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Full text of "A history of Blair county, Pennsylvania. From its earliest settlement, and more particularly from its organization, in 1846 to June 1896 .."

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For Visitors ^¥ 
4* ^^ and Citi/ 


Celebration of the First Fift 


County's Growth. 

Held June 11 and 12, 1896, at HolliJaj 





ig Blair County 

Dry Goods. ^ ^^ 

aod day out we're improving this store for you. 
giving our best thought and effort toward making 
are's service perfect in every detail. 

no better goods can be found. 

no greater variety Is shown. 

no lower prices are quoted. 

oven all through this store's pblicv is the constant 

y to have you pleased with the shopping you do 

to have you perfectly satisfied with every purchase 

made. That's why we buy so carefully. That's why we 

That's why we employ only pleasant 

•eople to serve you. We want it done 

to know it if anything goes wrong. 

r/i our newspaper announcements and 
i>ings of the sCuiv. We keep our ads 
•ggerations, no misrepresentations are 
ppear. We want you to tell us if you 








unty s One Great JSC 
5ods Supply House* 

do not live in Altoona, see our ad. on the inside 
back cover of this book. .■ .■ .• .• •' ^ 

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rhi jDepartment Store, I 



^/«./^ cM. ^/ai^. 




Froni its Earliest Settlement, and more parti- 
cularly from its Organization, in 1846 
to June 1896. 


CoiilaininjT, also, a map of the City of Altoona, the metropolis of the 
county, and a description of all the other iJoroiiijiis and smaller 
Towns, giving population and present condition. Also, a general 
resume of the various business enterprises, and a directory of the 
places of interest and natural curiosities which strangers should 

Prepared especially for the Patriotic 
Citizens of the County and Visitors to the 

smi-cEHTEnninL - cELEDmiion. 

JUME 1 1 ANb 12, 1896. 


CHARLKS H. CLARK, F.s<,)., I |UJ|18l896 



Ai.TooNA. Pa.. \s>/>. 



iHIVERY one of the 100,000 visitors to Blair County during the 
^■^ Semi-Centennial Celebration will want to know something 
about this favored county, and every one of the 80,000 inhabitants 
should be able to tell them about it ; to give facts and figures re- 
garding the past and present, to tell other parts of our history which 
to a certain extent is legendary, and to show on what substantial 
foundations our hopes for continued prosperity and future greatness 
are based. 

It was to supply this desideratum that the present work was 
undertaken by the author at a very late date, after learning that the 
committee of arrangements had failed to get it done as they had 
contemplated. On account of the very limited time for preparation 
and research the subject has not been as exhaustively treated as 
could be wished and some errors may be found resulting from the 
lack of time necessary to properly verify all data, but it is confidently 
believed that it is accurate enough for all practical purposes, and 
complete enough to fill the minds of the visitors with admiration and 
cause the heart of the citizen to swell with pardonable pride at the 
growth already achieved and the glowing future lying so bright be- 
fore us. To meet the very considerable expense involved it was 
necessary to insert some advertising matter, and to the business men 
who have thus assisted, sincere thanks are due and are hereby pub- 
licly expressed by the author, 

Altoona, Pa., June loth, 1896. 

Blqii^ Coiirily. 

r> LAIR COUNTY is now fifty years old, having fully completed a 
**^ half century of separate existence as one of the sixty-seven 
counties of the great State of Pennsylvania, the second State in the 
Union in population and wealth, and to-day, in a grand demonstration, 
with pomp and ceremony befitting the occasion, she celebrates her 
semi-centennial ; proud of her achievements in the past, glorying in 
her present greatness and confident of continued and increasing pros- 
perity for the future. 

In June, 1846, she began her independent career with a pojiu- 
lation of about 16.000, with eleven townships and three small l)or- 
oughs. Hollidaysburg, Gaysport and Martinsburg, 594 square miles 
of surface and a total assessed valuation of $4,200,000. And now. 
while her bounds have not been enlarged she has sub-divided some 
of her townships so that the number is at present fifteen, one large 
city has grown up during this period within her limits and there are 
ten independent boroughs and numerous small villages. The poj)- 
ulation of the county exceeds 80,000 and the assessed valuation is 

Blair County has within its bounds some of the loftiest moun- 
tains, the most beautifully picturesque scenery and the greatest 
natural curiosities in the State. It has considerable mineral wc-alth 
and many fertile and well watered valleys. 

In it are the head waters of the Blue Juniata ri\er, and passing 
through, from east to west, is the main line of the richest railroad in 
the United States, perhaps the richest in the world, the P. R. R. 
Here has been the birthplace or early home of some of the most 
noted people of the State, some whose name and fame are world 
wide, not as leaders of great armies but as financial giants, origi- 
nators of great enterprises, directors and managers of colossal indus- 
tries : eminently successful business men. 

The territory now included in Blair County was a part of Cum- 
berland County from July 6. 1754, to March 9th. 1771. when Bed- 
ford Countv was erected and it became a part of that. It was in- 
cluded within the limits of Bedford from March 9th. 1771, to Sept. 
20th, 1787. when Huntingdon County was formed and all except 
North Woodbury and Greenfield townshi])S were included in that 
County. It remained a part of Huntingdon from Sept. 20th, 1787, 

Semi=-Centennial History of Blair County. 

to Feb. 26th, 1846, or, perhaps more properly, till about June ist, 
1846, when it became a separate county, being formed from a part 
of Huntingdon County and the two townships of Bedford before 
named. No further division or change is probable for many years 
as the present constitution of the State prohibits the erection of any 
new county, the boundary lines of which will pass within ten miles of 
any existing county seat. 

The organization of *the new County began to be agitated in 
1838 and on January 2ist, 1839, a public meeting was held in the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, of Hollidaysburg, to take action in the 
matter. Christian Garber was chosen president of this meeting and 
a committee consisting of William Williams, Peter Cassiday, Dr. 
James Coffey, Peter Hewit, John Walker, Samuel Calvin, Esq., 
and Edward McGraw was appointed to define the boundaries of the 
proposed new county, draft petitions, procure the necessary signa- 
tures thereto and present them to the State legislature. This work 
was performed by the committee but the matter w-as held in abey- 
ance for several years, on various accounts, before its final consum- 
mation. A bill offered in 1843 failed to go through and it was not 
until the session of 1845-6 that the necessary Act of Assembly was 
passed and approved by the governor, Francis R. Shunk, whose 
approval thereof is dated February 26, 1846, but the formation of 
the county cannot properly be said to have been completed until 
June following. 

Hon. John Blair, from whom Blair County received it name, 
was born at Blair's Gap, now in Allegheny township, in the 
year 17 . 

His father. Captain Thomas Blair, a native of Scotland, was a 
soldier in the Revolutionary Army and after the independence of the 
colonies had been achieved he came, probably about 1785, to what 
is now Blair County, then part of Bedford, and established a home 
in the Gap which has since borne his name. The stream that comes 
through this gap was also called Blair's Run after he settled here. 
Whether it had an earlier name is not known. Captain Blair, in 
1794, owned four hundred acres of land, two saw mills, two distill- 
eries, several slaves and considerable other personal property. He 
died at the home he had established here, September 10, 1808. 

His son John was born at the old homestead and passed nearly 
the whole of his active life in this part of the State. Being an enter- 
prising and sagacious business man as well as a public spirited citi- 
zen he devoted much of his energies to the public improvements of 
the State, the pike in 1818 to 1820, (being president of the com- 

Semi-Centennial History of Blair County. 

pany, ) and tlu- canal in 1S2S to 1S32, and when the new county was 
formed it was but natural that it should he named after him althoutjh 
he had been dead for a number of years. His death occurred Jan- 
uary 1st, 1.S32, in the same neig^hborhood as his birth, and his re- 
mains were laid to rest in the burying plot at 

The only lineal descendants of Captain Thomas Blair and Hon. 
John Blair, known to be livinji,^ in this part of the State are Thomas 
S. Blair, a great-grandson of the Captain, now jiast f>o years of age 
who lives retired in Tyrone, and George D. Blair, of Tyrone, banker, 
a son of Thomas S. and therefore a great-great-grandson of the 
founder of the family here. 

The following is the material part of the act establishing Blair 
County as approved by the governor Feb. 26, 1846 : 

Sec. I. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representa- 
tives of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, in General Assembly 
met, and it is hereby enacted by the authority of the same. That the 
territory within the townships of North Woodbury and Greenfield, 
in the county of Bedford, and the territory within the townships of 
Allegheny, Antes, Snyder, Tyrone, Frankstown, Blair, Huston and 
Woodbury, and within that part of Morris township lying west of 
the line lately run by William Reed and other viewers, under an 
order of court, for the purpose ol dividing the same, in the county 
of Huntingdon, are hereby erected according to said boundaries into 
a new and separate county, to be called Blair : and the inhabitants 
thereof shall, from the fourth Monday of July ne.xt, have all such 
courts, jurisdictions, ofifices, rights and prixileges as the inhabitants 
of the other counties of this Commonwealth are or may by entitled 
to. * =^ =5= 

Sec. 2. That each of the portions of said Morris township, ac- 
cording to the said division line made by William Reed and others, 
shall hereafter be separate and distinct townships for all purposes ; 
the portion lying westward of said line to be called Catherine town- 
ship, and shall hold its general and township elections at the house 
now occupied by Walter Graham. * jjc * 

Sec. 3. That the ipialified electors of said new county shall, 
at their ne.xt general election, elect three citizens thereof as commis- 
sioners for said county, one of whom shall serve t)ne year, one for 
two years, and one for three years, and to be accordingly designated 
on the ticket of the electors, and the said commissioners, together 
witii their successors in ofhce, shall i)e (lualititil anil elected accord- 
ing to existing laws respecting such officers ; and at the same time 
said electors shall also elect three citizens to serve as county auditors, 

SemUCentennial History of Blair County. 

to be designated as to their term of service as aforesaid, one thereof 
to serve for one year, one for two years and one for three years, 
who, together with their successors in office, shall be qualified and 
elected in the same manner as the auditors of other counties. 

Sec. 4. That said commissioners shall have full power to take 
to themselves and their successors in office sufficient deeds and as- 
surances in law for such lots or pieces of ground as shall have been 
selected for sites for the public buildings of said county under the 
provisions of the thirteenth section of this Act. 

Sec. 5. That the return judges of elections in said county of 
Blair shall meet at the place where the courts may be held in said 
county, and having received the returns shall dispose of the same 
as is directed by law with respect to other counties. 

Sec. 6. That one person shall fill the offices of Prothonotary, 
Clerk of the Courts of General Quarter Sessions of Oyer and Ter- 
miner, and of the Orphans' Court in said county of Blair, and one 
person shall fill the office of Register of Wills and of Recorder of 
Deeds in said county. 

Sec. 7. That until the court house shall be erected, as here- 
after authorized, the several courts of said county of Blair shall be 
held in such house, within said county, as shall be designated by the 
commissioners thereof, elected at the next general election. 

Sec. 8. The county of Blair shall be annexed to and compose 
part of the Sixteenth Judicial District of this Commonw^ealth, and 
the courts shall be held and commence as follow, to wit : On the 
fourth Monday of March, July, October and December in each year 
and the first court shall be held in said county of Blair on the fourth 
Monday of October next. -^ -js^ -jf. 

Sec. 12. That the said county of Blair shall be attached to 
and connected with the Seventeenth Congressional District, and the 
qualified electors of- the county of Blair, together with the counties 
of Huntingdon, Centre, Mifflin and Juniata, shall continue to elect a 
member of Congress, and the qualified electors of the counties of 
Blair, Huntingdon and Bedford shall continue to elect a Senator of 
the State Legislature; and the said counties of Blair and Hunting- 
don shall each elect one member of the House of Representatives 
of this Commonwealth. 

Sec. 13. That the Governor be and he is hereby authorized 
and required, on c>r before the first day of May, next ensuing, to 
appoint three judicious and disinterested persons, not residents in the 
counties of Huntingdon, Bedford, or Blair, as Commissioners, 
whose duty it shall be, after being duly sworn, to perform their du- 
ties with fidelity, to run correctly, ascertain, and mark the boundary 
lines of said county of Blair and to fix upon a proper and conven- 

Semi-Centennial History of Blair County. 7 

icnt site or location for the scat ol" justice of said county of Blair, 
and for a court house, i)rison, and county offices within and for the 
said county of Blair; and that the said Commissioners, or a majority 
of them, having run, ascertained and marked the boundary lines 
aforesaid or caused the same to be done and fixed the site or lo- 
cation which they shall have chosen for the purpose or purj)oses 
aforesaid, shall, on or before the first day of Aug^ust next, by a 
written report under their hands and seals, oi a majority of them, 
certify, describe and limit the site of location which they shall have 
chosen for the purpose or purposes aforesaid ; and make out a cor- 
rect plot or draft of the said county of Blair, and shall transmit the 
said report and draft to the Secretary of the Commonwealth; and 
the said Commissioners shall each receive two dollars per day for 
their services, together with their reasonable expenses in running, or 
causing to be run, the said boundary lines, and in doing what is re- 
(juircd to be done by them, out of the moneys to be raised in pur- 
suance of this Act, Provided, that the said Commissioners, in and 
on or before fixing the site and location of the seat of justice, court 
house, prison and county ofifices for the use and benefit of said 
County of Blair, shall and are hereby authorized and required to 
receive propositions and agreements from any and all persons willing 
and desirous to make the same for the building of said court house, 
prison and county ofifices, or any of them, at their own expense, free 
of charge to said county, or for the giving of money, land or other 
valuable things for, towards, or in part of the expense of building 
the same, or any of them, by which propositions and agreements 
the person or persons making the same shall be bound to and for 
the use of the said County of Blair, if the terms and conditions of 
the same, or any of them, are acceded to and concurred in by the 
said Commissioners; and the said Commissioners shall take into con- 
sideration and be influenced by said propositions and agreements in 
fixing and determining upon the site or location of the seat of justice, 
court house, prison or jail and county ofifices of and for the said 
County of Blair; And provided further, that in case the seat of jus- 
tice, court house, prison or jail, and county offices of and for said 
County of Blair should be located by the said Commissioners at or 
within the limits of Hollidaysburg or Gays^iort, in said County of 
Blair, the bond bearing the date the twenty-ninth day of August, 
Anno Domini eighteen hunilred and forty-five, in the penal sum of 
twenty thousand dollars, conditioned to indemnify and secure the 
inhabitants of the said county, created or to be created by this Act 
against any increase of county taxes by reason of or for the erection 
of the said court house, public offices antl jail of said county, created 

Semi=Centennial History of Blair County. 

or to be created by this Act, signed by James Gardner, Samuel 
Calvin and others, and deposited in the office of the branch of the 
Exchange Bank of Pittsburgh at HoUidaysburg, on said day shall 
be binding on the obligors therein and thereto according to the 
terms and conditions thereof and other like or similar bond or in- 
strunitnts of writing which may be given by other persons in rela- 
tion to the location of the seat of justice of said County of Blair at 
any other point, town or place, within the limits of the said County 
of Blair, shall in like manner be binding on the obligers or signers 
therein and thereto * * * * 

A supplement to the foregoing Act was passed during the same 
session of the Legislature and approved April 20th, 1846, which 
provided that the October term of court should begin the third 
Monday of the month, the July term was changed to the second 
Monday in June and it also provided that "the Governor shall, on 
or before the second Monday of June next, appoint three judicious 
persons as Commissioners ot said county, to serve until their succes- 
sors shall be duly elected and qualified, who shall perform the usual 
duties of County Commissioners, together with such duties in relation 
to jurors and a place for holding the courts as by said Act were 
imposed on the Commissioners to be elected at the next general 

From the text of the foregoing Acts it is apparent that the 
county of Blair could not have a complete and separate existence 
until its boundaries were definitely ascertained and fixed by a Com- 
mission to be appointed later. It is also apparent that the Act was 
framed with great care and with the view of outlining a complete 
modus operandi for consummating the wishes of the people resident 
in the territory embraced. It is evident also that some over con- 
servative people, fearing that taxes might be increased to provide 
for the new county buildings, had interposed such objections to the 
project that it became necessary for others more broad-minded and 
liberal to step into the breach and give their personal obligations, to 
the extent of a twenty-thousand dollar bond, that this would not 
occur. The names of James Gardner and Samuel Calvin were con- 
sequently incorporated in the Act, and for the deep devotion to the 
public welfare, denoted* by their generous deed, have been thus im- 
mortalized, while the names of the petty objectors to a grand object 
are now buried in deserved oblivion. All honor, then, to those 
noble spirits who have been found in every age and every clime 
ready to lay both life and fortune on their country's altar when oc- 
casion demands the sacrifice. 

5emi=Centennial History of Blair County. 

Under the Act just recited the Ciovernor appointed on the 
Coniniission to run the county lines and determine the location of 
the seat of justice, Henry McBride, of Westmoreland County: Gen- 
eral (3rr. of ArmstroniL,^ Countv; and ludi^e Christy, of Juniata 
County, who acted promptly, established the county lines as they 
now are and ciiose Hollidayshvuii as the county seat. The choice 
of Hollida\-sbur!4 was a foregone conclusion, it being then the largest 
town in this part of the State and the residence of most of the actiye 
workers lor the new county ; the only other towns of importance in 
this yicinity were Frankstown, Martin^burg, Williamsburg and Gays- 
port. Altoona and Tyrone, now so greatly e.xceeding it in popula- 
tion and im|)ortance, were undreamed of The number of town- 
ships in the county at its formation was eleyeii. since then four 
more haye been added by dixiding the original ones. The town- 
ships are now Allegheny, Antes, Hlair, Catharine, Frankstown, 
Freedom, Greenfiekl, Hustcjn, Juniata, Logan. North Woodbury, 
Snyder, Taylor, Tyrone and Woodbury, of which the following 
haye l)een formed since 1846, yiz : Juniata in 1S47, Logan in 1850. 
Taylor in 1855, Freedom in 1857. 

The territory thus segregated, separaletl from the other civil 
divisions of the Commonwealth and established as an independent 
county by the highest aiuhority in the State, is well defmed by nat- 
ural boundary lines most of which are tops of mountain ranges, ami 
Blair County is in fact a little empire by itself though by no means 
a little county, surrounded on all sides by mountains of consideraljle 
elevation; ingress and egress being had only through a few gaps or 
breaks in these ranges. Dry Gap, Kittanning Gap and Blair's Gap 
on the west, to Cambria Count\-, the eastern limit ot" the Mississippi 
Valley; a narrow ga]) north of Tyrone u]) the Bald Eagle creek to 
Center County, and another east of the same town and down the 
Juniata ri\er to Huntmgdon County; still another from Williams- 
burg eastward along the valley of the 1-Vankstown branch of the Ju- 
niata to Petersburg, in Huntingdon Ct)unty — the route of the old 
canal — and two or ihri'e wagon roads south trom NLirlinsburg and 
Claysburg into Bedford County. Its e.xtreme width from east to 
west is about twenty miles and its length north and south thirty 
miles; area, 594 scpiare miles or 380,160 acres. The entire county 
may be regarded as one great valley containing numerous detached 
mountains and large hills, inter.>|)ersed with many smaller fertile val- 
leys and little streams, besides the larger \alliy and threi- branches 
of the Juniata river. ■^- Its geographical jjosition is about thirty miles 
*Tlif Imjiuu iiaji|c for ijjis river wa.s Scokoouludy. 

10 SemUCentennial History of Biair County. 

southwest of the center of the State, and it Ues between the 40th and 
41st degrees of North Latitude and between the 78th and 79th de- 
grees of Longitude west of Greenwich. 

The geographical center of the county is in Frankstown town- 
ship about three miles northeast of Hollidaysburg. The center of 
population , which at the formation of the county was not far from 
Hollidaysburg, is now within the limits of Altoona City and firmly 
anchored there. 

The principal mountains within the county, aside from the Alle- 
ghenies on the western boundary and Tussey's Mountains'and Bald 
Eagle Ridge on the east are Brush Mountain, Canoe, Dunning' s, 
Short, Cove and Lock Mountains. 

Of the valleys, Logan is the largest, extending from Altoona to 
Tyrone, the western portion of this, in earlier years, was known as 
"Tuckahoe;" Sinking Valley, in Tyrone Township, in which sink- 
ing Run, after a course of several miles, disappears in the earth; 
Scotch Valley, extending from Frankstown north-eastwardly and 
Morrison's Cove in the southern part of the county; Canoe Valley 
along Canoe Creek; and many others not dignified with a name. 

The streams of the county are Frankstown branch of the Juniata, 
which is the largest and flows north-cast from Greenfield Township 
through Freedom, Blair and Frankstown townships and between 
Catharine and Woodbury, to Porter Township, in Huntingdon Coun- 
ty, where it empties into the main stream near Petersburg, on the 
Penn'a R. R. Beaver Dam branch of the Juniata, which flows 
through Allegheny and Blair townships, separates Hollidaysburg 
from Gaysport, and empties into the Frankstown branch near the 
village of Frankstown; and the Little Juniata, the true stream, which 
rises in the Allegheny Mountains, in Logan Township and flows 
south to Juniata Borough, near Altoona, thence north-eastward to 
Tyrone, thence south-eastward through Huntingdon County and 
after being joined at Petersburg by the Frankstown branch 
and at Huntingdon by the Raystown branch, it flows on as a noble 
river to its confluence with the Susquehana, fifteen miles west of 
Harrisburg. The other streams are Bald Eagle Creek, coming in 
from Center County on the north, and emptying into the Juniata 
near Tyrone, Moore's Run, Sinking Run, Hutchison's Run, Elk 
Run and Three Springs Run all in Snyder Township; Taylor, Bells 
Gap, Laurel and Beaver Dam Runs in Antes Township; Elk, Arch 
Spring and Sinking Runs in Tyrone Township; Homers, Mill, Kit- 
tanning, Burgoons and Brush Runs in Logan Township; Blair 
Creek, Sugar and Brush Runs in Allegheny Township; Ol^j town 

SemUCentcnniai History of Blair County. !! 

and Robinson's Runs and Canoo Creek in Franksiown Township; 
Canoe Creek, Fox, Roaring and \'elIo\v Springs Runs in Catharine 
Township; Clover and Piney Creeks in North Woodbury, Huston 
and Woodbury Townshij)s; Haltar and Plum Creeks in Taylor 
Township; Poplar and Roarin^j Runs in Hlair Township; P(>])lar, 
McDonald and Donaldson's, South Dry and Paw Paw Runs in 
Freedom Township; Bobb's Creek, Blair Creek, Blue Knob, Pojilar 
and Dry Runs in Juniata Township: Beaver Creek, Pole Cat, South 
Poplar, Amelia's, Bobbs, Diamond, Queen Esther's, Pine, Smoky 
and RoarinjT Sprinu;^ Runs in Creenfield Townshi]). The water of 
all these numerous streams is diseharged into one or the other 
branches of the Juniata. 

Retr(jspectively we note the development and growth of this 
territory. As a part of the great pro\ince given to William Penn in 
1681 by King Charles the Second of England, it remained an nne.x- 
plored forest inhabited only by roving Indian tribes, until about 1750. 
If any white man visited it prior to that date he left no i)ermanent 
record of the fact and our earliest knowledge of it begins with the 
brief mention bv Conrad Weiser, Aug. 20, 1748, that he passed up 
the Juniata river and stojiped at Frankstown.^- 

In 1750 it formed part of Cumberland to which it belonged until 
the formation of Bedford County in 1771. During this period it was 
opened up for settlement and clearings were made and settlers located 
in Morrison's Cove (about 1760) and at Hollidaysburg and vicinity 
(in 1768.) Some of the early settlers were massacred by the In- 
dians. In 1 77 1 Bedford Countv was formed and included all of 
Blair until 1787, during which period occurred the Revolutionary 
war, the colonists gained their independence and began to be gov- 
erned to some extent by laws of their own framing yet the great 
body of English law, as applicable to the business and social relations 
of the community, were retained and enforced until specially repealed 
by legislation that conflicted therewith, and to this day some English 
statutes, enacted prior to the Rexolution, are held to Ik- in force in 

Some considerable impro\ements was made during this period, 
especially the cutting of a wagon road through the forest on the old 
Indian trail over the mountains, and some other local roads, but 
nothing like a town or village with shops and stores was founded in 
this region until a later ])eriod. 

In 1787 Huntingdon County was erecteil and included all of 

*Ki:iiikst(i\vn l)«ln« no donlit thi- Um hut i>f Knink sti iilun.'* (i)istti>lirii I'nuik hk 
some lilstoriaiis t'lvc It. while olhcrs say old Frank iin Indliiiii niul i><-rlmps <>n«- or 
two oilier I til II all traders and the win wan is of some Indians who <-anie with furs to 
trade for the white iiiairs I Insel and toys or )ierha|>s a ni'.isket and a nun unit Ion. It 
Is said that .•in Indian vUhmc was known here as early as IT.Ki and that Its Inilian 
name was ".Vssunnepai-hla." ineanlnu ineetinK of many waters. How ninrh of fact 
tK rontiiliifd In tblH tU'tlon no one now knowtt. 

12 Senii=CentenniaI History of Blair County. 

Blair except North Woodbury and Greenfield townships, continuing 
thus until 1846. During this period Frankstown, Hollidaysburg, 
Gaysport, Williamsburg, Martinsburg and several other small places 
were laid out, and some ol them incorporated as boroughs, the pike 
road, from Huntingdon to Blairsville, passing through the county on 
the line of the old state road, was constructed and a few years later 
the canal and Allegheny Portage Railroad, and Hollidaysburg be- 
came a place of considerable importance, so much so. in fact, that 
the people were averse to paying tribute to Huntingdon by taking 
their suits there for trial and aspired to become independent of the 
mother county. The formation of the new county of Blair was agi- 
tated and having been successfully achieved in 1846, the next great 
improvement was the building of the Pennsylvania Railroad and the 
founding of a great city — Altoona. 


The Commissioners appointed by the Governor, to run the 
boundary lines, performed the duties imposed on them so expediti- 
ously that by the first of June, 1846, all had been concluded and 
the Governor appomted county officers as follows, to serve until 
their successors should be duly elected and qualified, viz : Valentine 
Lingenfelter, William Bell and William C. McCormick, County 
Commissioners; Benjamin Betts, Sherifii; George R McP'arlane and 
Daniel McConnell, Associate Judges; Jeremiah Cunningham, Pro- 
thonotary and Clerk of the Courts; John M. Gibboney, Register 
and Recorder and John Cresswell, District Attorney. 

On the eighth day of June, 1846, the County Commissioners 
were sworn into office by Ephriam Galbraith, a Justice of the Peace, 
and held their first session. The next day they agreed on a plan 
for a court house and put up notices to contractors to bid for its 
construction. H. A. Caldwell was employed as clerk to the com- 
missioners at a salary of $150. per year, and Robert H. McCor- 
mick was appointed County Treasurer, to serve until the next elec- 
tion. Rooms were also rented to use for county offices until the 
court house should be erected. On the fourth day of July, 1846, 
the contract for the first court house was let to Daniel K. Ramey, 
and the stone house ot John Mahoney was leased for a temporary 
jail. On Monday, the 27th day of July. 1846, the first court in the 
county was held in the Methodiit Episcopal Church of Hollidays- 
burg; Hon. Jeremiah Black presiding. Judge Black held twelve 
terms of court in the county, when the judicial districts of the state 
were reorganized, and Blair County, with Huntingdon and Cambria 
was made the twenty-fourth district and Governor Johnston ap- 
pointed George Taylor, of Huntingdon, President Judge. 

Semi-Centcnnial History of Blair County. 13 

The first suit brought originally in the Common Pleas Court of 
Blair County was for divorce, Mary Armstrong vs. John Armstrong, 
subpoena issued June 23, 1S46. 

Perhaps the most remarkable thing in connection with the first 
court in the county was the number of lawyers admitted to practice 
therein. On the first day of the term, July 27, 1S46, no less than 
forty-nine attorneys were sworn in and the following day three more. 
Evidently it was thought that Blair County was destined to be one 
of the most important in the state. 

The county oficers, appointed by the Governor, only held their 
offices until the end of that year as their successors were elected at 
the first general election after the formation of the county, and this 
occurred October 13th, 1846, resulting in the election of Samuel J. 
Royer for High Sheriff; Joseph Smith, Prothonotary and Clerk of 
the Courts; Louis H. Williams, Register and Recorder; John K. 
Neff, Edward McGraw and William Bell, Countv Commissioners; 
Charles E. Kinkead, Wm. P. Dysart and James Wilson, Auditors; 
Joseph Morrow, Treasurer and Capt. Joseph C. Morgan, Coroner. 

Eqi^ly Jridiisji^ies. 


The iirst settlers of Blair County were in search of farming land 
and agriculture engaged their attention entirely for many years. 
The coal in the mountains, the iron ore in the valleys were unknown 
or unsought, until the beginning of the present century and the tim- 
ber, from which fortunes were made in after years, was only desir- 
able for fuel and the few logs necessary to construct their humble 
habitations, or make rails to enclose the fields cleared by dint of 
much hard labor. To them the big trees of the forest were a hind- 
rance requiring days of toil to cut down and burn up. Millions of 
feet of logs were rolled together in heaps and burned to make the 
cleared fields in which to plant corn, grow wheat, oats and other 

The first manufactories established in the new county were saw 
and grist mills, but these were very small and insignificant in com- 
parison with those of a later day and were invariably run by water 
power. A saw mill that would cut 2000 feet of boards in a day was 
a good one for those times, and the grist mills ground from morning 
till night to make three to four barrels of flour. The earliest mills 
that we have a record of were those of Jacob Neff at Roaring Spring, 
erected sometime between the years 1763 and 1770 and that of Thos. 
Blair at the eastern end of Blair's Gap about 17S5. A saw mill was 
usually found near a grist mill, and the same dam supplied the water 
power for both. 

Following close on the erection of grist mills came the estab- 
lishment of distilleries. Our forefathers were not intemperate neither 
were they tetotallers. whiskey was a necessity as well as flour and 
tobacco, nearly all kept it in the house and used it freely on various 
occasions, especially log rollings and house raisings. These early 
' 'stills' ' which are evidenced by the assessor's lists were probably very 
small afiairs capable of producing but a few gallons of spirits per day, 
but the product was undoubtedly perfectly pure, it was made only 
for home and neighborhood consumption, no evidence being discov- 
erable that any was sent away for sale until after the completion of 
the canal in 1832-3. 

Semi-Centennial History of Blair County. 15 


Prior to the year 1800 our researches have discovered nothing 
in the hne of manufacturers except the few grist and saw mills and 
stills, but soon after the beginning of the present century the erec- 
tion of iron works was commenced and some tanneries and woolen 
mills were built, as well as more distilleries; Ktna P'urnace and Forge 
built in 1805-6 by Canan, Stewart tS: Moore, was located in Catharine 
Township, near the Juniata and was the first iron works within the 
present limits of Blair County; Tyrone Forge, built by Jf)hn Glon- 
inger ^ Co., in 1805; Cove F"orge was built next by John Royer 
in Woodbury Township in 18 10 — was operated continuously for 
more than seventy years; Allegheny Furnace, near the present site 
of Altoona, was the third and was built in 1811 by Allison and 
Henderson, and later was owned and rebuilt by Elias Baker; Spring- 
field Furnace, in Woodbury Township, was built by John and 
Daniel Royer in 1S15; Rebecca Furnace, by Dr. Peter Shoenberger 
in 1817, on Clover Creek; Mary Ann Forge built about 1830 by 
Edward Bell & Son, and Elizabeth Furnace in 1832; Antes Forge 
at Tipton, 1828, by Dysart tS: Lloyd — three fires operated until 
1855 and discontinued ; the upper, lower and middle Maria 
Forges in Freedom in 1828 to 1S32 and Sarah Furnace in Green- 
field Township in 1832, built l)y Peter Shoenberger, (the latter was 
demolished in the winter of 18S1-2); Elizabeth Furnace and Mary 
Ann Forge in Antes Township about 1835 by Edward Bell. Harris' 
Pittsburgh Directory, for the year 1837, gave a list of the iron 
works in the Juniata Valley and those in the present limits of Blair 
Countv were, Elizabeth Furnace and Mary Ann Forge, owned by 
Edward Bell; Antes Forge, by Graham 6t McCamant; Tyrone 
Forges, William Lyon cSi Co. ; Allegheny Furnace, E. Baker & Co ; 
Etna Furnace and Forge, H. S. Spang; Co\ e I-Orge, Royer & 
Schmucker. All these were run with charcoal for fuel. 

Strange as it may ap|)car, the market for the first iron produced 
in the Juniata \'alley was found in Pittsburgh, and it was transported 
at a great expense, first on the backs of horses and mules across the 
Alleghenies to Johnstown, and from there floated in flat bottomed 
boats down the Concmaugh to the Alle.gheny and on that stream 
to its destination. Later, when the pike h.ul been constructed, it 
was hauled on wagons until the th<' canal was built. The value of 
a ton of iron then was several times over that of to-day. 

Later iron workers were, the Duncansville Rolling Mill. 1833-4; 
the Bellrough I-"oundry at (iayspori, buill in 1837-8; the Hollidays- 
burg Furnace in Gaysport, in 1855, and Chimney Rock Furnace in 

16 Semi=Centennial History of Blair County. 

Hollidaysburg later in the same year. These two were much larger 
than any former furnaces built in the valley and cost about $60,000 
each and used bituminous coal and coke. In 1857 the Juniata 
Furnaces were built at Williamsburo- and in i860 the Hollidaysburg 
Iron and Nail Company's Rolling Mill was erected although that 
name was not adopted until 1866. The McKees Gap or Rodman 
Furnace was built in 1862. In 1855 there were thirty-two iron and 
steel working establishments in Blair County including the Pennsylva- 
nia Railroad Co.'s Foundry and the Ax and Pick works of J. Col- 
clesser at Eldorado, but before the year 1870 the iron industry in 
Blair County, as well as the other parts of the Juniata Valley, began 
to languish on account of the cost of production and the fact that 
cheaper ore and improved methods at Pittsburg and other large iron 
centers had reduced the market price below a profitable point for 
these manufacturers. 

* In 1882 there were ten furnaces in blast, in Blair County, 
with a total capacity of 1000 tons of iron per week when running 
full time. There were also four rolling mills and two two nail mills. 
The furnaces were Allegheny, in Logan Township; Bennington, in 
Allegheny Township; Number One furnace, in Gaysport and Num- 
ber Two furnace, in Hollidaysburg; Springfield furnace, in Wood- 
bury Township; Gap furnace, in Freedom Township; Rodman fur- 
nace, in Taylor Township; Frankstown, in Frankstown Township; 
EHzabeth, in Antes Township; Rebecca furnace, Huston Township. 
Of these, the Bennington, Frankstown and Numbers One and Two 
were ow^ned by the Cambria Iron Company of Johnstown; Allegheny 
by S. C. Baker; Springfield by John Royer, Gap by Hollidaysburg 
and Gap Iron Works Co., Rodman by John and Peter Duncan; 
Elizabeth by heirs of Martin Bell and Rebecca by heirs of Edward 
H. Lytle. The Rolling Mills were, those of Altoona Iron Co., at' 
Altoona, Portage Iron Co. at Duncansville, Hollidaysburg Iron and 
Nail Co. at Hollidaysburg. In addition to which was a large Foun- 
dry and Machine Shop in Gaysport. 

To the rising generation the term forge as applied to iron works 
has but a vague meaning and an explanation will be necessary. The 
product of the iron furnace is pig iron and is in too crude a state to 
use without further reduction, this work is now performed in rolling 
mills, with costly machinery, but the rolling mill is a comparatively 
recent institution and in the earlier years the pig iron from the fur- 
nace was worked into bars in merchantable shape at forges, wherein 
the pig metal was heated to a pliable state and hammered into shapes, 

*Africas History of Blair and Huntingdon Counties. 

Semi-Centennial History of Biair County. 

more of the dross removed, and made into bars that ordinary Mack- 
smiths could use by l)einj; hammered with trip hammers on a large 
anvil. Nails were also made at these early forges by the slow pro- 
cesss of hammering each one out singly, this was before the inven- 
tion of nail cutting machines and nails then cost much more than 
they do now; 8 to 20 penny nails were (juoted in 18 19 at $12.50 per 
hundred weight at the forge. 


Soon alter the beginning of the jiresent century some other lines 
of manufacture than those abo\e mentioned were begun. In 1806 
or 1808 Willis Gibboney built fulling and wool carding works on 
Burgoon Run just above the present site of Eldorado, which he op- 
erated until 1828 when he mo\ed to Uuncansville and built a similar 
establishment there. 

Robert Gardner erected a wool carding and fulling works at 
the eastern end of Blair's Gap near the old grist mill, about 1832 
which he operated successfully for many years. In 1834 there was 
quite a large woolen mill at Williamsburg, j^erhaps the most exten- 
sive one ever in the county. There was a fulling mill owned and 
operated here in 1820 by John Smith. In 1832 or thereabouts 
Daniel Colclesser established an ax and pick factory where the Gib- 
boney woolen mill had previously been and it was run with 5 to 6 
men for many years, has not been totally abandoned yet. In 1821 
Wm. McFarland hatl a cabinet shop in Frankstown and in 1830 a 
bucket tactory was in operation at Williamsburg, and in a hat 

factory at Newry. 

As early as 1800 Christian Hoover was assessed as owner of an 
oil mill and so continued until 1830 or later, but we have no ])artic- 
ulars as to what kind of oil was made, doubtless it was but a small 
quantity of lin.seed oil. Michael Sellers, of Woodbury Townshij), 
was assessed with one tannery in 1800, and Joseph Patton had one 
at Frankstown in 1810, Francis Smith built a small tannery a Dun- 
cansville about 18 10 which was afterwards enlarged so as to be (juite 
a pretensions establishment, remains of which are still standing. 
David Caldwell owned a (juite extensive tannery at Gaysport before 
the organization of Blair Countv. which he operated successfully for 
many years. Numerous other small tanneries were built and oper- 
ated in the territory between i8ioand i860. In 1862 Louis Plack 
erected a large one at Altoona, the latter ceased operations about 
1884 and was torn down in 1889-90, and now there is not a single 
tannery operated within the county except the one at Tyrone. 

The following brief sketch, copied from a historical work written 
by Sherman Day and published in 1843, covers the subject so com- 
pletely and concisely that the present writer does not feel competent 
to add a word or alter a syllable : 

"The Indian tribes who dwelt among the primitive forests of 
Pennsylvania — as well as those of Delaware, New Jersey and a part 
of Maryland — called themselves the Lenni Lenape, or the original 
people. This general name comprehended numerous distinct tribes, 
all speaking dialects of a common language, (the Algonquin, ) and 
uniting around the same great council-fires. Their grand council 
house, to use their own expressive figure, extended from the eastern 
banks ot the Hudson on the northeast to the Patomac on the south- 
west. Many of the tribes were directly descended from the common 
stock; others, having sought their sympathy and protection, had 
been allotted a section of their territory. The surrounding tribes, 
not of this confederacy, nor acknowledging allegiance to it, agreed 
in awarding to them the honor of being the grandfathej'S — that is 
the oldest residents in this region. There was a tradition among 
the Lenni Lenape, that in ages past their ancestors had emigrated 
eastward from the Missippi, conquering or expelling on their route 
that grfrat and aparently more civilized nation, whose monuments, 
in the shape of wounds, are so profusely scattered over the great 
western valley, and of which several also remain in Pennsylvania 
along the western slope of the Allegheny Mountains. 

The Lenna Lenape nation was divided into these principal divi- 
sions : The Unamis or Turtle tribes ; the Unalachtgos or Turkeys, and 
the Monseys or Wolf tribes. The two former occupied the country 
along the coast, between the sea and the Kittatinny or Blue Moun- 
tain, their settlements extending as far east as the Hudson and as 
far west as the Potomac. These were generally known among the 
whites as the Delaware Indians. The Monseys or Wolf tribes, the 
most active and warlike of the whole, occupied the mountainous 
country between the Kittatinny Mountain and the sources of the 
Susquehanna, and they had also a village, and a peach orchard in 
the forks of the Del ware, where Nazareth is now situated. These 
three principal divisions were divided into various subordinate clans, 
who assumed names suited to their character or situation. 

Setni-Centennial History of Blair County. ID 

The Shawanos, or Shawnees, a restless and ferocious tribe, 
having been threatened with extermination by a more powerful tribe 
at the south, sought jirotection among the friendly nations of the 
north, whose language was observed to bear a remarkable affinity 
with their own. A majcMity of them settled along the Ohio, from 
the Wabash to near Pittsburgh. A portion was recei\ed under the 
protection of tlie Lcnni Lenape's, and permitted to settle near the 
forks of the Delaware, and on the flats below Philadel]ihia. But 
they soon became troublesome neighbors and were removed by the 
Delawares (or possibly by the six nations) to the Susquehanna 
valley, where they had a village at the Shawnee Flats below 
Wilkesbarre, on the west side of the river. During the revolution 
and the war of 1812, their name became conspicuous in the history 
of the northern frontier. 

The Lenni Lenape tribes consisted, at the first settlement of 
Pennsylvania of the Assunpink, or Stony Creek Indians: the Ran- 
kokas, ( Lamikas or Chichequaas;) Andastakas at the Christina 
Creek, near Wilmington; Neshaminies, in Bucks County; Shacka- 
niaxons. about Kensington; Mantas or Frogs, near Burlington; the 
Tuteloes and the Nanticokes, in Maryland and \'irginia, (the latter 
afterwards removed up the Susquehanna); the Monsey or Mini- 
sinks, near the fi')rks of the Delaware; the Maudes and the Xarriti- 
congs near the Raritan; the Capitanasses, the (lacheos, the Monseys 
and the Pomptons, in New Jersey. A few scattered clans, or warlike 
hordes, of the Mingoes, were living here and there among the 

Another great Indian Confederacy claims attention, whose acts 
have an important bearing upon the history of Pennsylvania. This 
confederacy was originally known in the annals of Xew York as the 
Five Nations, and subsequently, after they had been joined by the 
Tuscaroras, as the Six Nations. As confederates, they called them- 
selves Aquanuschioni, or United People; by the Lenapes they were 
called Mengue, or Mingoes, and by the French the Irocjuois. The 
original Five Nations were the Onondagas, the Cayugas, the Onei- 
das, the Senecas, and the Mohawks. In 17 12 the Tuscaroras, be- 
ing expelled from the interior of North Carolina and Virginia, were 
adopted as a sixth tribe. The language of all the tribes of the con- 
federacv, except the Tuscaroras, was radically the same, from the 
borders of \'ermont to Lake Erie, and from Lake Ontario to the 
headwaters of the Allegheny, Su.squehanna. and Delaware ri\ers. 
This territory they called their Io7jq; /iousc\ The grand council-fire 
wa.s held in the Ononodaga valleys. The Senecas guarded the west- 
ern door of the house, the Mohawks the eastern, and the Cayugas 

20 Senii=Centennial History of Blair County. 

the southern or that which opened upon the Susquehanna. The 
Mohawk nation was the first in rank, and to it appertained the of- 
fice of principal war chief; to the Onondagas, who guarded the grand 
council-fire, appertained in like manner the office of principal civil 
chief, or chief sachem. The Senecas, in numbers and military ener- 
gy, were the most powerful. 

The peculiar location of the Iroquois gave them an immense 
advantage. On the great channels of water conveyance to which 
their territories were contiguous, they were enabled in all directions 
to carry war and devastation to the neighboring or to the most dis- 
tant nations. 

Nature had endowed them with a height, strength and sym- 
metry of person which distinguished them, at a glance, among the 
individuals of other tribes. They were as brave as they were strong; 
but ferocious and cruel when excited in savage warfare; crafty, treach- 
erous, and over-reaching, when these qualities best suited their pur- 
poses. The proceedings of iheir grand council were marked with 
great decorum and solemnity. In eloquence, in dignity, and pro- 
found policy, their speakers well bear comparison with the states- 
men of civilized assemblies. By an early alliance with the Dutch on 
the Hudson, they secured the use of firearms, and were thus enabled, 
not only to repel the encroachments of the French, but also to exter- 
minate, or reduce to a state of vassalage, many Indian nations. 
From these they exacted an annual tribute, or acknowledgment of 
fealty; permitting them, however, on that condition, to occupy their 
former hunting grounds. The humiliation of tributary nations was, 
however, tempered with a paternal regard for their interests in all 
negotiations with the whites, and care was taken that no trespasses 
should be committed on their rights, and that they should be justly 
dealt with. To this condition of vassalage the Lenni Lenape, or Del- 
aware nation, had been reduced by the Iroquois, as the latter as- 
serted, by conquest. The Lenapes, however, smarting under the 
humiliation, invented for the whites a cunning tale in explanation, 
which they succeeded in imposing upon the worthy and venerable 
Mr. Heckewelder, the Moravian missionary. Their story was, 
that by treaty, and by voluntary consent, they had agreed to act as 
meditators and peacemakers among the other great nations, and to 
this end they had consented to lay aside entirely the implements of 
war, and to hold and keep bright the chain of peace. This, among 
the individual tribes, was the usual province of women. The Dela- 
wares, therefore, alleged that they were figuratively termed women 
on this account; but the Iroquois evidently called them women in 

Semi-Centennial History of Blair County. 21 

quite another sense. 'They always alle^a-d that the Dehiwares were 
conquered by their arms, and were compelled to this luiiniliatinij 
concession as the only means of averting impending destruction.' 
In the course of time, howe\er, the Delawares were enabled to throw 
oti the galling yoke, and at Tioga, in the year 1756, Teedvuscung 
extorted from the Iroquois an acknowledgment of their independence. 

This peculiar relation between the Indian nation that occupied, 
and that which claimed a paramount jurisdiction over, the soil of 
Pennsylvania, tended greatly to embarrass and complicate the nego- 
tiations of the proprietary goxernment for the purchase of lands; and 
its influence was seen and felt both in the civil antl military history 
of Pennsylvania until after the close of the revolution. 

The term savage, as apjjlied to the aboriginese, is naturally as- 
sociated with the idea of barbarism and cruelty — to some extent per- 
haps justly; yet a closer acquaintance often discloses in them trails 
that e.xalt the human character and claim the admiration or sympathy 
of civilized man. The Indian considers himself created by an al- 
mighty, wise, and benevolent spirit, to whom he looks for guidance 
and protection; whom he believes it to be his duty to adore and 
worship, and whose overruling providence he acknowledges in all 
his actions. Man\- Indians were in the habit of seeking out some 
high mountain from whose lonelv summit they might commune with 
the Great Spirit, and pray to him. But while they worshipped the 
Creator they were not unmindful of their duties to their fellow-creat- 
ures. They looked upon the good things of the earth as a common 
stock, bestowed by the Great Spirit for the benefit of all. They 
held that the game of the forest, the fish of the ri\crs, and the grass 
_Dr other articles of spontaneous growth, were free to all who chose 
to take them. They ridiculed the idea of fencing in a meadow or a 
pasture. This principle repressed selfishness and fostered generos- 
ity. Their hospitality was proverbial. The Indian considers it a 
duty to share his last morsel with a stranger. " 

The term Logan, as appeared to various sections of country, 
public-houses, halls, etc.. in this region, was derived doubtless from 
the Cayuga chieftain known to the first settlers in the Tuckahoe 
Valley as Capt. Logan. He came here from the valley of the Sus- 
quehanna prior to the year 176S, and settled at the spring, near 
Davidsburg, now owned by David Htiislu-y, a locality still known 
as Logan X'alle) . 

On the Suscpiehanna it apjjcars he was the chief ol a band ol 
wariors, but in an engagement with another \u\k \k lu^t an eye by 

22 Semicentennial History of Blair County. 

an arrow from the enemy. This was considered by the indians a 
mark of disgrace, and he was deposed. He abandoned his tribe 
therefore, and took up his residence in the Juniata Valley. Capt. Lo- 
gan, of course, was not his proper name, but a title bestowed upon 
him by the whites. He was a man of medium height and heavy 
frame, but was fleet of foot and always on the move. During the 
revolutionary war he resided at the beautiful spring, now in the 
heart of Tyrone City. A firm friend of the Americans during the 
struggle for independence; he it was who discovered and disclosed 
the diabolical plot of John Weston and his tories. 

Although he had learned to read from the Moravian mission- 
aries when a lad, he knew very little of the forms of land purchases; 
so through his ignorance of the customs of civilized communities, he 
failed to purchase the spot on which his cabin stood. As a conse- 
sequence, after the war, some envious white man bought the land 
and warned the friendly savage off. He was too proud and haughty 
to contest the matter, or even bandy words with the intruder; so 
about 1785 he left and located at Chickalamoose, where Clearfield 
now stands, and there continued until the Great Spirit called him to 
a happy hunting ground. 

l'iuli)iilnctlly there is some liction inixetl with the stories of the 
Indian depredations and massacres in the early settlement of this 
country and the narratives are often highly colored. This results 
from the fact that they were not accurately recorded at the time, if 
at all, antl are chiefly i)ersonal recollections of the witnesses thereof 
after many years had elapsed. Some even being based on recollec- 
tions of aged persons who heard it from the lips of parents or grand- 
parents when they themsehes were young. Yet the actual facts 
were certainlv bad enough and may have been even worse than the 
story as we have it to-day although the particulars as to individual 
action, dates, names, and locations are far from correct. One can 
readily conceive the terror of women and children and even strong 
men, situated in a \ast forest region, thinly populated with whites, 
and infested by Indians whose numbers, though unknown, the imag- 
ination would be sure to e.xagerate to myriads, when a rumor became 
current that a massacre was contemplated or occasional lurking sav- 
ages were seen, and it is certain that the early settlers of this region 
did live in the constant and well grounded apprehension of harm 
from this source for a period of twenty years, during which time au- 
thentic records jjrove that within the limits of Blair a score or more 
of men, women and children were slain Ijy the red men. 

The state of mind of the colonists in this region in 1777 may be 
seen by the following extract Irom a letter written to the i)resitlent 
of the Council by George Woods and Thomas Smith, two justices- 
of-the-peace, and dated at Bedford, Pa., Nov. 27th. 1777: " Gen- 
tlemen: — The present situation of this country is so truly deplorable 
that we should be inexcusal^le if we delayed a moment in acquaint- 
ing you with it. An Indian war is now raging around us in its ut- 
most furv. Before you went down they killed one man at Stony 
Creek; since that time they have killed five on the mountain against 
the head of Dunning' s Creek, killed or taken three at the Three 
Springs, wounded one and killed some children at Frankstown, and 
had they not providently been discovered in the night and a party 
gone out and fired on them, they would in all probability have de- 
stroyed a great jjart of that settlement in a tew hours. A small 
party went out into Morrison's Cove .scouting, and unfortunately di- 
vided; the Indkins discpvered one division, and out of eight killed 

24 Semi=Centennial History of Blair County. 

seven and wounded the other. In short, a day hardly passes with- 
out our hearing of some new murder, and if the people continue only 
a week longer to fly as they have done for a week past this county 
will be a frontier. From Morrison's, Crayls and Friend's Coves, 
Dunning' s Creek, and one-half of the Glades they are fled or forted, 
and, for all the defense that can be made here the Indians may do 
almost what they please. We keep out ranging parties, in which 
we go out by turns, but all that we can do In that way is but weak 
and ineffectual for our defense, because one-half our people are fled. 
Those that remain are too busily employed in putting their families 
and the little of their effects that they can save and take to some 
place of safety. ' ' 

What is known as the great Cove massacre occurred in 1762 
(this is know known as Martin's Cove, in Blair County) and the 
number of killed and captured is unknown now but of the captives 
were the family of John Martin, consisting of his wife and several 
children. In July, 1780, Captain Philips was surprised and over- 
come by a hostile band of Indians in Woodcock Valley, and all his 
men, ten in number, were killed, except his son Elijah. Captain 
Philips and his son were held in captivity for some time, with the 
expectation, no doubt, that they would be ransomed. They were 
carried to Detroit and from there to Montreal, and finally made 
their escape, or were liberated by the British to whom the Indians 
had delivered them. 

In the autumn of 1788 the wife and three of the children of 
Matthew Dean, great grandfather of Justice John Dean of the Su- 
preme Court, were slain by the Indians at their home in Canoe 
Valley, Catharine Township, about three miles west of Waterstreet, 
while Mr, Dean and the other children were at work in the fields 
some distance away and a son of Captain Simonton who was at the 
Dean residence, was carried away and never recovered. In 1781, 
in Tyrone Township, Jacob Roller was shot and scalped by Indians 
while out hunting and a man named Bebault, living alone, was killed 
at his house nearby, by the same band. In the summer of 1777 or 
78, a man named John Guilliford cleared a small patch near where 
Blair Furnace Station, in Logan Township, now is and erected a 
cabin near the present site of John Trout's house. The next spring 
after putting out some crops he became alarmed for his safety and 
fled to Fetters Fort but soon after believing the Indians to have 
gone away he ventured back to see how his crops were coming on, 
but they must have been lying in wait for him as he was found the 
same day by two hunters, Coleman and Milligan, lying dead on the 

Semi=Centennial History of lilair County. 25 

threshold of his caljin, having; evidently been shot by the Indians as 
he was entering the door. He was buried near the spot by these 
two men who then endeavored to follow the murders and avenge the 
the death of their neii^hbor but in this were unsuccessful. About 
this time Thorn is Coleman while huntinij alone came upon two un- 
armed Indians who were carryini^Mjff two capti\e children: and level- 
ing his ritle at them with a stern commaiul to halt I they (juickly 
dropped the children and lied. 

Coleman was a great Indian Ji^hter u (.•11 known anil feared by the 
red men of the Juniata \alley. It is said that he killed a number 
of them to avenge the death of a brother slain by the savages yetirs 
before in the Susquehanna valley. 

In August, 1781. Adam Hollidav with several of his children was 
at work in a held iust al)o\e where Gaysport now stands when they 
were attacked b\- Indians, Mr. llolliday seized the youngest child 
and suceeded in making his escajjc with it but his daughter Janet 
and a son Patrick, were captureil and killed. 


In HIair Countv, since its organization, slavery never existed, 
but in the terri»^^ory of which it is composed it was not unknown as 
late as 1800, the as.sessment lists of the county disclose the fact that 
a few negro slaves were held in l)i>ndage here. In 1794 there were 
three slave owners in Allegheny township. 

Date of Organization of the Different Townships and Chartering 
of Boroughs and Cities. 

AMet^heiiy Township, 1793. .Altoona Horoujjli Chartered. . .1854. 

Amis " i8to. Altoona City " ....186R. 

Blair " 1839. Bellwood . 

Cathanne " 1846. Gaysport I?oroiii;li .. .1S41. 

Frankstown " . prior to 1773. Holli(laysl)iiri; " ...1836. 

Freedom " 1S57. Iiiniata ' " ...1893. 

Greenfield " ..prior to iSuo. Martinsl)urK " ...1832. 

Huston " 1842. Newry " " ...1876. 

Juniata " 1847. RoaringSpring " ...1888. 

Logan '■ 1S50. Tyrone " ...1857. 

N. Woodbury* " . prior to 1800. East Tyrone " " • . 

Snyder " 1841. Williamsburg " " .. ..1S28 

Taylor " 1S55. to 1841 anil charter forfeited by 

Tyrone " prior to 1800. failure to elect otVicers. 

Woodbury " .. prior to 17S7. 



The growth and development of the cliannels of travel is an ex- 
tremely interesting study. As early as 1740 and 1750 white men 
traversed old Indian paths leading from Harrisburg up the Susque- 
hanna to the Juniata; up the Juniata to its headwaters in the Alle- 
gheny mountains and across these, through narrow gorges, whose 
highest point was considerably less elevated than the main ridge. 
These paths, or trails, were only passable for pedestrians and all 
the rivers and smaller streams had to be forded. 

After passing the Alleghenies the headwatersof the Conemaugh 
river were reached and its course followed to the site of Johnstown, 
thence on to the Allegheny ri\'er and down that stream to Pittsburg. 
Occassional short cuts were made from one bend of the stream to 
to another where the path would be a considerable distance from its 
channel, but generally the streams were followed pretty closely. 
This was the earliest thoroughfare between the east and the west in 
this part of the wilderness. About the year 1788 a road was cut 
through on nearly the same lines. It extended from Huntingdon 
westward to Frankstown on the site of HoUidaysburg and Duncans- 
ville, and up the Blair Creek and gap to near where Cresson has 
since grown up and from thence to the confluence of the Conemaugh 
and Stony Creek rivers. It was barely passable for wagons, and the 
large streams were not bridged. 

This road was paid for by the state was constructed by Robert 
Galbraith, a resident of Blair County, and it served the purposes of a 
highway for the early settlers, for 25 years. Soon after the begin- 
ning of the present century the idea of a pike road along the same 
route with bridges over all the streams was entertained and public 
spirited citizens urged its construction, and aided to build it. By 
1820 it had been accomplished, through private enterprise largely 
and John Blair, a native and resident of this count v, was president 
of the Huntingdon, Cambria and Indiana Turnpike Road Company. 

No sooner was the pike completed than the project of a canal 
between Philadelphia and Pittsburg was set on foot and although its 
construction would be a detriment to the turnpike, yet John Blair, 
president of the Turnpike Company, was so public spirited as to aid 
and encourage it to his full ability, and he lived to see it completed 
to HoUidaysburg. The canal was exclusively a state institution, the 
cost being too great for private enterprise at that time, but Blair 
County people were leaders in the movement and high iii the coun- 

Semi-Centennial History of Blair County. 27 

cils of control, Hollidaysburg was a port of entry and the location of 
a great basin at the western terminus of the eastern division. The 
canal, supj)leniented by the Allet^hcny Portage Railroad across the 
mountains, was a wonderful thing in its day, but still the people were 
not satisfied and the first boat had hardly traversed the full length 
of the canal and passed over the mountains on the new railroad, 
demonstrating the value of such a mode of travel and trans[jortation. 
than the idea of an all rail route began to take definite shape and in 
ten years time a company to build it was incorporated although it 
would cost much more than the canal and must be done entirely by 
private enterprise. The Pennsylvania Railroad Company had its 
birth in 1846. Simultaneously with the beginning of this road in 
whose construction and management Blair County and Blair County 
people have had a most prominent place, the management of the 
Pennsylvania canal tried to preserve their ascendency by doing away 
with the inclined planes on the mountain road and the New Portage 
was begun; thousands of dollars of the public moneys was spent and 
a road without inclines was constructed almost parallel with the "Old 
Portage." It was a useless effort, for the Pennsylvania Railroad 
Company had their all rail route finished and public sentiment was 
so strong against state management of the Public works, as the canal 
and Portage railroad were called, that they were sold to the Penn- 
sylvania Railroad Company, who, by the purchase, absorijed a par- 
allel and competing line and became master of the situation. The 
State received about one-fourth the cost of these works by the sale. 
The Pennsvlvania railroad deviated a little from the route of the old 
canal, pike and first public road, following the little Juniata almost 
to its source, near the site of Altoona, and crossing the mountains 
through the Kittanning Gap. This railroad company, which soon 
forged ahead of all others and whose gross receipts per annum are 
now more than twice that of any other railroad in America, hatl lor 
its jiresident many years, Thomas A. .Scott, whose youth was largely 
spent in Blair County, and who may with propriety Ijc called a Blair 
County man. Blair County contains the principal shops of the com- 
pany and is the headquarters of the General .Superintendent, and 
Cieneral Superintendent of Motive Power. 

Thus in less than 100 years an uninhabited forest has been 
channed to a rich, populous and productive region, and a scarcely 
distinguishable trail, passal>le only on foot, has been superseded by a 
steel railroad over whose length, glide almost with the speed oflij^ht 
pondrous trains of cars bearing thousands of t(jns of freight or hund- 
reds of travelers. Blair County has taken a prominent part in this 
progress and if any further improvement is ])ossible Blair County 
people will be found leading the van. 

E(it:i cq|ioricil.— Scljools. 

Beginning very early in the history of this region we find 
schools were established by private enterprise of public spirited citi- 
zens long before the enactment of our present wise and liberal school 
laws. Subscription schools were quite common and the little log 
school house, erected by the people of a district by mutual agree- 
ment, and supported by their voluntary contributions, was found in 
every community. 

In 1834 the general common school law was enacted and since 
then education has been as free as the air they breath to every child 
of this favored state. Tution was free from 1834 to 1893; the text 
books, however, had to be furnished by the parents or guardians, 
but the legislature, in 1893, provided that the directors must furnish 
pupils text books for use in the school room without charge. 

The length of terms in the country districts are now six to 
seven months and in the boroughs and City of Altoona, eight and 
nine months. Altoona has twelve large school buildings, the aggre- 
gate value of which is nearly half a million dollars. Over six thous- 
and pupils are in attendance and one hundred and forty teachers are 
employed at salaries ranging from $30.00 to $100.00 per month. 
Prof D. S. Keith has been Superintendent of the city schools for 
sixteen years. The borough public schools of Tyrone and Holli- 
ckiysburg are in an equally flourishing condition. Prot. H. S. Wertz 
is superintendent of the schools of the county, outside of Altoona City. 
The higher education of the youth of the county has received some 
attention; and the graduates of Altoona, Tyrone and HoUidaysburg 
schools are well fitted for useful life or to enter college, if they so 

In i860 a school of some considerable pretensions was estab- 
lished at Martinsburg under the name of the Franklin High School 
and Blair County Normal Institute. The name was afterward 
changed to Juniata Collegiate Institute. It was erected by a joint 
stock company at a cost $8,000.00 and was a chartered institution. 
Some years later, not proving a financial success, it was sold to the 
Lutheran Synod for $3,000.00. Later it was owned by J. G. 
Herbst who sold it to Prof Lucian Cort for $5,000.00. Prof Cort, 
in 1868, enlarged it at a cost of $8,000.00, to its present dimensions, 
100 feet front and 75 feet deep. It is a brick building, four stories 

SemUCentennial History of Blair County. 2<) 

in height and will accomodate ciijhty boardiiii; students. In 1S75 
it was purchased by Prof. P. H. Bridenhauj^h for $10,700 who, for a 
number of years carried on a very successful school. Later, while 
still in the possession of Prof Bridcnbauj^h, it was used for several 
months to shelter the inmates of the Blair County Alms House when 
the old one burned down. At j^resent no re.^ular school is in opera- 
tion there. 

The HoUidaysburg Female Seminarv, at HoUidaysburg, is one 
of the finest Iniildings in the county. It is constructed of stone and 
is 150 feet in front, extends back 160 feet; four stories in height and 
was erected in 1869 by a joint stock company at a cost of $75,000. 
It is now owned by Major William Williams, one of HoUidaysburg' s 
most prominent and wealthy citizens, and is conducted by Mrs. 
Hitchcock and is a well managed and flourishing school with many 
boarding scholars, and many others who live at home and attend 
during the day. It contains a large and well appointed school hall, 
laboratory, recitation, reading, music and art rooms as well as the 
residence rooms of the principal and dormitories of the pupils. The 
location is one of great beauty, on an eminence from which the view 
of the surrounding country is superb. The campus consists of five 
acres of ground. Rev. Joseph Waugh was the first principal, 
serving from 1869 to 1877, ^ftcr which time Prof W. P. Husscy 
held the position. The school, while not sectarian, is yet in control 
of Presbyterians and may be cla.ssed as a Presbyterian institution. 
All honor to this church, which in years gone by, has established 
more seminaries in the United States, probably, than any other 
protestant denomination. 

In Altoona there are several business colleges, so-called, wherein 
short-hand, typewriting and business and commercial forms are 
taught, the leading one now being "Anderson's School of Business 
and Shorthand" in the .Matcer building. 

The Roman Catholic church, always solicitous to educate the 
youth of her adherents in their own faith, have parochial schools in 
connection with all their churches in Altoona, Hollidaysliurg and 
Tyrone, where all branches of learning are taught in a systematic 
and thorough manner, especial attention being paid to music in the 
girls' school in the convent of St. John's church. Thirteenth street 
and Thirteenth avenue. A large three-story brick building for a 
boys school also belongs to St. John's church and stands on the op- 
posite corner from the convent and church. 

The school building attached to .St. Mary's Cierman Roman 
Catholic church, situated on the corner of Fourteenth street and 
Fourth avenue, is also a fine brick building and from its elevation is 
a prominent landmark, seen from many parts of the city. 




The first permanent white sellers of Blair County, coming into the 
southern end of the Great Cove, or Morrisons Cove, as it is now 
called about 1760 or earlier, were Dunkards, and that is probably 
the first religious denomination to obtained a foothold in Blair 
County territory, followed closely, however, by the Presbyterians 
and Methodists. 

We have not been able to discover any historical incident con- 
cerning this sect that would prove of special interest to the readers 
of this sketch, but it is a well attested fact that these people were 
deeply pious, conscientious in their business relations with their fel- 
lows and noncombatative. They were plain and unassuming, and 
did not leave any monuments to their memory in the shape of large 
and costly church edifices; Being content to worship their Creator 
in plain, and what many would consider, insignificantly small and 
poor buildings. Many of their descendants are still found in the 
county and they have a few places of worship, one in Altoona, but 
not being an aggressive people, their numbers do not keep pace 
with the increasing population of the county. 

That the Dunkards preceded the Presbyterians may be disputed 
by some but the foregoing statement, we think, will be found correct. 
It is however recorded in Africa's history of Blair County, published 
in 1883 that in 1756 when John Armstrong marched to Kittanning, 
in September of that year, that he was accompained by Rev. 
Charles Beatty a Presbyterian minister, and that he preached a ser- 
mon one Sunday morning to the little band of soldiers while en- 
camped at Beaver Dams, the location of McCann's Mills, now in 
Blair County. The truth of this assertion is not doubted or denied, 
but it is likely that the Dunkards, who resided here, as above stated, 
held religious services at a still earlier date, and that the congrega- 
tion consisted of residents of territory now within the bounds of 
Blair County. 

In 1770 or 1772, however, there was a sufficient number of 
people in the vicinity of Frankstown and Hollidaysburg to make a 
small congregation and the Presbytery at Carlisle sent the Rev. Dr. 
King, of Mercersburg, here, who preached the first Presbyterian 
sermon to residents of Blair in that vear at the house of William 

5emi-Centennial History of Blair County. 31 

Holliday. Re\-. Mr. McDouti^al, from Path \'allcy, also came here 
at a very early day and preached occasionally. Alter the clf>se of 
the Revolutionary war preachintj was quite frequent by Presbyterian 
ministers who were stationed farther east, and who occasionally en- 
dured the fatigue of a lontj ride throuij^h the forest to preach to the 
early settlers at Hollidaysbur^. A tent or pavilion was erected at 
Blue Sprint;^, where services were held about 1784 or 1785. This 
was replaced or superseded in 1790 by a church buildin^- and it was 
called Bard's Meeting House, from Rev. David Bard, a Presbyte- 
rian minister, who located here in 1788. A cong^regation was regu- 
larly organized at this time, and Captain Thomas Blair, father of 
Hon. John Biair, Thomas McCune and James .Smith, Sr. , were the 
first ruling elders. The stated salary of Rev. Bard was $100 per 
annum. The Bard Meeting House stood on the present cemetery 
site and was constructed of unhewn logs. It was occupied as a 
church till iSiS when it was destroyed by tire. A hewed log build- 
ing was immediately erected, and stood until 1837, when a brick 
church was built, in its stead, on the corner of Walnut and Clark 
streets, where the present elegant and commodious church — erected 
in 1869-70 — now stands. Rev. Bard was retained as pastor until 
his death in 18 16, during part of which time he was a member of 
the House of Representatives in the Congress of the United States. 
Rev. James Galbraith succeeded Re\'. Bard and ser\ed the congre- 
gation here and at Williamsburg until 1835. For the following three 
years the congregation was served by John A. Dunlap, a licentiate. 
In 1S38 Rev. William J. Gibson, of Philadcl|)hia, was called and re- 
mained until 1 84 1. Next came Rev. David McKinney. D. D., who 
j)reached until 1852, being succeeded by Re\-. David X. Junkin, 
from Washington, D. C. , who was installed January 7, 1854. 

In i860, on account of ill health. Rev. Junkin was granted 
leave of absence for si.\' months, during which time the pulpit was 
filled by Rev. William Alexander, a licentiate of the Huntingdon 

December 11, i860. Dr. funkin se\eretl his connection with this 
congregation and Rev. Da\id Sterritt supplied the jiulpit until Sep- 
tember, 1 86 1. 

Rev. David H. Barron, then pastor af the Mount Pleas.anl 
Church, was called August 4. i86r, and preached his first sermon 
here, as pastor elect, the second Sunday of .September, 1861. He 
was formally installed November 12, following. The erection of a 
new church edifice was agitated in 1S6S on account of the lack of 
sufficient pew room in the old building anil the weakness of the 

32 Seini=CentenniaI History of Blair County. 

walls, and on Sunday, the sixth day of December, of that year 
there being a heavy snow on the roof, the assembled congregation 
pronounced the building unsafe and it was abandoned. The fol- 
lowing Sabbath services were held in the court house and so con- 
tinued until the completion of the chapel of the new church. 

The corner stone of this new church — the present one — was laid 
September 9, i860, and services were held in the chapel, for the first 
time, June 5, 1870; it cost $60,000.00. 

In the corner stone were deposited sermons of Revs. W. J. 
Gibson, David McKinney, David X. Junkin and D. H. Barron; 
also photographs of each of these ministers, besides other appropri- 
ate articles. 

This building, which is the largest church in the county_^ 
was completed and public services first held in the main or audience 
room December 31, 1871. Rev. Barron is still pastor, now serving 
his thirty-fifth year in that capacity. 

The history of this church is given at greater length than can 
be allotted to the others on account of its age and prominence in the 

The Methodists made themselves known in Blair County about 
1800, and their first church in its territory was erected in 18 16, at 
Williamsburg. They now have twcntv-thrce churches in the county- 
valued at $260,000.00; 6,195 members and 6,950 Sunday School 
scholars. The Presiding Elder of the district, which includes other 
counties than Blair, Rev. D. S. Monroe, D. D., resides in Altoona 
He is also secretary of the Grand Conference of all the Methodist 
Episcopal bodies in the world. 

The Evangelical Lutheran Church is strong in the county, and 
its history here dates back to 1820, or earlier, when their first con- 
gregation was organized in Williamsburg. They have twenty 
churches in the county, seven of which are in Altoona. 

The First Baptist Congregation in Blair County was organized 
at Williamsburg in 1829, and the next at Hollidaysburg in 1833. 
They now have over 1,200 members in the county; twelve churches 
and five preachers. This denomination numbers, among its mem- 
bership, some of the most prominent familes in the county and the 
number of regular attendants at the Baptist Churches is, doubtless, 
5,000 to 6,000 persons. 

The Roman Catholic Church is quite strong in the county, 
having four large churches in Altoona City, with several thousand 
adherents and church property valued at $350,000.00. They 
built their first church in Altoona, the St. Johns, in 1852. They 
also have churches and many members in Tyrone and Hollidaysburg. 


Baroain Grocers and Dealers in General Merchandise. 

1517 Fourth Avenue, Altoona, Pa. 

Do you want a fine library free ? If so. read, reflect, act. We 
give a librarv' away free every monlli. Wliy don't you get one 
too ? Come to us and we will tell you how we do it and you will 
enter heartily into the plan for we sell almost everything you need 
and then the prices are always right. Do not delay but come to- 
day for you might not .see this "ad" again and might forget it. 
Our celebrated Creamery butter in one pound prints is extra fancy 
and well known in our city as the very best butter that conies to 
this morket. Bell Telephone 913. Pluenix Telephone 2S'j. 


A full line <)f Dry Goods and Notions. Fine Groceries and I'ro- 

visions a specialty. Our line of Shoes you will find 

complete and at right bottom prices: 



\vnoi.i;,x.\LK .\Ni) hktaii, i»kai,kk in 

VV)'^olen and G^tton Rags, Qld gcrap C^Pf^®''* 

Brass. Lead. Zinc, Tin Foil. Rubber. Rojk- and Second-hand vSloves. 
Offlce and Warehouse : No. 813 Seventeenth St.. Altoona. Pa. 


F'ull line of Clocks, Watches and Jewelry. Imuc and comi^licated 

watch repiliring done promptly and at low ]>rices. Work 

guaranteed. Watches a vSpecialt>-. 



floosG, Sion and dmmm PaiiitGr, 

Office and Store, No. 800 Niniii Sii-...-t, 
< Inly Work Siilirilt (I. \: i.>>\\. \'\. 

'A H. S. PINE, K- 

Fresli Hre;i<l from the Ivishlh Ward liaki r\ (Ulixcv' '= ' ■ "n 
part of the city. 

H. S. PINE, Corner Fifth Avonue and SevontK Street. 

-^ y\L. H. BROV\ZIN. •\<r 
Dealer in General TVlerebandise, 

P'ine Groceries, Dry Goods. Hoots. Shoes and Notion^ 

2331 Broad Avenue. - - Altoona, Pa. 

Ai.TooxA BrsiNKss Cards 

^' O. SHELOV7, ^^■- 

Confections, Tobacco and Cigars. 

Notions, Base Ball Gobds, Soft Drinks, 
No. 312 Howard Avenue, - - Altoona, Pa. 

We invite an inspection of our .stock ! 

Dealers in General, -^Dry Goods, Notions, Shoes, 
Rubbers and Rubber Boots, Oil Clotli, Groceries, Provisions, etc. 
You will find ever)^ department in our store completely stocked 
with sea.sonable Goods which we will be plea.sed to show vou. 
2301 EiRhth Avenue, Altoona, Pa. 





JOHN SCHKNIC, - >*ioprietor. 

Corner Tenth Avenue and Twelfth vStreet, Altoona, Pa. 

ijriu^|)lllilt< Mil jL JJdlLi9 

ID. T. CA'HILT., - I>ro]ni( tor. 

Opposite Pa.s.senger Depot, Altoona, Pa. 


Attorney ^^ At ^ Ivaw, 

Rooms 6 and 7 Nicholson Block, Altoona, Pa, 


Genefal Slore, Passenpf and Freight Agent and Postmasitef, 


Washington Ave. and i6th St. 

Grant Yon, Prop. accommodations. 18 Room One of the 
oldest .stands in the city. Good stabling attached. 

WM. D. HALL, M. D., 

1423 Eleventh Avenue, 
Assistant, Dr. F. V. Horne. ALTOONA, PA. 


W. N. BOYLES, Hard and Soft Coals ; Office, Kourtli avenue and 
William street, Juniata. I'a. 

E. N. BULICK, Kresh and Sail M' iiv Fouitli avenue, Juniala. 


M. L. REIGH, H.-iUL- I)..^- •' ^■ 'i ' -i.!^ i--., ,, , !•, 

J. F. WAHL, Staple and Fancy Grocer k- I'l Wa.sliinglun ave- 
nue, Altoc^na. Pa. 

M. L. EIVIFIELD, vShavinc: Parlor and Hair Cuttint^, F'ourth ave- 
nue, Juniai 

F. E. RICKARD &. CO., Ice and Groceries, KS04 Fumteenth ave- 

nue, Altoona. P,i. 

J. A. -KINTER, ju-U'X- of llie I'eaix-, Juniala, 1 ;l;in > ( aiiiU . I'a. 

C. M. KEPHART, Groceries, Pnjvisions, Tobacco and Cigars. 

Goods delivered prniii]')tly {<t :\]] ]>;trls of (^ii v fvi-f of clinri-c 

F. N. OUNMIRE, Pool and Cigars, Ijourlh avenue, Juniata, Pa. 

H. A. BOYLES, Groceries, Provisions and General Merchandise, 
Kipple P. O , Pa. 

PHEASANT & WAGNER, General Mcivliainlisc, Imuala, Kipi^le 
P. O.) Pa. 

F. J. RIG EL &. CO., Hardware, Stoves, Tinware, Roofing and 
.Spouting, Fourtii avenue and William street, Juniata Pa. 

JOHN A. CANAN &. CO.. American aad Foreign Cements, Terra 
Gotxls, Builders' Supplies, etc., Marg. Ave. & iStluSt., Altoona. 

CHAS. M. ROCKEY, Fish, Oy.sters and Produce, wholesale and 
retail, 1609 Eleventh avenue, Altoona, P : 

B. H. DeTURK, Painter and Paper Haii-ei, m....- iMcvLiilli 
a\enue, Altoona, Pa. 

P. M. MOLLOY & CO., Installment House, r6ooJ4 Eleventh ave- 
nue, Alt(^Mia. Pi. IT T,. KrlTmi .\L;(.nl 

J. I. FARBAUGH, Groceries and Maker ot Hannnock-. mi- m\ 
teenth street, Altoona, Pa. 

L L BOOK, Market Gardener, Hot House L,ettuce a Specialty, 

ICldorado, 1 t .Mto Mia ■ 

JONAS WALTEN, Restaurant. 1314 Tenth avenue. Altoona, Pa. 

H. JOHNSON, Boots and Shoes, Eleventh avenue, next to First 
National Bank, Altoona, Pa. 

Altoona Business Cards. 

CHAS. H. YON, Grocer, 17 Washingtotf avenue, Altoona, Pa. 
Fresh Vegetables always on hand. 

SAMUEL PATTERSON, Wagons Built to Order, Repairing, Paint- 
ing, General Blacksniithing, Green avenue and Seventli street. 

W. A. FRAKER, Roofing, Spouting and Repairing. Hot Air Fur- 
naces a Specialty. 1002 Cliestnut avenue, Altoona, Pa. 

Dp. E. 0. M. HABERACKER, Office, No. 2220 Seventh avenue; 
Residence, 2222 Seventh avenue, Altoona> Pa. 

J. M. BLAIR, Contractor aiid-Builder, 1006 Finst avenue, Altoona, 

L. Z. REPLOGLE, Clothing,Gents' Furnishings and Gents'Shoes, 
811 Twelfth street, Altoona, Pa. 

CHAS. WEISINGER, Merchant Tailor, S06 Kast Twelfth street, 
Altoona, Pa. 

T. M. POWELL, Tadie.s' and Gents' Furnishing Goods, 815 East 
Twelfth .street, Altoona, Pa. 

H. O'BURN, 1024 Chestnut avenue, Altoona, Pa., Groceries and 

J. J. GLEICHERT, Groceries, Flour Feed, etc , 501 Eighth ave- 
nue, Altoona, Pa. 

JOHN GEIG, Merchant Tailor,8i3i< East Twelfth street, Altoona, 

- H. J. CORNMAN, - 

TI16 oriflinai one-mce Giotnier 

Of Altoona, Pa., has an entire new stock, of 

[}liilili'en% lV|eii'^ and Boijg' dlotsfiing, 

Suits, Hats and Shirts made to order. 
\h\2 gleoentb 7\,\?enue, RltSona, pa. 


1106 Eleventh Street, 

<^^0 C XJ L I S X -^^ 

Diseases of the Eye, Ear, Nose and Throat. 

Office Hours — 8 to 10 a. m.; i to 3 and 8.30 p. m. 

At.toona Business CaSds. 

M.J. Vaughn, W I". Vaughn 

2012 Eightli Aveiiiu-. OFFICE AT WORKS ^"« »'<'«<• »"tt- 

J. R. VAUGHN & 50N, 


Hest qualilv of liuildiug. Sewer and Taviiij^ Brick. 
Works at Eldorado. 
Bell Telephone No. 1562 at Works. 

Bell Telephone No. 1563 at residence of W. F. Vaughn. 

^1- C. F. CARPENTER, -i^ 

Imported Key West and Domestic Cigars, Cheriots, Stogies, 
Cigarettes, Smoking and Chewing Tobaccos, Pipes and Smokers' 
Articles, Canes, Playing Cards, etc. Finest Pool and Billiard 
Tables in the city. . 
Twelfth Street, next to Post Office, Altoona, Pa. 

Thos. Donahue, Proprietor. 

Rates, $1.00 per day, $5.00 per week. First-class Bar attached. 

1 1 10 Tenth Avenue, Altoona, Pa. 



Rates, $1.00 per day, S4.50 per week. First-class Bar attached. 
Tenth Avenue, bet. nth and 12th Sts., Altoona, Pa. 


1)p:.\i,hk IX 

Guns, fishing Tackle, Bicycles 

and other Sporting Good. Cruns and Bicycles repaired. 
1113 Eleventh Avenue, Altoona, Pa. 

<»j,/E want ;;(Mitl a;,a'Mts for thi-.^e lloii.sfliolil iioocHsh it-s 
W and will ^'ivc exi'lu.sive territory in tlio following 
counties: Allegheny, Fayette, Washingt<»n, GreeMe, 
Lawreneo, IJeaver, Mercer, Crawford, Krie. Warton, 
Forest, JetVerson, Clarion, Armstrong, Indiana. IJutler, 
Venango, Somerset, Huntingdon, Bedford. Fulfon, 
Camhria, IJlair, York, Adams, Franklin. ( umlierland 
and Perry. Write us al onre liclore all the territory is 
taken up'. Robinsons & Co.. Ltd.. Factory, Altoona, Pa. 


■^1 DE-NT'ISTS. 1^ 

1 107 Twelfth Avenue, Altoona, Pa. 

Altoona Business Cards. 

F. L. AKERS, Manager, Druggist aiid Apothecary, xio6 Eleventh 
street, Altoona, Pa. Soda Water always on draught. 

C. BRESSLER, General Merchandise, Hats, Caps, Boots, Shoes, 
etc., 57 Sixth avenue, Altoona, Pa. 

ALTOONA HOUSE, 1003 Bridge street, Jno. Garland, proprietor. 
Meals at all hours. 

BERMAN & BRETT, Wholesale Notions, 1025 Bridge street, 
Altoona, Pa. 

C. M. SMITH, Milk Depot and Confectionery, Wholesale and 
Retail. Ice Cream. 1631 Eleventh avenue, Altoona", Pa 

J. P. HARNEY, Fancy and Staple Groceries, 1905 Eleventh 
avenue, Altoona, Pa. 

A. CLAYCOMB, Groceries, Boots, Shoes, etc.. 1800 Tenth avenue, 
Altoona, Pa. 

SMITH 6c BRADY, the Cash Grocers, fine Groceries, Flour, Feed, 
604 Seventh avenue, Altoona, Pa. 

G. W. BURKET, Groceries and Provisions, Queensware and No- 
tions, Wood and Willow Ware, 607 6th Ave., Altoona^ Pa. 

E. B. SEEDENBURG, Groceries and Provisions, 423 Seventh 
avenue, Altoona, Pa. 

H. E. CRUMRAKER, D. D. S. Nitrous Oxide Gas administered. 
Corner Seventh avenue and Twelfth street, Altoona, Pa. 

COLCLESSER BROTHERS, Axes, Picks and Mattocks, El Dor 
rado, Blair County. Pa. 

A. L. HENCH, Salter. I^eather, Hides, Tallow and Salt, 1708 
Ninth avenue, Altoona, Pa. 

J. W. BLACK, Justice of the Peace, El Dorado, Pa. 

B. F. MYERS, Grocery, Provision, Flour and Feed Store, El 
Dorado, Pa. - 

H. R. MAUK, Barber and Hair Dresser, 2330 Broad street, Al- 
toona, Pa. 

E. M. CLABAUGH, Druggist and Apothecary, Corner Sixth ave. 
and Fourth street, Altoona, Pa. 

M. GOLDSMITH, Artistic Tailor and Cutter, 1600 Eleventh ave., 
Altoona, Pa. Latest styles and lowest prices 

C. G. HAZIY, fine Cigars, Tobacco, Confectionery, etc., 1608 
Eleventh avenue, Altoona, Pa. 

J. ROSS MATEER'S Branch Drug Store, O. E. Crissman, Man- 
ager, Corner Fourth avenue and William- street, Juniata, Pa. 

Ar.TooNA Business Cards. 

KERR &. BARCLAY, Insurance and vSteaniship Ap^cnts, Masonic 
Temple, Altoona, Pa. 

WESTFALL, Leading Hatter of Blair county, corner Eleventli 
avenue and Thirteenth .street, Altoona, Pa. 

RUDISILL BROS., the Reliable Jewelers, Diamonds, Watches. 
Clock-s, Jewelry and Silverware, Altoona, Pa. 

COOPER'S Novelty Store, 1316 Eleventh avenue, AlttKma, Pa. 
All goods sold at the lowest prices possible. 

CHAS. RUNK, Barbershop. 819 Twelfth street, Altooni, I'.i. 
LeVAN, The Tailor, Masonic Temple, Altoona, Pa. 

E. GERST, Merchant Tailor, 1 1 12 Twelfth street, Altoona, Pa. 

M. V. BOYER, Groceries, Provisions. Confectionery, Tobacco, 
Cigars and General Variety Store, Eighth avenue and Twen- 
tieth street, Altoona. Pa. 

T. C. McCartney, Wall Paper, Blank Books and Fine Station- 
ery, 1307 Eleventh avenue, Altoona, Pa. 

N. H. DYER. Practical Tailor. 1128 '4 PCleventh aveuue. (over 
Metzger's Store). Repairing and Scouring a Specialty. 

G. HEMPERLY, 1323 Twelfth avenue. Altoona, Pa., manufacturer 
of Show Refrigerators and General Cabinet Making. 

SPECTACLE BAZAAR, iii4>2 Eleventh avenue, Altoona, Pa. 
Glasses properly adjusted free of charge. 

JACOB OSWALD, Blacksmith and Wagonmaker, mamifacturer of 
Carriages, Wagons, Buggies, Sleiglis and Sleds. Repairing 
a Specialty. 1528 Ninth street and Fairview avenue, Altoona. 

CLIMAX CAFE, William I,. Johnson, Proprietor, late Steward of 
the Lf)gan House, 11 17 Eleventh avenue, Altoona, Pa. 

SAML. SMITH, Agent, Practical Jeweler, Watches, Clocks, Jew 
elry, Silverware, Silver- Plated Ware, 1305 Ivleventh avenue, 
Altoona. Pa. 

UNION HOTEL. C. B. Cris.sman, Proprietor. First Class Bar, 1313 
Twelfth avenue. Good Stabling and Livery. 

J. W. OLEWINE, Staple and Fancy Groceries, 1627 Eigiith ave- 
nue, Altoona. Pa. 

T. J. ARMSTRONG, all kinds of Groceries, Eighth avenue and 
Twentieth street, Altoona, Pa. 

THOMAS N. BAIRD, Practical Plumber and Fitter, No. u;o4 
Eighth avenue. Altoona. Pa. Hot Water Heating a Specialty. 

ALTOONA BREWING CO., George Wilhehn. George Schimminger 
and W. R. Kain^i\ TIiirti-L-nth street antl Fifteenth avenue, 
Altoona, Pa 



Sec'y and Treas. 

f\\tooT)2 lro9 <5ompa9y, 



Bars, Bands, Hoops, Scrolls, Ovals, Half Ovals, 
and Half Rounds. 

Standard Quality to P. R. R. Specifications. 






• 1 1 • 1 I • I • 

was not as elaborate as tliose of to-day, but it suited him. If you 
you contemplate matrimony we would like to suit you. 

We aim to do a large part of the tnerchant tailor business in 
Blair County. Our stock is of the best. Our fits are guajanteed. 
Our prices are right. Could you more ? Call and .see us. 

Porter W.ShultZ, flerchant Tailor, 

1327 Eleventh Avenue, Altoona, Pa. 


NATIONAL HOTEL. $1.00 per day. D. K. Barley, propri.-- 
tcn". Roaring Springs, Pa. 

\. F. ACKERS. (l«'al«M- in Salt and Frrsli M«'ats. Hearing 
Springs. Pa. 

K. KING & WON, Fine Custom Taihjrs, Roaring S])rings. Pa. 

i:. M. DOUGHERTY. (Jraduate Oiitician and Prarfical Watdi- 
maker, Roaring Springs, Pa. 

K. Z. KA(i ARISE, dealer in General Hai-dware. Tin and Sheet 
Iron Worker. Roaring Springs, Pa. 

F. B, NOWLEN, Livery, Sales and Boarding StabU'. Roaring 
Springs, Pa. 

('. E. YINGLING, Manufacturer of Fancy RoIUm- Flouis. Grain. 
Fei'd. (Slc.. Roaiing Si)rings. Pa. 

W. M. ELDO.N, Ph. (i.. M. I)., Roaring Springs. Pa. 

THF: planing mill CO. , Mannfaeturers of Sash Doci s. All 
Kinds of Buihling Material. Roaring Springs, Pa. 

A. SNOWBERGER, Barl)er Shop and Cigars, St. Luke's Hot«>l. 
Roaring Springs, Pa. 

Tablets. Roaring Springs, Pa. 

.J. (I ADAMS. Tin and Slu'ct Iron Worker. Rooting and Spout- 
ing a Speeialty. Roaring Springs, Pa. 

BARE MILLING CO. Bare's Best Flour, Blair County Pic- 
dnct. Roaring Springs, Pa. 

D. B. KYLER. dealer in Fresh and Salt Meats, (ianu* in Sea- 
son. Roaring Springs, Pa. 

.J. P. MARTIN, dealer in General Mereliandise, Roaring Springs, 

CHAS. W. FOX. Physician and Surgeon, Roaring Springs, Pa. 

(i. M. (lARNER, dealer in Diy (Joods, Notions, Hn-adandCtm- 
feetionery, Roaiing Spiings. Pa. 

1). S. BRUMBAUGH. Attorney-at-Law. R.Kiring Springs, Pa. 

J.BROWN&BLOOM,nianufactun'rsofSolcs. Cppt'is. Kip Leath- 
er, &c., S. Market street, Martinshurg. Pa. 

( ;RAFFI US & BLOOM, dealers in General Hardware. Punip.^. 
Pious ,111(1 St<»ves. Allegheny street. Martinshurg. Pa. 

., . /i^^^f^i^'^W^^''^^'^''^^i^^. 

Roaring Springs and Martinsburg Business Cards. 


^^S^ General Hardware, 

stoves, Roofing, Spouting, Agricultuml Implements. Estimates Fur- 

Cor. Allegheny and South Market Sts., Martinsburg Pa. 

We are the People !, 

Hoenstine & Hite, 

Practical Painters and Paper Hangers. Decorating and Graining. 
Roaring Springs, Pa. 


Manufacturer of 

'Cycles Repaired. Parts furnished for any make of machine. 

Agent for Morgan & Wright Lines. F'ine Repairing a Specialty. 

e. E. wii.soyN, 


First-Class Rigs. 
First-Class Sample Wagons for Traveling Men a Special t}'. 

Rear of I. O. O. F. Block, ..... Roaring SpringK, Pa. 

J. L. Crawford, Book^andjob^^ 

Office Note Heads, Envelopes, Bill Heads, Letter Heads, State- 
ments, Receipts. Book Binding in all its Bi-anches. 
Roaring Springs, Pa. 

C. TXT. ZOOir, 


Dealer in 

WQtciies, Clocks, Jewelry qdiI speclQcies. Fine RepQirlno q Specloity. 

Kewing Machine Attachments Furnished. KOAKING SPRINGS, PA. 

Undertaking ^!li Ktirnitnre. 

Fine Repairing. Roaring Springs Pa. 

B. M. Bare 3c Co., 


Rag Super Book, M. F. Book and Antique Papers. 

Engine and Tub Sized White Flats. 

Martinsbuku Business Cards. 

D. M. KLEPSER, dealer in Coal, Fertilizer, Feed and Afnitnl- 

tural Implements, Martinsbing, Pa. 

CLAPPER BR08., manufaeturers of Piiiv Roller Flour, and 
de^ilers in Grain and Feed. Martinsburg, Pa. 

E. H. LYTLE, breeder of Standard Breed Trotting and Racing 

Horses, Martinsburg, Pa. 

AV. J. SHIFFLER, Watdies, Clocks and JrwelrN . , Kcp'*i''"K -^ 
Specialty. Allegheny street, Martinsburg, Pa. 

R. T. ELDON, M. D. , Physician and Surgeon, Allegheny street, 
Martinsburg, Pa. 

SKYLES MILLER & CO., dealers in Coal, Gi-ain. Flour an.l 
Feed, West Allegheny street, Martinsburg, Pa. 

MENTZER BROS., dealers in Fresh and Salt Meats, St)uth 
Market street, Martinsburg, Pa. 

A. O. DILLON, dealer in General Merchandise, &c.. South 
Market and Locust streets, Martinsburg, Pa. 

J. O. SHUBERT, Ice Cream, Confectionery. Oysters in season. 
Allegheny street, Martinsburg, Pa. 

F. W. KEAGY, dealer in General Merchandise, corner Market 

and Allegheny streets, Martinsburg, Pa, 

C. SKYLES, manufacturer of Saddles and Hai-ncss. L<kmis1 
street, Marti Pa. 

J. A. SKYLES, manufacturer of Saddles and Harness, North 
Market street, Martinsburg, Pa. 

WM. ROBERTS, dealer in General Merchandise, North Market 
street, Martinsburg, Pa. 

R. 0. CLABArGH, Merchant Tailor, Allegheny street, Mar- 
tinsburg, Pa. 

A. H. STONER, Groceries, Provisions and Confectionery, Alle- 

gheny street, Martinsburg, Pa. 

B. F. GORStlCH, Livery, Feed and Sjilc Stal>lc, Martinsl)ing. 


W. M. GHAPLIN, Barber Shop, Allegheny street, Martinsbui-g, 

lm. S! M. ROYER, PhystciMM :n.<l Sni-.n-nn. Allegheny street. 

Martinsburg, Pa. 


J. C. SANDERS, dealer in Drugs, Medicines and Chemicals, 
Marti Jisburg, Pa. 



H. L. STULTZ, largest exclusive dealer in the count}' in Buggies, 
Wagons, Agricultural Implements, etc., Duncansville, Pa. 

W. R. WERTZ, dealer in Dry Goods, Groceries, Notions, etc.. 
Duncansville, Pa. 

LAW & McMASTER, dea.ler8 in General Merchandise, Groceries, 
Hardware, etc. Duncansville, Pa. 

J. E. WAL'PERS, Ice Cream Parlor, Duncansville, Pa. 

H. F. PECK, dealer in General Merchandise, Market street, 
Duncansville, Pa. 

VAUGHN & SHAFFER, Funeral Directors and Furniture Deal- 
ers, Duncansville, Pa. 

HOTEL NORMAN, G. W. Bossier, proprietor. Good Stabling. 
Hack to Hollidaysburg. Rat'sfl per day. Duncansville, Pa. 

ISAAC C. HESS, Druggist, and dealer in Drugs, Medicines, 
Paints, Stationery, Cigars, Tobacco, etc. Duncansville, Pa. 

C. LIEBEGOTT, Funeral Director, Furniture, Stoves, Carpets, 
Duncansville, Pa. 

J. M. DELOZIER, dealer in Fresh and Salt Meats, Duncans- 
ville, Pa. 

DUNCANSVILLE BAKERY, Frederick Geyer, Duncansville, 
Pa. Fresh Bread and Cakes always on hand. 

GEORGE P. WILT, Miller. Flour and Feed, Grains of all 
kinds. Duncansville, Pa. 

LLQYD M. HAMEL, dealer in Confections and Green Fruit, 
Duncansville, Pa. 

GEORGE W. EVANS, Butcher. Fresh and Salt Meats always 
on hand. Duncansville, Pa. 

JOSEPH A. VAUGHN, Postmaster. Clara B. Vaughn, assistant. 
Duncansville, Pa, 

MRS. DELLA HITE, Groceries, Cigars, Tobacco, Vegetables and 
Produce. Specialty of Butter and Eggs. Duncansville, Pa. 

JESS H. JONES, Barber, Main street, Duncansville, Pa. 

MRS. M, E. GLEASON, General Merchandise, corner Market 
and Bank streets, Duncansville, Pa. 

JOHN W. CONFER, General Merchandise, S. W. coiiur of 
Diamond, Duncansville, Pa. 

SAMUEL LEIGHTY, Ice Cream and Confectionery. r)ountry 
Produce, Duncansville, Pa. 


G, B. COOPER, A fine line of Confectionery, Ci^^ars and To- 
baccos, Gaysport, opposite depot. 

G. M. BUOYMASTER,, Fresh and Salt Meats kept constantly on 
hand, .M(^ntL;. )niciy street, llollidaysbmg. 

J. M. ROBISON di Co., Dealers in Dry GoodsrOroceries, et^c^, 

Montgomery street, Hollidaysburg. 

W. E. LINDSAY, General Merchand^isc, Hollidaysb'g. You ca"n 
buy more for cash at this store than at any other in Blair Co. 

W. E. STEWART & Co., General^ Merchandise, Hollidaysburg, 
Peniia. ((')ppositc Depot, Gaysport.) 

Mrs. E. C. METZ, Dealer in Gent-ral Merchandise. Proprietor 
of the Meiz Hotel, Williamsburg. 

JAMES PATTERSON, Dealer in Dr)' Goods^G^ceries, Boots, 

SIv>es, Lumber, Coal, Salt, etc., Williamsburg. 

C. A. PATTERSON, Postmaster, a's:.. T.)h;irrTT~c'iTrars and Sta- 
lioncry, Williamsburg. 

. J. D. ESTEP, i^arburand Hair Dresser, WiUiamsburg. 

Miss JENNIE SHIPTGN,, Williamsburg. 

Mrs. JAMES PATTERSON, l>^cstaui-ant, Ice Cream and Confec- 
tioncr\', Williamsbup^. 

W. E. DEAN, Dry Goods, Clothing, Notions, Hats and Caps, 
Boots and Shoes, Carpets, Oilcloths, etc., Williamsburg. 

METZ^ROS., Hardware, Cutlery, Paints, ( )ils, etc.. Agent fnr 
Bic\"cles and Washing Machines, W^illiainsburg. 

D. T. KETRING, Druggist, Manufacturer of Peruvian JOnic, 

reiver Regulator, Bechtei's Fxcelsior Liniment, etc., Wil- 

JOHN H. LAW, Dealer in Cicncral .Merchandise ; als<^ haril and 
soft coal, Williamsburg. Wm. T. Mitchell, Manager. 

JOHN KRELL, Fine TLirness, Saddlery, and ILirdware, Williams- 

E. THOMPSON CLARK, Manufacturer of the Pear Rol'er Fl-ur. 

Chop, Bran, etc. Dealer in (irain, Williamsburg. 

R. S. FLUKE, Hardware, I'in and Sheet Iron Ware. Oueens- 
w.ire. Wall I'aper, etc,, Williamsburg. 

Dr. D. J. LEATHERMAN, Corner of High and Second streets, 


J. F. ARNOLD, M. D., Secnd street near High street, Williams- 


r>r a W ^niTH special attention paid to Orphans' 

Ut . VJ. TV. Oilllii, Court Practice, Abstracting Qf 

Titles and Collections, 

PmtiGiBg pijvsiGiaB.^ j_ |_gg piummer, 

<i^ and SuPgeOR. , Attorneij-at-Law, 

Hollidaysljurg, J\i 
No. 44 Allegheny Street. (Woodcock Block.) 

1866. Henry L. Bunker, I896. 

Wholesale and retail dealer in 


82 Allegheny Street, Hollidaysburg, Pa 

']^QmocT(xtic Standard f '^he 'Register. 

A. R. Traugh, = Prop'r, 

Issued Weekly. .A^ot (i Re- 
puhlican Organ. 

Terms $1. 50 per year. 

Oldest paper in Blair Coutttij 
Established 1836. 

Republican in politics. Job Work a 

D. cj- F. J. Over. 

Hollidajsburg. Editors & Prop'rs. 


Clothier and Gents' Furnisher. 

A full line of Trunks, Valises 

Hollidaysburg. Pa. • — Shoos. Hats, UiTibrellas, Etc. 

New Wastjinglon Rotel, 1 wm. jack, johnclark, 

'' I s i y President. Cashier. 

W.W.Smith, = Prop'r. DEAN CLARK. Asst. Cashier. 

Lately Re-opened, Re painted, and 

Thoroughly Renovated and Iin- <^<»-''^^ 

proved. First-class ac- ' . . , p> 

Good stabling and livery connected TT 1 1 1 Idl I loUU I ^ DdllKi 

Rates reasonable. 
Williamsburg. Penn'a , Wllliainshiirg, Pa. 


Js where you will always find a 

Full liiRQ 0! Ppesl^ &P0S8PiQS. 

Soldiers' and Siulors' Mouumenl. Erected by Hie Commissioners 

ot Blair County, in front of the Court House, Hollidiiysburg 

Height, 33 ft. 6 inches. Cost, complete. $10,000. To be 

Unveiled. Thursday. June 11, 1890. 


O P4 



















High School Building, Seventh Avenue between Fourteenth and Fifteenth Streets. Altoona. Pa. 

■Wopsononock Resort Hotel, on the Summit of Wopsononock Mountain, Six Miles iioni Ailoona, 
on the Altoona, Clearfield and Northern Railroad. 

Blair Coimty Court House, 

Cor. Allegheny and Union Streets, 

Hollidaysburg, Pa. 

Erected at a Cost of $110,000. 

Dedicated July 2d, 1877. 

Electric Light. Hot Water Heat. 

Modern Conveniences. Reasonable Rates. 







Wayne and Juniata Streets, Hollidaysburg, Fa. 


Scenes at Horse Shoe Bend, on Pennsylvania Railroad at Kittanning Point, 
Six Miles "West of Altoona. 



• V 

: i 
iij < 

< to |5 

r ID 


General George Potts, First Mayor of Altoona. 

One of Beezer Bros ' Cottages, Llyswen. on A. & L. V. R. R. 
One and a Half Miles from Altoona. 









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1 !«' 

Tyrone and Altoona Cards. 

Farm right for best ad- 
justable Farm Gate and pat- 
ent Spiral Spring Fence. 
Gates and Fence material 
for Sale Agents wanted. 

E. R. BRINDLE, 130 Fourteenth Street, Tyrone, Pa. 

G. H. BuRLEY, Pres. 

Joshua Burley, Sec'y. 

Tf one piumbinij, Heatinji and Sopplji Gompaqji. 

Steam and Hot Water Heating a Specialty'. Estimates on 
Steam and Water Heating given on short notice. Our new pat- 
ent Heater ready for the market. 2123 West Eleventh Street. 

O, say ! Do you think we can hold it 
down ? We are going to try. Our goods 
are first-class and we sell cheaper than an}' 
store in the city. All we ask is an investi- 

Store Box 4x() Grocery. 



Established in 1S72. 

The oifl Reilawe Grocery. 

22 West Tenth Street, Tyrone, Pa. 


Office, Room No. 15- Masonic Temple, Altoona, Pa. 

Automatic Engines, Boilers, Heaters, Complete P^lectric and Power 

Plants, Mine Supplies, Haulage and Hoisting P^ngines, 

Wire Rope, Sheaves, Pumps, etc. ^ 


Geo. B. McMahan, Proprietor, 

600, 602 and 604 Seventh Avenue, Altoona, Pa. 

G. C. ROBB, 


Rooms No. 214-215 Mateer Building, 
Eleventh Avenue, - - - Altoona, Pa. 

Altoona Business (^ards. 

A. yi. liriclt. Manufacturer and Wholesale and Retail Dealer^ 
in Confections and Ice Cream, 1 1 18 Twelfth street, Altoona, Pa. 

A. A. Joliiisoii, Tin Roofing, Spouting, Heavy Sheet Iron 
Work and Hot Air Furnaces, 1218 Eighth avenue, Altoona, Pa. 

K. D. Boate. East Side Tailor, 12 16>2 Eighth avenue, Altoona, 

Myers Bros., Florists, Growers of Class Flowers, Altoo- 
na and Eldorado, Pa. 

J. L<. Exliiie, Fancy Wall Paper, Paper Hanging and House 
Painting, 1202 Eighth avenue, Altoona, Pa. 

J. E. Walla«'C, Cash Grocer, liberal discount on orders of $2.50 
and upward, Corner Eighth avenue and Fourteenth street, 
Altoona, Pa. 

Troy Eauiidry, Thomas Scrnuger, Proprietor, 13 14 Eighth 
avenue, also Green avenue and Eleventh street. Telephone 
Connections. Work done on short notice. 

II. C\ Myers, 12 18 Eleventh street, Altoona, Pa. Plumbing, 
Gas and Steam Fitting. 

Philadelphia jfledieiiie Co., 121 1 Eleventh street. The 
original cut rate medicine store, Altoona, Pa. 

I>r. tl. W. Carter, Dentist. 17 Masonic Temple, Altoona, Pa. 

Sheriuaii House, 1406 Tenth avenue, Altoona, Pa. 5S1.25 to 

2.00 per day. Thomas J. Burke, Proprietor. 

I>, W. Aiken, Agent for Gottschall Remedies, 704 First ave., 
Altoona, Pa. 

Model I^auiKlry, 14 12 Tenth avenue, Altoona, Pa. Harry 
Otto,, Proprietor. Branch, 1024 Green avenue. 

J. A. Brown, News Dealer, Tobacco and Cigars. 

806 Seventeenth street, Altoona, Pa. 

M. A. lieougli. dealer in Groceries and Provisions, Notions, 
Wood and Willowware. 1310 Thirteenth st., Altoona, Pa. 

E, E. Walls, 1008 Eighth avenue, Altoona, Pa. Fine Groce- 
ries, Butter and Eggs always on hand. 

II. B. Mauk, 2920 Broad street. Shaving and Hair Dressing, 
Ambidextrously done. 

Cjt. \¥. ^tifHer, Vegetable Gardens, home grown Vegetables in 
season, Lettuce a specialty, Eldorado, Pa. 

\ i.TooNA Business Cards. 

K. S. Westbrooli. .Manufacturer and vShipper of Ice Cream. 
No. 1601 Eleventh avenue, Altoona, Pa. 

•Iac4»b J. Soliell. Manager of Schell Transfer, niovint; ol Safes 
and Pianos a Specialty, 126 Third avenue, Altoona, Pa. 

J. W. Bloom, Shaving and Hair Dressing Parlor Sixth 

avenue, Altoolia, Pa. 

Williiiiii lirleiiiit'y. Plumber, Steam and Cias Filter. Rejiair- 
iiig Promptly Attended to, 1407 Tenth street, Altoona. Pa. 

K. R. C'. Bla<'kl»iirii, Dentist, 131')'.- Eleventh avenu' 
idence, 1404 Eighteenth street. Altoona, Pa. 

S. €*. Ilcvei'l;^', Blacksmith, Horse Shoeing a Specialty. 2320 
ICighth avenue, Altoona, Pa. 

T. IV. Otto, 924 Seventeenth street , .Miooi 1 ' ,,,>■,, 

All goods at rock -bottom prices. 

J. I>. Fay, Fancy and Imported Groceries. Calvert Block. Elev 
enth street, Altoona. Pa. 

Ilarr,y RaiikN, Barber, 1022 Chestnut avetuie, Altoona, Pa. 

C'. H. Taylor, Druggist of 30 Years' Experience, 1000 Lexington 
avenue, Altoona, Pa. 

Altoona Rair.y €0., the Butter Market of Altoonr, 
Green avenue, Altoona. Pa. 

Cir. W. BeiiNOii, Barber. 1414 Tenth avenue. Altonnn. Pa. 

SliieldM^ Bottlill^ Co.. ; 1 .^<\<ii n 1 n i 
Julius Burke, Proprietor. 

W. H, IjlviiigNtou. No. 202 Chestnut avenue, Altoona. Pa. 

John ^l4*AI}iriii\v. Shoemaker, SoS Seventeenth avenue, Al- 
toona, Pa. 

II. W. Ifflll^'r. BnrlxM- ^' -'•''> ^-''---I'tli -.^-.-n.,,. \1toot, 

11. It. Vaii^iin, 2028 Eighth avenue, Altoona, Pa., General 


Cacorge Brei>*aflier, 908 Eleventh avenue. Alloon 
White Star Grocer>' and Produce Co 

Rnke A' .irtlinr. Liverymen, H14 Green avenue,Altoona, Pa.. 
Bell Telephone 1252, Ph<enix Telephone i^' . 

Altoona ^attre!4.«i Mannt*a«*turln}>; i **■■ 

nue, Altoona, Pa., Phtenix Telephone 5<r 


J. H. Reader. J. T. Reader. A. E. 

Reader Bros. & Hoffman, 


' lUm Boilers, Eeiipse Hot ftir Furnaoe. 

Works adjoining the A. G. Morris (.*l^ Son's Foundry and"^ 
Machine Shop. Telephone 103. We are prepared to build Boilers. 
Steam and Hot Water House Heating, Boilers, Stacks and all 
kinds of Tanks. The Reader Spark Arrester, Chutes for convey- 
ing coal and stone, etc. Barrow Hopper and Sheet Metal work 
in general. Repairing a specialty and at .short notice. We guar- 
antee .satisfaction. J. H. Reader, Mgr., Tyrone, Pa. 

The Typone Times. 



$1.00 PER YEAR. 

HARRY A. THOnPSON, Editor and Publisher. 

Newstai-kr and |oi! PiMxriNi; E-;i aulishmknt. 

PhOU.NIX 'riilKPHONE. ' 



pype laijep im ami xxxx poptef. 

First-class Livery and liar Attached. 

&OT}tpal Hotel, 

G. M. WflPUE,, Prop. 

Tyrone, Pa. 



Largest Music House. Kvery- 

tliing known in Music. 
1425 ICleventh a\e., Altoona. 

1>. h. ( ■:■ :. .1. . 1. Allo<l (;olcin;i:i, , , . , .,, .,, 

. *» '' I' ' "I'''";!!!. I . Allen I iilriiiaii 

Odorless Excavating Co. -, , „ 

<!uaniiit(.H" 50 oalloiis to evory (jOleman I^POS., 

barrul in reiuovinjj; contciits of piivy (iKnwcrt^ m 

vaults Call at McGiatlTs coal of- ^,~ -^^ , 

li.-e 1(104 (Jroim ave.. or a< Box J^rnall FrUIIS, 

.>s, Altooua. t/orri'spondoiice prompt- v_y 1 \ ' 

1 y .iiisw ri((l, Ciik'nian Bros. BoxH- 


Ivighth Avenue ami Fourteenth Sited, Altoona, Pa. 
Liberal discount on orders of $2.50 and upwards. 

Good Sample Rooms. All modern Conveniences im the Travel 

ing Public. 

M. CARROLL, Pi"]' Hellwood, Pa. 


Bdlwood, Pa. 
First Class Accommodations at Moderate Rates. 

KoiH'king A ]?Iere«lit1i, Druggists. Soda Bicarb, Bell wood, Pa. 

Iiiiics*.«i Drug Store, one of Bellwood's Pioneer Plstablishments. 
Main Street, corner Cambria. Buy your Druus here. 

J. W. HoiK'k. Furniture and Hard\v:i! Mini -I lull 

wood, Pa. 

THE MORNING TRIBUNE, published every day i-x(e|»t Suii<l:iy, al.s.. weik. 
ly. Latest Icleprapliie rei)ort.s. Bot»k and .lol) ( Mli. i' r<.im.l. jr. !"»(iii 
& Pitcairn, Twelfth street, bet. Uth and 12 1 ' 

THE ALTOONA TIMES, m.niiiTi(]r dcniofr.ilic- nuWN|)rt|»fi. daily e.\« opl Sun 
day— all liiL- laws. Also, Book and .lob Print in;,'. P<»tl«T. (Jm-r, KM 
ley & Co., 1226 Eleventh avciuie, Altoona, I' > 

ALTOONA GAZETTE, |>nblishcd every eveninji'. e.\<-»p( >unday. daily ami 
weekly, by llic (iazette Co.. KK") JCkventh avenue, .\ltooua. Pa. Book 
and .Job I'rintin};;. 

THE MIRROR, an evoiiiu- ^ i , ... ^. ,.... 

hibli' style. H. & W. H. Sloi», publi.sliers, 1014 11th Ave., Altoona, Pa. 


IT. O. <)i*aiii|»toii. Barber Shop, 1119 Pennsylvania avenue, 
Tyrone, Pa. 

Oeorg'e A. Walker, vStaple and Fancy Groceries, and Fruit 
in Season, Pennsylvania avenue, between Twelfth and Thir- 
teenth streets, Tyrone, Pa. 

Fried ly A: liaiip. Fresh and Cured Meats, Pennsylvania 
avenue, between Twelfth and Thirteenth streets, Tyrone, Pa. 

Ke>'»«toiie IffoteK F. J. Miller, Proprietor, First Class P)ar 
Attached, Pennsylvania avenue, Tyrone, Pa. 

Kiiipire lloiiKe, C. A. Baumgrirdner, Proprietor, First Class 
Bar Attached, Pennsylvania avenue and Kleventh street, Ty- 
rone, Pa. 5§ 1. 00 to $1.50 per day. 

John W. If II liter. Barber Shop, West Tenth street, Tyrone, 

4iJeorg-e V. I>avis, Manufacturer of Brick, Tyrone. Pa. 

The J. H. Oillaiii C'o., Wholesale Groceries, Tyrone, Pa 

•I. •!. M'lliiiore. Manufacturer Carriages, Wagons and Cien- 
eral Blacksniithing. South Logan avenue. Tyrone, Pa. 

Stevens, OM-eii.s & Paseoe, Attorneys-at-Law, Tyrone, 
Pa. A. A. Stevens, G. L. Owens, W. L. Paseoe. 

.1. li. ISottorf & <.'o.. Staple and Fancy Groceries, Notions, 
etc. Corner Washington avenue and Tenth street, Tyrone, Pa. 

H. ll^ Cutler, Plumber, iii West Tenth .street, Tyrone, Pa. 

WilliK, the Barber. First National Bank Building, East Tenth 
street. Tyrone, Pa. 

I>r. Jaiiie.s A. IVitteii, Dentist, Study Block, Corner Penn- 
.sylvania avenue and Tenth street, Tyrone, Pa. 

A. K, iflarkel, D. D. S., 11 14 Pennsylv^ania avenue, 

Tyrone, Pa. 

^latt. Jj, Alli»iOii, only exclusive Job Printer. Commercial 
work a specialty. Tyrone, Pa. 

Iflieliael IiOii<l, Black.smithing in all its branches. 
vShoeing a specialty, Blair avenue, between Tenth and Herald 
streets, Tyrone, Pa. 

A. 1*. I.iaiiea!<iter, Barber Shop, 1346 Logan avenue, 

Tyrone, Pa. 

If. C Spraiiltle. dealer in Staple and Fancy Groceries, Coun- 
try Produce. Cor. Penn.sylvania ave. and 14th St., Tyrone. 

'V\ I'.LTSiNEss Cards. 

T.vroiie Herald, Daily and Weekly, Tyrone, Pa. 

J. IE. lloltKinger Ua . ■,.,„,.^, ,..,... ....v. , 

and 1237 Pennsylvania avenne, Tyrone, Pa. 

A. F. ]flartiii. Merchant Tailor, 1044 Pennsylvania avenue, 
Tyrone, Pa, Clothing made at popular prices. 

Prof. H". L.. IJp^lit.r, Sixteenth street and Columl.i.v .,>....... 

Tyrone, Pa., Composer and Arranger of Music for Bands, etc. 

I>r. I>. J. Appleby, Phy.sician and Surgeon, 1251 Penn.syl- 
vania avenue, Tyrone, Pa. 

lliek.S & Troiltwiiie. Fresh vShad antl Meats, comei i.wi^.ui 

avenue and P\^urteenth .street, and Washington avenue and 
Tenth street, Tyrone, P.t. 

Ifloek A: Biiek, Staple and Fancy Groceries, 29\\\-i icnih 
street, Tyrone, Pa. 

W. E. Hoffman, manufacturer of Ice Cream. Water Ic. 
Bakery Goods, 1342 Logan avenue, Tyrone, Pa. 

Frank Ci}ar«lner, Staple and Fancy Groceries, West Fifteenlli 
.street and Adams avenue, Tyrone, Pa. 

J. T. Plumnier, Staple and Fancy Groceries, corner Twenty- 
first street and Columbia avenue, Tyrone, Pa. 

Pennsylvania Honse, Troutwine Bros., Proprietors, Peiu)- 
sylvania avenue, between Tenth and Eleventh titreets, Tyrone. 

William ISofTey, Tailor, Cleaning and Repairing in tliemo.-t 
artistic style, 1226 Pennsylvania avenue, Tyrone, Pa. 

H. H. Straf iff'. Guns and Sporting Goods, Bicycles and Bic> 
cle Repairing. 121 2 Pennsylvania avenue, Tyrone, Pa. 

John Ijonj>;enl»aelicr ,& Son, Fresh :in<l Sinokcd Meals. 
1 1 16 Pennsylvania avenue, Tyrone, P:! 

William Vogt, Clothier and Furni.sher, Corner 
Pennsylvania avenue and Eleventh street, Tyrone, T^ > 

John rH. KienKle, Bakery o- »•*'''•' •''■■>"^"-^- ii'-i Hn.. , 
and Tobacco, Tyrone, Pa 

Nprankle ISro.s., Fresh and Salt Meals, West Tenth .streel, 
Tyrone, Pa 

•lOlin MWm ^OX. V iLiii.s .tini v~>j'wi 1.111^ ' 

Repairing, Tyrone, Pa. 

J. v. ^eConaliy, Boots and Shoes, Fine Repairing a Spe- 
cialty, Tyrone, P.i 

J. Mel'. Davis, I,i\ei_\ :iii' 

(,in alley) Tyrone, Pa. 

Tyrone Business Card.'- 

p*^^^. Sliellcnberger, Livery and Boarding Stable, Alley F, 
5. between Tenth and Eleventh streets, T}rone, Pa. 

Ward House Barber Nliop, George W.Bryant, Proprietor, 

Tyrone, Pa. 

I>r. Tlia€l«1eii.s Ntiiie. Dentist, Blair County Bank Building, 
Tyrone, Pa. 

Andrew H. iTIeUaiiiaiit, Attorney-at-Law, Blair Count}' 
Bank Building, Tyrone, Pa. 

W. <M. Seott, House P\irnishing (loods, Flynn Block, Penn- 
sylvania avenue, Tyrone, Pa. 

CiJeorji^e II Oariier, Prescription Druggist, P'lynn Block, 
Pennsylvania avenue, Tyrone, Pa. 

I>. i.i, Owens, General Merchandise, Penns\'l\ania a\cnue, 
Tyrone, Pa. 

I^aiiiiiel Cosel, Clothier and P\irnisher, Flynn Block, Penn.sjl- 
vania avenue, Tyrone, Pa. 

C. It. Til o III !>«$<» II, Barber Shoj), Blair County Bank Building, 
Tyrone, Pa. 

W. II. Agiiew, High Grade Photography, Pennsylvania avt- 
inie, near Depot, Tyrone, Pa. 

I>r. Kliiier Crawford, Dentist, Walsh Building, 977 Penn- 
sylvania avenue, Tyrone, Pa. 

J. A. Ilolfiiiaii, Builder of Wagons and Vehicles. Repairing 
a vSpecialty. Ea,st Tenth street, Tyrone, Pa. 

Martin, the Tailor, Fine Tailoring a Specialty, 1044 Pennsyl- 
vania avenue, Tyrone, Pa. 

Captain I>. R. Miller, Pension and Claim Agency and Notary 
Public, Herald Building, (.second floor) Tyrone, Pa. 

J. linden Heiir^', Engineer and Surveyor, Herald Building, 
(.second floor) Penn.sylvania avenue, Tyrone, Pa. 

*f' W. Fislier, Stoves and Tinware. loio Pennsylvania a\'e- 
nue, Tyrone, Pa. 

Ilieks & Templeton, Attorneys-at-Law, 984 Pennsylvania 

avenue, Tyrone, Pa. 

Ciray's Tailoring £stablls]iineiit, 1113 Penn.svlvania 

avenue, C. G. Gray, Agent, Tyrone, Pa. 

ISriiKlle 4& Moore, Groceries, Provisions and Country Pro- 
duce, Penn.sylvania avenue, Tyrone, Pa. 

I>r. B. J. Fiilkerson, Physician and Surgeon, 11 17 Penn- 
sylvania avenue, Tyrone, Pa. 

Cities and Towns of the County. 

Altoona — Location and Description. 

Altoona is situated about thirty miles southwest of the geo- 
graphical center of the great state of Pennsylvania, just at the 
eastern base of the Allegheny mountains; near the headwaters of 
the Juniata river; the " Blue Juniata" of Indian song and legend, 
and on the Pennsylvania railroad. It lies in the upper or western 
end of Logan vallej', or "Tuckahoe" as this vicinity was called in 
early daN'S, in the central part of Logan Township, in Blair County. 
By rail it is 117 miles east of Pittsburgh and 235 west of Phila- 
delphia, although an air line would be one-fourth to one-third 
less. Baltimore and Washington are 150 miles southeast and 
Buffalo 200 miles directly north, but by rail the distance to these 
points is nearly twice as great. 

Originally laid out in a narrow valley, it has filled this and 
climbed the hills on either side and grown in all directions, so that 
a large part of it is built on hills of moderate elevation. The 
city lines as now established embrace a territory two and one- 
fourth miles long and one and one-fourth miles wide ; but it is 
built up as a city a distance of four miles long and two miles 
wide. Less than fifty years old, it has grown with such surpris- 
ing rapidity that it is now the eighth city in the state, in popula- 
tion, and second to none in material prosperity. 

The lowest ground in the city is 11 20 feet above the level of 
the ocean and the hills rise 100 to 150 feet higher, making the 
site and surroundings picturesque in the extreme and furnishing 
innumerable points of observation, from which nearly the entire 
city may be taken in at one view; yet in few places are the ascents 
so abrupt as to interfere with the laying out and grading of streets 
and avenues. The railroad passes through the heart of the city 
from northeast to southwest and the avenues are laid out parallel 
with the tracks. Crossing these at right angles are thoroughfares 
of equal width denominated streets; and both streets and avenues 
are given numerical names, beginning at a base line and number- 
ing in regular order from that. First avenue is near the south- 
eastern boundary' of the city and First street near the northeastern 
limit. To this general rule there are some exceptions, but on the 
whole the city may be said to be regularly laid out. 

62 Semi- Centennial History of Blair County. 

In the part ot the city, on the lower ground are lo- 
cated the railroad company's machine and locomotive shops, 
freight warehouse, passenger station and an immense hotel, 
around which the business of the city clusters, this being the 
"hub;" although the ever increasing business of the road has 
necessitated the building of additional shops at two places in the 
eastern suburbs. 

Altoona is unique in having its site away from any consider- 
able stream of water, but to the northeast a short distance is the 
Little Juniata, and to the southwest Mill Run, both of which 
furnish a considerable quantit}^ of pvire mountain spring water, 
while still farther to the west and south are Kittanning and Su- 
gar Run streams, the former being the source of supply for the 
city water system. 

The character of the buildings of Altoona is very creditable; 
considering her youth. There are 7,000 to 8,000 dwellings with- 
in city limits, inhabited by 36,000 industrious, frugal, well-in- 
formed, cheerful and happy people, while 2,000 more houses and 
8 ,000 more people are just without the corporate lines. All taken 
together make one thriving city of 44,000 inhabitants; and the 
time is not far distant when its boundary lines will be extended 
to include them all. 

Aside from the business blocks, which are nearly all brick, 
about three-fourths of the buildings are frame, a few are stone, 
and the remainder brick or brick cased; nearly all are neat and 
comfortable; many are more than this; while not a few are pala- 
tial in architectural design and finish, the home of wealth and re- 
finement. Eleventh avenue, on the northwest side of the rail- 
road, from Eleventh street to Seventeenth street, is the great com- 
mercial and mercantile center, where real estate and rents are 
highest. Here are the banks, newspapers, postoffice, the great 
dry goods stores and hotels, with the passenger station but one 
square distant. The wholesale establishments are principally on 
Eleventh street between Tenth and Eleventh avenues, and Green 
and Eleventh avenues between Seventh and Ninth streets. The 
manufacturing district, aside from the railroad shops, is on Ninth 
and Margaret avenues, west of Seventeenth street; and this is also 
the location of the retail coal trade and dealers in builders sup- 
plies, lime, sand, brick, terra cotta pipe, etc. Other business 
centers of considerable importance are Twelfth street and Eighth 
avenue, Eighth aveiiua and Ninth street and Fourth street and 
Sixth avenue. The most desirable residence locations are on 

Semi-Centennial History of Blair County. (>^> 

Twelfth avenue between Rleventh and Sixteenth streets, and 
Inroad avenue, tornitrly Broad street, between Nineteenth and 
Twenty-seventh streets, and h'ourteenth avenut- near Ivkvcnlh 

Tlie street car lines. City Passen<^er and Logan \'alley, motive 
l)Ower electricity since 1891. traverse Ivleventh aveiuic from Ninth 
to Ivigliteenth streets, Seventeenth and Bridge streets from Klev- 
enth to Kighth avenues, down the later to Fourth street, thence 
to Sixth avenue and out Sixth to First street and Ijeyond to Bell- 
wood junction; the entire length of Chestnut avenue from FUev- 
enth street to First street, and beyond to Juniata borough one 
mile, and Bellwood seven miles northeastward; on Union and 
Broad avenues, from Eleventh avenue to Thirty-first street, near 
tlie new suburb Westmont; trom the corner of Seventeenth street 
and F.ighth avenue to Seventh avenue, out Seventh avenue to 
Twenty-sixth street, and along the street to Fifth avenue ; from 
the corner of Twelfth street and Ninth avenue along the avenue 
to Thirteenth street, along the street to Fifth aveiuie and along 
this avenue to Thirty-first street, and southeastward to Lakemont 
Park three miles, and Hollidaysburg, the county seat, six miles. 

There are now over eight miles of finely paved streets in the 
city, including the three kinds most popular, asphaltum. concrete 
block and vitrified brick, extending over a large part of the best 
])usiness and residence portions of the town, and the coming sea- 
son will see this largely augmented. Altoona is well sewered; 
having a sewer system, recently completed, capable of meeting 
the requirements of a city of 100,000 inhabitants. 

Altoona is supplied with water from two mountain streams 
which empty into the gathering and storing reservoirs at Kittan- 
ning Point, a picturesque spot six miles west ot the city, witliin 
the circle cf the famous "Horse-shoe" bend of the Pennsylvania 
railroad and under the very shadow of the Alleghenies' crest. 
The drainage area is wood covered mountain sides and the water 
consccjuently pure and cold and sweet. It is bronght to Altoona 
through large iron pipes by force of gravity which is suflicient to 
carry it to all residences in the city. The waterworks are owned 
and managed by the municipality. 

The city building is situated on the corner of Twelfth street 
and Thirteenth avenue. Here the mayor has his office, the police 
head(iuarters and city prison are here, and the office of water su- 
perintendent and street conunissioner as well as the council 
chambers, where common and select councils meet regularly twice 

64 Setni-Cententiial History of Blair County. 

a month. The other cit}^ officials have their offices in rented 
rooms pending the erection of a magnificent new City Hall to 
cost $100,000. 

Altoona, although the metropolis of the county, containing 
more than half the total population, is not the county seat, not 
having been in existence when that was established at Hollidays- 
burg, then a thriving borough. The court house and county 
offices are easily accessible, however, by electric cars which arrive 
and depart every quarter hour between six o'clock in the morn- 
ing and ten o'clock at night, 

The society of Altoona is excellent, and the people are of 
more than average intelligence; the undesirable foreign element, 
so predominant in some cities, is almost entirel 3' absent here. The 
citizens of foreign birth are mostly German and English, of the 
educated class, and are among the most respected. There is a 
church building to every eight hundred of population, nearly all 
denominations being represented, Catholic, Protestant and Jewish, 
all well attended. The public schools are of the best and there 
are beside, a number of parochial and private schools, kinder- 
gardens and commercial schools. 

Every citizen of Altoona has a business, profession, or trade, 
and works at it; few drones or idle people are found in this busy 
hive ot industry. As might be expected where industry reigns, 
the people are law abiding, peaceful, moral; criminals are few, 
crimes rare, litigation not popular. While there are a number 
of legal gentlemen resident here it is a noticeable fact that most 
of them depend more upon the results of successful business ven- 
tures for their income, than on fees received from legitimate law 

While from its elevation, it might be inferred that the climate 
would be severe, the facts are otherwise; the mountains break the 
force of the north and west winds and the winters are seldom more 
rigorous than on lower levels in the same latitude elsewhere, and 
the usually prevailing weather of spring and fall is marvelously 
delightful. The air is so pure and stimulating, so full ot ozone, 
that to those in good health mere existence is a delicious luxury 
and even the invalid enjoys living until the last. 

On the whole Altoona is a veritable "gem of the mountain," 
beautiful to view and pleasant to live in; its excellent qualities 
are only beginning to be appreciated and understood. As time 
passes it will continue to grow in size and in the affections of 
those who have their homes here, or who for limited periods visit 
the place, to feast their eyes on the beauties of nature so lavishly 
displayed, and breathe the pure invigorating air. 

Semi-Centennial History of Blair County. 65 

Suburbs and Surroundings. 

Millville, which, as the term is used, comprises Allegheny 
and part of Westmont and is all that suburb lying southwest of 
the city line at Twenty-seventh Street and northwest of Ninth 
Avenue and the Hollidaysburg Branch Railroad. The greater 
part of this suburb, as well as part of the cit}^ now within the 
Fifth Ward, was plotted and laid out b}^ Dr. S. C. Baker and 
called Allegheny about the year 1870; but a smaller plot adjoin- 
ing Allegheny on the west was called Millville, and as Millville, 
the town on the two plots, has been known for twenty years. 
However, the railroad station on the branch at this point, about 
one and one-fourth miles from the Altoona Station, is called 
Allegheny Furnace. Millville is quite level and is building up 
rapidly, being a very pleasant residence place. It is not incor- 
porated . 

Westmont, just west of Millville, is growing up very rapidly 
and seems destined to become the most popular suburb of Altoo- 
na. This resvilts largely from the enterprise and liberality of its 
projector, E. H. Flick, Esq., who sells the lots for a very low 
price and on easy- terms, and who has not only set shade trees 
along the streets and avenues, but has built a large number of 
fine houses there. The City Passenger Railway extends from 
the heart of the city, along Broad Avenue, through Millville and 
to within a few squares of Westmont, while the main line of the 
Pennsylvania Railroad skirts it on the northwest, and a station 
will doubtless be located there at an early day. It will be about 
two miles west of the Altoona Depot. 

Northeast of Eighteenth Avenue and east of Eleventh Street 
is a populous district, outside the city line, known as Fairview. 
It is situated on ground considerably elevated above the central 
parts of Altoona, is a pleasant place to live and is the home of a 
great man}' emploj'es of the Pennsylvania Railroad Car Shops. 

Oakton lies on high ground west of Fvleventh Street and north- 
west of Twenty-fourth Avenue. .". Millcrtown is just north- 
west of the Fifth Ward beyond Eighteenth Ax-enue and west of 
Washington Avenue and Eighteenth Street. It has about 500 
inhabitants and is soon to be incorporated with some of the sur- 
rounding territory as a Borough by the name "Logan." .'. New- 
burg is northwest of Millertown, along the Dry Gap Road, which 
is a continuation of Washington Avenue over the mountains to 
Ashville, Cambria Countv. 

66 Semi-Centennial History of Blair County. 

CoUinsville is the oldest town in Logan Township and was 
the location of the Postofficefrom i8 17 until Altoona was founded. 
It lies southeast ot the Sixth Ward of Altoona, in Pleasant Val- 
ley, and is reached by an extension of Sixteenth Street from First 
avenue, the distance being but one-half mile. Only about 200 
people live here and it presents a decayed and ancient appearance, 
but in the immediate vicinity are several fine farms with good 
farm buildings and large thrifty orchards, and Pleasant Valley is 
not a misnomer. 

Juniata is an incorporated Borough and lies about one-half 
mile Northeast of the city line at North-Second Street and Chest- 
nut Avenue, on the north siue of the railroad. It is the location 
of the Juniata lyocomotive Shops of the Pennsylvania Railroad 
Company. But the borough lines do not take in the works, as 
the Company prefers being on the outside. There had been a 
small village occupying part of the present site of Juniata for ten 
or more years prior to the erection of the Locomotive Shops, 
known as Belleview, but not incorporated. On the erection of 
these shops, however, in 1889 buildings sprung up like magic 
around them, and little Belleview had such a boom that she out- 
grew herself and her name. "Juniata" was adopted as the most 
appropriate name and a borough charter was obtained August 
7th, 1893. The Logan Valley electric cars run here from Altoona 
every few minutes and every half hour a car goes to Bell wood, 
five miles northeastward. Juniata has in addition to the Loco- 
motive Shops a large iceing station of Armour & Co. , several 
stores, a fine brick school building and three churches, also a 
postoffice, which, as there is another Juniata in the State, is called 
Kipple. The southern terminus of the Altoona, Clearfield and 
Northern Railroad is at Juniata, the passenger station being on 
the line of the Electric Railway and near the entrance to the 

East End, Greenwood and Pottsgrove are all east of the 
Eighth Ward of Altoona and on the south-eastern side of the 
railroad. They have a combined population of nearly 1,000 and 
will eventually all grow together and be taken into the city, as 
the Twentieth Ward perhaps. One George Pottsgrove built a 
dam on the little mountain stream here many 3-ears ago and oper- 
ated a small saw and grist mill until his water right was purchased 
by the Altoona Gas and Water Company and the water piped to 
the new town of Altoona in 1859. 

Semi-Centennial History of Blair County. 67 

Llyswen is the latest suburb to be added to Altoona and lies 
farthest from the city, being on the Logan \'alley Electric Rail- 
way, about one mile south of the city line at Fifth Avenue and 
Twenty-seventh Street. This is intended to be the aristocratic 
suburb, and lots are sold with some restrictions as to buildings 
and use. A number of fine cottages have already been erected 
there and a fine station and waiting room by the Logan Valley 
people, whose cars pass in either direction every fifteen minutes. 

All these suburbs are in Logan Township, and with the pos- 
sible exception of Llyswen should be taken into the cit}^ 

Eastward from Altoona two and one-half miles, on the Penn- 
sylvania Railroad is Blair Furnace Station, a small village con- 
taining no stores nor business places. It is the nearest station to 
Juniata and but half a mile distant. .". The next station east- 
ward is Elizabeth Furnace. There is no village at this station, 
but nearby is the old "Sabbath Rest" Furnace and a postoffice 
with that hallowed name, given to it in the earlj^ days because 
the owner of the furnace banked the fires on Saturday night and 
allowed his men to rest on Sunday, contrary to the custom of 
most other iron manufacturers at that time. 

Westward from Altoona on the Pennsylvania Railroad is 
Kittanning Point, six miles distant. No town here nor stores, 
but there are coal mines and villages a few miles up the gulch 
and this is their nearest railroad station. The famous Horse 
Shoe Bend is here and the reservoirs which contain Altoona's 
water supply. The road begins to ascend the highest mountain 
here and the grade is steep most of the way for seven miles to 
Bennington just on the county line and only a small place. An 
iron furnace used to stand here, but it has been recently torn 
down. Leaving Bennington the read passes under the apex of 
the mountain by a tunnel one mile long and the tovvn of Gallitzin 
is reached, fourteen miles from Altoona, in Cambria County and 
within the Mississippi Willey. C.allitzin has i,ooo to 1,200 
inhabitants and is an important mining town. Three miles farth- 
er west is Cresson, only a small place of 500 to 600 inhabitants, 
but growing. It is the location of the Cresson Springs Hotel, an 
immense hostelry owned by the Pennsylvania Railroad and popu- 
lar as a summer resort. Two railroads branch off" from here to 
the northward, to Coalport and Ebensburg. The next few 

stopping places are small mining towns, and. the first place of 
importance is Johnstown, famous the world over . for, its awful 
floDzl liDrror, May 31st, rSSg. Also famous as the location of 

68 Semi-Centennial History of Blair County. 

the Cambria Iron Conlpan3^ one of the largest iron and steel 
manufacturers in the United States. Johnstown is thirty-nine 
miles west of Altoona. .". The other places of importance be- 
tvveen Altoona and Pittsburg are Blairsville Intersection, where 
the West Penn and the Indiana Branches of the Pennsylvania 
Railroad diverge from the main line, Latrobe, Greensburg, Jean- 
nette, Irwin and Braddock. 

Southward from Altoona the Hollidaysburg and Morrison's 
Cove and Williamsburg Branches of the Pennsylvania Railroad 
extends to Eldorado, three miles from Altoona, 200 to 300 in- 
habitants. .". Duncansville, six miles, 1,000 inhabitants. 
Hollidaysburg seven miles, the County seat and containing, with 
its sister borough Gay sport, 4,000 people. .'. Roaring Spring 
seventeen miles, where there are extensive paper mills and flouring 
mills. .'. Martinsburg twenty-two miles, in the southern part 
of the County and in a rich agricultural district. .'. Henrietta 
a small place, formerly of some note as the location of some of 
the Cambria Iron Company's mines and quarries. From here it 
is but three miles across the mountain to the Huntingdon and 
Broad Top Railroad in Bedford County. .". Eastward from 
Hollidaysburg the Williamsburg Branch extends some fifteen 
miles along the Frankstown Branch of the Juniata past Franks- 
town, the oldest town in the County, but now half deserted and 
lallen to deca3^ with but 100 to 200 inhabitants. .". Williams- 
burg, a place of 1,000 inhabitants, noted as the birth place of a 
number of prominent citizens now of Altoona. It was formerly 
on the main line of travel between Philadelphia and Pittsburg, 
The old Pennsylvania Canal passed that way, and before the 
locomotive's whistle had been heard in a dozen Pennsylvania 
towns, steam packets sailed past this then thriving burg at the 
rapid rate of four to five miles per hour. 

Northward from Altoona the Altoona, Clearfield and Northern 
Railroad, starting from Juniata, climbs up the mountain twelve 
hundred feet in a distance of six miles to Wopsononock, where 
there is a good hotel and other features which make it a popular 
summer resort. Excursion trains loaded with pleasure seekers 
leave the Ju^niata Station hourly on Sundays, during the summer, 
for this resort. A considerable amount of lumber and coal is 
brought down the mountain in the winter over this road. It ex- 
tends several miles beyond Wopsononock, but does not reach anj^ 
town of importance, although the intention is to continue it to 

Semi-Centennial History of Blair County. 69 

Northwest from Altoona, starting from Sixteenth Street and 
Eleventh Avenue, long before the city was laid out, a country 
road extended up what is now called Washington Avenue, and 
beyond to the foot of the mountain two miles and then obliquely 
to the mountain top four miles, to the "Buckhorn," which is the 
name applied to an old tavern at the summit of the mountain. 
This was .the old Dry Gap Road and is still so called. From the 
Buckhorn it begins to descend the mountain and four miles 
farther Ashville in Cambria County is reached. The Blair County 
line is at the summit of the Allegheny mountains, a few hundred 
yards east of the Buckhorn. 

History of Altoona. 

An exposition of the present status of a city leads naturally to 
inquiry regarding its history and growth. This inquiry we shall 
meet and endeavor to satisfy in the following historical sketch: 

The decade between 1850 and i860 was a most eventful one 
in the history of the United States. It witnessed the opening era 
■ of successful and general railroad building and the culminination 
of the causes which led up to the great civil war. At the com- 
mencement of this ten year period Altoona had her birth, at its 
close she was a flourishing Borough of 3,500 inhabitants, stand- 
ing where before was only forest, sterile fields and one poor farm 
house. The 224 acres of farm and woodland, on which the orig- 
inal Altoona was built and which is now principally included 
between Eleventh and Sixteenth Streets and Fourth and Four- 
teenth Avenues, constituted the farm of David Robeson and was 
not worth more than $2,500 for farming purposes at that time, 
but the Pennsylvania Railroad Company, then pushing to com- 
pletion their all-rail route from Philadelpliia to Pittsburg, and 
looking for a site for their shops wanted it and therefore Mr. 
Robeson, b}'' a fortunate early discovery of the fact, was able to 
obtain his own price for it. 

Archibald Wriglit, of Philadelphia, acting presumably for the 
Pennsylvania Railroad Company, though just what relation he 
sustained to it is not clear, purchased the Robeson farm of 223 
acres and 123 perches for $11,000. The deed was dated April 
24th, 1849, and is recorded at Hollidaysburg in Deed Book, Vol. 
'■ B," page 441 . The boundaries of the farm were about on the 
present lities of Eleventh street from Fourth to Fourteenth avenues 

70 Semi-Centennial History of Blair County. 

on the northeast and Sixteenth street between same avenues on 
the southwest, Fourth avenue from Eleventh to Sixteenth streets 
on the southeast and Fourteenth avenue between the same streets 
on the northwest. On this tract of land original Altoona was laid 
out during the latter part of the year 1849, and the plot, as laid 
out, was acknowledged by Archibald Wright, in Philadelphia, 
February 6th, 1850, but was not recorded until February loth, 
1854, at the time the young town was organized into a Borough. 
This original plot is on record now in Hollidaysburg in Deed 
Book, Vol. " E," page 167, It is on parchment and the original 
is pasted into the book. At the same time another plot, almost 
an exact counterpart, was recorded as the " official " plot of the 
Borough. On these early plots the streets and avenues have 
names instead of numbers. 

Altoona in this plot is described as lying in ' ' Tuckahoe Val- 
ley," that being the name applied to this upper end of Logan 
Valley, which extends to Tyrone. Adjoining the Altoona plot at 
that time was the John McCartney farm on the northwest, the 
McCormick and Andrew Green farms on the northeast, the Wil- 
liam Bell farm on the southeast and the William Louden farm on 
the southwest. The Louden aud Green farms were soon after 
plotted and offered for sale in building lots, and later all the Mc- 
Cartney and most of the Bell farms have gone the same way. At 
the time of the founding of Altoona the Pennsylvania Railroad 
Company was a young corporation, their charter having only 
been granted in 1846, and they had not yet completed their road 
from Philadelphia to Pittsburg, although it was surveyed and in 
process of construction. It was completed to Altoona from the 
east, single track, on the same line as now in 1850 and extended 
from here to Y Switches near Duncansville and one mile from 
Hollidaysburg, and from there trains ran over the Allegheny 
mountains on the old Portage Railroad, a state institution com- 
pleted in 1833. The Altoona Passenger Station stood near the 
corner of Ninth avenue and Twelfth street until 1S54, when the 
Pittsburg Division of the Pennsylvania Railroad was completed 
past Kittanniiig Point on its present line and a new depot was 
built at the present location. The first depot on the corner of 
Thirteenth street and Tenth avenue was a two-story brick build- 
ing and was replaced by the present structure in 1887. The 
Logan House was built in 1854 5 by the Railroad Company, but 
did not extend back to Eleventh avenue as new although it was 
an immense affair and. at that time, greatly out of proportion to 
the little village in which it stood. 

Semi-Centennial History of Blair County. 71 

The two lines of the railroad west from the cit}', the one com- 
pleted and the other being graded, diverging as the}' did then is 
accountable for the peculiar wedge shape of the site of the Com- 
pany's first shops, and the fact that the avenues on the northwest 
and southeast sides of the railroad are not parallel but diverge at 
an angle of about thirty degrees irom Eleventh street westward. 

No lots were sold in the new town until 1831, and the first 
deed made, as the records at HoUidaysburg show, was February 
nth, 1 85 1, for two lots on the corner of Twelfth avenue and 
Thirteenth street to the First Presbyterian Church, price Si 00 for 
the two. If an}^ earlier deeds were made they were not recorded. 

The first residence in Altoona was of course the old Robeson 
farm house which was of logs and stood within the square 
bounded by Tenth and Eleventh avenues and Thirteenth and 
Fourteenth streets. The first building erected after Altoona was 
laid out was a rough board one to be used as an office for the 
railroad contractor and a boarding house for the men; it also stood 
in the square last mentioned, near the old farm house. 

Beg"inning in 1851 lots sold rapidly and buildings went up 
on every side; the new town grew so fast that early in 1854 
when but little over three years old it was incorporated as a 
borough with a population of about 2,0(i0 people. Churches 
and schools were built, hotels, stores and a bank were opened, 
a newspaper was started in 1855, and everything prospered 
from the very start. A plot laid out by Andrew Green, 
northeast of Eleventh street and called (rreonsburg, was 
taken into the Borough in 1855. 

In 1859 a Gas and Water Company was formed by private 
parlies and they constructed a storage reservoir on the hill at 
the corner of Twelfth street and Fifteenth Avenue and piped 
water to it from Pottsgrove; laid mains in the principal 
streets to carry water to the consumers. They also erected 
gas works on Eleventh avenue below Ninth street. Water 
and gas were supplied by this company first on December 
15th of that year. Simullancousl}- with the water works 
came the organization of fire companies and a fire engine 
was purchased, the first being a hand engine. 

The census of I8OO showed the borough's p()i)ulation to be 
3,591. Then came the great Kebellion and Altoona was a 
place of considerable importance, furnishing cars and engines 
to transport soldiers and munitions of war, as well as her full 
quota of men to defend the Union. All through that four 

72 Semi- Centennial History of Blair County. 

years' period Altoona grew and throve. After the war closed 
the citizens erected a handsome monument in Fairview ceme- 
tery to commemorate her fallen heroes. 

The city charter was procured in February, 1868, the 
bounds being- extended so as to take in the territory northeast 
to First street, southeast to First avenue, southwest to Twen- 
ty-seventh street and northwest to Eig-hteenth avenue, with a 
population exceeding- 8,000. In 1870 the census takers found 
10,610 people here. In 1870 a daily paper, the S7m, made its 
appearance. In 1868 a market house was built at the corner 
of Eleventh avenue and Eleventh street, later converted into 
an opera house. By this time there were three newspapers 
here, two banks, thirteen churches, a number of good hotels, 
a large machine shop and car works, additional to the Penn- 
sylvania Railroad Company's plant, and soon after (1872) a 
rolling mill was erected. The Pennsylvania Railroad Com- 
pany was also obliged to enlarge their works at this time 
(1869-70), and, the original grounds reserved being complete- 
ly occupied with shops, tracks, switches, etc., a larger tract 
of land was purchased along Chestnut avenue below Seventh 
street and the car shops were erected at First to Fourth 
streets. In 1872 the city purchased from the Gas and Water 
Company their water pipes and water franchise and preceded 
to build a reservoir at Kittanning Point and lay a 12-inch 
pipe from there to the storage reservoir constructed on First 
avenue between Twelfth and Thirteenth streets. About the 
same time Eleventh and Eighth avenues were macadamized, 
some sewers constructed, and the city issued its first bonds, 
$200,000 in 1871 and $150,000 in 1873, to meet the large ex- 
penditures thus incurred. 

The years 1870, 1871 and 1872 were fruitful of many new 
enterprises in Altoona; new bvisinesses were established, new 
churches built, several building and loan associations organ- 
ized, two new banks opened, the rolling mill built, etc., but 
the panic of 1873, together with the failure of the largest 
banking firm of the city, in that year, put a damper on many 
business ventures and retarded the city's growth somewhat, 
as did also the great strike and railroad riots of 1877. Yet 
in 1880 the ofiicial government census showed that the place 
had nearly doubled in the preceding decade, 19,710 people 
being found resident here. In 1878 a park and Fair ground 
was enclosed at Broad and Twenty-seventh streets and the 

Semi-Centennial History of Blair County, 73 

Blair County Agricultural Society held a fair there which 
was a g-reat success. But the next year failing- to g-et the 
State Fair to exhibit here none whatever was held and in 
1880, the weather being- unfavorable, the fair was a failure 
and the Fair g-round was never used for such purposes ag-ain. 
It has since been sold out in lots and thickly built upon and 
the Ag-ricultural Society now hold their fairs at Hollidays- 
burg-. This is the only enterprise that ever failed in Altoona 

In 1882 the first street railway was completed and opened for 
traffic (July 4th j. In 1880 a telephone exchange was located 
here, in 1886 an electric light company and Jul)^ 4th, 1891, elec- 
tricity was made the propelling power for the street cars, so at 
this date Altoona was fuU}^ abreast of the times in the use of elec- 
tricity for all purposes. 

In 1888 the need of a complete and comprehensive sewer sys- 
tem was fully realized and the work of providing for it begun. 
Since that time the four natural drainage areas of the city have 
been supplied with large main sewers, and now it is believed no 
better sewered city can be found in the state, although the work 
of laying smaller branches and feeders has not yet been completed. 

In 1888-9 a large silk mill was erected on Ninth avenue at 
Twenty-fifth street along the Hollidaj^sburg Branch Railroad, and 
during the same years several large business blocks were built in 
the heart of the city, the Masonic Temple, Phoenix Block, etc. 

In 1889, it having become apparent that the macadamized 
streets were not suitable for a city of Altoona 's size and import- 
ance, Eleventh avenue was finely paved with asphalt blocks be- 
tween Eleventh and Seventeenth streets, and during the same and 
following years many other avenues were paved, asphalt and 
vitrified brick being used on some of them, so at this time the cit^' 
streets are well paved in the best business sections and the work 
of paving additional streets and avenues is going steadily on . 

In 1889-90 the Pennsylvania Railroad Company was again 
obliged to enlarge their plant and they purchased a large tract of 
land at Juniata, below the car shops, on which they erected ex- 
tensive locomotive works. About the same time a new railroad 
was projected and completed to Wopsononock, a beautiful pleas- 
ure resort, six miles north of Altoona, and later extended to the 
coal fields of Cambria county; Clearfield and the north being its 
ultimate destination. 

74 Semi-Centennial History of Blair County. 

In 1893 a new Electric Passenger Railway Company was or- 
ganized, "The Altoona and Logan Valley," and constructed 
electric roads to HoUidaysburg six miles southeast and to Bell- 
wood seven miles northeast, thus furnishing convenient and 
cheap transportation to the county seat and other nearby towns. 
At the same time the same companj^ constructed a beautiful park, 
lake and picnic grounds at Lakemont, midway between Altoona 
and HoUidaysburg, furnishing a place of recreation and amuse- 
ment of incalculable benefit to the residents of the city and pro- 
viding an additional source of profit to the road. May ist, 1895. 
a paid Fire Department superseded the volunteers in the work of 
protecting the city from the ravages of fire. 


The population of Altoona has previously been referred 
to and g"iven in round numbers as 44,000, which is believed to 
be as nearly correct as it can be told without a new count, as 
the number is increasing daily. This of course includes the 
suburbs. A careful census taken by the directory canvassers 
in May, 1895, made the population of the different wards and 
suburbs as follows : 

First Ward 3,806 

Second Ward 4,978 

Third Ward 3,346 

Fourth Ward 3,557 

Fifth Ward 5,400 

Sixth Ward 5,638 

Seventh Ward 2,685 

Kig-hth Ward 6,186 

Total within city limits 35,602 


Fair view and adjacent to First Ward 928 

Adjacent to Second Ward 183 

Oakton and adjacent to Third Ward 467 

CoUinsville and adjacent to Fourth Ward 193 

Newburg, Millertown vicinity 923 

Millville, Alleg-heny and Westmont 1,117 

Semi-Centennial History of Blair County. 75 

Rolling- Mill, Sixth Ward Suburbs and Alleghen}' 

Furnace 507 

Seventh Ward Suburbs to Juniata 30 

Juniata from Wopsononock Depot to Blair Furnace.. . 1,418 
Eighth Ward Suburbs, Pottsg-rove, East End, and 

Greenwood 867 

Total Suburban which oug-ht to be taken into the city. 6,633 

Grand total, the real Altoona 42,235 

Since the foreg-oing- census over 200 new houses have 
been erected and occupied within the territory embraced. 
The steady growth of Altoona within city limits is shown 
from the Government Census as follows : 
Population in 1860 (the first after it was founded) .... 3,591 

Population in 1870 10,610 

Population in 1880 19,710 

Population in 1890 30,260 

The total population of Blair county, 1890, was 70,866, 
and now it cannot be less than 80,000. Population of the 
State of Pennsylvania, 5,258,014. Only nineteen counties in 
the State have a population equalling- or exceeding- that of 

Assessed Valuation of Altoona. 

Valuation of any place, as shown by the roll, g-ives but 
a very imperfect idea of its real wealth, yet it forms a basis 
for fair estimates. One portion of our wealth is not taxed 
and can therefore only be g-uessed at; this consists of the 
stock of g-oods in shops and stores, furniture and fixtures 
which do not g-o with the real estate ; this probably amounts 
to more than $5,000,000 in Altoona. 

The assessed valuation in Altoona, on which tax was 
paid for State and County purposes, for six years past, was 

In 1890 $12,276,777 

1891 12,967,703 

1892 13,881,309 

1893 14,503,287 

1894 14,909,415 

1895 15,458,376 

76 Semi-Centennial History of Blair County. 

The Relative Wealth of the Wards as Shown in 189S, 

First Ward assessed at $ 2,343,2=10 

Second Ward assessed at 1,720,585 

Third Ward assessed at 2,468,291 

Fourth Ward assessed at 2,261,485 

Fifth Ward assessed at 2,026,005 

Sixth Ward assessed at 1,742,065 

Seventh Ward assessed at 1,127,130 

Eighth Ward assessed at 1,769,575 

Total $15,458,376 

The valuation ol the entire county in 1895 was $31,252,- 
097, from which it will be seen that Altoona City proper pays 
almost one-half the county tax and if the city limits were 
extended, so as to take in the suburbs which should be 
included, her valuation would be considerably more than one- 
half that of the entire county. 

Dates of Important Events in Altoona. 

The first permanent white settlements of any account in 
the immediate vicinity of Altoona were made about the year 
1810, althoug-h Thomas and Michael Coleman are said to 
have settled in Log-an Township as early as 1775, and Hug-h 
and John Long- to have resided in Pleasant Valley in 1788. 

Altoona was projected in 1849 and laid out in town lots 
by Archibald Wrig-ht of Philadelphia, the same year, but he 
sold no lots until 1851. 

The deed of the land from David Robeson to Archibald 
Wrig-ht is dated April 24th, 1849. 

The plot of Altoona was acknowledged by Mr. Wright, 
before an alderman in Philadelphia, February 6th, 1850. 

The Pennsylvania Railroad Company began building their 
shops here in 1850 it is said, although the deed for the ground 
on which they stood was not made by Mr. Wright until 
August 6th, 1851. 

The first lots sold by Archibald Wrigh t, after he had 
plotted the town, were two on the corner of Twelfth avenue 
and Thirteenth street to the trustees of the First Presbyterian 
Church, for the price of one hundred dollars, the deed being 
dated February 11th, 1851. 

Semi-Centennial History of Blair County. 

The first house was erected in Altoona in 1851 on Te^th 
jrvenue between Thirteenth and Fourteenth, street^ John R. 
Westle_v, the carpenter and contractor, is still living- in the 

The first train of cars came into Altoona in 1850 from the 
east, and September l7th, 1850, cars ran through to Duncans- 
ville, and December 10th, 1850, to Pittsburg; crossing the 
mountains over the Alllegheny Portage which belonged to 
the State. The Hollidaysburg Branch was then the main 

The Mountain Division, from Altoona west, via Kittan- 
ning Point, was not completed until 1854. The line was 
originally a single track. 

The first passenger station was a frame building and stood 
on Ninth avenue between Twelfth and Thirteenth streets. It 
was moved to the north corner of Twelfth street and used for 
a fire engine house. The second floor is now Logan Hall. 

The first president of the Pennsylvania Railroad, with 
whom Altoona had any concern, was J. Edgar Thompson. 

The first postoffice in this vicinity was at Collinsville, 
from 1817 to 1851; during the latter year it was removed from 
there and established under the new name at Altoona. 

Altoona was organized as a borough in February, 1854. 

The first Burgess of Altoona was George W. Patton. 

Altoona became a city in February, 1868. 

The first mayor of the city was General George Potts. 

The first stores in Altoona were those of Bernard Kerr, 
father of R. A. O. Kerr, Loudon & Feree and Adlum & Irwin. 
Mr. Kerr kept the first one in the old log farm house of 
David Robeson. 

The first druggist was George W. Kessler ; he beg^an 
business in Altoona in 1853. 

The first doctor was Gabriel D. Thomas, who resided 
in Pleasant Valle}- prior to the founding of Altoona, and 
who built one among the first residences in the new town. 

The first lawyer was William Stoke, it is said, but he 
had no office here and only came to transact some business 
for the Pennsylvania Railroad, whose attorney he was. L. 
W. Hall, Esq., now of Harrisburg, was located here in 1855, 
and Col. D. J. Neff in 1860. 

The first preacher to reside in Altoona was Rev. Henry 
Baker, who was pastor of the Lutheran church at Collinsville 

78 Semi- Centennial History of Blair County. 

prior to the beg-inning- of Altoona, and who came here with 
his congreg-ation during the second year of its histor3\ 

The first public house in the vicinity was a tavern, 
where the White Hall Hotel now stands ; it was built by 
George Huff about the year 1834. 

The first hotel erected in Altoona was the Exchang^e, 
which stood on Tenth avenue between Thirteenth and Four- 
teenth streets, where the Arlington now stands. It was 
kept by John Bowman. Among the earlier hotels was the 
Altoona House, where the Globe now stands ; it was a frame 
building and burned down about the year 1887. 

The first school-house erected by the borough was built 
in 1834 on the corner of Seventh avenue and Fifteenth street. 
Prior to the founding of Altoona a union church and school- 
house combined stood on the present corner of Sixteenth 
street and Union avenue, just outside the early limits of 
Altoona. It was built during the year 1838 by the school 
directors of the township in conjunction with the Lutheran, 
Presbyterian and Methodist -denominations and served the 
double purpose of church and school-house until the erection 
of churches and schools in Altoona. It is now used as a 
church by the African Methodist Episcopal congregation. 

The first city superintendent of schools was John Miller. 

The first church building erected in the new town of 
Altoona was the First Presbyterian, on the corner of Twelfth 
avenue and Thirteenth street in 1851. A minister from Hol- 
lidaysburg preached here every alternate Sunday beginning 
in November, 1851. It was a fair-sized frame building and 
was destroyed by fire in 1855. The trustees disposed of the 
ground December 3, 1855, for $3,000, and it is now occupied by 
the residence of the late William Murray. The congregation 
built on their present location in 1854. 

The first bank established in Altoona was that of Bell, 
Johnson, Jack & Co. in 1853. It was later operated by 
William M. Lloyd & Co. 

The first newspaper here was the Altoona Rcohtcr, pub- 
lished for a short time by William H. and J. A. Snyder, in 
the spring of 1855. It did not survive the early frosts of that 
year, and after its suspension was succeeded by the Tribune^ 
January 1, 1856, McCrum & Allison, proprietors. 

The daily edition of the Trihtinc was first issued Aprill 14, 
1874. It was suspended April 14, 1875, and resumed January 

Semi-Centennial History of Blair County. 79 

28, 1878, since which lima it has appeared reg-ularly. The 
weekly has been published continuously since its establish- 
ment, January 11 1856. 

The first daily newspaper published in Altoona was the 
Smi, which beg-au a dail}^ issue May 2, 1870, and suspended 
after seven months. 

The Mirror was first issued June 13, 1874 ; the Times 
May 21, 1884 and the Gazette April 8, 1892. 

The first water works in Altoona were owned and 
operated by the Altoona Gas and Water Company, a private 
corporation, which beg-an to supply- the borough with water 
December 15, 1859. 

The first g"as for, illuminating- purposes, was furnished by 
the same company, beginning- at the same time ; rate per 
1.000 feet then $3.00, now $1.20. 

The water-works were purchased by the city in 1872 and 
the first reservoir at Kittaning- Point constructed soon after. 

The first fire company, the Good Will, was org-ani/.ed in 
1859, just prior to the completion of the water-works. 

The first fire engine, a hand machine, was housed here 
October 22, 1859. 

The first steam fire eng-ine in Altoona was purchased by 
the Pennsylvania Railroad Company and broug-ht here in 

A paid fire department superseded the volunteers May 
1, 1895. 

The soldiers' monument in Fairview cemetery was 
erected July 4, 1867. 

The first city directory of Altoona was issued in 1873 
by Thomas H. Greevy, Esq. Since 1886 they have been pub- 
lished biennially by Charles B. Clark, Esq. 

A county directory was published in 1882. 

The first street improvements were the macadamizing- of 
Eleventh and Eighth avenues in 1871-2. 

The first g-ood street paving- was laid on Eleventh avenue, 
in 1889, asphalt block, between Eleventh and Bridge streets. 

The first extensive and systematic sewer building was be- 
g-un in 18S8; althoug-h the first sewer, Eleventh avenue be- 
tween Thirteenth and Fifteenth streets, was constructed in 
1870. D. K. Ramey, contractor. 

The first street railway beg-an carrying- passeng-ers July 
4, 1882 ; the line extending- from First street and Chestnut 

80 Semi-Centennial History of Blair County. 

avenue to Eleventh street to Eleventh avenue, up Eleventh 
avenue, to Bridge street and on Seventeenth street to Eighth 
avenue to Fourth street. Motive power — horses and mules ; 
equipment — six small cars. 

Electricity was first used here to propel street cars July 4, 
1891. The Logan Valley Electric Passenger Railway was 
completed and passengers carried to Hollidaysburg, June 14, 
1893 and to Bellwood, July 1, 1894. 

Telephone service in Altoona began in March, 1880. 

Electricity for illuminating in 1886. Streets lighted by 
electricity in 1888. For five years prior to that they were 
lighted by gasoline lamps, although gas had been used at a 
still earlier period. 

The first planing mill, except that of the Pennsylvania 
Railroad, was built prior to 1860 by McCauley & Allison, on 
the corner of Green avenue and Eighth street. 

The most extensive fire which had occurred in Altoona 
prior to 1896, was on April 16, 1869, burning about half the 
square enclosed by Eleventh and Twelfth avenues and Thir- 
teenth and Fourteenth streets. It began on the corner of 
Eleventh avenue and Fourteenth street ; loss $60,000 to $70,- 
000 ; but on January 6, 1896, a fire at the corner of Eleventh 
avenue and Eleventh street destroyed the Central Hotel and 
other property to the value of $100,000. 

The Rolling Mill began operations in 1872. 

The Silk Mill was built in 1888-9 and began operations in 
the spring of 1889. 

The Altoona, Clearfield and Northern Railroad, formerly 
Altoona and Wopsononock was built in 1890-91. 

Railroads of Altoona. 

Being on the main line of the Pennsylvania Railroad, the 
great double track trunk route between the East and West, Al- 
toona enjoys superior advantages in the matter of transportation. 
Cars from every part of the Union come to Altoona with their 
original lading, and freight maybe billed through from here to the 
Pacific or Gulf coast and the Dominion of Canada. Altoona be- 
ing the terminus of a division, all trains stop here to change en- 
gines and crews and take on through passengers for east or west . 
A number of branch lines reach every corner of the county to the 

Setni-Centennial History of Blair County. 81 

south and east: Williamsburg, Martiiisburg, Roaring Spring, 
Henrietta, Newr}^; and the terminus of the Morrison's Cove 
Branch at Henrietta is only about three miles from the Huntingdon 
and Broad Top Railroad, extending from Huntingdon south to 
Bedford and Hyndman, Pa., and Cumberland, Marjdand. 

At Bell wood, seven miles eastward, connection is made with 
the Pennsylvania and North Western, which SKtends northwest 
through the rich coal regions of Cambria, Clearfield and Jefferson 
Counties to Punxsutawney and there cotniects with the Rochester 
and Pittsburg Railroad to DuBois, Bradford and Western New 

At Tyrone, fourteen miles northeast, three branches lead off to 
the north and northeast; the Tyrone and Clearfield extending to 
Clearfield, Curwensville and DuBois; the Bald Eagle Valley ex- 
tending to Bellefonte and Lock Haven, connecting at the latter 
point with the Philadelphia and Erie road for Williamsport on the 
east and Renova, Emporium, Kane, Warren, Corry and Erie to 
the west; and the Tyrone and Lewisburg branch extending north- 
east to Pennsylvania Furnace in Centre County. 

At Huntingdon, thirty-four miles east, connection is made 
with the Huntingdon and Broad Top for Bedford and Cumberland, 
the latter on the line of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. 

At Cresson, fifteen miles westward, two branches lead off from 
the main line, one extending to Ebensburg, Spangler and Carrol I - 
town, and the other to Ashville, Frugalit}' and Coalport. 

There is also another short road, the Altoona, Clearfield and 
Northern, extending from the eastern suburb, Juniata, to Wopson- 
Qnock mountain resort, and coal fields of Cambria County, which 
bring considerable amount of coal and lumber to the city. An- 
other railroad is likely soon to be constructed to Altoona, coming 
in from Philipsburg on the north. Altoona, with her nearly 50,- 
000 inhabitants, is too valuable a prize for railroad enterprise to 
remain long with but a single through line. 

The railroad traffic passing through Altoona is immense. The 
tonnage of the Pennsylvania Railroad system for 1895 was about 
one-seventeenth of the entire tonnage of the United States, and 
probably one-halt of this passed through Altoona. 

Twelve passenger trains leave Altoona daily for the west and 

eleven for the east, and some of these trains are composed of two 

or three sections, practically so many additional complete trains. 

Six passenger trains depart each day for the southern part of the 

county over t]ie brancjiefi previously mentioned. 

82 Semi-Centennial History of Blair County. 

The number of freight trains leaving and arriving depends of 
course on the condition of trade, crops, etc. 

Altoona has one of the largest freight yards in the country, 
being over five miles long and capable of holding thousands of 

Statistical of the Pennsylvania Railroad. 

Capital stock $139,301,550 

Miles of railroad owned and operated east of Pittsburg and 

Erie 4.490 

Miles of railroad owned and operated west of Pittsburg and 

Erie 4.326 

Total mileage of owned, operated and leased lines- • 8,816 
Number of tons of freight hauled on lines east of Pitts-. 

burg and Erie, j^ear ending Dec. 31, 1895 78,259,526 

Number of passengers carried in 1895 37,452,437 

Value ot shops at Altooda, buildings and grounds, 

not including machinery, about- - $2,000,000 

Number of men employed in Altoona shops, December roll, 
1895; Machine Shops 4,051, Car Shops 2,364, Juniata 

Shops 789; Total. 7.204 

Number of men employed on the three divisions entering 
here, who reside in Altoona; estimated by taking % 
Pittsburg and Yi of Middle Division i ,880 

Total Pennsylvania Railroad employes in Altoona- . 9,084 

Monthly pay roll for shops $325,000 

Monthly pay roll for Division employes and trainmen re- 
siding in Altoona. 75,000 

Amount paid out montlily for material and supplies, 

about • 100,000 

Total amount of money put in circulation here monthly 

by the Railroad Company, about 500,000 

Altoona has two lines of electric cars ; both are under one 
management and the service is very satisfactor}'. 

The first road was built in 1882 by the City Passenger 
Railway Company and was opened on the 4tli of July of that 
year with a notable demonstration. Electricity was not then 
in use aijd horses were the motive power. The line at that 
time was about three miles long, extending from First street 

Semi-Centennial History of Blair County. 83 

to Eleventh avenue to Brido-e street, to Seventeenth street, 
to Eig"hth avenue, to Fourth street where the cars were 
turned on a turn-table and went back over the same route. 
Soon afterward a branch was constructed from the corner of 
Eig"hth avenue and Seventeenth street to Seventh avenue, to 
Twenty-fifth street. 

In 1889 and 1890 a line was constructed from the corner of 
Eleventh avenue and Bridg-e street to Eig"hteenth street, to 
Onion avenue, to Broad street and along- Broad street to city 
line at Twenty-seventh street. The line was also extended 
from Fourth street and Eig^hth avenue, to Sixth avenue, to 
Lloyd street, below First street. 

In 1891 electricity took the place of horses and a power 
house was erected on Nineteenth street between Ninth and 
Marg-aret avenues. 

In 1892 the Altoona and Logan Valley Electric Passeng^er 
Railway Company was formed and in 1893 they built a line 
to Hollidaysburg-, six miles long-. 

Early in 1894 they built a line to Bellwood, seven miles. 
The Hollidaysburg- line begins at the corner of Twelth 
street and Ninth avenue and extends along Ninth avenue to 
Thirteenth street, along Thirteenth street to Fifth avenue, 
along Fifth avenue south-eastward to city line and beyond 
that to Hollidaysburg. 

The Bellwood line extends from the corner of Eleventh 
street and Eleventh avenue to Ninth street, to Howard 
avenue, to Third street, to Lexington avenue, to First street, 
to Chestnut avenue and north-jastward on the country road 
to Juniata, and from there crossing the railroad, down the 
valley of the Little Juniata— five miles farther to Bellwood. 

The Logan Valley, soon after its completion, secured a 
controlling interest in the City Passenger, and the two roads 
are now operated practically as one, under the same Superin- 

In the city cars run six minutes apart, and on the Logan 
Valley to and from Hollidaysburg, every fifteen minutes, and 
to and from Bellwood every half hour during the day and 
until a late hour at night. 

Fares in the" city, including a transfer if desired, over any 
of the City Passenger Lines are but five cents, and the same 
charge is made to Lakcmont Park or Llyswcn. and ten cents 

84 Semi-Centennial History of Blair County. 

to Hollidaysburg-. To Juniata, the fare is five cents and to 
Bellwood ten cents additional. No transfers are g-iven be- 
tween the City Passeng-er and the Logan Valley, 

Lines have also been projected on other streets and avenues 
in the city beside those already noted, and some of them are 
likely to be built soon, especially one up the Dry Gap along- 
Nineteenth street or on Washing-ton avenue. 

The Log-an Valle}^ Company laid out and beautified a fine 
park with a larg-e artificial lake at a point midway between 
Altoona and Hollidaj^sburg which they called Lakemont, and 
which has no equal for beauty in the state. It is visited daily 
in summer time by hundreds and often by thousands of peo- 
ple, and in winter time the lake affords excellent skating-, no 
charg-e being made for admission at any time. 

The rolling- stock of the two companies consists of twenty- 
five closed cars and thirt3'-six open cars. 

The number of employes is 175. 

The capital stock of the City Passeng-er is $200,000 

And of the Log-an Valley, authorized $500,000 issued. 375,000 

Total stock outstanding $575,000 

The number of passeng-ers carried in 1895 was 2,800,000, 
The officers of both companies are : 

JOHN LLOYD, President. 

C. A. BUCH, Secretary and Treasurer. 

S. S. CRAINE, Superintendent. 

Business and Resources of Altoona. 

In addition to being" the location of the principal shops of 
the Pennsylvania Railroad Company, the depot and base of 
supplies for engines, cars and furnishing-s, and the head- 
quarters of the General Superintendent, the Superintendent 
of Motive Power and Superintendents of other lesser depart- 
ments, employing-, in the ag-greg-ate, over 9,000 men, which 
would suffice alone for the foundation of a larg-e city, Altoo- 
na has other substantial advantag-es. 

Situated on the main line of this g-reat trunk route be- 
tween the Kast and West she is surrounded on all sides with, 
the elements of wealth and prosperity. Larg-e deposits of 
bituminous coal and beds of fire clay to th.Q north and west. 

Setni-Centennial History of Blair County. 85 

Iron ore to the southeast; limestone in almost inexhaustible 
supply on three sides and mountains of g-anister stone nearby, 
indispensable in the manufacture of steel and formerly im- 
ported from Kurope. Lumber reg-ions to the north, east and 
west, and a rich ag-ricultural country south. All reached and 
penetrated by the Pennsylvania Railroad and branches or 
leased lines; with competing- lines contemplating an entrance, 
her future stability is assured. Altoona is also the natural 
distributing point for the territory within a radius of forty to 
one hundred miles in ever}^ direction and is destined, at no 
distant day, to become an important wholesaling city. 

Manufacturing Interests. 

The manufacturing interests of Altoona are now largely with 
the Railroad Company, and include the production of engines, 
cars, both freight and passenger, and all kinds of railroad supplies. 
We have in addition to this mammoth industry: 

One Rolling Mill employing 135 to 175 men, and producing 
annually $250,000 to $300,000 worth of merchant bar iron. 

Two Iron Foundries. 

One Silk Mill, employing 250 women and boys preparing the 
raw silk into yarn for the loom. 

One Ice Plant, employing 30 men and manufacturing 50,000 
pounds of ice per day from pure distilled water, by chemically 
produced cold. 

Twelve Planing Mills, employing in the aggregate 350 to 500 
men in the mills, manufacturing rough lumber into doors, sash, 
frames, etc., also several hundred carpenters outside. 

One Brick Yard, employing 25 to 40 men and producing 
3,000,000 building brick annually. 

One Brush Factory. 

One Broom Factory. 

One Soap Factory. 

One Washing Machine Factory. 

One Mattress Factory. 

Three Manufactories of Soft Drinks. 

Three Marble and Granite Works. 

One Steam Dye Works. 

One Flouring Mill. 

Two Chop and Feed Mills. 

Four Breweries, employing 50 men in the aggregate. 

86 Semi- Centennial History of Blair County. 

One Candy Maniifactury. 

Three Cabinet Shops. 

Six Cigar Factories, employing 75 persons. 

Four Ice Cream Manufactories. 

Eleven Merchant Tailors, employing in the aggregate 150 to 
200 persons. 

Forty Shoemaker Shops, employing 75 to 100 men. 

Five Wagon Shops, employing 20 to 30 men making and 
repairing — principally the latter — wagons, carriages and sleds. 

Eleven Watchmakers and Jewelers, employing in the aggre- 
gate 25 men repairing watches and clocks used in Altoona and 

Five Harness and Saddler Shops, employing 20 to 30 men 
making and repairing harness for the local trade. 

Eleven Bakeries, employing 50 to 60 men in the production 
of bread, cakes, etc., mostly for home consumption. 

Nine Printing Offices, printing four daily and four weekly 
newspapers, besides irregular publications. 

One Book Bindery, doing the local work of the city and vi- 


In the mercantile line there are the following and plenty 
of room for more : 

Four Wholesale Grocery and Provision Houses. 

One Wholesale Wood and Willow-ware House. 

Three Wholesale Produce and Commission Houses. 

Three Wholesale Confectioners. 

Seven Wholesale Coal Dealers. 

Four Wholesale Cigar and Tobacco Houses. 

One Wholesale Dry Goods and Notion House. 

Three Dry Goods Houses that sell wholesale and retail. 

Six dealers in Builders Supplies, besides the planing 

Four banks with an aggregate capital of $400,000. 

In addition to the above are several wholesale agents who 
carry only samples for firms in other cities. 

In the retail trade there are : 

Seven Dry Goods Stores. 

Nine Book and Stationery Stores. 

Three China, Glass and Crockery Stores, exclusively, 
besides three Novelty Stores th^t handle large quantities of 
of the same goods, 

Semi-Centennial History of Blair County. 87 

Fourteen Clothing- and Gents' Furnishing- Stores. 

Three Hat and Gents' Furnishing Stores. 

Twent3^-two Retail Coal Dealers. 

Twentj-two Drug Stores. 

Six Flour and Feed Stores. 

Ten Furniture Stores, three of which carry other lines. 

Forty-six General Stores. 

One hundred and thirty Grocery and Provision Stores. 

Two Butter Markets. 

Seven Hardware Stores. 

Six Installment and House-furnishing Stores. 

Fifty-five Meat Markets. 

Ten Milk Depots. 

Six Millinery Stores. 

Five Music Stores. 

Five Novelty, Notion and 5 and 10c. Stores. 

Eleven Shoe Stores, and twenty to thirty other dealers 
that sell shoes. 

Four Tea Stores. 

Nine Jewelry Stores ; watches, silver, etc. 

Three Department Stores, (these are enumerated also with 
the dry goods.) 


Eight Aldermen ; one for each ward. 

Forty-seven Lawyers. 

Sixty-two Doctors, including two ladies. 

Thirteen Dentists' Offices. 

Four Architect Firms. 

Four Florists and Greenhouse proprietors. 
Fifty-four Barber Shops. 
Thirteen Blacksmith Shops. 
Two Carpet-cleaning Establishments. 
Twent}^ Master Painters and Paper-hangers. 
Five Fruit Stores carrying fair stock, besides numerous 
smaller ones. 

Six Steam and Hand Laundries. 
Five Livery Stables. 
Six Photograph Galleries. 
Twenty-four Plumbing Shops. 
Six Sewing-machine Agencies. 

88 Semi-Cetttetmial History of Blair County. 

Twelve Restaurants. 

Eig-ht Tin Shops. 

Twenty-seven Hotels, and twenty-two others with hotel 

Eleven Fire Insurance Ag-encies. 

Five Life Insurance Ag-encies. 

Three Money Loaning Agencies ; real estate security. 

Two Pawn Shops. 

Seven Real Estate Agencies. 

Thirty-four Building and Loan Associations. 

One Theatre or Opera House. 

One Music Hall— East Side Theatre. 

One Variety Theatre or Musee. 

One Natatorium or Swimming- School. 

Twelve Public Schools and Five Parochial Schools. 

Three Business Colleges, or Commercial Schools. 

Forty-two Churches, comprising sixteen denominations, 
with church property valued at $1,200,000, 

Transportation, Light, Etc. 

Two Railroads in operation and others projected. 

Two Electric Passenger Railways with twentj-five miles 
of track; lines to Hollidaysburg- on the south and to Bellwood 
on the northeast. 

One Express Company. 

Two Telegraph Companies. 

Two Telephone Companies. 

One larg-e Electric Light Plant, whose 200 two-thousand 
candle power arc lights, supplemented by those of the Penn- 
sylvania Railroad Company, make Altoona the best lighted 
city in the country. 

One Gas Company, with one of the finest plants in the 
state, making both coal and water g-as. 

Semi-Centetinial History of Blair County. 89 

Pennsylvania Railroad Shops at Altoona. 

These are the largest railroad shops in the United States 
and employ over seven thousand men. They consist of three 
distinct plants in different parts of the city. 

The original plant lies between Ninth and Tenth avenues, 
between Eleventh and Sixteenth streets, and occupies twenty - 
eight acres of ground, the buildings having an actual floor area 
of over ten acres. Originally all the departments were located 
here: locomotive, freight car and passenger car, and machinery 
and supplies. This part is now called the "Machine Shops,,' and 
includes the following shops and departments : 

One iron foundry, size 100x250 feet, where all the iron cast- 
ings used in the construction of cars are made, with the exception 
of car wheels. 

One brass foundry, size 60x80 feet, where car wheel bearings 
and all brass castings are made. 

One blacksmith shop, size 56x273 feet, with a wing 66x124 
feet, containing thirty fires and three bolt furnaces. 

One blacksmith shop, size 67x188 feet, containing twenty 

One blacksmith shop in part of old No. 2 round house con- 
taining twenty-six fires. 

One wheel foundry, size 73x140 feet, and a wing, 56x94 feet, 
with engine-house and boiler-house adjoining. The cupola cham- 
ber of this foundry is 29x40 feet, and the ladle will hold 20,000 
pounds of melted iron . 

One new wheel foundry, size 66x160 feet, with cupola of forty 
tons capacity. 

One boiler shop, size 70x125 feet, with an addition or L, size 
53x62 feet, and another building used for finishing which is 
58x124 feet. Also about two-thirds of the old No. 2 round-house 
is used as a boiler shop and devoted to repairs. 

One flue shop, 45x126 feet, where the flues of the boilers are 
made and repaired. 

One lathe shop, 70x426 feet, two stories high, where castings 
are planed and turned smooth, cylinders bored out, etc. 

One vise shop, T-shaped, one part 60x250 feet, and the other 
60x90; also a grinding room 60x120 feet. It this shop the differ- 
ent pieces of steel used in the construction of engines are filed 
and ground smooth, and fitted with great precision, so as to work 
perfectly in the position for which they are designed. 

90 Semi-Centemiial History of Blair County. 

One air-brake shop, size 60x75 feet, in which the air-brake 
machinery and supplies are made; also steam guages, safety- 
valves, etc. 

Three erecting shops, two of which are 66x350 feet, and one 
52x356 feet, in which the locomotive engines are put together and 
made things of life, power and beauty. Traveling cranes, capable 
of lifting twenty-five tons weight are used to handle the heavy 
pieces of iron and steel used here. 

One paint shop, 36x300 feet, in which the engines, tanks and 
cabs are painted, ornamented and varnished. 

One tin and sheet iron shop, size 67x150 feet, where all the 
tin work and many articles in sheet iron and copper are made. 

One telegraph machine shop, size 48x60 feet, in which much 
fine work is done in the manufacture and repair of telegraphic 
and electrical apparatus and supplies. 

One pattern shop, size 70x140 feet, furnished with a 30-horse- 
power engine, planers, saws and other wood- working machinery. 
Here all the patterns for the various castings used in the shops 
are made. A pattern storehouse, 50x100 feet, is connected with 
this shop. 

One cab and tank shop, size 42x105 feet, in which cabs and 
tanks are repaired, wheelbarrows and cow-catchers made and other 
work done. The new cabs are now made at the Car Shops. 

One carpenter shop, 28x60 feet, with office attached. This is 
the headquarters of the carpenters who repair roundhouses and 
shops, build signal towers, repair bridges, etc. 

One roundhouse for Middle Division engines, size 235 feet in 
diameter, with turntable and thirty-one tracks. Here engines are 
groomed, cleaned, examined and have slight repairs made to them 
when required after each trip, and prepared for the next run. 

One roundhouse for Pittsburg Division engines, size 300 feet 
in diameter, with turntable and forty-four tracks. The men who 
take charge of the engines when they come in and make them 
ready for succeeding trips are commonly called engine hostlers. 

One building, two stories high in part and three stories in part, 
size 40x200 feet, used as storehouse and testing room on first floor, 
and offices, testing department and chemical laboratory on second 
and third floors. The store contains the various small tools and 
supplies used about the shops and along the road between Pitts- 
burg and Philadelphia; and the storekeeper keeps a record of all 
material used in the construction ot everything made in the shops 
or furnished to other shops along the road. Many thousands of 
dollars worth of goods pass through the storehouse monthly . 

Setni-Centennial History of Blair County. 91 

The testing department examines and tests all material bought 
for use in the shops, before it is accepted; this being done by both 
mechanical and chemical tests. 

The clerical department, keeping a record of all the work 
done, cost of the same and the time of the men, requires the assist- 
ance of more than forty accountants. 

The department of labor is also one of considerable im- 
portance and requires over one hundred men loading, unload- 
ing and shifting cars and keeping the shop yard in proper 
shape. The foreman of this branch has a small office build- 
ing for his use. 

The watchmen form another part of the service, not less 
important than the others, as it is their duty to guard against 
fires and theft. Over forty of them keep watch of the build- 
ings, grounds and merchandise; sixteen by day and twenty- 
five by night. 

The different kinds of work done here will be apparent 
from the foregoing, and some conception of the amount from 
the following figures : 

Average amount of iron melted at the iron foundry for 
the past ten years, 38,500,000 pounds, or 19,250 tons annually. 
This does not include the wheel foundry. 

In the car wheel foundry 100,000 to 110,000 wheels are 
moulded annually, each wheel weighing 500 to 700 pounds. 

In the boiler shop an average of two locomotive boilers per 
week have been made for ten years past, besides many sta- 
tionary boilers and repairs to to thousands of both kinds an- 

The other departments are conducted on a scale of equal 

G. W. Strattan is Master Mechanic of these shops. 
The Car Shops, "Lower shops," as they are commonly 
called, though not so appropriately since the erection of the 
Juniata shops still farther eastward, were the first enlarge- 
ment made by the company after the original site at Twefth 
street became overcrowded. They were erected in 1869-70, 
and are situated between the main line tracks and Chestnut 
avenue, from Seventh street eastward to a point below First 
street, the lumber yard extending still further eastward for a 
distance of one-half mile to Juniata shops. Previous to the 
building of these shops, the car work, both new and repair, 
was done in the shops located near Twelfth street, but since 
then all such work has been done here at these car shops. 

92 Semi-Centennial History of Blair County. 

The cat shops occupy 91 6-10 acres, including yards, and con- 
sist of the following buildings: No. i planing mill, in size 72X 
355 feet, filled with all kinds of planers, mortising and boring 
machines, and other wood-working machinery, driven by a 250- . 
horse-power Corless engine, which is located in an adjoining build- 
ing, 25x100 feet, and to which all shavings are carried through 
large iron pipes by force of suction of large blowers. The various 
pieces of wood used in the construction of cars are here made 
ready to fit into their proper places without change. 

No. 2 planing mill, 44x77 feet, with carpenter shop attached, 
40x115, and engine room 16x38, and boiler room 25x39. This 
planing-mill is engaged for the most part in getting out work for 
the company's buildings, depots, telegraph towers, etc., but much 
other work is done. There are machines for wood carving, and 
for turning all kinds of handles for tools. 

A blacksmith shop 80 feet wide and 493 feet long, in which 
are fashioned all the various shapes of iron for use in carbuilding. 
Here are steam-hammers of 1,200 to 5,000 pounds stroke, used in 
forging heavy irons. A bolt machine weighing 60,000 pounds, 
capable of making 1,000 two-inch draft pins in a day; another of 
40,000 pounds weight, which makes 3,000 coupling pins in a 
day. Immense iron shears, capable of cutting a bar of cold iron 
3 inches thick and 6 inches wide in a second's time, or punch a 
hole three inches in diameter through a plate of cold iron two and 
one-half inches thick with the same facility. 

A bolt and nut shop, 30x135 feet. 

A truck shop, 75x85 feet, where car trucks are put together 

ready to set the car body on. 

A machine shop 70x130 feet. Here are two hydraulic presses 
lor forcing wheels on the axles and taking them off when unfit for 
further service. These presses can exert a power equal to the 
weight of one hundred tons, and wheels must go on the axle with 
a pressure of not less than twenty-five tons in order to be secure. 

An upholstering shop, 70x200 feet, divided into several rooms . 

A cabinet shop 70x167 feet, and another room 70x200 feet, 
formerly the passenger car paint shop but now used by the cabinet- 
makers; also a room on the second floor of this latter building 
50x70 feet; also another room 12x25, used for steaming and bend- 
ing wood into various shapes. 

A passenger shop (132x211 feet), and connected with this 
is a storage building for iron work 20x100 feet, and a shed for 
dry and worked lumber, 70x75 feet. 

Semi-Centennial History of Blair County. 93 

This department is capable of building twenty-five passenger 
coaches per month, but as a great deal of repair work is done 
they seldom make so many new cars in a month. The magnifi- 
cently luxurious parlor cars of the company are all made here. 

A paint shop, 135x420 feet, wherein all the passenger, parlor, 
mail, express and baggage cars are painted, ornamented and var- 
nished. It will hold forty of the largest. passenger cars, with 
room for men to work on all at the same time. 

Another paint shop, 100x400 feet, in which ireight cars are 
painted. It is not large enough, however, to hold all the freight 
cars usually in the process ot building, and many are painted while 
standing on the tracks outside. Another paint shop, 53x54 feet, 
is used by the house painters who paint depots, telegraph towers 
and other company buildings. 

An air-brake shop, 55x250 feet, with three tracks running the 
entire length ot the building. Annexed to this building is a 
storage building, 25x60 feet, and an ofiice for the foreman, 15x18 
feet. Also a large covered platform, 20x90 feet, for storage pur- 
poses . 

A freight car shop which is circular, 433 feet in diameter, with 

a turntable 100 feet in diameter in the open space, or court, in 
the centre. Within the covered space of this shop seventy-five 
freight cars can be built at once, and while numbers of others 
receive repairs on the tracks within the circle. 

A tin shop, 70x175 feet. 

A buffing room, 37x100 feet, occupying the second floor of a 
brick building near the tin shop. 

A store house, one floor of which is 36x124 feet, and another 
floor 36x87 feet, and an additional building, 30x50 feet, for storing 

An oil house, 16x26 feet, containing oils and cotton waste, 
used in the axle boxes of the cars. 

A fire engine house, 30x50 feet, in which is kept a steam fire 
engine and hose carriage as a protection against fires. 

A lumber yard covering twenty-five acres of ground, included 
in the 61 6-10 above, and in which are stored several million feet 
of the best lumber. The lumber being constantly received, dried 
and loaded for the shop, requires the assistance of seventy-five 
men . 

Thirty watchmen are employed in these shops. 

The general foreman and the shop clerk's offices occupy a 
large brick building adjoining the storehouse, and the force, 
including ofl&cers and clerks, numbers twenty-three persons. 

John P. Levan is the General Foreman of these shops. 

94 Semi- Centennial History of Blair County. 

The Juniata Locomotive Shops. 

This latest addition to the works of the Pennsylvania Railroad 
Company at Altoona were begun in September, 1888, and finished 
In 1889-90. The first engine was turned out July 29th, 1891. 
The buildings occupy a plot of ground 33 6-10 acres, lying just 
east of the Car Shops' lumber yard, and between it and the Bor- 
ough of Juniata, and comprise the following: 

A machine shop, 75x258 feet, two stories high. 

A boiler shop, 300x386 feet. 

A blacksmith shop, 80x306 feet. 

An erecting shop, 70x354 feet. 

A boiler house, 451:78 feet. 

An electricity and hydraulic building, 45x60 feet. 

A paint shop, 67x147 feet. 

A paint storehouse, 51-9x5-9 feet. 

An office and storehouse, 52x71 feet, two stories high. 

A gas house, 17x91 feet. 

These shops furnish employment now to almost 800 men, and 
have a capacity for building 150 new locomotive engines per year. 
T. R. Brovv.i is Master Mechanic of Juniata shops. 

In addition to these shop buildings there are two large 
oSB.ce buildings standing on Twelfth street, one at the corner 
of Eleventh avenue, a three-story brick, about 50x120 feet, and 
one on the corner of Twelfth avenue, about 80x100 feet, 
three stories high. The former is used as the offices of 
General Superintendent of the road, the Superintendent of 
Altoona Division, Superintendent of Motive Power, Principal 
Assistant Engineer, Maintenance of Way Department and 
Telegraph ^Department. The latter contains the offices of 
General Superintendent of Motive Power, Motive Power 
Clerk and Mechanical Engineer. Other departments of the 
road, viz : Ticket Receivers and Relief Doctors have offices 
in the second story of the Passenger Station. 

The Railroad Company also own the Logan House build- 
ing and grounds, and a large three-story brick double dwell- 
ing on Eleventh avenue, just west of the Superintendent's 
office, in which reside the General Superintendent of the 
Road and the General Superintendent of Motive Power ; also 
several other dwellings on Twelfth and Eighth avenues, 
occupied by others of high rank . 

Semi-Centennial History of Blair County. 95 

Officers Pennsylvania Railroad Co., 1896 

George B. Roberts, President. 

S. M. Prevost, General Manager. 

J. R. Wood, General Passenger Agent. 

William H. Joyce, General Freight Agent. 

A. W. Sumner, Purchasing Agent. 

James A. Logan, (xeneral Solicitor. 

The foregoing have their office in the City of Philadelphia, 
in the magnificent building, erected for Passenger Station and 
General Offices, on the corner of Broad and Market streets. 

The following officers are located in Altoona: 
F. L. Sheppard, General Superintendent Pennsylvania 
Railroad Division. 

C. A. Wood, Chief Clerk to F. L. Sheppard. 

F. D. Casanave, (rcneral Superintendent of Motive Power. 
W. H. Rohrer, Chief Clerk to F. D. Casanave 

B. F. Custer, Chief Clerk of Motive Power. 

J. M. Wallis, Superintendent of Motive Power Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad Division. 

W. E. Blanchard, Chief Clerk to J. M. Wallis. 

C. T. Witherow, Motive Power Clerk. 

H. M. Carson, Assistant Engineer Motive Power. 
M. W. Thomson, Principal Assistant Engineer. 
A. C. Shand, Assistant Principal Engineer. 

D. J. Neff, J. D. Hicks and A. J. Riley, Solicitors, 
John R. Bingaman, Chief Clerk Maintenance of Way. 
W. S. Humes, Chief Clerk of Transportation. 

A. S. Vogt, Mechanical Engineer. 
Charles B. Dudley, Chemist. 

R. E. Marshall, Superintendent Altoona Division. 
O. F. Delo, Chief Clerk to R. E. Marshall. 
W. F. Snyder, Train Master, Altoona Division. 
W. F. Taylor, Chief Telegraph Operator, Altoona Divis- 

Christ McGregor, Yard Master, Altoona Division. 

G. H. Neilson, Supervisor, Altoona Division. 

H. B. Weise, Assistant Supervisor, Altoona Division. 
D. Steel, Assistant Train Master, Pittsburg Division. 
William Herr, Assistant Train Master, Middle Division. 

96 Setni-Centennial History of Blair County. 

G. W. Strattan, Master Mechanic, Middle Division. 
A. W. Mechen, Chief Clerk to G. W. Strattan. 
John P. Levan, General Foreman Altoona Car Shops. 
L. B. Reifsneider, General Inspector Altoona Car Shops. 
T. R, Browne, Master Mechanic, Juniata Locomotive 

Charles T. Wilson, Station Master at Altoona. 

H. L. Nicholson, Ticket Ag^ent at Altoona. 

A. T, Heintzelman, Freig-ht Ag-ent at Altoona. 

Other Industries of Altoona. 

The Altoona Iron Company is the next in importance 
after the railroad shops. Their rolling- mill was erected in 
1872-3 and has been in almost continuous operation since 
April, 1873. Merchant bar iron of all kinds is manufactured 
here and the annual product reaches into the hundred thou- 
sands ; 150 men are employed. H. K. McCauley is Secretary 
and Treasurer and Robert Smiley Manager of the mill. 

A fine silk mill was erected in 1888-9 and has been in 
continuous operation ever since. A larg-e annex was built a 
few years later and a still more important addition is now 
projected. About 300 employes find work here and the 
amount of wag-es paid out annually is nearly $40,000. No 
cloth is woven, but the yarn is prepared for weaving- in the 
looms owned by the company in the East. Schwarzenbaug-h, 
Huber & Co., of New York City, are owners of the new part 
and lessees of the orig-inal plant. 

Th« ice plant of the Pennsylvania Ice Company, limited, 
located at Fifth avenue and Thirty-first street, is a larg-e con- 
cern and supplies the g-reater part of the ice consumed in the 
city. They have a capacity for manufacturing- 50,000 pounds 
of artificial ice per day and in addition have immense ice 
houses at Point View , between Hollidaysburg- and Williams- 
burg-, where great quantities of natural ice are cut and 
stored each winter. F. H. Seely is one of the heaviest stock- 
holders and resident manag-er of the company. 

Of the twelve planing- mills in the city, those of William 
Stoke, M. H. Mackey & Sons, Orr, Blake & Co., Frank 
Brandt, A. Bucher and the Parker Bros, are the largest. 

Semi- Centennial History of Blair County. 97 

The four breweries of the city have an extensive trade, 
that of the Altoona Brewing- Company on Thirteenth street 
being- the oldest and largest. Wilhelm, Schimminger and 
Ramsey operate it now. 

The gas works of the Altoona Gas Company are the 
largest between Philadelphia and Pittsburg. The company 
was chartered in 1857 and for many years their plant was at 
the corner of Eleventh avenue and Ninth street, but the 
present plant at Seventh avenue and First street was put into 
operation in February, 1892, shortly after which the old 
works were demolished and the ground is now occupied by 
track and a freight shed of the Pennsylvania Railroad Com- 
pany. John Lloyd is President of the Gas Company and 
George H. Harper Superintendent. 

The Edison Electric Illuminating Company was organized 
in 1887, by John Loudon, A. J. Anderson and others and 
established a plant on Tenth avenue between Tenth and 
Eleventh streets, which was occupied until April, 1896, when 
the present large and thoroughly equipped plant at Union 
avenue and Nineteenth street was completed and put in oper- 
ation. W. R. Dunham is President, having been elected 
early in the present year, and A. J. Anderson Secretary and 
Business Manag-er, E. B. Greene, Superintendent. 

The city water system of Altoona is one of great magni- 
tude, the plant having now cost over $1,000,000. The gather- 
ing- and storage reservoirs at Kittanning Point, on the Penn- 
sj'lvania Railroad at the Horse Shoe bend, about six miles 
west of the city, are works of art as well as monuments of 
engineering skill and well repay a visit and inspection. They 
have a combined capacity of 430,000,000 gallons and over 45 
miles of iron pipe, from 2 to 16 inches in diameter, convey 
the water by force of g-ravity to the city and distribute it to 
all residents. 

The newspapers of Altoona city comprise four dailies and 
five weeklies, including the weekly edition of two of the 
dailies. Two of the dailies, the Ti'ibnuc and the Timcs^ 
appear in the morning and tell of the various happenings of 
the world during the preceding day and up until midnight, 
while two others, the Mirror and Gazette, coming from the 
press about 5 o'clock in the evening tell of the happenings, 
local and general, during" the early part of the day. A num- 

98 Semi-Cetttennial History of Blair County. 

ber of monthly publications are also issued in the interests of 

various lodg-es and societies, but none of tj-eneral circulation. 

These will be referred to again in the article on the press of 

the county. 

Altoona has a well organized paid Fire Department, 

which superseded the volunteer firemen May 1, 1895. It con- 
sists of a Chief Engineer and 35 men. Three steam fire 
engines in service and two for emergencies ; five hose car- 
riages in use and two extra ones, one hook and ladder truck, 
7,000 feet of hose (l}( miles) and 14 horses for hauling 
the engines, truck and hose carts. 

There is in the city a library, the "Mechanics," which 
while not being free is largely patronized by the best class of 
citizens. It is fostered and materially assisted by the Penn- 
sylvania Railroad Company. G. W. Stattan is President 
Rev, Allan Sheldon Woodle Vice-President, W. C. Leet, Sec- 
retary, Miss L. L. Snyder, Librarian and Dr. C. B. Dudley, 
Chairman of the book committee. 

Altoona has a public hospital. The building was first 
erected in 1885 at a cost of $40,000 and was opened for the 
reception of patients January 1, 1886. The building has 
since been enlarged and now, with the grounds, represent a 
value of about $60,000. John P. Levan is President, L. B. 
Reifsneider, Secretary. The medical staff consists of Drs. 
John Fry, Chief of Staff, F. N. Christy, W. S. Ross, J. N. 
Blose and J. F. Arney, who serve without compensation. It 
is supported by voluntaty contributions and State appropria- 

Setni-Cetitennial History of Blair County. 99 

Big Things of Altoona. 

The people of Altoona are not given to boasting; they are, 
in fact, too modest in putting- forth the claims of their city 
to prominence. If they had a city like Altoona in California, 
Colorado or Kansas it would be advertised all over the world 
and heralded as a marvel of the age, but when an Altoona 
man goes away from home or speaks of the town he only ad- 
raits that it is a pretty good place, business is good, the city 
is growing rapidly, etc. Some evidently desire rather to 
suppress than exagerate the facts, for fear too many people 
will came here. 

Among the very large things of which they could boast, 

The Pennsylvania Railroad passing through and giving 
the best possible service in the matter of transportation. 

The freight yard of the railroad here is nearly five miles 
long and capable of holding half the cars in the United 
States when the tracks are all laid. 

The largest railroad shops in America, building the finest 
cars and locomotive engines made and employing over 7,000 

A growth in the past forty-five years, unprecedented in the 
history of this country, from a few scattered families to al- 
most 50,000 people. 

A future whose outlook is most promising. 

A surrounding country unsurpassed in the world for beauty 
of location and picturesque scenery. 

A climate more favorable to health and longevity than 
the boasted climate of California. 

Water and air as pure as any nature has provided for man 
in any place. 

Of manufacturing establishments the largest, after the 
railroad shops, are a rolling mill, employing 150 men, a silk 
mill with 250 enjrployes, twelve planing mills, furbishing 
employment to 300 to 5(iO men, an electric passenger railway 
having 2S miles of track, employing 175 men and furnishing 
rapid and cheap transportation in the city and suburbs and 
to the county-seat and Bellw^od. » ;^, 

100 Semi-Centennial History of Blair County. 


"Whoever is alive a hundred years after this will see a con- 
siderable sized town here, and this will be near about the middle 
of it." 

Thus Adam Holliday is said to have spoken to his brother 
William, as he drove a stake into the ground on the hill above 
the Juniata river, in 1768, where Hollidaysburg now stands. 

He was right; in 1868 the borough of Hollidaysburg occupied 
the land which he chose for a farm in that early day and nearly 
4,000 people claimed it as their home. It did not require one 
hundred years to work the change; in 50 years a small village 
had sprung up and Adam Holliday 's children were enjoying the 
advantages of a civilized community and the results of their 
father's labor — Adam was dead. In 75 j^ears from the date of 
this remark Hollidaysburg was the largest and most important 
town between Harrisburg and Pittsburg, having both a railroad 
and a canal. At that time only a few cities in the United States 
could boast of a railroad. The Allegheny Portage being one of 
the ver}- early ones of this country. One hundred years after the 
settlement of the place Hollidaysburg w^as a flourishing borough 
containing, with its suburbs, and 4,000 inhabitants. 
Having two large iron furnaces, two rolling mills and large ma- 
chine shops and foundrys, and being the county seat of one of the 
most important counties of the state. Thus was the prophecy 
of Adam Holliday fulfilled. 

The Holliday brothers, when the}^ started from their early 
home in the Conococheague Valley, did not intend to locate here, 
and clearing the ground for the seat of justice of a great county 
was farthest from their thoughts. They had intended to go to 
the Allegheny Valley near Kittanning, but could not get through 
Blair County, the beauty of the situation appealed to them too 
strongl}' to be resisted and they resolved to settle here. 

Thousands of other people since that time have experienced 
the same difficulty in passing through Blair County, if they 
stopped long enough to take in all the advantages it offered, they 
were sure to remain and thus it is that now more than 80,000 
people have their homes here and the number is being rapidly 
augmented. What another half century may bring to the Empire 
of Blair man knoweth not, but in the innermost thoughts of her 
friends are visions of future wealth, prosperity and greatness, so 
vast that they hesitate to give expression to their imaginations, lest 
they be laughed at as visionary and impossible. 

Setni-Centennial History of Blair County. 101 

Adam Hollida}^ purchased i,ooo acress of land on the eastern 
side oi the river including all of the site of Hollidaysburg and 
William obtained a like amount on the western side where Gays- 
port now stands. They bought from the Proprietaries — descend- 
ants of William Penn, and the price paid was five pounds sterling 
per hundred acres, equal to $220.20 for each thousand acre tracts. 
Each built a log house on his tract, as both were men of families 
and cleared and resided on their land for many years. William 
is supposed to have kept his until his death but Adam was dis- 
posessed of his on account of some imperfection in his title. He 
was paid for it however, by the government some time after the 
Rovolution, receiving $17,000 or $iS,ooo, which made him a very 
rich man for this region and that time. 

As to the location of the first houses erected, authorities differ 
and the exact truth cannot now be determined. Mr. U. J.Jones, 
writing a "History of the Juniata Valley" in 1855 saj^s AdamHol- 
liday's house stood about where the American House now stands, 
while H. H. Snyder, esq., writingsome 25 years later locates it on 
the southwest corner of Allegheny and Montgomery streets. 
Adam HoUiday died at or near Hollidaysburg in 1801 leaving but 
two children, a son John and a daughter Jane. The latter married 
William Reynolds, of Bedford county, proprietor of Bedford 
Springs Hotel. John HoUiday lived the greater part of his life 
here and here he died in 1843. He had a family of ten children, 
vis: Adam, born Nov. 9, 1804, who went to Oil City, Pa. Mary 
born April 25, 1S06, married Andrew Bratton and moved to 
L,ewistown, Pa. Sarah, born Dec. 11, 1807, married Soloman 
Filler and moved to Bedford, Pa. Lazarus L-, born Nov. 5, 1809, 
died in Missouri, July 17, 1846. John, Jr., born Dec. 8, 1811 
was a soldier in the Mexican war and died on ship board while 
enroute from Vera Cruz to Galveston Aug. 2, 1842. Alexander 
L. born May 7, 1814, resided in Hollidaysburg all his life. Jane 
born Aug. 27, 1816, married J. L. Slentz and moved to Pittsburg, 
where she died in 1869. Caroline, born July 12, 1818, married 
D. McLeary and resided at Hollidaysburg all her life time. Will- 
iam R., born Sept. 16, 1820, moved to Massachusetts. Fleming, 
the youngest, born May 25, 1823, and moved to the west. The 
names of children and grand-children of William HoUiday and 
what became of them we have been unable to learn, in the short 
time at our disposal. 

The exact date at which Hollidaysburg was laid out, is in 
some doubt, but it was prior to the beginning of the present cen- 

102 Semi-Centennial History of Blair County. 

tury, probably about 1790; though H. H. Snyder in his historical 
research came to the conclusion that it was at least ten years ear- 
lier because a Janet HoUiday owned a lot, and a Janet Holliday 
was killed by the Indians in 178 1. It is probable, however, that 
it was Jane Holliday, daughter of Adam, and not Janet daughter 
of William, who met so early and sad a death. Whatever may 
have been the date, the original plot contained but 90 lots 60x180 
feet in size and the streets were Allegheny, Walnut and Mont- 
gomery a diamond was formed by taking 30 feet off the end of 
each of the four lots cornering there. As Allegheny street was 
60 feet wide and Montgomery street 50 feet, it follows that the 
diamond was 120x170 feet, and so it has remained to the present 
time. The original plot cannot now be found and the only copy 
known is not dated. 

The little town did not grow rapidly at first and in 18 14 there 
were but three houses, a small store and a blacksmith shop. In 
1830 it was not nearh^ so large or important a village as Franks- 
town, but when the canal was finished and the great basin and 
terminus located at Hollidaysburg the place immediately began to 
grow and in 1835 it was a very important town, far exceeding 
Frankstown. The Hollidaysburg; Sentinel and Huntingdon^ 
Cambria and Bedford County Democrat, the first issue of which 
was published Oct. 6, 1835, in a descriptive article said that the 
population was i ,200 and that no town in the interior of the state 
enjoyed more advantages than Hollidaysburg. This census in- 
cluded Gaysport. In 1836, eight daily transportation lines oper- 
ated on the canal and railroad and the tolls collected on the canal, 
railroad, and for motive power that year amounted to $154, 2 8 2.74- 
The borough was chartered in August that year and the council 
held their first meeting at John Dougherty's house Sept. 20, 1836. 

Higher vilization soon became apparent for the young bor- 
ough went in debt in June 1837 for public improvements. One 
of the bonds, or evidences of debt, reads as follows: 

"Hollidaysburg Borough Loan. 

"This is to certify that there is due to bearer from the Burgess, 
Town Council, and citizens of the Borough of Hollidaysburg 
ONE DOLLAR bearing an interest, redeemable in the payment of 
taxes, by virtue of an ordinance passed by the Town Council 

June 19, 1837." 

"JAMES COFFEE, Burgess." 
$5,342.69 of these "borough notes" were outstanding on the 
6th of April 1844, at which time the total indebtedness of the 
borough was $16,31 1.30. 

Semi-Centennial History of Blair County. 103 

The "Huntingdon, Cambria and Indiana County Pike" was 
completed from Huntingdon through Hollidaysburg to Blairsville 
in 1 8 19 and the canal from Huntingdon to Hollida5^sburg in 1832; 
the first boat coming from Huntingdon Nov. 28. The Alleghen^^ 
Portage railroad was completed late in 1833 ^"*^ operated in 1834 
making the line of transportation by boat and rail complete from 
Philadelphia, through Hollidaysburg to Pittsburg, and Hollidays- 
burg became one of the most important towns between the two points, 
an extremel}' prosperous business place. When the new county 
was formed and Hollidaysburg made the seat of justice, in 1846, it 
added still more to her prestige and it seemed as if her cup of pros- 
perity was full to the brim. A few years later, 1851, the Magnetic 
telegraph as it vvas then styled, was extended from Bedford to 
Hollidaysburg and during the following year 1852 the railroad 
from Altoona was completed. 

Until the construction of the canal, the business center of 
Hollidaysburg was at the diamond but with the advent of the 
canal it all gravitated to the basin at the foot of Montgomery 
street. A town hall and market house was erected about 1835, 
midway between the diamond and canal basin and many stirring 
scenes have been witnessed where now oppressive quietness reigns 
since the railroad superseded the canal and the latter was aband- 
oned. The old market house was abandoned excepting a part 
which was fitted up for the borough fire company, but later it was 
entirely disused, and after standing tenantless for several years 
was finally torn down, at a period still quite recent. 

The large warehouses and store buildings which were erected 
near the basin have been changed to dwellings and in seme cases 
removed sirce the railroad superseded the caral, and the business 
part of the town has gone tack to its old location arourd the dia- 
mond and along Allegheny street. Many of these changes oc- 
curred before the advent of any considerable manufactures. The 
f urraces, rrd icllii g n ills aic c n cie ucei.t cr'gin Urn ihe lail- 
road and even this industry seems to have reached its highest 
point some years ago. 

The canal began to fall into disuse scon after the ccnipletion 
of the Pennsylvania railroad and in a few yeais more was entirely 
abandoned as a chanrcl of c(irn:eice; Ihe waler slccd stagnant 
within its banks a few years longer when it was drained off and 
the embankments broken down, the stone in the locks taken away 
for other uses ard row the line is cnly faintly traceable through 
the county. The Allegheny Portage railroad began at the west" 

104 Semi-Centetinial History of Blair County. 

ern end of the basin and continued thence across the Juniata and 
through Gaysport to Duncansville and "Foot of Ten" where it 
began its steep ascent of the mountain to another plane, along this 
plane to another incline and so on to the mountain top, and down 
on the other side to Johnstown, 39 miles from HoUidaysburg, the 
beginning of the western division of the canal. 

Iron manufacturers had been operating in the upper Juniata 
Valley for 50 years before any furnaces were erected in HoUidays- 
burg, but to compensate, in some degree, for this, those built at 
HollidaA/sburg, in 1855, were much larger and more complete than 
any others and used coke for fuel instead of charcoal as the earlier 
and smaller ones in the county had done. The first of these fur- 
naces called the HoUidaysburg furnace but later known as 
No. I, was built by Watson, White & Co., at a cost of about 
$60,000. It stood on the Gaysport side of the river. The prin- 
cipal contributors to the enterprise were Col. William Jack, Mc- 
L,anahan, Watson & Co., Robert and B. M. Johnston, David 
Watson, William Jackson, A. M. White and Samuel S. Blair, 
Esq. It was first put in blast Nov. 18, 1856, and had a capacity 
of 120 tons per week. 

Chimney Rocks Furnace, later known as No. 2, was built in 
1855-6 by Gardner, Osterloh & Co. Although bugan later than 
the other it was completed first, but was of less capacity. 
A few years later, owing to financial difficulties, these two furnaces 
came under one control. The Blair Iron & Coal Company com- 
posed of Watson, Dennison & Co. and the Cambria Iron Co., of 
Johnstown. They were thus operated tor many years. Quite 
recently however, the old No. f furnace was abandoned and torn 
torn down so that now there is but one furnace at HoUidaysburg. 

The Hollidajsburg Iron and Nail Company is the name of 
the corporation now owning and operating one of the rolling 
mills at HoUidaysburg. The mill is located near the No. 2 
furnace and was built in 1869 by B. M. Johnston. In 
1866 some new members were taken in and the company char- 
tered under the above name. The works have been operated 
almost continuously for thirty-six years. 

The other rolling mill was built later and is now operated 
by the Kleanor Iron Company, R. C. McNeal Secretary and 
Treasurer. These are both quite extensive works, the Iron 
and Nail Company employing 150 men. Nails were made 
here at one time, but the nail department has not been in 
operation for some 3'ears. 

Semi-Centennial History of Blair County. 105 

McLanahan, Smith & Co. have an extensive foundry and 
machine shop in Gaysport, where they manufacture larg-e 
quantities of machinery which is shipped to various parts of 
the country, the Southern States especially. These works 
were first started in 1857 as the Bellroug-h foundry and have 
been enlarg^ed several times since by successive owners. 


First settlement made in 1768 

Janet Holliday and brother massacred by Indians 1790 

Town laid out about 1790 

Pike completed thoug-h 1819 

Canal completed to here and first boat run 1832 

Portag-e Railroad completed 1833 

Population 1,200 in 1836 

Incorporated as a boroug-h 1836 

Great flood 1838 

Made county-seat 1846 

First court held in M. E. church, July 27 1846 

Magnetic teleg-raph from Bedford A8'\ fr /^^ 

Pennsylvania Central Railroad and first train 1852 

First foundry 1837 

First fire engine (hand engine) 1837 

First iron furnace 1855 

First rolling mill 1860 

First water-works, from Brush Mountain.. . . 1867 

Present countail jail completed 1869 

Presbyterian church completed 1870 

First steam fire engine 1871 

Present Court House built 1877 

Larg-est fire, Wayne and Allegheny streets ; loss, $2,000, -J^^,<^*^<^. 

April, 14 1880 

Telephone service from Altoona 1881 

Memorable flood. May 31 1889 

;fclectric Passeng-er Railroad from Altoona 1893 

Water broug-ht from Blair run 1895 

Celebration of Semi-Centennial, June 11 and 12 1896 

106 Semi- Centennial History of Blair County. 


If some adventurous person had followed the Juniata River to 
near its headwaters any time between the years 1770 and 1785 he 
might have seen, shortly after passing through the gap in the Bald 
Eagle mountains, a level, triangular piece of ground, surrounded 
on three sides by the mountain, and high hills and from the north 
a stream of about the same size as the Juniata joining it here; also 
a smaller stream flowing from a large spring and emptying into 
the Juniata, and, in a small clearing near this spring, a hut or rude 
dwelling inhabited by a half civilized Indian. This flat is where 
Tyrone now stands and the Indian was Captain or Chief Logan, 
an Indian differing little from others of the Cayugas, to which 
tribe he belonged, except that he had laid aside the implements 
of warfare and lived by hunting and fishing and bj^ cultivating 
some of the land surrounding his cabin. He was not proud, but 
had he known the post mortem honors that the future had in store 
for him, that a rich and pleasant valley, a township, a borough, 
an immense hotel and others of less size, beside numerous lodges, 
societies, etc., and a great electric railway company would be 
named after him, he might have been more dignified than he was. 
Fortunately he never dreamed of these honors and when, in 1785, 
a white man secured the legal title tonthe land that he had held 
only by possessory right, and told him to mo.e off, he did so 
without much objection and journeyed north to near the present 
site of Clearfield, where he ended his days in peace. 

The name of the white man who thus cruelly dispossessed the 
peaceful old Indian has not been preserved, but he did not hold 
the lands long. About the beginning of the present century they 
formed part of a large mineral tract owned by John Glonninger & 
Co., who in 1806 erected forges at the place now known as Ty- 
rone Forges. A little village grew up around the Forges and a 
farmer or two and a man with a saw-mill, Blisha Davis, occupied 
the Indian's former land as tenants of, or purchasers from, Glon- 
ninger 's. The Forges soon after became the propert}^ of Wm. M. 
Lyon & Co. Jacob Burley was one of the very early settlers here 
and built a log house in 1820 or perhaps earlier where the Central 
Hotel now stands. 

No town was projected until the Central Pennsylvania Rail- 
road as the Pennsylvania Railroad was then called, was in 
process of construction, then Tyrone sprung into being. The first 

Semi-Centennial History of Blair County. 107 

plot was surveyed in the spring of 185 1 by direction of \Vm. M. 
Lyon & Co. It consisted of 75 lots only, lying north of Juniata 
street and west of Main. During that season six or eight small 
buildings were erected for stores and residences. A frame house 
built by Jacob Burley in 1850 where the Study block now stands 
was used as a store and dwelling that year and was the first store 
in the new town. 

No name was given the place by its proprietors at first but it 
was called Eaglesville by some and Shorbsville by others for the 
first year or tvvo, but when it became apparent that it would grow 
into a village it was christened Tyrone City. The latter part of 
the name to distinguish it from T5'rone Forges, less than a mile 
distant. T3Tone City grew quite rapidl)^ and in a few years con- 
tained enough people to entitle it to a postoffice, and F. M. Bell 
was appointed first postmaster, which office he held until 1857, 
keeping the ofiice in his store. There has been no halt in the 
growth of Tyrone, although it has not increased as rapidly as 
Altoona. In 1870 the population was 1,800, and now, with its 
suburbs, it is fully 8,000. By an Act of Assembly, approved 
Maj- 1874, it was divided into four wards, which is the present 

The completion of the Pennsylvania Railroad through Tyrone 
from Philadelphia to Pittsburg, opened up a new outlet to market 
for the products of Center count3^ and the people were not slow 
to take advantage of it. A plank road was completed from Belle- 
fonte to Tyrone in 1853 and in 1856 the project of a branch rail- 
road to connect with the Pennsylvania Railroad was agitated , and 
the Tyrone and Lock Haven Railroad Company was organized. 
This company did not have sufficient capital to build the line and 
it fell through, but in 1861 the Bald Eagle Valley Railroad Com- 
pany was formed, and with some assistance from the Pennsylva- 
nia Railroad Company, completed the railroad to Lock Haven. 
Connecting also with Bellefonte by a branch from Milesburg. 

A road to Clearfield, opening up the rich lumber and coal fields 
of that county, was projected in 1856. The Tyrone and Clear- 
field Company, organized to build it found the undertaking too 
great and were also obliged to obtain assistance from the Penn- 
sylvania. This road was also built in 1862, and the two branches 
brought an immense amount of business to Tyrone. The Tyrone 
Division of the Pennsj'lvania Railroad, to manage these two 
branches, was established at this time, and the car repair shops at 
Tyrone were built in 1868. The Tyrone and Lewisburg branch, 
which also belongs to this division, was constructed in 1881-2. 

108 Setni-Centennial History of Blair County. 

The Tyrone Gas and Water Co. was authorized by Act of As- 
sembly March lo, 1865, but no organization was completed until 
1869, at which time a company was formed with a capital of $20,- 
000, and water works immediately constructed and pipes laid in 
the principal streets. The Gas Works however, were not built 
until 1873. Gas was expensive in those days, the rate to consum- 
ers being $3.50 per thousand cubic feet. A Volunteer Fire de- 
partment was organized in 1868 and Wm. Stoke, nowof Altoona, 
was the first Fire Marshall of Tyrone. The first steam fire engine 
and 200 feet of hose was purchased in 1873 and given in charge 
of the Neptune Fire Co., which had been organized as a Hose Co. 
in 1 87 1. 

The Bald Eagle tannery, one of Tyrone's important industries 
was erected and put in operation in 1870 by Daniel P. Ray and 
after his death in 1881 operated by his sons John K. and Daniel 
P. Ray. The tannery is located close to the passenger station. 

The Tyrone Paper Mills, the largest industry in Tyrone and 
one of the largest of its kind in the state, was built by Morrison, 
Bare & Cass in 1880 and put in operation in October of that year, 
and has been running successfully ever since. It is situated on 
Bald Eagle Creek at the upper end of Pennsylvania avenue. Sev- 
eral hundred men are employed and immense q uantities of wood 
are used in the manufacture. They make manilla writing, book 
and news paper, wood being the principal ingredient, being 
chopped into small chips and reduced to pulp by chemical pro- 

The first Building and L,oan Association in Tyrone was or- 
ganized March, 1870, and called the Tyrone Building and Loan 
Association. Another, the Bald Eagle, was organized May, 1872. 
The first hotel erected for the purpose in Tyrone was the Central, 
built in 1852-3 by John Burley, it was afterward enlarged and is 
now carried on by C. M. Waple. The Ward House, by the pas- 
senger station was built in 1859 to 1862 by Mrs. Mary Ward. It 
is now conducted on by J. T. Rowley. 

The first bank in Tyrone was that of Eloyd, Caldwell & Co., 
established in 1866 and went down with the other Eloyd banks in 
the financial crash of 1873. 

The Tyrone Bank was established April i, 1871, and the 
Blair County Banking Co., organized Dec. 15, 1874. 

Semi-Cententiial History of Blair County. 109 

Tyrone Newspapers. 

Had there been some deadly miasma in the air as fatal to 
human lile as the conditions seemed to be to the early newspaper 
ventures, Tyrone would be an uninhabited spot to-day, but fortu- 
nately there was not. 

The first newspaper started in Tyrone was a weekly in 1856 by 
D. A. McGeehan and called the Iron Ao-e politics, Demccratic. 
It continued for a year or a little more when it failed and the pro- 
prietor was sold out. 

The American Era was commenced a little later the same 
year, owned by a stock company and edited by W. S. H. Keys, 
politics. Republican. The rival papers maintained a bitter war- 
fare with each other and both failed about the same time, the 
press and type of the Era being purchased by Robert Stodard. 
The town was without a paper for a while and then the Tyrone 
Herald was started with the same outfit formerly used by the Era. 

It failed after a \ ear's strug-g"le ag^ainst adverse circum- 
stances and was revived later under the name of the Star, by 
James Bell, but the Star was not a fixed one and failed after 
a short period. Ag^ain a newspaper was started under the 
name of the Tyrone Herald, H. R. Holtzing-er, editor. It 
survived six months. Holtzing-er being- a Brethren minister, 
soon after started a denominational paper called the Christian 
Family Companion, which succeeded quite well, but in a few 
years was moved to Somerset county. Soon afterward the 
Western Hemisphere was started by J. W. Scott and Cyrus 
Jeffries, but eig-hteen months was as long- as their finances 
would support it and it too was carried to the newspaper 
cemetery of Tyrone and laid to rest sadly by the side of its 
many equally unfortunate predecssors. 

The Tyrone Herald, for the third time, made its appear- 
ance on the newspaper horizon in Aug-ust, 1867, but it could 
scarcely claim relationship to or descent from either of the 
other two Heralds which preceded it. Holtzing-er and J. 
L. Holmes were proprietors of the Herald this time and it 
proved a success. In 1868 C. S. W. Jones became part owner 
which was a guarantee of its stability and success, and it still 
survives, occupying- a building of its own. In Jul}^ 1880, the 
office was burned out but the paper did not lose an issue on 
that account. It is now published daily and weekly, the daily 
having- been beg-un in 1887, C. S. W. Jones still editor and 

The Tyrone Bulletin, by Matthew H. Jolly, was issued 
from April, 1867, for six months, when it collapsed. 

110 Semi- Centennial History of Blair County. 

The Tyrone Blade was established by J. L. Holmes after 
his retirement from the Herald. He published it from June 
1, 1870, to November 22, I872, when he sold it to George 
Stroup who chang-ed the name to the Tyrone Democrat, which 
was published until July 8, 1880, when the great fire destroyed 
the office and the paper was never revived. 

The Tj^rone Times was first beg-un as a semi-weekly paper 
June 1, 1880, by John N. Holmes, son of J. L. Holmes and 
A. M. Wooden, the office being- in a building of Mr. Wooden's 
on lower Main street and the outfit a complete new one. 
Aug-ust lOtli, the same year, it was changed to a weekl}-. 
It passed throug"h several hands, being- owned and edited by 
C. G. Nisselj' for a long- time, but is now published by Harry 
A. Thompson, who became its owner February 1, 1896. 


This beautiful little town, formerly called Bells' Mills, is 
noted for its picturesque mountain scenery. It is situated on the 
main line of the Pennsylvania Railroad, midway between Altoona 
and Tyrone. It is also the southern terminus of the Pennsylva- 
nia Northwestern Railroad, formerly the Bells' Gap, which was 
constructed in 1872 and later extended to Punxsutawney in 
Jefferson County and passes through a rich coal and lumber 
region. The town first began to build up around the saw and 
grist mill of Edward Bell about the year 1828, but only attained 
a small size until the building of the Bells' Gap Railroad. It 
was regularly laid out in 1877. The shops of this company are 
located here and furnish employment to a large number of men. 
There is also a foundry and machine shop doing an extensive 
business. The place contains three hotels, several stores, a bank, 
four churches, Methodist Episcopal, Baptist, Eutheran and Pres- 
byterian. In 18^4 the Eogan Valley Electric Passenger Rail- 
way extended their tracks to Bellwood and that is now the east 
ern terminus of the line, although it is likelj^ soon to be contin- 
ued to Tyrone. The population of Bellwood is now 1,500. 

Setni-Centennial History of Blair County. Ill 


When the first morning sun of the Nineteenth Century rose 
it saw more evidences of civilization in Williamburg and vicinity 
than any part of Blair county. The town plot had been laid out 
in 1795 by Jacob Ake, who owned 600 acres of land including the 
present village site and surroundings, and it is said he had a 
school kept here about the year 1790 he furnishing the room and 
paying the teacher and the settlers sending their children without 
charge. If this be true it was the earliest free school in this re- 
gion. The town plot contained 120 lots 50x175 feet in size. 
The original streets wete Front and Second, each 60 feet wide, 
Plum, 50 feet wide, High, 66 feet in width and Spring only 42, 
eight feet being allowed tor the flow of the spring, The early 
name of the town was Akestown, after its founder. It is said 
that in 18 14 there were forty families here and that was equal to 
the population of Frankstown at the time and far in excess of 
Hollidaysburg. A saw and grist mill run by the water from the 
big spring were built and operated as early as 1791 or '92. A 
bucket factor}^ was established in 1830 by Hawley & Woodcock 
and soon after a woolen factor}^ by David Bender. An oil mill 
and tannery and several distilleries here, were among the very 
earliest industries of the county. The canal passed through 
in 1832 and the present Williamsburg branch of the Pennsylva- 
nia Railroad was constructed about 1870. 

An iron furnace was built in 1857, which was run for a num- 
ber of years, but has now been removed and the only evidence of 
its existence to-day is a large pile of furnace slag. Williamsburg is 
beautifully situated on the Frankstown branch of the Juniata 
river and under favorable conditions has the making of a large 
city, and such it may ultimately become, but now its principal 
claim to distinction is as the birthplace, or near it, of some of the 
most prominent people Blair county has produced. One now oc- 
cupies a seat in the Supreme Court of the State, another is a mem- 
ber of Congress, another Mayor of the city of Harrisburg and 
another will soon be elected to represent this county in the State 
Legislature. The population is at present al)OUt 1,000. There 
are a number of stores, four churches, a bank and several 
smaller manufacturing establishments. The wonderful spring 
still turns the wheels of a good-sized grist mill. 

112 Setni-Centennial History of Blair County. 


The country in the vicinity of Martinburg was settled before 
the Revolution, but Martinsburg town was not laid out until 1815. 
The first plot was by Daniel Camerer and John Soyster built the 
first house. Abraham Stoner laid out a plot adjoining Camerer 's 
in 1820, and James McCra}^ plotted an extension to the borough 
in 1871. 

The growth of the town was slow ; in i860 the population 
was 464 and in 1880 567. Now it is about 1,000. 

The borough was incorporated in 1832 and in 1834 a second 
Act of Assembly enlarged the bounds considerabl3^ 

The surrounding country is a rich agricultural district, and 
a very good trade is carried on here with the farmers of the 
lower end of the county. 

No iron works were ever built at Martinsburg and no large 
industries of any kind established, but a big building, known 
as the Juniata Institute stands on the outer edge of the town 
and may be considered the most prominent feature. (See 
schools). Besides a number of stores, a hotel, and several 
churches there is a bank, the Martinsburg Deposit Bank 
which was established in 1870. 

A small newspaper, the Cove Echo, was published here in 
1874-5 by Henry and John Brumbaugh. Unlike other towns 
of the county Martinsburg is not surrounded by mountain 
scenery, but occupies a comparatively level plain. 

Roaring Spring. 

This beautiful and flourishing borough contains about 
1000 inhabitants, and is one of the newest towns of the county, 
although it is the site of the first grist mill in all the region. 
Jacob Neff, built a mill here, below the Springs, about the 
year 1765, but it was not until quite recently that a town 
grew up in the vicinit3\ The Spring is one of the natural 
curiosities of Pennsylvania, bursting from the foot of a slight 
elevation, it sends forth a stream of clear, pure and cold 
water, of sufficient volume to turn an over-shot water wheel 
and run a fair sized grist mill; to which use it was put for 
many years, but now the large flouring mills of D. M. Bare 
& Co., are driven by steam power, although the water for 
the boilers comes from the spring. 

Semi-Centetmial History of Blair County. 113 

As before stated, a grist mill was erected here at a very 
early day, the exact date now unknown, by Jacob Neff; and 
it was burned by the Indians and rebuilt by him prior to the 
Revolution, Later, but still long-, long, ag-o, it was owned 
by John Ullery, who was its next proprietor. It passed 
throug-h various hands and finally came into the possession 
of D. M. Bare who, in 1864, purchased the old mill, and in 
1869 erected the present large one. Later, he associated others 
with him and the firm was styled D. M. Bare & Co. "Bare's 
Best," flour became a household word throug-hout a wide ter- 
ritory. Mr. Bare, in partnership with Eby, Morrison & Co., 
in 1866, built a paper mill just below the grist mill and these 
two, tog-ether with a blank-book factory erected in 1886, are 
the g-reat industries of the town; furnishing employment to a 
larg-e number of persons. The first regularly laid out town 
lots were those plotted for D. M. Bare, in 1865 — fifty in num- 
ber. Hon. Georg-e H. Spang- also laid out a plot adjoining- 
these in 1874 and in 1887 the borough was incorporated, and 
in the spring- of 1888 the first boroug-h officers were elected. 

A fire destoyed the paper mill in 1866 and another in 1887 
the book factor}', but both were immediately rebuilt. A larg-e 
hotel was erected in 1888, near the depot. The railroad was 
extended from Hollidaysburg- to Roaring- Spring, Martinsburg- 
and Henrietta, in 1871. It should be needless to add that the 
town was named from the spring-, but it will surprise strang-- 
ers to learn that no one now living", ever heard this spring- 
roar. It is said, however, that in the early days of the coun- 
try it did send forth a roaring- sound that, in the stillness of 
the forest, could^be .heard for half a mile, and that chang-es 
made at its mouth obliterated this feature but not the name. 

Tipton, Fostoria and Grazierville. 

These are small, very small villag-es, on the P. R. R. be- 
tween Bellwood and Tyrone. The two former were started 
about the same time as Altoona and Tyrone but did not thrive 
as their projectors had hoped and both now present a some- 
what forlorn and deserted appearance. Yet the time is not 
far distant when the}' may put on new life and activity. The 
entire valley from Bellwood to Tyrone is very attractive and 
when the Log-an Valley Electric railway is completed to Ty- 
rone, it will all be built up with residences and become one 
continuous town. Grazierville was the location of Cold Spring- 
forg-e long- before the railroad was built and it is but a small 
hamlet now, the forge having- long- since ceased to burn and 
its very site almost obliterated. Davidsburg- is a Fmall but 
ancient village on the public road between Bellwood and Fos- 
toria;, off from the railroad. It was laid out in 1827, by John 
Henshey, and named in honor of his son David. Chief Logan, 
the Indian, had his wigwam beside the spring- here before he 

114 Semi-Centennial History of Blair County. 

located at the present site of T3'rone, Prior the construction 
of the P. R. R. this place was on the public road leading- 
from Bellefonte to the Portage railroad at Duncansville and 
was quite a flourishing village, with three stores, two hotels, 
a tannery, two blacksmith shops, etc. Dr. Crawford Irwin, 
now of Hollida^'sburg-, located here in his younger days. 

The Future of Blair County. 

No man can see an inch beyond the present, but a careful 
observation of the present, together with a thoughtful study oi the 
past, often furnishes a basis for almost positive predictions for the 

Such observation and study has occupied much of the writer's 
time and the result has been such as to fully satisfy him that 
Blair county has before her a future of great brilliancy. The 
situation is worthy of special consideration. The superficial area 
of the county is large, 594 miles, half as much as the State of 
Rhode Island and more than one- fourth the size of Delaware and 
while surrounded on all sides by mountains, a large proportion of 
the soil is tillable and most of it reasonably fertile. Well culti- 
vated it would support a large population, though of course, not 
nearly as large as many other parts of the State. Her ability to 
maintain a population of 100,000 is easily demonstrable, and this 
is one factor in the case. 

That she already has so many inhabitants, and is so far ahead 
of the surrounding counties in population and in the possession 
of a large city, Altoona, is another important factor. It gives her 
prestio:e, which is a drawing power, prven by the hundreds of 
people from the immediately adjacent counties nowhere and daily 
arriving. It is not reasonable to suppose that any other cit}^ 
within a radius of 100 miles will ever surpass or even equal 
Altoona in size. She is the metropolis of Central Pennsylvania 
and will remain so without a rival. There are too many shrewd 
and intelligent men here, with property interests at stake, for her 
steady growth to be checked for an instant. 

For Altoona to cease growing means bankruptcy for them and 
they will keep enterprise on the move as a matter of selt-preser- 
vation. With such men, so interested, and backed by a rich and 
powerful railroad, like the Penns3'lvania. can anyone think ior an 
instant that Altoona will cease growing before her population has 
reached 100,000, or that it will be allowed to stop even there ? 

The Pennsylvania Railroad is solidly buit, has possession of 
the field and from the nature of the country it would be almost 
impossible for a parallel and competing line to be profitably' con- 
structed anywhere near Blair covmty. A north and south road is 
feasible, would prove a benefit to the Pennsylvania Railroad and 
will undobtedly be built; and Altoona, as the largest city of this 
region, accessible by rail in every direction, will be the center of 

Semi-Centennial History of Blair County. 115 

trade and, of course, prosper greatly. Altoona being a great city 
and also a part of Blair county, it follows, necessarily, that Blair 
county will be great and everj^ part of the county be benefitted by 
proximity to it. 

Furthermore, Blair county has mineral wealth. Some of it 
has been partially developed, but there is much reason to believe 
that the vast body of her mineral deposits are yet untouched. 
Some day a man with money to waste will erect a derrick in some 
of the valleys, perhaps Logan, below Bellwood, and after spend- 
ing a few thousands will find petroleum oil gushing out in such 
quantities as to repay him in a week. Then others will do like- 
wise while many will say, " I thought as much. Why was it 
not done before ? ' ' 

Some time shafts and slopes will be sunk in Blair count}^ 
from vvhich vast quantities of coal will be taken, and fortunes will 
be made by that industry. Manufactures will flourish here, too: 
There is no reason wh)^ they should not. Artisans enjoy life 
better and can do more work in a healthy climate, where air 
and water is pure and the surroundings beautiful, than where the 
contrary is true, therefore thousands of mechanics will, in the 
early future, reside in Blair county and the products of their labor 
will be sold all over the world. Will not Blair then be great? 
Nearly everything that can be manufactured profitably in any 
part of the United States may, under good management, be manu- 
factured here with profit ; especially such articles as are in con- 
stant and general use by us. A pound of raw cotton, worth 6 or 
7 cents in the fields of South Carolina is shipped to Massachu- 
setts and made into print cloth ; is sent to Blair county and we 
pay 50 to 75 cents for it. A pound of wool in California, worth 20 to 
25 cents, also goes east and after being made into cloth comes to 
Blair county and we pay $1.50 to $2.00 for it. The difference 
represents the labor of eastern mechanics and the profit of eastern 
manufacturers and wholesalers. These and a hundred other 
things might be made in Blair county, and the workmen engaged 
at it live here and help to swell our aggregate of population and 
wealth. Some day this will be done. 

Places of Interest which Visitors to Blair 
County should See. 

First, the immense shops of the Pennsylvania Railroad Com- 
pany, in their three departments of Machine shops. Car shops and 
Locomotive shops, where everything pertaining to cars and engines 
is made ; where parlor cars of the most luxurious design and 
finish costing $12,000 to $20,000 are constructed and locomo- 
tive engines weighing a hundred tons are built, capable of rushing 

116 Semi-Centennial History of Blair County. 

through the country, on steel rails, at the rate of a mile a minute 
and hauling freight trains of such enormous weight that i,ooo 
teams of horses could not move them. 

Second, the large freight j'ard extending from the eastern 
limits of the city to Elizabeth furnace, nearly five miles ; not yet 
completed but having miles upon mile of side tracks on which 
may be seen thousands of cars. 

The extensive paper mills of Morrison & Cass, at Tyrone, 
where fine book paper is made from the thousands of cords of 
wood piled up on all sides of the mill. A similar plant, though 
not so large, at Roaring Springs. 

The Logan House, at Altoona, which Bill Nye, when he 
stopped here, said was as large as the State of Rhode Island ; 
that he slept in the northeast corner of it, two miles from the 
clerk's office. 

\_) The stupendous reservor at Kittanning Point, where over 
400,000,000 gallons of water is stored for the use of Altoona. 

The ' ' Horse-shoe Bend ' ' of the Pennsylvania Railroad at Kit- 
tanning Point, and the grand mountain scenery from there to 
Bennington, which has been admired by thousands of people from 
all parts of the world. 

Roaring Spring and the big spring at Williamsburg, both of 
which flow strong enough to run a griest mill. 

ij Flowing spring near Williamsburg on the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road branch which ebs and flows at irregular intervals. 

Sinking run in Sinking Run Valley, Tyrone township, 
which is quite a good sized creek and after a flow of several 
miles is completely swallowed up and disappears in the earth. 

Arch Spring in the same township near Water Street, 
iwhich bursts from an arched formation in a hill side and pro- 
duces a large stream which flows into the Juniata river. This 
is supposed to be the same Sinking run which disappears 
some miles to the west. 

The large lime stone quaries and kilns at Frankstown, 
Duncansville, Canan Station and other places. 

The ruins of old iron furnaces, at Allegheny Furnace near 
Altoona, others at Frankstown, Williamsburg, Elizabeth 
Furnace, McKee's Gap and elsewhere. 

The beautiful park and lake at Lakemont on the Logan 
Valley Electric Railway, midwa}- between Altoona and Holli- 

Wopsononock mountain and observatory, reached by the 
Altoona, Clearfield and Northern railroad from Juniata. 

The magnificent landscapes to be seen from elevated points 
in and near Hollidaysburg, Altoona, Bellwood and Tyrone, 
and the beautiful Logan Valley as it may be viewed from the 
cars of the Pennsylvania Railroad in passing from Altoona to 
Tyrone. Also hundreds of other beautiful and interesting 
things and localities that will be pointed out by old residents 
of the county. 




As from the rock that towers high, 
The eagle gazes toward the sky, 
Then spreads his wings and soars away. 
To bathe his plumage in tlie ray 
That falls in freshness from the sun; 
So Blair from lofty Huntingdon, 
Grazed upward toward Dominion's sky, 
And quick to see and strong to fly, 
Sprang upward in her liberty. 
And rose to glorious destiny. 

For fifty years her wings she's tried, 
For fifty years her strength and pride 
Have weakened not, but stronger grown, 
^Till through the land her power's known, 
And Pennsylvania's counties fair, 
Obeisance pay to Little Blaih. 

Her rock-ribbed mountains, high and blue, 
Are not more strong and not more true, 
Than is her love for those who gave 
Their strong, young life our Land to save, 
Who heard great Lincoln's call for men. 
And died in field and prison-pen. 
Blair's heroes sleep far, far from home. 
Their only epitapli, "Unknown!" 
But angels bright are sent of G-od 
To watch beside their beds of sod. 
Long as our mountains pierce the skies — 
Till God shall bid the dead arise- 
Ne'er let the work ©ur heroes wrought, 
By children's children be forgot. 

Brave "Boys in Blue," when strife was o'er, 
When cannon ceased to flame and roar; 
When God's sweet angel whispered "Peace!" 
And caused the noise of war to cease; 
Witli sunburnt face and battle scars. 
Beneath the dear old Stripes and Stars, 
Marched homeward to the hills of Blair, 
While shouts of welcome filled the air. 
These "Boys in Blue," so brave and strong. 
Are with us now, but not for long; 
For one by one they pass within 
The tent that has no "outward swing." 
The debt we owe them never can 
Be paid on earth by mortal man. 
May He who died a world to save 
Smile on our heroes, true and brave. 

But Blair has other heroes true 
As those who fought in lines of blue 
For Freedom, and inscribed their name 
High on the scroll of deathless Fame. 
Who, in the time of testing, stood 
Where duty called, and never would 
Their post forsake, but did their part 
in face of Death, like noble Sharp. 

God's richest blessings on him rain 
Who saved the wildly rusliing train; 
Who bravely answered Duty's call 
And gave the world a second Paul. 

Where robed in ermine justice stands. 
Her balanced scales witliin her hands, 
Blair's sons now sit in court supreme 
Impartially to judge between 
The right and wrong of every cause — 
Maintaining justice and her laws. 

Where statesmen "clutcli the golden keys 
To mould a mighty state's decrees—" 
In congress halls her sons have gone 
And lasting honors there have won. 

In church at home and church abroad 
Her sons proclaim the truth of God, 
And heathen far beyond tlie sea 
Point to the Christ of Calvary. 

Her teachers, too, well "skilled to rule'' 
In city or In village school. 
Have learning's strong foundation laid 
In mind of boy and mind of maid, 
Till all her sons and daughters fair 
Are now the pride of "Little Blair;'' 
While some have climbed Parnassus' hill, 
Whose name and fame the nations fill. 

Her Press so strong, so true and free, 
To plead for Right and Liberty; 
All shams expose, all truth defend; 
Has proved herself tlie People's friend. 
As our own mountain air is free, 
So let our Press forever be! 

The peerless Corporation, too, 
Known o'er the world, as strong and true 
As Johnstown Bridge, well known to fame, 
That stood so firm when torrents came; 
To all her men both kind and fair, 
Has brought large wealth to "Little Blair." 
Ib busy shops, on flying trains. 
With brawny arms and giant brains, 
With courage true and matchless zeal, 
Her sons promote the Nation's weal. 

For fifty years she's done so well. 
No mortal all her deeds may tell; 
While mountains pierce the ambient air, 
O live and flourish, glorious Blair! 

Ida Clakkson Lewis 
Altoona, Pa., April 13, 1896. 



The Program as It Was Carried Out, June lo, ii and 12, 1896, 

The two old and true sayings that 
"Man proposes but God disposes," and 
"There's many a slip "twixt cup and the 
lip, " did not receive much additional il- 
lustration during the greatJubilee of Blair 
County in commemoration of the comple- 
tion of her first fifty years of independent 
existence, as the pre-arranged program 
was carried out with but little change. 
Providence seemed to smile on the ettbrts 
of the people of Blair to properly cele- 
brate the occasion. The weather all that 
could have been desired ; frequent show- 
ers during the week preceding and on the 
first two days of the week of festivities 
led to some apjjrehension that it might be 
a failure, but on Wednesday morning the 
clouds were dissipated and not another 
drop of rain fell until tlie last set piece of 
the pyrotechnic display of Friday night 
had enacted its part and the curtain 
dropped on the scene. 

Wednesday afternoon, June 10, 1896, 
at 2:30 o'clock the first formal meeting- 
took place. It was the bar of Blair Coun- 
ty entertaining invited guests, disting- 
uished jurists, and former members of 
the county bar with reminiscent speech 
at the Court House, and in the evening 
a banquet at the Logan House, Altoona. 

The afternoon meeting was called 
to order at 2:30, and on motion of 
A. A. Stevens, Esq., Hon. Martin 
Bell, President Judge of the county, 
was chosen chairman. Rev. D. H. 
Barron, D. D., pastor of the First Pres- 
byterian church of Hollidaysburg, ottered 
a prayer, and a sextette under the leader- 
ship of Charles Geesey, Esq., sang the 
national anthem "America." The sing- 
ers also rendered other appropriate selec- 
tions, at intervals, during the afternoon. 
Hon. D. J. Neft', the oldest active mem- 
ber of the bar, delivered the address of 
welcome. He was followed by Hon. Au- 
gustus S. Landis with a historical ad- 
dress, which occupied an hour in the de- 
livery. Other short addresses were made 
by Hon. William Dorris of Huntingdon, 
one of the five surviving members of the 
original bar, Hon. John Scott of Phila- 
delphia, and Hon. John Fenlon of Ebens- 
burg, also among the few survivors of 
that first court in Blair County nearly 
fifty years ago. Mr. Justice John Dean 
of tlie Supreme Bench, was the last speak- 
er, after which W. L. Pascoe, Esq., of 
Tyrone, at 5 o'clock, moved the adjourn- j 
ment of the meeting in a few well chosen | 
sentences. i 

Among the distinguished guests pres- j 
ent were : Hon. John Dean of HoUidays- j 
burg, Hon. A. V. Barker and Hon. John 
Fenlon of Ebensburg, Hon. John M. Bail- 

ey and Hon. William Dorris of Hunting- 
don, Hon. John Scott and H. O. Kline of 
Philadelphia, Hon. J. H. Longenecker of 
Bedford, Hon. Scott Alexander of Fulton 
County, and others. 

The addresses of Col. Neft" and Judge 
Landis are given in full on the following 

In the evening the bar and invited 
guests assembled at the Logan House, at 8 
o'clock, for a reception and banquet. They 
sat down to the banquet table at 9.45 and, 
with the exception of some attorneys from 
Hollidaysburg and Tyrone who were 
I obliged to leave on the 12 o'clock train, 
did not quit the banquet hall until/ o'clock 
1 in the morning. No wines nor intoxicants 
of any kind were served, and the last two 
hours were spent in responding to the 
toasts, J. S. Leisenring, Esq., toast-mas- 

Hon. L. W. Hall, of Harrisburg, to 
whom had been assigned the task of re- 
sponding to "The Lawyer" was not pre- 
sent and this toast was not offered. Mr. 
Justice John Dean responded to the toast 
"The Judiciary" and spoke feelingly. 
Thos. H. Greevy, Esq., responded to the 
toast "Our Clients'' in a humorous vein. 
W. I. Woodcock, Esq., in the absence of 
Judge Bell, who was luiable to remain to 
the end of the banquet, responded to the 
toast "Our Guests." Most of the guests 
of the afternoon were present at the re- 
ception and banquet at night, and the 
Christian Endeavor Sextette led by Chas. 
Geesey, Esq., rendered some pleasing- 
music. The Committee on Arrangements 
was composed of Hon. Martin Bell, Hon. 
A. S. Landis, A. A. Stevens, Hon. D. J. 
Nett", J. S. Leisenring, W. L. Hicks, W. 
S. Hammond and H. A. McFadden. 

Thursday morning's sun rose in a 
cloudless sky and the temperature was 
not much above 70 degrees Fahrenheit 
at any time ; a gentle breeze making the 
day a perfect one for marching, no dust 
and no mud. This was Military Day and 
shortly after 11 a. m. the columns of sol- 
diers moved oft' over the route assigned 
in the following order: 
Chief Marshal Theodore Burchfield and 
Altoona City Band, 
Fifth Regiment Drum Corps, 
Fifth Regiment National Guards of Pa., 

Battery "B'' of the Second Brigade, 
Sheridan Troop, N. G. P., of Tyrone, 

Capt. C. S. W. Jones, 

Carriages containing members of the 

General Committee and distinguished 


Second Division — Marshall and Staff, 
Hollidaysburg Band, 

Semi-Centennial History of Klair County. 

Post No. 39, Grand Army of the Eepublic, 

Logan Band, 
Post No. 62, Grand Army of the Republic, 

Roaring Spring Drum Corps, 

Post No.83, Grand Army of the Republic, 

of Roaring Spring, 

Continental Drum Corps, 

Post No. 172,G rand Army of the Republic, 

of Tyrone, 

St. Patrick's Band of Gallitzin, 

Post No.420,Grand Army of the Republic, 

of Belhvood, 

Reese's Cadet Drum Corps, 

Post No.468, Grand Army of the Republic, 

" 474 " " " " 

" 574,' " " " 

People's Band of South Fork, 

Encampment No .17 and 37 Union Veteran 

Camps Nos, 13, 89 and 234, Union Vet- 
eran Legion, 
Carriage containing old Soldiers, 
Bellwood Band, 
German Veteran Association 
of Altoona. 
The route traversed was from the start- 
ing point near the depot in Gaysport, 
across the bridge into Hollidaysburg, 
Allegheny street to Juniata street, to 
Mulbury street, to Amelia street, to Al- 
legheny street, to Jones street, to Wal- 
nut street, to Juniata street, to Allegheny 
street, to Union street. Distinguished 
guests not in carriages reviewed the pro- 
cession in front of the Court House. 

The parade ended about noon and at 
2.45 p. m. the ceremony of unveiling the 
monument began in front of the Court 
House. The Semi-Centennial Chorus of 
200 voices, Charles Geesy, Esq., director, 
sang "America" in a thrilling manner, 
and ]{ev. D. S. Monroe, D. D., presiding 
elder of the Altoona District, Central 
Pennsylvania Conference of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, offered the invocation 
and at its conclusion the choir sang "To 
Thee, O Country," alter which Comrade 
Henry L. Bunker unveiled tlie Soldiers' 
Monument and Captain Robert Johnson 
formally presented it to tlie County Com- 
missioners. Hon. J. D. Hicks, member 
of Congress from Blair County received 
it in the name of the Commissioners and 
made a brilliant ten minute speech in 
which he said that 4,o00 soldiers from 
Blair County fought for the preservation 
of the Union and there was not a battle 
fought during the war in which there 
were not men engaged who were from 
Blair County. 

Thomas J. Stewart, Adjutant General 
of Pennsylvania, followed in an able ora- 
tion occupying half an hour, after which 
the band played a patriotic air. The 
assembled multitude then sang the doxo- 
logy "Praise God From Whom All Bles- 
sings Flow," and the meeting adjourned 
at 4.06 p. m. In the evening the Giand 
Army Posts held a Camp Fire in fiont of 
the Court House and thus the exercises 
of the second day closed. 

Friday, the last day of the celebration, 
dawned bright and clear, and was a most 
perfect summer day, the temperature be- 
ing most delightful, 70 to 78 degrees 
Fahrenheit, and a pleasant air stirring. 
By six o'clock in the morning the electric 
cars to Hollidaysburg were crowded with 
people enroute to the County seat. Most 
of the stores and the P. R. R. shops in 
Altoona were closed all day. Both elec- 
tric cars and railroad were taxed to their 
full capacity carrying passengers, and by 
half past ten in the morning, when the 
great civic or industrial parade started, 
there were not less than 25,000 people in 
Hollidaysburg and Gaysport, and the 
total number of visitors during the day 
was nearly 40,000; being about double 
that of the preceding day. 

The parade started at 10.30 from Gays- 
port and marched across the Juniata river 
to Hollidaysburg, to Montgomery street, 
along Montgomery to Blair, along Blair 
to Jones, along Jones to Walnut, along 
Walnut to Juniata, along Juniuta to 
Mulberry, along Mulberry to East Holli- 
daysburg and Allegheny street, along 
Allegheny street past the Court House, 
where it was reviewed by Judge Dean, 
the Mayor of Altoona and Burgesses of 
the different Boroughs of the County, to 
Gaysport where it disbanded. 

It consisted of eleven divisions, led by 
Chief Marshal W. C. Roller, Jesse L. 
Hartman, Chief of Staff', and aides. 

The first division comprised the Red 
Men, I'epresenting the aboriginese, car- 
riages with guests. Executive Committee, 
the Altoona City Band, and the various 
lodges of Odd Fellows of the County, 
twenty or more, and the National Boys' 
Brigade, of Altoona. 

Second Division comprised the Patri- 
otic Sons of America, nine camps. 

Third Division — Uniformed Rank 
Knights of Pythias and U. R. K. P. 
Band of Pittsburgh. 

Fourth Division — JuniorOrderUnited 
American Mechanics, several councils 
and numbering 1,000 men, the Oneida 
Social Club of Altoona and the Tyrone 
Division Brotherhood of Locomotive En- 

Fifth Division — Order of Artisans, 
Reese's Cadet Corps, Assembly No. 29 of 
Altoona and No. 11 of Hollidaysburg. 

Sixth Division — Knights of the 
Golden Eagle, Uniformed Rank, and 
several subordinate castles, making a fine 

Seventh Division — Catholic Societies, 
including Knigths of St. George, Emerald 
Beneficial Association, St. Patrick's Band 
and others. 

Eighth Division. — Young Men's In- 
stitute of Altoona, Councils INos. 120, 132 
and 299. Logan Band and St. John's Tem- 
perance Cadets. 

Ninth Division. — Firemen : Volun- 
teer Firemen's Association of Altoona, 
Altoona P. R. R. Firemen, Tyrone Fire- 

Semi-Centennial History of Blair County. 

men, without eciuipment, and the Phoenix 
Fire Company of Hollidaysburg with en- 
gine and full equipment, Belhvood Fii-e- 
nien, Belhvood Band, Duncansville Fire 
Company and hose cart, South Fork Fire 
Company and Band, and other visiting- 
firemen. An old fashioned liand fire en- 
gine brought up the lear. 

Tenth Division. — Employes of Holli- 
daysburg Rolling Mill, ITjO strong, in 
W'orking fostunie and carrying some of 
their work implements. 

Eleventh Division.— Floats. — Mer- 
chaiidise and machinei'y displays, ancient 
relics, old canal boat, old stage coach, 
etc., The float of William F. Gable & 
Co. of Altoona, was the most artistic and 
costly one in this division, representing 
an immense urn entirely covered with ex- 
pensive lace, "Justice" with her scales, 
"Liberty" and "America ;" all draped in 
white and drawn by eight gaily compari- 
soned white horses, in tandem, with at- 
tendants dressed in white. The Young 
America Clothing Co. also had a beauti- 
ful historical tableaux. 

The procession was about one and one- 
half miles in length and was three-quar- 
ters of an hour passing a given point. Be- 
tween five and six thousand persons took 
part in it, while twenty-five to thirty 
thousand spectators lined the streets 
along Avhich they passed. 

In the afternoon the Semi-Centennial 
exercises were held in the Court House, 
beginning at 2:40. The room was packed 
long before the hour for beginning : the 
crowd began to fill it soon after twelve 
o'clock. As the Court room will only 
contain about 1000 persons it follows that 
not one-thirtieth part of the people in 
town could gain admission. 

At 3:40 the Altoona City Band played 
a patriotic selection. 

At 2:45 Judge Bell called the meeting 
to order and made a few brief remarks in 
which he illustrated the wonderful im- 
provements in the past fifty years by com- 
paring the old mail ^jackets, taking a 
week to carry mail from Philadelphia to 
Pittsburgh, while now we coidd flash our 
words by telephone from New York to 
Chicago almost instantaneously. He paid 
a high tribute to the enterprise of Altoona 
and her wonderful growth, and to the 
broad and liberal policy of the Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad Company, the I'ichest in 
the word, probably. Rev. J. F. Hart- 
man, pastor of the Second Lutheran 
church of Altoona, offered a prayer, the 
Semi-Centennial Chorus of two hundred 
voices sang "Red, White and Blue," af- 
ter whicli Hon. J. D. Hicks read the Prize 
Poem, "Little Blair," written by Mrs. 
Ida Clarkson Lewis. The Band and 
Choir rendered some more music, and the 

chairman introduced Hon. John Dean, 
one of the Justices of the Supreme Court 
of Pennsylvania, a native and life-long 
resident of the county, who delivered the 
historical address of the occasion; a mas- 
terly ettbrt, dealing largely with the re- 
ligious predilections of the first settlers 
of the county. The paper is given in full 
on the following pages. 

The address was followed by more mu- 
sic and then, aftei' a few preliminary re- 
marks suitable to the occasion, the Rev. 
Father Cornelius Sheehaii. pastor of St. 
Mary's (latholic church, Ilollidaysburg, 
pronounced the benediction, and the 
meeting adjourned at 4:35 p. m. The 
formal ceremonies of the celebration 
closed with the adjournment of this meet- 
ing, but one of the most entertaining feat- 
ures was yet to come — the pyrotechnic 
display on Campus Ridge, near Lakemont 
Park. This began at 8:50 at night with 
the ascension of a large paper balloon to 
which explosives were attached. The air 
being calm it went almost straight up- 
ward till it was lost to view among the 
stars. Fifteen hundred dollars worth of 
fireworks were used in the entire display 
of the evening, some of the set pieces be- 
ing very fine, among them a full sized 
locomotive engine and tender. The clos- 
ing one, "Good Night," sent out its last 
sparkling scintillation at 10:33 p. m., and 
Blair County's Semi-Centennial passed 
into history. 

On the whole it was an immense suc- 
cess from first to last. Not a hitch of any 
kind occurred. The assembled crowd was 
larger than any which Blair County had 
ever seen and not an accident worth re- 
cording happened during the entire time. 

In Condron's Opera House, HoUidays- 
burg, was maintained an exhibition of 
relics worth many thousands of dollars, 
as such, loaned by the individual owners 
and free for the inspection of everybody. 
They were surrounded at all times with 
hundreds of appreciative visitors. 

Among these relics and other exhibits 
were old tomahawks, arrow heads, Indi- 
an utensils, guns which had shot Indians, 
guns, pistols and swords that had been 
used in the revolution and earlier, guns 
and swords of the war of 1812, the Mexi- 
can war and the war of the Rebellion, 
the first printing press used in Blair 
County, copies of the first newspapers 
printed here in 1834-5-6, old deeds one 
hundred years old and more, the original 
charter of the Portage Railroad, a clock 
that kept the time in the Portage shops 
in 1833, still in running order, a piano 
made at Flowing Spring in 1837, and 
hundreds of other equally intei-esting rel- 
ics; pictures of all the Judges of the coun- 
ty since its organization, etc. 

Semi-Centenntai. History op BT.AyI^ County. 

The Address of Hon. Daniel J. Neff, Welcoming to the Celebration 
the Quests of the Bar Association. 

The people of this county, and others 
from far and neai', who were at one time 
resideu's thereof, or who are interested 
in its history, will, dnrin<4- this week, 
commemorate the fiftieth anniversary of 
the or<ianization of the county. They 
will review the progress that has been 
made in art, sciences and invention, the 
improvements in machinery, in the modes 
of transportation and the growth and de- 
velopment of the county in population 
and wealth of the past 50 years. The 
occasion will be most interesting and in- 
structive to all the participants. The 
judiciary and the bar of the county have 
deemed it advisable and opportune, that 
they also should observe the occasion 
and commemorate it in a suitable manner. 
The administration of the laws deeply 
concerns all the inhabitants of the coun- 
ty. In all enlightened commonwealths 
the due administration of justice has been 
esteemed as of great public interest, of 
supreme importance, and an upright and 
independent judiciary one of the safe- 
guards of civil liberty. When we con- 
sider the character and attainments, 
learning and ability, of the judges, past 
and piesent, who have occupied the 
bench, we cannot doubt that this county 
has been fortunate in its judiciary. 
Judges have sat in our courts who have 
shed a luster upon the jurisprudence of 
the commonwealth, and who would com- 
pare not unfavorably with John Marshall, 
former Chief Justice of the Supreme 
Court of the United States ; with Sir 
Matthew Hale, Chief .lustice Mansfield, 
or with Sir Edward Coke, the greatest 
oracle of municipal jurisprudence in Eng- 

Speaking of the amenities of the bench, 
I once heard Judge Taylor pay a high 
compliment to the Supreme Court. A 
gentlemen of the bar had been ai-guing 
a question before him at considerable 
length. The judge was againsr him, but 
he persisted in his argument. The judge 
finally told him it was useless to argue 
the question further ; he had decided it. 
But he said, "you liave your remedy ; 
take an exception, and you can take the 
case up and have my decision reviewed 
by a court that cannot err." His honor 
specially emphasized the last two words. 

We can look back over 50 years of 
eventful history and contemplate with 
interest the many important issues that 
have been tried, the important decisions 
of our courts that have been rendered, 
establishing tlie rights of person and 
property and defining the landmarks of 
the law. There is, at times, much in the 
proceedings of courts to excite and at- 
tract popular interest. There are wit- 
nessed the tragic and the comic sides of 
human life, its ups and downs ; life 

histories and life tragedies are rehearsed 
with more of passion and pathos than 
upon the mimic stage, and the curtain 
falls upon many a scene of human misery 
and despair. The forensic displays of the 
Roman Forum in the palmy days of the 
republic and the empire, the great trials 
of thrilling and historic interest in West- 
minster hall, in its meridian glory, are 
remembered with an absorbing and never 
fading interest. There, within the old 
walls of Westminster hall, "has stood 
the Duke of Norfolk, to answer the 
charge of asserting the right of Mary, 
Queen of Scots, to the throne of Eng- 
land ; and the Earl of Strafford, accused 
of high treason against the sovereign 
whom he served too faithfully, and War- 
ren Hastings, around whose impeach- 
ment was thrown the gorgeous splendor 
of eastern imagery evoked by the spell of 
eloquence from the lip of Sheridan and 

The gentlemen of the bar who attended 
the first court held in this county in 1846, 
and were then admitted to practice in the 
several courts of this county, and who 
are yet living will, no doubt, reflect upon 
the many changes that have taken place 
in the intervening years. They probably 
journeyed to HoUidaysburg by canal boat 
by stage coach, or perhaps partly by 
canal and partly over the inclined planes 
of the Portage Railroad. The Pennsyl- 
vania canal, in connection with the Port- 
age Railroad, constituting a great public 
highway between the east and the west, 
was regarded at that time, and in fact 
was, a work of great magnitude, of su- 
pi'eme importance. Time had been when 
the mode of transportation, at least in 
Central Pennsylvania, was principally by 
broad wheeled Conestoga wagons lumber- 
ing slowly along the pike between Phila- 
delphia and Pittsburgh, or arks of rude 
and primitive design, floating down oiir 
rivers. The canal east and west of the 
mountains, traversing in many places 
dense forests, with the connecting links 
of the rail and inclined plane, across the 
AUeghenies, extending through a coun- 
try abounding in mineral resources and 
undeveloped wealth, constructed with 
arduous labor and consummate engineer- 
ing skill, was considered one of the great- 
est achievements of the age. The Alle- 
gheny Portage was pronounced by en- 
lightened engineers in England and 
France as one of the then wonders of the 
world. The exalted purpose, the vast 
imjiortance of these works, connecting 
as they did with the Allegheny and Mon- 
ongahela rivers at Pittsburgh, and with 
the Ohio and Mississippi establishing a 
great commercial waterway or highway 
to the Gulf of Mexico, extending in their 
beneficial effects to the utmost limits of 

Semi-Centhnnfal History of Blair County. 5 

the national domain, and in their pro- 1848, 1887 and 1893. The act of April 11, 
spective operation and effects into the far 1848, was the first great departure. It pro- 
future Could not be overestimated. The vided that every species and description of 
engineers and scientists of that day were property, whether real, personal or mixed, 
men of high intelligence and varied which may be owned l)y or belong to any 
knowledge, who had studied carefully single woman shall continue to be the 
the most advanced systems of inland na- property of such woman as fully after her 
vigation and railway construction in marriage as before, and all such property, 
Europe and applied the knowleilge thus of whatever nature or kind, which shall 
acquired to the advancement of great accrue to any married woman during cov- 
enterprises at home. Standing in the van [ erture, by will, descent, deed of convey- 
of civilization and human progress, they ance or otherwise, shall br^ owned and en- 
helped to build up a great Common- joyed by such married woman as her own 
wealth in enduring strength. The canal separate property, and such property shall 
commissioner of that day was an imi)()rt- not be subject to levy and execution for 
ant man, sometimes bigger than the Gov- the debts or liabilities of her husband, 
ernor himself or the Legislature, the The acts of 1887 and 180," were still 
power behind the throne greater than the greater departures in the same direction, 
throne itself, making anil unmaking the tending to the protection of married 
fortunes of men. The canal boat captain ' women in their right of isroperty. 

also was a big man. He walked the deck 
of his craft with as proud a step as the 
commander of a man-of-war walks his 
quarterdeck. These great public works, 
it was supposed, would be enduring 
would last for ages, like the Roman aque- 
ducts or the Appian, over which, for cen- 
turies, the legions of imperial Home 
marched to their distant contiuests. But 
the tireless energy and the inventive 
genius of man have achieved conquests 

In our grandmothers' days a married 
woman could hardly be said to own her 
spinning wheel in her own right. Now 
the dashing femme covert can spin along 
the public highway on her wheel and hold 
and own her spinning wheel in defiance 
of the world. 

The Constitution of 1874 made great 
ami radical changes in the fundamental 

The act of May 35, 1887, known as the 

over the forces of nature and the ele- civil procedure act, abolishing tlie distinc- 
^ments undreamed of in that earlier day. tions theretofore existing between the dif- 
The continent is spanned by great rail- ferent forms of actions ex contractu and 
ways, grai^pling the states together with actions ex delicto, and providing that the 
hooks of steel and bands of iron. Queen I plaintifl's declaration shall consist of a 
Victoria can say "good morning" to concise statement of his demand, wrought 
Grover Cleveland through the submarine a great and needed reform, and greatly 
cable. It is said that Chauncy M. De- simplified the pleadings and proceedings 
pew recently sent a message around the in the tilal of causes. All these changes 
world — 25,0U0 miles— in lour minutes, were made during the last 50 years. jNIuch 
We have the inestimable advantages and of the old and curious learning of a for- 
conveniences of the electric railway. The mer age contained in old and musty tomes 
telephone is an accomplished fact and the Doonisday books has become obsolete. 
Roentgen ray has been discovered. Dur- Much of what might be termed the rub- 
ing the last 50 years dynasties have risen bish of the law has been swept away, 
and fallen, thei-e have been social and At the time of the organization of the 
political upheavals in various parts of the county and for many years afterwards, 
world, and mighty blows have been the judge and the lawyers usually wrote 
struck for civil itberty, the rights of men down all the testimony during the pro- 
and the emancipation of the oppressed. gress of the trial. We are relieved of 

The world muves andtlie young man that labor now, as the official reporter 
of this age who would keep "up witli the and stenographer does that work. The 
procession must step lively. jndge's charge and the testimony are all 

The changes in our laws" have kept pace typewritten by the reporter, and tlie plead- 
Avith the progress of the age in other re- ings filed are also usually typewritten, 
spects. These changes and innovations In former times the Altoona lawyer 
upon the common law have been in the di- would pack his grip on Monday morning 
rection of reform and improvement tend- and engage lodging at a hotel at the 
ing to the elevation of man and the county seat for a week or during the sit- 
amelioration of the condition of woman, ting of the court. For many years during 

Theactof April y, 1849, exempting prop- the terms of court I regularly occupied 
erty of a debtor to the value of $300 from room 29, at the American House, then 
levy and sale on execnticm or by distress keptby that jolly landlordand genial host, 
for rent is a humane and beneficient law, Daniel K. Ramey. Now all that is chang- 
as are also all the various laws protecting ed by the electric cars, which run every 
and giving a preference to the wages of 15 minutes and land the Altoona lawyers 
manual hal)or. at the steps of the court house. The Al- 

The legal status of married women has toona lawyer can stand at the telephone 
been entrrely changed, and sweeping mod- in his comfortable office and by issuing 
ifications have been made by the acts of , his oral mandate through the 'phone can 

Semi-Centennial History of Blair County. 

put the whole clerical force of the pro- 
thonotary's office in motion or he can be 
treated to a learned dissertation on prac- 
tice by Judge Bowers at long range. 

Judges and lawyers have, from time im- 
memorial, been inclined to polite, social 
intercourse and rational enjoyment. They 
have been disposed to reasonable relaxa- 
tion after the labors of the bench and the 
contests of the forum. 

In England, in the olden time, the ser- 
geants at law were inducted into their 
office with great state and ceremony. It 
was attended with feasting, which some- 
times lasted for several days, and at these 
feasts the lord chancellor and some of the 
highest dignitaries of the realm, some- 
times including the king himself, sat 
down. On these festive occasions the 
lord chancellor usually lieaded the pro- 
cession to the ban(iueting hall, thereby 
giving the sanction of his official approval 
to this important function. The newly 
created sergeants at law were allowed the 
high privilege of paying the bills for these 
banquets. Rich and fragrant are the 
memories that cluster around the inns of 
court and chancery, which Ben Johnson 
characterizes as "the noblest nurseries of 
humanity and liberty in the kingdom." 
It is said that the inns of court and chan- 
cery were celebrated for the magnificence 
of theii' entertainments. True to those 
honored and immemorial traditions, and i 
cherishing the past associations of the 
bench and bar of Blair county, the Blair 
County Bar association have invited the 
judges of adjoining and adjacent coun- 
ties, and all the lawyers now living who 
formerly were resident practitioners at 
our Bar, and the judge of the Supreme 
Court who sat for many years as president 
judge in this county, and the only thiee 
ex-associate judges of this county now 
living, to participate in this semi-centen- 
nial celebration. 

It is gratifying to lis to meet hei'e so 
many worthy representatives of the judi- 
ciary and gentlemen of the bar from other 

C^ambria County is hei-e represented by j 
its learned President Judge. The rarified 
atmosphere of that elevated plateau upon 
which Ebensburg stands seems to have ; 
quickened and sharpened the wits of its \ 
Judges and lawyers, for they have always 
been celebrated for their w\t. Michael j 
Daniel Magehan, Michael Hasson and 
Robert L. Johnson were all in tlieir day, 
noted wits ; Frank P. Tierney, who many 
years ago, I'emoved from Ebensburg to 
Altoona and died some years ago, was a 
genuine wit, and as a mimic he had few 
equals. Although of Irish descent he ! 

could delineate the German or Irish char- 
acter with equal facility. His mantle has 
fallen upon a gentleman who is now the 
acknowledged wit of our bar. I forbear 
to mention his name as he is present, and 
I know he is averse to public notoriety. 
' It may not be said of him, perhaps, aa 
was said of one of the characters in the 
i "School for Scandal" that his wit costs 
; him nothing, as it is always as the ex- ! 
' pense of a friend. It might be said, how- 
ever, that it costs him nothing in this 
sense : It costs him no effort. It is spon- 
taneous. It effervescences and bubbles 
like champagne. But I fear I trespass on 
Judge Landis" domain. He is expected 
to give us the history of the Blair County 
Bar. It is, I presume a clear case of tres- 
pass (juai-e clausum fregit. 

The Supreme Court of the State is rep- 
resented here by one of its learned justices 
who, on this anniversary, can look back 
with satisfaction on the many years dur- 
ing which he occupied the bench in this 
county with credit and distinction. 

There is a gentleman here who former- 
ly practiced at this bar, although a resi- 
dent of Huntingdon, now residing in Phil- 
adeli^hia. He was admitted at the first 
court held in 1846. Those who heard him 
at the bar in days gone by will esteem 
themselves I'ortunate in having the oppor- 
tunity of seeing him and hearing him 

Thei'e is a gentleman from Hari'isburg 
present who years ago enjoyed unbounded 
popularity and was a power in law and 
politics in this county. His numerous 
friends will greet him with the coidiality 
of the days of yore. 

To the Judges of neighboring counties, 
to the Judges of the Supreme Court, to. 
the old-time members of the bar, to the 
ex-Associate Judges of the county, the 
only three now living, to all who have re- 
sponded to our invitation and kindly fa- 
vored us with their presence, the lilair 
County Bar Association sends greeting 
and extends a cordial welcome to a par- 
ticipation in all there is of interest, of 
cherished memories, and of enjoyment in 
the celebrat'.on of our Semi-Centennial. 
Few, if any of us, will see Blair's centen- 

May we now hope that the centeiniial 
of 11)4() will be the dawn for our county 
and for our country of the millennial morn 
of a yet grander and nobler destiny. But 
as we may not be there to see it let us 
thank God that we are living to see the 
Semi-Centennial, and make the best of 
this occasion, while the train stops at this 
half-way station. 

Semi-Centenniai. History of Blair County. 7 

Address of Hon. Aug. S. Landis, History of the Bar of Blair County. 

It has been said that the history of a revolu- 
tion is often but the liistory of one'man. Bv pro- 
per autithesis, it is perhaps just as true tliat the 
history of a legal bar is the history of many [ 
men. " I 

Wlien it is remembered tliat the component 
parts are the judges, Invested with tlie delf ijiited 
powers of tlielaw, the attorneys and barristers 
who invite tlie application of tliese p'lwers to ob- 
tain for suitors a resultantproduct called justice, 
tlie (ifticer wlio records and perpetu 'tes tlie adju- 
dications of the court, and thiit other executive 
department, which relentlessly enforces ttie law 
as crystalized into its peremptory mandate,many 
menwitii diversified miniis i^ive it liody, etflcacy 
and character. Wliat they thus have done during 
fifty years constitutes its history for that period. 

I'he bar of this county came into existence iu 
the year 1846. It had been a long struggle 
wliether there should be a Blair county. The 
subject was first discussed alxiut the year 183J. 
This town was tlien a prosi)erous, growing town. 
It was at the head of canal navigation. It was 
the point of transhipment from canal to railroad was on the only traffic thorough- 
fare in the state. Tliese conditions brouglit many 
people liere. I'he state employed many men to 
operate the public improvements. Large for- 
warding houses were erected, and their owners 
handled the ever-increasing freight tonnage pass- 
ing east and west. Large capital was embarked 
in tills business, and in mercantile and manu- 
facturing enteiprises Bitumi ous coal found 
upon the land of Samuel Lemon, near the Sum- 
mit, became a leading article of trade for domes- 
tic use and transportation. Whilst it was the 
only great distributing point fir a neigliborhood 
of large radius, it was also the entrepot for the 
products of a rapidly developing territory. Its 
promise of a future urban population and wealth 
invited many frotji other jiarts, who came to 
share its generous and flattering fortunes. 

This increased population and business neces- 
sarily gave rise to litigation, and applications 
for various purposes to the public officers and 
the courts. Huntingdon county, of which it 
was part, had its county seat at Huntingdon, 
which lay thirty miles away, to be reached by 
laborious and wearisome driving over two 
mountains. This inconvenience gave rise to 
the effort to have erected a new county, of 
which this busy and growing centre should be 
the county seat. 

During the six or seven years when the subject 
was discussed, whilst all were f .vorable to the 
project, many were active in the worK until it 
was tina'lv accomplished. Among them should 
be named William Williams, afterward presi- 
dent of the Exchange bank at this place: Peier 
Cassldy, a well-known surveyor; Peter Hewit, 
Silas Moore, Ed. McGraw, John Walker, Dr. 
Joseph A Landis, Dr. James Colfey, Samuel Cal- 
vin, William McFarland, Joseph Dysart, G^eorge 
K. McFarlane, William C. McCormick James 
M. Bell and R. A. McMurtrie. 

The necessary legislation to erect the county 
having failed at the first se--slon of the legisla- 
ture in which a bill was presented, it was finally 
enacted at the se-sion of 1S46, and was approved 
by Governor Francis R. Shunk on the 26th of 
February, 1846. Wlien the news i auie to the 
people of the new county there was great re- 
joicing, and it was a day in this county capital 
in wliich tlie people were buoyant with an expec- 
tation they felt to be assured of great future de- 
velopment and prosperity. 

This only in a measure was realized, for in a 
few years the colossus which reared itself but a 
friw miles away cist Its shadow upon the new 
plant and chilled and checked its young life. It 
can, however, assume to itself one comfort — that 
it lives to celebrate its survival of Its disap- 
pjintment, and the prpsessionof many advan 
tages, conveniences and benefits which others do 
not have and which keep it abreast wi h 
the day's civilization, socially; morally and in- 

The county, under the act, took from Hunt- 
ingdon county the townships of Allegheny, Antis, 
Snyder, Tyrone, Frankstown. Blair, Huston, 
Woodbury," and part of Morris. Bedford was 
compelled to give up North W<iodhury and 
Greenfield townships. Since then, the townships 

of Juniata, Freedom, Logan and Taylor have 
been formed from other townships. The bor- 
oughs of the county areHollidaysburg,Gaysport, 
Mdrtinsburg, Duncansville, Roarlns Spring,Ty- 
rone. East Tyrone, Wllllamsburg,|Bellwood arid 
Juniata. Altoona is the only incorporated city. 

Thus, in 1846, a new county was added to the 
state's long list, with a population of some 17,000 
and an area of 510 square miles. The population 
in 1890 was over "o,OUO. 

It was, by the sa me act, made part of the Six- 
teenth judicial district. This district already 
comprised the counties of Franklin, Bedford, 
Somerset and Fulton. Judge Jeremiah S. Black 
was the president judge, and thus, by the enact- 
ment, lie became the first judge of this county. 

It is well, also, to remark that Huntingdon 
county formed part of one of the original dis- 
tricts of the commonwealth — the E^ourth judicial 
district — which embraced many of the original 
counties, and whicli was justly noted for having 
furnished so many able and eminentjudges and 
lawyers in both the supreme and common pleas 

Until the new court bouse should be completed 
court sat in tlie (d Methodist church building 
on Walnut street west of Montgomery street 
This was a one-story brick building perched upor 
the brink of a hill, thirty feet from the street 
Tlie approach to it was by a broad stairway, and 
for the temporary purpose was convenient and 
suitable. On the 'iTtn of July,1846, Judge Blick 
witli his associates, George R. McFarlane anil 
Daniel McConnell, at 10 a. m. ascended tiie plat 
form, and the crier opened the court with the 
usual formality. Colonel John Cresswell was the 
district attorney, but there was but little to de 
mand his official attention. 

The following persons were sworn tc 
the bar : 


(Members sworn in July 27, 1846.) 

J. P. Anderson, 
Thaddeus Banks, 
Samuel S. Blair, 
A. VV. Benedict, 
David Blair, 
Ephraim Banks, 
Samuel M. Barkley, 
John Brotherline, 
J. M. Bell, 
Moses Canan, 
Samuel Calvin, 
A. G. Curtin, 
John Cresswell, 
T. J. Coffey, 
Joshua F. Cox, 
A. J. Cline, 
Theodore H. Cremer, 
William Dorris, jr., 
David Hurt, 
John Fenlon, 
James T. H.ll, 
David H. Hofius, 
Charles H. Heyer, 
MIctiael Hasson, 
Isaao Hughes 
Making forty- nine 

Robert L. Johnston, 
William J. Jacobs, 
Alexander King, 
F. M. KImmell, 
Joseph Kemp, 
J. R. Lowrie, 
William Lyon, 
Job Mann, 
John G. Miles, 
M. D. Megehao, 
R. A. McMurtrie, 
John Mower, 
H. N. McAllistar, 
A. J. Ogle, 

William P. Orblsonin. 
James M. Russell, 
Samuel L. Russell, 
William M. Stewart, 
.1. S. Stewart, 
John Scott, jr., 
Samuel H. Tate, 
John Williamson, 
A. P. Wilson, 
S. S. Wharton, 

n all. On Tuesday, the 
2Sth, three more were added: George Taylor, af- 
terwards president judge; Alex. Gwin and John 
A. Blodget; making filty-two as the original 
number of the membership. 

No causes were tried and the traverse jury 
was discharged, and the court adjourned on the 
■Z8th of July. 

Of the court and bar as thus constituted, ex- 
cept five, all are dead. The judges are all dead, 
and of the bar ex-Senator ,tohn Scoit, Colonel 
William fDorris, Hon. Titian .1. tJofley, ex-assist- 
ant attorney general of the United States, Hon. 
I John Fenlon, ex-member of the house of repre- 
sentatives, and William P. Orblson, esq., alone 
survive; but some of these survivors are liere to- 
day, and wlillss I am silent as to them, they, 
themselves, will tell us of the past. 

A glance at the personnel ol this court and its 
bar in the lijiht of their subsequent 
history wlil disclose a remarkable iiody 
of men. They were educitcd lawyers. 
They were nearly all proficient in their 
professional knowledge and experience. The 

Semi-Centennial History op Blair County. 

same care, zeal, caution and research ■which the 
lawyer of to-day exerts, was practiced then. He 
strove to attain to the same acumen 
and success then as now. The professional am- 
bition and etliics of tliat day are indeed made 
more conspicuous by tlie lower grade of pr nci- 
ple and tarnislied acts, whicli too often offend 
the hsnorable lawyer of the present. 

We can recall the appearance of the president 
iudse. His massive head and intellectual face 
were '^impressive to both acquaintance and 
stranger. He was the man of whom, under Dr. 
Johnson's conditions, it would be asked, who is 
he? He was learned, decided, courteous and 
rtisinifled. He possessed the confidence of the j 
bar, and duriiii? his remaining life he was the I 
admiration of his many friends. He became a j 
justice of the supreme court, attorney j;eneral of 
tlie United States and a delegate to the consti- 
tutional c'lnvention ori873. He continued, after 
leaving office, to be one of the nusiest and most 
eminent lawyers in the land. He was of counsel 
in the argument before the presidential commis- 
sion in 1877 and his eltbrt before that tribunal ex- 
hibited many of his most conspicuous, as well as 
fflost valued, characteristics. 

Among those who were sworn to the bar before 
nim on that day was one who subsequently be- 
came as widely known as Judge Black. Andrew 
G-. Curtin was then but a modest lawyer in 
Bellefonte. His career instate politics as the 
great war governor of Pennsylvania, minister 
to KussiH, delegate to the constitutional conven- 
tion of the state and member of congress with 
nationa 1 fame, is now easily recalled. 

These two men met during the year 1873 in 
Philadeliihia on the floor of the convention. 
With no p 'riisanship, they vied in the responsi- 
ble task of perfecting tne fundamental law of 
the state. Both had achieved fame, both had 
the respect and afl^ection of their colleagues, and 
both left their impress upon the instrument 
which now constituit-s our organic law. Both 
were often participants in many controversies on 
that floor. The writer recalls a seene of pleasur- 
able e.voitement and surprise wlien, in the dis- 
cussion of the question of legislative apportion- 
ment, the judge learned from his adversary that 
his vast learning was of no value compared to 
the governor's practical knowledge of men and 

A well known figure at the bar in those days, 
an<l many years thereifter, was Mr. Miles. He 
was very fair in complexion, large and hand- 
some. His reticence gave him a dignity which 
he never lost. He was laborious and indefatiga- 
ble. His arguments were long and exhaustive. 
He stood at the counsel table to ta'kto theco irt, 
and sometimes stood at the witness box, requir- 
ing the judge to turn in that direction to face 
him. His voice was high and siiarp and uene- 
trated every part of the room. His manner was 
earnest and convincing, and to the boyish mind 
the wonder was that anything more need be 
said. He continued in active practice for many 
years and died in Peoria, 111., in 1877. leaving an 
lionorcd memory. 

Mr. McAllister, of Bellefonte, was an able and 
industrious lawyer. In professional zeal, energy 
and prowess he was an Ajax Telamon. He was 
a member of the constitutional convention of 
1873, and brought with him for the fulfilment of 
the duties of tiiat important office, a deej) sense 
of his own responsUiility. Nothing seemed to 
escape his attention, and no one dti|iartinent of 
the fundamental law was less worthy of his 
scrutiny than another. He w soften adnionisi ed 
by his brethren that his zeal and labors must sap 
even hi-i rugsred hea'th. He succumbed befoie 
the close of the session, and was succeeded by 
Samuel Ualvin, whose name is likewise in this 
list of original attorneys. 

Mr. Calvin, when elected to fill Mr. McAllister's 
chair, had practically retired from professional 
duties, and the call to him was oppor une, and 
agree ible to his tastes. He had long been a 
successful and able lawyer, and was a lawyer, in 
its highest professional sense. His integrity and 
htmor wire his most valued possessions. 'J'hey 
weie never cheapened by being bartered nor 
tarnished by his h<dding them. He tried his 
cases in tiie'idd style. There were no steno- 
graphers then and with scrupulous fullness, he 
wrote down every wor I uttered by the witness. 
He had no patience with the stupid witness. His 

"Sir," "I don't hear you Sir," and "repeat it 
Sir," uttered in intimidating tones to the aston- 
ished witness, was the delight of the student and 
young lawyer looking on somewhere in ttie bar. 
Few of the" present bar know him and his pecu- 
liarities; but some of us here to-day, remember 
him as the learned lawyer, a ripe scholar in 
literature and the classics, and the most warm 
hearted and genial of gentlemen. It only re- 
mains to be said of him, that he was a member 
of the thirty-ftrst congress in 1851, and was a 
follower of Henry Carey in his theories of social 
science. He met Mr. Carey on the floor of the 
convention, and a friendshi)') sprang up between 
them that lasted during his remaining life. His 
on, Matthew Calvin, succeeded him at the bar. 

Colonel McMurtrie was in this list. He was a 
close friend of Mr. Calvin. He was for many 
years the c jmmander of the militia under the old 
state system, and he mustered his undiscii lined 
forces in the month of May for many years. He 
was a member of the legislature in 18133. He was 
long an active practitionerand stood in the bar 
and community as a man and lawyer of great 
probity and honor. 

Robert L Johnsto -, after many years of most 
active practice, became the president judge of 
Cambria count J. Alex. King became judge of 
the Bedford and Franklin district, as did al>o F. 
M. Kimmell. .lob|Mannwas a member of the 
Twenty-fonrth, Thirtieth and Thirty-first con- 
gresses and state jtreasurer. Samuel L. Russell 
was also in the Thirty third congressand amem 
ber of tne constitutional convention of 1873. A. 
W. Beoedict, of Huntingdon, was a member of 
the legislature of lb63. John Cresswell 
was a member of the state senate in 
18J7, and was speaker of the house 
in 1889, and Thaddeus Banks, a member 
of the legislature with John Scott in 
1862. Mr. Scott afterwards became a United 
States senator, and at the close of his term be- 
came the general solicitor of the Pennsylvania 
Railroad company. 

Ephraim Banks was the auditor general of the 
state in 1851, and an associate judge of the court 
of common pleas of Mifflin county. He was a 
man of great decision of character and of great 
dignity and worth. On one occasion, on the 
bench in the trial of a case, he diflcred from the 
president judge in his views, and, carrying his 
associate with him, he charged a jury over the 
bead of his chief. 

Thaddeus Banks was long conspicuous at this 
bar and, during his very active career, was prom- 
inent in the most noteworthy ligitation. He was 
a man of fine social qualitie-, and of a warm and 
generous heart. He was the democratic candi- 
date for judge against Dean and Taylor in 1871, 
but was defeated. 

Samuel S.Blair commenced a brilliant career a 
few vears after his admission. His introduction 
to public notice in the celebrated case of s^um- 
merville vs. Jackson continued him in the pub- 
lic eye and brought him to the front. He de- 
veloped into a strong and learned lawyer, and in 
all tliis pan of the Slate he was for many years 
as an industrious aid able lawyer, facile prin- 
ceps. He was elected to the Thirty-sixth and 
Thirty-seventh congresses. He was succeededin 
his office by his son, Mr. Joh.i D. Blair. 

John Williamson lived to be an octogenarian. 
Tnough he lived in Hnntingdon, it was his 
lubit for many years to visit t is Cjurt and par- 
ticipate in the trial of cases— mostly in tlie quar- 
ter sessions. His arguments to the jury lumlsh- 
ed the most delightlul entertainment to his 
hearers. He was a nervous speaker, but as he 
progressed he was fluent and accurate. He 
abouniied in both humor and pathos, and won 
for himself a popularity that loug survived his 
retirement from our midst. 

M. 'D. Magehaii, [familiarly known as 
"Michael Dan," with his contemporary, Michael 
' Hasson, came to us from the Cambiia bar. Tlie 
! wit and fancy of those well known and exce'lent 
Iri-h gentlemen were the admiration of many 
indulgent friends in their day, and form the 
(jfleivescen'. sparkle of many a story which sur- 
vives to this hour. 
I John A. Blodget was a frequent visitor from 
' Bedfonl, where "he practiced until he retired. He 
I generally walked from Bedforo, and was in his 
j place when court was called. He was a tall gen- 
tleman, dignified yet free and social in his in- 

Semi-Centennial History op Blaiu Coin ty. 

tercoursp. He was a man of fine literary taste 
and attainments. He could write a legal opiii 
ion, ur a poem, with equal ease. The ludiciou.s 
inc dents of the bar were often rendered liy t his 
versatile gentlema > in verse, and 1 kuow'of no 
one in all this bar of fifty years of life who was 
like him, and could make himselt so appreciable 
to his fellows. 

Not many years after the or^anizntion nf the 
county, came from Bedfonl, Uavid H. Hoflns. 
His father was a G-erman pliysician, and com- 
ing to this country as a young miin, ne married, 
andDaiidwas born and educated here, gradu- 
ing at Franklin and Marshall college. He was, 
during his short life, for he died in 1859, con- 
cerned in nearly all the important litigation of 
his time. His eiect and well apparelled form gave 
him an imposing appearance. He was a bache- 
lor, but most loyally recogni/.ed the claims of 
society, which then "was conspiclous for its re- 
finement and amenities. He was the hlolofthe 
people and it was common to hear him e.xtoUed 
as the "model lawyer." The moment of his pass- 
ing came early in his career, and as blinaness 
became from , day to day more imminent upon 
the unhappy man, the writer willingly helped 
him in his hist work till the end came. It was 
my sad task to pen the sketch which told of his i 
virtues and his frailties, to close his aflalrs, and i 
place the stone that now marks his resting 
place. ; 

One more name of the fifty-two remains to be ' 
noted, George W. Taylor. He was then 34 
years of age and resident at Huntingdon. He 
early gave promise of the future jurist. His 
prosecution of the case of the Commonwealth 
vs. McConauahy in 1840, and the Flanigans in 
Cambria county in 184'-', on indictments for mur- ; 
dtr it was customarily said, drew him from olv 
scurity and established him permanently in the 
public estimation as a great lawyer. He suc- 
ceeded Judge Blick as president judge, April 5, j 
1849 and reuiained upon the benoli till Novem- 
ber 1S71. He tried many important cases and 
was widely known in the state and recognized 
by the supreme court as an able and learned 
judge. His later years to some extent were given 
to agriijultural puisuits and though of great 
learning and judicial acumen, he was a man of 
plain manners and practical sense and wisdom. 
His prepared opinions disclosed no attempts at 
useless embellishment, but were simple, plain 
and strong. They thus furnished no rhetoiical 
entertainment but they addressed theperieption 
of the mind and lett it overwnelmed witli con- 
viction. He was a man of very social haliit. In 
the old court house it was his dally custom to 
linger at tlie stove, or some other gathering 
place with BIcMurirle, Calvin, Scott, Dean, 
Hewitand others of us around him to listen to 
his many stoiies of people and things, till, in 
many instances, suitors, jurors, and counsel had 
noted a lost half hour by the clock. But when 
he ascended to the bench the familiarity of the, 
social intercourse just related was left behind 
and as Ins eye swept the bar and the crowded 
spaces beyond, he was again the "judge"' and 
the dignity and the power of the law seemed to 
cover him as with a garment. 

In closing these reminiscences of the first law- 
yers, 1 c;;nnot omit mention of George A. Cottey, 
though he was not one of the original memliers. 
He came from the ministry to the bar about 18-50. 
He was then in tne full possession of developed 
mental power and le.irnlng. He was g.fied, 
unique and brilliant. He was a scholar, an ora- 
tor, a lawyer, though he had not the time to be- 
come a great lawyer. He was cultured, social 
and admired. His conversational p jwecs were a 
delight to all who knew him and won him a wel- 
come everywhere. This faculty, and it was the 
chief of his gifts, never seemed to desert him. 
His cordial reception of the wiiter at his heil- 
slde, not many days before his death, and his 
pleasant, cheerful conversation thougn under 
the sad circumstances ofa'atal illness, seemed 
to show it would ab de till the end. He died in 
Philadelphia, wnitlier he went In 1861, to accept 
the appointment of United States district at- 
torney from President Lincoln. 

Under the constitution of that date, laymen 
were appointed, afterwards elected, associate 
judges. They sat with the piesident judge and 
formed an important adjunct of t e court. The 
first of this class of judges were George K. Mc- 

Farlane and Daniel McConnell. Th" latter was 
a man of strong mind and great practical in- 
telligence and enjoyed the contiden e of all who 
knew him. Judge McFarlane was ihen, and 
had been for years, a we 1-known man. He was 
the proprietor or' a foundry and machine works 
in this town, and evui ed great energy and up- 
rightness in his business. He was eugagea In 
many schemes of social reform and enjoyed a 
notoriety ihrough alt the neighboring counties. 
He wasgreatly loved liy niany^ and respected by 
all who knew him. His untiinely death — the re- 
sult of an accident In hiff lundry in ]85'2 — was 
deply iiiourned by the entire community, and 
inflicted upon It a loss felt for many years. 

In all the county has had nineteen associate 
judges. The constitution of 1873 dispensed with 
theiii by making this county a single judicial 

Davis Brooke succeeded .fudge McConnell in 
.lanuary 184i?: Judge Brooke was a man of fine 
personal appearance and great dignity. His 
snow white hair was in pleasing contrast with 
his florid complexion. The conventional Idack 
dress of that day, admirably supplemented those 
evidences of his advanced age, and harmonious- 
ly accompanied the striking appearance of his 
chief. Judge Black. 

In the second year of Judge Brooke's term, 
there occurred a most interesting juilicial inci- 
dent. It served to demonstrate the existence 
then of a cerebral or psychical influence as 
hypnotism is now. 

There came to the county seat one day a man 
of.thenameof Henry L.oomis, and his wife, 
Sulimit C. Lojmis. They advertised to give lec- 
tures on mesmerism, to be illustrated anu mani- 
fested by exhibitions of its Influence upi n a sus- 
ceptible subject. 'I'liis subject was their daugh- 
ter, Martha. Whilst these exhitiitions were he 
log nightly given with great success, one C.J. 
Svkes appeared upon the scene and employed 
Mr. Banks and Mr. Cresswell to take out upon 
the allowance of Judge Brooke a writ of habeas 
corpus, to take and restore to him his wife, 
Marth.i, who was '21 years of age, and who, by 
her father and mother, was deprived of her lib- 
erty: he further alleged that she was, under the 
spell of their mesmeric influence, deprived other 
free will: her attections diverted from the relator, 
her husband, her health, physicallv and men- 
tally, being sapped, and she herself was being 
saci'iticed to the greed of her parents, who could 
not entertain their audiences without her. 

I'o this the respondeuis replied that Martha 
was married to Sykes in New York, but imme- 
diatelv thereafter' he began to abuse her and 
treated her with :;reat cruelty, so that she fled 
to her parents for protection, and desired to re- 
main with tiiem. 

The relator denied the allegations, alleging 
mercenary motives on thepirtofthe Lonmises 
and jiraying to be allowed the companionship of 
his wife. l\lr. Calvin and Mr. Hoflus repre- 
sente i the parents, and during two or three days 
eviuenee was taken before .T,.dge Brooke. Great 
interest was manifested bv the nublii; not only 
whether there was s-uch a thing as mesmerism, 
but as to what would be done with Martha. The 
court house was packed with peoi-le, and public 
op nioii and .-ympathy were soar, ly divided. 
Nearly a day was consume. i In the argument of 
Counsel, and" during the entire progress of the 
ease not a Word had lieen uttered byihejudge, 
and speculation was rife as to when lie would he 
prep ire to deside the case. As soon as the last 
word was spoken by counsel the judge imme- 
diatelv rose to his feet, and, bowing with great 
dignity and with greater hrevity, said, "Let 
Martha be di^chargeil. The house instantly 
r ng With cheers, and amid the wildest excite- 
ment Martha and her parents were fairly car- 
ried from the court room, while the wifeless 
Sykes was left to pursue his solitary way. It is 
remarkable that the record shows no final dis- 
position of this case and the writer recalls it 
only from memory. 

The business of the court giew slowly, though 
thirty-four suits were iirought to tne first term. 
The first suit brought was that of .losepli and 
Daniel Hnllen vs. riiomas Ciissman. "Debt." 
No. 11, .1 uly Term, 184(3; but there is no lecord of 
any judgment. 

The first record of a case tried was that of 
Matthew Miller vs. Henry Burt, assumpsit; with 


Semi-Centennial History op Blair County. 

a venlict October 2\ 1846, for jilaintifl of $139. -15. 

The tirst recorel of an uction of ejectment was 
that of JamesStevens vs. J. HeUiniiter, in which 
there was on the 2uth October, 1846, a verdict for 

Dining that same week five cases were tried, 
and one non-suir. entered after the jury was 
sworn. Names of counsel are not given. 

The tirst divorce suit was brouglit by Mary 
Armstrong against her erring and delinquent 
husband, Joliu. Mr. Coffey conducted the case 
and obtained for Mary the coveted decree. 

The first e.\ecution was issued by James Murty 
vs. Jolm Dougherty to obiain $23.75 and costs. 
Tlie slieritt does not seem to have ever returned 
his writ. 

T)ie tirst case in which was made a motion for 
a new trial was in Bride ic McKeehan vs. Zech- 
ariah Gr. Brown. No. 23, August term, 1843, 
lirou^ht from Huntingdon county. 'I he verdict 
was for plaintifls for $3(53.53, and Mr. Biown's 
dissatisfaction is e.xpressed ny his motion for a 
newtiial. Judge B.ack was possibly no more 
favorable to re-trials than modern judges, and 
the motion was refused. Mr. Brown was in his 
day a well known citizen and litigant. 

The first auditor appointed was Titian J. 
Cotley, on the 2d January, 1817. This method of 
adjudicating many ([uestions arising in the set- 
tlement of estates and distribution of moneys 
has grown in favur and is employed with ire- 
([uency and with convenience to the court and 
bar to this time. 

In the criminal department of the court there 
have been interesting cases, which, at the time 
of their disposition, elicited great profess! jnal as 
well as public attention. I recall some of them. 

In June, 1855, a negro slave ran away from his 
master in Virginia, Mr. James Parsons. He 
reached this town on his way toUanada, hut was 
closely fallowed by Parsons. As the negro en- 
tered a car early one morning to cross the moun- 
tain on the Old Portage railroad he was dis- 
covered by Mr. Parsons, who entered the carat 
the other end at tlie same time. Tlie negro in- 
stantly tied, pursued by Mr. Parsons, whocaught 
him in Gaysport and brought him down to a po'int 
near tlie present Kellerman house. The occur- 
rence |)rouucB(l great excitement. The entire 
CO ored populatidn was aroused and those 
staunch democrats, (jeueral George W. Potts, 
Major J. K. Crawford and Coloner John Piper, 
witn other prominent white citizens, at once 
came to the aid ot tne slave, and under the 
guidance of Snyder Carr, a colored barber, and 
others of his race, the refugee was taken in 
charge and sp rited away, so that he was seen no 
more. Parsons, however, was arrested upon the 
charges of kidnaping, a.-sauitand battery and 
breach of the peace and bound over to appear at 
the July sessions. Bills were found by the grand 
jury, tint the trials were continued to the "Octo- 
ber i-e-sions. At the ap|iointed time Par ons ap- 
peired with his counsel, Ciiarle-i J. Faulkner an"d 
J. K indolph Tucker, appointed by the governor 
of Virginia. After the commonwealth had pro- 
gressed in the trial Mr. Hammond, the district 
attorney, by leave of court took non-suits and 
the prisoner was released. 

At ti is time, in view of the fugitive slave law, 
public feeling ran very high and runaway sla\ es 
all over the north were aided by the whites in 
their attempted escapes. Besides, the appear- 
ance o( such eminent counsel sent by the great 
commonwealth of Virginia gave the occurrence 
a significance and an eclat entirely exceptional 
in the history of the bar. 

Since the organi/, ition of this county there 
have been found bv tlie grand jury forty-one in- 
dictments for murder. Ot these lour were found 
guilty if murder in the first dear e. Tne others 
were either acquitt»d orconvicted of manslaugii- 
teror murder in the second degree. The lour 
who were convicted of murder in the tirst de- 
gree Were: Alex Hutcliins >n, killing a negro; 
James Shirley, killing his wife; David S. MoKim, 
kiUiim- his young traveling companion, Samuel 
Norcross, and Dr. Lewis IJ. Beach, killing his 

Hutchinson'scase had a most unusual conelu- 
son. He was convicted at the December ses- 
sions, 18.50, near the close of Governor \V. P. 
Johnston's ofticial term. For s ime reason not ex- 
plained the wa'rant forthe p isoner'a e.xecutiOQ 
was not issued by the governor before his term 

expired. Governor William Bigler succeeded 
him, and when his attention was called to the 
case, either for supposed legal reasons or from 
scruples of conscience, he declined to issue his 
warrant of dc.ith. Hutchinson remained along 
time about the prison, helping in the daily work 
and going freely about the town, refusing ta 
leave One day, however, he went quietly 
away, no man pursuing, and he died some years 
later in an eastern county. 

Shirley was hanged in 1X53, and his was the 
first capital execution. George A. Coffey was 
the prosecuting attorney, having been deputized 
by Joseph Kemp, who was the oistrict attorney. 

McKim's case attracted a good deal of atten- 
tion. He had traveled to Altoona with young 
Norcross, a stranger here, won his confidence, be- 
guiled him int 1 leaving the train and going a 
short distance west of town, to obtain 
the little money he learned from him he possessed, 
he cruelly murdered him. The prosecution was 
conducted by Mr. Hammond and William A. 
Stoke, then an eminent and able lawyer, em- 
ployed by the Pennsylvania Railroad company. 

The defendant relied upon Mr. Hofius Mc- 
Kim was a large, fine looking man, and seemed 
incapable of committing such a crime. The j ury, 
on tlie 7th of May, 1857, convicted him, and he 
was executed on the2lst of August, following. 

The most celebrated, however, of the homicide 
cases of the county, was the Indictment and con- 
viction of Dr. Beach. He was a ))ractlcing phy- 
sician in Alto jna, where he live I with his wife, 
but had no children. One morning at an early 
hour in the winter of 1884, he called at the house 
of Levi Knott, the brother of his wife, and in- 
formed him that he had killed his wife, but pro- 
tested he had done the deed without present 
knowledge of the act. He was arrested and tried 
during that year and was convicted. Mr. Spang, 
Mr. Stevens and the writer defended him — the 
latter two by direction of the couit. Hon. J. D. 
Hicks was then district attorney. 

The defense was insanity, and the proof showed 
that twelve of his blood relatives were either Idi- 
otic or insane, furnishing the argument that 
there was a hereditary taint, or pre-disposition. 
Counsel fur defense asked the court to rule that 
if the jury had a dou' t as to his sanity, it should 
operate to reduce the grade of the offense to mur- 
der in the second degree. Judge Dean refused 
the point. Counst-1 endeavored lo have the case 
reviewed by the sujjreme court, but the prelim- 
inary requisites could not be complied wit , and 
the judifment of the court was carried into efiect 
on the 12th of February, 1885. 

We might add that there has been a fifth con- 
viction of murder in the first degree, in the case 
of Commonwealth vs. Frank Wilson. As the 
case is still pending, we forbear to note it further. 

Many otner criminal prosecutions have been 
tried, which at the time engaged able counsel 
and elicited more than ordinary attention, but 
we do not find it necessary to particularize 

In 1874, we had the railroad riots at Altoona- 
and alonii the line of the railro td to Pittsburg. 
Tnis gave rise to numerous prosecutions and the 
c mviction of many persons engaged in those law- 
less and turbulent acts. These prosecutions were 
tried a* 'he first court held in the present court 
house, which had just been completed and dedi- 
cated with the formal ceremonies reported and 
tiled among the records of the court. It was on 
this occasion that Judge Dean delivered the ad- 
dress referred to in this history and Judge Black 
was present tor the last time in the county seat. 

A great many civil cases have been tried, and 
some of them conspicuously memorable, 'i he 
case of Summerville vs. Jackson, tried in 1849, 
was perhaps the tirst of that class. It was an ac- 
tion of ejectment to recover the posession of 
about 160 acres of land near Gaysport. The case 
turned mainly upon the question of fraud in de- 
fendant's acquisition of his title. And the jury 
found with the plaintiff. The judgment whs af- 
firmed in the supreme court in 1850. Mr. Miles 
represented the defendant, and Mr. Blair and 
Mr. Thaddeus Stevens the plaintifls. It is said 
Mr. Bldir's triumph in this case secured liiin his 
subsequent professional success and eminence as 
a lawyer. Though Mr. Stevens has acquired his 
greatest renown since that date, he was then 
distinguished for great professional ability. The 
wiiter. then a boy, remembers the peroration of 
hisargumen. in "this case. As he stood before 

Semi-Centennial History op Blair County. 


tlie jury he was tall and imiiosing in his appear- 
ance, and his face, though white wiili impas- 
sioned reeling, impressed the possession of great 
intellect. He spoke in low;ind solemn tones, and 
hedepicted so darkly wiintliedenominaied as the 
fraud in thd rase ilia t he seemed to bring the 
jury under tiie spell of an unnatural power and 
left them lerritied and bound. 

The case of Kaucli vs. Lloyd & Hill was long a 
familiar case. Little Charley Kauch, a boy of 5 
years of age, crawled under defendant's ear at 
the crossing, Koing for shavings for his mother. 
While just under the cars, defendant's servants 
moved the train and his legs were cutoff. Mr. 
BUiir and Mr. Banks were tiieir respective coun- 
sel. There was long-protracted litigation, both 
in this and the supreme court, but the case was 
finally settled. 

Farrell vs. Lloyd was also long a famous case. 
It aro?e upon the question whether there was a 
resulting trust in the purchase of land, and 
knowledge by the vender. In the name of Far- 
rell vs. Lloyd and Lloyd vs. Lyncli it was tried 
several times in the court below, and was lour 
times in the supreme court. Messrs. Hall and 
Neti'appeared for Farrell and Lynch; and for 
Lloyd, Mr. Blair. With the latter gentleman, 
later, other counsel was associated. 

Anotlier case was Li.uden et al. vs. Blair Iron 
& Coal Co. It Was tried three times below, and 
argued twice in the supreme court — the judgment 
for plaintitt being there first reversed, and fin- 
ally aftirmed. It was an action of tiespa>s for 
removing ore from plaintitt's land. The verdict 
was for about $14,000. 

Tne case involving the largest amount of 
money was the suit brought by James Gardnee 
for use vs. John Lluyd. The defendant was onr 
of a large number of persons, who hat ente ed 
into a written guaranty that William M Lloyd, 
a suspended banker, would comply with the 
terms of a settlement by exiension of time, and 
pay the ereaito s certain sums i)eriodKally as 
therein stipulated. The aggregate of these 
guaranties was $425,0.;o, and the suit against Mr. 
Lloyd was a test suit. The defense wa--, true it 
was, the signers of the paper had otter>:d lo guar- 
antee the fiithful perfurmance of the terms of 
extension entered into by W. M. Lloyd, but 
there had been no formal acceptance of tne oiler 
by tlie creditors, and lacking that element oi 
completeness to give it binding efficacy, there 
cjuld be no recovery. 

About two weeks were consumed in the trial. 
The pre|iaration of the case was one of unpar- 
alled extent. There weie over twelve hunureit 
creditors of L'oyd, and the notices, exhibits and 
other papers in the case, many of which were 
printed, numbered over a thous md; and all this 
prodigious labor was performe 1 mainly by the 
late tieorge M. Keade, of EDensbuig. It seemed 
to suit h.s indefatigai l-j natuie. Mr. Blair, Mr. 
Nefl'and iMr. Halilrige represented i he defendant 
and with Mr. Head- for the iilaintill, were asso- 
ciated the late Mr. Speer, of Huntingdon, Judge 
Bell and mysell. It only lemains to be said 
Judge Dean affirmed tlie "pr nciple invoked by 
the defendant, and so instructed the jury. We 
carried the case to the supreme court, but that 
tribunal affirmed the judgment. 

There have been other very important suits, 
among which were actions attecting the interests 
of the^Pennsylvania Railroad company.the Wop- 
sononock Kailroad company, and the City of 
Altoona. Among the latter was the case of The 
City vs. Bowman, involving the legality of the 
passage of an ordinance. It was finally decided 
against the city, causing a municipal loss of 
over $200,000. But we will not pursue this braacli 
of our review further. 

The legal business of the county has grown 
with the increase of population, especially has 
this tieen the case during the periud elapsing 
since .ludge Dean's historical address in 1877. 
Beginning with January year and end- 
ing with the January term of ihe current year, 
(1*96) there have bejn entered suiis and judg- 
ments 4^.oU. Of these the laigest number was 
in i:;94— 3,816. The present praictice of monthly 
return davs with the requirements of the new 
procedure act has greatly f.icilitated the dis- 
patch ofbusinefs. 

Tnere was no equity pr ictice till 1865. Since 
that time there have teen file i '256 bills, of which 
the greatest number— 28— were filed in 1893. Tne 

increased litigation h is cnmpelled longer ses- 
sions of court and duri'g th'i last two years the 
court has sat aliout 140 days in each year. 

There have been but live j iidges since the or- 
ganization of the eoiiniy. Judge .1. S. Black 
was the first to occupy the bench. He was suc- 
ceeded by G-eorge Taylor and he by John Dean 
for two "consecutive terms, In March 1892 he 
was elected a justice of the supreme court and 
was succeeded in the leourt by the writer who 
served till the election of the present incumbent, 
Martin Bell. Mr. Bell was the district attorney 
from January 1887 to January 1890. 

Since Judge Dean's review of the membership 
of the bar in 1877, there have been 62 admissions, 
of which 34 were residents of the county. Since 
1877, 18 members have died. 

The question then with the judtre was, who 
had the honor of being the fither of the bar? It 
lay between Banks, Calvin and McMurtrie, but 
these three prominent names have since disap- 
peared from the roll. It is proper now to deter- 
mine who is the lather of the bar; and by virtue 
of my position as its latest historian, I may be 
allowed the right of deci-ion and henceforth, my 
brethren are lawfully authorized to award that 
disMiiguished recognition to Brother Daniel J. 

Of the original members of the bar in this 
county, not one survives, unless I except Mr. 
Cottey, now resident in Wasnington, D. C. Of 
the subsequent additions, many moved away. 
Some never came into prominence, whilst others 
became consiiiouous, either as practitioners or 
as incumbents of public office. 

In March, 1890, Mr. Calvin died, and he was 
followed by IVIr. S. 1\I. Wooilcick in February, 
Mr H. H. Herrin October, and Mr. S. 8. Blair 
in December ot the same year. This was regard- 
ed as an unusual mortality. Mr. Banks and 
Mr. McMurtrie both died in 1880, whilst Mr. 
Cresswell, their cuntempurary, died in 18S2, and 
Mr. Brotherline in lb7y. 

Mr. Hewit died alter a very short illness in 
Maich, 1S94, and Mr. Bjldrige died suddenly in 
Maich, 1895. 

My predecessor has spnken of the older mem- 
bers who have departed, and we can only make 
reference to a few of ihosj who have since ap- 
penred to take their p aces. 

Both Mr Hewit an I Mr. Baldrige were promi- 
nent member.-; of tne bar, and enjoyed the pub. 
lie confidence to a lariie degree. 

Mr. Hew. t was a gentleman of great political 
ambition. He was disiriet attorney for two 
terms, and was a member of the legislature in 
1871, 1879. 1881 andl!-93, and spe iker i.f the house 
in 18S1. He was succeeded in his office by his 
son, Oliver H. Hewit. 

L. W. Hall was for many years an active prar- 
titioner at this bar, and whilst here was ele ted 
to the s^-natf, of wh.cii body he was speaker in 
1867. He sincj removed to Harrisburg. where 
he now residis and practieei-". He is the resident 
attorney of the Pennsylvania K.iilroad company 
in Dauphin county. 

J. F. Milliken was colonel of the Fifth regi- 
ment and district attorney of the county from 
1874 to 1877. It wag during his term that the ex- 
traordinarily large number of prosecutions was 
brought for violation of the liquor law. The 
railroad rioters were prosecuted during the last 
year of his term. He afi erwards went to Egypt, 
but now resides in Ne* York. 

Mr. Alexander was the district attorney who 
preceded him. He was long known as the senior 
partner in the law firm of Alexander & Herr. 
Within the last year he removed to Lancaster. 

Thomas McCamant became the auditor gen- 
eral of the state in 1888 and now resides in Har- 

Edmund Shaw, a prominent member of the 
bar, and a union sniilier in the late war, was a 
member of the legislaiuie for the terms of IsSi 
and 1N87. 

Mr. (Jr. H. Spansr removed to this county from 
Bedford in 1883. He was elected to the legisla- 
ture Irnm that county in 1875 and 1877, 

J. D. Hicks came to the bar in 1873, after the 
close of the war, ill which he served as a uninn 
soldier. He was district aitorney from 1880 till 
1886. In the fall of 1892 he was elected a member 
of congress from this coniiTossional district, and 
re-elected in 1894 


Semi-Centennial Histoky of Blair Coi'nty. 

J. K. Patterson was e ected to the legislature 
in 1894. 

W. S. Hammond is the present district attor- 
ney, having just entered upiin his second teim. 

The other older and Drominent members of the 
bar are: Andrew J Rfley, one of the solicitors 
of the Pennsylvania Kailroad company; Thomas 
H. Greevy. N. P. Mervine, J. S. Leisenring, E. 
H. Flick, W. L. Woodcock, W. I. Woodcock, A. 
A. Stevens, A. V. Dively, W.L. Hicks and W, L. 

I could with pleasure name other briii'ht and 
rising members of the bar, but time will hot per- 
mit, and besides 1 will be pardoned for grouping 
here a few only of those who are best known by 
their long and active professional services and 
residence in the county. 

The present ptothonotary is Jesse L. Hart- 
man, an urViane and eflioietit ofBcer. Two 
deputy prothonotaries are worthy of special 

Stephen Africa came here in 1850 and re- 
mained till about 1870. He was a most com- 
petent officer, understanding fully the intricate 
method^' and details of theViffice. His prepara- 
tion for the ijuarterly terms emiiraced, among 
otlier things, the miking of a dozen or two quill 
pens, whicii his .-ikiU alone could accomplish. 
These were laid out for ti e judges, counsel and 
juror.-i. A stee pen was not yet in favor though 
now extremes have met in the stylus of the an- 
cient and the steel of the modern. 

The other uenuty letVrred to is Mr. Cornelius 
D. Bowers. He came here from Philadelphia, 
and is 58 years old. He lias been a printer by 
profession and was an honorably discharged and 
wounled soldier in the Eighty-fourth regiment 
of tliis state He has sv>eiii twentj-elght years of 
his life in. the recorder's and prothonotarys otfice. 
He is fainili ir with all the duties of his jiresent 
position, and by his courtesy and faithfalne.-^s he 
haswnuthe confidence of the court and the biir 
and the respect of the public. 

Mr. .Tunes Rollins, now deceased, was for nine- 
teen vears crier of the court and librarian. He 

was a mo.«t intelligent and obliging officer and 

The present recorder and regist r of wills is 
Mr. Widiam H. Irwin. The slieriiT is G-. T. Bell 
with his deputies I. N. Eby and W. A. Smith. 
The county commissioners are James Punk, M. 
H. Fagleyand John Hard. The county treasurer 
is .Tohn T. Akers. 

Thus I have endeavored to recall some of the 
persons and incidents of the past. The retrospect 
is a changeful one. The faces and voices which 
make up one period, gi-adually pass to give way 
to anotiier; and those everehanging series like a 
relentless fute, destroy the familiar jjast, and re- 
place it with the newand strange present. 

But it must be so. This bar will grow with the 
county's growth Increasing prosperity will be 
accompanied by increasing population, "and the 
public business will he manifested in the courts. 

The younger members of the bar to day will 
impose upon themselves the industry and zeal of 
those who have preceded them. As there have 
been lustrous names in the p ist, tlicre shall be 
more in the future. If to any extent the bar of 
the past lias sought to maintain the higliest 
grade of learning and integrity; so the future bar 
should jealously" refuse to lower that standard. 
The entrance way to its privileges and powers is 
contrcdied by the membership, and whdn the un- 
worthy or the ignorant seek to set their feet 
within those precincts— wliich are traditionally 
sacred to those oidy who have education, mind 
and learning, with high professional pride and 
honor— both court and bar will interpose their 
steadfast prohibition. 

The perpetuation of a bar whicli is measured 
by sucn a standard will not only add to its own 
high character and adornment, but will win the 
confidence of the srreat pubic, who intrust freely 
to honest and capai le lawyers that va^t variety 
of intricate questions which constantly arise to 
aftect their live?, their lilierty and their prop- 

Gentlemen of the present bar— animated by 
sucli ennobling aims, what shall besai<lofus 
and thos:j who follow us fifty years from to-day? 

Historical Address, Delivered by Justice John Dean at Hollidaysburg, 
June 12, 1896. Blair County and its People. 

My friends: Accepting the as.<ignment of an 
address on the history of our county, I have 
endeavored to perform' that duty to 'he best of 
my ability, in view of the circumstances. A 
history of the county would invdlve a narrative 
of the leading incidents of its gr.iwth from the 
perio I of its first settlement, or its first settlers, 
running hack to about 1768. A chronological 
statement of important events during that 
period, important not only because of import to 
those who took part in thcin, but to us, because 
of their ellect 011 our present condition, would 
take, even in its most conci.-^e form, five or si.K 
hours t'l deliver, instead of the less than one, 
which from the nect-s.-iiy of the case the com- 
mittee lias allotted me. Therefore, I have 
eliminated from my subject all but one phase of 
it; in s I doin4 1 have piit aside much that is of 
histoiical inter<'St, siicii as the source of our land 
titles in thediflerent townships; how the Penns 
acquired them; how tiie first grantees under the 
Peons tODk them: to what restrictions and 
reservations some of them were subject. 'J'his is 
an especi£.lly interesting topic, not only to the 
1 iwyer, bui to the intelligent l.iy man. How Judge 
Wilson, one of the first j udgeso." tliesupreinecourt 
of the United States, couliV t ike up and liave pat- 
entedlto him mure tirin 100,000 acres of land, a 
large part of it within the boundaries of our 
c lunty, when tho act of as.-embly forbade the 
issue of n. warrant for more than 413 acres to one 
individual, an 1 niadevoid tbet tie to all in excess 
of that. H iw the HoUidays, who settled upon 
and r ally obtained ttle to'2,00'J acres of theland 
uponpiirt of whic ■ thiseourt House s-tands, after- 
wards hst ihat title; how the original owners, 
bringing with thein the custonn and legal no- 
tions of England, Scotland and Ireland sought, in 
some instances to impres-i upon their lands the 
law, of primogeniture ind entail, and how their 
purpose was defeated by the legislature and the 
courts oi the commonwealth: how and why Ty- 

rone township, that beautiful \ allev known fora 
hundred ye, US as Sinking Valley, is one of the 
Penn Manois. how it came to be such, and the 
nature of the vexatious restricions upon its 
titles came to exist. All th s, and much more, 
would be a partof the,, roper history of ihe coun- 
ty, and would be interest ng, but they must be 
set aside. 

Itake up and speak of that; part of the history 
of our county which to ine is always the most in- 
teresting. VVhctlicr I he people about whom I 
speak or wish to learn be an ancient (uie, and 
centuries ago disappeared from the earth, or be 
a present dominant one. wno have for hun- 
dreds of years been ><d\ ancing in civil zalion, I 
want to know us much as possible • f their daily 
lives, their customs, religion, manners: how they 
acted in their douusiic relations; how tney 
cooked, ate and drank, ami protected theuiselves 
from the weather. S ■ in the lirief lime bef.i>e 
me I shall endeavor to present to you the dnily 
lives of our predecessors on tlie territory which 
now foims our county. 

The population in "the first thirty years of its 
existence had reached about .3 00 >. Tliis popula- 
tion consisied almost wholly of origin, il settltrs, 
their wives and children: that is, those who had 
purchased their lands IVom the Penns or the 
c immonwealth. settled upon and imj)roved 
them, and still occupied them, or having died, 
they were occupied by their families. At the 
dale l^enn obtaineil his charter f<)r his colony 
from Charles 11, in England and on the conti- 
nent, as the old hymn has it, 'Keligion was the 
chief concern of mortals here below;'' not exact- 
ly the mort,irs own religion, but chiefly that of 
his neighbor's; no one had any doubt "as to his 
own; he only doubted as to whether ids neigh- 
bor's religious belief was orthodox; if it differed 
from his, his neighbor, being wrong, must be 
brought to his wuy of thinking, or ins neign- 
bor's soul was in danger of everlasting perdition. 

Semi-Centennial History of Blair County. 


Hence it was an age of religious i)ersecution; of 
inimical laws auainst heretK-s by those in power. 
Anil it mattered very little, so far ^s tlie perse- 
cuiioii was concer.jeil, wIiIlIi imrty w;is in power. 
Uitholiis persecuted Protestants; Vr^ftestants 
persei;uted Catliuliis. and eai-li other; in Eng- 
liind. all sects detested and persecute 1 the 
CiUiikers. When tliis spirit of leliitious (lersecu- 
tion was rife, in the year 1681, Penn, who had 
been persecuted and imprisoned for his leligion, 
acc|Uired tlie patent to Pennsylvania, and eopi- 
menced to ooionize it, liy inviting immigrants. ; 
not Only members of his own sect, but of all 
see's, promising to all freedom of consc ence in i 
religion, wnicli promise he and his sons in the 
pruprietorship faithfully kept. Penn, while in 
prison for reusing to take an oath, ten years be- 
tore tlie date of his charter, liad wiitten a I 
pamphlet advocating the largest li'ierty of con- 
science in reliaiuus bjlie'; from this position he 
never swerved. 1 

It is a remarkiible fict, that the Q.UEiker, 
whose religious belief excludes all dugi a,'esting 
wholly on m "inner light." and the Catholics 
under Lord Baliimoie, who settled Maryland, 
and whose religious Iteiief rests almost wholly on 
authoritatively defined doctrine and dogma, i 
should have give I to the worM within a few 
ye.irs of each other, the first examples of com- 
plete religious toler.ition in tne new world. Not 
a single one of the other colonies did it. I use 
tlie word "coiiiph te" religious toleration, as ap- 
plied to the facts of that ag.;. 'the a-ctof t dera- 
tion in Blaiylana dejiared that: 'Mo person or 
persons whatsoever. profession to bcl.eve in Jesus 
Chiist, shall from henceforth be m any wav 
tioulded or molestel or discounten i need for and 
in respect of his or her religion, nor in the free 
e.xercise there if; nor in any way co npelle I to tne 
belief Of exercise of any 01 her re.igion against 
his or her consent. ' This would not toleiate the 
Jew nor the Deist. Put t e numbers of these 
were so insignificant at that day, that it is alto- 
gether probable there «as nointenlioii to exclude 
them: they were simply not thought of. 

Under Penn's great, i.rinclple of reliaious toler- 
ation, emigrants began to pour into Pennsylvii- 
nia from almost all^Europjan race-. t4,uaker.-, 
Presbyterians, Episcopalians, Lutherans, Tunk- 
ers, Catholics and Moravians in relig.ous cret d; 
Dutch, English, Irish, Scotcn, Sotchlris , 
Swedes, Welsh and G^eraians. Such a conglom- 
eration of races and religions settled no other of 
the original colonies Within the next hundred 
yeais, there reacned the territory n jw comi)Os- 
ing our county, Presbyter. an-, Tunkers, Lu- 
therans and Catholics in religion And in race 
tiiere were Sc itcii, Scotch-Irish, Irish and Oer- 
mans. The Cove, from North Woodbury town- 
ship to Williamsburg, was mainlv originally 
setiled by (jermui Tunkers; what; is now Cath- 
arine township, Tyrone towuship, l^ogan town- 
ship, Alleiilienv township, the land around Hol- 
lidaysbnr^t and part of l''iankstown township, by 
Scotch-Irish; that part of Fiankstown townshijf) 
known as Scotch Valley, by Scotch In thcter- 
ritory now known as Greenfield and Juniata 
townshiis many Lutherans settled. Some of 
them also settle! in Frankstown township and 
Sinking Valley. HIair township was s ttled 
principally by Irish Catholics in the latter part 
of the last century and most ot the descendants 
of the original settlers still resiile there. Besides 
these, Irish Catholics appear early in this centu- 
ry, fioin the old assessment books scattered all 
over the county; especially at the laily iron 
works, furnaces and forges. 

As to the tj-erman element, most authorities 
estimate that at the commencement of the revo- 
lutionary war it constituted from a third to a 
half of the population of the state. I nonlrl 
judge, in louKing over the assessment of 1S47, the 
first alter the organization of the c mnty, it num- 
bered fully one-ihird of our population. At an 
early day the Oermans sougni excliisiveness, 
preserved their own language, and neither 
sought nor desired interc .uisc with others; espe- 
cially was this the case with the Tunkers; their 
lirinciples were in one rc-^pc.-t not unlike those of 
the Q,uakers; they were; opposed to war, but they 
went further; tliey were non-rcsistants; whole 
families of them were massacred and scalped by 
the Indians in the Cove and they resisted not: a 
dozen savages would devastate andilestroy a set- 
tlement containing thirty men without a hand 

being raised on their part. To every appeal to 
their courage and manhood in the frontier days 
the invariable answer was, ' trottes will sei 
setlKui" (Qod's wiile be done). Wliilp,we cannot 
but admire steadfas . adherence to principle, we 
cannot f.iil to see they were utterly out of place 
as frontier-men. These arc tiot the people who 
conquer homes in a new territory with a savage 
fie ficing them, and it they had not had for 
neighbors men of a diflerent stamp the -ettle- 
ment of this great commonwealth would have 
been delayed hilf a century. 

They are, however, the "very embodiment of 
thrift and industry, and as cultivators of the 
soil have hadnoeiiuils in the United States. 
Travel tlirough the Cove, wh'-re their descend- 
ants still live on the splendid liuustone fa'ms; 
notice i he fences, ►traight, with no broken rails; 
the large bank barns, generally painted red, a 
touch of old country c Aur; houses often of a size, 
that a half dozen would go inside the big barn, 
but always neat and presenting an air of com- 
fort; what sleek, contented cat le; heavy, fit 
horses. And these honest, simple people are the 
soul of hospitaiitv; enter the r houses, whether 
for a meal or lodgini!;. without many words you 
feel you are welcome- the lood. tiiough phnn, 
always appetizing and well cooked: the liquid 
beverages, cider and milk: the meals were not 
French, principally napkins, cut-glass and 
Howers; it was Jbe-f or pork, potatoes, dried ap- 
ples or suits, the finest of bread in huge loaves, 
and large wheat Hour cakes. Nearly all their 
clothing was madeon the farm, from thewoolclip- 
pedtiom their own shee,>, the.rshoes froinhides 
taken fiom the catileon the farm, and then to 
the nearest tannery to be nuide into leather. 
Often— at least sucn was the ca-c thirty-five 
years ago — the women of the house did not 
speak English, and but poorly understood it; 
Pennsylvania Dutch was the laiiiiuage of a cen- 
tuiy; it is probably much the samcnow, for these 
lieofde loathe change. In unny respects, they 
excel in good citiz nshij); they are never found 
in the couris, civil or criminal; their disputes 
among themselves are settled by the congrega- 
tion: often outsiders impose on them, feeling- 
sure they will not seek rcdr> ss at law. They are 
benevolent; thej would consider it disgraceful 
for anv of their own poor to reach the almshouse; 
but towards tho-e without the pale they are also 
kind and charitable. 

Their taxes are always piid promptly,notwith- 
standing some grumbling at times at the 
amount. They hate debt, and seldom buy what 
they cannot pay for. Many years ago they did 
not vote, but this rule of their church is gradu- 
ally becoming obsolete. Tney are still averse to 
serving on juries, and I'know of no instance in 
this county where tney h rve accepted public 
office, though in other portions of the state they 
have done so. They were f'roui the beginning 
oppnsed to public s/hools In lS57,when superin- 
tendent of schools. I often vislied them in their 
homes and conversed with them on the subject. 
Always hospitable and kind, still I remember of 
no iiistuice in which I succeeded in peisuading 
the elder members of the faith to aid in promot- 
ing the ciuse Of education. The fact i-, their 
ancestors had i een persecuted bitterly in (Ger- 
many bv both Catnolics and Lutheran.; in the 
hancis of these reli'_nonists were the government 
and -jU institutions f learnini;; by tradition, 
the-/ associated much lemning with despotic 
povrer and cruel persecution, and they abhorred 
It. But in the last thiitv fivo years this hostility 
has in a great pirt disa pear, d; t' e younger 
Beiier.itioii,niore acute in its perceptions, is more 
favorable to edu;ation: tliese citizens, before 
lonsf, we may hope, will take their pioper place 
in the government of a great commonwealth to 
whose "material wealth thev have so largely con- 
tributed. I yet expe -t to sec a Tunker she iti, or 
at leist a county > ommissioncr; my children, 1 
doubt not, will see Tunker governors, judges and 

The other branch ot German religonists, the 
Lutherans. hii<l no such notions as tne Tunkers. 
Krom ti.c.r first coming into;the colonyithey took 
an active fighting jiart in atlairs. In fact, when 
Muhlenberg, their great preacher, arrived 
among them in 1742, he called them a 'rough 
set " He was a learned, able and pious man; it 
was not lontf until his character was felt by his 
coreligionists; he organized them into congrega- 



tioii--, and s')Uglit to impress upon theui the wis- 
dom iis well us duty of becoininir Americanized; 
he oppused, with ii il his great iil)ility, tluit scgre 
SfatiOii so dear to tlie I uiiker. He tauglit J:-ng- 
iish himself, liad his children educated in it hy 
an Ent;llsli governess. His sun Peter Wiis a 
prominci.l ueiienil in the revolution. Ma y of 
these Lancaster and B«rks (rerman Lutliefans 
found their way into our valleys sjon after the 
revolutionary war, and tlieir n imes can be 
traued on ttie as-iessinents 'roni tliese counties. 
They were a Ijetter class of citizens in one 
partlculur than the Tunker.s; they touk jiart in 
government, lottal, county ami .state; always 
voted; were always ready to laKe up arms in of- 
fense of tlieir homes and country. 

Professor Wickcr.shain. in his 'History of Edu- 
cation in Pennsylvania," says: "The (>ermaiis, 
wlien they first came t Pennsylvaniii, were no 
more opposed to education llian other races. 
But, wlierever they refused to learn English, they 
deteri 'rated and hecame obstruidionists of pro- 
gress." I think tliis is applicable to Germans 
otliers tliiin Tunkers; but the uppnsUion of the 
latter, I know persona Uy, was often put upnn 
the ground tliai education was huitlul.* Confin- 
ing themselves to (rermmi certainly tended to 
isolation "iid narrowness; they had not the En- 
glitliman's or Irishman's instinct (or politics and 
government, and, by self iso atioii, their chiMren 
<lid not acquire it. Composing so large a part of 
the population of the commonwealth almostfrom 
its toundation, tliey have never taken that part 
in its liovernincnt their numbers and wealth war- 
ranted. Wherever iliey abandoned their e.\clu- 
siveness, and l)y education, business associations 
and inter-marriages, inixeil witli otiier races and 
their desicendents, their iiiitural capacity for 
science and aflairs becomes undeniable. Dr. Cas- 
par Wistar, Ur. dross and Dr. Leidy were of tliis 
irerman stock; G-overnorsSny<ler,Hiester,Shultz, 
Wolf. Kitner, Shunk and Hartranft were also. 
But all tliese escliewed German e.xclusiveness 
an<l Tunker opposition to war and education; 
they were of the iVIuhlenlierg party and ideiis. 
Of t lie two classes of Germans, theTnnkers and the 
Lutherans, with jthelrallied sects, theLutheriin 
contributes most to the greatness of a, state, and 
is therefore the better citizen In so far as great- 
ness consists in well tilled land, large and well 
tilled barns, the Tunker is super ior. But no free 
commonwealth was ever built up norlong contin- 
ued|free,whose citizens took impart in tliegovern- 
ment; who would vote for no candidate, from the 
governor to the tuwnslili) supervisor. The very 
genius of our constitutions: state and nationa', 
demands that all citizens who value life, litierty 
•iind pruperty, should take an active aud intelli- 
gent part in politics. 

We ne.xt have the Scotch nnd Scotch-Irisn. 
They, as noticed, settled a large )iiirt of the most 
fertile part of the county They were all 
Presbyterians. I never heard of a Scotch-Irish- 
man in the first uenerution, being other than 
Preshyterian, until 1 became ac(|uainted with 
Mr. Thomas Kooney, late of this town, a most ex- 
cellent man, now gone t.j his rest,. He was a most 
exemplary Lutheran, and came to this country 
from Ireland in his youtli. The Scotch-Irish 
were not all ScDtch, although all who came from 
the north of Ireland were so called. Many of 
them had emii>rated to Ireland fioui England in 
tlie reigns of Elizabeth and .Tames I., and were 
correligiooists with those wh" emigrated from j 
iic;)tlaut. Many of these Scotch emigrants j 
were Celts of the same r.^ce as tlie native Irish; 
the only dillerence was in religion. Large num- 
bers of tnese Irish settlers, Scotch and English, 
Icit Ireland in the reign of James II., and came 
to Pennsylvania; this migration ol the Seotcli- 
■ Irish c'liiinued (or years down to the commence- 
ment of the rei olutioiiary war. It is generally 
.supposed they were all driven from Ireland by 
Catliolic persecution, but this is not the truth in 
all cases; many of them hiid taken long leases 
from the English government of Irish lands in 
the reigns of Q,ueeii Elizabeth and James I , and 
these ledses were exjjiring in those of Ciiarles II. 
anil James II.; the government would not renew 
them, or demanded such exorbitant rents for the 
future that they preferred to emigrate. And 
this state of "affairs continued long after 
Protestant ascendancy on the English" throne 
under William and Anne. As I always under- 
stood from the tradition in our family my 

piterDal great-grandfather, Matthew Dean, 
came to Pennsyl\ania about the year 17fiO, be- 
cause he preferred to own land here rather than 
lease it in Ireland. And I have no doubt this 
was the case with many others of that stock. 

The were inten-e Presljyterian.s. 
A copy of the Confession of Faith, with the 
Larirer and Shorter Catechism, was in every 
Presiiyterian family in my boyiiood. The copy 
in our family was quite old; it bore a Ijondon 
publish I's imprint, and was said to have l>een 
brought from Ireland by my mother's ancestors. 
1 ilon't remember that the doctrine was e.x|iress- 
ly taught — rather think it was not— but I got 
the impression somehow, from my drilling before 
I was 12 yrars old, that while those outside of 
the Presbyterian church might be saved, their 
case was an exceedingly doubtful one. I pitied 
my Methodist, Lutheran and Catholic boy com- 
panions, because, not being Presbyterian boy.s, 
they \iere in i)eril of everlasting punisiiment. 1 
can realize now, from my own teaching.s, which 
must have ijeen greatly moderated in their tone 
by nearly a century ofNew World liberty, how 
intoleran', cruel and biiioied must have been 
the attitude of tlie religious sects of Europe in 
the previous century. No one who has read liis- 
tory doubts that, in the seventeenth and eigh- 
teenth centuries, religious jiersecution was the 
rule, toleration a rare exception: Catholics 
killed Proleslants, Protestants or dissenters from 
tlie Established Church killed C;.tholics; the 
Cliur,;h of England killed both, and all because 
of a dillerence of creed as to the authority of the 
pope, the etticaiy of the sacraments, or the in- 
terpretati<m of revelation. 

And on their theory, logically, they were right. 
They assumed their particular creel un- 
doulitedly orthodox; every one that differed from 
it was raiik heresy; wliosoever believed in and 
practiced the heresy would incur eternal damna- 
tion; if no one but tlie then holder of the false re- 
ligion should lielieve in it the effectwould be 
limited, but if tlie heretic should go on propagat- 
ing the heresy, and those iml)ibiDg it should so 
continue, the' result would be millions of souls 
would be destroyed. "It is my duty to God," 
they reasoned, "to exterminate this souldestroy- 
ing'heresy and thereby save millions of souls." 
And they at once proceeded to perform their 
duty by cutting oft the heads of the heretics. 
And assuming their premises to be correct, they 
were right, whether Catliolic or Protestant. It 
took a long time, almost a century and a half of 
religious civilization, before the large majority 
of Christians ofall creeds fully comprehended 
that there was no divine authority committed to 
any man or iiody of men to determine that an- 
other man would certainly be damned because 
of his religious creed; that the Great Judge had 
reserved that attritiute of sovereignty to himself, 
and that the individual conscience was answer- 
aide to him alone, for he alone can determine 
ccrtanly the wickedness of the offense and 
therefore can alone justly fix the punishment. 

But out of these religious wars, persecutions 
and cruelties, came the Scotch-Irishman into the 
beautiful valleys of our county. They wanted 
a fertile soil,and the.v got it; tliey warned to own 
it; ill that their desire was accomplished. The 
first settlers had to war with the Indians. There 
was no "Gottes wille sei Getlian," with them, as 
with their Tunker co-settlers. Their idea was, 
"The Lord hath given to his saints the heiithen 
for an inheritance" They had not a spark of 
doubt who were the saints, nor who were the 
heathen Their onl.v season of respite from war 
ill the early years was in the winter; the Indians 
seldom made a winter campaign; but in siwing 
and reaping, their fields were guarded by the 
txjys as sentinels. Many of them were killed by 
the cunning and cruel foe. Not a half mile from 
where we are now assembled, jiart of the Holli- 
day family was massacred; in Dell Delight, one 
oftheMoores; in Catharine township, half of 
my great-grandfather's family was killed and 
scalped, and his hous? burned. Peruiit me to 
sliow how closely tradition connects events; the 
massacre of the Dean family occurred in the 
autumn of 1780, almost 116 years ago; my great- 
grandmother and four of her children were in the 
house, her husband and three childrt-n in the 
cornfield; while they were in the corn field, the 
Indians killed xnd scalped all in the house, and 
set it on fire, without uiscovering those in the 

Sem[-Centennial History oi<' Blaik County. 


•corn ti('l(l. One of tlic girls In the corn ftcld was 
Polly, who marricMl Huwli Means, a f'.irmor in tlie 
lower end of Sinking Valley. I visited her inore 
tlian once from 1844 lo 184H, about which time slu^ 
died, 1 l)eiiii4- tlien 10 to 12 yea s of aiie and she 
probably KO; more tlian once, she narrated to me 
all the sickeninu; details of the massacre, as 
as she or any one l<new tlieni. So that tradition 
in tliis instance, tlirough l)ut two persons, runs 
back 116 years to a terrible event in a family. 1 
now tell it to my children, and tliev vass it on, so 
that three or four lives will jtossibly reach UM) 
years. Some of tlie details of the story may be 
lost, some possibly added, but the substance will 
remain correct, i liave frequently, of late years, 
thought of this, when 1 have heard scientists 
hoot at the value of tradition as testimony to 
historical facts, arguing that written evidence 
alon ' can be elied on. Tra<lition, in the larger 
number (d' instances, has the kernel (d' truth. 
But this is a digression. 

To hear the orators of the Sccdchlrish at 
t'mesone would be led to think they were the 
embodiment of all tlie virtues; that but for them 
there would have been no Pennsylvania, and 
possibly no nation. In these claims there is 
much pardonable e.xagiieraiion. 

In their domestic lives the were 
probably more considerate of the comfurl of the 
women of ihe houseluild than the 'lunkers; they 
were always mure litieral in e.x'penditure: they 
generally a e the best of the product of their 
farms and sold the poorest; whisky distilled on 
the farm, or very near It, was used without stint; 
they favored education. The schoolmaster was 
installed as soon ;is liossible after a settlement 
was maN^e, and there were t'Ut few of the secomi 
generation who could not read, write and cipher. 
They had one most erroneous idea lirought witli 
them from the old countrj ; that is, that the girls 
■could marry and neede<l no estate; so in their 

Mr. Sydney George Fisher, in his most valua- 
ble b( ok, "The Making of Pennsylvania," says: 
"There is no doubt the Scotch-Irish were rough, 
but roughness is not always a serious vice, and 
there aic various deureesof it. They liad. the 
lands (d'the Irish rebels givi-n to them; tliey had 
entere<l on tliem with a strong hand, and they 
had grown accustomed to maintaining them- 
selves among a hostile population fr mi whom 
they e.\pected hut little consideration. They 
were not much addicted to politeness or asking 
leave for what they took, and they entereil Penn- 
sylvania in a manner that was rather irritating 
to the (iropiietors. I^argo numbers of them 
marched to the York Barrens, in what was then 
Ijuncaster county, near tlie Maiyland boundary 
line, without fir.Tt ollering to buy the land from 
Pcnn. When spoken to on the subject, they re- 
plied that Penn had solicited colonists and they 
iiad come accordingly. A more serious oliense 
was their settling without purchase on the 
lands <d' the Indians, an intr ision which is gen- 
erally believed to havocaused several massacres." 

Inihe.r merry-inakings tliey were rude; a rough 
anil tumble tigut witii fists was not unusual; 
whisky was among them a beverage partaken 
of on all occasions, whether feist, wedding or 
funeral; when a boy, within a. raiius of two miles 
of wheie 1 went to" school, there were Hve distil- 
leries, owned by Scotch-Irish Presbyterians and 
Pennsylvania G-ermans. The VVashiiigtiniiaii 
temperance reform in 1843 and 1844 closed all but 
one of tlies(\ Hut without this, it is probable 
they would have closed. New means of traiis- 
pi'rtatioii enabled them to shi]) their rye to mar- 
ket in bulk, instead of concentrating it into a 
small package of whisky. 

As noticed, the Tunkers would not vote or 
lioltl office. No one ever said that of a Scotch- 
Irishman; Ihave never known of his lefusal to 
vote at least once, and iie was willing to hold as 

wills in the early pare of the century you will many offices as he was eligible to. Ihe record.s 
find they generaliv gave ahout nine-tenths of of this county since its organization wll', 1 

think, t)ear me out in tiiisstatement. Although 
many of them deny it, the Tunkers e.\cclled 
them as farmers. As a rule, the Scotch-ltlsh 

3y ge 
their estate to the sons and divided the remaii 
Ing tenth among the daughters. I can even sliow 
you two or three wills of tliis kind probated after 
Scotcli-lrishmen's decease subsequent to the or- 
ganization of this county. 
Sargent, in his "Introductory Memoir to the 

larmers, after three general ioiii-', are giving way, 
and their places are being taken by others. 
The Catholic Irish settled what is now Blair 

JournalofBraddock'sE.\pedition,"savs: 'They township about the close of the revolutionary 
were a hardy, brave, hotheaded race,'e.\-citable war; tli= borough of Newry is, next to I-ranks- 
in temper, unrestrainable in pa?sion, invincible town, the oldest village in the county. 1 have 
in prejudice. Their hand oiiened as impetu- ' heard the late James M. Hewit say that when a 

ously to a friend as it clinched against an en 
emy. If often rude and lawless, it was pirtly 
the fault of their position. They hated the In- 
dian while they despised him, and it does not 
seem, in their dealings with this race, as though 
there were any sentiments of honor or magnani- 
mity in their bosoms that could hold way against 
their passionate, blind resentment. Imiiatient 
of restraint, rebellious against everything that 
in their eyes bore the semblance of injustice, we 
find these men readiest among the re^dy on the 

boy he went to Newry to see a circus; Ho lidays- 
burg was then too insignificant to warrant the 
showmen in stopping; Newry was tlie larger 
town. I'his Irish settlement for a time throve 
and was prosperou?, but tholocation of the canal 
and the Portage road north of it, with their 
junction at Hollidavshurg, arrested its growth 
and Hollidaysburg forged ahead, .just as the lo- 
cation of the main line of the Pennsylvania rail- 
road si.\ miles north of Hollidaysburg created 
Altoona, leaving Hollidaysburg standing still. 

speaking, because of my own blood, being Scotch- 
Irisii on both paternal and maternal sides of my 
ancestry. While all the first settlers had passed 
away before iny years of recollection, 1 saw and 
knew some of their immediate children, and 
many of their grand-children. My uncle, Sam- 
uel i)ean. who lived to an advanced age, was 
born in the year l^iOO. James M. Bell, my pre- 
ceptor in the law, in the year 17'.i;». My fatlier 
1808. Tobias l'"ureman, late of Huntingdon 
county, lived with and was reared tiy my giand- 
father; James Clark, grandfather of John Clark 

but for many years Newry had the only Catliolic 
church. There was, when I was a boy, a small 
Catholic graveyard in Williamsburg, how old I 
do not know; but here, every now and then, 
some devout member of the church was laid to 
rest in consecrated ground. A neat church has 
been erected there within thirty years. 

It is but a century ago that the two races, 
liostile in religion, antl hating eacli other in Ire- 
land, a^ain met. In Ireland they had been im- 
placable foes, but when they reached this New 
World of religious liberty, where everyone had 
a right to pursue his own happine^p, their _re- 

of Williamsburg, an ohl revolutionary soldier, a right to pursue Ins own llapplne^p, iiiur re- 

an uncle of my father, was often at our house; sentments seem to Inive di.sappeareil, and liicy 

he was vivacious, and a great inrrator of past labored together lor the common good. Up until 

events;these all knew and mingled witli the orig- 1«54 I never heard of religions pro cripiu.n, or 

sinkin- Vallev, Canoe Valley, religious antagonism in politics. I know I h,i\o 
n township. Ihave heard them seen my father, at an early day, in consultation 

with the [Catholic Mclvlernans and Harbisons 
relative to tlie promotion of eilucdtion in the 
common schools, and other public measures af- 
fecting the townshli>. But in 1854 a wave of in- 

inal settlers of r 
and Frankstown townshii 

tell of their domes ic life, of their political d 
ferences. local feuds and church disputes. Sar 
gent"s description, from my own opinion of ma- 
ture years, approaches accuracy. 



Sp:mi-Centenniai^ History op Blaik County. 

I lO fj -I f 



tolerance, higutrv and proscription passed over 
the stiite. Tiie Catholic whs persei-uted, just as 
far as our constitution peruii'ted; lie was not 
imprisoned, not killed on account of his reli!j;ion, 
liut he was voted out of every office he could pos- 
Hil)ly aspire to from state to townsliin. Itwasa 
shameful persecution, and lasted about three 
years: in less than five years thereafccr th' se 
most active in tlie movement were busy denyinj; , 
they had any coiine.;tion with it. In less than 
ten years came the war for the preservation of 
the "union. Our Catholic fellow citizens all 
around us, tlien, by their patriotism at liome in 
liromotina; enlistments, their c-ourago on many a 
bl ody battlelield, gave the lie to all accusations 
made asiainst tlieui in the kn iw nothinif cru- 
sade. G-ood citizenship is not detern ined by 
creed; conscience and c ii)afity fir puldi.- service 
are nut measured by doctrine or dogma. All re- 
ligio s ))io5cription is utterly at war wiili the 
fLiiidamentiii principles of our'cnnstitution. And 
whether onr remote ancestors cut each otliei's 
lieads oH in Ire'and two hundrel years ago. 
because one did not acknowledge the spiritual 
authority of the pope, and tlie other refused to 
acknowledge the spiritual authority of a presby- 
tery, or their descendants figuratively a th's <lay 
cut eaoli other's pulitieai hemls offat the polls, the 
principle is precisely the same, religious bigotry 
and proscription. I speak now as a citizen of 
this growing county ano this grand old eoinmon- 
wealtli in wiiicli 1 was born and bred. No one 
doubts my religious creed: of a Scotch-Irish 
Presbyterian aiicesfry, religious training and 
education, I could not- be otiier and do not wish 
to be other tlian Tresbyterian. At the same 
time, with all my years of study, experience and 
thought, I Icannot !)Ut tremble when 1 see the 
least sign of a revival of that intolerant religi- 
ous spirit whieii for centuries bathed Europe in 
bloo'i. Lincoln said of slavery, "A house di- 
vided against itself cannot stand." I do not be- 
lieve a house divided against itself on a religi- 
ous question can stand. Once religious belief is 
made a political issue; once you determine a 
man's fitness for office by liis opinion on tlie 
doctrine of the ''real presence," — intercession of 
the saints, of the Virgin Mary, the very founda- 
tion of our free insiitulions disappears. Take 
away that foumiation stone, laid in all its 
breailth and beauty by Peiin, and on which the 
great and glorious edifice of iliisfiet) common- 
wealth has licen liuihb d, grand as is the super . 
structure, it may fall: if it do not tall, it will 
cease to grow: tliere will t>e 'no furtlier "addi- 
tions, wherein may be sheltered and made happy 
the sons of men. 

Our Bill of Rights declares: "All men liavea 
natural and iridefeasible right to worsi ip Al- 
mighty G-od according to the dictates of their 
own consciences. 

"No person wtio acknowleiges the being of a 
G-od and a future state of rewards and punish- 
ments shal', on account of his religious senti- 
ments, be disi|ualified for any office or place of 
trust or profit under this commonwealth." 

Under this beniticent declaration, or the sub- 
stance of it, declared by the wise founder of our 
state, the whole commonwealth has grown and 
prospered. Any departure from it must be a 
step backward into a dark age of persecution 
and bloodslied, when ignorance undertook to 
fashion men's consciences by cruelty and bar- 

"Lord," said the woman of Sichem, "our 
fathers worsiiipped in this mountain, and ye say 
that Jerusalem is i he place wliere men ought to 
worship." Jesus replied, "Woman, believe me, ! 
the hour cometh, wlien ye shall worship neither | 

in this mountain nor yet at Jerusalem, but when 
the true woi shippers shall worship the Father in 
spirit and in truth." 

It is almost nineteen centuries since the ^reat 
Founder of Christianity proclaimed this sum of 
all religion at Jacob's Well, yet, duiing all those 
centuries, it is only an occasional glimpse we get 
of it in practice. Tlie Tunkers, Lutherans, 
Scotch-lrioh and Catiiolic Irish of this c-junty 
lived up to it for almost seventy-five years, or 
until lSo4. May we not hope, that since the 
miserable failure then to adopt a religious test 
in po itiis, none other will ever be attempted. 

Such were the men, such their religion, such 
the race of the hardy people who originally set- 
tled the territory which now forms our county. 
When the county was organized in lt>4t) many of 
the descendants of the or ginal Germans and 
Scotch-Irish lia I become Methodists, and some 
of them Baptists. The Methodist was a mission- 
ary church; its circuit riders had penetrat'd into 
all corners of the county tiy that lime; tiieir con- 
gregations were organizedin almost c\ ery school 
district: they were^pecially effective at the iron 
work-: two large setiled congiegations with com- 
fortable churches existed at HoUidaysburg and 
Williamsburg;but while strong in numbers, they 
were generally of limited me ins; their influence 
and wealth are mainly thegrowth of the last fifty 
years, and the same may be said of the Baptists. 
Many other religious sects have also in' that 
jicriod grown in numbers and importance. What 
1 have sjught siiecially to point the kind 
and charrtCter ipf the peoi)le who, by more than 
seventy years of struufgle, made ourcounty what 
It was in 1S46, brought it to the point where its 
people had a right to dcinand a separate county 
organization and the legislature was warranted 
in creating it. 

When tne county was formed in 1846, in my 
judgment the poiiulation was about 11, OHO. I 
think fully four-fifths of this was made up of first 
settlers and their immediate descendants. The 
[lopulation rapidly increased; it certainly num- 
bers now not far from 75,000. I dount if more 
than one third of these can trace descent to the 
Germans, Scoti-h-Irish and Insh of the first half 
of the century; take away the population of 
Altoona and "its immediate surroundings in 
Logan township, of Tyrone and Bellwood, and 
the last thirty years would show but little 
change. The greater Blair county is made up 
by these progressive railroad towns. True, many 
of their citizens are descendants of the original 
stock, hut the larger proportion is from other 
counties and states, and many from beyond the 
=eas. By their joining us they have raised our 
noble old county from one of the smallest to one 
of the greater coumies in wealth, population 
and enterprise. In the not distant future we 
shall seeit reach more than IdO.Oi'O in population. 
Its past rapid growth has been due in great de- 
gree to the growth and lilieral management of 
that great corporation, the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road. Our material prosperity and progress in 
the future mustiiepend largely on the prosperity 
of that enterj;rise. As it grows our county will 

But I have already wearied you in endeavor- 
ing to present in as "concise a "narrative as possi- 
ble a glimpse of the early physical, intellectual 
and religious growth of our beloved home. In 
if I was born and reared; with it are associated 
all my fondest rejullections; to its future cling 
all my most fervent hopes; if any want to point 
to some better, some gohlen age in some other 
county or some other years, I have no sympathy 
with them, for our county and our age, I feel 
sure, are the best attainable.