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Full text of "History of Boone County, Indiana : With biographical sketches of representative citizens and genealogical records of old families"

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Gc 977.201 B64cr v. 1 
Crist, L. M. 1837-1929. 
History of Boone County , 
Indiana 



HISTORY 



OF 



BOONE COUNTY 



INDIANA 



With Biographical Sketches of Representative Citizens and 
Genealogical Records of Old Families 



BY 

HON. L. M. CRIST 



VOLUME I 



ILLUSTRATED 



A. W. BO WEN & COMPANY 
Indianapolis, Indiana 



**« Comfy Pubfif Ubrarv 
ft" 



DEDICATION 
This work is respectfully dedicated to 

THE PIONEERS 

long since departed. May the memory of those who laid down their burdens 

by the wayside ever be fragrant as the breath of summer 

flowers, for their toils and sacrifices have made 

Boone County a garden of 

sunshine and delight. 



1408947 
AUTHORS INTRODUCTION. 



To write a history is but to commit to words in type events as they have 
transpired, and to be pure history, it must be colored as little as possible by 
the views or personal opinions of the writers. 

In presenting this history of Boone county, the author has attempted 
in every instance, to refrain from the expression of his opinions and to 
give the facts, indeed, it will be noticed, by the careful observer, that the same 
incident is given, in some instances, in different language, in more than one 
place, because coming from different sources of seemingly equal authority. 
I make no claim to originality, but have, with great care and much labor, 
sifted every possible particle of information, hoping from the mass to collect 
the best and most important facts and events for preservation. 

It has been impossible to publish all of the matter placed at my disposal ; 
much has, no doubt, been omitted which should have been published, and 
much, perhaps, has been published which the reader will consider super- 
fluous. Much information, in the possession of those who should have been 
glad to furnish it, has been omitted for lack of interest of those parties and 
their failure to furnish me the facts, though often requested so to do. 

The author desires to express his appreciation of the assistance of each 
and every one that has aided in the work and especially the press of the 
county. Strange N. Cragun and Ben F. McKey. Also the author desires 
to pay tribute to the careful and faithful work of Messrs. Harden and Spahr, 
who published a history of Boone county in 1887. 

The earnest endeavor on my part to give a complete history of the county 
to December 1, 1914, will, I trust, be appreciated. 

LEANDER M. CRIST. 
Thorntown, Indiana. 



PREFACE. 



All life and achievement is evolution; present wisdom comes from past 
experience, and present commercial prosperity has come only from past exer- 
tion and suffering. The deeds and motives of the men who have gone before 
have been instrumental in shaping the destinies of later communities and 
states. The development of a new country was at once a task and a privi- 
lege. It required great courage, sacrifice and privation. Compare the pres- 
ent conditions of the people of Boone county, Indiana, with what they were 
one hundred years ago. From a trackless wilderness and virgin land, it has 
come to be a center of prosperity and civilization, with millions of wealth, 
systems of railways, grand educational institutions, splendid industries and 
immense agricultural and mineral productions. Can any thinking person be 
insensible to the fascination of the study which discloses the aspirations and 
efforts of the early pioneers who so strongly laid the foundation upon which 
has been reared the magnificent prosperity of later days ? To perpetuate the 
story of these people and to trace and record the social, political and indus- 
trial progress of the community from its first inception is the function of the 
local historian. A sincere purpose to preserve facts and personal memoirs 
that are deserving of perpetuation, and which unite the present to the past, is 
the motive of the present publication. The work has been in the hands of 
an able writer, who has, after much patient study and research, produced 
here the most complete historical memoirs of Boone county ever offered to 
the public. A specially valuable and interesting department is that devoted 
to the sketches of representative citizens of this county whose records deserve 
preservation because of their worth, effort and accomplishment. The pub- 
lishers desire to extend their thanks to the citizens of Boone county for the 
uniform kindness with which they have regarded this undertaking and for 
their many services rendered in the gaining of necessary information. 

In placing the "History of Boone County, Indiana," before the citizens, 
the publishers can conscientiously claim that they have carried out the plan 
as outlined in the prospectus. Every biographical sketch in the work has 
been submitted to the party interested, for correction, and therefore any 
error of fact, if there be any, is solely due to the person for whom the sketch 
was prepared. Confident that our efforts to please will fully meet the appro- 
bation of the public, we are, 

Respectfully, 

THE PUBLISHERS. 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER I — First Inhabitants — Dominion of European Nations — American 

Control — Meaning of Names 25 

CHAPTER II — Mound Builders — Indian Occupancy — Territory Acquired by White 

Man 37 

CHAPTER III — Geology and Topography — General Features — Rivers — Lakes — 

General Natural Features — Soil and Climate of Boone County 63 

CHAPTER IV— Public Domain and Its Survey 75 

CHAPTER V — Organization of the Count}- — Official Acts Connected with Its Or- 
ganization — Organization of Various Townships — Where They First Effected 
Their Settlement — Early-day Mills — Early Roads — Pioneer Schools and 

Churches — Customs and Manners of the First Who Established Homes 79 

CHAPTER VI — Organization of Territory — Right of Occupation — Origin of the 

Name, Hoosier 120 

CHAPTER VII— Early Life— Early Recollections— Early Entertainment— Social 

Gatherings, etc. 135 

CHAPTER VIII — Military History of the County — Mexican Soldiers— Soldiers of 
the Civil War from This County — Those Who Served in the Late Spanish- 
American War 168 

CHAPTER IX — Bench and Bar of Boone County — Lawyers, Past and Present — 

Early Courts — Brief Sketches of Oldtime Attorneys 211 

CHAPTER X — Agriculture — Agricultural Society — Agricultural Agent — Farmers' 

Clubs — Drainage — Native Forest 

CHAPTER XI — Educational Development of the County — Early Teachers — Con- 
gressional Fund — Concentration of Schools — County Seminary 258 

CHAPTER XII— Church History— First Churches— Churches of Today 323 

CHAPTER XIII— Newspapers of the County 357 

CHAPTER XIV— Medical Profession— Early Doctors— Their Experiences— Char- 
acter of the Pioneer Physicians — Superstition, etc 365 

CHAPTER XV— Banks and Banking 384 

CHAPTER XVI— Cities and Towns of the County 391 

CHAPTER XVII— County Buildings 431 

CHAPTER XVIII— Politics of Boone County— Official Roster 442 

CHAPTER XIX— Railroads— Traction Lines— Telegraph— Telephone 453 

CHAPTER XX— Civic and Benevolent Societies 459 

CHAPTER XXI— Boone County Cemeteries 502 

CHAPTER XXII— Early Life and Early Settlement in Each Township 515 



HISTORICAL INDEX. 



A 

Advance 400 

Agriculture 225 

Growth 226 

Productions 226 

School Work 242 

Clubs 242 

Farmers' Short Course 243 

Agricultural Agent 235 

Annual Report 236 

Seed Corn Testing Week 237 

Orchard Demonstration 238 

Milk Testing 238 

Alfalfa Tour 239 

Field Demonstration 239 

Contests 240 

Agricultural Society 228 

First Fair 229 

Report 230 

Al-Si 232 

Anakims. The 35 

Apotheosis of the Pioneer, An 515 

Archway 503 

Auditors 450 

B 

Banks and Banking 384 

First Bank in County 385 

Banks of Cities and Towns 386 

State Bank of Advance 1038 

Bench and Bar 211 

Court Room of Early Days 211 

Judicial Circuits 211 



Bench and Bar — 

History of Courts from Organiza- 
tion to Present 212 

Circuit Court 214 

Early Judges 214 

Early Attorneys 215 

Twentieth Judicial Circuit 222 

Bonsall, Mabel 500 

Boone, Betty 164 

Boone, Daniel 530 

Boone's Oldest Male Resident 152 

Boy Wanted 149 

Boyd, Adaline (Burk) 512 

Bravery of a Kentucky Girl 150 

Burckhalter, Marietta Mills 426 

Business and Manufactures 531 

Boss Manufacturing Co., The 1039 

Dairy Cream Separator Co., The- 910 
Poland-China Hogs, Dr. Tucker's.1042 



C 



Center Township 113-518 

Location 113 

County-seat 114 

Early Settlement 115 

Churches 115 

Schools 116 

Roads 117 

Century Mark Passed 383 

Cemeteries, Boone County 502 

Churches 322 

Methodist Episcopal Ministers, 
Zionsville 324 



HISTORICAL INDEX. 



Churches — 

Methodist Episcopal Ministers, 

Lebanon and Whitestown 355 

Methodist Episcopal, Lebanon 322 

Christian or Disciples 324 

Presbyterian 325 

St. Joachim 327 

First Baptist 328 

First Christian 329 

Seventh Day Adventist 331 

United Brethren 331 

African Methodist Episcopal 332 

Methodist Episcopal, Jamestown — 333 

Methodist Episcopal, Salem 335 

Methodist Episcopal, Thorn- 
town 335-49 

Presbyterian 337 

Missionary Society 323 

Christian 347 

Civil War 168 

Causes Leading to it 168 

Call for Volunteers 172 

Knights of the Golden Circle 172 

Organization of Companies 175 

Facts About the Conflict 176 

Clarkstown 400 

Clinton Township 88-521 

Location 88 

Early Settlement 89 

Churches 89 

Schools 90 

Elizaville 91 

Commissioners, County 446 

Corn (White Man) 139 

Coroners 452 

Courthouse 431 

Dedication 431 

Hon. Chas. Fairbanks' Speech 436 

Crawford Home, The 439 



Dover 401 

Drainage 244 



E 

Eagle Township 108-522 

Location 108 

Early Settlement 108 

Early Ministers 109 

Churches 110 

Schools 110 

Eagle Village 108 

Early Life in Boone County 134 

Traveling in Early Days 135 

First Roadways 136 

Early Recollections 141-514 

Talks of the Old Days 153 

Interesting Things Relative to 

Early Times 156 

Education 258 

Engleman, Joseph 61 

Essay by W. H. Mills 159 

Essay on Forestry 253 

F 

Fayette 401 

Forest, Our Native 247 

Oak 248 

Tulip 249 

Walnut 250 

Elm 250 

Linden 250 

Beech 250 

Flowery Trees 251 

Tree as an Engineer 255 

Plea for Trees 255 

G 

Gadsden 402 

Geology and Topography 62 

Period, Post-Tertiary 63 

Wells 65 

Coal 63 

Gospel Temperance Meetings 480 

Governor, Vote of 425 

Growth of County in 84 Years 148 



HISTORICAL 1XD1 X. 



H 

Harrison Township 103-521 

Location 103 

Early Settlement 103 

Roads 104 

Churches 104 

Schools 105 

Hazelrigg 402 

History Unique, A 483 

Hoath, Lydia M. 499 

Hoosier, Origin of 129 

Horse Breeders' Association 241 

I 

Indiana, Map of 73 

Indians 40 

Indian Wars 58 

Treaties 42 

Reserves 50 

Indian Village 51 

Death of Tecumseh 53 

Treaty of St. Mary's 55 

Close of Reserve 56 

Indian Controversy 57 

Harmar's Expedition 59 

Indian Lore 505 

Indian's Plea for Prohibition, An.. 476 
Infirmary, County 239 

J 

Jackson Township 100-522 

Location 100 

Early Settlement 100 

Churches 101 

Schools 102 

Roads 102 

Jail, Boone County 438 

First 438 

Second 438 

Third 438 

Present 438 

Jamestown 402 



Jefferson Township 98-520 

Location 98 

Early Settlement 98 

Churches 98 

Schools 99 

Roads 99 

Judson Baptist Association 349 

L 

Lebanon 396 

Location 396 

First Settlement 396 

Present Condition 399 

Libraries 440 

List of Commissioned Officers, Civil 

War 179 

List of Non-commissioned Officers 

and Privates, Civil War 181 

M 

Marion Township 84-520 

Location 84 

Early Settlement 84 

Roads 86 

Schools 86 

Churches 8(> 

Towns 87 

Masters, M. D., Luella M 501 

Matthews, Mattie 499 

Mechanicsburg 404 

Medical Profession 365 

Pioneer Physicians 365-381 

Fees 369 

Pioneer Ideas and Beliefs 370 

Sketches of Pioneer Physicians— 378 

List of Early Physicians 382 

List of Present Day Physicians __ 382 

Memorial Day 173 

Milledgeville 403 

Mills, Col. Anson 413 

Mills, James P. 421 

Mills, Sarah Kenworthy 421 



HISTORICAL INDEX. 



Miscellaneous 530 

What They Say of Us 533 

Then and Now 535 

Faithful Ox, The 538 

Tom and Dick 539 

Autochthon, Story of 234 

Mondamin (Indian) 138 

Mound Builders 37 

N 

Names and Ages of Survivors of the 
Civil War and Spanish-Ameri- 
can War, living in Thorntown — 208 

National Cemeteries 175 

New Brunswick 405 

Newley, Jesse (Millikan) 498 

Newspapers 357 

Lebanon, Newspapers of 357 

Thorntown, Newspapers of 362 

Zionsville, Newspaper of 362 

Jamestown, Newspaper of 363 

Whitestown, Newspaper of 364 

Northfield 405 

O 

Organization of County 79 

Location 83 

Survey 84 

Organization of Territory 121 

Organization of Various Townships. 83 

Orphans' Home 439 

Our Foremothers 523 

Our Title to Indiana 41 

Outlook for Boone County 543 

P 

Passing of Pisa, The 251 

Perry Township 105-520 

Location 105 

Early Settlement 105 

Churches 106 

Schools 107 

Roads 107 



Pioneer Home of James P. Mills 422, 

Politics 442 

Prehistoric Works 36 

Prosecuting Attorneys, Circuit 

Court 451 

Prosecuting Attorneys, Common 

Pleas Court 451 

Public Domain and Its Surveys 74 

Canal Land 75 

Michigan Road Lands 75 

Swamp Lands 76 

Seminary Lands 77 

University Lands 77 

College Fund Lands 77 

School Lands 78 

R 

Recorders 450 

Railroads 453 

Indianapolis, Cincinnati & LaFay- 
ette 453 

Chicago, Indianapolis & Louisville 

(Monon Route) 453 

Raiment 129 

Report of County Supt. of Schools.- 532 

Representatives in Congress 445 

Reunion, Thorntown Academy 303 

Rosston 406 

Royalton 406 

S 

Schools 258 

Early School Houses 259 

Teachers 260 

Congressional Fund 273 

Consolidation of Schools 276 

County Schools 277 

Concentration of Schools 281 

County Seminary 283 

Thorntown Academy 286 

Schools, Lebanon 317 

Presbyterian Academy 319 

Secretary of State, Vote of 445 

Sheriffs 450 



HISTORICAL INDEX. 



Skeleton, of Indian Chief 504 

Slavery, Question of 130 

Societies, Secret 458 

Underground Railroad 132 

Woman's Relief Corps 468 

Temperance 472 

Woman and the Church 482 

Woman's Franchise 484 

Woman's Christian Temperance 

Union 485 

Ananias Club 490 

Spanish-American War 203 

Names of Those That Enlisted— 204 
Roll of Honor 208 

Story of 1830, A Real 509 

Sugar Creek Township 94-519 

Location 94 

Early Settlement 94 

Schools 96 

Churches 97 

Roads 97 

Sunday Schools 493 

County Conventions 495 

Surface and Soil 80 

Drainage 80 

Drift, The 81 

Areas of Different Soils 83 

Surveyors 452 

T 

Telephones of Boone, The 455 

Terhune 407 

Thanksgiving Story 162 

Threshing 148 

Thorntown 407 

Early Settlers 408 

Schools 408 

Committee Reports 409 



Traction Lines 454 

Lebanon-Thornton Traction Co 454 

Terre Haute, Indianapolis & East- 
ern Traction Co. 454 

Treasurers 450 

U 

Union Township 111-520' 

Location 111 

Early Settlement 111 

Churches 111 

Roads 112 

W 

Ward 428 

Washington Township 91-522 

Location 91 

Early Settlement 91 

Churches 92 

Schools 92 

Mechanicsburg 93 

Roads 93 

Whitestown 428 

Location 428 

Early Business Men 429 

Worth Township 118-523 

Location 118 

Early Settlement 119 

Schools 120 

Churches 120 

Z 

Zionsville 429 

Location 429 



BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX 



A 

Adair, D. W. 651 

Adair, James W. 651 

Adams, George E. 583 

Adler, Phil 892 

Adney, Roy W. 585 

Airhart. Dr. Joseph O. 832 

Allen, George 648 

Allen, Thomas F. 648 

Armstrong, I. N. 901 

Ashley, Robert T. 654 

B 

Ball, M. D., James R. 593 

Barker. Isaac X. 851 

Barker, Murray S. 850 

Batterton. James W. 1030 

Beard, Eliza A. 848 

Beard, Jarrett S. 849 

Bechtell, Jacob A. 1025 

Beck, Larkin 940 

Belles, Isaac H. 916 

Billingsly, Robert D. 660 

Billingsly. Samuel 663 

Booher, Benjamin 1006 

Bowen, Samson 930 

Bowers, Reiter Cragun 909 

Bowman, Henry 721 

Bowman. William H. 720 

Brandenburg, William 987 

Brendel, M. D., J. F. 630 

Brosar, Walter H. 1040 

Brown, Caleb O. 640 

Brown, John S. 640 



Brown, John T. 792 

Brush, D. D. S„ Forest G. 865 

Brush, Henry C. 866 

Brush. James 866 

Burns, David M. 896 

Burns, Andrew 896 

C 

Caldwell. Thomas V. 886 

Callane, Richard 911 

Callane. W. E. 911 

Campbell. George W. 608 

Campbell. Mark 611 

Carter, Henry 765 

Carter, Xewton 764 

Carter, Samuel R. 1044 

Cason, Samuel L. 856 

Chilson, Edna A. 1014 

Clark, Andrew J. 606 

Clark. David M. 606 

Clouser, Martin L. 694 

Cobb, Jacob S. 872 

Cobb. William 618 

Cobb, William F. 618 

Colgrove. Riley 1015 

Comley, George M. 771 

Conrad. Ira E. 629 

Conrad. Rufus 946 

Conrad. William 629 

Coombs. Ben F. 846 

Coombs, George 846 

Coons, M. D., Henry N. 602 

Coulson, George 830 

Coulson, Jonathan E. 830 



BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 



Cowan, Hon. John M. 876 

Cragun, Strange N. 907 

Crist, George Weller 680 

Crist, James Weller 680 

Crist, Leander Mead 680 

Crist, Mark B. 935 

Crose, David 860 

Crose, William B. 860 

D 

Daily, Americus C. 1018 

Daily, Charles D. 1046 

Darnell, William H. 723 

Darnell, William J. 723 

Davenport, Milton S. 988 

Davis, Edgar W. 743 

Davis, Isaac T. 970 

Davis, John H. 932 

Davis, John W. 743 

Denger, Charles H. 646 

Denger, Peter 647 

DeVol, William J. 840 

Dodson, Vasco 734 

Dodson, William H. 734 

Dulan, John A. 931 

Dulan, Thomas W. 931 

Duvall, Jacob 810 

Duvall, John A. 810 

Dye, James M. 786 

E 

Ellis, Thomas 977 

Ellis, William H. 977 

Endres, Dominick A. 822 

Everett, George A. 725 

Everett, John 725 

F 

Farrow, Hon. John A. 705 

Farrow, Thomas 705 

Felker, Adam H. 782 



Godfrey, Charles 798 

Goldsberry, John J. 1054 

Goldsberry, Thomas 1056 



H 



Halpin, Dennis 652 

Hamilton, Gilbert H. 919 

Hamilton, John 919 

Harbaugh, Thomas G. 789 

Harmon, James 787 

Harris, Elwood T. 716 

Harris, Mathew T. 716 

Hart, James F. 779 

Harting, George H. 690 

Harting, Hiram B. 691 

Harvey, M. D. 973 

Hawkins, Benjamin F. 1041 

Haworth, Samuel 880 

Hazelrigg, Maj. H. G. 1047 

Head, Manson 796 

Head, S. C. -— 797 

Heath, Samuel S. 1008 

Hill, Joseph 697 

Hill, William L. 696 

Hinshaw, Frank 587 

Hinshaw, T. H. 587 

Howard, Charles C. 693 

Howard, John 714 

Howard, Richard W. 714 

Holler, Andrew 759 

Holler, James E. 758 

Hollingsworth, Samuel 906 

Hooton, Ashpbell P. W. 627 

Hooton, John 628 

Huber, Harvey W. 727 

Huber. Valentine 727 

Huckelberry, Irvin T. 747 

Hussey, John S. 768 

Hussey, William 768 

Hutchinson, William H. 1034 



BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 



I 

Imel, Ralph W. 604 

Isenhour, Bert 900 

Isenhour, James 657 

Isenhour, Jonathan 657 

J 

Jackson, Elisha 938 

Jarrell, Nancy 1048 

Jones, Benjamin 733-41 

Jones, Thomas J. 741 

K 

Kern, Jacob 757 

Kersey, James H. 752 

Kibbey, James H 670 

Klingler, Abraham L. 659 

Klingler, Francis 659 

Kohn, Daniel 766 

L 

LaFollette, Harvey M. 729 

LaFollette, Jesse 730 

Lane, Emsley J. 666 

Lane, Levi 1003 

Lane, Samuel B 748 

Lane, William U. 666 

Laughlin, Samuel H. 775 

Laughlin, Vincent 776 

Laughner, J. T. Frank 852 

Lemon, William 745 

Lemon, William N. 745 

Lewis, Martin 1028 

Longley, Rev. Abner H. 396-994 

Loose, Frank E. 888 

M 

McDaniel, Harry 975 

McDowell, Henry H. 836 

McGee, John 732 

McGee, M. D., Joseph A. 732 

McKey, Ben F 890 



McRoberts. Benjamin B. 990 

Maish, John W. 613 

Maish, Joseph 614 

Maple, Arthur 922 

Miller, Jacob S. 668 

Miller, John D. 668 

Millikan, William W. 820 

Mills, Anson 952 

Mills, James P. 962 

Mills, John M. 634 

Mills, Sarah K. 962 

Moore, James B. 739 

Moore, John Stanley 806 

Morrison, John W. 676 

Morrow, Loring W. 835 

N 

Nelson, Dr. A. F. 1026 

Nelson, Thomas J. 1027 

Newby, Granville 738 

Newby, Presley 738 

Nicely, James M. 1032 

O 

Orear, Charles D. 942 

Orear, Dr. John H 942 

Ottinger, Roy N. 891 

P 

Parr, Jesse A. 591 

Parr, Jacob 771 

Parr, Nelson J. 772 

Parr. Judge Willett H 588 

Perkins, Jacob 1024 

Perrill, John 882 

Perrill, Nathan A. 882 

Petry, Frank 1021 

Pugh, Elias 788 

R 

Ralston, Hon. Samuel M. 573 

Reagan, M. D., Jesse Stanley 707 



BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 



Reed, David W. — - 711 

Reed, John 711 

Richey, James 843 

Ridpath, John C. 1049 

Riggins, Vallandingham 1036 

Riley, James 689 

Riley, Lewis C. 688 

Ritchie, Andrew W. 800 

Ritchie, Morris 800 

Roberts. Clarence 808 

Rodman. Capt. Carson P. 984 

Rogers, Elza O. 581 

Rose, Lewis 686 

Rose, M. D., Madison Hall 685 

Routh, John F. 638 

S 

Sanford, William J 1013 

Scott, Charles W 1001 

Scott. James M. 1003 

Servies, Edgar M. 1016 

Shapley, Thomas R. 777 

Shapley, William 778 

Sharp. Ira M. 1 616 

Shaw, Albert M. 781 

Shaw, C. W. 650 

Shaw, John M. 650 

Shaw. Nelson 781 

Shumate. Capt. Felix 998 

Silver, George W. 625 

Silver, Samuel 656 

Sims, Rev. C. N. 1051 

Small, James M. 968 

Smith, Aaron J. 595 

Smith. Eli 596 

Smock, James A. 928 

Snodgrass, James 598 

Snodgrass, Robert 598 

Spencer, Alexander O. 698 

Stall, Robert S. 763 

Stark, Albert W. 912 

Stark, John P. 912 

Stephenson, John 948 

Stephenson, Samuel H. 950 

Stoltz, George 978 



Stoker, Benjamin L. 665 

Stoker, Tyrie 665 

Sumpter, Edward D. 760 

Sumpter, Scott T. 760 

Swope, Ebenezer H. 812 

Swope, Joseph M. 812 

T 

Taylor, Charles A. 750 

Titus, Samuel 728 

Tucker, M. D., Jesse E. 802 

U 
Umberhine, M. D.. Charles D 791 

W 

Waddle. Isaac 637 

Waddle, Montraville 636 

Waltz, John 902 

Waltz, Theodore C. 902 

Welch, Charles F. 678 

Whitely, Enoch 702 

Whitely, William 702 

Whittinghill, Robertson 870 

Whittinghill. William E. 870 

Williams, M. D., William H 1022 

Wilson, George 927 

Wilson, Joseph M. 926 

Wilson, William H. 769 

Witham, Flavius J. 826 

Witham, William 827 

Wood, Henry K. 625 

Wood, William J. 625 

Worley, James M. 980 

Worley, William F 980 

Wright, Samuel 638 

Wyant, Williard O. 751 

Y 

Young, James H. 862 

Young, John T. 862 




BOONE COUNTY COURT HOUSE. 



HISTORICAL 



CHAPTER I. 



FIRST INHABITANTS DOMINION OF EUROPEAN NATIONS AMERICAN CON- 
TROL MEANING OF NAMES. 

In entering upon this work of preparing a history of Boone county, to 
give its development from a wilderness to a garden spot ; to make a memorial 
to the toiling pioneers, who laid the foundations of her success, and made it 
possible for her marvelous development, we realize, is no easy task. The 
pioneers of this county were too busy, in the battle of life and in the building 
of homes to make records, save those wrought out in sacrifice and toil. The 
material monument is before this generation. The men and women, who 
endured the hardships have long ago gone to rest. They are silent in the 
tomb, and but few are memorialized by records of their heroic deeds. The 
county in its beauty, its magnificent homes and farms; its public improve- 
ments, its schools and churches, all rise before us as a monument, of the 
labors of those, who heroically toiled in the woods and swamps. The history 
can never be told of those who laid the mud sills, neither of their children, 
who took up the work so bravely and raised it to such perfection; so that 
the children's children of this day, may enjoy the rich blessings from their 
toil. Some of their names have been preserved. They are inscribed on the 
stones that mark their resting place ; in the hearts of their friends, and others 
on the pages of history. Our effort in this work, will be to record anew, 
some of these names in each township, and mention their connection with 
the public development. 

At the organization of the county in 1830, there were six hundred and 
twenty-one persons within her bounds. This would be about one hundred 
and twenty-five families, or one and one-half persons to the square mile. 



2D BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

None of these are left to tell the story; and their children have grown old 
and feeble, and but few of them linger upon the shores of time. The early 
records of the county were partially destroyed by fire in 1856, so that the 
official records of the county are imperfect. Our effort has been to gather 
the general trend of the development, and some of the early names connected 
with its progress. In addition to the traditional stories that have been passed 
down from generation to generation, there is a history of the early life and 
times of its people, compiled by Harden and Spahr in 1887, the only work 
of the kind in Boone county. Messrs. Harden and Spahr deserve much 
credit for making this record. This work, and the combination Atlas and 
map of Boone county, published by Kingman Brothers in 1878, and the 
county records, have been drawn upon in making this work. Samuel Harden, 
Stephen Neal, T. J. Cason of Lebanon, and Wash Griffin of Thorntown, and 
others have each contributed to the records of the deeds of these heroic men 
and women, that labored and sacrificed to develop this beautiful land from 
the wilderness of less than one hundred years ago. 

With these records and such traditional lore as we could gather from 
the oldest citizens of the county, and of each local press, we have been able 
to produce this work. It does not pretend to be perfect or complete, but 
merely covers a general outline of the county's story from the beginning. 
With gratitude to all who in any way rendered valuable assistance to us, in 
preparing the work, we dedicate it to those who must not be forgotten. The 
magnificent qualities and the splendid services of the pioneers of Boone 
county can not be overrated. The future generations must reverence them 
and cherish their memory. The memory of their hardships, the glory of 
their deeds, the splendor of their accomplishments, must not be allowed to 
perish from the memory of our people. Such as these laid the foundations 
of the commonwealth and bought through toil and hardship for us this rich 
heritage. 

We regret that the story of the heroic deeds of so many of our pioneers 
have not been recorded, so we could pen it on these pages and pass the story 
down to future generations. It's the same old story, one hero sung, ten 
thousand perish unknown and unsung. If all the heroic deeds of the pioneer 
men and women, who laid the foundations of Boone county could be gathered 
and put on record it would be intensely interesting to future generations. 
They have all passed away and the story of their hardships and struggles in 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 2J 

the development of this great county is untold. Only now and then an 
incident is given of some one that stood in front on the picket line of the 
war against forests, swamps, miasmas and was deprived of every luxury and 
many of the real necessaries of life. The country was roadless, homeless 
and full of privation and hardships that this generation can not understand. 
To these brave men and women we owe a debt of gratitude that we can 
never pay. We regret that their names and deeds are not all on record, so 
that we could remember them by name and pass them down to the future 
generations. The monument of the growth of the county in all of its mag- 
nificence is before us and the world as a memorial that will be enduring as 
the rock. But the workmen have fallen and are silent in the tomb. To build 
a county like Boone is today, out of the wilderness that was here eighty-five 
years ago, is a marvel of the age in which we live and speaks nobly of those 
who wrought so faithfully and successfully under great difficulties. 

In this brief period of time a race of men in this section have become 
extinct and we have taken their homes, their hunting grounds, their burial 
places and planted ours in their stead. As time passes away and changes 
come it will be all the more regretted that we do not know more of the men 
that wrought this great work between the civilization of the red man and the 
white. A great work has been accomplished and we know but few of the 
names that were actors in the marvelous change. Our fathers were so busy 
in making history that they did not take time to record their deeds, and we 
of this day are too full of the enjoyments in the fruits of their labors, that 
we are careless of records. We trust that the difficulties that confront us 
in this work will encourage others to take up the work with greater diligence 
and make it more complete. With gratitude to all who in any way have 
aided us in preparing this work, we submit it to the public, hoping that others 
may take it up where we have failed, correct its errors and make it more 
complete. Boone county in many respects is typical in the great state of 
Indiana and stands out as a pattern in endurance, energy, agricultural prog- 
ress and morals, and her records should be made as complete, as labor and 
patience commensurate with the importance of the work. If we of this 
generation are as faithful and true to our trust; as our fathers who laid the 
foundation' of our county, we can hold the high estate as worthy of leader- 
ship in the family of ninety-two members and vie with each other in building 
a commonwealth worthv of our sires. 



28 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

Just how long this part of the world that is included in Boone county 
was, in shaping up for the habitation of man is not known. It dates back to 
the beginning whenever that was. No man can tell nor even the ancient 
rocks unfold. The formation of the rocks, the long cycles of centuries that 
covered each of the drift periods that swept over the land is a sealed book. 
Even the period of the Red man is unknown. We do not know how many 
centuries he roamed over these plains before the advent of our fathers. 
There is no record of the latter for natives of this country kept no journals, 
nothing to read from except the rocks and they kept no dates. There is 
no mark of upheaval but all is drift after drift each leaving its deposit and 
each following the other in the course of time. Through countless ages this 
work was in progress shaping and fitting this beautiful country for man. 
When our fathers first beheld it. it was unsightly and appeared so desolate 
and dreary that it could never be shaped for homes. Covered with dense 
forest and undergrowth, with bogs, morasses and sluggish streams. Yet 
notwithstanding the unpromising outlook they came, they saw. they con- 
quered. They came on foot, some on horseback, some in wagons drawn 
by oxen, penetrating the pathless woods blazing the way. cutting out roads 
and planting the cabin. The story will never be told. It is fraught with 
hardship and danger. It took brave men and women to face the task. To 
know this land in its primitive condition and to see it now is the marvel of a 
century. 

OUR FOREFATHERS. 

Our forbears entered the wilderness with ax, handspike, hoe, hackel and 
high hopes. They hewed down the forest, hefted the logs into heaps, hoed 
the corn and hackeled the flax. This work required brawny arms and brave 
hearts. The demand of the day was muscle. They wrought manfully and 
well. They built their homes, reared their families and have gone to their 
rest. We with our happy surroundings this day are living testimonies of 
their faithful labors. Their ken of vision was narrow. It was hemmed in 
by the dense forest and the denser undergrowth ; yet with the eye of faith, 
they could look out upon the future and see their children upon cultivated 
farms, cast up highways, schools, churches and homes. A faith that coupled 
heart with brawn, added courage to hope, which enabled them to endure 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 20. 

great privations without murmurings, and bear heavy burdens gracefully. 
They were active factors in changing the wilderness into the garden of state- 
hood. They sowed, we are reaping. It is very meet and proper that we 
should hold their labor of love and sacrifice in grateful remembrance. Aa 
we rehearse the story of their journey of hardship through pioneer life to our 
children, it should stimulate us into greater diligence and faithfulness ; and 
emulate our children to strive for greater blessings for their posterity. If 
our fathers, surrounded as they were, by the dense forest, progressed one fur- 
long, we in the open should go a mile ; and our children with all the con- 
veniences and appliances that are theirs, should widen in every direction — 
except downward — whole leagues. 

A century ago, locomotion was on "shank's mare," or on horseback, 
or by the slower tread of the patient ox through the blazed way, or over the 
corduroy road; now we speed by steam and electricity. Then the hum of 
the wheel was in our homes. The quick step of the busy house-wife to and 
fro, while lengthening thread to winding spindle kept time to the sweet 
melody. The wheel, the reel, the spool, the warp and the old loom with 
mother, are to this day sweet pictures in the gallery of our memory. 

Then we signaled by horn or torch, now it is by the mellow halloo, from 
city to city and across the sea, and even by wireless. Then it was a great 
task to travel over the state, now it is a pleasure to circle the globe. We 
might multiply contrasts indefinitely showing the great vantage-ground of 
those who enter the twentieth century over those who entered the nineteenth. 
So rapid has been the transition that we can scarcly keep pace. We accept 
the wonderful developments as matter of fact, and wonder what will come 
next. We have sought out many inventions to utilize the forces of nature 
and make them serve man, so that the manual labor of one man today is 
manifold that of our fathers in producing the necessaries and luxuries of life. 
We not only make the winds, fire and water serve us. but we also harness the 
imponderable forces, and teach the elements and mother earth to bear our 
messages. Surely we stand on a high eminence. Our outlook today takes 
in the world. The happenings of today will be spread before us tomorrow 
before breakfast. So wide is our ken, that the massive world unknown to 
our progenitors has shriveled up until we can talk around it. Surely, our 
being has come to us in times most propitious. We must rise to the thought 
that our opportunity brings to us great responsibility. More will be required 



30 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

of us because more has been given. We stand on vantage-ground. We can 
see farther, hear better and do more than our fathers; if we keep our eyes 
and ears open, and are not effeminated by luxury. Far more will be ex- 
pected of us. We have no right to take our ease and become flabby. We 
are living in the swift current of the great events of our day and the greatest 
of history. We must be more than the lazy bream that simply heads up 
stream. It is our duty to be aggressive as our fathers were. They laid the 
foundation of the state, we must rear its pillars. There are newer, broader 
and higher ideals, into which the state and the church must be pioneered. 
There must be an "Uplift" of civilization. The work is not all done. We 
must make it possible for our posterity to put on the coping and adorn with 
stained glass. True there are dangers in front of us, greater than the wild 
beasts that confronted our fathers. Enemies far more treacherous and subtle 
than the red man. Diseases far more direful and infectious than the miasma 
of the swamps of Indiana. These must all be removed if we desire to make 
it better for our children. The same spirit that actuated our parents must 
dominate us. There is need of much courage and endurance to force the 
problems of our day, that our children may have a better inheritance. We 
are not entirely out of the brush. There are yet some stumps to uproot. 
The Upas tree is still in the land. The highway is not smooth and on a dead 
level of equality for all as it should be. We have witnessed the outlawing of 
polygamy. There are with us this day those who participated in the fearful 
struggle that broke the shackles of physical bondage; yet all men are'not free. 
The cry that arose at the Parthenon is still heard in the land. The wide 
spread restlessness of labor is still murmuring. All men do not enjoy the 
full Fruit of their labor. The burdens of the weak are not borne according 
to Gospel truth. Traps and snares are set by the government for the unwary. 
The cry of the orphan and the distressed heart still moans in our ears. 

As long as these conditions continue there is work to be done. Paradise 
is not yet regained. The earth does not bloom as Eden. The mark of dis- 
obedience is still upon us. Nations forget God and set up idols. Like the 
people that dwell at the base of the volcano, we forget the upheaval of the 
past, and go on in our waywardness. Notwithstanding the word of God, 
and the fate of nations that have gone down, we choose Baal rather than God. 
The cunning dogma of our day which teaches that the mobilizing of capita! 
into a monopoly lias all rights; and that man the individual has no rights that 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 3 1 

need be respected, is modern serfdom. It is as grinding as feudalism and 
as barbarous as the system of human slavery that perished in the 6o's. The 
sweat-shop, the extortion placed upon the necessaries of life, between the 
producer and the consumer may be counted as polite commerce, shrewdness 
in business, and be sanctioned by law and all that, yet, in plain truth it is 
robbery. The ever-increasing burden of taxes will bestride our children 
like a Colossus, if we remain silent. A $1,000,000,000 Congress should be 
invited to remain at home unless we wish our children to make brick without 
straw. To meet the ever-increasing expense of government, like the old 
Roman church, she proceeds to sell indulgences. She embarks in the liquor 
business for revenue. A business that all churches denounce as a crime, and 
all men consider disreputable. She licenses men to make and sell that which 
destroys the peace and harmony of the home, debauches the citizens and 
endangers the health and morals of the people. There are some things that 
need to be looked square in the face, and this liquor business and its twin 
sister, the social crime, are the most prominent of the whole troop. We need 
to take the scales from our eyes and to throw aside the mantle of prejudice 
and let the gospel shine. The consensus of opinion is, that the saloon is 
an unmitigated evil and yet it is fostered and sustained as the pet institution 
of our age. The saloon is condemned by all benevolent institutions, and its 
bartenders and all victims of drink are excluded from fellowship. The 
church denounces license as a sin, and yet the great majority of its male mem- 
bers cast their civic influence to perpetuate the system. Christians vote to 
establish the saloon, and then denounce the saloon-keeper ; exclude him from 
fellowship, remonstrate against his business and pray the Lord to remove 
the evil, and save their children irom the curse. There seems in this an in- 
consistency so glaring, that it shocks the world and brings a reproach upon 
the followers of Christ. 

It is evident that there are ugly stumps to be removed and dense thickets 
of prejudice to be cleared away; and the King's Highway must be cast up, 
before the standard of Christ becomes the law of nations, and the rule of 
action among men. The world is not as good as one could wish it to be. 
Paradise is not yet regained. Our forbears were faithful and successful in 
making the world better for us. They provided abundantly for our physical 
needs ; they made great provisions for feeding our minds and for the develop- 
ment of our esthetic nature. The schools that dot our land everywhere, the 



2,2 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

higher institutions of learning and culture accessible to all, are real testi- 
monies of their faithfulness. They were not unmindful of the souls' wel- 
fare. The church steeples plainly indicate the way that they wish us to go. 
Notwithstanding, all these uplifting environments, we have not learned the 
Golden Rule as well as we have the multiplication table. Our uprightness 
does not stand with the plummet ; our commercial paths deviate from the 
paths of honesty and our civic ethics relegate morals to the background; and 
we establish and perpetuate by law. business in which we would not be en- 
gaged, and which we know to be positively wrong. We protect our sheep 
from dogs, our fish from the angler, our birds from the snares. We balu- 
strade our bridges and steep roadsides, make smooth the sidewalk and re- 
move all pit-falls, and yet, we license wicked men to do that which we abhor. 
We establish on our street corners and around our commercial centers dens 
and snares to catch men. They succeed fearfully. Thousands of our sons 
and daughters are inveigled annually. If men were licensed to destroy our 
stock as they are our children; if they took one lamb from the fold where 
they now take ten lambs from the household, there would be a revolution in 
this country inside of thirty days. Do we think more of our cattle than we 
do of our children ? It is the Hainan of old with letters in all our provinces 
to kill and destroy. It is the Herod of our day with scepter in hand to slay 
the innocent. He is clothed with authority to blight homes, crush hearts, 
blast hopes and close the door of heaven. We dare not dwell upon this dark 
picture. Its shadows are everywhere casting a pall over the land and filling 
the hearts of parents with anxiety for the safety of their children. If we 
are going to follow in the footsteps of our parents our duty is plain. They 
were preeminently home-builders. We cannot enter the forest, but we can 
enter the conditions of our day and pioneer the way to better things. The 
safety of everything we prize in state and church depends entirely upon the 
safety of the home. Will we be brave and see to it? 

Would that we could leave with you this day a higher idea of home, that 
you may regard it as embracing more than the house in which you dwell. 
That your conception might rise to the high ideal of the original Eden estab- 
lished and blessed of God. That you may see home as a love center typical 
of heaven. A center from which must emanate a spirit of obedience — 
love's true test. Genuine love, that will permeate all society, uphold the 
State, and keep in harmony with God. A love that will defend and protect; 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 33 

and oppose all evil and stand for that which is good. A center so attractive 
that all its inmates are imbued with its spirit and are protected by its influence 
no matter where they roam. Do not entertain the narrow idea of home that 
just includes you and your children, but let it broaden until it embraces all 
homes. Until it takes in the street, the school, the church, society and the 
state with all her functions; for, whatever will protect you and your home 
will protect your neighbors. Whatever endangers any home in your state or 
nation renders yours unsafe. We would have you measure home by a 
broader gauge than the walls that include your furniture; or the yard in 
which it stands, or the garden that adorns and beautifies it. If you were in 
Thorntown and ask me, where is my home? I would answer on the corner 
of Church and West streets; if you ask me here I would say in Thorntown ; 
if you meet me in New York City and ask me the same question my reply 
would be in Indiana; cross the sea and in the busy marts of London ask me 
where is my home and I will straighten up and with very much dignity make 
reply, in the United States of America, sir. Take your flight from this 
mundane sphere, soar above its fountain head of rain, its magazine of hail, 
its northern nests of feathered snow, its brew of thunder and red-tongued- 
lightning until you reach the moon ; and there ask me where is my home and 
I will say on yonder Earth ; leave the moon and pierce the blue vault above, 
on and on, with your flight until the distant stars become shining suns, and 
our own sun has faded into a glimmering star, and there you interrogate me 
as before and I point to the faintest star in the heavens and make reply, in 
yonder far away solar system is my home. Where is my home? In the 
universe of God, is my home ; and if I am in harmony with Him I will live 
eternally and widen until I see all and know all. The thought may stagger 
the mind, yet it is good to feed upon and will feed the soul with aspirations 
that will make life worth the living. 

Such a conception of home will divest one of all selfishness and give to* 
each a full idea of the brotherhood of man and the fatherhood of God. You 
cannot build for yourself, but wherever or whenever you build, you will rest 
your structure upon the Rock of Ages. It will become a factor in God's 
universe and will attain to the highest ideal of home, hope and Heaven. The 
clear duty of man is to build with these high ideals and aspirations. Build 
as God directs. He laid down the principle to man when the nations were 
(3) 



34 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

young. You will find the specifications in the 8th verse of the 22nd chapter 
of the book Deuteronomy. Here are the words, "When thou buildest a new 
home, then thou shalt make a battlement for the roof, that thou bring not 
blood upon thine house, if any may fall from thence." God has compassed 
in these few words the whole duty of man to his fellow. It answers clearly 
the question asked by Cain, "Am I my brother's keeper?" In that age of 
the world the top of the house was the play-ground of the children. Social 
gatherings were held there. There was the guest-chamber. 

In our age the sons and daughters of men have come down from the 
roof and made a play-ground in the yard and too frequently the street. They 
are out in the dazzle of the social circle, or the whirl of the commercial 
thoroughfare, or in the craze of the busy marts of exchange. Notwith- 
standing all this wonderful change in the habits and customs of men, God has 
never rescinded the old law. The principle still holds. It is of God, and 
from Him, hence it is eternal. He says to us this day, as plainly as he did 
to Moses, make a battlement around all these, lest any man fall from thence, 
and thou bring blood upon thine hands. We are to put no stumbling-block 
in the way of the blind or set up an influence that will ensnare the weak or 
unwary. Make a battlement for the roof ! aye, make a battlement for all 
the thoroughfares of men lest any man fall. We may have kept a little 
letter of this law, by removing the cellar-door from the side walk, but Oh! we 
certainly violate the principles of the law, when we set up the saloon upon 
the street-corner, for we know that so many fall into this death-trap. Look 
out upon the stage of action and see whether, we in our social, commercial 
and civic influences and relations among men, are in harmony with God's 
laws. True, our sidewalks are as smooth as can be made with granitoid, 
cellar-doors on our streets are obsolete. There is a balustrade at the bridge 
and a battlement upon the balcony, but Oh ! Oh ! the dens in dens upon our 
streets and around our commercial centers, built and maintained by our laws ; 
death-traps into which tens-of-thousands of our children fall annually. Are 
we innocent? Have we done all that we can do? Have we put the battle- 
ment upon the roof? These are questions which each individual can answer 
in his own heart. It is evident that we are not yet out of the wilderness 
into the land of Canaan with all our enemies under our feet. We can not 
fold our hands and live in conscious ease with all these dangers about us. 

Our forbears entered the 19th century with great physical difficulties in 



1408947 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 35 

front of them. They met and overcame these difficulties like men. We 
have entered the 20th century with greater moral issues confronting us, issues 
that involve the vitality of the nation and the stability of the government. 
Will we be as brave and as true to our trust as were our fathers? Will we 
do as much for our posterity as they have dond for us ? To do this, we will 
need the brawn of the woodman, the bravery of the pioneer, the back-bone of 
Joshua. The crossing of the Century is to us, as the crossing of the Jordan 
was to the Jews. In front of us are trusts, combines and monopolies ; to the 
left of us is dishonesty and greed; to the right of us is legalized crime and the 
apathy of the church. The land is full of all the Ites that dwelt in Canaan. 
We do not speak of the difficulties in front of us to discourage, but rather to 
awaken the latent bravery in our hearts, that we may be quickened into a 
lively heroism, that we may quit ourselves like men and prove ourselves 
worthy of our ancestry. 

There is an inspiring story told in the 14th chapter of Joshua, concern- 
ing the son of Jephunneh the Kenezite; he stood up before Joshua the com- 
mander and said : "I am this day fourscore and five years old, yet, I am as 
strong this day as I was in the day that Moses sent me to spy out the land, as 
my strength was then, even so is my strength now, for war, both to go out 
and to come in," give me therefore this mountain, Kirjath-arba, with the 
great and fenced cities of the Anakims that I may drive them out. Joshua 
granted the grand old hero his request and he went up to battle and over- 
turned the great and fenced cities of Mount Hebron and utterly destroyed 
root and branch, the sons of Anak as commanded, because he wholly followed 
the Lord God of Israel. 

There are Anakims in the land today, no matter, the command is, go up 
and take them. They have always confronted the children of men. The 
heroes and heroines of the world fought the Anakims of their day. Our 
fathers met them in this wilderness, conquered and drove them out, thus 
making of this a very land of Canaan flowing with milk and honey of their 
children's children. Oh, for the spirit of Caleb in our hearts, that it may 
inspire us to be very courageous and fear not. Our fathers needed muscle, 
brain and brave hearts to contend successfully with the wild-woods of their 
day and overcome its hardships and privations. It will be expected of each 
Boonite who has within him the blood of his ancestors to stand in his place 
in the battles of our day to make the world better. All who are here by 



36 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 



birth, or have adopted this as their home, must catch the spirit of our fathers 
and go forward. Boone as a factor in the state and as a live force in the 
progress of civilization must not slack in duty, but act well her part in the 
great uplift for better things. The history of the past before the days of 
our fathers was one of drift. Our fathers made it an incoming-tide. We, 
to be true to our ancestors must make it, sweep higher up the beach and be 
an uplift to the world. 




Prehistoric Works of Randolph Co. 

The fortification or "The Old Fort," as it is known, is near the city of Win- 
chester. It is the best specimen of the mound builders' fortifications found in the 
State. It is not only the largest, but is constructed on more scientific plans than 
any other of the State. 



CHAPTER II. 

MOUND BUILDERS INDIAN OCCUPANCY TERRITORY ACQUIRED BY WHITE MAN. 

Before entering upon the history of Boone county, it may be well for 
us to pass a word in regard to who may have occupied this country before 
real history begins to record the events, of what we term as the history of 
this country. There are evidences of a prehistoric civilization, a vanished 
race. These evidences point to a race of people that must have inhabited 
this continent before the Indian; the race of men found here when the con- 
tinent was discovered by Columbus. There is plenty of room here for specu- 
lation and the sweep of the imagination, but this is not our purpose in this 
article. We simply wish to call attention to the fact that the ethnologist 
claims that there are evidences that there was a race of people here prior to 
the Indian race. They must have dwelt here a long time ago. Perhaps 
thousands of years before the red man. There are evidences east of the 
Mississippi river and in the Ohio river valley. 

The peculiar shape of the mounds that remain in various places over 
this section of our country, indicate that they must have been constructed 
for military fortifications, burial places and outlooks. Their curious forms 
furnish a fruitful field for speculation and give an inspiration to many 
imaginative writers. There is much interesting literature in our libraries 
touching the questions as to who the mound builders were, where they came 
from and whither they went and when. These questions will never be solved 
except in the imagination of the writers. If they had a written language 
there is none of it in existence. There is nothing to tell the story of their 
being except the remains of the mounds they built, and the human bones 
that have been found in various places, that are classed as belonging to a 
race that lived before the Indian. Some think that they were giants because 
there have been skeletons exhumed of unusual size. They have been pic- 
tured with certain heroic attributes and a nobility of character, which it is 



T,8 BOONE COUNTY, IN I HAN A 

very doubtful if they ever possessed. Their progress in civilization has 
also been over-estimated. Yet in spite of all this coloring there is enough 
known to make it full of human interest. They were not advanced far 
enough in civilization to have a language. No hieroglyphics or picture writ- 
ing to convey written or recorded intelligence of their existence. All that 
is known of them must be gleaned from a few relics of flint, stone and metal 
implements, crude, though sometimes highly ornamented pottery, simple 
domestic utensils, and their own decaying bones. 

Evidence has accumulated in recent years to support the belief that at 
some earlier date there must have existed in this country a primitive race 
of men. How long ago it is not known. At the time of the exploration of 
this country three hundred years ago there were trees growing upon these 
abandoned mounds and earth works estimated to be eight hundred or a thou- 
sand years of age. Some even think that they may have preceded the glacial 
period. The time of the flood of ice is placed at all the way from fifteen to 
twenty-five thousand years ago, and if these people lived before that time they 
must have existed according to this hypothesis some thirty or forty-thousand 
years ago. Be this as it may, we are forced to the conclusion that at some 
time before the Indian there must have been in this land a race of men. 
There are in Indiana, mounds built by men, not by nature. They are found 
in nearly all sections of the state but are most abundant in the south. They 
are common objects marking the landscape in Knox, Sullivan, Owen, Clark 
and many other counties. In Knox county south of Vincennes stands Pyra- 
mid-mound towering upwards forty-seven feet with a length of three hun- 
dred feet and a width of one hundred and fifty feet. On its top is a level 
area of fifteen by fifty feet. This mound is very small when compared with 
those found elsewhere which vary in shape as well as in size. There are 
square, circular, conical-like truncated mounds, like Cahokia in Illinois, which 
measures five hundred by seven hundred feet at the base and is ninety feet 
high. There are terraced mounds and mounds built in imitation of various 
kinds of animals, including man. The best examples of this latter class are 
to be found in Wisconsin. One of the most remarkable is found in Adams 
county, Ohio, constructed in imitation of an enormous serpent, twelve hun- 
dred feet in length. The natives declare that it has an egg in its mouth. 

We know nothing of the manners of this strange people except as con- 
jectured from what is left to us of their existence in the mounds and crude 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 39 

implements that are occasionally found. They may have been valiant in 
war; we conclude this from their extensive military works. These seem to 
have been built with reference to definite plans. They displayed engineering 
skill. There is a chain of fortifications that can be traced from the southern 
part of New York diagonally across the country to the Wabash river. An- 
other chain commencing at a point on the Ohio river in Clark county, Indi- 
ana, running northward into Madison county thence eastward into central 
Ohio, and thence southward to Kentucky to Tennessee. Fort Ancient, one 
of the most noted, situated on the Little Miami river in Ohio enclosed one 
hundred acres of ground, and would have held a garrison of sixty thousand 
men with their families and provisions. Interesting examples of ancient 
military fortifications in Indiana are to be found in Clark, Jefferson, Mad- 
ison, Sullivan and Randolph counties. Fort Azatlan in Sullivan, near the 
town of Merom, and a remarkable stone fort at the mouth of Fourteen-Mile 
creek, in Clark county, are especially worthy of mention. 

Valiant as they seem to have been in war, they must have met enemies 
worthy of their valor and were overcome in battle. How hard a struggle 
they endured is not recorded. There is not a line on record telling us of the 
origin, the duration of the struggle of their destruction. The entire race 
has become extinct and no trace to mark its life except these mounds. The 
only record we have is a traditional story by the Iroquois Indians. They 
state that when the Lenni Lenape, common ancestors of the Iroquois and 
other tribes, advanced from the northwest to the Mississippi, they found on 
the eastern bank of that stream a great nation of people, more civilized than 
the Indians, living in towns and cultivating the soil. Having given the Lenni 
Lenape permission to pass through to seek an eastward settlement this people 
treacherously attacked them while they were crossing the river. This pro- 
voked a long and bloody war of extermination. The red men conquered and 
took possession of their country and the mound builders sank into oblivion, 
making the first race of men on this continent to pass away. 

There are no evidences of this race of men having ever lived in Boone 
county. At the time that they lived in this country, this portion of it must 
have been uninhabitable. If they existed before the glacial period, at that 
time this must have been the bottom of the sea. Drift to the depth of hun- 
dreds of feet must have been carried in by the tide of ice and filled up the low 
places. It must have been a long time afterwards before it was fit for the 



40 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

residence of man. The Indian must have been the first human inhabitant. 
There is no record when he came here. We know that he was here when 
our fathers came and that they have passed away. Some of their bones 
still rest here but the entire race has passed from us and there is no history 
of their existence except as it has been compiled by the white man. This 
great change has been wrought in less than one hundred years. It seems 
marvelous that it should go so soon and be almost forgotten. 



We can not think of a complete history of Boone county, without dwell- 
ing upon the story of the Indian who preceded the white man. This was his 
home, here he lived and died. He must have had all the attachments for 
his home that are common to the heart of man. There is something sad in 
the story of his life. He is of special interest to us, because he set up a 
reserved home among us. It did not last long; he could not dwell in peace 
with us, so his second title passed away with him. The story of his exist- 
ence in our land and especially in our county, is of double interest to us. In 
tracing our title to the land, we will have to tell what became of the Indian 
and his right to this land. It will be necessary for us to trace the history of 
the treaties and wars by which our fathers became possessors of this goodly 
land. If there were mound-builders, a distinct race before the Indian, it is a 
matter of serious reflection that two races have preceded us in the history 
of this country. Two, almost sunk into oblivion, and we the third genera- 
tion, and know so little about either .of them. How forcible is the thought 
that nations and peoples rise and fall in the same land and yet so little is 
known. Volumes have been written on this theme. We will only collate 
a little of it in these pages, that we may realize how we are connected with the 
great unknown that is past, to say nothing of that which is to come. 

The Indians doubtless were the successors of the mound builders. 
Whether this is correct or not, we know nothing about them except what is 
told by the curious earthworks that they left, and the mass of what is written 
about them is a conjecture, rather than history. There are no mounds in 
Boone county. How much time elapsed between them is not known. There is 
no way to prove that the Indians are less ancient than the mound builders. It 




'a "i-n^ ,m a*^ J 







■KRKMOXIAI. SToNUS IIAHK FlinJI 
BLACK AND BANDED SLATE. 
ABOUT ONE-HALF NATURAL 
SIZE. 



TTPER PART: FLINT DIGGING I M I M.IOM ENTS OF 
UNIQUE SHAPE. LOWER PART: JASPER IM- 
PLEMENTS OF UNUSUAL FORMS. ABOUT ONE- 
HALF NATURAL SIZE. 




•PPER TART: EFFIGY ARTEFACTS REPRESENT- 
ING BUFFALO SKULLS, WOLF AND FOX HEADS, 
TADPOLES, FISH, ETC. LOWER PART: JASPER 
IMPLEMENTS WITH BEVELED BASE. ABOUT 
ONE-HALF NATURAL SIZE. 



F BEVELED AN] 
RATED KNIVES FOUND IN BOONE 
COUNTY. ABOUT ONE-HALF NAT- 
URAL SIZE. 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 41 

is just as difficult to account for their presence on the American continent as to 
account for the existence of the mound builders. They were here when the 
European explorers first landed on our shores; and beyond the stretch of the 
memory of those then living, and a few untrustworthy traditions, nothing is 
known of their history previous to that time. They were here when the white 
man came ; they had no written language, simply a crude picture and sign writ- 
ing which they used in time of war. They had a spoken language which they 
used in communicating with each other and in their war songs. They had 
made but little progress towards civilization. To those of us that question 
the existence of a prehistoric man, and that there are races of men that do 
not belong to the common brotherhood springing from Adam and Eve, our 
first parents, the Indian is a perplexing question. If they are descendants 
of the sons of Noah how did they come to this country? Upon this question 
there is much speculation yet no positive proof of any hypothesis that may 
be taken. The most plausible is, that they may have come over the Aleutian 
Islands in Bering strait. We will not take up this discussion here but leave 
our readers to take it up at their pleasure by other authors. We will confine 
our record mostly to the tribes that largely concern this section of our 
country. Most of the Indian tribes of Indiana belong to the Algonquin 
family. A majority of them, among whom were the Twightwees, Weas, 
Piankashaws and Shockneys, were members of the formidable Miami con- 
federacy. These tribes were frequently at war, one with another and 
migrated from place to place. Aside from the Twightwees or Miamis, the 
Delawares, Shawnees, Wyandottes and Pottawattomies were the strongest 
of the tribes in Indiana. Tecumseh and his brother, the Prophet, were of 
the fierce Shawnee tribe. Little Turtle, one of the greatest of the Indian 
warriors, was a Miami. 

OUR TITLE TO INDIANA. 

As we are nearing the close of the first century of our existence as a 
state, it might be well for us to stop and trace our title to our possessions. 
It was then a vast wilderness occupied and claimed by the Indians. It was 
covered with a dense forest, thick undergrowth of spice and hazel brush, 
with a few spots of prairies in the northwestern part and interlaced with 
shimmering lakes and flowing rivers. It was the hunting ground of the red 



42 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

man, his home and burial place. He was known among the white men as 
the Indian, misnamed by Columbus. His only road was called a trail and 
his home a wigwam. There are only a few descendants of families lingering 
in our borders. The site of Thorntown was once a landmark of the red 
man. Just to the north of us were their corn fields, and where our streets 
run were their burial grounds and this place was their center of trade. A few 
of their dead lie buried a little east of us where they will sleep till the trumpet 
sounds. It may be interesting to our readers to know how this change was 
brought about. We may be able to gather a few landmarks to show the 
trend of events. 

The first white man to claim a title to this land was from the colony of 
Virginia. Her right was disputed by the French, who had established a settle- 
ment at Vincennes, also a settlement in Clark county. By the Ordinance of 
1787, Virginia ceded all her rights to the United States. It was not long 
until the government closed out all other claims except with the Indians. 
There was a little deal with them in 1783 that settled the Knox and the Clark 
county claims. The first treaty of any note that settled the land question 
with the Indians, to western Ohio and a part of Indiana, was made August 
3, 1795, at Greenville, Ohio. It is called in eastern Indiana, The Old Indian 
Boundary Line. It starts from the mouth of Blue river, Kentucky, thence 
north, bearing east to Fort Recovery, Ohio. The treaty gave to the Indians 
all the land west of this said line except the following: (1) One tract of 
land six miles square at the confluence of the rivers St. Mary's and St. Joseph, 
where the city of Ft. Wayne now stands; (2) one tract two miles square on 
the Little Wabash river (near the head of the Maumee) about eight or ten 
miles southwest of Ft. Wayne; (3) a tract six miles square at Ouiatenon, on 
the Wabash; (4) a tract of one hundred and fifty thousand acres near the 
falls of the Ohio, being the lands granted to General George Rogers Clark 
by the Indians soon after the conquest of Vincennes; (5) the site of Vin- 
cennes and the lands adjacent, to which Indian titles had been extinguished, 
and all similar lands at other places in possession of White settlers; (6) the 
strip of land lying east of the line running directly from Ft. Recovery to the 
mouth of the Kentucky river above described. By the terms of this treaty 
the Indians still owned all the lands in Indiana as its present boundaries 
indicate except the above reservations. 

Following this treaty of Greenville, a heavy tide of immigration to the 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 43 

Northwest territory set in from the eastern states and the impetus to growth 
in population was not again checked until the new Indian outbreaks im- 
mediately preceding the War of 1812. 

The second treaty made with the Indians for lands in Indiana, bears 
date of June 7, 1803, at Ft. Wayne, with the Piankeshaws and Weas. At 
the time when these treaties were made there were no divisions into counties 
as it is now, neither did the Indians indicate direction by points of the compass 
or townships as we do at this date, but beginning at a place they would run 
towards the sun or with its shadow, at such an hour of the day upon the 
given date. Thus in this treaty on the seventh day of June, 1803, they would 
say: Begin at the mouth of White river thence east with the shadow at 6 
P. M. or towards the sun at 9 A. M. to a given point, thence north with the 
shadow at 1 P. M. and so on until you enclose the land wished to be con- 
veyed. The boundaries of this treaty would be on our map today as follows. 
Begin at the mouth of White river, thence east, bearing south to a point 
near the center of Clark township, Perry county, thence north, bearing east to 
Orleans, Orange county, thence west bearing north to the mouth of Great 
Turtle creek in the southwest corner of Sullivan county. This last line has 
a jog in it in the northeast corner of Knox county to include lands belong- 
ing to the Vincennes exception in a former treaty. 

The third treaty at Vincennes, August 18-27, 1804, was with the 
Piankeshaws, Miamis and Delawares. It includes all the counties on the 
Wabash river from the mouth of White river to the Ohio river and up the 
latter river to the rapids at New Albany, thence with the shadow of the 9. A. 
M. sun until it meets the line from Orleans to Perry county in the treaty of 
1803. You will observe that this treaty includes eight whole counties and 
parts of several others. It conveys all the rights of the Indians to territory 
bordering on the Ohio in our state except, from Westport, the east point in 
Clark county, to the mouth of the Blue river, the southern extremity of the 
Old Indian boundary line established in 1795. Also all the lands on the 
lower Wabash river. This must have been to the Indians the most important 
treaty made in regard to their possessions in this beautiful land. There 
was much pow-wowing, — you will observe that the negotiations lasted nine 
days. Doubtless there were many eloquent speeches made by the chiefs of 
these three tribes, for human eyes had never beheld a more beautiful pano- 
rama than these dense forests, crystal rivers winding among beauteous val- 



44 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

leys, over whose broad bosoms they had often skimmed in their canoes, in 
search of deer and buffalo which roamed in immense herds in the fertile 
valleys. It was to them the giving up of the great river. Its beautiful waters 
were their great fishing grounds, where they caught the Mas-ke-no-zha (the 
pike), Ke-no-zha (the pickerel), Mish-e-nah-ma (the great sturgeon), U-gud- 
wash (the sun fish), and various kinds of Keego. Upon whose banks they 
shot with swift arrows the Wa-wa (the wild goose), the Shesh-eb-wug (the 
duck). No doubt but what the white man with sophistries replied, why, 
you have left the great Wabash and all its tributaries that are full of fish, 
and all the beautiful lakes in the north where ducks and geese swarm like 
Ome-ne (the pigeon), and upon whose shores all kinds of game are abundant. 
They could out-talk the Indian and prevailed in the treaty ; the rights of the 
red man are passing from him. Give your imagination full wing and paint 
the feelings and their talks with each other around their camp fires as their 
homes and hunting grounds were passing away forever. 

The fourth treaty took place at Grouseland near Vincennes August 21, 
1805. With the Delawares, Miamis, Weas and Pottawattomies who met at 
the Harrison House at Vincennes, to settle the matter as to who should 
have entire control of the great river. Their agreement was as follows: 
Begin at Orleans in Orange county, thence with the three o'clock sun 
of that day continue a line until it intersects the old Indian boundary line 
of 1795 near Brookville, the oldest town in eastern Indiana. This makes 
a continuous line from the mouth of Great Turtle creek across the state 
to the White Water at the above mentioned place. Doubtless the martial 
spirit of the Delawares which they had brought with them across the 
Alleghanies, from their old home among their native hills, burst into flame 
when they were called upon to extinguish their camp fires once again at the 
onward march of civilization, and they gave the war whoop, put on the paint 
and brandished aloft their Pug-ga-wau-guns. But the old sachem of the 
Gens counciled peace; so, mournfully they dismantled their wigwams, rolled 
up their deer-skins, broke the camp fires; took a last longing, lingering look 
at the broad, rich valleys of the Ohio, from the hill-tops about Madison, 
turned their sad faces toward the swamp lands and plains of the interior, 
and bid farewell to their old hunting grounds forever. 

In 1809 we have no less than three treaties with the Indians. The first 
is known as the Harrison Purchase, concluded September 30, 1809, at Ft. 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 45 

Wayne, with the chiefs of the Miamis, Eel Rivers, Pottawattomies and Dela- 
wares. It includes all the land in our state, lying south of a line beginning 
three miles west of Seymour on the three o'clock line running from Orleans 
to Brookville in the treaty of 1805, thence with the shadow of the ten o'clock 
sun of that day until it crosses the Wabash river at the mouth of Big Rac- 
coon creek in Parke county and the state line near Quaker. The second is 
known as the twelve-mile purchase, made October, 1809, at Ft. Wayne, with 
the Delawares and the Miamis. It includes a strip of land twelve miles wide 
west of the Old Indian Boundary Line of 1795. Beginning at a point on the 
three o'clock line of 1805 near the southwest corner of Franklin county, thence 
with the shadow of the one o'clock sun of that day parallel with the line of 
1795 to a point in the north part of Randolph county on the Mississinewa, 
near Ridgeville, thence with the three o'clock line to the state boundary where 
the old line crosses. 

The third treaty of that year was with the Kickapoos and Weas, De- 
cember 9th, at Vincennes. It includes a small portion of land marked by a 
line, beginning at a point on the three o'clock line of 1809 near Catlin in 
Parke county, thence north, northwest until it meets the Wabash river, thence 
up said river to the mouth of Vermillion river, thence up the windings of 
said river to the state line. You will notice that these three treaties, made the 
same year encroached rapidly upon the lands of the Indians. They viewed 
these encroachments with hostilities. They began to make preparations to 
unite their tribes along lines of resistance. They were on the outlook for a 
suitable leader to guide them in their struggle against the aggressions of the 
white man. They soon found their leader and we will here give a brief outline 
of the last battle of the race in Indiana. 

Since the three treaties of 1809 it has been a sorry time with the Indians. 
We must remember that there had been formed an Indian confederacy for 
mutual protection, and now they were at sword's points with each other be- 
cause all the tribes were not consulted in the treaties that had been made. 
Tecumseh claimed that they were not binding because all the tribes had not 
agreed to them. The Indians had made war after Indian fashion on the 
settlers and the whites had retaliated upon the Indians and there was terror 
all along the frontier line. Governor General Harrison had tried to main- 
tain peace without avail. The Indians demanded that the land southwest of 
the Wabash including what is now Boone county, that was ceded to the gov- 



46 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

eminent by the treaty of Ft. Wayne in 1809 should be ceded back to the 
Indians. Pem-squa-ta-wah the "Prophet" preached that these lands were 
owned in common by all the tribes, and no one of them individually had a 
right to sell; that the consent of all should be procured to make any cession 
valid. The controversy arose over the treaty of Ft. Wayne of 1809 giving 
the cession of over eighteen million acres of lands lying southwest of the 
Wabash, and including what is now Boone county. The first conference was 
held at Vincennes, August, 1810. It began on the 12th of the month and 
lasted ten days. There was much interesting history connected with this. 
This conference did not settle the difficulty and another was called in July, 
181 1, at the same place. Great alarm was created on both sides but nothing 
was determined. At its close Tecumseh went south to purpose his program 
of forming a great Indian confederacy. Harrison saw that further efforts 
to win back the Indians were in vain. In September, 181 1, General Har- 
rison placed himself at the head of a small army of over seven hundred men, 
and marching from Vincennes to a stop not far from where the city of Terre 
Haute now stands, erected and completed Ft. Harrison. Leaving a small 
garrison in charge, General Harrison resumed his march, and arrived in 
sight of Prophet's town on the 6th day of November. Meanwhile he had 
received reinforcements sufficient to bring his command up to a strength of 
nine hundred men, two hundred and fifty of whom were regulars. Of the 
remainder, about six hundred were Indiana militia, and the balance volun- 
teers from Kentucky. Refraining from an attack on the town that evening, 
as the Indians met him with loud protestations of their peaceable intentions, 
General Harrison marched his men a short distance beyond and went into 
camp for the night, arranging to have a conference with the Prophet the 
next morning. Unfortunately the camping site chosen was not an ideal 
one for defense. It was on high ground, fringed with trees and dense under- 
growth, affording excellent facilities for the stealthy approach and treacher- 
ous attack of the lurking Indians of Prophet's town. The men were in- 
structed to sleep with their clothes and accoutrements on, and with bayonets 
fixed and fire arms loaded. These precautions proved timely, for on the 
morning of the 7th, before it was day, the Indians attacked the camp. The 
onslaught was sudden and fierce, the main attack being shrewdly directed 
against that part of the camp occupied by the militia, and for a time conster- 
nation and confusion reigned, the guard breaking at the first fire. The 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 47 

troops were gradually formed into line, and the battle raged angrily in the 
darkness. The Americans defended themselves in their positions until it 
became light enough to see, when they charged with such spirit and gallantry 
that their assailants were sent flying from the field. The victory was de- 
cisive and complete, and of the greatest importance in its moral effect upon 
the Indians. The loss to the Americans was thirty-seven killed and one 
hundred and fifty-two wounded, of whom twenty-five afterwards died of 
their injuries. The Indians suffered an equal loss. Their strength in the 
battle was variously estimated at five hundred to seven hundred and fifty war- 
riors. Prophet's town was destroyed next day with all its stores. 

The battle took place about seven miles from where the city of Lafayette 
now stands, and is known to history as the battle of Tippecanoe. As a result 
of it the Indians were completely dispirited and offered no further trouble 
until the breaking out of the war of 1812. 

The Tippecanoe battleground is now owned by the state, and in the year 
1908, almost a century after the battle was fought, an appropriate monument 
was erected on the site to commemorate the heroic deeds of her early citizen 
soldiery. Tecumseh was not present but in the south. He rebuked his brother 
the Prophet, for his untimely attack and in his absence. This was really the 
last purely Indian battle in Indiana and forever ended the controversy be- 
tween the red and white man as far as the land of Indiana is concerned. 

Before proceeding farther in this matter, it will be well 'to give a brief 
statement in regard to the early settlement of Chicago, as it is connected 
with the early treaties concerning the northern part of our state. Chicago 
is situated on the southwest shore of Lake Michigan, on the Wild Onion 
river of the Indians. The first white man to visit this section, of whom we 
have record, was a Frenchman by the name of Perrot in 1671. In 1803, 
Fort Dearborn was established. In the war of 1812 it was abandoned and 
destroyed by the Indians. In 1816 it was rebuilt and ever afterwards main- 
tained as an outpost. Chicago was laid out in 1833. The Indians were 
beginning to see in the Americans a force before which their people must re- 
cede into oblivion. Several council fires were convened. The first one affect- 
ing lands in the north of Indiana was held October 29, 1821. The Potta- 
wattomies and Ottawas involving lands on the west shore of Lake Erie 
mostly in the state of Michigan, but also including a strip in Indiana twelve 
miles wide, beginning at the Ohio State line thence west until it reaches the 



48 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

St. Joseph river; thence down the said river until it passes into the State of 
Michigan. The most of the lands involved in this treaty are in the State of 
Michigan, but it is the first treaty that surrenders the right of the Indians 
to the northern portion of our state. At the time that this was going on in 
the north the Indians were in the final struggle in the south. The Creeks 
and General Jackson had met in battle at Ft. Mims and other points which 
ended their rights in Georgia and Alabama and moved them to the west of 
the Mississippi. 

In the year of 1826 there were three treaties with the Indians. The first 
was made October 16th at the mouth of the Mississinewa river with the 
Pottawattomies, and included a narrow strip of land twelve miles wide west 
of the St. Joseph river extending westward to Lake Michigan. The second 
treaty was made at the same place on the same day, with the Pottawattomies, 
including the lands beginning on Tippecanoe river at the mouth of Indian 
creek, thence with the shadow of the five o'clock sun of that day until you 
reach Eel river, where Richland now stands, thence up the Eel river to 
Columbia City in the northeast of Whitley county, thence west to the north 
bend of the Tippecanoe river, thence down said river to the place of beginning 
at the mouth of Indian creek. The third treaty was made on the 23rd day of 
October the same year at the same place with the Pottawattomies and Miamis. 
The lands ceded by the Miamis lay between the Tippecanoe river, the Wabash 
and Eel rivers and south of the line that runs from this land to the mouth 
of Indian creek. The lands of the Pottawattomies lay between the Eel and 
Wabash rivers and a line that runs northeast from Huntington on the Wa- 
bash, until it reaches the mouth of St. Joseph river that forms the Maumee 
at Ft. Wayne and up St. Joseph to near the middle of township 1 north, range 
13 east, thence towards the four o'clock sun of that day until it meets Eel 
river near Columbia City and down said river until its junction with the Wa- 
bash. It will be observed that the metes and bounds of these lands are very 
irregular. Our system of survey was in use at this time and while it was 
familiar to the white man and the entire state was mapped out in congress- 
ional townships, yet the Indian knew nothing about it, but preferred to mark 
out his lands by rivers and the shadow of the sun. 

After the war of 1812 the tide of immigration poured into Ohio and 
Indiana so there was a constant pressure upon the Indians for more land. 
One treaty was no sooner completed until another was begun. The most 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 49 

intense pressure was in the northern portion of the state. All the rivers 
in the south part and the Wabash and its tributaries were in the possession 
of the white man and opened for settlement. Negotiations were opened 
with the Pottawattomies on September the 20th, 1828, at Carey's Mission 
on the St. Joseph river. It was concluded, and conveyed all the rights of 
this tribe to all the lands in the northeast part of the state, east and north 
of a line beginning at or near Columbia City, in Whitley county; thence, 
with the shadow of the 9:30 A. M. sun of that day to a point near Wilmot, 
in the southwest corner of Noble county; thence, with the shadow of the 
7 130 A. M. sun to a point in the southern part of St. Joseph county, near 
Lakeville; thence north to the line established by the treaty of October 16, 
1826, to the mouth of Mississinewa. This treaty includes a wide scope of 
lands in the northeast part of the state, and is fast crowding the Indians 
into the central part of the state. 

Once again the peace pipe was called into requisition, for there yet 
remained in the northwest of our state, a most desirable portion of land 
bordering on Lake Michigan ; rich in prairies and well watered by sparkling 
lakes and flowing rivers. It was nearing the close of the moon of ripe nuts, 
October 23, 1832, that the Pottawattomies were assembled around their 
council fires in sad and solemn conclave, for the Star of Destiny was 
against them. Immigration came pouring in upon them like an overwhelm- 
ing tide, and they were helpless to resist it. Nothing remained but for them 
to follow the trail of the deer and buffalo, so the counsel of the wise 
Sachem prevailed, and another treaty was signed by the Pottawattomies at 
the mouth of the Tippecanoe river. It included all the lands in the north- 
west part of Indiana, drained by the Kankakee and its tributaries, lying 
north of a line beginning at Columbia City on Eel river; thence, west to the 
north bend of the Tippecanoe river; thence toward the three P. M. sun or 
that day until it passes out of the state, near the southwest corner of Benton 
county. It will be observed that with this treaty the Indians have now 
parted with all the great rivers of Indiana, and the beautiful large lakes 
which border it upon the north. The few remaining tribes which remain 
are hemmed in the center, pressed on all sides by the aggressive pale faces. 
The entire borders of the state are now in the hands of the white man. No 
wonder this occasion was a mournful one to the Pottawattomies. Each 
(4) 



50 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

dreaded yet none dared to refuse the Calumet, as it was passed silently 
down the line. Deep drawn were the whiffs and melancholy were their 
reflections, for they realized what it meant to them to give up the burying 
places of their fathers and pursue a lonely track through the pathless prairie 
and untrodden wilderness. At last, as White Cloud passed the Calumet to a 
straight-backed warrior, Twenty-Canoes, he arose and with a deep puff and 
twenty foot leap plunged into the stream near by, which not only peace- 
fully bore him onward to his grave, but ever after carried the name Calumet, 
and gave it to the flourishing city of the same name near Lake Michigan. 



RESERVES. 

During the progress of the treaties with the Indians, there were many 
reserves made from time to time, in order to pacify them for giving up 
their rights to the lands. The first among these was the reserve at Thorn- 
town of one hundred square miles for the Eel-river Tribe, made at St. 
Mary's, October 6, 1818, which continued for ten years. The following is 
the Act, showing its dissolution: 

February 11, and May 7, 1828. 

The Chiefs, Head Men, and Warriors agree to cede and by these pres- 
ents do cede and relinquish to the United States all their rights, title and 
claim, to a reservation of land about ten miles square, at the village on 
Sugar Tree creek (Sa-nah-min-dji), in Indiana, which was reserved to 
said party by the second article of a treaty between the commissioners of the 
United States and the Miami Nation of Indians; made and entered into at 
St. Mary's, in the State of Ohio, on the 6th day of October, 1818. The 
Indians agreed not to burn any house or fence, and leave them in good con- 
dition as now; and move to the five-mile reservation on Eel river, that 
empties into the Wabash, by the 15th day of October, 1828. The United 
States gave them $2,000 in merchandise and when ratified $8,000 more in 
merchandise and was to build for them twelve log houses, clear and fence 
forty acres; was to furnish one wagon, two yoke of oxen and two hands to 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 5 1 

work three months for two years; $500 worth of provisions, five horses, 
five saddles and five bridles. 

(Signed) John Tipton, Commissioner. 

and by the following Indians : 

Ne-go-ta-kaup-wa, 
Shaw-po-to-seaw, 
Na-tah-ko-ke-a w , 
Aw-waw-no-zaw, 
Kaw-koaw-ma-kau-to-a w . 
Aw-sown-zou-gow, 
Shin-go-ou-zaw, 
Oh-zou-ke-at-tou, 
Waw-pow-ko-se-aw, 
Mack-ken-zaw, 
and ten others. 

The Wyandottes had a reserve on the Wabash, and there were numbers 
of reserves along the Wabash, and in the northern part of the state, finally 
closing up with the last and largest reserve between the Wabash and the 
Mississinewa, and south of the latter river embracing a large tract of land, 
which was closed out by the treaties of October 23, 1834; November 6, 
1838, and November 28, 1840, all ceded to the United States by the Miami 
reserves and forever closed the title of the Indians to lands in the state of 
Indiana and the last of them slowly folded their tents, like the Arabs, and 
silently went westward beyond the Great River never to return. They left 
no records, no monuments. All we know of them is in regard to their 
connection with the white man in their dealings and wars. They had a num- 
ber of villages and trading points over the state, one of which was located 
on the banks of Sugar Tree creek (Sa-nah-min-dji), and the name of the 
village was Ka-we-ah-ke-oon-gi. 

THE VILLAGE. 

When the white man first came to this country, early in the eighteenth 
century, he found an Indian village on the banks of Sugar creek at the 



52 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

confluence of Prairie creek. As far back as we know, it was the home of 
the Eel river tribe of the Miami Nation. When the French came it became 
an Indian trading-point. When the Jesuit Missionaries came it must have 
been a religious center for this section. This is why the reserve was 
located here, and it became an Indian historic point; and around it can be 
woven a lively story of the red man and his tragic end. Here just north of 
town were the cornfields where the squaw scraped up the little hillocks year 
after year for the Indian maize. In the east part of town, along Front 
street, was their burying ground, where they laid away their loved onus. 
In digging for our water mains and sewers we exhume their remains and the 
trinkets and treasures that were deposited with them in their last resting 
place. 

INDIAN SKELETON UNEARTHED. 

The Thornton Argus-Enterprise says: "If we may judge from the 
number of skeletons recently disinterred in the vicinity of north Front street 
that portion of the town was evidently the burying ground years ago when 
Thorntown was an Indian center of note. While laying the water main at the 
junction of Front and Bow streets, workmen partially uncovered the re- 
mains of another human last Tuesday. As the body was not directly in the 
line of digging, only the skull was disclosed. Among the several curious 
trinkets also found were two large Catholic crosses made of very thin silver. 
One of these bore the word 'Montreal,' and the other 'Detro.' Another 
curio was an earring of peculiar design bearing the letters 'C. D.' On the 
bone of the forearm were several silver bracelets but being very thin and 
much deteriorated they crumbled to pieces. These had been tied together 
with a piece of whang which was still quite strong. The character of the 
trinkets and absence of all weapons led the workmen to believe that the re- 
mains were those of an Indian squaw." (May, 1914). 

East of the town, across Prairie creek, is another burying ground, 
where, according to story fell two chieftains. It is stated that the Miami 
Indians were very much dissatisfied with their chief, Chap-a-do-sia, for 
selling this reserve, so much so, that it led to a battle between Chapadosia 
and another chief named Dixon; they met, and each at the same moment 
plunged a huge butcher knife into the other's naked bosom, both dying on 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 53 

the bloody ground, and with fast glazing eyes glaring with hate and defiance 
fixed on each other. They were buried in a sitting posture in a pen in the 
burving ground over Prairie creek about one-half mile east of Thorntown, 
one at each end of the pen, with their feet nearly touching each other, to- 
gether with their butcher knives, tomahawks ( Pug-ga-wa-guns ) , rifles and 
other weapons of offense and defense ; also, their hunting dogs and favorite 
horses were slain at the same time, that their spirits might accompany their 
masters' souls to that far off happy hunting ground of the faithful braves. 
The Indians daily carried food to their silent home for thirty days, that 
their souls might not faint by the way. 

These thrilling stories about the Indian could be extended indefinitely, 
some as facts, others legendary, but we have given a few of the most 
reliable in order that we' may have an insight of a race of people who pre- 
ceded us and are now nearly extinct. For many years after they had dis- 
posed of all their lands a remnant of them lived on their lands on the 
Mississinewa with Chief Godfroy at their head. 

After the battle of Tippecanoe, Tecumseh returned to the north and 
joined his fortunes with the English against the United States. At the 
very beginning of this struggle, a treaty was made with the Wyandottes at 
Fort Wayne, September, 1812, that ceded all the lands in the northeast part 
of our state included between the rivers St. Joseph's and St. Mary's that 
form the Maumee at Fort Wayne and the lands for a distance around the 
Fort. 

DEATH OF TECUMSEH. 

Tecumseh the Brave, called the King of the Woods, who met General 
Harrison in pow-wow and in battle, was the noblest of all red men that 
fought for his people upon the soil of Indiana. He was born at the old 
Shawnee town of Piqua on Mad river, Ohio, in 1768. We can only stop 
to introduce him here, it will pay you well to search history and find out its 
record of this great statesman and warrior. In the first treaty named in 
this history — that of Greenville, Ohio, in 1795 — Tecumseh took the position 
that it was not binding because, an injustice had been done, that, while the 
Indiana and Illinois Indians had shared equally in the compensation of the 
terms of the treaty, it was clear that the Shawnees, and other Ohio Indian 



54 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

tribes had been shut out entirely, and when the last three treaties of 1809 
were made by which three million acres were added to the cessions, Tecum- 
seh became defiant and said these treaties should not be carried into effect. 
It was then that he sought a dramatic interview with General Harrison at 
Vincennes, where it was charged and generally believed by the whites that 
he contemplated treachery. There is no question but that he warned the 
governor in private interviews that the surveyors would not be permitted 
to run the boundary lines under the treaties of 1809 without bloodshed. 
Tecumseh nursed his wrath and said, "we will have to fight it out." and he 
became the implacable enemy of the pale-skin Americans. Tecumseh went 
south to other tribes and, with fiery harangues, urged the Creeks to accept 
his bundle of red-sticks, which was the emblem of their union for a bloody 
war; claiming that their cause was righteous — that the Indian lands be- 
longed to all the Indians in common, and that no one tribe could dispose of 
any part of it without the consent of all the tribes. This had been done, he 
now called a halt. In the meantime the effort of the Shawnee chief was 
seconded by his brother the Prophet who was acquiring great influence 
among the adjacent nations. He had fixed his headquarters at the mouth 
of the Tippecanoe, where he had built a town for his followers. So alarm- 
ing were the accounts of Tecumseh's movements — for border warfare had 
begun in the south — that the government finally instructed General Harrison 
to march against this Prophet's town and destroy it, unless a satisfactory 
treaty was formed. In hazarding a battle during Tecumseh's absence, the 
Prophet disobeyed his direct commands and was defeated ; and the Prophet's 
town was destroyed. The loss of Tippecanoe was a severe blow to Tecum- 
seh. He turned his steps northward, called his warriors to the field, and 
joined the British army, where he was made a general in the war of 18 12. 
At Fort Meigs on the Maumee, he again confronted General Harrison, and 
the words of his prophecy uttered at Vincennes — "You and I will have to 
fight it out" — came true; for, here on the first of May, 1813, Proctor, with 
his British and Tecumseh with 600 warriors from the Wabash, appeared 
before the Fort. The Indians fired into the Fort from trees which they 
climbed for that purpose; and harassed in every possible way, but General 
Clay of Kentucky re-enforced Harrison and the siege was raised. One can 
easily imagine the chagrin with which this intrepid warrior saw the British 
driven back by the Americans, but he held on to his life-long dream as he 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 55 

begged Proctor to turn his arms and ammunition over to the Indians, and 
let them stay and fight it out. The last struggle is as fine a bit of American 
history as books can record. On the 5th of October, 1813, our hero entered 
his last battle, on the banks of the Thames in Canada. He must have felt it 
was his last, he said, "My body will remain on the battle-field," handing his 
sword to a comrade: "Give it to the son of Tecumseh." In the heat of the 
conflict Tecumseh was struck in the breast by a bullet, supposed to have been 
fired by Colonel Johnson, at the time he also was wounded. Shouting his 
last word of command, this intrepid statesman and warrior calmly stepped 
forward, sunk at the foot of an oak and expired. A sudden terror seized 
the red men, who fled through the wilderness; and thus was established, with 
blood and steel, the white man's theory versus the Indian's contention, for 
the soil of Indiana. Had Mad Anthony at Fort Wayne treated the Ohio 
Indians justly no disturbance would have been raised. Under that treaty 
a number of tribes were made absolutely homeless except as they might be 
tolerated by other tribes. In looking back and contemplating such a life as 
Tecumseh's we are led to say, neither Greece, Switzerland, Germany, France, 
England nor Scotland can show a prouder record. Tecumseh was a match- 
less leader of a race that stood, fought and died for home and principle 
rather than surrender, though the whole world was poured in upon them. 
The name of Tecumseh is inseparably linked with Indiana. 

The first pow-pow after the war was held at St. Mary's near the Ohio 
state line October 2, 1812. The Miamis, Pottawattomies and Weas surren- 
dered all their rights to the lands bordering on the Wabash river in the west 
part of the state. It includes all the lands on the west and north of the river 
up to the mouth of the Tippecanoe river; thence up the said river to the 
northeastern part of Pulaski county, thence toward the three o'clock sun of 
that day until it passes into Illinois. It includes all the lands on the south and 
east of the Wabash river indefinitely defined from the mouth of the Tippe- 
canoe river until you reach the mouth of Big Turtle creek named in the 
treaty of the Kickapoos in 1809. 

TREATY AT ST. MARY'S. 

The treaty made and concluded with the Indians at St. Mary's in the 
state of Ohio, October 6, 1818, between Jonathan Jennings, Lewis Cass and 



56 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

Benjamin Parke, commissioners of the United States, and the Miami na- 
tion of Indians. Begin at the boundary line of the state of Indiana on the 
Wabash river, at the mouth of Raccoon creek; thence, up the river to the 
reserve at its head near Ft. Wayne; thence to the reserve at Ft. Wayne; 
thence with the line thereof to St. Mary's river; thence up the St. Mary's to 
the reservation at the Portage ; thence with the cession made by the Wyan- 
dottes to the United States, at the foot of the rapids of the Maumee of Lake 
Erie, September 29, 1817; thence to Ft. Recovery; thence west to the place 
of beginning at the mouth of Raccoon creek. Several reservations were 
made along the Wabash river, and among these was the reservation of ten 
miles square at the Indian village Ka-we-ah-ke-un-gi, on Sugar Tree creek 
(Sa-nah-min-dji). Numerous cessions were made to chiefs and families, 
and the United States agreed to pay a perpetual annuity of $15,000 in silver. 
The United States also agreed to build one sawmill, one grist-mill, one 
blacksmith-shop and one gunsmith-shop and to furnish 160 bushels of salt. 
This is one of the most important treaties ever made in regard to lands 
within the bounds of Indiana, and one that had more to do with the history 
of Boone county than all others. This treaty embraced all the land on the 
south side of the Wabash river in Indiana, not heretofore ceded by the In- 
dians to the United States. The Thorntown Reserve was the only exception 
south and east of the Wabash river. 



THE CLOSE OF THE RESERVE. 

In an act of Congress, February n, 1828, the chiefs, headmen and 
warriors of the Eel river tribe of the Miami nation of Indians, agree to 
cede, and by these presents do cede and relinquish to the United States, all 
their right, title and claim to a reservation of lands about ten miles square at 
the village on Sugar creek in Indiana, which was reserved to said party by 
the second article of a treaty, between the Commissioners of the United 
States and the Miami nation of Indians, made and entered into at St. Mary's 
in the state of Ohio on the 6th day of October, 18 18. The Indians hereby 
agree not to burn any house or any of the fences; and to leave the premises 
in as good condition as at present, and to remove to the reserve on Eel river 
by the 15th day of October, 1828. The United States agrees to pay down 




0OLLECTION i>F BLACK CEREMONIAL STONES. 
BEVELED AND SERRATED KNIVES, GROOVED 
AXES AND INDIAN ORNAMENTS. 



TYPES OF GROOVED AXES FOUND 
IN BOONE COUNTY. ONE-SIXTH 
NATURAL-SIZE. 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 57 

two thousand dollars in merchandise and when the treaty is ratified by next 
summer, pay the balance, eight thousand dollars, in merchandise. Also the 
United States agrees to build twelve log houses, clear forty acres of land, 
and furnish one wagon, two yoke of oxen, two hands to work three months 
for two years; and to give five hundred dollars in provisions, five horses, 
five saddles and five bridles. 

Signed by John Tipton, Commissioner of the United States, and by the 
following Indian chiefs : Ne-go-ta-kaup-wa, Shaw-po-to-seaw, Na-tah-ko- 
he-aw, Aw-waw-no-zaw, Kaw-koaw-ma-hau-to-aw, Aw-sown-zou-gaw, Shin- 
go-aw-zaw, Ah-zou-ke-at-tau, Waw-paw-ko-se-aw, Mack-kan-zaw, and ten 
others. This treaty ended the right of the Indians to all the lands in Boone 
county, and they quietly folded their tents and departed forever. They left 
their hunting grounds, their homes where they had resided for generations 
and their burying grounds. It was the blotting out of a race. A few of them 
lingered for a few years, clinging to the affections of the heart, and some 
at later dates made visits to the resting place of their loved ones. Eighty- 
four years have rolled away, a new generation has come that knew nothing 
of those that have passed away, and will know nothing except from the his- 
tory of the past. 

THE INDIAN CONTROVERSY. 

The great controversy of the natives of this country was over the land. 
It was not over the price of the land, although they received but a trifle for it, 
and that in goods of various descriptions and at a high price. The first deal 
within the boundary of Indiana was by a land company in 1.775 f° r three 
million acres along the Wabash river. They paid for this land at the rate 
of one and one-half cents per acre in trade, blankets, beads, ribbons, powder, 
lead, guns, earrings, bracelets and crosses. The Indian would know nothing 
about the market value of these articles, but he never complained of this but 
stuck to his bargain. 

The great Miami Nation that owned all this country before the intru- 
sion of the white man, was composed of many different tribes and families. 
Some of these tribes without the knowledge of others would make a land 
deal with the whites and bargain away a portion of the land. The uncon- 
sulted tribes would contend for their right in the land as common owners. 



5» BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

They knew nothing about the idea of conveying land in fee simple, but would 
acknowledge the principle of quit-claim. This trouble arose in Georgia early 
in the last century, and the government had much trouble with the Creek 
Indians ; finally had to buy them out and move them to the west side of the 
Mississippi. Tecumseh raised the same question in Indiana and stirred up 
the different tribes to insist upon their rights to the lands that had been con- 
veyed to the whites without their knowledge or consent. This was the con- 
tention between Tecumseh and Harrison in all their pow-wows for settle- 
ment. Harrison would not acknowledge the right and the brave chief re- 
plied that "we will have to fight it out," and fight it out they did until the 
chief went down in the battle. All the trouble over Indian lands were 
brought about over this question. The Indians were in the right but tht 
white man had the might, and we got the land. From the days of King 
Philip, the government has had trouble with the Indians because the latter 
would not acknowledge that another could sell his inherent right. The 
Indian was right in the matter and his claim was just. 

INDIAN WARS. 

There was a cause. Speak as we may about the Indian and his charac- 
teristics, his temperament and disposition, he was provoked to battle for his 
home, his hunting-ground and his burial-place. The white man, from the 
time he landed on our Atlantic slope, was pressing westward. He had crossed 
the Alleghany mountains came down on the inland slope. He ascended 
the rivers and explored the lakes and the large streams. On many of these 
he established homes and forts and was pressing on into the forest every- 
where. We say that the Indian was cruel and treacherous because he fought 
for his home the best he knew how. He could see that his lands were dis- 
appearing. Sometimes they were sold by the chiefs without consulting with 
the people, sometimes they were taken by treaty, that the Indian knew noth- 
ing about and could not understand; and that other times they were taken 
by violence. He saw his game driven from the forests and his hunting 
grounds transformed into fields. When the civilized man fights for home and 
native land he is called a patriot, and highly honored in his deeds of valor. 
When the Indian puts on the war paint actuated by the same motives, and 
fights for the same sentiments crude as his war methods may be, he is con- 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 59 

demned and killed. When he uses the best implements for defense that he 
has, the white man terms them cruel, and becomes even more heartless 
towards the Indian and seeks his destruction. The Indian is not only driven 
to fight for his life, but also for his home and his property. In the face of 
facts it is doubtful whether the means used by the white man were not as 
cruel and barbarous as those of the red man. If accounts and conditions 
were fairly balanced between man and man, the white man would not have 
room to boast of his humanity and the justness of his course over the red 
man. The cruelties of war were on both sides, and the white man was the 
aggressor. He justified himself on the ground that the Indian was not im- 
proving the land. This is a question of moral ethics, that we will not con- 
sider here but leave each to settle it with his own conscience. The Indian 
regarded Kentucky as common hunting ground, and they resisted the occu- 
pancy of it by the white man. They guarded the beautiful Ohio river day 
and night, and many hand to hand conflicts were had between the natives 
and immigrants and tradesmen on the banks and placid bosom of that great 
river. The tales of suffering and daring will never be told. General George 
Rogers Clark's foothold in southern Indiana aggravated them. His last 
explorations to the Wabash in 1786 provoked the Indians; and they began 
preparations to resist the onward march of the white man. The British 
influence was used to the utmost to fan the disaffection into angry flames of 
war. The white man wanted the great woods northwest of the Ohio river 
to develop into farms. The red man wanted it for his hunting grounds and 
claimed title to the lands. The Indian tribes confederated together for self- 
defense and the situation grew rapidly worse. General Arthur St. Clair was 
Governor of the northwest territory. In a few years it was necessary to 
send an armed force to take care of the white settlements in Kentucky and 
along the frontier of Indiana. St. Clair was ordered to prepare a large force. 

harmar's expedition. 

In 1790 things became desperate, and General Joseph Harmar was sent 
with four hundred regulars and one thousand fifty militia to the Indian 
village, Kekionga, near where the city of Ft. Wayne now stands. When he 
reached the village October 15, 1790, he found that it was deserted. On 
the 1 6th he sent out a force under Colonel John Hardin of thirty regulars 
and two hundred militia. Three days after on the 19th they met a large 



60 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

body of Miamis under command of Chief Little Turtle (Mi-ci-ki-noq-kwa) 
and were badly whipped. The battle occurred at the headwaters of Eel 
river, near the northwest corner of what is now Allen county. Hardin's loss 
was twenty regulars and six militia killed and many wounded. He rejoined 
Harmar and a hasty retreat was begun towards Ft. Washington (Cincin- 
nati) on the 2 1 st. Hardin had claimed to be an Indian fighter, and he was 
so chagrined by his defeat that he prevailed on Gen. Harmar to let him try 
again. His plea was granted and on the morning of the 21st of October, 
at the head of sixty regulars and three hundred militia under Major Wyllys, 
he set back with a defiant air toward the seat of defeat. The little army 
reached the Maumee near Kekionga early on the morning of the 22nd. The 
militia was sent to pursue a party of Indians that seemed to be on the re- 
treat ; but they were drawn into an ambush and attacked by a superior num- 
ber. Little Turtle at the same time furiously assailed the regulars. It was 
a disastrous defeat. Several officers were killed, including Major Wyllys. 
Over one hundred and fifty men were killed. Hardin led the retreat. The 
Indians suffered an equal loss, and did not attempt to pursue the fleeing rem- 
nant. General Harmar gathered the fragments of his army, and began their 
march October 23rd for Ft. Washington. The expedition had suffered a 
loss of one hundred and eighty-three men killed and thirty-one wounded. 
While the disaster was going on at the Maumee, Major Hamtramck at Vin- 
cennes, led a small force against the Indians on Vermilion river, and de- 
stroyed several of their villages without serious loss. General Scott, in May, 
1 79 1, crossed the Ohio river and marched to the Wabash, destroying the 
Ouiatenon and surrounding villages. In July, 1791, Governor St. Clair sent 
out General Wilkinson against the Indians on the upper Wabash. The chief 
towns of the Ouiatenon on the Eel river and the Kickapoo village were de- 
stroyed. General St. Clair takes the field. The Indians were jubilant over 
their victories on the Maumee and the war spirit grew intense. Depredations 
became frequent and all settlements insecure. Something had to be done 
quickly or all would be lost. A force of three thousand was raised and put 
under the command of General St. Clair. He had orders to march to the 
Maumee and establish a post at Kekionga and garrison it. Meanwhile the 
Pottawattomies, Kickapoos, Delawares, Ottawas, Wyandottes and Shawnees 
had federated together and gathered an army of one thousand four hundred 
warriors, by joining with the Miamis in their coming great struggle for the 
expulsion of the whites. General St. Clair on the 3rd of November, 1791, 
reached the point where Ft. Recovery was afterward erected. On the morn- 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 6l 

ing of the 4th before daylight he was surprised by the Indians in full force. 
It was a terrible disaster. Fully one-half of the army was destroyed, and 
the rest were thrown in a helpless panic. Thirty officers and five hundred 
and ninety-three men were slain. One hundred women that had accompanied 
the army were destroyed. The Harmar defeat spread alarm, this spread 
terror over the territory. The battle occurred near the southwest comer of 
what is now Mercer county and near the state line. The Indians were led 
by Little Turtle, assisted by Tecumseh, Blue Jacket, Buck-ong-a-helas of the 
Delawares. General Wayne assumed command, at the head of three thousand 
soldiers most of whom were regulars, started out from Ft. Washington, Oc- 
tober, 1793, arriving at the scene of St. Clair's defeat, he erected a fort and 
called it Ft. Recovery. He received re-enforcements of one thousand six 
hundred mounted volunteers under General Scott. The Indians on the 20th 
of August launched their attack. A decisive battle occurred at Fallen Tim- 
bers, the Indians and their allies being defeated with frightful loss. With 
this defeat the power of the Indians was effectually broken. Fort Wayne, 
in honor of the successful general, was completed, and well garrisoned No- 
vember 22nd, 1794. This brings the struggle to the beginning of the treaties, 
that we have listed elsewhere 1795, and the establishing of the first line from 
Ft. Recovery near the southwest corner of Mercer county, Ohio, to the mouth 
of Blue river on the Ohio river. 

The following clipping was taken from a Huntington paper : 

Huntington, Ind., March 5, 1912. — Joseph Engleman, last blood chief 
of the Miamis, is dead at the ancestral home of the royal Indian family on the 
old Lafontaine reservation two miles west of Huntington. Chief Joseph had 
been head of the Miami tribe since the death of Chief Gabriel Godfrey sev- 
eral years ago. Francis Lafontaine, his grandfather, one of the most noted 
of the Miami chieftains, succeeded Chief Richardville in 1840. 

Lafontaine left no male heirs, and leadership of the once famous tribe 
reverted to another branch of the royal family. This daughter of Lafon- 
taine in time married Christian Engleman, a German farmer, and they lived 
on the old Lafontaine grant west of Huntington. Joseph was the oldest son, 
and on the death of Chief Godf roy several years ago, Joseph was elected chief. 

As no male heir is living, the post of chief may again revert to the God- 
frey family, the honor going to George Godfrey of Peru, or to White Loon, 
son of Princess Kilsoquar of Huntington county. The new chief will be 
named by election at the next gathering of the tribe remnants. 



CHAPTER III. 



GEOLOGY AND TOPOGRAPHY. 



We place under this caption our knowledge of the earth's surface and 
its formation. All the history that we have is written on the rocks in the 
fossil remains. The position of the solid elements of the earth's surtace 
whether in the smooth plain or the upheaved or the broken, crushed and 
powdered portions, that constitute the drift portion of the earth's surface, 
all enter into what we understand under the science of geology. It is his- 
tory that has been made by water, heat and cold. These solid substances 
have been broken off by wind, upheavals of internal force and moved about 
on the earth's surface by water and ice. Nature in its formation of the 
earth's history wrote the story, and what we term geology is the knowledge 
that men have gathered and classified as the science of geology. There is a 
great amount of speculation in regard to how this work was done and the 
time. We will not enter into the many theories of the world's growth and 
development, but let the reader look this matter up in books devoted to this 
special branch of history. Indiana is placed by the geologist in the Devonian 
Carboniferous and subcarboniferous ages. If we go deep enough we can 
find record of the Azoic age of Archaean time, the very oldest rocks that 
were formed, when there was neither vegetable nor animal life. Above this 
comes the Paleozoic time the "Aeon of ancient life," including the Upper 
and Lower Silurian ages also the Devonian and Carboniferous eras. The 
latitude and longtitude of Indiana was doubtless here at that time 
as it is now, but it was the bottom of the sea. How many thou- 
sands of centuries since that condition existed we can not tell and there is no 
certain way to ascertain. It must have been a broad expanse of ocean 
stretching far to the southwest and north and northwest over the great lake 
legion. It is under this wide expanse of country that the Trenton rock is 
found and it belongs to the Lower Silurian era which is a subdivision of the 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 63 

Paleozoic time. This Trenton rock is the store-house of the natural gas 
and crude petroleum that have so lately blessed the world. Over this Trenton 
rock comes the sedimentary covering containing myriads of polyps and other 
low forms of animal life, which with the abundant and luxuriant plant life 
entered into the composition of the stone strata. Just how long this process 
was going on no one in our age can tell. That is a question that yet remains 
for solution if any desire to delve into the unknown. Next comes the Upper 
Silurian which is composed of the decomposition of a higher grade of mol- 
lusks. Above the Silurian is the Devonian epoch laid down in the bottom 
of the ocean. These rocks are made of the most part of limestone and black 
shale. During this Silurian period, the exact date is not given, came what is 
termed the "Cincinnati uplift." The southern portion of Indiana was in- 
cluded in this, and remained no longer the bottom of the sea and was the 
first part of Indiana to become dry land. Next in turn comes the Lower 
Carboniferous formed of what is known as knobstone or sand shales. To 
this strata belongs the noted Bedford oolitic limestone, considered the best 
building stone in the country. Also in this period came the formation of the 
noted caves in southern Indiana. The upper Carboniferous era is the coal 
formation, composed of the immense growth of vegetation upon the marsh 
shores of the inland sea, that were in turn swept down and buried, this was 
done five times, making the veins of coal that underlie a great portion of the 
state of Indiana. About one-fourth of our state, mostly in the southwest 
part of the state, is including the coal fields. How long it was in forming 
no mortal can tell. 

POST-TERTIARY PERIOD. 

We can form no conception of the length of these periods. Scientific 
men have been conjecturing for centuries, but nothing definite has been 
concluded. We may as well leave it in this uncertain condition for no finite 
mind can unlock the depths of the hidden mystery. The glacial epoch or age 
of ice belongs to the Post-Tertiary period. Of all past Eons of time this 
last is most important to the people of Indiana. It was the great influence 
that fitted this part of the globe for the habitation of man. Slowly it had 
been growing for cycles of years shaping for life and this last period is to 
shape it for the highest of creation — Man — the Archon. Just how many sheets 



64 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

of ice plowed their way, over the rough surface of the land that now composes 
the state of Indiana is not known. According to the theory of the formation 
of coal veins there must have been at least five floods of ice, for we have 
that many veins of coal. There may have been many more. The high places 
in the state had to be plowed down into the low places so as to make all in- 
habitable for man. The central portion of the state must have been a great 
swamp or shallow sea for ages. The great Morain or drift section covers 
this section of the state. We do not know when the Mound-builders lived 
in this country but we know that there is no evidence that they ever lived in 
what is now Boone county, for there are no mounds here. It must have been 
uninhabitable for man in the age when this strange people lived. We must 
remember that the general slope of this country is toward the southwest. It 
must have had the same inclination in the time of the ice flow, for the indi- 
cations are that the flow of the ice was in the direction of our streams of 
this day. The only exception is that of the Maumee river. Here are the most 
singular formations in the state. The St. Mary's river rising in Ohio and 
flowing toward the northwest and the St. Joseph's rising in Michigan and 
flowing toward the southwest, meeting the former at what is now Ft. Wayne, 
and instead of forming the Wabash river they turn upon themselves and form 
the Maumee and flow toward the northeast and into Lake Erie. This was 
doubtless caused by the great Morain heaped up in front of them by some 
monster glacier. The great bank of clay and gravel is there to this day and 
the peculiar formation of the rivers tells the story. The great ridge of drift 
stretching from Steuben county to Cass is from two hundred to five hundred 
feet deep, twenty-five miles wide and nearly one hundred miles long. This 
made a levee extensive enough to become a permanent barrier to the St. Mary's 
and St. Joseph's rivers and send their waters back to Lake Erie. Fully three- 
fourths of the state has been formed by the drift and Boone county lies 
wholly within this formation. Long after the formation of the coal beds 
there must have been a lighter drift of ice that formed the beds of mud and 
muck filled with twigs and decaying vegetable matter that is found in Boone 
county in various places from sixty to eighty feet deep in the sinking of 
wells. In addition to the sand, gravel and clay found throughout this drift 
belt, there are in various localities large boulders of foreign rock that have 
been carried here by some great force. Wind or water as it is known in our 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 65 

day could not do this. We can not think of any force that could do this 
work except the large fields of ice known as glaciers. There are several 
places in Boone county where these boulders exist as great tracts of the sea 
of ice that must have passed over here and left these tracks. The rocks must 
have been imbedded in the ice and as it slowly passed over the land with its. 
immense force, grinding the rock into sand and gravel, it made the great 
deposits that are all over the state. The chemicals embodied in these rocks 
mingled with the great growth of vegetable matter formed the rich soil that 
so rewards the husbandman to this day. After the great plain was formed 
by the ice-fields, the water that came from the melting of the ice sought out 
the low places and found its way to the sea. By erosion it cut out channels 
and thus formed our rivers as we have them to this day. If we accept this 
theory of the formation of this country, we must conclude that God works 
by slow processes to shape the world for man's comfort and happiness. 
Through it all is the manifestation of his love and great power. He formed 
the dry land and shaped it for our good. 



Before leaving the physical features of the county we would speak of its 
wells or supply of water for domestic use. There is no evidence that the 
Indian ever dug a well. That is a characteristic of a higher civilization. 
The Indian depended upon the gushing spring of which there was a liberal 
supply distributed throughout the county. In the old Indian village of the 
Eel river tribe in the Thorntown reserve, there were some noted springs. 
One of these northeast of Thorntown became noted as a center for quench- 
ing thirst of both red and white men gathered in early days. Also, those 
northwest and east of Thorntown yielded an abundant supply of good water 
for man and beast. The early pioneers were attracted to these springs and 
in many cases erected their log cabins near one of them. When no spring 
could be found it was an easy matter to obtain water by digging a well in 
any part of the county. Water could be found all the way from ten to forty 
feet almost anywhere within the limits of Boone county. For the first two< 
generations the springs and shallow wells furnished the supply of water for 
the people. Later while prospecting for gas a new field for water supply 
was opened. We found no natural gas but we did learn something about 
(5) 



66 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

the under strata of our soil and of the treasures hidden therein. Deep wells 
were sunk at various points in the county without finding natural gas. Yet 
in many of them strong veins of pure water was found, which proved a 
treasure that grows more and more apparent as the years roll by. In the 
well dug on the Kenworthy farm in the bottom Prairie creek, artesian water 
was found at a depth of one hundred feet, that rose eight or nine feet above 
the top of the well, and has continued to flow without abatement all these 
years; and is now furnishing water to the home of Grant Riley who now 
owns and occupies the Kenworthy farm. Out of the search for gas came 
the period of drilled wells for water. These wells go to the depth of sixty to 
two hundred and fifty feet. This holds good all over the county and wells 
have been sunk everywhere for water. We here give the surveys of a few 
of them, to demonstrate the crust of the earth in Boone county. 

In a well on the Michigan road southwest of the center of Marion town- 
ship dug by Mr. James A. Ball, of Thorntown, we have this find : 

Soil and yellow clay 18 feet 

Quicksand 3 

Blue clay 20 

White sand — Gas 11 

Blue clay 6 

Swamp muck, leaves, twigs 7 

Blue clay 19 



Total depth 84 feet 

In a well in Jackson township on the farm of Isaac Emerts, two and 
one-half miles north of Jamestown, a well was drilled in which the swamp 
was reached at sixty feet. 

Soil 2 feet 

Yellow clay and sand 28 " 

Quicksand 

Blue clay 29 feet 

Black muck, twigs, branches 

Sand and clay 

Silicious shale 

Total 



I 


foot 6 in. 


29 


feet 


3 




12 


" 


160 


" 


235 


feet 6 in. 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 6j 

In a well dug on Main street in Lebanon just east of the public square 
we have this survey : 

Soil 2 feet 

Blue clay 12 " 

Sand 5 " 

In this strata was found a large number of fresh water shells in a good 
state of preservation. Four feet lower down in gravel, a number of lower 
Silurian fossil — shells — Rhynchonella capas — were found. 

WITT AND KLIZER'S WELL AT THORNTOWN. 

This well was dug to the depth of 104 feet, and continued by boring to 
the depth of 343 feet. At the depth of 100 feet, the trunk of a tree apparently 
northern cedar, several inches in diameter, was found. The trunk of the tree 
extended entirely across the well. The exposed portions of the tree were 
nearly perfect, showing no scars nor effects of abrasion, such as would have 
resulted from violent contact with rocks or other hard substances. 

The following is the entire section of the well as given by James A. Ball 
who superintended the boring of the well : 

Soil 2 feet 

Yellow clay 19 " 

Quicksand 4 " 

Blue clay 125 

The cedar tree was found in the blue clay. 

Silicious shale — Soapstone 193 

Total 343 feet 

WELL AT LEBANON. 

The well on Washington street in Lebanon shows a varying condition of 
strata to a depth of about forty feet. 

Soil 7 feet 

Yellow sand 1 foot 



68 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 



Yellow clay 3 feet 

Blue sand and clay 1 foot 

Sand 4 feet 

Blue clay 3 

Gray clay 3 

Sand and gravel 4 

Blue clay 2 

Hard-pan 4 

Blue (laminated) clay 14 

Gray clay 3 

Sand and clay 10 

Blue clay 23 

Coarse gravel 1 foot 

Blue clay 25 feet 

Total 108 feet 



WELL OF D. M. BURNS. 



The well of D. M. Burns, civil engineer, on his farm two miles north of 
Lebanon on the Frankfort road exhibited the following section : 

Soil 2 feet 

Yellow clay 7 

Gravel and sand 2 

Blue clay 22 

Gravel 2 

Gravel and clay 3 

Blue clay 59 

Boulder 1 foot 

Blue clay 23 feet 



Total 



112 feel 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 69 



BIG SPRINGS. 



In the neighborhood of Big Springs the water is found from eight to ten 
feet below the surface. Numerous springs throughout this region flow out of 
the surface of the ground. No clay is reached in this neighborhood. At 
Rosston, two and one-half miles to the southwest, water is obtained from 
eight to twenty feet below the surface. 



WELL AT ROSSTON. 

Soil 1 foot 6 

Red clay 8 feet 

Sand and gravel 10 " 

Total 19 feet 6 



WELL AT NORTHFIELD. 

Water is obtained from twenty to forty feet below the surface. 
Section of average well. 

Soil 2 feet 

Yellow clay 10 to 20 " 

Sand or gravel 10 to 20 " 



Total 42 feet 

At Clarkstown the depth is the same as at Northfield. 



ZIONSVILLE. 

At Zionsville, in Eagle township, water is found from twenty to sixty 
feet. 

Average of wells at Zionsville : 

Soil 2 feet 

Yellow clay 10 " 



JO BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

Blue clay 4 to 10 feet 

Gravel 1 to 3 " 

Blue clay 20 to 40 " 

Total 65 feet 

Section of Foster and Leap's well at Royalton : 

Soil » 3 feet 6 in. 

Yellow clay 17 " 

Gravel 5 " 

Blue clay and gravel 70 feet 6 in. 



Total 96 feet 



UNION TOWNSHIP. 

At Brunswick and Milledgeville the wells average from eleven to forty- 
two feet. 

JEFFERSON TOWNSHIP. 

At Dover abundance of good water is obtained at a depth of seven to 
twenty-two feet. 

FRANK HARRIS' FARM. 

On the Harris farm, one mile south of Thorntown, we find 

Soil and yellow clay 19 feet 

Quicksand 4 " 

Blue clay 103 " 

Cemented gravel 6 " 

Total 132 feet 

There are great depths of sand and gravel of good quality for building 
purposes and roads in the northwest part of the county and in various other 
localities in the county. 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 



71 



On the Moffitt farm, one and one-half miles west of Thorntown, four 
feet of soil and forty feet of gravel were penetrated but no water was found 
and the work was discontinued. Two miles farther west, on the Robert Woody 
farm, a stratum of sand fifty-five feet in thickness was passed through in 
boring a well. The following is a section of Mr. Woody's well. 

Soil and yellow clay 18 feet 

Fine white sand 55 " 

Blue clay 71 " 

Limestone 3 " 

Total 147 feet 

Throughout the northwest part of the county quicksand almost uniformly 
occurs under the yellow clay. The thickness of the beds of quicksand varies 
from two to sixteen feet. The yellow clay runs from three to thirty feet in 
depth. 

The section of a well three miles east of Thorntown in Washington town- 
ship near the Union church illustrates the character of the deposits through- 
out that section. 

Soil and yellow clay 27 feet 

Quicksand 9 " 

Blue clay 75 " 

Total in feet 

The boring of these wells throughout the various parts of the county 
furnish abundant proof of the drift formation that prevails all over the 
county. No limestone has been struck except in the west part of the county. 
No organic remains except in the one well at Lebanon. The muck and 
swamps from seventy-five to one hundred feet below the surface shows a 
peculiar drift formation in the county. There are no walls or enclosures in 
the county, nor any mounds of great interest. Occasionally small mounds 
are seen, but explorations in them have not disclosed any fact other than are 
generally known concerning these works. Ashes, charcoal and occasionally 
implements have been found in them. Granite and flint implements, while not 
so common as in many other counties, are still frequently found here. 



"]2 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

As far as the formation of the surface of Boone county is concerned it is 
evident that there are no evidences of violence or internal forces of nature. 
There are no evidences of upheavals, for as deep as man has penetrated the 
surface by drilling (1,300 feet) every layer of sand, clay or rock seems to be 
regular. The crust that underlies central Indiana prevails. As under Boone 
county in the same even form that it does over the state. There is no evidence 
of any force except that caused in the drift periods. Just how many drifts 
were used in laying the foundations for the rich soil that blesses this section 
of the state is not known. There must have been as many as there are dis- 
tinct veins of coal and other layers of drift. 

This reading in the record of the rocks and strata of drifts is a little un- 
reliable, but enough is known to satisfy the mind that the icebergs traversed 
this section several times in fitting it for the habitation of man. Layer after 
layer of sand was carted in by giant streams of ice that bore along with its 
pressure great boulder tracks that show its stately steppings. This sand and 
clay was carted into the low places to build them up above the sea and make 
this country inhabitable for man. Just when the work was finished is not 
known. It was not ready for the mound-builder in his day, for there is no 
evidence that he ever dwelt in this section of Indiana. The Indian found a 
foothold here but no one knows when he came. There are no marks to tell us 
how long he preceded the white race. We found him here, but he has never 
revealed to our fathers how long he had lived in these woods. We can safely 
say that it was a long time ago, far beyond the memory of the white or the 
red man and the rocks do not reveal to us the hidden secret. 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 



73 




MAP OF 

INDIANA 



MAP OF INDIANA SHOWING TREATIES WITH THE INDIANS 



CHAPTER IV. 



THE PUBLIC DOMAIN AND ITS SURVEY. 



Some confusion appears to exist in the minds of land owners as to the 
source of title to lands within this state, and, to make this plainer, a short 
summary of the manner in which title to various lands as obtained by the 
general government and the state is given. The title to the lands within the 
present limits of Indiana was obtained by the United States by cession from 
the state of Virginia, March I, 1784. These lands were surveyed upon the 
extinction of the Indian title, or Indian right of occupancy, and were sold 
to settlers. These lands are commonly known as government lands. A 
map of state is herewith given showing where the treaties with Indians were 
held ceding lands to the United States and the boundaries of the different 
treaties. 

For the convenience of settlers and those desiring to purchase the public 
lands of the United States, the state, as the lands were surveyed and opened 
for settlement, was divided into land districts and offices opened in each. 
The land districts were known as the Vincennes, Jeffersonville, Indianapolis, 
Crawfordsville, Winamac and Ft. Wayne. As the lands were disposed of, 
these districts were abolished and at this time any government land remain- 
ing unentered must be disposed of through the general land office at Wash- 
ington. For various purposes the United States ceded large tracts of land 
to the state of Indiana and they are known by the following names, viz. : 
Canal lands, Michigan Road lands, Swamp lands, Saline lands, University 
lands. Seminary lands and School lands, and a summary is given of the man- 
ner of the accession of these lands. The state sold these lands under various 
acts of the general assembly, and patents were issued to the individual pur- 
chasers in the name of the state. All of these patents are recorded in the 
office of the auditor of state, except those for schools lands, which are re- 
corded in the records of the board of commissioners of the counties in 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 75 

which the land is situated. Prior to this the patents for Wabash and Erie 
Canal lands were issued by the state. But upon the state surrendering its 
title to these lands to the board of trustees of the Wabash and Erie Canal in 
that year, they were issued thereafter by that body. All these records of that 
body were given in the custody of the Auditor of State in 1883, by an order 
of the United States Court for this state. Copies of all these patents can 
be obtained from the Auditor of State. 



CANAL LAND. 

The land known as Canal land was granted by the United States to the 
state of Indiana to enable the state to construct what is known as the Wa- 
bash and Erie Canal, and is embraced in three separate grants. The first of 
these grants was approved March 2, 1827 (see Statutes-at-large, vol. 4, page 
236), and granted a quantity of land equal to one-half of five sections in 
width on each side of said canal (and reserving each alternate section to the 
United States), for the purpose of uniting the waters of the Wabash river 
with those of Lake Erie. The second grant was approved February 2.J, 
1 84 1 (see Statutes-at-large, vol 5, page 414), and confirmed to the state the 
selections made for that portion of the canal which lies between the mouth 
of the Tippecanoe river and Terre Haute. The third and last grant to the 
state of lands for this purpose was approved March 3, 1845. To enable 
the state to complete the canal from Terre Haute to the Ohio river, there 
was granted to the state a moiety of the unsold lands in a strip five miles in 
width on each side of said canal, as likewise a further grant of a moiety of 
all lands remaining unsold in the Vincennes land district with provisos. 
These three grants and the selections made under them embrace an area of 
1,457,366.06 acres, as shown by the report of the commissioners of the gen- 
eral land office. 

MICHIGAN ROAD LANDS. 

By Article 2 of the treaty held and concluded near the mouth of the 
Mississinewa, on the Wabash on October 16, 1826, between the United 
States and the chiefs and warriors of the Pottowattomie tribe of Indians, 
there was ceded to the United States a strip of land commencing at Lake 



Jt BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

Michigan and running thence to the Wabash river one hundred feet wide 
for a road; and also one section of good land contiguous to said road for 
each mile of the same, and also for each mile of a road from the termination 
thereof through Indianapolis to the Ohio river, for the purpose of making 
a road as aforesaid from Lake Michigan by way of Indianapolis to some 
convenient point on the Ohio river. 

On the second day of March, 1827, the state was authorized to locate 
and make the road and dispose of the lands. 

This species of land lies principally in northern Indiana and embraces 
according to the selections that were confirmed, an area of 170,580.24 acres. 
The state's title was confirmed to the above lands by act of Congress ap- 
proved March 2, 183 1 (see Statutes-at-large, vol. 4, page 473). 



SWAMP LANDS. 

These lands were granted to the state by the act of Congress approved 
September 28, 1850, entitled "An act to enable the state of Arkansas and 
other states to reclaim the Swamp lands within their limits." The act re- 
quired the proceeds of the sale of these lands to be used exclusively, as far 
as necessary, to the purpose of reclaiming these lands by means of levees 
and drains. Under the present law of this state and proceeds of the small 
amount of this land remaining unsold becomes a part of the permanent com- 
mon school fund. Patents have been issued to the state by the United States 
for these lands covering upward of 1,257,588.41 acres. 



SALINE LANDS. 

The Saline lands of the state lie in the counties of Orange, Washing- 
ton, Monroe and Brown; but the greatest amount, in fact nearly all of it, lies 
in Orange county. This species of the lands was granted to the state by act 
of Congress approved April 19, 1816 (see U. S. Statutes, vol. 3, page 390), 
and comprise an area of 24,435 acres. 



HOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. JJ 



SEMINARY LANDS. 



Prior to the organization of the state government, Congress granted a 
township of land (5.2 S. of Range II, W.), to the territory to enable the 
territory to endow a college; and by an act of Congress approved April 19, 
18 1 6 (see Statutes-at-large, vol. 3, page 290). A second grant of a town- 
ship of land was made to the state; township 8 N. Range 1, W. in Monroe 
county, was selected, which lands have been sold and the sums applied to the 
State University at Bloomington, excepting, however, about 4,000 acres, 
part of township 2 S. Range 11, W. in Gibson county, which was sold by 
authority of the Territorial Legislature and the proceeds applied for the 
benefit of the Vincennes University. 



UNIVERSITY LANDS. 

By a decision of the United States Supreme Court the state of Indiana 
lost one of the two townships of land granted to her for the use of a State 
University, and became liable to refund to a private corporation the proceeds 
of a township heretofore appropriated to the support of the State Univer- 
sity. By an act of Congress approved February 23, 1854, the governor of 
the state of Indiana was authorized to select out of the lands of the United 
States subject to entry, 19,040 acres and certify the same to the Secretary 
of the Interior, who was required to issue patents for the same to the state 
of Indiana. It was further provided that the proceeds of said lands should 
forever remain a fund for the use of the Indiana University (see U. S. Stat- 
utes, vol. 10, page 267). These lands were selected in the counties of Craw- 
ford, Fulton, Dubois, Greene, Warrick, Jasper, Newton, Knox, Perry, Pu- 
laski, White, Spencer, Pike, Martin, Sullivan, Orange and Miami. 



COLLEGE FUND LANDS. 

The proceeds of the sale of the Seminary and University lands are paid 
into the state treasury and loaned to individuals by the Auditor of State upon 
mortgage security. Upon the failure to pay the principal or interest upon 



7© BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

these loans the lands mortgaged to secure them are forfeited to the state for 
the use of the College Fund, and are advertised for sale by the Auditor of 
State. Upon their forfeiture and sale they become known as College Fund 
Lands. 

SCHOOL LANDS. 

The act of Congress of April 19, 1816, to enable the people of Indiana 
Territory to form a State Government, granted to the inhabitants of each 
Congressional township Section 16 in each township for the use of the 
schools thereof, and it was further provided that when such section had been' 
sold or disposed of, other land equivalent thereto and most contiguous to the 
same shall be granted. ( Statutes-at-large, vol 3, page 2.) In addition to 
these classes of lands in some sections lands were divided into locations sur- 
veys, donations to heads of families, military donations and Indian reserva- 
tions. These occupy a very small part of the area of the state and it is not 
necessary to particularize them. 



CHAPTER V. 



ORGANIZATION OF THE COUNTY. 



An Act approved January 29, 1830, viz. : 

That from and after the first day of April next, all that tract of country 
which is included within the following boundaries shall form and constitute 
a new county, to be known and designated by the name of the county of 
Boone (in honor of Colonel Daniel Boone, the pioneer of the west), to wit: 
Beginning at the southwest corner of Hamilton county; thence north seven- 
teen and one-half miles to the center stake of the east line of section 13, 
township 20 north, range 2 east ; thence west twenty-four miles to the middle 
of the west section line of section 18, town 20 north, range 2 west; thence 
south seventeen and one-half miles to the southwest corner of section 7, town- 
ship 17 north, range 2 west; thence twenty- four miles east, to the place of 
beginning, containing four hundred and twenty square miles or 268,800 
acres. It is located in the central part of Indiana, longitude (court-house) 
86° 28' west, latitude 40 4' north, and bounded on the north by Clinton 
county, on the west by Montgomery county, on the south by Hendricks and 
Marion counties and on the east by Hamilton county. Its general altitude 
above sea level is from 850 to 950 feet, the highest portion being on the 
divide or table-land in Worth township 1,000 feet. There are some hills or 
knobs in the county that will exceed this height by 50 or 100 feet. At the 
time of the organization there were 622 white people in the county, and a few 
lingering Indians loath to give up their old hunting grounds and the burial 
place of their fathers. The country was one wide expanse of wild woods, 
with here and there a little cleared spot that began to look like the home of 
civilized man. It was an unpromising place to build homes. It took brave 
hearts to make the start and overcome the great barriers that met them at 
every turn. There was nothing to encourage, and yet the faith and hope that 
inspired our fathers overcame everything. 



8o BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 



SURFACE AND SOIL. 

If there was anything to induce our fathers to brave all these obstacles 
it was their hope in the soil. At that time they knew nothing about it, no 
survey had been made. They judged that there must be rich soil where such 
massive forests grew. They could not even see the general appearance of the 
country for the woods. After long years of slavish toil in removing the for- 
ests, draining the bogs and developing attractive farms, government surveys 
were made mapping out the county and classifying the soils. The drainage 
system of the county is not unlike that of the state. The table-lands that 
stretch across the state from the east bearing south, dividing the Wabash sys- 
tem from the Whitewater system, enter the northeast of Boone county and 
passes out at the southwest. Sugar creek and Raccoon creek, in the north and 
west part of the county, belong to the Wabash system ; Eagle creek and Eel 
river, in the east and south part of the county, belong to the White river 
system. The general drainage of the county is very similar to that of the 
state. The ditching system is simply straightening out the tributaries to these 
main streams and extending them into the bogs and morasses that covered 
the table-lands of the county. This was the real hard work in the develop- 
ment of the county. It was a slow process. The people kept flocking into 
the woods and swamps from the east and south all during the thirties, so 
that the population of the county increased more that decade than any other 
period of our existence. It seems that the people came, managed to build 
their cabins and stuck to the job. They either could not get away or they had 
great hopes of developments. They could see over the tall trees, or through 
the thick undergrowth or under the bogs to our day, to its beauty and its 
glory. They must have been men of great courage and a pluck to pull 
through great difficulties. Three decades passed before there was much 
material gain for better things. The generation of toilers wore themselves 
out and passed to their rest and future reward. Their children took up the 
task, grew old and are now passing, and their children have inherited the 
fruits of all this toil and sacrifice, this very paradise of homes. The first toil- 
ers who indeed laid the mudsills of the county brought it into the open, and 
the world began to see and talk about it. It became the butt of the state. 
It was called "The State of Boone." We remember when a boy what stories 
were told. Some of our kin were here and the word went back and forth. It 
was reported so wet and swampy that the people had to go about in mud- 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 8l 

boats and that the people actually became web-footed. The roads were made 
of logs laid across the drive, called "Corduroy" and when the rains descended 
it floated like a raft or pontoon bridge. There was a basis of truth in all 
this. The poets put in the coloring, and by the time it reached the eastern 
part of the state became wondrous, so much so that Grandfather LaFuze 
traded his possessions in Boone to Anthony and Wilson Beck for their lands 
in little Union. If it had not been for this circumstance he might have 
been a native of this noted county instead of an adopted son. If we would 
undertake to give the individual part of each in this sea of toil the story 
would never end, so we are compelled to generalize in this way to give an 
idea of the work that it took to bring this fair land out of the woods. After 
all this is done the nation comes in and measures up, analyzes and spreads on 
paper an inventory of what we now possess. The government says the sur- 
face formation of this county consists of glacial material known geologically 
as the early Wisconsin drift. The thickness of the drift is quite variable, 
ranging from less than fifty to one hundred and fifty, making a general aver- 
age of one hundred feet. The older sheets of drift and sedimentary rock is 
buried so deeply that they exert no influence upon the soils. In general the 
first ten to fifteen feet of the Wisconsin material is a very light brown or 
pale yellowish mixture of fine sand, silt and clay carrying a large proportion 
of gravel and small stones. The latter consists largely of granites and 
various kinds of hard, dark-colored rocks apparently as resistant to decay as 
quartizitic, with some schistose and gneissic fragments. As a rule, there is 
not much sand stone or shale, but pieces of limestone and a high percentage 
of fine sand are usually abundant from within four to five feet of the surface 
downwards. The above description applies more especially to the uplands, 
but along the creek valleys and in many of the depressions, that were for- 
merly lakes, the light-colored bowlder clay gives place to beds of gravel. The 
substrata of the terraces on Sugar and Eagle creeks are irregularly stratified 
sand and gravel, and pockets or streaks of this material occur along many of 
the small branches forming the substrata of the black soils. Almost every- 
where the glacial material is covered with a silt or silty clay layer, to a depth 
of about thirty inches. This silty material forms an almost unbroken surface 
mantle over all the uplands, and on all the higher terraces of the larger 
streams. The finer and richer substances by erosion have been washed down 
from the higher ridges and hilltops into the lowlands, hence the difference of 
the fertility of the soil between the hills and the valleys. Over seventy per 
(6) 



02 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

cent, of the surface of the county is formed of Miami-silt loam and flat phase, 
called Sugar-tree land. The black lands of the county that constitute over 
twenty per cent, of the soil area, are called Clyde silty loam, and it is dis- 
tinguished from the preceding type by its containing more organic matter. 
The latter is chiefly in the form of carbonaceous material, or vegetable tissue, 
when decomposed under water, or where air is mostly excluded. It is not so 
fertile as the brown humus which results from the decaying of prairie grasses 
and marshes. The abundance of this black humus, which often extends to a 
depth of eighteen or twenty inches, imparts a fine physical structure to a soil 
that would otherwise be a heavy clay loam. The remaining ten per cent, of 
the county is divided between Fox sandy loam found along the lower part of 
Sugar creek and its tributaries and the lower part of Eagle creek. Genesee 
loam, with patches of Genesee silt and Genesee sandy loam also along the 
lower parts of these streams. Fox silt loam constitutes the second-bottom 
lands along the streams. The meadow lands and a few patches of muck are 
at the heads of the streams. The muck lands of the county less than one- 
third of one per cent, are found in section 35, township 19 north, range 1 
east, where the water did not know where to run to the sea until it was led out 
by a ditch into the headwaters of Brown's Wonder. Also lands southwest 
of Lebanon, in Center and Harrison townships, where the water was ditched 
into Eel river. If you turn to the record of deep wells you will find mention 
of muck found in several places about one hundred feet below the surface of 
the ground. 

The apparently exhaustless quality of the soil of Boone county may be 
attributed to the happy combine of the glacial deposit and its silty covering. 
The latter has doubtless contributed most to the fertility on account of its 
greater surface exposure. The bottom lands as a rule are composed of fine 
sand and silt, which makes them abundantly fertile and easy to till. The 
prevailing color of the soil is a medium brown and is composed of a high 
percentage of vegetable matter. This element of fertility, this quality added 
to good drainage and the more modern system of aeration, make them very 
productive and apparently exhaustless. They possess a basis that with 
proper and systematic tilling will be susceptible of continuous cultivation. 
With as much development for the next fifty years as there has been in the 
past fifty, this county can be made into the very paradise of productiveness. 

We submit the following table from the government, giving the names 
and extent of the various types mapped out in the county : 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 83 

Areas of Different Soils. 

Per Per 

Soil. Acres, cent. Soil. Acres, cent. 

Miami silt loam 28,480 Genesee loam 2,240 0.8 

Flat phase 166,080 71.2 Genesee silt loam 2,176 .8 

Clyde silty clay loam_ 60,928 22.3 Muck 960 .3 

Fox silt loam 4.864 1.8 Fox sandy loam 832 .3 

Genesee sandy loam__ 3,456 1-3 

Meadow 3,264 1.2 Total 273,280 

ORGANIZATION OF VARIOUS TOWNSHIPS. 

Boone county was organized in 183 1 and was called Boone as a tribute 
of respect to Colonel Daniel Boone, the renowned pioneer and hunter, of 
Kentucky. It is situated near the center of the state, and is bounded on the 
north by Clinton county, east by Hamilton, south by Marion and Hendricks, 
and on the west by Montgomery. It incloses an area of four hundred and 
twenty square miles of two hundred and seventy thousand eight hundred 
acres of land. According to the census of 1870, the county had a popula- 
tion exceeding 22,000; in 1890, 26,572; in 1900, 26,381, and in 1910, 24,673. 
The surface is agreeably undulating, except in the central part of the county, 
where it is level or flat, and originally abounded in bogs or marshes and in 
the vicinity of the headwaters of Big Eagle creek there are some small wet 
prairies. The remarkable fertility of the soil in this flat district has induced 
the owners of the land to resort to drainage by ditches, and at the present 
time, the finest crops of corn and hay are raised here. The strong clay soil 
of the rolling lands is in good repute for its unfailing yield of all the products 
of the farm in this region of country. The deep loam soil of the prairies 
is famous for corn and the grasses, except during seasons of long drouth. 
Wheat, corn, oats, blue grass, timothy and all the fruits adapted to this 
climate are grown to great perfection on these varied soils. The whole area 
of the county, excepting prairies, was originally a dense forest, but the steady 
drain upon it for fuel and manufacturing purposes has materially reduced 
the original supply. In the remaining forests may be found a good propor- 
tion of burr oak, beech, elm, ash, poplar, sugar tree and black walnut. 

The county is on the ridge, or what was formerly called the dividing- 
swamps, between White river and the Wabash. It is the source of Eagle 



84 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

creek, White Lick and the Walnut Fork of Eel river, which empty into the 
former and of Big Raccoon and Sugar creeks, which empty into the latter. 
All of these streams are too sluggish to be utilized by machinery. The 
county is as yet undeveloped in mineral resources. Both limestone and coal 
are substances entirely foreign to its geological formation. Clay for bricks 
is found here in abundance, and of excellent quality. It is suitable also for 
the manufacture of fire brick, tiles and pottery. Boone county lies wholly 
within the drift region and the surface is covered with an abundance of 
transported material. In portions of the county, boulders lie on the surface 
by thousands and they are available material for buildings, in the absence of 
limestone. There are no mounds here, or other evidences of a residence 
of a prehistoric race; yet there are many stone axes and arrowheads which 
are supposed to have belonged to the Miami Indians. 



In the United States survey, Boone county embraces all of townships 18 
and 19 north, and ranges 1 and 2 east and ranges 1 and 2 west of the sec- 
ond meridian. Also parts of townships 17 and 20 north and ranges 1 and 2 
west and east of the second meridian. This territory is divided into twelve 
civil townships, named as follows, to-wit : Marion, Clinton, Washington, 
Sugar Creek, Jefferson, Jackson, Harrison, Perry, Eagle, Union, Worth 
and Center. We deem it proper to give a brief sketch of each in this con- 
nection in order to emphasize the different parts of the county and bring out 
the local features and characteristics. 



Marion township is situated in the northeast part of the county. It is 
bounded on the north by Clinton county, on the west by Clinton township, on 
the south by Union township, and on the east by Hamilton county and con- 
tains forty-five sections of land. 

When the white man came it was covered with a fine growth of timber 
of the very best qualities. Poplar (the tulip tree), in all its beauty and 
strength; the walnut, tall and straight; quercus — the oak, king of the forest 
and queen Acer the maple, in all her primitive beauty. It was the tableland 
between the Wabash and the White river systems of drainage; hence very 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 85 

level and covered with water the most of the year. On account of this it 
was not very inviting to the early settlers, yet a few of the braves ventured 
and drove their stakes fearlessly. While the Indian yet remained and pur- 
sued his hunt in the primeval woods, a few whites are said to have settled in 
this township on the squatter system, and must have been the fathers of the 
squatter sovereignty plan, that became national in our western states, and 
brought forth the great debate between Lincoln and Douglass, which made 
Lincoln President of the United States, and the terrific history that followed. 

These men did not establish homes but merely shacks in which to dwell, 
while they carried on the business of hunting. They made no more lasting 
impression on the history of the county than the Indian did. They entered 
no land, built no permanent homes, hence passed from view as the red man. 
There were men, however, that saw more than the hunt for wild game ; fore- 
most among these were Edward Jackson and Caleb Richardson, who settled 
in 1831 and 1832 respectively, on the banks of Eagle creek. Later in the 
year 1832 came John Parr, Sr., William Parr. John Parr, Jr., and Alfred 
Srite. The next year 1833 they were joined by William Lane and Lewis 
Harris, who settled in the south part of the township. In the spring of 1834 
came Zach Turpin, John Burns and Milton Hickson, who also settled in the 
south part of the township. In 1835, Joseph McCoy, John Runno and John, 
Robert and William Stephenson, who bought Turpin out and established 
homes. These were followed by others equally prominent, without dates: 
Samuel Evans, Joseph Kimball, Robert McNulty, John Wright. John Beard, 
John King, Samuel Moore, John Moore, John Wright, James Moore, Smith 
Castor, Robert Bell, Richard Cornell and Samuel Meyers. Each year 
brought its newcomers until the entire township was staked off for homes, ex- 
cept a few acres that were designated as swamp lands. While the township is 
generally level and many streams have their source in its bounds, yet there is 
very little land under this head. In the southwest quarter of section 14, 
township 20 north, range 2 east, there are eighty acres. In township 19 
north, range 2 east, there are ia section 7 one hundred and sixty acres. In 
section 12, forty acres. In section 17, forty acres. In section 18, eighty 
acres, making all told, four hundred acres. The flood of immigration soon 
overspread the entire township and pioneer homes were begun throughout 
all its woods, and the ring of the woodman's ax and bang of his rifle were 
heard in every direction. 

The round log cabin came as if by magic. Blazed ways or paths were 



86 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

made between them, which soon widened into highways so that wagons could 
pass. The first great road built through the township was the Michigan 
road. (See an account elsewhere in this volume.) This road enters the 
township from the south at the southeast corner of section 21, township 19 
north, range 2 east, thence north, bearing west and passing into Clinton 
county near the northwest corner of the township. The next great road in 
the township was the Strawtown road, running east and west, passing on the 
township line, between 19 and 20 north, leading from Thorntown through 
Slabtown to Anderson. All other roads were built on the section and half 
section lines. The earlier roads you will recognize by their being crooked 
and running towards Lebanon. 

There were no mills in this township until steam power was introduced. 
There was no water power sufficient to propel a mill, hence the early settler 
had to crush his corn by horse power or go to Mechanicsburg, down on Eagle 
creek, or to Noblesville with his grist. 



The first school in the township was in the winter of 1833 for a few 
weeks, and the first log school house after the fashion of the day, in the south- 
east part of the township near Big Springs, in the year 1836. It was here 
that the first boys and girls of the woods were gathered with goose-quilli 
and blue-backed spelling books to catch the first ideas of culture under the 
stimulus of the birch to be good. Out of this small beginning the schools of 
the township progressed until there was a round baker's dozen scattered 
over the township as near as there could be, to give one to each four square 
miles. It figures out one school to less than three and one-half miles. Under 
the modern system of concentration of schools the number has been reduced 
to ten and still in the transition period. 



CHURCHES. 

Civilized man can not live without worship, so they must needs gather 
at some point for this purpose. As in all new settlements, there was no place 
of meeting. Some one must open the home. Caleb Richardson's big heart 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 87 

opened and he opened wide the doors of his cabin and there it is said that 
the first religious services were conducted by Rev. James Brown, a Methodist 
minister. In the homes of the people for several years, services were held 
until 1839, when a Methodist church was built and Rev. White was the pastor 
in charge. The Methodists grew in numbers and in the early history built 
two or three other churches in the township. 

The Methodist Protestants had one church at an early date. In a rural 
survey in Indiana, made by the Department of Church and Country Life of 
the Board of Home Missions of the Presbyterian Churches in the United 
States of America, made in the months of June, July and August, 191 1, this 
survey was made in co-operation with the Interdenominational Council of 
the Churches of Indiana. It gives the church survey of Marion township 
at that date as follows : 

Six churches, to-wit : The United Brethren in the northeast part of the 
township, with a membership of ninety-five, condition of church, standing 
still. The Methodist Protestant, about the center, with a membership of 
eighty-two, standing still. The Christian church, west of the center, mem- 
bership one hundred and eleven, growing. Primitive Baptist, towards the 
southeast part of the township, membership thirty-three, standing still. 
Methodist Episcopal, in the center of the southern part of the township, mem- 
bership fifty-nine, standing still. The Methodist Protestant just east of the 
Methodist Episcopal, dead. 

There is one steam railway in this township, viz : The Chicago, Indian- 
apolis & Louisville, which enters the township at the southeast corner of sec- 
tion 35, township 20 north, range 2 east, and passes out of the township at 
the northeast half of section 17, township 20 north, range 2 east. The only 
towns in the township are Terhune, on the railroad, in section 22 ; Waugh, 
located in the southeast corner of section 16, township 19 north, range 2 east, 
and Big Springs, which answers for a trading point for the township, located 
just over the line in Union township in section 26, township 19 north, range 2 
east. 

Although this township has no great city or even a thriving town, yet 
it is blessed with an excellent rural district of as fine farms and as energetic 
and intelligent people as can be found in any place in this broad land of ours. 
Its beautiful farms of luxuriant soil, good roads and comfortable homes, 
make a charming environment for happy homes. There is no land more 



OS BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

fertile, no clime more healthful or no spot on earth more desirable for a 
happy contented people. 

The first election of township officers was held in the spring of 1835 at 
the home of Robert Stephenson. By a majority of the votes cast, Robert 
Stephenson was chosen justice of the peace and his brother, John, was elected 
constable. The court being established, the township got down to business 
and has been running smoothly and prosperously ever since, growing into 
civilization and becoming a factor for good in the county and state. The 
following have served as trustees, viz : Richard Cornell, P. E. McNeal, 
James A. Richardson, Joseph N. Sample, J. A. J. Sims, Robert Bell, William 
Bell, W. F. Cobb and Josiah Stevenson. 



CLINTON. 

Clinton township is situated in the northern tier of townships bounded 
on the north by Clinton county, on the west by Washington township, on 
the south by Center and on the east by Hamilton county. It contains thirty- 
three sections of land. Half sections 13 to 18 inclusive, and sections 19 to 
36 inclusive, in township 20 north, range 1 east, and sections 1 to 12 in- 
clusive, in township 19 north, range 1 east. Its surface is generally level, 
sloping gently towards the northwest. Section 12 in the southwest corner 
is the highest and most level in the township, and the northwest corner is the 
lowest and most broken. Sugar creek cuts off a small portion of the north- 
west corner. Mud creek, Terrapin creek and Brown's Wonder, all flow to- 
ward the northwest and drain the entire township into Sugar creek. There 
is a story about the origin of the name of this latter creek. It is stated that 
when the surveyors were surveying this part of Boone county and came across 
the head waters of this stream in Center township and it twisted and flowed 
in so many directions that much controversy arose among them as to where 
the creek would empty. It was no easy work to survey this wild land. To 
cut a way through the brush and wade through the bogs and lazy crooked 
streams was a tedious task. Added to this was the difficulty of telling a 
stream that was lost in the woods from a regular bog or swamp. This slug- 
gish, twisting stream was a wonder to all three of the men and especially to a 
young man of the company by the name of Brown. So when the riddle was 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 



solved and the perplexed stream was landed in Sugar creek, near Mechanics- 
burg, it was christened Brown's Wonder. The streams previously referred to 
drained the township naturally and made it easy to complete the work by 
ditching so that the rich soil was easily drained. The township is com- 
paratively level except the northwest corner, and yet there were only forty 
acres of swamp land in the entire township, the southwest one-fourth of 
southwest quarter of section 2. 

Settlements were made as early as 1834. Among the first may be 
named James H. Sample, George Fall, Henry I. Bennett, Robert Stephenson, 
A. B. Clark, Hoza Albridge, Resin Garrett, Thomas Abemathy, William 
West, David Evans, John Tucker, Jesse Scott, Hiram Roberts, Jesse Perkins. 
John Caldwell, William I. Bennett, Newton Cassady, John M. Burns, Hiram 
Brenton, Alexander Caldwell, George Mognett, James Downing, Hugh 
Wiley, Abner Knotts, J. A. McDaniel, W. H. Evans, John Evans, Obed 
Hardesty, Robert Perkins, F. C. Phillips, Hugh Sample, John M. Wiley, 
Frank Downing, Hiram Powell, Joseph Stephenson, Hugh McDonald, Ozias 
Robinson, Samuel Downey, John R. McDonald, E. Swope, Matthew McLear, 
Marion Evans, Andrew Burns. 

CHURCHES. 

The first religious meeting was held at the house of A. B. Clark, in 1835. 
A year or two later the Old School Presbyterians held meetings in private 
houses and formed a society. Among the early ministers were John Rey- 
nolds (Presbyterian), John Bonner, William Turner, William Hall, Carson 
Buckhalter (Christian), and Henry I. Bennett. The early churches were 
as follows: Hopewell (Presbyterian), in section 31, on the Thorntown and 
Strawtown road. Mud Creek or Salem, in section 27, organized with twenty 
members in 1836 as the Social Reform Presbyterian church. In 185S it 
joined with the United Presbyterian and henceforth known by that name. 
In the year 1836 the Old School Presbyterians in the west part of the town- 
ship on the Thorntown road. The Baptists, Presbyterians and Disciples each 
organized and erected churches at Elizaville, making in all five churches for 
the township. The report made in 191 1 by the survey of the Department 
of Church and Country Life in Indiana by the Board of Home Missions of 
the Presbyterian church is as follows, viz: The three churches of Eliza- 



90 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

ville, Baptists, membership 137, standing still. The Presbyterian, member- 
ship 12, losing ground. Disciples, membership 152, growing. The United 
Presbyterian, Salem or Mud Creek, membership 102, standing still. The 
Presbyterians west part of the township, membership 53, losing ground. At 
Salem and Hopewell are cemeteries where many pioneers are sweetly resting 
until the resurrection morning-. 



Early in the settlement a stranger built a cabin, became tired of pioneer 
life and deserted the country. This log cabin was converted into the first 
school house and the first school was taught by James H. Sample in 1835. 
This school teacher has the honor of being the father of the first white child 
born in the township. He was christened Hugh in 1837 and still lives to 
wear the crown of his distinction. The schools increased with the growth of 
the township until under the public system there were nine. Under the 
centralization system of our day the number has been reduced. 

In the fall of 1835 the voters met at the house of Mr. Cassady on Terra- 
pin creek to elect their officers. The Democratic candidate, Mr. Maxwell, 
was chosen justice of the peace, but his election was successfully contested 
by his opponent, James H. Sample, who became the first justice of the peace 
in the township. 

The first marriage was that of John Stevenson to Miss Adams in 1837. 
The next to join the nuptial train were Eris Stevenson to Miss Margaret 
Wiley, John M. Burns to Miss S. Wiley. 

The following persons have served as township trustees, viz : John 
Caldwell, William Wylie, John M. Burns, Ephraim Davis, Reuben Eaton, 
William Brenton, A. C. Kern, J. C. Tomlinson. 

In the winter of 1835, George, son of Robert Stevenson, was engaged in 
felling a large tree, which fell upon and killed him. This was the first death 
in the township. In the following spring Samuel Downey's son was killed 
by a falling tree, which was uprooted by a storm, and struck him as he ran 
across the clearing. In 1837 occurred the first natural death; Mrs. Mary 
Sample died at the home of her son-in-law, A. B. Clark. All were buried 
in the Mud Creek cemetery. 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. QI 



ELIZAVILLE. 



Elizaville is the only town or trading point in the township. It is lo- 
cated on the Strawtown road in the east part of the township. It was laid 
out on the farm of Hiram Brinton in 1852 but was never incorporated. 
Silas M. Cory was the first merchant and was followed by A. B. Clark in 
the same enterprise. The village now contains one general merchandise 
store, one blacksmith shop, one steam grist and sawmill, one wagon shop 
and one resident physician. 

WASHINGTON. 

Washington is in the northern tier of townships and bounded on the 
north by Clinton county, on the west by Sugar Creek and Jefferson town- 
ships, on the south by Jefferson and Center, on the east by Center and Clin- 
ton. It contains thirty-five and one-half sections of land, twenty-five of 
which were included in the Eel River Indian Reserve. Half sections 13 to 
18 and sections 19 to 36, in township 20 north, range 1 west, and sections 1 
to 12 and west half of 16 to 18 inclusive, in township 19 north, range 1 west. 
Its surface is generally level with good natural drainage with the exception 
of a few sections in the south part of the township. Sugar creek enters the 
township about the middle of section 24, flows west bearing a little south 
and passes out of the township from section 30. Its tributaries are Spring 
and Prairie creeks. Spring creek enters the northeast part of the town- 
ship from Center, flows southwest through the center and enters Sugar 
creek in section 30. Prairie creek drains the southwest part of the township 
and passes into Sugar Creek township near the southwest corner of section 6. 
The land was covered with an excellent growth of timber, the sugar maple 
prevailing. 

The people began to settle as early as 1829, indeed some crowded in on 
the Indians before they got moved, after they sold their farm of one hun- 
dred square miles to Uncle Sam. The township was not organized until 
1832, but before that time many homes were established. Among the first 
may be mentioned John N. Fall, John Wilky, Joshua Allen, William West, 
and Able Pennington, who ventured to come as early as 1829. Soon after 
came a long list, among whom we can name, Joshua Burnham, Benjamin 



92 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

Crose, James Scott, Samuel Reese, John Slocum, Thomas McCann, William 
Pauley, James Turner, Benjamin Sweeney, John Morehead, Jacob Skeen, 
Abraham Buckhalter, Samuel and James Foreman, John Kersey, Benjamin 
and Stephen Titus, Nathaniel Titus, Samuel Cason, John Cradlebaugh, James 
P. Mills, John Higgins, Robert Slocum, Anthony and Wilson Beck, John 
Graham, W. W. Phillips, the Campbells, Sleighbecks, Chambers, Thorn- 
berrys, Buntins, Bowens, Ritchies and many others that soon followed. 

This township was blessed with water power. The first mill was built 
by David Ross in 1831 on Spring creek. Bonam Stout built the first grist 
mill at Mechanicsburg in 1838. John and Noah Hardesty built the grist 
mill later known as the Adley mill on Sugar creek below Mechanicsburg. 
Michael and Augustus Chase built the mill known later as the Ben Crose mill. 

The first religious meetings were held at the home of William Pauley, 
as early as 1830. The first church house built in the township was a hewed 
log house, erected by the Baptists in 1835. The church interest increased 
until there were six churches in the township. Two Methodists, one south 
of Pike's Crossing, now reported to have 32 members and losing ground ; 
one at Mechanicsburg with a membership of 68, also reported as losing 
ground. The Disciples church at Mechanicsburg with a membership of 148, 
and in a growing condition. The Christian church (Salem), in section 9, 
with 67 members, losing ground. The United Brethren near the north- 
west corner, with 82 members and losing ground. The Brush Creek church 
at Brush Creek cemetery, dead. 



The first school was taught in a log cabin by Daniel Ellis in 1832. The 
educational interest was extended over the township until ten were established 
to accommodate the demand for education. These under the modern sys- 
tem of centralizing have decreased to eight schools, one with two rooms. The 
following have served as trustees, viz: John Higgins, H. G. Hazelrigg, 
Robert Slocum, B. F. Lumpkins, J. E. Harrison, Albert Helmm, Robert 
Herr. 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 93 

MECHANICSBURG. 

James Snow laid out the town of Mechanicsburg near the junction of 
Browns' Wonder and Sugar creek, in 1835 (post office Reese's Mills). It is 
a center of considerable trade and beautifully located between the two streams 
on high lands for Boone county. There are three cemeteries located in the 
township where many of the pioneers are laid to rest. One at Brush Creek, 
one south of Pike's Crossing and one at the Precinct house known as Bethel. 
Pike's Crossing is located where the Thorntown and Strawtown road crosses 
the Lebanon and Frankfort road. 'It has a postoffice, store, blacksmith shop 
and several fine residences. In the fall of 1831, Enoch Davis laid out a town 
in the southwest quarter of section 31 where the Indianapolis and Lafayette 
state road crosses the Thorntown and Strawtown road with a spirit of oppo- 
sition to the young Thorntown on the banks of Sugar and Prairie creeks. 
He laid off lots, built a dwelling and store house in which the first stock of 
goods in the township was sold. A post office was also established. The 
plan of holding against Thorntown failed and Mr. Davis went down with it. 
The first election was held at the home of John S. Polk, on the first Mon- 
day of April, 1833, in which John Slocum and John S. Polk were elected 
justices of the peace, receiving twenty-six and twenty-five votes respectively. 
John Pauley and William Brown were elected constables. The southwest 
boundary has been changed a time or so since the organization of the town- 
ship for various reasons political and for taxation for railroad purposes and 
otherwise. The present boundary includes sections 17 and 18 off of Jefferson 
and the west half of section 16, off of Center. 



The first main roads of the township are the Thorntown and Strawtown 
road on the line between towns 19 and 20 north and the Indianapolis and 
Lafayette road which enters the township near the southeast corner of sec- 
tion 9 and runs northwest in a direct line towards Lafayette. It has been 
vacated north of the Thorntown and Strawtown road and follows the latter 
into Thorntown thence on to Lafayette. Washington now has many miles 
of good gravel roads leading in every direction and enabling the people to 
go in any direction any day of the year. 



94 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 



SUGAR CREEK. 



Sugar Creek township is located in the northwest part of the county. 
It is bounded on the north by Clinton county; on the west by Montgomery 
county, on the south by Jefferson township, and on the east by Washington 
township. It contains thirty-three square miles, sections i to 12 inclusive, 
in township 19 north, range 2 west and half sections 13 to 18 inclusive and 
sections 19 to 36 inclusive in township 20 north, range 2 west. This is as 
good land as ever a crow flew over and was well timbered originally. Chief 
among the trees of the forest was queen Acer, the maple, from which came 
the name Sugar Creek. It is thoroughly drained by Sugar creek and its 
tributaries, Wolf and Prairie creeks, and several smaller streams, both from 
the north and the south. The land is rich and undulating with Sugar creek 
flowing across the center from east to west, passing into Montgomery county 
near the southwest corner of section 30. Along the slopes of the streams 
were numerous springs, chief among which was the Big Spring, just east of 
Thorntown, which the Indians prized so highly, that it was made the center 
of their reservation. 

A volume could be written of this historic center of the Indian and his 
home, until crowded out by the white man, but we will not enlarge here (see 
sketch of Thorntown). We will give here a few brief statements of the 
early settlements and first events. The Indian reserve here was one of the 
most important west of Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, in the march of the Red- 
man towards the west, from the aggression of the white man, and it will be 
touched upon in connection with the Indian in other chapters. 

Sugar Creek township was organized in 1831. The first election was 
held April 1832, in the house of William Kenworthy. Benjamin Sweeney 
and James Van Eaton were elected justices of the peace and Green Foster 
and David Landrum, constables. Sugar Creek township was all included in 
the Indian Reserve which was not closed until 1828, and the Indians lingered 
with the early whites until 1833 and 1834. In 1829 James Van Eaton and 
Cornelius West fall entered land in section 35 where Thorntown is located. 
The same year William Kenworthy entered in 36 just east of Thorntown. 
Charles Moffitt and Joseph Ratcliff, section 34; Levi Fouts, section 33; John 
Skeen, section 25 and Jeremiah Cox, section 30. 

The first settler in this township was George Harness with a regular 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 95 

gospel family of twelve children. The date is given as 1830. He settled on 
the east half of the southeast quarter of section 3, township 20 north, range 2 
west. It must have been as early as 1828. His first abode was in an Indian 
hut near the famous Big Spring. He cleared about twenty acres around his 
home and when the land sale came in 1829, he bought what he thought was 
his home; but being illiterate he bought the land north of his home and Wil- 
liam Kenworthy bought where Harness lived. Afterwards when Mr. Ken- 
worthy told him that he owned the land upon which he lived, there was a 
difficulty between them which was settled by Mr. Kenworthy paying Mr. 
Harness one hundred and ten dollars. Among other troubles that came to 
Mr. Harness was the death of his daughter, Jemima, who fell from a fence 
and so injured herself, that she died October, 1829, and was buried in the 
northwest quarter of section 31, township 20 north, range 1 west. There it 
remains to this day, a lonely grave on the south banks of the run and un- 
marked. For a long time it was enclosed but even that has passed away. 
Mr. Harness soon afterwards moved to Carroll county, on the Old Michigan 
road, and later to Deer Creek township, Cass county, and died there January, 
1876, at the advanced age of one hundred and eight years. 

Soon after the election of 1832, a number of families flocked into this 
garden of the young county, Joshua Burnham, James Scott, Joshua and 
James Van Eaton, John Skeen, William and Isaac Gipson. Later there 
came Samuel Brenton, Hugh and Jeremiah Moffitt, John Miller, Adrian Ball, 
Isaac Corbet, Benjamin Lewis, John Ferguson, Abraham Utter, Robert Cook, 
Robert Morrison, Thomas and Eli Goldsberry, Adam Boyd, Asa Fall. Elisha 
Riley and Oliver Craven followed by others that laid the foundation of the 
township. The first saw mill was built by John G. Pierce on Prairie creek. 
The first grist mill on Sugar creek was built by Silas Kenworthy. Bonham 
Kester built the first carding mill 1837. The first steam flouring mill was 
built by David Binford and Henry Wetherald. The first white child was 
born at the home of Green Foster, 1831. The second death was Mary A. 
West fall, who was the first person buried in the old cemetery. The first 
marriage, John Pauley to Miss Emily Sweeney, occurred July, 1832. The 
first religious meeting was held at the home of Cornelius Westfall by Clay- 
bourne Young. The first church organized was the Methodist Episcopal, 1832 
Rev. Stephen Ball, pastor. The Presbyterians organized in 1833, Reverend 
Clayburn as minister. In 1835, tne Friends built a log house on the site of 



gb BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

the present church at Sugar Plain. The Christian church came in 1842 and 
the Missionary Baptist later. First tan yard, Zachariah Gipson; first mer- 
chant, A. H. Baldbridge ; first hotel, Isaac Morgan ; first tailor, Robert Hamill ; 
first carpenter, John Alexander; first blacksmith, Moses MaClure; first shoe- 
maker, Thomas Young ; first hatter, Samuel Daily ; first wagon maker, George 
McLaughlin, first potter, Oliver Craven ; first saddler, Mark A. Micham ; first 
doctor, Doctor Farmer ; first attorney, Ruf us A. Lockwood ; first postoffice at 
the house of William Kenworthy. Robert Hamill was the postmaster in 
Thorntown. The first school teacher was Jefferson Hillis. Oliver Craven 
served as justice of the peace for forty years. 

These are among the first foundation stones, the very mud sills of Sugar 
Creek township. 

EDUCATION. 

Since the days of Jefferson Hillis, who taught the first school, there has 
been a commendable spirit for advancement in education in this township. 
School houses were erected at convenient places over the territory as soon as 
settlements were made. First the round log cabin that has so often been 
described and so well impressed upon the memory of the people. This was 
followed by the hewed log cabin which was a better and more substantial 
structure. Next came the frame and last of all the modern brick. Schools 
were multiplied until there were ten distributed over the township. Under 
the concentration system now in vogue there are seven active schools which 
enrolled during the school years 191 3 and 1914 one hundred and seventy- 
three pupils and graduated during the year seven pupils. The enumeration 
of school children the spring of 1914 was two hundred and thirty-nine, not 
quite one school child for each eighty acre farm in the township. There has 
been a decline of the number of children for the two last decades. In addi- 
tion to the rural schools there was the Thorntown Academy (see separate 
sketch elsewhere), which attained to a wide reputation in its day and titled 
Thorntown as the Athens of Boone county. It was finally changed into a 
public school and is so continued to this day, and has in its system a com- 
missioned high school which graduated this year a class of twenty-three. 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. gj 



CHURCHES. 



The first church established in Sugar Creek township outside of Thorn- 
town, was the Friends' church at Sugar Plains. This society was organized 
December, 1833, and met at the home of Hugh Moffitt. They continued to 
meet at this place twice a week until 1835, when a small log house was built 
near the site of the present Sugar Plains church, which served the double 
purpose of school and meeting house, until the growth of the members in- 
creased. The log house was too small to hold the people and a frame 
building was erected. The monthly meeting was established in 1840, em- 
bracing a territory of a radius of six or eight miles. The people came on 
horseback regularly and the interest grew. The third house, a spacious 
frame, sixty-four feet square with an eighteen foot ceiling was erected into 
which throngs of people weekly gathered. This house served the society for 
about forty years, when it was replaced by a more modern and smaller build- 
ing which still serves the people for worship. There was also a Friends' 
church established at Walnut Grove in the southwest part of the township, 
which served for a long period of years and finally was discontinued. 
The Methodists organized and established a church three and one-half miles 
northwest of Thorntown known as Sharon. This society flourished for 
several years in the Colfax circuit and many spirited meetings were held and 
precious souls saved. It finally met the fate of rural churches, discontinued 
services and finally died. The neighborhood is still in mourning over the 
death of the church. This malady has overtaken all the rural churches in 
this township until but one remains, Sugar Plains. 



No township in the county is blessed with better roads than Sugar Creek. 
It has good drainage and abundance of road materials. All the leading roads 
are graded and graveled, the streams great and small are bribed. The first 
gravel road was made between Thorntown and Darlington and was a toll 
road for many years, afterwards turned into a township road. All other 
roads have been built by taxation. The excellent condition of the roads,. 
(7) 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 



the high cultivation of the farms and the beautiful and well arranged homes 
are making rural life pleasant and desirable and is doing much toward solv- 
ing the question of keeping the young people on the farm. 



Jefferson township is located on the west border of the county being 
the middle township. It is bounded on the north by Sugar Creek and Wash- 
ington townships, on the west by Montgomery county, on the south by Jack- 
son and a small portion of Center township, on the east by Center and Wash- 
ington townships. It contains 46 square miles of land. Sections 13 to 36 
inclusive, in township 19 north, range 2 west and sections 1 to 12 inclusive, 
in township 18 north, range 2 west, also sections 19, 20, 29, 30, 31 and 32, 
in township 19, north, range 1 west and sections 5, 6, 7 and 8, in township 
18 north, range 1 west. It is drained by Walnut creek in the southern part, 
by Muskrat creek in the central and by Wolf creek in the northern and east- 
ern parts. The farm land is excellent, rolling enough to be drained without 
difficulty. The streams flow into Sugar creek; thence into the Wabash and 
on to the Gulf and the wide sea. 

Settlements began as early as 1829. It is stated that James Scott 
entered the first land, followed by William Young, who was elected justice 
of the peace; Michael W. Campbell, Allen Lane, Ed. Cox, William Hill, John 
Thompson, Lewis Denny, Wm. M. McBurroughs, Abraham Utter, R. Cox, 
Clayburn Cain. Following these came the Caldwells, Taylors, John Hill, 
Adam Kern, John Stephenson, Wm. Darrough, Thomas M. Burris, Samuel 
Moore, Sampson Bowen, Gid Jackson, Rural Jackson, Erskins Threilkelds, 
James A. Thompson, James Davis, Samuel Hollingsworth, Nathan Cory, 
Manual Heistand, Wm. Sanford, Jesse Jackson. 



CHURCHES. 

The first religious services held in Jefferson was at the home of William 
Young and the services were conducted by his brother Claybourne, 1831. Re- 
ligious services were held in private houses for several years. The Pleasant 
View church was the first organized in the township. The meetings at first 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 99 

were held in the home of Adam Kern. Benjamin Beeman conducted the 
meetings. This was in the fall of 1836. The following eight persons were 
the parties that organized the church: Adam Kern, James Hall, Jane Hall, 
Arice Pauley, John Bowen, John Pauley, James Kern and Miles Hall. This 
church has been one of the most substantial country churches of the county. 
Over one thousand persons have been enrolled among its members. The 
fiftieth anniversary of the church was held November 6, 1886, at which time 
over one thousand persons attended. This church is located three miles east 
of Dover, and six miles west of Lebanon. This church is reported in the 
Rural Church Survey 191 1, with one hundred and sixteen members and 
losing ground. There are six other churches in the township, three at Dover 
and two at Hazelrigg. At Dover are the Disciples with one hundred and 
seventy-six members, losing ground. Baptists, members, fourteen, losing 
ground; Presbyterians, dead. At Hazelrigg there are two churches, Dis- 
ciples (non-progressive), twenty-one members, standing still. Presbyterians 
dead. In the southeast part of the township is the United Brethren church 
with a membership of seventy-five, losing ground. 



There are no towns or trade centers in Jefferson township except Hazel- 
rigg in the northeast corner. The district school is the people's college. It 
grew first from the primitive cabin school-house through the frame to the 
brick of this day. From the private or subscription school through the half- 
free to the public schools of the present. To supply this want there were 
erected over the township thirteen district school houses, through which the 
youth of the township for a generation received the instruction necessary to 
fit him for the duties of life. Under the present system of concentration, 
the number of schools has been reduced to eleven. 



There were no state thoroughfares in Jefferson township to aid the 
people in the early development of the country. The road leading from 
Crawfordsville to Lebanon, running on the section north of the line between 



IOO BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

townships 18 and 19 north was the first principal road. All others have 
come up through the Indian trail, blazed way of our fathers, the cut away, 
corduroy and grade to the splendid gravel roads of the present that mark most 
section lines and many half-section lines. It is a pleasure to drive over these 
splendid roads and view the handsome farms on either side with the attrac- 
tion of beautiful homes and landscapes. 

The Big Four railway runs across the northeast corner of the township 
and the Indiana Central across the southeast corner. The Terre Haute & 
Indianapolis Traction line runs across the township on the line between 
townships 18 and 19 north, and affords very convenient accommodation for 
the people. 

JACKSON. 

Jackson township is bounded on the north by Jefferson and Center town- 
ships, on the west by Montgomery county, on the south by Hendricks county 
and Harrison township, and on the east by Center and Harrison townships. 
It is the southwest corner of the county and contains forty-seven and one- 
half sections of land. It is composed of sections 13 to 36 inclusive, in town- 
ship 18 north, range 2 west, and sections 1 to 12 in township 17 north, range 
2 west; also sections 5, 6, 7 and 8 in town 17 north, range 1 west, also 
half of section 17, also 18, 19, part of 20 and 29, 30, 31 and 32 of town 
18 north, range 1 west. The township is drained by Raccoon creek in the 
northeast flowing towards the southwest and passing into Montgomery 
county about the middle of the west line of section 31. It belongs to the 
Wabash system. The southeast part of the township is drained by Eel river 
which belongs to the White river system. The water shed between the two 
systems of drainage enters the township at the northeast corner and passes 
out at the southwest corner. To say that this township is the best land in 
Boone county is paying a high tribute. It was covered with the largest and 
tallest timber of the county. It is stated that there was one Tulip (poplar) 
tree nearly nine feet in diameter and tall in proportion. The soil is mostly 
the flat phase type of silt loam, very rich and enduring. 

Settlements were made in this township long before the organization 
of Boone county, while it was yet a part of Eel river township, Hendricks 
county. Among the first to arrive were John Gibson, Young Hughes, Lewis 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. IOI 

Dewees, Washington Gibson, William Farlow, Isaac Miller, David Bush, 
John Porter, James Davis, Robert Davis, Andrew Hudson, Abijah Brown, 
Samuel Jessey, Andrew Long, George Walters, William Walters, Hiram 
Young, John Whitely, William and George Nicely. A few years later came 
Simon and William Emmert, John McLean, John C. Hurt, Mekin Hurt, John 
Crisman, Edward Herndon. In 1832 came John Cunningham, Thomas 
Caldwell, Samuel Miller, James Davis, Robert Walker, Samuel McLean, 
William Duncan, Isaac M. Shelly, Anderson Trotter, John and Henry Air- 
hart, Isaac H. Smith, W. H. Coombs, S. T. Dewees, W. B. Gibson, George 
L. Burke, Samuel Penry, Elisha Jackson, Henry D. Myers, W. W. Emmet 
and the Galvins. 

CHURCHES. 

The first religious services were held at the home of John Porter, con- 
ducted by George Walters, a Baptist minister. For years they continued to 
worship in the cabins of the settlers. The first church house that was erected 
was by the Methodists in the year 1832 and it was called Brown's chapel in 
honor of Thomas Brown. The Methodists established several other churches 
in the township and other denominations, so there was an abundant supply 
of houses of worship in the township for the early settlers. At the time 
of the survey of the churches in Boone county, 191 1, the Methodist church 
at Jamestown was in a growing condition and numbered two hundred and 
thirty-three members. The Disciples, members, two hundred and eighty- 
three. The Methodist Episcopal church at Advance, membership, one hun- 
dred and eighteen, growing. The Disciples church at Advance, membership, 
two hundred and sixty-nine, growing. Christian church, membership, two 
hundred and six. Primitive Baptist, membership, eleven, losing ground. 
The Christian church in the east part of the township, membership, one hun- 
dred and eighty-eight, growing. The Disciples church in the northeast part 
of township, membership, sixty-five, losing ground. Primitive Baptist in 
the northwest part of the township, membership, twenty-five, losing ground. 
Methodist Protestant in the west part of the township, membership, one hun- 
dred and sixteen, growing. In the general decline of rural churches, Jack- 
son township has fared better than her sister townships. There are more 
live and growing churches there than in any other township in the county. 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 



The first school was in the regulation round log puncheon floor and 
benches, big fireplace, paper windows of the pioneers, and erected on the banks 
of Eel river, near the county line of Boone and Hendricks counties. There 
was another similar school house west of Jamestown. These schools were 
supported by subscription and the teacher boarded around after the fashion 
of the Hoosier schoolmaster. The schools would continue from six to eight 
weeks, possibly on special efforts for twelve weeks in succession. These 
pioneer schools were all after the same pattern pretty much as in this day 
and when you have one described it will do for all. As the population in- 
creased, schools multiplied under the public school system until there were 
twelve distributed over the township, affording convenient school facilities 
for every pupil. Under the concentration system of these latter days there 
are nine schools outside of Jamestown and Advance. 



At the first it was the Indian trail, then blazed ways of the settlers, lead- 
ing from settlement to settlement, and from the home to the school and 
church. Then came the highways leading from town to town. The first of 
this latter was the state road from Indianapolis to Crawfordsville. This 
road entered the township at the southeast corner of section 10, runs in a 
northwest direction and passes into Montgomery county at the southwest 
corner of section 31. The next important was a highway leading up Eel 
river and twisting through the woods around bogs and marshes until it 
reached the capital of the county. This road was in such condition that in 
bad weather it would take all day to pass from one town to the other, and 
another day to return and at times so bad as to be impassable. As the 
country developed some of the kinks were taken out of the road but enough 
of the crookedness remains to give the traveler an idea of its serpentine 
course through the woods at the beginning. Since that day a great change 
has been wrought and Jackson township has kept pace with her sister town- 
ships and now has good roads leading in every direction. She also has two 
steam roads. The Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis which enters 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. IO3 

the southeast corner of section 10 east of Jamestown runs in a northwest 
direction and passes into Montgomery county at the southwest corner of sec- 
tion 31. The Central Indiana passing through Lebanon and Advance enters 
the township at the northeast corner of 13, runs in a southwest direction 
and enters Montgomery county at the southwest corner of section 30. The 
Ben Hur traction parallels the Big Four through Jamestown. 



Harrison township is one of the southern tier of townships lying be- 
tween Perry and Jackson. It has an area of a little over twenty-five sections, 
the boundary at the northwest and northeast corners being irregular. It is 
bounded on the north by Center township, on the west by Center and Jackson 
townships, on the south by Hendricks county, on the east by Perry township, 
and in the United States survey contains a part of sections 21 and 28, also 
sections 22 to 27 inclusive, and sections 33 to 36 inclusive, in town 18 
north, range 1 west. Also sections 1, 2, 3, 4 and 9 to 12 inclusive, in town 
17 north, range 1 west. Also sections 19, 30 and 31, in town 18 
north, range 1 east and sections 6 and 7, in town 17 north, range 1 east. 
The second prime meridian passes through this township. The surface is 
nearly level and is drained by the headwaters of Eel river flowing south- 
west into Jackson township, thence into Hendricks county. Other small 
streams in the south and southeast flow into the same county. In Harrison 
township there is quite a prairie, known as Stoner's. It is the only one in the 
county. The early settlers avoided the prairie and took to the woods think- 
ing that the former would never be tillable. There were two great obstacles 
confronting the pioneers of Boone county, viz : the almost impenetrable forest 
with its heavy timber and dense undergrowth of brush and the water that 
abounded everywhere. The battle was two-fold, clearing the forest and 
draining the land. The arduous labor was performed and the beautiful 
farms in Harrison township today are a monument of the toil of these brave 
men and women. James S. Dale bears the honor of driving the first stake 
for a home and he erected the first cabin. He was followed by George John- 
son, William Buttery, R. M. Cumels, Philip Sicks, Caleb Sherley, John Scott, 
A. Hillis, John McCormack, William Abner, William Joseph, Nick Yant, 



104 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

James and Noah Chitwood, William and James Edwards and many others 
until the land was reclaimed. The first death reported was the wife of 
David James in March, 1837. Among the early marriages were William 
Johnson to Isabella Dale; G. T. Buttery to Barbara Scott and Jeremiah 
Craven to Miss James. The first election was held at the cabin of W. Logan, 
in 1836, when William Buttery was elected as justice of the peace. The first 
meeting was held at the home of George H. Johnson in 1835 where a few 
pioneers gathered to hear a Baptist minister. Early religious meetings were 
also held at the home of George Sheeks. Soon after the pioneer log house 
was erected for worship and served its day. In this way homes, schools and 
churches came up out of the woods and water. 



There is no state road, no railroad or traction line in this township. It 
is the only township in the county that has not one or more of these outside 
helps in its development. The citizens have the honor of all that they possess 
and they have much of which to be proud. There are three good roads lead- 
ing to the county-seat. They are crooked, showing that they were started 
in the woods and had to dodge the bogs as in other parts of the county. It 
was a case of necessity and will doubtless always remain, to show future 
generations what their fathers had to do to get a start in this goodly land. 
It is so beautiful now we would have nothing to remind us of the wilderness 
if it were not for the crooked roads. It would be well to hold to the monu- 
ment and never straighten the roads in honor of our forbears. 



CHURCPIES. 

As soon as the people got a little out of the brush and too numerous to 
congregate in the small homes for church services, they began to build log 
church homes for worship. It was not long until there were half a dozen 
scattered over the township representing different denominations. In the 
report of the Board of Missions of the Presbyterian church of 191 t, it gives 
the churches of that date and their conditions, viz: In the northeast part 
of the township is located the Baptist (Means), with a membership of fifty- 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 



I05 



one and the church losing ground. A little southwest of this church is 
located the Methodist Protestant, membership one hundred and twenty, los- 
ing ground. In the east part of the township the Baptist church with a mem- 
bership of sixty-one, growing. West of this is the Disciples church with a 
membership of one hundred and eighty-six, standing still. In the southwest 
corner is located the Baptist (Primitive), membership fifteen, losing ground. 
Towards the southeast corner is located the Brethren, membership, fifteen, 
losing' ground. 



Pleasant Crawford is reported as the first school teacher in Harrison 
township. The usual round log house and subscription were provided and the 
school began in good hope. It is supposed that Mr: Crawford got tired of 
boarding around among the patrons and married and set up a scriptural ex- 
cuse for closing the school. Thus ended the first school in the township in 
the year 1837. But this did not end the desire of the people for an education 
for other schools were established and they continued part free and part sub- 
scription until the public school system of the state came in 1852. Schools 
were then multiplied until there were nine in the township. Under the con- 
centration system of our day, the enrollment of school children for the year 
was two hundred and fifty-five and onlv seven schools with seven teachers. 



Perry township is situated in the south tier between Eagle and Harrison 
townships. It is bounded on the north by Center and Worth townships, on 
the west by Center and Harrison, on the south by Hendricks county, on the 
east by Eagle and Worth and contains less than twenty-one sections of land 
and is mathematically located as follows, viz : part of section 20, and sec- 
tions 21, 22, 2-], 28, 29 and 32 to 36 inclusive; town 18 north, range 1 
east, also sections 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 8 to 12 inclusive; town 17 north, range 
1 east. The first clearing made in this township was in 1830 by Jesse 
Turner who erected a cabin and batched, hunted and is said to have raised 
the first crop in the township. He is reported to have spent his winters in 



106 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

the city of Jamestown. Probably the second settler was Jesse Smith, who 
came in 1832; Alexander Fortner and Aaron Smith in 1834, followed by 
Joseph Poyner and family which seems to be the first in the township. Elias 
and Edmund Shirley, followed by John K. Edwards, and his father, Eli 
Smith and his father, D. W. and B. H. Smith and their father, Peter Kene, 
G. W. Pumpkins, Daniel Leap, Thomas Leap, E. Wollen, E. Thornly, Elijah 
S. Williams, Thomas Jackson, Joseph Belt, followed by the Slaigles, Glen- 
denings. Sullivans, Dickersons, Chambers and the Penningtons. 



CHURCHES. 

The Baptists held the first religious services in private houses. A few 
years later a society was formed known as Mt. Tabor, a house was built and 
is known far and wide as old Mt. Tabor. It is located one-half mile north 
of Fayette, northeast corner of section 10. South of this church the same 
denomination (Baptist), built a new church and called it Cynthiana. There 
was a great religious stir in the Baptist church of the young county when 
Mt. Tabor was established. We submit here the report showing the spirit 
in which they entered into the work. It was first constituted on the third 
Saturday of July, 1835, in the fifth year of the county of Boone. The 
following sister churches of the county were represented: Eagle Creek 
church, by George Dodson, Thomas Bradly and John Phillips; Thorntown 
church, by John Turner and Squire Osbom; Mt. Gilead church, by Jacob 
Jones and Lewis Dewees; Union church, by Thomas Heathen and Hampton 
Pennington ; Big White Lick, by Parsley Sherley. Ezekiel Shirley and Abra- 
ham Spekelman; Little White Lick, by James Parsely and Caleb Sherley. 
We, the above representatives of the above churches, being convened at the 
house of William Turner, having examined into the society of organizing 
a church, and finding the articles of faith to be in accordance to our church, 
we find them duly qualified to keep house as a regular Baptist church with the 
following named brothers and sisters as constituted members thereof: Ed- 
mund Shirley, Benjamin Smith, Lewis Smith, Daniel Shirley, James Smith, 
William Smith, William Edwards, William Turner, Philadelphia Shirley, 
Susan Smith, Nancy Smith, Elizabeth Shirley, S. R. Francis Nash, Matilda 
Turner, E. P. Harding. 






BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. IO7 

We, therefore pronounce them a regular Baptist church and give them 
the right hand of fellowship, this, the third Saturday in July, 1835. 

Thomas W. Bradley, Elder George Dodson, 

Clerk. Moderator. 

The members of this society prior to organization met at private homes 
for worship, as was the custom of the beginning of each church society. 
Afterwards they built a log house which served them for many years for 
worship and many happy gatherings were held there. In lieu a frame meet- 
ing house was built at a cost of $800 and seated four hundred people. It 
was well located on a high piece of ground with the cemetery near by in 
which many of the pioneers are at rest from their arduous toil. There 
were three other churches organized in the township. In the center of the 
township the Baptist (Means) have at this date a church of one hundred 
and one members and is reported as losing ground. Mt. Tabor is now 
reported with a membership of sixty-six standing still. Cynthiana church 
south of Mt. Tabor, Baptist (Means) with a membership of one hundred 
and twenty-six, growing. The Methodist church in the northern part of 
the township with a membership of forty-four. 



The first round log school house in the township was located in the south- 
west part near No. 3 of this day. The first school was in 1836, Mr. Schenck 
the teacher. Other private schools were established and continued until the 
public school system came when there were eight schools irregularly estab- 
lished over the township. Under the present system there are seven schools 
measuring up to the age in which we live. 



The first road established was the Indianapolis and Lafayette state 
road which enters the township at the middle of the east line of section 1, 
township 17 north, range 1 east, runs in a northwest direction and passes 
out at the northeast corner of section 21, township 18 north, range 1 east. 



IOS BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

All other roads were slowly made as settlements were established until now 
there are many good roads leading in every direction and decorated with 
beautiful homes and well tilled farms. To see this country today one would 
hardly think that it was the wild forest and swamp marshes of seventy-five 
years ago. The hand of man hath wrought a wonderful change in the 
wilderness. 



Eagle township is situated in the southeast corner of the county and 
was the first settled in the county by white men, not even excepting Sugar 
Creek township. It was the best naturally drained of all the townships. 
Big and Little Eagle creeks flow through the township from north to south. 
Fishback comes in from the northwest and Long Branch from the east. An- 
other reason for the early settlement was the fact that the Eel river Indians 
held their reserve in the northwest part of the county until 1828, and the 
lands were not offered for sale until 1829. Among the earliest settlers in 
the township we would name Patrick H. Sullivan, the oldest settler in Boone 
county, Jacob Sheets, John Sheets, David Hoover, Austin Davenport, Jesse 
Davenport, Nathan and William Carr, James and John McCord, Frederick 
Lowe, George Dye, Jacob and John King, James, William and John Harmon, 
followed in a few years by Washington and Thomas Miller, Ben Cox, Peter 
Gregory, William and Jas. Marsh, Daniel and Hugh Larimore and a host 
of others until the township was occupied. The first marriage in the county 
was in this township at the home of the first probate clerk, David Hoover. 
Elijah Cross captured his fair daughter, Polly. The first election was held 
at David Hoover's house and Jacob Sheets was elected the first justice of 
the peace. James McCoy was the first preacher, a Baptist in faith, as early 
as 1825. The first probate court of the county was held at David Hoover's 
home and Austin Davenport was the first sheriff. The first mill was built 
on Eagle creek by Jacob Sheets. George Dye also built a mill on Eagle near 
Zionsville. 

Eagle Village, about a mile east of Zionsville was the first important 
trading point and held the position until the railroad was built early in the 
50's. The Eagle Village Light Infantry figures in the early history of Boone 
at this point where they rallied every month under the command of Capt. 
J. F. Daugherty. 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. IOO, 

Among the pioneer ministers of this locality were James McCoy, George 
Dodson, Isaac Cotton, Robert Thomas, George Dye, George Boroman, 
George W. Dnzan, William Klingler and William Gouge. All have gone 
to their rest long ago and are waiting for the sound of the trumpet on resur- 
rection morning. Their bodies with their pioneer comrades mouldered away 
in the early burial places, one at Eagle Village, one just south of Zionsville, 
known as the Bishop grave yard, one at Eagle Creek Baptist church and 
one on the Michigan road near the old Bethel church known as the Bethel 
grave yard. It is stated that the first brick house built in the county was on 
the Michigan road between Eagle Village and Clarkstown and was erected 
by Austin Davenport in the year 1835. Eagle claims the first cabin, first 
brick house, first marriage, first judge and the first mill. Among the early 
doctors were William N. and George W. Duzan, H. G. and Jeremiah Lari- 
more, Warner F. Sampson, S. W. Rodman and N. Crosby. 

This township contains twenty-four sections and is located as follows, 
to-wit: Sections 21, 22, 23, 24, 28 to 36 inclusive, in town 18 north, range 
2 east and sections 1 to 12 inclusive, in town 17 north, range 2 east. In 
addition to the good drainage attracting the early settler, was the good roads 
for that day winch enabled him to get there. First among these were the 
Michigan road (see article Michigan Road elsewhere), and the road leading 
from Indianapolis to Lafayette. While there were settlements made before 
these roads yet they greatly aided in the later influx of population and the 
commerce and general traffic of the country. The I. C. & L. Ry. came in 
1852, entering the township at the southwest corner of section 12, running 
north and west and passing out at the southwest corner of section 21. In 
the beginning of this century came the traction entering the east part of 
section 12 and joining the Big Four at Zionsville and paralleling it the rest 
of the way to Lebanon. With all these road facilities added to the general 
good wagon roads throughout the township, the people could move about 
with pleasure any day in the year. This was a marvelous change to those 
who could remember the almost impassable roads of pioneer days. The 
first mill in the township and it must be the first in the county was built by 
Jacob Sheets on the banks of Eagle creek soon after he settled in 1824. 
It was first designed as a "Corn Cracker," but afterwards burrs were added 
to grind wheat, and bolting to manufacture flour. The second mill in the 
township was built by George Dye and located on Eagle creek where Zions- 



HO BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

ville now stands. He added to this a sawmill. Both of these mills had a 
wide scope of territory to serve and developed a large business and were 
very lucrative at that early date. 

CHURCHES. 



The first public religious meeting was held at the home of David 
Hoover, the sermon being delivered by James McCoy, a traveling minister 
of the Baptist faith. There were no church buildings in the township until 
after the founding of Eagle village, northeast of Zionsville on the Michigan 
road. It with Clarkstown are the oldest villages in the township. They 
promised to be flourishing, but the forming of Zionsville killed both. But 
in this village it is stated that the first church house was erected, but it 
passed away with the village. It is stated that the mother of the churches 
in Boone county was the Regular Baptist church constituted in the year 
1829, with the following members: George Dodson, Elizabeth King, Fred- 
erick Grendell and wife, John King, Thomas and Polly Dodson, Robert 
Dodson, Mary Dodson, Samuel Lane and wife, Edward Bradly, David 
Marsh, John Dulin and wife, Squire Dulin and wife, James Peters and wife, 
Robert Dulin and wife. The first clerk was James Bradly. The first house 
was a rough log building, but it answered the purpose of worship. The 
second house was erected about 1850, costing about $600. This church is 
now reported dead in the Mission Report of Boone county of 191 1. 

There are three other churches in the township outside of Zionsville. 
These churches are located in and near Royalton in the southwest part of 
the township. The Baptist (Means), twenty members, losing ground. The 
Methodist Protestant, with nineteen members, losing ground. The Meth- 
odists, one hundred and twenty-six members, growing. 



The first school — it is stated by good authority that the first school 
was on the banks of Eagle creek near the Marion county line. If the in- 
formation is correct about this school it is not only the first school in Eagle 
township but it is also the first school in the county. It is placed in date 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. Ill 

several years before the school that was established on the William Beeler 
farm in 1832. The third school established was on the farm of William 
Dye north of Zionsville. Miss Anna Miller, doubtless the first lady teacher 
in the county taught a subscription school in Zionsville soon after its organ- 
ization. When the schools took a new start under the law of 185 1, the 
number of schools increased to nine in the township and under the present 
system these schools have been reduced to five outside of Zionsville. 



This is the middle township on the eastern border of Boone county 
and contains twenty-five sections of land. It is bounded on the north by 
Marion township, on the west by Center and Worth, on the south by Worth 
and Eagle, on the east by Hamilton county. It is composed of sections 25 
to 36 inclusive of town 19 north, range 2 east and sections 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 
9 to 16 in town 18 north, range 2 east. 

The township is well drained naturally. Big Eagle creek flows through 
the central part of the township, from the north to the north. Finley creek 
comes in from the northeast and Mount's Run from the extreme northwest 
entering Eagle creek near the south border. It is next to Eagle township 
in being blest with good natural drainage. Before the Indians gave up their 
hunting and fishing grounds along Eagle creek the pale faces began to clear 
away the timber for their cabin homes. Among the first that came were 
the Lanes, Jesse, Edward, John and Samuel as early as 1826. Among the 
neighbors were Ben Cruse, Henry and John Koonts, Jacob Johns, George 
Walker, Riley Hogshire, George Shirts, John Davis, James Richardson and 
scores of others for the neighborhood filled up rapidly after the first cabin 
was raised and it was about as jolly and good natured and sociable a settle- 
ment as could be found and as active in organizing the county. 

The first religious meeting held in the township was in 1832 at the cabin 
of Mr. Sedgwick conducted by Thomas Brown. The first election was held 
in 1834 and John Berry was elected the first justice of the peace. The first 
mill was set up on Eagle creek by Hiram McQuindy and began to grind the 
corn for their pones. 

The first church erected in the township was by the Methodists near the 



112 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

center. It with the pioneers has passed away. The next church was by 
the Baptists west of it, where it still stands in a growing condition with one 
hundred and eighty-seven members. Later came an increased number of 
church buildings. Christian north of the center with one hundred and five 
members and growing. Methodist church at Big Springs with thirty-six 
members, losing ground. Methodist northwest of Northfield, six members, 
losing ground. Just north of this church is the Disciples church with 
seventy members, losing ground. In the center of the township is the 
Seventh Day Adventists with twenty-nine members and growing. In the 
southwest corner is the Lutheran church with twenty members, losing 
ground, and the Methodist with forty-nine members, standing still, accord- 
ing to the report of the Home Mission Board of 191 1. 

With the corner stones of civilization, the home, the mill, the church 
and the school laid there was a foundation upon which the structure could 
be raised. The Indian had none of these hence he never advanced except 
as he imitated the white man. Between these pillars of strength first were 
blazed ways through the woods, then the timber was cut away, grades began, 
corduroy over the bogs which were the seed from which came the highways 
of our dav. The Michigan road which crosses the township from the south 
to the north bearing west was the first great improvement. ■ The men and 
women that bore these hardships of pioneer life are gone to their reward. 



The first great public highway through this township is the Michigan 
road which enters the township near the southeast corner of section 14 and 
passes out at the northeast corner of section 28. The Lebanon and Nobles- 
ville on the line between town 19 and 18 north. There are besides 
these, a number of good roads all over the township. It should be men- 
tioned here in connection with the early history of the township that there 
were three taverns along the Michigan road. It was a great thoroughfare 
and there were numbers of public houses strung along to accommodate the 
throngs that were pressing north and westward. This road was lively in 
the early days with the ox and horse teams and it is alive to this day with 
the modern automobile when there is a speedway on at Indianapolis. It is 



liOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. II3 

stated that one auto per minute passed during the afternoon of Friday May 
29, 19 14. The Anderson, Lebanon & St. Louis Railroad passes through the 
northern part of the township from east to west. 

The soil of this township is very fertile, well drained and produces 
abundantly all the products grown in this latitude. The farms are beautiful 
and homelike with all modern improvements. There is nothing to prevent 
the people from being happy and contented and prosperous. 



The name — Center township, describes its position in the county. It 
is the largest township in the county, with irregular boundary and touched 
by every other township in the county except Eagle and Sugar Creek. It 
contains about sixty-six square miles of territory. It is drained by Prairie 
creek principally which rises in the southeast part of the township and flows 
northwest into Sugar Creek at Thorntown. When in its natural state there 
was not much flow to it but mostly spread. The old settlers can remember 
in flood time when it spread all over the central part of the township. It 
runs through Lebanon ; that city furnishes a spacious ditch to lead its waters 
decorously through, and on for miles beyond, so they will not occupy all 
the streets and door yards of the city. The time was when this little stream 
occupied, when on a high, all the woods in and about Lebanon, except a 
few of the highest points. The children who walk the paved street today 
and witness the quiet stream even at flood time within its confines, would 
not recognize a picture of seventy-five years ago, when Prairie creek was an 
inland lake. 

The hand of man hath wrought great changes. It was toil that de- 
veloped out of a great swamp woods the beauty of Lebanon. The history 
of Center township is the same as the story of other townships. First the 
blazed path and round log cabin, then the cut out roads and hewed log 
cabins; then a semblance of a ditch on each side of the cut-away and open- 
ings for the sluggish water to find its way out of the woods. Later, came 
grades and corduroy, more ditching and perchance a frame house and per- 
haps some one ventured on erecting a brick house which was the wonder of 
the natives. Most of the brave men and women who with great toil, sacrifice 
(8) 



114 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

and privation laid these foundations of our grand county have long ago 
gone to rest. They were the grandparents of the present generation. They 
endured hardships for us. If we could place their lives and manner of liv- 
ing by the side of ours in this age, the contrast would be wonderful. It 
would make us more grateful for our blessings and to those who so toiled 
and sacrificed unselfishly for us. 

By an act of the Legislature of 1830, this county was organized. There 
were six hundred brave pioneers in the county at that time. The same act 
provided five commissioners to locate and name the county-seat. It was to 
be within two miles of the center of the county. Three of the commission- 
ers met at that point the 1st of May, 1831. The center of the county would 
be on the second meridian line, near the southwest and southeast corners of 
town 19 north, range 1 east, and range 1 east of the second meridian. Here 
the commissioners met on that bright May morning. It was an uncheery 
place for the capital of a county. Tall timber, dense undergrowth and bogs 
and willows. No human dwellings in sight, not even the sound of the 
woodman's axe. A little north of the center was a knoll, a spot dry enough 
for a court house; here they located the spot and drove down a large stake 
to designate where the court house should stand. It was a town without 
a human soul, not even an Indian, no hut, no wigwam, not even a name — 
nothing but a broad expanse of forest with impenetrable underbrush, and 
wet feet. The commissioners went in search of a name. One was so uncon- 
cerned he fell asleep, the others could not agree, so they roused their com- 
panion and placed upon him the responsibility of christening the place. He 
rubbed the sleep out of his eyes, looked around at the tall timber, surveyed 
the sluggish prairie just to the north of them. He called to mind the Bible 
story that his mother told, about the tall timbers of Lebanon and of the 
Jordan, and shouted "Lebanon,'' its name shall be, and so its name was fixed 
and so to this day all the children of the "State of Boone" learn early in life 
to frame the name of "Lebanon." Mr. A. M. French was the young man 
that first called the name, and the stake was driven on the land that belonged 
to Colonel Kinnard. There was a man by the name of Colonel Drake who 
was also interested in the land. 

This was the greatest day that had ever been in the county of Boone 
to that day. A large crowd of regular unkempt Boonites had gathered to 
witness where the seat of government would be located. It was a day long 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. II5 

to be remembered. On that consecrated spot a monument has been erected 
that will stand until time shall be no more. The third monument — our 
magnificent court house — has been erected over the spot to commemorate 
and hold the position. 

The first man who had the courage to locate a home in such an un- 
sightly place was Abner H. Longley, about one year after the stake for the 
court house was driven. He erected his one room log cabin on lot No. . i. 
He ornamented it with a veranda by planting a post in front of the cabin, a 
log on top and covering with the branches of trees so as to make a shade and 
protection. 

Such were the very beginnings of our county-seat. Around this spot 
revolves the history of Center township and largely that of the county. The 
making of a branch or ditch for the high waters of Prairie creek to flow out, 
opened up a way not only for the flood, but also for ditching all that section 
of county. Into this the willow bogs were chased, the land appeared high 
and dry, streets were made, some corduroy, some plank for side walks; 
then came gravel first by rail, then out of the deposits made thousands of 
years ago, until the paved streets of our day, with steam and electrical cars. 
A look into the wonderful development within the memory of many yet liv- 
ing seems marvelous, yet it all came by slow growth and through great toil 
and hardship. 

Center township is bounded on the north by Washington and Clinton 
townships, on the west by Washington, Jefferson, Jackson and Harrison 
townships, on the south by Jackson, Harrison, Perry and Worth townships, 
on the east by Harrison, Perry, Worth, Union and Marion townships. It is 
composed of the following lands to-wit: Sections 13, 14, 15, 21 to 28 in- 
clusive, and 33 to 36 inclusive; in town 19 north, range 1 west, and sec- 
tions 1 to 4 inclusive, and east half of section 17, and 9 to 16 inclusive; and 
parts of sections 20 and 21 in town 18 north, range 1 west; also, sections 
13 to 36 inclusive in town 19 north, range 1 east; also sections 3 to 10 
inclusive and sections 15 to 18 inclusive, in town 18 north, range 1 east. 
The early history is so closely interwoven with the history of the city 
of Lebanon, that much of it will be given in connection with the sketch of 
that city. 

Churches outside of Lebanon by the latest report are given as follows 
by the mission survey of 191 1. In the southern part of the township was 



Il6 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

organized at an early date a Methodist church, which is now reported dead. 
Southwest part of township the Christian church, one hundred members, 
growing. East of Lebanon the Brethren, forty-six, losing ground. North 
of this church is the United Brethren, ninety-six, losing ground. West of 
Lebanon the Disciples, dead. North the Christian, forty-four members, 
losing ground. Northeast corner Christian church, ninety-eight members, 
growing. Good roads and the great church privileges at Lebanon have been 
a great draw on the country churches of Center township. It is the question 
how long they can stand against these influences. This question does not 
only concern the churches of this township but the interest of the rural church 
everywhere. How long will we continue to have country churches ? 



The history of the early schools of Center township are so closely inter- 
woven with the history of Lebanon, that it will be given more fully with the 
history of that city. In this connection we will give the first law in the state 
that was intended to promote the interests of the public and under which the 
rural schools came into being. 

In 1824 in the eighth year of the State of Indiana, the Legislature en- 
acted the following law, to-wit: 

Sec. 6. Each able-bodied male person of the age of twenty-one or up- 
ward being a freeholder or householder, residing in the district, shall be 
liable equally to work one day in each week until such building may be 
completed, or pay the sum of thirty-seven and one-half cents for every day 
he may so fail to work, and provided, moreover, that the said trustee shall 
always be bound to receive at cash price, in lieu of any such labor or money 
as aforesaid, any plank, nails, glass or other materials which may be needed 
about such building. 

Sec. 7. That in all such cases such school house shall be eight feet 
between the floors, and at least one foot from the surface of the ground to 
the first floor, and finished in a manner calculated to render comfortable the 
teacher, pupils, etc. Under this law and pattern, school houses all over 
the state were rapidly constructed. At that day and age they passed punch- 
eon floors, backless seats, spacious fire places and chinked logs as comfortable 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 1 17 

for teacher and pupil. We have so grown that today we would consider 
such school furniture as rather backwoods. And yet, under these facilities 
boys and girls were reared that built the great commonwealth of Indiana. 
It does not take finery to make intellect. It requires the opposite. Under 
the old constitution the public schools depended entirely upon the income 
from the congressional fund, no tuition tax being provided for by law. From 
eight to twelve weeks usually exhausted the public money. In a majority of 
cases the term was extended several weeks by subscription upon the part of 
the patrons of the district. Under this regime, the schools of Center town- 
ship and all other townships and counties in the state were established and 
maintained. 

The law was changed in 1848 and the system that we are working under 
now with modern improvements was instituted. There may be more con- 
venience without doubt, but the question may be discussed, are there any 
better men and women produced under the latter than under the former 
system? Under the old law. Center built seventeen schools outside of Leb- 
anon and distributed them throughout the township. Under the present sys- 
tem she is maintaining twelve schools over the same territory. 



After the Indian trails were supplanted by the blazed ways came the cut- 
outs to allow a team to pass. The first great highway was the state road 
from Indianapolis to Lafayette, which entered near the southeast part of the 
township, passed diagonally through it and out at near the northwest corner, 
going through Lebanon. From Lebanon, roads were built towards Craw- 
fordsville, Noblesville, Frankfort, Jamestown and all other directions in the 
county. It was many years before these roads reached the grandeur of the 
present. Through toil and great sacrifice they have come to us as the rich 
heritage from our fathers. 

The railroads soon followed. First the Big Four of our day, then the 
Central Indiana. Following these steam roads came the tractions to Indi- 
anapolis, Crawfordsville, Frankfort and Thorntown, so that there is today 
every convenience of travel, from this township that used to sit back in the 
woods, to all parts of the world. Think of all this and more coming up from 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 



the wilderness, from what we now term the poorest of schools, plain churches 
and homes without any of our modern improvements. It will be a question 
whether we of today with our rich heritage and with all our wonderful im- 
provements can do as well. 



Worth is the baby township of the county. It was an after thought. 
It was organized in 1851, twenty-one years after the organization of the 
county. It is the smallest township in the county as well as the youngest. 
It was made by cutting four sections off of Perry, four from Eagle, five 
from Union and six from Center township, making in all nineteen sections. 
It is not only distinguished by being the youngest and smallest in the county, 
but also the levelest and the highest. It is a table land township and has no 
stream of water in it, except it be the source of Fishback. In fact the water 
is led out of the township by ditches into Fishback creek ; and the head waters 
of the streams that constitute the sources of Eel river, Prairie creek and 
other streams flowing northwest into Sugar creek, and those flowing east 
into Eagle creek. This township was not only covered with a dense forest 
and underbrush but also with water a good part of the season that did not 
know which way to run, and lolled around until the sun and earth drank it 
up after a rain. Take it as a township it was the most unpromising of all 
for settlement. We often wonder how it was ever formed and what were 
the influences that led to its formation. Some one must have had the. 
apostolic idea and could not be satisfied until there were twelve townships in 
the county, or yet, again, there might have been a little Hebrew in it, and 
one of the descendants of Abram was determined to have twelve tribes in 
Israel. At least some one or more within its bounds went to the county com- 
missioners with a petition for a new township and it was granted. It seems 
that the county commissioners of early days granted almost any petition that 
came into the court for the formation of the townships, and any farmer 
along the border of any township that took a notion that he would like to 
change residence would go into court and ask the commissioners to move 
his farm. They would realize the difficulty of moving the farm, although 
most of them would float in that early day, and would just extend the town- 
ship line around it. When they made Center township, pussy-corner was the 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. II9 

game, and they tried to make a corner for each boy and girl and staked off 
twenty-two corners. Some corners were made for political convenience no 
doubt; some for railroad taxes and some on account of streams. That is 
why our township lines are so irregular. If we knew all the pleadings in 
court for these changes, there might be some interesting history connected 
with it. 

Among the first white men to attempt to build homes in this unpromis- 
ing part of Boone county were Richard Hall, John and James McCord and 
James White as early as 1830. These were soon followed by Thomas Har- 
mon, Adam Kettering, Joseph White and John Smith. Within a few years 
Philip Lucas, John Neese, Abraham Hedrick, John Isenhour, Samuel Rav, 
William Staten and scores of others came flocking in. Henry Lucas taughc 
the first school as early as 1837. Rev. John Good was the first minister. 
Whitestown was organized about the same time as the township and the 
building of the railroad. 

You can poke all the fun at little Worth you please, but after she got 
out of the woods and the water run off, she proved to be a jewel of first 
water and shines out among her sister townships today equal to the very best. 
She is bounded on the north by Center and Union townships ; on the west by 
Center and Perry townships; on the south by Perry and Eagle townships; 
on the east by Eagle and Union townships. She is located mathematically as 
follows, to-wit: Sections 35 and 36 in town 19 north, range 1 east, also 
sections 1, 2 and 11 to 14 inclusive, and 23 to 26 inclusive, in town 18 
north, range 1 east; also sections 6, 7, 8 and sections 17 to 20 and sections 
29, 30, in town 18 north, range 2 east. She was covered with such dense 
forest that the early settlers were delayed in cropping. The honor of making 
the first crop is credited to James White and John McCord. 

The development of the township has been marvelous. Although the 
youngest, she has measured up to her sister townships in the county and her 
farm life is as highly developed today as the best of them. The Big Four 
railroad runs across her center from southeast to northwest, and on this road 
near the center of the township is the thriving town of Whitestown, the 
only town in the township. It is the trade center, election center and is 
surrounded by as rich and as beautiful country as there is in the county. 
You could not say more than this of any county. The steam railway is now 
paralleled by a traction line, which gives ready transportation to any point. 



120 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

The roads of the township have kept pace with the best and in all seasons 
of the year you can go about with pleasure and comfort. There is nothing 
omitted that is necessary for the comfort and happiness of the people. 

Her first school was a "Free School," supported by the Congressional 
funds and have been so from the beginning, saving a little subscription aid at 
the beginning. The schools multiplied until there were eight, all brick. 
This was one school to less than two and one-half sections. The township 
readily fell into the consolidation plan of this day. In 1906 there were eleven 
teachers with six months' schools and no high school, tax levy one dollar 
and eighty-two cents. In 191 1 there were eight teachers, eight months' 
school and three years' high school, tax levy, one dollar and sixty-five cents. 
The benefits of consolidation in this township are very evident. It had too 
many schools to begin with; the happy location of the high school near the 
center at Whitestown all worked for the advantage in consolidation and its 
fruits are evident. Of late the township has had trouble in regard to con- 
structing a new high school, but in a late decision of the court, it has been 
settled in favor of the new building and it will be built. 



CHURCHES. 

It was a happy circumstance for Worth township that the principal 
town, Whitestown, was laid out about the same time as the township and that 
it was centrally located. It afforded church facilities for all the citizens. 
There were no country churches established, hence, there were none to pass 
away. At Whitestown there were three churches built. The Evangelical 
Lutheran church with a membership in 191 1 of two hundred and forty- 
seven and in a growing condition. The Baptist, membership one hundred 
and thirty and losing ground. The Methodist, with ninety-five members, 
standing still. The pastor of this church has in his circuit, five churches 
with membership as follows : ninety-five, fifty-nine, forty-nine, forty- four 
and six. These figures are taken from the report of the Presbyterian Mis- 
sion Board of 191 1. The same report states that in Boone county there are 
at the above date eighty-two churches. Seventeen have resident pastors. 
Fifty have non-resident pastors; fifteen have no ministers. These churches 
are divided among twenty-one different denominations, with scarcely any 
strife. 



CHAPTER VI. 

ORGANIZATION OF TERRITORY RIGHT OF OCCUPATION ORIGIN OF NAME 

HOOSIER. 

Previous to this, we have shown how we obtained our title to this country 
from the Indian. It may be well to trace the abstract through the white 
man's occupancy, that we may know from whence our right of possession 
comes. They had a title in the land by reason of possession, as far back as 
we have knowledge and farther, for we know not who deeded to him. The 
basis of the white man's ownership comes from what he terms discovery. 
This does not look like a very good title, but he claims it, and it is the base of 
the white man's claim to this new world. We have all heard of the story 
of Columbus in 1492, as the first white man to see this new world. He took 
possession in the name of Queen Isabel of Spain, and upon the right of dis- 
covery. We presume that this queen was the first white person that ever laid 
claim to land in the new world and under this title she owned the entire 
continent. Columbus found the Indian here in full possession. The next 
title was under the right of exploration. Every nation in the old world that 
could get a boat strong enough to cross the sea and a captain with skill and 
bravery to make the voyage, started out to explore the new found world, and 
lay claim to at least a part of its domain. Under this title, every live nation in 
Europe got a foothold here in this new land and sought to hold it by settle- 
ments. It was under these titles that much confliction arose over claims to 
the land that grew into bitter disputes and bred wars between the nations. 
They each made settlements to hold their claims. The English, French, 
Germans and Spaniards were especially in the fight along these lines for 
ownership of this country and each secured a portion. 

The English formed settlements along the Atlantic coast and claimed 
the territory westward for an indefinite distance, for at that time they did 
not know the extent. They met with no dispute on the eastern slope of the 
Appalachian mountains. The French had gone up the St. Lawrence river, 
through the Great Lakes and passed over the ridges, into the headwaters of 



122 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

the Mississippi system. The French were the first men to explore the Ohio 
river and its tributaries and establish settlements at Vincennes, Ft. Wayne, 
Pittsburgh and various other trading points with the natives. By this pro- 
cedure, the French claimed the entire Mississippi valley and controverted the 
same with England. 

Spain also, by like process, laid claim to Florida and bordering on the 
gulf and in Mexico. These conflicting claims overlapped each other and con- 
tinued for years, before they were settled by treaties and purchases, until, 
England had undisputed claim to all the territory bordering on the Atlantic 
coast of North America. All of her rights on the south of the St. Lawrence 
basin passed to the colonies at the close of the Revolutionary war. During 
this controversy the territory of which Indiana was a part was known by 
different names. At one time it belonged to the Province of Quebec, and 
again it went by the name of Louisiana in honor of Louis XIV. 

Robert Cavelier, de LaSalle, the principal French explorer of the St. 
Lawrence and Mississippi valleys, who was commandant at Ft. Frontenac, 
now Kingston, on the northern shore of Lake Ontario, sailed down the Ohio 
river in 1669, skirting along the southern border of what is now Indiana. 
It is fairly certain that LaSalle also crossed the northwest corner of the state 
in 1671 or 72. This was done in his trip by way of the St. Joseph on the. lake 
and by the Kankakee on his way to the Illinois river. Later in 1680, he 
established a fort on the St. Joseph river called Ft. Miami. He was friendly 
with the natives and induced all the Indians of Indiana to form an alliance, 
for mutual protection against the Iroquois, who were making a war upon the 
Indiana tribes. He carried on a lively trade with the Indians along the 
Wabash and Ohio rivers. We can conclude with almost a certainty, that 
this intrepid Frenchman drove frequent trades with the Eel river tribe at 
Thorntown. 

The Miami confederation of Indians in Indiana was always friendly 
with the Jesuit missionaries. Allouez, one of the missionaries, visited with 
the Indians in this section and worked with the Miami tribes for their souls' 
interest. The silver crosses found in the Indian graves in Thorntown, 
marked Detroit and Montreal, are doubtless evidence of the earnest work 
of this faithful Frenchman in this state. The day of Judgment only can 
reveal the fruits of his labors among the Indians. 

Beginning with the years of LaSalle's later explorations, Indiana was 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 1 23 

visited by many zealous French Jesuit missionaries, seeking to convert the 
Indians to the Christian religion. Through their fearless and self-sacrificing 
activities, and the restless enterprise of the wood rangers, hunters and trap- 
pers, no part of Indiana remained unexplored. The traders ever moved 
along with the missionaries, sometimes in advance, bartering for their furs. 
This was the forerunner of the permanent settlers seeking a place to build a 
home. 

The French first made permanent settlements at Port Royal in 1605, and 
founded Quebec in 1608, and the English settled at Jamestown in 1607, and 
the question for the right of territory, commerce and trade began and con- 
tinued for over one hundred and fifty years. The battle of rivalries between 
England and France closed in 1763. By this treaty at Paris, France and Spain 
gave up their dominion in North America. The closing deal was in the year 
1803, when France quit claimed to the United States all of her territory for 
the sum of fifteen million dollars. The most prominent battles in this contro- 
versy were Braddock's defeat in 1755; the success of the English at Ticon- 
deroga in 1759; and the victory of Wolf over Montcalm on the Plains of 
Abraham, which led to the close of the French dream of an empire in the 
new world. Spain was an ally with France in this war and lost out in North 
America also. England took possession of forts Miami and Ouiatenon in 
Indiana in 1761. Vincennes, being under the jurisdiction of New Orleans, 
did not become subject to British control until after the treaty of Paris in 
1763, and actual possession was not assumed until 1777, one year after the 
Declaration. England hardly got possession of the valley of the Mississippi 
before she had to give it all up to her colonies and acknowledge the Inde- 
pendence of the United States of America. In a word, England fought out 
a good quietus of title to this country and was able to make a clear deed to 
the United States and then, the United States was able to make a good deed 
to each person that wanted a farm in Boone county or any place within the 
northwest territory. 

The very next year, in 1778, George Rogers Clark captured Kaskaskia 
and Captain Leonard Helm occupied Vincennes. Both of these men being 
citizens of Virginia, that state claimed sovereignty by right of conquest over 
all of the northwest territory. This claim was made good by the final con- 
quest of Vincennes the next year by General Clark. Virginia organized all 
of this territory under the title of Illinois and appointed Colonel John Todd 



124 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

as governor under the title of County Lieutenant. The county of Illinois 
embraced all the territory that is now included in the states of Ohio, Indiana. 
Illinois, Michigan and Wisconsin, also that part of Minnesota that lies east 
of the Mississippi river. This was the first time that the white man had real 
authority over what is now the state of Indiana and John Todd was the 
governor. It is clear that Virginia never extended her laws over Indiana. 
She only gave it a name and appointed a governor. Virginia also claimed 
this territory by the authority of a charter of the King of England to the 
London Company in 1609, which grant ceded to Virginia a strip of land two 
hundred miles north and two hundred miles south of Port Comfort, and 
stretching from sea to sea, meaning from- the Atlantic to the Pacific. 

In the treaty with France in 1763, Great Britain gave up her right west 
of the Mississppi. Virginia held her title to be good as far as the British 
title extended, which was to the east bank of the Great river. The people, 
living within the bounds of the county of Illinois were to be governed by 
officers elected by a majority of votes of the citizens in their respective dis- 
tricts. 

The election that took place soon after this act was the first popular elec- 
tion ever held within the bounds of Indiana. In 1784, Virginia signed a deed 
of the northwest territory to the United States. In 1787 was passed the 
ordinance which was the great "Magna Charta" of the West. It was signed 
by Thomas Jefferson, Samuel Hardy, Arthur Lee and James Monroe acting 
as delegates for the commonwealth of Virginia. It provided for the appoint- 
ment of a governor by Congress whose term of office should be three years ; 
a secretary for four years and a court of three judges, tenure of office during 
good behavior. The judges and governors were empowered to make and 
publish laws until a legislative body was provided. A general assembly was 
authorized whenever there would be five thousand nine hundred and ninety- 
nine votes in a district. In short the ordinance provided for all the ma- 
chinery of government, for a free and independent people until they were so 
organized that they could arrange details for themselves. 

Article 1, of the compact guarantees religious liberty. Article 2, guar- 
antees civil rights. Article 3, in part, states that "Religion, morality and 
knowledge, being necessary to good government and the happiness of man- 
kind, schools and the means of education shall forever be encouraged." The 



HOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. I25 

16th section of each congressional township was reserved for a permanent 
school fund. 

Article 5, provides for the formation of not less than three nor more than 
five states from the territory covered by the ordinance. Article 6, reads, 
"That there shall be neither slavery nor involuntary servitude in the said 
Territory." 

Arthur St. Clair was appointed by Congress, October 5, 1787, as the 
first governor of the northwest territory. Winthrop Sargent was made secre- 
tary and the seat of government was fixed at Marietta, Ohio. The first ses- 
sion of territorial court was held there in 1788. On the 7th day of May, 
1800, the President approved the law dividing the northwest territory into 
two parts by the line that now forms the boundary between Ohio and Indiana. 
It is called the first meridian. (The second meridian passes through the 
court house at Lebanon). All the land that was in Indiana territory east 
of the first meridan forms the state of Ohio, which was admitted into the 
Union in 1802, and the portion west of that line was designated as Indiana 
Territory. 

The people of Indiana Territory had to reorganize and William Henry 
Harrison was appointed governor, May 13, 1800, and John Gibson was made 
secretary and the seat of government placed at Vincennes. Its first terri- 
torial courts was composed of William Clark, Henry Vanderburg and John 
Griffin as judges. The first general court was opened at Vincennes, March 3, 
r8oi. The population at that date was four thousand eight hundred and 
seventy-five. In 1804 Congress enlarged the territory by attaching all that 
part of Louisiana north of latitude north 7,7, and called it Louisiana Terri- 
tory. For a short time Indiana Territory went by that name. All the ma- 
chinery of territorial government was established and installed; in a few 
days after its completion there was another disturbance. On the nth of 
January, 1805, Congress made another division of the territory by detaching 
Michigan. This was consummated 1805. Still another change on the 1st 
day of May, 1809 was demanded. At this time it was the people of our own 
state that were clamoring for a government of their own. Congress detached 
all that territory west of the present west boundary line of Indiana and called 
it Illinois Territory and the name Illinois is retained to this day by the state. 



126 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 




IMOIANA IM 1818 



By cutting off Ohio, Michigan and Illinois, Indiana Territory was whit- 
tled down to the present size of the state, and Congress had divided it into nine 
districts for representation. The first election held wholly within the bounds 
of Indiana as it is now, was called and held by Governor Harrison and it was 
declared illegal because it was divided into eight districts instead of nine and 
the election had to be held over again. In the first election held in Indiana 
after it was reduced to its present size by cutting off Ohio, Michigan and Illi- 
nois, the slavery question was to the front. Thomas Randolph, candidate for 
Congress stood for slavery and Jonathan Jennings stood against the institu- 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 1 27 

tion of slavery and was elected. In 1810 the first complete census was taken 
and showed the population to be 24,520. The statistics of that date show 
that in the territory there were 33 grist mills, 14 saw-mills, 3 horse mills, 18 
tanneries, 28 distilleries, 3 powder mills, 1,256 looms and 1,350 spinning 
wheels. Total value of manufactures, $196,532. 

In 181 1 the property qualification of voters was abolished, and the right 
to vote was extended to every free white male person twenty-one years old 
or over, who had paid a county or territorial tax and had been a resident one 
year. 

Thomas Posey was appointed Governor by the President in 1813, to 
succeed Harrison, who had been made commander in chief of the army in the 
west. He was the second and the last governor of the territory. In 181 1 
the capital was changed from Vincennes to Corydon, in Harrison county. 
A new state house was built of blue limestone, taken from the near-by 
hills. It was two stories high and forty feet square. On the fourteenth 
day of December,' 1813, the Legislature adopted a resolution asking Con- 
gress to admit Indiana into the Union. In the memorial the Legislature 
asked that the state be admitted according to the sixth article of the ordin- 
ance — without slavery. In 18 14 the voting privilege was further extended 
to every free white male having a free-hold in the territory and being a 
resident thereof. In 181 5 a census was taken showing a voting population 
of 12. 1 12 voters and a total population of 53,897, a gain of 39.377 in five 
years. The 19th day of April, 1816, Congress asked for the calling of an 
election to select delegates to a convention to form a state constitution. The 
election was held on the 16th day of May, 1816, and the convention met at 
Corydon, June 10, 181 6. There were forty-two delegates of patriotic, level- 
headed men. Jonathan Jennings was chosen president of the convention 
and William Hendricks as secretary. They attended strictly to business 
and in nineteen days completed the work for which they were called. Con- 
gress approved, and Indiana was admitted as one of the states into the 
Union on the nth day of December, 1816. 

The election of officers preceded the formal admission of the state, 
which took place on the first Monday of August, 1816, and resulted in the 
election of Jonathan Jennings for governor, Christopher Harrison for lieu- 
tenant governor and William Hendricks as member to Congress. Thomas 
Posey was the opposing candidate for governor. The vote stood 5,211 for 



128 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

Jennings and 3,934 for Posey. The other state officers were elected by 
the Legislature, which met at Corydon on the 4th day of November, 1816. 
Isaac Blackford was elected Speaker of the House. The governor and 
lieutenant governor were inaugurated on November 7th. Robert A. New 
was chosen secretary of state, William H. Lilly, auditor, Daniel C. Lane, 
treasurer, James Noble and Walter Taylor, senators. The tax levy on 
land in 181 7, based on one hundred acres, was one dollar an acre on first- 
class land. The second class land eighty-seven and one-half cents on one 
hundred acres, and fifty cents on one hundred acres third rate land. An 
additional tax was levied for county purposes. The national government 
was assumed by thirteen states. It is a singular coincidence that the re- 
sponsibility of statehood of Indiana began with thirteen counties, 'viz. : 
Knox, Posey, Gibson, Warrick, Perry, Washington, Harrison, Clark, Jef- 
ferson, Switzerland, Dearborn, Franklin, and Wayne. It will be observed 
that Wayne is the most northern of the counties at that time. Over three- 
fourths of the territory of the state at the adoption of the constitution was 
still held and occupied by the Indians, that had no part in this action of the 
white men, and were not in any way considered in the matter more than the 
beasts of the woods. 

WHY CALLED HOOSIER STATE. 

"The night was dark, the rain falling in torrents, when the inmates of a 
small log cabin in the woods of early Indiana were aroused from their slum- 
bers by a loud knocking at the only door of the cabin. The man of the house, 
as he had been accustomed to do on like occasions, rose from his bed and 
hallooed, 'Who's here' ? The outsiders answered, 'Friends, out bird-catching. 
Can we stay till morning' ? The door was opened, and the strangers entered. 
A good log fire soon gave light and warmth to the room. Stranger to the 
host, 'What did you say when I knocked'? I said, 'Sho's here'? 'I thought 
you said Hoosier.' The bird-catchers left after breakfast, but next night re- 
turned and hallooed at the door, 'Hoosier,' and from that time the Indianians 
have been called Hoosiers — a name that will stick to them as long as Buck- 
eyes will to Ohioans, or Suckers to Illinoians." 

Thus the Hon. O. H. Smith, in his early Indiana trial, accounts for the 
name of Hoosier as an appellation to the people of this great commonwealth. 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. I2g 

There are, however, other explanations of the same term, although they may 
not be as authoritative. There was an early traveler in this state by the name 
of Sulgrove. Meredith Nicholson, in his excellent book, The Hoosier School- 
master, gives the following story: 

"Sulgrove related the incident of an Irishman employed in excavating 
the canal around the falls at Louisville, who declared after a fight in which 
he had vanquished several fellow laborers, that he was a 'husher,' and this 
was offered as a possible origin of the word. The same writer suggested 
another explanation, that a certain Colonel Lehmanowski, a Polish officer 
who lectured through the west on Napoleon's Wars, pronounced Hussar in 
a way that captivated some roystering fellow, who applied the word to him- 
self in self-glorification, pronouncing it 'Hoosier.' Lehmanowski's identity 
has been established as a sojourner in Indiana, and his son was a member 
of an Indiana regiment in the Civil war. The Rev. Aaron Woods is another 
contributor to the literature of the subject, giving the Lehmanowski story 
with a few variations. When the young men of the Indiana side of the Ohio 
crossed over to Louisville, the Kentuckians made sport of them, calling them 
'New Purchase greenies,' and declaring that they of the southern side of the 
river were a superior race composed of 'half alligator, half horse, and tipped 
off with snapping turtle !' Fighting grew out of these boasts in the market 
place and streets of Louisville. One Indiana visitor who had heard Lehman- 
owski lecture on "The Wars of Europe" and been captivated by the prowess 
of the Hussars, whipped one of the Kentuckians, and bending over cried, 
'I'm a Hoosier,' meaning, 'I'm a Hussar.' Mr. Woods adds that he was 
living in the state at the time and that this was the true origin of the term. 
This is, however, hardly conclusive. The whole Lehmanowski story seems 
to be based on communication between Indiana and Kentucky workmen dur- 
ing the building of the Ohio Falls canal." 

This could hardly have been the origin of the time because the canal was 
not built until 1830. Much earlier than this; in fact, 1828, a man by the 
name of John Finley, a Virginian, came to Indiana and lived in the state 
several years. He had been here at least seven years, when he published a 
poem known as The Hoosier Nest, in which he uses the word Hoosier. Evi- 
dently it had been in use for some time, because Finley himself could scarcely 
have originated the term. Finley is describing an early Indiana life when he 
says : 

(9) 



I30 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

"I'm told in riding somewhere West, 

A stranger found a Hoosier nest; 

In other words, a Buckeye cabin, 

Just big enough to hold Queen Mab in. 

Its situation low, but airy, 

Was on the borders of a prairie; 

And fearing he might be benighted 

He hailed the house, and then alighted. 

The Hoosier met him at the door, 

Their salutations soon were o'er. 

He took the stranger's horse aside 

And to a sturdy sapling tied. 

Then having stripped the saddle off, 

He fed him in a sugar trough. 

The stranger stooped to enter in, 

The entrance closing with a pin; 

And manifested strong desire 

To seat him by the log-heap fire. 

Where half a dozen Hoosieroons, 

With mush and milk, tin-cups and spoons, 

White heads, bare feet and dirty faces, 

Seemed much inclined to keep their places. 



SLAVERY QUESTION. 

We can not trace the early history of Indiana, without alluding to the 
slavery question. It was the dominant political issue all through our terri- 
torial history. The ordinance of 1787 prohibited slaves and involuntary 
servitude ; yet in the same ordinance there was a conveyance of property 
that carried the right of property in slaves.. At the time of the adoption of 
this ordinance, there were in the bounds of Indiana approximately, two hun- 
dred slaves in what is now Indiana. As slavery was abolished by the ordin- 
ance, many of the slave owners moved into the Spanish possessions. A few 
remained and claimed a legal right to their human chattels, on the ground 
that when the northwest territory was conveyed to the United States there 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 131 

was a provision that the French and Canadian inhabitants and other settlers 
who have possessions as citizens of Virginia, shall have their possessions 
secured to them wherever they go. Negro ownership was considered a pos- 
session and the immigrant that brought his negro to the territory of In- 
diana was guaranteed the right to his property. In that way the institution 
of slavery was planted and continued as long as the slaves that were brought 
within our bounds lived. According to the returns of the United States 
census of 1820, there were one hundred and ninety slaves in Indiana. In 
1840 there were only three slaves, two in Rush county and one in Putnam. 
In 1843 there was only one and the institution perished at his death. Slavery 
agitation was the dominant question in politics, although not always to' the 
front. In 1802 there was a convention at Vincennes that asked Congress 
that the sixth article of the compact of the ordinance be suspended for ten 
years, on the ground that the slaves were needed to develop the new country, 
and American citizens who could ill be spared were being driven to the 
Spanish dominions because of their slave holdings. This convention was 
composed of delegates apportioned among the counties and Governor Har- 
rison presided over its sessions. The territorial Legislature of 1805 re- 
quested the repeal of the restricting clause. In the Legislature of 1807 Con- 
gress was memoralized in behalf of slavery. No attention was paid by 
Congress to these petitions ; but the agitation continued to stir Congress and 
there were many that sympathized with the sentiment. A counter agitation 
arose in 1807 and it must have been the first meeting in the territory of In- 
diana against the slave institution. A number of citizens met at Springville 
on the 10th day of October of that year and formed a memorial vigorously 
protesting against the extension of slavery or any violation of the ordin- 
ance of 1787. From that day the fight in Indiana never ceased until the 
slave institution was killed by Abraham Lincoln January, 1863, as a war 
measure in the suppression of the rebellion. The election of congressman 
in the years 1809, 181 1 and 1813 Jennings and Randolph were lined up as 
opposing candidates for and against slavery. In each of these campaigns 
Jennings was elected on the anti-slavery principle. Still the advocates of 
slavery clung to their cause and made a vigorous fight in the constitutional 
convention in 1816, where they met their defeat by the adoption of the 
clause in the constitution of the new state of Indiana. There shall be neither 



132 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

slavery nor involuntary servitude in this state, otherwise, than for the punish- 
ment for crime. This ended the question in the state of Indiana, but the. 
institution remained until the death of the last slave that was brought here 
by the settlers until the last one died in 1843, an d the institution in the nation 
was ended by the amendment of the constitution of the United States in the 
year 1865 as the resultant of the Civil war. 

UNDERGROUND RAILROAD. 

One of the great agitators that led to the war and the overthrow of 
the slave institution was what was termed the underground railroad. Slav- 
ery got into Indiana through the principle tenaciously adhered to by the 
advocates of slavery wherever any other property could be carried. This 
principle climaxed in the Dred Scott decision that made no distinction be- 
tween slave property and other possessions. In a word, a slave owner 
should have the right to hunt and recover his property in a slave, wherever a 
northern man could hunt for and recover his horse. The anti-slavery ad- 
vocates denied this right. They instituted the underground railroad to avoid 
the law and assist the fleeing slave from bondage. The organization for 
this purpose established routes with private homes as stations to secret the 
fugitives by day and from which the fugitive could be transported by night 
while dark and stormy to the next station in safety. Many a thrilling story 
of narrow escapes from pursuing masters were known by those that con- 
ducted the clandestine escape. In the early settlements of the state there 
were many of these roads and they were well known by all those let into the 
secret and by the fleeing slaves. Boone county came in too late to have 
these roads, and we do not know that one ever existed within her bounds. 
There may not have been any well defined roadways or perfected organiza- 
tion, yet there was plenty of warm sympathy for the slave and also pro- 
slavery sentiment. Many of the early citizens of Boone county came from 
the southern states. Some in search of freedom and free institutions and 
others still in sympathy with the slave institution. These two sentiments, 
grew here side by side, as they had grown in the nation at large, and when 
the great struggle of life and death came on in the sixties, the sentiment 
manifested itself and the slave issue had a following until the war ended 
the controversy. There was an organization of the Knights of the Golden 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 1 33 

Circle in the south portion of the county that made a few drills and a slight 
demonstration. It was of short duration and when the war closed it passed 
away and has been forgotten. It is presumed that there never was a slave 
by law in this county and very few that have been in bondage. There are- 
but few of African descent in the county, perhaps as few as in any other 
county in the state of Indiana. 



CHAPTER VII. 

EARLY LIFE EARLY RECOLLECTIONS, EARLY TRIALS HARDSHIPS ROAD 

BUILDING EARLY GATHERINGS. 

"Thought like the tide swings within fixed limits, with ages for systole 
and disastole, ebb and flow, and to know today yon must be a student of all 
the past." 

The story of the early life in Boone county has never been told. It 
would make volumes of interesting literature. Glimpses of the story have 
been given in the record of the different settlements, as they have come up in 
the various settlements in the county but we deem it proper to give a general 
outline of the life of the white man in the woods. 



HOW DID HE GET HERE f 

One hundred years ago there were no white men in this section of coun- 
try for miles unless it would be now and then an adventurer passing through 
the land on a discovering expedition, or on a trade with the Indians for some 
pelts. At an early date there were no dwellers of the white race in the land ; 
no home builders. There were no roads by which they could come. There 
was nothing but the Indian trail winding through the dense woods from 
Indian village to village, or from spring to spring, and now and then over 
the hunting ground. There was no way by which a horse or vehicle could 
travel about over the country. It was nothing but one continuous tangle 
of woods and underbrush all over the county, and during the wet season 
covered with bogs and morasses, and in many localities with lakes of water 
with no apparent flow in any direction. 

The first highway leading into the county was the Michigan road which 
ran from Indianapolis to Lake Michigan, entering Boone county at the south- 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 135 

east corner and passing through the eastern part of the county. This was 
the first thoroughfare leading into the county. It was the first cutting away 
of the underbrush and hewing down of timber to make way for travel by 
vehicles. Eighty-six years ago this work was begun. Later came the state 
road leading from Indianapolis to Lafayette, which entered the county near 
the southeast corner at Royalton, and passed through the center of the county 
and out near the northwest corner. One other road leading from Indian- 
apolis to Crawfordsville was constructed in the early day, which cut across 
the southwest corner of the county. 

By these three highways the pushing pioneer was able to find his way 
into the woods of Boone, by overcoming the greatest of difficulties. We 
would not call them roads in this age. They were just gaps in the dense 
woods so you could see daylight. They were full of stumps which the team 
would have to wind around and now and then an impassable bog that at 
times became impenetrable. Yet these were the great thoroughfares that led 
into the wilderness over which swarms of immigrants worried their way in 
the search of their Eldorado of a home. These roads soon became the stage- 
way into the new country, over which sightseers and home seekers traveled 
in the lumbering stage coach drawn by four or six prancing steeds. The 
stage stations where the horses were changed, were of more importance that 
day than railway stations are in this age; and the merry notes of the bugle, 
that announced the coming of the stage, and echoed through the woods was 
vastly more thrilling and exciting than the shrill whistle of the approaching 
steam train of our day. What a hustle there was at the Ho-tel de Ville at 
Eagle Village on the approach of the stage. Everybody was on the run. 
The hostlers ready with fresh horses, prancing in their eagerness to go. The 
stage was no sooner stopped, the driver winding up his long lash, dismounted, 
perhaps with some expletives not admissable today. Then the jaded horses 
were removed and fresh ones in their stead were prancing eager to be off. 
The driver would remount, cry out all aboard, unfurl his long lash and snap 
it at the leaders, with such vigor, that they danced to go, and off they went 
on a fly around the corner with a whirl. 

Say, fellow-traveler from the woods of seventy-five years ago, do you 
remember the old stage coach? Do you remember what aspirations rose in 
your breast to become a stage driver? There was something fascinating 
about it that carried a boy off his pegs. He desired above all things to leave 



I36 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

the brushy farm and be a stage driver and learn the art of whirling the long 
whip with such skill as to knock a fly off the tip of the left ear of the off 
leader, without touching the horse. Do you wonder at the fever that would 
seize the early Boone boy under such exciting circumstances? You might as 
well expect a boy to fly over the tall trees as to expect a live boy to have no 
fever on such occasions. 

The first roadways leading into Boone county from the settled sections 
of the country were the Michigan road, the State road from Indianapolis 
to Lafayette, and the road leading from Indianapolis to Crawfordsville. It 
was upon these roads that the white man found his way into this county. 
Who were the people that came ? They were mostly native-born Americans. 
Very few foreign people ever found their way to this county, even in its later 
history. The trend of migration in the central part of Indiana was along 
about the same parallel following the national road to Indianapolis, thence 
northwest following the Michigan, Lafayette or Crawfordsville road. Either 
of these roads would land the traveler within the limits of Boone county. 
The people that traveled along these lines were generally from Pennsylvania, 
Ohio and eastern Indiana. Some of our people came from Kentucky, Tenn- 
essee, the Carolinas and some from the Old Dominion. 

How did they get here you ask ? There were no roads until the people 
were here to make them, so that the first that came had to make the road as 
they came. The very first came over the Indian trails. This was nothing 
but a winding path through the woods for one to tread on foot, or possibly 
on horseback. The first man that came by wagon had to hew a path wide 
enough for his team. The next that came could get along easier, and so on, 
in this way the early settlers pushed their way into the wilderness, the roads 
growing as the country became settled. It was a long difficult struggle, con- 
suming two generations before the present development was effected. It 
would be a very difficult matter for those enjoying the comforts of this day 
to comprehend the hardships that our forbears had to endure. Felling the 
timber, rolling the logs to the side of the road, removing the stumps, not by 
dynamite but by main force, and last and hardest, corduroying the bogs and 
morasses so that they would not mire in the mud of that day. The people 
•came at first afoot, on horseback, in ox-carts and in great wagons drawn by 
oxen and horses. Each would make a picture and furnished our own Hoosier 
poet with his dream of home. 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 1 37 

By long struggle and much hard work, the weary pilgrim reached the 
point where he concluded to drive the stake for his home. He found a high 
place near a spring of water if possible and cut away the timber for his 
home. A few neighbors gathered in and helped him raise his round log cabin. 
It was very crude at first and scarcely sheltered him from the storm and the 
beasts of the forest. We will not stop here to describe what has so often 
been told. It served the pioneer family for a home and they were content and 
as happy and in fact more so, than the dwellers in a palace of later days. As 
soon as the crude shelter was established, the entire family go to work to 
enlarge the home. The daily avocation is to cut trees, pick brush, cut and 
roll logs to widen the clearing around the home. This was the process of 
developing every pioneer home in the county. By toil the clearing widened 
into door-yard, garden, orchard and into fields until there was a little farm. 
It was considered a great blessing when neighbors could begin to see each 
other's homes in the winter. It was not so lonesome. 

While this work was being done schools were provided for the children, 
very crude at first. Mills were established and churches and roads leading 
toward them, so comforts began slowly to multiply, and the blessings of civic 
relations began to develop and the pleasures of life multiply. The early social 
features among the men were log rollings, cabin raisings, foot races, wrest- 
lings, and for side shows, huntings, shooting matches, bear fights and the 
like. The youth had their spelling-bees, apple-parings, huskings and the 
women quiltings, spinning and weaving tests, so that there was joy all around 
and as much delight and real social enjoyment in that early day as there has 
ever been since. There have been great changes in seventy-five years but 
very little improvemnt in the social and real pleasures of social, religious and 
intellectual life and enjoyment. Oh, the joys of the sugar-camp and the 
ecstacies of cider and apple butter days. Hundreds of pleasing stories could 
be recited of real incidents along these pleasure lines, of the life of our fath- 
ers, without exhausting the store. By such toil and hardship, homes, roads, 
schools, churches and beautiful farms were developed, by draining out our 
swamps and morasses. The chief product of the land is what is known by 
the race of men that preceded us — by the name of "Mondamin" and by our 
name of corn. We submit here a little story of each : 



I38 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 



mondamin (Indian.) 

You may not know just what is meant by this title word, but the boys 
and girls that lived here one hundred years ago knew it well. It was their 
principal food. They raised it just north of Thorntown. It took all summer 
for it to grow. Our people raise it today. It is our principal crop and has 
become a great source of revenue. We live in the part of the world that is 
fitted for the growth of this plant. You can't raise it all over the world like 
wheat, but there are certain belts where it thrives. It requires rich soil, plenty 
of moisture and warmth. It is natural for us to feel badly when our goods 
are damaged by rain or storm or drouth, and the heart often sinks within us 
at weather disasters. If we would just have faith and trust and work on, 
things will even up by the time the year will round up. Good old Mondamin 
is now doing its best to even up matters, and it bids fair to make this a boun- 
tiful year. It is pouring in millions every day into our bins. Just watch the 
great armies of plumed knights lined up in the fields by the roadside, with 
millions of waving green banners to salute you. If you but listen you can 
hear the joyous laughter as they are bringing plenteous food for man and 
beast. Go a little deeper and listen down in the heart, and you can hear the 
wave offering of blade and plume as it softly sings praises to the bountiful 
Giver of all good. We ought to bow our faces in shame when we complain 
of too much or too little rain in this goodly land. God has always fed us 
bountifully. He knows what is for our good and he knows how to manage 
the elements much better than man. The Indian that lived here before our 
fathers came had their patches of Mondamin. They did not raise great fields 
of it as we do. This country then was a vast forest with only a little clearing 
here and there. The people thought more of game than they did of grain. 
Our fathers changed things. They cut down the forest and made fields. 
They changed the name Mondamin to corn. The women did the work in 
raising Mondamin while the men hunted ; now men do the work in the fields. 
Then they produced a little for food for man, now we aim to feed the world 
bountifully. Less than one hundred years has wrought this wonderful 
change upon the face of this land. This is the work of culture and refine- 
ment. It shows what man can do when he uses his God given powers. A 
mixture of brain with muscle and heart makes a good compound, a trinity 
in man that can produce a God-like power to do. This great change has 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. " I39 

been brought about gradually. Our children scarcely perceive it. They 
were born in the lap of our luxury and think it always existed. They do not 
know how to appreciate the present blessings, and yet they have been de- 
veloped in the life time of our worthy citizen, Mr. Bellis. From Mondamin 
to corn represents one of civilization's cycles. From a wilderness of path- 
less swamps to fruitful fields, roads and happy homes, all in less than one 
hundred years. What will our children do in the next century? Will they 
uproot the weeds of sin, cut down the Upas tree of licensed wrong and make 
of this land a very Eden? Will they change corn to manna and fill the land 
with flowers, fruits and celestial delectables? 



corn (White Man.) 

There is no plant that is more common or better known to our boys and 
girls than this cereal. Here we only apply this name to one species of grain, 
but over the world's history and in books it is the general name of any kind 
of grain that is used to make bread. The term corn in its broader sense 
means wheat, barley and other grains, but in our country it only means 
Maize or Indian corn. If the world knew anything about it before Columbus 
discovered this country it had lost sight of it, and it is commonly put down 
as being a native of this country. If it was ever cultivated in the old world 
it went out of use and was not known in western Europe until the new world 
was discovered. Columbus introduced it into Spain in 1520 and it spread 
rapidly over the old world because of its great productiveness. We all know 
it so well in this country that it is not necessary to describe it here. It might 
be well for us to learn the names of the different parts and their uses. It is 
called Zea, a genus of grasses. When full grown the top or tassel, as we call 
it, is termed the male flower. It is a loose panicle or plume at the top of the 
culm or stalk. The female flowers are axillary spikes that shoot out from 
the base of the blades or leaves. The spikes which form the cob are covered 
with tough husk and from underneath come very long styles or silken 
tassels. There is one of these silken threads for each grain that is formed. 
The process of formation and growth is a very interesting study and is be- 
coming more so to the growers of corn. If you will plant a grain of corn 
and watch its growth from start to finish you will find it very interesting. 



I4O BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

If you only have one stalk or plant by itself you need not expect an ear of 
corn. It will be well for you to look into the reasons of this failure. Corn 
is not only the most productive of cereals and the richest as a food for man 
and beast, but the entire plant is very useful. The study of the uses of corn 
will help us to appreciate the value of the plant. Every one in this land 
knows how well all our domestic animals love it as a food, and we all know 
its fattening qualities. We also know something of its food properties for 
man. We know the Johnny cake, dodger, pan-cake, pone and muffin. The 
plain old bowl of mush and milk sticks to our memory and ribs to this day. 
Then there is hominy cracked and whole grain. And who does not long 
for roasting ears in mid-summer and corn puddings, succotash and heaps 
of tasty dishes. Who is there that does not enjoy in mid-winter the pop 
corn. See the grains dance around, turn inside out with fluffy snowy white- 
ness. There is no grain on the face of the globe that brings to man more 
real enjoyment and benefit than our plain common corn. The culinary art 
is developing daily delicate savory dishes from this bountiful source of food. 
We have only time to name starch, glucose, sugar, smokeless powder, paper, 
collodium, lubricating oil, explosive denatured alcohol, mattresses, cellulose, 
dextrin, cornpith, fodder and ensilage. Every particle is of use and can 
serve some good purpose. It is a great blessing to man. When perverted it 
becomes a great curse. Can you tell what it is that men sometimes make out 
of corn that entails untold misery and distress? 

You will note by these stories that corn was the chief cereal food at 
first. There was wild meat in abundance but no wheat at the start. Corn 
was the first product for food. They had to fight the squirrels, crows and 
other enemies or lovers of the grain, to get even a share of it for the family. 
Often the farmer would have to kill hundreds of them in trying to drive 
them away from his corn patch. There was no game law then to protect the 
squirrel, it was a big game for the farmer to protect his corn. After the 
corn was raised it was a task to get it made into meal. There were no mills 
at first. Many a pioneer in the very early days made his supper on parched 
corn and venison. And before the days of the mill they would break the 
corn in a mortar as the Indian did. Before the first mill in Boone county 
was built on Eagle creek, the early settlers if they went to mill would have to 
go back to Decatur county to have their batch of corn ground into meal. 
This would take them six or eight days, and the brave little woman would 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. I4I 

have to stay by herself while the defender of the home was off after bread. 
Note in the story the different processes in farming then, than now and you 
will have some conception of what our fathers endured in the beginning 
here. From the reap hook to the binder. From the flail to the separator, 
from parched corn and the mortar to the roller process of our day. From 
the Johnny cake and Dutch oven to the kitchen range. From the trails in the 
dense woods to the trolleys and steam roads. From the hackle and spinning- 
wheel to the myriads of spindles and mystic looms, — what a transition in the 
life time of one man. 

EARLY RECOLLECTIONS. 

Orchards bloomed around the home and the cabin nestled in the pink 
and white bring up the fond recollections of the old cider mill with its wooden 
crushers that would make the juice fly from the rosy cheeked apples while the 
horses went round and round with the long sweep, the great tank or trough 
that held the juicy pomace; the wide platform upon which was built cheese 
upon cheese of the crushed apples until there was a great stack held in place 
by straw at the edges; then came the thick boards and blocks of wood on 
top and under the huge beams held in place at the press end and stretching- 
far out and worked up and down by a lever. My ! how the cider came run- 
ning out when the weight of the beam came upon the stack of pomace. 
Didn't we, boys gather around the flowing stream of sweetness with shining 
tin cups and fill ourselves up properly? As soon as the first flush was over 
the levers at the long end of the beam were set to work and they would 
squeeze and squeeze until every drop was out. Then came the apple butter 
stir, the boiling down three into one and the filled barrel that was always left 
out in the orchard with bung out and long rye straws handy. How fond 
recollection clings around those cider making days and the moonlight plays 
in the orchard with rye straws and a bungless barrel of sweet cider. 

Our fathers planted the fruit trees just as soon as the forest trees were 
removed. They grew luxuriantly, and in a few years there was abundance 
of fruit. Apples, peaches, pears, plums and of all sorts common to this clime. 
Those good old days are yet fresh in the memory and full of halo. When 
the autumn day closed and the "frost was on the 'pumkin' and the fodder in 
the shock" after the ingathering of the fruits, the family would gather 



142 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

around the hearth ; glowing with fire and flames creeping between the crooked 
logs like great red tongues, there was a merry ring with Tom the great cat 
and the faithful dog counted as much members of the family as any in 
the bunch. What a delight and ecstacy of joy there was in those evening 
parties of the family, and much more when neighbors would join in the 
company, making the cream of the social custom of the youthful country. 
The basket of apples was always there and the pitcher of cider and nuts 
with lap stone and hammer. What innocent joy in the circle from grand- 
parents all around, including the youngest and even the cat and dog. How 
we loved to watch the pictures in the fire come and go, and the flickering 
shadows and pictures on the walls. How we waited for the apple on the 
hearth as it sputtered and stewed eager for it to be pronounced done. There 
we mingled night after night cracking nuts and jokes. We flung the long 
apple peel around the head to see what letter would be shaped on the floor 
or heated the great iron shovel and placed the apple seed upon it to see how 
our hopes and expectations would fly away. Thus night after night our 
fortunes were told. The very best of all these pleasant evenings in which 
each member of the family could take part and be happy, mother never com- 
plained about us scuffling out the carpets or throwing apple peelings and nut 
shells on the floor. If they would become too thick for comfort she would 
take the broom, which was always handy in the corner, and whiff them all 
into the fire. This was the great social feature of the pioneer days, and we 
have doubted whether what we call the progress of civilization has added to 
the pleasures or the moral influences of these good old times of our fathers. 
They are much more enjoyable than the stiff public social functions of our day 
that are so full of forms and "just so's" that everybody feels that he is 
in an iron jacket. It might be a good thing to take up some of the innocent 
pastimes of past days and incorporate them in our social features of this 
age. Just imagine that you are around the old family hearthstone and the 
circle complete, and see if it does not rejuvenate you. Think of the fra- 
grant Rambo as it mellows into fall, and the coming of the golden bell- 
flower or the pale green pippin, the spicy baldwin. Then think of honest 
Old Ben Davis, the faithful Winesap, Northern Spy, Limber twig, and by 
all means do not leave out the dusky Golden Russet. Oh, the apples, 
apples every where and ever the same, great red, ripe, luscious globes, bear- 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 1 43 

ing in their shining skins the sweetness of spring blossoms and summer's 
long sunshine. Around these cluster many a fabled song and story. Classic 
lore gives us Eris vexed because she was not invited to the wedding, threw 
down the golden apple marked "To the Fairest,'' which provoked a quarrel 
between Juno, Venus and Minerva. Did not the choice of Paris bring 
down the vengeance of the Immortals, the Trojan war, and many other 
horrors? Let Homer tell you about vexed Tantalus, from whom the winds 
ever blew the apple for which he so longed. It must have been with an apple 
that Eve got the better of Adam. It was the target at which William Tell 
shot on the head of his son. It was the one thing above all others that in- 
fatuated the erratic "Johny Apple Seed" and moved him to plant every- 
where. The English had a good old custom of "Howling" the tree, call- 
ed "Wassaing the orchard." On Christmas eve they would take a large 
bowl of cider and sprinkle about the roots of the trees surrounding the 
best and singing three times round, 

Hail to thee, old apple tree. 

May'st thou bud and may'st thou blow 

May'st thou bear apples enow, 

Hats full, caps full, 

Bushel, bushel, sacks full, 

And my pocket full, too. Hurrah! 

Then would come a merry troop of boys to the orchard, dancing around 
the tree and sing and shout merrily : 

Stand fast, root: Bear well, top 

Pray God, send us a good howling crop 

Every twig, apples big 

Every "bow" apples enow. 

The poets have all tried to sing the song about the apple, Bryant, "The 
Planting of the Apple Tree," Holland, "Celler Full of Rosy Fruit," 
Whittier, "The Winter Fireside," Alice Carey, "Farm Song," and O, down 
in your heart have you not sung many a time as you were trying your 
luck in guessing the number of seeds or twirling the paring, 



144 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

One I love, two I love, 

Three I love, I say. 

Four I love with all my heart, 

Five I cast away; 

Six he loves, seven she loves, 

Eight they both love, 

Nine he comes, ten he tarries, 

Eleven he courts, 

And twelve he marries." 

Say, don't you wish today that you could believe as you did in those 
good old charming days of the pioneer and have the faith and simplicity 
of that day? 

The great days connected with the apple were cider day, paring 
festivities, the gathering of the fruit and apple-butter day. At the close 
of cider day usually came an evening of paring apples for the apple-butter 
the next day. The choicest apples were reserved for this use, usually sweet 
ones. They were carefully gathered and brought into the family room in 
heaping baskets after supper and all hands that were skilled set to work. 
This was the preparation for the apple-butter festivities of the morrow. 
Everything must be in readiness for the day so that nothing would hinder 
the work. Bright and early next morning everybody about the home was 
astir early in order to get a good start. The great bright copper kettle was 
brought forth, shining like the sun and to a boy looking about as big. It 
was hung on a long pole, filled with cider, and a fire kindled under it. The 
cider was boiled and skimmed until it was clear of all scum and the apples 
were put in. After they were well cooked and danger of settling to the 
bottom and burning was over mother would appear on the scene and her 
vigils began. The stirrer was made of a piece of a board, long enough to 
reach to the bottom of the kettle. A long handle was inserted in one end 
of the paddle in a hole at one end, at right angles so the person stirring could 
sit away from the fire. All day long mother watched over the great shining 
kettle and stirred and stirred to keep it from scorching. 

It was a tedious process in those good old days, but it was good and 
more than one boy and girl would linger around the outdoor camp waiting 
and watching for the time when mother would pronounce it done. She 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 



145 



would lift the long handled stirrer from the kettle and announce it done. 
There were always two or three of us with generous slices of bread ready to 
clean the stirrer. Those were good old luscious times. We never knew 
which gave us more delight, the stirring off of sugar in the spring or the 
stirring off of a great kettle of apple butter at the close of a sleepy October 
day. It generally took the entire day to make the round, but the jolly 
festival in the evening stirred by the rollicksome play made it the most joy- 
ous festival of the year to us youngsters. Modern methods have changed 
all this. It saves hard work and knocks out all the fun, and the butter does 
not taste so well as it did when mother made it seventy years or more ago. 

They will take a copper coil nowadays instead of the big copper kettle 
and with steam heat, put in the cider syrup and pared apples and in a short 
time turn out what they call a clearer, smoother and some say a more delici- 
ous product than ever mother could make. We have our doubts. They 
come from the memories of the past. The modern product does not have 
the richness of taste or the color. It is pale and too fine spun and made more 
for looks than taste. 

Very early in the history of Boone county, Dan Cupid took up his abode 
and began business just as he did elsewhere in the land. The first we hear 
of him was in Eagle township. He is reported as entering the home of 
David Hoover, our first county clerk. Just how he entered is not recorded, 
but he got into the cabin in some way and captured the accomplished daugh- 
ter of the clerk and by some influence caused him to enter upon the records 
of the county the following as the first in the history. 
Boone county, Indiana, to-wit : 

To any person legally authorized to solemnize marriage in the county 
of Boone : 

Greeting: You are hereby authorized to join in the holy bonds of 
matrimony, Elijah Cross and Polly Hoover, both of said county, according 
to the laws of the State of Indiana and of the same make due report. 

Given under my hand and the adopted seal this 13th day of January, 
1831. 

(Seal.) David Hoover, Clerk. 

The very same day the following record follows: Be it remembered 
that on the 13th day of January, 183 1, a marriage license issued to Elijah 
(10) 



146 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

Cross and Polly Hoover, both of Boone county and both of lawful age, a 
certificate of which of whose marriage is endorsed on the back of said license 
in these words, I, Benjamin Harris, a justice of the peace, in and of the county 
of Boone do hereby certify that Elijah Cross and Polly Hoover, both of said 
county were legally joined in marriage by me on the 13th day of January, 
1831. 

Benjamin Harris, Justice of the Peace. 

By this record it seems that Mr. Cupid set up shop at Zionsville, fash- 
ioned his arrows after the best of the Indians and had them train him in 
shooting so he became an expert and could bring them down off hand. 

The home of David Hoover on the banks of Eagle creek was among 
the first in the county and became the center of attraction in the county. It 
was in this house, an unpretentious round log cabin, the first religious meet- 
ings were held by Rev. James McKoy, a Baptist minister in 1825. It was 
in this house that the filrst probate court was held and David Hoover was 
the first clerk of the court; and be it known that it was in this house that 
Dan Cupid first took up his abode in Boone county and began business. 
He was successful at the start and has kept up a brisk business ever since. 
It chanced that one Elijah Cross was mysteriously drawn by some unseen 
force to this cabin and pierced to the heart by one of Cupid's arrows. He 
never recovered. The shot was fatal and resulted as previously stated. 
The new clerk of court and father of Mary, the fair, had to give up his 
daughter and give Elijah the papers to lead Mary captive. How was she 
gowned? We knew that you would ask that question. Everybody will 
want to know how the first bride of Boone county was arrayed for the nup- 
tials. We can assure you that it was no hobble or wide crinoline. Neither 
of those styles had come to the county at that early date. She was robed 
like an angel in pure white, full skirt with embroidery of her own handy 
work, a handsome pink sash, with neat ruching around the neck and wrist 
and white silk mitts and hose and tan shoes, looking as neat and handsome 
as any bride of our day. The groom was a handsome stalwart Tennessee 
lad of twenty-four, was neatly dressed in store clothes, fresh from the best 
shop of Cincinnati. He was marrying the first lady of the land, the judge's 
daughter, and he would have to have some look about him. He looked like 
he had just come from the band box. Conventional black, swallow tail coat, 
buckle shoes, white hose and kid gloves. 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 1 47 

The wedding tour was on horse back, ending at his own home, where 
the happy couple began home building at once. It was the first newly wedded 
home in the county and was happy and successful. It was located where 
Zionsville now stands and was blessed with ten children : Martha, David H., 
Rachel A., Levinia E., Jacob A., John G., Louisa C, James L., Columbus W. 
The parents are at rest in Crown Hill cemetery at Indianapolis. 

James Whitcomb Riley says : 

Right here at home, boys, in old Hoosierdom, 
"Where strangers alius joke us when they come. 
And brag of their states and enterprise — 
Yit settle here; and 'fore they realize, 
They're "hoosier" as the rest of us, and live 
Right here at home, boys, with their past forgive. 

Right here at home, boys, is the place, I guess, 
Fer me and you and plain old happiness. 
We hear the world's lots grander — likely so — 
We take the world's word fer it and not go — 
We know its ways ain't our ways — so we'll stay 
Right here at home, boys, where we know the way. 

Right here at home, boys, where a well-to-do 

Man's plenty rich enough — and knows it, too, 

And's got an extry dollar, any time. 

To boost a feller up 'at wants to climb 

And's got the git up in him to go in 

And get there, like, he purt' nigh alius kin ! 

Right here at home, boys' is the place fer us ! 
Where folks' heart's bigger'n their money pu's ; 
And where a common feller's jes as good 
As any other in the neighborhood; 
The world at large don't worry you and me 
Right here at home, boys, where we ort to be! 



148 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

Right here at home, boys- — jes right where we air! 
Birds don't sing any sweeter anywhere, 
Grass don't grow any greener'n she grows 
Across the pastur' where the old path goes — 
All things in ear-shot's purty, er in sight, 
Right here at home, boys, if we siz'em right. 

Right here at home, boys, where the old home place 

Is sacred to us as our mother's face, 

Jes as we rickollect her, last she smiled 

And kissed us — dying so and reckonciled, 

Seein' us all at home here — none astray — 

Right here at home, boys where she sleeps today." 

A PICTURE OF THE GROWTH IN EIGHTY-FOUR YEARS. 

There have been such great changes in that time that we can only name 
a few of them. During our life there has been a complete change in every- 
thing that is used to produce food, raiment, homes, transportation and com- 
munication. Take bread, the staff of life. The wheat was sowed broad- 
cast, reaped with a sickle by hand, threshed with a flail, winnowed with a 
sheet, ground by great stones with straight faces, one stationary and the 
other called the upper millstone running around. The bread, pies and cakes 
as good as you ever saw, were made by mother and cooked in a big dutch 
oven out-doors. We remember the first cook stove also, the first heating 
stove that ever came into the home. After the sickle came the cradle to cut 
the grain and then the reaper, raked off by hand, next self rakers, next bind- 
ers which lead up to our bunchers and headers of this date. 



THRESHING. • 

After the flail came the threshing floor, then the chaff piles, next the 
separator, horse-power, then steam, and now the machine to take the sheaf, 
cut the bank, stack the straw and sack the wheat. 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. I49 



The old flax hackle, the carding machine, the spinning wheel, the reel, 
the warping beam, the loom and with all these the fond recollections of 
mother's handy work. The first dress I ever wore mother carded the wool, 
spun the yarn, wove the cloth, cut and made the garment and it was nice, 
warm and healthful. 



Well do we remember the horse back, the ox cart, the farm wagon, the 
first carriage, the old dirt roads, mud in winter and dust in summer. We 
remember the old stage coach and the wickedness of the driver, the fitrst 
canal, the first turnpike, the first railroad in eastern Indiana. We need make 
no mention of the cycle, the trolly, the auto, the airship of this day. We 
have witnessed all these innovations. 

There have been equal changes in school life and opportunities, in 
churches and their privileges, and in our homes with all their modern im- 
provements and appliances. When we take a retrospective view the changes 
are so marvelous that we can hardly believe our own memory. We wonder 
if the changes will be so marked in the next fifty years. We feel like saying, 
on with the world, let it move. It is not subdued yet. All the elements and 
forces are not yet serving man. The work is not all done. Our young 
men need not fold their hands and say the work is all done. There is noth- 
ing for me to do. There is still need of work of skill and of thought. If 
all hands are folded, the ship of state and all in it will drift back. It will 
take effort and much toil to go forward. Up and at it. 



BOY WANTED. 



"Wanted — a boy." How often we 
This quite familiar notice see, 
Wanted — a boy for every kind 
Of task that a busy world can find. 



50 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

lie is wanted — wanted now and here; 
There are towns to build ; there are paths to clear ; 
There are seas to sail ; there are gulfs to span, 
In the ever onward march of man. 

Wanted — the world wants boys today 
And it offers them all it has for pay. 
'Twill grant them wealth, position, fame, 
A useful life and honored name. 
Boys who will guide the plow and pen; 
Boys who will shape the way for men; 
Boys who will forward the tasks begun ; 
For the world's great work is never done. 

The world is eager to employ 
Not just one but, every boy 
Who, with a purpose stanch and true, 
Will greet the work he finds to do. 
Honest, faithful, earnest, kind — 
To good awake ; to evil blind — 
A heart of gold without alloy — 
Wanted — the world wants such a boy. 



A TRUE STORY. 

In the "dark and bloody land" in the morning of the past century, as 
near Independence day as could be and miss it, July 3, 1807, there was a baby 
boy born in Shelby county, Kentucky, and christened William E. In 181 1, 
Thomas and Anna Lane, the parents of the hopeful, moved to Indiana terri- 
tory and settled on the banks of the beautiful river, in what is now known as 
Harrison county. 

In 1828, William E. came to the county of Boone and entered land near 
the north part of what is now Eagle township. After locating his home 
and cutting the trees for his cabin, he returned to his father's home to see 
the eirl that he had left behind. He told her all about his venture into the 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. I5I 

deep woods and the rich farm that he had entered and of the bright prospects 
he had for a future home. He doubtless added parenthetically, if she would 
only go also to share its joys with him. He may not have said anything 
about its fears, for it was satisfactory to Miss Betsy, the pet name he had 
given her. In the fall of 1830 they were married and on the thirty-fitrst day 
of December of that year, they started on their nuptial tour to the north to 
locate and build a home. In the spring of 1831, he called in a few of his 
neighbors to erect his cabin, eighteen by twenty-three feet. It was covered 
with clapboards riven out of red oak, and held to their place on the roof by 
stiff poles laid across. Into this cabin the young bride was taken and they 
began home building with high hopes. There was an opening for a door 
but no shutter. 

In that day of Boone there were rattlesnakes, wolves, bears and wild 
boars infesting the land, the latter most formidable of all. The greatest 
difficulty of that early period was in going to mill. These were far apart, 
there were no roads except the blazed way, and it was extremely difficult to 
follow them. William could not reach a mill without being gone over night. 
They talked it over. Elizabeth was a brave Kentucky girl. She assured 
Will that she was not afraid, so the sack of corn was made ready. They 
had no wheat in those days. Old Doll was brought into service and one 
bright morning in October, William bade Betsy good bye, and set out for 
the mill. The last words he said before disappearing in the woods was, 
"don't be afraid Betsy, be a brave little girl." It was a long, lonesome day, 
and when the shadows of the night crept early into the great woods Betsy's 
heart began to flutter and she wondered how she would pass the long, lone- 
some hours of the night. She had never staid all night by herself before. 
She had been told of the wild animals that infested the woods and most 
dreadful of all were the Indians. What could she do if one came to her 
door? She would rather meet all the animals than one Indian. She could 
not barricade the door for there was no shutter, only a comfort or home- 
made coverlet. Barricade it with chairs and tables? Bless your life she 
did not have any; no stoves, or box, nor anything, and William had taken 
the gun. It would do no good if she had one, for she was not trained to 
shoot. She only had one defense, that was old Tige, the faithful dog. He 
would look at her, read the anxiety in her face, and say as plain as a dog 
could speak with tail and eyes, "I will take care of you this night." Betsy 



I52 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

seemed to understand the dog and after setting the cabin in order, trusting 
in her faithful guard she sought slumber. Very little came to her. Fearful 
thoughts drove restful sleep away, she only caught cat-naps. 

About midnight Tige became very much excited. He would growl and 
whine around, look at Betsy and then at the door. Betsy seized a firebrand 
from the hearth and urged Tige to his duty. She heard the coarse growl of 
a Bruin and soon Tige got such a blow that he was whirled into the middle 
of the floor. He soon recovered himself and went for the bear and Betsy 
vigorously brandished the firebrand to get the singe on him, so that Sir 
Bruin thought it safe to beat a retreat. The fight over, both Betsy and Tige 
kept up their vigils till break of day, and on William's return she had a 
wonderful story to rehearse of the terrors of that lonely night in the cabin 
in the woods. 

The father of this brave pioneer girl who helped to lay the foundations 
of this county and deliver it from the wilds of the woods to its present 
happy condition, Thomas Simpson, was the brother of John Simpson, who 
was the father of U. S. Grant's mother. 



BOONE'S OLDEST MALE RESIDENT. 

Isaac Bellis, of Thorntown, is probably the oldest male resident of the 
county. He is according to the records in his family Bible, over ninety-nine 
years of age, having been born February 22, 1815. 

Mr. Bellis is a native of Ohio, having been born in Hamilton county, 
that state, on a farm. He was married to Amanda May in 1834. To this 
union twelve children were born, six of whom are still living. The three 
daughters reside in Thorntown and are, Emeline, Mary McCorkle, and 
Alethia Bee Jaques. The first named is the oldest, her age being seventy- 
five. She is housekeeping for her father. The sons are : Clark and Theo- 
dore, living at Indianapolis and Alva C, residing at Grand Rapids, Michigan. 

Mr. Bellis moved to Boone county in 1855 and settled on a farm in 
Washington township. He lived on that farm until 1909 when he moved 
to Thorntown, where he still resides. 

Mr. Bellis' first presidential vote was cast for William Henry Harrison 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 1 53 

and when the Republican party came into existence, he joined that party 
and has been a consistent supporter of its tenets ever since. 



REMINISCENCES TALKS OF THE OLD DAYS. 

J. Webster Johnson, who was visiting Thorntown, having resided here 
years before, in discussing old times stated the following: 

"In the plan of the home-coming of the old boys we have found the 
biggest reunion combination we have ever met if judged by the real and 
enduring enjoyment resulting. To my sister and I it means a review of our 
birthplace, scenes of our childhood, school days, Sunday school and early 
church life. Uncle Jay McCorkle was superintendent of the Presbyterian 
Sunday school. Here I visit the scenes of my first efforts at business; from 
here I went to the war of the rebellion, serving in the Seventy-second and 
later in the Forty-fourth Indiana Volunteers. 

"Thorntown has spread over perhaps twice its size in the time I have 
resided at Iola, Kansas, my present home. Here people seem to enjoy the 
good things of life rather than going at the strenuous rush that kills. The 
tone of morals and the temperance here is indeed refreshing to one who loves 
humanity. 

"Of the old citizens, those who were on the active list from 1854 to 
1869, we have met but very few. Isaac Bellis, Thomas Gregory, Robert 
Laverty and James Davis are still here [now deceased.] I recall a host who 
have passed to their reward: Uncle Jay, Samuel and Milton McCorkle, E. 
Kinkaid, several of the Crose family, Johnnie Hughes, six of the Taylor 
family, Louden and his sons, the Clouds, Mofntts, Browns, Pickets, Whites 
and in the Dover and Shannondale neighborhoods the elder Caldwells, Corys, 
Hills, Mounts, Thompsons, Burrises and Irwins. 

"Of my old army comrades, many are gone to the other world: D. 
Laverty, Milt Millikan, L. Garret, George Ewbank, Robert Matthews, Jasper 
McCorkle, W. Pyke, Coletraine and scores of others; and school mates by 
the score. But of those who remain and who have greeted us, a number so 
great I fear you will take it as a Kansas bluff if I would mention at least 
two hundred individuals with whom we were acquainted in 1869 when I left 
for Iola, Kansas." 



I 154 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

WESTWARD HO! 
By Joaquin Miller. 

What strength! what strife! what rude unrest! 

What shocks! what half -shaped armies met! 

A mighty nation moving west, 

With all its steely sinews set 

Against the living forests. Hear 

The shouts, the shots of pioneer, 

The rended forests, rolling wheels, 

As if some half-check'd army reels, 

Recoils, redoubles, comes again. 

Loud sounding like a hurricane. 

O bearded, stalwart, westmost men, 

So tower-like, so Gothic-built! 

A kingdom won without the guilt 

Of studied battle, that has been 

Your blood's inheritance * * * Your heirs 

Know not your tombs: the great plowshares 

Cleave softly through the mellow loam 

Where you have made eternal home, 

And set no sign. Your epitaphs 

Are writ in furrows. Beauty laughs 

While through the green ways wandering 

Beside her love, slow gathering 

White, starry-hearted, May-time blooms 

Above your lowly leveled tombs; 

And then below the spotted sky 

She stops, she leans, she wonders why 

The ground is heaved and broken so, 

And why the grasses darker grow 

And droop and trail like wounded wind. 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 1 55 

Yea, Time, the grand old harvester. 

Has gather'd from you wood and plain. 

We call to you again, again; 

The rush and rumble of the car 

Comes back in answer. Deep and wide 

The wheels of progress have passed on; 

The silent pioneer is gone. 

His ghost is moving down the trees, 

And now we push the memories 

Of bluff, bold men who dared and died 

In foremost battle, quite aside. 

"What strong uncommon men were these, 

These settlers hewing to the seas ! 

Great horny handed men and tan; 

Men blown from many a barren land 

Beyond the sea! Men red of hand, 

Men in love and men in debt, 

Like David's men in battle set; 

And men whose very heart had died, 

Who only sought these woods to hide, 

Their wretchedness, held in the van : 

Yet every man among them stood 

Alone, along that sounding wood 

And every man somehow a man 

They pushed the mailed wood aside 

They tossed the forest like a toy 

That grand forgotten race of men — 

The boldest band that yet has been 

Together since the siege of Troy." 

These were some of the men, the braves and stalwarts who hewed down 
the forests and laid the foundations of the state of Indiana. We owe them 
a debt of gratitude that we ne'er can pay save in kind and reverent remem- 
brance of their sacrifice and heroic work for us. Whenever and wherever 
you see a log cabin greet it as an altar, where sacrifice and toil was offered for 
the upbuilding of the state, that we might have a heritage of peace and happi- 



I56 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

ness. It is meet and proper and our bounden duty to so remember those 
who poured out their lives in toil and suffering for our comfort. They 
have finished their arduous work and gone to rest. It is our duty to rever- 
ence and honor them. 

INTERESTING INFORMATION. 

Pertaining to Boone County People, Places and Historical Events. 

New Brunswick was laid out in 1850. 

Isaac Snow platted Mechanicsburg, in 1835. 

The town of Fayette was founded by Edmund Shirley and William 
Turner. 

Volney L. Higgins, of Harrison township, is the oldest active teacher 
in the county. 

Boone county has more iron bridges spanning its streams than most 
other counties of the state. 

Clinton township was first settled 1832 by James Downing, William 
Nelson and Isaac Cassady. 

Farmers' Institutes are held annually at Lebanon, Thorntown, Zions- 
ville, Elizaville and Fayette. 

The price of farm land in Boone county ranged from forty dollars to 
sixty dollars per acre and now from one hundred and fifty dollars per acre 
and up. 

Ward is a namesake of Thomas B. Ward, congressman from this dis- 
trict when the postofnee was christened. 

There are forty voting precincts in Boone county — two new ones being 
created at the sitting of the commissioners in June, 1898. 

Osceola was formerly the name by which Advance was known, the 
name being given to it by Sol Serring of Jackson township. 

Lebanon, Thorntown, Zionsville and Elizaville are supplied with natural 
gas from the region of Sheridan. Local capitalists own the Zionsville plant. 

The first resident of Lebanon was Abner H. Longley, who some years 
ago returned to this city on a visit from his home in Kansas. He settled 
here in 1832. 

Residents of Boone county, at one time, were the subjects of much ridi- 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. I 57 

cule and were often referred to as being web-footed or with moss on their 
legs, but it is so no more. 

Uncle Davy Caldwell, living one-half mile west of town, is the next 
oldest resident of the county, being born March 21, 1804. He entered four 
hundred and eighty acres of land where he now resides, November 2, 1833, 
getting same for one dollar and twenty-five cents an acre. He sold one 
black walnut tree for enough money to pay for forty acres. 

Dr. Thomas H. Harrison, once the editor of the Pioneer, was one of 
the leaders of the free gravel road movement in Boone county. 

The first child born in this county was Mary Sweeney, in 1827. The 
first marriage was John Pauley to Emily Sweeney, in 1828, and the first 
death was Mary Ann Westfall, in 1829. 

William Smith was a noted character in the early history of the town. 
He was the third white settler of the town and cut and rolled the first logs 
off the square. He says that he had killed three deer with his rifle inside 
the present boundaries of the court house park. He was the first tavern 
keeper in the town and was noted as a foot race runner. It is told that he 
once caught a deer and killed it in a race over what was once an open prairie 
but now the site of the city of Chicago. 

The town of Whitestown was laid out in 1857 by Ambrose Neese. It 
was originally called New Germantown, but afterwards changed to its pres- 
ent name in honor of Hon. A. S. White, ex-congressman and the first presi- 
dent of the I. C. & L. Railway, now Big Four. 

Aris Pauley laid out the town of Dover in 1850, and called the place 
"Crackaway," afterward called Dover. The postoffke is now designated 
by the government as Cason in honor of Judge T. J. Cason, who represented 
the district in congress at the time the change was made. 

Andrew Cliffton, aged ninety-six years, is an old resident of the county. 
He lives in Harrison township. 

Mrs. Phariba Lane, widow of Levi Lane, came to Boone county in 
1835 and settled in Lebanon in 1836. 

As a sample of what this county was prior to its redemption and trans- 
formation, it is reported that in an early day a man and his team sunk in 
the mud near where Mrs. Martha Daily's residence on Main street now 
stands, and passed out of sight and was never heard of again. 



I58 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

The first jail of the county was a one-story log house, about ten by 
twelve feet, without a window and with but one door. It stood where the 
gas regulator now stands in the northeast corner of the court house yard. 
This gave way later to a more modern structure built on the back part of 
the lot where Castle Hall now stands, at that time in the rear of the court 
house. This building was two stories high, built of logs and had neither 
windows nor doors in the lower story. Prisoners were taken up stairs from 
the outside and let down through a scuttle hole in the floor of the upper story 
by means of a ladder. The size of this building was about twenty-five feet 
square and twenty-five feet high. This gave way, in later years, to a little 
brick jail in front, where the court house had stood, which afterward gave 
way to the present magnificent jail spoken of in another column. 

"Uncle Jimmy" Dye, of Northfield, the venerable father of county 
recorder, James M. Dye, delights in telling the younger generation of the 
time when he killed deer and bear on ground now covered by the Boone 
county court house. He and his brother, Jacob, were solicited to clear the 
grounds for the public square, because of their superior ability in that line. 

The Boone county cottage at the Soldiers' Home at Lafayette, Indiana, 
has six rooms with bath and all other conveniences sufficient to accommodate 
twelve persons or in other words six old soldiers and their wives, and is so 
occupied now. It was completed in 1897, the building of which was author- 
ized by the county commissioners of this county who appropriated one thou- 
sand two hundred and fifty dollars for that purpose. It is well located and, 
while it is not so large as some of the buildings erected by other counties, 
none are better equipped, or furnishes more conveniences. 

The first court house in Lebanon was a log structure fronting on the 
street, where the Castle Hall building now stands. The second building of 
this kind was on the site of the present building; this was torn down in 1856 
to give place for the new building. During the interval between the tearing 
down and the building anew, court was held in the various churches of the 
town, especially the old Methodist church. The county offices were mainly 
on the west side of the square in the upper story of a frame building, which 
stood where the Lebanon National Bank building now stands. It was here 
that a fire destroyed most of the records of the county, entailing for many 
years no end of trouble in securing titles to real estate. 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 1 59 

AN ESSAY WRITTEN BY W. H. MILLS AND READ AT THE OLD SETTLERS MEETING 
AT SUGAR PLAIN ON SEPTEMBER II, 1883. 

Ladies and Gentlemen and Old Friends: 

Being bashful, unassuming and modest, I have little ability to address 
you as others, yet with your permission and with the assistance of a friend 
to read for me, I shall present you an essay on this occasion. I do not feel 
that 1 was really one of the old settlers of this locality. I have not seen 
three score years and ten, nor shaken hands with Daniel Boone. Neither 
did I see Dick Johnson kill Tecumseh. I do not claim these honors. Yet 
I have seen some serious things in ye olden times, the reminiscences of which 
may not be uninteresting. 

I am a North Carolinian by birth and the reason that I did not have the 
pleasure of the acquaintance of Sir Walter Raleigh, who settled that state, 
or he the honor of shaking hands with me is, that he died one or two hun- 
dred years before I was born. I left my native state at eighteen years of 
age, and came to Wayne county, Indiana, fifty years ago this fall. Like 
most other emigrants from the south we had but little money, or fine clothes, 
but we found the people of Wayne much in the same fix; and as misery likes 
company, there was very little pity exchanged either way. I worked about 
by the day much of the time at thirty-seven and one-half cents per day, 
although for quite a time I got fifty cents per day driving a log team, four 
or six horses at a lime, a thing the other boys of the neighborhood could 
not do. I thought I was a little smart for a Carolinian and the neighbors 
may have thought so too. I cut cord wood for quite a while at twenty-five 
cents per cord, that was for charcoal for smithing purposes. Thus time 
moved on for about three years and I found I was old enough to vote and 
I began to think I was old enough to do some other way than drag around 
in this style. Although we had our fun, we made sugar and of course we 
had to have our maple wax and candy pullings, and it seems to me yet, like 
the girls then were sweeter with a mouth full of maple wax, than the girls 
of the present day would be with all the sweet things you could give them. 
So as 1 thought some of them were rather smitten with me, I would take 
one of them, and as Greeley said, "go west and grow up with the country." 

We went up to the northwest part of Madison county, and there located. 



l6o BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

I had saved twenty dollars and by the assistance of a friend I borrowed 
thirty more and entered forty acres of land, and built a camp of poles and 
boards. And last July, forty-seven years ago, we went into it. We had a 
pretty rough time of it generally. I went to mill twenty-four miles on horse- 
back and what would you suppose was in the sack — wheat? Not much, 
there was not a patch of wheat for miles around. We had on the north the 
Indians and a few white neighbors on the other side of us. We did not 
prefer to neighbor with the Indians, but we did not have our way about it. 
They were great beggars and they would steal our horses and ride them off. 
My brother had an excellent fine black pony and about the time he needed him 
worst they took him along. His mettle was up, the neighbors sympathized 
with him ; and I was tender hearted in that case. So a company of us con- 
cluded to pick our flints and go for pony, Indian blood, or anything that 
crossed our path. Well there was not much path ; they had a dim track part 
of the way in coming to our settlement and going to Strawtown to buy 
whiskey. Their headquarters was where Kokomo now stands; we found 
the village and likewise the pony. They had his mane and tail close shaved 
and had his fore legs tied together with hickory bark. We did not think any 
more of them for that. They said, no take him, but we did take him. I 
will not tell you how, and I will not say I was bad scared, but there was 
something the matter with me; on reflection it might have been the bump 
of caution on my head expanding, and to this day I don't like Indians any 
better than white folks. The pony and his old master went to Iowa and the 
pony lived about thirty-three years and his master could yet be my witness 
of this little unpleasantness. 

Before leaving the hunting grounds of Madison county, I wish to relate 
a little of my experience in speculation. After living there five or six years, 
some of us began to feel a little important; we were the owners of quite a 
quantity of hogs. They were not Berkshire nor Poland Chinas; they were 
Elm Peelers, a species of animals that like the mastodon had their day and 
disappeared. We had a big mast that year and they were in fine fix for ye 
olden times. We were a little green about prices as we didn't take the 
papers, and a buyer came along and said if he could get about all in the 
neighborhood, he would give us a cent a pound for them. Several of us 
consulted and came to the conclusion that we knew the way to Cincinnati 
about as well as he did, and that we would drive our own hogs. Then after 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. l6l 

buying enough to make about five hundred, including what we raised, seven 
of us fixed for the journey. We hired four hands to help drive, making I 
think eleven in all. Then there was an old Virginia wagon with the top of 
the cover about twice as long as the bottom of the bed. We put four horses 
to it, and as they had learned that I could drive more than one horse and a 
Carolina cart, they detailed me to drive. I thought if there was any fun I 
would have my share riding that big saddle horse and looking down on the 
boys and hogs. Pretty soon a big hog refused to walk, so I found myself 
trying to lift one side of him into the wagon and if ever I saw stars without 
looking up it was lifting those muddy hogs. 

We had a blue time generally, getting to the city and having them 
slaughtered and delivered, and what would you suppose we got for them — 
one dollar and seventy cents net. The next thing was to see how rich we 
were; we figured one afternoon and nearly all night and concluded next 
morning to guess it off and go home. We had one very smart man and a 
great peacemaker with us, and had it not been for him, all the lawyers and 
friends we had could not have got us out of that scrape. We sent him to 
the Legislature for his services that long night and other good things he 
done. The rest of them I believe walked home. I had a load of goods to 
haul back or I would have been broke. That cured me of speculating in 
hogs. 

It is not worth while for me to say much about the state of Boone; 
there are a few of the old ones left that can tell it better than I can. It is 
solemn to think how few are left that were here forty-one years ago. I 
think nearly nine-tenths of them have disappeared, mostly gone where we 
are all fast hastening. I will name a few of them and close my remarks : 
Our old friend Oliver Cravens is perhaps the oldest settler; Isaac Gibson, 
John Higgins, Allen Kenworthy and perhaps half a dozen others, among 
them was Doctor Boyd. When I first saw him, down the road with his pill 
bags going to see a patient, he looked like a beardless boy, but time has 
wrought many changes and his locks are now silvered with gray. Hoping 
to meet with you on similar occasions, I bid you all adieu. 

N. B. — I aimed for the tone of the above remarks to correspond with 
my age as the circumstances occurred. 

W. H. Mills. 
(") 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 



A TRUE STORY. 



In the early fifties far up in the bogs of Boone, where the lazy stream 
of Wolf creek, crept sluggishly on its way, winding through brush and fallen 
timber, scarcely knowing which way to go or what direction to take for the 
Sea, there lived a worthy pioneer family. 

It was approaching Thanksgiving, the neighborhood was discussing 
the preparations for the feast. All nature was out in the spirit to do some- 
thing for the occasion; she rolled back the dark folds of her curtain and 
opened the very windows of the heavens and spread upon the earth a deep 
fluffy carpet of feathery snow. The trees were bending under its weight 
and stood like so many sheeted ghosts. There was hustle about this home. 
William, the pater familias, was busy giving orders to the household to see 
that everything was in line and that each was aiding to right things. He 
called to Cad a lad of seven or eight summers; can't you go down to the 
turkey-pen and see if we have a bird? 

It is a nice thing if a family has a boy in it to bring up the odd ends 
of work. Can't have much of a family without a boy; of course girls are 
nice and sweet, a home would be lonesome and desolate without them; but 
when there is a turkey game on, and a deep snow and the pen away down in 
the woods, it takes a live boy to bring things around. 

What is a turkey pen? Of course boys of our day do not know. They 
are smart enough and know heaps of things that a boy three score years ago 
did not dream of. Well, a turkey pen is a trap in which to catch wild tur- 
keys. That was a game of sport that boys had in those early days that 
those of our times know nothing about. How was it made? Well, they 
took small like logs eight or ten feet long — owing to how big they wanted 
the pen to be — split through the middle from end to end, and then placed 
them on each other end to end, notched so they would be close together and 
made four square, using sufficient logs to make the pen high enough so the 
boy in it catching the turkeys would not bump his head. It was then covered 
over with rails and brush, so the birds could not get out. How did they 
get in? Well, that is a joke on the turkey. You see when these great big 
birds are hunting for food they go about with the head down to the ground, 
looking closely for bugs and grain or something to eat. They will crawl 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 1 63 

under logs and brush in search for food. The very moment a turkey is 
frightened, he pops his head up as high as his long neck will let it go and he 
has not got sense enough in his bald pate to look down again for an escape. 

Our forbears knew all about this trait of their weakness and cunningly 
took advantage of it. On one side of the pen they dug a trench as big as a 
turkey could walk in, leading out from the pen two or three yards, and into 
the pen under the lowest log and towards the center, placing a wide board 
over the trench just inside, so Mr. Gobbler could get in a bit before popping up 
his head. In this trench corn is scattered freely, allowing plenty to be 
visible around outside, so when the pride of the sylvan wilds comes with his 
following in search of a breakfast for all, he sees the bait and in his well- 
known turkey language and with as much gallantry as a cock of the roost in 
the barnyard, he summons all his mates to take up his trail into the ditch. 
In they go, picking up the corn as they progress and pressing ever on for 
more and more until all are enticed into the trap and when once inside, the 
sudden surprise causes them to lift up their heads in alarm. Seeing no way 
out they become frightened and try their skill and agility leaping, flopping 
and peeking their necks between the logs, but they never think once of look- 
ing down to the trench for a way of escape. They are caught. 

Where is Cad all this while ? Is he standing out there in the cold freez- 
ing? Not a bit of it. Do you suppose a boy will stand around when he is 
asked to see if there are turkeys in the pen? Yonder he goes as fast as his 
heels will fling him through half-knee deep snow. He is nearly at the trap. 
The turkeys see him. They are frightened still more. Every one of them 
sticks his head out between the logs and flops and flies about as if each was 
a half dozen. Cad sees them, stops, tries to count, one, three, five, seven, 
eleven, a hundred. He turns on his heels, starts back, looks around to see 
if he can believe his eyes, runs his best towards home, gets out of breath, 
stops a minute and then on, until he reaches home out of breath and with 
great effort between short whiffs stammers out I-it-it's f-fu-full-o-of-t-th-the- 
the-m. All the male force of the house with horse and sled, guns and dogs 
start out in post haste for the turkey pen and there they find it just as Cad 
in broken cadences had reported. If there had only been another turkey in 
that pen, there would have been one round dozen. It was the biggest catch 
ever taken in Boone at one haul. The poor unfortunate turkeys paid the 
price and there were Thanksgiving festivities among neighbors, and even 



164 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

Doctor Boyd, the family physician, held a feast at his home over one of the 
unfortunates, and Cad, yes the boy Cad was the hero of the whole bunch for 
he was the Columbus who discovered a pen full of the American Thanks- 
giving birds, and got his full share of the feast. 



DANIEL BOONE. 

As our county is named in honor of Daniel Boone, the frontiersman 
and Indian fighter of Kentucky, we deem it proper to print a story about his 
beautiful daughter. Betty. 



BETTY BOONE, OF KENTUCKY. 

Betty was in a great hurry. She flitted about the little room like a busy 
honey bee. When at last it was in shining order the little girl smiled. 

"Now I can go to the woods," she cried, "in search of the pink flowers 
that Isaac Smith found yesterday.'' She clapped her slim brown hands glee- 
fully and scampered out of the low door. 

"Betty, child, where are you going?" cried the neighbor in the next 
cabin. 

Betty courtesied politely. "Just for a little walk. Mistress Bliss. My 
mother is at Mrs. Aaron White's, caring for her sick baby and my work is. 
all done." 

Mrs. Bliss shook her head. "I am sure your mother would tell you to 
keep away from the woods. What if a wild cat should put his sharp claws 
in you, or worse still, what if the savages should carry you off to Canada?" 

Betty tossed her brown curls a little. "Indeed, I am not afraid of wild 
cats," she said grandly, "and it would be brave Indian who would dare to 
lay his hands on a daughter of Daniel Boone." 

"I wish your mother were here, said Mrs. Bliss. 

Betty courtesied again and hurried on, half afraid that Mrs. Bliss would 
stop her. The woods were very cool. Squirrels and birds were everywhere. 
As the little girl climbed a knoll covered with brown pine needles, she cried 
out in delight, for there was the pink moccasin flower she was seeking. 

She pressed her moist red lips to the flower. "You darling!" she- 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 1 65 

breathed. A little further on she came to a place where a crowd of the 
lovely flowers bloomed together. Down on her knees went the little maid 
to pick the treasures. 

The twigs crackled behind her. She turned and found herself facing an 
enormous Indian. The child stared fearlessly into his black, beady eyes. 

"What do you want?" she demanded. "Have you come to see my 
father, Daniel Boone?" 

The savage still looked at her without speaking. Betty tossed her curls 
and went on picking flowers. She really was badly frightened, but she knew 
better than to let the Indian see it. 

Another minute passed. Suddenly he bent over and seized her by the 
wrists. "Little squaw, come with me," he grunted. 

"Daniel Boone will kill you if you touch me," Betty said sternly. 

"Ugh,' - mumbled the Indian, still pulling her along. Somewhat to his 
surprise, Betty suddenly yielded and came along obediently. "Good squaw," 
said the Indian, and let the child have her left wrist free. Very deftly she 
broke off a twig here or bent down a bush tree. "No, no," said the Indian 
by and by, as she pulled off a long spray of rhododendron leaves. "No, no," 
he repeated, fingering his tomahawk. 

Betty did not dare to break any more twigs, but she contrived to tear 
her blue apron on a thorn bush. Then here and there she let fall a shred of 
blue calico. It seemed to poor little Betty that she had been walking for 
miles and miles when her captor suddenly brought her into an Indian encamp- 
ment. 

It was a very noisy place. Dogs barked, children shouted, and women 
chattered. Betty was thrust into a dirty wigwam. She lay there tired and 
exhausted, fearing that in the evening she would be carried away as Catherine 
Hatch had been. Then she remembered her father. "Father will find me," 
she whispered to herself, and flinging herself down upon a pile of skins fell 
fast asleep. 

When Mrs. Boone came home from Mrs. Aaron White's and found her 
little daughter was gone, she was very much frightened. Worst of all, 
Daniel Boone himself was away upon an exploring expedition. 

She walked up and down the kitchen floor. All at once the door opened 
and Daniel Boone walked in. 



1 66 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

"I felt that I was needed at home," he said, "and I came back to see if 
anything was wrong." 

"Betty is gone," sobbed her mother. "Mistress Bliss says that she went 
for a walk several hours ago." 

Daniel Boone kissed his wife without speaking and strode out of the 
cabin. Five minutes later he, with two other stern faced men, entered the 
forest. 

Isaac Smith had a bright thought. "I gave the little maid a flower yes- 
terday. Methinks she has gone in search of others." 

"Show us where they grow," commanded her father. Together the 
men climbed the little knoll. There were Betty's treasures strewn upon 
the ground. 

Daniel Boone's gray eyes flashed. "She is in the hands of the Indians. 
Every minute counts." 

Isaac Smith's eyes spied a broken twig. 

"They went this way," he declared. "See, the little lass has marked 
the trail they were taking." 

The men quickly made their way over the ground. Then the trail stop- 
ped, but a rod or two further Daniel Boone discovered the little blue shreds 
of calico apron and at last they came to the Indian village. 

Boone walked boldly in. The old chief came to meet him. He was 
very much afraid of Boone, so he pretended to be very glad to see him. 

Boone looked straight ahead. "I have come for my little maid," he 
said coldly. 

The chief shook his head. "I have not seen your papoose," he said 
blandly. 

Then Isaac Smith walked over to a wigwam and threw back the open- 
ing of skins. "Come, Betty," he said calmly. 

Betty opened her eyes and sat up. This time she heard her father's 
voice as well as Isaac's. She came flying out of the wigwam and threw 
herself into her father's arms. 

"O, father,' she sobbed, "I knew you would come and get me." 

So Daniel Boone and his little maid, with Isaac Smith and the other 
brave scout, walked out of the camp of angry Indians. 

"You are a clever little lass to mark your trail," said her father ap- 
provingly. 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 1 67 

Betty smiled for the first time since the big Indian captured her. 

"The next time that I want to go after flowers I shall ask either you or 
Isaac to go with me," she said with a toss of her curls. 

And to this day in Kentucky they tell the tale of nimble-witted Betty 
Boone, of Boonesville. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

MILITARY HISTORY OF COUNTY. 



CAUSES LEADING TO THE CIVIL WAR. 

God sifted three nations and obtained seed to plant a new nation. It 
was brought across the sea and planted on Plymouth Rock. It was a cold, 
bleak rock in New England, barren and uninviting. The men and women 
that planted this seed in the new world were brave and abounded in virtue 
and integrity of character. The live principle and soul of the seed was civil 
and religious liberty. This was to be the spirit of the new nation that was 
to spring from this seed and make the basis of a new and higher civilization. 

At Jamestown, another seed was planted entirely different in spirit and 
purpose. It had in it the spirit of slavery. It believed that some men were 
made to serve. Out of this came the "First Families of Virginia." The kid- 
glove aristocracy that set up a distinction in men as to rights, drew the color 
line and established the institution of slavery. It was antagonistic to the 
spirit of Plymouth Rock and an antithesis to their idea of liberty and their 
conception of the rights of man. It submitted to the declaration, "that all 
men are equal and ought to be free and independent as far as King George 
was concerned,"' and at the same time held the mental reservation that the 
doctrine did not apply to the sons of Africa. The two ideas grew and spread 
westward; that of Jamestown bearing a little toward the north and that of 
Plymouth bearing toward the south. In the federation of states and in the 
Union, every state held to the teaching and practice of Jamestown, 
except Georgia, and she leaned that way and finally fell into line and became 
a slave state. The battle for liberty must be fought over again. 

There was a declaration for liberty, but in spite of this, there was the 
spirit and practice of the worst form of slavery. As these two ideas moved 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 169 

westward, coming closer and closer together, the discussion grew hotter and 
hot blood ran, and when the sentiment crossed the Mississippi river, Clay 
had to come to the front and effect a compromise between the two factions. 
Mason and Dixon line was drawn and there was apparent peace effected for 
awhile, until new provocations arose. When the two lines met in Kansas, 
the fight was on in earnest. The Mason and Dixon's line would not keep 
them apart. The Missouri Compromise was no longer effective. The spirit 
of Jamestown saw that the spirit of Plymouth Rock was triumphing. 

Fremont stood on a platform that said, "No more slave states." There 
was such a mustering of votes that the south division became alarmed for 
their pet institution of slavery. The sentiment of the north was prevailing. 
Kansas became the testing field, both parties contending as for life itself. 
Stephen A. Douglas became the leader of those who said, "we will leave the 
vexed question to the people." Lincoln stood head and shoulders above 
Douglas for no more slave states. The die was cast. The battle of debate 
was on. The slave element rushed into Kansas with hopes of settling the 
issue of that soil by the will of the people. The people of the north rushed 
into the territory, and two constitutions were formed, one for freedom and 
one for slavery; so it was a drawn battle. 

John Brown was one of the most erratic for freedom. He fought for 
it with all his might and his soul. He conceived the idea of moving the 
battlefield to the Old Dominion where the seed was first planted. He chose 
to start the fight at Harper's Ferry. He felt confident that the people would 
rally to the cause and he would be triumphant. He opened the battle ; there 
was no rally around his standard and it failed. Governor Wise, of Virginia, 
arrested the crazy, or at least erratic leader, and hung him until he was dead, 
thinking that would end the contest forever. John Brown's body was laid 
dishonored in the tomb, but his spirit for freedom marched on. 

The election of Lincoln, in i860, broke the Dynasty. It had reigned 
for sixty years. He was the first president that opposed the demands of the 
slave power. 

He was not an abolitionist of the school of Garrison and Phillips, but 
he stood opposed to slavery going into the territories. This meant no more 
slave states; restriction of the institution; the overthrow of its political 
power. In a word, it meant that freedom and the North would rule. This 
was enough. It classed Lincoln as the rankest of Abolitionists. The cam- 



I70 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

paign was urged on that hypothesis — full of mottoes, transparencies and bit- 
ter invectives along this line. 

Its success was more than the South could endure. Rank rebellion rose. 
The nullifying egg of 1832 hatched out a brood of secession. South Carolina 
led the van, quickly followed by other states. The war cloud arose in the 
South. Preparations for battle were made. The government was im- 
potent. 

Buchanan wrung his hands in agony as he beheld it falling to pieces, 
and said he could do nothing to avert the ruin. He lacked the nerve of 
Jackson. Under this cloud the president elect made his way to the capitol 
clandestinely. He was quietly inaugurated and assumed the responsibility 
over a government dismembered, armyless; fleet scattered to all parts of 
the globe and our forts and arsenals falling into the hands of the enemy; with 
traitors in all departments and armed foes gathering in mad fury and march- 
ing towards Washington. Worse than all this, there were divisions, bicker- 
ings and back-bitings all around him and throughout the North. This is a 
dark picture, replete with imminent peril and full of fearful forebodings. 
It was enough to crush the hope out of any ordinary spirit. 

Lincoln rose to the emergency. The cloud burst upon Fort Sumter. 
At break of day April 12, 1861, the first gun was fired. Its reverberation 
sweeps the North, dissipates the clouds of uncertain action, sets in tune the 
patriotic chord, obliterates party divisions and armies rise as if by magic, 
to resent the insult to the flag and maintain the union. 

The battle is on. The giants Freedom and Slavery have grappled in a 
struggle to death. The tragedy of the centuries is on the stage, with two 
million men in the field. The storm has been gathering from the beginning 
of our government. Our declaration must be made good. Our fathers 
meant what they said. They built the best they could, but there was one bad 
stone put in the foundation that must come out. The man at the helm said 
the government could not stand half free and half slave. This meant 
volumes. 

In the midst of the struggle, when all was dark, when no opening was 
visible, the voice of public nerve said, Go forward ! There the Red sea 
stretched its waves, as to the Israelites fleeing from the bondage of Egypt. 
The modern Moses stood the test. On the 21st of September, 1862, he issued 
his manifesto, with one hundred days' grace. It passed. Pharaoh remained 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. I7I 

virulent and defiant. On the ist day of January, 1863, the Emancipation 
Proclamation was signed that set at liberty four million slaves. This great 
document was afterward sealed by the blood of the signer, mingled with the 
blood of almost every household and freedom, blessed freedom, real freedom, 
triumphed all over Christendom. The stain on our Declaration, the rotten 
stone in the building, are both removed, all men are free, as far as the law 
of the land is concerned. 

This wonderful act marks the climax in our political history to this date. 
It is the great submerged vital, moral question that has pressed to the front 
for settlement. All other questions and issues have been mere make beliefs 
and sidetracks to delude the people and lead the party into power. It has 
reared its head oft before, but was smoothed down by compromises. 

In the work over two generations have lived and died. Political party 
after party has risen and fallen, afraid to grapple the issue. It was left for 
the Republican party, alias Free Soil party, alias Liberty party — born in 1840, 
whose life and soul was the cause of the oppressed — to assume and consum- 
mate this great work. The giant and his furious minions go down. All 
humane thumbs point downward. The great moral principle, the magnetic 
center of our institutions, is focalized in this one grand, glorious battle — 
freedom to all men. The principle must be crystalized into law true and 
certain. Victory came: the price was paid, blood for blood and dollar for 
dollar, to equipoise what has been drawn from the veins of the slave and the 
earnings of his toil for over two centuries. 

Such had been the potency of the slave power thus far. that it not only 
dictated to political parties, but it subjugated the press, silenced the pulpit 
and split the church. In the slave states it was preached as a divine institu- 
tion; while in the free states, it was of the devil. Theologians from the 
same school, teaching the same Bible and praying to the same God, yet, how 
distorted and twisted its application was to slavery in different latitudes and 
environments ! The cravings for bread, or the love of gold, or public senti- 
ment, or the wholesome fear of the rail or tar, or whip or rope, had a won- 
derful effect upon doctrine and application of gospel truth in the minds of the 
ministry upon this branch of sociology. 

There were different schools of thinkers in the Xorth against the institu- 
tion. Some thought it could be removed by education and moral suasion; 
others thought it could be done by insurrection among the slaves, and still 



172 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

others by political action through the ballot. The first idea developed senti- 
ment in the east, and became incendiary in the south. The second idea 
collapsed at Harper's Ferry, while the spirit of its fallen hero nerved the 
armies in the battle. The third idea elected Lincoln, brought on the war, 
freed the slave and wiped the institution of slavery from the face of the 
earth. 

THE WAR CLOUD. 

As soon as Abraham Lincoln was elected President of the United States, 
the South began to prepare for war in earnest. The war was inevitable. 
The first shot was fired on Fort Sumter, April 12, 1861, and the first call for 
volunteers was issued April 15th, for seventy-five thousand men for three 
months. It was not long until the government began to realize the magni- 
tude of the struggle, and issued another call for three hundred thousand men 
for three years or during the war. Thus call after call was issued. As the 
war progressed it grew in magnitude until its fury surpassed the wildest 
expectations of all men. In 1864 calls were issued for over one million 
men. To all these calls of over two and a half million men, Boone county 
responded most royally. She stood to the colors in response to the calls, in 
bravery on the field of battle and in endurance in the march. She was in her 
place during the entire struggle for the preservation of the nation. She had 
representative sons on every battlefield and her honor and her loyalty were 
maintained on throughout the struggle. There were men in the county whose 
sympathy and loyalty were on the other side of the issue. We can not give 
a true history of the county without mentioning the fact, that there was 
enough of this southern sentiment in the county to form an organization. 
The Knights of the Golden Circle had its adherents in Boone county. They 
organized ; how many there were enlisted, there was no record came to light. 
They met and drilled in Harrison township to a considerable extent. There 
was also some drilling in Jackson township north of Jamestown. There, 
fortunes went down with the lost cause and no record is in existence and all 
will be glad to forget and forgive the grave error. 

Notwithstanding this cloud in our war history there is an abundant rec- 
ord to prove the loyalty of our fathers, and the scars that they bear and the 
hardships that they bore, prove beyond doubt their loyalty and bravery. 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. I 73 

The long list of braves that we here record prove the record. Doubtless 
there are other sons of Boone county that enlisted from other sections of 
the country. There are many veterans among us to this day whose names 
may not be seen in the record, because they enlisted from some other section 
of the country. Our records may be very imperfect, but there is a record 
in which there are no errors and each will receive his merited reward at the 
great reckoning. We can not become personal in this record or mention the 
personal bravery of any, but we take pride in the record made for the county, 
and treasure it up as the true wealth of the history of the county. 

Our men and women have been true and brave in the wilderness, in 
their toil and sacrifice in developing this county and giving to her loyalty 
and honor. They were true in all the civil duties of life and they were also 
true and brave in time of war and danger and stood royally to their guns. 
It is an evidence of our stalwartness for it takes the truest of men to stand 
in their place in all the walks of life. We would like to mention here that 
our men are still true to the best interests of the county and the happiness 
of her people. In the late critical trial of manhood they have stood the test 
and banished the greatest foe of the human family. It takes as much 
bravery to fire a civil ballot for the good of mankind as it takes to fire a 
bullet. All honor to the men of Boone that banished the legal right of King 
Alcohol to kill and blotch our citizens. We can say now that no man in this 
county has the legal right to make drunkards of our sons. We are proud 
of the record of our forefathers in the wilderness ; of our fathers in the civil 
struggle for the preservation of our liberties ; and of the bravery and con- 
sistency of our brothers in their successful fight against the legalized evil of 
our day. Through these battles there has come to our county a rich heritage 
that money can not buy. It will be handed down to our posterity to bless 
future generations, and they will rise up and bless their ancestry for their 
good deeds. 

MEMORIAL DAY THE EVER LIVING DEAD. 

Every year, in the full tide of spring, at the height of the symphony 
of flowers and love and life, there comes a solemn pause, and through the 
silence the nation hears the lonely pipe of death. 



174 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

Year after year lovers wandering under the apple boughs and through 
the clover are surprised with sudden tears as they see black-veiled figures 
stealing through the morning to a soldier's grave. 

Year after year the comrades of the dead follow, with public honor, 
procession and commemorative flags and funeral march — tribute from us who 
have inherited a nation's glory to the heroes who gave it. 

As surely as this day comes round we are in the presence of the dead. 
But not all the associations of this day are sad; some of them are triumphant, 
even joyful. 

We seem to hear the funeral march become a pean. Our heroic dead 
still live for us, and bid us think of life, not death — of life to which in their 
youth they lent the passion and glory of the spring. 

Memorial day may and ought to have a meaning beyond mere honor to 
the dead. It celebrates and solemnly reaffirms from year to year a national 
act of enthusiasm and faith. It embodies in the most impressive form our 
belief that to act with enthusiasm and faith is the condition of acting greatly. 
To fight out a war men must believe something and want something with all 
their might. So must they do to carry out anything else to an end worth 
reaching. 

Race calls for its patriotic devotion, no less than war. And, stripped 
of the direct associations which gave rise to it, this is a day when by common 
consent we pause to become conscious of our national honor and to rejoice 
in it, to recall what our country has done and is doing for us, and to ask 
ourselves what we can do for our country in return. 

The great French soldier, de Latour d'Auvergne, was the hero of many 
battles, but remained by his own choice in the ranks. Napoleon gave him a 
sword and the official title "The First Grenadier of France." When he was 
killed, the emperor ordered that his heart should be entrusted to his regiment 
— that his name should be called at every roll call and that his next comrade 
should answer, "Dead upon the field of honor!" In the keeping of this nation 
are the hearts of many heroes ; we treasure them in consecrated ground, and 
when their names are called we answer in flowers, "Dead upon the field of 
honor." 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. I 75 

THE NATIONAL CEMETERIES. 

The nation's dead soldiers are buried in seventy-three cemeteries, as 
well as in local cemeteries with their kindred. Only twelve of the national 
cemeteries are in the northern states, the principal of which are Cypress Hill, 
Finn's Point, New Jersey; Gettysburg, Pennsylvania; Mound City, Illinois; 
Woodlawn, Elmira, New York, which contain the larger numbers. It is im- 
possible to give the number in each cemetery, as the old soldiers are and have 
been falling away rapidly, and a very great many of them are being added 
to the graves of their comrades. 

The largest resting places of the known and unknown dead soldiers are 
Arlington, Virginia; Chalmette, Louisiana; Chattanooga, Tennessee; Fred- 
ricksburg, Virginia; Jefferson Barracks, Missouri; Little Rock, Arkansas; 
City Point, Virginia ; Marietta, Georgia ; Memphis, Tennessee ; Nashville, 
Tennessee; Poplar Grove and Richmond, Virginia; Salisbury, North Caro- 
lina; Stone River, Tennessee; Vicksburg, Mississippi; Antietam, Maryland; 
Winchester, Virginia. Two cemeteries are devoted to the thousands of 
bodies of the heroes who passed away in the prison pens of Andersonville, 
Georgia, and Salisbury, North Carolina. A great many bodies buried in the 
various national cemeteries are those of the unknown dead. Scattered about 
the country are cemeteries largely filled by soldiers who passed away after 
years of citizenship; but nearly every local cemetery contains the body of 
some one or more of the men who took part in the Civil war, and who pre- 
ferred to lie among their kindred in local cemeteries. 



MILITARY HISTORY. 

In 1 86 1, when there was a call for troops, Boone county responded 
promptly with as brave a set of soldiers as ever shouldered muskets. The 
first company organized in the county was Company I, Tenth Regiment, for 
three months' service. The commissioned officers were : Captain William 
C. Kise; first lieutenant, J. W. Perkins; second lieutenant, R. C. Kise. 

Company F, Fortieth Regiment was organized October 7, 1861, and 
mustered out at Texana, Texas, January 23, 1866, after enduring many 
hardships and engaging in many well fought battles. Their record was a 



I76 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA 

brilliant one and the survivors look back upon it with pride. The officers 
were : Captain, Elias Neff ; first lieutenant, John H. Dooley ; second lieu- 
tenant, James Bragg. 

Company A, Tenth Regiment marched under the leadership of Captain 
Chris Miller, First Lieutenant John E. Naylor, Second Lieutenant Alvin 
Gray. 

Company I, Tenth Indiana Regiment was afterward mustered in August 
31, 1 86 1, and during its entire service, the following men served as its com- 
missioned officers: Captains, Isaac C. Elston, Jr., J. W. Ross and James B. 
Simpson ; first lieutenants, Thomas C. Russell, Randolph Kellogg, James B. 
Simpson, and A. S. Riskine: second lieutenants, Randolph Kellogg, Henry 
Groenendyke, E. C. Hornaday and Thomas P. Alexander. 



Notable Facts to be Remembered About the Conflict. 

The demand for the surrender of Fort Sumter was made by General 
Beauregard at 2 o'clock p. m., April 11, 1861, and being promptly declined 
by Major Anderson, at 4:30 o'clock p. m., April 12th, the bombardment 
began and continued until April 14, when Major Anderson was permitted 
to evacuate the fort, which he did by saluting his flag with fifty guns, and 
marching out with colors flying and drums beating, carrying away all com- 
pany property. 

April 15. President Lincoln made the first call for militia to the num- 
ber of 75,000, for three months, "to repossess the forts, places and property 
which have been seized from the Union." Under the call, 91,816 responded. 
May 3, another call was made, this time for 500,000. Under the call, there 
were enlisted 2,175 men for six months, 9,147 for one year, 30,950 for two 
years, 657,868 for three years. 

July 2, 1862, a call was made for 300,000 and there were furnished by 
states and territories 421,465, for three years. 

August 4, 1862, a call for 300,000 militia, for nine months, was made. 
Under this call 87,588 men were furnished. 

June 15, 1863, a call was made for militia for six months' service and 
16,361 were furnished. 

October 17, 1863 and in February, 1864, calls were made for 500,000 




COL. A. O. MILLER'S MONUMENT, BUILT BY THE WILDEB BRIGADE. 



ONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 



177 



more for three years. These were furnished, including those raised by the 
draft, 369,380, under this call. 

Under the call of March 14, 1864, for 200,000 men for three years, 
there were credited to states and territories, including drafted men, 292,193. 

July 18, 1864, there was a call for 500,000. After allowing excess 
credits on previous calls, this resulted in securing 286,461 men. 

The last call for 300,000 furnished 212,212. 

The aggregate of all calls for men, reduced to a three year standard, was 
3,320,272. During the draft period 86,724 men paid commutation amount- 
ing to $300 each for release. This amount was used for bounty money. 

The total number of colored troops enlisted during the war was 186,097. 

The Fire Zouaves raised by Col. E. E. Ellsworth, in New York, were 
the only regiment enlisting for "the war" with no more definite term of 
service stated. 

The state of Kansas has the credit of raising, May 3, 1863, the first 
regiment of colored troops. 

The first action between the Union and Confederate troops in the field 
occurred at Fairfax Courthouse, Virginia, June 1, 1861, with the following 
losses: Union killed, 1 ; wounded, 4; Confederate killed, 1 ; wounded, 14. 

The last action between Union forces and Confederates occurred at 
Columbus, Georgia, April 16, 1865. Union killed, 13; wounded, 53; Con- 
federate loss not recorded. 

Following were the losses in ten principal battles : 

First Bull Run, Virginia, July 21, 1S61 — Union killed, 470; wounded, 
1,071; captured and missing, 1,793. Confederate killed, 387; wounded, 
1,582; captured and missing, 13. 

Shiloh, Tennessee, April 6-7, 1862 — Union killed, 1,754; wounded, 
8,408; missing, 2,885. Confederate killed, 1,723; wounded, 8,012; missing, 
9-590- 

Fair Oaks, Virginia, May 31, 1862 — Union killed, 790; wounded, 3,594; 
missing, 647. Confederate killed, 908; wounded, 4,749; missing, 405. 

Seven Days' Battle, July 25, July 1, 1862 — Union killed, 1,734; 
wounded, 8,062; missing, 6,053. Confederate killed, 3,478; wounded, 
16,261 ; missing, 875. 

Manassas campaign, August 16-31, 1862 — Union killed, 1,717; wounded, 
(12) 



178 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

8,452; missing, 4,263. Confederate killed, 1,481; wounded, 7,627; missing, 
89. 

Antietam, Maryland, September 17, 1862 — Union killed, 2,108; 
wounded, 9,543; missing, 753. Confederate killed, 1,886; wounded, 9,348; 
missing, 1,367. 

Fredericksburg, Virginia, December 13, 1862 — Union killed, 1,284; 
wounded, 9,600; missing, 1,769. Confederate killed, 596; wounded, 1,068; 
missing, 651. 

Stone River, Tennessee, December 31, 1862 — Union killed, 1,730; 
wounded, 7,802; missing, 3,717. Confederate killed, 1,294; wounded, 
7,945; missing, 1,027. 

Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, July 1-3, 1862 — Union killed, 3,080; 
wounded, 14,497; missing, 23,001. Confederate killed, 2,592; wounded, 
12,706; missing, 20,448. 

Wilderness, Virginia, May 4-5, 1864 — Union killed, 2,246; wounded, 
12,037; missing, 3,383. Confederate figures not recorded. 

Losses of Union troops : Total killed in action, 61,362 ; died of wounds, 
34,773; died of disease, 183,287. 

One in every 65 was killed in action. 

One in every 56 died of wounds. 

One in every 13 died of disease. 

One in every 15 was captured. 

It will be noticed that nine of the above great battles were fought before 
the Emancipation Proclamation took effect and in each of them the Union 
losses in killed exceeded the Confederates except the seven days' battle. 

We append here the names of the defenders of the nation that enlisted 
from Boone county as far as we were able to obtain them. We may have 
omitted some. A margin will be left at the close of this list so that any name 
that has been omitted can be inserted. 



BOONE COUNTY. INDIANA. 



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Hon. dis. Nov. 17, '2. Re-entered as Colonel. 

R3S. July 13, '62. Re-entered as Major 135th. 

Promoted to Captain and A. A. G. 

Res. Nov. 3, '63. Re-entered as As. Sur. 135th. 

Resigned Jan. 22, 1863. 

Resigned Feb. 27, 1862. 

I':i a, luted to Surgeon. 

Honorably discharged Nov. 17, 1862. 

Mustered out Sept. Ill, 1864; term expired. 

Killed at Chicka manga, (la., Sept. 19, 1863. 

Mustered out Sept. 19, 1S64. 

Resigned April 1, 1862. 

Mustered out Sept. 19, 1864. 

Mustered out Sept. 19, 1S64. 

Died March 7, 1S62. 

Mustered out Sept. 19, 1S64. 

Dij.l from wound Nov. 16, 1863. 

Mustered out Sept. 19, 1S64. 

Mustered out, lion, discharged. March 12, 1S65. 

Mustered out July 26, 1S65. 

Honorably discharged June 21, 1865. 

Honorably discharged Feb. 10, 1S64. 

Resigned. 

Resigned April 24, 1864. 

Promoted to Ma.ior. 

Lost on si earner Sultana April 27, 1865. 

Promoted to Captain. 


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April 5, 1862 

May 20, 1862 

September 21, 1861 
October 26, 1862.. 

October S, 1862 

September 21, 1S61 

March 4, 1862 

May 30, 1862 

November 18, 1862 
November IS, 1862 
September 20, 1863 
September 2, 1861. 

May 10, 1862 

April 28, 1S63 

September 2, 1861. 

April 28, 1S63 

September 2, 1861. 
November 16, 1863 
November 16, 1863 
September 9, 1S63. 
November 24, 1S64 

May 19, 1862 

February 11, 1S64. 

May 19, 1862 

December 30, 1S61. 

June 1, 1864 

July 1, 1864 


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August 2, 1S62 

December 19, 1862 
December 10, 1862 
March 17, 1863— _ 
December 10, 1864 
December 10, 1864 
December 10, 1864 
December 3, 1S64_ 
December 15, 1862 
September 6, 1862_ 
September 6, 1862. 
December 6, 1862. 
August 14, 1S62 — 
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August 24, 1864 — 
August 14, 1S62 
June 1, 1865 




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SOth Infantry— 
Siltli Infantry — 
86th Infantry — 
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86th Infantry— 
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Major __ 

Adjutant 

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1st Lieut A 

1st Lieut A 

2d Lieut — A 

Captain- F 

1st Lieut F 

2d Lieut — F 
2d Lieut — F 

Captain- D 

Captain- _._D 
1st Lieut — D 
Captain- ... F 
Captain- ... G 
Captain _ — F 

Captain _ F 

1st Lieut — F 

Captain- K 

Captain- — . K 

1st Lieut K 

1st Lieut — K 
2d Lieut — _K 
2d Lieut ... K 
Captain- ...D 
Captain- __ _ D 

Captain. D 

1st Lieut ... D 

1st Lieut D 

1st Lieut .__ D 

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Captain- E 

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William C. Kise 

Benjamin M. Gregory. 

Reuben C. Kise 

William S. Cresap 

Increase J. Avery 

Com ad S. Perkins 

Robert A. Williamson.. 

James H. Hamilton 

Thomas A. Cobb 

Martin T. Jones 

Abner W. Smith 

Carson P. Rodman 

Henry D. McCoy 

Lorenzo G. Tipton 

Israel II. Miller 

.Martin B. Hoover 

John W. Perkins 

Felix Shumate 

I'.eorge Scott 

Jesse Custer 

Joseph T. Cason 

John II. Dooley 

James Bragg 

Alovind' r S. ( 'ainpliell 

Anthony B. Gordon 

Hem. v L. Hazelrigg 

William T. Higgason 




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June 1, 1865 

December 6, 1864. 

June 2, 1865 

May 25, 1864 

May 17, 1864 

May 20, 1864 

May 20, 1S64 


March 10, 1865 

February 21, 1865. 

March 11, 1865 

June 1, 1865 

April 25, 1865 

April 12, 1865 

April 12, 1S65 

April 12, 1865 

April 20, 1865 

July 31, 1865 


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2d Lieut B 

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John M. Atkinson 

George W. Ware 

Samuel L. Monroe 

John L. Boyd 

Thomas B. Lucas 

Robert A. Williamson 

William A. Kenworthy. 


Thomas H. Harrison 

Isaac N. Jacks 

Richard F. Jacks 

Cliarles H. Gould 

John P. Gapen 

Joseph B. Hebb 

H. J. Goldsborough 

William W. Martin 

Foseph R. Hall 

3eorge Coulson 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 



181 






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Dischargod Mav 20, lx«5 ; disability. 

Mustered out Juno 1 5, 1 S65. Drafted. 

Mustered out July 24, 1S65, as 1st sergeant. 

Died at Cnllatin, Tenn., Feb. 17, 1863. 

Mustered out July 24, 1S65. 

Discharged Aug. 28, 1863. 

Mustered out July 24, 1X65. 

Died at home Jan. 30, 1864. 

Missing in action, Franklin, Tenn., Dec, '64. 

Min-t, red out Sept. 29, 1864. as musician. 

.Mush leil out Sept. 211, 1S64. 

Musie, ut Sept. 29. 1S64. 

Mustered out Aug. 5, 1 865, as corporal. 
Most ■ >o,l out Aug. 5, 1865. 


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August 9, 1S62 

August S, 1862 

July 29, 1862 

July 21, 1862 

July 25, 1862 

December 24, 1863 
December 24, 1863 

May 23, 1864 

May 23, 1864 

May 23, 1864 

January 25, 1865__ 
February 3, 1S65__ 
February IS, 1S65_ 
February 16, 1865. 

.March 16, 1865 

August 31, 1861 

August 31, 1S61 

August 11, 1862 

August 1, 1862 

December 28, 1863 
September 23, 1864 
D. cember 30, 1861 
December 31, 1863 

July 25, 1862 

August 8, 1862 

August 11, 1862... 

August 11, 1862 

July 25, 1862 

August 9, 1862 

July 30, 1862 

Aug-ust 14, 1862 

August 1, 1862 

August 9, 1862 

August 1, 1S62 

August 1, 1862 

August 1, 1862 

August 11, 1S62 

August 11, 1862 

August 11, 1862 

August 11, 1S62 

August 11, 1862 

August 11, 1862... 

August 11, 1S62 

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December 24, 1863 
March 23, 1864 


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Unborn, Joseph 

Reed, William 

Ritchie. James 

Rogers, Hugh Y. 

Ryley, .James L. 

Runyon, Albert P. 

Rice, Henry E. 

Reiitirow, James 

Rose. Tilghman H. 

Ray, Allen 

Reynolds, William J. __ 

Read, John H. 

Rinard, William 

Redding, James P. 


Rogers. F.dward 

Roark. James 

Kieli.mlson, A. 

Rogers, J. T. B. 

Robison. James F. 

Ross, James L. 

Smith, Ceorge B. 

Shaw, John W. 


Smith, Ma.lison 

Sims. Robert 

Seawright, Perry 

Sheedy, John 

Sasbe, A. B. 

Strain, Wilson 

Sanders, Barnabas 

Sparks, Henry L. 

Shofstall, Robert C. 

Staibuek. .lames M. 

Shull, David A. 

Sip -s. James 

Smith, Hiram 

Stephens, William H.__ 
Smith, John 


Sanders, James W 

Slagel, Benjamin 

Smith, Andrew 

Smith, Isaac H 

Smith, John 

Stephenson. Edwin P. 

Stephenson, Wm. H 

Shulse, John M 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 



















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Appointed Corp. Discharge'! Jan. 6, 1863. 

Appointed Corp. Discliarged Sept. 19, 1S64. 

Mustered out Sept. 19, 1864. 

Mustered out Sept. 19, 1864. 

Mustered out Sept. 19, 1S64. 

Appointed sergt. Mustered out Sept. 19, 1804. 

W'ded at Kennesaw. Must, out Sept. 19, '64. 

Mustered out Sept. 19, 1864. 

Discharged Nov. 10, 1862. 

Mustered out Sept. 19, 1864. 

Trans:'"!',: a to r.sth regiment. 

Vet; promoted to 1st Lieutenant. 

Discharged June US, 1862 ; disability. 

Hi 2d nt Nashville April 9, 1862. 

Lied May 22. 1SC2 ; disability. 

Vet. Mustered out Dec. 6, 1S64, as corporal. 

Mustered out Dec. 6, 1S64. 

Died at Murfreesboro April S, 1863. 

Died at Vinings Station, Ga., July 13, 1864. 

I lied Dee. 13, 1x04. of wounds. 

Mustered out Sept. 29, 1S64. 

Mustered out Sept. 29, 1S04. 

Mustered out Sept. 29, 1S64. 

Mustered out Sept. 29, 1S64. 

Mustered out Sept. 29, 1S64. 

Mustered out Sept. 2 9, 1864. 

Mustered out Sept. 29, 1S64. 

Mustered out Sept. 29, 1S64. 

Mustsredout Sept. 29, 1864. 

Mustered out Sept. 29, 1864. 

Mustered out Sept. 29, 1864. 

Mustered out Sept. 29, 1 864, as corporal. 

Mustered out Sept. 29, 1S64. 

Mustered out Aug. 6, 1S61. 

Mustered out Aug. 6, 1861. 

Mustered out Aug. 6. 1861. 

Mustered out Sept. 19, 1864. 

App'd sergeant. Mustered out Sept. 19, 1864. 

Discharged March So. 1863 ; disability. 

App'ted sergeant. Discharged Aug. 22, 1S63. 

Died at Somerset, Ky., 1S62. 

Mustered out Sept. 19, 1864. 

Discharged Get. 25, 1862. 

Transferred ti> "-Nth regiment. 

Discharged April 1. 1S63 : disability. 

Discharged April 17, 1S62 : disability. 

Vet. Dsserted July 15, 1S65. 

Vet. Mustered out Dec. 21, 1S65, as sergeant. 

Vet. Mustered out Dec. 21, 1865, as corporal. 

Mustered out Dec. 6, 1864. 


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Novemb 
Novemb 
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< ictober 
Februar 
"^ebruar 
May 23 
May 23 
May 23 
Mav 2 3 
Mav 23 
May 23 
May 23 
May 23 
May 2 3 
May 23 
Mav 2 3 
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May 23 
April 2 
April 2 
April 2 
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Septeml 
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Private 
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Private 
Private 

Private 
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Shanklin, Oscar D 

Small, Thomas A 

Stancliff, David H 

Smith, Thomas 

St. phenson. Thomas J._ 

Straham. Oliver M 

Sullins. John H. M 

Shi- '1.1s' Unbelt 

Shanklin. Elzer C 

Shultz, Joseph 

Swoope, Joseph M 

Sharp. John C 

Sedwick. L. V 

Staton, John T 

St. phens, K.aneis M 

Stewart, p-iae F 

Swop-., William P 

Stnt/Tman, David 

Scttt. John 

Sharp, Stephen G 

San.l.rs. Francis M 

Shaw, David N 

Sanders. Mo;, s 

Smith, Benton 

Sheldon, Taylor 

Shanfelter, Lee M 

St.el, James H 

Scott. Charles W 

Stringer, Jani2S E 

Stev.ns, Francis M 

Shanklind, Benjamin 

Shankland. Oscar D 

Switz.r, George B 

Tngnart. John A 

Tandy, William G 

Tuttle, Cleavland 

Tipton, James II 

Tomas, James H 

Tomas. George W 

Tagert, Jolm A 

Thompson, Samuel P. 

Talman, William 

Talbert, Wilson 

Tibhels. John H. . 

Tagcart, Albert M 

Tawlby, Emanuel M.__ 

Thayer, James A 

Thornburg, Levi 

Tipton, George W 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 



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BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 203 



THE SPANISII-AMKKICAN WAR. 



In March, 1898, Commodore Dewey was ordered to assemble the 
Asiatic squadron at Hong Kong. The order was promptly executed. He 
soon sailed for Manila. At early dawn, May 1, he entered the bay with his 
fleet, where Admiral Monte jo lay with a much larger fleet, supported by 
shore batteries, torpedoes arid mines sufficient to destroy our squadron in a 
few moments ; yet Dewey sailed in and destroyed every vessel of the Spanish 
fleet without the loss of a man or injury to a ship. A higher power than 
Uncle Sam fought the battle of Manila Bay in 1898, was the statement re- 
cently made by Admiral George Dewey. He also said : 

"And so it was a remarkable battle, for the Spaniards fired twice the 
number of shots that we did, and we killed and wounded hundreds of the 
enemy's men, but they did us no damage, except on the cruiser Baltimore, 
where six men were injured by the explosion of one of that ship's shells. 
And even at that, all six of those men were right back on duty almost im- 
mediately." 

'We have only to hark back to the spring of 1898 to recall the masterful 
influence of the Press in arousing a peaceful nation to war against Spain. 
Without the sanction, or more correctly speaking, without the active partisan 
efforts of the newspapers of that period, the war against Spain would never 
have been declared. There was probably no issue at stake, no demand 
America might have made upon Spain, even unto indemnity for the loss of 
the Maine, that could not have been settled by arbitration. Granted that the 
destruction of the Maine and the consequent loss of human life were directly 
traceable to the machinations of the Spanish government, in the light of 
common sense and human reason, what kind of vengeance or satisfaction 
was there in entering upon a war, which in all of its ramifications has cost 
more than $1,000,000,000 and the loss of 20,000 lives? And yet we call 
ourselves a highly civilized, sagacious and Christian people. 

At the Nineteenth Universal Peace Congress, Dr. Edoardo Giretti gave 
utterance to the statement that the Turko-Italian war was first and foremost 
the fatal result of the system of journalism which prevailed throughout the 
world, a system whose only object was the excitement of the passions of 
the crowd. "Our particular duty," he said "is more and more to make war 



204 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

upon war by organizing a great agency which would be honest and truth- 
loving, an agency of truth for the furtherance of peace and justice." 

An agency, a world-wide instrumentality as the press is, which is able 
to provoke an unnecessary war certainly is potent enough to prevent one. 
Acting in unison, with high and patriotic purpose, the newspapers and 
magazines, by systematic and persistent effort, can place the United States 
in the vanguard of nations ready, anxious and willing to discard the barbar- 
isms of war. They can create a sentiment within twelve months which will 
force Congress to invite every civilized nation on the globe to become an 
irrevocable party to an international court that will settle every difference 
which can possibly arise between nations, including all questions of honor, 
thereby reduce the armaments of the world to a mere police footing. 

The following is a list of those that enlisted: 

William Christy, private, Company K, 27th Infantry U. S. A. 

Charles Sortor, private, Company A, 12th Infantry U. S. A. 

Omer Tomilson, private. Company K, 12th Infantry U. S. A. 

John Beaman, private, Battery L, 3rd Heavy Artillery U. S. A. 

Lannis Goliday, private, Battery L, 3rd Heavy Artillery U. S. A. 

Richard Sauters, private, Battery L, 3rd Heavy Artillery U. S. A. 

Arthur Sauters, private, Company A, 12th Infantry U. S. A. 

Arthur Brown, private, Battery L, 3rd Heavy Artillery U. S. A. 

Ollie Miller*, private, Battery L, 3rd Heavy Artillery U. S. A. 

LeRoy Smith, private, Battery L, 3rd Heavy Artillery U. S. A. 

Roy Thomas, private, Battery L, 3rd Heavy Artillery U. S. A. 

Charles Brooks, private, Battery L, 3rd Heavy Artillery U. S. A. 

Roy Legan, private, Battery L, 3rd Heavy Artillery U. S. A. 

B. Frank Barker, private, Battery G, 3rd Heavy Artillery U. S. A. 
Larkin Sandlin, private, Battery G, 3rd Heavy Artillery U. S. A. 

C. W. Rosencrance, private, Battery G, 3rd Heavy Artillery U. S. A. 
Eli Clampitt* (died from wounds), private, Battery G, 3rd Heavy 

Artillery U. S. A. 

Edgar Richeyf, private, Battery G, 3rd Heavy Artillery U. S. A. 
Alonzo Laughlinf, private, Battery K, 3rd Heavy Artillery U. S. A. 
George Schulemire, private. Battery K, 3rd Heavy Artillery U. S. A. 
O. Wynnf, private, Battery L, 160th Indiana Volunteer Infantry U. S. A. 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 205 

Homer Dale, corporal, Battery C, 161st Indiana Volunteer Infantry 
U. S. A. 

Omer Dale, private, Battery G, 158th Indiana Volunteer Infantry 
U. S. A. 

Charles Shaw, private, Battery B, 12th Infantry U. S. A. 

Harry Reese, gunner, U. S. N. 

Harry Belles, private. Battery H, 1st Artillery U. S. A. 

Fred Dicksf, private, Battery H, 1st Artillery U. S. A. 

Ora Hollingsworth, private, Battery G, 3rd Heavy Artillery U. S. A. 

Bert Christy, private, Company B, 12th Infantry U. S. A. 

Clarence Shaw, private, Company A, 12th Infantry U. S. A. 

Turney Burkhart, private. Company F, 12th Infantry U. S. A. 

Horatio Van Dusan Lucus, private, Company D, 12th Infantry U. S. A. 

Robert Hime, private, Battery, 144th Coast Artillery U. S. A. 

Earnest Sortor, private, Battery, 144th Coast Artillery U. S. A. 

James Shaw, private. Company E, 12th Infantry U. S. A. 

Roy Shaw, private, Company I, 3rd Infantry U. S. A. 

William Brown, private, Company I, 19th Infantry U. S. A. 

Charles Slusser, sergeant, Company K, 158th Infantry Indiana Volun- 
teers U. S. A. 

Dr. Binford Roark, surgeon, Battery E, 3rd Artillery U. S. A. 

Tarbie Lumford, private, Company B, 27th Infantry U. S. A. 

G. W. Pettv, private. Company F, 159th Indiana Volunteers U. S. A. 

John Sunderland, private, Company F, Signal Corps U. S. A. 

Charles Powell, private, Company G, 43rd Infantry U. S. A. 

Edward Harvey, musician, Company F, 31st Indiana Volunteers 
U. S. A. 

Ralph Reese, private. 34th Infantry U. S. A. 

Fred Spray, private, Company I, 38th Infantry U. S. A. 

Isaac A. Smith, sergeant, Company G, 30th Infantry U. S. A. 

Clyde Neese, gunner mate, Second Class, Battleship Wisconsin. 

Harold McMillen, private. Company H, 43rd Infantry U. S. A. 

Grant Burlewf, private, Battery L, 3rd Heavy Artillery U. S. A. 

Dr. Burford Roarkf, surgeon, U. S. N. 

Roy Smith, Arthur Rogers, Homer Patterson. 

Oscar Pauley, private, Company B, 20th Infantry U. S. A. 



;2o6 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

Clayton Hilligoss, private, Company L, 161st Indiana Infantry U. S. A. 

Arlie Lumford. 

J. C. Logan, private, Battery H, ist Artillery U. S. A. 

Franklin McVey, private. 

William M. Smith, private, Battery C, ist Artillery U. S. A. 

Fred Kersey, private, Battery C, ist Artillery U. S. A. 

William Dossett, private, Battery H, ist Artillery U. S. A. 

John Kelley, private, Battery H, ist Artillery U. S. A. 

Poney Groves, private. Battery, Artillery U. S. A. 

Roy Crawford, corporal, Battery, U. S. A. 

John Bates, private, Company L, 38th Infantry U. S. A. 

Joe Emmons, private, Company I, 38th Infantry U. S. A. 

Frank Richey, private, Company I, 51st Iowa Volunteer Infantry 
U. S. A. 

Ralph Reese, private, Company, 34th Infantry U. S. A. 

W. S. Frazer, private, Company F, 17th Infantry U. S. A. 

Benjamin Frazer, private, Company F, 17th Infantry U. S. A. 

Charles E. Wilsonf, military secretary, Indian troops. 

William G. Burt, lieutenant-colonel. 

Orison P. Leef, captain, Company K, 45th Infantry U. S. A. 

Harlan Page Perrill, naval officer, assigned to collier Sterling, then St. 
Louis. 

Layton M. Parkhurst, lieutenant, Company K, 161st Indiana Volunteers 
U. S. A. 

H. E. Newman*, corporal, Company B, 22nd Infantry U. S. A. "New r 
man," recognized by the government and papers given to him by government 
as hauling down first Spanish flag in Cuba. 

Thomas Galvin*, corporal, Battery L, 3rd Heavy Artillery LT. S. A. 

Dr. Guy A. Shultz, hospital steward, Indiana Volunteer Infantry. 

Rowell Lucas, quartermaster sergeant, 8th Army Corps U. S. A. 

Julian Schoen, first sergeant, Company A, 12th Infantry U. S. A. 

Paul Tauer, sergeant, Company F, 161st Infantry Indiana Volunteers 
U. S. A. 

William Purdue, private, Battery G, 3rd Heavy Artillery U. S. A. 

William Elderf, private, Company I, 23rd Infantry Indiana Volunteers 
U. S. A. 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 207 

Rube Hawk, private. 

Clarence B. Eden, private, 9th Illinois U. S. A. 

Charles C. Bennett, private, Company G, 158th Indiana Volunteer In- 
fantry U. S. A. 

Morton Silbaugh, private, Company H, 159th Indiana Volunteer In- 
fantry U. S. A. 

Guy McKey, private. 

Ora Brown, sergeant, Company G, 10th Infantry U. S. A.; Gordon 
Scouts, Philippines. 

Claude Brown, sergeant," Company E, 18th Infantry U. S. A. 

Samuel Shera, private, 4th Infantry U. S. A. 

Frank Richey, 51st Infantry Iowa Volunteers U. S. A. 

Elmer Van Arsdall, corporal, Company C, 161 st Indiana Volunteer 
Infantry U. S. A. 

Arthur Alexander, private, 40th Infantry Ohio Volunteers U. S. A. 

Ira L. Wilson, Company M, 1st Infantry Illinois Volunteers U. S. A. 

Lon Miller, private. Company M, 1st Infantry Illinois Volunteers 
U. S. A. 

Homer Carriger, private, Company I, 14th Infantry U. S. A. 

Philip List. 

Rado Lumpkins. 

Harry Caldwell. 

James Spencer. 

Leonard Spencer. 

Carl Wild. 

Carl Owsley. 

Carl LaFollette, coast duty in New York. 

Oscar Hilligoss, 161st Indiana Volunteer Infantry U. S. A. 

Emmett Nelson, 32nd Infantry U. S. A. 

Ora Ottinger, regular at Fort Barancas, Florida. 

Will Moliere, Heavy Artillery. 

Frank Aldrich, Heavy Artillery. 

Fred Graves, Heavy Artillery. 

Lon Laughlin, Company D, 4th Infantry U. S. A. 

Frank Montgomery, private. 

jDead. *Wounded. 



2o8 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 



A ROLL OF HONOR. 



Notwithstanding this county did not have an opportunity to send either 
of the two companies organized for the purpose of fighting Spaniards, our 
boys rallied to the front in numbers, that, under the circumstances, where no 
home company was called, was most commendable. Two excellent com- 
panies were formed here, one under the captaincy of Arthur R. Brown and 
one commanded by Captain Loughrun. Much disappointment was expressed 
when they were not called. 

Among the names of our own Boone county lads are: 

Arthur R. Brown, sergeant-major, 161st Indiana Volunteers. 

Baird Saltsgaber, quartermaster-sergeant, 161st Indiana Volunteers, 
U. S. A. 

Oscar N. Dale, Company L, 161st Infantry. 

Engle, sergeant, Company E, nth Infantry U. S. A. 

John Rogers, private, Company G, 158th Indiana Volunteer Infantry. 

Frank Dodson, private, Company D, 18th Infantry U. S. A. 

William Hawkins, private, 18th Infantry U. S. A. 

Cleveland Pipes, private, U. S. A. 

The following are the names and ages of the survivors of the Civil and 
Spanish-American wars living in Thorntown as determined by a recent 
enumeration. 

J. A. Ball, 68; Michael Barker, 73; S. R. Carter, 70; George Coulson, 
75; Peter Coffman, 83; James A. Darrough, 79; David B. Davis, 74; C. W. 
Daugherty, 89; David Essex, 80; Enos W. Gill, 82; H. W. Hill, 73 ; John P. 
Henry, 83; William Hinton, 76; Calvin Houk, 79; H. W. Henderson, 83; 
J. W. Hines, 71; J. C. Jaques, 71; C. W. Johnson, 68; J. P. Logan, 84; 
David L. Miller, 69; George E. Miller, 70; W. R. Marks, 69; J. S. Mills, 81 ; 
Philip Mella, yy, O. S. McLaughlin, 83; Homer B. Patterson, 36; W. A. 
Pearson, yy ; William Proctor, 70 ; John Rogers, 69 ; L. C. Riley, 69 ; Josiah 
Ranee, 66; William Richey, 70; James Sexton, 74; John Templeton, 65; 
William Terhune, 52 ; M. J. Zeigler, 75 ; E. A. Mills, 70. 

All of them were in the Civil war of fifty years ago excepting Homer 
Patterson and William Terhune, who were soldiers in the Spanish-American 
war when the Philippines were occupied. 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 209 

J. P. Henry, George E. Miller and Philip Mella enlisted from Ohio, 
W. R. Marks from Pennsylvania, W. A. Pearson from Illinois, Calvin Houk 
from Kentucky and William Hinton from Colorado. 

The oldest survivor of the Civil war in the list is C. W. Daugherty in 
his 90th year; next comes Logan in his 85th; I. S. McLaughlin, H. W. Hen- 
derson, John P. Henry and Peter Coffman in their 84th years; then comes 
Enos W. Gill, 82; J. S. Miller, 81 ; and David Essex, 80. John Templeton, 
aged 65, is the youngest survivor and next him is Josiah Ranee, 66; then C. 
W. Johnson and J. A. Ball, 68 ; and David Miller, George E. Miller, W. R. 
Marks, John Rogers and L. C. Riley, 69. Seventeen are in the 70 list. 

The combined years of the list to last birthday totals 2,702. Eliminat- 
ing the ages of the Spanish-American soldiers, the average of the remaining 
thirty-five is slightly in excess of 75 years. 



(14) 



CHAPTER IX. 



BENCH AND BAR. 



The memory of the life and work of a lawyer to a great degree passes 
away with his generation; our great judges are soon forgotten, and their 
names and work are preserved only in the pages of dry and musty reports 
of which the average man knows, and cares nothing. The very nature of 
the work of the lawyer and the jurist insures its speedy oblivion in the midst 
of the more spectacular achievements of the soldier, the executive, the in- 
ventor, the author and the statesman. How many of the citizens of our 
county can name a half dozen of the early judges and lawyers who were 
prominent in our county history? And yet they were men famous in their 
day, looked upon with something akin to awe by the rough makers of our 
pioneer civilization. 

This chapter is written with a desire to do some measure of justice to 
the men who made the early legal history of the county and whose memories 
are rapidly fading, even among the members of the profession, and to pre- 
serve in a permanent form something of the work of our modern bench 
and bar which is equally as sure of oblivion in the near future. That this 
desire -will be satisfactorily fulfilled is not even hoped, but we trust that we 
may be able to set forth in this chapter some information that will make 
it of value to both the legal profession and the public generally. 

The Hon. O. H. Smith, in his "Early Indiana Trials," gives an interest- 
ing description of the typical court room of that day. "The building," he 
says, "generally contained two rooms, — the court room being the largest, — 
at one end of which there was a platform elevated some three feet high, for 
the judges, with a long bench to seat them. These benches were very sub- 
stantial in general, sufficient to sustain the most weighty judges. The bar 
had its benches near the table of the clerk, and the crowd was kept back by 
a long pole fastened with withes at the ends." 

The state was divided into judicial circuits, each composed of a num- 
ber of counties, and each presided over by the circuit, or as he was then 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 211 

called, the president judge. These judges moved about from one county to 
another in their circuits, holding court at the various county-seats, and Boone 
was in the twentieth judicial circuit. The president judges were appointed 
by the legislature and were invariably men well versed with the law, but the 
most interesting feature of our early judicial organization was the system 
of associate judges. Two associate judges were elected in each county by 
the people, and no legal knowledge was required of them ; they sat with the 
president judge and each of them had equal power with him, a power which 
they often exercised in overruling his decision. The associates often carried 
on the business of the court in the absence of the president judge, the rec- 
ords often showing that after important cases had been disposed of he left 
the bench and they proceeded to the end of the term, ruling on pleadings, 
the meaning of which they had not the slightest idea. The average lawyer 
of those days was a man learned not only in the substance of the law, but 
also in its highly technical language, and the associates were often compelled 
to appeal to them to learn the meaning of terms used in the arguments and 
pleadings. Many of our early lawyers were men educated in eastern uni- 
versities, who brought with them much of culture and refinement entirely 
foreign to our rude frontiersmen ; they were looked upon as professional 
men indeed, invariably being the leaders of social and intellectual life of the 
community. The country was largely virgin forest and the population hardy 
and rough, and generally reckless. This latter characteristic is amply illus- 
trated by the pages of the early court order books, on which a great amount 
of space is devoted to indictments for affray, riot, and assault and battery. 

The members of our present bar may find it hard to picture in their 
minds the practice of law under such conditions. The lawyers often trav- 
eled about the circuit with the president judge, riding horseback through the 
forests, fording streams and putting up at rough country taverns, and in 
spite of the scholastic atmosphere which surrounded the practice of law, it 
was not a sedentary pursuit by any means and its followers were apt to 
become physically hardy and vigorous like the people among whom they 
lived. & 

Mr. Smith gives an interesting picture of the early court days. 
"The 'crowds' at that day thought the holding of a court a great affair. The 
people came hundreds of miles to see the judges, and hear the lawyers 
'plead' as they called it. On one occasion there came to be tried before the 



212 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

jury an indictment for an assault and battery against a man for pulling the 
nose of another who had insulted him. The court room was filled to suffo- 
cation. The two associate judges were on the bench. The evidence had 
been heard and public expectation was on tip-toe. All was silent as death, 
when my young friend, then 'squire', afterward Judge Charles H. Test, rose 
and addressed the court: 'If the court please.' He was here interrupted by 
Judge Winchell from the bench: 'Yes, we do please; go to the bottom of the 
case, young man. The people have come in to hear the lawyers plead.' The 
young squire, encouraged by the kind response of the judge, proceeded to 
address the jury some three hours in excited eloquence upon the great provo- 
cation his client had received to induce his docile nature to bound over all 
legal barriers and take the prosecutor by the nose. All eyes were upon him, 
and as he closed, Judge Winchell roared out, 'Capital ; I did not think it was- 
in him!' The jury returned a verdict of not guilty amid the rapturous ap- 
plause of the audience. Court adjourned, and the people returned home to 
tell their children that they had heard the lawyers 'plead.' " 

It may be noted that until the constitution of 185 1 the common law of 
England was largely the law of our state, and that the library of the aver- 
age "backwoods" lawyers consisted generally of a work on common law 
pleading, the few Indiana statutes then in force and the volumes of Black- 
ford's reports, all of which were easily carried from place to place. 

Brief History of the County Courts From Their Organization to the Present. 

Courts of law are a necessary adjunct to civilization. There is no 
civilization without law, and courts are the mediums for the enforcement of 
law. The first court in Boone was the Probate court. This court had juris- 
diction over the settlement of estates of deceased persons and the appoint- 
ment of guardians for minors. The first term of this court was held at the 
house of David Hoover, in Eagle township, near the present site of Zions- 
ville. As there was no business to transact they adjourned. The Hoover 
homestead continued as the home of this court up to the November term, 
1832. After this its sessions were held at Lebanon at the residence of A. H. 
Longley, which was situated on the lot now occupied by the marble front 
building. To convey an idea of the amount of business transacted by this 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 213 

court it will only be necessary to state that the only record made was the 
entry of meeting and adjournment up to the eighth term of the court, when 
one guardian and one administrator were appointed. The judges of this 
court were: 1830, William Bodman ; 1835, Cornelius Westfall ; 1836, 
Samuel McLean; 1843, S. Buckles; 1844, William McDaniel; 1844, Jonathan 
Rose; 1845, William McDaniel; 1846, Samuel McLean. In 1851, James A. 
Thompson was elected and served until 1852, when the court was abolished 
and the jurisdiction thereof transferred to the court of common pleas. While 
the judges of this court may not have been profound lawyers and able to 
distinguish fine technicalities they were endowed with what is more im- 
portant, good judgment and common sense. 

In 1852 the new constitution of the state was adopted. By its pro- 
visions the judicial power of the state was vested in a supreme court, circuit 
courts and such other courts as the general assembly might establish. It 
also provided that any person being a voter and of good moral character 
should be admitted to practice law in all courts of justice, consequently when- 
ever you meet a practicing attorney the presumption is strong that he is a 
person of good morals, perfectly honest and entitled to your full confidence. 
With one solitary exception they are the only persons in this state who have 
to prove a good character before engaging in business. 

Under the provision of the constitution above referred to, the court of 
common pleas was established in 1852 and remained in existence until 1873, 
when it was abolished and the circuit court took jurisdiction and charge of 
its business. The first judge of this court was the Hon. Lorenzo C. Daugh- 
erty, who served from the date of its organization until i860, a period of 
about seven years. Judge Daugherty was a fine and able lawyer and not 
once during his entire term of service was his decision or rulings reversed 
by the supreme court. After leaving the bench he engaged in the banking 
business in connection with the late Harvey G. Hazelrigg and continued in 
that business until a short time before his death in 1876. Hon. John Coburn, 
of Indianapolis, was the next judge of this court. He served until 1862, 
when he entered the army and was succeeded by Hon. Charles A. Ray who, 
in 1865, was succeeded by Hon. Solomon Blair. In 1867, Hon. Thomas J. 
Cason became judge of this court and served until 1871. As a lawyer, Judge 
Cason was among the foremost of his day. He served the people in several 
public positions, being at various times representative, state senator and con- 



214 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

gressman from 1873 to 1877. He was the first judge of the circuit court, 
composed of the counties of Boone and Clinton. 



THE CIRCUIT COURT. 

The first term of the circuit court ever held in Boone county was held 
at the residence of John Galvin in Jamestown in April, 1832. Although 
at that time Lebanon had been designated as the county-seat, it was a town 
on paper only, not a house having been built within its limits. The next 
session was held at Thorntown at the residence of Cornelius West fall on the 
1 8th day of October, 1832. Hon. B. F. Morris was the first judge of this 
court. The next term of the circuit court was held at the home of Rev. A. 
H. Longley in Lebanon, the court room being an arbor erected in front of 
his residence on the southwest corner of the public square. Hon. W. W. 
Wick was the judge and the only attorney in attendance was Calvin Fletcher, 
who was at the time prosecuting attorney and accompanied the judge as 
matter of duty. There was no business for either judge or attorney, conse- 
quently the term was short. 

Hon. Fabius M. Finch was the next person to don the judicial robes 
and he was succeeded by Hon. William J. Peasly, who dispensed justice with 
mercy until 1849, when W. W. Wick again became judge. Tn 18^2 Isaac 
Naylor served as judge until 1853 and was succeeded by W. P. Bryant who 
served until 1859 when John M. Cowan was elected. Judge Cowan served 
until 1871, when Hon. T. F. Davidson was elected and served until 1872, 
when by reason of the change of the boundaries of the circuit he was suc- 
ceeded by Hon. T. H. Palmer. Judge Palmer was succeeded in 1878 by our 
fellow townsman, Hon. T. J. Terhune, who resigned in 1888 and John A. 
Abbott was appointed to the vacancy. Judge Terhune ranks among the fore- 
most judges of the state. 

Hon. Stephen Neal donned the judicial ermine in November, 1890, and 
served acceptably until 1896, when the scales of justice were bv the votes of 
the citizens of Boone county entrusted to the care of the Hon. B. S. Higgins. 
The four last named judges were all residents of Lebanon, Judge Terhune 
being first elected when the circuit was composed of the counties of Boone 
and Clinton, the others since Boone county was made a separate circuit. 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 21 5 

Since his retirement from the bench Judge Terhune has been engaged in the 
practice of his profession in this city and Indianapolis, and ranks high as a 
practicing attorney and has the confidence of a large clientage. Judge 
Abbott is at present a resident of Washington, D. C, and in the employ of a 
Law Publishing Company as a writer of syllabi of court decisions, a position 
for which he is well qualified. During the term of service of Hon. Stephen 
Neal, there was never any delay in the transaction of business in court on ac- 
count of the absence of the judge. 

Judge B. S. Higgins, previous to his election as circuit judge, served 
for two terms as prosecuting attorney and was regarded as an excellent 
officer. His record on the bench speaks for itself and will be carried down in 
Boone county history. He is a man endowed with honesty, integrity and 
fairness, fearless in the discharge of his duty and carrying with him the honor 
and dignity attached to his exalted office. 

The first attorney in Lebanon was the Hon. Joseph Hackler, who moved 
to Missouri many years ago. Another early disciple of Blackstone was Jacob 
Angle. W. B. Beach, a brother-in-law of Captain Bragg, was also one of 
the first attorneys in Lebanon. He afterward removed to New Jersey, where 
he filled many positions of honor and trust, one time being lieutenant gov- 
ernor of the state. The other old time attorneys were J. C. Hague and O. S. 
Hamilton, who was perhaps the most remarkable character of his time. He 
never studied or paid much attention to a case until it was called for trial 
and about the only law books he respected were Archibald's pleadings and 
the statutes of 1843. 

Other old time attorneys who have either died or removed are D. H. 
Hamilton, C. C. Galvin, C. S. Wesner, J. W. Gordon, J. W. Clements, Olney 
Newell, Wash Griffin, S. W. Ferguson, A. J. Boone, H. J. Hayward, S. M. 
Burk, J. W. Nichol, W. B. Walls, J. C. Farber, G. H. Ryman, J. H. Ewick, 

R. B. Simpson, S. L. Hamilton, D. E. Caldwell, R. C. Kise, Shannon, 

Peterson, and many others. 

The Nestor of the bar is Hon. R. W. Harrison who has been in the 
practice for nearly forty years. He began as prosecuting attorney, when 
the circuit was composed of the counties of Boone, Clinton, Fountain, Parke, 
Warren, Montgomery and Vermilion. During his long service he has been 
engaged in many important cases both civil and criminal and has acquitted 
himself with credit. He served during the war as captain of the 116th regi- 



2l6 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

merit of Indiana Volunteers which was a part of the Persimmon brigade and 
took part in the battle of Walker's Ford. Captain Harrison has held only- 
one other elective office, that of township trustee. He was a candidate for 
judge in 1890, but went down in defeat with the rest of his party. The other 
resident members are J. L. Pierce, T. J. Terhune, P. H. Dutch, W. A. Dutch, 
A. J. Shelby, John Shelby, C. M. Zion, S. M. Ralston, I. M. Kelsey, C. M. 
Bounell, S. R. Artman, John Perkins, W. O. Darnall, B. F. Ratcliff, H. C. 
Ulen, Jr., Reed Holloman, H. C. Wills, Oliver P. Mahan, Frank C. Reagan, 
J. O. Pedigo, Noah Loughrun, Harvey P. New, W. A. Tipton, Mike Keefe, 
and Joshua G. Adams. 

Of the non-resident attorneys of "ye olden time" who practiced in the 
Boone Circuit Court, were the following: Rufus A. Lockwood, John Petit, 
R. C. Gregory, James Wilson, G. S. Orth, J. W. Gordon, Daniel W. Vorhees, 
Benjamin Harrison, Zebulon Baird and others. 

Rufus A. Lockwood was for a time a resident of Thorntown, removing 
from there to Lafayette where he became a partner of the Hon. A. S. White. 
He left LaFayette, abandoned the practice of law and was next heard of as a 
sheep herder in Mexico. From there he drifted to San Francisco and en- 
caged as a common laborer or stevedore on the docks. It was while thus 
5 igaged that he was employed by Gen. John C. Fremont (the pathfinder), as 
~ne of his principal attorneys in the prosecution of his famous Mariposa 
claims. He afterwards lost his life at sea while on a return voyage from 
California. It is said he could have saved his life had he consented to abandon 
the manuscript of a book which he had written. He was last seen standing 
on the deck of the sinking ship with his. arms folded across his breast, calmly 
awaiting the inevitable. 

Benjamin Harrison, ex-president of the United States, was the principal 
attorney in the prosecution of Nancy E. Clem for what is known as the Cold 
Springs murder. Hon. J. W. Gordon and Daniel W. Voorhees were the 
principal attorneys for the defense in that case. Hon. G S. Orth served 
during the war and for several years afterwards as representative in congress 
from this district. He was appointed United States minister to the court at 
Berlin which position he resigned and was afterwards elected to congress and 
was a member thereof when he died. 

Hon. John Petit was one of the able men of Indiana. During his life 
he served as judge, representative in congress, United States senator, United 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 21 7 

States district judge in Kansas in 1858-9, judge of the supreme court of this 
state and mayor of the city of LaFayette. He was known politically as the 
"Old Brass Piece." 

Among the later non-resident attorneys who practiced at this bar are C. 
N. Beamer, Zionsville ; Ira Sharp, Thorntown ; C. D. Orear, Jamestown ; R. 
P. Davidson, E. P. Hammond, S. N. Caldwell, L. Caldwell, A. A. Rice and 
others, LaFayette; R. R. Stephenson, T. J. Kane & Son, T. Boyd, A. F. 
Shirts, Christian & Christian and others, of Noblesville ; John Duncan, Caleb 
Denny, A. J. Beveridge, Thomas Hanna, Newton Harding and others, of 
Indianapolis. 

In 1886 C. N. Beamer was elected prosecuting attorney, but resigned in 
the spring of 1889 and C. M. Zion was appointed as his successor. Mr. 
Zion is spoken of more extendedly in another column. 

H. P. New served one term as prosecuting attorney from 1890 to 1892, 
when he was succeeded by Hon. P. H. Dutch. At the close of his term as 
prosecutor, Mr. New formed a partnership with Hon. T. J. Terhune and 
later with J. L. Lewis. 

Patrick H. Dutch served as prosecuting attorney from 1892 to 1894. 
He was a vigorous prosecutor and was instrumental in securing punishment 
for many criminals. He was succeeded by Noah Loughrun, who served from 
1894 to 1896. Mr. Loughrun is a self-made man, having spent the best days 
of youth in the service of his country as a private in the Tenth Regiment 
Indiana Volunteers during the war of the rebellion. He was a good soldier, 
faithful in the discharge of his duty, and beloved and respected by all of his 
comrades. After the war he lived near and in Zionsville, where he filled the 
positions of town marshal and justice of the peace. While serving in these 
capacities he studied law and on his election to the office of prosecutor he 
removed to this city, where he has since resided. He is now in partnership 
with Hon. R. W. Harrison. 

In 1852 the office of associate judge was abolished and the business 
went into the circuit court. In 1873 the common pleas court was abolished 
and the business and books were transferred to the circuit court and given 
four terms a year. Under the new constitution, the probate court and its 
judges were abolished and the court of common pleas organized, with probate 
jurisdiction. 

The first term of the probate court was held November 4, 1830, at the 



2l8 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

home of David Hoover, then clerk of the circuit court, and was continued 
to be held at the home of said Hoover up to the November term of 1832. 
From that date until November, 1833, it was held at the home of Abner H. 
Longley in Lebanon. From the first term until the seventh term there was 
no business except to meet and adjourn. At the eighth term the appoint- 
ment of one guardian and one administrator was all the business transacted. 

The first term of the circuit court was held at the home of John Galvin 
in Jamestown, beginning on Thursday, April 19, 1832, at which time a 
grand jury was impaneled. Two bills of indictment were found. No civil 
business was transacted. An order was then made 1 for holding the next 
term of court at the home of Cornelius West fall, in the town of Thorn town, 
on the 18th day of October, 1832. It was further ordered that the clerk be 
authorized to keep his office at his residence in Lebanon, except during the 
sittings of courts. 

At the October term, 1832, of said court, an order was made for hold- 
ing the next term at the home of Abner H. Longley, in the town of Lebanon. 
At the April term, 1834, said court was held in the court house at Lebanon, 
David Hoover died in office in January, 1836. Samuel S. Brown was ap- 
pointed in his place January 4, 1836, and was elected to the following office 
and continued in the position until 1843. 

In 1845 Levi Lane was appointed clerk by the board of commissioners. 
Henry Shannon died on the evening of March 27, i860, in his office at the 
court house, it being on the second judicial day of the March term of the 
circuit court. William C. Rise was appointed clerk in his stead pro tern until 
the vacancy should be filled. On March 29, i860, Americus C. Daily was 
appointed by the board of commissioners to fill said vacancy and served until 
November, i860. 

Andrew J. Boone was elected and commissioned August 12, 1841 as 
auditor and resigned before the expiration of his term of office. He was the 
first auditor of the county. In the same year James McCann was the first 
recorder elected. Prior to this date the clerk of the court discharged the 
duties of these offices. In the same year the office of treasurer was created 
and J. T. McLaughlin was the first person elected to this office and was so 
faithful that the people kept him in the position for nine years. 

On the 1 2th day of October, 1856, the records of the auditor, treasurer 
and recorder's offices were destroyed by fire. Andrew J. Boone was ap- 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 2ig 

pointed a commissioner to take and hear proofs relative to the preparation 
of the papers and records destroyed by the fire. He entered upon the duties 
of his commission November 24, 1856, and closed his labors in i860. 

Samuel Cason was the last associate judge, having served fifteen years, 
from 1837 to 1852, when the office was abolished by the new constitution. 
David M. Burns served as surveyor for sixteen years from i860 to 1876. 

A. J. Boone was born in Preble county, Ohio, July 17, 1820. Son of 
Benjamin Boone, who was born in 1795, in Kentucky. His grandfather, 
Daniel Boone, was the famous Indian hunter of Kentucky. His father, 
Benjamin, was an abolitionist, and lived in Union .county, from 1827 to 
1834, where there was an underground railroad. 

In 1838, A. J. Boone moved to Boone county and settled on a farm. 
He represented Rush county in the Legislature in 1837-8 and Boone county 
from 1843 to x 844- His early life was devoted to farming and milling. 
He taught school, .gaining a fine reputation as a teacher, and applied all his 
leisure hours to the study of law, which he had chosen for his life work. 
At the age of twenty-one he was elected auditor of Boone county, and served 
in that capacity until December, 1843. He resigned his office and entered 
Indiana University in view of better preparation for a professional life. 
In 1848 he was licensed to practice law in Boone county. From 1849 to 
1853 he was assistant clerk in the House of Representatives of Indiana 
where, by his efficiency he won universal approbation. In April, 18- 1, he 
was united in marriage to Miss Mary Eliza McLaughlin,, a native of Boone 
county, and opened a law office in Lebanon. He rose rapidly in his profes- 
sion, practiced in many of the courts of the state and his name was connected 
with manv of the principal cases which had been before the sunreme court 
of the state for adjudication. The work was too much for him and his 
health failed, causing him to retire to his farm four miles out of Lebanon. 
He resumed the practice of law in 1867 in partnership with R. W. Harrison. 
For eight years he walked from his farm to his office for the sake of his 
health, making the round of eight miles dailv. 

As a lawyer, Mr. Boone possessed all the qualities necessary to make a 
successful attorney. He was a safe and honest counselor and a good pleader, 
and examined witnesses with skill and ingenuity. He was also a good advo- 
cate. Although thoroughly attentive to the duties of his profession, he was 
at the same time actively identified with the general improvement of his 



J220 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

county; and all enterprises having that object in view found in him a general 
and able advocate and a generous supporter. He advanced the major por- 
tion of the amount necessary to establish the Boone county Pioneer, the first 
newspaper printed in Boone county ; and although not its editor, he wrote its 
salutatory and many other articles of eminent ability which were copied and 
approved in high terms by many established and reliable papers throughout 
the state. 

For twenty-five years he was correspondent of the agricultural depart- 
ment at Washington, reporting the resources of his county and their de- 
velopment. He was one of the prime movers in establishing The Agricul- 
tural Society of Boone county, and for eighteen years was its secretary 
and business manager, co-operating with H. C. Hazelrigg, Levi Lane, Will- 
iam Zion, L. C. Daugherty, John Higgins, Thomas R. Cobb, J. M. Ball, 
Samuel S. Heath, Jesse Neff, Adolphus Wysong, T. J. Cason, W. C. Kise, 
Jacob Kernodle and others. In politics he was a Democrat, but always 
very liberal in his views and tolerant and charitable towards those of opposite 
views. From his earliest manhood he was frequently called upon to fill 
offices of responsibility. At the urgent request of friends and neighbors, he 
consented to become a candidate for the State Senate, and was chosen by 
the united vote of good men irrespective of party. His health became 
permanently impaired early in the session of the Senate of 1875, and from 
the effects of the impure air of the old Senate chamber he never recovered. 
After the sessions were over, he appeared and practiced in the Boone and 
Clinton circuit courts in May and June. About the first of July he was con- 
fined to his bed and died on the 12th day of that month. He was a man of 
sterling integrity and his counsel was sought by all classes, in matters relat- 
ing to the farm, the household and the public. He was liberal to a fault 
and was often known to sacrifice his own convenience and comfort to ac- 
commodate a friend and has repeatedly loaned money to poor men on their 
own note without security or interest. He was a member of the Christian 
church and as such lived an exemplary life. He was one of the pioneers 
of Boone county and one of the pioneer lawyers of Lebanon. He witnessed 
its growth from a backwoods settlement to a cultured and refined com- 
munity, and has mingled in its achievements, progressing with them and 
assisting them by his influence and means. He was one of Indiana's best 
and most reliable men. 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 



HON. STEPHEN NEAL, LEBANON. 



The subject of this sketch was born in Pittsylvania county, Virginia, 
June n, 1817, and moved with his father's family to Kentucky when three 
years of age. Living remote from any town or village, his educational privi- 
leges were limited to a few months, sufficient only to enable him to read. 
When he had reached his fifteenth year, his mother died and in the following 
year his father gave him the privilege of choosing a profession for himself. 
He continued to labor on the farm tw T o years longer, when, at the age of 
eighteen years, he began attending a country school, paying his expenses by 
his earnings. After attending this school about one year, he entered the 
academy at Mooresfield, Kentucky. It was at this academy that Mr. Neat 
acquired a knowledge of the Latin and Greek languages and laid the founda- 
tion for his subsequent professional and literary attainments. 

He is essentially a "self-made"' man and is indebted, mainly, to his own 
exertions and indomitable energy for his success in life. His mind naturally 
studious and contemplative, seemed actuated by a desire to grasp all possible 
knowledge ; hence, his studies were extended and various, and being blessed 
with a vigorous constitution, he met with few impediments in the pursuit 
of knowledge, excepting poverty. 

He quit school in his twenty-second year and soon afterward engaged 
as a school teacher, but while instructing others, did not neglect the culture 
of his own mind, but was at all times a more diligent student than any of 
his pupils. During his labors in this capacity, in the year 1839, he married 
Miss Frances Ann Atkinson, in Nicholas county, Kentucky. Unwilling to 
accept school teaching as a life-time pursuit, he resolved to enter upon the 
study of law; but, as his means were limited, continued to teach for a time, 
improving his leisure time in the study of his chosen profession, reciting oc- 
casionally to his preceptor. In the spring of 1841, he removed to Madison, 
Indiana, where he studied law in the office of Hon. Joseph G. Marshall, re- 
turning to Carlisle, Kentucky, in the same year. There he passed an exam- 
ination, conducted by Judge Reed, of Maysville, and Judge Simpson, of 
Mount Sterling, Kentucky, and by them was licensed to practice in all the 
courts of that state. He was first admitted to the bar at Carlisle, Kentucky. 
During his sojourn in Indiana, he formed the purpose of emigrating to this 
state and in the year 1843 located at the town of Lebanon, in Boone county. 



222 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

and, although he has traveled over a number of other western states, this was 
his residence since that date. 

In 1846-47, he was chosen to represent his county in the state Legis- 
lature. In 1 85 1, his wife died and six years later, he was a second time mar- 
ried, choosing for his companion Miss Clara, daughter of Charles Davis, 
Esquire, of this county. During his practice he has gained as much pro- 
fessional distinction, perhaps, as any member of the bar of Boone county 
and has always possessed the warmest friendship of contemporaries. It was 
he who prepared the original draft of the Fourteenth Amendment to the 
Constitution of the United States, letters acknowledging the receipt and 
adoption of which were received by him, sent by ex-President Garfield, 
congressman Godlove S. Orth, congressman Stevens and many others of 
equal prominence. 

In the winter of 1846-47, when a member of the Legislature, Judge 
Neal introduced a resolution changing methods of granting divorces in the 
state of Indiana. Up to that time the power of granting divorces resting 
entirely with the Legislature, but the judge's resolution which became a law, 
provided for the county courts to act upon divorce matters, taking that power 
out of the hands of the Legislature. Judge Neal was elected to the Boone 
county bench, serving out his entire term. He was distinguished in the 
theory and practice of war and the law and died full of honors and emolu- 
ments. 

BOONE COUNTY TWENTIETH JUDICIAL CIRCUIT, LEBANON. 

Judge of Circuit Court, Samuel R. Artman, Lebanon. 
Prosecuting Attorney, John W. Hornaday, Lebanon. 
Clerk, George E. Adams, Lebanon. 
Sheriff, Benjamin B. McRoberts, Lebanon. 

Terms — First Monday of January, April, September and November, 
and to continue as long as necessary. 

Rov W. Adney (Terhune and Adney), Lebanon. 

Samuel R. Artman, Lebanon. 

Raphael P. Bundy (Bnndy & Hornaday), Lebanon. 

James C. Darnell, Lebanon. 

William J. Darnell ( Darnell & Darnell), Jamestown 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 223 



Patrick H. Dutch, Lebanon. 

Charles W. Griffin (Griffin & Griffin), Sheridan. 

Clarence Griffin (Griffin & Griffin), Sheridan. 

Barton S. Higgins (Higgins & Holloman), Lebanon. 

John W. Hornaday (Bundy & Hornaday), Lebanon. 

Frank E. Hutchinson, Lebanon. 

Jesse Neff, Lebanon. 

Charles D. Orear, Lebanon. 

Willett H. Parr (Parr & Rogers), Lebanon. 

George W. Piersol, Jamestown. 

Elza O. Rogers (Parr & Rogers), Lebanon. 

Ira M. Sharp, Thorntown. 

Andrew J. Shelby (Shelby & Worley), Lebanon. 

Jesse Smith (Smith & Coulter), Lebanon. 

James M. Worley (Shelby & Worley), Lebanon. 

Charles E. Young, Jamestown. 



CHAPTER X. 



AGRICULTURE. 



Boone county is centrally located in the state of Indiana, northwest of 
Indianapolis, the capital. It is twenty-four miles long east and west and 
seventeen and one-half miles wide north and south, containing four hundred 
and twenty square miles or two hundred sixty-eight thousand acres of land, 
as good as a crow ever flew over. Originally it was heavy timbered and 
full of bogs and morasses. The table-lands between the Wabash and White 
rivers, extended across the county from the southwest to the northeast. 
Within this table-land all the streams wholly in the county had their source. 
The high lands were in the central part of the county making it difficult to 
drain until generally cleared of woods. That was why the county was hard 
to develop into its present splendid farming condition. There are now within 
the county upwards of ten thousand miles of ditches, most of them tiled, 
some of the larger are open, forming for miles the heads of streams. All 
the streams that flow into Sugar creek, Eagle creek and form Raccoon creek 
and Eel rivers, are first tile ditches, then open ditches until they widen into 
the free streams. To do this great work took years of patient toil by our 
forebears. The reward of their toil has been the opening of one of the best 
agricultural counties of the state. 

Boone is pre-eminently an agricultural county. It has no mineral re- 
sources except the best of sand and gravel in abundance for building and 
road purposes. There are very few factory industries in the county except 
those that are necessary for the immediate wants of the people such as mills, 
sawmills, planing mills, and later canning factories and dairies. The great 
resources of wealth are the products of the rich soil. The soil is very arable 
and susceptible of fertilization by rotation of crops and commercial aids. 
Its primitive fertility has been preserved, and in fact by the system of farm- 
ing now in practice, is increasing in productiveness until the aspiring tiller 
of the soil is now hoping to reach one hundred bushels of corn and forty 
bushels of wheat to the acre. 



BOONE COUNTY. 



Since the organization of the county in 1830, it has grown from a 
wilderness of miasmic swamps to fine cultivated farms well ditched and well 
tiled. There are over 600 miles of gravel roads, the streams are all bridged 
with steel bridges and the farms well ditched. The census of 1910 gives 
the number of farms, 2,867; number of dwellings, 6.354; number of families, 
6,414: number of population, 24.673; males 12,464, females 12,094, colored 
males 58, females 65. The number of foreign born people, 131, showing 
that as a county we are nearly all native-born Americans. The total assess- 
ment of the county for taxation is given at $23,929,910, or about $1,000 
per capita of the entire population. The assessed value of the land of Boone 
count)- is $44.78, which is the highest in the state outside of Marion except 
Benton county which is $51.98, which was ditched out of the Kankakee basin. 
The lowest counties in land value in the state are Crawford, valued at $4.54; 
Pern- at $4.67, and Brown $5.10. The total receipts of the county in 1910 
from taxes and sale of bonds was $400,124.95. Disbursements, $447,178.83, 
leaving a net indebtedness at the close of the year of $47,053.88. The county 
expended for roads in 191 1, $30,524 and for bridges $21,487. 

The people of this county have always had a high standard of morals, 
believing in the eternal principles of justice and sobriety. On the 24th of 
July, 191 1. the citizens of Lebanon voted to refuse to license men to sell 
intoxicating liquor as a beverage. The vote stood 667 for wets and 861 
for drys, giving a majority of 194 for temperance. Two years later the vote 
on the same issue was taken and resulted in a larger vote against the saloon 
than the first, showing that there is a trend in the county against the licensed 
curse. Thorntown and other points in the county were pronounced against 
the evil, so we now have a county not only rich in soil, rich in wealth, rich 
in a high standard of morals and on record to stay, opposed to the licensing 
of men to destroy our homes by making drunken its inmates. There is not 
a county in the state that excels us in so rich an. investment for peace, pros- 
perity and happiness. As one of the happy results we give the licenses to 
marry and the divorces showing, although they are bad enough, yet the 
divorces are not so numerous as in rum-cursed localities. Marriage licenses 
in 1910, 190, divorces, 24; 191 1, marriages 205, divorces. 17; 1912 mar- 
riages 203. divorces 22. If you will follow the statistics of Boone and 
compare with sister counties in the state you will find that no other county 
excels in the essentials of happy homes and a prosperous people. 
(15) 



226 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

The chief industry of Boone county is agriculture. Her wealth comes 
from the fertility of her soil. She has no mineral wealth except an abund- 
ance of sand and gravel for building purposes and for the construction of 
roads. There is no building rock in the county, no oil, no natural gas, but 
her rich soil which abundantly makes up for whatever else she may lack. 
It was the richness of her soil that attracted the pioneer when she was yet 
a wilderness. He braved the hardships and privations of the wilderness in 
the hope that he would build a garden of a home. He was not mistaken; 
his hopes have been fully realized. The axe that leveled the forest, the 
spade that drained the boggs and morasses, with brawny arms and brave 
hearts to push them, the full fruition of all his hopes have been fully realized 
— the transition from less than a century ago to the beauty and wealth of 
today. The beautiful homes and magnificent farms that adorn every sec- 
tion of land in the county attests their judgment and is material testimony 
of their toil and energy. The position that the county holds today with sister 
counties of the state is additional evidence of her worth. She holds her 
place among the ten best in the state in all agricultural interests. 

When we take into consideration that Indiana ranks among the fore- 
most agricultural states of the nation we will be able to comprehend more 
fully what it means to rank among the first of so great a state. The leading 
field crops are corn as king, with wheat the queen as next in order. Then 
follow in order oats, hay, barley, rye and other grains. There is also a large 
cultivation of tomatoes, melons, berries, onions and tobacco. In these later 
years more attention is given to the cultivation of fruits and large areas are 
being devoted to orchards in the southern and northern parts of the state. 
The up-to-date methods of fruit culture is bringing good returns and the fruit 
is of excellent flavor and quality. It is now concluded that with the same 
care and attention that this receives in what are termed fruit sections, fully 
as good returns may lie had in sections of Indiana as in any other country. 

In 1910, Boone county was among the ten leading counties of the state 
in total yield of corn, also in the average yield per acre, 44.32 bushels per 
acre. She was the fifth in rank in the state in the number of horses sold 
in 1910. She was also fifth in number of horses and colts on hand in 1911, 
and fourth in 1912, 11,185. In 1910 she was eighth in the production of 
milk and third in the production of pounds of butter, 810,558 pounds. She 
was in the ten counties with cattle on hand and sold in 1910 and 191 1, 7,660. 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 227 

In hogs on hand she was the seventh in 191 1 and in 1912 sold 45,074. In 
1910 and 191 1, she was the ninth county in rank in hogs sold, 62,450. In 
1910. in the loss of hogs by disease, she was second in the state, only being 
outranked in this misfortune by her sister county, Tipton. In 191 1 she 
ranked as the ninth county in the loss of hogs by disease, having lost 14,353. 
In 191 1 she was the fourth in the state in the production of sheep, 23,612. 
In 191 1 she was ninth in number of sheep sold, 13,066. In the same year 
she was tenth in wool clipped, 83,354 pounds, selling value, $15,592. In 
1910 she was third in poultry sold, 12,177 dozen. In 191 1 she was seventh 
in laying hens, 13,362 dozen. Tn 1910, Boone county stood first in the 
state in the production of eggs, 1,842,006 dozen, selling value, $206,389. 
In 1910 she produced 275.966 bushels of wheat, an average of 15.98 bushels 
per acre. Her average yield in 191 1 was 16.73 bushels per acre. 

Her crop of corn in 1910 was 3,112,930 bushels. Average yield per 
acre. 44.32. In 191 1, she produced 1,033,286 bushels. Rye, 4,802 bushels; 
barley, 500 bushels. This county was more on the bread and meat side of 
life than on the rye and barley product. The annual product of timothy hay 
about 20,000 tons annually; 22,177 tons ot clover hay, and about the first 
county in the state in the production of clover seed, 9,215 bushels in 1910. 

The alfalfa has been introduced of late years and is rapidly growing 
in favor both as to quality and quantity of provender. In 1910 there were 
two hundred and ten acres and a yield of three hundred and seventeen tons 
was reported. There has been a rapid increase of acreage since that date 
also in the yield per acre. Some report as high as six tons per acre in three 
cuttings. In connection with the growth of the agricultural interest of the 
county, we would mention the introduction of ensilage within the last few 
years and the favor with which it is being received; it promises to become 
one of the leading processes of preserving the crops of the county. 

One of the characteristics of the Boone county farmer is to keep abreast 
of the progress of the world. Under the new intelligent system of farm- 
ing that is now coming in, we will expect this county with its base of rich 
soil, to hold its place with sister counties of the state. It was among the 
first in the state to avail itself of the provision of a county agent provided 
by law to look after the agricultural interests of the county. With her ten 
thousand miles of ditching and more coming, her six hundred or more miles 
of good roads and a spirit that will soon make every road in the county 
gravel or macadam, we will be placed in the front rank of the state. 



228 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

We as a county, hold the distinction of having more miles of gravel 
roads than any other county in the state. Our soil, our roads, our schools 
and churches, and the progressive intelligent spirit of our people will keep 
us in the foreground of advancement and we may expect as much uplift in 
the next three-fourths of a century as there has been in the past. The brush 
and bogs are now out of the way. The roads are built, streams bridged and 
public buildings in position, so there is nothing for us to do except to grow 
in beaut}- and strength. The same energy and push that characterized our 
ancestors, if projected into the future, will realize all our expectations. In 
our imagination we look ahead seventy-five years and behold Boone county 
a very paradise of prosperous homes and a happy people. 



BOONE COUNTY AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Early in the history of Boone county, her progressive citizens began to 
talk around about an agricultural fair. Other counties were holding them 
and she did not want to be behind any of her sister counties. She wanted 
to enter the arena of competition and show her "pumkins" and other farm 
products against the world. She felt confident that there were none that 
could excel her in these products. As early as 1853, they began to take steps 
for an organization. From that time to the present, there has been more 
or less interest manifested in this enterprise to place the farmers of this 
county before the world. There were times when things went slow and it 
took hard pulling by the enthusiasts to keep it going. Its interest was kept 
alive and like other enterprises it has grown into a permanent institution. 
It has become a fixed institution of the county and the farmer, the merchant 
and the mechanic of this day would not know how to do without the annual 
meeting of the association. Among the men that were active at the very first 
were H. G. Hazelrigg, A. J. Boone, Levi Lane, William Zion, L. C. Daugh- 
erty, John Miggins, Thomas R. Cobb, 1. M. Ball, Samuel S. Heath, Jesse 
Xeff. Adolphus Wysong, T. J. Cason, William C. Rise, Jacob Kernodle and 
many others who can lie named and that have pushed the car along the past 
decades. 

The sessions were at first held south of Lebanon, but early in the history 
of the association, it began to plan to buy land and establish a permanent 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 229 

home. The first that was bought was on the north of Lebanon, where it 
added from time to time until now it has ample possessions for accommo- 
dation of all its interests, and is well provided with buildings and improve- 
ments. About the time of the Centennial of our nation, the representatives of 
the farming interests of the counties of Montgomery, Clinton and Boone held 
a meeting and perfected an organization for agricultural advancement and 
arranged to hold annual exhibits and award premiums. The place of meet- 
ing was just east of Thorntown on the Strawtown road. There were several 
grand meetings held at this place and great crowds gathered annually from 
surrounding counties and from over the state. Finally these meetings closed 
and all the interest along this line centered at Lebanon, under the management 
of the Boone County Agricultural Society. After the centralizing of all 
the agricultural interest in the County Association, it took on new life and 
soon grew into one of the most active and energetic agricultural societies of 
the state. We can not follow its growth and activities through all the years 
to the present but will give the report of the year that marks about the middle 
of its existence from its organization to the present time. It is taken from 
the report given in the Lebanon Pioneer, of November, 1886. 

The first agricultural fair was held just south of Lebanon, in the fall of 
1855, and was well attended and much enthusiasm manifested. Everybody 
seemed to be wonderfully interested in the success of the fair and looked upon 
it as their individual interest and were under obligations to make it a great 
success. It more than came up to the expectations of the management, and 
every person went home rejoicing and feeling confident that Boone had ex- 
perienced a great fair of her own, and she would be hencefQrth recognized 
along with the great counties of the state. 

From the Lebanon Pioneer of November 13, 1886: 

The stockholders of the Boone County Stock Agricultural Society, met 
in annual session in the circuit court room on Saturday last. The meeting 
was called to order by President J. M. Ball, when on motion of S. L. Cason, 
John Higgins was elected chairman. Treasurer B. F. Coombs submitted 
the following report of receipts and expenditures for the year 1886: 



23O BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 



RECEIPTS. 



From former treasurer $ 188.04 

Gate receipts 3>5 5-99 

Stands and shows 566.30 

Stall rent __ 215.50 

Amphitheater 13360 

Entry fees 30.00 

Insurance on old floral hall 295.50 

Proceeds of note 600.00 

Rents by John Adair 13.80 

Total receipts $5,538.03 

DISBURSEMENTS. 

Premiums and expenses $5,275.03 

Balance on hand 263.00 

Total $5,538.03 

Secretary John W. Kise submitted a report of the money passing through 
his hands as follows : 

RECEIPTS. 

May 1, 1886, cash from treasurer $10.00 

August 2, 1886, cash from treasurer 8.50 

August 19, 1886, cash received at fair 30.00 

Total $48-50 

DISBURSEMENTS. 

Postage, wrappers, etc. $11.21 

Advertising 10.25 

Draying .75 

Cash to treasurer , 30.00 

Total $52.21 

Balance due secretary 3.71 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 23I 

The secretary submitted verbal report of insurance now on the society's 
buildings and the president made report of purchase of grounds, improve- 
ments, etc. The certificate of the secretary of the State Board of Agricul- 
ture was submitted, showing that our society bad been properly represented 
at the annual meeting of that board, and that the secretary had made all 
necessary reports to the State Board. This concluded the forenoon session. 
At 1 P. M., the society convened and proceeded to the election of officers 
and directors as follows : Officers — John M. Ball, president ; Riley Col- 
grove, vice-president; S. L. Cason, treasurer; E. G. Darnell, secretary; T. 
R. Cobb, superintendent. 

Directors — C. C. Padgett. Marion; William Brenton, Clinton; John 
Higgins, Washington; Joseph A. Campbell, Sugar Creek; W. B. Taylor, 
Jefferson; S. S. Heath and James Nealis, Center; W. H. Dooley, Union; 
Jacob Jones, Eagle ; John B. Witt, Perry ; F. L. Lane, Harrison ; R. C. Mc- 
Cann, Jackson, and Benjamin Booker, Worth. 

The society voted that the Executive Committee be selected by the Board 
of Directors. The railroad fare of John Higgins to attend the meeting of 
the State Board of Agriculture was ordered paid by the society. On motion, 
the Directors were authorized to appoint the committee of revision of pre- 
mium list for the year 1887, after which the stockholders' meeting ad- 
journed. 

DIRECTORS' MEETING. 

The Board of Directors met immediately upon the adjournment of the 
stockholders' meeting, and, on motion, appointed the following committee 
on revision of premium list: J. M. Ball, John Higgins, James Nealis and 
R. C. McCann. The board selected as an executive committee, Benjamin 
Booher, William Brenton and S. S. Heath. 

ONE REGULAR ATTENDANT. 

Boone county can boast of at least one regular attendant at the annual 
fairs. John Edlin, living south of Lebanon, at the age of eleven years at- 
tended in 1855, the first fair and has been a regular attendant to and including 
the last fair held August, 19 14. He has witnessed the growth of the institu- 
tion from the beginning to the present and marked the great changes that 



232 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

indicate the growth of the county and the changes of the manners and cus- 
toms of the people from the ox team of the fifties to the automobile of 1914; 
from the simple farm implements of his young manhood to the various im- 
provements that mark this day and age. 



Do you know these people? Better make their acquaintance. They 
are the coming folks, bringing comfort and good returns for all labor put upon 
them. If you welcome them we will assure you that Mr. Al will be good 
to you no matter how dry and hot the summer becomes. He has a habit of 
diving deep into the earth and hunting for moisture. He is a comparatively 
new comer in Boone and our people are not well enough acquainted with 
him to know all his virtues. He is ahead of Mr. T. and Miss C. is not to 
be compared to him. It is true you will have to treat him pretty nice when 
he first comes on your farm or he will not stay. He resents bad treatment 
or neglect. You must be sure to give him a good bed to lie in. Make it 
soft and mellow and give him good food to live upon when he is young. 
Be sure and see that he does not have wet feet. He is very fond of lime, 
especially, if your soil is full of alkali. Give him plenty of lime and see that 
it is made into fine meal. You need not cook it. Another thing, you must 
be careful of, if you desire Mr. Al to remain with you as a permanent boarder 
and pay well for his keep. It may put you to some trouble and may be some 
expense. Do not mind this, for we assure you that you will be abundantly 
rewarded for all your labor and care bestowed. We were going to call your 
attention to Mr. Al's dislike to bad company. He will not tolerate it for even 
one season. The fact of the business is, he is not fond of any kind of com- 
pany. He would rather be alone and selfish-like eat up all the food you 
prepare for him. But bear in mind that he will not tolerate noxious weeds. 

The way to have good Al — Fal — (there I came near spelling out his 
full name) is the same as to have good boys and girls. Keep them from evil 
associates. In short you must not have any weeds in the home where you 
are rearing Mr. Al. It would be safe to observe the same rule with boys and 
girls. Be sure that you do not have any weed seeds in the cradle, where you 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 233 

put Al to sleep. If you keep this rule faithfully you will enjoy the wonder- 
ful effect it will have on the growth of the youngster, and you will thank your 
stars for the great reward that he will give you for all your care. Just try 
it and try it faithfully and see, if you will not really love the new comer and 
will be anxious too for him to remain with you forever. Ask some of 
your neighbors, who have been boarding and caring for him four or five years 
and hear what they will say. 

What's Si got to do with Al? Much every way. That is the sequel 
of the story. When Al gets his full growth and wants to come in out of the 
hot sun, you must have a good place to keep him from harm. Of course the 
old hay mow will do if you have nothing better, or can build nothing better. 
You can dry him out and store him away like you do Mr. T. and Miss C. but 
let me say a word. I want to whisper in your ear. Bring in Mr. Si. He is big 
and round and can take the best of care of Mr. Al in the world and preserve 
all his succulent virtues the same as they were in the days of his youth when 
he was vigorous and growing in the field. Mr. Si will do for Mr. Al what 
he does for Mr. Corn. He will preserve him in his natural state and in the 
dead of winter when the snow is on the ground and the wind playing a 
blizzard around the barn, old brindle will roll up her meek eyes as delighted 
as when knee deep in clover on a lovely day in June. She will fill the pail 
with pure white milk from which will come rich layers of cream and golden 
globules of butter. Can you think of anything more heavenly on a farm? 
Won't it pay to adopt the new way of doing things? 1 What's the use of 
sticking to the old when there is a better way? You can knock old Boreas 
back into his northern home and have soft summer tarry with us the year 
round if you fix for her. Just fix, that is all. It will not take a bit more 
work. Instead of skimming over twenty or forty acres of ground to get 
winter food for five or six head of cattle, two horses, six sheep and a few 
pigs, make a good bed of five or six acres of ground for Mr. Al, tuck him in 
right and then instead of buying an automobile (unless you have skillets of 
money), introduce Mr. Si on your farm to take care of Mr. Al and his other 
friends when the winter is on and you will have summer in your barns all 
the year and roses will bloom on the cheeks of your children and everything 
about your home that has life will be fat and sleek and happy. 



234 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 



STORY OF AN AUTOCHTHON. 



Our folks are not great talkers, for we never have much to say. At one 
time in our life we are nearly all ears and we can hear lots of things. We 
learn the name of persons and objects by hearing. The creature you call 
man has most to do with us, and says lots of things about us. He treats us 
kindly at times but most of the time he handles us roughly, and we are help- 
less in his power, and have to take whatever he bestows upon us. We do 
not know anything of our origin except as we hear it from his lips. He 
calls us by more than one name. Most people call us corn, others say maize, 
others Indian corn and still others cereal. We do not care much about the 
name but there are those who sing praises to it. Like other people we are 
classed by our color. Some of us are white, others yellow, red and some 
actually black, so you see all races are represented. Of course this does not 
make much difference, the color is only skin deep so far as looks go; and 
we are all taken in as a class and treated pretty much the same. Speaking 
for myself, I never knew my mother. Our folks do not keep family records; 
and I never could learn much until my ears grew. Mother must have been 
good and kind and withal very systematic. She got a stick (some call it a 
cob), and lined us children all up in rows, stood us up side by side and 
scrouged us closely together, so we could not run around and get lost. She 
actually tied us to her apron strings and we had no strength within ourselves 
to move. We were all treated just alike. There was no outside or top row 
in the arrangement. There was a stick for each family and we had to stay 
together, and in this way moved about wherever the man or some other 
animal chose to place us. We had no power to move ourselves. The fate 
of most of us was to be eaten by man or beast. Some little animals would 
gnaw on our backs and torture us ; others would tear ns from our home and 
crush us with their hard teeth, and man was worse than all. He treats us 
very roughly as if we had no feeling. He literally tears us from the place 
where mother put us, and scatters us in every direction ; mashes us, grinds us 
into powder, cooks and actually devours us with his teeth. Some of us he 
puts into great vats and steams and soaks, bringing out the spirit of mean- 
ness, in us. Then it is that we get even with him and set him on fire and con- 
sume his manhood. 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 235 

Some of our folks are very kindly cared for. The most comely are put 
to themselves, kept in a dry place away from animals and moisture and cold. 
They call us seed kernels. In the spring of the year we. are separated from 
each other as families and thrown into a heap where we nestle close to each 
other half frightened, wondering what next. When the days warm up in the 
spring we are taken out of the bin, placed into a small round box where there 
are iron teeth that grab two or three of us at a time and thrust us down a 
hole into the ground and bun' us alive. We are dazed. We can't think what 
to do. We lie still in the darkness a few days, until we get a sup of moisture 
and the sun warms up our dark chamber, and we learn from whence light 
and heat come. Then it is our little heart begins to throb and we realize 
that we are alive. We begin to search our way out of the grave. We first 
kick out our feet, reaching down in the earth for a drink to strengthen us 
for our work. Next we lift our heads upwards towards the light, heat and 
life. In a few days we feel our life and set to work to come up out of the 
grave. 

Some of us had a hard time this year. We were buried in a few hard 
dry crumbs of earth. We thought for days we would perish of thirst. 
Along came the man that buried us with a big roller and pressed the clods 
down tight on us, so we could not move. Still we thirsted. We tried to 
press our hands and feet downward but there was nothing there to quench our 
thirst. The man came along and stirred the blankets about us as if we were 
too cold. We were warm enough but dying of thirst. If he could only 
have given us a drink we would have been thankful. We had almost given 
up all hope of life when the heavens opened and showered down upon us 
copious blessings. We revived, sprung into life, arose from the tomb, rejoic- 
ing with gratitude and joy. The poet sings. "Where near thee rises green 
the bladed corn," soon we will stand as an army, with banners tossing our 
plumes high in air, and array all our numerous offspring in close fitting 
jackets of green looped with finest silks of various delicate tints. 



BOONE COUNTY AGRICULTURAL AGENT. 

The office of county agricultural agent was created by the 191 3 Indiana 
Legislature; Vocational Education Bill, Section 12. 



236 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

This bill provided for the appointment of county agents in each of thirty- 
counties for the first year, ending October 1, 1914, thirty appointments the 
second year and the remainder the third year, providing that number of 
counties desired such an office. 

The appointment is made jointly by Purdue University, the County 
Board of Education and the State Board of Education. The following is 
quoted from a letter of Mr. R. W. Imel : 

My a'ppointment was made to take effect July 1, 1913. There were 
previous to that time county agents in three Indiana counties, namely, La- 
Porte, Parke and Montgomery. At the present time there are twenty-eight 
men at work, and applications in from other counties, that have not been, 
filled. 

Arriving at Lebanon, Boone county, Indiana, on July 1, 1913, as the 
first person to fill the office of county agent in that county, I found myself 
in much the same position that several other men were in at that time. I was 
an entire stranger to the people and conditions were more or less strange to 
me, so that the first thing to do was to get acquainted with the people and 
their conditions, crops grown, live stock produced and amounts of each. 

The work being new in the county, as it was over the state, the office 
was not understood at first. However, office calls came in rather rapidly 
the first two months and farm visits were made to all sections of the county. 

During the second week after being located here the business men of the 
town gave a reception to which the farmers in particular were invited. Mr. 
T. A. Coleman, assistant State leader was present and addressed the audience 
on the "New Vocational Law." This meeting afforded an opportunity to 
meet people that I would not have had otherwise. 

In the third month the school work demanded a large portion of the 
time and since then the work of various kinds has gone steadily on, occupy- 
ing all the time. 



ANNUAL REPORT OF COUNTY AGENT, FROM JULY I, I9I3 TO JUNE 3O, I9I4. 
DEMONSTRATION MEETINGS. 

Series of demonstration meetings of various kinds have been taken up, 
the first of which were for the "Selection of Seed Corn." These were held 
on farms at various points of the county. 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 2$J 

SEED CORN MEETINGS. 

Date. Place. Attendance. 

October 2— W. H. Nelson 8 

October 2 — M. J. Barker 30 

October 2 — John Eaton 10 

October 2 — Charles Howard 17 

October 31 — No. 5 School, Jackson township 18 

October 3 — J. S. Baird 55 

October 3 — O. H. Starkey 40 

October 3 — George W. New 24 

At these meetings the assistance of J. P. Prigg, of the Extension De- 
partment was secured. The plan of meetings was to give a description of 
ears to select for seed, and then have each person go to the field and select 
ears and stalks conforming to this description. 

The storing of seed corn was also given an important place. While 
the attendance at these meetings was not large the interest was good, and 
results of it were noted throughout the county, as man}- made field selections 
of seed corn as they had not done before. To cite a specific example, I will 
quote a farmer of Union township: 

"Before I attended your seed corn meeting, I had selected several bushels 
of corn in one day, but after hearing the discussion at the farm of George 
New, I spent one day in gathering about fifty ears." On other farms, seed 
corn racks of various kinds were put to use and in the spring individual ear 
test work was carried on. 



SEED CORN TESTING WEEK. 

The week of March 2-j. was set aside as the week to test seed corn in 
the public schools of the county. A circular letter was mailed out to each 
rural teacher, giving instruction how to make the test and the benefit to be 
derived from it. The co-operation of the patrons was asked and results of 
school tests carried home to them. 

This work had the approval and support of the county superintendent of 
schools, E. M. Servies. 



238 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 



ORCHARD DEMONSTRATION. 

Orchard pruning' and spraying" has received a rather prominent place in 
the work. Demonstrations have been held at the following times and places : 

Date. Place. Attendance. 

October 8 — H. A. Flickinger 75 

October 9 — D. C. Taylor 150 

March 11 — O. H. Starkey 25 

April 15 — L. O. Thompson 21 

March 24 — Henry Baker 6 

At three of these meetings assistance was secured from the State Ex- 
tension Department. 

Interest was very good at all meetings, and spraying work in particular 
has been given a heavy impetus. One of the leading drug companies selling 
spraying supplies, reports selling ten times the amount of material sold in 
any previous year. Others have sold like quantities. I feel that as much or 
more progress has been made in orchard work than in any other. 



MILK TESTING. 

A small Babcock milk tester was secured and several testing demon- 
strations were held at rural schools and other meetings. A limited amount 
of work has been- done on the farms of individual owners. The work ap- 
pealed especially to school children as results were something that could be 
actually seen. 

I also assisted a member of the Purdue staff, H. S. Moredock, in form- 
ing a cow testing association in this county. A testing unit was also planned 
at Zionsville, but owing to change of plans by the State Department, no 
actual work was done although one hundred and twenty-five cows were 
enrolled to be tested. 

Farmers in general will be more ready to take up testing in another 
year, as a branch of a milk condensary is being installed at this place. 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 239 

ALFALFA TOUR. 

Alfalfa is a coming crop of Boone county. There is approximately 
three hundred acres of old seeding of from two to four years old. That 
much more will be seeded in the next year, if weather conditions are all 
favorable. 

In view of the adaptability of much of the soil of the county for alfalfa 
production, an alfalfa tour was held in which anumber of fields were visited 
and growing conditions noted. On May 26, 1914. the following farms were 
visited by fifteen autos carrying thirty-five people: John Powell, Henry 
Klinger, Carey Powell, Adolphus Wysong, O. H. Starkey, Dr. E. D. Johns, 
E. B. Bender, John Sicks. 

On May 27, forty people in twenty autos, visited the farms of Jerome 
Kersey, Victor Crane, C. O. Brown, G. I. Neptune, Marley Riley, M. J. 
Barker, O. E. Dixon, William Montgomery. 

This tour attracted more attention than any movement attempted since 
coming to the county. It was attended by business men and newspaper men, 
as well as farmers. The newspapers gave the tour much publicity and favor- 
able comment. It is evident that much interest in alfalfa was aroused 
throughout the county, as I devoted a large portion of my time for weeks 
afterward answering calls on alfalfa questions. Much ground is in the 
course of preparation for seeding either this fall or next spring. 

The tour was accompanied by G. M. Frier and F. H. King, of the Ex- 
tension Department. They were a large factor in making the trip a success. 

FIELD DEMONSTRATIONS. 

/. Formalin Treatment for Oat Smut. 

The seed to treat a fifteen acre field was treated except a check strip. 

When results were checked up five per cent of the untreated check was 
found to be affected, while there was no noticeable smut on the treated oats. 
This was carried on with the assistance of T. W. Saltmarsh at his farm. 

//. Fertilizer Tests on Corn. 

(a) At the county farm, eight-tenths acre plats are being used to 



24O BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

demonstrate the comparative value of potash and phosphate fertilizers on 
clay and loam soils. 

(b) On the farm of Earl Lowe, nitrogen, potash and phosphate are 
being used on tenth acre plats, alone and in combination. 

///. Soy Bean Variety Test. 

(a) George Richmann. 

(b) R. V. Snepp. 

In conjunction with the Crops Department of the Experiment Station, 
I am assisting the above men to carry on a variety test of soy beans, three 
varieties being used. 

IV. Corn Variety Test. 

(a) L. M. Church. 

With the assistance of Mr. Church and in conjunction with the Crops 
Department this test is being carried on the same as with the soy beans. 

There will be no results to check up for some time. 



/. Boys Acre Com Growing Contest. 

This is being carried on under the rules governing the contest, as laid 
down by the State Extension Department. The township is a unit. 

Prize monev aggregating $180.00 has been voted by the County Bank- 
ers' Association, and this will be awarded to the winner in each township. 

There are approximately thirty contestants. 

//. Five Acre Corn Growing Contest. 

This contest is conducted under the rules laid down by the State Corn 
Growers' Association, but the county is the unit. 

The prizes for this aggregate $150.00 and was raised as follows: 

G. I. Neptune (farmer) $100.00 

Business Men 50.00 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 24I 

It will be distributed thus : 

1st prize $50.00 

2nd prize 30.00 

3d prize 20.00 

Next five 10.00 

There are twenty entries in this contest and several of them are first- 
class corn raisers. 

COUNTY HORSE BREEDERS' ASSOCIATION. ■ 

" On February 21, 1913, a meeting of those interested in horse breeding 
in Boone county, was called at the court house to organize a County Horse 
Breeders' Association. The organization was perfected, electing D. C. Price 
president and R. W. Imel, secretary. 

March 21st, a stallion and mare show was held with forty-one entries. 
There were one thousand people at the show. Ribbons were placed on the 
prize winners. Mr. J. Schwab, of Purdue, acted as judge. The interest 
manifested at this meeting: augurs well for the future. 



CHOLERA CONTROL. 

During the summer and fall of 1913, hog cholera was prevalent through- 
out Boone county. At various times throughout the year meetings were 
held to discuss the control of the disease by sanitary precautions and vacci- 
nation. 

The following meetings were held : 

Time. Place. Attendance. 

November 7 — Lebanon 120 

December 21 — Thorntown 75 

June 23 — E. S. Stansel 18 

June 24 — O. B. Knowlton 16 

Tune 24 — Favette 55 

(16) 



IK MINK COUNTY, INDIANA. 



In addition to these central meetings a large number of office calls and 
many farm visits have been made to help control cholera. The disease is 
not nearly so prevalent this season. 



SCHOOL WORK. 

The work in agriculture being new to the teachers, as well as the pupils 
of the public schools of this county, much time has been devoted to assisting 
them. 

Two talks were given by myself at the Teachers' County Institute in 
August. All the township institutes were visited at least once during the 
winter and some of them twice. 

At these meetings the work for the month was taken up and discussed, 
and the teachers given an opportunity to ask questions pertaining to the 
work in agriculture. 

In addition to this, nearly all the rural schools of the county were 
visited and a short talk given on the agricultural work immediately before 
the pupils, or on any subject that the teacher was not able to make clear to 
the class. 

Milk testing demonstrations and weed seed identification work was 
done before the school. 

Each month a bulletin was issued to the rural teachers. This bulletin 
contained an outline of topics for the month. 

Teachers and pupils were encouraged to attend orchard demonstra- 
tions, seed corn meetings and the farmers' short course. 

The schools assisted in seed corn germination week, March 2-7, 1914, 
whenever conditions permitted them to do so. 



FARMERS CLUBS. 

There are four active farmers* clubs in the county that hold regular 
meetings at periods from two to four weeks. Each club has its officers, and 
programs are arranged, usually, several weeks in advance. The meet- 
ings are held at rural school buildings, and the teachers were of very material 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 243 

aid in assisting in the organization of the clubs. The membership ranged 
from 50 to 200. The locations of the clubs are as follows : 

Walnut Grove — Sugar Creek township. 

District No. 10 — Jefferson township. 

District No. 5 — Eagle township. 

District No. 6 — Marion township. 

Twice each, during the winter months, R. W. Imel .was on the program 
at these places, either for a talk on some practical farm topic or for an illu- 
strated lecture. 

farmers' short course. 

The Purdue Traveling Short Course was with us for three days, 
December 15, 16 and 17. At this course, practical lectures and demonstra- 
tions were given on nearly every phase of farm life. The work was given 
by eight members of the Extension Department of Purdue. They had with 
them a carload of live stock and equipment for demonstration purposes. 
The attendance for the course was approximately 500 and interest very good. 



SUMMARY. 

Office work has constituted no small portion of the year's work. Each 
morning until nine o'clock and all day Saturday have been devoted to office 
work. In addition to this, other time has been used as needed. 

The calls that have come to the office have been along almost every 
line of farm work. The following are some representative topics: Setting 
of orchard trees, pruning and spraying of trees for various insect and plant 
diseases; fertilizers for wheat, corn and alfalfa; all the different steps in 
securing a stand of alfalfa and caring for same after getting it; testing soil 
for acidity, adaptability of soil for certain crops; culture of soy beans and 
cow peas ; where to obtain innoculating bacteria for different legumes ; feed- 
ing of all classes of live stock, balanced rations, comparative value of feeds; 
use of concentrates, value of milk testing; breeds and breeding; vaccination 
of hogs, diseases of different kinds of live stock; analysis and value of fer- 
tilizers, home mixing of fertilizers; farm management problems, markets. 



244 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

Farm visits were to take up such of the problems as could not readily 
be taken up at the office. 

Meetings have been held throughout the .year to discuss seasonable topics. 
Some of these are as follows : "Seed Corn Selection and Storage," "Prun- 
ing and Spraying of Orchards," "Cholera Prevention," "Alfalfa Growing," 
'"Milk Testing," "Care and Management of Brood Sow," "Care and Man- 
agement of Brood Mare," "Feeding of Dairy Cow," "Illustrated Lecture on 
Live Stock," "Corn Cultivation," "Use of Phosphate," "Co-operation Buy- 
ing of Fertilizers," "Organizing a Cow Testing Unit," "Catch Crops." "Ag- 
riculture in the Schools," "Culture in Agriculture." 

These meetings have had fair attendance throughout the year and in- 
terest always good. Just how much good results from these meetings it is 
difficult to estimate, but some evidence is seen, that ideas gained at all of them 
is being practiced. 

The following is a tabulation of that part of the work that can be re- 
duced to figures : 

Number of meetings held 165 

Number in attendance 8997 

Number of farm visits 294 

Number of office calls 691 

Number of miles traveled 499§ 

Respectfully submitted. 
County Agent, Boone County, Indiana. 
July 23, T914. 

DRAINAGE OF INDIANA. 

Almost every one that is able to tell the right hand from the left knows 
that water runs down hill. There is no need of asking some one to tell you 
where the high points in Indiana are, and where the lowest are, for if you 
know the location of the streams you know that the source of the stream is 
the high point; and that its mouth or where the water empties is the lowest 
point along its course. The principal river of the state is the Wabash, which 
drains, with its tributaries, fully two-thirds of the area of the state. It rises 
in Mercer county, Ohio, flows west to the state line, passing between Ran- 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 245 

dolph and Adams counties, thence north and northwest through Wells and 
Noble to Wabash counties ; thence west bearing south through Wabash, 
Miami, Cass. Carroll and Tippecanoe counties ; between Fountain and War- 
ren to the northeast of Vermilion counties ; thence south between Vermilion 
and Parke, through Vigo towards the southwest to the meridian of Vincennes; 
thence forming the boundary line between Illinois and Sullivan, Knox, 
Gibson and Posey counties to the Ohio river a distance of 400 miles. It is a 
sluggish river, falling about 18 inches per mile from its source in Mercer 
county, Ohio, to its mouth. Tippecanoe and Eel rivers are its principal tribu- 
taries from the north. Tippecanoe rises in Tippecanoe lake in Kosciusko 
county, Eel rises in Xoble and Allen counties. The tributaries of the Wabash 
from the east side as you ascend are, first, Patoka, then White river, which 
constitutes a considerable system within itself, formed by the East Fork and 
West Fork, which with their tributaries, drain a large portion of the south- 
ern and central regions of the state. It flows westward, bearing south be- 
tween the boundaries of Knox, Pike and Gibson, entering- the Wabash at the 
southwest corner of Knox county ; Big Raccoon creek, then Rock river, 
known as Sugar creek in Boone count) - which enters the Wabash at the 
northwest corner of Parke county, draining Parke, Montgomery, Boone and 
Clinton counties ; Coal creek drains Fountain county ; Wild Cat drains a 
large portion of Tippecanoe, Clinton, Tipton, Carroll and Howard counties. 
Deer and Pike creeks drain the southeastern portions of Carroll, Cass and 
Miami counties. The Mississinewa river rises in the northwest corner of 
Darke county, Ohio, flows due west across the northern boundary of Ran- 
dolph, draining Delaware and Blackford; thence it traverses the center of 
Grant county, crosses the south boundary of Wabash county: thence north- 
west, .entering the Wabash above Peru. The Salamonie river rises in the 
southeast corner of jay county, flows northwest through the northeast cor- 
ner of Blackford, across Wells, Huntington and Wabash counties, where it 
enters the Wabash river as its last tributary from the south. As you ascend 
the Wabash, the Embarrass river, wholly in Illinois, enters the Wabash 
about the middle of the western boundary of Knox county. The little and 
big Vermilion rivers, which drain the eastern boundary of Illinois, enter 
the Wabash river in Vermillion county. The White river rises in Randolph 
county, flows south and southeast through Wayne. Fayette, Franklin and 
Dearborn counties, and forms a junction with the Great Miami near Harri- 



246 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

son', Ohio. Drop seven feet per mile. It is the swiftest stream of the state. 
St. Joseph of the Lake has its origin in Michigan, makes a long, graceful 
sweep through portions of Elkhart and St. Joseph counties, Indiana, and 
flows back north and westward and empties into Lake Michigan. The 
Kankakee drains the lake region of the state, rising in the southern part of 
St. Joseph, northern part of Marshall, thence through Starke, Laporte, Por- 
ter, Jasper and between Lake and Newton counties, where it enters the Illi- 
nois river, thence on to the Mississippi. Jasper, Newton and Benton coun- 
ties are drained by the Iroquois, a tributary of the Kankakee. This is the 
sluggish river of the state. St. Marys and St. Joseph rivers, the former 
rises in Ohio, flows northwest until it meets the St. Joseph at Fort Wayne, 
which rises in Michigan and flows to the southwest through the corner of 
Ohio and thence into Indiana. After thus uniting their waters and forming 
the Maumee, these two rivers double back upon their courses and flow to the 
east and north and empty into Lake Erie. This system drains Allen, part 
of Adams and Dekalb counties. The St. Marys and St. Joseph are striking 
examples of Moraine guided streams. Scattered over the northern third of 
the state there are a thousand shimmering lakes, many of them covering 
areas of several square miles. The Ohio river forms the southern boundary 
of the state and drains all the border counties. The highest point in the state 
is Carlos, in Randolph county, which is the source of tributaries of the Wa- 
bash, White river, East and West Fork, and also of the White Water. It is 
1,285 teet above sea level. The lowest point in the state is the mouth of the 
Wabash river at the southwest corner of Posey county, 313 feet above the 
level of the sea. This southwest corner must always have been the lowest 
part of the state, for there are no evidences of any upheavals. So the gen- 
eral face of the state must have been from the beginning as it is today; 
except the hills must have been higher and the valleys deeper than they now 
are. It is evident that the hills are being carried by the flood tides down 
into the vallevs. The drainage basin of the Wabash river embraces an area 
of 33,000 square miles. Of the total number, 24,350 square miles are within 
the border of Indiana. This is slightly more than two-thirds the area of the 
state, the total area being 35.910 square miles. Of this portion in Indiana, 
about one-half is embraced in the drainage areas of the East and West 
White rivers. 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 



CENTRAL DRIFT PLAN. 



The central part of Indiana, the basin of the Wabash river and head- 
waters of all our principal streams constitute a Great Drift Plan. The sand, 
gravel, clays and buried trees all point to the period when there must have 
been a great force passed over this section more than wind and heavier than 
water. The trend of this force was from the northeast towards the south- 
west. The great boulders on the surface of our soil all through this section 
are the tracks of a monster giant of strength that at some former period 
passed over this country. This vast undulating plain of glacial drift and 
accumulations possesses a deep, mellow soil unexcelled anywhere on the con- 
tinent for fertility and productiveness. The principal crops grown are corn, 
wheat, oats, potatoes and hay. 



OUR NATIVE FOREST. 

A little story about the trees of Boone county may be interesting to the 
children of this age. Very few of our boys and girls know about it. The 
parents and grandparents that lived in the woods have passed away. The 
story grew old and passed away with the trees. Less than one hundred years 
ago the entire county was a dense forest except a few bogs and morasses 
where it was so wet that a tree could not grow ; also a tract in the southern 
part of the county that had dignity and scope enough to be called a prairie. 
Can you imagine how it would look if instead of the beautiful farms and 
homes we have now with good roads, bridges, schools, churches, towns and 
cities, there was nothing but continuous dense forest with denser under- 
growth so that you could see but a little distance in front of you, and you 
would have to push the bushes aside to pass through. It will take a big 
stretch of our imagination to see the picture. If you had been dropped down 
anywhere in the county one century ago you would not know which way to 
go, unless you found an Indian trail or path leading to his wigwam, spring 
or favorite hunting ground. At that time he was the only living human 
being that lived here "In the Woods;" no path; no idea of direction; no 
sight of sun by day or of moon or stars by night. Nothing but woods and 
woods impenetrable all around you, one continuous army of great trees with 



248 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

crowds of little ones at their feet. We have a few representatives of each 
family with us to this day as living monuments of the vast army that has 
fallen before the woodman's ax. 



THE OAK (QUERCUS.) 

Chief among all is the oak, the giant and king of the forest. He is the 
oldest, strongest and largest except the tulip tree. His family name is 
Quercus and there are about three hundred species ranging in size and 
strength from the smallest to the greatest. They do not all live in Boone 
county. Like people they are of all colors and so named, red, black, white, 
yellow, green, gray, etc., from the color of their bark and wood. They are 
also distinguished from each other by the kind of fruit they bear. The fruit 
or seed is called acorn. There are various kinds, ranging in size from the 
Bur-oak down to the Pin-oak called Chinkapin. If you stand by a great oak 
and look at its grandeur and then at the tiny fruit it bears, you will wonder 
how so great a tree can be wrapped up and packed away in so small a space 
as the little hard nut called — rock barnacle. A story is told of a man who 
lay dreaming under a pin-oak one sleepy day in October, and in his dream 
he thought God did not know how to make this world, when he put the little 
acorn on the great oak, and the big pumpkin on the sprawling vine unable 
to lift up its head. He was awakened by a nut coming down, and striking 
him on the head. He concluded that God had arranged things best after all, 
for where, oh, where, would he have been if the pumpkin had been placed 
on the oak. Both the nose and the pumpkin would have been ruined by the 
fall. We can only mention here some of the names of this most important 
and magnificent family of the forest. They are, viz. : black-jack, (Q. 
Nigra) ; basket, (Q. Michauxii) ; blue, (Q. Douglasii) ; bur, (O. Marocarpa) ; 
chestnut, (O. Castanea) ; chinkapin, (Q. Prinoides) ; gray, (O. Coccinea) ; 
Indian oak, (the Teak tree); cow-oak, basket-oak, black-oak bitter, (0. 
Tinctoria). Next in order is the maple, Queen of the forest. Our story 
would not run right if we did not place her by the side of the King. There 
are about eighty in this family, most of them foreigners, only a few of them 
native to Boone and to this country. This is the beauty of the forest, and 
the hard maple or sugar is the very Queen, not only of the 
family but also of our forest, and oh ! oh ! how sweet. Even 
the Indian loved her for her beauty and sweetness most of all, and 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 249 

called her Sa-na-min-dji. We would love to stop here and tell you all about 
this tree and the pleasure she gave to pioneer life, but have only time for a 
few of her names, viz., hard or rock-maple (Acersaccharinum) ; silver, (A. 
dasycarpum) ; swamp-red, scarlet, (A. rubrum) : the black or sugar tree, (A. 
nigrum) ; striped, whistle wood, or moosewood, (A. Pennsylvanicum) ; large 
leaved or California, (A. macrophvllum ) : mountain, (A. spicatum) ; Eng- 
lish field, (A. campestra) ; Sycamore, (A. pseudo-platanns) : Xorway, (A. 
platanoides) ; Tartarian, (A. Tartaricum) ; Japan. (A. Japanicum) : ash- 
leaved, or box elder, (negundoaceroides). 



THE TULIP TREE. 

The maple may be Queen, and the oak King of the forest, but the largest 
and most graceful of all the trees is the tulip, incorrectly known as the 
Poplar. The family name is (Liriodendrom Tulipiferae), closely allied to 
the magnolias, found in American forests from Canada to Louisiana. It has 
a straight, cylindrical trunk of ten, eight or nine feet in diameter and ioo 
feet high. Its bark is ash colored, large saddle-shaped leaves that distin- 
guish this tree from all others, and large greenish-yellow tulip like flowers, 
marked with orange inside. Its wood, which is light, soft, straight-grained, 
easily worked, with the heart yellow and the sap cream color, is used exten- 
sively in carpentry and cabinet work, and is perhaps the best timber that is 
native to Boone county. There are three varieties, the yellow, which is the 
best, with very light sap, the white, which has thick sap, and it has blue 
streaks in it, so it is called blue-poplar and is very heavy and tough to work. 
Some of these trees reached their maximum height and size in this county, 
notably in Jackson township. We must not confuse the tulip tree with the 
poplar, for it does not belong to the same family. There are about twenty 
varieties of the poplars, (genus populus) the white or silver, (P. alba), the 
Lombardy (P. dilatata), Cottonwood (P. monilifera). Balsam (P. balsam- 
ifera), Downy poplar (P. heterophylla). American aspen or quaking asp 
(P. tremuloides.) 



25O BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

THE WALNUT (jUGLANS NIGRA.) 

This is the most valuable timber that grows in this county, especially the 
black variety. It was abundant all over the county, its fruit is called Jupiter- 
nut. If it was all standing that was here when our fathers came, it would be 
indeed a gold mine to each farm. The butter-nut is called the white-walnut 
( Juglans alba). The hickory tree (genus carya) belongs to the walnut fam- 
ily. There are several varieties and the family name is Juglandaceae. The 
shell bark is fall, graceful, white wood, hard and very useful. It is indigen- 
ous to America and is found in no other country in the world. (Carya alba) 
the white, is the best nut. Pignuts, butternuts and mockernuts are its in- 
ferior. 



There are several varieties of this family called Ulmus Americana. It 
is noted for its spreading top, and is the way-side tree of the New England 
states, but also forms the most remarkable feature of our domestic land- 
scape. The white or water elm, (U. Americana) ; the red or slippery or 
moose-elm (U. fulva) ; the bread elm, cork or rock elm, (U. racemosa), are 
the varieties found here. 

THE LINDEN. 

The Linden, usually called basswood or bee tree family (Tiliacea), is a 
soft white wood, with heart-shaped leaves and small clusters of cream-colored 
flowers full of nectar for the bees, and with flowers joined to the vein of a 
large leaf-like bracket, is a most beautiful tree. 



THE BEECH. 

This is a very important tree of the genus fagus, of the oak family 
( cupuliferae ) the American beech (Fagus Feruginea) is large, with close, 
ash gray bark, with extending horizontal branches of spray. Its nut is 
peculiar in shape, triangular and edible — often called beech mast. It, with 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 25 1 

the fruit of other members of the oak family, fattened the swine of the pio- 
neers before they could raise corn. 



FLOWERY TREES. 

In this group, in addition to those we have named, are the Locust, bean 
family (Leguminosae), yellow and black, wood very durable and very val- 
uable for fence posts. The catalpa of the bean family (Bignoniaceae) soft 
wood and lasting, with beautiful panicles of bell-shaped flowers. The Dog- 
wood, tree of the genus Cornus Florida familiar for its white bloom that 
marks corn-planting time is a favorite with everybody. Judas-tree (CercisJ 
of the bean family flaming in its purple flowers before the leaves come, is 
greatly admired. The Buckeye or horse-chestnut (Aesculus) of Boone is 
symmetrical, and valued as an ornamental shade tree. The sycamore 
(Platanus occidentalis) marks the course of our streams with its white, 
outstretched arms and is called buttonwood for common with us. The wild 
cherry, genus (Prunus cerasus) and (carvium) are the ancestors of the cul- 
tivated cherries — was valued by pioneers for medicine. 

Hackberry (celtis occidentalis) resembling the elm and belonging with it 
to the nettle family, with sweet edible fruit as large as bird cherries, called 
also sugar berry, nettle tree, false elm, Mulberry genus Morus family (moras 
nigra) and Indian mulberry (morinda citrifolia) are valued for fruit and 
shade. The Birch, genus Betula, is the most shy and lady-like of trees and 
belongs to the beech family (cupulifera. The wood is close-grain and sus- 
ceptible of high polish. Although our last it is by no means least of the 
trees of the forest, for it furnished the long, pliant slender rods for the 
pioneer pedagogue so far famed in story and song with which he taught 
the young idea how to shoot. 



THE PASSING OF PISA. 

Some time after Columbus discovered the new world there was an acorn 
dropped from some parent oak into the mold that is now enclosed in L. M. 
Crist's grove. The warm sun came up from the southland and sent new 
life into the vegetable world. The moisture and warmth softened the hard 



252 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

shell of the acorn, set its heart to throbbing and there came forth the tender 
blade. The shell was burst, the delicate drapery that wrapped the germ of 
life was unfolded and the baby tree was born. A manifestation of God's 
third day miracle, recorded in Genesis 1 .g-13. The little tender plant lifted 
its tiny hands toward heaven and unfolded its leafy banners as wave offerings 
to God who gave it life and began at once to rear its First temple. It ran 
the gauntlet through babyhood of treading feet and devouring beast. Year 
after year it lifted its head higher and higher until it was able to stand above 
feet and rapacious maws. It became a tree. There came the buffetings of 
the storms. It murmured not nor gave way, but stood its ground in the breast 
of the forest, sending its roots deeper and deeper in every battle so as to be 
ready for the next. By its steadfastness it slowly grew into strength until it 
became a bulwark to the forest. It was a wind break to shield others from 
the blasts of the hurricane. At one time in his early life Pisa had more than 
he could bear. 

He was forced to bend before the fury of the gale. Many of his com- 
panions were swept away. He held to his anchorage yet bent before the 
blast. He bears in his form to this day the marks of that battle. As the twig 
is bent so the tree is inclined. He was christened in 1S84 Pisa by Mr. and 
Mrs. L. M. Crist because he looked like the Tower of Pisa, leaning 13 feet 
from his base. The latter is twice as high. For centuries he has stood in 
this position needing all the more anchorage to hold him against the storms 
from Kee-way-din, the northwest wind. He is the patriarch of this grove. 
Only one companion, King Oak, is left standing in this Sylvan retreat. 
Surely he was the monarch and wore his crown most regally. If he could 
only speak he would unfold volumes of history. He has outlived generations 
of creatures. "The century living crow" grew old and died in his branches. 
The red man lived and passed away. His contemporaries in the forest have 
molded into dust at his feet. At the last he must go the way of all living. 
Old age crept upon him. The heat of the summer of 191 1 and the rigor of 
the following winter was too much for him. He had no strength to robe him- 
self in the spring of 1912. His long crooked arms stood bare against the 
sky. The woodman was called in to lay his axe at his root. He dealt blow- 
on blow with his shining blade that sent shivers through the dying form of 
this old giant of the forest. Friends stood around in sober reflection. God 
by sunbeams had lifted him up and held him in his place for centuries. 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 2^7, 

Through all these years he had served faithfully, giving shelter and food to 
beast and man and was a retreat in his spreading branches for the birds and 
nimble creatures. It comes the duty of man, the delegated master of all things 
on earth, to lay him away. With a few strokes of his strength this monarch of 
the forest is brought low. We prostrate his form upon the earth. His body 
will be made into lumber and then into furniture to bless and serve man for 
centuries to come. The grand old oak will still serve and bless mankind and 
at the last perchance furnish him his last sleeping casket. 

A bullet was found by the workmen in the body of this oak, so the tree 
was estimated to be three hundred and fifty years old, by count of its con- 
centric rings. 

PRIZE ESSAY. 

One of the prize essays written by the school children of Indiana on the 
subject, "To what extent should Indiana be reforested? Give reasons." 
Prizes of $10 each were offered by the board of forestry. 

The forests of Indiana are being cut down so rapidly that if some re- 
straint is not. put on this work of destruction the forests will, in a short time, 
be only a remembrance among the "Hoosiers." The people in early days can 
be pardoned for cutting clown trees, for they had to do it to clear places for 
their homes and to prevent beasts and enemies from hiding around. Besides 
they were not taught the economical importance of the forests. There were 
many trees then, but wood for fuel and lumber is becoming so scarce now 
that the preservation and restoration of our forests is a very important 
problem, hence the question "To what extent should Indiana be reforested?" 
confronts us. 

The places that should be reforested are the sections of land not adapted 
to agriculture. Hilly country is not suitable for farming, it can not be easily 
tilled, and the soil has generally been washed off the rocks. There are many 
acres of such land in Boone county. If the lands that have always been poor 
or have been made so by improper usage should be properly reforested, the 
leaf mold caused by the fallen leaves would enrich them and make them 
valuable. A great many tracts of land are located so as to be unprofitable for 
agriculture. They may be too far from town or from the owner's home. 



254 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

Some plots are too small, being cut off from large fields by railroads, creeks 
or roads. Many streams wasli banks and make them irregular. If the right 
kind of trees were set out, they would have a tendency to hold the banks in. 

Public property and lands not used for anything else should be utilized 
lor trees. If trees were neatly and tastefully arranged around churches, 
school houses, jails, libraries, halls and court houses, they would be a protec- 
tion, would beautify the surroundings and around the school houses, would 
serve as a shade for the pupils during play time. Trees should be set out on 
roadsides and public highways, to serve as windbreaks for the protection of the 
traveler and to beautify the roads. Of course the old question would arise 
concerning the drying of the roads. It should be a supervisor's duty to keep 
the roads well graded, the trees well trimmed and it would not be necessary 
for the roads to be muddy. There are large government reservations not 
being used at present which should be reforested. 

Trees should be set out along the streets of our towns and cities, between 
the sidewalk and the curbing. The street indeed looks beautiful that is 
shaded by tastefully arranged trees. Every town or city should have a park 
to beautify it or to be a place of pleasure. What is a park without some trees? 

Where or who is the farmer that does not like a beautiful country home, 
which cannot be made so unless some trees are used ? How pretty is the small 
wood lot near the home of the farmer? Every farmer should have a wood 
lot. Ten acres would be the required amount "on a farm of one hundred and 
sixty acres in Boone county. The wood lot serves as a protection to the 
buildings and orchard, also a convenient place to put young animals in, if it is 
placed near the home. The trees should be planted in straight rows and a 
certain number to the acre. The number depends on the kind of trees. The 
dead trees and the trimmings from the others would furnish enough wood 
for domestic science. 

There are many things which lead us to believe Indiana should be re- 
forested. The high price of lumber and fire wood is due to the scarcity of 
trees. Some day there will not be any coal, for it takes decayed leaves and 
other plants to form it. The people then will have to depend entirely on 
wood for fuel. Trees retain moisture by their leaves and roots. The leaves 
form a thick carpet over the ground and prevent such rapid evaporation. 
Thus by reforesting the natural resources would be increased, the home would 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 255 

be more beautiful and would serve as a check to floods. Hence under all these 
conditions why should not Indiana be reforested? 

Mabel Adair, 
Sophomore A, Lebanon (Indiana) High School. 



THE TREE AS AN ENGINEER. 

The better we are acquainted with a tree the more we appreciate it, and 
we are at times astonished by an intelligence which seems to be almost on the 
border of reason, says C. S. Harrison in Nebraska Horticulturist. 

Take a tree standing in the open. It is seventy-five feet high and the 
limbs have a spread of fifty feet and it is filled with leaves, the whole present- 
ing an immense frontage to the winds which are blowing at the rate of sixty 
miles an hour. 

Just hand that problem over to a civil engineer, the best educated one 
you can find. Tell him of the immense leverage the tree gives to the wind and 
that the base where it touches the earth is only four feet through and he must 
strengthen it that it will not blow over. What would he say if you told him 
he must erect a house seventy-five feet high and fifty feet broad, all on a base 
of only three or four feet. He would tell you it could not be done. That to 
be safe you want a foundation as broad as the house itself, and that it was 
not in the power of human skill to meet a problem like that. 

And yet, that tree without having been to school, without studying en- 
gineering and without a knowledge of the higher mathematics, quietly goes 
to work and solves the problem without a mistake and a most difficult problem 
too. 

A PLEA FOR TREES. 

"Any fool can destroy trees. They can not run away; and, if they could, 
they could still be destroyed, — chased and hunted down as long as fun or a 
dollar could be got out of their bark, hides, branching horns, or magnificent 
bole backbones. Few that fell trees plant them; nor would planting avail 
much toward getting back anything like the noble primeval forests. During a 
man's life only saplings can be grown, in the place of the old trees — tens of 



256 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

centuries old — that have been destroyed. It took more than three thousand 
years to make some of the trees in these Western woods, — trees that are still 
standing in perfect strength and beauty, waving and singing in the mighty 
forests of the Sierra. Through all the wonderful, eventful centuries since 
Christ's time, — and long before that — God has cared for these trees, saved 
them from drought, disease, avalanche, and a thousand straining, leveling 
tempests, and floods ; but he can not save them from fools — only Uncle Sam 
can do that." — John Muir. 

It took cycles of centuries to shape this country where Boone county is 
located for the habitation of man. There are no indications that the mound 
builder:, or any prehistoric race of men ever lived here. There are no land 
marks like in other sections of our state that he ever inhabited these woods. 
The American or Indian is the first race of which record is made. All the 
centuries of preparation were for his benefit and to prepare the land for his 
comfort. Just how many great growths of timber and vegetation were pro- 
duced and pressed away by the resistless drifts of ice there are none to report. 
Tt took all this to level up the country and make it habitable for man. After 
the Indian came the white man. We cannot enter into a minute account of 
the white man's struggle to obtain possession of this country. The Colony 
of Virginia was the first to lay claim to this territory. They claimed that 
their territory extended westward indefinitely, hence included all of what 
is now Indiana, which was carved out of the Northwest territory ceded to the 
United States by Virginia in 1884, which included all the lands now in the 
states between the Ohio and the Mississippi rivers. This was the foundation 
of the English title to the land. The French came in as adventurers, traders 
and missionaries before the English and laid claim to the lands by settlements. 
It is stated that as early as 1705 there were traders at the head of the Maumee 
river and that a trading-post was established at that point and called Ke-Ke- 
on-ga, wow the site of Fort Wayne. Sieur de Vincennes found these traders 
as early as the above date and strengthened the post. Eleven years after- 
ward the post was established at Vincennes, 1816. which is considered the 
oldest military post within the bounds of Indiana. The French missionary, 
Allouez, as early as 1676, states that Kekeonga, at the source of the Maumee 
river, was the capital of the powerful Miami Confederacy. Since that date 
we have some reliable historic facts concerning this early nation of red-men. 
Four vears later Baron La Salle came to Kekeonga with Bible and crosses and 





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BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 2^7 

was welcomed by the natives. For the next score of years or more the French 
were busy in their efforts to establish military and mission points in this new 
land in order to gain a foothold for their mother country. The next point to 
the west was at Ouiatenon, on the Wea prairie near the Wabash, and also 
at a point farther down the river, Fort Knox. It is claimed by some that the 
military post at Vincennes was established as early as 1716. During this 
period the French were very enthusiastic and active in their operations and 
projects to obtain possession and military control of the country occupied by 
the Miami Confederacy and other Indian tribes in the west. It was during 
this period of French activity that the Indian village Ka-we-ah-ke-un-gi, on 
the banks of Sa-na-min-dji, known to us as Thorntown, on the banks of 
Sugar creek, were visited and a permanent trading and missionary point 
established. The best authority that we can gather fixes this date in what is 
now known as Boone county about 1717 or 1720. This is 100 years before the 
Indian reserve of one hundred square miles was made to the Eel river tribe 
of the Miamis October, 1818. ("The history of this reserve is given elsewhere 
in this work.) It was bought back by the United States in 1828. While the 
Indians were yet here the irresistible pressure of the white man was driving 
his stakes in this territory before the county was organized and in this section 
boldly driving their stakes while the Indian was yet in possession. It is stated 
that some of our most venturesome went into partnership with the Indians in 
real estate. 



(17) 



CHAPTER XI. 



EDUCATION. 



SCHOOLS. 

Just as surely as the night follows the day, schools followed the estab- 
lishment of a settlement in any part of the county. 

The early settlers of Boone county were from Ohio and eastern Indiana, 
with a sprinkle from Virginia, Kentucky and the Carolinas, and a few from 
the woods of Pennsylvania. They came here almost any way to get here, 
with no provisions to get back to their homes. Some floated down the Ohio 
river to Cincinnati, or Madison, others made their way on horseback or on 
foot. Some in wagons drawn by horses or oxen. If they were on horseback 
or afoot, they could penetrate the dense forests of Boone, when they reached 
it by the Indian trail. The first that came by wagon had to cut a path for 
the wagon, and it was a tedious and tiresome journey. They had been ac- 
customed to schools in their former homes, and they were considered a ne- 
cessity of life, and they could not think of living without schools, any more 
than they could without homes and mills. Education was deemed a necessity 
and even before schools of the crudest kinds were established the children 
were taught in the cabin home by the father or mother or some traveler. If 
the home itself did not have any one capable of teaching the children, some 
mother or daughter of the neighborhood more intelligent than the others 
would gather about them the few children of the community and teach them 
the simple arts of spelling, reading and arithmetic. Education did not wait 
for the school houses any more than did religion wait for the church, but its 
influences were established just the the same. 

The mother found sufficient time from her numerous cares and duties to 
spend a short time in the enlightenment of her family. True, she was limited, 
perhaps, to the Bible or some rare book, but this served sufficiently to accom- 
plish the end in view. 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 259 

As the settlements became more populated schools were established in 
buildings prepared for them or in some private home. 

Before the organization of the county all education was conducted from 
private resources, and, indeed, many years after the county had been organ- 
ized and a school fund amply provided for, the receipts were so little that the 
"subscription schools" were practically the only means of an education. 

The school law of Indiana as early as 1824 provided for the building of 
school houses. 

"Sec. 6. Each able-bodied male person of the age of twenty-one or up- 
wards, being a freeholder or householder residing in the school district, shall 
be liable equally to work one day in each week, until such building may be 
completed, or pay the sum of thirty-seven and one-half cents for every day 
he may so fail to work * * * and provided, moreover, that the said 
trustee shall always be bound to receive at cash price, in lieu of any such labor 
or money as aforesaid, any plank, nails, glass, or other materials, which may 
be needed about said building. 

"Sec. 7. That in all cases such school house shall be eight feet between 
the floors, and at least one foot from the surface of the ground to the first 
floor, and finished in a manner calculated to render comfortable the teacher 
and pupils, with a suitable number of seats, tables, lights and everything 
necessary for the convenience of such school, which shall be forever open for 
the education of all the children within the district without distinction." 

Before the days these splendid colleges of the woods were erected, ac- 
cording to the specifications of Sec. 7, the pupils and teachers had to put up 
with any sort of a shack or an excuse of a house for school purposes. It was 
of round logs, with split logs or dirt for a floor, a spacious chimney of sticks 
and mud ; greased paper instead of glass for windows ; backless seats for the 
comfort of the pupils, and a slab to stand up and write on. There is a vast 
difference between what a trustee would call comfortable for teacher and 
pupils in 191 4 and what they would consider comfortable in 1830. 

Sec. 10 provided that when the house was finished the trustee should 
examine it, number and name it and make all needful subsequent repairs. 

The next step was to organize a school. The trustee would call the in- 
habitants together at such school house to determine whether they would 
have any tax raised, either by money or produce, to support a school, and 
what time the school should begin and continue. The trustee would make 



260 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

record and proceed to select teacher and to contract with the same as provided 
by the meeting of the citizens. So many days, so much money, so much pro- 
duce, and especially whether the teacher should "board "round" or not. 

The trustee examined the applicants for teachers in those days, whether 
they were qualified to teach "Readin, Ritin and Rithmetic," hence the three 
R's course was established in Indiana as a fixture. The early history of the 
establishment of schools in Boone county is full of interesting stories of the 
pioneer teachers and trustees which would make interesting reading. Boone 
county was full of these episodes and they are not unlike the stories of the 
beginning of schools all over this land of ours. The old blue-back spelling 
book. Pike's Arithmetic and the goose quill urged by the sight of the long, 
limber rods that reposed above the faithful teacher's desk, which developed 
the boys and girls of that day into honorable men and women, that laid the 
foundations of our county and state. They were men and women who were 
able to discharge well their duties to their day and generation. It is a ques- 
tion whether we are producing any better quality today, with all our boasted 
improvements in schools, churches and roads. In 1837, seven years after the 
organization of Boone county, there was an important change in the school 
law, that created an examining board of three members. This change re- 
lieved the trustee of this responsibility, and made a dignified court, before 
which the would-be teacher trembled with fear. We remember well the first 
time we ever appeared before this august body and trembled before its wis- 
dom. Just think of a chip of a boy having thrown at him the problem : "Will 
you, sir, tell us what will be the product of 2$ cents multiplied by 25 cents?" 

All three of those supreme judges looking at us with their two eyes, by 
their glare scaring out of us what little wits we had. You may imagine our 
feelings, but we can not express them to you in words. There was no such 
sum as that in Pike's Arithmetic. Figure it as we would we could only get 
six and one-fourth cents out of it. It looked too small, and two of the exam- 
iners so expressed themselves. The other thought it rather small, but guessed 
it was right, and they all concluded that we were qualified to teach. The 
beauty of it was they did not know any more about it than we did. Had we 
known that at the time we might have felt more confident. We never forgot 
the lesson, and years afterward, as county superintendent, we always tried 
not to frighten the applicants for teacher's license. We never forgot the 
misery of that day, and never desired to inflict it upon another. Those good 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 26l 

old starting-days are over, and we trust that they will never come again. 
They were in keeping with pioneer life. Nothing else would have done. 
The school house, the trustee and the teacher just fitted the demands of the 
day. A person that had stood up against the wall of some college and had 
a little of the stuck-up shine on him, would have cut a pretty figure in the 
earlv woods of Boone as a school teacher. The trustee would have turned 
him down as disqualified, and the big boys would have taken him down to 
the spring and ducked him under three times. 

The teachers — where did they come from? There was the questioning 
Yankee, the sturdy Englishman, the firm Scotchman and the witty Irishman, 
and a few backwoodsmen or native born. We remember our first teacher. 
He was an Irishman, who wore a broad-brim and went to church every 
Wednesday, and gave us a long noon recess. On invitation (sometimes bad 
boys got invitation to cut off the recess), well, we went. The folks sat still 
and mute for one round hour, and then arose, shook hands and went home. 
We never forgot those days nor our teacher, nor how he taught us the multi- 
plication table, for our dear old teacher was faithful. Long ago he passed to 
rest, and is awaiting the glorious morning of an eternal day. 

Often times the teacher knew little or nothing except to "keep school," 
but this at least served the purpose of an organization. "The first teachers in 
Indiana were mainly from Ireland or Scotland, with a few from New Eng- 
land, and occasionally one from Virginia or Tennessee. The first school 
houses were log cabins with puncheon floors and seats. Generally one end of 
the house was taken up by a fireplace, where huge logs furnished warmth and 
smoke. The windows were small, consisting generally of four or six panes 
of glass about eight by ten inches in size. In these uncomfortable houses 
school was taught usually three or four months in the year. Text-books were 
not to be had. and the scholars took to school such books as the family might 
have brought with them from the older states. The New Testament was 
the approved book used for teaching reading". The course consisted of read- 
ing, writing and arithmetic, with now and then a class in geography and 
grammar. The teacher was always provided with a good supply of switches, 
and a heavy ferule or two, with which he pounded learning into the scholars. 
The teacher was an autocrat, and his word was absolute law, both to parents 
and children. 

All studying in schools was accompanied by loud vocal noises from the 



262 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

scholars, until a school with twenty-five scholars resembled a modern po- 
litical meeting, more than anything else. This method was deemed the only 
one by which students could be made to think for themselves. The idea 
was that studying and thinking amid such confusion and noise best fitted the 
student for business in after life. This custom prevailed in most of the 
schools until long after Indiana had become a State in the Union. The 
method of recitations followed very closely that of studying, and most of the 
lessons were recited in a monotonous, sing-song tone. One of the main re- 
quirements of a teacher was the ability to teach penmanship. In those days 
penmanship was a very laborious, tedious, and painful exercise. It was 
really pen-printing. The scholar was compelled to write very slowly and 
with the greatest precision. Spelling was another of the specialties in those 
days. Generally the classes stood around the room and 'spelled for head.' 
The last afternoon of each week was usually devoted to a spelling-bee. The 
school would divide and each try to spell the other down. When schools 
became more numerous, and within easy distance of each other, it was a 
common thing for one school to challenge another to a spelling match, which 
would be attended by as many of the adults as could find the leisure. These 
were great occasions for the adults as well as for the children of the whole 
countryside, and were generally followed by a country dance or some other 
amusement common in those days." The above is taken from Smith's His- 
tory of Indiana. 

Nor indeed was spelling the only pleasure and lesson taught upon these 
occasions, as many a young man and maiden could testify, the spelling bee 
was the social part and the "longest way home was the nearest and best." 

The masters of these schools ruled them with an iron will. No teacher 
was considered as fit unless he could give promise of being able to thrash any 
boy in the school. Eggleston's picture of primitive school life in his "Hoosier 
School Master" is not very greatly overdrawn and many a patron of that 
time was a firm believer in the pedagogy — "no lickin', no larnin', says I". 
Pete Jones' were common throughout the country, but were soon put to flight 
by the Hannah Shockys and Bud Means'. 

The school houses were crude affairs, built of poles with greased paper 
windows on one side, and mammoth fireplaces filling "rooms one end," punch- 
eon floors, split log seats, which were made by splitting logs and boring holes 
in them in such a way that wooden legs were put in them, the desk was a 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 263 

crude affair and the only ornament of the room was the bunch of hickories 
hung above the master's chair. 

The main fireplace was fed by logs pulled into the house by the bigger 
boys. The wood to maintain the fire was cut in the nearby forest frequently 
by the boys themselves during the school period. It is easy to see how those 
near the fires would roast and the pupils farther away would freeze their toes, 
but woe unto the boy or girl who allowed such a thing as a frozen toe to in- 
terfere with his "books", for the schoolmaster was very willing and seem- 
ingly eager for the opportunity to display his ability to "lick". 

But good came out of all this, simply being a step in the evolution of the 
greatest system that has ever been devised. 

School had made but little progress when the first constitution of the 
State was adopted in 1816 and to establish the great system that we now 
have that instrument contained the following article: 

"Knowledge and learning generally diffused through a community, be- 
ing essential to the preservation of a free government, and spreading the op- 
portunities and advantages of education through the various parts of the 
country being highly conducive to this end, it shall be the duty of the General 
Assembly to provide by law, for the improvement of such lands as are, or 
hereafter may be granted by the United States, to this State for the use of 
schools, and to apply any funds which may be raised from such lands or from 
any other quarter, to the accomplishment of the grand object for which they 
are or may be intended ; but no lands granted for the use of schools or semi- 
naries of learning shall be sold by the authority of the State prior to the 
year eighteen hundred and twenty ; and the moneys which may be raised out 
of the sale of any such lands, or otherwise obtained for the purposes afore- 
said, shall be and remain a fund for the exclusive purposes of promoting 
the interest of literature and the sciences, and for the support of seminaries 
and public schools. It shall be the duty of the General Assembly, as soon as 
circumstances will permit, to provide by law for a general system of educa- 
tion, ascending in a regular gradation from township schools to a State 
University, wherein a tuition shall be gratis and equally open to all. And 
for the promotion of such salutary end, the money which shall be paid as 
an equivalent by persons exempt from military duty, except in times of 
war, shall be exclusively, and in equal proportion, applied to the support of 
county seminaries; and all fines assessed for any breach of the penal laws 



264 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

shall be applied to said seminaries in the counties wherein they shall be 
assessed." 

The following is taken from Smith's History of Indiana : 
"Notwithstanding this ample provision in the constitution the cause of 
education advanced very slowly. There were many obstacles in the way. 
The settlements were small and widely scattered; there were no funds with 
which to erect school houses, and there was apathy on the part of some, 
and very decided hostility on the part of others. The cause of education, 
however, had many staunch friends, and they did not let the matter rest, but 
kept up the agitation from year to year. The General Assembly of 1816 
made provision for the appointment of superintendents of school sections, 
with power to lease the school lands for any term not to exceed seven years. 
Each lessee of such lands was required to set out annually twenty-five ap- 
ple and twenty-five peach trees until one hundred of each had been planted. 
Between the years 18 16 and 1820 several academies, seminaries, and literary 
societies were incorporated. In 1821 John Badollet, David Hart, William 
W. Martin, James Welsch, Daniel S. Caswell, Thomas C. Searle and John 
Todd were appointed by the General Assembly a commission, to draft and 
report to the next legislature a bill providing for a general system of edu- 
cation ; and they were instructed to guard particularly against 'any distinc- 
tion between the rich and poor." The commission set about their work con- 
scientiously, and when it was completed submitted it to Benjamin Parke, 
who had been at one time a delegate to Congress, and was then the United 
States Judge for Indiana. The bill so reported was enacted into a law, and 
became the first general law on the subject of education passed by the Indiana 
General Assembly. It was passed in 1824, and bore the title : "An Act to in- 
corporate congressional townships and providing for public schools therein." 
After providing for the election by the people of each congressional 
township, of three persons to act as school trustees, to whom the control of 
the school lands and schools generally was to be given, the law made the 
following provision for building school houses: "Every able-bodied male 
person of the age of twenty-one years and upward residing within the 
bounds of such school district, shall be liable to work one day in each week 
until such building may be completed, or pay the sum of thirty-seven and 
one-half cents for every day he may fail to work." The same act described 
a school house as follows : "In all cases such school house shall be eight feet 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 265 

between the floors, and at least one foot from the surface of the ground to 
the first floor, and be furnished in a manner calculated to render comfort- 
able the teacher and pupils." The trustees were required to receive lumber, 
nails, glass, or other necessary materials at the current prices, in lieu of 
work. No funds were provided for the pay of teachers, so the schools were 
not free, but they were made open to all, black as well as white. It was not 
until about 1830 that colored children were excluded from the schools, and 
then the exclusion arose from a prejudice excited by the slavery agitation. 
Under the law of 1824 the schools were kept open just as long each year as 
the patrons could or would pay for their maintenance. 

At nearly every succeeding session of the General Assembly some law 
was enacted on the subject of education, but still no general system was 
adopted. There was always an opposition that would find some way to get 
the laws before the courts, and thus hamper the attempts to establish schools. 
Private citizens did much for the cause, however, and public meetings of 
citizens did more, but little could be accomplished in a public way. School 
officers had no fund with which to erect houses, or to pay teachers. They 
could not levy a tax, except by special permission of the district, and even 
then the expenditure was limited to $50 by the act of 1834. The friends 
of public schools worked on and hoped on, striving to overcome every ob- 
stacle and put down all opposition. At last their day of triumph came, but 
even in their triumph they came near being defeated, and their noble efforts 
were for some years neutralized by the stupidity of a supreme court. The 
friends of education planned and worked until at last they found a way to 
provide for one of the most magnificent public school funds in the Union. 
It has already been noted that the General Government gave to the State the 
sixteenth section of every township, for school purposes. This was made 
the beginning of the grand school fund to be built up by the State. 

The three "R's", "Readin', 'Ritin', and 'Rithmetic", were the basis of 
all early schools. It was the privilege of the children to study any or all of 
these subjects as long as they desired. 

Spelling was the fundamental and the first thing taught all children. 
No child was expected to read until he was able to spell all the words of 
Dillworth's, Webster's, or a little later, McGuffy's. It made no difference 
whether he knew the meaning of any of the words, or had the remotest idea 
of their application, he must spell it, anyhow. Spelling was frequently 



266 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

taught by having the children sing as they spelled and many an old lady 
today can sing "b-a ba, b-i, bi, b-o, bic a bo". To be a good reader meant 
that he must be able to pronounce rapidly all the words found in the book 
being read, which was frequently "Life of Washington", "Life of Frank- 
lin", the Bible, or any book that could be found in the home. 

Poetry was always read in a sing-song tone with special attention paid 
to the emphasis and inflection at the end of each line, in imitation of the way 
in which hymns were "lined" by the minister. 

Along with the reading went the "speaking a piece" on Friday after- 
noons, or the last day of school, being a great occasion for each and every 
district. 

Arithmetic was, however, considered the most important of all subjects 
because of its being regarded as the most practical. The fundamental proc- 
esses were taught to all children, many, however, never advancing beyond 
the attainment of being able to add, subtract, multiply and divide. If a 
pupil shows special inclination towards mathematics he might be able to get 
to the single rule of three, or even so far as the double rule of three, or if 
he was extremely ambitious he would be shown into the mysteries of "vulgar 
fractions". 

The clapboard and charcoal in time gave way to the slate and pencil, 
which was considered an enormous improvement. The single slate was 
later supplanted by the double one, thus enabling the child to "do the sums" 
and have it protected from erasure. Blackboards were unknown in the 
early schools. The first of these to be used were made by painting some 
smooth surface and wall black, later on these were coated with a prepared 
slating which in a few days' time wore "slick" which made it almost impos- 
sible to make a mark or to see it after it was made. 

Grammar was introduced into the schools many years after the other 
subjects. No one was expected to study grammar unless they expected to 
be a Latin or Greek student. Many of the early pedagogues, however, were 
from Ireland and Scotland or from the classic halls of some New England 
college and were Latin and Greek students. If a boy could be induced by 
these men to study grammar they had high hopes of later making a teacher 
of him. 

History was introduced into the course at a later period than grammar. 
An old text were simple tables of facts, and dealt little or nothing with great 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 267 

National or State movements, which are of course the underlined principals 
of all history. 

Geography had but little attention given to it in the early schools, and 
when it was studied was regarded as being extremely foolish and full of 
statements wholly out of harmony with the thoughts of the backwoods peo- 
ple of the time. 

Barnabas C. Hobbs, LL.D., a very distinguished educator of Indiana, 
and one of its State Superintendents of Public Instruction, who was really a 
great man, in speaking of the early teaching of geography, said: 

"I can well remember when Morse's geography came into the State. It 
was about the year 1825, and it created a great sensation. It was a period in 
school history, before this but few had a clear idea of the earth's rotundity, 
many could not understand the subject well enough to reason upon it, and 
many were emphatic and persisted in repudiating the absurd idea that the 
world is round and turns over. Debating clubs discussed the subject, and 
to the opposition it was perfectly clear, that if the world turned over we 
would all fall off, and the water in the ocean would be spilled out. Morse's 
geography cleared away the fog, and when Comstock's Philosophy, with its 
brief outlining of astronomy, was introduced, the schoolboy could under- 
stand the subject well." 

In this early day geography was very much opposed because of the rea- 
sons above cited. Men would put a bucket of water on a stump to find the 
water there the next morning, which to them was ample proof that the bucket 
had not been standing wrong end up over night. They further argued that 
if the world turned over that we would go so fast that no one could stick 
to it. As an evidence that we did not turn they would cite the fact that the 
same side of the tree was always north and never in any other position, more 
than that, if the earth was round the Mississippi river would have to flow 
uphill to empty its water into the Gulf and "any fool knew that water would 
not run uphill." 

The feeling became so great that in some communities the "heresy" 
was preached upon from the pulpit, many an early minister taking the view 
that it was against the teaching of the Bible, for indeed did the Bible not 
say in Isaiah: "And he shall set an ensign for the nations and shall as- 
semble the outcasts of Israel, and gather together the dispersed of Judah 
from four corners of the earth," in Revelations when John said: "I saw 



268 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

four angels standing on the four corners of the earth," and how indeed 
could the earth be round and have four corners? The apple, was a physical 
proof that such teachings were absurd and out of harmony with divine reve- 
lations, therefore the earth must be flat. 

The last of the common school subjects to be added to the curriculum 
was physiology. The first science to be developed by man was astronomy, and 
the nearest object he could study in that was the moon, thousands of miles 
away. Later his attention was given to botany and physics, studies of objects 
about him. It seems strange that his last subject to be studied and investi- 
gated, would be the one to him the most important and the greatest of all crea- 
tions — himself. The storm of opposition that arose to the study of grammar, 
history, or geography, was mild, indeed, to the tempest that broke forth when 
it was suggested that physiology be taught in the schools. It seems almost 
impossible that people should ever object to this study, but they did. It was 
thought that physiology should be studied alone by doctors, and that the child 
should know nothing about his "inards." Many people looked upon it as un- 
wise, indiscreet and even immoral to study the composition of one's own tem- 
ple. But, like all other objections made to modern thought, the objection to 
the study of the human body had to give way. Later the study of physiology 
and anatomy gave way largely in the schools to the study of hygiene and san- 
itation, perhaps of the greatest benefit of any subject now taught in our 
schools. 

As has been before noted, the writing of the early day was a very labor- 
ious task. No lead pencils were to be had and the writing must be done with 
the pen. No teacher could get along without a sharp knife, which, from its 
size and purpose to which it was put was known as the pen knife, for it was 
with this knife that the teacher made the pens for the children to use. The 
child would perhaps pick up a goose quill or turkey feather on the way to 
school and from it the teacher would form the pen to be used that day. The 
typical master of that period is always pictured as having the pen stuck behind 
his ear. The juice of the pokeberry served as ink for schools. Commercial 
ink, of course, could be purchased. Ink purchased at that time was usually 
of splendid quality, as is shown by the early records. The first record made in 
this county is as clear today is on the day on which it was made (due, of 
course, to the quality of the ink and the paper). 

It has long since been said that "as the teacher so is the school." This 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 269 

saying is largely true, but it is no wonder that the schools of that period were 
crude if they were to have the same state of culture as the teacher. As we 
have said before, the teachers were often people who had come west through 
the spirit of adventure and were, Micawber like, "waiting for something to 
turn up," and in the meantime teaching school. This naturally brought peo- 
ple of all conditions. 

Judge Banta, ir> his early "Schools of Indiana," printed in the Indian- 
apolis News, in 1892, says: "A few years ago I had occasion to look into 
the standing and qualifications of the early teachers of my own county, and in 
looking over my notes I find this statement: All sorts of teachers were em- 
ployed in Johnson county ; there was the 'one-eyed teacher,' the 'one-legged 
teacher,' the 'lame teacher,' the 'teacher who had fits,' the 'teacher who had 
been educated for the ministry, but, owing to his habits of hard drink, had 
turned pedagogue,' and the 'teacher who got drunk on Saturday and whipped 
the entire school on Monday." " 

A paragraph something like this might be truthfully written of every 
county south of the National road and doubtless every one north of it. The 
lesson this paragraph teaches is that whenever a man was rendered unfit for 
making his living any other way he took to teaching. 

Owen Davis, of Spencer county, teacher, took to the fiddle. He taught 
what was known as a "loud school," and while his school roared at the top 
of their voices, the gentle pedagogue drew forth his fiddle and played "Old 
Zip Coon," "Devil's Dream" and other inspiring profane airs with all the 
might and main that was in him. 

Thomas Ayres, a Revolutionary veteran, who taught in Switzerland 
county, regularly took his afternoon nap during school hours while his 
pupils, says the historian, were supposed to be preparing their lessons, but 
in reality were amusing themselves by catching flies. 

One of Orange county's schoolmasters was an old sailor, who had wan- 
dered out to the Indiana woods, and under his encouragement his pupils spent 
a large part of their time, it is said, roasting potatoes. 

What is true of the school of which Judge Banta speaks was true of all 
the schools, Boone county being no exception. 

Laughable, indeed, were some of the attempts at school-keeping in those 
old-time "wood colleges." In many cases, "readin' and spellin' " were the 
limits of what the schoolmaster dared to undertake. And the books and the 



27O BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

classes — they were wonderful in their variety. Whatever a pupil brought, 
that he used ; and no high-fangled teacher nor nosing school committee inter- 
fered to "shut down" on the pleasure of parents or of pupils; but. as in the 
days of Israel of old, "every one did that which was right in his own eyes." 
It might chance, indeed, that a presuming youth, fresh from the schools of 
"Yankee land" (though such an event was almost never known) would ven- 
ture, with his armful of books, to enter the schoolroom door, thinking that 
his "Yankee books" would surely "pass muster out west." But, no; the 
teacher would examine briefly, and bluntly say, "Them ar books ain't no use 
— take 'em home and keep 'em thar." 

One of the prominent men of the county gives an amusing experience in 
this respect. His parents had just come to the West from "Old Massachu- 
setts." The boy, perhaps ten or twelve years old, marched proudly to the 
sylvan temple of wisdom with his armful of New England books — Colburn's 
mental arithmetic and Adams' new arithmetic, those mathematical gems of 
olden time; Greenleaf's grammar, Goodrich's reader (perhaps), Smith's geo- 
graphy, etc. The teacher, a long, lank, gaunt, ungainly fellow, rapped on the 
window. The children suddenly ceased playing, and crying, "It's books! it's 
books!" ran pell-mell into the log schoolhouse. School began. The teacher 
came along, eyeing askance the formidable pile of books; and fingering the 
one that lay on top — "Old Zerah Colburn," he opened the volume, and, leafing 
it over a while, broke out, "Boy, take that ar book home and tell your 'pap' to 
burn it up. The man what made it did not know what he was about and 
couldn't do the sums." (The work has no answers.) Taking up the gram- 
mar, he said, "That seems like it mought be a good enough book, but gram- 
mar ain't teached here, and you kin take that home, too." Next came Adams' 
new arithmetic, at that time one of the best textbooks on arithmetic in exist- 
ence. Turning the leaves over one by one, he drawled out, at length. "This 
is some better, the man knows how to do about half his sums. But, see here; 
take that ar book home, too, and tell your 'pap' to send Pike's or Talbot's 
'rethmetic. Them's the kind we use." And so with the rest. He made a 
clean sweep of the books, and the poor, crestfallen boy, chagrined beyond 
measure that his "Yankee books" had thus summarily passed utter condemna- 
tion, went home at night (or perhaps at noon) and made report to his aston- 
ished father of the reception which had been accorded to the books he had so 
proudly lugged to school in the morning. 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 2"]\ 

We are told of one early teacher in Boone county whose greatest 
diversion was in seeing how far from the wall he could stand and spit through 
a crack in it. 

Another, whose farm adjoined the schoolhouse, punished the boys (and 
they did not have to do much to be punished) by sending them into his nearby 
clearing and compelling them to pile brush. 

Of another teacher it is said that he brought yarn to school, out of 
which, for certain minor offenses, he would compel the grown-up girls to knit 
his socks. 

No doubt many of these stories told are exaggerated, but the fact re- 
mains that the teachers as well as the schools were very crude affairs, but the 
old schoolmaster with his iron will, his hickory rods and "repressive teach- 
ing," soon gave way to the more refined spirit brought about by the introduc- 
tion of lady teachers in the school, but with all that many a man owed his 
strength of character to habits formed in those primitive schools. The 
teacher had to have but little qualifications so far as law was concerned to 
teach school. If he was able to satisfy the three "good district fathers," 
whose duty it was to "run the school," that he was able to manage the big 
boys, he was almost sure of a job. Frequently no examinations were held at 
all by them, and if any at all were held they were of little, if any, conse- 
quence. 

In time the state organized the school systems in such a way as to ascer- 
tain the qualifications of applicants to teach. The township trustees con- 
ducted the examination. Mr. Hobbs, before referred to, tells this amusing 
experience of his first examination for a teacher's certificate : 

"The only question asked me at my first examination was, 'What is the 
product of 25 cents by 25 cents?' We had then no teachers' institutes, normal 
schools, nor 'best methods' by which nice matters were determined and precise 
definitions given. We were not as exact then as people are now. We had 
only Pike's arithmetic, which gave the sums and the rules. These were con- 
sidered enough at that day. How could I tell the product of 25 cents by 25 
cents, when such a problem could not be found in the book? The examiner 
thought it was 6j4 cents, but was not sure. I thought just as he did, but this 
looked too small to both of us. We discussed its merits for an hour or more, 
when he decided that he was sure I was qualified to teach schools, and a first- 



272 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

class certificate was given me. How others fared, I can not tell. 1 only know 
that teachers rarely taught twice in the same place." 

Later on the state provided for a county examiner, whose duty it was 
to ascertain the qualifications of teachers. Frequently they were but little bet- 
ter for this purpose than the trustees had been, for they were appointed by the 
county commissioners, who had a habit of appointing lawyers, doctors, and 
more commonly preachers. As to the character of these examinations see 
pages 160, 161 and 162. 

The northwest territory embraced all the territory in the United States 
lying between the Ohio river and the Mississippi river. The ordinance of 
1787 provided an educational foundation for this section of country. The 
sixteenth section in each congressional township was to be devoted to educa- 
tional interests. The proceeds of this section, when sold, were to go into a 
perpetual fund, the interest of which was to be used for the education of the 
children of the state. The funds derived from the sale of these lands were 
not to be used for any other purpose. The fifteenth section of the charter of 
the State Bank, in the year 1834, provided that twelve and one-half cents on 
each share not held by the state be placed to the permanent school fund of 
the state. This yielded the sum of $80,000 which is now bearing interest 
in favor of education. It was called the bank tax fund. The same act, estab- 
lishing the State Bank in 1834 provided for the state borrowing $1,300,000 
for twenty years at five per cent., $800,000 appropriated to the purchasing 
of bank stock, and the remaining $500,000 was designed to be loaned to in- 
dividuals on long time at six per cent, interest to aid them in paying for their 
portion of the bank stock. The same act provided that the interest received 
on these loans, and the dividends paid on the state stocks, together with any 
part of the state loan not required for paying the state stock in bank should 
constitute a sinking fund, reserved and set apart, principal and interest, for 
the purpose of paying off the loan negotiated on the part of the state, and 
the interest thereof. The residue of the fund after paying off the loan, in- 
terest and expenses was ordered to form a permanent fund appropriated to 
the cause of common school education. This provision has yielded to the 
common school fund of the state five and one-half million dollars and is 
known as the sinking fund. 

When Andrew Jackson was president of the United States, the national 
debt contracted by the Revolutionary war and the purchase of Louisiana, 
was entirely discharged, and a surplus remained in the treasury. Congress, 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 273 

in June, 1836, passed an act distributing this surplus among the states at the 
rate of their representation in congress. This gave to Indiana as her share 
the sum of $860,254. 

The Legislature of Indiana, in its session of 1837, on February 6th, set 
aside $573,502.96 as a permanent part of the school fund and it is known as 
the surplus revenue fund. 

In 1832 Congress authorized the Legislature of Indiana to sell the Salt 
Spring lands that had been donated or given to the state by Congress in 1816, 
and appropriate the proceeds to the permanent fund of the common schools. 
This yielded a fund of $85,000 and is known as the Saline fund. 



CONGRESSIONAL FUND. 

The United States government, in the ordinance of 1787, pledged itself 
to the encouragement of "schools and the means of education." In accord- 
ance with that policy the enabling act submitted to the Indiana territorial 
convention in 18 16, required that the sixteenth section of each congressional 
township throughout the state be reserved '"to the inhabitants for the use of 
schools." The aggregate fund derived from the sale of these lands is 
$2,476,297.44. 

Distribution of Congressional Interest. — The constitution of Indiana for 
1852 provided for the consolidation of all school funds into one "Common 
School Fund." The school laws enacted in June, 1852, in accordance with 
that provision were framed so as to enable counties to turn all of their school 
moneys into one fund producing a common revenue to be distributed in pro- 
portion to the school enumeration of the various corporations. Serious com- 
plaints were made against this law for the reason that the fund arising from 
the sale of the sixteenth section varied greatly in amount in different town- 
ships. The contention was made that the Legislature had no right to divert 
these funds from the inhabitants of the townships where they belonged. Test 
cases were brought and among them the case of The State vs. Jefferson town- 
ship, Franklin county. In this case the Supreme Court handed down the fol- 
lowing opinion : 

"The sixteenth section in the several congressional townships in the state, 
was granted by Congress to the inhabitants of such townships respectively, 
(18) 



274 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

for the use of the schools therein and not elsewhere ; and the grant was ac- 
cepted by the state on the terms on which it was made. 

"By the sale of the sixteenth section in the several congressional town- 
ships of the state, under the act of Congress of 1828, the proceeds became 
trust funds, to be applied to the use of schools in such townships, respectively, 
and not elsewhere. * * * A repeal by the Legislature of the act creat- 
ing Congressional townships could not affect the validity of the grant by Con- 
gress of the sixteenth section in those townships, to the inhabitants for the 
use of the schools therein, nor give the state any better right than it other- 
wise would have to divert the funds derived from the sale of such sections. 
The grant in question was a contract executed, and incapable of revocation 
by the Legislature. * * * The school law, so far as it diverts the pro- 
ceeds of the sale of section sixteen in the several Congressional townships 
from the use of the schools in such township, respectively, to the use of the 
school system of the state-at-large, is in contravention of section seven of 
article VII of the constitution." 

In order to secure an equal distribution of the funds, the law now re- 
quires county auditors, after having distributed the Congressional fund to the 
various civil school corporations composing the respective Congressional 
townships, to so distribute the common school fund as to bring about an 
equalization. This practically places the distribution upon a per capita basis 
and substantially carries out the purpose of the 1852 school law. 

This necessity for the county auditor to keep a separate account of the 
funds belonging to the various Congressional townships and parts of Con- 
gressional townships composing his county, as well as with the various school 
corporations included in the same territory, entails a complicated system of 
bookkeeping, much confusion of accounts and loss. For these reasons it is 
recommended that our Legislature adopt a resolution requesting that our 
senators and representatives endeavor to secure legislation giving the grant 
to the state as a whole, rather than to the inhabitants of the various con- 
gressional townships. In Indiana and Illinois only of the states of the north- 
west is the fund under local control. 

On this foundation Boone county began to build in the woods. We 
have touched on this subject in connection with the sketch of each township 
and it is only necessary here to speak in general terms of its beginnings, 
progress and attainment in the county. About the first thing the early set- 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 275 

tier called for after securing a shelter for his family was a place to educate 
his children. Just as soon as there were sufficient children in a neighbor- 
hood to form a class, arrangement was made for them to get together, and 
some one was employed to instruct them in the rudiments of education. 
Everything was very crude at the beginning. It was really the backwoods. 
Everything was in the brush. For years during the early days it was indeed 
Brush College, and the most of the training of the boys and girls that grew 
into stalwarts in the county, received most of their instruction under the 
tuition of Mother Nature in the wild-woods; and through the discipline of 
the hardships of pioneer life. Brush College was a good business institution 
and its graduates became the very founders of the county with grit, energy 
and wisdom to build wisely, homes, roads, school-houses, churches and all the 
comforts and luxuries that constitute the beauty and wealth of our county. 
The graduates of this early institution of Boone became good citizens, and 
discharged well the duty and responsibility of life. We doubt whether bet- 
ter ever came from any institution so far as real manhood and womanhood 
are concerned. The first house or home for the school was almost any kind 
of a shelter in time of a storm. It may have been a deserted cabin, or a log 
church, or perchance a brand new cabin erected specially for school purposes. 
Round logs with ends protruding at the corners, one end occupied by the fire- 
place, one or two logs sawed out for light to flicker in through greased pa- 
per, puncheon floor or none, a split log on pegs backless for a seat, and the 
same device for a writing-desk resting on pins driven in the wall ; this crude 
furniture with two pegs driven in the log back of the teacher's desk to hold 
the correcting rods with the puncheon door and the structure was complete. 
You smile — you need not, for when you see the strong characters and behold 
the stanch men and women that got their start and idea of life in these early 
schoolhouses ; and the success that they made in life you will conclude that the 
pioneer schoolhouse of Boone county wrought wonderfully and nobly. 

In a few years the round log building fulfilled its mission and the hewn 
log building with its more modern fixtures, seats and desks of boards and 
glass for light came into use. In a few years came the frame building and 
last of all the brick with all the modern devices and improvements of our day 
looking like luxuries when compared with what our fathers and grandparents 
enjoyed. Beginning on nothing in the woods, we have grown into luxury and 
wealth, and our county has kept pace with the growth of our sister counties 



276 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

throughout the state. We will append here the statistics given by our state 
superintendent of public instruction. 

We take the report of 19 12 because the report of 1 914 is not out. 

Enumeration of school children between the ages of 6 and 21 years: 

White, 6,606; colored, 39; total, 6,645. Enrollment in school: White, 
5,424; colored, 20; total, 5,444. Average daily attendance, 4,696. Total 
number of school-houses, 123; 1 concrete, 22 frame, 100 brick; total, 123. 

Value of school property. Number of teachers in the county: Males, 
71; females, 115; total, 186. Paid to teachers: Males, $38,933.11; females, 
$53,226.41; total, $92,159.52. Average daily compensation of teachers: 
Township, $3.11 ; town, $3.70; city, $3.25; county, $3.35. 

Total amount of school fund June 1, 1912 $11,435,970.48 

Total tuition received from this fund and distributed by the 

county officers during the year 1912 8,660,927.30 

Total funds for the year 1912 15,955,666.10 

Grand total school funds for the year 1912 24,616,593.40 



CONSOLIDATION OF SCHOOLS. 

The consolidation of schools in Boone county is being pushed as rapidly 
as the conditions involved in changing will permit. 

Worth township is the first in the county to make the effort. Whites- 
town, the chief trading point in the township, is near the center and con- 
venient to concentrate all the schools of the township. The plans are made 
and efforts are being made to carry them out. A controversy arose in the 
township over the question of providing school buildings and it got into the 
courts and delayed matters for accommodation of the pupils. The plan 
seems feasible and we presume will work out in time. The plan in Sugar 
Creek township is to have two school-houses, one on the north of Sugar 
creek and one on the south side of the creek. The houses for this plan are 
already constructed and nothing remains except to induce the people that 
this plan will be best for the educational interest of the township. Other 
townships in the county are moving along in this line as fast as circumstances 
will permit. We submit here the report of the state superintendent of the 
state for the year 191 2: 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 277 

Total number of district schools in the county 91 

Number of consolidated schools where no children are transported- 3 

Number where pupils are transported 11 

Number of vehicles other than wagons used in transporting pupils 5 

Number of regular school wagons used for transporting pupils 30 

Cost of a regular school wagon per day $192 

Cost of all wagons per day 57-43 

Total cost for transporting all the children (516) in the county for 

the year 1912 $8,583.10 

COUNTY SCHOOLS. 

The county schools rank favorably with any county in Indiana. There 
are one hundred and thirty-five excellent school buildings scattered in every 
portion of the county, of which one hundred and fourteen are substantial 
brick buildings while twenty-one are good tenantable frame structures. The 
estimated value of these is two hundred sixty thousand two hundred and 
ninety dollars. The teachers employed are competent, and the good results 
they produce is evident on all sides. There are at present one hundred and 
seventy-five teachers engaged and the aggregate compensation they received 
during the fiscal year ending August, 1897 was fifty thousand eighty-two 
dollars and fifty-two cents. The following gentlemen served as school ex- 
aminers and county superintendents since the establishment of the system 
until the present: School Examiners — 1853-60, W. F. W. C. Ensminger; 
1860-62, N. S. Caldwell; 1862-65, F. M. Greene; 1865-67, C. K. Thompson; 
1867-71, J. M. Saunders; 1871-72, Joseph Foxworthy; 1872-73, A. E. 
Buckley. 

County Superintendents — 1873-75, Thomas J. Shulse ; 1875-77, D. H. 
Heckathorn; 1877-83, Thomas H. Harrison; 1883-87, H. M. LaFollette; 
1887-93, S. N. Cragun; 1893-97, J- A. Coons: 1897, R. H. Harney, E. C. 
Gullion, Edgar M. Servies. 

BOONE COUNTY SCHOOLS, I9T3-I914. 

Edgar M. Servies, county superintendent. 

Marion township, Charles C. Howard, trustee — District No. i, W. N. 



278 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

Clampitt, Rosstown; No. 2, Jay Campbell, Lebanon, R. R. 6; No. 3. Ernest 
I. Peters, Whitestown; No. 4, Chester Boone, Sheridan, R. R. 25; No. 5b, 
Esther Weitzel, Lebanon; No. 5a, J. W. Moreland, Sheridan, R. R. 25; 
No. 6, Florence Kinkaid, Sheridan, R. R. 25 ; No. 7, Dwight Campbell Ter- 
hune; No. 8, Roy Lanham, Terhune; No. 9, Karl Humne, Terhune; No. 10, 
Grace Gibbs, Terhune; No. 11, Floyd King, Terhune; No. 12, Olive Hen- 
dricks, Terhune; No. 13, Earl Freeman, Sheridan. 

Clinton township, John A. Duvall, trustee — District No. 1, Grace Wiley, 
Lebanon, R. R. 8 ; No. 2, Mary Stephenson, Lebanon, R. R. 7 : No. 3, 
Thomas L. Christian, Lebanon; No. 4, Goldie Iddings, Lebanon, R. R. 9; 
No. 5, Bessie Davidson, Lebanon; No. 6b, Rose Moore, Lebanon, R. R. 6; 
No. 6a, Marion Busby, Lebanon, R. R. 6 ; No. 7, Cora Clark, Lebanon, 
R. R. 6. 

Washington township, Joseph D. Lewis, trustee — District No. 1, Nannie 
Clark, Thorntown; No. 2, Nina Fall, Lebanon, R. R. 9; No. 3, Eunice Ross, 
Lebanon, R. R. 9; No. 4, J. A. Schultz, Lebanon; No. 5, Edith Bowen, 
Thorntown; No. 6, Ethel Cmberhine, Thorntown; No. 9, Buren Witt, Leb- 
anon, R. R. 10; No. 10b, Lelia Burke, Lebanon; No. 10a, Carl Bratton, 
Lebanon. 

Sugar Creek township, J. W. Morrison, trustee — District No. 2, Grace 
Miller, Thorntown; No. 3, Jeannette Ward, Colfax; No. 4, Russel Werking, 
Colfax; No. 5, Ebon McGregor, Lebanon; No. 6, Esther Sparks, New Ross 
No. 7. Margaret Loveless, Thorntown; No. 9, Esther Kimmel, Lebanon 

Thorntown High School and Grades, F. B. Long, superintendent 
Thorntown ; Celine Neptune, principal, Thorntown ; Grace Roberts, arith 
metic, history, geography, Thorntown; Chester Hill, manual training, 
algebra, physics, Thorntown ; Edith Walker, seventh and eight and English 
Thorntown; Glydas Larue, second and English, Thorntown; Alta Jaques 
fifth and sixth, Thorntown; Maud Richey, fourth, fifth and sixth, Thorn- 
town ; Belle Mater, third and fourth, Thorntown ; Gertrude Proctor, first and 
second, Thorntown ; Zella Bratton, music. Thorntown ; Laura Breckenridge, 
penmanship, Thorntown. 

Jefferson township, Val Riggins, trustee — District No. 1, Geneva Cald- 
well, Thorntown; No. 2, Constance Young, Hazelrigg; No. 4, Ethel Rodgers, 
Lebanon, R. R. 12; No. 5, Blanche Cain, Lebanon, R. R. 12; No. 6, Agnes 
Hilligoss, Thorntown; No. 7, Estella Beck, Lebanon, R. R. 11 ; No. 9, Grace 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 279 

True, Lebanon, R. R. 12; No. 10, E. S. Stansell, Advance; No. 11, Fern 
T. Potts, Crawfordsville, R. R. 1; No. 12, Verna Cornelius, Advance; No. 
13, Ralph Burroughs, Advance. 

Center township, J. L. Saunders, trustee ; — Supervisor of music, Verne 
Lowman, Lebanon; District No. 2, Guy B. Chavers, Lebanon R. R. 12; No. 3, 
Vey Jackson, Lebanon; No. 3a, Abe Akers, Lebanon, R. R. 10; No. 7b, 
Edith Lewis, Lebanon ; No. 7a, William Zenor, Whitestown R. R. 25 ; No. 8, 
Lila Ohaver, Lebanon; No. 9, Lena B. Morrison, Lebanon; No. 10, A. Frank 
Smith, Lebanon; No. 11, Jennie Sanford, Lebanon, R. R. 11 ; No. 13, Maude 
Hawkins, Lebanon, R. R. 9; No. 14, Juanita Sanford, Lebanon, R. R. 11; 
No. 17, Moses Robinson, Lebanon. 

Lebanon High School and Grades — H. G Brown, superintendent, Leb- 
anon; principal, E. G. Walker, Lebanon; German, Cora E. Dochleman, Leb- 
anon ; botany, M. M. Jones, Lebanon ; chemistry and physics. Ward Lambert, 
Lebanon ; Latin, Olivia Voliva, Lebanon ; English, Grace Bryan, Gretchen 
Scotten and Avalon Kindig, Lebanon ; mathematics, L. A. Jeel and L. O. 
Slagle, Lebanon; history, public speaking, Clinton H. Givan, Lebanon; man- 
ual training, Clarence B. Duff, Lebanon ; commercial, Ruth Campbell, Lebanon. 

Central Building. — Principal, Lydia Bell, history, physiology, domestic 
science, Lebanon ; departmental, Kenyon Stephenson, Myra Richardson and 
Cora Haller; sixth year, Drubelle Imel, Lebanon; fifth year, Rose Sims, 
Lebanon ; fourth year, May Shannon, Lebanon ; third year, Charlotte Opel, 
Lebanon ; second year, Ethel Barlow, Lebanon. 

West Side Building — Principal, Julia N. Harney; primary, Nannie Mil- 
ler, Lebanon ; No. 9, Esther Kimmel, Lebanon ; sixth year, Lawrence Hopper. 
Lebanon ; fifth year, Mabel Kersey, Lebanon ; fourth year, Anna Lewis, Leb- 
anon ; third year, Ethel Orear, Lebanon ; second year, Myrtle Roark, Thorn- 
town ; first year, Nora Darnall, Lebanon. 

South Side Building. — Principal, Hattie B. Stokes, Principal primary, 
Lebanon ; sixth year, Lottie Bennett, Lebanon ; fifth year, Ida Myers, Leb- 
anon ; fourth year, Grace Etchison, Lebanon ; third year, Opal Etchison, Leb- 
anon ; second year, Nora Young, Lebanon ; music, Carolyne English, Leb- 
anon ; art, Mary T. Hadley, Lebanon. 

Union township, Rufus Conrad, trustee — District No. 1, Rex Moore, 
Rosston; No. 3, Ralph Owens, Rosston ; No. 4, Guy Artman, Rosston; No. 5, 



280 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

Charles Taylor, Zionsville; No. 6, R. H. Gates, Zionsville; No. 7, Laata New, 
Zionsville; No. 8, Gladys Hawkins, Zionsville. 

Eagle township, H. H. Avery, trustee — District No. 2, Oral Hedge, 
Lebanon; No. 5, David Kardokus, Zionsville; No. 6, G. W. Connelly, Zions- 
ville; No. 7, Emma Moos, Zionsville; No. 9b, Nora M. Tudor, Zionsville; 
No. 9a, R. E. Moore, Zionsville. 

Zionsville High School — T. H. Stonecipher, superintendent, agriculture 
and science, Zionsville; W. A. Ross, principal, history and English, Manual 
training, Zionsville; Fay Fulmer, Latin, German and physics, Zionsville; 
H. N. Swaim, science and German, Zionsville. Grades — primary, Mabel 
Gregory, Zionsville; Nos. 2 and 3, Emma Smith, Zionsville; No. 4, Grace 
Deer, Zionsville; No. 5, Mina Vandever, Zionsville; Nos. 6 and 7, Wilber 
Casey, Zionsville; No. 8, Z. W. Vandever, Zionsville. 

Harrison township, George J. Linton, trustee — District No. 2, Robert 
I. Bennett, Jamestown R. R. 24; No. 3, Mabel Ransdell, Lebanon; No. 4, 
J. A. Purdue, Jamestown R. R. 24; No. 6, Dorris Funkhouser, Lebanon R. 
R. 1 ; No. 7, Jessie D. Ross, Lebanon R. R. 1 ; No. 8, Ernest E. Owens, Leb- 
anon; No. 9, Erne Robinson, Lebanon R. R. 1. 

Perry township, George A. Everett, trustee — District No. 1, Lester 
Everett, Lebanon R. R. 3 ; No. 2, Raymond Stubbs, Lebanon R. R. 2 ; No. 3, 
Lona Swindler, Lebanon R. R. 2 ; No. 4, Mary Casserly, Lebanon; No. 5, 
Hassel Schenck, Lebanon R. R. 3 ; No. 6, Lula Fall, Lebanon R. R. 12 ; No. 7, 
T. J. Casserly, Lebanon. 

Worth township, S. R. Stewart, trustee. 

Whitestown High School and Grades, M. C. Marshall, superintendent, 
science, German ; principal, C. E. Hull, Latin and mathematics, Whitestown ; 
Flora Cline, English, history and domestic science, Whitestown ; Horace Wy- 
song, grades 7 and 8, Whitestown ; James Hawkins, grades 5 and 6, Whites- 
town ; Jennie Elmore, 4th grade, Whitestown ; Coila Thomlinson, grades 2 
and 3, Whitestown; primary and 1st, Isa Pollard, Ross Caldwell, No. 2, 
Whitestown; music and drawing, Irva Morris, Whitestown. 

Jackson township, E. M. Graves, trustee. 

Jamestown High School and Grades, A. C. Kibbey, superintendent, Latin, 
history ; C. G Lawler, principal, history and English, Jamestown ; Cordelia 
Caldwell, mathematics and domestic science, Jamestown ; Charles O. Ful- 
wider, science and manual training, Jamestown ; No. 8. Claude Lucas ; No. 7, 







LEBANON HIGH SOHOOr 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 28l 

Fern Roberts; No. 6, Marvin Caldwell; No. 5, Frances Dale; No. 4, Helen 
Hendricks; Nos. 2 and 3. Katherine Young; primary, Blanche Owens, James- 
town. 

Advance High School and Grades, P. D. Pointer, superintendent, Eng- 
lish and Latin; Nancy A. Wilson, principal, mathematics and domestic sci- 
ence, Advance; Walter J. Barr, history and science, Advance; Voris Dem- 
aree, Latin and manual training. Advance ; Orville Pratt, 7th and 8th grades, 
Advance; Iva Owens, 6th and 7th grades, Advance; Carmon Caplinger, 4th 
and 5th grades. Advance ; Cora Swindler, 2d and 3d grades, Advance ; Sallie 
Beaver, primary, Advance. 

Jackson township grades — No. 3, Hulda Gillaspie, Jamestown; No. 4, 
William Pratt, Jamestown; No. 8, Carmon Ross, Advance; No. 12, A. M. 
Lucas, Lebanon R. R. 13; music and drawing, C. Bruce Harding, Jamestown. 

School Boards of Towns — Lebanon: President, Joseph Wittt, secretary, 
Frank Hutchinson; treasurer, S. N. Cragun. Thorntown: President, C. R. 
Armstrong ; secretary, G. H. Hamilton ; treasurer, R. W. Coolman. 

The county board of education is composed of the township trustees and 
the presidents of the town and city school boards. 

Truant officer — Frank M. LaFollette. 

Rules are provided by the county board of education for the govern- 
ment and regulation of the schools, teachers, pupils, drivers of wagons for 
the conveyance of pupils to and from schools and all other matters pertain- 
ing to the welfare of the schools. There is also a county oratorical contest 
association, composed of the members of the high schools of the county, with 
county superintendent as president, and an elected secretary and treasurer. 
The association meets once a year, the first Saturday of November,, and ar- 
ranges for the year's work. The contest consists of orations by the boys 
and readings by the girls. All pupils in the high schools, in good standing, 
passing grades in daily recitations are eligible. Three prizes are given, first 
second and third, $8, $5 and $3. 



CONCENTRATION OF SCHOOLS. 

The idea is to enlarge the school district so as to collect enough children 
to form a school. That was the way our forefathers did when they settled 



282 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

this wilderness. As soon as there was a neighborhood formed the log school 
house was reared ; and blazed ways were marked out through the timber for 
the children to reach the school house the nearest way; but you see civiliza- 
tion moved in, the timber was cut out, roads established on section and half 
section lines instead of cutting across farms. It was figured out that four 
sections of land would support a school. Our fathers figured on a family on 
eighty acres of land and five children to a family, and two of these school age. 
That would make sixteen school children to the section and sixty-four chil- 
dren for the district of four sections. This would be plenty of children to 
make a flourishing school and none of them — if the school house was placed 
at the cross roads at the center — would have to go over a mile or three- 
fourths if they went around the roads. Their calculations were well founded. 
In a healthful civilization eighty acres of land should at least support one 
family and in that family there should be at least two school children. Boone 
county was that way in her prime. She is now on her decline. Decrease of 
children means the decline of every interest of the community. Our school 
men are trying to remedy the evil by placing our school houses farther apart 
and call this concentration of schools, when in fact it is only taking in enough 
territory to include sufficient children to make a school. We are actually los- 
ing out on the one thing necessary for a school, children. The cities have a 
good supply, but our rural districts are suffering from under production. If 
this condition continues there will come a calamity, not only to our schools 
and churches but to all our institutions. If eighty acres of land such as we 
have in Boone county does not produce any more live stock and cereal than 
in proportion to five children the city will starve. Five children to eighty 
acres of land is almost depopulation. It should alarm us when we know that 
we have hardly one school child in Sugar Creek township to each eighty acres 
of land. The child after all is the foundation of not only the school but also 
the church and state. You may build houses at any cost but you can not have 
a school, home or church without the child. Placing a school house every 
four or five miles will not remedy the fatal malady. Our nation since last 
April has been agonizing over tariff and currency rules as if the dollar was 
the only thing in this country worth considering. The child is secondary. 
When the woman goes to the chief source of law and pleads for protection 
of the child and home the head man replies, that is not on my party's slate; 
we can't take it up. The ravages will have to continue in our homes ; divorce 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 283 

revels in our courts and the child the chief source of all our hopes, is the last 
object to be conserved. 

COUNTY SEMINARY. 

Early in the history of Indiana she provided for a seminary of learning 
to be a stepping stone to the higher institutions of training. Boone county 
was still in the dense woods and swamps when her sons moved up to avail 
themselves of the best that was going. The earliest record we find in the 
matter is in a little journal of about two quires preserved in the archives of 
the county, stored away in the top loft of the court house. 

The first session of the board of directors on record is dated November 
8, 1838, seventy-six years ago, and reads as follows : "Be it remembered that 
at a meeting of the board of trustees of the county seminary of the county 
of Boone in tht stapp of Indiana, held at the clerk's office in the town of Leb- 
anon on the 8th day of November, 1838." 

Now at this time, the board of trustees proceeded to organize and on 
motion Samuel S. Brown was appointed clerk pro tern, for the present day. 
On motion, Cornelius Westfall was appointed clerk of the board of trus- 
tees of the county of Boone, for and during the pleasure of said board. Now 
at this time the board proceeded to settle with the former trustee, as there 
appears to be in notes and interest due on said notes the sum of five hundred 
and three dollars and forty-five and one-half cents and cash on hand of six- 
teen dollars and one cent, making in all five hundred and nineteen dollars, 
forty-six and a half cents ($519.46^). Ordered that Addison Lane be and 
is appointed treasurer of the board of trustees of the seminary of the county 
of Boone, by entering into bond and approved security in the penal sum of 
three thousand dollars. And, now at this time comes Addison Lane and filed 
a bond as above ordered. Ordered that this board adjourn to meet at Thorn- 
town on the first Monday of December next. Signed November 8, 1838. 

Charles Davis, 
Alexander B. Clarke, 
Henry Hamilton, 

Trustees. 

The Board met at Thorntown pursuant to adjournment December 3, 
1838. The citizens of Thorntown offered lots 79 and 80 of the southwest 



284 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

corner of Church and Front streets and $1,580 if they would locate the 
Seminary in Thorntown, upon the lots donated. The next day the Board met 
at Lebanon to consider the offer made by that city. The offer of Lebanon 
was as follows: cash, $1,236.98^2, material, $364 and as trade making a 
total of $1,600.98^4. Also a site of one acre of land on Main street, second 
block east of public square. The Lebanon offer was $20.9834 better than 
the Thorntown offer and it turned the balance in favor of the capital city 
against the commercial city at that date. The offer was accepted and the 
Board in session, January 9, 1839, planned to build. Notice for bids 
were posted in six of the most important places of the county and on March 
4, 1829 the Board met to examine the bids for building and John S. Forsythe 
was the lowest and it was accepted. The building was to be of brick, 
48 feet long, 26 feet wide, two stories high. The architect of the building 
was William Zion. The contract with Forsythe was to the amount of 
$2,496, to be paid in three equal payments. Mr. Forsythe was to take 
in payment the material donated at the price stipulated by the donor. The 
usual difficulties and perplexities came up in the progress of the work but 
the efficient Board overcame all of them and the building was completed by 
the aid of three referees, William Zion, John Berryhill and Moses King, 
to adjust matters. The arduous labor was begun in 1840 and completed in 
the summer of 1843. 

The first school was in the fall of 1843, taught by Stephen Neal, in 1844 
John M. Patton, of Thorntown, was principal. The Seminary continued 
to flourish during the period of ten years until the new school law of 1852, 
when it was sold at public sale for $900 and converted into a boarding 
house, known as the Bray House. 



THE OLD BROWN ACADEMY. 
By J. S. Daugherty. 



When the circuit rider blazed the way, 
Thro' meadow, stream and wood; 

When people lived, not for self alone 
But for each others good ; 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 285 

When folks were folks no matter, if their 

Pants bagged at their knees; 
Our father's built for our country's good 

The Old Academy. 

Without the blare of trumpet, or the 

Flash of gun or sword, 
They built for all eternity 

Upon the word of God. 
They gave their treasure, love and time, 

Their blessed reward we see, 
In the splendid lives they started from 

The Old Academy. 

The good names that grace its roster were 

Legion we've been told ; 
Some far upon the shaft of Fame are 

Most worthily enscrolled; 
Some are walking humbly in the way 

The Galilean trod ; 
Some have laid their armor down and, gone 

To glory, and to God. 

And now, as longer grows the shadows 

They're coming from afar; 
The boys and girls of the golden days 

Of Ridpath, Sims and Tarr; 
Coming back their hands to clasp and in 

Memory sweet to be 
Again, within the sacred walls of 

The Old Academy. 

We loved the Old Academy, it's 

Memories sweeter grow, 
As we slowly pass the hill crest tow'rd 

The sunset's golden glow; 



286 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

We loved the boys, we loved the girls, and 
The teachers staunch and true, 

And in that great Reunion, hope 
To meet beyond the blue. 



HISTORY OF THE THORNTOWN ACADEMY. 
By Rev. F. M. Cones. 

The educational history of Indiana presents the fact, that half a century 
ago there was in the state a manifest want of schools of Academic grade. 
No guarantee through Legislative enactment or otherwise, had been given 
in that period, that facilities would be afforded the masses in the near 
future, for obtaining a liberal and practical education. The urgent necessity 
seriously impressed the more enterprising citizens of every community. Hence 
that general awakening in this line of thought, which followed in the estab- 
lishment of academies and seminaries in various localities throughout this 
Commonwealth. 

This timely movement received a generous and ready endorsement from 
the ministerial and other ranks, where were found earnest advocates of 
any measure, that might prove conducive to the well being of every com- 
munity. 

There was no man more solicitous for the success of this, then advanced, 
yet laudable step in mental culture, than the Reverend John L. Smith, and 
it was in the year 1854 that he began his work as instigator of the edu- 
cational enterprise, which resulted in the founding of the Thorntown Acad- 
emy. 

That we may be more accurate as to time and introductory movements 
of this undertaking, we quote from a letter from Dr. Smith, written in 
1894. He says: 

"In 1854 I was appointed to the Indianapolis District as Presiding 
elder and immediately moved from Laporte, Indiana, (where I had resided 
for years) to the Capital City. My district extended westward including 
Crawfordsville and Thorntown. After settling my family in the new home 
I made a tour through the district, seeking a suitable location for school 
purposes, where I might educate my children, having in view the establish- 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 287 

ment of a school, if I found none to suit me already in operation. I ac- 
cordingly visited Zionsville, Crawfordsville, Danville, Darlington and Thorn- 
town. At Thorntown I met Reverend William Campbell, Oliver Craven, 
Phillip King, N. W. Weakly and others. When I told my business to them 
they all said with one accord, Thorntown is the place for the school. In look- 
ing around the town, I said, if we can secure two thousand five hundred 
dollars in reliable pledges, as a fund for the purchase of a suitable lot, and 
the erection of a suitable building, I will lead the subscription by giving 
five hundred dollars, and will return to Indianapolis and move my family 
to Thorntown next week. The pledges were made in a few minutes. 
Phillip King was employed to put up the building- 

"I secured a house for my family and within the next three days we 
were residents of Thorntown. The frame of the Academy was soon up 
and enclosed, but not yet finished. Winter came on and it was not until 
the spring of 1855 that it was ready for occupancy. It was then that the 
Reverend Levi Tarr, coming from the pastorate, began his work as principal 
in the new building, The Thorntown Academy. Miss Lou Cooper was 
chosen assistant teacher." 

This closes the first quotation from Dr. Smith. The departments at 
the organization of the school were known as Academic and Primary. To 
the school, both sexes were admitted with equal rights and privileges. The 
Academic year was divided into three sessions or terms of thirteen weeks 
each. The school, under the supervision of the teachers above named, rapidly 
grew in influence and popularity, having the hearty co-operation and wise 
counsel of the Board of Trustees. The esteem in which the academy was 
held by its patrons and many friends, was continuously exemplified by the 
general attention given it and the special interest taken in the public examina- 
tions, in the branches taught, and the literary entertainments at the close 
of each term. Rhetorical exercises were then introduced and continued in 
all the departments of the school. Each department was divided into two 
sections. Each student was required to declaim or read an original essay 
on each alternate Friday afternoon in the presence of one or more of the 
teachers. This exercise was invaluable to effective school work. 

By this time the teachers realized the necessity of organizing a literary 
society for the benefit of the Academic Department. It was done and was 



288 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

named Excelsorian. It had for its motto the Latin sentence, "labor omnia 
vincit," in English, meaning "Labor Conquers all things." Officers were 
elected, constitution and by-laws adopted, in which the routine of duties 
was specified. At a special time during the year a public exhibition of tbe 
society was given, the performers being chosen by election. Both ladies and 
gentlemen were admitted to membership, each having the same rights and 
privileges. 

At this period in the history of the Academy, the town began to take 
on new life. Material improvements were manifest on every hand. New 
business and dwelling houses were being built. An opening for the board- 
ing of students was made in many homes. Circulars were distributed and 
newspaper comments made here and there over the country, each speaking 
of the efficient work done by this new institution of learning, and of the pros- 
pects for its future success. 

The town continued to increase in population, as many families from 
various sections of the surrounding country came to the town, making it their 
place of residence, that they might have the privilege of the educational ad- 
vantages then and there afforded. 

Early in the calendar year 1856 the increase in the number of students 
in the Academic department became such as to demand an addition to tbe 
faculty. Professor L. D. Willard, a teacher of some experience, was chosen 
assistant in the Academic department. Soon after this, in the same scholastic 
year, Miss Cooper resigned her position as teacher in the primary department, 
and the vacancy was filled by the election of Miss S. A. Perry, who at once 
began her work in this department. The faculty then was, viz, Professor 
Tarr, Principal; Professor Willard, Assistant in Academic department and 
Miss Perry, primary teacher. 

The Academic year, which closed in the summer of 1856, was replete 
with success on all lines, and the reputation of the academy was far reaching. 
Interested visitors came often through the year to the town, expressing highest 
commendation of tbe wise management shown in the affairs of the school 
and for the excellent record thus far made by it. 

We here make the second quotation from the late Dr. John L. Smith. 
He says : 

"In the Fall of 1856, at the annual Conference, to which I belonged, 
1 requested that the Bishop appoint the Reverend W. F. Wheeler Presiding 



MM 




lllinfflj.il! I 


ftt a 



tNTOWN ACADEM1 



> 




i n 


.^^-yjh* .. ■- 


'1 * . "*i"i 


Tt~lf->9'T 



ni'i'Mox im>7. 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 289 

Elder in my place and to assign me to Thorntown as its first stationed Metho- 
dist pastor. This was cheerfully done, and by this appointment I was to spend 
more time at home and give more special attention and direction in the 
development of our new school work, so recently and hopefully commenced. 
Altogether I invested seven hundred and twenty-five dollars in the school 
property, which was a larger sum than that given by any other person. It 
was a good investment and I have never regretted that I made it." 

This ends the second and last quotation from Dr. Smith. We record 
also the names of other liberal donors who readily responded to this urgent 
call for five hundred dollar pledges, in the persons of Rev. W. F. Wheeler, 
Armstrong Ross, Isaac Gerhart and Oliver Craven. Later on still there 
were others who contributed, some of whom gave as liberally as the first 
donors, when necessity demanded. 

At the close of the winter term of 1856, Professor Willard, having had 
offered him a more lucrative position, resigned his place in the school. 
This necessitated the selection of another teacher, and in January, 1857, at 
the beginning of the winter or middle term of the year. Reverend Charles 
N. Sims, then an undergraduate of Indiana Asbury University, was 
chosen Principal. The faculty was then as follows : Professor Charles N. 
Sims, Principal ; Professor Levi Tarr, assistant teacher in Academic depart- 
ment; Miss S. A. Perry, teacher of primary department and Mrs. Amanda 
Tarr, teacher of instrumental music. The school continued with marked 
prosperity, and before the close of the Academic year, which was in mid- 
summer, 1857, it was seen that the capacity of the Academic building would 
be inadequate for the accommodation of the large number of students expected 
at the beginning of the next term. At a meeting of the trustees and faculty 
in July of that year, it was resolved to at once begin the work of enlarging the 
building, which when completed would be three times its former size. The 
work, when commenced, went rapidly forward, yet was not completed at the 
opening of the Fall term, the beginning of the Academic year in September. 
1857. Of necessity the Methodist church was used for chapel exercises 
temporarily and in it the primary department was taught, while the new 
building was being completed. 

In grading and classifying it was found necessary to create another 
department, which was done, and was known as the Intermediate. The 
record of class standing in recitations in the Intermediate and Academic 
(19) 



29O BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

departments ranged in a scale from zero to ten. The student making ex- 
tra grades was entitled to ten extra. 

Miss Jennie Parsons, of Illinois, was elected as teacher for this new 
department. By the opening of the second term of this Academic year, 
January, 1858, the new building was completed in all its parts. The General 
Assembly of the State this year granted a charter to the Thorntown Academy. 
A senior class of three in number was organized. 

Apparatus to be applied in the study of natural science was purchased. 
The student body had so much increased in number that it more than doubled 
that of any previous year. Additional facilities for the study of vocal and 
instrumental music had recently been provided. At the close of this scholas- 
tic year the large and interested audiences, that attend class examinations and 
exhibitions of the several departments, gave evidence of the merits of the 
new, yet growing institution. 

It was then that a new feature in the work was presented; that of a 
commencement ; the graduation of the first senior class of two gentlemen and 
one lady. 

It was at this time that Professor Tarr, having been elected to the Prin- 
cipalship of the Danville Academy, Danville, Indiana, resigned his position 
in Thorntown Academy and at once went to his new field of labor. Mrs. 
Tarr also resigned her position as teacher of instrumental music, and Miss 
Arabelle Reeves was elected to fill this vacancy. At this time Miss Parsons 
resigned as teacher of the Intermediate department, and Miss Anna Gray was 
elected in her stead. Then was Professor Oliver H. Smith, A. B., elected 
to fill the chair that Professor Tarr vacated. The scholastic year opened 
September 22, 1858, with most favorable surroundings, with in part a new 
faculty. The faculty was then Rev. Charles N. Sims, Professor of Mental 
and Moral Science and Languages; Oliver H. Smith, A. B., Professor of 
Mathematics and Natural Science; Miss Anna Gray, teacher of Intermediate 
department ; Miss S. A. Perry, teacher of Primary Department, and Arabelle 
Reeves, teacher of instrumental music. During this year the course of study 
was partially revised and a senior class of five was organized. The North- 
west Indiana Conference of the Methodist Episcopal church favorably recog- 
nized the work and influence of the Academy, and appointed two of its 
members as visitors to the school, and the visits were accordingly made at 
the close of each term in the year. 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 



29I 



Such appointment the conference continued to make year after year. 
Near the middle of this year it was found necessary to organize another 
literary society. It was readily done and named Philosonian, and had for its 
motto, "lux et Veritas," in English it read," Light and Truth." Its order 
of exercises and time of weekly meetings were the same at that of the 
Excelsorian. Ladies and gentlemen were admitted to its membership with 
equal privileges. During the last term of this year Mr. Richard Foster 
organized a class in surveying, he was not a member of the faculty. He was 
employed and his work was well done and most highly appreciated. This 
year witnessed a still greater number of visitors at the close of each term. 

During the year a spirit of rivalry sprang up between the two literary 
societies. A strife for supremacy was manifest. Such was the interest in 
this matter that the citizens of the town and vicinity, some of them not 
connected with the school, took sides and were eager for the triumph of 
their favorite society. This was emulation with a slight sprinkling of re- 
strained jealousy. 

At the close of the second term of this year Miss Gray resigned as teacher 
of the Intermediate department and the vacancy was filled by Henry G. 
Jackson, an undergraduate of Asbury University. Before the school year 
closed there were frequent inquiries for boarding and rooms for students 
who expected to be in attendance the next term. The close of the year came 
in July 1859. 

The usual preparations for class examinations and literary exhibitions 
were made. The crowds of visitors, in patrons and friends of the school, 
who came to the town, increased daily. Much was said about and expected 
of the senior class, that would appear on commencement day. The graduat- 
ing exercises were of the highest order. The three gentlemen and two 
ladies received their diplomas. The scholastic year of 1859 and i860 began in 
the middle of September. Thus far favorable reports of the institution 
had been continuously made by the conference visitors, through the public 
press and otherwise. At this period a slight change in the course of study 
was made, and the departments were then First and Second Academic, In- 
termediate, Primary and Music. Before the opening of the second term of 
this year Miss Perry, the primary teacher, resigned and her position was 
supplied by Miss Amelia J. Campbell, M. E. L., graduate of the institu- 
tion. 



392 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

A senior class larger than any former class was organized. At the 
close of the second term of this year, which was in April, i860, Professor 
Sims resigned the Principalship of the school, to accept the Presidency 
of an institution of learning in Valparaiso, Indiana. Then changes in 
the faculty were necessarily made. Professor Smith was elected Principal ; 
Professor Jackson was elected to the position vacated by Professor Smith, 
and Joseph Foxworthy, B. S., a graduate of the Academy, was chosen teach- 
er of the Intermediate department, vacated by Professor Jackson. During 
the scholastic year additional apparatus was procured for needed chemical and 
philosophical experiments, also necessary charts and maps for the use of all 
departments. The former prosperity of the school still continued, and as 
commencement approached the usual preparations were made. It came. The 
festivities were truly of a collegiate type. A senior class of twelve graduated, 
five ladies and seven gentlemen. It was then that Miss Reeves, the teacher 
of music, resigned and Miss Mollie Shipp was elected in her stead. The next 
Academic year began September 24, i860. 

Professor Foxworthy then resigned as teacher in the Intermediate de- 
partment and David H. Ashman, a former student, was elected to fill the 
vacancy- The faculty then read: Oliver H. Smith, A. M., Principal and 
Professor of Mental and Moral Science and Languages; Henry G. Jack- 
son, Professor of Mathematics and Natural Science; David H. Ashman. 
Principal of the Intermediate department: Miss Amelia J. Campbell, teacher 
of Primary department, and Miss Mollie Shipp, teacher of Instrumental 
music. 

At the close of the second or middle term of this year Professor Jack- 
son resigned, that he might complete his course of study at the University, 
and Reverend Frederick S. Woodcock, a senior in Asbury University, was 
chosen to fill the vacancy. 

This brings us to the early springtime in 1861, to a perilous period in 
the history of our country. Two internal factions, many years forming, 
were arraigned one against the other, each making demands of the other, 
which culminated in a conflict of arms, an open rebellion against the National 
Government. Many young men, students in various institutions of learning 
throughout the North, actuated solely from a spirit of patriotism, closed 
desks and books and bade adieu to school associations, responding to their 
country's call, gave their service to the Nation in defense of every National 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 293 

and domestic interest dear to the hearts of the Union loving citizen. Many 
young men thus responded who were students in Thorntown Academy. The 
Academic departments were much depleted in numbers, as was shown in roll 
call. The boys donned the blue and hastened to the front, ready for the 
call to duty. Some fell on the battlefield, some were victims of disease 
incident to soldier life, some met death in hospitals and others answered the 
last roll call in prison pens. Some were rapidly promoted in rank and 
rose to distinction. Some lived to return to loved ones again, after victory 
was won in the memorable surrender at Appomatox. The bodies -of others 
found a resting place under the pines in the Southland. Some such graves 
are marked, that it may be known who they were, others bear the sad, yet 
common, inscription, "Unknown." They all nobly did duty, and those whose 
lives were given in the conflict for the right, are numbered as fallen heroes, 
the heroic dead. Such surroundings as obtained in consequence of this 
fratricidal war. were discouraging for school work in Thorntown Academy. 
War was the general topic of conversation, absorbing the public mind. A 
spirit of unrest possessed and dominated the loyal general public. Some 
who would have graduated at the close of this year had gone to the war. 
Even to the close of the Academic year students volunteered at their country's 
call. The teachers and students who remained in school were faithful in 
the line of duty, however, and the Academic year of 1 860-61 closed with 
the usual interest, graduating a class of five, four gentlemen and one lady. 
During the summer vacation many who had been in the Academic classes 
the preceding year volunteered as soldiers. The next scholastic year open- 
ed in September. 1861, with a much smaller attendance upon the part of the 
male portion of the Academic departments. At this time Miss Shipp resigned 
as teacher of music and Miss Helen Bedell was chosen in her stead. The war 
news from the daily papers was closely read, and often through this medium, 
or by the unwelcome missives to the home, came the sad intelligence that 
one of the boys, well known, had fallen in battle. This scholastic year, with 
the usual exercise of the commencement week, closed. The graduating class 
numbered five, three gentlemen and two ladies. At this time Miss Bedell 
resigned as teacher of music and Miss Sophronia Lee was elected to fill the 
vacancy. Professor Woodcock also resigned and John Clark Ridpath, an 
undergraduate in Asbury University, was elected in his stead. 

At the opening of the Academic year the middle of September, 1862, 



294 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

Professor Ashman resigned his position as Intermediate teacher and went to 
the army. The number of students then in attendance would not justify 
the continuance of the Intermediate department. The faculty then stood in 
their respective departments, Professors Smith and Ridpath, Miss Campbell 
and Miss Lee. The continuous war distractions and falling oft" in atten- 
dance on the part of the male students in the Academic departments very 
much detracted from the general interest of the school. Professor Ridpath's 
efficiency in leadership, in vocal music, however, was a very attractive fea- 
ture in the school work. The year closed with a good record, considering the 
distracted condition of the country. No graduating class this year. 

The school year of 1863-64 opened with some changes in the faculty. 
Miss Lee, of the department of Instrumental Music, resigned and 
Miss Fannie M. Fraley was chosen to fill the vacancy. Miss Emma 
M. Chafee, M. E. L., a graduate of Brookville College, Brookville, In- 
diana, was elected teacher upon the guitar. The faculty for the several 
departments then read: Oliver H. Smith, A. M., Principal and Professor of 
Mental and Moral Science and Languages; John C. Ridpath, A. B., Pro- 
fessor of Mathematics and Natural Science; Miss Amelia J. Campbell, M. E. 
L., teacher of Primary department; Miss Fannie M. Fraley, teacher upon 
piano; Miss Emma M. Chafee, M. E. L., teacher upon guitar. 

At this time the Civil war was at its height, yet the earnest work of 
the teachers in the Academy showed great efficiency. Visitors appoint- 
ed by the annual Conference frequently came to inspect the work in hand 
by the teachers. The examinations and entertainments as in other days 
had their attractions at the close of each term. The studies known as those 
of the Intermediate department were now taught by teachers in the higher de- 
partments. The Stars and Stripes were constantly afloat in and about the 
Academy building. This year closed, showing efficient work on the part 
of all concerned. No graduating class this year. 

At this time Professor Smith, having been elected to the Principalship 
of Danville Academy, Danville, Indiana, resigned his connection with Thorn- 
town Academy. Professor Ridpath was then elected Principal and F. M. 
Cones was chosen assistant in the second Academic department. Miss Camp- 
bell at this time resigned as Primary teacher and Miss Anna Fisher was 
chosen to fill the vacancy. Miss Fraley also resigned her position as music 
teacher and Professor S. Henry Fielding was chosen for that position. The 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 295 

regular routine of school work continued. Early in the year a senior class 
was organized. A year previous to this the two literary societies combined, 
making a new society called the Union Literary Society. Before the close 
of this Academic year the war cloud had passed away and peace came to 
the country, and many new students came thronging the halls of the Academy, 
making extra work for the corps of teachers then employed. The close of 
this Academic year was auspicious. New life on all lines of school work 
was taken on. All the exercises of the commencement week were attractive, 
and especially was that of the senior class graduating exercise. The class 
numbered four, two ladies and two gentlemen. During the year a piano 
was purchased and placed in the chapel, to be used for the various exercises 
held in the same. The beginning of the new school year, 1865-66, was 
characterized with increased interest on every line. The large ingathering of 
new students, many of them just home from the army, insured a large 
increase in the size of the higher classes. Enlargement of the faculty was 
demanded. Reverent W. O. Wyant, A. B., a recent graduate of Asbury 
University, was elected as Professor of Mathematics and Natural Science; 
the Intermediate department was re-established, and it was under charge of 
F. M. Cones. During the year Mrs. Kate Fipps was chosen assistant teach- 
er in the Primary department. Often for want of time recitations were 
held outside of the study hours. Enthusiasm characterized lectures, reci- 
tations and examinations. At the close of the second or middle term of this 
year in April, 1866, Professor Ridpath resigned the Principalship of the 
school and Professor Wyant was elected to fill the vacancy. Professor Levi 
Thorne was chosen to occupy the place made vacant by Professor Wyant's 
promotion. The other positions in the faculty remained the same to the 
close of the year. The commencement week was one of much interest. A 
class of three gentlemen received diplomas. At this time Professor Wyant 
and Thorne resigned. Professor John P. Rous, an experienced educator, was 
chosen Principal and Professor J. J. Osborn was elected instructor in first 
Academic department. 

The next Academic year opened early in September, 1866, with the above 
changes in the faculty. Many new students came. Special attention was 
given to vocal music, and large classes were formed in instrumental music 
also. Most excellent work was done in all departments this year. At the 
close of the first term Miss Fisher resigned and Mrs. P. Palmer was chosen 



296 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

to fill the vacancy. F. M. Cones, at the close of the school year, resigned, and 
Miss Maggie Shaw was elected to fill the position. The year's work was 
successful and fruitful of good, yet there was no graduating class. The 
scholastic year, 1867-68, the last year's work of the Thorntown Academy, 
opened September 9, 1867, with the following as the faculty: John P. Rous, 
A. M., Principal and Professor of Mental and Moral Science and Languages; 
Joseph J. Osborn, Professor of Mathematics and Natural Science ; Miss 
Maggie Shaw, Principal of Intermediate department ; Mrs. P. Palmer, teach- 
er of Primary department ; Mrs. Sarah L. Rous, teacher upon the piano, and 
Miss Emma M. Chafee, M. E. L., teacher upon the guitar. Professor Field- 
ing having resigned his position as music teacher. Vocal and Instrumental 
music were attractive features throughout the year. A senior class was or- 
ganized. Earnest thorough work was done throughout the year. At the 
close of this year the usual attractions known to commencement occasions 
were manifest. With the graduating exercises of the senior class, of two 
ladies and two gentlemen, the Thorntown Academy closed its history of 
thirteen years of earnest and efficient work. The Academy property was 
then sold to the public school authorities of the town. The Seminary and 
Academy, such as the one whose history we now consider, did a good work. 
They gave facilities to the young men and young women for a liberal and 
practical education, who, for the want of time and means, could not enjoy 
the advantages of the college. Such institutions were also both an inspira- 
tion and a means for the attainment of a collegiate education. It is here 
in place that mention be made of the characteristic work of each successive 
Principal of the Academy, giving titles or degrees possessed by each, at the 
time of his incumbency. Professor Levi Tarr, A. M., was a model teacher 
and carefully and earnestly impressed his classes with the necessity of 
thoroughness in all their work. While he was efficient in all the branches he 
taught he evinced a preference for the English language and Natural Science. 
He was steadfast and faithful in duty, and cheerfully sacrificed for the good 
of others. 

Professor Charles N. Sims, A. B., kept up his studies in Asbury Univer- 
sity and graduated from it while teaching in the Academy at Thorntown. 
His administration was a marked success. His executive ability was ad- 
mirable and the Institution grew in efficiency and ranked among the first of 
its grade, while under his Principalship. In the recitation room he was 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 297 

perfectly at home and gave stimulus to those whom he instructed. In mind 
he was analytic and philosophic and was classed among the first of platform 
speakers. 

Professor Oliver H. Smith, A. M., was recognized as a man of ripe 
scholarship, and was eminently successful as an instructor, and especially so in 
the Higher Mathematics and the Classic. His record was a praiseworthy one, 
and his administration highly commendable. Reference to him was often 
made by those who knew him best in such terms as thorough teacher, good 
man, genial friend. 

Professor John C. Ridpath, A. B., whose fame since those days has be- 
come national and international, as historian and lecturer, kept up his 
studies in the University, graduating, taking first honors of his class at the 
University, while connected with Thorntown Academy. He was especially 
apt and ready in the work of the recitation room and imparted great en- 
thusiam to his classes. He was an acknowledged genius, and his career as 
Principal was characterized by an energetic and aggressive spirit. 

Professor William O. Wyant, A. B., was a man of superior intellectual 
endowment and refined culture. As an instructor he was clear and logical, 
impressing his classes with the facts considered. He was an orator of ac- 
knowledged ability, possessed a gentle spirit and was in the highest sense a 
manly man. 

Professor John P. Rous, A. M., as an instructor was accurate and pains- 
taking and gave special attention to classification in the different depart- 
ments. His administration was a smooth and pleasant one. In manner he 
was quiet, was truly a matter of fact man, and was always conscientious 
for the right. It is proper that place be given here, touching the work of 
assistant or subordinate teachers. 

Louis D. Willard was but a short time connected with the Academy, 
but he did excellent work, was independent and firm in disposition, yet 
pleasant with it all. 

Professor Henry G. Jackson, A. B., kept up his studies in the University 
while teaching in Thorntown, graduating from the University, taking first 
honors of his class. As a teacher he was clear and accurate in illustration. 
His lectures in the school elicited noteworthy and favorable comment. 

Professor Frederick S. Woodcock, A. B., was genial, and in every way 
ready to assist the student that endeavored to succeed. His pleasant smile 



290 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

and greeting in the recitation room and without drew the student body and 
general public to him. 

Professor Levi Thorne exemplified great earnestness and a spirit of in- 
vestigation in his general work. 

Professor Joseph J. Osborne gave constant evidence of his thoroughness 
in that which he taught and in Mathematics ; there were none superior to 
him in the institution. His mode of instruction in this branch as well as in 
others gave stimulus to his class, noteworthy and highly commendable. He 
was personally social and pleasant. 

Professor Joseph Foxworthy, B. S., was noted for his energy and keen 
perception of that which he had in hand as instructor. He was personally 
cheerful with an occasional vein of humor, which was always helpful to 
present surroundings. 

Professor David H. Ashman had a superior intellect. As instructor he 
ranked as first class, and was constantly equipped for daily duty. His lectures 
were of high order. 

Ladies of the Intermediate and Primary departments, Mesdames Phipps 
and Palmer, together with the Misses Parsons, Gray, Perry, Shaw, Campbell 
and Fisher each showed great efficiency in their several positions and were 
affable and cheerful in the same. 

The teachers of music in the persons of Mesdames Tarr and Rous, to- 
gether with the Misses Reeves, Shipp, Bedell, Lee and Fraley, also Pro- 
fessors Fielding and Adair, gave cheer and animation to school life, in song 
and melodious accompaniment, and made an impress on student life, indelibly 
for good, of which the Institution was justly proud. 

During the eutire history of the Academy, in the devotional exercises 
held each morning in the chapel, preceding the regular work of the day, 
the teachers and students sang from the church hymn book without notes, 
but later on a choir of vocal music was established and a book of sacred 
songs with notes was introduced and used. 

Honorable mention of those who were members of the Board of Trus- 
tees, Custodians, of this time honored Institution, claims our attention. 
They were Reverend William Campbell, William F. Wheeler, Conrad S. 
Bergner, John L. Smith, John H. Hull and Samuel Godfrey, together with 
Oliver Craven, Jeffery Horner, Baltser Kramer, M. D., Allen Younts, James 
Miller, Nelson W. Weakly, Samuel Cason, John T. Alford, David Binford, 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 299 

Joseph Cones, George W. Cones and Joseph Shipp, all of whom have pass- 
ed out of this life save Dr. Samuel Godfrey and Mr. Joseph Shipp. These 
were all trustworthy and rendered valuable service in this relation. Oliver 
Craven was the only one of this number who was a member of the Board 
continuously, from the founding of the Academy to the close of its history. 
We venerate his name and are assured we voice the belief of those now 
living who knew him best, that the prosperity of the financial strength and the 
business means devised which contributed to the success of the school were 
largely due to the energy, tact and generous sacrifice of this good man. 

From Dr. Kramer, Jeff err Horner, N. W. Weakly and others who 
were constant residents of Thorntown and vicinity were obtained wise coun- 
sel, financial support and hearty co-operation in sustaining this school of 
Academic grade. 

Of the six Principals who presided over the interests of this Institution, 
all were ministers of the gospel but two, namely, Professor Ridpath and Pro- 
fessor Rous. 

All except Professor Tarr were classical graduates of Indiana. Asbury 
(now DePauw) University, Professor Tarr also had been a student of the 
Ohio Wesleyan University. 

But three' of them are now living, viz : Professors Sims, Smith and Rous. 
Some of the subordinate teachers have also passed way from this life. Like- 
wise many students are no more among the living. 

It is here just to state that some of the teachers and students once con- 
nected with this school have since those days received from Institutions of 
learning, honorary degrees. 

While in this reunion our minds are busy with reminiscent scenes of 
school life, and such associations, we gratefully call to mind and pay tribute 
of tenderest regard to the memory of that faithful janitor, Jacob Vanarsdel. 
With gratitude we recall his characteristic acts of kindness. When on a 
stormy winter's morning a student a little behind time was hastening to the 
chapel exercises, as the bell was announcing the hour for the same, and fear- 
ing a record of tardiness against himself, inevitable, he is seen by his stead- 
fast friend, the janitor, who by a continued grasp on the rope gives additional 
strokes to the bell, thereby prolonging the time and enabling the anxious 
student to gain his place in the chapel, free from the anticipated demerit. 
He ever greeted us with pleasing salutations. Peace to his memory. 



300 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

In those days Thorntown was known throughout the state for its tem- 
perance proclivities. Dating from the spring of 1857 forward for seven- 
teen consecutive years the town had no saloons. Its opposition to intem- 
perance was so marked that its citizens were styled, whisky fighters and 
whisky spillers. It was said that the clergy of the town not only prayed that 
the saloon might not enter their midst but when active measures for protec- 
tion were necessary in personal, physical endeavor, the preachers, led the van. 
In 1874, in the crusade movement, Thorntown was at the front in duty. 
Thus we see, the influence of sentiment established in Academy days per- 
petuated. 

Thorntown Academy was founded in 1855 and was chartered as the 
property of the Methodist Episcopal church and was under its supervision. 
A course of study was provided which met the demands of its patrons and 
was fully as comprehensive as that of any school of its grade. Young 
gentlemen completing the regular Academic course received the Degree, 
Bachelor of Science. Young ladies completing the same course received the 
Degree, Mistress of English Literature. 

The following ladies and gentlemen completed the prescribed course 
of study and received their respective Degree : 

Class of 1858: Cynthia Cason, James F. Scull and Russell D. Utter; 
Cynthia Cason, deceased. 

Class of 1859: Amelia J. Campbell, Emma Yount, Henry E. W. Camp- 
bell, Joseph Foxworthy, John N. Holloway ; all deceased except Mr. Camp- 
bell. 

Class of i860: Mattie J. Davis, Jemima Gordon, Miss Jemima Gor- 
don of this class was for four years previous to her graduation an efficient 
assistant teacher in the Intermediate department ; Philora Russell, Mary A. 
Tiberghein, Mattie J. Wilson, Addison, O'Rear, James H. O'Rear, Archi- 
bald McCurdy, William H. H. King, Samuel L. Cason, Samuel W. Cosand 
and Francis M. Cones. Of this class of twelve in number eight are deceased, 
of the gentlemen, King, McCurdy, Addison, O'Rear, Samuel W. Cosand ; of 
the ladies, Davis, Russell, Tiberghein and Wilson. 

Class of 1861 : James M. Adams, Roderick H. Galloway, Elisha Little, 
Alpheus Odell and Mary A. Harris. Deceased, Adams and Miss Harris. 

Class of 1862 : Mary A. Binford, Mary E. Holloway, Mary F. Posey, 
John A. Lovett and Alex H. Hendricson. Deceased, Lovett and Hendricson. 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 3OI 

In consequence of the war the higher classes were so diminished that 
there was no graduating class in 1863 and 1864. 

Class of 1865 : Lucy E. Hargrave, Mary V. Kramer, Charles Cones 
and John W. Scott. Mrs. Mary V. Kramer-Stafford is the only survivor of 
this class. 

Class of 1866: Notly S. Campbell, William C. Vanarsdel and Melchart 
H. Garten. 

There was no graduating class in 1867. 

Class of 1868: Anna Clapham, Nannie J. Alley, Albert W. Caldwell 
and Charles Harmon. Mrs. Nannie Alley-Berner deceased. 

This was the eighth and last senior class in the thirteen years history of 
of Thorntown Academy. There were others, both ladies and gentlemen who 
did not complete the full course of study, who have occupied honorable 
positions in life. The voices of some who were once students of the Academy 
have been and are still heard from the pulpit, and others from the bar of 
civil justice, and others in halls of Legislation, while many have become 
physicians, eminent in the practice of the healing art, while others have graced 
the editorial chair. 

In fact very many have honored their teachers and the old Academy in 
the various vocations of life. With sadness of heart we recall the names 
of others who were of great promise but failing in health fell victim to the 
King of Terrors, just as the avenues of usefulness were opening to them. 
Their record was noble and influence for good unsurpassed. 

In order to a proper appreciation of the government and character of 
this Institution we quote from paragraphs as given in one of the earliest 
catalogues. It reads thus : 

"The government of the Institution is mild but firm, aiming always to 
develop the ennobling feeling of self respect and to cultivate love for law 
rather than fear of authority. The social manners, and moral habits, and 
religious feelings, of both sexes, are strictly guarded and diligently culti- 
vated. Therefore, it is expected that all in the Academic departments will 
attend some church on Sunday morning and a lecture in the afternoon, deliver- 
ed by some member of the faculty in the Academy chapel. Morning worship 
is held in the chapel as the opening exercise of each day." This closes the 
quotation from the catalogue. 

It was alwavs a welcome occasion for the town as well as the Academv 



302 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

when one of the faculty was to deliver the Sunday afternoon lecture. These 
addresses varied in topic of the highest moral and religious tone, and gave in- 
spiration to student life in words of character building. 

The government of the school was vested in the faculty; it constantly 
assumed the moral sense of the students and relied upon their disposition to 
do right for its efficiency. In all the instruction given, touching the relig- 
ious character, there was freedom from sectarian bias. Among the students 
attending the Academy there were represented various church communions. 
Many of the students during their sojourn in the town had homes with 
families, while others chose to board themselves. To aid the student in the 
acquisition of knowledge, and the development of commendable character, 
was the purpose of the Institution. While text books were employed in 
the attainment of these ends the cultivation of the heart was not neglected. 
While the students were under the special care of exemplary instruc- 
tors social meetings were instituted for their spiritual culture. In seasons 
of special religious awakenings many students, through the influence and 
ministrations of devoted teachers, found the Pearl of Great Price and hence- 
forth lead peaceful lives. 

As we revert to these scenes of the long ago, as related to Thorntown 
Academy, we can but say those days were Halcyon days, and our hearts 
in unison are expressive of this thought, when we say, hallowed associa- 
tions, sacred memories. 

The existence of Thorntown Academy was of no little significance. In 
its existence there was a prayerful, careful, judicious sowing, from which 
there has ever been a reaping, bounteous and fruitful of good. 



THE THORNTOWN PUBLIC HIGH SCHOOL. 

This school was organized in 1867 to succeed the Thorntown Academy. 
The first superintendent was J. P. Rous, followed by N. B. Parker, A. E. 
Buckley, Milton McCune, Alonzo Lyster, G. W. Shuck, H. J. Shafer, M. O. 
Harper, L. M. Crist, James R. Hart, J. P. Hester, A. E. Malsberry, 



Baldwin, H. C. Neal, L. B. O'Dell, J. P. Kennedy, Frank Long, serving to 
this date, 1914. 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 3O3 



THORNTOWN ACADEMY REUNION 



Held at Thorntown, July 16-17, 1907. 

The Methodist church which stands on the site of the old church known 
during the days of the Academy was made a rendezvous for the visitors. 

Rev. F. M, Cones, of LaFayette, who was active in promoting the 
reunion, was early on the ground, Monday the 15th, looking after the de- 
tails of the meeting. Several parties who had friends and relatives still living 
here arrived some days before. On Tuesday, the day of the first meeting, 
every train brought new arrivals. They were met by committees and directed 
or escorted to the Methodist church. At its portals there were many warm 
greetings and clasp of hands that had not touched in years. Early in the 
afternoon of Tuesday quite a number had assembled and were warmly talk- 
ing of old associations and refreshing their memories of incidents of long 
ago. The hours flew by rapidly as comrade after comrade came dropping 
in and was greeted all around and was re-introduced. The years of long 
separation had left traces and it was interesting to see them meet, grasp the 
hand and query, "Is this you?" There would be smiles and then there 
would be tears, as the sunshine and shadow of soul would come and go, as 
the memory would gather in those present and the many that they could not 
greet until they reached the other shore. 

The first formal session of the reunion was held in the lecture room 
and parlors of the church, Tuesday evening, 7 :30, in the form of a social re- 
ception, Rev. W. P. McKinsey, of Plainfield, presiding. The meeting was 
called to order in such a free, open and informal way that everyone was 
put to ease, and made to feel at home from the start, and all with one accord 
joined in and sang with a spirit, "Praise God From Whom All Blessings 
Flow," which was followed by prayer, led by Rev. C. B. Mock, of LaFayette, 
Indiana. Song, "The Saints Home," to the tune of Home, Sweet Home. 
This was followed by the welcome address delivered by Rev. J. C. Martin, 
pastor of the M. E. church of Thorntown, Indiana. 

After extending a most hearty welcome to each visitor present and to 
all who may come later the speaker gave some thought for wholesome re- 
flection along the lines of the earlier methods and plans of discipline and 
training in school life, comparing them with methods and processes of this 



304 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

day, with decided conclusions in favor of the former. He thought that the 
spirit and methods in vogue in the days of the Academy were calculated to 
produce truer and more substantial characters than the processes of today 
were able to inspire in the body of students. Those of that day gave closer 
application to study and their duties in school life than those of our day 
manifest. It was not dreamed in that day that physical culture depended 
upon the ball game, as it does now. The ax helve, hoe handle and saw 
buck were considered more efficient in developing muscle than the ball bat. 
He preferred the former and never wanted his son to resort to the ball 
games for culture of body, much less of mind or spirit. At the close of the 
address the following song was sung: 



LONG, LONG AGO. 

(Words by J. S. Daugherty. Tune— Long, Long Ago.) 

"Tell me the tales that to me were so dear," 

Long, long ago, long, long ago; 
"Sing me the songs I delighted to hear," 

Long, long ago, long ago. 
Now you have come each other to meet, 
To clasp the warm hand, the fond heart to greet; 
And talk of the days that were tender and sweet, 

Long, long ago, long ago. 

Well we remember the faces we met, 

Long, long ago, long, long ago ; 
We loved them so fondly we cannot forget, 

Long, long ago, long ago. 
You have grown older, your hair has turned white, 
Your faces have wrinkled, and dim is your sight, 
You've only grown sweeter as years took their flight, 

Long, long ago, long ago. 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 305 

The old church is gone that we all loved so dear, 

Long, long ago, long, long ago ; 
The school house is gone too we left with a tear, 

Long, long ago, long ago. 
Some have departed, their life race is run, 
We too shall hear the welcome "well done," 
If we are true to the faith that begun, 

Long, long ago, long ago. 

Sung by Messrs. A. C. Taylor, J. S. Daugherty, T. E. Horner, and 
Ross Cohoon. 

The chairman now introduced Rev. H. G. Jackson, D. D., of Chicago, 
Illinois, in the most complimentary terms as instructor in the Academy, soldier 
in the army for the Union, minister of the gospel, missionary in South 
America and an untiring worker for humanity and the Lord — to make 
Response. The doctor arose somewhat embarrassed by the encomiums heap- 
ed upon him that he desired some back door that he might slip out. However, 
he finally wore off the embarrassment and got a start by calling over the 
roll of long ago, telling of some of the pranks, courtships and marriages of 
the boys and girls of fifty years ago and came the nearest kind of unveiling 
some of the history of the temperance work in Thorntown of that date. He 
actually stirred up the memories of the past and set them going and said 
many good things. His remarks were pleasing and well received. 

The response was followed by a song and social hour participated in by 
citizens and visitors, which was brim full of heart and soul, grasping of 
hands, smiles and study of faces to see if the storms of forty years had left 
any trace of past memories. It was a gladsome hour to all. 



WEDNESDAY MORNING. 

Session called to order at 10:30. Rev. L. C. Buckles, of LaFayette, pre- 
siding. Prayer, Rev. H. G. Jackson, D. D. The principal exercises of 
the hour was a well prepared historical sketch of the Academy, including 
names of teachers and graduates by F. M. Cones, D. D., which was fully 
appreciated by all present. 
(20) 



306 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

After a short recess enlivened by hearty greetings and introductions of 
the latest arrivals, the session was called on and warmed up by singing 
songs that came from the heart and full of the spirit of fifty years ago. 
Then followed some short talks. C. N. Sims, D. D., of Liberty, Indiana, 
who had endeared himself so closely to pupils and teachers during his con- 
nection with the Institution, in happiest mood related some touching incidents 
in connection with the sketch that had been read that were timely and well 
received. Mrs. Anna C. McKinsey, of Plainfield, followed with some very 
pleasing remarks along the same line. 

We regret that we cannot give these short talks in full for they were 
so interesting to those present and they constitute the gems and pearls that 
were thrown in between the weightier articles. They were the pepper and 
salt, the spice and ginger and entire list of condiments in each session. 

The last of this morning's feast was an original poem prepared for the 
occasion by Hon. Elisha Little, of Williamsport, Ind., which he pleasingly 
rendered. 



Most worthy, venerable, high-class Seniors, 
Professors and Teachers and long ago Juniors, 
I come not before you with rancor or rant, 
But simply defending the little word Can't. 

You always declared it a fraud on a student, 
The idea of using it very imprudent. 
Your word was our law, we had to receive it 
But fifty years later I don't half believe it. 

If you can, you can, and no trouble to prove it 

If you can't, you can't, and that's all there is to it. 

Fishes can't fly, eagles can't swim, 

And man can't do something God meant not for him. 

Can't wisely say No! when you ought to say yes — 
Can't answer for certain where you only can guess. 
You can't give hatred in barter for love, 
While hoping for mansions in Heaven above. 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. Z°7 

If your coal bin is empty and the dealer can't wait, 
And you can't raise the money, the fire in the grate 
Will likely get low, but you can't stand whining 
While Winter on Summer's fond lap is reclining. 

Heat and sunshine force upward, gravitation draws down 
You can't capture a sunbeam, or make it your own. 
There are things we can't gather with muscle or mind 
And we'd better unbend, ere the limit we find. 

Can't afford to be small for a very small thing, 
Can't dare to soar high on a very weak wing. 
Be sure of your coupling ere you fasten your car, 
To some far away planet, comet, or star. 

Can't face all directions; can't afford to play double; 
Can't hope to go dodging to keep out of trouble. 
Can't white wash with policy sin's deepest dye, 
Like little Geo. Washington, "Can't tell a lie." 

Suppose little Georgie had said "I can." 
And just bristled up and lied like a man ; 
Although you may scoff yet I risk the opinion 
Today we'd have been under British dominion. 

Man can't fathom the depths of immensity, 
Can't comprehend the soul's awful intensity 
Of sorrow, and woe, and heart-strings breaking; 
'Til his own Gethsemine garden he's walking. 

There's much of humanity in I can't but God is in I can, 
There's much of humanity in us too, for man is only man ; 
But He who doth pity the wound of the sparrow 
Doth pardon the archer who sendeth the arrow. 

Sir Lancelot coming home from his quest 
Felt Hope's fire die, down deep in his breast. 
Elijah, down under the Juniper tree 
Prayed mightily to God his soul to free. 



308 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

But whether a Prophet, or brave Sir-Knight 
Each reaches the place where the soft green light 
Of radiant Hope is no more seen beaming, 
And "I can't" is no longer a cry unseeming. 

We can't disremember those faces so honest 
Who toiled with us here, so faithful and earnest; 
Who with their triumph and failures all o'er 
Now walk with the angels, that ever-green shore. 

We can't help feeling that some how or other 
They are hovering close on our coming together; 
Though their voices are swelling the heavenly chorus, 
In fancy their forms are now gliding before us. 

Faith grasps what is present and makes it her own, 
Hope reaches beyond for the great unknown, 
While Love binds together past, present and future, 
Writing in one Creator and Creature. 

— E. Little. 

WEDNESDAY AFTERNOON. 

Session called to order at i 130, Hon. John F. Compton, of Perrysville, 
Indiana, presiding. After the opening exercise Rev. L. C. Buckles, of LaFay- 
ette, Indiana, reviewed the doings and triumphs of the Excelsorian Society 
of the middle fifties. He stated that he had no data or records from which 
to speak, and that he was unable to call to mind anything special concern- 
ing the workings of the society. He remembered that the interest in its 
sessions was very inspiring and stimulating at the time to all who attended. 
Its warm debates, classic essays and orations were interesting, instructive and 
inspiring, and the music uplifting. Such was the vim and fervor of the 
meetings that they created an outside influence in the community and many 
attended their sessions. 

He was followed by Capt. H. H. -McDowell, of Pontiac, 111., who spoke 
in the interest of the Philosonian Society. He was more fortunate than 
Rev. Buckles in that he was armed and equipped with a forty year old 
program that was able to speak for itself. He felt jubilant over the mat- 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 3O9 

ter that he was able to bring before them a real live session of the society 
of which he was president. He proceeded to read from the program the 
name and exercise of some one on duty and comment thereon. This would 
elicit remarks from some one in the audience about the person named, how 
well he did, his characteristics, she did so and so, I remember her well, 
this funny incident, and so on making a running comment on each as the 
name and exercise was read. This awakened much interest and each was 
anxious to know who would be introduced next, what would be said about 
him or her by those present. To record this spirited comment as the pro- 
gram was served would require more space than we can devote in these 
pages. It was a happy hit of Mr. McDowell to bring a real live session of his 
society before the meeting and refresh their memories of its doing. There 
was such a stir of feeling that we believe those present forgot the forty 
years that had past and that they were indeed back in a real session of 
their loved society. The program was indeed a happy surprise to all present. 
It set the thinkers of all present agoing and many reminiscences were related. 
Mrs. Carrie Shipp-Jones very pleasantly referred to her own feelings and 
experiences. It had vividly come to her mind during the evening. She did 
so enjoy the fun side in her school life, the tendency to play sly tricks 
and jokes and have a good time, would so lead her away from study and 
duty. She stated that when C. N. Sims came in charge there was such a 
potent influence about him that it drew her towards better things and she 
was able to overcome her fun propensity and get down to real hard study 
and enjoy it. She got so interested and others with her that they would 
go without meals in order to get their lessons. To acquire knowledge and 
please instructors was the height of ambition. 

Rev. Henry Huffman very naturally ran off along the line of the play 
of Cupid among the students in those days. He spoke from experience, as he 
himself was pierced by an. arrow and fell a victim, which ended in marriage. 
Many stories along this line followed and heart secrets were fessed up that 
revealed the fact that students of the Old Academy were susceptible to the 
feelings and emotions that are manifest in the human heart everywhere. 

Just at this juncture it was announced that the photographer was on the 
outside ready to take a snapshot, so a recess was given and all lined up ac- 
cording to directions, and the company was taken in, as shown up by the 
picture on the adjoining page. 



310 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

Picture taken, recess over, order restored, Dr. H. G. Jackson, of Chicago, 
took the floor, and in his happy go -easy style began to tell of this one and 
that, brought out many pleasant remembrances. He fixed as date February 
10, 1861, and asked how many present went to the water tank that day to 
see Abraham Lincoln ? Quite a' number responded, I was there. Lincoln was 
on his way to Washington via Indianapolis to assume the duties of 
President. The train stopped, Lincoln appeared and made a short talk to 
the student body who surrounded the train, eager to catch the words that 
fell from his lips. We all remember his saying in reply to the question, "What 
do you think will be the outcome of the war?" "Stand still and see the 
salvation of the Lord" and again in the words of Caleb, "Let us go up, for 
we are well able to overcome it." 

The speaker then gave an interesting reminiscence of some temperance 
work done by the boys in those days to rid the town of two saloons, which 
was very effectual. He came near letting out a secret as to just how the 
thing was done, but not quite. He closed his remarks by saying that no 
state in the Union unless it be Massachusetts had surpassed Indiana in its 
literary characters, rounding up the roll with the name of our own John Clark 
Ridpath as the eminent historian of our day. We are and of right ought 
to be proud of the educational and literary standing of our state, and 
to know that this Institution played a part in its early development. 

Rev. N. W. Hamilton, a Methodist minister, who had come all the 
way from Kansas, was turned loose upon the meeting and he gave them 
a rouser. Before the session closed a glowing tribute was paid to the 
exceptional world wide work of Mrs. Elizabeth Andrews and Dr. Kate 
Bushnell, both of Oakland, Cal. 

The emphatic thought of this session was the wonderful and benefi- 
cent work of literary societies in connection with school life. We have 
shadowed this line of work in our modern training by other lines and it 
may be a question about improvement to be solved later. 

The following poem was read by the author, Dr. H. G. Jackson, during 
the session: 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 31 I 

TENTING ON THE OLD CAMPGROUND. 

'Turn backward, turn backward, O Time in your flight," 

We would be young once more; 
Bring back the days that are gone, to-night, 

"The good old days of yore." 
Happy were we all in the old school then. 

Yes happy, a happy student band, 
Happy are we now to meet our friends again, 

And clasp each welcome hand, 
Meeting again; meeting again; 

Meeting in old Thorntown. 

O pleasant were the days of Academic life, 

Bright with the hopes of youth, 
Longing for the future, eager for the strife 

For righteousness and truth 
Ah, many are the battles which we have had to fight, 

Many the vic'tries won; 
Many, too, our losses, fighting for the right, 

From dawn till set of sun. 
Fighting for the right ; Fighting for the right ; 

Fighting till the field was won. 

We remember the fallen of other years. 

The years now long gone by, 
We bring them a tribute of love and tears, 

In fancy they draw nigh ; 
Yes, many are the friends that are absent to-night, 

Friends, whom our hearts hold dear; 
They now are safe in the mansions of delight, 

Their songs we almost hear. 
Singing to-night; Singing to-night; 
Singing Redemption's song. 



312 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

The boys and the girls of long ago, 

Are the "old folks" to-day; 
Their sight is dim, their steps are slow, 

Their locks are thin and gray, 
Life with its duties, its sorrows, its joys, 

Is passing like a tale that's told, 
But love in the hearts of the girls and the boys, 

True love will not grow old. 
Never grow old : never grow old ; 

True love will never grow old. 



WEDNESDAY EVENING SESSION 7:30. 

Long before the hour of meeting many gathered at the church to 
hold their tete a tetes. It seemed that they loved to linger around the con- 
secrated ground where they would be in plain view of the old Academy 
site. Citizens and visitors gathered in groups with eager anticipations of 
the feast of good things about to be served. Each had the sunshine in the 
heart and countenance radiant with hope as if entertaining an old fashioned 
love feast without formality. The Hon. W. C. Vanarsdel, of Greencastle, 
with geniality of spirit was a fit person to preside over such a delightful ses- 
sion. Someone rolled in the "Rock of Ages" as opening song and there was 
a sweet melody and such a soulsome spirit thrown into it that we are sure 
everyone felt secure upon the rock. After which all joined in prayer, with 
Rev. W. P. McKinsey as leader. 

The chairman in his opening remarks struck the keynote of the spirit 
and character of the reunion, when he said that the great success of the 
gathering and the influence that had inclined so many of them (over 
seventy,) to gather here from distant homes, forty years after the close of 
an Institution of a few years' duration was remarkable. It could be ac- 
counted for upon no other ground than the spirit of Christ that pervaded the 
school and was uppermost in the minds and hearts of instructors and students. 
This proves that christian morals are lasting, and that they who build upon 
so firm a foundation build for eternity ; and that this spirit cements hearts into 
a union of fellowship that is indissoluble, hence the longing to come to- 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 313 

gether had brought them from their homes. He stated a truth when he said 
that this spirit of Christ is the real essence and life of any school. If it does 
not exist in our public schools it will necessitate private schools. This 
key unlocked the hearts of the audience and there were many approving re- 
sponses and acclamations. 

The meeting was now in full harness and each was made to feel at 
home, and turned loose with freedom to pull in any direction that the heart 
prompted. This moved the big heart of W. P. McKinsey, who was on 
the floor in a jiffy, and wanted to tell how he came to Thorntown. He 
said his father gave him a colt, and after it had grown into a horse, he 
concluded to put it into his head. His father tried hard to dissuade him from 
so foolish a purpose, but he was set in his way and the horse had to go. 
So he and the horse came to Thorntown, and it was set up for a board bill 
and literally consumed. (That was a funny way for a horse to get into one's 
head, passing through the stomach.) I never regretted it. I did not eat 
up the entire horse. I received a great many good things here. Best of all 
I found Christ and by no means the least, I found my sweetheart. Adam 
like he laid the whole trouble on Anna, said she followed him up and laid 
such a close siege upon him that he had to surrender. He said she was 
still after him and he didn't care. She had made him what he was and they 
had sweetly companioned thus far in life and hoped to continue until the 
triumph. He added that he felt that he was the most highly favored of 
any old preacher in the state by the inspiration of his 500 boys at Plain- 
field. Elisha Little of Williamsport, sprang to the floor before the speaker 
had fairly got seated and said he was not surprised at the horse sense of 
McKinsey, since he had heard the colt story. 

Dr. Jemima Gordon, of Newcastle, emphasized the thought of the open- 
ing address of Vanarsdel, and spoke of the higher spirit that prevailed among 
the pupils and teachers of the Academy. Rev. C. B. Mock, of LaFayette, 
said that he too brought a horse but did not put it all in his head. He stated 
that he was among the first to suggest that the Academy be merged into 
the public schools. 

Oliver P. Stufflebeam, of Rossville, 111., spoke of some of the difficulties 
that he encountered in scaling the steeps of science and how he overcame 
his awkwardness and timidity and secured his wife. (By the way these boys 
let out on each other in their love stories and so many of them being 



314 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

wounded for life, there must have been considerable heart work in their 
loved Institution as well as some head toil.) 

Professor J. J. Osborn, of Cedarville, Ohio, said that he was brought 
to the Institution by a dispatch from Oliver Craven, President of the Board 
of Directors. A beautiful young lady here had highly recommended him. 
Rev. F. M. Cones met him at the station, they became chums and lasting- 
friends. They were still the warmest of friends and he could speak in the 
highest commendation of the parentage of each, but he could not offer a 
syllable in favor of the posterity of either. He thought he had made a serious 
mistake and thought he could mend things yet, if he would go back and try 
if over. (The trouble was that these bachelor friends had been so intent 
on their duties as instructors on head lines that they failed utterly on the 
heart line and were impervious to the darts of Cupid that so many report as 
flying around here during those Halcyon days.) 

Next in order comes James F. Pierce, of LaFayette, the man that feared 
he would overspeak his time. He had a long story to tell of how he was 
going to be a lawyer. That was his purpose in coming. Had his stakes 
set high. Wanted, a council with the Professor, about his chosen profes- 
sion, the law. Appointment was made, he came, feeling very big with 
a cigar in mouth. The Professor asked him about it, said the best students 
did not smoke. He fumbled it awhile, dropped it, never picked it up again. 
The Professor discouraged him about the law, told of its hardships and asked 
if he could not think of something else he would like to do. He gave it up 
went home and took up the hoe handle, and to this day blames the Pro- 
fessor for what he and the state has lost because he was not induced to 
practice law. Called himself to time and sat down amid great applause. 

Mrs. Mary Sims spoke of the pleasure she received from F. M. Cones' 
historical sketch of the Institution. 

Mary Kramer-Stafford stated as the shadow in her thought that she 
was the only one on this side of the river of the class of 1865. 

The following resolutions were unanimously adopted as presented by 
Capt. H. H. McDowell: 

Resolved : That an expression of thanks and gratitude be extended 
to Rev. F. M. Cones for his untiring efforts in promoting their union. 
To J. S. Daugherty for his faithful service as secretary. To L. M. Crist 
for his kindness and courtesy as editor. To Misses Mabel Miller, Flossie 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 315 

Henry, Mamie Martin and Hester Seawright for decorating church, etc. 
To the local committee for their faithful work of preparation. To the pas- 
tor and trustees of the M. E. church for courteous use of church. To the 
citizens in general for the hearty reception and to those who opened their 
homes in particular for their splendid hospitality. 



AULD LANG SYNE. 

Should auld ac-quaint-ance be for-got, 
And never brought to mind ; 
Should auld ac-quaint-ance be for-got, 
And days of auld lang syne. 

Chorus. 
For auld lang syne, my dear, 
For auld lang syne; 
We'll tak' a cup o' kindness yet, 
For auld lang syne. 

We twa' ha'e run a-boot the braes, 
And pu'd the gowans fine; 
But we've wan-der'd mo-nya wea-ry foot, 
Sin' auld lang syne. 

Chorus. 

We twa' ha'e sport-ed i' the burn, 
Frae morn-in' sun till dine; 
But seas be-tween us braid ha'e roared, 
Sin' auld lang syne. 

Chorus. 

And here's a hand, my trust-y frien,' 
And gie's a hand o' thine ; 
We'll tak' a cup o' kind-ness yet, 
For auld lang syne. 

Chorus. 



316 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

THOSE PRESENT. 

Mrs. Minta Boardman- Atkinson, Indianapolis, Indiana; Mrs. Addie Mc- 
Dowell-Taylor, Indianapolis, Indiana; J. F. Compton, Perrysville, Indiana; 
A. F. Wells, Lafayette, Indiana; Elisha Little, Williamsport, Indiana; H. H. 
McDowell, Pontiac, Illinois; F. M. Cones, Soldier's Home, Lafayette, In- 
diana; N. W. Hamilton, Burlington, Iowa; J. H. H. Lovett, Frankfort, In- 
diana ; Miss Jemima Gordon, Newcastle, Indiana ; Mrs. Ella VanArsdel- 
Baker, Salina, Kansas; Mrs. Emma VanArsdel-Lyons, Salina, Kansas; Mrs. 
Mary Haugh Guntle, Colfax, Indiana; W. C. VanArsdel, Greencastle, In- 
diana; Anson E. Buckley, Kansas City, Kansas; Mrs. C. M. Craven-King, 
Morgan Hill, California; H. G. Jackson, Chicago, Illinois; John C. Goodwin, 
West Lebanon, Indiana ; Mrs. Maggie Smith Pierce, Lebanon, Indiana ; Car- 
ter D. Smith, Lebanon, Indiana; W. P. McKinsey, Plainfield, Indiana; Mrs. 
L. J. Thompson, Bronson, Kansas; Mrs. Sallie Anderson Peebles, Darling- 
ton, Indiana; Mrs. Mary McCorkle-Sims, Frankfort, Indiana; Mrs. Anna B. 
Morris- Wren, North Salem, Indiana; Mrs. F. A. Baldwin, Oxford, Indiana; 
Rev. C. B. Mock, West Lafayette, Indiana; Mrs. C. B. Mock, West Lafay- 
ette, Indiana ; Mrs. Mary C. Ashman, Frankfort, Indiana ; Dr. T. H. McCor- 
kle, Terre Haute, Indiana; Mrs. T. H. McCorkle, Terre Haute, Indiana; Mrs. 
Sade Miller-Rover, Stockwell, Indiana; Mrs. Sade Kring-Good, Atlanta, In- 
diana; Mrs. Carrie Shipp-Jones, Watseka, Illinois; Rev. Charles N. Sims, 
Liberty, Indiana; Mrs. Anna Cones-McKinsey, Plainfield, Indiana; Lydia M. 
Hoath, Pittsburg, Pennsylvania ; Mrs. Anna F. Webb, Indianapolis, In- 
diana ; Mrs. Nellie Webb, Indianapolis, Indiana ; Mrs. Eliza A. Sims, Liberty, 
Indiana; Mrs. Mary Kramer-Stafford, Crawfordsville, Indiana; O. P. Stuf- 
flebeam, Rossville, Illinois; Mrs. Anna Stuffllebeam, Rossville, Illinois; Mrs. 
Malissa Allen-Custer. Lebanon, Indiana; J. N. Caster, Lebanon, Indiana; 
Mrs. Mollie Moore-Caster, Lebanon, Indiana; Mrs. Maria Allen-Ellis, 
Veedersburg, Indiana; Rev. H. O. Huffman, Bloomington, Illinois; Rev. L. 
C. Buckles, Lafayette, Indiana; Mrs. Ellen Martin, Otterbein, Indiana; Mrs. 
Ursha Kernodle Darnell, Lebanon, Indiana; Mrs. Emma Gustin-Reagan, Leb- 
anon, Indiana; Mrs. Nervy Youkey, Lebanon, Indiana; Lewis F. Johnson, 
Lafayette, Indiana; L. B. Foster, Soldiers' Home, Lafayette, Indiana; P. K. 
Hessong, Zionsville, Indiana; Joseph Binford, Crawfordsville, Indiana; J. C. 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 317 

Caldwell, Lafayette, Indiana ; A. L. Welch, Lebanon, Indiana ; W. S. Kinkaid, 
Atlanta, Georgia; Mrs. W. S. Kinkaid, Atlanta, Georgia; Mrs. Esther G. 
Frame, Richmond, Indiana; Nathan Frame, Richmond, Indiana; Prof. J. J. 
Osborn, Cincinnati, Ohio; James F. Pierce, Lafayette, Indiana; H. F. Kramer, 
Lebanon, Indiana; John P. McCorkle, Indianapolis, Indiana; Mrs. Ella 
Craven-LaFollette, Chicago, Illinois; Henry Payne, 1237 Spann Avenue, 
Indianapolis, Indiana. 

COMMITTEES. 

Arrangements, Mrs. Samuel Haworth, chairman ; J. S. Daugherty, sec- 
retary and treasurer. Reception, T. E. Horner, chairman. Registration, C. E. 
Cloud, chairman. 

THOSE WHO SENT REGRETS. 

Mrs. Elizabeth Wheeler- Andrews, Oakland, California; Dr. T. J. Adams, 
North Salem, Indiana; Mrs. Anna Waring- Allen, Erie, Kansas; Mrs. Anna 
Clapham-Beasley, Attica, Indiana; Dr. Kate Bushnell, Oakland, California; 
M. Council, 328 VanBuren street, Topeka, Kansas; Mrs. Phoebe Rous- 
Curryer, 720 E. 15th street, Indianapolis, Indiana; John W. Dale, Danville, 
Illinois; Mrs. Mollie Belle Dunlap, Covington, Indiana; Mrs. Laura Essex, 
Atlanta, Indiana; Dr. B. F. French, 810 Olive street, St. Louis, Missouri; 
Mrs. Minnie C. Goldsberry, Washington, C. H., Ohio; Dr. and Mrs. M. H. 
Garten, Lincoln, Nebraska; Charles Harmon, Brownsburg, Indiana; E. D. 
Kirby, Winona Lake, Indiana ; Rev. and Mrs. W. R. Mikels, South Bend, In- 
diana ; E. A. Mills, Austin. Texas ; W. W. Mills. Austin, Texas ; Zack Mor- 
ris, New Providence, Iowa; J. J. Newcomer, Tipton, Indiana; Mrs. Florence 
Smith-Oglesby, Tipton, Indiana; Prof. J. P. Rous, Dorchester, Massachu- 
setts; James F. Scull, Rochester, Indiana; O. H. Smith, Greencastle, Indiana; 
Mrs. Ella Welch, Salem, Oregon; Mrs. Mary Posey-Woodcock, Pasadena, 
California: M. V. Wright, Norborne, Missouri. 



THE LEBANON SCHOOLS. 

Lebanon has splendid schools and is justly proud of them. Able and 
experienced teachers are in charge, and no effort is spared to keep abreast 



318 . BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

with all matters pertaining to public instruction. One of the first questions 
asked by a man intending to move to a locality is "What kind of schools are 
there?" In fact, a man with a family who does not take an interest in the 
public schools is not the kind of a citizen Lebanon wants. 

The public educational institutions of this city are thoroughly adequate 
in every manner to cope with the demands and expectations of the people. 
The buildings as herewith represented are of the handsomest and most sub- 
stantial kind, splendidly equipped and arranged, and of the best architectural 
style. They are each two and one-half stories high, made of brick with stone 
trimmings. The rooms are bright, spacious and airy, heated by furnace and 
equipped with every modern convenience, and the grounds are large and at- 
tractive. The buildings, grounds and equipment represent a cost of about 
$70,000. But first and foremost is the plane of excellence upon which the 
local public schools are conducted. The most competent teachers obtainable 
are procured and the system and methods enforced are such as to merit the 
commendation of the whole community. 

The first school house of this city was a log house, just south of the 
depot, and among the early teachers were Henry A. Shulse and Cyrus Wright. 
The county seminary was located here in 1842, after a terrific struggle with 
Thorntown citizens, who insisted that it should be located in that town. It 
was a brick building and is still standing on East Main street and occupied 
as the Pleasant Grove Hotel. Judge Stephen Neal opened the seminary in 
1843, as i ts fi rst teacher, and was succeeded the following year by John M. 
Patton. It enjoyed many years of a flourishing career. 

In 1854 two frame buildings were erected, one on East Washington 
street, which has since been remodeled and occupied as a dwelling, and the 
other on West South street, just west of the steam laundry. This building 
is still standing and presents very much the same appearance as it did a quar-' 
ter of a century ago. Among the early teachers there were James L. Gor- 
man and D. M. Burns. 

The old twelfth district erected a building in 1855 on South East street 
and these three buildings were used for public school purposes until 1870, 
when the old Presbyterian Academy, on the site of the present Central school 
building, was purchased, which was used until May, 1887, when it was torn 
down and the present excellent structure was erected. The South Side build- 
ing was erected in 1886 and the modern, commodious North Side building 
was erected in 1890. 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 319 

The gentlemen who have served as superintendents of the public schools 
since 1870 are: John R. Owen, two terms; A. O. Reubelt, two terms; J. F. 
Scull, two terms; O. C. Charlton, 1880-81 ; T. H. Dunn, 1881-82; T. H. Dunn 
and D. D. Blakeman, 1882-83; R. H. Harney. 1883-87; Joseph Wiley, 1887- 
89; D. K. Goss, 1889-91 ; T. H. Dunn, 1891-92; U. J. Griffith, 1892-94; J. R. 
Hart, 1894-1901 ; Charles A. Peterson, 1901-05; H. G. Brown, 1905-14. 

THE PRESBYTERIAN ACADEMY IN LEBANON. 
THE BUILDING. 

The first catalogue was issued on June 13, 1862. It contains a picture 
of the building which was a three-story brick structure which stood on the lot 
where the Central building now stands. 

The catalogue says, "The accommodations are ample. The recitation 
rooms are in the first story; the society halls, apparatus room, etc., in the sec- 
ond ; chapel and music rooms in the third." 

The trustees recorded are John Bell, David Caldwell, D. H. Hamilton 
and John Williams. The officers of the board were William Zion, president 
and D. H. Hamilton, secretary. The board of instruction was composed of 
J. M. Coyner, A. M., principal, teacher of higher mathematics, history, nat- 
ural manual and moral science; Rev. C. K. Thompson, A. M., who taught the 
languages; Miss Maggie F. Garrett, English branches and natural science, 
and Miss Estelle Morrow, instrumental music and drawing. 



THE COURSES. 

There was a scientific course with a junior and a templar class; an ir- 
regular scientific department ; an English department ; a primary department ; 
a class in instrumental music and a class in drawing. 

r 

SOME PUPILS WELL KNOWN. 

Some of the names of the pupils who became best known in the city and 
county are given. Of the junior class are such names as D. E. Caldwell, of 



320 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

Dover; J. M. Saunders, of Boone county and M. B. Avery, of Lebanon. Of 
the templar some of the best known names are J. W. Kise, E. P. Stephen- 
son, Lizzie Bell, M. L. Bell. In the irregular scientific class are enrolled 
such familiar names as A. M. Bell, George Busby, A. L. Caldwell, O. F. 
McLaughlin, W. J. McCormick, D. H. Olive, James Randall, John Saunders, 
S. T. Saunders, Zerilda Daugherty. In the English department are John D. 
Alexander, Charles Bryan, Empson Lane, James Richey, C. W. Scott, A. P. 
Stephenson, A. A. Zion, Sophie Haun. 

Here are some from the primary department of that time : John Adair, 
Joseph Bratt, J. R. Cason, Zelus McCormack, John Rose, C. M. Zion, J. C. 
Ball, Mary Kenworthy, Kate Trips and Sallie Williamson. Of those taking 
instrumental music and drawing are, J. M. Saunders, H. S. Lane, E. P. Ste- 
phenson, Josie C. Ball, E. A. Bell, M. L. Bell, Zerilda Daugherty, M. M. 
Wilson. 

THE GOVERNMENT. 

A part of the statement about the government is "The government of 
the school is decisive and disciplinary, yet kind and paternal. Order is a 
positive requisite. The pupil is regarded as such out of school as well as in, 
and his and her conduct strictly observed. 

"It will be the aim of the board of instruction so to train the pupil, in 
body and heart, that he or she may be prepared to govern self, and thus be 
prepared to control others." 



It is stated that "The young men have organized a society called the 
Calliopean. Their hall is well furnished. The young ladies have organized 
one called the Sigournian. They hope to have their hall furnished in a short 
'time. The Temperance League and the Musical Association have been or- 
ganized. The former meets monthly, and the latter weekly." 

OTHER ITEMS. 

A tuition was charged the pupils and the tuition of all boarding pupils 
was required in advance. Boarding, including room, fuel and lights $2.00 
per week. 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 32 I 

The Bible was made a standard text book. 

There were one hundred and eighty pupils in the school that first year 
which began in April, 1861, one hundred were males and eighty were fe- 
males. Outside of Lebanon there were pupils from Dover, Northfield, James- 
town, Whitestown, Frankfort, Plainville, Berlin, Desoto, Wisconsin; Winter- 
sett, Iowa; North Salem, Reed's Mill, Columbus; Downingsville, Kentucky; 
Elizaville, Thorntown. 

The school continued but a few years but the many who received in- 
struction from its teachers are glad to be noticed as members of the old 
Lebanon Presbyterian Academy. 



(21) 



CHAPTER XII. 



CHURCHES. 



A little in advance as a forerunner of civilization, as a kind of vidette 
or scout, we find the man with a gun and sword. As an advance picket on 
the skirmish line we find the man with an ax, a mattock, a prairie schooner, 
a shovel and a plow. Following closely in his wake and in the front rank of 
the main army of civilization, we find the man with the saddle bags, a Bible 
and a hymn book. The pioneer history of Boone county was no exception 
to the rule. 

In writing a sketch or history of the different churches of Lebanon, care 
has been taken to obtain all material facts concerning the organization of 
each, and while some of the statements may be disputed, no facts are cited 
that were not given by what was deemed competent authority. The churches 
are spoken of independently and not in the order of their organization. 

As to which of the Protestant denominations was the first to organize 
in the city of Lebanon, it is somewhat difficult to determine, as both the Meth- 
odist and the Christian or Disciples were fighting the sons of Belial as early 
as 1835, but from the best information it is thought that the Methodists were 
the first. 

LEBANON THE M. E. CHURCH. 

In 1835, Rev. Benjamin Griffin, an itinerant Methodist preacher, first 
began his work and on December 19th and 20th of that year the first quar- 
terly meeting was held and a class organized. Rev. J. L. Thompson was the 
presiding elder. The class was composed of the following named persons: 
Josiah C. Lane, Minerva Lane, Addison Lane and wife, Judge Sims and wife 
and Amelia Zion, none of whom are now living. Josiah C. Lane was for 
many years a prominent business man of this place and doubtless served as 
the administrator of more estates and the guardian of more minor children 
than any other man who has ever lived in this county, and his fidelity to his 




J1ETH0IHST ETMSCorAT, CHVRCH— LEBANON. 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 323 

trusts was never questioned. He was the father of Wes Lane, a former 
cashier of the First National Bank. Amelia Zion, the last survivor of the 
class, was the wife of William Zion, after whom the neighboring town of 
Zionsville was named. She died a number of years ago full of honors and 
years, and her death was regretted by all who knew her. For some reason the 
mission did not flourish and there was no more preaching by ordained min- 
isters until October, 1836, when Rev. Ancil Beach happened to discover the 
vacancy on the skirmish line while on his way to conference and stopped off 
to open fire on the cohorts of Satan. The conference appointed Rev. John 
Miller to fill the vacancy but for some reason he refused to accept. It may be 
that he was needed more at some other post, at least he didn't come here, be 
the reasons what they may. 

In 1837 R ev - Jonas Beloct was assigned and accepted the position with 
all its difficulties. However he divided his time with other stations and only 
preached once a month. This, however, was sufficient to keep the church 
alive and growing, and in 1841 they began the erection of a church building 
south of the railroad near where the residence of Samuel Rodifer now stands. 
The frame work was erected and withstood the storms of winter, but suc- 
cumbed to the gentle breezes of the spring-time. Soon afterward the ma- 
terial was gathered up and used in the erection of a frame building on the site 
of the present structure. This frame building was dedicated in 1843 during 
the time that Rev. Koontz had charge of the flock. Previous to this time the 
faithful had been holding services in the upper story of a log business house 
owned by J. C. Lane, and located on the south side of the public square. The 
lot was donated by William Smith. 

In 1865-6 the old frame building was torn down and a brick structure 
erected at a cost of about five thousand dollars and called the "Centenary 
M. E. Church." This building was dedicated January 28, 1866, by Bishop 
Bowman, assisted by Revs. J. H. Hull and Griffith Morgan. 

The trustees under whose auspices the church was built were Francis 
Apgar, J. C. Lane, A. J. Crose, S. S. Durbin, and John A. Craig, all of whom 
are now dead except Mr. Craig who lives at North Vernon, Indiana. 

In 1886 the congregation had grown to such proportions that the build- 
ing was considered too small to accommodate all who desired to attend and 
was remodeled at a cost of four thousand seven hundred dollars and rededi- 
cated as a place of worship by Rev. J. P. D. John of DePauw University. In 



3'24 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

addition to the lot on which the church building stands the society owns a 
neat little parsonage on South East street; also residence property on the 
southeast corner of Meridian and South streets. 

A full list of the pastors in charge of the church is as follows: 1837, 

Jonas Beloct; 1843, Rev. ■ Koontz; 1853, J. F. McDaniel ; 1854, A. J 

Sheridan; 1855, Jesse Hill and A. Gurney; 1856, John R. Edely; 1857, Will- 
iam Campbell; 1858, C. B. Heath; 1859, H. S. Shaw; i860, H. Woodard 
1861, H. Smith; 1862, L. S. Buckles; 1863, J. L. Boyd; 1864-66, C. B. Mock 
1866-68, M. L. Green; 1868-70, F. Cox; 1870-71, P. S. Cook; 1871-72, J 
Foxworthy; 1872-73, E. W. Lawhon; 1873-75, C. B. Mock; 1875-77, T. S 
Webb; 1877-78, S. P. Colvin; 1878-79, H. A. Merrill; 1879-80, F. M. Pavey 
1880-81, J. L. Smith; 1881-82, H. C. Neal ; 1882-86, A. Lewis; 1886-89, F, 
M. Pavey; 1889-92. W. P. McKinsey; 1892-96, H. L. Kindig; 1896-97, H 
A. Tucker; 1897-98, D. M. Wood; 1898-1908, Demetrius Tillotson ; 1908 
1912, M. H. Appleby; 1912-1914, K. W. Robbins. 

Rev. William Campbell was the first station preacher, Drs. Godfrey, Mc- 
Mullen and others have often filled the pulpit. 



THE CHRISTIAN OR DISCIPLES CHURCH. 

In 1835 some ten or twelve persons of this faith began meeting in pri- 
vate houses for the purpose of worship, but had no regular organization as 
a church until some time in 1838 when the Rev. Gilbert T. Harney, of La- 
doga, discovered their needs and set the congregation in order. They had no 
building of their own in which to meet, so they worshipped in the old log 
temple of justice, and promulgated their particular doctrine as best they could. 
In a few years they were enabled to erect a- frame church house on West 
Washington street on the lot now occupied by the commodious residence of 
J. C. Brown. About 1867, this building was sold to the Catholic congrega- 
tion of St. Joachim and afterward removed to a lot on the east end of South 
street and was used by the congregation of St. Joachim as a place of worship 
until they built their present church. 

In 1867 the congregation erected a brick church on the southeast corner 
of the crossing of East and Pearl streets, at a cost of about five thousand 
dollars, where it has since held its meetings. The house has been remodeled 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 325 

and reseated and is now a neat, commodious and comfortable place of wor- 
ship. They also own a parsonage, situated on East Main street which they 
have recently purchased at a cost of about three thousand dollars. The con- 
gregation is at present under the pastoral care of Elder A. J. Frank, who is 
eloquent and logical and highly appreciated by his congregation. 

Among others who have ministered to the spiritual wants of the church 
are Elders John Shulse, M. B. Hopkins, Thomas Lockhart, H. St. John Van- 
dyke, John O. Kane, O. P. Badger, O. A. Burgess, J. A. Roberts, R. Ed- 
munson, B. F. Franklin, H. R. Pritchhard, John A. Johnston and E. T. Lane. 
These were, as a rule, able men and ornaments to their profession. 

The Sunday school connected with this church is under the superintend- 
ency of \V. O. Darnall and has an average attendance of about two hundred 
and twenty-five. There is also connected with this church a branch of the 
society of Christian Endeavor, also a Ladies' Aid Society. During its ex- 
istence, this church has passed through many trials and tribulations but at 
present "Peace reigns within its walls and prosperity within its palaces." It 
it filling its mission and promises great prosperity in the future. They have 
a church membership of about five hundred and seventy-five. 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 

Previous to any organization of a church society, quite a number of 
persons of Presbyterian belief were living in Lebanon and vicinity and realiz- 
ing that wandering sheep without a shepherd were liable to be devoured by 
wolves in the shape of the world, the flesh and the devil, they concluded as a 
matter of safety to form a church organization. 

In January, 1840, the Rev. W. F. Ferguson, of Thorntown, called a 
meeting of the faithful and organized a church society with the following 
membership: James Richey, Jane Richey, Henry McAuley, Henry Hamil- 
ton, Elvira Jameson, Debora Sheaf, Poly Anne Stephenson, Auley McAuley 
and Rebecca McConaughy. All of these persons have passed to their re- 
ward, the last survivor being Elvira Jameson. She was the wife of Dr. Jame- 
son, long a prominent personage in this county and the sister of James Richey 
who was a charter member of the church. While rich in spirit they were not 
so bountifully supplied with worldly goods and for several years had no per- 



326 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

manent abiding place as a church home, but held services in the court house, 
the M. E. church, the county seminary building and other places until about 
1853, when having prospered somewhat financially as well as spiritually they 
were enabled to purchase a lot on North East street and erect thereon a very 
comfortable church building at a cost of about one thousand eight hundred 
dollars. The contractor and builder of this church was John Busby, grand- 
father of John H. Busby, mayor elect. 

In 1872 their wants having outgrown the accommodations of their build- 
ing, the society disposed of it by sale to the members of the Baptist denomi- 
nation and began the erection of a neat and elegant church building on a lot 
on the northwest corner at the crossing of Main and East street. The corner- 
stone of the new building was laid September 1st, 1873, and the building 
partially completed but on account of the financial panic which at that time 
prevailed, was not entirely finished. However, it served as a place of wor- 
ship until September, 1878, when the roof and the upper story were torn off 
by a terrific cyclone which swept over the city. The cost of the building up 
to this time had been about thirteen thousand dollars. A little discouraged 
but not entirely cast down by this catastrophe, like true soldiers, they rallied 
around their colors, gathered up the debris, cleaned away the wreck of their 
dismanteled fortress, and repaired their entrenchments at a cost of about 
five thousand dollars and have at present a magnificent structure in which to 
hold their meetings. 

The following persons have been in charge of the church as pastors since 
its organization : W. F. Ferguson, J. C. Eastman, N. P. Chariot, Samuel N. 
Evans, H. W. Briggs, Joseph Piatt, P. K. VanWalter, John L. Hawkins, J. B. 
Logan, Charles K. Thompson, Francis M. Sims, John M. Bishop, D. B. 
Banta, S. S. Aikman, J. P. Engstrom, J. A. Pollock, and the present pastor, 
D. E. Williamson. The present membership of the church numbers about 
three hundred and fifty. ■ The Rev. Williamson is a very quiet and pliable 
sort of man of more than ordinary ability and is very satisfactory to his con- 
gregation. There is a prosperous Sunday school connected with this church : 
also a branch of the Y. P. S. C. E., a missionary society, and a ladies indus- 
trial society. They hold their meetings regularly and are accomplishing their 
mission. The)' are doing much good. 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 327 



THE ST. JOACHIM CATHOLIC CHURCH. 



The next church to be organized in Lebanon was the Roman Catholic 
church, St. Charles, now known as St. Joachim or St. Joseph. Previous to 
1862 the persons professing this faith had been compelled to seek spiritual 
consolation at other places, but in that year they got together and organized 
a society and purchased a small house and lot on the corner of Lebanon and 
North streets. For several years they had no regular pastor but were supplied 
by priests from LaFayette, Indianapolis and other places. The congregation 
was small and mostly farmers living in Perry and Harrison townships. About 
1869 Father Winters was assigned to the charge and having by this time 
prospered somewhat, they sold their property and purchased the old Christian 
church that stood on the lot now occupied by the residence of J. C. Brown. 
In 1875-6, under the energetic pastorate of Father T. Ryan, they purchased 
the old "Nunn homestead" on Indianapolis avenue and removed the church 
building to that location. The church property comprises five lots and a new 
church was built in 1898 and 1899. Certainly a more faithful and earnest 
people can not be found. They are always on hand in works of charity, the 
care of the afflicted and the relief of the distressed. The following are the 
names of the priests in charge since 1874: 1874-75, Thomas M. Cahill; 
1875-78, Timothy Ryan; for a short time P. J. Crosson; 1878-82, L. A. 
Moench; 1883-84, John Dempsey; 1884-85, D. J. Mulcahy, 1885-93, M - F - 
Kelly, 1893 to 1898, H. A. Hellhake; 1898-99, Wm. S. Hogan; 1899-1905, 
P. J. Crawley; 1905-1914, J. F. Connelly. The missions attached to St. 
Joachim or St. Joseph's Church include that of St. Rose of Lima, at Clark's 
Hill, Tippecanoe county, which was organized by the clergy of St. Mary's 
of LaFayette. and attended by them until 1875, when it was transferred to 
the charge of St. Joachim ; the church building of this mission is of frame, 
is 20 by 50 feet and the membership numbers fifteen families, chiefly English 
farming people; St. George's mission at Colfax, which has about the same 
history as that of Clark's Hill, has also an edifice 20 by 50 feet and is at- 
tended by eight families. 

They have a membership of about seventy families and as nearly every 
member of each family is a member of the church, it is fair to presume they 
have a membership of nearly two hundred. 

Father Connelly, who has been pastor now ten years, is well and most 



328 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

favorably known in Boone county. He is an earnest worker and deserves 
the confidence of the people. 

THE FIRST BAPTIST CHURCH. 

The First Baptist church was organized in Lebanon on December 12, 
1872, with only fourteen members, they being Peter Morris, Esther Morris, 
William DeVol, Rebecca DeVol, John R. Creigler, Martha Creigler, A. J. 
Adams, Julia Adams, John A. Abbott, Laura Abbott, George W. Baird, J. F. 
Cline, Mattie Bruce and Elizabeth Lane. The first officers were Peter Morris, 
deacon ; George W. Baird, treasurer ; John A. Abbott, clerk. 

At the time of the organization, they had no regular place of worship 
and they met from place to place until they became strong enough to buy the 
old Presbyterian church which stood on the present site of the new church 
now to be dedicated. In 1877, the Presbyterian congregation concluded to 
build a new church and they sold the old frame building and lot to the Bap- 
tist congregation. Soon after the purchase and during the construction of 
the new Presbyterian church, a severe cyclone struck the city and both the 
new Presbyterian structure and the Baptist church were damaged by the 
storm. The cupola of the Baptist church was blown off the building and 
inverted through the roof, doing considerable damage. 

During the first two years of the history of the church, they had no pas- 
tor nor any regular place of worship but, whenever a minister could be se- 
cured services would be held in the old central school building, the court house 
or at some private residence. During the forty years of the existence of the 
church, there have been eight pastors, all of whom are living except one, the 
Rev. J. F. Beaman. During the forty years of the existence of the church, 
the following pastors have filled the pulpit : Rev. C. B. Allen, from 1874 to 
1880, a period of six years; from 1881 to 1882, the Rev. S. K. Fuson; from 
1883 to 1 89 1, Rev. J. F. Beaman; 1891 to 1896, Rev. J. A. Knowlton; from 
1896 to 1907, Rev. O. A. Cook; from 1907 to 1909, Rev. George B. McKee; 
from 1909 to 191 1, Rev. F. H. Adams and from 191 1 up to the present time, 
Rev. F. L. Hardy. 

Very soon after the organization of the church, more than forty years 
ago, it began to increase in membership and, during the pastorate of each of 
the ministers, the membership and the influence of the church has very ma- 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 329 

terially increased. With a beginning of only fourteen members, they now 
have a membership of four hundred and eighty-five. In addition to the mem- 
bership, the church has materially increased in wealth. 

The congregation continued to worship in the old frame church, which 
had become an old landmark in Lebanon, it having been built more than fifty- 
five years ago, until on the morning of December 12, 19 12, while at worship, 
some one discovered smoke in the building. Upon an investigation, it was 
discovered that the building was on fire. The pastor pronounced the bene- 
diction and the congregation got out of the building in good order when at- 
tention was turned toward saving the surrounding property, it being certain 
that the church structure was doomed with no possible hope of saving it. 

Before the burning embers of the old church had died away and before 
the smoke ceased to curl in the air, steps were taken toward the construc- 
tion of a new church. The people were in sympathy with the congregation 
and many, who are not members of the Baptist church, subscribed freely 
toward the construction of the new and splendid edifice. 

It was but a few weeks until the required amount of money was sub- 
scribed and guaranteed and committees were appointed to carry on the work 
and their faithfulness to their several trusts is attested by the completion of 
the new church, which was dedicated May II, 1913. There is connected with 
this church a flourishing Sunday school. The average attendance at Sunday 
school is about one hundred and fifty. They have also a Baptist Young 
People's Union ; also a Junior B. Y. P. U. They have a Ladies' Aid Society 
and a Ladies' Missionary society. The church is active in all charitable work 
and is ever ready to aid the needy and raise the fallen. 



THE FIRST CHRISTIAN CHURCH, LEBANON. 

On the 10th day of September, 1895, in response to a call published in 
the Lebanon papers, a few members and friends of the Christian church met 
at the Baptist church, at which meeting it was decided to build a church, 
a lot having previously been purchased. A. D. Beck, J. J. Kern, C. O. Trib- 
bett, L. W. Fuller and S. Stackhouse were appointed as building committee. 
Subsequently Mr. Kern and Rev. Stackhouse resigned and Rev. C. A. Brown 
and David Abernathy were appointed in their places. This committee was 



330 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

given full power to solicit and collect funds and contract for the building. 
The lot on which the building was subsequently erected is on North Lebanon 
street. 

The committee at once proceeded to solicit funds and subscriptions and 
on October 7, 1895, awarded the contract for the construction of the church 
to G. W. Busby for two thousand one hundred dollars. Bad weather inter- 
fered somewhat with the completion of the building and it was not ready 
for dedication until May, 1896. 

On May 27, 1896, a goodly number of persons met at the church and 
proceeded to the organization of a church society "to promote the cause of 
Christ in this city and to satisfy a longing desire in the hearts of many whose 
names appear together in a church covenant." 

The following named were the charter members of the church: C. A. 
Brown, Augusta Brown, Alfred D. Beck, Margaret J. Beck, Jacob Harlan, 
Sarah A. Harlan, Margaret F. B. Young, Wilder D. Rinehart, Laura L. 
Rinehart, Hanna McCann, Mary E. Tracey, L. W. Fuller, Jesse S. Reagan, 
Orinda Reagan, Montez Staton, O. H. P. Staton, Nancy Rader, C. O. Trib- 
bett, Dellie Tribbett, Amanda Witt, R. M. Powell, Betsy J. Powell, Daniel 
Abernathy, Samuel Stackhouse, Elizabeth Stackhouse, Ellen Stackhouse, 
Isaac McClaine, Nancy McClaine, John C. Rader, Emma Rader, Maggie 
Pounds, Laura Rader, Richard M. McCoy, Nancy J. McCoy, Catharine Over- 
lease, E. M. Danewood and Cynthia Rice. After the adoption of the cove- 
nant the above named were admitted to fellowship in the church by Rev. C. A. 
Brown. They then adopted rules for the government of the church, after 
which they proceeded to elect the following officers: Pastor, Rev. C. A. 
Brown ; clerk, W. D. Rinehart ; treasurer, A. D. Beck ; official board, Jesse 
Reagan, Margaret F. B. Young, Nancy Rader and L. W. Fuller. A. D. Beck 
and Jacob Harlan were the first deacons of the church. 

In 1897 R ev - C. A. Brown was again chosen pastor for the ensuing year 
but was superseded by Elder F. P. Trotter in September. 

There is in connection with this church a flourishing Sunday school, 
which meets every Sunday and is well attended. There are also other auxil- 
iary societies connected with the church. They are filling their mission and 
are what their names imply. 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 33 I 



LEBANON UNITED BRETHREN. 



At an evening meeting in April, 1888, Rev. Stackhouse, Jacob Byerly, 
Nathan Haller, Jesse Arbogast, John L. Pierce and others who were present, 
decided that an effort should be made to erect a church building in their ward 
to be under the care and control of the United Brethren. Every one went 
to work with a will to carry out the enterprise. Before two weeks were up 
the money had been secured to buy a lot at a cost of $175.00. The founda- 
tion of the building was begun in May, 1888, Rev. Stackhouse throwing the 
first shovel full of dirt from the excavation. John W. Lewis was employed 
as a carpenter, and Jacob Byerly devoted almost the entire summer to the 
superintendency of the work. The house was finished and dedicated Febru- 
ary, 1889. Rev. Stackhouse preached the first sermon in the house on the 
evening before the dedication. On February 23, 1889, Rev. Garrigus and 
Elder T. M. Hamilton organized the first class composed of the following 
members : Nathan Haller, Martha Haller, Nettie Haller, Pearl Haller, John 
E. Friel, J. F. Emery and Laura Emery. Rev. Garrigus served as pastor un- 
til the following September, at which time there was a membership of sixty- 
three. He was succeeded by Rev. Henry Meredith who served until Septem- 
ber , who increased the membership to eighty-three. Rev. J. T. Shag- 
ley was the next pastor in charge. He served for one year, and at the end 
of his term the membership had reached one hundred and thirty-six. Rev. 
W. H. Miller was his successor and served for two years. He was followed 
by Rev. W. H. Jones who for two years successfully labored and increased 
the membership. During all these years a flourishing Sunday school has 
been maintained. They have also a Ladies' Aid Society, a Woman's Mis- 
sionary Society and branch of the Y. P. C. U. In 1898 a convention of the 
Upper Wabash Conference of the Y. P. C. U. was held at this church in May 
and was well attended, the pastor in charge at this time was Rev. R. D. Van 
Allen, who was serving in his second year. 



LEBANON SEVENTH DAY ADVENTISTS. 

During the summer of 1890, Elders Victor and Luzern Thompson held 
a series of tent meetings in Lebanon, and in the fall of that year purchased 



332 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

a lot on South Lebanon street, and erected thereon during the next summer 
a church building. After a series of meetings held during the winter of 
1892, on February 20th of that year, they organized a church and Sabbath 
school of the denomination of the Seventh Day Adventists. The first quar- 
terly meeting was held by Elder Hadley in this building on the 2d day of 
April, 1892. The building was dedicated May 28, 1893, by Elder Victor 
Thompson, assisted by Elders Stevens, Bennett and Luzern Thompson. The 
members of the church at the time of its organization were Rose McKinsey, 
Thomas McKinsey, Francis Hanna, Minnie Hanna, David Hanna, Mary 
Lanpher, Layton Lanpher, Wade Harrison, Rachel Dill, John Hanna, Ora 
Stephenson, William Campbell, Fannie Campbell, Mary Huston, Lou Camp- 
bell, John N. Campbell, A. G. Tucker and Mary A. Tucker. Those admitted 
to membership since the organization are Justin C. Long, Delia M. Brown, 
Jennie Grape, Mary E. Hanna, Harvey Ludington, Otto Hanna, Edith Lan- 
pher, Lucy Buntin, Oril Buntin, Dora Ludington, Minnie Hanna, Herbert 
W. Purdy, Richard Ford and Edna Sunderland. The church is still flourish- 
ing, holding services on Saturday instead of the Sabbath day, as they believe 
in observing the seventh day rather than the first day of the week. 

LEBANON AFRICAN METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH. 

The next church to be organized in this city was the African Methodist 
Episcopal church, in the fall of 1870, at the residence of Thomas Lowe on 
South Meridian street. The Rev. Johnson Burden, of Noblesville, organ- 
ized a class consisting of the following persons : William Valentine and wife, 

Harriet Lowe, Mrs. Terry, Mrs. Brown, Mrs. John Kersey, 

Andrew Johnson and wife, James Lucas and wife and perhaps others as the 
records of that meeting are lost and the information obtained is the personal 
memory of William Valentine. They held their first meetings in the old 
school house on East Washington street which has been remodeled and is now 
the residence of Alex Welsh. From there they removed to a room in the 
upper story of the building now occupied by A. Wysong as a seed store on 
the east side of the square. From there they removed to a room in the Good- 
win block on South Lebanon street, now occupied by Shumate's printing es- 
tablishment. They remained here a short time and then found a home in a 
room over the store now occupied by Hauser & Hogshire as a furniture store. 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 333 

In 1873, by means of various festivals and donations by citizens of the 
town, they were enabled to purchase a lot on South Meridian street, and built 
a very comfortable church edifice at a cost of about six hundred dollars. Here 
they have been holding their meetings ever since. During the existence of the 
church, the following persons have officiated as pastors : Johnson Burden. 

Patterson, William Cole, Titus, Thomas Lindsay, 

Jones, and others. Rev. Johnson Burden who organized the church is still 
a resident and honored citizen of Noblesville. He still preaches occasionally 
and in the intervals performs the duties of court room bailiff for the circuit 
court of Hamilton county — a position similar to that occupied by Toll Titus 
in the Boone circuit court. He is universally respected and is a favorite 
with the Hamilton county bar. 

At various times attempts have been made to establish a Sunday school 
in connection with this church, but they have been unsuccessful. The mem- 
bership is small but strong in the faith. They are William Valentine and 
wife, John Valentine and wife, Sarah Lindsay, Hugh Seaton, Joshua Seaton, 
Ben Seaton, Cecil Scott, Melvina King, Ella Valentine, Lizzie Valentine, 
Lizzie Lewis and others. 



JAMESTOWN METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH. 

This society does not appear very early at this point. The very earliest 
in this section of Boone county, formed a class southeast of Jamestown near 
the edge of Hendricks county. Among the very first members in that so- 
ciety we find the names of Mariah Walker, John Porter and wife, Jesse Mc- 
Mahan, Elizabeth McMahan, John Okey and wife, Jesse Hendricks, Mary, 
Henry and Martha Hendricks. This society had no meeting house but met 
at private houses for many years, mostly at the home of John Okey. Among 
the early ministers were, Enoch Wood, Rev. Utter and Jesse Hill. In 1838 
a society was organized at Jamestown and the meetings were held in a church 
where all denominations met at that time. Among the first in this society 
were, Daniel Jesse, Samuel Perr, Lee Tucker. J. H. Camplin, J. Hudson. 
John Porter and wife, Dr. Orear, Samuel Jesse and wife, Mary Long, James 
Williams and Mrs. Galvin. Among the earliest ministers may be named 
Joseph Marsee, Daniel F. Stright and Joseph White. H. B. Ball was the 



334 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 



minister in the year 1869. In 1870 and 1871, James Spinks was the minister 
in charge. During the administration of Rev. Spinks the first church was 
erected, at a cost of $3,500; it is of brick and will seat about 500 persons. It 
was dedicated by Bishop Bowman. At that time there was a good Sunday 
school and a membership of 175. 

In 1872 James M. Beard became the minister; 1873, W. P. McKinsey; 
1874, J. S. Woodard; 1875, D. P. McKain; 1876, M. B. Wood; 1877-1878, 
David Handley; 1879-1880 and 1881, W. F. Clark; 1882 and 1883, T. F. 
Drake, 1884 and 1885, J. L. Smith; 1886, E. W. Lawhorn; 1887 and 1888, 
D. A. Rogers; 1889 and 1890, J. W. Greene; 1891 and 1892, J. H. Worrall; 
1893, H. C. Neal; 1894, J. M. Stafford; 1895 and 1896, W. B. Warren; 1897 
and 1898, H. H. Dunlavey; 1899, Charles Jakes; 1900 and 1901, O. B. Rip- 
peto; 1902-03-04, F. K. Daugherty; 1905 and 1906, H. C. Neal; 1907 and 
1908, J. J. Fischer; 1909, A. M. Hagenbook; 1910, 191 1 and 1912, W. L. 
Hargraves; 1913-1914, G. E. Francis. The present membership of the so- 
ciety is 233 and it has a lively and well-attended Sunday school. 



M. E. MINISTERS, ZIONSVILLE, INDIANA. 

1855, in Augusta circuit, J. Marsee and G. Morgan; 1856, F. Pierce and 

G. Morgan; 1857, — ; 1858, C. A. Brooke and F. M. Pavey 

1859, C. A. Brooke and C. L. Smith; i860, J. Cozad and J. Clearwaters 
1861, L. Taylor and H. N. Ornbaun; 1862, L. Taylor; 1863, G. W. Warner 
1864, John B. Demott; 1865, ; i866 : 



1867, ; 1868, ; 1869, Oliver C. Haskel 

and R. M. Brooks; 1870, William M. Freyley and Elbert R. Dill; 1871, F. P. 
Colvin; 1872, H. A. Buchtel ; 1873, E. W. Lawhorn; 1874, P. S. Cook; 1875, 
C. S. Burgner and E. W. Lawhorn and W. B. Parr; 1876, C. S. Burgner and 
Francis Cox; 1877, Frank Taylor and Francis Cox; 1878-79, J. E. New- 
house; 1880-81, J. A. Cullen and J. Matthews; 1882-83-84, J. F. McDaniel; 
1885, W. F. Clark, also 1886; 1887, D. J. Vought, also for 1888; 1889, G. W. 
Bower; 1890, G. W. Bower; 1891 to 1892, S. C. Kennedy; 1893, R. C. Wil- 
kinson; 1894-95, E. W. Lawhorn; 1896-97, S. B. Grimes; 1898-99-1900- 
1901, J. B. Sites; 1902-03-04, E. W. Strecker; 1905-06-07-08, H. C. West- 
ern; 1909, H. C. Western; 1910-1 1-12-13-14, A. P. DeLong; 1914- 

1915, G. L. Rulison. 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 335 

From the Zionsville Times we append the following clipping intimating 
the story of one of the oldest country churches in the county and showing 
its healthy growth to this date. 



SALEM M. E. CHURCH. 

First Steps Taken Toward Erection of $20,000 Structure Near Zionsville. 

"The corner stone of the new twenty thousand dollar country church of 
the Salem congregation of the Methodist Episcopal church, near Zionsville, 
was laid Sunday, June 21, 191 4, before a crowd of two thousand people. 
Prior to the ceremony an address was delivered by Raphael P. Bundy on 
"The Church as an Asset." T. H. Stonecipher, superintendent of the schools, 
also delivered an address on "The Church as an Intellectual Asset." John 
M. Mills spoke on the spiritual side of the church and a history of the 
congregation was read by E. B. Bender. 

The church is one of the oldest country congregations in Indiana and is 
said to be the wealthiest. It was founded in 1834 on land owned by John 
Wood, one of the early pioneers, who immigrated to Indiana from Salem, 
North Carolina, and was one of the founders of the church. The first 
trustee was William M. Lemon, Fishback creek. It was named by Jonathan 
Hall and Nelson Shaw. The descendants of these men make up the church 
today. The church's first minister was a "circuit rider" preacher whose 
name has been forgotten. The present pastor is the Rev. Allen P. DeLong. 
The other ministers taking part in the ceremony were the Rev. F. B. Grimes 
and the Rev. G. L. Combs. 

The church was dedicated about the last of August and became one of 
the most handsome in this part of the state." 

THORNTOWN METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH. 

The present Methodist Episcopal church is being removed in order to re- 
construct. It will soon be numbered with the past. It is consecrated ground 
for it has served as the church home of the society from the start. 

At the beginning it belonged to the Frankfort circuit. Stephen R. Ball 



336 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

was the first pastor and preached here several times in the fall of 1832 and 
1833 before a class was formed. In the year 1834 he was returned and or- 
ganized a class of twenty members. 

Rev. Phelps was the next preacher and preached to the class regularly. 
In 1835 Ancil Beach was in charge and kept up the interest. 1836 Eli Rogers 
was appointed but did not often preach at Thorntown. The society waned 
under Rogers and Thomas J. Brown as the appointed minister of 1837, 
found no society or organization. On the second Sabbath of May, 1838, he 
organized a society of eight members, viz. : Elias Tolbert and wife, Green 
Foster, wife and daughter, Sarah, wife of Dr. Amos Davis and a young man, 
name not given. The first person to join the class was Oliver Craven. He 
was baptized and became leader of the class. From that date to the present 
weekly services have been continued. Preaching every four weeks at the 
beginning. 

LIST OF MINISTERS. 

Thomas J. Brown, Joseph White. George W. Stafford, Ancil Beach, 
John D. DeMott, William Wilson, Samuel Reed, John Edwards, Henry 
Wells, James H. Newland, George W. Stafford, William Campbell, J. W. 
Becktels, William H. Smith, James B. Murshon, James Aldrich, William 
Campbell, H. C. Wilton, Aaron Geerney, Thomas E. Will, John L. Smith, 
Charles A. Beck, Wiley B. Watkins, George W. Warner, T. C. Hackney, 
Richard Hargrave, Luke Nebucar, F. M. Pavey, Jacob C. Reed, G. W. Bower, 
Leander C. Buckles, Thomas Meredith, J. W. Harris, Rev. James A. Clear- 
waters, Isaac Dale, John Stafford, David Hanley, James G. Campbell, W. P. 
McKinsey, A. C. Geyer, J. T. Bassett, A. H. DeLong, J. C. Martin, J. D. 
Krewel, J. B. Rutter, S. A. Bender. 

The first church, a frame building, was erected on the present site which 
stood until the year 1873 when the present brick structure was erected. It 
has served for over forty years and is now to give place to a modern struc- 
ture. Its walls and form will pass away only to remain in pictures and 
memory. 




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BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 337 

THORNTOWN PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 

The first church (Presbyterian) was set in order in the house of Cor- 
nelius Westfall in 1831. However the first authentic account we have of the 
organization of a Presbyterian church is given in the minutes of the Craw- 
fordsville Presbytery held in Delphi in January, 1833, which reads, "Brother 
Young reported that he had organized a church at Thorntown, which was 
by motion taken under care of presbytery." A resolution passed at that same 
day session was the following, which is both quaint and suggestive after the 
lapse of eighty years, "Resolved that the missionary sermon be preached this 
evening at candle lighting." This was twenty years before the invention of 
the kerosene lamp. This shows that the presbytery had even at that early 
day a well defined and aggressive missionary policy. Indeed Claiborne 
Young, the founder of this church and its first pastor, was a missionary in 
the best sense of the word. He also founded the churches at Lebanon, New 
Bethel and Shannondale. 

Prominent among those of the old school branch was Cornelius West- 
fall, who platted the village of Thorntown in 1830. Samuel E. McCorkle is 
the first elder mentioned in the new school records; it is very probable that 
he was connected with the organization before that time. The county at this 
time was almost a wilderness. There were no roads and no bridges. The 
people generally attended church on horse back or on foot. The inhabitants 
were few and widely scattered, each settler having chosen the choicest land 
on which to make his home, and it was chosen with regard to its proximity 
to a good water supply, as they universally depended on springs for their 
drinking water. In hunting for the early record of the Thorntown church one 
meets with especial difficulty as all records of the first five years of the church 
have been lost and there are no minutes of the old school branch until the 
year 1838, several years after the first church came into existence. All 
of the noble men and women who organized the church have long since gone 
to their reward and we are entirely dependent on the memory of the older 
citizens for information, except what information we have gathered from the 
reports of the presbytery to the general assembly. 

The first thirty-nine years of its life the church maintained a precarious 
existence. In 1837 occurred the great division in the Presbyterian church 
(22) 



338 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

all over the United States, commonly called the old school and the new school. 
From one extreme of the United States to the other large and small churches 
were rent asunder, the real cause of which is not plain. Slavery may have 
had as much or more to do with the unhappy discussions as the difference in 
doctrinal points. However when slavery was dead and some of its great 
leaders had joined the general assembly above, the great Presbyterian body 
was again united and became one body as before the dissension. While this 
controversy was at its height the Thorntown church was in its infancy. The 
feeble church was made weaker, ministers moved more frequently, members 
of the churches emigrated and other denominations absorbed the children of 
Presbyterian families. Consequently as a denomination the growth has been 
slow and it is the more difficult to pursue its early history. One historian 
claims that the M. E. church of Thorntown was organized in 183 1, one year 
prior to the date given the Presbyterian church. This may be doubted, as 
the same writer says the first religious meeting held in Sugar creek township 
was at the house of Cornelius Westfall under the auspices of the Presbyterian 
clergyman, Rev. Claiborne Young, in 183 1, and that the first Sunday school 
was organized by J. L. McConnell and Cornelius Westfall in 1834, in a log 
house. They were both Presbyterian elders, belonging afterward to the first 
Presbyterian church. It is not known in what year the first edifice was 
erected, but the house now occupied by Mrs. Wyant on West Church street 
is known to be the first house of worship used by the Presbyterian denomina- 
tion. After the division the new school branch erected the building known 
as the Dr. Rose residence, this was about the year 1839. In the meantime the 
old school branch worshipped in various places until about the year 1857-8, 
when they erected the building now occupied and used by the Baptist people. 
In the year 1853-4 the new school branch erected a frame edifice on the pres- 
ent site, of about the same dimensions as the one now occupied by the Bap- 
tist church. These two buildings were used by the two congregations until 
the year 1864, when we find this record made in the minutes of the new school 
church, "The church edifice was destroyed by fire this morning at two o'clock. 
No insurance. The congregation of the old school church unanimously and 
cordially tendered the use of their house of worship on alternate Sabbaths 
with the blending of the Sunday schools into one ; which, needless to say, was 
gladly accepted." The fire seems to have been a blessing in disguise; while 
the ruins were still smoldering the men of the church met to consider the 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 339 

question of rebuilding and before the close of the war the sum of five thou- 
sand dollars had been subscribed toward the cost of the present structure, 
which we are told in another minute cost eleven thousand dollars when com- 
pleted. This generous and kindly act of the old school branch was no doubt 
a means of hastening the reunion of the two bodies. It is, however, within 
the memory of one who is still living and a member of the church, that the 
two congregations worshipped together on alternate Sundays and held a 
union Sunday school, and that the two branches affiliated with each other far 
more freely than with other denominations. 

The building now occupied was erected in 1866 by the new school branch. 
During the interval between the fire and the erection of this building the two 
congregations used the old school church building (now the Baptist church). 
The union was consummated in 1870, after the new school branch had taken 
possession of this their new home. At the time of the reunion this church 
had for its pastor the Rev. H. I.. Dickerson, the old school branch had the 
Rev. H. F. Patterson. When the union was consummated they were both 
retained for one year, when they agreed to resign and accept other charges 
and not embarrass the united church in making any choice between them. At 
the time of the reunion, when it became necessary to have a name for the 
united church, the following resolution was passed by the united church, "That 
for all local matters pertaining to the church, the two congregations being 
combined into one to be known as 'The Presbyterian Church of Thorntown.' " 
Thus eliminating the titles by which they had been known as the First and 
Second Presbyterian churches. 

The last report of the old school branch gave a membership of one hun- 
dred and two. The new school branch as one hundred and thirty-eight. This 
should have given us a membership of two hundred and forty. However, our 
report to the general assembly is given as two hundred and ten. Several 
times since the membership has fallen below the two hundred mark. The 
general assembly authorizes our sessions to place non-contributing members 
on what is known as the retired list, this shortage may have been caused by 
this procedure, and although Thorntown has practically stood still for forty 
years, the church has grown until now we have three hundred and seventy- 
two contributing members, besides some who live at a distance and are not 
on the active roll. 



340 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

The church before the division is known to have had two pastors, the 
Rev. Claiborne Young, the founder, and Rev. Robert Hall. 

During the period of the division the old school branch was served by 
seven pastors, Rev. W. F. Ferguson, Rev. S. N. Evans, Rev. C. K. Thomp- 
son, Rev. S. R. Seawright, Rev. Isaac B. Moore, Rev. J. Mitchell and Rev. 
R. F. Patterson. 

During this time the new school branch was served by Rev. David Jones, 
Rev. Thompson Bird, Rev. W. N. Stinson, Rev. Benjamin F. Cole, Rev. 
William R. Stevens, Rev. Franklin Putnam, who died here in 1859; Rev. Isaac 
DeLaMater, and accepted the chaplaincy of the 72nd regiment in the Civil 
war ; Rev. R. P. Wells and Rev. H. L. Dickerson. 

From the time of the union until the present time the church has had as 
its supplies and pastors, Rev. H. L. Dickerson and Rev. F. F. Patterson, 
jointly; Rev. T. B. Atkins, who is still living; Rev. D. R. Colmery, Rev, R. 
F. Caldwell, Rev. S. W. Elliott, who met such a tragic death at Winona a few 
years ago in an attempt to save the life of his grandchild; Rev. Samuel Saw- 
yer, Rev. James Williamson, who holds the record for the longest pastorate, 
eight years; Rev. John H. Sherrard, Rev. U. L. Montgomery and the Rev. 
H. N. Ronald. 

Of this number three are still living, Rev. T. B. Atkins, U. L. Mont- 
gomery and W. R. Williams ; besides Rev. William Folk, who as a student 
of Wabash college supplied this pulpit for a short time. There are five wid- 
ows of former pastors who survive. They are Mrs. S. R. Seawright, of 
Delphi ; Mrs. R. F. Caldwell, of Sharpsburg, Ky. ; Mrs. S. W. Elliott, of La- 
Fayette ; Mrs. James Williamson, of Indianapolis, and Mrs. James H. Sher- 
rard, of Wilkinsburg, Pa. 

There have been twenty-four men who have been ordained as elders in 
the church during its history, not including Dr. Hurt or the present board, 
which makes a total of thirty-four. These were Cornelius Westfall, J. L. 
McConnell, Samuel E. McCorkle, James Adams, Simon Loup, George Mc- 
Laughlin, Dr. J. M. Boyd, James K. Matthews, James C. Hague, Milton 
McCorkle, Larkin Thompson. J. C. Maxwell. Joseph Bryan, A. F. Cochran, 
J. T. Williamson, Charles Welch, Mitchell Henderson, John Higgins, David 
Cory, John Majors, Robert Hamill, James Clark, John C. Vannice, and Dr. 
H. M. Rose. 

Some of these men were in office for a great many years. Notably Dr. 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 



341 



Boyd, who was an elder for fifty-two years, and served as clerk of the ses- 
sion for twenty-four years, 1847-1871. Samuel E. McCorkle, the first elder 
of the new school branch, served as an elder for forty-eight years. Dr. H. 
M. Rose was elected an elder at the time of the reunion and was made clerk- 
soon after and was continued during the remainder of his life, thirty-four 
years. Thomas V. Caldwell and C. W. Johnson, twenty-eight years each. 

As to the personnel of these men I shall give only facts of especial in- 
terest. The election of a man to the office of ruling elder is an expression 
by the congregation of their estimate of his Christian character, and their re- 
election is to be taken as a vindication of their correct lives, and my opinion 
of the personal worth of any one of them might seem to detract from others, 
who though more humble may have been just as worthy of our praise. There 
were two men who were at one time or another elected to the eldership who 
declined the ofhce on the ground that they considered the office should be 
filled only by men of the highest and most exalted Christian character, and 
the office so sacred that they could not assume to be fitted to occupy such, 
thus proving to the world that they were the better qualified to serve in such 
an office, having a full appreciation of the sacredness of the office. These 
men were T. J. McCorkle and James Johnson. No more worthy men could 
have been found and they thus proved their fitness by their humble attitude 
as they were both men of the highest Christian character, Mr. McCorkle be- 
ing one of the pioneer Sunday school men of the county and serving this Sun- 
day school as its faithful superintendent for more than forty years. 

The first minutes we have of the old school branch are dated Septem- 
ber, 1858, and signed by James Adams as clerk. We still have this family 
with us in the person of Mrs. Ida Patton Matthews, who is a granddaughter, 
and her grandchildren, who are great-great-grandchildren of James Adams. 
It is positively known that Cornelius Westfall and Lindsey McConnell were 
elders prior to this date. 

We have the minutes complete of the new school branch from the date 
of its organization in 1838. The charter members of that organization were 
Samuel and Jane McCorkle, Milton and Elizabeth McCorkle, James and Mary 
Johnson, Thomas J. and Mary McCorkle, Margaret Higgins and others. Of 
this number there are two families still represented in our membership. S. E. 
McCorkle and James Johnson. The family of T. J. McCorkle is represented 
in the person of his son, James H. McCorkle, from whom we will hear later ; 



342 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

and also Mrs. Harrison, a daughter of Margaret Higgins. Samuel and Mar- 
tha Kinkaid were admitted into the new school church at the first meeting 
after the organization. This family is still included in our membership, and 
one member, Mrs. Elizabeth Kinkaid Corrie, has the distinction of being the 
first name on the roll, having united with the church before any member now 
living. There are other families who have been connected with- one or the 
other branches of the church for a great many years. The Hamill family is 
one. Mrs. Elizabeth Hamill was admitted into the new school branch in 
1848, by certificate from the old school branch, and her son remembers to 
have heard her say that she was a charter member of the old first church. 
This gives this family the longest family connection. The Matthews family 
have been members of this church since 185 1 ; a large family and all having 
been members of this church at some time. Mrs. Northrup, of Iola, Kansas, 
is the oldest person now living that has ever held membership in the old 
Thorntown church. She is still able to attend church, and she and her hus- 
band were the main stays of the Iola church from its organization to his 
death. She and her three sons are still among the strong supporters of the 
church today. 

There are nineteen members of this church living here now that were 
members of one or the other of the churches at the time of the reunion. 

Those who were members of the old school branch are : H. W. Hill, 
Mrs. J. C. Vannice, Mrs. Susan LaFollette, Mrs. Ida Patton Matthews, Mr. 
H. W. Henderson, Mrs. Sarah Henderson Hamill and Mrs. Isabell Craig 
Cline. 

Those having membership in the new school branch are : Mrs. Eliza- 
beth Kinkaid Corrie, Eliza Matthews, Miss Martha Matthews, Miss Alice 
Johnson Kinkaid, Miss Hester Matthews, Charles W. Johnson, Mrs. E. R. 
Jaques, Mrs. Emily Brainard, Mr. Lewis W. Jaques, Mr. Joseph C. Jaques, 
Mrs. Mary Belles McCorkle and Mr. George Coulson. 

The Thorntown Presbyterian church has from its organization been one 
of the leading influences of this community, and its members among the lead- 
ers in any movement for the betterment of the moral conditions of the com- 
munity. Its lady members took a very active interest in ridding the place of 
the doggeries which were everywhere present in our state before we had our 
present option and remonstrance laws. Many of the citizens witnessed the 
raid made by the ladies of the town in the 50's when the women rolled the 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 343 

whiskey barrels into the street and one woman, a member of this church, took 
an ax and caved in the heads of the barrels and allowed the liquor to run into 
the gutter ; the men standing near by to see that they were not molested. This 
was an act of self -protection of their families and was not condemned by the 
citizens. The men of the town afterward demolished and rid the town of the 
traffic, for a time at least. 

It has always been one among the most aggressive churches in the Craw- 
fordsville presbytery. In the report to the Home Mission Board it ranked 
third in amount contributed, fourth in membership, and tenth in proportion- 
ment giving. 

MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

Paper read at the eightieth anniversary of the Presbyterian church : 

The following is the paper read by Mrs. T. O. Matthews at the eightieth 
anniversary of the Presbyterian church, giving a brief history of the Mis- 
sionary society: 

We are glad to have the privilege of giving you a short history of our 
missionary society. This is the thirty-seventh (37) year of organized mis- 
sionary effort by the women of this church. We feel that we have made 
great progress in our work and while it may not be as interesting to all, as a 
few, we will hastily give you some facts. We had the two Presbyterian 
churches each having an aid society, but no missionary society, and it was 
not until several years after the union of the churches, that the great need of 
special work for missions was impressed upon the hearts and minds of the 
women of the church. 

On February 6th, 1875, a company of women met at the home of Mrs. 
Mary Hague to consider the situation and devise some means of doing sys- 
tematic work. The outcome of this meeting was the organization of a mis- 
sionry society. Mrs. Robert Caldwell, our pastor's wife was the first presi- 
dent, Miss Anna Sims, secretary, and Mrs. Susan LaFollette, treasurer. A 
constitution was adopted, which is the foundation of the one we have today. 
At the first meeting of the society, arrangements were made for the work of 
helping a Home Missionary and family, by sending a box of useful articles. 
The charter members were : Mesdames Amanda Cory, Mary Hague, Emma 
Hebb, Susan LaFollette, Dr. Rose, Dr. Boyd, Ann Taylor, M. A. Brown, 



344 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

Mary Sims, George Fielding, Emily Henderson, Jones, Eunice 

Sims, Elizabeth Matthews, Robert Caldwell, Sarah Moore, Irene Hughes, 
Samuel McCorkle and Misses Anna Sims, Mattie Matthews, Nelia Jacobs. 
The amount of money raised the first year was fifteen dollars, which was sent 
to a home missionary, the Rev. Tatesworth to help him buy a horse, as he was 
walking seven miles to his preaching place and was in need of a horse. 

In 1880, Mrs. S. W. Elliott was our president. During this year the 
society took a scholarship in the Laos Mission in Siam which amounted to 
twenty-five dollars a year, which pays for the support of one girl for a year 
in our mission school. One of these girls we heard from several years ago. 
After leaving school she married a Christian native and they set up a Chris- 
tian home, which has been a blessing to many. No doubt other Christian 
homes have been started in the same way. Our society now has invested 
eight hundred and twenty-five dollars in this way in the Laos Mission. In 
1880 we sent a box of clothing valued at thirty-two dollars to William C. 
Smith, a home missionary in South Carolina. In 1881 we sent a box valued 
at sixty-seven dollars and fifty cents to a home missionary in Iowa, and this 
year we purchased a small library of good missionary literature. Our presi- 
dents have been Mesdames Robert Caldwell, S. W. Elliott, Amanda VanNuys, 
Miriam Sawyer, Martha Williamson, P. T. Hague, J. H. Sherrard, Irene 
Hughes, T. O. Matthews, Dr. Rose, Samuel Carter, Frank Armstrong, at the 
present, Mrs. Dr. Brown. For several years our pastor's wife acted as su- 
preme president. These presidents each have had good helpers in their secre- 
taries and treasurers. In looking over the past we realize we have accom- 
plished much, but could have done so much more. Our membership has in- 
creased from the original twenty-one members to fifty-three at the present 
time. We have had all along, associate members, those who contribute but 
do not attend the meetings. We have lost many by removal and we have lost 
at the rate of one each year, by death, since our organization, Mesdames 
Mary Hague, Mary Shipp, Mary Kashner, John Wild Senior, Susan Patton, 
William Boyd, Kate Austin, Elizabeth Millikan, David Cory, Eva Woody, 
Elliott Senior, Samuel McCorkle, Eunice Sims, Mary Sims, Mary Corrie 
Mitchel Henderson, George Fielding, Nathaniel Gapen, Jane Cash, Amanda 
Hill, Andy Yost, Ann Taylor, Sarah Potter, Mary Brown, Mary Cochran, 
Emily Henderson, Nancy Rosaboom, Mary Torbett, Axy Hill, Elmer Bren- 
ton, Dr. Boyd, Amanda VanNuys, M. J. Barker, Jennie Craig, and Misses 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 345 

Lizzie McCoy, Nelia Kinkaid, Mary Jaques, Euphemia Hoover, Alma Mat- 
thews. We, as members of the missionary society would honor the memory 
of these departed ones. We do testify to their lovely Christian influence. 
We have honored the memory of our soldier boys today with flowers and 
starry banners; so tonight we would strew the garlands and cherish in our 
hearts the memory of these dear missionary workers, for by their influence 
and their most fervent prayers, our society is the strong Christian organiza- 
tion it is today. 

We send our offerings each year to the mission fields, both home and 
foreign, as much to one as another. We have sent boxes and barrels of 
clothing to the home field to cheer anxious hearts and have made our money 
in many ways. We have had the time honored mush and milk suppers, corn 
husking, contests, pieced quilts, sewed carpet rags and had strawberry and 
ice cream festivals, sold sunbonnets, had box socials, sold dinner to the elec- 
tion board, served dinner on rally days, had our mite boxes and birthday 
boxes. In 1883 we secured a window in Mr. Cole's hardware store and fur- 
nished ready made clothing, such as aprons, bonnets, children's clothing, or 
any article that would meet a ready sale. We continued this each Saturday 
from March to July then the merchantile business was suspended. 

We, as a society have entertained Crawfordsville Presbyterial Society 
and each year we send delegates to both Presbyterial and Synodical meetings. 
The ladies of the Lebanon and Thorntown societies have a county organiza- 
tion which meets each fall and always has good speakers. For many years 
the young people's organization Y. P. S. C. E. made a missionary collection 
on the day of its anniversary and the Sunday Sabbath school gave to missions 
the last Sunday of each month, these offerings going through our local mis- 
sionary society — but now these organizations act independently so our yearly 
contributions are decreased just that much. We have had organizations 
within ours outside of Y. P. S. C. E. and the Sunday school. We had a band 
called Willing Workers, consisting of Mrs. Farber's Sunday school class also 
the Little Gleaners organized by Mrs. Flora Welch McCoy and Miss Anna 
Sims. We had a boys' band and the King's Daughters organized by Miss 
Bell Torbet. 

The Junior Missionary Society is now doing good work under the di- 
rection of Miss Mattie Matthews and Miss Ollie McKinsey. The Brier Band, 
composed of young ladies in memory of Mr. Brier, who was ordained in this 



346 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

church at a Presbytery meeting, who with his young bride were entertained 
in the home of Mark Moore and immediately afterward started for Africa. 
The climate soon caused his death and Mrs. Brier and little daughter re- 
turned to her home in Illinois and she was the guest of the Brier Band at one 
of their meetings at the home of Mrs. T. O. Matthews. These young ladies 
did excellent work and showed much zeal, but was gradually absorbed by the 
older society. The Westminister Guild of today is an organization in which 
we are much interested; they are working along the same line of work and 
only a few more years hence their names will be on the secretary's book of 
the older missionary society. Let us give them special thought and prayer 
and help them all we can. In 191 2 we gave thirty dollars to the Gary fund. 
Our Golden Jubilee offering was thirty-seven dollars and fifty cents. We 
have our annual Praise Service and have interesting speakers such as Mrs. 
McCrea, Mrs. Hunter, of Indianapolis and Mrs. Starke, formerly of Frank- 
fort. Praise offering averages thirty-six dollars. Last year we enjoyed 
many good talks by Mrs. Lizzie Hamilton who had recently returned from a 
visit with her son in China. 

We have an organization called The Sisterhood, whose work is devising 
ways and means of raising money for the purpose of beautifying the church 
building and manse and when we have the Easter dinner it seems every lady 
in the church responds so readily ; how glad we would be to have them be as 
energetic in our missionary work. Our missionary offerings have increased 
from fifteen dollars in the year of 1875 to one hundred eighty-five dollars 
and eighty-one cents in 1913. Our offerings for the thirty-seven years 
amount to three thousand seven hundred seventy-three dollars and eighty- 
nine cents, an average of one hundred and two dollars. 

In June of the year 1900, we celebrated our twenty-fifth anniversary, 
about sixty ladies being present. Greetings from the Methodist societies 
were given by Mrs. L. S. Buckles : "It affords me great pleasure on this, 
your silver anniversary, as a representative of Methodism to voice like one of 
old. As our hearts are right with your hearts, we extend to you the hand of 
hearty greeting, and we will ride together in the great chariot of golden op- 
portunity, slaying with the sword of the spirit, till all nations become the fol- 
lowers of Christ. Life is not breathing but doing, not receiving but giving. 
It is not how long we live, makes success, but how well. We live in deeds 
not words — twenty-five speak the years, but eternity alone can reveal the work 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 347 

accomplished. Our hearty congratulations are yours." Mrs. Starke re- 
sponded for the Baptist church. She spoke of the sacrifice missionaries made 
in carrying the gospel to heathen countries. It was a pleasure to be present 
and offer congratulations on our twenty-fifth anniversary. Warm words of 
greeting were read from past presidents and absent members. The silver 
offering amounted to fifteen dollars and sixty-two cents. 

On behalf of the Missionary Society we welcome you back to our home 
church and voice the words of Miss Seegmiller: 

Like beads upon a rosary 

We count the joys of memory. 

Blue sky seen through an open door 

A patch of sunlight on the floor. 

A sunny and a shady spot 

A single blue forget-me-not. 

Work, and rest at work day's end 

A hand clasp, yea a hand clasp friend. 

Here we pause with thoughts of thee 

And lose the count on my rosary. 

We reach our hand, thy hand to take 

Let's clasp once more for old time's sake. 



UNITED BRETHREN CHURCH. 

Lebanon, i; members, ioo; Wayne G. Miller, pastor. 

Terhune. i ; members, 300. 

Maple Grove, 1; members, 112. 

Max, 1 ; members, 102. 

Pleasant Hill, 1; members, 112; E. J. Jenkins, pastor, Crawfordsville. 

Gravelly Run, 1 ; members, 80. 



THORNTOWN CHRISTIAN CHURCH. 

Early in the forties, meetings of this denomination were held in a frame 
structure on east Church street, across the railroad, on the south side. In- 
formation is meager in regard to its earliest organization. Elder Peter 



348 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

Russell is the first whose name we have been able to obtain, as a regular 
preacher. What he accomplished we do not know. He was succeeded by 
Elder Milton B. Hopkins, who served the congregation faithfully, but one 
day came to his death by accident. He was followed by William Young, 
who was not only a good preacher, but won a lasting reputation as an 
exhorter, unexcelled at that day. The church moved along, growing in 
wisdom and liberality. The times were not auspicious for women; it was 
considered altogether out of place for their voice to be heard in prayer or 
testimony. Paul's exhortion, "Let the women keep silent in the churches," 
was impressed upon this congregation. Alvin Hobbs succeeded to this charge, 
inasmuch as he had a wife, who was an able assistant to him, he was more 
tolerant toward the ladies and encouraged them in church ministrations. 

A revival broke out and two hundred accessions were gained to the 
church. A new meeting house was projected. The east corner of Main and 
Vine streets was chosen for a site, and Mr. Condra, in whose addition it was, 
donated the ground. The money was soon raised by subscription and a new 
brick structure, commodious and in every way adapted to the needs of that 
day arose speedily. This church stands there yet; it has weathered the 
storms, the stress and strain of sixty years, but a plan is now on foot for a 
new edifice this coming year. The church members are on the "qui vivi," 
already raising funds and have met with marked success. We have not been 
able to secure all the names of the worthy ministers who have filled its pulpit 
and platform with their eloquence, fervor, earnestness and holy zeal for the 
cause of Christ, but we have obtained a partial list : Elders John A. Johns- 
ton, Joseph Davis, H. R. Pritchard, S. M. Conner, U. R. Brewer, A. L. Crim, 

Morrison, E. T. Lane, B. F. Cato, Lee Tinsley, W. H. Newlin, H. A. 

Turney and R. E. Callithan. 

In 1887, the congregation numbered seventy members. Fluctuations 
have taken place in membership, by colonization in the west, by removals and 
deaths, but a revival now in progress, will again strengthen and build the 
borders of Zion. The outlook is good and refreshing. A large and flourish- 
ing Bible school, ranging from three hundred to less, is constantly main- 
tained by this denomination. The Christian Woman's Board of Missions is 
aggressive, looking after the welfare of missions. Various social organiza- 
tions are ever on the alert and accomplish good results by their effective 
work. A comfortable parsonage is owned and maintained by the congrega- 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 349 

tion, for the residence of the pastor in charge. A fine orchestra is kept up 
by this congregation and the choir contains artistic singers. 



THE METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH OF THORNTOWN. 

The Methodist Episcopal church at Thorntown has been remodeled this 
summer, by changing it from a two-story building to a one-story and enlarg- 
ing it. so as to give ample room on the ground floor for all of its services. 
The steeple was removed and the roof lowered. The walls on the north and 
south sides were moved out so as to give more room. The building was 
veneered with dark brown brick, giving the building a new and modern 
appearance. The roofing is of tile instead of slate. Under the addition on 
the north side, twenty by sixty feet, there is a basement room commodious 
and airy. The old chapel room, formerly used as the lecture and Sunday- 
school room, has been changed into the auditorium by cutting windows in 
the west end, elevating the ceiling, making openings into the additions on the 
north and south sides and folding doors into the east rooms adjoining. 
Gables were placed in the roof on the north and south sides. The doors are 
three for entrance and egress — one on the east side of the tower room, one 
on the south side just west of the tower, one on the north side in the addition 
of that side. The building has a modern appearance and is fitted up with all 
the appliances for the needs and service of the church and it will be very 
commodious and convenient. It is expected to be ready for services the 
last month of the year, when it is to be used in a series of evangelistic services 
conducted by Rev. Frank Wright. 



SIXTY-THIRD SESSION OF THE JUDSON BAPTIST ASSOCIATION WAS HELD IN 
BAPTIST CHURCH IN SEPTEMBER, ICJII. 

The Judson Baptist Association convened in the Thorntown Baptist 
church. It found the local church well prepared for the large task before it. 
A preliminary meeting was held Tuesday night, September 12, as a service of 
prayer which was led by Rev. Carl Tatem of Kokomo. The leader empha- 
sized the fact that prayer was not a gift but a spirit, "The spirit of prayer," 
and such a spirit characterized the entire meeting. Several remarkable experi- 



35° BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

ences were related. It was a good beginning for the great meeting that was 
to follow on Wednesday. 

Wednesday morning the delegates and visitors began to arrive early, a 
goodly number being present for the opening session at ten o'clock. After 
a devotional service Rev. A. E. Clem delivered a welcome address in a few 
well chosen words, bidding welcome to the church, to the homes and to the 
entire town and on behalf of the authorities, delivering the keys of the town 
and bidding the guests be at home during their stay. The moderator, Rev. 
W. E. Abrams, of Camden, gave a most pleasing response, accepting on 
behalf of the association all that had been so cordially proffered. 

Rev. J. H. Mitchell, of Young America, preached the annual sermon, 
using as a text John 12 : :2i. His theme was "Seeing Jesus." It was a mas- 
terful discourse, awakening a longing in many hearts to better know their 
Master. The Thorntown Letter was then read, after which adjournment 
was had for the dinner hour. 

At one thirty Rev. T. T. Minnis, of Russiaville, led devotional services 
of unusual inspiration. The nominating committee made their report and 
the following officers were elected : Rev. W. E. Abrams was re-elected as 
moderator; Rev. H. H. Hurley, of Kbkomo, vice moderator; W. J. Landis, 
of Flora, clerk and treasurer ; Miss Iva Caldwell, of Elizaville, vice clerk and 
treasurer. 

Then followed the reading of the church letters from various churches, 
which showed much progress during the year, that from some of the 
churches being exceptionally good. Miss Nina Chaney, of Russiaville, gave a 
well-prepared report on Sunday school work, which was followed by an ad- 
dress by Rev. E. B. Devault, of Galveston, on "Qualified Teachers." He 
emphasized the new birth as the first requisite and the teaching of right 
things as essential. The teacher should be original and not simply study 
what others have written in the lesson helper. Adjournment was then had 
and the congregation assembled in the front of the church, where a photo- 
graph of the association was taken by W. E. Mundell, of Frankfort. 

The evening service was largely attended, not all being able to get in to 
hear the addresses. Rev. G. C. Chandler, of Rochester, spoke eloquently in 
behalf of the "Aged Ministers' Home," and Dr. Myron W. Haynes, field 
secretary for Franklin College, gave a stirring address on Education. His 
theme was, "Things That Are Worth While." He spoke of the call to the 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 35 1 

ministry with its difficulties and discouragements until some become weary 
and seek other means of livelihood. This is not only true of the Baptist 
denomination but he cited one instance where in one large denomination in 
one conference recently nineteen came up and laid down their credentials. 
But notwithstanding all the discouragements he would rather be a minister 
than anything else. Second, it is worth while to be a Baptist because of 
their glorious history and the principles for which they stand. But they 
won't stand transplanting, they must be kept in their native soil. Third, we 
should be intelligent Baptists; should read and especially our own denom- 
inational literature. Fourth, we should be loyal Baptists; loyal to our own 
educational institutions. Fifth, he made an appeal in behalf of Franklin 
College and asked the churches to stand loyally by him in his effort to add 
$400,000 to the present endowment of the college of which the General 
Educational Society will give provided the rest be raised. A resolution was 
adopted pledging the loyal support of the association. Adjournment was 
then made until 8 -.30 Thursday morning, all feeling enthusiastic over the day's 
work. 

THURSDAY MORNING. 

After an inspiring devotional service the Women's Home and Foreign 
Missions were given the right of way. 

The women's hour was in charge of Mrs. J. C. Smith, of Kokomo. She 
gave the report of the work being done by the various mission circles of the 
churches, and while it was encouraging in some respects, yet in others the 
work was not what it should be, especially in the offerings received. An 
appeal was made for greater loyalty on the ground of the great need and 
helplessness of the heathen women in comparison to the condition in this 
country. 

Mrs. Smith then introduced Mrs. Dr. Haynes, of Franklin, Indiana, 
who spoke briefly of a home being built in Mandalay, Burma, for an In- 
diana girl, Miss Julia Parrott. She spoke very forcibly of the need in heathen 
land and the need in Indiana in supporting the work the women are doing. 
The work in the association is not what it should be. She quoted from 
another as saying, "The heathen may not need the American but the Ameri- 
can needs the heathen because of the need of having a Christian love 



352 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

and sympathy for others." This interesting hour closed by a beautiful solo 
by Miss Ward, of Kokomo, a returned missionary from Japan. 

Rev. O. R. McKay, of LaFayette, spoke on Foreign Missions. He had 
been on the field in India and spoke with authority. He said in part : The 
missionary gets closer to the people than any other foreigner. The con- 
verted heathen makes a better consumer and also producer. So aids com- 
merce and agricultural interests. Heathenism has its hand on labor but the 
missionary releases it and at the same time the minerals and ores and valuable 
products, thus adding to the world's supply. The mission schools fit young 
men for these pursuits not only by educating but by making them morally 
trustworthy. 

Rev. Samuel Samuelson, from the Shahn Hills, Burma, followed with a 
stirring address, giving facts and figures such as only one fresh from the 
field can do. Rev. O. A. Cook then spoke on State Missions. Eleven hundred 
were added to the membership through the efforts of our state evangelists 
and several new churches organized. So far about twenty thousand have 
been paid into the state board. 

In the afternoon Rev. L. O. Egnew, of Bunker Hill, led the devotional 
service. Rev. J. B. Morgan reported on the Crawford Industrial School. 
Mrs. Mcllwain and Miss Nellie Morgan, whose work is among the foreign 
population at Brooklyn, New York, spoke on Women's Home Missions. 
Miss Morgan always inspires her audiences. 

Report of committees followed. Among others by the committee 
on resolutions was one as follows : That we greatly appreciate the excellent 
entertainment we have received at the hands of Pastor Clem and his loyal 
church and the citizens of Thorntown and return our hearty thanks for the 
same. 

In the evening the Rev. H. H. Hurley, Ph. D., pastor of the First 
Baptist church, Kokomo, gave a stirring address to the young people on the 
subject, "How to Win a Soul to Jesus." 

The association then adjourned to meet at Kokomo next year. 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 



353 



PASTORS WHO HAVE SERVED THE THORNTOWN METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH. 

Years. 

Stephen R. Ball (Frankfort Circuit) Sept. 1832—33 

S. R. Ball and William Campbell " 1833—34 

B. Phelps " 1834—35 

Eli Rogers " 1836—37 

Thomas J. Brown (Lebanon Circuit) ' 1837 — 39 

CLASS ORGANIZED.* 

Joseph White and G. W. Stafford Sept. 1839—40 

Ancil Beach and John DeMott " 1840 — 41 

William Wilson and Samuel Beck " 1841 — 42 

John Edwards, first (old) church built " 1842 — 43 

Henry Wells and J. H. Newland " 1843 — 44 

George W. Stafford (Thorntown Circuit) ' 1844 — 45 

William Campbell " 1845—46 

George W. Stafford and J. W. Ricketts " 1846—47 

J. W. Ricketts " 1847—48 

William Smith " 1848 — 49 

Jared B. Marston " 1849 — 50 

James Aldrich " 1850—51 

James Spinks " 1851 — 52 

William Campbell and H. C. Wilton " 1852—55 

Aaron Gurney and T. E. Webb " 1855 — 56 

John L. Smith (Thorntown Academy built) " 1856 — 57 

Charles A. Brook " 1857—58 

Wiley Campbell " 1858—59 

William Watkins " 1859 — 60 

George W. Warner " i860 — 62 



^Class meetings discontinued. 
(23) 



354 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

T. C. Hackney Sept. 1862 — 63 

C. B. Mock " 1863—64 

Richard Hargrave (Great Revivals) " 1864 — 66 

Lucus Nebeker " 1866 — 69 

F. M. Pavey " 1869—72 



Present church built. Dedicated in 1872. First revival held — 146 added 
to membership. 



.Sept. 



Parsonage built). 



Joseph C. Reed 

G. VV. Bower 

Samuel Beck 

John L. Smith 

L. C. Buckles 

Thomas Meredith 

J. W. Harris 

J. A. Clearwaters (Great Revivals)-. 

Isaac Dale 

John M. Stafford 

David Hadley (Ester Frame Revival, 

James G. Campbell 

W. P. McKinsey 

A. C. Geyer (Memorial windows placed in church) 

T. J. Bassett (Parsonage burned. Rebuilt) 

A. H. DeLong (Furnaces placed. Wall frescoed)- 

J. C. Martin 

J. D. Krewel 

J. B. Rutter 

S. A. Bender 

Members of first class, Oliver Craven, leader; Elias and Sarah Talbert, 
Gheer and Sarah Foster, and a young man whose name was lost in old 
records. 



1872—73 
1873—76 
1876—77 
1877—79 
1879-81 
1881—82 
1882—85 
1885—86 
1886—89 
1889 — 90 
1890—93 
1893—96 
1896 — 97 
1897—99 
1899 — 02 
1902 — 05 
1905—09 

1909 12 

1912— 14 
I914-IS 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 355 

MINISTERS OF M. E. CHURCH AT LEBANON AND WHITESTOWN. 

Ministers who have served the Methodist Episcopal church, Lebanon 
since 1869: P. S. Cook, J. Foxworthy, E. W. Lawhorn, C. B. Mock, 
T. S. Webb, S. P. Colvin, H. A. Merrill. F. M. Pavey, J. L. Smith, H. C. 
Neal, Allen Lewis, F. M. Pavey, W. P. McKinsey. H. L. Kindig, H. A. 
Tucker, D. M. Wood, D. Tillottson, M. H. Appleby, and K. W. Robins. 

Ministers who have served the Methodist Episcopal church, Lebanon 
circuit since 1869: Feris Pierce, W. W. Barnom, E. R. Johnson, N. A. 
J. Clifton. S. N. G. Smith, J. G. Woodard, L. H. Hurt, J. C. Tyler, J. G. 
Woodard, W. Hall, E. Mason, J. M. Montgomery, L. H. Brindle, O. Wilson, 
J. P. Stafford, H. C. Neal. C. A. Berry, A. E. Pinkham, F. K. Daugherty, 
C. M. Seybold, H. Mills, J. M. Mills, W. Hall. W. T. Vessels, J. R. Laverty. 

Ministers of the Methodist Episcopal church of Whitestown since 1871 : 
E. R. Johnson, Jesse Hill/ W. S. Crow, H. B. Ball. J. C. Tyler, Thomas 
Mason, H. F. Whitsett, C. B. Heath, J. W. Shell, J. W. Loder, D. P. Mc- 
Cain. T. E. Webb, J. C. Reave, A. A. Hendrix, G. H. Myers, H. H. Cannon, 
Amos Fetzer, R.-G. Hammond, Whitefield Hall, H. H. Cannon, Lynn Bates, 
H. N. Calpen. C. W. Farris, W. J. Taylor, W. M. Torr, W. S. Simmonson. 

CHURCH CENSUS COMPLETED. 

At the meeting held at the Central Christian church, Lebanon, under the 
auspices of the Interdenominational Council of the churches of Indiana, 
Ralph A. Felton, of New York City, and C. A. Neff, of Bucyrus, Ohio, tak- 
ing a religious census, made a report of the results of their labors. The meet- 
ing was well attended, representatives being present from about all of the 
churches in the county. Mr. Felton, who has had charge of the work of 
making the survey in this county, gave a most interesting report, from which 
the following figures are taken : 

Lebanon — Church members, 2,743; churches, 13; population, 5.474; 
average size of churches, 211 ; per cent, church-going people, 40. 

Center township outside of Lebanon — Church members, 384; churches, 
5; population. 2,278; average size of churches, jy ; per cent, of church-going 
people, 17. 

Jackson township — Church members, 1,506; churches, 10; population, 
2,675; average size of churches, 151; per cent, church-going people, 56. 



356 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

Sugar Creek — Church members, 1,290; churches, 7; population, 2,499 r 
average size of churches, 184; per cent, church-going people, 51. 

Eagle — Church members, 894; churches, 5; population, 1,936; average 
size of churches, 179; per cent, church-going people, 46. 

Clinton— Church members, 520; churches, 6; population, 1,221; average 
size of churches, 87; per cent, of church-going people, 43. 

Union — Church members, 502 ; churches, 8 ; population, 997 ; average 
size of churches, 63 ; per cent, of church-going people, 50. 

Worth — Church members, 472; churches, 3; population, 1,000; average 
size of churches, 57; per cent, of church-going people, 47. 

Harrison — Church members, 448 ; churches, 6 ; population, 934 ; average 
size of churches. 76 ; per cent, of church-going people, 49. 

Jefferson — Church members, 402; churches, 5; population, 1,513; aver- 
age size of churches, 80; per cent, of church-going people, 26. 

Washington — Church members, 397; churches, 5; population, 1,210; 
average size of churches, 79; per cent, of church-going people, 33. 

Marion — Church members, 380 ; churches, 5 ; population, 2,038 ; average 
size of churches, 76; per cent, of church-going people, 18. 

Perry — Church members, 337; churches, 4; population, 898; average 
size of churches, 84 ; per cent, of church-going people, 37. 

The total figures show that 41 3-5 per cent, of the population in the 
county are church-going people. 

Additional information as to the number of resident and non-resident 
pastors was given and the recommendation made that more resident pastors 
be emploved. Facts relating to '"overlapping" and "overlooking" of churches 
were given. 

At night Dr. John P. Hale, of LaFayette, president of the Interdenomi- 
national Council of Indiana, gave an address. Dr. Hale reviewed the pur- 
poses of the organization and told what it hoped to accomplish. He empha- 
sized the need especially of more general co-operation among the churches 
of the county, believing that if this could be brought about many of the un- 
desirable things shown by the church census could easily be eliminated and 
all profit thereby. Dr. Hale's comment on the facts shown by the census 
was very interesting and was heard with profit by all. 



CHAPTER XIII. 



XF.W SPAPERS. 



In the building of a community and a county or state, there is no more 
important factor than the newspaper. No community can live without it, 
and keep abreast of the age in which we live. A real newspaper does not 
belong to the printer or proprietor but to the public. Its ambition must be to 
serve for the good of the community. It must stand for the truth and in all 
cases for what is right and just. It must be a teacher and a leader to a 
higher standard of morals and culture. This has been the standard of the 
newspapers of Boone county. It is the trend of all local newspapers and 
largely of the city press. In a Republic like ours, it not only molds the moral 
sentiment, but largely the political. When we understand the power of the 
press, we will all the more realize the importance of keeping it pure. When 
we realize fully that the mind is as easily poisoned as the body and whatever 
enters it, is as effective and serious as whatever enters the body seriously 
affects it, we will be more guarded in regard to what we read. Our reading 
forms our character and our moral strength, just as surely as food forms and 
gives strength to our body. This is the mission of the press that sends forth 
papers and books to feed the minds of the people. 



THE PIONEER. 

In 185 1, when the county became of age and able to speak for itself, 
The Pioneer was started at Lebanon. Whether this was the pioneer news- 
paper, in fact in Boone, or only in name, we are not able to say. It is the 
first on record and will hold the distinction until some one claims and estab- 
lishes title to the honor. Henry Hill is the hero that made the venture. 
He was editor and proprietor and publisher and a practical printer. He 
continued the publication for four years, when he closed out the plant to Dr. 
James McWorkman and Col. W. C. Kise, who became editors and pro- 



358 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

prietors. Under this management the paper prospered. Hill has managed 
the paper through the uprising of the Know-nothings of 1854. It was here 
that the Democrats met their first Waterloo. They had the scepter in Boone 
from its origin until the Know-nothings came upon the political stage. 

When the storm of 1856 began to gather on the political horizon, Mc- 
Workman and Kise sold the paper to George Washington Buckingham, of 
Newark, Ohio. He was a young man and full of fire and steered the craft 
through stormy seas. Those were rough seas for the Democrats. Hot dis- 
putes and divisions arose dividing parties, homes, the church and finally the 
country. Of course the hot blood of Buckingham boiled. Those were days 
that would make the blood of a phlegmatic red hot. The young man bravely 
stood at his post until the storm of i860 arose, when he sold to James Gogen, 
who continued the publication until the war cloud burst upon the land in the 
spring of 1861. So intense was the fury of the blast, so feverish was the 
fever in Boone, that patriotism absorbed every interest and all political lines 
were absorbed and a Democratic newspaper could not be run without financial 
loss, so Gogen closed out and the publication was discontinued for lack of 
financial support. It took a Rip Van Winkle sleep of seven years. When 
you consider what took place those seven years, it was longer than twenty 
years. 

During four long years the black cloud hung over us. The internecine 
struggle raged and ended. The shackles of involuntary service were ended. 
Lincoln dead, peace restored and Johnson had labored three years trying to 
heal the wound. After all this had passed and the vexed questions that came 
near floundering the ship of state, the spirit of sleepy Democracy of that age 
began to rub its sleepy eyes and to arise to new duties and issues. They 
knew that it could not thrive without an organ to advocate its principles. 
The old Pioneer was resuscitated and Jap. Turpin took charge of its interest. 
His career was short and he was succeeded by Lafe Woodard, who also 
made but a short stay with the people of Boone. General R. C. Kise then 
took charge of the enterprise and managed it with distinguished ability and 
great financial success, until the year 1869, when he was succeeded by Henry 
S. Evans. In the campaign of 1870, Benjamin A. Smith took charge of the 
paper. He gathered the best local writers of the party together and made a 
lively paper continuing until 1874, when he disposed of the entire office to 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 359 

Dr. T. H. Harrison, who spared no pains to make the Pioneer an acceptable 
medium of news to the party and the people of the county. 

In 1889, Dr. T. H. Harrison leased the office to Ben F. McKey, who 
had been in the office since 1876. The following year 1890, Mr. McKey 
became sole proprietor. The Pioneer was placed on a solid footing by Dr. 
Harrison and when it came into the hands of Mr. McKey, it maintained a 
steady growth and has continued to improve year after year to the present 
time. The energy and aptness as editor and manager and knowledge of all 
the details of the business eminently qualified Mr. McKey for success in the 
newspaper enterprise. He developed a system of correspondence from all 
parts of the county which brought in the happenings and doings from all 
parts of the county which created an interest in each locality and knit the 
county as a whole to the office as a news center. This made the paper desir- 
able as a local paper all over the county and increased its subscription list 
and its value as an advertising medium. It was a true advocate of Demo- 
cratic principles, of sound morals and always working for the best interest 
and growth of the county. 

On April 1, 1914, a change was consummated by which an interest of the 
Pioneer from Ben F. McKey, the publisher, passed to Claude D. McKey, his 
son, and Truman O. Edwards, his son-in-law, thus instilling new and young 
blood into its growth. Both of these young men have had experience in the 
newspaper business. Claude was literally brought up in the office by his 
father and in addition to the experience in his father's office, he has had ex- 
perience in the newspaper work in other fields not only as editor and manager 
but also as linotype operator. Mr. Edwards has been connected with the 
Pioneer for some time as business manager and fully recognized as a man of 
ability in this line. 

Mr. Ben F. McKey will continue as editor-in-chief of the paper. The 
paper will continue in politics as it has been from the beginning, true to 
Democratic principles. The Democratic party of Boone county and of the 
Ninth District and even of the state owe much to the stanch support that 
has been given them by this virile newspaper. 

In 1854, when the Know-Nothing wave gave a clean political sweep to 
Boone county, a new newspaper came upon the stage under the title, The 
Boone County Ledger. It was the organ of all voters opposed to the Demo- 
cratic party. At the time of its origin the Know-Nothings were in the saddle. 



360 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

Edward Bell was the practical printer. At first the paper was published by 
a stock company. Later it passed into the hands of Volney B. Oden, thence 
to David M. Burns and finally to Edward Bell. He was all right as an editor 
and in favor with his party, but proved a poor business manager and the con- 
cern was sold ; the press to Mr. Lewis, who moved it to Danville, Hendricks 
county and published it as The Hendricks' County Ledger. 

In the meantime, the Republican party grew into considerable power 
and the next paper established was the Expositor as its organ. It continued 
for about three years under the management of first, W. F. Smith, followed 
by Asa P. Taft. It weakened and died for lack of support as is the common 
fate of young newspapers. 

In the year i860, Joseph W. Jackson published a Republican paper at 
Thorntown called The Thorntown Evening Mail. He moved his office to 
Lebanon and published it as The Indiana Mail, which he continued to edit 
for two or three years. It was then purchased by John H. and J. W. Hen- 
dricks to which they added what was left of the old Expositor, enlarged it to 
a seven column folio, and named it the Lebanon Patriot. In 1866 T. H. B. 
McCain became proprietor. The plant burned down in March. Rising from 
the ashes it was continued for a short time by Mr. McCain, who sold it to 
David E. Caldwell. Steam power was introduced, being well equipped with 
power in addition to printing the Pafriot, it printed the Indiana Farmer, 
Ladies Own Magazine, National Farmer and the Sunday School Union, 
which it mailed to subscribers in this and other states. In 1870 the sixteenth 
year of its trials and tribulations, through the next sixteen years of equal 
tribulations and trials it passed through various hands as proprietors and 
editors, among whom may be mentioned M. M. Manner, W. O. Darnell, 
J. A. Abbott, S. L. Hamilton, J. A. Abbott and D. H. Olive, W. C. Gerard, 
Charles E. Wilson. In December, 1878, Mr. Wilson added a new press, 
new dress and changed it to an eight column folio. July 19th, he sold the 
plant to W. C. Gerard and he changed it to a semi-weekly. October 16, 
1884, he sold to Jacob Reiser. S. J. Thompson and son Flem, became pro- 
prietors in January 14, 1886, who made it a zealous Republican journal. 
They moved the paper to the Higgins block on the southeast corner of the 
public square where it remained until the year 191 3. They continued its 
publication until February, 1891, when they sold to Albion Smith who held it 
for a short time and sold to S. N. Cragun. 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 361 

Mr. Cragun entered the field of journalism fresh from the field of 
pedagogy, having served as county superintendent of Boone county. He put 
new energy into the soul of the Patriot, put it on a permanent basis, gave it 
a new dress and maintained its high standard in morals and journalism. It 
continued as an advocate of the Republican principles and faithful advocacy 
of the best interest of the people. After a faithful continuance of service 
twenty-two years, the longest time that any had been connected continuously 
with the paper, he sold it July 25. 191 3, to Lester F. Jones of the firm of 
Campbell, Smith & Ritchie Company. Rev. George W. Jones, brother of the 
proprietor, assumed charge as managing editor. In the retirement of Major 
Cragun, from the newspaper field of Boone county, the county loses a true 
faithful worker in this important field of labor. The new proprietor greatly 
improved the outfit of the office with new dress and the very best of presses 
and machinery; and moved the office to the first floor on the east side of the 
court house, and connected with it the publication of the Daily Herald, mak- 
ing it the printing establishment of the county, and equipped it with a press 
equal to the larger cities. In September, 1914, Reverend Jones laid down 
the pen and returned to his first love by re-entering the ministry. 

The Pioneer and Patriot are the only weekly papers in Lebanon that 
have run the gauntlet and secured a sure footing. Several other newspaper 
efforts made in Lebanon lived for a season and passed away. R. C. Kise, 
while an apprentice in the Pioneer office, made ventures with the "Jaw 
Breaker," "Night-Hawk," and "Swamp Angel" ; all flourished for a season 
and passed from the field. The Daily Times, the first daily effort, was a ven- 
ture of John C. Taylor and lived an ephemeral life. When the Pioneer sank 
away under the dark clouds of the Civil war, W. A. Tipton and other parties 
started the Democrat and tried to make it go but it died in infancy. In 
1875, Ben A. Smith returned to Lebanon and tried his hand in resuscitating 
the Democratic brotherhood by starting another paper and christening it the 
Democrat. The Democratic party would not forsake their first love, the 
Pioneer, and Mr. Smith was not supported and his enterprise failed. In 
the year 1878, when the "National" or "Greenback" fever was burning in 
this land, they became anxious for an organ as an exponent of their policy. 
The press was established and C. M. Wyncoop, II. H. Hacker, Charles Norris 
and Charles Calvert each in turn, successfully drove the pen and the enter- 
prise flourished as long as the party advocating paper money flourished. The 



362 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

latter editor changed the name of the paper to the Lebanon Bee and finally 
moved the office to Kansas. Afterwards E. G. Darnell launched The Leb- 
anon Mercury, an independent newspaper which he published for eighteen 
months and sold it to C. B. Mock. 

The first paper in Thorntown was started by Joseph W. Jackson in 1858, 
called The Evening Mail, which was continued for two or three years and 
moved to Lebanon. In 1872, F. B. Rose started The Thorntown Com- 
mercial," which was published only a short time. Next on the list was L. 
B. Kramer, who talked to the people through the Register until near the close 
of 1873. N. C. Rayhouser brought forth The Messenger for a season. After 
the run of the above papers in quick succession. F. B. Rose came upon the 
stage with The Independent for a short time, and was followed by Gait and 
Runyan, who changed the name to The Leader, and made the paper a lively 
acceptable medium of news to the people. After all of these rapid changes 
pioneering the way, in 1879, S. VV. Ferguson came forth with a new paper 
under the title of Argus. In its history it was owned and published by the 
following parties in succession : Messrs. Darrough and Crouch, C. W. Hazel- 
rigg, F. B. Rose, C. B. Mock, F. B. Rose, G. H. Hamilton. It was finally 
purchased by The Thorntown Printing Company in 1905, and merged with 
the Enterprise. The Enterprise was started by L. D. Woodcock in 1898, who 
continued its publication until 1904, when he sold to Everett White. White 
sold to the Thorntown Printing Company in 1905, which was combined with 
the Argus and titled Argus-Enterprise , under which title it continues to this 
date, edited by L. M. Crist and owned by Crist and Trinkle. G. H. Hamil- 
ton in 1908 started the Thorntown Times, which he continues to publish. 
The Times is an up-to-date county paper and has a well equipped office. 

In the years 1899, 1900 and 1901, the Thorntown Enterprise published 
the Twentieth Century, a monthly journal devoted to the temperance work 
and was edited by L. M. Crist. This was a spicy live paper that grappled 
with the live issues of the day. 



THE ZIONSVILLE TIMES. 

This is a live eight page six column paper published at Zionsville, Indi- 
ana, by the able editor Cal Gault. The paper was established at the begin- 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 363 

ning of the year i860, and will enter upon its fifty-fifth year of prosperity, 
the first of next January. It is the third paper in the county in age, ranking 
next to the Pioneer and Patriot of Lebanon. 

Mr. Gault, its present editor and proprietor, is among the oldest and 
most experienced newspaper men in the county. He has been connected 
with the Times for nearly half a century. A. G. Abbott was the original 
projector of the paper in i860 and made it a very newsy journal. He was 
succeeded by W. F. Morgan for a short time and then by John S. Grives. 
His restlessness would not let him remain long at the post and the steady 
enterprising editor Gault assumed ownership and control and has remained 
in possession until this day. He has made of the Times, one of the most 
reliable and steadfast papers of the county. He publishes a clean, lively 
newspaper and one that reflects a credit upon the community that supports 
it. Long may it live to cheer and bless its patrons and Mr. Gault be spared 
to give it life and character. 

In 1872, the Times was energized by a lively competitor, which put new 
life and energy in its pages. There is nothing that so calls out all there is in 
us as a good lively competitor to make us move up. John Messier and Will 
Eagle, at the above date, started the Commercial, which flourished for a short 
time, until a chattel mortgage compelled it to surrender. F. B. Rose became 
proprietor but he was unable to resuscitate it and its remains were moved to 
Thorntown and Mr. Gault has held the disputed field ever since. 

The Jamestozvn Press, now in its twentieth year, and nearing its major- 
ity, is published by George R. Darnell. It is a live eight page, six column, 
breezy local paper, that keeps the metropolis of the southwest corner of Boone 
county before the world. Every week it goes out fresh and clean to tell the 
doings of the city and let everybody know that it is alive and crowding the 
world to remember that fact. It must have had a stormy time at first, for 
the record states that one G. W. Corbin came out early with Nip and Tuck, 
The Northern World and Temperance Tribune. There was plenty of name 
to these journals, but not enough sales to keep them floating. In a short 
time A. S. Clements was at the helm of the Tribune as its editor. Next came 
W. C. Brown who for a season made of it a very newsy paper. At the last 
G. W. Snyder put his push and energy to the wheel and made it a first-class 
newspaper of that corner of our county. He continued it for a number of 
years and finally it was purchased by the present proprietor. The Tribune 



364 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

was changed to the Jamestown Press, under which title it has continued for 
twenty years, growing and becoming better as the years are passing. It is a 
local paper of good tone and holds a high standard for morals and the best 
interest of the community. 



WHITESTOWN THE HUSTLER. 

In 1901, Ora McDaniel established "The Hustler" in Whitestown, and 
continued its publication for three years and sold it to H. C. Darnell, who 
published it for two years and sold to H. E. Rogers. Mr. Rogers' connec- 
tion with the paper was only one year, when he sold to Ellis Cook, who 
could only stand the wear and tear for six months and unloaded upon Smith 
and Darnell. These gentlemen had the grit to stick to their job long enough 
to become acquainted with its loveliness. For four years and six months 
they held the scepter and power of the press in the capital of Worth province, 
then they disposed of it to McMakin, who is there to this day. The name 
of "The Hustler" was changed to "Whitestoum Dispatch" by Smith and 
Darnell at the beginning of ownership. The Dispatch is a live energetic 
paper, looking after the interest and best welfare of the village and Worth 
township. 



CHAPTER XIV. 



THE PHYSICIANS OF BOONE COUNTY. 



Dr. George McCoy, writing of the pioneer physician of Indiana, has 
the following to say of him : "It cannot be said that our early doctors were 
all men of eminent scientific skill or training. Few of them held diplomas 
from medical colleges, for seventy or eighty years ago medical colleges were 
not as thick in the land as they are now. The pioneer doctors learned all 
they knew by reading, observation and instruction under established practi- 
tioners and by their own experience. Men of fair education and good com- 
mon sense in a few years gained good reputations as successful and safe 
physicians. They learned and were guided by actual practice more than by 
theory or the formulas laid down in the few books they were able to procure. 
Each doctor carried his own remedial agents — a small drug store — in a pair 
of saddle-bags of huge dimensions, and he dosed out with a liberal hand. 
They rode on horseback to visit their patients, day or night, far or near, 
through the dense woods and over slashy paths and rough corduroy roads, 
fording or swimming streams and enduring innumerable hardships, which the 
physicians of the present day would not dare encounter." 

During the years of the early settlement of Boone county the numerous 
rivers and creeks were fouled and obstructed by fallen timbers, drifts and 
other accumulations of vegetable debris. The water from freshets and over- 
flows stood reeking and stagnant on the lowlands and in the sloughs and 
bayous, and gave out their noxious exhalations for miles and miles around, 
while thick forests and tangled undergrowth, in rich and rank profusion, 
almost equaled the famed valley of the Amazon. The air was laden with 
the pestilential miasma, particularly in the autumn season, when biliary and 
malarial diseases were rife. Whole settlements were at times stricken down 
and were almost helpless. 

The doctors found the ague, in many instances, more than a match for 
their skill. It was of the real shaking, quaking variety, the chill lasting not 
infrequently three or four hours, to be followed by raging fever and intense 



366 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

and insatiable thirst. So malignant was the type of fever that as many as 
three or four deaths of adults have occurred in one family in less than 
forty-eight hours. Peruvian bark and calomel would temporarily check the 
fever, but cold weather seemed to be the only thing that would stop this 
dreadful scourge, and even this failed in some instances, and the poor invalid 
either wore himself out or else wore out the disease. (What a blessing 
would have been a little of our knowledge of the relation of the mosquito to 
the prevalence of malaria and of crude oil to the larvae of the little pest.) In 
the early settlement the "regulars," in the treatment of fever, relied mainly 
upon one remedy — calomel. It was, indeed, extraordinary upon the part of 
the physician to treat any form of disease without the generous use of a large 
dose of calomel. One old physician has remarked that not to salivate a 
patient seemed to be regarded as allowing him or her to go to the grave 
without a saving effort. 

Another idea, held by the pioneer physicians of Boone county in com- 
mon with all physicians of the time, was that a patient "sick of fever" must 
also be bled freely before an internal remedy was administered. The lancet 
held sway alongside of calomel. If, in raising a log cabin, a man was 
thrown from his "corner" and badly bruised, the practice was to bleed him 
copiously on the spot as the first step toward his recovery. In conversation 
with some of our old physicians who practiced in the "fifties," they, without 
exception, still claim that phlebotomy was the correct procedure, and that 
our present-day doctors would not lose so many cases of pneumonia if it was 
practiced. 

There were, no doubt, many things to criticise in the methods of the 
pioneer physicians, yet we must all acknowledge that they stood out as shining 
lights in their day and generation, the equals, if not the superiors, of their 
contemporaries in all the other walks of life. They did their duty as citizens, 
and as physicians they were always found doing their best "according to their 
lights." The physicians of Boone county have succeeded to a noble heritage: 
may they prove worthy of their great responsibility. Will Carleton has 
paid the old-time doctor a beautiful as well as a deserved tribute, when 
he says : 

"This undecorated soldier, of a hard, unequal strife, 

Fought in many stubborn battles with the foes that sought his life. 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 367 

In the night-time, or in the day-time, he would rally brave and well. 

Though the summer lark were fifing, or the frozen lances fell; 

Knowing if he won the battles they would praise their Maker's name, 

Knowing if he lost the battles then the doctor was to blame. 

'Twas the brave old virtuous doctor, 

'Twas the good old faulty doctor, 

'Twas the faithful country doctor — fighting stoutly all the same." 

Our old-time doctor, even at a time when most men drank alcoholic 
liquors and really thought they were benefited thereby, knew the harm of it all. 
In a paper before a convention of physicians, one of them was discussing 
tincture of arnica as an applicant in contusions. He was of the opinion that 
it was the whiskey and not the arnica which was entitled to whatever credit 
which was due in these cases. This led him to make the following observa- 
tion : "Whiskey is sometimes good as a medicine if properly used. I have 
never, and never will, so use it as to turn a sick man into a drunkard." 

About 1824 medical books were very scarce in Indiana. The first 
work on materia medica was brought into this county we do not know 
when. The physician who could afford one work on each branch of the 
profession was considered well off. The book stores in Cincinnati, at this 
time, could not furnish a work of each branch. 

In 1843 Dr. Charles Parry, of Indianapolis, read a paper on the treat- 
ment of congestive fever with quinine, before the Academy of Medicine at 
Philadelphia. After this, quinine seems to have grown in favor with physi- 
cians. It is said that this drug was given until, in many cases, a quinine 
habit was formed, and children sometimes cried for it. 

Dr. Cornett, in some of his writings, narrates some very interesting- 
reminiscences, among which is the following : "In surgery as well as medi- 
cine, there has been an advance within my remembrance. I knew a surgeon 
half a century ago who made it a rule to trephine in every case of fracture of 
the skull, whether there was depression of the bone or not. He boasted that 
he had bone buttons enough, bored from the skulls of his patients, to furnish 
a full set for a double-breasted coat." This same doctor tells us further: 
"For a number of years I was the only physician in the county in which I 
was then practicing; I had to travel all over it on horseback by day and by 
night, without regard to weather or remuneration for services. Occasionally 



368 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

I found myself lost in the woods at night, and would* have to tie up my 
horse and make my bed on the ground until morning." This unselfish spirit 
and devotion to duty was typical of the early doctors everywhere. 

The following is a copy verbatim of an old physician's account of fever 
treatment : "When called during the fever and wild delirium, we seated the 
patient on the side of the bed and held him there, by the aid of assistants if 
necessary, opened a vein in his arm by making as large an orifice as practicable, 
and allowed the blood to flow until his pulse became soft and less resisting, 
or until syncope supervened. We relied more on the effect produced than 
the amount of blood extracted, our first object being to produce a decided 
impression upon the heart's action. Our patient, being in a sitting posture, 
and the blood escaping from a free opening, it did not require a great length 
of time to produce the desired effect. Often within ten to twenty minutes 
after faintness or sickness occurred the subject of this mode of treatment 
would become bathed in a copious perspiration, and the violent fever and 
delirium existing a short time before would have entirely passed away. Now, 
if the indications seemed to require it, we directed an emetic to be given, 
usually composed of tartarized antimony and ipecac combined, or wine of 
antimony. After free emesis and the sickness had subsided, if thought neces- 
sary, we gave a brisk cathartic, usually containing more or less calomel. 
After the primae viae had been well cleared, it was our practice to give 
opium in such doses as the case required, in order to allay all irritability of 
the stomach and bowels. We directed the usual febrifuges to be given if the 
fever should return, and these were given in such doses as required to arrest 
or mitigate it. We used no manner of temporizing treatment, but aimed 
our agents directly at the exterminating of diseases. Opium, ipecac, tartar- 
ized antimony, nitrate of potassa, spirits mindereri, and spirits of niter, with 
other means too numerous to mention, were all frequently brought into requi- 
sition. 

"Under the above manner of treating a case of remittent fever, it was 
no uncommon thing, on our second visit, to find our patient sitting up, feeling 
'pretty well, except a little weak,' and within a few days able to return to his 
ordinary avocations. When we met with more protracted cases, we had 
recourse to the Peruvian bark, gentian, columbo, and most of the ordinary 
tonics of the present time, excepting quinia, which was not then in use. For 
some time after quinia was introduced the price was such that Hoosiers could 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 369 

not afford to use it. The first I used cost at the rate of thirty dollars per 
ounce. I may state that tartar emetic was a favorite remedy in all the active 
or acute forms of disease. 

"We seldom lost patients from acute diseases. It would have detracted 
from the standing of a medical man should it have been known that he lost 
a patient from inflammation. He might lose a patient from sheer debility 
and be excusable, but not from acute disease, provided he saw the case in an 
early stage of the attack." 



Many of the physicians of Boone county who have labored so long and 
so faithful may have gained honors, and grateful remembrance, but very 
few of them have accumulated wealth; none have made more than a living, 
with but few exceptions, and their fortunes amounting to but a few thousand 
dollars, were the results of careful economizing, fortunate investments, and 
small families. It seems that the healing art, though an honorable profession, 
is not a lucrative one, especially in small towns or the country. 

Prior to 1820 charges were as follows over the state generally: A visit 
in town, $1.50, medicines additional; extracting teeth, 25 cents; cathartic 
pills, 20 cents per dozen; one dose calomel, 1 ounce paregoric and vial, 62 l / 2 
cents; one dose of calomel and one dose tartar emetic, 50 cents; mercurial 
pills, 734 cents; accouchment cases, natural, $5.00; bleeding, 50 cents; 
one dose of jalap, 25 cents; pectoral powders, 25 cents each. In 1820 there 
seems to have been a decrease in the prices of drugs, and the doctor very 
considerably reduced his charges in proportion. Also I note that a visit in 
town fell to $1.00. 

In 1848 I find the following fees customary: Visit in town, $1.00; 
with unusual detention, $2.00; prescriptions, with letters of advice, $5.00 to 
$10.00; consultations, $3.00 to $5.00; night visits, double; vaccination, 50 
cents to $1.00; venesection, 50 cents; simple medicines, per dose, 25 cents; 
mixtures, 25 cents per fluid ounce; blisters, from 25 to 50 cents; accouch- 
ments, $5.00 to $10.00. The following charges, dated 1857, are taken from 
bills of a Boone county physician: Accouchment, $3.00 to $10.00; frac- 
ture of an arm, $10.00 ; setting broken leg, $15.00 ; bleeding, 25 cents ; letter of 
advice, with prescription, $6.50; vaccination. 25 cents; two dozen powders, 
(24) 



370 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

kind not stated, 30 cents ; one dose of calomel, one ounce paregoric, with bot- 
tle, 50 cents ; six mercurial pills, 30 cents ; one blister, 25 cents. 

Before the days of Boone began, many of the ideas that came from the 
Carolinas and had filtered through Pennsylvania, Ohio, and the dark and 
bloody ground of Kentucky, had been materially modified. No pioneer of 
Boone was anxious to plant his potatoes in the moon but was only too glad 
to stick them down into the loose primitive soil without date or sign. He 
never waited for the dark of the moon to put on the clapboards or lay a 
fence worm. If the old black cat wanted to move into the new cabin with 
the family and take his place to snooze by the jamb of the great fireplace, 
no one objected. As a rule the early settler of Boone county had no time 
to wait on the moon or for signs. By the time he had felled the trees, dug 
the stumps, grubbed the underbrush, ditched the bogs, pulled through the 
mud to church and mill and fought the mosquitoes and malaria, he had no 
time for side shows. If you have the blood of a Pennsylvania Dutchman 
running in your veins, you have a pretty clear conception what the above 
meant to the settler of Ohio and southeastern Indiana. Old Dearborn 
county could fill volumes; you could not pull through the western part of 
Franklin county without rubbing up against all the superstition of the Teutons 
put into practice. 

When the men of Wayne, Fayette and Union and all the counties in 
the southeast part of the state ventured out into the wilderness of Boone 
county, they carried not a little of the ideas of their parents and the old 
countries with them. We have heard our grandmother tell many a time 
about the hobgoblins and mermaids so common to the Scotch and Irish. 
These ideas followed the children's children to the third and fourth gener- 
ation. These ideas crept into the woods of Boone with the early settlers and 
the pioneer doctor, minister and teacher had to meet and overcome them. 
As a man thinketh, so is he, is a gospel truth. The trouble is not only to 
get minds to think but to get them to think along right lines. It took as 
much grubbing to get these old superstitions out of the minds of the old 
pioneers as it did to remove the stumps and underbrush from the land. The 
teacher had to overcome the hindrance of too much "larnin", the minister 
had to pull in the "ends of the earth" and round down its four corners and 
the farmers find other light than that reflected from the moon in her rounds 
and changes for his potatoes, fencemaking and roofing. All men concede 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 37I 

that the mind can affect the body and the food that is used for its sustenance. 
No one knows this truth better than the "medicine man." The pioneer doctor 
in Boone county came in contact with all these influences. They affected him 
and his work in various ways, often causing him amusement, but more often 
vexation and disgust. These ideas dealt with almost every phase of life, from 
the most trivial to the most serious. If one left the house and forgot some- 
thing for which he must return, he must set down before leaving again, or 
when leaving, pass out through a different door; rocking an empty chair 
was a serious offense, and was likely to cause death in the family; putting 
one corner of an ax bit down upon something and spinning it presaged bad 
luck; if in sweeping, two straws were dropped from the broom and by some 
means became crossed, a serious calamity was due to arrive in a year or 
less; in fact, one could scarcely do anything without its being an omen of 
some significance or other. Since these things entered so largely into the 
lives of our forefathers, and since, as far as I am aware, these things have 
not received treatment at the hands of the historian, I propose to discuss su- 
perstitions in general, and then give some attention to those having to do with 
our physician-friends in particular. 

The derivation of the word superstition is somewhat enlightening as to 
its meaning. It comes from superstitio, which is itself a compound, being 
composed of super, above, or over, and stare, to stand ; the word thus literally 
means to stand over, when we have excessive religious belief, possibly a stand- 
ing over a thing in amazement or awe. The word is loosely used to include 
all false faith or belief, its distinguishing characteristics being its irrational 
estimate of something imperfectly understood. We might also further say 
that the answer to the question of truth or falsity varies with time and place, 
hence it follows that the accepted belief of one time or people may be super- 
stition to another. Most of the popular superstitions of the present are sur- 
vivals of earlier science or religion. At a time when there existed no system 
of recorded observations of natural phenomena conclusions were of necessity 
drawn from external characteristics, and objects and events were supposed 
to exercise influences corresponding to the impression produced upon the 
sense or imagination. This manner of interpretation is responsible for a 
great mass of superstitions, especially those having to do with the treatment 
of disease. It is a characteristic of popular credulity that such notions, once 
prevalent, do not yield to contrary experience. If observation shows the 



37? 



1 NK I'OI'XTY. INDIAN \. 



principle to be inaccurate, reasons are always at hand to explain the error; 
hence the power of the ancestral habit, which we find arbitrary and which we 
call superstitious. With all pioneer peoples, such beliefs have an immense 
effect on action ; the daily method of nutrition, attire, the hunt, agriculture, 
are determined by an infinity of regulations which are religiously handed 
down from generation to generation. In some cases it is possible to dis- 
cover the principle of expediency which gave birth to the requirement ; thus, 
the discovery of the ill effect marriages between near relatives and in breed- 
ing of stock, causes to be established a religious necessity, limiting the rela- 
tions of the sexes according to certain rules, sometimes very complicated and 
ingenious, of which our present customs and laws are but the survival. But 
in multitudes of other cases no good reason can be offered for demands and 
abstentions which originally depend on inferences which it is impossible to 
reconstruct. 

A considerable number of superstitions are connected with the heavenly 
bodies. From very remote times the observation of the stars and their move- 
ments has been considered important, but it has been with the night especially, 
that ancient religious ceremonies are associated. The most distinctive differ- 
ence between the nights were found by alterations in the growth of the moon 
crescent; according to universal processes of thought, it was supposed that 
the time when the moon increases and becomes dominant, the principle of 
growth must prevail, and on the other hand, that her wane must be a season 
of general decay. Hence, it has been everywhere inferred that all operations 
designed to promote increase ought to be performed at the time of the new 
moon. That then potatoes should be planted, hair cut, etc. But if it is de- 
sired to cause shrinking, the work must be done when the moon is at the full 
so say the maxims of traditional agriculture, and at this time should be cut, 
alders, spruce, and other undergrowth, because the roots will in this case 
wither without sprouting. Away back in Shakespearean time men were 
taught "The fault is in ourselves and not our stars that we are underlings." 

Not less important in popular usage is the part played by the course of 
the sun. As he moves in a particular direction, so it has been thought that in 
order to produce beneficial results, mankind should proceed in a correspond- 
ing manner; in worship it was thought necessary to adopt a processional 
movement in the sunwise direction. Even in the ordinary movements of 
daily life this order was followed and traces of it survive to the present day. 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 373 

Thus, in order to make good bread or butter, it is essential that the motion 
should be in the same uniform direction, for reversal of the direction in 
which the kneading, stirring or churning is performed will undo the work 
accomplished, and make failure sure. From household maxims still pre- 
served, it appears that the hand must be moved in a sunwise circuit. As the 
route taken by the sun is holy, so the opposite path will be evil, and has been 
adopted in practices of witchcraft and magic, and in the old Roman worship, 
the gods below were adored with this reverse circuit. It was long ago dis- 
covered by Boone county housewives that it was not necessary to stir the cake 
the direction the vine twines around the pole to make it good. Some good 
cake makers keep the old rule to this day. 

Among periods of human life, the terror which attaches to death has 
made it the center of a vast body of superstitious habits. A great number of 
actions and experiences are still popularly regarded as signs of approaching 
departure. The principle on which the phenomena are interpreted is that of 
association of ideas. Thus, ringing in the ears is a sure sign of death, be- 
cause the church has usually rung a "death-bell" over the departed; carrying 
a spade through the house has like significance, because a spade is used to 
dig graves ; a blue flame in the candle is ominous, for the lowering of the 
light forecasts the decline of life; a flower blooming out of season fore- 
shadows a decease ; the unusually precocious child will never attain adulthood ; 
and so on indefinitely. In like manner, the unusual also is a fruitful source 
of superstition; if every child was born with a caul (that is, a membrane 
encompassing the head) it is doubtful if this would have been taken as an 
especial sign of good luck. 

A considerable number of superstitions relate to the times of the year, 
and revert to the practices of old religion. Thus, Hallowe'en is attended with 
observances which seem to have been dependent on its original character as 
a feast of the dead, when departed spirits were invited to partake in the fruits 
of the harvest; and were conceived as present at the sacrifice and merrymak- 
ing. On this night it is usual to perform divinations, now reduced to mere 
jests, in which an unmarried person is expected to discover his or her com- 
panion for life. These practices must be regarded as the remainder of serious 
necromancy, in which the returning spirits were asked to reveal the future. 

While the majority of superstitions are remains of antiquity, their in- 
ventions have not altogether ceased in historical times. Of this we have ex- 



374 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

amples in the prejudice against the number thirteen, and in objection to Fri- 
day as unlucky, since in Christian thought the day of the Crucifixion and the 
number involving the addition of Judas were of necessity regarded as ill- 
omened. The superstition of the evil eye, that is, the belief that certain per- 
sons have the power to injure by a look, is still widespread in Eastern coun- 
tries, where the belief yet lingers that the demoniac is divinely inspired. Na- 
ture worship lingers in such superstitions as those connected with the moon, 
the belief in its mysterious power to work good or ill, as seeing the new moon 
over the right shoulder being an omen of good luck, its influence on the 
weather, etc. The belief in ghosts reflects ancestor worship. The common 
notion about good luck brought by a horseshoe has been traced back to phalli- 
cism. Some of the most common of those things forming a basis for super- 
stitious divination are as follows : Appearances in the air ; fowls picking up 
grains of wheat ; anagrams of person's names ; man's features ; use of num- 
bers ; by dice ; by the heavenly bodies ; by winds ; the Bible ; by herbs ; by play- 
ing cards; by mirrors; by dropping melted wax into water; by writings of 
paper; by the hand; by certain lucky or unlucky words; by the entrails of 
animals ; by the navel of an infant ; by the finger nails ; and so on ad infinitum. 
It should be said, before taking up the discussion of those having to do 
with healing, that there were a number of "schools" or methods of bringing 
about the same results, e. g., there were a number of methods of removing 
warts. One was by taking a part of the leaf fat surrounding, what might be 
called the eye of the left kidney of a hog, melting or rendering it by heating 
it just as hot as possible without scorching. This was to be applied to the 
base of the wart just where it came into contact with the healthy skin. Two 
applications were sufficient to remove any wart, but I am informed that you 
must, if treating one, go as if you intended to make the third application, 
when you will find the wart gone. Another method is to pick the wart until 
it bleeds a little, then take a grain of corn and rub it until some of the blood 
adheres to it, then throw it into the well. The wart will disappear as soon as 
the grain decays. Still another method is by making use of the three great- 
est names, viz. : God, the Son, and the Holy Ghost. To treat a wart by this 
method you should take your patient to the top of a hill at sunrise, and just 
as the edge of the sun appears above the horizon you must moisten the little 
finger of your left hand and rub around the wart three times and repeat : 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 375 

"In the name of the three highest names, 
That of the Father, the Son, and Holy Ghost, 
Just so sure as the blessed Mary 
Will ne'er again bring forth a child, 
Just that sure thou shalt disappear 
Never again to bother this soul." 

The reader will probably notice that this is "blank verse" and a little 
irregular, but I am assured that it never fails to bring results, if nothing 
more than to see a sunrise. This latter method might be called the "Eclectic" 
method of conjuration, for it doesn't hesitate to borrow from the others as 
well as furnish some original methods of its own. The three greatest names, 
sunrise, sunset, the north, south Zenith, nadir, magic squares, anagrams, 
the livers of bats, teeth of bats, the abdominal segments of the wasp are some 
of the agents used to bring about charms. 

Measuring is another very common treatment for disease, especially 
"flesh decay" or "undergrowth." The patient is usually laid down upon a 
board and the length of the body is accurately marked. The length is then 
"measured" by the thumbs of the "operator" in the same way that a distance 
might be "stepped off," except that the unit is the width of the thumbs. 
During the process certain formulae are repeated, which I will not give for 
fear of securing the enmity of the undertakers. It might be further said that 
it is astonishing how many people patronize this sort of thing. 

Controlling bleeding of the nose or bleeding from cuts is another class 
of treatments receiving special attention at the hands of the conjurer. One 
way of stopping the flow is by placing the right hand on the back of the head 
in the occipital region, the left over the lambdoidal suture so that it extends 
from the base to the points of the fingers, then calling upon the three greatest 
names and declaring that the blood shall cease just so sure as that the blessed 
Mary shall never again become a mother. Another method is by reading 
or repeating Ezekiel 16:6. I have heard some wonderful stories of the stop- 
ping of blood by this method, the conjurer being in some cases some distance 
away. It reminds one of Christ's miracle of healing the nobleman's son. 

It is possible by conjuration to control the sex, either in children or the 
lower animals. Also in case of litters, as of kittens, pups or pigs to control 
the number as well as the sex. These results are brought about through the 



376 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

three greatest names, together with certain rigmaroles. All this must be per- 
formed at sunset, facing the west, and before the mid-period of gestation. 
To insure the baby's never having colic, give it a meat-rind as soon as possible 
after birth. In most cases this had better not be done in the presence of 
the attending physician. It is also recommended by most conjurers to take 
the newly-born babe up by the heels, as this will probably free it from many 
ills to which flesh is heir. 

This list might be extended to fill a volume as large as this and still not 
have exhausted the subject. Since beginning to investigate along these lines, 
I have unearthed an astonishing amount of beliefs, superstitions, magic and 
witchcraft, all having to do with the supernatural. There are plenty of peo- 
ple in Boone county today who believe in witches. There are a number of 
people of my acquaintance and of yours, my reader, who will risk a conjurer 
sooner than the best schooled doctor in the state. The desire of the fledgling 
to fly is proof of its ability to fly. Man's desire for immortality is a proof 
of the immortality of his soul. I wonder if all this superstition isn't a mani- 
festation of the same thing? 

Under this head I must not neglect to mention Indian doctors. An 
Indian medicine-man, Buck-on-ga-helas, was largely engaged in the practice 
of the healing arts in Fort Wayne in 1804. He was chief medicine-man and 
surgeon to Little Turtle, the great Miami chieftain. He acquired a great 
reputation in the cure of bites of poisonous snakes, but more particularly 
from poisoned arrows then used among the Indians. His practice was not 
confined to the Indians, but was quite extensive among the white settlers. 
There isn't much doubt but that this medicine-man had a few patients in and 
around what is now Thorntown. There is some slight reason to believe that 
another medicine-man called Ma-te-a (who) practiced his art in this county. 

These Indian doctors were sharp, shrewd Indians, well acquainted with 
all the medicinal qualities of herbs, especially as applied to the treatment of 
snake bites, poisoned arrows, and the diseases incidental to savage life. By 
far the greater part of their practice consisted of incantations and juggleries. 
The doctor would usually dress himself in the most grotesque manner, with 
face painted to inspire fright, then with a great variety of contortions of 
the body approach his patient. He would breathe on him, blow in his face, 
squirt medicine into his mouth and nose; rattle beans or pebbles in a dry 
gourd over him, at the same time keeping up the most horrid gesticulations 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 377 

and noises to frighten away the disease. After thus making his professional 
visit, he would retire to await the result of his effort. Doctor Kemper, in his 
Medical History of Indiana, tells us that the Indian doctor would compound 
his potion and then drink it himself in order to cure his patient. If our 
present-day doctors practiced this, would it have any effect on the taste of the 
potion? Longfellow, in a few of the closing lines of Hiawatha's Lamenta- 
tion, has set out the rules of practice of the Indian when he tells us : 

"Then the medicine-man, the Nudas, 

The magicians, the Wabenos, 

And the Jossakeeds, the prophets, 

Came to visit Hiawatha 

Built a Sacred Lodge beside him, 

To appease him, to console him, 

Walked in silent, grave procession, 

Bearing each a pouch of healing, 

Skin of beaver, lynx, or otter, 

Filled with magic roots and simples, 

Filled with very potent medicines. 

Then a magic drink they gave him. 

Made of Nahana — wusk, the spearmint, 

And Wabeno — wusk, the yarrow, 

Roots of power, and herbs of healing ; 

Beat their drums, and shook their rattles ; 

Chanted singly and in chorus. 

Mystic songs. * * * 

Then they shook their medicine-pouches 

O'er the head of Hiawatha, 

Danced their medicine-dance around him; 

And upstarting wild and haggard. 

Like a man from dreams awakened, 

He was healed of all his madness. 

As the clouds are swept from heaven, 

Straightway from his brain departed 

All his moody melancholy : 

As the ice is swept from rivers. 



37§ BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

Forth then issued Hiawatha, 

Wandered eastward, wandered westward, 

Teaching men the use of simples, 

And the antidotes for poisons, 

And the cure of all diseases. 

Thus was first made known to mortals 

All the mystery of Medanim. 

All the sacred art of healing." 



SOME PIONEER PHYSICIANS. 

I feel justified in giving herewith a few sketches of the lives of some of 
our pioneer physicians. I think this is advisable for several reasons : ( 1 ) 
These men lived in times which "tried men's souls." (2) That they should 
be remembered for what they were as well as what they tried to do, for the 
record of the physicians of Boone county has been a creditable one; few 
moral delinquencies have existed. They have been observant and industrious. 
Our death rate has not been excessive even in the face of serious epidemics, 
which, in the past, have stolen upon us like thieves in the night. 

Dr. William N. Duzan was born in Tennessee, in 1809. With his 
father, Rev. William Duzan, he came to Clarkstown about the year 1836. 
He commenced practice as a country doctor in the east part of Boone and 
the west part of Hamilton counties, his father's farm being on the line just 
east of Clarkstown. Late in life he married a lady in Indianapolis, and 
about the year 1856 removed to that city, where he mostly resided, except a 
short stay in Arkansas and California. 

Doctor Duzan followed nature's methods of healing, being guided by 
experience in his large practice. He was very successful in business and 
made a host of friends. In person he was of medium size, auburn hair, 
small piercing eyes, indicating a quick, nervous temperament. In politics, 
he was an unflinching Democrat. He died at Indianapolis, August, 1886; 
buried at Crown Hill cemetery. 

Dr. Jeremiah Larimore was born in Fayette county, Indiana, in 1825. 
His father, H. G. Larimore, was his tutor; he also was a physician. When 
but a lad, he came with his father, in 1834, to Eagle Village, where he re- 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 379 

ceived the best training the common schools afforded. At twenty-one, he 
went to Missouri, where he attended medical school, married in 1845, an< ^ 
practiced for several years. He then returned to his former home in Eagle 
Village, where he found more work than he could well do. After four 
years of continuous practice, he sought recuperation in California for the 
next three years. Returning to his old home, he soon regained his prac- 
tice, and when Eagle Village declined he went to Zionsville and practiced 
several years, then to Whitestown, where he also prospered in his practice. 
In the early eighties he died in Indianapolis and is buried at Mt. Run ceme- 
tery. 

Dr. Samuel K. Hardy, one of the early doctors of Northfield, was born 
in Virginia, married Miss Sarah Larimore in Fayette county, Indiana. He 
commenced the practice of medicine in Northfield, Boone county, in 1844, 
where he remained a number of years and built up an extensive practice, 
subsequently removing to Zionsville, where he continued at work until his 
death. In personal appearance Doctor Hardy was tall, rawboned, of rather 
angular build, dark hair and complexion. He is the father of Dr. J. S. 
Hardy, of Whitestown, this county. 

Doctor Pressly was one of Northfield's pioneer doctors, away back in 
the thirties. So long ago not much can be learned about him. No doubt he 
was highly esteemed and appreciated and filled the community's needs. 

Dr. A. J. McLeod was also an early doctor of Northfield, where he came 
prior to 1850. He was a Baptist, which is about all that can be ascertained 
of him at this late date. 

Dr. Rodman was born in Ohio about the year 1820; came to Boone 
county when twenty-one years of age; read medicine with Dr. W. N. Duzan, 
of Clarkstown, Indiana. In 1845, he commenced practice at Eagle Village, 
where he was married to Martha Rose in 1847. He built up a fair practice 
in Eagle Village and remained there until 1853, when he removed to Zions- 
ville. He practiced here some fifteen years, when his wife died. He re- 
married this time, Mrs. Beemer, and moved to Washington territory in 1887. 
Doctor Rodman was a noble hearted man, full of human kindness, first, last 
and all the time. In politics, he was a Jacksonian Democrat. At one time 
he and Dr. George W. Duzan were partners at Zionsville. 

Dr. George W. Duzan, St., was born in Tennessee in 1812; came with 
the Duzan family to this county in 1834. He read medicine with his brother, 



380 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

W. N. Duzan, and practiced with him for years in and about Clarkstown, 
their early home. In 1850 he was married to a lady near Augusta, in Marion 
county, and there removed and practiced for several years. Finally he went 
to Indianapolis and died near there in May, 1886, and is buried in Crown 
Hill cemetery. Doctor Duzan was a strong Methodist and at one time an 
able preacher. During his study he overtaxed his eyesight from which he 
never fully recovered. He will long be remembered by many to whom he 
has ministered physically and spiritually. The Duzans were all kinfolks. 

Dr. George L. Burk was born in Kentucky. His parents moved to this 
county in 1836-37, and settled in the wildwoods of Jefferson township. His 
father died soon after, leaving his mother with small means and a large 
family. 

The subject of this article, while young, went to Gosport and read medi- 
cine with Doctor Taylor. In the spring of 1844, he began the practice of 
his profession in Montgomery county. During that year he moved to James- 
town, Boone county, where he has resided ever since. Here he went into a 
large and lucrative practice. None were so poor as not to be able to com- 
mand his services. Doctor Burk started in the world under any but flatter- 
ing circumstances, poor and comparatively uneducated; yet, by his force of 
character, his zeal and industry, he reached a prominent standing in the 
community and county, an honor to his profession and state. 

Dr. John J. Nesbit came to this county in 1836 and began his pro- 
fessional life in Thorntown. Soon, however, he moved to Lebanon, where 
he had a fair practice and enjoyed the undivided confidence of the people. 
He was an excellent physician, but his health failing he moved back to Preble 
county, Ohio, where he died of consumption in 1864, lamented deeply by 
all those who had the pleasure to make his acquaintance. 

Dr. Jesse S. Reagan was born in Warren county, Ohio, in 1831, is, 
consequently a Buckeye, but, he came to this county in 1852 and began the 
practice of medicine at Reese's Mills in 1854. He made this his home. Here 
he has enjoyed the fullest confidence of the people and on account of his 
strict integrity and great energy and industry, he was elected clerk of the 
circuit court in November, 1886. 

Dr. H. G. Larimore, one of the pioneer doctors of Boone county, came 
to Eagle Village in the year 1836, where he practiced medicine for over forty 
years as an old time doctor. He was a strict Methodist, full of old time 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 38 1 

vim and fire. In politics, he was a Whig. In i860 he moved to Fayette 
county, Indiana and died there in his ninety-first year. He was the father 
of Dr. Jeremiah Larimore, Thomas J. Larimore, Mrs. Eliza Imbler, G. W. 
Larimore, Mrs. Sarah Hogan, Mrs. G. A. Titus, Mrs. Mary , for- 
merly, Miss Mary Larimore. Doctor Jerry is buried at Mt. Run cemetery. 

Dr. W. P. Davis was an Ohio man. Came to Thorntown iri" , i837 ; re- 
moved to Lebanon in 1840. Was a man of more than ordinary ability, 
positive in his convictions and politically and radically a Whig. Afterwards 
he became an intense Republican. He died in Des Moines, Iowa, in 1878. 

Dr. William M. Simpkins was born in Ohio. Came to Lebanon in 
1839. Was as fine a specimen of manhood as any country produces, full 
of energy and industry; no man was ever more interested in his patients. 
Owing to hard work, exposure and sleepless nights, he cut short his pro- 
fessional career which only lasted ten years. He took consumption and 
died lamented by all in 1849. 

In Dr. A. G. Porter can be summed all that has been said of the other 
Boone county physicians. Lebanon was the home of his youth, his man- 
hood and his old days. He is honored and respected by all and as a doctor 
had no superior in Boone county. Always ready to go to the bedside of 
the sick and dying whether there was any money or not in the visit, how 
could he be otherwise than loved.- He has always acted in the Democratic 
party and was the nominee for county recorder in 1886, but was defeated 
by a few votes, by F. M. Moody. He had a fine practice in Lebanon where 
he is universally respected and loved. 



THE PIONEER DOCTOR. 

The "Medicine Man" was here long before the white man; practicing his 
incantations and soothing with herbs and roots. It is not of him we wish to 
write, but of his brother the paleface. Just as soon as the white man came 
with his ax, gun, spade and grubbing hoe, the doctor came with his pill bag. 
It was a case of necessity. Just as sure as the country was full of game and 
dense woods and required the gun and the ax, so also, was it full of fever and 
miasma. In that age, the people were in blissful ignorance of microbes and 
bacteria so there was no need of the bacteriologist or microbiologist, to ex- 
patiate upon these infinitesimals that were so dangerous to the peace and 



382 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

health of man. All the doctor of that day had to do, was to drag himself 
through the woods and over the miserable roads on horseback with his sad- 
dlebags until he would find a cabin. Having discovered the domicil of his 
patient in the thicket, he would dismount and tie his faithful horse to a "sap- 
lin." He would shoulder his medicine bag and enter the cabin. If it was cold 
or rainy, he would approach the glowing hearth-stone with his great coat and 
gloves and warm himself. After this precaution he would quietly approach 
the bedside of his patient, and question cautiously and carefully all the while 
looking very wise. Of course, he had to feel the pulse and test the tongue. 
He would then open his bag of medicine, look over his vials of quinine, calo- 
mel and the edges of his lances. At the same time he would scratch his head 
behind the left ear, appear in a brown study and all of a sudden brighten up, 
take out his bottle of quinine or calomel or lance as he had determined be- 
tween blood letting, salivation or shaking up the fever. You need not smile, 
that was the best they could do in that age, and it answered the purpose. 
Some of his patients recovered, in spite of the doctor and his calomel and 
blood letting, and the friends were rejoiced and praised the doctor and his 
medicine. What else could they do ? We do the same thing in our day and 
the world smiles on just the same. 

Other patients passed away and there was mourning for loved ones gone, 
and there were tears, neighbors with neighbors and the grave was opened and 
the loved one placed in the cold earth. Among these early physicians were 
Jonathan Jones and John M. Steel Smith, of Marion township; George N. 
Duzan and S. W. Rodman, of Eagle ; J. E. Anderson, L. J. Davis and E. S. 
Woody, of Sugar Creek ; J. S. Hardy and Milton Lane, of Worth ; John F. 
Sims, J. M. Abston and Levi J. Sticklemier, of Clinton; A. M. Bennington, 
of Jefferson; J. L. F. Garrison, M. H. Bounell, A. G. Porter and Abijah 
Robison, of Center township, and many others in various parts of the county 
that were classed among the pioneer doctors of the county. Each of these 
gentlemen could a story unfold of the hardships and difficulties of the prac- 
tice of medicine in the early days of our history. The labor of these men 
ceased long ago, and they have been gathered with their fathers. Their work 
was well done, and they labored against great difficulties in their day and 
generation. 

Among the physicians of our day may be named the following, viz. : 
Carter H. Smith and son, Delaski, G. K. Hurt, W. H. Williams, J. R. Ball, 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 383 

L. M. Beaven, Herman A. Beck, H. L. Baker, H. N. Coons, James H. Black, 
Mary VanNuys, Guy Shultz, O. C. Higgins and Dr. Armstrong, of Lebanon. 
C. R. Armstrong, E. L. Brown, Clancy Basett, G. M. Owsley, Luella Masters, 
and J. S. Shields, of Thorntown ; J. C. Purdy, of Terhune ; C. D. Umberhine, 
of Mechanicsburg ; Thomas Bounell, of Jamestown; J. E. Tucker, of Eliza- 
ville; O. A. Nelson, Dr. Fall, of Advance; Isaac N. Cotton, Nelson Duzan, 
Drs. Brendel and son, Johns, and Millikan, of Zionsville; P. B. Little, and 
Dr. Taylor, of Whitestown. These men and women are keeping pace with 
the age, and administering to the ills of the people of Boone today, with all 
the skill of the science of medicine up to date. There is a great change not 
only in the system of practice, but in the conditions and facilities to do the 
work. All of the inconveniences of the early day have been removed. In- 
stead of taking two days to communicate with the out townships it can now 
be done inside of five minutes. 



PASSED CENTURY MARK. 

That Boone county is a healthful county, is the conclusion reached by 
Dr. J. N. Hurty, secretary of the State Board of Health, from two reports 
which he has received from that county. Hugh Wiatt, who lived in Sugar 
Creek township, Boone county, was, at the time of his death, 109 years, two 
months and two days old. He was born in Kentucky, and age caused his 
death. Miles Carrigan, who lived at Lebanon, was more than 101 years old 
when he died. He was born in Ireland, and his death was due to senility 
and brain anemia. 



CHAPTER XV. 



BANKING INTEREST. 



There was no need' of banking institutions in the early days of Boone 
county, because the people did not have any money. In those days the people 
lived happily without money. Like the Red man, the White man bartered 
such things as he had to his neighbor for his goods in exchange. It was a 
long time before the people had money to worry them enough, to desire some 
one to take care of it for them. About the first banking institution of which 
any one has any recollection, was rather a private institution owned by indi- 
viduals. They were not even incorporated, and as a usual thing there was 
but one stockholder in the institution. The safety vault consisted of a blue 
yarn sock into which the coin was placed and carefully secreted in some 
outaway place in the cabin. If the deposit became too large for the recep- 
tacle, vessels were used, and some were buried in an outaway place, where 
no one would think of looking for such treasures. There were not very many 
of these banks necessary to accommodate the depositors of that age, for the 
wealth of this county for two or three decades did not consist of filthy lucre. 
The wealth of the county consisted of farms of woods, principally woods in- 
terspersed with little cleared spots, with bogs here and there, a few cattle and 
hogs and lots of wild game. The first wealth that began to accumulate was 
rosy-cheeked boys and girls ; for all this class of wealth that we term banks 
in this age was not in demand. The banking business, for a long time after 
it was felt necessary to have any person to look after the surplus wealth of a 
few persons, was conducted like schools, churches, and other social interests, 
by private individuals as mere care takers. If a merchant progressed far 
enough in business to require an iron safe to secure his valuables from plun- 
der or fire, some of his customers would be sure to request the privilege of 
depositing some valuable treasure for safe keeping. Business run in this 
way for a few years, and the merchant would have to get a larger safe and 
other merchants would put in safes. In this way a real demand grew up for 
the banking business, and when the Wild-Cat money flooded our state, its 





"ill! i lllr 

III. " ? f' I 




FIRST NATIONAL BANK— LEBANON. 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 385 

value changing three or more times a day, and not of the same value in any 
two cities, everybody wanted a banker. In those days it was more difficult 
to take care of money than it was to earn it. By the use of the sock, the 
private bank and the state bank, the people of Boone county worried along 
as best they could until after the Civil war. After the war was over and the 
Nation got on its feet again ready for business, the banking business became 
more stable and taking care of money became a real business. The National 
bank was instituted and we had private, state and national banks. 

The first bank in the county, of which we have record, is one organized 
in Lebanon, just before the outbreak of the Civil war and titled "The Boone 
County Bank." This institution was established under the old banking law, 
and proved by its conduct that the law was insufficient to protect the public 
safety. This first bank in the county was a bank of issue and authorized 
to put out sixty thousand dollars in bills of its own issue. A. W. Spooner, 
of New York, was its president. In the state auditor's report of the early 
sixties, found in the public library at Indianapolis, is found a report of this 
"First Bank of Boone'' which is not very flattering. It states that there was 
an attempt to fraud. The printers had printed three or four times as many 
bills as the bank was authorized to put into circulation. This act was de- 
tected in time, and on investigation the bank was suspended, and the Fletcher 
Bank at Indianapolis was appointed to close up its business. It is stated that 
some of the promises of this bank to pay found their way to the soldiers of 
Boone in the army during the Civil war and that they were about as valuable 
as the Confederates' promise to pay at the close of the war. This, in brief, 
is a dark picture of the first effort at banking in Boone county. It had much 
to do with correcting the imperfections of the law, which made business 
more stable and more secure to the people. 

The next effort at banking was at Thorntown, just after the Civil war, 
when "The First National Bank" was established, with a capital of $25,000 
and Dr. John Boyd as president. This bank lived out its charter of twenty 
years of honorable life, serving the people faithfully and closing its business. 

The second bank in Lebanon was "The Lebanon Bank," organized soon 
after the close of the Civil war, with a capital of $60,000. It continued in 
business under the above title until 1882, when it was reorganized into the 
(25) 



386 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

"The Lebanon National Bank" and increased its capital to $80,000. It con- 
tinued successfully until 191 1, when it went into liquidation in the hands of 
"The First National of Lebanon," after squaring up all obligations, leaving 
a surplus to be divided among its stockholders. 

We will submit here a brief mention of the Banks, Trust, Loan & Build- 
ing institutions now operating in the county. 



THE UNION TRUST COMPANY, LEBANON. 

This company was organized February 15, 1912, with a capital stock of 
$50,000.00, with the following officers: M. C. Long, president; S. R. Art- 
man, vice-president; A. W. L. Newcomer, secretary-treasurer; G. A. Miller, 
assistant secretary-treasurer. Directors : M. C. Long, S. R. Artman, J. W. 
Brendel, M. H. Roberts, C. F. S. Neal, J. C. Brown, D. S. Whitaker, J. P. 
Staley, A. W. L. Newcomer. 

Statement of condition at the close of business, October 24, 1914. 



RESOURCES. 

Farmers' State Bank $5-365.35 

Merchants' National Bank 11,754.00 

Indiana Trust Co 643.27 

Cash 8,178.83 

Total Cash 25,941.45 

Loans and Discounts 123,815.48 

Overdrafts 21.60 

Furniture and Fixtures 3,970.07 

Expense — Current 1,317.45 

Expense — Interest Paid 1,134.54 

Real Estate 21,000.00 

Total $177,200.59 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 387 

LIABILITIES. 

Individual Deposits $38,388.27 

Certificates of Deposit 66,034.46 

Trust Deposits 10,952.43 

Savings Deposits 7,926.43 

Total Deposits 123,301.59 

Capital Stock 50,000.00 

Exchange and Discount 3,649.00 

Surplus 250.00 

Total $177,200.59 

The present officers are as follows : M. C. Long, president; C. O. Brown, 
vice-president ; J. W. Witt, secretary-treasurer ; C. L. Lindsay, assistant secre- 
tary-treasurer. Directors: M. C. Long, J. W. Witt, C. O. Brown, James 
Shera, C. F. S. Neal, J. C. Brown, D. S. Whitaker, J. P. Staley, A. W. L. 
Newcomer. 

FIRST NATIONAL BANK, LEBANON. 

This institution was organized soon after the Civil war, with a capital 
stock of $100,000. This is the oldest bank in the county and has had a steady 
growth from the start. Late in 19 14, a new home was erected which is a 
credit to the institution, city and county. 

The officers are as follows: W. J. DeVol, president; J. W. Pinnell, 
first vice-president; A. Wysong, second vice-president: J. A. Coons, cashier. 



RESOURCES. 

Loans and Discounts $612,154.04 

United States Bonds 100,000.00 

Bonds, Securities, etc 13,218.09 

Banking House and Fixtures 15,492.60 

Due from Approved Banks 63,587.56 

Checks and Cash Items 8,086.03 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 



Notes on Other Banks 7,750.00 

Cash in Bank 33,700.00 

Redemption Fund U. S 5,000.00 

Other Items Making Total $865,060.91 



LIABILITIES. 

Capital Stock $100,000.00 

Surplus Fund 100,000.00 

Due to Banks 10,548.46 

Due to Trust Companies 15,492.60 

Individual Deposits 344,628.70 

Demand Deposits 167,947.30 

U. S. Deposits and P. O. Stamps 1,650.68 

Banking House 11,500.00 

Other Items Making Total of $865,060.91 



THE FARMERS STATE BANK, LEBANON. 

Organized December 30, 1900. 

Capital stock, $30,000.00. 

Certificate of authority issued January 2, 1901. 

Opened for business March II, 1901. 

Directors elected December 31, 1900. 

Original of first board as follows, to wit : J. M. Martin, R. E. Niven, 
Ben. C. Booher, J. P. Staley, W. C. Jaques, Frank C. Phillips, W. T. Hooton, 
J. M. Brendel, Anthony Kincaid. 

Officers elected December 31, 1900, as follows, to wit: J. M. Martin, 
president; R. E. Niven, vice-president; Isaac P. Hooton, cashier; W. T. 
Hooton, assistant cashier ; Bert Cook and Alta E. Martin, bookkeepers. 

Capital stock increased April 23, 1902 to $50,000.00. 

Capital stock increased April 18, 1906, to $100,000.00. 

List Original Stockholders — R. E. Niven, Brendel & Harvey, A. P. 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 389 

Fitch, Charles A. Gochenour, B. F. Simmons, James M. Nicely, Frank C. 
Phillips, James A. White, W. C. Jaques, Ben. C. Booher, James P. Staley, 
J. M. Martin, John Aldrich, J. W. Jones, B. F. Ratcliff, Charles J. Stewart, 
C. O. Brown, W. T. and I. P. Hooton, Martin McBroom, Anthony Kincaid, 
Frank LaFollette, Margaret Cunningham, M. F. Campbell, B. F. Hawkins, 
George T. Young, H. P. Stephens. 

Present Officers — J. M. Martin, president, elected December 31, 1900; 
J. P. Staley, cashier, elected March 11, 1902; J. E. Morrison, vice-president, 
elected January 2, 1908; John L. Wade, assistant cashier, elected September 
20, 1907; Homer Dale, assistant cashier, elected October 4, 1909; Alva L. 
Martin, teller; Ray Potts, Chester Johnson, bookkeepers. 

Statement of condition at the close of business October 31, 1914: 



RESOURCES. 

Loans and Discounts $390,185.28 

Overdrafts 4.55774 

Banking House 40,000.00 

Furniture and Fixtures 4,112.50 

Other Real Estate 94§-95 

Due from Banks and Trust Companies 23,000.63 

Cash on Hand 20,975.48 

Cash Items 495-96 

Current Expenses 3,237.88 

Interest Paid 1,565.77 

Total Resources $489,080.19 



LIABILITIES. 

Capital Stock Paid In $100,000.00 

Surplus 45,000.00 

Undivided profits 2,000.00 

Exchange, Discounts and Interest 9,617.52 



390 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

I, John L. Wade, assistant cashier $213,- 
006.04; demand certificates, $65,719.12; 

time certificates, $21,800 300,525.16 

Due to Banks and Trust Companies 11,937.51 

Bills Payable 20,000.00 

Total Liabilities $489,080.19 



BOONE COUNTY STATE BANK, LEBANON. 

Boone County State Bank was organized October 14, 191 1, and has been 
in operation over three years. 

Statement of condition at close of business October 14, 1914: 

RESOURCES. 

Loans and Discounts $154,150.46 

Overdrafts 2,699.91 

Bonds 960.00 

Furniture and Fixtures 7,350.00 

Cash and Due from Banks 38,816.13 

Premiums 

Expense 48.41 

Interest Paid 3°9-34 

Total $204.33425 

LIABILITIES. 

Capital Stock $50,000.00 

Surplus 5>3 8o -°° 

Discount and Interest 535-79 

Deposits 148,418.46 

Deposits, Time 

Bills Payable 

Total $204,334.25 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 39I 

Present Officers — Morris Ritchie, president, B. F. Herdrick, vice-presi- 
dent; George E. Adams, cashier; Charles M. Forbes, assistant cashier. Di- 
rectors : Morris Ritchie, B. F. Herdrick, Elbert Perkins, Pat Shahan, R. S. 
Stall, George E. Adams, F. E. Hutchinson. 



CITIZENS LOAN AND TRUST COMPANY. 

This company was organized in 1899. 

Statement of condition at the close of business September 14, 1914: 

RESOURCES. 

Loans and Discounts $227,000.00 

Due from Banks 23,000.00 

Cash and Expense 12,000.00 

Other Resources 7,000.00 

LIABILITIES. 

Capital $25,000.00 

Undivided Deposits 216,000.00 

Savings Deposits 37,000.00 

Trust Deposits 37,000.00 

The present officers are as follows : A. Wysong, president ; W. J. DeVol, 
vice-president ; W. T. Hooton, secretary-treasurer ; J. A. Coons, assistant sec- 
retary-treasurer. 



THE CITIZENS STATE BANK, JAMESTOWN. 

This bank was organized July 1, 1903, with a capital stock of $25,000 
and succeeded the Piersol & Roberts Bank, a private institution. The capital 
stock was increased from $25,000 to $30,000 on July 1, 1910. The first of- 
ficers were, Charles F. Martin, president; Marion Bailey, vice-president; 
George W. Piersol, cashier; Marion H. Roberts, assistant cashier. The first 
directors were, Americus C. Daily, Mat Martin, Daniel Feely, Charles F. 



39 2 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

Martin, Marion Porter, Marion Bailey, Nathan A. Tucker, James O. Graves, 
David H. Shockley. 

The present officers are, Charles F. Martin, president; Marion Bailey, 
vice-president; George W. Piersol, cashier; Marion H. Roberts, assistant 
cashier ; Granville Wells, assistant cashier. Present directors, Charles F. Mar- 
tin, Marion Bailey, George W. Piersol, Marion H. Roberts, James T. Leak, 
Nathan A. Tucker, Mat Martin, Richard Miller, David H. Shockley. 

The capital, surplus and undivided profits at this time are $40,000.00. 
This bank carries average deposits of $175,000 and average loans of a like 
amount. 

STATE BANK OF JAMESTOWN, INDIANA. 

Statement of condition at close of business November 6, 1914: 

RESOURCES. 

Loans and Discounts $189,003.08 

Other Items Making Total of 239.785.50 

LIABILITIES. 

Capital Stock $30,000.00 

Surplus, Undivided Profits 9,000.00 

Deposits and Certificates 149,024.76 

Other Items Making Total of $239>7 8 5-5° 

George W. Piersol, Cashier. 

STATE BANK OF ADVANCE. 

This bank was established in 1901 and has had a steady growth from the 
start. The following is a statement of its condition : 

RESOURCES. 

Loans and Discounts $82,000.00 

State and M. Bonds 2,000.00 

Due from Banks 95,000.00 

Cash and Exchange 6,000.00 




i^ll 



1 



pi 

pan 



*m 




FARMERS STATE BANK— LEBANON. 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 393 



LIABILITIES. 



Capital 25,000.00 

Surplus and Profits 7,000.00 

Deposits 177,000.00 

The present officers are W. J.- DeVol, president, J. S. Wilden, vice-presi- 
dent ; H. C. Epperson, cashier ; Fred Thompson, assistant cashier. 

FARMERS BANK OF ZIONSVILLE. 

This is a private institution on a firm basis of a capital of $25,000 and 
was organized in 1882. It is abundantly qualified to accommodate the bank- 
ing interest of Eagle township and community. The individual deposits 
amount to about $100,000 and the total business of the bank will average 
about $125,000. The present officers are J. W. Brendel, president, M. D. 
Harvey, cashier, E. Harvey, assistant cashier. 

CITIZENS BANK OF WHITESTOWN. 

This small banking house in this village, the capital of Worth township, 
is amply able to accommodate all banking demands. It was organized in 
1 90 1, and at present has a capitalization of $10,000 and an average deposit of 
$100,000. This bank and the Farmers Bank of Zionsville compose a monetary 
for the southeast part of Boone county, including Union, Eagle, Perry and 
Worth townships. The officers of the Citizens Bank are, P. Smith, president ; 
Benjamin F. Hawkins, vice-president; Roy C. Smith, cashier. 

THE FIRST NATIONAL BANK OF THORNTOWN. 

This bank was the first regular banking institution and was organized 
soon after the Civil war and continued in business during the time of its char- 
ter when it closed its business and was succeeded by the State Bank of Thorn- 
town in 1890, with a capital stock of $30,000, afterwards increased to 
$40,000. 



394 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

STATE BANK OF THORNTOWN. 

Statement of condition at close of business November 6, 1914: 

RESOURCES. 

Loans and Discounts $196,856.80 

Overdrafts 1,195.16 

Other Bonds and Securities 353-ro 

Cash and Dues from Banks 72,738.88 

Total $241,143.94 

LIABILITIES. 

Capital Stock $40,000.00 

Surplus 10,000.00 

Undivided Profits 5>599-55 

Deposits 180,544.39 

Bills Payable 5,000.00 

Total $241,143.94 

Hugh Niven, Cashier. 



HOME NATIONAL BANK, THORNTOWN. 

Statement of condition at close of business November 10, 1914: 

RESOURCES. 

Loans and Discounts $119,488.92 

Overdrafts 677.57 

Unpaid Bonds 30,000.00 

Bonds, Securities, etc. 4,260.00 

Banking House and Fixtures 11,340.00 

Due from Reserved Agents 23,800.68 

Checks and Cash Items 39873 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 395 

Notes of Other National Banks 90.00 

Nickels and Cents 76-37 

Lawful Money in Bank 6,899.00 

Redemption Fund U. S. Treasury 1,500.00 

Total $198,521.27 

LIABILITIES. 

Capital Stock 30,000.00 

Surplus Fund 7,000.00 

Undivided Profits 1,455.66 

National Bank Notes r 30,000.00 

Dividends Unpaid 320.00 

Individual Deposits 102,950.03 

Demand Deposits 22,695.68 

Bills Payable 5,000.00 

Total $198,521.27 

Hugh Woody, Cashier. 



CHAPTER XVI. 

CITIES AND TOWNS OF THE COUNTY. 



Lebanon, the county-seat of Boone, is situated in the center of 
the county. The court house is located on the second meridian line, and 
five hundred and fifty-five feet north of the half section lines of section 36, 
town 19 north, range 1 west, and section 31, town 19 north, range 1 east, 
being in longitude 86" and 28' west, and latitude 40 and 4' north. Its 
elevation above sea level is 950 feet. It is over 200 feet above Indianapolis, 
and 100 feet above Frankfort and Crawfordsville. In this section of the 
state of Indiana, it is indeed the Lebanon in altitude when compared with 
other towns and cities. It was staked out in the woods and bogs on Prairie 
creek, about twelve miles from its confluence with Sugar creek at Thorn- 
town. 

Abner H. Longley has the distinction of driving the first stake for a 
home in its limits. It will be of interest to know how he reached the point. 
In the spring of 1832, as he came creeping along the state highway that was 
marked out from Indianapolis to LaFayette. he stuck in a swamp southeast 
of his destination in the crossing of Prairie creek, a mile and one-half 
southeast of Lebanon. He had to hunt around through the woods to get 
someone to help him out of his difficulty. He finally found Benjamin Dunn, 
who resided on the same road three miles northwest of Lebanon. He had 
a large pioneer heart, and cheerfully yoked "Buck and Bright" and accom- 
panied him to the place, where he had left the wagon in the swamp, and 
thus kindly assisted, they brought the wagon and its contents into the port 
of Lebanon without "steam or sail." Mr. Longley having secured a lot on 
the southwest corner of the public square, erected the first house in the 
prospective city, a rough, one-room log cabin, and into this log cabin he and 
his family of ten persons, consisting of his wife and six children, his wid- 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 397 

owed mother and his sister, lived. In front of this cabin the first veranda 
was constructed. It was built by setting some rude posts into the ground 
and placing overhead the green, new cut branches of the trees. It made a 
delightful shade and was considered a luxury in its day. It was distin- 
guished by being occupied as the first justice hall in the city of Lebanon. 
Here the first session of the circuit court was held. When Judge Morris. 
William Quarles and Calvin Fletcher, Esqs., arrived for the purpose of 
holding the first court they remarked, "Well, here is Lebanon, but where 
are the houses?" Mr. Longley was the entire town at that time. Home, 
school, church, court and the whole shop was under his hospitable roof. 
John Patterson has the distinction of being the second settler, and built the 
second log cabin in the flourishing city. The next year, 1833, William M. 
Smith swelled the population with his family, and erected the third log 
cabin. His home has the distinction of coming up by the first log-rolling 
ever held in the growing city. Soon after this the town had a boom, and 
S. S. Brown, J. S. Forsythe, J. C. Lane, Jonathan H. Rose, the first doctor, 
Levi Lane came, followed by many others. During the winter of 1835 the 
trees on the public square were felled and cut into logs, rolled into heaps 
and burned. The great portion of the town plat was yet in the woods. 
These few cabins were surrounded by tall trees, if they were not the cedars 
of Lebanon. Hickory, oak, maple, walnut and others of gigantic growth 
of over one hundred feet in height overshadowed their homes. The first 
court house was built in 1835. It was a hewn log structure. It stood im- 
mediately north of the public square and just west of the present jail. It 
served as a hall of justice for five years, when a brick building of two 
stories was erected on the present site, which cost our fathers at that time 
the enormous sum of four thousand dollars. This second house served 
until 1855, when the third house was begun and finished in 1857, at a cost 
of forty thousand dollars. The third house was razed in 19 10 and rebuilt 
in 191 1, at a cost of two hundred and fifty thousand dollars. This growth 
and development of court houses is an excellent index of the growth of the 
county-seat, and it in turn of the wonderful advance of the county from an 
almost impenetrable wilderness to the beauty, wealth and luxury that we 
behold on every hand today. To have a good idea of what has been 
wrought by our people in less than seventy-five years, look at Lebanon in its 
beginnings, and its court house of this date. All other interests of the people 



398. BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

have kept pace in homes, churches and schools. This great change did not 
all come in a day. It was of slow growth. The old citizens can remember 
when the city was still in the bogs. In 1840, when the first brick court 
house was built, it was surrounded by modest frame buildings. It was in- 
teresting at that time and even at a much later period, to know how the 
people got about in times when Prairie creek had possession of the town. 
There were a few plank walks set on blocks sawed from trees and set on 
end and planks laid endwise. In times of flood they became rafts and it 
took some art to walk on them. Often the pedestrians would be derailed 
and have to swim or wade owing to the depth of the water. Later, travel 
was by mud boats or plunging into mud from the ankle upwards. Back in 
those days they got it out on the Lebanonites that they were "web-footed," 
and the name went to all Booneites and stuck to them until they got out of 
the mud and water. It was this "guy" that goaded them into activity, and 
hastened the system of ditching and road building. 

If one would look into Lebanon today, with its handsome homes, its 
modern public buildings, its paved streets and beauty, it would be difficult to 
convince him that a few years ago it was what our fathers say of it. If we 
could only see the town in the forties and the fifties, and behold its beauty 
and luxury of today, it would aid us in appreciating what our fathers en- 
dured for us. It gives some conception of the toil and hardships that they 
underwent to secure for us this rich heritage. They planted in the muck 
and the mire out of which has come the beauty of the lily of our day. They 
were the hewers of wood and the drawers of water, the very mud sills of 
our civilization. If they had not wrought and sacrificed we would yet be 
in the woods and wading in the swamps. We pause to give this picture of 
the beginnings, that we may know from whence we came, and to enable us 
to better appreciate the high privileges that have come to us as a heritage 
from our forefathers. 

The town dragged heavily through the mud and made very slow prog- 
ress. Ten and twenty years passed in this way until many that started to 
build wore their lives out in the effort, passed away or moved to a more 
healthful clime. It would make an interesting book to tell the story of the 
first twenty years of the struggle of this county-seat in the mud and woods 
of Boone county. The story will never be told because the participants are 
all gone. Now and then the curtain is drawn and a glimpse of the toilers 
is caught. 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 399 

James Samuel Strong was born in Ohio in the year 1805. Four years 
later, on June 8, 1809, in the Miami valley, Miss Temperance was born, 
daughter of George Weller and Sarah Bell Crist. Her father moved to 
what is now Union county, Indiana, in 1812. Samuel Strong, as a young 
man, came later, wooed Miss Temperance, and on April 12, 1832, they were 
joined in wedlock. Before the honeymoon was over the bride and groom 
set their faces westward and landed in Lebanon and began to build a home. 
As an industry he established the first tanyard. Here he reared a large 
family. He was postmaster and school commissioner for a term of years 
in the forties. By an act of the Legislature in 1852 the town of Lebanon 
was incorporated in 1853. It had remained as a village for twenty-three 
years and for the next twenty-two years was content to be called a town. 
In 1875 it was organized as a city, with the following officers : Mayor, 
Samuel L. Hamilton; clerk, W. A. Zion; treasurer, William H. Richey; 
marshal, Jesse Perkins; assessor, Lysander Darnall; councilmen, A. O. Mil- 
ler, A. C. Daily, Thomas Ailesworth, James Nealis, Sol Witt and Joseph 
Kelley. Note the stages of developments, first a village, next a town, now a 
city measuring well up with its neighbors throughout the great state of In- 
diana and royally wears the honor of being the county-seat of the foremost 
county in the state. 

Lebanon is a solid city. It is not a mushroom growth. It has come up 
through hard knocks. If it was built in a swamp, its mud sills were laid 
deep and are down on hard pan. It is here to stay and grow. It is not one 
of the big towns of this day, but it is solid and brim full of energy and 
push. See its paved streets. It would be hard work to make one believe that 
for a long time in our history that they were almost impassible. See the 
beautiful homes, the graceful, commodious churches, the substantial public 
buildings after the latest improved designs, the magnificent school buildings 
With all modern fittings, the splendid business houses for manufacturing 
and facilitating trade, and above all the peaceful home-like spirit that pre- 
vails, making this a very paradise of beauty, health and quiet. When we 
behold all these comforts of life we want to forget all the history of the 
past and dwell on this picture of delight. We are not advertising, but there is 
no better place to live under the shining sun than the Lebanon of Boone 
county today. It is like all the precious things of this world, it came through 
toil, sacrifice and long suffering. 



40D BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 



This town is located in the northeast part of Jackson township and on 
the Midland railroad, nine miles southwest of Lebanon and five miles north 
of Jamestown. The place is comparatively new, springing up when the 
above railroad was proposed. The town contains quite a number of shops, 
several stores, which require mechanics, merchants, of course there are doc- 
tors, good schools, churches and many good residences. There is a post- 
office, which is a great convenience to the people of the northeast of Jack- 
son and surrounding country. The people possess an enviable reputation as 
entertainers. Some of their Sunday school conventions are passed upon as 
the very best held in the county, notably the one of 1908. Every interest 
of the community is kept thoroughly up to date. 



CLARKSTOWN. 

This once thriving little town was situated on the Michigan road, just 
north of where Little Eagle crosses the same. It kept this name for years, 
when it was changed to that of Hamilton, about the year 1838 or 1839. It 
was first named after Walter Clark, of Ohio. It was laid out on the land 
of Jacob Hoover in or about the year 1833. Trie following were the first 
citizens : Frederick Lowe, who built the first house and kept public house ; 
Elias Bishop, John and George Lowe, the Duzans, Jacob Hoover. The 
first blacksmith was Critchfield. The first doctors were W. N. Duzan. 
George Selders, George W. Duzan. The first merchants were Jacob Hoover, 
John Duzan, Oel Thayer, Zachariah Owsley. Zachariah Turpin kept a 
grocery. The first tanner was James Sheets. The first carding machine 
was built by Jacob Hoover and Moses Lyons as early as 1837 and has been 
kept up ever since; is now owned by Paul D. Liebhardt, with a sawmill 
attached. Andrew Hopkins, Clinton Osborn and Allen Brook were the 
saddlers and harness-makers. The town has been allowed to go into de- 
cadence. There are only a few dilapidated houses remaining that mark the 
site of the once flourishing town of Clarkstown. 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 4OI 



This town was laid out in 1850 by Ariss Pauley. It was first known as 
"Crackaway." It is located near the center of Jefferson township, on the 
Noblesville gravel road and the Thorntown and Jamestown road, eight 
miles from Lebanon, in a fine part of the county. In i860 a postoffice was 
established here and named Cason, in remembrance of Thomas J. Cason, 
of Lebanon. It has been for years the center or voting place for the town- 
ship. The first merchant was Wesley Adkins, who started a store in i860. 
The first postmaster was William Goldsburgh, succeeded by Joseph S. Mil- 
ler. In 185 1, James Stephenson built a sawmill here. The following doc- 
tors have practiced here : Doctors Clair, Oxly, C. Smith, Hamilton, John 
S. Smith, Finch, Crafton and W. H. Ware. The first woodshop was by 
J. L. Pyles; first blacksmith, William Goldsburgh. The names of mer- 
chants and mechanics are: McDaniel & Brother, merchants; Lewis Denny, 
blacksmith; Henry J. Frazier, carpenter; Hezekiah Kerfart, shoemaker; 
Robert Denny, carpenter; Lee Miles, workingman. Three churches, one 
school house and fourteen families making in the eighties about fifty in- 
habitants. 

FAYETTE. 

Fayette is located on Whitelick, in Perry township, and in the southern 
part of it near the Hendricks county line and in section ten. The town is 
well located on an elevated, well-drainad piece of land. The town contains 
two stores, school house and several good private residences. Fayette was 
laid out on the land originally owned by Edwin Shurley and Mr. Turner. 
The merchants are Mr. McDaniel and Shurley; doctors, W. T. Everts and 
Jourden. Drug store by Josephus Dodson. Former merchants were Thomas 
J. Lumpkins and Thomas Fitch. Fayette is the voting place of Perry town- 
ship, and is the center of considerable trade, not only in Boone but also of 
Hendricks county. Dr. W. E. Everts, who has a fine practice, also has 
charge of the postoffice. Fayette contains some three hundred inhabitants, 
of sober, industrious habits. The settlement here on Whitelick dates back 
to the thirties. The town, however, is not quite that old. 
(26) 



4-02 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 



Gadsden is located in Union township, on the Midland railroad, in the 
center of section 31, town 19 north, range 1 east. It is the second station 
out from Lebanon, Heath being the first. A branch of Eagle creek, called 
Mt. Run, takes its rise and meanders slowly along between it and the 
school house located in the northeast corner of the section, a half mile north 
and a half mile east by road. Considerable trading is done at the flourishing 
department store here for neighborhood trade, and from out the smithy's 
shop, a necessary adjunct of all country places, his cheery anvil rings out 
early and late. With good roads the scattered farm houses in sight are 
within easy reach from this station for all visitors to the country. It main- 
tains a weekly correspondent to the county pioneer paper in Lebanon, which 
furnishes the country side with news of its happenings. 

HAZELRIGG. 

This town is located on the Indianapolis, Cincinnati & LaFayette Rail- 
road, six miles northwest of Lebanon, in the southeast corner of Washing- 
ton township. It was laid out on the land originally owned by H. G. Hazel- 
rigg and named in his honor. It has been a stopping and shipping point of 
some note since its inception. While a railroad station it has all the marks 
of a country village store, blacksmith shop, postoffice and the usual number 
of dwelling houses. The Presbyterians established a church there, but the 
house is used now, if at all, more as a social center. Over the store estab- 
lished by S. Klepfer, however, is a public hall, used for general purposes, 
such as lectures, meetings of a religious character, etc. Hazelrigg is located 
in a fine part of the county. The people here could illy do without a post- 
office and other conveniences such as elevators and silos throughout the 
neighborhood to save grain and provender. The population is steadily on 
the increase from eighteen souls upwards. 

JAMESTOWN. 

This thriving town is situated in the south part of Jackson township, 
in section 10, town 17 north, range 2 west. It was laid out by James Mat- 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 4O3 

lock and John R. Gibson in 1832. The first house built was by John R. 
Gibson in 1829. It was of round logs, with overlapping corners, of the 
pattern of the very first houses built in the woods of Boone county. If you 
get a view of one, you have a conception of all of that class. The style was 
not changed. It was the invariable rule for the construction of the round 
log cabin of the pioneer. Its rudeness was modified by the hewn log house 
that was the next style of the pioneer house, and marked an advance in 
beauty and convenience for a home. The boys and girls of our day can 
scarcely realize the style and inconvenience of the home of their grandpar- 
ents in this county of eighty-five years ago. The first store in the village 
was opened by Samuel Hughes in a log cabin on the south side of Main 
street. For some time he sold without opposition, but in course of time, 
as it is in any thrifty, growing town, competition came. John Galvin started 
a store on the corner, and became a lively competitor, and set business a 
going with such vim that it attracted trade from all the adjoining country, 
including traders from Hendricks and Montgomery counties, more than 
doubling the trade of each, and making room for others in the trade and 
other industries, until the village grew into a lively trade center. The town 
being happily located, on the state road from Indianapolis to Crawfords- 
ville, it soon became a stage town of first importance. There must be taverns 
to accommodate the traveling public. There must also be stables to keep and 
provide for the change of horses. In that age of our progress, a stage town 
was of more importance than it is now to be a railroad crossing. Any 
town so favored was set up and felt itself above its neighbors who were not 
so favored. It gave the town a boost and started it a going until railroads, 
trolleys and oil lines came in with the greater progress of our day. 



MILLEDGEVILLE. 

The above village is situated five miles south of Lebanon, rather in the 
north part of Harrison township. It was laid out by G. O. P. Crawford on 
section 26. Its first tradesmen were W. H. Campbell, Henry Tomlinson, 
J. E. Pernell, Henry Ulin, William Higgins, John, Bartlett and Theodore 
Dickerson. The doctors were Henry Tomlinson, Melvin Leachman, E. W. 
S. Hilligoss and James Turner, with others located later. The postmaster 



404 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

is known as John Bartlett. The office was discontinued but restored in 1886. 
The blacksmiths were William Edwards, John Troutman and 



Edwards. The village contains a good brick school house, Protestant Meth- 
odist church and several good dwelling houses. The postoffke was formerly- 
kept by J. P. Pinnell, who was probably the first one here. 



MECHANICSBURG. 

This thriving town, so beautifully located on a high piece of ground 
near the junction of Brown's Wonder and Sugar creek, was laid out in the 
year 1835 by James Snow. It is near the Clinton county line and also near 
the line dividing the townships of Clinton and Washington, being, however, 
in the latter, on the road leading from Lebanon to Frankfort, about nine 
miles from the former and seven miles from the latter. The town contains 
many handsome residences, three churches, school house, etc., and is the 
center of a fine local trade. It has been called "The Burg" longer than the 
oldest inhabitant can recollect. It has a population of about two hundred. 
The village is well known throughout the country, as its flouring mill, at one 
time owned by George Ryan, was patronized by farmers far and near, not 
only of this, but by those of the adjoining county of Clinton. It is well 
supplied with fresh groceries, dry goods, ready-made clothing, boots, shoes 
and notions from its various shops and stores. A good drug store, con- 
ducted by E. E. Armstrong, deals out drugs, patent medicines, school books, 
stationary, paints, oils, cigars, tobacco and notions. This is the home of the 
well-known and valued citizens — Dr. Jesse S. Reagan, Dr. Walker, Nathan 
Garrett and many others. Dr. C. D. Umberhine, a graduate of Rush Medi- 
cal College, is still in practice here. Frank Moore and W. H. Brown, who 
have plenty to do the year round, are its blacksmiths. William Keller is 
justice of the peace and works at shoemaking during odd spells. J. S. 
Moore ran the wagon shop and kept postoffice. Frank Mills was familiarly 
known as "Handle," from his varied duties, mail carrier, goods hauler and 
generalissimo of all work for everybody. Hart Lodge No. 413, Independent 
Order of Odd Fellows, is the oldest secret society in the town. The mem- 
bership own their hall and are in a good condition. The religious denom- 
inations are the United Brethren in Christ, Methodist Episcopal and Christ- 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 405 

ian. In the eighties the pastor of the first-named church was Rev. Perry 
Cooper; of the second. Rev. Jesse Hill, and of the last-named, Rev. Howe, 
of Irvington. In recent years the Christian church replaced their structure 
with a fine, substantial brick building. All are in a good condition. 



NEW BRUNSWICK. 

This town is in the southwest part of Harrison township and about 
seven miles southwest of Lebanon, in a rich, fertile part of the county, con- 
taining several good residences. Christian church, brick school house, post- 
office, store, doctors, etc. Among the first merchants here were Samuel 
Vest & Son, Doctor Horner, Mr. Sexton, Aaron Frazee, Colonel Lechter, 
Franklin Walters & Son, D. M. Watts. I. W. Smith was postmaster and 
merchant in the eighties. The doctors who have practiced here from time 
to time are Doctors Horner, George and William Kane, W. E. Everts, 
James Leach and T. N. Bounell. William H. Crose was the old veteran 
wagon-maker. The blacksmiths, William Dale, O. C. Wilson and Joseph 
Chitwood. The first postmaster was Nelson Watts. The town was laid out 
in 1850, on the lands of Joseph and Nathaniel Wainwright. 



NORTH FIELD. 

Northfield was laid out in the year 1834. Jesse Lane was the pro- 
prietor. It is situated in Union township, on the Michigan road. Big Eagle 
crosses the Michigan road just north, and Findly creek on the south. 
Among the first settlers and business men were as follows : Hiram Mc- 
Quidy built the first horse mill or corn cracker. A. Sanburn was the first 
postmaster. First merchants were Mr. Long, Chance Cole, Jacob Tipton. 
Doctors were Knowlton, McLeod, Presly and Samuel Hardy. First black- 
smith was Mr. Robinson; first school teacher, Mr. Bray; first justices of the 

peace were Sanburn and Riley B. Hogshier. The first church was 

built by the Methodists. A church, called Adventists, was built here in 
1886 and dedicated in December of that year by Rev. Covert, of Howard 
county. It is a very good frame building; cost eight hundred dollars. 
Northfield is the voting place of Union township and for three-quarters of 



406 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

a century has had a postoffice. Among the early families of the place were 
George Shirts, Hiram McOuidy, Mr. Sanburn, Jacob Tipton and Mr. Rob- 
inson. The first tavern was kept by Hiram McOuidy. The town contains 
a good brick school house and Methodist Episcopal church. Northfield was 
once the home of Jonathan H. Rose, also that of Jacob Tipton. The post- 
master in 1887 was Henry Nichols. 



Rosston is situated in Union township, on the Michigan road, in the 
center of section 34/ township 29 north, range 2 east. It derives its name 
from the Ross brothers, whose farms adjoin it. T. M. Ross, with sixty 
acres on the north; J. J. and M. Ross, with thirty acres due west; N. Ross, 
with fifty-six acres south, and with him T. M. Ross, with thirteen acres 
more. Rosston is a mile north of Northfield, bearing west. It was laid 
out about the time the Anderson & St. Louis railroad was surveyed. There 
is quite a little trade here, especially since the railroad was finished from 
Anderson to Lebanon, January 22, 1887. There are two variety stores and 
a Masonic Lodge No. 528, chartered May 23, 1875. The first religious 
meetings held in L T nion township were at the home of S. Sedwick, whose 
farm borders Rosston on the east. 



Royalton nestles among the hills of Fishback and Eagle creek and 
near the Marion county line on the south, in Eagle township, southwest of 
Lebanon. Among the first merchants were John Rodman, Doctor Horn, 
John W. Vaugh. The early doctors were Doctor Horn, Doctor Ross and 
Doctor Graham. First hotel was kept by John Smock ; first blacksmith shop 
was that of Thomas Smock; first postmasters were Doctor Horn, John 
McCabe, J. W. Vaugh ; first shoe-makers, Jeremiah Washburn and Daniel 
Thompson. Samuel Jones was the first to sell whiskey in Royalton. Mr. 
Strowmire was the principal merchant in the eighties. There is a postoffice 
kept here; also trades of various kinds going on. It was near here the 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 4O7 

famous Forman murder occurred nearly a century ago in Marion county, 
and no wonder with whiskey which could be bought at Royalton. 



Terhune is located on the east side of section 22, township 20 north, 
range 2 east, in Marion township, at the crossing of the Chicago, India- 
napolis & Louisville railroad and the pike leading from Mechanicsburg and 
Sheridan to Noblesville. The town was laid out early in the eighties, during 
the construction of the railroad. Being surrounded by very rich farming 
lands, it started out with the most lively boom of any prospective town in 
the county. Located about four miles on the railway from Sheridan, eleven 
miles east on pike from Mechanicsburg and fourteen miles southeast from 
Frankfort on the railroad, its founders thought it would become a large, 
flourishing town. That was the age in which everybody thought a railroad 
would insure a town. People flocked to the new town and it grew rapidly. 
In two or three years there were four stores, three blacksmith shops, many 
houses and other industries in proportion, sawmill, flouring mill, elevator, 
large livery barns and every indication of a thriving town. Terhune got its 
growth in less than three years and has settled down into a good trading 
center for Marion township. Supporting an excellent elevator, stores, black- 
smith shops, school and churches, it makes, with good residences, a very 
desirable place for homes and country trade. It keeps in touch socially with 
other towns by good newspaper correspondents. 



THORNTOWN. 

The territory now comprising Thorntown and vicinity was known as 
the "Thorntown Indian Reservation" until the year 1828, when it was pur- 
chased from the Indians by the government. It was two or three years 
before the Indians were finally removed, when a man by the name of Cor- 
nelius West fall purchased the ground on which the city is now situated. It 
was laid out in lots in 1831. 

The growth of the town at first was very slow and the difficulties of the 
early settlers were great; log huts were at first a luxury, and the town was 



408 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

surrounded with swamps and mosquitoes and forests, and the people were 
annoyed with the old shaking ague and malarial fever, while the country- 
was infested with wolves, bear, deer, wild cat and numerous smaller species 
of wild beasts, with no roads save paths through the swampy wilderness, 
with no bridges across the streams, with few possible means of ingress and 
egress, with LaFayette and Connersville as the nearest towns, with few 
domestic animals and almost no markets for the products of the farm, one 
can gain some idea of the trials and vicissitudes of the early settlers, the 
men and women who subdued the forests and laid the foundation for the 
present prosperous and happy homes. 

Among the first arrivals and earliest settlers were Cornelius Westfall, 
Levi Westfall, Oliver Craven, Joshua and James Van Eaton, John S. Pearce 
(who erected the first grist mill in that part of the county), L. McConnell, 
Robert Hamill, Zachariah Gapen and Isaac Morgan. Mr. Hamill was the 
first postmaster and Mr. Morgan opened the first hotel or tavern, a humble 
log structure, in which the fare was of a primitive character, where corn- 
pones and venison were the staple diet. Robert Hamill started the first store, 
and to him is due the honor of inaugurating mercantile enterprises in the 
town. Soon after another store was opened by Mr. McConnell; here was 
the first competition in trade in Thorntown, and from these two insignifi- 
cant little establishments have sprung the quite one hundred business houses 
of today, while beautiful homes, costly church edifices and substantial school 
houses abound. The streets are wide and attractive and no stranger ever 
leaves Thorntown without admitting that it has made an excellent impression 
upon him. 

The public school facilities are unsurpassed; the system in force is 
equal, if not superior, to most towns. The two large, elegant school build- 
ings are modern, comfortable and convenient, the sanitary arrangements 
are perfect and a most efficient corps of teachers is in charge. 

The city is well represented in the fraternal affairs, there being lodges 
of the following orders : Masonic, Odd Fellowship, in three branches ; 
Knights of Pythias, Red Men, Grand Army of the Republic, Modern 
Woodmen, the Benevolent and Protective Elks and Daughters of Rebekah. 




MILLS S1EJH IRIAL W< 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 4O9 

COMMITTEE REPORTS. 

Thorntown, Indiana, October 12, 1908. 
To the Citizens of Thorntown in Mass Meeting Assembled : 

Your committee, appointed to draft suitable resolutions expressing our 
appreciation of the generous offer submitted to this meeting, beg leave to 
present the following: Whereas, Gen. Anson Mills, of Washington, D. C, 
has, through Richard E. Niven, submitted to the people of Thorntown a 
proposition wherein he proposes to expend not less than ten thousand dol- 
lars ($10,000) in the purchase of a lot, sinking wells, building pump house, 
the purchase of a boiler, engine and pump, build stand pipe, put in supply 
pipe, erect a handsome public drinking fountain (of bronze or brass), a 
watering place for stock, a sewer to carry all surplus water from the street 
to Prairie creek, all at his own expense, as a monument to his father and 
mother. And, whereas, he further proposes that the town of Thorntown 
shall have the right of attaching water mains and pipes of sufficient size to 
supply any 6r all parts of the town with water, for fire, sprinkling or 
domestic use. Therefore, be it resolved, that the action of General Mills 
in thus honoring his ancestors is highly commendable and appreciated by 
the people of Thorntown, and his offer to present to our citizens this tribute 
of respect as a memorial to his father and mother, who were pioneer citi- 
zens of this community, is recognized by us as a magnificent and generous 
act on the part of a dutiful son, which we accept with grateful acknowledge- 
ments to the donor. 

R. E. Niven, 

C. R. Armstrong, 

T. E. Bradshaw. 

acceptance. 

Thorntown, Indiana, October 14, 1908. 

Whereas, a proposition of Gen. Anson Mills, of Washington, D. C, 

to install a pump, pumping station, power house, wells, stand pipe, fountain 

and conduits for water works in the town of Thorntown, Boone county, 

Indiana, as contained in a letter addressed to Mr. R. E. Niven, under date 



4IO BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

of September 28, 1908, has been presented to the board of trustees of said 
town and said proposition has been duly considered by said board, and 

Whereas, it is the desire of said board of trustees to assist in any way 
in their power the laudable purpose of General Mills to erect a monument 
to the memory of his father and mother in the place of his nativity which 
will prove a source of pleasure and utility to all the inhabitants of said 
town and community ; be it 

Resolved by the board of trustees of said town of Thorntown, Indiana, 
that the generous offer of General Mills to said town be and the same is 
hereby accepted. 

Resolved, that upon the completion of said water works plant as con- 
templated by General Mills the said town will, and it hereby obligates itself, 
to maintain the same in a first-class state of efficiency and that it will keep 
and maintain over each fountain or public drinking place erected by General 
Mills an electric arc light sufficient to light the same during the hours of 
darkness. 

Resolved, that the board of trustees will adopt and enact all necessary 
ordinances to carry into full effect the above resolutions according to its 
spirit and intent. 

Resolved, that the clerk of said town be and he is hereby directed to 
transmit to General Mills a duly certified copy of these resolutions under 
seal of said town. 

J. A. Ball, President. 

Joseph Mayer, 

J. E. Leatherman, 

J. S. Orear, Clerk of Thorntown, Indiana. 

Mr. John E. Leatherman introduced the above preamble and resolu- 
tions and moved that the same be adopted. The motion was seconded by 
Mr. Joseph Mayer. The president of the board of trustees, therefore, put 
the question: Shall the resolutions be adopted? 



ALL WITH ONE ACCORD. 

A large number of the citizens of Thorntown met in the high school 
hall to consider the proposition of Gen. Anson Mills to build a memorial 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 41 I 

fountain in Thorntown in memory of his parents. Mr. J. A. Ball, president 
of the town board, called the house to order and stated the purpose of the 
meeting. R. E. Niven was called upon to give the purport of the proposi- 
tion of General Mills. A committee of three, consisting of R. E. Niven, 
Tom Bradshaw and Dr. C. R. Armstrong, was appointed to draft resolu- 
tions of acceptance of the proposition and expressive of the gratitude of the 
citizens for the generous offer. While the committee was preparing its 
report, Mr. Ball made a statement of the financial condition of the town, 
which was very gratifying. He stated that duplicate power and generators 
were being installed in the light plant, and that the town would be out of 
debt by the first of January, excepting outstanding school bonds not yet 
due. He stated that the net earnings of the plant last year was two thousand 
dollars and that the water works could be taken up by the town board after 
General Mills had completed what he wished, and carried throughout the 
town in a few vears without increase of debt or taxes. 



WILLIAM T. BARRY. 

Postmaster General of the United States of America. To all who shall see 
these presents, Greeting: 

Know ye, that, confiding in the integrity, ability and punctuality of 
Robert Hamill, Esq., I do appoint him postmaster and authorize him to 
execute the duties of that office at Thorntown, in the county of Boone, state 
of Indiana. 

According to the laws of the United States and the regulation of the 
postoffice department. To hold the said office of postmaster, with all the 
powers, privileges and emoluments, to the same belonging during the pleasure 
of the postmaster general of the United States for the time being. 

In testimony whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and caused the 
seal of the postoffice department to be affixed, at Washington City, the 
twenty-second day of March, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight 
hundred and thirty-three, and of the Independence of the United States the 
fifty-seventh Southern Division. 

Registered the 20th day of April, 1833. 

Charles Williams. 



412 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

It will be observed by the following statement of the postoffice depart- 
ment, that there was a postoffice for this community, prior to the one estab- 
lished at Thorntown. It was at New Pennsylvania, which was laid out In 
the fall of 1 83 1, by Enoch Davis, who built a dwelling and store-house, in 
which he kept a postoffice. New Pennsylvania was a rival of Thorntown, 
located on the Indianapolis and State road at the crossing of the road lead- 
ing from Thorntown to Mechanicsburg, about the center of section 31, 
township 20, range i west, in Washington township, near the W. H. Hutch- 
inson farm house. Robert Hamill, the father of R. W. Hamill, of Thorn- 
town, came to Boone in 1832 and moved his family in 1833. He received 
his commission as postmaster. 

The postmaster general informs the Honorable Mr. Tipton, that he 
has this day established a postoffice at Thorntown, county of Boone and 
state of Indiana, and appointed Robert Hamill, Esq., to be postmaster. The 
key for opening the mail is enclosed and the necessary blanks for the office, 
which are transmitted to the postoffice at New Pennsylvania. 

Postoffice Department, 12th February, 1833. 



Postoffice Department, Washington, 12 February, 1833. 

Sir — I have concluded to establish a postoffice, by the name of Thorn- 
town, in the county of Boone, and state of Indiana, and to appoint you post- 
master thereof, in which capacity you will be authorized to act, upon com- 
plying with the following requirements : 

First. To execute the enclosed bond and cause it to be executed by 
two sufficient sureties, in the presence of suitable witnesses, and the suffi- 
ciency of the sureties to be certified by a qualified magistrate. 

Second. To take and subscribe the oath or affirmation of office en- 
closed, before a magistrate, who will certify the same. 

Third. To exhibit your bond and qualification, duly executed, taken 
and certified as aforesaid, to the postmaster of New Pennsylvania, and then 
to deposit them in the mail, addressed to this Department, Office of Ap- 
pointments. 

You are then entitled to enter upon the duties of the office. 

A packet, containing a mail key, blanks, laws and regulations of the de- 
partment, and a table of postoffices, is transmitted to you, addressed to the 
care of the postmaster of New Pennsylvania. 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 4I3 

After the receipt, at the department, of your bond and qualification, 
duly executed, taken and certified, and after my approval of the sufficiency 
of the same, a commission will be sent to you. 

This letter will be your authority for calling on the mail-carrier to 
supply your office with the mail. It will be your duty to continue in the 
charge of the office, either personally or by assistant, till you are relieved 
from it by the consent of the department, which will be signified by the dis- 
continuance of your office, or the appointment of your successor. 

The quarters expire on the 31st of March, 30th June, 30th September, 
and 31st December. Accounts must be rendered for each quarter. 

Postmasters are unauthorized to give credit for postage. Want of 
funds, therefore, is no excuse for failure of payment. 

Payments to the department must be punctually made, if called for by 
drafts, whenever the draft is presented. If deposits are ordered they should 
be made within ten days after the termination of the quarter, unless re- 
quired to be made sooner. 

No postmaster must change the name by which his office is designated 
on the books of the department, without my order therefor previously given. 

Be careful in mailing letters, to postmark each one, in all cases, with 
the name of your office and state; and in all communications to the depart- 
ment to embrace, in the date, the name of your postoffice, county (or district) 
and state. * 

Special attention to the foregoing instructions, and a careful perusal 
of, and a frequent reference to, the law and general instructions, are ex- 
pected of you and your assistants. 

I am, respectfully, your obedient servant, 

W. T. Barry. 

To Robert Hamill, Esq., Thorntown, Boone County, Indiana. 



COL. ANSON MILLS. 

Anson Mills, soldier and inventor, was born at Thorntown, Indiana, 
August 31, 1834, son of James P. and Sarah (Kenworthy) Mills, grandson 
of James and Marian Mills, great-grandson of James and Joanna (Neels) 
Mills, and great-great-grandson of Robert Mills, son of Amos and Mary, the 



414 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

first of the family in America, who came from England with William Penn 
in 1670 and lived in Newberry township, York, Pennsylvania. Both paternal 
and maternal ancestors were Quakers, and for several generations followed 
farming as a vocation. Anson Mills received his early education in the 
Charlotteville (N. Y.) Academy, and was a cadet at the United States Mili- 
tary Academy during 1855-57. He was appointed first lieutenant of the 
Eighteenth United States Infantry on May 14, 1861, having received the 
indorsement of the entire class at West Point in 1861. Appointed captain 
April 27, 1863; transferred to Third Cavalry April 4, 1871 ; major, Tenth 
Cavalry, April 4, 1878; lieutenant-colonel, Fourth Cavalry, March 25, 1890; 
colonel, Third Cavalry, August 16, 1892, and brigadier-general, June 16, 
1897. Retired on his own application June 2j, 1897. He was brevetted 
captain December 31, 1862, for gallant and meritorious services in the battle 
of Murfreesboro, Tennessee; major, September 1, 1864, for gallant and 
meritorious services in the battle of Chickamauga, Georgia, and during the 
Atlanta campaign; lieutenant-colonel, December 16, 1864, for gallant and 
meritorious services in the battle of Nashville, Tennessee, and colonel, Febru- 
ary 27, 1890, for gallant services in action against the Indians, at Slim Buttes, 
Dakota, September 9, 1876. 

After leaving West Point he went to the frontier of Texas, and engaged 
in engineering and land surveying, and laid out the first plan of the city of 
El Paso. In 1859 he was surveyor on the part of Texas on the boundary 
commission establishing the boundary between New Mexico, Indian Terri- 
tory and Texas. In March, 1861, he went to Washington and joined the 
Cassius M. Clay Guards, which were quartered, armed and equipped by the 
Federal government, and served there, protecting Federal officers and prop- 
erty until relieved by volunteers. He was with his regiment in the army of 
the Ohio and department of the Cumberland to October 22, 1864, and was 
acting inspector-general, district of Etowah, to February 25, 1865. He 
participated in the siege of Corinth, the battles of Perryville, Kentucky; 
Murfreesboro, Tennessee; Hoover's Gap, Tennessee; Chickamauga, Georgia; 
the siege of Chattanooga, Tennessee; Missionary Ridge, Tennessee; Tunnel 
Hill, Georgia; Buzzard's Roost, Georgia; the Atlanta campaign, Resaca, 
Georgia; Dallas, Georgia; New Hope Church, Georgia; Kenesaw Mountain, 
New Dow Station, Peach Tree Creek; Utoy Creek, Georgia, where he was 
wounded, and Jonesboro, Georgia, and while on the staff of General Sted- 
man, in the battles of Nashville, Tennessee, and Decatur, Alabama. 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 415 

During the four years' war he was never absent, either on leave or from 
sickness, and was present in all the engagements of his regiment. Fox's 
"Regimental Losses" states that his regiment (Eighteenth Infantry), lost 
more in killed and wounded than any other regiment in the regular army, 
and that his company (H), First Battalion, lost more in killed and wounded 
than any other company in the regiment. 

After the war he served at Fort Aubrey, Kansas; Forts Bridger and 
Fetterman, Wyoming; Fort Sedgwick, Colorado; Fort McPherson, Georgia, 
and Columbia, South Carolina. He joined the Third Cavalry April 15, 1871, 
and served with it at Forts Whipple and McDowell, Arizona; Fort McPher- 
son, Nebraska; North Platte, Nebraska, and was in the field commanding the 
Big Horn expedition from August to October, 1874. At Camp Sheridan, 
Nebraska, and Fort D. A. Russell, Wyoming, to May 18, 1876. He com- 
manded expeditions against the Indians at Tongue River, Montana, June 9; 
at Rose Bud river, Montana, June 17, and at Slim Buttes, Dakota, September 
9, 1876. At Camp Sheridan, Nebraska, to May 21, 1877, where he had 
charge of Chief Spotted Tail and his tribe of six thousand Ogalala Sioux 
Indians. He joined the Tenth Cavalry in April, 1879, and served at Forts 
Concho and Davis, Texas (and commanded battalion of regiment at Fort 
Sill, Indian Territory, during the Indian outbreak to November, 1881), to 
April 1, 1885; commanded Fort Thomas, Arizona, to August 26, 1886, and 
Fort Grant, Arizona, being frequently in the field, to September 24, 1888; 
on duty at Fort Bliss, Texas, under special orders, assisting officers of the 
interior department (U. S. geological survey) in surveys near El Paso, 
Texas, with the object of reclaiming arid lands in the Rio Grande valley, to 
April 2, 1890, when he was transferred to the 4th cavalry, and served at 
Presidio, California, to October 31, 1891. Commanded regiment and post 
of Fort Walla Walla, Washington, to February, 1893. Joined Third Cav- 
alry as colonel February 28, 1893, and commanded post at Fort Mcintosh, 
Texas, and Fort Reno, Oklahoma, to August, 1893; made brigadier-general 
and retired. 

General Mills invented the woven cartridge belt and loom for its manu- 
facture and founded the Mills Woven Cartridge Belt Company, of Wor- 
cester, Massachusetts, which manufactures woven cartridge belts and equip- 
ment for all the world. He was a member of the board of visitors at West 
Point in 1866, and was United States military attache at the Paris Exposi- 
tion of 1878. Since October, 1893, General Mills has been United States 



4l6 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

commissioner on the international boundary commission, United States and 
Mexico, during which he originated the principle of eliminating bancos 
(small islands) which are formed by the action of the Rio Grande and much 
complicated the boundary question previous to the treaty of 1905 for the 
"elimination of bancos in the Rio Grande." which he prepared. He was also 
appointed commissioner in 1896 to investigate and report upon a plan for an 
international dam near El Paso, Texas, for the purpose of equitably dis- 
tributing the waters of the Rio Grande between the United States and Mexico. 
The American section of the boundary commission has published, under Gen- 
eral Mills' direction, many valuable reports, including the proceedings of the 
commission, in two volumes (1903) ; two reports on Elimination of Bancos 
in the Rio Grande (191 0-12), and Survey of the Rio Grande, Roma to the 
Gulf of Mexico (1913). 

He sat on the arbitral commission for the hearing of the Chamizal case, 
Hon. Eugene La Fleur, of Canada, presiding, which case involved the ques- 
tion of international title to land forming part of the city of El Paso, Texas, 
and his dissenting opinion in the findings of the arbitral board was approved 
by his government. 

General Mills is a member of the Military Order of the Loyal Legion 
of the United States, and was commander of the Washington commandery 
in 1908; Order of the Indian Wars of the United States and was commander 
in 191 1, Society of the Army of the Cumberland, American Society of Inter- 
national Law, honorary member Society of Indiana Engineers, Army and 
Navy Club and Metropolitan Club of Washington. He was married October 
8, 1868, to Hannah Martin, daughter of William C. Cassell, of Zanesville, 
Ohio, and had two sons, Anson Cassel and William Cassel Mills (both de- 
ceased), and one daughter, Constance Lydia, wife of Capt. Winfield Scott 
Overton, United States army. 

WAR DEPARTMENT. 

Adjutant General's Office, 
Washington, February 24, 1897. 
Statement of the military service of Anson Mills, of the United States 
Army, compiled from the records of this office : 

He was a cadet at the United States Military Academy, July 1, 1855, to 
February 18, 1857. 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 417 

He was appointed first lieutenant, Eighteenth Infantry, 14th May, 1861 ; 
captain, 27th April, 1863; transferred to Third Cavalry, 1st January, 1871 ; 
major, Tenth Cavalry, 4th April, 1878; lieutenant-colonel, Fourth Cavalry. 
25th March, 1890; colonel, Third Cavalry, 16th August, 1892. 

He was brevetted captain, 31st December, 1862, for gallant and meri- 
torious services in the battle of Murfreesboro, Tennessee; major, 1st Septem- 
ber, 1864, for gallant and meritorious services in the battle of Chickamauga, 
Georgia, and during the Atlanta campaign, lieutenant-colonel, 16th Decem- 
ber, 1864, for gallant and meritorious services in the battle of Nashville, 
Tennessee, and colonel, 27th February, 1890, for gallant services in action 
against Indians, at Slim Buttes, Dakota, September 9. 1876. 



He was on recruiting service July 19, 1861, to February 17, 1862, with 
regiment in Army of the Ohio, and Department of the Cumberland, to Octo- 
ber 22, 1864, and Acting Inspector-General, District of Etowah, to February 
25, 1865. He participated in the siege of Corinth, April 29th, to June 5, 
1862; battles of Perryville. Kentucky, October 8, 1862; Murfreesboro, 
Tennessee, December 29, 1862, to January 5, 1863; Hoover's Gap, Tennessee, 
June 25 and 26, 1863; Chickamauga, Georgia, September 19 and 20, 1873; 
siege of Chattanooga, Tennessee, September 21, to November 4, 1863; Mis- 
sionary Ridge, Tennessee, November 24 and 25, 1863; Tunnel Hill, Georgia, 
February 2T, and 24, 1864; Buzzard's Roost, Georgia, February 25 and 26, 
1864; Atlanta campaign, May 3 to September 8, 1864; Resaca, Georgia, May 
13 to 15, 1864; Dallas, Georgia, May 24 to June 5, 1864; New Hope Church, 
Georgia, May 29 to 31, 1864; Kenesaw Mountain, June 22 to July 3, 1864; 
Neal Dow Station, July 4, 1864; Peach Tree Creek, Georgia, July 20, 1864, 
where he was slightly wounded; Utoy Creek, Georgia, August 7, 1864; Jones- 
boro, Georgia, September 1, 1864, and Nashville, Tennessee, December 15 
and 16, 1864. 

He was on recruiting service from February 25, 1865, to November 15. 

1865, when he rejoined his regiment and served with it in Kansas to March, 

1866; on leave to October, 1866; (member of Board of Visitors at United 

States Military Academy, in Tune. 1866) : with regiment at Fort Bridger. 

(27) 



4l8 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

Wyoming, to October, 1867, and at Fort Fetterman, Wyoming, to May 10, 
1868; on leave to July 10, 1868; with regiment at Fort Sedgwick, Colorado, 
to April, 1869, and in Georgia and South Carolina, to January 15, 1871. 

He joined the Third Cavalry, April 15, 1871, and served with it in 
Arizona, to December 1, 1871. 

He commanded his troop at Fort McPherson, Nebraska, January 17 to 
May 1, 1872; at North Platte, Nebraska (on leave December 2, 1872, to 
March 9, 1873), to August 13, 1874; in the field commanding the Big Horn 
expedition, to October 13, 1874; on leave to January 18, 1875; commanding 
troop and post of North Platte, Nebraska, to April 14, 1875; at Camp 
Sheridan, Nebraska, to November 20, 1875 ; at Fort D. A. Russell, Wyoming 
(in field February 21 to April 26, 1876, being engaged in action against 
Indians at Little Powder river, Montana, March 17, 1876), to May 18, 1876; 
commanding battalion of regiment in the field on expedition against hostile 
Indians, to October 24, 1876, being engaged against them at Tongue River, 
Montana, June 9, at Rose Bud River, Montana, June 17, and at Slim Buttes, 
Dakota, September 9, 1876 (where he commanded), commanding his troop 
at Camp Sheridan, Nebraska, November, 1876, to May 21, 1877, and on 
leave of absence to February 27, 1878; on duty in Paris, France, with the 
United States Commissioner, Paris Exposition, to November, 1878, and on 
delay to March, 1879. 

He joined the Tenth Cavalry, April n, 1879, and served with regiment 
in Texas (on leave March 23 to June 30, 1880, and August 26, 1880, to 
March 21, 1881), to May 21, 1881 ; commanding battalion of regiment at 
Fort Sill, Indian Territory, to November, 1881 ; on duty at Fort Concho, 
Texas, to July, 1882; at Fort Davis, Texas (on leave October 26, 1883, to 
January 2, 1884), to April 1, 1885; commanding post of Fort Thomas, 
Arizona, to August 26, 1886; on leave to March 27, 1887; on duty at Fort 
Grant, Arizona, being frequently in field to September 24, 1888; on sick leave 
to May, 1889 ; on duty at Fort Bliss, Texas, assisting officers of the Interior 
Department in surveys (before Congressional Committee in this city, Janu- 
ary to March, 1890), to April 2, 1890, and on leave and under orders to July, 
1890. 

He joined the Fourth Cavalry, July 13, 1890, and served at the Presidio 
of San Francisco, California, to October 31, 1891 ; commanding regiment and 
post of Fort Walla Walla, Washington, to February 11, 1893. 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 419 

He joined the Third Cavalry, February 28, 1893, and commanded it and 
the post of Fort Mcintosh, Texas, to June 21, 1893, and the post of Fort 
Reno, Oklahoma, to August 12, 1893 ; on leave to October 26, 1893, an< i 
since then on duty as Commissioner of the United States International 
Boundary Commission of the United States and Mexico. 

(Signed) Geo. D. Ruggles, 

Adjutant General. 



ADDITION TO THE RECORD OF COLONEL ANSON MILLS, UNITED STATES ARMY, 
NOT INCLUDED IN THE ADJUTANT GENERAL'S CERTIFICATE OF MILI- 
TARY SERVICE. 

He left West Point in 1857, went to the frontier of Texas and engaged 
in engineering and land surveying; laid out the first plan of the city of El 
Paso; in 1859 was surveyor to the Boundary Commission establishing the 
boundary between New Mexico, Indian Territory and Texas; in February, 
1861, on submission to the popular vote of the state of Texas, the question of 
"Separation" or "No Separation," he cast one of the lonely two votes in the 
county of El Paso against separation, to nine hundred and eighty-five for 
separation; in March, 1861, he abandoned the state, going to Washington, 
and there joined the military organization known as the "Cassius M. Clay" 
Guards, quartered, armed and equipped by the United States government, 
and served there protecting federal officers and property, until relieved by 
volunteer forces called out by the President. On May 14, 1861, was 
appointed first lieutenant Eighteenth Infantry on the following recommenda- 
tion from the then first class at the military academy. 

United States Military Academy, 

West Point, N. Y., April 30, 1861. 
Lorenzo Thomas, Adjutant-General, Washington, D. C. 

Dear Sir : We, the undersigned, members of the First Class at the 
United States Military Academy, respectfully recommend to your favorable 
consideration the claims of Mr. Anson Mills, an .applicant for a commission 
as second lieutenant in the United States army. 

Mr. Mills was formerly a member, for nearly two years, of the class 
preceding ours, when he resigned. 



420 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

During that time his habits and character conformed to the strictest 
military propriety and discipline, and we feel assured that he would be an 
honor to the service and that its interests would be promoted by his appoint- 
ment. 

Respectfully submitted, 
James F. McQuesten, Charles E. Hazlett, Henry B. Noble, Francis A. 
Davies, John I. Rogers, J. W. Barlow, W. A. Elderkin, A. R. Cham- 
bliss, Emory Upton, Eugene B. Beaumont, J. Ford Kent, J. S. Poland, 
Addelbert Ames, A. R. Bufnngton, C. E. Patterson, Leonard Martin, 
Sheldon Sturgeon, Wright Rives, Charles C. Campbell, M. F. Watson, 
Ohio F. Rice, Erskene Gittings, Franklin Howard, Charles Henry Gib- 
son, J. H. Simper, H. A. Dupont, J. Benson Williams, Charles M. K. 
Leoser, R. L. Eastman, Leroy L. Janes, Guy V. Henry, N. W. Henry, 
John Adair, Jr., Judson Kilpatrick, S. O. Sokalski, Samuel N. Benja- 
min, J. B. Rawles, L. G. Hoxton. 

During the four years of the war he was never absent either on leave 
or from sickness and was present in all of the engagements of his regiment. 
Fox's "Regimental Losses" states on page 3, that his regiment (Eigh- 
teenth Infantry), lost more in killed and mortally wounded than any other 
regiment in the regular army and that his company, H, First Battalion (page 
420), lost more in killed and mortally wounded than any company in his 
regiment. 

He invented the woven cartridge belt (and loom for manufacture) now 
adopted and exclusively used by the army and navy of the United States. 
He stands No. 24 on the lineal list of seventy-one colonels in the army. 



PRIVATE RESOLUTION NO. I. 

Joint resolution permitting Anson Mills, colonel of Third Regiment 
United States Cavalry, to accept and exercise the functions of boundary 
commissioner on the part of the United States. 

Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United 
States of America in Congress assembled, That Anson Mills, colonel Third 
Regiment United States Cavalry, having been nominated by the President 
and confirmed by the Senate as a commissioner of the United States under 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 421 

the convention between the United States of America and the United States 
of Mexico concluded and signed by the contracting parties at the city of 
Washington, March first, eighteen hundred and eighty-nine, is hereby per- 
mitted to accept and exercise the functions of said office of commissioner; 
Provided, Said officer shall continue to receive his emoluments in pay and 
allowances as colonel in the army while holding said office of commissioner 
the same as he would receive were he performing such duty under military 
orders and no other or additional pay or emoluments for his services as such 
commissioner. 

Approved, December 12, 1893. 



JAMES P. AND SARAH KENWORTHY MILLS. 

One hundred years ago there was born August 22, 1808, at York, Penn- 
sylvania, a male child, who was christened James P. Mills. At the early age 
of eight years he was left an orphan. He was bound out and apprenticed 
to learn the tanner's trade. When he reached his majority he caught the 
fever of Greeley's advice to go west, before that sage thought of giving it, 
and in his twenty-second year crossed the Alleghanies in a Dearborn wagon 
and continued his journey towards the setting sun, until he reached Craw- 
fordsville. Here he became a citizen of the young state of Indiana, and as 
such we wish to follow him closely as a factor in the development of the 
state. His life is typical of the body of men that laid the foundations of the 
commonwealth. In this age he would not be termed educated. 

The opportunities in Pennsylvania were meager a century ago. for the 
average young man, yet many of her sons, possessing brawn, grit and a sense 
of honor, forged to the west, and laid strong arms against the dense forests 
of Indiana. Our hero was one of that number. As soon as he was in 
Crawfordsville, he began to cast about for land. He had the ambition of 
ownership. He had planned in his mind to be a freeholder and purposed in 
his heart to own land with intent to build a home. On this sentiment the 
basis of this story is cemented. It's the same old story that lies at the 
foundation of every pioneer family in the state. Mr. Mills' employer recom- 
mended him to go to Thorntown in lieu of there not being desirable land to 
enter around Crawfordsville. This was the time when the question of 



422 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 



organizing Boone county was before the legislature of the state. There were 
about six hundred souls living in this section of territory at that time. The 
county was organized in 1830. James P. Mills was one of the stalwart 
young men that stepped upon its wild soil with the nerve to build a county. 
In that year he came to Thorntown and sought employment with one Gapen, 
a tanner. It was not long until he drove his stake for life and received title 
to his homestead from Uncle Sam for portions of sections 6 and 7, in town- 
ship 19 north and range 1 west. 




I'luXKKR IIOMK 



i\mis-Enterpi'isi'. 



About the same time his heart sought a fair maiden by the scripture 
name of Sarah, daughter of Judge Kenworthv, who was among the first 
white men who took up their abode in the old French and Indian village of 
Thorntown, as early as 1819. Now Sarah was fair and kind of heart and 
James was drawn towards her. She was born in Miami county, Ohio, on 
next to the last day of the year 1810, and her parents moved to Thorntown 
when she was of tender age, and settled just east of the old French and 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 4 2 3 

Indian trading point in section 31, township 20 north, range 1 west, just a 
little over one mile across the woods from where our hero had located his 
home. There is no positive record of the process of movements, but the 
sequence tells the story. It must have run the same old road of lovers. There 
were meetings and cooings, horseback rides to the old church, apple parings, 
corn huskings, etc., during which the young man lost his heart. It put nerve 
into his arm. He drove a stake for his home just north of a gurgling spring, 
laid the ax to the root of the tree, like a tanner, not a woodman with trained 
chopping art. He hackled all round and round the tree until it fell in the 
line of gravitation. Thus he cleared the spot, hewed the logs and reared the 
home to the gables and put on the roof. All this while his heart strings 
were pulling stronger and stronger towards the Judge's daughter. He could 
wait no longer, not even to build the gables. 

On the twenty-second day of November, 1832, James P. Mills was united 
in marriage to Miss Sarah Kenworthy and after one month of honeymoon, 
the bride at mother's and the groom trotting back and forth to his farm, one 
mile, and working like a beaver each day, fitting the home for his queen, at 
the close of the year 1832, with ax, mattock, handspike, hackle, loom and high 
hopes, they began home building in earnest in the wilderness. The story 
of this home is the story of Indiana. Its struggles, its privations, its hard- 
ships, its joys, its sorrows were the common lot of all. In this sketch we 
cannot stop to give the colorings, but must pass on. 

We have spoken of James P. Mills as a pioneer, and it might be well on 
this occasion to speak of him as a man and citizen. As an orphan and ap- 
prentice, his youth passed without opportunity of education to qualify him as 
a public man. Landing in Indiana as he entered upon his majority, he at 
once became too busily engaged in subduing the wilderness and in his zealous 
home-building and struggles to provide for his family to look into books. 
He was a devoted husband, a provident and faithful father, and a conscien- 
tious citizen. With all these duties pressing upon him continuously day by 
day there was little opportunity for mind culture. In the very prime of life, 
when the light of a better day was dawning, the angel of death entered his 
home and took away the companion of his struggles. 

There he stood, having passed the wilderness, in full view of the Canaan 
land, ready to pass over and feed on its honey and milk, but alas ! The com- 
panion of his joys and sorrows, of all his toils and hardships was called away 



424 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

and left him standing on the shore, with all the little ones clinging to his 
knees and pressing on his heart. This was a time to try his soul. Dazed, 
bewildered and uncertain how to move, he stood as a father true to his trust, 
even clinging to his babe in his desperation to hold the family of children 
together. He rose to the emergency of filling the place both of father 
and the truest of mothers. What a task of love! What a test of manhood! 
Few men would have borne the burden. He held his place as the head of the 
home, protecting and providing for his children until they grew to manhood 
and womanhood. He not only provided food and raiment, but saw that the 
fundamental principle of government was instilled and imbedded in their 
nature, that comes from the law of obedience. His word was the law of the 
family. He also provided for their education, even to the sacrifice of send- 
ing them from home, where they could have better facilities. 

During the lonely days of his widowerhood he read much of patriotism 
and obedience to her call took all the sons from the home. Later Cupid 
entered and the daughters fell by his darts and the house was left desolate 
and the hero of all its conflicts stood solitary and alone. It was in the midst 
of this period of his life we first met him. For one year in the early eighties 
we sat at the same table three times a day. Mr. Mills was reticent by nature 
and slow to form acquaintance, but he grew upon you slowly and surely. 
He possessed more in mind and heart than appeared on the surface. If you 
came in touch with him where he lived you would find him a live coal. He 
was a graduate in the affairs of life. He may not have had the culture of 
college training, but he did have that high sense of honor and manhood that 
comes through the school of life's' duties and trials. He was polished by 
the friction of hardships and refined by the pressure of a life devoted faith- 
fully to duty under the most trying circumstances. He was indeed truly 
educated and his life is a rich legacy to children and children's children. 



GOVERNMENT DEED TO MILLS. 

The government deeded to James Philips Mills, of Crawfordsville, Indi- 
ana, the following described land: The east fraction of the northwest 
quarter of section seven in township nineteen, north, range one west, in the 
district of lands subject to sale at Crawfordsville, Indiana, containing eighty 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 425 

acres, deed dated, Washington, D. C, March third in the year A. D. one 
thousand eight hundred and thirty-one and the year of the Independence 
of the United States of America Fifty-fifth. Signed Andrew Jackson, Presi- 
dent of the United States. 

In the pioneer home were born all the stalwart sons and fair daughters. 
Anson, August 31, 1834; William, Marietta, Eliza Jane, Emmett, Allen, Gil- 
bert John, Caroline and Thomas Edwin. Sacrifices were necessary to edu- 
cate them. Schools there were none and they must needs be sent from home 
to the far east and south. The parents rose to the emergency. The mother 
spun, wove, made the garments and prepared food; the father tilled the soil 
and economized to provide means. In this home amid all the hopes and 
anxieties of the parents came the white-winged cupid with orange blossoms 
and daughters were given in marriage; came dark-winged death with sorrow 
also, bearing away its inmates in infancy, childhood and in young manhood's 
ripened prime on the field of battle. Saddest of all became the home when 
the mother, the light of its hearth, the bond of its union, was borne from 
their midst on September 4, 1849. 

The mother and children, all gone by marriage or death, the father was 
left alone to live over and over the joys and griefs of the household. He 
trod the way companionless, down the sunset of life, until he passed under 
the shadow April 22, 1889, survived by three sons and two daughters. Thus 
ended the life work of one pioneer family of Indiana, after a full half century 
of toil. 

Industry, frugality, truth, honesty and temperance were the cardinal 
virtues that made the sure foundation of this home. Such as these made 
the great republic possible. Parents of nine children, self-sacrificing, self- 
denying, self-reliant and peaceful, joint occupants of the same farm with 
the Pottawattamie Indians. 

The house has mouldered away and given place to the new and modern, 
but the spirit generated in it is alive today, of which this occasion is a glorious 
and lasting witness. 

IN MEMORIAM A. D. IOXX). 

A live memorial is erected upon our streets by the eldest son, General 
Anson P. Mills, Washington, D. C., to commemorate these lives. As the 



426 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

warp and woof of mother's loom ran down like a golden web through his 
mind and heart, inspiring success in life, mayhap there was also a continu- 
ous silver thread, flowing from the gurgling spring at the old home to this 
memoriam. 

As the iridescent spray flying crystal-white from its sculptured forms 
and flowers, thrill our being with a sense of beauty and perfection of taste, 
it is well for us to remember the story of the toil and sacrifice of hands and 
hearts that made it possible. 

Marietta Mills, daughter of James P. and Sarah Kenworthy Mills, was 
born December 31, 1837 and died February 12, 1914. She is a sister of 
Anson P. Mills. 

She was united in marriage to John T. Burckhalter, April 15, 1858. To 
this union were born ten children, three having preceded the mother in 
death. The surviving ones are, Abraham, of Montana; Rembrant W., of 
Pennsylvania; Sarah and Grace, of Thorntown; Rosa, of Hazelrigg; and 
Bertha and Howard, who lived with her and administered to her in her de- 
clining years. 

She leaves six grandchildren and one great grandchild, her namesake, 
Marietta, daughter of Dr. and Mrs. Taylor, of Rochester, Indiana. Besides 
these two brothers. Brig. Gen. Anson Mills, of Washington, D. C, Allen 
Mills, of Thorntown, and one sister, Mrs. Jane Smiley, of Thorntown. 

She became a member of the Christian church in 1857 under the preach- 
ing of Rev. A. L. Hobbs. 

Mrs. Burckhalter was a woman of very fine type of mind, taking a very 
philosophical view of affairs at all times and up to the very time of her death 
her mind was exceptionally clear and keen. 

Mrs. Burckhalter was born in an old log house that stood on the -site 
of the present modern home, in fact her death occurred within a few feet 
of the place of her birth. The farm on which she was born, lived and died, 
was entered by her father, James P. Mills, September 30, 1834, who also on 
March 18, 1837, entered a tract of land adjoining. Sheepskin letters of 
patents are still in possession of the family, the first signed by Andrew Jack- 
son, the second signed by Martin Van Buren, presidents of the United States 
at the time of entry. 

Mrs. Burckhalter had witnessed the greatest era in the history of the 
nation and the most wonderful era, scientifically in the history of the world. 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 427 

She had a large part in the history of the state and nation, one brother 
being consul to Mexico, while the illustrious Anson Mills, so distinguished 
himself in time of war as to secure the position of brigadier-general. Dur- 
ing all these years she quietly remained at home, keeping the family together 
and rearing to sturdy manhood and winsome womanhood her sons and 
daughters who give to our nation those qualities and virtues which make us 
great among the nations of the earth. 

It is intensely interesting to note the kaleidoscopic changes that have 
taken place in the life-time of this good woman. Born as we have said in a 
log house with its great open fire place that with tropic heat drove back the 
frost line from the window pane. This early home giving place to the pres- 
ent modern house with its conveniences and equipment. The old swinging 
crane and bake pan for the corn pone to the modern culinary effects. The 
tallow dip giving place to candle "by which you could read and not be nearer 
than four feet," then that revelation the kerosene lamp, "that lighted all the 
room" and then the present acetylene plant that rivals the daylight. 

She saw her father haul great logs and place them end to end for fence, 
with chunks between to keep the pigs in or out. She saw him cut his grain 
with the sickle, this giving place to the rythmic swing of the cradle and then 
the drone of the modern harvesting machinery. In her early days the rap, 
rap of the flail, then the steady tramp of horses in the threshing of grain 
and now the whir of the modern thresher. 

When she was a girl the nearest markets were LaFayette and Cincinnati. 
On the farm are still the old tanning vats where hides were prepared for the 
annual arrival of the shoemaker who came and stayed until he had made 
shoes for the whole family. 

Mrs. Burckhalter walked to Thorntown to see the first train arrive on 
rails made of wood and shod with iron and "you must not get closer than 
twenty or thirty feet for fear of getting hurt." 

During her time she had witnessed the coming of telephone, telegraph, 
wireless telegraphy, electric lights, automobiles, balloons and flying machines. 
Space forbids to enumerate further, but what a wonderful age in which this 
pioneer lived, and what a legacy such people as she have left to their children 
and to generations yet to come. 

There is a little romance connected with the home place of Mrs. Burck- 
halter. Two young Indian chieftains fell in love with the same dusky maiden 



428 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

and fought a duel with knives over her, each struck the other a fatal blow at 
the same moment and the graves of these young chieftains are known today 
by members of the family. 

Mrs. Burckhalter's life was spent at home caring for her children; this 
was her Christian duty and it was performed well and today her boys and 
girls can rise up and call her blessed. 



The above village is located in the northeast part of Jackson township, 
in section 20. It was laid out in 1883 and named after Congressman Thomas 
Ward, who was instrumental in getting a postoffice established there. It is 
situated in a fine, productive country, about seven miles southwest of Le- 
banon, and five miles northeast of Jamestown. The first merchant was 
John B. Bennington, succeeded by Greenville Dodd, and he by Thomas 
Burris & Company. The first postmaster was J. C. Bennington, followed 
by G. Dodd, and he by Thomas Burris. There is a Christian church, a brick 
school house, and several residences. About the year 1870 George Jackson 
built a steam sawmill here, which is still in operation. 



WHITESTOWN. 

This town is the capital of little Worth, the baby township of the county. 
It is situated near the middle of the township on the Chicago division of the 
Big Four, midway between Zionsville and Lebanon, about seven miles from 
each. It is the center of trade of the best agricultural districts in the county. 
It was laid out in 1851 at the time the railroad was built, on the land of 
Abram Neese. Harrison Spencer is said to be the first man to sell goods 
in the town. He was soon followed by Henry Lucns and William Laughner. 
Isaac Dye and Alfred Osborn were the first to venture to build a grist mill 
to manufacture breadstuff for the people. The milling privileges at Whites- 
town were poor. They would have to go to Zionsville, Mechanicsburg or 
Thorntown to have grain made into flour or meal. There was no water 
power in Worth township so the early citizen had to depend upon steam. 
The first mill was in a few years burned and Henry Lucus rebuilt it. The 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 429 

third mill was built by J. W. Bowser and was the most improved pattern. 
It gained a reputation throughout the county and other counties for good 
work and was patronized from near and far. 

Among other early business men may be mentioned F. M. & Caesar 
Echman, Neese & Keefe, Drs. I. T. Ross, Starkey, Larimore and Hardy. 
The early school houses and churches were up-to-date, and every interest of 
the community was looked after with great care and earnestness. The 
village soon rose to be an important trading center for the township and 
from other townships and has held the position to the present time. Worth 
township could not do without Whitestown. There, all elections are held, 
and all the business of the township is transacted. It is the center of trade, 
of politics, of social interests and of every other interest of the people. It 
is near the highest point in the county and is trying to conduct itself so as to 
be worthy of the respect of all its neighbors and hold a high place in the 
estimation of its neighbors. 

ZIONSVILLE. 

Zionsville is located in Eagle township in the southeast part of Boone 
county, on the banks of Eagle creek, just below the junction of Big and 
Little Eagle creeks. It was organized and laid out in 1852, on the com- 
pletion of the Indianapolis, Cincinnati and LaFayette railroad now known as 
the Big Four and belonging to the New York system. It was named in 
honor of William Zion of Lebanon. It is about half way between Indi- 
anapolis and Lebanon. 

Among the first business men were John Vaughn, John Smith, Daugh- 
erty and Nichols, B. M. Gregory, merchants; C. H. Tingle, J. M. Biggers, 
grocers; J. M. Bradley, Perrell and Perrell, druggists; Croplen and Mills, 
undertakers; M. S. Anderson, wagonmaker; doctors, S. W. Rodman, 
Samuel Hardy, N. Crosby, M. S. Larimore, F. Long, G. W. Duzan and H. 
T. Cotton; J. O. Hurst, dentist; attorneys, Jesse Smith, H. D. Sterrett, M. 
M. Riggins, John A. Pock and C. N. Beamer. The first hotel was kept by 
John Miller. John Holmes built an extensive grist mill in 1854. It was 
afterwards perverted into a distillery and operated a short time and failed. 
M. S. Davenport built and operated the first tan-yard. 

The thriving town grew rapidly from the beginning, owing to the rail- 
road and the beautiful rich country that surrounds it. The country was 



430 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

rolling and easily and naturally drained and developed into productive farms. 
Zionsville soon became an extensive trading center. Beautiful dwellings, 
extensive business rooms, excellent school buildings and churches evidence 
the energy and thrift of her citizens. The census of 1910 gives the popula- 
tion to be eight hundred and forty and the third town in size of the county. 
There are few towns of its size that can boast of better school buildings and 
facilities and none have more beautiful locations for such. There are four 
churches in the town, Methodist, Presbyterian, Christian and Christian 
Union, all of which support ministers and are alive in the work. In addi- 
tion to these, the enterprising citizens have established Zion Park and main- 
tain it from year to year by ten days of program each August with the best 
of talent for religious and intellectual instruction. Zionsville is above the 
average of towns of its size for its beautiful location, business enterprise and 
the social and moral character of its inhabitants. 

As Zionsville was an afterthought, not coming until after the location 
of the railroad, it does not figure in the early settlement of the county. Eagle 
village on the Michigan road claims that credit. This was the first town 
established in the county by white men. It was noted in the early day for its 
energy and push. It was the first hotel center of the county and led off in 
many enterprises. The building of the railroad was its death knell. The 
laying out and building of Zionsville on the railroad so close was more than 
it could endure. Its most enterprising men moved to the new city and took 
their business with them and soon the town was gone. The fact that Eagle 
Village flocked to the new city gave it a great boom, and it soon became very 
lively and pushed forward rapidly, so that its friends thought it would become 
the metropolis of the county. It pushed forward for a few years until. 
Lebanon got out of the mud and other towns along the railway line began 
to wake up and move into life. 

Zionsville at this juncture settled down to business and became one of 
our steady growth substantial towns. It soon became a center of trade for 
a considerable area of rich country and business of all lines was established 
to supply the demand. Mills, shops, stores and industries of all kinds neces- 
sary to meet the wants of the people were established and are maintained to 
this day. Zionsville is a live town with energetic business men, up-to-date 
schools, spiritual churches, beautiful residences and a hopeful outlook for 
the future. 



CHAPTER XVII. 



COUNTY BUILDINGS. 



The Boone county court house was dedicated July 4, 1912, and is one of 
the most classic and commodious court houses in Indiana. It is of Oolitic 
limestone, three stories and a basement for storage purposes. On the first 
floor are located rest rooms for women and men, the surveyor's office, county 
superintendent's office, county assessor's office, prosecuting attorney's office, 
and the Grand Army of the Republic hall. On the second floor are the offices 
of the auditor, clerk, treasurer and recorder, with vaults for each office for 
the storage of books and records. The circuit court room, a small court room, 
an assembly hall, 'witnesses' rooms, the library, and the sheriff's room are lo- 
cated on the third floor. There are ample storage rooms for books and rec- 
ords in the upper part of the building, with lavatories for men and women 
on every floor. Every want of the county and community is embraced in the 
arrangement of the building for the next hundred years to come. 

The agitation for the new building was commenced the last week in De- 
cember, 1908, and continued until it resulted in the commissioners making an 
order for the building. 

After mass meetings, and circulation of petitions asking for the construc- 
tion of a new court house, the commissioners made an order April 7, 1909, 
for a new building. 

That there might be no question of graft or politics, the commissioners 
asked that a citizens' committee be appointed to work with them; this was 
done and Messrs. W. J. DeVol, James M. Nicely, John E. Frost and Dr. H. 
N. Coons were selected. 

After visiting several Indiana court houses, to get ideas, the committee 
employed Joseph T. Hutton, of Hammond, Indiana, as architect to draw up 
plans and specifications, these being approved by the committee August 16, 
1909. The contract for the erection of the building was let to Caldwell & 
Drake, of Columbus, Indiana, on the 4th day of October, 1909. The work 



432 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

of tearing down the old building completed in 1857 was begun August 17, 
1909, it being sold August 16, 1909. 

Excavation for the new structure was begun in October, 1909, the first 
concrete in foundation placed November 17, 1909, and the building completed 
and accepted December 20, 191 1, at a total cost of $265,000.00, and the build- 
ing thrown open to the public New Year's day, 19 12. 

The building which is of granite and Bedford stone has a total width of 
105 feet and a total length of 142 feet, exclusive of entrance projections, and 
is 120 feet, 9 inches from the ground to the top of the clock tower, the flag- 
staff extending about 20 feet above this point. 

The main square of the building is 51 feet, 6 inches high, the stone work 
in the tower 80 feet high and the floor of the clock tower 101 feet and the 
north and south pediments 66 feet. The huge monolithic columns at the north 
and south entrances are a distinguishing feature of the structure being the 
longest one-piece limestone columns in the United States and perhaps in the 
world, being exceeded in size by a few granite columns in New York City. 

The eight were quarried in one huge piece, 80 feet long and having no 
machinery at the mills sufficient to work them out they were scabbled into 
hexagonal shapes about 38 feet long and \ Y / 2 feet in diameter and shipped 
here one to a car, each one weighing about 40 tons. They were then cut 
by hand to their present shape, being 35 feet 5^ inches long, exclusive of 
cap and base and 3 feet 6 inches at top and weighing about thirty tons each. 
The cap on top of each weighs about five tons. 

The smaller columns on east and west are 25^2 feet long and 2 feet 10 
inches in diameter. Another distinguishing feature is the size of the dome, 
being 52 feet across, it being said that there is but one other dome in the 
state having a greater diameter, the one at West Baden. 

The interior of the building is exceptionally well lighted, there being 
no part of the building that is not well lighted, there being no dark corridors 
or rooms. 

The building has a basement, and four stories above; the basement is 
unfinished and houses pipes for heating, water, ventilation, etc., the fresh 
air for the building being taken in through the basement passes through a 
current of running water to remove dust and other impurities, and in winter 
passes over heated coils to raise the temperature, and is then driven by a 
huge motor driven fan to various parts of the building. 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 433 

On the first floor is found the Grand Army of the Republic room, set 
apart for the use of the old soldiers. This room is very appropriately deco- 
rated with the emblems of the Grand Army of the Republic and the names 
of some of the battles of the Civil war that Boone county boys were en- 
gaged in. 

The old soldiers have nicely furnished it, decorating the walls with 
pictures of war time leaders and have started a collection of war time relics. 

The county offices on this floor are prosecuting attorney, superintendent 
of schools, surveyor and county assessor. Each has a private office separated 
by a partition of ornamental imperial plate glass. 

Toilet rooms finished in white Parian marble, tile floors, and nickeled 
brass fixtures are found on each floor. The rest room for men on the first 
floor is one much visited, but perhaps the most appreciated room is the wom- 
en's rest room, in the southwest corner of the building. This latter room is 
a large, airy, well-lighted one, fitted with chairs, rockers, settees and tables 
with a telephone booth, a dressing room and toilet in connection. 

The floors of the corridors, rotunda, lobbies, toilets and public space 
in offices on the second floor are of ceramic mosaic tile with a border in 
colors, laid on a reinforced concrete base ; the floors in the various rooms are 
i }4 inch quartered oak laid on reinforced concrete or hollow tile and con- 
crete base. 

An attractive feature of the building is the immense rotunda, which 
floods the interior with sunlight by day and electric light by night; the in- 
terior dome is very attractively finished in art glass, as are the ceiling lights 
of the court rooms, convention hall and court library. The distance from 
the first floor to the top of the art glass dome it 84 feet. 

The wainscoting of corridors and rotunda is a white Italian marble, five 
feet high on the first floor and three and one-half feet high on the others, 
with a verde green Vermont marble base. The stairways from first to sec- 
ond floors are massive ones of white marble throughout; those from the 
second to the third have marble treads and platforms. 

The columns in the rotunda are heavy steel, protected by concrete, cov- 
ered by an imitation marble called scagliola, made of a Keene's cement, 
shipped from England with the coloring incorporated to imitate the kind 
of marble chosen. 
(28) 



434 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

In the south corridor is a massive bronze tablet, costing $500.00 in- 
scribed with the date of construction, names of commissioners, citizens' com- 
mittee, architect, builders, etc. 

Up to the time of the Revolutionary war, lands were described by 
"metes and bounds," and that system is still used in New York, Pennsyl- 
vania, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, the Carolinas, Georgia, 
Tennessee, Kentucky, Texas, part of Ohio, and all of the New England 
states. In this system all lands were described by following roads, streams, 
or compass lines, and as compass lines vary, and the other lines shifting or 
easily changed, litigation was constantly coming up. 

At the close of the Revolutionary war, when the United States had re- 
ceived a title to all the lands lying between the Ohio and Mississippi rivers 
and Virginia had ceded all her right by the Ordinance of 1887, Thomas 
Jefferson devised a better plan for the survey of lands in this territory. Up 
to that date lands had been marked and designated by the French system. 
For an example, note how the lands in Knox and Clark counties are laid 
off. The system introduced by Jefferson was to designate a meridian line 
as a base from which to measure land east and west, and designate this line 
by number. The first meridian is the boundary line between Ohio and In- 
diana. The second meridian is a line from the Ohio river due north to the 
northern boundary of the state. This second meridian passes through the 
hall of the court house at Lebanon, and divides the county into two equal 
parts east and west of this line. Each meridian line has a line crossing it at 
some point at right angles running east and west and it is called the base 
line. The base line of the second meridian crosses in Orange county. Par- 
allel with the meridian line are drawn lines six miles apart, dividing the land 
into strips six miles wide called ranges, and numbered from the meridian 
one, two, three, etc., east or west, owing to which side east or west of the 
line it is located. The lines that are drawn parallel with the base line six 
miles apart are called town lines and numbered one, two, three, etc., north or 
south of the base line. These range lines running north and south and the 
town lines running east and west, cut the lands into squares six miles on each 
side and each forms a Congressional township, and each is named by num- 
bers range east or west and town north or south of the second meridian or 
whatever may be the number of the meridian line the survey is made from. 
For example, Lebanon is located in the east half of section 36, town 19 north, 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 435 

range I west, second meridian, and in the west half of section 31, town 19 
north, range 1 east of the second meridian. Each Congressional township 
is divided into thirty-six sections, each containing six hundred and forty 
acres and numbered, beginning at the northeast corner, counting to the west 
until six, then drop down one and count east to twelve, thus back and forth 
until you reach the southeast corner No. 36. 

Ohio, Indiana and Illinois were surveyed as one unit, and a base line 
was established in southern Indiana, the first principal meridian on what is 
now the Ohio-Indiana line, the second through central Indiana and the third 
through central Illinois. 

This second principal meridian passes through the center of the court 
house, and is marked by a tablet consisting of an arrow of white and black 
marble, with the words "Meridian Line" in bronze letters, the design set in 
a mat of brown tile. 

On the second floor are found the four main offices, the county auditor, 
recorder, clerk and treasurer, with commissioners' room located between 
the auditor's and treasurer's offices and toilets on the north. 

Each of the main offices has a private office and a fire-proof record 
room; these rooms have heavy brick walls, hollow tile and concrete floors, 
and iron doors and fitted up with metal furniture, making them as nearly 
fire-proof as is possible. Each main office is about thirty-five feet by forty- 
two feet square; the record rooms about seventeen feet by thirty-two feet. 

On the third floor are the large and small court rooms, the convention 
hall, court library, sheriff's office, judges' and stenographers' rooms, jury 
rooms and toilets. 

Court room number one, or the large court room, is eighty-two feet 
long and forty-two feet wide, with art glass ceiling lights, making it a well 
lighted room. This room is very artistically decorated and has an eight-foot 
paneled Keene's cement wainscoting. On the north, over the judge's stand 
is a very fine oil painting costing $500. The pilasters of the court rooms and 
convention hall are of verde green scagliola work surmounted by artistic 
caps and brackets. 

The small court room is thirty-two feet by forty-two feet, with art 
glass ceiling lights. The convention hall is forty-two feet by fifty feet, with 
art glass ceiling lights; this room is fitted up with opera chairs and arm 
chairs to be used for writing. On the landing of the stairs from the third 



436 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

to the fourth floor or mezzanine floor is a cell room for placing prisoners 
in during trial intermissions ; it has a steel cell and toilet. 

On the fourth floor is the upper part of the library and fire-proof rooms 
for the storage of old records; these old records have been arranged in 
proper places, each office separately. On this floor are also found two motor 
driven fans which take the foul air from the toilets of the entire building. 
The building is heated by about 14,000 square feet of radiation attached to 
the city hot water plant, so arranged as to heat the building nicely at all 
times. The lighting is taken care of by about 1,500 sixteen-candle power 
electric lights, there being 245 in the corridors and rotunda, 100 in the large 
court room arranged around the art glass ceiling lights, fifty-six in the small 
court room, and sixty in the convention hall. The offices on the second floor 
are also fitted up with gas lights. The lighting fixtures are of plain antique 
brass. 

The wood trim throughout the building is of heavy quarter sawed oak, 
finished a medium golden oak as is the furniture, which is plain and mas- 
sive. Each room and corridor is very artistically decorated in oil, no two 
rooms being decorated in the same color designs. 

The busy officials are reminded of the time by a system of clocks, 
which are regulated and worked automatically by a large master clock lo- 
cated in the janitor's room on the first floor, the smaller clocks being run by 
compressed air. The tower clock is of the Seth Thomas type, worked by 
weights, and automatically wound twice a day, by an electric motor. 

The four faces are each six feet in diameter, and lighted at night by 
five electric lights back of each dial; the bell weighs 1,500 pounds and the 
weights about 1,400 pounds, the ball of the pendulum weighing 175 pounds. 

The following are some of the principal items of cost: The building 
proper, $217,891.90; heating, $9,400; lighting fixtures, $3,000; wood fur- 
niture, $7,032.20; metal furniture, $5,000; art glass and decorations, $5,250; 
architect, $13,000. 

PRELUDE TO HON. CHARLES FAIRBANKS' SPEECH. 

(Dedication of Boone County Court House.) 

Mr. Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen — We are assembled under happy 
auspices to participate in an event of historic importance. Our people are in 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 437 

the enjoyment of the fruits of orderly government, which they have won 
in the various avenues of activity which call into play the qualities of a 
fine order of citizenship. Our state, which celebrates a few years hence the 
one hundredth anniversary of her admission into the union, has achieved 
high place in the respect and admiration of the country; she has become a 
factor of consequence in the commercial and industrial world; and in the 
literary field she occupies a position of exceptional eminence. Our popula- 
tion of nearly three million is enamored of its state and has a profound 
respect for its self-enacted laws and yields to them loyal obedience. 

We are a state in which there are no great extremes of either poverty 
or wealth. We are not divided into classes, warring with one another. Here 
men are appraised for what they are and not for what they possess. We are 
essentially a state of home lovers and home builders. We have a neighborly, 
genuine regard for each other's welfare, and I hope that neither increasing 
population nor growing wealth may destroy this splendid characteristic of 
Hoosier life. 

The people of Boone county are to be congratulated upon the erection 
of this building. There is no other in the state of Indiana which surpasses 
it, either in architectural design or in the excellence of its construction. 
There is a beauty, strength and majesty about it which in the best sense 
typifies the citizenship of the county which has built it. 

Long after this scene has faded from the memories of men this temple 
of justice and this home of the public business of Boone county will stand 
as physical evidence of your breadth of view in public affairs and of your 
regard for the future. These massive walls will long survive you, blessing 
your children and their children yet to be. A great edifice dedicated to pub- 
lic uses should symbolize the character of the community; it should be a 
truthful expression of its intellectual, artistic and material attainments, and 
in a measure anticipate its future needs. 

No one can look upon this achievement in art — unsurpassed anywhere 
in its class — without a sense of exaltation, and for years to come it will 
tend to shape the ideals of those who behold it, both the old and young; 
they will draw from it a sense of proportion and grace, beauty, utility, 
solidity and strength; it will impress them with the power and permanence 
of the government — the necessity of law and order. The people will rev- 
erence it because it will link them with the past ; they will perceive in it the 



438 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

splendid contribution which you their fathers, have made to them and em- 
phasize their duty to build also for the future. They will behold in it one 
of the rich trophies of civil liberty. 

This is one of the assurances against social disorder and anarchy. To 
this sanctuary the oppressed may come for the redress of their wrongs ; here 
men whether favored by fortune or otherwise, will stand equal before the law. 



BOONE COUNTY JAIL. 

The first jail in Boone county was built on the east side of the public 
square. It was made of hewed logs one foot square, with one door and one 
window. It was not a very imposing structure but sufficiently large and 
safe to house all the county boarders of that early date. 

The second jail was built much after the pattern of the first. It was 
located on the north side of the public square on the lot where the first court 
house stood. It was of hewed logs one foot square. It was a little larger 
than the first jail and was considered at the day in which it was constructed, 
an improvement on the first building. It was larger and better ventilated 
and better adapted for its use. 

The third jail was built of brick, stone and iron. The main thought in 
view was to make it secure and fire proof. There was not any increase in 
size. In fact at that period it was not thought that Boone county would 
grow any more and there had been little use of the former jails so there was 
no increase in size, in fact it was no larger than the first jail. The com- 
missioners concluded that the material of which it was made would make 
for any deficiency of size. 

The fourth jail, the one now in use, stands on the northeast corner of 
the public square. It is a more modern structure built for the health, com- 
fort and security of its occupants. The sheriff's residence is constructed 
together with it and is of brick, stone and iron. It was built in 1877 by 
order of the county commissioners, Jesse Jackson, Nathan Perrill and James 
Coombs. The plans were drawn by T. J. Tolan and Sons and the contract 
was let to J. W. Hinkley. The cost was eighteen thousand dollars. 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 439 

COUNTY INFIRMARY. 

The count) - infirmary or poor farm of three hundred and twenty acres 
is located one mile southeast of Lebanon. It is choice land and the buildings 
are modern and excellent in every respect for the purpose for which they 
were designed. It is modern in structure and handsome in appearance. It 
was built in 1895 at a cost of fourteen thousand dollars by order of county 
commissioners Stucky, Shaw and Martindale. Very few counties in the 
state have better provisions for caring for the unfortunate than Boone, 
which speaks louder than words for the progressive generosity of its people. 



ORPHAN S HOME, LEBANON. 

This home-like structure is adjoining to the poor farm on a forty acre 
lot. It is as homelike and comfortable as the best of homes in the county. 
The same commissioners that improved the poor farm, remodeled and im- 
proved the home for the children. When the county adds to these two 
institutions a home for the aged, she will have reached the highest mark in 
civilization in providing for the unfortunate poor, the childhood and the 
aged. The spirit of this county will doubtless take this step in the near 
future and provide a home for the worn out men and women in its service 
outside of the infirmary in the shape of a nice comfortable home. 



THE CRAWFORD HOME, ZIONSVILLE. 

Through the generosity of Mr. and Mrs. Edward C. Crawford, a large 
tract of land, part in Marion and part in Boone counties, just east of Zions- 
ville, was given for a Children's Home and Industrial School. This home 
is under control and management of the Baptist church. It contains three 
hundred and fifteen acres of splendid soil, productive and remunerative. It 
is open to children of all religious denominations, children of the Baptist 
having the preference, if there is not room for all that apply. It was open for 
the reception of children August 26, 1906. The children are received at any 
age and are kept until they are fourteen or fifteen years of age, unless placed 



440 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

in desirable homes sooner. The system of the institution is to find suitable 
homes for the children as soon as desirable, keeping in touch with them until 
the above stated age. The children have three hours of school work each 
day and eight months of school work each year. In addition to the school 
work the girls receive practical training in household and domestic work and 
the boys are taught practical farming and manual training. 



Early in the history of the schools of Indiana the law provided for pub- 
lic school libraries. After the organization of the State Teachers' Associa- 
tion early in the fifties the agitation of all questions pertaining to the wel- 
fare of the schools came to the front and were discussed and recommenda- 
tion made to the legislative body for advancement in legislation. The State 
Superintendent was established, State Board of Education created, provi- 
sions for building school houses, institutes, State Normal, county super- 
vision and many other steps were taken for the advancement of the educa- 
tional interest of the state. Not the least among these was the provision for 
public libraries. Each township was to provide a township library where 
the children could have access to the books. This system spread until each 
township of Boone county, was supplied with a circulating library and all the 
children of the county had access to a well-selected class of books for gen- 
eral reading and information. In the report of the state superintendent of 
191 1 and 1912, Boone county is given as having 2,567 volumes in her town- 
ship libraries, 1,750 in her towns, and 6,100 in her cities, making the total of 
10,417 in the county, and there was an addition of 1,350 books made to the 
libraries the last year. In addition to these public school libraries there 
were other private libraries in Sunday schools and other organizations in 
the county. 

There are also two Carnegie libraries established in the county. One at 
Lebanon that has been in operation for several years containing 9,500 vol- 
umes and one at Thorntown under construction and intended to supply the 
children of Sugar Creek township and Thorntown with reading matter. 

Boone county has made ample provisions for her young people to im- 
prove their minds with knowledge and general information through books 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 44.I 

and other educational advantages. In fact this county has left nothing un- 
done that is necessary for physical, intellectual and moral wants of her chil- 
dren. Most liberal provisions have been made for the comfort and advance- 
ment of her children. This advancement and public spirit for the comforts 
and luxuries of life are remarkable, when we consider the great hardships 
and privations through which her citizens came. 



CHAPTER XVIII. 



POLITICS OF BOONE COUNTY. 



Boone had politics and she had it pretty bad along with her sister 
counties. Old Hickory was the chief man of the Nation, when she was 
born, and as he signed most of the deeds granting lands to the pioneers 
of the county, the political complexion of the county was marked by Presi- 
dent Andrew Jackson, and the pioneer babes of the woods were sung to 
sleep in the sugar trough cradles, by the lullabies of Jefferson and Jackson. 
The sound democratic principles of the father of democracy and of the 
emphatic expounder of its doctrines, were faithfully impressed upon the 
minds and hearts of the rising generation ; and the county was not only 
born, but also trained along the lines of these two illustrious leaders of 
the party. Is it any wonder that the principles of these fathers became im- 
bedded in the character of the men of Boone and that it stuck and is to this 
day a prominent element in her character. It is a forcible illustration of 
the axiom, train up a child in the way he should go and he will not depart 
from it. The citizens of the young county stuck faithfully to Jackson all 
through the eight years of his administration, and on through the term of 
Martin Van Buren. The crisis that came in 1837, in monetary disaster of 
that day, was all laid at the door of the President, and it brought on the 
disturbance that elected William H. Harrison as captain of the Whig 
band, president of the United States. In the crash some of the Democrats 
went down, and part of the officers of the county were elected by the 
Whigs. These conditions did not last long. The war with Mexico arose, 
the spirit of Jackson came to the front, and James K. Polk was elected 
President, and the Democrats followed the trend of National politics, and 
restored that party into power in the county. They continued to bear the 
scepter until the storm of 1854 arose. The political arena had been stirred 
by the slavery issue, and the American idea had come to the front, so 
everything was ripe for a political revolution, and it came. That year 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 443 

the Know-Nothings swept the field and elected most of the county officers. 
This was the second storm that swept over the county, and made a break 
in the ranks of the followers of Jefferson and Jackson. It did not last 
long, for the forces of 1856 led by the Bachelor, James Buchanan, knocked 
the Know-Nothings out, not even sparing those of Boone county. Only 
a few remained, and they were set aside in 1858, and Boone was back in 
her native element again. The agitation in politics became more furious. 
The slavery question that was back of all, and each political faction was 
afcaid to touch it in any shape. It would not down. The spirit of 1856 
came to the front in i860, and stirred the whole country, as it had never been 
stirred before in its history. Boone county was drawn into the whirl, and 
was torn from its moorings. Some of the Democratic officers went down 
with the tide, and the flood of 1862 and 1864 swept it clean. The war 
settled the slave issue; and the old Jacksonian and Jeffersonian Democracy 
in the North went down with it and out of Boone county. New issues 
came to the front, and the men of Boone lined up along the new lines, and 
began to make inroads upon the ranks of the Republicans. The Green- 
Backs were an entering wedge, and helped break the phalanx. There was 
a division of the political spoils of the county so that, when the storm 
of 1884 came and was led by Grover Cleveland, the officers were divided. 
The county now became a close county in politics, and the result of the elec- 
tion depended much upon the personality of the candidate. This continued 
until the campaign of 1896, when the Republicans came into power again 
and remained so until the administration of Theodore Roosevelt, when it 
began to weaken and has continued to swing off until now it has full sway 
in the county, controlling almost everything political. Thus the political 
pendulum has swung back and forth during our history, and has made 
what we term a close political county. This has been beneficial to the county 
in more ways than one. No political party has a walkover in the county. 
They cannot afford to put dead-beat political riders on any ticket, and hope 
to carry him through on party strength. Hence, the very best men must 
be placed on the ticket as candidates. The result of this is that our best 
men are put to the front. The county has had a few men that have fallen 
through personal weakness, but none have ever wronged the county by de- 
faulting. This speaks well for the political history of the county. Few 
counties in the state can produce a better record. Her officers have been 



444 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

true and faithful, and her people have been wise and fortunate in selecting 
them. This record of Boone county is evidence, that it is best for a com- 
munity to be closely divided in its party lines. This principle will hold 
good in the Nation as well as in the county. It would be well if the different 
branches of our state and National legislative bodies were never all of one 
political complexion at the same time. If this was the case, legislation would 
be for the good of the Nation, instead of for the party. They would watch 
each other more closely, and be held in the line of rectitude and patriotic 
duty. Few counties in the state can boast of a cleaner record than Boone 
county. The charge of fraud or rake-off has never been preferred against 
any of her officers. After all, a person's political and religious complexion 
has little to do with his virtues as a citizen and a neighbor. If he has in 
his heart love for God and love for man he will be able to keep the "Golden 
Rule" and faithfully discharge all his obligations to his fellow-man, and 
be faithful and true in all positions and relations of life. About every 
political complexion in the land has had following in Boone and as our 
citizens have stood as advocates of these different political views, it did 
not change their character as neighbors or as citizens. In fact, our county 
is an object lesson that men of independent political and religious views can 
live together harmoniously, and put in practice the teachings of the Great 
Master of Judea. It demonstrates the fact that no matter what may be 
the peculiar religious beliefs and political notions, men do right and are men. 
No matter what style of hat one may wear, it is the same head under it ; and 
whatever may be the color or texture of his vest, it is the same heart that 
beats and throbs underneath. These very differences in views elevate men 
into higher intelligence and they are able to think better and to love better. 
The friction of views polishes, and makes the virtue in us shine, with more 
burnish, and we become more cultured and refined. These very refining 
influences have worn away the Hoosier, cut out the web-foot so that Boone- 
ites today will measure up to the standard of culture and refinement of a 
free and independent citizen of the world in the Twentieth Century Civiliza- 
tion. Through hardships and privations of pioneer life, we developed muscle 
and vitality; through the friction of contact with men of different views, 
all the corners have been smoothed and polished into the similitude of ideal 
men and women. We can thank our stars for different views in religion and 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 445 

politics, for it is the process of making of us just such types of men as the 

world needs for social and civic development. 

The following shows the vote for governor and secretary of state from 

1888: 

Date. Office. Democrat. Republican. 

1890 Secretary 3.063 2 -957 

1892 Governor 3 ,097 3,126 

1894 Secretary 3,029 3,350 

1896 Governor 3,668 3.439 

1898 Secretary 3.630 3,106 

1900 Governor 3.692 3-341 

1902 Secretary 3,352 3,337 

1904 Governor 3,276 3,606 

1905 Secretary 3.610 3,462 

1908 Governor 3.519 3>45 2 

1910 Secretary 3,519 3,251 

1 912 Governor 3-356 3,288 

1914 Secretary 2,820 1,881 

The Progressive vote for governor in 191 2 was 2,026, and in 191 4 for 

secretary was 1,619. 



REPRESENTATIVES IN CONGRESS. 

No. of Dist. and Representative. Date. 

2d — John Carr 1831 to 1833 

6th — George S. Kinnard 1833 to 1837 

6th — William Herod 1837 to 1839 

6th— William W. Wick 1839 to 1841 

6th — David Wallace 1841 to 1843 

8th — John Petit 1843 to l8 45 

8th— John Petit 1845 to 1847 

8th — John Petit 1847 to 1849 

8th — Joseph E. McDonald 1849 t0 ^S 1 

8th — Daniel Mace 1851 to 1853 

8th— Daniel Mace 1853 to 1855 

8th— Daniel Mace 1855 to 1857 



446 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

No. of Dist. and Representative. Date. 

8th — James Wilson 1857 to 1859 

8th — James Wilson 1859 to 1861 

8th— Albert S. White 1861 to 1863 

8th— Godlove S. Orth 1863 to 1865 

8th— Godlove S. Orth 1865 to 1867 

8th— Godlove S. Orth 1867 to 1869 

7th— Godlove S. Orth 1869 to 1871 

9th — John P. C. Shanks --1871 to 1873 

9th— John P. C. Shanks --1873 to 1875 

9th — Thomas J. Cason 1875 to Y< &77 

9th— Michael D. White 1877 to 1879 

9th— Godlove S. Orth 1879 to 1881 

9th — Godlove S. Orth Died in office 

Charles T. Doxey To fill vacancy 

9th— Thomas B. Ward 1883 to 1885 

9th— Thomas B. Ward 1885 to 1887 

9th— Joseph D. Cheadle 1887 to 1889 

9th — Joseph D. Cheadle 1889 to 1891 

9th — Daniel Waugh 1891 to 1893 

9th — Daniel Waugh 1893 to 1895 

9th — J. Frank Hanly 1895 to 1897 

9th — Charles B. Landis ---1897 to 1899 

9th — Charles B. Landis 1899 to 1901 

9th- -Charles B. Landis 1901 to 1903 

9th — Charles B. Landis 1903 to 1905 

9th— Charles B. Landis 1905 to 1907 

9th — Charles B. Landis 1907 to 1909 

9th — Martin A. Morrison 1909 to 1911 

9th — Martin A. Morrison 191 1 to 1913 



COUNTY COMMISSIONERS. 

1853 — Stephen Crane, First District; William M. Burroughs, Second 
Noah Chitwood, Third. 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 447 

1854 — Stephen Crane, First District; William M. Burroughs, Second 
District; Noah Chitwood, Third District. 

1855 — William Thompson, First District; William M. Burroughs, Sec- 
ond District; Noah Chitwood, Third District. 

1856 — William Thompson, First District; Sol. Beck, Second District; 
Noah Chitwood, Third District. 

1857 — William Thompson, First District; Sol. Beck, Second District; 
F. C. Gillaspie, Third District. 

1858— William Staton, First District; Sol. Beck, Second District; F. C. 
Gillaspie, Third District. 

1859 — William Staton, First District; John A. Potts, Second District; 
F. C. Gillaspie, Third District. 

i860 — William Staton, First District; John A. Potts, Second District; 
Levi Lane, Third District. 

1861 — Samuel H. Schenck, First District; John A. Potts, Second Dis- 
trict; Levi Lane, Third District. 

1862 — Samuel H. Schenck, First District; Stephen Gapen, Second Dis- 
trict; Levi Lane, Third District. 

1863 — Samuel H. Schenck, First District; Stephen Gapen, Second Dis- 
trict; Levi Lane, Third District. 

1864 — Samuel H. Schenck, First District; Stephen Gapen, Second Dis- 
trict : Levi Lane, Third District. 

1865 — Samuel H. Schenck, First District; James L. Hickerson, Second 
District ; Levi Lane, Third District. 

1866 — Samuel H. Schenck, First District; James L. Hickerson, Second 
District ; A. Robinson, Third District. 

1867 — Manson Head, First District; James L. Hickerson, Second Dis- 
trict ; A. Robinson, Third District. 

1868 — Manson Head. First District; Stephen Gapen, Second District; 
A. Robinson, Third District. 

1869 — Manson Head, First District: Stephen Gapen, Second District; 
A. Robinson, Third District. 

1870 — William Staton, First District : Stephen Gapen, Second District ; 
William Stephenson, Third District. 

1871 — William Staton, First District; Geo. Conrad, Second District; 
William Stephenson, Third District. 



44° BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

1872 — William Staton, First District; Geo. Conrad, Second District; 
William Stephenson, Third District. 

1873 — William Staton, First District; Geo. Conrad, Second District; 
Levi Lane, Third District. 

1874 — William Staton, First District; Jesse Jackson, Second District; 
Levi Lane, Third District. 

1875 — William Staton, First District; Jesse Jackson, Second District; 
Levi Lane, Third District. 

1876 — Nathan Perrill, First District; Jesse Jackson, Second District; 
James Coombs, Third District. 

1877 — Nathan Perrill, First District; William Curry, Second District; 
James Coombs, Third District. 

1878 — Nathan Perrill, First District; William Curry, Second District; 
James Coombs, Third District. 

1880 — Nathan Perrill, First District; William Curry, Second District; 
G. W. Campbell. Third District. 

1882— Nathan Perrill, First District; B. C. Booher, Second District; 
G. W. Campbell, Third District. 

.1884 — Nathan Perrill, First District; Jacob Miller, Second District; 
W. C. Crump, Third District. 

1886 — Nathan Perrill, First District; Jacob Miller, Second District; 
W. C. Crump, Third District. 

1888 Bell, First District; J. C. Stucky, Second District; 

W. C. Crump, Third District. 

1890 — George Stephenson, First District; 
trict ; Isaac S. Adney, Third District. 

1892 — George Stephenson, First District; 
trict; M. L. Martindale, Third District. 

1894 — George Stephenson, First District; 
trict; M. L. Martindale, Third District. 

1896 — John A. Dulin, First District J. C. Stucky, Second District; 
James A. McLean, Third District. 

1898 — John A. Dulin, First District; J. H. Caldwell, Second District; 
James A. McLean, Third District. 

1900-2-4- — The same as 1898. 



J. C. Stucky, Second Dis- 
J. C. Stucky, Second Dis- 
J. C. Stucky, Second Dis- 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 449 

1906 — Littleton B. Walker, First District; Marion A. Davis, Second 
District; James A. McLean, Third District. 

1908 — Thomas O. Cash, First District; Marion A. Davis, Second Dis- 
trict; James Cobb, Third District. 

1910 — Thomas O. Cash, First District; John A. Potts, Second District; 
James Cobb, Third District. 

1912 — James A. Smock, First District; Charles W. Bristley, Second 
District ; James Cobb, Third District. 

1914 — F. A. Staton, First District; C. W. Bristley, Second District; C. 
Creasy. Third District. 

Since 1832 the following have been circuit judges in this county: 1832- 
35, B. F. Morris; 1835-39, William W. Wick; 1839-42, James Morrison; 
1842-43, F. M. Finch, James Morrison; 1843-48, William J. Peaslee ; 1849- 
52, William W. Wick; 1852-53, Isaac Naylor; 1853-59, William P. Bryant; 
!859-7i. John M. Cowan; 1871-73, T. F. Davidson; 1873-84, T. H. Palmer; 
1884-90, T. J. Terhune; 1890-96, C. F. S. Neal; 1896-1908, Barton S. Hig- 
gins; 1908-14, Willett H. Parr, who was re-elected in 1914. 

From 1832 to 1852 there was what was known as associate judges, and 
the following held such positions: 1832-37, William Kenworthy, Jacob 
Johns; 1837-39, Samuel Cason, Jacob Johns; 1839-46, Samuel Cason, Sam- 
uel Dooley; 1846-52, Samuel Cason, Nash L. Pitzer. 

Since 1830 the following have been probate judges in this county: 1830- 
35, William Rodman; 1835-36, William Rodman, C. Westfall; 1836-37, C. 
West fall, Samuel McLean; 1837-43, Samuel McLean; 1843-44, Samuel Mc- 
Lean, Seaman Buckles; 1844-45, Seaman Buckles, William McDaniel and 
J. H. Rose; 1845-46, William McDaniel, Samuel McLean; 1846-51, Samuel 
McLean; 1851-53, James A. Thomson; 1853-61, L. C. Daugherty; 1861-62, 
John Coburn; 1862-65, Charles A. Ray; 1865-67, Sol Blair; 1867-1871. 
T. J. Cason; 1871-72, T. H. Palmer. 

Since 1830 the following have served as circuit court clerk in this county : 
1830-36, David Hoover; 1836-44, Samuel S. Brown; 1844-45, John Chris- 
man; 1845-46, John Chrisman, Levi Lane; 1846-51, Levi Lane; 1851-59, 
W. C. Kise; 1859-61, Henry Shannon, Silas A. Lee; 1861-69, Silas A. Lee; 
1869-71, A. O. Miller; 1871-76. Jesse Neff; 1876-80, Lindley M. Cox; 1880- 
86, George Houser; 1886-90, Dr. Jesse Reagan; 1890-98, Charles W. Scott; 
1898-1902, Samuel M. Good; 1902-06, Clark Lindsay; 1906-10, George E. 
Adams; 1910-14, James Gardner; 1914, Leonard Titus. 
(29) 



450 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 



1841-44, A. J. Boone; 1844-49, F - A - Gilmore; 1849-59, James A. 
Nunn; 1859-63, Joseph B. Pitzer; 1863-67, A. C. Daily; 1867-72, Robert W. 
Mathews; 1872-76, John M. Ball; 1876-77, J. W. Hedges; 1877-90, Lindley 
M. Cox; 1890-98, James P. Staley; 1898-02, David H. Shockley; 1902-06, 
B. F. Simmons; 1906-10, B. F. Herdrick; 1910-14, David M. Clark; 1914, 
Cleveland Goodwin. 

TREASURERS. 

1841-51, James McCann; 1851-60, Thomas P. Miller; 1860-64, Sanford 
Daily; 1857-60, A. H. Shepard; 1860-63, David Kenworthy; 1863-64, John 
Kenworthy; 1864-68, Francis M. Busby; 1868-72, John H. Dooley; 1872-76, 
Samuel S. Daily; 1876-80, William D. Hudson; 1880-84, G. F. L. Essex; 
1884-86, Eli Smith; 1886-90, J. H. Harrison; 1890-92, Preston Smith; 
1892-96, David W. Osborn; 1896-98, William H. Stewart; 1898-02, Charles 
A. Gochenhour; 1902-04, Lafayette Wilson; 1904-06, George C. Shirley; 
1906-08, Walter Porter; 1908-10, John B. Routh; 1910-12, John A. Flaning- 
ham; 1912-14, J. T. Frank Laughner; 1914, Nelson J. Parr. 



RECORDERS. 

1 84 1 -5 1, James McCann; 1851-60, Thomas T. Miller; 1860-64, Sanford 
Peters; 1864-68, John Thomas; 1868-71, F. M. Davis; 1871-75, John W. 
Kise; 1875-80, William F. Morgan; 1880-86, S. Peters; 1886-90, F. M. 
Moody; 1890-02, John Masters; 1902-06, A. W. L. Newcomer; 1906-10, 
John Huber; 1910-14, Wilford Hooton ; 1914, John T. Brown. 



1830-32, A. Davenport; 1832-36, Jacob Tipton; 1836-40, William Zion; 
1840-44, John S. Forsythe; 1844-45, Samuel Daily, Jacob Tipton; 1845-47, F. 
Utterback; 1847-51, William Staton; 1851-53, John Hazlett; 1853-57, A - 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 45I 

W. Larimore; 1857-59, J°hn H. Rodman; 1859-63, Riley Colgrove; 1863-67, 
John Kenworthy; 1867-69, L. B. Edwards; 1869-71, William R. Simpkins; 
1871-75, R. S. Camplin; 1875-80, Edward Reynolds; 1880-84, M. C. Moore; 
1884-86, Isaac T. Davis, Jacob S. Cobb; 1886-88, Nathaniel C. Titus; 1888- 
90, James G. Edwards; 1890-92, Joseph S. Miller; 1892-94, John M. Trout- 
man; 1894-96, Beck Hull; 1896-98, William E. Price; 1898-1900, Robert N. 
Etter; 1900-02, Allen Gardner; 1902-04, Douglas Neas; 1904-06, Samuel M. 
Storms; 1906-08, B. B. McRoberts; 1908-10, George M. Mangus; 1910-12, 
George J. Goodwin; 1912-14, B. B. McRoberts; 1914, C. Roberts. 



prosecuting attorneys — (Circuit Court). 

1832-33, Grigg; 1833-36, William Herod; 1836-39, William 

Quarles; 1839-40, Joseph E. Hocker; 1840-41, William J. Peaslee; 1841-42, 
Hugh O. Neal; 1842-43, A. A. Hammond, William J. Brown; 1843-45, A. 

A. Hammond; 1845-46, Matlock; 1846-47, A. A. Hammond; 

1847-48, William B. Beach; 1848-49, Lander; 1849-51, William 

B. Beach; 1851-52, A. J. Boone; 1852-53, Wallace, David Good- 
ing; 1853-54, I. Naylor; 1854-55, Daniel W. Voorhees; 1855-56, J. G. Crain, 
O. S. Hamilton; 1856-57, Henry Shannon; 1857-59, Thomas N. Rice; 1859- 
63, R. W. Harrison; 1863-69, Samuel F. Wood; 1869-71, R. B. F. Pierce; 
1871-73, James V. Kent; 1873-74, G. H. Goodwin; 1874-76, W. B. Walls; 
1876-78, Henry C. Wills; 1878-80, William R. Moore; 1880-86, F. M. 
Charlton; 1886-88, C. M. .Wyncoop; 1888-90, J. R. Beamer; 1890-92, 
H. P. New; 1892-96, P. H. Dutch; 1896-02, Reed Holloman; 1902-08, 
Frank E. Hutchison; 1908-10, Fred Graves; 1910-12, William J. Wood; 
1912-14, Vasco Dodson; 1914, P. E. Smiley. 



prosecuting attorneys — (Common Pleas Court). 

1853-55, A - v - Austin; 1855-57, Michael D. White; 1857-58, Henry 
Shannon; 1858-59, O. S. Hamilton, C. C. Galvin; 1859-60, D. H. Hamilton; 
1860-61, John Morgan; 1861-65, John C. Buffkin; 1865-67, W. W. Woollen; 
1867-71, Samuel Doyal; 1871-73, James Kent; 1873, G. H. Goodwin. 



452 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 



SURVEYORS. 



1832-33, William Delvin ; 1833-34, Abner H. Longley; 1834-37, Joseph 
E. Hocker; 1837-40, H. Laphan ; 1840-50, John M. Burns; 1850-52, James 
Mullikin; 1852-56, Henry Taylor; 1856-58, William Ensminger; 1858-60, 
James Brock; 1860-76, David M. Burns; 1876-80, Thomas W. Huckstep; 
1880-84, C. F. S. Neal; 1884-86, M. F. Orear; 1886-88, A. K. Warren; 
1888-90, S. R. Artman; 1890-92, J. C. Barb; 1892-96, William U. Lane; 
1896-98, Josiah T. Ashley; 1898-1900, George D. Jones; 1902-04, Samuel 
W. Coulson; 1904-06, George H. Carriger; 1906-08, Ora J. Brookshire; 
1908-10. Charles C. Tansell; 1910-12, Ollie M. Dodd ; 1912-14, Walter W. 
Cotton; 1914, Byron Moore. 



1831-33, George Walker; 1833-35, Demor Bard; 1835-37, Henry Dever; 
1 837-39. Michael Witt; 1839-41, John R. Lawrence; 1841-44, William Mc- 
Lean; 1843-47, Michael Witt; 1847-49, Adam Hendricks; 1849-55, James 
Jackson; 1855-59, Martin T. Jones; 1859-63, George Coombs; 1863-65, 
Milroy Lane; 1865-67, Henry Hicks; 1867-69, Joseph A. Thompson; 1869- 
75, J. M. Atkinson; 1875-77, Ratliff Baird ; 1877-80, R. A. Williamson; 
1880-84, E. W. S. Hilligoss; 1884-86, Doctor Coons; 1886-90, Thomas E. 
Bounell; 1890-92, F. B. VanNuys; 1892-96, John R. Porter; 1896-98, C. R. 
Armstrong; 1898-02, James L. Hendricks; 1902-04, Delaskie Smith; 1904- 
06, Lewis P. Ingleman; 1906-08, Rolin G. Hendricks; 1908-10, Ivory C. 
Tolle; 1910-12, William D. Fall: 1912-14, Onis E. Brendel, who was re- 
elected November, 19 14. 




-. 




CHAPTER XIX. 

RAILROADS, TRACTION LINES, TELEGRAPH AND TELEPHONE LINES. 

The railroads of Boone county have made a marvelous growth, keeping 
pace with the development of the county, and doing much toward facilitating 
its progress. 

THE INDIANAPOLIS, CINCINNATI AND LAFAYETTE RAILROAD. 

This was the pioneer railroad of the county. It made its appearance at 
the beginning of the fifties. It enters the county from Hendricks county 
at the southwest corner of section 12 in town 17 north, range 2 east in the 
southeast corner of the county ; thence north to Zionsville ; thence northwest 
diagonally across the county passing through Zionsville, Whitestown, Leb- 
anon, Hazel rigg and Thorntown ; passing out of the county into Clinton 
county near the middle of section 16 town 20 north, range 2 west. A distance 
of 2$. 76 miles of main track and side tracks 8.21 miles; assessed in 1914 for 
taxation in the county at $1,001,230. This road is now known as the Chicago 
division of the Big Four or Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago and St. Louis. 

The Central Indiana railroad enters the county from Hamilton county 
at the southeast corner of section 36 town 19 north, range 2 east; thence west 
on the half section line through Rosston, Gadsden, Heath, south of Ratsburg 
into Lebanon. Thence in a southwesterly direction through Max, Advance 
at the southwest corner of section 30, town 18, north range 2, west, 25.25 
miles. Side track 2.36 miles. Assessed for taxation in 1914 at $195,335. 

CHICAGO, INDIANAPOLIS AND LOUISVILLE ( MONON ROUTE). 

It passes through the northeast corner of Marion township in a north- 
west direction, a distance of 4.68 miles main track, and .27 of a mile side 
track. Assessed at $119,279. 



454 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

Vandalia (Michigan division) passes through the northwest corner of 
Sugar Creek township, a distance of .40 of a mile and is assessed at $6,000. 

Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago and St. Louis (Peoria division) crossing 
the southwest corner of Jackson township in a northwesterly direction and 
passing through Jamestown. Length main track, 4.65 miles, side track, 1.22 
miles. Assessed value, $97,230. The five roads have a total mileage of 
75.80 miles and a total assessment of $1,419,974. 

TRACTION LINES. 
LEBANON-THORNTOWN TRACTION COMPANY. 

The line runs from Lebanon to Thorntown, a distance of 9.33 miles, side 
track .05 of a mile. Assessed value for 1914, $39-393- 



TERRE HAUTE, INDIANAPOLIS AND EASTERN TRACTION COMPANY. 

This line enters the county at the southeast corner and parallels the Big 
Four line to Lebanon ; thence one branch to' Frankfort and one branch to 
Crawfordsville, a total distance of 40.81 main track, and .72 of a mile side 
track, with a total assessed value of $433,933- 

Indianapolis, Crawfordsville & Western (Ben Hur) parallelling the 
Peoria division of the Big Four in the southwest part of Jackson township 
and passing through Jamestown, a distance of five miles. Valued at $49,000. 

The Pullman Company — sleeping car — is assessed on 38.09 miles at 
$325 per mile, giving a total of $12,379.25. 

In addition to the above the following telegraph, telephone, express, gas 
and oil companies are doing business and have lines and properties in Boone 
county and assessed as follows : 

Telegraph companies — Postal Telegraph and Cable Co., 66.50 miles, at 
$40 per mile, $2,660; Western Union Telegraph Co., 728 miles, at $55 per 
mile, $40,040. 

Telephone companies — American Telephone and Telegraph Co., 401.38 
miles, at $75 per mile, $30,103.50; Central Union Telephone Co., 570.25 
miles, at $36 per mile, $20,529; New Long Distance Telephone Co., 131 miles 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 455 

at $46 per mile, $6,026; Advance Telephone Co., 260 miles, at $18 per mile, 
$4,680; Big Spring Telephone Co., 148 miles, at $20 per mile, $2,960; Cen- 
tral Indiana Telephone Co., 4.50 miles, at $50 per mile, $225; Citizens Tele- 
phone Co., of Zionsville, 156 miles, at $25 per mile, $3,900; Consolidated 
Telephone Co., 12 miles, at $23 per mile, $276; Elizaville Co-operative Tele- 
phone Co., 45.50 miles, at $30 per mile, $1,365; Hazelrigg Co-operative 
Telephone Co., 215 miles, at $10 per mile, $2,150; Lebanon Telephone Co., 
325 miles, at $115 per mile, $37,375; People's Co-operative Telephone Co., 
of Bowers, 10 miles, at $15 per mile, $150; People's Co-operative Telephone 
Co., of Colfax, 25 miles, at $15 per mile, $375; People's Co-operative Tele- 
phone Co., of Jamestown, 200 miles, at $20 per mile, $4,000; Reese Mills Co- 
operative Telephone Co., 216 miles, at $8 per mile, $1,728; Shannondale Co- 
operative Telephone Co., 90 miles, at $12 per mile, $1,080; Terhune Co-oper- 
ative Telephone Co., 16.15 miles, at $60 per mile, $969 ; Thorntown Co-opera- 
tive Telephone Co., 550 miles, at $15 per mile, $8,250; Whitestown Citizens' 
Telephone Co., 158 miles, at $32 per mile, $5,056. 

Express companies — Adams Express Co., .40 mile, at $185 per mile, 
$74; American Express Co., 38.09 miles, at $100 per mile, $3,809; United 
States Express Co., 66.06 miles, at $30 per mile, $1,981.80. 

The pipe lines in Boone county are assessed as follows by the state board 
of tax commissioners : 

Indiana Gas Transportation Co. — Pipe lines, Center township, $2,245 '> 
same, Washington township, $5,838. Total for county, $8,083. 

Ohio Oil Co. — Pipe lines and telegraph, Jackson township, $100,330; 
telegraph, Jamestown, $84; pipe lines, Harrison township, $63,095; same, 
Center, $194,426: Union, $19,138; Marion, $122,461. Total for county, 
$499-534- 

THE TELEPHONES OF BOONE. 

Only a few years have passed since the first establishment of telephones 
in Boone county. Now there are five thousand and ninety-two, or one phone 
to about every five persons in the county. There are fourteen centrals in 
the county, distributed as follows, with the number of phones given as fol- 
lows for the years 1910 and 1914: 



456 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

Name. 1910. 1914. 

Lebanon 1,417 1,498 

Advance 286 300 

Big Springs 219 254 

Elizaville ^ 210 235 

Fayette 48 40 

Hazelrigg 191 211 

Jamestown 270 350 

Max 58 77 

New Brunswick 164 220 

Reese's Mills 200 2 5 2 .^ 

Terhune 164 215^ 

Thorntown 614 625 

Whitestown 329 405 

Zionsville 365 410 

Total number 4.535 5.092 

This is a great luxury that has come to us in this day. It has knit our 
hearthstones nearer together and enables us to talk to each other from one 
extreme of the county to the other. How different is this from the privation 
of our fathers who lived here in the woods. The forests were so dense that 
they could not see each other's homes or even the smoke curling from the 
chimneys. The roads were so bad that often they could not visit each other. 
What a lonely time it must have been. How different today. Do we ap- 
preciate it? Do we fully realize what a blessing has come to us of this day? 
Are we grateful for our homes, our great blessings and towards those who 
toiled and endured privations that we might be so blessed? How would we 
feel if we were back seventy-five years in this county? Think of 1840 
and the condition of this country at that date and compare it with the present 
and you will be thankful to some person, if it is only your stars. 

THE FLYING VOICE. 

Little box, where the voices start 
Rhvthmic throbs in its carbon heart — 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 457 

Carbon quarried from burning fire ; 
Throbs that thrill o'er a nerve of wire 
Mined and brought from the copper hills, 
Rolled and drawn in the busy mills, 
Sheltered under a silken skin — 
Warp that the worms of China spin. 
Iron sinews from Norway's shore 
Shaped and forged from the rugged ore, 
Sending back to the rhythmic wave 
Double force for the strength it gave. 
Vibrant message of human will, 
Infinitesimal, feeble, still 
Speeding lightly across the land. 
Borne aloft on a metal strand, 
Poles of cedar, naked, tall, 
Roughly torn from the forest wall. 
Guard the path that the message sought — 
Sentinels of a passing thought. 
Turning in where the line is led, 
Passed again through a copper thread, 
Coiled and whirled on a tiny reel. 
Magnetized on a rod of steel ; 
Trembling disc where the forces start 
Rhythmic throbs in its iron heart — ■ 
Throbs that thrill with the current's play 
And echo the voices of far away. 

— Telephone. 



CHAPTER XX. 



CIVIC AND BENEVOLENT SOCIETIES. 



The essential basis of most secret orders is to bring together men of 
every sect and opinion and to establish friendship among those who might 
otherwise remain at perpetual distance. These organizations give their mem- 
bership a broader idea of and a greater field for practicing the principles of 
charity, benevolence, love, truth, hope, fidelity, patriotism, friendship, etc. 

Many of them have also incorporated in their tenets the dispersal of 
benefits to the sick and distressed and to the relief of the widow and orphan. 
These institutions have thousands of members, each obligated to work for 
the betterment of society and the elevation of their fellowmen. We have 
sought information from the various lodges of the county, but in many cases 
have received no response. It shall be our endeavor to make brief mention 
of each lodge and society in the county and should any lodge not be mentioned 
it will be because no data has been received from it. 



FREE AND ACCEPTED MASONS. 

The first Free and Accepted Masons of Boone county were organized at 
Thorntown, among the very first in the state. 

Boone Lodge 9, Thorntown; this was among the early lodges of the 
state. The charter was granted to Harvey G. Hazelrigg, worshipful master; 
Silas M. White, senior warden and Joseph D. Davis, junior warden, and was 
continued at Thorntown until 1849 when the place of meeting was changed 
to Lebanon and named Boone Lodge No. 9, and Thorntown lodge was given 
113 instead of No. 9; Zion 197, Zionsville : Hazelrigg 200, Jamestown, 
Celestial 525, Whitestown; Rosston 528, Rosston. 

Lebanon Chapter No. 39, Royal Arch Masons, organized May 1858. 

Boone Council No. 45, Royal and Select Masters, received its charter 
October 18, 1876. 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 459 

Lebanon Chapter No. 23, Order of Eastern Star was chartered April 
5, 1876. 

BOONE LODGE NO. 9, FREE AND ACCEPTED MASONS. 

This lodge was organized in some southern county of the state, after- 
wards discontinued, and the number was given to the lodge organized at first 
at Thorntown and called Thorntown Lodge No. 9, Free and Accepted Masons. 
It was discontinued at Thorntown and the number given to Lebanon and 
name, Boone Lodge No. 9, Free and Accepted Masons was given. The 
charter was granted May 29, 1845. 

Past Grand Master of Indiana. *Harvey G. Hazelrigg, 1865 to 1868. 

Past Masters — *Harvey G. Hazelrigg, 1844 to 1867; *Silas A. Lee, 
1868 to 1872; * Robert W. Harrison, 1873, 1874, 1883, 1884; *John M. 
Atkinson, 1875; *David M. Burns, 1876, 1878, 1881, 1882, 1885, 1887, 1888; 
*William A. Millet, 1877 to 1892; *Americus C. Daily, 1879, 1880, 1886; 
Thomas W. Lockhart, 1889; Joseph F. Trowbridge, 1890 to 1891 ; Samuel 
R. Artman, 1893, 1896, 1899; Joseph A. Coons, 1897, 1898, 1900, 1902; 
Ross R. Donovan, 1801 ; Adam H. Felker, 1903, 1904, 1906; Harry Bo- 
hanon,i905; William A. Fish, 1907; Ivory C. Tolle, 1908 to 1909; Thomas 
W. Huckstep, 1910; Ben H. Coombs, 191 1 to 1912. *Deceased. 

Officers 19 1 2 — Ben Hartley Coombs, worshipful master; Louis S. Ster- 
ling, senior warden ; Earl Higgins, junior warden ; Will Sims Ritchie, treas- 
urer: Ivory C. Tolle, secretary; William Henry Orear, Jr., senior deacon; 
Edward George Orear, junior deacon; Brush H. Mclntire. steward; Rolla 
C. Williams, steward; Perry C. Swigett, tyler. Stated meetings, second 
Friday evening of each month. 



FREE AND ACCEPTED MASONS, THORNTOWN, INDIANA. 

Thorntown Lodge No. 113. This charter was issued to Darlington 
Lodge, May 30, 185 1. The name was changed May 25, 1852, to Thorn- 
town Lodge No. 113. 

Past Masters — *George M. Higgins, *John C. Daily. *Myron North, 
*Stephen Gapen, *Levi Guston, *Peter Sando. * James H. Miller, *Charles 
J. Brundage, *James C. Long, *Israel Curry, *William H. Sims, *Madison 



460 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

B. Garten, George W. Coulson, *Solomon Sharp, *Samuel Oldendorf, 
Thomas C. Bradshaw, *James S. Burnham, Edward C. Weakley, Ira M. 
Sharp, Charles R. Armstrong. *Deceased. 

Officers 1 91 2 — E. A. Godley, worshipful master; Nathan Riley, senior 
warden; Earl B. McCorkle, junior warden; Frank N. Armstrong, treasurer; 
William M. Myers, secretary; Virgil W. Moore, senior deacon; George W. 
Ritter, Jr., junior deacon; Edward C. Weakley, steward; William A. Pear- 
son, steward; Baxter McBain, tyler. Stated meetings first Tuesday of each 
month. 



ZIONSVILLE LODGE NO. 1 97, FREE AND ACCEPTED MASONS, ZIONSVILLE, 
INDIANA. 

Charter granted May 26, 1856. 

Past Masters — Manson Head, William T. Shelburne, Harry McDaniel, 
Elmer D. Johns, Benjamin E. Gregory, Joseph C. Beeler, *Jesse Shaw. 
*Deceased. 

Officers 1912 — George Berry, worshipful master; Hugh A. Johnson, 
senior warden; Pirtel N. Shaw, junior warden; Ira E. Conrad, treasurer; 
H. H. Avery, secretary; William H. Palmer, senior deacon; Raphael P. 
Bundy, junior deacon; Henry C. Berry, steward; John R. Moore, steward; 
Frank S. Anderson, tyler. Stated meeting, Tuesday on or before the full 



HAZELRIGG LODGE NO. 200. FREE AND ACCEPTED MASONS, JAMESTOWN, 
INDIANA. 

Charter granted, May 26, 1857. 

Past Masters— *Danbridge Tucker, 1856, 1857. 1858, i86i,.i86s, 1866, 
1874, 1875, 1876, 1878, 1879; *John D. Trotter, 1859, i860, 1864; *Larkin 
H. Hurt, 1862, 1863, 1873; * Howard Anderson, 1864, 1870; *Reese Trow- 
bridge, 1867, 1868, 1871, 1872; ^Stephen G. Hudson, 1869; *David W. 
Osborn, 1877; James M. Erganbright, 1880, 1881 ; *George W. McKeehan, 
1882, 1883; Charles C. Young, 1884, 1889; Marion Porter, 1885, 1895, 1896; 
Charles F. Martin, 1886, 1887, 1888, 1894, 1903; *William S. Heady, 1890, 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 461 

1891, 1893, 1898, 1899; nVilliam H. Wilhite, 1892; William H. Cox, 1897; 
William S. Porter, 1900, 1901 ; Charles Henry, 1902; * James O. Graves, 
1904; Marion H. Roberts, 1905; John Hendricks, 1906; Thomas A. Bounell, 
1907; Paul Martin, 1908, 1909; Frank D. Porter, 1910, 191 1; Marvin M. 
Porter, 1912. *Deceased. 

Officers 1912 — Marvin M. Porter, worshipful master; Thomas R. John- 
son, senior warden: Elmer Shirley, junior warden; Frank Porter, treasurer; 
Paul Martin, secretary; Elisha M. Dale, senior deacon; Arthur Joseph, junior 
deacon ; James Routh, steward ; George W. Grove, steward ; Harvey D. 
Raninger, tyler. Stated meetings, Friday on or before the full moon. 



WHITESTOWN, INDIANA, CELESTIAL LODGE NO. 525. FREE AND ACCEPTED 

MASONS. 

Chartered, May 23, 1876. 

Past Masters— * John W. Bowser, 1881, 1882; *David D. Doyal, 1880; 
*Samuel N. Good, 1899 and 1900; *John W. Ground, 1878; Milton Lane, 
1875. 1876, 1877; *William A. Livengood, 1888 to 1898; Morgan Thomas, 
1884, 1885; *Sidney Pitzer, 1878; *Jacob T. Ross, 1879; William N. Casey, 
1901 to 1906; G. Groover, 1909; John S. Hardy. 1883; Alexander Hull, 
1886 to 1887; J. T. Frank Laughner, 191 1; Perrin B. Little, 1902, 1903, 
1907, 1908; Walter Schooler, 1904, 1905, 1906, 1910. 

Officers of 1912 — Clyde Hull, worshipful master; Francis A. Stark, 
senior warden; Clive Cline, junior warden; Walter Schooler, treasurer; 
Clyde O. Laughner, secretary; Minnis L. Ottinger, senior deacon; Charles 
Good, junior deacon ; Butler Huckleberry, steward ; John Ditzenberger, 
steward ; Edward Livengood, tyler. Stated meetings, Wednesday, before 
the full moon. 



ROSSTON LODGE NO. 526, FREE AND ACCEPTED MASONS, ROSSTON, INDIANA. 

Chartered, May 23, 1876. 

Past Masters — Isaac Monet. William F. Cobb, Sidney S. Nichols. A. B. 
Foote. W. A. Sparrow, Henry M. Marvin, William H. Foote, Oliver Clark, 
George H. Kincaid, Daniel C. Bush, Benjamin W. Whitehead. 

Officers 1912 — John W. Wills, worshipful master; Perry T. Hancock, 



462 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

senior warden; Frederick U. Lanham, junior warden; Ben W. Whitehead, 
treasurer; John M. Kiser, secretary; James P. New, senior deacon; Arlis 
Staton, junior deacon ; Charles O. Peters, steward ; Thomas W. Padgett, 
steward. Stated meetings, second and fourth Saturday each month. 



SILOAM NO. 609, FREE AND ACCEPTED MASONS, REESE MILLS, INDIANA. 

Chartered, May 25, 1897. 

Past Masters — Harry E. Huntington, 1895, 1902; David R. Walker, 
1896, 1898; Henry Lough, 1897, 1899; A. T. Parker, 1900; William H. 
Clark, 1901, 1907, 1912; *L. P. Engleman, 1903 to 1906. 

Officers 1912 — William H. Clark, worshipful master; Samuel McMullin, 
senior warden; Levi M. Craig, junior warden; Richard R. Ryan, treasurer; 
Harry B. Harting, secretary ; Omer Love, steward ; Jesse Blaubaugh, steward ; 
Richard R. Ryan, tyler. Stated meetings, second and fourth of each month. 



ADVANCE LODGE NO. 664, FREE AND ACCEPTED MASONS, ADVANCE, INDIANA. 

Chartered, May 24, 1905. 

Past Masters — * James O. Graves, Marion Riner, H. O. Bennett. 

Officers of 1912 — H. O. Bennett, worshipful master; John M. Sandy, 
senior warden; Joseph B. Graves, junior warden; Marion Riner, treasurer; 
Thomas E. Burrin, secretary; Ivan Crawford, senior deacon; Carl Riner, 
junior deacon; Ralph Jones, steward; Pierce McClain, steward; Merrit Mc- 
Clain, tyler. Stated meetings on or before each full moon. 



LEBANON CHAPTER NO. 39, ROYAL ARCH MASONS, LEBANON, INDIANA. 

Dispensation granted, May 21, 1857. Charter dated, May 21, 1858. 

Most Excellent Great High Priest of Indiana, Companion *Harvey G. 
Hazelrigg, 1868, 1869. 

Past High Priests— *J. L. Smith, 1857, 1858; * Harvey G. Hazelrigg, 
1859, 1866; *Silas A. Lee, 1867, 1872; *David E. Caldwell, 1873; John M. 
Atkinson, 1874, 1875; *David M. Burns, 1876, 1889, 1891, 1897; William 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 463 

A. Millet, 1890, 1898, 1899; *William H. Schultz, 1900, 1903; Charles M. 
Zion, 1904, 1910; Thomas W. Huckstep, 191 1. 

Officers 1912 — Thomas W. Huckstep, high priest; Henry A. Flickinger, 
eminent king; George W. Campbell, eminent scribe ; Will S. Ritchie, treasurer; 
Ivory C. Tolle, secretary; William H. Orear, captain of hosts; Ben H. 
Coombs, principal sojourner; Earl B. Cox, royal arch captain; James A. 
Bassett, master third vale ; Louis F. Sterling, master second vale ; Edward G. 
Orear, master first vale; Perry C. Swiggett, guard. Stated meetings, sec- 
ond Wednesday of each month. 



BOONE COUNCIL NO. 45, ROYAL AND SELECT MASTERS. 

Charter dated, October 18, 1876. Stated assemblies, third Wednesday 
evening of each month. 

Most Illustrious Grand Master, *David M. Burns, 1897 to 1898. 

Past Thrice Illustrious Masters — *John M. Atkinson, 1875 to I ^76; 
*Robert W. Harrison, 1876 to 1877; David M. Burns, 1877 to 1897; William 
A. Millet, 1897 to 1907; William H. Schultz, 1897 to 1909; Charles M. 
Zion, 1909 to 1910; Charles D. Orear, 191 1. *Deceased. 

Officers 19 1 2 — Thomas W. Huckstep, thrice illustrious master; Carl 
Higgins, right illustrious divine master; Will S. Ritchie, illustrious past senior 
warden; Joseph F. Trowbridge, treasurer; Ivory C. Tolle, recorder; 
Ben H. Coombs, captain of guards; William H. Green, conductor of council; 
George M. Comley, steward ; Perry C. Swiggett, sentinel. 

Lebanon Commandery No. 43, Knights Templar, Lebanon, Indiana. 
Charter dated April 20, 1899. Past Eminent Commanders: *David M. 
Burns, 1899; Joseph A. Coons, 1900; Charles M. Zion, 1901 ; Will S. Ritchie, 
1902-5-6; Strange N. Cragun, 1903; Charles D. King, 1904; Demetricus 
Tillotson, 1907: Thomas W.' Huckstep, 1908; Charles D. Orear, 1909-10; 
Charles C. LaFollette, 1911-12. 

Officers 1912 — Charles C. LaFollette. eminent commander; Earl Hig- 
gins, generalissimo; Charles Hartman, captain; Gen. Ben F. McKey, senior 
warden; Ben H. Coombs, junior warden; Lester F. Jones, prelate: George W. 
Campbell, treasurer; Ivory C. Tolle, recorder; Bert Winters, standard bearer; 



464 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

Nathan Riley, sword bearer; Everett N. Hurst, warder; Perry C. Swiggett, 
sentinel. Stated conclaves, first and third Wednesday evenings of each 
month. 



LEBANON CHAPTER NO. 23, ORDER OF THE EASTERN STAR, LEBANON, INDIANA. 

Organized, June 22, 1874. Charter surrendered, May 15, 1883. New 
charter, dated May 11, 1886. 

Past Worthy Matrons — Minta Harrison, 1874, 1875, 1876; Lorfsa 
Busby, 1877 to 1881 ; Maggie Daily, 1882, 1883 and 1886; Dora Campbell, 
1896; Jessie Coons, 1897; May Schultz, 1898, 1899, 1903, 1904, 1905, 1908, 
1910, 191 1, 1912; Addie Artman, 1900, 1901, 1902 and 1907; Alice Camp- 
bell, 1906; Edna Porter, 1909. 

Past Worthy Patrons — Francis M. Busby, 1874 to 1875; Americus C. 
Daily, 1876 to 1879; David M. Burns, 1880, 1883 and 1886; Samuel R. Art- 
man, 1896; Charles M. Zion, 1897, 1898, 1902 and 1905; Will S. Ritchie, 
1899 to 1901, 1903, 1904, 1906 to 1912. 

Officers 1912 — Mrs. May Schultz, worthy matron; Will S. Ritchie, 
worthy priest ; Mrs. Dora Campbell, assistant matron ; Mrs. Delia Van Nuys, 
secretary; Ben F. McKey, treasurer; Miss Kate Moler, conductress; Mrs. 
Nannie Storm, assistant conductress ; Mrs. Maggie Davis, chaplain ; Mrs. 
Mary Clay, marshal; Mrs. Addie Monroe, Adah; Mrs. May Knosman, Ruth; 
Mrs. Edna Harvey, Esther; Mrs. Ocia Jackson, Martha; Mrs. Alice Camp- 
bell, Electa ; Mrs. Hester Shore, warden : Miss Kate Orear, organist. Regular 
meetings, first Tuesday night of each month. 



ZION CHAPTER NO. 235, ORDER OF THE EASTERN STAR, ZIONSVILLE, INDIANA.. 

Chartered, February 22, 1899. 

Past Worthy Matrons — Mrs. Maggie F. Shelburne, 1899, 1900; Mrs. 
May McDaniel. 1901 to 1902; Mrs. May Booher, 1903, 1904; Mrs. Rose 
Conarroe, 1905: Mrs. Lillie Harrison, 1906, 1907; Mrs. Pearl Baily, 1908; 
Miss Manda Stultz, 1909, Miss Edith Baily, 1910; Mrs. Dora Wood Crouch, 
191 1 : Mrs. Margaret McGuire, 1912. 

Past Worthy Patrons — William T. Shelburne, 1899 to 1900; Harry Mc- 
Daniel, 1901, 1902, 1906, 1907, 1908, 1909; Manson Head, 1903; Ben 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 465 

C. Booher, 1904; John Hussey, 1905; Everett M. Hurst, 1910, 191 1, 1912. 
Officers 1912 — Mrs. Margaret McGuire, worthy matron; Everett M. 
Hurst, worthy patron; Mrs. Effie Johnson, assistant matron; Mrs. Missouri 
Avery, secretary; Miss Nettie Cropper, treasurer; Mrs. Minnie Atkinson, 
conductress; Mrs. Hallie Beamer, assistant conductress; Mrs. Laura Brendel, 
chaplain; Mrs. Alice Gregory, marshal; Mrs. Nora Day, Adah; Mrs. Hanna 
Pease, Ruth; Mrs. Margaret Palmer, Esther; Mrs. Myrtle Shelburne, 
Martha; Mrs. Rebecca Gates, Electa; Mattie Anderson, warden; Frank 
Anderson, sentinel; Mrs. Mayme Breedlove, organist. Regular meeting, 
first and third Wednesdays of each month. 

WHITESTOWN CHAPTER NO. 248, ORDER OF THE EASTERN STAR, WHITESTOWN, 
INDIANA. 

Charter dated, April 26, 1900. 

Past Worthy Matrons — Mrs. Jennie Little, 1900; Pearl Linville, 1901, 
1902; Dora Groover, 1903; Mrs. Ada Bruce, 1904; Mrs. Pearl Goodwin, 
1905, 1908, 1909, 1912; Mrs. Maggie Barns, 1906; Mrs. Laura Scott, 1907; 
Mrs. Mary Marshal, 1910; Mrs. Effie Livengood, 191 1. 

Past Worthy Patrons — William A. Livengood, 1901, 1905; William 
Threewits, 1902, 1903; John Bruce, 1904; Walter Schooler, 1906, 1907, 
1909, 1910 and 1912; Harley Goodwin, 1908, 191 1. 

Officers 1912 — Mrs. Pearl Goodwin, worthy matron; Walter Schooler, 
worthy patron; Julia Dulin, assistant matron; Mrs. Effie Livengood, secre- 
tary; Mrs. Maggie Huckleberry, treasurer; Jna Morris, conductress; Mattie 
Schooler, assistant conductress ; Mrs. Mary Marshall, chaplain ; Emma 
Turner, marshal; Mrs. Eva Dulin Ottinger, Adah; Vina Dulin, Ruth; Bonnie 
McKinsey, Esther ; Oma Dulin, Martha ; Savanah Bryce, Electa ; Ida Liven- 
good, warden; Butler Huckelberry, sentinel; Cora McKinney, organist. 
Regular meetings, after the full moon of each month. 

BENEVOLENT AND PROTECTIVE ORDER OF ELKS. j 

Lebanon Lodge No. 635, Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks, was 
instituted on July 25, 1901, with thirty-four charter members, as follows: 
(3o) 



466 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

J. W. Shumate, Elbert Perkins, Charles E. Norwood, O. Rush Daily, Mor- 
ton Eichman, James N. Ritchie, Martin Mayer, O. E. Wilcox, Ellis G. Dar- 
nall, Samuel H. McDaniel, Alonzo Varutz, Philip Adler, Frank Daily, Ar- 
thur R. Brown, Charles J. Stewart, E. T. Collings, Charles D. King, Walter 
G. Brown, Oliver P. Perkins, John B. Shelby, Carl M. , Bounell, Max Eich- 
man, Frank E. Parr, Isaac P. Hooton, Isadore Eichman, C. D. Daily, J. E. 
Riley, P. C. Shoemaker, R. C. Peters, A. J. Shelby, W. E. Price, Charles 
Legan, George M. Comley, John H. Hoy. 

Lebanon Lodge has one hundred and seventy-two active members De- 
cember i, 1 91 4, and the officers are as follows: Exalted ruler, Walter H. 
Hodge; esteemed leading knight, Omer A. Burgin; esteemed loyal knight, 
William J. Wood; esteemed lecturing knight. Noble P. Shelby; secretary, J. 
Richard Beck; treasurer, Len Titus; tyler, Norval H. Neas; esquire, Floyd 
N. Worrell ; inner guard, John Huber ; chaplain, Asher C. Jacobs ; trustees, 
J. Ed. Riley, Earl M. Adney, Frank O. Meyers. . . 

MODERN WOODMEN. 

This order has several nourishing camps located in the county, but we 
have not been able to obtain a full report of each that we desired for this 
work. There is a camp at Thorntown, Number 5069, Dr. J. S. Shields, 
clerk. There are two camps at Lebanon. Ora Nelson is clerk of the old 
camp. There is also a camp located at Zionsville, with Doctor Brendel as 
clerk, one at Elizaville, with Ed. Silver as clerk. There are also camps at 
Whitestown, Max and at Jamestown. 

Modern Woodmen, Lebanon. — Lodge No. 3286 of this order holds its 
meetings regularly on each Tuesday evening at Woodmen Hall. 

Cedar Camp No. 1019, Royal Neighbors of America, is the ladies aux- 
iliary of the Modern Woodmen and meets on the first and third Wednesday 
of each month. It was organized May 15, 1897. 

IMPROVED ORDER OF RED MEN. 

Winnebago Tribe No. 36 Improved Order of Red Men was organized 
May 15, 1873, at Lebanon, Indiana, by the Court Chiefs of Indiana and 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 46/ 

members of Red Cloud Tribe No. 78, of Indianapolis, Indiana. The chiefs 
elected were: Prophet, L. V. B. Taylor; Sachem, John M. Scott; Senior 
Sagamore, Dr. W. P. Parr ; Junior Sagamore, William O. Berryhill ; Chief 
of Records, Robert W. Matthews; K. of W., Samuel S. Daily. 

Other charter members were Charles S. Riley, William A. Kenworthy, 
Ben. A. Smith, Charles W. Scott and William O. Darnell. 

The Great Council of Indiana held its session in the Wigwam of Win- 
nebago Tribe in Lebanon, Indiana, on the third Tuesday of October, 1879. 

Members of Winnebago Tribe organized the tribes at Frankfort, Clin- 
ton county; Zionsville, Thorntown, Jamestown, Advance, Whitestown, Fay- 
ette, Elizaville, Mechanicsburg and Rosston, Boone county. They also have 
been factors in the organization of several tribes in adjoining counties. 

Tribes now in Boone county are as follows : Winnebago No. 36, Leb- 
anon, 508 members, Chief of Records, W. D. Martin; Nipmuck No. 141, 
Advance, 216 members, Chief of Records, Charles E. McClain, box 135; 
Calumet No. 166, Jamestown, 70 members, Chief of Records, C. H. Goudy; 
Oniska No. 225, Reese's Mill, 114 members, Chief of Records, John S. 
More, R. R. 9, Lebanon; Metoska, No. 273, Rosston, 146 members, Chief 
of Records, Perry T. Hancock; Ouequa No. 386, Elizaville, 115 members, 
Chief of Records, John F. McKinley, R. R. 6; Merrimac No. 404, Whites- 
town, 92 members, Chief of Records, L. E. Smith; Tonapah No. 429, Fay- 
ette, 88 members, Chief of Records, Ronald Everett, R. R. 1, Brownsburg: 
Zecana No. 504, Zionsville, 121 members, Chief of Records, Andrew Sheets. 

All of the tribes pay a sick benefit and care for the sick when necessary 
by nurses. 

All pay a death benefit on death of the wife of a member, also a funeral 
benefit on death of a member, the majority of the tribes pay $1.00 for each 
member in good standing to the family on the decease of a member. 

The order also has a fund for the relief of orphans, who are cared for 
in private families, when there are no relatives to care for them. 

There is also the degree of Pocahontas which is under the control of 
the Great Council of the United States Improved Order of Red Men; this 
branch of the order is prospering and doing a good work. While this de- 
gree is controlled and directed in this state by the women, who are the chiefs 
and officials, any Red Man in good standing in his tribe can become a mem- 
ber of this degree and have a voice in the proceedings of councils. 



468 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 



GRAND ARMY OF THE REPUBLIC. 

The second Grand Army of the Republic organized in the state of Indi- 
ana was the McPherson Post No. 2, at Lebanon, was in 1866. It continued 
for several years, but finally surrendered its charter. Among its original 
members were Capt. Felix Shumate, Capt. J. O. Pedigo, J. M. Martin, H. 
Olive, Capt. T. H. Martin and others. 

Rich Mountain Post No. 42, Lebanon, was organized January 19, 1882, 
with the following post officers: Jesse Neff, post commander; W. H. 
Schultz, senior vice-commander; Jacob S. Cobb, junior commander; Felix 
Shumate, officer of the day; W. H. Jacks, officer of the guard; Charles W. 
Scott, quartermaster; J. O. Pedigo, adjutant and D. M. Burns, chaplain. 
The post was organized by Gen. James R. Carnahan, who was Department 
Commander at that time. 

In the new court house is provided commodious apartments for the 
Grand Army of the Republic on the first floor, well fitted and arranged for 
their accommodation and comfort. The long lapse of time since the Civil 
war has thinned the ranks of the veterans, so that the post at Thorntown 
and many other posts in the county, have been discontinued and the few re- 
maining have changed their membership to the post at Lebanon. A few 
more years at best, and all the braves of the war of 1861-65 will be at rest 
in the realm of triumph where they war no more. The honored band be- 
comes history complete and their names will be retained in the memory of a 
grateful people as the years roll by. The country with its preserved institu- 
tions of liberty and equal rights will remain as the lasting monument of their 
bravery and sacrifice. The baptism of that struggle established the per- 
manency of our institutions and the stability of our union. Wars may 
cease, and the Grand Army of the Republic, as an institution may pass away 
in the progress of civilization, but the principles and the sacrifices of men 
to maintain them, will stand as the rocks and be a lasting monument to the 
memory of those that stood in battle for their maintenance. 

woman's relief corps. 

The local organization of the Woman's Relief Corps was instituted 
June 21, 1889, by Mrs. Melissa Caylor, of Indianapolis, who was then 
department president. She was assisted by the Westfield corps. There 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 469 

were forty-two charter members, as follows: Annie Anderson, Lizzie 
Anderson, Addie Artman, Laura Abbott, Mary Bennett, Julia E. Bower, 
Maggie Bragg, Rebecca Breedlove, Sarah J. Browne, Malinda Camp- 
bell, Mary Conyers, Sophia Cook, Mary Davidson, Mattie Dicks, Mol- 
lie E. Felton, Julia Hardy, Celia Hardy, Lizzie Harrison, Ann Jacks, 
Mary E. Kersey, Susan E. Kise, Alice Lanpher, Martha Ludlow, 
Carrie Olive, Mary E. Pedigo, Ann Perkins, Mary Perkins, Sallie 
Powell, Lizzie Scott, Hester Shore, Rebecca Small, Mattie Smith, Lizzie 
Thompson, Mary Walker, Sarah Watts, Nancy Whitt, Addie Williams, Ella 
Wills, Nora Woods, Isabelle Woods, Amy Wright. Ten of these ladies 
still retain membership in the corps — Alice Lanpher, Malinda Campbell, 
Lizzie Anderson, Anne Anderson, Mary Davidson, Mattie Dicks, Hester 
Shore, Nancy Whitt, Martha Ludlow, Sophia Cook. The deceased charter 
members are, Mary Perkins, Martha Kersey, Mattie Smith, Mary E. Ker- 
sey, Amy Wright, Sallie Perrill, Mary Bennett, Mary Conyers. The other 
charter members have withdrawn from the corps. 

The local Woman's Relief Corps now has 112 members, and the organi- 
zation is doing much good in looking after the widows and orphans of 
deceased soldiers. The present officers of the Woman's Relief Corps are: 
President, Isabelle Bennett; senior vice, Lizzie Roberts; junior vice, Eliza 
Powell; secretary, Alice Lanpher; treasurer, Sarah Watts; guard, Emma 
Hamilton ; assistant, Nannie Trees ; conductress, Dorothy Kincaid ; assistant, 
Pet Cobb; chaplain, Sadie Saunders; press correspondent, Sarah Osborne; 
patriotic instructor, Anna Frank ; first color bearer, Alice Stephenson ; second 
color bearer, Nora Chambers; third color bearer, Mattie Abernathy; fourth 
color bearer, Nora Chambers; pianist, Martha Wheeler. 

The following are the names of Lebanon clubs, giving the names of 
the president and secretary of each: Magazine, federated, Mrs. Ethel 
Coombs, president; Mrs. Winafred Fish, secretary; Research Club, feder- 
ated ; Mrs. Belle Hutchings, president ; Mrs. Ella Lane, secretary ; Tourist 
Club, federated ; Mrs. Cora Williams, president ; Mrs. Clara Bush, secretary ; 
Bay View Club, federated; Mrs. Ella Shumate, president; Mrs. Delia Jones, 
secretary ; Florentine Club, not federated ; Mrs. Mary Hadley, president ; Miss 
Helen Caldwell, secretary ; Travel Club, not federated ; Mrs. Carrie Ed- 
wards, president; Miss Katherine Wilson, secretary; Domestic Science Club, 
not federated; Mrs. Jessie Coons, president; Mrs. Adah Richey, secretary; 



470 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

Cooking Club, not federated; Mrs. Elizabeth Hill, president; Mrs Ruth Mc- 
Intire, secretary. 

KNIGHTS OF PYTHIAS. 

Lebanon Lodge No. 45, Knights of Pythias, instituted April 16, 1874, 
with fourteen charter members. Present membership, 328. 

Lodge is now located on third floor of Castle Hall building. 

It owns 114 of the 250 shares in the Castle Hall Building Association. 
Par value of the lodge's stock, $11,400.00. 

Edmund Connor, K. of R. & S. 

The lodge also owns a house and lot in which the family of Joseph 
Beard, deceased, are living, rent free. 

Thorntown Lodge No. 124, present officers, July 1, 1914: Chancellor 
commander, Albert Cassady; vice-chancellor, Fred Campbell; prelate, John 
Hewett; master of exchequer, Arthur C. Taylor; master of finance, Joe C. 
Jaques; keeper of records and seal, W. W. Smiley; master of arms, Bert 
Miller; inner guard, J. Denney; outer guard, Sherman Gregory; trustees, S. 
V. Titus, H. W. Huber, Al Griffin. 

Thorntown Lodge No. 124, Knights of Pythias was organized April 27, 
1885: Chancellor commander, Milroy L. Witt; vice-chancellor, J. W. Witt; 
prelate, S. L Potter; master of Arms, Foster Vestel; master of exchequer, 
Everett E. Moffitt ; master of finance, Charles M. Thompson; keeper of rec- 
ords and seal, Carrol E. Young; inner guard, J. D. C. Hammond; outer 
guard, F. E. Clark; trustees, R. S. Stall, James P. Staley, T. E. Bradshaw. 

independent order of odd fellows. 

Lodge number, location, noble grand, financial secretary and meeting 
follow : 

Osceola 173, Thorntown, Ernest McKem, W. W. Morris, Thursday. 
Luther 227, Jamestown, J. F. Proctor, K. F. McCormick, Tuesday. 
Zionsville 285, Zionsville, Frank Petry, John E. Beelar, Wednesday. 
Whitestown 355, Whitestown, Ora Caldwell, S. R. Neese, Saturday. 
Hart 413, Reese's Mills, O. T. George, J. S. Moore, Saturday. 
Ben Adhem 472, Lebanon, John Budd, C. F. Langjahr, Monday. 
Max 759, Max, William DeBard, William L. Bennington, Tuesday. 
Pride of Boone 782, Terhune, J. D. French, L. O. Wallace, Friday. 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 47I 

Advance 806, Advance, Emery Proffitt, F. M. Craver, Wednesday. 
Fayette 839, Fayette, Fred C. Thorp, C. B. Phillips, Thursday. 

CHAPTER A, P. E. O. SISTERHOOD. 

Organized Thorntown, Indiana, March 26th, 1886. 

Charter members, Mrs. Laura (Craven) Rice, Miss Lottie (Crouch) 
Osborne, Miss Luella Masters, Mrs. Emma (Campbell) LaFollette, Mrs. 
Clara (LaFollette) Nash, Miss Olive Welch and Miss Anna Welch. 

Number of active members in 1914, fifty-two; non-resident members, 
twenty; total, seventy-two. 

A chapter was organized at Lebanon in August, 1888. Charter mem- 
bers, Mrs. Kate Kelsey, Mrs. May Wilson, Mrs. Josie Saltzgaber, Mrs. Mol- 
lie Lane, Mrs. Maggie Davis, Mrs. Delia Vantruys, Mrs. Neva Busby. Was 
disbanded later. 

Two other chapters were organized in the state, one at Knightstown in 
1888; was but a few years old when it disbanded. 

The one at Knox, organized in 1898, is a flourishing chapter. 

Thorntown P. E. O. Chapter has lived to be near twenty-nine years old 
and is a loyal P. E. O. chapter. All the members are busy women, with the 
various duties that come their way as housewives, teachers and various oc- 
cupations — but by adhering to the principles of this sisterhood, the P. E. 
O. star brightens the path and distributes pleasure in the lives of those with 
whom it comes in contact. 

"In Life — not death 
Hearts need fond words to help them on their way, 
Need tender thoughts, and gentle sympathy 
Caresses, pleasant looks to cheer each passing day 
Then hoard them not, until they useless be 

In Life — not death 
Speak kindly, living hearts need sympathy." 

FACTS ABOUT P. E. O. 

Organized by seven girls at Wesleyan University, Mount Pleasant, 
Iowa, in January, 1869, composed of local chapters, state grand chapters 
and supreme chapter. 



472 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

Largest exclusive woman's organization in the world. 

Object and aim is general improvement. Influence is educational. 

Direct work is along literary, social, charitable and philanthropic lines. 

Official magazine is P. E. O. Record, published monthly and furnished 
each member. 

Points of the P. E. O. star worn by members represent Faith, Love, 
Purity, Justice and Truth. 

Colors are yellow and white. Flower is the Marguerite. 

P. E. O. may have been established half in jest, half in earnest but the 
permanence and rapid growth of the order appears phenomenal. 

MORE THAN A CENTURY OF TEMPERANCE. 

From the time of Noah there has been drunkenness in the land. The 
first temperance association on record, since the days of the Rechabites — the 
first society organized — was at Moreau in Saratoga county, New York, in 
the year 1808 and was called the Moreau and Northumberland Temperance 
Society. Forty-seven citizens signed the articles of association and began 
operations. They sent our circulars to different parts of Europe giving the 
rise and purpose of their organization. 

The constitution of the society provided that no member should drink 
rum, gin, whiskey, wine, or any distilled spirits, under a penalty of "twenty- 
five cents." It was deemed prudent to make an exception in favor of wine at 
public dinners. 

In 1809 at New York "The Greenfield and Milton Temperance Society" 
was organized, on a similar basis except the wine clause was rejected. In 
June, 1812, a temperance society was organized at Bath, Maine, and a great 
bloodless revolution was begun by the General Assembly of Connecticut, rec- 
ommending all the ministers to preach on the evils of intemperance as it then 
existed. A careful estimate gave 40,000 distilleries throwing out thirty mil- 
lion gallons of intoxicants among nine million people. In 1813 the Massachu- 
setts society was organized at Boston and exerted a wide-spread influence. 

In 1825 the Virginia State Society was formed. All the states of the 
north had been previously organized. 

The years of 1826 and 1827 brought a new phase to the temperance 
movement. Total abstinence from wine and malt liquors indicated a second 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 473 

epoch at hand. It was during these years that Dr. Lyman Beecher pub- 
lished his series of sermons, which produced a great excitement wherever 
read. 

In February, 1826, "The American Temperance Society" was organized 
in Boston and grew rapidly into favor and influence. 

In 1828 there were over two hundred societies in the United States; in 
1829 their number had increased to one thousand; and in 1832, ten thousand 
societies were reported by the American Temperance Society, embracing a 
membership of five hundred thousand. 

In 1833 the American Temperance Union organized on the 24th day of 
May in Philadelphia, two hundred and forty delegates present declared the 
"traffic in ardent spirits is morally wrong." A number of societies were or- 
ganized on this broad platform, and in May over eight thousand members of 
the New York State Societies had signed the cold-water pledge, which num- 
ber in two years grew to eighteen thousand members. Sweden, Denmark, 
Prussia and Russia had also become interested in the temperance doctrine 
wafted to their shores by American philanthropy. 

In 1840 Washingtonianism arose. In less than two years some hundreds 
of thousands signed the pledge of total abstinence, among whom were rep- 
uted to be fifty thousand drunkards. 

In September, 1842, in Teetotaler's Hall, 71 Division street, New York, 
"The Order of Sons of Temperance" was formed, which in time arose to a 
national division, which became the guiding intellect of the movement, while 
the grand and subordinate divisions are its actual existence, as the repre- 
sentative of temperance. 

In 1845, December 5th, the Good Templars were organized in New 
York, the first temple being in that city. No one was eligible as a member 
except a member of the Sons of Temperance. There arose a controversy 
between Templars and the Sons of Temperance, which was never har- 
monized and the Good Templars declared themselves free at Cincinnati in 
the year 1849. 

In 1846 the liquor traffic was suppressed in Maine. In 185 1 the Neal 
Dow Prohibition Maine law was passed, with a penalty of confiscating the 
liquors. This led to the organization of the National Liquor Dealers' Asso- 
ciation in New York the same year, 185 1. This association passed a resolu- 
tion and stuck to it to this day : "That no candidate of any political party or 



474 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

faction will be supported by us who has not given his declaration in writing, 
that in case of election, he will act and vote against the Maine liquor law, 
or a law similar to it." 

The early agitation of the slavery question was contemporaneous with 
the agitation of the liquor question. Each had been fomenting from the be- 
ginning of the century. It waxed hotter and hotter. The great senator of 
Massachusetts was caned in the senate because of his speech against slavery. 
The primary battle was fought in Kansas, where blood ran hot and fierce 
radicals were bred on either sides. John Brown carried the war into the Old 
Dominion and drew sword for the freedom of the slave. The powers of 
Virginia were too much for him, and Governor Wise had him swung be- 
tween heaven and earth. The real fight was now on. Blood ran hot. The 
temperance question was overshadowed. Thorntown, Boone county, was in 
the forefront of the double battle against slavery and the liquor vending. 
Kansas won for freedom. Lincoln was elected, and the real fight was on in 
earnest. The sword was drawn across the continent and blood flowed freely. 
The Rumites were vigilant for their own interests and the government was 
so eager in the fray against the slave power that was threatening the life of 
the government, that it lost sight of this subtle enemy, and actually took him 
into partnership, to raise money to prosecute the war for the salvation of the 
nation. During the smoke and din of the fearful battle, the red-dragon was 
hid from sight. All eyes and all forces were turned against the armies for 
slavery. As soon as the battle was over, and the smoke cleared away his 
heinous form arose to view; and men began to organize for a continuance 
of the battle, until men are free indeed and the last despot in the nation is 
subdued. In 1869 the Prohibitionists organized for political action; the fierce 
Crusade of the Women came upon the stage in 1873 and 1874 which sowed 
the seed for the W. C. T. U. that stands as an invincible army to this day. 
The sly "Raster Resolution" was passed that pledged the second great politi- 
cal organization to the liquor interest. Thus early in the 70's the great battle 
for moral principles is lined up for action. For more than a century the war 
has progressed and it is still raging. When and where the end will be, God 
alone can tell. We rest in the assurance that as sure as there is a living God 
in the heavens the right must triumph. The flood of rum became so over- 
whelming that the blue and red-ribbon movements were organized to save the 
victims that were swept down by the Phlegethon of rum. 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 



475 



In 1884, July 24th, the men and women of Indiana met in convention to 
organize for political action against the rum power. This division of the 
army is still in the field with its armor on to do battle at the polls. We are 
living in an age when the church, all benevolent orders, commercial interests, 
our institutions of learning and public sentiment are lined up against the ad- 
vocates of the liquor traffic. , 

In 1854 Indiana voted for prohibition and the following legislature en- 
acted a law to that effect. It stood for about six months and was knocked 
out by the Supreme Court of the state. 

THE LOCAL FIGHT. 

Soon after the court's decision, localities over the state took up the fight. 
The citizens of Thorntown were in the midst of this fray, with the women 
in the foreground. The keepers of the doggeries were asked to desist their 
business of making drunkards. They were at that time not dignified as 
saloons and cafes with a license on the wall from the state to do the deadly 
work. The men did not close their doggeries and the women armed them- 
selves with axes and clubs, marched in a body to the dens and demolished 
them and poured the vile stuff into the gutters. The bravest of the heroines 
knocking in the heads of the barrels with an ax. This action ended the trat- 
fic in Thorntown and the moral standing of the community kept it out for 
seventeen years. 

After the organization of the national prohibition party in 1869 and the 
adoption of the Raster resolution by the Republicans in national convention 
of 1872 came another woman's crusade, with songs and prayers, this time 
instead of clubs and axes. The movement was simply marvelous, since it 
was God's work. The women actually prayed the saloons out of business. 
This tide arose in New York and Ohio and swept over the land. The women 
of Boone county were in the midst of the moral fight. As soon as the wave 
passed, the saloon men, backed by the strong arm of the license law, resumed 
business. The crusade and its prayers were overwhelmed by the statute of 
the state that supported the iniquity. Then came the organization of the 
W. C. T. U. that stands to this day in the fight. We would like to mention 
the noble women in Boone county that led out in this work and call the roll 
of honor that hold up the banner. 



476 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

The liquor traffic, backed by the law of the state, prevailed and set up 
business in Lebanon, Thorntown and all other towns in Boone county. The 
local fight and throughout the state continued. The state prohibition party 
was organized at Indianapolis July 23-24, 1884, to oppose the law that legal- 
izes the saloon. The first Prohibition convention held in Boone county was 
at Zionsville September, 1884. The first prohibition address in the county 
was at the Baptist church in Thorntown, October, 1884, by Col. Eli F. Ritter, 
of Indianapolis. During this long fight it was found out that prayers, and 
moral sentiment would not keep out the saloon as long as it was set up by the 
votes of men. From this knowledge came local and county option and by 
votes the saloon was shut out of Thorntown and Lebanon and the entire 
county. We trust under this system they are out to stay, although in some 
localities they are reinstated and retained by the votes of the people. When- 
ever civic ethics attain to the point that there are things that majorities have 
no right to enforce over minorities, then the liquor curse is doomed in all 
civilized lands. Class drunkard making as a crime, which it is, of deepest 
dye — and its legalization, will end as others have ended. The majority has 
no right in civics, or under the law of God to take property or life or char- 
acter of the souls of men. Slowly and surely the people of Boone are grow- 
ing toward this acme of civilization. It is a fight typical of the conflict in the 
state and the nation, aye, is world wide. Wherever there is a human being 
this principle of humanity must content. The church must lead if it follows 
the Master and all other forces must join hand and heart against the com- 
mon enemy. The most effective implements of warfare must be used. We 
are glad to live in a county where no one has legal authority to make another 
drunk, to take his life, character or soul. This standard means lots in prog- 
ress. Thanks to the men and women who helped lift up the standard. We 
trust that it will never be lowered, but spread until it involves the state and 
all mankind in its righteous folds. 



AN INDIAN S PLEA FOR PROHIBITION. 

(By Simon Pokagon, Chief of the Pottawattomie Indians.) 

Awah-kon-tay ne-bosh au-no-ke-win wau-be-au-ne-ne mau-tchi-mon-i-to 
(Fire-water is the work of the white man's devil). 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 477 

(The following article is written for The New Times by the venerable 
Simon Pokagon, chief of the Pottawattomie Indians. It will be remembered 
that Chicago stands today on the land which was ceded by the fathers of 
Pokagon to the United States government for a small consideration. A 
large portion of Chief Pokagon's life, however, has been spent in securing 
from the government payment for the land thus purchased. 

There is something very charming in the quaint phraseology and the 
earnest rhetoric of this child of the forest, while his appeal, coming as a 
warning voice from an honored patriarch among a vanishing people, has a 
melancholy interest. — B. O. F.) 

Although by nature a child of the forest, and born a chief, yet by adop- 
tion I am a citizen of the United States, having the right of petition. I must 
confess I hate the "beverage of Hell" with a bitter hate. Were it an enemy 
outside our lines I should not so fear the dangerous foe. But alas, it is a 
traitor within our camp that embraces with a kiss, then bites like a snake, 
without the warning rattle. Pokagon has felt in his heart for half a century 
that there is no good reason why this soulless monster should not be utterly 
destroyed. My native brain is, indeed, puzzled to understand how it is that 
the incoming white race, who, by their intelligence and skill, have invented 
instruments whereby they can measure the heavens above and tell the sub- 
stances of which the stars are composed, who have provided means whereby 
they can travel at ease in palaces, sweeping above rivers, cutting through 
mountains, and outstripping the flight of birds in their migrations, who have 
constructed vessels in which they can enjoy parlor life while crossing oceans 
in the face of the wildest storm; who have perfected inventions which enable 
them to rise above the eagle in his heavenward flight or to descend into the 
depths of the sea where fish can scarcely swim, whose subtle brains have de- 
vised means whereby they can send communications around the world with 
lightning speed ; whose ingenuity can successfully preserve human speech, 
so that generations yet unborn may listen to the voices of their forefathers, 
from whose brains have emanated that marvelous invention by means of 
which a button pressed by the finger of a child causes mountains to be rent 
asunder, but, notwithstanding such marvelous, almost divine works, declare 
to all the world by words and deeds that they are not able to provide means 
whereby they can destroy that great devilfish which their own hands have 
fashioned and launched upon the sea of human life. Day by day and year 



478 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 



by year the tentacles of this monster are permitted to reach out to do their 
wicked work alike in the wigwam and in the palace, in the halls of legisla- 
tion, and in the courts of law, and which, all unsought and unbidden, crushes 
in its coils the trusting heart of the young bride, the wife, the mother, and 
the little child. Now, if it be true that they lack the power to destroy this 
great evil born of their own race, then it must also be true that the moral 
science of good government for the best good of all the people has not kept 
pace with their remarkable discoveries and inventions. 

Some of the best brains of our country are now laboring night and day 
to perfect means by which the seeds of disease or any foreign substance in 
the human body may be detected, so as to aid surgery in relieving the afflicted. 
The people are loudly applauding their achievements, and yet these benevo- 
lent researchers and their followers, as also most of our political and moral 
scientists, can not, or will not, see in broad daylight the curse of the glass 
between the lips of our boys and young men, who are gliding down the to- 
boggan slide of shame and disgrace to the broad gateway of physical ruin 
and moral death. It is well for the agriculturist to study chemistry that he 
may understand the properties of the soil so that he may prepare it for the 
golden grain. But he who would so prepare his land and sow it with the 
best seed and then allow the grass and weeds to choke out the young and 
tender plants would be considered worse than foolish. Our country is one 
vast field for cultivation. Science with a lavish hand has contributed ample 
means to properly cultivate and make it productive, and yet to the shame of 
this nation, cigarette weeds, whisky weeds and all manner of weeds are run- 
ning it over, demoralizing alike the old man, the young man, and the little 
boy. Fathers and mothers, Pokagon asks you in the name of the sons of the 
forest, and in the name of the Great Spirit of his fathers, he asks you in the 
name of the God of your fathers, in the name of Christianity and humanity, 
is it not your duty to destroy these deadly weeds ? Certain it is that in order 
to attain to the most perfect type of civilization, the best good of all the peo- 
ple must be equally advanced along moral, mental and physical lines, and yet 
it must be plain to every candid thinking man who beholds intemperance 
sweeping over our land like a prairie fire, that the lack of moral education to 
map out and enforce needed legislation is the most lamentable defect of the 
present age. 

In the great onward march of research and improvement Pokagon does 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 479 

not desire to tighten the reins, to curb physical or scientific development, but 
in driving the triple team that moves the giant car of civilization he would 
urge forward the one that lags behind, that all in harmony may keep step 
side by side until the goal is reached. My humble prayer is that the great and 
learned of this land of my fathers may in future labor as zealously to search 
out the true science of good government for the best good of all as they have 
in the past to search out the science of the physical world about them. Let 
knowledge and righteousness march shoulder to shoulder onward and up- 
ward until the mountain top is gained, when the perpetual sunshine of social 
purity will cleanse the hearts of all, breaking asunder the degrading chains 
of intemperance, and letting the oppressed go free. 

All along our seacoasts and the shores of the Great Lakes have been 
erected by the United States nearly three hundred life saving stations, from 
whose watch towers a lookout is kept day and night for the rescue of wrecked 
passengers and crews. These life stations are manned by thousands of stal- 
wart men and experienced seamen, equipped with all the latest improvements 
of the service at an expense of millions of dollars annually. During the last 
fiscal year the general superintendent of the lifesaving service with much 
pride reported that six hundred and thirteen lives were saved from shipwreck. 
The work is indeed a noble one and worthy the hearty approbation of all. 
And yet how limited is the field it offers for the saving of shipwrecked hu- 
manity compared with that along the vast shore of the sea of intemperance, 
whose tides and overwhelming waves sweep over and drown its hundreds of 
thousands each year. When Pokagon reflects upon the ruin this child of the 
devil has brought upon his once sober and happy race, he feels moved to cry 
aloud from the depths of his soul to the present lawgivers of his fathers' land, 
"Extend your life-saving service to the great ocean. of struggling humanity. 
Throw out the life line of prohibition and save the perishing!" For nearly 
sixty years I have asssociated with the white race as well as my own, and 
from close observation during that time I am compelled to believe that the 
only safe tower of refuge from the ravages of the blighting curse of intem- 
perance is total abstinence. 

In the stillness of the night, while wandering alone under the glistening 
canopy of heaven, asking the Great Spirit to teach Pokagon if there is any 
reasonable excuse why partisan politicians and statesmen should not tread 
upon the neck of this soulless tyrant of humanity, my petitions have always 



480 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

been answered. Not in the voice of thunder, nor emblazoned in characters 
of living fire across the vault of heaven, but in murmurs soft and low the 
answer has fallen upon my waiting" heart as gently as the dews of evening 
upon the grass and flowers, whispering in my soul, "Pokagon, there is no 
good excuse." Christian charities may try to clothe their nakedness by de- 
claring to the world that they are so blinded by the love of party and so fear- 
ful of the liquor ballot that they will not hear the widow and the mother 
pleading; they will not see the little child and the orphan weeping; but this 
is no excuse. Again and again I am told that it is an easy matter to find 
fault ; and so it is. But not until the dove shall cease to fear the hawk that 
steals her young will Pokagon cease to sound the war whoop of alarm against 
the destroyer of your children and ours. 

Come, all lovers of justice, equity, and humanity, and in the name of 
your God, and in the name of home and country, move bravely forward 
under the glorious banner of temperance. Let the general government decree 
that noble motto, royally begot of duty and love, to be the law of the land, 
and Pokagon in faith believes that the great destroyer of honor and manhood 
will abdicate his throne and the glorious sun of universal temperance shine 
upon our loved country, bringing hope and joy to millions of hearts now sad 
and despairing, and lighting the way to the crushing out of other giant evils 
which at present darken our land. 



GOSPEL TEMPERANCE MEETINGS. 

In the summer of 1892, on July 17, the first of a series of Gospel Tem- 
perance Meetings was held in the open, at L. M. Crist's Grove. There were 
three hundred present, who listened to a specially prepared program. The 
meeting had a good effect. A number expressed a willingness to attend 
regularly, and would make the needed sacrifice, to make the meetings a suc- 
cess. So programs were statedly prepared for each summer, and the work 
grew in interest and educational facilities, until these gospel temperance 
meetings covered a period of six )'ears. Many notable speakers, both at 
home and abroad, filled the platform with eloquence, logic and sound gospel 
each Sabbath at 3 130 to 4 :t,o p. m. Not only the people from the villages 
and county-seat were there, but the country side oft swelled the crowd. 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 4»I 

The highest attendance reached one thousand, July 31, 1892, when Rev. W. 
H. Jones, of Chicago, addressed the meeting. It was not uncommon for 
three hundred to be present, and on threatening shower days the crowd 
would dwindle down to the faithfuls, a half hundred or so; but the fort was 
always held. A notable outcome of the work was the pledging of the people 
to total abstinence by the signing of the temperance and narcotic pledges. 
In this way the grown-ups setting the example, many if not most of the 
children were saved. Someone has well remarked that "A child's training- 
should be ethical, rather than intellectual. It is easier to make a person 
bright than sound. Intellectual training may be gained from books, but 
morality cannot be printed." When the fall of the year would of necessity 
shut down these meetings, the faithful women workers of the Woman's 
Christian Temperance Union gathered in the harvest of this out-of-doors 
work by organizing the children pledge-signers into Loyal Temperance Le- 
gion Bands, and continuing the instruction in scientific temperance at a meet- 
ing held once a week at a hall prepared for the training. Many useful 
exercises and public exhibitions grew out of this work. We note with very 
great pleasure that the Sunday schools are now organized to carry it on suc- 
cessfully. We herewith submit one of the programs, showing the term 
covered, from June 2 to September 30, 1895, and giving the character of the 
meetings, which had a warm place in the hearts of the community. These 
meetings were held every summer for six years, beginning the first Sunday 
in June and closing the last Sunday in September, the first meeting being the 
exception, that program being a little short on time, but not in quality or 
tone of the speaking. 

June 2— W. C. T. U. Day Mary E. Balch, Cor. Secy. 

June 9 — "Politics of Sodom" Rev. Jas. B. Converse 

June 17 — "Is There Not a Cause?" Rev. W. L. Northam 

June 23 — "Christian Kings" Dr. R. E. Pretlow 

June 30 — Laissez Faire Dr. J. G. Campbell 

July 7 — The Second Commandment Rev. G. W. Reber 

July 14 — A Plea Rev. Demetrius Tillottson 

July 21 — Young Men's Day I. S. Wade 

July 28 — The Two Tyrants John Darter 

(30 



482 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

Aug. 4— Y. W. C. T. U. Day Margaret I. Dickson 

Aug. 11 — Socialism Rev. G. W. Bower 

Aug. 18 — Children's Day Mrs. L. M. Crist 

Aug. 25— W. C. T. U. Day Mrs. L. E. Scott 

Sept. 1— The Three Reforms Prof. F. T. McWhirter 

Sept. 8— The Defense of Women J. T. McKim 

Sept. 15 — Individual Responsibility Rev. Eber Teeters 

Sept. 22 — Prison Reform Rev. Henry K. Boyer 

Sept. 29 — Closing Day L. M. Crist 



WOMAN AND THE CHURCH. 

Some say "there is no scriptural authority for the prominence of woman 
in the church." Paul says, in Philippians 4:3, "I entreat you also, true 
yoke-fellow, help those women who labored with me in the gospel of 
Christ;"' then there are mentioned in Acts the four daughters of Philip, who 
were preachers and prophesied; and Luke speaks of the aged prophetess, 
Anna, ministering in the temple. Some say that woman is not capable of 
leadership, Joan of Arc followed God, and led an army to victory. Mrs. 
Stowe's pen was more potent than the sword of Grant, Sherman, Sheridan 
and Hancock, for it molded public opinion and gave inspiration to the whole 
Union Army. Frances E. Willard in leading the temperance host of Chris- 
tian women to victory proved herself as possessing in the highest degree all 
the graces of true leadership. Yes, woman as well as man has genius, talents, 
ambition, and aspirations, and nature teaches that there is a field of action 
for fundamental wants or inherent desires. A worker for God and human- 
ity is the most exalted position either for man or woman. When woman's 
qualifications are fully recognized as being equal with man, then the home 
will be more secure; saloons and gambling dens will be voted into oblivion, 
then Christ's kingdom will be on earth, and there will be neither Jew nor 
Gentile, bond nor free, male nor female. Joseph Cook says, "Hand in hand 
man and woman build the home; hand in hand they ought to build the 
state and church; hand in hand they left an earthly paradise lost; hand in 
hand they are likely to enter, if at all, an earthly paradise regained." 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 483 

A HISTORY UNIQUE. 

For twenty-four years straight suffrage planks were in the Prohibition 
platform, viz. : First National nominating convention, Columbus, Ohio, 1872. 
"The right of suffrage rests on no mere circumstance of color, race, sex or 
nationality, but inheres in the nature of man." 

Second nominating convention, Cleveland, Ohio, 1876: "The abolition 
of class legislation and special privileges in the government, and the adop- 
tion of equal suffrage and eligibility to office without distincton of race, re- 
ligion, property or sex." 

Third nominating convention, Cleveland, Ohio, 1880: "We also de- 
mand as a right that women, having in other respects the privileges of citi- 
zens, shall be clothed with the ballot for their protection, and as a rightful 
means for the settlement of the liquor question." 

The called convention of New York, 1881, consisting of the strongest 
men and women of the prohibition movement throughout the Union, adopted 
the following, prepared by Miss Anthony : "The withholding of the elective 
franchise on account of sex, in direct violation of the fundamental princi- 
ples of our government is disastrous to moral, social, educational, industrial, 
civil and political interests; therefore we demand the ballot for women as 
inherent right, and as a potent weapon for securing prohibition." 

Fourth nominating convention, Pittsburg, Pa., 1884: "That, believ- 
ing in the civil and political equality of the sexes, and that the ballot in the 
hands of woman is her right for protecton and would prove a powerful ally 
for the abolition of the liquor traffic, the execution of the law, the promotion 
of reform in civil affairs, the removal of corruption in public life, we enun- 
ciate the principle and relegate the practical outworking of this reform to 
the discretion of the Prohibition party in the several states according to the 
condition of public sentiment in those states." 

Fifth nominating convention, Indianapolis, Indiana, 1888: "That the 
right of suffrage rests on no mere circumstance of race, color, sex or na- 
tionality, and that where from any cause it has been withheld from citizens 
who are of suitable age and mentally and morally qualified for the exercise 
of an intelligent ballot, it should be restored by the people through the legis- 
latures of the several states on such educational basis as they may deem wise." 

Sixth nominating convention, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1892 : "No citizen 



484 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

should be denied the right to vote on account of sex; and equal labor should 
receive equal wages without regard to sex." 

The seventh nominating convention, Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, 1896,. 
after adopting a straight suffrage plank, nine to one, it is said, bolted from 
the women by substituting a single issue plank for all that was before the 
convention. 

EFFECTS OF WOMAN'S FRANCHISE. 

New Zealand enfranchised woman in 1893, anc ' m ^94 a local option 
law was passed. In 1910 it was made illegal to sell liquor to a person 'under 
twenty-one and the employment of bar-maids was prohibited. 

In New South Wales woman was enfranchised in 1902. 

In South Australia woman was enfranchised in 1903. 

In Queensland woman was enfranchised in 1907. 

In Finland woman was enfranchised in 1907, and in 1910 a prohibition 
bill was passed which the Czar vetoed to please France so she could have a 
market for her wine. 

In Norway, women were enfranchised in 1908 and a bill was passed for 
prohibition. The government wanted to borrow money to build a railroad. 
They vetoed the prohibition bill to please France so she could sell her wine 
and she loaned them the money. 

In Wyoming, woman was enfranchised in 1869 — 90 per cent, of the 
state is dry. 

In Colorado, women were enfranchised in 1893, there has been a steady 
increase in its no license territory since the granting of suffrage to women. 

Idaho, women were enfranchised in 1896. A law has been passed for- 
bidding the sale of alcohol to persons under sixteen. The sale of liquor is- 
prohibited on election days. 

In Utah the women received full suffrage in 1896; every count}' in 
Utah but one is dry. 

Washington, women's suffrage was granted in 19 10. Since the grant- 
ing of suffrage to women there has been a gain of 115 dry towns. 

California, woman's suffrage was granted in 191 1. There has been an 
increase of 475 dry towns in the two years women have had the ballot. 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 485 

Kansas, Oregon and Arizona granted full suffrage to women in 19 12. 
Kansas is a prohibition state. 

Oregon and Arizona are using the women's vote against the liquor 
trafhc and we believe that when the women of the United States are enfran- 
chised as a whole we shall have found the strongest weapon against the 
liquor traffic, and every kindred evil. The liquor men are opposed to the 
right of franchise for women, because they feel that she will stand for the 
home and the child against the liquor interest or it would grant franchise to 
women. 

Boone county is dry without the direct vote of the women. If they had 
the say in this county the liquor interest would never have a shadow of a 
chance to resume its business in Boone county. 

Give the women of Indiana a chance at the monster and he would never 
lift his head again in the state. Dr. Anna Shaw, the accomplished and 
world-renowned suffragist, is quoted as saying, at the National American 
Woman Suffrage Association in session at Nashville, Tennessee a short time 
ago: "Men say the voice of the people is the voice of God, but they refuse 
to permit the soprano to be raised along with the bass. The great difficulty 
with this government is that we have been listening to one big bass solo." 



THE WOMAN S CHRISTIAN TEMPERANCE UNION, THORNTOWN, INDIANA. 

In coming to this wide-awake, beautiful little village in the early eighties 
we found here the usual gospel temperance work going on. Regular weekly 
meetings were held in the various churches, and they were interdenomina- 
tional, and always well attended. The spirit of these meetings was to keep the 
saloons out of Thorntown. In connection with this was the taking of pledges 
from the youths against the use of narcotics, and alcoholics, and an especial 
war was made against the use of cigarettes. Work with the legislature was 
carried on extensively to frame and pass a law against the use of cigarettes. 
Governor Claude Matthews signed the Scientific Temperance Bill, that in- 
struction should be given statedly in our public schools against the use of 
alcoholics and narcotics. Miss Lodie Reed was presented by him with the 
pen with which he signed the bill. It was placed in the archives of the State 
Woman's Christian Temperance Union, and heart rejoicings went up all over 



486 BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

the state from every county and local union, (a) Jail and prison work; (b) 
social purity; (c) flower missions, to visit the sick and shut-ins, and solace 
them with loving words and bouquets of flowers; this was the most popular 
department; (d) medal contest work, the winner receiving, ist, a silver 
medal; 2d, a small gold medal; 3rd, a large gold medal; and 4th, a dia- 
mond medal; (e) mothers' meetings, largely attended always; (f) peace 
meetings, well received; (g) the franchise department; and so on up to 
three score and ten departments, really growing into a college extension 
work to those who did their duty. It was incumbent upon the county 
president to attend each fall a state convention and report proceedings for 
her county work. From there, if choice fell to her, she would attend a 
national convention, usually at some city far distant, and lucky was the 
one who was chosen to represent her people in an international conven- 
tion, such a privilege occurring usually but once in a lifetime. Boone 
county Woman's Christian Temperance Union was a regularly organized 
auxiliary of the state from the inception of the Woman's Crusade of 
1873-74. Our knowledge of it begins with the early eighties. The pay- 
ment of $1.00 dues entitles one to membership. It was customary to 
choose from the forty departments blocked out by 1st, the national; 2nd, the 
state organizations, such departments as were deemed best fitted for the 
environments with which each county had to deal. It was deemed proper to 
hold at the county-seat Woman's Christian Temperance Union Institutes, 
by some specially prepared state workers to help the local unions at James- 
town, Zionsville, Lebanon and Thorntown to fix upon the lines of work 
which they felt willing to take up; the state, which kept oversight, used its 
best endeavors to keep all in a uniform line. First, in importance stood: (a) 
School of Methods, to train the workers to become most efficient; (b) 
Evangelistic work, to keep each worker imbued with the spiritual power, 
which introduced us into the White Ribbon movement; (c) department of 
literature, intended to furnish us with correct data and knowledge of our 
movement; (d) scientific temperance instruction — showing the evil effects of 
narcotics and alcoholics. It was made a duty of the various Woman's 
Christian Temperance Unions to, as far as possible, co-operate with the 
public schools in securing this instruction. In coming to this wide-awake, 
beautiful little village in the early eighties we found here the usual Gospel 
Temperance Work going on. Regular weekly meetings were held in the 



BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA. 487 

various churches and they were interdenominational and always well at- 
tended. The spirit of these meetings was to keep the saloons out of 
Thorntown. So far, Thorntown had fought a good fight and had 
held the fort for prohibition, but by the aid of the legislature on March 17, 
1875, the saloons were growing arrogant, and began to creep insidiously into 
all Ind