. 1. 
Lewis. Lt. John. 1. 2, G. 
INIace. Joseph, 1. 2. 
Maiming. Solomon, 1. 
Planning. AVilliam. 2. 
]\Iarshail, .\sa. 3. 
Marshall. Jacob, 1. 5. 
Marshall. James, o. 



jrai'shall, Jesse, 5. Kuggles, Joseph, 4, G. Tarbell, Williaiii. jr.. 1. 

]MeIntire. Elias. 0. liuss. Daniel. ;j. Tompson, CoL Win.. ]. 

Mears. Jolni. 2. IJuss, Nathan, G. Toothaker. Jloger. 4. (!. 

^loore. Benjamin, 8. IJuss. Sergt. Sam', 1. 2. Toothaker, Tiniotlij-, 1. 

Needham, Seri^t. Benj., 8an(l<'rs. lienj.. 1. 2. *177G. 

1. G. San(l<M-s. Benj.. jr.. 1. Totman, Jolni. 1. 7. 

Xeedhani, John. 4. Sanders. Eljenezer. 1, 3. Trull. John, 2. 

Osgood. Joseph. 2. Sanders, Francis, 7. TridJ. Sainutd, 1, 2. 

Osgood. Phincas. (L Sanders. John. 1. Trull. Sanniel. jr., 1. 

Parker, Sergt. John, jr., Sandi-l'S, Jonas, 1, 2. Trull, Willard, 7, 8. 

1. 3. Sanders, Joshua. G. 7. Tuder. Franeis. 9. 
Parker. Levi. G. Sanders. Solomon. 1. Tut'ts. David. 7. 
Parker. Simeon. 9. Searlet. Lt. Newman. 8. Walker. David, 6. 
Parker. William. 3. Shed. David, 4, G. Walker. Sergt. Eliakim, 
Patten. Asa. 1. ' Shed. Jolui. G. 2. S, 4. 

Patten. John. jr.. 1. Shed. Jonathan. ."). (i. AValker, Ezekiel, 1,G. 8. 

Patten. William. S. Shed. Nathan. 5, G. Walker. Joel. 1. 2. 

Pollard. Asa, 2. *177G. Shed. Keuhen. 4. G. Walker. Samuel. 1, 2. 

June 17. Slied, Thomas. 2. A\ hite. George, (i. 

Pollard. Benjamin. 1. li. Shipperson. John. 9. White. Isaac. 1. 

Pollard, Edxvard. 3..J.G. Snow, Piehard, 1, G. Whiting, Abel, G. 

Pollard. Jona. P.. 2. G. Si)aulding, .\sa, 1, 2. Whiting, Caleb, 7. 

P(dlard, Capt. Solomon. Spaulding. Benoni, ."). AVhiting. Christopher, 2*. 

2. G. S|»aulding. Joseph. ."). 7. Whiting. John.kl. 2, G. 
Pollard. S;)loinon. jr.. 1. S[)rake. Bcnjauun. 2. AVhiting. Jonas. 2. 

2. ;}, 9. ' S[)rake. Xieiiolas. 2. Whiting. Joshua, 8. 

Pollen. Edward. 'A. S[)rake. Sammd. 2. \Vhiting. Samuel. 2, .'{. 

Peed. .Tereuiiali, 1. 2. Spring. Sam"l. />ro//. 7.8. AVhiting. Timothy. 1, 2. 

Kiehardson, Asa, 4. G. Stearns. Benj.. 3. G. 7. Whiting. Tim", jr., 1. 2. 

Piehardson, Ebenezer. Stearns, Lt. Edward. 1. AVilson, Abraham, 4. 

1, 2. Stearns. Isaae. 2. AVilson, Benjamin. 2, 3. 

Piehardson. Lt. Jaeob. Stearns, John, G. AA'ilson, Lsaac, 7. 

1. 3. Stearns. Jonathan, 4, G. Wilson. John, L 2, 4.*. 

Pi(diardson. Jona. , jr. ,1. Stearns. JoseiJi, 7. Wilson. John, jr., G. 8. 

Pieliardson. Joseph. I. Stearns, Josiah, 4, o. Wilson, Joseph. 1, 2. 5. 

Rieliardson, Josiah, 1. (>, 8. Wilson, Solomon, 3. 

Pieliardson. Nath"l. 2. Stearns, Nathaniel, 4. 6. Winslow, Benjamin. 2. 

Piehai'dson. Oliver. L 3. Stearns. Oliv(n% 1. a prisoner after Bunker 

Pieliardson. SanTl. L 3. Stearns. Timothy, 8. Hill. 

Jfiehardson. 4'ho..L2.4. Stearns. AVilliam, 2. Wright, Josiah, G, 8. 

Pol)bin>. Eiihraim. 3. Stevens, Simeon, I.2.G. AVyuian. Amaziah, 3, 4. G. 

Pobbins, Jona.. 2. 3. Stiukney. Daniel. 1. AVyman, Increase, 3. 

Pogers. ('apt. Samuel, Stickney, David. 1. Wvman, Nathaniel, I. 

jr.. 1. 2. 3.*. Stiekney. Lt. Jona.. 1. *1775, April 19. 

Poot. Peter, 8. Stickne3\ AVilliam. 1. Four ohliUi-aied names of 

Poss. Jt)hn, 1. Stinger. Jesse, (i. soldiers in the service of 

Poss, Saumel. 7. Tarbell. John. 7. 1777. 

The numerals :il)Ove refer to various services, which are im})er- 
fei'tly outlined as follows : — 

(1.) Service in 1775, including the company of minute-men and 
all known to have been at Lexington, and in the army at Cambridge. - 

- ifasmchusetts Archives. Vols.: Lexington Alarm, XII, 10 and T:j, and \\l, 21.— 
Tutvn Records. Vol. IV, October, 1770. 


(2.) Service in 177(), incliKliiig the bnltle ol" Bunker Hill and 
the siihsefjuent siege of Boston." Seventy-five of these men served 
eight months, and claimed a "'coat," promised for that service. 

(3.) Service in 1777. Tiurty-two men under Captain Edward 
Farmer, who marched "to reinforce the Northern Army," which was 
fighting Hnrgoyne at Bennington and Saratoga, are included above. 
Colonel Bridge also marched with a detachment, on the "Bennington 
alarm" ; went ninety miles, and was dismissed by General Lincoln. 
Xo roll of his men is found. ^ 

(4.) Men who enlistod in 1777, "for three 3'ears or the war," in 
the Continental Army.'' 

(5.) In service, 177<S, in Ivhode Island; on Bunker Hill from 
Fel)ruar3- to May, and elsewhere." 

(().) vService in 1779, including a detachment "to join the 
Continental army and march to Claverick," and recruits. '^ 

(7.) Service in 17M(J, recruits, and a detachment of sixteen men, 
who "marched 220 miles and served four, five, and six months.""^ 

(8.) 'Men in service, 1781, "for 3 years or the war."'' 

(9.) Seven men on board the privateer "Essex," in 17SU.'" 

This list of Revolutionary soldiers is necessaril}- imperfect. 
Many of the rolls are lost ; and it would take months of lalioi" 
to go over the mass which is preserved, but imperfectly indexed, 
with such care that no name from any town would be likely -to 
escape. The town had representatives in various directions where 
no rolls of such service are found. If we had these lost records, 
they would probal)ly add lifty and jx-rhaps one hundred to the three 
hundred and seventeen enumerated above, ^^'hen we remember that 
the census of 177G gave the town a po[)nlation of ITjOO, we can see 
in part to what extent these patriotic fathers gave service and life, to 
found the nation. Their children should never forget at what a price 
they gained freedom for themselves and coming generations. 

This chapter may fitly close with the tax list for 177(i, with such 
memoranda appended as, in the absence of a map, Avill help those 
who are iulcrt'sted to locate most of these patriotic tax-payers, and 
revive the memory of the town as it was one hundred 3'ears ago. 

8 Massiichusetts Archives: Coat Holls, 178-8(1, is^; and Vol. XXII, No. 5C0. 

* Massachusetts Archives. Vol. XIX. Muster Rolls, No. '38. ^'ol. XXVI, No. 10. 

'< Massacliii setts ArMves : /iolls. \'ol. ,\LI. 

<■■ Massachusetts Archives .- Rolls. Vols. XIX, No. 7(\, and XXVI, l.!.,' and L'l:!. 

' Mas.iachusetls Archives. Vols. .\XI, 185, and XXVII, UKK 

8 Massarhit.fetts Archives. Vols. XXIX, 7, and'XX.WII, 17. 

" Massachusetts Archives: ^fllsler /lolls, ^'ol. XXIX, No. (io. 

1" Massachusetts Archives: Muster /lolls. Vol. .\ L, No. i:t. 



TAX-UST. — irro, Df:ckmbkk. 

[Residences known to the compiler are added. Some are only approximate. The East 
Road is the road runninf;- from the foot of "rocTiey hill," east of the village, to the Wohnrn 
Road, near the Shawshin; and by the Shawshin Iioad I designate the road which rnns east 
from this road to the river, and thence north to the Wilmington The .Shawshin 
District is east of the river, between the AVoburn and Wilmington The "Corner," 
here and elsewhere, designates the locality at the foot of the liill, on Long Street, near 
the Concord River briilge. The two roads between the Woburn and Bedford roads 1 call 
"Lexington" and "East Lexington."] 

lleiirv Crosby place. Woburn Road. 
Old Fletclicrhouse, East RoatL 
Sanborn place. of L(jng- St. 
Paul Hiir.s place, ea^t of Connnon. 

Wilniin<>'t()n Road. J)ea. King's pi. 
Miss Sophia Allen. East Road. 


Province Tax. 

Abbot. David 



Abbot. David, jr. 




Al)b()t. Josluia 





Abbot. Oliver 





Allen, Hannah 





Allen. Jer>^ 




Allen. Tho^ 



Baldwin. Abel 




Baldwin. Benj. 



Baldwin. Benj.. jr. 


Baldwin, .b'r'' 


Baldwin, John 



Baldwin, .John. jr. 




Baldwin, Maiy 




Baldwin. Micah 


Baldwin. Sam' 




Baldwin. Tho'* 





Baldwin. Th()S 


Baldwin. William 


Baley, Jonathan 

Barrett. Jose[)h 


Barron. Isaac 



Bearil, Abijah 


Beard. Beii)-' 





B'ard, Isaac 



Beard, John 


Bell. John 





Blanchard. .fohn 





Blanchard. Sam' 



Blanchard. Sam', jr. 




Blanchard. Simon 




Bonner, ^Villiam 


Bowers. Benj" 


Bowers. Jonathan 


Bowers. Josiah 




Bowers. Josiah. jr. 




Bowers, William 




Bowman, Francis 




Bi'idge. Col. Ebenezer 

. [jiot, 


Ii.-<t^ . 

Brown, Josiah 




Blown. Nathi 




Brown. Sam' 



lirown. Sam'. ji\ 




Brown. 'rho>^ 



Caldwell, Adam 





< arlcton. John 





Carleton. .lohn. jr. 




Carleton, Moses 




Joel Baldwin's, Shawsliin Road. 

West of Long Street, north of Win. 
Holden place. Shaw.-hin Road. 

Stearns pi., north of How'e School. 
Near Catholic Church. 

Shawshin District. 

East Road, Asa Holden place. 

Burrows place, east of Woburn St. 
Clough pi.. East Lexington Road. 
Dr. Xoyes" pi.. Lexington Street. 

East Lexington Road. 
Near Mr. Cowdry's, west side. 
Hotel w. of Long St.. so. end village. 
East of Long Street Hotel, near Mr. 
Kimball jilace. Andover St. [Proud- 
Old Danforth place, on West St. 
Bowman ])lace, on Lexington Road. 
Head of the lane east of Long St. 

Near Henry Duranfs, west side. 
AVilmington Road, near the school- 
Isaac BroA\'n place. 

Probably at North Billerica. 
Road to Winnino-'s Pond. 



Carleton, Xathan 
Carleton. .Solomon 
Cary. Sam' 
Conant. William 
Cook. Paul 
Cook, Sears 
Crosby. Kph 
Crosby, Francis 
Crosby. Hezokiali 
Crosby. James 
Croslty. .losiali 
Crosby, .Josiali. ^V'id. Ko. 
Crosby, Oliver 
Crosby, .Seth 
Cumings. Kev. Henry. 
Currier. Will'" 
Danforth. Benja 
Danforth. David 
Danforth. Elijah 
Danforth. do.' Jos.VVarie 
Danforth. .lesse 
Danforth, Josiah 
Danforth, Sam' 
Danforth, I'imothy 
Davis, Jose])h 
Davis, Joshua 
Ditsou, Sam' 
Ditson, Thos 
Dows, Benj'' 
Dows, Benj'^, jr. 
Dows, Eben> 
Dows, Eben\ jr. 
Dows, Eleazar 
Dows, Sam' 
- Dutton, Benj 
Easte. Benj. [)tot <>ii Ust 
Edes. John 
Farmer. Edward 
Farmer. Edward, jr. 
Farmer. John 
Farniei-, Joseph 
Farmer. Oliver 
Faimer. IJebekah 
Farrier. Elioner 
Fletehei-. Samuel 
Foster. Isaac 
Foster. Jose])h 
Foster. Sarah 
Fox. Joseph 
French, El)en'^ 
French, Ei)en'. jr. 
French. Jacob 
French. John 
French. Jon'' 
French, Jonas 
French. Sarah 
Frost, Joshua 

TA.\-LI8T. — Coiitiitual. 

Province Tax. 

£ 13 1 2 . 

13 1) 

■2 1 J 

•2 1 10 2 

2 1 3 

3 13 11 2 

1 1 4 

4 8 2 

13 1 2 
3 !) 11 

3 12 'J 2 

2 13 12 

l_)iut taxed']. 

1 12 2 2 

2 1 7 
nland. 4 

1 15 

4 8 
1 IS 
1 1 

5 111 

1 12 10 

14 11 

3 T) 4 






(ni<l<hr< dscd] 

2 12 

2 15 



4 2 

1 2 


(I 2 


4 1 


2 2 


4 2 
1(1 10 2 
5 10 2 
4 7 

3 2 
1 18 

3 3 

4 13 


1 2 


1 2 


4 2 

Harrington pi., Shawshin District. 

Crosby i)lace, Shawshin lload. 

Crosby j)!.. east of Nutting's Pond. 

Knowles ]tl.. near S. School-house. 

Mason place, near S. School-house. 
Fisk place, south of Nutting's. 
Dr. Hubbard's. Bedford Street. 

Near P^ssex i)lace. East Road. 
31 1-. ^\'ilitman■s, Bedford Street. 

Davis ))lace. T^ong Pond Road. 
Woburn Koad. near line. 
Woburn Road. 
Blood's place, west side. 

Near Deacon Spaulding's. 

Near Corner, just south of road to 
[Davis place. 
Shawshin District. 

South of his brother Edward. 
Lexington Koad. 
Shawshin District. 

Bet\ve<'n Andover Street and Eong 
[Pond Road. 

Probably East Road. 

East Road, near Andover Street. 

11 10 2 



TAX-Ll.ST. — Continued. 

Frost. William 
Gleason. Will'" 
Gray. Tim" 
Hale. Josiah 
Hall, Lydia 
Hans. Charles 
Hardj% Eben'" 
Henry, John 
Henry. John. jr. 
Hill. Benj 
Hill. Jei-^ 
Hill. Job 
Hill, Jon" 
Hill. Joseph 
Hill. Joseph, jr. 
Hill. Nathi 
Hill. Paul 
Hill. Peter 
Hill, Ralph 
Hill. Solomon 
Hill. Will'" 
Hosley. Martha 
Jaquith, .\br"' 
Jaquith. Abr'". jr. 
Jaquith, Eben' 
Ja(iuitli. Josejjh 
Jet'ts. Henry 
Jefts. Henry, jr. 
Jefts. 8ime(m 
Jones. Jose])}! 
Kirtder, Enoch 

Province Tax. 

£1 17 4 2 
2 13 

1 5 

2 12 

12 (5 
G 9 11 
S 13 1 

1 10 
4 8 



2 10 

2 4 

1 2 

1 2 

4 2 


3 2 
3 2 


1 17 
1 4 

2 11 

3 2 

Sam', jr. 

Kidder. Tho 
Kidder. Will 
Kidder. Will. jr. 
Kindall. Reuben 
Kindall. Reuben. 
Kittredge. Neh 
Kneehind. John 
Eami)son. Sam' 
Laws, Eunice 
Laws. John 
Laws. \Vill'" 
T.,evistone, David 
Levistone. Isaac 
Levistone. John 
Ijevistone. Seth 
I.,evistone, Seth. [ 
Levistone. Tho'» 
Levistone. Tim" 
Lewis. Benj 
Lewis. James 
Lewis. John 


2 12 17 

1 10 6 

2 11 
1 17 

oil IlKt]. 

1 12 7 
5 19 10 

1 19 10 

8 2 


1 2 

2 IS 

2 7 
4 1 


3 .1 

2 19 

2 8 

1 1 

3 17 


2 2 

2 l.T 


1 2 
(i 3 
1 2 

8 2/ 

Shawshin District. 

In Carlisle. 
In Carlisle. 
In Carlisle. 
In Carlisle. 

Mr. Perrin's i)lace. 

The Lyons place. Bedford Street. 

Mrs. Boyden's place. Bedford St. 

Over Concord River. 

Over (A)ncord River. 

Mrs. Judkins's place, Bedford St. 

South of Dr. Hosmer's. 

Ja(piith i)lace. 

East of Bedford St.. south part. 

Jacjuith place. 

Near iron brido-e. west side. 

Boston Road. 

I'arker place, .south of West Street. 

East of road beyond the ( orner. 

McEUitrotfs, on Bedford Street. 

Probably near Mr. Elliofs. North 
Wilmington Road, near Shawshin. 

East Road, ]Mr. Sanborn's. 

Lowell Road, at the turn lo North 

One of these cousins lived at the 

Nason jdace. 
Andover, near Salem. Road. 
Andover, near Salem. Road. 



]M!H'('. .loscpli 
Maiiiiiiiii'. Bi'iij 
."M;iniiiii<i'. Kli])!! 
Miiniiiiiii,'. .liK'olt 
.Maiiniuii', Jcs.^c 

Mnnniug. Solomon 
3I;iiiniiig\ Will'" 
3Iarsh:ill, Isaac 
^larshall. Isaac, jr. 
-Marsliall. Jacob' 
.Miller. John 
Monroe. Aaron 
^Fonroe. Jos('])h 
Monroe. Joshua 
3Ionroe. Nathan 
Needhani, BenJ" 
Xeedhani, John 
Xeedhani. Keb'' 
Xeedhani. AVill 
Xickles. James 
X'ickli's. do. for fiitlR'i's 
Xickles. John 
XMckles. John. ji\ 
X'ickles. Joseph 
(Jsg'ood, Josejdi 
Parker, John 
Parker, Levi 
Parker, XaMi' 
Parsons. I)a\id 
Patten, Asa 
Patten. John 
Patten. .John. jr. 
Patten. William 
Pollard, Benj' 
Pollard. Edwai-d 
Pollard. Jon" 
Pollard. Sol" 
Itichardson. Ebez' 
iJichardson. El)e/,', jr. 
Jiichardson. Jacob 
J'ichardson, .Jon' 
Pichardson. Jon', jr. 
Itichardson. Josepli 
JJichardson. Josiah 
Picliardson. Uliver 
Richardson. Sam' 
Picliardson. Sam'. Jr. 
Jiichanlson. Ste]>li n 
JJichardson. 'i'lio- 
Jnchanlson. Will'" 
Jlobbins. Jonas 
Ivogers, Sam' 
llogers, Thomas 
Pog'ors, Zebadiali 
Kog'ers. Zebadiali. jr. 
lioss. John 

TAX-IJ.ST. — Continued. 
Trovincc Tux. 

£ U) 
1 10 1 2 

1 17 (I 

2 7 2 2 


1 17 


2 4 
2 5 
2 10 
2 (> 

1 18 
•> !) 



1 IT) 

2 (5 

6 11 

1 17' 

2 !) 

2 11 
2 J 

2 S 
1 1 

3 IS 

5 15 

4 6 
1 17 

1 la 

2 \3 

4 5 
1 4 
H 1.5 

■A !) 

1 4 


1 12 



11 2 
2 2 

• (i • 

S 2 
1 2 

10 2 

10 2 

8 2 


1 2 

10 1 
8 1 

1 :i 

8 2 

4 2 

10 2 

2 1 

•A A 

1 18 

2 14 

2 13 


n 1 
7 :i 

Cutler jilace. west side. 
Jesse 3Ianniiig's place. Treble-Cove 


(iarrison-house. ( helmsfoi'd IJoad. 
Old Marshall place, East Koad. 

In Carlisle. 
In Carlisle. 
In Carlisle. 
Xear South Cemeterj-. 

In Carlisle. 

In ( 'arlisle. 

In Carlisle. 

In Carlisle. 

In Carlisle. 

South of Common. 

In Carlisle. 

In Carlisle. 

Wilmin^lon Koad. near Shawshin. 

West of Long Street, near Corner. 
East of Eordway. 
Southeast of P'ordway. [Street. 

South of John I'arker's. on Boston 
Spaulding" i)I.. south Howe School. 
East Road, near Web's Brook. 
Woburn IJoad. Spaulding place. 

East Road, near Pusho i)lace. 
Disused road, from Andover Street 
[near Salem to Sliawshin Road. 
Corner, near old Cemetery. 
X'ear railroad station. 
Shawshin Dist.. near Wilmington. 

Mrs. Sage's. Bedford Street. 
Corner. .Fones jilai-e. 

In Carlisle. 

Near Fordway. 

Xear Alms-house. 

llolden ])lace. near AVinning's. 



TAX-LIST. — CuidiHued. 

Kuggles. Joseph 
Ryan. David 
Sanders. Benj 
Sand(MS. David 
Sanders. Ebenezer 
Sanders. James 
Sanders. J<jjni 
Sanders, Jonas 
Sanders. Sol" 
Shed. Daniel 
Shed. Hannah 
Shed. John 
Shed, Joseph 
Shed, Joseph, jr. 
Shed. Keuben 
Shed. Tho'* 
Sims. Stephen 
Skilton. John 
Snow. Kiehard 
Spaulding. Asa 
Sprake. Benj 
Sprake. Nieiiolas 
Sprake. Nicholas, jr 
Sprake. Sam' 
Sprake. Sam', jr. 
Stearns, Isaac 
Stearns, Isaac, jr. 
Stearns. John 
Stearns. Xath' 
Stearns. Oliver 
Stearns. Sam 
Stearns, Will 
Stickney. Dan' 
Stickney. David 
Stickney. Jon" 
Stickney. Will. Estp 
Sticknev. Will. jr. 
TarhelK W'" 
Tarbell. W'". jr. 
Tompson. Will'" 
Toothaker. Koger 
Totinan. John 
Trull. Sam' 
Trull. Sam', jr. 
AVaJker. Saul' 
AVaters. John 
White. John 
^Vlnting•. Sam', [not 
Wilson" Jolni 
AVilson. Seth 
^V inning. Alex' 
AV inning. John 
AV right. John 
^Vvman. Amos 


c Ta 



















































































































0)1 list]. 










Kitclien place, near railroad, south- 
[east of North liillerica. 

Some of these lived on Long Pond 
Koad lieyond Davis"; others to- 
ward North Billerica. 

Sjjaulding pi., west of Long Sti'eet. 

East of Bedfoi-d Street, near Mr. 

[Cobb's place. 

Near iron bridge, west side. 
Shawshln District, near Burlington. 
Edmands place. Shawshin Koad. 
West part of town, Simonds place. 

< 'olson ])lace, North F)ilieiica. 

Near Fordway. Xoi4h Billeiica. 

Dea. Greenwood's place, near Con- 
[cord Kiver and Bedford line. 
Shawshin District. 

Merriam i)lac(>. near Bedford line. 

AVest of Boston Koad. south of the 

AA'est of Boston Koad. south of the 
Pillsbury place, west of I^ong St. 

Near Irving Fletcher's. Shawshin 

Tuft's i)lace. end of lane. 
Near canal. Nortli Billerica. 
Wol)urn Koad. near Shawsliin. 
Sheldon place. North Billerica. 

East Lexington Koad. near Bedford. 
AVilson place, on Boston Street. 
South of C'harnstafte Lane. 

Near AVinning's Poml. 

Putney place. Shawshin Koad. 
Near Bedfoi-d and Burlington. 

And there are twenty-one names of men who lived in Woburn. Concord, 
Tewksburv. Bedford, and Chelmsford. 



The founders of New England were careful and prompt to pro- 
vide for the education of all the children. As early as 1642 a law 
was enacted, enjoining the selectmen to ''have a vigilant e_ye over 
their brethren and neighbors, to see first that none of them shall 
sutler so much barbarism in any of their families as not to endeavor 
to teach, bv themselves or others, their children and apprentices so 
much learning as may cnalde them perfectly to read the English 
tongue." The penalty was twenty shillings for each neglect. The 
same act required Ihat parents " give religious instruction to their 
children and a})prentices, aud bring them up in some honest, lawful 
calling, labor, or employment, either in husbandrj' or some other 
trade profitable for themselves and the commonwealth, if they will 
not or can not train them up in learning to fit them for higher 
em[)lovments." In 1G47 a free school was made '^ompulsory. If 
there Avere fifty iDUseiiolders, the town must appoint a teacher, and 
towns of one hundred householders must have a grannnar school of 
such grade that youth " ma\' be fitted for the luiiversity." 

Billcrica could not at once meet this requirement. But, " 1, ">, ()1. 
The Townsmen doe agree y' Lieftenent Will tfrench and Kalph Hill, 
senior, doe take care and [examine] the seurll famelies in or Towne, 
wlietlir tliei-e children and servants are Taught in the precei)ts of 
I'elidione, in reding and Lcrninge there Catechism." How this duty 
was discharged is suggested in the record by the selectmen : "10, 
".)'", ()S. they apoint y*" next seconday to go y'' rounds to examine 
y" teaching of children & youth, acording to law." If we could 
accompany these selectmen on that annual examination, we shoukl 
learn somi'thiug of education under difficulties : and might gain 
respect for the fathers, with ap[)reciatiou of the fact of [)rogress 
in two centuries. 


Mi;. Whiting's name first appears in this record, "19 March, 
'74-5. In reference to the catechising of y*" youth of y*' towne and 
examining tliem concerning tlieir reading, a duty imposed on y'^ 
select'" by y^ Hon"^ Court, to take care that cliildren and youth be 
instructed in both. The selectmen doe order, that all children and 
youth, single psons from eight years old upward, their pareuce and 
masters shall send such their children and servants to y^ Reverend 
Mr. Samuel Whiting, at such times as shalbee afterward appointed 
by him, to be examined of both, as hoping this might I)e a good 
expedient for y^ encouragement of all superiours and youth." 

We ma}' jvell believe that such an examination, by the pastor, 
would be no small incentive to study on the part of the '"youth" 
who must appear before him. But many of the parents could give 
but little instruction, and another step in advance greatly needed 
was taken when, "19, 11'", 79, P^ns. Tompson Avas chosen school- 
master, to teach such to read and to write as shall come to him to 
learn." Joseph Tompson, Billerica's first school-master, was the son 
of a minister, and, with the possible exception of Dauforth, was the 
best educated man in town. He continued to be the school-master 
for more than thirt}' 3-ears. Of the studies pursued we are not 
informed, nor of the "times and seasons"; but the culture of the 
town owes much, ^ve may be sure, to Ensign Tompson's school, and 
we may remember with interest the place to wdiich the children of 
two hundred years ago wended their way for the instruction he had 
to give them. His house w'as in the southeast part of the A-illage, 
at the end of the lane where now INlr. Tufts lives. Whether the 
services of Mr. Tompson w^ere gratuitous or he had a tuition fee 
does not appear ; but no item is found among the town charges until 
1710, when he received one pound as school-master, and another the 
next year. 

About the same time the question of a new^ school-master was 
raised. V/e ma}' hope that the reason was not because Captain 
Tompson found occasion in his age to charge something for his 
services. Perhaps after thirty years his methods had become too 
old-fashioned, and a younger man was called for. In the autuum 
of 1709, one object of a town meeting was "to incoridg a schoole- 
master for Reading and Writing" ; and, judging from the records 
of Mr. Needham, the new town clerk, there was need of a new 
school-master. But four years later a master was still needed, and, 
November IG, 1713, "it was voted, that the selectmen shaill mak 

254 nisToijv OK ni[,LEin('.\. 

3011.S of tlu'ir l) clescrastiou in proxidiug a .scoiiU-nuister for a 
quarter of a yearo" : ami, Janiuu y 18, the selectmen were instructed 
"to se out for a schoolinaster against March Court, and to provide a 
house." Towns wei'e frequently complained of for neglect to provide 
good schools, and the last record implies that Billerica had been thus 
charged, as it had been at least once before, in 1G92, "for want of 
a scliole." Probably Mr. Tompson's labors were occasionally sus- 
pended and resumed. The same presentment was made in 1718, 
and answered by Captain ^^'hiting, at C'harlestown. 

The first apj)earance of a successor to Mr. Tomi)son is in 1715, 
when IVIr. Shattuck is p:iid i'S, los., and the t<nvn voted, that he 
"shall keep the school another half-year." Jn 171G, IMr. Isaac 
Branch was employed, receiving €10 for two quarters and £22 for 
the year 1717. Tlie gei'm of the system of school districts then 
appears : "The Town Impowered the selectmen to order & appoint 
in what parts of the town the school shall be kept & how long at a 
l)lace." In November, 1718, the town votes "to hire our present 
schoolmaster for another <|uarter, Provided he move to the several 
Quarters of the town" ; also, ''to give but four shillings p. week for 
the schoolmaster's board for the future." This master was John 
Graham, and he boarded with Mr. Ruggles. December 29, 1718, it 
was voted, that "for about five months the school should be moved 
to accommodate the outscirts of the Town, and the Kest of the year 
to be kept in the middle of the town" ; and a committee of five was 
to order the places where it should l)e kept. It was also voted "to 
give Mr. Grimes, our present schoolmaster, forty pounds for one 
year, Provided that he board himself and keep a moving school." 
In March, the selectmen gave leave to John Hartwell's wife "to 
keep a school to Instruct children to Read." Mr. Josejih Houston 
was master for three or four years from 1719, and was succeeded by 
Benjamin Ruggles, the pastor's brother. Then for a short time the 
Tnaster was Jonathan Fry, of Andover, the ill-fated young chaplain 
of Lovewell's expedition. The next ^ear the town i)aid Mr. William 
Smith for services, and also Nicholas Bowes, the future i)astor of 
Bedford. Then comes Mr. Isaac Abbott, who was master for six 
years, who was also em[)loyed to copy the early A'olume of records 
of "■Births, Marriages, and Deaths," in a new book. Benjamin 
Bowers follows, 17.'lG-39; Jonathan Stedman. 1739; Joseph Man- 
ning, 1740; Robert Cutler, 17-11-45, who found his wife here, and 
became i)astor in Epping, New Hampshire ; and John Chandler, in 


174G, who was thus intro(hicr(l to his future pastorate here. Joseph 
Beau succeeded, aud then came Jouathau Kidder, iu 1753, who 
served tlie town for a geueratiou. and whose fame lingers still among 
the traditions of our older peo[)le. 

A record, May, 1722, tells us something of the early methods : 
"It was agreed that Mr. Houston shall make up three months in the 
seenter of the town, aud then shall go one uiontli among the Hunts." 
And, in June, "it was agreed that Mr. Houston shall have liberty 
for a month or two, if he Pleas, after his uionth is out at Mr. Hunt's ; 
and then at his Return shall go one month to the west side of Concord 
River; and then uext one month to .John Stearns; the next one 
month to Jonathan Bacon's ; then at Mr. Walker's three weeks ; then 
next at the Kittridge's one month ; then three weeks at Dr. Tooth- 
aker's ; then to be three months in the seenter of the Town, which 
will compleat his 3ear." 

The sections of the town where schools were kept were at first 
and long called squadrons ; and a di\'ision of the school money to 
the squadrons began to be made about 1760, with attending questions 
and jealousy as to the division. A school-house is mentioned in 
17(56, but had perhaps l)een built earlier; as the town in 1725 voted 
grants of land to the squadrons for school-houses, to l)e located by 
the selectmen. In 1742 a committee reported, that the school be 
kept six months in the centre of the town, two in the east scpiadron, 
(one of which should be east of the river,) two on the west side, 
and one in the south squadron. In 1782 another report is found. 
The centre squadron was to extend a mile and a half, and a gram- 
mar school was to be supported there, the out squadrons drawing an 
equal amount, to be expended ''in keeping good writing schools." 
The houses which were to form the line of the centre scjuadron, on 
the various roads, are designated: "on Wilmington road, Jonas 
French's new house ; on the Frenchs' road, the house of Jacob 
French ; on Boston road, the house of Oliver C'rosljy ; on Bedford 
road, the house of Teter Hill ; on the road to Fitch's mill, the house 
of John Blanchard ; on the road over middle bridge, John Carleton, 
Jr. ; on Chelmsford road, the house of W". Laws ; on the road to 
Carleton's mills, Josiah Danforth's ; on the road to Tewksbnry, by 
French's dam, Benj. Davis." There were to be two squadrons on 
the west side, to be divided as the inhabitants there pleased. The 
east squadron was to include all north of John Patten, Jun.'s, and 
William Tarbell's, aud east of the Long Pond Road ; the Shawshin 


squadron "to begin at Samuel Dauforth's and take in Thomas Rich- 
ardson, widow Hosley, Joseph Jones, & Ehenezer Richardson, Jr., 
on the Boston road, and lObenezer Richardson & Josiah Richardson 
on the east road," with all on the east on Shawshin River except 
,Iohn Skelton and Amos Wvman ; the southeast squadron included 
"all south of the widow Farmer's and Hezekiah Crosby's, that live 
between Boston road & Bedford road," except Timothy Jaquith and 
Isaac Manning, wlio, "a little oti" from Bedford road," were in the 
south squadron. 

But the scjuadron school-houses were still wanting, and, ITiH, 
September 12, a committee on tlie location of such houses made 
report. It recommended, that in the centre ward the house be set 
"in Stephen Parker's corner, at the Avest end of the meeting house," 
22X22, at a cost of £50 ; the north ward house to be set in William 
Rogers' corner by John Rogers, 16Xl')i to cost £20 ; the east ward 
house, location left blank, 18 Xl^. to cost £22 : the Shawshin waril 
house to be set at the corner of Lieut. John Farmer's and Ebenezer 
Richardson, Jr.'s, land, ICXIO, to cost £20; the southerly ward 
house to be set in Simon and Joseph Blanchard's land, "half way 
between the roads, on an allowance for school traA^el," 14X1^^ to 
cost £18 ; the south ward house to be set at the head of Job Hill's 
lane, 16X16, to cost £20; the south ward, over Concord River, to 
be set at the end of Shed's lane, so called, 16X16, to cost £20 ; the 
north ward, over Concord River, to l)e set, not agreed where, cost 
£20. Wards which chose not to build might draw the interest of 
the sum allowed to said ward to hire places to keep their school ; 
but the latter privilege was not to extend beyond two years ; and 
the committee Avas to settle dis})utes as to locations not yet decided 
on. Most of these sites are nearly the same with those still in use. 
The house at the centre w\as also used later as an academy ; then 
became a store and post olHce ; was burned in 1873 ; and rebuilt by 
Mr. More}' for the same use. When the district syst^Mn of schools 
displaced the earlier squadrons is not clear ; but for two generations 
districts had charge of their own schools, locating and supporting as 
they pleased. But within a few years the town has rcassunied the 
entire charge, seeking more harmonious and etlicieut management. 

The employment of school "dames" is mentioned as early as 
1680, and in March, 1718, John Ilartwell's wife had leave "to keep 
a school to Instruct children to Read" ; but it is not clear to what 
extent females were thus emplo3ed, and it is only within a few years 



timt most of the schools have passed into their hands. Before the 
Revohition, onl3' English text-books were to he had, which were 
sonicthues reprinted, but always costl}' and ill-adapted to use in this 
country. After that, improvement, sure if not rapid, was made, 
and has contributed much to the usefulness of the schools. 

It was a notable da}' in the history of Billerica, when Mr. Pem- 
berton, who had been for eight ^ears the first principal of Phillips 
Aeadeui}', at Andover, came from that position -to Billerica, and 
established a school here, which is properly known as the Pemberton 
Academy. He was one of the notable teachers of his time, and 
counted such men as James Madison and Aaion Burr among his 
pupils. His school here was on the west side of Long Street, at the 
place where the late Dr. Pillsbury lived, and is described as a one- 
stor}- building, which received additions as more room Avas needed, 
until " its length became a marked feature." Here he conducted a 
school for fourteen years, which was higlily successful, numbering at 
times sixty pupils, many of whom graduated at Harvard College 
aud became eminent. At first a training-school for boys, its scope 
was enlarged and girls were i-eceived ; and Deacon Samuel Whiting 
assisted in tlie instiaiction. It would l)e interesting if we had a 
catalogue, and knew more of this eai'ly academy. 

After an intei-val of some 3'ears, a private scliool was estaljlished 
b}' Mr. Bernard "Whitman and his sister Bathsheba, their brother 
being the colleague pastor of the church. It was kept in a hall of 
the old hotel. But, in 1820, the Billerica Academy was estalilished, 
and Mr. and Miss "Whitman assumed the charge of it. The Trustees 
of this academy w^ere Josiah Crosby, Esq., Samuel Whiting, Esq., 
Joseph Locke, Esq., Rev. Nathaniel Whitman, Francis Faulkner, 
Esq., Col. J. B. Richardson, Dr. Zadok Howe, Rev. Samuel Stearns,' 
Rev. Jacob Coggiu, Edward St.L. Livermore, Rev. Samuel Sewall, 
George Bruce, Cyrus Baldwin, William Bland, Jr., Esq., Dr. A. R. 
Thompson. Others afterward chosen were Hon. Timoth}- AValker, 
John Baldwin, Esq., Marshall Preston, P^sq., Capt. Francis Richard- 
son, Rev. Bernard Whitman, Rev. Hezekiah Packard, Rev. William 
Barry, Dr. Thaddeus Brown. 

This academy building stood south of the Unitarian Church, and 
was probably identical with the earlier school-house, on the same 
spot, Avhich is mentioned above. The school was good and useful, 
but it lacked the pecuniary foundation needful for permanence, and 
its career closed in 183G. From that time, until 1852, the only 


opportunit}' for higher instruction in the town was a private school, 
which was taught for some 3'ears by Reverend Mr. Stearns, in the 
vestry- of the Congregational Church, of which ho was the pastor. 

Dr. Howe, knowing tlic value of such a school and instructed 
by the failure of the Acadeni}', a few years later set about a more 
substantial foundation ; and the results of his benevolent plans 
remain, and must long endure, in the Howe School. The design 
had occui^ied his thoughts before his death, and the lot was selected 
and piu'chased by himself. J^y his will, a Board of Trustees, to be 
incorporated, received the bulk of his estate, and were charged with 
the duty of carrying his plans into execution. The first Trustees 
were John Baldwin, James R. Faulkner, Dudley Foster, William H. 
Odiorne, Marshall Preston, Amos Spanlding, and George II. Whit- 
man ; of whom onl}' Mr. Foster is still a member of the Board. 
Others, who have been appointed to fill vacancies by the Judge of 
Probate, are Thomas Talbot, John A. Buttrick, Gardner Parker, 
Luther W. Faulkner, Henry A. Hazen, Moses G. Parker, and Peter 

B. Bohonan. The building was erected in 1852, and dedicated with 
an address by Mr. Whitman, who remained until 1875, the diligent 
and faithful secretar}' of the Trustees. Valuable details of the his- 
tory may lie found in that address, which has Iteen published. 

The School was opened at once under the charge of Mr. William 

C. Grant. He was succeeded, in 1855, by Mr. Stephen Gilman, 
and, in 1864, by Mr. Francis Gorman. The present principal, Mr. 
Samuel Tucker, assumed his charge in 1868. Tuition was free at 
the beginning, but in recent years the income of the fund, somewhat 
more than $20,000, has not been sufficient alone for the support of 
the School, and a small tuition fee has been charged ; it is now four 
dollars per term, with three terms in each year. The Catalogue, 
published in 1880, enrolls the names of 838 pupils, of whom, since 
1868, there have been 66 graduates. Pupils are received on exami- 
nation from the common schools of the town, and from other towns 
on the same terms. The generous endowment of Dr. Howe is now 
less adequate than at first to the needs of the School, and should 
receive some increase from the town, or from private munificence, in 
order to meet the larger requironents of instruction and equipment, 
which the lapse of thirt}' 3'ears and the demands of recent progress 
have laid upon it. 

This record of schools in Billerica has also a recent addition. 
Early in 187'J, Professor M. C. Mitchell, a graduate of Waterville 


College, now Colb^' University, in 18G2, who had for some years had 
a private Boys' School, at Edgartown, Massachusetts, removed with 
his school to this town. After brief locations, on Boston Street and 
on Andover Street, he purchased tlie large and handsome building 
which had replaced the old hotel, burned in 187G, on the south corner 
of Andover and Main Streets, which was occupied in May, 1880. 
It is designed as a home school for bo3's, the numl>er of pupils being 
limited to twent^'-four, and the charge, including all expenses, being 
$400 per 3'ear. The school is prosperous, and we give a good view 
of its buildings. 



TriE dismission of Mr. Chandler left the church for the first time 
without a pastor ; and the devout fathers set apart a day of fasting 
and prayer, 17G0, October 2, "to supplicate the throne of grace 
for divine direction in the choice of a minister." Tlie ministers of 
Littleton, Tewksbury, Wilmington, and Woburn were invited to assist 
in the pnl)lic services. Sixteen ministers were paid for preaching 
during the two 3-ears ensuing. Samuel Angier was employed twent}' 
Sabbaths ; Edward Sparhawk. ten ; Edward Brooks, twelve ; Job 
Whitney, Natlianiel Noyes, and Mr. Frj-e, eight each ; William 
Whitwell, seven, and Benjamin Caryl, four. Tlie latter received 
a call to settle, which was not accepted. At length a town meeting 
was held, 17G2, November 18, and this is the record: "The dnn'ch 
of Christ in this town having at their meeting on the 25 Day of 
Aug\ist, 17(30, Voted to give up their Right and Priviledge of Choos- 
ing a Gospel minister by themselves, and to act in conjunction with 
the Town in this Important affair ; and the Church and Town Having 
mett together upon this occation, * and the meeting being opened 
b}' a prayer to god for his Gracious Influen(>e, guidance, & Direction, 
The Question was put whethei' we would proceed at tliis Time To the 
Choice of a Gentleman to settle with us in the work of the Gospel 
ministry, and it was voted in tlie affirmative. Then the members 
of the Church & the Inhabitants of the Town were desired by the 
Moderator to Bring in their vot^s conjunct!}', in order to the choosing 
such a minister, which being done and the votes examined, it appeared 
that Mr. Henry Cumings was chosen by all the votes. Then the 
Town voted to the said Mr. Henry Cumings, as an Incouragement 
to settle with us, for his settlement Two Hundred Pounds LawfuU 
money, one Huntli-ed to be paid" at the time of his ordination, and 


the remainder a year later. His salaiy was to be £80, paid annually, 
and he was to have the use of the " Parsonage pasture." The ques- 
tion of acting on "the article of wood" passed "in the negative," 
and mhiistcrs have since been permitted to furnish their own wood. 
In paying Dr. Cumings the. promised "settlement," the town appro- 
priated £73, 17.9., llfL, which had been received from the State for 
the care of the French neutrals. The ordination took place, 17G3, 
January 26. "Seven chui'ches came to the solenmitN'. The Rev''. 
Mr. Morrill, of AVilmington, began with praj'er ; Rev*^. Mr. Emerson, 
of Hollis, preached the sermon, from Heb. xiii:17; the Rev*^. Mr. 
Rogers, of Littleton,. gave the charge, & tlu; Rev''. Mr. Bridge, of 
Chelmsford, the Right Hand of Fellowship, & y" Rev^. Mr. Emerson, 
of Peperil, made y" last prayer." » 

The record of JMr. Cumings' l)irth and famil}- is given elsewhere. 
He was a young man when he assumed his important and lifelong 
charge, having graduated from Harvard College just before he was 
twenty-one years of age, and spent onlv two 3-ears in teaching, at 
Reading, where he found his wife, and in the stud.y of theolog}- with 
his pastor, Rev. Daniel Emerson, of Hollis. Mr. Emerson was a 
man of character and spiritual force, and of power as a preacher, 
and man}' young men went from Hollis under his influence to take 
high positions in the pulpit and at the bar. He had been in ardent 
sympathy with the Great Awakening and the labors of Edwards and 
Whitefield, and Mr. Cumings brought the tonic of this training to 
his ministry in lUllcrica. He brought also a line physical manhood, 
a culture and a piety, which gave him good equipment for his office ; 
and for almost two generations he led his people, a good example of 
the oldtime pastor, holding their respect and love Avith a rare force 
to the end. As to the manner of man lie was, 1 am al)le to gi^^e 
some authentic and interesting reminiscences, furnished by his grand- 
daughter, Miss Nancy Wilkins, whose privilege it was to be with him 
twenty years in the later part of his life, and who, after illustrating 
in her own person a most serenes and charming old age, has but 
recently been called aAvay by death. (She says, — 

••The earliest recollections of mj^ revered grandfather are of a [(leasing- 
natun>, although they insjtired my 3'(Hjthfiil heart with awe. H(? was six 
feet and upwards in height, tiucly pioportioiied, with silvery, flowing locks 
and a pleasant smile. JIc would be called a perfect Christian gentleuian, 
ill whom was no guile, and \^'as noted for his hosjjitality to all. He was a 
powerful man. both mentally and physically, anil was considered a tine 
Hebrew scholar, liaving btieu taught while in college by a J(.'W, who took 


uuweaiicd pains with a siiiall class to pei-fect them in the language he 
loved, and took great pride in their success. He was well versed in Latin 
and Greek. From the latter I have heai-d him quote largely; particularly 
from a speech of President Holyoke. In prayer time some of tht; students 
had whistled and scraped. After prayers, my grandfather said, he never 
heard sucli a powerful address as he made to them in Greek; it i-ame like 
a thunder-clap, and the offence was never repeated. 1 have often heard 
him repeat this speech, and his memory was very uncommon. He would 
repeat the tirst hook of Paradise Lost without hesitation. He fitted seveial 
for college in his younger days, and, later, instructed some theological 
students. He was uniforndy kind, but in those days any approadi to 
familiarity would have been considered highly improi)er ; and, as he seldom 
spoke of hiuiself, I knew but little of his history. His mother was a woman 
of uncommon energj^, and very devout. Dr. Ciunings owed much, in his 
own opinion, to her influence. Mr. Emerson, his pastor, befriended hiui, 
fitted hini for college, and helped him through. The Sabbath was kept very 
strictly. None could visit or leave his house on that day, or stay at home 
to piovide food. To me it was always a pleasant daj\ I had my Bible 
and Pilgrim's Progress, and I longed to find and enter through that wicket 
gate, for it was all real to me. 1 never knew one who had a more vivid 
sense of an overruling providence. His wives' family was of English 
descent, all Episcopalians, and their grandfather kept slaves. He often 
spoke of his first wife and always with deep emotion, and she must have 
been a most lovely Christian woman. In memory of her and of his blessed 
Saviour, he used to trim his rooms with evergreen on Christmas Eve, and 
for this purpose would go far to get the doulile spruce which he thought 
the most beautiful. He was a man of strong passions and (^uick temper, 
but had learned the lesson of self-control. In his younger days he used 
tobacco freely, but, when convinced that it was injurious, he abandoned it ; 
but he said it was like cutting oft" a right arm. 

"Once a year he visited all the schools, in order to catechise the chil- 
dren, using the Assembly's Catechism, The Commandments and Creed, 
portions of The Bible, and Hynms. It was a very interesting day to the 
children. My grandfather took great pleasure in cultivating his garden, 
and was veiy fond of flowers, having a fine assortment for those times. 
He gave me a flower-bed and taught me to cultivate it. He often brought 
us wild flowers and herbs, and seemed to know their properties; as well 
as all the birds of the air and all their peculiai- habits." 

I'liis picture, outliucd by one who knew and loved him, sjiows 
very elesul}- some of the elements ol" his power as a minister. He 
was a diligent student, wrought out his sermons with great eare, and 
preached them with effect. Then he was a man of the people. He 
had known in his own early experience what poverty and trial were, 
and was prepared to sympathize with the trials through which the 
people were passing. The testimony is abundant how heartily he 
shared in the patriotic discussions and actions which bore fruit in the 




independence of the States and establishment of the Union. He 
was a leader in the patriot councils, and the action of the town was 
often shaped by him. His- election as a delegate to the Convention 
which framed the Constitution of Massachusetts, in 17S0, was only 
the proper and natural recognitioji of his standing among his towns- 
men. He was often called on councils, far and near, and to preach 
on public occasions, in a wa}' to show that his merits were appreciated 
beyond the bounds of his rural parish. But if he was ever called, 
in the modern fashion, to leave his chosen field, the temptation did 
not move him, and he was content to live and to die among the 
people, who gave him in youth unauimonsl}- their confidence and 
love, and continued it to the end. 

A new and more commodious meeting-house was found necessary 
and was erected in 17'J7. It stood near, but a little southeast of, its 
present [)osition, facing the north. By some accident the first steeple 
fell, and the builder received $500.00 compensation from the town. 
The cost of this house was provided for by sale of the pews, which 
took i)lacc, I7;)7, December 8, as follows, the sum received being 
$8504.50: — 















On till- lower floor : 
CMpt. John Wiiming fl21..50 

l.ieut. .John Kidder^ 121.50 
Dr. Wm. Wilkinsand Mr. 

Isaac Wilkins IIG.OO 

Ens. Sanuiel Parker 120.25 

Capt. Josiah Bowers 161.00 

Dr. Williaui Bowers 164.00 

Jonathan Bowers. Esq. 181.50 

Dea. Wm. Touipson 1;{;J.50 

Dea. Joshua Abbot 152.00 

Mr. Luther French 116.25 
Mr. Jeremiah Bhuichard 115.00 

Lieut. Peter Hill 

Mr. Jona. Pollard and 

Mr. Thomas Kogors 
Mr. Benjamin Bovvers 
Mr. Samuel Kichardson, 

Jr. and Mr. John Kieh- 

jVIr. Z(^bediah llooers. h". 
Widow Elizabeth Hill" 
Mr. WilUam llog-ci-s 
Mr. Jolm Soley 
Mr. Jose])h Danfoith and 

Mr. John Patten, jr. 121.25 




No. Price. 

22 Lt. Sti-])hen Barrett and 

Mr. Joel Baldwin $128.75 

23 Mr. Joseph Jaciuith 125.,50 

24 ('apt. Solomon Pollard 114.00 

25 Mr. William Patten 117.00 

26 Lt. Jeremiah Allen and 

Mr. Joseph Ivendal 123.00 

27 Mr. John Bromlield 116.00 

28 Lt. Xehemiah Kittredge 114.75 

29 Ml'. Isaac French and Mr. 

Abel Bowman 67.00 

30 Mr. Jaiues Abbot 84.00 

31 Mr. Jacob Manning 72.75 

32 Capt. Stei)hen Parker 80.00 

33 Maj. John Parker 116.00 

34 3Ii-'. Josiah Elchardscm 116.00 

35 Lt. Jerennali Crosby and 

Mr. Jolm Bacon 123.25 

3(i Lt. Isaac liaron 120.75 

37 Mr. Samuel Bowers 125.50 

38 ]Mr. Nathan Abbot 120.25 

39 Mr. Samuel Whiting 115.50 

40 Ml-. Zaeelieus Shed 115.00 

41 Dea. Oliver Crosby 120.50 

42 John >Vhite, Esq. 113.50 

43 Mr. Josiah Crosby 131.50 

44 Mr. Josepli Blanehard 115.25 



No. . Tricp. 

45 Mr. Ebnzr. Richardson, .^115.50 
4G iVIr. Josiah lioj^ers Qjr. 120.00 

47 jNlr. Silas KiL'liardsou and 

Mr.Ste]>Iicn IJicliardsoii J 10.50 

48 Mr. Jolm IJoovrs IIH.OO 

49 Mr. licnjaiiiin Dows and 

Mr. AVilliaiii F'rost 128.00 

50 Mr. Asa Patten and JNIr. 

Oliver Uicliardson 110.00 

51 Mr. Jonas Beard and Mi'. 

AVilliani Gleason 115.75 

52 Mr. John Crosby and Mr 

Ei)hrahn Crosby, .ji"- 114.25 

53 Lt. Sears Cook and Mr. 

Edward Farmer, jr. 120.25 

54 Edward Farmer, Esq. antl 

Edwai-d Farmer 3d 110.00 

55 Mr. Isaac Bhxnehard 124.00 

56 Mr. John Patten 125.00 

57 Isaac Stearns, p:s(i. 115.00 

58 Lieut. Isaac Marshall 115.75 

59 Lieut. Jacob Richardson 123.50 

60 Lt. Thomas Richardson 

and Lt. Wm. Baldwin 120.25 

61 Lieut. John Farmer lO.'J.OO 

62 Mr. Benjamin Davis 116.50 

In the Gallery : 

1 Mr. Benjamin Bowers 32.25 

2 Mr. Xathan :Mears 33.00 

3 Mr. Seth Crosby, jr. and 

Lt. NehemiahKittredge 52.25 









Mr. John Carlton, jr. and 

Mr. Amos Carlton $48.50 

M«"- Benjamin Beard, jr. 

h part, and Mr. Francis 

(/ook, J 
Mr. AVm. Levistone and 

Mr. Tliomas Mears 
Mr. AA'm. Tarbel, jr. and 

Mr. 'riiomas Crage 
Mr. Timothy Davis 
Mr. Jonathan Bond 
Lt. Jeremiah Crosb}' and 

Mr. Jolm Bae<m 
Mr. Timothy Foster 
Mr. Elijah 'Frull 
Mr. John Bromfteld 
Mr. Joseph Dows 
Jonathan Bowers. Esq. 
Mr. William Hill 
Mr. Josej)h Jaiiuith, jr. 
Capt. Stephen Parker 
Mr. Jei)tha ]\I aiming 
Lt. Thos. Richardson and 

Lt. William Baldwin 
Lt. Timothy Stearns 
Mr. Oliver Faimer, jr. and 

Mr. Josepli Wilson, sr. 
Mr. Jonatha)! Hill 
Ml'. John l^ain 
Lt. Timothy Stearns 
J\rr. Asa I'atten and IMr. 

Oliver Richardson 








The churcU continued unitcil and prosperous during tlie long 
pastorate of Dr. Cumings. A just estimate of his theological atti- 
tude, in relation to the questions 'on which the separation among the 
churches about the time of his death took p]a(ie, is not eas}' to reach. 
Some facts, however, will assist in such an estimate. A pupil of 
Mr. Emerson, of llollis, would not fail to hold the views then and 
after described by the term "• (^'angelical," unless he departed from 
the position of his teacher; and that Dr. Cumings ever did so there 
is lack of evidence. On the contrary, the testimony of Ins grand- 
daughter, who sat at his feet during the last years of his life, is that 
he "held fast" the evangelical doctrines to the end. His published 
sermons confirm this statement ; and it might be illustrated from his 
unpublished sermons to ahnost any extent. I give extracts from 
two sermons, which show his general tone of thought and discussion. 
The text of the first is Hebrews, v : 9 ; and speaking of the benefit 
procured for us by Jesus Christ, he says: "liy this is meant our 
deliverance from sin and all its penal effects, a deliverance from guilt 


and condemnation, from wrath to come and the eternal punishments 
of another world. * It is owing to the interposition of divine grace, 
that we have not before now been made extremely miserable. * This 
grace we owe, and it is dispensed to us through the mediation of, 
Jesus C'luist. * Christ hath procured eternal salvation for us by the 
merit of His own obedience, suffering, and death, whercb}' he has 
procured eternal redem[)tion for ns, not only deliverance from y" 
wrath and curse of God, but eternal life and happiness. When uum 
had Ijy sin mined and undone iiimself, Christ was contented t(^ be 
made a sacritice for him and to bear his sins in His own body on 
the tree." 

The text of the other sermon is INIark, xiii : 33, and its ''Doctrine, 
that a consideration of the uncertainty of the Time when our Lord 
will call us to Judgment ouglit to put us upon using the greatest care 
and Diligence, by PraAcr and the most circumspect walk and con- 
versation, that we ma}' be in a constant preparation to meet Dim." 
Some of the points made in the treatment of it are as follows : ''■We 
are in this world in a state of Tr^'al or Prol)ation. * Christ comes to 
every Indi^'idual at death. The Scrii)tures teach that as soon as the 
soul leaves the Body, it appears before God and is sentenced to a 
State of Happiness or Miser}'. So that the Day of Death is a 
Period as interesting to every one as the Day of general Judgment ; 
for the same Sentence that is passed upon every one at Death will 
be openly and solemnly ratified at the general Assize of the World. 
Death puts an everlasting Period to our prol»ationary state." After 
these and other preliminar}* statements, the preacher outlines what 
the vigilant man will do ; and tuider the fifth head uses this language : 
"The Vigilant Man, as he is put upon watching by a consideration 
of the Certainty of a Judgment to come and the Uncertainty of the 
Time Avlien it will come ; so, in order to maintain his Vigilancy, he 
will lVe(]uently represent to his Mind the Solemnity of a future 
Judgment. And I know of nothing that would tend more to make 
men watchful and kee[) them so, than often to reflect u[)on the 
solemnityes of that great Day, when we must all give Account of 
oiuselves to God, which Day will certainly come though we know not 
the Time of it. A consideration that there is a Day ap[)roaching 
when the Lord Jesus Christ will descend from Heaven, with his 
mighty Angels, in awful Power and Magnificence, to Juilge the 
World, and tlmt He will then raise the dead and sunnnon the whole 
human Race from Adam to the latest of his Posti-ritv before his 

266 HISTORY or billeeica. 

glorious Tribunal, and, separating the righteous from the wicked, 
will, after graciously inviting the former to his heavenly Mansions, 
pronounce that awful sentence against the latter, ' Depart, ye cursed, 
into everlasting tire, prepared for the devil and his angels.' * It will 
l)e a joyful or a terrible Da}' to us, according to our present Behav- 
ior." The duty of prayer is then considered, under several heads ; 
and the sermon closes with fervent and solemn appeals to his hearers. 

This latti'r sermon' was first preached, 177;"), February 12; was 
])rca(lu'd eight tiuu'S elsewhere, and repeated four times in his own 
jmlpit, the last time in 1<S10. It rellects the unchanged tenor of his 
late as well ;is his early i)reaching. A characteristic tendency of 
Dr. Cumings' preaching is to limit his statements of the doctrines 
of the trinity, of sin, of redemption and retribution, to the language 
of the Scri[)tures, seldom interpreting them in phraseology of his 
own. His sympathies were with the Arminian, rather than with the 
high-Cahinistic o[)iuions of his time ; but when his colleague was 
ordained, in 1814, it was understood by the council that he held 
evangelical opinions. Mr. Stearns, of Bedford, concurred in it for 
that reason ; a fact confirmed on the trial of Mv. Stearns, twenty 
years later, by INIr. Whitman's own testimony, that the suspension 
of exchanges between himself and Mr. Stearns was not due to an^' 
change in Mr. Stearns' opinions." On the other hand, it is to he 
remembered, that the church with substantial unanimity accepted 
the views of the "liberal" party, under the lead of Mr. Whitman, 
and that Dr. Cumings' influence, negative if not positive, must have 
contributed to this result. He is named with Unitarian ministers in 
the histories of the period ; and whether any injustice is done to 
him in this classification is a question on which opinions will differ. 

In February, 1813, Dr. Cumings preached his Half-Century 
Sermon. On account of his age and infirmit}', he requested a 
colleague, and the church at once took measures which resulted in 
the ordination of INIr. Nathaniel Whitman, on the fifty-first anni- 
versary of the day when Dr. Cumings had been himself ordained, 
1814, January 26. The life of Dr. Cumings was spared for almost ten 
years longer, and his pastorate extended to nearly sixty-one years, 
his death occurring, 1823, Septemlier 6. From ordination to death 
his pastorate was about eleven years longer than that of Mr. Whiting, 

1 This sermon may be found among the mss. collections of the Congregational Library 
in Boston. 

2 Congregational Quarterbj. Vol. X, p. 270. 


but in this comparison it should be remembered that Mr. Whiting 
labored here five years before the church was organized, and the 
actual ditference in the length of their ministry is only six years. 
To the last Dr. Cumings held the respect and love of the people, 
and, wlien the end came, he was buried by the town with reverent 
affection, the third and the last pastor to whom the town has rendered 
this service. 

]\Ir. Whitman brought high character, scholarshii), and piet3- to 
his new position. It should )te added to the record elsewhere given, 
that he was two years an usher at Phillips Academy, Exeter, and 
there began the study of theology with Dr. Buckminster, of Ports- 
mouth, completing his course at Cambridge. He was received with 
grcMit cordiality and considerate kindness b}' his venera))le colleague, 
and a warm friendship grew up between them. His ordination was 
attended by a multitude of people, and the hospitality of the town 
was full and generous. The sermon was preached by the Rev. James 
Flint, of East Bridgewater ; the Rev. Samuel Stearns, of Bedford, 
gave the Right Hand, and Dr. Cumings the Charge, which were 
pul)lished. Mr. Whitman was a good preacher and active pastor. 
He established a Bible Societ}" and a Peace Society, as well as the 
first Sunday' School in town, and he used his influence effectivel}' in 
improving the common schools. His pastorate, however, fell u[)on 
a period of agitation and disruption among the churches, when 
influences which had been gathering force, some of them for a 
hundred years, came to a head ; and it is scarcely any fault of this 
worthy man that they culminated in his day and disturbed the peace 
of his ministry. The discussions which preceded and attended the 
separation of the Unitarian churches were not the onl3' and scarcely 
the most sei'ious of the influences which threatened the peace of the 
local pastors. The practical union of Church and State, which had 
been naturally inherited from p]ngland, and illustrated in all our 
previous histor}-, as the constable gathered the pastor's salarv, was 
out of place in the free air of America. AVith independence the 
demand for a change grew stronger and stronger ; but it involved so 
serious considerations and was so startling to good but conser\'ative 
men, that the resistance was long, and num^' pastors were unsettled 
in the process. The age of Dr. Cumings and the honoi- in which 
he was held delayed its coming in Billerica, and the town collected 
the salary of Mr. Wliitman until ISS-l. In that year the usual 
article in the warrant was "passed" by the town and was not again 


inserted. Tlie pni'isli wiis then eulled to meet, and raised somewhat 
less tlian tlie salary, $700, which Mr. Whitman had received. He 
remained a year longei', and, in 1835, resigned and removed to 
Wilton. New Hampshire. 

It may be doubted whether tlic doctrinal discussions and ecclesi- 
astical separations had as much to do with terminating- Mr. Whitman's 
pastorate ; Ijut tliey form a vital part of the historj' of that i)ciiod. 
Here, too, Dr. Cuinings' position, while he lived, held the restless 
s[)ii'it somewhat in check which broke forth so soon after. The 
questions concerning the trinity, and the divinity of Christ, the 
nature and results of sin, and the wa}' of salvation, were discussed 
Avith great feeling and often with bitterness. Good men sometimes 
forgot the possible honesty of those who held opinions differing 
from their own and the charity to which they were entitled, and 
neigiibors were at times estranged. The friends of the old order 
could not appreciate the force of the convictions which sougiit 
change, and those who were striving for change were not always 
considerate of the feelings or the reasons of those who wished to 
])er[)etuate the order of things they had inherited, and which had 
worked so satisfactorily for almost two centuries. The efforts to 
I'stablish another church in the town were met by a protest, which 
Mr. Whitman emliodied in a fast-day sermon, which was printed, 
and nuist win respect and sympathy for its author even from those 
who are not fully jjcrsuaded by its argument. He was contending 
with the inevitable ; and, had he now the opportunity, he would 
not probai)ly desire to replace the ecclesiastical order, which was 
giving way around him, to his discomfort and alarm. 

Among the complaints which were made against Mr. Whitman, 
one was that he would not exchange with neighboring Universalist 
ministers ; and in his farewell sermon he defended the propriety of 
his course, expressing his willingness to exchange with ministers 
who were in sympath}- with the covenant of his church, and quoting 
from that covenant language which those who approved the doctrine 
oi non-retribution could not accept. This covenant affirmed their 
faith,'' "particularly in the great doctrines of our Fall in Adam and 
recovery by Jesus Christ, of the pardon of sin, and salvation on 
condition of Faith and Repentance, and of the intlucnce and aid of 
Hivine Grace, i)romised to those who ask; * of the Kesurrection 

■■' I am iiukbtt.-d to Mr. F. i". Hill for a ivis. skelcli of 3Ir. Wliitiiiau, from vvhiih I have 
drawn fret'ly. 


of the dead, a final Judgment, and of a future state of Retribu- 
tions." Ministers whose preaeliiug was in direct opposition to this 
covenant he could not consistently permit to oecu[)v his pul|)it. 

Mr. Whitman was dismissed, ISSo, March 80, and was succeeded 
by Rev. AVilliam E. Ai)bot, who was ordained, ltS37, Februaiy S, 
and dismissed, 1839, February 10. Mr. Abbot was graduatt'(l at 
Bowdoin College, 1830, and at Harvard Theological School, in 18;>3. 
The next pastor was Rev. Theodore Haskell Dorr, a gi'aduatc of 
Harvard College, in 1835, and Theological School, in 1838. He was 
ordained, 1839, Maj* 28, and dismissed, 1843, May 28. Succeeding 
ministers have with one exception received no formal installation. 
Their names and dates of service are as follows: .Tames Thurston, 
1844, November 15-18.')0, May lo. Samuel Fettes, 1850, June 16- 
1855, May 14. Nathaniel O. Chaffin, 1855, June 17-1857, May 10. 
Norwood Damon, 1857-60. Livingston Stone, 1861-62. James 
Gallaway, installed, 1863, January 28-1865. Christopher Coffin 
Husse}-, 1866, October 1, who is still in charge. 

In 1844 the meeting-house Avas moved, and turned half around 
to face the cast ; but it was allowed to retain its primitive structure 
and graceful spire, which form a landmark visible from afar. TIk; 
longer ministry of My. Hussey has witnessed improvement in several 
directions. In 1879 a fund of 810,000 was contributed l^v several 
members of the society, the interest of whicli only can be used to 
support preaching. The conditions of the gift are that the minister's 
salary be kept at a specified rate, and tiuit the preaching l)e distinet- 
ivel}- Unitarian. In 1881 a house was bought for a parsonage, and 
so fully repaired as to make it substantially a now, as well as pleasant 
and convenient, home for the minister. It stands on tlie east side 
of the street, one door north of Andover Street, having been the 
home of Mr. W. H. Blanchard and previously of Marshall Preston. 

The First Baptist Ciiuucii was the earliest separate organiza- 
tion, after the First Church had for one hundred and sixty-five years 
existed alone in the town. There were Baptists here at an earl}- dav, 
William Hamlet at least and probabl}- George Farley ; and a letter 
from Hamlet relating to the early troubles is published )>y Backus, 
the Baptist historian. But the nnm])er did not increase until after 
the Revolution, when the tendency' to resist pa^aiient of "niinister's 
rates" had influence in increasing the number of Bai^tists. Not long 
after the death of Dr. Cumings, they had become numerous and 
strong enough for organization. Meetings were first held in the 


school-house near the Fordwa.y, in the spring of 1S28. A elun-ch 
was organized, 1828, September oO, and recognized by Council, 
October D. It consisted of twenty members, of whom thirteen were 
dismissed from the South Chelmsford Church. Tlie first deacons 
were Joseph Dows and Amos S[)aulding. Their successors have 
been Edward Spaulding, George C. Oilman, John C. Hobbs, and 
Francis E. Manlc}'. 

The list of its ministers is as follows, omitting students and others 
who served for shorter periods : — 

Otis Wing. 1829. Marcli, to 18;W. Marvh. 

Jedodiali W. Sargent, ordained, 1835, January 14, to 1837, January. 
Jonatlian K. Forbush. 1837. Marcli -1S38. August. 
Warren Cooper, 1838, October- 1830, 0('tobev\ 
George \V. Tfandall, ordained, 1841, February 18-1842, May. 
Benjamin Kniglit. 1842, May-1840, April; and 1857, Feb.-18G0. Jan. 
Benjamin Putnam, 1845, June; died, 1850. December 21. aged G2. 
Zenas P. AVilde. 1851, April-1853, April. 
Homer Sears, 1854, January-1850, Ja^uar3^ 
Thomas C. Russell, 18G0, August- 18G3, March. 
John D. Sweet, ordained, 18G3, October 21 -18GS, March. 
Clifton Fletcher, 18G9, February -1875. July. 
William II. Fish, ordained, 1875, December 30-1877, June. 
Robert M. Neil, (alias O'Neil or JMcNeil), 1877^ October-1878. July. '-Dis- 
missed from the fellowship of the ehurcli and ministry.'' 
Edward T. Lyford, 1879, May. 

The first meeting-honse stood on the east side of Concord River, 
very near the middle bridge. The frame was raised, 1830, Novem- 
ber 80, and the house was dedicated, 1831, September 14. It was 
fifty feet long, forty feet wide, had forty-eight pews, and would seat 
three linndred people. In the spring of 1844 it was remo\'ed to its 
present location in the village, on Bedford Street. A bell was i)ro- 
cured in 1872, and in 1877 it received an addition of a couvenient 
chapel, as appears in the illustration.^ 

Thk Congregational Chttkcii was organized, 1829, April 30, a 
society having been formed, January 17. This was a more direct 
result of the theological controversy, and of the ecclesiastical sepa- 
rations, which were still .agitating the IMassachusetts chin-ches ; and 
the presence of Dr. L3nian Beecher, as Modei'ator of the Council 
which organized the clnnrh, was a significant expression of the 

* A ffemi-Centennial Address, by Rev. Clifton FIctclnM-. lui.s been publislied, giving lull 
and intcre.sting details of the history of this ciiurcli. 

('<)N<;i!K(;a rioNAi. ( iii i!<ii. 


general interest in this and similar movements. The unity and 
strength of the First Church was, howeA^er, less affected l)y the 
separation, in Billerica, than in man}' towns. The number of its 
meml)ers who did not sympathize with, or yield to, the Unitarian 
position of the church was dmall. Two women, Huldah Blake and 
Martha Bowers, entered a protest, 1820, October 8. They affirm 
their belief in the true and proper deit}- of Jesus Christ, in the 
atonement, in the entire depravity' of unregencrate men, and their 
need of supernatural grace to fit them for the happiness of heaven ; 
and generall}' in the doctrines of the Westminster Confession and 
Catechism. With these views they believed their pastor and many 
of their brethren in the church did not agree ; and they therefore 
asked the favor of a regular dismission. This the church, affirming 
the right and dut}- of each individual to be guided ))y his own con- 
science, granted. No other dismissions for this reason are recorded, 
and not more than four or five members of the First Church ever 
joined the new Congregational Church, which began with twenty-five 
members. The meeting-house, on Andover Street, 60X40 feet, was 
raised, October 28, and dedicated, 1830, January 13. The record 
of its ministers has been as follows : — 

John Starkweather, ordained, 1S30, April 22; dismissed, 1831, August 2. 

Isaac Jones, acting pastor, 1832, July- 1834, April. 

Joseph Haven, installed, 1830. June 8; dismissed. 1840, September 27. 

Benjamin Ela, ordained, 1841, April 29; dismissed. 1842, May. 

Jesse G. D. Stearns, ordained, 1843, May 29; dismissed, 18G7, May 8. 

John P. Clcaveland, d.'d., acting pastor. 18G7-70. 

Evarts B. Kent, acting pastor. 1870-71. 

John M. Lord, acting pastor, 1871-72. 

Henry A. Hazen, installed, 1874, May 21 ; disnnssed, 1879. Maj- 4. 

John Haskell, acting pastor, 1879. May- 1881. October. 

Charles C. Torre j', acting pastor. 1881. Novend)er. 

The long and faithful pastorate of Mr. Stearns deserves especial 
recognition. Record of his descent from Billerica ancestr}' may 
be found elsewhere, (see Stearns, 8). A scholar of exceptional 
diligence and culture, modest and devout, and active in every good 
word and work, he commended himself to tlie citizens of the town 
as well as to his own charge. As teacher of a useful private school, 
and superintendent of the schools of the town, he excited no little 
influence, and represented the town in the Legislature. 

The deacons of this church have been William Gleason, Aaron 
Patten, Edward Wright, Samuel H. King, and Moses P. Greenwood. 


A Univkusalist Sociktv was foiiiied, 1842, Jauuarv 10, an<l a 
meeting-hoiisf erected the same year. It stood on tlie north side 
of West Street, where the sehool-house now stands. In 1S68 it was 
sold to the Roman Catholi(;s and removed to North Billeriea, where 
it is still in use 1»3' that society. TIk; ministers ol' this church Avere 
Rev. Varnum Lincoln, ordained, 1843, Septeml)er 8; Rev. L. P. 
Landers, of West Cambridge, 1845-47; Rev. George Proctor, 
1847-53, and again, 1855-G3 ; Rev. P. ITersey, 1853-55 ; and Rev. 
R. M. Byram. 

A Roman Catiiolio Society was organized and innchased the 
LTniversalist Church in 1868. It has prospered and the number of 
its communicants is large. The priests who have been in charge 
come from Lowell, and no record of their names or dates of service 
has been furnished. 

The 3'oungest church in the town is the Baptist Chui'cli. at Noi'th 
Billeriea, which was organized, 1869, Maj- 14, receiving twenty-two 
members from the Centre Church. Its pleasant inceting-house was 
a gift from the Hon. Thomas Talbot; Iniilt in 187U, and dedicated, 
1871, January 19. Its pastors have been AVilliam M. Ross, 1869, 
June 2 ; Nathaniel L. Colby, ordained, 1872, July 2; and William 
A. Farren, ordained, 1879, September 24. 

jJAFTisT < nritcii. Noinii killehica. 



The earl}' roads were often called paths, and the name describes 
them. Carts conld pass over the better roads, but many were pass- 
able onl}' on horseback or on foot. Wagons were unknown. The 
earliest chaise was owned in town not much, if an}-, before 1800, and 
marked the aristocracy of the few who could aftbrd such luxury. ^ 
The first great improvement in the means of transportation was the 
Middlesex Canal. This first important canal in America passed 
through Billei'ica, and its path is still to be seen at many points. 
The company was incorporated in June, 1793, to connect the Merri- 
mack witli the Mystic and Charles rivers, and save the trade of New 
Hampshire to Boston. The i)reliminary surveys consumed more 
than a year, and ground was first broken at Billerica "Mills" in the 
spring of 1705. At this point the Concord River is one hundred 
and nine feet al»ove tide-water in Boston Harbor and twenty-live feet 
above the Merrimack, which the canal reached at its most southerly 
l)end, about a mile above Pawtucket Falls. The canal was 27 miles 
long, 30 feet wide, and 3 feet deep. It was navigal)le to the Charles 
River, in 18(3.') ; but its income was absorbed for years in alterations 
and repairs, and no dividend was declared until 181D. One hundred 
assessments were laid upon stockholders, and the cost of shares, 
including interest, was $1455.25 ; the total cost of the canal being 
11,164.200. From 1819 to 1843. dividends were paid, amounting 
to $504 per share. The receipts then fell below the expenses ; in 
1851 the charter was sun-endered, and in 1852 the canal was sold in 
sections, owners of adjoining lands being generally the purchasers. 
The charter was farther declai-ed forfeited in 1859. The proprietors 
com[)laiucd that the railroad had been permitted to damage their 

■ Sl'C Lowell Contributions, etc. Vol. 1, p. liol. 


chartered rights without indenniity, hut they had uo redress. The 
chief design of the canal wns to carr}' freight, bnt a packet-boat for 
passengers was run daily, at a speed of four miles per hour, the fare 
from Lowell to Boston l)eing fifty cents. That the canal did not very 
essentially affect the life of the town is shown by the fact that nil its 
carrying from Boston to Billerica did not exceed $200 per year. 

The Middlesex Turnpike was an enterprise of significance in its 
day. It was cluirtcred in June, \H0'). Ebenezer Bridge and James 
Abbot being among its corporators. Jts route ext<'nded from Tyngs- 
borough to Medford and Cambiidge. The- line at first was to |)ass 
Billerica meeting-house; but, in 1S06, the route was changed, by 
permission of the General Court, from a point in Bedford, crossing 
Nutting's Pond, to Buisket bridge in Tyngsborough. Some lack of 
friendly co-operation in Billerica may have influenced this chnnge, 
and the managers were ambitious to make their great road as near 
an air-line as possible. Hills and ponds must not stand in their way, 
and the}' according!}' followed a route straight through the town, 
crossing Concord River a mile above the centre bridge, and leaving 
the village as far one side. This line would attract very little local 
traA'el and support, and experience soon proved that the visions of a 
great through travel and traffic were delusive. The canal and the 
railroad left little for the turnpike, and its charter was repealed in 
l.Sil. The unfortunate proprietors of the Middlesex Turnpike were 
not without some very sound reasons for their fjiith. Those were 
the days of teams and stages, and the business which they brought 
through this town was a notable feature of its life. Much of the 
traffic of western New Hampshire and Vermont with vSalem and 
Boston passed through Billerica. The teaming was of two kinds. 
There was a class of professional teamsters, who drove large wagons, 
drawn by four, six, or eight horses, serving the merchants of the up- 
countr}'. The memory of some of these men, like Thomas Button, 
of Hartford, Vermont, whose team always rested on the Sal)bath, 
still lingers along the route. Wool, butter, cheese, and whatever 
sought the market Avould furnish the loads, while salt, molasses, dry 
goods, rum, and all the varieties kept by the miscellaneous '"country 
store" were taken on the return. Another class of teams i)roI)ably 
more numerous, Ihougii smnllei', was driven by farmers, who took a 
trip or two yearh" to inai'ket, carrying their own produce, beef, [)ork, 
or whatever they had to sell, and returning with articles for home 
consumption or for the merchants. 


The stages also entered largely into the life of that period. 
"The first stage-coach passed through Billerica about 1795. It was 
a two-horse, covered vehicle, owned and driven by Mr. Joseph 
Wheat, and ran from Amherst, N. H., to Boston and back again, 
once a week. It stopped at Billerica OA^er night, making the trip 
in about four days. Tlie same team performed all the journey."^ 
The business increased. In 1803 the stage from Boston to Amherst 
set off from King's Inn ever}' Wednesday and Saturday, leaving at 
.T A.M. and arriving at 7 p.m., returning Mondays and Thursdays 
at the same hours. For several 3'ears before the opening of the 
Boston and Lowell Kaih'oad from twelve to sixteen stages passed 
daily through Billerica, Sundays excepted. After work was I)egnn 
on the new mills at East Chelmsford, in 1821, Mr. Richardson, who 
kej^t a hotel at the "Corner," sent a hack Mondays and Saturdays 
to accommodate gentlemen who wished to connect with the Amherst 
stage at that point. Lowell could hardly be served in that way now ! 
All this staging and teaming made a demand for taverns, which 
were numerous and busy. There were two, and sometimes three, 
in the A'illage : one or two at the Corner, and the Manning Tavern 
on the Chelmsford Road ; and these were not all. Men and beasts 
must be provided for, and this provision often suggests Falstaff's 
"intolerable deal of sack," as one reads the items in old ledgers. 

But canal and turnpike gave wa}' to a moi-e revolutionary im- 
provement. The Granite Railwa}' to Quincj- was chartered in 1.S26, 
and did its first work in 1827 in carrying granite for Bunker Hill 
Monument. The sagacious men who were laying the foundations 
of Lowell saw that the railway was what their enterprise needed, 
and the Boston and Lowell Railroad was chartered in June, 1830. 
The railroads to Worcester and Providence were chartered soon after, 
and were opened to Newton in April and to Readville in June, 1834. 
A year later, 1835, June 25, the Boston and Lowell Railroad was 
opened. Two days after, its first advertisement appears, as follows : 

•'The Cars will continue to run till farther notice as at present, viz. : 
Leave Lowell at (> A.M. & 2h P.M. Leave Boston at 9 A.M. & 5^ P.M. 
No huggage can be taken, except what belongs to passengers. Allowance 
to each, 40 pounds. As soon as Burthen cars can be provided, notice will 
be given tor the transi)ortation of merchandise. Tickets may be liad at tlie 
ilepot. corner Leverett and Brighton streets. Price, .1$1.00. 

■•George M. Dextek, Atfent." 

- Bi- Centennial, p. 152, (note). 


Tlie contrast is great between the four trains of 1835 and the 
tvvent3'-five passenger trains of 1882, with almost as many more for 
freight. Tlien they must start from Lowell ; now they ma}' come 
from San Francisco. But the lienefit which the raih-oad brought to 
Billerica has been much less than it would have been if it had 
followed a more direct line, through Wol)urn, and passing between 
the village and Fox Hill. Such a route w^ould have made the 
})h'asant, high lands on which the village is located a very accessible 
and attractive sul)urb of Boston, and with the growth of both Lowell 
and Boston, Billerica might have shared. But some feared and 
repelled the railroad ; others, more sagacious, saw its benefits and 
sought its location on a more northerly route ; and the growth of 
the A'illage has been hindered bj' its distance from the stations. 
Relief for this difliculty has been sought in various directions, and 
once it seemed to be secured ; in fact it was secured for a few 
months, until a hopeful enterprise ended in disastrous failure. The 
stcny of the Billerica and Bedford Narrow-Gauge Railroad is not a 
pleasant one, but must be here briefly told. 

In 1875, George E. Mansfield, of Boston, came to Billerica with 
plans and proposals for building a railroad, of a two-foot gauge, 
from Bedford to North Billerica. A road of fourteen miles' length 
in Wales, The Festiniog, had shown the practicabilit}' of a line so 
narrow, but none had ever been built in this country. Discussion 
resulted in a charter, and a compan}' was organized, 187G, May 10, 
Capt. Charles A. Ranlett being its president. Subscriptions and 
surveys required some months, and gi-ound was broken, with much 
enthusiasm, September 6. The construction of the line took more 
than a 3-ear, and it was opened in the autumn of 1877. Its equipment 
consisted of two locomotives, "Ariel" and "Puck," two passenger 
cars, two "excursion" cars, and a few others. The novelty of its 
narrow track and cheap construction attracted much attention. 
People came to see its working, and the "Scientific American" 
published, 1878, INIarch 16, an article describing its construction, 
witli an illustration of its engines. For a few months the village 
enjoyed railroad facilities, and so far as the feasibility of the working 
experiment went, the road was a success. Its failure came from 
financial causes. The estimated cost was $50,000, or $8000 per 
mile; but, in the "Scientific American" article, its projector puts 
its cost when completed at over .$(;0.000. On the other hand, a 
portion of its sul)scription proved unsound or fraudulent and the road 


began operations luuler a heavy burden of debt. Starting in this 
unfortunate condition, and liardly at the outset earning its running- 
expenses, tlie directors were unable to finish its connections and 
equipment, or, b}' patient and successful running, win the confidence 
of the public and test the (juestion, in which some of them never 
lost faith, whether such a road could become i)ecuniarily profitable. 
Under its burden of debt, the road was thrown into bankruptc}' and 
assignees took possession, the personal property being sold, 1878, 
June 6, for $9000. The town, which had subscribed originally and 
paid $12,000, was urged to aid farther, but declined to do so; and 
individuals were not ready to undertake the financial experiment. 
Meanwhile, the Sandy River Railroad, in Maine, had built a similar 
line, north from P'armington. This company purchased the equip- 
ments of the Billerica and Bedford Railroad ; and there they are 
still in use with more success. Time is rapidly obliterating the 
roadwa}' through the town, and the children of coming generations 
may listen with some doubt to the story, that their fathers did once 
have such a railroad and regular trains running from Billei-ica to 
Bedford ; and that merry school-children went shouting on excursions 
over the route. That such was the fact the historian can testify, 
with emotions in which amusement, chagrin, and regret are mingled. 



In 1659, November, William Sheldon received the grant of a lot 
on condition of l)nilding a mill, to grind corn, within two years, (see 
under Sheldon) . This grant was declared forfeit, and John Parker 
received "the mill lot," 1(363-64, January 25, with an eight-acre 
right, for £55, paid for the town. ^ The house-lot was to be neai' 
the great bridge. No condition of building a mill is connected with 
the grant, and it is doubtful if there was any mill at North Billerica 
before the grant to Osgood, in 1708. But a " corne mill" was built 
as early as 1683, on Vine Brook, b}^ John Wilson, (see Wil.son), 
who had a saw-mill there in 1680; and Thomas Patten had a mill 
at Pattenville as early, (see Patten). But John Parker owned, by 
grant and purchase, at least two large lots at this place ; and a 
mill-pond is mentioned there in 1664. Probabl}' therefore the first 
mill in town was built by Mr. Parker and about 1660, on Content 
Brook, and not on Concord River. Bacon's mill, at the falls of the 
Shawshiu, is mentioned in 1707 and perhai)s was built earlier. 
Benjamin Fitch afterwards owned it, and it was long known as 
"Fitch's mill." 

The grant from which all subsequent owners have held the water 
power and mill privilege at North Billerica was made, as follows : — 

"At a General Town Meeting, octob. 4. 1708, Granted to Christoplier 
Osgood, Jun'., of Ahdouer, all that neck of land on the West of Concord 
Riuer, lying between said Eiuer and the pathway leading to broad meadow, 
with the stream ;it the falls,- Reseruing ten pole from the ford\\ ay doun 
said Riuer, and from the foot of the Hill going dotni into broad meadow : 
provided, tlie said Chi'isto])hei- Osgood do, within two years next ensuing 
the date hereof. Erect and maintain a good grist mill upon said Riuer. at 
the falls ouer against saru^' Rogers his house lot, and the said Osgood dotli 

1 Records, Vol. I, p. 49; and same, Reverse, p. 26. 


Engage to ueoiire and defend the Town of Billerica from any trouble and 
charge that may arise for damage that may be don to tlie meadows of the 
Towns aboue us by said mill-datn ; the said hind is given & granted to the 
said Christopher Osgood and his heirs (by the Town of Billerica) so long 
as he and they shall maintain a good grist mill at said place, and when said 
mill ceases, the said land sliall Return to the said town of Billerica."' 

The following action has interest in this connection : — 

••March 27. 1710. It was voted, that the Town of Billerica will defend 
Mr. Christopher Osgood from bearing any charge of the damage in flowing 
Dr. Toothaclier's medow by his mill-dam, said Osgood engaging for him- 
self & his sucksessors that the said stream that was granted to him shall 
return with the land to the said Town of Billerica, when the said mill 
cea.seth. which he hold* said land and stream by : passed in the atHrmative. 
Jonathan Bacon. Josiah Bacon. & Josiah Fassett entered their desent 
against y^ uoat aboue written.'" 

••March 9. 1710-11. at a meeting of the proprietors on the east of 
Concord Eiver. there was Granted to Dr. Roger Toothacher all the land on 
the east side of the highway leading to his house, that belonged to Farley's 
and Marshall's lots, for full Recompense and in Exchange for his medow 
lot. flow'd by Mr. Osgood's mill." 

Mr. Osgood built and maintained a grist-mill and saw-mill. He 
probably acquired by purchase the land on the north side, which 
was not included in the grant ; for his son Christopher, in 1747, sold 
this to Joseph Ruggles with right to use water for a fulling-mill, 
when there was more than was needed for Osgood's mills. In 1748, 
Mr. Osgood's executor sold his mill privilege to Nicholas Sprake 
for £1500, who in turn sold to William Kidder. In 1759, John 
Carleton came from Bradfortl and purchased of Kidder what was 
then described as two-thirds of the privilege, Mr. Ruggles' right 
being recognized as one-third. Whether Ruggles sold to Carleton, 
I am not able to say, nor whether Thomas Richardson accj^uired his 
title of Carleton or of some later owner ; but after the Revolution 
the mills were known as ''Richardson's," and the Middlesex Canal 
Compan}' purchased of him, 1794, March 25, the title, which was 
held for the use of the canal until 1851, September 22, when it was 
sold for $20,000 to Charles P. and Thomas Talbot, its present 
proprietors. These gentlemen were released, by vote of the town, 
1864, March 7, from the obligation to maintain a grist-mill, contained 
in the Osgood grant, the town judging, no doubt correct!}', that the 
use of the water power in their extensive manufacturing would be a 
greater public benefit than the gi-ist-mill. 


Prior to this action, the owners of the water power had prose- 
cnted sueeessfull}' before the Legishxtnre a contest witli the towns of 
Wayhmd, Sudbiny, Concord, Bedford, and Cailisle, and tlie owners 
of meadows above on the river. The latter luid petitioned the 
Legislature in 1859, claiming that the dam had been raised and was 
maintained at a height Avhich damaged the meadows and reduced 
their value, and they asked for redress. A joint committee heard 
both parties at length, and the petitions, arguments, and documents 
were published in a report, {House Doc. ^ No. 100, 1860). The result 
was not conclusive and, in 18G1, commissioners were appointed b}' 
the Legislature, to investigate, make experiments, and determine 
whether the dam affected the meadows in the towns above. To 
this end, thirty-four stations were established along the river, and 
observations were carefully recorded for two months from 21 Juh', 
1861, the effect of various heights of water at the dam being tested. 
The observations and report were published, {House Doc.., No. 1, 
1862) . The general conclusion was that "the dam at North Billerica 
is not the 0UI3' nor the chief cause of the wet state of the meadows 
above. The bars across the stream, especiall}' the Fordwa}' bar ; 
the weeds filling the channel in many places, often for long distances ; 
the discharge into the river during summer of water stored in reser- 
voirs and mill-ponds upon the Sudbury and Assabet and their 
tributaries, in their combined effect do far more damage to the 
meadows than the Billerica dam." The}' say that the effect of the 
dam becomes inappreciable at Robbins bar, and its entire remo\'al 
would not affect the upper meadows ; that effectual relief could come 
to the meadows onh' by reducing the dam thirty-three inches or 
more, cutting out the Fordwa^' and other bars, deepening the shallow 
Ijlaces, straightening the channel at some points, and keeping the 
river free from weeds. This progrannne was moi"e extensive than 
the Legislature felt itself called upon to undertake, especially as it 
was proved that similar trouble and complaint had been chronic from 
the first settlement of the country. 

Li 1811, Francis Faulkner came from Acton and l)egan the man- 
ufacture of woolen goods. It was the second enterprise of this class 
in New England, Abraham Marland being the jjioneer, who began 
at Andover in 1810. Mr. I'aulkner soon purchased of the Canal 
Company the secondary water pri^■ilege, like that which had Ijelonged 
to Joseph Ruggles. He could draw water until it was "three-quarters 
of an inch below the top of the dam and flush-boards," Avhen he must 


close liis gates, nndev a peiuilty of one dollar for every half-hour they 
were left open. By his thrift, skill, and enterprise, INIr. Faulkner 
made his business very suceessful, and transmitted it to his sons. 
The firm name is still "J. K. Faulkner & Co.," and his grandson, 
Mr. Kichard Faulkner, is the agent now in charge of its business. 
From a modest beginning with a single set of cards the business has 
increased until eight sets are in use, employing seventy-two hands. 
The monthly pay-roll is about $2500. 

Mr. Charles P. Talbot came to Billerica in 183D and was soon 
joined I)}' his brother Thomas in laying the foundations of their 
extensive and successful enterprise. The dye wood-mill was their 
earliest undertaking,- for which they hired a building of the Canal 
Company-. In 1844 they bought the saw-mill of Nathaniel Stearns, 
on the northeast side, and used it for the dyewood business until it 
was burned, in 1853. The}' then sold this site to INIr. Faulkner, 
having purchased the prior and larger rights of the Canal Company 
on tlie other side of the stream. There they rebuilt the dyewood- 
mill, which is still in vigorous operation; and, in 1857, they built 
their woolen-mill. This at first had eight sets of cards ; six were 
added in 1870 and as many in 1880. Two hundred hands are now 
employed, and the monthly pay-roll is $7000. In 1849, the Messrs. 
Talbot began their chemical works, which were at first in a building- 
near the dei^ot, but removed later to their present location, sixty rods 
farther east, b}- the railroad. These now employ sixteen hands, and 
produce a dail}' average of five tons oil of vitriol, one ton of blue 
vitriol, and as much muriatic acid. 

The next most important manufacturing enterprise was begun 
soon after 1830, in the south part of the town, b}- Jonathan Hill, 
Esq. Its specialty was, and still is, a useful machine for splitting 
leather, invented and patented by Samuel Parker, {see 19). This 
machine has had a very wide sale in this and in other countries, 
being almost indispensable in the manufacture of leather. The 
business was sold, in 1853, to Mr. Charles H. Hill, who continues 
it with much success. Jn 1875, the value of tiie work done was 

In the east part of the tf)wn Avhere there had long been a saw- 
mill, on Content Brook, Theophilus Manning had also a grist-mill. 
He sold both, in 1825, to Dea. Aaron H. Patten, who began, in 1845, 
the manufacture of cabinet-work, llie l)usiness grew to considerable 
proportions, and Pattenville became a definite local name in town. 


The business reached a vahie of $20,000 to $30,000 per year, and 
was contuiued by his sons ; but, in the financial depression of 
1874-78, it suffered, and the shops were sold, in 1879, to Walter J. 
Pettingell, wlio has carried on Inisiness, making tanks, until the mill 
was burned, Januar\', 1882. 

Most recent is the growth of an extensive glue factory, which 
was commenced in 1867 by the Jaquith Brothers, near the old l)ridge 
of the Middlesex Turnpike. It has been quite prosperous, doing a 
business amounting to nearly $15,000 annually. P'or man}- years 
the Winnings maintained a saw-mill on the brook running from 
Winning's Pond ; and there has long been a saw-mill, now owned 
by Mr. John O. Richardson, on Content Brook, near the railroad 
station at East Billerica. 



Of the part wliieh this town took in the ^Vav of 1812, and in 
the Mexican War, the town and State archives contain no record. 
Probably Billerica had soldiers in both, bnt the nnniber was small, 
and the scenes of action were too remote to leave any distinct 
impression. Far otherwise was it in the great Secession contest. 
When the life of the nation was assailed by the Southern uprising, 
the people all felt the blow and the danger, and the towns asserted 
their vital relations to the conflict as they did in the Revolutionary 
contest, to the disturbance of British councils. No one who expe- 
rienced it can ever forget the thrill of patriotic emotion which went 
through the North when Sumter was assailed and I'resident Lincoln 
called for fifty thousand volunteers to defend the Union. PubUc 
meetiugs, enlistments, and aid societies and labors engrossed the 
public mind. In Billerica the town hall was thrown open, tlu' church 
bell, aided by the drum and an old ship-gun, sounding tlie call to 
meetings for action and organization. John A. Burrows and Charles 
N. Fletcher were the first soldiers mustered from Billerica. The 
number increased rapidly. Richardson's Light Infantiy, of Lowell, 
afterwards the Seventh Liglit Battery, and the first three-years 
company in the field from Massachusetts, visited the town for a 
reception and a drill ; as did a rifle company. Albert E. Farmer, 
who was taken prisoner at Bull Run and died in Richmond, was the 
first soldier from Billerica to fall, [n 1862, after the defeat of 
McClellan, the call for troops was responded to by a town meeting 
and the ofler of a bounty for enlistments, They were easily obtained, 
and the town's quota was mustered into the Thirty-Third Regiment. 
An interesting meeting was held in the town hall the niglit before 
their departure. A call for nine-months men followed, and after the 
supposed quota had been filled it was found that more men were 


needed, and town meetings and bounties were a2,ain called into 
requisition. lu the suunner of 18G3 came the first draft, with but 
small results from this town. In the aufcuuni etlbrts for volunteers 
were renewed, and a consideral)le munber of veterans whose three- 
years term would expire in 18G4 re-enlisted "for the war." These 
brave men, who after so long and severe a term of service were 
read}' to rededicate themselves to the great work, should l)e held in 
especial honor, and their names can be traced in the list below. In 
the summer of 18G4 came a second draft quite as meagre in results 
as the first, for onl}- two men from Billerica were accepted. Other 
calls were filled by such volunteers as could be secured in town or 
beyond, and large bounties were paid. 

The news of victor}- and peace filled the land with joy in the 
spring of 18G5, and though a deep shadow followed with the assassi- 
nation of the beloved Lincoln, the substantial fruits remained. The 
returning veterans were welcomed on the Fourth of July at a picnic 
in the grove b}- Concord River near the middle bridge. The exercises, 
were hearty and impressive, including an address of welcome by Dr. 
Frank E. Bundy. In farther testimony to the valor of her soldiers 
and the memory of her dead, the town has erected an appropriate 
monument. It stands upon the Common, and a good picture of it 
is here given. It is a shaft of white granite, six feet square at the 
base and twenty-five feet high. The shaft is crowned with the figure 
of a soldier, in easy position, with musket at rest. In raised letters 
are inscribed the names "Peterslnn'g," "Gettysburg," •'■Newbern," 
"Lookout Mountain," "Bull Eun," " Chancellorsville," "Baton 
Rouge," and "Cedar Mountain." A carved eagle surmounts a 
shield, and upon the pedestal is the inscription: "Billerica to her 
heroes, in grateful recognition of that steadfastness of purpose, 
devotion to principle, loyalt}' to countr}-, and trust in God, which 
enabled men to die for Liberty and Union." On the east and west 
sides are the names of tweut}' dead soldiers : — 

"Adams, Edward A. Huse, Edwin \V. 

Buckley, Dennis Locke, VVanl 

Collins, William 8. Maxwell, Thoinas H. 

Edmunds, .lames F. Parker, Stephen H. 

Farmer, Albert E. I'atten, Asa .John 

Fletcher, Charles >f. Richardson, Josepli F. 

<;ilMian. (Jeorge C. Saunders. Charles A. 

(lilmau. IJenhen ,1. Shiehls, James 

Hanaford, Franklin Shumway, Follard II. 

Hayes, William Stewart, John C.*' 




Four other naincs will be tbiiud in tlie ensuing list which would 
properly have been inscribed with their comrades' upon the monu- 
ment. It is due to them that they be houorably mentioned here : — 

Davis, Hihaji E. Peksoxs, Edmakd H. 

Xewbuky. Hexkv Tlttle, Calvin G. 

The monument was dedicated with apiiroi)riate ceremonies and 
in the presence of a vast assemblage, Wednesday, 8 October, 1873. 
Hon. Thomas Talbot presided ; the prayer of dedication was offered 
by Rev. INIr. Ilussey, and an oration given by Col. Rus-sel H. Con- 
well, of Boston, (iovernor Washburn, Hon. E. R. Hoar, of Concord, 
ex-Gov. Onslow Steinns, of New Hampshire, a son of Billerica, and 
others participated in the exercises, which were held in a mammoth 
tent south of the monument. 


[XoTE. — The first column after name gives date of muster; the second, the company 
and regiment (of Massachusetts Volunteers, if not otherwise stated) ; the third, the end of 
service, which is by regular discharge, unless specified; and "dis." signifies disability. A 
star ("■) denotes death; alone, death in battle, or in a few days; a star with "w." (*w.), 
death from wounds; and with "d." (*d.), death from disease contracted in the army. The 
length of service in months follows. In the last column, "Re." indicates a discharge and 
reenlistment ; and in cases of promotion the rank is indicated; and where more than one 
promotion took place, the highest is given, otliers being implied.. Two or three of tliese men 
from Billerica enlisted from other towns. This list of names has been prepared with great 
care by Mr. Franklin .hniuith. It is gathered primarily from the Town Records, with only 
such insertions as evidence demanded. Some other names, gleaned from the Adjutant- 
(ieneral's Records but not found in Town Records, are added in a supplementary list. I'hat 
no errors or omissions will be found is too much to hope. For the arrangement and items 
of the table, ]Mr. Jaiiuith is not responsible.] 






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[The author is happy to give place in this chapter to Rev. 
Edward G. Porter, of Lexington, who, at his special request, paid 
a visit, in 1879, to Billerieay, the mother-town, in England, and 
gives pleasant record of facts and impressions there gathered and 
likely to be of interest.] 

It must always l)e an occasion of regret that so little is known 
of the orighi of our New England towns. If the early settlers had 
imagined what interest would, in after years, gather around tlie 
humble beginnings of their enterprise, they would, no doul)t, have 
left us a much fuller account of themselves and their movements. 
But they were unconsciously making history ; and it is usually true 
that the men who make history are not the ones to write it. Many 
of our early town records have preserved the names of the original 
proprietors, but we look in vain for any extended account of their 
lives, the places they came from, the ships they sailed in, and the 
ports they arrived at. We know that Jonathan Danforth, Ralph 
Hill, John Parker, and William French, the earty settlers of Billerica, 
came from the eastern counties of England ; and there is reason to 
believe that Hill and French were from Billerieay in Essex. But 
what the circumstances were which led them to join the colonists, 
what sacrifices the}' made in coming, what relatives they left behind, 
what incidents attended the long journe}-, can only be conjectured. 
We know, however, that, although the colonists of New England 
voluntarily left the land of their birth, they did not cease to love it. 
They brought with them as much of it as they could — its laws, its 
religion, its home-life. They were still British subjects, loyal to the 
crown. In proof of their affection for the mother-country, witness 
their almost universal practice of naming their new settlements after 
the places from whicli the}- had come. Thus we have Plymouth, 


Dorchester, "Weymouth, Ipswich, Braintree, Suclbiuy, Billerica, and 
scores of other well-known English names reproduced on our soil. 
This fact alone will ever preserve to us the memorj' of our origin. 
As we are not ashamed of our forefathers, neither are we ashamed 
of the country from which the}' came. No better material for the 
founders of towns and states could be had than that which the 
Anglo-Saxon race furnished in the seventeenth century, and no 
truer men ever crossed the sea than those who came from the sturdy 
3eomanry of Old Essex. 

It was just at the beginning of June — the loveliest season of 
all the 3ear — when I paid a promised A'isit to Billeiicay. From 
London the journey is accomplished b^' rail on the fireat Eastern 
line as far as Brentwood, (nineteen miles,) and then l)y the carriage 
road, a pleasant drive of five miles. Accustomed as we are in 
America to see nature in her ruder and less cultivated aspects, there 
is a great charm in the soft and finished landscape of England. No 
rough ledges assert their supremacy over the soil ; no broken-down 
stone walls or worn-out fences mar the symmetry of the picture. 
The roads are well made and well kept. Heaps of hammered stone 
may be seen at intervals, piled up in regular order, for use upon 
the road as occasion ma}- require. On either side, the hedge-rows, 
usuolly of hawthorn, furnish an agreeable l)order, sliaded often by 
the overhanging oak, elm, and poplar. Daisies and i)rimr(^ses, 
sweet-scented lilacs and lilies of the valley, al)ound in great i)rofu- 
sion in the spring and early summer. Wheat, clover, and Iteans are 
cultivated in large quantities in this section. Here and there a siiinll 
stream is crossed b}' a stone bridge, with its graceful arch reflected 
in the water, where the cattle are often seen quietly standing in 
groups, and near by the sheep feeding in the rich, green pastures. 
Many of the houses, even of the humbler people, have plants taste- 
fully arranged in boxes suspended from the window-sills. Ferneries 
and rockeries, both indoors and out, are very common. The ivy is 
everywhere seen twining over brick walls and stone porches, covering 
with its leafy mantle much that would otherwise be excessivel}- phun. 
The road which we are following is the old highwa}' from London to 
Chelmsford, Colchester, and the eastern counties. As Billericay is 
situated on an elevated plateau or ridge to the eastward, we leave 
the main road at a small hamlet called Shentield, where there is a ^ 
church, a shop, and two old taverns still bearing their ancient names 
of Green Dragon and The Eagle and Child. 



From Shenlield the road passes through a rich, open, agrieiiltural 
coiintr}-, ascending gradnalh' the ahiiost imperceptible slope, on the 
crest of which Billericay is built. The situation is in many respects 
like that of its namesake in Massachusetts. Entering the town 
from the southwest, we pass along the main street, a ])road, winding, 
macadamized thoroughfare, lined for the most i)art with neat, two- 
story, brick houses, standing close together, as is nsuall}- the case in 
European villages. The houses have evidently l)een built at very 
different periods. Some have the quaint gables and projecting upper 
stories of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, wliile others are 


more modern, a few being of quite recent construction. The village 
is well lighted with gas. Fift}' years ago the jjopulation was about 
two thousand. The numbm- has fallen off since then, owing to tlie 
loss of the silk-weaving and coaching interests, which for a long- 
period contributed nnich to the prosperity of the place. The weekly 
market, instituted by Edward ^^\ llTCi, is held on Tuesdays, when 
the village assumes a lively appearance, as it tlieu becomes the 
centre of trade for tlie entire neighboihood. Great fairs are also 
held, 1(3' an ancient privilege, in August and October, chiefly for cattle. 
The principal business now is in "corn," as the English call it, i.e. 
grain, of which a large quantity is raised in this part of Essex. 
The manorial rights of Billericay are vested in tlu- present Lord 


Petre, who holds a court-leet nnd bai'on annually in the spring, at the 
former of which the constables and other officers for the internal 
regulation of the town are appointed. Petty sessions are held at 
the town hall, over the market-house, on the first and third Tuesdays 
of each month. 

The history of this large property, which includes not only the 
village of Billericay but a large section of country in its vicinity, is 
a curious illustration of the way in which great estates have lieen 
accumulated iind entailed in England. The first Lord Petre, Sir 
William, lived three hundred years ago, and was wise enough in his 
generation t(^ accommodate his lo3"alty, and his religion as well, to 
the rajjjd and contradictory changes that occurred under Henry VIII, 
Edward VI, Mary, and Elizabeth, in consequence of which many 
rich abbe}' lands and manors fell into his hands. This time-serving 
policy was so apparent, that Sir William was generally spoken of as 
the man who was "made of the willow and not of the oak." He 
was, however, a generous benefactor to Exeter College, Oxford ; and 
his daughter, who married the famous Nicholas Wadham, became, 
with her husband, co-founder of Wadham College, Oxford. The 
old seat of the familv was Ingatestone Hall, a few miles west of 
Billerica}', near the line of the old Roman road. This hall is still 
standing, a venerable, irregular Elizabethan pile, covered with ivy, 
and surrounded by old gardens and fish-ponds. One of tlie rooms 
still Contains some fine sixteenth century tapestry. ' The modern 
residence of the family is at Thorndon Hall, a magniticent seat on a 
gentle eminence overlooking an extensive park, which can be seen 
from Billericay. - 

The introduction of railroads was a blow to the ancient prosperity 
of Billericav. Being on high land, the town was left at a distance of 
several miles from the Clreat Eastern line. The brisk and jirofitable 
traffic which formerly passed directly through the town was thus 
diverted. The oldtime inns, such as the Crown, the White Hart, 
the Horse-Shoe, the Red Lion, the Bull, the Sun, the Checkers, 
and the White Lion, at which the coaches and teams stopped daily, 
may still be seen, though most of them are shorn of their glorj-, and 
the traveller looks in vain for the post-lads who used to be always 
ready dressed and spurred up for dnt}'. From its situation at the 

' The place is described by Miss Braddon in lier Lady Audley's Secret. 
- The (ireat Eastern Railway runs for seven miles through Lord Petre's property; the 
company paid for the strip of land thus occupied over £120,000. 


crossing of several old roiuls, IJillericuy becunie u tlioronglif:iro cspe- 
ciiiUy for the traA'el between Chelmsford and Ilorndon-on-tlie-liill, 
Tilbury and (iravesend. One of the most conspicuous buildings in 
the place is the work-house, or " Billerica}" Union," as it is called, a 
large modern structure,' pleasantly- located in the outskirts of the 
town, on the Chelmsford Road. The poor of several parishes in the 
vicinit}' are well cared for in this estal)lishment, which is admirably 
managed under the direction of a Ijoard of guardians. On the ridge 
just outside the village, two venerable wind-mills form a prominent 
object in the landscape — remnants of the many that formerly lint'd 
the hills in the eastern counties. .Some of t!ie people still remember 
the old l)eacon of fagots that flaslied the signal lights from this spot, 
on important occasions, over a good part of Essex. The view from 
here on a clear day is very extensive in all directions, particulai'ly 
over tlie l)i'()a(l Thames valley and the Kentish hills beyond. 

The oiigin of the name of Billericay is obscure. Morant, the 
old historian of Essex, states that, in 1343, it was called Beleuca, 
probably, he says, from the old word ""baleuga" or •' ))anU'uga," a 
precinct around a borough or manor; in Erench, "Hjanlieue." .Some 
learned anti(|uaries contend that the name is more likely to be derived 
from tile two Latin woids '' BelU'ri-castra," the camp of Bellerus. 
Others think it may have come from certain Welsh words signifying 
the fort on the hill. The interpretation suggested by some one in 
this country, "villa rica," does not meet Avith favor in England, 
though it is not easy to see why not, since it is well known that "■ v" 
and "b" have often been used interchangeably. But whatever ma\' 
have been the origin of the name, it is an indisputable fact that the 
town has been known by its present name, with slight variations, for 
many centuries. In 1395, allusion is made in the Pipe Koll to one 
"Thomas Ledere, traitor to the King, beht'adcd at Billerica." In a 
grant of Edward \'I, a. i>. I.'j.jI, the name is spelt both Billerica and 
Billerykay. In ir)(;3, among the ecclesiastical accounts of Chelms- 
ford are two entries of sums rcceixcd (Vom ''Belyreca men for the 
hire of our garments," i.e. costumes for a miracle i>la.v. Among 
some tradesmen's tokens of the seventeeutii century is one inscribed, 
"Abraham Thresher in Billericay, Essex, his half-penny, IGliG." 

The immediate neighborhood of Billericay exhibits memorials of 
nearly every important epoch in English history. In Norsey Wood, 
beyond the northern end of the village, are several large earthworks 
which are believed to be the defences of an ancient British village. 


Numerous cinerary urns of rude workniansliip, containing' burnt l^ones 
and ashes, have been exhumed in the tumuli, or mounds, which have 
been recently opened.'' Two finely-shaped kelts, one of flint and the 
other of bronze, have been found near by. ^ So far as excavations 
have gone, the whole neighborhood appears to be rich in relics of 
the Roman period, showing that this must have been a military i)ost 
of considerable importance. Earthen vessels of various shapes and 
colors, tiles, beads, fibulaj, specula, and especially coins have been 
found in large (juantities. Some of the latter are finely preserved 
and bear the impress of the Emperors Hadrian, Germanicus, Con- 
stantine, Licinius, Nero, and Trajan, and of the Empresses Eaustina 
and Helena."' It Is -believed that the place called Blunt's Walls, 
near by, was a strong Roman fortress, which subsequently- conferred 
upon the estate the appellation of walls or strongholds, as recorded 
in the grant made ])y Henry HI to Robert de Blunt, who joined 
Simon de Montfort. 

After the Roman came the Saxon and the Dane; and "Belleri 
castra" bore its share of the devastating changes which swept over 
England. Then came peace and prosperity in the train of Christian- 
ity, whose holy lites began to be celebrated b\' devoted missionaries. 
The original cluuch for this parish was not in the present village of 
Billericay, but at (Jreat Bin-ghstead, (Burgsted, ''Bursted Magna,") 
a mile and a half toward the south. This was prol)ably near the 
residence of the Saxon thane who, embracing the Christian faith, 
assisted in building a rude wooden edifice for worship. Then came 
a small church of stone, which, soon after the overthrow of Harold, 
(a.d. 10G6,) gave place to a large Norman structure, destined to be 
incorporated within the walls of a much finer building which we see 
standing there to-day. The heavy, machicholated stone tower is 
surmounted l)y a wooden spire and weather-cock. On one of the 
five bells hanging in the tower is inscribed, "Vox Augustini sonet in 
aure Dei. A. I). H.'Jd." At different times, beautiful, decorated 
windows have been inserted in the thick stone walls, while the small 
Norman lancet-windows in the north aisle have been happil}- left 
untouched ; a south aisle and chancel have been added ; also a stone 
font, two piscenas, and various monumental tablets in memory' of 

3 In 18()5, by Kev. E. L. Cutts, now of Haverstock Hill, London; author of St. Cedd's 
Crosa, The First Hector of liurgstead, etc. 

■• See Proceedings of London Society of Antiquaries. \\m\ 4, l!S78. 

6 JIany of these relics are in the jjossession of Major Thomas Jenner Spitty and J. A. 
Siiarvel-Bayly, Es<j., F. s. A., of Billericay. The latter has written upon the subject. 



certtiin pi-ouiinent [)(.'i\sons in tlu' paiisli. Over the north door, 
car\'e(l in Edwardia'.i characters, are seen the words of the angelic 
salntation, "Ave Maria plena gratia," etc. The floor of the church 
is paved with brick ; the pulpit is very high and reached by a flight 
of nine steps. (It ought to be said that the present incumbent does 
not attempt to preach from it.) The pews are nearly five feet high 
and are lined inside with old green baize. Both the pulpit and the 
pews are unpainted. In the vestry the tithe-map is kept in a 
copper case and padlocked to the wall. The parish records, bound 
in vellum, cover a period of about three hundred years, and are 


kept in the custody of the minister. Tlie eai'lier entries are not 
easily deciphered, unless the reader is an expert. The churchyard 
is peopled with the dead of Billericay for many centuries. The 
present sexton has buried over a thousand persons during the last 
twenty-five years. In the accompanying engraving, an ancient ^-ew 
tree shades the south porch, a weather-beaten mass of oak beams, 
ver}' much in need in repair. 

The connection of Billerica}' with Hadleigh Castle should have 
brief notice. This castle, built liy Hubert de Burgh in the reign 
of Henry III, was pulled down and rebuilt by Edward III. In the 
Public Record office there is a full account of the expenses incurred 


in the work. Among them are t're(j[uent entries I'or the carriage of 
goods and material from Billericay, but no entry of payment there- 
for. We remember that men were taken in those days upon the 
king's order and re({uired to work upon his buildings, and we are 
not surprised at the widespread feeling of discontent which found 
exi)ression in the great uprising of the people, led bj- Wat Tyler, 
of Essex, in 1381. As man}- as one hundred thousand rudel} -armed 
men are said to have joined in this insurrection. The Essex division 
under the famous Jack Straw, after leaving London, deluded by the 
king's promises, retired to Billericay, where they intrenched them- 
selves — a large arn^y — in Norsey Wood, and sent messengers to 
the king, Richard II,' demanding to know whether he had recalled, 
as reported, his letters of pardon. The king sent back a haughty 
answer, followed by troops under the Earl of Buckingham, who 
attacked the camp in Norsey Wood and completely routed it, slaying", 
it is said, as man}- as five hundred of tlie insurgents and taking many 
prisoners. The Pipe-Roll record shows that in the market-place 
of Billericay the headsman executed his fell craft upon man}- a 
miserable victim.'' 

In process of time the [)eople of Billericay, finding it inconvenient 
to attend the parish church at Burgstead, obtained a free chapel (or 
chantry) in their own village, and this has since become the principal 
Anglican place of worship. It is a plain brick building with nothing 
very old aliout it except the tower, in which hangs an ancient bell, 
inscribed in Lombardic characters: "-|- (ialfridus : de : Hedemtun 
: me : fecit." There is also' a large and flourishing Congregational 
Church, which has been served l)y a long succession of able and 
devoted pastors, amongst whom may be mentioned the names of 
Thomas Jackson, Philip Davis (a pupil of Isaac Watts) , and John 
Thornton, whose ministry of over forty years is distinguished by the 
excellent books which he wrote, and the eminent ministers who 
pursued their theological studies under his direction. The Rev. 
Alfred Kluht, the present pastor, is much esteemed for his character 
and usefulness. 

Although Billerica}- cannot exactl}- boast of a Dick Whittington, 
a certain young man from the town did make his appearance in the 
great city of London about the middle of the fifteenth century, and, 
eml)arking in trade, he flourished, grew wealthy, received the honor 

" See paper Essex in Jnsurrectio-n , 1381," by J. A. Sparvel-Bayly, f. s. a. 


of kuighthouil, and died Sir ,)ohii Bayly, Lord Mayor of London. 
In 1531, John Tyrel, of Billerk-a}', a tailor, appears among those 
who were apprehended for nonconformity. He was one of the early 
converts made b}' Hngh Latimer. During the terril)le persecutions 
under Queen IMary, Billericay had the honor of furnishing two victims 
to swell the noble army of mart^'rs. One was Thomas, or " Worthie, 
AV^attes," as he was called, a preacher who was repeatedly' summoned 
before Bishop Bonner for proclaiming his religious views. Li June, 
ir).'),";, he was conve3'ed to Chelmsford, where he was burnt. There 
were five martyrs together, and ha-\-ing i)artaken of a meal they knelt 
down and prayed, alter which "\\'atts went and prayed privately ))y 
himself, and then came to his wife and six children and said : "■ Wife, 
and my good children, I must now depart from you. As the Lord 
hath given you to me, so I give 3'ou again unto the Lord, whom 1 
charge vou see vou do obe}' and fear Him. . I shall anon, by God's 
grace, give my blood. Let not the nuu'dering of God's saints cause 
you to relent, but take occasion thereby to be stronger in the Lord's 
quarrel. I doubt not Lie will be a merciful Father unto .you." Two of 
his children offered to be burnt with him. After viewing the stake he 
spoke to Lord Rich, a fierce persecuter of the Protestants, and said : 
'■''M}^ lord, beware ! beware! unless you repent of this, God will 
avenge it. You are the cause of this my death." The other martyr 
from Billericay was a humble woman, Jane Horns, "a maid," who 
appeared before Bonner the following year and was burnt at Stratford. 
Two other persons from Billerica}- during these trying times were 
sent n[) to Bonner — Jane, the wife of Hugh Potter, and James 
Harris, a stripling of seventeen years. The special crime with which 
the latter was charged was "not having come to his parisli church 
by the space of one year or more." This he admitted. Bonner now 
commanded him to go at once to confession. To this he consented, 
but when he came to the priest he stood still and said nothing. 
"Why," quoth the priest, " sayest thou nothing?" "What shall 1 
say?" said Harris. "Thou nuist confess thy sins," said the priest. 
" M}- sins," said he, "be so many that thev cannot be numbered." 
With that tlie priest told Bonner what he had said, and he took the 
})Oor lad into his garden and thei'e, with a rod gathered out of a 
cherry tree, "did most cruelly whip him." Not long after this, 
Thomas Brice, author of the "Poetical Register" of sufferers for 
conscience' sake in the reign of Mar\', was driven out of the country, 
apparentl}^ from this neighborhood. 


Near the close of the reign of Elizabeth, Timothy Okeley, who 
had succeeded John Okeley as vicar of Great Burghstead, was 
himself succeeded by AYilliam Pease, who remained in office about 
fort}'' 3'ears. None of these ministers seem to have sympathized 
with evangelical religion ; and Pease, in particular, made it uncom- 
fortable for all his parishioners who ventured to differ from him. In 
March, 1619, he summoned several of them before the Archidiaconal 
Court for nonconformit}'. Among them were Solomon Prower and 
Christopher JMartin, Avho were officiall}' "mouished" with the rest, 
and commanded to appear again in a month to be examined further. 
Prower and Mtirtin fled to Leyden, where the latter liecame a member 
of the church organi«;ed ))_y Jolm Roliinson, This JNIartin also vict- 
ualled the Mayflower, in which lie sailed with his wife, son, and 
servant/ in 1(320, for New England, giving Billericay the honorable 
distinction of having furnished four out of the one hundred and one 
passengers on that memorable voyage.'* They were followed bv 
several other parishioners of Pease's, among whom, in 1635, are 
found the names of AVilliam Ruse, husbandman, and his wife Rebecca 
and their four children, Sarah, Maria, Samuel, and William. Ralph 
Hill and William Erench are supposed to have come about this time, 
and it was probal)l3' through their influence that the name of their 
English home was given to the new settlement in the Massachusetts 
Colon}', to which the}' contributed so much in its earl}' days. 

The limits of this cha[)ter will not allow me to follow the fortunes 
of the mother-town further. Enough, however, has been said to 
show that some of the most notable events in English history are 
connected with the name of Billerica, a name which, as this volume 
shows, New England is destined to transmit with equal honor, and, 
it may be, with equal fame. 

" Another account says, wife and two servants. 

8 Paper read by Colonel Joseph Lemuel Chester, of I^ondon, before the Essex Archreo- 
logical Society, at Brentwood. 



A FEW subjects not yet noticed must be grouped in a, brief and 
summary wa}'. Some of them might well have been expanded to 
cliapters did our limits permit. It would be a subject of special 
interest, to gather the names and follow the fortnnes of many who 
have gone from Billerica to hoiiies in other towns and States. Many 
towns in all parts of New P^ngland and the regions beyond may 
trace the lines of families who have contributed to their prosperity 
in the register of Billerica. It suggests something on this point 
to call attention to the fact that all families bearing the names 
of Farley, Farmer, Jefts, Kidder, Kittredge, Pollard, Shed, and 
Toothaker, whose lines in this country go back to 1700, find their 
American progenitor in Billerica. Not less numerous or important 
are the l)ranches here found of the C'ros])y, Danforth, French, Frost, 
Hill, Manning, Parker, Patten, Richardson, Rogers, Stearns, and 
Whiting families ; while to enumerate the significant names of 
families simply less numerous would be to repeat most of the 
names from the pages of the Genealogical Register. Any just 
presentation of this subject would develop facts of which the town 
might be })roud. She has never been populous: but her sous and 
daughtei's al)road are man}'. 

The list of Billerica graduates from colleges and professional 
schools is as follows: — ^ 

Abbot, David. II. C, 1794. (4.) 
Hlanchard. Henry, M. D. H. C, 1834. (11.) 
Bowers. Andrew. H. C, 1779. (3.) 
Bowers, Kev. Benjamin. H. C, 1733. (1.) 
Bowers, Benjamin F.. M. D. Y. ( '., 1819. (7.) 

1 The numbers refer to the family, in (ieuealogical Register, where the record is given. 


Bowers, Rev. James. H. C 1794. (3.) 

Bowers, Josiah. Ji. i>. Y. C, 181(i. (7.) 

Bowers, Josiah, m. d. Philadelphia. 1854. (9.) 

Bowers. William. M. 1). II. ('.. 17G9. (4.) 

Brown, Rev. Thaddeus II. ^^ ('., 1860. (Addenda.) 

Crosby. Oliver. IT. C, 179ri. (24.) 

Crosby, Willia 111. H. C. 1701. (21.) 

Cumings, Henry. II. C. 1795. (2.) 

Faulkner, George, M. v. II. C, 1844. (1.) 

Hill, Josepli F. H. C, 31. D., 1830. (28.) 

Judkins. Henry B. Law Department, H. C. 1850. (1.) 

Kidder, Jonathan. H. C, 1751. (10.) 

Kidder. Rev. Josei>]i. Y. C, 17(i4. (7.) 

Lewis. James. I). ('.. 1807. (7.) 

Parker. Daniel.' B. C, 31. D.. 1833. (23.) 

Parker, Frederic A., M. D. H. C. 1813. (22.) 

Patten. Rev. Abel. I). ('.. 1S27. (15.) 

Preston. George II. H. ('.. 184(). (1.) 

Richardson, Rev. Joseph. I). ('.. 1802. (17.) 

Rogers. Artemas. II. ('., 1809. (14.) 

Rogers, Micajah. H. C, 1817. (14.) 

Skilton. Rev. Thomas. H. ('.. 1800. (1.) 

Spaulding, Rev. Benjamin A. H. C. 1840. (6.) 

Stearns, Rev. Josiah. H. ('.. 1751. (5.) 

Stearns, Rev. Timothy. A. C, 1833. (12.) 

Whiting, Augustus. H. C. 1816. (14.) 

Whiting, Rev. John. H. C, 1685. (1.) 

Whiting. Joseph. H. C 1690. (1.) 

The record of the legiil profession in Billerica is brief, and I 
know of no names to be added to the list of 1855. {Bi-Centennial, 
p. 146.) William Crosby, 1800; Samuel Dexter; Timothy Farn- 
ham; Joseph Locke, 1801-33 ; Marshall Preston, about 1820-49 ; 
George H. Whitman, 1849. Of course, in the absence of lawyers 
who were such by profession, other well-informed citizens have often 
been called to aid their neighbors in legal matters. So nmch of this 
service devolved upon some of them, that practically- it would be 
just to mention in this connection such names as Jonathan Danforth, 
Joseph Tomiison, Oliver Whiting, Joshua Abbott, William Stickney. 


Atherton. Benjamin. *1739. 
Batchelder, Josiah. 
Bickford, Hezekiah. 1851-61. 
Bowers, William. +1820. 
Brown, Thaddeus. *1839. 

Bundy, Frank E. 1864-66. 
Danforth, Timothy. * 1 792. 
Foster, Joseph. * 1810. 
Frost. Samuel. *1717. 
Grey. William. 



Hill, Joseph F. * 1S40. 
Hood, J. \y. 

Hosiiier. Charles E. 1874 — , 
Howe. Zadok. *18,")7. 
Hubbard, AVllliam H. 1877—. 
Hurd, Isaac. 1778— (?). 

*in Concord. 1844. 
Kittredge, Jacob. 1800-15. 
Kittredge. John. *1714. 
Kittredge. .lolm. *17o(i. 

Kitti-edye, Paifus, 
Lane, Albert C 1879—. 

Manning. . 

Mason. Augustus. 1844-.")4. 

*in Brighton. 1882. 
Munroe, George A. 18(!G-77. 
Parker, Daniel. 1840—. 
Toothaker, Roger. *1745. 
Toothaker. Roger. *1759. 
AVilkins. William. 1789-1807, 

The more important town officers have been as follows : — 


John Parker. 1G53-G4. 11 

William Tay. 1664-65. 1 

Jonathan Danforth. 1665-85. 21 
8anri Manning. 1686-90. '92. '99. 7 
Joseph Tompson. 10 

1691, "93-98. 1700-2. 
John Stearns. 1703-4. 2 

Oliver Whiting. 170.)-11, '14-23. 17 
John Needham. 1712-13. '1 

Benjamin 'i'ompson. 1724-26, "30. 4 
Joshua Abbott. 1727-29, '31-56. 29 
Williaui Stickney. 1757-68. 12 

Joshua Abbot. 1769-80, '82-84. 15 

William Bowers. 1781. 1 

Oliver Crosby. 1785-96, 1803-4. 14 

James Abbot. 1797. 1 

Jacob Richardson. 1798-1802. 5 

Blaney Abbot. 1805-9. 5 

Jeremiah I'atten. 1810-13. 4 

Jeremiah Farmer. 1814-15. 2 

Samuel Whiting. 1816-20. 5 

Marshall Preston. 1821-48. 28 

John Baldwin. 1849-55. 7 
Dudlej' Foster. 1855 — . 

Lt. William French. 1663. 
Mr. Humphrey Davy. 1666-69. 
Mr. Hezekiah Usher. 1671-72. 
Mr. Job Lane. 1676. '79. 
(?) Jonathan Danforth. 1685, 
Ralph Hill. 1689, "92-94. 
Joseph Walker. 1689. 
Joseph Tompson. 

1692 and 1(!99-1702. 
Sauuiel Manning. 1695-97. 
Simon Crosl)y. 1698. 
Thomas Richardson. 1703-1. 
Lt. John Wilson. 1705. 
Lt. John Stearns. 1 706-15. 'IS. 
('?) Capt. John Lane. 1707. 

Received laud for "deputy service. 
George Brown. 

1716-17. '21-24, and "27. 
Oliver Whithig. 1719-20. '28. 

R E P R E S E N T A T I ^• K S . 

John Blanchard. 

1725. 1 

Jonathan Bacon. 1726. 1 

Williaui Patten. 1729-30. 2 

Benjamin Tompson. 12 

1731-38, '42, '45-46. "48. 

Jacob French. 1739-41. 3 

Enoch Kidder. 14 

1743-44, "52-55, "58-65. 

Thomas Kidder. 1747, "49. 2 

William Stickney. 17 

1750-."il, '.")C.-r.7, '(Ki-rO, 78-Tii. 

William Tomps(m. 1777, "87. 2 

Edward Farmer. 1780-86. "88-94. 14 

Jonathan Bowers. 4 

1795-96, '98, 1802. 

Oliver Crosby. 1799-1801.1804. 4 

James Abbot. 1803. I 

John Parker. 1805. 1 

Joseph Locke. 1806-8, '10, 4 




Samuel FosliT. 1S40. 



Jolin Eaines. 1S42-43. 



Gardner Parker. ]S4(i, 




Harvej' Crosby. 1847. 


Reuben Chamberlain. 



Thomas Talbot. 1851. 


Henry Eice. 1852. 


Daniel Floyd. IHoli. 


Charles II.' Hill. 18.54. 


Zenas Herrick. 18.55. 


Dana Holden. 1850-57 


Dudley AValker. ISO!), 
.losiah Cn.shy. jr. 1810-17, "20. 
Samuel Whitiny. 1822-2;j. 
.lohn Ualdwin. 1826-27. 
Marshall Preston. 1820-;]U. 
Zadok Howe. 1831. 
, losiah Poji'ers. 1831. 
Thomas Sumner. 1832-.3.'). 
:\lirliael Crosby, jr. 1834. 
J);iniel Wilson. 1835. 
Henry iJaldwin. 1837-38. 
Thomas Spanlding-. 1831). "41. 2 

The town was iiot-rc[)rcsented in 1797, 1824, '25, '28, '36, '44, 
I.'), and '.JO. In 18.38 the system of reprcseutiition was changed 
and towns gave place to districts, Mr. Ilolden being the first repre- 
sentative of the Twenty-Second Middlesex District. Citizens of 
Pjillerica liavc since represented the district as follows : Cieorge P. 
Elliott, 18G0-.G1 ; Rev. Jesse G. D. Stearns, 18G4 ; Dudley Foster, 
1807 ; Sylvester S. Hill, 1869 ; Cieorge H. Whitman, Kscf., 1872 ; 
John Knowles, 1875 ; William S. Gleason, 1876 ; p]beuezer Baker, 

8 E L E C J' M E N . 

.lohn Parker. IGRO-liC. 7 
Lt. AV"'. French. 1(:;GU-(')4. 70-73. 9 

l{all)h Hill. sen. IGCU-dl. 2 

Thomas Foster. & 

1600-61, '63-65, '67-69. 

. Jonathan Danforth. 21 

1G60, '65-68, 70-85. 

K'alphHlll.jr. 1661. '64-94. 32 

Ceorge Farley. 7 

1661-62, '66-69, '88. 

AV". Tay. 1662. '64-65. 3 

\V"'. Hamlet. 1662-64. 3 

Christopher Webb. 1663. 1 

James Kidder. 8 

1666-67, '()9-72, '74-75. 

Simon Crosby. 6 

1668, 'Sa, '97-99. 1701. 

•Joseph Tompson. 30 

KUiO-S"), 'S!M)1, lG93-iri»2. 

Samuel Manning. 1673, '77-79, 18 

'82-90, '92-94, '96, '99. 
John French. 1674-76. 16 

'78-86. '91. 1700-2. 

Job Lane. 1676-77. '79-81. 
Joseph AValker. 1686-94, 1700. 
Xathaniel Hill. 1686-87. 
Jacob French. 1687. 
Thomas Eiehardson. 

1688, '91, '94, 1704, '09. '18. 
John Stearns. 1689-90, '92, 

'Oo-O?, 1702-4, '06-12, '14-18, '20. 

Oliver Whiting. 1692, '99, 1702, 

'04-11, '14-20. '22-23. 
John Lane. 1693. '96-1704, '09. 
Lt. John Wilson. 

1696-97. 1703-4. 
Jonathan Hill. 1698. 1700. '08. 
James Frost, sr. 1698-99, 1705. 
John Shed. 1700-1. "05. 
John Sheldon. 

1700. '11-12, '14-15. 
Enoch Kidder. 

1703, '06-07, '10, '15-17. 
Edward Farmer. 1703, '06-07. 
Joseph Foster. 1705. 
Simon Crosby, jr. 1705-8. 



S:innirl Hill. 17()S~11. •i:{-14. 

MG-IS. ••2;^-2(). '-IS-l'.). 
(Jcorg-e Bi-owii. 1710-12. 

■14-20. ■22-2(). '2!». 
.Inliii XciMlhani. 1712-1.). 
Kpliniim Kiddci-. 1712. 
'rhdiiiMs Iioss. 1712. 
.loiiii Hill. 171G. 
Jou''. liacoii. 1719, "27. 
J)iiniel Kittredge. 171'.). '2!)-;!l. 
'I'liomas Baldwin. 171!i. 
William Patten. 

1720. '28-2r). "28-;{0. 
Joseph Davis. 1720. 
Sanuiel Fiteh. 1721-22. 
Joseph Stephens. 1721-22. 
Benj". Toinpson. 1721-20. 

'28-30, •■.V^-:\3, '.-{O-yy, '42-47, '.M. 
Joshua Abbot. 1724-2"). 

'27-20, VJl-lS, T)0-56. 
W"\ Manning. 1720. 
Josiah Fasset. 1727-2S. 
lit. Job Lane. 1720-27. 
(ajjt. Jon''. Bowers. 1727. 
Sanuiel Danforth. 17;50-:{1. 
•laeob French. 

i730--;3i. •;};{-4i. •4s. 

Samuel Hunt. jr. 17;^1. 
John Stearns. 1732, '35. 
Andrew liiehardsoh. 1732. 
Joseph Kittredge. 1732-34. 
William French. 1733-34. 
Benjamin Shed. 1731-37. "48. 
Enoch Kidder, ji'. 

1730-42. '47. "(il. 
Thomas Kiddei-. 1738-40. 

•4!». ■:)2. '.-)r)-:)8. 'oo-oi. 

^V"'. Stickney. 1740-42. 

■45, '47. ■rj3-08. 
Sanuiel Hill. 1743-44. 
Samuel lirown. 1743-44. 
Samuel Whiting. 1745-40. 
Sanuiel Sheldon. 1740. 
Ralph Hill. 1747. '49, 'o-V.Vi. 
Jacob Walkci*. 1748-49. 
Jeremiah Abboi. I74.s. 

Ki,K( r.Mi:x 







- Conthmnl. 

•Josiah lirown. 5 

1749-50. "57-58. •02. 

^^'"'. Manning, jr. 1749. 1 

Oliver Whiting. 1750-52. 3 

W'". Kidder. 1750-52. 3 

AV"'. \eedham. 1751-54. 4 

Benj". Lewis. 1753-54, '59. 3 
Joshua Davis. ]753-5(i. '59-04. 10 

Capt. Daniel Stickney. 4 

1757-58. 'GO. '62. 

Joshua Abbot, jr. 20 

i;."i7-G."), '(ir-so, •S2-S+. 

Isaac Marshall. 1759. 1 

Joseph Hill. 1703-05. 3 

David Osgood. 17G3-(i4. 2 
W"'.'i'ompson. 1705-08. '72-80. 13 
Samuel Kidder. 17G5-()0, '82-84. 5 

Isaac Stearns. 17GG-72. 7 

John Parker. 1766-80. '82-84. 18 

Josiali Bowers. 1709-70. 2 

Asa Spaulding. 1709-71. 3 

Timothy Danforth. 10 

1771-77. '82-84. 

Keuben Kendall. 9 

1773-70. '78-79. '82-84. 

Jonathan Stickney. 1777. '87. 2 

Hezekiah ( 'rosby. 10 

1778-81. "85-90. 

Kpbi'alm ( rosity. 4 

1780-81. "85, '88. 

W'". Bowers, jr. 1781. '85. 2 

Isaac Marshall, jr. 1781. 1 
James Lewis. 1781, '85, "87-90. 

AVilliani Manning. 1785-86. 2 

Oliver Crosby. 1780-90. 15 

1800-1. '03-04. 

Jacob llichardson. 12 

178G-90. 179()-1802. 

Josiah Bowers, jr. 1780. 1 

Sears Cook. 12 

1780-87. 1797-1805. '07. 

Jonathan Bowers. 1789-1)5. 7 

John Farmer. 1791-96. 

J()hn Parker, jr. 8 

1791-95. ■97-9S. 1SI)2. 

Peleillili. 1790. 1 



SKLECTM EN. — Continued. 

Thomas RicliJirdson. 17!>7. 1 

.Tallies Abbot. 1797. 1 

.losiah Crosby. 1798. 1 

Stt'jilicii Barrt'tfc. I 

1 7i)8-99. 1803-04. 

Isaac HaiTon. 17!M)-l80r). 7 

Josiali llo*i,('rs. (i 

1791M800. "08-1 0. 'U. 

Oliver Richardson. 1801-0."). '07. 

Bianey Abbot. 1805-07. ;{ 

.Ferciuinli Patten. ' 7 

1805-07. '10-13. 

,l<"reiiiiah Crosby. 180G-07. "10. .'{ 

Tiioinas Spaulding. 180G. 1 

.losiah Crosby, jr. 1800, '08-09. 3 

.Tosiiih B. Richardson. 1808-13. (i 

John Crosby. 1808-10, '12-20. 12 

Josepli Blanchard. 1808-10. '12. 4 

Ainos Carlton. 1811-13. 3 

.Fereiniali Fanner. 1813-15. 3 

Isaac Hard. 1814-15. 2 

.Joseph .Taquitli. jr. 1814. 1 

Samuel AVhiting. 181 0-20. 5 

.rohn Baldwin. 1810-20. 5 

Marshall Preston. 25 

1821-40, '42, '45-48. 

.losiah Rogers. 1821-23. '31-32. 5 

Nathan Mears. 1821-28. 8 

William Richardson. 1821-23. 3 

Francis Cook. 1821-23. 3 

.Jeremiah C'rosby. 1824-25. '51. 3 

Ichabod Everett. 1820-30. 5 

James R. Faulkner. 1829. 1 

Michael Crosl)y. 1830. "33. 
John Ricliardson. 2d. 1831-32. 
Se\\'aU Stearns. 1833-40, '43-44. 
Daniel Wilson. 1834-38. 
Henry Rice. 1839-42. 
Francis Richardson. 1841. 
Reuben Chamberlain. 1841-42. 
Cornelius Sweetser. 1843-44. 
Samuel Rogers. 1843-46. 
Jonathan Hill. 1845-4G, "48-.50. 
Dudley Foster. 

1847-50, "57-00, "69-73. "81. 
Wm. H. Odiorne. 1847. '52-53. 
Gardner Parker. 1849-.50, "61-68. 
Benj. L. Judkins. 1851. "56-()0. 
Caleb S. Brown. 1851-52. 
William Blanchard. 1852-53. 
John C. Hobbs. 1853-54. "56-59. 
Thomas .1. Jenkins. 1854-55. 
Edw. Spaulding. 1854, '74-79. 
Ainasa Holden. 1855-56. 
Benjamin H. Heald. 1855. 
Israel A. Colson. 1860, '69-73. 
Leander Crosby. 1861. 
Joseph Dows. 1861. 
William S. Gleason. 

1862-68, '74-80. 
Charles W. French. 1862-68. 
David L. Mason. 1869-73. 
George P. Elliot. 1874-80. 
Coburn S. Smith. 1880-82. 
George F. Colson. 1881-82. 
Eben Baker. 1882. 

Until 1824, the lunriber of selectmen annuallj' elected was five; 
except ill the' years 1720 and 1815-16, when three were chosen, and 
176(), when the uuniher is foui-. In the latter case, I suspect the 
omission of Joshua Abbot's name is accidental, as with this excep- 
tion he holds the office continuously, 17.37-80. 

The first Post-Office la Billerica was established, 1797, Octo- 
ber 7.- The Post-Masters have been: — 


1797, October 7. 

1824, May 26. 

Jonathan Bow ers 
William Richardson . 

2 For this date, and the list whicli follows, I am indebted to the Hon. Abraliani D. 
Hazen, Tliird Assistant Postmaster-General. • 


I\Iaisli;ill Ticslon 1S2r,. J;inu;uy 11. 

Juhii I5:il(l\viii. .Ii- ISI!), Octoh.-r 1(1. 

Williiiiu II. IJlnnclianl IS.V). .June 1 1 . 

Williaiu Ulaiichaid 1S.J7. April 4. 

IJciijainin L. .Iiulkiiis 18.")9, April '11. 

Cliarlcs 11. Pai-kci- 1S(!2. May S. 

Ucniani M. (aim IHdd. ScpU-inhcr 21. 

I'raiiklin .Ia(|uilli. .Fr ISO?, -luly 1.'). 

Cliarlcs II. Parker IS?.'?, .Juiic .i. 


.Ti>s('pli A. Iiurl ....... 1S.")2. .laiiiiary 26. 

.laiiii's Kaulkncr ....... IS.V). .Inly 2(;. 

, lames Wliittcmore 1S(>(). May 2r>. 

Hiram <'. IJrowii . 1S78, Maivli 2.i. 

IVter B. IJolioiiaii 1877. Deeeiiilier 21. 


(ieor^-e M'. Hill 1878. March 4. 

JMary E. A. Ml)l)y 1878. Deeciiibcr 13. 

The population of the town tit dittereut periods is u subject of 
interest, but tlie material for estimates at first is scanty. In 1051), 
there were '1') lainilies ; four years later, the nunilier had nearly 
doubled, judging from Mr. AVhiting's '■'•IJate," (p. IGf) above) ; but 
for the twelve next years tliei-e was small increase, exceiit as cliildren 
multiplied in Hie homes ab'cad3' f(iriiic(l. (|). li;!). The tax-list for 
1()7!) {{). I'.i.'i) has only 17 names, but that for KI.S.S has 7.'} names, 
showing that a new impulse had followed tiie anxieties of Philip's 
War, and. in spite of llie Indian perils of the time, tiie progress 
continui'd, and, in 1707. tiie number of polls was 110." 

The tax-list for 1 7.'5.") includes 'li>> names, but. in 17;!.j. when 
Tewksbiir\- had been taken out, the number was only 1.S7, which, in 
I75;j, had increased to "iOti. In 17C«r) a cai'eful eimmeratiou was 
made, showing for the first time the exact i)0[)ulation, when this 
town had l.'i.'iO. ()nly seven towns in Middlesex Coiuity then 
exceeded liillerica. In 177('> a census gave Hillerica a population 
of 1500, and the tax-list- for the same year contained 'll'.i names. 
In 177S there were 2.8(1 polls, but, in 1781, they had fallen to 271 
l)olls, a decrease more tliaii explained b\- the loss of the Carlisle 
names, in 17'S0. Assuming an eciual niimiier of polls and names on 

('(illrilidiis : Ainvriaiti Stiitiatirat Assuciittioii, pp. 1 111, 1."jII, etc. 

:\tisrE[.r,A\K()rs am) final 


tax-lisl, ;iii(l Hint tlu' [)r(>[»(jrti(»ii of this ihiiuIkt to the wliolr 
latioii in 177(1 was tlic saiiic in 1().S7, 17o.'), and 17.'),'), we read 
estimate for tlie pei'iods named, the decades after 1 7i)0 being sn] 
l)y the United States C'ensns, and the years 18;"),"), l.ST),'), and IS 
the State Census. 



1 73;^ 


1 75.5 




1 77(j 







1 :{.'!•_' 







1 850 







;l tllis 

7,5 bv 




Tlie fart is signilieant liiat after 1800 tiiei'e was no inereasi' for 
more than thiity years ; and it seems to conlii'in tlie opinion that tlie 
Middlesex Canal, by preventing the use of the water power, exerted 
an unfavorable intluence upon the i)rogress of this town. A similar 
result has followed the deflection of the railroad line so far from tlie 
centre of the town. 

A census taken in 17.54 brings out the curious fact that INIassa- 
chusetts had "2717 slaves. Of this number Billerica had eight, of 
whom five were females. In 1880, the census reports nine colored 
persons ; but the}' are not slaves. 

(Jther details of the last census are interesting,^ and 1 am glad 
to be able to give a summary of them. 

The 2000 inhabitants of the town in June, 1880, were grou|)ed 
in 449 families, who lived in 43G houses. There were 1(')G2 over ten 
years of age, of whom 4(3 could not I'ead and .5() could not write ; 
of the latter, ,51 were foreigners. The nativity stands thus : Native 
I»orn, 15.52: foreign, 448; born in Massachusetts, 12.')7. 

New Ilaiupsliin 



New York 




lihode Island . 

( 'oiineetieut . 


New Jersey . 


Other States 


Biitisli Anieii 














. France 




Netherlands . 




■* Tlicsf ligiii-es I'nmi the C!eusus of USD liave been kiiully fiiriiislietl, while this cliapter 
was ill the printer's hands, by Colonel Carroll D. N\'riglit, wlio was in chaige of the work in 



Of the whok' miinber there were 4(') whose mothers only were 
foreign born ; i')2^) whose fathers were horn in Ireland, and of 485 
the mothers were born there also ; 246 whose fathers were born in 
Great Britain, and the mothers also of 191 ; 75 whose fathers w^ere 
born in British America, and the mothers of 59. The whole number 
whose parents were both foreign born was 807 ; partly foreign liorn, 
121. The ages are as follows : — 



















;i:j ui 

del- 1 




























































































































































































The State Census for 1875 gi^^es the farming statistics in a more 
full and satisfactory' form than the National Census, and from that 
source I gather the following : — 

The value of the farm products is given, $150,652, which includes 
2178 tons hay, 11,187 lbs. butter, 50 lbs. cheese, 19,279 gallons of 
cider, 2171 cords of wood, 5500 pairs of shoes, 17,558 bushels of 
apples, 550 of peaches, 645 of pears, 360 of plums, 68 of cherries, 
1018 of tomatoes, 19,622 of potatoes, 1018 of onions, 1409 of peas, 
1571 quarts of strawberries, 891 of blueberries, and 617 of black- 
berries ; 10,150 lbs. of beef, 2182 lbs. of dressed chickens, I.'IS!) of 
turkey, 220,835 gallons of milk, and 10,222 dozen of eggs ; number 
of horses, 325, and of cows, 541. The 219 farms included 3948 
acres of improved and 8751 acres of unimproved land. The A-alue 
of all the land and buildings was $816,725; of all farm property, 
$921,724; the valuation of personal i)ropert3', $651,662; of real 
estate, $971,761 ; or a total valuation of $1,623,423 ; total products, 

J'AltM I'lIOI'KirrY OF Bll,LKi;i( A. 



I'uder ;> acreis 

From :i to .5 acres 
Fi'oui to 10 acre- 
Above 10 acres. . . 





Carriage houses.. 



Corn cribs 

Cider mills 

Slaugliter house... 

Ice houses 



Land under crops, acres.. . 

-Market-gardens, acre.s 

Xurscrles, acres 

(trehards (the land) acres. 
L'nimpro\fd hiiul, acres.. . 
L iiimprovablc land, acres. 
WoodUind, acres 

Fruit Trees and ^■ine.s 

Apple trees 

Cherry trees 

< Irab-apple trees 

Pear trees 






















Fruit trees not designate! 
( irape \ ines 

Domestic Animals. 

Uees (swarms of) 








Guinea fowls 


Hens and chickens 



.^lilch cows 


Pea fowls 



Sheep, merino 







Fruit trees and vines 

Domestic animals 

Agricult. implements in use 






































The census of l.SSO oives this record of inainifactures in Billerioa : 
Number of estabUshments, (inchuling woolen flannels, 2, slaughtering- 
and meat-packing, 1, machinery, 2, blacksmithing, 1, stuffs, 1, 
glue, 1, wheelwrighting, 1, vinegar, 1,) 11 ; hands employed, 282; 
capital invested, $r)70, ;')<)() ; value of i)roduct, S;'^o4,44() ; wagi-s paid 
(one year), $110.3-14. 

The occupations of the people are thus repoi'ted : Wovien — 
Housewives, .')82 ; domestics, 40 ; nurse, 1 ; teachers,!;'); teacher 
of music, 1 ; dressmakers, 5 ; operatives, woolen-mill, CS ; opera- 
tive, hosiery, 1; total, olT. Men — Clergymen, G; lawyer. 1; 
l)hysicians, 3 ; actor, 1 ; teachers, 2 ; chemists, '> ; domesiics, 2 ; 
nurse, 1 ; boarding-house kec[)er, 1 ; dealers in fish, 2 ; butclicrs, 3 ; 



grocers, 6 ; clerks in stores, 1 ; railroad ciii})loyees, 10 ; teamsters, 
6 ; telegraph employees, 1 ; salesman, 1 ; peddlers, 2 ; milkmen, 2 
merchants, lumber, 3 ; do., drugs and medicines, 1 ; manufacturing 
company official, 1 ; insurance official, 1 ; agent, I ; gardeners, 2 
f\irm laborers, 117; farmers, 103; stock herder, 1 ; hostlers, 2 
tiorist, 1 ; logwood-mill, 7 ; chemical works, S ; pianomakers, 2 
building mover, 1 ; gluemaker, 1 ; machinists, 10; shoemakers, 7 
printer, 1 ; painters, 7 ; masons, 6 ; carpenters, 22 ; cabinetmakers, 
3 ; l»lacksmiths, 7 ; baker, 1 ; woolen-mill operatives, 90 ; wheel- 
wright, 1 ; upholsterer, 1 ; paper hanger, 1 ; marble and stone cut- 
ters, 3 ; iron foundry operative, 1 ; gold and silver worker, 1 ; dyers, 
bleachers, and scourers, 12 ; builder and contractor, 1 : brass founder 
and worker, 1 ; medical student, 1 ; apprentice, 1 ; engineei-, 1 ; 
manufacturers, 7; laborers, 55; laborer in store, 1. 

These facts and figures from the census may be fitly su})pl('mente( 
by the list of voters in 1<S80, as follows : — 

Alexander. Frank 
Alexiimlcr. .louiis 
Alexaiuler, .losepli 
Alexander. X<)l)le D. 
Alexander. Watson 
Averill. Mark 

Bailey, John B. 
Baker, Eben 
Baker. John IT. 
Baldwin. Joe) 
Baldwhi, Joel W. 
Biildwin. Sanuiel W. 
Barker. Hiram P. 
Barrett. .John 
Barrett. Jolni. jr. 
Bartlett. Franli 
Batbrick. Walter 
P.e:ieli. butlier 
Beard. Sylvester E. 
liennink. (ierrit II. 
Blake. ( 'iiarles 
Blanehard. NVilliani 
Blodj-ett. Joseph F. 
Blood. Leonard 
Bohonan, I'eter B. 
Bottonily, Allen 
Bottondy. .John F. 
Bowers. ^Mhert 
Bowers, Bradley V. 
Bowers. Geori^c 
Bowers, 'i'honias I*. 

liownian. Fben(>zer 
Bowman. Francis 
Bowman, (ieor^'e II. 
Bi'adley. James 
BradN'v. William (". 
Brady.' William (i. 
Brann, Ali)heus ( '. 
Brlcket, AVilliam 
Brown. Alfred 
Bro\\n, Benjamin 
Bi-own. Daniel A. 
Brown, Fdwln 1'. 
Brown. Hiram < '. 
Bruce, Jasper T. 
Bruce, Nathaniel F. 
Brvaiit. Lorinn' ( i. 
BuVkley, Johi'i 
Buckley, Lawrence 

("all, Josei)h II. 
Call. Bol)ert 
( 'allahan. Daniel 
( 'allahan. John 
( 'arne. John 
( 'ame, AVilliani 
( 'aniphell. Saiiniel 
( ann. l?einard M. 
Carter. (ieori;e K. 
Casey. Frederic 
( 'asey. ISIatliew 
< base. Seward S. 
( hoate. William II. 

Bowman, Clarence A. Clewly, William J. 

Clough, IMoza A. 
Cobb. (;eoroe H. 
Cold), Mason F. 
<'ol)l). Nathaniel L. 
Coll'ey. Charles 
( 'olby. Foster K. 
Coll)V, Harlow 
Coll/y, Homer IT. 
( 'olhy. .lonathaii 
( 'ole. Sanuiel 
Collins, Alfred S. 
Collins. Charles A. 
( 'ollins. Thomas K. 
( 'olson. (Jeoryt' l'\ 
( 'olson. Israel A. 
( 'onnelly. John 

< 'onway. ^Marlin 
Cook. Sears J. 
Cook. Sheldon ^V. 
Corliss, Charles O. 
Costello, Fdv\ai(l 

( '()st(dlo, Thomas 
( 'ouij,hlin. Cornelius 
Coulter. Huiih 

< 'owdrey, Francis 1>. 
( 'owdrey. (;ran\ ille 

( 'owdrey. Marcus iM. 
Cowdre}-. Silas 
('owdrey. Silas H. V 
Crawford, John C. 
Crawford, liohei-t 
Cray. Amos 
Crosby. Benjamin F. 



(Ji-osby, Friiiii'is L. 
Ci-osby. Frank W. 
Crosby. Geori>-c C. 
C'rosby, Henry 
Crosby, John 
Crosby, Leander 
Crowley. Timothy 
Ciirrj-, James H. 

Dane. Alden O. 
Davis. Augustus 
Day, James 
Dehnag<\ Jolni 
D<'hna,<i('. Hobei't 
Dicliinson. Edward F. 
Dickinson. Fredericlc 
Doherty. Edward li. _ 
Dolan. Peter 
Donovan, James 
Doyle, James W. 
Dudley. Frederick IT. 
Duren. Daniel K. 
])uren. Henry 
Duren. Henry \V. 
Dutton. Henry A. 
Dutton, Hiram E. 

Eaton, AN'iiliam A. 
F:iliott. (Jeorgc l\ 
EUis. JauK's 
F:ssex. John \V . 

Fairbrother, (Jcorge 
Fairl)rotlier. \\'illiam 
Farrell, .fames 
Fauleon. John 
Fauleon. F/ittlcton 
Faulkner. James N'. 
Faulkner. Euthrr W . 
Faulkner. Kichard 
Fay, John 
Fellows. Aitliur 
Fellows. Theophilus B. 
Fisk. John 
Fisk. John L. 
Fitz, Patrick J. 
Flanders. Charles W. 
Fletcher. Frank T. 
Fletcher. Janu's 
Fletcher, John S. 
Fletcher. Nathan 
Fletcher. William E. 
Floyd. Daniel 
F'oster, Dudley 
Foster. Nathaniel D. P 
French, Fredeiick S. 
Fuller, Fredci-ick P. 
Fuller, Olin Iv. 
Fuller, William A. 
Fuller, ^Villiam H. 

(iaimon. .lolm 
Gannon, Lawrence 
Cannon. Lawrence 1>. 
Gattcr. Frederick 
Gibbs. John 
Gilbert, Hctijamin J. 
Gleason. Philip 
(ileason, \Villiam S. 
Gorham. Charles E. 
Gorham. John J. 
Gould. Joseph D. 
Grao-g. (Jeorge W. 
(ireen. Josei)h W. 
(ireenwood. (ieorge 
(Jreenwood. Moses P. 
(ireenwood. William H. 
Grimes. Elmer A. 
Guinnee. William 

Hall. George 
Haul. Cyrus 
Ham. Foster 
Handley. Andrew 
Hannat'ord. ( harles N. 
Hannafoi-d. Ira X. 
Hannaford. Waldo 
ILnmon. F^lias 
Harding. Oliver M. 
Harnden. (ieorge F. 
Harnden. Joshua 
llarrigan. .John F. 
Harrington. Hiram 
Harrington. John 
Harringlon. John. jr. 
Ilai-rington. Michael 
Harrington. Timothy 
llanington. Zadock 
Hart, 'hiomas S. 
Haskell. John 
Haulton. James 
Haidton. John 
Hayden. Howard E. 
Hayes, Micliael 
Hazen. tleiny A. 
Heald, Benjamin H. 
Hennessey. Marllu 
Derrick. Geoige P. 
Higgiiis. Thomas 
11 iU. Charles H. 
Hill, Charles IL. jr. 
Hill. Frederu-k P'. 
Hill, George H. 
Hill. Paul 
Hill. William W. 
llolden. (4eorge X. 
Flolden, I. Newton 
llolden. Josephus 
Holden, Lewis H. 
Holden, Logeue N. 

Holden. Warren 
Holt, Jose]ih S. 
H(dt, Watson A. 
lloi'ner. William J. 
llosmer. Charles E. 
llosmer. Leander 
Howe, Philander D. 
Howley. John 
Hubbard, William A. 
Huntlev. John 
Hurst. "Charles T. 
llussey. Christopher C. 
llutchins. Benjamin C. 
Hutchius, Jason K. 
llutchins. Whitney 
llutchins. William 

Irish. Thomas 

Jaquith. Franklin 
Jaciuith. .JosejJi 
Jacpiith. Merrick 
Johnson. Austin 
Johnson. Lewis 
Jones. Anthony 
Judkins, Henry P.. 

Kearney, Bernard 
Keating, Thomas 
Kershaw. Boltert 
Keycs. John 
Kimball, (ieorge A. 
Kimball, Ichabod (i. 
Kiud)all, Sanuud 
King. Herbert A. 
King. Sauuiel IL 
Kittredge. < liarles 
Kittredge, John 
Knowles. John 
Kohlrtiusch. Charles H. 
Kohlrausch. ( has. IL. jr, 

T^eonard. (ieorge 
Leonard. (ieorge A. 
Livingston. Everett W. 
L()rd. Edward 
Lothroi). Put'us. 
Lovejoy. James A. 
Lund. 'Charles W. 
Lund. Mark 
Lyons. Charles 
Lyons. Daniel 
Ij^ons. Thomas 
Joyous. William 

Mackay, Haslet 
IMahoney, Jerry 
Mallinson. Frederick 
Manning. Asa P. 
Mannin"'. Edwin 



Maimiiiii'. .Jiimcs \V. 
Miiiiiiin,i;\ Jesse 
JMnuuiui;'. Wjirrcii 
Miii'sl.oii. Amos 
Miirston, < harlcs 
Mason. l)a\i(l 
Mason, David L. 
Mason. FiccU'ikk Tj. 
^Nlaxwoll, (ieorg'p 
Maxwell, James 
Max\v('ll. Stewarh 
Maxwell. 'I'liomas 
Mavnanl, Aaron 
:\[(('aithv. J^iniek 
McElli.i;i")tt. Morris 
MeElligott. Thomas 
MeGlone. Micliael 
Melntire. William S. 
Mclvee, llenrv 
MeNiiltv. Miehael 
MiPhee". Hu.oli 
Meelian. John 
Meehan. Patrick 
Merriam. Jolin A. 
Merriam, .losiah IF. 
Merriam. Minot 
^Nleiriam, William A. 
Mills, (ieorg'e 
Mills. John R. 
Mitchell. Moses ( '. 
Morey, Frederick A. 
Morris. Charles E. 
Morris. Munroe 
Mugford. Hiram 
Mullen. Thomas 
Muni-oe, Archelaus S. 
Munioe. llenrv T. 
Munroe. f)tis A. 
Murningham. Owen 
Muri)hy. Dennis 
Muri)hy. John F. 
Muri)hy. Michael \V. 

Nason. Elia.s 
Nason. Paid 
Newliall. Howard 
Xewhall. Isratd 
Noyes. Francis ^'. 

0"Donnel, Morris 
f)'lveete. Dennis 
Olney. Horace 
Osgood. Samuel 

Page, Ambrose F. 
Page. James 
Parker, ("harles H. 
Parker. Daniel 
Parker. Frank 
Parker, Gardner 

I'arsons. (Jeorge >\'. 
Paslio. Aaron 
Pasliii. (Jardnei- jS. 
PasliD. (ieorge 
Paslio. Jose|ih 
Patten. Thomas 
I'atten. William H. 
I'errin. 'I'liomas E. 
Perry. Ahishai S. 
Perry, Josiah 
Perry. Pichard 
Pillshnry. Sanniel f.. 
Porter. < 'liarh's H. 
Preston. Edward 
Proctor. ^Varren A. 
Proudfoot. (reorge 
Proudfoot. William 
Putney. Foster 
Putney. Herbert 

<^)uinn. liei-iiai'd 

Kichardson. All)ert P. 
Richardson. Charles Tv. 
Kichardson. Edward 
Kichardson, Fi'ancis E. 
Kichardson, George W. 
Kicliardson. JohnO. 
Kichardson. Josej)!! W. 
Kichardson. Josiah 
Kichardson, Josiah. 2d. 
Kicliardson, Nathan A. 
Kichardson. Thomas K. 
Kilej'. John 
Kiley. John, 2d. 
Kih'v, John. ;jd. 
KileV. I'atrick 
Kiley. William 
Kipley. William F. 
Kivers. Anthony C. 
Kogers, Oliver C. 
Kogers. Oliver W. 
Kolllns, Alden 
KoUins. Valentine 
Kosenthal. Henry 
Kowell. John K. 
Kussell. Jonas 
Kussell. Kufus K. 

Sanborn. Hugh yi. 
Sanborn. William F. 
Schotield. .losejih 
Searles. George W. 
Seaver. Charles H. 
Shea, John 
Shed. Daniel 
Shed. Warren 
Sheldon. Herbert 
Sheldon. Orin 
Simouds. Thomas 

Sladeti. Alfred JJ. 

Smith. ( 'ol)urn S. 

Smith. Edgar E. 

Spaulding. Aliel 

Spaulding. JJenjamin E. 

Si)aulding. Edward 

Spaulding. Edward. 2d. 

Spaulding. (iardner E. 

Spaulding. (iecjrge H. 

Sitauldiiig. Thomas 

Splain. Daniel 

Sprowl. William 

Stackpole. Charles H. 

Stackiiole. Isaac K. 

Stanhope. David 

Stanton, Albert D. 

Stanton. Henry B. 

Stearns, Albert 

Steai'iis. Cliauncey C, 
John B. 
Sewall H. 
James P. 

Stone, Albert 
Stone, Jonas 
Stott, James 
Stott. Kobert 
Sullivan. John 
Sutclitl'. James 
Sntclitt". John T. 

TaU)ot. Charles K. 
Tall)ot. Thomas 
Temple. Henry W. 
Trull. AIi)lieus X. 
Tucker, Samuel 
Tutts, Alfred 
Tufts. Joseph B. 
'I'uttle, Samuel E. 

Undei-liill. Kufus K. 

AVelch. Jeremiah 
AVhaleii. Martin 
Whiting. William 
Whitman. (Jeorge H. 
AVhittemore. James 
^Viggin. Frank 
Wiley, Stephen P. 
Wilslui. Charles H. 
Wilson, (ieorge W. 
Wilson. Mark K. 
Wilson. Weston W. 
^Vilson, 'William 
Winter. Samuel E. 
\Viiglit. Jackson 
Wrigiit. Josiah 
>\'right, Williaiu C, 

r.KNNKl 1 I.I1!I!A1!V 


'•The following list is the nnines of woiin'U who have u[)plie(l to 
be registered to A'ote for school eoinmittee " ; which a law recentlj' 
enacted authorized them to do. As the historian is not a prophet, 
it is not his business to predict whether the number of women wdio 
desire this opportunity will increase or (hminish. 

Baldwin. Elizabeth ('. Gould. Elvira 11. Kogers. Harriet B. 

Bryant. Mary F. Gragg. Mary E. Sage, Martha H. 

Cole. Mary ' Hussey. Lydia C. Salter. Hannah L. 

Faulkner. Fannie A. Hussey. Martha S. Tall)Ot, isalx'lla W. 

Faulkner, Lois E. Jaquith. Abigail Talbot. Isabella White 

Faulkner. Martha W. Morey. Mary C. Tucker. Annie tJ. 

Foster, Mary F. Rogers, Ami F. 

Libraries. Mr. Farmer mentions the first "Social Library" in 
Billerica instituted in 1772 and one of the earliest in Massachusetts, 
and a Second Social Library was incoi'porated in 1807. One of 
these libraries apparently became the property of the First Parish, 
and the other of a Ladies' Sewing Society ; and for many years they 
have been kept, practically united, in a room of the First Church, in 
the care of Miss Sarah Annable as librarian, who, in 187G, reported 
seven hundred volumes. These have noAv passed to the custody of 
the new library. 

It had long been felt that the provision for the needs of tlie 
town in this respect was inadequate ; and in 1880 the generous 
munificence of Mrs. Joshua Bennett laid the foundation for their 
better supply. The handsome building, of which we give a good 
illustration, standing just north of the First Church, has been 
erected at her expense and deeded to the Bennett Public Library 
Association ; and her daughters, Mrs. Holden and Mrs. Warren, 
have contributed $2000 to its furnishing and the purchase of books, 
a good beginning for the growth which time may be expected to 
bring. A fee of five dollars is received for membership, and twenty- 
five dollars constitutes a life member of the association ; ])ut the use 
of books, without other privilege, is granted for the annual payment 
of one dollar. The building contains a lil)rary, with capacity for 
ten or twelve thousand volumes, which ma^' be doubled l)y the use 
of alcoves ; a reading-room, a committee-room, and a handsome 
entrance hall and cloak-room. The reading-room is ornamented 
with a wide fireplace and beautiful mantel of unique design, contrib- 
uted l)y AVilliam W. Warren, Es(i., and the front of the building is 
enriched b}- a fine rose-window, the gift of Mr. Joshua Iloldeu. 
Mr. William H. Osboru, of New York, also gave the lot on which 

310 inSTOi;V OF hlLLKiaCA. 

the liI)r!UT wtjuids. Tlic town owes miicli to ]\Ii's. IJiMiiU'tt und iief 
fauiily lor this timely uiid good Ibundatioii. Jt must I'xcrt a stinui- 
lating iiirtiieiice, and give Ji more gt'iicrotis ciiltui'c to the eoniiiig 
generations who shall enjoy its privileges; and will contril)nte nuich 
to the prosi)erity and attractiveness of tiie town. 

A similar service has been rendered at North liiUeiica by the 
Messrs. Talbot ; althongh the library which tliey have fonnded is 
intende<l primarily I'or their own employees, and its management is 
in their hands ; l)ut its nse for a small fee is ojjcn to all. Tliey 
erected, in 1880, a bnilding connectt'd with tlieir factory, shown in 
the ilhistration as :i front wing, the second story of wliich is devoted 
to the lil)rar3' and reading-room. It is sn[)plie(l witli nioi'e than a 
thonsaud volumes, a number which will be incieased and well used 
under the judicious care of the Talbot Lil)rai-v Association. 

It is proper that record be made here of two historical incidents. 
In 1855 the town formally and fitly celebrated the two hundredth 
anniversary of its foundation. The Rev. Joseph Richardson, of 
Hingham, a lo3'al son of the town, gave a historical oration, which 
was published, with other proceedings of the da}", in a valnaltle 
l)aniphlet. That celebration had no little influence in awakening and 
stinudating the interest in the earl}^ life of the town, which has found 
expression in its repeated later action, looking to the publication of 
this volume and providing for it. 

A similar event was the celebration held, 187(), July 4. The 
centennial year of the United States natural!}- awakened renewed 
interest in historical sulyects and led to many local connnemorations. 
The Rev. Iiilias Nason responded effectively to an invitation of citi- 
zens to give a historical oration in Billerica ; and the day will be long 
remembered by those who shared in the festivities in the beautiful 
grove southeast of the middle bridge. This oration also, with other 
record of the da}', has been published. 

Some of the Indian names freciuently mentioned in this volume 
suggest an interesting question of their meaning. This (jnestion, 
rather than hazard conjectures, I have submitted to the Hon. J. H. 
Trumbull, of Hartford, Connecticut, the onl}- living man who can 
read Eliot's Indian r)ible, and who is recognized as the highest 
authority as to the meaning of Indian words. He writes under date, 
5 May, 1882: — 


•• PiDrinrkct sig'uities -at the falls." (set' Iinlinn Aiimcs in Cdiuircliriif. 
p. 4!)). Wnmesit (Waiiicsiir. Eliot) is "at the bottom of tlie fall"; litcially. 
-at tlie going down." So Kliot locates it : •\Vaiiu'siit . lyeth at the hottoiii 
of the Riiici- Mcrymak." (Brief Xdrrativc. 1670.) (Jookin says, 'wlierc 
Concord riiicr fallcth into Mcfiuiack i-iiicr." 'I'iic same name occnrs in 
Khodc Island, as WampmesHnrh. \h'\u\\ the falls on Pawtuxct liivcr; and 
Woovsockct is another derivative fi'oni the same loor. 

•• Shair.shiii has lost an initial syllable or a single obsenre consonant. 
]»robal)ly m or //. (i.e. v'slutii or Di'fihuii) \ i)ossil)l}' some other sound. It 
has no meaning in the form in Avhich it comes to us. If I were familiar 
with the topography of the township. I think tlie name would interpret 
itself; but. as I am not. I will not hazard a guess. Xor can I confidently 
give the signification of Naticook or Naticott.*' In a later note, he adds: 
••That there is any al&nity between the name C'oimerticut antl Xaticot or 
Naticook is Iiighly improbable. Such aliinity can not be established unless 
it l)e shown that Naticct has lost an initial sound of Co, or Qui, or Quo. 
Xaticook apparently is nearlj' related to Natick. tlie name of several localities 
in New England ; and perhai)s to Nantucket, formerly written Xatoclto. 
etc." NdCdok. the name of a brook in Dustable. must also be akin. 

The r.sahnist sings of Jenisuleni us •'beautiful for situation," and 
the sons of Billerica, native or adopted, may justly speak her praise 
Avitli similar enthusiasm. She has rivers, and ponds, and hills, with 
mountains in the distant liaekgroinid, affording a i)i('tin'esque diversity 
of landscape. Tiic Shawsiiin winds dreamily lliroiigh its meadows 
on the east, and on flic west is the Concord, miicii larger, Init almost 
as sluggish, until it reaches the fordway and falls at North Ijillerica. 
West of the ConcoiMl is IJroad meadow, on (he north; (iilson Hill, 
with its tine oiitliiK' in the centre, and the beautiful ^^'inning's Pond 
in the south. Hanked by highlands towards the river, which were early 
known as "Farley" Hill. Still farther southeast, in Carlisle, is the 
''long hill" of the lathers, with "long hill meadow," still partly, in 
Billerica. East of the Shawshiii, the head wati'rs of Ipswich Kiver 
are found, in Lubber's Brook, and Danfortii's "Stop" Brook is south 
of the AVoburn Koad, but no highlands find r<toin within the mile 
of breadth here belonging to liillerica. The central swell of laiid 
between the two rivers has southerly the picturesque Nutting's Pond, 
with Indian Hill on its northern side and on the east a plateau rising 
to the north, and, beyond a depression, terminating in Bare Hill. 
This hill is flanked by meadows, lieyond which is the elevated ground 
on which the village is built, sloping towards the Concord, at the 
Corner. Fox Hill stands guard on the northeast of the villaoe, 
•lescending rather abru[)tly to the lowlands and meadows along Fox 


IJrook, oil Mic iiortliwi'st, and C'oiili'iit IJrook below as it winds toward 
the Sliavvsliiii, and welcomes the ''Little Content" on its way, the 
latter rising' east of Vox Hill. Another considerable brook rnns 
southeast from Fox Hill to the iShawshin ;^ and Web's Brook, rising 
northeast of Bare Hill, pnrsues the same course. 

The swelling ground on which the village stands, while not very 
high, is suMk'icntly elevated to give a wide view of the country 
in all directions. It may have interest to survey the scene in imagi- 
nation from the tower of tlie First Church. The spire of the North 
Tewksbury chnrcli is ver}- nearly nortli and may be our starting 
[loint. When the atmospheric conditions are verj^ favorable, a 
rounded suiuniit may be dimly seen, which is almost certainly 
(Juustock Mountain, south of Lake AVinnepesaukee, and sixty-five 
miles distant. J\It. Washington is in the same direction, and if it 
were otherwise possible to see this monarch of the White Mountains 
Gunstock would liide it. About twelve degrees east is Patuckawa, 
in Deerlield, New Hampshire, thirty-nine miles distant, and passing 
as much farther we come to Pros[)ect Hill, once a Billerica landmark 
and watch-tower in days of Lidian warfare. Tlien the village of 
Tewksbury and State Alms-house, and a little farther east a summit 
is to be seen, when the conditions favor, which may be Agamenticus, 
fifty-four miles away. The village and seminary buildings at Andover 
are hidden l)y Fox Hill, but Holt's Hill, southeast of Andover, marks 
the locality. Then coming almost to the east point we reach the 
vast Ituilding of the Insane Asylum, at Danvers. and passing the 
east point as far come to the tower of tiie church in AVilmington, 
and, a little farther, Heading ai)i)cars. A glimpse of the Woburn 
spires follows. aii<l tlicn the church in Ihiilington, but the Burlington 
highlands hide from view Bunker Hill jMonument and the State 
House. Next come Ailington Heights and Blue Hill in Milton, 
Lexington, and Bcdfoixl, which marks the south point. Concord 
then shows its spires, and after a wider interval, about ten degrees 
south of west, AVachusett lifts its rounded and conspicuous sunmiit. 
The spires of AN'estford cut the horizon as much north of west, and 
just beyond, in the distance, the singular head of Watatic, in Ashb}', 
appears. Then avc come to Gilson's Hill in the foreground, and, 
he^'ond and just south of it, Rol>in's Hill, in Chelmsford, and Kidder's 
Mountain, in New Ipswich, New Hampshire, thirty-four miles distant. 

" This brook is soinL-tiiiK's called W^right's, but is so favorite a lisliiiii; gromid of our 
ex-governor that it iiiiglil litly bo christoucd "'ralbol's" Brook. 


This brings us to tlu' iiiouarcb of the whole fii-cle, Monjuhiock, whose 
sharp and grand crest must not be mistaken for some hjwer heiglit 
less than forty-seA'en miles awa}". Farther north are two conspicuous 
and fine summits, called, on the recent official map of New Hampshire, 
Pack-Monadnock, but popularl} known as Temple and Peterborough 
mountains. North of the latter, and through a depression in the hills 
which gives the railroad a passage-wav, a rounded sunnnit may l»e 
occasionally seen with beautiful distinctness against the evening sky, 
which I suppose to be Bald Mountain, in Antrim. Lyndeborough 
JNIountain is succeeded by Crochet Mountain, in Francestown, vvitii 
its longer crest; then Jo English Hill and, near by, the village of 
Mont Vernon. Just- beyond, a very distant summit ma}' sometimes 
be seen, which is possibly Sunapee Mountain, sixty-eight miles 
distant, but probably some heiglit not quite so far; and the circle is 
rounded by the Uncanoonucks, in (ioffstowii, with North Chelmsford 
and Lowell in the foreground. 

The chief interest of such an itinerary, if it has any, will be to 
those who may have opportunity to follow it for themselves and fill 
in the outline with other details. But it will serve to suggest to any 
one the broad expanse of hills, and plains, and streams, over which 
the eye travels to the distant summits. These, clothed in their ever 
changing attire of sunshine and shadow, aflbrd a panorama of 
peculiar beauty and grandeur. To watch the play of cloud and 
storm as they travel over such a range is instructive and delightful ; 
while the sunshine, with its shadows and above all its sunsets, is 
surpassing. The praises of Andover sunsets have been sung more 
widely, as generations of students have come and feasted and gone 
out OA-er the earth. But I have had opportunity to enjoy and stud}' 
both, and I do not look to see, this side of the gates of pearl, any 
similar vision UKjre indescribable in its beauty and glory than 1 have 
often witnessed in Billerica sunsets. 


Genealogical Hegistei^. 

The following record of families is desigiied to include all names 
and dates occuring in, the town records of births, marriages and deaths, 
prior to 1800. Since that date, records which have been furnished 
by families, continuations of earlier families, and such others as the 
compiler has been able to gather, are added, but with no attempt at 
completeness, which was for obvious reasons imi)racticable. 

The three volumes of records of births, marriages and deaths 
before 1840, furnish the basis of this register. Additions and corrections 
have been gathered from various sources, of which the following should 
be mentioned : — 

1. The tax-lists. Avhich are consecutive, from 1733 to 1800, and 
other town records. 

2. The record of baptisms of the First Church, extending from 
1748 to 1834. 

3. Probate records and the registry of deeds. 

4. Inscriptions upon grave-stones. 

5. Family records and the memories of individuals. 

6. Family genealogies and histories of other towns. 

7. The important collections of the Xew England Historical 
Genealogical Society, and the Register, which it nas long published. 

The plan of this record is simple, and the abbreviations used are 
common and self-explanatory. Successive families, bearing the same 
name, are numbered, and the same heavy-faced number is used after 
the name, where the person is previously mentioned as a child, and in 
connection with his marriage, elsewhere. When a son is afterwards 
mentioned as the father of a family, this reference figure following his 
name indicates the fact and the place where his family will be found, and 
if the figure does not follow a child's name, no family follows. 

The completeness of such a record can he only approximate. The 
years of research. i"ei)resented by Bond's WotertoiDi and Wyman's 
Charlestov;n GeneaJogien, have not l)een at the connnand of this 
comi)iler. and he can only say that he has done the best he could, 
in the short time at his disposal. Some errors of the records and 
of previous explorers, he has corrected, and if he has not added 
more than his own share to the mistakes to which all such work is 
exposed, it is as much as he can hope for. Charity is a lesson 
which one must needs learn who delves in such records and labors, 
and it should not detract from the esteem, approaching reverence, in which 
Billerica properly holds the services of Jonathan Danforth, to note 
the fact that an error is found in his record of liirth of the fii'st 
son and the first daughter of the town. Trusting that this register 
will be found of value to the old town, to her sous and daugliters 
abroad, and to genealogical investigators, the author commits his work 
to their charitable judgment. 


ABBOT. 1. Joshua, dea., was the son of John Abbot, of Andover, 
A\'hose father, George, was oni> of the first settlers of that town. He was 
born 1685. June 1(5; m. 1710. June 10. Kebeeca Shed, dau. of John, 3. 
She d..l720, April 7, and he ni. Dorcas Whiting, dau. of Oliver, 3. 
She d. 17G5. Dee. 23, and he d. 1709. Feb. 11. He was town clerk, and an 
active. usefiU citizen, and deaiMjn of the church. Ch. Echecca. b. 1711, 
March 27; d. 1701, May 9. John. b. 171:5, May o; ni. Hannah Richardson, 
daii» of Jonathan. 6, and lived in Westford, wh^re he d. 1701. Oct. 22. 
SnraJi. 1). 1714-.}. Feb. 24; ni. Christo])lier Osgood. Jlart/ and Hannah, 
b. 1717, Aug. 28; Mary ni. Ilenrv Jefts; Hannah ni. Phinehas Osgood. 
Elizabeth, b. 1719, Dec. 7; m. Hobert AValker; d. 1803. Joshua. 2, b. 1722, 
Oct. 28. Dorcas, b. 1724, Nov. 6, and d. 1810, Jan. 7. Oliver. 3, b. 1727, 
March 26. David, 4, b. 1729, April 27. Lydia, b. 1732. June 26. and d. 
1748. Oct. 13. 

2. Joshua, dea., son of Joshua. 1, b. 1722. Oct. 28; ni. 1746, March 6, 
Sarah Stearns, dau. of Isaac, jr.. 7; she d. 1803, Sept. 7, and he d. 1807, 
Aug. 8. He gave a bell and a clock for the meeting-house, and left to the 
town a legacj' of 81,400, the income to be devoted to the promotion of 
sacred music. He had only one son, Joshua, b. 1747, Xov. 2, and d. 1752, 
June 7. 

3. Oliver, son of Joshua. 1, b. 1727, March 20; m. 17o2, Feb. 13, 
Joanna French, dau. of William, jr., 13; she d. 1768. Aug. 20, and he m. 
1769. Aug. 1. Al)igail Hall, dau." of IJev. AVillard. of Westford. He d. 
1796, April 10, and his widow. 1804, Aug. 4. Ch. Joanna, b. 1753, April 18, 
and d. the next day. L;idia. b. 1754. July 11. and d. 1788, July 22. 
Joanna, b. 1755, Julv 24; m. 1776, Mav 21. Simeon Winship. of Lexington. 
Oliver, b. 1756, Dec. 1, and d. 1757. Feb. 9. Oliver Whiting, b. 1757, 
Dec. 5, and d. 1758. May 1. Beriah. b. and d. 1759. April 1. Silence, b. 
and d. 1760, July 21. Silent, b. and d. 1761. May 13. Dorcas, b. 1764, 
Dec. 19; m. Jonathan Bowers. Joshua, b. 1772, July 29, and d. 1795, 
June 7. in the island of Hispaniola. Ahiqail. )>. 1774, Sept. 14; m. Ephraim 
Kidder. 19. EUzaheth. b. 1779, Feb. 4. 

4. Davill, son of Joshua, 1, b. 1729, April 27; m. 1752, Aug. 25, 
Hannah Ellis. She d. 1767. Dec. 17, and he m. 1768. June 28. Huldah 
Paine, of Maiden, wV) d. 1797, Sept. 8. He d. 1801, Xov. 15. Ch. David, 
b. 1760. June 5. and d. 1761. Dec. 19. David, h. 1770. Dec. 18; graduated 
H. C. 1794. and d. 1804, April 9. Blaney. b. 1772. Oct. 25; lived, 
unmarried, in Billerica; town clerk, and a useful citiz.en; d. 1855. July 17. 

5. Jeremiah, son of Nathaniel, of Andover. and cousin of Joshua, 1, 
b. 1709, Nov. 4; he was a saddler; m. 1735, Dec. 2. Hannah Ballard, of 
Andover; he d. 1748, Aug. 28. and his widow m. 2d. AVilliam StickneJ^ esq., 
and d. 1789, Feb. 17. aged 85. Ch. Hannah, b. 1735, Oct. 10; m. Oliver 
Farmer. 9. Jeremiah, b. 1738. Aug. 24. and d. 1740, April 12. Bebecca, 
b. 1741, July 13; m. Richard Boviiton. and d. 1816. Jeremiah, b. 1745, 
July 20, and d. Aug. 7. William, b. 1746, July 21; m. 1769, Dec. 28, 
Rebecca Spalding, of Chelmsford, and lived in C. and in Wheelock. Vt. 
Jeremiah, b. 1748, Aug. 11 ; m. 1769. Jan. 19, Susannah Baldwin, of 
Tewksbury, and lived in Clielmsford and in AVilton, N. H. 

6. David, son of David, of Andover, who A\'as cousin of Joshua. 1, 
b. 1728, March 28; m. 1752, Dec. 28, Prudence Sheldon, dau. of Samuel. 3; 
lived in Andover, in Barton, Vt., in Salem, O., and 1775-8, in B., where 
was b. his youngest son; he had Ch. Hannah m. Aaron Parker. Campton, 
Quebec ; Elizabeth, Prudence, Josiah, Samuel, David. Benjamin. Olive, 
Dorcas m. John Snow, and Jeremiah, b. 1776. May 18. who lived in Gorham 
and Portland. Me. David Al)bot d. in B.. 1788, Nov. 1. 

7. Benjamin, son, prob. of David. 6, m. Betsev. Ch. Betsey, b. 
1795. Jan. 1. Anna. b. 1796. April 22. Hannah, b. 1797." Nov. 16. 

8. James, son of Joseph, of Andover, N. H. ; b. 1768. Feb. 22; 
m. 1791. Feb. 20, Mehitable Holt. He was a merchant. Town clerk one 
year, and representative. Ch. Sop\ronia, b. 1791, Dec. 7. James, b. 


1793, June 2. Joseph, b. 1795. Maj^ 8. Daniel, b. 1797, May -23. Mehitable, 
bap. 1799. Feb. 24. Isaac, bap. 1800, Xov. 30. Isaac, bap. 1804, July 1.5. 
John. bap. 1800, May 4. Clarissa, bap. 1808, March 13. 

9. Nathan, son of Xathan, of ^Vilton. X. H. ; ni. JNlaiy Wilson. 
Ch. Elizabeth, b. 178.'j, P>b. 25; ni. 1807, Sept. 6. Edward Kussell, of 
Townsend. JIartha, b. 1788, Jan. 19; ni. Leonard Cashing. Nathan. 10, 
b. 1790. Feb. 7. Lt/dia. b. 1792. Aug. 6; m. Nathaniel Stevenson. 
Sophronia, b. 1795, Jan. 20; m. 1819, Asa Bushby, Danvers. Judith, b. 
1797, March 14; m. Levi Felton. Marlboro*. Asenath. h. 1801. June 17. 
Manj. )). 180(). Aug. 15; ni. Ilenrj' Kushby. Danvers. 

10. Nathan,' son of Nathan, 9, h. 1790. Feb. 7; m. 1825. Nov. 10, 
Hannah Farmer, dau. of Oliver, 14. She d. in Lowell. 1878, Dee. 26. 
Ch. Oliver Farmer, b. 1826. Aug. 22. and d. 1827. Sept. 18. Hannah, b. 
1827. Julv 27. Rachel, b. 1829. March 25. Henrii. b. 1831, May 1, and d. 
June 20."^ Catherine, b. 1832. Oct. 12. George, b. 1835. March 6. and d. 
May 20. Louisa, b. 1830. July 13. Sarah Elizabeth, b. *839. March 10. 

11. f^}^orge, son of Stei)hen, whose fatlier. Stephen, was brother of 
Joshua, 1, ni. 1779. V\pril 1. Kebecca Blanchard. dau. of Simon, 4. 
Ch. Samuel, b. 1779. Nov. 2; lived in St. Stephen. N. E.. and in Wilton or 
Salem, and had 7 ch. Rebecca. Sarah Stevens m. (ien. David Putnam. 
Georr/e. Ephraim. Elizabeth. Stephen, and Mar;/. 

ADAM8. 1. Jonas, of Chelmsford, m. 1740. Aug. 4. Eebecca. dau. of 
Benoni Spalding. 

2. William, of Boston, m. 1766, Nov. 5. Rachel Hovey, prob. dau. of 

3. Joseph, m. 1794, May 2, Betsey Davis. 

4. Nathan, m. 1796. May 16. Hannah MacCarty. dau. of William 
Greenough. Mr. Adams was ;) tanner, merchant, and auctioneer, in 

5. Amos, m. Susan Dodge, of Chai'lestown ; he d. and she m. 

Hamilton, and d. 1878. March 20. Ch. Esther m. Aleck Stowell. a 

jeweller, on Winter street. Boston. Edirard Amos. b. 1837. Nov. 25. An 
early graduate of the Howe school. He was first, when the Eebellion 
arose, to volunteer for ••three years or the war." from Billerica. He was 
active in raising the ([uota of the town, and did faithful sei'vice. until his 
death from woimds received near Petersburg. Va.. 1864. June 27. A fine 
portrait has been presented by his friends to the Howe school. Snsan. 

ALBEN, Henry, was in town before 1685. His wife was Deborah. 
Ch. Allice. b. "1694. 01. 17." 

ALLEN, 1. Samuel, prob. son and grandson of Samuel, sr. and jr., 
of Manchester; b. 1700. He was a merchant in Newliury and Manchester, 
before settling in Billerica. 1763. He m. Abigail March, dau. of Rev. 
Edmund, of Amesburj'. by whom he had 5 ch. ; and 2d, Hannah Godfrey, 
of Nevvburj\ by whom he had 14 ch. Only one daughter by the first wife 
lived to maturity, and several of the others died in infancy. His will is 
dated 1775. Feb. 3. and names ch. Thomas. Jeremiah. Abigail and Dorcas, 
and the daughters of Sanuiel. deceased. Ch. Abir/ail m. Lunt. of 
Newburyport." Sarmiel. 2. Joseph d. at sea. Michael, captured at sea 
and Impressed into the English service. Zadoc d. in B. Thomas. 3. 
Zerubbabel and Jeremiah. 4, b. 1752, Feb. 11. Dorcas m. Michael Parsons. 
Polley d. in B. Anney d. in Manchester. 

2. Samuel, son of Samuel, 1, m. Salley Goodrich, of Newburv. He 
d. 1768. at Halifax. Ch. Sarah. Ma,ry. b. 1768. Sept. 30. 

3. Thomas, son of Samuel. 1, m. 1768, Oct. 13, Abigail Harvey, 
of Cape Ann. His name disai)pears from tax-list, 1793. Ch. Zadock, 5, 
b. 1770. Feb. 3. Abigail, b. 1773. June 3; m. William Tarbell. Anna. b. 
1774, Nov. 26; unmarried. Joseph. 6, b. 1777, Jan. 31. Dorcas, b. 1780. 
June 1. 

4. Jeremiah, son of Samuel; b. 1752, Feb. 11; ni. 1776. July 4. 
Abigail Rogers, dau. of Samuel, 11. t He lived where Dea. King now lives ; 


(1. 1837. Oct. 28. Ch. Ahif/ail. h. 1777, Oct. 19. Jeremiah, 7, b. 1778. Aug". 12. 
IMterm, h. 1780, April 15. Polh/. h. 1782, March 28; ni. 18U, jNIiirch 1. 
Phillip Putnaiii. of Wilton. N. H. Samuel Bngers, b. 1783. Nov. 5. 
Ameririis, h. 1787. March 18 ; hap. 1786. the record "says ; lived in Carlisle, 
Penn. Xanri/. ]>. 178!), Ajii-il 4; ni. John Kichardson. 29. Ezra, 8, h. 1791. 
Sept. 23. Hetir;/. 9, h. 1793. July 20. Jolut. )>. 1798. Jan. ."). 

5. Zjlrtock, son of Tlionia"s. 2, b. 1770. Feb. 3; ni. 1797. April 9, 
Sarali Patten, dau. of John, 12; she d. 184(), May. 3. He d. 1840. May 1; 
lived on the East road, wheiv his daught<'i- Sojiliia now lives. Ch. Sarah, 
b. 1799. Oct. 21; d. 1870. Nov. 3. ^ HmiiKth Patten, h. 182r). Mav 7; m. 
Jonathan Wright. Jahu. b. 1803. Oct. 24; d. 1871. May 23. Sophia, b. 
1809. Nov. 1. (hily the last born in Hillericn. 

6. Joseph, son of Thomas. 2, b. 1777. Jan. 31 ; ni. 1808. Aug-. 14, 
Jane Patten, also dau. of John, 12; she d. 1848. April 7. Ch. Charles Henry, 
b. 1808, Oct. 30. Hnsley Patten, b. 1812. Aug. o. 

7. Jeremiah,- son of Jeremiah. 4, b. 1778. Aug. 12: m. 1803. Oct. 23, 
Lucy Farmer, dau. of JohTi. 11; he d. 1811. Dec. 2. and she m. Marshall. 
Ch. Harriet B. m. 1828, Dec. 2. Samuel Parker, of Peading. Manj B. m. 
1825. Dec. 1, James McKeen, of Dunstable. John Farmer lived in 
Lyndeboro', N. H. Samuel m. Lucy J. Cotlin; d. 1853. Nov. 12. 

8. Ezra, son of Jeremiah. 4, b."l791, Sept. 23; m. 1819, Nov. 8, Nancy 
Ruggles, of AVrentliaiu. He lived where James Page lives, on the 
Wihnington road. Ch. Gornelins Erasmus, b. 1820, Oct, 30, and d. 1822, 
Nov. 10. Ezra Leo nidas, b. 1823, May 23. 

9. Henry, son of Jeremiah. 4, b. 1793, July 20 ; m. 1817. Oct. 29. Eliza 
Ruggles. of Taunton; lived where his father did. Ch. Edwin Henrif. b. 
IBLSr Aug-. 27. Elisa Minerva, h. 1822, April 21, at Wilton. N. H. ; m. J841, 
Sept. 28, Rufus Clement, of Boston. Elona Melrina. b. 1824. April 19. 
San ford Eaton, b. 1828. March 28; both at Lyndeboro'. N. H. Martha 
Cohrell. b. 1830. March Ki; ni. AVilliam Bohonan', and d. 1853, Dec. 24. 

10. Abraham, m. 1825. July 20. Hannah Carkin. of Chester, N. H. 
AiXGrlER. 1. Robert, nanie on tax-list. 1770-5; wife, Martha. 

Ch. Jesse, b. 1763. July 9. John, b. 1765, Aug. 21. Asa, b. 1768, 
March 29. Bette. b. 1771. June 19. Samuel, h. 1774, F"eb. 2. 

2. Charles, had dau. Sarah ; bap. 1765. Nov. 3. 

ATHERTON, Dr. Benjamin, was son of Joshua, of Lancaster, and 
grandson of James, of Dorchester, who was brother of Gen. Humphrey 
Atherton. who once represented Billerica at the General Court. His father 
had a brother Peter, whose son, Joshua, H. C. 1762, was Attorney-General 
of New Hampshire, and father of Hon. Charles H. Atherton. of Amherst, 
N. H., a mendjer of Congress. Dr. Atherton m. 1733. Dec. 25. Mary 
Rogers, widow of John,,8, and d. 1739. Sept. 1. Ch. Mary. b. 1734, Sept. 12; 
was living- in 1783. Benjamin, b. 1736, Dec. 9; was brought up by his 
uncle. Col. Peter Atherton. of Harvard ; enlisteil in the French and Indian 
War. and before the Revolution, settled at Sht^ttield, N. B.. on the St. John 
river. Was the first coroner in that province, and register of wills and 
deeds. In 1780. he removed to the site of the city of Frederii'ton, and 
when that city was laid out, he was given hy the government a large farm 
in Prince William, twenty-five miles up the river. He m. 1773. March 30. 
Abigail Mores, and had a son, Isiael. Dr. Alfred B. Atherton, of 
Fredericton. is his gi-andson. He d. 1816. July 17. 

BACON. 1. Michael, grandson of Michael, of Dedham. and son of 
Michael, jr., one of the first settlers of Woburn; was b. prob. in 
Charlestown. about 1640. He purchased. 1682, July 19, the farm of 500 
acres, which had been granted by Canilnidge to the Rev. IVIr. Mitchell. It 
was situated on Shawshin river, alcove the ^^'yman farm, and in the 
north-east part of what became Bedford. Prol)abiy lie had held the farm 
by lease before the purcliase. as the births of his t-hildi'eu are recorded here 
after 1671. and he had a gnint, 1680, 31arch, of forty ai-res adjoining Mrs. 
Mitchell's farm, on the south-east of Shawshin river, and reaching- almost 
to John Wilson's saw ndll. He m. 1660, March 22, Sarah, dau. of Thomas 


Richardson, and sister of Thomas, 1, of Billerica. Slie d. 1G94, Aug. 15; 
he d. 1707, Aug. 13. Ch. (The first four b. inWoburn). Marij.h. 1661. 
Maroh 1. Sarah, b. 1663. Aug. 24. Abigail, b. 1666-7. March 5. Michael, a 
shoemaker, in Billerica, 1696. " Jonathan. 2, b. 1672, July 14. Xathaniel, 3, 
b. 1675. .Sept. 18. Josiah. 4, b. 1678. Oct. 20. Buth, b. 1681. Sept. 24. 
Benjamin. 6, b. ( V). Joseph. 6, b. 1685. May 8. 

2. Jonathau, son of Michael. 1, b. 1672. July 14; m. 1694. Jan. 3. 
Elizabeth Giles, and 1739, Aug. or Sept. 22. Elizabeth Hancock, widow of 
Benjamin Wvman. of Woburn. He d; 1754. Jan. 12. Ch. Elizabeth, b. 1695, 
Nov. 26. Sarah, b. Wd6. Dec. 25; m. Israel Putnam. 2. Anna, h. 1698, 
April 28, and d. Oct. 8. Jonathan, b. 1700, Dec. 18. 3Iarif, b. 1702, 
Sept. 18. Bridfjet. b. 1706-7. Jan. 5. Anna. b. 1709. Aug. 19. 

3. Nathaniel, son of Michael, 1, b. 1675, Sept. 18; m. Judith Wyman, 
dau. of Francis, of Woburn. Ch. Nathaniel, b. 1699-1700. :Mafch 1. 
Judeth, b. 1701. Oct. 19. (The record says 1702. which is impossible, as it 
gives her death 1701. Dec. 30). Judeth, b. 1702. Nov. 10. Abigail, h. 
1704-5. Jan. 1 ; m. 1725. Aug. 26, Thomas Grover. SaraJi. b. 1707. April 10; 
m. 1726-7, March 2. Benjamin Grover, of Stonehain. Michal, b. 1708-9, 
March 22. and d. Dec. 30. Susanna, b. 1710. Oct. 5. Mirhal, b. 1713, 
Oct. 29. Joseph, b. 1716. Mai'ch 31. Thomas, b. 1721. Sept. 13. 

4. Josiah, son of Michael. 1, 1). 1678, Oct. 20; m. Mary. Lieut. 
Josiah Bacon d. 1723. Oct. 14. Ch. Josiah, 7, b. 1702, April 27. Mary, 
b. 1703. Oct. 20. and d. Nov. 16. Manj, b. 1704. Dec. 9. and d. Jan. 8. 
Mani, h. 1706. Oct. 14. L>jdia. b. 1710. June 6. Samuel, b. 1719. March 25, 
and d. April 19. 

5. Benjamin, son of 3Iichael. 1, m. 1712. Dec. 2, Abigail Taylor, of 
Concord. He d. 1727. Nov. 27. Ch. Benjamin, b. 1713, Dec. 6. John, b. 
1716. June 16. and d. 1760. Mav 26. Abiqail, b. 1718. Sept. 25. Samuel, h. 
1721. July 21. iMartj, b. 1726. Oct. 28. and d. Dec. 28. 

(j. Joseph, son of Michael. 1, b. 1685, May 8 ; m. 1716, May 9, Eehecca 
Taylor, (of Concord?). He d. 1747. Nov. 29. and she d. 1778, Aug. 24, 
aged 91 years. 9 months, and 16 days. Ch. Rebecca, b. 1717, April, 17; d. 
1763. Feb. 21). Lydia. b. 1719. Sept. '20. 

7. Josiah, son of Josiah, 4, 1). 1702, April 27; ra. 1726, Jime 23, 
Sai-ah Davis, dau. of dea. Joseph, 1. She ni. 2d. Capt. Enoch Kidder. 
Ch. Josiah. b. 1727, April 23. Solomon, b. 1728. Nov. 27. David, b. 1730, 
Aug. 30. Joshua, b. 1732, Sept. 14. William, 8, b. 1734, Aug. 8. 
Ebenezer, b. 1736. Sept. 15.' James, b. 1738, June 30. Sarah, b. (?). 
Aug. 18. Mary, b. 1742. Feb. 5. Joseph, b. 1745, March 24. Liday, b. 
1747. Aug. 23; ni. Isaac Foster, son of 7. 

8. William, son of Josiah, 7, b. 1734, Aug. 8; m. Sarah . His 

name disappears from tax-list. 1758. Ch. Adoniram, bap. 1758, April 9. 

9. John, is on tax-list. 1783, and after. No record of family. 

10. Jonas, and wife Betsey. Ch. Elizabeth, b. 1785, Sept. 5; m. 1809, 
July 30. Samuel Reed, of Acton. Abigail, b. 1787. April 17; m. Jonathan 
French. 30. Jonas, b. 1789, May 10. William, b. 1791, April 9. Charlotte, 
b. 1793. Sept. 23 ; m. 1811, Dec. 19, John Monroe, of Lexington. Sophronia, 
b. 1795, June 5. Oliver, b. 1797. Sept. 8. George, 11, b. 1799. Sept. 7. 
Znlima, b. 1802. April 9; m. 1820, April 6, Roger Lane, of Bedford. 
Lavinia, b. 1804, Oct. 13. Levi, b. 1806, Dec. 10. 

11. George, son of Jonas, 10, b. 1799, Sept. 7; m. Mary Bates, 
of Concord, and Sophronia Gove; now lives in Lexington. Ch. Mary H., 
b. 1826, Feb. 5. George Edwin, b. 1829. Oct. 10. Edward Carrinqton, 
b. 1831. March 4. John Douglass, b. 1832. Sept. 14. Caroline Elizabeth, 
b. 1833. Dec. 13. Susan 31aria, b. 1835. June 20; m. Lewis Johnson. 
Stebbins Fisk. b. 1840. May 20; d. 1841, Nov. 15. Clarence Bichardson, 
b. 1842. March 20. Ellen'^ Sophronia. b. 1845. March 23. Anna Bemis, 
b. 1850, Aug. 10; d. George Bickford. b. 1852, Nov. 24; d. Alice Gertrude, 
b. 1854, Feb. 24; m. Ciiisholm, of South Boston. 


BAILEY. 1. Jonathan, 1780-2 ; m. 1777, P>b. 20. Elizabeth Baldwin, 
dau. of Benjamin. 12. The name is on tax-list a few years, but no children 
are recorded. 

2. Kendall, on tax-list. 17i»5. 

3. John Barnard, a honueopathic physician; came to Billerica in 
1870; b. ISl."). .June 1;:5 ; ni. Frances Woodbury Paterson; lives on the 
Lowell road, near the corner. 

4. John Mason, sun of preceding; b. 1842. Feb. 15; m. 1877, 
Aug. 20. Fhebe J. tiaskill. dau. of LiUeus. of Woonsocket, R. I. He 
bought the farm- north-east of Winning pond, in 1872, and by the extent of 
his improvements and exi)eriments. "has given it celebrity as '• Winning 
farm." He has stocked it A\ith thorough-bred Jersey cattle, Cotswold, 
Oxfordshire. <ind Merino slieej), and Berkshire swine. Me was the first in 
this country to introduce the French system of ensilage, or the building of 
silos for the preservatitm of forage crops in their green state, and he 
is pul)lishhig ''The Book of Ensilage,'" a treatise on the system, with 
history and results of his experiments. 

BAKER. 1. John, and wife Sarah, came from England, where their 
ch. were born ; lived on Andover street, the place now occupied by Kev. 
John Haskell. He died 1844. Sept. 15, aged 50. ( "h. J/a/v/. b. 1819. Nov. 1 ; 
m. William >S. Uleason. 4. Ann. b. 1823. Aug. 10; m. George Hall. 
Elisn. b. 1825. Dec. 14; m. James P. Wason. and is no-w a widow in 
California. EJ>.pn. 2, b. 1829. May 16. Joltn i-Vr/Hc/.s, )). 1831. J\me 20; in 
California. William Ilcnrii. b. 1836, Jan. 1 ; in California. 

2. Eben, b. 1829. May 16; m. Elizabeth Ann Boynton. of Bedford, 
N. H. He is a butcher, and lives opposite his father's place. Ch. John 
'Henri/, b. 1859, Jan. 30. Carrie Emily, b. 1863. Dec. 25. Lucy Murdoch^ 
b. 1865. Sept. 5. Fred Herbert, b. 1867. Oct. 1. Charles Eben, b. 1870, 
Jan. 30. nnscae Chase, b. 1877, July 12. 

BALDWIN. 1. John, was i)ro"b. a brother of Henry, of Woburn. who 
is said to have been from Devonshire. He m. Mary. dau. of Thomas 
Richardson, of Woburn. and sister of Thomas, 1, of Billerica. 1655. May 15. 
This implies that he came to B. as earl}^ as this ilate ; no other evidence has 
been found of his presence before 1657. He lived on the west siile of Long 
street, near Mrs. Bennett's residence, north of Jonathan Danforth's. He d. 
1687, Sept. 25. Ch. 3Iary. b. 1659. July 28. and d. Aug. 1. Mary. b. 1663, 
April 11. John, 2, b. 1665, Sept. 25.' Jonathan. 3, b. 1667-8. Jan. 28. 
iSitsanna, b. 1670. May 14, and d. 1675, Sept. 8. Thomas. 4, b. 1672, 
March 26. Fhebe. b. 1675-6. Feb. 7. and d. March 24. Susanna, b. 1677, 
April 14; m. Joseph Hill, 8. Fhebe. b. 1679-80, Feb. 7; m. Dr. Roger 
Toothaker. 2. 

2. John, son of John, 1, b. 1665. Sept. 25; m. 1689-90. Feb. 12. Sarah 
Hey wood. prob. dau. of John, of Concord. She d. 1741. Feb. 9. He d. 
1736. April 6. Ch. Sarah, b. 1690. Dec. 28; m. William Simonds. 3Iary, 
b. 1692, Dec. 16; m. Joseph Brown. 4. Jnde. b. 1695-6. Jan. 20. Thomas. 
6, b. 1697-8. March 15. limh. b. 1699. April, 18. John, b. 1701, July 27, 
and d. Se])t. 10. Elizabeth, b. 1702, Sept. 21 ; m. 1734, May 8, Joseph 
Johnson, of Woburn. Abigail, b. 1705. xS-pril 15; m. 1729-30, Jan. 9, 
James Tompson. John. b. 1707-8. Jan. 21, and d. 1738, Oct. 24. William., 
6, b. 1710, Sept. 15. 

3. Jonathan, son of John, 1, b. 1667-8. Jan. 28 ; ra. 1695. Dec. 13, 
Mary French, dau. of Jacob. 3. He d. 1735-6. Feb. 17. Ch. Mary, b. 1696, 
Sept. 15; m. AVilliam Brown, 6. Susanna, b. 1698, Dec. 9. Jonathan, 7, 
b. 1700-1, Feb. 21. Samuel, b. 1703, April 9, and d. 1705. July 22. Josiah, 
8, b. 1708. May 22. 

4. Thomas, son of John, 1, b. 1672, March 26; m. Sarah. Ensign 
Thomas d. 1747, Dec. 12. His widow d. 1761, June 16. Ch. Jnhn. 9, h. 
1699. Nov. 10. Joseph, b. 1702. Sept. 14; m. 1728. June 14, Esther 
Manning, {see 4). Jacob, b. 1704-5, March 18. David. 10, b. 1711. June 9. 
Samuel, 11, b. 1713, April 12. Jeremiah, b. 1714, July 29. and d. 1741, 
Auo-. 3. Fheba, b. 1717-18. Jan. 19. Benjamin, 12, b. 1724, April 9. 


5. Thomas, son of John, 2, b. 1G97-S, March 15; ni. Dorothy Kidder, 
dau. of Ei)hraim, 3. Ch. Dorotln/, b. 1719. July 28. Bnchd, b. 1721, 
Oct. 7. T/Kmih.s, 13, b. 1723-1, Feb. 22. Elrazav, b. 172o-6. March 11. 
Jns(ph, b. 1728, Oct. 20. Benjamin, b. 1730. Dec. 10. Ephrahn, b. 1733, 
June 5. As(u b. 1734, Dec. 22. 

6. William, sou of John. 2, i). 1710. Sept. 15; ni. 1741, Sept. 23, 
Mary Fanner, dau. of Oliver. 6. lie d. 17G2. Dec. 21, and slie d. 1803, 

Sept. 25. Cii. Sarah, b. 1742, July 5; m. Frost, of Tewksbury. 

John, 14, b. 1743-4. Jan. 13. William, 15, b. 1748, April 12. Thomas, 
h. 1751. Feb. 27. and d. 1796, June 12. 31icah, b. 1753, Oct. 1; went to 
Ticonderog-a. 3Ian/. b. 1756. April 15; d. in Tewksbury. AYdmm.Hi,]). 
1759, May 16. Oliver, b. 1762, Fel). 12. 

7. Jonathan, son of Jonathan, 3, b. 1700-1, p>b. 21; ni. 1725-6, 
Jan. 19. Esther Farley, dau. of (ieoriie. (}. lie lived east of Shawshin 
river, in the part annexed to VVihniniiton, 17.37. Cli. Joshna. b. 1727, 
July 4, and d. .)ulv 5. Ehcnrzn\ b. and d. 1728. .June 11. Abigail, b. 1729, 
Oct. 13, and d. ()ct. ,20. Esther, b. 1730-1, Vvh. 7. Jonathan, b. 1733, 
April 7. iMan/^ h. 1735, May 26. Samwil, b. 1737, Sept. 7. 

8. Josiail, son of Jonatlian, 3, b. 1708, May 22; ni. 1731, Dec. 2, 
Susanna Davis, dau. of dea. Josei)li, 1. Tlie two latter children were born 
in Tewksbury. Ch. Josiah, b. 1733, Oct. 14. Jesse, b. 1738, May 10. 
Susanna, b. 1741. Dec. 16; ni. .John Pollard. 3. 

9. John, son of Thomas. 4, b. ICOO. Nov. 10; m. 1726. May 4. Sarah 
Hill. dau. of Samuel, jr., 10, and pi-ol). 1758, Feb. 21, Elizabeth i'arldiurst, 
of Chelmsford. Ch. Katharine, b. 1727, Sept. 25; ni. Nathaniel Cummings. 
Sarah, b. 1729. Aug. 27. and d. Sept. 13. John. 17, b. 1731, Nov. 1. 
Jonas, b. 1734, Oct. 29, and d. Feb. 10. Martha, b. 1736, Sept. 27, and d. 
Dec. 7. Joseph, b. 1739, Dec. 8, and d. March 1. Jeremiah, b. 1741-2, 
Jan. 15, and d. Feb. 17. Tamer, b. 1743, Oct. 13, and d. Jan 1. 

10. David, son of Thomas. 4, b. 1711. June 9; m. 1737, June 6, 
Sarah Hill. dau. of Samuel. 6. She d. 1750, April 21, and lie m. 2d, 1752, 
June 18, Keziu Beimet. of Lancaster. Ch. David, h. 17.38-9, Jan. 18. and d. 
Feb. 13. Sarah, b. 1739-40, Feb. 4; ni. 1761, Mav 7, Joseph Eocke, of 
Lexington. Ursle, b. 1741-2, Jan. 10, and d. Feb. 7. Deborah, b. 1743, 
June 26, and d. 1744, March 22. llizpah. b. 1746. Dec. 15, and d. 1749, 
May 6. Solomon, b. 1750, April 15, and d. April 17. Kezia,. b. 1753, 
April 10. Hannah, b. 1754, Nov. 19; in. Asa Patten, 13. Abigail, b. 1756, 
Feb. 2. David, b. 1758, Aug. 20; m. 1792, July 12, Euhaniah Davis, 
of Chelmsford. Lnn/, b. 1760, Sept. 11. 

11. Samuel, soil of Thomas. 4, b. 1713, April 12; ni. 1754, Dec. 10, 
Elizabeth Hoslev. the widow of John, 3. She d. 1779. March 31, and he d. 
1797, Jan. 8. Ch. Elizabeth, b. 1755, July 12; in. Joseph Farmer, 12. 
Bachel, b. 1757, April 5. (The baptismal record names this child Martha). 
Fhebe, b. 1759, Nov. 17; m. Thomas Craig. 

12. Benjamin, son of Thomas, 4, b. 1724, April 9; m. 1747, Ai)ril 2, 
Sarah Pollard, dau. of Edward. 2. Ch. Benjamin, b. 1747, Dec;. 21, and d. 
1749, Sept. 6. Jeremiah, b. 1749, July 23; m. 1780, April 11, Pebecca 
Totman. Sarah, b. 1751, Aug. 1; m," Joseph Foster, 10. Elisabeth, b. 
1753, Sept. 27; in. Jonathan Bayley. Benjamin, b. 1755, Dec. 1; in. 1784, 
Sept. 12, Betty Davis, widow of Joshua, 3. Salomon, b. 1758, Feb. 19, and 
d. June 21. Bhoda, b. 1759, June 26; m. 1781, Feb. 20, John Frye, of 
Andover. Patte, b. 1761, Aug. 12; ni. Nahuin Baldwin, 16. JRizpah. b. 
1763, Sept. 10; m. Edward Fanner, IG. Allice, b. 1766, May 14; m. 1785, 
July 16. Olii-e, b. 1769, March 5. 

13. Thomas, son of Thomas. 5, b. 1723-4, Feb. 22; m. 1759, 
March 8, Aliigail Pollard, dau. of Edward, 2. Ch. Isaac, b. 1760, May 22. 
Abigail, b. lf61. Sept. 22; in. Jesse Manning, 17. Abel. b. 1764, July 23. 
Zilpah. b. 1767. Oct. 2. 

14. John, son of William, 6, b. 1743-4, Jan. 13; ni. 1769. March 17, 
Susannah Chamberlain. She d., and he m. a widow Sanders, of 


Tewksbury. where he lived unci had other eh. Ch. liehecca. b. 1770, 
April 8. 

15. William, son of William. 6, b. 1748. April 12: m. 1773. July 16, 
Susanna AVilson. She d. 1773. Sept. 1-4. and he ni. 1777, May 20. Susanna 
Wilson, who d. 1801. Ai)ril. aged 48. He d. 1802. April. Ch. WWiam, b. 
1778. May 24. and d. 1708. Sejjt. 20. Thomas. 20, b. 1780, Jan 2(5. Francis, 
b. 1782. 3Iareh 21. and d. 1805, Sept. 21. Sumnna. b. 1784. Sept. 17. and d. 
1803, March 17. John. 21, b. 1786, Sept. 1. »S'rtra^. b. 1788, June 3 ; ni. 
1810. Nov. 18, Moses Foster, ot Andover. Oliver., b. 1790, Aug.. and d. 
1796, March 15. Hcnrii. 22, b. 1792, July 27. Joshua, b. 1795,' July 31 ; 
ui. : lived in Cbarlestown: d. 1870. 

16. Nahiim, son of Wllhain. 6, b. 1759. May 16; in. 1783, Sept. 25, 
Patte Baldwin, dau. of Benjaniin, 12. Ch. Mary. b. 1784, April 4; m. 
Bird. Slie d. after 1850. and a dau. Mary. Fatty, b. 1789. June 27; m. 
Thomas Slicd, 24-. Bizpah. b. 1791, May 8; not m. Mihuni, b. 1793, 
Nov. 10; not m. 

17. John, son of John. 9, b. 1731, Nov. 1; m. 1758. Feb. 3. Elizabeth 
Parkhurst, of Chelmsfoi-d. ('h. John. b. 1759. Marcli 3. Timothy, b. 1762, 
April 13; m., and lived in Lyndeboro', X. H. ; had two sons. John and 
Joel. 23. Bptty. b. 1763. July 27; m. Asa Marshall. Joel. h. 1766. May 8; 
d. unmarried. Asa. b. 1770, Nov. 15; m. 1795, Feb. 11, Kuth Kidder. 
Sarah, b. 1776. Jan. 5. 

18. Reuben, m. 1787. Nov. 13, Sarah Farmer, dau. of Edward. 10. 
He was drownetl 1807, Mav 13. Ch. Edward Farnifv. b. 1788, April 5. 
Sally, b. 1790, Aug. 6. Bizpah. b. 1794. JulyJ5; m. 1818, Dec. 6. Henry H. 
Merrill. Almeria. b. 1796. April 24. Jonathan, b. 1798. April 7. Hannah 
Farmer, b. 1800, Julv 12. George, b. 1803. April 11. 3Iary. b. 1806, 
Feb. 22. "^ 

19. Abel. Name on tax-list. 1766-78, and he m. 1767. Jan. 21, 
Abigail Frencli, dau. of Ebenezer, 14. No children are recorded. 

20. Thomas, son of William, 15, b. 1780, Jan. 26; m. 1804, Aug. 5, 
Lydia Brown. He d. 1811, Aug. 28. Ch. Susan Wilson, bap. 1805, 
Nov. 17. William, bap. 1807. April 19. Louisa, bap. 1807. Sept. 20. 

21. John, son of William, 15, b. 1786, Sept. 1; m. 1810, Nov. 15, 
Clarissa Parker, dau. of Isaac, of Andover. She d. 1867, May 28, aged 75. 
Col. Baldwin was a leading and influential citizen; often called to 
important otfii-es; d. 1875, June 25. Ch. Sarah, b. 1811, June 29. Clarissa, 
b. 1813, May 23; d. 1814. Oct. 22. John. 24, b. 1815, May 25. Francis, 
26, b. 1817", June 18. Mary. b. 1819. Nov. 0; m. Charles H. Parker. 25. 
Ellen, b. 1821. April 23; d."l825. Sept. 14. Elizabeth Caldwell, b. 1824, 
Aug. 19. 

22. Henry, son of William. 15, b. 1792. July 27; m. 1819. June 20, 
Anne Whiting, dau. of dea. Sanuiel, 12 He was a merchant and lived on 
the east side of the counnon; d. 1846, June 1, and his widow, 1874, July 28. 
Ch. Henry Augustus, b. 1821, March 12; d. 1853. Feb. 11. Samuel Whiting, 
b. 1824, March 8. He was the first soldier drafted from town in the war, 
and responded promptly, doing brave and good service. Mary Ann, b. 
1825. Sept. 7; d. 1828, Sept. George F., b. 1827, Sept. 17; d. 1850, 
Jan. 26. 

23. Joel, son of Timothy, of Lyndeboro". N. H., and grandson of 
John. 17, m. Mary Fry. He removed from Lyndeboro" to Billerica. 1825, 
and lived west of the Shawshin river, at the first place south of the 
Wilmington road. He d. 1850, April 19, aged 54. Ch. John Fry, b. 1823, 
March 14. Joel, 26, b. 1824, Aug. 24. Mary Ann. b. 1826. Dec. 4; m. 
William Mannhig. (.see 15). Charlotte Fry. b. 1830, June 18; d. 1832, 
July 14. Charles Henry, b. 1834, Jan. 8; d. 1837. May 25. William Henry, 
b. 1838. Jan. 14; m. Mary Balkani and lives in Lowell. 

24. John, son of "John, 21, b. 1815. March 25; m. Lucy Ann 
Mears. He now lives in Chicago. Ch. John Albert, b. 1837, Nov. 6. 
Herbert Livingston, b. 1843, Feb. 1. 


25. Francis, son of John, 21, b. 1817. .Time IS; ni. 1839, Nov. 28, 
Rachel Ann Parker, of AVihniugton. He d. 1878, Dec. IS. Ch. Frank 
Stanley, b. 1841. Oct. 26; d. 1819. Feb, 2. Ellen, b. 1843, Feb. 17; d. 
Sept. 2. Langdon Williams, b. 184.5. April 13, and d. Oct. 13. Annie 
Gilbert, b. 1847. Sept. 12; m. Prof. Samuel Tucker. Catherine Gillis. b. 
1851. March 20; m. Fred. H. Parker, (see 24). Henrij. b. 1804, May 28. 

26. Joel, sou of Joel. 23, b. 1824. Aug. 24; m. Elizal)eth Trull, of 
Tewksbury. C'h. Annie Miranda, b. 18.50, Dec. 27; m. Joseph Jaquith, 
{see 9). Joel Washington, b. 1853. Feb. 1, 

BALLARD, Jonathan, m. 1722. Aug. 30. Hannah Kidder, dau. of 
Ephraim. 3. Ch. Jonathan, b. 1723, Aug. 16. Ephraim. b. 1725, May 6. 
Hannah, b. 1726. Oct. 28. 

BARKER, Hiram Parker, b. in Hard^vick. Mass.. 1838, Nov. 3; m. 
1863. March 19. Carolina* Frances Harrington, dau. of Zadoc. Ch. George 
Hiram, b. 1863, Aug. 7. Edward Augustus, b. 1864, Nov. 5. 

BARRETT. 1. Oliver, is on tax-Ust, 1768-70. Ch. Benjamin Fish, 
bap. 1770, Jan. 21. . 

2. Stephen, perhaps son of Col. James, of Concord; m. 1781, April 8, 
Lucy Kidder, dau. of Ephi-aim. 15. Ch. Stephen. 3, b. 1781. Sept. 11. 
John. b. 1784. Feb. 1. Lucy. b. 1786, Feb. 16. Sally, b. 1791. June 15. 
Polly, b. 1793, Oct. 1; m. 1815. Jan.. John Kichards. Lucinda. b. 1799. 
May 26. Martha, b. 1801. March 5. Abigail, b. 1804. June 28. 

'3. Stephen, son of Stephen. 2, b. 1781. Sept. 11; m. 1807. May 10, 
Olive Eogers, widow of Thomas, 17, who d. 1848, Sept. 2. Ch. Thomas 
Bogers, b. 1809, March 4. 

4. Stephen, of Medford. m. 1805. Nov. 28. Lucretia Da^^s, dau. of 
Timothy, 5, and 1810, May 22, Christina G. Welsh. Ch. Lucretia, b. 1806, 
Sept. 6. 

BARRON. 1. Samuel, and wife Sarah. Ch. Jane, b. 1736, Dec. 1. 
Susanna, b. 1738, April 26. 

2. Moses and wife Elizabeth; he d. 1761. Nov. 4, and she m. 1766, 
Dec, Samuel Fowle. of Woburu. Ch. Isaac, 3, b. 1750. Sept. 18. 
Elizabeth, b. 1753, Feb. 12. Bichard, b. 1756, April 30 ; d. 1762, Aug. 25. 
Moses, b. 1758, July 8. 

3. Isaac, son of Moses. 2, b. 1750, Sept. 18; m. 1772, June 4, Anna 
Spaulding. dau. of Asa. 3. Ch. Isaac, b. 1772, Sept. 12. Moses, b. 1776, 
April 26." Anna, b. 1781. July 6. Isaac, b. 1783, Nov. 24. 

BATCHELLER. 1. Joseph, m. 1796. Dec. 15. Hannah Trull, dau. of 
Samuel. 8. Ch. Joseph, b. 1797. April 25. Josiah. b. 1799. May 28. 
Hannah, b. 1800. Oct. 28 ; m. 1822. June 25, James H. Eames. of Reading. 
Sophronia, b. 1802. May 20 ; m. 1825, May 19, William Taihtor, of Boston. 
Eliza, b. 1804, Feb. 20. Brooks Trull, b."l813. Jan. 7. 

2. Isaac, had John Fovler bap? 1814. Nov. 27. Frederick Augusttis 
Prince, was bap. 1812. May 24. but the father's name is wanting. 

BEAIV, William, on tax-list, 1770-2. Ch.William. bapt. lf72, April 25. 

BEARD. 1. Andrew, was in Menotomy, [Arlington]. 1672. His son. 
Ebenezer, was b. in Charlestown. and that .John and Simon were his 
sons is probable. He was in Billerica as early as 1713; lived east of 
the Shawshin, in the part of the town annexed to Wilmington, in 1737. 
He d. 1717-8, Jan. 8, and his widow. Mary. m. James Frost, 5. 
Ch. John, 2. Simon, m. 1725, Jime 2, Sarah Hopkins, dau. of 
William. 1. Ebenezer. 3, b. 1701-2, Jan. 1. Jacob, 4, b. 1709. Dec. 26. 
Martha, b. 1714. Aug. 21 ; m. Jacob Manning. 9. Nathan had a guardian, 

2. John, {see above), m. Hannah. Ch. John, 5, b. 1716. Aug. 26. 
Aaron, 6, b. 1717. Nov. 25. Andreu-, b. 1719, Sept. 11. 3Iary, b. 1721, 
Aug. 13. and d. 1738. June 11. David, 7, b. 1723, April 19. Jonathan. 8, b. 
1725. May 9. Xathan, 9, b. 1728. Oct. 3. 

3. Ebenezer, son of Andrew. 1, b. 1701-2. Jan. 1; m. Esther. 
Ch. Esther, b. 1725, June 27 ; m. 1757. Feb. 15, Nathaniel Cutler, of Wobum. 

10 BEARD. 

Prob. Ehvnczrr. 10, and some, if not all. of the following: Samuel. 11, 
Isaac, 12, Ahi}"h, 13, Jusiah. 14, an;l Bnijamin, 15. 

4". Jacob, son of Andrew. 1, b. 1709, Dec. 2G; m. Abigail; lived in 
Wilmington. Ch. Ahiquih b. 1737. July 11. Jacob, b. 1738. .lul}" 2, an;l d. 
1739. ]NJareh 10. Jacob, b. 1741. Dec; m. 1776. Feb. 22, Olive'Hazeltino. 
J/'H'?/. b. 1744. Aug. 20; m. Josiah Cutler, of Medford. Martha, b. 1747. 
March 22; ni. Ezra Baldwin. Abi(/ail, b. 1750. Sept. 3; m. Jonathan 
Baldwin, jr. Eubm. h. 1752. March 10. and Bi(tJi, bap. 1756, Feb. 8. 

5. John, son of John. 2, b. 1716. Aug. 26; ni. Hannah; lived in 
Wilmington. Ch. John. Id, b. 1745. April 3. Joseph, h. 1747. Se])t. 27. 

6. "Aaron, son of John, 2, b. 1717. Nov. 25; m. Susanna — -; 
lived in ^\ ilmington. Ch. Aaron, b. 1742. Aug. 4. 

7. David, son of Jolm. 2, b. 1723. April 19; m. Hannah ; 

lived in Wilmington. Ch. Stephen, b. 1771, Dec. 26. James, b. 1774. 
Jan. 15. Aarnn.^h. 1775, April 11. Hannah, b. 1778. Nov. 21. 

8. Jonathan, son of John, 2, b. 1725, May 9; m. 1746, May 15, 
Deborah Buck; lived in Wilmington. Ch. Mar/f. h. 1747. April 20; m. 

Timothy Baldwin. Jonathan, b. iTol. Nov. 23; m. Abigail . and had 

6 ch. 

9. Nathan, son of John. 2, b. 1728. Oct. 23; m. 1754. Sept. 2G. Mary 
Flagg; lived in Wilmington. Ch. Lydia. b. 1755. April 4. Nathan, b. 1756. 
March 30; m. 1778. Nov. 24. Sarah Fames. Enth. b. 1758. Nov. 9. 
Hannah, b. 1760. Aug. 20. iMollie. b. 1762, April 28. Al>el, b. 176(?), 
Feb. 11. A1a<jaU. b. N67. March 16. 

10. Ebeiiezer, prob. son of Ebenezer, 3, m. Catherine . She m. 

2d, 1789. Sept. 2, IJeuben Butters ; lived in Wilmington. Ch. El>enezer. b. 
1752. Feb. 12; m. 1782. Sept. 26, Lvdia Jenkins; had Abigail and Ebenezer, 
Elijah, b. 1754, March 27. Edimrd. b. 1756. Sept. 1 ; m. 1783. .Vpril 10. 
Polly Burt; had Edward and others. AJnyail. b. 1759. Marcli 7. Catharine, 
b. 1762, Feb. 15. Elijah, b. 1765, Sept. 3; ^n. 1785. March 17. Phebe Jones. 

11. Sainnel, (sre3), m. 1759. Jan. 25. Rebecca Butters; lived in 
Wilmington. Ch. Samuel, b. 1759, Dec. 22. Rebecca, b. 1761, Nov. 14. 
Hepsil}a)i, b. 1773. Jan. 25; m. 1803. Sept. 4, Benjamin Foster. 

12. Isaac, {see^i), m. 1762. Dec. 16. Eebecca Jaquith. His name on 
B. tax-Hst, after 1773. Ch. prob. Isaac. 17. Jonas, b. 1764. NT)v. 26. 
liebecca. b. 1766. Feb. 4. Esther, b. 1769. Feb. 15; m. Benjamin Beard. 18. 
Ira, h. 1779. Sept. 3. Sarah, bap. 1786. Jan. 8. 

13. Abijah, (f^'-e 8), m. 1763, Dec. 8. Hannah Frost, dau. of John, 12. 
Name disa])i)ears from tax-list, 1777. Ch. Hannah, b. 1764, Nov. 15. 
Abijah, b. 1767, June 25; m. Abigail Stickney, dau. of William, 5, and 
lived in Grafton and Bridgewater, Vt. Sarah, b. 1770, Sept. 23. John 
Frost, b. 1773, Jan. 12. Abigail, b. 1775, Nov. 4. 

14. Josiali, (seeS). m. 1765. April 11, Elizabeth Crosby, dau. of 
Nathan, 12, and 1784, Dec. 29, Sarah Paige, of Bedford, dau. of John, 5. 
No children recorded. 

15. Benjamin, (see 3), m. 1767. Feb. 3, Abigail Clark. Ch. Benjamin, 
18, b. 1768. May 18. 

16. John, son of John, 5, b. 1745. April 3; ni. 1765, May 30, Sarah 
Walker, dau. of Joseph. 6. She d. 1769, May 31. and he m. Nov. 16, 
Abigail Kemp, of Chelmsford. Ch. 3Ioses. b. 1766. April 22. Joseph and 
Jifajv/. b. 1768. Aug. 5; d. Aug. 5 and 7. ^flj'fl/i, b. 1770, Nov. 1. Jonathan, 
b. 1775, Dec. 31. 

17. Isaac, (see 12). m. 1791. Sept. 1. Polly Eichardson. He lived on 
the Woburn road, near the Burlington line. Ch. Man/, b. 1791, Nov. 22. 
Isaac, b. 1794. Oct. 13. Behrcea. b. 1797. Mav 20. Esther, b. 1800, March 3. 
Jonas, b. 1802. Feb. 27. Clarissa, b. 1804,' March 5. Hezekiah. b. 1806, 
June 28. Benjamin, b. 1809. Feb. 20. Artemas. b. 1811. May 11. 

18. Benjamin, son of Benjamin. 15, h. 1768, Mav 18; m. 1798, 
Dec. 30. Esther Beard, dau. of 'Isaac, 12. She d. 1846. Aug. 23. He 
lived on the East road, where his daughter, Mrs. Holden, now lives. 
Ch. Amaiida Bebecca Jaquith, b. 1803, July 31 ; m, Asa Holden. 



19. Benjamin F., perhaps son of Isaac. 17, in. 1833, April 4, 
Betsey C. Goodwin, dau. of Reuel. Ch. Uriah Gooduiii. h. 1845. Feb. 4. 

20. Benjamin, ni. Susan. Ch. George Henry, h. 1845, Aug. 23. 

21. Daniel, son of Jafol). of AVihnington ; ni. 1804, Dec. 20. Rebecca 
Clark, of Chelmsford. 

BELL, John, appears on tax-list. 1766. and a widow. Mary Bell, prob. 
his mother. 1761-70. His n-ame disappears, 1785. Ch. J<iJt)i. bab. 1776. 
Nov. 17. .hihii. bap. 177!), July 25. Eliah. ba^). 1781. Jan. 14. William. 
bap. 1782. Dec. 3. Daniel, bap. 1784, June 13. 

BENNETT. James, of Groton, (statement of his granddaughter, Mrs. 
McPherson, of Chelmsford,) was the father of Stephen. 1, and James, 2, 
who appear on the tax-list of Billerica in 1780. He had other sons, 
Jonathan. Thomas, and Joseph, and was prob. himself the son of Moses 
and Anna Blanchard Bennett, and b. 1736, Dec. 5. The father of Moses 
was prob. James, of Groton, in 1704, and of Scotch descent. The brothers, 
Stephen and James, settled near Burlington line, south-east of Shawshin 

1. Stephen, {see above,) is prob. the same who, with wife Elizabeth, 
had John. b. in Groton, 1775, Dec. 25. Other ch. named by Mrs. 
McPherson were Stephen. Thomas. Frank, James. Samuel. Jonas. Keziah. 
Bannah. m. 1801, Sept. 3. Giles Alexander, Betsey, Sarah, and Rehecca, and 
two othei's. , 

2. James, had ch. Polly, b. about 1785 ; m. 1834, July 20, James C. 
McPherson. and is living in Chelmsford. Nancy, ni. Joseph T. Bowers. 9. 

Lucy. ni. 1822. April 28. Reuben Richardson, of Dracut. James, m. 

Nevers. and lived in Burlington. Edward, m. 1806. June 8, Rebecca 
Richardson, dau. of Ebenezer. 18, and lived in Burlington. Joshua. 3, b. 
1792. Nov. 27. 

3. Joshua, son of James, 2, b. 1792. Xov. 27. He was for some 
years a teacher in Dorchester, and afterwards was in business in Boston, in 
the firm of Bennett & Felton. He accumulated a large propert3^ At his 
death he left legacies to the clmrches in town. He lived on the west side 
of Long street, "in the north part of the village, where his Avidow still has 
her home in a genial and beneficent old age. She has recently made 
proposals to thetown which will probably result in the founding of a 
public librar_y. He in. 1815, Oct. 8. Eleanor Richardson, dau. of 
Ebenezer. 18, and d. 1865, Aug. 6. Ch. Ellen, b. 1816, Feb. 15; m. 
George Holden. (see 2). Hehecca, b. 1818. June 19; m. 1837, Oct. 17, 
William Wilklns ^Varren, Avho was b. 1814; son of Isaac, of West 
Cambridge, whose wife Frances was dau. of Dr. William Wilkins, and 
granddaughter of Rev. Dr. Cumings. This volume is indebted to him for 
the portrait of Dr. Cumings. He was a merchant at St. Thomas. 1830-40; 
resides now in Boston. 

BICKFORD, Dr., Hezekiah C, was born in Xew London, N. II.. 
1816; graduated Jeilerson Medical College, Philadelphia, 1845. and 
practised his profession six years, in New London, 1851-61, in Billerica, 
and 1861-76. in Charlestown; a skilful and beloved physician. He. m. 1846, 
June 17, Paulina Augusta Coburn. Slie d. 1867, Nov. 29, and he m. 1869, 
April 22. Abigail Gray, dau. of AA'illiam, 3. He d. in \Vol)urn. 1878, 
March 23, aged 60. Ch. Georrje C'o?)?;/';^ b. 1847. March 25. John Truman. 
b. 1849. April 2; d. 1853, Jan. 24. Harriet Augusta, b. 1853. June 20. 

BIRD, 8imon, came to Boston in 1635, aged 20. AVith five others, in 
October, 1635, he was, by the Court, oj-dered to be -'whii:)! for 
runing from their maisters, and for stealeing a boat and dyvrs other 
things." He lived at Chelsea, but in 1659, 3m, •I''-, he received from 
Billerica a ten-acre lot. His house lot contained "fifty-two acres lying 
noithward of the township, and on ye Avest of Chelmsford road, and 
southward of Abofs bridge, bounded by Chelmsford road on ye east 
ninety-five pole, and by John Rogers, sen., south, by John Bracket, north 
by ye great river west." Abot's bridge was at the brook by Mr. Burns" 


place, and Bird's lot included Mr. Stackpole's i)lace and a large part of the 
Dea. Amos Spalding- place. He d. l(i()(i. July 7. leaving no children, but a 
widow, Mary, who m. Henry .lefts. In 1(580. jiortions of liis land were 
deeded by .lefts, as administrator, under execution, to various creditors, 
among whom were the church and Jicv. Mr. Whiting. 

BLANCH ARD. 1. John, was son of Sanuiel, of Andovei-, whose 
father Tliomas cMwe to CharlestoANii in 1(33!). He was b. 1(>77. .July li\ m. 
1701. Aug. 7, Mary Crosby, dau. of Simon. 1, and lived prob.> near Dr. 
Noyes" place. She d. 1748. May 7. He d. 1750. Ai)ril 10. Susanna 
Blanchard, who m. .lonathan Farwell, of Chelmsford, 1723, May 20, was 
perhaps sister of .John. Ch. Mai-ij. b. 1702. Aug. IS. Hannah, h. 1704, 
Oct. 24. liachoJ. b. 170(5-7. Feb. 2. AMgaU. b. 1708-9. .J:in. 23. /S'rtmA. b. 
1711. .Tune 5, and d. .Ivme 8. Sarah, h. 1712, May 23. and d. 1713, Apiil 1(5. 
John. b. 1713-14, March 15. and d. :March 18. John. 2, h. 1714-15. Fel). 15. 
Samuel. 3, b. 1717, Aug. 17. iJarid. b. 1719-20. March 20. Bcujaniin. b. 
1722. .lulv 5. Simon. 4, b. 172.5-(), March 1(5. 

2. John, son of .Tohn, 1. b. 1714-15, Feb. 15; m. 1739, Nov. 29, 
Elizabeth Kicliardson. dau. of ^{ndrew. 4. He d. 1756, July 27, and she m. 
Braviter Gray. Ch. Elizabeth, b. 1740-1, Jan. 14; m. Thomas Ditson. 4. 
John, 6, b. 1743, July 24. Abigail, b. 1746, Oct. 13; m. 1773, Dec. 14, 
Nathan Parker, of Cambridge. Lemuel, b. 1749, July 1; living in 
Cambridge. 1778. Jonah, b. 1752. June 4. Fan!, b. 1754, April 2. 
Hannah, b. 1756, Nov. 22; m. Solomon Hill. 20. 

3. Samuel, son of .John, 1, b. 1717, Aug. 17; m. 1747,, July 14, Mary 
Brown, dau. of William. 6. He d. 1807. :March 26. She d. 1811. Marcli .1 
Ch. 3Innj. h. 1747-8, Jan. 28. Samuel. 6, b. 1748-9. March 6. William, b. 
1750. March 21. Sarah, b. 1754. .Jan. 31; m. Benjamin Lewis. Timothy. 
b. 1755. Oct. 16; wounded at Lexington. Martha, (record of baptism says 
Nathan), b. 1757, Aug. 2; m. Benjamin Blanchard, of Wilton. lihoda. b. 

1762. Nov. 17; in. 1786. Jan. 26. Sanuiel Abbot. Jeremiah. 7, b. 1764, 
July 10. Ahimaaz. b. 1767, April 26. Jonathan, b. 17(59. Feb. 20. 

4. Simon, son of .John, 1, b. 172.5-6. March 1(5; m. 1746, Dec. 17, 
Rebecca Sheldon, dau. of Sanuiel. 3. He d. 1796, April 20. She d. 1814, 
March 3. Cli. Deborah, bap. 1748. Oct. 23. Simon. 8, b. 1749, Dec. 23. 
Jothan. 9, b. 1752, March 6. liebecca. b. 1754, March 20; in. (Jeorge 
Abbot, 11. Abijah. b. 1756, March 24. Justus, b. 17.58, Nov. 22, (the 
baptismal record says Eufus). Isaac. 10, b. 1761, Jan. 15. Susanna, b. 

1763, April 2; m. .Job Hill. 24. Joseph. 11, 1). 1765, Oct. 17. Asenath. 
b. 1768, March 17 ; in. Michael Crosby. 32. 

5. John, son of John, 2, h. 1743, July 24; m. Sarah. His first 
child was born in Marblehead, and he lived in Charlesto-\\n. 1768. 
Ch. Elizabeth, b. 1767, Aug. 12. Salle, b. 1771, May 16. A->nah. b. 1772, 
Nov. 4; m. 1797, .Jan. 24," Ezra Johnson. John. 12, b. 1774, May 17. 
Francis, 13, b. 1775, Oct. 1. Luce, b. 1777, March 10. Elisha. b. 1779, 
June 17. Josiah. b. 1781, June 12. and lived in Whitingham, Vt. ; m. 
Rachel Clements, of Dracut; had sixteen children, and d. 1853, Aug. 13. 

6. Samuel, son of Samuel. 3, b. 1748-9, March 6; m. 1779, Dec. 23. 
Mary Hill, dau. of Peter. 17. Ch. prob. Samuel, jr., who had I^ydla. bap. 
1806, Dec. 21. 3Iary, bap. 1781. July 1; m." 1808. March "l. Cyrus 
Blanchard. of Milford, N. H. Jnclith. bap. 1782. Sept. 1 ; m. 1804, Feb. 12. 
Cyrus Blanchard. Len. b. 1784. Nov. 7. Sewall. Erving and Silence, 
bap. 1793, Nov. Alden. bap. 1795, Nov. 

. 7. Jeremiah, son of Samuel. 3, b. 1764. .July 10; m. 1795. June 17, 
Mary Going; he d. 1819, May 22 ; lived at the Odiorne place, now occupied 
by I)r. Noyes. Ch. Jeremiah, b. 1797. Jan. 26; d. 1820, Jan. 10. He was 
secretary of the first governor of Arkansas. John (ioven. h. 1799. .Jan. 30. 
Studeiit'at Harvard College. Went to Maryland and studied law. but never 
practiced that profession. Became an Episcopal clergyman in 1824. Rector 
of St. Anne's parish, Annapolis. 1826; m. 1826, .Jan. 5. Elizabeth Hance 
Philpot; d. 1834, Oct. He had ch. EUzabeth P., Edward Wyatt, a lawyer, 


in Baltimore, tl. 1877. Aug. 29. John J. d. aged 17. and AVilliam. now of 
New \ork. Mart/, h. ISOl. Sept. 7; ni. .Tames Jaques. of AVilminoton 
Sophia, h. 1803. Nov. 27. and d. 181(). June 22. Adeline, b. 1805. Dee. 8- 
m. John Tyler, of Boston; d. 1875. Jan. 9. Jilwda, h. 1815, and d. 1817' 
May 5. ' 

8. Simon, son of Simon. 4, b. 1740, Dec. 23; m. 1774, Jan. 20, 
Catharine AVyman. dau. of Increase. Removed about 177(j, to Milford] 
N. H., where he d. about 1828. His widow d. 1838. ("h. Dennisvn, b. 1775,' 
June 4. Abijnh. bap. 1778. Feb. 22. Others b. in Milford were Amaziah, 
Luther. Calvin, Clara. Xanrt/. Betsey. Lydia, Catherine, Rebecca. 

9. Jotham, son of Simon. 4, b. 1752. March G; m. 1773, Nov. 2, 
Abigail Crosby, dau. of Ephraim. 16. Removed al)Out 1778. to Lyndeboro'', 
N. H. (;li. Jotham, b. 1774, Feb. 9. Asa. b. 1775. Nov. 30. Ephraim, 
b. 1778. Marcli 1. Otliers h. in Lyndeboro' were Abigail. Polly, Rebecca 
Crosby, Fanny, and Sa)Xih. 

10. Isaac, son of Simon. 4, b. 1761, Jan. 15; m. 1782. Sept. 12. Ruth 
Duncklee. dau. of Nathaniel. He lived in Carlisle. The baptismal register 
gives the children. Isaac. Abijah. and Benjamin. 1788. Oct. 26. Cyrus. 
1789, July 5. Rnthy. 1790. Aug. 1. Susannah. 1796, July 3. Simon. 1798^ 
May 27. Abigail, 1801, April 5. Bethiah Lincoln, 1803. Aug. 20. Isaac, jr., 
lived in C'liarlestown; town treasurer, custom-house officer, and deacon of 
2d church. Of his children. Sarah Stoddard m. Henry K. Frothingham. 
Vrylena m. Richard Frothingham. tlie eminent historian. Isaac AV. was an 
officer of the Eagle Bank, and Sampson S. was i)resident of the Hamilton 

11. Joseph, son of Simon, 4, b. 1765. Oct. 17; m. 1788. June 10, 
Mehitable Waters, of Carlisle. She d. 1794. June 7, and he m. 1798, 
Nov. 15, Sarah Brown, of Tewksbury. Ch. Mehitable. b. 1790. Oct. 5; 
m. Josiah Rogers, 20. Rebecca, b. 1793. Sept. 14; m. 1815. Oct. 1, Thomas 
Smiiner, of Boston. Sarah, b. 1799, Dec. 17; m, Elijah Stearns, of 
Walpole. Mass., and d. 1873. Eliza, b. 1801, Oct. 24; "lives in Lowell. 
Harriet, h. 1803. Sept. 16; m. Sumner Crosby, (see 30). Joseph, 14, 
b. 1805. April 22. iMaria. b. 1807, March 20;"d. 1848, Dec. Adolphus, 
b. 1809. May 8; d. about 1834. Henry: b. 1811. Sept. 25; graduated 
Harvard College. 1834; m. Sarah C. Farmer, dau. of Jeremiah, 15. 
Physician in Marshfield, Mass.. 1840-1864. and since, in Neponset, [Boston]. 
His ch. Emilv A., Edward O., Rebecca S.. and Henrv S. Jerusha Brown, 
b. 1813. April 20; d. 1874, Dec. Mary Augusta, b. 1816, Oct. 23; m. 1840, 
Henrv Worcester, of TeA\ks])ury. 

12. John, son of John, 5", b. 1774, May 17; m. 1794, Oct. 1, Molly 
Holt, of Andover. Ch. John Reid and Mary Wyman, both bap. 1797, 
Aug. 20. 

13. Francis, son of John, 5, b. 1775, Oct. 1; m. 1800, July 16, Sarah 
Sticknev. dau. of William. 5. She d. 1846, March 10. Ch. Francis, b. 1805. 
William, 15, b. 1806. Oct. 5. 

14. Joseph, son of Joseph, 11, b. 1805, April 22; m. Rhoda 
Worcester, of Tewksburv. He d. 1856. Jan. 15. Ch. Caroline, b. 1843, 
Nov. 10. Mary. b. 1845." July 22. and d\1848, March 9. Mary. b. 1848, 
June 22. Joseph, b. 1850. July 17. Adolphns, Annie. 

15. William, son of Francis. 13, b. 1806, Oct. 5; m. 1830, June 24, 
Lydia Ann Poor, of Andover. Mercliant and postmaster for some years. 
He lives on Main street, opp. West street. Ch. Ann, b. 1831, June 20; 
d. 1834, Sept. 25. William Henry, b. 1833. Jan. 6; m. 1853, Ann J. Burt; 
d. 1861, Oct. 16. Catherine Amelia, b. 1834, Sept. 9; d. 1846. July 23. 
Emma Ann, b. 1839. Julv 18; d. 1841. Sept. 25. Harriet Ellen, b. 1841, 
Mav 11 ; d. 1850, March 12. Mary Frances, b. 1844, April 25. John Edtcin. 
b. 1852, Feb. 11 ; d. 18.55, Jan. 1. 

BLODGtETT, Amos, of Lexington, is on tax-list, 1754-55. Betty, 
bap. 1754, June 30. 


BLOOD, John and Robert, brothers, were sons of James, of Concord. 
They b«Hu>iit. i'arl_v. the extensive <>'rants made by the General Court to 
Mr. Increasi* Nowell and Kev. Thomas Allen, of Charlestown. and Mr. 
Atherton Hough, of Boston. These farms were Avest of Concord river, 
and below Concord, ••old line.*' and for some years their civil relations 
were uncertain. Committees to •perambulate' the town lines; went 
over the line ••with the Bloods." but they were among the persons whose 
taxes were in default, after the troubles of 167G. and were ordered by the 
General Court to pay thi'Ui to Billerioa. A few years later, they made an 
agreement with Concord, and were atterw;u-ds held bv that town. John 
was not m., and il. KJD'i. Oct. :W. Kobert m. Elizal)eth Willard, dau. of 
Major Simon, and had 12 ch.. but none of their births are recorded here. 
He'd. 1701. Oct. 27. 

BLY, Daniel, was in town, in 1077. and for a few years after. 
Marhu of whom lie was ••y" reputed father," was b. 1G77, June 30. 

BOHONAN, Ananiah,* son of Ananiah; b. in Salisbury, N. H., 1783, 
May 8; m. Lucy Stanley, and 1838, Oct. 28. Abby Spaulding, dau. of 
Benoni. She d. 185G. Aug. 24. anil he m. 18.56, Oct. 10, Almira Stratton 
Spalding, her neice. He d. 1859. May 23, aged 70, and she m. George 
Wilkins, of Carlisle. Ch. born in Salisl)ury. Suphia B., Benjamin Stanln/, 2, 
b. 1808, Betsey E., Peter Bartlett, 3, Sarah. Mark Morrill. Ahir/ail. WiJliam 

2. Benjamin Stanley, son of Ananiah, h. 1808; m. Louisa Capen 

and Abigail . He (l. 18()9, Dec. 26. Ch. Sarah, Georgiana. Louisa. 

Alfred aiid Alherl. h. 1840. May 17. 

3. Peter Bartlett, son of Ananiah. 1). 1812, March 31; m. 1842. 
Oct. 11, Susan E. Tibbetts. of Kochester, X. H. He has been for many 
years the station agent of the Boston & Lowell railroad. Ch. Francis 
Bartlett. b. 184.'), July 4; d. 1872, Oct. 23. Harriet Augusta, b. 1848, April 8. 

BOND, Jonathan, and wife Polly had ch. Leonard, b. 1800, March 20. 
Elijah, h. 1801. Sept. 29. 

' BONNER, Mary, m. 1788. Feb. 4, William Hickel. Margaret m. 1788, 
March 13. James Ingles, of Bedford. 

BOWERS. 1. Jonathan, ancestor of the family in town, was b. in 
Chelmsford. 1074. .Vpril 13. son of Jerathmeel. who was son of George, 
of Canibi'idge. and )j. lO-oO. May 2. He had bi-others Benanuel. who in. 
Elizabeth Dunster. cousin of President Henry Duuster. of Harvard 
College, and lived in Charlestown; and John, who graduated H. C. 1049, 
teacher in Plymouth and New Haven, minister in Guilford and Brandford, 
and pastor in Derby, Conn., 1677. until death. 1687. June 14. Capt. 
Jerathmeel Bowers, a brother of our Jonathan, lived in Chelmsford, near 
Pawtucket, and was a leading citizen. The children of Capt. Jonathan 
were all born in Chelmsford; he removed to Billerica before 1729, as 
his son Beniamin entered college from B. ; he m. 1699. May 17, 
Hannah Barrett, and d. 1744-5, Feb. 12. She d. 1765, Oct. 16. aged 86. 
Ch. Jerathmeel. b. 1700. Jan. 5; m. 1735-6. March 17. Elizabeth Farley, 
dau. of Timothy, 7. Jonathan, b. 1701. July 5; m. 1726. June 7, Mary 
Grimes. Hannah, b. 1703, Xov. 11. John. b. 1707. Sept. 20; m. 1733, 
Aug. 14. Anna Crosby, dau. of Josiah. 5 ; he then lived in Dracut. William. 
2, b. 1709, Jan. 8. Sarah, b. 1712, Feb. 25. Benjamin, b. 1713. March 7; 
graduated H. C, 1733; ordained at Middle Haddan. Conn.. 1740, Sept.. 
and d. there in 1761. Jnsiah. 3, b. 1719-20. Jan 10. 

2. William, son of Capt. Jonathan. 1, b. 1709, Jan. 8; m. 1739-40, 
March 16. Elizabeth Tompson. dau. of Benjamin. 2. She d. 1740, 
March 28. and he m. Martha Winship. dau. of Samuel, of Lexington, 
who d. 1797. Feb. '25, aged 82. Capt. AYilliam Bowers d. 1799, Sept. 16. 
Ch. Elisabeth, b. 1739-40, March 15; m. 1763, Sept. 15, John Parkhurst, 
of Lexington; had no ch. ; d. 1822. July 9. Martha, b, 1742. Aug. 23;' 
m. 1765, May 2, Joshua Simonds, of Lexington, who distinguished 
himself, 1775, April 19. They had 8 ch. He d. 1805, July 24. and 


she d. 1819, June 2i. WiUiam. 4, b. 1744. April 23. Jeremiah, b. 1748, 
Dsc. 22. Sarah, bap. 1750, May 6. Jonathan. 5, b. 1751. May is! 
Samuel. 6, b. 1754.. June 3. 

3. Josiali, son of Jonathan. 1, b. 1719-20. Jan. 10; ni. 1744. Jan. 17, 
Abigail Touipson. dau. of Benjamin, 2. She d. 1771, Nov. 5, and he m. 
177.:!, Jan. 2S. Maria, dau. of Rev. Caleb Trowbridge, of Groton. She d. 
1787. Sept. 29. aged 5(). He d. 1794. April 29. Ch. Ahigail. b. 1744, Oct. 12 ; 
ni. 1764. Nov. 29. Auios Muzzy, of Lexington. He d. 1829. May 2 J. and 
slie d. 1838. Dec. 21. Their son. Amos, was father of liev. Artemas 
Bowers Muzzy, H. C, 1821. pastor in Framinghani. Candn'idgeport, and 
Concord. X. H. ; and William, H. C, 1793, long pastor in Sullivan, X. H., 
was another son. Hannah, b. 1746, Oct. 23; d. 1753, Dec. 16. Josinh, 
b. 1748, Dec. 12; ni. 1774. Jan. 6, Hannah Eichardson. dau. of Josiah, 9. 
She d. 1823. Xov. 1. and he d. 1821, Nov. 17. oT^/.s-r/z/i, b. 1751. Sept. 9; 
d. 1772, March 11. Benjamin. 7, b. 1754, Feb. 11. Sarah, b. 1756, Feb. 17; 
d. 1766. July 4. Andrew, b. 1758, Sept. 17; graduated H. C, 1779; 
m. 1799. Jan. 10, Polly Pollard, dau. of Capt. Solomon, S, and lived in 
Salisbury, X. H. ; was several years a representative of that town ; d. 1832. 
Denisnn. b. 1761. May 5. James, b. 1763, Aug. 22; graduated H. C, 1794; 
ordained at Marbleliead, Mass. ; rector of Episcopal church there; d. 1834. 
Hannah, b. 1765, Oct. 28 ; m. Kev. Jacob Xorton. of Weymouth. Sarah. 
b. 1776, Dec. 11 ; m. Luther French. 28. 

4. William, son. of Capt. AVilliam. 2, b. 1744. April 20; graduated 
H. C, 1769. and practised medicine long and successfully in town. He lived 
on the south corner of West street. Married Priscilla Goodrich. He d. 
1820. Nov. 17, and she d. 1834. March 21. aged 85. Ch. Priscilla. b. 1781, 
April 19; d. 1869, Feb. 22. 3Lmi. b. 1782, Dec. 15; d. 1870, April 14. 
Fanny, b. 1786, Sept. 3; d. 1871. March 7. Ka'a. b. 1788, June 8; 
d. July 12. William, b. 1791, Oct. 4; d. 1851. Sept. 16. The memory of 
these sisters will be perpetuated by their generous bequests. Priscilla left 
her estate to the Baptist church ; and Mary and Fanny left about $11,090 
to the town, the income to be used for the benefit of the worthy poor of 
the town. 

5. Jonathan, son of Capt. William, 2, b. 1751. May 13; m. 1783, 
May 15, Dorcas Abbot, dau. of Oliver. 3. He d. 1804. Feb. 21. 
Ch.' Alexander, b. 1783. May 15. 

6. Samuel, son of Capt. AVilliam, 2, b. 1754. June 3; m. Hannah 

. who d. 1779. June 1. and he m. Sarah Hill, widow of Samuel, 27. 

He lived on the east side of Woburn street, at the Fuller place, keeping a 
tavern. He d. 1828. March 2. and she d. 1838. March 20. Ch. Martha. 
b. 1779, May 21. Elizabeth, b. 1781. April 12. Caroline Elliot, b. 1784, 
Jan. 3; m. 1811. June 5, Samuel Little, of Bucksto^^^l, Me. Ann,, 
b. 1787, Feb. 17; m. Eichard Tliurstnn. of Frankport, Me. Margaret,, 
b. 1790, April 16; m. 1812. July 12, Joseph Bradlev, Horatio, b. 1793, 
April 3. Sarah, b. 1796. Feb. 12. 

7. Benjamin, son of Josiah, 3, b. 1754. Feb. 11; m. 1784, March 28, 
Silence Stickney, dau. of Jonathan, 7. She d. 1803. Oct. 16. Ch. Anna,, 
b. 1785, March 14; m. 1813, May 7, Eev. Joseph Eichardson, {see 17). 
Jonathan Stickney, 8, b. 1787. Feb. 1. Wilder, b. 1789. April 13; m. Sarah 
Thompson. Josiah, b. 1791, Sept. 1; graduated medical department, 
Y. C 1816. He settled in Huntington. L. I., where he gained high repute 
as physician and surgeon, and in Setauket and Smithtown, adjoining. 
In later life, adopted homceopathic practice, and was one of the original 
members of the American Institute of Homoeopathy. He was in New 
York, 1850-8. when he returned to Billerica ; d. 1868. Xov. 5 ; twice m. but 
had no ch. Joseph Tompsnn, 9, b. 1794, Sept. 21. Bi-njamin Frankli". b. 
1796, Sept. 30 ; graduated 1819, Yale Medical School, and practised medicine 

• in Xew York, adopting, like his brother, the homa?opathic S5'stem. 
He d. 1875, Feb. 7. Abigail Tompsnn, b. 1799. July 26; d. 1826. July 31. 
Harriet, b. 1801, Sept. 3; m. 1825, May 10, Thomas Eowe, of Boston. 


8. Jonathan Stickney, son of Benjamin. 7, b. 1787. Feb. 1 ; m. Hannah 
Wetherbee. She il. IS.')!, Oct. 4, aged 66; and he d. 1855, March 31. 
Ch. IIininaK b. 1807, June 29; ni. 18->8. June 24, JohnEanies. Henrii. 10, 
b. 1809. Jan. 24. George, b. 1811, May 24; ni. 1841, Aug. 12, Harriet L. 
Poor, of Andover. who d. 1872. July 15; no. ch. Jane. b. 1813, Feb. 19; 
d. 1834, Oct. 13. Albert. 11, b. "1815, May 14. Frances Ann. b. 1817, 
Jan. 29; ni. Benjamin H. Heald. Ellen 3Iaria. b. 1822. April 26; m. 
George W. Wils()n. Harriet Silence, h. 1824. Oct. 1 ; d. 1841, Jan. 12. 

9. Joseph Tompson, son of Benjamin. 7, b. 1794. Sept. 21; m. 1819, 
May 27, Nancy Bennett, dau. of James. 2. Ch. Josiah, b. 1820, April 20. 
Nanci/. b. 1821, Dec. 31. Maria Francex. b. 1824, Jan. 29. 

10. Henry, son of Jonathan 8., 8, b. 1809, Jan. 24; m. Eliza Ann . 

Ch. Mary Elizabeth, b. 1842. Feb. 20. Frances Hannah, b. 1844, Aug. 25. 

11. Albert, son of Jonathan S., 8, b. 1815, May 14; m. Hannah M. 
Lyman, of Weston, who d. 1880, Feb. 19. aged o3. Ch. Ellen Maria, 
b. 1848, ]March 27; m. 1869, June 22, George B. Ordway. William Benton, 
b. 1850. July 12. Edward A., b. 1853, July 23; d. Annie Bichardson, 
b. 1855. May" 25; d. Ahhie Fmncis. b. 1857. April 22 ; d. 

BOWLEND. 1. Benjamin S. and w. Isabella. She m. 2d. Charles 
Goodwin, 4. Ch. Georae. b. 1805, April 13. Mary Langdon Wales, b. 1806, 
Dec. 3. 

2. John, ni. 1821, Nov. 29, Louisa Bradley. Ch. 3fary Augusta. 
b. 1822. Oct. 5. 

BOWMAN. 1. Francis, is on the tax-lists. 1768-78. He was born in 
Lexington. 1718. April 2; son of John,* (Francis.'' Francis. = Xathaniel,^ 
of Watertown and Cambridge Farms) ; m. 1756. June 24. Sarah Simonds, 
and liyed in Bedford, having ch. there. Sarah, b. 1757, April 4, and 
Hannah, b. 1760. Noy. 10. He liyed on the Lexington road, by the crossing 
of the Middlesex Turnpike. Name disappears 1778. 

2. Abel, son of Jonas, and nephew of Francis, 1, was b. in Bedford, 
1747. Feb. 12; m. Lucy Needhani. of Tewksbury. Only his youngest 
child was born in Billerica; he d. here. 1822. July 28. and his widow, 1845, 
March 31. aged 93. Ch. Lnry. b. 1777. Jan. 15; m. John Patten. 15. 
Abiqail. b. 1778. April 22; m. 1801. May 28. Joel Marshall, of Tewksbury. 
Poihi. b. 1779. Dec. 17. Francis, b; 1783, March 12. Bvth. b. 1786, April 4; 
m. Jeremiah Crosby, 36. Abel. 3, b. 1787, Dec. 14. John. b. 1790, 
March 10; m. Catherine lienox, and had ch. Adam and Charlotte. Lydia, 
b. 1792. Aug. 16; m. 1816, Feb., Eichard Freeman. 

3. Abel, son of Abel, 2, b. 1787, Dec. 14; m. 1816, Feb. 4, Hannah 
Frothingham Hunnewell, of Charlestown. He d. 1829, April 22. 
Ch. Wiif'iam H, b. 1816, Nov. 23; m. 18.53, April 23, Ann McKee; lived in 
Nashua and Bedford. Elizabeth, b. 1818, Sept. 20; m. Elliot AVhitford; 
lives in Nashua. Francis. 4, b. 1820. Nov. 16. James, b. 1822, Aug. 30 ; 
d. 1828, Oct. 4. Eclu-in. 5, b. 1824, Aug. 10. Abel, b. 1827, Jan. 8 ; m. Mary 
M. Straw: lives in Nashua. 

4. Francis, son of Abel, 3, b. 1820, Nov. 16; m. 1846, April 23, 
Elizabeth R. Howe, dau. of George. He lives at the family homestead. 
Ch. Alfred Francis, b. 1846, Sept. 11; m. 1871, Jan. 3. Olive Ballou, of 
Gardiner; lives in Concord. Hannah Elizabeth, b. 1848, April 30; m. 1872, 
April 23, TiCwis E. Eobbins, of Nashua. George Howe, b. 1853, Dec. 10. 
Charles Abel. b. 1862. April 27. 

5. Edwin, son of Abel. 3, b. 1824, Aug. 10 ; m. 1852. May 2, Harriet 
Huddleston; now lives in Bedford. Ch. William E., b. 1853, Feb. 2. 
Anqeline. b. 18.54. July 18. Susan H., b. 1856, Dec. 12. Florence Lilian, 
b. 1862, April 22. 

6. Ebenezer, b. in Westford, Vt., 1831, Jan. 13, the son of Thomas, 
whose father, Ebenezer, was b. in Lexington, 1767, Sept. 17. John, his 
father, removed to Clarendon, Vt., about 1770. He m. 18.54, Oct. 13, Lucretia 
A. Pierce, of Taunton, where most of their children were b. He settled 
in B., 1876. Ch. Elliott Augustus, b. 1855, Dec. 6; d. 1857, Aug. 17. 


Clarence Augustine^ b. 1858, Feb. 27. Henry Hartwell, b. 1859, Sept. 5. 
Edunn Vernon, b. 1862, Feb. 11; d. 1805, April 13. John Elliott, h. 1866, 
Dec. 28. Irving Campenjield. b. 1869, Aug. 25. 

BOTNTON, Richard, is on tax-list. 1764. (his name spelled there, 
Bienton). Ch. John, bap. 1763, Oct. 2. Rebecca, bap. 1763, Oct. 13; 
m. 1786. May 22, Nehemiah Eoundy, of Beverly. A child bap. 1766, Nov. 23. 

BRACKET. 1. Capt. Richard, lived in Boston. 1632-11. and after, 
in Bramtree. where he was town clerk, deacon, and leading citizen. His 
name often appears in Billerica records ; prob. he never lived in the town, 
but five of his ch. were among the first settlers here. His wife's name 
was Alice; she d. 1690, aged 76, and he d. 1691, March 5, aged 80. 
Ch. Hannah, bap. 1635, Jan. 4; m. Samuel Kingsley. Peter, 2, and John, 3, 
bap. 1637, May 7. Bachel, b. 1639, Nov. 3; m. Simon Crosby, 1. Mary, 
b. 1642, Feb. 1; m. Joseph Thompson. 1. James, b. (V). Josiah, 4, 
b. 1652. July 8. Sarah m. Joseph Crosby, brother of Simon, 1. 

2 Peter, son of Capt. Eichard, 1, bap. 1637, May 7; m. (says 
Mr. Savage.) 1661, Aug. 7, Elizabeth Bosworth. She d. 1686, Nov. 30, and 
he m. 1687, March 30, Mrs. Sarah Foster, widow of Dr. Thomas, of 
Eoxbury and Cam))ridge. and sister of Benjamin Parker, of Billerica. 
She outlived him, and d. 1718, April 18, aged 78. Ch. Jonathan, b. 1668, 
July 22, and d. 1670-1, March 11. Elizabeth, b. 1671, April 30. Bethia, 
b. 1674, April 10, and d. 1675, March 25. Mary, b. 1680-1, Feb. 10; 
m. Jonathan Hill, 9. 

3. John, son of Eichard. 1, bap. 1637. May 7; m. 1661, Sept. 6, 
Hannah French, dau. of Lieut. William, 1. She d. 1674, May 9, and he m. 
1675, March 31, Euth, prob. dau. of Joseph Ellice; lived at the comer, on 
the west side of the road, and between the two brooks. He d. 1686-7, 
March 18. Ch. Hannah, b. 1662, Dec. 1. Elizabeth, b. 1664, June 7. 
Mary, b. 1665-6, Feb. 12; m. 1683, Nov. 27. Edward Spalding, of 
Chelmsford. Sarah, b. 1667, Dec. 11. Bachel, b. 1669, Sept. 30. Abigail, 
b. 1670, Dec. 31, and d. Jan. 11. Bathsheba, b. 1671-2, March 10, and 
d. 1673, April 24. Samuel, b. 1672-3, March 4. Sarah, b. 1674, May 9, the 
day of her mother's death. John, b. 1675-6, Jan. 19, and d. June 24. 
Ebenezer, b. 1677, Oct. 19. John, b. 1680, Dec. 10. Bethia, b. 1682. May 25. 

4. Josiah, son of Eichard, 1, b. 1652, July 8; m. 1672-3. Feb. 4, 
Elizabeth Waldo, dau. prob. of Cornelius, of Chelmsford, to which town 
he early removed; wa deacon, and d. there, 1701, June 3. One dau. b. in 
Billerica, Elizabeth, b. 1674, Nov. 1. 

BRADDEN, Richard, m. 1763, June 9, Millesent Famum. He d. 1776, 
Sept. 15. Ch. Millesent, b. 1763, Oct. 20; m. 1814, May, Joseph Wetherbee, 
of Dedham. Bobert, b. 1765, Oct. 30. 

BRADFORD. 1. William and wife, Sarah. Ch. Samuel Henly, 
b. 1786, Api-il 30. William, b. 1787, June 10. Charles, bap. 1788, Nov. 16. 

2. John had ch. John bap. 1820, Feb. 6. 

BRADLEY, Joseph, of Dracut, m. 1795, Jan. 25, Lydia Worcester, and 
1812, Julv 2, Margaret Bowers, dau. of Samuel. 6. 

BRADSTREET, Elijah, had Beuben bap. 1800, July 27. 

BREED, James, m. 1792, March 13, Eliza Parker, dau. of John. 14. 
Ch. Polly, b. 1792, June 18. 

Hannah, m. 1786, Oct. 31, Eev. David Osgood, d. d., of Medford. 
He was b. in Andover. 1747, Oct. 14; grad. H. C, 1771; ordained. 1774. 
Sept. 14 ; d. in office, 1822, Dec. 12. A volume of his sermons, and more 
than twenty occasional discourses of this ' eminent divine ' were published. 

BRIDGE. 1. Rev. Ebenezer, and Mrs. Joanna Abbot, widow of 
Nehemiah, both of Chelmsford, m. 1792, May 19. 

2. Col. Ebenezer, son of Eev. Ebenezer. of Chelmsford, who 
commanded a regiment at Bunker Hill, was in Billerica a few year 
before the Eevolution, a merchant, and commanded a company of minute 
men. He did not return after the War, and had no family here ; but he 
m. 1817, Sept. 17, Susan Hartvvell; then lived in Harvard. 


3. Saiiiiu'l, ixM-haps t'roiii Lexington, ni. 1780. March 12. Allk-e 
Pollard, dau. of Solomon. 12. ("h. Samuel, b. 1780. (K-t. ;^. John. b. 1782. 
June 6. Alike', b. 1784, June 19. Charles, b. 178G, May 29. Ctirus. 
b. 1788, Jan. 11. ILnnni. b. 1790. July 7; m. 1818. Jan. i:^. Dorcas Hill, 
widow of Joseph. 2S, who d. 1847, Fel). 10. Martj. b. 1792, Nov. 25. 
Janiex. b. 17i)o. June i;{. Eiiiili/. b. 1798, Feb. 22. Hannah, b. 1807. Aua;. 7. 

BROOKS, Timotliy, son of Henry, .of Woburn. He was in Billerica. 
1670. and bought in l()7;i}, of George Farley, part of the Oakes farm, on the 
Shawshin. near Concord line. Soon after 1680. he i-emoved to Swanzey. 
und in 1684, Biilerica sought to recover dues to Mr. AVhiting from him 
there. He m. 1659, Dec. 2, Mary Russell, who d. 1680. Sept. 15. Ch. in 
Woburn: Timothtj. I>. 1660. Nov. 10; d. soon after. Timothy, b. 1661. 
Oct. 9. John. b. 1(;62, Oct. 16. Marti, who d. 1670. July 2. and doubtless 
others. In Hillerica : Manj. b. .1670. Dec. 15; d. Jan. 14. Mar;i. b. 1671, 
Dec. 10. Ilcpzahak. h. 167.V4, Feb. Anna. It. 1675-6, Jan. 23. LycUa, 
b. 1677-8. Jan. 8. li'-becca. b. 1679. Oct. 5. 

BROWN. 1. Jacob. [In the early records, final -e' is often used] . 
Received in 1658 a grant of an eight-acre lot. His first alotment was 
"upon the township^ bounded by the river, west; John Rogers, north; 
George Willice. south; highway, east, and one highway passing through 
the upper part of the same, which is Concord road." .This lot was near 
or south of the Baptist church. He sold in l(i63, all his rights to John 
Stearns, and disappears from Biilerica. He m. 1661. Oct. 16. Mary 

2. John, "31, 10"\ 1683. At a meeting of y" Selectmen, John Browne 
being sumoned and appearing before y Selectmen to give an account of 
his coming to inhabit in our towne without liberty from the town first had 
and obtained according to our town orders. The Selectmen having received 
an evill report of y<^"s<i pson. they gave him Xotice of our towne orders, 
respecting y^ entertainment of persons into y« towne to be inhabitants, 
and that wee were not willing to entertain him as an inhabitant, and 
warned him forthwith to remove his family out of our towne on the 
penalty of our towne orders, which is twenty shillings per weeke. uidess 
he gave bond, with security, to content (within one week) that hee should 
not be chargeable to y^ towne, nor his family." George Grymes is also 
warned of the penalty he would incur "in case he suffers the s<i Brown to 
live in any of his housing or tenements more than one week longer." But 
this Browne did not leave in a week and the constable reported his tax. with 
others not paid in Dec, 1687. He m. 1682. April 22, Elizabeth Policy, dau. 
of George, of Woburn, and Savage names ch. John. 8, Elizabd'h. and 
Hannah, b. in Woburn. 

3. George, took the oath of fidelity, with 18 others, '-18, 3™, 1685." 
His father was no doubt AVilliam, of Boston, who m. 1655, April 16, 
Elizabeth Ruggles, dau. of George, of Braintree. and had Mary, b. 1655-6, 
March 16. Sarah, b. 1657. Jan. 8. Elizabeth, who m. James Kidder, 2, 
and George. His widow m. our John Rogers, who names her ch. George 
and Mary in his will. A Genealogical table published by Samuel Brown in 
1852, says that George was b. 1668, April 5; but his tradition of a Baldwin 
marriage and the nauiing of Content Brook is without foundation. He did 
settle in the east part of the town. He m. 1689-90, Jan. 30, Sarah Kidder, 
dau. of James. 1. She d. 1717-18, Feb. 27. He d. 1738, Sept. 28, aged 71. 
Ch. Joseph. 4, b. 1690, Nov. 3. Sarah, b. 1691-2, March 8 ; d. 1704, Sept. 26. 
Elizabeth, b. 1693-4. Jan. 12; m. Oliver Whiting, 4. Josiah. 5, b. 1695, 
April 19. William, 6, b. 1696, Oct. 21. 3fary and James, b. 1698, Sept. 27, 
and d. N^ov. 19, and Dec. 1. John and lliomas. b. 1699. Nov. 27; and d. 
Dee. 12. Samuel. 7, b. 1701-2, Jan. 27. Ephraim and Isaac, b. 1702-3, 
Jan. 23. Isaac died same day. Ephraim m. Hosley, and lived in Towusend. 
Dorothy, b. 1704-5, Jan. l;'m. Samuel Crosby, (see 2). Sarah, b. 1707, 
Dec. 21 ; m. Jacob French. 12. 

4. Joseph, son of George. 3, b. 1090. Nov. 3; m. Mary Baldwin, 
dau. of John, 1, and 1733, June 28, Anne Cleveland. He lived beyond 

BROWN. 19 

Shawshin river, in the south-east part of Tewksbury. Ch. Joseph, b. 1721-2, 
Feb. 26; d. ]Nrarch 23. il/rtry, b. 1722-3. Feb. 16. Judith, b. 1724. Dec. 17; 
in. Reuben Kendall, 2. Sanuiel, b. 1726, Nov. -4; ni. Molly Marshall, and 
lived on the homestead in Tewksbury. 

5. Josiilh, son of George, 3, b. 1095* April 19; m. Hannah, and 1739, 
Xov. 29, Kebecca Danforth, widow of Thomas, 4, and 1748-9, March 1, 
Avidow Mary Ellis, Needham. Ch. Hannah, h. 1731, Mav 9. Elizabeth 
b. 1732. Dee. 21. Jusiah. b. 173,5, May 14. Eehecca, b. 1740. Oct. 13; 
m. AVilliam Patten, 14. Sarah, b. 1742, July 28; m. Jacob Iiichardson. 14. 

6. William, son of George, 3, b. 1696. Oct. 21 ; m. ]\Iarv Baldwin, 
dau. of Jonathan. 3. Ch. William, b. 1724. March 27; d. Ai)ril 7. Mart/ 
and Esther, b. 1727-8. March 21. Mary m. Samuel Blanchard, 3, anil 
Esther m. Thomas Burtt. William, b. 1730-1, Feb. 24; m. JVIary Osgood, 
dau. of Christoplier. 1, and lived in Tewksbury; was a member of the 
Constitutional Conventi<m in 1780. Timothy, b. 1733, May 24; m. Dorcas 
Osgood and Rhoda Coburn; was a merchant .on the east side of the 
Concord river, in modern I^owell. ' 

7. Samuel, son of George. 3, b. 1701-2, Jan. 27; m. Mary French, 
the widow of Jonathan, 8; she d. 1758, Nov. 11, and he m. Elizabeth 
Taylor. Lieut. Brown d. 1779. July 6. Of the place where lie lived his 
descendant Sauuiel says: "The farm has descended in the same name, 
through four generations. * * The first sawmill erected in the vicinity was 
on this farm ; it was built by a company of the neighboring farmers, and 
stood till about 1740. On the site of the sawmill, "the first gristmill was 
erected by Samuel, grandson of George Brown, about 1760. The place is 
now known as Patten's Mills." Ch. Marii. b. 1731, Dec. 9; m. Benjamin 
Lewis, 3. Samuel. 10, b. 1733, Sept. 12. Joshua, b. 1734-5, Jan. 1. Sarah, 
b. 1735-6. Feb. 20; m. Edward Farmer, 10. Anna. b. 1737, Sept. 21; m. 
Samuel BuUen. i?e?)ecc«, b. 1738-9, Feb. 18; m. James Lewis. 5. Abigail, 
b. 1740, April 14; m. Isaac Marshall, 7. llartha. b. 1741-2, March 22; 
m. Eleazer Stickney, 4. Fei'sis, b. 1743, Oct. 23; m. Asa Emerson. 
Esther, b. 1744-5, Jail. 23. and d. Feb. 17. Georqe, b. 1746, June 22, and 
d. July 20. GeoTcje, 11, b. 1747, Sept. 16. 

8. John, perhaps a son of John, 2, m. Susanna. Ch. Thomas. 
b. 1716-7. Feb. 21, and d. 1718, Oct. 14. Sarah, b. 1719, June 26; m. Isaac 
Foster, 7. Rebecca, b. 1721, June 17. -Thomas, 12, b. 1723-4. Feb. 20. 
Mary, b. 1726, May 1. Mehitable, b. 1729-30, Feb. 13. David, b. 1733, 
Oct. 10. 

9. Nathaniel. Name on tax-list, 1737-89, and liis lieirs, after. Birth 
of children not recorded, but baptisms are as follows : Sarah. 1755, April 6. 
Nathaniel, 1757. Oct. 22. Maniaret. 1759, Nov. Rhoda, b. 1762, April 18. 

10. Samuel, son of Saniuel, 7, b. 1733. Sept. 12; m. 1759. Aug. 16, 
Sarah Noyes, of Andover. Ch. Sarah, b. 1760, Sept. 26; d. 1795. Dec. 9. 
Samuel, 13, b. 1762, June 15. Mary, b. 1764, June 19; m. 1803, April 12, 
Silas Chandler. Susanna, b. 1767, April 3; d. 1793, Nov. 23. 

11. George', son of Samuel, 7, b. 174V, Sept. 16; m. 1771, Nov. 21, 
Elizabeth French. After 1774. he removed to Pittsfield. Me., and thei-e 
lived and died. Ch. Elizabeth, b. 1772. Aug. 19; m. David Wentworth. 
Joshua, b. 1774, May 13; m. Martha Myrick, and settled in Buxton. Me. 
And born in Pittsfield : Jonathan, 1776. Sept. 21; lived in Clinton. Me. 
TfWirt?H, 1778, Aug. 7; lived in Ohio. Samuel. 1780. Oct. 10. Anna, 1782, 
July 11. George, 1784. Sept. 30. Samuel, 1786, Sept. 30; killed by a tree 
falling on him. John, 1789, June 29. 

12. Thomas, son of John. 8, b. 1723-4, Feb. 20; m. Esther , and 

1775, Jan. 4, Lucy Kemp. dau. of Jason. He lived on the RangeAvay road. 
Ch. Esther, b. 17o2, Sept. 1; d. Sept. 9. Esther, b. 1753, Oct ."7; ni. 1793, 
Nov. 11, Eldad Worcester, of Tewksbury. Thomas. 14, b. 1755, March 6. 
Abigail, b. 1757, Feb. 3. Rachel, h. 1759, June 8. Susanna, b. 1761, Sept. 9; 
ni. '1783, Sept. 11, Natlianiel French, of Concord. Elizabeth, h. 1764, 
March 6. John, b. 1767, Sept. 1 ; d. 1768, March 1. John, b. 1768, July 19 ; 

20 BROWN. 

111. 1700, April 15. Hannah Miller. ''John Brown, of Mason.*' m. 1792. 
Dec. 19, Mary White, and is probably the same. tSrmih, bap. 1771, May 28. 
Sarah, b. 1775, Oi-t. 15. Rebecca, b. 1777, March 25. Liicy, b. 1778, 8ept. 6; 
ni. Joseph Cowdry. 2. Ji>ab, b. 1780, March 10. EUslia, 15, b. 1782, 
July 13. ,/oHrt.s-, 16, b. 1785. Jan. 25. Imac, 17, b. 1788, Nov. 9. Jacob, 
b. 1792. May 10. Rebecca, b. 1794. Dee. '^\ in. Benoni Spaulding. H. 

13. Samuel, son of Sanmel, 10, b. 1702, June 15; in. Elizabeth Noyes, 
who d. 1850. -Ian. 10. aged 81. [This family is not found in tlie town 
records, but is copied from the table of .Samuel Brown. 1852]. 
Ch. Samuel, 18, b. 1788, Nov. IG. Elizabeth, b. 1790, Sept. 30; in. 1818. 
Dec. 24, Joseph Cram. Timothy N., b. 1792, Nov. 12. Isaac, b. 1794, 
Aug. 7; d. Sarah P.. b. 1796, Mav 10; d. 1859. April 25. Sttsnnnah, 
b. 1798, Jan. 21 ; d. Lucij, b. 1804, Feb. 1 ; in. 1828, Dec. 11, James Cram, 
of Lvndeboro\ Riibi), b. 1802, Feb. 17. Isaac, b. 1806, April 21; d. 
Harriet, b. 1808. June 30; d. diary, b. 1810, Sept. 26. 

14. Thomas, son of Tliomas. 12, b. 1755, Marcli 6; m. 1785. June 28, 

Rachel Procte;-. She d. 1790, Feb. 18. and he in. Esther . Ch. Abel, 

b. 1786, Aug. 12. Rachel, b. 1788. Jan. 25. Thomas, b. 1790, Feb. 18. 
James, b. 1793. June 28. Josejyh, b. 1795. April 4. Asa, b. 1800, May 29. 

15. EUsha, son of Thomas. 12, b. 1782, July 13; in. Mary . He 

d. 1849, July 29. Ch. Asa Nickles, b. 1811, Jan. 20. Elisha, b. 1813, 
March 7. P'rescott, 23, b. 1815. March 28. 3Iary, b, 1817, Jan. 26. Mahala, 
b. 1819, Sept. 2. Sarah Je/ts, b. 1821, Sept. 22. Enstis, b. 1823, Aug 27. 

16. Jonas, son of Thomas, 12, b. 1785, Jan. 25; ni. 1811, May 7, 
Lydia Spaulding, dau. of Benoni. 4. He d. 1872. March 21. Ch. Jonas, 20, 
b. 1811, Sept. 2. Li/dia, b. 1813, July 3. Amos Spaulding, b. 1815, Aug. 18; 
lives in Lowell. Harriet, b. 1817, Aug. 26. Abram, b. 1819, Jan. 17; lives 
in Westford. Olive, b. 1822. Jan. 28; d. 1825. Sept. 12. Benjamin, b. 1824, 
Feb. 20; d. 1825, Aug. 30. Benjamin, b. 1825, Nov. 25. Olive Elizabeth. 
b. 1828, June 8. Edwin Warren, b. 1830, March 1. Sabre, b. 1833, Feb. 6. 
Lucy Ann, b. 1834, Feb. 25. Daniel Albert, b. 1836, Dec. 3. 

17. Isaac, son of Thomas, 12, b. 1788, Nov. 9; m. Betsey . He 

d. 1876, March 11. Ch. Sarah Belinda, b. 1824, July 14. Isaac Woodward, 
b. 1828. Oct. 17. Abba, b. 1832, Feb. 29- Elizabeth, b. 1836, July 16. 
Alfred, b. 1838, Sept. 22. Amanda, b. 1845, July 4. 

18. Samuel, son of Samuel, 13, b. 1788, Nov. 16; m. Nancy. He 
published in 1852 the Genealogical Table, before mentioned, of the 
descendants of George Brown, 3; d. 1866, April 7. Ch. Mary Elizabeth, 
b. 1840, Sept. 19. George, b. 1843. July 20. 

19. John, possibly the son of Thomas, 12, who was ' of Mason,' 1792 ; 
m. 1803, Nov. 1, Sarah Hill, probably widow or daughter of William. 19. 
Ch. David, b. 1804, Feb. 1. Mary Flint, b. 1805. July 6. Charles, h. 1812, 
Jan. 14. 

20. Jonas, son of Jonas, 16, b. 1811, Sept. 2; m. Rebecca Dane. 
He d. 1859, Nov. 18. Ch. Mary Luvinia, b. 1842. Oct. 6. Jonas Edwin, 
b. 1844, Dec. 17. Andrew Jackson, h. 1847. March 14 ; d. 1855, March 2. 
Emma, b. 1852, Feb. 8. Esther L., b. 1854, Sept. 16; d. 1863, May 15. 
Lucy, b. 1859; d. 1862, Oct. 31. 

21. Charles V. m. Mary Dowse, dau. of Joseph. 6. Ch. Parker, 
b. 1825, Sept. 2. Adeline, b.' 1827, March 16. Emihi, b. 1829, Oct. 20. 
Lucinda, b. 1833, Oct. 7. Lucretia. b. 1836, April 2. Eliza, b. 1840, April 18. 

22. Caleb Sumner, son of Samuel, of Concord, m. Joanna Page. He 
d. 1877. July 9. aged 71 years. Ch. Joanna, b. 1833, Aug. 8. Harriet, 
b. 1835, July 13. Emma, li. 1838, Aug. 22. Vivian, b. 1840, Feb. 24. 
Arradin, b. 1841, Aug. 19. E^iginia. b. 1843. Nov. 27. Otis Sumner, b. 1845, 
Feb. 20. Elizabeth, b. 1847. Feb. 14. 

23. Rodney m. Abigail, and 1860. April 17, widow Sally Jenkins, dau. 
of Benoni Spalding. 4. Ch. Abigail, )>. 1836, Sept. 16. ^ Eliza, b. 1837, 
Nov. 23. Jonathan Easte, b. 1839, Oct. 24. Sarah Maria, b. 1841, April 27. 
Abhy Ann, b. 1846, Feb. 17. Marilla, b. 1848, April 13. 


24. Prescott, son of Elisha. 15, b. 1815, March 28; m. Ann Eliza. 
Ch. Harrison, h. 1844, Sept. 24. Prescott, b. 184G, Sept. 2;J. 

25. Hiram, son ot Samuel, of Concord; in. Susiui. He lives in 
Lowell. Ch. LiifaneUe. b. 1844. Oct. 13. Georgianna. b. 1846, April 23. 
LiUi<> Addip. h. 1853. April 9. 

BRUCE, Jasper F., son of Frank, who is grandson of Rev. John 
Bruce, D. C., 1781. and first pastor, 178.5-1809. in Mont Veron. X. H. ; was 
b. in Stonehani. 1845. Feb. 15; ni. 1870, Dec. 1, Cordelia Ripley, of Mame. 
He lias been for some vears a merchant ; his store, east of the common. 
Ch. XelUe B., b, 1872.' May 16. Annie E., b. 1874, May 1. Edna F.. 
b. 1877. Nov. 20, 

BRYANT, Elizabeth, bap. 1750. April 1. aged about 16. 

BULLEN, Samuel, descended, no doubt, from Samuel, of Detlham, 
1641; m. 1760, May 22. Anna Brown, dau. of Samuel, 7. Ch. Samuel, 
b. 1761. March 30. Nathan, b. 1762, Nov. 2. Anna, h. 1765, Feb. 23, and 
d. April 26. Joshua, b. 1766, March 17. Jesse, b. 1768, March 2. Faltee, 
b. 1770, Sept. 29. 

BURDIT, Jacob,- m. 1792, Sept. 27. Eliza Simonds. She may have 
been dau. of Jesse, whose name was for some yeans on tax-list. Ch. Jacob, 
h. 1793. March 30. 

BURNEY, Anne, m. 1724. Aug. 18, Isaac Kent, Concord. 

BURROWS, Yoluntine, m. Mary Eastman, of Weare, N. H. He d. 
1864. Aug. 21. Ch. 3Iart/ Jane, b. 1842, Mav 27; in. Charles E. Gorham. 
Edward, b. 1844. April 28. Elizabeth Ann, b. 1847, Sept. 27. 

BURTON, Isaac, and wife Rebecca. Ch. Sarak, b. 1767, Oct. 16. 
Isaac, b. 1770, June 28. 

BUTLER, James, ''Sen. Irishman, dyed 20, 01, 81." He was in 

Woburn, 1676-8, His wife's name was Mary . She m. 1682-3, Feb. 9. 

JohnHindes. Ch. John, b. 1677, July 22. Had 10 ch. b. in Woburn; 
but removed in 1721, to the part of Dunstable now Pelham, N. H. ; there 
d. 1759. Caleb the historian of Groton, was one of his numerous 
descendants. 3Iarv, b. 1679, July 11. Elenor, b. 1681, Sept. 13. 

CAMPBLE, Thomas, m. 1733, May 3, Jane Davidson, 

CANN, Barnard M., m. Hepsibah M. . He lives on the Boston 

road, in the village. Ch. Ellen Maria, b. 1842, May 9. Thomas Barnard, 
b. 1845. Julv 11. Susan, b. 1846, Aug. 21. Mary E., b. 1851, Aug. 3. 

CANNADA, John, on tax-list, 1734. 

CAREY, Thomas. "Mr. Laines' Scotchman dyed" 1683, Sept. 7. 

CARLETON. 1. John, came fi-om Bradford, and purchased about 
1759, the mill and privilege at North Billerica. His wife's name was Hannah. 
The inventory of his estate is dated 1782, Sept. 25. His children were born 
in Haverhill iind Bradford. Ch. Elizabeth, b. 1733. April 24; m. Thomas 
Todd. Solomon, b. 1734, Nov. 23. Hannah, b. 1736, Sept. 23; m. Thomas 
Lewis. John, 2, b. 1738. May 10. Lydia, b. 1740, May 26; m. Thomas 
Mears. Solomon, 3, b. 1742, June 22, Amos, b. 1744-5, March 13. 
Moses. 4, b. 1749, Sept. 13, Nathan, 5, b. 1754, Aug. 19. Anne, who m. 
Jesse Manning, 14, should probably stand between Moses and Nathan. 

2. John, son of John, 1, b. 1738, May 10. Ch. John, 6. Sarah, 
bap. 1765, May 26; m. Nathaniel Stearns, 18. Amos, 7, bap, 1767, 
March 29. 

3. Solomon, son of John, 1, b. 1742, June 22; m. 1769, Oct. 18, 
Elizabeth Manning, dau. of William, 8. Ch. Elizabeth, b. 1770, Aug. 30. 
Solomon, b. 1773, Nov. 3. Eri, b. 1777, June 23. Rebecca, b. 1779, Jan. 3. 
Allice, b. 1780, Oct. 3. 

4. Moses, son of John. 1, b. 1749, Sept. 13; m. 1771, Jan. 15, 
Margaret Sprake, dau. of Nicholas. 4. She d. 1782, Julv 7. and he m. 
Oct. 17, Sibbel Shed, widow of Reuben, 19. He d. before 1790, July 5. 
€h. Moses, b. 1771, May 7. Sibbel. b. 1773. May 18. Nicholas, b. 1774, 
Dec. 13. Henry, b. 1778', July 10. Anna. bap. 1790, March 21. 


5. Nathan, son of Jolin, 1, b. 1754. Aug. 19; ui. 1778, Nov. 5. Abigail 
Spalding, of Cliclnisfonl. Ch. Abigail, b. 177'J. April 24. 

G. Joltn, son of .John, 2, ni. 1794, Jan. 9, Sally Chase, prob. widow 
of Enoch. Ch. Dnvid. b. 179.-), ,Ian. 25. Joluu b. 'l79(j. Sept. 2. Nallij, 
1). 1798. May 29. Jacob, b. 1800. April 8. William, b. 1802, Sept. 11. 
Stephen, b. 1804, May 31. Bebekah, b. 180G, Aug. 30. Enoch C, b. 1808, 
Fob. 15. 

7. Amos, son of John. 2, bap. 1707, March 19; m. 1796. Feb. 25, 
Esther Manning, dau. of Jacob, 13. She d. 1823, Jan. 21. He lived on 
the road to Wiiniing pond. Ch. Esther, b. 1796, Oct. 18; ni. 1821, Oct. 25, 
Ei)hraini >Vanier, of Chelmsford. Am(i!<, b. 1798, Aug. 7. Martha, b. 1800, 
Sept. 7. Mehitable. b. 1803. Jan. 7; ni. Obed Stearns. Daniel, b. 1806. 
Aug. 24. George, b. 1812. Jan. 10. 

CARR. 1." Walter, name on tax-list, 1788. He in. 1815, Nov. 2, 
Abial Taylor, widow of Michael. 

2. Walter, jr., and wife Charlotte. Ch. George. Henry, b. 1818, 
March 5. Joseph, b. 1820, Aug. 8. Benjamin Walter, b. 1822. May 18. 

CARRIER, Thomas, "vulgarly called Morgan." was in town, 1674, 
"23, 4™, 1676. The Select n >n ordered the constable to give Notice to 
Thomas Carrier, alias Morgan. Welchman, that the town was not willing 
hee should abide here, as an inhabitant, and that he forthwith depart with 
his family, or give such securit,y as shall be to the content of the 
Selectmen, on peril of 20^. per week, while hee abide without leave, flrst 
had and olitaininl, W^" is acording to an ancient towne order amongst us.'' 
Very worthy men received such notice from some towns in later days. In 
1677, November, he was assigned '-with his man, John lAwistone,"' to 
brush cutting in the south-east part of the town, and he took the "oath of 
fidelity," with twenty-four inhal)itants. 1677-8. Feb. 4. If he was, at first, 
in the the south-east part of the to\\'n, his later residence was just beyond 
North Billerica, west of the road "to Winthrop's farm," (see "Grants,"' 
Vol. 2. pps. 44 and 53.) and next to John Kogers. Between 1684-90, he 
removed to Andover, and there his wife Ijecame fatallj^ involved in the 
witchcraft tragedy, as elsewhere related. The welcome he met in Andover 
was not more cordial than he had found in Billerica. In 1690. his home 
was smitten with the small-pox, and the Selectmen notified his friends that 
the town was not responsible for aid, "for they took care, when first they 
came, to warn them out," and a few months later, poor Martha Carrier had 
a more peremptory 'warning out' from the Magistrates of Massachusetts, 
at Salem. She might well say the world was unfriendly. Afterwards, he 
removed to Connecticut, and with his family was among the pioneers of 
Colchester. The following extract from the records of that town embodies 
interesting traditions of this remarkable man : "Thomas Carrier had 
belonged to the body-guard of Charles 1st, of Great Britain, and was 
notorious for fleetness of foot, even after he was more than 100 years old. 
It is said that he killed the King of England. If so. he nuist have been the 
executioner of Charles 1st, A. d. 1648. It is said by his descendants that 
he was 113 years of age at the time of his death in 1735. He used to walk 
from Colchester to Glastonbury, carrying a sack of corn on his shoulders 
to be ground, walking very "fast, aiid stopping but once, for the whole 
distance of 18 miles." Families bearing the naine still live in the vicinity. 
He m. 1674, May 7, Martha, dau. of Andrew and Faith Allen, of Andover, 
sister of Dr. Roger Toothaker's wife. Her sister Hannah m. James Holt, 
and another sister m. Samuel Holt, of Andover, and she had brothers 
Andi-ew and John. Several of the family died of the small-pox in 1692. 
She was executed on gallows hill, Salem, 1692, Aug. 19. He died in 
Colchester. 1735, May 16. Traditions of his age dift'er. The N. E. Journal 
soon after his death says that he was 109 years old, and that he was not gray 
or bald, walked erect, and shortly ])efore his death walked six miles. 
(Savage). Qh.. Eichard, b. 1674, July 19; m. 1694, July 18, in Andover, 
Elizabeth Sessions, and had Elizabeth, b. 1695, June 18. John, b. 1697: 


March 16. Timothy, bap. at Colchester. 1699. July 22. His wife d. 1704, 
March 6. and he ni. 1707, July 29, Thankful Brown. Andreni^ b. 1677, 
April 27; m. 1704-5, Jan. 11, 'Mary Adams. Jane. b. 1680, July 23; 
d. Aug. 26. Thomas, b. 1682. July 18; m. in Andover, 1705, June 19, 
Susannah Johnson. Sarah, b. 1684, Nov. 17; m. 1707, Sept. 7, John 
Chapman, in Colchester. Hannah, b. in Andover, 1689, Julv 12. 

CARROLL, Maurice, and Ann, his wife. Ch. ElJen. b.'l842. Oct. .31. 

CARTER. 1. tieorge, was of Wilmington. He m. 1814, May 10, 
Mary Kendall, dan. of Joseph, 3. They lived in Lynnfield, until 1816. 
He d. 1841, April 12. aged 51. She d. 1854, Jan. 11. Ch. (reorr/e Kendall., 
b. 1814, Oct. 13; living in B. Jose^^h Mottey, b. 1816, Dec. 18; d. 1844. 
Mary, b. 1823, Marcli 16; m. Josiah Hill. She now lives in Wilmington. 
Harriet Maria, b. 1833, Sept. 10; m. John Irving Fletcher. 

2. Francis, and wife Harriet. Ch. Harriet Ellen, b. 1831, Dec. 18. 
Martha Ann. b. 1833. Aug. 16. Frances Maria, b. 1839, Mav 17. 

CENTER. 1. John, -of Charlestown." m. 1741, "July 30, Sarah 
Sheldon, dau. of Sauuiel, 3. His name is on tlie tax-lists, 1741-58. 

2. John Sheldon, son of preceding, doubtless; m. 1778, May 28, 
Phebe Tav. of Woburn. His name is on tax-lists, 1778-82. 

CHAMBERLAIN. 1. William, one of the earliest inhabitants. He 
was prob. from Woburn. and may have been a brother of Thomas. One 
of the three original purchasers of the Dudley farm, who afterwards lived 
in Chelmsford, and 1674. April 16, m. Mary, the widow of our Sergt. John 
Parker. According to Savage, the two older children of William were 
born in Concord. His house in Billerica was • on the farm ' prolwhly near the 
Woburn road, in the south part of the village. His wife's name was 
Rebecca. She died "in the prison at Cambridge,'' 1692, Sept. 26. possibly 
charged with witchcraft. (See what is said on that subject). He d. 1706, 
May 31, aged about 86. Ch. Timothy, h. 1649, Aug. 13. Isaac, b. 1650, 
Oct. 1, and d. 16S1, July 20. [These from Savage]. The following from 
Billerica Records: Sarah, b. 1655. May 20; m. John Shed, 3. Jacob., 
b. 1657-8, Jan. 18. Thomas, h. 1659-60. Feb. 20. Edmond. 3, b. 1660, 
July 15. [So tile Record .stand.s. One of the two dates must be in error]. 
Rebecca., b. 1662-3, Feb. 25; m. Thomas Stearns, 4. ^6?-a/(flm, b. 1664-5, 
Jan. 6. Ann. b. 1665-6, March 3. Clement, 4, 1). 1669, May 30. Daniel, 5, 
b. 1671. Sept. 27. 

2. John, was prob. a son of William, 1, b. between 1650-53. The 
place given to his familv, on page 40. of transcribed "First Record.' implies 
this: lie m. 1681. Dec. "6, Del)orah Ja^o (•?). She d. 1703-4, Feb. 24, and 
he d. 1712. April 1. Ch. Deborah, b. 1682, Xov. 17. John. 6, b. 1684-5. 
Jan. 22. Sarah, b. 1687. Sept. 29. L>idia, b. 1689, Oct. 6; m. Benjamin 
Parker, 8. Abraham. 7, b. 1693. A])ril 17. 

3. Edmond, son of William, 1, b. 1660. July 15; m. Mercy Abbot, 
widow of John, of Woburn, who d. 1697-8. Feb. 27. and he m. 1717, Jan. 17, 
Sarah Forbush. of Reading. Ch. Hannah, b. 1692. June 10. Ebenezer and 
Marah. b. 1697-8. Feb. 17. Ebenezer d. 1698-9. March 5. 

4. Clement, son of William. 1, b. 1669. May 30; m. Mary. Ch. Mary. 
b. 1692-3. Jan. 20: m. 1732. Dec. 1. Jonathan Cram, of Wilmington. 
Clement. 8, b. 1694. Joseph. 9, b. 1696. Xov. John. b. 1699. June 8^ and 
d. 1716. June. Pege. h. 1701-2. March 12. William. 10, b. 1703-4. 
March 23. Rebecca, b. 1705. April 14. Anna. b. 1708. May 29. 

5. Daniel, son of William. 1, b. 1671. S^pt. 27; m. Mary . 

Ch. Daniel, b. 1695, Aug. 3. Ebenezer. b. 1698. Sept. 5. Epherem. h. 1700-1. 
Jan. 16. Thomas, h. 1703. Aug. Doritha. b. 1713. Dec. 25. 

6. John, son of John. 2, b. 1684-5, Jan. 22; m. 1709-10, March 13, 
Margaret Gould, of Concord. He d. 1722-3, 31arch 31. Ch. Josiah. b. 1710. 
Aug". 27. and d. Sept. 6. J<,hn. b. and. d. 1711, May 26. Anna, b. 1712, 
Apl-il 3; m. John VVMllibie. John. b. 1714, March 28. His name disappears 
from tax-list in 1759. and a widow Frances, is named for two years after. 
Deborah, b. 1716, Aug. 9. Samuel, b. 1719, April 22. Dismissed by the 
church to Union, Conn, 1748. Mehittable, b. 1721, Xov. 12. 


7. Abraham, son of John, 2, b. 1G93, April 17; ni. 1708, July 23, 
Mary Shed, dau. of John, 3. Ho d. and she m. John Wilson, 3. 
Ch. 'Mart/, b. 1718, Dec. 28, and d. young. Abraham^ b. 1720, Aug. 25. 
Benjamin, b. 1722, Oct. 18. Jolm. b. 1724-5. March 19; m. 1768, May 18, 
Frances Clark. Nathan, b. 172()-7, March 18. Zucchens and Tahitha, 
b. 1729, Sept. 19. Mari/, b. 1734, Oct. 10; ui. prob. 1755, Dec. 11, Timothy 
Wilkins. of Carlisle. 

8. Clement, son of Clement, 4, b. 1694; m. Elizabeth . Lieut. 

Clement d. 1754, Jan. 21; his widow, 1767, Jan. 7. Ch. Elizabeth, b. 1717, 
Dee. 27. Li/dia. hap. 1755, Sept. 28. 

9. Josieph, son of Clement, 4, b. 1696, Nov. ; m. Mary Johnson. 
Ch. Elizabeth, b. 1720, April 5. Joseph, b. 1721-2, Feb. 24. Mary, b. 1723-4, 
Jan. 27. 

10. William, son of Clement. 4, b. 1703-4, March 23 ; m. Esther . 

Esther Chamberlain, prob. his widow, m. 1743, Dec. 21, Benoni Spalding. 
Ch. John. b. 1729-30, March 15; m. 1758, May 18, Frances Clark. 
William, 11, b. 1731-2. March 13. Esther, b. 1734. Sept. 18. 

11. William, son of William. 10, has son William bap. 1757, Jan. 23. 
His name disappears from tax-list the same year. 

CHAMPNEY. 1. Elder Richard, of Cambridge. Avas a leading 
proprietor in Shawshin, and his sons Sanmel. 2, and Daniel, lived here for 
a few years. He bought in 1655, the farm of 500 acres, granted by 
Cambridge to Edward Collins, which was bounded N. E. by the W^oburn 
road, on both sides Shawshin. and here Samuel Champney lived until 1668, 
when he sold the place to Richard Daniel. He had also a share of the 
Dudley farm, occupied by his son Daniel, west of the Woburn road, and 
south of John Steams. He sold, and returned to Cambridge in 1670, or 
soon after, and in 1 672, surrendered certain town rights, for his arrears in 
ministers' rates. [See Paige's " Cambridge,'' for record of descendants]. 

2. Samuel, (above,) m. 1657, Oct. 13, Sarah Hubbard, dau. of William 
Hamlet's wife. Ch. Samuel, b. 1658. Dec. 8. Sarah, b. 1659-60. Feb. 17. 
Marij, b. 1662, May 12. Easter, b. 1664. May 14; d. 1667. March 31. 
■Samuel, b. 1666-7. March 19, and in (Jambridge, Joseph, 1). 1669, Sept. 1. 
Richard, b. 1674. Aug. 20. 

3. Mary, Mrs., was bom in W^estford. 1777, Nov. 20, (ace. to the 
town record.) dau. of Elijah and Mary (Reed) Hildreth. She m. 1796, 

Maynard. and was mother of Aaron Maynard. He d. 1797. and she 

m. Champney, having among other ch. 3Iarii Ann. who m. Joseph 

Farmer. 21, and Louisa, who m. James Fletcher. She d. 1878. July 2. 

CHANDLER. 1. John, Rev., the youngest of 12 ch. of Thomas 
Chandler, of Andover; was b. 1723, Dec. 14. Rev. James Chandler, pastor 
of Rowley, 1732-88, was his brother. Their father was son of William, 
of Andover. whose father, William, came to Roxbury in 1637. John C. 
grad. H. C, 1743; was ordained in Billerica, 1747, Oct. 21; dismissed 1760, 
June 5, and d. 1762, Nov. 10. He lived near Dr. Wilson's place, on the 
Boston road. He m. 1748, Nov. 3. Mary White, dau. of Dea. William,, of 
Haverhill. She d. 1757, June 28, and he m. 1759, Jan. 18, Elizabeth 
White, dau. of Samuel White, and her double cousin. She m. 1766, 
June 19. Dr. Robert Luscombe. of Taunton, and d. 1768. Oct. 11. Ch. Mary, 
b. 1749. Sept. 8; m. 1775. Oct. 26, her cousin, William White, of Haverhill. 
He was a merchant in Boston and in Rutland. Mass.. where she d. 1794. 
Feb. 21. Of her 5 ch., William Charles was "'a player, poet, advocate and 
author," and Moses Hazen, a business man of Rutland. His dau. Isabella 
Hazen. m. Frances Dana, M. i>., of Boston. H. C. 1831 ; and their son, 
George Haz^n Dana, was a Captain in the 32d Mass. Regiment, and on the 
Staft'of Gen. Dana, in the late War. John. b. 1752, May 9; d. 1760, Oct. 10. 
William, b. 1757, June 9; d. 1760, Oct. 26. Elizabeth, "h. 1760, Aug. 6; m. 
1780. Sept. 12, Thomas Plunnner, of Rowley. She was a woman of talent 
and literary tastes; d. 1839, Jan. 11. Her son, Daniel Farnham Plunnner, 
had a great mechanical genius. 

CHANDLER — C0( )K. 25 

2. Thomas, son of William, of Andover, and nephew of Eev- 
John, 1, was b. 1726, Oct. 3. He was a blacksmith, and was dis. to the 
church in Tewksbuiy. 1792. His father or grandfather. William, lived 
also in Billerica; was chosen highway surveyor, 1720-1. March, and Moses 
Chandler was rated, 1724. Ch. Elizabeth^ b. 1758, Jan. 27 ; m. 1778, May 21, 
Enoch Parker, of Andover. William, b. 1755, March 2 ; d. Sarah, b. 1756' 
April 20; m. Jonathan Danforth, (spc 12). Abigail, b. 1758, July 26; 
m. Samuel Long, of Tewksbury, and d. within a few months of 100 years 
old, in Peru, Vt. William. 3, b. 1760, Nov. 26. Hannah, b. 1763, April 1 ; 
d. in Tewksbury. John, b. 1766, Nov. 14; d. in Tewksbmy. 3Iary, b. 1769' 
Dec. 12; d. young. 

3. William, son of Thomas. 2, b. 1760, Nov. 26. He m. Sarah 
Sanders, prob. dau. of Anios, 8, and 2d. Kachel Frost. Only the yoimoest 
child was born in Billerica, the others in Tewksbury. He d. 1814, March. 
Ch. Sally, h. 1791, Aug. 19. Folly, m. Asa Wright. William, b. about 
1800. John h. 1802, Jan; lived near Albany. *S'«ra/t. b. 1804, June 6; 
m. Philip M. Kollins. Lurinda. b. 1806, May 29; m. Moses I'oster. 

CHAPMAN. It' John, and wife Lucy. Ch. Lucy Jane, b. 1828 
July 28. 

2. Franklin B., and wife Hannah. Ch. Hannah Maria, b. 1830, 
Aug. 21. William Henry, b. 1834, Feb 21. John Frederic, b. 1836, June 16. 
L^wy Ann, b. 1838. Dec. 24. Harriet Augusta, h. IM'i, Maivh SO. Sarah 
Elizabeth, b. 1843, Sept. 3. 

CHASE, Enoch, and wife Sarah. Ch. Joshna, b. 1787, Dec. 6. 
Eitnire, b. 1792, Aug. 25. 

CHEEVER. 1. John, m. 1754, Jan. 22, Susanna Walker, dau. oi 
Benjamin, 3. Ch. John, b. 1756, Feb. 2. 

2. Nathaniel, and wife Lucy. Ch. James P., b. 1826, March 4. 

CHILD, Moses, and wife Rebecca. Ch. Alfred, b. 1838, Sept. 7. 
Juliet'a, b. 1840. March 18. Willard Pearsons, b. 1841, April 7. 

CLARK, Joseph, m. 1795, April 2, Rebecca Fuller, perhaps dau. of 
Silas. Elizabeth ui. 1803. Jan. 30, Thomas Stevenson, of Boston; PoUv m. 
1803, Dec. 1. William Lund. 

CLIFTON, John, and ^\ife Lucinda. Ch. S^isan Caroline, b. 1842, 
Jan. 19. Catherine Floyd, b. 1844, Sept. 3. 

CLYDE, Joseph, ''of Wenham, in New Hampshire," m. 1753, Nov. 5 
Margaiet Moftat. 

COLE. 1. Elisha, of Boston. Ch. Hannah, bap. 1775, Sept. 3. 

2. Samuel, was from Watertown; m. Mary Marshall, of Chelmsford; 
lives on the Bedford road, two miles from village. C'h. John Samuel, 
b. 1835, July 4; who lives in Hookset, N. H. Mary Elizabeth, b. 1837^ 
July 28; m. George W. Gragg. 

COLLINS, Edward, and wife Sarah. Ch. John, b. 1834. March G; 
d. July 26. Thomas Edtvard, b. 1835. May 7. Margaret, b. 1836, Oct. 26 ; 
d. Nov. 11. Charles Adrian, b. 1838, June 9. John, b. 1839. July 26; 
d. Aug. William Shakespeare, b. 1841, May 10. Alfred Sidney, b. 1843^ 
Oct. 27. 

COLSON, Israel Aldrich, was b. in Uxbridge, Mass., 1803, Aug. 4; 
m. 1832. March 28, Rachel Farmer, dau. of Oliver. 14. He lives at the 
Farmer place, by the Baptist church, in North Billerica. Ch. Caroline 
Augusta, b. 1832, July 10; d. 1857. Aug. 4. JIary Elizabeth, b. 1834. 
June 9; m. 1862, June 4, Julius Jockow, of Lowell. George Fanner, 
b. 1839, Sept. 29. 

COMBS, John, and wife Bathsheba. Ch. Bathsheha, b. 1750-1, Jan. 6. 

CONANT, William, on tax-list. 1776-9. Ch. Betsey, l,ax>- 1795, Aug. 

CONNERY, (or Coxray.) John, m. 1761, April 8, Lydia Farley, dau. 
of James, 11. His name disappears from tax-list, 1768. Ch. John, b. 1761, 
Dec. 28. Sarah, b. 1764, Dec. 13. Lydia, bap. 1766, Sept. 20. 

COOK. 1. Paul, of Wihnington, came to Billerica about 1771, and 
d. 1787. His will names children John, Abigail, m. James Pearson, 


3Icrcy, in. Jonathan Knapp, Sarah., m. 1774, May 19, Arch^laus Tay, 
of Wohnni. and 2(1, Williani Laws, havin": a dau. Sarah Tay; Sears, 2, 
wiio had tlic homestoad, and was exocutor and residuary legatee. 

2. Sears, in. 1771. Dee. 10, Abigail Crosby, dan. of Francis. 15. He 
lived in the east part of the town; d. ISKi, Sept. 1. aged 70. Ch. AhigaiL 
b. 177;^. Feb. 11 ; ni. John Crosby, 2.S. Francis. 3, b. 1775, Aug. 25. Susan, 
and Sarah, b. 177S, May G. Susan ni. ISOO, Nov. 27, Benjamin Walker, of 
Wilmington. Sarah ni. Josepli (ileason. 

3. Francis, son of Sears. 2, b. 1775, Aug. 25; m. 1803. April 14, 
Elizabeth Kuggles. dau. of William, and gr.dau. of Rev. Sanuiel. He 
d. 1831, July o,and she d. 1834. Oct. 13. Ch. Betsey, b. 1804. March 30; 
ni. 182G, Nov. 30, George Flint, of Reading. Francis, b. 1805, April 3; 
d. 1808, May 27. Sears. 4, b. 1807, May 1. Francis, h. ISOS, Aug. 14; 
m. 1830, April 6, Eliza Emerson, of Wilmington; d. 183G, Oct. 6. Jahn, 
b. 1811. March 24; m. 1837, April IG. Fanny, the widow of his brother. 
Sears; d. 1837. Nov. 2S. ]ViUiam. b. 1817, Feb. 2{; d. 18.59. May 10. 

4. Sears, son of Francis. 3, 1). 1807, May 1 ; m. 1832. Aug. 2G, Fanny 
Butters, of Wilnungton. He d. 183G, Dee. 1, and she m. his brother John, 
iand after, Hiram Harrington. Cli. Fanny Jane and Sears James, b. 1832. 
Novi 3 ; he d. 1833, Nov. 30. Fanny m. 1853, Sept. 14, Levi H. Reed. Sears 
James, 6, b. 1834. Sept. 29. 

5. Sears James, son of Sears. 4, b. 1834. Sept. 29; m. 18G1. Feb. 10, 
Abbie Buck, of Wilmington. He lives in the village, near Fox hill. 
Ch. Arthur Sears, h. 18(iGr March 3. Javies Herltcrt. b. 1869, Aug. 8. 

CORNEAL. 1. Peter, lived south-east of the Shawshin rivei-, in the 
part annexed to AVilmington. 1737. The '• Cornell tavern " was a well 
known house in later davs. standing on the Wilmington road where another 
road turns to the south-west. He m. 1G95, Aug. 9, Joanna Marshall, dau. 
of Jolm. She d. 1704, Dec. 28, and he m. 1708, Elizabeth Frost, dau. of 
Dea. James. Vh. Susannah, b. 1G9G-7. Feb. 22. Mary. b. 1699, April 13. 
Peter. 2, b. 1702, Sept. 28. John, b. 1703-4. Feb. 3. Elizabeth, b. 1709, 
Oct. 24. Sarah, b. 1711-2. Jan. 25. and prob. Hannah, who m. John 
Frost, 12. 

2. Peter, son of Peter, 1, b. 1702. Sept. 28; m. Rebecca . 

Ch. Bchecra. b. 1728, June 7; m. 1750. May 24. John Demercy. Hannah, 
b. 1731, April 20; m. 1760, May 13, John Eames. Joanna, b. 1*733, Julv 14. 
Peter. 3, b. 1736, April 25. Sarah, b. 1740, Feb. 20; m. 1763, Dec. 8, 
Joshua Harnden. Mary, b. 1742, Aug. 13, (in Wilmington,) ra. 17G6, 
Feb. l3. Joseph Winn; prob. June, who m. 1766, Oct. 9, Asa Buck, 
in Wilmington. 

3. Peter, son of Peter, 2, b. 1736, April 25; m. 1761, April 30, 
Hepsibah Temple. Ch. John, b. 1762, Sept. 10. James, 4, b. 1764, Oct. 2. 
Ehenezer. b. 1766, Feb. 9. 

4. James, son of Peter, 3, m. 1787, Jan. 4, Lucretia Jaquith. She 
m. 2d. 180!), Feb. 16. Cyrus Taylor. Ch. James and Lucretia. b. 1784, 
Oct. 22. James, 5, b. 1797, Aug. 12. 

5. James, son of James. 4, m. Polly . Ch. James Thompson, 

b. 1821. March 24. jMary. b. 1822, Oct. 9. Charlotte, b. 1825. Feb. 22. 

CORY, Jacob, and wife Sarah. Cli. Jacob, b. 1716. Marc^h 25. 

COWDRY, (COUDKE, the early form). 1. "John, "of Billerica," 
m. Hannah Davis, of Groton, 1744." 31ay 30. He was on tax-hst of 1746, 
only; liad cli. John, Jonathan and David bap. in Westford, 1750-6. 
' '2. Joseph, son of Nathaniel, of Westford. b. 1781, March 19. His 
mother was Rebecca Parker, dau. of Samuel. 12. He m. Lucy Brown, 

dau. of Thomas. 12. Ch. Fbenezer , m. Betsey Gibson, wlio lives a 

widow at the corner. Maria, b. 1805. Feb. 16; in. Wyers. Joseph. 3, 
b. 1807, Jan. 18. Silas Pa-rker. 4, b. 1810. Feb. 16. EUas. 5, b. 1812, 
Feb. 5. Francis B..^. Isaac. 7 . Lucy. 

3. Joseph, son of Joseph, 2, b. 1807. Jan. 18 ; in. Ann Eliza . 

Ch. 3Iary Eliza, b. 1830, Feb. 12; in. Johnson. Warren, b. 1833, May 12; 


lives in Boston. Lucy Ann. b. 183.5, July 5. Joseph Sarf/ent^ b. 18.38. 
March 6; d. 18.54, July 10. Sargent F., b. 1837, Dec. 25; d. Emma Frances, 
b. 184G. Jan. 31. ' 

4. Silas H. Parker, son of Joseph, 2, b. 1810, Feb. IG; ni. 1832, 
Catlierine P. Johnson, dau. of Cyrus, of Burlington. He lives on West 
street. Ch. Laura Ami, b. 1833, Nov. 22 ; d. 1838, April 2. Catherine, 
b. 1835, May 23 ; m. John Robbins ; lives in Lowell. Silas, b. 1838, May 3 ; 
m. Mary ]Mc('arty. and lives in North Billerica; has ch. Nelly M. Silas A. 
William J. Catherine L. and Charles E. Marcus Jlortun, b. 1840. Laura A., 
b. 1845, May 20; ni. William H. Monroe. 

5. Elias, son of Joseph, 2, b. 1812, Feb. 5; m. Elissa Johnson, 
sister of the wife of Silas ; d. Ch. Oliver W. ; lives in Lawrence. 

9. Francis Bacon, son of Joseph, 2, m. Lydia Baldwin, dau. of 
Benjamin, of Carlisle. He lives in West Billerica. on the south road to 
Chelmsford. Ch. Frank Edward, b. 1842, May IG. Elias Wilder, b. 1844. 
Jan. IG. 3Iary Amanda, b. 1845, June 27. Henrietta, b. 1847, July 4. 
Gxanvillc. Julia. Adelaide. Fostina. Chastina. Francis. 

7. Isaac, son of Joseph, 2, m. Ehoda Baldwin, sister of his bi'other's 
wife. Ch. Mary Fletcher, b. 1839, Julv 8. 

eRAGIN. 1. Silas, and wife Nancy. Ch. Lorenzo, b. 1799, Sept. 30. 
Nanaj, b. 1801, Sept. 20. 

2. Aaron had ch. Milo, Miranda and Charles bap. 1803, April 15. 
Moses, bap. 1805, Feb. 24. Frederic bap. 1807, Sept. 13. 

CRAIGE, Thomas, m. 1783, June 2G, Phebe Baldwin, dau. of 
Samuel. 11, and 178G. Sept. 14, Martha Parker. Ch. Thomas, b. 1784, 
April 11. Nancy, bap. 1787, May 6; m. 1809, Sept. 14, Thomas Howard. 
William, bap. 1789, March 1. Martha, bap. 1793, March 17. Mary, bap. 
1794, July 5. Tliomas and Elizabeth, bap. 1798, April 8. 

CRAiVI, Asa, m. 1802. April 11, Abigail Wliiting, and 1807, Sept. 6, 
Lucy Winning, dau. of John. Ch. Asa, b. 1808, Jan. 11. Otis, b. 1811, 
March 1; d. 1812, Mav 22. Caleb, b. 1814, Jan. 27. William, b. 1816, 

CROSBY. 1. Simon, son of Simon and Ann, of Cambridge; b. 1G37, 
Aug. His father d. 1G39. Sept., aged 31. and his mother m. Rev. William 
T.ompson. of Braintree. He m. Rachel Bracket, dau. of Dea. Richard, of 
Braintree, 1659, July 15, and settled in B., on the north side of Bare hill. 
He became a large land holder; inn-keeper and leading citizen. He 
d. 172.5-6, Jan. 22. C'h. Bachel. b. 1660. Aug. 20; ni. 1G85. Jan. 6, Ephraim 
Kidder, 3i. Simon. 2, b. 1663. Thomas, b. 1GG5-6, March 10. Joseph, 3, 
b. 1669. July 5. Hannah, b. 1672, March 30; m. Samuel Danforth, 3. 
Nathan. 4, b. 1674-5. Fel). 9. Josiah, 5, b. 1677, Nov. 11. 3fary, b. 1680, 
Nov. 23; m. John Blanchard, 1, Sarah, b. 1684, July 27; m. William 
Rawson, of Braintree, 1706, Oct. 26. 

2. Simon, son of Simon. 1, b. 1663; m. Hannah . Shed. 1702. 

May 6. and he m. 1702-3, March 16, Abigail Parker, widow of John, 7, 
who'd, a widow, 17.55, March 31; lived near the Shawshin. Ch. Simon, &, 
b. 1689, Aug. m. Abigail, b. 1691. Jan. G. John. b. 1694, April 11 ; d. 
1G95-6. Jan.'G. John. b. 1G9G, April 18. Samuel, b. 1698. Oct. 4; m. 1729, 
Dec. 9. Dorothy Brown; lived in Shrewsbury. Hannah, b. 1700. June 12. 
Mary, b. 1702", May 1. James. 7, b. 1704, May 29. Phinens, b. 1705, 
Nov. 26. Solomon, b. 1708. April 8. Nathaniel, b. 1710, Dec. 3; d. 
1711, May 28. Hachel.-h. 1712, June 7. Be njcmiin. h. 1715, Dec. 16. 

3. Joseph, son of Simon, 1, b. 1669, July 5; m. 1691, May 6, Sarah 
French, dau. of Ivieut. William, 1. He prob. lived east of Nutting's pond. 
Ch. Joseph, 8i, b. 1692, Sept. 3. Sarah, b. 1694, June 12; m. (?) Thomas 
Hunt, 5. iJfff/ieZ, b. 1695, April 18; m. Samuel Stearns, 6. William. 9, 
b. 1697-8, Feb. 13. Mary. b. 1699-700, Jan. 12; m. 1718, June 5, Eleazer 
Ellis, of Dedham. Tliomas. 10, b. 1701, Oct. 12. David, 11, b. 1703. 
March 27. Prudence, b. 1705, May U. Hannah, b. 1706-7, March 9. 
Deborah, b. 1709, Julv 13; m. 1727, March 31, Peter Russell, of Andover. 
Robert, b. 1711, July 20, Pelletiah, b. 1713, Nov. 5. 


4. Nathan, son of Simon, 1, h. l()74-r). Feb. 9; m. 170G. Sept. 28, 
Savali Shed, dau. of John, 3 ; she d. 174()-7. March 8. He d. 1741), April 11. 
Ch. Sarah, h. 17()G, Dec. 22. Nathan, 12, b. 1708, April o. Eadid, b. 1710, 
March 30; ni. Peter Hill, 17. Dnrothij. b. 1712. April 9; m. Benjamin 
Whitini;-. 7. CathcrUw, b. 1713-4. Feb. 18. Olivpt; 13, b. 1710-7. Jan. 21. 
Marij. b. 1722. May 17; m. John Parker, 9. 

5. Josiah, son of Simon, 1, b. 1077, Nov. 11; m. 1703. Nov. 2, Mary 
Manning, dau. of Sanuiel. Ij Ills will was ])roved 1745. Oct. 7. His 
homestead was on the Woburn load. between tlie village and Bare hill; 
prob. the same where his fatlier lived. Ch. Josiah. 14, b. 1704, Aug. 5. 
EliphaJct, b. 1705. Aug. 0, and d. Aug. 8. Elizabeth, b. 1700, Aug. 7. and 
d. 1709, June 14. Anna. b. 1708. April 29; m. John Bowers, of Draeut. 
1733, Aug. 14. Isaac and Ephraim. b. 1709, Nov. 7. and d. Nov. 10. Manj, 
b. 1712, Aug. 24; m. Koger Toothaker, 3. EUzalwth. b. 1713. Dec. 1. and 

d. young. Jane. b. 1716. June 14. Joan)ia. b. 1718. July K! ; m. Dutton. 

Jonathan, b. 1719. Aug. 1. Esther, b. 1721. Dec. 31. aild d. 1722. May 23. 

6. Simon, Lieut'., son of Simon, 2, 1). 1089, Aug. 23; m. 1711. July 18, 
Rachel Kettle, of Charlestown, and 1714, June 9, Abigail Kidder, dau. of 
Enoch. 4, her cousin. She d. 1748. Nov. 7; he d. 1771, Feb. 2. 
Ch. Francis. 15, b. 1715. Oct. 25. Abif/ail. b. 1717, June 5; m. 1748, 
Samuel Winship. of Lexington. Samuel, b. 1719. May 20; d. 1745, July 9. 
John, b. 1721, April 19; d. 1743. Nov. 6. Mary. b. 1722, Oct. 3; m. 
Ebenezer Richardson. 11. Stephen, b. 1723-4. Feb. 27; d. 1734. July 8. 
Ephraim. b. 1725, Nov. 27; d. 1728, Aug. 29. Elizabeth, b. 1727, Oct." 24; 
d. 1734, July 4. Hannah, b. 1730, April 2. Ephraim, 16, b. 1731. Oct. 13. 
Fersis. b. 1733, Aug. 9; m. Jonathan Lewis, 4. Elizabeth, b. 1737-8. 
Feb. 10 ; \n. Adams. 

7. James, son of Simon, 2, b. 1704, May 29; m. 1727-8, Feb. 1, 
Sarah . Ch. James, 17, b. 1728, Oct. 5. Samson. 18, b. 1731, Oct. 21. 

8. Solomon, son of Simon. 2, b. 1708, April 8; m. Cathrine , who 

signs a bond, as his widow, 1740, Julv 28. Ch. Solomon, b. 1740, May 14. 
Simon, 19, b. 1741, Sept. 14. John. b. 1744, Aug. 7. 

Hh- Joseph, son of Joseph, 3, b. 1692. Sept. 3; m. Hannah . 

There was a Joseph Crosby in Londonderry. 1721. Ch. Benjamin, b. 1715, 
June 15. Hannah, b. 1716. Nov. 13. 

9. William, son of Joseph. 3, b. 1697-8, Feb. 13 ; m. Hannah Ross, 
dau. of Thomas. 2. He d. 1754. Jan. 1 ; Ids widow, 1756, Nov. 4. 
Ch. Hannah, h. 1721-2, Jan. 6; m. Rev. Robert Cutler, of Epping, N. H., 
and d. before 1751. William, b. 1723, Aug. 27. and d. Martha, b. 1724-5. 
Jan. 12; m. Jacob Danforth, 16. Frudence, b. 1726, Nov. 28. Jessoniah, 20, 

b. 1728, Oct. 7. Sarah, h. 1730, June 27; m. Swan. Feletiah. b. 

1731-2. March 10. and d. March 25. Hezekiah. 21, b. 1732-3, Jan. 31. 
Seth. 22, b. 1734. Aug. 8. William, b. 1737, May 9, and d. Rebecca, 
1). 1738. July 31; m. 1770, Nov. 6. Samuel Lampson. William, b. 1739, 
Jan. 4; settled in Townsend. Bhoda,h.\l-iO, Nov. 30, il/rtry, b. 1742. 
April 26. 

10. Thomas, son of Joseph, 3, b. 1701, Oct. 12; m. Anna Parker, 
of Chelmsford. She d. 1729. Sept. 20. and he m. 2d. Sarah Brown. Sargt. 
Thomas d. 1745. Dec. 7. leaving widow Susanna — — . He lived on the 
Treble Cove road. Ch. Thomas, h. 1724, Dec. 13. Anna, b. 1727, April 18; 
m. Asa Spalding. 3. Jacol>. 23, b. 1729, Sept. 19. Susanna, b. 1730-1, 
March 2 ; m. Edward Spalding, 2. Sarah, h. 1732-3. Feb. 10. Samiiel, 
b. 1734. Dec. 21. Elizabeth, b. 1730, Dec. 9. William, b. 1740. Aug. 17, 
and d. Sei)t. 13. 

11. David, son of Joseph, 3, b. 1703. March 27; m. Sarah Foster, 
dau. of Thomas. 4. He removed to Shrewsburv. Ch. Hepsibah, 
b. 1727, Oct. 17. David, b. 1729, June 5. Sarah, b. 173'l, May 5. 

12. Nathan, son of Nathan. 4, b. 1708. April 5; m. 1735, June 4, 
Hannah Martin, of Clielmsford. She d. and lie m. 1757. .Iidy 14, Anna 
Parker, widow of Samuel, 12. Ch. Nathan, b. 1738-9, March 22. Elizabeth, 


b. 1741. June 4. She or Elizabeth, dau. of Thomas, 10, m. 1765. April 11, 
Josiah Beard, 14. Benjamin, b. 1744, April 12. Hannah, b. 1747. Oct. 4; 
111. 1784, Nov. 20, Phineas Kidder, of rhelinsford. Bachel. bap. 1750, 
July 1. Jeremiah, b. 1753. March 17. Sarah, bap. 1758, April 9. 

13. Oliver, son of Nathan, 4, b. 1716-7, Jan. 21; m. liebecca . 

He d. 1746-7, Feb. 27. Ch. Mebeckah. b. 1743, April 23 ; m. 1786, April 13, 
Malaehi Allen, of Carlisle. Oliver, 24, b. 1744, Sept. 17, Josiah, 25, 
b. 1746, April 20. 

14. Josiah, son of Josiali. 5, b. 1704, Aug. 5; m. 1729-30, Feb. 3, 
Elizabetli French, dau. of William, 7. She d. 1739, Nov. 27. He d. before 
1743. Killed by the Indians says tradition. Ch. Josiah. b. 3730, 
Nov. 24. He was in the military service in 1747, on the C-onnecticut river, 
and narrowly escaped with his life by swimming the river from the 
anibusead(» in which French. Frost and Eichardson, from Billerica, were 
killed, and Osgood taken captive. He m. 1750, Aug. 23, Sarah Fitch, dau. of 
Joseph, 2, and settled in Monson, in the part now Milford, N. H. At Bunker 
Hill, he was a captain jn Col. Reed's regiment, and had four sons in the war. 
He was a millwright and an active and influential citizen. He d. 1793. Oct. 15, 
leaving ten children, all of whom had families, which gave liim eighty-five 
grandchildren. Of liis ch., Asa b. 1765. July 15, was an eminent phj^sician 
of Sandwich and Gilmanton, N. H., and the father of sons as eminent as 
Dr. Josiah Crosby, of Manchester, N. H. : Dr. Dixi Crosby, of Hanover; 
Hon. Nathan Crosby, of Lowell ; Alpheus Crosby, Greek professor in 
Dartmouth College, and author of a useful Greek Grammar and other 
works ; and Dr. Thomas E. Crosby, of Hanover. Judge Crosbj% of Lowell, 
published in 1877, '"A Crosby Family," giving full details of the 
descendants of Josiah Crosby. ' William, b. 1732-3. Feb. 16. Elizabeth, 
b. 1734-5, Jan. 9. and d. 1736. July 14. Esther, b. 1736. Sept. 17; m. Isaac 
Manning, (see 7). Alpheiis. h. 1739. April 22. 

15. Francis, son of Lieut. Simon, 6, b. 1715. Oct. 25 ; m. 1739, July 10, 
Sarah Eichardson. dau. of Thomas, 3. She d. 1772, March 30. and he ni. 
1773, May 20, Mehitable Dutton. Lieut. Crosby d. 1777, Feb. 7. 
Ch. Frances, b. 1739, Dec. 21; d. 1758, Oct. 21. Sarah, b. 1741, Nov. 21, 
m. Samuel Hopkins, of Wilmington. Abigail, b. 1743, Dec. 14 ; m. Sears 
Cook, 2. Samuel. 26, b. 1745-6. Feb. 25. Simon, b. 1749, March 7, and d. 
March 9. Mary. b. 1752. Nov. 25. and d. Dec. 5. 

16. Ephraim, son of Lieut. Simon. 6, b. 1731, Oct. 13; m. 1755, 
April 17, Mary Meriam. of Bedford. He d. 1808. Feb. 29, and she d. 1814, 
Nov. 30. Ch. Abigail, b. 1758, Aug. 6; m. Jothan Blanchard, 9. Anna, 
b. 1760, March 6; m. 1782. Feb. 11. Nathaniel Henchman, Ephraim, 27, 
b. 1762. March 13. John, 28, b. 1705, June 16. Mary. b. 1767, Dec. 9; m. 
Joseph Kendall, 3. 

17. James, son of James. 7, b. 1728. Oct. 5; m. Sarah Dutton. dau. 
of Jonathan, 8. Ch. Timothy. 29, b. 1751, May 11. 

18. Sampson, son of James, 7, b. 1731, Oct. 21; m. 1757, May 5, 
Lucy Richardson, dau. of Stephen. 7. His ch. Sampson and Lucj' were 
b. in Lexington. Removed to Amherst, N. H. Ch. Stephen, b. 1757, 
Nov. 3. Lucy. b. 1759, Maj^ 14. Sampson, b. 1761, June 5. Joel, b. 1763, 
Feb. 9. Joshua, b. 1770, May 31, Ziba. b. 1772. Jan. 24. 

19. Simon, son of Solonion, 8, b. 1741, Sept. 14; m. 1763. Dec. 8, 
Dorothy Farmer, dau. of Andrew. 8. His name disappears from tax-list, 
1773. Ch. Solomon, b. 1765, Jan. 8. Dolly, b. 1767, Jan. 31. Siinon, 
b. 1769. May 6. 

20. Jessaniah, son of William, 9, b. 1728, Oct. 7; m. 1751. Dec. 19, 
Mary Hosley, dau. of Thomas, 2. He d. 1774, before April 5. 
Ch. Jessaniah, b. 1753. Jan. 11; m. Elizabeth Gilson. of Pepperell. and was 
a pioneer in the settlement of Hebron, N. H.. first called Cockermouth. 
Two of his sons died there not manv years since, honored citizens ; and 
one Jaazaniah, b. 1780, April 3, o;iad. H. C, 1806, and was ordained, 1810. 
Oct.. 16, pastor of the church in Cliarlestown, N. H., and remained in 


office until his death, 18(U, Dee. 30. In 1854, lie tendei'ed his resignation, 
which was not accepted ; but he was relieved by a colleague of his active 
charge, contiiuiing senior ])ast()r. Harvard College gave him the honorary 
]). 1).. in 1853. He published an Eiectinn Sermon, 1830; a Dedication 
Sermon. 1843; a Semi-Centennial Sermon in 1800; and "Annals of 
('iiarlestown.' in Vol. 1\ of the New Hampshire Historical Collections. 
Learned, genial, prudent, his long ministry is held in eminent honor. 
Mary. b. 17.54. May 10; m. Isaac Stearns, (see 8.) and lived in Ashburnhani. 
Isaac, bap. 1750, May 10. Susannah, bap. 1758, Feb. 12. William, bap. 
1700. Feb. 3. A .son, "bap. 1701. Aug. 30. Sarah, bap. 1703, Dec. 25. 

21. Hezekiah, son of William. 9, b. 1732-3, Jan. 31 ; ni. 1754, Feb. 7, 
Anna AVhiting. dau. of Sanniel. 6. She d. 1704. Fel). 20. and he ni. 1705, 
April 0, Lucy Kittredge. of Tewksbury. He d. 1817. July 20. He lived 
south-east of Nutting's pond. Ch. Anna, b. 17.54. May 11; m. Xathan 
Jatiuith, of Williamstown. Thnothii, h. 1750. Maj^ 5. Deborah, b. 1758, 
I>b. 25; d. 1811. Jan. Jeremiah, 30, b. 1700. March 20. Bhoda, 1). 1704, 
Jan. 3, and d. Jan. 11. L^le^|, b. 1705, Nov. 10; m. James Lewis. 7. 
Hezekiah, b. 1707, Nov. 8; owned a large land tract in Missouri. William, 
b. 1770, June 3; grad. H. C 1794; read law with Hon. Samuel Dana, of 
Groton; and in 1802, Jan., settled in Belfast. Me.; one of the pioneers of 
that region. He was senator of Maine District, in the Mass. Legislature ; 
and Chief Justice of the Court of Common Pleas. 1811-23. He m. 1804, 
Oct. 12, Sally Davis, dau. of Benjamin. 4; d. 1852. March 31, and his widow 
d. 1877. Nov. 1. His son. William George, b. 1805. Sept. 10. grad. Bowdoin 
College. 1823 ; practised law in Belfast, and was Governor of Maine, 
1853-54. His alma mater conferred the honorary degree of ll. t>.. 1870. 
Levi, b. 1772. Oct. 2. Martf, h. 1783. March 2. Levi and Marv are not 
mentioned in will. Achsah^ b. 1780. Oct. 2; m. 1809, Oct. 20, David 
Parker, 21. 

22. Seth, son of William, 9, b. 1734, Aug. 8; m. 1757, April 29, 
Eachel Hill. dau. of Peter. 17. She d. 1814. Feb. 19. and hed. April 18. He 
lived south of Nutting's pond, at the Fiske place. Ch. Barhel, b. 1758, 
April 19. and d. 1702. March 25. Prudence, 1). 1759. Sei^t. 22. Sarah, 
1). 1701, March 31; m. Timothv Foster, 11. J?nrc/ifL b. 1703. Jan. 7; m. 
1789, March 3, Abijah Cutler, "^of Brookfield. Bhoda, b. 1704. Nov, 12; 
d. 1778, Sept. 21. Seth, 31, b. 1700. Dee. 5. Allice, b. 1708. Nov. 2; 
d. 1771, July 0. Hannah, b. 1771, May 22; m. 1791, March 24, Luke 
Lane, of Bedford. Joshua, b. 1774. ]May 18. and d. 1778, Sept. 15. Bhoda,, 
b. 1780. Dec. 2; m. Stephen Eichardson, 23. 

23. Jacob, son of Thomas. 10, b. 1729. Sept. 19; m. 1701. April 8, 
Hannah Russell. His farm was next to Chelmsford. His estate was 
settled, 1770. Ch. Hannah, b. 1701. Dec. 28. Beuhen, b. 1704, Feb. 11. 
(The record of baptisms names this child Behecca). Zilpah, b. 1707, 
Oct. 20; m. Joseph Stearns, 17. Jacob, b. 1709. April 18. Samuel, b. 1773, 
June 1. 

24. Oliver, son of Oliver, 13, b. 1749, Sept. 17 ; m. 1708. March 17, 
Kachel Stickney, dau. of Daniel, 3. He was deacon ; lived east of Bare hill ; 
d. 1825, Sept. 17. Ch. Oliver, b. 1709, March 17; grad. H. C..1795; studied 
law. and settled in Dover. N. H., 1798. In 1822. he removed to Atkinson. 
Me., where he had acquired large land interests, and d. there 1851. July 29. 
He m. Harriet Chase, dau. of Stephen, of Portsmouth. Had ch. Harriet, 
b. 1801. June 12; m. E. T. Morrill, Bangor. Oliver, h, 1802, Nov. 30. and 
d. in Illinois. 1870. William Chase, b. 1800. Dec. 2; a lawyer in Bangor. 
Cornelia, b. 1810, March 27; m. Dr. Amasa Barrett. Bangor. Henrietta, b. 
1814. Nov. 27; m. George W. Ingersoll. Bangor. Josiali,h. 1810. Nov. 24; 
grad. B. C., 1835; a lawyer in Atkinson. "Michael, 32, b. 1771, May 3. 
Josiah.M^h.l777, Feb. 8. B<ichel. h. 1779. Dec. 25; d. 1795. Nov.' 12. 
Elizabeth, b. 1782. July 30; m. 1810, June 5. John Wheeler, of Dover. N. H. 

25. Josiah, S(m of Oliver. 13, b. 1740. A])ril 20: ni. 1772. Dec. 1, 
Sarah Cummings. dau. of Nathaniel. He d. 1819, July 20. She d. 1823, 
Aug. 20. No children. 


2G. Samuel, son of Francis, 15, b. 1745-(3. Feb. 25; ni. 1772, Feb. (5. 
Abioail Bailey, of Lancaster. His inventory taken in 177G. He lived in 
Bedford. Cli. AhujaiL b. 1772, Dec. 7. Samueh bap. 1774. July 17. 

27. Ephraim, son of Ephraini. 16, b. 1762, Marcli 13; ni. 1788. 
March 13. harah Frendi, dau. of AA'illiani. 13^. He lived near Shawshin 
river; removed in 1815 to Milford. N. H.. and d. 1820. Ch. Sarah. 
h. 1789. Oct. -29; d. 179(i. Mav 25. Ephraim. b. 1791, June 27; d. 1808, 
Sept. 10. Riifiis, b. 1793. Jaii. 2, and d. 1790. May 28. Anna, b. 1794. 
Oct. 10; m. Joseph Goodhue, of New Boston. Utifus, h. 179G. Xov. 7; 
lived in Milford. Sarah, b. 1798. Sept. 15 ; m. Thomas Wilkins, of Amherst. 
Charles, b. 1800, May 31 ; lived in Boston. 3Iarij. b. 1802. May 6 ; m. David 
Huse. of Foxboro". St/lvester. h. 1804, April 12; lived in Lowell. Caleb, 
b. 1806, Jun? 17; lived in Lowell. Liicy and Loizia, b. 1808, March 26. 
Ephraim. b. 1810, April 13 ; lived in Lowell. George, b. 1813, May 22; 
lived in Lowell. 

28. John, son of Ephraim, 16, b. 1705, June 16; m. 1796. Dec. 15, 
Abigail Cook, dau. of ,Sears, 2. He d. 1834, Jan. 11. Ch. Abigail, b. 1799, 
May 15; m. Jeremiah Eogers, {see 16). John. 34, b. 1805, Dec. 8. Harriet, 
b. 1807. Oct. 28; m. 1836, Aug. 16, Lvman Ward, of Koxbury. Francis, 
b. 1811, Julv 31; d. 1829. Dec. 20. 

29. Timothy, son of James, 17, b. 1751, May 11; m. 1772. Jan. 14. 
Susanna Sanders, dau. of Obadiah, and 1796. Dec. 15. Mary Frye, of 
Andover. Ch. Susanna, b. 1772. April 12; m. 1794, Dec. 20. Amos Hosmer. 
Timothy, b. at Andover. 1774. April 9. Ebenezer, b. 1776. Sept. 26. 
Thomas. S5, b. at Andover. 1778. Feb. 23. Jedediah. b. 1779, April 22. 
Nathaniel, b. at Carlisle. 1781. Nov. 25; m. 1810, Jime 27, Olive Towns. 
Hezekiah.h. at Tewksbury, 1784. Jan. 18. 3IoUy, b. 1785. Oct. 30; m. 
1807. Jan. 21, Henry Blanchard, of Andover. Sarah, m. Aaron Danforth, 28. 

30. Jeremiah, son of Hezekiah, 21, b. 1760. March 20; m. 1783, 
Oct. 13. Abigail Jaquith, who d. 1810. Jan. 12, and he m. 1810, Dec. 25, 
Lucy Winship. He d. 1821, Oct. 19; his Avidow, 1841, April 11, aged 72. 
Ch. Ja-emiah, 36, b. 1784, Aug. 15, Abigail, b. 1786, Jime 4 ; m. 1808, 
Feb. 4, Jeremiah Hobson, of Deering, N. H. Silence, still-born, 1788, 
May 25. Hannah, b. 1790, Mav 1 ; d. 1796, Feb. 28. Zoa. b. 1792, May 27; 
d. 1796, March 18. Lticy. b. 1794, Aug. 23; d. 1796, March 12. Hannah, 
b. 1797, April 7; m. 1819, April 8. Joshua Learned, of Cambridge. Sumner, 
h: 1801. March 21; m. 1826, Nov., Harriet Blanchard, dau. of Joseph, 11, 
and Uved in Boston ; d. 1875, April 10. Alonzo, b. 1803. March 22; d. 1860, 
Jan. 17. Lucy. b. 1805. May 17; m. 1831. Oct. 7, John Osborn, of Belfast. 
He d. 1860. in New Orleans; she now lives in Melrose. 

31. Seth, son of Setli. 22, b. 1766, Dec. 5 ; lived south-east of Nutting's 
pond, on the Middlesex tui-npike; m. 1790. July 13. Mehitable Kittredge, 
dau. of Nehemiah, 13. She d. 1814, Feb. 16, and his .wife, Mary, d. 1844, 
July 25, aged 73. He d. 1848. June 4. Ch. Betsey m. 1816, Jan., 
Edward W'lnship, of Lexingtcm. Harvey. 37. 7i>Hdff/nived in Boston ; 
m. 1826, April 23, Elizabeth Hill, of Arlington, dau of David, and 1834, 
Feb. 9. Lydia, her sister. Clarissa d. 1849, Feb. 11, aged 54. Augustus 
lived in Warner. N. H. ; m. Currier. 

32. Michael, son of Oliver, 24, b. 1771. May 3; m. 1792, March 27, 
Asenath Blanchard, dau. of Simon. 4. Ch. Michael, 38, b. 1792, April 29. 
Asenath. Frederic, b. 1795, Sept. 2. 

33. Josiah, son of Oliver, 24, b. 1777, Feb. 8; m. 1803, Oct. 16. 
Betsey Hartwell, of Littleton. He d. 1829, July 27. Ch. Elizabeth 
Heyichod, b. 1804, Aug. 12; m. 1826. Dec. 13, Rev. Bernard Whitman. He 
was brother of Kev. Nathaniel Whitman, b. 1796. June 8. Student at 
H. C. but did not graduate. Studied theology with Dr. Abbot, of Bevei-ly; 
was ordained at Waltham, 1826, June 8, and d. there, 1834, Nov. 5. He 
Avas an active and vigorous writer in the Christian Examiner ; editor of the 
Unitarian; and ]niblished a volume of 'Village Sermons," 1832; two letteis 
to Prof. Stuart, 1830; and a dozen sermons on various occasions. (See Am. 


Quar. Reg., Vol. XII, pp. 254 and 278). Oliver, 39, b. 1806, Feb. 8. 
Rachel Ann. b. 1807, June 11 ; d. 1821, Nov. G. Siisannah, b. 1801). Api-ill4; 
ux. 1832, Nov. 1, Tliaddevis Brown, M. i).. wlio graduated at Yale College, 
1820; Harvard Medical College, 1830; and d. 1839. Sept. 28, aged 37. She 
d. 184.5. June 28, and a son Thaddeus d. 1838, Mareh 11, aged 4. Sarah 
Cumim/s, h. 1813. Sept. 25. Martha, b. 1816, July 10. Jusiah, b. 1818, 
Jan. 17; lives in Andover. 

34. John, son of John, 28, b. 1805, Dec. 8; m. Isabella H. Goodwin, 
dau. of Cliarles, 4. Ch. Wlen Maria, b. 1840, Get. 12. Francis Lyman, 
b. 1842, Sei)t. 4. Simon, b. 1844, May 23. Laura Isabella, b. 1846, June 6. 

35. Thomas, son of Timothy, 29, b. 1778. Feb. 23; m. Sally . 

Ch. ThoiiKts, b. 1802, Aug. 25. In Tewksbury: Lydia, b. 1805, Get. 1. 
Mary Ann, b. 1811, June 20. Thomas, b. 1813, May 4. 

36. Jeremiah, son of Jeremiah, 30, b. 1784, Aug. 15; m. 1812, 
Nov. 20, lUitli Bowman, dau. of Abel, 2. She d. 1830. Got. 11. and he m. 
Luoy Goodwin who d. 1846, May 28, aged 54; he d. 1872, Nov. 18. 
Ch. Albert, b. 1813. Sept. 23. Leander, 40, b. 1815. July 5. Ambrose 
and Abigail, b. 1817, June 10. Ambrose d. 1847, Dec. 31, New Bedford. 
Abigail m. 18.50, Nov. 28, Jackson Richardson, of Boston. Abel Bowman 
b. 1822, Get. 17. Emih/, b. 1825. Feb. 21. Benslow, b. 1833, June 23. 

37. Harvey, son of Seth, 31, m. Esther Melvin. She d. 1846, Nov. 13. 
He lived north-east of Bare hill; d. 1872. Feb. 1. Ch. Clarissa Auqusta, 
b, 1820. Feb. 1; d. 1850, Dec. 14. 3Iaria. b. 1822, Jan. 7. Henri/, b. 1824, 
Dec. 25. George, b. 1828, Jan. 20. William, b. 1830, April 18. Edwin, 
b. 1834, June 19. Seth, b. 1841, Jan. 1. 

38. Michael, son of Michael, 32, b. 1792, April 29 ; m. 1816, April 29, 
Margaret Tufts, widow of Cyrus Farmer, (see 13) . He lived on Vine brook. 
Ch. Josiah Michael, b. 1817, Jan. 27 ; lived in C-onnecticut. Warren Brooks, 
b. 1818, Get. 25; d. Lucretia Richardson, b. 1820, June 16. Cyrus Farmer. 
b. 1822, Sept. 2; lives in Somerville. Franklin, b. 1824, Dec. 18; went to 
Mexican War, and pever returned. Ann, b. 1827, Aug. 19. Ellen. 

39. Oliver, son of Josiah, 33, b. 1806, Feb. 8; m. Hannah 

Elizabeth . Ch. Bernard Whitman, h. 1831, Jan. 6. Oliver, 

Feb. 9. Josiah, b. 1835, May 25. Sumner, b. 1837, March 2. 
Elizabeth, h. 1840, June 24. Frederick Augustus, b. 1841, Dec. 15. Rachel 
Ann, b. 1843, Get. 9; d. 1848, April 5. Mary, b. 1846, Jan. 27; d. 1848, 
April 3. 

40. Leander, son of Jeremiah, b. 1815, July 5 ; lives on his father's 
place, east of Nutthig's pond; m. 1846, Feb. 22, Abigail Moody, of 
Vassalboro, Me. CJi. Rnthy Isadora, b. 1850, Jan. 8; m. John Russell 
Lowell, of Boston. William, b. 1853, April 15; d. 1854, March 9. Frank 
William, b. 1855, Sept. 1. 

41. Benjamin Franklin, son of Nathaniel, of Tewksbury, (see 29), 
b. 1830, Ai)ril 3 ; m. 1857, April 19, Amanda P. Munroe. Ch. Henry 
Franklin, b. 1858, April 10. 

CUMINGS. John Cunuuings. of Rowley. 1667. perhaps son of Isaac, 
of Ipswich, m. Sarah Howlett, dau. of Sergt. Thomas, of Ii)swich. He 
remov(Hl to Dunstable, and was one of the leading men; selectmen and 
town-clerk. He had ch. John, Nathaniel, Sary, Thomas, Abraham. Isaac, 
and Ebeiiezf^r ; d. 1700, Dec. 1, and his wife, Dec. 7. John, his son, had 
seven ch. of whom Sanmel Avas b. 1680, Get. 6. and lived in Groton, \^'here 
liis son Jerahmael was b. 1711. Get. 10. Nathaniel lived in Dunstable and 
had a son Nathaniel b. 1699, Sept. 8 ; was prob. father of Nathaniel, of 

1. Nathaniel, (see above), m. 1749, Nov. 29, Kathrine Baldwin, dau. of 
John, 9. Her name takes the place of his on the tax-list, 1773. She d. in 

Dunstable. 1807, Nov. 4. Ch. Nathaniel, b. 1751, Feb. 3; m. , and d. 

in Dunstable, 1812, May 21. Sarah, b. 1753, June 2; ni. Josiah Crosby, 26. 
Kate, b. 1755. July 21. Pattey, b. 1757, Mareh 5; m. Benjamin Dutton, son 
of John, 10. Bette, b. 1761, Jan. 17. 

mn^ ^iryujiaj 


2. Henry, Rev., son of Jeraliiuael, (above,) b. 1739, Sfpt. 16. His 
fathtn- lived in the west part of Dunstable, and was one of the petitioners 
in 1738. who oljtained the incorporation of the Parish of West Dunstable, 
which became the town of IloUis in 174G. His mother was Hannali Farwell, 
dau. of Henry. Jerahmael Cumings d. 1747, Oct. 21. and his widow m. Dea. 
Stephen Jewett. She liad five children by each marriage. Hannali 
Cumings, her oldest dau.. m. James Hol)art, who was one of the first 
settlers in 1764. of Plymouth, X. II. Her son James b. 1766, Aug. 2, was 
the first child born in the town. He grad. D. C, 1794; studied tlieology 
with Eev. Dr. Asa Burton, of Thetford; was ordained over tlie cliurch 
just organized in Berlin, Yt., 1798, Xov. 7. and so remained moi'e than 
tliirty years. He d. in Berlin, 1862. July 16, having devoted liis later years 
to missionary labors in Vermont and Xew Hampsliire. After he was 90 
years old. hewalked on one Sabbath 12 or 15 miles and preaclied to three 
congregations. Jotliam, tlie only brother of Rev. Henry Cumings, was 
also one of the Plymouth pioneers, and has left a numerous posterity 
there. Henx-y Cumings grad. H. C, 1760; tauglit school in Reading, 1761 ; 
studied tlieology with Daniel Emerson, the eminent HoUis pastor, who 
preached his ordination sermon; was ordained in Billerica, 1763, Jan. 26, 
and d. in office, 1823. Sept. 5. The Rev. Mr. AVliitman had been his 
colleague fi-om 1814. Jan. 26. Harvard College gave him tlie honorary 
degree of D. D., in 1800. He was often called in council, and to preach on 
public occasions. The list of his publications, as revised by himself, for 
Mr. Farmer's Historical Memoir, is as follows: — 

1. On the day of Public Thanksgiving, 27 November, 1766. 

2. On the day of Thanksgiving, 23 Xovember. 1775. 

3. A Sermon preached at Lexington, on the the 19 April, 1781. 

4. On the General Election, at Boston. 28 May, 1783. 

5. On the day of National Thanksgiving. 11 Deceml)er, 1783. 

6. At the ordination of Reverend Phinehas Wright, at Bolton, 
26 October, 1785. 

7. On Natural Religion, 28 June, 1795. 

8. On Thanksgiving Day, 15 December, 1796. 

9. On Thanksgiving Day, 27 November, 1798. 

10. At the ordination of Reverend Caleb Bradley at Falmouth, 
9 October. 1799. 

11. Eulogy on Gen. George Washington, 10 January, 1800. 

12. On the Public Fast, 9 April, 1801. 

13. Charity Sermon at Roxbury, 21 September, 1802. 

14. An Half -Century Sermon, 21 February, 1813. 

15. Right-Hand of Fellowship, annexed to the Sermon, preached at 
the ordination of Reverend Elijah Dunbar, at Peterborough, N. H., 
23 October, 1799. 

16. Charge, annexed to the Sermon, preached at the ordination of 
Rev. Wilkes Allen, at Chelmsford. 16 November, 1803. 

17. Charge, annexed to the Sermon, at the ordination of his colleague, 
Reverend N. Whitman. 26 January, 1814. 

He m. 1763, May 19, Ann Lan'ibert. dau. of Thomas and Elizabeth, of 
Reading, who was b. 1739. Feb. 7. and d. 1784, Jan. 5. He m. 1786, 
Nov. 14, her sister, Mrs. Margaret Briggs. who d. 1790, June 2, aged 54. 
He m. 1791, Sept. 20, Sarali Bridge, dau. of Rev. Ebenezer. of Chelmsford; 
b. 1742. Julv 25; d. 1812, Feb. 25. Ch. A child, still-born, 1766. Aug. 15. 
Ann, b. 1768. July 31 ; d. 1793. Oct. 18. Frances, b. 1770, April 7; m. Dr. 
William Wilkins. Elizabeth, b. 1772, Aug. 15; m. 1800, Dec. 25, Lewis 
Gould, who was a merchant in Asliby. They had no children. Hennj. 
b. 1774, Sep. 9; grad. H. C, 1795; lie did not marrj^; was a teacher, and 
d. near Louisville, Ky., 1828-9. John. b. 1781, Feb. 11; m. and had two 

CURRIER, 1. William m. 1775, April 25, Bette Richardson, dau. of 
Ebenezer, 14. Ch. William, b. 1776, Feb. 20. Isaac, 2, b. 1777, Oct. 24. 


John. b. 1781. Aug;. G. Josiah. h. 1784. March 14. Brtsei/. b. 1786, June 16. 
Fraiiris. h. 17!«. April 1. 

2. Isaac, sm of William. 1, b. 1777. Oct. 24; m. Lucy Farasworth. 
He cainc Iroiii Dracut about 1820. and lived near the " corner" bridg?; 
d. 182.J. Oct. 20. and liis wiilow d. 18;J4. April 12. aged 52. Ch. Lavina, 
m. Ebcnezer Avery, of Wilmington. Lncinda lives in Lowell. Aiidinv 
d. about 18(35. in New York. ]Vur"<'n, a prominent lawyer and citizen in 
St. Louis. Julia Ann. b. 1820. Julj- 15; ni. Abel Spalding, 13, Cfeurt/e 
Wdshiinitnn. d. 185;5. Aug. 27. au'ed ;^(i. 

CUTLER, Charles, in. 1811 /Ma v 5. Elizabeth Winnino-, dau. of John. 2. 
Ch. Charles, b. 1812. March 1!): d. ISSS. .Jan. 4. William, b. 1814, Feb. 27. 
Eliznheth. 1). 181(), Dec. 27. Lvcij. b. 1820, Dec. 20. Mirtha. b. 1820, Jan. 3. 

DALAND, Beujiliuiu, m. Hannah Foster, dau. of Joseph. 13. lie d. 
1826, April 18. aged 63, and she d. 1834. June 1. Oliver Foster, bap. 1801, 
Oct. 18. Din. bap. 1803, Dec. 11. SaUi/, baj). 1806. Jan. 26. Hannah. 
bap. 1806. Dec. 20. Eliza, bap. 1800. Feb. 26. Samuel, bap. 1811, Aug. 18. 
Frederick Freeman, bap. 1814, Sept. 25. 

DANA, Samuel, was son of Sauuiel. of ('anil)ridge. who d. in Billerica. 
He m. Mary Durick, of Salem, who d. 1850, A])ril 22. aged 04; lived at tlie 
Wild place, on tlie Lowell road, and also near Xorth Billerica; d. 18()4. 
June 11. aged 82 years. 6 months and '.) days. Ch. J/rov/, 1). 1811, Aug. 22; 
d. about 1870. Hiram, b. 1814, March 11 ; lived in Boston; no <'h. Hannah. 
b. 1815, June 4; in. Joseph I. Salter. Sarah Ann. h. 1817, Dec. 16; 
m. Ileniy liobinson, of Concord, X. H. ; d. 1866. Sanui^d. b. 1824, Aug. 26; 
d. 1850, Jan. IS. Martha, b. 1827. Jan. 6; ni. Henry Durant. of LoVell ; 
no ch. 

DANDLY. 1. John, m. 1793. Sept. 29, Kebecca Shed. prob. dau. of 
Joseph, 15; perhaps of Samuel. 14. Ch. John. b. 1794. Jan. 25. William, 
b. 1795, Xov. 27. James. 2. 

2. James, son of John, 1, m. 1819. ^larch 25. Sarah Patten, dau. of 
John. 15. She d. 1838, Nov. 30; he d. 1848. Feb. 11, aged 50. Ch. J/ar// 
Mason Pearson, b. 1819, Aug. 2; ni. 1846, Dec. 3, Charles W. Newell, of 
Roxbury. James He nnj. b. 1822, Sept. 6; m. 1848, June 25, Edith Patch, 
of Tyngsboro'. He lived in Boston; d. 1879, Jan. 10. Miriam Maria. 
b. 1828. Feb. 17; m. 1876, Nov. 15, Aaron Pasho. John Calvin, b. 1834, 
April 3; m. Lucy Patch. 

D.iNFORTH, Joualhan, youngest son of Nicholas and Elizabeth 
Daniorth, wash, in Frandingham, in High Suffolk, England, 1627-8, Feb. 29. 
His mother d. in England. 1629 ; his father, in Cambridge, 1638, April. 
His brother, Thomas, of Cambridge, was one of the most useful and 
eminent citizens of the colony ; selectman, 1645-71 ; town clerk, 1645-68 ; 
assistant, 1659-78. Deputy Governor. 1679-92. except during Andros' 
usurpation, after which, only the prolonged life of the veneiable Gov. 
Bradstreet prevented his election as Governor. He was President of the 
District of Maine. 1681-92; member of the Council, l(9]-9; Judge of 
Superior Court, after 1692; Treasurer of Hai-vard College, 1650-69; 
Treasurer of Middlesex County, and from 1648-86, Recorder. The 
acknowledged leader of the party which resisted the arbitrary proceedings 
of the King, and effected the counter-revolution in Massachusetts. He 
d. 1699, Nov. 5, aged 77. His brother, Samuel, grad. H. C, 1643; was 
ordained colleague with John Eliot, as pastor at Roxbury; d. 1674, 
Nov. 19, leaving an eminent reputation for scholarship and piety. His 
wife was Mary, dau. of John W'ilson, Boston's first pastor. 

Our Jonathan Danforth was of worthy stock, and in view of 
his long life and many and varied services, he might be recognized as the 
father of the town. His nuirriage was the first on our records, though it 
seems to have taken place in Boston, as it was also recorded there. His 
skill as a surveyor, gave him employment far and wide. For forty years 
ho prcjbably surveyed every land grant in Billerica, and nmst have 
explored every nook and corner of the ancient town. His descriptions fill 
some 200 pages, in his own, very clear and handsome hand-writing, in the 


volume of Land Grants; and in locating grants and making surveys, as 
settlement went on, north and west, he was more frequently employed than 
any other. In Haverhill. Dracut, Dunstable. Groton, Towusend and as far 
as Amherst and Litchfleld. N. H.. his work is found. Many of his "plots '' 
are preserved in the State Archives. He was town-clerk, 1(565-86. 
Selectman. Representative, and Captain of the Militia company. His 
energy and wisdom made his counsel of value, and liis piety shone. He 
was tlie life-long and trusted friend of liis pastor, Mr. Whitinf, who 
survived him but five months. Mr. Farmer states that he left t\vo Ms. 
folios containing sermons and sketches of sermons for many years, together 
with the baptisms and admissions to the church. If any part of these 
valuable folios was in existence in Mr. Farmer's day, as he implies, it 
has since disappeared. Wide and careful searcli has detected no clue to 
them, or to the "ancient plan" of the to\\ii. in Mr. Fanner's po.ssession, 
of which he speaks. (Xote p. 1, of Hist. Memoir). This plan was sent 
to the Mass. Historic^al Society, but lias' unfortunately disappeared from 
its archives. Mr. Farmer has preserved lines taken from a poem, on ]Mr. 
Danforth's death, supposed to have been written by his nephew. Rev. John 
Danforth. of Dorchester, which are worthy of repetition here. 
"He rode the circuit, chain'd great towns and farms, 

To good behavior ; and by well marked stations, 

He ttxed their bounds for many generations. 

His art ne'er failed him, though the loadstone failed, 

When oft by mines and streams it was assailed. 

All this is charming, but there's something higher. 

Gave him the lustre which .we most admire." 
An ac(;ount of his piety followed. The house which Mr. Danforth 
built and in which he lived and died is disappearing as we write, 
March. 1880, to give place to a new one. Mr. Martin Lane is its owner. 
A good picture of it is herewith presented. The wife of Mr. Danforth 
was Elizabeth Poulter. dau. of John and Mary. b. in Raleigh. Essex. 1633, 
Sept. 1. Her father is called '-Goodman Pouter," in the Boston record, 
and prob. d. in England. Her mother became the wife of Sergt. John 
Parker. This theory best explains the facts, which are, that Danforth 
calls Parker his "father-in-law," {Land Grants, p. 11. No. 3.) and Parker 
calls Danforth. "son-in-law." (see parchmejit deed, forming cover of 
"Births. Marriages and Deaths" Record.) and that after Mr. Parker's 
death, in 1667. his widow Mary m. Thomas Chamberlain, of Chelmsford, 
in 1674. Her name was therefore the same with that of Mrs. Danforth's 
mother, and her death. 1692. Feb. 8. is entered by Mr. Danforth, in Billerica 
Records, as of special significenee to the Recorder. Mr. Danforth was m. 
''before Mr. Increase Nowell." 1654. Nov. 22. His wife d. 1689, Oct. 7; 
he m. 1690. Nov. 17. Mrs. Esther Champney, dau. of Elder Richard, of 
Cambridge, and widow of Josiah Convers. of Woburn. who d. a few 
months after her husband. 1713, April 5. He d. 1712. Sept. 7. Ch. 3Iani, 
b. 1655-6. Jan. 29; m. 1678. June 4. John Parker, of Chelmsford. 
Elizabeth, b. 1657. May 27; m. 1687, March 7. Simeon Heyvvood. of Concord. 
Jonathan. 2, b. 1658-9. Feb. 18. John. b. 1660-1. Jan. 23; d. Feb. 7. John. 
b. 1661-2. Feb. 22; d. June 4. Lydia. b. 1664. June 1 ; m. Edward AVright. 
of Concord. Samnd, 3, b. 1665-6, Feb. 5. Anna. b. 1667-8. March 8; m. 
Oliver Whiting. 3. Thomas, b. 1670. April 29; d. Julv 31. XirhoMs, 
b. 1671, July 1 ; d. 1693-4, March 8. Sarah, b. 1676, Dec. '23; m. William 
French. 7. 

2. Jonathan, son of Jonathan. 1, b. 1658-9, Feb. 18; lived east of 
Long street, opp. his father's place ; m. 1682. June 27. Rebecca Parker, 
dau. of Jacob, of Chelmsford. Ensign Danforth d. 1710-11. Jan. 17. and 
his widow m. Joseph Foster. 2. Ch. Rebecca, b. 1683. June 30; m. 1702, 
Dec. 31, Thomas Parker. Thomas. 4, b. 1685-6. March 17. Jonathan, o, 
b. 1688-9. March 22. Elizabeth, b. 1690, Aug. 31 ; m. Christopher Osgood. 1. 
Samuel. 6, b. 1692. Sept. 16. Nicholas, b. 1695. Aug. 17; d. 1748. March 10. 
Jacob. 7, b. 1697-8, Feb. 6. Sarah, b. 1700, Aug. 18. John, b. 1703, June 3. 


3. Samuel, son of .Toiiath;in, 1, 1). 16(i5-6, Fel). 5; in. 1694-"). Jan. 8, 
Hannah Crosbv, dau. of Simon. 1. He d. 1742. April IS), and she in. Enoch 
Kidder. 4. Ch. Elizaleth. h. 1()!)5. Nov. 8. Hannah, h. 1698. Aug. 20. 
Snmiti'l. 8, b. 1701. May 1.5. Bavhcl. b. 1703. Aug. 14; m. Thomas Kidder. 6. 
Ui.dia. h. 1706. March 26. AhiqaiJ. b. 1709. Aug. 19. Joyiathan. 9, b. 1712-18. 
.Ian. 11. 

4. Thomas, scm of Jonathan. 2, b. 168.5-6. March 17; ni. 1784. Sept. 19. 
Rel)ecca Sinionds. of Bedford; d. 1737. Oct. 31. and she ni. 2d. .losiah 
Brown. 5. Ch. Thomas. 10, and Joseph, b. 1735. July 8. Elijah. 11, 
b. 1737. Aug. 8. 

5. Jomithan, son of Jonatlian. 2, b. 1688-!>. March 22; ni. 1713. 
Noy. 18. Elizabeth Fassett. \vidow of Peter. 2. He d. 1762. March 23. 
and his widoAv. 1772, April 8. ("h. Jonathan. 1). 1714. Xoy. 10; ni. 1743, 
May 24. Anna Blanchard. and d. in Ilollis. 1746-7. March 3. Elizabeth. 
h. 1717. May 4; ni. AVilliam Manning. <S. Sarah, b. 1719-20. March 6; d. 

1762. Nov. 17. Bebecca, b. 1722. May 29 ; d. after 1800 ; not ni. Benjamin. 12, 
b. 1724, Dec. 8. Mary. b. 1727." April 20; d. 1793. March 16. Anna. 
b. 1729-30. Feb. 28; ni. Braviter Gray. 1. AbiqaiJ. h. 1733. Aug. 16; 
d. 1774, May 27. 

(J. Samuel, son of Jonathan, 2, b. 1()92. Sept. 16; ni. 1714. Aug. 5, 
Dorothy Shed. dau. of Jolm, 3. Administration granted on his estate, 
1742, June 7. Ch. Dorothy, b. 1715. June 27 ; m. Walter Pollard, (seel). 
Behecca. b. 1716-7, March 15 ; m. 1737. March 21. Ephraim Davis, of 
Bedford. SanuteL b. 1719. March 29; d. May 5. Joseph, b. 1720, June .30; 
m. Mary Richardson, dau. of Andrew. 4, and was a leading v-itizen of 
Dunstable; d. 1795. March 30. Samuel. 13, b. 1722, June 24. Thomas. 14, 
b. 1724, May 11. Benjamin, b. 1726. July 1. Sarah, b. 1728. April 14; m. 
David Osgood, 5. John, b. 1729-30, Feb. 14. Joshua, b. 1731-2, Feb. 24; 

m. Kesia , and had Joshua, b. in AVoburn, 1754, Dec. 14. T^ncy, b. 1734. 

April 5; m. Joseph Ross, 6. Jonathan, h. 1736, June 14; d. 1758. Aug. 13. 

7. Jacob, < 'apt., son of .Jonathan, 2, b. 1697-8, Feb. 6 ; m. 1719, Oct. 6, 
Rebecca Patten, dau. of AVilliam. 5. He d. 17.54, Jan. 2, and his widow, 
1773, Jan. 27. Ch. William. 15, b. 1720, Aug. 25. Jacob. 16, b. 1723, 
Aug. 13. Bebecca, b. 1725, Nov. 8; ni. Jonatlian AA^hiting, 8. David, 17, 
h. 1727. Dec. 1. Timothy, 18, b. 1729. Nov. 11. Mary, b. 1733. July 9; m. 

1763, July 12. Ebenezer Jaquith, of AVilmington. Hannah, b. 1736-7, Jan. 2 ; 
m. Solomon Pollard. 8. Mehitable. b. 1739, July 9; d. July 13. Pattc, 
b. 1742, July 18 ; d. 1750, April 3. 

8. Samuel, son of Samuel. 3, b. 1701, May 15; m. Elizabeth Hosley, 
dau. of James, 1. He d. 1750, June 28, and she d. 1756, July 3. 
Ch. James, 19, b. 1729-30, Jan. 10; Isaac, b. 1731-2. Jan. 9; d. 1756, 
May 10. Samuel and Nicholas. 20, b. 1734, Dec. 8. Elizabeth, b. 1730, 
May 10; m. her cousin, AA'illiam, 21. Jonathan, b. 1742, Feb. 26; 
lived in Hardwick. Mass., where he d. 1833, Sept. 15. He m. 1770, April 19, 
Susanna AA'hite, dau. of Rev. David, and 1780, Oct. 1. Anna Ruggles, 
dau. of Joseph. l)rother of "• Brigadier "' Timothy. They had ch. Samuel, 
b. 1771, May 7; d. 1824. Dec. 17, Ithaca. N. Y. ; lived also in Rupert 
and Pawlet, Vt. Of several ch., Charles grad. AV. C, 1826; was a 
clergyman. Jonathan, b. 1773, Feb. 25; d. 1797, April 3. David AAliite, 
b. n74, Nov. 10; d. Dec. 16. Pamela, b. 1777, Nov. 8; d. 1802, Dec. 16. 
Susanna AA^.. b. 1781, Dec. 28; m. Moses Gray, of Prescott. Joseph 
Ruggles, b. 1784. March 20; d. 1803. April 23. Hannah, b. 1786. June 8; 
d. 1811, June 13. Lyman, b. 1788, Oct. 22. Ann R., b. 1791, March 2; 
d. 1873, Nov. 29. Cyrus, b. 1793, Nov. 29. James, b. about 1796. 

9. Jonathan, son of Samuel, 3, b. 1712-13, Jan. 11; m. Sarah 
Manning, dau. of AVilliam. 4. Hed. 1738, between Aug. 10 and Oct. 9, and 
she d. 1745. Dec. 11. Ch. William. 21, 1). 1737, Nov. 7. 

10. Thomas, son of Thomas, 4, b. 1735, July 8; m. 1758, Aug. 5, 
Abigail Fox, i^rob. widow of Abel. He d. 1771. Ch. Bebecca. b. 1759, 
Apnl 25. Hannah, b. 1761, March 26. Joseph, 22, b. 1763, May 6. Sibbel, 
b. 1767, July 9. Thomas, bap. 1772, Jan. 5. 


11. Elijah, son of Thoums. 4, b. 1737, Aug-. 8; m. 1768. Nov. 24, 
Elizabeth Osoood, pvob. dau. of David, 5. He d. 1792 or "93. Ch. Bcttij, 
b. 1769. Dee." 6. Elijah, b. 1772, Feb. 11 ; d. Xov. 13. dloUtj. b. 1773, 
Oct. 14. EHjnh. b. 1776. Oct. 23. Timothy, b. 1780. Ma3' 16. Francis, 
b. 1782. Oct.'3. 

12. Beujamin, son of Jonatlian. 5, b. 1724. Dec. 8; m. 1750. April 1/, 
Mary Frost, dau. of BeDJamin. 9. Ch. Benjamin. 23, b. 1751. 'Slay 23. 
Mar]/, b. 1752. Sept. 21 ; m. Timothy Levistone, 7. Jonathan, b. 1754. July 20 ; 
ui. i786. Jan. 19. Sarali (handler, dau. of Thomas. 2; lived in Danvers 
and Hillsboro. N. H. Samnrl. 24, and Elizabeth, h. 1756. Aug. 24. Abel, 
b. 1758, March 13; d. in the Army, at Crown Point. 1776. July 14. Anna, 
b. 1759. Sept. 7; m. Thomas Levistone, (see 4). Peter, b. 1761. May 25. 
Aaron, b. 1763. March 4; d. 1765, Sept. 20. Abigail, b. and d. 1766, May 22. 
Abial. b. 1767, Mav 16; d. 1792. April 5. Aaron, b. 1768. Oct. 6; d. 1775, 
Sept. 3. 

13. Samuel, son of Samuel. 6, b. 1722, June 24; m. 1747-8, Feb. 11, 
Mary Ross. dau. of Seth, 5. Ch. Mary. b. 1749, June 15. Samuel. 25, 
b. 1752. Sept. 28. Snrah. bap. 1755, Jan. 5. Sarah, b. 1757, April 30. 
Rebecca, b. 17.59. Dec. 3. Seth. b. 1762. June 3; m. 1789, April 4. Judith 
Dunkin. Jnsiah. b. 1765. July 4; (The Baptismal Eecord says Isaac). 
Joseph, b. 1767. June 3. Zachick. b. 1770. Auo-. 26. 

14. Thomas, son of Sanniel. 6, b. 1724. May 11 ; m. 1744, Oct. 16, 
Sarah Butterfield, of Chelmsford. Ch. Thomas, b. 1744-5, Feb. 20. Asa. 
b. 1746. Julv 25. John. 2G, bap. 1748. Feb. 28. 

15. William, son of Jacob. 7, b. 1720. Aug. 25; m. 1742. Feb. 17, 
Abigail AA'alker. dau. of Benjamin. 3. He d. 1743-4. March 5; she m. 
Peter Hill. 17. Ch. Abiyail.'h. 1743. June 12; m. 1795, Jan. 20, Jonas 
Gleason, of Bedford. 

16. Jacob, son of Jacob. 7, b. 1723. Aug. 13; m. 1745, Dec. 26, 
Martha Crosby, dau. of William, 9. He d. 1748. Nov. 9, and his widow m. 
1754, Jan. 23, Mathew Mead, of Lexington. Ch. Jacob, b. 1746, Aug. 17. 
Jesse, b. 1748, May 26: m. 1768. Jan. 13. Anna Conella, of Woburn; lived 
in HoUis. 

17. David, son of Jat-ob. 7, b. 1727. Dec. 1 ; m. 1750. May 17, Joanna 
Shed, dau. of Benjamin. 8. Ch. Patte, b. 1751, May 26. David, b. 1752, 
Nov. 26. Joanna', h. 1754, Mareh 31. Solomon, b. 1756. Jan. 12. William, 
b. 1757, July 31; m. Lucy Pollard, dau. of Edward, 5. Settled in 
Litchfield, x! H. ; d. 1804. His son. Simeon, lived in Merrimac. X. H.. the 
father of Daniel Warner Danforth. of North Woburn. William Simeon, 
his son. is in the Faneuil Hall Bank. Boston. Asa. 27, b. 17.59. Dec. 15. 
i?fflc/ie;. b. 1761. Dec. 15; m. John Shed, 21. Bebecca. b. 1764, July 20. 
Jacob, b. 1766. Feb. 27. John, b. 1768. Oct. 27; settled in Dorchester, N. H. 
Hannah, b. 1770. Nov. 10. 

18. Timothy, son of Jacob. 7, b. 1729. Nov. 11; m. 1755. June 5, 
Sarah Patten, dau. of Thomas. 11. A phvsician; he d. 1792. June 21. 
Ch. Sarah, b. 1756. Feb. 20; m. 1778. Sept. 13. Nathan Buss. Orpha. b. 1758, 
June 7; m. 1785. May 24. John AVhiting. of Lancaster. Julia, b. 1764, 
April 26; m. Asa Spaulding. {see 3). 

19. James, son of Samuel, 8, b. 1729-30. Jan. 10; ni. Lydia . 

He d. 1758. Nov. 22; slie m. Ebenezer Richardson, 11. Ch. Lydia. b. 1753, 
Dec. 5; m. 1778. April 1. Ziba Lane. Josiah. b. 1755. June 8. Hannah. 
b. 1757. Feb. 20. Betty, h. 1759, April 20. (The Baptismal Record says 
Sarah, bap. 1759. April 15). 

20. Nicholas, son of Samuel, 8, b. 1734. Dec. 8 ; m. 1758, March 30. 
Elizabeth Jaquith, dau. of Abraham, 1. His name disappears from tax-list, 
1763. She d. 1815. Ch. Samuel, b. 1759. Mav 11. James, b. 1760. Dec. 28. 
Elisabeth, bap. 1763, April 10. 

21. William, son of Jonathan. 9, b. 1737, Nov. 7; m. 1760. Jan. 3, 
Elizabeth, his cousin, dau. of Sanuiel. 8. He d. in Hartland. Vt., about 1814, 
and his widow in Pomfret, Vt., 1817. March 28. Ch. William, b. 1761, 
Julj^ 31 ; lived iti Hartland, Vt., where 11 of his 12 ch. were born; then 


removed to Berkshire, Vt., and there died. Of his children, William and 
Jonathan were eleroymen. Isnac^ b. 176;i, Sept. 29. He was a physician 
in Barnard. Vt.. wliere he d. 1851. May 28. His ch. were (a) Perses Baker, 
who m. Kev. Joel Davis, minister in Barnard. (/>) Betsey Maria, (c) Isaac 
Emery, M. D. (d) Joseph Baker, member of Legislature and Judge of 
Pi'obate. (c) Solon, a leading citi/en of Barnard, menilier of Senate, Vt. 
(/) William Cullen. M. D. {(/} All)ert Harlow, an active citizen, and often 
in public office in Barnard and Claremont. N. H. ; now resident in Chicago. 
(h) Sanuiel Parkman. an eminent physician of his native town, and 
Koyalton; d. IH.")."); the father of Kev. 'William B. Danforth, who d. 1876. 
Elizabeth, b. 17(J.">, June 19. Jonathan, bap. 1708, March 4. Jo)iathan, 
b. 1769, Nov. 23; lived in Pomfret, Vt. ; d. about 1859. Sumud,, b. 1772, 
Aug. 30; a physician in Calais. Vt., where he d. 1812, April 12. Of his 7 ch., 
four are living in Ohio: Bernct. b. 1774. Oct. 2. Jamcs^ b. 1776, Nov. 8. 
Sally, b. 1777. Dec. 9. Hoslnj, b. 1779, Dec. i. The last four did not marry. 

22. Joseph, son of Thomas. 10, b. 1763. May 6; m. 1789. Aug. 27, 
Dorcas Wvman. Woburn. He d. 1805, Oct. 21. and his widow m. Alexander 
Winning.' Ch. Bornts, b. 1790. Feb. 26; m. Joseph Hill, 28. Sally, 
b. 1791, Nov. 8 ; m. William Kichardson. (sf^c 1{)). Xanry, b. 1795, June 15 ; 
m. Zaccheus Shed. 25. Hannah, b. 1797. Oct. 9. Juspph, b. 1799. June 14, 
and d. 1823. Aug. 10. Jasiah, b. 1801. June 17. and d. 1822. Oct. 3. Oliver, 
b. 1803, March 14; d. 1849. Oct. 25. Julia, b. 1805. July 16. 

23. Benjamin, son of Benjamin, 12, b. 1751. May 23; ni. 1771, 
July 10. Esther Sanders, dau. of James. 3. Ch. Esither, b. 1771. Sept. 17. 
He lived after, in Tewksbury, where he had Abel. Aaron, 28. Benajah 
and Mirajah. 

24. Samuel, son of Benjamin, 12, b. 1756, Aug. 24 ; m. 1780, March 30, 
Anna Trull, of Tewksbury. Ch. Samuel, b. 1780, Oct. 1. Bobcrt. b. 1782, 
May 7. 

25. Samuel, son of Samuel, 13, b. 1752, Sept. 28; m. 1774, April 28, 
Sarah Toothaker, dau. of Dr. Roger. 3. Ch. Sarah, b. 1775, June 18. 
Polly, b. 1780. March 1. 

26. John, son of Thomas. 14, m. 1779, May 6, Mercy Wait. Ch. 3Iercy 
b. 1779, Nov. 11. 

27. Asa, son of David, 17, b. 1759. Dec. 15; m. 1781, March 14, 
Abigail Pollard, dau. of Edward, 5. He removed to Derry, X. H. 
Ch. Asa, b. 1781. Aug. 24. Francis, b. 1783. June 15; d. 1806, Oct. 31. 
Simeon, William, Nubby and Sally. These sisters m. brothers named Keed. 

28. Aaron, son of Benjamin, 23, m. 1805, Feb. 5, Sarah Crosby, 
dau. of Timothy, 29, who d. 1858, Jan. 2. He lived in the ancient, perhaps 
garrison, house, now o^v^led by James Fletcher. Ch. Sarah, b. 1805, 
June 27; m. Varnum Waugh. of Roxburv. Aaron, b. 1807, Oct. 17; 
lived in Portland; d. 1878, Marcli 16. Sylrestn: b. 1809. Sept. 29; d. 1833, 
June 21. Charles, b. 1811. Dec. 27; in. Matilda Shed, of Bedford; lives in 
Clair Lake. Wisconsin. Mary Ann, b. 1814, Aug. 10; m. 1837. Nov. 30, 
David Webber, Halifax, N. S. Susan Crosby, b. 1816, Nov. 6; m. Nathaniel 
Hastings, of Koxbury. AbirjailJaquith, b. 1819, Feb. 2; m. Amos Marston. 
Hannah Maria, b. 1822, Dec. 25; d. 1839. March 18. Caroline Lovice. 
b. 1825, June 22 ; d. 1844, March 18. Joseph Bernard, b. 1829, April 15; 
d. Dec. 8. Joseph ForH?n», b. 1831, May 2; m. Jane Putney. He d. 1868, 
Dec. 6. Ch. Joseph, Francis. James Madison, Maria Josephine. Julia Abby. 

DANIEL, Richard, "of Edmonton. England. Gent., now in England," 
purchased, 1669, Nov. 12, for £220, the farm of 1000 acres belonging to the 
church in Cambridge, then leased, and afterwards sold to Thomas Bicliardson 
and Joseph Walker. Jan. 19, for £100, he also bought the 500 acre farm, 
of Samuel Champney. The Woburn road ran between these two farms, on 
both sides of Shawshin river, and as Champney then left town, Mr. Daniel, 
doubtless, lived on his place, on the south-west side of the road, not far 
from the river. He is mentioned by Gookin, in his Wamesit Narrative, as 
elsewhere quoted, and was allowed to fortify his own house, in 1675. In 


1670, Dec. 5, at his request, a Committee was appointed to "settle the 
Country road, througli Shawshin f amies." Also the town " grant Mr. Daniel 
liberty to make a pue in the east end of y-' meeting house." and two weeks 
later "it is agreed that Mr. Daniel, gent., shal be set downe for the 
minister's rate, for this year, at five pound, fourteen shillings, for both 
farmes." His wife was of the nDbility, Mary, eldest daughter of Sir John 
Pye. of Derbyshire. He returned to England, prob. inlGSl.), and was living 
in London, 1700, Feb. 28, at which date he sold to Richartlsan and AV'alker, 
the church farm, and the ("hauipney farm to Thomas Ross and Hugh Ditson. 
Mr. Alexander Daniel, by -order' of the town, 1680, Sept. 20, was "to set 
in the front seat in y"^ front gallery." He was prob. a relative, possibly a 
son, of Richard. 

DAVIDSDX. 1. Nathaniel, united with the church, on a letter from 
•• London Derry." His name is on the tax-list, 1733. His relation to William 
and Robert, who are on tax-list. 173J-1. is not known. A Jane Davidson 
m. 1733. May 3, Thomas Campble; Elizabeth m. John Gorrell, 1733-4, 
Jan. 21. Nathaniel was a merchant, and lived on Woburn street, not far 
from the connnon. Itis name disappears in 1772. His wife was Mary. 
Ch. NmluuiicU b. 1742, Sept. 28; d. 1744, Dec. IG. WilWim, 2, b. 1745-6, 
Jan. 5. 3Iun/, b. 1748, Oct. 26; d. 1749-.50, March 1. Mithanid, b. 1754, 
Sept. 15. 

2. William, son of Nathaniel, disappears from tax-list. 1772. Ch. a 
dauyhtrr. bap. 1760. Di>c. 17. William, bap. 1771, Dec. 15. 

DA VIES, Timothy, had ch. Jushua, >Sile, "for Silence," and Hannah 
bap. 1809. Oct. 8. 

DAVIS. 1. Jo>oph, from Reading, m. 1691. June 18, Rebecca Patten, 
dau. of Thomas. 1. He l)ought, 1693. May 10. the township lot, which had 
been John Poulters, the I. G. Kimball place, on the north side of Andover 
street. In 1699, he bought the Fox farm of Mr. Daniel's agent. Thomas 
C^ooper, and there, north of Fox hill, made his home, long known as the 
Davis place. He was deacon of the church. Died 1747, Sept. 30, aged 80 ; 
his widow. 1750-1. Feb. 13. Ch. Bebecca. b. 1692, Sept. 11; m. 1713, 
May 13, Hezekiah Ballard, of Andover. Hannah, b. 1694, Dec. 1. Jos/ph, 
b. 1697, Nov, 3. Elizabeth, b. 1699. Nov. 6; m. Jacob French, 12. 
Benjamin, b. 1703. May 1. 3Iar)/, b. 1706, May 31 ; m. Jonathan French, 8. 
iSarah, b. 1709. May 1; m. Josiah Bacon, 7. Susanna, b. 1710, Dec. 5; 
m. Josiah Baldwin, 8. Jo>ihita, 2, b. 1714, Oct. 20. EtUher, b. 1716, 
March 24; m. 1734. Sept. 18, Samuel Parker, of Andover. Thomas, 
b. 1717, July 8; dis. 17.55. to the church in Mansfield. Conn. 

2. Josliua, son of Joseph, 1, b. 1714, Oct. 20; m. 1739, Oct. 24, 
Hannah Jaquith, of Wilmington. He d. also a deacon. 1777, Jan. 18; his 
widow. 1800, Aug. 8. Ch. Joshua, b. 1740, July 15; cl. Aug. 1. Hannah, 
b. 1741, Sejit. 7; m. John Farmer, 11. J,,shua, 3, b. 1743. Oct. 25. Joseph, 
b. 1745-6, Feb. 1 ; d. 1750, March 30. Bebecca, b. 1748. Aug. 21 ; d. 1749-50, 
March 21. Joseph, b. 1751, March 25; d. 1777. Jan. 14. Bi-njamin, 4, 
b. 1753, June 26. Tiniothi/, 5, b. 1756, April 28. Jonathan, b. 1758, Feb. 13. 

Williani, G, b. 1761, March 28. 

3. Jusliua, son of Joshua, 2, b. 1743, Oct. 25; m. 1769, May 25, Betty 
Blood. He d. prob. in 1780. as his name disappears from tax-list ; his 
widow m. Benjamin Baldwin. 12. Ch. Bette, b. 1779, Nov. 12; prob. m. 
1801. Feb. 2, William Stearns, of Bedford. 

4. Beujamiu, son of Joshua. 2, b. 1753. June 26; m. 1778, April 2, 
Mary Mann, of Chelmsford ; d. 1836, Feb. 8. Ch. Polhi, b. 1778, Aug. 8 ; m. 
1799, Sept. 29, Jonathan Bond, of Augusta. Me. ; d. 1841, Sept. 1. Hannah, 
b. 1780, Mav 9; m. Jeremiah Patt'en, 16. Bebecca. h. 17S\, Oat. -IS; m. 
1804, Sept. 23, Elias Bond, of Hallowell, Me. ; d. 1827. April 28. Sill;/, b. 
1783, June 27; m. Hon. William Crosby, (see 21). Joseph, b. 1785, Feb. 23; 
was a sea captain; d. 183 J, Dec. 24. A son, \Villiaui J., lives in Ciiicago. 
Abiyail, h. 1787, Oct. 4; m. 1807, Oct. 2J, Bohan P. Field, a lawyer of 
Belfast, Me. ; d. 1863, Nov. 3. Rev. George W. Field, D. D., pastor of 


Siileni street church, Boston, and in Bangor, since 1864. is a son. Benjamin, 
b. 1789, Nov 1 ; niercliant and lianker in Augusta. Me. ; d. 1875. jNJarcli 18. 
Two sons. George W. and Benjamin (i.. are dead. C'athei'ine, h. 1791, 
Oct. 13; 111. Thomas J. Lee, a bank casliier, Calais, Me.; d. 1870, July 2. 
Anna, b. 1794, Mareli 10; m. 1813. June 14. John S. Kimball, merchant of 
Belfast. Me. ; d. 1827, May. Elizabeth, b. 179G. Dec. 5; m. 1827. May 7, 
Hon. Jacob Sleeper, of Boston. She d. 1833, July 20; he m. 1834, 
April 7, her sister. Maria. Mr. Sleeper is well and widelj" known as a 
business man of Boston. He lias been an alderman of the city, member 
of the legislature, and was three years in the (TOvernor's council, and has 
been often employed in the management of educational and philanthropic 
institutions. He lias had five ch. : Mary Elizabetli, who m. (4eo. W. Davis, 
her cousin, and lives a widow witli her father. Her son, George H. Davis, 
having just graduated at Harvard College. Abigail Patten, wlio m. 
Joseph W. Harper, of Harper & Brothers, New York. Julia Maria, who 
m. Edward F. Dutton, of E. P. Dutton & Co., publishers. New York. 
Caroline M.. who also ui. Mr. Harper, and Jacob H., who lives in Boston. 
Franklin, b. 1799. Jan. 2; d. 1801. Feb. 27. Maria, b. 1800, Dec. 24, in. 
{as above,) Mr. Sleeper; d. 1878. S<>pt. 24. Franklin, b. 1804, Jan. 30; in. 
Maria Seaman, of New York; d. aliout 1850. 

5. Timotliy, son of Joshua, 2, b. 175G, April 28; m. 1779, May 11, 
Martha Shed. dau. of John. 16. Lived near Tewksbury line, east of North 
Billerica; d. 1832, Dec. 13; she d. 1837, April 21. Ch. Pff«e, b. 1779, 
Sept. 6; m. 1799. April 3, Abraham Taylor. i/?R?/, b. 1781, May 6; m. 
1808, May 8, JosejJi Bond, of AVilmington. Lucretia, b. 1783, Feb. 11. 
Timothy, 7, b. 1785. Feb. 4. Thomas, \i. 178G, Dec. 2. Joshua, b. 1788. 
Cile, b. 1792, July 20; m. Levi Foster. 15. Hannah, h. 1795, Aug. 13; 
in. 1816, May 16, Ebenezer Symms, of Wilmington. 

6. William, son of Joshua. 2, b. 1761, March 28; m. Eebecca . 

Ch. William, b. 1790, Sept. 9. Lydia Merriam, b. 1793. April 23. 

7. Timotliy, son of Timothy, 5, b. 1785, Feb. 4; lived at the corner; 
m. 1819, Jan. 26, Susan C. Lawrence, of Tyngsboro' ; d. 1840. Ch. George 
Oilman, b. 1821, June 25; lives in Saccarappa, Me. Edwin Lawrence, 
b. 1831, Feb. 17; lives in Palmer. 

8. Levi 111. 1796, June 13, Kebecca Mace. 

9. John m. Sarah. Ch. Albert Franklin, b. 1840, May 11. Lester 
Thomas, b. 1842. Nov. 11. 

DEAN. 1. William, m. 1670, Sept. 1. Martha Bateman. 

2. Ebenezer, brother or son of John, of Woburn, who m. Mary 
Fanner, (see 1). He was in town in 1730, and m. 1732, Dec. 7, Mary 
Eogers, widow of Nathaniel, 9. His name disappears. 1735, perhaps 
with the Tewksbury list. Ch. Ebenezer, b. 1733, Oct. 7. Perhaps 
Sarah, who m. John Pollard, G. 

3. John, perhaps son of Ebenezer, is on tax-list, 1742-80. His wife, 
Sarah, d. 1744-5, March 1. Ch. Mollie, b. 1744, May 14. Boreas d. 1750, 
June 5. 

4. Michael, of Wilmington, m. 1802, Dec. 30, Esther Patio. 
DEXTER. 1. • Nathan and wife Phebe. Ch. Esther, b. 1775, Nov. 4. 
2. Jonathan M. in. 1808, June 19, Betsey Balch. Ch. George, b. 1809, 

June 16. 3Iarv Elizabeth, b. 1811, Aug. 19. 

DICKINSON, Frederic, was b. in Amherst, 1819, Aug. 18; grad. A. C, 
1837; in. 1846. Feb. 17, Mary L. Richardson, dau. of Francis, 28. He lives 
south of the common, on Woburn street. Ch. Frederick, b. 1846, Aug. 26; 
d. 1850. Sept. 18. Frederick Howe, b. 1850, Dec. 31 ; m. 1873, Jan. 1, 
Nancy A. Chapman. Edvmrd Fowler, b. 1855, Feb. 20. William Howard, 
b. 1857. Dec. 4. Bertram, b. 1868, March 4. 

DICKSON, Thomas. Ch. Samuel, bap. 1750. July 8. 

DITSON. 1. Hugh, took the oath of fidelity. 1685, May 28. He was, 
doubtless, son of ''Sarah Didson, of Eedding, widow," who in. 1686, 
May 20, Thomas Patten, 1, and 1690, Thomas Richardson, 1. He 


purchased of Eichard Daniel. 1700. Feb. 28. the eastern half of the 500 
acre Chauipney farm, which was bounded east by Woburn, and north-east 
by the Woburn road. His wife's brother. Tlionias Eoss. bought at the 
same time, tlie western half of the farm, each payino; 6G pounds. 10 shillings. 
The river meadow was divided between tliem. He ni. 1094, Aug. 31, Sarah 
Eoss. dau. of Tliomas. 1. Ch. Huglu b. 1694, Aug. 31. Sarah, b. 1696, 
Dec. 3; m. Thonuis Eichardson. 8. 7'homas. 2, b. 1699, Julj^ 3. Joannah, 
b. 1701. Aug. 20; m. Benjamin Walkei'. 3. John, b. 1704. March 24. 
Hugh. b. 170(). Oct. 14. Jcniies. b. 1710, Aug. 27. Name on tax-Ust, till 1740. 
Seth. S, b. 1713-4. March 12. 

2. Tliomas, son of Thomas, 1, b. 1699. July 3; m. 1732, June 11. 
Elizalieth Lawrence, of Woburn. He d. in Woburn, 1778. June 14; she d. 
1790, Oct. 13, aged 69. Ch. Elizabeth, h. 1733, Xov. 4; m. 1749, April 11, 
Thomas Bacon, of Bedford. Man/, b. 1735. Dec. 6 ; m. Thomas Goodwin, 1. 
T/iomffs, b. 1738. June 27 ; d. Thomas, 4, and Sarah, b. 1741. April 30. 
^S'ara/i d. 1743. June 26. Sarah, b. 1743, Oct. 18; m. Jacob French, 24. 
Samuel, 5, b. 1750. July 4. 

3. Seth, sou of 'Thomas. 1, b. 1713-4, March 12; m. Elizabeth . 

Ch. John, b. 1736, April 22. Ilartha, b. 1742, Aug. 5. Seth, b. 1746, 
Dec. 20. 

4. Thomas, son of Thomas. 2, b. 1741. April 30; m. 1761. June 18, 
Elizabeth Blanchard. dau. of John. 2. The name disappears from tax-list, 
1784. Of his notable experience at the hands of the British, in Boston, 
account is elsewhere given. Ch. Thomas, b. 1762, Jan. 31 ; lost at sea, 1782, 
Feb. 20. Elizabeth, b. 1766. Oct. 3. Sarah, b. 1767. May 30; m. Isaac 
Wilson, 8. John, b. 1770. Sept. 20. Jesse, b. 1772. .July 4. \mice, b. 1779, 
Jan. 21. William, b. 1780, Nov. 30. Josiah, b. 1782, March 26. Thomas, 
b. 1783. May 22. 

5. Samuel, son of Thomas. 2, b. 1750. July 4; m. 1770, Sept. 18, 
Sarah Grimes, of Lexington. Ch. Samuel, b. 1771, Feb. 3. William, 
b. 1776. June 6. 

DIX, Joel, 1, and John, 2, brothers, came fi-om Chelmsford, 1820. 
They had sisters: Lucy, who m. 1823, Oct. 26; Jonathan Wilson, and 
Nancy, who m. John Mixer. 

l', Joel m. Triscilla Parker. He d. 1861. Dec. 29, and she d. 12 days 
before, aged 71. Ch. Clarissa, b. 1811, Nov. 17; m. 1836. March 10, 
AYarren Eichardson, of Westford. Sibbel. b. 1813. Nov. 3 ; m. 1835, 
Oct. 22. George W. Eand. 3Iary, b. 1815, June 11. Joel, b. 1817, 
March 26. Almira, b. 1819. Jan. 25. Miza Jane, b. 1821, Dec. 11 ; m. 1839, 
Nov. 29, Warren M. Batcheller. Fannij, b. 1823. Oct. 2; d. 1848, Julv 31. 
Sarah, b. 1825, Aug. 19. Albert H., b. 1829, June 12. Lucy Ann, b. 1831, 
April 15. 

2. John had ch. John Adams, who lives in Chelmsford, near Lowell. 
Joel H.. 3. Andrei!} Newton, who lives in Waverly. Iowa. Jonathan. 3Iary 
Ann, \\\\o m. Babbitt, and Delia, who m. Martin. 

3» Joel H. m. Emma Jane McLaren, of Gardiner. Me., who d. 1879, 
Aug. 18, aged 47. He is in business with his son, in Cliicago ; bought in 
1875, the house built by Judge liOcke. on the north corner of West and 
Long streets, where his family reside. Ch. William Shakesjieare, b. 1849, 
Jan. 17. Georgianna T., b. in Burlington, Vt., 1850, March 11; m. James 
A. Yantis, and 1879, Samuel Pillsbury. Jennie B., b. 1853, July 13 ; m. L. 
M. Edwards, of Chicago. 

4. Lucy m. 1818, ^Sept.. Tlieodore Strong, of Clinton, New York. 

DORR, Theodore Haskell, Eev.. pastor Unitarian church; was b. in 
Boston, 1815. Aug. 13; grad. H. C, 1835; d. in Worcester. 1876, Aug. 13. 
He m. Nancy Eichards. Ch. Esther Goldthwait, b. 1840, July 2. Theodore 
Haskell, b. 1842. April 26. 

DOWSE. 1. Ebenezer, (Dows, the more common, early form in our 
records,) was prob. son of Samuel, of Charlestown. whose father was 


Lawrence, from England. He was b. 1G93, Sept. 10; m. Mary. 
Oh. Bnijamtn. 2, b. 171.")-G. Feb. 6. Johiu b. (at Chelmsford.) 1717. Oct. 10. 
Ehmeser. 3, b. 1719, Dec. 29. Martha, b. 1722. July 25; m. Thomas 
llogers, son of John, 8. Marij, b. 1725, Nov. 10; m. 1745, Oct. 22, JosL'])h 
Foster, of Andover. Anna, b. 1727, March .JO; m. 1755, April 21, Nathaniel 
Belcher, of Chelsea. Susanna, b. 1729, Sept. 15. Samvel, b. 17;il-2, 
Jan. 12; m. 1775. Dec. 14, Sarah Rogers. Elmzpr, 4, b. 1734, Dec. 26. 

2. Benjamin, son of Ebenezer, 1, b. 1715-0, Feb. 6; in. Ilaimah . 

Ch. Mary, b. 1750. April 4; m. Benjamin Needham, 5. Benjamin. 5, b. 1752, 
Jan. W. Hann((h. 1). 1753, Nov. 0; d. Nov. 24. Martha', b. 1754. Nov. 4. 
Hannah, b. 1750, Oct. 24; ni. 1780. Oct. 19, James Mastermun. of 
Charlestovvn. Joseph, b. 1758, July 20; d. 1759. Oct. 3. Joseph. 6, b. 1700, 
Oct. 5. Sfu-ah, b. 1702. March 10; m. 1782. Jan. 17. Ebenezer Newman, ot 
AVoburn. Abigail, b. 1765, Sept. 17 ; m. 1782, Nov. 19, Josiah Newman, of 
Deering, N. II. 

3. Ebenezer, son of Ebenezer. 1, b. 1719. Dec. 29; m. Bette. 
Ch. Susanna and Elizabeth, b. 1757, Jan. 28. Susanna m. 1780. April 16, 
Joseph Easterbrooks. of IloUis. N. H. Buth, b. 1759, Aug. 9. Mar)i, 
b. 1702. Jun° 14. 3IolJ>i. bap. 1765, Sept. 8. Olive, b. 1705, Oct. 15. 
Joanna, b. 1708. 3Iarch 7. Ludia, b. 1772. March 18. 

4. Eleazer, son of Ebenezer. 1, b. 1734. Dec. 20 ; m. Lucy. Ch. Eleazer 
b. 1764. July 0. Jesse, b. 1767, May 22. Lucy, b. 1769, June' 25. Thomas, 
b. 1771. Oct. 5. ■ 

5. Beiijamin, son of Benjamin. 2, b. 1752. Jan. 30; in. 1773, Sept. 9, 
Abigail Frost, dau. of James, 11. She d. 1788, Nov. 19; he in. 1789, 
May 28. Rebecca Marshall. i)rob. dau. of Isaac, 6. Ch. Esther, b. 1774, 
April 10; d. 1775, Oct. 15. Abif/ail. bap. 1775, March 20. Benjamin, 
b. 1777. Feb. 15 ; m. 1805, Dec. 30. Sally French. Abie/ail, b. 1779, Oct. 22 ; 
m. 1801. Dec. 3, Abijah Hodgman, of Carlisle. James, b. 1781, Oct. 3; 
d. 1782, Dae. 11. Patty, b. 1783, Sept. 15. Polly, b. 1785, Sept. 9. 
Jonathan and Nanni. b. 1788. Oct. 6. 

6. Joseph, son of Benjamin, 2, b. 1700, Oct. 5; m. 1784. May 23. 

Sarah Sprak >, dai. of Samuel. 4. He m. b3fore 1812, Mary . He lived 

on th;^ Rangeway road, n )rth of Gilson's hill ; was an mfluential member 
and deacon of "the Baptist church. He d. 1847. Nov. 4. Ch. Sarah, 
b. 1792. Dec. 28; m. Nathaniel Stearns. 19. Juda. b. 1790. Feb. 9. Olive, 
b. 1798. Jan. Orpha. b. 1802, March 29; m. 1831, Dec. 14. Josiah Blodgett. 
Mirinda. b. 1804, June 10; m. 1825, Nov. 14, George Bolton. Mary. 
b. 1800. Sept. 11 ; m. Charles V. Brown, 21. Eliza Ann. b. 1812, Jan. 20; 
m. Henry Bowers. 10. Joseph. 7, b. 1813, Oct. 22. Emeline, b. 1816, Feb. 2. 
Elhridge. b. 1818. May 15; d. 1846. April 27. Calvin. 8, b. 1820, Sept. 7. 
Amos Wrif/ht. b. 1823. June 22. Harriet Xeroell, b. 1825, Dec. 24. Gustavas 
Davis, b. 1828. Oct. 20. 

7. Joseph, son of Dea. Joseph, 6, b. 1813. Oct. 22 ; m. 1841, March 15, 
Maria Ann Ilutchins. Ch. Maria Ann. b. 1842, Feb. 11. 

8. Calvin A., son of Dea. Joseph. 6, b. 1820, Sept. 7; m. Mary Ann 
T. . Ch. Marti Isabel, b. 1844. Sept. 11. 

DUMMER, Samuel, Esq., of Wilmington, m. 1737, May 31, Ehzabeth 
Euggles. dau. of Rev. Sauniel. Ht' d. and she m. Rev. Daniel Rogers, of 
Littleton. (;h. Elizabeth, b. 1738. March 25; d. young. 

DUNX'KLE. 1. Hezekiah, was son of Nathaniel, of Lexington. 
Mary, his mother, was dau. of William French. 1. He was bap. 1708, 
Nov. 21: m. 1734. Nov. 17. Damaris Wilson. His name appears on our 
tax-list, 1740, and disappears 1701, his son John remaining until 1763. 
Ch. Hezehiah. b. 1735, Sept. 17. Nathaniel, 2, 1). 1737. Feb. 23. Damaris, 
b. 1739, March 16, and in Billerica : John, b. 1749-1. March 4. Mary, b. 1742, 
Nov. 20; m. John Ro