(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "A history of Boston College"

Digitized by tine Internet Archive 

in 2010 witii funding from 

Boston Library Consortium IVIember Libraries 



http://www.archive.org/details/historyofbostoncOOduni 



Edited by FRANCIS M. CROWLEY, Ph.D. 

DEAN OF THE SCHOOL OF EDUCATION 
FORDHAM UNIVERSITY 



A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 



A HISTORY OF 

OSTON 
COLLEGE 




By DAVID R. DUNIGAN, S.J., Ph.D. 



iosiari aciirsE schgqi 



THE BRUCE PUBLISHING COMPANY 
MILWAUKEE 



Imprimi potest: John J. McEleney, S.J., Provincial, New England Province 

Nihil obstat: Edvi^ard G. Murray, D.D., Censor librorum 

Imprimatur: «^ Richard J. Gushing, Archbishop of Boston 

August 18, 1947 



LJ) 



413 



y r. f:^ u 



Gopyright, 1947, by the Trustees of Boston College 

MADE IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



To 
MY MOTHER 



EDITOR'S INTRODUCTION 



The record shows that there is a dearth of materials covering 
the development of American Catholic colleges and universities. 
The student of American Catholic higher education finds that 
source materials are widely scattered, not catalogued, and only 
too often deal largely with personalities, physical problems, and 
local activities. Again, many institutions have failed to record 
their achievements in such a form as to make the information 
available for general use. Very httle has been done to present 
a connected story showing the larger and more significant 
achievements, such as the contribution of a given institution or 
group of institutions to the cultural life of the nation, the part 
played in the preservation of the CathoHc heritage, or the high 
service rendered in breaking down prejudices through develop- 
ing a better understanding of the program of the Church. This 
is the same as saying that the story of American Catholic higher 
education is still to be written. 

Thus it is with some degree of satisfaction that we welcome 
this contribution to the record of Catholic higher education. A 
History of Boston College has certain common elements 
found in the development of similar institutions, such as lack of 
interest in higher education on the part of Catholics, serious and 
recurrent crises during early stages of growth; legislative, social, 
and financial handicaps, shortage of teaching personnel, periods 
of slow or rapid growth, the opening of new areas of service, 
and the significant contributions of certain strong personalities. 



Vlll EDITOR S INTRODUCTION 

But there are other elements which are pecuHar to the history 
of this great institution because of time, place, and circumstance. 
At its beginning, the institution suflFered from bitter anti-Catholic 
feeling, yet found valiant Protestant defenders in its hour of 
need. It is an outstanding example of the wisdom of St. Ignatius 
in counseling the selection of great cities as the sites of institu- 
tions of higher learning. No American Catholic college has ex- 
perienced such a rapid growth in such a short period of time. It 
is one of the few Catholic colleges which has had a well-planned, 
architecturally acceptable building program which has been 
followed to the letter from the opening of its present campus. 
The English Collegiate Gothic Science Building was recognized 
by the Boston Society of Architects, in 1926, as the most beauti- 
ful new structure in the Greater Boston area. The college enjoys 
the unique distinction of having found its remote beginnings in 
a strike staged by Catholic students, as a protest against religious 
discrimination in the Boston pubHc schools. Thirteen of its gradu- 
ates have been raised to the episcopacy and one to the cardinal- 
ate. The alumni who have held high public office have reflected 
credit on Boston College and have more than justified the ardent 
hopes of the founders. Over five thousand sons of Boston 
College served America in World War II, winning 560 decora- 
tions and some forty citations. Thus we find that brave be- 
ginnings and high purpose have mastered impossible odds and 
compelled time and place and circumstance to yield high divi- 
dends — the rewards of courage, faith, and sacrifice. 

Leadership of the right kind provides the drive, confidence, 
and direction required for steady progress and lasting achieve- 
ment. Great institutions are the monuments that hardy souls 
have left behind them to mark their passage through the pages 
of history. Boston College as an institution of higher learning has 
been fortunate in the leaders who have moved through its halls. 
Each president performed his special task with the zeal and 
self-sacrifice so characteristic of the sons of St. Ignatius, always 
thinking in terms of training Christian gentlemen ready to serve 
Church and State. In keeping with the traditions of the Society 



EDITOR S INTRODUCTION IX 

of Jesus, programs were adapted to meet the needs of the times, 
but the cultural and religious ideals were never compromised, 
for true education must provide for the training of the whole 
man. It is evident that higher scholastic standards were the spe- 
cial concern of some presidents, that others were compelled by 
the exigencies of the moment to think in terms of mortar and 
stone, and that still others, sensing the need of well-organized 
community support, concentrated on developing good public 
relations. But, in a last analysis, the size of the present institution 
bears testimony as much to the devotion of countless Boston 
friends in every period as it does to the ability of its leaders. It 
was through the combined efforts of all of these that the Hub 
realized the vision of a Greater Boston College, an institution 
serving God and Country, in peace and war, in a way that is 
peculiarly the mission of the Catholic institution of higher 
learning. 

Francis M. Crowley 
New York, N. Y. 



PREFACE 



This is the first book-length history of Boston College that has 
ever been written. In presenting it to the public, the author 
hopes that it may serve a threefold pui-pose: (1) to be of general 
interest and inspiration to faculty, students, alumni, and friends 
of the college; (2) to provide some assistance to those in quest 
of information on points relating to the background of the col- 
lege's present-day activities; and (3) to contribute in a small 
way to a better understanding of the position of Catholics in 
Boston during the past ninety years. 

In bringing together and ordering the widely scattered records 
which constitute this account, the author became deeply in- 
debted to many persons for their painstaking co-operation. Most 
prominent among these was Dr. John D. Redden of Fordham 
University, whose practical assistance and advice were invalu- 
able during the three years this work was carried on. Sincere 
thanks with special emphasis are also due to Dr. Francis M. 
Crowley, dean of the School of Education at Fordham Univer- 
sity, for making initial publication arrangements and giving gen- 
erously of his time in the editorial preparation of the manuscript. 

Encouragement was given the project from its beginning by 
the Very Reverend James H. Dolan, S.J., former Provincial, and 
by the Very Reverend John J. McEleney, S.J., present Provincial 
of the New England Province of the Society of Jesus; and by the 
Very Reverend William J. Murphy, S.J., and the Very Reverend 
William Lane Keleher, S.J., former and present presidents re- 
spectively of Boston College. 



XU PREFACE 

Permission to make use of the archives of the Archdiocese of 
Boston was graciously granted by His Excellency, Archbishop 
Richard J. Gushing, D.D. Authorization to use Jesuit archive and 
record material was given by the Very Reverend James P. 
Sweeney, S.J., while Provincial of the New York Province of the 
Society of Jesus, and by the Very Reverend Vincent L. Keelan, 
S.J., while Provincial of the Maryland Province, both of whom 
generously assisted the undertaking in many other regards. 

The author's gratitude is due to the Right Reverend Jeremiah 
F. Minihan, S.S., former chancellor of the Archdiocese of Boston; 
the Reverend Robert H. Lord, Ph.D., P.P.; the Reverend John J. 
McMahon, S.J., and Charles D. Maginnis, for giving of their 
valuable time and expert counsel on more than one occasion. 

He is also under obligation to the Right Reverend Walter J 
Furlong; Emma M. Cummings; Eunice A. Divver; Dorothea A, 
Dunigan; Eugene J. Feeley; John J. Hayes; Mary P. Halpin 
Reverend Frederick J. Helbig, S.J.; Dr. William A. Kelly 
Lieut. WilUam J. Landrey, U. S. Army; Reverend Joseph E 
Mclnnis, S.J.; Reverend John F. X. Murphy, S.J.; William J 
O'Keefe; John M. O'Loughlin; Reverend Michael G. Pierce, S.J.; 
William Arthur Reilly; Reverend Edward A. Ryan, S.J.; Reverend 
Martin J. Smith, S.J.; and Reverend John A. Tobin, S.J. 

The deans of the various schools of Boston Gollege kindly 
read and criticized the sections of the manuscript bearing on 
their respective jurisdictions. To these and to the many other 
persons whose suggestions and corrections were of material 
assistance, the author wishes to express his sincere appreciation. 

Acknowledgment is here made of the favor conferred by the 
following publishers in granting permission to reprint copy- 
righted material: America Press; The Atlantic Monthly; The 
Boston Globe; The Boston Herald; Gharles Scribner's Sons; 
Dodd, Mead and Go.; Houghton MiflBin Go.; The New York Sun; 
The Pilot Publishing Go.; Thought; Woodstock Letters. 

Ghestnut Hill, David R. Dunigan, S.J. 

Massachusetts 



tNTRODlfCTION 



The Jesuit college in Boston has risen on foundations laid with 
patient and undramatic labor by a large number of men over 
a period of many decades. These builders were, of necessity, 
men of vision, of courage, of faith, of perseverance; but it 
happened that they were also men of humility, who regarded 
their own individual eflForts of small moment and not worth 
recording, in consequence of which, details of their sacrifices and 
the year-by-year chronicle of the steps they took to estabhsh 
Catholic higher education in Boston have almost perished from 
memory. 

It is the purpose of these pages, therefore, to preserve what 
remains of that history by recording as faithfully as possible 
the significant events connected with the institution in each 
period of its development. It is hoped that such an account may 
remind oflBcers, teachers, students, and friends of Boston College 
of the honorable history of their Alma Mater, and perhaps serve 
as some inspiration to them in the future conduct of the college's 
manifold activities. 

Scope of the Book v 

Exigencies of space have made it necessary to omit many of 
the undertakings connected indirectly with the founding and 
direction of the college. Thus, only passing notice is accorded 
the educational work taken up by the Jesuit Fathers at St. Mary's 
in the North End of the city, and the strictly parochial occupa- 



XIV INTRODUCTION 

tions of the Fathers on the combined staff of the college and the 
Immaculate Conception Church. Indeed, very little is said con- 
cerning the interesting history of that church itself, although 
it is the collegiate church of Boston College; nor has attention 
been directed to the rise and growth of St. Ignatius Parish, 
connected with the College at Chestnut Hill. Furthermore, the 
development of Boston College High School has not been pur- 
sued beyond the date of separation from the college, nor has a 
chronicle of the college athletic activities been ventured, since 
such an account is available elsewhere.^ Finally, no attempt 
has been made to provide a complete record of the persons 
connected with the college, or even of a significant part of them, 
for that task, although admittedly of great value, would be of 
heroic proportions and quite beyond the scope of this book. 



Sources of Data 

The data for this study have been drawn from original ma- 
terial in the General Archives of the Society of Jesus in Rome; 
the archives of the New England, the New York, and the Mary- 
land Provinces of the Society of Jesus; the archives of the 
Archdiocese of Boston; the archives of Boston College; George- 
town University (Washington, D. C); Woodstock College 
( Woodstock, Maryland ) ; the Boston Public Library; the libraries 
of Boston College, Woodstock College, and Fordham University; 
and the libraries of various Boston newspapers. 

Published studies related to this subject are few and brief. 
Erbacher has written a survey of all CathoHc higher educational 
foundations for men in the United States for the period 1850 to 
1866, in which mention of the Jesuit college in Boston is 
necessarily brief.^ Devitt wrote a short history of Boston College 
in 1913 as part of the history of the New York-Maryland Jesuit 

1 Nathaniel J. Hasenfus, Athletics at Boston College; Volume 1, FootbaU 
and Hockey (privately printed, c. 1943). 

2 Sebastian Anthony Erbacher, Catholic Higher Education for Men in 
the United States, 1850-1866 (Washington, D. C: The Catholic Uni- 
versity of America, 1931). 



INTRODUCTION XV 

Province in Woodstock Letters.^ This study was not only very 
short but was handicapped, as was admitted by Devitt, by the 
paucity of records and sources available at the time.* Garraghan 
drew up a well-documented account o£ the negotiations con- 
nected with the purchase of land and the early building opera- 
tions at the college, basing his treatise exclusively upon material 
preserved in the General Archives of the Society of Jesus in 
Rome.^ While incomplete, his study is nevertheless of great value. 
The articles on Boston College by W. E. Murphy® and by J. F. 
X. Murphy,^ as well as the account in the Seventy-fifth Anniver- 
sary Brochure,^ are, by design, brief popular sketches, treating 
only a selection of the salient points in the history of the 
institution, 

3 Edward I. Devitt, S.J., "History of the Maryland-New York Province, 
XVI, Boston CoUege . . . 1863-1914," Woodstock Letters, LXIV (1935), 
399-421. 

4 Devitt in a portion of his manscript "History" which was deleted in 
publication, preserved in Woodstock College Archives. 

5 Gilbert J. Garraghan, S.J., "Origins of Boston College, 1842-1869," 
Thought, 17 (Dec, 1942): 627-656. 

6 W. E. Murphy, S.J., "The Story of Boston College," Catholic Builders 
of the Nation (Boston: Continental Press, 1923), pp. 249-259. 

7 J. F. X. Murphy, S.J., "Boston College," The Pilot, March 8, 1930. 
^Boston College, Seventy-fifth Anniversary, 1863-1938 (Chestnut Hill, 

Mass.: Boston College, n.d.), pp. 11-41. 



CONTENTS 



EDITOR S INTRODUCTION Vll 

PREFACE Xi 

INTRODUCTION xiii 

I. BACKGROUND FOR A CATHOLIC COLLEGE 

IN BOSTON 1 

n. THE MAN FROM ULSTER 8 

m. THE STRUGGLE FOR LAND 15 

IV. WALLS AND A ROOF 34 

V. LEVITES FIND A HOME 45 

VI. PRIVILEGE AND PLEDGE 62 

VII. TWENTY-TWO PIONEERS 72 

Vm. CONSOLIDATING A GAIN 86 

IX. THE LETTER OF THE LAW 96 

X. PREFECT TO PRESIDENT 107 

XI. INFLUTENCE BY GAS-LIGHT 118 

XII. THE COLLEGE IN THE EIGHTIES 134 

Xin. GROWING IS DONE SLOWLY 155 

XIV. CONFLICT AND ADJUSTMENTS 166 

XV. BRAVE VISION 180 

XVI. THE TOWERS ON THE HEIGHTS 194 

xvii 



XVill CONTENTS 

XVII. PREWAR ERA 206 

XVin. TWO MONTHS IN KHAKI 216 

XIX. "b. c. will be big enough ..." 223 

XX. GOTHIC NEWCOMERS 232 

XXI. THE MANY-ROOTED TREE 244 

XXII. DEPRESSION DECADE 260 

XXm. EXPLORATIONS AND A BIRTHDAY 274 

XXIV. SOLDIERS WITH SCHOOLBOOKS 286 

XXV. THE YEARS BEYOND 312 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 317 

A. DOCUMENTS 317 

B. BOOKS 319 

C. PERIODICALS AND NEWSPAPERS 322 

APPENDIX A TEXTBOOKS PRESCRIBED AT BOSTON 

COLLEGE FOR THE YEAR 1867-1868 327 

APPENDIX B PROGRAM FOR THE FIRST EXHIBI- 
TION AT BOSTON COLLEGE 329 

APPENDIX C THE OFFICERS OF THE BOSTON 

COLLEGE ALUMNI ASSOCIATION 

FROM 1886 TO 1890 331 

APPENDIX D PRESIDENTS OF BOSTON COLLEGE 333 

APPENDIX E MEMBERS OF THE HIERARCHY WHO 

ATTENDED BOSTON COLLEGE 334 

APPENDIX F THE HONORED WAR DEAD OF 

BOSTON COLLEGE 335 

INDEX 337 



A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 



CHAPTER I 

BACKGROUND FOR A CATHOLIC COLLEGE 
IN BOSTON 



An adequate understanding of the movement to provide Catholic 
educational facilities in Boston during the mid-nineteenth century 
requires some recognition of the attitudes toward CathoHcism 
which prevailed at the time. It is imperative, for instance, while 
investigating the origin and early development of Boston College, 
to keep in mind that tliis institution was planned and estabhshed 
by a religious group which, until a score of years before, held 
an insignificant position in the social life of the United States; 
to reflect that this group had become almost overnight a nu- 
merically powerful body, which the longer-estabHshed elements 
in the population regarded as a threat to their institutions and 
traditions. It must be remembered, too, that tiie increase which 
the newer group received in the late forties was composed largely 
of those relegated to one of the lower rungs of the social scale 
by persecution and famine in their native land which had de- 
prived them of means, education, and even health. Lastly, it 
should be recalled that constant intolerance and discrimination 
were exercised against these immigrants in their new homes 
because they professed the "Roman" religion — a faith little un- 
derstood and much feared on the American seaboard. 

In the light of these conditions, it is not a matter of wonder 
why a Cathohc college in Boston was not founded sooner, or why 
it was not founded as a university at once, or why it is not larger 
now after eighty years in existence; but one's amazement grows, 
on the contrary, that it could be founded as soon as it was; and 

1 



Ji A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

that, under the circumstances, it could ever survive to prosper as 
it has done. 

Although limitations of space prevent an extended study of 
this background, some consideration of it will aid in perceiving 
the origin of the college in its proper perspective, and will assist 
in arriving at a true appreciation of the courage and labors of 
its founders, lest to the present generation "McEhoy," "Fitz- 
patrick," "Carney," "Bapst," and "Fulton" become forgotten 
names. 

Catholics in the Early Days 
The reader may remember that in the English colonies, Cath- 
oHcs never constituted a factor to be reckoned with. During 
the decade before the Revolution, in a total population of more 
than two miUion inhabitants,^ only some twenty thousand, or 
less than 1 per cent, were Catholics,^ and these were settled 
principally in Maryland and Pennsylvania. At this period, Cath- 
oHcs were denied domicile in Boston, and, if discovered there, 
were subject to many legal penalties. This condition endured 
until the adoption of the state constitution of Massachusetts in 
1780. This act removed many restrictions from Cathohcs, but 
an oath with an expHcitly anti-Cathohc clause was still required 
of all officeholders until Massachusetts amended its state con- 
stitutions in 1822.^ In the meantime, the CathoHc population was 

1 In 1775, for the purpose of taxation, Congress assumed the population 
to be 2,389,300 (Adam Seybert, Statistical Annals [Philadelphia: Thomas 
Dobson & Son, 1818], p. 27). 

2 John GUmary Shea, The Catholic Church in Colonial Days ( New York: 
J. G. Shea, 1886), p. 449. Shea's figures are based upon the estimate of 
Father George Hunter, Superior of the Mission, who wrote in July of 1764, 
that there were 10,000 adult Catholic and 10,000 non-adult Catholics in 
his charge throughout Maryland and Pennsylvania. Since Catholics were 
proscribed under most stringent penalties elsewhere, it may be assumed 
that no significant number dwelt in the other colonies. 

2 Benjamin Perley Poore ( compiler ) , The Federal and State Constitutions, 
Colonial Charters, and other Organic Laws of the United States, 2nd ed. 
(Washington, D. C: Government Printing Office, 1878), I, 970-971; 974. 
A scholarly examination of the legal restrictions against Catholics in 
Massachusetts vidll be found in Arthvu- J. Riley, Catholicism in New England 
to 1788 (Washington, D. C: Catholic University of America, 1936), 
Chapter VIL 



A CATHOLIC COLLEGE IN BOSTON 6 

not growing in proportion with that of the rest of the country. 
As late as 1830, CathoHcs represented only about 2 per cent 
of the nation's population.* 

Catholic Irish Immigration 
Immigration, however, which had increased sporadically dur- 
ing the late thirties due to political and economic change in 
Germany, Scotland, and Ireland, became a deluge after the 
European famines of 1845-1847, and a large proportion of the in- 
coming refugees was CathoHc. Although Great Britain and the 
Continent felt the effects of a severe food shortage at this time, 
Ireland, unfortunately a single-crop country, suffered wide- 
spread starvation and utter destitution as a result of the potato 
bHght which deprived it of food. Hundreds of thousands of 
Irishmen despaired that their country would ever survive this 
calamity and thought only of flight.^ Within the next twenty 
years, some two and a half million Irish abandoned their native 
land.^ During part of this period, the decade from 1846 to 1856, 
almost 130,000 Irish entered Boston alone.^ Since, as has been 
said almost aU of these newcomers were Catholics, one can under- 
stand the effect of this influx upon the rehgious sensibihties of 
Protestant Boston. Where before the existence of a few Cath- 
ohcs in the city could be ignored or met with calm disdain, 
now their presence in legion seemed to constitute a threat to 
everything the old-line "natives" held in esteem. It was true 
that this new element in the population could not be assimilated 
easily; it retained its own "group consciousness"; it did not share 
in or sympathize with the English-flavored "culture" of which 
Boston was so proud; it was desperately poor, and had been 
deprived by persecution of education and the leisure which is 

* Based on figures drawn from "United States of America: Population," 
Encyclopedia Brittanica, 14th ed., 22:732; and Peter GuHday, "Roman 
Catholic Church," ibid., 19:421. 

5 Marcus Lee Hansen, The Atlantic Migration, 1607-1860 (Cambridge: 
Harvard University Press, 1940), p. 249. 

6 Oscar Handlin, Bostons Immigrants, 1790-1865 (Cambridge: Harvard 
University Press, 1941), p. 52. 

7 Ibid., p. 229. 



4 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

needed for finesse, and so could not erect a social structure even 
remotely comparable in dignity with that of the "natives." Thus 
the Irish, or Catholics, since the terms had come to be syn- 
onymous, were destined to become the laboring class, the 
domestic class, and to await, with more or less resignation, the 
day when the situation would be rectified by the forces of nature 
which seemed to enjoy marvelous properties in this "land of 
promise." 

Early Catholic Education in Boston 
The story of Catholic education in Boston prior to the estab- 
lishment of Boston College parallels in heroic feats and devotion 
the history of American Catholicism itself. The earliest Catholic 
school of which there is record was a small one conducted by a 
Mr. Sinnot for Father Matignon about 1804.^ Although a revived 
form of this school, under a Mr. Heaney, is mentioned in 1813,^ 
the eflFort was obviously on a small scale, erratic in operation, 
and constantly hampered by lack of funds. Bishop Cheverus 
had invited the Jesuits to found a school in Boston, evidently 
a petit seminaire, sometime prior to November, 1811, but the 
Fathers were unable to accept the oflFer due to lack of available 
teachers.^" Failing in outside assistance, the Bishop began a 
sort of diocesan seminary in 1813 with two students and appar- 
ently kept it in operation over twenty years. 

The first real parochial school in Boston was opened in 
September, 1820, with a hundred young girls as pupils under 
the direction of the Ursuline Sisters in a building erected for the 
purpose by Bishop Cheverus on a lot adjoining the cathedral 
property.^^ When, within a few years, it was seen that this site 
in the center of the city was becoming rapidly unsuitable for 
the girls' school. Bishop Fitzpatrick bought land for the Ursu- 

8 Robert H. Lord, John E. Sexton, and Edward T. Harrington, History 
of the Archdiocese of Boston (New York: Sheed and Ward, 1944), 
1:597-599. 

^Ibid., 1:647. 

1° Malou, S.J., ad Brzozowski, S.J., Nov. 20, 1811, Maryland Province 
SJ. Archives, 203 H 7. 

"Lord, Sexton, and Harrington, op. cit., 1:723-725. 



A CATHOLIC COLLEGE IN BOSTON 5 

lines in Charlestown and had the institution moved there in 
1826 and changed to a boarding school. A short time after this, 
the Bishop established a day school for boys and girls in Boston, 
employing the recently ordained Father James Fitton as a 
teacher. John J. Williams, later to be archbishop of Boston, was 
one of the original pupils in this day school.^^ By 1831 there 
were three Catholic schools in Boston and six in the surrounding 
area.^^ 

The year 1834 marked the burning of the Ursuline convent 
and school in Charlestown by an anti-Catholic mob, an event 
which shocked the nation, but indicated an attitude toward 
things Catholic which was entertained by large numbers of 
Bostonians." The following year, "Holy Cross Seminary," a 
boarding and day school, opened near the cathedral, "for the 
education of young gentlemen, chiefly for the Church."^^ In 
1837, Father Fitton opened Mt. St. James Seminary in Worcester, 
but discovered within a few years that the financial and admin- 
istrational demands of an academy were more than he could 
meet, and so, on February 3, 1843, sold the institution to the 
Bishop, who at once entrusted the undertaking to the Jesuits. 
On June 18, 1843, the foundation of Holy Cross College to 
replace Mt. St. James Seminary was announced.^'' 

In the meantime, the lack of Catholic parochial schools was 
relieved somewhat by the advent of numbers of schoolmasters 
from Ireland who settled throughout New England, and opened 
independent "schools," depending for their livelihood on the 
generosity of the pupils' parents.^^ The existence of such "classes" 

12 Louis S. Walsh, Growth of Parochial Schools in Chronological Order, 
1820-1900 (Newton Highlands [Mass.]: Press of St. John's Industrial Train- 
ing School, 1901), p. 1. 

13 Ibid., pp. 1 and 2. ' 

14 Lord, Sexton, and Harrington, op. cit., 2:210-239. 

15 United States Catholic Almanac, 1836 (Baltimore: James Myres, 1836), 
p. 125. 

16 David R. Dunigan, S.J., "Student Days at Holy Cross College in 1848" 
(unpublished master's thesis, St. Louis University, 1938), p. 8. 

i'^ Anonymous, Historical Sketch of the Catholic Parochial Schools in the 
Archdiocese of Boston, 1820-1900, pamphlet, no publisher, no date, Boston 
Diocesan Archives, p. 3. 



6 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

perhaps justifies the statement in the Catholic Almanac for 1845 
that "there are common schools for both male and female chil- 
dren in most of the cities and towns of this Diocese, having 
Catholic teachers."^^ Nevertheless, in 1855, in the diocese of 
Boston, which embraced all of Massachusetts, there were only 
five free Catholic schools for girls and a few for boys, and six 
years later, only nine schools for girls and five for boys.^® 

The Need for Catholic Schools 
Evidently the sole provision in the diocese for the training of 
boys on the secondary and higher levels was at Holy Cross. At 
the time, however, there was little local demand for this type 
of education among the Catholic immigrants who were largely 
of the laboring class, and were, moreover, hardly able to afford 
the relatively high tuition ($150 a year).^° An examination of 
the register of students at Holy Cross in 1849 reveals that only 
thirty-one pupils of a total of one hundred and twenty came 
from Massachusetts — a local representation of less than 26 
per cent.-^ Efforts to secure a charter for this institution in the 
same year (1849) failed through the religious prejudice of the 
Massachusetts legislature.^^ 

The need for Catholic schools was accentuated during the 
threescore years prior to the opening of Boston College by the 
growing success of Horace Mann's drive to remove denomina- 
tional religion from the Massachusetts schools. Mann did not 
intend, as Lord points out, to "secularize" education,^^ much less 
to paganize it, but the ultimate outcome, unforseen and unde- 

18 The Metropolitan Catholic Almanac and Laity's Directory for the 
Year 1845 (Baltimore: Fielding Lucas, Jr., 1845), p. 149. 
13 Walsh, op. cit., p. 4. 

20 Holy Cross College prospectus in The Metropolitan Catholic Almanac 
and Laity's Directory for the Year 1844 (Baltimore: Fielding Lucas, Jr., 
1844), pp. 88-89. 

21 Dunigan, op. cit., p. 24. 

22 Walter J. Meagher, S.J., "History of the College of the Holy Cross, 
1843-1901" (unpublished doctoral thesis, Fordham University, 1944); a 
good short account is given in Lord, Sexton, and Harrington, op. cit., 
2:575-582. 

23 Lord, Sexton, and Harrington, op. cit., 2:311-312. 



A CATHOLIC COLLEGE IN BOSTON 7 

sired, was to remove all but the most diluted religious influences 
from the public schools. What little remained was, of course, 
Protestant; the Catholic position, when not ignored, was ridi- 
culed and misrepresented in the common textbooks. 

The mounting tension between what was often a Catholic 
majority in public school classrooms and a dominant Prot- 
estant minority, culminated in 1859 in a series of incidents 
known as the Eliot School Controversy.^* This disturbance cen- 
tered about the severe corporal punishment inflicted by a teacher 
upon a Catholic pupil of the Eliot School, Boston, because of 
the child's refusal, upon instruction from his parents, to recite 
the Protestant version of the corrmiandments. The case was 
carried into the courts where, in disregard of the evidence, it 
was settled in favor of the teacher. The dispute gained national 
notoriety, and the injustices which the case involved forced the 
CathoHcs of Boston to conclude that the immediate establish- 
ment of an adequate school system of their own was imperative. 
Meanwhile, there was ever present a need for an adequate 
supply of educated leaders, both in the clergy and in the laity, 
and to supply this, the Bishop was seeking means to establish in 
Boston a low-tuition college for day scholars. He little dreamed 
that the fulfillment of this desire was finally at hand. 

24 Bemadine Wiget, S.J., "The Eliot School Case" (contemporary MS. 

account, with newspaper clippings, 3 vols.), Maryland Provincial S.J. 

Archives. Good, brief account in Lord, Sexton, and Harrington, op. cit., 
2:585-601. 



CHAPTER II 
THE MAN FROM ULSTER 



Historians agree that "the human agent chiefly instrumental 
in the founding of Boston's Jesuit college was John McElroy."^ 
This almost legendary figure was born in Brookeborough, near 
Enniskillen, County Fermanagh, Province of Ulster, Northern 
Ireland, on May 14, 1782, and during his long life span, roughly 
coinciding with the establishment and development of the 
United States, and with the re-establishment and expansion of 
the Society of Jesus, he lived several careers.^ 

At the time of his birth the penal laws which prohibited 
Irish schoolmasters from teaching Catholics had not yet been 
completely removed in practice, hence the formal schooling 
which he received was only of the most rudimentary sort. After 
leaving school he was employed on his father's farm until he 
reached the age of twenty-one, when he embarked on a flax 

1 Gilbert J. Garraghan, S.J., "Origins of Boston College, 1842-1869," 
Thought, 17:632, Dec, 1942. 

2 This summary of Father McElroy's life is based upon letters of Father 
McElroy concerning his early life in the Society of Jesus, Woodstock Letters, 
44:9-14, 1915; Father McElroy's letter to the Provincial, Jan. 14, 1863 
(Maryland Province S.J. Archives, 227 Z 6); the reconstructed "Catalogus 
Sociorum Missionis Americae Foederatae, ineunte anno 1807," Woodstock 
Letters, 16:169-172, 1887; Father McElroy's Diary, preserved in the 
Maryland Province S.J. Archives at Woodstock College (Maryland); parts 
of the Diary referring to the Mexican War chaplaincy, Woodstock Letters, 
15:198-202, July, 1886; 16:33-39, March, 1887; 16:161-168, July, 1887; 
16:225-229, Nov., 1887; 17:3-11, March, 1888; Esmeralda Boyle, Father 
John McElroy, the Irish Priest (Washington: James Bellew, 1878); unsigned 
intervievi^, New York Herald, May 8, 1876. 

8 



THE MAN FROM ULSTER 9 

ship. Serpent, which sailed from Londonderry, June 25, 1803, 
and arrived in Baltimore August 26, after a voyage of sixty-two 
days. He lived in that city about a year with a younger brother 
who kept a drugstore, then moved to Georgetown where he 
worked as a clerk in a dry-goods store owned by a Mrs. Curran. 
It was during this period that he discovered his vocation for the 
religious state, and sought the advice of his spiritual director, 
Bishop Leonard Neale, then coadjutor to Archbishop Carroll, 
and president of Georgetown College. Bishop Neale encouraged 
the young man, and undoubtedly counseled patience, for the 
Bishop was aware that the suppressed Society of Jesus was on 
the verge of being re-established in the United States, and would 
soon be in a position to accept candidates. 

Mr. McElroy Becomes a Jesuit 
There was still surviving at that time in America a small 
number of former Jesuits, among whom were Archbishop 
Carroll and Bishop Neale, and these had recently been encour- 
aged by the informal re-establishment of the order in England 
to petition that a similar favor be granted to the priests on the 
American mission. The request was granted by the Jesuit Gen- 
eral in 1804, and during the following year six of the missionary 
priests working in this country elected to re-enter the Society, 
and Father Robert Molyneaux was appointed superior. On 
October 10, 1806, nine novices destined to study for the priest- 
hood, and two lay-brother novices were received by the order 
and began their period of probation at Georgetown College. 
One of these scholastic novices was Benedict J. Fenwick, after- 
ward bishop of Boston; one of the lay-brother novices was 
John McElroy. 

Some ten months previously, on January 14, John had entered 
the employment of the college as a bookkeeper and buyer; now 
in his new status, his duties remained much the same. Many 
years later he wrote: 

I entered the Society as lay-brother, employed as clerk, proc- 
urator, treasurer, assistant cook, gardener, prefect, teacher 



10 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

of writing, arithmetic, etc. In these duties was I occupied 
during the two years of Novitiate, often making my meditation 
the best I could in going to market, etc.^ 

He remained at Georgetown as a lay brother for nine years, 
and during the war with Great Britain witnessed from the col- 
lege windows the burning of Washington. In 1815, Father Grassi, 
the Superior of the Mission, took the extraordinary step of 
applying to the Jesuit General, Father Brzozowski, for permission 
to have Brother McElroy change his "grade" to that of scholastic 
and start studying for the priesthood. The permission was 
granted, and on July 31, 1815, John McEhoy, at the age of 
thirty-three, commenced the study of Latin grammar and other 
preparatory subjects under the tutorage of Father Grassi. He 
still carried out his miscellany of duties. "I was promised time 
to study, it is true, but as yet it has not arrived. . . ."* On April 5, 
1816, he received tonsure and minor orders from Archbishop 
Neale, and on May 28, 30, and 31, 1817, after an interval of only 
twenty-two months from the inception of his studies, he was 
raised to major orders and the priesthood.^ His ordination was 
the last episcopal act performed by his friend and guide. Arch- 
bishop Neale, and a little over two weeks later it became the 
new priest's melancholy duty to prepare the aged prelate for 
death. , 

In 1818 Father McElroy was appointed to assist the pastor of 
Trinity Ghurch, Georgetown, and gave proof in that position of 
exceptional ability as a preacher. On September 29, 1822, he 
was sent to Frederick, Maryland, to take charge at St. John's 
Church during the serious illness of the pastor, and when the 
pastor died a short time later, many prominent citizens of 
Frederick, among whom was the future chief justice of the 
United States Supreme Court, Roger B. Taney, petitioned the 

3 John McElroy, S.J., to Charles Stonestreet, S.J., July 21, 1857; Mary- 
land Province S.J. Archives. Published in Woodstock Letters, 44:9-10, 1915. 

4 Ibid. 

5 "Liber Continens Nomen etc., Promotonun ad Ordines Majores, etc., 
1633-1852," MSS. book No. 350B, Maryland Province S.J. Archives, 
Baltimore. 



THE MAN FROM ULSTER 11 

Jesuit superior that Father McEhoy be allowed to remain in that 
position. The request was granted, and he became pastor of 
St. John's Church in October, 1822. 

His life at this period was taken up with active missionary 
work not only in his own church, but in many of its substations 
throughout the hills of Maryland and Virginia. On January 3, 
1824, he commenced his first undertaking in the field of Catholic 
education by bringing five courageous Sisters of Charity from 
Emmitsburg to open "St. John's Female Benevolent and Fred- 
erick Free School" in a small log cabin located on the church 
property. To the many hardships of poverty connected with this 
venture was added the bigoted opposition of large numbers of 
non-Catholic residents of the town. These persons, while carry- 
ing on a campaign of vilification against the Sisters, sought state 
aid for the creation of a non-Catholic free school. The latter 
action was turned by Father McEhoy into a blessing, for by the 
time the grant was finally made, he had arranged that part of it 
would be awarded to the Sisters' school. He succeeded in finding 
means to erect a respectable school building in 1825, and then 
turned his attention to making like provision for the boys in 
his charge. On August 7, 1828, he laid the cornerstone of 
St. John's Literary Institute, later St. John's College, and the 
first classes were held in the building in September, 1829, under 
the direction of a lay master secured from Georgetown. The 
institution came in time to be regarded as a rival of George- 
town's, until circumstances shortly before the Civil War led to 
its abandoimient. 

In 1833, Father McEhoy began the construction of an im- 
posing brick church modeled upon the Jesuit Church at Gardiner 
Street, Dublin, to take the place of old St. John's. The edifice^ 
was consecrated April 26, 1837, in the presence of the bishops 
from the Third Provincial Council of Baltimore.® 

In the meantime, his reputation as a preacher and as a direc- 

8 A detailed account of Father McElroy's years at Frederick will be 
found in "St. John's Church and Residence, Frederick, Md.," Woodstock 
Letters, 5:103-114 (1876). 



12 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

tor of retreats was growing steadily. He enjoyed the friendship 
and confidence of Archbishop Hughes, who requested him to 
conduct the first clergy retreat in the diocese of New York 
(1840), and later summoned the Jesuit to attend him on his 
deathbed. Bishop Purcell of Cincinnati named him as his theolo- 
gian at the Fourth Provincial Council of Baltimore,^ and Bishop 
Flaget, of Bardstown, petitioned Propaganda to name him his 
coadjutor.® He has been likened to "a clerical Abraham Lincoln, 
devoid of the learning of the schools, but abounding in force of 
character, maturity of judgment and talent for affairs."^ In 1845 
he left Frederick to become pastor of Trinity Church, George- 
town (Washington), where he remained from September to 
May. 

Mexican War Chaplaincy 
On May 20, 1846, at the close of the Sixth Provincial Council 
of Baltimore, Bishop Hughes and two other prelates went to 
Washington to pay their respects to President Polk. During the 
visit, the President expressed a desire to have two priests ap- 
pointed at once to act as chaplains with the armed forces in 
Mexico. The Bishops consulted the Jesuit visitor. Father Peter 
Verhaegen, at Georgetown that evening, and he named Fathers 
McEhoy and Rey for the mission. The next day, the Secretary 
of War oflBcially notified the two Fathers that they had been 
approved by the President for the assignment, and they were 
advised that while "the existing laws do not authorize the Presi- 

■^ Peter Guilday, The Life and Times of John England, First Bishop of 
Charleston, 1786-1842 (New York: America Press, 1927), II, 591. 

8 "I have just written to the Cardinal [Prefect of the Propaganda] to ask 
for his [McElroy's] appointment and I have set forth in my letter that 
I believe him very worthy of being raised to the episcopate and particularly 
qualified to do good in my diocese, that he would not fail to be very well 
received by my [clergy] to whom he is known and by whom he is deeply 
venerated and that I personally should be very happy to have him for my 
coadjutor, I do not know of any ecclesiastic who could succeed so well 
in my diocese as the one I ask for. ..." Flaget to Purcell, Oct. 16, 1847, 
Notre Dame University Archives. Translation from the French by Garraghan, 
Jesuits of the Middle United States (New York: America Press, 1938), 
II, 119, n. 26. 

8 Garraghan, "Origins," p. 634. 



THE MAN FROM ULSTER 13 

dent to appoint and commission chaplains ... he has the author- 
ity to employ such persons to perform such duties as appertain 
to chaplains."" The pay and expenses offered them were the 
same as if they had been commissioned. Polk's purpose in ap- 
pointing them was, perhaps, a pohtical one; he sought to 
allay the Mexican fears that the United States expeditionary 
forces would seize church property or interfere with Catholic 
worship.^^ 

In any event. Fathers Rey and McElroy saw that the service 
they could render the American soldiers was a very real one 
independent of other considerations, and they set out from 
Georgetown on June 2, 1846, by rail, coach, and steamer for 
Point Isabel, in the southernmost part of Texas. They arrived 
at their destination on July 2, and crossed the border to Mata- 
moras, Mexico, to join General Taylor's troops on July 6. Father 
McElroy remained at Matamoras with the main forces while 
Father Rey soon went westward with Scott's division to Mon- 
terey. Father Rey remained in that sector until the following 
January when he set out to rejoin Father McElroy. On the way 
he was murdered by a band of irregulars, and his body was 
never recovered. Father McElroy reported this sad news to his 
Jesuit superiors in Washington, and in April he was instructed 
by them to return home as soon as matters could be arranged. 
He left Matamoras May 10, 1847, having served with the army 
a Httle over ten months. 

^° W. L. Marcy, Secretary of War, to Reverend John McElroy, May 21, 
1846. Transcribed in Father McEhoy's Diary (Maryland Province S.J. 
Archives, Woodstock), and published in Woodstock Letters, 15:200, 1886. 

11 Polk wrote in his diary. May 19, 1846: "I fully explained to him 
[Bishop Hughes] the objections which we would probably have to encounter 
from the prejudices of the Catholic priests in Mexico, and the false im- 
pressions they had of the hostile designs of this country on their religion;^ 
. . . that our object was to overthrow their religion and rob their churches, 
and that if they believed this they would make a desperate resistance to 
our army in the present war. ... I said to him that the great object of 
my desiring to have this interview with him, was to ask whether some of 
the priests of the U. S. . . . could be induced to accompany our army as 
chaplains. ..." Milo Milton Quaife (Editor), The Diary of James K. Polk 
(Chicago: A. C. McClurg & Co., 1910), I, 409. 



14 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

On his return from Mexico he was sent to Philadelphia to 
investigate the possibility of opening a Jesuit college there. 
When circumstances caused this project to be postponed indefi- 
nitely, he left that city in October for Boston. Here, unknown 
to him then, the great work of his life awaited him. 



CHAPTER III 
THE STRUGGLE FOR LAND 



Father McElroy's transfer to Boston in 1847 was not directly 
connected with the prospect of a CathoHc college there, although 
the hope for such an institution had been entertained by him 
for several years. He appears to have made the first overture for 
a coUege in Boston to the Bishop (Fenwick) in private conver- 
sation during August of 1842. Father McElroy had come to 
Boston on that occasion to give the diocesan retreat for the 
clergy, and lived at the Bishop's house. As a personal friend and 
former fellow novice with Bishop Fenwick, he was invited to 
accompany the Bishop on his visits about the city for several 
days before the retreat actually began on August 12. This in- 
timacy at least justifies one in supposing a benevolent reception 
for the idea of a college if Father McElroy actually proposed it. 
The only evidence that this topic was mentioned at this time 
is found in Father McElroy's casual assertion made several years 
later.^ No record of such a conversation is found in Bishop 
Fenwick's diary which covers the period, nor in the letter which 
the Bishop wrote to the Jesuit provincial thanking him for Father 
McElroy's services.^ 
Whether or not the matter was discussed then, it was men-' 

1 McElroy to Beckx, Sept. 27, 1854. General Archives of the Society of 
Jesus in Rome, 9-XIX-4. Quoted by Garraghan, "Origins," 640-642. Here- 
after the letters JGA in a reference will indicate that the material is pre- 
served in these General Archives of the Society of Jesus in Rome. 

2 Dzierozynski ad Roothaan, Sept. 6, 1842, JGA, Maryland, 7-VIII-l. 
The letter of Bishop Fenwick given in a Latin version in this place was 
translated into English by Garraghan, "Origins," 629-630, 

15 



16 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

tioned very explicitly less than three months later in a letter 
which Father McElroy wrote to extend his felicitations to the 
Bishop on the New Year. After offering his seasonal wishes and 
referring to various diocesan topics of interest at the moment, 
he entered at some length upon the question of a college in 
Boston: 

— you must turn your attention to your [new] Cathedral. 
You can, and must erect it. Leave the Holy Cross [Cathedral] 
where it is, with the vacant lot adjoining for a College of 
ours, who would also attend the Church. This would be lay- 
ing a solid & permanent basis for Catholicity, not only in 
the City, but through the Diocese. The education of boys 
in Christian Piety, together with the usual Classical studies, 
would be of infinite advantage . . . for your episcopal semi- 
nary, as also for our Society. 

A few members will suffice for a College of day scholars 
which may easily be supplied, but for boarders, a large 
number is necessary, and then of peculiar qualifications, for 
government, etc. With four scholastics & one Brother we 
[i.e., at Frederick, Maryland] carry on our school, over a 
hundred boys, with the same course as in Geo.Town as far 
as Rhetorick — and the same teachers might as well have 
double the number. What an advantage to your Catholic 
youth in the City to be thus trained up — what edification 
to the faithful & credit to Religion. Excuse, my dear Bishop, 
the unauthorized effusions of one well known to you, who 
hopes he has nothing at heart but the well being of your 
important charge. In every respect they are crude ideas which 
may be improved, I am sure, and perhaps, something in time, 
with God's blessing, might grow out of them. I see nothing 
difficult in the project — when I commenced our little College, 
I had not a dollar in hand, it is now a reputable establishment 
without a cent of debt — the Sisters have begun in the same 
way — out of debt — The Church the same and on it is paid 
about 30,000$ having a debt of about 8000$ and all this in 
Frederick, where we have but about 1500 Caths. No doubt 
in my mind, but your Cathedral and a splendid one, can be 
erected, in a few years and a College also, for the accommo- 
dation of 300 boys.^ 

3 McElroy to Fenwick, Jan. 7, 1843, Diocesan Archives, Boston, Old 
Letters, "A," No. IQ. 



THE STRUGGLE FOR LAND 17 

The Bishop evidently reacted favorably to this idea, and news 
of his interest in such an undertaking was conveyed in due 
course to Rome. A year after the above letter was written, the 
Jesuit General, Father John Roothaan, wrote to the Rector of 
Holy Cross College in Worcester: 

You are well enough aware how cordially I approve, to 
what an extent I am ready to support the Most Reverend 
Bishop's [Fenwick's] design of setting up a college in the 
city itself of Boston; my advice to you has ever been that all 
your concern should center on a college such as this.* 

In 1845 Father Roothaan wrote in a similar vein to the Jesuit 
Provincial of the Maryland Province. 

You are not unaware that it would be gratifying to us were 
you to establish a college in the city of Boston. Accordingly, 
after examining and deliberating on the details with your 
consultors, act in nomine Domini.^ 

In reply, the Provincial, Father Verhaegen, wrote some months 
later: 

I visited the Bishop of Boston. He is seriously thinking of 
opening a college in his episcopal city, but so far has put 
nothing into effect. It is necessary, so he says, to proceed 
slowly, and this in order that the institution which he is 
planning may be worthy of our holy religion and of the 
Society.^ 

In April of 1846, Father Roothaan was seeking further infor- 
mation on the subject. 

The Bishop of Charlestown [Charleston] has written to me 
about setting up a college in his episcopal city. But what 
about the college in Boston? I doubt whether the resources 
of the Province [of Maryland] will permit you to begin both 
at almost the same time.^ 

4 Roothaan ad MuUedy, Jan. 2, 1844, JGA (Garraghan, "Origins," 630). 

5 Roothaan ad Verhaegen, July 26, 1845, JGA ( Garraghan, "Origins," 
631). 

6 Verhaegen ad Roothaan, Nov. 14, 1845, JGA, Maryland (Garraghan, 
"Origins," 631). 

7 Roothaan ad Verhaegen, April 3, 1846, JGA, Missiones, 1833-1843 
(Garraghan, "Origins," 631). 



18 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

In the meantime, the Bishop was evidently making prepara- 
tions to act along the lines suggested by Father McElroy in his 
first letter (above) because in July of that year (1846) Father 
Verhaegen reported to Rome that Bishop Fenwick was expecting 
to acquire a new site for his cathedral, in which event he would 
convey the existing cathedral and its site to the Jesuits. 

But if we have to wait until the new cathedral is built, 
even if we suppose it started this year, two entire years may 
pass. I think the Bishop follows too strictly the axiom, festina 
lente.^ 

The Jesuits Come to Boston 
On August 11, 1846, Bishop Fenwick died, and John B. Fitz- 
patrick, who had been consecrated coadjutor bishop of Boston 
two years earlier, succeeded to the sole responsibility of the 
oflBce. A little over a year after taking office. Bishop Fitzpatrick 
decided to solve the bothersome problem of an insurgent 
congregation in Saint Mary's Church, North End, Boston, by 
offering the church to the Jesuit Fathers.^ The Jesuit authorities 
accepted, and when, as has been seen, they found an experi- 
enced pastor available for the position in the person of Father 
McElroy after his Mexican War chaplaincy, he was sent to 
Boston where the Bishop installed him as pastor with two 
Jesuit assistants on October 31, 1847.^° This was, as the Bishop 
himself said, 

only the beginning of what I intend to do for the Society. The 
college is the main object of my concern; but I must wait for 
means. In the interim, your fathers living here will become 
known to the citizens, win their sympathy, while the bad dis- 

8 Verhaegen ad Roothaan, July 8, 1846, JGA, Maryland, 8-1-18 (Gar- 
raghan, "Origins," 631). 

^Fitzpatrick, Memoranda of the Diocese of Boston (manuscript), Vol. 
Ill, p. 289, under date Oct. 24, 1847, Diocesan Archives, Boston. Cf, also, 
Leahy, "Archdiocese of Boston," in Byrne (editor). History of the Cath- 
olic Church in the New England States, I, 127; and Lord, Sexton, and 
Harrington, op. cit., II, 474-475. 

10 Fitzpatrick, "Memoranda," III, 289. 



THE STRUGGLE FOR LAND 19 

position of the men who have opposed this and other of my 
plans will disappear." 

In a letter written in September of the following year ( 1848 ) , 
Father McElroy mentions the Bishop's intention to give the 
old cathedral and its land to the Jesuits upon completion of the 
new edifice, but that this prospect was still remote. The letter 
manifests a more immediate interest of Father McElroy 's in 
some sort of elementary school, where the fundamentals of 
language could be taught, and some instruction given in 
religion. ^^ 

In his diary, Father McElroy records the solution he arrived 
at in regard to the school: 

In a short time, I discovered the great want of schools, 
and more church accommodations for the faithful. In Feb- 
- ruary 1849 the fonner was in part provided for, by the 
opening of a school for female children under the Sisters of 
Charity in a house belonging to the church in Stillman Street, 
now in Lancaster Street, under the Sisters of Notre Dame. 
Finding that a surplus remained after defraying the expenses 
of the change and Church, I resolved to put it aside with 
the intention of purchasing in time, a site for a College & 
Church, if practicable, on the same lot.^^ 

Bishop Fitzpatrick wrote a no-longer-extant letter on Feb- 

^^ From a Latin version of the Bishop's views as reported by the Jesuit 
Provincial, Father Verhaegen, to the General in Rome (Verhaegen ad 
Roothaan, Nov. 13, 1847, JGA, Maryland, 9-1-29. Quoted by Garraghan, 
"Origins," 636). The reference is evidently to a letter of the Bishop to 
Father Verhaegen dated November 9, 1847, in which he wrote: "The 
measures taken already in relation to the Society, are, as you are aware, 
only initiatory. Our ultimate plan is to have a College in the City. But 
this plan is too large a one to be executed all at once. Situated as we are, 
and limited in our resources we can only make small beginnings trusting 
for the rest in Him who alone can give the increase in all things undertaken 
for His glory. If we had waited until we should see a college starting at 
once into existence it would have been the 'Rusticus expectat' idea with 
us" (Maryland Province S.J. Archives, 215 D 11). 

12 McElroy to Roothaan, Sept. 4, 1848, JGA, Maryland, 9-XIX-l ( Gar- 
raghan, "Origins," 637). 

1^ McElroy, Diary, "A Brief History of the preparatory steps towards 
the erection of a college for our Society: and Collegiate Church in Boston," 
pp. 1 and 2 (in Vol. 4 of the MS. Diary). 



20 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

niary 5, 1850, in which the prelate expressed the satisfaction 
with the work the Society of Jesus was carrying on at Holy 
Cross College and in Boston.^* From the tone of Father 
Roothaan's answer of May 8, 1850, the Bishop had apparently 
made known the hope he entertained of one day seeing a Jesuit 
coUege established in that city. 

It is with genuine satisfaction that I learned from your letter, 
Monseigneur, of your desire to establish a day-school in 
your episcopal city when Providence shall have furnished you 
the means. I shall always be ready to support your zeal for 
the success of this enterprise as far as circumstances will 
make it possible for me to do so.^^ 

However, when Father McElroy expressed a hope that in 
the course of another year, he would be able to open a school 
for boys on the same plan as the one he had at Frederick, to 
accommodate some 300 boys, the General, "hitherto so sympa- 
thetic toward the project of a Jesuit school in Boston, seemed 
now to become skeptical as to its feasibility."^® He inquired of 
the Maryland Provincial, Father Brocard, in January of 1851: 
"Is it true that a school in Boston for day-students is under 
consideration? New burdens when old ones weigh you down!"^^ 

Nevertheless, Father McElroy was permitted to take the 
necessary steps to establish the school he desired. In this matter 
he had the enthusiastic support of the Bishop, who wrote of 
tlie undertaking in his diary: 

March 6 [1852], Saturday. The Bp. dined with Father 
McElroy. He proposes to him to purchase from the city either 
the Otis school house or the Endicott school house both of 
which are in the neighborhood of St. Mary's church. The 
building might be used as a school house during the week & 
on Sunday to be converted into a chapel with a priest to 

1* Garraghan, "Origins," p. 637. 

15 Roothaan to Fitzpatrick, May 8, 1850. Original in Diocesan Archives, 
Boston (Old Letters, "A," No. 49). The translation from the French is 
Garraghan's, "Origins," 737-738. 

16 Garraghan, op. cit., p. 638. Father McElroy 's letter: McElroy to 
Roothaan, Aug. 7, 1850, JGA, Maryland. 

17 Roothaan ad Brocard, Jan. 8, 1851, JGA, Missiones, 1833-1857. 



THE STRUGGLE FOR LAND 21 

give regular services, the rent of the seats would pay each 
year all the interest & a good part of the capital. Father 
McEhoy is pleased with die proposal & will probably act 
upon it. 

June 1 [1852], Tuesday. During the absence of the Bp. one 
of the public school houses belonging to the city once known 
as the Otis School, situated in Lancaster Street has been 
purchased by Mr. Andrew Carney at the request of Rev. 
John McElroy, S.J., rector of St. Mary's Church, Endicott 
Street. The Bp. has long been desirous that the Society of 
Jesus should establish in Boston a day college for the youth 
of the city. He has several times proposed it to the various 
provincials. Father McEhoy has entered very zealously into 
the project and he assumes the responsibility of paying for 
the Otis School. It has been bought at the price of $16,500. 
This is a very cheap bargain, for the building alone exclusive 
of the land cost the city about 20,000 dollars. It is very well 
adapted to the uses of a college and will accomodate 800 
pupils. We are obliged for want of men and means to com- 
mence by a simple school: but hope in time to have a 
regular college where our youth may receive gratuitously or 
nearly so, a thorough education not only in the EngHsh 
branches but also in the languages, Philosophy &c. It is to be 
hoped that an institution of this kind will when duly organ- 
ized, in course of time, develop many vocations and supply 
the ever increasing & now overpowering want of the church 
in the country where, as yet, there is nothing to foster the 
germ of ecclesiastical vocations. 

June 16 [1852], Wednesday. The Bp. goes with Father Mc- 
Elroy to examine the Otis School lately purchased. The upper 
story is all one hall well fitted to be used as a chapel and 
capable of containing 6 or 7 hundred persons at least. It will 
soon be opened as a chapel for the surplus congregation of 
St. Mary's. 

June 28 [1852], Monday. Father McElroy calls on the Bp. 
and informs him that he collected yesterday in St. Mary's 
Church the sum of $1954 for the school house lately 
purchased. 

Sept. 19 [1852], Sunday. The Bp. blesses solemnly the chapel 
of St. Joseph in Lancaster Street, Boston. This chapel com- 
prises the upper hall of the large school house lately pur- 
chased by Father McEhoy, S.J., from the city of Boston. It 



22 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

has been very neatly fitted up and may contain from 6 to 8 
hundred pupils. ^^ 

The hope of having it eventually serve as a college, however, 
was never realized. St. Mary's School for Girls, directed by the 
Sisters of Notre Dame, was shortly after (i.e., September, 1853) 
transferred from the old location on Stillman Street to this new 
building on Lancaster Street.^^ 

Purchase of the Jail Lands 
In the meantime, the City of Boston announced the intention 
of oflFering at public auction on December 3, 1851, a portion of 
land comprising thii-ty-one building lots, on which the city 
jail had stood. -° The land was bounded by Leverett and Cause- 
way Streets on two sides; by property fronting on Lowell Street, 
on a third; and by other property fronting on Leverett, Wall, 
and Lowell Streets, on the fourth. The sale of the land was 
subject to certain conditions, one of which was to the effect 
that the buildings erected upon this property could be dwellings 
or stores only.^^ On November 25, 1851, the city conveyed the 
entire tract to a Colonel Josiah L. C. Amee except for a strip 
of land dividing the lot in two, which the city retained and 
paved as an extension to Wall Street. On the side of this Wall 
Street extension farthest from Leverett Street, Colonel Amee 
built ten dwelling houses, but when he found that he had 
difficulty in selling them, he gave up his original plan of build- 
ing others on the remaining land, and instead, offered it for 
sale.^^ 

18 Fitzpatrick, "Memoranda of the Diocese of Boston," Vol. IV, pp. 73, 
79A, 80, 81, 91. MS. Volume preserved in Diocesan Archives, Boston. 

19 The Pilot, July 30, 1853; Lord, Sexton, and Harrington, op. cit., II: 
616; also McElroy, Diary, July 19, 1853; Sept. 5, 1853. 

20 "A Plan of 31 lots of the Old Jail Land to be Sold at Public Auction," 
a plan and advertisement issued by the Committee on Public Lands, City 
of Boston, and dated: "Boston, 1851," preserved in the Maryland Province 
S.J. Archives. 

21 Ibid. 

22 (William B. F. Whal) "Close of St. Mary's Jubilee, North End, 
Boston," The Pilot, Oct. 16, 1897, Vol. 60, No. 41, pp. 1 and 5; same in 
Woodstock Letters, 27 (1898): 92-93. 



THE STRUGGLE FOR LAND 23 

Father McElroy had been looking about for land suitable 
for a larger church and a college, as has been seen, almost from 
the moment he came to St. Mary's. According to his diary, he 
had noticed that the Jail Land had been ofiFered for sale, and 
had even gone as far as to engage a broker to ofiFer "for an 
unidentified client" $70,000 for the entire lot. When the city 
authorities decided to open an extension to Wall Street through 
the lot. Father McElroy felt that the remaining land would be 
too small for his purpose and consequently withdrew from the 
market. His search to find a suitable site elsewhere, however, 
was in vain, so that when Colonel Amee expressed a desire to 
sell part of the Jail Land early in the year 1853, he turned his 
attention once more to this tract as a last resort.^^ 

On investigation he discovered that in addition to the restric- 
tion limiting the buildings erected on the land to dwellings and 
stores, another condition obliged the buyer to erect ten brick 
buildings facing the new (Wall) Street. Colonel Amee, per- 
ceiving that these conditions were making it impossible for him 
to sell the land, petitioned the city council for a release or 
modification of the restrictions so far as they affected the vacant 
lots facing Wall Street, and the committee on public lands, 
acting under a vote of the city council, on March 9, 1853, 
modified the restrictions on the Wall Street lots so that the 
prohibition only ran against "buildings to be used for manu- 
facturing or mechanical purposes, stables, gasometers, bowling 
alleys, etc."^* Colonel Amee obtained a duly certified copy of 
the vote modifying the restrictions and reopened negotiations 
with Father McElroy. But all the difficulties were by no means 
removed. Father McElroy pointed out that the Wall Street lots 
by themselves were not deep enough for a church site unless 
he could also buy the adjoining lots which faced on Leverett 
Street, and have them likewise freed from restrictions. Colonel 
Amee was willing to sell the additional land, and he felt, with 

23 McElroy, Diary, "A Brief History of the Preparatory Steps, etc." MS. 
Vol. 4, pp. 1-3. 

24 Whal, loc. cit. 



24 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

good reason, that the city authorities would agree to remove 
the restrictions on the Leverett Street lots, as they had done so 
readily on the adjoining land. Father McElroy meanwhile had 
the title examined by the foremost real estate attorney in Boston 
at the time, N. I. Bowditch, and received from him the opinion 
that since Father McElroy proposed to buHd a church upon the 
premises, and from the further fact that the city had already 
modified the restrictions on the Wall Street lots, there would not 
be the shghtest difiBculty in securing the necessary modification 
on the remainder of the land; that it was a mere formal matter, 
and that Father McElroy was perfectly safe in paying the pur- 
chase money. So, on advice of his counsel. Father McElroy 
paid the consideration and took the title from Colonel Amee 
on March 23, 1853." The down payment was $13,000, and Father 
McElroy became responsible to the city for the balance of the 
purchase money, $46,480.59. Father McElroy was understand- 
ably pleased with this acquisition, since it included the buildings 
on the property, one of which, a granite, four-story structure, 
originally built as a courthouse, cost the city $50,000 when 
new.^^® 

Intolerance Forces a Withdrawal 
When it became known that the Jail Land had been sold to 
a Catholic priest, and that he proposed to build upon it a new 
Cathohc church, a group of bigoted persons immediately agi- 
tated to have the committee on pubhc lands first enforce the 
restriction limiting the use of the land to the erection of dwell- 
ings or stores; and second, put back in force the recently 
rescinded condition that the purchaser erect ten brick dwelling 
houses on the Wall Street lots or forfeit the land. Their bigotry 
prevailed and the committee, exceeding its legal power, 
notified Colonel Amee and Father McElroy within a day of 
the purchase that the restrictions were once more in force; the 
order rescinding them, it was claimed, having been obtained by 
Colonel Amee by false representation. 

25 Whal, loc. cit., and McElroy, Diary, loc. cit. 

26 McElroy, Diary, loc. cit., pp. 3-4. 



THE STRUGGLE FOR LAND 25 

After taking legal advice on the matter, Father McElroy dis- 
regarded this notification, and directed his attention to the task 
of obtaining permission to erect a building other than a dwelling 
or store on the lot. The Bishop joined Father McElroy in his 
efforts, and caused the petitions to be made jointly by himself 
and Father McElroy, but without avail. Mr. Bowditch pre- 
sented the petitioners' views before the mayor and joint com- 
mittee on public lands at a hearing in the Common Council 
room on April 19, 1853, but despite a most cogent and moving 
plea their efforts proved fruitless.^^ 

A petition signed by one Nathaniel Hammond and nine hun- 
dred and twenty-four others opposing the lifting of the restric- 
tions had been presented to the committee, but on May 19, 
1853, a counterpetition signed by twenty-five of the most promi- 
nent Protestant gentlemen in Boston was sent to the committee 
urging that permission be given for the church to be built. The 
names of these gentlemen were: Rufus Choate, Abbott Law- 
rence, William Appleton, George Ticknor, George B. Upton, 
Sidney Bartlett, James Reed, Robert C. Winthrop, C. H. Warren, 
Thomas Hopkinson, Amos A. Lawrence, Samuel Lawrence, 
Ezra Lincoln, George S. Hillard, Thomas G. Gary, J. Thomas 
Stevenson, N. A. Thompson, Philo S. Sheldon, William H. 
Prescott, Peter Harvey, J. G. Warren, Francis B. Crowninshield, 
C. H. Mills & Co., Edward Everett, and Thomas Watmore.'^ 
Included in this number are the names of an ex-speaker of the 
National House of Representatives; an ex-Governor of the Com- 
monwealth; two of the most famous lawyers of the period, and 
others, famous in the fields of literature, education, and com- 
merce. But the great influence of such men as this was likewise 
disregarded; the mayor and aldermen agreed to allow the 
construction of the church, but the council would not concur.^^ 

Early in 1854, when Father McElroy saw that there was no 
immediate prospect of building the church and college, he 

2^ N. I. Bowditch, An Argument for a Catholic Church on the Jail-Lands 
(a pamphlet, Boston: John Wilson and Son, 1853). 

28 The Pilot, May 28, 1853. 

29 McElroy, Diary, loc. cit., p. 5. 



26 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

decided to fit up the granite building as a dwelling, which he 
did at a cost of some $2,000, and which he succeeded in renting 
as a boarding house for $600 a year. The two other small build- 
ings on the property, he rented as tenements for an additional 
$250 yearly.30 

In 1855 I presented again my (it should be the joint 
petition of the Bishop & myself) petition to the Council who 
were all Know-Nothings, a new political party, recently 
organized, whose main object was to wage war (politically) 
against Catholics and foreigners. The Mayor being of the 
same creed ... I entertained no hope. So far from giving 
a favorable hearing to my petition, they tried again to annul 
my contract by the non-compliance of one of the conditions, 
namely the building of a drain or sewer across the lot. My 
legal adviser drew up a very able argument which defeated 
their object, this and the former objection made against the 
contract, having ensured, it is presumed, the title of the land 
in future against dispute. Being themselves defeated in the 
attempt, the land committee resolved to make me an offer 
[June 2, 1853]^^ of 35,000 dollars for my right and interest 
in the said Lands. The council did not entertain this proposi- 
tion, knowing from the stand I took, that I had no idea of 
parting with the property. Thus ends our transactions with 
the city government up to the close of the year 1855.^^ 

In March of the following year (1856), the Bishop and Father 
McEhoy judged that the prospects of a favorable reception of 
their petition had brightened with the election of Alexander H. 
Rice as mayor, and with a new council in session in which the 
Know-Nothings were in the minority. A copy of the petition 
which they submitted is found in Father McElroy's Diary: 

To the Honble, the Mayor, Aldermen & Common Council 
of the City of Boston: 

The undersigned present themselves before your Honble 
body, to renew their petition made on former occasions, for 
the removal of certain restrictions, on four lots of land, front- 
ing on Leverett Street, to enable them to erect an edifice for 

80 Ihid., p. 6. 

31 The Pilot, June 11, 1853. 

32 McElroy, Diary, pp. 6-7. 



THE STRUGGLE FOR LAND 27 

the purpose of Divine Worship. The subject of this petition 
has been discussed suflBciently to preclude the necessity of 
entering into details. The undersigned rest their hopes on 
the impartiality of the present councils, and of their sense 
of justice irrespective of any sinister bias. Three years have 
now elapsed since the purchase of the lands in question. This 
was done in good faith, not doubting for a moment, that the 
same authority which took the restrictions oflF ten lots would 
with more reason take the same o£E four lots, especially as 
it was for a church to accommodate hundreds who are de- 
prived of the means of sanctifying the Lord's Day. 

The undersigned would also respectfully submit that in- 
dependent of the annual installments already paid ($20,- 
658.04) to the City Treasurer, taxes and interest have also 
been paid to the amount of 7995.77 for all of which no 
consideration has as yet been received from the land which 
remains unproductive in both a spiritual and temporal point 
of view. With this simple statement of facts, we place our- 
selves confidentially before your respective boards, that this 
our petition may be granted to enable us to commence this 
season, the erection of the contemplated church and your 
petitioners as they are bound will ever pray &c. 

Signed 

John B. Fitzpatrick, Bsp. of Boston 
John McElroy^^ 

The petition was read in the board of common council and 
referred to the land committee, composed of members from 
both boards. After being debated there for a considerable time, 
a majority of the committee finally voted to remove the re- 
strictions.^* The council, itself, deferred action on it for several 
weeks. At length, it was taken up, debated with some warmth 
for several weeks, until finally, on November 20, 1856, it wa's 

33 Ibid., pp. 8-9. 

34 Perhaps news of this action encouraged Father McElroy to apply to 
his Jesuit superiors for formal permission to begin building operations, for 
on May 31, 1856, the Jesuit authorities "agreed to permit Father McElroy 
to commence building a church, and later a college." (Fr. Charles Stone- 
street, S.J., Provincial, to Fr. John McElroy, S.J., May 31, 1856, Maryland 
Province S.J. Archives, Baltimore). 



28 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

defeated by a vote of twenty-five to fifteen, with some eight 
not voting.^'^ 

Father McEhoy took the defeat philosophically; he saw that, 
although Catholic petitioners had not been granted what they 
had asked, the opposition was diminishing, and that many, in- 
cluding an increasing number of non-Catholics, were perceiving 
that the Catholics were being deprived of fair and equitable 
treatment in a spirit of bigotry. Several members of the council 
charged the opposition openly with this bigotry, and others 
undertook to defend Catholic doctrines that were mentioned in 
their discussions. All of this permitted the venerable priest to 
reflect that the Church, by and large, had really won an im- 
portant victory in this matter by securing the sympathy and 
interest of a large number of fair-minded citizens. ^*^ 

On December 8, 1856, the annual city elections were held and 
on the issue of the Jail Lands, almost all of Father McElroy's 
bitterest opponents were defeated. There were but six Know- 
Nothings on the council for the ensuing year, which encouraged 
the Bishop and Father McElroy to renew their endeavors to 
have the restrictions removed by a new petition dated January 
21, 1857." 

Weeks passed into months, and still no definite action was 
taken on the petition. On March 23, Bishop Fitzpatrick wrote 
in his diary: 

There is every appearance, from the manner in which the 
City Council and board of Aldermen are acting, that the 
petition of the Bp. & Father McElroy for the removal of the 
restrictions upon the estate known as the Jail Lands will not 
be granted. It is therefore deemed advisable to sell that 
estate and seek another piece of land in the same neighbor- 
hood. The Bp. and Father McElroy take a walk through the 
western quarter of the city. They remark at the corner of 
Spring and Milton Streets a large piece of land covered with 

35 McElroy, Diary, p. 10; "Memoranda," Nov. 20, 1856. 

36 McElroy, Diary, p. 11. 
s'? Ibid., p. 12. 



THE STRUGGLE FOR LAND 29 

houses of little value. Father McEhoy is to ascertain who the 
owner or owners are and whether the land can be bought.^^ 

Father McElroy evidently investigated this property and 
found it unavailable, because three days later he, together with 
the Bishop and the Jesuit Provincial, who had recently arrived 
in Boston on his annual visitation, decided that it would be 
advisable to place the new church and college in the southern 
part of the city (the "South End") rather than in the western 
section. The Bishop thereupon authorized the Jesuits, in the 
person of Father Stonestreet, the Provincial, to purchase land 
for that purpose.^^ 

My next step [wrote Father McElroy] was to ascertain the 
best means of disposing of the Jail lands. I applied to a pro- 
fessional gentleman, my counsel on former occasions, who 
had expressed at one time his wish to purchase the lands, 
he now declined but tendered his services very kindly, to 
dispose of it to the City, as he thought it would be rather 
difficult to efiFect so large a sale to private individuals. To this 
I gave my consent. . . .*° 

The city authorities were much relieved to have the matter 
ended at last, since "it puzzled interested politicians and made 
them uncertain in their calculations upon the Catholic vote in 
the municipal elections."*^ The first offer to the city was made 
in the last week of March, and on April 10 the matter was 
referred by concurrence of the aldermen and common council 
to the land committee. In contrast with their lethargic per- 
formances in the past, these various bodies acted upon the 
business with dispatch, and on the Saturday in Easter week, 
April 18, 1857, completed the purchase.*^ The sum which they 
paid immediately and which Father McElroy banked immedi- 
ately, with no little satisfaction,*^ amounted to $64,771.80, which 

38 (Fitzpatrick), "Memoranda," March 23, 1857. 

39 Ibid., March 25 and 26, 1857. 

40 McElroy, Diary, Part IV, p. 14. 

41 (Fitzpatrick), "Memoranda," April 20, 1857. 
*2 McElroy, Diary, Part IV, p. 14. 

43 McElroy to Stonestreet, Apr. 19, 1857, Maryland Province Archives, 
225 W 7. 



30 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

represented all the money which he had advanced upon the 
land, with interest simple and compound upon the installments, 
and an advance of about $4,500, which, with the income from 
the buildings upon the estate from the time of its purchase, 
amounted to a gain of about $9,000/* 

A Site in the New South End 
Reflecting upon this sale, Bishop Fitzpatrick was of the 
opinion that 

all things considered, it is no doubt better that the petition of 
the Bp. and Fr. McElroy has been so obstinately refused by 
the city authorities. The funds have accumulated by interest 
in the mean [time] and increased by the advance which the 
city pays. A college in the south part of the city will be 
easily accessible to a far greater number of Catholic children 
or youths. Not only the population of the city proper in the 
main part will be better accommodated, but South Boston, 
Roxbury and some other adjoining towns may enjoy all the 
advantages. This would not be the case had the college been 
placed in Leverett Street.^^ 

This evidently represents a changed point of view, because 
only a few weeks before. Father McElroy referred to the Bishop 
as merely "reconciled" to the prospect of the college being 
located in the South End.*^ But there were some, clerical and 
lay, who did not become reconciled to the thought of the change. 
Among the priests who would have preferred to have the college 
remain in the North End at all costs, was Father Bemadine 
Wiget, S.J., assistant to Father McElroy at St. Mary's. It is not 
clear from his letters just how he planned to solve the impasse 
created by a hostile city government, but he vigorously resented 
the movement away from Leverett Street.*^ In support of his 

44 McElroy, Diary, Part IV, p. 15; ( Fitzpatrick ) , "Memoranda," April 
20, 1857. 

45 (Fitzpatrick), "Memoranda," April 20, 1857. 

46 McElroy to Stonestreet, May 7, 1857, Maryland Province Archives, 
225 W 6. 

47 Wiget to Stonestreet, May 7, 1857, Maryland Province Archives, 225 
W 10; also Wiget to Stonestreet, May 27, 1857, 225 W 11. 



THE STRUGGLE FOR LAND 31 

view, he cited the Irish of that section of the city, who, he 
claimed, were much incensed at news of the change. Father 
McEhoy was conscious of this evidently ill-informed opposi- 
tion, but prudently decided to say nothing and disregard it, 
in the hope that time would demonstrate the wisdom of his 
acts.*^ 

The sale of the Jail Lands was completed on Saturday; on 
Monday morning, April 20, Father McEhoy was back again 
before the land commissioners seeking to buy a plot of land on 
Harrison Avenue, between Concord and Newton Street, which 
appears to have been brought to his attention by the well- 
disposed mayor of the city, Alexander H. Rice.*^ The lot con- 
tained 115,000 square feet and embraced an entire city block. 

As soon as the proposal was made, new opposition sprang 
up. Some few of the council took alarm, and spread the word 
to the newspapers. The excitement centered on the fact that 
the Catholics were going to take over an entire square of land 
in the center of the city,^° with the result that the land com- 
missioners voted during the last week in April to reject Father 
McEhoy's ofiFer.^^ He, however, shrewdly realizing that it was 
his effort to purchase the entire block that constituted the 
"audacious attempt on the part of ecclesiastical authorities . . . 
to acquire undue and colossal power,"^^ shifted his ground and 

*8 McElroy to Stonestreet, May 2, 1857, Maryland Province Archives, 
225 W 8. 

*9 McElroy, Diary, Vol. 4, pp. 15-16; Mr. Rice's aid is claimed by 
Whal {The Pilot, Oct. 16, 1897, pp. 1 and 5), who was a witness of many 
of Father McElroy's activities; by Garraghan, "Origins," who evidently 
based his assertion on a letter, McEhoy to Beckx, Feb. 1, 1859 (Maryland, 
9-XIX-8, in Jesuit General Archives, Rome); by Towle, a pupil at Boston 
College in 1865 {The Stylus, 11 [1898]: 333); and by Devitt, rector at 
Boston College from 1891 to 1894 {Woodstock Letters, 64 [1935]: 400). 
No mention is found of this aid in the McElroy letters in the Jesuit Pro- 
vincial Archives in New York or Maryland; nor in McElroy, Diary; nor in 
Bishop Fitzpatrick's "Memoranda"; nor in Boyle's life of Fr. McElroy. 

50 McElroy, Diary, Vol. 4, pp. 15 and 16. 

s^ ( Fitzpatrick ) , "Memoranda," May 3, 1857. 

52 Ibid. In connection vdth the opposition to the Harrison Avenue 
purchase, the story is told that Charles Francis Donnelly, later a distin- 
guished lavi^er and champion of Catholic education in the Legislature 
trials of the Private Schools Investigation BiU in 1888, while a 22-year-old 



32 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

renewed his petition, this time asking for only a section of the 
land.^^ The chief objection being thus removed, he was assured 
privately that permission for purchase would ultimately be 
given. 

Days and weeks passed in the now familiar pattern of post- 
ponements, delays, promises. The sought-for solution was always 
just around the corner; it would be settled "the next week end." 
On May 27, Father McElroy admitted to the Provincial how 
tried he was. "Since the 18th of April, the day I disposed of 
the Jail Land, until this day, I have been in continual com- 
munication with the Mayor, Councils & Land Commissioners 
and as yet nothing is concluded. . . . "^* 

He faced the situation with the patience of a saint, and at 
the same time with the astuteness of a bank executive. When, 
with the approach of June, he began to have doubts that the 
Harrison Avenue negotiations would ever be terminated favor- 
ably, he began preparations for an alternative purchase. The 
prospect, as he outiined it in his diary, was 

a large building lately erected for a lying-in hospital by an 
association of Gentln. It cost, including the land (40,000 
square feet), $64,000 -they ask 60,000$ and the Broker em- 
ployed to purchase it, thinks it can be had for much less. 
I have authorized him to give 50,000$ — the only difficulty 
about it is that the title was given by the City, stipulating 
that an hospital of the above character be erected on it — to 
remove this restriction, can be done only by the City Coun- 

law student in the Boston offices of the Honorable Ambrose A. Ranney, was 
asked as part of his duties to draw up in legal form the protest which a 
group of non-Catholics were making against the sale of the Harrison Avenue 
land to Fr. McElroy. Young DonneUy, brought up in the best Catholic 
traditions, and with a knowledge of the rights of Catholic citizens, took 
his future in his hands by refusing to draw up the paper, characterizing it 
as a manifestation of bigotry. Mr. Ranney, instead of being angry with the 
daring young man, sided with him. It is not recorded what became of 
the protest (cf. Katherine E. Conway and Mabel Ward Cameron, Charles 
Francis Donnelly, a Memoir [New York: James T. White Co., 1909], 
pp. 11-12). 

53 McElroy, Diary, Part IV, p. 16. 

54 McEhoy to Stonestreet, May 27, 1857. Maryland Province S.J. 
Archives, 225 W 9. 



THE STRUGGLE FOR LAND 33 

cils — it is feared, that this will not be done, unless they are 
informed for what purpose the building is to be used, and 
if this be made known it is feared we cannot purchase 
it. . . .'^ 

The Trustees accepted his offer of $50,000 under his condi- 
tion that they secure the removal of the restriction by the city 
authorities. The petition was entered on June 8, 1857, and 
shortly after this was rejected.^^ Father McElroy wrote: 

July 17. Again the enemy has triumphed in defeating the 
above project — the Citizens . . . took the alann that Fr. 
McElroy was about to erect a Church for the Irish; that he 
would have a large number of families of this class in the 
neighborhood; that he was also about to build a Jesuit Col- 
lege; that nothing else would satisfy these Jesuits than the 
Conversion of all the Bostonians &c., &c. From such fear, 
petitions were sent in to the Aldermen, against such build- 
ings, three or four newspapers came out in the same strain 
the past week. 

Finding the opposition a formidable one, and a renewal 
of the Jail Lands, I concluded to abandon the project, of the 
Hospital & land, and fall back on the first site I had selected, 
fronting on Harrison Avenue.^^ 

But victory was near. Father McElroy 's efforts of four and a 
half years to secure property for a church and the future Boston 
College came to an end on the morning of July 22, 1857, when 
the land committee of the City of Boston finally agreed to sell 
him the tract he sought on Harrison Avenue.^* The first stage 
of the struggle was over. 

55 McElroy, Diary, Vol. 4, p. 16, 

56 Ibid. There appears to be some confusion regarding tlie dates given 
by Father McElroy during this period; the most probable arrangement 
seems to be: July 17, rejection of the hospital petition; July 22, agreement 
to sell Fr. McElroy the Harrison Avenue land. 

57 Ibid., p. 19. 

58 Ibid., p. 20. 



CHAPTER IV 
WALLS AND A ROOF 



Harrison Avenue was laid out in 1844 while the South End of 
Boston was still a narrow neck of land surrounded by flats and 
the waters of the bay. In 1853 the work of widening the neck 
was begun by filling in the marshy lands on eitlier side of it, 
and three years later a street railroad system was inaugurated, 
with the first line of this Metropolitan Company running from 
the old Granary Burying-Ground on Tremont Street to Roxbury. 
Overnight the South End became the desirable residential 
section of the city, and extensive building operations began.^ 

Father McElroy in his diary recognized the advantage of 
this section for his new college, because "a better class of houses 
will be and are erected in the vicinity" and "the horse rail roads 
now introduced into various parts of the City, will afford easy 
access for Students from all parts of the city and vicinity."^ 

The lot which he had purchased from the city comprised 
65,100 square feet of land, with a 250-foot frontage on Harrison 
Avenue; 270 feet on Concord Street, and 250 feet on the new, 
unnamed (James) street, "running with the cemetery wall, and 
thence by a dividing line to Harrison Avenue 250 feet."^ The 
cemetery is evidently the one which Towle afterward remem- 
bered being removed by the authorities to make room for the 

1 Cf . Illustrated Boston, 2nd ed. (New York: American Publishing and 
Engraving Co., c. 1889), pp. 54-55. 

2 McElroy, Diary, Vol. 2, pp. 13 and 15. 

3 Ibid., p. 16. 

34 



WALLS AND A ROOF 35 

college playground in 1866.^ The price which the city charged, 
since the land was to be Church property, was fifty cents a 
foot; a reduction of twenty-five cents a foot on the residential 
rate. 

An architect, P. C. Keely, of Brooklyn, New York, was en- 
gaged at once and plans were begun for the church. At the 
same time a Mr. Wissiben was chosen as architect for the 
college building.^ On August 17, 1857, the first installment of 
the purchase price was paid to the city authorities amounting 
to $3,750, leaving $28,800 to be paid in nine annual payments 
of $3,200 with interest at 6 per cent.^ 

In September, Father McElroy spent four weeks in New York 
with the architects going over plans and drawings for the church 
and college. The college, he decided, was to be housed in two 
separate buildings, each 90 feet by 60 feet, and connected by a 
small building 40 feet by 23 feet, and three stories in height. 
Although the architect at first envisioned the church as a brick 
edifice with a stone fagade, it was decided to take advantage of 
an offer from a New Hampshire contractor who owned his own 
quarries to build the entire church of white granite, and from 
the same stone to build the basement of the college and the 
steps and platforms of both buildings. The stone work was to 
cost $62,000 complete. The contract with Mr. Andrews of 
Nashua, New Hampshire, was signed November 25, and con- 
tracts were placed with Messrs. Morrell and Wigglesworth of 
Newburyport for the carpentry work connected with the roofing, 
window frames, joists, and a first floor of plank for $18,000.^ 

On November 24, 1857, Father McElroy wrote in his diary: 
"This week I make application to the board of land commis- 
sioners to sell me twenty feet more of land, fronting on Harrison 

4 Henry C. Towle, "The Pioneer Days at Boston College," The Stylus, 
(June, 1897), 11:332-333. 

s James S. Sullivan, A Graphic, Historical and Pictorial Account of the 
Catholic Church of New England, Archdiocese of Boston, Illustrated 
Publishing Co., 1895, p. 204. 

6 McElroy, Diary. 

7 Ibid. 



36 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

Avenue and extending back to the new street; this would give 
us 270 feet front, on three streets, the fourth boundary would be 
a little short of this — in this way, our lots would be nearly 
square. I hope to get it at the same price, 50 cents a foot."* 

The new land, since it was to be used by the college exclu- 
sively, was to be taxed in the same manner as a private residence. 
Exemption from taxation was not granted to the college until it 
was incorporated in 1863.® 

Father McElroy attributed the courteous treatment which he 
had received of late from the city officials to the "pacific course" 
he had pursued in the Jail Lands episode. For this favor he 
thanked God, who gave him patience to remain silent "amidst 
their opposition, contrary to the importunities of my friends, 
who advised a contrary course."^" 

His financial picture had changed somewhat. He paid as a first 
installment on the new lot, and interest up to January 1, 1858, 
$4,470. The annual installment payable on August 1 would now 
be $3,474 with interest. But as a consoling thought, he added to 
these figures the observation that "the lot now belonging to the 
Soc. [iety] could not be purchased in five years from this time 
for less than 2$ a foot — and there is no public building in the 
city occupying so large a lot."" 

Breaking of Ground 

On April 7, 1858, ground was broken on the site of the new 
church by Bishop Fitzpatrick, who took the first spadeful fol- 
lowed by Fr. McElroy, who with his spade cut out "the sign of 
the Holy Cross, with the words In Nomine Patris, etc."^^ Stone- 
cutters and carpenters had been on the location some time 
before this, preparing blocks and window frames so that when 
the work actually began it proceeded rapidly. 

It had been intended originally to diive piles as a foundation 

8 McElroy, Diary, Vol. 2, p. 24. 

9 Ibid., last page. 

10 Ibid., p. 25. 

11 Ibid. 
^^Ibid., p. 26. 



WALLS AND A ROOF 37 

for both church and college, but it was finally decided to employ 
instead trenches, varying in depth from five to eleven feet, filled 
with concrete. The notion of concrete intrigued Father McEhoy 
very much, as is evidenced in his diary by the lengthy descrip- 
tions he wrote on its composition, and on how it is poured. At the 
same time, it was seen that cellars could be satisfactorily con- 
structed, a fact that had been doubted previously due to the 
nature of the filled land, and orders were given to build cellars 
under the college. The expense for this alteration. Father 
McElroy notes, "will be little if any, as the earth is removed 
without charge, and the walls must be the same depth to get a 
solid foundation."" 

At seven o'clock on the morning of April 27, 1858, a small 
group comprising the Bishop ( Fitzpatrick ) , Very Reverend John 
Williams, V.G.; Reverend James A. Healy, chancellor; Reverend 
John Rodden, and Fathers Wiget, Janalik, and McElroy of the 
Society of Jesus gathered at the site of the church without pub- 
licity of any kind, and unattended by any gathering of people, to 
lay the cornerstone of the church.^* This ceremony must also be 
considered as the laying of the cornerstone of Boston College, 
because both buildings were built simultaneously as one project, 
and, as far as can be ascertained, no thought was given to a 
separate cornerstone laying for the college. 

Through the month of May, in spite of heavy rains which 
repeatedly filled the excavations and made the use of steam 
pumps necessary, the work on the cellar walls of the college 
progressed surprisingly well. The concrete-filled trenches sup- 
ported a first course of large granite blocks, and on top of this, 
three feet of rough masonry was leveled to receive the granite 
basement walls eleven feet in height. ^ 

Father McElroy stated in June that about forty stonecutters 
were at work in a long range of sheds erected for them, and 
there was "a blacksmith's shop with four fires."^^ In July he re- 

13 Ibid., pp. 26-27. 
" Ibid., p. 27. 
15 Ibid, p. 28. 



38 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

ported that "the first floor of the College buildings is being laid, 
and the granite basement of the same commenced. 130 men 
are now daily employed on the premises — all bids fair to 
have the buildings enclosed before the severe w^inter."^® In 
September the granite basement of the college v^as nearly 
finished, and all the brick partition walls in the basement 
erected. In addition to this, the principal floors of the first story 
were laid and the brick commenced over them. Later that month, 
Father McElroy rejoiced that the walls of the college were 
completed to a stage where "the bricks are now carried up by 
steam power to the upper stories. . . ."^^ 

The Sodality Latin School 
That fall ( 1858 ) witnessed the inauguration on a very modest 
scale of an institution which one authority spoke of as a fore- 
runner of Boston CoUege.^^ It was the Latin School of the 
Sodality of the Immaculate Conception, opened under the 
auspices of the men's sodahty of St. Mary's Church, North End, 
and directed by Father Bernadine F. Wiget, S.J., and Father 
James Fitton, the founder of Mount St. James Academy in 
Worcester. The school occupied the two upper floors of a Baptist 
meetinghouse on Hanover Street, and was "staffed" by one 
teacher, Michael Norton, a student in his senior year at Harvard. 
Although no pressure was exerted upon the thirty young men 
who constituted the student body, it was presumed that they had 
the intention of taking up studies ultimately for the priesthood. 
The Bishop, naturally very much interested in the project, had, 
nevertheless, some misgivings in the beginning concerning the 
quality of the education which the school would be able to 
impart,^^ but twelve of the students entered the Society of Jesus 

16 Ibid., p. 29. 

17 Ibid., p. 30. 

18 Edward L Devitt, S.J., president of Boston College (1891-1894), who 
was a youth in Boston at the time. His account of the founding of "The 
S.LC. Latin School" occurs in "Father Francis J. O'Neill, S.J.," The Stylus 
(March, 1905), 18:12-17. 

19 "Memoranda," March 10, 1859. 



WALLS AND A ROOF 39 

at the end of the first year (July, 1859), giving the authorities 
reason to be satisfied with the undertaking. The subsequent his- 
tory of the school is vague; it was probably absorbed within 
another year's time into the new St. Mary's Free School, which 
was to provide for older boys as well as the younger until Boston 
College was prepared to accept lay students some five years 
later. 

New Expenses 

Meanwhile work on the new Boston College building was 
going on apace. The masons finished their task in October, and 
the carpenters commenced the laborious work of setting the 
roof. This carpentry work went on through November, Decem- 
ber, and January, although all work on the church had to be 
suspended for the winter in mid-November. Father McElroy 
reflected with some heaviness of spirit that the brick partitions 
in the basement and through the building had added an unfor- 
seen $11,855 to the original estimate, raising the masonry con- 
tract for the whole project to $76,855.'° 

At this time he applied to the superintendent of public lands 
in the city for the purchase of a strip 30 feet wide adjoining the 
north side of the college property, running from Harrison 
Avenue to James Street. On March 8, 1859, the city land com- 
mittee acceded to his proposal and sold him the land, 7350 
square feet in addition to his previous purchase, for the old 
price of fifty cents a square foot, although the market price for 
the land when used for residential purposes had now risen to 
one dollar a square foot. Again Father McElroy took pleasure 
in calculating his saving which this reduction made possible. 
The sum, $3,075, Father McElroy considered as part of the 
reparation which the city authorities were kindly making for the 
annoyance other city officials had caused him in the past.'^ 

Contracts which he let out in April for work in the interior 
of the college building were as follows: carpentry, $11,800; 

20 McElroy, Diary, Vol. 2, p. 31. Also McElroy to Villiger, March 14, 
1859, Maryland Province S.J. Archives, 226 W 2. 
2iMcElroy, Diary, p. 32. 



40 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

plastering, $2,820; plumbing, $1,775; gas fitting, $488. In June 
an additional contract had to be made for the steamfitters to lay 
the pipes in the college before the flooring and walls were com- 
pleted. Steam heating at the time was such an expensive propo- 
sition that Father McElroy pondered on it long before deciding 
to have it installed. Finally, he was persuaded that it was best 
'Tjoth as to security from fire, less expensive in the consumption 
of coal; free from dust; (and giving) an agreeable summer-like 
heat."22 

In presenting an informal account of his stewardship up to 
this point in his diary. Father McElroy points out the various 
expenses which had unavoidably arisen and which had been 
unforeseen in the original contiacts, but the main burden of 
blame for his unpaid debts he places on 

the want of cooperation on the part of the fathers at St. 
Mary's. They, with good intentions no doubt, appealed to the 
faithful of St. Mary's for the support of a Latin School, next 
for an English School, and again for the purchase of lots, thus 
cutting off what I always expected as the chief means of 
completing the buildings. This was the intention and direction 
of RR. FF. Brocard and Stonestreet, and without this pros- 
pect, I should never have commenced the work. When I 
commenced building, I had about 80,000$ in hand, saved in 
St. Mary's in six years — the contracts for placing the buildings 
under roof were $83,000. exclusive of the above extras, the 
interior finish of the College, a separate contract of 14,016$ 
this makes $97,016 for the church under roof and the college 
completed. Now if St. Mary's had united with me the past 
two years, as I expected, ten thousand doUars a year could 
have been raised to aid in these buildings. This was one of 
the greatest disappointments I met since I undertook to erect 
a College and Church for our Society. Fiat voluntas Dei.^^ 

On October 1, 1859, Father McElroy, accompanied by one 
Father ( Steinbacker ) , left St. Mary's rectory in the North End 
where he had been living, and took up residence in the college 
building despite the great inconvenience which must have been 

22 Ibid., p. 34. 

23 Ibid, pp. 36-37. 



WALLS AND A ROOF 41 

experienced by them during that winter through lack of proper 
heating equipment. However, greater trouble than a cold room 
soon arose in the form of difiBculties in finding money to meet 
current expenses. Father McElroy's attempt to raise money by a 
mortgage on the college and church in January of 1860 proved 
fruitless when the conditions attached to the loan were found to 
be altogether unsatisfactory. A temporary expedient in this crisis 
was arranged by a bank which discounted notes for Father 
McElroy. But this he saw was a troublesome and uncertain 
solution so he renewed his efiForts to obtain a permanent loan. 

Through the summer of 1860 two new and unforeseen outlays 
added to his financial burden. The first of these was for an iron 
fence set on granite piers, which enclosed practically all the 
property. This fence was required, for reasons no longer known, 
by the City of Boston and represented an expense of $600 for 
the foundation work, and $3.75 a foot for the railing, including 
gates and painting. The Harrison Avenue frontage alone cost 
about $2,000 according to Father McElroy's oJBScial estimate.^* 

Second, the fear of a possible explosion of the steam boilers 
caused Father McEhoy to have them placed in a separately 
built small building behind the church. It was found on trial 
that the church chimney was not large enough for the new 
boilers, and a new smokestack had to be built. The housing for 
the boilers cost $300, and the chimney cost $470.^5 

In the beginning of the month of September, 1860, Father 
McElroy wTOte that he had succeeded in arranging for the loan 
he desired.^® The Savings Bank in Lowell, Massachusetts, loaned 

2* Fr. McElroy's Diary, Vol. 2, pp. 39 and 41 mention the cost per foot 
of the fence and the foundation work, giving the reader to understand that 
all the iron fencing which now exists on three sides of tiie area was laid 
at the same time; in his report to the Jesuit Visitor to the United States, 
Father Sopranis, he mentions only the Harrison Avenue length, and gives the 
price of that; in this report he also mentions the coercion of the city in the 
matter, which is not recorded in the diary (McElroy to Sopranis, June 19, 
1861, JGA, Maryland, 8-XX-4; summarized by Garraghan, "Origins of 
Boston College, 1843-1869," Thought, 17:646-649, Dec, 1942). 

25 Diary, Vol. 2, pp. 41 and 46. 

26 Although the Diary entry (II, 42-43) is dated September, 1860, an- 
other entry, evidently describing the identical transaction, is dated March 



42 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

him $80,000 for which he gave a mortgage on the church and 
college. How this sum was disbursed is stated in the diary as 
follows: 

$29,320.51 was paid to the City of Boston. The balance 
refunded Mr. Carney what he had advanced for me, broker- 
age, commission, etc., leaving me a balance of $4901.49. . . . 
Besides this funded debt of eighty thousand I have two notes 
due in two banks of $10,000 each, these will have to be 
renewed once or twice and the interest paid. In two years I 
hope we can pay one or both from the revenue of the church 
collections, etc., other floating debts to be paid in the same 
manner. Thus there will remain charged on the church the 
interest of $80,000, say, four thousand eight hundred dollars 
annually; this I think can be easily done and eight or ten 
thousand beside paid on the debt, with the assistance of St. 
Mary's paying $3,000 yearly.^^ 

Friends and Finance 
Andrew Carney, a friend of the Jesuit Fathers of long stand- 
ing, helped the situation at this time by taking upon himself the 
cost of laying the sidewalks in front of the church and college. 
In the meantime, work had commenced on grading and sodding 
the grounds about the church and college. In September, 1860, a 
drive to pay ofiF the church debt was organized by Father 
McElroy, who asked twenty-five cents a month from persons 
willing to aid. Some eighty collectors turned in four hundred 
dollars from this source the first month. In December, Father 
Barrister of St. Mary's, North End, loaned Father McElroy four 
thousand dollars "until he goes to build his school house."^* This 
helped the financial strain of the moment, and further assistance 
was received from two concerts which were held in the church 

7, 1861 (Diary, p. 51). The explanation of this confusion of dates appears 
to be that some parts of the diary were written or rewritten quite some 
time after the date of the events described. From the tone of some passages, 
it would seem that they were written after he had left Boston. (Cf. the 
afterthought treatment of the granting of a Charter to Boston College, con- 
tained in the final paragraph of Volume 2.) 

27 McElroy, Diary, Vol. 2, pp. 42-43. 

28 Ibid., p. 44. 




WALLS AND A ROOF 43 

prior to its formal opening, which apparently netted in the 
vicinity of five hundred dollars each. At the time of the opening 
of the church, the auction of pews, pew rent, concerts, and a 
one-dollar offering at the door on opening day realized another 
three thousand dollars.^® After the church was dedicated on 
March 10, 1861, a small steady revenue was realized from collec- 
tions and offerings, but church and college could not yet be re- 
garded as financially secure. 

In March of 1861, Father McElroy records that he was able 
to make a further purchase of land from the city at his previous 
price of fifty cents a foot. The latest purchase was 13,657 square 
feet adjoining the property he already owned. Since the market 
price of this land had now risen to $1.25 a foot, he estimates his 
"savings" on the whole transaction as amounting to $15,152.^° 

In his diary, Father McElroy writes of this period as follows: 

The rest of the year [from March, 1861] has been occupied 
in raising means to meet engagements, and to close the 
accounts of the different mechanics. In this I met with many 
disappointments, and with no little mental anxiety. It would 
not be proper to put particulars of this kind on record, i.e., 
from whom I borrowed 3 or 400$, who refused me — borrow 
again to pay borrowed money. Another time [I] had to get a 
note discounted and found it difficult to get an endorser — this 
to me was painful to be refused — still I persevered until I 
succeeded. In those occasions (not more than three or four 
times) no one suspected my wants, neither did my credit 
suffer in the least with my creditors. I generally succeeded 
in satisfying aU by paying a part if not the whole. One bank 
where I kept my account since my arrival in the city, has been 
very kind to me. I had for a time 2 notes discounted of $10,000 
each and renewed several times. The only return I can make 
to the good President (Mr. Geo. Thayer) and Cashier (Mr. 
Marsh) for their great kindness is to pray to God to reward 
them with Divine faith, operating in good work, and a happy 
eternity. May our Lord bestow on them these gffts. 

But there is one whose name I will not mention who has 
on all occasions aided me by his prudent counsel, and also by 

29 Ibid., 44 et ff., and 56. 

30 Ibid., p. 52. 



44 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

advancing means in every emergency that I called upon him, 
and when I applied to others it was without his knowledge — 
for he told me never to be embarrassed as long as he had 
means to relieve me. Still I felt a delicacy to call on him so 
often and tried to procure means elsewhere. Had it not been 
for this Gentn. I would not have been able to continue the 
work on the church but must have postponed it for an indefi- 
nite period. Our Lord, I hope, will reward him abundantly 
for his zeal and devotedness to His own House. He is one of 
the largest benefactors to the buildings.^^ 

In March of 1862, Andrew Carney, the benefactor referred to 
above, instructed Father McElroy to have contractors come at 
his expense and remove the old brick wall on the former boun- 
dary of the college property, and to grade and fence the recently 
acquired strip so that it would form one parcel with the rest of 
the property. This work was commenced in April and completed 
in May at a cost of about $2,300.^^ On this occasion trees, chiefly 
Linden, were planted about the church and college, twelve on 
each side of the principal walk between the two buildings, and 
some at the base of the terrace on Harrison Avenue. These were 
provided by members of the congregation who paid for the 
purchase and planting of individual trees at two dollars each, 
as personal memorials.^^ Of interest in this connection is a photo- 
graph in the Georgetown University archives taken about 1880, 
showing the front of the church and some of these trees still 
standing. On the reverse of the picture is penciled in a contem- 
porary hand: "Various members of the congregation donated the 
trees around the church and the names of the donors clung to 
the trees. The two trees in front of the church were called Mf. 
and Mrs. Andrew Carney. That on the corner or side wall was 
Mrs. McEvoy. I do not remember the rest of the names." 

31 The benefactor mentioned in this passage is identified in another place 
(Vol. 2, p. 60) as Andrew Carney. This excerpt from Vol. 2, pp. 53-55. 

32 McEhoy, Diary, Vol. 2, p. 56. 

33 Ibid., p. 60. 




Rev. John Bapst, S.J. (1816-1887), first president 
of Boston College 




Rev. Robert Fulton, S.J. (1826-1895), first Prefect 

of Studies at Boston College and third president; 

photograph taken in 1876 




Rev. Thomas I. Gasson, S.J. (1859-1930); thirteenth 
president; builder of the new Boston College 




o 

a 
bJO 



<u 




CD 












CO 


o 




O 


on 


r^ 


CD 


o 


G 


C/2 


03 


bJO 






o 


s 




CD 

bJO 


is 


CD 




'o 


^ 


U 


pq 




CD 




bJC 




Jh 












o 




U 




r^ 








o 








c/2 




o 




CQ 




^ 








o 




CD 





CHAPTER V 
LEVITES FIND A HOME 



It was evidently the intention of Father McElroy to build the 
college building, but not to equip it nor to open it as a college 
until after the church had been in successful operation and able 
to produce the revenue necessary for the equipment of the 
college. This view is based on the fact that Father McElroy 
regarded the installation of the heating apparatus in the college 
building in 1860 as an "unforeseen expenditure."^ Certainly this 
would have been acknowledged a necessity and would have 
been planned for, if the original intention had been to open the 
school in 1860. The shortage of teachers also made the imme- 
diate opening of the college dubious. This lack was so acute 
that the Jesuit General in 1858 believed that it might be neces- 
sary to close down Holy Cross College if Boston College were 
to be properly supplied with teachers,^ and in 1859 the Jesuit 
Provincial let Father McElroy know his fears that the college 
could not be opened for lack of a staff.^ 

At any rate, the building was finished in 1860, and no surprise 
or disappointment is recorded when, instead of a college for 
externs, it was proposed to use the establishment temporarily 
as a scholasticate for the training of Jesuit personnel. The need 

1 McElroy to Sopranis, June 19, 1861, JGA, Maryland, 8-XX-4; quoted 
by Garraghan, "Origins," p. 649. 

2 Beckx to Villiger, Nov. 27, 1858, JGA, Maryland, quoted in part by 
Garraghan, op. cit., p. 645. 

3 Garraghan, op. cit., p. 646. 

45 



46 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

for a central scholasticate for all the Jesuit provinces of North 
America had been pressing for some time, nevertheless it is inter- 
esting to speculate why the building was yielded without a 
murmur to this use, even temporary, which was so far removed 
from the original intention of the builders. 

A Jesuit Seminary Is Proposed 
A constant source of concern to the Jesuit superiors in the 
United States throughout the forties and the fifties of the last 
century was the situation in which members of the Order pre- 
paring for the priesthood found themselves. On the one hand, 
these individuals were required by the great responsibility and 
sacredness of their vocation to devote themselves with concen- 
tration to their philosophical and theological studies over a 
number of years. On the other hand, the scarcity of priests and 
teachers at that time caused numberless serious interruptions to 
occur which would take the students from their sacred studies 
for the greater part of the day, or at times, for entire days and 
weeks on end. Each instance of this was regarded with regret 
by the superiors concerned, and was considered as a temporary 
emergency, but finally all realized in their hearts that these 
"emergencies" were becoming, by their frequency and regularity, 
the natural order of things. 

The obvious answer to the difficulty was to have an independ- 
ent house for the training of scholastics, from which the students 
could not be "drafted" easily to assume outside responsibilities. 
Moreover, this institution should be in the nature of a joint en- 
terprise among the Jesuit provinces in North America, so that 
their resources might be pooled, duplication of expenditures 
avoided, and the strongest possible staff assembled.* 

^ This problem, particularly as it affected the Province of Missouri, is 
treated at some length in G. J. Garraghan, S.J., The Jesuits of the Middle 
United States (New York: America Press, 1938), I, pp. 626-640, which is 
based on an earlier study by the same author: "The Project of a Common 
Scholasticate for the Society of Jesus in North America," Archivum Histo- 
ricum Societatis lesu (Rome), II, 1-10, 1933; for its effect on the Province 
of Maryland, cf. letter of Augustus Langcake, S.J., Letters and Notices 
(Roehampton, England), II, 6S-70, 1864. 



LEVITES FIND A HOME 47 

When Father Fehx Sopranis, S.J., was sent to America from 
Rome in November, 1859, as an official "Visitor" to all the Jesuit 
houses in North America, one of the chief tasks assigned him by 
the Jesuit General was the establishment of a common scho- 
lasticate. The French Province of Champagne had been oper- 
ating a scholasticate at Fordham for the New York and Canadian 
scholastics; members of the Maryland province had another 
at Georgetown for theirs, and the Missouri province supported a 
small scholasticate in the suburbs of St. Louis, but all of these 
had been of a provincial and temporary nature, and were beset 
with all the difficulties and interruptions mentioned above, and 
with the shortage of qualified professors. Father Sopranis had 
the authority to cut the "Gordian Knot" and in March, 1860, 
ordered the various provincial superiors to support a common 
scholasticate which he hoped would ultimately be located at 
Conewago, Pennsylvania, but which in the meantime he estab- 
lished in the idle buildings at Boston.^ 

This seemed at the time the ideal solution; the place was 
central to the provinces concerned, and, as Dooley notes, there 
was no Jesuit college in the country large enough to accommo- 
date both the average number of extern students and the Jesuit 
classes of philosophy and theology with the requisite number of 
rooms for living quarters and private study.*' Moreover, there 
was available for the rectorship of the new institution, Father 
John Bapst, S.J., who, as one who had suffered for the faith, was 
a national Catholic hero, and as an individual was personally 
acceptable to all parties. 

Father Bapst, First Rector 
Father Bapst was born at La Roche, Canton of Fribourg,^ 
Switzerland, on December 7, 1816.^ He attended the Jesuit Col- 

5 "Ordinationes Rev. P. Felix Sopranis, S.J., Visitatoris America Septen- 
trionalis Data pro Provincia Marylandiae in illius Visitatione habita a die 
IS'' Nov. 1859 ad diem 8™ Martii, 1860," Ordinatio IV, No. 1, iii-iv, 
Maryland Province Archives, Woodstock. 

^P. J. Dooley, Woodstock and Its Makers (Woodstock, Md.: The 
College Press, 1927), p. 5. 

^ This synopsis of Father Bapst's life is based on the Catalogus Provin- 



48 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

lege at Fribourg, and upon completion of his course entered the 
Society of Jesus, September 30, 1835. When, shortly after his 
ordination (December 13, 1846), the Jesuits were expelled from 
Switzerland, Father Bapst, in company with a number of his 
fellow exiles, came to the United States where he was assigned 
to missionary work among the Indians at Old Town, Maine. 

To the diflBculties which centered in a natural distaste for this 
type of work was added Father Bapst's inability to speak 
English or the Penobscot tongue, but he overcame these handi- 
caps gradually, and when the mission was moved to Eastport, 
Maine, in 1850, Father Bapst was appointed Superior. In this 
new situation, his "parochial" responsibilities extended not only 
to the Indians, but to large numbers of Irish and Canadian 
settlers in the section, and this led him to seek a more central 
base for the mission. Bangor was decided on in 1852, and from 
this town Father Bapst and his three assistants served as much 
as they could of the state of Maine. 

Know-nothingism was rampant at the period, and the Jesuits' 
presence and ministry to their fellow Catholics were resented 
by many bigoted non-Catholics. At Ellsworth, a small town some 
thirty miles southeast of Bangor, Father Bapst was threatened 
with physical violence if he continued attending the local Cath- 
olics, but he disregarded the warning and went about his re- 
ligious duties there as usual. On one of these visits (Saturday 
evening, October 14, 1854), he was seized by a mob, ridden on 
a rail to a distant point, stripped of his clothes, tarred and 
feathered, and some eflFort was even made to bum him alive. 
Exhausted and almost maimed by the inhuman treatment, he 
was left to return to his quarters as well as he could. When he 
arrived there, he was attended by friends, but many months 
passed before he recovered his health completely. The respect- 
able citizens of the state, Protestant and Catholic, were shocked 



ciae Marylandiae for the pertinent years, and on the full account of Father 
Bapst's life, with transcripts of many of his letters, pubUshed in Wood- 
stock Letters, 16:324-325, 1887; 17:218-229, 361-372, 1888; 18:83-93, 
129-142, 304-319, 1889; 20:61-68, 241-249, 406-418, 1891. 



LEVITES FIND A HOME 49 

at tliis outrage, but their eflForts to bring the guilty persons to 
justice proved fruitless. The deed had one happy result, however, 
for, like the blood of martyrs, it brought the faith to the respect- 
ful and sympathetic attention of many, and undoubtedly con- 
tributed to the spread of Catholicism, not only in Maine, but 
throughout the nation. 

In September, 1859, the Jesuits withdrew from Maine, and 
Father Bapst was assigned to Holy Cross College, Worcester, 
as spiritual father, where he remained until he was appointed 
rector of the new scholasticate at Boston the following July 2.* 

The Project Under Way 

An invitation was sent to all provincial superiors to send 
scholastics to the new institution for the opening on September 
3, 1860,^ but the province of Missouri was exempted from the 
general order since permission had already been granted it to 
go on with its own scholasticate. The Missouri Provincial, how- 
ever, waived this dispensation and sent twelve scholastics to 
Boston for the session of 1860-1861.^° The Rocky Mountain Mis- 
sion, and the Mission of New York-Canada were also repre- 
sented, although, as was natural, the largest number of scho- 
lastics came from the Maryland Province. The latter contingent, 
according to one chronicler, was entertained at dinner en route 
by the community of Loyola CoUege, Baltimore, on August 31, 
and the same day the young Jesuits went aboard the steamer 
for Boston, "having obtained a reduced rate of passage through 
Fr. Charles Jenkins, then a scholastic."^^ 

The year began for the scholastics with an eight-day retreat 
made in common.^- When classes convened, there were seven 
professors (including the rector, Fr. Bapst,) and forty -ninfe 

* Dooley, op. cit., p. 5. 
^ Langcake, op. cit., p. 66. 

10 Garraghan, Middle States, p. 641. 

11 J. J. Ryan, "Our Scholasticate. . . . An Account of Its Growth and 
History to the Opening of Woodstock, 1805-1869," Woodstock Letters, 
33:132-133, 1904. 

12 Ibid., p. 133. 



50 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

students, of whom five were priests/^ The cosmopolitan nature 
of the community was commented upon by one of the group 
in a letter to England: 

It is no uncommon thing in our holy society to see indi- 
viduals of difiFerent and even hostile nations peaceably 
dwelling under the same roof; but rarely, I think, has there 
been such an assemblage of divers tongues and peoples as 
we then presented. There were native Americans from the 
North and from the South, from the East and from the West; 
Canadians, both French and Irish; Prince Edward's Island 
and New Brunswick were worthily represented. The old 
world, however, contributed the great majority: Rome, Naples 
and Piedmont; Austria and Prussia, Hanover and other Ger- 
man states, France, Belgium and Holland, England and 
Ireland (but where was Scotland?) had all poured in their 
contributions; nor must I omit Catholic Switzerland, which 
kindly provided us with a most excellent Fr. Rector, and a 
no less excellent Professor of Divinity.^* 

On March 3, 1861, Father Bapst wrote from Boston College 
to his old friend, Father Billet, then rector of the college at 
Brussels: 

You would like to know, doubtless, what I am doing here. 
I have a community of 67 persons: 13 priests, 46 scholastics, 
and 8 coadjutor brothers. I am engaged in teaching the class 
of moral theology, which, as you know, is my forte. Your old 
friend, Fr. Duverney, teaches dogmatic theology, ecclesiasti- 
cal history, and Hebrew. You know full well what a scho- 
lasticate is. I have nothing to tell you in this matter except 
that our scholastics, although Americans, are as good, as 
studious, as pious, as are yours in Europe. Tomorrow and the 
day after we will have the disputations for the theologians 
and philosophers. We have no externs or seminarians; they 
are all Jesuits. 

Tomorrow Lincoln, the new President of the United States, 
will be installed in office at Washington. Your are aware, I 
suppose, that we are just at this moment resting upon a 
volcano; that the Southern States are about to separate them- 

13 Catalogus Provinciae Marylandiae S.J., ineunte anno 1861. 
1* Langcake, op. cit., pp. 66-67. 



eosTori coiiESK schooi 

0liS)N£SS AOMIN. 



LEVITES FIND A HOME 51 

selves from the Northern, and that the Union will probably 
be dissolved. They expect some great disturbances at Wash- 
ington tomorrow. It is very likely a civil war will ensue. And 
then, what is going to become of us? God alone knows. What 
is certain is that there is very little prejudice against Catholics 
here, and that we have no persecution to apprehend. We are 
much more free and in enjoyment of a greater peace here 
than you are in Europe.^ ^ 

When the Civil War broke out in April the situation between 
the Northern and Southern members of the community de- 
manded great tact and charity. A member of the community at 
that time wrote at a later period: 

Considering things as they were then, it was most natural 
that those from the North should favor the Union and those 
from the South should be for secession; and indeed there 
were opposing sentiments and sympathies in the scholas- 
ticate. Superiors would kindly admonish us, in accordance 
with the rule, to avoid speaking of the war in recreation; 
yet through a most natural fraility, animated discussions 
would sometimes take place, though without serious viola- 
tions of charity. ... A most potent influence in harmonizing 
diverse elements was the personality of our excellent and 
Heaven-sent Rector, Fr. John Bapst.^® 

Boston College at the time of its use as a scholasticate con- 
sisted in two buildings, each about 90 feet long, 60 feet deep, 
and four stories high, exclusive of the attic. The front building 
contained parlors, private rooms, and offices; the other building, 
schoolrooms and an exhibition hall which occupied the space 
of the two upper floors.^^ 

The buildings were connected at the Newton Street end by 
a structure about 25 feet wide, 40 feet in length, and twd 
stories in height, containing a refectory in the basement, a 
chapel on the first floor, and a library on the second. During 

15 Letter quoted and translated by the anonymous author of "Fr. John 
Bapst; a Sketch" (identified in Woodstock Letters, 25:xxii, 1896, as A. J. 
McAvoy), in Woodstock Letters, 18:315 (1889). 

16 Ryan, op. cit., p. 133. 

1^ Langcake, op. cit., p. 67. 



^ J, « J 'X ^^ vJ8 



52 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

the last two years the scholasticate was in operation/* the 
theologians were housed, two or three in a room, in the build- 
ing on Harrison Avenue, while the philosophers were located 
in the back building, with study quarters in two of the large 
classrooms, and sleeping accommodations within curtained al- 
coves in two lecture halls on the floor above. 

As the college was in the midst of the city with little ground 
attached, the superiors, on the advice of the house physicians, 
obhged the scholastics to take an hour's walk through the city 
each afternoon after class. On Thursdays and other holidays 
longer walks were in order, often through the suburbs of 
Boston, and when this excursion was to occupy all day, a little 
money was issued to each "band" of two to enable them to pur- 
chase material for lunch.^® One of these scholastics recollected 
later that they soon found that the "students," as they were 
called, were known everywhere and sharp eyes were upon them. 
He added: "and we had the consolation of hearing that our 
behavior gave edification."^" 

Scholars and Their Masters 
When Father McElroy commenced living at Boston College 
with Father Steinbacker, later joined by Brother James Mc- 
Closkey, the building became known technically in the Jesuit 
catalogue as a "residence."^^ But with the coming of the scho- 
lasticate, the title was changed in the following year's catalogue 
to Seminarium Bostoniense.^^ 

In this 1861 listing of the Jesuit community at Boston Col- 
lege, we find, besides the rector, Father Bapst, such distin- 
guished faculty members as Fathers Sestini, Ardia, Gresslin, 
who had taught in the scholasticate at Fordham, and Father 
Duverney. There were twenty-three theologians and twenty- 
five philosophers; among the former appear the names of Varsi, 
who subsequently was so conspicuous on the Pacific Coast; 

18 Ryan, op. cit., p. 143. lo Ibid., p. 139. 20 ibid. 

21 Catalogus Provinciae Marylandiae S.J., ineunte anno 1860. 

22 Op. cit., ineunte anno 1861. , 



LEVITES FIND A HOME 53 

Walter Hill, who had first studied at St. Mary's, Kentucky; 
Zealand of Missouri; Alan Macdonald, afterward Socius of the 
New York-Canada Mission; Teale and Major of Maryland; and 
Richard White of New York. The list of philosophers contained 
the names of Langcake; Higgins, afterward Provincial of 
Missouri; Schaapman and Shea, the future rectors of Cincinnati 
and Fordham; Costin, the first apostle of the deaf-mutes in New 
York; Mullally, so long identified with Holy Cross and Wood- 
stock; Stephen Kelly, Boone, Jenkins, Hanrahan, Patrick Mc- 
Quaid, Gelinas, Holland, and John Ryan.^^ 

In 1862 Father Fulton was added to the staff as Lector 
Theologiae Compendudis. In that year beneath the title Seminar- 
ium Bostonien^e in the Jesuit catalogue appears in English: 
"Boston College, Boston, Mass."; an indication that a change 
was contemplated. In the year following, however, the seminary 
staff was strengthened by the accession of Father Michael 
O'Connor, who had been, a few years before. Bishop of Pitts- 
burg, and who had been pennitted to lay down his miter and 
enter the Society. He had gone through the thirty days' retreat 
at Frederick, Maryland, and then passed the two years of 
novitiate in Germany, at the completion of which, in December, 
1862, he pronounced his four solemn vows in the church of the 
Immaculate Conception, Boston, before the Provincial, Father 
Paresce. Although he had been a pioneer bishop in western 
Pennsylvania seventeen years, his pupils recalled that he spoke 
Latin fluently in class. A contemporary describes him as one 
of the most learned bishops in Rome on the occasion of the 
definition of the Immaculate Conception in 1854. Father O'Con- 
nor taught Canon Law at Boston, and succeeded Father Fulton 
as professor of theology when Father Fulton was sent to teach 
rhetoric at Frederick.-* 

23 Edward I. Devitt, S.J., manuscript notes on the history of Boston 
College, in Georgetown University Archives, p. 2. 

2* The Frederick referred to was the Jesuit Novitiate and House of 
Classical Studies at Frederick, Md. The description of Father O'Connor's 
career is based on Ryan, op. cit., p. 141; and Devitt, Manuscript Notes on 
Boston College, p. 2. 



54 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

The teaching tasks assigned to the other Fathers during the 
three years of the scholasticate were: Fathers Duverney, Gresslin 
(and after him, Felix), and Cicaterri in theology; Fathers 
Ardia, Janalik, and Guida in philosophy.-^ The natural sciences 
were taught by Fathers Sestini and Varsi. 

The latter gave a scientific surprise to Boston in the scho- 
lastic year of 1862-1863, during the triduum in the Immaculate 
Conception Church celebrating the beatification of the Japanese 
martyrs. He conceived the idea of having an electric light 
behind the tabernacle during Benediction in the evening; and 
although the dynamo was not yet invented and the electric 
light difficult to obtain, he succeeded in producing a light 
which one witness remembered forty years later as the brightest 
he had ever seen.^^ Father Varsi placed a large Bunsen battery 
of about one hundred cells, tended by the scholastics, in the 
steam house just back of the sacristy, and from there laid wires 
to the carbon-arc lamp on the altar. When the current was 
turned on, producing a brilliant light, there was a start of 
surprise among the large congregation.^' There was also a start 
of surprise from Father Provincial when he heard about it, 
as one gathers from his letter to Father Bapst, the rector, under 
date of April 19, 1863: 

I congratulate you upon the solemn manner in which you 
have celebrated your triduum. I did not relish much the 
idea of the electric light in the Church, fearing it might 
attract too great a crowd of curious people, & might give 
some pretext to such as are not friendly, to talk against us. 
Yet I have nothing to say against it & will most gladly hear 
that my fears have proved groundless. ^^ 

On the following Fourth of July, and it is flattering to believe 
in a post hoc, propter hoc relation, the Boston city authorities 

25 The philosophy curriculum at the time was based on the three years' 
course of Liberatore, which was pubUshed in time to be used at the opening 
of classes in the fall of 1861. 

26 Ryan, op. cit., p. 141. 

27 Ihid. 

28 Paresce to Bapst, April 19, 1863, Maryland SJ. Provincial Archives, 
Woodstock. 



LEVITESFINDAHOME 55 

had Mr. Ritchie, a well-known instrument maker of the time, 
produce an electric light in the dome of the state house in 
Boston, and throw it by a reflector in different directions, as a 
scholastic at the time added, "even in the faces of some of us 
who were looking out from the cupola of the college."-^ 

The Ageless Routine of Learning 
The religious spirit of the new house of studies caused Father 
Bapst to record on October 10, 1860, his enjoyment of 

the solitude, silence and recollection of a religious house. 
... In the scholasticate which has just been established here 
in Boston, the Ratio Studiorum and other rules and constitu- 
tions are to be followed in all their fullness. . . . The Scho- 
lastics have entered upon their studies with great ardor, and 
we have reason to entertain the hope of seeing in a few 
years an army of apostolic men depart from Boston, who, 
full of the spirit of St. Ignatius, will establish in the New 
World . . . the kingdom of Jesus Christ. ^° 

Some idea of the routine aspects of life in this seminary 
during the years 1860-1861 may be gathered from a perusal 
of a time order preserved at Georgetown University.^^ Accord- 
ing to this schedule, the young Jesuit scholastics arose at 4:30 
a.m. (at 4 during the summer months), and devoted themselves 
to an hour of meditation and prayer, after which they went to 
Mass and to breakfast. Classes occupied two hours, from 8:45 
on, in the morning, and another hour and a quarter in the 
afternoon. Following this, recreation, study, and spiritual duties 
filled the balance of the day until lights were extinguished at 
9 p.m. 

On Sundays it was the custom to sing or say Vespers duriiig 
the early afternoon, leaving the balance of the time until supper 
for recreation. Each week had one full holiday, or two half 

29 Ryan, op. cit., p. 141. 

30 Bapst to Billet, Oct. 10, 1860, translated and quoted by A. J. McAvoy, 
"Father John Bapst, a Sketch," Woodstock Letters, 18:314 (Oct. 1889). 

31 "1860-61; Notices, Regulations, Decisions, etc., of the Scholasticate in 
Bost." MS. notebook in Georgetown University Archives. 



56 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

holidays (i.e., free of afternoon classes). The long vacation 
each year was from the first of August until the last of September 
for the theologians, and from the first of August until September 
14 for the philosophers. Other vacation periods included a week 
at Christmas; the carnival days before Lent; two weeks at 
Easter (because of the participation of the scholastics in the 
ceremonies in the church, choir, etc.); the regular feast days 
of the Church, and the Fourth of July. Inauguration Day would 
also have been a regular holiday, but the Boston scholasticate 
was in operation during only one of these celebrations: Lincoln's 
inauguration in March, 1861.^^ 

A letter of Father Bapst is extant in which he asked the 
Provincial on one occasion for pennission to have additional 
hohdays during Lent to make up for the ones of which the 
students had been deprived by circumstances. He urged as an 
additional reason for granting the request that the faculty 
needed the relaxation since they had become exhausted per- 
forming the many regular and "extracurricular" duties which 
were required of them.^^ 

At the end of 1861, the Jesuit Visitor, Father Sopranis, re- 
turned from his trip through the provinces and missions of 
North America to Rome where he rendered an account of his 
visitation to the Jesuit General. Garraghan thus summarizes the 
part of this report which pertained to the Boston scholasticate: 

For academic and disciplinary conditions in the house 
he had only words of praise. From a comparison with other 
scholasticates, as he had known them, in St. Louis, George- 
town, Montreal, he was led to conclude that the existing 
spirit at Boston was good nor was there any reason on this 
head why the provinces and missions should regret having 
sent their young men thither. "What I have said of the spirit 
must also be said and that very positively about the studies. 
The professors spare no labor and to their solicitude the 
scholastics on their part make every effort to respond." He 
had been present at scholastic disputations carried on by 

32 Ibid., under "holidays." 

33 Bapst to Paresce, Feb. 11, 186(3?), Maryland S.J. Provincial Archives. 



LEVITES FIND A HOME 57 

the philosophers and theologians. Both groups, but the first 
particularly, did notably well. Father Sopranis then pro- 
ceeded to point out certain objections to continuing the 
scholasticate where it was, first among which came the ex- 
cessive cost of maintenance. (The annual cost of maintenance 
was reported to be seventeen thousand dollars.) Moreover, 
"the severity of this climate and the lack of a garden or yard 
of any kind in which the scholastics can move about in the 
open work to the prejudice of their health and make this 
house rather disagreeable and in the case of some, very dis- 
agreeable indeed." Further, there were moral dangers oc- 
casioned by the urban environment but protection against 
them was assured by fresh precautions now in force.^* 

The official report made to the provincial and to Father 
General for die years 1861-1862 from Boston supported the 
comments of Father Sopranis on the praiseworthy quality of 
the religious discipline of the house. The spiritual welfare of 
the scholastics, according to this report, was provided for in 
all of the ways usual to the Society: the regular reception of the 
sacraments with the frequency peimitted by the Church at the 
time; the regular exercise of their spiritual duties (meditation, 
spiritual reading, examination of conscience, etc.); instructions 
on spiritual topics, given by one of the Fathers to all the 
scholastics twice a month, in addition to two three-day retreats 
in preparation for the semiannual renovation of vows, and an 
annual retreat of eight days (which retreat, incidentally, was 
given on all three years by Father Cicaterri — and in Latin ).^' 
Practice in public speaking (called "Tones") and practice 
sermons during community dinner were held regularly; "cases" 
in moral theology were explained to the theologians at weekly 
conferences. The "circles," a form of philosophic disputation 
which for centuries has formed part of the Society's training in 
philosophy and theology, were held with customary formality 
and frequency, and a regular class met weekly under a com- 
petent teacher to perfect their ability in writing English. The 

34 Garraghan, Middle States, 1:642. 
36 Ryan, op. cit., p. 144. 



58 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

report mentions in passing that the Fathers of the faculty visited 
the soldiers quartered in camps about Boston regularly to ad- 
minister the sacraments and to instruct those who wished it.^® 

Beginning of the End 

As time went on, difficulties began to increase. One member 
of the community at the time could remember after almost half 
a century that the living quarters were uncomfortably cramped, 
and that the restrictions in the matter of walks, especially after 
the outbreak of the Civil War, were irksome to all.^' In addi- 
tion to these considerations, the cost of living rocketed as 
profiteering in the city mounted. The same writer asserts that 
$11,000 were spent during six months of 1863 for the support 
of seventeen students.^^ The annual fees which the other prov- 
inces and missions paid to Maryland for the support of their 
subjects attending the Boston scholasticate were insufficient to 
meet expenses, and the extra cost was borne for a time by 
Maryland.^^ But this state of affairs could not long continue, 
especially since the Maryland Province, due to its proximity to 
the seat of war, sufiFered considerably in its resources.*" 

Another consideration which did not favor the continuance 
of the scholasticate at Boston was the fact that it had originally 
been built for secular students, and its use as a seminary had 
been viewed in the beginning as only temporary until a satis- 
factory stafiF of teachers could be assembled for a school for 
externs, and until buildings could be erected at Conewago, 
Pennsylvania, to accommodate the scholasticate. In January, 
1862, Father McElroy had written to Father General: 

As our college was erected for lay students, I am very 
anxious to see it opened for that purpose — the Benefactors 
also who have sons are veiy desirous for it — still I am 
pleased to see Rev. Fr. Prov[incial] exerting himself very 

36 "Litterae Annuae, Anno 1861-2," S.J. Provincial Archives, New York. 

37 Patrick J. Dooley, Woodstock and Its Makers ( Woodstock, Md. : The 
College Press, 1927), pp. 6 and 7. 

38 Ibid., p. 7. 39 Ryan, op. cit., p. 147. ^o Langcake, op. cit., p. 68. 



LEVITESFINDAHOME 59 

much in making preparations to accommodate the scho- 
lastics elsewhere.*^ 

In a letter to the Provincial (Father Paresce), Father Bapst 
wrote early in 1863: 

I assure you. Rev. Fr., that although the amount requested 
to keep up the scholasticate is enormous, yet I cannot see 
v^here, & how^ we could retrench. I really cannot see how 
the poor Province of Maryland will get along in such 
circumstances.*^ 

Father McElroy, in a plea to the Provincial to close the scho- 
lasticate and open the college for boys, emphasized the obliga- 
tions and commitments under which the institution found itself. 
The letter is dated February 4, 1863: 

Altho' I am aware of the desire of [sic] your Rvce., has 
to see our College opened for boys by the removal of the 
scholastics, still, I feel it almost a duty to state my impressions. 
1° A number of promising boys, desirous of entering the 
college are engaging in some other pursuits, their parents 
not being able to send them to a boarding college. 
2° The money collected was for the erection of such College, 
and this motive repeatedly held out in public and in private, 
of this I am reminded from time to time; it is true that the 
whole amt., contributed falls short of the actual cost of the 
buildings, still, that is not the fault of the donors. 
3° The addition to the present revenue by the tuition fees 
would I think be considerable, and would satisfy many 
pressing calls.*^ 

The Provincial's reply to Father McElroy was kind but non- 
committal: "As for the opening of the schools, I assure you, 
my dear Fr., that I will do all in my power yet there are 
circumstances beyond my control, which often thwart and upset 
my plans. I feel the greatest interest in your place."** ^ 

"McElroy to Beckx, Jan. 24, 1862, JGA, Maryland, 9-XX-7. Quoted 
by Garraghan, "Origins of Boston College," p. 652. 

^2 Bapst to Paresce, Jan. 22, 1863, Maryland S.J. Provincial Archives, 
Woodstock, 227 Z 2. 

*3 McElroy to Paresce, Feb. 4, 1863, Maryland S.J. Provincial Archives, 
Woodstock, 227 Z 16. 

44 Paresce to McElroy, Feb. 20, 1863, Maryland S.J. Provincial Archives, 
Woodstock, 227 Z 18. 



60 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

On July 10, 1863, a group of twenty-five scholastics accom- 
panied by Father Minister, left Boston for the annual vacation 
at Holy Cross; preparations for the conferring of Holy Orders 
on the following week end were in progress, but superiors knew 
that the end was already in sight. These ordinations would be 
the last here, and the scholastics would not even return to pack 
their belongings, for their trunks would be sent to them. On 
July 25, Father Bapst received from Father Tellier, the Superior 
of the New York-Canada Mission, "condolences" on the im- 
minent dissolution of the scholasticate, and on July 26, Father 
Bapst wrote to the Provincial reporting on the financial arrange- 
ments which had been made to meet traveling expenses of the 
scholastics. He described this $800 to $1,000 which he was 
obliged to make ready as "a big hole in our purse!" He added 
that he would expect "early next week your directions con- 
cerning the closing of my 'concern.' "** 

The actual cessation of Boston College as a scholasticate came 
on August 20, 1863. On that date, one gathers from a letter of 
Father Bapst written to the Provincial on August 31, all finan- 
cial accounts were considered closed.*® Rumors had been ramp- 
ant during the scholastics' vacation at Holy Cross: "Various 
surmises were hazarded; some opined that we should be sent 
to New York; others 'calculated' that we should go to George- 
town, while not a few 'reckoned' that we were going to split 
up and return to our several provinces."*'^ 

At length in the latter part of August, a long letter came 
from Father Paresce to Father Bapst, containing minute di- 
rections for the disbanding of the community. All those 
belonging to the Province of Maryland were to go to George- 
town College in bands of three or four by a route marked out; 
those of the Mission of New York and Canada were to go to 
Fordham; and all from Missouri and New Orleans, with 

45 Bapst to Paresce, July 10, 1863, and July 26, 1863, Maryland S.J. 
Provincial Archives, Woodstock, 227 Z 39 and 227 Z 41. 

48 Bapst to Paresce, Aug. 31, 1863, Maryland S.J. Provincial Archives, 
Woodstock, 227 Z 44. 

*^ Langcake, op. cit., p. 68. 



LEVITES FIND A HOME 61 

some from California, were to go to Georgetown. The books 
and furniture were put on board a sailing craft, and wafted 
by the breezes of the Atlantic to the mouth of the Potomac 
and up to the quiet city beyond Rock Creek, "three miles 
from die capitol."^^ 

Apparently some of the Fathers were in hope up to the end 
that a common scholasticate for all the philosophers and theolo- 
gians could be found. Father McElroy wrote on August 4 to the 
Provincial: 

I regret the dispersion of the scholastics whose studies 
seemed to progress so orderly and with such edification; the 
Church will also miss them, at least until the College is 
opened. I trust our Lord in His own good way wiU supply 
for this apparent loss to the studies of ours.*^ 

However, Father Bapst wrote toward the end of the following 
month: 

Although everybody seems to regret the dissolution of the 
common scholasticate, yet I cannot see how yr. Revce. could 
have helped it. I knew long ago that it could not go on in 
Boston without throwing the Province in a state of bank- 
ruptcy. And I do not know how Father Sopranis could 
remedy the evil, unless he had thousands of dollars at his 
disposal. Moreover, is it not high time that Boston College 
should be opened for the boys of the city? They have waited 
so long that they begin to think that it will never be opened.^" 

*8 Ryan, op. cit., p. 147. 

*9 McElroy to Paresce, Aug. 4, 1863, Maryland S.J. Provincial Arcliives, 
V/oodstock, 227 Z 31. ( "Ours" = members of the Society of Jesus.) 

50 Bapst to Paresce, Sept. 24, 1863, Maryland S.J. Provincial Archives, 
Woodstock, 227 Z 49. 



CHAPTER VI 
PRIVILEGE AND PLEDGE 



In the meantime, financial and legal reasons had prompted the 
incorporation of the college in 1863, even though the Jesuit 
authorities knew at the time that it would be impossible to 
provide a teaching staff to open the school for extern boys that 
year. The financial reason for the early incorporation was to 
facilitate the arrangement of loans, which, it was found, would 
be extended to the president of a corporation (the college in 
this instance) when they would be refused to an individual, 
even a priest. This was illustrated in the instance of a loan 
offered by a Mrs. Noonan, evidently of Baltimore, which was 
the occasion of Father McElroy's election as president of Boston 
College in May of 1863. This election, although perfectly legal, 
was for some reason never listed in the ordinary accounts of the 
presidents of Boston College, and in August, 1863, three months 
after Father McElroy's "investiture," Father Bapst was elected 
"first" president without any mention of the other election.'^ 

Another financial reason for the incorporating of the college 
as soon as possible was to free it from the taxes (amounting at 

^ The statement of Father McEhoy's election is based on two letters of 
Very Reverend Angelo M. Paresce, S.J., Provincial of Maryland Province of 
the Society, to Father McElroy, dated April 10 and April 19, 1863; and 
on letters of Father McElroy to Father Paresce, dated April 16 and April 
21, 1863. Mention of Father Bapst's subsequent election is contained in 
a letter of Father McElroy to Father Paresce dated July 19, 1863. All of 
these letters are preserved in the Maryland S.J. Provincial Archives, Wood- 
stock, Md. 

62 



PRIVILEGE AND PLEDGE 63 

the time to some $700 a year) from which chartered educa- 
tional institutions were exempt, but which had been collected 
on the Harrison Avenue property (except the church) at a 
residential rate since the buildings had been built.- 

The legal considerations which urged prompt incorporation 
centered about the title to the properties which had been held 
until then in the name of Father McElroy. All the land and 
buildings on Harrison Avenue, as well as St. Mary's Church and 
residence in the North End of Boston, were the "private prop- 
erty" of Father McElroy,^ and his sudden death, which was a 
distinct possibility for a man approaching his eighty-first birth- 
day, would precipitate embarrassing complications. When it 
had been definitely decided to give up the scholasticate at 
Boston, nothing longer prevented the Fathers from seeking the 
advantages which incorporation would bring. 

Obtaining the Charter 
Father McElroy had evidently been instructed by the Pro- 
vincial in January of 1863 to commence the legal formalities 
connected with a petition for incorporation, because Father 
Paresce, the Provincial, inquired on February 20 what the 
prospects were for obtaining the charter.* On March 4, Father 
McElroy optimistically replied: "Our petition for the charter 
of our College was presented in the Legislature yesterday; there 
will be, I presume, very little opposition in the Legislature."^ 
Less than three weeks later he was able to report: 

Our Bill for Chartering the College had its first reading 
in the Senate on Saturday last, and was ordered to be en- 
grossed. On Tuesday last I was requested by letter to appear 

2 McElroy, Diary, Vol. 1, MS. p. 68, under date Dec.,1863. Maryland S.J. 
Provincial Archives, Woodstock. Also c£. Garraghan, "Origins of Boston 
College," p. 652, quoting letter of Father McElroy to Very Reverend Father 
Beckx, the General, dated Nov. 30, 1863, JGA, Maryland, 9-XX-12. 

3 Ibid. 

* Paresce to McElroy, Feb. 20, 1863, Maryland S.J. Provincial Archives, 
Woodstock, 227 Z 18. 

5 McElroy to Paresce, March 4, 1863, Maryland S.J. Provincial Archives, 
Woodstock, 227 Z 19. 



64 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

before the Committee on Education, I went with Fr. Welch, 
and told the C. what we wanted, I took with me Genl. Gush- 
ing who was very useful in suggesting and removing condi- 
tions I did not want &c. The Comme., about ten members, 
were extremely polite, even kind, and voted unanimously 
that a bill should be drafted in accordance with our under- 
standing, &c., Genl. G. drew up the bill immediately before 
leaving the State House, I had it copied and next day left it 
myself with the Ghairman in the Senate Ghamber. There is 
no doubt, I think, of its passage, when passed I shall send 
you a copy of it. 

In one section we are allowed to possess property not 
exceeding $30,000 annual income!!! This is generous. An- 
other, to confer all the Degrees that are given in any college 
of the State, this includes Divinity, Medicine, M.A., and A.B. 
— so far it is all we could wish.^ 

To this announcement, the Provincial responded: 

I offer you my congratulations upon . . . the passage of 
the act for chartering Boston GoUege. Please to get two 
authenticated copies of the Gharter, one for yourself, the 
other to be kept in the archives of the Province. If however 
an authenticated copy should be too expensive, any copy of 
it, made by one of the scholastics will answer my purposes. 
As soon as the act will be signed by the Governor, it will 
be well to take measures at once for the transfer to the 
corporation of the property which you hold in your name, 
including St. Mary's Ghurch. . . . You may draft some by-laws 
for the regulation of the corporation which I will examine 
when I come to Boston.'' 

An examination of the charter shows that although the act 
passed the House of Representatives and the State Senate of 
Massachusetts on March 31, and was approved by Governor 
John A. Andrews on April 1, an authenticated copy of the act 
was not obtained until May 28. On June 9, the following ad- 
vertisement appeared in the Boston Courier: 

^ McElroy to Paresce, March 23, 1863, Maryland S.J. Provincial Archives, 
Woodstock, 227 Z 22. 

^ Paresce to McElroy, April 6, 1863, Maryland S.J. Provincial Archives, 
Woodstock, 227 Z 25. 



PRIVILEGE AND PLEDGE 65 

Notice is hereby given that the first meeting of the 
Proprietors of the charter, entitled "An Act to Incorporate 
the Trustees of the Boston College," will be holden on the 
sixth day of July next, at four o'clock in the afternoon, at 
the College Building, on Harrison Avenue, in the City of 
Boston, for the purpose of considering whether they will 
accept the act of incorporation granted to them by the 
Legislature, of electing officers, making by-laws, and other- 
wise organizing the Corporation, and transacting such busi- 
ness as may be requisite. 

Boston, June 19th, 1863. John McEhoy. 

Edward H. Welch. 

John Bapst. 

James Clark. 

Charles H. Stonestreet. 
Persons named in the 
Act of Incorporation.^ 

According to the minutes of the meeting held on July 6, 
Fathers McEhoy, Welch, and Bapst were present, and only 
two items of business were acted upon: the election of a 
secretary (Father Welch), and the voting to accept the act of 
incorporation. The second meeting of the Board of Trustees 
took place on July 10, at which the bylaws were adopted and 

It was voted unanimously to elect the proper officers for 
the college for three years which election resulted in the 
choice of the following (Rev. J. McElroy having declined) 
Rev. J. Bapst was elected President, Rev. John McElroy, 
Vice-President; Rev. Robert Brady, Treasurer; Rev. E. H. 
Welch, Secretary. The following directors were also elected 
for three years: Rev. John Bapst, Rev. John McElroy, Rev. 
Robert Brady, Rev. E. H. Welch, and Rev. John Emig. 

It was also voted to request Rev. John McEhoy to conveys 

8 Transcribed from "Records of the Trustees of Boston College," manu- 
script volvune of the minutes of the trustees' meetings, p. 1, preserved in 
the treasurer's office, Boston College. 

Note: Devitt, in his short account of the history of Boston College, 
printed in Woodstock Letters, was evidently led by this Courier advertise- 
ment into the error of dating the first meeting of the trustees as June 19 — 
the date of the advertisement. The correct date, obviously, is July 6 (De- 
vitt, "The History of the Maryland-New York Province; XVI, Boston 
College," Woodstock Letters, 64:403, 1935). 



66 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

all the property now vested in his name in the City of Boston, 
viz: the Church of the Immaculate Conception and Boston 
College in due legal form, also the Church and Parochial 
residence on Endicott Street also vested in the same Rev. 
John McElroy.^ 

Nine days later Father McElroy could write: 

On last Thursday [July] (16th) was finally concluded the 
conveyance of all property in my name, Boston College, Ch. 
of Im: Concep: St. Mary's Ch: and residence, to the Trustees 
of Boston College. Deo Gratias! I am indeed now a poor 
man, as a religious ought to be. The Deed is made out on 
parchment, handsomely executed, and left at the Register's 
OflBce to be placed on Record, the stamps cost $294.60. 

Father Bapst was elected by the Trustees, as Prest., of the 
College, myself Vice Prest., Father Brady Treasurer & Fr. 
Welch Secy, pro forma, that the requirements of the Charter 
and By Laws might be complied with. 

I would take leave to suggest your Revce. to continue to 
supply Fr. Bapst with what may be necessary to support the 
house until the College is opened for boys, the Revenue of 
the Church this year will not meet all the demands upon 
it, on acct., of the completion of the basement &c., &c., &c., 
— you will perhaps find it convenient to leave one or more 
scholastics to study Moral &c., which can be easily done. . . .^° 

The latter suggestion must not be construed as a desire to 
reopen the college as a scholasticate. It was evidently Father 
McElroy's intention to solicit financial assistance from the 
Province in return for the board and room to be given some 
of the young Jesuits making certain parts of their course o£ 
studies in private, or in preparation for examination. The idea 
was apparently not acted upon, for the Province catalogue 
carried no names of such students until 1882, when a scholas- 
tic was listed as studying theology privately.^ ^ 

^ Records of the Trustees of Boston College, under date of July 10, 1863. 

10 McElroy to Paresce, July 19, 1863, Maryland S.J. Provincial Archives, 
Woodstock, 227 Z 30. 

11 Catalogus Provinciae Marylandiae-Neo-Eboracensis, ineuento anno 
1882, under "Boston College." 



PRIVILEGE AND PLEDGE 67 

Empty Halls 

In the meantime, the college buildings, emptied of their 
scholastic inhabitants, took on a deserted look. On August 31, 
Father Bapst wrote: "Today the personal [sic] of the house 
will be reduced to its simplest expressing; [sic] there will be 
left here four priests, including Father Major [the minister], 
and five Brothers only."^^ And in another letter he wistfully 
complained of "feeling lost in the house."^^ 

In the Catalogue of the Province of Maryland, ineunte anno 
1864, the title: Seminarium Bostoniense was replaced by 
Residentia; Father Bapst was changed from rector to the lower 
rank of superior (to accommodate the rank of the house), and 
with him were left only Fathers Welch, McElroy, Fulton, and 
Power acting as assistant priests in the work connected with 
the Immaculate Conception Church. Father McElroy, weighed 
down by the infirmities of age, had been permitted to turn 
over his account books and the care of the financial manage- 
ment of the church and college to Father Bapst early in 
August^^ and on November 10, left Boston for good.^° 

Of this period. Father Fulton later wrote: "We had a hard 
time. All the Scholastics going, Father McElroy, the Italians 
[i.e., the Italian priests who had been on the seminary faculty], 
it was thought the people would desert us — it did not so 
result!"^® 

In addition to numerous tasks of the ministry, a serious worry 
occupied the attention of the superior and his assistants, and 
served to keep their minds off the emptiness of the house. Both 
church and college rested under an overwhelming debt which 

12 Bapst to Paresce, Aug. 31, 1863, Maryland S.J. Provincial Archives, 
Woodstock, 227 Z 44. 

13 Bapst to Paresce, Aug. 28, 1863, Maryland S.J. Provincial Archives, 
Woodstock, 227 Z 43. 

1* McElroy to Paresce, Aug. 4, 1863, Maryland S.J. Provincial Archives, 
Woodstock. 

15 McElroy to Paresce, Nov. 25, 1863, Marvland S.J. Provincial Archives, 
Woodstock, 227 Z 33. 

16 Fulton, Diary, under date, 1863. 



68 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

Father Fulton claimed was $156,666 in November of 1863." 
Devitt described the state of mind of the Jesuit community as 
"consternation" when the members discovered that the debt 
was over $150,000. According to the same authority, some of 
the more excitable members had even proposed giving the 
entire estabhshment, church and college, over to the bishop.^* 

The Problem of Funds 
Father Bapst had v^aitten to the Provincial that after a careful 
examination of the accounts, he felt that in the ordinary course 
of events there would be an enormous deficit incurred during 
the coming year.^^ Whereupon he decided that waiting for some- 
thing to happen would never save the situation, and he set out 
to make something happen. After Mass on Sunday, November 
22, 1863,-° Father Bapst called a meeting in the basement of the 
church of the prominent men in the congregation and made a 
clear exposition of the state of affairs. He also proposed a plan 
to raise the amount of $5,000 which he felt was immediately 
needed. Among the men present was Andrew Carney, a wealthy 
clothing merchant of Boston, who had made numerous gifts to 
Catholic charities in the city, and who had founded Carney 
Hospital, Boston, some five months before.^^ He had been a loyal 
and generous friend to Boston College and the church of the 
Immaculate Conception since they had been first begun; he had 
given Father McElroy sums of money and had loaned him other 
large sums on convenient terms,-^ so he knew rather well the 
financial status of the church and college. He at once saw that 

1" Ibid. 

18 Devitt, manuscript notes on history of Boston College, pp. 9-10, 
preserved in Georgetown University Archives. 

1^ Bapst to Paresce, Dec. 1, 1863. Maryland S.J. Provincial Archives, 
Woodstock, 227 Z 53. 

20 Date fixed by McEhoy reference to the incident as occurring two 
Sundays after he had left Boston; since he left Boston on the tenth, 
this meeting must have taken place on the twenty-second. Cf. McElroy, 
Diary, Nov., 1863, p. 67. 

21 The Pilot, April 16, 1864. 

22 Cf. pp. 42^4 of this study for Father McElroy 's indebtedness and his 
estimation of Mr. Carney. 



PRIVILEGE AND PLEDGE 69 

the $5,000 for which Father Bapst had asked would barely meet 
the interest on outstanding loans, and the most necessary ex- 
penses, and that the position of the Fathers would not be per- 
manently bettered by it, so while the meeting was still in prog- 
ress, Mr. Carney handed Father Bapst a card on which was 
written: 

I propose to pay to the Church of the Immaculate Concep- 
tion the sum of $20,000, if the congregation will raise the 
same amount within six months.^^ 

Father Bapst reported: 

The proposition was received with a tremendous applause; 
& to show they were in earnest $4,000 were subscribed on the 
spot by 64 men only, the meeting being very small. Now the 
impetus is given, the excitement is produced; it is in our 
power to have $40,000 within six months if the movement is 
skillfully directed. The cry is: we shall not lose the chance 
given by A. Carney! ! If we are successful, the church is 
forever free from embarrassments and from any danger of 
falling into other hands. . . . Fr. Williams [the Vicar-general 
of the diocese of Boston during the prolonged absence of 
Bishop Fitzpatrick] sometime ago gave me permission to 
collect in any church in the city & in the country where I 
would be permitted by the pastors to do so.^* 

The First Fair 
The $7,000 mark was reached by the end of the first week^^ 
and a group was organized to wait at the door of the church on 
Sundays to solicit further subscriptions.^*' Joseph A. Laforme of 
Boston, who was chairman of the committee of six^' which nobly 
co-operated with Father Bapst in his great task, wrote: 

23 For an account of this entire incident in detail, cf . letter of Fatheo: 
Bapst to Father Paresce, Dec. 1, 1863, Maryland S.J. Provincial Archives, 
Woodstock, 227 Z 53. 

24 ihid. 25 McElroy, Diary, Nov., 1863, p. 67. 
26 Fulton, Diary, under date 1863. 

2T "The names of those who formed this committee were: Hon. Hugh 
O'Brien, Joseph A. Laforme, Francis McLaughlin, William S. Pelletier, 
Patrick Powers, and Hugh Carey." From McAvoy, manuscript for "Father 
Bapst; a Sketch," p. 90 (omitted in published form); preserved in Wood- 
stock College Arcfdves, Woodstock, Md. 



70 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

... in the course of a few weeks Fr. Bapst, with the assistance 
of a few members of the congregation, succeeded in obtaining 
subscriptions to the amount of ten thousand dollars. Mean- 
while it was found that other means must be resorted to for 
the purpose of obtaining the sum required under the proposi- 
tion of Mr. Carney, and it was decided to hold a fair in the 
Music Hall of Boston.^^ 

This decision was evidently reached early in January, because 
on January 26, Father Bapst wrote to the Provincial discussing 
a possible date. He favored some time in April, because, as he 
explained: 

Later the days are too long. It is in the evening that money 
comes in; if the evenings are short, all is spoiled. The day to 
begin it will probably be appointed after tomorrow, and as 
soon as it is decided, I shall inform your Reverence. 
. . . We will announce the fair in the church and in the papers 
next week. The fair will be in aid to Boston College. That will 
make the object common to all the churches & even to the 
protestants, the college being chartered.^^ 

In the same letter, Father Bapst asks the Provincial for infor- 
mation regarding the possibility of opening the college for ex- 
terns the following September. He felt that some definite word 
regarding the opening would prove a valuable "sales point" in 
conducting the fair. 

On February 8, he wrote again to advise the Provincial that 
the dates for the fair were from the fourth to the sixteenth of 
April."° According to Laforme, the fair opened on April 5," but 
an unfortunate event occurred to dampen the spirit of all the 
workers: Andrew Carney died suddenly at half -past ten on 
Sunday evening, April 4. "He had a new attack," wrote Father 
Bapst, "of apoplexy, although the Dr. called it congestion of 

28 A. J. McAvoy, S.J., "Father Bapst; a Sketch," Woodstock Letters, 18 
(1889): 317. 

29 Bapst to Paresce, Jan. 26, 1864, Maryland S.J. Provincial Archives, 
Woodstock, 227 M 2. 

30 Bapst to Paresce, Feb. 8, 1864, Maryland S.J. Provincial Archives, 
Woodstock, 227 M 3. 

31 McAvoy, loc. cit. 



PRIVILEGE AND PLEDGE 71 

the lungs."^^ Arrangements were made to bury him from the 
Immaculate Conception Church at ten o'clock Wednesday morn- 
ing, April 7, and he was laid to rest in the Carney Hospital, 
South Boston, which he had founded.^^ 

In spite of this handicap, the fair proved to be, in Laforme's 
words, "up to that time . . . the most successful church fair ever 
held in Boston."^^ While the fair was still in progress, Father 
Bapst voiced some misgivings: 

The fair is the most splendid thing that ever was done here 
in that line; & yet it will not reach $20,000. The weather yes- 
terday & today is far from being favorable, & other causes 
too long to be explained work strongly against it. It will 
probably realize $15,000 clear. We have one consolation; 
nothing has been wanted of what human ingenuity can do, 
in the part of the committee, of the ladies, & of the Pastors, 
to make it a grand fair. We resign ourselves to the will of 
Divine Providence for the result.^^ 

Laforme, however, estimated that the fair realized twenty- 
seven thousand dollars. The same authority stated that some 
twenty-five thousand dollars' worth of securities were be- 
queathed to the Immaculate Conception Church and the college 
by Mr. Carney. "Thus," observed Laforme, "within a few months 
from the beginning of his pastorship, Fr. Bapst had collected 
sixty-two thousand dollars towards the liquidation of the debt."^^ 

32 Bapst to Paresce, April 5, 1864, Maryland S.J. Provincial Archives, 
Woodstock, 227 M 7. 

33 Ibid. 

3* McAvoy, loc. cit. 

35 Bapst to Paresce, April 12, 1864, Maryland S.J. Provincial Archives, 
Woodstock, 227 M 8. 

36 McAvoy, loc. cit. 



CHAPTER VII 
TWENTY-TWO PIONEERS 



Simultaneously with these efiForts to secure financial support, 
plans were being made to open the college in the following 
September (1864) to lay students. As early as the previous 
November, Father McEhoy had mentioned the opening as 
already decided on by the Provincial.^ And on February 22, 
1864, the Provincial, Father Paresce, reported to the Jesuit 
General in Rome: 

Next September it will be necessary to open a school for 
lay students in Boston. I have already put ojff the affair for 
thjee years, notwithstanding complaints from the pubhc. It 
cannot be delayed any longer in justice to the persons who 
have contributed liberally to the building of the college in 
the hope of having their children educated by Ours or on 
grounds of prudence as our honor and reputation would be 
compromised thereby. I have, therefore, with my provincial 
consultors, come to the conclusion to open the college next 
September, beginning with two elementaiy classes of gram- 
mar, and then, each year, as the students advance in Latin 
and Greek, adding a class so as to build up step by step a 
complete college. I will shortly send your Paternity a terna 
[list of three nominees] for the Rector or Vice-Rector of this 
new college as you will think best.^ 

1 McElroy to Beckx, Nov. 30, 1863, quoted in Garraghan, "Origins," 
p. 651. In this letter Father McElroy expressed the optimistic opinion that 
the college would "add considerable to the revenue of the house." 

2 Paresce ad Beckx, Feb. 22, 1864, JGA, Maryland, 10-1-2, translated 
from the Latin and quoted by Garraghan, "Origins," p. 653. 

72 



- J 

TWENTY-TWO PIONEERS 73 

This prospect of opening the college within a few months 
was held out as an inducement to liberality at the fair,^ and, as 
we have seen, it had its efiFect. 

In August, the Boston papers carried the definite announce- 
ment that the college would open its doors for the youth of the 
city: 

BOSTON COLLEGE 

The Benefactors and Friends of this Institution are respect- 
fully informed that it will be opened September next. For 
further particulars, please apply at the College, Harrison 
Avenue.* 

In The Pilot for August 27, 1864, the following advertisement 
appeared and was reprinted without change every week for the 
entire year, 1864-1865: 

A.M.D.G. 
ON THE FIRST MONDAY OF SEPTEMBER THE FATHERS OF THE 

SOCIETY OF JESUS will Open, for the reception of Scholars the 
lower classes of Collegiate Instruction, the building adjoin- 
ing THE CHURCH OF THE IMMACULATE CONCEPTION, HarrisOn 

Avenue, between Concord and Newton Streets. It is their 
intention to add a higher class each successive year, until the 
course of studies is complete. 

The course of studies as in other Catholic Colleges, will 
last seven years, and embrace the English, Latin, and Greek 
languages. Arithmetic, Mathematics, Logic, Metaphysics, 
Ethics, Natural Philosophy and Chemistry, with the usual 
accessories. 

The chief aim of the College is to educate the pupils in 
the principles & practice of the Catholic Faith; but the pro- 
fession of that Religion will not be a necessary condition 
for admission. 

It will be required of the Candidate for admission that he 
should be able to read & write, that he should understand 
the primary principles of Grammar and Arithmetic, and be of 
reputable character. 

The Instructors have been selected from those who have 
already taught in other Colleges with success. 

3 Fulton, Diary, under date 1864. 

* Advertisement appearing in the Boston Evening Transcript, Aug. 18, 
1864, p. 1; and in The Pilot, Aug. 20, 1864, p. 5. 



74 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

Terms: — $30 for each session of about five months, to be 
paid in advance. 

Should any student leave school in the course of a session, 
no deduction of price will be made in his favor, except in the 
case of expulsion.^ 

The above advertisement constitutes, as far as is known, the 
only prospectus issued by the college that year. It evoked the 
following editorial comment in The Pilot, after a paragraph 
calling attention to the opening of the college. 

Felix Faustumque sit! 

Let us look at some of the advantages to be anticipated 
from this event. We need not argue the necessity of combining 
religious training with secular instruction. That point is de- 
cided. . . . But with what security shall we not confide our 
children to the Jesuit Fathers! 

From the experience of a like Institution in a neighboring 
city, we anticipate that Boston College will be a fruitful 
seminary whence will issue in crowds youthful Levites to 
replenish the ranks of the secular clergy and the various re- 
ligious orders. 

But we need not only priests, but thoroughly educated 
lawyers, doctors, merchants — men of every profession. When 
our lads shall have thus been educated in common, we may 
expect that they will be welded together by common recollec- 
tions, sympathies and life long friendships. They will be the 
better able to support each other in good, and advance the 
interests of the whole Catholic body. 

Nor will it be an insignificant benefit that a larger number 
of priests will be resident among us, who will assist our clergy, 
at present so much overtaxed in the duties of the confessional 
and in instructing the people and will add by their very 
number to the splendor of religious ceremonies. 

We invoke, therefore, for the nascent college, the zealous 
patronage of those who are interested in the advancement of 
religion and learning.® 

5 The Pilot, Aug. 27, 1864. The Pilot is preserved on microfilm in the 
Boston Public Library. The Transcript mentioned above is preserved in 
the Boston College Library. 

6 The Pilot, Aug. 27, 1864. 



twenty-two pioneers 75 

Organizer of the School 

Father Robert Fulton, who had been assisting in the work 
of the church, was assigned by the Provincial as Prefect of 
Studies for the new college. Father Fulton, destined with Fathers 
McElroy and Bapst to occupy an important place in the de- 
velopment of Boston College, was born in Alexandria, Virginia, 
June 28, 1826/ His forebears on his father's side were Irish 
Presbyterians who had settled during the preceding century 
near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. On his mother's side were Cath- 
olic O'Briens from County Clare, who had come to this country 
and made their home near Baltimore. 

His father was well off at one time, but lost his money shortly 
before his death, and left his widow and the seven-year-old 
Robert destitute. Mrs. Fulton eked out an existence for herself 
and the boy by conducting a small private school, and later 
keeping a boarding house. Robert received his earliest education 
from his mother, and when he was about nine, was placed in a 
school in Washington conducted by a Mr. French, from which 
he later transferred to a seminary on F Street taught by a Mr. 
Shyne. 

About the year 1838, through the kind services of a namesake. 
Senator Fulton of Arkansas, and a relative in the government 
service, he obtained an appointment as page in the Senate. 
During the next four years his small income from this position 
aided considerably at home, and he was able to put something 
aside for his future education. This congenial work, however, 
which gave him the opportunity to hear Webster, Clay, Calhoun, 
and other great orators of the day, was terminated automatically 
when he reached the age of sixteen, and then the struggle tp 
find a means of livelihood began again. He tried to obtain em- 
ployment in a variety of occupations, but failed. He even at- 
tempted at this time to take up the study of medicine, aided only 

^ This brief sketch of Father Fulton's life is based upon the autobiography 
contained in the first pages of his diary, a manuscript volume preserved 
in the Georgetown University Archives, Washington, D. C. 



76 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

by some books and instruments borrowed from a friendly physi- 
cian. This venture, of coursfe, came to nothing, but it cast an 
interesting Hght on the intellectual courage of the youth. After 
this, his attention was turned to West Point, which, besides the 
attractions of a military life, offered a complete course of higher 
education at government expense to qualified young men. As a 
means of preparing for West Point he entered Georgetown 
College, probably on some arrangement by which he could 
earn part of his tuition by work at the college, for his mother 
"meanwhile . . . kept a boarding house on Missouri Av. and 
went every day to the Navy Yard to teach school."^ 

His life at Georgetown began unhappily because of the em- 
barrassment which his poverty caused him in the company of 
his wealthy fellow students. But with the passing of months a 
new problem arose which made him forget everything else; he 
had become aware of his vocation to the religious life, and 
found himself faced with the unwelcome task of notifying his 
mother. She, when she was finally told, was saddened by the 
separation which this would mean, but courageously gave him 
her blessing, and later surprised him with the announcement 
that she, too, had decided to consecrate her life to the service 
of God. Thus it was that when he entered the novitiate of the 
Society of Jesus at Frederick, Maryland, on August 31, 1843, she 
entered the convent of the Visitation at Georgetown as Sister 
Olympias.^ 

After a year of noviceship, Robert spent the next three years 
teaching at St. John's College, Frederick, followed by single 
years at Georgetown and at Washington Seminary. In 1849 he 
began his first year of philosophy at Georgetown, but his course 
was interrupted in 1850 by another three years of teaching, spent 
respectively at Holy Cross, Georgetown, and Loyola (Balti- 
more ) , In 1853 he resumed his course of studies with a final year 

&Ibid. 

^ Sister Oympias died at the convent in Georgetown on Feb. 22, 1888, 
at the age of eighty-nine years and ten months. 






s^ll 



3*3. 



g-a S 






i - 



s ^ - 1 i ' '« i o 1 1 1 1 = s I i V 



"o^-, 






J „ - £ 3 -a . 



' ° a -' a ^ ■ 



5 n i-1 I 2 p ' 



- 5 - £ -'" ^' £ J ' 



; * £■ J .3 s- D. 
>,_.*« a ^ ?; 






ffs 



s 3 
•a J a - 



»; 2 w i 






« 1 - a - -^ " 1 S ■" -a ' 

2 2 1 . 1-5 -I :•=£•■, 3 11 „ ^-o ^ 1 1 1 ., 

».: £5:^ a a I 5. 



'5 o 8 3 



a « i _ 



•^o2^SS»5<«°"ffl-J— M« ■" 



Is- 



SE;saS»SSP; 



[•ll|i§il^^ 






lllllJIIiflPil ll'l::^^^ 



5 a 5 I "S 3 -£■ £ 



% ij-s 



"fgKg^'Sls 






•g-=S32^Bo-o»5g'-J5° 

^s^i-ji-S^ng-^a-jios 

||j|li|S:.|^ilf 



; i- - s :: " 









T3 




0) 
























Dio 


j::^ I— 1 


rt 






CO 


br 


I— 1 


'^ 


>^ 


n 


u 




m 


to 

OS 


§ 


4-> 


rt 


O 


1 — > 










w 


a 


rj 


o 


O 


02 


<\1 


O 


T) 


w 






■i-i 




(T! 


■^ 




c^^ 


a 


"to 


C/3 


t? 


o 


« 




^1 


W 


!i: 


a; 


■^ 








^ 


Mh 


;~i 


■ o 


w 


<u 


C/2 


bJL 


c^^ 


03 




^e:; 


OJ 




<J 




03 






<v 
bJD 

0) 

'o 
U 

a 
o 

-M 

o 



CD 
O 



o 

03 



ct5 

CO 



TWENTY-TWO PIONEERS 77 

of philosophy, and devoted the years 1854-1857 to theology. He 
was ordained at Georgetown by Archbishop Francis P. Kenrick 
on July 25, 1857. 

After a fourth year of theology, he was appointed to teach 
Rhetoric at Georgetown, where he remained until he was as- 
signed in 1860 to make his tertianship or third year of probation. 
In March, 1861, he came to Boston and spent the following year 
giving a course in theology to the scholastics attending the 
seminary. He was recalled to Frederick to teach Rhetoric for 
one year in 1862-1863, but in the summer of 1863 returned to 
Boston where he was engaged in parish work until the opening 
of the new college for lay students in 1864.^° 

The teachers designated to aid him in Boston were two scho- 
lastics, Mr. Peter P. Fitzpatrick, S.J., with five years' classroom 
experience, and Mr. James Doonan, S.J., with four years' ex- 
perience, who were appointed to teach second and third Gram- 
mar, respectively.^^ 

The College Is Opened 
All was in readiness. Monday morning, September 5, 1864, 
dawned misty, cold, and drizzly. ^^ The college officially opened 
its doors, but the expected rush of students never materialized. 

Father Fulton was dismayed to find that instead of an army 
of students that he had expected to see thronging through 
the gates of the new college . . . there were only 22 boys 
whose parents were eager to bestow upon them the advan- 
tages of a Jesuit education. This, however, was not due to 
any unfriendliness; but, in those days, the Catholics of 
Boston were mostly poor, and were not over-anxious to pay 
for what could be had for nothing in the schools and 
academies of the city. Moreover, they shared in the common' 

^° An account of Father Fulton's later career, which included the 
Provincialate, and the oflBce of Visitor to the Jesuit Province of Ireland, 
will be found in J. Buckley, S.J., "Father Robert Fulton; a Sketch," 
Woodstock Letters, 25:90-112, 1896. 

11 Catalogus Provinciae Marylandiae, S.J., ineunte anno 1865. 

1- A valedictory delivered by Stephen J. Hart, June 28, 1877, transcribed 
in Callanan, "Reminiscences," The Stylus, 13( March, 1899): 167. 



78 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

superstition that nothing superior to the education of the 
pubhc schools of New England had as yet been discovered.^^ 

Of the number that did come, Father Fulton dourly observed 
in his diary, "many came gratuitously, and only one or two had 
talent."^* Yet a reporter for The Pilot who visited the school after 
it had been in operation a few weeks saw a brighter picture: 

Father Bapst has the gratification of seeing at length the 
College which he has labored so hard to complete in progress. 
We visited the Institution last week, and were pleased to see 
the advancement already made. Classes have been organized, 
and the various members are becoming familiarized with the 
daily routine. Second Humanities is tlie highest department 
this year, and from it the other classes descend in order to 
Rudiments, where the Uttle beginner is introduced with proud 
anxiety to the mysterious pages of the Viri Romae, and views 
the long highway of classics. . . . Thirty-two students com- 
prise their total number at present but the good Fathers ex- 
pect this little body will be augmented before long. Catholics 
& our fellow-citizens of other denominations should take the 
opportunity afforded to giving their children a classical 
education. The Jesuit Fathers are world-renowned instructors 
of youth, and many of our most intellectual men have owed 
their successes to the early training of the Society.^^ 

AppHcants continued to appear singly throughout the fall 
months, and by January 1 an additional twenty-four students 
were entered on the college register.^^ And sixteen more had 
signed up before the close of classes in June. Unfortunately, 
about 25 per cent of this number did not persevere after enter- 
ing, so a notation in Father Fulton's handwriting in the College 
Register, evidently written in June, 1865, states: "Closed the 
First Year with Forty-eight (48) students. Sixty-two entered."^^ 

The time order for this first year is also found in this register, 
written in Father Fulton's hand. 

13 Devitt, "History of the Maryland-New York Province," Woodstock 
Letters, 64:405, 1935. 

" Fulton, Diary, under date 1864. 

15 The Pilot, Oct. 1, 1864. 

16 Register of Students, MS. preserved in the library, Boston College. 

17 Ibid. 



TWENTY-TWO PIONEERS 79 

8:30 a.m. Mass 
iLsf Latin 

^^\ Heee. 

11:00 Greek 

12:00 Recess 

12:30 Mathematics 

1:30 French 

2:30 End of classes 

(On Saturdays classes terminated at 1:30 p.m.) 

A weekly report was read on Mondays at 11:45, evidently to 
each class by its own teacher, with a formal reading of marks 
before the whole school on the first day of every month. 

An analysis of the entering class shows that over three quar- 
ters of the students (48 out of 62) were enrolled in the class of 
second Rudiments (a preparatory class, roughly equivalent to 
eighth grade in a modern grammar school); five were enrolled 
in first Rudiments (first year high); eight in third Grammar 
(second year high); and only one in second Grammar (third 
year high). With few exceptions, the ages of the students fell 
within the eleven- to sixteen-year-old group, with the average at 
fourteen, which is approximately one and a half years older than 
pupils at a comparable grade today. 

Some of the textbooks used in the class of second Rudiments 
in the opening year are preserved in the Boston College Library. 
The Latin composition book is Andrews,^^ written somewhat on 
the lines of the Bradley-Arnold Latin exercise text which was 
known to generations of English schoolboys. There does not 
appear to be very much gradation in the exercises, and little or 
no effort made to emphasize the more important points, while 
minimizing or excluding the less important ones. It would un- 
questionably be a diflBcult book for eighth grade or first year 
high school pupils, and would make heavy demands on the 

18 E. A. Andrews, Latin Exercises; Adapted to Andrews and Stoddard's 
Latin Grammar, 20th ed., revised and corrected (Boston: Crocker and 
Brewster, I860). 



80 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

teacher's skill. An examination of it raises one's esteem for the 
early scholars who used it. Judging by the inscription written by 
the owner on the flyleaf, the text was also used through third 
Humanities ( equivalent to third year high ) . 

Another textbook evidently used for two years by the same 
pupil is an English grammar,^^ which commences Lesson I, on 
the use of words, with the sentence: 

Adam and Eve, our first parents, were placed by their 
Creator in the beautiful garden of Eden, but soon lost it by 
their Disobedience. 

Then lists the following instructions and questions: 

Learn the words given above. 
Of whom is something said? 

Of Adam and Eve. 
Who were Adam and Eve? 

Our first parents. 
Whose first parents? 

Our first parents; the first parents of 

you and me and all mankind. 
What is said of Adam and Eve? 

They were placed somewhere. 
Where were they placed? 

In the garden. 
In what garden? 

In the garden of Eden. 
What kind of a garden was it? i 

A beautiful garden. 

And so on for the first twenty-four pages. The balance of the 
book, fortunately, discards the catechetical method and re- 
sembles more the conventional English grammar. 

A third book in this collection is one that was used in the 
class of bookkeeping in third Humanities ( third year high ) . It is 
entitled: Book-keeping Rationalized.^^ This volume approaches 

19 Allen H. Weld, Weld's Progressive English Grammar, illustrated with 
Copious Exercises in Analysis, Parsing, and Composition. Adapted to 
Schools and Academies of Every Grade (Portland, Me.: O. L. Sanborn 
& Co., no date — Preface dated Aug. 1, 1859). 

20 George N. Comer, Book-keeping Rationalized (Boston; Frederick A, 
Brown & Co., 1865). 



TWENTY-TWO PIONEERS 



81 



TABLE I 

Terminology of Grades Employed at Boston College in 1864, 

With Later and Modern Equivalents^! 



1864 
Philosophy* 
Rhetoric* 
Poetry* 

1st Class of Humanities* 
2nd Class of Humanities 
3rd Class of Humanities 
Rudiments ( 1st Division ) 
Rudiments (2nd Division) 



J 894 
Philosophy 
Rhetoric 
Humanities 
First Grammar 
Second Class of Grammar 
Third Class of Grammar 
Rudiments ( 1st Division ) 
Rudiments (2nd Division) 



Rudiments (3rd Division)** No Equivalent 



* Not offered in 1864. 
** Designation made in 1865; abandoned in 1868. 



1947 
Senior 
Junior 
Sophomore 
Freshman 
4th Year High 
3rd Year High 
2nd Year High 
1st Year High 
( or 8th Grade 
Grammar 
School ) 
8th Grade or 
7th Grade 
Grammar 
School 



very closely to the modern presentation of the matter, and was 
written by the director of a popular business school in Boston at 
the time. 

Also in the collection is a book given to a pupil as a premium 
for proficiency in arithmetic on the first Annual Exhibition, June 
30, 1865. This particular prize was a book-length narrative poem 
on a religious theme, entitled The Mystical Rose, by Marie 
Josephine, an edifying but ponderously unsuitable gift for a boy 
of sixteen. 

Since no catalogues were published during the first five years^ 
of the college's existence, no other information than that given 
above is available on the textbooks used for the opening year. 
However, a list of the textbooks used in the season 1867-1868 
was found in Father Fulton's handwriting in the College Regis- 
ter, and one may presume that it is basically similar to that 

21 These categories based upon the terminology used in making teaching 
assignments in the Maryland Province Catalogus, and in the Boston College 
catalogues. 



82 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

prescribed for the opening classes. This hst, transcribed in Ap- 
pendix A, provides also a plan of classes as they were at the start 
of the college. A uniform terminology, however, in reference to 
the classes was not observed throughout the early years, hence 
the table on page 81 of old-style class titles, with approximate 
equivalents in later and modem school usage, may be of assist- 
ance to the reader. 

The Initl\l Exhibition 
As the termination of the first school year approached. Fathers 
Bapst and Fulton found themselves confronted with many prob- 
lems, foremost among which was the task of arranging a credit- 
able "exhibition," as the Commencement exercises were then 
called. In May, Father Bapst wrote the Provincial in tones re- 
flecting his desperation at the difficulties which surrounded him: 

Fr. Fulton has just been with me in reference to the Exhibi- 
tion to be given at the Commencement. It is necessary that it 
should be something creditable, as it is the only efficient 
recommendation we can offer to the public, in favor of our 
schools. There is hardly a secular priest who will say a good 
word on our behalf, but great many will be disposed to say 
a bad word against us; & yet the parents are generally influ- 
enced by their pastors as to what college they should send 
their boys. Therefore a great deal depends on that first exhibi- 
tion at Boston College; by it we shall be judged. Fr. Fulton's 
plan is to have two exhibitions: a regular examination, the 
first night; & a religious drama "Joseph Sold by his Brothers" 
the second night. The reason for having the drama is this: As 
we have only three low classes in all, it would be impossible 
to have compositions of a general interest, by boys so little 
advanced in hterature; & therefore if nothing is added, our 
first exhibition, no matter how much relative merit it may 
possess, would not answer the expectation, would be a faflure; 
which, at the outset, would be a great injury to the College. 
But by giving the drama in question, which would be per- 
formed in a creditable manner by our boys, as Fr. F. thinks, 
that inconvenience would be avoided & a good impression 
produced. 

This year, instead of diminishing the debt, we have added 



TWENTY-TWO PIONEERS 83 

to it; & as the Bishop is going to begin his buildings at once & 
will not stop raising money for four or five years (a great 
damper on all fairs and collections for our church), our pros- 
pects for collecting money are very slfm. The only way left us, 
is to increase the number of our Scholars, which cannot be 
done except by making the college popular and attractive. 
And besides strong studies & a good government, I don't see 
anything calculated to popularize our schools but some bril- 
liant exhibition, & for the present nothing else seems available 
but a drama such as I have proposed. If it cannot be permitted 
now, it can never be permitted. In the present circumstances, 
I hope your Rev'ce will oppose no objection to it. We are 
discouraged enough already, it would be dangerous to in- 
crease our discouragement, although certainly we shall submit 
to your decision, no matter what the consequences may be.^^ 

Such an appeal could hardly be refused, and so, when the 
following invitation was sent out in June, it was to attend a 
two-part exhibition as Father Fulton had wished. 

Sir: 

The company of yourself and family is respectfully re- 
quested at the FIRST ANNUAL EXHIBITION OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

which will take place in the College Hall, on the evenings of 
the 29th and 30th of June, beginning at half -past seven o'clock. 

Boston College, Harrison Av. 
June 27, 1865^^ 

The original program of the Exhibition is transcribed in Ap- 
pendix B from a copy preserved at Georgetown University. The 
Exhibition consisted in a public examination of the pupils on the 
first day, and a sacred drama, "Joseph and His Brethren," on the 
second. , 

A reporter from The Pilot commented that the unostentatious 
opening of the college the preceding autumn had not prepared 
the public for the impressive manner in which the institution 
closed its first school year. According to this account. Father 

22 Bapst to Paresce, May 10, 1865, Maryland S.J. Provincial Archives, 
Woodstock, 227 M 9. 

23 The invitation is preserved in the Georgetown University Arcliives, 
Washington , D. C. 



84 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

Fulton opened his remarks on the evenmg of the Exhibition with 
an apology for the exercises which were to be presented. He 
enumerated the handicaps under which the school operated, 
among which were the small number of students, and the fact 
that these boys were enrolled in the very lowest grades. Because 
of these considerations, he asked the audience's indulgence in 
judging the quality of the Exhibition. But The Pilot critic re- 
corded that the ensuing exercises were so excellently done that 
the audience felt the prefatory apology was unnecessary. 

On the second night, in addition to the play, selections by the 
Germania Band and the college choir, the award of premiums 
was held, with the venerable Father McElroy, as guest of the 
evening, presenting the silver crosses and books to the successful 
students. In passing, it might be noted that the list of prizes that 
night must have proved encouraging even to the lowliest pupil, 
since a count of the awards reveals that sixty-four were dis- 
tributed among a student body of forty-eight! 

In the summarizing judgment of the newspaper man, these 
first commencement exercises had "proved [the college's] claims 
on the patronage of a discriminating public."^* 

Father Bapst sent copies of the program to the Provincial on 
July 7, with the report that "our Examination and Exhibition . . . 
were certainly a success."^^ He continued: 

How many boys will we have next September, time will 
tell, [sic] We ought to have at least one hundred paying boys, 
& then all will be right. But I have been so often deceived in 
my prophecies, that I prefer to wait until the schools open 
again to tell how many boys we shall have. 

Our Professors have well merited of Boston College. They 
have more than fulfilled their duties, they have done [a] great 
many works of supererogation, & they have been successful in 
all. But above all my thanks & gratitude are due to the Prefect 
of Schools, who has taken the great interest in them & made 
extraordinary exertions to put the college on such a footing 

2* The Pilot, July 8, 1865. 

-^ Bapst to Paresce, July 7, 1865, Maryland S.J. Provincial Archives, 
Woodstock, 227 M 12. 



TWENTY-TWO PIONEERS 85 

as to insure its successful working. Without him Boston Col- 
lege would not get along.' He is the man for Boston College.^^ 

Thus the first year ended successfully in spite of very limited 
resources and a very limited response from the Catholics of 
Boston. The new school had figured so little in the Catholic life 
of the city that not a single mention of the institution had oc- 
curred in the pages of the quasi-diocesan paper from the reports 
on October 1 of its opening, until the notice of its closing for the 
term in the July 8 issue. Three teachers and forty-eight pupils! 
But it was a beginning with credit, and the stouthearted little 
staff could now draw deep breaths of satisfaction and relief, and 
look forward with renewed courage to the first Monday in 
September. 

-6 Ibid. 



CHAPTER VIII 
CONSOLIDATING A GAIN 



During the summer of 1865, the college issued a "Circular to 
the Parents and Guardians of Youth in Boston and the Vicinity,"^ 
which presented the advantages of attendance at a Jesuit school. 
It drew attention to the interest which instructors had in the 
spiritual welfare of their charges, and dwelt on the value of a 
classical course. Yet, lest anyone think that Latin, Greek, and 
Religion were the only subjects oflFered at the new institution, 
the circular indicated the time which had been devoted to other 
subjects during the scholastic year just ended. Mathematics, 
Peimianship, Music, and co-ordinated courses in Geography and 
History extending over several years were mentioned. The study 
of English was described as "of primary importance." 

. . . Lessons in English Grammar were frequent, compositions 
ordinarily exacted every week. [Moreover] two hours a week 
were given to French under the direction of Mr. De Frondat, 
whose merit as a teacher the Directors hold in high estima- 
tion. By a weekly and minute report, parents were kept 
apprised of the conduct and progress of the pupils. 

In September next, as was promised, a more advanced 
class in Latin, Greek, English, French, and Mathematics, 
and a class of book-keeping will be added to the course. 
. . . The Sciences will be taught in the graduating class. - 

Toward the close of this circular the offer was made to sell 
scholarships in perpetuity at one thousand dollars each. The 

1 Woodstock College Archives, 227 M 17. 2 Ibid. 

86 



CONSOLIDATING A GAIN 87 

proposition was not developed beyond the statement of the 
fact, which the writer sought to bring to the attention of "par- 
ishes, rehgious societies, or wealthy individuals, [who] may be 
desirous of educating, in this manner, candidates for the priest- 
hood: or parents [who] may find it for their interest to provide 
thus for the instruction of a numerous family of children."^ 

The Pilot for September 9, 1865, described the plan as follows: 

On sending a son to college, instead of paying the regular 
pension each session, the parent will pay the above sum once 
for all. The son having been educated, another may succeed, 
or the scholarship may be sold forever, or for a term of years. 
If retained, it may descend to the heirs of the original pur- 
chaser, subject to conditions he may prescribe.^ 

Continuing in an editorial vein, the paper remarked that 

Parishes, or parish priests, have regarded it almost as a 
duty to contribute to the education of candidates for the 
ministry. It will be evident that according to the plan we 
are discussing, they would be able, at much less cost, to make 
permanent provision for the education of their own youth 
who aspire to Holy Orders.^ 

The editor goes on to urge generosity on the part of the 
wealthy, but as far as can be determined, the offer met with 
very little response. The Pilot two weeks later reported a Joseph 
Sinnott as "the first to exhibit his generosity and zeal for Catho- 
lic education in founding a scholarship, to which he has nomi- 
nated Henry Towle, a lad who has distinguished himself in the 
Dwight School."^ Twenty-two years later, the college treasurer's 
books showed that only six paid scholarships had been estab- 
hshed up to that time; one by a Mrs. Kramer; one by the above- 
mentioned Mr. Sinnott of Philadelphia; three by Mrs. Anna H. 
Ward, of 2 Washington Place, New York; and one by a Father 
Orr.^ 

3 Ibid. 4 The Pilot, Sept. 9, 1865. s Ibid. « Ibid., Sept. 23, 1865. 

7 Ledger marked: "Boston College Students' Accounts" ( Sept., 1879- 
Feb. 1887), Boston College High School Archives, Harrison Avenue, 
Boston, p. 271. 



88 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

Growing Student Body 
There was, however, a marked increase in the regular student 
registration on the opening day, September 4, Father Bapst 
found time at eleven o'clock that morning, in the midst of the 
excitement, to pen a short and enthusiastic "bulletin" to the 
Provincial: 

We have entered thus far the names of 70 students, which 
is considered a success; three only of our old pupils having 
failed to make their appearance. The teachers & Fr. Fulton 
are in good spirits.^ 

TJie Pilot reported that the college had reopened with the 
number of pupils nearly doubled.® Any effort to estimate the 
total enrollment for that year is frustrated by the system of 
registration in force at the time, which showed only the new 
pupils enrolled. Thus, it is clear that at the end of the first term 
forty-eight new boys had enrolled, and by June the number 
had risen to fifty-nine.^" But what the total enrollment was, one 
can only guess, working with this number of new students, and 
Father Bapst's remark quoted above that all but three of last 
year's pupils had returned (viz., forty-five had returned). This 
figure of 104 should certainly be corrected for numerous with- 
drawals, yet how many withdrawals there were can no longer 
be ascertained. Since this is the only year for which this informa- 
tion is not available, an estimate could be made based on the 
regularity of increment observed in the other years. Thus: 

1864 1865 1866 1867 1868 1869 1870" 
48 ? 81 100 114 130 140 

The average gain for the latter five years is approximately fifteen 

s Bapst to Paresce, Sept. 4, 1865, Maryland S.J. Provincial Archives, 
Woodstock, 227 M 18. 

9 The Pilot, Sept. 23, 1865. 

1° Manuscript volume: "Register of Students," in the Boston College 
Archives, under respective dates. 

1^ Based upon a chart giving a summary of statistics concerning Boston 
College dravm up for the Provincial, apparently about 1882, Maryland 
S.J. Provincial Archives, Woodstock. 



CONSOLIDATING A GAIN 89 

pupils a year; subtracting this number from the 81 (in 1866), 
we would have an estimated enrollment for 1865 of 66. As 
deflating and as contradictory as this figure seems, it receives at 
least some support from an ambiguous statement penciled under 
the final entry for this year in the College Register: "Closed 
with upwards of sixty ."^^ 

The teaching staff, in anticipation of an enlarged student 
body, had meanwhile been increased to eight. This included 
four scholastics who were full-time teachers (Messrs. Peter P. 
Fitzpatrick, S.J., Michael Byrnes, S.J., James Doonan, S.J., and 
William Carroll, S.J. ), all of whom taught Latin, Greek, English, 
and Arithmetic; one priest (Fr. John Sumner, S.J., the college 
treasurer), who taught a part-time course in bookkeeping; and 
two part-time lay teachers, Mr. De Frondat, for French, and 
Dr. Willcox, for Music; and the prefect of studies, Fr. Fulton, 
S.J.- 
Boston College Life in the Sixties 

A glimpse into the school life of that second year of Boston 
College is permitted us in the recollections of Dr. Henry Towle, 
mentioned above as holder of the first scholarship granted at 
the college: 

My first visit to Boston College was made when a mere 
child. I wandered into the ground bordering on James Street 
and found someone exhuming dead bodies before building the 
Church of the Immaculate Conception. ... If the back of the 
College was built in sombre vicinage, the front faced the 
race course, called in those days the Fair Grounds. ... In 
the days when Flora Temple was queen of the turf, the 
horses ceased to run there forever. The fair grounds became 
an open plain, used late in the sixties as a base-ball field, 
and a rendezvous for foot-ball after school. ... It was not 
an ideal location for a Catholic school at first, but we owe 
the choosing of the site to the aftermath of the Know-nothing 
movement. 

12 Manuscript volume: "Register of Students," in the Boston College 
Library Archives. 

13 Catalogus Provinciae Marylandiae S.J., ineunte anno 1866, s.v. "Colle- 
gium Bostoniense Inchoatum," and The Pilot, Oct. 7, 1865. 



90 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

In 1865 I entered Boston College as a pupil. It was the 
second year of its existence as a school. . . . Fifty scholars, 
ranging in years from twenty-six to eleven made up the entire 
membership. . . . Most of us were in the Second and Third 
Rudiments, under Mr. Doonan, and a few in Third Humani- 
ties, under Mr. Fitzpatrick, . . . The first pupils were of all 
shades of industry and idleness. In that crowd of fifty there 
were men and boys of varying degrees of scholarship. Some 
of the elder came for reformation of character; some were 
belated aspirants for Holy Orders, who had acquired a vo- 
cation late in life; and with these were mingled boys just 
removed from the lowest grammar classes. ... So thorough 
was the weeding of pupils of 1865, that only two of our num- 
ber reached the class of Rhetoric in 1871, where our coUege 
course terminated. 

It was in '66 that the true school life which characterized 
Boston College began. We had a large influx of boys from St. 
Mary's school and from other sections of the city, and the 
classes assumed definite shape and form. . . . Having no 
traditions we soon adopted those of our teachers, and our 
College heroes were old graduates of Georgetown and Loyola. 
I wonder whether we sympathized with the dead Confederacy 
so much, merely because so many of our scholastics came 
from Maryland and that vicinity. We had an impression that 
"Maryland, my Maryland," was written by a Georgetown 
boy, and therefore infinitely preferred its sentiments to those 
of "Marching Through Georgia." As far as I can recall the 
aims and ideals of the boys around me, we wished to be like 
some southern worthy, whose wit and mirth we read in some 
old college class book, or to learn from some teacher who was 
his fellow student in youth.^* 

Once the new year began, the school settled into a smooth 
and efficient routine. Father Bapst wrote in October that, with 
the exception of financial affairs, "The college is going on pretty 
well. Fr. Fulton wishes me to say that the teachers are very 
docile with him and give satisfaction."^^ The poor state of the 

14 Henry C. Towle, "The Pioneer Days at Boston College," The Stylus, 
11 (June, 1897): 332-338. 

15 Bapst to Paresce, Oct. 11, 1865, Maryland S.J. Provincial Archives, 
Woodstock, 227 M 20. 



CONSOLIDATING A GAIN 91 

school's financial condition was due, in part at least, to the 
withdrawal of the annual contribution hitherto made by St. 
Mary's Church in the North End. Father Bapst protested this 
loss repeatedly and vigorously. In February he had outlined his 
position to the Provincial: 

I saw Fr. Brady [the Superior at St. Mary's], in relation 
to the $3,000; [which had been given annually for the sup- 
port of the college,] although he has just realized $8,000 by 
his last fair, which closed last week, yet he does not seem to 
be inclined to do much more for Boston College. Until our 
schools bring in some revenues, above the expenses, it will 
be impossible for us to get along without the $3,000. The 
Bishop insists that St. Mary's was given to the Society for 
the sole purpose of enabling us to build a College, & that 
all the revenues should go to that object. A congregation of 
20,000 souls ought to be able to yield at least a surplus of 
$3,000, v^dth proper management, without interfering at all 
with its own requirements. I hope your Rev'ce will see to it.^® 

Evidently no action was taken, since eight months later he 
was reporting that 

The temporalities of this establishment are in such a state 
as to require immediately another fair or some other extraor- 
dinary means of raising funds. The accounts, which Fr. 
Sumner is now preparing, will show a large deficit.^^ 

Another Fair 
The idea of a second fair as a solution to the college's financial 
difiiculties was acted on the following spring, and in May The 
Pilot carried the preliminary announcement: 

GRAND FAIR 

For Boston College and the Church of the ' 

Immaculate Conception 
A Free Scholarship in perpetuity in Boston College is offered 
to every Table that returns one thousand dollars. 



16 Bapst to Paresce, Feb. 8, 1865, Maryland S.J. Provincial Archives, 
Woodstock, 227 M 4. 

1'' Bapst to Paresce, Oct. 11, 1865, Maryland S.J. Provincial Archives, 
Woodstock, 227 M 20. 



92 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

Churches, Societies, and others, wilHng to take the responsi- 
bihty of a Table, thereby securing to themselves and suc- 
cessors for all time, the great privilege of educating, free from 
all expense, some deserving Catholic boy, are requested to 
make immediate application to Father Bapst. 

The fair commences in October next. Full particulars at an 
early day.^* 

Toward the close of June the date of the opening and the 
place of the fair w^ere published as October 15 in the famous 
Boston Music Hall. An appeal for articles or money to aid in 
the cause Vi^as signed by the "management," listed as: 

Francis McLaughhn, Exchange Street 
Hugh Carey, Freeman and Carey 
Michael Doherty, Union Square 
Joseph A. Laforme, N. Reggio & Co. 
C. A. Linemann, Franklin Street 
Hugh O'Brien, Shipping List 
William S. Pelletier, Roxbury 
J. H. Willcox, Chester Square.^^ 

Meanwhile, the academic officers of the college had in- 
augurated a custom which was destined to live for many decades, 
the awarding of the monthly certificates (or, as they were then 
called, "tickets"), for proficiency in studies. The first publica- 
tion of these awards appeared in The Pilot for May 12, 1866,-° 
and thereafter this monthly listing in the "public press" became 
one of the great inducements to academic effort.-^ 

On the evenings of July 2 and 3, 1866, the second annual 
examination and exhibition (commencement) were held in the 
college hall. The program on the first evening consisted of 
examinations of the second and third classes of Humanities, the 
first and second divisions of Rudiments; declamation, and music 

18 The Pilot, May 26 and June 2, 1866. 
^^Ibid., June 30, 1866. 

20 Ibid., May 12, 1866. 

21 Cf. "Catalogue of the Officers and Students of Boston College for the 
Academic Year 1868-9" (first catalogue issued), p. 10: "... those who 
... are marked above a fixed number (usually about ninety or ninety-five), 
are rewarded with tickets, and the award is published in the Boston Pilot." 



CONSOLIDATING A GAIN 93 

by the Germania Band. The declamation exercises were two: 
"Peace," recited by John Lane, and a satire written by Theobald 
Murphy, and delivered by John McLaughlin and Terence Quinn, 
which was described by a reviewer for The Pilot as "full of 
point and fun."-^ The ceremonies of the second night were 
featured by a sacred drama entitled "Sedecias," with George 
W. Lennon in the title role, H. R. O'Donnell as Nebuchodonosor, 
and Daniel McAvoy (the college's proto-student ) as Jeremias.^^ 
In the awarding of premiums which followed, eighty-seven 
medals and "accesserunt" distinctions were announced, the 
twenty other pupils named for 'Tionorable mention." The Pilot 
representative commented: 

The exhibition during the two evenings has added not a 
little to the good reputation of the College. The College at 
the present time has about seventy-five pupils, and is in a 
flourishing and progressive condition.-* 

When the College opened for the fall term, an extension of 
its facilities was made to provide in a rudimentary way for adult 
education. A library of 1000 books was established in the base- 
ment of the adjoining Immaculate Conception Church, and the 
room was equipped to serve as a qiiasi club for the Catholic 
young men of the city.^^ The membership fee was one dollar 
a year. In the course of time, lectures were given before the 
group, and various activities sponsored by it, all of which pre- 
pared the ground for the later founding of the Young Men's 
Catholic Association by Father Fulton. 

But the main concern of all associated with the college at 
this time was the second fair. This great event was opened to 
the public on Monday evening, October 15, 1866, at the Boston 
Music Hall, and continued daily thereafter from eleven in the 

22 The Pilot, July 14, 1866, 

23 Ibid. Other parts in the play were: T. G. Devenny as Elmero; T. J. 
Ford as Josias; J. Kenneely as Manassas; J. Baron as Rapsaris; A. Maher 
as Araxhes; John Eichorn and Joseph Finotti as youngest sons of Sedecias. 

^4 Ibid. 

25 Ibid., Oct. 13, 1866. 



94 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

morning until ten at night for three weeks.^^ The management 
had promised that this fair would be the most attractive and 
successful ever held in the city,^' and if one can believe the 
enthusiastic notices which the afPair received in the newspapers, 
it really lived up to its advance publicity. The Pilot pronounced 
it "a great success . . . elegant decorations . . . this one sur- 
passes them all."^^ 

When Gilmore's Band, one of the most popular musical 
organizations in the United States during the sixties, and the 
other features of the fair kept drawing the crowds to the Music 
Hall without any appreciable falling off in attendance for the 
full length of the original engagement, it was decided to con- 
tinue the fair for an additional week at the College Hall, after 
the closing of the Music Hall on November 23,^® This was 
evidently done with satisfactory results because Father Fulton 
records in his diary that the net proceeds rose to $30,728, and 
that his own table brought in some $4,600,^° all of which con- 
stituted a new record for Catholic fairs. 

On November 28, a complimentary dinner to the fair com- 
mittee was given in the college,^^ and it was perhaps on that 
occasion that the founding of eighteen scholarships in honor of 
those table sponsors who realized sums of over $1,000 at the 
fair was announced. ^^ The ledger in which the names of these 

^6 Ibid. 

27 Ibid., Oct. 20, 1866. 

28 Ibid., Oct. 27, 1866; cf. also issue of Nov. 3, 1866. 

29 From a manuscript diary of the Immaculate Conception Church Sunday 
School, preserved in the Archives of the Province of Maryland, Societv 
of Jesus. 

30 Manuscript diary of Fr. Robert Fulton, S.J., under date, "1866," pre- 
served in Georgetown University Archives. 

31 Immaculate Conception Sunday School Diary. 

32 The following parties were empowered to nominate candidates foi t!ie 
"Fair Scholarships": "The Misses Bradley; Mrs. Kennricken (two scholar- 
ships); Mrs. Lennon; Mrs. Brady; Miss Helen Davis; Mrs. Reggio; Mrs. 
Merrill; Mrs. Riley; Miss Charlotte Ford (two scholarships); Mrs. AcAivy 
[sic]; Mrs. Wilkins (four scholarships); and the College Advertiser 
[evidently referring to the directors of the newspaper published daily dur- 
ing the Fair]." (From manuscript ledger, entitled: "Boston College Students' 
Accounts — Private (1879-1887)," preserved in the Boston College High 
School faculty residence archives, Boston. ) 



CONSOLIDATING A GAIN 95 

patrons were recorded in the treasurer's oflBce contains the 
following annotation evidently written at the time: 

Though the Patrons of the Fair Scholarships have a right to 
appoint to the places, Fr. Fulton, who directed the appoint- 
ment of scholarships to them, for services rendered at the 
Fair, desired that the President of the College should see 
that they were given judiciously, i.e., to such as are briUiant, 
etc.^^ 

In Father Fulton's opinion, "the free scholarships instituted 
after the Fair gave the first impulse and first ability to the 
College."^^* 

"3 "Boston College Students' Accounts . . . 1879-1887." 
34 Fulton. Diary, under date, "1886." 



CHAPTER IX 
THE LETTER OF THE LAW 



Although the fair and the annual commencements high-hghted 
these opening years, the spiritual substance, as it were, of the 
school was to be found in the monotonous routine of the class- 
room, and it was here that the distinctive character of Boston 
College was being formed. Some indication of the formative 
forces which were at work may be gathered from a rather 
lengthy and detailed code of rules written by Father Fulton 
at this time "for the direction of the teachers of B. C."^ The 
advice which he gave covered indiscriminately philosophy of 
education, administration, and suggestions for the improvement 
of teaching. The following selections were drawn at random 
from these "rules": 

. . . education consists chiefly in informing the mind and in 
training the powers of intellect and will: but the chief 
result of education is the religious reformation and religious 
training. 

If not in the teacher, in no one else will the scholar have 
a constant and easy opportunity of viewing an exemplar of 
virtue. 

Commands should be given rarely and only for good reason, 
but always enforced. It will be inhuman to punish for every 

1 Manuscript volume, "Register of Students, 1864-1898," preserved in 
Boston College Library Archives. The rules here referred to are found on 
the last few pages of this volume. They are in the hand of Father Fulton, 
and a comparison of this handwriting with specimens of his handwriting 
at known dates, indicates that the rules were written about 1867 or 1868. 

96 



THE LETTER OF THE LAW 97 

oflFence. Connive at faults except where evil consequences 
may follow. But when a fault is committed and should be 
animadverted on, let punishment be the last resort. He is 
quite an unsuccessful teacher who knows of no resource but 
punishment. . . . General punishments are never to be given. 

What is most to be feared in our teaching is the neglect 
of accessory studies. It is mainly from these that parents 
judge of results. The difference between principal and acces- 
sory studies is not that the latter may be heard in a slovenly 
way, but that they receive less time. 

Hereafter the teachers of Mat. and Arith. will have the 
power to prevent those signally negligent in these classes 
from promotion in the Latin classes, also. 

In the summer of 1869, the first Catalogue of the Officers and 
Students of Boston College appeared with a report on the 
academic year 1868-1869.- In this publication the tuition is 
announced as thirty dollars a semester, payable in advance. The 
catalogue states, however, that "provision is made for the in- 
struction of indigent, but meritorious candidates, who should 
present their claims for admission before the commencement 
of the session." 

The requirements for admission were "a good moral character, 
and a knowledge of the fundamental principles of Arithmetic 
and Grammar." In stating that the academic year contained two 
sessions, beginning on the first Monday in September and on 
the first Monday in February respectively, the catalogue added: 
"but students are not precluded from entering at any time 
during the year." 

The hours of attendance were from half-past eight in the 
morning until half-past two in the afternoon, "with recesses at 
convenient intervals." Classes on Saturdays terminated at on'e 
o'clock. One hour a day was devoted to arithmetic, and two 
hours a week to modern language, with the balance of the day 
given to Latin, Greek, and English, 

- "Catalogue of the Officers and Students of Boston College for the 
Academic Year 1868-9" (Boston: Alfred Mudge and Son, 1869, 22 pp.). 
The excerpts which follow in the text were taken passim from this 
publication. 



98 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

In contrast to Holy Cross College, the charter of which made 
it an exclusively Cathohc college, Boston College had an act of 
incorporation which provided that "no student in said college 
shall be refused admission to, or denied any of the privileges, 
honors or degrees of said college on account of the religious 
opinions he may entertain." This passage was quoted in the 
catalogue with the comment: "Students that are not Catholics 
will not be required to participate in any exercise distinctively 
Catholic; nor will any undue influence be used to induce a 
change of religious behef ."^ 

However, Catholic students were required 

... to hear Mass every day, unless distance of residence 
should furnish reason for exemption; to recite the daily 
catechetical lesson; to attend the weekly lecture on the doc- 
trines of the Church, and the annual retreat; to present them- 
selves to their confessor every month; and, if they have never 
received the Sacraments of Penance, Confirmation or Holy 
Eucharist, to prepare for their reception.^ 

The educational background of new students varied so much 
that special arrangements frequently had to be made to ac- 
commodate them. On admission, the student was examined to 
determine the classes to which he should be assigned, and he 
was told that the rate of subsequent progress depended upon 
his own ability and diligence. The catalogue warned that a 
pupil's general deficiency in preparation might cause him to be 
detained more than one year with the lowest class, and that a 
pupil's weakness in a specific subject might result in his pursuing 
that study in a lower grade than his regular classes.^ 

The method of marking employed at that period was ex- 
plained in the catalogue. 

At the end of each recitation, its quality is recorded. Six 
is the highest number of marks given for a written exercise; 
four, for a translation or analysis; two, for any other exercise, 
and the same number for punctuality and good-conduct; the 

3 Ibid., p. 4. 

* hoc. cit. s Loc. cit. 



THE LETTER OF THE LAW 99 

number being diminished by one for every fault. A copy of 
this record ... is furnished the parents every week. 

At the end of each session an examination is held for all 
that was studied during the session. A separate examiner is 
assigned to each class. The examination is conducted in 
writing and lasts for about two weeks.^ 

At the annual exhibitions, according to this announcement, 
distinctions of three degrees were conferred. In addition, an- 
nual prizes were instituted of fifty dollars in gold for the best 
English composition, twenty-five dollars in gold for excellence 
in reading, and the same amount for excellence in declamation. 

The detention period after school for minor infractions of 
rules, known to generations of Jesuit school pupils as "jug," was 
a regular institution at Boston College at this time. The cata- 
logue stated: 

For faults of ordinary occurrence — such as tardy arrival, 
failure in recitations, or minor instances of misconduct — a 
task, consisting of lines from some classical author, is com- 
mitted to memory during the hour after the close of school.' 

The advantages of the college library are briefly mentioned. 
It appears that a "trifling expense" was connected with the use 
of books by the pupils; this, in a very elementary way, cor- 
responded to the 'library fee" charged by most modern colleges. 

Expansion in other directions was indicated summarily: 

The liberality of a friend has aheady furnished a collection 
of minerals. A gymnasium has been begun, and an ample 
cabinet of philosophical instruments will be in readiness for 
the graduating class.^ 

Among the "activities" listed in the back of the catalogue 
one finds first place accorded to the Sodahty of the Immaculate 
Conception. Forty-one pupfls were named as attending the sodal- 
ity meetings, at which the OflBce of the Blessed Mother was 
recited in Latin, and exhortations were delivered. 

The Society of St. Cecilia, which boasted of thirty-nine mem- 

^Ibid., p. 10. ''Ibid., p. 11. ^ Loc. cit. 



100 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

bers, supplied the music at the daily Mass, and gave "its aid, 
when needed, at celebrations, either of the College, or the 
Church of the Immaculate Conception." 

There were twenty-two members of "The Debating Society of 
Boston College" who exercised themselves in dramatic reading, 
declamation, and extemporaneous debate. Father Fulton was 
founder, director, and president of this organization, which 
today is proud to bear his name. 

The catalogue then listed the officers and teachers on the 
college staff, and gave a directoiy of the pupils and the classes 
to which they belong. An official record of the Fifth Annual 
Exhibition, which was held on June 30, 1869, was given in full, 
together with a program for "Richard III," the closing play of 
that year. The last item in the catalogue was a reproduction of 
a sample report card. 

This very creditable catalogue appears to be the exclusive 
work of Father Fulton. One gathers this from the remark which 
Father Fulton made in his diary to the effect that neither Father 
Bapst nor anyone else was permitted by the Provincial to have 
a voice in what pertained directly to the academic side of the 
school.^ How wholeheartedly and how effectively Father Fulton 
undertook the many duties connected with this trust may be 
observed in the recollections of a Jesuit who taught under his 
prefectship at Boston College. After relating how disappointed 
Father Fulton was by the initial response to the opening of the 
college, this writer continues: 

Father Fulton believed in hastening slowly, modifying, 
introducing and extending, as exigencies demanded. From the 
start he aimed at a model college, model in its material, as 
well as in its intellectual equipment. "No school can flourish," 
he often said, "without generous expenditures. . . . Surround 
[the pupil] with respectability, and he will begin to respect 
himself after a time. The school furniture should ever be in 
keeping with the dignity of one's position." What he said, he 
did. The desks in Boston College, both for teachers and 
scholars, are all that can be desired. 
9 Fulton, Diary, under date, 1869. 



THE LETTER OF THE LAW 101 

About this time, in the year 1869, the question of a graduat- 
ing class was mooted. Father Fulton would not hear of it, 
giving as his reason that the body was too weak yet to sustain 
a head. There could be no thought of such a thing until all 
the lower classes were strong and numerous enough to secure 
an unbroken succession. Eight more years [were to pass] by 
before the college attained her majority. 

In the college, [Father Fulton] was the heart and soul of 
everything. His animating spirit was everywhere felt. At no 
time was this zeal for the college shown to more advantage, 
than when the opening of Woodstock [September, 1869] 
necessitated the recall of so many of our scholastics. Father 
Fulton's presence was well nigh ubiquitous. Every class 
seemed to be taught by him. The same programme continued 
to be followed out; the usual weekly report was distributed 
by his own hand to each pupil, with a lively running com- 
mentary.^" 

Second President 
Because Father Fulton was so intimately a part of Boston 
College, one can understand the surprise which was felt by 
many that he was not selected as rector when Father Bapst 
announced his retirement from that office to become Superior 
of the New York-Canada Mission in August of 1869. Even 
Father Bapst was surprised, and on the night before he left for 
New York (i.e., August 23), he wrote to the General of the 
Society in Rome to report that he himself, who could be pre- 
sumed best acquainted with the situation in Boston, had not 
been consulted on the question of a successor. If he had been, 
he wrote, he would have suggested Father Fulton, to whom in a 
large measure the success of the college up to that time had been 
due.'^ He wrote: 

Boston College, despite serious obstacles in the way, seems 
now to enjoy a success beyond all expectations and to hold 
out great hopes for the future. Moreover, our church, as all 
admit, has dissipated many prejudices among non-Catholics, 

10 I. Buckley, S.J., "Father Robert Fulton; a Sketch," Woodstock Letters, 
25:96-108, 1896. 

"Fulton, Diary, under date, 1869. 



102 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

raised the religious spirit to a higher level and already brought 
not a few into the bosom of the Church. To whom are these 
things due? In great measure to Father Fulton. None of Ours 
is gtfted with talents of a higher order. None enjoys so much 
authority among the leading citizens of the town. Our most 
outstanding friends desire to have him for rector of Boston 
College, and, in truth, all things considered, he appears to 
be the worthiest, the fittest for the post.^^ 

From this it should not be concluded that the priest selected 
to be second president of Boston College, Father Robert Wasson 
Brady, S.J., was not eminently suited to the position. He was 
a man of outstanding ability and winning personality,^^ who 
already had broad executive experience and who was destined 
to fill very high positions in the government of the Society of 
Jesus. Father Brady was born on October 6, 1825, in Hancock, 
Washington County, Maryland. He attended St. John's College, 
Frederick City, Maryland, at a time when it was still directed 
by Father John McElroy. He entered the Society of Jesus 
August 31, 1844, and was sent for his teaching period to Holy 
Cross College, Worcester, in 1847. After his ordination, he was 
assigned to St. Mary's Church, in the North End of Boston, in 
1863, and became Superior there. On February 27, 1867, he 
was named rector of Holy Cross College, where he remained 
until he was appointed to a similar position at Boston College 
on August 27, 1869.1* 

12 Bapst ad Beckx, Aug. 23, 1869, JGA, Maryland, 10(?)-I-48, translated 
from the Latin and quoted by Garraghan, "Origins of Boston College," 
Thought, 17 (1942): 655. 

13 Callanan, "Reminiscences," The Stylus, 12(1898):78, describing Father 
Brady as "much beloved" by the students. 

14 J. Morgan, S.J., "Father Robert Wasson Brady, S.J.; a Sketch," Wood- 
stock Letters, 20( 1891):250-255. The announcement of Father Brady's 
appointment was made to the congregation of the Immaculate Conception 
Church by Father McElroy on August 22, 1869 (Sunday School Diary of 
the Immaculate Conception Church, Maryland Province S.J. Archives, under 
"Boston"). Father McElroy was apparently on a visit to Boston at this time 
from Frederick, Md., probably in connection with one or the many retreats 
to religious and priests which he still conducted. 

There is an ironical aspect to Father Brady's selection as president of 
Boston College when one recalls that it was he who, while superior of St. 
Mary's Church in the North End, refused Father Bapst the yearly grant 



THE LETTER OF THE LAW 103 

Father Bapst Leaves Boston 
During Father Bapst's farewell address to the congregation 
of the Immaculate Conception Church on Sunday, August 15, 
1869, he took occasion to review his long connection with the 
church and college.^^ The church, he recalled, was burdened 
with a debt of $156,000 when he assumed the duties of pastor 
some six years before, but he was able gradually to reduce this 
to $58,000. He thanked the congregation and friends of the 
college for making this possible, and expressed the hope that 
their efforts would continue to be as effective as they had 
hitherto been, because a debt of $18,000 had to be met during 
the coming year. He then announced that an offer of a gift had 
been made to reduce this debt by $10,000 on the condition 
that the congregation raised a like amount. The offer was made 
by the family of one of his fellow Jesuits, Father Edward Holker 
Welch, who was an assistant parish priest at the Immaculate 
Conception Church. Father Welch was a Harvard graduate, and 
a scion of a wealthy Boston family, and had been converted to 
the Catholic faith with his classmate and dearest friend, Joseph 
Coolidge Shaw, who also became a priest and a Jesuit.^^ The 
social prominence of the donor, and the nature of the appeal 
for the balance, which The Pilot urged "as the last call he 
[Father Bapst] shall ever make on their generosity ,"^^ su£Bced 
to interest Catholic Boston in the cause. 

of $3,000 which had originally been agreed upon by provincial superiors for 
the support of the new college (cf. Bapst to Paresce, Feb. 8, 1865, Mary- 
land Province S.J. Archives, 227 M 4). The loss of the income was a 
serious blow to the financial life of the institution. In defense of St. Mary's 
action, the Provincial wrote: "It is not just that this house [St. Mary's,] 
should borrow money to pay the college" (Paresce ad Beckx, March 15, 

1866, JGA, Maryland, translated and quoted by Garraghan, "Origins," 
654). However, Father Bapst's complaint evidently received a hearing, 
because, two years later, Father Bapst could write to the General of the 
Jesuits: "In the fair held in November, 1866, the congregation of St. Mary's 
donated to us as its share, $5,000, a certain pledge of its generosity and 
singular benevolence towards our Society" (Bapst ad Beckx, Feb. 13, 

1867, JGA, Maryland, lO-XIII-3, translated and quoted by Garraghan, 
op. cit., 655). 

15 The Pilot, Aug. 28, 1869. 

^^ Woodstock Letters, 26( 1897):446. " The Pilot, Aug. 28, 1869. 



104 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

The Pilot, two weeks later, made public a proposal to raise 
the money before Christmas by popular subscription and to 
present the check to Father Bapst, together with a testimonial 
letter and a list of the donors, on Christmas, so that he might 
have the honor and consolation of personally paying off the 
debt.^^ This tribute was to take the place of a parting gift, which 
Father Bapst had steadfastly refused. Upon Father Fulton fell 
the onerous duties of treasurer and promoter of the drive, and 
he undertook them with a zest which showed the great affection 
in which he held his former Rector. In his diary. Father Fulton 
recorded that he was able to collect upwards of $11,000.^^ 

Father Bapst's gratitude for this heart-touching "Christmas 
present" was expressed in the letter to the president and trustees 
of Boston College which accompanied the check for twenty 
thousand dollars. After formally remitting the money and offer- 
ing his thanks to Fathers Welch and Fulton, and to all who 
assisted, he observed that the sum 

will enable you to meet the two notes which become due 
this year. Moreover, the enormous debt, which six years ago 
threatened the very existence of Boston College, is now re- 
duced to thirty-eight thousand dollars; which leaves before 
you prospects so bright as to exceed all expectations. 

He closed by saying that he was particularly consoled to 
find the names of many non-Catholics on the list of contributors, 
and expressed himself as deeply pleased that the act which 
terminated his long and happy association with the congregation 
of the Immaculate Conception should be connected with the 
reduction of the church debt.'-° 

The opening of school for the term which saw Father Brady 

isjfoid., Sept. 11, 1869. 

19 Fulton, Diary, under date, 1869. At one meeting alone ( November 
17, 1869), $3,200 was subscribed (Sunday School Diary, Maryland Province 
S.J. Archives, Woodstock, s.v. "Boston"). 

20 The letter dated New York, Jan. 4, 1870, was published in The Pilot, 
Jan. 22, 1870. 



THE LETTER OF THE LAW 105 

as president, brought fifty-nine new students to the college on 
Harrison Avenue, making a total of one hundred and thirty.^^ 

The College as Beginners Knew It 
Some impressions of Boston College as it appeared in 1869^- 
are preserved in the "Reminiscences" of Patrick H. Callanan, 
who wrote: 

I remember well the old college building, with its brick- 
paved court-yard, its wooden fences to shut out all view of the 
church on the one side, and the greensward towards Newton 
Street on the other. I remember the high brick wall and the 
stone steps, and the iron gate that shut us in or out, as the 
case might be, from Concord Street. We old fellows remember 
the gymnasium, consisting of two upright posts with a cross- 
piece between, from which hung one pair of swinging rings 
and a trapeze. In addition to the swinging rings and trapeze, 
we had a set of parallel bars, and these three contrivances 
constituted the whole college gymnasium. ... It is a pity that 
no photographs of the original college buildings were ever 
taken or preserved. 

... on the morning ... I entered college I was escorted . . . 
to Father Fulton's door, to be assigned to . . . classes. I came 
direct from New York State and from a very small town, 
where I had no chance for schooling, and I now confess that 
I did not know a verb from a noun. Well, Father Fulton took 
our names and put some questions to us, . . . and after telling 
me that I was to go into some kind of a grade that was not 
vet established, as I did not know anything, we marched back 
through the old instruction hall, connecting both old college 
buildings, and we were finally landed in a room on the ex- 
treme northeast corner. I was distinctly told that I could not 
begin to study Latin that year, and perhaps not for two years,' 
for which I was not sorry.^^ 

21 Statistical chart on faculty and students at Boston College prepared 
for the Provincial, 1885, Maryland Province S.J. Archives. 

22 Callanan gives the date of his entrance into the college as October, 
1870, but an examination of the official "College Register" shows that he 
entered Sept. 13, 1869. 

23 Patrick H. Callanan, "Reminiscences," The Stylus, 12 (1898): 9-10; 
19-21. 



106 A HISTORY OF BOSJON COLLEGE 

It is interesting to learn from the Official College Register for 
September 13, 1869, that the Callanan boy was placed in the 
lowest form, second Rudiments and second Arithmetic, where he, 
at fifteen, would share benches with lads of ten and eleven.^* And 
it is more interesting still to find that this boy from then on took 
almost every prize for which he was eligible, and led in all 
extracurricular activities, in spite of his initial liandicap. In after- 
life he became the first Boston College graduate to be named 
a pastor in any diocese.^^ 

Time was running out, meanwhile, on Father Brady's brief 
term in office. It seems probably, as Devitt thought,^® that the 
appointment was, in its original concept, temporary — a view 
which is supported by an enumeration of the subsequent posts 
held by Father Brady. In any case, he left Boston College on 
August 2, 1870, and returned to St. Mary's Church, Boston, 
where, as Superior, he built the present church edifice and 
rectory. In 1877 he was appointed Provincial of the Maryland 
Province of the Society of Jesus, and in 1886, selected for the 
high honor of representing his Province at an important Jesuit 
conference in Rome.^^ 

He was succeeded in the presidency of Boston College by a 
man who was destined to hold that office for a total of some 
twelve years — a record unbroken to this day. 

24 OflBcial College Register, under date, 1869. Preserved in the Boston 
College Library Archives. 

25 Callanan, op. cit., p. 1. 

26 Devitt, "The History of the Province; XVI, Boston College," Wood- 
stock Letters, 64 (1935): 406. 

2" Morgan, op. cit., pp. 254-255. 



CHAPTER X 
PREFECT TO PRESIDENT 



During the summer of 1870, Father Fulton had visited St. Louis, 
and upon his return was notified of his appointment as vice- 
rector and president of Boston College on August 2/ The tide 
"vice-rector" was the same as that held by both Father Bapst 
and Father Brady, and was employed instead of "rector" because 
the college was still technically "in the process of formation." 
The heading "Collegium Bostoniense Inchoatum" occurred in 
the oflBcial Jesuit catalogue until the following year (1871-1872), 
when, for the first time, the simple title "Collegium Bostoniense" 
was employed, and Father Fulton was listed as "rector."^ 

The elevation of Father Fulton to this post of distinction did 
not occasion any direct mention in the Catholic press, although 
a few weeks later, an editorial urging support of the college took 
cognizance of the change. The editor of The Pilot wrote: 

The proximate opening of schools prompts us to say some- 
thing of the institution which will soon be the only Catholic 
college in our diocese.^ 

i(His visit to St. Louis:) Fulton, Diary, under date "1870." (His 
appointment as vice-rector: ) Catalogus Provinciae Marylandiae, S.J., ineunte 
anno 1871. 

2 Catalogus Provinciae Marylandiae, S.J., ineunte anno 1871; and ibid., 
ineunte anno 1872. 

3 " . . . soon the only Catholic college in the diocese" referred to 
the creation of the new diocese of Springfield (Mass.), effected by a decree 
dated June 7, 1870, which removed Worcester and consequently Holy 
Cross College from the jurisdiction of the bishop of Boston. Cf. Sadlier's 
Catholic Almanac, 1871. 

107 



108 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

. . . However much we may regret the removal of former 
Presidents, we are not to suppose that Father Fulton will 
allow a department to suflFer which has been so far under his 
own supervision. That the College has done well is proved by 
the excellence of the public exhibitions, by the high places its 
students have gained on going to other institutions, and by 
the constant — though too slow — increase of numbers. 
. . . The literary course at Boston College will be, in the 
coming year, complete; that is, there will be classes of 
Rhetoric, the highest Mathematics, and French. 
... It is lawful to be taught by the enemy. Only see what 
exertions all the sects expend upon their institutions of learn- 
ing. Let us imitate them, and aid in making our College a 
famous establishment.* 

Father Fulton's part in making "our college a famous estab- 
lishment" was an enoraious amount of prosaic, hard work. Four 
days after his appointment to the presidency, he wrote to a 
Jesuit official, in connection with a plea for additional help, an 
outline of his own duties: 

Father Fulton's duties during the coming year: All the ordi- 
nary duties of Rector, Procurator and Prefect of Schools; to 
supply for sick teachers and for Father Tuffer until he comes; 
to teach Rudiments till a teacher is provided. Besides con- 
fessions, sick-calls, and ordinary work of the congregation — to 
preach once a week in the lower chapel and to say that Mass; 
to preach at 10 once a month upstairs; once a week for the 
boys; once a week for each of two sodalities; and the Sunday 
School, & manage all, and the library, which takes much time; 
besides extraordinary preaching in the month of May, Lent, 
funeral sermons, & other business not to be enumerated. That 
is, more than the work which Fathers Brady & Fulton did 
last year. . . .^ 

A duty not mentioned above, but which took much of his time, 
was that of securing money to meet the debts upon the college. 
When he became president, the debt was $35,000, which he 
reduced by $11,000 his first year, and by $10,000 in 1871.^ He 

4 The Pilot, Aug. 27, 1870. 

5 Fulton to Lancaster, Aug. 6, 1870, Maryland S.J. Provincial Archives, 
Woodstock, under "Boston." 

6 Fulton, Diary, under date "1870," and "1871." 







Bp if enacts bg (hf /•ifnaif mid Kih n (>.i-:ierff} Churt itmeinbM, an<l 

1.1 '', ,.. /t-i J3i/J-Hr>i.^ and tkuj iX-nd 0ie.ii. JacCiMJt-^- tZnci ^ti^*i. i^^ J^^^zA' /c i/i^£^ <i&/c? 

J ,i'z^.r<JciL/^ Ijice.- ^rCJi'^cfiJ-^ <A.t^fa-l^, ^'UMJu.'i^ii, O-n^ ^ioX. <>-tiic%. o^c<:s-l./ i^Az.c> C^t- 
f.-'z.ici't'rx cZJ rna^j d.A.iiti.<yrusi, nAcejLja.ijf^a*0< f" Jln^liAe- A\c.(^u.ixi.j a.nJ.'^s^m ic^t*^- 

, V, /«(.,, /k,fiHjAi.ihmrUKnt.aJj,eAm-t^if'tJ,Jtctu'3n*^ii^i^ jtit/i»i<f II J 

, t / >it -'■'. , x^^i tit i> 4f(A/^tHtA>tj,-&Aij,t>ijii/tf^*<».. if' tf^ . i-( ^ ''i. ' 
-/• '' < , til rV ttiifi J/ I'i-/ fin /^.i. iti/i:-t-jf^/rfc^.K^, a*ij' JifUt/ 'n '^ ' ^ /. 

' ' . ^' ',r /fnf^i .u M^\y J^^ ^'iiU'ii^ ^tetU*.^ fi^\W^-*iii^ cxf-C^^c./ ei'Tui .xJso h tn-j-ixM. ^/W t^<^K.^'^^ua 
■ <.*-"i ff-'.iwi^ic^iX.i.^-z^a.^i^nnL^^ti.i/fJf^^zi^'i^^^'' ^>y- <^^-tJ^ >?.<9^ tx,A*f^*2^-*i V->.^'^ \'KJ^i^i-{ 
.. ' . c /-fU^i Ci^nvryiii-HU^c.a.^fd^6t.*i^^'U.^.. ^ ^, - .1 i&r /A£^ai?^.}fir' ^ 



Boston College Charter granted by the Commonwealth 
of Massachusetts in 1863 (Front) 



»j.i^ frr4f-t<.i<tJi /Kt j-«*>.< /v J^'uiJ^^Il^L,,,^-"- ■»'««' '»'~»^»»^ i^ '^^ 'x.^- «•/'•'''. 7u.j/^, . , ^^ 

*/i ^ i^f^f ryti, /t'>i<^\ r~i^ i^fnxt'i.a ur*. ^'Ok. Afhi^'titijrt^ ''fivr^.^tr/^itif i*^U^A,tyt'iy^^ ^/•t*^.^»''dtg 

c <■ y.. j« . .lUrriiduru tv ,n-ti/>tU r> <»«y fff&b^i^&4tj^fl)(nt4r^v\ i&^-tttLj efJu/-! w^/i«t, c-n ,irr^>,n /■ . ■<■■ 



/j>n? 



^/1/,>C'^^, 



oJ^/m. a. a,,^tj- 




''M<f^Jr, K,y <J '^'■Si^O.^/n^..^/. .91 -^ .; 



"^flfic/y «vM/t. M*. ^r-tyt 



,.^«x, ^g/^ U/>i. 



/,- 4^ 



/t. 



Unt. ^V»^y 



: M,. ,., 



'f'f 



<:^V*<^. xV^ 




Boston College Charter granted by the Commonwealth 
of Massachusetts in 1863 (Back) 



PREFECT TO PRESIDENT 109 

refers facetiously to his ability in this direction in a letter to the 
Province Procurator, written in May, 1871: 

I think you people who brag so much about being business 
men, must confess I have done well; for every copper has been 
of my own procuring, in 9 months, with extensive improve- 
ments going on.^ 

The "extensive improvements" he explains elsewhere as "finish- 
ing the house and buying furniture for house and college."* 

With Fife and Drum 

During Father Fulton's first term in oJBBce as president of the 
college (August 2, 1870 — January 11, 1880), many innovations 
were introduced which directly or indirectly helped the young 
institution to assume a position of influence in the Catholic life 
of the city. Three of these deserve mention in some detail; they 
are: the introduction of the Foster Cadets; the enlargements of 
the buildings and opening of the new college hall; and the found- 
ing of the Young Men's Catholic Association of Boston College. 

The idea of having military drill at Boston College was evi- 
dently entertained by the authorities at least as early as Father 
Brady's administration (1869-1870) because in the college cata- 
logue of that year, the following notice appeared: 

The State authorities having granted a supply of arms, a 
drill-master will be appointed, and due notice will be given 
as to the style of the uniform, and the time by which it must 
be procured.^ 

But it was not until October of 1870 that the formation of a 
military company in the college was announced by Father 
Fulton. Instrumental in bringing about the introduction of this 
training was Major General John Gray Foster, U. S. A., a popu- 
lar hero of the Mexican and Civil wars, who had recently been 
converted to Cathohcism, and at the time was engaged in engi- 

^ Fulton to Lancaster, May 8, 1871, Maryland S.J. Provincial Archives, 
Woodstock, under "Boston." 

8 Fulton, Diary, under date "1870-71." 

» Catalogue of the Officers and Students of Boston College for the 
Academic Year 1869-70, p. 11. 



110 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

neering work in Boston.^" In honor of this distinguished soldier, 
the group in the process of formation was called "The Foster 
Cadets." 

The project was taken up enthusiastically by the students 
under the direction of the college military instructor, Sergeant 
Louis E. Duval, a regular in the United States army, stationed 
at Fort Warren in Boston Harbor.^^ 

In the beginning all of the boys seemed to be enthusiastic 
at the innovation. We had no gymnasium, no play-ground, no 
foot-ball team, no opportunity, in fact, for anything in the line 
of athletics except an occasional base-ball game.^^ 

Drill was compulsory for all except those who could produce 
a request for exemption signed by a physician, and as time went 
by, the boys began to discover that drill was both an exacting 
and an exhausting exercise." Up to this, drill had been con- 
ducted without uniforms or arms, but toward the close of the 
year the question of a proper uniform came up for settlement. 
There was a great deal of trouble, however, and considerable 
delay before the style of uniform was decided on; some students 
were set upon having a very showy affair; others favored a 
lower-priced suit; still others, among whom were many members 
of the Rhetoric and Poetry classes (the highest in the school), 
were opposed to the introduction of uniforms at all.^* The uni- 
forms which were finally decided upon by a committee, though 
simple in make-up and inexpensive, were very neat and the boys 
were very proud of them. They were in the Civil War style, of 
course; a single-breasted sack coat, dark blue in color, snug fit- 
ting at the neck, with a row of large brass buttons stamped with 
a B.C. monogram, down the front. The trousers were of the same 
material and color; the headgear was a fatigue cap, with a B.C. 
monogram worked in silver thread, over the visor. White duck 

1° Cf. articles on Foster by William A. Robinson in The Dictionary of 
American Biography, 6:549-550; and by Thomas F. Meehan in The Cath- 
olic Encyclopedia, 6:155-156. 

"Callanan, "Reminiscences," The Stylus, 11 (Oct., 1897):387. 

12 Ibid. 

13 Ibid., p. 389. 1* Ibid., p. 513. 



PREFECT TO PRESIDENT 111 

gaiters completed the outfit, and when the belt and bayonet 
scabbard, and the great, well-polished United States buckle were 
added, the lad who was wearing this equipment felt and looked 
very much the soldier.^^ The guns which they shouldered were 
the 1863 issue of muzzle-loading Springfield rifles, which had 
been returned to Springfield when the state militia was equipped 
with breech loaders. The oflBcers of the organization wore uni- 
forms several degrees more elaborate. In addition to generous 
amounts of gold braid, they boasted a double row of brass but- 
tons and a crimson sash worn about their waists under the 
sword belts.^® 

The school catalogue of 1870-1871 carried the announcement 
that "henceforth it will be of obligation to procure the College 
uniform."^^ Father Fulton immediately found serious trouble in 
enforcing the rule, and, it soon became known, that a number 
of the boys in the higher classes refused to comply. 

The reasons were understandable. First of all, the students 
were almost without exception from families that were not finan- 
cially well off; in addition to this, there were no Philosophy 
classes in prospect, and consequently they would have to termi- 
nate their course, or transfer to another college at the end of the 
school year (in Rhetoric). This latter situation was a bitter dis- 
appointment to many who had thought, with or without encour- 
agement from the college authorities, that when suflBcient num- 
bers finally arrived in the class of Rhetoric, Philosophy would be 
added to the course the following year, in order that they might 
obtain their degrees from Boston College.^^ 

When an issue was made of uniforms, large numbers simply 
dropped out of school. September, 1871, presented a school open- ' 
ing that was a sad spectacle. The entire Rhetoric and Poetry 
classes failed to come back to the college; with them went 
almost all the members of the class of first Humanities. The 

15 Ibid., pp. 454-455. 
" Ibid., pp. 456-459. 

17 Catalogue . . . of Boston College, 1870^1871, p. 10. 

18 This feeling of resentment is noticeable in several of the letters pub- 
lished in the Callanan reminiscences, e.g., Pazolt, Pfau, etc. 



112 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

movement away from Boston College in the lower classes was 
described as "a regular stampede."^^ 

Such a state of affairs had never existed in \he history of 
the college heretofore and never could happen again. The 
Sodality, the St. Cecilia Society, the Debating Society, the 
Foster Cadets, in fact, every institution of the college was 
suddenly and more or less unexpectedly deprived of all of 
their officers and working members. Mr. ConnoUy, S.J., Mr. 
Whiteford, S.J., Mr. McHugh, S.J., Mr. Gallagher, S.J., Mr. 
Watterson, Mr. Johnson, and even Sergeant Duval, the drill- 
master, were all torn away from the college and everything 
was turned upside down and inside out. Well do we old boys 
remember what a terrible state of affairs presented themselves 
to us in September, 1871, when school opened. Not one Jesuit 
professor was left on the staff. Father Fulton, S.J., and Father 
Charlier, S.J., still held the fort, but they could not be strictly 
called professors. . . . The old regime was not over and Father 
Fulton was at the helm. Out of 140 students at the close of 
school, 62 had left the college. ... I beheve myself the state of 
affairs pleased him [Father Fulton] rather than otherwise.^" 

Father Fulton persevered in his determination to have a uni- 
formed military company at the college. The last hour of the 
school session on Tuesdays and Fridays were devoted, as usual, 
to drill, but this season saw a new drillmaster. The new faculty di- 
rector of the mihtary program, Mr. John J. Murphy, S.J., to whom 
the future growth and excellence of the Foster Cadets was due, 
arranged to have one of the most famous drillmasters in the 
United States, Captain George Mullins, of the Montgomery Light 
Guard (Company "I," 9th Regiment), take charge of the Boston 
College cadets. This rekindled the enthusiasm of the student 
body, and the boys' interest was further heightened by the re- 
ceipt of a full equipment of guns, belts, knapsacks, and bayonet 
scabbards, which had been sent down from Springfield through 
the kind offices of the governor of the commonwealth.^^ 

The young lads who were forced by circumstances to take 

19 Callanan, "Reminiscences," The Stylus, 11(1897):520. 

20 Ibid., pp. 521-522. 

21 Boston Daily Globe, May 17, 1872; Callanan, op. cit., p. 522. 



PREFECT TO PRESIDENT 113 

over the various oflBcial posts in the organization, did their part 
so w^ell, and the rank and file became so skillful in the role of 
soldiers that they were emboldened to challenge the champion 
school of the City of Boston to a prize drill in the old Boston 
Theater. The challenge was refused by the school committee, 
but the interest of the city in these Catholic cadets had been 
aroused, and the boys' own self-confidence had been established. 
The result was a well-attended and briUiantly executed prize 
drill between two companies forming the Foster Cadets battalion. 
This took place in the college hall, June 15, 1872, before a board 
of judges consisting of General P. R. Guiney and Colonel B. F. 
Finan.^^ 

For several years the streets in the vicinity of the college 
echoed to the music of fife and drum as the cadets marched here 
and there through the section, and on March 17, 1875, the Foster 
Cadets had a place of honor among some nine hundred parish 
cadets marching in the St. Patrick's Day parade. In the year 
1876, Patrick H. Callanan, a student, was appointed drillmaster, 
a position which he held until his graduation in 1877. In the 
meantime, other interests occupied the attention of Father 
Fulton, so that he allowed the military program to receive less 
and less emphasis, until it was finally discontinued.^^ Devitt, in 
an unpublished portion of his manuscript history of the Maryland 
Province, remarked: 

This organization [the Foster Cadets] was quite popular 
with the students for a time — but it was dissolved as the ad- 
vantages of the military training were found an inadequate 
compensation for the time and labor expended.^* 

The activity received no mention in the college catalogues 
from September, 1876, until September, 1880, at which time it 

22 An original program for this exhibition and newspaper cHppings 
concerning it are preserved in the Boston College Library Archives. Another 
exhibition drill was held on June 25, 1873, in the college hall, before Gen- 
erals Burrill and Guiney and Major Murphy of the Ninth Regiment, who 
acted as judges. Cf. Callanan, "Reminiscences," The Stylus, 12( 1898):274. 

23 Callanan, op. cit., 12 ( 1898 ) : 278-279. 

24 Devitt, "History of the Province of Maryland," manscript in the Mary- 
land S.J. Provincial Archives, p. 17. 



114 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

was reorganized under the name of "The BattaHon of Boston 
College," and carried on until September, 1884. In that month, 
the young drillmaster, Captain Matthew J. Callahan, died sud- 
denly, and this loss undoubtedly influenced the decision which 
was reached shortly after the opening of school, to place military 
drill on a nonobligatory basis. A sharp drop in attendance took 
place at once, and the activity was not resumed at all the follow- 
ing year.^^ 

Program of Enlargement 

During the period which witnessed the Peace Jubilee in the 
summer of 1872, the great Boston fire the following November, 
and the huge loss of life in the wreck of the Atlantic in the 
spring of 73, the routine events at Boston College rarely made 
the newspapers, but nevertheless, the institution was growing 
slowly and sturdily, and the need was already felt for more 
room. As early as the summer of 1873, a proposal was voiced to 
extend the buildings and provide better facilities for the higher 
studies.-*' The following year the annual exhibition had to be 
canceled, and the distribution of premiums m.ade privately, be- 
cause the program of alterations, already under way, prevented 
the use of the hall.^^ 

The college authorities were able to announce in September 
that "the improvements of Boston College have advanced so 
prosperously that there will be no impediment to the opening 
of schools at the usual time."^^ And when the registration opened 
that fall, one hundred and fifty boys reported, a gain of twenty- 
five over the year before, as if to demonstrate the need for the 
expansion.^^ A writer on The Pilot estimated that "when the 

25 Report to the Provincial from Boston College c. 1888, containing in 
chart form historical information on the college and church activities. 
Maryland S.J. Provincial Archives, under "Boston." Also, The Stylus, l(Jan., 
1883) :5; 2(Sept., 1883 ):7; 2(July, 1884) :61; 3(Nov., 1884) :4 and 9. 

26 "Catholic Education in Boston," The Pilot, Aug. 30, 1873. 

27 Ibid., June 27, 1874. 

28 Ibid., Sept. 5, 1874. 

29 Ibid., Sept., 19, 1874. 



PREFECT TO PRESIDENT 115 

great building on St. [sic] James Street is finished, twice the 
number can be accommodated."^" 

The spectacular part of the alterations consisted in the moving 
of the rear building (the college proper) back to the sidewalk 
on James Street. To the delight of the young and the young of 
heart in the neighborhood, the large brick structure was shored 
up, placed on rollers, then painstakingly propelled backward by 
microscopic degrees, as a legion of workmen twisted a legion 
of jacks a quarter of a turn at a time to the beat of a drum.^^ 
Since the lower chapel in the church occupied only one half the 
length of that building at the time, the balance of the area was 
employed for classrooms during the moving of the college 
building. 

In February, 1875, the task was completed and an addition on 
the church end of the building was ready for the painters. The 
Pilot reported: 

During the past year great improvements have been made 
in Boston College, involving an expense of some $50,000. The 
old college building has been moved sixty feet towards James 
Street, and lengthened on that street by an addition of some 
fifty feet, thus connecting it with the rear of the church, at 
the same time that the corridor connecting the house with 
the college has been extended so that a continuous passage 
is now open from the house in Harrison Avenue round through 
the college into the church. The new building now presents a 
front of 150 feet on James Street, and besides embraces two 
fine halls, one for the accommodation of the various societies 
connected with the church, and capable of seating about four 
hundred persons, the other for college exhibitions which will 
accommodate more than 1000 persons.^^ 

In the same article it was noted that Father Fulton had in- 
cluded in the alterations provision for a gymnasium in the base- 
ment of the college, and two rooms near by as quarters for a 
society which he had long intended to form. This club would 

30 Ibid., Nov. 14, 1874. 

31 Calendar, Immaculate Conception Church, Feb., 1943, p. 17. 

32 The Pilot, Feb. 13, 1875. 



116 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

provide worthy leisure-time occupation and recreation for the 
young CathoHc workingmen of the city who would not ordinarily 
come under die influence of the college. As will be seen shortly, 
the organization known as the "Young Mens' Catholic Associa- 
tion" was to be initiated within a few months. 

The official opening of the renovated building took place 
March 30, 1875, and the new college hall, reconstructed and en- 
larged to become "one of the most commodious as well as the 
most tasteful in the city,"^^ was inaugurated with a presentation 
of the play "Richelieu" on the same date.^* The hall now meas- 
ured ninety-six feet by fifty-seven, with a stage thirty feet deep 
beyond.^^ According to The Pilot, it was "capable of seating 900 
persons or accommodating 1000";^® one is surprised, therefore, 
to read of twelve hundred in attendance the opening night,^^ 
but perhaps all was well, because the same journal reported 
that "the plans were so perfectly drawn that the acoustics and 
ventilation are next to perfect."^* The finish of the hall was 
chestnut, with walls and ceiling frescoed; Muses were repre- 
sented at intervals in the decoration,^^ and on the "elegant drop 
curtain" was depicted "The Departure of Regulus," by Evans.*" 
All of this was in the style of the period, and apparently justified 
the description of it by the secular press as "the prettiest small 
hall in the city."*^ 

A printed handbill containing the following "Rules for the 
Students of Boston College" was issued about this time: 

The College door will be opened by the Prefect at 8 A.M. 
On entering the Students will repair immediately to the cloak- 
room, where they will leave their books, overcoats, etc. in the 
charge of the Janitor; thence directly to the gymnasium where 
they are to remain till time for Mass. 

33 Ibid., AprU 10, 1875. 

34 Report to Provincial from Boston College c. 1888, containing in chart 
form historical information on the college and church activities. Maryland 
S.J. Provincial Archives, under "Boston." 

35 The Boston Herald, March 31, 1875. 

36 The Pilot, April 10, 1875. 37 The Boston Herald, March 31, 1875. 
38 Ibid. 39 Ibid. 40 The Pilot, April 10, 1875. 

41 The Boston Journal, March 31, 1875. 



PREFECT TO PRESIDENT 117 

After Mass, each Teacher will accompany his class from the 
gymnasium to the classroom, and if any teacher should delay, 
his class is to await his coming in the gymnasium. 

The places for recreation are the gymnasium and the court 
foraied by the three College buildings. All the rest of the 
premises will be "out of bounds," except when the Prefect 
gives pemiission to walk by the Church. Members of the De- 
bating Society may be allowed by the Prefect to recreate in 
their own room, where no other Students shall be admitted. 

Playing ball, snow-baUing, pitching, and all games which 
would endanger the windows, are altogether forbidden. 

No boisterous conduct is allowed in the coiTidors or class- 
rooms at any time. Even in the gymnasium and during recrea- 
tion, the behavior should be decorous. 

Robert Fulton, President. 
Boston College, Feb. 1, 1875.*' 

The school was now completing its tenth year and was well 
organized. In his diary. Father Fulton looked back on these years 
and reflected how difficult they had been, but he had the conso- 
lation of being able to write: 

I count 40 of my boys who have entered the Novitiate pre- 
paratory to entrance into the Jesuit Order, become priests or 
gone to theological seminaries. Every year the number of 
scholars has increased a little. I have at this moment 158.*^ 

The administrative work of the teachers had been lightened 
by the discontinuance of the weekly report card in 1872,*^ and 
now plans were under way to broaden the scope of the college's 
work by the introduction of an English-major course, in addition 
to the classics course already established. This movement was 
at the insistence of the archbishop, but did not reach fruition 
until September, 1878.*^ Meanwhile, as will be seen in the fol- 
lowing chapter, another broadening of the college's influence 
was at hand. 

*2 Handbill in the Callanan collection, Boston College Library Archives. 
Some rules omitted. 

*3 Fulton, Diary, under date 1875. 

44 Noted in a fragmentary "Diary of the College" (1866-1885), Mary- 
land S.J. Provincial Archives, under "Boston." 

45 Catalogue . . . of Boston College . . . 1877-78, p. 3. 



CHAPTER XI 
INFLUENCE BY GAS-LIGHT 



Although, as has been seen, the thought occurred to Father 
Fulton during the winter of 1874^1875 that the enlarged school 
quarters, besides serving the purposes of the day students, might, 
in the evening, accommodate the Catholic young men of the 
city, it was not until the following October that he was able to 
commence preparations in earnest for such an undertaking. He 
had, undoubtedly, been moved to take this step by the knowl- 
edge that a non-Catholic organization, which made its appeal 
through its recreational facilities, had at this period a member- 
ship of some 2215 in Boston, including, in the opinion of a 
Catholic writer at the time, "some of our faith who were allured 
solely by the excellence of its gymnasium."^ 

Father Fulton's first act in the establishment of a Catholic 
group was to bring the idea to the attention of the Catholic 
public through a letter addressed to the editor of The Pilot, 
John Boyle O'Reilly, dated October 5, 1875. In this communi- 
cation he expressed a wish to form a "Young Men's Catholic 
Association," and invited all who were interested to attend a 
preliminary meeting at the college on Wednesday evening, 
November 3, "at 7^2 o'clock P.M."- 

According to The Pilot, considerable interest was shown in 
the announcement and in the prospective gathering,^ but even 

1 Henry J. Shandelle, "The Young Men's Catholic Association of Boston 
College," Woodstock Letters, 5:38, 1876. 

2 The Pilot, Oct. 30, 1875. ^ /^f^.^ Nov. 6, 1875. 

118 



INFLUENCE BY GAS-LIGHT 119 

the most sanguine failed to estimate how great that interest was. 
Consequently, the meeting place had to be hurriedly changed on 
the night of the first assembly, because the lecture hall, "though 
capable of holding a goodly number, soon overflowed with the 
multitude and was abandoned for the ample basement of the 
church, where an assembly estimated at eight hundred was 
convened."* 

Father Fulton called the meeting to order, and proceeded to 
explain the purpose of the association which he proposed to 
establish. The main object of the undertaking, he said, was to 
provide a pleasant place for the young men to meet socially, and 
to repair for leisure-time recreation. In the course of the evening, 
the archbishop's full approval of the project was conveyed by 
the chancellor of the archdiocese, Father Theodore Metcalf.^ 

To conduct the ordinary business of the meeting, Father 
Fulton named General Patrick R. Guiney as chairman, with 
William S. Pelletier and Dr. William A. Dunn as secretaries. A 
committee composed of Messrs. Hugh Carey, A. R. TuUy, J. 
O'Brien, C. Doherty, and Dr. J. G. Morris, Jr., was appointed to 
draw up constitutions and bylaws for the new society.^ On 
November 17, 1875, another meeting was held at which a gift 
of $400 from the St. Valentine's Total Abstinence Society was 
announced, and the constitutions read.^ 

One of the first clauses of these constitutions established the 
organization's title as The Young Men's Catholic Association of 
Boston College,^ In passing, it must be remarked that the selec- 
tion of this name gave rise to two legitimate objections: (a) the 
"Y.M.C.A." part of the title lent itself to easy confusion with, 
the name of a rival organization. This fault, of course, was not 
exclusively Boston's, because in that year there were forty-one 
Catholic organizations in existence throughout the United States 

* Shandelle, op. cit., p. 39. 
^Ibid. 

6 The Pilot, Nov. 13, 1875. 

7 Ibid., Nov. 20, 1875. 

8 Shandelle, op. cit., p. 40. The summary of the constitutions given on 
the following pages of this chapter is based on the text giiven here by 
Shandelle. 



120 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

bearing that name or a similar one.^ It is understandable, there- 
fore, that the Boston group would seek the prestige connected 
with a national movement aheady in successful operation. 
(b) The phrase "of Boston College" in the title provoked vigor- 
ous objections from many Boston College students and alumni 
who saw no justification for the use of the college name in the 
title. A letter by a prominent alumnus published some years later 
on the subject expressed this opinion very vehemently: 

There is a universal indignation on the part of the alumni 
of Boston College against the misnamed title of this organiza- 
tion. At a recent annual meeting of the alumni association of 
Boston College a formal protest against the name of this asso- 
ciation was made, and the president of Boston College was 
appealed to to compel them to change their name and not 
confound a non-college society with the associations of real 
college men. 

There are practically no college men in this society, and the 
few graduates of Boston College who did identify themselves 
with it have mostly all withdrawn from active membership 
because of the unwarranted use of the name Boston College 
in connection with their public entertaiimients, etc.^° 

No reply to this protest is on record, but the phrase "of 
Boston College," remained part of the organization's title until 
after the turn of the century. 

The balance of the constitutions which were accepted in 1875 
defined the purpose of the society as intending to promote the 
physical, mental, and moral improvement of its members, and "to 
provide them with innocent recreation." They further stipulated 
the age required for admission ( 18 years ) , and set the club fees 
(one dollar upon admission, and twenty-five cents quarterly 
thereafter ) . 

A rather extraordinary provision in the constitution made the 
president of Boston College ipso facto president of the associa- 

9 Anon., "Catholic Young Men's National Union," Dondhoe's Magazine, 
30 (1893): 330. 

10 Passages from an open letter of P. H. Callanan, A.B., '77, A.M., '79, 
Rector of St. John's Church, Newton Lower Falls, to the Editor of The 
Boston Globe, dated Feb. 22, 1898 {The Boston Globe, Feb. 23, 1898). 



INFLUENCE BY GAS-LIGHT 121 

tion, with power to appoint a treasurer and five directors, and 
with the right of veto over all actions of the association. Con- 
cerning these clauses in the constitutions, one of the early 
officials of the association commented: 

As a matter of fact, the vice-president was, from the be- 
ginning, virtually the president except in name, and the chief 
executive officer of the association. The president of the col- 
lege, it is true, held ... a veto power over any act of the 
association. This was rendered necessary by the close con- 
nection which existed between the association and the college, 
making the possession of such a power essential as a check 
upon any possible action of the former body which might 
in the future endanger the good name of the parent insti- 
tution. But it has frequently been Father Fulton's boast that 
in all the years in which he presided over the college and 
the association he never found it necessary to use that power." 

A final clause in the constitution lent a distinctly Catholic 
character to the organization. 

Every year at some time appointed by the President, the 
members shall perform during three or more days the exer- 
cises of a mission or a retreat, to which all the Catholic young 
men of Boston shall be invited, and at the termination re- 
ceive Holy Communion in a body, and should anyone fail to 
comply with his obligation, the Secretary shall drop his name 
from the roll, imless his excuse be deemed sufficient by the 
President. 

The Pilot, on November 27, 1875, carried a notification that 
the Catholic Lyceum Association had resolved to become merged 
into the new Association and would donate to this body its 
assets consisting of a library of five hundred books, and a cash 
balance of over four hundred dollars.^^ 

The Association Progresses 
In the meantime, one hundred and ten young men had regis- 
tered on November 17, "nearly one-half of which," The Pilot 

11 D. F. Sheehan, "The Y.M.C.A. of Boston College," Donahoe's Maga- 
zine, Vol. 29 (Jan. 1893), p. 79. 

12 The Pilot, Nov. 27, 1875, and Dec. 4, 1875. 



122 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

observed, "paid the fee of one dollar."^ ^ Father Fulton announced 
that the date for the opening of the reading room and gym- 
nasium would be the first Tuesday in December, and that tlie 
halls for music and billiards would be placed at their disposal 
early in the new year.^* In addition to these facihties, the associa- 
tion was to have the use, as occasion demanded, of the main 
college hall and the 'lecture room," which seated two hundred 
and fifty." A writer at the time, describing the equipment of 
the new association, noted that the books in the club library 
and reading room were "mostly of a severe classic tone," but 
the suite was fitted with mahogany furniture, as well as "chande- 
liers and pictures and all that might add dignity and elegance." 
The gymnasium was but a few steps away, he reported, in the 
deepened basement section, and there, those interested 
could find "the various inventions that compose a gymnastic 
apparatus ."^^ 

In January, 1876, over 200 members were on record, but the 
organization did not hold its initial election until June of that 
year, when the highest elective office, the vice-presidency, was 
conferred on James W. Dunphy, assisted by Messrs. William A. 
Dunn, as recording secretary; George D. W. Lennon, as financial 
secretary, and Robert Morris, Jr., as librarian.^^ 

From this time on, the organization grew rapidly and became 
active in dramatic productions, debates, lectures, reunions, and 
various athletic contests. 

[This] steady progress upward, increased prestige, and 
widening influence for good upon Catholic Society, especially 
as represented in its young men, continued to be the result 
of hard and faithful work on the part of a few. But the work 
became harder as years rolled on, and the number willing to 
do it grew smaller. [A few] . . . gave their time and abilities 
unselfishly, contending against lack of funds, lack of interest, 
and often adverse criticism from quarters where they should 
have looked for aid. Had it not been for the constant en- 

13 Ibid., Nov. 20, 1875. 

14 Shandelle, op. cit., p. 41, and The Pilot, Dec. 4, 1875. 

15 Shandelle, op. cit., p. 43. 

16 Ibid., pp. 43-44. " Sheehan, op. cit., p. 81. 



INFLUENCE BY GAS-LIGHT 123 

couragement of the faculty of the college . . . the association 
must have collapsed; and, indeed, it came near doing so, as 
it was. In 1882 the lack of active interest in the part of the 
members had reached such a point that the association was 
threatened with bankruptcy. A meeting . . . was called in 
November of that year [at which] the question of paying 
up debts and disbanding was seriously considered. But finally 
it was decided to make one more determined efiFort to put 
the association on its feet and send it along on its career of 
good work.^* 

An appeal was issued in December, 1882, which urged the 
members to take hold with a will and make the fourth annual 
reunion, to be held at Odd Fellows' Hall in the following 
January, such a financial success as would put the association out 
of debt. The effect of this effort persisted during the year, and 
kept the association together, turning the tide, very slowly at 
first, but nevertheless surely in the right direction. In 1885, a 
renaissance began which reached maturity with the return of 
Father Fulton to Boston College in 1888, and resulted in the 
opening of new and enlarged quarters two years later.^^ 

The association's annual reunion, known as "The College 
Ball," gained prominence in 1887 when it was held for the first 
time in Mechanics' Building, and its fame grew until it became 
the high light of the Catholic social season, moving to the then 
new Symphony Hall in 1901, where it was held on the Monday 
before Lent for the next six years.^° 

The college's pressing need for space had meanwhile oc- 
casioned the taking over of the Young Men's Catholic Association 
section of the building for classroom use, and on January 24, 
1899, the organization moved to a building owned by the college 
near by at 41 East Newton Street.^^ In 1910, the association 
opened its evening school, a work which was to be its dis- 
tinguishing mark in the minds of most Boston Catholics for the 

18 Ibid., pp. 8S-84. 

19 Ibid., pp. 84 and 86. 

20 Joseph H. Farren, "The Young Men's CathoHc Association of Boston," 
The Pilot, special Centenary Number, March 8, 1930. 

21 Ibid. 



124 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

next thirty years. From a simple beginning, with voluntary 
lecturers, the school soon became recognized as one of the 
city's most popular preparatory courses for persons wishing to 
take civil service examinations. This activity of the association 
continued until conditions brought on by World War II de- 
creased the enrollment of the school and the membership in the 
association to such a point that both were obliged to suspend 
operations. 

FmsT Graduates 

Returning once more to Father Fulton and to the college on 
James Street in the Seventies, one finds that the scholastic year 
1876-1877 was the first to offer the final year of philosophy, and 
consequently direct preparation for a degree. To the newly 
created professorship of Logic, Metaphysics, and Ethics listed in 
the catalogue of that year was appointed one whose name was 
familiar as being on the original staff which opened the college: 
Peter Paul Fitzpatrick, S.J., returning now as a priest to the 
scene of his labors as a scholastic.^^ 

By June of 1877, nine young men were ready for graduation; 
they were John F. Broderick, Patrick H. Callanan, Daniel J. 
Collins, John M. Donovan, John W. GalHgan, Michael Glennon, 
Stephen J. Hart, William G. McDonald, and William J. Millerick. 
Of this group. Hart, the valedictorian of his class, died within 
a few months of graduation. McDonald and Glennon became 
physicians, and all the rest became priests of the Archdiocese 
of Boston.-^ On the occasion of the exhibition of the year before. 
Archbishop Williams commenced a custom that is generally ob- 

22 Catalogue of the Officers and Students of Boston College for the 
Academic Year 1876-77, p. 12. 

23 This listing follows that of Callanan, "Reminiscences," The Stylus, 
12(Jan., 1898):! and 3. The college Catalogue, 1876-1877, hsts a Nicholas 
R. Walsh as taking an A.B. in course; since this list was available to 
Callanan, his omission of the name is significant. At the first graduation 
exercises, two honorary A.B. degrees were awarded to William A. Dunn, 
M.D., Harvard '75, a former Boston College boy, and to Henry C. Towle, 
M.D., University of the City of New York, also a former Boston College 
boy. At the same time, another former student, Edward A. McLaughlin, 
LL.B. (Boston University), was granted a degree of master of arts. 



INFLUENCE BY GAS-LIGHT 125 

served up to the present day, of having the archbishop present 
the premiums.^* Commencement day, June 28, 1877, was to 
have still another distinction: the presence of the governor of 
the commonw^ealth of Massachusetts, Alexander H. Rice, vi^hose 
friendly interest in Boston College dated back to Father Mc- 
Elroy's purchase of the Harrison Avenue land in 1857. 

Commencement week began auspiciously on June 26 with 
an exhibition in science by students of the graduating class, 
culminating in a demonstration of "the transmission of speech 
and music by Bell's telephone."^^ The audience on this evening 
was disappointing in size, but the performance of the boys 
elicited from one distinguished guest. Father Robert Brady, S.J., 
Provincial of the Jesuits, and former president of Boston College, 
the comment that they were 'Taetter than any he had seen" in 
his visits to the various Jesuit colleges on the Atlantic coast.^® 
On the following night, a much larger audience witnessed a 
Latin Play, "Philedonus," and acclaimed it "a prodigious suc- 
cess."^^ Father Fulton's dry commentary was: "The boys were 
quite intelligible — no mistake in prosody ."^^ 

Next morning. Father Fulton set out for Worcester to attend 
the Holy Cross exhibition and to meet Governor Rice, to arrange 
with him final details for that evening in Boston. With the 
Governor's assurances that he would definitely be present for the 
graduation ceremonies. Father Fulton hurried back to Boston 
to make sure everything was in readiness for the great occasion. 
He found the stage and hall beautifully decorated with plants, 
festoons of flowers, and alabaster vases filled with roses. 

As the guests began to arrive, he was pleased to observe that 
at least one third of the priests of the diocese were present. 
The hall filled rapidly and the Governor arrived toward the 
close of the "Literary Exhibition" which preceded the graduation 

2* Diary of the Immaculate Conception Sunday School, under date of 
June 27, 1876. Maryland S.J. Provincial Archives, under "Boston." 

25 Catalogue . . . of Boston College . . . 1876-77, p. 27. 

26 Fulton, Diary, under date June 26, 1877. GeorgetoAvn University 
Archives. 

27 Ihid., June 27, 1877. 29 /fcfrf. 



126 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

ceremonies. His Excellency made a speech, which was followed 
by a formal reading of the college charter, then the valedictory,-® 
and finally the awarding of degrees and rewards. That night, 
Father Fulton could write in his private journal after a descrip- 
tion of the college's first graduation: "Three glorious days!"^° 

The Boy From Lowell 
Toward the close of Father Fulton's first term of ofiBce, he 
was waited on one day by a delicate-looking lad from Lowell, 
who wished to enter Boston College as a transfer student from 
St. Charles' College, Maryland. The lad's ambition was to enter 
Poetry, second from the highest class in the college at the time, 
and approximating what is now freshman year. Father Fulton 
brought the newcomer into an inner room where, in the boy's 
words, he 

took down some Latin books from a shelf — Ovid, Virgil, and 
Cicero. One after the other he handed them to me. He asked 
me to open anywhere and read. I did so from each of them 
and then translated and then construed. 

He asked me various questions, not to embarrass me, but 
to try my intelligence, I think, more than my memory. 
. . . we came to Greek. I read some Anabasis and some 
Homer. . . . After that, more as a conversation than critically, 
he took me over a fairly large field of history, and 
physics. . . . 

After a full forty minutes of this, he stood up and putting 
on his biretta turned to me and said, "I will show you to the 
class-room. The school is in session and I will present you 
to your professor." I followed him through the long cor- 
ridors, and presently he halted before one of the doors marked 
with the name of the class. 

He knocked and instantly entered. I followed. At the desk 
was a chubby-faced little man with glasses, who impressed 
me at once as learned and gentle. He was my new professor 
— Father Boursaud. 

The large room was filled with a splendid lot of young 

2» This first valedictory address is transcribed completely in Callanan, 
"Reminiscences," The Stylus, 13( March, 1899): 166-171. 
30 Fulton, Diary, under date June 28, 1877. 



INFLUENCE BY GAS-LIGHT 127 

fellows, who all rose as the Rector entered. "I have come 
to bring you a new student," he said. "... What is your 
name again?" he said to me. I told him. "William, let me in- 
troduce you to the class of Poetry, and boys," he continued, 
looking over the room, "if you don't work hard he will take 
all the honors. "^^ 

That day was February 3, 1879, and the boy who was to equal 
and better the prophecy Father Fulton made concerning him, 
was entered in the official college register as: 

William Henry O'Connell, ( Class : ) Poetry, and Math; 
2nd French: (Parent:) Mrs. Bridgit O'Connell, 224 Gorham 
St., Lowell; (Student's Age:) 19.^- 

The future cardinal and dean of the American hierarchy was 
not, even then, one who shunned hard work. The schedule 
which he set for himself during his two years and a half at 
Boston College was a rigorous one: 

My daily program began by rising at six; breakfast soon 
after; Mass at the parish church, as frequently as possible 
taking the train to Boston; my arrival in the city about eight 
and the walk to the school, arriving at about eight forty-five 
classes until twelve; a brief recess and more classes until two 
taking the train at three; arriving at about three-thirty in 
Lowell; a quick walk home; a slight luncheon and a good 
long vigorous horseback ride, sometimes for an hour and a 
half or two hours. . . . Dinner was at seven and I studied 
until twelve, and sometimes after.^^ 

The weak state of his health which necessitated the regular 
outdoor exercise on horseback, was soon brought under control, 
and he began to enjoy school life as he had never done before.^* 
The college at the time did not offer the variety of extracur- 

31 Letter of W. H. O'Connell to "Carl," dated, Boston, March 3, 1879, 
from The Letters of His Eminence William Cardinal O'Connell, Archbishop 
of Boston (Cambridge: The Riverside Press, 1915), Vol. 1, pp. 34-35. 

32 "The OflBcial Register of Students, Boston College," manuscript volimie 
preserved in the Boston College Library Archives. 

33 William Cardinal O'Connell, Recollections of Seventy Years (Boston: 
Houghlin Mifflin Co., 1934), p. 72. 

34 Ibid., p. 74. 



128 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

ricular activities available today, but there was a debating 
society which had been organized in 1868,^^ and there were 
frequent dramatic presentations, formal and informal, in which 
young William O'Connell took a lively interest.^^ A glimpse of 
the class routine at the time is given us in one of his letters, , 
written in 1880, during his last year at the college: 

I am happy to tell you that I am going on with my study 
of philosophy at Boston College with considerable success. 
The professor is Father Russo. It seems that he and Father 
Mazzella, now in Rome, were both great admirers and stu- 
dents of Aquinas, and now that Leo XIII has commanded that 
the principles of Saint Thomas must be the text in all col- 
leges. Father Russo has become something of a celebrity 
here. . . . 

Certainly Father Russo is a stem teacher. He never speaks 
a word to a soul except as he speaks to all in class. He sits 
at the rostrum looking Uke some great medieval scholar — 
great black eyes, a lean sallow face, and a look which turns 
you into stone if you don't happen to know your lesson. 

The lectures are in Latin. We follow him well enough, 
but when we are asked to recite, it is funny if it were not so 
tragic. As until now we have read plenty of Latin and spoken 
none, it is a fearful thing to hear the way cases and tenses 
are jumbled. But he is very patient about it. He never, never 
deigns to smile, but somehow I catch in his great liquid eyes 
a look of amusement which he strives hard to conceal. 
... I wish he would give us a short talk every day in 
English on the general bearing of the matter in hand, and 
then go on in Latin. I can see that the Latin terminology is 
more exact, but as yet it does not reach me intimately enough. 
After all, we are only beginning. 

... I am still as happy as a lark at school. I often stay up 
studying long after midnight to the great displeasure of my 

35 "The Book of Minutes of the Debating Society of Boston College," 
manuscript volume preserved in the Boston College Library Archives. The 
first entry of the Society reads: "Saturday, November 21, 1868. At a meet- 
ing of the students of the Senior Classes of Boston College, Rev. R. Fulton 
presiding, the Constitution of the Debating Society vi'as reported by Messrs. 
Power, Calvin, and A. Maher, a committee appointed at a prior meeting 
for that purpose, and was unanimously adopted." The date of the "prior 
meeting" was not given. 

36 O'Connell, Recollections, p. 79. 



INFLUENCE BY GAS-LIGHT 129 

mother . . . but the fact is it is impossible to get through the 
matter without prolonged study. 

I am so well now and so strong that I never know what 
fatigue means. Even after a midnight vigil I am up fresh as 
a lark at six, ready for my bath, my breakfast, and my train 
at seven. I have not yet missed the train once. Some mornings 
last winter the walk in the early morning across the Common 
was like a forced march in Siberia. ... I frequently walk from 
the station to the College, which is a good two miles. But 
when it is too blustery I take a car or one of those funny old 
busses which go between Charlestown and the South End — 
Imnbering old things with straw on the floor to keep your 
feet warm.^^ 

The following June, William O'Connell closed a brilliant 
career at college by receiving from the hands of Governor Long 
the first gold medal in Philosophy, the first silver medal in 
Physics, and the second medal in Chemistry. That summer he 
was selected by Archbishop Williams to study for the priest- 
hood in Rome.^^ 

Father Fulton Leaves Office 

Father Fulton's term in oflBce, should, according to Jesuit 

custom, have been three years in duration, renewable for an 

additional three years at the discretion of the General of the 

Order in Rome. The fact that the year 1879 saw him still in 

office was at once very extraordinary, and very complimentary. 

According to entries in his diary,^^ Father Fulton himself had 

petitioned his superiors in this country and in Rome on several 

occasions to be relieved of his duties, but without results. The 

school year 1879-1880 opened with the largest enrollment in the 

school's history, 248,*° a consideration which Father Fulton found 

3' O'Connell, Letters, Vol. 1, pp. 37-40. Letter to "Oliver," dated Lowell, 
Mass., Nov. 20, 1880. 

38 Cf. letter of W. H. O'Connell to "Henry," dated Lovi^eU, Mass., Aug. 
15, 1881, in O'Connell, Letters, pp. 41-46. 

39 The material which follows was drawTi from the manuscript "Diary 
of Father Fulton," passim, 1879-1880. 

*° "Faculty and Students at Boston College," a manuscript chart of 
statistics evidently compiled in 1885. Maryland S.J. Provincial Archives, 
under "Boston." 



130 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

gratifying, but the uncertainty with which he was obhged to 
regard the coming year because he was "overdue" in office, 
diminished his enthusiasm considerably. The fall of 1879 wit- 
nessed more appeals directed to the Provincial from his pen, 
but the only reply he received was that the Provincial could not 
aflFord to move him just then; when a change could be made, he 
(Father Fulton) would receive a few weeks advance notice. 
With this he had to be content, and he carried on until on 
Friday afternoon, January 9, 1880, he received a letter from the 
Provincial announcing that he was being succeeded by Father 
Jeremiah O'Connor, S.J., an assistant parish priest connected 
with the Immaculate Conception Church. The change would be 
efFective in two days time (January 11), and for the present 
(here Father Fulton must have gasped) Father Fulton would 
remain at Boston College as prefect of schools and "general 
assistant" to Father O'Connor. His astonishment at this direc- 
tive may be understood when one reflects that the Jesuit cus- 
tom, almost invariably, has always been to transfer an individual 
when his superiorship is terminated, to another house of the 
Society. The wisdom and charity of such a practice is obvious, 
but if it needed demonstration, it would be found abundantly 
in this case. As it happened. Father Fulton liked and admired 
Father O'Connor very much, and he was able to write frankly, 
"I think Fr. O'Connor is doing first rate . . . "*^ and "... he 
has made a splendid beginning. . . ."*- But in spite of this, he 
was soon obhged to confess that it was hard to see his pet 
projects abandoned and his decisions reversed.*^ 

President O'Connor 

Father Jeremiah O'Connor, S.J., was thirty-nine years old 

when he assumed the duties of president of Boston College. He 

had been born in Dublin on Easter Sunday, April 10, 1841, and 

came to this country in early boyhood. He attended the public 

41 Fulton, Diary, March 22, 1880. 

42 Ibid., March 25, 1880. 

43 Ibid. 



INFLUENCE BY GAS-LIGHT 131 

grammar and high schools of Philadelphia, and later was a 
pupil at old St. Joseph's College in Philadelphia. On July 30, 
1860, he entered the Society of Jesus at Frederick, Maryland, 
where he had made his noviceship, and three years later was 
sent for a teaching period of six years to Loyola College in 
Baltimore. When the scholasticate at Woodstock, Maryland, was 
opened in September, 1869, he was named a member of the first 
class to continue his studies for the priesthood. By special favor 
of the Jesuit General, Father Beckx, he was granted permission 
to be ordained in 1874, a year before his time, in order that his 
widowed mother, then in failing health, might see him or- 
dained before her death. When his studies and his period of 
"Third Probation" were completed, he was sent to Boston in 
September, 1876, to teach the class of rhetoric, and in September, 
1878, was assigned to assist in work connected with the parish.** 
He soon won a reputation for his ability in the pulpit, and for 
his personal charm and kindness. Santayana recalled him after 
some sixty-odd years as a "young and very oratorical Irishman, 
eloquently proclaiming Catholic Truth against all heresies."*^ 

Recognition of Achievement 
On May 13, 1880, Father Fulton was relieved of his duties 
at Boston and assigned to St. Lawrence's Church (now St. 
Ignatius Loyola), New York City. Before he left, several ban- 
quets and gatherings of the citizens of Boston gave testimony 
of the high regard in which he was held by Catholics and by 
non-Catholics alike. The Young Men's Catholic Association 
tendered him a reception in the college hall on February 5, 
1880, in anticipation of his impending change, at which John 
Boyle O'ReiUy read an original poem dedicated as a farewell 
to Father Fulton entitled: "The Empty Niche," and Governor 
John D. Long, Mayor Frederick O. Prince, and other dis- 

** Reverend J. Doonan, S.J., "Father Jeremiah O'Connor; a Sketch," 
Woodstock Letters, 21 ( 1892): 117-120. Also, Catalogus Provinciae Mary- 
landiae, S.J., ineunte anno 1877, and the same, ineunte anno 1879. 

* 5 George Santayana, Persons and Places (New York: Charles Scribner's 
Sons, 1944), p. 166. 



132 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE- 

tinguished speakers added their tiibutes.*^ On this occasion, 
the Young Men's CathoHc Association presented five hundred 
dollars to Boston College with which to found the Fulton 
Medal,^' and a bust of Father Fulton by Martin Millmore was 
exhibited.*® 

At the time of his retirement from the rectorship, he had 
been gratified to receive a letter from the Provincial in which 
that official wrote: 

... I don't think I ought to let the occasion go by without 
giving the testimony ... of my appreciation of your labors. 
It has been my pleasure each year after the visitation to say 
to Fr. General how satisfactorily eveiything was going at 
B.C., and it is my pleasure now to echo the common voice 
that your administration has been most successful. The 
College which under Divine Providence owes everything to 
you has won a prestige which, as it has been the effect of its 
past, is now the guaranty of its future prosperity.^® 

John Boyle O'Reilly, a close personal friend of Father Fulton's, 
wrote editorially in The Pilot: 

The removal of the Rev. Robert Fulton, S.J., President of 
Boston College, and Rector of the Immaculate Conception 
Church, creates no common feeling of sorrow among Boston 
Catholics. Father Fulton has grown to be a feature of Boston 
Catholicity. His name and his person were everywhere re- 
spected and beloved. The remarkable influence he possessed, 
as a spiritual guide and as a friend, is rarely equalled. Under 

*6 Joseph H. Farren, "The Young Men's Catholic Association of Boston," 
The Pilot, March 8, 1930, in which the entire poem is printed. 

47 Fulton, Diary, Feb. 5, 1880. 

48 Farren, op. cit.. If this bust exists today, its whereabouts is not known. 
Possibly the object was a clay model done by the sculptor to show the 
friends of Father Fulton what the finished statue would look like; this is 
rendered likely by an entry made by Father Fulton in his Diary on Jan. 15, 
1880: "Drawing of the bust won by Peter Keen an . . . talk of turning it 
into marble. . . ." which supplies an argument to the effect that a statue 
would take longer than nineteen days to pass from the stage of a prelim- 
inary sketch to the finished marble. However, in a description of the college 
hall on Commencement Day, June 26, 1884, written for The Stylus 2(July, 
1884): 62, there is mention of "a large bust of Father Fulton" surmounting 
the bookcase containing the prizes in the rear center of the stage. 

49 Transcribed in Fulton, Diary, Jan. 10, 1880. 



INFLUENCE BY GAS-LIGHT 133 

his wise and temperate direction, Boston College has grown 
into splendid promise, and the influence of his Order has 
become respected throughout the city and state. He is 
necessarily a large figure, socially and intellectually. It seems 
strange that such a man should ever be removed from a posi- 
tion so well controlled. But the system of his great Order is 
greater than the personality of its members. . . . Wherever 
he may go, Father Fulton carries with him the love and 
respect of Boston; and whatever may be his future, we say 
that he has built himself into our wall, we shall claim our 
share of his honors; and in his own heart we believe he must 
ever feel that he belongs particularly to Boston.^" 

■^0 The Pilot, Jan. 24, 1880. 



CHAPTER XII 
THE COLLEGE IN THE EIGHTIES 



Father O'Connor's term in the presidency of Boston College 
passed smoothly, e£Bciently, and almost uneventfully. It was not 
a period of growth in the number of students, which remained 
just under two hundred and fifty, but two institutions very 
prominent now in the student life at the college trace their 
origins to Father O'Connor's regime. 

The first of these is the college magazine, The Stylus, which 
was founded in January, 1883, in response to a student petition^ 
chiefly by members of the class of 1884. Father Thomas J. Stack, 
S.J., was the first faculty moderator of the paper.^ The first 
staff of the paper was composed of F. J. Barnes, F. A. Cunning- 
ham, J. G. Foley, E. A. McCarthy, and J. A. Walsh, editors; 
P. J. Farley, manager, with T. Hurley and W. P. Cashman as 
assistants; and D. M. Murphy as treasurer.^ The format of the 
magazine during its first decade differed considerably from that 
adopted later. The original page size was ten by twelve inches, 
and there were about twelve pages to an issue, exclusive of the 
tan coated-paper cover. The reading matter was presented two 
columns to a page, and evidently financial considerations pre- 
vented the use of any illustrations. The usual offerings in fiction 
and poetry occupied the first five pages, followed by editorials, 
news items ("Domi" column), exchanges, alumni, and notices 
concerning the various school societies. Advertising, generally 

"^ The Boston Globe (?) April, 1895. Clipping in Georgetown University 
Archives (Lamson collection). 

2 The Stylus, 6(Oct., 1887):11. 

3 Ibid., l(Jan., 1883): 6. 

134 



THE COLLEGE IN THE EIGHTIES 135 

in the form of "business cards," occupied the final three pages. 

The first number of the new magazine was distinguished by 
the appearance in it of a "christening song" written especially 
for The Stylus by Father Abram J. Ryan, the priest-poet of the 
South. 

Less than two years after its inception, The Stylus could boast 
of a circulation of six hundred copies,^ which appears remarkably 
good in view of the fact that the student enrollment for that 
year was only two hundred and sixty-three. Nevertheless, the 
editor erroneously estimating the alumni and former students at 
1500 in number, felt that these friends could easily double that 
circulation if they would.^ 

As it was, the paper enjoyed popularity with the students, 
and was termed by the professional press "unquestionably one 
of the best college papers published."'' Moreover, it succeeded, 
through the ability of its managing editors, in establishing itself 
on a firai financial footing. When the alterations on the college 
building were begun in the spring of 1889, however. The Stylus 
found itself without quarters, and was forced temporarily to 
suspend publication. For over four and a half years, nothing 
was done to restore it, until in December, 1893, the class of '94, 
under the faculty directorship of Father Timothy Brosnahan, S.J., 
finally brought it into being once more.^ Since that time, al- 
though it has come on thin days more than once, it has never 
suflFered another interruption in publication. 

Athletics Come of Age 
The second institution established during Father O'Connor's 
presidency was the Athletic Association.* Until this time, ath- 

^Ibid., 3 (Nov., 1884): 6. 

5 Ibid. Actually, there were about 125 living alumni at the time. Cf. 
Boston College Catalogue, 1884-1885. 

6 The Pilot, Feb. 16, 1884. 

^ The Boston Globe ( ? ) April, 1895. Clipping in Georgetown University 
Archives (Lamson collection). 

^ An exhaustive history of athletics at Boston College has been written 
by Nathaniel J. Hasenfus in two volumes, the first of which was published 
by the author in 1944. 



136 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

letics had not enjoyed any oflBcial notice, nor were teams 
organized in any sport except on a game-to-game basis.^ This 
situation was explained by the lack of facilities in the early 
days of the college; by tlie fact that Boston College was for 
day scholars; and, until the middle seventies, by the fact that 
the upper years of college, from which the boys old enough for 
intercollegiate competition would be drawn, had not been es- 
tablished. Father Callanan, in his "Reminiscences," recounts 
some of the attempts at forming baseball teams in the period 
from 1870 to 1877." The problem of a playing field was solved 
at various times by the "Fair Grounds" (a field opposite the 
buildings on Harrison Avenue) and by various fields in the 
suburbs at "picnic distance" from the college. But there was 
never an organized effort to train teams and to provide facilities 
for the games until shortly after the opening of school in the 
fall of 1883. The Stylus reported: 

The enthusiasm of some of the students on the subject of 
athletics has at last found practical expression in the forma- 
tion of the Boston College Athletic Club. Towards the end 
of October, a committee consisting of Messrs. T. W. Coakley, 
'84, J. P. McGuigan and T. J. Hurley, '85, and one or two 
others, waited upon the President, and obtained his sanction 
to the organization of an athletic club. The first step being 
thus successful, the same committee called a meeting of those 
interested in the question; and, after the usual and necessary 
preliminaries, the association was formed. The membership 
is already very large; and the energy shown at the meetings 
thus far, augurs well for the future. So that, with proper 
management on the part of the officers, we think great things 
may now be expected.^^ 

Mr. D. Leo Brand, S.J., was appointed the first faculty modera- 
tor, and at the "semiannual meeting" of the association, evi- 
dently held sometime in February, 1884, the following oflBcers 

»Cf. The Stylus, 2 (Sept., 1883): 5. Letter referring to Holy Cross game, 
spring, 1883. 

10 Callanan, "Reminiscences," The Stylus, 13( March, 1899): 155-157; and 
Henry C. Towle, "Pioneer Days," The Stylus, 11 (June, 1897):333. 

"Tlie Stylus, 2(Dec., 1883):18. 



THE COLLEGE IN THE EIGHTIES 137 

were elected: president, T. W. Coaldey; vice-president, John H. 
Hopwood; secretary, Daniel P. Scannell; treasurer, Martin J. 
Corbett; promoter of athletics, James P. McGuigan. The mem- 
bers numbered forty.^^ In announcing the formation of the Ath- 
letic Association, the college catalogue for 1883-1884 stated: 
"Its object is to encourage the practice of manly sports, and to 
promote by these the esprit de corps of the College Students, 
who are its members."^^ The first contests played under the 
auspices of the new association were baseball games; these were 
reported on by The Stylus: 

The baseball team has been reinforced by many efficient 
players. Under Manager Hopwood, it is prepared to do some 
good work in the field. Already it has defeated the South 
Boston Athletic Club 14-3, the Roxbury's 15-5, the Adams 
Academy nine 21-12, and though defeated by the Lynns, it 
owes its defeat not to the superior playing of its adversaries, 
but to tlie superior friendship of the Umpire to that nine. 
Our greatest victory has been the defeat of the X.Q.Z. Club 
of Lowell, by a score of 8 to 0. This club is one of the strong- 
est in the state, and the vanquisher of the Lynns.^* 

"The First Annual Spring Games," a field day of track events, 
was also scheduled by the association for late in May, 1884.^^ 

Father Boursaxjd 
Father O'Connor's term in office came to a close on July 31, 
1884. He was succeeded by a former professor of Poetry and 
Rhetoric at the college, the Reverend Edward Victor Boursaud, 
S.J. When classes reconvened in September, the new president 
was greeted warmly by the students. 

The seeing of a familiar face on the platform and the 
hearing of a well-remembered voice in the opening speech 
of the year obviated even a momentary feeling that a stranger 
had taken hold of the reins of government.^® 

12 Ibid., 2( March, 1884 ):43; and the Boston College Catalogue for 1883- 
1884, p. 30. 

13 Boston College Catalogue for 1883-1884, p. 30. 
^^The Sti/lus, 2(May, 1884):53. 

^5 Ibid., 2(May, 1884) :55. ^^bid., 3(Nov., 1884):7. 



138 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

The man they saw before them was a mild-mannered, kindly 
scholar, an accomplished linguist, and, although only forty-four 
years old at the time, had already been entrusted with a post of 
great confidence in the government of the Society of Jesus. 

Father Boursaud was born in New York of French parents 
on September 1, 1840. During his youth, his family had returned 
to France and there he had received part of his education. On 
his return to this country, he attended Mount Saint Mary's 
College, Emmitsburg, Maryland, from which he was graduated in 
June, 1863. Two months later, August 14, 1863, he joined tlie 
Society of Jesus at Frederick, Maryland. After two years of 
noviceship, he was made professor of classics to his companions 
in the Juniorate at Frederick, and from 1867 to 1870 he taught 
poetry at Georgetown. In September of 1871 he commenced the 
seven years' study of philosophy and theology in preparation 
for the priesthood at Woodstock College, Woodstock, Maryland. 
He was ordained in 1877, and in 1878 terminated his theological 
studies and was sent to Boston College where for one year he 
taught Poetry, and for the following year, taught Rhetoric. After 
this he returned to Frederick, Maryland, for a year of ascetical 
study, and was then selected for the post of secretary to the 
English assistant on the Jesuit General's staff in Rome — the first 
American ever to hold this position. He served in this capacity 
until he was recalled to the United States shortly before being 
appointed president of Boston College on July 31, 1884.^^ 

One of the first tasks he set for himself on assuming oflBce 
was to remodel the basement of the Immaculate Conception 
Church, much used by the students of the college as the college 
chapel. The area was deepened three feet, lengthened, and com- 
pletely redecorated with most pleasing results.^^ 

He was remembered by those who knew him in Boston as 
devoted to the poor and to workers. A strike of streetcar em- 
ployees occurred during his term as president of Boston College, 

17 The Messenger (New York), 37(May, 1902) : 577-579; and Wood- 
stock Letters, 31(1902): 277. 

18 The Stylus, 4(Dec., 1885):14-15. 



THE COLLEGE IN THE EIGHTIES 139 

and Father Boursaud manifested his sympathy with the cause 
of labor by avoiding the streetcars and riding in the strikers' 
barges.^^ He was extremely popular with the students in the 
college,^" but his influence beyond the college walls was not as 
wide as that of Father Fulton, due perhaps to the fact that he did 
not share Father Fulton's assertiveness.^^ 

During the years of Father Boursaud's administration, the 
attendance at the college rose slowly but steadily. The year 
before he took ofiice there were 250 students registered; two 
years later, he had brought the number to 297, an increase just 
under 19 per cent.^^ 

In the catalogue issued at the end of Father Boursaud's first 
year as president, mention is made for the first time of the 
master of arts degree and of the conditions under which it was 
to be granted: 

For the . . . degree of A.M., it will be required that the 
applicant shall have continued his studies in College for one 
year, or studied, or practiced a learned profession for two 
years.^^ 

The degree was not, however, conferred on anyone by Father 
Boursaud, and later was granted only seven times in the history 
of the college prior to 1913.^* 

The Alumni Organize 
In the meantime, a need was felt among the alumni of the 
college for an organization to bring their numbers together. An 

^^ The Pilot (?) c. March 18, 1902 (clipping in Georgetown University 
Archives, Lamson Collection). 20 ijyid. 

21 Devitt, "History of the Province; XVI. Boston College," Woodstock 
Letters, 64( 1935): 409. 

22 "Number of Students in Our Colleges in the United States and Canada," 
Woodstock Letters, 13( 1884):425; and 15(1886):352. 

23 Catalogue of Boston College for 1884-1885, p. 6. 

2* According to the Boston College Alumni Directory for June, 1924, the 
following seven persons received the M.A. degree prior to 1913: 1877, 
Edward A. McLaughlin; 1878, James Herrmann; 1879, John F. Ciunmins; 
1890, Michael A. Carroll; 1892, Henry V. Cunningham; 1904, Manuel de 
Moreira; 1910, William F. Kenney. 



140 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

editorial writer in The Stylus as early as March of 1884 had 
written: 

We feel that if these Alumni would organize, it would 
materially aid us by making the college more widely known 
and esteemed, and by infusing a lively and kindlier interest 
among the older students for us of the present. It would also 
be the means of bringing about those pleasant annual re- 
unions which do so much to cement friendships begun in 
early life, and reflect lustre upon the college which was their 
other home. Such a step, we believe, would not be at this 
moment premature, and certainly is not impracticable.^^ 

The appeal brought some response, but due to the unwilling- 
ness of any individual to come forward at this time as organizer, 
the project was postponed indefinitely.*^ The late Doctor Eugene 
A. McCarthy, '84, recalled that when he and some other grad- 
uates at a later period waited on Father Boursaud to obtain his 
approval of an alumni association, they found the rector rather 
skeptical that enough alumni would be interested in organizing 
such a body to make it worth while. Young Mr. McCarthy and 
his friends withdrew undiscouraged, and proceeded to sound out 
alumni opinion by mail. When, some months later, indisputable 
proof of the graduates' willingness to support such a venture 
was gathered, it was brought to Father Boursaud, and he at 
once gave the undertaking his approval.*^ 

There were only 136 living alumni of Boston College,** but 
a large number of these met in the spring of 1886 and agreed 
to form an association, and it was arranged to have the first 
reunion and banquet at Young's Hotel on June 28 (1886). The 
success of this initial gathering encouraged the new organiza- 
tion to make the function an annual aflFair.*^ 

The first president of the alumni association was Edward A. 
McLaughlin, and the first "first-vice-president," was the Reverend 

25 The Stylus, 2( March, 1884) :37. 
^^Ibid., 2(May, 1884) :56. 

2^ From a verbal statement of Doctor McCarthy to Father John W. 
Ryan, S.J., July 9, 1944. 

28 The Boston College Catalogue, 1885-1886, Appendix. 

29 The Stylus, 4(July, 1886) :75. 





















































































































E 
















J 




J 




1^ 


y 




9i 


^ 








e 
























































1 




a 
< 


5 


s 


< 

a 


y. 




if 


S 




s 




i> 


1 






o 


m 
S 


■<r 






si 

X 






to 


b 




H 


to 


-^ 




D 




1 


3 
.2 


, 


n 


M 


i* 




O 






























(3s\ 


S 

3 


CO 


as 


u 
























0. 


o 


s 


-T 


% 




l-H 




^ 


a. 






















o 




s 


to 


M 


i 




>4 
a; 


1 




















c^ 


33 

a 


la 

o 


s 
a 


I 


1 




H 


< 


«j 




a 


















5 




3 




^ 


"_ 


r 






•S 




a 




§2 


a> 








Z 




< 








f 


% 






CO 

O 








X 
Id 


5^ 

Z to 


Id 

is 




^ 


S5 

s 


V. 


_- 


2 




a 




1 


1 


















X 


s 






a 


































■«! 










n; 




• 




^ 


1 















. 
























5 


= 




































^ 










- 


= 






d -^ i »; > 






o 




, 






o 


■i - 
















w 




















^ 




<D 






"^ 


i r 






^ z ; j2 J: 






^H 




3) 






s 


■- ■- 






. M -^ • ^ 






cc 


^ 


H 






2 


— w 












1— < 


k^ 








i U 


5 ■= ? 






P < $ '■ 








o 


fl) 
M 


;j 


Z 

o 

H 


- C 
•- # 

i 1. 


J If 


U 


Z 

o 


to ;; 5 to 


;j 


Kffi) 


S5 
o 




< 

Q 


D 


id 


.2 iT 
-si 


i S ^' 


3 




• • . . •/ 

2 ?: 


s 




.^ 


o 


0) 






— , = 


=■ 3 ' 










f 


^ 


^ 


t3 








1 > :i 






§g5 i 
































H) 










































>'. 




H 






- -5 '-^ 


■■5 j ■£ 






r S- 5 y; r 
















= -i 


i i i 













A GRAND FAIR 

IN AID OF THE 

BOSTON COLLEGE. 



Church of the Lnmaculate Con- 
ception, 

WILL OPEN IN THE 

BOSTON MT7SIC ttatt., 

October 15. I8AA. 

I>onatlon8 in aid of the ^tUr, either In Arflclea or 
Money. wlU be gratemlly recetred by either of the 
M&naaers, or at tbe Collese In Harruon Areniie. 

The Fair wtll be onder the nunagament of the fol- 
lowing gentlemen: 

KRA^C•I8 UcLAUOHII!'. Exchange street 

HDGn CAELY. Fr<>> man A Cafe? . 

MICHAEL DOffERTT. Union 8qnaie. 

JOSEPH A. LAJFOBMB, N. Re«tg1o A, Co. 

C. A. LINEMANN. Franltllii .treet. 

HUUH O'RRIEN. W4>{>lnfr Llat. 

WM. 8. PZXLETIEB, Boxbnrjr. 

J. H. WILLCK):, C2ie«ter Sqnars. 

Th« Table* will be nader the dlrwtien of the fol- 
lowlSK Ladlec. to whomTcantrlbntion* may be *ent :— 

Catbidoal TA31M, Mis* C Bradley and Miss M. 
A. Cassldy. 
{ St. Maxt's CBiiBCff Table, Mrs. M. Carney. 

St. Mast's Sdbbat School Tablb, Mlse Q. Crow- 
lev 

St. Peter awd 8r. Paul (Sotith Boston), Mrs. 
Aathoav Kane. 

Oati of HsATKK (South BoetoD), Mlu Kate Snl- 
UTan. 

8T. Joseph's cRox->nry), Mrs. Col Qalney. 

Befkeshkekt Table, Mrs. Dr. Hartnelt. MIbs M. 
A, Creon 

Mis. William ^Ioktoovext's Tablb. 

TxiHiTT CacBCu Table, Mrs. B. EJchbora and Mrs. 
J, Fandel. 

CoiCBBATioR TiBLB. Mrs. A. A. Thavar. 

St. 8txpheh's Cbttech Table, Miss Catherine 
Toomey. 

St. 'viNCKirr'8 CHtrscH Tabib, Mr*. James Hlley. 

Mas. Cabeei Airo Mibb Syoaio** TaBlb. 

Hiss Hblbb Dana's Table. 

COLLEOx Table. Mrs. T Feran. 

Floweb Table, Mrt . J. Oalvin. 

IMM ACITLATE CoscEPTio:* Tablb, Mts. Leonoo and 
Mrs. Inrlls. 

OnE LADT'a Table Mrs. A. McAtot. 

Mb?. T. C. Meerill's Table. 

Mas. F. SlESKBLICH AND MSS. HeNEI PfAFP'3 TA- 
BLE. 

Mb3. M.J. Ward A^CD Mtss L. Colemass Table. 
Mabbibo Women's Sodautt Table, Mrs T 
Brady, and Mis* Florence LymMi 

YOUKO WOMIB'S SODALITT TABLE. 

Su»DAT ScaooL Table. 

Altab Bots' Table. 

FisuiNS PoKD, MLig MsKKie Mdoney. 

A KEwaPATtB wUlbe pabllabed daring the Fair 
giTliiaa tail d-scr-otion of tte difllprent tables, list of 
drawings, ana other reading matter, with ample 
space, also, for adTertl'cments. It Is Inteaded to dls - 
trli'uie.3<).OiO conies of this paper griiuftously, make 
Ing It a moat vnhiabio meillum oi advertising Ad- 
vertisements can be left at the " Shipping Lia'l " ol 
dee. 23 Central St. Iej9 



•9 &R^jyn FJUR 

IN AH) OF 
AND THE 

Church of the Immaculate Conception, 

SABBISOIV ATENTTE, 

Will be holden In the 

BOSTON MUSIC HALL, 

From MONDAY, AprU 4th, 1864, to SATURDAY, 
April Kth, indnslve. 



Cootribntkma o< mosey and article* tat the Fair are 
re^i ec uiU ly solicited, and cmn be seat or delirered 
parsooally to either of the Committee, whose name* 
are given below, to asy aothorlsed Collector, or to the 
Pastor at the College. 

The object of the Fair b one which shotild tntereat 
ereiT CatlKdie In the dlooeae, aail It Is hoped that all 
will co-opomte tn maUnir It aaocesaftil. 

JOHK BAP8T, 
PresidaDt of Boatoo Cdlege, and Pastor of the Cbuidi 
of the Immaoolata Oono^tiaa. 



In ctmnectlon with the Fair, there is now la pro- 
gress 

A CtnuaA ComMnAtlOEt Raiflla 

tar thi«e CHICKEBINO PIANOS, tickets to which 
(at %9 each) can be obtained at the ware rooms of 

Cbickerlng & Son, 346 Waahlngtoo street. 

Oliver DlCson A Co's Moslc (tore, 377 Washington St. 

Henry Tolman*Oo>. " " 291 Washington st. 

Patrick Dooahoa's Bookstore, 33, Franklin street, 
or from either of the Committoe. 

Kadi ticket gtraa tha hotdar a ohaace to draw 
A ORAND KAHO, 
A BEVKH OCtATB BO8BWOO1D SQVABB PIAXO,- 
or, • aH OCIATB B08KW00D 8QUASS EIAHO. 
each at which will be as good an Inatranent <« ea» 
be made by Cklekeiiitc 4l ^b*, wboae Planoa 
are sorpasaed by thoae of no other makers In this 
coootry or in Enrope. 

JOS. A. LAFORMZ, No. 31 Central wharf. ) 
HUOHO'BRIEN, No. 23 Ccnral street. j 

JOHN H.WILLCOX, No. 29 Chester sqnare, ^Com. 
F. MCLAUGHLIN, No. 28 Exchange streei. I 
P. U. POWEKS, No. 17 Milk street. J 



Notices of Grand Fairs in aid of Boston College 



THE COLLEGE IN THE EIGHTIES 141 

Thomas I. Coghlan, 78.^" A complete list, as far as is known, 
of the oflBcers during the first years will be found in the 
appendix.^^ 

The Confederate Veteran 

On August 5, 1887, Father Boursaud terminated his period 
in oflBce and was succeeded in the presidency of Boston College 
by the Reverend Thomas H. Stack, S.J., remembered as the 
founder of The Stylus, and at this time, a popular professor of 
Physics and Chemistry. 

Father Stack's life had been an interesting one. He was bom 
July 3, 1845, near Union, Monroe County, Virginia (now West 
Virginia), and early showed promise of unusual intellectual 
ability. One of his early teachers was a son of the celebrated 
Orestes Brownson. At the age of fourteen his father placed him 
in the Virginia Military Institute at Lexington, where his ca- 
pacity for hard and continuous study brought him to the top 
of his class even against excellent competition. It was here that 
he began to manifest the extraordinary gifts of personality which 
his acquaintances found so charming in later life; his even 
temper, considerateness, and natural, affectionate disposition 
marked him out from the crowd even as a young man. Un- 
fortunately, the times in which he was growing up were trouble- 
some ones, and his schooling was suddenly interrupted at the 
age of sixteen by the outbreak of the Civil War. Young Stack 
immediately enlisted in the army of the Confederacy, and served 
the four years of the war, first as an artilleryman, and later in 
the Signal Service Corps. His four years' campaigning furnished 
him in afterlife with an inexhaustible fund of story and anec- 
dote which he used to enliven his class periods at the college; 

30 The Boston Daily Globe, June 29, 1886. The newspaper article 
described Mr. McLaughlin as belonging to the class of 1871. There was no 
graduating class in that year nor for six years afterward, but in 1871 Mr. 
McLaughUn finished as much of the course as was offered in the college at 
the time, and completed the work for his A.B. degree the following year 
at Loyola College, Baltimore. In 1877, he was awarded the degree of 
Master of Arts in the first conferring of degrees at Boston College. 

31 Cf. Appendix "C." 



142 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

one of his pupils recalled afterward being particularly impressed 
with Father Stack's vivid account of his return home at the 
end of the war.^^ 

Soon after the restoration of peace, the young soldier attended 
a mission given at Staunton, Virginia, by the famous preacher, 
Father Bernard Maguire, S.J., president of Georgetown College, 
and from that time on, his ambitions centered upon serving in 
the army of Christ as a Jesuit. As his first step in preparation 
for this goal, he entered Georgetown College in September, 1866, 
and for two years took all the scholastic honors for which he was 
eligible. 

On September 1, 1868, he entered the Society of Jesus, and 
after completing the regular course of studies, was assigned for 
his teaching period to Holy Cross College, Worcester, and later 
(1876), to Boston College as professor of Physics. In the summer 
of 1878, he returned to Woodstock for his four years of theology 
and ordination to the priesthood. In 1882 he was sent once more 
to Boston College for a year (during which time he established 
The Stylus), and then spent a year in the study of ascetical theol- 
ogy, followed by two years at Georgetown College and Alex- 
andria, Virginia, recuperating his health, before coming back to 
the physics classroom in Boston once more in 1886. 

The news of his appointment as president of the college in the 
simmier of 1887 was greeted with joy by the students who knew 
him, but their pleasure was short lived, because Father Stack 
was taken ill on August 22, seventeen days after his appointment, 
and on August 30, he died.^^ 

Father Russo, Seventh President 
Because of the suddenness of this loss, there was not time 
before the beginning of school to go through the lengthy formali- 
ties connected with the selection of a new president of the 

32 Florence J. Halloran, "In Memoriam: Thomas H. Stack, S.J.," The 
Stylus, 6(Oct., 1887 ):2. 

33 Halloran, op. cit., pp. 1-3; Woodstock Letters, 16(1887):317-319; 
Catalogus Provinciae Marylandiae S.J., passim; Catalogus Provinciae 
Marylandiae Neo-Eboracensis, 1881 et fF., passim. 



THE COLLEGE IN THE EIGHTIES 143 

college; therefore, a vice-rector was appointed to carry on tempo- 
rarily the administration of the college. Father Nicholas Russo, 
S.J., a professor of Philosophy at the college, of whom mention 
has been made previously (p. 128), thus became vice-rector and 
seventh president of Boston College. 

Father Russo was bom April 24, 1845, at Ascoli in Italy. His 
father was a prominent physician and intended that young 
Nicholas would follow in his footsteps; the boy, however, had 
his own ideas concerning his future. For a long time he had 
entertained the idea of becoming a Jesuit, but fearing that his 
parents would not consent, he ran away from home August 8, 
1862, at the age of seventeen, and went to France where he 
attempted to enter the Society. The Fathers of the Society would 
not receive him under these conditions, but parental consent was 
finally obtained and he was allowed to enter the novitiate. His 
early studies and a teaching period were spent in France, but 
in 1875 he was sent to the United States to make his theological 
studies at Woodstock College. He was ordained in 1877, and 
afterward sent to Boston ( September, 1877 ) to teach Logic and 
Metaphysics at Boston College. 

As a student, his scholastic record had been a brilliant one, 
and now as a teacher and writer he lived up fully to this early 
promise.^^ He was the first member of the Boston College staff 
to write a book while connected with the institution; three 
scholarly works on philosophy and religion coming from his pen 
during the years 1885-1890.^^ 

As a professor of philosophy he had been somewhat stem, but 
with a sternness which was beneficial to those being taught. He 

34 Anon., "Father Nicholas Russo," Woodstock Letters, 31(1902): 
281-285. 

35 Father Russo's works were: 

( 1 ) Summa Philosophica juxta Scholasticorum Principia, complectens 

Logicam et Metaphysicam (Bostoniae: Apud Thomas B. 
Noonan et Socium, 1885). 

(2) The True Religion and Its Dogmas (Boston: Thomas B. Noonan 

& Co., 1886). 

(3) De Philosophia Morale Praelectiones (Neo-Eborace: Benziger 

Fratres, 1890). 



144 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

considered neglect of study or waste of time by his pupils as 
almost unpardonable, but he was a just man, kind, self-sacrificing, 
humble; and these were the qualities that were remembered by 
a great number of Boston priests of the period, who had received 
their first introduction to philosophy in his classes.^® 

The Return of Father Fulton 
Father Russo's term of office was brief and uneventful. On 
July 4, 1888, less than a year after taking over the presidency, 
he was relieved by Father Fulton, who returned after an interim 
spent in filling positions of great trust in the government of the 
Society of Jesus. Since leaving Boston, Father Fulton had been 
successively rector of St. Lawrence's Church (now St. Ignatius 
Loyola Church), New York; Rector of Gonzaga College, Wash- 
ington, D. C; then Provincial of the New York-Maryland Prov- 
ince of the Society of Jesus. While in this latter post, he was 
summoned to Europe to participate in a general congregation of 
his Order, and in 1886 was sent by the Jesuit General to Ireland 
as "Visitor" (Inspector General) to the Irish Province of the 
Society.^^ 

For several years prior to Father Fulton's second coming to 
Boston, the question of adequate room for the growing college 
had been much discussed. There were two considerations which 
now urged immediate action upon Father Fulton; the first was 
the insistent demand of the archbishop of Boston that an inde- 
pendent "high school" be formed to take the place of part of the 
seven-year European plan which was then in force, to cope with 
the rising popularity of the public "high schools," and to provide 
a terminal course for those students who did not wish to continue 
beyond the first four years. The second reason, also put forward 
by the archbishop, was the need of a well-designed and inde- 
pendent four-year commercial course.^^ 

38 Cf. The Stylus, 16(May, 1902): 164-165. 

^"^ Catalogus Provinciae Marylandiae-Neo Eboracensis, passim. Also: 
"Father Robert Fulton; a Sketch," Woodstock Letters, 25(1896): 109-1 10. 

38 "Historia Collegii Bostoniensis, pro anno 1889." Manuscript report in 
Latin written for the Jesuit General and Provincial, Maryland S.J., Provin- 
cial Archives, under "Litterae Annuae — Collegium Bostoniense." 



THE COLLEGE IN THE EIGHTIES 145 

Neither of the suggested changes was entirely new to the 
college. The four years of high school, or a close equivalent, had 
been offered under another name for years; the fact, however, 
that they were not administrationally distinct from the college 
years was now considered a disadvantage. A commercial course 
of a kind had been offered previously, but it had been an insig- 
nificant branch of the regular school, perhaps considered a refuge 
for the less capable in the standard arts course; the numbers fol- 
lowing the commercial subjects certainly were never very large. 
The reasons given to the archbishop for not acceding to his 
request at once centered on lack of classroom and office space.^® 

To these arguments for a new building, which were drawn 
from the needs of the school itself, may be added another ex- 
trinsic reason, very close to the heart of Father Fulton: the 
pressing need for enlarged quarters for the Young Men's Catholic 
Association. 

In the light of all these considerations, therefore. Father Fulton 
placed the enlargement of the school building first on his list of 
agenda upon taking oflBce. Fortunately for this cause, he had 
a large number of friends who were willing to undertake the 
management of a drive to obtain funds; in addition to this, he 
made appeals to the congregation of the Immaculate Conception 
Church, and enlisted the enthusiastic aid of the Young Men's 
Catholic Association, and when ordinary means threatened to be 
inadequate, he had resort, against the advice of some, to a 
"fair," to bring the amount up to the desired $125,000.*° 

Further Expansion 

These means were successful, and work was begun on the 

James Street building in the spring of 1889.*^ The plan was to 

extend the building in the direction of Newton Street at one end 

and in the direction of Concord Street at the other. Roughly, this 

39 Ibid. 

*oibid., and Woodstock Letters, 18(1889): 114. 

*i Anon., "Boston College, Its History and Influence," Donahoe's Maga- 
zine, 29i]&n., 1893) -.dS. 



146 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

would increase the frontage on James Street from about 150 feet 
to some 250 feet. 

While the excavations were being made on the Newton Street 
side, the unearthing of several coffins served to remind the 
Fathers that that section of the property had once been a 
paupers' burial ground.*^ 

The work was held up considerably by strikes among the work- 
men which occurred in May, 1889, and the alterations were con- 
sequently not completed until the spring of the following year.*^ 
In addition to the changes made in the main school building, the 
opportunity was taken to enlarge the connecting passageway 
from the priests' house on Harrison Avenue to the college build- 
ing on James Street. This was enlarged to twice its width** to 
provide additional living quarters for the faculty, more library 
room, and a faculty dining room. 

A description of the finished project, written by one of the 
scholastics attached to the college within a few weeks of the 
time it was completed, is valuable for the comparison it makes 
between the new and the old: 

The building now forms a "T," the residence facing Harrison 
Avenue, the college building running along James Street. The 
length of the first, from the front to the college building, is 
perhaps 90 feet, while the latter forms an imposing structure 
of some 250 feet, with three projecting door-ways; one for the 
college boys, one to admit its present few and future numerous 
pupils to the High School, the third forming at once the en- 
trance to the Young Men's Building and the College Hall. All 
the buildings are now of the same height — four stories, not 
counting the valuable basement, and the attic. . . . The middle 
building wants but 15 feet or so of being as wide as our resi- 
dence is long, and the college building takes in all the ground 
from half-way behind the church to the little alley beyond the 
once famous garden. 

*2 Woodstock Letters, 18(1889):256. Henry C. Towle recollected seeing 
workmen removing coflBns from the tract before the Immaculate Conception 
Church was built (cf. p. 89 of text). 

43 Anon., "Boston College, Its History and Influence," Donahoe's Maga- 
zine, 29 (Jan., 1893): 68. 

** Woodstock Letters, 18(1889):256. 



THE COLLEGE IN THE EIGHTIES 147 

[As one enters] the college proper ... on the right, the first 
door opens into the Lecture Hall which comfortably seats all 
our boys when they assemble to listen anxiously to the result 
of their month's work. . . . The other door of the hall lets us 
out on the lower college corridor, which extends from the 
High School building behind the church to the Young Men's 
Gymnasium. . . . The new class room in the English High 
School ... is just behind the church and separated from it 
by only a narrow alley. 

[On] the next floor [is] the second beautiful room of the 
English High School and the new Music Room . . . two stories 
high. . . . On the upper college corridor, we have the class 
rooms of the rhetoricians, of the grammarians, and beyond, of 
the poets and philosophers in the intermediate building. 

The library is on the third floor, filling three rooms along the 
Newton Street side of the middle building. ... At the end of 
the library corridor a door admits us into the new College 
Hall. Here there have been considerable changes. The stage, 
now at the end of the hall, opposite where it was last year, is 
fitted up with new scenery . . . the gallery is not, after all, to 
prove such an eyesore as we feared. The hall will seat 1600. 

The topmost floor of the Young Men's Building [contains] 
a Senate Chamber . . . about 60 feet square. Below this the 
library is to be placed. The rooms below this are recreation 
rooms; that on the first floor and that in the basement forming 
one high apartment for the Gymnasium. This part of the 
building is not yet completed.*^ 

All critics, however, were not enthusiastic in their appraisal 
of the alterations. Father Devitt, who succeeded Father Fulton 
in the presidency of the college, wrote: 

The result [of the alterations] in the connecting building 
at least, was a combination of structural mistakes: dark cor- 
ridors; extravagantly large and inconvenient dwelling-rooms; 
a library in separate sections; and a dining hall in the cellar.*^ 

*^ Letter of A. J. E. Mullen, S.J., to the editor of the Woodstock Letters, 
dated April 6, 1890, printed in Woodstock Letters, 19 ( 1890): 192-196. 

46 Edward I. Devitt, S.J., "History of the Maryland-New York Province; 
XVI. Boston College," Woodstock Letters, 64(1935):410. 



148 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

According to Father Devitt, the basic cause of all these defects 
was the decision to place the designing and construction of the 
new additions in the hands of one of the lay brothers of the 
community, rather than in the care of a professional architect.*^ 

Divisions Projected 
The enlarged building facilities, however, were but one con- 
tribution which Father Fulton made to a growing Boston College 
during his second term in oflBce. Another change, no less im- 
portant, was the introduction of an English "high school," which 
has already been mentioned in passing, and which was begun 
in September, 1889, at the request of the archbishop. This is the 
first mention of the term 'Tiigh school" used oflBcially in connec- 
tion with this institution, and in the beginning was employed 
exclusively to designate the four-year English or commercial 
course, as distinct from the seven-year classical course which led 
to the A.B. degree. Father Fulton described this course in a letter 
written to John Boyle O'Reilly on August 8, 1890, two days be- 
fore the poet-editor's sudden death: 

Some time ago our venerable Archbishop suggested to me 
that it would be desirable, if the lads finishing the Grammar 
Schools, even those not intended for a classical course, should 
attend the College for a few years, more especially for the sake 
of religious instruction and training, of which their schools 
had so far imparted none. 

The parochial system is expanding daily; but the parishes 
will not be able to support a High School apiece, and here is, 
at present, the only place where a High School can be estab- 
lished. Surely Catholic education is not to stop with the 
Grammar Schools. There will be need of a Normal School to 
furnish male teachers for the parish schools, and here that 
need may also be supplied. 

By the great liberality of the people of the diocese, I was 
able to prepare sufficient accommodations; and I opened, last 
September, the classes of the first year of a four years' course. 

*^ Devitt, "History of the Maryland-New York Province . . . ," manu- 
script, with material omitted in the pubHshed version, Georgetown Uni- 
versity Archives. MS., p. 21. 



THE COLLEGE IN THE EIGHTIES 149 

I received only such as had the amount of information to be 
expected of scholars creditably completing the course of the 
Grammar Schools. 

Next September some of that class will have been promoted 
to the second year of the course, and a new first year's class 
begun. Last year, lads were offered to me whom I could not 
receive because they had gone beyond the studies of the first 
year, and had no classes for them. Next year I will receive for 
the classes of the first and second year. 

Reference to our catalogue will show that the course is very 
strong, stronger I think than in the English High School.*^ 
There is a review of grammar, in which I find the boys from 
the Grammar Schools strangely deficient, a study of type- 
writing, stenography, book-keeping, rhetoric, a complete 
course of mathematics, French, German, logic, metaphysics, 
ethics, and finally graduation as B.S.*^ 

Of course, the best programme will amount to nothing 
unless ably carried out. Next year, as far as I can now forecast, 
I shall have as aids, Mr. Korman, who distinguished himself 
first in this College, and then completed a long course in Ger- 
many, where studies are strongest; Messrs. Gartland and 
Drum, both among the most honored of our graduates. I re- 

*8 This reference is obscure. It probably means that the improved course 
which the archbishop refers to as the "high school course" was better than 
the course which for the previous ten years had been offered as that of 
the "English department." An examination of the curriculum as outlined 
in the pertinent catalogues shows some additions to the "new high school" 
course, over the former "English department" course, but these do not 
appear to be essential changes. And it must be noted that the catalogue 
of the college never took cognizance of any change in title of the 1879 
"English department" courses. Even after the 1889 high school was an- 
nounced, the catalogue continued to list the usual "English department" 
offerings, with only the appended notice that after the completion of the 
course, the B.S. degree would be conferred (cf. Catalogue, 1890-1891, 
p. 14). The Catalogue, 1895-1896, p. 11, uses "High School" for the first 
time: "The course consists of four years, during which the student is 
engaged in the studies of an English High School." 

*9 The degree of B.S., as mentioned in the preceding footnote, was offered 
for the completion of the English course for the first time in the catalogue 
of 1889-1890. Granting the degree for four years' work beyond grammar 
school seems a very extraordinary procedure, and as far as can be 
determined now, was conferred after the inception of the "high school 
English" course on only three persons and on three separate occasions (cf. 
Boston College Alumni Directory, June, 1924, pp. 57-60). The catalogue 
of 1895-1896 announced that a degree was no longer given for the course, 
but in its place, a diploma of graduation {Catalogue, 1895-1896, p. 11). 



150 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

serve for myself the instruction in religion. 

The fabulous Mrs. Glasse needed the hare before she could 
cook it. We cannot educate boys unless we get them. 

I have appealed successfully to the Catholics of Boston for 
money to educate. It were a most illogical procedure — quod 
longe ahsit a nobis — to give money and then refuse boys. 
Therefore, I appeal once more in behalf of a course in which, 
unless I deceive myself, the good of the Catholic public is 
greatly concerned. 

Robert Fltlton, S.J.^° 

This letter does not answer all the questions concerning the 
evolution of the high school course at Boston College which one 
might wish to ask. However, a few features of the picture emerge 
when all the information available is considered. Thus, it is clear 
from the various catalogue announcements that Archbishop Wil- 
liams requested the formation of an "English Course" at Boston 
College, which was instituted in September of 1879.^^ This was 
a four-year course emphasizing English, Bookkeeping, and vari- 
ous branches of Mathematics. 

Second, it is clear that the archbishop sometime prior to 
September, 1889, asked that a high school be inaugurated to 
provide for graduates of parochial schools, and that Father 
Fulton planned such a high school,^^ and, according to the letter 
quoted above, opened it and urged attendance at it. 

Furthermore, the archbishop himself pubhcly announced in 
1890: 

I desire that numbers of young men of the class who now 
obtain from the high schools all the education they require 
for use through life, without attending professional schools, 
should pass two or three years within the walls of this [i.e., 
Boston] college, thence to go out and stand forth as noble 
examples of Catholic citizens.^^ 

50 The Pilot, Aug. 16, 1890. 

51 E.g., The Boston College Catalogue, 1881-82, pp. 3 and 12. 

^^ Woodstock Letters, 18(1889): 114, "Fr. Fulton has already received 
$25,000 to aid him in carrying out a plan recently set before the Catholics 
of Boston. The plan includes ... a Catholic high school (for graduates of 
the parochial schools) ..." 

53 The Pilot, Oct. 25, 1890. 



THE COLLEGE IN THE EIGHTIES 151 

The Pilot account continues, after giving the above quotation: 

He spoke of the provision begun here in the EngHsh High 
School, estabhshed last year by Father Fulton for just such 
young men; and hoped that ere long 600 or 800 youth would 
enter annually to receive the training that the Jesuits are so 
competent to give and which ensures to Boston and America 
good citizens.^* 

It is also clear from an examination of the attendance records 
at the college, that the hope of 600 or more youths following the 
English course was never realized. The school year 1889-1890, 
which witnessed the beginning of the reformed English high 
school division, saw only 26 pupils out of a school population 
of 315 enrolled in the English course;^^ the following year there 
were 31 in the English course, out of 334 pupils in the school.^^ 
The next year (1891-1892), only 26 out of 360^^ enrolled in the 
English course. The number dropped to thirteen in 1895-1896,^^ 
and in the catalogue of 1896-1897, the course had become a 
branch of the preparatory division.^^ 

In the meantime, the terminology describing the classes 
had gone through an evolution. Until the publication of the 
1894-1895 catalogue, the description of courses and textbooks 
was simply headed: "Course of Studies in the Classical Depart- 
ment"; in 1894-1895, a division was made in listing the classes 
for the coming year ( 1895-1896 ) , and the following were termed 
"Preparatory Classes"; Rudiments ( second division and first divi- 
sion ) ; third class of Grammar; second class of Grammar.^" 

Another step in the direction of separating the secondary 
school and the college classes was taken in the college Catalogue, 
1896-1897, when the phrase "Preparatory School" was used in 

54 Ibid. 

^^ Woodstock Letters, 19(1890):441. 

56 English enrollment by count in the Catalogue, 1890-1891, pp. 17-25; 
total enrollment, from Woodstock Letters, 20(1891). 

5T English enrollment by count in the Catalogue, 1891-1892, pp. 15-24; 
total enrollment, from Woodstock Letters, 21 ( 1892 ) . 

58 Catalogue, 1895-1896, p. 64. 

59 Ibid., 1896-1897, p. 36. 

60 Ibid., 1894-1895, pp. 21-25. 



152 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

describing the lower classes for the school year 1897-1898.^^ In 
September, 1898, the distinction between the college and the 
preparatory school was further emphasized by the introduction 
of separate entrances to the building for the two divisions.®^ In 
this connection, it must be noted that both classical and English 
classes were embraced in the category of "Preparatory School." 
This point is important in answering the question: "When was 
Boston College High School begun?" As may now be seen, some 
distinctions are necessary in making a reply to that question. 

If by "high school" is meant the early classes in the course, 
then the high school existed from September, 1864, on. If the 
question is intended to ask when the term "high school" was first 
used in connection with the lower classes at Boston College, 
another distinction must be made: the term "high school" was 
used oflF and on in a vague sense in connection with the English 
Course from September, 1889, on; in the strict sense of indicating 
all the preparatory classes, classical and English, it was not 
employed until 1903.^^ 

Father Fulton's Farewell 
In the meantime, the task of gathering the money necessary 
for the new building operations, and the worries and criticism 
attending the construction itself, was taking its toll of the already 
fragile health of Father Fulton. He had the gratification of wit- 
nessing a marked increase of pupils entering the college in 
September, 1890, which brought the enrollment to a new high 
of three hundred and fifteen.^* He mapped out plans for the 
current year and set them in motion, but found the severe rheu- 
matic complaint from which he suffered growing worse as time 
went on. Samples of his handwriting at this period which are 

61 Ibid., 1896-1897, p. 31. 
^^ The Stylus, 12(1898) -.441. 

63 First official use of the term "high school" in describing the entire 
preparatory division occurred in the Catalogue, 1903-1904, p. 34, in 
a statement outlining admission requirements in the college department. 
Up to that time, the phrase "preparatory school" had been used. 

64 "Number of Students in our Colleges in the United States and Canada, 
October 1, 1890," Woodstock Letters, 19(1890):441. 



THE COLLEGE IN THE EIGHTIES 153 

preserved in the Boston College Library archives give eloquent 
testimony of the heroic eflForts he was obliged to make even to 
write the briefest note. Despite this handicap, he had composed 
and preached the eulogy at the funeral of John Boyle O'Reilly, 
in August,^^ and had been celebrant at a Solemn Mass of Re- 
quiem for the poet attended by all the students of the college 
in the latter part of September.^^ 

On the evening of October 15, 1890, a date which marked the 
fifteenth anniversary of the founding of the Young Men's Cath- 
olic Association of Boston College, the new wing of the building 
to be devoted to the association was formally opened. Archbishop 
WilHams, former Mayor P. A. Collins, and Father Fulton were 
the speakers on the occasion.^^ This function, which was the 
crowning of his long labors in behalf of that organization, was 
to be the last he ever attended in Boston, The following morning 
he left the city for Hot Springs, Arkansas, in quest of his health.^^ 

When no improvement in his condition was evident by mid- 
winter, the Provincial decided to appoint a vice-rector to assume 
management of the college, and chose for the post a professor of 
philosophy at Holy Cross College, Worcester, Father Edward 
I. Devitt, S.J. This priest recorded in his diary under date of 
January 8, 1891, that the Provincial (Father Campbell), who 
was making his yearly visitation at Holy Cross, had spoken to 
him that afternoon of going to Boston as vice-rector. He respect- 
fully protested against the idea, but on the following day he 
learned that his objections had been overruled and that he was 
to go to Boston that very afternoon. The appointment came as 
a complete surprise to his fellow Jesuits, "no one having any ink- 
ling of it either at Worcester or Boston."*'^ 

It is a commentary on the college's position and influence in 
the eyes of non-Catholic Boston that the change of presidents 

65 The Pilot, Aug. 16, 1890. 

66 Ibid., Sept. 27, 1890. 

67 Ibid., Oct. 25, 1890. 

68 Ibid. 

69 Manuscript Diary of Fr. Edward I, Devitt, S.J., preserved at George- 
town University Archives. 



154 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

received no mention at all in the columns of the Boston Daily 
Advertiser, and merited only forty-one words at the bottom of 
page six in the Boston Evening Transcript three days after the 
appointment J" 

Father Devitt's temporary status of vice-rector was changed 
to that of full rector and president of the college by the Jesuit 
General, Father Anderledy, on September 3, 1891.'^ 

The passing of Father Fulton from the Boston scene definitely 
marked the end of an era. 

^0 Boston Evening Transcript, Jan. 12, 1891. 

^1 Anderledy ad Devitt, Sept. 3, 1891, Georgetown University Archives, 
Devitt papers. 



CHAPTER XIII 
GROWING IS DONE SLOWLY 



Edward Ignatius Devitt was born in St. John, New Brunswick, 
November 26, 1840. While he was stiU young, his family moved 
to Boston, and settled in St. Mary's parish in the North End o£ 
the city, where he attended the public schools and, in 1857, 
graduated with honors from Boston English High School. He 
attended Holy Cross College, Worcester, for two years, then 
applied for admission into the Society of Jesus. The Provincial, 
Father Villiger, accepted the young postulant and instructed him 
to enter the Jesuit novitiate at Frederick, Maryland, July 28, 
1859. Four years later, young Mr. Devitt was sent to teach at 
Gonzaga College, Washington, D. C, where he later recalled, 
among other experiences in the nation's capital at war, that he 
was selected to march in Lincoln's funeral procession with a 
delegation of boys from Gonzaga. When he had completed six 
years of teaching, he was sent to the Jesuit seminary at Wood- 
stock, Maryland, the September (1869) it opened, to commence 
his studies of philosophy and theology. After his ordination, he 
taught philosophy at Woodstock and at Holy Cross College, 
before coming to Boston as rector of the college in 1891. 

He is remembered as a quiet, studious man, more designed 
by nature for sustained periods of reading and patient research 
than for the active management of a large institution, and the 
constant meeting with people which the duties of an executive 
demand. This natural inclination to avoid the "market place" 

155 



156 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

throughout life was increased, or perhaps explained, by the 
handicaps which he bore in the form of extremely poor hearing, 
and poor eyesight. 

His chief interest, apart from his teaching, was the study of 
Maryland colonial history and American Catholic Church history. 
He gathered and arranged a large amount of material which 
today awaits the attention of some other scholar in the George- 
town University Archives. Some of his studies were published 
privately in the Woodstock Letters, including the only attempt 
made to date toward a history of the Maryland and New York 
Provinces of the Society of Jesus.^ After a long life devoted to 
the classroom and to research, he died at Georgetown University, 
Washington, D. C, January 26, 1920.2 



The College Library 

While president at Boston College, Father Devitt gave par- 
ticular attention to the development of the library. Up to that 
time, since the library was the least urgent demand made on a 
very limited college budget, it had suffered from neglect. How 
this book collection was begun, and what changes of fortune 
were visited upon it, are described in a short history of the 
library written by Father Devitt himself for the 1893-1894 issue 
of the college catalogue.^ 

He explains, in this history, that financial conditions at the 
inception of the college did not permit the commencement of 
an adequate library. The first gift of books was made over a 

1 Father Edward L Devitt, S.J., "History of the Maryland-New York 
Province," Woodstock Letters, serially from Vol. 60, No. 2 (June, 1931), 
until Vol. 65, No. 2 (June, 1936). 

2 "Father Edward I. Devitt, 1840-1920," Woodstock Letters, 50 
(1921): 58-64. 

3 Authorship of this article appears indicated by a passage in Father 
Devitt's manuscript history of the college, omitted in the printed version. 
He wrote: "It is characteristic of the Rector of that time [e.g.. Father 
Devitt himself] that there appeared in the College Catalogue of 1893-94 
a monograph of the college library. . . ." (the manuscript version of the 
history of Boston College is preserved in the Georgetown University 
Archives, Washington, D, C). 



GROWING IS DONE SLOWLY 157 

decade before the college opened by the Reverend Joseph 
Coolidge Shaw, S.J., who after his conversion went abroad and 
with the money supplied him by a well-to-do father, bought 
many volumes in Paris and Rome. 

A second patron of the library was Colonel Daniel S. Lamson 
of Weston, Massachusetts, who gave more than a third of his 
own personal library to the college, and in 1865 transferred to 
the Trustees of Boston College a Proprietor's Share of the Boston 
Athenaeum which he had inherited from his father.* 

In 1875, a secular priest, the Reverend Stanislas Buteux, 
bequeathed his collection of five thousand volumes to Boston 
College. The gift assumed a new value when one learned that 
the donor was an invalid through much of his life, and in 
straitened financial circumstances, who gathered this library 
with discrimination and at great personal sacrifice with the in- 
tention of presenting it one day to the Jesuit Fathers. Thanks to 
Father Buteux, the college library was enriched with full lines 
on slavery, the Civil War, and education, as well as with long 
files of periodical literature. 

Another priest of the Boston Archdiocese, Father Manasses 
P. Dougherty, left his library, strong in Irish history and biog- 
raphy, to the college. In 1882, the library acquired the books of 
the recently deceased Robert Morris, Esq., which aided immeas- 
urably in the departments of English and American literature. 
Other donations were made, and accessions by purchase, on a 
modest scale, were finally authorized. 

Until 1876, the library had rather restricted quarters in the 
small connecting building, but when this section was enlarged 
by Father Fulton in that year, provision was made for adequate 
housing of the books on hand at the time. In the years that im- 
mediately followed, Father Russo, who acted as librarian, and 
Father Francis Barnum, later a missionary in Alaska, did much 

* Share No. 393 was first purchased by John Lamson in 1845, and 
bequeathed to Daniel Sanderson Lamson in 1859, who made a gift of the 
share to Boston College in 1865. This transaction is noted under the number 
of the share in an appendix to The Influence and History of the Boston 
Athenaeum from 1807 to 1907 (Boston: The Boston Athenaeum, 1907). 



158 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

to make the library's holdings available by instituting an accurate 
card index. 

When the alterations of the years 1889-1890 took place, the 
library, strangely enough, was forgotten, and the collection had 
to be divided and housed in various rooms. Father Devitt, on 
becoming rector, succeeded in enlarging the number of books 
by some 25 per cent, and did what he could to provide accessible 
space for them. In May, 1894, the college was in possession of 
28,319 volumes "arranged in 137 cases, distributed over three 
rooms ."^ 

Among other improvements made during Father Devitt's term 
in oflBce was the enlargement of the science departments. A 
chronicler in the Woodstock Letters wrote: 

A roomy cabinet has been added to the new science lecture 
rooms. Several additions to the collection of instruments have 
been made during the year, among them a fine Polariscope, 
imported from Paris. The class of astronomy used the tele- 
scope very frequently during the year. This instrument, made 
by Clark, last year, will now be employed in the study of 
variable stars. Physics, mechanics, chemistry, astronomy, and 
geology, seem to be a task rather heavy for the young in- 
tellects, to be all taught during the graduating year, and a 
change, therefore, is now being contemplated.® 

In 1890, the college debating society took the name: "The 
Fulton Debating Society" under Mr. A. J. Mullen, S.J., as 
moderator, and an orchestra was organized among the students 
by Father Buckley, during the school year 1890-1891. A dramatic 
society, which called itself the "Boston College Athenaeum," was 
organized the same year (1890-1891) under Mr. Mullen, S.J., 
to take over the Thespian chores until then performed by mem- 
bers of the debating society.^ A natural history club, called the 
"Agassiz Association," was formed among the students in October 
of 1892, under the direction of Father Fullerton. The college 

5 The Boston College Catalogue, 1893-1894, pp. 18-21. 
6"Varia: Boston College," Woodstock Letters, 20( 1891) : 295. 
7 The Boston College Catalogue, for the years 1890-1891; 1891-1892; 
1893-1894. 



GROWING IS DONE SLOWLY 159 

magazine, The Stylus, which had suspended pubHcation in 
1889, resumed pubUcation as a monthly with the issue of De- 
cember, 1893, under the faculty directorship of Father Timothy 
Brosnahan.® 

Father Brosnahan Takes Charge 

On July 16, 1894, Father Brosnahan succeeded Father Devitt 
as president of the college. 

The new president, Timothy Brosnahan, was born in Alexan- 
dria, Virginia, January 8, 1856.^ Shortly afterward his family 
moved to a suburb of Washington, D. C, and in 1862, to Wash- 
ington itself. After completing his early education in private and 
parochial schools, he enrolled at the preparatory school of 
Gonzaga College in Washington on September 18, 1869. Three 
years later he applied for admission into the Society of Jesus, 
and entered the novitiate at Frederick, Maryland, on August 21, 
1872. Here he spent a two-year period of noviceship and two 
years of classical studies in the "Juniorate" before going on to 
Woodstock College, Maryland, for his course in philosophy. 
Although his early years appear marked by signs of talent handi- 
capped by roving interests and erratic effort, he succeeded little 
by little in gaining control over his own powers, and the result 
was not only a praiseworthy scholastic record, but a matured and 
very pleasing personality. 

He was sent to Boston College for his teaching period in 1879 
and remained there until, in 1883, he was transferred to George- 
town for his fifth and last year of teaching before returning to 
Woodstock for theology. While at Boston College he inaugurated 
The Stylus, the college magazine, and later, in 1893, revived it 
after it had suspended publication for four years. 

He was ordained in 1887, and returned to Boston College in 
1890 for one year before devoting a year to the study of ascetical 
theology under Father William Pardow, S.J. A period of teaching 

8 Ibid., 1893-1894, p. 73. 

^ The following account is based on "Father Timothy Brosnahan," 
Woodstock Letters, 45 (1916): 99-1 17. 



160 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

at Woodstock College was his next assignment, and following 
this, he was selected to return once more to Boston as professor 
of philosophy in 1892. 

In 1894 he was chosen for the oflBce of rector and president of 
Boston College, and during his four years in oflBce won the repu- 
tation of being an energetic, thorough, and progressive executive. 
His concomitant duties as prefect of studies required him to 
attend to the marks of the boys, to be present at the class "speci- 
mens," to counsel individuals and follow their school careers, and 
to maintain general direction over the extracurricular activities 
of the students. According to one who knew him, he applied 
himself rather "strenuously" to these tasks, but the results were 
welcomed by pupils and teachers alike.^° 

A writer in the Woodstock Letters sketched briefly some of 
the work which he accomplished during his administration: 

During these years Father Brosnahan arranged the graded 
courses of English reading fitted to the aims of each class of 
the high school and the college, which schedule was in a meas- 
ure subsequently adopted by the province and made a part 
of the complete schedule of studies. Similarly he wrote the 
summary of the aims and methods of Jesuit liberal education 
which he published as an introductory chapter to the annual 
catalogue of the college and which was afterwards used by 
other colleges of the province for the same purpose. He intro- 
duced the class of physiological psychology as a requirement 
for the seniors of the college, and appointed Dr. Francis 
Barnes of Cambridge, one of his class of '84, to be its first 
professor. Geology too was added as an elective study by him 
as also was descriptive geometry in his last year as rector. 
He established, too, a laboratory course in chemistry requiring 
ninety hours of laboratory work for each student. As a result 
of these new courses Father Brosnahan was able to make an 
arrangement with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 
whereby these studies in Boston College would be credited 
in a student's first year in the Technical School. By such broad 
and progressive methods Father Brosnahan increased the 
number of students each year of his administration until they 
reached the number of 450, the highest in the previous history 

10 Ibid., p. 105. 



GROWING IS DONE SLOWLY 161 

of the college, although it was well-known that he was strict 
and severe in his standards of scholarship. As a rector he had 
taken hold of the finances of the institution with that clearness 
and vigor of vision which left its impress on all that he gave 
himself to. He straightened out the scholarship funds, refund- 
ing where the original deposit had been expended by his 
predecessors, and though all who were under him attest that 
he was generous with his community in their needs, he so 
managed the income of the college that he was able in the last 
year of his rectorship to make all arrangements for the pur- 
chase of a very large piece of property on both sides of 
Massachusetts Avenue, in Roxbury. . . .^^ 

Following his rectorship at Boston College, Father Brosnahan 
was a professor and later a prefect of studies at Woodstock Col- 
lege until 1909. In that year he was sent as professor of ethics 
to Loyola College, Baltimore, where he remained until his death, 
June 4, 1915. 

Gentlemen of the Opposition 
It is diflficult in looking back from the vantage point of the 
present to understand the excitement which attended the an- 
nouncement in 1894 that Boston College would meet Georgetown 
in the first intercollegiate debate ever held between Jesuit insti- 
tutions. But excitement there was, and the respective presidents 
negotiated for months on such details as the choice of judges, 
and the necessary permissions which would have to be procured 
from the Provincial. ^^ Father Brosnahan wrote to Father Rich- 
ards, the rector of Georgetown: 

I asked that three boys be allowed to come and promised 
that they should be given quarters at the College & conse- 
quently all appearance of undue liberty to be taken away. 
They are to come direct from Georgetown to Boston and to 
return in like manner. This is important, because if anything 
should happen ... to give grounds for complaint, the scheme 
would end with its beginning.^^ 

11 Ibid., p. 106. 

12 Brosnahan to Richards, Oct. 12, 1894, Georgetown University Archives. 

13 Ibid. 



162 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

The much-heralded event took place, after two postponements, 
on May 1, 1895. Among the distinguished guests in a capacity 
audience in Boston College Hall that night were Bishop Brady, 
Vicar-General Byrne, Father Devitt, the former rector of Boston 
College who had accompanied the debaters from Georgetown, 
and Father Richards, the president of Georgetown, who had 
come from an engagement in Buffalo for the occasion. It is re- 
corded that the Boston debaters, Michael J. Scanlan, '95, Michael 
J. Splaine, '97, and John J. Kirby, '95, brought credit to their 
alma mater by their able defense of "The Equity of the Income 
Tax Law as Passed by the Last Congress," but in a close decision, 
decided finally by the vote of the chairman, they lost to the 
young men from the shores of the Potomac.^* The philosophic 
Bostonians found consolation in the thought "that victory still 
remained in the Society [of Jesus ]."^^ 

Other innovations at this period took the form of improving 
and extending the school plant. On May 6, 1895, the Board of 
Trustees of the college authorized Father Brosnahan to buy a 
small brick apartment house on 39 Newton Street, and the folr 
lowing March authorized the purchase of the adjoining building. 
No. 41.^^ This acquisition permitted the college authorities to 
transfer the quarters of the Young Men's Catholic Association 
from the college building proper to 41 Newton Street, thus ob- 
taining imperatively needed classroom space. The Young Men's 
Catholic Association wing of the college building was occupied 
by the college for the opening of school in September, 1898,^^ 
but the association did not have the formal dedication of their 
new quarters until January 24, 1899.^^ 

1* "Boston College — The Intercollegiate Debate," Woodstock Letters, 
24(1895):321-323. 

15 Ibid., p. 323. 

IS "Records of the Trustees of Boston College," under dates May 6, 1895, 
and March 26, 1896. Manuscript volume in the Archives of Boston CoUege. 

"The Stylus, 12( 1898):440-441. 

18 Farren, "The Young Men's Catholic Association," The Pilot, 
March 8, 1930. 



GROWING IS DONE SLOWLY 163 

The Sports-Field Dream 

In June of 1898, the college trustees had authorized another 
long-desired acquisition, grounds for an athletic field.^" This land, 
purchased from the Oakes A. Ames Estate, consisted of some 
402,000 square feet situated on both sides of Massachusetts 
Avenue beyond the then New England Railroad tracks. It had a 
frontage of about 500 feet on Massachusetts Avenue and ran 
back to Norfolk Avenue on one side, a distance of about 850 
feet, with a mean width of 425 feet. It had about the same 
frontage on the other side of the avenue, with a depth of about 
200 feet. On the easterly side of the property there was a row 
of tenement houses fronting on Willow Street.-" This site, now 
occupied in large part by the Boston Edison Company's plant 
and employees' club, enjoyed the advantage of being within easy 
walking distance of the college. Moreover, there were rumors 
that the city would drain the adjacent marshes and put through 
a boulevard connecting Boston proper with South Boston and 
Dorchester,^^ and, because of these projected improvements, it 
was regarded as probable that some of the departments of the 
college would be moved to this new site.^^ 

The announcement that the immediate purpose of the acquisi- 
tion was to provide a large athletic field for the students was 
greeted with enthusiasm. The Stylus exulted: "There is nothing 
that brings greater joy to all than the final crowning of the e£Forts 
for an athletic field."^^ The students were given to understand 
that by the following spring, a portion of the land would have 
been cleared, enclosed, and laid out for baseball and track. There 
was even thought given to opening the field with a joint meet of 
some kind.^* But these hopes were doomed to disappointment. 
Time went on, and nothing was done with the land, either by 
way of building on it for the school, or of preparing it for ath- 

19 "Records of the Trustees of Boston College," under date June 25, 1898. 

20 The Pilot, July 9, 1898. 

21 "Father Timothy Brosnahan," Woodstock Letters, 45( 1916): 106-107. 

22 The Pilot, July 9, 1898. 

23 The Stylus, 12(1898):453. 

24 Ibid. 



164 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

letics. Almost two years after the purchase (e.g., March, 1900), 
the sports editor of The Stylus was lamenting: 

The same heavy drawback, the lack of a suitable field for 
the preliminary practice, stares the [baseball] team in tlie 
face ... as the college authorities have not put the athletic 
field on Massachusetts Avenue into shape as yet, and there is 
a strong likelihood now that it will not be used for baseball 
purposes, at least, during this spring.^^ 

In June, 1900, the then president, Father Mullan, reported to 
the alumni association that it would cost $15,000 to prepare the 
new athletic field for use, and that this sum was not forth- 
coming.^® 

A chronicler of Boston events in the Woodstock Letters for 
March, 1902, optimistically wrote: 

We hope to greatly benefit college athletics by the new 
athletic field on Massachusetts Avenue. It seemed an almost 
hopeless task to grade the field and fill it in, but during the 
winter and spring the city authorities have very accommodat- 
ingly consented to dump thousands of loads of ashes there, 
and now the field is practically ready for baseball practice. 
Hitherto we have had no proper place of our ov^oi for practice. 
With the completion of the field we expect to accomplish 
something in the athletic world.^^ 

No competitive games ever were played on the tract, but 
some use was made of it as a practice field in the years that 
followed. The purchase, nevertheless, reflects credit on Father 
Brosnahan in spite of the fact that the original plans for the 
land were never carried out, for, as he had surmised, the land 
gained so much in value ( though for a reason different than that 
which he had foreseen) that one might say its original intention 
was achieved when the proceeds from its sale, which took place 
in 1912-1914, helped to finance the first part of the new Boston 
CoUege.^^ 

2^ Ibid., 14(1900):453. 

26 The Boston Globe, June 29, 1900. 

27 Woodstock Letters, 31 ( 1902 ) : 142. 

28 "Father Timothy Brosnahan," Woodstock Letters, 45( 1916): 106-107. 



GROWING IS DONE SLOWLY 165 

Toward the close o£ Father Brosnahan's period in oflfice, he 
instituted some wide -reaching changes which were destined to 
be brought to completion by his successor. The college had gone 
through periods of alteration in 1876 and 1889 under Father 
Fulton, and was now, for the third time to undergo extensive 
physical modification. One of these changes, the transfer of the 
Young Men's Catholic Association to 41 East Newton Street, has 
already been mentioned. Other adjustments aflFected the school 
itself, particularly with respect to the physical separation of the 
college and high school departments. The many changes e£Eected 
were listed in a contemporary account: 

The preparatory school of the college, which from its incep- 
tion has enjoyed an unrestrained commingling with the col- 
legiate department is now confined exclusively to the southern 
wing of the college, and the college men are located in the 
northern wing, the interior of which has been entirely re- 
modelled. The gallery of the gymnasium of the Association 
has been roofed over, and converted into a class-room. . . . 
[Like use has been made of] the old billiard room and the 
parlor of the Association. . . . 

The scientific department has received the most attention. 
The laboratories, both chemical and physical, have been en- 
tirely refitted. . . . The gymnasium of the Association, which 
was quite recently equipped at a great expense, has been 
turned over to the college department. The old gymnasium 
and recreation hall will be put at the disposal of the "preps." 
. . . The college campus has also received its share of improve- 
ments. The ground has been put in good condition, and four 
tennis courts and three handball courts have been laid out.^^ 

29 The Pilot, Sept. 10, 1898. A description of sports facilities on the 
"campus" at Harrison Avenue would be incomplete without mention of the 
baseball practice cage which was built in the schoolyard in 1899. Accord- 
ing to a newspaper account, "Captain [Wm. J.] Dulfy of the Boston baseball 
team who entered Boston College last fall as a student" approached "Prof. 
Mulrey, S.J., Moderator of Athletics," with the request for such a building 
"and the committee of students voted $2500 for a cage." The structure, of 
corrugated iron, with long, wire-protected windows on the sides and roof, 
measured 80 feet in length, 25 feet in width, and 23 feet in height at the 
ridge pole; it was equipped with steam heat and had a dirt floor (The 
Boston Herald, Jan. 28, 1899). 



CHAPTER XIV 
CONFLICT AND ADJUSTMENTS 



On June 30, 1898, the Reverend W. G. Read Mullan, S.J., suc- 
ceeded Father Brosnahan as president of Boston College. Father 
Mullan was a Baltimorian, thirty-eight years of age, and a 
teacher with experience at Fordham, Georgetown, and Holy 
Cross before coming to Boston. He is remembered as a well- 
poised, soft-spoken, young-looking man, whose unaflFected pleas- 
ure in being among college boys made him one of the most 
personally popular executives the college had known up to that 
time. 

He was a courageous leader, who was interested in improving 
Catholic education, and to that end spoke his mind in unmistak- 
able terms. At a meeting of representatives of Catholic colleges 
in the United States in Chicago less than a year after his inaugu- 
ration, he delivered a paper on "The Drift Toward Non-Catholic 
Colleges and Universities," in which he pleaded vigorously for 
a modification of the then current Catholic boarding-school life 
and discipline, "so as to make both many times more attractive 
to young men."^ He urged the separation of an institution's col- 
lege department from the preparatory department, both in place 
and in administration, although not necessarily in the type of 
studies or the methods of instruction. He held that Catholic 
colleges 

should make some of the present courses of study optional, 
and enlarge and strengthen courses in History, History of 

1 The Pilot, April 22, 1899. 

166 



CONFLICT AND ADJUSTMENTS 167 

Philosophy, Philosophy of History, Political Economy, Consti- 
tutional History, advanced courses in English and the other 
modem literatures. They should raise, in many cases, the value 
of the A.B, degree, by stricter requirements for entrance and 
graduation, by a more thorough grading of classes, and by 
more masterly instruction.^ 

For the improvement of his own college, he carried out with 
enthusiasm the program of changes begun by Father Brosnahan. 
At the opening of classes in the fall of 1898, he effected the estab- 
lishment of three completely distinct departments within the 
institution: the college proper, consisting of four regular classes 
leading to the degree of A.B.; the academic department, consist- 
ing of three classes preparatory for the college course; and the 
English department, consisting of graded classes, in which Eng- 
lish, modern languages, and the sciences were studied. In addi- 
tion to these, there was also a class for young students not old 
enough or well enough prepared to enter the academic 
department.^ 

In May, 1899, he announced to the Catholics of Boston the 
plans he had for a better college, while admitting candidly the 
limitations under which the college labored at the time.* He 
pointed out the advantages of developing the "English depart- 
ment" into a full-fledged English high school, and of making the 
"Academic department" a separate Latin high school. If endow- 
ments could be secured, he said, it was his ambition to establish 
professorships, to which men of eminence outside the clergy 
could be elected; an accomplishment which, under existing con- 
ditions, was impossible at Boston College, since, apart from a 
few scholarships, no funds were available for professors' salaries. 

Another point which deserved the attention of Boston Catho- 
lics was the lack of adequate room in the college. Growth, he 
informed them, within the existing building was no longer pos- 
sible; classroom space for more than the present four hundred 
and sixty pupils simply did not exist. He added a promise that 

nbid. 

3 Ibid., Aug. 20, 1898. 

4 Ibid., May 13, 1899. 



168 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

if circumstances permitted, no tuition would be asked in the 
college. 

At the present time [he claimed], no student, however poor, 
is refused admission because he is unable to pay tuition, and 
of the four hundred young men registered in the college, 
scarcely more than half do so.^ 

A Question of Accrediting 

Because Father MuUan constantly and sincerely endeavored 
to insure high scholastic standards at the college, his indignation 
was understandable when Harvard University withdrew the 
name of Boston College from the list of institutions, the graduates 
of which would be admitted as regular students to the Harvard 
Law School. 

To evaluate properly the dispute which followed and which 
stretched over several years, it will aid to bear in mind two im- 
portant aspects of the Harvard administrational system then in 
operation: 

The first of these was the fact that Harvard did not accept 
the degree of any other college as equal to its own. Graduates 
of other reputable colleges might enter its graduate schools, 
but they would not be accepted as candidates for a degree 
until their previous education had been investigated by a 
committee of the faculty and translated into terms of Harvard 
courses. The equivalent of Harvard's own admission require- 
ments and college courses for the bachelor's degree was in- 
sisted upon. The committee in reckoning values that might 
count, considered the candidate's individual record alone, and 
obtained its information from him, from the oflBcers of his 
college, and other records. It then informed him as to what 
his Harvard standing was. It might be equal to a Harvard 
bachelor of arts, or one or several courses short, or the defi- 
ciency might be one of years. College graduates appeared in 
the catalogue as Harvard seniors or juniors, while some were 
admitted only as equal to sophomores or freshmen. A Yale 
honor graduate, for instance, might become a candidate for 
the degree of master of arts at once, while his classmate of 

5 Ibid. 



CONFLICT AND ADJUSTMENTS 169 

lower Yale standing might have to make up the whole or part 
of the Harvard senior year. Each case was decided on its 
individual merits and the committee did not grade the di£Eer- 
ent colleges.® 

The second consideration is that during the late Eighties, the 
Harvard Law School, in spite of the addition of a third year to its 
course, increased considerably in numbers. A few years later, the 
school authorities felt that greater selection could and should be 
exercised in the admission of students; the first step in this direc- 
tion was to legislate that, beginning with the year 1896-1897, 
only college graduates would be admitted to the law school, and 
these only from approved colleges.^ 

In drawing up the first list of approved colleges, the Harvard 
authorities included only one Jesuit college, Georgetown, where- 
upon the Boston College and Holy Cross authorities insisted that 
their curricula were just the same as that of Georgetown, and 
consequently requested that they be listed as approved. On a 
revised list, these two colleges did appear, but when, subse- 
quently, St. John's College, Fordham, made a similar claim, 
instead of granting the petition, the Harvard faculty committee 
reconsidered its former action, and not only did not grant the 
Fordham request, but on March 11, 1898, dropped Boston Col- 
lege and Holy Cross from the list.^ 

It is true that this action did not altogether exclude graduates 
of Boston College and other Jesuit institutions from Harvard 
Law School, but it prevented them from being enrolled as 
regular students, which meant that they were admitted only 
after examination, and to obtain the Law School diploma they 

6 "Harvard and the Jesuit Colleges," The New York Sun, June 30, 1900. 

'^ The Harvard University Catalogue for 1899-1900 (Cambridge: 
Published by the University, 1900), p. 541. 

8 Letter of Doctor Eliot to Rev. John F. Lehy, S.J., president of Holy 
Cross College, Oct. 24, 1898. Copy preserved in Maryland Province 
Archives, Baltimore. This letter is evidently substantially the same as the 
one vv^hich Father MuUan mentions as having received from President Eliot 
under the same date, cf. Father MuUan's covering letter for the published 
correspondence, The Boston Globe, June 25, 1900; cf. also "Boston College 
and Harvard University," Woodstock Letters, 29 (1900): 337-839; and edi- 
torial, American Ecclesiastical Review, Aug., 1900. 



170 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

were required to maintain a uniform average of 75 per cent in 
studies throughout their entire course; the graduates of the privi- 
leged colleges could obtain the diploma with a minimum average 
of 55 per cent.^ 

Doctor Eliot's Explanation 
When Father MuUan asked Doctor Charles W. Eliot for an 
explanation why Boston College was dropped from the hst of 
privileged colleges, the Harvard president replied on October 

24, 1898: 

We found on inquiry that graduates of Boston College . . . 
would not be admitted even to the Junior class of Harvard 
College. . . . Furthermore, we have had experience at the law 
school of a considerable number of graduates of . . . Boston 
College and these graduates have not as a rule made good 
records at the school.^" 

After a meeting between representatives of Boston College and 
Doctor Hans Von Jagemann, chairman of the Harvard College 
committee, which was arranged with the approval of President 
Eliot, at Harvard in November, 1899, Father Mullan questioned 
the validity of the two reasons adduced by Doctor Eliot for the 
exclusion of Boston College. Father MuUan's argument against 
the first was that Doctor Von Jagemann had denied categorically 
that any institution was rated by his committee. All of the com- 
mittee's decisions, according to Doctor Von Jagemann, were 
based on each individual case, and his records, moreover, showed 
that only three Boston College graduates had entered Harvard 
College within the eight years under discussion; of these, one 
was as a special student with a status equivalent to a graduate 
student; one as a junior; one as a sophomore. 

In challenging the second of Doctor Eliot's reasons. Father 
Mullan again appealed to the record. From the evidence of the 
Harvard law school register from 1887 to 1896 (the latest date 
available at the time of the law school decision), the following 

^ "Boston College and Harvard University," Woodstock Letters, 
29 (1900): 337. 

10 Dr. Eliot to Father Mullan, Oct. 24, 1898 (published correspondence). 



CONFLICT AND ADJUSTMENTS 171 

graduates of Boston College had been enrolled at the Harvard 
Law School: 1892 — three registered, of whom two withdrew 
after a few days, and the other withdrew after two months; 
1893 — one, who completed the course; 1895 — one, who with- 
drew after two years; 1896 — one, who completed his course after 
an interruption due to sickness. Therefore, omitting the two who 
withdrew within a few days of registration, there were during 
this time only four graduates of Boston College who attended 
Harvard law school, of whom two finished the course. On the 
basis of these facts, Doctor Eliot's statement that "We have had 
experience at the law school of a considerable number of gradu- 
ates of . . . Boston" was shown to be inaccurate.^^ 

Doctor Eliot in a letter to Father Mullan, dated December 8, 
1899, did not answer the above arguments urged against him, 
but was content to reaffirm his original position. In a subsequent 
letter (January 17, 1900) he disclaimed any intention of dis- 
crediting Catholic institutions as such, but, he concluded: 

We should be heartily glad ... if the Jesuit colleges would 
so amplify their courses of instruction, and raise their stand- 
ards of admission, that they could be fairly put upon a level 
with such institutions as Dartmouth, Amherst, Williams, 
Haverford, Lafayette, Oberlin, Rutgers, Trinity (Conn.) and 
Wesleyan (Conn.). 

On this level, in the judgment of Harvard University, the 
Jesuit Colleges in the United States do not stand and have 
never stood.^" 

When Father Mullan asked that Doctor Eliot's position be 
supported with facts other than the two statements which had 
been refuted, the Harvard president replied that he wished to 
terminate the correspondence, since to answer Father Mullan s 
question (i.e., what the facts were which justified such a deci- 
sion) "would involve my making a detailed statement concerning 
the inferiority of Jesuit Colleges,"" which, he felt, would serve 
no good purpose at the time. Father Mullan promptly repHed: 

11 The presentation of the arguments on both sides is based upon the 
published correspondence. 

12 Dr. EUot to Father Mtdlan, Jan. 17, 1900 (published correspondence). 
^^ Ibid., Feb. 1, 1900 (published correspondence). 



172 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

You have said that the Jesuit Colleges are inferior. I have 
been asking you to tell me why you say Boston CoUege is 
inferior. You are unwilling to answer my question, and unwill- 
ing to give me a chance to reply to your imputation.^* 

Doctor Eliot thereupon informed Father Mullan of his ( Doctor 
Eliot's ) willingness to make a statement later for Father MuUan's 
private use, but Father Mullan declined the explanation under 
such conditions. 

I do not see [he wrote to President Eliot] how you can 
fairly be unwilling to make public the precise reason of 
Harvard's discrimination against Boston College. . . . You have 
condemned Boston College before the community, and you 
intend to make it impossible for Boston College to defend 
itself before the community.^^ 

Father Brosnahan and Doctor Eliot 
Thus the dispute stood by the summer of 1900; but another 
incident had occurred in the meantime which had the efiFect of 
arousing partisan feeling still more. Doctor Eliot, writing on the 
desirability of introducing the elective system into the nation's 
high schools, in the Atlantic Monthly for October, 1899, had 
made the following remarks: 

There are those who say that there should be no election 
of studies in secondary schools — that the school committee, 
or the superintendent, or the neighboring college, or a con- 
sensus of university opinion, should lay down the right course 
of study for the secondary school and that every child should 
be obliged to follow it. This is precisely the method followed 
in Moslem countries, where the Koran prescribes the perfect 
education to be administered to all children alike. The pre- 
scription begins in the primary school and extends straight 
through the university; and almost the only mental power 
cultivated is the memory. Another instance of uniform pre- 
scribed education may be found in the curriculum of the Jesuit 
colleges, which has remained almost unchanged for four 
hundred years, disregarding some trifling concessions made to 
natural science. That these examples are both ecclesiastical 

14 Father Mullan to Dr. Eliot, Feb. 4, 1900 (published correspondence). 
"^^ Ibid., May 25, 1900 (published correspondence). 







O 

U 
o 

a 

o 







>^ 

a 
u 
x> 

a; 

tX) 

m 

'o 
U 

a 
o 

•M 
(« 
O 



o 
o 

pc; 

a 
_o 

4-1 

a. 
<u 

o 
cu 
Pi:5 



CONFLICT AND ADJUSTMENTS 173 

is not without significance. Nothing but an unhesitating belief 
in the Divine Wisdom of such prescriptions can justify them, 
for no human wisdom is equal to contriving a prescribed 
course of study equally good for even two children of the 
same family, between the ages of eight and eighteen. Direct 
revelation from on high would be the only satisfactory basis 
for a uniform prescribed curriculum. The immense deepening 
and expanding of human knowledge in the nineteenth cen- 
tury, and the increasing sense of the sanctity of the individ- 
ual's gifts and will-power, have made uniform prescriptions 
of study in secondary schools impossible and absurd.^® 

Coming at a time of strained relations, this paragraph could 
hardly be passed over as "infelicitous"; it was felt, on the con- 
trary, to be deliberately and gratuitously offensive. An able 
apologist, Father Timothy Brosnahan, S.J., former president of 
Boston College, and at this time a professor of theology at the 
Jesuit seminary at Woodstock, Maryland, took up the gauntlet 
and attempted to have the Atlantic print his reply to Doctor 
Eliot. Bliss Perry, the editor of the magazine at the time, claimed 
to have received some sixty protests concerning the Eliot article 
from Jesuit "oflBcials," to which he and his stenographer, who 
"fortunately . . . was a Catholic young lady with a sense of humor 
and a deep loyalty to the accepted policy of the magazine . . . 
[between them] concocted sixty soft answers."^^ The answer 
which Father Brosnahan received, and in which one can detect 
neither softness nor traces of the stenographer's humor, consisted 
of two sentences: 

We have your letter of December 6th in which you propose 
submitting to us an article controverting some positions taken 
by President Eliot of Harvard in his article on Secondary 
Schools. We regret to say that it is not the policy of the maga- 
zine to publish articles in controversy and we therefore cannot 
encourage you to submit the article which you suggest.^^ 

16 Charles W. Eliot, "Recent Changes in Secondary Education," The 
Atlantic Monthly, 84 (Oct., 1899): 443. 

1^ Bliss Perry, And Gladly Teach (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 
c. 1935), p. 171. 

18 The Editors to Rev. Timothy Brosnahan, Dec. 9, 1899. Woodstock 
Letters, 45(1916) -.109. 



174 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

The fact that Mr. Perry accepted an article by Professor 
Andrew F. West of Princeton University, controverting President 
EHot's doctrines for the January number made the editor's posi- 
tion difficult to defend. Mr. Perry's treatment of the episode in 
his recent autobiography apparently indicates that he now re- 
gards his refusal of Father Brosnahan's paper a mistake.^^ 

The Jesuit writer, after being denied the pages of the Atlantic, 
published his article in the Sacred Heart Review, and later had 
it reprinted in pamphlet form and distributed to educators and 
editors in all parts of the country.^" Critics greeted the essay 
with enthusiasm. The editor of the Bookman, Professor H. T. 
Peck of Columbia University, commented in that magazine: 

It is a model of courtesy and urbanity ... its style is clear 
as crystal ... its logic is faultless ... its quotations, illustra- 
tions and turns of phrase are apt, piquant and singularly eflFec- 
tive. . . . We have not in a long time read anything which 
compacts into so small a compass so much dialectic skill, so 
much crisp and convincing argument, and so much educa- 
tional good sense. ... As the information would probably 
never reach him [i.e., Doctor Eliot] from Harvard sources, we 
may gently convey to him the information that throughout the 
entire country professional educators and men and women of 
cultivation generally are immensely amused at the cleverness 
with which his alleged facts and his iridescent theories have 
been turned into a joke.^^ 

The Chicago Inter-Ocean accorded the pamphlet similar 
praise,^^ and the Catholic press hailed it as "a masterly defense 
of the Jesuit college system."^^ 

One who knew Father Brosnahan very intimately at the time 
later said that Father Brosnahan was convinced that his essay 

19 Cf. And Gladly Teach, pp. 170-171. 

20 Sacred Heart Review, Jan. 13, 1900. The pamphlet: President Eliot 
and Jesuit Colleges, by Timothy Brosnahan, S.J. (no publisher; no date), 
36 pp. 

21 The Bookman (New York), 11:111-112, April, 1900. Cf. also Wood- 
stock Letters, 29 ( 1900 ) : 143. 

22 The Chicago Inter-Ocean, April 1, 1900. 

23 The Pilot, Jan. 27, 1900. 



CONFLICT AND ADJUSTMENTS 175 

would provoke a reply from Doctor Eliot, and to prepare for 
such an event he marshaled together facts for another paper 
proving in detail some of the arguments he had merely indicated 
in his first v^ork.^* When the prospect of a rebuttal from Cam- 
bridge faded, Father Brosnahan modified his second paper and 
delivered it at the second annual Conference of Representatives 
of Catholic Colleges, held in Chicago, on April 18, 1900, before 
delegates from fifty -five institutions. The address, entitled "The 
Relative Merits of Courses in Catholic and Non-Catholic Col- 
leges for the Baccalaureate," was reported to have "created a 
sensation" at the meeting, and "that portion of it referring to 
Harvard attracted especial attention."^^ 

Father Brosnahan stated in the introduction to this essay that 
since the subject was too large to study completely in the time 
at his disposal, he proposed to select one typical college of each 
type and compare them. He was relieved, he said, of any em- 
barrassment in choosing the types by the recent action of Har- 
vard University in removing Holy Cross and Boston College 
from the Harvard law school list, and by the assertion of Presi- 
dent Eliot in a public interview that the course in Boston College 
was of an inferior kind. The question, he told the assembly, was: 
"What is the relative value of the courses in Boston College and 
in Harvard College that lead to the Baccalaureate?" 

He then set out upon a minute and objective comparison which 
employed quotations from the respective institutions' catalogues 
to show that the Boston College course, with its requirements of 
important key subjects, was superior to the Harvard baccalaure- 
ate course inasmuch as, in the latter, a student, if he so chose, 
could elect to omit Mathematics, Latin and Greek, the natural 
Sciences, Philosophy and Religion, and still receive his degree. 

It is interesting, in passing, to compare Doctor Eliot's elec- 
tivism, which was the occasion of this disagreement, with the 

24 The author is indebted to the Rev. WilHam F. Clarke, S.J., assistant to 
the Provincial of the Nev^' York-Maryland Province at the time of the 
controversy, for some of the details in this paragraph. 

25 The Pilot, April 28, 1900; May 5, 1900, 



176 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

present attitude at Harvard as reflected in the recent (1945) 
faculty report which condemned unrestricted electivism and 
urged a return to certain general cultural experiences to be 
regarded as basic to all branches of education.^^ This position 
agrees on many fundamentals with the stand taken by Father 
Brosnahan. 

Excerpts from the address were taken up by the secular and 
the religious press throughout the countiy, and drew wide atten- 
tion from non-Catholic educators. Unfortunately, some of the 
press reports on the speech garbled it in such a manner that at 
least one of Father Brosnahan's erstwhile supporters thought the 
Jesuit's presentation marred by "tartness and ill-temper."~^ To 
correct this impression, Father Brosnahan caused the address to 
be printed in pamphlet form and widely distributed as was his 
other; ^^ and to make sure that his Boston audience had the 
opportunity to inspect a correct version, he had the entire speech 
printed in The Boston Globe.^^ 

No rejoinder issued from the president's house at Harvard, and 
the final act in the controversy took place on June 7, 1900, when 
Father Mullan presented to a special committee of the Boston 
College Alumni Association, in answer to a request for informa- 
tion as to the exact status of the discussion, the complete corre- 
spondence which had passed between President Eliot and him- 
self. Then, carrying out an intention which he had made known 
to Doctor Eliot at the beginning of the discussion,^" he published 
the entire correspondence in The Boston Globe and in The 
Pilat.'^ 

26 General Education in a Free Society, report of the Harvard Committee 
(Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1945). 

^-^ The Bookman, 11:294, June, 1900. Cf. also Woodstock Letters, 
29 (1900): 345-346. 

28 Rev. Timothy Brosnahan, S.J., The Courses Leading to the Bacca- 
laureate in Harvard College and Boston College, a pamphlet (Woodstock: 
Woodstock College Press, 1900). 

29 The Boston Globe, April 18, 1900. 

30 Cf. reference to this promise of publication in Father Mullan to Dr. 
Eliot, May 25, 1900 (published correspondence). 

^^The Boston Globe, June 25, 1900; The Pilot, June 30, 1900; The 
Boston Herald, June 25, 1900. 



CONFLICT AND ADJUSTMENT 177 

The law school's privileged list, which was the original cause 
of the disagreement, continued to appear each year in the 
Harvard University Catalogue until the 1904-1905 issue, when, 
in place of the list, applicants for admission to the law school 
were advised to make inquiries concerning the status of their 
particular colleges to the secretary of the law faculty.^^ 

Experimentation and Adjustment 
Meanwhile, by the year 1902 a program of unification of 
studies had been successfully put into practice by the colleges of 
the Jesuit province of Maryland after some three years of experi- 
mentation and adjustment. The authorities at Boston College 
reported to the Provincial at the close of that year that their 
part in the change had been carried out satisfactorily.^^ 

As early as 1900, Father Mullan had announced that more 
rigorous entrance requirements were in force, and that the 
preparatory school would thereafter comprise a full four years' 
course, which, among other results, would render more time 
available for modem languages, mathematics, and history.^* A 
history program providing for two lectures a week on the 
Reformation Period during freshman year, and on the Middle 
Ages during sophomore was instituted, and to strengthen the 
distinctively Catholic features of the curriculum, in addition to 
the ordinary catechism recitations, four distinct sets of weekly 
lectures on Christian doctrine were laid out for the various stu- 
dent levels. Written examinations at the end of the school year 
on the matter covered by the lectures were required of those 
following the courses, with special cash prizes offered for the 
most proficient.^^ 

32 The Harvard University Catalogue for 1904-1905, under law school 
admission regulations. 

33 "Historia Domus, 1899-1902," ofiBcial triennial report to the Provincial 
from Boston College. Manuscript preserved in the Maryland Province 
Archives. 

3* The Boston Globe, June 29, 1900. 

35 Anonymous letter entitled "Boston College and Church of the Im- 
maculate Conception," dated June 29, 1903, in Woodstock Letters, 
32(1903): 112-113. 



178 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

Among the laymen engaged at this time for series of special 
lectures were Herbert S. Carruth, who lectured on the Constitu- 
tional History of the United States; Doctor James Field Spalding, 
in modern English Literature; and Manuel de Moreira, in French 
Literature. The latter also conducted a French academy among 
the more advanced French students in the college, and directed 
the annual French play.^^ 

On July 30, 1903, Father Mullan was succeeded in office by 
the Reverend William F. Gannon, S.J., a well-known preacher 
and member of the Jesuit Mission Band, who continued with- 
out interruption the program of improvements begun by his 
predecessor. 

At the first high school graduation during his term in office, 
Father Gannon inaugurated the presentation of diplomas to the 
high school graduates. ^^ In the same year (1904) he contributed 
to the increasing dignity of the annual commencement by secur- 
ing an orator of national importance, the Honorable W. Bourke 
Cockran, to deliver the principal address, ^^ 

The following year, he voiced before the alumni association 
at that organization's banquet on June 23, 1904, his hopes that 
athletics might be built up at the college, and reviewed with 
satisfaction the success of the prep school sports during the past 
year.^^ The baseball nine had been re-established by him, he 
reported, but the students training for the various teams were 
confronted by serious difficulties which apparently would hinder 
indefinitely the development of strong teams in the major sports. 
One may presume that he had in mind the lack of a gymnasium 
and a suitable playing field as prime requisites for an athletic 
program. 

In May of 1905, a writer from The Stylus recorded that the 
rector was persevering in his efforts to provide physical training 
for the students through athletics; eflForts were made to have the 
athletic field ready for baseball that spring, and the rector even 
encouraged by his presence the various intramural teams which 

■•'6 Ibid. ^ ' The Stylus, 17 ( June, 1904 ): 1 13. 

3sibid. ^^Ibid., 17 (July, 1904): 205. 



CONFLICT AND ADJUSTMENT 179 

had been organized. At the time intercollegiate competition in 
baseball was unpractical because of existing handicaps, but "our 
various class teams aflPord no end of interest and exercise to all 
the students. Witness the fields on Massachusetts Avenue on 
almost every afternoon and say not that true college athletics 
are dead at the college."*" 

Although in 1900, Boston College had had the largest college 
department and the largest high school department of any Jesuit 
institution in the United States,*^ both branches began to experi- 
ence a discouraging falling off in attendance during the first years 
of the new century. The official figures for the entire student 
body beginning with the year 1898 were: 477; 475; 412; 370; 375; 
350; 335 (the low point, in 1904); 350; 457.*- No reason can be 
discovered for this fluctuation; perhaps the fact that Harvard 
University did not carry Boston College on its privileged list 
affected those prospective students who looked forward to gradu- 
ate school after college. 

In 1905, St. Thomas Aquinas College in Cambridge, Massa- 
chusetts, closed its doors, and some of the students who were 
attending the two-year course there transferred to Boston Col- 
lege.*^ The increment at James Street was not large, but it did 
constitute part of a definite trend toward recovery which be- 
came noticeable by 1906. The movement upward was made 
permanent shortly afterward when the college received an im- 
petus, the effects of which have been felt up to the present day. 
That impetus was the elevation to the presidency of the college 
on January 6, 1907, of Father Thomas I. Gasson, S.J. 

40 The Stylus, 18 (May, 1905): 20. 

41 The Boston Globe, June 29, 1900; Woodstock Letters, 29( 1900) :354. 

42 Official figures from supplement entitled: "Students in Our Colleges in 
the United States and Canada," occurring each year in Woodstock Letters, 
1898 to 1906. 

43 Seventy-Five Years: St. Mary's of the Annunciation, 1867-1942 (Cam- 
bridge, Mass., n.n., 1942), pp. 19 and 23. St. Thomas Aquinas College had 
developed from the high school of St. Mary of the Annunciation parish in 
1881. 



CHAPTER XV 
BRAVE VISION 



Thomas Ignatius Gasson was bom September 23, 1859, at 
Seven Oaks, a small town in Kent, England, some twenty-five 
miles southeast of London/ His father came from a French 
Huguenot family, and his mother was descended from an old 
Kent family by the name of Curtis, several members of which 
had held the rectorship of the parish church of St. Nicholas at 
Seven Oaks. Although his family could claim a high order of 
respectability and long traditions, it was not as fortunate in the 
possession of material resources. Thomas went to London at an 
early age and began his preparatory studies in St. Stephen's 
School, where, besides the academic studies taken by all pupils 
on that level, he received a thorough training in Christian re- 
ligion as represented by the Established Church. At the age 
of eleven, he was placed under the tutelage of the Reverend 
Allen T. Edwards, a clergyman of the Church of England, for 
two years until, in 1872, he left England to come to the United 
States. 

Young Thomas' mother had died some years before, and his 
father had married again, bringing about a situation in which 
Thomas and an elder brother felt that they would be better o£F 
trying their fortunes in the New World. The elder brother left 
first, and took up residence in Germantown, now a section of 

1 These paragraphs on the Ufe of Father Gasson are based on WilUam 
J. Conway, S.J., "Father Thomas I. Gasson, S.J.," Woodstock Letters, 
60(1931): 76-86; and The PUot, Jan. 12, 1907. 

180 



BRAVE VISION 181 

Philadelphia; Thomas followed some time later, hoping to find 
in his brother's house the congenial atmosphere which he missed 
in his own home. However, he was destined to be disappointed. 
His brother, now married, experienced difficulty in providing for 
himself and for his wife, without the additional burden of support- 
ing Thomas. This state of aflFairs caused the youngster to set about 
to devise means of supporting himself. He sought any employ- 
ment that would secure for himself the necessities of life, and 
contribute even a little to the relief of his burdened brother. 
His pleasant, intelligent manner and his willingness to be of 
service attracted the attention of a servant in the neighborhood, 
a Catholic woman by the name of Catherine Doyle. This kind- 
hearted woman took an interest in the boy and tried to help him 
with the limited means at her disposal. As time went on, Thomas 
brought to his new friend his problems, including those con- 
nected with religion. She patiently read the tracts which he 
brought to her, and explained, as well as her limited education 
permitted, how the doctrines put forth in these papers diflFered 
from those of the Catholic Church, An awakening interest in 
the Church's teaching led him to accept an invitation from Miss 
Doyle to attend a Lenten Course in a neighboring Catholic 
Church. Following this. Miss Doyle appealed to the Religious 
of the Sacred Heart at their convent on Walnut Street for 
assistance in answering the many questions which Thomas was 
now asking. The Reverend Superior, Mother Charlotte McNally, 
consented to interview the boy, and since she was deeply im- 
pressed by his sincerity and intelligence, appointed one of the 
Religious to instruct the lad in the fundamentals of the faith. 
About this time Miss Doyle brought Thomas to the attention 
of another Catholic lay woman. Miss Anne McCai^vey, who was 
destined within a short time to take the place of a mother in 
the life of this lonely lad. Although she was not well off, Miss 
McGarvey found means to provide him with clothing and, at 
times, even food during the many months he was under in- 
struction before being received into the Church on October 5, 
1874, by the Reverend Charles Cicaterri, S,J., in the Chapel of 



182 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

the Holy Family, now the Jesuit Church of the Gesu, in 
Philadelphia. 

When his conversion cut him off from whatever connection he 
had with his family, Miss McGarvey continued to act in their 
place, and a year later had the great consolation of seeing this 
adopted son, as it were, enter the religious life. He joined the 
Society of Jesus at Frederick, Maryland, on November 17, 1875, 
and after the usual period of noviceship, took the simple vows 
of religion on December 8, 1877. At the end of two years of 
classical studies following this, Mr. Gasson and two of his 
classmates were selected for an additional year of special study 
in Latin and Greek before being sent in September of 1880 to 
Woodstock College in Maryland for his course in philosophy. 

In the summer of 1883, he entered the period of teaching 
known among Jesuits as the "regency," with an assignment to 
Loyola College, Baltimore. He spent three years at this posi- 
tion, and another two years at St. Francis Xavier's College, 
New York City, before being selected in August of 1888 to 
make his study of theology at the University of Innsbruck in 
Austria. 

On July 26, 1891, Father Gasson was ordained to the priest- 
hood by the Prince-Bishop of Brixen in the University Church 
at Innsbruck. He remained at the university for an additional 
year of theology and performed the duties of chaplain in one 
of the charitable institutions of the city. 

His first appointment upon his return to the United States 
in the summer of 1892 was to teach poetry for two years to the 
juniors at Frederick, Maryland, before devoting a year to the 
required study of ascetical theology at the same institution. 

In August, 1895, he was assigned to Boston College to teach 
the junior class, and two years later was made professor of 
Metaphysics and Ethics. In 1900 he relinquished the class of 
Metaphysics to devote himself entirely to Ethics and Economics, 
continuing to profess these subjects until his appointment as 
president of the college on January 6, 1907. 



BRAVE VISION 183 

A New Site Is Considered 
On March 13, a little over two months after his inauguration. 
Father Gasson suggested to the Jesuit Provincial that the college 
purchase the "magnificent site on Commonwealth Avenue 
towards Brighton."^ One of the earliest references to this loca- 
tion had been made seven years previously, on July 21, 1900, 
in a letter of Henry Witmore, of the realty firm of Meredith and 
Grew, Boston, to Father W, G. Read Mullan, S.J., then presi- 
dent of the college.^ Among the parcels of land which he 
described to Father Mullan was one 

known as the old Lawrence farm, and I think [it] may 
safely be called one of the very finest pieces of land in the 
vicinity of Boston. It lies to the west of Chestnut Hill 
Reservoir, bordered on the east by the Park around the 
reservoir, and commands a superb view across the water 
over Brighton and Brookline toward Boston. . . . It . . . seems 
almost intended by nature for the site of a large institution. 
It divides naturally into three parts. In the centre is a nearly 
level plateau . . . ; buildings placed thereon would command 
the magnificicent view before referred to, and themselves 
would be the central objects in the charming landscape to 
the west of the reservoir. South of this plateau, between it 
and Beacon Street, is a nearly level field . . . admirably suited 
to an athletic field. North of the plateau ... is a tract . . . 
sloping from the higher land toward the Avenue and 
Reservoir Park. 

It is interesting to note that the two other parcels of land 
proposed in this letter as alternatives with the Lawrence farm 
as possible sites for Boston College have since been occupied 
by Catholic institutions: Mount Alvernia Academy on Waban 
Hill, and St. Elizabeth's Hospital on the old Nevins estate at 
Washington, Cambridge, and Warren Streets in Brighton. 

Whether or not Father Mullan was already aware of the 
availability of the Lawrence land is not known, nor is there 

2 Thomas I. Gasson, S.J., to Joseph Hanselman, S.J., March 13, 1907, 
Maryland Province Archives, S.J. 

3 Letter preserved in the Boston College Archives. 



184 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

any record of his reaction to this offer. No further mention of 
it is found until 1907, when, with all authorities concerned in 
agreement that the Harrison Avenue location was no longer 
suitable for Boston College, the Commonwealth Avenue site was 
brought into discussion again. 

Father Gasson pointed out that the cost might, on investiga- 
tion, prove too great, but on the credit side was the fact that 
the Archbishop (Williams) had already given his approval to 
the proposed change and appeared disposed to grant parish 
rights to a church connected with the new college. What to do 
with the old college buildings, and particularly the Immaculate 
Conception Church, was a problem; the Fathers had reason 
to beheve that the Archbishop would be unwiUing to change 
the church's status from collegiate to parish. Evidently, Father 
Gasson seemed to doubt at that time that the new college and 
the old institution could be maintained simultaneously. In any 
case, the project was destined to remain in the realm of wishful 
thinking for several months more. 

In May of that year (1907), Father Gasson aroused the en- 
thusiastic interest of the alumni in the project, by announcing 
at the annual alumni dinner, that new buildings and a new loca- 
tion for the college were imperative, and for that purpose a 
fund of ten million dollars would be needed.^ He eloquently 
described the role of higher education in maintaining the dignity 
and welfare of the Church, and pointed out that Boston College 
could not do its part in achieving this high purpose in its present 
location, and without separation from the high school. He con- 
cluded by saying that funds should also be made available for 
the hiring of distinguished lay professors, and for the establish- 
ment of an expanded program in the natural sciences. 

One immediate result of this appeal was the creation of a 
board of advisers for Father Gasson, selected by him from 
among the prominent businessmen in the group. The function 
of this board was to suggest ways and means of securing the 
financial assistance that the college needed. 

4 The Pilot, June 1, 1907. 



BRAVE VISION 185 

On July 24, 1907, the question of securing property for the 
new college was again brought up by Father Gasson. He re- 
ported to the Provincial that priests and prominent citizens of 
the city were urging the college authorities to buy at once, 
that soon it would be too late. Father Gasson seemed to think 
that this action should be taken at this time, even if it meant 
yielding the hopes of having a parish connected with the new 
college.^ 

Meanwhile, the energetic rector had caused the entire school 
to be renovated. Classrooms and corridors had been painted 
during the summer months, and a broad stairway had been 
constructed to provide easier access from the street floor to the 
gymnasium.^ 

When school opened that September, there were 140 young 
men registered in the college department, and 360 in the high 
school — the largest entering classes in the history of the in- 
stitution up to that time.^ 

The Chestnut Hill Location 
On August 30, 1907, Archbishop Williams had died and 
Archbishop WiUiam H. O'Connell had succeeded to the See of 
Boston. This meant, of course, renewing all permissions and 
approvals which Archbishop Williams had granted in connection^ 
with the proposed new Boston College. So, on October 24, the 
Jesuit Provincial, with his Socius, and Father Gasson, visited 
Archbishop O'Connell and laid before him their plans as they 
visualized them to date. The prelate showed the keen interest 
of an alumnus, as well as that of head of the diocese, in the 
proposals, and gave them his full approval, including permission 
to buy property and build the college.* It was still undecided 
which of three available sites would be more desirable,^ al- 

5 Thomas I. Gasson, S.J., to Joseph Hanselman, S.J., July 24, 1907, 
Maryland Province Archives, S.J. 

6 The Pilot, Sept. 14, 1907. 
T Ibid., Sept. 21, 1907. 

8 Thomas I. Gasson, S.J., to Joseph Hanselman, S.J., Oct. 26, 1907, 
Maryland Province Archives, S.J. 

9 Ibid. 



186 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

though the Archbishop evidently was strongly in favor of the 
Chestnut Hill location.^" As it turned out, the Chestnut Hill 
land was selected, and on November 11, 1907, a special meeting 
of tlie trustees of Boston College was called at which it was 
voted to purchase two parcels of land, one owned by E. S. 
Eldridge on Commonwealth Avenue, Nev^i:on, and the other, an 
adjoining parcel, owned by the Provident Institution for 
Savings.^^ At the same meeting, the president of the college was 
authorized to petition the legislature for amendments to the 
charter of the corporation ( 1 ) changing its name to the Trustees 
of Boston College (instead of "the Boston College"), (2) for 
authority to grant medical degrees, and (3) for authority to 
hold additional real and personal estate.^^ 

Two weeks later, on November 25, another special meeting 
of the trustees was held, to authorize the corporation (of the 
college) to purchase a tract of land owned by Hemy S. Shaw 
and the Mt. Auburn Cemeteiy Association in the city of 
Nev^on adjoining the parcels of land voted on previously, and 
fronting on Beacon Street and the driveway. The purchase of 
the fourth and last section, that situated on Beacon, Hammond, 
and South Streets ( the latter now College Road ) , and owned by 
the Massachusetts Hospital Life Insurance Company, was also 
approved at this meeting.^^ 

Papers were passed on the new property on December 12, 
bringing to the college a total area of some thirty-one acres^* 
with an assessed evaluation of $187,500.^^ Public announcement 
of the purchase was made in the newspapers of December 18.^^ 

10 Monsignor Jeremiah F. Minihan to Rev. Robert H. Lord, June 14, 
1941, Diocesan Archives, Boston. After consulting with His Eminence, 
Cardinal O'Connell, in answer to Father Lord's inquiry, Monsignor Minihan 
reported: "Father Gasson inspected and bought the Lawrence Estate on 
the advice and suggestion of His Eminence." 

11 "Records of the Trustees of Boston College," under date Nov. 11, 1907, 
Boston College Archives. 

12 Ibid. 

13 Ibid., under date Nov. 25, 1907. 

14 Thomas I. Gasson, S.J., to Joseph Hanselman, S.J., Dec. 9, 1907, 
Maryland Province Archives, S.J. 

15 The PUot, Dec. 28, 1907. i^ jyie Boston Herald, Dec. 18, 1907. 



brave vision 187 

The Drive for Funds 

Immediately there was enthusiastic talk of erecting a group of 
buildings to be built immediately; a group that would include 
dormitories, and which would eventually house "the greatest 
CathoHc College in America."^ ^ A mass meeting was called for 
Monday night, January 20, 1908, at the college hall,^^ to which 
the college's most distinguished alumnus. Archbishop O'Connell, 
was invited.^^ Eight hundred former students and friends of 
the college answered the call and heard Father Gasson read the 
Archbishop's address, when the Archbishop himself was pre- 
vented by illness from attending. Fifty thousand dollars were 
pledged by the audience in response to the pleas of the speakers, 
and thus a beginning was made for the establishment of a new 
Boston College.20 

Under the direction of Doctor John F, O'Brien of Charlestown, 
who had been chairman of the first meeting, a second mass 
meeting was held on February 17, at which an additional 
$137,000 was pledged.^^ A week later another impetus was given 
the drive by the formation of a "Boston College Club," with 
membership open to those "interested in the extension of Bos- 
ton CoUege."^^ 

On June 20, 1908, was held the first of the well-remembered 
lawn parties at Chestnut Hill for the benefit of the new college. 
The grounds for the campus were dedicated by Father Gasson, 
and named by him "University Heights" upon this occasion. 
Throughout the day, some 25,000 persons witnessed the exhibits 
and patronized the many booths, with some 12,000 gathering to 
hear the Honorable Bourke Cockran deliver the principal 
address.^^ 

17 The Pilot, Dec. 28, 1907. 

18 Ibid., Jan. 11, 1908. 

19 The Boston Herald, Jan. 12, 1908. 

20 The Boston Globe, Jan. 21, 1908. 

21 The Boston Herald, Feb. 15, 1908; and The Pilot, Feb. 22, 1908. 

22 The Boston Herald, Feb. 25, 1908; and The Pilot, Feb. 29, 1908. 

23 The Pilot, June 27, 1908. 



188 a history of boston college 

Designs and Plans 

During the late fall of 1908, Father Gasson devoted some 
weeks to an inspection of several of the larger colleges and 
universities east of the Mississippi in order to obtain ideas that 
might be utilized in the design and equipment of the new 
college. Of the institutions visited, Chicago University impressed 
Father Gasson most favorably. He felt that this group of build- 
ings showed a unity of idea that was admirable, and had a 
flexibility of design that would permit symmetrical growth in 
the years to come.^* These were features which he would un- 
doubtedly require in the plans for the new Boston College. 

On January 25, 1909, a competition to determine the best 
general plans for the new buildings was announced, and four- 
teen architects were invited to compete.'^ The contest was in 
accordance with the regulations governing general professional 
practice laid down by the American Institute of Architects. The 
first of the three prizes which were offered was an award of one 
thousand dollars for the best general plan of the grounds and 
positioning of the buildings; the second, five hundred dollars 
for the next best general plan, and the third, consisting in a 
commission to design and supervise .the construction of the 
Recitation Building, for the best plan of this building. All 
entries were prepared in a uniform manner, with the only in- 
dication of the architect's identity being a code mark placed on 
each set of plans by a neutral referee to correspond with the 
marking of a sealed envelope containing the architect's name. 
The contest closed on March 15, 1909, and the decision on the 
reward was to be armounced on or before April 12. 

The committee of judges consisted of the president of the 
college. Father Gasson; a member of the faculty. Father David 
W. Hearn, S.J., vice-president of Boston College, and formerly 

24 The Boston Post, Dec. 24, 1908. 

25 This account of the competition is based on the ofiBcial announcement 
and statement of conditions of the contest, and correspondence concerning 
it, preserved in the Boston College Archives. Charles D. Maginnis of Boston, 
a member of the firm which vi'on the competition, supplied the MTiter with 
additional details. 



BRAVE VISION 189 

president of St. Francis Xavier College, New York City; two 
members of the board of trustees, Father J. Havens Richards, 
SJ., formerly president of Georgetown University, and Father 
Joseph T. Keating, S.J., treasurer of Boston College; an architect, 
William D. Austin; a builder, Charles W. Logue, and a land- 
scape architect, Arthur A. ShurtlefF, all of Boston. 

On Saturday, April 10, 1909, after meeting several times to 
discuss the entries, the judges finally agreed on the plans to be 
given first prize, but the name of the winning architect was not 
made known until the following Monday, when it was announced 
that the Boston firm of Maginnis and Walsh had won first and 
third prizes, and Edward T. P. Graham of Cambridge, Mas- 
sachusetts, won second prize.^^ 

According to the prize-winning general plan, provisions were 
made for a group of about fifteen buildings, with large sports 
fields and a landscaped campus. The architectural style adopted 
for the group was English Collegiate Gothic which appealed 
to the architects as most suitable because of the natural char- 
acteristics of the site, — an uneven topography, lacking parallel- 
ism in bounding streets, and because of the appropriate senti- 
ment of this architectural tradition in relation to collegiate life.^" 

According to the architects, the plan was intended roughly 
to suggest that of a cathedral, the buildings being disposed 

so as to form longitudinal and transverse courts, at the 
junction of which is placed the recitation building. . . . This 
building, surmounted by a massive Gothic tower, will be the 
dominating centre of the group. 

From Commonwealth Avenue the group will present a 
splendid picture. Entrance to the college group is between 
two gate lodges, and passes into a great quadrangle, framed 
with trees. On the left, in order, are the faculty building, with 
its cloister commanding a magnificent view, the chapel and 
the library; on the right the Assembly Hall, designed to 
provide the public entrance directly from the street; the 
Philosophy building and the Biology building. 

On the transverse courts are the Physics and Chemistry 

26 The Boston Herald, April 13, 1909. 

27 Ibid. 



190 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

buildings, with provisions for further buildings which may be 
needed, on the south side of the Recitation building, and 
representing what may be termed the apse of the scheme, 
are arranged the gymnasium, large dining hall (or extra 
building) and two houses of retreat. The court is terminated 
by a curved parapet wall and terrace, which at the same 
time afiFord an interesting outlook and resting place.^^ 

The northern part of the property would be devoted to the 
athletic fields and grandstands. 

At the time these plans were drawn up, it was expected that 
work would commence on the Recitation Building during the 
summer of 1909 and be ready for the first influx of students by 
September, 1910, permitting the class of 1911 to have the honor 
of being the first to graduate from the new college.^^ These 
hopes proved, as will be seen, too optimistic. 

Meanwhile, steps were being taken to raise funds for the 
carrying on of the building program. The Young Men's Catho- 
lic Association omitted its annual "College Ball," a tradition of 
thirty years, to sponsor a gigantic musical festival at Mechanics 
Building, Boston, on April 19, 1909, featuring a chorus of four 
hundred voices. For this function, the association achieved the 
almost unbelievable advance sale of 10,000 tickets at one dollar 
each.^° 

By the beginning of June, 1909, the plans for the Recitation 
Building had been submitted to and approved by the Jesuit 
Provincial and General. ^^ At the same time, it was tentatively de- 
cided to rebuild the stone barn which was located on the Chest- 
nut Hill property as a temporary faculty residence pending the 
erection of the Faculty Building, in preference to the suggestions 
that the lodge house on the property be repaired and used, or 
that a dwelling house in the vicinity be rented for the purpose. 
As it turned out, none of these plans was put into effect; the 
faculty, as will be seen, was obliged to commute each day from 

28 Ibid.; also The Boston Evening Transcript, May 4, 1909. 

29 The Boston Herald, April 13, 1909. 

30 The Pilot, AprU 24, 1909, and The Boston American, Jan. 31, 1909. 

31 Thomas I. Gasson, S.J., to Joseph Hanselman, S.J., June 5, 1909, 
Maryland Province Archives, S.J. 



BRAVE VISION 191 

Harrison Avenue throughout the first three years of the new 
college's existence. 

On June 19, a second garden party was held on the college 
grounds at University Heights, under the direction of the alumni 
association president. Dr. Eugene A. McCarthy, of Cambridge. 
This function was even more successful than the party of the 
previous year had been, drawing an attendance of over thirty 
thousand persons. The feature of the afternoon was the turning 
of the first sod for the Recitation Building, which took place 
in the presence of a distinguished gathering. Father Gasson 
spoke the words: 

In the name of the August Trinity, the Father, Son and Holy 
Ghost, in the name of Jesus Christ, Saviour of the world, and 
who has given us the only civilization by which a nation can 
endure, in the name of all that is high and noble, we perform 
the first act of this series of tremendous acts which are to 
result in this great blessing for the people of the Common- 
wealth of Massachusetts. ^- 

Then, with a silver spade, he formally turned the first sod. 

The Irish Hall of Fame 

A project to have a "Daniel O'Connell Memorial Building and 
Irish Hall of Fame," as one of the units of the new college was 
announced on June 27, 1909.^^ The person who set this move- 
ment on foot and secured for it the sponsorship of all the 
Irish-American clubs in Boston was a prominent Jesuit preacher. 
Father James I. Maguire, S.J., who was stationed at the Im- 
maculate Conception Church in Boston. One of Father Maguire's 
first steps was to engage the architects who were working on 
the college to draw up plans for this monumental edifice which 
would be in harmony with the other buildings. The approved 
design was made public on August 15, 1909, and all the Boston 
Sunday papers on that day featured the new undertaking.^* 

If Father Maguire's plans had materialized, the memorial 

32 The Pilot, June 26, 1909. 

33 The Boston Globe, June 27, 1909. 



192 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

would have been erected simultaneously with the Recitation 
Building, and would have occupied the entire side of the drive- 
way on which the library now stands. On the Commonwealth 
Avenue end of this tract the hall of fame would have been located, 
polygonal in ground plan, and containing a large circular hall 
bordered by high Gothic arches and massive stone piers. Sur- 
rounding this arcade it was planned to have two corridors, one 
over the other, from which would open thirty-two alcoves, 
symbolizing the thirty-two counties of Ireland, and serving as 
museums of the respective counties. 

Passing from this hall of fame in the direction of the Tower 
Building, one would enter the O'Connell memorial, through a 
connecting foyer. The main feature of the Memorial Building 
was to have been a theater auditorium with a seating capacity 
of two thousand, behind which would have been a series of 
smaller halls designed to accommodate groups of from one 
hundred to five hundred persons. Both buildings were to have 
been decorated with murals and sculptures symbolizing the 
glories of Ireland. The committee in charge of the project 
anticipated a minimum outlay of $300,000 for construction and 
decoration.^^ 

The addition of a heroic statue of Daniel O'Connell was at 
one time contemplated. One of the tentative plans for the 
statue's location was at the top of the dome, "where the figure 
of the great Liberator could be seen from afar."^^ 

The purpose of the memorial and the hall of fame was, of 
course, to perpetuate in America the name and deeds of dis- 
tinguished sons and daughters of Ireland, as well as to con- 
tribute to the preservation of Ireland's language, literature, 
music, and art. It was the intention of those in charge of the 
project to present the entire structure as a gift to Boston College 
from the Irish clubs and societies in Greater Boston, "while they 

3* The Boston Sunday Post, Aug. 15, 1909; The Sunday Herald (Boston), 
Aug. 15, 1909; The Boston Globe, Aug. 15, 1909; The Boston American, 
Aug. 15, 1909. 

" Ibid. 

3« The Boston Sunday Post, Aug. 15, 1909. 



BRAVE VISION 193 

[the societies and clubs] will enjoy the material benefits of a 
magnificent home, where local, state, and national meetings and 
conventions may be held."^^ 

When it was seen that financial considerations would postpone 
the erection of the memorial indefinitely, the sum of money 
which the committee had already collected was devoted to the 
furnishing and decoration of the assembly hall in the Tower 
Building. By the summer of 1911, all plans for the project had 
been abandoned.^^ 

37 Ibid.; and The Boston Globe, Aug. 15, 1909. 

38 The author is indebted to the kindness of Father James I. Maguire, 
S.J., of St. Joseph's Church, Philadelphia; and to Charles D. Maginnis of 
Boston for many of the details in the account of the Irish Hall of Fame 
movement. 



CHAPTER XVI 
THE TOWERS ON THE HEIGHTS 



The work, meanwhile, of excavating the foundation area for 
the Tower Building began in the fall of 1909,^ Since the founda- 
tions had to be blasted out of solid rock ledge, the work was 
necessarily slow, but the stone which was removed provided 
material for the walls, thereby reducing expenses. The laying 
of masonry began in the spring of 1910,- after the board of 
trustees of the college had authorized Father Gasson to contract 
for the building operations.^ By the following October, a roof 
was aheady over two wings of the structure.* 

That month the grounds were visited by Cardinal Vannutelli, 
the Papal Legate, who was passing through Boston on his way 
to attend the Eucharistic Congress in Canada. The Cardinal 
expressed his enthusiastic admiration for the plans of the college, 
and seemed most impressed by the fact that such admirable 
style was achieved without resort to elaborate and expensive 
ornamentation.^ 

Sacrifices, Delays, Disappointments 
No large donations to the building fund had ever been re- 
ceived. The many parties and functions which were held during 
these years to benefit the college did not realize enough to meet 

1 William J. Conway, S.J., "Obituary: Father Thomas I. Gasson, S.J.," 
Woodstock Letters, 60( 1931 ) :84. 

2 Woodstock Letters, 39 ( 1910 ) : 109. 

3 Records of the Trustees of Boston College, under date Jan. 5, 1910. 
*The Stylus, 24 (Oct., 1910):1:28. 

6 Ibid., 24(Nov., 1910):2:25. 

194 



THE TOWERS ON THE HEIGHTS 195 

even a sizable fraction of the building costs. The income from 
the Immaculate Conception Church at this period was devoted 
almost exclusively to the college fund, and whatever the Jesuit 
community could realize through the stipends offered for re- 
treats to religious, sermons, lectures, and so on, was put aside 
for the new building.*' The self-denial and hardships which that 
community underwent in their efforts to save every available 
penny for the fund has never been sufficiently appreciated. But 
despite these gallant attempts on the part of so many friends 
of Boston College, both lay and religious, to meet the expenses 
of the new undertaking, the burden of debt mounted so swiftly 
that it soon threatened to put an end to the whole project. 
Father William J. Conway, S.J., who was administrative assistant 
to Father Gasson at the time, afterward wrote: 

Father Gasson saw all too clearly that unless the unforeseen 
happened, the building would never reach completion. The 
winter of 1910 saw him face to face with failure.'^ 

The same authority claims that at one point in the construc- 
tion of the building, the delay due to shortage of funds 
threatened to be so lengthy that some kind of temporary covering 
was rigged over the work which had already been completed.*. 

To meet this financial crisis. Father Gasson obtained permis- 
sion from the Jesuit authorities in Rome in 1910 to sell the tract 
of land on Massachusetts Avenue, Boston, which the college 
had purchased as an athletic field some twelve years before. 
On March 6, 1911, the trustees of the college authorized the 
sale of the land to a public utilities company at a favorable price 
which enabled the rector to continue the construction of the 
new college.^ 

6 James T. McCormick, S.J., to James M. Kilroy, S.J., "A Proposal for 
Financial Adjustment" (date uncertain: 1926[?]), Archives of Boston 
College. 

'^ William J. Conway, S.J., "Obituary: Father Thomas I. Gasson, S.J.," 
Woodstock Letters, 60(1931): 84. 

8 Ibid., p. 85. 

9 Records of the Trustees of Boston College, under date March 6, 1911, 
Boston College Archives. 



196 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

In May, 1911, when work was resumed, the tower had been 
built up to the level of the roof, and some of the roof tiling had 
been done.^° During the summer, the tower was completed, and 
by October practically all the heavy masonry work had been 
finished, and the heating and ventilating systems, as well as 
the steel stairways had been installed. It had even been thought 
that the laying of the cornerstone might take place during the 
fall, but the date was postponed until the following May or 
June, with no one foreseeing that further delays would push the 
date back and back for another full year.^^ 

One consolation in this period of trial was the phenomenal 
growth of the high school and college enrollments at James 
Street. The combined registration in September, 1911, exceeded 
the thousand mark, a growth of 100 per cent in five years! The 
Boston College enrollment was the largest, next to that of Holy 
Cross College, of any purely prescribed and classical college 
in America; Boston College High School, at the same time, had 
the distinction of being the country's largest classical high school 
for boys.^^ To provide for this growth, two rooms in the faculty 
residence had to be converted into classrooms.^^ 

Father Gasson found comfort, also, in the reflection that during 
the year he had had the opportunity of refusing 

an enormous and magnificent sum — a sum which would 
erect a number of our proposed buildings — if I would part 
with a portion of our grounds. But I concluded that if our 
site was so good and fitting for other institutions it was 
worthy of Boston College.^* 

Oral tradition has it that this oflFer was made by the authori- 
ties of a local university. 

Throughout the following winter (1911-1912) work on the 
new building was pushed forward. From the exterior, the build- 
ing presented an almost-finished appearance. The windows were 

lor/ie Stylus, 24(Jan., 1911):29; and 24(May, 1911):33. 
ii/foid, 25(Oct.,1911):24. 

12 Ibid., and The Boston Sunday Post, Dec. 8, 1912, p. "A." 

13 The Stylus, 25(Nov., 1911 ):2, p. 34. 
i4 7&td., 24(June, 1911 ):9, p. 27. 



THE TOWERS ON THE HEIGHTS 197 

in place except those in the assembly hall and in the tower, 
where it was hoped that stained glass might be used. Electric 
wiring and the last of the heating apparatus was being installed, 
but the task of proper grading and landscaping of the grounds 
remained.^^ Nevertheless, it was still felt that the building might 
be dedicated in the spring, and classes held on the Heights in 
September.^® But again the "unforeseen delays," which were now 
becoming so familiar, and "the length of time required to put the 
grounds in proper order"^^ operated against the scheduled 
opening of the new college. By October (1912), it was hoped 
that, if all went well, classes would be transferred to University 
Heights the following Easter.^^ 

An Adult Education Program 
The winter of 1912-1913 witnessed an attempt on the part of 
the college authorities to initiate a night school of graduate 
caliber for adults.^^ In response to a request from a group of 
prominent Catholic laymen. Father Gasson had delivered a 
series of lectures on the philosophy of history during 1912, and 
at the close of the course, when another series was demanded. 
Father Matthew L. Fortier, S.J., of the college sta£F, was ap- 
pointed to conduct further series in Catholic philosophy. Father 
Fortier felt that something more could be achieved than mere 
casual attendance at these talks, if several courses of lectures 
would be o£Fered simultaneously, and if academic credit would 
be granted in connection with them. 

Father Gasson approved of the plan, and by December, 1912, 
a postgraduate department was in operation with the modest 
schedule of two series of lectures: The Philosophy of Literature, 
by Father Gasson, and Professional Ethics, by Father Fortier. 
The postgraduate course was open only to those already having 

^5 The Boston Sunday Globe, Nov. 5, 1911; also The Stylus, 25(Tan., 
1912 ):4, p. 36. 

16 The Stylus, loc. cit. 

^nbid., 26 (Oct., 1912 ):1, p. 24. 

18 Ibid. 

^^The Stylus, 26(Dec., 1912) :3, pp. 43-44; and Woodstock Letters, 
64 (1935): 446-447. 



198 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

an A.B. degree, and only to those whose appHcations were acted 
on favorably by the faculty board of admissions. To obtain their 
degree, candidates were obliged to attend at least two of the 
prescribed courses, and pass satisfactory examinations in the 
matter of the courses, as well as have a thesis accepted which 
was to be an original study of some subject related to the matter 
of the course, and in length be equivalent to one hundred pages 
of print. A familiarity with Catholic Philosophy was supposed, 
and for those who were not acquainted with the subject suflB- 
ciently, there were prerequisite courses offered by the Young 
Men's Catholic Association. Twenty-five students enrolled the 
first year. 

This new department granted the master's degree to nineteen 
candidates in 1913; to forty-two in 1914; and to twenty-two 
in 1915; in addition to several degrees of A.B., which were 
granted to adults who had never had the opportunity to finish 
their college course in the day division.^" The difficulties of 
providing adequate faculty and library facilities for this post- 
graduate work, and the possible conflict with the regular college 
department in the matter of degrees led several members of 
the college staff to petition Father Lyons shortly after his 
accession to the presidency of the college, to discontinue the 
courses. In May, 1914, it was decided that new students would 
not be admitted to postgraduate courses in the night school 
when classes reconvened in September.^^ The question of grad- 
uate classes was not taken up again until after World War I. 

The Day Approaches 
Through the winter and spring of 1913, construction on the 
new building consisted largely of "finishing work." The plasterers 
had completed their work by December, and four months were 
allowed for drying of the plaster before the work of mural 
decoration was to commence. Father Gasson had secured for 

^0 From records preserved in the office of the Boston College Graduate 
School. Cf. also The Boston Post, June 19, 1913. 

21 Charles Lyons, S.J., to Anthony Maas, S.J., Provincial, May 28, 1914, 
Maryland Province Archives, S.J. 



THE TOWERS ON THE HEIGHTS 199 

this latter task the services of Brother Francis C. Schroen, S.J., 
who had been a professional decorator before entering the 
Society of Jesus, and who had recently won wide praise for his 
artistic decoration of Gaston Hall and the Philodemic Debating 
Society room at Georgetown University. Jesuit churches and 
other institutions throughout the country bore on their walls 
paintings that were a glorious testimony to this famous lay 
brother's skill and genius, so it was with pleasurable excitement 
thatHiis coming was awaited.^- In March, Father Gasson an- 
nounced the painter's arrival, and the work was begun which 
would take until late that year to finish. 

The newspapers early in March carried the long-awaited news 
that the Recitation Building at Boston College would open for 
classes later that month.^^ It was decided at this time that the 
entire student body would not be transferred to the new quarters 
due to limited laboratory facilities and the lack of suitable living 
accommodations for the faculty, but the seniors, forming the 
golden anniversary class of the college, would have the honor 
of finishing the scholastic year at the Heights. Speculation arose 
as to which professors would be assigned to the new building, 
but it was soon announced that one, at least, had been settled 
upon. This was to be the Reverend William P. Brett, S.J., pro- 
fessor of Ethics, who was a member of the first class ever grad- 
uated from Boston College, and who now was to have the dis- 
tinction of being the first Jesuit to teach a class in the new 
college. Father Fortier also taught seniors, but since he had a 
junior class, too, which was scheduled to remain at James 
Street, it was thought better to have Father Gasson take over 
the lectures in Psychology at Chestnut Hill."* 

Open for Class 

On Friday morning, March 28, 1913, groups of young men 
wearing derby hats and carrying "Boston bags" crowded the 

22 The Stylus, 26 (Dec, 1912) :3, pp. 44-45; and 26 (March, 1913) :6, 
p. 225. 

23 The Boston Sunday Post, March 9, 1913. 

24 Ibid., March 23, 1913, p. "C." 



200 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

streetcars for the long trip to Lake Street. Those among them 
who had been foresighted enough to purchase newspapers, read 
the tragic news of the Dayton flood, and perhaps skimmed the 
advertisements of the now defunct Henry Seigal and Company, 
and the Shephard-Norwell Stores; on the amusement page, they 
read that Maclyn Arbuckle was still playing in "The Round-up" 
at the Boston, and Otis Skinner in "Kismet" at the Holhs. 
Somewhere on the inside pages they would come upon the brief 
notice that Boston College was opening that day. These lads, 
seventy-one in number, left the cars at the end of the line and, 
with the enthusiasm of a new adventure, began the long trudge 
up Commonwealth Avenue to the college. 

At about half-past nine, the students assembled at the South 
Street (College Road) entrance to the grounds, where they were 
met by Father Gasson and some members of the faculty, in the 
presence of a number of newspaper photographers who recorded 
the scene for posterity.^^ The group formed a procession and 
entered the building through the west porch, coming to a halt 
in the rotunda. There the students gathered informally about 
Father Gasson who turned to them and spoke the simple words 
of dedication: 

Gentlemen of the Class of 1913; this is an historic moment. 
We now, in an informal manner, take possession of this noble 
building, which has been erected for the greater glory of 
God, for the spread of the true faith, for the cultivation of 
solid knowledge, for the development of genuine science, and 
for the constant study of those ideals which make for the 
loftiest civic probity and for the most exalted personal in- 
tegrity. May this edifice ever have upon it the special blessing 
of the Most High, may it ever be a source of strength to the 
Church and her rulers, a source of joy to the Catholics of 
Boston and its vicinity, a strong bulwark of strength for our 
Country and a stout defence for the illustrious State of which 
we are justly proud.^^ 

2^ Woodstock Letters, 42 (1913): 246-247; The Boston Post, March 29, 
1913, p. 6. The Post article carries a photograph showing Fathers Gasson, 
Goeghan, Brett, and Conway with a group of students. 

2^ Woodstock Letters, loo. cit.; The Stylus, 26 (April, 1913): 7, pp. 
274-275; Sub Turri, 1(1913): 28-29. 



THE TOWERS ON THE HEIGHTS 201 

Following the dedication, the group left the rotunda and 
began a tour of inspection throughout the building from the 
basement to the turrets. The seniors were permitted to select 
their own classroom, and they chose a large, sunny room in the 
southeast wing.^'^ The mural decorations in the president's 
oflBce (now the office of the dean of arts and sciences); in the 
oflBce of the prefect of studies (now occupied by the clerical 
department of the registrar's oflBce); and in the senior assembly 
hall, which were in the process of being painted at the time by 
Brother Schroen, drew the appreciative attention of the visitors.^^ 
The building's main art piece, the statue of St. Michael, had not 
yet been moved from James Street to its destined position in 
the rotunda.^^ 

The transfer of classes to the Heights occasioned some in- 
convenience to those seniors who were taking chemistry, since 
they were obliged to return to James Street for their science 
work after attending morning lectures in Newton.^" 

The building was opened for inspection by the public upon 
the occasion of a party in aid of the building fund on May 17.^^ 
At this time it was understood that the graduation exercises in 
June would be held in the hall on James Street, since the new 
building would not as yet be formally opened,^^ but later, the 
date for the dedication of the building was advanced, per- 
mitting the graduation to be held at University Heights.^^ 

Cornerstone 

The ceremony of the laying of the cornerstone took place on 

the afternoon of Sunday, June 15, 1913, before a crowd of fifteen 

thousand people. In the absence of Cardinal O'Connell in Rome, 

the Right Reverend Joseph G. Anderson, Auxiliary Bishop of 

27 The Stylus, loc. cit. 

^^Ihid., 26(May, 1913) :8, p. 335; The Boston Sunday Post, March 23, 
1913, p. "c." 

2^ The Stylus, 26( April, 1913 ):7, pp. 274-275. 

30 Ibid. 

31 The Boston Sunday Post, loc. cit. 
^"^The Stylus, 26 (June, 1913): 9, p. 388. 
33 The Boston Post, June 19, 1913. 



202 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

Boston and member of the class of 1887, performed the cere- 
mony, assisted by Father Gasson and by the Very Reverend 
Anthony J. Maas, S.J., Provincial of the Maryland-New York 
Province of the Society of Jesus. Six Monsignori, one hundred 
priests, Mayor John F. Fitzgerald of Boston, and state and civic 
leaders were among the audience which heard the Reverend 
Walter Drum, S.J., deliver the dedicatory sermon, and E. A. 
McLaughlin give the principal address. That afternoon the 
friends of Boston College applauded the news that the Golden 
Jubilee Fund for the new college had passed the $30,000 mark.^* 

Three days later, at the commencement exercises celebrating 
the golden anniversary of the founding of the college, degrees 
were conferred in the presence of Bishop Anderson upon 
seventy-nine candidates, including students in the evening di- 
vision. The Honorable Joseph C. Pelletier, of the class of 1891, 
who was awarded an honorary doctor of laws degree on this 
occasion, delivered the address to the graduates."^^ 

On September 17, 1913, the first complete collegiate year in 
the new building began with a record enrollment of almost 
400 students in freshman alone. ^® At the same time, the high 
school, with 430 freshmen, making a total of 1100 students, 
outgrew in one registration the additional room made available 
in the James Street building by the departure of the college 
sections.^^ 

34 Ibid., June 16, 1913, pp. 1 and 4; The Pilot, June 13 and 21, 1913; 
(New York) World, June 29, 1913. "In the box placed within the stone 
were a year-book (Sub Turri) of 1913; envelope containing pious articles; 
envelope containing coins of the United States; history of the building; list 
of names of ecclesiastical and civic authorities; copies of the Boston Sunday 
Globe, Sunday Post, Sunday Herald, Sunday American, and a Boston 
Transcript of March 26, 1913; catalogue of Boston College High School; 
catalogue of Boston College; book of spiritual exercises, Roman breviary, 
Roman missal; list of oflBcers of the Boston College Alumni Association; 
programme of the exercises of the day, and programme of music by the 
Young Men's Catholic Association" (Boston Post, June 16, 1913). 

35 The Boston Post, June 19, 1913. 

36 The Stylus, 27(Oct., 1913) :1, p. 42. 

37 Ibid., p. 60. 



THE TOWERS ON THE HEIGHTS 203 

The Task Completed 

During the fall, the interior of the new college building was 
graced by the erection of five marble statues in the hall beneath 
the rotunda.^® The smaller of these statues represented SS. 
Aloysius, Stanislaus, John Berchmans, and Thomas Aquinas; the 
group in the center of the rotunda depicted St. Michael over- 
throwing Lucifer. The latter was completed in 1868 at Rome by 
M. le Chevalier Scipione Tadolini, on the commission of Gardner 
Brewer of Boston. It took three years to model the allegorical 
figure and the elaborate pedestal, and to reproduce them in 
marble. On the completion of the work, the statue was placed 
on exhibition for a period in Rome, where it was received with 
praise by the critics. Among the many distinguished persons 
who viewed the figure was Pope Pius IX, who smilingly com- 
mented, "The devil is not as black as he has been painted!"^^ 

Mr. Brewer paid $28,000 for the statue, and was so solicitous 
for its safe arrival in Boston that he had Tadolini himself 
accompany it to America and set it up in the great hall of the 
Brewer mansion on Beacon Street. Much later, when the Brewer 
estate was being liquidated, the statue passed into the hands 
of an art dealer, and remained in storage for many years until 
it was purchased by an anonymous benefactor and presented 
to Boston College in 1909 in the name of Father Charles Lane, 
S.J., to be placed in the new college.*" 

In the process of transferring the statue to the Heights, the 
wings, scabbard, and sword of the main figure were un- 
fortunately broken, and plaster wings substituted, which were 

^^Ibid., 27(Nov., 1913 ):2, p. 116. 

39 Prose e Poesie Intorno al Celerre Gruppo Rappresentante San Michele 
(Roma: Tipografia di G. Aurelj, 1869), p. 10. Preserved in the Boston 
College Archives. Cf. also article by F. Franzoni in Osservatore Romano, 
March, 1869, the main portion of which was translated and published by 
Joseph E. Kelly, "A Great Art Gift to Boston College," The Stylus, 23 (April, 
1909): 27-30. 

40 The Philadelphia North American, Dec. 29, 1901; The Boston Amer- 
ican, March 21, 1909; The Boston Evening Transcript, April 7, 1909; The 
Boston Globe, April 10, 1909. 



204 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

allowed to remain until the spring of 1925, when wings of 
marble were restored.*^ 

On February 11, 1913, Father Gasson contracted to have the 
tower bells, which have since become so closely associated with 
Boston College by thousands of students and visitors, manu- 
factured and installed in May by Meneely and Company of 
Watervliet, New York. The four bells are DO (F), the largest, 
christened Ignatius of Loyola; FA (B**), Franciscus Xavierius; 
SOL (C), Aloysius Gonzaga; and LA (D), Joannes Berchmans. 
When this clock chime was ordered. Father Gasson evidently 
considered enlarging it ultimately to a tune-playing chime, for 
the frame was made of sufficient strength and size to carry the 
six or seven additional bells required, and as late as 1936 the 
possibility of such a change was contemplated by the then- 
president. Father Louis J. Gallagher.*^ 

The Fulton Room, a small amphitheater equipped and dec- 
orated for the use of the Fulton Debating Society as a gift of the 
Boston College Club of Cambridge, was formally opened on 
November 19.^^ The seating arrangements of the room were 
changed years later to make it a conventional lecture hall, but 
the mural decorations by Brother Schroen are still preserved as 
a tribute to the debating society, lineally one of the oldest 
organizations in the college. 

In the latter part of this month of November, 1913, Boston 
College alumni were reminded on the occasion of a bazaar held 
at the high school under the direction of St. Catherine's Guild 
for the benefit of the Faculty Building Fund that the need for 
accommodations for the Jesuit staff at the Heights was acute.** 
As early as August of 1912, Father Gasson had recognized the 
great inconvenience which would be caused the professors by 
their daily journeys to and from the city, and he had petitioned 

"i The Heights, April 7, 1925. 

*2 F. P. Latz to Rev. Thomas I. Gasson, S.J., Feb. 11, 1913; and Andrew 
E. Meneely to Rev. Louis J. Gallagher, S.J., Aug. 12, 1936. (Letters pre- 
served in the Boston College Archives.) 

*sThe Stylus, 27(Dec., 1913):169. 

** Ibid. 




The rotunda of the Tower Building 



THE TOWERS ON THE HEIGHTS 205 

the Jesuit provincial authorities for permission to have prehmi- 
nary plans drawn for a faculty residence. The permission was 
granted and the slow work of consultation and drawing up 
trial sketches was begun.*^ But he himself was not to see the 
completion of this work, for on January 11, 1914, his term of 
office as president of the college came to an end, and he was 
succeeded by the Reverend Charles W. Lyons, S.J. 

45 Thomas I. Gasson, S.J., to Joseph Hanselman, S.J., Provincial, Aug. 
2, 1912, Maryland Province Archives, SJ. 



CHAPTER XVII 
PREWAR ERA 



The Reverend Charles W. Lyons, S.J., who became the new 
president of Boston College in early 1914, was born in Boston, 
January 31, 1869. After attendance at the public schools of the 
city, and graduation from Boston EngHsh High School, he was 
employed for a period by a wool concern in the city, and it 
was during this time that he joined the Young Men's Catholic 
Association and came into contact with the Jesuit Fathers. He 
proved to be an enthusiastic worker in the association, and 
was soon elected a member of the board of directors. 

At the age of twenty-two, he decided to devote his entire 
life to the service of God, and on August 14, 1890, he entered 
the Society of Jesus at the novitiate in Frederick, Maryland. The 
delicate state of his health threatened this career many times 
during his first years in religion, but he was able to complete 
his course of studies within a year of the minimum time pre- 
scribed. He made his philosophical and theological studies at 
Woodstock College, Maryland, and was ordained a priest in 
1904. Upon the termination of his studies, he taught metaphysics 
and political economy at St. Francis Xavier College, New York 
City, and at Boston College. In 1908, he was appointed president 
of Gonzaga College, Washington, D. C, and less than a year 
later was transferred to the presidency of St. Joseph's College, 
Philadelphia, then on the eve of an extended building program. 
He remained in the position for five years, before his selection 
to fill a similar role in Boston. 

206 



PREWAR ERA 207 

It was agreed by all that Father Lyons was a fortunate choice 
to succeed Father Gasson at this critical period in the history 
of Boston College. He was already experienced both as an ad- 
ministrator and as a "builder." His most recent concern before 
coming to Boston had been the erection of a faculty residence 
for St. Joseph's College, much along the lines of the one planned 
for Boston. He was familiar with the problems connected with 
such an enterprise, and could bring to his new task a wealth of 
ideas and suggestions, and a sound knowledge of what was not 
practical for such an edifice.^ 

A Faculty House Is Planned 
He devoted himself at once to the business of pushing forward 
the preparations for the new residence. Maginnis and Walsh, 
the architects of the first building, had been selected to design 
the new hall, and were able to provide Father Lyons in March, 
1914, with complete plans to show to Jesuit provincial authori- 
ties in New York.^ As the building was envisioned by Father 
Gasson, it would not rise more than three stories above the 
ground, and the community chapel in the building would be 
no larger than necesary to accommodate the Jesuit community 
at common prayers. Father Lyons, however, was of the opinion ' 
that the building should provide more rooms to accommodate 
the future growth of the faculty, and consequently had the 
architects add another entire floor to its height. Moreover, he 
caused the plans for the chapel to be altered to accommodate 
some 250 people. 

When Father Gasson learned of this, he wrote to the Provin- 
cial, expressing concern lest the enlarging of the chapel, which 
had been ruled strictly private by the diocesan authorities, 
might in the future be the occasion of embarrassing difiiculties 
with lay persons wishing to attend Sunday Mass there. He also 
felt that the addition of a fourth floor would cause undue hard- 

lAnon., "Obituary: Father Charles W. Lyons, 1868-1939," Woodstock 
Letters, 68 (1939): 346-354. 

2 Charles W. Lyons, S.J., to Anthony Maas, S.J., Provincial, March 11, 
1914, Maryland S.J. Province Archives. 



208 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

ship to the older members of the community who might be 
obhged to dimb long flights of stairs to their rooms several 
times a day. He suggested that if enlargement of the building 
was considered necessary, it be extended, not elevated.^ Oral 
tradition has it that he was also worried lest the added height 
to the subordinate buildings on the campus would destroy 
the dominance of the Tower Building. 

In any case, these objections were overruled, and the altera- 
tions were made. As it turned out, the chapel was made a 
semipublic chapel some years later, and the difficulty of the 
added flight of stairs was removed by an anonymous benefactor, 
who arranged through Father Charles Lane, S.J., of the faculty, 
to have an automatic elevator installed for the use of the Fathers. 
The last fear that the additional height would detract from the 
symmetry of the campus pattern taken as a whole, failed to 
materialize. 

In June, 1914, the alumni association presented Father Lyons 
with a check for almost $40,000 to be added to the building 
fund,* and the following September, faculty and alumni had the 
pleasure of seeing ground broken for the new residence hall. 
On September 8, exactly as the college chimes were sounding 
the noon hour, Father Lyons, surrounded by several members 
of the faculty, blessed the ground where the new building would 
be erected. Following the blessing, he removed the first sod; 
then, taking turns in removing shovelfuls of earth, were Fathers 
Michael Jessup, John F. Quirk, and John W. Coveney, on behalf 
of the college faculty; Father Joseph N. Dinand, S.J., president of 
Holy Cross College, on behalf of the sister institution in Worces- 
ter; Brothers Novick of Boston College, and Reilly of Holy 
Cross, on behalf of the lay brothers of the two institutions, and 
Frank Hayes representing the laity.^ When the ceremony was 
over, the slow work of excavation began. 

Each fall had witnessed an increased enrollment in the col- 

•'' Thomas I. Gasson, S.J., to Anthony Maas, S.J., Provincial, May 26, 1914, 
New York S.J. Province Archives. 

* The Stylus, 28 (Oct., 1914 ):1, p. 53. 
5 Ibid., p. 43 



PREWAR ERA 209 

lege, and this year of 1914 was no exception. Registration at 
the opening of classes reached the new high of 432.® 

The work on the foundations under the direction of Bernard 
Malone of Brighton, proceeded throughout the winter, and the 
site was ready for the builders in the spring. The contract for 
the construction and roofing of the building was signed on March 
26, 1915, with the Charles Logue Building Company, of Boston,^ 
and on the first anniversary of the turning of the sod in Septem- 
ber, the stone work was rising above the level of the second 
floor.^ 

The Philomatheia 

The year 1915 witnessed the formation of an auxiliary organi- 
zation to the college which was to enjoy extraordinary social 
prestige while providing at the same time unfailing assistance to 
numberless college projects. The organization was the Philo- 
matheia Club, which united a number of prominent Cathohc 
women from Greater Boston for the purpose of forwarding the 
general interests of the college.^ 

The idea of such an organization was conceived by James 
Carney, chairman of the Boston College Athletic Board, who, in 
March, 1915, arranged to have sixteen representative Catholic 
women attend a meeting sponsored by the Boston College Ath- 
letic Board at the Boston Art Club, to discuss the feasibility of 
such a project. Charles D. Maginnis, the architect, was host on 
this occasion. As originally outlined, the purpose of the proposed 
club was to provide moral and financial support for the athletic 
program at Boston College. Although the idea was well received, 

6 Ibid., p. 53. 

'' Records of the Trustees of Boston College, May 23, 1915, Boston College 
Archives. Also, cf. Boston Post, June 16, 1915. 

»The Stylus, 29(Oct., 1915 ):1, pp. 36-37. 

^ The author is indebted for much of this material to Mrs. Vincent P. 
Roberts, president of the Philomatheia Club. He also consulted "The Consti- 
tutions and By-laws, Philomatheia Club" (pamphlet, privately printed); 
"The Philomatheia Club," a manuscript statement by Rev. George Mc- 
Fadden, S.J., dated May 23, 1923, (president's oflBce files, Boston College); 
"Philomatheia Celebrates Tvv^entieth Anniversiary," The Heights, Dec. 11, 
1935, and the club's extensive collection of pertinent newspaper clippings. 



210 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

nothing furtlier was done to carry it into action until the early 
fall of 1915, when a larger group of ladies and the Athletic Board 
met with Father Charles W. Lyons, S.J., president of the college, 
and reopened the question. 

At this meeting, Mr. Carney achieved wider interest for the 
proposed society by broadening its purpose to include not only 
the promotion and fostering of the athletic affairs of the college, 
but its scholastic and social interests as well. It was thereupon 
agreed to organize such a club, and at the election which ensued, 
the following ladies were chosen as the first officers: Mrs. Edwin 
A. Shuman, president; Mrs. Martha Moore Aveiy, and Mrs. 
Dennis F. Sheehan, vice-presidents; Mrs. John P. Reed, treasurer; 
Miss Louise Hannon, recording secretary, and Mrs. John P. 
Feeney, financial secretary. Mr. George McFadden, S.J., faculty 
director of athletics, acted as coUege representative during the 
club's formative period, but upon its final approval. Father 
Michael Jessup, S.J., became the organization's first spiritual 
director. The club name, "Philomatheia," or "Devotion to Learn- 
ing," was suggested by Miss Hannon. 

The first project undertaken by the new club was a formal 
ball and reception to the senior class, fashioned as nearly as 
possible after the old Boston College Ball. Under the leadership 
of Mrs. Shuman, this event was held on February 1, 1916, and 
proved to be a social as well as a financial success. From the 
proceeds of the ball, the officers of the club were able to present 
the college with a check for $1,400 for educational work. 

Mrs. Shuman remained as president during the first two diffi- 
cult years of organization, and was succeeded in 1918 by Mrs. 
Augustus P. Tillson, who led the club in its war relief work. 
From 1919 until the present time, Mrs. Vincent P. Roberts has 
served as president, building up the club from a few dozen active 
members to a present roster of over one thousand. 

Upon Father Jessup's entry into the army as a chaplain in 
1918, the spiritual directorship of the Philomatheia was assumed 
by Father Gerald C. Treacy, S.J., of the college faculty, who in 
turn was succeeded in the summer of 1920 by Father Daniel J. 



PREWAR ERA 211 

Lynch, S.J., widely known for his distinguished record as an 
army chaplain. Father Lynch has retained the post of treasurer 
and spiritual director up to the present except for a period of 
a year at the time of World War II, during which he again served 
with the armed forces. Father John J. Long, S.J., dean of the 
College of Arts and Sciences, was appointed spiritual director of 
the club during that time. 

Among the many activities which the Philomatheia Club 
undertook for the benefit of the college were the raising of funds 
which provided a flagstafiF and flag for Alumni Field in May, 
1916, and two scholarships for Boston College students at the 
Plattsburg Officers' Training School. The club gave $1,000 in 
1920 for physics laboratory equipment and took a prominent 
part in the drive for the Two Million Dollar Building Fund in 
1921, besides donating up to that time two pianos, special scien- 
tific instruments, and ten large altar missals. In 1921, the club 
donated a small, furnished chapel, and a furnished reception 
room to the new Jesuit Seminary at Weston, Massachusetts. Be- 
sides presenting; gold prizes for five years to students of the 
college, the club's gifts to the college in 1922 amounted to $2,500. 
The Norwegian chalet, as described elsewhere in this book, was 
bought as a clubhouse on March 17, 1924, and was completely 
paid for by May 18, 1928. This property, with over an acre of 
land, its furnishings, repairs, and improvements for which the 
club paid $47,000, was presented to Boston College. 

The club aided the new library in 1928 by the gift of a $1,500 
window and a valuable painting. Later, it was to purchase and 
present to the library the $2,500 Xavier letter. Other benefactions 
of this organization included, in addition to a full scholarship 
at the college, and partial assistance to hundreds of needy stu- 
dents, $1,270 for the college villa at Cohasset in June, 1932, and 
the purchase and gift to the college of the museum building in 
November, 1936. It is gratifying for the members of the club to 
reflect that the organizational plans of their club have been 
copied, with permission, by college auxiliary groups in all parts 
of the country. 



212 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

On October 18, 1931, a Junior Philomatheia Club was organ- 
ized and 250 members enrolled. In addition to sponsoring various 
social functions, these young ladies performed praiseworthy 
charitable work among the poor, particularly during the Christ- 
mas season each year. In February, 1932, the Junior Philomatheia 
staged an elaborate production of Mrs. Larz Anderson's operetta, 
"Dick Whittington," at the Boston Opera House with record- 
establishing success. 

The presidents of the Junior Philomatheia since its inception 
have been: the Misses Lucille O'Malley, Patricia Gavin, Mary 
Dowd, Virginia Grimes, Virginia Fouhy, and Frances X. Doyle. 
Present enrollment in the Junior Philomatheia numbers the full 
400 permitted by the club's constitutions. 

Meanwhile, the chronicler of life on the Heights in 1915 re- 
corded the dedication by the Alumni Class of 1910 of a bronze 
memorial to a beloved senior professor, the Reverend William P. 
Brett, S.J., recently deceased, and the award to a Boston College 
student, Frederick W. Wennerberg, of the first prize in a national 
oratorical contest conducted by the Intercollegiate Peace Asso- 
ciation.^" 

Maroon Goal Posts 
That fall the hopes of twenty-five years were realized with the 
formal opening of the college's own athletic field.^^ The gridiron, 
track, and surrounding campus had been laid out by the Boston 
landscape architects. Pray, Hubbard, and White, and in its set- 
ting, the new field won the enthusiastic admiration of all. One 
of the college boys writing in The Stylus found particular delight 
in the vision of "maroon goal-posts ... on a field of green."^^ 
Before the time for the formal dedication of this portion of the 
campus, the alumni at the instance of Messrs. Francis R. Mullin, 
'00, and Thomas D. Lavelle, '01, raised $1,600 in the space of 
four days for the erection of a semipermanent grandstand to 
accommodate 2200 persons. ^^ 

^''The Stylus, 28(May, 1915):8, p. 558; and 28(June, 1915):9, p. 573. 

11 Boston Sunday Post, Oct. 17, 1915, p. "A." 

12 The Stylus, 29 (Oct., 1915 ):1, p. 38. i^ Ibid., p. 39. 



PREWAR ERA 213 

Shordy after one o'clock on the afternoon of October 30, 1915, 
a procession headed by distinguished civic guests, members of 
the faculty and alumni, formed in the rotunda of the Recitation 
Building and marched down to the field to the strains of a mili- 
tary band. There were speeches for the occasion, and in one of 
them Father Lyons bestowed upon the campus the title "Alumni 
Field," as a memorial to "the boys that were."^* The new grand- 
stand was filled that day; the sidelines were crowded, and the 
weather was fine; only one detail marred the almost-perfect dedi- 
cation ceremony: Holy Cross won the afternoon's football game 
in the last six minutes of play, 9 to 0.^^ 

That evening, the Boston Saturday Evening Transcript ap- 
peared with one of the most sympathetic and appreciative 
articles on the new college which had yet appeared in the secular 
press. It described the college as "Chestnut Hill's Touch of Ox- 
ford," and "one of the sights of Boston," and sought to correct 
the misapprehension that the institution was a theological semi- 
nary. The tone, as well as the content of this article, occurring 
in what many considered the "official organ" of Yankee Boston, 
attracted favorable attention from Catholics and non-Catholics 
alike.^® 

During the winter of 1915-1916, plans were made for the 
production of a Passion play, "Nazareth," during the ensuing 
Lent, under the direction of Father Michael J. Ahem, S.J. The 
particular play chosen had been been written for the golden 
jubilee of Santa Clara College, California, in 1901, and had been 
repeated there in subsequent years. In 1913, permission was given 
to present it at Canisius College, Buffalo, New York, where it 
was staged under Father Ahem's guidance for ten performances 
before nearly 15,000 people. The Boston presentation of the play 
was set for the week of March 20, but as early as January a cast 

14 /fold., 29(Nov., 1915) :2, pp. 82-83. 

15 Ibid., p. 96. 

16 RoUin Lynde Hartt, "Chestnut Hill's Touch of Oxford," Boston Satur- 
day Evening Transcript, Oct. 30, 1915. The article was reprinted in Wood- 
stock Letters, 45( 1916): 131-134; and in The Stylus, 29(Nov. 1915 ):2, 
pp. 88-90. 



214 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

had been selected and rehearsals were being conducted three 
times a week.^' The reception which was accorded the play when 
it opened was so favorable that the originally scheduled run of 
one week was lengthened by five extra performances,^^ and the 
following year it was repeated for twelve performances through- 
out Lent, with many of the first cast playing their original roles .^® 

St. Mary's Hall 

In April, 1916, Father Lyons was so sure that St. Mary's Hall 
would be ready for occupancy by the middle of August or the 
beginning of September that he was already planning to move 
at least part of his community out there.^" He was destined to be 
disappointed, however, as several strikes and the shortage of 
certain materials soon made it evident that the completion of the 
residence would be delayed several months more.^^ 

Finally, shortly before New Year's Day, 1917, it was an- 
nounced that the hall would be opened after the holidays. Thus, 
on the evening of January 4, the last day before the cloister re- 
striction was put on St. Mary's Hall, a small gathering of friends, 
including the mayor, Mr. Curley; the architect, Mr. Magiimis; 
the builder, Mr. Logue; J. B. Fitzpatrick and others interested in 
the college, sat down to a supper served in the assembly hall of 
the Recitation Building by members of the Philomatheia Club, 
under the direction of Mrs. Edwin A. Shuman. In the course of 
the evening. Father Lyons was pleasantly surprised to receive 
from the Philomatheia president a purse of $2,500 toward the 
furnishing of the new building. Later, the guests made a tour 
of inspection of the new edifice, with Mr. Maginnis acting as 
guide.^^ 

The new building, he explained, was modified Gothic, in con- 
formity with the organic architectural scheme of the assemblage, 

'- The Stylus, 29 (Jan., 1916), pp. 217-219. 

18 Ibid., 29 (April, 1916), pp. 287-387. 

19 Ibid., 30(Feb., 1917), p. 249; and, 30(Maich, 1917), p. 286. 

20 Charles W. Lyons, S.J., to Anthony Maas, S.J., Provincial, April 22, 
1916. New York Province S.J. Archives. 

2-^ Wood.9tock Letters, 45( 1916):417. 
22 The Stylus, 30(Jan., 1917) :4, p. 201. 



PREWAR ERA 215 

and laad massive gray walls relieved with elaborate Gothic 
traceries, carved plaques, and by the graceful arches of Gothic 
windows which encircled the lower floor. The building at the 
time contained sixty-four rooms, of which fifty were living rooms, 
including a bishop's suite on the second floor. A unique feature 
of the structure was the large, tiled recreation area on the roof, 
extending almost the entire length and breadth of the building, 
and completely concealed from the ground below. From this 
vantage point, the guests enjoyed a magnificent panorama of 
Arlington, Watertown, Cambridge, Boston, and Brookline. 

The section of the building evoking most praise was, naturally, 
St. Mary's Chapel, located in the north end of the structure. Here 
in a space only a little over one hundred feet long, the architects 
achieved an effect of great depth, loftiness, and quiet grandeur 
that amazed the visitors. The chapel was two stories in height, with 
mural altars and wainscotting of Botticino marble. In the north 
wall were set five large stained-glass windows portraying the hfe 
of the Mother of Christ. The main altar which occupied the entire 
chancel was surmounted by a delicate, marble spire which rose 
twenty-one feet above the floor, and during the day received the 
soft light of several small stained-glass windows placed high in 
the chancel wall.^^ ^ 

The Jesuit faculty took informal possession of the new building 
on the following evening, January 5, 1917, by a simple ceremony 
of filing into the long oak-paneled refectory for their evening 
meal. All stood in their places silently as Father Lyons offered a 
special prayer of thanksgiving and a plea for God's blessing on 
the new residence. The following morning, the Feast of the 
Epiphany, Father Lyons celebrated the first Mass in St. Mary's 
Chapel at six-thirty, and a short time later, other priests of the 
faculty began their Masses at the eight side altars.^* Their new 
home was open. 

^3 The Pilot (Boston), Jan. 13, 1917; The Stylus, 30(Nov., 1916), pp. 
95-98. 

^^The Boston Journal, Jan. 6, 1917; The Evening Record (Boston), Jan. 
5, 1917; The Stylus, 30 (Jan., 1917), p. 201. 



CHAPTER XVIII 
TWO MONTHS IN KHAKI 



On April 6, 1917, the United States entered World War I against 
Germany, and life was no longer normal anywhere in the country 
much less on a college campus. One part of the government's 
training program set in motion shortly after the declaration of 
war was the officer training camp at Plattsburg which was 
destined to draw heavily upon the colleges in New England and 
New York. With the announcement of the first Plattsburg camp 
in May, one hundred Boston College students volunteered, but 
to the surprise and disappointment of these candidates, only one 
was accepted. Immediately there was a spirited protest from the 
young men on the Heights, who claimed they were being dis- 
criminated against. The complaint was finally carried to Wash- 
ington and in time had its efiFect; Boston College students were 
assured that in the future they would receive proportionate 
representation in the appointments for Plattsburg, and this prom- 
ise was kept when the August class was selected.^ 

The Selective Service Act, which was passed by Congress on 
May 18, 1917, authorized the President to increase temporarily 
the military strength of the United States by the registration for 
military service of all men between the ages of twenty-one and 
thirty-one. During the summer of 1918, the ages were extended 
to include all between eighteen and forty-five. This conscription, 

^The Stylus, 30(May, 1917), p. 370; 31(Oct., 1917), p. 23. The 
writer is indebted to the Reverend Maurice V. Dullea, S.J., who was a 
student at Boston College at the time, for some of these details. 

216 



TWO MONTHS IN KHAKI 217 

together with the volunteer enhstment of students in large num- 
bers rapidly reduced the student body at Boston College and 
at every other institution in the country. The enrollment at 
Boston College dropped from 671 in October, 1916, to 125 in 
October, 1918, a loss of 89 per cent.^ 

On May 8, 1918, the college presidents of the country v^^ere 
notified that the War Department w^as drawing up a plan by 
which able-bodied college students over the age of eighteen 
would have an opportunity to enlist in the army while remaining 
in college, and to obtain at government expense training there 
which would prepare them for the more exacting forms of mili- 
tary service. The purpose of the plan was twofold: it would 
provide for the important needs of the armed forces for highly 
trained men as officers, engineers, doctors, chemists, and admin- 
istrators of every kind, and, at the same time, it would prevent 
the premature enlistment for active service of those men who 
could increase their value to the country by remaining at their 
studies. Although the plan permitted students being called to 
active service if the need arose, still it was the stated policy of 
the government to keep them in training until their draft age 
would be reached. On June 29, further particulars on the plan 
were published. The project would be known as the "Students' 
Army Training Corps," and special schools for the o£Bcers who 
would direct it were opened on July 18 at three army posts.^ 

President R. C. Maclaurin of Massachusetts Institute of Tech- 
nology was soon gfter named as the director of the educational 
aspects of the corps's work, and it was announced that the pro- 
gram would begin with the opening of the regular college year 
in September.* OflBcial authorization of the S.A.T.C. by Congress 
followed on August 31, 1918, under an amendment to the Selec- 
tive Service Act.^ 

2 Woodstock Letters, 45(1916):467; 47 (1918): Supplement, "Students in 
Our Colleges in the United States. ..." 

3 School and Society, 9:186 (July 20, 1918), pp. 73-74. 
*Ibid., 8:188 (Aug. 3, 1918), p. 142. 

5 War Department, Committee on Education and Special Training, 
Circular Aa-1, 1918. 



218 a history of boston college 

Barracks on the Campus 

Boston College was one of the five hundred and sixty-five 
colleges throughout the nation selected to share in this service, 
and was assigned a quota of seven hundred and fifty soldiers. 
Toward the end of summer, four sleeping barracks and a large 
mess hall were constructed at a cost of $90,000 in the area now 
occupied by the Science Building and Freshman Field, and by 
way of academic preparation, the regular arts curriculum was 
suspended and a new curriculum drawn up stressing scientific 
and military subjects along lines suggested by the War Depart- 
ment.^ 

A tragic epidemic of influenza and pneumonia swept the coun- 
try during August and September and delayed the opening of 
the corps program several weeks. On registration day, fifteen 
hundred applied for admission, but only one half of that number 
could be accepted. On October 1, the successful candidates were 
summoned to the college where they were addressed by Colonel 
John S. Parke, U.S.A., retired, commandant of the unit, who 
outlined their duties. At the conclusion of this talk, they were 
dismissed for another ten days because of the epidemic, and a 
further postponement for the same reason delayed the actual 
opening of classes until October 15, 1918, less than a month 
before the armistice was signed.^ 

The formal opening of the program took place on October 15, 
when the young candidates lined up in battalion formation on 
the athletic field, and in the presence of Colonel Parke and his 
stafiF of regular army officers; Father Lyons; ex-Governor David 
I. Walsh; Mayor Childs of Newton, and about three thousand 
friends, pledged allegiance and service to the United States of 
America. Due to extraordinary demands by overseas troops, uni- 
forms were not available for the first few days of the program, 

6 Records of the S.A.T.C. at Boston College, Boston College Archives. A 
transcript of the more important War Department circulars concerning 
the S.A.T.C, and a listing of authorized units will be found in Parke Rexford 
Kolbe, The Colleges in War Time and After (New York: D. Appleton and 
Co., 1919), Appendix III. 

7 Bo^on College in the World War, 1917- 1918, p. 304. 



TWO MONTHS IN KHAKI 



219 



and the new soldiers had to begin their army life in civilian 
clothes.^ 

The students were divided into three groups, the first of which 
was composed of those twenty years of age, who were scheduled 
to stay in college for three months; then, those of nineteen years, 
who were to stay for six months, and finally those of eighteen 
who would be permitted to stay the full scholastic year. An 
examination of the enrollment lists indicates that the student 
personnel was entirely made up of local boys. 

The curriculum for S.A.T.C. at Boston College was as follows: 



Group A 
(20 years old) 

Prescribed: 
War Aims 
Military Instruction 
Sanitation and Hygiene 
Mathematics 

Plane Trigonometry 

Logarithms 

Military Map-making 
and Reading 
Surveying 

Elective: 
Military French 
German 
Biology 
Navigation 
Geology 



Group B 
(19 years old) 

Prescribed: 
War Aims 
Military Instruction 
Military English 
Mathematics 

Trigonometry 

Surveying 



Elective: 
Mechanics and Physics 
Chemistry 
Biology 

Military French 
Navigation 
(One elective chosen )9 



Group C 
(18 years old) 

Prescribed: 

War Aims 

Military Instruction 

Military English 

Mathematics 
Plane Geometry 
Trigonometry 



Elective: 
Mechanics and Physics 
Chemistry 

English Compositioii 
German 
Military French 



The soldier students began their order of the day with "first 
call" at 6:25 in the morning, and reveille at 6:40. Then followed 
mess at 7; study at 8; war aims at 9; electives or study at 10; 
mathematics or physics at 11; mess at 12:15; electives at 1:30; 
drill (four days a week) from 2:30 until 4:30; recreation from 
4:45 until 5:55; mess at 6:15; study at 7:15; taps at 10.^" 

The first military Mass at the college was celebrated in the 
mess hall on All Saints' Day by a member of the faculty, Father 
Gerald C. Treacy, S.J., formerly an army chaplain. The Knights 

8 Ibid. 

9 Records of the S A.T.C. at Boston College, Boston College Archives; 
also, The Stylus, 32 ( Nov., 1918 ) , 91-93. i" Ibid. 



220 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

of Columbus aided in furnishing entertainment on free evenings 
by providing a motion-picture machine and a fund for the rental 
of pictures. 

Termination of the Program 
Almost before the Corps had an opportunity to become well 
organized, the Armistice was signed on November 11, and three 
days later the order to halt induction was issued. S.A.T.C. classes 
and drill continued to be held, but on orders from the War 
Department, the college men who were in the S.A.T.C. returned 
to regular classes on November 18. On November 27, Major- 
General Clarence R. Edwards and Governor Samuel W. McCall 
visited the coUege and reviewed the four S.A.T.C. companies.^^ 
The following day the college authorities were notified that all 
units of the S.A.T.C. had been directed to demobihze and dis- 
charge the men, commencing the week of December 1.^^ By 
December 12, the last elements of the Boston College unit had 
been disbanded.^^ 

The sudden cessation of the military program was naturally a 
serious dislocation for the colleges and universities of the coun- 
try. These institutions had invested large amounts in converting 
their educational plants to the needs of the S.A.T.C, and now 
they found themselves with only the skeleton of a student body, 
and their campuses marked with almost valueless equipment.^* 
Many college heads requested that the S.A.T.C. program be 
continued at least until the close of the school year in June, but 
the War Department explained that this would be impossible 
since it would require a new act of Congress to devote funds 
allocated to war use to this proposed peacetime use.^^ 

11 Boston College in the World War, 1917- 1918, p. 305. 
^^ School and Society, 8:206 (Dec. 7, 1918): 675-676. 

13 Boston College in the World War, 1917-1918, loo. cit. 

14 Cf. Ex-President W. H. Taft quoted in Charles Franklin Thwing, The 
American Colleges and Universities in the Great War, 1914-1919 (New 
York: The Macmillan Co., 1920), pp. 70-72. See also: School and Society, 
8:206 (Dec. 7, 1918): 675-676. 

15 Communication of Committee on Education and Special Training, War 
Department, to Presidents of Institutions at which S.A.T.C. units were 
authorized, Dec. 11, 1918, Boston College Archives. 



TWO MONTHS IN KHAKI 221 

R.O.T.C. IN Peacetime 

However, a compromise had been made available by the re- 
establishment on November 23, 1918, of the Reserve Officers' 
Training Corps, originally authorized in 1916, but later merged 
with the S.A.T.C. for the duration of the war. As soon as this 
restoration was announced, over one hundred of the colleges 
which had the R.O.T.C. originally, signified their willingness to 
establish it once more, and an additional two hundred institu- 
tions applied for the establishment of new units.^*^ One of the 
latter was Boston College, and early in January, 1919, Father 
Lyons wrote the Provincial of his satisfaction at learning that 
Colonel J. S. Parke, the former commandant, and Captain 
Andrew B. Kelly, the former adjutant of the Boston College 
S.A.T.C, were available to organize and direct a R.O.T.C. unit 
at the coUege.^^ 

The inception of the program was announced in "General 
Orders, Number 1," published from the headquarters of the 
R.O.T.C. at Boston College, February 27, 1919,^* and the actual 
training began in the first week of March. It was decided after 
some discussion that the membership was to be voluntary for all 
those who, upon examination, could qualify as officer material, 
and some 137 students enrolled.^'' 

The R.O.T.C. demanded only two hours weekly of drill, and 
only one hour a week of class in military science, yet the program 
apparently became irksome to many of the student soldiers after 
it was started. Perhaps the students shared the widespread re- 
action of distaste, in the postwar period, for everything con- 
nected with the military; in any case, disturbing numbers applied 
for release from the corps during the spring months of 1919, and 

^e School and Society, 8:209 (Dec. 28, 1918): 765-766. 

^'^ Charles W. Lyons, S.J., to Joseph Rockwell, S.J., Provincial, Jan. 7, 
1919, New York Province Archives, S.J. 

^^The Stylus, 32 (March, 1919, 859-360). 

19 Records of the R.O.T.C. at Boston College, Boston College Archives. 
A complete roster of oflBcers and men in the B.C.R.O.T.C. will be found 
in The Stylus, 32( April, 1919), 425-426. 



222 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

this undoubtedly motivated the college authorities in discon- 
tinuing the program the following September.^" 

Record of Service, World War I 
Boston College during World War I sent over 540 students 
and alumni into the armed forces, of whom 263 were commis- 
sioned officers, and trained some 761 S.A.T.C, soldiers. Her 
honor roll includes the names of fifteen dead, seventeen 
wounded, and twenty-three cited or decorated by the United 
States or foreign governments.^^ 

If these numbers seem small in contrast to the college's service 
figures for World War II, it must be recalled that the United 
States' armed forces in 1918 were less than one half the size of 
the American forces in World War 11,^^ and Boston College at 
the outset of World War I had only 761 students compared to a 
student body of some 1800 in 1941;^^ moreover, since the college 
had but recently increased its enrollment from that of a little 
over one hundred, her alumni were not relatively numerous. 

The history of Boston College in World War I is a proud 
record of service, "not only for the men whose names are vvnritten 
therein, but also for those who in future ages will bear their 
names."^* 

20 Applications for dismissal on file in R.O.T.C. records, Boston College 
Archives; and discontinuance noted in letter of William Devlin, S.J., to 
Joseph RocWell, S.J., Provincial, Sept. 3, 1919, New York Province 
Archives, S.J. 

21 Boston College in the World War, 1917- 1918, pp. 351-352. 

22 Statistics for comparison may be found in: Leonard P. Ayres, Colonel, 
General StaflF, Chief of the Statistics Branch of the General Staff; The War 
With Germany, A Statistical Summary, bound in v/ith Charles F. Home, 
editor, Source Records of the Great War, Vol. 7 (New York: The National 
Alumni, 1923). Also: Congressional Record, 66th Congress, 1st Session, 
Vol. 58, Part I, p. 996 (June 11, 1919). Recent figures will be found in: 
United States Department of Commerce, Bureau of Census, Statistical Ab- 
stract of the United States, 1943, pp. 161-162 (Washington: U. S. Govern- 
ment Printing Office, 1944). 

23 "Students in Our Colleges in the United States . . . October 10, 
1916" (Official Report), Woodstock Letters, 45( 1916):467. 

24 Boston College in the World War, 1917- 1918, p. 12. 



CHAPTER XIX 
'B. C. WILL BE BIG ENOUGH 



As WAS seen, a physical separation of college and high school 
took place early in 1917 with the removal of the college profes- 
sors to the new faculty building at the Heights. The separation 
was not perfect, however, for Father Lyons, the rector of Boston 
College, was also rector of Boston College High School; the 
treasurer of the college. Father James F. Mellyn, S.J., was also 
treasurer of the high school, and both lived on Harrison Avenue. 
The prefect of studies at the college, Father Michael Jessup, S.J.,, 
was acting superior at the new building, and the prefect of 
discipline at the college, Mr. William V. Corliss, S.J., was acting 
treasurer. This was understood, of course, as only a temporary 
arrangement to last until such time as the college was thought 
sufficiently well organized to be administered as an independent 
unit. That time was judged to have come in July, 1919, and the 
change was announced in advance to Cardinal O'Connell by the 
Provincial in a letter dated July 16.^ "It is difficult," he wrote, "for 
one superior to bear the responsibility of two houses as widely 
separated as the College at Chestnut Hill and the High School 
on Harrison Avenue." Hence, Father John J. Geoghan was ap- 
pointed rector of the Immaculate Conception Church and Boston 
College High School, and Father WilUam J. Devlin succeeded 
Father Lyons as rector of Boston College, the appointments 
taking place on July 20, 1919.^ 

1 Joseph H. Rockwell, S.J., to Most Rev. William H. O'Connell, July 16, 
1919, Boston Diocesan Archives. 

2 Catalogus Frovinciae Marylandiae-Neo Eboracensis S.J., ineunte 
anno 1920. 

223 



224 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

The fifteenth president of Boston College was no stranger to 
Boston. He had taught in the college from 1901 until 1905, and 
again from 1910 until 1914, when he was appointed prefect of 
studies, a position he held until he was named to succeed Father 
Lyons. 

Father Devlin 
Father Devlin was born in New York City, December 15, 1875, 
but spent most of his youth abroad, attending schools in England 
or traveling in Europe, and spending the long summer vacations 
with his family in Ireland. After completing his rhetoric year at 
Stonyhurst, England, in the early summer of 1893, he appHed for 
admission into the Society of Jesus there and was accepted for 
the English Province. He set out for New York for a farewell 
visit to his father before entering the novitiate, but while he was 
still at sea his father died. This circumstance caused William to 
change his plans, and instead of returning to England, he applied 
for admission into the New York-Maryland Province of the 
Society and was accepted. He entered the novitiate at Frederick, 
Maryland, on September 24, 1893, and after the regular course 
of studies at Woodstock College, Maryland, he was ordained 
by Cardinal Gibbons in 1908.^ 

Postwar Milestones 

One of his first tasks in oflBce, shortly after the opening of 
school in 1919, was arranging a reception at Boston College for 
Cardinal Mercier, the heroic prelate of Belgium, who was visiting 
America at the time. An enthusiastic assembly of faculty, stu- 
dents, and alumni greeted the Belgian patriot and Cardinal 
O'Connell in the college hall on October 6, 1919.* 

A few weeks later, a Boston College football team came into 
national prominence for the first time by defeating a favored 
Yale team 5 to 3 on a historic 47-yard field goal made by 

^Woodstock Letters, 67 (1938): 293-298. 

*W. Devlin, S.J., to the Alumni of Boston College (circular letter), 
Oct. 4, 1919, Boston Diocesan Archives. Also: The Stylus, 33(Oct., 
1919):40-41. 



"b. c. will be big enough..." 225 

"Jimmie" Fitzpatrick. The team, the first coached by the now- 
legendary "Iron Major," Frank Cavanaugh, was hailed upon its 
return from New Haven with a welcome which verged on 
hysteria.^ The following year, the victory was repeated 21 to 13.® 

The first issue of The Alumni Bulletin, published in October, 
1919, announced the creation of a new office, that of alumni 
secretary, to which Frank Cronin was appointed, following action 
taken by the executive committee of the association on Septem- 
ber 11, 1919.^ The Bulletin unfortunately experienced a rather 
hectic career during its first years, with change of title and 
suspended publication of frequent occurrence. 

Within a month, another publication was inaugurated at the 
college, an undergraduate weekly. The Heights, which printed 
Volume I, Number 1, on November 19, 1919, under the editor- 
ship of John D. Ring, '20. The first issues of the paper were only 
six by nine inches in size, giving it the distinction of being the 
smallest college newspaper in the country, but on April 16, 1920, 
the format was changed to approximately what it is at present. 
The twenty-fifth and final edition issued that season was an 
ambitious twelve-page pictorial, presenting a review of the per- 
sons and incidents which had made Boston College news during 
the year. 

Incidentally, it was in an early issue of The Heights that the 
eagle was suggested as mascot and symbol of the Boston College 
athletic teams. ^ The sponsor concealed his identity under a 
pseudonym, but tradition identifies him as the Reverend Edward 
J. McLaughlin, 14, now of St. Paul's Church, South Hamilton, 
Massachusetts. 

5 The Stylus, 33(Nov., 1919 ): 106-107 and 118-122. 

nbid., 34(Oct., 1920):51-62. 

^ A copy of the first issue of the Alumni Bulletin is preserved in the Boston 
Diocesan Archives. In May, 1924, a fresh attempt to publish the Alumni 
Bulletin vi^as made under the editorship of John R. Taylor, to appear "from 
time to time" (p. 2). The introductory editorial gives the impression that 
Taylor considered this to be the initial efifort at a Bulletin (pp. 1-2). 
In 1933, the Bulletin -was begun once more as a "nevi^ publication," under 
the title, Boston College Alumnus. 

8 The Heights, May 14, 1920. 



226 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

Alumni Appeal 

Shortly after the turn of the year (1920), Father Devlin de- 
voted his attention to finding ways and means to erect another 
building. The need for room v^as pressing, particularly in the 
form of laboratory space for the rapidly growing science courses. 
Two science classes had to be transferred to St. Mary's Hall, the 
Faculty Building, to secure room, and there was no hall on the 
campus large enough to accommodate even a representative por- 
tion of the student body at one time.^ Two sections of the third 
corridor had been cut ofiF to make temporary laboratories for the 
physics department. Equipment, too, was in demand. The pro- 
ceeds from the Philomatheia Ball that year had been spent on 
much needed apparatus for the physical laboratory, and an addi- 
tional thousand dollars was expended for microscopes and other 
instruments for Biology.^" 

This situation caused Father Devlin to write twice in January 
to the Provincial to ask his opinion on the advisability of con- 
ducting a drive for funds.^^ Evidently the Provincial thought that 
an appeal to the alumni would produce the desired results with- 
out recourse to a general drive, and on February 6, a form letter 
was drawn up addressed to the graduates, asking for financial 
assistance to provide a third building for Chemistry and Biology, 
and a coUege chapel where the religious exercises of the student 
body could be held.^^ A copy of this circular, with a covering 
letter, was sent to Cardinal O'Connell, who replied at once giving 
his heartiest approval to the project, and enclosing five thousand 
dollars "for the cornerstone of the new building."^^ 

9 William Devlin, S.J., to Joseph Rockell, S.J., Jan. 27, 1920, New York 
S.J. Provincial Archives; and William Devlin, S.J., to the Boston CoUege 
Alimnni (circular letter), Feb. 6, 1920, Boston Diocesan Archives. 

10 WilHam Devlin, S.J., to His Eminence, William Cardinal O'Connell, 
Feb. 9, 1920, Boston Diocesan Archives. 

"WUHam Devlin, S.J., to Joseph Rockwell, S.J., Jan. 23, 1920 and 
Jan. 27, 1920. 

12 William Devlin, S.J., to the Alumni (circular letter), Feb. 6, 1920, 
Boston Diocesan Archives. 

13 William Devlin, S.J., to His Eminence, William Cardinal O'Connell, 
Feb. 9, 1920; and William Cardinal O'Connell to William Devlin, S.J., 
Feb. 11, 1920, Boston Diocesan Archives. 



"b. c. will be big enough..." 227 

The circulation of this announcement, which was more a state- 
ment of needs than a direct appeal, resulted in several contribu- 
tions, among which the gift of $1,500 from Father Michael J. 
Doody of Cambridge, and gifts of $1,000 each from Father 
Thomas I. Coghlan and Vincent P. Roberts led the list.^* A meet- 
ing of the executive committee of the alumni to draft definite 
plans for a campaign was announced for February 27, but in- 
cessant storms caused a postponement of the meeting until 
March 11. On that evening, Father Devlin was able to announce 
to the large assembly, representing almost every class graduated 
from the college, that the firm of Maginnis and Walsh was 
already engaged in drawing up plans for the new Science Build- 
ing, and that it was expected that this preliminary work would 
be completed by early fall. He appealed to the alumni to organ- 
ize a fund-gathering system that would provide the means which 
would make the building possible. Under the direction of Wil- 
liam D. Nugent, president of the alumni association, delegates 
were chosen from each class to act as solicitors among their 
respective classmates.^^ 

When the response to this first method did not prove adequate, 
it was decided to conduct an intense drive among the alumni 
over a short period in order to realize the needed amount. Two 
preliminary notices were mailed to the alumni early in May, and 
a third one, dated May 20, gave definite details of the drive and 
what was expected of each alumnus.^^ The campaign was to 
begin May 24 (1920), and to last ten days, during which every 
alumnus would receive a personal call from a solicitor. It was 
stated that the amount needed for the Science Building was 
$500,000, of which one third, or about $160,000, was set as the 
alumni quota. 

The May 20 circular indicated how each individual's quota 
was arrived at. Officials had estimated that there were about one 
thousand living graduates of the college, of whom 40 per cent 

" The Heights, Feb. 27; March 5; and March 12, 1920. 
^5 Ibid., March 19, 1920. 

1^ The Alumni Association circular letters, from which the material 
given here was drawn, are preserved in the Boston College Archives. 



228 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

had been graduated since 1915; 20 per cent between the years 
1910 and 1915; 20 per cent between the years 1900 and 1910; 
and 20 per cent before the year 1900. Recognizing that the 
theoretical quota of $160 each could not be realized from the 
younger men because of their limited incomes, and admitting 
that these younger men represented about 60 per cent of the 
total, it was estimated that the older alumni should consider 
$500 as their personal quota, with as many as possible making 
up for deficiencies by contributing sums of $1,000 or more. The 
results of the drive were to be announced on commencement 
day, 1920. 

Despite the energetic labors of many workers for the cause, 
the Building Fund received up to July 21, 1920, only $86,310 in 
pledges, and $29,902 in cash.^^ 

The collections were suspended for the summer, and when 
the time came in the fall for the discussion of plans for a renewal 
of the campaign, it was reluctantly acknowledged that the 
alumni alone could not provide the money for the building 
program, and it was decided to widen the appeal to the general 
public.^® 

The Campaign of '21 

Father Devlin courageously determined that this new effort 
should be a large-scale drive, not only to finance construction of 
the Science Building, but to meet the needs of a rapidly growing 
student body by providing perhaps four new buildings — a 
science building, a chapel, a gymnasium, and a library — at one 
bold stroke.^^ His first step was to engage professional direction 
for the proposed drive, and by the first week in October a rough 
plan of action had already been blocked out. 

The campaign, which would have as its objective the raising 

^"^ The OflBcial Report of the Treasurer, the Reverend Michael J. Doody, 
preserved in the Treasurer's Office files, Boston College. A further report 
to April 1, 1921, shows an additional $6,.547 paid in. 

18 William Devlin, S.J., and William D. Nugent to the Alumni of Boston 
College (circular letter), Dec. 8, 1920, Boston College Archives. 

1^ The following account is based on the official records of the drive 
which have been bound and preserved in the Boston College Archives. 



"b. c. will be big enough..." 229 

of two million dollars, would begin October 8 in its organiza- 
tional aspects, and run for thirty weeks ending May 31, 1921. 
The actual public "drive" as such was to occupy ten days, from 
May 3 to May 12. 

Offices for the drive personnel were engaged in the center of 
the city, and in due time an executive committee was formed, 
consisting of Cardinal O'Connell as honorary chairman; James 
J. Phelan, chairman; William D. Nugent, vice-chairman; Mrs. 
Edwin A. Shuman, vice-chairman; Henry V. Cunningham, treas- 
urer; and Charles A. Birmingham, secretaiy. 

Father Devlin met the editors and publishers of the Boston 
newspapers at a special dinner at the City Club on November 
10 at which he outlined the purposes of the campaign and 
appealed for the friendly co-operation of the Boston press. The 
following morning the newspapers of the city featured announce- 
ments of the new drive and descriptions of the pressing needs 
experienced at the Heights. 

Hundreds of generous friends of the college enrolled during 
the winter as workers at the colossal task of organizing Greater 
Boston into districts and teams. The response, particularly from 
non-Catholics of prominence throughout the city, was very en- 
couraging to all connected with the drive. His Eminence, 
Cardinal O'Connell, had given the project his heartiest approval 
on November 19, and lost no opportunity thereafter to bring it 
to the attention of groups which he addressed. An appeal to the 
clergy of the diocese in January brought forth pledges of their 
wholehearted co-operation. 

As the time for the intensive collection period approached, 
the press devoted more and more space to accounts of the 
campaign and to feature stories concerning the college. A slogan 
contest during the spring contributed the motto: "Boston College 
will be big enough if your heart is!" — which was soon to be 
borne by numberless billboards, telephone posts, streetcar ads, 
shop windows, and doorstep flyers. 

Public endorsements of the drive were issued by Vice-President 
Calvin Coolidge, Secretary of War John W. Weeks, Senators 



230 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

David I. Walsh and Henry Cabot Lodge of Massachusetts, 
Governor Channing H. Cox of Massachusetts, Mayor Andrew 
J. Peters of Boston, and many other distinguished personages. 

On the eve of the drive, a large reproduction of the Gothic 
Tower on the Heights was unveiled on Boston Common near the 
corner of Tremont and Park Streets, and smaller replicas were 
placed at the South Station, Upham's Corner (Dorchester), 
Lynn, Lowell, Waltham, and Brockton. On these "towers" were 
conspicuous campaign clocks to indicate the daily progress of 
the drive. 

When May 3 finally arrived, Cardinal O'Connell opened the 
drive with a gift of $10,000 (which he doubled a few days 
later), and a legion of volunteer workers set out on the heroic 
task of approaching every person in Greater Boston to solicit 
from each a donation for the new Boston College. Meanwhile, 
the volume of newspaper publicity multiplied until the drive 
became the one topic of interest in the city. A gigantic benefit 
concert, starring Victor Herbert in person, with Fritzi Scheff and 
many other artists, was staged in the Boston Arena to signalize 
the drive's halfway mark on Sunday, May 8. 

The collectors and their leaders who labored untiringly for 
ten days were cheered at the close of the campaign by the 
headlined news that the drive had gone over the top. A careful 
check, however, which was completed several days later, re- 
vealed that of the two million dollars sought, only $1,746,069 
had been paid or pledged, and of this amount only $710,756 had 
been realized in cash. Later, complete records show that of the 
outstanding pledges amounting to $1,035,313, only $575,000 
worth was ever redeemed. Expenses connected with the building 
fund campaign during 1920-1921 ran to $158,070. This left, 
when it was decided in 1929 that no further redemptions would 
be made, a net cash return from the drive of $1,127,712. 

Hopes for four new buildings vanished; the cost of the 
science building and library would exceed by several hundred 
thousands the total receipts of the drive. But a beginning had 



"b. c. will be big enough..." 231 

been made, and the great amount of favorable publicity which 
the college received during the drive was to prove of incal- 
culable value. Boston College was now definitely known, and 
within two decades its student body was to double and treble. 



CHAPTER XX 
GOTHIC NEWCOMERS 



At the commencement exercises on June 22, 1921, Cardinal 
O'Connell broke the ground for the Science Building, the first 
of the structures which it was hoped would be erected with the 
funds realized in the recent drive.^ The excavation for the 
basement had to be blasted out of a rock ledge, so that concrete 
could not be poured for the first section of the foundation until 
March 16 of the following year.^ 

The fall of 1921 was made memorable by a visit to Boston 
College of Ferdinand Foch, Marshal of France, and Commander 
in Chief of the Allied Armies during World War I. Shortly before 
noon on November 14, the Marshal's party entered the college 
grounds between lines of students, back of whom were crowds 
of men, women, and children waving French flags and shouting 
the hero's name. The college band led the procession up the 
driveway to the steps of the Tower Building where, beneath the 
colors of the United States and of France, waited Father Devlin, 
the president; Fathers Daniel J. Lynch, S.J., and Richard A. 
O'Brien, S.J., both war chaplains, who acted as faculty hosts; 
Mayor Edwin O. Childs of Newton; former Mayor John F. 
Fitzgerald of Boston; members of the faculty and officers of the 
Alumni Association. The party entered the building through files 
of seniors in cap and gown, and proceeded to the Senior As- 

1 The Boston Post, June 23, 1921. 

~ William Devlin, S.J., to the Alumni of Boston College ( undated eireular 
letter), Boston College Alumni Bulletin, 1:2-3, May, 1924. 

232 



GOTHIC NEWCOMERS 233 

sembly Hall. Here the Marshal was greeted with an address 
in French by one of the students, and with a formal message of 
welcome by Father Devhn. Following this, the rector conferred 
the degree of Doctor of Laws upon Foch, who mentioned in his 
brief speech of acceptance that he was already an alumnus of 
a Jesuit institution — St. Clement's College in Metz.^ 

The progress of the college in the physical order during this 
period was marked by the laying of the cornerstone for the 
Science Building in the presence of Cardinal O'Connell at the 
graduation in June, 1922,* and by the breaking of ground for 
the library by Mayor Childs of Newton the following October.^ 

The prospect of increased library facilities in the future 
encouraged Father Stinson, the librarian, to appeal to friends of 
the college to donate books for the new libraiy during a "drive" 
which opened November 10, 1922, and continued for several 
months. The Carnegie Foundation in Washington, D. C, con- 
gratulated the college on its ejSorts to secure a representative 
library and offered to send all the year books and other sets of 
publications which the foundation issued. Harvard University 
likewise responded with the generous offer of books and dupli- 
cate sets.® 

In the fall of 1923, the status of the college chapel which had 
hitherto been private, was changed by Cardinal O'Connell to 
permit the faithful of the locality to fulfill at the college their 
obligation to hear Mass on Sundays and holydays.^ 

The following spring ( 1924 ) the Philomatheia Club, affiliated 
with the college, acquired the J. G. Ramsbottom estate located 
on Commonwealth Avenue adjoining the campus. The house, 
designed by J. E. Chandler of Boston shortly after the turn of 
the century, is a close copy of a Norwegian chalet, and pro- 

3 The Boston Traveler, Nov. 15, 1921; The Boston American, Nov. 15, 
1921; The Boston Post, Nov. 15, 1921; The Heights, Nov. 17, 1921; Wood- 
stock Letters, 51 (1922): 137-138. 

4 The Boston Post, June 22, 1922; The Pilot, June 24, 1922. 

5 The Boston Post, Nov. 1, 1922; The Boston Traveler, Nov. 1, 1922; The 
Heights, Nov. 9, 1922; The Boston Sunday Post, Nov. 12, 1922. 

6 The Boston Globe, Nov. 13, 1922; The Pilot, Dec. 2, 1922. 
^ Litterae Annuae CoUegii Bostoniensis, Nov., 1923. 



234 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

vided an interior arrangement suited to the needs of the club 
without extensive alterations. The property overlooks the reser- 
voir and includes an acre of lawn and gardens which has since 
proved of great value as a site for outdoor functions. The club 
retained title to the property until the mortgage was removed in 
1928, then made a present of it to the Trustees of Boston 
College.^ 

The Oberammergau Passion Players visited the college during 
the spring of 1924, and in connection with their visit, anonymous 
benefactors presented the college with a life-size crucifixion 
group which had been carved by the players and which was 
appraised at $4,500.^ Unfortunately the work of art was injured 
by the elements when it was exposed out of doors on the campus, 
and has since remained in storage awaiting attempts at restora- 
tion in the indefinite future. 

After the conferring of degrees on commencement day, June 
19, 1924, Cardinal O'Connell, accompanied by the college faculty 
and student body, proceeded to the site of the new library 
building opposite St. Mary's Hall, where with simple cere- 
mony he laid the cornerstone after placing within it a copper 
box containing records, coins, and newspapers of the day.^" 

Quarters for the Sciences 
When classes reconvened in September of that year (1924), 
the new Science Building, although not entirely ready, was 
used for the first time. The workmen who were engaged in 
finishing the interior of the building did not complete their task 
until almost Christmas, but in the meantime the science depart- 
ments, which had occupied the basement of the Tower Building, 
were able to transfer their equipment to the new structure. This 
change freed the former chemistry lecture hall for history 
classes, and permitted the former laboratories to be converted 
into much-needed dressing rooms for the athletic teams. The 

^The Boston Sunday Post, March 20, 1924; The Heights, March 18, 
1924; cf. also p. 211 of this book. 
^The Boston Globe, April 21, 1924. 
10 The Boston Post, June 20, 1924, 



GOTHIC NEWCOMERS 235 

road about the Science Building was finished that fall and a 
beginning made on the extensive landscaping required in the 
vicinity. The new edifice itself had become the pride of the 
campus. 

The Science Building is deceptive in appearance. One would 
hardly associate its poetically graceful exterior with the essen- 
tially practical nature of the laboratories it houses. The solid 
mass of the building is relieved by a slim spire rising from the 
blue and green tiles of a steep roof. This turret, which artisti- 
cally avoids conflict with the dominant tower of the Administra- 
tion Building, is surmounted by the symbol of the Ball and 
Cross, signifying the harmonious union of science and faith. 
The fa9ade and one side of the building is interestingly treated 
at the ground level by a low parapet, mounted by a series of 
wrought-iron cressets, which encloses a long, stone-floored, 
roofless porch. 

The original plan of the architects and college authorities 
called for separate buildings for Chemistry, Physics, and Bi- 
ology, but restricted circumstances obhged them, at least for 
the time, to combine all of these sciences within one building. 
The location of the Science Building on the campus also under- 
went change; as late as the drive of 1921 it was spoken of as 
occupying, when buflt, the position which the library now holds 
opposite St. Mary's Hall. 

The interior arrangement of laboratories and lecture halls 
was drawn up after an inspection of the facilities at Mas- 
sachusetts Institute of Technology, Harvard, Yale, and other 
leading institutions, and after conferences with science in- 
structors from several Jesuit colleges and other universities. The 
result of this was the erection of a Science Building which 
represented the highest eflBciency in design at the time it was 
built, and which won for the architects the J. Harleston Parker 
Medal, awarded triennially by the Boston Society of Architects 
for the most beautiful new structure in the Greater Boston 
area.^^ 

11 The Heights, May 4, 1926. 



236 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

The basement of this building was divided into storage 
rooms, locker rooms to serve one thousand students, an electric 
generator room, and machine shops. When the building v^^as 
planned, it was hoped that a seismograph station might be 
located in the basement,^- but by October, 1925, it had been 
determined that the rock ledge upon which the building rested 
extended out under Commonwealth Avenue, and the recordings 
of the instruments would be aflPected by the traffic/^ Hence, 
the seismograph apparatus was installed at a corporate insti- 
tution in Weston (Weston College), where it is in successful 
operation at present. 

In the basement, also, are two large lecture halls extending 
up through the first floor with seating arrangements in the 
manner of an amphitheater. The chemistry hall accommodates 
267 students, and the physics hall seats 182. Both of these rooms 
are fitted with professional motion-picture booths and machines, 
and they are equipped with a mechanical table-railway which 
permits the experiments to be prepared beforehand in outside 
rooms. 

On the first floor is a science library, professors' ofiices, and 
a space which was originally devoted to a museum, but which 
was converted into classrooms upon the opening of the An- 
thropological Museum on Hammond Street. On the second 
floor there are two classrooms, optical, mechanical, and general 
physics laboratories, a supply room, ofiices, and a radio station. 
The third floor is devoted to Biology and provides a technique 
room, lecture hall, OiEBces, balance room and the bacteriological, 
dissecting and micrologicai laboratories. The west wing of 
this floor contains also quantitative and organic chemistry 
laboratories. 

Three quarters of the fourth floor, which is roofed by glass 
skylights, is occupied by a large inorganic chemistry labora- 
tory. Here also are offices, supply rooms, solution and com- 
bustion rooms, a research laboratory, and a qualitative chem- 

12 The Boston Herald, July 23, 1925. 

13 The Heights, Oct. 6, 1925. 







a 

0) 

a, 



H 




The Ford Tower of the Library from St. Mary's Hall 



GOTHIC NEWCOMERS 237 

istry laboratory. Above part of this, on a special "attic" floor, 
are greenhouses and animal cages for the biology department. 

Greek Academy 
In the same year in which the enlarged science section of 
the college was opened, the Classics Department, represented by 
J. M. F. Marique's sophomore Greek classes, demonstrated 
in a most dramatic manner that ancient literature was still 
capable of interesting modern youth. These young collegians 
formed a Greek academy, which met in the afternoon after 
classes once a week to do extra reading in Greek. Their program 
during the first semester terminated with an "exposition" of 
Euripides' Alcestis, in which certain members of the organiza- 
tion undertook to answer all questions proposed by the audience 
with regard to the translation and interpretation of the tragedy. 
The first performance, although private, was such a success that 
it was reported in the Boston newspapers. Thus encouraged, 
these budding Hellenists set out upon a program for the balance 
of the year which included another "exposition" of two Greek 
plays, and the rendition of original Greek music in February, 
and a public "exhibition" in April, to which outside scholars 
were invited to act as questioners. In addition to this, members 
of the academy organized a series of lectures entitled "The 
Dramatic Legacy of Greece," which were given weekly from 
February to June at the Philomatheia clubhouse. The entire 
movement drew wide attention from teachers, the press, and 
the general public alike, and has been revived in one form or 
another several times since.^* 

Construction of the Library 
The library foundations were completely laid by September, 
1924,^^ and work on the walls of the superstructure was begun 
on October 20 in the hopes of continuing until the basement 

" The Boston Evening Transcript, Jan. 24, 1925; and April 23, 1925; 
The Boston Globe, Feb. 28, 1925; Woodstock Letters, 54 ( 1925) : 300-302; 
and programs of the academy preserved in the Boston College Archives. 

15 The Heights, Sept. 30, 1924. 



238 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

and first floor would be completed/® By the following March, 
the cutstone border of the first floor, and the base of the main 
stairway had been laid,^^ and in May Father Devlin could 
report to the alumni that the structure was "nearing the second 
floor,"^^ but he found it necessary to plead for financial as- 
sistance from them in order that the first floor might be finished, 
thereby supplying an assembly hall, at least, which was much 
needed on the campus. 

A newspaper account in the summer of 1925 stated that the 
assembly hall and some library facilities in the new building 
would be ready for the opening of school, but further work on 
the structure would be halted and a temporary roofing erected 
at the second-floor level due to shortage of funds.^^ 

This was the situation when Father James H. Dolan, S.J., was 
announced to succeed Father Devlin as president of Boston 
College on August 23, 1925. On taking ofiice. Father Dolan was 
only forty years old, which qualified him as one of the youngest 
men ever to hold the presidency of Boston College. He was 
born in Roxbury and attended St. Joseph's School there, after 
which he attended Boston College High School and Boston Col- 
lege. He left college in 1905 at the end of his freshman year to 
enter the Jesuit novitiate at St. Andrew's-on-Hudson, Poughkeep- 
sie. New York, where he began his course of training to become a 
Jesuit priest. In 1909 he entered Woodstock College, Maryland, 
to commence his philosophical studies, followed by a five-year 
period of teaching at Georgetown University before returning 
to Woodstock in 1917 to begin the study of theology. He was 
ordained in 1920 by Cardinal Gibbons shortly before that pre- 
late's death. After completing his theological and ascetical 
studies, Father Dolan was assigned to Holy Cross College in 
1922 as lecturer in Psychology and English.-'^ 

16 Ibid., Oct. 14, 1924. 

17 Ibid., March 3, 1925. 

18 William Devlin, S.J., to members of the Alumni (circular letter), May, 
1925, Boston College Archives. 

" The Boston American, July 18, 1925. 

20 The Boston Globe, Aug. 24, 1925, and Aug. 30, 1925. 



GOTHIC NEWCOMERS 239 

During Father Dolan's first few months in office, the roofed- 
over library auditorium was placed in use,-'^ and the stacks and 
circulation desk of the library were put in operation in the 
library basement. The latter arrangement was effected by screen- 
ing off a portion of what is now the stack space, for book 
storage, and placing at the entrance of this "cage" a desk where 
books might be charged out. A large open area in front of the 
desk was used by the students as a supplement to the regular 
library reading room in the Tower Building.^^ 

As early as October, 1925, the auditorium was sufficiently 
finished to warrant the Cardinal granting permission to have 
Sunday Masses said there for the faithful who had been at- 
tending Masses in the small domestic chapel in St. Mary's Hall.^^ 

During the next month, the first of a series of benefactions 
were made which permitted Father Dolan to make plans for 
the finishing of the library. This first gift was made by Mrs. 
Helen Gargan of Washington, who donated the main reading 
hall of the library in memory of her husband, the late Thomas 
J. Gargan, prominent Boston lav^er, philanthropist, and member 
of the Boston Transit Commission.^* 

In September, 1926, Father Dolan was in a position not only 
to resume building, but to contract for the entire remaining 
work.^^ By Christmas of that year, steel shelves were ready in 
the stack rooms to accommodate one hundred thousand books.^® 
The rest of the structural work went forward so rapidly now, 

21 The Heights, March 16, 1926. 

22 The author is indebted for this information to John O'Loughlin, assistant 
hbrarian of Boston College. 

23 Litterae Annuae Collegii Bostoniensis, Oct., 1925. The auditorium and 
the college chapel in St. Mary's Hall were together designated as the 
temporary "church" of a newly created St. Ignatius Parish by the Cardinal 
in Oct., 1926. The parish was to be served by Fathers connected with 
the college, and when circumstances permitted, it would have a church 
of its own {Litterae Annuae Collegii Bostoniensis, Oct., 1926; The Boston 
Globe, Nov. 11, 1926). 

24 Litterae Annuae Collegii Bostoniensis, Nov., 1925; The Pilot, Aug. 8, 
1908; Oct. 24, 1908; Oct. 31, 1908; The Boston Evening Transcript, 
June 13, 1928. 

25 Litterae Annuae Collegii Bostoniensis, Sept., 1926, 

26 Ibid., Dec, 1926. 



240 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

that within two years the entire building was completed except 
for some furnishings and the stained-glass windows. The long- 
awaited dedication was announced for commencement day, 
1928.2^ 

The ceremonies which took place on June 13 opened with 
Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament in the domestic chapel 
in St. Mary's Hall, after which the faculty and guests proceeded 
to the new library where they were welcomed in the assembly 
hall by Father Dolan in the name of Boston College. Charles 
D. Maginnis, of the architectural firm which had designed the 
building, gave an interesting explanation of the various features 
of the building, then made a symbolic transfer of the library 
to the trustees of Boston College by a formal presentation of the 
keys to Father Dolan. The blessing of the building was per- 
formed by the rector, and following this, the dedicatory address 
was delivered by His Excellency, the Honorable Alvan T. Fuller, 
Governor of Massachusetts, whose personal generosity had aided 
in bringing the library to successful completion.^^ 

The Million Dollar Building 
The architectural style of the library, in keeping with the 
other buildings on the campus, is English collegiate Gothic, and 
is constructed of native stone with Indiana limestone trim. The 
contractors were not able to complete the building with stone 
from the site itself, as they did in constructing the Tower and 
Science Buildings, but were forced to supplement their supply 
with a perfectly matching stone taken from the dismantled walls 
of a Congregationalist church on Columbus Avenue, near 
Clarendon Street, Boston.^^ 

27 The Boston Post, Nov. 19, 1927; and June 14, 1928; The Boston 
Herald, June 14, 1928; The Boston Globe, June 14, 1928; The Boston 
Evening Transcript, June 13, 1928; and invitations preserved in the Boston 
College Archives. 

28 The Boston Evening Transcript, June 13, 1928; The Boston Herald, 
June 14, 1928; and programs preserved in the Boston College Archives. 

^^ The author is indebted to the architect, Charles D. Maginnis, for 
these details. Maginnis picturesquely described this use of native stone 
as "clothing the buildings from the very ground they stood on." 



GOTHIC NEWCOMERS 241 

On the Commonwealth Avenue end of the Hbrary, the 
entrance is by way of an elaborate stone porch, through the 
Margaret Elizabeth Ford Tower.^° The interior of this tower is 
devoted to one of the most interesting features of the building 
in the form of a medieval staircase of stone, which rises from 
the pavement of the lobby to the great apartments of the second 
floor. 

The effect of this in so spacious and austere a setting 
against walls of rugged masonry which rise to a graceful 
vault high overhead, has a rare measure of romantic 
suggestion.^^ 

The library is properly approached, however, through the 
more formal entrance on its southerly fagade. Here from a 
broad platform one enters the outer vestibule through doors 
set in a deep Gothic arch, and ascends to a lobby which gives 
access to the assembly hall on the first floor and out of which 
starts the stately staircase to the main reading room above. 

The assembly hall, which measures 65 feet wide by 116 feet 
long, is used at present not only for scholastic purposes, but as 
the church for St. Ignatius Parish, and as the college chapel. 
Its use, even as an assembly hall, is temporary, however, for 
it was designed to be part of the stack-room accommodations 
when the growth of the library makes this expansion advisable. 

As originally planned and built, this hall area extended 
through to the Commonwealth Avenue end of the building, and 
provided a seating capacity of some 1200; but the demand for 
classrooms soon forced an alteration whereby the length of the 
hall was reduced, and space for two additional classrooms was 
secured behind the stage. This operation, which reduced the 
seating capacity of the hall to about 720, was done so skillfully 
that the pleasing proportions of the auditorium were preserved 
and no indications of a change are in evidence. The original 
seats, since replaced (in the fall of 1937), were obtained from 

30 The description which follows is based upon the one given at length 
in The Boston College Library (brochure; privately printed, 1933). 

31 Ibid., p. 2. 



242 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

the old Boston Theater when that historic drama center was 
dismantled in 1926.^^ 

The main stairway and landing on the second floor present a 
pleasing harmony of wrought-iron, stone relief, and stained 
glass. The colorful and highly detailed Shakespeare Window 
lights the stairs, and an interesting interior window screening 
Gargan Hall from the lobby depicts "The History of the Book." 

Gargan Hall, the main reading room, can accommodate 250 
students at one time at the various tables, with additional space 
available in the Chaucer (or Periodical) Room to the right of 
the main hall. The large, muUioned windows of Gargan Hall 
bear symbolic representations in stained glass of the studies 
pursued in Jesuit colleges. A lofty roof of solid oak panehng is 
supported by hammer-beam trusses resting on two rows of 
graceful stone piers. 

Separated from Gargan Hall by a low oaken screen and three 
stone arches is another apartment, originally designed as a 
faculty reading room, but later devoted to housing the Thompson 
collection. On the left of this is the reception room, one of the 
most impressive sections of the building. The high, oaken ceil- 
ing and the magnificent proportions of the room never fail to 
excite the admiration of visitors. The westerly wall of this room 
features a handsome mullioned oriel and at the east end is an 
imposing medieval fireplace of stone, with picturesque sloping 
hood. The windows of this room contain in stained glass the 
seals of the Jesuit colleges and universities of the western 
hemisphere. 

When the library was opened, only a section of the steel 
stack shelving was in position, which, aided by temporary 
wooden shelves, provided space for about 100,000 books. Later, 
in the presidency of Father William J. McGarry, S.J., the entire 
steel stack structure comprising two basement levels, was com- 
pleted, making room for 300,000 books. When, in the future, 
the first floor is no longer needed as an auditorium, the addition 

32 The Boston Globe, March 8, 1926; and records in the rector's office, 
Boston College. 



GOTHIC NEWCOMERS 243 

of this area to the stacks will increase the capacity of the library 
to 750,000. 

With the completion of adequate quarters, the library serv- 
ice, the intellectual heart of the institution, could function 
unimpeded, and the establishment of university departments 
could now be looked forward to as the next step in the achieve- 
ment of Father McElroy's dream. 



CHAPTER XXI 
THE MANY-ROOTED TREE 



Although the charter granted to Boston College was and is a 
university charter, the privileges conferred by it were never 
fully utilized by the college authorities until the institution was 
in its sixth decade. In other words, the problems connected with 
organizing and operating the preparatory and undergraduate 
branches during the college's early years so occupied the at- 
tention of the staflF that little if any heed was paid to the still 
more venturesome task of commencing classes for graduate 
students. 

At the close of World War I, however, circumstances arose 
which changed this situation and led Father Devlin, in the 
fall of 1919, to announce the inauguration of a new School of 
Education. 

This project had grown out of negotiations which were begun 
during the previous year by the former president. Father Lyons, 
and Jeremiah E. Burke, superintendent of schools for the City 
of Boston.^ The purpose of the school was to alleviate Boston's 
postwar dearth of men teachers, especially in the high schools, 
since, at the time, the city's normal school was not qualified 
to grant degrees. 

By a plan mutually agreed on, candidacy for the master's 
degree with a major in Education would be offered young men 

1 Charles W. Lyons, S.J., to Joseph Rockwell, S.J., Feb. 14, 1919, 
Province Records, Maryland S.J. Provincial Archives, Baltimore. 

244 



THE MANY-ROOTED TREE 245 

who had previously completed a full undergraduate course of 
four years at some recognized college, and who had success- 
fully taken the entrance examinations conducted by the Boston 
Normal School. A one-year course for the degree was outlined, 
in which the first semester was to be devoted to practical train- 
ing in the elementary, intermediate, and high schools of Boston 
under the direction of the Department of Practice and Training 
of the City of Boston Public Schools. Those students satis- 
factorily completing the assignments of this period would enter 
upon a second semester of related academic work at either the 
new School of Education at Boston College, or at Boston Uni- 
versity. When the first examination conducted by the board of 
superintendents was held on September 12, 1919, eight young 
men qualified for the period of training, and all elected to attend 
Boston College.^ 

Credit for the actual organization and direction of the school 
must be paid to Father James F. Mellyn, S.J., the dean. An 
outline of the academic courses which he arranged for these 
candidates in a semester of eighteen hours weekly, is as follows: 

Principles and Methods of Secondary Education; 

History of Education; 

Educational Psychology, with special attention to the Psy- 
chology of Adolescence; 

Educational Hygiene; 

Educational Research; 

English Composition and Rhetoric; 

Major Subjects, continued (i.e., one from the list of twelve 
subjects proposed by the School Committee, including Eng- 
lish, French, German, Chemistry, Economics, etc. )^ 

Soon after the school year began. Father Mellyn asked the 
City of Boston School Committee to accept the master's degree 
in Education earned at Boston College as equivalent of two 
years' experience in teaching for candidates for the high school 
certificate and for the intermediate certificate. The board, early 
in October, 1919, examined the outUne of the course as given 

^Woodstock Letters, 48( 1919):402. 

3 Boston College Catalogue, 1920, pp. 7^74. 



246 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

at the college and granted the request.* This act was not only 
a gratifying commendation for the quality of the work planned at 
Boston College, but oflFered an advantage which attracted many 
aspiring teachers to the new school on the Heights. 

At the opening of the fall term in 1922, Father Mellyn re- 
ceived the approval of the trustees of Boston College for the 
following requirements for the degree of Master of Education, 
which the college was offering for the first time that scholastic 
year: 

1. The degree of A.B. or B.S. from an approved college. 

2. Ten half-courses (i.e., 30-hour courses), with appropriate 
examinations. 

3. A Master's thesis of five thousand words on some peda- 
gogical subject originally treated. The thesis to count as 
one of the ten required half -courses.^ 

In January, 1923, the School Committee of the City of Boston 
gave formal approval to the new program and voted to give to 
the degree of Master of Education full credit on the committee's 
rating plan.^ 

During the first few years, the tuition for the academic 
semester under the School Committee's plan was paid by the 
City of Boston. In May, 1922, however. Father Mellyn was 
notified that commencing with the next entering class, the plan 
would be modified to the extent of requiring each student to 
pay his own tuition during the academic semester.^ 

Table II, page 247, which lists the number of advanced degrees 
awarded by Boston College during the years 1920 to 1927, gives 
a partial indication of the response of teachers in service ac- 
corded the School of Education during its first years. 

Meanwhile, the Normal School of the City of Boston had been 

* Thornton D. ApoUonio, Secretary to the Committee, to Reverend James 
F. Mellyn, S.J., Oct. 6, 1919, Boston College Graduate School files. 

5 Notice dated Jan. 27, 1923, signed by Father Mellyn, Graduate School 
files. A student's account of the course is given in The Heights April 1, 1924. 

6 Arthur L. Gould, assistant superintendent, to Reverend James F. Mellyn, 
S.J., Jan. 13, 1923, Graduate School files. 

^ J. E. Burke, Superintendent of Public Schools, to Reverend James F. 
Mellyn, S.J., May 17, 1922, Graduate School files. 



THE MANY-ROOTED TREE 247 

undergoing a metamorphosis. For the academic year 1924-1925, 
the title was changed to "The Teachers' College of the City of 
Boston,"* and this new institution conferred the bachelor's 
degree for the first time upon members of the class of 1925.^ 
The next step, the presentation of courses leading to the master's 
degree soon followed, so that the city-sponsored training course 
for college graduates at Boston College and Boston University 
was felt to be no longer needed, and in April, 1926, the School 
Committee gave notice to Father Mellyn that the plan would 
be discontinued at the close of that current school year.^° 

TABLE II 

The Number of Advanced Degrees Awarded by Boston 
College During the Years 1920-1927^^ 



Year 


M.A. 


M.S. 


M.Ed. 


June, 1920 


9 


1 




June, 1921 


24 






June, 1922 


21 


3 


, , 


June, 1923 


1 


1 


18 


June, 1924 


9 






June, 1925 


27 


i 


, , 


June, 1926 


39 


1 


3 


June, 1927 


25 




2 



Higher Education for Religious 
When the plan for a School of Education at Boston College 
had been first announced in the fall of 1919, Father Augustine 
F. Hickey, the diocesan supervisor of schools, immediately saw 
in it the means of improving the training of the teaching Sisters 
of the archdiocese. On October 9, he wrote to the Cardinal 
presenting certain propositions for the betterment of the parish 
school system, among which was one: 

^Annual Report of the Superintendent, October, 1925, School Document 
No. 9, 1925, Boston Public Schools, pp. 22-23. 

9 Ibid., p. 37. 

10 Ellen M. Cronin, Secretary to the School Committee, to Reverend James 
F. Mellyn, S.J., April 23, 1926, Graduate School files. 

11 Compiled from records in the office of the Boston College Graduate 
School. 



248 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

To arrange a course of twenty lectures to be given on 
Saturday mornings after January 1st, 1920, in the Cathedral 
School Hall by Reverend James F. Mellyn, S.J., Dean of the 
new School of Education at Boston CoUege. In January, 1920, 
Boston College is to oflFer courses in Education to college 
graduates training for positions in the Boston Public School 
system. These courses are to be accredited by the Boston 
School Committee. Father Mellyn is very willing to give to 
our teaching Sisters a share in the work done at the new 
School of Education. This could be done most efiFectively in 
the form of an extension course on Saturday mornings in 
Cathedral School Hall.^^ 

His Eminence replied at once giving permission to carry out 
the plan as outlined. Thereupon, Father Hickey called a con- 
ference of all the superiors of the parish schools for October 18, 
and announced the course, with the opening date as the second 
Saturday in January, 1920.^^ The response exceeded all expecta- 
tions, with some seven hundred Sisters following the courses,^* 
despite their already heavy schedules and, as Father Hickey 
observed, the unusual inclemency of the weather during the 
latter part of that winter.^^ 

During the following years, the educational courses were 
extended throughout the entire school year, and special courses 
were given at the Cathedral Hall during the summer.^^ Other 
extension schools were set up under the joint direction of Fathers 
Hickey and Mellyn for the Sisters at centers on the North Shore 
and elsewhere.^^ In addition to Father Mellyn and Fathers of 
the Boston College faculty, lay professors were engaged for 
several of these series of lectures,^® and in 1923 college credit 
was given in connection with the courses to qualifying Sisters. 

^2 Augustine F. Hickey to the Reverend James F. Mellyn, S.J., Oct. 11, 
1919, Graduate School files. 

13 Ibid., and Father Hickey to Father Mellyn, Oct. 14, 1919. 

1* Boston College Catalogue, 1920, p. 74. 

15 Father Hickey to Father Mellyn, March 20, 1920. 

18 Ibid., April 26, 1921; Sept. 13, 1921. 

17 Ibid., Feb. 2, 1922. 

18 Ibid., Sept. 13, 1921; Feb. 2, 1922; Jan. 30, 1926. 



THE MANY-ROOTED TREE 249 

Heretofore, only a certificate of attendance at the classes had 
been issued.^^ 

Father Mellyn's desire to have the School of Education classes 
on the Heights open to women students as well as to men 
involved a change of Jesuit regulations for the conduct of their 
colleges, and when, in 1920, he had sought permission for this 
innovation, provincial superiors felt that the situation at the 
time did not justify the change.^" 

However, in August, 1922, at the Teachers' Institute, Cardinal 
O'Connell voiced the hope that a formal summer school for 
religious teachers would soon be organized,^^ and the following 
February he instructed Father Hickey to ascertain if Boston 
College would be in a position to provide such training leading 
to advanced degrees.-^ In the light of this expressed interest of 
His Eminence in the summer school, the case was reopened, 
and peraiission for the attendance of women at these classes at 
the Heights was granted by the Jesuit authorities in Rome on 
April 7, 1923.23 

^ 

Summer School 
Difficulties connected with assembling a teaching sta£F pre- 
vented the inauguration of the school that summer,^* but on 
Monday, June 30, 1924, the first classes on the Boston College 
campus admitting women were opened with the Mass of the 
Holy Ghost offered by the president. Father Devlin. An en- 
rollment of 230 religious was recorded, and the Cardinal told 

^^Ibid., Apia 26, 1921, and April 18, 1923, Boston College Graduate 
School files. 

20 William Devlin, S.J., to Joseph Rockwell, S.J., June 9, 1920; Joseph 
Rockwell, S.J., to William Devlin, S.J., June 13, 1920, New York Province 
Archives, S.J. 

21 The Pilot, Sept. 13, 1924. 

22 William DevHn, S.J., to Joseph Rockwell, S.J., March 8, 1923, Mary- 
land Province Archives S.J. 

23 William Devlin, S.J., to Joseph Rockwell, S.J., April 11, 1924, New 
York Province Archives S.J. 

24 William Devlin, S.J., to Joseph Rockwell, S.J., May 23, 1924, New 
York Province Archives S.J., supplemented wdth information supplied to the 
author by the late Father Mellyn in a personal interview, March 2, 1943. 



250 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

the new students during the dedicatory addiess that that oc- 
casion marked an epoch in Catliolic education.^^ 

The school was in session for five weeks with sLx school days 
each week, during which courses of college grade in English, 
Foreign Languages, Sciences, Mathematics, History, Philosophy, 
and Education were conducted by regular members of the Bos- 
ton College faculty, under Father Mellyn as director of the 
school. 

That fall and winter (1923-1924) a 30-hour extension course 
was ojBFered as usual at the cathedral center by the Boston 
College School of Education, which was attended by some 600 
of the teaching Sisters. During this period, 145 theses prepared 
in connection with the course were accepted as worthy of col- 
lege credit.^^ 

In the meantime, lay women were admitted that year (1923- 
1924) for the first time to the series of lectures ojffered in the 
evening school of the Young Men's Catholic Association and 
credited toward degrees by the Boston College School of Educa- 
tion. Classes were held in the Boston College High School 
building on James Street, and the low fee of $5 was charged for 
an entire course. Five hundred students registered for Father 
Charles Lyon's course in the History of Philosophy, and other 
classes were similarly well attended in the Psychology of 
Thought given by Father F. W. Boehmn, and in the History 
of Education by Father Mellyn.^^ 

Reorganization of Graduate Division 

At the opening of the school year, 1925-1926, the title 

"Graduate School" was employed for the first time on an oflBcial 

prospectus.^® The school, according to the announcement, was 

situated on the campus and was restricted to men students; 

25 The Pilot, July 5, 1924, and Sept. 13, 1924. 

26 The Pilot, Sept. 24, 1924. 

27 Ibid., Nov. 3, 1923; and The Heights, Nov. 13, 1923. 

28 An eight-page brochure issued by the college in connection with the 
courses being offered at Chestnut Hill for men public school teachers; 
of. supra, pp. 244-247. 



THE MANY-ROOTED TREE 251 

and it was under the direction of Father Mellyn as dean. In 
other words, it was a continuation of the previous School of 
Education arrangement as far as that pertained to the public 
school teachers' courses at Chestnut Hill. 

On September 15, 1926, however, an important reorganization 
was announced of all graduate and extension classes to take 
place October 1. Under the new system, the graduate school 
would be open to men and women, and would hold classes in 
the afternoon and evening at Boston College High School on 
James Street, rather than at the Heights. The new dean in 
charge of the program was Father John B. Creeden, S.J., 
formerly president of Georgetown University.^^ 

The reorganized Graduate School would supersede the School 
of Education on the campus for male public school teachers; 
the cathedral center for religious teachers of the archdiocese, 
and the advanced courses at the evening classes of the Young 
Men's Catholic Association for the general public. But the new 
project was broader in scope than all of these put together. 
Now, not only Education, but many of the fields of concentra- 
tion usually available to graduate students at a university were 
provided for. In addition, approved undergraduates were ad- 
mitted to certain classes for credit toward the bachelor's degree. 

The establishment of this school was to prove of service to 
the religious teachers of the vicinity who now had the oppor- 
tunity of pursuing a full schedule of higher studies during the 
school year. The enrollment of such students during the first 
scholastic year ( 1926-1927 ) numbered 157 Sisters and 5 Broth- 
ers. The following commencement day at Boston College, June 
16, 1927, was a memorable one in the history of Catholic educa- 
tion in the archdiocese, for on that occasion fourteen master's 
degrees and one bachelor's degree were conferred upon Sisters 
by His Eminence, the Cardinal.^" The interest of the teaching 
Religious in the new Graduate School was further reflected in 

29 The Boston Herald, Sept. 16, 1926; The Boston Post, Sept. 16, 1926; 
The Pilot, Sept. 25, 1926. 

30 The Pilot, Sept. 24, 1927. 



252 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

the summer session by an enrollment of 321 Sisters and 20 
Brothers, an increase of 75 over the previous year,^^ 

The year 1927 witnessed further growth in the university 
organization by the aflShation of the novitiate and house of 
studies of the New England Province of the Society of Jesus at 
Lenox, Massachusetts, and the large Jesuit seminary at Weston, 
Massachusetts, to Boston College under the titles of the Normal 
School, the School of Philosophy and Sciences, and the School 
of Divinity. Thus, with the permission and approval of the 
Commonwealth of Massachusetts, the courses in these institu- 
tions are now recognized as accreditable for degrees, and the 
Jesuit seminarians receive their degrees from Boston College. 

Law School Inaugurated 

On April 29, 1929, Father Dolan published his plans for the 
opening of a Law School connected with Boston College the 
following September.^^ The stafiF of the new school would be 
headed by Father Creeden, hitherto director of the Graduate 
School, as regent, and Dennis A. Dooley as dean. 

The announcement of the new venture at once received praise 
from the public press for the high standards which had been 
established for it.^^ Only those students were to be admitted 
who had completed at least two years of collegiate academic 
work at an approved institution, and undergraduates were ad- 
vised to complete their collegiate training before matriculating 
in the Law School, as preference would be given to applicants 
with degrees.^* 

Both day and evening courses were instituted, the first lead- 
ing to the degree of Bachelor of Laws in three years, and the 
second requiring four years. The day students were required to 

31 Ibid. 

32 The Boston Post, April 29, 1929; The Boston Globe (A.M.), April 29, 
1929; The Boston Transcript, April 29, 1929. 

33 The Boston Herald (editorial), April 30, 1929; The Boston Transcript 
(editorial), April 29, 1929. 

34 Boston College Bulletin. The Law School. Announcement of the First 
Session, 1929-1930, pp. 11-14. 



THE MANY-ROOTED TREE 253 

attend lectures and conferences for fourteen hours a week, while 
the evening students were obliged to schedule ten hours. Mem- 
bers of one section were not permitted to take courses in the 
other section for credit.^^ 

Only first-year students were received during the opening 
year, but the very gratifying enrollment of 102 students in both 
day and evening divisions was recorded. This figure rose to 122 
the following year; and to 202 the third year; to 230 in 1933; 
and to 258 in 1934.3« 

Formal instruction was begun September 26, 1929, and the 
first class graduated on June 15, 1932. With the graduation of 
this first class, the school was oflBcially approved by the American 
Bar Association through its section on Legal Education and 
Admission to the Bar, and in 1937, the school became a member 
of the Association of American Law Schools. 

In 1939, the Law School moved from its original site in the 
Lawyers' Building, 11 Beacon Street, to the New England Power 
Building, 441 Stuart Street, where it remained until it was 
transferred to the Kimball Building, 18 Tremont Street, Boston, 
in the summer of 1945. 

Intown Classes 

At the same time that the Law School was established, and 
at the same location, an undergraduate center was begun which 
was the joint undertaking of the Law School and the Graduate 
School. It was directly under the supervision of the Law School 
regent. Father Creeden, and it was designed to provide an 
opportunity for those who had only a high school diploma or 
one year at college to obtain an equivalent of the two years 
college work necessary to enter the Law School. Classes were 
scheduled for the late afternoon and evening, and covered in 
three years' time a special program of studies embracing English, 
Logic, Accounting, Economics, Latin for Lawyers, Public Speak- 

35 Ibid. 

36 Boston College Bulletin, The Law School Announcement, for the 
respective years. 



254 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

ing, Modern Languages, Apologetics, Psychology, Ethics, Gov- 
ernment, and Sociology. The response to this plan was im- 
mediate, and sixty students enrolled the opening year.^^ 

In the year 1929, which was the date of the opening of this 
"Downtown Center" at the Law School, the classes for under- 
graduates which had been offered afternoons and evenings at 
James Street in affiliation with the Graduate School, were united 
in a semi-independent organization called "The Extension 
School," under the direction of the new dean of the Graduate 
School, Father John F. Doherty, S.J. This school differed from 
the other extension branch at the Law School, by offering the 
equivalent of a complete four-year college course leading to an 
A.B. degree, and by presenting a variety of major fields of con- 
centration. These extension classes continued to be held at the 
high school building on James Street. 

The "Downtown Center," embracing the prelegal extension 
classes, was accorded a section of the combined Graduate 
School — Extension School catalogue until the issue of 1933-1934, 
when it became "The Junior College," and issued a separate 
catalogue under Father Patrick J. McHugh, S.J., as dean, who 
was also dean of the Arts College at Chestnut Hill. 

The following year (1934-1935), the Graduate School and 
Extension School were moved to Chestnut Hill, and the first steps 
were taken in January, 1935, to make them entirely distinct 
and independent. September, 1935, saw the Extension School 
separated from the Graduate School and merged with the Junior 
College in new quarters at 126 Newbury Street, under the name 
"Boston College Intown." Father George A. O'Donnell, S.J., be- 
came dean of the reorganized Graduate School at Chestnut Hill, 
and Father Walter F. Friary, S.J., dean of the new Boston 
College Intown. 

The Intown College published separate catalogues for the 
Extension courses and for the Junior College courses until the 
entire curriculum was revised and consolidated into progres- 

■" Boston College Bulletin of the Graduate and Extension Schools, 1929- 
1930, pp. 47-49; and The Heights, Oct. 1, 1929. 



THE MANY-ROOTED TREE 255 

sive divisions or "stadia" by Father Michael J. Harding, S.J., 
the new dean, in September, 1938. At that time, the terms 
"Extension School" and "Junior College" were discontinued, and 
a single catalogue was issued henceforth by the Intown College. 

School of Social Work 

Growth of the university was meanwhile noticeable in another 
direction. Soon after Father Louis J. Gallagher's inauguration 
as president of Boston College in 1932, he began to give in- 
terested encouragement to Father Walter McGuinn, who was 
investigating the possibilities of starting a School of Social Work 
in connection with the college.^® In preparation for such a 
measure, if it should materialize. Father McGuinn engaged in 
graduate studies in Social Work at Fordham University, New 
York, where, in 1935, he achieved the unusual distinction of 
being granted a Ph.D. degree, majoring in Social Work. 

Father McGuinn now turned his attention to Boston. He was 
convinced that here as elsewhere there was a need for pro- 
fessionally trained social workers who were taught to view their 
problems in the light of Catholic social principles, and he saw 
that in this comparatively young field of formal education in 
Social Work there was often lacking a satisfactory synthesis of 
the principles of Christian philosophy, especially of Ethics and 
Psychology, with the various methods and techniques that have 
been developed in Social Work. Aid in the solution of these 
problems, he felt, would be achieved by the institution of 
Social Work Schools in Catholic universities, from which proper 
leadership would emanate. 

Local and higher Jesuit superiors shared Father McGuinn's 
view, and in May, 1936, permission was granted by the General 
of the Society of Jesus in Rome to open such a school. On the 
eighth of the same month. Father McGuinn outlined his plans 
to Cardinal O'Connell, who at once gave his generous and 

38 This description of the School of Social Work is based upon informa- 
tion supplied the writer by Reverend James D. SuUivan, S.J., regent of 
this school. 



256 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

enthusiastic approval to the project, and graciously became 
honorary patron of the school. 

The program of training and studies was drawn up in accord- 
ance with the specifications of the American Association of 
Schools of Social Work. For this task, Father McGuinn engaged 
the assistance of Miss Dorothy L. Book, who had wide profes- 
sional training and experience in social work, and who became 
director of field work for the new school. 

The syllabus was organized to meet all professional require- 
ments, and provided experience in recognized social agencies 
under competent supervision. The training period has from the 
beginning required two years to complete, the first of which is 
devoted to a general foundation in the study of fundamental 
principles and methods common to all forms of social work, 
while the second affords the student opportunities to specialize 
in some particular phase of social work. The training is of grad- 
uate caliber, open only to holders of a baccalaureate degree 
from an accredited college, and leads to the degree of Master 
of Science in Social Work. 

A distinguished faculty was recruited from the professional 
field, and the first classes were held in September, 1936, at the 
school's quarters at 126 Newbury Street. The initial enrollment 
was forty students. Two years later, the first class, nmnbering 
thirty-four, graduated, and the school received its accreditation 
by the American Association of Schools of Social Work on 
June 28, 1938. 

When the war broke out, Father McGuinn was called upon 
to serve on the New England regional branch of the War 
Labor Board, where the exacting nature of his new duties in 
addition to the administrational work at the school gradually 
took a toll of his health. He developed a serious heart condition 
in the spring of 1944, and died suddenly on April 1. Upon his 
death, Miss Book acted as dean until the following September, 
when she was appointed permanently to that office, with Father 
James D. Sulhvan, S.J., as regent. 



the many-rooted tree 257 

,The College of Business Administration 
The College of Business Administration^^ is the most recent of 
the university developments at Boston College. For several 
years previous to the introduction of this school, four courses 
in Accounting had been oflFered yearly as electives for juniors 
and seniors in the arts course. The classes proved so popular 
that the question arose in 1938 of providing a fuller curriculum 
in business subjects. Father William J. McGarry, S.J., the presi- 
dent of the college, decided that the situation demanded not 
additional courses, but the institution of a separate school de- 
signed to furnish basic training in business at the same time that 
the necessary cultural subjects were studied. Consequently, early 
in March, 1938, with the approval of the trustees, he appointed 
Father James J. Kelley, S.J., of the college staflF, director of the 
new undertaking, and gave him full authority to assemble a 
faculty and to draw up a four-year undergraduate program 
leading to the degree. Bachelor of Science in Business 
Administration. 

The curriculum embraced the full philosophy course, with 
much of the hterary training, and, for Catholic students, the 
regular Religion course, taken in the Arts division, in addition to 
the standard business subjects. In outlining this syllabus, the 
recommendations of the American Association of Collegiate 
Business Schools were followed, which require a distribution of 
subjects in the following proportions: at least 40 per cent busi- 
ness subjects; 40 per cent cultural subjects, and up to 20 per 
cent of 'Tjorder" subjects, which may be common to both classes. 
At the invitation of Father McGarry, over thirty prominent 
businessmen and bankers from the Boston and New York areas 
consented to become members of an advisory committee for the 
Business School, to assist with their counsel and experience in 
the eflScient direction of the school. The main committee operates 
through four smaller subcommittees which devote their atten- 
ds This description of the College of Business Administration is based upon 
information supplied the writer by the Reverend James J. Kelly, S.J., dean 
of that college. 



258 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

tion respectively to curriculum, publicity, lectures, and resources. 
The success of the school has been due in no small part to the 
generous interest of these business leaders. 

At the time that the original plans were made, it appeared 
that the Museum Building on Hammond Street would serve as 
quarters for the school, but further investigation showed that 
the structure would not be suitable for this purpose without 
extensive alterations, and hence space in the building which 
housed the Intown College and the School of Social Work was 
engaged, and the opening of classes was announced for Septem- 
ber 16, 1938, 

Over one hundred applications arrived at the school offices 
throughout the spring and summer, and from this number 
seventy -two candidates were accepted for the first class. The 
following year, seventy-five entered the new freshman class, 
and this number taxed the available space to the point of 
serious inconvenience. The third year (1940-1941), the school 
was obliged to move out to the main buildings at Chestnut Hill 
to accommodate the incoming class of one hundred boys, and 
when this location, too, proved inadequate, the College of 
Business Administration was finally, in September, 1941, granted 
spacious quarters of its own in the newly acquired Cardinal 
O'Connell Hall, formerly the Liggett Estate, on Hammond 
Street, Chestnut Hill. 

The new school now had a full four-year program in operation 
for the first time, and enjoyed a total enrollment of some 330 
students. The first graduating class numbered 52 in June, 1942; 
the following February, on a wartime accelerated program, 
another 54 graduated, and in November (1943) 40 more took 
their degrees. The College of Business Administration had come 
of age, but the demands of war upon the student personnel 
caused a postponement of further development and made it 
advisable in the summer of 1943 for the school to transfer its 
quarters temporarily from O'Connell Hall to the Tower Build- 
ing on the main campus. 

Within the space approximately of twenty years, Boston Col- 



THE MANY-ROOTED TREE 259 

lege had grown in a direction and to an extent never anticipated 
by Father Fulton nor even by Father Gasson. The foundation 
of an Intown College, a Graduate School, a Law School, a 
Social Work School, and a College of Business Administration 
had extended immeasurably the educational service which Bos- 
ton College offered to the community. And it pleased the friends 
of the institution to observe that the development was not 
altogether horizontal. 



CHAPTER XXII 
DEPRESSION DECADE 



The period immediately before World War II was one of 
continued growth and consolidation, although, on the side of 
physical expansion, only one project, the wing on St. Mary's 
Hall, could be listed as new construction. The rapidly increas- 
ing Jesuit faculty had rendered the accommodations of the 
residence hall inadequate as early as the fall of 1927. At that 
time a temporary remedy was arranged and finally achieved 
in January, 1928, by transferring the faculty library, which 
occupied the end of St. Mary's Hall over the chapel, to the new 
library building, and converting the space thus obtained into 
four living rooms, a bishop's suite, and three private chapels. 

The problem of insuflBcient room was constantly pressing, 
however, until Father Dolan, late in 1930, decided that St. 
Mary's Hall should be substantially enlarged. He engaged the 
college architects, Maginnis and Walsh, to design an addition 
which would presei-ve the pleasing proportions and general 
appearance of the building, as well as protect the over-all 
campus pattern which had been agreed on for future 
development. 

Work was actually begun on October 7 of that year, and 
proceeded throughout the following winter and spring. The 
L-shaped addition when completed provided thirty-five more 
individual living rooms, in addition to seven rooms on the 
southeast end of the third floor which were designed as in- 
firmary quarters. Among the changes effected was a new and 

260 



DEPRESSION DECADE 261 

enlarged refectory, planned to accomodate one hundred and 
four; a recreation room for the Fathers, and a faculty reading 
room, all on the first floor of the new section; and the remodel- 
ing of the old refectory into offices for the president and 
treasurer, together with the adaptation of the former offices 
into visitors' parlors. The new basement provided area for a 
large garage, as well as extended facilities for the wardrobe, 
and a number of new rooms for workmen. 

The crowning feature of the new structure, however, was a 
Gothic cloister facing the reservoir, and forming with the build- 
ing an enclosed quadrangle, within which was a monastic 
garden, laid out with shrubs and paths, and dominated by a 
graceful statue of our Lady surmounting a fountain in the 
center. In the walls about the garth were placed cut-stone repre- 
sentations of incidents in the life of St. Ignatius, and ornamenta- 
tion employing religious symbols. The top of the parapet pro- 
vided an elevated terrace paved with large flagstones, and 
inside the wall was a wide, covered ambulatory at the garden 
level, which served the faculty as all-weather walks where they 
might retire from the distractions of the campus for the reading 
of the divine office. 

The new wing was completed in the summer and formally 
occupied on the feast of the Jesuit patron, St. Ignatius, July 31, 
1931.^ 

In May, 1932, the trustees of Boston College announced the 
purchase of the Brown estate, comprising some eight and a half 
acres in Cohasset, Massachusetts, bordering the entrance to 
Cohasset harbor. The purpose of this acquisition was to pro- 
vide a resthouse for the Jesuit faculty within easy motoring 
distance of the college, where some hours each week during the 
summer could be spent at the shore. This relaxation was con- 
sidered advisable since teaching schedules, due to summer 
school, were arranged almost on a fifty-two-weeks-a-year basis. 

The property included one of the finest large stone and frame 

^The Boston Globe, Oct. 11, 1930; Woodstock Letters, 60(1931):457- 
459; Boston College, Seventy-fifth Anniversary, 1863-1938, p. 35. 



262 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

mansion houses along the Massachusetts coast. The site had been 
developed by Dr. John Bryant, a pioneer yachtsman and sports- 
man, who occupied it for many seasons as a summer home. 
Later it was leased for a period of years to the late Thomas W. 
Lawson. When Mr. Lawson built Dreamwold at Egypt, Mas- 
sachusetts, the other estate was purchased by Lewis A. Crossett, 
who made it his year-round home. Upon his death, the property 
passed to William H. Brown of Boston.^ 

Father Gallagher Becomes Rector 
On January 1, 1932, Father Dolan was succeeded in the 
presidency of Boston College by the Reverend Louis J. Gal- 
lagher, S.J., until then Socius to the Provincial and Prefect 
General of Studies for Jesuit institutions in the New England 
area.^ Father Gallagher, who became an international figure 
because of his work in Russia after World War I, was born in 
Boston, July 22, 1885. His first school years were spent in the 
public schools of the Dorchester district, and later at the Im- 
maculate Conception school in Maiden. He entered Boston Col- 
lege High School in 1900, and was attending Boston College 
in 1905 when he decided to join the Society of Jesus. He com- 
menced his noviceship at St. Andrew-on-Hudson, Poughkeepsie, 
New York, in the late summer of that year, and after the usual 
course of preparation there, at Woodstock College, and at 
Montreal, he was engaged in teaching at Fordham University 
for a period of five years before returning to Woodstock College 
for his theological studies in 1916. He was ordained a priest by 
Cardinal Gibbons in 1920, and later was appointed principal of 
Xavier High School, New York City. It was while filling this 
position in New York that Superiors selected him to take part 
in the administration of the Vatican Relief Mission to Russia 
during the famine of 1922. He remained in Russia for nearly 
two years during the period of formation of the present Soviet 

2 The Boston Globe, May 27, 1932. 

3 The Boston Post, Jan. 2, 1932; The Boston Herald, Jan. 2, 1932; The 
Boston Sunday Post, Jan. 10, 1932; The Boston Sunday Globe, Jan. 10, 1932. 



DEPRESSION DECADE 263 

government. In organizing and conducting the relief branches 
of the Vatican Mission in Moscow, in the Crimea, and in the 
Caucasus districts, and among the Kirgiz peasants of the Oren- 
burg, Ural district, Father Gallagher had ample opportunity to 
study the development of Communism in that country, on which 
he frequently lectured and wrote during the years which fol- 
lowed. Before leaving Russia he was appointed diplomatic 
courier between the Vatican and the State Department of the 
Soviet government with the commission to bring the relics of 
Blessed Andrew Bobola, the Polish Jesuit martyr, from Moscow 
to Rome. 

Before returning to America, Father Gallagher spent a year 
in Ireland in ascetical studies, at the close of which he was 
appointed dean of the College of Arts and Sciences at George- 
town University. When the Jesuit province of New England was 
formed in 1926, he was appointed Socius to the Provincial of the 
new province. He was later named a member of the interprov- 
ince commission on studies for the American Assistancy of the 
Society of Jesus, and general prefect of studies for the New 
England province. 

Father Gallagher began his administration at Boston College 
at a time when the full impact of the 1929 depression was being 
felt by all classes. In March, 1932, he reported that due to the 
depression, a policy of financial retrenchment had been forced 
upon the college.^ The deficit in the payment of tuitions which 
had increased with every semester of the previous two years, was 
particularly large during that term because of conditions pre- 
vailing in various banks. Deferred payment and installment pay- 
ing had affected about 20 per cent of the tuitions, and the num- 
ber of students receiving financial aid from the college had 
increased 100 per cent over the previous year. The enforced 
forfeiture of tuition income, he stated, did not result in the 
dropping of any students, but some balance was effected by the 
reduction of expenditures for equipment or developmental 
projects, and by the economic administration of the community 

4 The Boston Transcript, March 19, 1932. 



264 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

house of the nonsalaried Jesuit faculty. Nevertheless, Father 
Gallagher was able to state that up to that time no reduction 
had been made in the salary of anyone employed by the college, 
nor was any contemplated. 

Alumni Field Stadium 
The depression necessarily obliged him to postpone indefinite- 
ly any plans for expansion, but he efiPected many improvements 
which were extraordinary in the light of the diflBculties under 
which he labored. Financial restrictions, for instance, had caused 
the "de-emphasis" of intercollegiate athletics at Boston College 
during the last years of Father Dolan's term in oflBce, and a 
steady increase in the seriousness of the depression forced Father 
Gallagher to face the alternatives of discovering a means of re- 
ducing in a substantial way the expenditures involved in the 
athletic program, or suspending the major sports altogether. In 
selecting the first of these choices. Father Gallagher felt that a 
transfer of the home games in football from the professional 
baseball park in Boston, which charged 20 per cent of the gross 
receipts of a game for rental, to the college field at University 
Heights would eflFect a saving which would enable football to 
continue on a satisfactory scale. Some rather discouraging diflB- 
culties, however, lay in the way of such a change. The grand- 
stands on the campus were small, wooden, and, in several sec- 
tions, of secondhand materials; age had contributed to make 
them so unsafe that the city authorities finally condemned them. 
The first step, therefore, in carrying out a program for campus 
athletics was to provide a suitable set of stands. A large stadium 
was, of course, out of the question for many reasons, the chief 
of which was the enormous cost involved, which had led even 
heavily endowed universities to discontinue the practice of build- 
ing them, and at Boston College the authorities were rightfully 
unwilling to commit a large portion of the campus, which would 
eventually be needed for college buildings, to this distinctly 
"part-time" use. 



DEPRESSION DECADE 265 

The answer to this problem which was announced in May, 
1932, was the installation of prefabricated steel stands, which 
provided strength at a minimum cost, were easy to erect, and 
were relatively inconspicuous.^ The permit to put up the stands 
was granted by the City of Newton on June 25, 1932, and the 
work of pouring the concrete foundations and assembling the 
steel sections was begun shortly after the closing of school.^ In 
order to reduce expenses as far as possible, and at the same time 
to provide a number of students with employment at a time 
when work was at a premium, the task of erecting the stands 
was given to a number of students under the direction of pro- 
fessional steel workers. This arrangement occasioned a protest 
from one of the labor unions which objected to the employment 
of "amateur" help, but the labor officials, after investigating the 
situation, gave the project their approval. 

The completed stands were low lying, and rested in a natural 
declivity of the land. The field was landscaped in such a manner 
that the structure not only blended into the general scene, but 
game audiences were protected in some measure from the direct 
rays of the sun. The capacity of the stands, with both permanent 
and temporary sections included, was planned to be 20,000, and 
for the convenience of these patrons, parking space for 3000 
cars was arranged on the campus. The entire stands, however, 
were not erected the first year, so that the season, which opened 
with the dedication of the new "stadium" on October 1, and 
included games with Fordham and Holy Cross, was played on 
a field which seated only 15,000. 

The full complement of portable temporary stands was used 
on the two following years (1933 and 1934), and have never 
been replaced in their entirety since. The largest crowd ever to 
be present on the field was probably the one in attendance at 
the Diocesan band concert in 1941, which was estimated at over 
25,000. 

5 The Boston Traveler, May 5, 1932; The Boston Post, May 5, 1932. 

6 The Boston Post, June 30, 1932. 



266 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

In the years immediately before the war, the national promi- 
nence of the football team, with the consequent large following 
at its games, caused the athletic association to transfer the con- 
tests back to Fenway Park, and later to Braves' Field, since the 
installation of facihties to accommodate large crowds properly 
on the campus would not only entail great expense, but could 
not be e£Fected without defacing the property. 

The Thompson Collection 

An example of the academic accomplishments which were 
rivaling nonacademic activities for attention at this period, is 
found in the dramatically successful efforts of Father Terence 
L. Connolly, S.J., the head of the English Department at the 
college, to gather documentary material for firsthand study of 
English Catholic poets. In the fall of 1933, Father Connolly ar- 
ranged for a loan exhibit at Boston College of manuscripts and 
first editions of the Catholic Victorian poet, Francis Thompson. 
The exhibition, the first dedicated to that poet in America, was 
held from October 5 to 8 (1933), through the kindness of the 
owner of the collection, Seymour Adelman, of Chester, Pennsyl- 
vania. Loans from the Widener and the Boston Public Library 
augmented the display which drew the interest of scholars from 
centers throughout the east. 

Since eight years of devoted labor and great wealth had been 
employed by Mr. Adelman in assembling the collection. Father 
Connolly's surprise and pleasure can be understood, when, some 
four years later, Mr. Adelman decided to part with his treasures, 
and offered them to Father Connolly for a sum considerably less 
than their estimated value, with the understanding that the 
various items would always be known as fomnerly belonging to 
the Seymour Adelman Collection. 

Within three weeks after Mr. Adelman's offer, loyal friends 
of the college had raised a fund to buy the manuscripts, and on 
April 22, 1937, title to the Adelman Collection was transferred to 
Boston College. The college authorities readily gave permission 
to have the faculty reading room of the library converted into a 



DEPRESSION DECADE 267 

permanent display center for the Thompsoniana and related 
items, and the collection was formally opened for public inspec- 
tion on November 5, 1937. 

On hearing of Boston College's acquisition of this Thompson 
material, Wilfrid Meynell, the patron and dearest friend of the 
poet, donated to Father Connolly the manuscript of "From the 
Night of Forebeing." Later, upon the occasion of Father Con- 
nolly's visit to Mr. Meynell in England during the summer of 
1938, Mr. Meynell presented him with several Thompson note- 
books and manuscripts, including the complete manuscript of 
the Life of Saint Ignatius. The story of this meeting and some 
of the interesting details accompanying the presentation of Mr. 
Meynell's gift will be found in Father Connolly's Francis Thomp- 
son: In His Paths.'' 

Since that time, the Thompson Room has been enriched by 
additions to the collection through Mr. Meynell's beneficence and 
by four portraits presented by Mrs. Edward C. Donnelly, as a 
memorial to her late husband. The paintings are: Mr. Wilfrid 
Meynell, by Sir John Lavery; Alice Meynell, by the Honorable 
Neville Lytton; Coventry Patmore, by Sii- John Lavery; and 
Francis Thompson, by John Lavalle. The portraits of Patmore 
and Thompson are hung to face a valuable copy of Raphael's 
Madonna del Gran Duca, symbolizing the dependence which 
both of these poets had for their inspiration upon the Blessed 
Mother.® 

^ Milwaukee: The Bruce Publishing Co., 1944. 

8 Further details on the Thompson Collection will be found in: Terence 
L. Connolly, S.J. (editor). An Account of Books and Manuscripts of Francis 
Thompson (Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts, Boston College, n.d. ); Terence 
L. Connolly, S.J., "Seymour Adelman's Thompsoniana," America, 50:16-17, 
Oct. 7, 1933; Anon., "First Public Exhibition in America of Thompsoniana 
Held in Boston College Library," The Catholic Library World, 5:1, Oct. 
15, 1933; Anon., "The Thompson Exhibit," The Boston College Alumnus, 
1:5-6, Nov., 1933; The Heights, Sept. 28, 1933; Oct. 4, 1933; Oct. 18, 
1933; Oct. 29, 1937; Nov. 19, 1937; The Boston Post, Sept. 25, 1933; The 
Pilot, Sept. 23, 1933; Oct. 7, 1933; The Boston Transcript, Oct. 4, 1933; 
The Boston Globe, Oct. 6, 1935. 



268 a history of boston college 

Remembrances, Honors, Projects 
Early in 1934, Father Gallagher was pleased to receive the 
following letter of historic interest from William Lawrence, the 
Episcopal Bishop of Boston, accompanying two photographs of 
the old Lawience farm upon which the college buildings are 
now located: 

122 Commonwealth Avenue, 
Boston, 

January 29, 1934 
My dear Dr. Gallagher, 

I take pleasure in sending through you to Boston College 
these two photographs of the site of the College taken about 
1870. In 1862 or 3 my father, Amos A. Lawrence, bought about 
one hundred acres of land of which the College site is now 
about the centre. About 1866-7 the City of Boston took the 
low land for the Reservoir, that part now called the "Lower 
Basin." It was then a farm and we passed several months in 
each year in the house which stood where the College now is. 
This view was taken from near Beacon Street. The view below 
is taken from the slope of Waban Hill. The road in the fore- 
ground is now widened to Commonwealth Avenue; the stone 
wall and stone barn were built by my father; Chestnut Hill is 
beyond. Wild rabbits ran through the grove and our cherry 
orchard where I ate my fill of cherries is at the point where 
the Athletic Field now is. 

Boston College with its beautiful group of buildings has 
given a grace and Benediction to my boyhood haunts. 

Yours sincerely, 

William Lawrence 
Rev. L. J. Gallagher, S.J., 
President^ 

The library was enriched in February, 1934, by the accession 
of over four thousand rare volimies which were bequeathed to 
the college in the will of the late Monsignor Arthur L. Connolly, 
of the Blessed Sacrament Church, Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts. 

^ From the files of the president's oflBce, Boston College. A facsimile of 
this letter is found in Boston College; Seventy-fifth Anniversary, 1863— 
1938, p. 23. The Lawrence photographs are reproduced in the picture sec- 
tion of the present volume. 




CD 


03 
'a 


o 


H 


"~-^ 




•^ 


bJC 


'CO 


"3 


•i-H 


C/3 




'TS 


IZl 


0) 




q;> 


^ 


'3 


.g 


g 


pq 


C/3 
3 


1—1 

o 


CD 


pq 


c« 


o 




3 


H 




Oh 


1 




g 


o 




5 


4-1 




O 






1 


• r\ 










M 


CD 

a 

iH 




■4-1 


o 




3 


3 




C 






-4—' 


'w 




C/3 


CD 




0) 


Si 




^ 






u 







DEPRESSION DECADE 269 

The collection was particularly strong in Irish literature, but 
contained other items of great value, among which were St. 
Bonaventure's Life of Christ, printed in 1475, and a Com- 
mentaries on the Gospel, printed at the same period. In addition 
to these books, a large number of letters written by English and 
American literary figures were included in the collection.^" 

In the early summer of that year, the college assisted in the 
celebration of Cardinal O'Connell's Golden Jubilee of his ordi- 
nation to the priesthood, culminating, on June 9, with an outdoor 
Mass celebrated by His Eminence on Alumni Field before a 
crowd estimated at over 20,000." 

When college students returned to classes in the fall of 1934, 
the Federal Government announced a program by which it 
would assist needy students by arranging to pay them for part- 
time work on projects connected with the college. The payment 
would be made under authorization of the Federal Emergency 
Recovery Act, and would amount to some $15 a month per stu- 
dent for the entire school year. Over one hundred Boston College 
boys immediately availed themselves of the assistance. ^'■^ Later, 
under the National Youth Administration, this help was con- 
tinued for a large number of students each year until the ap- 
proach of war terminated the program. 

Father Joseph J. Williams, S.J., the director of the Department 
of Anthropology at Boston College, was appointed one of the 
three representatives of the American Anthropological Associa- 
tion and the American Council of Learned Societies to attend 
the International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological 
Sciences in London during the summer months of 1934. At the 
congress. Father Williams presented dissertations before the 
Religious as well as the African sections of Ethnology, and was 
quoted in sixty-five dailies throughout England and Scotland.^^ 
Further distinction came to him in his election as a fellow of 

lOThe Boston Globe, Feb. 15, 1934; The Boston Post, Feb. 18, 1934. 

11 The Boston Sunday Globe, June 10, 1934; The Boston Sunday Adver- 
tiser, June 10, 1934. 

12 The Boston Globe, Sept. 25, 1934. 

13 The Heights, Oct. 3, 1934. 



270 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

both the Royal and the American Geographical Societies, and 
also of the Royal Anthropological Institute and the Royal Society 
of Arts. The previous year Father Williams had established at 
Boston College the Nicholas M. WilHams Ethnological Collec- 
tion, consisting of several thousand volumes, with five thousand 
items in the African section. The collection proved to be the 
only one of its kind in the United States recognized by the In- 
ternational Institute of African Languages and Cultures. 

On January 8, 1935, the faculty, students, and alumni of the 
College were shocked to learn of the sudden death of Father 
Patrick J. McHugh, S.J., Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences 
for fifteen years, to whom credit for the many organizational im- 
provements in the postwar college was largely due. His extraor- 
dinary faculty of maintaining contact with numberless students 
and alumni on the basis of personal friendship made him one of 
the most beloved figures associated with the College in recent 
times. A Httle over a year later, death removed another widely- 
known Boston College personahty, Father Jones I. J. Corrigan, 
S.J., who had been professor of Ethics for twenty years at the 
Heights, and who had won prominence as a pubHc lecturer on 
the Catholic aspects of current issues. 

During the spring of 1935, the Boston College and Holy Cross 
College authorities, working in conjunction with the Jesuit Pro- 
vincial Prefect of Studies, Father Wilham J. Murphy, S.J., revised 
the curricula of the Arts Division, providing a course leading to 
the A.B. degree which would not require Greek. The three sec- 
tions of the bachelor of arts course which resulted from this 
change were: (1) A.B. Honors (Greek); (2) A.B. (Greek); 
(3) A.B. (Mathematics)." 

The first of these categories was reserved for those students 
who, in the judgment of the college authorities, possessed 
superior ability in language studies. In this division, Greek lan- 
guage and literature were required subjects for all students. For 
those students who had made preliminary studies in that lan- 
guage during high school, Greek was continued for two years; 

14 The Boston Herald, March 27, 1935. 



DEPRESSION DECADE 271 

for those beginning the study in college, three years were re- 
quired. In addition to this requirement. Honors students were 
obliged to maintain a certain level of achievement in all studies 
in order to remain in the course. 

The A.B. Greek (non-Honors) course would cover substantially 
the same curriculum as the Honors course, but the amount of 
matter read, and the quantity of personal work done on assign- 
ment would be less. 

The course known as "A.B., Mathematics" was similar with 
that offered in the A.B. non-Honors section, except that during 
freshman year a course in Chemistry, and in Sophomore, a course 
in advanced College Mathematics were required.^^ 

On May 29, 1935, the Boston College Library acquired an 
original letter in Portuguese of St. Francis Xavier, signed by the 
Saint, and addressed to Don John HI, King of Portugal.^^ The 
manuscript, which since its purchase, has been the center of 
perennial attention, is composed of three folio pages, and is dated 
"Cochin, January 31, 1552," the last year of the Saint's life, just 
after his return from Japan and shortly before he sailed for 
China and his death. It is a confidential report to the King, refer- 
ring to the Portuguese subjects in the Far East, whom the Saint 
recommends for reward and recognition. He also records the 
work of some of the historical personalities with whom he came 
into contact in Japan, India, and Malacca, and the missionary 
work carried on in those countries. 

The fact that this letter had been written was known to 
scholars from references in other letters, but the letter itself was 
long listed as one of Xavier's "lost letters."^'^ Its discovery is due 
to Dr. Frederico Gavazzo Perry Vidal of Portugal, who, in 1927, 
purchased a miscellaneous lot of books from an antiquary in 
Lisbon, and in one discovered four old letters, two addressed to 

^^ Boston College Bulletin, University Catalogue, Vol. XIV, No. 8 (Oct., * 
1942), pp. 49-51. 

16 The writer is indebted for much of this material to Father George F. 
Smith, S.J., of the Boston College faculty, who has written an unpublished 
research study on the letter. 

17 Cf. Monumenta Xaveriana (Matriti: Typis Augustini Avrial, 1899- 
1900), I, 741, No. 1, and footnote 2. 



272 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

the King of Portugal by "Father Master Francisco," and two 
from St. Francis Borgia. Careful study on the part of the Rever- 
end George Shurhammer, S.J., biographer of St. Francis Xavier 
and greatest living authority on documents pertaining to the 
Saint, established the Xavier letters as authentic.^^ The letter 
which is now in the possession of Boston College was dictated, 
addressed and signed by the Saint, but the body of the message 
is apparently in the handwriting of an amanuensis, very probably 
Anthony of China, who acted as Xavier's secretary on other 
known occasions, and who was his sole attendant when the Saint 
died on Sancien. When the document was offered for sale 
through Maggs of London, Father Gallagher became interested 
in it, not only as an extremely valuable manuscript for the college 
archives, but principally as an original letter and a relic of the 
great Jesuit missionary Saint. The Philomatheia Club of Boston 
College purchased the letter and presented it to the college as 
a gift commemorating the twentieth anniversary of the founding 
of the club.^^ The letter is preserved at present in the library in 
a specially designed Gothic manuscript stand, and is usually 
available for inspection by the public.^" 

Late in 1935, the borders of the campus on Beacon Street 
were altered to conform with a street-widening program being 
carried out at the time by the City of Newton. The payment 
which the city made for the narrow strip of land ceded by the 
college aided, with private gifts, in defraying the cost of a grace- 
ful wrought-iron fence supported by granite pillars which was 
erected along the entire Beacon Street side of the property. The 
expanse of fence was broken almost opposite Acacia Street by 
an ornate gate admitting to the rear driveway leading in the 
direction of the Science Building. The gate was dedicated by 
Father Gallagher as part of the alumni day activities June 8, 
1936.2^ 

18 George Schurhammer, S.J., "Zwei ungedruckte Briefe des hi. Franz 
Xaver," Archivum Historicum Societatis lesu (Rome), II, 44—45, 1933. 

19 The Boston Globe, May 29, 1935; The Boston Traveler, May 29, 1935. 

20 The Boston Sunday Post, Jan. 19, 1936. 

21 The Boston Post, June 9, 1936. 



DEPRESSION DECADE 273 

His Eminence, Eugenio Cardinal Pacelli, Papal Secretary of 
State, and future Pope Pius XII, paid the college a surprise visit 
on the morning of October 15, 1936, in the company of the Most 
Reverend Francis J. Spellman, at that time Auxiliary Bishop of 
Boston.^- The Cardinal was greeted at St. Mary's Hall by Father 
Gallagher, the president, and members of the Jesuit faculty, and 
from there he was escorted to the porch of the library building 
from which he briefly addressed the student body gathered on 
the campus. Following this, he made a presentation to Boston 
College of a beautifully illuminated fifteenth-century missal as 
a memento of his visit. 

22 The Heights, Oct. 16, 1936. 



CHAPTER XXIII 
EXPLORATIONS AND A BIRTHDAY 



Throughout the summer and fall of 1936 an expedition spon- 
sored jointly by Boston College and the University of Pennsyl- 
vania explored the San Augustin region of Colombia, South 
America, under the direction of Dr. Hermann von Walde- 
Waldegg of Boston College. Dr. von Walde-Waldegg reported 
upon his return in November that he had found what he con- 
sidered definite proof that an American civilization existed in the 
third century, A.D. Among the objects exhumed by members of 
this expedition were seventy-three huge stone statues estimated 
to be over fifteen centuries old. Casts of two of these figures 
were brought back to Boston College.^ 

In November, the Philomatheia Club, through its president, 
Mrs. Vincent P. Roberts, announced the gift of the former Stim- 
son Estate at 186 Hammond Street, near the college campus, to 
Boston College as an anthropological museum. At the same time. 
Father Gallagher appointed Dr. Walde-Waldegg as curator of 
the new museum.^ Steps were taken immediately to renovate 
the structure to provide a number of exhibition halls on the first 
two floors, and to convert the third floor into a living suite for 
the curator and his family. 

On March 30, 1937, the formal opening of the new museum 
took place in conjunction with the twelfth annual meeting of 

1 The Boston Traveler, Nov. 19, 1936; The Heights, Nov. 20, 1936. 

2 The Boston Transcript, Nov. 21, 1936; The Boston Sunday Globe, 
Nov. 22, 1936. 

274 



EXPLORATIONS AND A BIRTHDAY 275 

the Catholic Anthropological Conference, and was attended by 
many prominent Catholic scientists.^ The large number of ex- 
hibits ready at the time were well displayed in illuminated show- 
cases, or mounted on wall panels, and 1500 volumes, the nucleus 
of a specialized anthropological library, were on the museum 
shelves. The chief pieces, of course, were the stone and pottery 
objects excavated by Dr. Walde-Waldegg himself, but these were 
augmented by donations from various scientific groups and from 
mission stations throughout the world. On March 31, this mu- 
seum, the first Catholic anthropological museum in the United 
States, and the second in the world,* was opened to the general 
pubhc. 

In May, 1937, two months after the opening of the museum. 
Dr. Walde-Waldegg set out upon another expedition, this time 
under the sole sponsorship of Boston College, to continue his 
research into the aboriginal cultures of South America.^ Although 
the explorer was scheduled to return to Boston for the beginning 
of the fall term, it was not until early December that his return 
to the United States was announced.® At that time, also, Father 
George A. O'Donnell's appointment as curator of the Anthro- 
pological Museum was published, to succeed Dr. Walde- 
Waldegg, whose tenure of office had concluded with the termina- 
tion of the expedition. 

The Syrian Expedition 
Meanwhile, another expedition under the sponsorship of 
Boston College had been undertaken on the other side of the 
world.^ This enterprise, in the Near East, was organized and 

3 The Boston Sunday Advertiser, March 28, 1937; The Boston American, 
March 30; March 31, 1937; The Boston Transcript, March 30, 1937; The 
Boston Traveler, March 30, 1937; The Boston Globe, March 31, 1937; The 
Boston Herald, March 31, 1937; The Boston Post, March 31, 1937. 

* The other is located at the University of Vienna. 

5 The Heights, Oct. 15, 1937; Hermann von Walde-Waldegg, "Stone Idols 
of tlie Andes Reveal a Vanished People," The National Geographic Maga- 
zine, 77:626-647, May, 1940. 

6 Ibid., Dec. 10, 1937. 

^ The following paragraphs are based upon information supplied to the 
writer bv Father Doherty. 



276 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

directed by Father Joseph G. Doherty, S.J., who undertook 
doctorate studies at the University of Cambridge, England, in 
September, 1936, as a research student in Prehistoric Archae- 
ology under Professor Miles C. Burkitt. Early in 1937, on the 
advice of Dr. Burkitt and of Miss Dorothy Garrod, another recog- 
nized authority, he went to Syria to excavate a prehistoric rock 
shelter in the Valley of Antelias, near Beyrouth. Work on the 
site of Ksar 'Akil did not get under way until May of that year, 
and continued until the first rains halted actual excavation in 
September. 

From the very beginning, the site proved to be embarrassingly 
rich in the great bulk of its cultural and faunal yield, one day's 
digging requiring five days of work at the expedition's sorting 
tables. From the yield of the 1937 season 115,000 specimens of 
worked flint, out of more than 1,125,000 pieces of flint examined, 
were kept and catalogued. At the close of the season, one tenth 
of the level surface area of the site had been excavated to a 
depth of eighteen feet. Father Doherty was aided by the tech- 
nical assistance of Reverend George S. Mahan, S.J., and Reverend 
Joseph W. Murphy, S.J., Scholastics at the time, who had had 
two years' experience as staff members of the Pontifical Biblical 
Institute Expedition excavating the Chalcolithic site of Teleilat 
Ghassul, in the Jordan Valley. 

Father Doherty returned to Cambridge in January, 1938, with 
several cases of the cultural yield. This material drew the inter- 
ested attention of scholars when displayed in England, and in 
June, 1938, he returned to Ksar 'Akil, to be joined for the work 
of a second season by Father J. Franklin Ewing, S.J., of the 
Maryland-New York Province, who had been doing graduate 
work in Paleontology at the University of Vienna, Austria. 

Workmen were increased from thirty-two to forty-four, and 
the base of the cultural deposits of the site was set as a goal. 
Tools of flint and bone and animal remains were unearthed in 
the same quantity as the previous season, and on August 23, 
1938, the paleolithic skeletons of two young persons about eight 
or nine years of age were encountered in deposits that had 



EXPLORATIONS AND A BIRTHDAY 277 

turned to solid rock at a depth of thirty-four feet. Associated 
cultural remains indicated a slow transition from Lower Aurig- 
nacian to Levalloiso-Mousterian, and the age of the skeletons 
was estimated by Fathers Doherty and Ewing, and by the inde- 
pendent judgment of visiting experts at 30,000 B.C. The nature 
of the deposits in which these relics were embedded prevented 
their immediate removal, and the excavation of adjoining areas 
continued to a depth of sixty-four feet beneath the surface, at 
which depth the second digging season came to an end. Prepara- 
tions were under way in 1939 to take out an immense block of 
breccia containing the skeletons when the outbreak of World 
War II caused the work at Ksar 'Akil to be abruptly terminated. 

Before leaving the Near East in June, 1940, the two Fathers 
spent seven months as special staflF members of the Lebanese 
Government's Expedition at the excavations of the famous city 
of Byblos. Both Fathers received the Medal of Honor of Leba- 
nese Merit from the President of the Republic. 

Father Doherty 's assistants in 1937, Messrs. Mahan and Mur- 
phy, on their return to the United States, brought back from 
Palestine a valuable collection of rare coins, which had been 
recently excavated by the Arabs and purchased from the collec- 
tion of Doctor Clarence S. Fisher, an outstanding archaeologist 
of long experience and noteworthy accomplishment in the Holy 
Land. The bulk of the collection dates from the Roman Empire, 
from circa a.d. 59 to a.d. 118, from the reign of Nero through 
the reign of Hadrian. There are also two trays of older coins from 
Syria dating from the reign of the Seleucid Kings, and two trays 
from the autonomous city of Tyre, dating from 44 to 27 b.c. On 
the authority of outstanding archaeologists, these coins now 
preserved at Boston College constitute one of the most important 
collections of Roman coins that has been brought together, and 
contains some items that have not been catalogued in the British 
Museum. 

Father McGarry 

On the evening of July 1, 1937, Father William J. McGarry, 
S.J., dean of the Jesuit seminary, Weston College, was appointed 



278 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

to succeed Father Gallagher as president of Boston College. 
Father McGarry, the son of E. Leslie and Julia Agnes McGarry, 
was born in Hamilton, Massachusetts, March 14, 1894. After 
graduation from the Hamilton Grammar School in 1907, he 
attended Boston College High School, and upon the teraiination 
of his course there in 1911, he entered the Society of Jesus. He 
made his noviceship and classical studies at St. Andrew-on- 
Hudson, Poughkeepsie, New York, from 1911 to 1915, before 
going on to Woodstock College in Maryland, for his philo- 
sophical training. In 1917 he was granted the bachelor of arts 
degree, and the following year, the master's degree, majoring 
in philosophy. 

He then went to Fordham University as an instructor in mathe- 
matics in the Students' Army Training Corps. From 1918 to 1922 
he was engaged in further teaching and in doctorate studies at 
Fordham University, receiving his Ph.D. degree from that insti- 
tution in 1922. He completed his theological studies in 1926 and 
was granted the degree of Doctor of Sacred Theology by Wood- 
stock College, and afterward was appointed to teach Sacred 
Scriptures at Weston College, Weston, Massachusetts. He at- 
tended the Pontifical Biblical Institute in Rome from 1928 until 
1930, for further study, and was there awarded the degree of 
Licentiate in Sacred Scriptures with Honors. 

On his return to Weston College, Father McGarry was made 
professor of Sacred Scriptures and Dogmatic Theology. He was 
dean of Philosophy there from 1930 to 1934, and general dean 
of Studies from 1934 to 1937. During the scholastic year 1936- 
1937, he lectured in the Boston College Graduate School on the 
history of the Jewish people. Since 1934, he had been assistant 
editor of the Jesuit quarterly magazine. Thought, and had fre- 
quently contributed scholarly articles to Catholic professional 
magazines.® 

It was Father McGarry's intention on taking office to assume 
a fuU teaching schedule for himself in both the graduate and 
undergraduate divisions, but a semester's trial of this work in 

8 The Boston Globe, July 2, 1937. 



EXPLORATIONS AND A BIRTHDAY 279 

addition to his administrative duties had such an efifect upon his 
health that he was forced reluctantly to abandon his lecture 
courses for the balance of the year. 

Other plans which he sought to put into efiFect soon after tak- 
ing oflBce included the improvement of the library facilities, 
which he accomplished not only by the completion of the steel 
stack-room accommodations, but by launching an extensive pur- 
chasing program to strengthen the library holdings in several 
departments. 

He took a keen interest in the undergraduate curriculum at 
the Heights, and made several changes to assure continued high 
standards. The Intown Division also had his attention, with the 
result, mentioned elsewhere,^ that a reorganized educational and 
administrational structure went into effect in the fall of 1938. 

Seventy-five Years 
The week of February 20, 1938, was set aside for the celebra- 
tion of the diamond jubilee of the founding of the college.^" A 
downtown theater was engaged for the week and a program of 
events was arranged for every evening. On Sunday afternoon, 
the opening session was a symposium on Catholic marriage by 
an intercollegiate Catholic Action unit; that evening, the Student 
and Alumni Musical Clubs presented a joint concert. The Philo- 
matheia Club sponsored a public lecture on Monday evening, 
and on Tuesday, Father McGarry met the alumni at their con- 
vocation, and read to them the Papal Benediction which had 
been sent to the college from Rome. An intercollegiate debate 
with Harvard took place on Wednesday evening, and the 
evenings throughout the balance of the week were occupied 
with performances of the Dramatic Society's play. On Friday 
afternoon, members of the Spanish, Italian, and German societies 
of the college enacted scenes from selected masterpieces of the 
three countries, and the French Academy sponsored the Saturday 
matinee. A large pictorial and historical brochure on the college, 

Cf . pp. 254-255. 

10 The Boston Sunday Post, Feb. 20, 1938. 



280 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

and a Boston College song book were published to mark the 
anniversaiy. Later, on April 1, a Solemn High Mass commemo- 
rating the founding of the college was sung at the Immaculate 
Conception Church in the presence of His Eminence, Cardinal 
O'Connell. 

Early in March, 1938, a departure from the former compulsory 
entrance examinations for all, and the introduction of a new 
method for admission by certification was announced with the 
publication of the 1938-1939 Boston College Bulletin. Under the 
new system, candidates might qualify for entrance in any one 
of three ways: (1) Full certification by an approved secondary 
school; (2) Partial certification and passing grades in some of 
the approved forms of college entrance examinations in all re- 
quired subjects in which the candidate had not been certified; 
( 3 ) Passing grades in some one of the approved forms of college 
entrance examinations in all required subjects. Of course, all 
who wished to be considered for scholarships were to take the 
entrance examinations as usual. This arrangement was consid- 
ered by the college authorities a more equitable method of de- 
termining suitable candidates for admission since it laid more 
stress on the secondary school record which is presumably a 
better norm of fitness than an isolated examination." 

Father McGarry's career as a college president was prema- 
turely brought to a close in the summer of 1939 by the imperative 
need of an experienced writer and prominent theologian to be- 
come first editor of a new theological review, Theological 
Studies, '^'^ which was in the process of organization. 

Change of Presidents 
The creation of this magazine was the result of a meeting of 
the professors of theology representing the five Jesuit Houses of 
Theology in the United States, held in July, 1938, at which it 
was determined to launch the new theological quarterly as the 
official publication of the American Jesuit provinces. It was 

11 The Boston Globe, March 5, 1938; The Heights, March 4, 1938. 

12 America Press, New York. 



EXPLORATIONS AND A BIRTHDAY 281 

unanimously agreed by these representatives, that an urgent 
request be transmitted to the Jesuit General in Rome, asking that 
Father McGarry be released from his current duties at Boston 
College and that he be appointed to the new office of editor. 
When the Jesuit authorities reluctantly consented to the pro- 
posed release. Father William J. Murphy, S.J., was appointed to 
the presidency of Boston College on the Feast of the Assumption, 
August 15, 1939. 

The new executive was born in Lawrence, Massachusetts, on 
October 20, 1895. He attended Boston College from 1912 to 
1914, when, at the completion of his sophomore year, he entered 
the novitiate of the Society of Jesus at St. Andrew-on-Hiidson. 
At the close of his philosophical studies in 1920 at Woodstock 
College, Maryland, four years were devoted to the teaching of 
the classics at Fordham University and at Holy Cross College. 
After three years of theology at Woodstock, Father Murphy was 
transferred to the newly opened Scholasticate or House of 
Studies of the New England Province, at Weston, Massachusetts, 
and was ordained there to the priesthood in 1927. Another year 
of theological studies was spent at Weston, followed by a year 
of lecturing in English literature at Boston College. 

In 1930, he was sent to Europe for two years of advanced work 
in literature that were spent in Italy and England. In 1932, 
Father Murphy again took up his lectures in literature at the 
Boston College Graduate School until, in 1934, he was named 
general director of studies of the Jesuit Schools in New England. 
During the two years previous to his appointment as president 
of Boston College he was obliged to add to his duties those of 
assistant to the Provincial of the New England Province of the 
Society of Jesus. 

Sixteen days after Father Murphy was installed as rector, the 
armies of Adolf Hitler marched into Poland, and Europe was 
once more at war. The conflict did not immediately affect life 
in the United States, and particularly life on college campuses. 
Boston College carried on that year much as usual. 

A program for the graduate training of Jesuit scholastics was 



282 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

begun, with some nineteen of these students Hving together 
as a semi-independent community in the brick parish house on 
Commonwealth Avenue near Lake Street, and devoting the time 
usually allotted to the teaching period, or "regency," to advanced 
studies in the classics, history, or the sciences. 

O'CoNNELL Hall 

Another milestone in the college's progress was reached in 
the summer of 1941, when arrangements were made to purchase 
the Louis K. Liggett estate to house the rapidly growing College 
of Business Administration. When the proposed transaction was 
brought before Cardinal O'Connell for his approval, he not 
only granted it wath enthusiasm, but insisted that he be per- 
mitted to donate to the college the entire cost of the property. 
His generous o£Fer was gratefully accepted, and it was de- 
termined to name the new building "Cardinal O'Connell Hall." 

The transfer of the property took place on July 25, 1941, and 
provided the college with an additional nine and a half acres of 
land in the immediate vicinity of the main campus.^^ The prop- 
erty is bounded by Hammond Street, Beacon Street, and Tudor 
Road, and is beautifully landscaped with shade trees and rolling 
lawns which once made it one of the show places of Newton. 

The main building, a long Tudor-style structure of some 
twenty-five rooms, patterned on Gwydr Hall in Wales, was 
built in 1895 by the Storey family at a cost of about $300,000. 
Mr. Storey died before the house was completed, and some time 
later, his widow remarried, and the Redfield family lived in the 
mansion until about 1911. The house was then vacant, except 
for a caretaker, until an option was purchased on it by Louis 
Kroh Liggett, the founder of the United Drug Company and the 
Liggett Stores, in 1915. 

Mr. Liggett did not live in it at once, but about a year later 
made it his home and began a program of improvements. The 
original Storey land comprised about five acres; this Mr. Liggett 
increased by purchase, including the acquisition of the old 

13 Middlesex South District Registry of Deeds, Book 6520, p. 365. 



EXPLORATIONS AND A BIRTHDAY 283 

Baker Estate bordering Hammondswood Road, until he owned 
all the land between Hammond Street, Beacon Street, and Ham- 
mondswood Road. 

It has been estimated that the cost of maintaining this estab- 
lishment during the twenties was probably in the vicinity of 
$150,000 a year. Former guests stiU recall the luxurious furnish- 
ings, which included a tapestry valued at $50,000 which hung in 
the main hall; a painting of Lady Townsend which cost $10,000, 
and a gold tea set appraised at $10,000. The house stafiF consisted 
of twelve servants; the grounds required a superintendent and 
ten men, and during the period when Mr. Liggett maintained 
his string of valuable show horses, a stable manager and six 
stable men were employed. 

Among the distinguished guests entertained by Mr. Liggett at 
Gwydr Hall were Calvin Coolidge on several occasions while 
he was President of the United States; Senator George H. Moses 
of New Hampshire; and United States Attorney General Harry 
M. Daugherty. 

During the twenties, the conservatory was changed to the 
Beacon Street side of the house, and a one-story wing was built 
in 1928, with a turfed garden on the roof, to house a new 
$100,000 swimming pool. 

A land development had begun in the neighborhood shortly 
after World War I and, about 1922, Mr. Liggett commenced 
disposing of parcels of land from the borders of the estate for 
expensive private homes. The Liggett family ceased living on 
the estate in 1937, and from that time until it was purchased by 
Boston College in 1941 it was idle. 

When the college took over the property, the rooms in the 
master section were converted into classrooms for the Business 
School, and those in the servants' quarters into offices for the 
extracurricular activities of the entire college. The magnificent 
Reception Hall, rising through two stories in the center of the 
building, served as the students' foyer, adjoining which were the 
administrative oflBces, and some of the classrooms. 

The quadrangle made up of stables, carriage houses, garage 



284 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

and gardener's lodge, surrounding a court which resembled an 
old English inn yard, were made over into quarters for the 
athletic association and dressing rooms for the teams. The sec- 
ond floor of this area was taken up with the workshop and scene 
lofts of the dramatic society. 

The College of Business Administration occupied O'Connell 
Hall from the fall of 1941 until June, 1943, when, due to reduced 
numbers as well as to the pressing need of O'Connell Hall as a 
faculty residence during the army program, the Business classes 
were transferred to the Tower Building. 

The Red Mass 

On October 4, 1941, the Solemn Votive Mass of the Holy 
Spirit, known in a tradition which goes back many centuries in 
Rome, Paris, and London as the "Red Mass," was celebrated for 
the first time in Massachusetts to mark the opening of the 
judicial year. The ceremony which took place in the Immaculate 
Conception Church was under the auspices of His Eminence, 
Cardinal O'Connell, and the Boston College Law School. 

The function drew the most distinguished legal assemblage 
ever gathered in the state for a religious service. Governor 
Leverett Saltonstall and Mayor Maurice J. Tobin led the pro- 
cession which formed in the rectory, moved along Harrison 
Avenue to the main entrance of the church, and then up the 
center aisle. Among the participants were the chief justice and 
full bench of the Massachusetts Supreme Court; the judges of 
the Massachusetts probate courts and the United States Courts; 
judges of the land courts, district courts, and Boston municipal 
courts; the attorney general of the state and his entire staff; the 
United States attorney and his entire staff; district attorneys; 
assistant district attorneys; and representatives from all the law 
schools and law societies in the state. The Mass was said by 
Father Murphy, president of the College, and the sermon was 
delivered by the Reverend William J. Kenealy, S.J., dean of the 
Boston College Law School. Since 1941 the ceremony has been 
an annual event. 



EXPLORATIONS AND A BIRTHDAY 285 

As the months passed during this period, an interest in 
national defense was gradually taking form, and attractive 
opportunities in the various military reserves were ofiFered to 
college men; from time to time students withdrew from college 
to begin training for commissions, but their numbers were few 
enough to draw special mention in the college newspaper. The 
feature of that era most clearly stamped in the memories of both 
students and alumni was the meteoric rise to country-wide 
prominence achieved by the college's football teams, which led, 
on three New Year's Days, to participation in national 'TdowI 
games." Enthusiastic friends hailed this success as the beginning 
of an epoch, but the hand of war was already lowering the 
intermission curtain upon sports and on all normal college life. 



CHAPTER XXIV 
SOLDIERS WITH SCHOOLBOOKS 



Long before Japanese bombs broke the Sunday morning silence 
at Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, Boston College had been 
making readjustments to meet the demands of national defense. 

As early as January 19, 1938, a Boston College unit of the 
United States Marine Corps Reserve Fleet was inaugurated at 
the Boston Navy Yard.^ Colonel William M. Marshall, U.S.M.C., 
had visited the college on the third of the previous November 
to address the students on the requirements and advantages of 
enlistment in the Second Battalion, Marine Corps Reserve. 
Members of this unit were promised the same training given the 
regular marines, and during their four-year enlistment would be 
required to drill only once a week, for which they would be paid. 
On successful completion of the course, which would include 
annual periods of field training during the summer months, they 
would be commissioned second lieutenants in the corps. 

The Boston College "Company D" which resulted from this 
appeal was said to be the first college unit in the country. This 
group, under Lieutenant K. L. Moses, U.S.M.C., was composed 
of twenty young men from the college who drilled faithfully 
throughout the spring of 1938 and attended the Marine Corps 
camp at Quantico, Virginia, which opened June 10 of that 
year.2 The following year, the number of Marine Reservists at 
the college rose to thirty.^ 

1 The Heights, Jan. 21, 1938; March 11, 1938. 

Ubid., Oct. 29, 1937; Nov. 4, 1937; Nov. 19, 1937; Jan. 21, 1938; 
Feb. 4, 1938. 

3 Ibid., Sept. 29, 1939. 

286 



soldiers with schoolbooks 287 

Pilot Training 

Another program sponsored by the college which was con- 
cerned with national defense was the course for civil pilot 
training. This plan, which was put into operation October 12, 
1939, in co-operation with the Civil Aeronautics Administration 
of the United States Government, was designed to provide 
qualified students with primary ground training and flight 
instruction leading to the private pilot certificate. 

The ground curriculum of the program was imparted at Bos- 
ton College, and the flight instruction was given by instructors 
of the E. W. Wiggins Airways, who were under contract to the 
government, at the Norwood Airport. Seventy -two hours of 
class were required in the ground-school subjects which included 
History of Aviation; Civil Air Regulations; Navigation; Mete- 
orology; Parachutes; Theory of Flight; Engines; Instruments, 
and Radio. These sessions took place in the late afternoon, after 
the regular college periods. Thirty-five hours of instruction in 
actual flying was provided during the course. 

The quota for the 1939 class was thirty students, but in the 
following September, the Civil Aeronautics Administration re- 
arranged the schedule to form three accelerated classes a year 
of ten pupils each. The program continued according to that 
plan until, after the graduation of the spring, 1942, class, 
military security regulations prohibited civilian aviation nearer 
than fifty miles from the coast, thereby terminating the local 
program. During the three-year period of operation, the Civflian 
Pilot Training course at Boston College graduated some ninety 
qualified pilots, almost all of whom were commissioned later in 
the army and navy air branches.* 

Father John A. Tobin, S.J., chairman of the physics department 
at Boston College, and co-ordinator of this Civilian Pilot Train- 
ing Program, demonstrated the genuinity of his own interest in 

* Details of the course were supplied through the kindness of Father John 
A. Tobin, S.J., from the records of the Civil Pilot Training Program pre- 
served at Boston College. Cf. also: The Heights, Oct. 20, 1939; Sept. 27, 
1940; Oct. 10, 1941; The Boston Globe, Sept. 22, 1939; The Boston Herald, 
Sept. 23, 1939. 



288 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

aviation by taking the flight training himself and securing his 
pilot's license. 

The Defense Training Program 
A third defense project undertaken by the college during the 
prewar period was the offering, at the government's expense, of 
special training to meet the need for skilled defense workers. 
Leading colleges in every section of the country co-operated 
with the United States Office of Education in establishing this 
program, and in the local metropolitan area, Boston College 
was one of six institutions chosen in the summer of 1941 as 
instruction centers. 

In July, 1941, Father John A. Tobin, S.J., and Professor F. 
Malcokn Gager attended the fonnative meetings of the Defense 
Training Program as representatives of the college, and on 
September 19, Professor Gager was appointed institutional 
representative by the president of Boston College and was ap- 
proved by the United States Office of Education. 

This program, known as the "Engineering, Science, and Man- 
agement Defense Training Courses,"^ offered instruction of 
college grade in a wide variety of subjects in many colleges, 
with the pupils' tuition paid by the government. To enable 
persons working during the day to attend the classes, all sessions 
were held in the evening. The response, when the classes opened 
on October 1, 1941, was instantaneous; the quota number of 
students allowed Boston College was filled long in advance of 
the first lecture, and the following semester, instead of the 
original two courses, Boston College was authorized to offer 
nine. In 1942, the courses were arranged in three sessions, which 
opened respectively on February 1, July 1, and October 1, a 
schedule which was followed for the duration of the war. The 
instructors were drawn from the Departments of Mathematics, 
Physics, and Chemistry, and from the College of Business Ad- 
ministration. In February, 1944, Dr. Frederick J. Guerin of the 

5 The portion of the title "... Defense Training Courses" was changed 
to " . . . War Training Courses" after the outbreak of hostiHties. 



SOLDIERS WITH SCHOOLBOOKS 289 

Chemistry Department became institutional representative. It 
was estimated that at Boston College over one thousand persons 
availed themselves of the opportunities which the program 
oflFered.^ 

In the spring of 1940, a campaign to secure members for the 
naval reserve was opened at Boston College which secured fifty 
enlistments by the latter part of September. The students who 
became reservists on this plan were to be permitted, in the 
normal course of events, to finish college before being called 
to start training in the Officers' School.^ With the establishment 
of the draft in mid-October, however, it appeared that these 
students might face immediate mobilization. They received 
orders to stand by for activation, but the actual mobilization 
did not take place.® 

The Draft 

The Selective Training and Service Act, constituting the first 
peacetime conscription in the history of the nation, was passed 
by Congress September 14, 1940, and was made law by the 
President's signature two days later. Under this legislation, which 
made men from twenty-one to thirty-six liable for military train- 
ing, a first registration was ordered for October 16, 1940, and 
a lottery to determine the order of call, for October 29, 1940. 

Since only a relatively small percentage of college students 
were over twenty-one, and since draft boards were inclined, in 
the period before the war, to grant deferments to coUege stu- 
dents to permit them to finish their course, this act did not at 
once cause great concern to college administrators. 

Various branches of the armed forces continued, meanwhile, 
to present attractive opportunities leading to commissions to 
those students who would enlist on a deferred basis. Later, 
enough requests for advice in matters of draft deferment were 

^ This account of the Defense Training Program is based upon records 
preserved in the Boston College Engineering, Science, and Management 
War Training Courses office. Chemistry Department. 

7 The Heights, Sept. 27, 1940. 

8 Ibid., Oct. 18, 1940. 



290 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

received by the Boston College authorities to cause them to 
established an organized method of counseling the students. This 
system was centered about a faculty board composed of Father 
John A. O'Brien, S.J., Dr. Harry Doyle, and Professor Fred Bryan, 
who were appointed by Father John J. Long, S.J., the dean of the 
College of Arts and Sciences, early in May, 1941, for the purpose 
of aiding students in preparing statements of information for 
their local draft boards. At the same time the attention of the 
students was drawn to the college's Placement Bureau, directed 
by George Donaldson, which was equipped to give fuU informa- 
tion on the various officer-training opportunities, and which 
acted as a hason oflBce between the recruiting services and the 
student body. Both the Counseling Board and the Placement 
Bureau had representatives available for student conferences 
every day of the school week, with the aim of making sure that 
the individual student would be placed where he would be of 
greatest service to his country, whether that were in some 
particular branch of the armed forces, in a certain position in 
the ranks of a vital industry, or at his college desk. This voluntary 
service on the part of the college was accorded gratifying praise 
from various draft boards in the vicinity, and from the several 
recruiting officers who were in contact with Boston College 
students. An unofficial estimate made shortly after the opening 
of school in the faU of 1941 indicated that of the 145 students 
called for examination by their draft boards since the beginning 
of the Selective Service process, fifty-three had been deferred.® 

The War Changes Curricula 
The entry of the United States into the war postponed indefi- 
nitely any effort at the normal conduct of college activities. 
Before the initial shock of the Pearl Harbor attack had a chance 
to abate, Boston experienced a false air-raid alarm on the 
afternoon of December 9. The circumstances giving rise to this 

8 The account of activities on this page and throughout the remainder of 
the chapter is based on information derived from the OfiBcial College Diary, 
preserved in the office of the dean of the College of Arts and Sciences. 



SOLDIERS WITH SCHOOLBOOKS 291 

alert have never been explained, but the occasion itself will 
remain long in the memory of Bostonians. 

On December 10, Father Murphy, the president, and the deans 
of the various divisions, addressed an assembly of the students 
on the seriousness of the national situation, and cautioned them 
to remain calm, thoughtful, and prayerful until the situation 
would clear and they would know best how to serve their 
country. Five days later, the college celebrated Bill of Rights 
Day with a solemn blessing of the national colors on Alumni 
Field that afternoon. At the same time, it was announced that 
the curricula and semesters of the entire college system would 
be accelerated to enable those students who were soon to be 
called to service to finish as much as possible of their college 
course. The Christmas vacation period would not be altered, 
but the time usually allotted to the mid-year examinations would 
be substantially curtailed. 

Just before Christmas, a letter v/as sent to the parents of all 
juniors and seniors in the college explaining to them the proposal 
which oflScials of the United States Navy were making to college 
men. By this so-called "V-7" offer, the navy planned to accept 
7000 college juniors and 7000 college seniors on an immediate 
enlistment which would permit them to finish their college 
course before being activated for specialized ofiicer training. 
The quota for the Boston area in this first group was 200 of each 
class. The plan was an attractive one, and received the whole- 
hearted endorsement of the Boston College authorities, with 
the result that on December 29, Father John J. Long, S.J., the 
dean of the College of Arts and Sciences, reported that his ofiice 
was deluged with acceptances. In the beginning, official college 
transcripts of the students' records were not required by the 
navy, but the regulation was soon changed, and the registrar's 
oflSce staff was obliged to work evenings in the preparation of as 
many as sixty multiple transcripts a day. 

When the student body returned to class on January 5, 1942, 
new courses to meet service requirements were made available; 
these included freshman Mathematics; sophomore Mathematics; 



292 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

Navigation, and Morse Code, which were arranged for periods 
that would not conflict with other scheduled classes, thereby 
permitting their election as "extra courses" by any student in 
the college. 

A few days later, the presidents of Holy Cross and Boston Col- 
lege, Fathers Joseph R. N. Maxwell, S.J., and William J. Murphy, 
S.J., and the deans of both colleges met with the Jesuit Provin- 
cial, Father James H. Dolan, S.J., and the Provincial Prefect of 
Studies, Father Arthur J. Sheehan, S.J., to discuss the changes in 
curricula and schedules made necessary by the war. As an out- 
come of this meeting, an accelerated program affecting the entire 
college course was approved by the oflBcials of both colleges 
and went into effect with the opening of the second semester, 
January 12, 1942. 

Early in January, an up-to-date listing of the various oppor- 
tunities in military hfe available to Boston College men was 
issued through the co-operation of the dean's office, and the 
Placement Bureau, and copies of the document were placed in 
the hands of all faculty advisers. 

On January 14, 1942, a faculty morale committee was formed 
which, from that time on, provided lectures on such topics as 
the causes of the war; the Chiistian ethics of war; the story of 
democratic achievement; and the elements that have made our 
country great. In addition to the faculty speakers, a number of 
students were engaged throughout the spring term in addressing 
groups in the vicinity of Boston on similar topics. 

A noteworthy undertaking sponsored by this combined faculty 
and student morale committee was the Day of Reflection, held 
on February 1, 1942, at the college, which was voluntarily at- 
tended by over one hundred students. The period began with 
Mass at ten o'clock in the morning and closed with Benediction 
of the Blessed Sacrament at 3:45 in the afternoon. The talks were 
given by Father Francis V. Sullivan, S.J., formerly director of 
athletics at the college. 

On February 16, 1942, 350 of the students registered under 



SOLDIERS WITH SCHOOLBOOKS 293 

the recently revised draft law which lowered the military age 
to twenty. The registration of eighteen-year-olds took place 
after further amendment of the law on June 30, 1942. 

Enlistments on a deferred basis in the United States Navy 
Reserve continued briskly through the spring and into the 
summer of 1942. The college, co-operating with the government, 
arranged for a navy indoctrination course to be conducted on the 
campus for the benefit of the reservists. The lectures were de- 
livered by navy officers attached to the Causeway Street 
headquarters. 

Meanwhile, the army took steps to institute a program similar 
to the navy's to obtain reserve officer candidates on a deferred 
basis. On May 18, 1942, the president of Boston College was 
requested to participate in a program for the preinduction 
training of students in the Army Enlisted Reserve Corps, and 
to co-operate in an enlistment campaign for this branch. Father 
Murphy nominated Father John A. Tobin, S.J., as army faculty 
adviser, and this selection was approved in Washington. Shortly 
after this, a quota of 509 students from Boston College was an- 
nounced and enlistments were begun. The drive was successful, 
but on July 8, 1942, the officer-candidate recruiting efforts of 
all branches of the armed services were united into a joint 
procurement program, and when this went into effect. Father 
Stephen A. Mulcahy, S.J., dean of the College of Arts and 
Sciences, was appointed armed forces representative. 

The winter semester, which opened November 2, 1942, pro- 
vided several new courses to meet additional war demands; 
among these were Mapping, Meteorology, Surveying, and 
Physics for freshmen. 

On November 16, 1942, a spectacular mass induction of forty- 
seven students into the V-1 and V-7 classes of the navy was held 
in the auditorium in the presence of college and naval officials. 
Immediately following this, Father Murphy and his distinguished 
guests visited the redecorated Undergraduate Commons Room, 
and there the rector blessed the large honor roll containing the 



294 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

names of Boston College men in the service.^" This ceremony 
signalized the formal opening of both the Undergraduate Com- 
mons and the Senior Commons. Later, in honor of Commander 
John J. Shea, U.S.N., of the Boston College class of 1918, who 
lost his life when the United States Carrier Wasp was sunk by 
enemy action, a large portrait of the hero was placed in the 
Undergraduate Room. 

On December 5, 1942, enlistments in the reserve were closed, 
and it was announced that henceforth oflBcer-candidate material 
would be drawn from the enlisted personnel obtained through 
the ordinary operation of the draft. About three weeks later, 
on December 24, all members of the Army Enhsted Reserve 
Corps were notified that they would be called to active duty on 
the completion of the semester ending after December 31, 1942. 
In order that the freshman reservists at Boston College might 
secure the maximum benefit provided by that directive, the 
opening of their new term was advanced to December 30. 

On December 29, a departure ceremony was held for the 
twenty-one Arts seniors, and the seven Business College seniors 
who had been called to active service with the marine corps. 
Mass for these new soldiers was celebrated by the dean, and 
each departing student was enrolled in the Miraculous Medal 
by Father Murphy. 

The freshman class entering in February, 1943, was admitted 
on the basis of a new wartime schedule which was planned to 
permit a student to finish his entire college course in two years' 
time, by curtailments already in practice and by the omission 
of the customary vacation periods. The new curriculum was to 
stress scientific subjects of immediate value in various branches 
of the armed services, but would retain a minimal foundation 
of the cultural subjects considered of high value, either in 
militaiy or civilian life. 

Since the "then-current semester" mentioned in the War 

^0 The Undergraduate and Senior Commons Rooms were instituted in 
the spring of 1941 by Father John J. Long, S.J., dean of the College of 
Arts and Sciences. They were redecorated under the direction of Father 
Michael G. Pierce, S.J., dean of freshmen, in the fall of 1942. 



SOLDIERS WITH SCHOOLBOOKS 295 

Department communication of December concerning activation 
was scheduled to close on February 28, the 250 students affected 
by the order unofficially expected a request to report to Fort 
Devens on March 1. However, after a lengthy period of un- 
certainty, they received instructions making March 29 the date 
of their activation. Exempted from this call were freshmen 
(since their semester was not yet completed); Premedical stu- 
dents; and Physics, Chemistry, and Mathematics majors, whose 
call was deferred until the end of the spring semester. 

The accelerated schedule permitted the seniors in the class 
of 1943 to finish three months earlier than usual; thus, in the 
first mid-winter commencement in the institution's history, 247 
Arts seniors and fifty Business seniors were graduated at cere- 
monies held in the Immaculate Conception Church, Harrison 
Avenue, on Sunday, February 28, 1943. 

The Army Proposes a Program 
In mid-March, the War Department announced a plan known 
as the "Army Specialized Training Program" which proposed 
to provide technicians and specialists for the army. Those 
selected for this program would study, at government expense, 
at colleges and universities in fields determined largely by their 
own qualifications. They would be soldiers on active duty, in 
uniform, under military discipline, and on regular army pay. 
The curricula varied in length from one to eight twelve-week 
terms, through which the successful trainee would advance 
uninterruptedly to the completion of his training, subject, of 
course, to call for other active duty if the military situation so 
demanded. 

By means of special qualifying tests, held locally at Boston 
College on April 2, 1943, it was made possible for civilians from 
seventeen to twenty-two years of age to be designated in ad- 
vance for special consideration for the Army Specialized Train- 
ing Program. Such individuals, if successful in the examination, 
would receive a certificate to be presented after induction or 
voluntary enlistment and, upon completion of their thirteen 



296 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

weeks of basic military training, they would be eligible for 
selection to pursue the specialized training program. To young 
men approaching the draft age, this program seemed to hold the 
only opportunity then open by which they might ultimately 
qualify for a commission. For this reason, over two hundred 
Boston College students and high school seniors from local 
schools presented themselves at the Tower Building for the 
qualifying examinations. 

Since the army was to need the facilities of hundreds of 
colleges throughout the country for this training program, Father 
Murphy immediately oflFered to the War Department the staff 
and physical equipment of Boston College, if the government 
desired it as a training center. Negotiations were opened in the 
spring and were continued through the early summer until they 
were teraiinated late in June with a series of inspections of the 
college facilities by military groups, and finally the delivery, on 
July 5, of the War Department's Letter of Intent. With this 
official designation of Boston College as one of the institutions 
selected as a center of training, came the appointment of Father 
Stephen A. Mulcahy, S.J., as local co-ordinator of the program. 
On July 7, the newly appointed commandant of the post, Major 
John R. Canavan, U.S.A., visited the Heights and took lunch 
with the Jesuit Community. 

Under the arrangements determined on, the Jesuit Fathers 
would vacate St. Mary's Hall and take up residence, in small 
groups, in O'Connell Hall, the Museum, and in the four dwelling 
houses off the campus which were owned by the college. A 
central kitchen and dining room for the faculty would be built 
in the basement of the Tower Building. St. Mary's Hall, mean- 
while, would be re-equipped as a barracks to accommodate over 
four hundred soldiers. 

On Monday, July 12, 1943, the moving of Jesuit faculty's 
personal effects was begun. All that week and through part of 
the next, a number of large moving vans were engaged in dis- 
tributing the contents of St. Mary's Hall among the outlying 
houses. As soon as the rooms were cleared, the soldiers' two-tier 



SOLDIERS WITH SCHOOLBOOKS 297 

bunks, plain tables, chairs, and study lamps were brought in, 
and mess-hall equipment was installed. The majority of the 
individual living rooms were arranged to accommodate four 
soldiers, with an occasional larger room providing space for 
six. The faculty dining room and the faculty recreation room 
were converted into mess halls, in which the meals were pre- 
pared and served by Howard Johnson, Incorporated, a restau- 
rateur approved by the army. Since only about two hundred men 
could be accomodated in the mess halls at one time, meals were 
served at successive intervals. The task of installing the furnish- 
ings and of maintaining and cleaning the quarters after the 
army had taken charge was done by civilian workmen hired by 
the college. 

Marching to Class 

The soldiers began arriving on July 25, and the influx continued 
for several days. Among them were natives of thirty-seven 
states; they represented army posts in every part of the country 
and were drawn from every branch of the service. The two 
qualifications which these young men had in common were 
intelligence above the average, and a record which indicated 
that they could profit by academic instruction. 

On the 27 of July, the first general assembly of "Army Special- 
ized Training Unit Number 1189" was called by Major Canavan 
at which the soldiers were welcomed by the college authorities 
and their new duties explained to them. The first task con- 
fronting them was to be interviewed by the members of the 
college's four civilian boards, which would classify them for 
homogeneous grouping, and assign them to the proper "term" 
of work. This processing of the men was carried on until the 
opening of classes on August 9. In the meantime, refresher 
courses in the subjects to be studied by the soldiers were opened 
as a voluntary service of the Boston College faculty to enable 
the men who had been away from books and classrooms for 
some time to take up their classwork without a feeling of 
disadvantage. 



298 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

Although the original quota designated for Boston College 
was 425 soldiers, 432 were present for the opening of classes. 
Of these, 132 were in the Language and Foreign Area group, 
which studied conversational language, geography, and customs 
of certain countries; and 300 in Basic Engineering, which stressed 
the study of mathematics. This total was the highest ever 
reached by the program during its stay at the Heights; monthly 
examinations, and the attendant dropping of students who failed 
caused the numbers to diminish regularly; some replacements 
were received, but their number never equalled those "sep- 
arated" from the course. 

The first 12-week term for the Army Specialized Training 
Unit was finished on October 30, and the soldiers were granted 
a one-week furlough before commencing the work of the next 
semester. During November, the unit was visited by Colonel 
Morton Smith, military director of the program for the First 
Corps Area, General Perry Miles, commander of the First Corps 
Area, and Dr. Henry W. Holmes, civihan educational co- 
ordinator of the program. 

As Christmas approached, letters were sent by the college 
authorities to the parents of all the student soldiers, which, 
besides the conventional greetings, assured those families which 
could not enjoy the company of their soldier on Christmas be- 
cause of great distance, that everything would be done to make 
the soldier's holiday season a happy one. Entertainments were 
provided on week ends at intervals during the winter, and a 
number of special awards for proficiency in studies took the form 
of evening liberties which would permit the fortunate soldier 
to visit friends or attend theaters in Boston. 

The Termination of the Army Program 
On the 7 of February, 1944, twenty-two men were called 
from the Language and Foreign Area group to active duty, 
presumably in Italy. This left only 97 men in that section, and 
206 in Basic Engineering. 

Eleven days later, the faculty, military staflF, and student 



SOLDIERS WITH SCHOOLBOOKS 299 

body were astounded to learn unoflBcially by radio broadcast 
that the Army Specialized Training Program was to be termi- 
nated by April 1. Army officials in Boston had not been informed 
of this intention and were no less bewildered than the college 
personnel. The situation remained indefinite until March 7, at 
which time those colleges which were finishing a third term of 
the program were advised that their "cycle" was canceled. Even 
then, no information was forthcoming concerning institutions, 
like Boston CoUege, which belonged to "Cycle 11." 

On March 13, however, official notice was received suspending 
immediately classes in Basic Engineering, and on March 16, a 
departure ceremony was held for this group at which addresses 
of farewell and Godspeed were delivered by Father Murphy, 
Father Mulcahy, and Major Canavan. On March 17, the last 
of the "Engineers" left, and on the same day the coUege was 
notified of the termination of the Language and Foreign Area 
program. Classes were suspended at once, and on the following 
day, the soldiers of that branch were given a three-day leave. 
The Foreign Area men were moved out on March 22 and, with 
the exception of a detail of four soldiers left to police the build- 
ing, the army's stay at University Heights was at an end. 

The sudden cancellation of the program and the transfer of 
the men into infantry regiments was not understood by the 
general public at the time, nor, for reasons of security, could 
army officials have published the reasons. Later, however, it 
became evident that all available man power was urgently 
needed to prepare for the "D-Day" invasion of the Continent in 
June, and that the sources, including the draft, which had been 
relied on to supply sufficient infantry troops, had not satisfied 
the need. High military authorities felt that in such a situation, 
the engagement of hundreds of thousands of young, trained 
troops in work from which benefit could be anticipated only on 
a long-term basis could not be justified. Hence, with reluctance, 
they terminated the promising Army Training Program within 
months of its inception. 

The contract which the army had signed with the Boston 



300 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

College authorities ran until June 30, 1944, and the rental for 
facilities was paid accordingly. One result of this arrangement 
was that St. Mary's Hall remained vacant until summer before 
being repainted and reoccupied by the Jesuit community. 

Shallow Water 

Meanwhile, the civilian students continued to feel the effects 
of the war in many ways. In June, 1943, the sophomore and 
junior members of the Naval and Marine Reserves were notified 
that they would be called to active duty on July 1, and freshman 
members would be summoned at the end of the semester; army 
reservists who had not been previously called ( Premedical, Engi- 
neering, and Science majors) were also to report for duty on 
July 1, making a grand total of some 381 Boston College men 
affected. 

An emergency summer schedule was drawn up for seniors to 
provide them with forty-five hours of each philosophy course, 
and thirty hours of religion, in the period from June 28 to July 
31, to make sure that they would have had the main portion of 
their senior matter even if they were called out before graduation 
in November. In September, the wisdom of this plan was demon- 
strated when fourteen senior marine reservists, and forty V-7 
naval reservists were activated, in addition to fifteen sophomore 
army reservists. 

On November 28, commencement exercises were held at which 
seventy-three graduated, of whom nineteen V-7 Seniors were 
ordered to report immediately after graduation. The problems 
which confronted the college administration with regard to the 
civilian student body can be exemplified by an examination of 
the records for the period following the civilian registration of 
February 8, 1944. On that day, the Arts and Science course had 
an enrollment of 306; less than three weeks later, that figure 
had dropped to 266, and on April 27, it was down to 236 — a 
loss of seventy students in a little over two months. 














i 4 



o 
o 

o 

C/5 



3 



O 
tJD 






CD 
-i-i 



0^ 




The Lawrence farmhouse which stood where the 
college buildings now stand 



y 






PI^^RSi^PP™™™^^^5Bte^^^^^^j*w***"'^ '•'^ 


jft;,,-*^^* . ■ 4«-*v 


■_— — —■ ^ 


T'^wW: SSMS "5"*- ^;,!: ■ SSiwwatKS*- "MB.?':*!/ ■ 







The site of Boston College about 1870. The farm land 

was owned by Amos A. Lawrence, father of the 

Episcopal bishop of Boston, William Lawrence 



SOLDIERS WITH SCHOOLBOOKS 301 

War Fund and Adjustments 

Every executive recognizes that in the operation of a college 
there is a threshold or minimum level below which expenses 
cannot be lowered and have the institution function. When it 
became evident at Boston College that tuition fees from a greatly 
reduced student body could no longer meet that minimum level, 
the trustees decided early in January, 1944, to inaugurate a 
Boston College War Fund Drive among the alumni, friends of 
the college, and businessmen of New England, which would 
enable the college to continue, without abandoning any of its 
services, through the straitened period of the war. A number 
of prominent business and professional men volunteered to act 
as a committee, under Jeremiah Mahoney as chairman, to secure 
a fund of $250,000. His Eminence, Cardinal O'Connell, began the 
drive on January 25 with a donation of $5,000, and the appeal 
progressed so well that the committee was able to announce on 
September 18 that the goal had been achieved. Although this 
terminated the formal aspect of the drive, contributions con- 
tinued to be received at the college during the next two months 
until the amount reached $277,000. 

On April 22, 1944, Boston College's most distinguished 
alumnus, William Cardinal O'Connell, died in his 85th year, and 
the college shared in the grief and sense of loss experienced by 
the entire community. After the death of the Cardinal, another 
son of Boston College, the Most Reverend Richard J. Cushing, 
D.D., Coadjutor Bishop of Boston, was elected administrator of 
the archdiocese and the universal satisfaction which was felt at 
this announcement was increased when, on September 28, 1944, 
he was named to be the next Archbishop of Boston. His solemn 
installation took place at the Cathedral of the Holy Cross on 
November 8, 1944, in the presence of Archbishop Amleto Gio- 
vanni Cicognani, Apostolic Delegate to the United States. 

Although the new Archbishop did not graduate from Boston 
College, he entered the coUege from Boston College High School 
in September, 1913, as a member of the first freshman group to 



302 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

attend class at the Heights, and remained until the end of his 
sophomore year, when he entered St. John's Ecclesiastical Semi- 
nary in Brighton, Massachusetts, to commence his studies for 
the priesthood. He was ordained on May 26, 1921, and after a 
long and meritorious service as archdiocesan director of the 
Society for the Propagation of the Faith, he was consecrated 
Titular Bishop of Mela on June 28, 1939, becoming auxiliary to 
the Cardinal Archbishop of Boston. 

The opening of the fall term at the college on August 21, 1944, 
coincided with the return of the faculty to St. Mary's Hall. The 
elder members of the Jesuit community had found the long 
walks several times a day between their temporary residence 
and the college buildings a trying experience, and were grateful 
when circumstances pennitted them to resume living once more 
in St. Mary's Hall where dining and chapel facilities were cen- 
tralized, and where classrooms were within a few steps. 

On September 8, an unprecedented innovation took place on 
the Heights, when 168 Boston College High School seniors took 
up temporary quarters in one section of the Tower Building. This 
transfer was caused by a high school enrollment which exceeded 
accommodations at James Street, and obliged the high school 
authorities to make some immediate arrangement elsewhere. 
Since the military call for men of college age had left many of 
the classrooms at the Heights unused, Father Murphy proflFered 
the high school the loan of the needed classroom space for the 
scholastic year 1944-1945. The high school students were under 
the direction of their own prefect of studies. Father Joseph E. 
McGrady, S.J., and were taught by two experienced high school 
teachers, aided by several of the college instructors whose sched- 
ules permitted the additional work. One side of the Tower Build- 
ing, on the second and third floors, was assigned to the high 
school classes, and their time schedule was so arranged that there 
was no conflict with the college students in the use of recrea- 
tional or lunchroom facilities. The occupancy terminated in 
June, 1945. 



soldiers with schoolbooks 303 

Programs for Veterans 

An aspect of educational service which received marked atten- 
tion during 1944, and was destined to become one of the most 
important functions of the college during the period of readjust- 
ment was the guidance and education of war veterans. As early 
as March 20, 1944, a meeting of departmental directors was held 
at Boston College to investigate the educational needs of re- 
turned veterans, and to see what provision for these men could 
be made at Boston College. On March 31, Frederick Shea of the 
Veteran's Administration in Boston visited Father Murphy to 
discuss the possibilities of special educational courses for the 
veterans. Some ex-soldiers had already returned to Boston Col- 
lege under government provision, but their numbers as yet did 
not justify special classes. 

With the opening of the fall term in 1944, however, Father 
Michael G. Pierce, S.J., dean of freshmen in the College of Arts 
and Sciences, proposed a special program of prematriculation 
courses which was designed to review rapidly the matter pre- 
requisite to freshman year. In this manner, the returning soldier 
might be equipped with a refreshed knowledge of the studies 
in which he would be forced to compete, during his regular 
college course, with the younger civilian student who had never 
been away from his academic sun'oundings, or, in case some of 
the soldier's high school credits were lacking, to make up the 
deficiency. The proposal received the sanction of Father Murphy 
and the enthusiastic approval of the officials of the Veterans' 
Administration. Nine veterans elected to follow this course for 
the semester which opened in September, 1944, with the number 
rising for each session, until 160 were registered for the final 
course in June, 1946. The courses oflFered were in mathematics, 
history, English, religion, and Latin, and required about four 
months for completion. Publication of the plan drew the inter- 
ested attention of educators at other institutions, and apparently 
resulted in similar programs being introduced elsewhere. 

On November 22, 1944, a memorial Mass for the 75 war dead 



304 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

of the college was celebrated in the presence of tlie heroes' rela- 
tives and the entire student body. The impressive ceremony was 
repeated again a year later, on November 21, 1945, at which 
time the number of dead had risen to 134. A Boston College 
Memorial Certificate, bearing the name of the deceased service- 
man, and pledging the prayerful remembrance of the faculty and 
students of the college, had been forwarded to each bereaved 
family by Father Michael G. Pierce, S.J., dean of freshmen. This 
certificate was of similar design to the one sent by Father Pierce 
to the family of every student and alumnus upon his entry into 
the service. 

The veterans returning to the Heights found a full-time guid- 
ance clinic available to them. This facility, in operation since 
1943, was conducted by Father James F. Moynihan, S.J., who 
employed it for a time as an adjunct to the Army Specialized 
Training Program at the college. Father Moynihan and Father 
David R. Dunigan, S.J., were appointed senior consultant ap- 
praisers on the staflF of the Veterans' Administration , Guidance 
Center at Harvard University shortly after that institution was 
organized by the government with the co-operation of the col- 
leges and universities of the Greater Boston area on February 
17, 1945. 

In the spring of 1945, the general enrollment at the college 
for all departments began an increase which soon passed the 
460 mark, the highest it had been since the main body of reserv- 
ists were withdrawn two years previously. 

Distinctions and Changes 
The last year of the war witnessed the raising of two more 
alumni of Boston College to the episcopacy. The Most Reverend 
Edward F. Ryan, D.D., Boston College class of 1901, was conse- 
crated Bishop of Burlington, Vermont, on January 3, and the 
Most Reverend Louis F. Kelleher, D.D., of the class of 1910, was 
consecrated Titular Bishop of Thenae, and Auxiliary Bishop of 
Boston on June 8, 1945. The college paid respect to its distin- 
guished sons by special convocations called on January 29, in 



SOLDIERS WITH SCHOOLBOOKS 305 

honor of Archbishop Gushing and Bishop Ryan, and on October 
18 in honor of Bishop Kelleher. The Archbishop was already the 
recipient of an honorary degree from Boston College (1939), 
hence was presented on this occasion with an illuminated scroll 
bearing a spiritual bouquet from the faculty and students; the 
degree of doctor of letters was conferred upon Bishop Ryan, 
and that of doctor of laws upon Bishop Kelleher. 

In the summer of 1945 special arrangements were made by 
the trustees of Boston College to bestow the honorary degree 
of doctor of naval science upon Vice-Admiral George D. Murray, 
U.S.N., commander of the air forces of the Pacific fleet. The de- 
gree was conferred in absentia June 13, during the usual com- 
mencement exercises held on the campus, then, on July 1, half 
a world away. Bishop James J. Sweeney of Honolulu read the 
citation and presented the degree to the Vice-Admiral at a cere- 
mony following a pontifical field mass which was attended by 
thousands at the Naval Air Station, Honolulu, Hawaii. The de- 
tails of the occasion were administered by a large number of 
Boston College alumni who were serving in the navy in that area. 

In the summer of 1945, Father Edward J. Keating, S.J., dean of 
Boston College Intown, announced that a course leading to the 
degree of bachelor of science in Business Administration with a 
major in Marketing would be offered at the Intown Division be- 
ginning in September of that year. This course was distinct from 
a similar series of courses offered at the College of Business 
Administration on the Heights, and required six years of evening 
attendance to complete. 

Another innovation scheduled by the college at that time was 
an Institute of Adult Education at the Intown Center, 126 New- 
bury Street, Boston, to be opened in September, 1945, under the 
direction of Father James L. Burke, S.J. Three sessions a year 
were formed during the fall, winter, and spring seasons, each 
offering a choice of six or more lecture-discussion courses in the 
fields of Religion, Philosophy, Literature, and Public Affairs. No 
academic requirements were established for these programs, nor 
was academic credit given. 



306 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

The oflRcial announcement of these new undertakings consti- 
tuted the final major act in Father Murphy's term as president. 
On August 19, only five days after the abrupt end of the war with 
Japan, Father Murphy's six-year tenure of office was automati- 
cally terminated according to Jesuit custom, and the problem of 
finding answers to the many questions connected with the col- 
lege's postwar readjustment devolved on his successor, the 
Reverend William Lane Keleher, S.J., twentieth president of 
Boston College. 

Father Keleher was born January 27, 1906, in Woburn, Massa- 
chusetts. After attending Boston College High School, he gradu- 
ated from Holy Cross College in the class of 1926, and on Sept- 
ember 7 of the same year entered the Society of Jesus at 
Shadowbrook, Lenox, Massachusetts. Upon the completion of the 
usual course of studies there and at Weston College, he was 
appointed a teaching fellow in chemistry at Holy Cross College 
in 1932, and received his master's degree in chemistry from that 
institution the following June. He returned to Weston for his 
theological studies in 1934, and was ordained a priest in June, 
1937, by the Most Reverend Thomas A. Emmett, S.J., D.D., Vicar 
Apostolic of Jamaica. At the termination of his theological 
studies, he was appointed assistant to the Provincial of the New 
England Province of the Society of Jesus in 1939, and served in 
that capacity for three years. In 1942 he was named to the im- 
portant post of master of novices at the Jesuit Novitiate, Shadow- 
brook, Lenox, Massachusetts, where he remained until he was 
called to take over the direction of Boston College. 

The new president was pleased and rather surprised when 
the first registration of his regime, in September, 1945, resulted 
in an enrollment of 225 Arts and Sciences freshmen; 50 Business 
freshmen, and almost 60 in the Veterans' Matriculation Course, 
which brought the total of undergraduates on the campus to 
some 650. With these indications of unexpectedly prompt re- 
covery from war conditions in evidence, Father Keleher at once 
dedicated himself to the methodical preparation for a period 



SOLDIERS WITH SCHOOLBOOKS 307 

which even the most conservative friends of the college foresaw 
as one of extraordinary expansion. 

A building fund drive among the alumni and friends of the 
college was inaugurated in the spring of 1946 under the direction 
of Father Francis V. Sullivan, S.J. The Most Reverend Richard 
J. Gushing, D.D., Archbishop of Boston, a loyal alumnus of the 
college, led the list of donors with a gift of $50,000. Although 
the drive was not fully "public," over $300,000 was realized in 
donations and pledges before the turn of the new year. The 
immediate goal of the drive was the erection of a building for 
the rapidly growing College of Business Administration, and, 
also, a permanent gymnasium which would provide a recrea- 
tional center for the enlarged student body during inclement 
weather, and a practice arena for winter sports. 

While these long-term plans were being laid, temporary ar- 
rangements were being made to take care of the record-breaking 
numbers of students which were applying for admission to the 
college during the early months of 1946. Since many of these 
qualified applicants were veterans from distant points who, be- 
cause of the postwar housing shortage, were unable to secure 
boarding accommodations in Boston or Newton, the college 
authorities felt obliged to depart from the institution's day-school 
policy, and to provide these men with dormitory facilities of 
some nature as soon as the critical shortage of building materials 
would permit. Fortunately, in the spring of 1946, the government 
declared a number of surplus barracks and other buildings from 
discontinued military posts available to educational institutions 
serving student veterans, and the college was able to secure 
through the Federal Public Housing Authority three two-story 
wooden dormitory buildings which were erected on Freshman 
Field, where the college was building a temporary one-story, 
wooden structure, during the summer of 1946. 

To provide dining facilities for the 131 boarding students 
housed in the new quarters, an attractive dining room and a 
modern, completely equipped kitchen and a bakery were in- 
stalled in the basement of the Tower Building. At the same time. 



308 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

the students' cafeterias in the Tower Building and in O'Connell 
Hall were enlarged and re-equipped to serve larger numbers of 
non-boarders during the busy hours of the day. 

At the close of a four-month summer session in 1946, the 
unique "Veterans' Matriculation Course," which had prepared 
five groups of applicants for freshman class, was discontinued. 
It was felt by the college authorities that the purpose of the 
course had been accomplished, and it would not be needed for 
the future since a number of special institutions were now open 
in the Boston area to provide the veterans with this type of 
assistance. The decision to terminate the course was hastened 
by the pressure for room for the increasing freshman and upper 
classes, particularly since the numbers in the matriculation course 
itself had grown from nine in the first session to 160 in the final 
one. 

During the summer, Father Michael G. Pierce, S.J., was trans- 
ferred from his post as fresliman dean to a special assignment 
as assistant to the president, where, among other duties, 
he made arrangements with the various government agencies for 
the purchase of surplus war materials. He was successful in ob- 
taining a quantity of much-needed school and laboratory equip- 
ment which enabled the college to receive additional classes of 
incoming veterans. He also acquired from the government a 
large temporary recreation building which was transported and 
re-erected next to the other war buildings on Freshman Field 
during the winter of 1946-1947. This latest addition furnished 
four floors for use as offices in the front elevation, and in the 
two-story main section, an auditorium large enough to accom- 
modate three basketball courts, or a seated audience of 1600 
persons. Half of the lower floor under the gymnasium was occu- 
pied by a cafeteria, with the remaining area divided into five 
small laboratories. 

In September, 1946, the library was enriched by the presenta- 
tion of the John T. Hughes collection of books and documents 
pertaining to Ireland, made in memory of the late Mr. Hughes 



SOLDIERS WITH SCHOOLBOOKS 309 

by his sons, Thomas J. Hughes of Boston, and Edward F. Hughes 
of New York. 

Later that fall, at a special convocation of the faculty and 
students, the honorary degree of doctor of laws was conferred 
upon the Most Reverend Gerald Shaughnessy, S.M., S.T.D., 
Bishop of Seattle, an alumnus of the class of 1909. 

A series of educational broadcasts was commenced by mem- 
bers of the college staff on November 24, 1946, over Station 
WBMS in Boston. Among the programs were "Faculty Panels," 
on which questions of the day were discussed; lectures by 
faculty members, and student-activity periods. Beginning in 
February of the following year ( 1947 ) , the college participated 
in the work of the Lowell Institute Cooperative Broadcasting 
Council, through which the universities of Greater Boston and 
the Lowell Institute sought, on an extensive scale, to promote 
education by radio. 

Meanwhile, the Institute of Adult Education, under a new 
director, Father John W. Ryan, S.J., for the 1946-1947 season, 
drew capacity enrollments for many of the courses offered, and 
inaugurated a ceremony of honor for persons making a distin- 
guished contribution to the community well-being. The first 
"Annual Citation" was conferred upon Elliot Norton, the Boston 
drama critic, on January 7, 1947. 

Another innovation was the annual Candlemas Lectures on 
Christian Literature at Boston College, the first of which was 
delivered by the Reverend Alexander J. Denomy, C.S.B., of the 
Pontifical Institute of Medieval Studies, Toronto, on February 2, 
1947, in the library auditorium. It is the purpose of these 
lectures to stimulate interest and scholarly research in the field 
of Christian letters. 

The formal opening of a new university division took place in 
the same month. This was the Boston College School of Nursing, 
of which Mary A. Maher, B.S., R.N., was named dean, and 
Father Anthony G. Carroll, S.J,, regent. Quarters were opened 
at Boston College Intown on Newbury Street, and courses lead- 



310 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

ing to the Bachelor of Nursing, and Bachelor of Nursing Educa- 
tion were offered. 

The Dramatic Arts Course which had been offered during 
summer sessions for two seasons before the war, was reorganized 
and enlarged into the School of Dramatic and Expressional Arts 
by Father John L. Bonn, S.J., in the summer of 1947. This new 
school provided standard dramatic training with stage facilities 
in the new recreation hall, but in addition offered related con- 
centrations in Literature and Criticism; Debate and Panel Dis- 
cussion, and Corporate Religious Expression. 

The registration for the College of Arts and Sciences reached 
an all-time high of 2450 in February, 1947, and the enrollment 
at the College of Business Administration rose to a record 815. 
In the same year, the Law School, the Intown Division, and the 
Graduate School each had student bodies of 500, and the School 
of Social Work had enrolled 111. These figures yielded a total of 
4915 regular students, not including those in summer sessions, 
nor the 266 Jesuit students at the Lenox and Weston branches. 

Since 800 new undergraduate students were scheduled for 
admission in September (1947), and sufficient space was not 
available, the college authorities devoted considerable time 
during the winter and early spring on plans to meet the situa- 
tion. The college had purchased the Elizabethan residence at 
74 Commonwealth Avenue adjoining the Philomatheia Club on 
March 2, but after extensive investigation it was decided that 
the size and poor condition of the property made it unsuitable 
for immediate conversion to school use. Meanwhile, negotiations 
had been under way to secure from the government another 
surplus war building, and these efforts were finally successful. 
The large, two-story, wooden structure, containing twelve size- 
able rooms, was dismantled, moved and re-erected at college 
expense on the Beacon Street end of the property during the 
summer, and was ready for occupancy in September. 

Work on the project had hardly commenced, however, when, 
on June 2, other contractors moved apparatus into the area 
directly behind the Tower Building, and without even the for- 



SOLDIERS WITH SCHOOLBOOKS 311 

mality of a ground-breaking ceremony began excavations for 
the new College of Business Administration Building — the first 
permanent structure to be added to the campus in twenty years. 

The building was planned by Maginnis and Walsh, the Boston 
architects, in a simplified EngHsh collegian gothic style to harmo- 
nize with the other structures in the group. Because of the sharp 
slope of the hill where it was to be located, it was designed to 
rise only two stories in the front (i.e., on the Tower Building 
side), but four stories in the rear, providing space for eighteen 
classrooms and numerous oflBces. 

The initial work proceeded rapidly, since little blasting was 
found necessary, and the subterranean Lawrence Brook, which 
flowed under the upper corner of the football field and across the 
site of the new building was easily diverted. Delivery from the 
contractors was scheduled for September, 1948. 

The continuous task of providing adequate physical space for 
the growing institution was Father Keleher's most pressing prob- 
lem at this period. When more funds would be available and 
conditions would permit, other buildings would have to be built 
and larger staflFs assembled if the college were to meet the de- 
mands being made upon it. But there was something familiar in 
this constantly recurring pattern of difficulties to be surmounted. 
It is true that some elements had changed with the passing 
decades, but many were old. Success was now posing as many 
problems as opposition and poverty had in the early years of the 
institution's life, and the burdens which rested on Father 
Keleher were, in essence, kindred to those which bore down 
the shoulders of John McElroy when he returned from the wars 
of a century before to found a college in Boston. 



CHAPTER XXV 
THE YEARS BEYOND 



An effort has been made throughout this history to present the 
facts as objectively as possible, without attempting to establish 
preconceived verdicts or to glorify individuals. From the evi- 
dence oflFered, the reader may form his own conclusions. He will 
very properly judge, for example, that Boston College is not a 
large institution when compared with many of its sister univer- 
sities; the greatest prewar enrollment it ever enjoyed was 2654 
for the year 1938-1939.^ He will rightly observe that the college 
is not wealthy; with no foundation funds, it is obhged to depend 
exclusively upon tuition fees to meet operating expenses. He may, 
with reason, decide it is not famous. 

But the reader will realize that Boston College, apart from, or 
in spite of these considerations, has already achieved, to a degree 
never envisioned by Father McElroy or Father Fulton, the ful- 
fillment of many of its original high purposes. 

It was an institution created in a period of bigotry and in- 
tolerance to aid in dispelling prejudices; today it exists in a 
Boston which grants all men, irrespective of creed, real equality. 
It seems undeniable that Boston College's presentation of the 
Catholic position, both in theory, through the spoken and printed 
word, and in practice, through the living example of its gradu- 
ates, has contributed significantly to that desirable change. 

The Bishop who invited the Jesuits to establish Boston College, 

1 (Boston College) "Litterae Aiinuae, 1936-1938," under date Sept. 1938, 
president's ofiBce, Boston College. 

312 



THE YEAKS BEYOND 313 

and the Jesuit superiors who made sacrifices over long periods 
to guarantee the permanence of that foundation, obviously in- 
cluded among their purposes the intention that the new school 
would be a source of candidates for the priesthood and the 
religious state, so that the faithful in this area might never lack 
the sacraments or proper instruction in their religion. In the 
eighty-three years of the institution's existence, it has sent hun- 
dreds of future priests to tiie seminary, of whom thirteen have 
been raised to the episcopacy,^ and one to the cardinalate. 

The Irish and German immigrants in mid-nineteenth century 
Boston, deprived by circumstances of almost all share in the 
civic life about them, but with a yearning that their children 
and their children's children might take their place with their 
fellow citizens in the democratic administration of their own 
country, contributed beyond their means to the founding and 
support of a college which would accept their youth and prepare 
them for positions of trust and responsibility in the great organi- 
zation that is a state or city. Boston College has kept faith with 
these strong hearts. Governors, mayors, legislators, judges, public 
officials have come from the number of its alumni to justify the 
hopes that were born so long ago. 

Catholic physicians were needed in Boston who could add to 
the worthy phrases of Hippocrates the wider imphcations of 
Christian ethics. Scientists were needed who could measure 
matter skillfully, but who, with equal logic, could recognize 
values beyond the reach of their instruments. There was demand 
in Boston for teachers who could light inspiration in young 
hearts, and who could direct young eyes to the horizon. Boston 
College has been supplying these leaders in growing numbers 
for almost a century. 

When the grim call came in 1917, and again in 1941, for young 
men to protect their country, the sons of Boston College re- 
sponded promptly. Over five hundred of their number partici- 
pated in World War I, and in World War II the record was 
5052 in the service, of whom 155 were killed. In the same conflict 

2 Cf. Appendix E. 



314 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

Boston College men won 560 decorations and 40 citations.' To 
this register must be added the 17 members of the Jesuit faculty 
and the 123 other priests, graduates of Boston College, who 
served in the armed forces as chaplains. 

Unfinished Business 

The present has fulfilled the promises of the past; but what 
is to be said of the future? Boston College is now a university, 
and that status brings with it serious obligations as well as 
honors. The Catholic laity of the archdiocese regard it as a 
watchtower in the intellectual field; if that is so, a constant duty 
falls on the college staff to make sure that the tower does not 
become an ivy-covered retreat from reality. The college cannot 
be passive; it cannot be a negative entity, satisfied merely to 
criticize error. It must assume the aggressive role of the truth 
seeker; the patient role of the experimenter; the daring role of the 
pioneer. 

With the restoration of peace, the physical facilities of the 
college are once more inadequate. There is urgent necessity to 
build. The College of Business Administration, it is true, will soon 
be housed in a permanent building on the main campus; but the 
Arts College requires another classroom building; a gymnasium 
is a longfelt want which was emphasized by war conditions; and 
lastly, a large chapel to accommodate a significant portion of 
the student body merits high priority in any campus-building 
plans. 

There are other alterations due, however, which are no less 
important and which do not depend upon the generosity of 
friends. These are changes which seem destined to affect the 
attitudes of curriculum makers. The word "attitudes" is stressed, 
because the mere introduction of a course here or there, or the 
shortening or lengthening of one period within a week will not 
satisfy the demands of a trend which is apparently already 
solidly under way. That trend is toward creating an education 

3 Figures corrected to Jan. 1, 1947, as supplied by the Boston College 
Alumni Office. A list of the war dead will be found in Appendix F. 



THE YEARS BEYOND 315 

adequate to cope with a world basically widened and made more 
complicated by the natural sciences. Cultural values of certain 
basic subjects will, of course, remain, but it is becoming day by 
day more difficult to defend the old aim which professedly 
"educated for living" and disregarded the education necessary 
to make a living. 

In this connection, the institution of Business courses at Boston 
College, the increasing importance accorded the physical sci- 
ences, and the revision of the approach to modern literature are 
praiseworthy because they are signs, not of the abandonment of 
the classics which pertain to the fundamental structure of the 
Jesuit course, and have a proved value which would make their 
loss irreparable, but rather signs of a healthy, widening growth 
from the same rugged roots. 

In conclusion, it would seem that one lesson to be derived 
from reflection upon the history of Boston College would be that 
no step in the progress of the college was a "safe" step; each one 
involved risk; each one demanded courage on the part of those 
who accomplished it; each one required sacrifice to bring it to 
successful completion. Those brave, unspectacular deeds live on 
in their effects, and the mere recital of them on the printed page 
still has the power to stir the hearts of those who follow with a 
challenge to equal them with present daring. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



A. Documents 

"The Book of Minutes of the Debating Society of Boston College." Manu- 
script volume covering period from 1868 to 1895, preserved in Boston 
College Library Archives. 

"Boston College Students' Accounts." Manuscript volume covering period 
from Sept., 1879, to Feb., 1887, preserved at Boston College High School, 
Boston. 

Devitt, Reverend Edward I., S.J., "Diary." Manuscript volume covering 
period from Jan. 1, 1890, to Mar. 10, 1893, preserved in the George- 
tovwi University Archives, Washington, D. C. 

"History of the Maryland-New York Province." Manuscript from 

which the "History" was published serially in Woodstock Letters 
posthumously; contains material omitted in the printed version, George- 
town University Archives. 

Diary of the Dean, College of Arts and Sciences, Boston College, 1924 to 
date. 

Dunigan, David R., S.J., "Student Days at Holy Cross College in 1848," 
unpublished master's thesis, St. Louis University, St. Louis, 1938, 107 pp. 

Fitzpatrick, Right Reverend John B., "Memoranda of the Diocese of Bos- 
ton." Manuscript diary, part of the series begun by Bishop Benedict J. 
Fenwick under the title: "Memoirs to Serve for the Future Ecclesiastical 
History of the Diocese of Boston," and terminated under Bishop John 
J. Williams; preserved in the Boston Diocesan Archives. 

Fulton, Reverend Robert, S.J., "Diary." Manuscript covering the period from 
Jan. 28, 1876, to July 1, 1888, Georgetown University Archives. 

"Historia Domus" (Boston College). Triennial historical smnmary in 
manuscript prepared for the General of the Society of Jesus. Issues from 
1862 to 1926 (some issues missing), preserved at New York Province 
Archives of the Society of Jesus; from 1926 to date, preserved at Boston 
College. 

"Immaculate Conception Church Diary." Manuscript diary in chart form, 
with summarized history beginning 1847, and last diary entry dated 
Dec. 26, 1880. Preserved in the Maryland Province Archives of the 
Society of Jesus, Woodstock College, Woodstock, Md. 

Lamson, Daniel S. Manuscript book, no title, containing written comment 
on historical occasions at Boston College, with pertinent letters, clippings, 
and programs tipped in. Period covered: 1860 (?) to 1900 (?), pre- 
served in the Georgetown University Archives. 

317 



318 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

"Liber Continens Nomen, Etc., Promotorum ad Ordines Majores, Etc., 
1633-1852." Manuscript book niunber 350B, Maryland Province Archives 
of tlie Society of Jesus at Baltimore. 

"Library Records" (Boston College), manuscript book listing holdings and 
shelf -locations, 1880 (?), preserved in the Maryland Province Archives 
of the Society of Jesus, Woodstock College. 

"Library Report" (Boston College), for year 1883-1884. Manuscript, pre- 
served in the Maryland Province Archives of the Society of Jesus, Wood- 
stock College. 

"Litterae Annuae" (Boston College). Official yearly reports to the General 
of the Society of Jesus, 1862 to date. Issues to 1926 preserved in the 
New York Province Archives of the Society of Jesus; from 1926, in the 
New^ England Province Archives, Boston. 

McAvoy, A. J., "Father Bapst; a Sketch." Manuscript article containing 
material omitted in published version, Woodstock Letters, 17 ( 1888 ) and 
18 ( 1889); preserved in tlie Woodstock College Archives. 

McElroy, John, S.J., "Diary." Four manuscript volumes, covering period 
from Oct. 5, 1847, to Dec, 1863, with a review of the period May, 
1846, to Oct., 1847, preserved in the Woodstock College Archives. 

Meagher, Walter J., S.J., "History of the College of the Holy Cross; 1843- 
1901," unpublished doctoral dissertation, Fordham University, New York, 
1944, 149 pp. 

"Minister's Diary" (Boston College). Daybook of the administrator. Manu- 
script volumes: Dec, 1918 — Nov., 1920; Nov., 1920 — June, 1923; 
July, 1923 — Aug., 1927; Aug., 1927 — Dec, 1930, preserved in the 
Office of the Administrator, Boston College. 

"Notices, Regulations, Decision, Etc., of the Scholasticate in Boston, 1860- 
61." Manuscript notebook with Latin entries, preser\'ed in the George- 
town University Archives. 

Pelletier, W. S., "Some Historic Memoranda of the Church of the Imma- 
culate Conception." Entries prepared in chart form, dated June 14, 1885, 
manuscript, preserved in the Woodstock College Archives. 

"Philosophers' Diary." Manuscript book, 32 pages, covering the period dur- 
ing which Boston College was occupied as a scholasticate, 1860-1863. 
Preserved in the Woodstock College Archives. 

"Records of the Trustees of Boston College." Two manuscript volumes, 
preserA'ed at Boston College. 

"Register of Students 1864—1898." Manuscript volume listing each student 
as enrolled, with date, parents' names and addresses, and class assign- 
ment, Boston College Library Archives. 

Sopranis, Reverend Felix, S.J., "Memorial of Visitation." Report addressed 
to the Superiors of the Jesuit houses in the Provinces of the United 
States and Canada, dated Mar. 8, 1860, preserved in Woodstock Col- 
lege Archives. 

"A Summary of the Proceedings of the Commission appointed by Reverend 
Father Fulton, S.J., Provincial, to help towards Improving and Unifying 
the Studies in the Classes below philosophy of the Colleges of the 
Maryland-New York Province." Typescript, dated Aug. and Dec, 1885, 
preserved in Woodstock College Archives. 

"Theologians* Diary." Manuscript book, 32 pages, covering the period dur- 
ing which Boston College was occupied as a scholasticate, 1860-1863, 
preserved in the Woodstock College Archives. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 319 

Wiget, Bernadine F., "The Eliot School Case." Two manuscript notebooks; 
a personal account of the case, with transcribed letters, and tipped-in 
clippings; begun 1859, terminated in 1864, preserved in the Woodstock 
College Archives. 



B. Books 

Andrews, E. A., Latin Exercises; Adapted to Andrews and Stoddard's Latin 
Grammar, 20th ed. (Boston: Crocker and Brewster, 1860), 336 pp. 

Annual Report of the Superintendent, October, 1925, School Document No. 
9, 1925 (Boston: Boston Public Schools, 1925), 188 pp. 

Boston College Alumni Directory, 1924 (Chestnut Hill, Mass.: n.n., 1924), 
135 pp. 

Boston College Bulletin, The Law School, Announcement of the First Ses- 
sion, 1929-1930 (Chestnut Hill, Mass.: Boston College, 1929), 22 pp. 

The Boston College Library, History and Description (n.p., n.n., 1933), 
88 pp. 

Boston College, The New Library Building, University Heights, Chestnut 
Hill, Massachusetts (cover title: A Public Benefaction), printed for the 
college, 1925, 10 pp. 

Bowditch, N. I., An Argument for a Catholic Church on the Jail Lands 
(Boston: John Wilson and Son, 1853), 15 pp. 

Boyle, Esmeralda, Father John McElroy, The Irish Priest (Washington: 
n.n., 1878), 31 pp. 

Brochure of Boston College and the Young Men's Catholic Association 
(Boston: n.n., 1894), 102 pp. 

Brosnahan, Timothy, S.J., The Courses Leading to the Baccalaureate in 
Harvard College and Boston College (Woodstock, Md.: Woodstock Col- 
lege Press [1900]), 40 pp. 

President Eliot and Jesuit Colleges (n.p., n.n., n.d. ), 36 pp. 

Catalogue of the Officers and Students of Boston College for the Academic 

Year 1868-9 (Boston: Alfred Mudge and Son, 1869), 22 pp. 
Comer, George N., Book-keeping Rationalized (Boston: Frederick A. 

Brown and Co., 1865), 168 pp. 
Connolly, Terence L., S.J., editor. An Account of Books and Manuscripts 

of Francis Thompson (Chestnut Hill, Mass.: Boston College, 1937), 

79 pp. 

Francis Thompson; In His Paths (Milwaukee: The Bruce Publish- 
ing Co., 1944), 203 pp. 

Conway, Katherine E., and Cameron, Mabel Ward, Charles Francis Don- 
nelly, A Memoir (New York: James T. White Co., 1909), 265 pp. 

Cullen, James Bernard, The Story of the Irish in Boston (Boston: James B. 
Cullen and Co., 1889), 443 pp. 

Dooley, Patrick J., S.J., Woodstock and Its Makers (Woodstock, Md.: The 
College Press, 1927), 253 pp. 

Effect of Certain War Activities upon Colleges and Universities, Union 
Calendar No. 53, 79th Congress, 1st Session, House Report No. 214 
(Washington: United States Government Printing Office, 1945), 57 pp. 

Erbacher, Sebastian Anthony, Catholic Higher Education for Men in the 
United States 1850-1866 (Washington: The Catholic University of 
America, 1931), 143 pp. 



320 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

Garraghan, Gilbert J., S.J., The Jesuits of the Middle United States, 3 vols. 

(New Vork: America 'Press, 1938). 
General Education in a Free Society (Cambridge: Harvard University 

Press, 1945), 276 pp. 
Greene, Evarts Boutell, The Revolutionary Generation, 1763-1790 (New 

York: The Macmillan Co., 1943), 487 pp. 
Greene, Evarts Boutell, and Harrington, Virginia D., American Population 

Before the Federal Census of 1790 (New York: Colmnbia University 

Press, 1932), 228 pp. 
Guilday, Peter, The Life and Times of John England, First Bishop of 

Charleston, 1786-1842, 2 vols. (New York: America Press, 1927). 

"Roman Catholic Church," Encyclopedia Britannica, 14th ed., 

XIX, 421. 

Handlin, Oscar, Boston's Immigrants 1790-1865 (Cambridge: Harvard Uni- 
versity Press, 1941), 287 pp. 

Hansen, Marcus Lee, The Atlantic Migration (Cambridge: Harvard Uni- 
versity Press, 1940), 391 pp. 

The Immigrant in American History (Cambridge: Harvard Uni- 
versity Press, 1940), 230 pp. 

Harney, Martin P., S.J., The Jesuits in History (New York: America Press, 

1941), 513 pp. 
The Harvard University Catalogue, 1899-1900 (Cambridge: Published by 

the University, 1900), 716 pp. 

1904-1905 (Cambridge: Published by the University, 1904), 

773 pp. 

Hasenfus, Nathaniel J., Athletics at Boston College; Volume I, Football and 

Hockey (n.p., n.n., c. 1943), 355 pp. 
Illustrated Boston, 2nd ed. (New York: American Publishing and Engrav- 
ing Co., c. 1889), 472 pp. 
The Athenaeum Centenary; The Influence and History of the Boston 

Athenaeum from 1807 to 1907 ([Boston:] The Boston Athenaeum, 1907), 

236 pp. 
Josephine, Marie, The Mystical Rose (New York: D. Appleton and Co., 

1865), 290 pp. 
Keating, John S., S.J., editor, Boston College in the World War, 1917- 

1918 (Chestnut Hill, Mass.: Boston College, n.d.), 365 pp. 
Kellogg, Louise Phelps, "John Bapst," Dictionary of American Biography, 

I, 583-584. 
Kolbe, Parke Rexford, The Colleges in War Time and After (New York: 

D. Appleton and Co., 1919), 320 pp. 
Leahy, William A., "Archdiocese of Boston," in William Byrne, et al., 

editors, History of the Catholic Church in the New England States (Bos- 
ton: The Hurd and Everts Co., 1899), I, 1-350. 
Lord, Robert H., Sexton, John E., and Harrington, Edward T., History of 

the Archdiocese of Boston, 3 vols. (New York: Sheed and Ward, 1944). 
Mahon, Michael P., Ireland in Religion and Letters (Boston: Thomas J. 

Flynn and Co., 1919), 191 pp. 
Meehan, Thomas F., "John Gray Foster," The Catholic Encyclopedia, VI, 

155-156. 
The Metropolitan Catholic Almanac and Laity's Directory for the Year 

1845 (Baltimore: Fielding Lucas, Jr., 1845), 208 pp. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 321 

Monumenta Xaveriana, 2 vols. (Matriti: Typis Augustini Avrial, 1899- 

1900, 1912). 
Mullen, A. J. E., S.J., "Boston College, Boston, Mass.," in George Gary 

Bush, editor. History of Higher Education in Massachusetts, Chapter 

XVII (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1891), 445 pp. 
Murphy, W. E., S.J., "The Story of Boston College," in C. E. McGuire, 

editor. Catholic Builders of the Nation, V, 249-259 (Boston: Continental 

Press, Inc., 1923). 
O'Connell, William Cardinal, The Letters of His Eminence William 

Cardinal O'Connell, Archbishop of Boston, 2 vols. (Cambridge: The 

Riverside Press, 1915). 

Recollections of Seventy Years {New York: Houghton Mifflin Co., 

1934), 395 pp. 

Perry, Bliss, And Gladly Teach (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., c. 1935), 

315 pp. 
Poore, Benjamin Perley, compiler. The Federal and State Constitutions, 

Colonial Charters, and Other Organic Laws of the United States, 2nd 

ed., 2 vols. (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1878). 
Prose e Poesie Intorno al Celerre Gruppo Rappresentante San Michele 

(Roma: Tipografia de G. Aurelj, 1869), 24 pp. 
Purcell, Richard J., "Thomas Ignatius Gasson," Dictionary of American 

Biography, XII, 179. 

"John McElroy," Dictionary of American Biography, XII, 36-37. 

Quaife, Milo Milton, editor. The Diary of James K. Polk During His 

Presidency, 1845-1849, 4 vols. (Chicago: A. C. McClurg and Co., 1910). 
Ray, Sister Mary Augustina, American Opinion of Roman Catholicism in the 

Eighteenth Century (Nevi^ York: Columbia University Press, 1936), 

456 pp. 
Riley, Arthur J., Catholicism in New England to 1788 (Washington: The 

Catholic University of America, 1936), 479 pp. 
Robinson, William A., "John Gray Foster," Dictionary of American Biog- 
raphy, VI, 549-550. 
Sadlier's Catholic Directory, 1871 (Nevi' York: D. and J. Sadlier and Co., 

1871), 513 pp. 
Santayana, George, Persons and Places (New York: Charles Scribner's 

Sons, 1944), 262 pp. 
Schvi^ickerath, Robert, S.J., Jesuit Education, Its History and Principles 

(St. Louis: B. Herder, 1904), 687 pp. 
Seventy -Five Years: St. Mary of the Annunciation, 1867-1942 (Cambridge, 

Mass.: n.n., 1942), 32 pp. 
Seybert, Adam, Statistical Annals (Philadelphia: Thomas Dobson and Son, 

1818), 803 pp. 
Shaughnessy, Gerald, Has the Immigrant Kept the Faith? (New York: The 

Macmillan Co., 1925), 289 pp. 
Shea, John Gihnary, The Catholic Church in Colonial Days (New York: 

J. G. Shea, 1886), 663 pp. 

History of the Catholic Church in the United States, 1808-15 to 

1843 (New York: John G. Shea, 1890), 732 pp. 

Souvenir of the Twenty-fifth Annual Reunion of the Young Men's Catholic 

Association of Boston (Boston: n.n., 1904), 48 pp. 
Sullivan, James S., A Graphic, Historical and Pictorial Account of the 



322 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

Catlwlic Church in New England, Archdiocese of Boston (Boston: Illus- 
trated Publishing Co., 1895), 842 pp. 

Sullivan, John L., Reminiscences of a 19th Cei^tury Gladiator (Boston: 
James A. Heara and Co., 1892), 295 pp. 

Sullivan, R. Paul, S.J., editor, Boston College Seventij-Fiph Anniversary, 
1863-1938 (Chestnut Hill, Mass.: Boston College, n.d.), 62 pp. 

Sullivan, Sister Mary Xaveria, The History of Catholic Secondary Education 
in the Archdiocese of Boston ( Washington, D. C. : The Catholic University 
of America Press, 1946), 183 pp. 

Thomas, Grace Powers, editor. Where to Educate, 1898-99 (Boston: Brown 
and Co., c. 1898), 394 pp. 

Thwing, Charles Franklin, The American Colleges and Universities in the 
Great War (New York: The Macmillan Co., 1920), 276 pp. 

United States Catholic Almanac, 1836 (Baltimore: James Myres, 1836), 
180 pp. 

United States Department of Commerce, Bureau of Census, Statistical Ab- 
stract of the United States, 1900 (Washington: Government Printing 
Office, 1901), 570 pp. 

Statistical Abstract of the United States, 1943 (Washington: 

United States Government Printing Office, 1944), 994 pp. 

"United States of America: Population," Encyclopedia Britannica, 14th ed., 

XXII, 732. 
Walsh, Louis S., Archdiocese of Boston, Growth of Parochial Schools in 

Chronological Order, 1820-1900 (Newton Highlands, Mass.: Press of St. 

John's Industrial Training School, 1901), 16 pp. 

Historical Sketch of the Growth of Catholic Parochial Schools in 

the Archdiocese of Boston (Newton Highlands, Mass.: Press of St. John's 
Industrial School, 1901), 12 pp. 

Weld, Allen H., Weld's Progressive English Grammar (Portland, Me.: O. L. 
Sanborn and Co., 1859), 240 pp. 

C. Periodicals and Newspapers 

"Boston College and the Church of the Immaculate Conception," Wood- 
stock Letters, 32 (1903): 112-113. 
"Boston College and Harvard University," Woodstock Letters, 29 (1900): 

337-339. 
"Boston College, Classes, Studies, &c." The Pilot, Nov. 3, 1866. 
"Boston College — Intercollegiate Debate," Woodstock Letters, 24 ( 1895 ) : 

321-323. 
"Boston College; Its History and Influence," Donahoe's Magazine, 29 (Jan., 

1893): 66-77. 
"Boston College Library," Boston Herald, Sept. 27, 1903, 
"Boursaud, Reverend Edward Victor; Obituary," The Messenger (New 

York), 37 (May, 1902): 577-579. 
"Boursaud, Reverend E. V.; Obituary," The Stylus, 16 (May, 1902): 162- 

163. 
"Boursaud, Reverend Edward V.; Obituary," Woodstock Letters, 31 

(1902): 277-280. 
"Brady, Reverend Robert; Obituary," Woodstock Letters, 19 (1890): 250. 
Brosnahan, Timothy, "President Eliot and Jesuit Colleges, a Defense," The 

Sacred Heart Review, 23 (New Series): 24-26, Jan. 13, 1900. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 323 

"Brosnahan; Father Timothy," Woodstock Letters, 45 (1916): 99-117. 
Buckley, J., "Father Robert Fulton; A Sketch," Woodstock Letters, 25 

(1896): 90-112. 
C, H. M., "Greater Boston College," Donahoe's Magazine, 59 (April, 

1908): 374-388. 
Callanan, Patrick H., "Reminiscences," The Stylus, 10-13 (Dec, 1896 — 

March, 1899, in monthly installments). 
"Carney, Andrew" (Obituary), The Pilot, April 16, 1864; (vita), ibid., 

Oct. 31, 1908. 
"The Case of Boston College and Harvard University," American Ecclesias- 
tical Review, Third Series, Vol. Ill (XXIII): 173-175, Aug., 1900. 
"Catalogus Sociorvim Missionis Americae Foederatae, ineunte anno 1807" 

(reconstructed), Woodstock Letters, 16 (1887): 169-172. 
"Catholic Young Men's National Union," Donahoe's Magazine, 30 (Sept., 

1893): 330. 
"Church of the Immaculate Conception, 1861," Calendar, Immaculate Con- 
ception Church (Boston), Sept., 1941. 
Connolly, Terence L., "Seymour Adelman's Thompsoniana," America, 50: 

16-17, Oct. 7, 1933. 
Consodine, William A., "History of Boston College," The Heights, 6 

(March 24, 1925 — June 2, 1925, in vi^eekly installments). 
Conway, William J., "Father Thomas I. Gasson, S.J.," Woodstock Letters, 

60 (1931): 76-96. 
Cram, Ralph Adams, "As Ralph Adams Cram Sees the New Boston College," 

The Boston Transcript, April 30, 1921. 
Daly, T. J., "Boston College," Boston Daily Advertiser, Aug. 16, 1887; same 

in The Stylus, 6 (Oct., 1887): 11-12. 

"In Memoriam. Reverend John Bapst, S.J.," The Stylus, 6 (Dec, 

1887): 31-33. 

"Dedication of the Church of the Immaculate Conception," Boston Journal, 
March 10, 1861. 

"Destruction of the Charlestown Convent from Contemporary Newspapers," 
Historical Records and Studies (United States Catholic Historical So- 
ciety), 13 (May, 1919): 106-119. 

Devitt, Edward I., "Father Francis J. O'Neill, S.J.," The Stylus, 18 ( March, 
1905): 12-17. 

"History of the Maryland-New York Province, XVI, Boston Col- 
lege, 1863-1914," Woodstock Letters, 64 (1935): 399-421. 

'The Clergy List of 1819, Diocese of Baltimore," Records of the 



American Catholic Historical Society of Philadelphia, 22 (1911): 258. 
Devlin, William, "Letter to Alumni," Boston College Alumni Bulletin, 1 

(May, 1924): 2-3. 
[Doonan, J.], "Father Jeremiah O'Connor, a Sketch," Woodstock Letters, 

21 (1892): 117-120. 
Dunigan, David R., "A Catholic College and the War," The Pilot, May 23, 

1942. 
Eliot, Charles W., "Recent Changes in Secondary Education," The Atlantic 

Monthly, 84 (Oct., 1899): 433-444. 
Farren, Joseph H., "The Young Men's Catholic Association of Boston," The 

Pilot, March 8, 1930. 
"Father Edward I. Devitt, 1840-1920," Woodstock Letters, 50 (1921): 

58-64. 



324 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

"Father McEkoy," New York Herald, May 8, 1876. 

"First Alvimni Day at Boston College," Boston Sunday Globe, June 17, 1923. 
"First Public Exhibition in America of Thompsoniana Held in Boston Col- 
lege Library," The Catholic Library World, 5 (Oct. 15, 1933 ):1. 
Fitzpatrick, Bishop John Bernard, "Letter to tlie School Committee on the 

Eliot School Case" (original: Boston Diocesan Archives, "Old Letters," 

A, No. 80), Boston Herald, March 22, 1859. 
Franzoni, F. (untitled art review of Tadolini's "St. Michael"), Osservatore 

Romano (Rome), March, 1869. 
Garraghan, Gilbert J., "The Project of a Common Scholasticate for the 

Society of Jesus in North America," Archivum Historicum Societatis lesu 

(Rome), 2 (1933): 1-10. 
"Fordham's Jesuit Beginnings," Thought, 16 (March, 1941): 

17-39. 

"Origins of Boston College, 1842-1869," Thought, 17 (Dec, 



1942): 627-656. 
"Gasson, Father Thomas I.; Obituary," Woodstock Letters, 60 ( 1931 ) : 

76-89. 
Glennon, Michael, "A Letter from Our President," The Stylus, 18 (Dec, 

1904): 15-19. 
Halloran, Florence J., "In Memoriam. Reverend Thomas H. Stack, S.J., 

Died Aug. 30, 1887," The Stylus, 6 (Oct., 1887): 1-2. 
[Harney, Martin P.], "Bishops Among the Alumni," Boston College Alumni 

News, 8 (Feb., 1945): 5-6. 
Hart, S.J., "Valedictory; June 28, 1877," in P. H. Callanan, "Reminiscences," 

The Stylus, 13 (March, 1899): 167. 
Hartt, RoUin Lynde, "Chestnut Hill's Touch of Oxford," Boston Evening 

Transcript, Oct. 30, 1915. 
"Harvard and Catholics" (the complete Eliot-Mullan correspondence), The 

Pilot, June 30, 1900. 
"Harvard and the Jesuit Colleges," The New York Sun, June 30, 1900. 
Kelly, Joseph E., "A Great Art Gift to Boston College," The Stylus, 23 

(April, 1909): 27-30. 
KHmartin, J. L., "Jesuit Lay Brother Artist Passes Away," The Pilot, Sept. 

13, 1924. 
Langcake, Augustus, "Letter," Letters and Notices ( Roehampton, England ) , 

2 (1864): 65-70. 
"Lyons, Father Charles W., Obituary," Woodstock Letters, 68 (1939): 346- 

354. 
McAvoy, A. J., "John Bapst, a Sketch," Woodstock Letters, 16 (Nov., 

1887): 324-325; 17 (July, 1888): 218-229; 17 (Nov., 1888): 361-372; 

18 (Feb., 1889): 83-93; 18 (July, 1889): 129-142; IS (Oct., 1889): 

304-319; 20 (Feb., 1891): 61-68; 20 (June, 1891): 241-249; 20 (Oct., 

1891): 406-418. 
(McCarthy, Eugene A.), "Letter on Origin of the Alumni Association," 

Boston College Alumni News, 8 (Feb., 1945): 5. 
McElroy, John, "Chaplains for the Mexican War, 1846," Woodstock Letters, 

15 (July, 1886): 198-202; 16 (March, 1887): 33-39; 16 (Nov., 1887): 

225-229; 17 (March, 1888): 3-11; 17 (July, 1888): 149-163. 
"Reestablishment of the Society in the United States," Woodstock 

Letters, 16 (July, 1887): 161-168. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 325 

"Two Old Letters," Woodstock Letters, 18 (1889): 76-77. 

four letters in: Joseph Zwinge, S.J., "The Novitiate in Maryland," 

Woodstock Letters, 44 (1915): 1-14. 

"McElroy, John; (vita)," The Pilot, Oct. 31, 1908. 

Macksey, Charles B., "Young Men's Catholic Association of Boston CoUege," 

Woodstock Letters, 19 (1890): 388-391. 
Maginnis [Charles D.], and Walsh [Timothy], "The Recitation Building 

of Boston College, Newton, Mass.," The American Architect, Vol. 105, 

No. 1986, Jan. 14, 1914 (no pagination). 
"Master Thomas J. Wall," Illustrated Irish Nation (New York), April 30, 

1859. 
Meehan, Thomas F., "Archbishop Hughes and Mexico," Historical Records 

and Studies (United States Catholic Historical Society), 19 (Sept., 

1929): 33-40. 

"Catholics in tlie War With Mexico," Historical Records and 

Studies (United States Catholic Historical Society), 12 (June, 1918): 
39-65. 

(Morgan J.), "Father Robert Wasson Brady, S.J.; a Sketch," Woodstock 

Letters, 20 (1891): 250-255. 
"MuUan, Father William George Read" (Obituary), Woodstock Letters, 39 

(1910): 389-394. 
Mullen, A. J. E., "Boston College: New English High School," Woodstock 

Letters, 19 (1890): 192-196. 

"Letter to the Editor," Woodstock Letters, 19 (1890): 192-196. 

Murphy, J. F. X., "Boston College," The Pilot, March 8, 1930. 
O'Connor, J., "Consecration of the Church of the Immaculate Conception, 

Boston," Woodstock Letters, 6 (1878): 148-158. 
[Peck, Harry Thurston] (untitled review of Brosnahan's President Eliot 

and the Jesuit Colleges), The Bookman (New York), 11 (April, 1900): 

111-112. Also, ibid., 11 (June, 1900): 294. 
"Philomatheia Celebrates Twentieth Anniversary," The Heights, Dec. 5, 

1934. 
Richards, J. H., "The Death of Father McElroy," Woodstock Letters, 6 

(Jan., 1878): 178. 
"Reverend John J. McElroy, First Pastor of the Immaculate Conception 

Church," Immacidate Conception Church Calendar (Boston), Feb., 1911. 
"Russo, Father Nicholas; Obituary," The Stylus, 16 (May, 1902): 164-165. 

Woodstock Letters, 31 (1902): 281-285. 

Ryan, J. J., "Life of Father John Bapst, S.J.," Woodstock Letters, 33 
(1904): 133-136. 

"Our Scholasticate — An Account of Its Growth and History to 

the Opening of Woodstock, 1805-1869," Woodstock Letters, 32 (1903): 
1-27; 33 (1904): 131-154. 

"Saint John's Church and Residence, Frederick, Maryland," Woodstock 

Letters, 5 (1876): 103-114. 
"Schroen, S.J., Brother Francis," Jesuit Seminary News, 1 (May 15, 1926): 

38. 
Schurhammer, Georg, "Zwei ungedmckte Briefe des hi. Franz Xaver," 

Archivum Historicum Societatis lesu (Rome), 2 (1933): 44-55. 
"The Sectarian Troubles at the Eliot School," The Boston Herald, March 

22, 1859. 



326 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

[Shandelle, Henry J.], "The Young Men's Catholic Association of Boston 

College," Woodstock Letters, 5 (1876): 37-46. 
Sheehan, D. F., "The Y.M.C.A. of Boston College," DonaJwe's Magazine, 

29 (Jan., 1893): 77-87. 
"Stack, Father Thomas J.; Obituary," Woodstock Letters, 16 (1887): 317- 

318. 
Stinson, William M., "Boston College Library," Woodstock Letters, 62 

(1933): 188-213. 
"Library Gleanings in Transit," Catholic School Interests, 3 (June, 

1924): 79-81. 

'New Boston College Library," Library Jourrml, 54 (Jan. 1, 



1929): 16-20. 
"Students in Our Colleges in the United States and Canada," Woodstock 

Letters, appendix, 1884 to date. 
"Taught by Jesuits," Boston Sunday Herald, Feb. 28, 1897. 
Tehan, James, "Residence of St. Mary's, Boston, 1868-76," Woodstock 

Letters, 6 (1877): 31-52. 
"The Thompson Exhibit," The Boston College Alumnus, 1 (Nov., 1933): 

5-6. 
Towle, Henry C, "The Pioneer Days at Boston College," The Stylus, 11 

(June, 1897): 332-339. 
Treacy, Gerald C, "Andrew Carney, Philanthropist," Historical Records and 

Studies (United States Catholic Historical Society), 13 (May, 1919): 

101-105. 
"Was Bishop Hughes OflFered a Peace Mission to Mexico by President 

James K. Polk?" Records of the American Catholic Historical Society of 

Philadelphia, 22 (1911): 202-205. 
Welch, E. H., "Father Joseph C. Shaw," Woodstock Letters, 26 (1897): 

44&-450. 
"Welch, Father Edward Holker," The Stylus, 18 (April, 1905): 13-17. 
[Whal, WilHam B. F.], "Close of St. Mary's Jubilee, North End, Boston," 

The Pilot, Oct. 16, 1897; same in Woodstock Letters, 27 (1898): 87-99. 
"Wiget, Bemadine F.; Obituary," Woodstock Letters, 12 (1883): 189-193. 
Zwinge, Joseph, "The Novitiate in Maryland," Woodstock Letters, 44 

(1915): 1-14. 



APPENDIX A 



TEXTBOOKS PRESCRIBED AT BOSTON COLLEGE 
FOR THE YEAR 1867-1868^ 

2nd Rud. — 

Catechism of the Diocese 

Kerney's Scripture History 

Hillard's Sixth Reader 

Weld and Quackenbos' English Grammar 

Mitchell's Geography and Atlas 

Worcester's Pronouncing Speller 

Some Dictionary — Worcester's Comprehensive preferred 

Payson, Scribner and Dunton's Penmanship 

Harkness' Introductory Latin Book 

1st Rud. — 

Catechism, Scripture History, Reader, English Grammar, 
Geography and Atlas, and Penmanship, Worcester Pro- 
nouncing Speller, as above 

Harkness' Latin Grammar 

Harkness' Latin Reader 

Harkness' 1st Greek Book 

Andrew's Latin Exercises 

3rd Hum. — 

Catechism of Perseverance 
History of Rome, Goodrich 

Reader, English Grammar, Geography and Atlas, Latin Gram- 
mar, and Latin Exercises as above 



1 From the list, handwritten by Father Robert Fulton, S.J., in the "College 
Register" (manuscript volume in the Boston College Archives). Father 
Fulton's abbreviations not followed. 

327 



328 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

Arnold's Nepos 

Phaedrus 

Sophocle's French Grammar 

Harkness continued 

Latin Dictionary — Leverett's preferred 

2nd Hum. — 

History of Greece, Goodrich 

Catechism, Reader, Enghsh Grammar, Geography and Atlas, 

Latin Grammar, Greek Grammar, Latin Exercises, Graeca 

Minora, as above [sic] 
Andrew's Ovid 
Andrew's Gaesar 

1st Hum. — 

History U. S., Goodrich 

Catechism, Reader, Latin Grammar, Greek Grammar, Latin 

Exercises, as above? 
Mitchell's Ancient Geography 
Casserly's Prosody 
Xallust. Andrew's? 
Cicero de Senectute, Anthon's Virgil 
Xenephon's Anabasis, Anthon 
Homer (Anthon's) 

Arithmetic — 

Greenleaf s National 

Algebra — 

Davies' Bourdon's Algebra 

Geometry — 

Davies' Legendre's Geometry 

3rd Class of French — 
Fasquelle's Grammar 



APPENDIX B 



PROGRAM FOR THE FIRST EXHIBITION 
AT BOSTON COLLEGE^ 

EXAMINATION AND EXHIBITION 

OF 

BOSTON COLLEGE 

THURSDAY, JUNE 29, 1865 

Music 

Examination 

The matter assigned for the various classes is as follows: 

For the third class of Humanities, Nepos, Phaedrus, Graeca 

Minora, Latin and Greek Grammars. 
For the first division of Rudiments, Viri Romae, Latin and Greek 

Grammars. 
For the second division of Rudiments, Geography, Latin 

Grammar. 
For the third division of Rudiments, Geography, Spelling. 

Music 

Declamation 

The School-Boy Thos. J. Ford 

Coriolanus Francis Norris 

Hildebrand Vincent Laforme 

Music Frank McAvoy 

Duties of Patriotism George W. Lennon 

Music 



1 Presented in the Georgetown University Archives, Washington, D. C. 

329 



330 



A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 



FRIDAY, June 30 

Joseph and His Brethren 

A Sacred Drama 
in Two Acts 



Dramatis Personae 



Joseph 

Asenethes 

Hersicles 

Thanetes 

Araxes 

Judah 

Simeon 

Benjamin 

Levi 

Zabulon and others 



H. R. O'Donnell 
W. J. Cain 
D. McAvoy 
V. Laforme 
F. McGinley 
F. J. McAvoy 
J. Barron 
T. J. Devenny 
F. W. Norris 
A. J. Maher, &c. 



Music 

Distribution of Premiums 

Music 

The Exercises will begin at half-past seven, on both evenings. 
Entrance from James Street, between Washington Street, and 
Harrison Avenue. 



APPENDIX C 



THE OFFICERS OF THE BOSTON COLLEGE ALUMNI 
ASSOCIATION FROM 1886 to 1890 

1886-1887. The first year of the Association's existence, the only 
known officers were: 

Edward A. McLaughhn, '71, president; 
Reverend Thomas I. Coghlan, '78, first vice- 
president.^ 

1887-1888. At the second annual dinner at the Hotel Vendome 
(June 27, 1887), the following were elected: 
Dr. William A. Dunn, '77, president; 
Reverend James F. Talbot, '78, first vice-president; 
Reverend William F. Powers, '81, second vice- 
president; 
James B. McHugh, '81, secretary; 
Dr. William G. McDonald, '77, treasurer; 
Francis J. Barnes, '84, historian.^ 

1888-1889. At the third annual dinner at Young's Hotel (July 2, 
1888), the following were elected: 
Dr. William A, Dunn, '77, president; 
Reverend James F. Talbot, '78, first vice-president; 
Reverend William F. Powers, '81, second vice- 
president; 
James B. McHugh, '81, secretary; 
James E. Hayes, historian. 



1 The Boston Daily Globe, June 29, 1886. 

2 The Stylus, 5 (June-July, 1887): 84-85. 

331 



332 A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 

Executive Committee: Rev. John Broderick, '77; 
Rev. James F. Talbot, '78; James A. Monahan, 
79; E. F. Bums, '80; Rev. W. H. O'ComieU, '81; 
Dr. T. J. Ball, '82; Rev. T. J. Mahoney, '83; James 
F. Aylward, '84; John B. Curtis, 'S7; T. J. Daly, 
'88.3 



1889-1890. At the fourth annual dinner at Young's Hotel (July 1, 
1889), the following were elected: 
Reverend T. I. Coghlan, '78, president; 
E. J. Flynn, '81, first vice-president; 
Dr. Francis J. Barnes, '84, second vice-president; 
James B. McHugh, '81, secretary; 
Dr. W. G. McDonald, '77, treasurer; 
Hugh J. Molloy, '83, historian.* 

3 The Boston Daily Globe, July 3, 1888. 

* The Boston Morning Journal, July 2, 1889. The oflBcers for the years 
from 1890 on are given in the Boston College Catalogue. 



APPENDIX D 



PRESIDENTS OF BOSTON COLLEGE 



1. Rev. John Bapst, S.J. 

2. Rev. Robert W. Brady, S.J. 

3. Rev. Robert Fulton, S.J. 

4. Rev. Jeremiah O'Connor, S.J. 

5. Rev. Edvi^ard V. Boursaud, S.J. 

6. Rev. Thomas H. Stack, S.J. 

7. Rev. Nicholas Russo, S.J. 

8. Rev. Robert Fulton, S.J. 
Rev. Edward I. Devitt, S.J. 
Rev. Timothy Brosnahan, S.J. 
Rev. W. J. Read MuUan, S.J. 
Rev. William F. Gannon, S.J. 
Rev. Thomas I. Gasson, S.J. 
Rev. Charles W. Lyons, S.J. 
Rev. William Devlin, S.J. 
Rev. James H. Dolan, S.J. 
Rev. Louis J. Gallagher, S.J. 
Rev. William J. McGarry, S.J. 
Rev. William J. Murphy, S.J. 
Rev. William L. Keleher, S.J. 



July 10, 1863 — August 27, 1869 
August 27, 1869 — August 2, 1870 
August 2, 1870 — January 11, 1880 
January 11, 1880 — July 31, 1884 
July 31, 1884 — August 5, 1887 
August 5, 1887 — August 30, 1887 
September 1, 1887 — July 4, 1888 
July 4, 1888 — January 9, 1891 
January 9, 1891 — July 16, 1894 
July 16, 1894 — June 30, 1898 
June 30, 1898 — July 30, 1903 
July 30, 1903 — January 6, 1907 
January 6, 1907 — January 11, 1914 
Januarv 11, 1914 — July 20, 1919 
Julv 20, 1919 — August 23, 1925 
August 23, 1925 — January 1, 1932 
January 1, 1932 — July 1, 1937 
July 1, 1937 — August 15, 1939 
August 15, 1939 — August 19, 1945 
August 19, 1945 — 



333 



APPENDIX E 



MEMBERS OF THE HIERARCHY WHO 
ATTENDED BOSTON COLLEGE 

His Eminence, William Cardinal O'Connell, Archbishop of 

Boston, 1907-1944. Class of 1881. 
Most Reverend Richard J. Cushing, D.D., Archbishop of Boston, 

1944 to date. Attended Boston College 1913-1915. 
Most Reverend Joseph G. Anderson, D.D., Titular Bishop of 

Myrina and Auxiliary Bishop of Boston, 1909-1927. Class of 

1887. 
Most Reverend John B. Delaney, D.D., Bishop of Manchester, 

New Hampshire, 1904-1906. Class of 1887. 
Most Reverend Joseph N. Dinand, S.J., D.D., Titular Bishop of 

Selinus, and Vicar Apostolic of Jamaica, 1927-1930. Class of 

1891. 
Most Reverend Thomas A. Emmett, S.J., D.D., Titular Bishop 

of Tuscamia, and Vicar Apostolic of Jamaica, 1930 to date. 

Class of 1896. 
Most Reverend Maurice P. Foley, D.D., Bishop of Tuguegarao, 

P. I., and later of Jaro, P. I., 1910-1919. Class of 1887. 
Most Reverend Louis F. Kelleher, D.D., Titular Bishop of 

Thenae, and Auxiliary Bishop of Boston, 1945 to 1947. Class of 

1910. 
Most Reverend Wilham F. O'Hare, S.J., D.D., Titular Bishop of 

Maximinopolis, and Vicar Apostolic of Jamaica, 1920-1926. 

Attended Boston College 1886-1888. 
Most Reverend Edward F. Ryan, D.D., Bishop of Burlington, 

Vermont, 1945 to date. Class of 1901. 
Most Reverend Gerald Shaughnessy, S.M., S.T.D., Bishop of 

Seattle, Washington, 1933 to date. Class of 1909. 
Most Reverend James Anthony Walsh, M.M., D.D., Founder 

and Superior General of the Catholic Foreign Mission Society 

of America (MaryknoU); Titular Bishop of Siene 1933-1936. 

Attended Boston College 1881-1885. 
Most Reverend John J. Wright, D.D., Titular Bishop of Aegea, 

and Auxiliary Bishop of Boston, 1947 to date. Class of 1931. 

334 



APPENDIX F 



THE HONORED WAR DEAD OF BOSTON COLLEGE 



William F. Colwell 
Edwin A. Daly 
Stephen E. Fitzgerald 
Leroy C. Higginson 
Edward L. Killion 



Edward R. Ahearn 
Joseph F. Arone 
WiUiam T. Barrett 
Dr. Thomas A. Barry 
John L. Battles 
Edwin R. Birtwell 
Joseph C. Blute 
Jack R. Brodsky 
William H. Broley 
William C. Cagney 
Francis A. Cahill 
Edward R. Callahan 
David I. Calnan 
Eugene J. Canty 
Melvin G. Carr, Jr. 
James P. Carroll 
Edgar G. Carney 
Joseph J. Carty 
Henry J. Carvalho 
Francis J. Catenacci 
John B. Colpoys 
Charles F. Conlan 
Thomas J. Connelly 
Dr. Henry H. Connolly 
Paul V. Connors 
Edward R. Conroy 
Thomas H. Cook 
George D. Cormier 



WORLD WAR I 

Peter A. Landrigan 
Thomas F. MacDonnell 
Charles H. Madden 
George R. Meehan 
Joseph G. Murphy 

WORLD WAR n 
John F. Coughlin 
Robert J. Cromwell 
Joseph J. Crowley 
George D. Cunning 
Richard F. Curran 
John F. Daley 
William L. Davis 
James M. Dodero 
William F. Doherty 
Charles Dolan, Jr. 
Edward L. Donahue 
William T. Donovan 
Walter L. Douglas, Jr. 
William R. Duane 
John E. Dubzinski 
Donald Dumont 
John M. Dwyer 
John E. Eastman 
Herbert Ellis, Jr. 
John J. Farrell, Jr. 
John C. Farren 
Dr. James E. Flanagan 
James G. Flannery 
James E. Flynn 
Edward L. Foley 
James M. Foody 
John F. Ford 
William I. Furey, Jr. 

335 



Philip J. O'Connell 
Charles L. Ostridge 
Francis K. Quinn 
John W. Ryan 
James E. Welch, Jr. 

John J. Gallagher 
Martin J. Gibbons 
Edward M. Gilmore 
Joseph F. Gilfoil 
Edward H. Gleason, Jr. 
John F. Griffin 
John T. Gunn 
Bernard M. Harb 
James K. Hastings 
John R. HeflFeman 
Albert C. Horsfall 
Stephen J. Joyce 
Edward M. Keams 
John D. Kelleher 
John W. Kelley 
Paul M. Kelly 
Richard A. Kelly 
Joseph F. Kendall, Jr. 
Frederick L. Kiley 
Milton C. Kometz 
William F. Lafferty 
Philip A. Lanzo 
Robert J. Larkin 
James F. Law 
George F. Lennon 
Richard E. Lynn 
Thaddeus J. Lyons 
William G. McCarthy 



336 



A HISTORY OF BOSTON COLLEGE 



Thomas E. McCarty 
Arthur H. McDevitt 
Robert E. McGehearty 
Justin J. McGowan 
Joseph D. McLaughhn 
Thomas G. McNabb 
Lawrence J. McPeake 
Francis P. McQueeney 
Arthur J. McSweeney 
Thomas F. Madden 
James L. Maguire 
George T. Malone 
Edward F. M anion 
Dr. Edward P. Manning 
James P. Markham 
James A. Matthews 
WilHam J. Meehan 
John H. Moloney, Jr. 
Rev. John F. Monahan 
John M. Moriarty 
Joseph W. Moulton 
Bernard M. Moynahan 
John P. Mulkem 
John T. Murphy 



Joseph J. Murphy 
Leo J. Murphy 
Kenneth J. Murray 
Paul F. X. Nagle 
Vincent L. Nagle 
George H. Nicholson 
Edward F. O'Brien 
John J. O'Brien 
Walter G. O'Brien 
Mortimer F. O'Connor 
Dr. Arnold J. O'Donnell 
Eric W. Ojerholm 
John E. O'Keefe 
Michael J. O'Neil 
John A. O'Toole 
Victor E. Ouimet 
Francis W. Rich 
Roger F. Riordan 
Thomas M. Roddy 
William A. Roddy 
Albert J. Ruback 
Joseph A. Ryan 
Richard W. Ryan 
William W. Ryan 



Joseph B. Savage 
Edison F. Sawyer 
Martin F. Shaughnessy 
Bernard M. Shea 
John J. Shea 
Joseph D. Shea 
Joseph W. Smith 
Daniel J. Sullivan 
John L. Sullivan 
Francis J. Sweeney 
John R. Tiemey 
Henry G. Tinker 
Paul Van Wart 
James A. Vaughan 
Thomas Von Holzhausen 
John H. Wallace, Jr. 
David I. Walsh 
Edward A. Walsh 
James F. Walsh 
Raymond A. Wardell 
Joseph J. Welsh 
Robert H. White 
Charles T. WiUock, Jr. 
Charles G. Wolfe 



INDEX 



A.B. degree, courses for, revised, 

270; standards of, 167 
Academic department formed, 1898, 

167 
Academies, language, at Jubilee, 279 
"Accelerated Program," wartime, 

292, 294 
Accommodations for students, emer- 
gency, 307 
Accounting courses, elective, 237 
Accrediting, problems of, 168 
Activation of reservists, 294, 295; 

1943, 300 
Activities, college, 1868, 99 
Adelman Collection, purchase of, 

266 
Administration, college, separated 

from high school, 223 
Admission requirements, 1868, 97 
Adult education, 1866, 93; 1912, 

197; Institute of, 305, 309; 

YMCA, 123 
Advisement, student, 1941, 290 
Advisers, faculty, 292 
African section, ethnological collec- 
tion, 270 
Agassiz Association, 158 
Ahem, Rev. Michael J., S.J., 213 
Air training, 287 
Alcestis exhibition, 237 
Aldermen, Board of, petitions to, 

26, 28 
Alterations, building, 1874, 114; 

1889-1890, 146; to old college, 

1898, 165 
Alumni, appeal to, for War Fund, 

301; athletic field report to, 164; 

building fund appeal to, 204; 

building fund drive, 1946, 307; 

class of 1910, 212; concert, 279; 



drive for funds, 1920, 226 f; Fr. 
Devlin, letter to, 1919, 224 n, 
232 n; Fr. Dolan, letter to, 1925, 
238 n; Fr. Gasson, appeal for new 
site to, 184; Fr. McGarry ad- 
dresses, 279; first efforts to or- 
ganize, 139 f ; gift of grandstand 
by, 212; living, 1884, 135 n; liv- 
ing, 1885, 140; Navy, honor Adm. 
Murray, 305; Papal Benediction 
to, 279; president's report on 
athletics to, 178; raised to episco- 
pacy, 304, 313, 334; war certifi- 
cates, 304; war record, 313 f 

Alumni association, gift, 1914, 208; 
Fr. Mullen's report to, 176; first 
secretary, 225; oflBce of, 314 n; of- 
ficers of early, 331 f 

Alumni Bulletin, first issued, 225 

Alumni Day, 1936, 272 

Alumni Field, blessing of colors on, 
291; dedication of, 213; flagstaflF, 
211; title given, 213 

Amee, Col. Josiah L. C, 22 

American Anthropological Associa- 
tion, 269 

American Association of Collegiate 
Business Schools, 257 

American Association of Schools of 
Social Work, 256 

American Bar Association, approval 
by, 253 

American Council of Learned Socie- 
ties, 269 

American Geographical Society, 270 

American Institute of Architects, 188 

Ames, Oakes A., estate, 163 

Amherst College, 171 

Anderledy, Very Rev. Anthony M., 
S.J., 154 



337 



338 



INDEX 



Anderson, Most Rev. Joseph G., 202, 
334 

Anderson, Mrs. Larz, 212 

Andrews, E. A., Latin Exercises, 79 

Andrews, Governor John A., 64 

Anniversary, Diamond, of college, 
279 f ; Golden, of college, 202 

Announcement of college opening, 
73 

Annual Report of the Superintend- 
ent, 1925, 247 n 

Antelias, Valley of, 276 

Anthony of China, 272 

Antliropological Museum, opening 
of, 274 

Anthropology, Department of, 269 

ApoUonio, Thornton D., 246 n 

Architects, college, 35; competition 
of, 188 

Archivum Historicum S. /., 46 n 

Ardia, Rev. Joseph, S.J., 52, 54 

Arena, Boston, concert in, 230 

Argument for a Catholic Church on 
the Jail-Lands, 25 n 

Army Enlisted Reserve Corps, 293, 
294 

Army Specialized Training Program 
(ASTP), 295-300; number of 
students in, 298; students, classi- 
fication of, 297; terminated, 298 / 

Arts degree requirements revised, 
270 

Assembly Hall, Irish decorations of, 
193; library, 241 

Association of American Law 
Schools, 253 

Athletic association, college, found- 
ed, 135 f ; purpose of, 137 

Athletic field, 163 f; efforts to pre- 
pare, 1905, 178; opened, 212; 
sold, 195 

Athletic quarters, O'Connell Hall, 
284 

Athletics, xiv; dressing rooms for, 
234; Fr. Gannon's report on, 178; 
Philomatheia club to support, 209; 
in '70's, 135 f 

Atlantic Montlih/, 174; Eliot article 
in, 172, 173 n; refusal to print 
Fr. Brosnahan's reply, 173 

Attendance, hours of, 1868, 97; in- 
crease in, 1884, 139 



Auditorium, temporary, 308; semi- 
public chapel, 1925, 239; tempo- 
rary "church," 239 n 

Austin, William D., 189 

Aviation curriculum, 287 

Awards, annual, 99; first commence- 
ment, 84; for proficiency, 1902, 
177; proficiency in studies, 92; 
second commencement, 93 

Ayres, Leonard P., 222 n 

Bachelor of nursing degree offered, 

310 
Baker estate, 283 
Ball, Philomatheia, 210 
Ball and Cross symbol. Science 

Building, 235 
Baltimore, 9; Fourth Provincial 
Council, 12; Sixth Provincial 
Council, 12; Third Provincial 
Council, 11 
Bangor, Maine, mission center, 48 
Bapst, Rev. John, S.J., 2, 52, 54, 
66, 75, 78, 83 n, 107, 333; aca- 
demic activities delegated by, 
100; appeals for funds, 68, 103; 
appointed Rector at Boston, 49; 
attacked at Ellsworth, 48; Carney 
offer, 69; church debt collection, 
1869, 104; closing of scholasti- 
cate, 61; elected first president of 
college, 65; elected president of 
college corporation, 62; farewell 
to congregation, 103; first fair, 70, 
71; growth of enrollment, 88; im- 
pressions of scholasticate, 50 f , 
51 n, 55; life of, 47 ff; in Maine, 
48; protests St. Mary's failure in 
college aid, 91; report on college 
progress, 90; report on first year, 
84; request for holidays, 55, 56 n; 
request for school play, 81; retire- 
ment from presidency, 101; scho- 
lasticate expenses, 59, 60; superior 
of Indian mission, 48; title "Su- 
perior," 67 
Barnes, Dr. Francis, 160 
Barnum, Rev. Francis, S.J., 157 
Barracks, campus, 1918, 218; tem- 
porary dormitories, 307 
Barrister, Rev. John, S.J., 42 
Baseball, intercollegiate, not feasible, 



INDEX 



339 



179; team, 1884, 137; re-estab- 
lished, 1904, 178 
Baseball field, Massachusetts Ave., 

163 
Basic Engineering course, ASTP, 298 
Basketball courts, recreation hall, 308 
"Battalion of Boston College," 114 
Beacon Street alterations, 272 
Beckx, Very Rev. Peter, S.J., 15 n, 
31 n, 45 n, 59 n, 63 n, 72 n, 102 n, 
103 n, 131 
Bells, Tov/er, 204 
Bell telephone demonstrated, 1877, 

125 
Benediction, Papal, to college, 279 
Benefactors wish college for extems, 

58 
Beyrouth, expedition to, 276 
Bigotry, 32 n; against Maine mission- 
aries, 48; answer to, 312 
Bill of Rights Day, 1941, 291 
Biology instruments purchased, 1920, 

226 
Birmingham, Charles A., 229 
Bishop, proposed transferral of col- 
lege to, 68 
Bishops, alumni made, 304, 313, 334 
Blessed Sacrament Church, 268 
Boarding schools, improvement of, 

166 
Boarding students, first, 307 
Board of Trustees, first meetings of, 

65 
Bobola, Blessed Andrew, relics to 

Rome, 263 
Boehmn, Rev. F. W., S.J., lecture 

course, 1923, 250 
Bonn, Rev. John L., S.J., 310 
Book, Dorothy L., 256 
Bookkeeping classes, 1864, 80 
Books, gifts of rare, 268, 269 
Boston, Mass., electric light display, 
1863, 55; Fr. McElroy assigned 
to, 14, 15; land purchased from, 
22; payment to, 42; public schools, 
244 ff; purchase of land by, 29 
Boston Art Club, 209 
Boston Athenaeum, share of, 157, 

157 n 
Boston City Club, 229 
Boston College, buildings, descrip- 
tion of, 1860, 51; Carney legacy 



to, 71; cornerstone laid, 1858, 37; 
Courses Leading to the Baccalau- 
reate, 176 n; description of, 1869, 
105; description of, 1890, 146 f; 
early student life at, 89 f ; Fr. 
Brady president of, 102; Fr. Mc- 
Elroy takes residence at, 40; grad- 
uates not accredited at Harvard 
Law School, 1898, 168 If; granted 
ROTC unit, 221; ground broken 
for, 1858, 36; growth of, 312 ff; 
independent from high school, 
223; military uniforms, 110; 
opened for lay students, 77; open- 
ing at Newton, 200; opening de- 
ferred, 45; permission to establish, 
20; seismograph station, 236; Sev- 
enty-fifth Anniversary, 268 n; site 
described, 89; title changed, 107; 
title first used, 53; YMCA of, 120 

"Boston College, Its History and In- 
fluence," 145 n 

Boston College Alumni Directory, 
quoted, 139 n, 149 n 

Boston College Alumnus, 225 n 

Boston College Athenaeum, 157 f 

Boston College Athletic Board, 209 

Boston College Ball, 210 

Boston College Bulletin, on entrance 
procedures, 1938, 280 

Boston College catalogue, first, 97 

Boston College Club, 187; of Cam- 
bridge, 204 

Boston College Graduate School, 
198 n; Fr. McGarry's lectures at, 
278; Fr. W. J. Murphy at, 281; 
files, 246 n, 247 n, 249 n 

Boston College Hall, 109; second 
fair, 94 

Boston College High School, xiv, 
196, 238, 262, 278, 301, 306; 
archives, 87 n, 94 n; building ex- 
tension classed at, 254; classes at 
the Heights, 302; graduate school 
at, 1926, 251; record enrollment, 
1913, 202; School of Education 
held at, 250; separation from col- 
lege, 152 

Boston College Intown, business 
courses, 254, 305 

Boston College Library, 74 n, 241 n; 
1868, 99; 1891, 156; acquires 



340 



INDEX 



Xavier letter, 271; improvements 
under Fr. McGarry, 279 

Boston College Library archives, xiv, 
88 «, 96 Ji, 113 Ji, 117 n, 127 n, 
128 n, 183 n, 188 n, 195 n, 203 n, 
204 n, 218, 219 n, 220, 221 n, 
227 n, 237 n, 238 n, 240 n, 327 n; 
Fulton letters in, 153 

Boston College School of Nursing, 
309 

"Boston College Students Accounts," 
87 n, 94 n, 95 n 

Boston College in the World War, 
218 Ji, 220 n, 222 n 

Boston Diocesan archives, 224 n, 
225 n, 226 n 

Boston English High School, 155, 
206 

Boston fire, 1872, 114 

Boston Globe, Brosnahan address 
in, 176 

Boston Music Hall, 93, 94 

Boston Navy Yard, 286 

Boston Opera House, 212 

Boston Public Library, xiv, 74 n; 
loans, 266 

Boston Saturday Evening Transcript, 
on Boston College campus, 213 

Boston Scholasticate, report on, 
1861-1862, 57 

Boston School Committee, 244 ff 

Boston Society of Architects award, 
235 

Boston Theatre, 113; chairs from, 
242 ^ 

Boston Transit Commission, 239 

Boston University, 245, 247 

Boursaud, Rev. Edv^'ard V., S.J., 
333; alumni organization, 140; 
life of, 138; president, 137; pro- 
fessor to W. H. O'Connell, 126; 
retires from presidency, 141 

Boyle, Esmeralda, 8 n, 31 n 

Bradley-Arnold Latin text, 79 

Brady, Rev. Robert Wasson, S.J., 
66, 107, 108, 333; college growth 
under, 104; on financial aid for 
college, 91; life of, 102, 106; 
military, 109; present at com- 
mencement, 1877, 125; rebuilds 
St. Mary's Church, 106; refusal 
to aid college, 102 n,- retires from 



presidency, 106; second presi- 
dency, 102; treasurer of college, 
65; tribute to Fr. Fulton, 132 

Brady, Rt. Rev. John, 162 

Brand, Mr. D. Leo, S.J., first mod- 
erator of athletics, 136 

Braves Field, football games at, 266 

Brett, Rev. William P., S.J., 199, 
200 n; memorial to, 212 

Brewer, Gardner, 203 

British Museum, 277 

Broadcasts, educational, 309 

Brocard, Very Rev. Ignatius, S.J., 
20, 40 

Brochure, Seventy-fifth Anniversary, 
279 f 

Brosnahan, Rev. Timothy, S.J., 135, 
333; aid to new college, 164; 
controversy with Dr. Eliot, 172 fl^; 
on intercollegiate debate, 161; life 
of, 159; moderator of The Stylus, 
159; president, 159; reply to Dr. 
Eliot, 174; retires from presi- 
dency, 166 

Brown, WiUiam H., 262 

Brownson, Orestes, 141 

Bryan, Frederick, 290 

Bryant, Dr. John, 262 

Brzozowski, Very Rev. Thaddeus, 
S.J., 10 

B.S., B.A., degree offered, 257 

B.S. degree granted, 1889, 149 

Buckley, Rev. J., S.J., 77 n, 101 n, 
158 

Building enlargement program, 1888, 
145 f 

Building for College of Business Ad- 
ministration, 310 

Building fund, 1908, 187; campaign, 
1921, 228 ff; drive, alumni, 1920, 
226; drive, alumni, 1946, 307; 
Philomatheia Club in, 211 

Building of old college, 36 ff 

Buildings, college, property of Fr. 
McElroy, 63 

Burke, Jeremiah E., 244, 246 n 

Burke, Rev. James L., S.J., 305 

Burkitt, Miles C, 276 

Business Administration, College of, 
257; advisory committee for, 257; 
Building, 307, 311; courses at 
Boston College Intown, 305; 



INDEX 



341 



moves to O'Connell Hall, 258 
Buteux, Rev. Stanislas, gift to library, 

157 
Byblos, expedition to, 277 
Byrne, Monsignor William, 162 
Byrne, William, History, 18 n 
Byrnes, Mr. Michael, S.J., 89 

CAA classes at Boston College, 287 

Cadets, Foster, 109 ff 

Callanan, Patrick H., 77 n; academic 

success of, 106; drillmaster, 113; 

on early baseball at college, 136; 

protests YMCA title, 120; "Remi- 
niscences," 102 n, 105, 110 n, 

llln, 112 n, 113 n, 124 n, 126 n 
Cambridge, Mass., 179, 189, 191 
Cambridge, University of, 276 
Cameron, Mabel Ward, 32 n 
Campbell, Very Rev. Thomas J., 

S.J., 153 
Campus, dedicated, 1908, 187; 

praised by Transcript, 213 
Canadian scholastics at Fordham, 47 
Canavan, Major John R., 296; at 

ASTP departure, 299; at first 

ASTP assembly, 297 
Candlemas lecture, annual, 309 
Canisius College, 213 
Cardinal O'Connell Hall, 282 
Carnegie Foundation, 233 
Carney, Andrew, 2; death of, 70; 

donation of sidewalks, 42; favors 

to Fr. McElroy, 44; legacy of, 71; 

offer of matched funds, 68, 69; 

payment, 42; purchases Otis 

School, 21 
Carney Hospital, 68, 71 
Carney, James, 209, 210 
Carney, Mrs. Andrew, 44 
Carroll, Archbishop John, 9 
Carroll, Mr. William, S.J., 89 
Carroll, Rev. Anthony C, S.J., 309 
Carmth, Herbert S., 178 
"Catalogue ... of Boston College, 

1868," 92 n; first, 97 
Catalogue, Province of Maryland, 67 
Catalogus Provinciae Marylandiae- 

Neo-Eboracensis, 66 n 
Cathedral center superseded by 

Graduate School, 251 
Cathedral School Hall, 248 



Catholic Action Symposium, 279 
Catholic Anthropological Confer- 
ence, 275 
Catholic anthropological museum, 

first, 275 
Catholic Colleges, Conference of, 

175 
Catholic education, legislative inves- 
tigation of, 31 n 
Catholic Foreign Mission Society, 

Bishop Walsh founder of, 334 
Catholic Lyceum Association, 121 
Catholic students, religious duties 

of, 98 
Catholics, discrimination against, 
24 ff ; Irish, social status of, 1845, 
2 f ; population before revolu- 
tion, 2 
Cavanaugh, Frank, 225 
Cemetery at college site, 34, 89 
Certificate, war memorial, 304 
Certificate of Attendance, 249 
Certificates of merit, monthly, 92 
Certification for admission, 280 
Chalet, Philomatheia, 211; pur- 
chases, 233 
Chandler, J. E., 233 
Chapel, St. Mary's Community, 
made semi-public, 208, 215, 233; 
drive for funds for, 226; need of 
college, 314; semi-public, in au- 
ditorium, 239; size protested by 
Fr. Gasson, 207; temporary 
"church," 239 n 
Chaplains, Boston College priests as, 

314 
Charter, Boston College, broadened, 
1907, 186; granted, 64; in Mc- 
Elroy Diary, 42; no religious dis- 
crimination in, 98; petition for, 
63; property limitations in, 64; 
read at commencement, 1877, 
126; university, 244 
Chaucer Room, 242 
Chemistry, Department of, 289; in 

ESMDT, 288 
Chemistry and Biology building 

sought, 226 
Chemistry laboratory course, 160 
Chestnut' Hill, 1870, 268; Reservoir, 

183; site purchased, 186 
Cheverus, Bishop Jean Louis de, 4 



342 



INDEX 



Chicago, Conference ... of Catholic 

Coheges at, 175; education meet- 
ing, 1899, 166 
Childs, Mayor Edwin O., 218, 232; 

breaks ground for Library, 233 
Chime clock, in Tower, 204 
Choir, college, 84; student, 100 
Church of England, T. I. Gasson's 

training in, 180 
Church history, Fr. Devitt's studv 

of, 156 
Church property, reduced rates for, 

35 
Church site protested, 24 ff 
Cicaterri, Rev. Charles, S.J., 54, 181; 

retreats by, 57 
Cicognani, Archbishop A. G., 301 
' "Circular to Parents," 86 f 
Citation, Annual, 309 
City Council on Jail Lands, 23 £F 
Civil Aeronautics Administration, 

287 
Civil pilot training, 287 
Civil War, e£Fects on scholasticate, 

58; Fr. Stack's remembrances of, 

141; sympathies, Boston College, 

51; threat of, 50 
Clarke, Rev. William F., S.J., 175 n 
Class routine, 1880, 128 
Class schedule, 1864, 78 f; 1868, 97 
Classes, first, at Chestnut Hill, 199 
Classical course, departure from, 

1890, 148; prospectus on, 86 
Classics, place of, 315 
Classroom building, temporary, 310 
Cloister, Gothic, 261 
Club, Cathohc, 1866, 93; Philama- 

theia, 209 
Cockran, Hon. W. Bourke, 178; ad- 
dress, 1908, 187 
Coghlan, Rev. Thomas I., 227 
Cohasset villa, building at, 261; gift 

for, 211 
Coins, collection of rare, 277 
College, opening deferred, 1860, 45; 

opening on new site, plans for, 

190 
"College Advertiser,'' 94 n 
College of Arts and Sciences, need 

of classroom building, 314; record 

enrollment, 1947, 310 
College of Business Administration, 



257 f, 259, 305; acquires O'Con- 
nell Hall, 282; building, 314; in 
ESMDT, 288; new building, 
310 f; record enrollment, 194/, 
310 

College department formed, 1898, 
167 

College Hall, 1890, 147; fund meet- 
ing at, 187; opened 1875, 116 

"College Register," 327 n 

Collegium Bostoniense Inchoatum, 
107 

Collins, P. A., 153 

Colombia, expedition to, 274 

Colors, blessing of, 291 

Commencement, 1913, 202; 1921, 
232; 1924, 234; 1927, 251; 1928, 
240; 1945, 305; first annual, 81 ff; 
first mid-winter, 295; November, 
1943, 300; program of first, 1865, 
329 f; second, 92 

Commercial course, 145 

Commission on Studies, Interprov- 
ince, 263 

Committee, City of Boston School, 
approves education course, 245 f ; 
on Education, War Department, 
letter, 220 n 

Committee Room, Library, 242 

Common Council, Boston, 24 ff 

Commons Room, Undergraduate, 
293, 294 

Commonwealth Avenue site for col- 
lege, 183 

Commonwealth of Massachusetts, 
blessing on people of, 191 

Communism, Fr. Gallagher observer 
of, 263 

Confederacy, Stack's service with, 
141; sympathy for, 90 

Conference ... of Catholic Colleges, 
175 

Congregationalist church, Library 
stone from, 240 

Congressional Record, 222 n 

Connolly, Msgr. Arthur L., 268 

Connolly, Rev. Terence L., S.J., 
267 n; forms Thompson Collec- 
tion, 266 f; visits England, 267 

Constitutional history, 178 

"Constitutions, Philomatheia Club," 
209 n 



INDEX 



343 



Contracts, building, 1915, 209 
Convocations, special, 304 f , 309 
Conway, Katherine E., 32 n 
Conway, Rev. William J., S.J., 
180 n, 194 n, 195 n, 200 n; on 
buUding difficulties, 195 
Coolidge, Calvin, 229, 283 
Co-operative plan. School of Educa- 
tion, 244 ff 
Corliss, Rev. William V., S.J., 223 
Cornerstone box, contents, 202 n 
Cornerstone laying, church and col- 
lege, 37; Library Building, 234; 
Science Building, 233; Tower 
Building, 201 f 
Corporation, first meeting of, 64 f 
Corporation charter changed, 1907, 

186 
Corrigan, Rev. Jones I. J., S.J., 

death of, 270 
Costin, Rev. Michael, S.J., 53 
Counseling Board, 1941, 290 
Courses, war, 291 

Courses Leading to the Baccalau- 
reate (Brosnahan), 176 n 
Coveney, Rev. John W., S.J., 208 
Cox, Channing H., 230 
Credit, college, to Sisters, 248 
Creeden, Rev. Jolin B., S.J., dean of 
Graduate School, 251; director of 
Downtown Center, 253; regent. 
Law School, 252 
Crimea, Vatican Mission to, 263 
Cronin, Ellen M., 247 n 
Cronin, Frank, 225 
Crossett, Lewis A., 262 
Crucifixion group, statue, 234 
Cunningham, Henry V., 229 
Curley, Hon. James M., 214 
Curriculum, SATC, 218 f ; School of 
Education, 1919, 245; war, 291, 
294 
Curtis family, 180 
Cushing, Most Rev. Richard J., 334; 
contributes to building fund, 307; 
convocation honoring, 305; hono- 
rary degree to, 305; life of, 301 f ; 
named Archbishop, 301 

Dartmouth College, 171 
Daugherty, Harry M., 283 
Day of Reflection, 1942, 292 



Dead, war, listing of, 335; masses 
for, 303 f 

Debate, first intercollegiate, 161; 
training, 310; with Harvard, 1938, 
279 

Debating Society, 112; 1868, 100; 
formed, 128 n; Fulton title adopt- 
ed, 158; W. H. O'ConneU in, 128 

Decorations, military, to alumni, 314 

Dedication, Immaculate Conception 
Church, 43; Library Building, 
240; Tower Building, 200 

Defense, national, 285, 286 ff; Train- 
ing Program, 288 

Deferments, draft, 289, 290; of sci- 
ence majors, 1943, 295 

Degree, honorary, to Admiral Mur- 
ray, 305; to Archbishop Cushing, 
305; Bishop Shaughnessy, 309; 
Marshal Foch, 233 

Degrees, conferrable under charter, 
64; granted first time, 124; grant- 
ing of deferred, 1870, 111; nvm^ 
ber of advanced, awarded, 1920- 
1927, 247 

Delaney, Most Rev. John B., 334 

Delays in construction, 1912, 197 

de Moreira, Manuel, 178 

Denomy, Rev. Alexander J., 309 

Department of Practice and Train- 
ing, 245 

Departure ceremonies, 1942, 294; 
for ASTP, 299 

Depression, effects on college, 263 

Devens, Fort, 295 

Devitt, Edward I., S.J., xiv, xv, xv n, 
31 n, 106, 333; attends debate, 
162; on college debt, 1863, 68; 
criticism of building alterations, 
1890, 147 f; diary, 153 n; "His- 
tory," 53 n, 65, 78 n, 113 n, 139 n, 
148 n, 156 n; on Latin School, 
38 n; life of, 155; president, 154; 
vice-rector, 153 

Devlin, Rev. William, S.J., 222 n, 
333; circular to alumni, 228 n, 
232 n; letter to alumni, 1919, 
224 n; letter to alumni, 1925, 
238 n; letter to akunni on build- 
ing fund, 1920, 226; letter on 
alumni drive, 226 n; letters to 
Provincial, 249 nn; life of, 224; 



344 



INDEX 



Marshal Foch visit, 232; opens 
Summer School, 249; plans for 
School of Education, 244; presi- 
dent, 223 
Diary, Fr. Fulton's, 75 n; McElroy, 
order of dates in, 42; OflBcial Col- 
lege, 290 n 
"Diary of the College, 1866-1885," 

117 n 
"Dick Whittington," 212 
Dinand, Most Rev. Joseph N., S.J., 

208, 334 
Dining Hall building in plans, 1909, 

190 
Dining Room, Students', Tovi^er 

Building, 307 
Diocesan archives, Boston, 16 n, 

18 n, 20 n, 22 n 
Diocesan seminary, early, Boston, 4 
Directory of pupils, 1868, 100 
Divinity, School of, affiliated, 252 
Doherty, Rev. John F., S.J., dean 

of Graduate School, 254 
Doherty, Rev. Joseph C, S.J., 275 n; 

276 f 
Dolan, Rev. James H., S.J., 333; 
announces opening of Law School, 
252; athletic program under, 264; 
at dedication of Library, 240; 
enlarges St. Mary's Hall, 260; life 
of, 238; president, 238; on war 
program, 292 
Donahoes Magazine, quoted, 121 n 
Donaldson, George, 290 
Don John III, letter to, 271 
Donnelly, Charles Francis, 31 n 
Donnelly Memorial portraits, 267 
Donnelly, Mrs. Edward C, 267 
Doody, Rev. Michael J., 227, 228 n 
Dooley, Dennis A., dean of Law 

School, 252 
Dooley, Rev. Patrick J., S.J., 47, 

47 n, 49 n, 58 n 
Doonan, Mrs. James, S.J., 77, 89, 

90, 131 n 
Dorchester, Mass., 230, 262 
Dormitories, temporary, 307 
Dougherty, Rev. Manassas P., 157 
Dowd, Mary, 212 
Downtown Center, 253 
Doyle, Catherine, 181 



Doyle, Dr. Harry, 290 
Doyle, Frances X., 212 
Draft, 1917, 216; 1940, 289; 1940, 
registration of college students, 
292 f 
Drama, program of first college, 330 
Dramatic Arts Course, 310 
Dramatic society, Boston College 
Athenaeum, 158; play, 1938, 279; 
workshop, 284 
Dramatics, 1868, 100; 1877, 125; 
O'Connell, W. H., interest in, 
128; Passion Play, 213 
"Dreamwold," 262 
"Drift toward Non-Catholic Col- 
leges," 166 
Drill, military, 109 ff, 113 f 
Drive, alumni building fund, 1920, 
226; 1946, 307; building fund, 
1921, plans for, 228 f; for funds 
1863-1864, 68 f; 1908, 187; 1921, 
238 flf; to pay church debt, 42; 
results, 230; War Fund, 301 
Drum, John D., 149 
Drum, Rev. Walter, S.J., 202 
Dublin, 130; Jesuit church in, 11 
Dullea, Rev. Maurice V., S.J., 216 
Dunigan, Rev. David R., S.J., 5 n, 

6 n, 304 
Duvemey, Rev. Joseph, S.J., 50, 52, 

54 
Dzierozynski, Very Rev. Francis, 
S.J., 15 nn 

"Eagle" selected mascot, 225 

Education, aims of Jesuit, 160; 
Catholic, legislative investigation 
of, 31 n; Catholic, plea for 
changes in, 166; curriculum, 1919, 
245; early Catholic in Boston, 4; 
Massachusetts Legislative Com- 
mittee on, 64; School of, planned, 
244 ff; School of, superseded, 251; 
veteran, 303 

Edwards, Maj. Gen. Clarence R., 
220 

Edwards, Rev. Allen T., 180 

Eldridge, E. S., 186 

Elections affected by college, case, 
28 f 

Eliot, Dr. Charles W., article re- 



INDEX 



345 



lerring to Jesuit education, 172 f ; 
of Dr. Eliot, 175; explanation of 
Harvard action, 170 ff ; letter to 
Fr. Lehy, 169 n 

Eliot School Controversy, 7 

Eliot-Mullan correspondence, 170 ff 

Elizabethan house purchased, 310 

Emergency Recovery Act, Federal, 
269 

Emig, Rev. John, S.J., 65 

Emmett, Most Rev. Thomas A., 306, 
,334 

Emmitsburg, Sisters of Charity, 11 

Endicott Schoolhouse, 20 

"Engineering, Science and Manage- 
ment Defense Training," 288 

English, course in planned, 117; 
course in, reorganized, 1895, 160; 
in curriculum, 1865, 86; plea for 
advanced courses in, 167 

English Catholic poets, study of, 266 

English composition prize, 1868, 99 

English Department, 266; 1890, 
149 n; formed, 1898, 167 

English high school, establishment 
of, 148 if 

English School at St. Mary's Church, 
40 

Enghsh textbook, 1864, 80 

Enlistments, 1917, 216; 1942, 293 

Enrolhnent, 1875, 117; 1879, 129; 
1884-1886, 139; 1907, 185; 1913, 
202; 1914, 209; 1947, all-time 
high, 310; analysis of first, 79; 
decline in, 1904, 179; Graduate 
School, 1926, 251; growth in, 88; 
limited by space, 1899, 167; at 
opening of college, 77 f ; prewar, 
312; record increase in, 1911, 196; 
reduced by war, 1918, 217; 
spring, 1945, 304; wartime loss 
in, 1944, 300 

Entrance procedures, modifications 
in, 280 

Erbacher, Sebastian Anthony, xiv 

ESMDT courses, 288 

Ethics, professional, course, 1912, 
197 

Ethnology, Fr. Williams' lecture on, 
269 

Euripides exposition, 237 



Ewing, Rev. J. F., S.J., 276 f 
Exammations, changes in entrance, 

280; entrance, 1868, 98; public, 

1865, 329; qualifying, for ASTP, 

295; term, 99 
Exhibition, fifth annual, 100; first 

annual, 81 ff; program of first, 

329 f ; second annual, 92 
Expedition to South America, 274; 

second, 275 
Expedition to Syria, 275 
Extension course to Sisters, 1923, 

250 
Extension School, formation of, 254; 

merged with Junior College, 254 



Faculty, Jesuits as chaplains, 314; 

oflF-campus residence of Jesuit, 

1943-1944, 296 f 
Faculty Building Fund, 204 
Faculty Panel radio programs, 309 
Faculty residence, description of, 

214 f; extension to, 260; need of, 

204 f; opening of, 214; plans for, 

207; plans for temporary, 190 
"Faculty and Students at Boston 

College," 129 n 
Fair, second, announced, 91; third 

college, 1889, 145 
Fair Grounds, Harrison Avenue, 89 
Farren, Joseph H., 123 n, 132 n, 

162 n 
Federal Emergency Recovery Act, 

269 
Federal Public Housing Authority, 

307 
Fees, 1864, 74 
Fence, Beacon Street, 272 
Fenway Park, football games at, 266 
Fenwick, Bishop Benedict J., 9, 16, 

312; death of, 18; intentions for 

college in Boston, 15 
Field, athletic, 1898, 163 f; opened, 

212; sale aids new college, 164 
Finan, Col. B. F., 113 
Finances, difficulties with, 91; at 

start of college, 36; situation in 

1861, 43; under Fr. Brosnahan, 

161 
First classes at college, 78 



J46 



INDEX 



First Corps Area, visit by officers 
of, 298 

Fisher, Dr, Clarence S., 277 

Fitton, Rev. James, 5; directs Latin 
School, 38 

Fitzgerald, Mayor John F., 202, 232 

Fitzpatrick, Bishop John B., 2, 20 n, 
69, 124; breaks ground for col- 
lege, 36; on establishment of 
school, 20 ff; fovinds early schools, 
4 f ; fimds raised by, 83; interest 
in Latin School, 38; on Jail Lands 
sale, 30; at laying of cornerstone, 
37; letter of approval, 19 f; 
"Memoranda," 22 n, 28 n, 30 nn, 
31 n; petitions City Council, 26 f; 
succeeds to See of Boston, 18 

Fitzpatrick, Jimmie, 225 

Fitzpatrick, Mr. Peter P., S.J., 77, 
89, 90 

Flaget, Bishop Benedict J., 12 

Foch, Marshal Ferdinand, visit of, 
232 

Foley, Most Rev. Maurice P., 334 

Football "boM^l" games, 285; games 
at Heights, 264; Holy Cross game, 
1914, 213; victory over Yale, 224 

Football field opened, 212 f 

Ford Tower, 241 

Fordham University, 60, 166, 262, 
278, 281; Fr. McGuinn at, 255; 
football game, 1932, 265; scholas- 
ticate at, 47 

Fortier, Rev. Matthew L., S.J., 199; 
opens post-graduate classes, 197 

Foster, Maj. Gen. J. G., 109 

Foster Cadets, discontinuance of, 
113; fonnation of, 109 f; origin of 
title, 109 f 

Fouhy, Virginia, 212 

Founding of college commemorated, 
279 f 

Franzoni, F., 203 n 

Frederick, Md., juniorate, 77; novi- 
tiate, 10, 16, 53, 76, 102, 131, 
155, 159, 182, 206, 224 

Free tuition, 1899, 168 

French Academy, 279 

French scholasticate at Fordham, 47 

Freshman Field, barracks on, 1918, 
218; recreation building on, 308; 
temporary dormitories on, 307 



Friary, Rev. Walter F., S.J., dean of 
Boston College Intown, 254 

Fuller, Hon. Alvan T., address. Li- 
brary dedication, 240 

FuUerton, Rev. Francis D., S.J., 158 

Fulton, Rev. Robert, S.J., 2, 67, 
259, 312, 333; address at first 
commencement, 84; admission of 
W. H. O'ConneU by, 126; an- 
nouncement of drill by, 109; ap- > 
peal for support of high school, 
148 ff, 150 n; appointment of f ak 1 
scholarships, 95; arrangements foki^ 
first graduation by, 125; assigned 
to Boston, 53; assigned to New 
York, 131; author of catalogue, 
100; building alterations by, 115; 
bust of, by Willmore, 132; on 
college debt, 68; on college rebel- 
lion, 112; conducts church debt 
appeal, 104; criticism of altera- 
tions under, 147 f ; dedicates 
YMCA wing, 153; "Diary," 69 n, 
73 n, 75 n, 94 n, 95 n, 100 n, 
101 n, 104 n, 107 n, 109 n, 117, 
117 n, 125 n, 126 n, 129 n, 130 n, 
132 n; enlargement of library, 
157; eulogy on John Boyle 
O'Reilly, 153; farewell tribute to, 
131 f; first prefect of studies, 75; 
on first students, 78; founder of 
Debating Society by, 100, 128 n; 
on growth of enrollment, 88; on 
improvement of school, 100; in- 
fluence of, 139; institutes English 
high school course, 148 ff; later 
career, 77 n; leaves Boston, 1890, 
163; life of, 75 ff; lists of texts, 
81, 327, 327 n; multiple duties 
of, 108; organizes YMCA, 118; 
praised as Prefect by Fr. Bapst, 
84; president, 107; regulations for 
students by, 116 f; report, prais- 
ing teachers, 90; retires from pres- 
idency, 129 f ; routine activities of, 
101; "Rules for Teachers," 96 f; 
on second fair, 94; second presi- 
dency, 1869, 101; second term as 
president, 144 ff; YMCA, 93 

Fulton Debating Society, 204; name 
adopted, 158; origin of, 100 

Fulton Medal founded, 132 



IND&4: 



347 



Fulton Room, 204 
Funds, appeal for, 1863, 68; drive 
for, 1869, 103 

Gager, F. Malcolm, 288 

Gallagher, Rev. Louis J., S.J., 204, 
333; athletic program under, 264; 
vi'ith Cardinal Pacelli, 273; dedi- 
cates gate, 272; letter from Bishop 
Lawrence to, 268; life of, 262^; 
plans school of Social Work^^^S; 
president, 262; retires fsem pre&iy 
dency, 278; in Russia, 263; on 
Xavier letter, 272 

Games, first annual spring, 137 

Gannon, Rev. William F., S.J., 333; 
appointed president, 178 

Gargan, Mrs. Helen, donation to Li- 
brary, 239 

Gargan, Thomas J., 239 

Gargan Hall, 242; Library, 239 

Garraghan, Rev. Gilbert J., S.J., xv, 
XV n, 12 n, 15 n, 56; Middle States, 
46 n, 49 n, 57 n; "Origins," 8 n, 
31 n, 41 n, 45 nn, 59 n, 63 n, 72 nn, 
102 n, 103 n 

Garrod, Dorothy, 276 

Garth, St. Mary's, 261 

Gasson, Rev. Thomas I., S.J., 259, 
333; approves post-graduate 
classes, 197; Archbishop O'Gon- 
nell suggests site to, 186 n; assists 
at cornerstone laying, 202; build- 
ing difficulties of, 195; dedicates 
Tovi'er Building, 200; judge of 
architects' competition, 188; life 
of, 180 S; ordained, 182; on plans 
for Faculty Residence, 207; pres- 
ident, 179; psychology lectures 
by, 199; purchase of Tower Bells, 
204; refusal to sell new site, 196; 
retires from presidency, 205; sells 
Massachusetts Avenue tract, 195; 
suggests new location for college, 
183; visit to Archbishop O'Connell 
on new location for college, 185; 
visits colleges for plan sugges- 
tions, 188 

Gaston Hall, Georgetown University, 
199 

Gate, dedication of, 272 

Gavin, Patricia, 212 



Gelanis, Rev. Raphael, S.J., 53 
General Archives, Society of Jesus, 

Rome, xiv, xv 
General congregation, Jesuit, Fr. 

Fulton at, 144 
General Education in a Free Society, 

176 n 
Geoghan, Rev. John J., S.J., 200 n; 

rector di Boston College High 

School, 223 
,€eor^town College, 9, 10, 11, 16, 

60, 61, 76, 77, 90, 142, 159; first 

intercollegiate debate, 161; scho- 

lasticate at, 47 
Georgetown University, 156, 166, 

169, 189, 199, 238, 263; archives, 

xiv, 44, 53 n, 55, 75 n, 83, 94 n, 

125 n, 134 n, 153 n, 156, 156 n, 

161 n, 329 n 
German Academy, 279 
Germania Band, 84 
Gibbons, James Cardinal, 224, 238, 

262 
Gilmore's Band, 94 
Golden Jubilee Fund, 202 
Gonzaga College, Washington, D. C, 

144, 155, 159, 206 
Gould, Arthur L., 246 n 
Government aid to students, 269 
Grades, academic, system of, 1868, 

98 
Grades, titles of early, 82 
Graduate degrees, in Education, 

244 ff; offered, 1884, 139 
Graduate division, reorganization of, 

250 ff 
Graduate School, 259; enrollment, 

1926-1927, 251; enrollment, 1947, 

310; moved to campus, 254; rec- 
ords, 198 n; title first employed, 

250 
Graduates, first, 1877, 124 
Graduation, first mid-winter, 1943, 

295 
Graham, Edward T. P., 189 
Grammar, English, 1864, 80 
Grandstand, 1915, 212 
Grandstands, Alumni Field, 1932, 

264; capacity of, 265 
Grassi, Rev. John A., S.J., 10 
"Great Art Gift," 203 n 
Great Britain, war vidth, 10 



348 



INDEX 



Greek Academy, 237 
Greek requirement dropped, 270 
Gresslin, Rev. Charles, S.J., 52, 54 
Grimes, Virginia, 212 
Ground training curriculum, 287 
Growth of college, 1874-1875, 114 
Guerin, Dr. Frederick J., 288 
Guida, Rev. John, S.J., 54 
Guidance Center, V. A., 304 
Guidance for veterans, 303 f 
Guilday, Peter, 12 n 
Guiney, Gen. P. R., 113, 113 n 
Gwydr Hall, 282 

Gymnasium, 1869, 105; 1875, 115; 
1890, 147; begun, 1868, 99; drive 
for, 307; lack of, 1904, 314; need 
of, 314; YMCA, made classroom, 
165 

Hadrian, coins from reign of, 277 

Hall of Fame, Irish, 191 ff 

Halloran, Florence J., 142 n 

Hamilton Grammar School, 278 

Hanrahan, Rev. Nicholas, S.J., 53 

Hanselman, Very Rev. Joseph, S.J., 
183 n, 186 n, 190 n, 205 n; cor- 
respondence, 185 n; visit to Arch- 
bishop O'Connell, 185 

Harding, Rev. Michael J., S.J., dean, 
Boston College Intown, 255 

Harrison Avenue, development of, 
34; site purchased, 31; site sold, 
33 

Hartt, RoUin Lynde, 213 n 

"Harvard and the Jesuit Colleges," 
169 n 

Harvard University, 38, 103, 179, 
233, 235; accrediting controversy, 
168 ff, 176 f ; courses leading to 
the Baccalaureate, 176 n; debate 
with, 279; graduate school ad- 
missions explained, 168; Widener 
Library loans, 266 

Harvard University Catalogue, 
1899-1900, 169 n; law school list 
in, 177 

Hasenfus, Nathaniel J., xiv n, 135 n 

Haverford College, 171 

Hayes, Frank, 208 

Healy, Rev. James A., 37 

Heaney School, 4 

Hearn, Rev. David W., S.J., 188 



Heights, The, founded, 225; women 
in education classes at, 249 

"Heights, University," title given, 
1908, 187 

Herbert, Victor, 230 

Hickey, Rev. Augustine F., organ- 
izes courses for Sisters, 247 ff, 
248 n; summer school, 249 

Hierarchy, Members of, who attend- 
ed Boston College, 306, 334 

Higgins, Rev. Edward A., S.J., 53 

High School, classes at Heights, 302; 
enrollment, 1907, 185; plans for, 
1888, 145; title first used, 152 

Hill, Rev. Walter, S.J., 53 

"Historta Collegii Bostoniensis," 
144 n 

"Historia Domus, 1899-1902," 177 n 

Historical Account of Church in 
New England, 35 n 

Historical Sketch of Catholic Paro- 
chial Schools in . . . Boston, 5 n 

History, plea for courses in, 166 f 

"History of the Maryland-New York 
Province," xv, 65 n, 78 n 

Holland, Rev. Frederick, S.J., 53 

Hohnes, Dr. Henry W., 298 

Holy Cross Cathedral, Boston, 16 

Holy Cross College, 6, 17, 20, 74, 
76, 107 n, 125, 142, 153, 155, 
166, 169, 175, 196, 208, 238, 281, 
292, 306; charter of, 98; charter 
refused, 6; Fr. Bapst at, 49; Fr. 
Brady rector, 102; founded, 5; 
game, 1915, 213; game, 1932, 
265; prospectus, 1844, 6 n; revi- 
sion of studies, 270; scholastics 
vacation at, 60; teacher shortage, 
45 

Holy Cross Seminary, 5 f ; distribu- 
tion of students in 1849, 6 

Honor Roll blessed, 293 

Honors bestowed by college, 304 f 

Honors course, 270 

Home, Charles F., 222 n 

Hospital land as site, 32 

Hot Springs, Ark., Fr. Fulton at, 153 

Houses of study affiliated, 252 

Hughes, Archbishop John, 12, 13 n 

Hughes, Edward F., 309 

Hughes, John T., collection, 308 

Hughes, Thomas J., 309 



INDEX 



349 



Hunter, Rev. George, 2 n 

Ideals of students, 1866, 90 

Illustrated Boston, 34 n 

Immaculate Conception, dogma de- 
fined, 1854, 53 

Immaculate Conception Church, 
xiv, 53, 67, 73, 102 n, 130, 184; 
appeal to congregation of, 1888, 
145; basement remodeled, 138; 
Carney funeral at, 71; Carney 
legacy to, 71; club, 1866, 93; 
commencement at, 1943, 295; 
contributions to new college, 195; 
conveyed to corporation by Fr. 
McElroy, 65; debt reduced, 1869, 
104; dedicated, 43; Fr. Bapst 
farevi^ell at, 103; Fr. Maguire at, 
191; illuminated by electricity, 
1863, 54; Red Mass in, 284; site, 
cemetery at, 89; student singing 
at, 100; Sunday School diary, 94 n 

Immigration of Irish Catholics to 
Boston, 3 

Improvements in college, 1870, 109 

Incorporation of college, 62 

Induction of reservists, 1942, 293 

Influence of the Boston Athenaeum, 
157 n 

Institute of Adult Education, 309; 
formed, 305 

Intercollegiate Peace Association, 
212 

International Congress of Anthropo- 
logical Sciences, 269 

International Institute of African 
Languages and Cultures, 270 

Intolerance against Catholics, 7; an- 
swer to, 312; 1834, Ursuline Con- 
vent, burning of, 5 

Intown, Boston College, enrollment, 
1947, 301; reorganization of, 
254 f, 279; School of Nursing at, 
309 

Intramural sports, 1905, 178 

Ireland, Wm. Devlin in, 224; Fr. 
Gallagher in, 263; Hughes' collec- 
tion on, 308 f ; Jesuit Province of, 
77 n; penal laws in, 8 

Irish Canadians in scholasticate, 50 

Irish immigrants, 313 

Irish literature collection, 269 



Irish Province, S.J., Fr. Fulton vis- 
itor to, 144 
Irish schoolmasters, 5 
"Iron Major," 225 
Italian Academy, 279 

Jail Lands episode, beneficial results 
of, 36; litigation, 25 If ; plan of, 
22 n; purchased, 22 ff; restrictions 
on, 23 f ; sold to city, 29 

Janalik, Rev. Aloysius, S.J., 37, 54 

Japan, war with, 286 

Jenkins, Rev. Charles, S.J., 49, 53 

Jessup, Rev. Michael, S.J., 208, 210, 
223 

Jesuit college seals, 242 

Jesuit community, wartime resi- 
dences of, 296 f 

Jesuit faculty, as chaplains, 314; re- 
turn to St. Mary's, 302 

Jesuit General archives, Rome, 31 n 

Jesuit Houses of Studies affiliated, 
252 

Jesuit institution on Harvard Law 
School hst, 169 

Jesuit Schools in New England, Fr. 
Murphy director of, 281 

Jesuit Seminary, 277 

Jesuit students, enrollment, 1947, 
310 

Jesuits, arrival in Boston, 18; in- 
vited to found school, 1811, 4; 
purpose of, in Boston, 312; re- 
established in U. S., 9 

Jordan Valley, 276 

JubUee, Golden, of Cardinal O'Con- 
nell, 269 

Judges of architects' competition, 188 

Junior College formed, 254 

Junior Philomatheia Club, 212 

Keating, Rev. Edward J., S.J., 189, 

305 
Keely, P. C, architect, 35 
Keenan, Peter, 132 n 
Keleher, Rev. William L., S.J., 333; 

building problems, 311; life of, 

306; president, 306 
Kelleher, Most. Rev. Louis F., 304 f, 

334 
Kelley, Rev. James J., S.J., 257 



350 



INDEX 



Kelly, Capt. Andrew B., 221 
Kelly, Joseph E., 203 n 
KeUy, Rev. Stephen, S.J., 53 
Kenealy, Rev. William J., S.J., at 

Red Mass, 284 
Kenrick, Archbishop Francis P., 77 
Kilbe, Parke Rexford, 218 n 
Kilroy, Rev. James M., S.J., 195 n 
Kimball Building, 253 
Kirby, John J., 162 
Knights of Columbus, aid to SATC, 

219 
Know-Nothing Movement, 89; in 

Maine, 1852, 48 
Know-Nothings, on City Council, 

28; oppose college site, 26 
Kramer, Mrs., 87 
Ksar 'Akil excavations, 276 f 

Labor, Fr. Boursaud's sympathy for, 
139 

Laboratory course in chemistry, 160 

Lafayette College, 171 

Laforme, Joseph A., 70 f 

Lamson, Col. Daniel S., gift to li- 
brary, 157 

Lamson, John, 157 n 

Lamson collection, Georgetown Uni- 
versity Archives, 139 n 

Lancaster, Bro. Charles S., S.J., 
108 n, 109 n 

Lane, Rev. Charles, S.J., 203, 208 

Langcake, Rev. Augustus, S.J., 46 n, 
49 n, 50 n, 51 n, 53, 58 n, 60 n 

Language and Foreign Area course, 
ASTP, 298 

"Latin high school" sought, 167 

Latin School, at St. Mary's, 40; 
Sodality at, 38 

Latin textbooks, 1864, 79 

Latz, F. P., 204 n 

Lavalle, John, 267 

Lavelle, Thomas D., 212 

Lavery, Sir John, 267 

Lawrence, Amas A., 268 

Lawrence, Bishop William, letter on 
college site, 268 

Lawrence Brook, 311 

Lav^Tence Estate, purchase of, 186 

Lawrence Farm, 183; site of col- 
lege, 268 

Law School, 259; enrollment, 1947, 



310; Harvard, accrediting dispute, 
168 ff, 176 f; inaugurated, 252; 
sponsor of Red Mass, 284 

Lawson, Thomas W., 262 

Lawyers' Building, 253 

Lay students, opening of college re- 
quested for, 70; opening of col- 
lege for, 72 

Leahy, William A., 18 n 

Lebanese Government Expedition, 
277 

Lectures, Candlemas, 309 

Legislature, Massachusetts, and Col- 
lege charter, 63; in 1907, 186 

Lehy, Rev. John F., S.J., letter from 
Dr. Eliot, 169 n 

Lenox, Mass., 306; Jesuit House of 
Studies affiliated, 252; novitiate, 
310 

Liberal education, aims and methods 
of, 160 

Liberatore philosophy course, 54 n 

Library, anthropological, 275; ca- 
pacity, 242; Catliolic club, 1866, 
93; fee, 1868, 99 

Library, Boston College, 79; 1891, 
156; drive for books, 233; gifts 
to, 157, 268; holdings, 1894, 158; 
monograph on, by Devitt, 156 

Library Building, breaking ground 
for, 233; construction resumed, 
239; cornerstone laying, 234; ded- 
ication, 240; description, 240 S 

Life of Christ, 269 

Life of St. Ignatius, 267 

Liggett Estate, 258; purchased, 282 

Liggett, Louis K., 282 

Lincoln, Abraham, 50; Fr. McElroy 
likened to, 12; funeral procession, 
155; inauguration holiday, 56 

Lisbon, Xavier letter found in, 271 

"Literary Exhibition," 1877, 125 

Literature, philosophy of, course, 
1912, 197 

LiUerae Anntiae, 1861-1862, 58 n; 
1923, 233; 1925-1926, 239 n; 
J 936, 312 

Lodge, Henry Cabot, 230 

Lodge house as faculty residence, 
1909, 190 

Logue, Charles W., 189, 214; Build- 
ing Company, 209 



INDEX 



351 



London Anthropology Congress, 
1934, 269 

Long, Governor John D., 129, 131 

Long, Rev. John J., S.J., 211, 290; 
institution of Commons Rooms by, 
294 n; on V-7 plan, 291 

Lord, Rev. Robert H., 186 n 

Lord, Sexton and Harrington, His- 
tory of Archdiocese of Boston, 
4 nn, 5 n, 6 n, 7 n, 18 n, 22 n 

Lowell Institute, 309; Co-operative 
Broadcasting Council, 309 

Loyola College, Baltimore, 49, 76, 
90, 131, 141 n, 161, 182 

Lynch, Rev. Daniel J., S.J., 210, 232 

Lyons, Rev. Charles W., S.J., 244 n, 
333; approval of Philomatheia 
Club, 210; discontinues postgrad- 
uate courses, 198; lecture course, 
1923, 250; life of, 206; at opening 
of St. Mary's Hall, 215; on plans 
for Faculty Residence, 207; plans 
School of Education, 244; presi- 
dent, 205; Rector of Boston Col- 
lege High School, 223; retires 
from presidency, 223; on SATC, 
221; at SATC opening, 218 

Lytton, Hon. Neville, 267 / 

Maas, Very Rev. Anthony, S.J., 198 
n, 202, 207 n, 208 n, 214 n 

Macdonald, Rev. Alan, S.J., 53 

Maclaurin, R. C, 217 

Madonna del Gran Duca, 267 

Magazine, college, founded, 134 

Maggs of London, 272 

Maginnis, Charles D., account of 
competition, 188 n; at Library 
dedication, 240; at opening of 
St. Mary's Hall, 214; at organiza- 
tion of Philomatheia, 209; on 
stone in library, 240 n 

Maginnis and Walsh, architects, 207, 
260; design Business Building, 
311; plans for Science Building, 
227; wdnners of competition, 189 

Maguire, Rev. Bernard, S.J., 142 

Maguire, Rev. James L, S.J., 191, 
193 n 

Mahan, Rev. George S., S.J., 276 f. 

Maher, Mary A., 309 

Mahoney, Jeremiah, 301 



Major, Rev. James, S.J., 53, 67 

Malone, Bernard, 209 

Mann, Horace, 6 

Marcy, W. L., Secretary of War, 13 

Marine Corps Reserve, 286 

Marique, Mr. J. M. F., S.J., 237 

Marketing, courses in, B. C. Intown, 
305 

Marking, method of, 1868, 98 

Marriage, symposium on Catholic, 
279 

Marshall, Col. William M., 286 

Maryknoll, Bishop Walsh, founder 
of, 334 

Maryland, Catholics in, 2; Jesuit 
Province of, 17; student interest 
in, 1866, 90 

Maryland history, Fr. Devitt's study 
of, 156 

Maryland-Nevi^ York Province, S.J., 
202, 276; Wm. Devlin enters, 224 

Maryland Province, S.J., 46 n, 49, 
59, 60, 106; historical material, 
156; scholasticate, 47; support 
of scholasticate, 58 

Maryland Province, Society of Jesus 
archives, xiv, 30 nn, 39 n, 47 n, 
63 n, 66 n, 68 n, I'll n, 183 n, 
207 n; Baltimore, 169 n 

Mascot, "Eagle," selected, 225 

Mass, daily, required, 1868, 98; 
hearing of, in college chapel, 233; 
military, SATC, 219; music at, 
1868, 100; Votive, of Holy Spirit, 
284 

Massachusetts, approval of seminary 
degrees by state of, 252; Com- 
monwealth of, gift of military 
equipment, 1870, 109; constitu- 
tion of 1780, 2; legislature of, 6; 
Supreme Court of, 284 

Massachusetts Avenue property, 161; 
purchased, 163 

Massachusetts Institute of Tech- 
nology, 160, 217, 235 

Masses, memorial, for war dead, 
303 f 

Master of arts degree, in Education 
offered, 244; first conferred, 1877, 
139 n, 141 n; granted 1913-1915, 
198; holders prior to 1913, 139 n; 
offered, 1884, 139 



352 



INDEX 



Mathematics, Department of, in 
ESMDT, 288; new A.B. major, 
270; in war courses, 291 
Matignon, Rev. Francis A., 4 
Matriculation course, veterans', 303 
Maxwell, Rev. Joseph R. N., S.J., 

292 
Mazzella, Fr. Camillo, 128 
McAvoy, Rev. A. J., S.J., 51 n, 55 n, 

69 n, 71 nn; Bapst life, 70 n 
McCall, Gov. Samuel W., 220 
McCarthy, Dr. Eugene A., 191; 
organizes alumni association, 140 
McCloskey, Brother James, S.J., 52 
McCoi-mick, Rev. James T., S.J., 

195 n 
McElroy, Rev. John, S.J., 2, 22 n, 
34, 42 n, 43, 44 n, 61, 69 n, 75, 
243, 311, 312; aided by Carney, 
68; announcement of Brady ap- 
pointment by, 102 n; becomes 
Jesuit, 9; in Boston, 15; breaks 
ground for college, 36; contracts 
for college building, 35; conveys 
college, St. Mary's church to 
corporation, 66; credit refused, 
43; declines presidency, 65; on 
deferred opening, 45, 52; diary, 
8 n, 19 n; elected first president 
of Boston college, 62; elected 
vice-president, 65; encounters 
bigotry, 24; establishes elementary 
school, 19; friendship with Gov- 
ernor Rice, 125; guest at first 
commencement, 84; investigates 
hospital site, 32 f; investigates 
South End properties, 29 f; on 
lack of aid from St. Mary's, 
40; lays cornerstone for college, 
37, 38; leaves Boston, 1863, 67; 
life, 8 ff; on loans for buildings, 
41 flF; Mexican war chaplaincy, 8 
n, 12; named Pastor of St. Mary's, 
Boston, 18; on opening of college 
for lay students, 72; ordained, 10; 
plans school for boyS; 20; presents 
another petition, 28; proposes 
Jesviit college, 15 f; purchase of 
Otis School, 21; purchases Jail 
Lands, 23; purchases South End 
site, 31 ff; renews petition, 26 f; 



seeks college charter, 63 f; seeks 
removal of restrictions, 25; sells 
Jail Lands, 29; suggested for 
episcopacy, 12 n; supervises build- 
ing of college, 39; teacher of 
Brady, 102; title to college prop- 
erties in name of, 63; trustee, 65; 
urges opening of college for ex- 
terns, 58 f; work at Frederick, 
Md., 11 

McEvoy, Mrs., 44 

McFadden, Mr. George, S.J., 209 n, 
210 

McGarry, E. Leslie, 278 

McGarry, Julia Agnes, 278 

McGarry, Rev. WiUiam J., S.J., 333; 
addresses Alumni, 279; editor of 
Theological Studies, 280; forms 
College of Business Administra- 
tion, 257; library improvement 
under, 242; life of, 278; president, 
277; reorganization of Intown 
Division, 279; retires from presi- 
dency, 280 

McGan'ey, Anne, 181 

McGrady, Rev. Joseph E., S.J., 302 

McGuinn, Rev. Walter, S.J., plans 
School of Social Work, 255 

McHugh, Rev. Patrick J., S.J., dean, 
Junior College, and Arts College, 
254; death of, 270 

McLaughlin, Edward A., first presi- 
dent alumni association, 140, 141 
n, 202 

McLaughlin, Rev. Edward J., 225 

McNally, R. S. H., Mother Charlotte, 
181 

McQuaid, Rev. Patrick, S.J., 53 

Meagher, Rev. Walter J., S.J., 6 n 

Mechanics' Building, College Ball at, 
123 

M. Ed., degree approved, 246 

Medal of Honor of Lebanese Merit, 
277 

Medical degrees, authority to grant, 
186 

Mela, Titular Bishop of, 302 

Mellyn, Rev. James F., S.J., 223 
dean of Graduate School, 251 
dean of School of Education, 245 
education lectures to Sisters, 248 



INDEX 



353 



lecture course by, 1923, 250; 
letters, 246 nn 
Meneely, Andrew E., 204 n 
Meneely and Co., 204 
Mercier, Desire Cardinal, 224 
JMetcalf, Rev. Theodore, 119 
Methods, teaching, 1867, 96 f 
Mexico, American army in, 13; 
pacification of Catholics in, 13 n 
Meynell, Alice, 267 
Meynell, Wilfrid, gifts of, 267 
Miles, General Perry, 298 
Military equipment, gift from state 

of, 112 
Military training, 1918, 217 If 
Millmore, Martin, 132, 132 n 
Minihan, Msgr. Jeremiah F., 186 n 
Minerals, collection of, 99 
Miraculous Medal enrollment of 

soldiers, 294 
Missal, gift of Cardinal Pacelli, 273 
Mission exhibits in museum, 275 
Missouri Province, S.J., 46 n; scho- 
lasticate, 47; scholastics at Boston, 
49 
Molyneaux, Rev. Robert, S.J., 9 
Monterey, Mexico, 13 
Montreal, 262 

Morale committee, 1942, 292 
Morgan, Rev. J., S.J., 102 n, 106 n 
Morrell and Wigglesworth, college 

contractors, 35 
Morris, Robert, 157 
Moscow, Vatican Mission to, 263 
Moses, Lieut. K. L., 286 
Moses, Senator George H., 283 
Moynihan, Rev. James F., S.J., 304 
M.S.S.W., degree awarded, 256 
Mt. St. James Academy, 38 
Mt. St. James Seminary, 5 
Mulcahy, Rev. Stephen A., S.J., 
armed forces representative, 293; 
at ASTP departure, 299; co- 
ordinator of ASTP, 296 
Mullally, Rev. John B., S.J., 53 
MuUan, Rev. W. G. Read, S.J., 333; 
on Harvard accrediting contro- 
versy, 168 ff; letter from Dr. 
Eliot, 169 n; life of, 166; on 
new site for college, 183; presi- 
dent, 166; reply to Dr. Eliot's 



letter, 170 f; report on athletic 
field, 164; report on Boston Col- 
lege prospects, 167; retires from 
presidency, 178 
Mulledy, Very Rev. Thomas, S.J., 

17 n 
Mullen, Rev. A. J. E., S.J., 147, 158 
MuUin, Francis R., 212 
MuUins, Capt. George, 112 
Mulry, Rev. Joseph A., S.J., 165 n 
Mural decorations, new college, 201 
Murphy, Mr. John J., S.J., 112 
Murphy, Rev. J. F. X., S.J., xv, xv n 
Murphy, Rev. Joseph W., S.J., 276 f 
Murphy, Rev. W. E., S.J., xv, xv n 
Murphy, Rev. William J., S.J., 270, 
333; on accelerated war program, 
292; at ASTP departure, 299; 
blesses Honor Roll, 293; at de- 
parture of Marines, 254; gives 
rooms to high school, 302; life of, 
281; offers college for ASTP, 296; 
president, 281; at Red Mass, 284; 
retires from presidency, 306; on 
veterans' course, 303; on war 
situation, 291 
Murray, Vice- Admiral George D., 

305 
Museum, anthropological, opened, 
274; gift of, 211; as Jesuit resi- 
dence, 1943-1944, 296 
Museum Building, 258 
Music Hall, Boston, 92; Fair at, 70 
Musical Clubs, concert, 1838, 279 

National Youth Administration 
(NYA), 269; aid to students, 269 

Navy, alumni in, honor Adm. 
Murray, 305 

Navy Reserve, 293 

Navy reservists, 289 

Navy V-7 plan, 291 

Navy Yard, Washington, D. C, 76 

Neale, Archbishop Leonard, 9 f 

Nevins estate, 183 

New England Province, S.J., 281; 
archives, xiv; Houses of Study 
affiliated at Boston College, 252 

Newspapers, lack of recognition by, 
107 

Newton, City of, land ceded to, 



354 



INDEX 



272; permit to build stands, 265 
Newton site purchased, 186 
Newton Street, property purchased, 

162 
New York-Canada Mission, S.J., 49, 

101 
New York Herald, 8 n 
New York Province, S.J., archives, 

xiv, 221 n; historical material, 156 
New York Sun, 169 
Night school classes, 1912, 197 
Nintli Regiment, M.VaM., 112 
Non-Catholic donors, 1869, 104 
Noon an loan, 62 
Normal school, city of Boston, 244, 

246; affiliated, 252 
Norton, Elliot, 309 
Norton, Michael, 38 
Novick, Brother Ignatius, S.J., 208 
Novitiate, affiliated, 252; at Lenox, 

Mass., 306 
Nugent, William D., 227, 228 n, 

229 
"Number of Students in Our Col- 
leges," 139 n 
Nursing, School of, 309 

Oberammergau Players, 234 
Oberlin College, 171 
O'Brien, Dr. John F., 187 
O'Brien, Rev. John A., S.J., 290 
O'Brien, Rev. Richard A., S.J., 232 
O'Connell, Daniel, Memorial Build- 
ing, 191; statue of, 192 
O'Connell, Mrs. Brigit, 127 
O'Connell, William Cardinal, 202, 
223, 332, 334; appointed to See 
of Boston, 185; approves change 
of location for college, 185; ap- 
proves education courses for Re- 
ligious, 247 f; approves School 
of Social Work, 255; breaks 
ground for Science Building, 232; 
chairman of drive, 229; choice 
of Chestnut Hill location, 186; 
confers first advanced degrees on 
Religious, 251; at cornerstone 
laying. Science Building, 233; 
creates St. Ignatius Parish, 239 n; 
death of, 301; dedicates Summer 
School, 249 f; donation to Alumni 



Drive, 1920, 226; donation to 
War Fund, 301; donations to 1921 
drive, 230; fund appeal to clergy, 
229; gift of O'Connell Hall by, 
282; Golden Jubilee, 269; lays 
cornerstone of Library Building, 
234; Letters, Recollections of, 127 
n, 128 n, 129 n; makes chapel 
semi-public, 233; at Mercier visit, 
224; message at fund meeting, 
1908, 187; at Red Mass, 284; 
registration information, 1879, 
127; requests summer school for 
women, 249; at 75th Anniversary 
Mass, 280; as student at Boston 
CoUege, 126 S 

O'Connell Hall, acquired, 282; Busi- 
ness School at, 258; cafeteria in, 
308 

O'Connor, Bishop of Pittsburgh, 53 

O'Connor, Rev. Jeremiah, 333; life 
of, 130 f; president, 130, 134 flF; 
retires from presidency, 137 

O'Connor, Rev. Michael, S.J., 53 

O'Donnell, Rev. George A., S.J., 
275; dean of Graduate School, 
254 

Office of Education, U. S., 288 

Officer training opportunities, 290 

Officers of Alumni Association, first, 
331 f 

Officers of college corporation, first, 
65 

"Official Report of the Treasurer," 
228 n 

O'Hare, Most Rev. William F., 334 

O'Loughlin, John, 239 

O'Malley, Lucille, 212 

O'Neill, Fr. Francis J., S.J., 38 n 

Opening of college, 1913, 199 

Opening day, 1864, 77 

Order of day, SATC, 219 

O'Reilly, John Boyle, 118; Fr. 
Fulton letter to, 148 ff; Fulton 
eulogy on, 153; poem to Fr. 
Fulton, 131; tribute to Fr. Fulton, 
131 

"Origins of Boston College," 15 nn; 
1842-1869, XV n, 8 n 

Orr, Father, 87 

Osservatore Romano, 203 n 



INDEX 



355 



Otis Schoolhouse, 20; purchased, 21 
"Our Scholasticate, 180S-1869," 
49 n 



Pacelli, Eugenio Cardinal, visit, 273 
Palestine, rare coins from, 277 
Papal Benediction to alumni, 279 
Papal Secretary of State visit, 273 
Pardow, Rev. William, S.J., 159 
Paresce, Very Rev. Angelo M., S.J., 
53, 54 n, 56 n, 59, 60 n, 61 n, 
62 n, 63, 64 n, 66 n, 67 nn, 68 n, 
69 n, 70 nn, 71 n, 83 n, 84 n, 
88 n, 90 n, 91 n, 103 n; closes 
scholasticate, 60; report on open- 
ing of Boston College for lay 
students, 72 
Parish rights for college, 184 f 
Parish school teachers, training of, 

247 ff 
Parke, Col. J. S., 218, 221 
Parker award for Science Building, 

235 
Parochial school, first in Boston, 4 
Passion Play, 213 
Passion Players', Oberammergau, 

visit, 234 
Patmore, Coventry, 267 
Pearl Harbor, 286, 290 
Peck, Prof. H. T., 174 
Pelletier, Hon. Joseph C, 202 
Penalties against Catholics, 2 
Permission to build college, 27 n 
Perry, Bliss, 173, 173 n, 174 
Peters, Mayor Andrew J., 230 
Petitions for college site, 25 f 
Phelan, James J., 229 
Philadelphia, 131; Fr. McElroy in, 

14 
Philodemic Debating Society, 199 
Philomatheia Ball, 1920, 226 
Philomatheia Club, 209 ff, 310; gift, 
1917, 214; gifts, 211; Junior, 212; 
lecture, 1938, 279; museum, gift 
of, 274; purchases chalet, 233; 
purchases Xavier letter, 272; at 
St. Mary's Hall dedication, 214 
Philomatheia Clubhouse, Greek 

Academy in, 237 
Philosophy, Class of 1880, 128; 



course in, postponed, 1870, 111; 
plea for better courses in, 167 

Physical training program, 1905, 178 

Physicians, alumni as, 313 

Physics, Department of, in ESMDT, 
288; instruments for course, 158; 
laboratory, gift, 211 

Pierce, Rev. Michael G., S.J., dec- 
oration of Commons Rooms by, 
294 n; institutes Veterans' course, 

- 303; issues war certificates, 304; 
purchase of surplus materials by, 
308 

Pilot, The, on building enlargement, 
1874, 114 f; on college altera- 
tions, 1875, 115; and college 
prospectus in, 73 f; Eliot-Mullan 
letters in, 176; on Fr. Fulton's 
appointment, 107; on first classes 
of college, 78; on first commence- 
ment, 83; on fund appeal, 1869, 
104; lack of notice in, 1865, 85; 
letter to, on YMCA, 118; list of 
awards, 92; microfilm copy, 74 n; 
on new college hall, 1875, 116; 
on scale of perpetual scholarships, 
87; on second commencement, 
93; on Second Fair, 94; on 
YMCA, 121 

Pilot training, 287 

"Pioneer Days at Boston College," 
35 n, 90 n 

Pius IX, Pope, 203 

Pius Xn, see Pacelli, Eugenio 
Cardinal 

Placement Bureau, 290, 292 

Plans for new college, 187; contest 
for, 188 

Plattsburg, B. C, scholarships at, 
211 

Plattsburg training camp, appoint- 
ments to, 216 

Play, annual French, 1902, 178; 
college, 1869, 100; Dramatic 
Society's, 1938, 279; first college, 
82; program of first college, 330 

Pledges to building fund, 1908, 187 

Polk, President James K., 12, 13, 
13 n 

Pontifical Bibhcal Institute, 278; 
Expedition, 276 



356 



INDEX 



Pontifical Institute of Medieval 

Studies, 309 
Post-graduate classes, 1912, 197 
Pouglikeepsie, N. Y., 238, 262, 278 
Power, Rev. James, S.J., 67 
Pray, Hubbard and White, 212 
Prefect of Schools, 84 
Prefect of Studies, autliority of, in 

academic matters, 100; first, 75; 

Provincial, directs, revision, 270 
Pre-legal courses, Downtown Center, 

253 
Prematriculation course, 303 
Preparatory department formed, 167 
Preparatory school, 4-year course, 

177 
President Eliot and Jesuit Colleges, 

174 n 
Presidents of Boston College, listing 

of, 333 
Priesthood, perpetual scholarships 

aids to, 87; vocations to, 313; 

vocations to, from college, 1875, 

117 
Priests, diocesan, at first graduation, 

125 
Prince, Mayor Frederick O., 131 
Princeton University, 174 
Private Schools Investigation BUI, 

31 n 
Prize at Commencement, 1865, 81 
Prize drill, 1872, 113 
Prizes for studies, 177 
Prize-winning plan for campus, 189 
Professional schools, beginning of, 

244 
Professors, Boston College, extension 

lectures by, 248 
Professorships planned, 1889, 167 
"Project of Common Scholasticate," 

46 n 
Property, Newton Street, bought, 

162 ' 
"Proposal for Financial Adjustment," 

195 n 
Prose . . . al Gruppo Rappresentante 

San Michele, 203 n 
Prospectus of college, 1864, 73 
Protestant petitions on college site, 

25 
Protestant reaction to Bapst attack, 

48 



Provincial, Jesuit, and correspond- 
ence with Fr. McElroy on open- 
ing of college, 59; permission for 
debate, 161; permission for dra- 
matics sought from, 82 f 

Provincial Archives, Woodstock, 
60 n, 61 n 

Psychology, class in physiological, 
160 

Public life, graduates in, 313 

Publicity, early efforts at college, 
83 

Punishment, misconduct, 1868, 99 

Purcell, Bishop John B., 12 

Quirk, Rev. John F., S.J., 208 
Quota system. Alumni 1920 drive, 

227 

Radio broadcasts, college, 309 
Ramsbottom, J. G., estate, 233 
Ranney, Ambrose A., 32 n 
Ratio Studiorum, 55 
Reading, annual prize for, 99 
Reading room, Library, donated, 

239 
Real estate, charter authority to 

hold, 186 
"Recent Changes in Secondary Edu- 
cation," 173 n 
Reception Room, Library, 242 
Recitation Building, approval for, 

190; dedication of, 200; opening 

of, 199 
"Records of the ROTC," 221 n 
"Records of the SATC," 218 n, 

219 n 
"Records of the Trustees of Boston 

College," 65 n, 66 n, 162 n, 163 

n, 186 n, 194 n, 195 n, 209 
Recreation building, temporary, 308 
Recreation center object of drive, 

307 
Recruiting of students, 1941, 290 
Rector, nominations for first, 72; 

title established, 107 
Rectors of Boston College, listing 

of, 333 
Redden, John D., xi 
Redfield estate, 282 
Red Mass, 284 
Refresher courses, ASTP, 297; 

veterans', 303 



INDEX 



357 



Register, official college, 106 

"Register of Students," 78 n, 88 n, 
89 n, 96 n, 127 n 

Registration, for draft, 292 f, 77 f, 
growth in, 88 

Reilly, Brother Andrew, S.J., 208 

Religion, no admission discrimina- 
tion because of, 98; removed from 
Massachusetts schools, 6 

Religious, graduate degrees con- 
ferred on, 251; higher education 
for, 247 

Religious expression, corporate, 310 

Religious instruction, college aim, 
73 

"Reminiscences," P. H. Callanan, 
105 

Requirements, for admission, 1864, 
73; 1868, 97; for graduate de- 
grees. School of Education, 246 

Research, lectures to promote, 309 

Reserve Officers' Training Corps 
(ROTC), 221; discontinuance of, 
221 

Reservoir on Lawrence Farm land, 
268 

Residentia, title of college, 1863, 67 

Resthouse, faculty, Cohassett, 261 f 

Rey, Rev. Anthony, S.J., 12; death 
of, 13 

Rice, Gov. Alexander H., aid to 
Boston College, 31 n; present at 
commencement, 1877, 125; sug- 
gests South End site, 31 

"Richard III" (1869), 100 

Richards, Rev. J. Havens, S.J., 161, 
189; attends intercollegiate de- 
bate, 162 

"Richelieu" produced, 1875, 116 

Ring, John D., 225 

Ritchie, electric light by, 55 

Roberts, Mrs. Vincent P., 209 n, 
210, 274 

Roberts, Vincent P., 227 

Rockwell, Very Rev. Joseph, S.J., 
221 n, 222 n, 223, 244 n, 226 n, 
249 nn 

Rocky Mountain Mission, 49 

Rodden, Rev. John, 37 

Roman coins, 277 

Rome, relics of B. Andrew brought 
to, 263 



Roothaan, Very Rev. John, S.J., 15 
n, 17, 18 n, 19 n; reply to Bishop 
Fitzpatrick, 20 

Royal Geographical Society, 270 

Rules, for students, 116 f; for 
teachers, Fr. Fulton's, 96 f 

Russia, Fr. Gallagher in, 262 

Russo, Rev. Nicholas, S.J., 333; 
books by, 143 n; librarian at 
college, 157; life of, 143; presi- 
dent, 142 f; president of W. H. 
O'Connell, 128; retirement from 
presidency, 144 

Rutgers College, 171 

Ryan, Most Rev. Edward F., 304 f, 
334 

Ryan, Rev. Abram J., poem in 
Stylus, 135 

Ryan, Rev. J. J., S.J., 49 n, 51 n, 
52 n, 53, 55 n, 57 n, 58 n, 61 n 

Ryan, Rev. John W., S.J., 140 n, 
309 

Sacred Heart, Religious of the, 181 
Sacred Heart Review, 174 
Sadlier's Catholic Almanac, 1871, 

107 n 
St. Aloysius Gonzaga, bell, 204; 

statue, 203 
St. Andrew-on-Hudson, 238, 262, 

278, 281 
St. Bonaventure, Life of Christ, 269 
St. Catherine's Guild, 204 
St. Cecilia Society, 112 
St. Charles' College, Maryland, 126 
St. Clement's College, Metz, 233 
St. Elizabeth's Hospital, 183 
St. Francis Borgia, 272 
St. Francis Xavier bell, 204; Col- 
lege, N. Y., 182, 189, 206; High 

School, 262 
St. Francis Xavier letter, 271; gift 

of, 211 
St. Ignatius Loyola, 55; bell, 204 
St. Ignatius Loyola Church, N. Y. 

C, 131 
St. Ignatius Parish, xiv, 241; created, 

239 n 
St. John Berchmans, 203; bell, 204 
St. John's College, Fordham, 169 
St. John's College, Frederick, Md., 

li, 76, 102 



358 



INDEX 



St. John's Free School, 11 

St. John's Literary Institute, 11 

St. John's Seminary, 302 

St. Joseph's CoUege, Philadelphia, 
Pa., 131, 206 f 

St. Joseph's School, Roxbury, 238 

St. Lawrence's Church, N. Y. C, 
131 

St. Louis, 107; scholasticate at, 47 

St. Mary of the Annunciation high 
school, 179 n 

St. Mary's Church, xiii, 20, 21, 30, 
155; aid dispute, 103 n; aid 
lacking to college, 91; assigned to 
Jesuits, 18; conveyed to corpora- 
tion by Fr. McElroy, 66; Fr. 
Brady at, 102; Fr. McElroy leaves, 
40; financial assistance from, 42; 
need of support from, 40; "prop- 
erty" of Fr. McElroy, 63; refusal 
to aid college, 102 n; return of 
Fr. Brady to, 106; Sodality of, 
38; transferred to corporation, 64 

St. Mary's College, Kentucky, 53 

St. Mary's Free School, 39 

St. Mary's Hall, as ASTP barracks, 
296; Cardinal PaceUi at, 273; 
chapel, 239; classes in, 226; 
description of, 214 f; ground 
broken for, 208; new wing, 260; 
occupation of, 215; opening of, 
214; reoccupied by Jesuit Faculty, 
1944, 300, 302 

St. Mary's Jubilee, 22 n 

St. Mary's School, 22, 90 

St. Michael Archangel, statue, his- 
tory of, 201, 203 

St. Stephen's School, 180 

St. Thomas Aquinas, 128; statue, 
203 

St. Thomas Aquinas College, 179 

St. Valentine's Total Abstinence 
Society, 119 

Salaries, no reduction in, 1932, 264 

Saltonstall, Gov. Leverett, 284 

San Augustin explorations, 274 

Santa Clara College, 213 

Santayana, George, on Fr. O'Connor, 
131, 131 n 

Scanlan, Michael J., 162 

Schedule, Boston scholasticate, 55; 



changes, 1941, 291; daily, 1864, 
78 f 
Scheflf, Fritzi, 230 
Scholarship, Philomatlieia, 211 
Scholarship examinations, 280 
Scholarship funds made secure, 161 
Scholarships, 1889, 168; first, 87; 
free perpetual, 91; perpetual, 86 
f; at Plattsburg, 211; second fair, 
94 f; for wortliy poor, 97 
Scholasticate, Weston, 281 
Scholasticate at Boston College, 45; 
central, urged, 46; closing of, 
60; common, ordered, 47; dis- 
continued, 58 if; expenses of, 58; 
objections to, 57; opening of, 49 
Scholastics, Jesuit, boarding of, re- 
quested, 66; graduate training of, 
281 
School, Catholic common, 1845, 6; 
earliest Catholic in Boston, 4; 
elementary founded by Fr. Mc- 
Elroy, 19 
School Committee, City of Boston, 
B. C. School of Education, 244 S 
School of Divinity affiliated, 252 
School of Dramatic and Expressional 

Arts, 310 
School of Education, planned, 244 
ff; superseded, 251; women ad- 
mitted to, 249 f 
School of Philosophy and Sciences 

affiliated, 252 
School of Social Work, 255 f, 258 

f; enrollment, 310 
Schools, New England public, 78 
Schroen, Brother Francis C, S.J., 

199, 201, 204 
Science Building, description of, 
235 BF; drive for, 226; ground 
broken, 232; opening, 234; orig- 
inal location, 235; plans for, 227 
Science classes, 1913, 201 
Science department improvements, 

1898, 165 
Science instruments, 1891, 158; 

purchased, 1920, 226 
Science majors deferred, 1943, 295 
Sciences, importance of, 315; in 

curriculum, 1865, 86 
Scientists, graduates as, 313 



INDEX 



359 



Scott, General Winfield, 13 
Secularization of education, Mas- 
sachusetts, 6 
Seismograph station at Weston, 236 
Selective Service Act, 1917, 216, 

289 
Seminaries, Jesuit, affiliated, 252 
Seminarium Bostoniense, 52 
Seminary, Jesuit, in college building, 

46; gifts to, 211 
Senate, Massachusetts State, 63 f 
Senate chamber, YMCA building, 

147 
Senior Commons, 294 
Service, alumni in, record of, 313; 

World War I record, 222 
Servicemen on Honor Roll, 293 f 
Sestini, Rev. Benedict, S.J., 52, 54 
Seven Oaks, Kent, 180 
Seventy-fifth Anniversary Brochure, 

XV, XV n 
Seventy-fifth Anniversary of college, 

279 f 
Seventy-five Years: St. Mary's of 

the Annunciation, 179 n 
Shadowbrook novitiate, 252, 306, 

310 
Shakespeare Window, 242 
Shakespearean play, first, 1869, 100 
Shandelle, Rev. Henry J., S.J., 118 

n, 119 nn, 122 n 
Shaughnessy, Most Rev. Gerald, 309, 

334 
Shaw, Henry S., 186 
Shaw, Rev. Joseph Coolidge, S.J., 

103; gift to library, 157 
Shea, Commander John J., 294 
Shea, Frederick, 303 
Shea, John G., 2 n 
Sheehan, D. F., 121 
Sheehan, Rev. Arthur J., S.J., 292 
Shuman, Mrs. Edwin A., 210, 214, 

229 
Shurhammer, Rev. George, S.J., 272 
Shurtleff, Arthur A., 189 
Sinnott, Jolin, 4 
Sinnott, Joseph, 87 
Sisters, higher education for re- 
ligious, 247 
Sisters of Charity in Boston, 19 
Sisters of Notre Dame, 19, 22 



Site, for college, 22 ff; interest by 
colleges in new, 196; for new 
college, 183; Massachusetts Ave- 
nue, 163 

Skeleton, Ksar 'Akil, 276 f 

Smith, Col. Morton, 298 

Smith, Rev. George F., S.J., 271 n 

Social Work, School of, 255 ff; 
enrolhnent, 1947, 310 

Society for the Propagation of the 
Faith, 302 

Society of Jesus, General Archives, 
Rome, xiv, 15 n; candidates from 
Latin School, 38; re-established 
in United States, 9 

Society of St. Cecilia, 99 

Sodality of the Immaculate Con- 
ception, 99, 112 

Sodality Latin School, 38 

Soldiers, certificates to families of, 
304; graduates as, 313; ministered 
to, 1862, 58 

Song book, Boston College, 280 

Sopranis, Very Rev. Felix, S.J., 41 n, 
45, 61; report on Boston scho- 
lasticate, 56; visitor to America, 47 

Source Records of the Great War, 
222 n 

South End, Boston, development of, 
34; site sought in, 29; opposition, 
31 f 

Spalding, Dr. James F., 178 

Spanish Academy, 279 

Spellman, Most Rev. Francis J., 273 

Splaine, Michael J., 162 

Springfield (Mass.) diocese formed, 
107 n 

Stack, library, capacity, 242 

Stack, Rev. Thomas H., S.J., 333; 
death of, 142; first moderator of 
The Stylus, 134; life of, 141; 
president, 141 

Stack room temporary "library," 239 

Stacks, library, completed, 279 

Stadium, Alumni Field, 264 

Standards, academic, plea for higher 
academic, 166 f; raised, 1902, 
177 

Stands, Alumni Field, 265 

Steinbacker, Rev. Nicholas, S.J., 40, 
52 



360 



INDEX 



Stimson Estate, 274 

Stinson, Rev. William M., S.J., 233 

Stonestreet, Very Rev. Charles, S.J., 
10 n, 27 n, 29, 30 nn, 31 n, 
32 n, 40 

Stonyhurst, Wm. Devlin at, 224 

Storey estate, 282 

"Story of Boston College," xv n 

Strike by students, 111 f 

Student accommodations, emer- 
gency, 307 

Student body, first year, 77 f; 
growth of, 88; withdrawal of, 
in 1871, 112 

Student-laborers on grandstands, 265 

Student life at Boston College, 1865, 
89 f 

Students' Army Training Corps 
(SATC), curriculum, 218 f; at 
Fordham, 278; history of, 217 ff; 
opening of, 218; origin, 217; re- 
quest to continue, 220; tenni- 
nated, 220 

"Students in Our Colleges," 179 n; 
"1916," 222 n 

Student types, 1865, 90 

Studies, course of, 1864, 73; 1865- 
1866, 86; program reorganized, 
1902, 177; revision of, 1935, 270 

Stylus, The, 140; on athletic field, 
163 f; on early baseball, 137; 
on football field, 212; founded, 
1883, 134; resumes publication, 
159; staff, 1883, 134; suspends 
publication, 135 

Sullivan, James S., 35 n 

Sullivan, Rev. Francis V., S.J., 292; 
directs fund drive, 307 

Sullivan, Rev. James D., S.J., 255 n, 
256 

Summa Philosophica (Russo), 143 n 

Summer, Rev. John, S.J., 89 

Summer schedule, wartime, 300 

Summer School, enrollment, 1927, 
252; opening of, 1924, 249; re- 
quested, 249 

Sunday School Diary, Immaculate 
Conception Church, 102 n, 104 n, 
125 n 

Support of college limited, 77 f, 85 

Surplus war materials purchased, 
308 



Sweeney, Most Rev. James J., 305 
Symphony Hall, College Ball at, 123 
Syria, expedition to, 275 fl: 

Tadolini, M. le Chevalier Scipione, 

203 
Taft, William H., 220 n 
Taney, Roger B., 10 
Tax rate for early college, 36 
Taylor, John R., 225 
Taylor, General Zachary, 13 
Teachers, at Boston College, early, 
77; favorable report on early, 84; 
graduates as, 313; preparation of 
city school, 244 ff 
Teachers' College, City of Boston, 

247 
Teachers' Institute, 1922, 249 
Teacher training plan, discontinued, 

247 
Teaching staff, enlargement of, 1865, 

89 
Teale, Rev. Bernard, S.J., 53 
Teleilat Ghassul, 276 
Tennis courts, 1898, 165 
Textbooks, 1864, 79; 1867-1868, 

81; 327 f 
Theological Studies, Fr. McGarry 

editor of, 280 
Thompson Collection, 266; bibliog- 
raphy, 267 n 
Thompson Room, 242 
Thought, Fr. McGarry on, 278 
Thwing, Charles Franklin, 220 n 
Tillson, Mrs. Augustus P., 210 
Time-Order, college, 1864, 78 f 
Title of college, changes in, 52, 67 
Tobin, Hon. Maurice J., 284 
Tobin, Rev. John A., S.J., army 
reserve adviser, 293; co-ordinator 
pilot training, 287; Defense Train- 
ing Program, 288 
Toronto, Pontifical Institute at, 309 
Tower Building, 310; begun, 194; 
B. C. high classes in, 302; busi- 
ness classes in, 284; construction 
of, 196; construction suspended, 
195; dedication of, 200; dining 
room in, 307; dominance threat- 
ened, 208; opening of, 199; sci- 
ence classes in, 234; wartime 
faculty dining room in, 296 



INDEX 



361 



Towle, Henry C, 35 n, 90 n, 146 n; 
on college site, 34; holder of 
first scholarship, 87; "Pioneer 
Days," 136 n; recollections of, 
89 f 
Townsend, Lady, 283 
Training, Military, 216 S 
Transcript, praise of campus by, 

213 
Treacy, Rev. Gerald C, S.J., 210, 

219 
Treasurer, report on scholarships by, 

87 
Trinity Church, Washington, 10, 12 
Trinity (Conn.) College, 171 
True Religion, The (Russo), 143 n 
Trustees of Boston College approve 
M.Ed, degree, 246; authorize 
Nevi^ton Street purchase, 162; 
Chalet given to, 234; first meet- 
ing of, 65; purchase Newton site, 
186; title changed, 186 
Tuffer, Rev. Michael, S.J., 108 
Tuition charges, 1864, 74; 1868, 97; 
absence of, desired, 168; in de- 
pression, 263; education, students', 
paid by city, 246; at Holy Cross, 
1849, 6 

Undergraduate Commons, 293 f, 

294 n 
Union, labor; objection to student 

workers, 265 
United Drug Company, 282 
United States Catholic Almanac, 

1836, 5n 
University branches begun, 244 
"University Heights" title given, 

1908, 187 
Upham's Comer, campaign clock, 

230 
Ursuline Sisters, first school, 4 
U. S. Marine Corps Reserve, 286 
U. S. Office of Education, 288 

Valedictory, first Boston College, 77 

n, 126 
Vannutelli, Cardinal, visit to college, 

194 
Varsi, Rev. Aloysius, S.J., 52; 

electric lights in church by, 54 
Vatican Relief Mission, 263 



Verhaegen, Very Rev. Peter J., S.J., 

12, 17, 18, 19 n 
Veterans, return of, to college, 303 
Veterans' Administration, U. S., 303; 

Guidance Center, 304 
Veterans' Matriculation Course, 303; 

terminated, 308 
Vidal, Dr. Frederico G. P., 271 
Vienna, University of, 275 n, 276 
Villa, Cohasset, gift for, 211 
Villiger, Very Rev. Burchard, S.J., 

39 n, 45 n, 155 
Virginia mission stations, 11 
Viri Romae, 78 
Visitor, to American Jesuit houses, 

47; report of, 56; to Ireland, Fr. 

Fulton as, 144 
Vocations, to priesthood, 313; to So- 
ciety of Jesils from college, 1875, 

117 
Von Jagemann, Dr. Hans, 170 
V-1 reservists called, 293 
V-7 plan, U. S. Navy, 291 

Walde-Waldegg, Dr. H. von, 274 f 

Walsh, David I., 218, 230 

Walsh, Louis S., 5, 5 n, 6 n 

Walsh, Most Rev. James Anthony, 
334 

War, 1939, 281; effects of, on col- 
lege, 286 ff; First World, 1917, 
216; U. S. enters Second World, 
286 

War courses, 293 

War dead of Boston College, listing 
of, 335 

War Department, U. S., on continu- 
ation of SATC, 220; designates 
college for ASTP, 296; plan for 
war training in colleges, 217 

War Fund Drive, 301 

War lectures, morale committee, 292 

War record of college, 313; 1919, 
222 

War schedule, accelerated, 292 

War Training Courses, 288, 288 n 

Ward, Mrs. Anna H., 87 

Washington, D. C, 159; burning of 
city, 10 

Wasp sinking, 294 

WBMS, college broadcasts on, 309 

Weeks, John W., 229 



362 



INDEX 



Welch, Rev. E. H., S.J., 66 f; gift, 
102 

Wennerberg, Frederick W., 212 

Wesleyan (Conn.) College, 171 

West, Prof. Andrew F., 174 

West Point Military Academy, 76 

West College, 281, 306, 310; affili- 
ated, 252; Fr. McGarry at, 277 f; 
gifts to, 211; seismograph station, 
236 

Weston, Massachusetts, 157 

Whal, WiUiam B. F., 22 n, 23 n, 
24 n, 31 n 

White, Rev. Richard, S.J., 53 

Widener Library, 266 

Wiget, Rev. Bemadine F., S.J., 7 n, 
30 n; directs Latin School, 38; at 
laying of cornerstone, 37; pro- 
tests South End site, 30 

Wiggins Airways, 287 

Williams, Archbishop John J., 5, 37, 
69, 129; approval of new college 
site, 184; approval of Young 
Men's Catholic Association by, 
119; attends commencement, 
1876, 124 f; attends opening of 
YMCA wing, 153; death of, 185; 
English course suggested by, 117; 
on English High School, 149 n; 
on English high school course, 
150; request for attendance at 
Boston College, 150; request for 
high school arrangement, 144 

Williams, Rev. Joseph J., S.J., 269 

Williams College, 171 

Williams Ethnological Collection, 
270 



Wissiben, college arcliitect, 35 

Women students, on campus, 249; 
in YMCA courses, 250 

Woodstock College, Maryland, 49 n, 
131, 142, 155, 159 ff, 182, 206, 
224, 238, 262, 278, 281 

Woodstock College archives, xiv, 
60 n, 61 n, 63 n, 69 n, 86 n 

Woodstock and Its Makers, 47 n, 
58 n 

Woodstock Letters, xv, 8 n; on ath- 
letic field, 164; on Fr. Brosnahan, 
160 f; Fr. Devitt writing for, 156; 
on science department, 158 

Worcester, Massachusetts, 5, 38 

Wright, Most Rev. John J., 334 

Xavier letter, 271; gift of, 211 
Xavier High School, 262 

Yale University, 168, 235; games 
with, 224 f 

Young Men's Catholic Association, 
93, 109; advanced classes discon- 
tinued, 1926, 251; building, 146; 
courses, 1912, 198; Fr. Lyons in, 
206; first meeting of, 118 f; 
founds Fulton Medal, 132; new 
quarters, Newton Street, 162; ob- 
jections to title, 119; operations 
suspended, 124; organized, 118; 
projected, 116; reception to Fr. 
Fulton, 131; women in classes of, 
250 

Young's Hotel, alumni at, 1889, 332; 
alumni banquet at, 140 



8357 0«}8 



DATEOyiL 

JUL 2 Mjogx. 




U^iiviSii^7?i55SfeTsnNr^«-^^°^ 




BOSTON COLLEGE 



3 9031 0165001 







SUMMER