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Full text of "History of British animals"

IMS 




HISTORY 



a 



OF 

BRITISH ANIMALS, 

EXHIBITING THE 

DESCRIPTIVE CHARACTERS AND SYSTEMATICAL 

ARRANGEMENT 

OF 

THE GENERA AND SPECIES OF QUADRUPEDS, BIRDS, 

REPTILES, FISHES, MOLLUSCA, AND RADIATA 

OF THE UNITED KINGDOM ; 

INCLUDING 

THE INDIGENOUS, EXTIRPATED, AND EXTINCT 

KINDS, TOGETHER WITH PERIODICAL 

AND OCCASIONAL VISITANTS. 



BY 

JOHN FLEMING, D.D. F.R.S.E. M.W.S. &c. 

MINISTER OF FLISK, FIFESHIRE ; 




EDINBURGH : 
PRINTED FOR BELL & BRADFUTE, EDINBURGH ; 

AND J AMES DUNCAN, LON DOffO G | CK COLIECNON 
MDCCCXXVIII. 




P. Neii.t., Printer. 



PREFACE. 



The study of British Zoology is peculiarly attractive to the 
intelligent observer of nature in this country, by the facility 
with which many species, in the different groups of animals, can 
be procured for accurate examination. Their forms, structure, 
and successive developement, can be traced in detail, together 
with the functions which they exercise, and the various circum- 
stances by which they are controlled. In this manner just con- 
ceptions of the laws of organization, and the limits to the distri- 
bution of the species, may be acquired, and the, mind qualified 
for speculating on the more extended relations of the animal 
kingdom. A valuable collection of facts will likewise be secured, 
by which the most fascinating generalisations may be tested — 
those productions which, like a map, should always be received 
with suspicion, if inaccurate within the sphere of individual ob- 
servation. 

These views have long exercised an influence in this country, 
and given rise to those various attempts to enumerate and de- 
scribe British animals, which, for more than a century, have 
been presented in succession to the public. During this ex- 
tended interval, the science of zoology has experienced several 
remarkable changes, each producing a corresponding effect on 
the British Fauna. If anatomy and physiology be regarded as 
the basis of zoological science, the history of species will include 
a description of their structure and functions, along with their 
external characters. If anatomy and physiology be discarded as 
foreign to the subject, and the professed naturalist acknowledge, 
without a blush, his ignorance or his contempt of both, then 
the history of species will be chiefly occupied with the details 
of external appearance. Such different conditions have pre- 



Vi PREFACE. 

vailed in the science of zoology in this country, and justify the 
division of its history into two great eras, the general features 
of which it may be proper here briefly to notice. 

The first of these periods in the history of zoological science 
in Britain, may be denominated the Physiological Era. In 
this golden age Willoughby, Ray, Lister and Sibbald con- 
spicuously distinguished themselves. These illustrious indivi- 
duals duly appreciated the value of anatomy as a guide in zoo- 
logical inquiries ; and while they studied the forms of animals 
in connection with their structure, they were not unmindful of 
their functions and distribution. The whole extent of the ani- 
mal kingdom occupied their attention, and they were induced to 
collect materials from every quarter. But while thus engaged, 
they were sedulous in the investigation of the productions of 
their own country. The number of indigenous species which 
they procured and described, is a proof of their diligence, and 
enabled them to impart a degree of maturity to the British 
Fauna at that early period, which is still calculated to excite 
our admiration. 

The labours of these luminaries of the science in determining 
the characters of British Animals, were preceded by the publi- 
cation in 1667 of the " Pinax Rerum Naturalium Britanni- 
carurrC of Dr Christopher Merret. This small work, which, 
though it claims little more than the merit of a catalogue, exhi- 
bits many proofs of great diligence, and rises in importance, 
when viewed as a first attempt at the construction of a British 
Fauna. 

The history of Mammiferous Animals was undertaken by 
John Ray, and the results published in 1693, in the Synopsis 
methodica Animcdium, Quadrupedtwi, et Serpentini generis. In 
this work, the forms of the native species are described with much 
accuracy, together with many interesting anatomical details. 
Few opportunities had occurred to this author, or to his friend 
Willoughby, of examining the Cetaceous species. This defi- 
ciency, however, was well supplied by Sir Robert Sibbald, a 
naturalist who, besides contributing greatly to the elucidation of 
the productions of his native country by his Scotia Illustrata, sive 



PREFACE. vii 



Prodromus Histories Naturalis, &e. Edin. 1684, and his History 
ancient and modem of the Sheriffdoms of Fife and Kinross, 
Edin. 1710 (the 8vo edition, Cupar, 1803, is the one now ge- 
nerally quoted), had bestowed much attention on the characters 
of the different kinds of whales which had been captured in 
the Scottish seas, or stranded on various parts of the coast. His 
Phalainologia Nova, Edin. 1692, rescued this department of 
zoology from the obscurity in which it had previously been in- 
volved. A reprint of this work, at the instigation of Mr Pen- 
nant, took place in 1773, and is the edition now in general 
circulation. 

The Birds of Britain were enumerated and described with 
great precision in the Ornithologia of Francis Willoughby, 
a work edited, after the death of the worthy author, by Ray in 
1676. An English translation was at the same time published, 
with some additions ; and, in 1713, an abridgement made its 
appearance, under the title Joannis Rah Synopsis methodica 
Avium ; opus posthumum ; edited- by the venerable Derham. 

The native Reptiles are few in number, and are well de- 
scribed by Ray in the Synopsis already referred to. Few ad- 
ditions of any value by subsequent authors have hitherto been 
communicated. 

Fishes occupied the attention of Willoughby. His Ich- 
thyologia, as edited by Ray, Oxford 1 686, is a work of great 
labour ; and the descriptions, especially of British species, are 
models of precision. A few additions were afterwards made 
to this division of the British Fauna by Ray in his Synopsis 
methodica Piscium, London 1713, chiefly from the contribu- 
tions of the Rev. George Jago of Loo. 

While the History of the Vertebral Animals was thus assi- 
duously cultivated by individuals well qualified for the task, the 
Invertebral kinds were not overlooked. 

The Mollusca were diligently investigated by Martin 
Lister, and the descriptions of many species in the Cochlearum 
Anglice Historia, which forms a part of his Historia Animalium 
AnglicB, London 1678, are minute and illustrative. But the 
greatest service which Lister rendered to this department of 
science arose from the publication in 1685 of his Historia sive 
Synopsis methodica Conchyliorum. The plates of this valuable 



Vlll PREFACE. 

treatise exceed a thousand in number, and were executed with 
taste and accuracy by the author's accomplished daughters, Ann 
and Susan. Two editions of this work, the one by the Reve- 
rend William Huddesford, and the other more recently by 
Mr Dillwyn, are those now generally referred to. 

Among the Annulose animals, the Spiders had early attract- 
ed the notice of Lister, and his descriptions of the species, as 
published in the first part of his Historia Animalium Anglice, 
are still unrivalled. The study of Entomology had been faci- 
litated, to a certain extent, by the appearance of the Theatrum 
Insectorum of Moufet, London 1634; but it is to the Histo- 
ria Insectorum of Ray, London 1710, to which Lister fur- 
nished a valuable contribution, that the science was chiefly in- 
debted for its early success, and the popularity which it still 
maintains among the naturalists of England. 

The true nature of the Zoophytes was but imperfectly com- 
prehended by zoologists throughout the period in which the 
eminent individuals, now enumerated, continued to flourish. 
At length, however, this interesting group of animals received 
ample illustration from the meritorious labours of John Ellis, 
whose Essay towards a Natural History of the Corallines, Lon- 
don 1755, may be regarded as the last of the productions of the 
old school of British Physiologists. 

It is painful to advert to the second era of British Zoology, 
during which the Artificial Method of Linn^us occupied 
that place which physiology had so successfully filled. We 
must be careful, however, to make a distinction between the 
precepts and example of Linnaeus himself, and the conduct of 
his blind admirers. Linnaeus regarded the Natural Method, 
which contemplates form, structure, and function, as the ulti- 
mate object of the science of Zoology. His Artificial System, 
in which external appearances were exclusively employed, was 
devised as a convenient instrument of research to guide the stu- 
dent in attaining higher objects. Too many of the followers 
of the illustrious Swede, in this country, seem to have viewed 
the Artificial Method, not as the instrument, but the object 
aimed at, — overlooked results in physiology which industry had 
already secured, and presented the science under an aspect 
which a cultivated mind could not relish, and in which an or- 



PREFACE. IX 

dinary observer could perceive little utility. In this retro- 
grade movement of British naturalists Mr Pennant led the 
way, and the completion of his British Zoology, m four vo- 
lumes, in 1777, gave a new aspect to the science in this country. 
This naturalist possessed favourable means for study, and no 
inconsiderable share of industry ; but being rather deficient in 
a knowledge of physiology, he unfortunately seems to have 
undervalued all that his predecessors had gleaned in that fruit- 
ful field, and confined his labours chiefly to an acquaintance 
with the external characters of animals. He succeeded in im- 
parting to his writings a considerable degree of popularity, by 
avoiding all minute details, and introducing occasional remarks 
on the habits of particular species; and by allusions to Greek 
and Roman authors, he interested the classical reader. In his 
account of the Vertebral Animals, his materials were chiefly de- 
rived from the writings of Willoughby, Ray, and Sibbald, 
while Lister supplied the groundwork of the Shells. It is 
in the class Crustacea that Mr Pennant appears chiefly as an 
original author, earning reputation in a department of the 
science which his predecessors had in a great measure neglected. 
The Spiders, Insects, and Zoophytes, did not engage his atten- 
tion. 

In order to facilitate the researches of the student of British 
zoology, Dr Berkenhout published abridged characters of 
the species in 1769, under the title " Outlines" fyc. and a third 
edition more enlarged, in 1795, included in the " Synopsis of' 
the Natural History of Great Britain and Ireland.' 1 '' In the 
first volume of this work, the characters of the species of Bri- 
tish Animals are drawn up with a degree of care and accuracy 
unequalled in any subsequent publication of a similar kind. 
In 1802 Mr Stewart attempted a similar work, on a more 
enlarged plan, in two volumes, entitled Elements of the Na- 
tural History of the Animal Kingdom. This work includes, 
besides the British species, the characters of the more common 
genera of foreign animals. A new edition appeared in 1817, 
deficient, however, in the account of the more recently publish- 
ed species, and in some instances faulty by introducing the same 
species twice under different genera. 

b 



X PREFACE. 

In the translation of Gmelin's edition of Linn^eus's System 
of Nature, London 1802, Dr Turton has marked with an as- 
terisk all the species which he considered as indigenous to Bri- 
tain. This list is by far the most extensive of any which has 
yet appeared. The same industrious naturalist commenced in 
1807 a British Fauna, including the classes Mammalia, Birds, 
Amphibia, Fishes, and Worms. He has since still further il- 
lustrated the Shells of this country in his Conchological Dic- 
tionary, and his still more valuable Bivalvia Britannica. 

Besides the authors now referred to, who aimed at the com- 
pletion of systems of British Zoology, other naturalists, equal- 
ly the followers of the Artificial Method, directed their atten- 
tion to the elucidation of particular tribes of indigenous ani- 
mals. As works of luxury in this department, may be noticed 
the figures published by Albin, Edwards, Lewim, and last of 
all those of Donovan, whose vai'ious publications have greatly 
contributed to advance the interests of the science, by facilitat- 
ing the naming- of species. 

But there were other labourers during this era, whose efforts 
assumed a more scientific aspect. The late George Mon- 
tagu, Esq. of Knowle House, Devonshire, cultivated with 
zeal many departments of British Zoology. In 1 802 he pub- 
lished his Ornithological Dictionary, which contained a few 
amended characters of species, and some new observations on 
their economy. In 1813 a Supplement to this Dictionary 
appeared, in which the author exhibited a more intimate ac- 
quaintance with his subject, traced the effects of age, sex, 
and season on the plumage of birds, and exposed many mis- 
takes in the establishment of species, which had been com- 
mitted from a want of attention to these circumstances. But 
Mr Montagu's labours were not confined to Ornithology. In 
1803 the publication of his Testacea Britannica contributed 
greatly to extend a knowledge of the number and characters of 
the native Molluscous animals, and which was still further aug- 
mented by the Supplement to the same work, which appeared 
in 1808. It is but a just tribute to the candour of this natu- 
ralist to state, that in his writings he appears, progressively, to 
have been forsaking the Artificial Method, and acquiring a 



PREFACE. XI 

keener relish for physiological researches. That truth was at 
all times eagerly sought after, a frequent correspondence with 
the author during several years furnished suitable opportuni- 
ties for ascertaining. 

In the science of Entomology, several meritorious efforts were 
at this time made to illustrate the characters of the native spe- 
cies. The Entomologui Britamnca of Maksham, London, 
1802, embraced the extensive tribes of Coleopterous Insects, and 
in which he described many new species, and greatly elucidated 
the characters of those previously known. In the following- 
year, Mr Haworth commenced his Lcpkloptera BrUanmea, a 
work containing much important information ; but now, from its 
scarcity, of difficult access to the student. 

It was not to be expected in a country in which such anato- 
mists as Haiivey and Tyson, and such zoologists as Wil- 
loughby, Ray, Lister, and Sibbald had flourished, that the 
Artificial Method would universally supersede the study of the 
anatomy and physiology of animals. During this dark age, 
one individual, John Hunter, upheld, in his own labours, the 
dignity of the science, and left behind him a museum which, to 
this period, is unrivalled as a display of zeal, patience, and phy- 
siological attainment. At the same period, the University of 
Edinburgh possessed, in Dr Monro secundus, a comparative 
anatomist and physiologist, anxious to inspire a taste for the 
science in the minds of his numerous pupils, and to extend its 
boundaries by personal exertion. 

Even among the naturalists of this country, there were always 
a few whom the fetters of the Linnean school could not bind ; but 
whose labours were too confined in their object, to exercise any ge- 
neral influence on the spirit of the age. Mr Kirby, in his Mono- 
graphiaApumAngliit, Ipswich, 1802, set an example to his coun- 
trymen of acuteness and patience in unfolding the structure and 
habits of those insects to which he had directed his attention ; 
and he has recently increased his claims to the gratitude of Bri- 
tish naturalists, by composing, along with Mr Spence, the In- 
troductio?i to Entomology. In another quarter of the island, 
Mr Dalyell, in his Observations on Planarue, Edin. 1814, 
exhibited a happy facility of investigating the habits of aquatic 

b2 



Xll PREFACE. 

animals, and many valuable results yet remain in his possession, 
which it is hoped he will soon communicate to the public. 

The circumstance, however, which contributed, in the great- 
est degree, to restore the science to its former dignity, in this 
country, arose from the influence of the writings of the conti- 
nental naturalists. Unrestricted by those trammels which had 
paralysed the exertions of British zoologists, they had followed 
in the track of the Natural Method, under the banners of 
Reaumur, Degeer, Muller, Daubenton, and Fabricius; 
and more recently under the guidance of Blumenbach, Ru- 
dolphi, Temminck, Cuvier, Latreille, and Savigny. A 
comparison of the productions of these modern observers, with 
those of the disciples of the Linnean school, could not fail to 
exhibit the former in a favourable light, and gain converts to 
the pursuits of physiology. In this new field, Dr Leach has 
occupied a prominent place. His situation as zoologist to the 
British Museum, furnished him with invaluable facilities ; and 
there are few unacquainted with the successful results. He be- 
gan by publishing several articles on annulose animals, in the 
Edinburgh Encyclopaedia, and the Supplement to the Encyclo- 
paedia Britannica, which have been republished, under his in- 
spection, by Mr Samouelle, in the Entomologist' '«? Useful 
Compendium, London, 1819- The Zoological Miscellany was 
begun by Dr Leach, in 1814; and, in the following year, the 
Malacostraca Podophthalmata Britannice, imparted a new cha- 
racter to an obscure branch of British Zoology. He had like- 
wise, in considerable forwardness, a Mollusca Britannica. It 
is deeply to be regretted, that indisposition has hitherto pre- 
vented its publication, since it is confidently believed that his 
labours in this field would have removed much of that uncer- 
tainty which still prevails in the classification of molluscous 
animals. 

The Insects of Britain are at this moment receiving ample 
illustration, according to the modern improvements of the science, 
in two works, in the course of publication. In the British En- 
tomology of Mr Curtis, there is exhibited a fortunate dexte- 
rity in developing structure, accompanied with great accuracy 
of delineation. The Illustrations of British Entomology, by 



PREFACE. Xlll 

Mr Stephens, is a work daily exhibiting the vast resources of 
his rich cabinet, and his discriminating acquaintance with the 
indigenous species. 

Besides these displays of increasing attachment to the im- 
provements which have been effected in the science, several cir- 
cumstances have recently occurred in London, which seem cal- 
culated to promote the advancement of zoology in this country. 
The Zoological Club, instituted 29th November 1823, on the 
birth-day of Ray, will, it is hoped, give a new energy to those 
members of the Linnean Society, who devote their attention to 
the subjects of the animal kingdom. The establishment of a 
Zoological Journal, in 1824, is not without its interest, as in- 
dicating, we hope, an increasing demand for the truths of the 
science, and an anxiety to trace its progress. The Zoological 
Institution, organized 22d June 1825, under the auspices, and 
by the persevering exertions, of the late Sir Stamford Raf- 
fles, does honour to the spirit of the age. Botanic and Hor- 
ticultural Gardens had long been established, and plants col- 
lected from various quarters for inspection, study, and applica- 
tion to purposes of utility or ornament. Now, the Animals of 
different countries will be subjected to similar treatment, and 
the happiest results may be anticipated. Nor can it be forgot- 
ten in this place, that a Professorship of Zoology has at last 
been instituted in the United Kingdom, and that the Universi- 
ty of London has set the example. 

Amidst so many displays of zoological zeal, it appeared to the 
author that a compendious view of the characters of British Ani- 
mals would be useful in promoting the progress of the science, 
and as a substitute for more extended disquisitions. In 1822, 
he had ventured to publish the Philosophy of Zoology, in which 
it is attempted to collect and classify the truths of physiology, 
and to point out their importance in illustrating the characters 
of those groups into which animals have been divided. He there 
stated, that the Fauna of a country should embrace Resident 
Animals, Periodical Visitants, Stragglers, together with the Ex- 
tirpated, Extinct, and Naturalized Species. In the construction 
of the present Work, these important distinctions have been kept 
in view. 

The Resident Animals are such as can accommodate them- 



XIV PREFACE. 

selves to all the changes of this variable climate. They are the 
only species which strictly merit the epithet Indigenous. 

The Periodical Visitants chiefly belong to the class of Birds 
Some of these come from more southern latitudes, to spend the 
summer, and bring forth their young ; while others arrive from 
more northern latitudes, to escape the rigours of an arctic win- 
ter. The vernal shifting the author has denominated Equato- 
rial Migration, the autumnal shifting the Polar Migration. 
All the species of these groups, though intimately connected with 
the country, by the regularity of their visits, enjoy a right of 
citizenship less perfect than the resident animals. 

Stragglers, or irregular visitants, have hitherto occupied a 
higher rank in every British Fauna, than they seem entitled to 
possess. Driven from their native haunts to this country by 
some temporary calamity, the persecution of foes, or the fury of 
a storm, they have been recorded inconsiderately as indigenous 
species. Their occurrence, as serving to illustrate the distribu- 
tion of species, should be recorded, but not in such a manner as 
to assimilate them with the resident kinds, and periodical visi- 
tants. Acting upon this principle, the author has been com- 
pelled to degrade to the rank of Stragglers, several Birds and 
Fishes which have long occupied a more distinguished place. 

The Extirpated Animals are such species as still maintain 
their ground in other regions, but have been destroyed in this 
country by the long continued persecutions of man. 

The Extinct Animals are such as once dwelt in this country, 
but Avhich have disappeared, and, from various causes, seem to 
have perished from off the earth. 

The remains of the extirpated animals, or such as history 
records to have lived in the country, are occasionally found im- 
bedded in several of the superficial or modern strata, in com- 
pany with the relics belonging to the yet indigenous species. 
Along with both of these, also occur the relics of several species, 
concerning which the voice of tradition is silent. Interred, how- 
ever, in the same grave with the relics of individuals belonging 
to existing species, and such as have perished by human agency, 
and belonging to tribes which at all times have been the objects 
of the huntsman's pursuit ; the author has referred their de- 
. ( rn< lion to the influence of the chase, and has exhibited his views 



PREFACE. XV 

on this subject in a paper in the 22d number of the Edinburgh 
Philosophical Journal, entitled " Remarks illustrative of the In- 
fluence of Society on the Distribution of British Animals.' 1 '' 
Other observers, undervaluing the cause of extinction here assign- 
ed, have imagined, that the species referred to were destroy- 
ed by the agency of a violent Deluge, which they consider as 
identical with the one recorded by Moses. How this deluge 
could select a few species only as the objects of its vengeance, 
and leave in safety many species living in the same regions, and 
possessing nearly the same habits, is a difficulty which the abet- 
tors of the hypothesis have not yet ventured to explain. Should 
they attempt to account for the safety of the existing races, by 
supposing that they were preserved in the Ark, they have still 
to find proof of the law of exclusion, under the operation of 
which the now extinct kinds were denied protection. The ex- 
travagant pretensions of this hypothesis have been pointed out 
by the author, in a paper inserted in the 28th number of the 
Edinburgh Philosophical Journal, entitled " The Geological 
Deluge, as interpreted by Baron Cuvier and Professor Buck- 
land, inconsistent with the Testimony of Moses, and the Phe- 
nomena of Nature.'''' 

Among the extinct animals there are multitudes of species, 
the relics of which do not occur in the superficial strata, and 
are never associated with the remains of the extirpated or exist- 
ing kinds. These are found imbedded in solid rock, and seem 
to have occupied the surface of the earth, when its physical 
condition and animal and vegetable productions differed greatly 
from the present order of things. By attending to the specific 
marks of these remains, the manner in which they are associat- 
ed, and the strata in which they are imbedded, it is easy to dis- 
cover that they do not all possess claims to the same degree of 
antiquity, and that they may be distributed into certain well 
marked Zoological Epochs. In the arrangement of the strata, 
inclosing these organic remains, there is a definite order of su- 
perposition, and there are characters likewise marking groups of 
different degrees of antiquity. Hence has arisen the idea of 
Geological Epochs, first distinctly intimated by Lister and 
Stenon, and elucidated by a host of subsequent observers. 



XVI 



PREFACE. 



These two kinds of epochs coincide, and thus directly intimate, 
that the revolutions which have taken place in the animal king- 
dom, have been produced by the changes which accompanied 
the successive depositions of the strata. The value of these 
remarks will be better understood by the following tabular view 
of the Geological Epochs. 



Principal Epochs. 


Primary Divisions. 


Characteristic Depositions. 


I. Modern 
Epoch. 




Soil. Sand-drift. Peat. 

f a. Lacustrine Silt. aa. Marine 

\ Silt. 

( a. Lacustrine Diluvium. 
\ aa. Marine Diluvium. 
Polar Ice. Glaciers. Winter Ice. 
Sinter. Marl. Iron-Ore. 
Lava. Ashes. 


2. Silt, 






6. Volcanic Deposits,.... 




II. Penult 
Epoch. 


1. Upper Lacustrine 1 

2. Upper Marine For- \ 

3. Middle Lacustrine ) 

4. Lower Marine For- ) 


Argillaceous Marl. Friable 
Sandstone. 


Argillaceous Marl. Gypsum. 
Sandstone. 

London Clay. Clay. Marl. 
Sandstone. 

Plastic Clay. Lignite. Sand- 
stone. 


5. Lower Lacustrine ^ 


III. Cretaceous 
Epoch. 


1. Upper Marine For- ) 


Chalk. Grey Mail. Green 
Sand. 

Argillaceous Ironstone. Lime- 
stone. Sandstone. Lignite. 

Upper. Middle, and Lower 
Oolites. Lias. 


2. Lacustrine Forma- I 

3. Lower Marine For- > 


IV. Saliferous 
Epoch. 


1. Variegated Sand- } 

2. Magnesian lime- ) 


Red Marl. Gypsum. Rock- 
Salt. 

Arenaceous Limestone. Calca- 
reous Conglomerate. 


V. Carbonife- 
rous Epoch. 


1. Coal, 


( Bituminous Shale. Coal. Grey 
•< Limestone. Grey Sand- 
( stone. Clay Ironstone. 
t Sandstone-Conglomerate. 
< Red Sandstone. Red 
( Limestone. Porphyry. 
{ Grey Wacke. Alum-Slate. 
1 Limestone. 






VI. Primitive 
Epoch. 


1. Slate, 


J Mica Slate. Clav Slate. 
t Chlorite Slate." Graphite. 
1 Gneiss. Hornblende Slate. 
< Serpentine. Sienite. 
1 Quartz. 







PREFACE. XV11 

VI. Primitive Epoch. — The strata of this group support all 
the others, and appear therefore to be of antecedent formation. 
They do not contain any organic remains, and have been con- 
sidered as formed prior to the existence of animals and vegetables 
on the earth. 

V. Carboniferous Epoch. — During this aera, in which ap- 
pear many marine and fresh-water deposits, the earth seems to 
have been peopled with a variety of animals and vegetables, of 
genera similar to those of the subsequent epochs. There are 
some genera, however, which seem to be peculiar to this sera, 
as Orthocera. 

IV. Saliferous Epoch. — There are few organic remains con- 
nected with this aera, and no genera peculiar to it. 

III. Cretaceous Epoch. — This era is characterised by the ab- 
sence of the Producti, shells which abound in the carboniferous, 
and even occur, though sparingly, in the saliferous epoch ; and 
by the presence of the remains of the Paddled Reptiles and 
Belemnites, which do not exist in the strata of any anterior or 
subsequent epoch. Here the display commences of Ammonites, 
Crustacea, and the carnivorous canaliculated molluscous ani- 
mals ; and here, for the first time, are exhibited proofs of the 
existence on the earth of insects, reptiles, birds, and even qua- 
drupeds. 

II. Penultimate Epoch. — In this group there are several ge- 
nera of quadrupeds peculiar to it, as the Palceotherium and 
Anoplotherkim, in forms, however, approximating to such as 
occur in the following group, and paving the way for the last 
and noblest creation, over which Man was destined to bear the 
sway. 

I. Modern Epoch. — This era, in a zoological point of view, 
embraces Man, the existing races of animals and vegetables, and 
the few species now extinct, as the Mammoth and Mastodon, of 
which there is proof that they once were the coteniporaries of 
the yet indigenous species. 

It may be supposed, by some, that the preceding statements 
are at variance with the generally received interpretation of the 
account of the Creation, as given by Moses. Four successive 
creations and extinctions of animals and vegetables are here re- 



Xviii PREFACE, 

presented as having taken place previous to the existing order of 
things, and it is assumed that the present races of animals and 
vegetables, the companions of Man, did not exist on the globe 
during any of the antecedent epochs. But the most sincere 
friend of Revelation need be under no alarm, even should he be 
anxious to establish the authority of his Bible over a wider field 
than the Moral History of our race. If the Sacred Historian 
be considered as referring to the earlier seras in the commence- 
ment of his narrative only, " In the beginning, God created the 
Heaven and the Earth, 1 ' and to have contemplated, in what 
follows, the creation of the animals and vegetables of the Mo- 
dern Epoch, it will be found that the deductions of science and 
the records of inspiration harmonize, — as the Word and the 
Works of God must do, if rightly interpreted. The question, 
indeed, lies within very narrow bounds. Are the Zoological and 
Geological Epochs established as true in science ? If those who 
are qualified to judge shall pronounce in the affirmative, then 
must every interpretation of that brief portion of the sacred 
page, inconsistent therewith, be rejected as spurious, and the 
advocates of error consigned to occupy a page in the History 
of Prejudice, along with the persecutors of Galileo. 

There is one bed occurring in England, and fruitful in 
the remains of animals, denominated Crag, the relations of 
which seem as yet imperfectly understood. By some it is 
supposed to be identical with the upper marine formation 
of the Penult Epoch ; by others as a newer deposite, but 
still older than any of the members of the Modern Epoch. 
Even in the 99th Number of the Mineral Conchology, Mr 
Sowerby, under the article Pecten rcconditus, seems to view it 
as of the same zoological era with the London Clay. Judging 
from specimens of recent species of shells from the Crag, and 
the evidence of portions of the bones of the mammoth, an ex- 
tinct quadruped of the Modern Epoch, having been found asso- 
ciated with the shells, the author is inclined to view it as a Ma- 
rine Diluvium belonging to the present era. 

In the enumeration of British Animals contained in this vo- 
lume, the author has referred to the extinct or fossil species so 



PREFACE. XIX 

frequently, as probably to have excited surprise in those ac- 
customed to consult the more modern of the British Faunas. 
He was led to adopt this course, not for the purpose of fill- 
ing up the chasms in the fancied laws of continuity, but that 
the attention of zoologists may be directed to an examina- 
tion of the extinct races, and that the geologist may connect 
with his studies a knowledge of the character and distribution 
of existing species. The evils which have arisen from the want 
of this union between zoology and geology, are too obvious to 
require any eomment. The neglect of the fossil species first 
appeared in the writings of Mr Pennant, who took no notice 
of the numerous fossil species of shells and echinodermata, 
which, before the commencement of his labours, had been satis- 
factorily established. Lister (to whom we owe the discovery 
that organic remains are distributed according to a plan, and 
that certain rocks may be chax-acterised by their imbedded fos- 
sils, or that the distribution of organic remains, like the order 
of superposition of the strata, is regulated by fixed laws) per- 
ceived the importance of connecting a knowledge of the charac- 
ters of the existing and fossil species, and exhibited the union 
in his Historia Animalium Angliae. Under the protection of 
such authority, the author of this treatise is fearless of censure. 
He even confidently believes, that if the example of Lister 
had been followed by succeeding contributors to the British 
Fauna, geology would have presented at this day an aspect of 
far greater maturity and interest. Even the characters of the 
fossil species of plants attracted the attention of the early ob- 
servers, and led Da Costa to " recommend to the curious in 
botany, to take notice of them as an Appendix Plantarum ad- 
huc incognita-rum? (Phil. Trans. 50, 231.) But this advice 
has not been followed ; for the student may search in vain the 
published Introductions to Botany, or the various Floras which 
have appeared, and fail to meet with even a hint to inform 
him that the various strata afford remains of extinct species of 
plants. 

In reference to Fossil Shells, the author has chiefly quoted 
the specific characters given in the Mineral Conchology of Mr 
Sowerby. This work is of great value in the facilities which 



XX PREFACE. 

it affords for identifying relics of this kind. It is probable, 
however, that many of those shells now reputed species, will be 
found to be only varieties, by those who have it in their power 
to compare specimens from the same localities in different stages 
of growth. Perhaps not a few corrections are still necessary in 
regard to the physical distribution of the species. 

In quoting the various works in which have been illustrated 
the characters of the recent species, a reference has been made 
to those editions which represent the latest improvements of 
the authors. Thus the 12th edition of the Sy sterna Natures 
of Linn^us is referred to, instead of the compilation by Gme- 
lin, which not unfrequently supplies its place. A similar plan 
has been followed with the writings of Pennant, Pulteney, 
and others. By pursuing this plan, the author has avoided 
the somewhat awkward custom of quoting the authority of Lin- 
n^us and others for the names of species established subse- 
quent to their decease. The works which are referred to have 
likewise been quoted in a chronological order, for the purpose 
of pointing out the priority of the claims of the different obser- 
vers, and the grounds of the preference given to particular ge- 
neric or specific names. 

Though the author has undergone a very great degree of la- 
bour in the construction of the present work, he has much rea- 
son to fear that it will be found imperfect even in reference to 
published species. It would give him sincere pleasure to have 
either his mistakes or omissions pointed out, nor will he conceal 
his anxiety to obtain information respecting the discovery of 
new species. The great extent and variety of those publica- 
tions in which the discoveries of observers may be recorded, 
forbid any compiler, however industrious, to fancy that he has 
collected all the scattered documents of the science. The au- 
thor, however, has done his best, situate as he is at a great dis- 
tance from personal intercourse with zoologists, and opportuni- 
ties of consulting the journals of the day, and in a great mea- 
sure confined to an examination of those works which consti- 
tute his own limited library. He is aware that, by employing 
the common practice of copying synonimes, he might have 
concealed these imperfections. He has made a different choice, 



PREFACE. XXI 

and quoted only the works which he has consulted ; except in 
a few instances, where it appeared requisite to refer to certain 
authors whose works he has not seen, but in" such circumstances 
the reference is enclosed by ( ), and precedes the title of the 
work whence it was extracted, so as to leave no risk of mistake. 

While the author, as a compiler, has cause to lament the in- 
abilities under which he has laboured, he trusts to be forgiven, 
if he ventures, as a compensation for acknowledged defects, to 
prefer some claims on the confidence of the reader. He has re- 
ceived many valuable contributions from kind friends, whose fa- 
vours he trusts he has not been reluctant to acknowledge. He 
has long been a practical observer of British Animals, or what 
a friend of the Honourable Daines Barrington used to term 
an Out-door Naturalist. This circumstance has enabled him to 
correct the specific characters of several animals, and to point 
out with greater accuracy their habits and distribution, to sup- 
press several spurious species, and to give to the synonimes, in 
many cases, a greater degree of precision. He trusts the addi- 
tions to the British Fauna which he has here contributed will 
not at the same time be overlooked. 

In the description of species, the author has seldom indulged 
in physiological details or delineations of instinct. He refers 
to his Philosophy of Zoology, to winch the present work is des- 
tined to serve as an adjunct, for ample illustrations on these 
subjects. To the same quarter he must direct the reader who 
wishes to comprehend more fully the principles of the Dichoto- 
mous Method, which he has followed throughout. He is aware 
that the Quinary and Circidar Disposition qf Animals proposed 
by Mr Macleay, has several followers. This novel method, 
however, seems to have originated in metaphysical prejudices, 
and by overlooking the fact, that, in the various organs and 
their numerous modifications, belonging to each species, there 
are characters which enable the physiologist to trace resem- 
blances in structure and function with the organs of many other 
species : So that the same animal may occupy a place in many 
different physiological groups, and yield the most convenient 
facilities to those who intend to arrange the species according 
to any preconceived plan. 



XX11 PREFACE. 

It is still the author's intention to proceed farther in the exe- 
cution of the task which he has undertaken, and to communi- 
cate to the public a description of the remaining tribes of Bri- 
tish Animals. In the mean time, he trusts that the present 
work, with all its imperfections, will increase the facilities of 
the student of British Zoology, and probably be the means of 
exciting those who are in possession of more accurate informa- 
tion to reveal their success to the public. Recollecting the dif- 
ficulties which occurred to himself in the discrimination of spe- 
cies, the author has, in the course of his work, studied simpli- 
city, precision, and brevity, that he might contribute to remove 
obstacles to an acquaintance with a science which has long- 
yielded him gratifying instruction and amusement, and present- 
ed so frequently to his notice the brightest exhibitions of the 
wisdom of his Maker. 

Manse of Flisk, 
t\th December 1827- 



( xxiii ) 



CONTENTS, 





Page 


VERTEBRAL ANIMALS, 


3 


Mammalia, .... 


, . . 4 


Birds, ..... 


. 41 


Reptiles, , 


. 147 


Fishes, 


. 162 


INVERTEBRAL ANIMALS, 


. 223 


MOLLUSCA, ..... 


. 225 


Rapiata, , , , , 


. 473 



BRITISH ANIMALS. 



VOL. I. 



2 BRITISH ANIMALS, 



I. 
VERTEBRAL ANIMALS. 

Furnished with a Skull and Vertebral Column for the pro- 
tection of the Brain and Spinal Marrow. 

II. 

INVERTEBRAL ANIMALS. 

Destitute of a Skull and Vertebral Column for the protec- 
tion of the Brain and Spinal Marrow, 



BRITISH ANIMALS. 



VERTEBRAL ANIMALS. 

WARM-BLOODED VERTEBRAL ANIMALS. 

The temperature of the body independent of the sur- 
rounding medium. Ribs and sternum for the pro- 
tection of the viscera. The Brain occupies the whole 
cavity of the skull. Passage of the nose communi- 
cates with the windpipe. Heart double, and the cir- 
culation complete. 

f Young suckled by the mother. 
Class I. MAMMALIA.-] Ovarium double. Covering of 

K. hair. 

C Young supported by food collected 
by the mother. Ovai 
Covering of feathers. 

II. COLD-BLOODED VERTEBRAL ANIMALS. 

Temperature of the body under the influence of the sur- 
rounding: medium. Skin destitute of hair or feathers. 
The brain does not occupy the whole cavity of the 
skull. Circulating system imperfect. 

C Furnished with a systemic heart. In 
Class I. REPTILES.-] general breathe air in their perfect 

(. state. 



Class II. BIRDS -j by the mother. Ovarium single. 



( Destitute of a systemic heart. Fur- 
Class II. FISHES....-] nished with gills. Reside in wa- 

(. ter. 



A 2 



BRITISH ANIMALS- 



MAMMALIA. 



Order I. PEDATA. — Posterior extremities developed, and at- 
tached to a pelvis. Skin with hair. Sleep and bring 
forth their young on land. 

'Tribe I. UNGUICULATA.— Fingered Quadrupeds. The 
four extremities terminating in fingers, furnished with nails 
or claws, and adapted more or less for seizing objects. All 
the British species have incisors in one or both jaws. 

Sect. I. Sarcophaga. — Furnished with Tusks 

{I. CHEIROPTERA Furnished with wings, formed by a naked 
expansion of the skin, uniting the anterior and posterior extre- 
mities. 

f II. FERA. — Destitute of wings. The teeth are pointed, lock in- 
to each other, and are capable of chewing the soft parts, or 
bruising the hard parts of the food employed. 

I. Hind Legs developed for walking. The toes separate. 

[. Plantigrada — Walk on the soles of the feet, which are 
bare. Five toes. 

.II. Digitigrada. — Walk on the extremities of the toes. 

II. Hind Legs short, much enveloped by the skin. Fingers and 
toes webbed, and adapted for swimming. 

Pal mat a. 

Sect. II. Glires. — Destitute of Tusks. 

I Tribe II. UNGULATA— Hoofed Quadrupeds. The extremi- 
ties fitted exclusively to support or move the body. No cla- 
vicles. Herbivorous. 



\ 






I 



L PECORA — Each foot consists of two toes, covered with strong 
hoofs. No incisors in the upper jaw in the British species. Ru- 
minate, and have four stomachs. 

II. BELLUjE — Do not ruminate. 



Order II. APODA. — Hind feet united with the tail, in the 
form of a horizontal fin. Skin nearly destitute of hair. 
Sleep and bring forth their young in the water. 

I. HERBIVORA — Nostrils terminating in the snout. Pectoral teats» 



! 



II. CETACEA. — Nostrils opening on the crown of the head. 



Rhinolophus. MAMMALIA. CHEIROPTERA. 



I. CHEIROPTERA. BATS. 

JL HE animals of this group feed on insects, chiefly moths^ 
which they hunt in the evening. They sleep during the day. 
Migrate or become torpid during the winter. Bring forth two 
at a birth. In the British species, there is only one bony joint 
in the fore finger, without nails, and two in the rest. The tail 
is included in the interfemoral membrane ; and the summits of 
the grinders have conical points. All the species of the follow- 
ing groups belong to the genus Vespertilio of Linnaeus. 

A. Nostrils with appendages. Ears simple. 

Gen. I. RHINOLOPHUS. Horse-shoe Bat.— Nostrils with 
a complicated membrane like a horse shoe. — This mem- 
brane is divided into two processes, the posterior of which 
is erect. Ears free, acute and reflected. Two incisors 
above, in a cartilaginous intermaxillary bone, and four be- 
low, approximate, trifid. Tusks 8, grinders 20. Two 
pectoral and two inguinal teats were observed by Mon- 
tagu. 

1. R. Ferrum-equinum. Larger Horse-shoe Bat. — Front 

grinder in the upper jaw small, simple, and truncated. 

Horse-shoe Bat, Penn. Brit. Zool. i. p. 147. tab. xiv. — Mont. Linn. Trans. 
ix. p. 165. tab. xviii. f. 5, 6. — Frequenting saltpetre houses at Dart- 
ford in Kent, Latham ; caverns, Torquay, Devonshire, Montagu. 

The colour is pale rufous-brown ; weight about 4 drams ; length to the root 
of the tail 2 4 inches; tail 3| inches; expansion of the wings 14| inches. The 
tusks are simple. 

2. R. Hipposideros. Lesser Horse-shoe Bat. — Front grinder 
in the upper jaw acute, and notched at the base before and be- 
hind. 

Vesp. minutus, Mont. Linn. Trans, ix. p. 163. tab. xviii. f. 7, 8 — Rh. 
hip. Leach, Zool. Misc. iii. p. 2. tab. 121 In caverns with the pre- 
ceding, Wiltshire and Devonshire, Montagu. 

Colour, the same as the preceding ; weight from 63 to 80 grains ; length to 
the root of the tail 2 inches ; tail § inch ; extent of the wings 94 inches. 
Tusks in the upper jaw notched in front, in the lower simple. Incisors in 



6 MAMMALIA. CHEIROPTERA. ViisrERTiLio. 

the upper jaw concealed According to Dr Leach, " it is a very cautious ani- 
mal; very easily tamed, but fond of concealing itself. It frequents the higher 
parts of the caverns in which it occurs, and probably flies higher than the 
preceding species." 

B. Nostrils destitute of appendages. Ears zvith an inner 

auricle. 

Gen. II. VESrERTILIO.— Ears disjoined. Incisors in the 
lower jaw six, approximate, bifid ; in the upper four, in 
pairs, cylindrical, pointed. 

3. V. murinus. Common Bat. — Ears the length of the head, 
oblong, auricles semicordate. 

Vesp. a Bat; Flitter-mouse or Rear-mouse, Merr. Pin. 172 — Ray, Syn. 

Quad. 243 Petm. Brit. Zool. i. 148 — Inhabits old buildings and caves. 

Common. 
This animal was placed by Merret among the birds, and is still by many 
thoughtlessly regarded as belonging to that clasp. Its covering of hair, in- 
stead of feathers, the bringing forth its young alive, and suckling them at the 
two teats placed upon its breast, are characters which, independent of other ac- 
tions, remove it far from the feathered tribes. According to White (Hist. Selb. 
156.), when tamed, so as to take flies out of a person's hand, it brought its wings 
round before the mouth, hovering and hiding its head in the manner of birds 
of prey. It rejected the wings of flies. Ate raw meat. Was capable of rising 
from a floor, and taking wing with ease. It drinks on the wing like swallows, 
by sipping the surface as it plays over pools and streams. 

4. V. cmarginatus. — Ears the length of the head, oblong, 
with a notch on the exterior margin. 

M. Geoff roy, Ann. du Mus. vol. viii. p. 198. tab. xlvi — Near Dover, 
M. A. Brongniart. Fife, Fleming. 
This species was first separated from the preceding, with which it is apt to 
be confounded, by the author whom we have quoted. It is not uncommon in 
France. The auricle is subulated. 

5. V. Noctula. Great Bat.— Ears shorter than the head, tri- 
angular, nostrils bilobated, chin with a wart. 

Vesp. altivolans, White's Selb. i. 130. & 158 — V. auriculatus, Walker's 

Essays, 472 Great Bat, Pcnn. Br. Zool. i. 146. tab. xiii. No. 38. 

First observed in England by White, and in Scotland by Walker. 

According to White, this species flies high in the air, from the end of 
April to end of July. Body to the end of the tail 4J inches. Extent of wing 
144 inches. Weight 9 drachms. The fur soft, of a bright chesnut colour. 
Smell offensive. Dr Walker says, " Dentes xxxii numeravimus. Primores 
superiores 4 acuti, distantes : inferiores 4 acuti, contigui. Laniarii supe- 
riores 6, anticis maximis acutis; inferiores 6, anticis majoribus- Molarcs utrin- 
que G. Aurcs duplicate, capite multo minorcs. Exterior major, ovata, ob« 
tusa. Interior minor, brevior, lanceolata. Palmes palmato-alatse maxima*, 
pollice unguiculato. Plantce pentadactyla?, fiassej digitis pilosis, unguiculatis. 
Cauda gemculala, 6 articulis. Manbnma juxta caudam, margine ciliato. E 
latebris volitat circa 20. Aprilis." 



Plecotus. MAMMALIA. CHEIROPTERA. 7 

Gen. III. PLECOTUS. Ears approximating, and united at 
their inner edges above the eyes. Auricles semicordate. 

6. P. auritus. Eared Bat. — Ears nearly the length of the 

body, blunt. 

Penn. Brit. Zool. i. 147. tab. xiii. f. 40— Flem. Phil. Zool. tab. i. f. 1.— 
Not uncommon in England and Scotland. 

In this species, the forehead is covered with hair. The ears, which are de- 
pressed when the animal is at rest, have transverse ridges towards the outer 
edge ; and the ridge towards the internal edge is ciliated. The tail extends 
a short way beyond the membrane. The nostrils have a recess. The inci- 
sors above are 4, in pairs, remote, the two middle ones notched, and the two 
lateral ones subulated. Fur greyish-brown above, ash-coloured below. Length 
1 1 inches. Breadth 7 inches. 

7. P. Barbastellus. — Ears about the length of the head, 
broad. 

Vesper, barb. Sowerby's Brit. Mis. tab. v. — Mont. Linn. Trans, ix. p. 171. 
Devonshire, Montagu At Dartford in Kent, Mr Peel. 

In this species, the forehead is bald, the fur dark brown, becoming mixed 
with silvery hairs with age. Length 4 inches; breadth 11 inches. Weight 
100 grains. Ears notched and waved on the margin. Montagu states, that 
" the teeth are numerous in both jaws, and much jagged ; in the upper, four 
cutting teeth, but no canine, and a vacant space between these and the grind- 
ers : in the lower jaw six cutting teeth, and four canine or longer teeth, and 
between these last on each side is a small intermediate one : these longer 
teeth fall into the vacant space in the upper jaw." In examining the teeth 
of bats, however, we should bear in mind, that some of these drop out at an 
early age, and that others, especially the incisors and foremost grinders, are 
frequently minute, and easily overlooked. 



II. FERA. 

PLANTIGRADA. 

I. The second incisor on each side in the lower jaw uniform- 
ly placed. Summits of the grinders with conical points. 
Clavicles developed. 

A. Middle incisors produced, without intermediate small 
ones, the lateral ones and tuslcs short. 

Gen. IV. ERINACEUS. Urchin or Hedge-Hog— Two 
middle incisors above, cylindrical. 

8. E. europceus. 

This species, widely distributed throughout Europe, is the Dreanog of the 
Welsh, and the Graineag of the Gael ". The ears are short, the snout pro- 

* In giving the provincial names, E, is placed for English ; S, for Scottish; 
W, for Welch ; G, for Gaelic ; and JV, for Norse. 



8 MAMMALIA. FERA. Sorex. 

duced, and truncated, and the nostrils are narrow. The body is covered 
above with stiff bristles mixed with hair, and below with hair and no bristles. 
The length is about 10 inches, the tail 1 inch. It is found chiefly near hedges 
and thickets of furze, and feeds on snails, slugs, worms, and beetles. It is 
peculiarly serviceable in gardens, which it will speedily clear of such vermin. 
It is fond of the roots of the plantain. It soon becomes tame, and will readily 
devour bread soaked with milk, or pieces of flesh. It seldom breeds in con- 
finement. Its young at birth are blind and naked, concealed in a nest of 
grass, leaves, and moss, and are from four to five in number. The youno- 
are incapable of rolling themselves up, which in maturity they can do with 
ease when terrified, and then present to a dog or other foe a prickly ball. It 
becomes torpid during the winter, lodging in a dry nest of leaves. It is some- 
times persecuted, faom the foolish belief that it climbs up trees and robs them 
of their fruit, or sucks cows and hurts their udders. The skin is sometimes 
fixed on the noses of calves or foals at weaning-tiine, to prevent them sucking, 
and to irritate the mother. It has likewise been employed to hackle hemp. 
In Scotland, the northern limits of its geographical distribution probably do 
not exceed the Murray Frith. 



Gen. V. SOREX. Shrew. — Two middle incisors above, bent 
and notched at the base. The claws of the British species 
are white. 

9- S. (tremens. Common Shrew. — Colour blackish-brown. 

Mus aran. Ray, Syn. Quad. 239 — E, Erd Mouse, Hardy Shrew ; S, Erd 
Shrew ; W, Llygoden-goch, Chwistlen, Llyg ; G, Daullag — Frequent 
in old walls and grassy banks. Extends to Orkney. 

The length is about 2| inches; of the tail l£ inches. The toes are plain 
on the edges. The tail is cylindrical, dark above, light-coloured beneath, and 
dark at the tip. They have five young. Formerly, supposed to be injurious 
to cattle. Numbers of them seem to die by disease in August. 

10. S.Jbdiens. Water Shrew. — Colour raven-black, with a 
small white spot above each eye. 

Mus araneus, dorso nigro ventroque albo, Men: Pin. 167 Water Sh. 

Penn. Brit. Zool. i. 12G. tab. xi. No. 33 — S. ciliatus, Sowerby, Brit. 

Misc. tab. xlix — Water Sh. Mont. Linn. Trans, vii. 276 Flem. Wern. 

Mem. ii. 238 — Burrows in banks near water, and is not uncommon. 
This species exceeds the former in size. Length of the body 3 inches ; of 
the tail 2 inches. Weight 3 drachms. The colour on the under side inclines 
to white. Snout long, and a little depressed. Whiskers long. Eyes small, 
and concealed by the fur. Ears wide, with a pale tuft on the inside. In the 
middle of the throat and ventral base of the tail a black spot, with a line of the 
same colour along the middle of the belly. Tail tapering, covered with very 
short hair, and nearly white at the tip. Margin of the toes on each side ciliated 
with white hairs. This species swims and dives with considerable facility. 
We have seen it actively employed on the surface of the water, catching the 
Hydrometradre. Said to bring forth nine young. 

B. Incisors nearly equal. Tuslcs large. 

Gen. TALPA. Mole. Back covered with hair. — Furnished 
with a tail. Incisors in the upper jaw six, in the lower 
eight. No external ears. The sternum is furnished with 
a mesial crest. Forefeet broad, and formed for digging. 



Meles. MAMMALIA. FERA. 9 

11. T. europcea. — The fur of this well known animal is 
usually black, but it is occasionally found in all the interme- 
diate stages to yellowish- white. 

E, Mold-wark; 5, Muddywort; W, Gwadd, Twrch-daear; G, Famh, 
Uir-reathabh — Not in Orkney or Zetland. 

The mole, destined to live chiefly under ground, is furnished with very 
small eyes. It constructs its gallei-ies or roads three or four inches below the 
surface, in soil frequented by worms, which are its principal food. The roads 
are scooped out by the fore paws, and the earth, thus removed, is thrown up, 
at intervals, by the nose, and forms those unseemly hillocks which are so of- 
fensive to the gardener and farmer. Moles usually cast their winter fur 
in May, before which time they have paired. The hillock in which they 
bring forth their young is distinguished by its superior size. The nest con- 
sists of dry roots or leaves placed on an eminence, in an arched chamber, 
from which roads diverge in different directions. The young are five in num- 
ber, and at birth are naked and blind. The individuals of the family general- 
ly keep together until the following spring, or breeding season ; so that a 
trap set in one of the principal roads of the colony, will frequently catch 
the whole seven in succession. They have usually a well frequented path to 
the water, if a ditch be in the neighbourhood. They swim with ease, and 
cross rivers, or shift from one island to another. They are most active a little 
after sunrise, and an hour or two after noon ; and before rain in summer and 
thaw in winter. The fur is used in hat-making. 

11. The second incisor, on each side in the lower jaw, placed 
behind the others. The three hinds of 'grinders distinct. 
Clavicle imperfect. 

Gen. VII. MELES. Badger. — Incisors six in each jaw. 
Above, the tusk is followed by one small and two large 
tearers, to which succeed one chewer followed by a large 
bruiser. In the lower jaw, the bruiser is small, the chewer 
large, and there is an additional tearer. — See Phil. Zool. 
ii. p. 181. tab. i. %. 2. 

12. M. Taxus. — Hair rigid, grey above, black beneath ; 

head above white, with a black band on each side from the nose 

over the eyes to behind the ears. 

E, Gay, Pate, Bawson ; S, Brock ; W, Pryf-Llwyd, Pryf-pen-frith 

Frequent in thickets, and probably not found to the north of the Ca- 
ledonian Canal. 

The usual length of the badger is about 24 feet, and of the tail C inches. 
Weight seldom exceeds 30 lb. The ears are small, the tongue smooth, and 
the nails are long, bent, and grooved beneath. A transverse glandular pouch 
occurs between the tail and vent. It burrows in the ground, forming several 
apartments with one common entry. Feeds on frogs, lizards, wild honey, 
and even roots. In confinement, I have seen it devour greedily crows and 
rabbits, and likewise eggs, of which it seemed very fond, licking out the con- 
tents with its tongue. It is probably a general depredator, lloams about 
during the night in quest of prey, and in the winter season seldom moves 
from its den, but remains in a quiescent state. It brings forth five young at 
a birth. Is easily tamed, indolent and fond of warmth. When attacked, 
seeks for safety in flight, but, when compelled, fights obstinately, biting hard. 



10 MAMMALIA. FERA. Canis. 

The dressed skin, with the hair on, is used for pistol furniture, and the 
pendent pouches of the Highland soldiers. The flesh is used as food, and the 
hind quarters, made into hams, are esteemed little inferior to bacon. 

It is sometimes found of a white colour. An opinion formerly prevailed 
among naturalists, that there are two species of badgers, which they termed 
the Sow-badger and the Dog-badger. But, in England, ever since the days of 
Ray, few have given credit to the existence of the former species. In some 
districts of Scotland, however, the distinction is still recognised. Thus, in 
the " Statistical Account," it is said, " There are two species of badger found 
among the loose rocks of the Campsie Fells, the one somewhat resembling a 
sow, the other a dog ; the first is more arched in the back, and is not so nimble 
in turning itself;" vol. xv. p. 322. Campsie, Rev. James Lapslie. Again, 
" We have also two species of the badger ;" ib. vol. p. 4G6. Blair-Athol and 
Strowan, Rev. James Maclagan. 

At the conclusion of the British Plantigrada, two species formerly resident 
in the country deserve to be noticed, both belonging to the genus Uitsus. 

1. Uesus Arctos. Brown Bear. 

This animal not only prevailed in this country at the period of the Ro- 
man invasion (for Plutarch relates that they were transported to 
Rome), but maintained its existence, in spite of the efforts of the 
huntsman, to the middle of the 11th century at least. In 1057, a 
Gordon is said to have killed a fierce bear, and as a reward was permit- 
ted to carry three bears' (boars 9 ) heads in his banners. It was reckoned 
in Wales as a beast of the chace, equal to the boar or the hare, and 
many places in that country still retain the name of Penn-arth, or the 
bear's head ; Penn. Brit. Zool. i. 7& " In an ancient Gaelic poem 
ascribed to Ossian, the hero Dermid is said to have been killed by a bear 
in Beinn Ghiel-binn in Perthshire ;" Statistical Account, Kirkmichael, 
Banffshire, Rev. John Grant, vol. xii. p. 449. Though now banished 
from this island, it is still to be found in France and Germany. 

5J. U. SpelcEus. Cave Bear. 

This species, so far as is known, has become extinct, and seems to have been 
cotemporary with the mammoth. It equalled a horse in size. Its re- 
mains occur sparingly in some of the large English caves, which have 
been the graves of so many of the ancient inhabitants of this island. 
See BucMand"s lleliquia? Diluvianje, p. 17- 

DIGITIGRADA. 

I. Bruising grinders in each jaw. 

CANINADiE. 

Tzvo bruising grinders in each jaw. Furnished icith a small 

CCBcum. 

Gen. VIII. CANIS. Dog. — Pupil circular, diurnal. Fore 
feet with five, hind feet with four toes ; nails hollowed ; 
tongue smooth ; ears large ; nose moist, smell acute. 

13. CJiimiliaris. — Tail recurved. 

W, Ci,/m. Gast; A r , Hund. 
The dog has long been the companion of man in a domesticated state, and 
is the only animal which seems to prefer the company of his master to the 
individuals of his own species. He fawns at his approach, will fight in his 



Canis. MAMMALIA. FERA. 11 

defence, runs before him on the road, but will return or watch when a stran- 
ger passes, and looks back for instruction where two ways meet ; guards pro- 
perty committed to his charge ; assists the sportsman ; brings objects in his 
mouth ; fawns when begging ; hangs down his tail when afraid ;hates beggars, 
barks at strangers ; licks wounds, and bites the stone thrown at him. 

The dog runs sidewise, hardly sweats when warm, lolls out his tongue, and 
runs into water ; turns round several times before lying down ; frequently 
dreams ; is easily awakened. Eats carrion and farinaceous vegetables, drinks 
by lapping, dungs upon stones, urines sidewise, lifting his hind leg, and fre- 
quently, when he meets strange dogs ; smells at the anus of another ; is quar- 
relsome, and eats greedily. The female, when in season, admits all comers, 
snarls at them, and they remain inseparable for a time ; gestation sixty-three 
days. Young from four to ten in number, blind for the first ten days, and 
begin to change their teeth at the fourth month. 

Externally, the dog is infested with fleas and ticks, and internally by the 
tape-worn. Eats grass to make him vomit, and to clear his intestines. Fond 
of rubbing against putrid substances. Subject to hydrophobia, which is be- 
lieved by many since the days of Pliny, to be prevented by ivorming, a prac- 
tice which renders the individual incapable of biting. The worm (extracted 
by this process) " is a tendinous fasciculus of fibres running lengthwise under 
the tongue, as far as its apex, and lying rather loose in a kind of membranous 
sheath, without being connected, like a true tendon, to any of the neighbour- 
ing muscles ;" Blum. Comp. Anat. p. 32G. 

The varieties of the dog which occur in the United Kingdom are nume- 
rous, and several of these have been long celebrated for their excellence by 
Appian, Grotius, Claudian, and others. The following synoptical view, con- 
tains the names and characters of the principal races. 

1. Motions regulated by the Sight. 
* 

a. Pastoralis. Shepherd's Dog, or Colly. — Ears half pricked ; tail bushy, 
recurved ; fur black, long, soft, and loose — Docile and sagacious ; the useful 
companion of the shepherd, and still to be found unmixed in many of the 
sheep districts of Scotland. 

b. Amphibius. Newfoundland Dog — Ears pendent ; lips loose ; fur long, 
dense, and waved ; docile and sagacious ; swims and dives well ; not unlike 
tiie preceding, but larger, and fonder of the water. — Originally from New- 
foundland, where it is used for the draught. 

c. Zetlandicus. — Ears pointed, pricked ; muzzle sharp ; fur long, brown ; 

bark shrill and indistinct This is the common dog or hund in the .Zetland 

Isles, and approaches in character to the Greenland dog. 

The preceding races are less mixed than any of the others, and probably 
make the nearest approach to the primitive stock. 

d. Villaticus. Cur. — Ears half-pricked ; fur short and smooth ; tail not 
bushy, and often very short ; stronger than the shepherd's dog ; and chiefly 
used in driving cattle. 

e. Taurinus. Bull-Dog — Ears half-pricked ; head round ; snout short ; 
under jaw projecting ; stature low and muscular ; courageous, and obstinately 
retains its hold. Seldom kept but by the idle and profligate for the purpose 
of fighting. 

f. Mastivus. Mastiff. — Ears pendant ; lips large and loose ; stature large, 
stout ; aspect sullen. A trusty guard, very vigilant and bold. The Roman 
Emperors held the British dogs of this kind in high estimation for combats in 
the amphitheatre, and, according to Strabo, they were trained by the Gauls 
for battle. 



12 MAMMALIA. FERA. Canis. 

*** 

g. Scoticus. Rough Greyhound, Deer-dog, Ratche, or Scottish Greyhound 

Chest deep, body curved, tail long ; snout long and bearded ; ears half pricked ; 
fur wiry, waved ; stature tall, stout ; possessed of great sagacity, strength, 
and swiftness. — Common in the Highlands. 

h. Hibernicus. Irish Greyhound, or Wolf-dog — Chest deep ; body curved ; 
tail long ; snout long : ears pendant ; fur smooth and short ; stature large ; 
powerful, yet harmless and indolent. Formerly employed for hunting wolves. 
Still to be found in Ireland. 

i. Leporarius. Smooth Greyhound Chest deep ; body curved ; tail long ; 

snout long and narrow ; ears half pricked ; fur short, thin, smooth, and glos- 
sy ; stature tall, slender ; swifter, but not so hardy or sagacious, as the rough 
greyhound. 

* * * * 

k. Maculatus. Dalmatian Dog. — Fur white, with numerous regular black 
spots ; possessed of little sagacity, but considered as an elegant companion to 
a carriage. 

2. Motions regulated by the Smell. 
* 

1. Sanguinarius. Blood-hound or Sleut-hound — Ears and lips large and pen- 
dent ; tail blunt; joints thick; fur brown, with black spots ; stature strong; 

scent acute This variety, now extinct, was formeidy used in recovering 

wounded game, and in tracing the footsteps of robbers or stolen cattle. From 
this stock have sprung the Harrier, which is the smallest, and is used in hunt- 
ing the hare ; and the Beagle, of a larger size, employed in the fox-chase. 

m. Indicator. Pointer, or Spanish Pointer — Head and snout thick ; fur 
short, smooth and glossy ; docile, but not active. 

n. Aviarius. Spaniel or Setter. Head and snout narrow ; hair soft, long, 
waved, and pendant ; more impatient, active and hardy than the preceding. 
The Springer or Cocker seems to be a variety of this kind. 

o. Terrarius. Terrier — Ears erect ; legs short, with thick joints ; snout 
bearded ; hair long and wiry ; jaws strong, bites keenly ; docile — There is a 
small variety with pendant ears and soft fur ; and another termed the Otter 
Terrier, of a large size, a cross breed with the beagle. This last is docile, sa- 
gacious, bold, swims and dives well, and makes a good house-guard. 

p. Vertagus. Lurcher Smaller and less slender than the rough grey- 
hound ; hair, long, wiry ; face hairy ; is docile, sagacious, and cunning, and 
steals upon its prey. It is termed in this country the Russian Pointer (See 
Foster, Phil. Trans. 1767), and proves a staunch active setting-dog. 

* # * * 

q. Aqualicus. "Water-Dog Ears pendent ; body thickly covered with long 

curled hair; snout slightly recurved ; eyes almost concealed in the fur; scent 
acute ; docile, sagacious, learns readily to carry any thing in its mouth ; swims 
well. 

3. Dwarfs. 

r. Carolinus. King Charles's Dog — Ears long, pendulous ; body thickly 
covered with long waved hair. When the hair is remarkably long, it is called 
the Shock-Dog. 

s. Melilcnsis. Comforter Hair on the ears and tail long ; snappish and 

noisv. 



Vulpes. MAMMALIA. FERA. IS 

t. Chinensis. Pug Head globular ; under jaw longest and turned up- 
wards. 

These three last varieties are chiefly kept by ladies, and are consequent- 
ly pampered and caressed. 

Gen. IX. VULPES. Fox.— Pupil linear, nocturnal. Tail 
bushsy. 

14. V. vulgaris. Fur brown, and uniform. 
S, Tod ; W, Llewynog ; G, Sionnach ; Balgaire. 

The history of the fox is very similar to that of the dog. It feeds on lambs, 
poultry and carrion, and will hide the booty it is unable to consume. It lives 
in furze, brakes or young wood, and when pursued, enters a hole in the earth. 
In the absence of nobler game, it now ranks as the first beast of the chase. 
Brings forth its young under ground. 

There are three varieties of this native depredator recognised by sports- 
men. 

a. Greylimind-Fox This is the Milgi of the Welsh. Its tail is long and 

bushy, with a white tip ; it is the largest and boldest ; and preys upon sheep 
or lambs. 

b. Mastif-Fox This is of a dark brown colour, somewhat less, but more 

strongly made — Feeds on poultry. 

c. Cur-Fox. — This is the Corgi of Wales, and is probably the Canis alopex 
of Schreber. It is the least, of a reddish-brown colour, with the tip of the 

, tail black. 



MUSTELAD/E. 

One bruising grinder in the upper jaw. Body about the thick- 
ness of the head, long ; legs short, with jive jingers on each 
Jbot. No ccecum. 

Gen. X. MUSTELA. Weasel. — Two tearing grinders in 
the upper, and three in the lower jaw. Ears middle-sized ; 
tongue rough ; fur near the mouth white ; pupil horizon- 
tal ; all the species emit a fetid odour when irritated. 

15. M. vulgaris. Weasel. — Fur above, yellowish-brown; 

beneath yellowish-white, with the tail uniform. 

Sib. Scot. p. 11 — Ray, Quad. p. 195 Pen. Brit. Zool. 1. p. 95.; E, Fou- 
mart or Fitchet ; S, Whitred ; W, Bronwen ; G, Neas — Common 
in old walls. 

The length of the body is about 1 inches ; the tail 2J inches, and not bushy- 
It devours mice and young birds. Brings forth five young It sometimes 

changes to white in winter, and in this state appears to be the M. nivalis of 
Linnaeus ; Syst. Nat. 1. C9. It is said that weasels were introduced into Zet- 
land by the King's falconer, in revenge, as some of the inhabitants had re- 
fused him rabbits for his hawks ; Sibbald's Zetland, p. 22. 

16. M. Erminea. Ermine. — Fur above yellowish-brown; 
beneath yellowish-white, with a bushy tail, black at the end. 



14 MAMMALIA. FERA. Martes. 

Mustek, Merr. Pin. 1G7 — M. sylvestris, Sibb. Scot. 11 M. Candida, 

Ray, Quad. p. 198 — M. Er. Lin. Syst. 1. p. 08 — Stoat or Ermine, Pen. 

Br. Zool. 1. p. 89 — E, Winter Weasel; ^Weasel; W. Carlwm In 

summer, haunts woods and hedges, in winter corn-yards and barns. 
The length of the body is about 10 inches, of the tail inches. In win- 
ter the fur assumes a white colour, and is then highly prized. In this state, 
however, the black on the tail continues unaltered. It is fond of eggs, pigeons, 
rats, and putrid meat. I have seen it pursuing a young hare by the scent, 
tracing the steps with as much accuracy as a harrier. This is supposed by Dr 
Walker, in his Essays, p. 485., to be the animal considered by the Highland- 
ers as noxious to horses, and which is thus described in the Statistical Account 
of Kirkmichael, Banffshire, (Itev. John Grant, vol. xii. p. 449) : " In these 
mountains, it is asserted by the country people, that there is a small quadru- 
ped which they call Famh. In summer mornings it issues from its lurking- 
places, emitting a kind of glutinous matter fatal to horses, if they happen to 
eat of the grass upon which it has been deposited. It is somewhat larger 
than a mole, of a brownish colour, with a large head disproportionate to'its 
body. From this deformed appearance and noxious quality, the word seems 
to have been transferred to denote a monster, a cruel mischievous person, 
who, in the Gaelic language is usually called famh-fhear." It is probably the 
same prejudice to which Sibbald refers, (Scot. 111. p. 11). " Lavellan, animal 
in Cathanesia frequens, in aquis dulcis degit, capite mustelse sylvestri simile, 
ejusdemque coloris bestia est. Habitu bestiis nocet. Itemedium autem est, 
si de aqua bibant, in qua ejus caput coctum sit." 

17- M. Putorius. Foumart. — Fur blackish-brown, paler be- 
low and about the ears, with the tail uniform. 

Putorius, Merr. Pin. p. 108 — Sibb. Scot. 11 — Ray, Quad. p. 199 Lin. 

Syst. 1. 07-, Fitchet.— Pen. Br. Zool. 1. p. 89 — E, Polecat, Fitchew ; 
IV. Ffwlbard ; G, Foclan — In holes under trees, near rivulets. 
Length of the body 17 inches, of the tail inches. It brings forth six 
young ones at a time. Claws long — In its burrowing habits it resembles the 
otter. Most destructive to pigeon-houses, poultry -yards and warrens ; kill- 
ing and sucking the blood of numbers of the inhabitants. 

The Ferret, M. Furo, is merely an albino of this species. It has white fur 
and red eyes. It breeds freely with the dark individuals. 

Gen. XI. MARTES. Martin. — Three tearing grinders in 
the upper jaw, the front one falling with age; four in 
the lower jaw. Ears middle-sized ; tongue smooth ; smell 
musky. 

18. M. fagorum. Common Martin. — Throat and breast 
white. 

Martes,— Mem. Pin. p. 107 — Sibb. Scot. p. 11 M. fag. Ray, Quad. 

p. 200 — Mustela martes, var. fag. Lin. Syst. 1. 87—Martin, Pen. 

Zool. 1. 92. tab. vi. f. 15 — La Fouine, Cuvier, Reg. An. 1. p. 149 

E, Martin or Martlet ; IF, Bela Graig — In woods and rocks in the 
south of Scotland and England. 

The length of the body is about 18 inches, the tail 10. The general colour 
of the fur is dark brown, the head having a reddish tinge — It is a great de- 
stroyer of poultry and game. Easily tamed. Lodges frequently in hollows 
of trees, and brings forth from four to six young. 

19- M. dbietum. Pine-Martin. — Throat and breast yellow. 



Felis. MAMMALIA. FERA. 15 

Martes, var. Sibb. Scot. p. 11 — M. abietum, Ray, Quad. p. 200 — Mustek 
martes, var. abietum, Lin. Syst. 1. p. 67 — Pine-Martin, Pen. Br. Zool. 1 . 
p. 94 S, Mertrick ; W, Belagoed ; G, Taghan — In the wooded dis- 
tricts of Wales and Scotland. 
This species is somewhat less than the preceding ; the colour of the fur is 
darker, and it is softer to the touch. It builds its nest on the tops of trees, 
and prefers wild situations, while the common sort approaches houses. ^ The 
fur of this species, before the Union, formed a lucrative article of export'from 
Scotland. The characters of these two species are ill defined. Dr Walker, 
in his Mam. Scot. p. 483., seems to consider the yellow colour of the breast as 
the mark of age. 

III. No bruising grinder in the lower jaw. 

Gen. XII. FELIS. Cat. — Two tearing grinders in both 
jaws. — Toes, five before, and four behind ; nails retractile. 

20. F. Cat-us, var. sylvestris. Wild Cat. — Tail cylindrical, 

truncated. 

F. sylv. Merr. Pin. 169— Sibb. Scot. 13 — W, Cathgoed ; G, Cat-fiad- 
haich In mountainous and wooded districts. 

Length from the point of the nose to the base of the tail, 2 feet 4 inches, 
length of the tail 1 foot 5 inches, girth of the thickest part of the body, 1 foot 
8 inches, height, 1 foot 3 inches ; weight about 12 pounds. The fur is yel- 
lowish-grey ; back, sides, and tail, transversely barred with black. 

The wild cat lodges in old woods, or in holes in inaccessible precipices, in 
the less cultivated districts of the country. It preys upon poultry, lambs and 
kids. When irritated or wounded, it offers dangerous resistance to the sports- 
man, and on this account has been termed the British Tiger. It was formerly 
reckoned among the beasts of the chase. The fur was used to line robes. 

It is generally believed by naturalists, that the wild cat is the parent stock 
of the Felis Catus, var. domestieus, or common house-cat. Several circumstan- 
ces seem to be at variance with this supposition. 1. The tail of the domestic 
cat tapers to a point, while in the wild cat it terminates abruptly. The head, 
too, is larger in proportion to the body. 2. The size is much smaller, a charac- 
ter at variance with the ordinary effects of domestication, though probably re- 
sulting in part from a poor animal or vegetable diet. 3. It would appear from 
the Leges Wallicae, that, about the beginning of the tenth century, the domestic 
cat was highly prized ; for, among the laws of Howeldda, relating to the prices 
of animals, the price of a kitten, before it could see, was fixed at a penny ; 
till it caught a T mouse, twopence ; when it commenced mouser, fourpence. Had 
the cats alluded to been natives of these islands, it is not likely that so high a 
value would have been attached to them, especially if we take into considera- 
tion the ease with which they are reared, and the rapidity with which they 
multiply. The spotted variety, termed the Cypress Cat, is noticed by Mer- 
ret, who says, (Pin. 169.), " Enutritur in sedibus nobilium." The domestic 
cat is probably derived from Asia, and may be regarded as one of the few of 
our useful naturalised quadrupeds. Its period of gestation is sixty-three 
days. 

Extensive revolutions appear to have taken place among the British Digi- 
t igrada, occasioning the extirpation and extinction of several species. 

1. Canis Lupus. Wolf. 

This species became extinct in Scotland in 1680, the last having fallen, it 
is said, by the hands of Sir Ewen Cameron of Locheil. They continued 



16 MAMMALIA. FERA. Lutra. 

in Ireland, so late as 1710. King Edgar is said to have reduced their 
numbers greatly, by commuting certain punishments for a given num- 
ber of wolves' tongues. Succeeding princes had recourse to various 
expedients to restrain their increase. The progress of civilisation at 
length effected their destruction. Among our Saxon ancestors, Janu- 
ary was called the Wolf-month, as at that season they were particularly 
destructive. An outlaw,was said to be wolf-shed, independent of the 
voice of tradition or history, the remains of this animal in limestone 
caves, attest its former residence in this country. 

3. Extinct Hycena. 

This species, not now known alive on the globe, and which appears to 
have been of the size of the brown bear, nearly resembles in its osteo- 
logy the Cape Hyaena. Plate 3d of Buckland's Rel. DiL, exhibits a com- 
parative view of the teeth of the two species. The remains of this 
animal have occurred in caves at Kirkdale and Plymouth, and in allu- 
vial clay at Lawford, near Rugby, in Warwickshire. The learned 
Professor, in the above work, infers, from the number of bones of other 
animals occurring in sharp fragments, with the marks of the hyaena's 
teeth upon them, along with the excrement of that animal, that the 
Kirkdale Cave had long been occupied as a hyaena's den, and that 
this species possessed the habit of carrying into caves the remains of 
its prey. 

3. Extinct Tiger. 

Remains of this animal have occurred in the caves of Kirkdale and Ply- 
mouth. They equal, if not exceed in size similar bones belonging to 
the Bengal Tiger. Buck. Rel. Dil. p. 17-72. Plate vi. f. 5, C, 7. The 
two last extinct species, it may be added, occur in similar circumstan- 
ces, in many places on the Continent of Europe*. 

PALMATA. 

1. Incisors and Tusks in both jaws. 

Gen. XIV. LUTRA. Otter.— With the three kinds of 
grinders, and six incisors in each jaw. 

21. L. vulgaris. Common Otter. — Fur blackish-brown, with 

a white spot on each side of the nose, and another under the 

chin. 

Lutra, Merr. Pin. p. 167 — Sibb. Scot. p. 10 Ray, Quad. p. 187 Mus- 
tek Lutra, Lin. Syst. 1. p. G6 — Pen. Br. Zool. 1. p. 92. tab. viii. No. 19. 

— W, Dyfrgi; G, Doran, Dorchie Not uncommon. Near lakes and 

rivulets. 

The usual length of the body of the otter is about 2 feet, and the tail 16 
inches. The ears are minute : the nostrils furnished with a valve for closing 
them when diving ; eyes small, with a dorsal aspect and lateral eyelid ; feet 

with five toes, and strong grooved nails ; tongue smooth In the female, the 

external organ of generation is a small pouch, in which is the entrance to the 
vagina. It burrows in the banks of rivulets, and brings forth five } r oung. 
In Zetland (where it is called Tyke), the otter frequents the sea-shore. In 

* On the subject of the extinct quadrupeds of Britain ; see a paper which 
I published in the Edin. Phil. Journ. vol. ix. p. 287>, " Remarks illustrative 
of the influence of Society on the Distribution of British Animals." 



Phoca. MAMMALIA. FERA. 17 

winter, its footsteps are traced in the snow to the springs of fresh-water which 

it visits The fur of the otter is valuable, and forms an article of export in 

the northern isles. The animal, when taken young, is easily tamed, is docile, 
grateful, and will catch fish for its master. 

Gen. XV. PHOCA. Seal.— All the grinders nearly uniform 
in their appearance ; six incisors above, and four below. 
Fur short. Fore-legs short, and inclosed in the skin ; hind- 
legs nearly coalesce with the body ; pelvis narrow. Sleeps 
on stones ; breeds in caves ; is easily killed by a blow on 
the nose. Might be domesticated with advantage. Yields 
oil. — The skin is made into leather. 

21. P. vUulina. Common seal. — Body about six feet in 
length ; colour various. 

Vitulus mar. Merr. Pin. 167 — Sib. Scot. p. 10 — Phoca, Rat/, Quad. 189. 

Lin. Svst. 1. p. 56. 1 Pen. Brit. Zool. 1. 137 — Flem. Phil. Zool. tab. 1. 

f. 3. X Sea-calf, Soil; S, Selch, Pouart, Cowie, Tangfish; W, Moel- 

rhon ; G, Ron On all our shores and large estuaries. 

Seals are extremely watchful, and seldom remain long without raising their 
heads and looking around. They are expert divers, and can seldom be shot 
in the water. They prey on fish of all kinds, and in the estuaries are most 
destructive to salmon. They display considerable ingenuity in evading being 
captured by the net, into -which they occasionally enter in search of their 
prey, creepiDg out at the bottom, or leaping over it at the surface. They 
sometimes enter fresh-water lakes in pursuit of their prey. In the Statisti- 
cal Account (vol. vi. p. 260.) of the parish of North Knapdale, by the Rev. 
Archibald Campbell, it is said, that Lochow, which is about twenty miles in 
length, and three in breadth, " abounds with plenty of the finest salmon ; 
and, what is uncommon, the seal comes up from the ocean, through a very ra- 
pid river, in quest of this fish, and retires to the sea at the approach of win- 
ter." They breed about midsummer, bringing forth their young, which are 
two in number, in caves on the coast. Seals were formerly used as food, 
though their flesh is dark coloured. At present they are sought after on ac- 
count of their skin, and the oil which they yield. A few of the young ones 
are slain in the caves in which they were brought forth. The old ones are 
shot when at rest on sand-banks, or rocks, or taken in nets. Sometimes they 
are destroyed by recurved iron pikes, secured in beams of wood fixed on the 
banks, which they frequent, near low water-mark ; the seals, at a proper time 
of tide, are surprised, and driven rapidly into the water, when they are 
interrupted and wounded by the pikes, and felled with clubs. According to 
Dean Monroe, seals, when on the ban':s at Lochegrenord, in Islay, were slain 
with trained dogs. They are ea.-ily tamed. They are occasionally subject to 
epizooty. About fifty years ago, mid.itudes of carcases were cast ashore 
in every bay in the north of Scotland, Orkney and Zetland, and numbers were 
found at sea in a sickly state. 

Mr Pennant mentions one taken near Chester in May 1766, which, at the 
time, was nearly naked ; only the head and a small spot beneath each fore-leg 
being hairy, Brit. Zool. i. p. 139. In the last edition of the same work (1812), 
this var. is described as a distinct species, Pied Seal, with the nose tapered and 
elongated ; the fore-head black ; the hind-head and throat white, with a spot 
beneath each fore-leg of the same colour ; hind-feet dirty Avliite ; remainder 
an intense black ; i. p. 177- 

The relics of the seal have been found in the marine diluvium which oc- 
curs on the banks of the Forth towards the head of the estuary. 

VOL. I. B 



18 MAMMALIA. FERA. Trichechus. 

22. P. barbata. Great Seal. — Length about 12 feet ; fur 

consisting of thin brown hairs. 

Haaf-fish, Bull-fish, Pen. Brit. Zool. 1. p. 130". — On the shores of the 
Hebrides and northern islands. 

The history of this species as a British subject is very imperfect. Pen- 
nant did not meet with it during his voyage. The Bev. Donald Maclean, in 
his account of the Parish of Small Isles, Stat. Ac. vol. xvii. p. 275-, mentions 
the great seal as a distinct species, and states, that, while the common kind 
bring forth their young in the middle of summer, this species does so about 
the middle of harvest. Dr Edmonston, in his " View of the Zetland Is- 
lands," ii. p. 294., says, "That the head is longer in proportion to the body 
than in the common seal; that they live in pairs only, and in exposed situa- 
tions." In the article Greenland, in the Edin. Encyc, by Sir Charles Gieseeke, 
it is stated, that the flesh of this species is white and very good. The " Great 
Seal" of the British Museum (Phil. Trans, xlii. p. 383. tab. i.), seems to be an 
aged individual of the common species. In the Appendix, No. 4., to " Ross's 
Voyage of Discovery to Baffin's Bay," there is a description of this species, 
which we shall here insert, as furnishing a standard of comparison in the exa- 
mination of our native kind. 

" Its length, from the tip of the nose to the extremity of the tail, was 
8 feet ; its circumference, behind the fore-flippers, 5 feet 7 inches ; weight, 
830 pounds. " Fore-flippers measured in length 1 1 inches, in breadth 6 in- 
ches. Hind-flippers, in length 1G inches, in breadth 2 feet; when expanded. 
The claws of the former were black, horny, and curved ; those of the lat- 
ter were long and straight. Fingers five, middle ones longest in fore-flip- 
pers. The body covered with thick, coarse, short, dark grey hair. The eyes 
about the size of an ox's, furnished with a nictitant membrane, irides dark 
hazel ; the pupil elliptic, perpendicular. No external ears ; the auricular 
apertures placed about 2 inches behind the eyes. The upper lip broad, round- 
ed, fleshy, divided into two lobes by a deep sulcus, division, which is black and 
naked ; each lobe is provided with eight rows of strong white bristles, semi- 
pellucid, and curled at the ends ; the lower less thin and pointed. Tongue 
thick, pointed and cleft ; upper surface papillous. Teeth, upper front six, 
truncate, small ; tusks solitary, truncate ; grinders three, the anterior one 
solitary ; lower front four, imperfectly developed ; tusks small and obtuse ; 
grinders seven, the two posterior imperfectly lobed, the rest being small long 
tuberosities, scarcely produced through the gum. The heart about the bulk 
of that of the ox, its texture strong ; the foramen ovale obliterated, (a point 
on which there is yet some discord among comparative anatomists). The 
aorta 3 inches in diameter, its coats 2^ lines in thickness ; the caliber of the 
pulmonary artery nearly the same ; the thickness of its coats 1 line. Kidneys 
elliptic, lobes 150 to 100. Stomach filled with a greenish dark fluid; its in- 
ner coat lined with ascarides an inch and a half long ; they hold on with great 
tenacity, rendering it difficult to detach them; the small intestines were in- 
habited thickly with teniae, from 1 to 5 feet in length. Excrementa of the 
large intestines resembling thick verdigris paint. Penis about 18 inches 
long, 8 in circumference ; the lobe about 8 inches long, and 3 in circumference ; 
the lower surface depressed for the reception of the urinary canal." 

11. Destitute of incisors or tusks in the lower jaw. 

Gen. XVI. TRICHECHUS. Walrus— Tusks of the up- 
per jaw greatly produced, and directed ventrally. 

23. T. Rosmarus. Tusks remote. 
Walrus, Sibb. Scot. p. 10., Mac S Ulivrcty y Edin. PhiL Journ. ii. p. 380 — A 
rare straggler. 



Mrs. MAMMALIA. FERA. 19 

This species is noticed both by Boece and Sibbald, without any facts being 
stated illustrative of the times or places of its occurrence on our shores. In 
December 1817, however, a solitary individual was shot while lying on a 
small rock at the Sound of Stockness on the east coast of Harris, which was 
upwards of 10 feet in length. The tusks measured «4 inches in length. On 
the shores of Spitzbergen it measures 15 feet in length, and 10 in circumfe- 
rence, and the tusks are 20 inches in length. It has been conjectured, that 
the ivory bits which Strabo enumerates in the articles of British commerce, 
were manufactured from the teeth of this animal. Perhaps the influence of 
civilization mav have so reduced the geographical limits of this species, as 
now to confine "its dwelling to the Arctic Seas. It was formerly captured in 
abundance in the Norwegian Seas. 

GLIRES. 

1. Summits of the grinders with conical processes, covered with 

enamel. 

Gen. XVII. MUS. Mouse. — Incisors with pointed summits ; 
three grinders in each jaw; destitute of cheek-pouches: 
hind-legs of moderate length ; tail nearly naked, annulated 
with scales. 

a. MICE. 

24. M. Mttsculus. Common Mouse. Body about 3 inches in 
length ; fur yellowish -brown above, mixed with black hairs ; 
beneath iron-grey. 

Merr. Pin. p. lfa'7 Sibb. Scot. p. 12 Ray, Quad. 218 — M. Mus. Lin.. 

Syst. 1. 83. W, Llygoden ; G, Luch — Common in houses. 
The mouse is remarkably prolific. We have found seventeen young ones 
in a nest, all nearly of the same size, and blind. Albinoes occasionally occur, 
and the variety may be propagated. 

25. M. sylvaticus. Field-Mouse. — Body about 4| inches in 
length ; fur yellowish-brown above, beneath white, the margin 
of the former colour, and a spot on the breast ferruginous. 

Sibb. Scot. p. 12 M. domesticus medius, Ray, Quad. 218 — M. sylvati- 
cus, Linn. Syst. 11 p. 84 — Penn. Brit. Zool. 1. p. 120 — W, Lygoden 
ganolig. In ploughed fields and gardens, common. 
The fur is very like that of the preceding on the back, but the sides incline 
to rufous ; the ears are larger, the head longer, and the eyes more prominent. 
The weight is about an ounce. The tail is black above, grey beneath, and of 
the length of the body. This species never frequents houses, but takes up 
its abode in cultivated fields and gardens, forming its retreat under ground, 
in which it lays up a store of seeds and roots before winter, and, in cold wea- 
ther, when the air is about eleven degrees above the freezing point, it be- 
comes torpid. It brings forth about nine young ones at a litter. 

26. M. messonus. Harvest Mouse. — Length of the body 

about 2J inches, of the tail 2 inches ; fur chestnut-brown above, 

white beneath, the colours divided by a straight line. 

White's Works, 1. p. 58 Perm. Brit. Zool. 1. p. 121 — Mont. Lin. Trans. 

vii. p. 274. Hampshire, White. Wiltshire, Mont — Inhabits corn fields 



and ricks in England. 



O 



20 MAMMALIA. FERA. Sciurus. 

The late Mr White of Selborne discovered this species in 1767- From his 
observations, Mr Pennant appears to have drawn up his description in the 
Brit. Zool. i. p 121. without acknowledging the source of his information. 
According to Mr White, " they never enter into houses ; are carried into 
ricks and barns with the sheaves ; abound in harvest ; and build their nests 
amidst the straws of the corn above the ground, and sometimes in thistles. 
They breed as many as eight at a litter, in a little round nest composed of 
the blades of grass and wheat." In winter they burrow deep in the earth, 
or lodge in oat ricks. Montagu has found them in the latter situation in the 
colder months without any signs ot torpidity. They are the smallest of Bri- 
tish quadrupeds, not exceeding in weight |th of an ounce. 

b. RATS. 

27. M. Rattus. Black Rat. — Fur greyish-black above, paler 

coloured beneath ; body eight, and the tail nine inches in length. 

M. major seu Sorex, Merr, Pin. p. 167 — Sibb. Scot. p. 12 — Rat/, Quad, 
p. 217 — Petin. Brit. Zool. ii. p. 113. JV, Llygoden fierngig; S, Roof- 
rotten — Infests houses. 

This is a voracious animal, living in houses, barns, and granaries, and de- 
vouring all sorts of provisions. I have evidence of their bringing forth eleven 
young ones at a litter, and of their pulling the hair off the necks of cows to 
line their nests. The remarks of Mr Pennant have led to the supposition 
that this species is now nearly extirpated by the brown rat, which he consi- 
dered as its natural enemy. He does not mention his evidence of enmity 
between the species. On the contrary, I know that they have lived for 
years under the same roof, the brown rat chiefly residing in holes of the 
floor, the other chiefly in holes in the roof. The period of their extirpation 
is far distant. They still infest the older houses of London and Edinburgh, 
and in many districts of the country they are common. 

28. M. decumanus. Brown Rat. — Fur yellowish-brown 

above, beneath grey ; body about nine inches, with a tail of 

equal length. 

Perm. Brit. Zool. 1. 115 — M. fossor, Walker's Essays, p. 497. S, Grund- 
rotten. 

This species is not so nimble as the former, but it is stronger and bolder ; 
the nose is more obtuse, and the hair on the feet thinner. It burrows under 
the foundations of houses, but prefers being near drains of foul water. It 
swims with ease, and infests ships and harbours. It brings forth as many as 
nineteen at a Utter. This species is generally believed to have been im- 
ported into this country about the middle of the last century, some say from 
Norway, whence it has been termed Norway rat, others from Antwerp, or 
from America. It is now, however, more generally considered as of Asiatic 
origin. Linnaeus seems to have confounded this species with the former in 
the description in his Syst. Nat. p. 83. According to the observations of Mr 
Wilson, the rats of London are very subject to urinary calculi ; Annals of 
Phil. vol. ix. p. 31 9. 

Gen. XVIII. SCIURUS. Squirrel. — Incisors with chisel- 
shaped summits; grinders four on each side in both jaws; 
four fingers and five toes. 

29. S. vulgaris. Common Squirrel. — Fur brownish-red 
above, beneath white ; ears tufted with long hairs ; length of 
the bodv about 18 inches. 



Lepus. MAMMALIA. FERA. 21 

Merr. Pin. p. 168 Sibb. Scot. p. 11 — Rat/, Quad. 214 — Linn. Syst. 

i. 86 Penn. Brit. Zool. i. 107- B, Gwiwair; G, Feorag. In old 

wooded districts. 
This lively active animal frequents extensive woods, where it resides on 
the trees, feeding on buds, twigs, and fruits. It lays up a stock of provision 
for the winter, securing it in the cleft of an old tree. It forms its nest of 
moss or dried leaves in a similar situation, in which it brings forth from four 
to five j'oung. These are easily tamed, but prove destructive to furniture. 
They sit erect, covering the body with the tail, and using the fore-legs as 
hands. Destructive to young plantations. Have disappeared from some 
parts of Argyleshire, where they were formerly abundant ; Statist. Account, 
i. p. 487. 

II. Summits of the grinders fiat, with the enamel appearing 
partially on the surface. Herbivorous. 

Gen. XIX. LEPUS. Hare. — Subsidiary incisors in the 
upper jaw. The prismatic grinders are six in the upper, 
and five in the lower jaw on each side. Inside of the 
cheeks hairy. Five fingers and four toes. Furnished with 
a tail. Ears large. 

30. L timidus. Common Hare. — Ears longer than the 
head, and black towards the tips. Tail black above, white be- 
neath. Weight from 6 to 12 lb. 

Merr. Pin. 168 — Sibb. Scott, p. 11 — Ray, Quad. p. 204 Penn. Brit. 

Zool. i. p. 98. S, Maukin or Cuttie ; W, Ysgyfarnog, Ceinach ; G, 
Maigheach — In cultivated districts. Not in the Northern Isles. 

The hare has its form on the ground. It breeds several times in a season, 
pairing in February ; goes with young thirty days, and produces from one to 
five at a litter. The young have their eyes and ears perfect, the body co- 
vered with fur, and the limbs fit for locomotion. Destructive to gardens and 
young plantations. Flesh highly valued for soup, though of a dark colour. 
Fur valuable. In Scotland the skins are collected by itinerant dealers, and 
annuallv sold in the February market at Dumfries, sometimes to the amount 
of 30,000. 

A black hare was killed lately at Netley, Shropshire, by my respected friend, 
the Reverend F. W. Hope. 

31. L. cunniculus. Rabbit. — Ears shorter than the head, dark 
coloured towards the tips. Tail above nearly of the same co- 
lour as the back. Weight from 3 to 5 ft). 

Men: Pin. p. 168 — Sibb. Scot. 111. p. 11 Ray, Syn. Quad. p. 205 

Penn. Brit. Zool. i. p. 104. E, Coney ; S, Kinnen ; B, Cwningen. 
The rabbit is common on the British continent and islands, but would soon 
be extirpated unless protected in warrens. It breeds six or seven times in 
the year, and brings forth five to eight at a litter. The eyes and ears, at 
birth, are imperfect, the skin is destitute of hair, and the lin.-bs unfit for loco- 
motion. Easily domesticated, and in many situations might be reared to ad- 
vantage. Its flesh is white and delicate, and its fur valuable — Three varie- 
ties occur. The first is the common Grey Rabbit, widely dispersed. The se- 
cond is the Black Rabbit, found in several warrens, but nowhere numerous. 
The third is the Silky Rabbit, probably brought originally from Angora. They 
occur in the May, and a few other islands. They do not associate with the 



n MAMMALIA. FERA. Mvoxrs. 

common kind, but live and breed in holes apart. The fur is of a dirty ash- 
colour above, paler beneath, of a silky fineness, and 3 inches or more in 
length. 

32. L. variabilis. Alpine Hare. — Ears shorter than the 
head, and black towards the tips, the rest of the body dusky in 
summer, and white in winter. 

Barrington, Phil. Trans. 17/2. p. \\,~Penn. Brit. Zool. i. 102 Walker's 

Essays, p. 493. S, White hare; G, Maigheach-gheal Inhabiting the 

Scottish mountains, and rarely descending lower than 1500 feet above 
the level of the sea. 

The Hon. Daines Barrington assigns as the length, in inches, of the fore- 
legs, from the uppermost joint to the toe, of the hare, 7* ; rabbit, 4.^ ; alpine 
hare, 6£ ; — of the hind-legs, in the hare, 11 ; rabbit, (if ; alpine hare, lOf ; — 
the length of the body from the rump to the mouth, in the hare, 22 ; rabbit, 
1G^ ; alpine hare, 22. This last species holds, therefore, an intermediate 
rank between the hare and the rabbit, in reference to its dimensions. The 
ears are white behind, and in summer they are brownish before, and in win- 
ter grey. The lips are always black. It lurks beneath stones and in holes 
in precipices. Said to be easily tamed. Breeds a few hundred feet below the 
summits of the higher mountains. Forster, in his Natural History of the Volga, 
Phil. Trans. 17C5, p. 343., intimates that the fur of this species is greatly in- 
ferior to that of the common hare. Dr Leach considers the L. albus of Bris- 
son, to which he refers the Scottish hare, to be different from the L. variabi- 
lis of Pallas (Boss's Voyage, App. No. iv. p. 151., and Annals of Phil. xiv. 
201.) The following notices on the change of colour in this species are inte- 
resting. " The varying hare becomes white in winter. This remarkable 
change takes place in the following manner : About the middle of September 
the grey feet begin to be white, and before the month ends, all the four feet 
are white, and the ears and muzzle are of a brighter colour. The white co- 
lour gradually ascends the legs and thighs, and we observe under the grey 
hair whitish spots, which continue to increase till the end of October ; but 
still the back continues of a grey colour, while the eye-brows and ears are 
nearly white. From this period the change of colour advances very rapidly, 
and by the middle of November the whole fur, with the exception of the tips 
of the ears, which remain black, is of a shining white. The back becomes white 
within eight days. During the whole of this remarkable change in the fur, 
no hair falls from the animal ; hence it appears that the hair actually changes 
its colour, and that there is no renewal of it. The fur retains its white colour 
until the month of March, or even later, depending on the temperature of 
the atmosphere, and by the middle of May it has again a grey colour. But 
the spring change is different from the winter, as the hair is completely shed ;" 
Edin. Phil. Journ. vol. ii. p. 191. The laws regulating the colour of the 
summer and winter covering of quadrupeds and birds I have given in detail 
in my " Philosophy of Zoology," vol. ii. p. 1 5. 



Gkn. XX. MYOXUS. Dormouse. — No subsidiary incisors. 
Roots of the grinders with fangs. — Grinders four on each 
side. Hairy. Destitute of a caecum. 

33. M. avellanar'ms. Common Dormouse. — Fur above 

tawny red ; beneath white ; tail bushy. 

Mus avellanarum, Men: Pin. p. 1G7 — Ray-, Quad. p. 220 — Linn. Syst. 

i. p. 83 Penn. Brit. Zool. i. p. 110 — Walker's Essays, p. 499. E, 

Sleeper ; W, Pathew Inhabits woods and hedges. Rare in Scotland. 



Arvicola. MAMMALIA. FERA. 23 

The dormouse is about the size of the common mouse, but fuller ; the tail 
ia about 2 J inches in length, covered thickly with long hair. Eats its food 
erect. During winter it subsists on the store of nuts which it had prepared 
in autumn, and in very cold weather it becomes torpid. 

Gen. XXI. ARVICOLA. Vole.— No subsidiary incisors. 
Roots of the grinders simple ; there are three on each side 
on both jaws. Tail round and hairy, and about half the 
length of the body. — The species of this genus differ from 
the true mice, with which the older authors confounded 
them, by the superior size of the head, the shortness of the 
tail, and the coarseness of the fur. 

34. A. aquatica. Water Vole. — Body 7 inches long ; tail 3 
inches. 

Mus aquaticus, Men'. Pin. p. 167 — Sibb. Scot. p. 12 — Mus amphibius, 
Linn. Syst. i. p. 82 Water Hat, Penn. Brit. Zool. i. p. 1 18 — Mus am- 
phibius, Walker's Essays, p. 490. W, Llygqden y dwfr ; G, Radan 

uisque Frequent in the banks of rivers. Not in the Northern Isles. 

The males are greyish-black on the back, the females yellowish-brown, with 
scattered black hairs, both light coloured beneath. Tail covered with short 
hair, and ending in a small pencil. This species swims and dives well. It 
seems to feed exclusively on the roots of aquatic plants, no remains of the 
bones of little fishes having been detected by us in its excrement, though 
said to prey on such. During the winter months, it retires to a cavity formed 
under ground in a dry bank, in which it has previously deposited a stock of 
provisions. This consists in some cases of potatoes, as was observed by Mr 
White, (Hist. Selb. i. p. 129.) ; and we have twice witnessed the same thing. 
In the end of July we have found the stomach of a young one filled with 
clover. It is probable that this species becomes torpid in the cold months. 

35. A. agrestis. Field Vole. — Body 3 inches and a half 
long, tail 1^ inch. 

Mus agrestis, Ray, Quad. p. 218 — Short-tailed mouse, Penn. Brit. Zool. 
i. p." 123. B, Llygoden gwlla'r maes. Vole-mouse in Orkney — In 

gardens and meadows, common. 
This species never exceeds half the size of the former. The fur is browner 
above and paler beneath, the ears are longer in proportion ; and the tusks, 
which in the former are yellow, are in this nearly white. Doubts were en- 
tertained by Linnaeus whether this and the former were distinct species. 
But in his description of his Mas terrestris (our No. 35.), he introduces several of 
the characters of the A. aquatica; and Pennant seems to have desciibed a young 
one of that species for the agrestis. The field vole is most destructive in gar- 
dens to seeds, especially to early peas, which, after germination has com- 
menced, it scents out and digs up. The trap called by gardeners the Fourth 
Figure catches them readily. It is equally destructive to young plantations, 
and to coarse pastures. It multiplies prodigiously in certain seasons, and 



commits extensive ravages. 



In consequence of the progress of Society, one species has been extirpated 
from the British Glires — the Beaver (Castor Fiber). This animal appears, 
from the testimony of Giraldus de Barri, to have existed only in one river 
in Wales and another in Scotland in the 12th century, (Hist. Camb. lib. ii. 



24 MAMMALIA. PECORA. Bos. 

cap. 3.), about which period it probably became extinct, although the credu- 
lous Boece states that they were found in plenty so late as the 15th century. 
It was termed by the Welsh in the 9th century (" Leges Wallicse," iii. 1 1. 12.) 
Llosdlydan, and in the Gaelic it is still termed, from tradition, Losleathen. See 
Mr Neill's valuable " Account of some fossil remains of the Beaver found in 
Perthshire and Berwickshire," Wern. Mem. iii. p. 207. The bones of this 
species occur in beds of marl under peat-moss, as quoted by Mr Neill ; and 
in Berkshire, Phil. Trans. 1757, p. 112- 

The Guinea pig (Cavia Cobaya), has been domesticated in the belief that 
its smell will expel rats. It is a native of Brazil, and may be regarded as a 
useless addition to our stock of quadrupeds. 



PECORA. 

I. Horns permanent, furnished internally with an osseous 

core. 

Gen. XXII. BOS. Ox. — Horns lateral at their origin, but 
afterwards recurved, smooth. 

36. B. Taurus. Common Ox. — Front flat, longer than 
broad. Horns proceeding from the extremities of the occipital 
ridge. 

The cow goes with young nine months, and is capable of breeding the se- 
cond year. Milk teeth begin to shed about the tenth month. Numerous va- 
rieties exist at present in a domesticated state, differing in colour and shape, 
and in the form or absence of their horns. Those in the more fertile districts 
are the largest ; those frequenting mountainous districts with scanty pastures 
are the smallest, with the fore-quarters proportionally larger, as in Zetland. 

Several varieties, if not species, of oxen appear to have occupied the Bri- 
tish Island, in a wild state, at no very remote period. Lesley (" De Origine, 
moribus et rebus gestis Scotorum," Rome 1078) mentions herds of" Vaccce 
non cimres" (p. 10.), which frequented the mountainous districts of Argyle 
and Ross. These probably were the parent stock of our domesticated varie- 
ties, which, with but little care, are reared in the remoter districts. 

The " boves sylvestres" of Lesley (p. 19.), which were of a white colour, pos- 
sessed, as he states, "jubam densam, ac dimissam instar leonis ;" while Sir 
Robert Sibbald says, that, in his day, they did not differ in form from the 
common kind. The remains, however, of this white breed, with the muzzle 
and ears black, may be found mixed occasionally in our domestic kind. In a 
pure state, they are preserved in the parks of a few of the nobility. The 
remains of oxen, which occur in marl-pits in this country, seem all to belong 
to the species taurus. Many of the skulls, however, exhibit dimensions su- 
perior to those of the largest domesticated kinds. A skull in my possession 
measures 27 § inches in length, 9 inches between the horns, and 114 inches 
across at the orbits. 

The manes, which several authors state to have characterised the wild oxen 
of this country, and their remarkable ferocity, probably had a reference to 
the Bos Urus, a species once indigenous, as attested by the occurrence of its 
remains in the recent strata. A skull of this species, found by Mr Warbur- 
ton, at Walton in Essex, forms a part of the Collection of the Geological So- 
ciety of London, and another skull found at Woolwich, exists in the Museum 
of the Royal College of Surgeons, London. This species differs remarkably 
from the Bos Taurus, in the front being swollen, broader than long, the horns 



Capka. MAMMALIA. PECOJIA. 25 

taking their rise lower than the occipital ridge, and the ribs being fourteen in 
number, instead of twelve. This species has now become scarce on the Con- 
tinent of Europe, and probably at no distant period will become extinct. 

Gen. XXIII. CAPRA. Goat.— Chin with a beard, and 
the rough angular horns bent retrally, and approximate 
at their base. 

37. C. Hircus. — Horns sharp, edged anteally. 

Caper, Merr. Pin. p. 1GG — Hircus, S'ibb. Scot. p. 8 — Capra domestica, 
Ray, Quad. p. 77 — C. Hircus, Linn. Syst. i. p. 94. B, Bwch ; G, 
Gaoither In the more remote mountainous districts. 

This animal, valuable in an economical point of view, is prized for its skin, 
fur, flesh, and milk. It is most destructive to young plantations, and seems 
suited to those districts which are too rugged for sheep pasture. It has two 
teats, and goes with young four months and a half. By some, the steinbock 
of the Alps (C. ibex) is considered as the parent stock of our domestic goat, 
while others regard it as the Paseng of the mountains of Persia (C. aga- 
grus). 

Gen. XXIV. OVIS. Sheep. — Chin beardless, the rough 
angular horns bent retrally, laterally, and anteally, and 
subremote at their origin. 

38. O. Aries. — Horns compressed and lunated. 

Aries, Merr. Pin — Ovis, Sibb. Scot. p. 8 O. domestica, Ray, Quad. 

p. 73 — O. aries, Linn. Syst. i. p. 97. W, Hwrd. 

The sheep goes with young J 50 days, and generally produces one, some- 
times two or more, at a birth. During the first year, the young have eight 
sharp, cutting teeth. In the second year the two middle ones drop out, and 
have their places supplied by two permanent teeth, broader and more obtuse. 
In the third, fourth, and fifth years, the remaining pairs of the milk-teeth are 
shed, and the permanent ones, by which they are replaced, are proportionally 
broad and blunt. In the eighth year the teeth begin to drop out, the two 
middle incisors first, and two are shed in each of the three following seasons. 
The wool differs, among individuals, in colour, fineness, and length ; and is 
in so great demand for our manufactures, that innumerable attempts have 
been made to establish particular breeds. Hence our short or long woolled 
kinds, coarse and fine woolled kinds. Of the more ancient breeds, two seem 
entitled to particular notice, viz. 

Mugg Sheep — In this variety the face and legs are white, or rarely spotted 
with yellow, with the forehead covered with long wool. This is the native 
breed in Scotland, to the north of the Forth and Clyde. They are of a small 
size, and seldom weigh above 8 or 10 lb. per quarter. Some tribes have 
horns, others are destitute of them, and they vary in the length of the tail. 
They may be considered as the stock of the numerous modern and valuable 
varieties which are bred in the best cultivated districts. The Shetland sheep 
belongs to this kind. The fur consists of fine wool next the skin, with long 
coarse hairs, — indications of an inhabitant of an arctic climate. The wool is 
never shorn, but when about to be shed in summer it is torn from the body 
by the hand, — a process termed rawing. 

Black-faced Sheep — The face and legs are black, and the tail short. Usual- 
ly furnished with large horns. This species abounds in the mountainous dis- 
tricts of the south of Scotland. 



26 MAMMALIA. PECORA. Cervus. 

II. Horns simple and deciduous. 
Gen. XXV. CERVUS. Deer. — Horns, when growing, co- 
vered by a soft velvety skin, which ultimately dries up, 
and is rubbed off. 

39. C. Elaphus. Stag or Red-Deer. — Horns branched, round, 

and recurved. 

Cervus, Merr. Pin. p. 1C6 — Sibb. Scot. p. 9 — Ray, Quad. p. C4. C. EL 
—Lin. Syst. 1. p. 93 W, Carw; G, Fiadh. 

The stag is about 3£ feet in height. In the Duke of Athol's grounds some 
have beenshot, which weighed upwards of 18 stones (Stat. Ac xx. p. 470.). 
The female is gravid eight months, and brings forth one at a birth. It was 
formerly abundant throughout the kingdom, but is now, in consequence of 
the influence of society, nearly confined to the remoter districts of Scotland 
and England. In some of the latter regions it proves very destructive to 
corn in harvest, but is gradually disappearing with the extension of sheep- 
farming. 

The fossil remains of this species are widely distributed, occurring in peat 
and marl-beds, clay, and the silt of rivers. The horns, which chiefly attract 
notice, and find a place in geological collections, are of larger dimensions than 
those which belong to the recent individuals. The same remark applies to the 
fossil ox. Nor need this circumstance excite surprise, when we take into 
consideration the extensive forests and meadows with which the country 
abounded, furnishing protection and sustenance ; and the advanced age to 
which many individuals might, Avhen free from the persecution of man, be 
permitted to attain. 

40. C. Capreolus. Roe. — Horns branched, round, erect, with 

bifid summits. 

Capreolus, Merr. Pin. p. 106 — Sibb. Scot. p. 9 — Capria Plinii, Ray, Quad, 
p. 89 C. cap. Lin. Syst. 1. p. 94. — W, Jwrch ; G, Earha. 

The height of this species is about 2\ feet. The female is gravid five 
months and a half, and produces two at a birth. This species was formerly 
equally extensively disli-ibuted with the stag, but is now in a great measure 
confined to the district of Scotland to the north of the Forth. In Fife they 
have reappeared of late years, in consequence of the increase of plantations. 

41. C. Dama. Fallow-Deer. — Horns branched, recurved, 
compressed, and palmated at the top. 

Dama, Merr. Pin. p. 166 — C. platyceros, Ray, Syn. Quad. p. 85 — C. D. 
Lin. Syst. 1. p. 93 — IF, Hydd. 
This species is more gentle in its dispositions than either of the preceding, 
and is consequently better fitted for being kept in parks. The female is gra- 
vid eight months, and produces one, two, or even three at a birth. Doubts 
seem to be entertained whether the fallow-deer be an indigenous animal, 
though the evidence on which its claims rest is far from doubtful. Lesley 
(De Or. Scot. p. 5.) mentions, among the objects which the huntsman pur- 
sued with dogs, " Cervum, damam, aut capream." In the Statistical Account 
of Ardchattan, Argyleshire (vol. vi. p. 175-), it is said, that " fallow-deer run 
wild in the woods, of a much superior size and flavour to any of their species 
that are confined in parks." Indistinct traces of this species seem likewise to 
occur among the alluvial deposits. Thus, Professor Buckland (llel. Dil. p. 18.) 
found teeth in the Kirkdale Cave, " nearly of the size and form of the fallow- 
deer." In the Statistical Account of the Parish of Kinloch, Perthshire 



Eduus. MAMMALIA. BELLU/E. 27 

(vol. xvii. p. 478.), a pair of large deer's horns are said to have been found in 
a marl-pit at Marlee, and, " from their superior size and palmed form, they 
appear to be the horns of the elk-deer." Among the donations to the Royal 
Society of Edinburgh, there is recorded (Trans. Royal Soc. vol. i. part 1. p. 77-)> 
" Bv the Honourable Lord Dunsinnan, — a painting in oil of the head and 
honis of an elk, found in a marl-pit, Forfarshire." Whether these two ex- 
amples from marl-beds should be referred to the fallow-deer or the Irish elk, 
may admit of some doubt, though it is probable that they belong to the former. 

The British Pecora appear to have experienced changes, by which the num. 
ber of species has been reduced, though we possess no records to determine 
the aera of their extirpation. 

1. Irish Elk. 

This species, now unknown in a recent state, was first described by Dr 
Molyneux (Phil. Trans. No. 227.). " From the extreme tip of each 
horn it measured 10 feet 10 inches, and from the tip of the right horn 
to its root 5 feet 2 inches." It is of frequent occurrence in the beds of 
shell-marl, beneath peat, in the Irish bogs ; In England, it has several 
times occurred in a similar situation, and in clay and gravel at Walton, 
in Essex. A splendid, and nearly perfect specimen from the Isle of 
Man is preserved in the Edinburgh Museum. 

2. Antelope. 

The only notice of any animal of this kind ever having inhabited the 
British Islands, is contained in a paper giving " An account of the 
peat-pit near Newbury, Berkshire," by John Elliot, M. D. " A great 
many horns, heads, and bones of several kinds of deer, the horns of 
the Antelope, the heads and tusks of boars, the heads of beavers, &c. 
are also found in it ; and I have been told, that some human bones 
have been found ; but I never saw any of these myself, though I have 
of all the others." Phil. Trans. 1757, p. 112. 

The following passage of Torfpeus (Hist. Ore. cap. 36.), would lead to the 
belief that the Rein-deer once dwelt in the mountains of Caithness, were it 
not extremely probable that Red-deer were intended, " Consueverant Comi- 
tes in Catane'sian, indeque ad montana ad venatum caprearum rangiferorum 
quotannis proficisci." Several attempts have been made by the Duke of 
At'aol and others to introduce the rein-deer into the country, but these have 
hitherto failed. 

BELLUiE. 

Gen. XXVI. EQUUS. Horse. — Hoof entire, with six inci- 
sors in each jaw. 

42. E. Caballus. Mane and tail with thick flowing hair. 

The mare goes with young eleven months, and seldom produces more than 
one. The milk incisors begin to protrude themselves five days after birth. 
At two and a half years, the two middle teeth are replaced by permanent ones ; 
at three and a half the two adjoining ones ; at four and a half, the two 
outer or corner teeth. All these are at first hollow in the middle of the sum- 
mit, with a dark spot, but, by use, the concavity becomes shallower, and be- 
tween the age of seven and eight, the spot disappears, and the animal is then 
said to have lost mark. The tusks of the lower jaw appear at the age of three 
and a half years, those in the upper at four ; they remain sharp pointed till 
six, after which they become blunt, and exceed in length. 



28 MAMMALIA. BELLU/E. Sb'si 

That this animal should be regarded as indigenous, need scarcely require 
proof. It lives and propagates, nearly in a state of nature in the Highlands 
of Scotland, and the Zetland Islands. In the latter of these districts, the use 
of a stable was dispensed with, until lately. The remains of the species occur 
associated with those of the most ancient of our native quadrupeds, as in the 
Cave of Kirkdale, (Buckland's Rel. Dil. p. 18). 

The Britons, at a very early period, paid great attention to the horse, as 
appears from the excellency of their cavalry, according to the testimony of 
Ccesar (Com. lib. iv. 33.), and the present stock is unequalled, whether des- 
tined for the draught, the saddle, the turf, or for war. The breeds which 
may be regarded as nearest in character to the original stock, dwell in the 
more mountainous and inaccessible districts, where deficiency of food restrains 
them to a diminutive size. 

Gen. XXVII. SUS. Boar.— Hoof divided, with six inci- 
sors in each jaw. 

43. S. Scrqfa. Back bristled in front, tail hairy. 

The sow is gravid four months, and, in a domesticated state, has been known 
to produce twenty pigs. This species was formerly abundant in a wild state, 
and the bones of individuals are occasionally found in marl-beds, clay, gravel 
and caves. The cultivated breeds are numerous, and chiefly distinguished 
by the thickness of fur, or length of leg. In one variety the hoof is undivided. 
The ears are pendulous in some, and erect in others. 



By the influence of civilization, the Ass (Equus Annus) was added to the 
stock of our useful quadrupeds, so early as the close of the tenth century, at 
least in the reign of Ethelred. It is occasionally employed as a beast of bur- 
den in mines, seldom for the saddle. Other species of Belluse, however, have 
suffered extirpation here, and elsewhere have become extinct. 

1. Mammoth. 

This is a species of elephant (Elcphasprimigenius), which, judging from the 
distribution of its remains, was a native of the temperate and cold dis- 
tricts of the northern hemisphere. The tusks, teeth, &c occur in the 
silt of rivers, beds of marl, clay, gravel, and in caves. The markings 
of the teeth distinguish it as a species from any of the recent kinds, 
and the condition of the fur, in the individual found in ice at the mouth 
of the Lena in Siberia, indicated its fitness to reside in a cold climate. 
Mr Trimmer gives figures of two young teeth, found in clay near 
Brentford, which he hastilv refers to the Asiatic and African recent 
species, (Phil. Trans. 1813, p. 131. tab. viii. f. 1. 2). 

2. Extinct Rhinoceros. 

This species appears to have been contemporary with the mammoth, and 
to have possessed the same geographical distribution. In this country 
its remains occur in all the situations in which those of the mammoth 
have been detected. 

3. Extinct Hippopotamus. 

Doubts exist respecting the claims of this species to be regarded as dif- 
ferent from the existing African species. The bones are found in similar 
situations with those of the two preceding animals, but the geographical 
distribution of this species appears to have been different, the indivi- 
duals having been more confined to the temperate regions. In this 
country, it has occurred in Lancashire under a peat-bog, — at Kirkdale 



Manatus. MAMMALIA. HERBIYORA. i>9 

in a cave (Buckland, Rel. Dil. p. 18.), and in clay at Brentford, where, 
according to Mr Trimmer, six tusks were found in turning over an 
area of 120 yards. (Phil. Trans. 1813, p. 135). 



APOD A. 

JIN this great division of truly aquatic animals, so little is 
known of their history, and of the limits of their geographical 
distribution, that we are at a loss to determine what species should 
be regarded as genuine natives, and what as merely occasional 
visitants of our shores. It is judged expedient to enumerate 
all those which have been detected in our seas, even though 
they may have been stragglers, for the purpose of increasing 
the facilities of those who enjoy, occasionally, a favourable op- 
portunity for determining the species which are rare, and the 
characters of which are consequently obscure. It is particularly 
recommended to such naturalists to be minute in their observa- 
tions and descriptions, in order to advance our knowledge of 
the different kinds of British whales, the characters of many of 
which are still involved in much uncertainty and confusion. 

HERBIVORA. 

Gen. XXVIII. MANATUS. Lamantine.— Grinders eight 
on each side, with two transverse ridges. 

44. M. borealis. Sea-Cow. — When full grown, extending to 

28 feet in length. 

Manati, Bay, Quad. 193 — Trichechus manatus, Lin. Syst. 1. 49 

Stewart, El. 1. 125. 

In this animal, the fore-swimmers (fins or paws) are furnished with the ru- 
diments of nails. In youth there are two small incisors in the upper jaw ; 
the gape is small, the lips double, and the mouth is beset with white tubular 
bristles. This species inhabits the western shores of America and Kamts- 
chatka. In Greenland it is rare, as only one mutilated specimen occurred to 
Fabricius — Fauna, Gr. p. 6. 

The only example of its occurrence in Britain is recorded by Mr Stewart 
in his work quoted above : " The carcase of one of these animals was, in 1 785, 
thrown ashore near Leith. It was much disfigured ; and the fishermen ex- 
tracted its liver and other parts, from which a considerable quantity of oil was 
obtained." I was subsequently informed by Mr Stewart, that it came ashore 
at Newhaven in the harvest season ; though it had been dead for some time, 
and was in a putrid state, he was able to satisfy himself with regard to the 
species. 



SO MAMMALIA. CETACEA. Bal.enopteiia. 

It is probable that other species of the animals of this group do live in our 
seas, and occasionally give rise to the reports which have appeared, in by no 
means a questionable shape, of Mermaids. Whether these belong to the Mana- 
tus or Rytina, must be left to future observers ; but the following particulars, 
which have been very properly communicated, of a Zetland mermaid, cap- 
tured in Yell Sound in the summer of 1823, by an intelligent naturalist, Lau- 
rence Edmondstone, Esq. surgeon, Unst, from the reports of the fishermen, 
here merit a place : 

" The animal was about 3 feet long, the upper part of the body resembling 
the human form, with protuberant mammae like aAvoman; the face, forehead and 
neck, short, and resembling those of a monkey ; small arms, which it kept folded 
across its breast ; distinct fingers, not webbed ; a few stiff long bristles were on 
the top of the head, extending down to the shoulders, and which it could erect 
or depress at pleasure, something like a crest. The lower part of the body like 
a fish ; the skin smooth, and of a grey colour. It offered no resistance, nor at- 
tempted to bite, but uttered a low, plaintive sound. The crew, six in num- 
ber, took it within their boat, but superstition getting the better of curiosity, 
and not aware of a specific remuneration for carrying it to land, they care- 
fully disentangled it from the lines, and a hook which had accidentally fasten- 
ed in its body, and returned it to its native element. It instantly dived, de- 
scending in a perpendicular direction." — " I have since seen the skipper of 
the boat, and one of his crew, and learned these additional details. They had 
the animal about three hours within the boat. The body without scales or 
hair, silver-grey above, whitish below, like the human skin — no gills were ob- 
served — no fins on the back or belly — tail like that of a dog-fish — very thick 
over the breast — by the eye, the girth might be between two and three feet 
— the neck short, very distinct from the head and shoulders — the body rather 
depressed — the anterior extremities very like the human hand, about the length 
of a seal's paw, webbed to about an inch of the ends of the fingers — mammae 
as large as those of a woman — mouth and lips very distinct, and resembling 
the human." These particulars are contained in two letters to Professor 
Jameson, dated 10th and 14th August 1823, and published in the Edinburgh 
Magazine for September 1823, p. 34fi. 



CETACEA. 

I. Palate covered with baleen. Jaws destitute of teeth. 
A. Back furnished with a protuberance or Jin. Piked Whales. 

Gen. XXIX. BAL.ENOPTERA.— Pectoral skin folded lon- 
gitudinally, and capable of being inflated. 

45. R. Muscultts. Round-lipped Whale. — Margin of the 

under lip semicircular. 

De Balaena tripinni quae maxillam inferiorem rotundam, et superiore 
multo latiorem habuit, Sibb. Phal. p. 78. tab. iii — B. musculus, Linn. 

Syst. 1. 106 Balaenoptera acuto-rostrata, Seoresby, Arct. Iieg. i. 485. 

tab. xiii. fig. 2. 

A male of this species, according to Sibbald, 78 feet in length, came ashore 
at Abercorn, in the Frith of Forth, in September 1C92. Its circumference 
was about 35 feet. The lower jaw was 13 feet 2 inches in length. The gape 
large and triangular. The upper jaw was narrower, becoming pointed to- 
wards the extremity; and was embraced by the longer and wider under jaw. 
The tongue was convoluted, 15 feet 7 inches in length, and 15 feet at the 



Bal.enoptera. MAMMALIA. CETACEA. 31 

broadest part. The baleen (or whalebone) was 3 feet in length. From the 
snout to the eyes 13 feet 2 inches — from the angle of the mouth to the pec- 
toral swimmers 6 feet 5 inches; these were 10 feet long, and 2 4 feet where 
broadest. Dorsal fin 3 feet long, 2 feet high, and distant from the middle of 
the tail 12 feet 10 inches. From the lower jaw to the navel, the skin on the 
belly was regularly folded. Tail 184 feet wide. This individual had been 
known to the fishermen for twenty years, in its pursuits after the herring, 
and termed by them Hollie Pike, in consequence of the dorsal fin having been 
perforated by a bullet. 

The animal killed in Scalpa Bay, November 14. 1808, of which Mr Scores- 
bv gives a figure and description from the notes of the late James Watson, 
Esq. of Orkney, seems, from its dimensions, to have been a young animal. 
The remarkable gibbosity of the lower jaw expressed in the figure, and which 
corresponds tolerably well with Sibbald's delineation, leads me to consider it 
as the Musculus. " Its length was 174 feet; circumference 20. Length from 
the snout to the dorsal fin 1 2 4 feet ; from the snout to the pectoral fins 
5 feet; from the snout to the eye 34 feet ; and from the snout to the blow- 
holes 3 feet. Pectoral fins 2 feet long, and 7 inches broad; dorsal fin 15 
inches long by 9 inches high ; tail 15 inches long by 44 feet broad. Largest 
whalebone about 6 inches." 

According to Low (Nat. Hist. Oread, p. 158.), they are seen in the Ork- 
ney seas in July and August, when herring and mackerel are abundant. And 
Dr Walker states (Essays, p. 529.), that they yearly frequent Loch Fyne 
during the herring season. 

45. B. Boops. Sharp-lipped Whale. — Snout pointed. 

De Balaena tripinni quae rostrum acutum habet, et plicas in ventre, Sibb. 

Phal. 68. tab. i. lowest figure B. B. Linn. Syst. i. 106 — B. rostrata, 

Hunter, Phil. Trans. 1787, p. 373. tab. xx — Fin-Whale, Weill, Wern. 
Mem. i. p. 201. 
The specimen described by Sibbald, which came ashore in November 1690 
near Burntisland in the Frith of Forth, was 46 feet in length, and 20 in cir- 
cumference. The pectoral swimmers were 5 feet from the eye, and the dor- 
sal fin 84 from the tail. From the navel to the snout 24 feet. Breadth of 
the tail 9 feet. The lower jaw, near the middle, was 4 feet in breadth, with 
a thickened margin. Tongue 5 feet long, and near the root 3 feet in breadth. 
The blow-holes were 6 feet 8 inches from the snout. The length of the gape 
10 feet. Eyes 3 feet from the blow-holes. The swimmers were 5 feet long, 
and 14 broad. 

The individual examined by Hunter was caught on the Doggerbank, 
and was 17 feet long. Upper jaw, from eye to eye, 1 foot 8 inches; lower 
jaw 2 feet 6 inches. It had 7 vertebrae in the neck, 12 which may be reckoned 
to the back, and 27 to the tail, making 46 in the whole. The sternum was 
flat, and of one bone, to which the first rib was articulated. There were 300 
lamina? of baleen, the greatest length of which was 5 inches, and the two jaws 
met every where along their surface. The stomach consisted of five bags, 
the two first being the largest. The duodenum had longitudinal rugae or 
valves. Furnished with a caecum. In the stomach were found the remains 
of the dog-fish. Tongue little raised, having scarcely any lateral edges. 

In a male fin-whale examined by Mr Neill, and which came ashore at Alloa 
on the banks of the Forth, the length was 43 feet, and the greatest circumfe- 
rence 20. Swimmers 5 feet long, and 1 broad. Dorsal fin 24 feet high, and 
nearly of the same breadth at the base, seated nearly over the vent, and about 
12 feet from the extremity of the tail, the last being 10 feet broad. Under 
jaw 14 feet long, 3 inches longer than the upper, and a little wider. There 
were about 300 laminae of baleen on each side, the largest 18 inches long. 
Distance from eye to eye 7 feet. Mr Neill mentions having examined a MS. 
account of another whale, by the late Dr Walker, which was cast ashore at 

2 



S3 MAMMALIA. CETACEA. Physalis. 

Burntisland 10th June 1762, and which, in size and other particulars, agreed 
with the one which came under his own observation. 

I have brought these three descriptions together, under the conviction 
that they all refer to one species. Hunter, it is true, considers his indivi- 
dual as belonging to the Balcsna rostrata of Fabricius (Faun. Green, p. 40.), 
but the description there given conveys nothing precise in form or dimen- 
sions, except that it is the least of the baleen whales, and it may not differ 
from the Boops of the same author. Fabricius, in describing the last species, 
states, " Rostrum rectum, elongatum magis magisque angustatus, desinens 
tamen apice satis lato obtusoque. Ante nares in vertice capitis tres ordines 
convexitatum circularium, huic forsan peculiare quid. Maxilla interior su- 
periore parum brevior strictiorque versus superiorem oblique tendens." 
41 Magnitudo ejus interdum 50-54 pedum ;" p. 36". These characters indicate 
a species different from the one described by Sibbald and Neill, and may justi- 
fy the adoption of the Balanoptera juLartes of M. Lacepede, characterised as 
having tuberosities near the blow -holes. Sir Charles Giesecke, in the article 
Greenland (Edin. Encyc. vol. x. p. 490.), states that the B. Boops comes 
regularly to the coast about the end of July. It is " a smaller kind of whale, 
its length being from 20 to 25 feet. It has a fin on its back, and also a pro- 
tuberance which grows towards the tail." " The whalebones of this species 
rarely exceed the length of one foot." Are we to rely on the size in the 
determination of the species, and consider the B. rostrata as a distinct species 
limited to 25 feet in length, and represented by the rostrata of Fabricius and 
Hunter, and the loops of Giesecke? Future observers may determine the 
point. 

Both the B. musculus and boops may be considei'ed as regular inhabitants 
of our seas. On the 20th August 1822, I observed an individual of the latter 
species at Longhope, Orkney. 

Gen. XXX. PHYSALIS. Razor-Back.— Skin destitute 
of pectoral folds. 

47. P. vulgaris. — Length reaching to a hundred feet. 

Balsena Physalis, Fab. Fauna Gr. p. 35 Walker's Essays, p. 528 Ba- 

kenoptera Gibbar, Scoresby, Arc. Reg. i. 478. 

According to Fabricius, the length of the baleen does not exceed a foot. It 
swims swiftly, and is with difficulty captured. Mr Scorseby states that he 
has made several ineffectual attempts to secure this species. The animal, 
when exerting its energies, dives and swims with such rapidity as to defy 
the ingenuity of the whaler. He states, from report, that it has been found 
105 feet in length, and 38 in cirfumference ; " head small when compared 
with that of the common whale; fins long and narrow; tail 12 feet broad, 
finely formed ; whalebone 4 feet in length, thick, bristly, and narrow ; blub- 
ber (> or 8 inches thick, of indifferent quality ; colour bluish-black on the back, 
and bluish. grey on the belly ; skin smooth, excepting about the sides of the 
thorax, where longitudinal ruga; or sulci occur." From his own observa- 
tion, he states, that " it seldom lies quietly on the surface of the water when 
blowing, but usually has a velocity of four or five miles an hour; and when 
it descends, it very rarely throws its tail in the air, which is a very general 
practice with the mystketus. 

The individual mentioned by Sibbald (Phail. p. 84.) as having come ashore 
at Boyne in Banffshire, probably belonged to this species. It was 80 feet 
in length, exclusive of the tail. Dr Walker states, that this species some- 
times comes ashore on the Island of Lewis. It is, however, in all probabili- 
ty, only a straggler. 

Relics of a whale, of a large size, and probably belonging to Balanoptera 
mmcnlus, or to the preceding species, occur in the marine diluvium of the Forth. 

1 



Bal*na. MAMMALIA. CETACEA. 3: 

B. Back destitute of a protuberance or fin. 
Gen. XXXI. BAL.ENA. Whale.— Upper lip whiskered. 
Head large. 
48. B. Mysticetus. Common Whale. Gape of the mouth 
arched. 

Scoresby's Arct. Reg. i. 449. tab. xii. 
The intelligent author whom we have now quoted, and whose figure is the 
only one worth quoting, considers a full grown whale of the ordinary size as 
not exceeding CO feet in length, and 40 feet in circumference, and as weighing 
about 70 tons, the blubber 30 tons. " The upper jaw, including the crown bone 
or skull, is bent down at the extremity so far as to shut the front and upper 
parts of the cavity of the mouth, and is overlapped by the lips in a squamous 
manner at the sides." The swimmers are placed about 2 feet behind the angle 
of the mouth. The tail reaches to 26 feet in breadth. Laminae of baleen 300 
in number in each series, and sometimes 15 feet in length ; the whole weighing 
a ton and half. A slight beard, consisting of a few short scattered white 
hairs, surmounts the anterior extremity of both jaws. Its food consists of 
small marine insects. Sir Charles Giesecke (Article Greenland, Ed. En. x. 
499.) states the length of a female, killed in the spring of 1813, at 67 feet. 
Another killed in 181 1, measured as follows : " From the centre of the mouth 
to the point of the tail 56 feet. From the point of the under lip to the root 
of the fins, 23i feet. From the fins to the point between the two lobes or 
wings of the tail 33 feet. The length of the head was 18 feet. From the 
middle point of the upper lip to the blowholes 16^ feet. The length of one 
of the fins 8 feet 4 inches. The thickness of a fin, on its thickest part, 1 foot 
9 inches. The breadth of the tail from one extremity of its wings to the 
other, 22 feet 7 inches. The length of one of the blowholes 1 1 inches. There 
were thirteen ribs on each side." 

Sibbald (Fhal. p. 65.) states, that an individual of this species came ashore 
near Peterhead in 1682, and measured 70 feet. The species referred to by 
Willoughby (Ichthyologia, p. 37-), as having come ashore at Tynemouth, was 
probably a Physalis, as it is stated to have been 30 yards in length, and to 
have had 30 ribs. 

Though the whale appears formerly to have been frequently met with in 
our seas, yet now, when the fishery is prosecuted with zeal and success, and 
the geographical limits of the species, in consequence, greatly reduced, it scarce- 
ly merits a place among British animals, as it occurs only at distant intervals 
as a straggler. 

I. Palate destitute of baleen. Furnished with teeth, external 
orifice of the bloio-holc single. 

A. Blow-hole double, being" divided within by a bony sep- 
tum. 

a. Teeth, numerous, in both jazas. 

Gen. XXXII. DELPHINUS. Dolphin.— A dorsal fin. 
Destitute of a caecum. 

1. Snout short and blunt. Phoccena o/*Cuv. 
49- D. Phoccena. Porpess. — Teeth compressed and oblique. 

Sibb. Scot. 23 — Will. Ich. p. 31 — Borl. Corn. p. 264. tab. xxvii. f. 2— 
Monro, Phys. Fishes, p. 45. tab. xxxv. — Fleming, Phil. Zool. ii. p. 209 

VOL. I. r 



U MAMMALIA. CETACEA. Delfhinus, 

tab. i. f. 4 — In the British seas near the shore, at all seasons, and 
termed Meersuine, Herring-Hogs, Neessock, Pellock, and Bucker. 
This species seldom exceeds 6 feet in length, and usually occurs in the most 
sheltered bays and friths, generally in pairs, and is irregular in its motions. 
In a female which I examined, b\ feet in length, the dorsal fin was 8 inches 
broad, and 5 high, and 2 feet 7 inches from the nose. Swimmers 3£ inches 
broad at the base, 7 long, and 13 from the snout. Nose to the eye, 6 inches. 
Nose to the blow-hole, 7 inches. Nose to the anus, 3 feet 7 inches. Gape, 
4 inches. The under jaw half an inch longer than the upper, and rather 
pointed than obtuse, considering the size of the animal. Teeth, 54 in the up- 
per-jaw, and 47 in the lower. Weight, 130 pounds. The fcetus, a male, was 
fully formed, though only 1 inches long, and as there was milk in the teats, 
the period of parturition was at hand. This one was found dead 30th Novem- 
ber. Hunter states that there are five cervical vertebrae, and one common 
to the neck and back, fourteen proper to the back, and thirty to the tail. 
Ribs, 1G on each side. — The flesh of this animal was formerly held in estima- 
tion. Malcolm IV. granted to the Monastery of Dunfermling, " Capita pis- 
cium qui dicuntur Crespeis praeter linguam, qui in meo dominio ex ilia parte 
Scottwater applicuerint, in qua parte iliorum ecclesia sita est."— Sib. Fife. 295. 

50. D. Orca, Grampus. — Teeth conical, swimmers broad, 
and rounded. 

Orca, Sibb. Phal. p. 17 Hunter, Phil. Trans. 1787, p. 373. tab. xvi., xvii- 

— In herds in the British seas and friths, at all seasons. 
The grampus reaches to 24 feet in length. The lower jaw is said to be 
wider than the upper, and the teeth to be about thirty in number. This spe- 
cies is gregarious, and moves rapidly forward in the water. When it comes 
to the surface to respire, it remains, like the porpess, but for an instant, and 
then dives, describing, however, in its course a much wider arch. In the 
Frith of Tay, it goes nearly as far up as the salt-water reaches, almost every 
tide at flood, during the months of July and August, in pursuit of salmon, of 
which it devours immense numbers. Hunter iound in the stomach of one 
which he examined, a portion of a porpess. We are still in want of a good 
description of this species. The D. gladiator of Lacepede, constituted from a 
drawing and description of one taken in the Thames 1793, is regarded by 
Cuvier as not distinct from D. Orca. The dorsal fin is considered as situate 
nearer the head than in the grampus, and to be higher and more pointed. 

51. D. melas. Ca'ing whale. — Teeth conical, swimmers long 

and narrow. 

NeiWsTour through Orkney, p. 221 Traill, Nicholson's Journ. vol. xxii. 

p. 81 Scoresby, Arct. Reg. i. 490. tab. xiii. f. 1 — Common in herds 

from autumn to spring, especially in the northern islands. 

Naturalists are indebted to Mr Neill for having first pointed out the dis- 
tinguishing characters of this species as different from the grampus. Though 
it moves uniformly forward, its motion is slow, and when it comes up to blow, 
it remains several minutes on the surface. It is easily controlled in its mo- 
tions, so that a whole herd is frequently driven ashore at once If one indi- 
vidual be wounded and takes the ground, the others will speedily take the 
same course, whence the origin ot the name. The following observations 
on the animal by Dr Traill, are given by Mr Scoresby : " Body thick, black ; 
one short dorsal fin ; pectoral fins long, narrow ; head obtuse ; upper jaw 
bent forward ; teeth subconoid, sharp, and a little bent. This animal grows 
to the length of about 24 feet: the average length of the adults maybe about 
20, and their greatest circumference 10 or 11 feet. The measurements of one 
examined by Mr Watson, were as follow: length, 19£ feet; greatest circum- 
ference, 10; pectoral fin (the external portion), 3£ feet long, by 18 inches 
broad; dorsal fin, 15 inches high, by 2 feet 3 inches broad; breadth of the 



Delphinus. MAMMALIA. CETACEA. 35 

tail, 5 feet. Another individual was 21 4 feet in length ; and a third 20 feet 
in length, and 114 in circumference. The skin is smooth, resembling oiled 
silk ; the colour is a deep bluish-black on the back, and generally whitish on the 
belly ; the blubber is 3 or 4 inches thick. The head is short and round ; the 
upper jaw projects a little over the lower. Externally it has a single spiracle. 
The full grown have generally 22 to 24 teeth, f ths to l£th inches in length, 
in each jaw. Mr Watson observed one with 28 teeth in the upper jaw, and 24 
in the lower. In the aged animals some of the teeth are deficient : and in the 
sucklings none are visible. When the mouth is shut, the teeth lock between 
one another like the teeth of a trap. The tail is about 5 feet broad ; the 
dorsal fin about 15 inches high, cartilaginous and immoveable," p. 497- Sand- 
eels have been found in their stomachs. This species is the Grind of the Faroe 
Isles, and probably the Delphinus globiceps of Cuvier. 

2. Snout produced. Delphinus of Cuvier, vulgo Bot- 
tle-noses. 

52. D. Delphis. Common Dolphin. — Teeth upwards of 
forty in each side of the jaws, slender, bent, and pointed. 

2G4. tab. xxvii. f. 1 — Hunter, Phil. 
— Occasionally found on the British 



Will. Ich. 


p. 28— 


-Bor. 


Corn 


• l.':. 


Trans. 


1787, p. 


373. 


tab. 


xviii.. 


shores. 











This species seldom exceeds 1 1 feet in length. Hunter found five cervical 
vertebrae, and one common to the neck and back ; seventeen dorsal vertebrae, 
and thirty-seven caudal ones. Ribs eighteen. Sternum of three bones, and 
of some length. 

53. D. Turslo. — Teeth, about twenty on each side, with ob- 
tuse summits. 

Fabricius, Fauna Groen. p. 49. Del. truncatus — Montagu, Wern. Mem. iii. 
p. 75- tab. iii — Taken 3d July 1814 in Duncannon Pool, near Stoke 
Gabriel, about five miles up the Kiver Dart. 

British naturalists are indebted to the late George Montagu, Esq. for the 
few particulars which have been recorded of the only individual ever captured 
on our shores. It was 12 feet in length, and about 8 in circumference. From 
the snout to the blow-hole, 144 inches. Summits of the teeth even with the 
gum. Colour black above, whitish beneath. The skull which came into 
Montagu's possession, was, including the upper jaw, 204 inches ; the breadth 
of the jaw across the hinder teeth, is nearly 5 inches ; on each side there are 
sockets for twenty teeth, besides a long depression behind the posterior socket, 
for some other purpose. The under jaw is somewhat longer, containing 
twenty-three sockets on each side, making collectively in both jaws eighty^ 
six teeth, a number little inferior to what has hitherto been noticed in any 
cetaceous animal described. The sockets are variable in size without order, 
shewing that some teeth were double the size of others, and the approxima- 
tion of the sockets evinces the contiguity of the teeth, so that the teeth of 
both jaws must have opposed their surface to each other." The truncated 
appearance of the teeth, and their little elevation above the gum, seem to in- 
dicate the great age of the individual, and leave some doubt as to the original 
form of the summit. According to Fabricius, the front is rounded and de- 
clining, ending in a produced snout. The teeth in both jaws are distant, with 
obtuse summits, like the Beluga. Above black, belly whitish. In this de- 
scription of the teeth, Fabricius seems to have contemplated them in position, 
while Montagu inferred their close connection, from the uncertain appear- 
ances of their alveoli, circumstances which seem to explain the only difference 
between the descriptions of the two authors. 

C 2 



H MAMMALIA, CETACEA. Delphinapteba. 

Gen. XXXIII. DELPHINAPTEIiA. BELUGA.-Back 
destitute of a fin, but, in its place, the rudiments of a 
ridge. 

54. D. albicans. — Snout abrupt, summits of the teeth trun- 
cated. 

Delphinus albicans, Fab. Faun. Gr. p. 50 Dr Barclay and Mr Neill, 

Wern. Mem. iii. 371. tab. xvii — Scoresby, Arct. Reg. i. p. 500. tab. xiv. 
Rarely a visitant of the British seas. 

The length of the beluga is from 12 to 18 feet. The jaws are equal. The 
teeth are nine on each side, in each jaw ; in the lower, short, obtuse, and 
distant ; in the upper, more acute and bent. The swimmers are subovate. 
The colour is usually white, occasionally with a tinge of red or yellow. It 
is gregarious and frequents the arctic seas, entering large rivers like the 
grampus. Two instances of the occurrence of this animal on our shores are 
now on record. One was killed near Stirling in June 1815 ; and Mr Bald 
having procured the specimen, it was submitted to Mr Neill and Dr Barclay 
for inspection, the former of whom has given an account of its external cha- 
racters, the latter of its structure. The length of this individual was 13^ feet, 
its greatest circumference 8 feet 1 1 inches ; breadth of the tail 3 feet ; swim- 
mers 2 feet long, and the same distance from the angle of the mouth ; gape 
10 inches. From angle of the mouth to the eye 2| inches. From tip of the 
upper jaw to the blow-hole 1 foot 10 inches. In the under jaw there were 
six teeth on each side, broad and blunt ; in the upper jaw there were nine on 
each side, but none immediately in front, the three backmost sharp, and with- 
out any to match them in the lower jaw. It possessed four stomachs. The 
cervical vertebrce were 7 in number, the dorsal 11, and the lumbar 13. 
True ribs C, and the false ribs 5 in number. Sternum broad and flat. The 
late Colonel Imrie informed Mr Neill, " that, in August 1793, he saw two 
young belugas, which had been cast upon the beach of the Pentland Frith, 
some miles east of Thurso. The length of the one, from the front of the 
forehead to the tip of the tail, was 7 feet, and of the other 74- They were 
both males." Hans Egede, in his Hist. Green. (London 17-15) p. 75. when 
speaking of this whale, states, that " the train of his blubber is as clear as 
the clearest oil. His flesh, as well as the fat, has no bad taste, and when it 
is marinated with vinegar and salt, it is as well tasted as any pork whatever. 
The fins also and the tail, pickled or sauced, are good eating. This fish is so 
far from being shy, that whole droves are seen about the ships at sea. The 
Greenianders catch numbers of them, of which they make grand cheer." 



b. Teeth few, and confined to one jaw. 

Gen. XXXIV. HYPEROODON— Snout produced, with 
two teeth in the lower jaw, and the palate furnished with 
tubercles. With a dorsal fin. 

55. H. oldens. Body reaching to the length of 25 feet. 

Bottle-head, Dale's Harwich, 411. tab. xiv. (Pennant.) — Bottle-nose, 
Hunter, Phil. Trans. 1787, p. 373. tab. xix — Physeter bidens, Smverby, 

Brit. Misc. tab. i Pom. Brit. Zool. 2d edit. 111. p. 88 — Occasionally 

taken on the British shores. 



Monodon. MAMMALIA. CETACEA. 37 

This species varies much in size. That of Dale, taken near Maldon 1717, 
was 14 feet long, and 7i in circumference. The one described by Hunter, 
taken above London Bridge 1783, was 21 feet long. The one figured by 
Sowerby, found near Brodie House, Elginshire, by James Brodie, Esq. was 
1G feet "long, and 11 in circumference. One of the individuals mentioned in 
the second edition of the British Zoology, taken in the Dee near Chester, 
October 1785, was 24 feet long, and 12 in "circumference. Two others, left 
on the sands below Aber, Carnarvonshire, 1799, measured, the one 27 feet, 
the other 18, and the breadth of the tail of the largest was 6 feet. Sowerby 
says, " Head accumulated. Lower jaw blunt, longer than the upper, with 
two short, lateral, bony teeth. Upper jaw sharp, let into the lower one by 
two lateral impressions corresponding with the teeth. Opening of the mouth 
1 foot 6 inches. Tongue smooth, vascular, small. Throat -very vascular, 
rough. Under the throat are found two diverging furrows, terminating below 
the eyes, which are small, and placed 6 inches behind the mouth." Hunter 
observes, that there are only two small teeth in the anterior of the lower 
jaw, and that in the stomach he found the beaks of some hundreds of cuttle- 
fish. 



Gen. XXXV. MONODON. Narwal.— A straight tooth, 
projecting antealiy from one side of the upper lip and jaw. 
Destitute of a dorsal fin. 

56. M. Monoceros. Body subcorneal, head blunt, with a 
ridge extending from the tail to the middle of the back. 

Unicornu marinum, Tulpius, Obser. Med. p. 376. tab. xviii — Mon. nion. 

Sowerby, Brit. Misc. tab. ix Small-headed Narwal, Fleming, Wern. 

Mem. vol. i. p. 131. tab. vi Narwal, Scoresby, Arct. lleg. vol. i. p. 486. 

tab. xv. £1.8, 

Three individuals appear to have been found on the British shores. The 
one noticed by Tulpius, as found in June 1648, " in man aquilonari, prope 
insulam Mayam," (usually considered as the May), was 22 feet long ; but in 
this, the horn, which projected 7 feet, was probably included. The second 
individual was found 15th February 1800, at Frieston, near Boston, Lin- 
colnshire. According to information which I received from Sir Joseph 
Banks (who had communicated his remarks to Lacepede, which, however, 
were misinterpreted, see Wern. Mem. i. p. 147), in a letter dated 19th 
January 1809, " The animal, when found, had buried the whole of its 
body in the mud of which the beach there is composed, and seemed safely 
and securely waiting the return of the tide. A fisherman, going to his boat, 
saw the horn, which was covered up, and trying to pull it out of the mud, 
raised the animal, who stirred himself hastily to secure his horn from the at- 
tack." This specimen is stated to have been 25 feet in length, of which the 
tooth probably constituted 7- Sowerb}' in his drawing (which is equally bad 
with that of Lacepede Hist. Nat. des Cet. p. 159. tab. v. f. 2.), has added, from 
fancy, a second horn or tooth. The third individual, a male, found 2/ th 
September 1808, at the Sound of Weesdale, Zetland, has been described by me 
in the Wernerian Memoirs. It was a young animal, only measuring, from 
the snout to the tail, 12 feet, with a tooth projecting 27 inches. The length 
of this animal seldom reaches to 16 feet, and the circumference 9 feet. The 
forehead rises suddenly from the short snout, the outline then becomes 
slightly elevated over the blow-hole, after which a slight depression marks the 
neck. The first half of the body is nearly cylindrical, the remaining portion 
to the tail, conical. In this latter portion there is a dorsal and ventral low 
ridge, and less distinctly marked lateral "dges, giving it a subquadrangular 



38 MAMMALIA. CETACEA. Physeter. 

form. The mouth is pointed before, and the upper lip projects a little be- 
yond the under. Eye on a cross line with the blow-hole. It has one long 
tooth, projecting from the left side of the upper jaw (or intermaxillary bone) 
through the lip ; hollow within and spirally twisted. Instances have occur- 
red of two teeth, but the right one seldom appears. For some remarks on 
the mode of dentition of this animal and of the porpoise, see Phil. Zool. v. ii. 
208-210. These tusks are sometimes 10 feet in length, and, according to Mr 
Scoresby, are peculiar to the males. The cervical vertebrae are 7, the dorsal 
12, and the lumbar and caudal 35 in number. Ribs 6 true, and G false on 
each side. Live on fish and sepiae, and usually keep in a herd of about a do- 
zen. The following dimensions of a full grown male narwal are given by Mr 
Scoresby: " Length, exclusive of the tusk, 15 feet ; from the snout to the 

eyes 1 foot 14 inch — to the fins 3 feet 1 inch — to the back-ridge 6 feet to 

the vent 9 feet 9 inches. Circumference — 44 inches from the snout, 3 feet 
5 inches ; at the eyes and blowhole, 5 feet 34 inches ; just before the fins 7 
feet 5 inches ; at the forepart of back-ridge, 8 feet 5 inches ; at the vent 5 
feet 8 inches. Tusk, length externally 5 feet 4 inch ; its diameter at the base 
24 inches. Length of the blow-hole 14 inch, and breadth 34 inches. Tail 14 
inches long, and 3 feet 14 inch broad. Fins 13 inches long, and 1\ inches 
broad." The tooth is characteristic of the male. Instances, however, occur, 
though seldom, in which the female has a tooth. One is mentioned in Linn. 
Trans, xiii. 620. : " The sex of this animal was satisfactorily ascertained in 
cutting up, when two foetuses were taken out of it." 

B. Blow-hole single, being destitute of the bony septum. 
Teeth in the lower jaw, with cavities in the upper Jbr 
their reception. 

Gen. XXXVI. PHYSETER, (Artedi). Finner.— Fur- 
nished with an elevated dorsal fin. 

51. P. Tursio. — Summits of the teeth flat. 

De Balaena macrocephala tripinni, quae in mandibula inferiore dentes 
habet minus inflexos et in planum desinentes, Sibb. Phal. p. 43. a tooth 
tab. ii — Physeter pinna dorsi altissima, apice dentium piano, Artedi, 
Gen. p. 74 — Ph. Tur. Linn. Syst. 1. p. 107 — High-finned Cachalot, 
Penn. Brit. Zool. hi. p. 64 — On the Scottish coast, rare. 
In the example mentioned by Sibbald, a female, whicli came ashore in 
Orkney in 1687, the head was 8 or 9 feet in height ; the blow-hole in front; 
the tusks were but little bent, and nearly solid externally, or with only a la- 
teral slit or a small cavity. Some of the teeth were 4 inches long. The dor- 
sal fin was erect, like a mizen-mast. It yielded good spermaceti. 

58. P. microps. Spermaceti Whale.— Teeth bent, with 
acute summits. 

De Balaena macrocephala, qua? tertiam in dorso pinnam sive spinam ha- 
bet, et dentes in maxilla inferiore arcuatos falciformes, Sibb. Phal. p. 33. 
tab. i — Ph. maxilla superiore longiore, spina longa in dorso, Artedi, 

Gen. p. 74 — P. microps, Linn. Syst. i. p. 107 Fab. Faun. Gr. p. 44. 

— Great-headed Cachalot, Low's Orkney, p. 160.— On the Scottish 
coast, frequent. 

A male of this species was found at Limekilns in the Forth in February 
1689, and described by Sibbald. It was 52 feet long. The upper jaw pro- 
jected 24 feet beyond the lower. Lower jaw 10 feet long, and narrower than 
the upper towards the extremity. From the snout to the eyes 12 feet. In 



Catodon. MAMMALIA. CETACEA- 89 

the lower jaw were 42 teeth, 21 on each side (Fabricius states the number as 
1 1 on each side), curved, and ending in an acute point, the largest of which 
were 9 inches long, and the least 7 inches. These projected 3 inches above 
the gums, and contained a large cavity at the root. Swimmers 4 feet long. 
The tail was 9 feet broad. Mr Low states, that this species frequently comes 
ashore in Orkney. One was caught at Hoy 50 feet long. 

Gen. XXXVII. CATODON, (Artedi). Cachalot.— Back 
destitute of an elevated fin. 

59- C macroceplialus Snout truncated. Teeth conical. 

Balaena macrocephala que binas tantum pinnas laterales habet, Sibb* 

Phal. 30 Catodon fistula in cervice, Arledi, Gen. p. 79. — Phys. mac. 

Linn. Syst. i. p. 107 Fab. Faun. Groen. p. 41 Blunt-headed Cacha- 
lot, Robertson, Phil. Trans. 1770, p. 321. tab. ix — Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 
p. 61. tab. vi. a bad figure.— In the Scottish sea, rare. 

An individual of this species ran ashore upon Cramond Island in the Forth, 
December 22. 1769, which Mr Robertson has described. Its length was 54 
feet, and its greatest circumference, behind the eyes, 30. The head occupied 
nearly one-half of the whole animal. A protuberance on the back, opposite the 
penis. The tail was 14 feet broad. Lower jaw 11 feet long, with 23 teeth on 
each side, each 2 inches long, and all pointing a little outwards. Upper jaw 
projecting 5 feet over the lower, with a cavity for the reception of the lower 
jaw, blunt, 9 feet high, and the blow-hole was seated at the dorso-anteal ex- 
tremity. Swimmers 5 feet behind the corners of the mouth, 3 feet long and 
\\ broad. From the corner of the mouth to the penis 19 feet, to the anus 
24, and to the tail 38. Cavity of the head filled with spermaceti along with 
the brain. Fabricius states that the teeth are conical, 40 to 46 in number, 
and that between the pits in the upper jaw the rudiments of teeth exist, 
much bent, lying horizontally, the apex only, oblique polished, appearing 
above the skin. Ribs 10 on each side. According to Schwediawer (Phil. 
Trans. 1783, p. 241.), the blow-hole bends obliquely on the left. 

60. C. Sibbaldi. — Teeth with truncated summits. 

De Balsenis minoribus in inferiore maxilla tantum dentatis, sine pinna 
aut spina in dorso, Sibb. Phal. p. 24 — Catodon fistula in rostro, Art. 
Gen. p. 78 Phys. Catodon, Linn. Syst. i. p. 107- Orkney, rare. 

A herd of this species, upwards of 100 in number, are stated by Sibbald to 
have been found at Kairston, Orkney, the individuals of which were from 2 
to 24 feet in length. Head round ; gape small ; and the teeth about half an 
inch above the gums. " In rostro nares habebant," " et asperitatem quandam 
in dorso." The claims of this species, to rank as distinct from the preceding, 
chiefly rest on the truncated teeth. 



Documents are wanting to enable us to determine the influence of society 
on the geographical distribution of British whales, though it has probably 
been considerable. To some physiological revolutions they seem to have 
been exposed, as three examples of their bones have occurred in marine diluvi- 
um, in peculiar situations, but the species to which they belong cannot as yet 
be determined. The first occurred at Airthrey, on the Forth, near Alloa. 
The bones belonged to an animal about 72 feet long, and were imbedded in 
clay 20 feet higher than the surface of the highest tide of the River Forth at, 
the present day ; " Mr Bald on the Skeleton of a Whale," Edin. Phil. Jour, 
vol. i. p. 393. The second consisted of one vertebra found 12 feet above the 
level of the sea in StrathpefFer, Ross-shire, and described by Sir George Mac 



40 MAMMALIA. CETACE. Physeter. 

kenzie, Edin. Phil. Trans, vol. x. p. 105. The third occurred at Dunmore 
Park, Stirlingshire. The bones belonged to an individual 70 or 75 feet long, 
and were imbedded in clay 20 feet higher than that of the Forth ; Edin. PhU. 
Jour. vol. xi. p. 220. and 415. 

Relics of a marsupial animal connected with the genus Didelphis or Opos- 
sum, but not belonging to any known species, occur along with the remains 
of marine animals in the calcareous slate of Stonesfield, near Woodstock, in 
Oxfordshire, a rock which is considered as a member of the oolitic series. 



Class II. BIRDS. 



42 



BRITISH ANIMALS. 



Class II. BIRDS. 



f Order I. FISSIPIDES. Land Birds.— Toes free, and 
formed for grasping or walking. 

Tribe 1. TERRESTRES— Tibial joint feathered. 

Sect. I. Ambulatores. — Three toes directed anleaUy, and 
Jittedfor walking or grasping 



Nostrils hid under an 
arched covering. Wings 
short. 



II. Nostrils exposed or hid 
only by feathers. 



GALLINAD^E Bill arched 

from the base. Eggs nume- 
rous. 

COLUMBADjE Bill swollen 

at the base, nearly straight, 
and subulate towards the ex- 
tremity. 

ACCIPITRES— Bill and claws 
strongly hooked. Limbs strong. 
Tongue emarginate. Females 
largest. 

PASSERES Bill nearly 

straight in the gape. No cere. 
Males largest. 



.Sect. II. Scansores. — Two toes directed anteally, andjitted 
for climbing trees. 

Tribe II. GRALLiE. Waders. — Lower end of the tibial 
joint and tarsus naked. 

Order II. PALMIPIDES. Water Birds.— Toes web- 
bed to their extremity, and formed for swimming. 



Lagofus. BIRDS. GALLINADiE. 43 



GALLINADJi. 



1. Tarsus feathered. 
Gen. I. LAGOPUS. Grous.— Toes closely feathered above, 
with a simple margin. Tail of 16 feathers. 

1. L. scotkus. Red Grous.— Plumage reddish-brown, mot- 
tled with pale spots, and black bars. 

L. altera, Will. Orn. p. 128 Sibb. Scot. p. 16 — Redcock, Penn. Brit. 

Zool. i. 269.— T6tras rouge, Temm. Manuel d'Ornithologie (1820), ii. 

p. 465 E, Red Game, Gorcock, Moorcock ; S, Moorfowl ; W, Ceiliog 

Mynydd, Tarfynydd; G, Coileach ruadh — In open heathy moors, 

from Wales to Orkney. 
Length 15| inches, breadth 26, weight 20 ounces. Bill black, covered at 
the base with feathers. A spot of white feathers at the base of the lower 
mandible, and a circle of the same colour round the eyes. Quills 24, dusky ; 
the first shorter than the second, and the third the longest. 7W-feathers 
black, the four middle ones barred with red. Above each eye is a rough, na- 
ked, scarlet spot, with the upper margin fringed. Tarsus and toes with fine 
cinereous feathers or hairs. The female is smaller, of a duller colour, and the 
scarlet spot less distinct. Pair in the spring. Eggs from 10 to 14 in num- 
ber, dirty white, blotched with brown. The young or pouts are of a light co- 
lour. The young and parent birds keep in a pack, until the beginning of 
winter, when they associate in large flocks with other broods. Feed on ber- 
ries, heath tops, and corn. Easily domesticated, and breed in confinement. 
This species is truly a native bird/being confined to the United Kingdom. 

2. L. vulgaris. Ptarmigan. — Plumage cinereous, tinged 
with brown, with black and dusky spots and bars. 

L. avis, Will. Orn. 127 Sibb. Scot 16 — Penn. Brit. Zool. i. 271 — Te- 

tras Ptarmigan, Temm. ii. 468. W, Coriar yr Albin ; G, Tarmachan. 
Confined to the highest mountains of Scotland. 
Length 15, breadth 23 inches ; weight 19 ounces. Bill black, more pro- 
duced and less pointed than the preceding. From the gape to the eyes a 
black band. Above the eyes a lunulated, naked, scarlet spot. Quills 24, with 
white webs, and black shafts ; the first shorter than the second, the third the 
longest. Tail feathers black, the middle ones variegated with pale brown. 
Tarsus and toes with cinereous feathers and hairs. In the female the black 
band from the gape is wanting. In winter the plumage becomes white, with 
the exception of the cheek band, the seven tail-feathers on each side, the 
shafts of the two middle ones, and of the quills, which are black. Eggs 10, 
white, with brown spots. It is a stupid bird. Breeds in confinement. Dis- 
tributed in the alpine and arctic regions of Europe and America. 

Gen. II. TETRAO. — Toes nearly naked above, with a pecti- 
nated margin on each side beneath. 

3. T. Tetrix. Black-Cock. — Feathers of the throat not pro- 
duced ; tail forked, the two external feathers recurved. 



44 BIRDS. GALLINAD.E. Perdix. 

Tetrao seu Urogallus minor, Will. Orn. 124 Sibb. Scot. 16. T. tet 

Linn. Syst. i. 274 — Perm. Brit. Zool. i. p. 266 T. birkhan, Temm. ii. 

p. 460. ; E, Heath-hen, Black -game, Black-grouse or Moor-hen ; S, 
Black-cock ; W, Ceiliog du ; G, Coileach dubh — In wild and wooded 
districts. 

Length 23, breadth 34 inches ; weight 48 ounces. Bill black. Irides hazel. A 
bare scarlet granulated spot over the eye. Head, neck, and body, glossy black, 
with a bluish tinge. Quills 26, the four first black, the others white at the bot- 
tom forming a white bar on the wing. Under coverts white. Tail of 16 fea- 
thers, nearly 7 inches long, square at the ends, the two or three external ones, 
on each side, 4 inches longer than the others. Under coverts white. The female 
is less, of a brown colour, barred and mottled with black, and the lateral tail- 
feathers are but little produced, and not recurved. Eggs 6 or 7, dirty white, 
with brown blotches. The young follow the mother. Food, consists of moun- 
tain-berries, heath, and birch-tops, and even corn. Dr Walker found the sto- 
mach stuffed with the leaves of Polypodium vvlgare, after the bird had lived in 
woods during winter, (Hebrides, i. 337.) In Russia, this species is caught by 
" stakes, pointed at both ends, driven into the ground, approaching near each 
other at the bottom, but diverging at the top, so as to resemble a funnel or in- 
verted cone. To the top of each stake is tied an oat-straw, with the grain on 
it. A long stake stands up in the middle of this machine, likewise crowned 
with oats. To this is attached a horizontal stick, vacillating freely within the 
cone. The birds come to eat the oats, and light on this stick. It gives way, 
and lets them fall into the cone, where not being able to use their wings, 
they remain prisoners." (Mem. Acad. Imp. des Scien. Peter, i. 189. p. 321. 
(Annals, of Phil. iii. 223.) 

It may be proper to take some notice in this place of a bird, long considered 
as a hybrid between the cock of the wood and the black-cock. It is the T. 
hybridus of Sparman, (Mus Carls, fasc. i. tab. 15.) T. intermedins of Langs- 
dorfF, (Mem. Acad. Peter, iii. 181 1, p. 236.) The Tetras rakkelhan of Tern. Orn. ii. 
p. 459. In this species the feathers of the throat are a little produced ; head, 
neck and breast, black, with bronze and purple reflections ; back and rump 
with ash-coloured dots. Length 27 inches. The female is unknown. This 
species is noticed as a native of Scotland by Brisson, under the name of Le 
coq de bruyere piquete, and a Scottish gentleman told Dr Tunstall, who in- 
formed Dr" Latham, that it existed in our woods. The subject merits atten- 
tion. 

II. Tarsus naked. 
Gen. III. PERDIX. Partridge. — Cheeks with a naked 
skin. The three first feathers in the wing shorter than the 
fourth. Tail even and short. 

4. P. cinerea. Common Partridge.— Bill and legs bluish- 
grey ; face and throat reddish-brown. 

P. ruffa, Merr. Pin. 173 P. cin. Will. Orn. 118 — Sibb. Scot. 16.— Penn. 

Brit. Zool. i. 274 Temm. Orn. ii. p. 488. ; W, Cor-iar : G, Ceare-tho- 

main In the neighbourhood of corn-fields. 

Length 13, breadth 20 inches; weight 15 ounces. Plumage a mixed cine- 
rous brown and black. Behind the eye a naked red warty skin. On the 
breast a deep bay -coloured mark in the form of a horse-shoe. Quills 23, brown. 
Tail of 16 feathers, brown, the four middle ones like the back. The female is 
smaller, the head less bright, and the ear-coverts are greyish. The mark on 
the breast is white for the first year, afterwards more or less like the male 
and by the third year is no longer a mark of distinction. Eggs from 12 to 20, 
of a wood-brown colour. Period of incubation three weeks. Young leave 



Cottjrnix. BIRDS. GALLINADJL 45 

the nest in twelve hours, and are conducted to ant-hills, the eggs in which 
constitute their early nourishment. Their plumage is less distinctly marked 
than the old birds, and the legs are pale coloured. 

5. P. ritfa. Guernsey Partridge. — Bill and legs red. Throat 
and cheeks white, margined with black. 

Will. Orn. 119 — Mont. Orn. Diet — Temm. Orn.ii. 485. — Bred in Jersey. 
— Found in Guernsey, and occasionally in the south of England. 
Length 12^, breadth 22 inches; weight 13 ounces. The plumage above is 
reddish-brown, breast ash-coloured, with the belly rufous. Quills 25, brown. 
Tail of 16 feathers, rufous, with the six middle ones tinged with grey. Eggs 
15 or 18, yellowish, with red spots and cinereous dots — This species is now 
common in several preserves in England, and may occasionally be found in a 
wild state, but the islands of the Channel seem to be the most western limits 
of its natural distribution. 



Gen. IV. COTURNIX. Quail.— Cheeks covered with fea- 
thers. First quill-feather longest. 

6. C. vulgaris. Common Quail. — Over each eye a yellowish 
streak, and one of the same colour down the forehead. 

Msrr. Pin. p. 173.— Will. Orn. 121 — Sibb. Scot. 16 Penn. Brit. Zool. i. 

276 — Temm. Orn. ii. 491. W, Sofliar — In wheat-fields. 
Length 7k breadth 14 inches. The plumage is a mixture of black, brown, 
tn 1 ash. A dark line passes from each angle of the bill, forming a kind of 
gorget above the breast ; and the middle of the chin is black. Quills dusky, 
the outer webs mottled with white. Tail of 12 feathers, dusky, tipt with white. 
The female differs, in wanting the black spot on the chin. Eggs 8 or 10, or 
even 20, yellowish, with dusky spots — This species is a summer visitant, ar- 
riving in the beginning of May, and departing in October. A few occasionally 
remain. 



Although these may be considered as the gallinaceous birds indigenous to 
the British Isles, there are several other species which here require to be 
noticed. 

a. DOMESTICATED GALLINAD.E. 

1. Pavo cristatus. Crested Peacock. . 

This bird, so truly ornamental, from the splendour of its plumage, and the 
magnificence of its train, is of Asiatic origin. The period of its introduction 
into this country is unknown, though probably not very remote. 

2. Meleagris Gallopavo. Turkey. 

This bird is a native of America. It was first imported into England in 
1524. Multitudes are reared in Norfolk and Suffolk for the London market, 
to which the}' are driven in flocks, consisting of several hundreds. Where 
they are reared for sale, the cock is kept but a short time with the hens when 
they begin to lay, his presence, afterwards, during the period of the exclusion 
of the eggs, being unnecessary to render them prolific ; Edin. Phil. Journ. 
v. 356. The same economy may be practised with the common hen. Will. 
Orn. 11. The turkey, in a wild state, is larger than with us, sometimes ex- 
ceeding 30 pounds. Pen. Phil. Trans. 1781, p. 67. . 



46 BIRDS. GALLINAD.E. Gallus. 

3. Gallus domesticus. Common Fowl. 

This is another bird of Asiatic origin, and probably introduced into this 
kingdom by the Phoenicians, while trading with the ancient inhabitants in 
tin. On the authority of Caesar, it is supposed that they were domesticated, 
but not eaten. " Leporem et gallinam, et anserem gustare, fas non putant, 
haec tamen alunt, animi voluptatisque causa ;" Com. lib. v.. Did Caesar not 
here refer to some of the indigenous species of Gallium, which we have enu- 
merated, and to which, as well as the hare, the Britons might have extended 
their protection, without keeping them in a tame state. 

The following well marked varieties are cultivated : Crested Cock, having a 
tuft of feathers on the crown. Dorking Cock, with two toes behind. Rumkins, 
without tail feathers or oil-bag. Frizzled Cock, having the feathers curled 

inwards. Bantam, dwarfish tarsi, with long feathers behind In reference to 

this last, Sir T. F. Raffles, in his History of Java, vol. i. p. 349. says, " The 
cock which we improperly call the Bantam, is not found on Java, except as a 
curiosity : it comes from Japan." 

4. Numidia Mclcagris. Pintado or Guinea-hen. 

This is a native of Africa. It is a restless bird, and its call, which is fre- 
quent, is truly grating; but the eggs and young are considered delicious eating. 

5. Phasianus Colchicus. Pheasant. 

This bird is of Asiatic origin. It was first brought into Greece from Pha- 
sis, a large river of Colchis, running into the Euxine. It is now generally 
distributed throughout the temperate districts of Europe. The breed in this 
country is preserved by the multitudes which are reared in confinement, and 
then turned out into the woods of the nobility and gentry, otherwise, what 
the climate spared, the poacher would speedily destroy. Two well marked va- 
rieties occur. The common pheasant, the most ancient, and the ringed phea- 
sant, more recently introduced. A mixed breed is of frequent occurrence, — 
a circumstance unfavourable to the notion entertained by Temminck, " Orn. ii. 
454." of the Phasianus lorquatm being a distinct species. 

Mr Edwards has given a figure and description of what was supposed a hy- 
brid between a turkev and pheasant, shot near Pstandford, Dorsetshire ; Phil. 
Trans. 1759, 833. tab. xix. 

I). EXTIRPATED GALLING. 

6. Urogallus vidgaris. Cock of the wood, or Capercaillie. 

W, Ceiliog coed ; G, Capul coille. 
This beautiful bird, which reaches to 2 feet 7 or 8 inches in length, and 
weighs 12 or 13 pounds, formerly frequented the fir-woods of Ireland and 
Scotland. In the latter country it was last seen in the woods of Strathglass, 
in 1760. It continued in Strathspey until 1745 ; St. Ac. (Kirkmichael, Banf- 
shire, Rev. John Grant), vol. xii. p. 451. Recent attempts have been made 
to reciuit our forests from Norway, where the species is still common. 

C. STRAGGLERS. 

7. Coturnix Marilanda. American Quail. 

Montagu, in his Supplement to his Ornithological Dictionary (Article 
" Grossbeak"), mentions a male of this quail which was shot near Mansfield, 
by Mr Harrison, and afterwards sent to Lord Stanley. He adds, " The 
American Quail has been turned out in some part of the British empire, with 
a view to establish the breed, but we believe without effect. The late Gene- 
ral Gabbit liberated many on his estates in Ireland, but in two years the breed 



Columba. BIRDS COLUMBADiE. 47 

was lost." Perhaps the stragglers now noticed may be referred to some of 
these liberated individuals. 



COLUMBAD.E. 

Gen. V. COLUMBA. Pigeon.— Head plain. Bill slen- 
der, flexible. Legs short. 

7. C. Palumbus. Ring-Dove. — Plumage bluish-grey, with 
a white patch on each side of the neck. 

Merr. Pin. 175 Will. Orn. 125 — Sibb. Scot. 17 — Perm. Brit. Zool. i. 

29G Temm. Orn. ii. 444. ; E, Quist, Cowshot ; S, Wood-pigeon, or 

Cushat ; W, Ysguthan ; G, Smudan — In woods, common. 

Length 28, breadth 30 inches ; weight 20 ounces. Bill yellowish, reddish 
at the base. Feet red, claws black. Neck and breast iridescent. Belly whit- 
ish. Quills 24, the second longest, and the first ten black, edged with white. 
Tail of 12 feathers. No gall-bladder. Female less, with the white patch on 
the neck, less distinct. Eggs 2. Nest of a few sticks, loosely put together, 
on a tree. This bird is stationary, flying in flocks during winter, and feeding 
on greens, turnips, and young clover or wheat. Easily tamed, but will not 
breed in confinement. 

8. C. Ocnas. Rock-Dove. — Plumage bluish-grey, neck iri- 
discent. 

Merr. Pin. 175 Will. Orn. 136 — Sibb. Scot. 17 Penn. Brit. Zool. i. 

290 — Temm. Orn. ii. 445 — W, Colommen ; G, Caluman Common 

in a wild state, in caves on the shore. 

Length 13 J, breadth 22 inches; weight 11 ounces. Bill brown, point 
dusky. A broad bar across the middle of the greater coverts, and another on 
the ends of the secondary quills. Tip of the tail black. Pennant, Tem- 
minck, and some others, seem disposed to exalt the varieties of this pigeon 
into two species. The C. Oenas has the rump bluish-grey, while the C. livia 
has it white. But the individuals of this species vary considerably in their 
colour and markings, and induce us, with Montagu, to view them as consti-. 
tuting but one species. This species, in a domesticated state, exhibits nu- 
merous marked varieties, which Willoughby has enumerated in detail. 

9. C. Turtur. Turtle-Dove. — Head and neck cinereous, with 
a patch of black feathers on the latter, tipt with white. 

Merr. Pin. 175 Will. Orn. 134.— Penn. Brit. Zool. i. 297 Temm. 

Orn. ii. 448. — A summer visitant of England. 

Length 12, breadth 21 inches; weight 6 ounces. A space beneath and be- 
hind the eye purplish-red. The back is brown, dashed with cinereous ; shoul- 
ders and coverts black, with reddish margins. Quills dusky, with pale edges. 
Tail black, tipt with white, the two middle feathers uniformly dusky.— The 
turtle visits the south of England in spring, returning in September. Inha- 
bits thick woods. Makes its nest in a tree with sticks, and lays 2 white eggs. 
Varies in having the whole side of the neck black, with a round spot of white 
on each feather near the end. 



48 BIRDS. ACCIPITRES. Falco. 

ACCIPITRES. 

RAPACIOUS BIRDS. 

I. DIURN7E. Hawks. — Bill covered at the base with a cere, 

in which the nostrils are lodged. Eyes lateral. Outer 
toe (with the exception of Balbusardus) incapable of ha- 
ving its position or motion reversed. 

* Macropter^e. Noble Hawks. — Second quill-feather longest; 

the first nearly equal. Bill arched from the base. 

•f Claws flat or grooved on the under side. 
Falco. 
Gyrfalco. 

•f-f Claws rounded on the under side. 
Balbusardus. 

•• Brachypter.e. Ignoble Hawks. — The third or fourth quill- 
feather longest; the first very short. 

f Tail forked. 
Milvus. 
ft Tail not forked. 

1. Space between the bill and eye feathered. 

Pernis. 

2. Space between the bill and the eye naked or hairy. 

a. Bill straight at the base, and bent at the extremity. 

Aquila. 

aa. Bill bent from the base. Tarsi plated. 

b. Ear-feathers forming a collar like the owls. 

Circus. 

bb. Ear-feathers plain. 
Buteo. 

II. NOCTURM/E. Owls.— Bill without cere. Eyes large, 

directed anteally ; surrounded with a circle of radiating 
wiry feathers, which serve to cover the base of the bill 
and auricles. The external toe capable of having its po- 
sition and motion reversed. On the top of the head, in 
some species, are two tufts of long feathers, termed horns 
or ears. 

* Concha of the ear occupying the whole side of the head. The first 

or second quill the longest. Wings about the length of the tail, 

•f- Bill arched from the base. Head with horns. 
Otus. 

•f f Bill straight at the base. Head destitute of horns. 
Aluco. 



Falco. BXHDS. ACCIPITRES. 4,9 

** Concha of the ear extending only to about one-half of the side of 
the head. Disc of feathers round the eye less perfect than in the 
preceding group. 

f Head with horns. 
Bubo. 

Scops. 

•f-f Head without horns. 
Stris. 

I. DIURNAL RAPACIOUS BIRDS. 

Gen. VI. FALCO. Falcon. — Bill, with the margin of the 
upper mandible furnished with a sharp tooth, near the ex- 
tremity, the lower with a notch for its reception. 

a. With Mustaches, or a black stripe, extending from the 
base of the bill, under the eye, along the clieeks, and a 
short way on the side of the neck. 

10. F. pcregrinus. Peregrine Falcon.' — Wings reaching the 
length of the tail. 

Will. Orn. 43 — F. sacer, Silb. Scot. 14 Peregrine F., Pcnn. 1. 178.— 

Grey F., ib. 180— F. per. Tern. Orn. L 22 — W, Hebog tramor.— In 
rocky districts not uncommon. 

Length 16|, breadth 37 inches. Bill blue; margin of the eye, cere, irides, 
and legs, yellow. Plumage, above, blackish-grcy, darkest on the head, lightest 
on the rump ; with obscure black bars. Throat, neck, and breast, white ; the 
rest below white, with black bars ; a few longitudinal spots of black on the 
breast. Middle toe as long as the tarsus. Quills dusky ; inner web of the 
first abbreviated near the end. Tail-feathers 12, slightly tipt with yellowish- 
white. Female larger, the white beneath, tinged with red. Nest on rocks ; 
eggs 3 or 4, reddish, with brown spots. Young birds have the plumage, above, 
inclining to cinereous; the feathers with a ferruginous border. Beneath, 
white, with longitudinal spots. Crown, neck, and checks, yellowish-white. 
Blackish patch under the eye. This species, long celebrated for its docility 
and activity in the chase, has been multiplied into numerous species, viz. F. 
toccocephalus, fuscus, communis, and niger. Feeds on the wild Gallinse, chiefly, 
and even makes havock in the poultry-yard. 

11. F. lanarius. Lanner. — Wings reaching only two-thirds 
the length of the tail. 

Will. Orn. 48. Linn. Syst. i. 129. Pcnn. Brit. ZooL L 182. tab. rxii. 
Tern. Orn. i. 20. — W, Hebog gwlanog. — Breeds in Ireland. Caught 
in a duck decoy, Lincolnshire.— Pennant. 

Length 1 foot 7 inches. Margin of the eye, irides, and cere, yellow ; bill 
and legs bluish. Crown red, with oblong brown spots. Above each eye, to 
the hind part of the head, a broad white line ; and beneath each a blackish mark, 
pointing downwards : the last nearly disappearing with age. Plumage, above, 
brown with reddish margins ; below, white, with longitudinal brown spots, 
except the under tail covers and throat. Middle toe shorter than the tarsus. 
Inner webs of the two first quills abbreviated. In the female the head is dark 
brown, and the throat and under tail-covers have narrow streaks. 

12. F. Subbutco. Hobby. — Wings reaching beyond the tail. 

Will. Orn. 48. Penn. Brit Zool. L 107- Tern, Ora. L 25.'— W, Hebog 
yr Iledydd — A summer visitant. 

VOL. I. D 



50 BIRDS. ACCIPITRES. Falco. 

Length 12, breadth 27 inches; weight 7 ounces. Bill blue; irides'hazel ; 
margin of the eye, cere, and/legs, yellow. The plumage, above, is bluish-black, 
the margins of the feathers paler; below, white, with longitudinal black spots. 
Above each eye a white line ; hind-head with two yellow spots. Quills (the 
first of which is almost equal hi length to the third), dusky black ; the inner 
webs with oval transverse reddish spots. Rump, thighs, and vent, pale 
orange. Tail with brownish bars, the tips white ; two middle feathers entire- 
ly of a deep dove colour. In the female the plumage has a reddish tinge. 
Nest placed on trees, rocks, or heath. Eggs 3 or 4. Young lighter coloured ; 
feathers above bordered with yellowish red, especially the crown ; below, 

tinged yellowish-red, with longitudinal brown spots The hobby pursues 

larks, and is occasionally used in hunting with the net, to frighten the birds 
and prevent them from taking wing. Departs in October. 

b. Destitute of mustaches. Inner xcebs of the first and se- 
cond quills abbreviated towards the extremity ; outer web 
of the second abbreviated. Tarsi reticulated. 

13. F. Tinnuncidus. Kestrel, Stannel, or Wind-Hover. — 
Middle toe shorter than the tarsus. 

Will. Orn. 50. Sibb. Scot. 15. Penn. Brit. Zool. i. 195. Tern. Orn. i. 
29. — W, Cudyll coch — Stationary and common. 

Length 14, breadth 27 inches; weight CJ ounces. Bill blue; cere and feet 
yellow. Back and wing-covers red, with black spots ; head and rump grey. 
A black streak descends from the gape. Under parts pale rust colour, spot- 
ted and barred with black ; thighs and vent plain. Quills 22, dusky, spotted 
with white. Tail grey, with a broad black bar near the end; feathers 12, 
slightly arched, with the two middle ones incumbent, and nearly half an 
inch longer than the rest. Wings, when closed, reach about three-fourths of 
the length of the tail. Oil-bag very small, with a tuft of yellowish feathers, 
dark at the base. Palate bluish, with two rows of recurved teeth. Vermi- 
form appendages |th of an inch, fixed. A small caecum about gths. Female with 
the plumage, above, the same as the back ; beneath paler, with indistinct spots 
and streaks. Tail with transverse dusky bars, and a broad one at the end. 
Nest placed in hollows of trees, rocks, or ruins. Eggs 4, dirty white, with 
red blotches. Young like the female — Feeds on mice and beetles ; and may 
be seen in the act of seeking for its prey, hovering stationary, at some height, 
in the air, with its head to windward. 

14. F. j3?salon. Merlin. — Middle toe as long as the tarsus. 

Will. Orn. 50. Penn. Brit. Zool. i. 200. — Merlin or Stone-Falcon, Mont. 

Orn. Diet. Suppt. Tern. Orn. i. 27 — W, Corwalch — N ear woods Not 

common. 

Length 12, breadth 25 inches; weight 5j ounces. Bill blue; cere, margin 
of the eye and feet lemon-yellow. Plumage, above, bluish-grey, with a longi- 
tudinal black spot on each feather ; beneath, the throat is white, and the re- 
mainder yellowish-white, with oblong dusky spots pointing downwards. 
Quills reaching two-thirds of the tail ; the first nearly equal to the fourth. 
Tail-feathers with bands, and an entire dark broad one tipt with white at the 
end. In the female, the plumage is tinged with brown, and the spots below 
are more numerous. Nest in trees or on the ground. Eggs 5 or C; white, 

marked with greenish colour at one end. Young like the female Preys on 

small birds, and is exceedingly active — Visits the south of England in Octo- 
ber, but breeds in the north and in Scotland. 

Gen. VII. GYRFALCO. (Hierofalco of Cuvier.) Jer- 
falcon. — Notch of the bill obsolete. Tarsi reticulated. 



Gyrfalco. BIRDS. ACCIPITRES. 51 

14. G. candkans. — Plumage white, with dusky lines or spots. 

Gyrfalco, Will. Orn. 44. Sibb. Scot. 14. Penn. Brit. Zool. 1. 177 — T. 

rusticolus and fuscus, Fab. Fauna Gr. 55 Falco Islandicus, Temm. Orn. 

1. 17 W, Hebog chwyldro In Scotland rare; Aberdeen, Pennant; 

Orkney, Low. 

Length 1 foot 10 inches. Bill, cere, and feet yellow, more or less tinged 
with blue. The dark spots on the wings are large. The throat and long 
thigh-feathers pure white ; the rest of the plumage below white, with narrow 
dusky stripes. The tail, consisting of 12 feathers, has dark bands, from 12 to 
14 hi number, and is longer than the wings. The female has the dusky mark- 
ings larger and more numerous on the under side. Breeds in rocks, and lays 
from 3 to 5 spotted eggs of the size of a ptarmigan. The young birds have 
the ground of the plumage dusk}', edged and spotted with white, with the 
cere and margin of the eye bluish — Feeds on birds, darting down upon them 

like an arrow The Spotted Falcon of Pennant, Brit. ZooL i. 189., seems to 

be a young bird of this species. 

Gen. VIII. BALBUSARDUS, (Pandion of Savigny), 
Osprey. — Outer toe capable of having its position and 
motion reversed, and having a larger claw than the inner 
toe. 

15. B. Halicetus. — Wings longer than the tail. Tarsi short, 

thick, and reticulated. 

Balbusardus, Will. Orn. 37- Sibb. Scot. 15 Osprey, Penn. Brit. Zool. i. 

174 — Falco Hal. Temm. Orn. i. 47 W, Pysg Eryr, Gwalch y weilgi; 

G, Iolair uisge. — Frequents the margins of large rivers and lakes. 

Length 23, breadth 64 inches ; weight G2 ounces ; bill black, cere and legs 
blue, irides yellow. The plumage above is brown ; the feathers on the head 
edged with white ; hind head white. Below, it is white. Beneath the eye is 
a band of brown, reaching almost to the shoulder. Quills, about 28 ; those 
from the 17th to the base, pointed; inner webs of the four first abbreviated 
at the extremity. Tail of 12 equal feathers ; the two middle ones dusky ; the 
others barred with brown and white. Tibiae long. Soles of the feet very 
rough. Montagu states (Sup. Orn. Diet.), that, " on the inner side of the 
extremity of the outer toe are two or three spines." Breeds on the ground, 
among reeds, or on trees. Eggs 3 or 4, white and elliptical. Young with the 
feathers on the breast vellow, with dusky or brown spots.— Feeds on fish 
chiefly, darting upon them in the water. 

Gen. IX. MILVUS. Kite.-- -Tarsi plated, short. 

16. M. vulgaris. — Plumage, above, deep brown, with pale 

edges ; beneath, ferruginous, with dark longitudinal stripes. 

Will. Orn. 41. . Sibb. Scot. 15. Penn. Brit. Zool. i. 185 Falco milvus, 

Temm. Orn. i. 59 — W, Barcud; G, Clamhan gabhlach, Cromanloch- 
aidh. — Wooded situations, but not common. 

Length 28, breadth G4 inches ; weight 44 ounces. Bill yellowish, with a 
dusky tip ; cere and irides yellow. The feathers on the head are light-coloured, 
with a dark streak on the shafts. Quills 24 ; inner webs of the first four, and 
outer webs of the third and fourth, abbreviated ; black at the extremities. 
Two outer tail-feathers more produced, and darker than the others. The 
female has the brown and pale edges of the feathers more distinct, the latter 
passing into white. Breeds in trees, making a nest of sticks, lined with wool. 

i>2 



52 BIRDS. ACCIPITRES, Peknis. 

Eggs 3 or 4. In the young, the feathers of the head are more rounded, and 

destitute of longitudinal dark stripes Feeds on reptiles and dead fish. Is 

stationary in Britain. 

Sir Robert Sibbald enumerates, in his list of Scottish Birds (Scot. I1L p. 15.), 
a " Milvus niger, a black gled. An Lanius ?" This is probably the Falco ater 
of Gmelin and Temminck. It differs from the preceding in the head and 
throat, being striped with white and brown. The plumage above, deep grey- 
ish brown. The tail with nine pale bands. Bill black; irides greyish black ; 
cere and feet yellow. 

The Falco furcatus of Linnaeus, occurred to the late Dr Walker, at Bal- 
lachulish, in Argyleshire, in 1772, as recorded in his Adversaria for 1772, p. 87, 
and 1774, p. 153. A description of another example, taken near Hawes, in 
Wensley Dale, Yorkshire, was communicated to the Linnean Society, 4th No- 
vember 1823, by W. Fothergill, Esq. This species belongs to the genus Elanus 
of Savigny. It is white, with the wings and tail black ; the two exterior fea- 
thers of the latter much produced. It inhabits Carolina and Brazil, and may 
be regarded as a rare straggler in Europe. 

Gen. X. PERNIS. Honey-Buzzard.— Tarsi half-feathered 
and reticulated. 

17. P. apivorus. — Plumage brown above ; brown and white 

beneath ; the head grey. 

Butio apivorus, Will. Orn. 39. — Falco ap., Linn. Syst. i. 130. Penn. Brit. 

Z00L i. 190. Temm. Orn. L G^ — E, Capped Buzzard W, Bod y mel. 

— In England, rare. 

Length 23, breadth 52 inches ; weight 31 ounces. Bill, cere, gape, and 
claws black ; irides and feet yellow. Quills 24 ; secondaries with alternate 
rays of blackish-brown and bluish-grey. Tail long, with transverse bars. In 
the female, the plumage is spotted. Breeds in trees. Eggs grey, with ob- 
scure spots. In a nest, robbed at Selborne, there was one egg smaller, and 
not so round as the common buzzard ; dotted at each end with small red spots, 
and surrounded in the middle with a broad bloody zone ; — White's Selb. L 187. 
Young birds have the cere yellow ; the head spotted with brown and white. 
— Feeds on bees, wasps, reptiles, and small birds. — Probably only a summer 
visitant. 

Gen. XI. AQUILA. Eagle. — Wings, when at rest, equal 
to the tail in length. 

18. A. Chrysaetos. Golden Eagle. — Tarsi feathered to the 
toes, The last joints of all the toes furnished with only three 
scales. 

Chrysaetos, Will. Orn. 27- Sibb. Scot, 14. Penn. Brit. Z00L i. 1G2.— Fal- 
co fulvus, Temm. Orn. i. 38. — W, Eryr melyn, Eryr tinwyn ; G, Solair 

dhubh Inhabits mountainous districts. Breeds in Orkney. 

Length 30, breadth 88 inches; weight about 12 pounds. Bill dusky; irides 
brown ; cere and feet yellow. The acuminated feathers on the head and neck 
bright rust colour. The rest of the plumage dusky brown. The feathers on 
the thighs and legs of a light colour. Tail rounded, longer than the wings, 
of a deep grey, clouded with dark-brown ; a band of the latter occurring at the 
extremity. Breeds in high precipices. Eggs 2 or 3 ; dusky white, with red- 
dish blotches. The plumage of the young is darker, and the basal half of the 



Circus. BIRDS. ACCIPITRES. o3 

tail is white. In this state, it is the Chrysaetos cauda annulo albo chicta of 
Will., 28 ; Falco fulvus of Lin. S yst. Nat. i. 125 ; or the Ringtail Eagle, or Black 
Eagle of Pen. Brit. ZooL i. 1G5. In the opinion of some, the ringtail is consi- 
dered as a distinct species ; but the facts stated by Temminck and Selby de- 
monstrate its connection with the Golden Eagle. — See Wern, Mem, voL iv. 
428 and 434. — Preys on sheep and deer. 

19. A. albiciUa. The Erne. — Tarsi half feathered, and 

plated. Tail not longer than the wings. 

Halhetus, Will. Orn. 29. Sibb. Scot. 14 Falco ossifragus, Linn. Syst. L 

124 — Cinereous Eagle, Venn. Brit. ZooL L 170 Falco albicilla, Temm. 

Orn. L. 49 — W; Mor Eryr, Eryr Cynffbnwyn ; G, Iolair— Near the 
6ea-coast, not rare ; whence termed Sea Eagle. 

Inferior in size to the preceding. Bill whitish ; hides light-brown ; cere 
and feet yellowish-white. Plumage dusky-brown, tinged with cinereous. 
Tail wholly white. Breeds in rocks. Eggs two ; of a white colour, with a 
few reddish spots. In the young, the plumage is deep-brown, with the mar- 
gins of the feathers lighter coloured. Bill and iris black. Tail with the ba- 
sal half whitish-grey, with irregular brown spots on the outer webs ; the ex- 
tremity brown. In this last state it is the Sea-Eagle of Pennant, Brit. ZooL i. 
167- ; the Haliretus and Pygargus of Willoughby ; and the Vultur albicilla 
and F. ossifragus of Linnseus, all which belong to this species, and seem to be in 
intermediate stages of plumage. Feeds on fish, aquatic birds, and land annuals. 

The following device for catching the eagle is said, in the Statist. Account, 
yoL xxi. p. 221., to be successfully practised in Sutherland. The fox, it is 
added, is readily secured by the same snare. ' k A miniature house, at least the 
wall part of it, is built on ground frequented by the eagle, and an opening 
left at the foot of the wall sufficient for the egress of the bird. To the out- 
side of this opening, a bit of strong skainy (cord) is fixed, with a noose formed 
on one end, and the other end returning through the noose. After all this 
operation is finished, a piece of carrion is thrown into the house, which the 
eagle finds out and perches upon. It eats voraciously ; and, when it is fully 
satiated, it never thinks of taking its flight immediately upwards, unless dis- 
turbed, provided it can find an easier way to get out of the house ; for it ap- 
pears that it is not easy for it to begin its flight but hi an oblique direction ; 
consequently, it walks deliberately out at the opening left for it, and the 
ekainy being fitly contrived and placed for the purpose, catches hold of, and 
fairly strangles it." 

Gen. XII. CIRCUS. Hen-harrier.— -One-third of the 
tail extending beyond the wings. 

20. C. cyaneus. — The third and fourth quill-feathers of equal 
length. 

Pygargus, Will. 40 — Subbuteo, Sibb. Scot. 15 Hen-harrier, Perm. Brit 

ZooL L 193 — Mont. Lin. Trans, ix. 182. Orn. Diet. Suppt Falco cy- 
aneus. Tern. Oni. i. 72 — IF, Barcud glas, Bod tinwyn; G, Ant-eun 
fiorm. Breid air toin. — Not uncommon. 

Length 18, breadth 40 inches; weight 13 ounces; bill dark blue; cere and 
legs yellow ; plumage grey ; under and upper tail-covers, belly, and below the 
wings, white. Behind the nostrils, and above the eyes, numerous black hairs. 
The 1st quill, equal in length to the 7th; 2d and 5th nearly equal; 3d and 
4th longest, and nearly equal. Inner webs of the first four, and outer webs 
of the 3d, 4th, and 5th abbreviated from the middle; 2d, 3d, 4th, 5th, black; 
1st and Gth, greyish ; rest grey. Tail, with the two middle feathers uniform ; 
the others fighter coloured, and barred with dusky on their inner webs. The 
ear-feathers, forming a large concha, like a $ufF oh the sides of the neck, dls. 



54 BIRDS. ACCIPITRES. Buteo. 

tinguish this species from the other British Accipitres. Female, with the plu- 
mage, above, brown, with pale margins ; beneath, yellowish-brown, with lon- 
gitudinal dark spots. The two middle tail feathers with dark cinereous and 
blackish bands. In this state, it is the Falco pygargus of Linnaeus, and the 
Ring-tail of British ornithologists. Willoughby had hinted at their identity, 
Om. p. 40. ; and Barington seems to have admitted it, Phil. Trans. 1770, 
p. 14; but it was Montagu who removed all doubts on the subject. Breeds 
in furse and heath. Eggs 4 or 5, bluish white, and without spots. Young 
like the female. This species flies near the ground, and is very destructive 
to poultry and game. 

Gen. XIII. BUTEO. Buzzard— Wings and tail long, the 
latter rounded. 

a. The fourth quillfcather longest. 
(a.) Wings reaching nearly to the end of the tail. 

21. B. vulgaris. Common Buzzard. — Upper quarter of the 
tarsi feathered. Nostrils round ; the margin of the upper man- 
dible slightly waved. 

Will. Orn. 38. Sibb. Scot. 15 — Buzzard, Perm. Brit. Zool. i. 180 — Falco 
buteo, Temm. i. 63. — E, Puttock; W, Bod teircail; G, CJamhan. — 
Common, near large woods. 

Length 21, breadth 50 inches; weight 32 pounds. Bill bluish, cere, irides, 
and feet yellow. Plumage, above, deep brown, with pale margins; below, 
greyish-brown, with darker spots, sometimes with cross bars of white, scarcely 
apparent on the throat, but increasing on the breast, belly, and vent. Thighs 
plain dusky-brown on the outside, more rufous on the hiside. The first four 
quills, with the inner webs abbreviated and black towards the extremity. 
Tail-feathers dusky, with pale tips and brown bars ; a little longer than the 
wings. Breeds in trees. Eggs 2 or 3, size of those of a hen, white, with 
rusty spots at the larger end. The young have the plumage light brown, 
variegated with white and yellow ; throat and belly white, the latter with 
longitudinal large spots. Feeds on rabbits and birds, pouncing its prey on the 
ground. 

22. B. Lagopus. Rough-legged Buzzard.— Tarsi feathered 
nearly to the toes. 

Bough-legged Falcon, Penn. Brit. Zool. ii. G23. Monl. Orn. Diet — Falco 

Lagopus, Temm. i. 65 — In England, rare, Leverian Museum ; Kent, Dr 

Latham; Suffolk, Montagu. 

Length 19 to 27 inches. Bill and claws black ; cere and feet yellow ; irides 

browm Head, neck, throat, breast, and thighs yellowish-white, with large 

streaks of brown. Back dark-brown, with yellowish margins. Belly with a 

large brown spot; the rest beneath yellowish-white. Quills white at the 

base, dusky at the ends. Tail, with the basal half, white ; then a broad brown 

band ; the tips whitish. In the female, the head, neck, and tail are whiter ; 

the sides and belly browner. Breeds hi trees. Eggs 4, clouded with red. 

Young have brown spots above, varied with white, with a stripe of the same 

colour over the eye. Tail with three bands near the end. Feeds on glires 

and frogs. It is frequent hi the north of Europe. 

(b.) Wings much shorter than the tail (The Accipiter of Wil- 
loughby ; Astur and Nisus of Cuvier.J 

23. B. Palumbarws. Goshawk. — Tarsi short. A white line 
over the eye. 



Buteo. BIRDS. ACCIPITRES. 55 

De Accipitre Palumbario, Will. Orn. 51 Sibb. Scot 15. Goshawk, 

Penn. Brit. Zool. i. 134, — Falco, Palumbus, Temm. i. 55. — TV, Hebog 
marthin. — Breeds in Scotland ; is rare in England. 
Length about 2 feet. Bill blue, tipt with black, cere yellowish green, iri- 
des and feet yellow. Plumage, above, bluish-grey ; beneath, while, with trans- 
verse brown bars. Tail cinereous, with 4 or 5 dark brown bands. The fe- 
male has the plumage above, with a tinge of brown ; and brownish streaks on 
the throat. Breeds in trees, and probably rocks. Eggs 2 to 4, bluish-white, 
with brown spots and streaks. In the young birds, the head, neck, and belly, 
are rufous, with longitudinal brown spots. Tip of the tail white. These, in 
different stages of their plumage, have been termed Gentil Falcons. Feeds 
on the largest kinds of birds. It was formerly held hi high esteem in hunt- 
ing, and flown at cranes, geese, and big game. 

24. B. Nisus. Sparrow-hawk. — Tarsi long. A white spot 
on the nape. 

De Accipitre Fringillario, Will. Orn. 51. Sibb. Scot. 15. — Sparrow-hawk, 

Penn. Brit. Zool. i. 198 Falco Nisus, Tern. Orn. L 56.— W, Gwepia; 

G, Speir sheog — Common. 
Length 12, breadth 23 inches; weight 5 ounces. Bill black, cere, hides, 
and legs, yellow. The bill is sharp, and the hook on the upper mandible dis- 
tinct. Plumage above, deep bluish-grey ; beneath, white, with a reddish 
tinge, with longitudinal streaks of brown on the throat, and transverse bars 
on the other parts. Tail with indistinct bands. Female two thirds larger. 
Breeds in trees and old ruins. Eggs 3 to 6, dirty white, with angular red- 
dish spots. The Young have the upper parts with a reddish tinge, and yel- 
lowish, or brown, beneath. Feeds on small birds, which it pursues fearlessly. 
Destructive to pigeons and young chickens. 

b. The third quill-feather the longest. Tarsi produced. 

25. B. ceruginosus. — Moor Buzzard. Nostrils kidney-shaped. 
Wings a little shorter than the tail. 

Milvus serug. Will. Orn. 42. Sibb. Scot. 15. — Falco serug. Linn. Syst. i. 
139. — Moor Buzzard, Penn. Brit. Zool. i. 192 — Falco rufus, fern. L 
69.— S, Bog-gled ; W, Bod y gwerni. — Near swampy situations, not 
uncommon. 
Length 20, breadth 50 inches ; weight 21 ounces. Bill and claws black ; 
cere and irides yellow. The upper mandible has a distinct blunt tooth. 
Head, neck, and breast, yellowish-white, with longitudinal brown spots ; the 
rest of the plumage chocolate-brown, with the margins more or less ferrugi- 
nous. Quills white at the base, the remainder black. Inner webs of the 
first four, and the outer webs of the second, third, fourth and fifth abbreviat- 
ed. Breeds on the ground, rarely on trees. Eggs 3 or 4, less than those of 
the preceding species, and of a spotless white. Young with the plumage 
more uniformly brown, including the crown, chin, and breast, the yellowish- 
white appearing only on the hind head. Iris brownish black. Feeds like the 
former. 

26. B. cineraceus. Ash-coloured Buzzard. — Wings exceed 

the tail in length. 

Falco cinerarius, Mont. Orn. Diet, et Suppt. Lin. Trans, ix. 188. Tern. 
L 76. — Breeds hi England. — Montagu. 

Length 18, breadth 44 inches; weight 9| ounces. Bill and claws black; 
the latter small. Cere greenish. Irides, and margins of the eye, and legs 
yellow. Plumage, above, cinereous brown ; beneath, white, with a broad 
streak of bright bay down the shaft of each feather. Quills dusky black ; the 
first very short, the third by far the longest. Secondaries cinereous with 



56 BIRDS. ACCIPITRES. Otus. 

duskj' bars. Tail with the two middle feathers dusky brown, others of an 
ash colour. The female has the head ferruginous, the nape with a patch of 
white, the remainder of the upper parts of the body, including the quills, 
dark chocolate brown, with ferruginous margins. Lower part of the rump 
and tail covers white. Beneath, the plumage is uniformly ferruginous. 
Breeds among furze. Eggs 4, white. Young like the female.; Montagu 
supposes that Pennant referred to this species in liis variety of the Ring-Tail, 
with the colour of the belly entirely plain, (Brit. Zool. i. 195.) Feeds on 
larks. Has probably been confounded with the Circus cyaneus, from which, 
however, it differs obviously in the superior length of the wings. 

It is probable, that the species of this group are more numerous than they 
are here represented to be. But the descriptions which exist in several Bri- 
tish works being occupied almost exclusively with colour, render the deter- 
mination of the species in some cases impracticable. The migration of birds 
of this kind is still involved in obscurity ; hence, with reference to the rarer 
species, the season in which they have been observed should be carefully 
noted, as furnishing an essential element in the determination of their physi- 
cal distribution. 



II. NOCTURNAL RAPACIOUS BIRDS. 

Gen. XIV. OTUS. Horn-Owl.— Tarsi and Toes closely 
feathered. The second quil-feather longest. 

27. O. vulgaris. Long Horn-Owl. — Horns consisting of from 

six to ten feathers. 

Otus sive Noctua aurita, Will. Orn. G4. Silo. Scot. 15 — Long-eared 

Owl, Perm. Brit. Zool. i. 203 Strix Otus, Temm. Orn. i. 102 — 

W, Dylluan gorniog — Frequents extensive woods. 

Length 14|, breadth 40 inches; weight 10 ounces. Bill and claws black, 
hides reddish. Plumage, above yellowish-brown, with dusky streaks, and 
freckled with grey and white ; beneath, dull yellow, with oblong brown spots. 
Horns about an inch long, of black feathers, with the margins brown and 
white. Willoughby and Montagu state the number of feathers at C, Tem- 
minck at 10. The female has a white throat, the whole plumage tinged with 
greyish-white. Breeds in evergreen trees or old nests of crows. Eggs 4 or 
0, of a white colour. The young are of a whitish-red, Avith transverse black 
lines. Tail and wings grey, with brown points. Feeds on mice and small 
birds, at night. Does not migrate. 

28. O. brachyoius. Short Horn-Owl. — Horns of three fea- 
thers. 

Short-eared Oivl, Penn. Brit. Zool. i. 204.— Strix brachyotus, Temm. 
Orn. i. 99 — £, Mouse-hawk, Woodcock-owl, Hawk-owl ; W, Dylluan 
glustiog. — Breeds in Orkney — A winter visitant in other districts. 

Length 14, breadth 37 inches ; weight I4| ounces. Bill and claws black ; 
hides yellow. The plumage, above, is dusky, with pale ferruginous edges : 
beneath, yellow on the upper part, white on the belly, with long dusky stripes. 
Quills 25. The two first pointed, the rest rounded. Inner web of the first 
and second, and outer web of the second, abbreviated near the tip. Tail, with 
brown and yellow bars. Female higher coloured. M. Cuvier (Itegne Ani- 
mal, i. 328.), states, that the females are destitute of horns. Bewick (British 
Birds, 1. 49.), on the contrary, says, " Of several of these birds, both male 
and female, which we have been "favoured with by our friends, we have ob- 
served that both had the upright tufts or ears." Breeds in heaths. Mr Low, 
who observed the nest in Hoy (Faun. Ore. 42.), found two young ones. 



Aluco. BIRDS. ACCIPITRES. 51 

They have the face dark coloured. This owl pursues, in dark weather, pigeons, 
moorfowl, and plovers. Feeds likewise on mice and small birds. From the tes- 
timony of Mr Low, it breeds in Orkney, but, in the middle districts of Scot- 
band and England, it appears in harvest, and departs in spring, frequenting 
stubble-fields and long grass. When disturbed it flies but to a short distance. 

Gen. XV. ALUCO. Barn-Owl. — Lower part of the tarsi 
and toes thinly clothed with white hairs. 

29. A.Jlammeus. — Bill white, claws dusky. 

A. minor, Will. Orn. 6G. Slbb. Scott. 15 — White Owl, Perm. i. 200 — 
Strix flammea, Tcmm. Orn. i. 91 — Church-Owl, Hissing-Owl, Screech- 

Owl W, Dylluan wen ; G, Cailleach-ordhche gheal — Near houses 

and old ruins. — Common. 
Length 14, breadth 3(5 inches; weight 12 ounces. Plumage, above, pale 
yellowish-brown, with interrupted streaks of dusky and grey, and dusky freck- 
les. Beneath white. First and second quill-feathers of equal length. Webs 
nc'. abbreviated. This species breeds in steeples and old ruins, or trees. Eggs, 
3 or 4, of a white colour. Young, easily tamed. Feeds on mice, and is use- 
ful about barns. Devours the shrew. Makes a noise by hissing and snap- 
ping its bill. Besides throughout the year. 

Gen. XVI. BUBO. Eagle-Owl. — Toes closely covered 
with feathers. 

30. B. maximus. — Second and third quill-feathers longest. 

Bubo, Will. Orn. 63 — B. max, Sibb. Scot. 15. Eagle-Owl, Penn. Brit. 

Zool. i. 202 NeilVs Tour in Orkney, p. 195 — Strix bubo, ( Linn.) 

Temm. i. 100. — IV, y Ddylluan fawr — In England and Scotland, rare. 

Length 2 feet, bill and claws dusky ; irides orange. Plumage above, wa- 
ved with black and yellow ; beneath yellow, with black stripes. Throat white, 
a character peculiar to the male. Breeds in rocks. Eggs 3, round and white. 
It occurs in Orkney, where it preys, according to Mr Neill, on rabbits and 
moorfowl. It has been shot in different places of England, but may be con- 
sidered rare, and probably nothing more than a straggler. 

Gen. XVII. SCOPS.— Feet naked. 

31. S. Aldrovandi. — Bill black, irides yellow. 

Will. Orn. G5 Little Horned-Owl, Mont. Orn. Diet. Supp Strix Scops, 

Temm. Orn. i. 103 Yorkshire, Mr Fothergill ; and Mr Folgamble. 

Bare. 

Length 1\ inches. Plumage variegated with dusky, rufous, brown and 
grey ; the brown predominating above the grey beneath. Quills transversely 
barred with rufous-white. Feathers on the legs rufous-grey. Tarsi and claws 
brown. Horns and head brown, with black dots. Breeds in rocks. Eggs 2 
to 4, of a white colour. Though not uncommon on the Continent of Europe, 
it must be regarded as little else than a straggler in Britain. 

Gen. XVIII. STRIX.— Feet closely feathered. 

32. S. stridula. Ivy-Owl. — Bill pale horn-coloured, irides 
and claws dusky. 



58 BIRDS. ACCIPITRES. Strix. 

Strix, Will. Om. 65. Sibb. Scott. 15 Tawny Owl and Brown Owl, Penn. 

Brit. Zool. i. 208 Strix stridula, Linn. Syst. i. 133 — S. aluco, Ternm. 

Orn. i. 89 — Screech -Owl, Brown-Owl, Wood-Owl — W, Dylluan frech, 

Aderyn-y-Cyrph ; G, Cumhachag, Cail leach oidcho Near woods and 

houses, not uncommon. 

Length 14, breadth 33 inches; weight 12 ounces. Plumage reddish-brown, 
with black, striped, and mottled with dusky, with some white spots on the 
auricles, scapulars, and wing-coverts. Quills and tail barred with reddish- 
brown and black ; first, second, third, fourth and fifth quills with the inner 
margin abbreviated ; a slight concavity in the margin of the outer web of the 
second, third, and fourth. In the female the plumage is of a redder colour. 
Breeds in old trees. Eggs 2 or 3, of a dull white. Feeds on young hares, 
pigeons, and mice. 

33. S. nyctea, Snowy-Owl. — Bill and claws black, irides 

yellow. 

Lin. Sj'st. i. 132. Bullock, Lin. Trans, xi. 175. Edmonstone, Wern. 
Mem. iv. 157- Temm. Orn. i. 82 — Inhabits Zetland. 

Length 2 feet, breadth 5 feet 5 inches. Plumage white, with transverse 
streaks of brown or dusky. In old birds, the plumage is wholly white ; in the 
young, the spots and bars are more numerous. Tail rounded, about the 
length of the wings. Supposed to breed in Zetland and Orkney. According 
to Mr Edmonstone, it rests generally beneath some stony projection, which 
protects it from the direct influence of the sun. Frequents solitary elevated 
places. Preys chiefly on sandpipers and mice. Hoots when irritated, like 
the preceding species. 

34. S. passerina. Little Owl. — Bill and claws brown, tip 
of the former yellow ; irides yellow. 

Noctua minor, Will. Orn. 69 Strix pass. Linn. Syst. i. 133. Penn. Brit. 

Zool. i, 211. Temm. Orn. i. 92 — W, Coeg Ddylluan — In England, 
rare. 
Length 1, breadth 14 inches. Plumage, above, greyish-brown, with white 
spots ; breast white ; remainder, below, reddish-white, with cinereous brown 
spots. The female has reddish spots on the neck. Breeds in holes in old 
walls. Eggs 2 or 4, rounded, white. Feeds on mice and small birds — It is 
uncertain whether this species breeds in England, or is only an occasional 
visitant. 



PASSERES. 

I. The first joints of the outer and middle toes connected by 
membranes. 

• Gape remarkably large. BUI wide at the base ; a little hooked 
at the point. Fissirostres. 

•f Nostrils open. Wings long, flight rapid. 
Hirundo. 
Cypselus. 

■f f Nostrils tubulur. 
Caprimulgus. 

** Gape of the ordinary size. 

•f Upper mandible with a notch in the margin. Dektirostres, 



BIRDS. PASSERES. 59 

1. Upper mandible hooked at the extremity. Notch well marked. 
a. Bill compressed ; ridge of the bill arched and rounded. 

Lanius. 
aa. Bill depressed. 

b. Bill at the base with numerous long stout hairs. 

Muscicapa. 
bb. Bill with tender short hairs. 
Bomby cilia. 

2. Upper mandible without a hook at the end. Notch less distinct. 
a. Bill compressed. First feather in the wing very short. 

b. Tail long. 
c. Tarsus longer than the middle toe. 
Turdus. 
Pastor. 

cc. Tarsus shorter than the middle toe. 
Oriolus. 

bb. Tail short. 

Cinclus. 
aa. Bill subulate, slender, slightly depressed at the base. 
b. Bill a little enlarged at the base. Legs long. 

Saxicola. 

Sylvia. 

bb. Bill slender throughout. 
c. Hind claw of ordinary size. 
tl. Bill uniformly convex at the sides. 
Curruca. 
Accentor. 

dd. Bill approaching to concave at the sides. 
Begulus. 
Troglodytis. 

cc. Hind claw produced. 

d. Tail and scapulars produced. 
Motacilla. 

dd. Tail and scapulars common. 
Anthus. 

+t Upper mandible wanting the terminal notch. 

1. Bill strong, and of a conical form. Conieostres. 
a. Mandibles crossing at the extremity. 
Uoxia. 
Corythus. 

aa. Mandibles acting in opposition. 

b. Ridge of the upper mandible nearly straight. 
c. Palate with a tubercle. 

Emberiza. 
cc. Palate plain. 

d. Hind toe produced, and nearly straight. 
Alauda. 

dd. Hind toe of ordinary dimensions. 

e. Base of the bill with numerous hairs. 

Parus. 

ee. Base of the bill plain. 



CO BIRDS. PASSERES. Hirundo. 

/. Commissure of the bill straight. 
ff. Bill angular, slender, pointed. 

Sitta. 
gg. Bill strong and rounded. 

h. Bill more or less inflated at the base. 
Pyrrhula. 
Coccothraustes. 
Pyrgita. 

hh. Bill exactly conical 
Fringilla. 

ff. Commissure of the bill interrupted. 
Sturuus. 

bb. Ridge of the upper mandible obviously curved. — Nostrils cover- 
ed with defluted feathers. 

c. Feathers of the front loose, and capable of being erected into 
a crest. 
Garrulus. 

cc. Front feathers plain. 

d. Tail produced. 

Pica, 
del. Tail of ordinary size. 
Corvus. 

1. Bill slender, produced. Tenuihosthes. 
a. Claws long and hooked, for climbing trees. 

Certhia. 
aa. Claws of ordinary dimensions. 
Pyrrhocorax. 
Upupa. 

II. First and second toes adhering nearly to their extremity. 
Alcedo. 

Gen. XIX. HIRUNDO. Swallow.— The first quill the 
longest. Tail forked, of twelve feathers. Nostrils partly 
closed by a membrane, and covered with feathers. One 
of the toes behind. All the species are common summer 
visitants. 

35. H. rustica. The Swallow. — Front and chin chesnut- 
red. 

H. domestica, Will. Orn. 155. Sill. Scot. 17 — H. rus. Linn. Syst. i. 343. 
White, Phil. Trans. 1775. 258 — Chimney-Swallow, Perm. Brit. Zool. i. 
398 — Temm. Orn. i. 427 — W, Gwennol, Gwenfol; G, Gobhlan- 
gaoith. 

Length 7, breadth 12 inches ; weight 1 ounce. Bill black, hides hazel, 
tongue and palate yellowish. Legs and feet dusk}', Forehead and chin 
chesnut-red. Plumage, above, black, with a gloss of purple ; beneath, with 
the breast black, the rest dusky white. Two middle tail-feathers plain, the 
rest marked on the inner webs, near the ends, with an oval white spot. In 
the female, the tail-feathers are much shorter, there is less red on the front, 
and nyxre white beneath. The nest is in chimneys, or in out-houses, upon or 



Hibundo. BIRDS. PASSERES. 6J 

against the rafters, composed of clay on the outside, with grass and feathers 
within, and open above. Eggs from 4 to 6 in number, white, with red specks. 
Frequently brings out two broods in the season. This species visits us ear- 
lier than its congeners. Drinks and washes on the wing. Albinoes sometimes 
occur. 

26. H. urbica. The Martin. — Above black ; beneath and 

rump white. 

H. agrestis, Will. Orn. 155 — House-Martin, White, PhiL Trans. 1774, 
196. Penn. Brit. Zool. i. 401 H. urb. Temm. Orn. i. 428 W, Mar- 
thin Penbwl. 

Length 6, breadth 10| inches. Bill black ; irides hazel; claws white; legs 
and toes closely covered with white down. The black of the head and back 
glossed with purple. The female has the white of the throat inclining to 
dusky. Nest of similar materials to the rustica, but in this it is covered at 
top, with a lateral entrance. It is placed against the eaves of houses or the 
sheltered corners of windows. Eggs four or five ; white. In this species the 
tail and wings are shorter than the swallow, and its motions less quick. Al- 
binoes sometimes occur. 

36. H. rijjaria. Sand-Martin. — Plumage above, and the 
breast, mouse coloured ; the rest white. 

Will. Orn. 156. Sibb. Scot. 17- White, Phil. Trans. 1775, 272. Penn. 
Brit. Zool. i. 402. Temm. Orn. i. 429 — E, Shore Bird ; W, Gennol-y- 
Glennydd ; G, Gobhlan gainbhich. 

Length 5| inches. Bill and legs dusky ; irides hazel. Tarsi with a few 
small feathers at the insertion of the hind toe. The female has duller colours. 
Nest at the extremity of horizontal holes, in sand-banks, 2 or 3 feet in length, 
consisting of grass and feathers. Eggs from 4 to 6, of a white colour. The 
young have the feathers bordered with rust colour.— This species in flight is 
irregular, making sudden jerks. 

Gen. XX. CYPSELUS. Swift.— Tail forked; of 10 fea- 
thers. All the toes pointing forward. The first quill a 
little shorter than the second. Nostrils near the ridffe of 



the bill, exposed, lengthened, with elevated margins. 



C3 V 



37, C. Apus. Common Swift. — Plumage black, with a white 
chin. 

Hirundo Apus, Will. Orn. 15G. Sibb. Scot. 17. White, PhiL Trans. 
1775, 264. Penn. Brit. Zool. i. 403.— C murarius, Temm. i, 434 — E, 
Black Martin, Screech ; W, Marthin du. 

Length 8, breadth 18 inches; weight above an ounce. Bill, legs, and toes, 
black ; irides dark hazel. Breeds in holes in towers and steeples. Nest of 
grass and feathers. Eggs 2, of a white colour. The young have the feathers 
at the base of the bill white ; the quills, their covers and tail-feathers bordered 
with white. Copulate on wing. Breed only once in the season. Depart early. 

Gen. XXI. CAPRIMULGUS. Goatsucker.— Tail round- 
ed, of 10 feathers. Three toes in front, united at the base 
to the first joint ; liind-toc capable of being brought for- 



63 BIRDS. PASSERES. Lanius. 

ward. Nostrils tubular. Bill with stiff hairs at the base. 
Middle claw serrated. The second quill longest. 

38. C. Europeus. European Goatsucker. — Plumage ash-co- 
loured, much freckled with black, white, and brown. 

Will. Orn. 70. Penn. Brit, Zool. i. 416. Temm. Orn. i. 436 E, Night 

Hawk, Dor-hawk, Fern Owl, Church Owl, Night Garr, Wheel Bird, 
Goat Owl. — A summer visitant. Near woods. 

Length about 10 inches; weight 3 ounces. Bill weak, black. Legs scaly, 
feathered below the knee. Eyes large. Irides dusky. A large white oval 
spot on the inner web of the three first quills, and at the end of the two la- 
teral tail feathers of the male only. Makes no nest, but lays its two eggs, which 
are white, marbled with brown, on the ground among fern or grass. Feeds 
on moths and beetles. Visits this country in May and departs in August. 
Makes a singular noise, like a spinning-wheel ; hence called in Wales Aderyn- 
y-droell, or the Wheel Bird. It has long been charged with sucking the teats 
of goats, an operation for which it is disqualified by the form of its bill. 

Gen. XXII. LANIUS. Shrike.— Toes entirely divided. 
Tarsus longer than the middle toe. The third and fourth 
quills the longest. Bill with strong hairs pointing for- 
wards. 

39. L. Excubitor. Cinereous Shrike. — Head, neck and 
back cinereous, with a black band under the eyes. 

Lanius Merrefs Pin. 170 Lan. cin. major, Will. Orn. 53.— L. Ex. Linn. 

Syst. i. 135 Great Shrike, Penn. Brit. Zool. i. 213. — L. Ex. Terrim. 

Orn. i. 142. ; E> Wierangel, Mattagasse ; W, Cigydd mawr — Inhabits 

woods. 
Length 10, breadth 14 inches ; weight above 2 ounces. Bill and legs black. 
The black band of the eyes reaches the ear covers. Plumage, beneath, white. 
Wings black ; the roots of the primaries and tips of the secondaries white. 
Two middle tail-feathers black, the two lateral ones white. The female chief- 
ly differs in the dingy colour of her white beneath, with her feathers marked 
with brown crescents. Nest in bushes. Eggs 6 or 7; white, with brown spots. 
Young like the female. The food consists of mice, small birds^ and reptiles, 
which are sometimes stuck on a thorn, and pulled to pieces before being de- 
voured It remains to be determined whether this species breeds in Britain. 

It is occasionally found in the beginning of Winter. 

40. L. Collurio. Red-backed Shrike. — The back, scapulars, 
and wing covers, ferruginous. 

L. tertius, Will. Orn. 54 — L. Col. Linn. Syst. i. 136. Perm. Brit. Zool. 

i. 215. Temm. Orn. i. 147 — E, Flusher; W, Agydd celh-goch — A 

summer visitant of England. 
Length 7, breadth 12 inches; weight about 2 ounces. Bill and legs black. 
Forehead, through the eyes to the ears, black. Head, neck, and rump grey. 
Wings dusky, slightly edged with brown. Plumage, beneath, rose-coloured, 
inclining to white on the throat and vent. The two middle tail-feathers 
black, the others two-thirds white, then black, slightly tipped with white. In 
the female the plumage has more red above and white beneath. The 4 mid- 
dle tail-feathers brown. Builds, in hedges, a nest of moss lined with hair. 
Egg3 5 or 6, variable in colour. Young like the female. Its principal food is 



Muscicapa. BIRDS. PASSERES. 63 

insects. Breeds in the southern counties of England. Arrives in May and 
departs in September. 

Since the days of Willoughby the Wood Shrike (Lanius an minor primus, 

Will. Orn. 54 Wood Chat', Penn. Brit. Zool. i. 217-— Lanius rufus, Tern. 

Orn. i. 146.) has been enumerated among the birds of Britain, though that 
author gives no indication of its habitat; and even states (p. 18.), that it had 
no English name. No succeeding observers have detected a native example, 
so that it no longer seems to merit a place among British Birds. It differs 
from the preceding species in the nape and neck being bay, the back and wings 
black, the rump grey, the scapulars white. The plumage, beneath, white; 

Gen. XXIII. MUSCICAPA. Flycatcher.— Bill angu- 
lar, the base and nostrils armed with bristles. The first 
quill short, the third and fourth the longest. Hind claw 
much bent. 

41. M. atrkapitta. Pied Flycatcher. — Plumage, above, black, 

front and beneath white. 

Goldfinch, Will. Orn. 170.— M. at. Linn. Syst. i. 326 — Piedfinch, Penn. 
Brit. Zool. i. 351. — W. Clochder y mynydd — Inhabits the northern 
counties of England. Feeds on insects. 

Length about 5 inches. Wings black, with the middle and greater covers 
white ; the extremity of the inner webs of the latter black. Tail black. In the 
female the white front is wanting ; the plumage, above, is greyish-brown, and 
the three lateral tail-feathers bordered with white. The nest is in a hole of a 
tree, consisting of a few leaves, fibres and hair. The eggs are 5 or 6 in number, 
of a pale blue colour. The young are of a greyish colour. The quills are black. 
In the young male of the first year the margins of the two lateral tail-fea- 
thers are white. In the second year, the margins of the outer only is white, 
and by the third year the whole white disappears. Montagu is inclined to 
consider this species as stationary. A nest was sent him from Yorkshire by 
the Reverend Mr Dalton, taken in the beginning of May. Few of our early 
breeders are migratory. 

The species now described is the M. luctuosa of Tern. Orn. i. 155. An- 
other species, confounded with " atricapilla" he describes under M. albicollis, 
ib. i. 153. In this last, the plumage, including the head, cheeks, back, lesser 
wing-covers, and tail-feathers, is black. The front, a ring round the neck, 
and all beneath white. Rump tinged with white. Base of the quills white. 
The middle and greater wing-covers white, with the extremities of the inner 
webs of the latter black. In the female, the spot in front is small, and grey- 
ish-white. The plumage above is cinereous, except the great wing-covers, 
which are white, and the tivo lateral tail-feathers, which are edged with white. 
The collar is greyish. Nest as the preceding, but the eggs, which are bluish, 
have brown spots at the larger end. It is probable, that the M. albicoUis 
should rank among British birds ; the descriptions of our ornithologists justi- 
fying the conjecture, but still leaving the subject in doubt. 

42. M. Grisola. Spotted Flycatcher. — Plumage above, 

brown. Head, and sides of the neck, with longitudinal brown 

spots. 

Stoparola, Will. Orn. 159. Sibb. Scot. 17— Spotted F., Penn. Brit. Zool. 

i. 350 — M. gris. Temm. Orn. i. 152 E, Rafter, Bee-bird, Cherrysucker, 

Chanchider ; W, Y Gwybedog. — A summer visitant of England ; rare 
in Scotland. 



64 BIRDS. PASSERES. Bombycilla. 

The length nearly inches. The inside of the mouth is yellow. Plumage 
beneath, dull white; the shafts of the breast feathers, dusky. Builds in or- 
chards, or in outbuildings. Nest of moss. Eggs five, bluish white, with 
rusty spots — It is, in a great measure, mute, and familiar. It disappears in 
September. 

Gen. XXIV. BOMBYCILLA, (Brisson). Chattereb.— 
Bill rounded; the base and nostrils covered with hairs. 
The first and second quill-feathers the longest 

43. B. Garrula. Bohemian Chatterer. — Shafts of the se- 
condary quill-feathers enlarged at the end into a thin red horny 
process. 

GaiTulus Bohemicus, Will. Orn. 90 Ampelis Gar. Linn. Syst. i. 297- — 

Waxen Chatterer, Penn. Brit. Zool. i. 314 Bombycivora Gar., Temm. 

i. 124 — W, Sidangynffon — Winter visitant. 

Length 8 inches. Bill and toes black. Irides vermilion red. Feathers of 
the head forming a produced tuft. Plumage reddish ash. A band over the 
eyes and the throat black. Quills black, terminating with a triangular patch 
of yellow and white ; 8 or 9 of the secondaries with the red tips. Tail black, 
tipped with yellow ; the inner covers chesnut. In the female, the black of the 
throat is less, and the extremities of only four or five of the secondaries are 
produced. Said to nestle in holes in rocks. Young destitute of the enlarge- 
ment of the shaft of the secondaries. Feeds on insects and bei'ries. 

This species visits Scotland and England in the winter season ; but its mo- 
tions are irregular, being in some seasons very abundant, in others rare. 



Gen. XXV. TURDU8. Thrush.— Base of the bill with 
single stiff hairs. Nostrils in part covered with a naked 
membrane. Food, berries, insects, and snails. 

a. Ground colour of the plumage, brown and spotted. 

44. T. viscivorus. Missel-Thrush. — Space between the eye 

and bill, grey. Secondaries and wing-covers edged with white. 

Tail dusky ; the three outer feathers greyish-white at the ends. 

Will. Orn. 137. Sibb. Scot. 17- Penn. Brit. Zool. i. 301. Temm. Orn. i. 
101 — E, Throstle Cock, Shrite, Holm Thrush, Misselto Thrush; 
S, Shreitch ; W, Tresglen, Pen y Llwyn, — Resident near woods. 

Length 11, bi - eadth 18 inches ; weight 5 ounces. Bill dusky; yellowish at 
the base of the lower mandible. Legs yellowish. Plumage above, hair- 
brown ; beneath yellowish-white, with triangular or rounded spots of dusky. 
The plumage in the female is more rufous beneath. Builds its nest in old 
trees, of lichens, lined with wool. Eggs four to six in number, of a Hesh-co- 
lour, marked with deep and light rust-coloured spots. This bird varies con- 
siderably in plumage, especially in the proportion of white and red colours. 

45. T. musicus. Common Thrush. — Space between the bill 

and the eye yellow ; under the wing yellowish. 

T. simpliciter dictus, Will. Orn. 138. Sibb. Scot. 17 — Throstle, Penn. 

Brit. Zool. i. 306 Turdus musicus, Temm. Orn. 11C4 — S, Mavis; 

JP» Aderyn bronfraitb ; G, Smcorach — Resident in woods and gardens. 



Tuedus. BIRDS. PASSERES. 65 

Length 9, breadth 14 inches ; weight 3 ounces. Bill black, yellowish at the 
base ; mouth yellow ; legs yellow ; claws black. Plumage, above, greenish- 
brown ; beneath, reddish-white, with rounded black spots. Ends of the first 
wing-covers yellowish, a character scarcely obvious in the female. Nest in 
hedges and low shrubs, composed of dry grass, plastered on the inside with 
clay. Eggs 5 ; blue, with black spots at the larger end. Subject to vary in 
plumage. 

46. T. iliacus. Redwing- Thrush. — Space between the bill 
and eye, black and yellow ; under the wing, red. 

Will. Orn. 13!). Sibb. Scot. 17 — Redwing, Perm. Brit. Zool. i. 307 

T. iliacus, Temm. Orn. i. 163 — E, Swinepipe, Wind Thrush ; W, Soccen 
yr cira, y dresclen goch. — Common winter visitant. Breeds in Harris. 
Length 8, breadth 15 inches ; weight 2i ounces. Bill black, base yellow. 
Mouth yellow ; legs yellow; the claws black. Plumage, above, greenish- 
brown ; beneath white, with lengthened brownish spots. A white line above 
the eye. In the female, the red under the wings is paler, and the dusky spots 
of the belly more extended. Nest in trees. Eggs six, bluish-green, spotted 
with black. Mr Bullock, in a letter to me, dated 23d April 1819, mentioned 
the circumstance of its breeding in Harris, where he had observed it in the 
preceding summer. 

47. T. pilaris. Fieldfare Thrush.— Space between the bill 
and the eye, black. Tail black ; the outer feather bordered with 
grey at the end. 

Will. Orn. 138. Sibb. Scot. 17. Perm. Brit. Zool. i. 304. Temm. Orn. i. 
163.— S, Feltifer ; W, Caseg y ddryccin ; G, Liatriusg — Common win- 
ter visitant. 

Length 10, breadth 17 inches ; weight 4 ounces. Bill yellow ; dusky at the 
end. Legs and feet dusky. Head, neck, and rump, ash-coloured, the first 
with black spots. Back, shoulders, and wing-covers, chesnut. Throat and 
breast, reddish-yellow, with lengthened spots. Belly white. In the female, 
the head has a brownish tinge. Breeds in the north of Europe, in high trees. 
Eggs 4 to 6, of a sea-green colour, with red dots. 

b. Ground colour of the plumage black. 

48. T. Merula. Blackbird. — Plumage uniformly black. 

Merula vulgaris, Will. Orn. 140. Sibb. Scot. 17- Tur. Mer. Perm. Brit. 
Zool. i. 308. Temm. Orn. i. 1 08; W, Mwyalch, Aderyn du; G, Loii dubh. 
— Resident near woods and gardens. 

Length 11 inches ; weight 4 ounces. Bill, inside of the mouth, and tarsus 
of the eye, yellow. Irides and feet black. The fourth feather in the wing 
longest. Female, brownish ; beneath, dirty brownish white, with dusky spots ; 
the bill and feet brownish. Nest like the throstle. Eggs 4 or 6 in number ; 
light-blue, with brownish spots Young like the female. 

49- T. torquatus. Ring Thrush. — Plumage black, bordered 
with grey ; a semilunar white spot on the breast. 

Merula torq., Will. Orn. 143. Sibb. Scot. 17 — Ring ousel, Perm. Brit. 
, Zool. i. 310. Temm. Orn. i. 166 — E, Rock or mountain ousel, Mi- 
chaelmas blackbird ; W, Mwyalchen y graig ; G, Dubh chraige A re- 
gular summer visitant. 

Length 10^, breadth 16 inches. Bill black. Mouth, gape, and tarsus, yel- 
low. Iris chesnut. The third feather in the wing longest. In the female 
the grey prevails more on the margins of the feathers, and the limits of the 
VOL. I. -r 



66 BIRDS. PASSERES. Pastok- 

white spot on the breast are ill defined, the plumage beneath inclining more 
to grey, with a tinge of red. Nest on the ground, among heath. Eggs 4 to 
6, greenish-white, with brown spots. In the young, the breast spot is indis- 
tinct. This species breeds in several places in Scotland. It is not rare in the 
Pentland Hills, near Edinburgh. Congregates in autumn, before departing 
for the south. 

Gen. XXVI. PASTOR— Base of the bill destitute of single 
stiff hairs. Nostrils, in part, covered with a feathered 
membrane. 

50. P. roseus. Rose-coloured Ousel. — Head with a crest of 
feathers. 

Penn. Brit. Zool. ii. G27- Temtn. Orn. i. 13G — An irregular visitant. 

Length 8 inches. Upper mandible, and the tip of the lower, of a yellowish 
rose-colour ; the rest black. Feet yellow. Irides brown. Head, neck, and 
breast black, with a gloss of violet. Belly and back rose coloured. Wings 
and tail brown, with a violet gloss. Under tail-covers and thighs, black, with 
white rays. Head of the female plain, and the colours less bright. Nest in 
the holes of trees and in walls. Young, above, are of an Isabella brown co- 
lour. This species visits Britain irregularly. It was first recorded by Mr 
Edwards, who found it near London, and at Norfolk. Dr Pulteney (Dorset- 
shire, p. 11.), mentions it as having been found at Long Critchel. Montagu 
states, that about Ormskirk, at Lancashire, it occurs almost every season. In 
Scotland, it has occurred in Dunkeld (Stat. Ac. xx. 439), and Mr Bullock in- 
formed me, that he received it from Hoy, in Orkney, where it was shot in the 
garden of the Reverend Mr Hamilton. I have seen a specimen from Ire- 
land, in the possession of N. A. Vigors, Esq. Chelsea. 

Gen. XXVII. ORIOLUS. Oriole.— Upper mandible with 
a ridge. Nostrils naked, opening longitudinally in an ex- 
tended membranaceous space. 

51. O. Galbula. Golden Oriole. — Plumage of a golden yel- 
low colour. 

Penn. Brit. Zool. ii. 626. Temm. Orn. i. 129. — An irregular visitant. 

Length 10 inches. Space between the bill and eye, the wings and tail, 
black ; the ends of the last yellow. Bill and irides red. Feet bluish. The 
colour of the female inclines to olive-green on the back ; and grey, with a tinge 
of yellow beneath, with dusky streaks. Nest suspended from trees. Eggs 
4 or 5 ; white, with a few solitary spots of brown or black. Young like the 
female, but the spots beneath more numerous. This bird was first recorded 
by Pennant, as having been killed in South Wales. It has likewise been 
found in Cornwall. In 1807, two examples were killed in Scotland, the first 
in the spring, at Loch llansa, in Arran, which I saw ; the latter in the begin- 
ning of winter, at Restalrig, near Edinburgh. According to Mr Wood, one 
was shot, in company with blackbirds, 2Gth April 1824, at Aldershot, in Hamp- 
shire,— Annals of Phil. July 1824, p. 03. 

Gen. XXVIII. CINCLUS. Dipper.— Ridge of the upper 
mandible slightly concave in front of the nostrils, which 
are linear. No stiff hairs at the gape. 



Saxicola. BIRDS. PASSERES. 67 

52. C. aquaticus. — Bill black. Irides grey. Feet yellowish. 

Merula aquatica, Will. Orn. 104. Sibb. Scot. 22 Water Ousel, Penn. 

Brit. Zool. i. 312. Temm. Orn. i. 17C — S, Water-Craw; W, Mwyal- 
chen y dvvfr. ; G, Goblia uisge — Resident near rivulets. 
Length 9, breadth 12| inches ; weight 2| ounces. Plumage above, black; 
the margin of the feathers on the back inclining to grey, and the head and 
neck with a brown tinge. Throat, breast, and upper belly, white, followed 
by a red space; the remainder underneath, black. In the female, the head 
and neck are cinereous brown ; there is less white on the breast, and the re- 
mainder beneath, is yellowish-red. Nest on the ground, in a mossy bank, 
lined with leaves. Eggs 5 or C, of a transparent white colour. Yoitiig, with 
the head and neck greyish ; the wing-feathers edged with white ; the whole 
belly is whitish. Feeds on aquatic insects, which it pursues even under wa- 
ter. Capable of diving, and running along the bottom of pools, by the use of 
its wings. It is subject to considerable variations of colour, especially in the 
proportions of brown and white. 

Gen. XXIX. SAXICOLA. Chat.— Bill enlarged at the 
base ; its breadth exceeding its height. Stiff hairs at the 
base of the bill. Mouth black. 

53. S. Oenanihe. Fallow-chat. — Plumage above grey ; the 
front, throat, and band above the eyes, white. 

Oenanthe, Will. Orn. 1G8. Sibb. Scot. 13. Pain. Brit. Zool. i. 383. 
Temm. Orn. i. 237 — E, Wheat-ear, Fallow-smich, White- tail, Chickell ; 

S, Stane-chatter or chacker ; W, Tinwyn y cerrig ; G, Cloichearan 

A regular summer visitant. 

Length G£ inches ; weight G drams. Bill, legs, and claws black. Irides 
hazel. A black stripe passes from the base of the bill, through the eye, to 
the ear-covers. Wings black. Two middle tail-feathers black ; the rest tipt 
with black, and white at the base. Plumage, beneath, white, mi i;h a slight tinge 
of red on the neck. Female, with the cinereous plumage, above, mixed with 
brown, and the white in front inclining to dusky. Nest of dried stalks, lined 
with wool, placed in a hole in the ground, or among stones. The eggs, 5 or 
6 in number, are of an uniform blue colour. The young have the plumage 
above, varied with red, and cinereous, and spotted with brown. This species 
varies in size and markings. It arrives in March, and departs in September. 
It is prized at table, and is captured by a noose of horse -hair. 

54. S. rubetra. Whinchat. — Crown of the head, sides of 
the neck, and on the body above, blackish brown ; the margins 
of the feathers pale. 

Oenanthe secunda, Will. Orn. 168. Pcnn. Brit. Zool. i. 385. Temm. Orn. 
i. 244 — S, Whin-ckacker ; W, Clochder yr eithen — A regular summer 
visitant. 

Length 5 inches ; weight 4 drams. Bill, legs, and claws black. Irides dark 
hazel. A white streak passes from the bill over the eye to the nape, and an- 
other from the chin down each side of the neck. Front of the neck and breast 
ferruginous. Belly and under tail-covers, white. A white patch on the wing. 
Quills dusky black. Tail, with the basal half white ; the rest dusky. In the 
female, the white is less in quantity, and has a reddish tinge. The nest is 
placed on the ground, among grass, at the root of a bush, and'eonsists of dried 
stalks, lined with fine grass. Eggs 6, uniformly blue. The young are spotted 
white and grey. This species arrives in April." Frequents broom and furze, 
perching upon the highest twigs, where it occasionally rings very sweetly. 

E 2 



C8 BIRDS. FASSERES. Sylvia. 

55. S. rubiccla. Stone-chat. — Head, throat, and tail, black - 

The sides of the neck, rump, and belly, white. 

Oenanthe nostra tertia, Will. Orn. 169. Penn. Brit. Zool. i. 380. Temm. 
Orn. i. 244. — E, Stonesmich, Moor-titling, Blacky-top ; TV, Clochder y 
cerrig — llesident in England. 

Length b\ inches; weight 5 drams. Bill and legs black. Irides dusky. 
Plumage on the back, and quills, black, edged with tawny. Wing-covers near 
the shoulder, white. Breast deep rust colour. In the female, the black on the 
throat is spotted with white and red, and the black part inclines to dusky or 
red. The white is less extended. The nest, at the base of a bush of furze, 
is composed of moss and bent, lined with hair. Eggs 5, of a blue colour, with 
rufous spots at the larger end, sometimes obscure. The young resemble the 
female. The males of the first year have the head brown. This species has 
nearly the same habits as the preceding, except that it is stationary, and does 
not extend so far to the north. 

Gen. XXX. SYLVIA.— Bill enlarged at the base, its breadth 
being nearly equal to its height. 

56. S. rubccula. Redbreast. — Greyish-brown above. Throat 

and breast red. Belly white. 

nubecula, Will. Orn. 160. Sibb. Scot. 18. Perm. Brit. Zool. i. 372 — 
Temm. Orn. i. 215.— E, and S, Robin Redbreast, Ruddoch ; TV, Yr Ho. 
bigoch Brongoch; G, Broinn dearg. — Common near woods and gardens. 

Length 6, breadth 9 inches ; weight half an ounce. Irides dark umber 
brown. The nest consists of dried leaves and fibres mixed with green moss, 
lined with hair, placed in some bank or wall. Egg:; from 5 to 7, whitish, with 
rusty and cinereous spots. The young are freckled at first. This species 
lives in woods and retired places, in summer ; during winter, it familiarly ap- 
proaches the habitations of men, and in all places is a great favourite. 

57. S. Phoenicurus. Redstart. — Bluish-grey above. Throat 
black. Breast, rump, and lateral tail-feathers, red. 

Ruticilla, Will. Orn. 159. Sibb. Scot. 18. Penn. Brit. Zool. i. 371. 
Temm. Orn. i. 220. — IV, Rhonell goch ; G, Ceann dearg — A summer 
visitant. 
Length 6, breadth 9 inches ; weight half an ounce. Bill and legs black. 
Mouth yellow. Irides hazel. Front and belly, white. The two middle tail- 
feathers and epulis dusky. Female, light brown, inclining to grey on the head 
rnd back. The throat white. Nest in the hole of a wall or tree, of moss, 
lined with hair. Eggs 5 or 6, of a fine blue colour. In the young males, the 
black on the throat, and red on the breast, are freckled with white lines. This 
species arrives in April and departs in Septembei\ Dr Walker, in his MS. 
notes or Adversaria for 1773, states, that " it builds in Glenea, in Dumfries- 
shire ; comes in May, and goes about the end of August. Is called the Pink." 

Gen. XXXI. CURRUCA. Warbler.- Bill a little com- 
pressed anteriorly ; and the superior ridge near the point 
is slightly arched. 

1. Marsh Warblers. Crown depressed. Wings short, 
rounded. Tail long, eune'rjbrm. Frequent tlie mar- 
gins of marshes and rivers. 



Cukkuca. BIRDS. PASSERES. 60 

58. C. Locustella. Grasshopper Warbler. — Plumage, above, 

olivaceous-brown, with the middle of each feather dusky. 

Locustella avicula, Will. Orn. 151 — Grasshopper Lark, Penn. Brit. Zool. 
i. 382 Sylvia Loc, Temm. Orn. i. 184 W, Gwich hedydd. — A regu- 
lar summer visitant of England. 

Length 5| inches ; weight half an ounce. Bill dusky above, whitish be- 
neath. Legs pale brown. Claws horn coloured. The hind claw short and 
crooked. Irides hazel. Eyelids, chin, throat, and belly, white. Under the 
throat, a band of oval deep-brown spots. Breast, sides, and thighs inclining 
to brown. Under tail-covers pale-brown, with longitudinal dusky streaks. 
Quills and tail-feathers dusky brown, with the margins slightly tinged with 
yellow. The female is like the male, but with less bright colours. Nest, in 
furze, of dried stalks, lined with fibrous roots. Eggs of a spotless bluish-white. 
The singular cricket-like song or chirp is the means of discovering the retreat 
of this species ; otherwise it is a shy bird. I have added the reference to Wil- 
loughby, with doubt, as he states the hind claw as " longisshnus," in which he 
is followed by Hay, Syn. A v. p. 70. 

59. C. scdicarica. Sedge Warbler. — Plumage above, yellow- 
ish brown, with dusky spots on the crown, back, and scapulars. 
Over the eye, a yellowish-white streak followed by a black one. 

Motacilla salicaria, Linn. Syst. i. 330 — Sedge-bird, Penn. Brit. Zool. i. 

381 — Sylvia Phragmites, Temm. Orn. i. 189 E, Sedge-wren; W y 

Kedydd yr helvyg A regular summer visitant of England. 

Length 5i inches; weight 3 drams. Bill dusky above, whitish beneath. 
Legs dusky. Irides hazel. Quills and covers dusky, edged with yellowish- 
white. Plumage beneath, yellowish-white. The female similar. The nest is 
placed amongst reeds, and consists of dried stalks and moss, lined with dried 
grass, and a few hairs. Eggs 5 or 6, of a light brown, mottled with darker 
shades. In the young, the broad stripe over the eye is red, and the breast is 
spotted. Frequents moist places. Has a variety of notes. 

fiO. C. arundinacca. Reed Warbler. — Plumage above, plain 

olive-brown. From the corner of the eye to the nostril, a white 

band, narrowest towards the bill. 

Motacilla ar., Lightfoot, Phil. Trans. 1785-8, tab. i Reed- Wren, Mont. 

Orn. Did — Sylvia ar., Temm. Orn. i. 191. — A regular summer visitant 
of England, first distinguished by Lightfoot. 

Length 5^, breadth 7a inches ; weight 177 grains. Bill half an inch long. 
Upper mandible horn-colour ; lower pale red. Inside of the mouth a deep 
orange. Legs light olive ; the soles bright yellow. Irides olive brown. Chin 
white, the remainder beneath white, with a tinge of bufK Quill and tail- 
feathers brown, with pale edges. Female similar to the mala. The nest con- 
sists of dry stalks and hairs, usually fixed to three or four reed stalks, by means 
of interlaced dried grass or threads. Eggs 4 or 5, dirty white, stained with 
dull olive-coloured spots. The young have not the white stripe in front of the 
eye. 

2. Wood Warblers. — Body .slender. Tail horizontal; 
the feathers equal. Inhabits woods. 

a. Tail of one colour. 

61. C. Luscinia. Nightingale — Plumage above, reddish- 
brown ; beneath, pale yellowish-ash. Tail deep tawny red. 



70 BIRDS. PASSERES. Cuiiruca 

Luscinia, Will. Orn. 1G1. Penn. Brit. Zool. i. 365.— Sylvia Lus., Temm. 
Orn. i. 195. — W, Eos — A regular summer visitant of the eastern 
counties of England. 

Length 7, breadth 10^ inches ; weight 6 drams. Bill black ; lower man- 
dible pale towards the base. Mouth yeilow. Irides hazel. Legs and claws 
black. Female similar. Nest placed on the ground, and composed of dried 
leaves, lined with grass. Eggs 4 or 5, of a uniform dark brown colour. — This 
species arrives in the end of April. I ts song is universally admired. White 
varieties occur. 

62. C. ho?~tensis. Pettyehaps. — Plumage above, greyish- 
brown, with an olive tinge. A white circle round the eye. 

Pen. Brit. Zool.'i. o/C— Sylvia hort., Temm. Orn. i. 206 ; W, y Ffigysog. 
— A regular summer visitant of the southern counties of England. 

Length 6 inches ; weight 5 drams. Bill dusky ; base of the under mandible 
yellowish. Inside of the mouth yellow. Legs bluish-brown. Irides hazel. 
Below the ear a dash of ash-colour. Quills and tail dusky, edged with olive. 
Female similar. Nest in a bush, near the ground, composed of grass and fi- 
brous roots, with moss externally. Eggs 4, dirty white, blotched with light 
brown and cinereous spots. Song little inferior to that of the Nightingale. 

63. C. sibUlatrix. Wood Wren — Plumage above, yellow- 
ish-green. Over the eye a bright sulphur-yellow streak. Un- 
der tail-covers white. 

Begulus non crista tus major, Will. Orn. 1G4 — Yellowest "Willow Wren, 
While's Selb. i. 95 — Wood Wren, Lamb, Lin. Trans, ii. 245., tab. 24. 
Mont. ib. iv. 35., Egg. tab. ii. fig. 1 — Sylvia sib. Temm. Orn. i. 223 — 
A regular summer visitant of England, near oak and beech woods. 

Length 5\ inches ; weight 1G0 grains. Bill dusky. Legs yellowish-brown. 
Irides hazel. The cheeks and throat are yellow. Upper parts of the breast 
yellowish white ; the remainder pure white. Quills dusky, edged externally 
with yellowish-green. Tail a little forked, coloured like the quills, except 
the two outer feathers, which want the yellow margin. Female less in size, 
but similar in plumage. Nest on the ground, oval, with a small hole near the 
top, composed of dried grass and moss, and lined with a few long hairs. Eggs 
C, white, sprinkled with purple spots, which are sometimes confluent. — The 
flight of this species is short, slow, and vibrating, as it moves from spray to 
spray. Its cry expresses the word licee, drawn out. Has been confounded 
with Regulus trochilus and hippolais. 

G4t. C. AtricapUla. Black-cap. — Head black above, hind 

neck cinereous. Plumage above, greyish green. 

Atricapilla, fiFitf. Orn. 1G2. Pcnn. Brit. Zool. i. 374 — Sylvia At. Temm. 
Orn. i. 201 — E, Mock Nightingale, Nettle-creeper; W, Penddur 
brwyn. — A regular summer visitant. Frequents woods and hedges. 

Length G, breadth 9 inches; weight half an ounce. Bill brown. Legs lead- 
coloured. Irides dark hazel. Breast and belly cinereous. Vent white. Quills 
dusky, edged with dull green. Tail long. Female, with a brown head. Nest 
in a low bush, of dried stalks, with wool and moss, and lined with fibrous roots 
and hair. Eggs 4 or 5, pale reddish-brown, mottled with a deeper colour ; 
sometimes sprinkled with cinereous spots. Song melodious. 

a. Tail 'particoloured. 

65. C. provincial'is. Dartford Warbler. — Plumage above, 
dusky brown. Cheeks cinereous. Throat, neck and breast fer- 
ruginous. 



Accentor. BIRDS. PASSERES. 71 

Latham, Pen. Brit. Zool. i. 389 — Sylvia Dartfbrdensis, Mont. Lin. Trans. 

vii. 260. lb. ix. 181 Sylvia Prov., Temm. Orn. i. 211 — Resident in 

the south of England. 
Length 5 4 mches; weight 150 grains. Bill black; the base of the upper 
mandible whitish. Legs yellowish. I rides and eye-lids yellow. Middle of 
the belly white. Quills dusky, edged externally with dark cinereous. At the 
bend of the wing, a white spot. The outer tail-feather tipped and edged ex- 
ternally with white ; the next slightly tipped with white ; the remainder of 
these, and all the others dusky ; the middle ones edged with cinereous. Female, 
paler in the colour, and the throat has whitish streaks. Nest near the top of 
furze, of dried stalks and wool, loosely put together. Eggs 4, greenish-white, 
speckled with olivacious brown and grey, the markings forming a zone at the 
larger end. The young have the throat rayed with white, and feathers of the 

same colour occur on the belly This bird is very shy. Its note is weak, 

but shrill, and several times repeated. 

66. C. sylvia. White Throat.— Crown of the head and be- 
tween the bill and the eye cinereous. The rest of the plumage 
above, tinged with brown. Under parts greyish white. 

Will. Orn. 171 Penn, Brit. Zool. i. 387.— Svlvia cinerea, Temm. Orn. i. 

207.— S, Whey -beard, Charlie Mufty ; W, Y Gwddfgwyn — A sum- 

mer visitant in gardens. 
Length C\, breadth 8i inches; weight 4 drams. Bill dusky-brown above, 
whitish beneath. Legs pale brown. Irides yellowish. Grey on the breast, 
inclining to rufous. Quills dusky, edged with cinereous-brown. Tail similar ; 
outer feathers white, except at "the base of the inner web. Female, with the 
plumage above, more inclining to rufous. The throat tinged with the same 
colour. Nest in hedges or low bushes, of grass, lined with fibrous roots and 
hairs, and of a loose texture. Eggs 5, greenish-white, speckled with light 
brown. In the young, the plumage above is rufous, and the space before the 
eye is white. 

67. C. sylvlella.. Lesser White-throat. — Upper part of the 
head, including the eyes, dark ash. Rest of the plumage above, 
cinereous brown. Beneath, silvery white. 

Lightfoot, Lath. Syn. Sup. p. 185. t. 113. {Mont. Orn. Diet.)— Sylvia cur- 
ruca, Temm. Orn. i. 209 — An English summer visitant. 
Length b\ inches ; weight 3\ drams. Bill and legs dusky. Irides yellow- 
ish. Quills and tail dusky, edged with ash. The exterior "feather of the tail 
whitish almost to the base ; the outer web quite white. Female similar. Nest 
like the common "White Throat. Eggs 4 or 5, bluish-white, speckled with 
brown and ash at the larger end — This species is said to be distinguished from 
the preceding, by the uniform colour of the bill, and the absence of the rufous 
tinge on the wing-covers. 

Gen. XXXII. ACCENTOR.— Bill strong, with inflected 
edges. 

68. A. modularis. Hedge-Sparrow. — Crown grey, with 
brown spots. Sides of the neck, throat, and breast bluish- 
grey. 

Curruca Eliotse, Will. Orn. 157- Penn. Brit. Zool. i. 376.— A. mod., 

Temm. Orn. 249 S, Blue Hafit ; IT, Llwyd y gwrych — A common 

resident. 
Length 5| inches ; weight 6 drams. Bill dusky. Legs flesh-colour. Irides 



73 BIRDS. PASSERES. Regulus, 

light hazel. Back and wing-covers dark Lrown, edged with rufous brown. 
Belly dirty white. Female, with brown spots on the head. Nest in hedges, 
of moss and wool, or fibrous roots, lined with hair. Eggs 4 or 5, blue — This 
bird sings early in the season, and sweetly, and prefers the neighbourhood of 
houses. 



_ As a straggler, connected with this genus, the Accentor alpinns may be no- 
ticed. It differs in the plumage above, being grey, with large brown spots on 
the back, and in the bill being black at the point, and yellow at the base. The 
feet are yellow — In the first number of Zool. Journ., p. 134., it is stated, that 
" a female of this kind had been shot lately in the garden of King's College, 
Cambridge; it is now preserved in the Rev. Dr Thackeray's collection of 
British birds." 

Gen. XXXIII. REGULUS.— Bill straight, slender, subu- 
late. 

69. R. cristatus. Golden-crowned Wren.— Crown orange, 
cheeks grey. 

Will. Orn. 1G3 Golden-crested Wren, Perm. Brit. Zool. 379 Sylvia 

Regulus, Temtn. Orn. i. 229. ; E, Marygold Finch ; W, Yswigw, Sy- 
wigw Resident. Generally distributed. 

Length 4J, breadth G§ inches ; weight under 80 grains. Bill and legs black. 
Irides hazel. Plumage above olive, shaded with cinereous towards the head. 
The yellow crown surrounded with a black margin. Belly cinereous, more 
or less tinged with brown and yellow. Quills greyish brown, edged with 
green. At the base of the secondaries is a black bar, above which the covers 
are tipped with white, forming a narrow white band ; above that the smaller 
covers are black, tipped with white. Tail dusky, with greenish edges. In 
the female the crown is yellow, and its edges more cinereous than black. Nest 
on trees, composed of green moss interwoven with wool, and lined with small 
feathers. Eggs 7 to 10, brownish white, darker at the thick end. — This is a 
restless bird, and its notes are sweet, though weak. 

70. R. TrocMlus. Yellow Wren. — Plumage, above, green- 
ish-yellow brown. Over the eye a faint yellow streak. Legs 
brown. 

R. non cristatus, Will. 1G4. Penn. Brit. Zool. i. 378 Sylvia Hippolais. 

Temm. Orn. i. 222 — E, Willow Wren, Ground Wren, Ground Huck- 
much ; W, Drywr helyg, Sy wider A regular summer visitant. 

Length 5\ inches; weight 2f drams. Bill dusky above, yellowish beneath. 
Plumage below white, tinged with yellow ; on the breast a few yellow streaks. 
Quills dusky brown, edged with yellow ; covers and thighs yellow. Tail dus- 
ky, edged with yellow. Nest oval, with the opening near the top, placed at 
the bottom of a bush, and composed of moss and dried grass. Eggs 6 or 7, 
white, spotted with light rust colour towards the larger end. 

71. R. Hippolais. Lesser Pettychaps. — Plumage, above, 

greenish brown, with a tinge of yellow. Over the eye a faint 

yellow streak. Legs dusky. 

Ficedula septima, Will. Orn. 158. Pay. Syn. Avium, 19. Mont. Orn. Diet. 
— Sylvia trochilus, Temm. i. 224 — £, Chip Chop ; S, White Wren — 
A regular summer visitant. 

Length 4|, breadth 7 inches ; weight 124 grains. Bill brownish-black, hi. 



Troglodytes. BIRDS. PASSERES. 73 

dining to yellow at the edges; mouth pale safFron-yellow. Irides hazel* 
Plumage below pale lemon-yellow, the belly mixed with silvery-white, and 
vent and under tail-covers inclining to deep straw-yellow. Quill and tail- 
feathers dusky, edged with yellow, except the exterior tail-feather on each 
side, which is' plain. Female similar. ]S T est on the ground, composed exter- 
nally of dried leaves, then coarse grass, and lined with feathers. Eggs 6, 
white, speckled with purplish-red at the larger end only, and here and there 

a single speck on the sides This bird arrives in the south of England about 

the end of March ; is restless ; and utters its double notes four or five times 
in succession, resembling the words Chip Chop. — Temminck seems to have 
misplaced the synonimes of these two last species. We have followed Mon- 



tagu. 



Gen. XXXIV. TROGLODYTES. Ween.— Bill slightly 
bent, slender, subulate. 

72. T. vulgaris. Common Wren. — Plumage, above, dark 
reddish-brown, crossed by obscure dusky lines ; over the eye a 
narrow lio-ht streak. 

o 

Passer troglodytes, Will. Orn. 1G4. Sibb. Scot. 18 — Motacilla troglody- 
tes, Lhiu. Syst. i. 337. Perm. Brit. Zool. i. 380.— Sylvia troglodytes, 
Temm.'i. 233. — S, Kitty wren ; W, Dryw; G, Dreathan. — Resident and 

common. 

Length 4i, breadth G$ inches, weight nearly 3 drams. Bill and legs dusky 
brown ; the inside of the mouth yellow. Irides dark hazel. Quills dusky- 
brown, spotted on the outer webs with light brown. Tail of 12 feathers, 
crossed with dusky black lines. Plumage, beneath, light rufous brown ; sides 
and thighs crossed with darker lines. Under tail-covers obscurely spotted 
with black and white. Female smaller, lighter in the colour, with the trans- 
verse bars less distinct. Nest placed under the thatch of houses, against a 
mossy tree or bank ; usually composed of moss, lined with feathers and hair. 
The eggs are generally 7 or 8, but sometimes double that number, white, 
with a few small reddish spots at the larger end — This little insectivorous 
bird braves the severest winters, and, like the Golden-Crowned Wren, is re- 
sident in Zetland. Sings sweetly in spring. 

Gen. XXXV. MOTACILLA. Wagtail.— Tarsus double 
the length of the middle toe. Tail constantly in motion. 
Pace running. 

73. M. alba. White Wagtail.— The front, cheeks, side cf 
the neck and belly white. 

Will. Orn. 171- Sibb. Scot. 18. Penn. Brit. Zool. i. 142. Temm. Orn. 
i. 255., Water-wagtail. — F, Dish-washer, Washer-woman ; W, Brith y 
fyches, Tinsigl y gwys ; G, Breal ant sil. — Resident near water. 

Length 7^, breadth 11 inches; weight 6 drams. Bill, mouth, and legs, 
black. Irides hazel. The back of the head, upper and under side of the 
neck, chin, and breast, black. Back dusky, inclining to cinereous. Quills 
dusky ; the greater covers black, with white tips. Tail black ; the two lateral 
feathers white, but black at the base. In winter the chin and throat are 
white. In the female the black is more dusky, and the white less pure; the 
tips of the covers grey. Nest in walls or on old trees ; composed of moss, 
dried grass and wool, and lined with hair or feathers. Eggs 4 or 5, white, 



74 BIRDS. PASSERES. Anthus. 

spotted with light brown and ash-colour. The young birds have the under 
side of a dirty white, the breast a brown ash, and no black on the throat. 
Retires in the severity of winter to the sea-shore. 

74. M. boarula. Grey Wagtail. — Above grey, beneath bu if- 
fy-yellow, vent and rump pale yellow. 

M. cinerea, Will. Orn. 172. Penn. Brit. Zool. i. 368. — M. boar. Temm. 
Orn. i. 257 — E, Winter Wagtail ; W, Brith y fyches lwyd.— Chiefly 
observed in winter. 

Size of the last. Bill dusky ; legs brownish. Irides dark hazel. Throat 
black, a white band above the eyes and sides of the throat. Wing-covers 
and quills black, bordered with yellowish-white. The three outer tail-fea- 
thers white, the second and third, with the outer web, black at the base, the 
others dusky. In winter the black on the throat disappears. The female 
wants the black on the throat according to Temminck, but she possesses it 
according to Montagu, whose accuracy, in this respect, is attested by Mr Sel- 
by,— " illustrations," p. 211. Nest in heaps of stones. Eggs 6, pointed, 
dirty white, with reddish spots. — Breeds in Devonshire, according to Mr 
Tucker {Mont. Orn. Diet. Supt.) Besides in other parts, during the winter 
months, chiefly near streams. 

75. M.Jlava. Yellow Wagtail. — Plumage olive-green above, 
beneath bright yellow. 

WUl. Orn. 172. Sibb. Scot. 18. Penn. Brit. Zool. i. 3G2. Temm. Orn. 
i. 2G0. — IV, Brith y fyches felen. — A summer visitant. 

Size of M. alba. Bill and legs black. The hind claw long and nearly straight. 
Irides hazel. A white streak over the eye. Quills and tail dusky, but the 
two lateral ones of the last white from the middle. Female more cinereous 
above, and whiter below. Nest in holes in the ground, or at the roots of 
trees ; of dry grass, lined with hair. Eggs G, rounded, olive-green, with flesh- 
coloured spots. Young like the female, with reddish-brown markings on the 
breast and belly. — Chiefly frequents cultivated ground, and seems less attach- 
ed to water than the other species. It constitutes the subgenus Budytes of 
Cuvier, Regne Animal, i. 371. 

Gen. XXXVI. ANTHUS. Titling.— Mandibles, with 
the margins inflected near the middle ; the upper with a 
ridge at the base. 

76. A. pet?'orsus. Sea Titling. — Hind-elaw the length of 

the toe. Over the eye, and on the ear, a white streak. 

Variety of Titlark, Penn. Brit. Zoo], i. 258 — Alauda obscura and petro- 
sa, Mont. Lin. Trans, iv. 41 — Anth. aquaticus, Temm. Orn. i. 265. — E, 
ltock Lark — Common on the sea shore. 

Length 7, breadth 11^ inches; weight 7 drams. Bill black, witli a yellow- 
ish margin ; the inside of the mouth yellow. Feet dusky, with a tinge of yel- 
low. Irides deep chesnut. Plumage, above, dusky olive, with pale edges, on 
the head, neck, scapulars, and rump, inclining to cinereous. Beneath, white, 
with a tinge of yellow on the breast, and obscure longitudinal spots on the 
sides. Qudls black, edged with pale yellow. AVings, when closed, extend 
to half the length of the tail. Tail, with the two middle feathers, greyish- 
brown, the others black, the lateral ones dirty white for half their length. 
Female less than the male ; more dusky above, having little olive or ash on 
the back. Nest of dried grass or algae, with a few hairs. Eggs 4 or 5 dirty 
white, with numerous specks of brown, crowded and confluent at the larger 
end. In the young the upper parts have a tinge of olivaceous ash colour ; 



Anthus. BIRDS. PASSERES. 75 

beneath, the Lighter parts are yellowish, and the coverts of the win°-s more 
deeply margined with light brown ; the legs more inclining to yellow. Seeks 
its food as the tide retires. 

77. A. pratcnsls. Meadow Titling. — Hind claw longer 

than the toe, and but slightly bent. From the gape on each 

side a dusky line passes down the side of the throat. 

Alauda pratorum, Will. Orn. 150. Sibb. Scot. 17- Al. pratensis, Linn. 
Syst. i. 237 — Titlark, Penn. Brit. Zool. i. 357 — Anth. prat. Temm. 
Orn. i. 20*y — Common near marshes. 

Length 5j{ inches ; weight upwards of half an ounce. Bdl dusky, yellowish 
at the base of the lower mandible. Legs brownish. Plumage, above, dusky- 
brown, with paler margins, beneath dirty white, the sides of the neck and 
breast marked with oblong dusky spots. Quills dusky brown, with paler 
edges, the first four, according to Willoughby, of equal length. Tail dusky, 
outer feather white, except at the base of the inner web ; the second has a lit- 
tle white at the point. In winter the pale margins of the plumage, above, are 
broader, and have more of an olive tinge. In this state it is thePipit Lark of 
Mont. Orn. Diet. Female very like the male. Nest on the ground ; of 
dried grass, lined with hair. Eggs C, variable in colour. The young birds 
have the margin of the feathers of a greenish tinge. 

78. A. trivialis. Field Titling. — Hind-claw shorter than 

the toe, and muched hooked. Two yellowish-white bands on 

the wings. 

Alauda minor campestris, Will. Orn. 150. — Al. triv. Linn. Syst. i. 288— 
Field Lark, Penn. Brit. Zool. i. 358. — An. arboreus, Temm. Orn. i. 
271- — A summer visitant of England. 

Length CA inches ; weight 5 drams. Bill dusky above, whitish beneath. 
Legs yellowish-brown ; claws horn colour. Irides hazel. Plumage, above, 
light yellowish- brown, with the middle of each feather dusky-brown. Rump 
plain light brown. Wing-covers tipped with white. Throat and breast ochra- 
ceous yellow ; belly yellowish-white. Tail-feathers pointed, the exterior 
one-half white, the rest with the tip slightly white. Nest of dry grass and 
moss, lined with hair ; placed amongst high grass or green wheat. Esjgs 4, 
dirty bluish-white, thickly blotched and spotted with purplish-brown. Chi en v 
frequents enclosed districts; and, according to Montagu, " from the ben-in- 
ning of May to July, it may be seen mounting in the air in a fluttering man- 
ner, at the same time uttering a twittering note, and then descends to some 
neighbouring tree, with motionless wing and the tail thrown up. At this time 
it sings, but never when rising. And it is observable, that it rarely pitches 
on the ground again until it has perched; anil it always mounts in the like 
manner from a tree before it descends to the ground." — Mont. Orn. Diet. 



Anthus Richardi, {Temm. Orn. i. 2G3). It is stated in the proceedings of 
the Linnean Society, m the "Annals of Philosophy " for March 1825, p. 220., 
that Mr Vigors described three species of British Birds, of which A. Itichardi 
was one ; " two specimens of which were taken a few years ago at Kingsland, 
near London." In the paper, however, in which this species seems originally 
to have been included, published in Lin. Trans, xiv. 55(i, no notice is taken 
of the bird. 

Gen. XXXVII. LOXIA. — Bill compressed; both mandi- 
bles with hooked points, crossing each other at the plane 
of the gape- 



76 BIRDS. PASSERES. Loxia. 

79. L. curvirostra. Crossbill. — Bill as long as the middle 
toe. Wings destitute of white bands. 

Loxia, Will. Qm. 181. Sibb- Scot. 10. Linn. Syst. i. 2.09. Penn. Brit- 
Zool. i. 319. Temm. Orn. i. 328 — E, Shill Apple ; W, Gylfingroes — 
Summer visitant. 

Length 6|, breadth 11| inches; weight 1^ ounces. Bill dark horn colour; 
the tongue cartilaginous, concave, and broad before. Legs and claws dusky; 
soles tubercular ; claws regularly curved, with sharp margins. Irides dusky. 
Wings dusky, the outer margins of the feathers pale. The first and third 
quills equal, the second, the longest ; the second, third, and fourth, slightly 
abbreviated on the outer web. Tail dusky, forked, of 12 feathers, obliquely 
truncated outwards at the extremity. The plumage at the vent inclines to 
white ; on the rest of the body, except the wings and tail, it is of a reddish 
orange, changing with age into yellow and cinereous. The plumage of the 
female is dull, cinereous, mixed with green. Breeds, early in the spring, in 
the north of Europe in the pine forests, in the clefts of branches. Eggs 4 or 
5, greenish-grey, with a circle of brown spots and rays at the larger end. 
Young like the "female. Food consists of the seeds of fir-apples, which it readi- 
ly reaches by means of its singular bill. — In a cage its motions resemble those 
of a parrot. It is not known to breed here, but visits us in June, and con- 
tinues throughout the summer. A male and female were sent us in Decem- 
ber 1822 by the Rev. Alexander Espline, Schoolmaster of Monymeal. In 
both examples the lower jaw crossed the left side of the upper. The muscles 
on the right side for closing the lower jaw were much larger than those on 
the left, — a singular example of compensation for the loss of power, occa- 
sioned by the oblique position and motion of the lower jaw. 



As stragglers connected with this genus the two following species merit 
some notice- 

(1.) L. Pi/tiopsiltacus. Parrot Crossbill. — This species is supposed to be re- 
ferred to by Pennant in his Brit. Zool. i. 319., " We received a male and fe- 
male out of Shropshire, which were superior in size to the former ; the bill 
remarkably thick and short, more curvated than that of the common kind, 
and the ends more blunt." A Scottish example of this species was sent from 
Ross-shire to Mr D. Ross, gunmaker, Edinburgh, and is recorded, on the 
authority of Sir William Jardine, by Mr Selby, in his valuable " Illustrations 
of British Ornithology," i. p. 254. According to Temminck, Orn. i. 325., the 
bdl is shorter than the middle-toe, and seven lines broad at the base. This 
species is common to Europe and North America, and may be expected to oc- 
cur in this country occasionally. 

(2.) Ij.falciroslra. White-winged Crossbill. — According to Mr Templeton, 
a female of this species " was shot within two miles of Belfast, in the month 
of January 1802," Lin. Trans, vii. 309. It is a native of North America, 
and may readily be distinguished by its inferior size, and by two white bands 
across the wings. 

Gen. XXXVIII. CORYTHUS. Hawfinch— Bill inflat- 
ed. Upper mandible bent over the under. 

80. C. Envcleator. Common Hawfinch. — Colour reddish ; 
the wings and tail black. 

Loxia en. Linn. Syst. i. 299 — Pine Gross-Beak. Perm. Brit. Zool. i. 317. 
— Pyrrhula en. Temm. Orn. i. 333. — A summer visitant of Scotland. 



Emberiza. BIRDS. PASSERES. 77 

Length 7| inches ; weight 2 ounces. Bill and legs black. Head and neck 
orange-red ; bill yellowish-orange ; back and rump with black feathers, ha- 
ving a yellow margin. Two cross bars of white on the wings. Quills and 
tail-feathers edged with orange. The female has the red more tinged with 
brown, and the back and belly cinereous. Nest on trees._ Eggs 4, of a white 
colour. Food the seeds of trees. Pennant noticed individuals of this species 
in the pine forest of Invercauld, Aberdeenshire, in August, and conjectures 
that they bred there. Mr Selby, in his " Illustrations," p. 257-, seems in- 
clined to regard them as only occasional visitants. 

Gen. XXXIX. EMBERIZA. Bunting.— Bill short, co- 
nical, the palate furnished with a bony knob. 

81. E. Citrinella. Yellow Bunting. — Head, neck, and 

breast gamboge yellow. 

E. flava, Will. Orn. 196 Citrinella Sibb* Scot. IS — E. Citrinella, Linn. 

Svst. i. 309 -B, Yellow Stammer, Yellow Yowly ; S, Yite, Yellow 

Yeldrock ; W, Llinos felen ; G, Buidheag bhealaidh — Common. 

Length C^, breadth 10 inches; weight 7 drams. Bill bluish; irides hazel ; 
lews yellow. Back } r ellowish-brown, tinged with green. Quills black, edged 
with yellow. Hump brownish-orange. Tail dusky, edged with greenish-yel- 
low; the inner web of the two external feathers, on each side, with a large 
spot of white. In the female the colours are paler, and the yellow inclines 
more to brown. Pair in May. Nest on the ground among low grass, ot 
dried stalks, lined with hair. Eggs 5, of a pale purplish white, with red 
streaks. This species is familiar, and resides near the dwellings of men. In 
geographical distribution it reaches not to Orkney. 

This species varies in the yellow of the head being replaced by olive-green, 
in which state it is the E. chlorocephala of Gmelin (Turton's trans, i. 544.), 
and has occurred in the neighbourhood of London. 

82. E. Cirlus. Cirl Bunting. — The throat and a band over 

the eye black. 

Linn. Syst. i. 311 — Cirl Bunting, Mont. Orn. Diet, and Lin. Trans, vii. 
276. Temm. Orn. i. 313 — Breeds in Devonshire. 

Size like the last. Bill bluish ; irides hazel ; legs brown ; claws dusky. 
A yellow band above and below the eye. Lower part of the neck yellow ; 
breast olive-grey ; belly yellow ; back brown. Quills dusky, edged with green. 
Tail, with the two middle tail-feathers chesnut, the rest black, except the two 
exterior ones on each side, which have an oblique bar of white from the tip 
half way ; and the outmost feather is white throughout the whole of the ex- 
terior web. Female smaller, with the plumage spotted with dusky. Pair 
in April. Nest in a low bush ; of dry stalks, lined with hair. Eggs 4 
or 5, greyish-white, with irregular long and short curved dusky lines — This 
species was first observed in Britain by Montagu, in 1800, in Devonshire, 
where it breeds and is resident ; congregating in the winter with Yellow 
Buntings and Chaffinches. A straggler of this species has been shot near 
Edinburgh, as noticed by Mr Wilson in Wern. Mem. ii. G58. 

83. E. Miliaria. Common Bunting. — Plumage, above yel- 
lowish-brown, inclining to oil-green, the centre of the feathers 
dusky. 

E. alba, Will. Orn. 195. Sibb. Scot. 18. E. Mil. Linn. Svst. i. 308. 
Penn. Brit. Zool. i. 324. Temm. Orn. i. 306 — E, Bunting-lark, Ebb. ; 
S, Corn-bunting ; W, Bras-y-ddruttan, bras-yr-yd ; G, Gelag-bhua- 
chair. — Common near corn-fields. 



78 BIRDS. PASSERES. Embemza. 

Length 7\, breadth 11J inches ; weight about 2 ounces. Bill brown ; iri- 
des dark hazel ; legs yellow. Throat white, with black spots ; belly white ; 
wings and tail black, the coverts edged with yellowish-brown. Female like 
the male. Nest on the ground like its congeners. Eggs 4, whitish, spotted 
and veined with brown. The young have a reddish tinge. This bunting is 
gregarious in winter, and is often taken in lark-nets, and brought to market. 
It extends to the Zetland Islands. 

84. E. Schceniculus. Reed Bunting. — The head, chin, and 

throat black. 

Passer torquatus in arundinetis nidificans, Will. Orn. 136 E. sch. Linn. 

Syst. L 311. Penn. Brit. Zool. i. 326. Temm. Orn. i. 307 £, Reed 

Sparrow, Water-Sparrow; S, Black-Bonnet; W, Golfan-y-cyrs A 

common resident near marsh v ground. 



s* 



Length Gh, breadth 10 inches; weight ounce. Bill black ; i rides and feet 
brown. A band of white commences at the corners of the mouth, and, grow- 
ing broader behind the ears, encircles the head. Belly white. Back black, 
the feathers edged with brown. Quills brown, with pale edges. Tail with 
the two middle feathers brown, with pale edges ; the two exterior ones on 
each side half white and half black, with a brown spot near the tip. In the 
female the head is tinged with reddish-brown, the white on the belly inclines 
to dusky, and there is no white ring round the head. Nest in grass or furze 
near the ground, of dried stalks, lined with fine grass and hair. Eggs, 4, 
bluish-white, with brown spots and veins. The white ring is wanting in the 
young males — Gregarious in winter, and mixing with other species. *Does 
not occur in the northern islands. 

85. E. nivalis. Snow-Bunting. — Tip of the bill, legs, feet, 
and claws, black ; the claw of the hind-toe produced. 

Montifringilla calcaribus Alaudse, Will. 187 — Fringilla, Sibb. Scott. 18. 

— E. niv. Linn. Syst. i. 308 — Fab. Faun. Gr. 117 Penn. Brit. Zool. i. 

320. Temm. Orn. i. 319. S, Snowfiake ; W, Golfan-yr-eira ; G, Eun- 
t-sneachdaidb A winter visitant. 

Length 6J, breadth 12^ inches; weight 1 J ounces. Bill black, vellow with- 
in ; irides hazel. The head, neck, breast, belly, and rump white, with the 
roots of the feathers black. Back black, with pale edges. Primaries black, 
with a white base. Middle tail-feathers black, the three outer ones white 
with a dusky spot near the end. In the female the black is paler, and the 
white dusky. Nest in crevices of rocks, in May, constructed on the outside 
with grass, lined with feathers, and then with hair. Eggs 5, white, with dusky 
spots. In the young, the base of the bill is yellow, and the head, ear-coverts 
breast, and sides, more or less mixed with chesnut. The feathers on the 
back dusky, with rufous edges. In this state, or some of its numerous varie- 
ties, it is the Tawny Bunting and Mountain Bunting of Penn. Brit. Zool. i. 
327., and 321. — This bunting breeds in Greenland, visits this country in har- 
vest, and retires in spring. It is first seen on the high ground in" stubble- 
fields, and its motions resemble those of the lark. As the winter advances it 
approaches the corn-yard, and feeds with the sparrow and finches. In Zetland 
it is called Oat-fowl, from the preference which it gives to that kind of grain. 



As a straggler, may be noticed tYe E. cirus, Turton's Lin. Syst. i. 542., dis- 
tinguished by having the head blue; belly orange ; back green. It is a na- 
tive of South America. Montagu, in his Supplement to his Orn. Diet., ar- 
ticle Grosbeak, says, " A painted Bunting, E. rims, was taken alive on Port- 
land Island, in the year 1802, having doubtless made its escape from on board 
some ship going up Channel, or that came to anchor off Weymouth. This bird 
we saw alive in the possession of Mrs Stewart of that place." 



Alauda. BIRDS. PASSERES. 79 



Gen. XL. ALAUDA. Lark. — Bill conico-subulate. Pa- 
late plain. Hind claw produced. 

86. A. arvensis. Field-Lark. — Plumage reddish-brown 

above, yellowish-white, with dusky streaks beneath. Hind-claw 

nearly straight, and longer than the toe. 

A. vulgaris, Will. Orn.149. Sibb. Scot. 17 — A. ar. Linn. Svst. i. 287. 
Penn. Brit. Zool. i. 353. Temm. Orn. i. 281 — E, Skye-Laik ; S, La- 
verock ; W, Hedydd, Uchedydd ; G, Uiseag — A common resident. 

Length 7, breadth 12 inches ; weight an ounce and a half. Bill dusky, the 
base of the lower mandible yellowish. Legs and claws dusky. Hindhead 
tinged with cinereous. Quills brown, with pale tips and edges. Tail brown ; 
the two middle feathers darkest ; the outer feather white on the outer web 
and tip of the inner ; the second white on the outer web only. The female 
resembles the male. Pair in April. Nest on the ground, of dry stalks, lined 
with fine roots of grass. Eggs 4, dirty white, spotted with brown — The lark 
abounds in open cultivated situations. Is esteemed for its song, and as a deli- 
cacy for the table. Congregates in wandering docks during the winter. 

87. A. rubra, Red Lark. — Plumage above rufous-brown, 
beneath reddish-white. Hind-claw curved, and of the length 
of the toe. 

Penn. Brit. Zool. i. 359. Turton's Gm. Syst. i. 482 — In England, rare. 
Size same as the preceding. Bill dusky above, whitish beneath ; legs pale 
brown. A white line above and below the eye. Chin and throat white. Back 
with black, and breast with dusky spots. Middle feather of the tail black, edo-ed 
with brown, the two exterior white — This species was first detected, near 
London, 
in his 
taken 

length. He says, in the Supplement, "The size, the bill, legs, and the hind- 
claw, bespeak the species ; especially the great length of the tail in propor- 
tion to the wings, which, when closed, do not reach within two inches of the 
end." 

88. A. arbor ea, Wood-Lark. — A white band from the bill 
over the eyes, surrounding the crown of the head. 

Will. Orn. 149. Sibb. Scot. 17- Linn. Svst. i. 287. Penn. Brit. Zool. i. 

35C. Temm. Orn. i. 283 — W, Hedydd-y-coed ; G, Riabhag-choille 

In the neighbourhood of woods. 

Length Ci, breadth 12| inches ; weight about an ounce. Bill duskv, whit- 
ish at the base of the lower mandibla. Irides hazel. Legs yellow. Plumage 
above, brownish-black, with pale edges; cheeks yellowish-white; beneath 
pale yellowish-white, with dusky longitudinal streaks. Quills dusky, edged 
with brown ; the coverts tipped with white. The two middle tail-feathers 
brown, the next dusky, and the four exterior ones black. The female wants 
the tinge of yellow beneath, and the white band of the head is obscure. Pair 
in March. Nest on the ground, of coarse grass, lined with finer fibres, with 
sometimes a few long hairs. Eggs 4, wood-brown, with blotches of gre} r and 
brown. — This species lives in families during the winter. Chiefly sings in the 
air, flying in large irregular circles, or when perched on the top of a tree. 
Sings sometimes late in the evening, and has been mistaken for the nightin- 
gale. 




80 BIRDS. PASSERES. Pauus- 

Gen. XLI. PARUS. Titmouse. — Bill short, pointed, sharp 
edced. Nostrils concealed in deflected hairs and feathers. 

89. P- major. Great Titmouse or Ox-Eye. — The head, 

neck, and middle line of the belly black ; the cheeks white. 

Fringillago, seu Parus major, Will. Orn. 174 — P. m. Sibb. Scott. 18. 

Linn. Syst. i. 341. Penn. Brit. Zool. i. 390. Temm. Orn. i. 287 

W, Y-Benloyn-fwyaf. — In woods and gardens. 

Length 6, breadth 9 inches ; weight 10 drams. Bill black; tongue ending 
in four filaments. Legs lead-grey. Irides dusky. Back olive-green. Bump 
and wing-coverts grey, the latter tipped with blue. Quills greenish-grey, 
with pale edges. Sides of the belly yellowish-white. Tail dusky, outer fea- 
ther white on the exterior web ; under tail-coverts white. In the' female, the 
black on the head, and the yellow on the sides are less bright, and the black 
line does not reach the whole length of the belly. Nest in the hole of a tree 
or wall, of moss lined with hair. Eggs from G to 8, white, with rusty spots. 
— The food consists of seeds, insects, and carrion — Seldom frequents exposed 
situations. 

£0. P. ater. Colemouse. — Head, neck, and upper breast 

black ; cheeks and nape white. 

Will. Orn. 175. Linn. Syst. i. 341. Penn. Brit. Zool. i. 392. Temm.. 

Orn. i. 288 W, Y-Benloyn-lygliw ; G, Cailcheag-chean-dubh In 

woods. 

Length 4-^, breadth 7 inches ; weight 2 drams. Bill black. Irides hazel. 
Legs lead-grey. Plumage above greyish ; belly yellowish-white. Covers of 
the secondaries, and those above, tipped with white, forming two bars across 
the wing. Female with the white on the cheeks less extended. Nest in holes 
of old trees near the ground, of moss lined with hair. Eggs 6 or 8, with red- 
dish spots. Food like the former. — This species seems rare in England. In 
Scotland it is common in woods. 

91. P- palustris. Marsh-Titmouse. — Head, neck, and throat 

black ; cheeks yellowish-white. 

Will. Orn. 175. Linn. Syst. i. 341. Penn. Brit. Zool. i. 393. Temm. 
Orn. i. 291 — E, Little black-headed Tomtit, Blackcap ; W, Penloyn- 
y eyrs. — In woods in England. 

Length 4\, breadth 8 inches ; weight 3 drams. Bill dusky; irides hazel. 
Legs lead-grey. Plumage, above, yellowish-grey ; beneath brownish-white. 
Quills and tail bluish-grey, with pale margins. Female with the black on the 
head less dull, and the throat is spotted with grey. Nest in holes of trees, of 
moss, lined with thistle or willow down. Eggs from G to 8, white, with brown 

spots This species which is common in England, frequenting brushwood in 

moist situations, has been confounded with the preceding, from which it dif- 
fers, in wanting the white on the back of the head, and the two white bars on 
the wings ; in being of a larger size, and in having the tail longer. 

92. P. cceraleus. Blue Titmouse. — Crown blue, with a white 

border ; cheeks white, with a dark blue border. 

Wilt. Orn. 175. Sibb. Scot. 18. Lin. Svst. i. 341. Penn. Brit. Zool. i. 
391. Temm. Orn. i. 289 — E, Nun, Tomtit, Hickmall, Blue-cap, Tit- 
mall, Tinnock, Willow-biter ; S, Ox-eye ; W, Y Lleian. 

Length 44, breadth 8 inches ; weight 3 drams. Bill dusky ; legs, lead- 
grey. A black line extends from the gape across the eyes to the hind-head. 



Sitta. BIRDS. PASSERES. 81 

Back olive-green. Wings and tail blue. A white bar on the wings. Throat 
and middle line of the belly black. Irides and belly yellow. The female has 

the crown grey, and tbe list of the belly indistinct Nest, in the holes ol" trees 

or walls, of moss lined with feathers and hair — Eggs 6 or 8, white, spotted 
with brown — This species is common in gardens. 

93. P. cristatus. Crested Titmouse. — Crown feathers elon- 
gated, and, with those on the cheeks and sides of the neck, 
black with white margins. 

Will. Orn. 175. Linn. Syst. i. 340. Temm. Orn. i. 290 In fir-woods, 

Scotland. 

Length 4|, breadth 84 inches ; weight 2£ drams. Bill black. Irides 
hazel. Feet lead-coloured. A black stroke crosses the cheek, under the eve, 
and turns back under the ear at an acute angle. Chin and throat black ; 
above, yellowish-brown with a tinge of yellow ; beneath, white tinged with 
ochreous yellow. In the female, the black on the throat is more circumscrib- 
ed, and the crest is less distinct — Nest in hollow trees. Eggs 10, white, with 
reddish spots — This species is unknown in England. According to Latham 
and Montagu, it inhabits the pine forests of Glenmore. 

94. P. caudatus. Long-tailed Titmouse. — Crown, cheeks, 
and throat white ; across the eye, nape and back black/ 

Will. Orn. 176. Linn. Syst. i. 342. Penn. Brit. Zool. i. 394. Temm. 
Orn. i. 296 — E, Huckmuck, Bottle-torn, Long- tail Mag, Capon or 

Pie, Mumruffin ; W. Y-Benloyn-gynffonhir In woods and hedges. 

Length b\ inches ; weight 2 drams. Bill and legs black. Irides hazel ; 
margin of the eye-lids yellow. Back rose-red ; belly ash-grey, with a rosy 
hue. Quills black ; secondaries edged with grey. Tail with the four middle 
feathers black, the others tipped and obliquefv marked with white on the outer 
webs. Female like the male. — Nest in the fork of a tree, of an oval form, 
with two openings, and constructed with lichens and wool, lined with feathers. 

Eggs 9 to 12, white, sparingly marked with rusty spots The young have 

the cheeks spotted, and associate with their parents during winter, frequently 
shifting quarters. 

95. P. hiarmicus. Bearded Titmouse. — Head and nape 
grey ; cheeks black ; throat white. 

Linn. Syst. i. 342. Penn. Brit. Zool. i. 396. Temm. Orn. i. 298 W, Y- 

Barfog — Among reeds in marshes, England. 
Length 6J inches. Bill orange- yellow, a little bent ; the upper mandible 
the longest. Irides gamboge-yellow. Legs black. Cheek-feathers loose. 
Back and belly yellowish-brown. Quills blackish-grey, edged Avith white. 
Tail orange-brown, the external feathers with their outer webs and tips pale 
reddish-white. Under tail-covers black. The female is destitute of black 
cheeks — Nest among rushes (unknown in Britain). Eajgs 6 0178, reddish, 
with brown spots. Young are of a bright reddish colour. 

Gen. XLII. SITTA. Nuthatch.— Bill slightly compres- 
sed, angular. Hind-toe strong. 

96. S. europcea. Common Nuthatch. — Chin and cheeks white; 
a black band across the eve and ear-covers. 

Sitta seu Picus cinereus, Will. Orn. 98. Sibb. Scot. 15 S. eur., Linn. 

Syst. i. 177. Penn. Brit. Zool. i. 255. Temm. Orn. i. 407 E, Nut- 



VOL. I. 



F 



82 BIRDS. PASSERES. Pyrrhula, 

jobber, Wooderacker ; W, Delor-ye-enau. — In wooded situations in 
the south of England, 

Length 6 inches ; weight G drams. Bill dusky, "lower mandible white at 
the base. Legs grey, claws hooked. Irides brown. Plumage above, blackish- 
grey ; below, buff-orange, Quills dusky. Tail short, of twelve flexible fea- 
thers ; the two middle grey ; the four outer black, with a white bar ; the tip 

ash-grey. Female less ; the band over the eye indistinct Nest in the holes 

of trees, the opening formed with clay, and the cavity lined with dead leaves. 
Eggs 5 or 6, greyish-white, spotted with reddish-brown. The female sits 
close, and refuses to leave the nest upon being disturbed — This bird runs 
upwards and downwards on the trunks of trees without difficulty. 

Sibbald seems to consider this species, probably erroneousby, as an inhabitant 
of Scotland. In England it is chiefly confined to the southern parts, though 
Mr Selby has succeeded in tracing it as far north as to the banks of the Wear 
and Tyne. 



Gen. XLIII. PYRRHULA. Bullfinch.— Bill short, thick, 
hooked, with inflated sides, the ridge advancing on the 
forehead. Middle-toe longer than the tarsus. 

97. P. vulgaris. Common Bullfinch. —-Crown, base of the 

bill, throat, wings, and tail black. 

Rubicilla, sive Pyrrhula, Will. Orn. 180. Sibb. Scot.'18. — Loxia Pyrrhula, 
Linn. Syst. i. 300. Penn. Brit Zool. i. 322 — Pyrrh. vuL, Temm. Orn. i. 

338 E, lted-hoop, Tomy-hoop ; S, Alp, Nobe ; W, Y Chwybanydd, 

Rhawn-goch ; G, Corcan-coille. — In wooded districts, common. 

Length about G inches. Bill and feet black. Irides brown. Nape of the 
neck and back grey ; cheeks, neck, breast, belly and flanks bright tile-red ; 
rump and vent white. Quill-covers tipped and edged with pink-white. Fe- 
male bluish-grey above, brocoli-brown below ; in other parts like the male, 
but with colours less distinct. — Pairs in April. Nest in hedges, of dry twigs, 
lined with fibrous roots. Eggs 5, bluish-white, spotted with pale orange- 
brown. Young birds like the female, but destitute of the black on the head. 
— Feeds on seeds, and buds of trees. 



Gen. XLIV. COCCOTHRAUSTES. Grosbeak. — Bill 
large, conical, blunt, inflated ; the ridge rounded ; the edge 
of the lower mandible inflected. 

98. C. vulgaris. Common Grosbeak. — Cheeks, head, and 

rump brown ; front, lores and throat black. 

Will. Orn. 1/8 Loxia Coc, Linn. Syst. i. 299. Penn. Brit. Zool. i. 316. 

—Fringilla Coc, Tcmm. Orn. i. 344 — E, Cherry-finch ; W, Gylfin- 
braff. — A winter visitant of the south of England. 

Length 6, breadth 1 2 inches ; weight 2 ounces. Bill pinkish-white. Legs 
pale brown. Irides ash-grey. Collar, round the nape of the neck, bluish- 
grey. Beak and smaller wing-covers reddish-brown ; the greater coverts 
tipped with white. Quills black ; from the fourth to the fifteenth with a 
white oblong spot on the inner web ; truncated at their ends. Tail black ; 
the four middle feathers half white from the point, the rest with only the in- 
ner webs white. Colours of the fejnale obscure. — Nest on trees. Eggs 5, 



Pvrgita. BIRDS. PASSERES. 88 

ash-grey, tinged with green and with brown spots. In the young, the head 
and throat are yellow, beneath white. — This species, which breeds in the 
mountainous regions of Europe, visits England in autumn, in small flocks of 
four or five, feeds on the berries of the hawthorn during winter, and departs 
in April. 

99. C. Chloris. Green Grosbeak. — Plumage bright oil-green, 
wing-covers smoke-grey. 

Chloris, Will. Orn. 179- Sibb. Scot. 18 — Loxia ch., Linn. Svst. 1. 304. 

Penn. Brit. Zool. i. 322 Fringilla ch., Temm. Orn. i. 346 — W, Y Ge- 

gid, Llinos-werdd ; G, Glaisean darach — Common in all inclosed wood- 
ed districts. Green Linnet. 
Length Gi, breadth 10£ inches ; weight an ounce. Bill flesh-coloured ; the 
margin at the chin heart-shaped. Legs wood-brown. Irides hazel. Mar- 
gins of the feather greyish. The edges of the quills and tail-feathers of a 
brighter yellow. Female more dusky. — Pairs in May. Nest in hedges, of 
moss lined with hair and feathers. Eggs 5, bluish-white, speckled with brown. 
Young like the female. — Easily tamed, and familiar. Congregates with lin- 
nets and chaffinches during the winter. 



•a 



Gen. XLV. PYRGITA. Spaurow.— Bill conical, subacu- 
minated, rounded above, the margin of the upper man- 
dible inflected under the nostrils. 

100. P. domestica. House-Sparrow. — Crown and nape bluish- 
grey ; cheeks greyish-white. 

Passer domesticus, Will. Orn. 182. Sibb. Scot. 18. — Fringilla dom. Linn. 
Syst. i. 323. Penn. Brit. Zool. i. 338. Temm. Orn. i. 350 — W, Aderyn- 
ye-to, Golfan ; G, Gealbhan — Common. 

Length 6J inches ; weight 1 \ ounces. Bill black, notched at the tip. Legs 
brown. Irides hazel. Lores, chin, throat, and gorget black. An orange- 
brown band passes above the eyes and over the ears. Feathers on the back 
black, edged with brown. Breeds early. Female with the bill flesh-coloured, 
with a black tip ; the throat and middle of the belly grey — Nest in holes, or 
on trees, of straws and feathers. Eggs 5, greyish-white, with darker spots. 

101. P. montana. Tree-Sparrow. — Crown and nape ches- 
nut-brown ; sides of the neck and breast white. 

Passer montanus, Will. Orn. 185. — Fringilla mont. Linn. Syst. i. 324. 

Penn. Brit. Zool. i. 339. Temm. Orn. i. 334 W, Golfan-ye-mynydd. 

— Inhabits the middle districts of England, remote from houses. 
Length 5^ inches ; weight G drams. Bill black. Legs pale brown. Irides 
hazel. Chin and spot behind the eye black. Upper part of the back having one 
web of the feathers black and the other white ; under greyish-white. Wing-co- 
vers rufous, edged with black, and crossed by two bars of white. Quills 
black, with yellowish-brown edges. Tail even. Female like the male Ac- 
cording to Montagu, Sup. Orn. Diet., this species breeds in holes in old trees. 
Nest like the preceding, but the eggs are smaller. 

Gen. XLVI. FRINGILLA. Finch.— Bill conical, pointed, 
more or less produced. 

102. Y.ccelebs. Chaffinch. — Front black ; crown, nape, and 
sides of the neck deep greyish-blue. 

f2 



84 BIRDS. PASSEKES. Fringilla. 

Will. Orn. 186. Sibb. Scot. 18. Linn. Svst. i. 318. Penn. Brit. Zool. i. 
335. 7ra)«. Orn. i. 357 — ■£, Buck-finch, Horse-finch, Pink, Twink, 
Skelly; S, Shilfa ; W, Asgell-arian, Wine; G, Briecan beatha. — Com- 
mon, 

Size of a sparrow. Bill blue, tip black. Irides hazel. Legs brown. Cheeks, 
neck, and breast pale reddish-brown. Back chesnut, the feathers with pale yel- 
lowish-grey margins. Belly and vent white. Rump sulphur-yellow. Lesser 
wing-covers white, those of the primaries black, and those of the secondaries 
black tipped with yellow. The three first quills black, the outefc^eb with a 
white edge. Tail, with two middle feathers bluish-grey, the nexaRree black, 
and the two exterior ones with a white spot on the inner web. Female, with the 
head and upper parts oil-green ; cheeks and below grey with a tinge of red, 
— Pairs in March. Nest in trees, of moss or lichens, lined with feathers and 
hair. Eggs 5, bluish-white, with reddish spots. Young like the female. — 
Sexes separate into distinct flocks during the winter. 

103. F. montifringilla. Mountain-finch. — Head, cheeks, 

nape, and upper parts of the back black ; throat, breast, and 

shoulders reddish-orange. 

Will. Orn. 187. Linn. Syst. i. 318. Penn. Brit. Zool. i. 337. Temm. 
Orn. i. 360 — A common winter visitant. 

Length 6^, breadth 10^ inches; weight If ounces. Bill yellowish, tip 
black, with an indistinct terminal notch. Feet brown. Irides dusky. Covers 
of the primaries black ; the three first quills black. Tail black, the two mid- 
dle ones with reddish margins. The female has the crown reddish, with a 
black band above the eyes — Nest on fir-trees. Eggs 5, white, with yellowish 
spots. Breeds in the north of Europe — Frequents this country in winter, 
visiting the corn-yards along with chaffinches. The bright gamboge-yellow 
at the setting on of the wing is an obvious characteristic mark. It seems to 
vary in colour with the season, becoming whiter in severe winters. 

104. F. cannabina. Brown Linnet. — Bill bluntly conical ; 

wing-covers brown. 

Linaria rubra major, Will. Orn. 191. Sibb. Scot. 18. — F. can., Linn. 
Syst. i. 322 — Red-headed Linnet, Penn. Brit. Zool. i. 343 — Fr. can. 

Temm. Orn. i. 364 E„ Great Red-pole ; S, Grey Lintie ; W, Lin- 

bengoch Common. 

Length 6, breadth 10 inches; weight an ounce. Bill, strong in proportion 
as the Green Grosbeak, but the ridge is sharper ; bluish-grey, dark at the tip. 
Legs and feet brown. Irides hazel. Front and breast carmine-red, throat 
yellowish-white streaked with bi-own ; crown, nape, and sides of the neck 
bluish-grey : above, chesnut-brown with pale edges ; below, white with a ru- 
fous tinge. The first quill black ; the following ones edged with white on 
both webs, forming a lengthened white mark on the wings. The quills in- 
crease in bluntness to the seventh, after which they are emarginate. Tail 
forked, black, the feathers margined on both sides with white, except the two 
middle ones. The female has the plumage brown, with pale edges, the white 
on the wing and tail less, and the belly more inclining to reddish-brown, and 
in wanting the carmine-red on the front and breast — Nest in furze and low 
shrubs, of moss and grass, lined with hair. Eggs 5, bluish-white, speckled with 
purplish-red. Young like the female. In winter, the male resembles the female, 
although the carmine tinge may be observed upon lifting up the feathers on the 
front and breast It congregates in large flocks during the winter season. 

105. F. rnontium. Mountain-Linnet. — Bill triangular ; 
greater wing-covers edged with white. 



Fringilla. BIRDS. PASSERES. 85 

Linaria vulgaris, Will. Orn. ] 90.— Twite, Penn. Brit. Zool. i. 346.— 
Frin. mon. Temm. Orn. i. 368 W, Llinos fynydd, — Common in Eng- 
land, rare in Scotland. 
Size of the preceding, or larger. Kill wax-yellow. Feet black. Irides 
hazel. Throat, sides of the head and neck pale reddish-brown ; crown, nape, 
and back black, with red margins. Rump pm-plish-red. Quills dusky, the 
primaries margined with pale brown, the secondaries with white on their outer 
webs. Tail brownish-black, margined with white. Female wants the red 
rump, and the whole plumage has less black and more brown — Nest in heath, 
of dry grass, lined with wool. Eggs 5, bluish-green, spotted with orange 
brown — Gregarious in winter; Frequently taken by the London bird-cat- 
chers, and called by them Twite. 

106. F, Linaria. Rose Linnet. — Bill acuminated, pointed. 
Lesser and greater wing-covers tipped with white. 

Linaria rubra minor, Will. Orn. 1(11 — F. Lin., Linn. Syst. i. 322 Less 

Red-headed Linnet, Penn. Brit. Zool — F. Lin. ,Temm. Orn. i. 373 F, 

Stone Redpole ; S, Rose Lintie ; W, Llinos bengoch leif ; G, Gealan 
Lin. — Not rare. 

Length 5, breadth 8^ inches. Irides hazel. Bill yellow ; tip and ridge 
dusky. Front, lores, and chin black. The head, neck, breast, sides and rump 
crimson. Back black, with brown edges. Belly white. Quills and tail dusky, 
edged with yellowish-brown. Female, has the rump brown, with black stripes, 
and the crimson only on the head. The sides of the throat, breast, and belly, 
white. The sides with dusky stripes. — Nest in low trees, of moss, lined with 
the down of plants. Eggs 5, bluish-green, spotted wtih orange-brown. Young, 
like the female. — This species is a winter visitant of the south of England; 
but, in the north, and in Scotland, it is chiefly stationary. 

107. F. spinas. Siskin. — Head, above, black. The neck, 
breast, and rump lemon-yellow. 

Spinus, Will. Orn. 192.— F. sp., Linn. Syst. i. 322. Penn. Brit. Zool. i. 
340. Temm. Orn. i. 371 — F, Aberdavine ; — Y Ddreiniog A win- 
ter visitant. 

Size of the rose-linnet. Bill similar in shape, and having likewise the two 
basal processes on the margin of the lower mandible. Legs brown. Feet 
dusky. Back siskin-green ; dark in the middle of the feathers. Belly white. 
Wing-covers black, tipped with yellowish-white. Quills black ; the outer 
ones with a yellowish-green margin ; the inner ones with the outer web all 
yellowish-white at the base, and edged with a paler border at the tip. Tail, 
with the two middle feathers dusky, with pale margins ; the rest, with the ba- 
sal half white ; the ends, and outer web of the exterior one dusky. The fe- 
male wants the black mark on the head ; the yellow has a greenish tinge mixed 
with grey; and the belly has dusky stripes — Nest in pine-trees. Eggs 5, 
greyish-white, spotted with purple — This bird breeds in the north of Europe, 
and visits Britain in rather an irregular manner. They may sometimes breed 
here ; as, in 1824, I received from Mr Esplin, a male and female, shot from a 
flock in the first week of April. 

108. F. cardudis. Gold-Finch. — Forehead, temples, and 
throat, arterial blood-red. Base of the bill, lores, crown, and 
nape, black. 

Carduelis, Will. Orn. 189. Sibb. Scot. 18.— F. car., Linn. Svst. Nat. i. 
318. Penn. Brit. Zool. i. 332. Temm, Orn. i. 376— S, Goldspink ; 
W, Gwas y sierri — Common. 

Length 54, breadth 94 inches ; weight half an ounce. Bill, in the form of 
a lengthened cone ; yellowish- white, with a dusky tip. Irides brown. Le°-s 



86 BIRDS. PASSERES. Sturnus. 

dusky. Cheeks, ear-covers, and lower parts of the neck, white. Back and 
breast yellowish-brown. Lesser wing-covers black. Greater covers and ba- 
sal half of the quills gamboge-yellow ; the other half black, with a white spot 
at the tip. Tail black, the six middle feathers tipped with white, the others, 
with an oval white spot on the outer AVeb. The female less bright in the colours. 
— Nest in shrubs, of lichens and moss, lined with vegetable down and hair. 
Eggs 5, bluish-white, with orange spots.— The food of this species consists of the 
seeds of thistles and similar plants. In whiter it is gregarious, but the flocks 
are small. 

The Fringilla Canaria, or Canary, has been long reared in this country. 
It breeds freely in confinement, and is highly prized for its song ". 

Gen. XL VII. STURNUS. Starling.— Bill slightly subu- 
late ; depressed at the point, with the nostrils partly closed 
by a prominent rim. 

109. S. vulgaris. Common Starling. — Plumage black, with 

purple reflections, the feathers tipped with triangular white 

spots. 

Will. Orn. 144. Sibb. Scot. 17- Linn. Syst. i. 270. Perm. Brit. ZooL 
i. 299. Temm. Orn. i. 132. — W, Dreydwen, Drydwy. — Generally dis- 
tributed. 

Length 8|, breadth 16 inches; weight 3£ ounces. Bill yellow. Feet brown. 
Irides hazel. Quills and tail dusky, with pale reddish brown margins. Fe- 
male, has the bill less yellow, and the white spots more numerous. — Nest in 
the hole of a tree or wall, of dry grass. Eggs 5, bluish-green. Young, of 
a uniform hair-brown colour, constituting the Passer solitarius of AVilloughby, 
Orn. 140., and the Solitary Thrush of Montagu. — This bird is most numerous 
near the coast, and seems to execute irregular migrations. It abounds in the 
Orkney and Zetland Isles. 

Gen. XL VIII. GARRULUS. Jay.— Bill lengthened, hooked. 
Crown feathers long, and capable of erection. 

110. G. glandarhis. — Black mustaches. Chin, breast, belly, 

and rump white. The greater wing-coverts barred with blue 

and black. 

Pica glandaria, Will. Orn. 38. Sibb. Scot. 15. — Corvus gland. Linn. Syst. 
i. 156. Penn. Brit. Zool. i. 220. Temm. Orn. i. 114 — S, Jay-piet ; 
W, Screch y coed. ; G. Scriachag choille — In woods, but not numerous. 

Length 14, breadth 21 h inches ; weight 7 ounces. Bill black. Legs brown. 
Irides grey. Head white, with black streaks. Nape, back, and shoulders 
brownish purple red. Primaries dusky, the outer webs grey. Six of the se- 
condaries black, the outer webs bluish-white at the base, the two next black. 
Tail black. Female similar. — Nest in thickets or trees, of sticks, fined with 
fibrous roots. Eggs 5 or 6, of a pale blue, blotched with brown. — The jay is 
omnivorous, docile, and possesses strong powers of imitation. Confined to 
woody districts. 

Gen. XLIX. PICA. Magpie.— Bill hooked. Tail long 



and wedge-shaped. 



& 



* Those who wish for accurate information respecting the rearing of small 
birds, may consult, with advantage, " A Treatise on British Song-Birds, " by 
Mr Sime, in 1 vol. 8vo. Edin. 1828. 



Pica. BIRDS. PASSERES. 87 

111. P. caudata. Common Magpie. — Above and the breast 
black ; scapulars and belly white. 

Will. Orn. 87- — Sibb. Scot. 15 — Corvus pica, Linn. Syst. i. 157- Pemv 
Brit. Zool. i. 225. Temm. Orn. i. 115 — E, Pianet, Madge; S, Piet ; 
W, Piogen ; G, Pioghaid. — Common. 
Length 18, breadth 24 inches ; weight 9 ounces. Bill and legs black. Iri- 
des dark-brown. Gular feathers loose. Wings with purple reflections. Cen- 
tral parts of the inner webs of the quills white. The first quill short. Tail 
black, iridescent. The two middle feathers equal. The others rapidly de- 
creasing in length to the exterior ones. Female similar, but less — Nest in 
trees, woven with sticks all round, the entrance at the side ; plastered with- 
in at the bottom, and fined with dry grass. Eggs 6 to 8, yellowish-white, 
spotted with brown and grey. — When taken young this bird is easily tamed. 
It is omnivorous, usually in pairs, and is clamorous on the approach of danger 

Gen. L. CORVUS. Crow.— Bill strong, ridge bent. Tail 
rounded. 

* In single pairs in the breeding season. 

112. C. Corax. Raven.-— Plumage black, glossed with blue. 
Throat-feathers narrow, raised, acuminated ; those of the hind- 
neck long, loose, and silky. Tail much rounded. 

Corvus, Will. Orn. 82. Sibb. Scot. 15.— Cor. Cor. Linn. Syst. i. 155. 

Penn. Brit. Zool. i. 218. Temm. Orn. i. 107 E and S, Corby; W, 

Cigfran ; G, Fitheach — Common in hilly districts. 

Length 25, breadth 48 inches ; weight 34 ounces. Bill and legs black. 
Irides of two circles, the outer brown the inner grey. Tail more than half 
the length of the body. Female similar — Nest in high trees or rocks ; of 
sticks, lined with wool. Eggs 5, oil-green, with brown and grey spots. The 
young are easily tamed — This species feeds on carrion, and will kill lambs and 
weakly sheep, beginning its work by picking out their eyes. It abounds in the 
Hebrides. 

113. C. coronc. Carrion Crow. — Plumage black. Throat- 
feathers small, narrow, adpressed, the barbs loose at the mar- 
gins. Tail slightly rounded. 

Confix, Will. Orn. 83 Corvus minor, Sibb. Scot. 15 C. cor. Linn. 

Syst. i. 155. Penn. Brit. Zool. i. 219. Temm. Orn. i. 108 E, Black 

Neb, Flesh Crow, Gor Crow, Midden Crow ; W, Bran dyddyn 

Common. 

Length 19|, breadth 20 inches ; weight 10 ounces. Bill and legs black ; 
irides hazel. — Nest on trees, of sticks, fined with hair and wool. Eggs 5, oil- 
green, with brown and grey spots. Omnivorous — Is this species different 
from the Hooded Crow ? 

114. C. Comix. Hooded Crow. — Head, throat, wings, and 
tail black, with blue and green reflections. Neck and the 
rest of the body smoke-grey. Tail rounded. 

Cornix cinerea, Will. Orn 84. Sibb. Scot. 15 — C. Cor. Linn. Syst. i. 150. 
Penn. Brit. ZooL i. 223. Temm. Orn. i. 109 — E, Royston Crow, 
Dun Crow, Greybacked Crow, Bunting Crow ; S, Hoody ; W, Bran yr 
Jwerddon ; G, Fionnag — Common. 

1 



88 BIRDS. PASSERES. Convus. 

Length 20, breadth 39 inches ; weight 22 ounces. Bill, smooth, black, with 
the tip pale. Irides greyish-brown. Female wanting the grey. — Nest, in trees 
or rocks, of sticks or straws, lined with wool. Eggs 5, like "those of the Car- 
rion Crow. Young like the female — Feeds on carrion, eggs, and young poul- 
try. Said to be migratory in England. Stationary in Scotland, and even in 
Zetland. — The grey colour seems to become whiter and more obvious in a se- 
vere winter. 

** Gregarious hi the breeding season. 

115. C. Moncdula. Jackdaw. — Head black; nape smoke- 
grey. Back greyish-black. Tail little rounded. 

Monedula, Will. Orn. 85. Sibb. Scot. 15 — C Mon. Linn. Svst. i. 15C 
Perm. Brit. Zool. i. 230. Temm. Orn. i. 111. — E, Daw; A',"Kae; W. 
Cogfran ; G, Cathag — Common near old ruins. 

Length 14, breadth 284 inches ; weight 9^ ounces. Bill and legs black ; 
irides greyish-white- Ear covers large. Wing covers and secondaries black, 
glossed with violet. Beneath, bluish-black. The female has less grey. — Nest 
in old buildings, of sticks, lined with grass and wool. Eggs 5, greei;ish-blue, 
spotted with blackish brown. — Food consists of grain, worms, and insects. 
Congregates in winter with rooks. 

116. Cfrug'degiis. Rook. — Bill nearly straight ; the skin 

at the baze naked and scurfy. 

Will. Orn. 84 — Spermologus frugivorus, Sibb. Scot — Cor. fr. Linn. Syst. 
i. 156. Penn. Brit. Zool. i. 221. Temm. Orn. i. 110 — S, Craw; W, 
Ydfran ; G, Creumhach, Kocus, — In old woods near houses. 

Length 20, breadth 38 inches, weight 19 ounces. The naked skin at the 
base ot the bill is covered in youth with the deflected bristles, but which are 
rubbed off by the act of digging in the earth for food. — Nest on old trees, of 
sticks lined with fibrous roots. Eggs 5, bluish-green, with dark blotches. — 
Birds of this species frequent the same rookery, and are always gregarious. 



As connected with this group of birds, two species deserve to be noticed as 
stragglers. 

1. Caryocatacles nucifraya. Nutcracker — Will. Orn. 90. Penn. Brit. Zool. 

11. C25 Nucifraga Car. Tern. Orn. i. 117- Selby's 111. 84 — It is noticed by 

Pennant as having been killed near Moyston, Flintshire, 5th October 1753 ; 
and has subsequently been found in Kent, Northumberland, and one or two 
other places Common on the Continent in flocks. Solitary individuals on- 
ly have strayed hither. 

2. Coracias yarrula. Boiler Garrulus argentoratinsis, Will. Orn. 89 — 

Cor. gar. Penn. Brit. Zool. ii. C24. Temm. Orn. i. 127- Selby's 111. 86 — 
An example of this bird is mentioned by Pennant as having been shot in 
Cornwall ; and another at Dunkeld, according to Mr Selby, which is now in 
the Edinburgh Museum — Common on the Continent. 

Gen. LI. CERTHIA. Cheeper. — Bill triangular, com- 
pressed, subulate, curved. Hind claw large. 

117. C. familiaris. Common Creeper. — Plumage, above, 
yellowish-brown, intermixed with black, brown and white. 
Rump reddish. 

Will. Orn. 100. Linn. Svst. i. 184. Penn. Brit. Zool. i. 260. Temm. 
Orn. i. 410.— A", Tree speelcr; W, Y Grcpianog — In woods. 



Cekthia. BIRDS. PASSERES. 80 

Length 5, breadth 74 inches ; weight 2 drams. Bill with the upper man- 
dible dusky, the lower yellowish-white. The tongue with a hard point. Iri- 
des hazel." Above the" eyes a white streak. Belly white. Quills 18, the 
first 4 dusky, the rest having a broad reddish-white band in the middle, the 
tips white. Tail of 12 feathers, stiff- and acuminated. Female smaller — Nest 
in the holes of trees, of grass, lined with feathers. Eggs 7 or 9, white, 
speckled with reddish-brown — Food consists of small insects, which it finds 
in the crevices of the bark of trees, on the stems of which it runs in every 
direction readily. 



Gen. LII. PYRRHOCQRAX. f Fregilus of Cuvier.) 
Chough. -Bill slender, arched, subulated, and pointed. 
Tail-feathers 12. 

118. P. Graculus. Cornish Chough. — Bill, legs, and toes 

orange ; claws black. 

Coracias, seu Pvrr. Will. Orn. 36. Sibb. Scot. 15.— Corvus gr. Linn. 
Syst. i. 158. Penn. Brit. Zool. i. 228. Temm. Orn. i. 122 — £, Cor- 
nish Daw, Killegrew ; W, Bran big goch — Inhabits the western side 
of the island. 
Length 17, breadth 33| inches; weight 12i ounces. Irides yellowish- 
brown." Plumage black, glossed with purple. Wings as long as the tail. 

Female less Nest on sea cliffs or old towers near the coast, of sticks, lined 

with wool. Eggs 5, white, spotted with brown. 

In this, and the Garrulus Pica, and Corvus, the quill-feathers are 20, and 
the tail-feathers are 12 in number. 

Gen. LIII. — UPUPA. Hoopoe. — Head with a crest. Bill 
slender, curved. Nostrils exposed. Tail of ] feathers. 

119. U. Epops. Common Hoopoe. — Head, neck and breast 
of a purplish-red colour ; the wings black with fine white 
bands. 

Upupa, Will. Orn. 100. Sibb. Scot. 16. Linn. Syst. L 184. Penn. Brit. 

Zool. 1. 257. Temm. Orn. L 415 — W, Y Goppog — A rare summer 

visitant. 
Length 12J, breadth 19 inches ; weight 3 ounces. Bill black, reddish to- 
wards the base; the tongue small, triangular and acute. Irides umber- 
brown. Back pale brocoli-brown, tinged with grey, and with black and white 
bands at the lower part. Tad black, with a V-shaped mark of white. Be- 
neath white. Crest, 2 inches long, of two rows of produced feathers, above 
20 in number, orange-brown, tipped with black, and of unequal length, which 
it erects upon being alarmed. Female with a smaller crest — Nest in the 
holes of decayed trees or wads, of grass lined with feathers. Eggs fine grey- 
ish-white, spotted with brown This species has been found occasionally from 

Orknev (Wallace's Ork. 48.) to Devonshire (Mont. Orn. Diet.), and has even 
attempted to breed. It is frequent in France and Germany, as a summer vi- 
sitant. 

Gen. LIV. ALCEDO. KingVfisher.— Bill straight, an- 
gular, pointed. Tarsus short. 



> 



90 BIRDS. SCANSORES. Cuculus. 

120. A. Ispida. Common KingVfisher. — Under and be- 
hind the eye a brown band ending at the side of the nape in 
white. 

Ispida, Will. Orn. 101. Sibb. Scott. 16 — A. Isp. Linn. Syst. i. 17'J. 

Penn. Brit. Zool. i. 246. Temm. Orn. i. 423 W, Glas y dorian 

Not common. 

Length 7, breadth 11 inches; weight 1^ ounce. Bill blackish-brown; 
tongue short, broad and pointed ; mouth orange. Plumage, above, bluish- 
green, marked on the head and shoulders with azure blue, the last colour 
uniform on the back and rump. Chin white, beneath orange-brown. Qudls 
23, the third the longest. Tail short, of 1 2 feathers. Female more tinged 
with green — Nest in holes in clay banks, of pellets of ejected fish-bones. 

Eggs 6, transparent pink-white. Food consisting of small fishes This bird 

frequents clear gravelly rivers, edged with willows and alders. 

As a straggler, the following species merits a place. 

Merops Apiaster. Bee-eater An individual was shot at Mattishall in 

Norfolk, a notice of which was communicated to the Linnean Societ} r , 2d 
July 171M, by the Rev. George Smith: " A flight of about twenty was seen 
in June, and the same flight, probably (much diminished in numbers), was 
observed passing over the same spot in October following." Linn. Trans. 111. 
333. Sowerby's Brit. Misc. Tab. lxix. 



SCANSORES. 

I. Gape wide ; tongue short. 
Cuculus. 

II. Gape narrow ; tongue long. 

Picus. 
Yunx. 

Gen. LV. CUCULUS. Cuckoo.— Bill slightly arched. Nos- 
trils round, margined by a naked prominent membrane. 

1531. C. canorus. Common Cuckoo. — Back, breast, neck, 
and head deep bluish-grey ; belly, thighs, and under tail-co- 
vers white, with transverse black bars. 

Will. Orn. 62. Sibb. Scott. 15. Linn. Syst. i. 168. Perm. Brit. Zool. i. 

232. Temm. Orn. i. 381.— S, Gowk ; W, Cog; G, Cuthag, Cuach 

A summer visitant. 
Length 14, breadth 25 inches ; weight 5 ounces. Bill blackish-brown, 
yellowish at the base ; inside of the mouth orange-red. Irides and feet yellow. 
Nostrils round, open and prominent. Plumage deep bluish-grey, the belly white 
with transverse black bars. Inner webs of the quill-feathers with oval white 
spots. Tail of 10 feathers, of unequal length, the two middle ones black, tip- 
ped with white; the others, black with white spots. Female like the male. — Nest 
seldom constructed by the cuckoo itself, the eggs being generally dropped, se- 
parately, into the nests of the hedge-sparrow, wagtail, titlark, yellow-ham- 
mer, greenfinch, or whinchat, in the temporary absence of their owners. In 
some cases, however, it appears that the cuckoo constructs its own nest. 
Thus, in a manuscript of Derham's on Instinct, communicated by Pennant 



Picus. BIRDS. SCAN SORES. 91 

to Barrington, it is stated, that k ' The Bev. J\Ir Stafford was walking in 
Glossopdale, in the Peak of Derbyshire, and saw a cuckoo rise from its nest, 
which Avas on the stump of a tree, that had been some time felled, so as much 
to resemble the colour of the bird. In this nest were two young cuckoos, 
one of which he fastened to the ground, by means of a peg and line, and 
very frequently, for many days, beheld the old cuckoo feed there her young 
ones.'"— Phil. Trans. 1772, 299. The egg, which varies in colour and mark- 
ings, is deposited in the nest of the dupe dame, after she has laid one or two 
eggs. When the young cuckoo is hatched, it becomes restless, and ceases 
not until it has ejected from the nest the eggs or young of its foster-parent. 
It is fed by the dupe with maternal care, until able to provide for itself. 
(See Jenner, Phil. Trans. 1788, p. 219.) When in a young state, the irides 
are liver-brown, the plumage brown with dark spots ; the feathers on the 
forehead margined with white ; beneath, yellowish-white, with transverse 
black bars. In this state, or before acquiring the plumage of maturity, it 
has been termed Cuculus hepalicus. — The food of the cuckoo consists of insects, 
especially caterpillars, both smooth and hairy. It arrives in April. The old 
ones depart in the beginning of July, and the young, hatched at or before 
that period, seem to leave us in succession. 

Gen. LVI. PICUS. Woodpecker. — Bill long, straight, 

angular and compressed ; nostrils covered by deflected 

bristles ; the first quill short ; the tail-feathers stiff ^and 
pointed. 

12£. P. viridis. Green Woodpecker. — Plumage, above, 
green ; beneath, grey ; the crown red. 

Will. Orn. 93. Sibb. Scot. 15. Linn. Syst. i. 175. Penm Brit. Zool. i. 
240. Temm. Orn. i. 391 — E, Itain-fowl, High-hoo, Hew-hole, Awl- 
bird, Yappingall, Yaffer, Popinjay ; IV, Cnocell y coed, Delor y drew ; 
G, Lasair choille — In wooded districts. 

Length 13|, breadth 21^ inches; weight 7 ounces. Bill black; irides 
grey ; feet greenish. Feathers at the base of the bill, and around the eves 
black. Lower part of the back and rump gamboge-yellow. Quills 19, barred 
with dusky black and yellowish-grey. Tail-feathers 10, with green and 
brown bars. Female, with less red on the head and black round the eyes, 
and the mustaches (which in the male are red) are black. — Nest in the hoies 
of trees. Eggs 5, bluish-white. Young with little red on the head, the 
plumage inclining to grey, with spots of that colour on the back. The mu- 
staches are spotted with black and white. 

123. P. major. Greater spotted Woodpecker. — Plumage, 
above, black ,- scapulars, and beneath, white. 

Will. Orn. 94. Linn. Syst. i. 176. Penn. Brit. Zool. i. 243. Temm. 
Orn. i. 395 — E, Whitwall ; IV, Delor fraith — In wooded districts. 
Length 9i, breadth 12 inches; weight 3 ounces. Bill black ; irides red; 
feet dark grey. Front grey, crown black, the nape crimson. Cheeks and 
ear-covers white. A black stripe from the gape to the nape, with a branch 
descending on the neck. A white patch on each side of the hind neck. Quills 
20, black, with white spots. Tail-feathers 10, the four middle ones black, the 
rest white with black spots. Vent crimson. The female wants the red on 
the nape. — Nest, a hole in a decayed tree. Eggs 5, bluish-white. The young 
have the front grey, the crown red, and the nape black ; the plumage above 
with a brownish tinge, and beneath with black dots. In this state it is the 



92 BIRDS. SCANSORES. Yunx. 

Middle-spotted Woodpecker of British writers.— The jarring noise made by the 
woodpeckers, especially during the breeding season, is produced by repeated 
strokes of the bill on the dead branch of a tree. 

124. P. minor. Lesser-spotted Woodpecker. — Upper part 

of the back and rump black ; the middle and scapulars white 

and black; beneath greyish white. 

Will Orn. 94. Sibb. Scot. 15. Linn. Syst. i. 176. Perm. Brit. Zool. i. 
245. Temm, Orn. i. 399.— E, Hickwall, Crank-bird; W, Delor fraith 
beiaf. — Frequents the south and west of England. 

Length 6, breadth 12 inches ; weight not an ounce. Bill and legs grey ; 
irides red. Front grey, crown red, nape and stripe over the eye black. The 
cheeks and sides of the neck white. From the gape a stripe of black de- 
scends to the shoulders. Quills and tail-feathers black, with white spots. 

Female destitute of the red on the crown, its place supplied with white Nest 

in trees. Eggs 5, purplish-white — Sibbald records this species, probably by 
mistake, as Scottish. 

STBAGGLERS. 

1. P. martins. Great Black Woodpecker. — In this species, which is 18 in- 
ches long, and 29 broad, and upwards of 10 ounces in weight, the plumage is 
black, with the exception of the crown, which is of a bright red. Quills 19 ; 
tail-feathers 10. This bird was unknown to Willoughby as a British species. 
Dr Pulteney, in his Catalogue of the Birds of Dorsetshire, says, " Shot in 
the nursery garden at Blandford ; also at Whitchurch, and other places in 
Dorsetshire," p. 6. Montagu, in his Supplement to the Orn. Diet., adds, 
" Lord Stanley assures us, that he shot a Picus martius in Lancashire ; and 
we have heard that another was shot in the winter of 1805, on the trunk of 
an old willow tree in Battersea Fields." There is no evidence, however, of 
its breeding here, or even performing annual visits. 

2. P. villosus. Hairy Woodpecker — In this species, which is nearly 9 in- 
ches long, and about 2 ounces in weight, the plumage, above, is black, with 
a white stripe of hair-like feathers down the middle of the back, The nape 
has a red band, and there are two white stripes on each side of the head. 
This bird is a native of North America. " Dr Latham mentions having 
seen a pair in the collection of the Dutchess of Portland, which were shot 
near Halifax in Yorkshire."— Montagu. 

Gen. LVII. YUNX. Wryneck. — Bill conical, depressed; 
nostrils naked. The first quill nearly equal to the second. 
Tail-feathers 10, soft and flexible. 

125. Y. torquilla. Common Wryneck. — Plumage, above, 
yellowish-grey, mottled with brown specks and arrow-shaped 
black bands, with a black mesial stripe. 

Will. Orn. 95. Linn. Syst. i. 172. Penn. Brit. Zool. i. 237. Temm. 
Orn. i. 403 — E, Long-tongue, Emmet Hunter; W, Gwas y gog, 
Gwddfro — A regular summer visitant. 

Length 74, breadth 11 inches; weight an ounce. Bill and legs yellowish- 
brown. Irides hazel. Chin and throat yellowish-white. On each side of 
the breast a patch of wood-brown. Breast and belly white, with arrow- 
shaped black spots. Quills 19. Tail long, rounded. Female like the male 

Nest in the hole of a tree. Eggs 10, white. — This bird arrives a few days 
previous to the cuckoo. It is frequent in the southern and eastern counties 

2 



BIRDS. GRALLiE. 93 

of England, but rare in the northern ones. Mr Selby has traced it as far as 
Morpeth in Northumberland. Pennant inserted it in his list of Scottish 
Birds prefixed to Lightfoot's Flora Scotica, without mentioning a habitat. 
Dr Burgess, however, enumerates it among the birds of Kirkmichael (St. Ac. 
vol. L) 



GRALLiE. Waders. 

I. Cultrirostres. Bill strong and sharp-edged. 

Ardea. 

II. Pressirostres. BUI feeble, the edges more or less rounded. 

a. Tetradactyke. With a hind-toe. 

b. Toes remarkably long and flattened below. Sternum narrow. 
Wings short. Macrodactyl.e. 

c. Front covered. 
Ballus. 
Ortygometra. 

cc. Front with a naked stripe. 
Gallinula. 
Fulica. 

bb. Toes of moderate length. 

c. Toes with a developed membrane. 

d. Membrane scalloped. 
Phalaropus. 
Lobipes. 

dd. Membrane continuous. 
Recurvirostra. 

cc. Membrane wanting, or abbreviated. 

d. Bill longer than the head. 

e. Bill arched, deflected. 
Numenius. 

ee. Bill nearlv straight. 

» CD 

f. bill slender, produced. 

ff. Nasal groove short, the extremity of the 
bill solid. 
Totanus. 

gg. Nasal groove reaching nearlv to the end 
of the bill. 
h. Mandible with a dorsal groove. 
Scolopax. 

hJi. Mandible destitute of a dorsal groove. 
Limosa. 
Tringa. 

ff. Bill conical, short. 
Strepsilas. 

dd. Bill shorter than the head. 
Vanellus. 
Squaterola. 



94 BIRDS. GRALLJE. 

aa. Tridactyhu. 

b. Bill slender. 
Calidris. 

bb. Bill strong. 

c. Bill compressed. 

d. Bill swollen at the end. 
Charadrius. 
Oidicnemus. 

dd. Bill wedged shaped. 
Hsematopus. 

cc. Bill vaulted. 
Otis. 



In no department of British Ornithology does there exist so 
much confusion as among the Grallag, in reference to native 
species. Numerous stragglers, both from America and Europe, 
have been enrolled in our systematical catalogues as British 
subjects. Several species, which were formerly natives, but 
which, by the influence of civilization, have been reduced to 
the rank of stragglers, still maintain their place as citizens, as if 
their geographical distribution had experienced no check. It 
is surely time to reduce these redundancies, and exhibit our list 
of native birds freed as much as possible from foreigners. Un- 
der the influence of these feelings, I judge it unnecessary to de- 
scribe formally the two following species. 

1. Glareola torquata. Austrian Pratincole. (Temm. Orn. ii. 500.) — This 
species, which may be readily distinguished from the other British Grallse, 
by its remarkably wide mouth, has twice occurred in this country. The 
first was shot near Ormskirk, in Lancashire, in 1807, and is now in the collec- 
tion of Lord Stanley. The second was killed by Mr Bullock in Unst, the 
most northerly of the Zetland Isles, on the 13th August 1812. — See Mont. 
Orn. Diet. Suppt. and Lin. Trans, ix. 198, Bullock, Lin. Trans, xi. 177- 

2. riatea Leucorodia. Common Spoonbill. {Temm. Orn. ii. 595.) — The 
thin, flat, enlarged extremity of the bill, is an obvious distinguishing mark of 
the species. It was first recorded by Merret, (Pinax 181.) on the authority of 
Turner, as inhabiting Lincolnshire ; and by Sibbcdd, (Scot. 111. 18.) as an acci- 
dental visitant of Scotland. He states (Auct. Mus. Balf. 195.) having re- 
ceived it from Orkney. It has since been noticed by Pennant (Brit. Zool. ii. 
634.) as migrating, in a flock, into the marshes near Yarmouth, in Norfolk, in 
April 1774. — Pidteney, (Dorset Cat. 14.) records it as accidentally a visitant of 
Dorsetshire. — Montagu (Orn. Diet. Supp.) mentions one shot in March, and 
another in November, at King's-Bridge, Devonshire. It has likewise been 
shot in Zetland. 



Ardea. BIRDS. CULTRIROSTRES. 95 



CULTRIROSTRES. 

Gen. LVIII. ARDEA. Heron. — Gape extending as far back 
as the eyes. Nasal groove reaching almost to the end of 
the bill. 

126. A. cincrea. Common Heron. — Plumage bluish-grey. 

Middle toe with the claw much shorter than the tarsus. 

Will. Orn. 203.— Slbb. Scot. 18,— Linn. Syst. i. 236 Pom. Brit. Zool. ii- 

421 — Temm. Orn. ii. 567-— E, Heronshaw ; S, Craiged Heron ; W, 
Cryr Glas ; £, Corra riathach ; A r , Hegrie.— Common. 

Length 3|, breadth 5i feet; weight upwards of 3 pounds. Bill nearly G 
inches long, dusky ; the under yellow. I rides yellow. Legs greenish. Tar- 
sus plated in front, but reticulated towards the toes. Tip of the tongue subu- 
late. Crest black. Long feathers on the neck, next the breast, and on the 
shoulders. Front, neck, and belly white. Sides, and stripes on the neck in 
Front, black. A singular patch of concealed soft feathers on the breast. The 
third feather in the wing longest. Inner web of the three first abbreviated 
near the end. Tail-feathers 12 in number. Willoughby and Cuvier state 
that this species has only one ccecum. I have observed two, both short. Fe- 
male, when old, like the male. Gregarious in the breeding season, in heronries. 
— Nest, on trees, of sticks, fined with wool. Eggs 4 cr 5, of a greenish-blue 
colour, and about the size of those of a duck. The young are destitute of the 
crest, and the long-feathers on the scapulars and neck. — This species feeds on 
fish, and is particularly destructive to those in ponds. 

127- A. stdlaris. Bittern. — Plumage yellowish-red, with black 
spots and bars. The cheeks and crown black. 

Will. Orn. 207 — Sibb. Scot. 18 — Linn. Syst. i. 239.— Pen. Brit. Zoo\. ii. 
424.— Temm. Orn. ii. 580 ; — E, Miredrum, Dumbycoss, Butterbump ; 
S, Buttour, Bogjumper, Bogblutter ; IF, Aderyii y bwnn, Bwmp v 
Gors. — Near extensive fens, but not common. 

Length 2i feet. Bill four inches long, brown, the lower mandible and 
edge of the upper, together with the space round the eyes, and the feet, green- 
ish yellow. Irides yellow. The feathers on the nape, neck, and breast lom>- 
and loose. Quills and greater covers regularly barred with black. Tail shorf, 
of 10 feathers. Female, less, with the plumage less bright, and the neck feath- 
ers shorter. — Nest in marshes, of reeds. Eggs 5, olive-green. — Preys on fish 
and reptiles. In the breeding season, makes" a loud bellowing noise. It has 
disappeared from many districts where formerly it abounded, and is daily be- 
coming scarcer. 



STRAGGLERS. 



1. A. Egretta, Temm. Orn. ii. 572. — To this species, it is probable that the 
Ardca alba major of Willoughby (Orn. 205.) observed in this country by 
Johnston, and termed by Merret, (Pinax 181.) a Mire Dnimble, must be re- 
ferred. Montagu states, on the authority of Latham, that it has been killed 
in'Cumberland, and that it has likewise been once supposed to have been seen 
in Devonshire. The individuals seen in Britain appear either to have been 
young birds, or old ones in moult, in which state thev are destitute of the 
elongated soft feathers of the head and back. 



96 BIRDS. CULTRIROSTRES. Ardea. 

2. A. Garzetta. Temm. Orn. ii. 57 — This is supposed to be the species, a thou- 
sand individuals of which were served up under the name of Egrittes, at the 
celebrated feast of Nevil, Bishop of York, in the reign of Edward IV. It is 
possible, however, that the lapwing may have been there referred to, as the 
most common bird with a cr - est. On the supposition that this heron was the 
bird alluded to, it will be difficult to account for the silence of Willoughby 
and Ray, in regard to this species being a native of Britain. Merret (Pinax 
182.) probably refers to this species, as having been sent to him from Wilton. 
Pennant (Brit. Zool. ii. 631.) once received feathers from Anglesea, which he 
suspected to belong to this bird. 

3. A. purpurea. Temm. Orn. ii. 570. — This species, in its immature state, 
is the Ardea Caspica, or African Heron, of British writers. A specimen of 
this bird in the Leverian Museum, was stated to have been shot in Ashdown 
Park, near Lambourn, Berks. The late Mr Montagu, in a letter dated 6th 
January 1814, informed me, " I have just received from a friend a fine speci- 
men of African Heron, shot in Norfolk." It must, however, be regarded as 
one of our rarest stragglers. 

4. A. nycticorax. Night Heron. Temm. Orn. ii. 577 A specimen shot 

near London, in May 17^2, existed in the Leverian Museum, according to 
Montagu, who likewise states, (Supp. Orn. Diet.) on the authority of Lord 
Upper Ossory, that another was shot on the Ouse, near Ampthill, in 1791. 
Bewick mentions another in the Wycliff'e Museum, from which his figure was 
taken, (Brit. Birds, ii. 44.) In the immature plumage, this species is the A. 
Gardeni of British writers ; in which state it was shot by Lord Kirkwall, as it 
sat upon a tree, near Thame, in Oxfordshire. (Reverend Mr Dickinson, in 
Linn. Trans, v. 276, and Montagu, Supp. Orn. Diet.) 

5. A. ralloides. Sguacco Heron. Temm. Orn. ii. 2. 81. — This species is the 
A. comuta of British writers. An individual was shot at Boyton, in Wiltshire, 
by Edward Lambert, Esq. in the year 1775 (Linn. Trans, iii. 335.). Another, 
according to Mr J. Youell, of Yarmouth, was taken on the 20th July 1820, 
in a net, at Ormsby, in Norfolk. (Linn. Trans, xiii. 617-) The Freckled He- 
ron, A. lerdiginosa, described by Montagu, in the Supplement to the Ornitho- 
logical Dictionary, shot at Piddletown, Dorsetshire, by Mr Cunningham, is 
probably an immature bird of this species. Lest this should not prove to be 
the case, it is considered expedient to give its description in detail. Tern- 
minck appears to regard it as synonimous with A. minor of Wilson's Am. Orn. 
tab. 65. f. 3. and A. " The length is about 23 inches. Bill 2| inches long to 
the feathers on the forehead, rather slender, and both mandibles equally turned 
to form the point ; the upper part of the superior mandible dusky ; sides 
and lower mandible greenish -yellow. The head is very small ; the colour 
is chocolate-brown, shaded to a dull yellow at the nape, where the feathers are 
much elongated ; the chin and throat white, with a row of brown feathers 
down the middle ; at the base of the lower mandible, commences a black 
mark that increases on the upper part of the neck, on each side, and is two 
inches or more in length ; the cheeks are yellowish, with an obscure dusky 
line at the corner of the eye ; the feathers on the neck are long and broad, 
with their webs partly unconnected ; those in front are pale-yellow, with broad 
chesnut streaks formed by each feather having one web of each colour, mar- 
gined, however, with dull-yellow on the chesnut-side ; some feathers have the 
dark mark in the middle, especially the lower ones : these are all loose, as in 
the common bittern ; those at the bottom of the neck 4 inches long, and hang 
pendant below the breast : the hind neck is bare ; and the feathers that fall 
over that part are pale yellow-brown ; the feathers on the breast are also 
long, and of a fine chocolate-brown, glossed with purple, and margined with 
dull-yellow; belly and sides the same, but not quite so bright, the brown 
marks becoming speckled ; the vent and under tail-coverts yellowish-white. 
The back and scapulars are chocolate-brown, with paler margins, minutely 
speckled, and glossed with a tinge of purple in some particular lights. The 
covers of the wings dull-yellow"; darkest in the middle of each feather; the 
margins prettily speckled"; the first and second order of quills, their greater 



Ardea. BIRDS. CULTRIROSTRES. 97 

coverts, and the ahdce spuria', dusky-lead colour, with a cinereous dash ; the 
primaries very slightly tipped with brown ; the secondaries and the greater 
coverts tipped more deeply with the same, and prettily speckled on the light 
part ; the tertials correspond with the lower order of scapulars, which have 
their margins chesnut, with small dusky lines and spots : the tail is short, 
and in colour similar to the tertials : the wings, when closed, do not reach 
to the end of the tail : the legs are 3f inches in length, from the heel to the 
knee : the toes long and slender, the middle one, including the claw (which 
is fths of an inch in length, and pectinated on the inner side), is as long as the 
leg ; the claws are not much hooked, hut the hind one most so, and by far the 
longest ; their colour dusky-brown. The colour of the legs, and bare space 
above the knee (which last is about an inch), appears to have been greenish." 
— Montagu. 

6. A. minuta. Little Bittern. — Temm. Orn. ii. 584. — Pennant states, that 
an individual of this species was shot, as it perched on a tree in the Quany 
at Shrewsbury, on the banks of the Severn, (Brit. Zool. ii. 633). Another 
was shot at Sanda, Orkney, 1805, by Mr Strang at Lopness. A third, as 
stated by Montagu (Supp. Orn. Diet.), was shot contiguous to the river Cre- 
dey, in Devonshire, in the month of May 1808. 

7. A. wquinoctialis of Latham A. russata of Temminck (Orn. ii. 56G.) — A 

single individual of this species, a female, was killed, according to Montagu 
(Lin. Trans, ix. 197-), near Kingsbridge, Devonshire, the latter end of Octo- 
ber 1805. 

8. A. Cayanensis, (Latham). — A single individual of this species was taken 
near the walls of the town of Yarmouth, 24th May 1824, a notice of which 
was communicated to the Secretary of the Linnean Society, by Mr J. Youell. 
— Linn. Trans, xiv. 588. 

9. Grus cinerea. Common Crane — Merret (Pinax, 183.) notices this spe- 
cies among his English animals, without a remark. Willoughby (Orn. 200.), 
states, that they frequently visit this country, and that numerous flocks, 
during summer, haunt the fens of Lincoln and Cambridge, but he had not evi- 
dence of their breeding there. Ray, however, when referring to the same 
bird, states their visits as occurring in the winter season, (Syn. A v. 95.). As 
this bird breeds in more northern regions, its visits here must either be in 
the course of its polar or equatorial migrations ; i. e. in spring and autumn, 
or during winter — Lesley (De Origine, Moribus et Rebus gestis Scotorum, 
p. 25.) speaks of cranes as common ( Grues plurimi ) in Scotland; and Sibbald 
(Scot. 111.) adds, that they sometimes visit Orkney — In more modem times, 
the visits of this species have been rare indeed. Pennant mentions a single 
instance of an individual shot near Cambridge (Brit. Zool. ii. 629.). A small 
flock appeared, during harvest, in 1807, in Ting wall, Zetland, as I was in- 
formed by the Rev. John Turnbull, the worthy minister of the parish, who 
added that thev fed on grain. 



B* 



10. Ckoniaalba. White Stork — Temm. Orn. ii. 560 Merret (Pinax, 181.), 

Willoughby (Orn. 210.), and Ray (Syn. Av. 97-), agree in considering this 
bird as a rare visitant of this country." Pennant takes no notice of the bird. 
Montagu mentions (Supp. Orn. Diet.) one killed at Sandwich, Kent, in 1805, 
and another in Hampshire, in the autumn of 1808. 

11. C. nigra. Black Stork — Temm. Orn. ii. 561. — This bird has onlv 
occurred once in this country, so as to come under the notice of the na- 
turalist. It was secured after a slight wound, at Stoke St Gregory, Somer- 
setshire, 13th May 1814, and, fortunately for science, was conveyed to Mr 
Montagu. In his possession, its manners, and the progress of its moulting, 
were carefully observed — Linn. Trans, xii. 19. 

12. Psophia crepitans — A single example of this bird occurred in Surrey. 
According to the notices communicated by Lord Stanley to Montagu, (Sup'p. 

VOL. I. G 



98 BIRDS. PRESSIROSTRES. Rallus. 

Orn. Diet., Article Grosbeak), it was " in the habit of attending a farmer's 
yard, whither it had come of itself, and associated with his poultry." 



PRESSIROSTRES. 

Gen. LIX. RALLUS. Rail.— Bill produced, longer than 
the head, with the under mandible even at the symphysis. 

128. R. aquaticus. Water-Rail. — Breast ash-coloured; 
wings dusky, with the base white. 

Will. Orn. 234. Linn. Syst. i. 162. Penn. Brit. Zool. ii. 284. Temm. 
Orn. ii. 683 — E, King of the Quails, llunner, Velvet-runner, Oar- 
cock, Bill-cock, Skiddy-cock, and Brook-owzel ; W, Cwtiar Station- 
ary. 

Length 10, breadth 16 inches ; weight 4 ounces. The bill is an inch and 
three quarters long at the gape, above and tip of the lower mandible black, 
the remainder of the latter and edges of the former, together with the inside 
of the mouth and irides, reddish-orange. Margin of the eye-lids narrow and 
greenish-black. The upper mandible is the longest, depressed at the base, 
slightly wrinkled across, with the feathers forming a projecting angle on each 
side. Legs dusky, bare three quarters of an inch above the knee, regularly 
plated in front and reticulated behind. The toes are slightly webbed at the 
base of the two external ones, and plated above. Plumage, above, black, each 
feather broadly bordered with olive-brown. The tips of the shafts of the 
front feathers are destitute of webs and are even a little swollen and spinous, 
as in the Corncrake. The chin, a spot under each eye, and the lores grey- 
ish-white. The throat, neck, and breast bluish-grey, belly orange-white; 
the sides black, barred with white, the tips orange. Wings dusky, the mar- 
gin white, the outer webs of the quills narrow, the inner broad ; the first 
short, the second and third longest. Tail of 12 feathers, dusky, with olive 
margins. The female has a shorter bill, and is paler in the colour. — Nest of 

grass, among aquatic plants. Eggs 6, white. Young like the female Food 

worms, slugs, insects, and snails. Runs nimbly, flirts up its tail, exhibiting 
the white under-covers — Does not migrate. 

Gen. LX. ORTYGOMETRA. Crake.— Bill conical, 
shorter than the head, with the under mandible forming 
an angle at the symphysis. 

129- O. crex. Corncrake. — Cheeks cinereous, wing-covers 

reddish-chesnut. 

Will. Orn. 122. Sibb. Scot. 16 — Rallus crex, Linn. Syst. 261 Crake 

Gallinule, Penn. Brit. Zool. ii. 487 Gallinula crex, Temm. Orn. ii. 

686. — jB, Daker-hen, Bean-Crake ; S, Corn-crake ; W, Rhegen yr yd; 
G, Gearradhgort, Treun re treun.— A common summer visitant. 

Length 11, breadth 19 inches; weight 7 ounces. Bill one inch in the gape. 
Upper mandible rounded above, compressed at the sides towards the base. 
Irides brown ; the margin of the eyelids greenish-black. Legs brownish, 
plated before and behind, reticulated on the sides. Plumage, above, blackish- 
brown, each feather with a broad yellowish-brown margin. The first quill 
short, the second and third nearly of equal length. Tail of 12 feathers. The 



Gallinula. BIRDS. PRESSIROSTRES. 99 

female like the male— Nest in fields, of dry plants. Eggs 14, of a dull white, 
with rust-coloured spots. Young with colours less vivid, and the plumage 

mixed with white spots This species lives in dry places, and its muscular 

gizzard intimates its granivorous habits. It arrives in the end of April, and 
departs in October. It abounds in Orkney. 

Gex. LXI. GALLINULA. Gallinule.— Toes bordered 
by a simple membrane. 

130. G. chloropus: Common Gallinule or Water-Hen. — 
Plumage, above, dark oiive-brown ; beneath, dark bluish-grey ; 
edges of the wings and vent white: 

Will. Orn. 223. Sibb. Scot. 1!) Fulica chloropus, Linn. Syst. i. 258 — 

Common Gallinule, Penn. Brit. Zool. ii. 489. Tenon. Orn. ii. 693 — 
E, Moor-Hen, Marsh-Hen, Cuddy; S, Stank-Hen; W, Dwfriar — 
Common near lakes and marshes. 
Length 14, breadth 22 inches ; weight 15 ounces. Bill red at the base, 
greenish towards the tip. I rides reddish-hazel. Legs and toes dusky-green, 
with a red garter above the knee. On the sides, a few white feathers. Fe- 
male less, and the red on the bill not so conspicuous. In both, this colour 
fades after the breeding-season — Nest of flags, on the stump of a tree, near 
water. Eggs 5 to 10, light yellowish-brown, with rusty spots. 

131. G. Porzona. Spotted Gallinule. — Plumage, above, 
olive-brown, with dusky streaks and white spots ; beneath, cine- 
reous-olive with white spots. 

Rallus Porzona, Linn. Syst. Penn. Brit. Zool. ii. 486 — Gal. Por. Temm. 
Orn. ii. 688 A summer visitant. 

Length 9 inches ; weight 4 ounces. Bill green, base orange-red. Irides 
hazel. Legs green. The front, throat and cheeks cinereous, the latter with 
black streaks. Middle feathers of the tail edged with white ; the under co- 
vers white. Female with brown spots on the sides of the neck Nest of 

rushes, in marshes. Eggs 7 to 12, yellowish-red, with brown and grey dots 
and spots. Young smaller in size, less spotted — Nowhere abundant, but 
probably often overlooked in consequence of its shy habits. 



STRAGGLERS. 

1. G. pusilla, Temm. Orn. ii. 690. — This species is about 7 inches long; 
the wings reach to the extremity of the tail; bill and feet bright green; 
back black with white streaks. This species was first recorded by Montagu, 
in his Supplement to the Orn. Diet., under the title, Little Gallinule. One 
specimen was killed at Ashburton, in Devonshire, in 1809. Mr Fothergill 
likewise states (Linn. Trans, xiv. 583.), that another was shot on 6th May 
1807, by John Humphrey, Esq. of Wensley, on the banks of the Yore. 

2. G. Foljambei. Olivaceous Gallinule. — Length about 7 inches; wings 
reaching to half the length of the tail ; bill deep green ; legs flesh-coloured. 
Back and wings with white spots. This species was recorded by Montagu, 
in his Supplement, with the above trivial name, given in honour of Mr Fol- 
jambe, who detected it in a poulterer's shop, to which it had been brought 
from Norfolk, in May 1812. Temminck, seven years after, named it, in 
honour of M. Ballon, G. Buillonu, (Orn. ii. 692.). A second specimen occurred 
to Mr Plasted at Chelsea, at the same time as the one saved to science by 
Mr Foljambe. 

G 2 



100 BIRDS. PRESSIROSTRES. Fulica 



Gen. LXII. FULICA. Coot.— Toes bordered by a seal- 
loped membrane. 

132. F. atra. Common Coot. — Head and neck black ; back 

black, tinged with cinereous ; beneath paler. 

Will. Orn. 239. Sibb. Scot. 20. Linn. Syst. ii. 257. Penn. Brit. Zool. ii, 

494. Temm. Orn. ii. 70G— E, Bald Coot ; W, Sar ddwfr foel In 

fresh-water lakes, common. 

Length 1 8, breadth 28 inches ; weight 24 to 30 ounces. Bill flesh-co- 
loured. Irides red. Legs greenish, the garter yellow. Tail of 12 feathers. 
Female with the frontal plate less — Nest of flags, on the margins of lakes. 
Eggs 6 to 14, white, tinged and spotted with brown. Young with the frontal 
plate small, and the plumage beneath tinged with brown — This species, 
though well fitted for swimming, is, according to the observations of Mr 
Youell (Lin. Trans, xiv. 588.), equally qualified to walk steadily, and ascends 
trees readily. It picks up grain quicker than domestic poultry. 

Gen. LXIII. PHALAROPUS. Phalarope.— Bill slender,, 
depressed and dilated at the extremity. 

133. P. lobatus. Grey Phalarope. — Plumage, above, black- 
ish-brown, the feathers bordered with orange-red ; beneath 
brick-red. 

Grey coot-footed Tringa, Edwards, Phil. Trans, iv. 255 — Tringa lobata,. 

Linn. Syst. i. 249 Grey Phal. Penn. Brit. Zool. ii. 491 Phal. pla- 

tyrhinchus, Temm. Orn. ii. 712 A rare winter visitant. 

Length 7t?» breadth 1C T 2 3 inches; weight 1| ounce. Bill brown, yellow- 
ish towards trie base ; feet greenish-grey ; irides reddish-yellow. A yellow 
band above the eyes. Wing-covers black, with white tips. A white band 
across the wings. Rump white, with black spots. Female larger, the front, 

nape and ci'own sooty black, the eye-band pure white Nest unknown. 

Young with a black horse-shoe mark on the nape ; the plumage, above, cine- 
reous-brown with yellow margins ; beneath white. In winter, the old birds 
resemble in plumage the young — This bird seems to breed in the Arctic Re- 
gions. Captain Sabine states, that a flock of them was seen swimming among 
icebergs on the 10th June, on the west coast of Greenland, in Lat. t»8°, — Linn. 
Trans, xii. 53(1. ; and he afterwards states, that they are abundant during the 
summer months on the North Georgian Islands, — Parry's 1st Voyage, App. cci. 

Gen. LXIV. LOBIPES. Cootfoot.— Bill slender, straight, 
depressed at the base, subulate at the tip. 

134. L. Tiyperboreus. Red Coot-foot. — Crown, nape, over 
the eye and sides of the breast deep ash-grey ; sides and front 
of the neck reddish-brown. 

Larus fidipes, Will. Orn. 270 — Tringa hyp. Linn. Syst. i. 249.— Red 
Phalarope, Penn. Brit. Zool. ii. 492.— Phalaropus Williamsi, Sim- 

monds, Lin. Trans, viii. 264 Phalaropus hyp. Sowerby, Brit. Mis. 

Tab. x. Temm. Orn. ii. 709 — Breeds in Orkney. 
Length 8, breadth 14 inches. Bill black, slightly deflected at the extre- 
mity. Feet greenish-grey. Irides brown. Plumage, above, black, bordered 



Recurvirostra. BIRDS. PRESSIROSTRES. 101 

with ferruginous. A white band across the wings and the two middle tail- 
feathers. Beneath white, with cinereous spots on the flanks. Female has 
the reddish colour mixed with cinereous — Nest of grass, on the margin of 
lakes. Eggs olive, with crowded black spots. The young have the plumage, 
above, brownish-black, the feathers on the back with a reddish margin ; be- 
neath greyish- white, with a tinge of yellow on the neck. The old birds in 
winter are said to resemble the young. This species breeds in several small 
lakes in Orkney, where it is called Water-Snipe. It is rare in other districts, 
and usually appears only as a winter visitant. 

Gen. LXV. RECURVIROSTRA. Avoset.— Bill recur- 
ved ; connecting membrane of the toes reaching nearly to 
the extremity. 

135. R. Avoceita. Scooping Avoset. — Crown, hind neck, 

back and quills black ; rest of the plumage white. 

Will. Orn. 240. Linn. Syst. i. 250. Penn. Brit. Zool. ii. 504. Temm. 
Orn. ii. 590 — i?, Butterrlip, Scooper, Yelper, Picarini, Crooked-belly, 
Cobler's-awl ; W, Pig mynawd — llesident in England, a straggler in 
Scotland. 

Length 18, breadth 30 inches; weight 13 ounces. Bill black, slender, 
flexible. Legs bluish-grey. Irides reddish-brown. Outer scapulars and 
middle covers of the wings black ; ridge of the wings and greater covers 
white. Female similar — Nest in a small hole on the drier parts of exten- 
sive marshes. Eggs 2, olive-grey, with black spots. In the young, the black 

has a brownish tinge, and the scapular feathers have a reddish border After 

the breeding. season, this bird retires from the fens, and assembles in flocks of 
six or seven, frequenting the sea- shore during the winter season. 

Gen. LXVI. NUMENIUS. Curlew.— Face feathered. 
Nasal groove extending three-fourths of the length of the 
bill. Nostrils linear. Hind toe touching the earth. The 



first quill longest. 



& 



136. N.a?~quata. Common Curlew. — Plumage greyish- white, 
with brown streaks : scapulars black, with brown margins. 

Will. Orn. 216. Sibb. Scot. 18 — Scolopax arq. Linn. Syst. i. 242. Penn. 
Brit. Zool. ii. 429.— Num. arq. Temm. Orn. ii. 603 — S, Whaap, Stock 
Whaap; W, Gylfmhir — Common. 

Length 24, breadth 42 inches ; weight 37 ounces. Bill black, 6 or 7 inches 
long. Legs lead-coloured. Breast, belly and rump white, with oblong 
dusky spots and bars. Tail of 12 feathers, grey, with brown bands. Female 
with more grey and legs brown — Nest in unfrequented heaths and marshes, 
of dried stalks. Eggs 5, olive, with brown spots. Young leave the nest up- 
on being hatched : have the bill short, and the plumage like the female 

The curlew soon leaves the breeding-ground, and, during the winter season, 
frequents the sea-shore, and damp grounds in the neighbourhood. 

137. N. Pheopus. Whimbrel Curlew. — Plumage greyish- 
white, with brown streaks; scapulars brown, with pale edges; 
longitudinal brown band on each side of the crown. 

Arquata minor, Will. Orn — Scol. Pheop. Linn. Syst. i. 243. Penn. Brit. 



102 BIRDS. PRESSIROSTRES. Totanus. 

Zool. ii. 430 — N. Pheop. Temm. Orn. ii. tl(>4 — E, Curlew Knot, Curlew 
Jack, Half Curlew ; W, Coeg ylfinhir — Breeds in Zetland. 

Length 18, breadth 33 inches; weight 14 ounces. Bill 3 J inches long, 
dusky, tinged with red at the base : feet greyish. In general aspect and plu- 
mage bearing a near resemblance to the Curlew. Female like the male. — Nest 
in exposed heaths in Zetland (where the bird is called Tang-whaap). Eggs 4 
or 5. After the breeding-season, this bird nearly disappears from the northern 
islands, but frequents, during winter, the English shores, associating in small 
flocks. 



STltACCiLERS. 

Ibis faldnellus. Glossy Ibis Temm. Orn. ii. 5UG This bird, readily 

distinguished from the Curlews by the naked face, has occurred, as a strag- 
gler, repeatedly, in England. Montagu, in his Supplement, records seve- 
ral instances, and states it as his opinion, in which he is followed by Tern- 
minck, that the Bay Ibis (Tantalus Faldnellus, Sowerby's Brit. Misc. tab. 
xvii.), the Glossy Ibis (T. ignevs, including T. guaraunaj, and the Green 
Ibis (T. viridis), are merely different states of plumage, depending on 
age, of the same species, — the Green Ibis being the young bird. " The Ibis 
is adopted as part of the arms of the Town of Liverpool, and formerly, if 
not at present, stood conspicuous on the Guildhall in truly golden array. 
This is termed the Liver, from which that flourishing town derived its name, 
and is now standing on the spot where the Foul was, on the verge of which 
the Liver was killed." — Montagu. 

Gen. LXVII. TOTANUS— Bill soft at the base, firm, 
with cutting edges towards the point. Upper mandible a 
little inflected over the under. Legs long, slender. The 
first quill longest. 

138. T.fuscus. — Base of the lowest mandible and feet red ; 

rump white ; tail-covers with cross black and white rays. 

Cambridge God wit, Penu. Brit. Zool. ii. 44G Spotted Snipe, Mont. Orn. 

Diet, and Suppl — Totanus fuscus, Temm. Orn. ii. 6'3'J. — On the coast 
during winter. 

Length 12, breadth 22 inches; weight 5 ounces. Bill upwards of 2 inches 
in length, black, the base of the lower mandible and the feet red. Face and 
plumage above, dusky ; back, wing-covers and scapulars with white spots ; 
beneath, dusky tinged with grey, the tips of the feathers white. In winter, 
the plumage, above, has a greyish tinge; below, white: lores dusky. — Young 
birds have the plumage with a tinge of olive-brown ; scapulars and wing co- 
vers with triangular black spots : belly whitish, with zig-zag lines and spots 
of brownish-ash. 

139. T. calidris. Redshank. — Base of both mandibles red; 
distal half of the secondaries white. 

Gallina erythropus, Will. Orn. 221. Sibb. Scot. 19 — Scolopax calidris, 
Linn. Syst. i. 245. Perm. Brit. Zool. ii. 446". — Tot. cal. Temm. Orn. ii. 
643 — Resident. 
Length 12, breadth 21 inches ; weight 5 ounces. Bill 2 inches long, black 
at the point, the base, together with the feet, red. Irides chesnut. Lores 
■white. Above, greyish olive-brown, with longitudinal black rays ; on the sca- 
pulars there are a few transverse black rays. Rump white. Sides of the neck 
and beneath white, with a longitudinal black spot on the centre of each feather. 



Totanus. BIRDS. PRESSIROSTRES. 103 

Quills 26, the first five dusky, the remainder increasing in whiteness from 
the tip. Tail feathers 12, rayed with black and white. The first and second 

toes webbed to the first joint, the second and third slightly webbed In the 

winter dress, the plumage, above, is cinereous-brown, with dusky spots ; throat 

and breast greyish-white, with fine brown streaks ; belly pure white Nest of 

coarse grass, upon hillocks in boggy places. Eggs 4, olive-brown, spotted 
with black. The young have the plumage, above, brown, with yellow margins. 
Breast cinereous, with narrow brown streaks. Tips of the tail-feathers red- 
dish. Base of the bill yellowish. The Redshank leaves the marshes after 
the breeding-season, and leads a solitary life on the sea-shore during winter. 
— The difference in plumage between this species and the Red-legged Sand- 
piper of Bewick (Brit. Birds, ii. 113.), which Montagu terms T. Beivickii, is 
so very inconsiderable, as to lead to the conclusion that they are identical. 

140. T. cchropus. Green Sandpiper. — All the tail feathers 
white one-third from the base ; the two or three exterior ones 
entirely white, or with only a spot near the end. 

Tringa Aldrovandi, Will. Orn. 222 Tr. ochropus Linn. Syst. i. 250. 

Penn. Brit. Zool. ii. 463 — Tringa glareola, Markwick, Linn. Trans, i. 
128. and ii. 325 — Tot. och. Temm. Orn. ii. 651 In England from Au- 
gust to April, frequenting pools and streams. 
Length 10 inches; weight 3\ ounces. Bill an inch and a half long, dusky, 
tinged with green at the base. Legs dusky green ; the outer and middle toes 
united at the base by a membrane. Lores with a brown and white band. 
Irides hazel. Quills 24, dusky : the under wing-covers dusky, with white 
V-like markings. Upper tail-covers, and beneath, white ; the neck and breast 
with fine brown spots. Tail of 12 feathers, even at the tip, white, with the 
two middle feathers crossed with 3 or 4 black bands which diminish in num- 
ber towards the lateral feathers. In winter, the plumage is paler, and the 
spots on the breast less distinct — Nest in the sand or grass on the margin 
of lakes or streams. Eggs 3-5, greenish, with brown spots. The young have 
yellow dots on the back, the nape cinereous, the breast more spotted, and 
the black on the tail more extended. Is not known to breed in this country. 

141. T. Glareola. Wood Sandpiper. — Tail, to the base, bar- 
red with brown and white. 

Mont. Orn. Diet, and Suppl — Tot. glar. Temm. Orn. ii. 654 A winter 

visitant of England. 

Length 9 inches; weight 2\ ounces. Bill 1| inches long, black, greenish 
at the base. Legs greenish, slender, 3 inches long from the knee to the tip 
of the middle toe, and the base of feathers one inch above the knee ; the outer 
toe connected at the base by a membrane. Irides dusky. Lores dusky, 
above white. Plumage above, brown, with whitish streaks. Throat, belly, 
and both tail-covers, white. Breast white, with longitudinal streaks of deep 
brown. Quills black, slightly tipped with white, except the first three or 
four : shaft of the first quill white ; under covers destitute of the V-like 
marks. Tail cuneiform, of 12 feathers. The two or three outer feathers 
have the inner web white. In winter, the plumage is less distinctly marked. 
— Nest in marshes. Eggs 4, yellowish, with brown spots ? Young, with the 
plumage above having numerous red dots ; breast waved with grey, and spot- 
ted with brown — The several instances of the occurrence of this bird record- 
ed by Montagu, in his Supplement, indicate it as a winter visitant. 

142. T. macularki. Spotted Sandpiper. — Plumage, below, 
marked with large rounded spots ; the two middle tail-feathers 
plain. 



10* BIRDS. riiESSIUOSTRES. Totanits. 

Spotted Sandpiper, Penu. Brit. Zool. ii. 463. Bewick, Brit. Birds, ii. 1 1 1. 
Tot. mac. Temm. Orn. ii. 656 — A rare winter visitant. Probably only 
a straggler. 

Length 8 inches. Bill black, reddish towards the base. Feet flesh-colour- 
ed. Irides brown. Lores brown, with a white stripe above. Plumage, above, 
greyish-brown, with a tinge of olive, with streaks of black on the head and 
neck, and triangular black spots on the back in zig-zag bars. Below white, the 
ends of each feather having a rounded black spot : these marks are produced 
on the belly. Quills dusky, the secondaries tipped with white. Hump plain. 
Tail-feathers, in the middle, greenish-brown, the side ones white, with dusky 
bars and dark tips — So rare is this bird in England, that Edwards and Be- 
wick only have succeeded in procuring it. Its history is still involved in much 
obscurity. 

143. T. Hypoleucos. Common Sandpiper. — Plumage, be- 
neath, uniformly white ; the four middle tail-feathers plain. 

Tringa minor, Will. Orn. 223 Tr. Hyp. Linn. Svst. i. 250. Penn. Brit. 

Zool. ii. 470 — Tot. Hyp. Temm. Orn. ii. 657-— W, Pibydd y tracth ; 
S, Killileepie Breeds on the margin of streams. Common. 

Length 8, breadth 16 inches ; weight 2 ounces. Bill 1 \ inches long, dusky. 
Legs dusky with a tinge of green ; toes flat below, slightly margined, webbed 
at the base of the first joint. Irides hazel. Plumage, above, bi"*wn, glossed 
with olive, with a black streak in the middle of each feather ; the wing-covers 
with minute undulated lines. A white spot above the eyes. Neck with 
brown streaks. Quills dusky ; the first plain ; the second and nine following 
with a M'hite spot on the inner web ; the rest with a white band across both 
webs. Tail fan-shaped, the four middle feathers like the back, slightly cloud- 
ed ; the four on each side tipped with white, and spotted on the webs Nest 

of dry leaves, under a bank. Eggs 5, dirty white, marked with numerous 
dusky and cinereous spots, chiefly at the larger end. Young with the margin 
of the feathers on the back reddish — This species, as a summer visitant, is 
extensively distributed on the margins of rivers and lakes during summer. 
It breed as far to the northward as Caithness, but seems to be wanting in 
Orkney. 

144. T. Glottis. Greenshank. — Bill strong, slightly recur- 
ved, compressed at the base, higher than broad ; under wing- 
covers with brown rays ; feet green. 

Pluvialis major, Will. Orn. 220 — Scolopax glottis, Linn. Syst. i. 245. 

Pe?m. Brit. Zool. ii. 445 Tot. Glot. Temm. Orn. ii. 659. — A winter 

visitant. 

Length 14, breadth 24 inches ; weight 6 oz. Bill 1\ inches long, dusky; 
legs slender, green. Irides hazel. Plumage, above, brownish-black, on the 
head marked with black and white rays ; a white circle round the eyes ; back 
and scapulars deep black, the former with white edges, the latter with white 
spots. Beneath white, with oval spots on the breast. Wing-covers reddish -ash, 
with black stripes. Quills 26, dusky, inner webs spotted with white. Under 
covers with brown rays. Tail white, the two middle feathers cinereous, with 
brownish bands. Lower part of the back and rump white. In winter, the 

spots on the breast are indistinct, and the back has a brownish tinge Nest 

unknown Frequents the sea-coast in small flocks. 

Montagu (Suppl. Orn. Diet.) has offered a conjecture, which appears very 
probable, that the Cinereous Godwit of Pennant (Brit. Zool. ii. 444.), the Sco- 
lopax canescens of Gmelin, is merely a variety of the Greenshank. Pennant 
says, " The bill was two inches and a half long. The head, neck, and back 
variegated with ash colour and white: the tail slightly barred with cinereous. 
The throat and breast white; the last marked with a few ash-coloured spots. 
The legs long, slender, and ash-colourcd. This was about the size of my 



Scolopax. BIRDS. PRESSIROSTRES. 105 

Greenshank : approaches it nearly in colours ; but the hill was so much thicker, 
as to form a specific distinction.'" Montagu adds (Suppl. Orn. Diet.), " One 
of these birds in the late unfortunate Leverian Museum was marked Grey 
Godwit. It appeared to be rather smaller than the Common Godwit, the bill 
and legs rather shorter, and more slender ; the tail barred dusky and white 
nearly to the base : the rump white, with a few spots : the back and scapu- 
lars pale brown, with grey borders." 

It is not improbable' that the Black Sandpiper of Pennant (ii. 2C4.) is merely 
the Greenshank in its winter dress. 

Gen. LXVIII. SCOLOPAX. Snipe.— Bill straight, soft, 
and swollen near the end, and in drying becomes like sha- 
grin. Tip of the upper mandible enlarged beneath for the 
reception of the extremity of the lower. 

a. Tibia feathered even to the knee. Woodcocks. 

145. S. Rusticola. Woodcock. — Crown cinereous; nape with 

transverse black bars. 

Will. Orn. 213. Sibb. Scot. 18. Linn. Syst. i. 243. Penn. Brit. ZooL 

ii. 433. Temm. Orn. ii. G73 W, Cyfi'ylog; G, Coilleach coille — A 

regular winter visitant. 

Length 14, breadth 20 inches; 12 ounces. Bill 3 inches long, livid, dark at 
the tip. Legs livid. Irides hazel. Lores black. Plumage, above, variegated 
with red, yellow, cinereous and black. Beneath, yellowish-white, with cross- 
waved brown bars. Quills 23, black, with transverse reddish bars. Tail of 
12 feathers, black, tipped with grey above and white below. Female larger, 
with white spots on the wing-covers — Nest on the earth. Eggs 4, yellowish, 
spotted with brown. — This species visits us about the first week of October, 
arriving at night with a north-east wind ; and departs in March. A few, how- 
ever, have been known to breed in this country. 

b. Loiccr part of the tibia naked. Snipes. 

146. S. major. Great Snipe. — Tail of 16 feathers; shaft of 
the first quill white. 

Penn. Brit Zool. ii. 450. Temm. Orn. ii. 675. — Bare in Britain. 

Length 12 inches; weight 8 ounces. Bill 2| inches long, brown, the base 
reddish. Feet greenish-grey. Crown black, divided by a band of yellowish- 
white, similar to one over the eyes. Above, variegated brown and red ; the 
latter colour disposed longitudinally. Beneath, reddish-white ; the belly and 
sides with black bands. This species seems of rare occurrence. The follow- 
ing remark by Mr Bewick, however, would lead us to believe that it is proba- 
bly overlooked, and by sportsmen not distinguished as a species. " The au- 
thor has seen three specimens of a large kind of snipe, called by some sports- 
men, from being always found alone, The Solitary Snipe. They weighed the 
same as the above mentioned (8 oz.), but differed in some slight particulars, 
measuring only 12 inches in length, and from tip to tip about 19. The upper 
parts of the plumage were nearly like those of the common snipe. The breast, 
sides, belly, and vent, white, spotted, barred, and undulated with black. It 
is not clearly ascertained whether this be a distinct species of snipe, or whe- 
ther it acquires its bulk, and change of plumage, from age, and its solitary 
habits from ceasing to breed." — Brit. Birds, ii. p. 07. 

147. S. Sabini. — Tail feathers 12. Plumage destitute of lon- 
gitudinal bands. 



106 BIRDS. PRESSIROSTRES. Scolopax. 

N. A. Vigors, Esq. Linn. Trans, xiv. 557- — Rare. 

Length 9 T 3 n inches. Bill 2 T 7 S inches, brownish-black ; the upper mandible 
inclining to chesnut at the base. Tarsi 1^ inches. The plumage generally is 
brownish-black ; the margin of the feathers chesnut, darkest on the back. Tail- 
feathers black at the base, with ferruginous bands towards the tip. The ab- 
sence of white and the stripes of ferruginous yellow, so common to the other 
species, serves to distinguish this new addition to the European Fauna. Two 
specimens only have as yet occurred ; the one shot in Queen's County, Ire- 
land, by the Reverend Charles Doyne, of Portarlington, 21st August 1822, 
and now in Mr Vigors's valuable collection at Chelsea ; the other on the 
banks of the Medway, near Rochester, 26th October 1824, and preserved in 
the collection of Mr Dunning of Maidstone Linn. Trans, ib. 

148. S. Gallinago. Common Snipe. — The tail of 14 feathers. 
A dark divided stripe on the crown. 

Gallinago minor, Will Orn. 214. Sibb. Scot. 18 — Scol. Gal. Linn. Svst. 

i. 244. Perm. Brit. Zool. ii. 448. Temm. Orn. ii. 676 IF, Yonittan, 

y Fyniar ; G, Croman loin Common near marshes. 

Length 12, breadth 14 inches; weight 4 ounces- Bill upwards of 3 inches 
in length, black, yellow, changing into brown towards the base. Tail dusky, with 
a tinge of green. Irides dusky. Lores brownish-black. The crown similar, 
but divided in the middle, and separated on each side from the lores by stripes 
of yellowish-red. Neck yellowish-red, with dusky streaks. Back black, the 
feathers bordered with yellowish-red, most conspicuous on the scapulars. Chin 
and belly white. Quills 24, dusky ; under covers white, with black bars. In 
winter the red on the plumage is paler, approaching to white. — Nest of coarse 
grass on a dry spot in a marsh. Eggs 5, greenish, with brown and grey spots. 
— Occasionally shifts its station after the breeding season. 

149- S. Gallinula. Jack Snipe. — Tail feathers 12. A dark 

undivided stripe on the crown. 

Gallinago minor, Will. Orn. 214. — Scol. Gal. Linn. Syst i. 244. Pe?m> 
Brit. Zool. ii. 451. Temm. Orn. ii. 678 — Not uncommon in winter. 

Length 8^ inches ; weight 2 ounces. Bill an inch and a half long, like the 
preceding. Legs pale greenish-dusky. Irides dusky. Lores dusky ; between 
which and the crown stwpe is a pale yellowish-brown one, divided over the 
eye. Cheeks yellowish-white; the ear-covers dusky. Back black, with a 
strong purple gloss, edged with yellowish-red. Four stripes of yellowish-red 
on the back, formed in consequence of one web being of a uniform light co- 
lour. Belly white. Quills dusky. Tail dusky, freckled near the end, with 
reddish-brown and white- This species is not known to breed in this coun- 
try Its visits are in winter. It differs from the preceding, in being a more 

solitary bird, and more difficult to rouse from its haunts. 

STRAGGLER. 

1. S. grisea. Brown Snipe — Temm. Orn. ii. 679.— Grey Snipe — This spe- 
cies has the first and second toes united the length of the first joint, by a web. 
The tail-feathers are 12 in number, with black and white bands. The crown, 
neck, breast, and wing-covers, plain cinereous-brown. — This species, a native 
of North America, has twice occurred in Europe ; once in Sweden, and once 
in England. Montagu, in his Orn. Diet., records the latter instance. It was 
shot in the beginning of October, on the coast of Devonshire. It was poor, 
single, very tame, suffering the person who killed it to approach very near. 
He has added, in the Supplement, a figure of the individual. 



Limosa. BIRDS. PRESSIROSTRES. 107 

Gen. LXIX. LIMOSA. Godwit. — Bill long, recurved, 
compressed at the base, becoming depressed towards its 
blunt tip. Outer toe connected by a web, at the base, with 
the middle one. 

150. L. cegoccpliala. Black-tailed Godwit. — Tail black, with 

a white base ; the middle feathers shortest. A white spot on 

the wing. Claw of the middle toe long and serrated. 

Fedoa secunda, Will. Orn. 216. — Scolopax Limosa jegocephala, Linn. 
Syst. i- 145,-6 — Red Godwit, Penn. Brit. Zool. ii. 442 — Red Godwit 
and Jadreka Snipe, Mont. Orn. Diet. Suppt. — Limosa melanura, Temm. 
Orn. ii. 665 — A rare winter visitant. 

Length 18 inches; weight 12 ounces. Bill 3 i inches long, dusky at the 
point, orange at the base. Legs black. Irides hazel. Lores brown, above 
which is a whitish-red stripe. The crown black ; the feathers bordered with 
red. Throat and neck red, with brown dots. Breast and sides red, with fine 
zig-zag bars. Back black, the feathers on the scapulars with red bands. Wing- 
covers grey. Belly white. Base of the quills and tail, white — In the winter, 
the plumage above is cinereous ; below white, with a greyish tinge on the 
neck. — Nest in meadows. Eggs 4, deep olive, with pale spots. The young 
have the feathers on the crown brown, with red margins. The outer edge of 
the tail-feathers white, and the tip of the bill brown — This species, though 
common both in its Polar and Equatorial migrations in Holland, can scarcelv 
be termed a regular visitant of this country. It frequents marshes, seldom 
approaching the sea-shore. 

151. L. ritfa. Bar-tailed Godwit. — All the tail-feathers 

Avith black and w r hite bands. The middle feathers longest. 

Claw of the middle toe short and plain. 

Fedoa Gesneri, Will. Orn. 215 — Scolopax Lapponica, Linn. Syst. i. 246. 
—Godwit, Penn. Brit. Zool. ii. — Common Godwit, Red-breasted Snipe, 

Mont. Orn. Diet — Limosa rufa, Temm. Orn. ii. 668 £, Godwit, Stone 

Plover, Yarwhelp, Yarwhip ; S, Poor "Willie ; W, Rhostog A regular 

winter visitant. 

Length 17', breadth 28i inches; weight 12A ounces. Bill 4 inches long, 
•black at the tip, livid at the base. Feet black. Irides brown. Crown red, 
with brown streaks. Back black, with oval marginal red spots. The wing- 
covers grey, with white borders. Rump white, with brown spots. Quills 
black, mottled with white on the inner webs. Beneath deep red, with black 
streaks on the sides of the breast. The female is larger s ; the plumage, above, 
inclines more to brown, mixed with grey ; and beneath it has a tinge of yel- 
low. In winter, the plumage above is cinereous, with brown streaks ; and be- 
neath, white. — This species occurs in small flocks, from autumn to spang, fre- 
quenting the sea-shore. It is not known to breed in Britain. 

Gen. LXX. TRINGA. Sandpiper.— Bill straight, or a 
little deflected ; compressed at the base ; depressed at the 
point. 

152. T. subarquata. — Bill deflected, much longer than the 
head. The two middle tail-feathers longest. Tarsus 17 lines 
in length. 



108 BIRDS. PRESSIROSTRES. Tringa. 

Pigmy Curlew, and Pigmy Sandpiper, Mont. Orn. Diet, and Suppt — T. 
sub., Temm. Orn. ii. (i07. — In England rare. 
Length 8i, breadth 15i inches ; weight 2 ounces. Bill 14 inches long, ob- 
viously bent, black. Legs black, bare of feathers for half an inch above the 
knee. Irides brown, the face, over the eyes and the throat white, with brown 
dots. Crown black, the edges of the feathers red ; nape red, with black 
streaks. Back black, the edges of the feathers with angular red spots. Be- 
neath reddish-brown, more or less marked with dark spots and white. Quills 
with pale margins on the .nner web. Tail cuneiform, dusky grey, bordered 
with white ; upper and under-covers white, with black and red bars. In win- 
ter, the plumage above is cinereous-brown, with dark streaks ; below white. 
The tail is cinereous, bordered with white. The outer feathers white on the 
inside. In the female, the bill is longei*. — Nest near water. Eggs 5, yellow, 
with broad spots. The young nearly resemble the whiter dress of the old 
birds. This species, which is not uncommon on the Continent, and which breeds 
in Holland, might be considered as a straggler here, were it not probable that 
it is confounded with the following species. 

153. T. alpina. Dunlin. — Bill a little longer than the head. 
Two middle tail-feathers produced, pointed. Tarsus 12 lines 
in length. 

Alauda marina (the Stint and Dunlin), Will. Orn. 226.—Sibb. Scot. 19 — 
T. alp. and Cinclus, Linn. Syst. i. 249. and 251 — Dunlin, Purre, and 
Brown Sandpiper, Penn. Brit. Zool. ii. 471,-2 — T. variabilis, Temm. 

Orn. ii. G12 E, Least Snipe, Ox-Bird, Ox-Eye, Bull's Eye, Sea-Lark, 

Wagtail ; S, Pickerel, Sea-Snipe. — Common. 

Length 8, breadth 14 inches? weight 10 drams. Bill 1± inches in length; 
black, slightly deflected. Palate with reflected teeth. Feet dusky. Irides 
dark-brown. Plumage above black ; the edges of the feathers rufous and ci- 
nereous : beneath white, slightly streaked on the neck with dusky ; the breast 
and upper belly black, the feathers with white margins. Quills dusky, the 
first the longest, and reaching to the end of the tail ; the basal half of the se- 
condaries, and their tips, white ; the tips of the first covers white ; the tertials 
produced. Tail of 1 2 feathers, dusky, margined with white ; the two middle ones 
darkest, produced, and pointed ; the lateral tail-covers are white, the central 
ones black and long. In this its summer or breeding dress, it is the Dunlin of 
British writers. In winter, the plumage, above, is more or less cinereous, with 
dusky streaks : below, the black on the breast has faded into dusky streaks, 
in which dress it is the Purre * — Nest in heaths, of dried rushes. Eggs 4, 
smoky white, irregularly marked with light and dark brown blotches. Young, 
with the lores, dusky ; the neck and breast cinereous, with dusky streaks. — 
This species is solitary during the breeding-season, but collects in flocks, and 
is common on the shore during the remainder of the year. 

154. T.piisilla. — Tail cuneiform, the external feathers white. 

* It is of importance to attend to the character of these changes of plu- 
mage at the different seasons of the year. A feather which, in summer, is of 
a dark colour, with a light margin, may, in winter, become wholly white. This 
takes place by the light colour of the margin extending with the fading of the 
dark colour of the middle, a trace ol which is generally left at the shaft, near 
the base. In summer this process is again reversed- It was formerly consi- 
dered by British ornithologists, and is still regarded in the same light, by the 
celebrated Temminck, that these changes in the colour of the plumage are 
effected by moulting. Many years ago, I demonstrated the fallacy of this 
opinion; and my conclusions have been subsequently confirmed by several 
acute and practical ornithologists. — See my Philosophy of Zoology, v. ii. chap, 2. 



Teinga. BIRDS. PRESSIROSTRES. 109 

Linn. Syst. i. 232 Little Sandpiper, Mont. Orn. Diet. App — T. Tem- 

minckii, Tern. Orn. ii. 622". — A rare winter visitant. 
Length 6 inches; weight 6 drams. Bill fths of an inch long, slender, 
slightly deflected towards the extremity, and, with the feet, brown. Irides 
dusky. Plumage, above, black with red margins ; below, cinereous red with 
black streaks, the throat, belly, and under tail-covers, white. Quills dusky, 
margined with white. Tail of twelve feathers, the two middle dusky, the 
next on each side cinereous, with reddish margins ; the two or three exterior 
feathers pure white. In winter the plumage above is brownish, with darker 
streaks. The young are more inclined to cinereous above — This species, 
which is well described by Montagu, from a specimen shot in November on a 
salt-marsh, near the sea in Devonshire, has probably been confounded with 
the preceding. The character of the tail identifies it with the Linnean spe- 
cies, and renders unnecessary the new trivial name which Leister proposed, 
and which Temminck has too hastily adopted. 

155. T. minuta. — Tail doubly forked, the lateral feathers 

greyish brown, with white margins. 

Little Sandpiper, Penn. Brit. Zool. ii. 473 — Little Stint, Bewick's Brit. 

Birds, ii. 122 Little Sandpiper, Mont. Orn. Diet. Supp. Temm. Orn. 

ii. 624 A rare winter visitant. 

Size the same as the preceding, with this difference, that M. Temminck as- 
signs 8 lines as the length of the tarsus of the pusilla, and 10 to the minuta. Bill 
and legs black. The crown black, with red spots. Plumage, above, black witli 
red margins ; below, the sides of the neck and breast are red, with angular 
brown spots ; the middle of the breast, throat, belly and lateral upper tail- 
covers white. The rump and two middle tail-feathers black, the lateral ones 
greyish-brown with white margins. In winter the plumage above is cine- 
reous, with brownish-black streaks at the shafts ; the two middle tail-feathers 
brown. The young nearly resemble the winter garb of the old birds. The 
margins of the scapulars and wing-covers incline more to white. An exami- 
nation of the descriptions of the British writers, quoted above, seems to 
point out, very obviously, their connection with this species of Temminck, to 
which they are here referred. They all agree nearly in size, and in the co- 
lour of the rump and tail ; characters which mark the distinction between this 
species and the pusilla. In all, however, the form of the tail is not mentioned, 
which is said to be doubly forked, or to have the middle and external feathers 
of the same length, the intermediate ones on each side shorter. 

156. T. Canutus. Knot. — Bill straight, much enlarged at 

the end ; the tail-feathers of equal length, cinereous with a 

white margin. 

Knot, Will. Orn. 224 T. Can. (Calidris and Islandica), Linn. Syst. ii. 

251-2. and App — Bed Sandpiper (T. Islandica), Ash-coloured Sand- 
piper (T. cinerea), Aberdeen Sandpiper, and Knot, Penn. Brit. Zool. 
ii. 469, 462, and 461 T. cinerea, Temm. Orn. ii. 627 — A winter visi- 
tant. 

Length 10, breadth 19 inches ; weight 5 oz. Bill 1J inches in length, green- 
ish black ; the feet of the same colour. The hind toe, according to Captain 
Sabine (App. Parry's 1st Voy. cci.) turns inwards, as in that of the turnstone. 
Irides brown. Plumage, above, black, bordered with red, with oval spots of the 
same colour on the scapulars ; below brownish red, the belly white, with red 
and black spots. Quills dusky, edged with white. Tail-feathers dusky ash, 
edged with white ; the upper covers white, with black bars and red spots. 
Willoughby states, that the outer tail-feathers are white. In winter the 
plumage above is cinereous, with brown streaks, and below white, with dusky 
streaks on the breasts and sides. In the young there is more cinereous above 



110 BIRDS. PRESSIROSTRES. Strepsilas. 

and white below than in the old birds. The Knot, named after King Canute, 
who prized it for the table, formerly visited the fens of Lincolnshire in au- 
tumn, and was caught and fattened with the ruff. According to Montagu, 
(Supp. Orn. Diet.), it does not now visit its former haunts, nor is it known to 
breed in England. It probably breeds in Orkney, as I have shot one in San- 
da on the 15th June (1U08). 

157. T. striata (Brisson). Purple Sandpiper. — Base of the 
bill and legs yellow, the two middle tail-feathers black. 

Linn. Syst. i. 248. Fab. Faun. Groen. 107 T. maritima (Brunich), Mark- 
wick, Linn. Trans, W. 22. — T. nigricans, Mont. ib. p. 40. — T, marit. 
Temm. Orn. ii. 619— A winter visitant. 

Length 8|, breadth 15 h inches ; weight 2 ounces. Bill 1| long, red at the 
base, black at the tip. Legs yellow. I rides dusky. Plumage, above, black 
with a violet gloss, each leather margined with white ; neck and breast grey- 
ish-white, with lanceolate, dusky spots ; middle of the belly white. Quills 
black, the shafts and edges of the exterior webs white. Hump and two middle 
tail-feathers black, the rest cinereous with white margins. In winter, the 
plumage above becomes dull, with a feebler gloss of purple, and the edges of 
the feathers have a grey margin. In the young, the feathers above are black, 
with white changing into red margins ; and the edges of the wing-covers have 
much white This is not uncommon on the sea-shore during winter. 



■& 



158. T. pugnax. Ruff. — Tail rounded, the two middle fea- 
thers barred, the three lateral ones plain. 

Avis pugnax, Will. Orn. 224 — T. pugnax, Linn. Syst. i. 247 — Ruff, 
Gambet (T. gambetta), Perm. Brit. Zool. ii. 457-405 — Ruff, Gambet, 
Greenwich Sandpiper, Equestrian Sandpiper, and Yellow-legged Sand- 
piper, Mont. Orn. Diet. App. and Supp. t. p. Temm. Orn. ii. fi31 

E, (males) Ruffs, (females) Reeves — A summer visitant. 

Length 1, breadth 2 feet ; weight 7 ounces. Bill yellow, sometimes black 
at the tip. Feet yellow. Irides brown. Face naked, covered with yellow 
warts. A spreading tuft of feathers on each side of the neck. The wing-co- 
vers are brown, inclining to ash colour. The middle tail-feathers are barred 
with black and brown ; the lateral ones are cinereous-brown. The lateral 
and under covers white. The rest of the plumage subject to vary. The/<?- 
male is smaller and destitute of a ruff, of a pale brown, the back spotted with 
black, and edged with white — Nest in a tuft of grass in the fens. Eggs 4, 
white, marked with rusty spots. Young like the lemale. In winter the face 
is covered with short feathers, and the ruff of the male disappears. He is 
very pugnaceous, and even in confinement fights readily with a rival. Ruffs 
are taken by nets, the males especially, and fattened for the table with bread 
and milk, and boiled wheat. They are chiefly found in the breeding season on 
the fens of Lincolnshire. — This species forms the genus Machetes of Cuvier. 

Gen. LXXI. STREPSILAS. Turnstone.— Bill strong, 
conical, depressed, and pointed. Wings acuminated ; the 
first quill longest. The front toes united at the base. 

159 S. interpres. Common Turnstone. — Bill and irides 

black, feet orange. 

Morinellus marinus, Will. Orn. 231 — Tringa interpres et Morinellus, 
Linn. Syst. i. 248 Penn. Brit. Zool. ii. 405. No. 199. and 200 Strep- 
silas collaris, Temm. Orn. ii. 553 — E, Sea dotterel; S, Skirlcrake ; W, 
Huttan y mor A winter visitant of England and Scotland ; station- 
ary in Zetland. 



Vanellus. BIRDS. PRESSIROSTRES. Ill 

Length 9^ inches ; weight 4 ounces. Bill an inch in length, bends a little 
upwards. Legs short, a little way naked above the knee ; claws black. The 
hind toe " turns inwards, instead of taking, as is usual, a straight direction 
backwards," (Captain Sabine, Parry's 1st Voy. App. cc.) Frontal band, be- 
hind the ear, lower part of the neck behind, and lower part of the back, throat, 
and belly, white ; breast black, the colour extending round the neck up to 
the ears, and thence to the bill across the forehead. Crown reddish-white, 
with black streaks. Back ferruginous, with black spots. A brown band on 
the rump. Quills dusky, shafts of the primaries, tips of the secondaries, and 
edges of the greater covers, white. Tail of 12 feathers, black tipped with 
white, sometimes the two middle feathers are wholly black, and the outer one 

on each side white. In the female the colour is less bright Nest a shallow 

pit in the sand on the shore. Eggs 4, olivaceous, with brown spots. In the 
young, the white about the head has dusky streaks ; the back is dusky, the fea- 
thers with reddish margins ; breast dusky, with white edges. From having 
seen this species at all seasons hi Zetland, I conclude that it breeds there. 

Captain Sabine states that it breeds in the North Georgian Islands During 

winter it frequents the sea-shore, turning over the small stones in search of 
insects. 



Gen. LXXII. VANELLUS. Lapwing. — Nasal groove ex- 
tending two-thirds of the length of the bill. Hind toe 
distinct. The fourth and fifth quills longest. 

160. V. cristatus. Common Lapwing. — The feathers of the 
hind head produced, subrecurved, forming a crest. 

Capella sive Vanellus, Will. Orn. 228. Sibb. Scot. 19 Tringa vanellus, 

Linn. Syst. i. 248. Penn. Brit. Zool. ii. 458 — Van. crest. Temm. Orn. 
ii. 558 — E, Bastard Plover, Pewit ; S, Peesweep ; W, Cornchwegl ; 
G, Curcag, abhararcan-luachrach. — Resident. 

Length 13^, breadth 31 inches ; weight 8 ounces. Bill 1 inch long, black. 
Irides hazel. Legs dull orange. The crown, crest and breast, black, irides- 
cent ; back green, iridescent ; sides of the neck, belly, and base of the tail, 
white. Quills black, with a white spot on the tips of the first four ; secon- 
daries white half way from their base. Tail Avhite, the end black ; the vent 
and upper cover ferruginous. Female with the colours more obscure, and the 
crest shorter — Nest, consisting of a few dried stalks, placed in a shallow cavity 
in moist grounds. Eggs 4, olive-brown, blotched with black. I have found 
them to weigh in grains 435, 42b', 413, 400. The tjoung have the crest very 

short, and the feathers both above and below edged with yellow After the 

breeding season the lapwing occurs in flocks, and frequents" the sea-shore, and 
occasionally, during mild weather, turnip fields. 

Gen. LXXIII. SQUAT AROL A.— Nasal groove short. 
Hind toe minute. The first quill longest. 

161. S. cinerea. — Bill, legs, and irides black ; middle tail- 
feathers with black and white rays. 

Pluvialis cinerea, Will. Orn. 229. Sibb. Scot. 19 — Tringa Squatarola 
et Helvetica, Linn. Syst. ii. 250-252. Penn. Brit. Zool. ii. 458 Va- 
nellus melanogaster, Temm. Orn. ii. 547 E, Grey Plover A winter 

visitant of England, probably breeds in Scotland. 
Length 12, breadth 24 inches ; weight 7 ounces. Bill \\ inch long. Lores, 
throat, sides and front of the neck, middle of the breast and belly, black ; the 



112 BIRDS. PRESSIROSTRES. Squatabola. 

front, below the eyes, sides of the breast and thighs, white; nape varied with 
brown, black, and white. Back black, with white spots. Quills black, the 
inner webs more or less white, and the same colour prevailing from the fifth 
on the outer webs. The long feathers at the base of the wing, underneath, 
black. Under and upper tail-covers white, with oblique black bands. In 
winter the plumage beneath is white, with cinereous brown spots on the neck 
and sides ; above a brownish-black prevails, with yellowish spots, and edged 
with ash-grey. Female like the male. — Eggs 4, olive, with black spots. 
Young spotted below, above tinged with grey ; the bands on the tail are grey. 
— This species frequents the sea-shore during the winter season in small 
flocks. I have reason to believe that it breeds in the high grounds of the 
Mearns. 

Before proceeding to give the characters of the few native birds of that di- 
vision of Pressirostres with only three toes, it is proper to notice two strag- 
glers. 

1. Cursorius Isabellinm. Cream coloured Courser — Temm. Orn. ii. 513. — 
This species is a native of Africa, rarely visiting Europe. Three instances 
only have occurred of its having been killed in England. The first at St Al- 
bans, in Kent, at the seat of William Hammond, Esq. who presented it to 
Dr Latham. The second was shot in North Wales in 1793, by Mr George 
Kingston of Queen's College, Oxford. The third is stated in Atkinson's 
Compendium of British Ornithology, p. 1G5, as having been shot near We- 
therby in April 1810. 

2. Himantopus Plinii. Long-legs — Will. Orn. 219 — Charadrius Himanto- 
pus, Linn. Syst. 1. 255 — Himantopus melanopterus, Temm. Orn. ii. 528 — 
Sir Robert Sibbald appears to have first recorded the occurrence of this bird 
in these islands, Scot. III. 18. tab. xiii. fig 2., an individual having been ex- 
amined by him which was shot at a lake near the town of Dumfries ; where a 
second example was shortly afterwards killed. Mr White states, that six in- 
dividuals of this species were observed at Frinsham Pond, near Farnham, 
Surrey, (Nat. Hist. Selborne, ii. 42.) Pennant states, that one was shot at 
Stanton Harcourt Common, near Oxford, (Brit. Zool. ii. 476.) The last oc- 
curred to Mr Davies of Aber, killed in Anglesea, (Nat. Miscellany, tab. 195. 
Mont. Orn. Diet. Supp.) The species frequents Africa, Asia, and eastern 
Europe. 

Gen. LXXIV. CALIDRIS. Sanderling. — Bill depressed, 
and enlarged at the point. Nasal grooves produced. 

162. C. arenaria. Common Sanderling. — The two middle 
tail-feathers, bill, irides, and feet, black. 

Arenaria, Will. Orn. 225 — Tringa ar. Linn. Syst. i. 251 — Sanderling 

Plover, Penn. Brit. Zool. 480 — Cal. ar. Temm. Orn. ii. 524 — E, Cur- 

willet, Towwilly, Waddergall ; W, Llwyd y tywod — Common on the 

coast. 

Length 8, breadth 15 inches ; weight 2 ounces. Bill about an inch in 

length, weak and flexible. Face and crown with black spots, edged with red 

and white. Neck and breast cinereous red, spotted with black. Above, the 

plumage is black, with white edges ; wing-covers dusky, with zig-zag lines of 

red ; belly white. Quills dusky, the secondaries white towards the base. 

The tail-feathers becoming more cinereous from the two dark middle ones. 

In winter the plumage below is white, and above cinereous, with dusky 

streaks. Female like the male — Nest unknown. The young have the dusky 

plumage of the back, with yellowish borders, and spots of the same colour ; 

and the breast with waved dusky lines — This species occurs in small flocks 



Charadrius. BIRDS. PRESSIROSTRFS. US 

during winter. It probably breeds with us, as Mr Simmonds observed it in 
the Mull of Cantyre oil the 2d J une (Linn. Trans, viii. 268), and Mi Bul- 
lock in the end of June, in " the most northern part of Scotland." — Mont. 
Orn. Diet. Suppt. 

Gen. LXXV. CHARADRIUS. Plover. — Bill shorter 
than the head, upper mandible swollen dorsally near the 
end. 

163. C. Pluvialis. Green Plover. — Bill and legs dusky, plu- 
mage, above, black, with yellowish green spots. 

Pluvialis viridis, Will. Orn. 229. Sibb. Scot. 19 — Char. Pluv. Linn. Syst. 

i. 254 Golden Plover, Penn. Brit. Zool. ii. 474 — Char. Pluv. Temm. 

Orn. ii. 535 E, Grey Plover, Whistling Plover ; IP, Cwttyn yr aur. 

— Common on heaths in summer, and the sea-shore in winter. 

Length 11, breadth 24 inches ; weight 9 ounces. Bill one inch. Irides ha- 
zel. Front, and a space above the eyes, white ; neck white, with dusky and 
yellow spots ; belly white. Breast black. Quills dusky, with white margins. 
Tail of 12 feathers. In winter the black on the back tildes to dusky, and the 
black on the breast disappears. The female has the black on the breast less 

distinct Nest, of a few rushes, in heaths. Eggs 4, cinereous-olive, blotched 

with dusky — In the young the yellow is less bright, and the whole, plumage 
has a cinereous tinge. 

164. C. Mormellus. Dottrel. — Bill and legs dusky ; breast 
dull orange, passing, above, into a transverse line of white, sur- 
mounted by a narrow one of black. 

Morinellus Anglorum, Will. Orn. 230. Sibb. Scot. 19 — Char. Mor. 

Linn. Syst. i. 254. Penn. Brit. Zool. ii. 477- Temm. Orn. ii. 537 

W, Huttan ; G, Amadan mointich. — A summer visitant. 

Length 10, breadth 19 inches; weight 5 ounces. Bill an inch in length. 
Irides hazel. Feet with a greenish tinge. Cheeks, throat, and a broad stripe 
from above the eyes to the nape, white ; crown and belly black. Back olive- 
brown, with ferruginous margins. Vent and thighs rufous. Quills dusky- 
brown; the shaft of the first white. Tail of 12 feathers; brown, barred near 
the end with black, and tipped with white. In winter the plumage, above, 
has a cinereous tinge. The female has likewise more cinereous, and the black- 
on the belly is mixed with white. — Nest unknown — The young have the 
crown reddish, with longitudinal dark streaks. — This species appears in Eng- 
land and the south of Scotland in April, and again in September. On the 
Grampians, however, there is reason to believe that it breeds. In the Statis- 
tical Account of the Parish of Carmylie (vol. i. 437), it is said, " The dot- 
trels, birds of passage, alight on the rising grounds, about the beginning of 
April, continue here about three weeks, remove to the Grampian hills about 
12 miles to the northward, and revisit this parish about the beginning of Au- 
gust. After abiding here about three weeks, they fly off to the southward, 
and are not seen till the first of April following." Colonel Thornton inform- 
ed Montagu that he saw dottrels in pairs on the Grampians ; but not young 
birds. 



165. C. Hiaticida. Ringed Plover. — Bill and legs orange : 
breast with a large black patch encircling the neck. 

Will. Orn. 230. Sibb. Scot. 19. Linn. Syst. 253. Penn. Brit. Zool. 
ii. 479. Temm. Orn. i. 539 — E, Ring Dottrel, Sea Lark, Dulwilly ; .V, 
Sandy Laverock, 2V, Sandy Loo ltesident. 

VOL. I. j[ 



114 BIRDS. PRESSIROSTRES. Oidicnemus- 

Length 7$, breadth 16 inches; weight 2 ounces. Bill half an inch long, 
with the point black. Claws black. Irides hazel. Front and cheeks black, 
the former divided by a white band between the eyes. Above light brownish- 
ash ; the greater covers tipped with white. Throat, extending round the 
neck, and belly, white. Quills dusky, a part of the shafts and webs at the 
base white. Tail of 12 feathers, the exterior ones longest; the two mid- 
dle ones brown, dusky towards the tips; the three next black towards 
the end ; the next with only a brown band on the inner web ; the out- 
er one white. Plumage less bright in winter, particularly the black patch 
on the breast. In the female the white on the front is less, that on the wings 
greater, and the plumage is more cinereous — Nest in a cavity in the sand 
near high-water mark. Eggs 4, cinereous-brown, with black and grey spots. 

The young have the black dusky, and they are destitute of the white frontal 

band. The bill is dusky, and the feet are yellowish-brown.— -This species 
frequents all our shores ; feigns lameness to lead intruders from its nest ; and 
becomes gregarious during the winter. 



As a straggler only must we here record the Kentish Plover of Latham, the 
C. Alexandrinus, Linn, Syst. i. 253.. — Ch. Cantianus, Temm. Orn. ii. 544. — 
It differs from the ringed plover in size, being a little less ; in the bill and feet 
being black ; the front above the eye, a band on the nape, and below, being, 
white ; lores, triangular patch on the head, and one on each side the breast, 
black. The head is ferruginous ; the two outer tail-feathers white. Dr La- 
tham received one from Mr Boys of Sandwich 23d May 1787, and two others 
in April 1791' Though Temminck describes this bird, unhesitatingly, as a 
distinct species, it should be mentioned, that Montagu (in Lin. Trans, vii. 
281., and Orn. Diet. Suppt.) is somewhat confident that the Alexandrine and 
Kentish Plovers of Latham and Lewin are only the stages of the ringed plo- 
ver towards maturity ; — an opinion which the circumstances of the case ren- 
der probable. 

Gen. LXXVI. OIDICNEMUS. Thick-knee. — Bill lon- 
ger than the head. Both mandibles swollen at the extre- 
mity. 

166. O. Bellonii. Common Thick-knee. — Base of the bill, 
margin of the eye-lids, irides, and legs, yellow. 

Will. Orn. 227 — Charadrius Oidicnemus, Linn. Syst. i. 255 Thick- 
kneed Bustard, Penn. Brit. Zool. i. 287. — Oid- crepitans, Temm. Orn. 

ii. 521 — E, Stone Curlew, Norfolk Plover Summer visitant of the 

eastern counties of England. 

Length 18, breadth 36 inches; weight 18 oz. Bill about two inches long, 
the tip black. Behind the eye there is a small space bare of feathers, of a yel- 
lowish green, mostly concealed by the ear covers. Plumage, above, reddish- 
brown, with black streaks. Above and beneath the eye a pale stroke. Breast, bel- 
ly, and a band across the wings, white. Quills black, the two first with abroad 
bar of white across each web. Tail of 12 feathers, short, a dark band crosses 

the middle of each, the tips are black, the rest white. Female similar Nest 

in fields, on the bare ground. — Eggs 2, dirty white, with dark bloody blotches. 
— Young run immediately after being hatched, and skulk among stones. 
( While's Selb. i. 7t>.) — Arrives in March, departs in October. Occasionally 
remains during the winter. 



Hem ato pus. BIRDS. PRESSIROSTRES. 115 

Gen. LXXVII. PLEMATOPUS. Ovster-catcheii. — 
Bill much longer than the head, straight, compressed. 
Toes flat below. The first quill longest. 

167. H. Ostralegus. Common Oyster-catcher. — Bill, hi- 
des, and margin of the eye-lids, scarlet. 

H. Bellonii, Will. Orn. 220. Sibb. Scot. 19 H. ost. Linn. Syst. i. 

257. Penn. Brit. Zool. ii. 482. Temm. Orn. ii. 531 £, Sea Pie, Tir- 

ma, Trillechan ; 2V, Chalder, Skeldrake. — Common on the sea-shore. 
Length 17, breadth 32 inches ; weight 16 ounces. Bill 3 inches long; legs 
reddish ; claws hooked, hollow and black. Head, neck, upper part of the back, 
scapulars, and upper wing-covers, black ; lower part of the back, rump, great- 
er wing-covers, and belly, white. Quills black, with white on the inner webs. 
Tail black at the tip, white at the base. In winter there is a white crescent 

on the throat, and a white spot under the eye. Female like the male Nest, 

of a few lichens, on rocks or gravel. Eggs 2, olive-brown, blotched with 
black — In the young the black is dusky ; the feathers with brownish margins. 
— Feeds on shell-fish, which it detaches and penetrates with its stout bill. 
Though usually considered as a shore bird, I have observed it breeding on 
the islands in the Tummel at Moulincarn, between Dunkeld and Blair 
Athol. 

Gen. LXXVIII. OTIS. Bustard.— Bill about the length 
of the head, incurvated. Nostrils exposed. The third 
quill the longest. 

168. O. Tarda. Great Bustard. — Bill compressed at the 
base. Head and neck ash-coloured. 

Will. Orn. 129. Sibb. Scot. 16. Linn. Syst. i. 2G4. Penn. Brit. Zool. i. 
284. Temm. Orn. ii. 506 — Resident in Norfolk. 

Length 4, breadth 9 feet ; weight 25 pounds. Bill greyish-white ; legs 
black, irides reddish-brown. A tuft of long feathers on each side of the lower 
mandible. Above, yellowish-red, with black rays: beneath, white. Quills 
black, tipped with white. Tail of 20 feathers, ferruginous, barred with black ; 
the outer ones nearly white. Furnished with a gular pouch for holding wa- 
ter. Female less ; destitute of the long moustaches and gular pouch Nest 

on the bare ground — Eggs 2, olive-brown, blotched with rusty and grey 
spots. Young buff-coloured, barred with black above — Feeds on green corn, 
the tops of turnips, and clover. Greatly reduced in its geographical distri- 
bution, by having been long persecuted by the sportsman. In England it is 
now almost confined to Norfolk. In Scotland it seems to have been found in 
the days of Boece : Sibbald, however, seems to view it as rare in his day; and it 
is now reduced to the rank of a straggler. One was shot in 1803, in Murray- 
shire by William Young, Esq. of Boroughhead. 



STRAGGLER. 

0. Tetrax. Little Bustard — Temm. Orn. ii. 507 This species, which is only 

about 16 inches in length, has occurred in England five or six times, as no- 
ticed in the works of Montagu, Bewick, and Selby. It is chiefly a native of 
southern and eastern Europe. 



116 BIRDS. PALMIPIDES. 



PALMIPIDES. 

WATER BIRDS. 

I. Hind toe united with the front toes by a continuous membrane. Nasal 
openings indistinct. 
Phalacrocorax. 
Sula. 
II. Hind toe separate. 

a. Margin of the mandibles with corneous teeth ; the sides of the tongue 
with tufts of pectinated bristles. 

b. Bill broad. Teeth in the form of transverse plates. 

c. Trachea of the male with a capsular enlargement at the bron- 
chial extremity. 

d. Hind toe bordered with a membrane^ 

e. Base of the bill enlarged. 
Oidemia. 
Somateria. 

ee. Base of the bill plain. 
Clangula. 
Nyroca. 

dd. Hind toe not bordered by a membrane. 

e. Bill wide at the extremity. 
Tadorna. 
Spathulea. 

ee. Bill nearly of equal breadth throughout. 
Anas. 

cc. Trachea of the male simple at the bronchial extremity. 
Cygnus. 
Anser. 

bb. Bill narrow ; margins with reflected teeth ; the upper mandible 
hooked at the end. 
Mergus. 

aa. Margin of the bill and tongue destitute of teeth or bristles. 

b. Wings short. BrachypterjE. 

c. Bill compressed and obliquely furrowed. Tridactyle. 
Alca. 
Fratercula. 

cc. Bill conical, subcompressed, and destitute of furrows. 

d. Webs scalloped. A hind toe with a broad web. 
Podiceps. 

dd. Web entire. 

e. Tridactyle. 
Colymbus. 

ee. Tetradactyle. 

/. Upper mandible notched at the point. 
Una. 

ff. Upper mandible plain. 
Cephus. 
Mergulus. 



Phalacrocorax. BIRDS. PALMIPIDES. 117 

■lib. Wings long, and well adapted for flight. Macropterje. 

c. Nostrils prominent, tubular. 
Procellaria. 
Puffinus. 
cc. Nostrils plain. 

d. Bill hooked at the end. 
Cataractes. 
Larus. 

dd. Bill pointed. 
Sterna. 

Gen. LXXIX. PHALACROCORAX. Cormorant.— Bill 
compressed, the margin entire, the extremity hooked. 
Tail rounded. Middle claw serrated. 

169- V. Carbo. Common Cormorant. — Tail of fourteen fea- 
thers. Length of the bill, from the tip to the feathers on the 
front, 2 inches and 3 lines. (Temmmck.) 

Corvus aquaticus, Will Orn. 248 — Sibb. Scot. 20 — PelecanusCarbo, Linn. 

Syst. I. 210. Perm. Brit. Zool. ii. 008 — Carbo cormoranus, Temm. 

Orn. ii. 894 — E, Cole-Goose ; S, Great Scarf or Scart ; W, Mulfran ; 

iV, Brongie, Lorn. — Common. 
Length 3, breadth 4 feet ; weight 6 or 7 pounds. Bill 5 inches long, 
dusky; the bare space at the base yellow. Feet and legs black. Irides 
green. Plumage black, with green and purple reflections ; gorget white ; and 
numerous, slender, white feathers on the head, neck, and thighs. A crest of 
long feathers on the hind head. Quills and tail black. In winter the crest 
is wanting, the gorget is dirty white, the feathers on the back have a cine- 
reous brownish tinge, and the peculiar slender white feathers drop off". Nest 
on rocks, on the shore, or even on trees near large lakes. Eggs 3 or 4, green- 
ish-white, with a rough crust. Young with more brown than even the win- 
ter garb, the bill and irides are brown, and there is no crest — In an example 
taken alive in April, and kept in confinement, by Montagu, the plumage 
changed from the summer to the winter dress, and continued in that state. 
The white gorget, the white on the neck and thighs, and the crest disap- 
peared This species frequently visits fresh water lakes and rivers, and 

readily perches on trees. 

170. P. Gracalus. Common Shag. — Tail long, conical, of 

12 feathers, Length of the bill, from the tip to the feathers 

on the front, 1 inch and 10 lines. (Temm.) 

Corvus aquaticus minor, Will Orn. 249. Sibb. Scot. 20 — Pel. Grac. 
Linn. Syst. 1. 217- Penn. Brit- Zool. Ii. 610 — Carbo Grac. Temm. 
Orn. ii. 897 — E, Shag, Crane ; S, Scart ; W, Y Fulfran leiaf.— Com- 
mon. 

Length 28, breadth 42 inches ; weight 4 pounds. Bill dusky, towards the 
base including the naked skin, yellowish. Irides reddish brown. Legs 
black. Plumage glossy greenish-black. Small white feathers scattered over 
the neck and thighs. Nape with a crest of long green feathers. In winter, 
the white feathers disappear, and the plumage, above, becomes more cinere- 
ous. Nest on rocks, of a few sea-weeds. Eggs 2, with a rough crust. Young 
cinereous on the throat, and the plumage on the back is more or less cine- 
reous-brown. This species seldom leaves the sea-shore. 



118 BIRDS. PALMIPIDES. Sula. 

171. P. cristatus. Crested Shag. — Tail short, rounded, of 
12 feathers. Length, from the tip of the bill to the feathers 
on the front, 2 inches 4 lines. ( Temm.) 

Pel. crist. Fab. Faun. Groen. 90 — Carbo crist. Temm. Orn. ii. 900 — Con- 
founded with the preceding. 
Size like P. graculus, or larger. Bill brown. I rides green. Feet black. 
Plumage deep green, with a tinge of bronze on the back and wings ; each 
feather with a black margin. Crown with a tuft of feathers, upwards of an 
inch long, and capable of erection. Nape with a crest of 10 or 12 long subulate 
feathers. AVings reach to the base of the tail. Tail very short, rounded. 
Plumage destitute of the peculiar, slender, white feathers possessed by the 
two-preceding species. In winter the coronal tuft disappears. Nest and eggs 
like the shag. The young may readily be distinguished by their long slender 
bill and short tail. Above, the plumage is greenish-brown ; beneath, cine- 
reous-brown, with more or less white. The circumstance of each having on- 
ly 12 tail-feathers, has caused the Common and Crested Shags to be confound- 
ed. The one noticed by Montagu in the Supp. Orn. Diet., as having been 
killed by Mr Bullock on the Bass, belongs to the latter species. The prece- 
ding characters, chiefly extracted from Temminck, will serve to point out the 
distinction. 

In the proceedings of the Linnean Society, " Annals of Philosophy," vol. 
xxii. p. 152, it is stated, that, on 3d June 1823, there was read " a letter from 
Mr Robert Anstice, relative to a bird shot in the neighbourhood of Bridge- 
water, varying but little from the crested cormorant, and distinguished by 
having 16 feathers in the tail." No notice is taken of this circumstance in 
the " Extracts from the Minute-book." — Linn. Trans, xiv. p. 582. 

Gen. LXXX. SULA. Gannet.— Margin of the bill ser- 
rated, extremity nearly straight. No occipital osseous ap- 
pendage, as in the preceding genus. 

172. S. Basso ma. Common Gannet. — Plumage white, the 
crown buff colour. 

Anser Bassanus, Will. Orn. 247. Sibb. Scot. 20 Pel. Bass. Linn. Syst. 

i. 217- Perm. Brit. Zool. ii. G12 — S. alba, Temm. Orn. ii. 905 E, 

Gannet ; S, Solan Goose, Solan (Norse Sule) ; W, Gan. — Common. 

Length 3, breadth G feet ; weight 7 pounds. Bill (together with the naked 
spot) bluish, 6 inches long, nearly straight, a little bent at the point, where 
there is a slight nail. Irides yellow. Legs and toes black, with green streaks, 
nails white. Bastard wing and greater quills black. Tail of 12 pointed fea- 
thers, the middle ones longest. — Nest of sea-weeds, on small inaccessible 
islands. Eggs 1, white, rough Young, during the first year, with the plu- 
mage brownish-black, the irides brown. The second year each feather above 
has a white spot at the end ; below, a dusky spot on each side of the shaft* 
Gannets breed in great numbers on the Bass, Souleskerry, St Kilda, Ailsa, 
and Skelig Islands. They betake themselves to the open sea during the win- 
ter, pursuing the shoals of herrings, pilchards, and other fish. They dart 
nearly vertically upon their prey in the water. 

The Great White Pelican (Pelecanm onocrelulus, Temm. Orn. ii. 891.), ana. 
tive of eastern Europe, Avas shot in England, at Horsey Fen, in 16G3, as ap- 
pears from a MS. of T. Brown of Norwich, in the British Museum. Dr 



Oidemia. BIRDS. PALMIP1DES. 119 

Leith is said to have seen a pelican, of a brown colour, fly over his head in 
the month of May at Blackheath in Kent, supposed to be the P.fuscits, an 
American species — Mont. Supp. Orn. Diet. 

Gen. LXXXI. OIDEMIA. Scoter.— Bill tumid at the 
base above. 

173. O.fusca. Velvet Scoter. — Plumage black, with a white 
wing spot. 

Anas niger Aldrov. Will. Orn. 278 — A- fusca, Linn. Syst. i. 196. Perm. 
Brit. Zool. ii. 583. Temm. Orn. ii. 855. (Trachea, Lin. Trans, iv, 

tab. xv. f. 3-7.) E, Velvet Duck, Double Scoter, Great Black Duck ; 

W, Hwyad felfedog A regular winter visitant of the coast. 

Size of the domesticated drake. Bill yellow, the swellings at the base and 
margins black, the nail red. Irides and legs red, claws and webs black. Be- 
low the eye a white crescent. Female with the plumage, above, dusky ; be- 
low, whitish. Tumour at the base of the bill less. Breeds, according to 
Temminck, in the Arctic Regions, but it is not mentioned by Fabricius or 
Sabine. 

174. O. nigra. Black Scoter. — Plumage entirely black. 

A. niger, Will. Orn. 180 A. nigra, Linn. Syst. 1. 196. Penn. Brit. 

Zool. ii. 584. Temm. Orn. ii. 853 — E, Scoter, Black Diver ; W, Y 

for Hwyad ddu — A winter visitant of the coast. 

Length 22, breadth 34 inches ; weight 3 pounds. Bill black, orange in the 

middle! Irides brown, eyelids yellow. Legs and feet dusky, the webs 

black. Tail of 16 pointed feathers, cuneiform. Female inclining to dusky, 

the knob at the base indistinct. Breeding place unknown. 

175. O. lencocephala. White-throated Duck. — Bill blue. 
Front, cheeks, and throat, white. 

Will. Orn. An. 367. {Mont. Orn. Diet. Supp.) Penn. Brit. Zool. ii. tab. 

xcviii Anas leuc. Temm. Orn. ii. 859 — Rare. 

Size of the preceding. Bill with the middle at the base hollowed. Irides 
yellow. Feet greyish-brown. Crown, nape and lower parts of the neck, 
black ; the front, cheeks, and throat, white. Breast, upper parts and sides 
dark red, waved with dusky. Rump reddish-purple. Tail long, black, coni- 
cal, with the feathers grooved. Plumage, below, reddish-white. Female, 
with the crown and nape brown : throat yellowish- white : bill and legs red- 
dish This species seems to be confounded with the preceding. The descrip- 
tion of the female Scoter, by Montagu, has a reference to this species. 

As a straggler may be noticed the O. perspicillata (A. per. Temm. Orn. ii. 
853.) It agrees with O. nigra in wanting the wing spot, and in having the 
plumage black, but the nape and a frontal band are white. The bill is yel- 
low, with a black mark on each side, having in front a space of grey. It is 
said by Temminck to have occurred in Orkney. 

Gen. LXXXII. SOMATERIA. EmER.— Base of the 
bill extending up the forehead, and divided by a triangu- 
lar projection of feathers. 

176. S. mottissima. Common Eider. — Lateral divisions of 
the bill flattened ; bill and legs dusky green. 



1-20 BIRDS. PALMIPIDES. Clangula. 

Eider, Will. Orn. 277- Sibb. Scot. 21 A. moll. Linn. Syst. i. 198. Perm. 

Brit. Zool. ii. 581. Temm. Orn. ii. 848.— £, Edder, Cuthbert Duck ; 
S, Dunter Goose; W, Hwyad fwythblu. — In the islands of Scotland, 
common. 

Length 22 inches, weight 4 pounds. Bill 1\ inches long. Irides brown. 
Crown (with the exception of a white line near the nape), front and sides of 
the head, black. Nape to the throat pea-green. Cheeks, chin, back, and 
breast, white ; the latter with a reddish tinge. Quills and tail brown. The 
belly and rump black. Female less ; plumage reddish-brown, with transverse 

waved black lines Nest of sea- weeds, lined with the dozen, so well known, 

which it plucks from its body. Eggs 5, pale greenish-olive The young male ci- 
nereous, with brown spots ; breast with transverse black and white rays. The 
trachea resembles that of the King Eider. 

177. S. spectabilis. King Eider. — Lateral divisions of the 
bill elevated, arched, ridged ; bill and feet vermillion. 

Anas spect- Linn. Syst. i. 1!)5. Temm. Orn. ii. 851. (Trachea, Linn. 
Trans, xii. tab. xxx. f. 1, 2.) Breeds in the Northern Isles. 

In size nearly equal to the last. Feathers at the base of the bill, black ; 
crown and nape bluish-grey ; cheeks green ; neck, back, and sides of the rump, 
white ; scapulars, lower part of the back, wings, tail, and belly black, Ter- 
tials as in the preceding species, deflected. Female, like that of the preceding 
species in plumage, but the base of the bill furnishes sufficiently distinguish- 
ing marks — Nest of sea-weeds, lined with down. Eggs 6, cinereous-olive — 
Mr Bullock found this species breeding in Papa Westra, Orkney, in the end 
of June — Mont. Supp. Orn. Diet. 

Gen. LXXXIII. CLANGULA.— Bill short and narrow. 

178. C. vulgaris. Golden Eye. — Bill black, legs yellow. 
A white spot under the eye. Wing-spot white. 

Anas platyrynchos mas, Will. Orn. 282 A. Clangula, Linn. Syst. i. 

201. Penn. Brit. Zool. ii. 587- Temm. Orn. ii. 870. (Trachea, Linn. 
Trans, iv. tab. xv. f. 1, 2.) — E, Pied Wigeon ; S, Gowdy Duck ; W, 
Llygad aur A regular winter visitant of the coast and lakes. 

Length 19, breadth 31 inches ; weight 2 pounds. Bill broader at the base 
than the point ; the nostrils small, placed beyond the middle. Irides bright 
yellow. Webs of the toes dusky. Head and upper neck green, with a tinge 
of purple. Lower neck, beneath, part of the scapulars, and greater wing- 
covers, white. Back, rump, and lesser wing-covers, black. Quills black, ex- 
cept seven of the secondaries, which are mostly white. Tail dusky, of 10 
pointed feathers. In the female, the bill is yellowish at the point, the head 
is brown, the feathers on the back dusky, edged with cinereous. Breeds in 
the northern regions, in lakes and ponds (Phil. Trans, lxii. 417«). Young like 
the female. In the second year the white eye-spot appears. The young and 
female have been describe:! by several British writers as the Morillon (A. 
Glaucion, Linn.). The windpipe and tail readily furnish proofs of identity. 

179. C. histrion'ica. Harlequin Duck. — Bill and legs black. 
A white patch befere the eye. Wing-spot blue. 

A- hist. Linn. Syst. i. 204. Sowerli/s Brit. Misc. tab. vi Temm. Orn. ii. 

878. — A rare winter visitant of the north of Scotland. 

Length 1 7, breadth 2(i inches; weight 18 ounces. Bill, with the nostrils 

near the base, above. Irides brown. Legs with a bluish tinge. Head, 

neck, back, wings, and rump, black, with purple reflections. In front of the 



Nyroca. BIRDS. PALMIPIDES. 1^1 

eyes, on the ear, a stripe on the sides of the neck, ring round the lower part 
of the neck (which is edged with black), crescent on the breast, and a few of 
the scapulars, white. Breast blue. Belly brown, reddish on the sides. The 
stripe above the eye reddish. Tail brown. Female less, plumage, above, 
brown ; beneath, including the breast, white ; cheeks, throat, and round the 
lower part of the neck, white, with a rufous tinge. In this state it is the 
Anas minuta, Linn. Syst. i. 204. A pair, male and female, were sent from 
Scotland to Mr Sowerby by Lord Seaforth ; and Mr Simmons gave him a 
young female, which he shot in one of the Orkney Islands. 

180. C. glacialls. Long-tailed Duck. — Bill black, crossed 
with orange. Legs red. A black spot on the ear. Wing- 
spot brown. Middle tail-feathers produced. 

A. caudacuta Islandica, Will. Orn. 290. — A. glac. (et hvemalis), Linn. 
Syst. i. 203. Penn. Brit. Zool. ii. 590. Tcmm. Orn. ii. 860.— (Trachea 
Mont. Orn. Diet. Supp. iii, iv., and Linn. Trans, xii. tab. xxx. f. 3, 4.) 
— S, Coal-and-Candle-light ; N, Calloo — A winter visitant. — Rare in 
England. 

Length 22, breadth 29 inches ; weight 24 ounces. Irides orange. Claws 
black. Crown and back of the neck black. Neck, scapulars, and belly white ; 
the sides of the neck, cheeks, and front, brown, with a tinge of grey ; breast, 
wing-covers, and back, deep chesnut, inclining to black. Primaries dusky ; 
secondaries brown. Tail, with the four middle feathers black, the rest white: 
the two middle feathers produced 3 inches beyond the others. — In winter the 
crown is white. Female destitute of the long tail-feathers; the front and 
cheeks are bluish-white, breast variegated with grey and brown ; feathers on 
the back bordered with greyish-red. Breeds in the Arctic Regions. Young 
like the female. — It resides in Zetland from October to April, in small flocks, 
feeding in shallow water near the shore. 

Gen. LXXXIV. NYKOCA.— Bill broad and depressed. 

181. N. leucophthalmos. White Eye. — Bill and legs blue. 
.Irides white. Wing-spot white and black. 

Anas fera fusca minor, Will Orn. 281 — Ferruginous Duck, Penn. Brit. 

Zool. ii. 501 — A. nyroca, Sower. Brit. Misc. tab. xxi A. Africana, 

Bullock, linn. Trans, ix. 178. — A. leuc. Temm. Orn. ii. 876 (Trachea, 

Mont. Orn. Diet. Supp. i. 1J.) — A winter visitant of England. 
Length and breadth 17 inches ; weight 33 ounces. Bill long, with a black 
nail ; webs black. Head, neck, breast, and sides, ferruginous, with a collar 
of a darker colour. A white spot on the chin. Back and wings black, with 
purple gloss, and small red spots. Belly and under tail-covers white. Vent 
brown. Quills dusky, the secondaries white, with black ends. Tail of 14 
brown feathers. In "the female the head is brown, and the back dusky. This 
species frequents rivers and lakes. 

182. N.jer'ma. Pochard. — Bill black, with a blue band in 
the middle ; legs blue. Irides orange. No wing-spot. 

Anas fera fusca, Will. Orn. 288 — A. ferina, Linn. Svst. i. 203 Penn. 

Brit. Zool. ii. 000. Tcmm. Orn. ii. 8C8 — (Trachea^ Linn. Trans, iv. 
tab. xiv. f. 5, 6.) — E, Poker, Red-headed Wigeon, Blue Poker, Dun- 
cur; W, Hwyad bengoch. — A winter visitant of the sea-coast. 
Length 19, breadth 30 inches; weight 28 ounces. Head and neck glossy 
chesnut ; upper part of the back, round to the breast, rump, and under tail- 
covers, black ; scapulars, wing.covers, and belly, greyish-white and variegated. 



122 BIRDS. PALMIPIDES. Tadorna. 

Quills dusky. Tail of 14 feathers, dusky- Female, with the head, neck, and 
breast brown, mixed with white round the eyes and throat. Young like the 
female. The black colour on the breast of the young males does not make 
its appearance during the first year. 

183. N. Mania. Scaup. Bill blue ; legs grey. Irides yel- 
low. Wing-spot white. 

The Scaup Duck, Will. Orn. 279. — Anas marila, Linn. Syst. i." 196 — 
Perm. Brit. Zool. ii. 586. Temm. Orn. ii. 856. — (Trachea, Linn. 
Trans, iv. tab. xiv. f. 3, 4.) — E, Spoonbill Duck ; W, Llygad arian, — 
A winter visitant of the sea-coast and lakes. 

Length 17 inches ; weight 25 ounces. Head, neck, upper part of the back, 
rump, vent, and breast black, the two former with a green gloss ; back, wing- 
covers, and sides, white, variegated with black. Belly white. Quills dusky, 
the secondaries white, tipped with black, tail pointed, of 16 feathers. Female, 
having the black replaced by brown, with a broad white band round the base 
of the bill. In this state it is the Anas f res nata of Sparman, and the White- 
faced Duck of Sowerby, Brit. Misc. lxii. The young males resemble the fe- 
male, and have a few white feathers at the base of the bill. The young fe- 
males have little white or m-ev on the back. 



a 



184. N. Fuligula. Tufted Duck.— Bill and legs blue. Iri- 
des yellow. Wing-spot white. 

Anas Fuligula, Will. Orn. 280. Linn. Syst. i. 207. Penn. Brit. Zool. ii. 

585. Temm. Orn. ii. 873. — A winter visitant of our sea-coasts and 

lakes. 
Length 17 inches ; weight 25 ounces. Nail of the bill black. Head, with 
a pendent crest. The head, neck, and upper parts of the body, black, with a 
green and violet gloss, the back with specks of grey ; belly white ; thighs 
and vent black. Quills dusky, the middle of the secondaries white. Tail 
cuneiform, of 14 feathers. Female with the plumage less distinctly marked. 
The young want the crest, and have the front white — In England its visits 
are regular ; but in Orkney and Zetland it only appears after severe, stormy 
weather. 

As a domesticated species, the Carina moschata, Anas mos. Linn. Syst. i. 1 99. 
(Trachea, Linn. Trans, iv. tab. xiv. f. 1, 2. tab. xvi. f. 5, 6.), or Musk Duck, here 
merits a place. It is a native of tropical countries, yet it thrives in Britain, 
lays many eggs, and its flesh is good. The drakes, however, are fierce, and 
often injure the other poultry. The musky smell is connected with the fea- 
thers only, and has given rise to the name. 

Gen. LXXXV. TADORNA. Sheldrake.— Bill broad at 
the end, hollow in the middle, and raised into a tubercle 
at the base. 

185. T. Vulpanser. Common Sheldrake. — Bill and legs 

red ; nail of the bill and nostrils black. 

T. Bellonii, Vulpanser quibusdam, Will. Orn. 278 — Skeeling-goose, Sibb. 

Scot. 21 Anas Tadorna, Linn. Syst. i, 195 — Penn. Brit. Zool. ii. 589. 

Temm. ii. 833 (Trachea, Linn. Trans, iv. tab. xv. f. 8, 9.) — E, Bur- 
row Duck, Bargander, Pirennet ; S, Stockannet, Sly-goose. 

Length 2, breadth 3£ feet ; weight 2| pounds. Head and neck dark 
glossy green. Lower part of the neck next to the breast, back, rump, and 



Spathulea. BIRDS. PALMiriDES. 123 

sides of the belly white. Breast, along the middle of the belly, and upper 
part of the back, red. Outer half of the scapulars and quills black, the se- 
condaries glossed with green. Tail of 14 white feathers, tipped with black. 
Female, with the tubercle at the base of the bill less, and the colours of the 
plumage more obscure — Nest in old rabbit-holes near the shore. Eggs 12 to 
16, of a white colour. — Young have the head and neck whitish, and the bill 
and legs flesh coloured, — Easily tamed, but is seldom fertile in a confined 
state. 

Gen. LXXXVI. SPATHULEA. Shoveler.— Bill de- 
pressed, much enlarged in breadth at the extremity ; the 
teeth long, and lock into each other when the mouth is 
closed. 

186. S. clypeata. Common Shoveler. — Bill black ; legs red ; 

wing- spot deep green. 

A. platyrhynchos, Will. Orn. 283 — A. clypeata, Linn. Syst. i. 200. Penn. 
Brit. Zool. ii. 596. Temm. Orn. ii. 842 — (Trachea, Linn. Trans, iv. 
tab. xiii. f. 4, 5.) — E, Blue-winged Shoveler ; W, Hwyad lydanbig, 
— A winter visitant. 

Length 21 inches ; weight 22 ounces. Bill 3 inches in the gape, rounded 
at the margin, with a small incurved nail. Irides yellow. Head and neck 
glossy green ; breast and scapulars white. Back, sides, and belly brown, the 
latter paler ; vent black. Wing-covers blue. Quills brown, the secondaries 
green on the outer webs. Tail of 1 4 dusky feathers, edged with white ; the 
outer ones wholly white ; the rump, and upper and under tail-covers, glossy 
green. Female, with the margin of the bill at the base orange ; plumage in 
general mottled rufous brown, and black — Nest on the margins of lakes. Eggs 
12, clear greenish yellow Young like the female. In the intermediate plu- 
mage the young males have been characterised as a species under the name 
of the " Red-breasted Shoveler." The Shoveler frequents fresh water lakes. 
A few pairs probably remain to breed with us : Indeed, Mr Youell has found 
their nest and eggs, Linn. Trans, xiii. 6, 15. 

Gen. LXXXVII. ANAS. Duck.— Bill plain above the 
nostrils, and depressed. 

187. A. Boschas. Common Duck. — Bill green ; legs orange. 

Wing-spot purple. Four middle tail-feathers recurved. 

Boschas major, Will. Orn. 284. Siib. Scot. 21 — A. Bos. Linn. Syst. i. 

205. Penn. Brit. Zool. ii. 591. Temm. Orn. ii. 85 (Trachea, Linn. 

Trans, iv. tab. xiii. f. 10.)— -E, Mallard; S, Stock Duck, Mire Duck ; 
W, Cors Hwyad, Garan Hwyad, Hydnwy ; G, Lacha chinn uaine. — 
Common near marshes. 

Length 23, breadth 35 inches ; weight 40 ounces. The bill has a yellowish 
tinge. Irides brown. Head and neck a rich green, ending in a white collar ; 
breast and upper back brown. Back variegated with white and brown ; belly 
similar, but lighter. Wing-covers with a white band, edged with black. Se- 
condaries fine purple, ending in black, with white tips. Rump and both covers 
of the tail black. Tail of 20 pointed feathers, the four recurved ones glossy 
greenish-black, the rest greyish-brown, margined with white. Female brown, 
with dusky spots and lines ; throat white, the middle tail-feathers not re- 
curved — Nest of dry grass, lined Avith its own feathers and down. Eggs 10 



124 BIRDS. PALMIPIDES. Anas. 

to 18, bluish-white — Young males like the female. — This species has suffered 
much from the operations of agriculture, many of its haunts and breeding 
places having been drained. It is the stock from which the domestic duck 
has sprung. 

188. A. strepcra. Gadwall. — Bill black ; feet orange. Wing- 
spot white. 

A. platyrhvnchos rostro nigro, Will. Orn. 287 — A. strep. Linn. Svst. i« 
200. " Perm. Brit. Zool. ii. 603. Temm. Orn. ii. 837-— (Trachea, Linn. 
Trans, iv. tab. xiii. f. 7, 8.) — E, Gray, Rodge. — A rare winter visi- 
tant. 

Length 19, breadth 33 inches. Bill 2 inches long. Irides brown. Head 
and neck grey, with brown spots ; breast and back rayed with black and white 
lines. Lesser wing-covers chesnut ; greater covers, rump, and both covers 
of the tail, black. Belly white. Greater quills dusky ; three of the secon- 
daries with the inner web white. Tail short, of 16 pointed feathers, grey, 
with a tinge of red, and pointed with white. Female reddish-brown, spotted 
with black, the rump and tail-covers grey. — This species is so rare in Eng- 
land (though common in other countries of Europe in the same latitude), that 
Montagu was never able to procure a recent species for examination. 

189- A. acuta. Cracker. — Bill blue, feet dusky. Wing- 
spot purple. The two middle tail-feathers produced. 

A. caudacuta, Will. Orn. 289 — A. acuta, Linn. Syst. i. 202. Penn. Brit. 

Zool. ii. 598. Temm. Orn. ii. 839 — (Trachea, Linn. Trans, iv. tab. xiii. 

f. 6.). — S, Sea Pheasant, Pintail, Winter Duck — W, Hwyad gynffon- 

fain — Frequently taken in decoys on the English coast Rare in 

Scotland. 
Length 28, breadth 38 inches ; weight 24 ounces. Bill inclining to black 
in the middle. Irides brown. Head, cheeks, and throat brown, glossed with 
purple. A black stripe on the hind neck, bordered with white, the latter co- 
lour meeting with the white of the breast and belly. Back waved with black 
and grey. Scapulars nearly black. Quills dusky brown ; secondaries pur- 
plish-green, black near the end, and tipped with white. Tail of 16 pointed 
feathers, grey, edged with white ; the two middle ones black. Female less ; 
head and neck brown, with dusky spots; beneath yellowish-brown and spot- 
ted. Young males like the female. Retires to the Arctic Regions in sum- 
mer Easily domesticated, and breeds in confinement. 

190. A. Penelope. Wigeon. — Bill and feet blue. Wing- 
spot black, green in the middle. 

Penelope, Will. Orn. 288 — A. Penelope, Linn. Syst. i. 202. Penn. Brit. 
Zool. ii. 601. Temm. Orn. ii. 840. (Trachea, Linn. Trans, iv. tab. xiii. 
f. 9.) — -B, Whewer, Pandle-whew, Yellow Pole — S, Ateal ; W, Chwiw. 
— A regular winter visitant. 

Length 20, breadth 35 inches ; weight 24 ounces. The nail of the bill is 
black. The hind-toe has a narrow web. Irides brown, vermiform appen- 
dages, nearly 9 inches in length, and having their origin nearly 4 inches from 
the cloaca. Crown yellowish -white ; head and neck chesnut, the front with 
black spots ; breast vinaceous ; belly white ; back and sides waved black and 
white ; wing-covers white, the greater covers with black ends- Quills dusky, 
secondaries green, ending with black. Tail of 1 4 pointed dusky feathers ; under 
tail-covers black. Female, with the head and neck brown, spotted with black ; 
back and belly much tinged with brown ; the wing-spots grey. The young 
resemble the female. In aged males the yellow on the crown becomes more 

extended This species frequents inlets of the sea, and likewise visits the 

neighbouring fresh-water lakes. The figure given by Pennant of the " Fer- 



Anas. BIRDS. PALMIPIDES. 125 

ruginous Duck," was probably taken from a male wigeon in the first year's 
plumage. 

191. A. Querquedula. Garganey. — Bill black, feet grey. 
Wing-spot greyish-green, with white borders. 

Quer, prima, Will. Orn. 291. Sibb. Scot. 21 — A. Quer. Linn. Syst. i. 
203. Penn. Brit. Zool. ii. 604. Temm. Orn. ii. 844 — (Trachea, Linn. 
Trans, iv. tab. xiii. f. 2, 3.) — E, Pied Wigeon, Summer Teal, Crucket 
Teal W, Hwyad addfain. — A winter visitant. 

Length 17, breadth 28 inches ; weight 14 ounces. Irides brown. Crown, 
nape, and chin black, with white dots. Front, cheeks, and fore-neck brown ; 
a white stripe from the eye down each side of the neck. Breast and back 
brown, with semicircvdar black bars. Belly white, or yellowish ; sides waved, 
vent mottled with dusk}'. Wing-covers grey, w 7 ith white margins. Tail 
of 14 pointed feathers. Female brown, the eye-stripe spotted. The young 
like the female. — It is probable that it breeds in England, as Montagu " re- 
ceived it from the decoys of Somersetshire, in the month of April, by the 
name of Summer Teal, and was informed that it made its appearance on those 
pools always about that time," (Orn. Diet.). — According to Mr Low, it is 
common in Orkney, during the winter, in stormy weather. 

192. A. Crecca. Teal. — Bill dusky ; feet grey. Wing-spot 

green and black, with two white bands. 

Querquedula secunda, Will. Orn. 290. Sibb. Scot. 21. — A. crec, Linn. 
Syst. i. 204. Penn. Brit. Zool. ii. 606. Temm. Orn. ii. 846 ; (Trachea, 
Linn. Trans, iv. tab. xiii. f. 1 .) — Resident on fresh-water lakes. 

Length 15, breadth 27 inches ; weight 14 ounces. Head and neck chesnut ; 
chin black. From the eyes, down each side of the neck, a broad stripe of 
glossy purplish-gr"een, ending on the hind neck in a patch of purplish-black. 
Between the green and brown, under the eye, a white line. Lower part of 
the neck, sides, and back, waved with black and white. Breast reddish-white, 
with round black spots. Belly yellowish-white. Vent black, with yellowish- 
white sides. Quills dusky ; secondaries green and black, the foremost edged 
with white ; their covers with reddish-white ends ; scapulars black and white. 
Tail of 16 pointed dusky feathers. (I have found 18 in one specimen which 
had the purplish-black patch on the hind neck.) Female with brown plumage ; 
the eye-stripe reddish-white, with brown spots ; throat white — Nest among 
rushes. Eggs 12, reddish-white, with brown spots — Young like the female. 

193. A. gloc'itans. Bimaculated Duck. — Bill blue. Feet 

yellow, with black Avebs. Wing-spot green, divided by black, 

and ending in white. 

Penn. Brit. Zool. ii. 602. tab. c. no. 287« — Querquedula glocitans. Vigors, 
Linn. Trans, xiv. 559. — A rare winter visitant. 

Length 20, breadth 25 inches. Length of the bill to the front ly^ths, of 
the gape 2 T I 5 th inches. Head a changeable green, with a ferruginous spot 
before and another behind the eye. Breast rust)' -brown, spotted with black. 
Hind neck and back waved with black and brown. Wing-covers and quills 
grey ; the secondaries green, ending in a shade of black, and edged with white. 
Tail of 16 feathers (12 according to Pennant), brown, edged with white; the 
two middle ones black, and a little produced. 'The female has the head red- 
dish-white, with black lines ; the back brown, with light edges ; the two mid- 
die tail-feathers not produced. The specimen described by Pennant was 
sent to him, in 1771, from a decoy by Mr Poore. Two specimens, supposed 
male and female, came into Mr Vigors' possession, which were taken in a de- 
coy near Maiden, Essex. They were purchased in Leadenhall market, in the 
winter of 1812-13, by Mr George Weighton. The history of this species is 
still involved in obscurity. 



126 BIRDS. PALMIPIDES. Cygnus. 

Gen. LXXXVIII. CYGNUS. Swan.— Bill of nearly equal 
breadth throughout ; the nostrils near the middle ; neck 
long. 

194. Q,. ferus. Wild Swan. — Base of the bill destitute of a 
protuberance. 

Will. Orn. 272. Sibb. Scot. 21.— Anas Cygnus, Linn. Syst.i. 194 Penn. 

Brit. Zool. ii. 5G2. Temm. Orn. ii. 828 — E, Elk, Hooper, Whistling 
Swan ; JV, Alarch gwyllt — A winter visitant. 

Length 58, breadth 84 inches; weight 25 pounds. Bill nearly 5 inches in 
length, black, yellow on the sides, at the base, reaching nearly to the eye, and 
a triangular yellow spot above. Feet black. Windpipe enters a cavity in the 
breast-bone, and is reflected before terminating in the bronchia?. — (Phil. 
Trans. Ivi. tab. x. f. 1., and Lin. Trans, iv. tab. xii. f. 1, 2.) Irides brown. 
Plumage white ; the head and neck sometimes tinged with yellow. The fe- 
male is less — Nest in rushes, on the margin of lakes. Eggs 5, olive-green, 
with a white crust — The young have the plumage grey ; the naked space be- 
fore the eyes livid, and the feet grey, with a tinge of red. A few pairs of this 
species formerly bred in the Loch of Stennis, Orkney. 

The Cygnus mansuelus, or Tame Swan, a native of eastern Europe and Asia, 
may be enumerated among our domesticated birds, though it be but half re- 
claimed. It is larger than the preceding, and is readily distinguished by a 
black callous knob at the upper base of the bill. This species has been long 
esteemed as highly ornamental on pieces of water in pleasure grounds. 

Gen. LXXXIX. ANSER. Goose.— Bill conical ; shorter 
than the head. 

* Bill and legs coloured. 

195. A. palustris. Grey Goose. — Bill and legs flesh-co- 
loured ; nail and claws white ; wings not reaching to the end 
of the tail. 

Lister, Phil. Trans, xv. no. 175. p. 1159. — Ray, Syn. Av. 138. Penn. 
Brit. Zool. ii. 570. — Anas Anser ferus, Temm. Orn. ii. 818. — E, Grey 
Lagg ; S, Stubble Goose.— Resident, breeding in the fen counties of 
England. 

Length 2|, breadth 5 feet ; weight 1 pounds. Bill large and elevated. 
Iridis grey. Head, neck, back, and rump, grey ; feathers on the neck loose 
and furrowed. Breast and belly white, clouded with grey. Wing-covers 
white, or grey, edged with white. Quills grey, tipped with black, and edged 
with white ; secondaries black. Tail feathers dusky, tipped with white, the 
exterior ones nearly all white ; upper and under covers white. Female small- 
er. — Nest in marshes. Eggs 8, of a dirty white colour. In Lincolnshire these 
birds are resident ; but, in other places, they retire during the breeding sea- 
son. This species, as the only permanently resident one, and the young of 

which could be taken and tamed, was reclaimed, at an early period, and is the 
stock of our domestic geese. Lister, in describing this species, says, u Ros- 
trum a capite ad mediam fere partem nigrum, deinde subpurpureum, ipso 
ejus apice nigro." — " Pedes subpurpurei sive carnei coloris ; ungues fere al- 
bidi excepto medii digiti, qui ex majore parte nigricat." 

196. A. ferus. Wild Goose. — Middle of the bill and legs 



Ctgnus. BIRDS. PALMIPIDES. 127 

orange ; base of the bill, nail, and claws black. Wings reach- 
ing beyond the end of the tail. 

Scotch Goose; sc. vulgatissimus ferus, Lister, Phil. Trans, xv. 1159. — 
WilL Orn. 274. Ray, Syn. A v. 13u" — Bean Goose, Penn. Brit. Zool. 
ii. 575. — A. segetum, Temm. Orn. ii. 820. — E, Common Wild Goose, 
Bean Goose, Small Grey Goose — A regular winter visitant. 

Length 2 T 7 5 ths, breadth 4 a iths feet ; weight 6'i pounds. Bill depressed, 
compressed near the end. Irides brown. Head and neck grey, inclining to 
brown above. Back, scapulars, and wing-covers grey, with pale margins, and 
tinged with brown. Hump dusky. Quills black ; the outer webs grey ; se- 
condaries grey, with black margins ; belly and tail-covers white. Breeds in 
the Arctic ltegions. The young have the neck yellowish, and the front spotted 
with white. This species arrives in autumn, and departs in spring, frequent- 
ing wheat fields. It is named, in Lincolnshire, Bean Goose, from the resem- 
blance which the black nail of the bill bears to a horse bean. — Linnaeus con- 
founded this species with the preceding, under the title A?ias Anser. I have 
adopted the names of Ray, who, by the assistance of Lister, clearly distin- 
guished the two species. 

197. A. Erythropiis. Laughing Goose. — Bill and feet orange ; 
the former with a white nail. Front white. 

Anas eryth. Linn. Syst. i. 197 — White-fronted Goose, Penn. Brit. Zool. 
ii. 576. — Anas albifrons, Temm. ii. 821 — A regular winter visitant. 
Length 2\, breadth 4| feet; weight 5 pounds. Head and neck greyish- 
brown. Back and sides brown, with pale margins. Quills black ; the secon- 
daries tipped with black. Breast and belly white, with scattered black feath- 
ers. Vent and tail-covers white. Tail dusky black ; the outer feathers near- 
ly white ; the rest edged with that colour. The young have generally three 
white spots in front. This species keeps in small flocks during the winter, 
and is killed on the coast, and in rivers, in severe winters. 

** Bill and le<?s black: 

198. A. Bernicla. Bernacle or Claikis. — Head white ; neck 
and breast black. 

Bernacle, Lister, Phil. Trans, xv. 1159 — Bernicla, Will. Om.2W.—Sibb. 
Scot. 21 — Penn. Brit. Zool. ii. 577. — Anas leucopsis, Temm. Orn. ii. 
823 — A winter visitant. 

Length 2 T l 5 th, breadth 4 T 5 2 ths feet ; weight 5 pounds. Irides dark brown. 
Back, scapulars, and wing-covers, grey, black, and white ; below white. Quills 
and tail black. The young birds have a dark stripe from the bill to the eye, 
and the white of the head is mottled with dusky. This species retires early' 
It is celebrated in the annals of ignorance, as "the bird supposed to be bred 
from the bernacle shell. 

199. A. Brenta. Brent Goose. — Head, neck, and breast 
black. A white patch on each side the neck. 

Wilk, Lister, Phil. Trans, xv. 1159 — Brenta, Will. Orn. 275 Penn. Brit. 

Zool. ii. 579 — Anas Bernicla, Temm. Orn. ii. 824 E, Rat or Road 

Goose, Glatter Goose. — A winter visitant, frequenting meadows and 
grass fields. 

Length 29 inches, weight 2| pounds. Irides dark-brown. Lower part of 
the breast,_ back, scapulars, and wing-covers, mottled ash-colour ; middle of the 
belly greyish-brown ; sides grey. Vent and under tail-covers white. Rump 
and tad black. The young are destitute of the white patch on the side of the 



128 BIRDS. PALMIPIDES. Mercus. 

neck, and the feet have a reddish tinge. Linnaeus confounded this and the 
preceding species, under the title Anas Bernicla, although they had previously 
been well distinguished by "Willoughbv. Temminck censures Linnaeus for 
bestowing the trivial name erythropiis on the bernacle. The error, however, 
does not belong to Linnaeus. Had the celebrated Dutch naturalist looked at 
the description of Linnaeus, he would have found, that, under the name ery- 
thropus, the laughing goose is well described ; and, had he glanced at the pages 
of Willoughby, he would have perceived the inexpediency of adopting the 
epithet " Leucopsis," from Bechstein, as " Bernicla" had long preoccupied 
its place ; and avoided the employment of " Bernicla" to designate the 
" Brenta." 

As a straggler, the Anser rufaollis, (Anas ruficollis Bed-breasted Goose, 
Temm. Orn. h. 82G.), here merits a place. It may readily be distinguished by its 
brown bill, with the black nail and feet. The crown, throat, belly, and tail 
black ; the vent, rump, and tail-covers white ; the front of the neck and breast 
red. This species, a native of eastern and northern Europe, has been two or 
three times found in this country. One was shot near London, in 1 7CC, and 
another taken alive in Yorkshire, according to Montagu. One was shot near 
Berwick-upon-Tweed, by Mr Burney, gunsmith, and sent to Mr Bullock, in 
whose possession I saw it in May 1818. 

Several species of geese have likewise been imported, and continue in a do- 
mesticated state ; among which may be reckoned, 

1. A. Gambensis. Egyptian, Ganser, or Gambo Goose, Will. Orn. 273 Bill 

red ; the throat, cheeks, and upper part of the head are white ; the back, rump, 
and tail are glossy black; each wing has a blunt spur on the bend. — Intro- 
duced from Africa. 

2. A. Canadensis. Canada Goose, Will. Orn. 276 — Bill black ; head and 
neck black ; a white crescent on the throat. Back greyish-brown. Belly, vent, 
and tail-covers white. Tail black — Introduced from North America. 

3. A. Hispanicus. Chinese, Spanish, Guinea, or Swan Goose. Will. Orn. 

275 Bill orange at the base, with a large knob. A wattle under the throat. 

A dark-brown stripe from the nape to the back. Deportment stately Na- 
tive country doubtful. 

Gen. XC. MERGUS. Goosander— Bill narrow. Hind- 
toe with a fin. Nostrils near the middle of the bill. 

200. M. Merganser. Green-headed Goosander. — Bill and 
legs red. Breast and wing-spot white. 

Merganser, Will. Orn. 253.— Mergus Mer. Linn. Syst. i. 208 Penn. 

Brit. Zool. ii. 55C— Temm. Orn. ii. 881 E, Jack-saw; W, Hwyad 

ddan heddoy; JV. Harle. — Breeds in Orkney and the Hebrides. — A 
winter visitant of other districts. 

Length 28, breadth 38 inches ; weight 4 pounds. Bill crimson, narrow be- 
fore the nostrils ; ridge and nail dusky. Mouth orange. Feet scarlet ; the 
nails dusky. Irides chesnut. Head and neck deep duck-green, becoming 
black under the chin. Lower neck, shoulders, and below white, tinged with 
cream yellow. Feathers on the nape loose, and slightly produced. Primaries, 
and their covers, brownish-black. The foremost secondaries black ; the mid- 
dle ones white ; the inner ones, which are long and pointed, are white, edged 
with black. First covers of the secondaries white, with a black base ; the se- 
cond white ; those at the shoulder dusky, with pale edges. Inner scapulars 
black ; outer ones white. Upper back deep black, verging to grey at the 
rump. Tail of 18 grey pointed feathers. The female, which is the Dundiver 
(Mergus castor) of British writers, has a long crest. The head, and upper 



Alca. BIRDS. PALMIPIDES. 129 

part of the neck ferruginous ; throat white ; below, white tinged with yellow, 

above grey. Nest on the margin of fresh water lakes. Eggs 12, white. 

Young like the female. The young males, in female garb, have led several 
zoologists to conclude, that the M. Castor was a distinct species. The inqui- 
ries, however, of an acute and intelligent naturalist, the late Mr Simmonds, 
(cut off in the prime of life, in the Island of Barbadoes, while actively en- 
gaged in zoological researches), conducted, as I can testify, with great cau- 
tion, enabled him to set the question at rest, by proving an identity in the 
structure, number, and dimensions of the tracheal of the males, the vertebrae 
of the neck, the intestines, and the tail-feathers, Linn. Trans, viii. 268. Mr 
Low mentions a variety of the goosander, in which the whole head, neck, and 
breast were black — Ork. 132. 

201. M. Serrator. Red-breasted Goosander. — Bill and legs 

red. Breast red. Wing-spot white, divided by black bands. 

M. cirratus fuscus, Will. Orn. 255. — M. ser. Linn. Syst. i. 208 — Penn. 

ii. 558 Temm. ii. 884. (Trachea, Linn. Trans, iv. tab. xvi. f. 1, 2,) — E, 

Lesser Toothed Diver. 

Length 21, breadth 31 inches ; weight 2 pounds. Bill dusky on the ridge ; 
claws black. Irides purplish-red. Head and throat fine green. Crest long. 
Fore-neck and belly white. Breast brown, spotted with black. Upper back 
black ; lower, and rump, mixed brown and grey. Outer scapulars black ; the 
inner white. In front of the wing, a group of white spots. The white on the 
wing divided by two black bands. Tail short and brown. — Female with the 
head and neck reddish-brown ; the throat white. Fore-neck and breast mixed 
grey and white. Wing-spot divided by one black band — Nest on the margin 
of lakes. Eggs 8, bluish-white. The young may be distinguished from the 
preceding, by the black band on the wing-spot, and the trachea of the males 
having only one enlargement in the middle. 

202. M. albellus. White-headed Goosander. — Bill and legs 

lead-coloured. Head, neck, and breast white. Cheeks green. 

Nape black. Wing-spot white, divided by black bands. 

Albellus alter, Will. Orn. 254 — M. alb. Linn. Syst. i. 209.— Penn. Brit. 
Zool. ii. 559. — Temm. Orn. 887- (Trachea, Linn. Trans, iv. tab. xvi. 
f. 3, 4.) — E, Smew, White-nun, Vare-wigeon — Whiter visitant. 

Length 18, breadth 26 inches ; weight 34 ounces. Bill about 2 inches long- 
Irides brown. Belly and scapulars white. Back, and two crescents on the 
side of the breast black. Tail grey. Female (M. minutus, Linn.) less. Crown, 
cheeks, and nape reddish-brown. Fore-neck and belly white ; lower neck, 
breast, sides, and rump grey. — Does not breed in this country. Eggs 8, white. 
Young like the female. 

Gen. XCI. ALCA. Auk. — Base of the bill closely covered 
with short feathers. Nostrils situate on the feathered 
space, immediately above and behind the marginal and 
basilar ridges. 

203. A. impennis. Great Auk. — Wings not reaching to the 

rump. Bill black. An oval white patch in front of the eye. 

Gair-fowl, Martin's St Kilda, 48 Penguin, Will. Orn. 242 — Northern 

Penguin, Edward's Birds A. im. Linn. Syst. i. 210. tab. 147 — Penn. 

Brit. Zool. ii. 507 — Temm. Orn. ii. 939.— S, Gair-fowl, King of the 
Auks — Breeds occasionally in St Kilda. 

VOL. I. I 



130 BIRDS. PALMIPIDES. Fhatercula. 

Length 3 feet. Bill, dorsally, 3, in front of the nostrils 2|, in the gape 4J, 
depth 1 1 inches ; 7 ridges in the upper, and 1 1 in the lower mandible. Legs 
black. Irides chesnut ; margin of the eye-lid black. Inside of the mouth 
orange. Head, back, and neck black, the latter with a brownish tinge. Quills 
dusky ; secondaries tipped with white. Breast and belly white. In winter, 
the brownish-black of the throat and fore-neck is replaced by white, as I had 
an opportunity of observing in a living bird, brought from St Kilda, in 1822. 
— (See Edin. Phil. Jour., vol. x. p. 97:) This bird occasionally visits the Ork- 
ney Islands, as witnessed by Mr Bullock (Mont. Orn. Diet. Supp.) I have 
been informed by the same observer, that an individual was taken in a pond 
of fresh water, two miles from the Thames, on the estate of Sir William Clay- 
ton, in Buckinghamshire. When fed, in confinement, it holds up its head, 
expressing its anxiety by shaking the head and neck, and uttering a gurgling 
noise. It dives and swims under water, even with a long cord attached to its 
foot, with incredible swiftness. 

204. A. Torcla. Razor-Bill. — Wings reaching to the rump. 

Bill black, with a white band. A narrow white stripe in front 

of the eye. 

Falk, Martin's St Kilda, 61,— A. Hoieri, Will. Orn. 242 — Sibb. Scot. 20. 

— A. Tord- Linn. Syst. i. 210 — Penn. Brit. Zool. ii. 509 Temm. Orn. 

ii. 936. — E, Auk, Murre ; S, Marrot ; W, Garfil, Gwalch y penwaig ; 
N, Hioga Common on all parts of the coast. 

Length IS, breadth 27 inches ; weight 22 ounces. Bill 2 inches in the gape, 
5 furrows in the upper, and 2 in the lower mandible ; the groove in front of 
the basilar ridge of the upper mandible deep. Feet and claws black. Mouth 
orange. Irides chesnut. Head, neck, and back black ; the throat and fore- 
neck tinged with brown. Breast, belly, sides, and tips of the secondaries 
white. Tail-feathers 14. In the winter, the throat, front, and sides of the 
neck become white. Female similar — Breed gregariously on the shelves of 
rocks impending the sea. Egg 1, white, tinged with green. Young, when 
from the nest, differ from the old birds chiefly in the chin being freckled with 
white ; the bill being nearly smooth, narrow, and destitute of the white band j 
and the stripe of white before the eyes being distinct. After this bird assumes 
the winter dress, and before the bill acquires the dimensions and markings of 
maturity, it constitutes the Black-billed Auk (A. Pica, Linn. Syst. i. 210.) of 
several British ornithologists. 

Gen. XCII. FRATERCULA. Coulterneb.— Base of 
the bill, and part of the cheeks, covered with a coloured 
skin. Nostrils situate on the smooth space, and immediate- 
ly above the marginal, and in front of the basilar ridge. 

205. F. arctica. Common Coulterneb. — Cheeks, chin, breast, 
and belly white ; the crown, neck^ and back black. 

Bouger, or Coulterneb, Martin's St Kilda, 62 — Anas arctica, Will. Orn. 

244 Sibb. Scot. 20 — Alca arct. Linn. Syst. i. 211. — Penn. Brit. Zool. 

ii. 512. — Mormon Fratercula, Temm. Orn. ii. 933. — E, Pope, Puffin, 
Mullet, Sea-Parrot, Willock ; S, Tammie-Norrie ; W, Proffingen — 
Regular summer visitant. 
Length 12, breadth 21 inches; weight 12 ounces. Bill short, wide at the 
base, compressed towards the point ; dorsal ridge thin and bent ; fore-half 
yellowish-red, with two or three furrows ; basal half smooth and black ; basi- 
lar ridge yellowish-white, punctured. Legs and margin of the eye-lid reddish- 






Podiceps. BIRDS. PALMIPIDES. 131 

orange. Above and below the eye, a naked space of black skin. Irides grey. 
Tail short, of 16 feathers. Female siinilar.. — Nest in deserted rabbit-holes, or 
burrows which the bird forms. Egg 1, white. Young have the markings of 

the bill less distinct Mr PennantTremarks, " The size of the bills of these 

birds varies ; those of Priestholme Isle are one inch and three quarters long ; 
and the base of the upper mandible one inch broad ; but, in the birds from the 
Isle of Man, these proportions are much less." Have we two species ? 



Gen. XCIII. PODICEPS. Grebe.— Bill straight, produced, 
firm, pointed. Nostrils pervious. No tail. Plumage of 
the belly close, with a silvery gloss. 

206. P. cristatus. Crested Grebe. — Bill longer than the 

head; from the nostrils to the tip 17 or 18 lines ; red, white at 

the tip. 

Colymbus major, Will. Orn. 256 — Col. crist., Linn. Syst. i. 222 — Tippet 
and Great Crested Grebes, Perm. Brit. Zool. ii. 496 — P. crist., Temm. 

Orn. ii. 717 E, Greater Loon, Arsfoot, Gargoose, Gaunt; W, 

Gwyach. — Breeds in England. 

Length 21, breadth 30 inches; weight 2J pounds. Bill 2\ inches. Feet 
black, yellowish on the inside. Irides and lores crimson. Face white. Crown, 
nape, and ear-crests glossy black, the latter tinged with brown. Beneath 
white. Above dusky brown. Primaries dusky ; secondaries white, except 
the two first, which are dusky. Female less, with a smaller crest, and duller 
colours — Nest in marshes, of aquatic plants, and made so as to float. Eggs 
4, white, of the size of those of a pigeon. Young without the crest, the face 
with zig-zag lines of a dusky colour. In this state, it is the Col. urinator of 
Linnaeus — This species breeds in Shropshire and Lincolnshire. It seems to 
be stationary even in Zetland. One which I examined, 13th January 1809, 
had the stomach full of gammari. 

207. P. riibricolUs. (Latham.) Red-necked Grebe. — Bill 
the length of the head; from the nostrils to the tip 11 lines; 
yellow at the base ; tip black. 

Beivick's Brit. Birds, ii. 152. — Temm. Orn. ii. 720. A winter visitant. 

Length 1 7 inches ; weight 23 ounces. Bill 2 inches long. Legs dusky, 
yellowish on the inside. Irides hazeL Front, crown, nape, and hind-neck, 
black ; cheeks and throat grey ; fore-neck and breast reddish-chesnut ; belly 
white, the sides with dusky spots ; back and wings black ; the secondaries and 
base of the wing white. Nape with a short crest. Female similar — Nest like 
the preceding. Young with the throat and cheeks white ; the fore-neck grey ; 

the sides and hind-neck dusky This species, which occurs both in England 

and Scotland, seems to have been met with, hitherto, only in the winter sea- 
son. Pennant was inclined to consider it as a variety of the Crested Grebe. 

208. P. cornutus. Horned Grebe. — Bill stout, shorter than 

the head, compressed throughout ; from the nostrils to the tip 

6 or 7 lines. Iris double. 

Col. major cristatus et cornutus, Will. Orn. 257 — Sclavonian Grebe, 

Mont. Orn. Diet. Suppt P. corn. Temm. Orn. ii. 721 — Resident and 

common. 

Length 14, breadth 25 inches. Bill black, point red, and the oiuline slopes 
regularly. Feet black, grey within. Irides crimson, bordered and shaded with 

i2 



132 BIRDS. PALMIPIDES. Podiceps. 

white. Lores crimson. Crown and crest black ; a large tuft of bay feathers ori- 
ginate at the base of the bill, and along the eye, increasing in length, and spread- 
ing like ears. Front, neck, and breast, red ; back black; belly white ; the sides 
rufous. Wings black, secondaries white. Female similar Nest like the pre- 
ceding. Young destitute of crest or auricles ; lores white ; above dusky ; neck 
without red ; bill corneous — In the stomach of a young male, shot 18th Janu- 
ary 1809, I found a concretion upwards of half an -inch in diameter, consist- 
ing of its own belly feathers, closely matted together. Montagu, in his Suppt. 
states, that he has observed the same occurrence in the red necked and crest- 
ed species. Are these to be considered as analogous to bezoars ? 

209- P. auritus. Eared Grebe. — Bill shorter than the head, 
black, depressed over the nostrils; a little recurved; from nos- 
trils to the tip 6 or 7 lines. 

Col. aur. Linn. Syst. i. 222. — Eared and Dusky Grebes, Venn. Brit. Zool. 
ii. 500. and 501 P. aur. Temm. Orn. ii. 725. — Resident. 

Length 12, breadth 22 inches ; weight 1 pound. Bill about an inch ; the 
ridge of the upper mandible nearly straight at the end, the lower one sloping 
upwards, giving the bill a subrecurved appearance. Irides scarlet ; lores red- 
dish. Face, crown, and short crest, black. Auricular tuft yellow, shaded to 
orange, taking its rise behind the eye. Throat, neck, sides of the breast, and 
back, black ; sides chesnut ; belly white. Legs, without, dusky, the inside 
greenish. Female similar — Nest and eggs like the preceding, but smaller. The 
young are like those of the Horned Grebe ; but the shape of the bill and co- 
lour of the irides serve to distinguish them at all ages. 

210. P. minor. Little Grebe. — Bill very short, stout, com- 
pressed ; from the nostrils to the tip 5 lines. 

Will. Orn. 258 Little Grebe and Black-chin, Penn. Brit. Zool. ii. 501. 

— Col. Hebridicus, Sower. Brit. Misc. tab. 70 — P. minor, Temm. Orn. 

ii. 727 F, Didapper, Dipper, Dobchick, Douker, Small Loon or Ars- 

foot Resident. 

Length 10, breadth 1C inches; weight G ounces. Bill about an inch, black ; 
the base of the lower mandible and lores whitish ; feet greenish outwardly, 
tinged with red on the inside. Irides reddish-brown. Crown, nape, and 
throat, black ; side and fore-neck chesnut ; breast and sides dusky ; belly grey- 
ish ; thighs and rump reddish. Dorsally glossy black, tinged with olive. 
Primaries greyish-brown ; secondaries white on the inner webs. Female simi- 
lar Eggs 5 or G, white, covered up when the parent leaves the nest. The 

youny have the head and neck white, mottled with brown. 

Gen. XCIV. COLYMBUS. Divek.— Tail short, rounded. 
Tarsus much compressed. 

211. C. glacialis. Northern Diver. — Bill upwards of 4 in- 
cites in length ; its ridge above the nostrils carinated ; under 
mandible deepest in the middle. 

C. maximus caudatus, Will. Orn. 258 C. m. stellatus, Sibb. Scot. 20. — 

C. glacialis, Linn. Syst. i. 221. Penn. Brit. Zool. ii. 523. Temm. 
Orn. ii. 910. — F, The Greatest Diver, Loon; S, Herdsman of the Sea, 
Emmer Goose ; G, Mur-buachaill. — On the coast, during winter 
chiefly. 

Length 41 inches, breadth 5 feet ; weight 10 pounds. Bill dusky, the ridge 
ot the upper mandible slightly bent downwards, especially at the apex ; the 



Colymbus. BIRDS. PALMIPIDES. 133 

ridge of the lower mandible sloping upwards, giving the bill a recurved as- 
pect ; the grove at the symphysis continued to within about 3 lines of the tip. 
Feet, on'the outside, dusky ; pale within. Irides brown. Tongue entire, 
pointed. Vermiform appendages I inch long, and upwards of ^ inch broad. 
Head and neck black, the latter with two collars, white, freckled with black. 
Back black, with white spots. Breast and belly white. Tail of 20 leathers. 

Female similar, but less Nest on the margin of fresh-water lakes. Eggs 2, 

isabella yellow, with purplish-grey spots. Young differ in the plumage above, 
being brownish-black, freckled with grey on the cheeks, and the feathers on 
the back edged with grey ; below, white, with a dusky bar across the vent. 
In this state it is the C. immer of Linne. The black on the neck, the col- 
lars, and the white spots on the back, appear as the bird approaches maturity, 
which it reaches at the age of 3 years. — The young of this species are com- 
mon in Zetland, during winter, while old birds seldom occur. In Orkney, 
however, both old and young birds abound at that season. The old birds 
visit the Frith of Forth in winter, following the herrings. The young birds 
are occasionally seen in summer in the Zetland seas, and I observed one off 
the coast of Waterford, 28th July 1816. 

212. C. arcticus. Black-throated Diver. — Bill upwards of 
3 inches in length ; flat above the nostrils ; groove of the sym- 
physis reaching to the end of the lower mandible. 

Will. Orn. 258. Sibb. Scot. 20. Linn. Syst. i. 221. Pcnn. Brit. Zool 

ii. 527. Temm. Orn. ii. 913. — A winter visitant. 

Length 27, breadth 44 inches ; weight 4 pounds. Bill black, nearly 3£ inches 

long, rounded, blunt. Feet brown outwardly, whitish within. Irides brown. 

Front, throat, fore-neck, back, and rump, black. Crown and nape grey. Sides 

of the neck spotted black and white. Sides of the back scapulars and* wingj-co- 

vers black, with white spots. Tail feathers 20. Female similar Nest on 

the margin of lakes. Eggs 2, white, with distant black spots. The young 
are dusky above, and white below, at first ; the head then becomes grey, and 
the sides of the neck freckled with black. At two years, the black on the 
fore-neck, and the black and white of the back, make their appearance ; and 
the plumage is complete in 3 years. When approaching maturity, it appears 
to be the Second Speckled Diver of Bewick. 

213. C. scptentrwnalis. Red-throated Diver. — Bill scarcely 

3 inches long, slender, pointed, subrecurved; groove of the 

symphysis of the lower mandible very short. 

Linn. Syst. i. 220. Penn. Brit. Zool. ii. 526, Temm. Orn. ii. 916.— S, 
Bain Goose — Breeds in Orkney and Zetland. A winter visitant of 
the Thames. 

Length 24, breadth 41 inches; weight upwards of 3 pounds. Bill black, 
much more pointed, slender, and recurved, than the two preceding species ; 
the margins are much incurved. Legs black without, whitish on the inside. 
Irides reddish-brown. Crown, nape, and back of the neck, purplish-black, 
£he edges of the feathers white and raised. Chin, cheeks, and sides of the 
neck, dark grey. Fore-neck brownish-red ; above, olive-black, with pale edges ; 
wing covers dusky, with white spots. Breast and belly silvery. Vent Avith a 
black bar. Tail of 20 feathers ; the under covers black, with pale edges. Fe- 
male similar — Nest on the margin of lakes. Eggs 2, olive brown, with brown 
spots. Young, at first, dusky above, whitish below ; they then assume the 
grey on the head, and become spotted on the back ; and, on approaching ma- 
turity, the red on the throat appears. In its immature state it is the " First 
Speckled Diver" of Bewick. Linnaeus states, that, in Sweden, the Black 
Throated Diver was considered as the male of this species. I have seen the 
lied and Black Throated Divers in company with a young bird, and had evi- 



134 BIRDS. PALMIPIDES. Ukia. 

dence of the lied Throated individual being a female. They have likewise 
been shot in company in the spring. (Mont. Orn. Diet. Suppt. and Edin. 
Phil. Journ. vol. viii. 299.) These circumstances seem calculated to excite 
more inquiry respecting the specific characters of the species of the genus. 

Gen. XCV. URIA. Guillemot. — Bill straight, compres- 
sed, pointed, margins incurved ; the upper mandible, with 
a distinct terminal notch. 

214. U. Troile. Foolish Guillemot. — Head, neck, and 

throat, dull blackish-brown ; above, brownish-black ; breast and 

belly white. 

Law, Martin's St Kilda, 59. — Lomwia Insula Farrse, Will. Orn. 244. 

Sibb. Scot. 20 Col. Troile, Linn. Syst. i. 220. Perm. Brit. Zool. ii. 

519. — Una Tr. Temm. Orn. ii. 921 — E, Guilem, Guillemot, Sea Hen, 
Skout, Kuldaw, Murse, Willoch, Tinkershere — S, Marrot, Skutock ; 
W, Gwilym ; N. Lungy Common on all the coasts. 

Length 18, breadth 28 inches ; weight 24 ounces. Bill black ; from the 
nostrils to the tip an inch and a half; gape 3 inches ; inside orange. Tongue 
nearly the length of the bill, pointed. Vermiform appendages, short, point- 
ed. Legs, behind, and soles, black ; before and above, yellowish-brown- Pri- 
maries pale towards the base ; the secondaries tipped with white. Tail short 
and rounded, of 12 feathers. In winter the black on the throat and fore-neck 
is replaced by white, and the plumage above has a greyish tinge. Female 
less. — Nest on the ledge of a rock on the shore. Egg 1, greenish, blotched 
with duskv. — Young with the bill short; sides and front of the neck whitish 
like the old birds in their winter garb. In this state it is the Lesser Guille- 
mot of British writers. 

It is probable that the Uria Brunnichii (Temm. Orn. ii. 924.), may occur 
during the winter season, especially among the northern islands. The dilat- 
ed broad base of the bill, and the wdiite of the belly extending to an arrow- 
shaped point on the fore-neck, may serve to distinguish it. The throat, how- 
ever, probably becomes white in winter. 

Gen. XCVI. CEFHUS. Scraber.— -Bill longer than the 
head ; upper mandible destitute of the terminal notch. 

215. C. Gryllc. Common Scraber. — Bill straight, narrow ; 
wing-covers forming a large white spot. 

Scraber, MartirCs St Kilda, 58 Columba Groenlandica, Will. Orn, 245. 

Sibb. Scot. 20 Col. Grylle, Linn. Syst. i. 220. Penn. Brit. Zool. ii. 

521 Uria Gr. Temm. Orn. ii. 925 — ~-E, Greenland Dove, Sea Turtle ; 

S, Scraber, Toyst, Tystie — Common. 
Length 14, breadth 22 inches; weight 14 ounces. Bill black, an inch and 
a half long. Mouth and legs orange. Irides hazel. Plumage black, except 
the large wing spot and tips of the secondaries, which are white. Tail of 12 
feathers. In winter the plumage becomes mottled with white. In Greenland 
it becomes wholly white, as was pointed out to me by Sir Charles Giesecke, 
in the collection of the Dublin Society, in a specimen which he brought from 
that country. In this state, it is the Spotted Guillemot of Pennant. Female 
similar. — Nest on ledges of rocks; chiefly in caves. Egg 1, white, with black 



Mergulus. BIRDS. PALMIPIDES. 135 

and o-rey spots. — Young resemble the winter plumage of the old birds. — In 
Zetland' I have observed the birds with black plumage about the end of Fe- 
bruary ; by the end of March they are common in this their summer dress. 

Gen. XCVII. MERGULUS. Rotche.— Bill shorter than 
the head; ridge arched; symphysis short and oblique; 
margins inflected. 

216. M. melanoleucos. Common Rotche. — Breast, belly, 

and a dot above the eyes, white ; the rest of the plumage 

black. 

Will. Orn. 2G1. — Alca Alle, Linn. Syst. i. 211.— Little Auk, Penn. Brit. 

Zool. ii. 517 Uria alle, Temm. Orn. ii. 928 — E, -Little black and 

white Diver A winter visitant of the northern coasts. 

Length 9, breadth 16 inches; weights ounces. Bill black, short and thick, 
like gallinaceous birds. Legs and toes yellowish. Irides hazel. Tip of the 
secondaries white. In this, its summer dress, it was considered as a var. by 
Pennant. In a specimen from Greenland, presented to me in 1809, by that 
accomplished navigator Captain Scoresby fan., I was able to perceive the se- 
ries of changes which the plumage of this bird undergoes in connection with 
the seasons, the results of which were communicated to Montagu, (Orn- Diet. 
Suppt.) In winter, the throat, sides, and front of the neck, become white, 
more or less freckled with dusky ; in which state it is frequent on our shores. 
Female similar.— Nest in holes or crevices on the bare rocks. Egg 1, bluish- 
green. 

Gen. XCVIII. PROCELLARIA. Petrel.— Nostrils unit- 
ed into a single tubular opening on the upper part of the 
bill. Lower mandible truncated, 

* Nail of the bill prominent, arched and toothed on the margin. 
Tail rounded. Fulmar. 

217. P. Macialis. Fulmar Petrel. — Tail rounded ; plumage, 
above, grey ; beneath, white. 

Haffert, Will. Orn. 30C— Fulmar, Martin, Descr. West Isles, p. 283 — 
P. gl. Linn. Syst. i. 213. Penn. Brit. Zool. ii. 549. Temm. Orn. ii. 

802 N, Mallemacke — Breeds in St Kilda. 

Length 17 inches ; weight 22 ounces. Bill about 2 inches long, yellow, 
nail swollen. Legs dusky. Irides yellow. The head, neck, belly, rump, and 
tail, pure white ; rest bluish-grey ; the wings inclining to dusky. Female si- 
milar. — Nest in holes. Egg 1, white. — The young are grey, clouded with 
brown, with a dusky spot in front of the eyes. The fulmar feeds on fish and 
putrid carcases. 

** Nail of the bill not prominent Tail even orforhed. Pe- 
trel. 

218. P. pelagica. Stormy Petrel. — Tail even, the wings, 
when closed, extending a little beyond its tip ; length of the 
tarsus |ths of an inch. 



136 BIRDS. PALMIPIDES. Procellaeia. 

Assilag, Martin's St Kilda, p. 63. Linn. Syst. i. 212. Penn. Brit. Zool. 
ii. 553. Temm, Orn. ii. 810. Charles Bonaparte, Journ. Acad. Sc. Phil, 
iii. pt. 2. p. 227- tab. viii. f. 1 — E, Stormfinch, Little Petril, Witch, 
Mother Cary's Chicken ; W, Cas gan Longwr ; N, Alamouti. — Resi- 
dent. 

Length h\ inches. Bill black, half an inch in length ; tube of the nostrils 
short, sunk at the base. Feet black. Irides dusky. Plumage sooty -black ; the 
vent, each side, rump, and upper tail-covers, white ; the tips of the last, the 
tail, and primaries, deep black ; the greater wing-covers, and some of the se- 
condaries, tipped with white. Female similai- Nest in holes in rocks, or 

earth. Eggs 2, white — The young are of a lighter colour : the feathers mar- 
gined with reddish-brown. — This species frequents the seas of Europe. 
Breeds at many places on the coast. Follows the track of vessels in stormy 
weather, picking up the greasy substances in the wake. According to the ob- 
servations of Mr Scarth, this bird makes a low purring noise in the breeding 
season. An individual, which he kept for some time in a cage, was support- 
ed by smearing the feathers of the breast with train oil, which the bird after- 
wards sucked with its bill. When the oil was placed in a saucer in the cage, 
the bird dipped its breast feathers therein, and afterwards sucked the oil from 
them. — Lin. Trans, xiii. 618. 

219. P. Bullockii. Fork-tailed Petrel.— Tail forked, the 
wings, when closed, not extending beyond its tip ; length of the 
tarsus one inch. 

An undescribed Petrel, with a forked tail, taken at St Kilda in 1818, Bul- 
lock's Sale Cat. 8th day, No. 78 — P, Leachii, Temm. Orn. ii. 812. Bo- 
naparte, Journ. Acad. Phil. iii. pt. 2. p. 299. tab. ix — Inhabits St 
Kilda. 

Length 8 inches. Bill black, robust, upwards of aths of an inch long ; the 
nasal tube even. Feet black. Plumage brownish-black, tinged with cine- 
reous ; the primaries and tail darkest ; vent, each side, and upper tail-covers, 
white with brown shafts ; wing-covers, some of the secondaries, and of the 
scapulars, gradually changing to dirty-white at the tip. Female similar. — This 
species extends over the Atlantic, and is common on the American coast. It 
was first observed and discriminated by Mr Bullock, during a voyage round 
the coast of Scotland in 1818, at St Kilda ; and the specimen which he brought 
from thence, was, at the sale of his collection, purchased for the British Mu- 
seum. At the latter place, M. Temminck had an opportunity of examining 
it, and proposed to Dr Leach to bestow on it the trivial name of " Leachii." 
When Dr Leach intimated this to me at the time, I remonstrated, but in 
vain, against his acceptance of a compliment to which he had no claim, and 
which he could retain only at the expense of another. Still entertaining the 
same views, I have ventured to alter the trivial name (as then proposed), in 
order to do an act of common justice to the individual who had energy to un- 
dertake a voyage of inquiry, and sagacity to distinguish the bird in question 
as an undescribed species. 

The figure given by Borlase (Hist. Corn. tab. xxix. 10.) appears, from the 
length of the tarsi, and the wings extending greatly beyond the tail, to have 
been the P. oceanica of Forster. It is not improbable that the P. Wilstni of 
Bonaparte, a species common on the American coast, may occur occasionally 
on the shores of the Hebrides or west of Ireland. The black feet, having a 
large oblong yellow spot on the web, may serve as a distinguishing mark. 



Puffinus. BIRDS. FALMIPIDES. 137 

Gen. XCIX. PUFFINUS. Puffin.— Nostrils with separate 
openings; extremity of the lower mandible bent down- 
wards. 

220. P. Anglorum. Manks Puffin. — Wings longer than the 

tail. 

Will. Orn. 251.— Lyra, Sibb. Scot. 22 — Procellaria Puffinus, Linn. Syst. 
i. 213. Penn. Brit. Zool. ii. 551 — Proc. Ang. Temm. Orn. ii. 806 — E, 
Shearwater ; W, Pwffingen Fanaw ; iV, Lyre, Scrabe. — A summer vi- 
sitant. 

Length 15, breadth 32 inches; weight 17 ounces. Bill an inch in length 
before the nostrils ; blackish brown. Legs dusky without, yellowish on the 
inside. Plumage, above, black ; beneath, white ; the sides of the neck freck- 
led black and white. Female similar — Nest in holes. Eggs 1, white. — Young 
nearly resembling the old birds — This species arrives at its breeding places 
in March, and departs in August. The young are very fat, and are sought 
after by the inhabitants, killed, salted, and eaten with potatoes or cabbage. 

Gen. C. CATARACTES. Skua.— Nostrils near the mid- 
dle of the mandible, and covered with a corneous plate, 
reaching to the base. Claw of the inner toe arched. 



Willoughby, with propriety, separated this genus from the following. 
— The species are bold, of rapid flight, and support themselves 
chiefly on the food which they compel the Gulls to vomit. 

221. C. vulgaris. Common Skua. — Plumage brown; tail- 
feathers nearly equal. 

C. noster, Will. Orn. 265. Sibb. Scot. 20.— Larus cat. Linn. Syst. i. 226* 

Penn. Brit. Zool. ii. 529 Cat. vul. Flem. Edin. Phil. Journ. i. 97 ■ 

Lestris Cat. Temm. Orn. ii. 792 — S, Sea Eagle; JV, Skua, Skui, Bonxie. 
Breeds in Zetland. 

Length 25, breadth 55 to 58 inches; weight 54 ounces. Bill 2| inches 
long, brownish-black. The upper mandible is rounded along the margin to- 
wards the base, a little prominent in front of the nostrils above, and bent 
downwards at the end like the hawks. The under mandible is bent inwards 
at the edges ; at the apex it forms a gutter, sloping downwards ; at the base it is 
grooved laterally ; and at the junction of the two sides, beneath, there is an an- 
gular prominence. The eyes are surrounded with a narrow bare black orbit, 
and the irides are hazel brown. The legs are covered with large black scales. 
The claws sre strong, of a black colour, arched and grooved beneath. The plu- 
mage, on the upper parts, is dark rust}' brown, with yellowish-white oblong 
dusky spots. Each feather is dusky -brown on the edges, and yellowish-white 
at the end near the shaft. The plumage, below, is lighter coloured, and on 
the belly it is tinged with ash-grey. The feathers on the neck are wiry and 
pointed, and have a narrow oil-green spot on the extremity. The wings reach 
to the point of the tail. The shafts of the quills are white. The outer web, 
and the extremity of the first, deep brown; the tips only of the rest, brown ; the 
remaining part, towards the base, is white. The covers of a few of the seconda- 
ries are white. The tail-feathers, which are twelve in number, are blunt ; the 
shafts, and the webs at the base, are white ; towards the extremity the webs are 
brown. There is no difference between the sexes, either in colour or size, in 



138 BIRDS. PALMIPIDES. Cataractes. 

those which we have examined. It does not appear to be subject to much 
variation of plumage with age or seasons. Some individuals have been found 
having the chin and forehead tinged with ash-colour. — The common Skua is 
gregarious during the breeding season. It lays two eggs of a muddy green 
colour, marked with irregular brown spots, and* intermixed with smaller white 
spots. — The nest is carelessly constructed of a few dried weeds, and is found 
in unfrequented moors. It breeds in the Zetland islands, where I have ob- 
served it, as in Foulah and Unst, and on Rona's Hill in Mainland. When 
the purposes of incubation have been accomplished, it retires from its sum- 
mer haunts, and leads a solitary life on the ocean. It is found in our seas at 
all seasons. It is rare in the southern parts of the kingdom ; and even about 
the Zetland islands it is by no means a common bird. 

222. C. parasiticus. Arctic Skua. — Plumage above black ; 

the two middle tail-feathers produced. 

Larus par., Linn. Syst. i. 22G. Penn. Brit. Zool. ii. 533 Lestris par., 

Temm. Orn. ii. 796" — E, Teazer, Dung-hunter, Dung-bird, Scull, Boat- 
swain ; S, Faskidar, Badock, Allan, Scouti-allan, Dirten-allan ; N, Shui. 
— Common on all parts of the coast. Breeds in the Hebrides and 
Northern Isles. 

Length 21, breadth 43 inches ; weight 16 ounces. The bill is 2 inches in 
length, of a greyish-black colour, darkest towards the point. The upper man- 
dible is rounded along the margin towards the base, a little prominent in front 
of the nostrils above, and bent downwards at the end. The under mandible is 
bent inwards at the edges, and at the apex forms a groove sloping downwards ; 
at the base it is grooved laterally ; and, at the junction of the two sides beneath, 
there is an angular prominence. The eyes are surrounded with a narrow black 
orbit, and the irides are of a hazel-brown colour. The legs are of a black co- 
lour, rather slender. The claw of the outer toe is short ; that of the middle- 
toe broad and grooved below ; and of the inner toe narrow and arched. The 
tongue is fleshy and bluntly bifid. The middle of the palate, and a ridge on 
each side, are covered with cartilaginous reflecting teeth. The trachea at the 
division of the bronchia? is furnished with a small bony plate. Rectum with 
too long broad vermiform appendages. Crown, nape, back, quills, tail and its 
under covers, brownish-black, deepest on the head and extremities of the 
wings and tail. Front, chin, cheeks below the eye, side of the neck, and be- 
low white. An indistinct collar of wiry-feathers round the neck. The wings 
reach beyond the lateral feathers of the tail ; the first quill the longest. Tail 
of 12 feathers; the five exterior ones rounded, the extremity of the shaft pro- 
jecting ; the two middle produced feathers taper to a point. Female similar. 
— Nest in heath, of dry grass. Eggs 2, dark olive-green, with irregular 
blotches of liver brown. The young have the head and hind neck grey, with 
brown streaks ; the back dusky-brown, the feathers with pale edges ; below 
blackish-grey, with a ferruginous tinge ; the base and tips of the quill and 
tail-feathers whitish. In its young state, and as it approaches to maturity, it 
is the (Larus crepidatus) Cepphus of Lyson, Phil. Trans, xlii. 137., and the 
Black Toed-Gull of Pennant, Brit. Zool. ii. 532 The " Arctic Bird" of Ed- 
wards, tab. 148., frequently referred to as belonging to this species, appears to 
be distinct, as indicated by the bright yellow colour of the legs — Like the pre- 
ceding species, the Arctic Skua is subgregarious only in the breeding season, 
and remarkably bold in defending its nest. It has recourse to stratagem to 
lead intruders from its eggs or young, tumbling over, as if dying, or feigning 
a broken wing. It is worthy of remark, that this species breeds before it at- 
tains the plumage of maturity. 

Gen. CI. LARUS. Gull.— Bill hooked; tail even.— The 
Females are similar to the Males in plumage, but less in 



Larus. BIRDS. PALMIPIDES. 189 

size. Those which have white heads in summer, have 
those parts slightly streaked with dusky in winter. Those 
which have black heads in summer have white heads in 
winter. The Young are two or three years in reaching 
maturity 

1. Larger gulls ; exceeding 20 inches in length. 
* Quills white. 

223. L. glaucus. Burgomaster. — Length 30, breadth 63, 
of the tarsus 2^'gth inches. 

Fab. Faun. Groen. 100 Sabine, Linn. Trans, xii. 543 — New species of 

Larus, Edmonston, Wern. Mem. iv. 176. Scor. Arct. Reg. i. 535 — 
Temm. Orn. ii. 757 A winter visitant. 

Bill 3 inches long, horn coloured, the symphysis of the lower mandible 
bright reddish orange. Irides and orbits yellow. Legs livid flesh-coloured. 
Plumage white ; the back, scapulars, and wing-covers ash-grey. In winter, 
the neck is mottled with brown. Female less — Nest among grass on the shore. 
Eggs 3, pale, with brown spots. Young, mottled, uniformly light brown and 
white ; the whole bill lead-coloured. This species is rapacious, yet shy. It 
was first ascertained as a winter visitant of Zetland, by Laurence Edmonston, 
Esq. surgeon, Unst, in 1814 — It has since been detected on various parts of 
the coast, but it retires to the Arctic Regions during the breeding season. 

224. L. islandicus. Iceland Gull. — Length 24, breadth 53, 
tarsus 2 \ inches. 

L. argentatus, an arctic var., Sabine, Linn. Trans, xii. 546. — Temm. Orn. 
ii. 764. L. Isl. Edmonston, Wern. Mem. iv. 506 — A winter visitant 
of Zetland. 
Bill about 2^ inches long ; rather slender. Plumage similar to the pre- 
ceding. The wings, however, in this species, reach a little beyond the tail ; 
while, in the glaucus, they only reach to the end of it. The young are distin- 
guished from those of the preceding, by their dimensions, size of the bill, and 
paler plumage. Captain Sabine and M. Temminck agree in considering this spe- 
cies as the L. argentatus, deprived of the black markings on the quill-feathers, 
by its residence in an arctic climate. The absence of any direct proof, or 
even analogy, induced me, six years ago, to reject this conclusion as unwar- 
rantable (Edin. Phil. Journ. vol. ii. 274) ; nor have subsequent proofs, of any 
value, been brought forward. Captain Sabine, it is true, states a fact (App. 
Parry's first voy., cciv.) which he considers as confirming Mr Temminck's 
decision ; though, in reality, it only proves the occurrence of the Herring- 
Gull on the same cliff with the Islandicus : — " Amongst a number of the 
Greenland variety, which had their nests on a cliff on one of the Georgian 
Islands, one individual was observed to have black markings on the wings, 
and was fortunately secured. On comparing this specimen with birds which 
have been killed on our own coasts, the black markmgs of the quill-feathers 
are found to correspond precisely in shape and situation ; the only perceptible 
difference being, that the dark colour is not quite so deep in shade in the Po- 
lar as in the European varieties." Mr Edmonston first recognized this spe- 
cies as a winter visitant of Unst, the most northerly of the Zetland Isles. It 
is there confounded, by the natives, with the Burgomaster, under the name 
of Iceland Gull, or Iceland Scorie, though Mr Edmonston notices its greate r 
elegance and delicacy of form and its livelier and more active habits. 



140 BIRDS. PALMIPIDES. Laeus. 

** Quills black and white. 

225. L. marinus. Black-backed Gull. — Length 30, breadth 
70 inches; tarsus flesh coloured, 2 T 9 s th inches ; on the symphysis 
of the lower jaw a red spot with a dark centre. 

L. maximus, Will. Orn. 261. Sibb. Scot. 20 L. mar. Linn. Syst. i. 225. 

Penn. Brit. Zool. ii. 528. Temm. Orn. ii. 760 — E, Cobb ; S, Gull 
Maw ; W, Gwylangefn ddie; N. Swabie, Bawgie, Swarthback Resi- 
dent. 
Bill 4 inches long, tight yellow. Irides and orbits yellow. Head, neck, 
rump, tail, and below white : back and wing-covers bluish-black. Quills black, 
tipped and barred with white. Female similar — Nest on inaccessible cliffs 
and islands. Eggs olive-green, with dusky blotches. Young mottled brown 

and white This species is fond of carrion, and will even venture to destroy 

weak lambs. Generally solitary or in pairs. 

226. ~L.Jiiscus. Yellow-legged Gull. — Length 24, breadth 

54 inches; tarsus yellow, 2 T 2 th inches long. Orange spot of 

the symphysis destitute of the dark centre. 

Linn. Syst. i. 225 — Var. of L. mar., Penn. Brit. Zool. ii. 52fl L. argen- 

tatus, or Lesser Black-backed Gull, Mont. Orn. Diet — L. fuscus, 
Temm. Orn. ii. 767-— Resident. 

Weight 2\ pounds. Bill, legs, and irides yellow ; orbits red. Head, neck, 
rump, tail and below white ; back and wings bluish-black ; quills black, the 
point of the first white, with a black tip ; the second similar, with only a white 
spot in the black ; the others are ver} r slightly tipped with white ; two or 
three of the scapulars are also tipped with white. The wing exceeds the tail 
by 2 inches. Female similar. — Nest on islands, gregarious. Eggs 2, olive- 
brown, with dusky blotches — Young mottled brown and white — This species 
was first noticed as British by Pennant, who was uncertain whether it was a 
variety of marinus, or a distinct species. Montagu first illustrated its charac- 
ters with precision. 

227. L. argentatus. Herring-Gull. — Length 24, breadth 
56, tarsus flesh-coloured, 2| inches. Bill yellow ; orange spot 
on the symphysis destitute of the dark centre. 

Herring-Gull, Penn. Brit. Zool. ii. 535 — L. ar. Temm. Orn. ii. 764 — 

Resident. 

Weight about 2 pounds. Irides yellow ; orbits red. Head, neck, rump, 
tail and below white ; back and wings bluish-grey ; quills dusky, black towards 
the ends, with a white spot. Wings a little longer than the tail. Female si- 
milar Nest on islands. Eggs 2, olive-brown, with dusky blotches. Young 

mottled brown and white. In this state it has been termed Wagel — This 
species has frequently been confounded with the preceding. This seems to 
be the case in the Larus cinereus maximus, Will. Orn. 262. I have found in 
the stomach of this species a considerable quantity of wheat. 

2. Smaller Gulls, less than 20 inches in length. 

228. L. canns. Common Gull. — Length of the tarsus 2 

inches. Wings longer than the tail ; the two outer quills with 

black shafts. 

J,, cinereus minor, Will. Orn. 262. Sibb. Scot. 20 — Ii. canus, Linn. Syst. 

i. 224 Perm. Brit. Zool. ii. 538. Temm. Orn. ii. 771 — Resident, 

common. 



Larus. BIRDS. PALMIPIDES. 141 

Length 17, breadth 36 inches; weight 15 ounces. Bill yellow, dusky to- 
wards the base, 2^ inches long. Mouth orange. Legs dull white. Irides 
and orbits brown. Head, neck, rump, tail and below white. Back and wings 
bluish-grey. Primaries black, the two or three first with a spot of white 
across the ends, and the tips black, the rest tipped with white ; secondaries 
grey, tipped with white. Female similar. — Nest on ledges of rock on the coast, 
of sea-weeds. Eggs 2 or 3, dull olive-brown, blotched with dusky. Young 
mottled brown and white ; the tail with a brown bar near the end. The white 
commences in the second year ; the spots on the wings, and the dark bar of 
the tail finally disappear. In its young state it has been called the Winter 
Gull. 

229. L. Rissa. Kittivvake. — Tarsus l T 4 5 th inch. A small 

knob instead of a hind toe. 

L. cinereus Bellonii, Will. Orn, 263 Avis Kittiwake, Sibb. Scot. 20 — 

L. Rissa, Linn. Syst. 224. Penn. Brit. Zool. ii. 539. — L. tridactylus, 
Temm, Orn. ii. 774, — E, Annet — Resident. 

Length 14, breadth 38 inches; weight 8 ounces. Bill 2 \ inches long, 
slightly hooked, greenish-yellow ; corners of the mouth, inside and orbits, 
orange. Feet dusky black. Irides chesnut. Head, neck, rump, tail, and 
below white ; back and wing-covers pale grey. The four first quill-feathers 
are tipped with black, but the fourth has a small white spot near the point ; 
the fifth (or sixth) is tipped with white, with a black bar. In moulting, 1 
have observed that it is the sixth quill that is first cast off, then the fifth. 

Female similar Nest, in company, on ledges of rocks impending the sea. 

Eggs 2, pale olive, with dark markings. Young have the bill black. Head, 
neck, and below whitish ; a black spot on the lores, and (lighter coloured) on 
the ear and on the nape. Above, the plumage is mottled grey and brown ; 
the quills black ; the tail dusky at the ends ; the whole of the outer one, on 
each side, plain. The spot on the ear is the last marking of youth which disap- 
pears. In this young state, it is the L. tridactylus of Linnaeus, and the Tar- 
rock of Pennant. Mr Edmonston refers to a bird, nearly resembling the 
tarrock, which he has observed in Zetland, and which he is disposed to consi- 
der as a distinct species, under the title of L. corvus. " The upper part of 
the neck and head is pale blue ; behind each ear, a spot of a darker shade of 
the same colour ; the plumage otherwise, similar to that of the kittiwake." — 
(Edin. Phil. Journ. vol. viii. 99.) From its not breeding, nor frequenting the 
breeding-places of the common species, it is termed in Zetland, Yeld Killi- 
wake. It is also called Craa Maa. It is probably only the tarrock in the last 
stage of immaturity. 

230. L. rklibundus. Black-headed Gull. — Head and upper- 
neck brownish-black ; a large white space on the middle of the 
first quills ; tarsus l T ° th inch in length. 

L. cinereus, Will. Orn. 2G4 L. rid. Linn. Syst. 225. Penn. Brit. Zool. ii. 

541. Mont. Linn. Trans, vii. 284. Tcmm. Orn. ii. 730.— E, Pewit. 

Black-cap, Sea-crow, Rickmire ; S, Hooded Maw. 
Length 15, breadth 37 inches; weight 10 ounces. Bill and feet rich ver- 
milion. Irides hazel. Round the eyes a few white feathers. Lower part of 
the neck, tail, and below white ; the back and wings grey. Primaries white, 
the first with the exterior margin black ; the second tipped with black, and 
marked with a black spot on the inner web. In winter the head is white, 
with a black patch on the ear, and another in front of the eyes ; under the 

wing blackish-grey. Female similar Nest in meadows and islands in fresh Ava- 

ter lakes. Eggs 3, olive, with dusky blotches. The young mottled with brown 
and white. The head then becomes white, with an obscure spot behind the 
ear ; tail with a dark band. Base of the bill livid, the point black ; the feet 



142 BIRDS. PALMIPIDES. Sterna. 

yellow. In these different states of plumage, it has been termed Red-legged 
Gull and Brown-headed Gull — This species leaves Scotland in winter, but 
remains at that season on the English shores. 

231. L. capistratus. — Head and throat brown: outer quills 
with white shafts: tarsus lAth inch. 
Temm. Orn. ii. 785. 

Length 13 T 4 „ inches. Bill and feet reddish-brown ; the former slender. 
The front brownish-grey ; the nape and fore-neck white. In other respects, 
and in its winter dress, it is like the black-headed gull. It differs, however, 
in its diminutive proportions, in the brown tints of the bill and legs ; in the 
hood not descending to the nape, nor down the upper part of the fore-neck, 
and in the clear grey of the inner side of the wings. M. Temminck has 
separated this gull from the preceding, with which it appears to have been 
hitherto confounded by British naturalists. He states, that it is common in 
Orkney, and on the cqast of Scotland and England ; but it does not appear to 
have occurred to any of our native ornithologists. 



STRAGGLERS. 

1. L. atricilla. Laughing Gull. — Mont. Orn. Diet — The author just quo- 
ted states, that " This species is larger than the black-headed gull ; length 
18 inches. It differs from that bird only in the legs, which are black ; the 
bill is, however, stronger, and the head larger." Five birds of this species 
were observed by Montagu in August 1774, in a pool upon the Shingly Flats, 
near Winchelsea ; and two others near Hastings, in Sussex. 

2. L. minutus. Little Gull — Temm. Orn. ii. 787 — This species has the 
shafts of the quills brown, the ends of the feathers white, and the tarsus 
only 1 inch and 1 line in length. Its diminutive size, (not exceeding 10 in- 
ches in length), serves to distinguish it from all the other species of this genus. 
Montagu first described this gull, accompanied by a figure, in the Supp. to 
the Orn. Diet., from a specimen shot on the Thames near Chelsea, in the col- 
lection of Mr Plasted-— Mr Neill received another specimen, shot in autumn 
1824, on the shore of the Solway Frith, which he presented to theEdiuburgh 
Museum. 

3. L. candidus. Snow-Bird Fab. Fauna, gr. 103 — L. eburneus, Temm. 

Orn. ii. 769 The black feet, contrasted with the white plumage, distinguish 

this species. A solitary individual was killed in Balta Sound, Zetland, 13th 
December 1822. A description of its appearance was transmitted to the Wer- 
nerian Society (Wern. Mem. iv. 501.), by Mr Edmonston, whose zeal and 
success in illustrating the habits of the Zetland birds merit the highest praise. 

Gen. CII. STERNA. Tern. — Bill pointed, with the 
mandibles equal ; tarsi short. Tail forked. — The sexes 
are alike in plumage ; but the male is superior in size. 
All the species leave the country during winter. 

232. S. Boysii. Sandwich Tern. — Tarsus 1^ inch. Bill 
2 inches, black, with a yellow tip. Wings reach beyond the 
tail. Feet black. 

Sandwich T., Mont. Supp. Orn. Diet. Bewick's Brit. Birds, ii. 204 — S. 
cantiaca, Temm. Orn. ii. 735. — On the English coast. 



Sterna. BIRDS. PALMIPIDES. 143 

Length 18, breadth 33 inches. Irides dusky. Front, crown, including the 
eyes and nape, black. Neck, breast, rump, and belly, white, the two first 
with a reddish tinge ; back and wing-covers grey. Primaries " hoary black 
on the outer webs, and more than half of the inner, near the shafts from the 
points, but gradually becoming less towards the base, the shafts and interior 
margins quite to the tip white." — (Mont.) In winter the black on the head 
disappears, or becomes mottled with white. Eggs 2 or 3, white, with black 
marks. — Young have the black and white mottled head tinged with red, and 
the grey on the back with the same ; wing-feathers dusky ; tail grey at the 
base, then dusky, with a white tip — This species seems to breed in the Fern 
Islands on the coast of Northumberland, according to the notices given by 
Bewick — It was first detected as a distinct species by Mr Boys of Sandwich. 

233. S. Anglica. Gull-billed Tern. — Tarsus 2 inches long, 
Bill 1 1 inch, wholly black. Wings 3 inches longer than the 
tail. Feet black. 

Mont. Supp. Orn. Diet. Temm. Orn. ii. 744. — In England. 
Dimensions nearly as the preceding. Bill prominent at the symphysis, as 
in the gulls. Front, crown, taking in the eyes, nape, and upper hind-neck 
black, the feathers long. Below white. Back, wings, and tail dark grey ; 
the outer feathers only of the last white ; the five first quills tipped with 
black. In winter the head is white with black marks before and behind the 
eye — This species was first detected by Montagu It has since been ob- 
served in eastern Europe and the United States. 

234. S. Doug-aim. Roseate Tern.— Tarsus 1 inch. Bill If 
inch, yellow at the base, black at the tip. Wings 2 inches 
shorter than the tail. Feet orange. 

Mont. Supp. Orn. Diet. Temm. Orn. ii. 738 — Breeds on the Cumbray 
Islands in the Frith of Clyde. 

Length 15J inches. Irides black ; the front, crown, including the eyes and 
nape, black. A streak above at the base of the upper mandible, cheeks, be- 
low the eye, neck, breast, and belly, white, the three last with a rosy blush ; 
above grey. " Quill-feathers narrow, the first has the exterior web black, 
with a hoary tinge ; the others are hoary on that part ; and a portion of the 
inner web next to the shaft of the first three or four, is hoary black, becom- 
ing by degrees paler in the succeeding feathers, all deeply margined with 
white quite to the tip, and the shafts of all are white." — (Mont.) Tail white. 
— This species was first noticed by Dr Macdougall of Glasgow, who communi- 
cated the discovery to Montagu — Temminck states, that it has been found 
on the coast of Norway, and in the Baltic. 

235. S. Hirundo. Common Tern. — Tarsus 1 inch. Bill If 

inch, crimson, tip dark. Wings about the same length as the 

tail. Feet orange. Side- feathers of the tail dusky. 

Hirundo marina, Will. Orn. 263. Sibb. Scot. 21 S. Hir. Linn. Syst. i. 

217. Penn. Brit. Zool. ii. 545. — E, Sea-Swallow, Gull-tearer, Spurre, 
Seraye ; S, Picktarny, Tirrock, liippock ; W, Y for Wennol f'wyaf, 
Yscraean. — Common. 

Length from 14 to 15| ; breadth from 28£ to 30 inches. Bill, from the 
point to the feathers, in front, from 1 1 to 1 1. Gape from 1 § to 2 inches. 
Tip of the bill varying from pale red to brownish-black. Tarsus from |th to 
1 inch in length. Front, crown, including the upper half of the orbit, and 
half way down the neck behind, black, in some the front is slightly freckled. 
From the nostril along the cheek, over the ears, throat, neck, breast, and 



144 BIRDS. PALMIPIDES. Sterna. 

belly, white, the breast with a rosy tinge, and the throat more or less grey. 
Above light grey, the rump white. Shafts of the quills white. Outer web 
of the first black towards the base, dusky at the tip, the inner web dusky 
at the shaft ; the next five feathers dusky ; the inner webs white at the base 
and along the margin. Middle tail-feathers white, the two or three exterior 
ones dusky on the outer web. — Nest on rocks or gravel. Eggs 2, olive-brown, 
with dusky blotches. Young at first brownish-black, mottled with black 
above, below whitish, the chin dusky ; feet and bill pale reddish-white. In 
the same nest I have seen one of the young with the tip of the bill plain, and 
the tip of the bill of the other dusky, as I have witnessed likewise in the old 
birds. 

The Sterna Arctica of Temminck (Orn. ii. 742., and Sabine, App. Parry's 
First Voyage, ecu.), which he states as occurring on the coasts of this coun- 
try, is, in my opinion, only a variety of the common tern. It differs chiefly 
in" the point of the bill not being black, and in the tarsus being 4 lines short- 
er. Having examined many individuals of the S. hirundo, in reference to all 
their external markings (and at the same time), I am satisfied that these dis- 
tinguishing characters have too extensive a range of variation to warrant the 
establishment of this species. 

236. L. nigra. Black Tern. — Webs of the toes much in- 
dented. Tarsus T 8 g th of an inch. Bill black. 

L. niger, and fissipes, Will. Orn. 2G9-70 — L. fissipes, Linn. Syst. i. 228. 
Perm. Brit. Zool. ii. 547 L- nigra, Temm. Orn. ii. 749. — E, Scare- 
crow. — Breeds in the fens of England. 

Length 10, breadth 24 inches; weight 2\ ounces. Legs dusky red. Irides 
brown. Crown, head, neck, breast, and belly, greyish-black. A white spot 
under the chin. Back, wings, and tail, deep ash, the outer feathers on each 
side of the last white. In winter, the front, lores, throat, fore-neck, and 
belly, are white. The female wants the spot on the /throat. — Nest in sedgy 
places, on the margin of pools. Eggs 3, olive-brown, blotched with brown 
and black. — Young in the winter dress ; the back and scapulars brown, with 
light edges, 

237. S. minuta. Lesser Tern. — Bill black, the base and 

feet orange. Tarsus |ths of an inch. Front white. 

L. piscator, Will. Orn. 2C9. — Sterna minuta, Linn. Syst. i. 228. Penn. 
Brit. Zool. ii. 546. Temm. Orn. ii. 752 — E, Eichel Bird.— Inhabits 
England along with the Common Tern. 

Length 8|, breadth 194 inches ; weight 2 ounces and 5 grains. Irides 
dusky. Front, and a streak below the eye, white. Lores, crown, nape, and 
hind-neck, black ; back and wings bluish-grey ; rump, tail, and below, white. 
Shafts of the quills brown. Nest among shingle. Eggs 2, pale brown, spot- 
ted with cinereous, and dusky. Young, with the front yellowish-white, head 
brown, back and wings yellowish-brown. 



EXTINCT SPECIES. 

Birds seem to have experienced fewer revolutions in genera and species 
during the different epochs of the Earth's history, than either quadrupeds or 
reptiles. The extinct species are few in number, and hitherto their charac- 
ters have not been sufficiently illustrated. In the calcareous slate of Stones- 
field, the leg and thigh bones of birds have been detected, apparently be- 
longing to a wader — Geol. Eng. and Wales, 208. 



BIRDS. 145 

In the preceding observations on the characters and habits of our native 
birds, I have frequently referred to summer and winter visitants, to polar 
and equatorial migrations, and to stragglers. The reader who wishes to in- 
vestigate the laws regulating the distribution and migration of birds, with 
which the above mentioned terms are connected, may consult my " Philoso- 
phv of Zoology," vol. ii. chap. 2. It may be proper, however, to bear in 
mind that birds, in reference to these islands, maybe contemplated under the 
following divisions. 

1. Birds, which are permanently resident, and able to remain in their ordi- 
nary stations, independent of the changes of the seasons,— such as the Com- 
mon Partridge, Blackbird, and Sparrow. 

2. Summer Visitants. — Birds of this class arrive in spring, and depart in 
autumn. During their residence amongst us, they pair, build their nests, 
and bring forth their young. They retire to spend the winter in regions 
nearer the Equator, — such as the Swallow, Turtle Dove, Nightingale, and 
Corncrake. 

3. Winter Visitants. — These come to us in autumn, and depart in spring. 
Their breeding-places are in regions nearer the pole, — such as the Snow- 
Bunting, Wood-Cock, and Wild-Goose. 

4. Stragglers Under this division species are included, individuals of which 

have occurred in this country at distant and uncertain intervals. They 
usually appear after boisterous weather, and seem, in such circumstances, to 
have been driven from their ordinary haunts, or course of migration, by the 
fury of the wind. Many birds belonging to the Continent of Europe, have, 
in this manner, made their appearance amongst us, and have been inconsider- 
ately ranked as native birds by systematical writers, — such as the Bee- 
eater, the Great Black Woodpecker, and Nutcracker, and <t host of other spe- 
cies. North America has furnished a few species under similar circumstan- 
ces, such as the Falcofurcalus, and the White-winged Grossbill. To this division 
1 have to add the occurrence of a single individual, of a species hitherto un- 
known, even as a straggler, to European ornithologists, and which I have re- 
ceived since the preceding sheets had passed through the press ; the Passen- 
ger Pigeon, Columba migratoria, JVilsoti's American Ornithology, vol. v. p. 102. 
tab. xliv. fig. 1. It was shot, while perched on a wall in the neighbourhood 
of a pigeon-house at Westhall, in the parish of Monymeal*, Fifeshire, 31st 

" Length from tip of the bill to the oil-bag 8 T 8 5 th inches ; to the end of the 
tail 8 = 16 T 8 5 th inches. Breadth 24^ inches ; weight 9 ounces. Bill an inch, 
black, lengthened, slender ; nasal scale wrinkled ; a slight flexure in the line 
of the gape, immediately under the nostrils. Upper mandible longer than 
the under, and bent downwards, with the rudiments of a notch ; symphysis 
of the lower mandible short, subascending, slightly prominent retrally, with 
a shallow mesial groove ; inside of the mouth livid. Tongue blunt. Bare 
pace round the eyes, livid. Irides reddish-orange. Feet reddish, paler be- 
hind than before. Tarsus l^gth ; the middle toe, exclusive of the nail, the 
same. Claws black, arched and grooved below. Chin, cheeks, head, back, 
and rump, bluish-grey ; shoulders with a tinge of yellowish-brown. Side of 
the neck, and behind, rich reddish-purple, iridescent. Fore-neck deep ches- 
nut, becoming paler on the breast, or rather salmon-coloured, and passing to 
white on the belly and vent. Thighs like the breast. Quills brownish-black, 
the grey colour of the margin of the outer web increasing at the base of the 
secondaries, and towards the ends of the inner ones. Bastard wing and great- 
er covers of the primaries brownish-black ; greater covers of the secondaries 
grey. Lesser covers and outer scapulars tinged with yellowish-brown, with 
black spots. The second quill the longest, the first and fourth equal, but 
these not at full growth. Tail of 12 feathers, the two middle produced, the 

VOL. I. K 



146 BIRDS. 

December 1825. The feathers were quite fresh and entire, like those of a 
wild bird. I owe the possession of the specimen to the ornithological zeal 
and attention of the Reverend A. Esplin, schoolmaster of Monymeal. 

A second class of stragglers includes those species, individuals of which 
have escaped from confinement on board of vessels, or from aviaries on shore, 
— such as the Painted Bunting, the Trumpeter, and the Black Swan. Such 
birds, if carefully examined, will be found to have the extremities of the 
wing and tail-feathers worn and imperfect, the result of their confinement. 



The reader who wishes to examine figures of the British Birds, may con- 
sult with great advantage the expressive delineations of Bewick, whose work 
on " British Birds" he will find a useful companion to his studies. Should 
coloured figures, as elegant productions of art and luxury, be the object of 
his wishes, he will find gratification in the publications of Edwards, Pennant, 
Donovan, and Lewin, but especially in the splendid work of Mr Selby, which 
is superior to all the others, in true form, correct expression, and faithful co- 
louring. 

rest decreasing to the exterior. The two middle dusky black, the next grey, 
the inner margin white towards the extremity, with a black and brown spot 
near the base ; the fourth and third grey, with the black spot ; the second 
grey, with the black and brown spot. The outer web and tip of the first 
white, lower half of the inner web grey, with a black and brown spot. The 
upper tail-covers long, produced ; the lower ones white. 






Class HI. REPTILES. 



x 8 



148 BRITISH ANIMALS. 



Class III. REPTILES 



I. Heart with two auricles. 

A. Body furnished with feet. 

i. Body protected by a corneous shield. Chelonia. 
Chelona. 
Coriudo. 

II. Body covered with scales. Sauiiia. 
Lacerta. 

B. Body destitute of feet. Ophidia. 

i. Ventral and dorsal scales similar. 
Anguis. 

II. Ventral and dorsal scales dissimilar. 
Natrix. 
Vipera. 

II. Heart with one auricle. Batrachia, 

A. Furnished with a tail. 
Triton. 

Destitute of a tail. 
Rana. 
Bufo, 



Chelona. REPTILES. CHELONIA. 149 



CHELONIA. 

* STRAGGLERS. 



Genus CHELONA. — Lips corneous. Breast-plate inter- 
rupted by intervening cartilaginous spaces. Back-plate 
covered with corneous scales. 

1. Ch. imbricata. Hawks-bill Tortoise. — Two claws on 

each hind-foot. Back-plate heart-shaped, the scales imbricated. 

Testudo marina, Sibb. Scot. 13 — T. caretta, Kay, Syn. Quad. 258 — T. 
imbricata, Linn. Syst. i. 350. Lacepede, Ovip. Quad. (Trans, by Kerr, 
Edin. 1802.), i. 138. TurtorCs Brit. Fauna, 78 — A rare visitant. 

This species, common in the American seas, can be viewed only as an acci- 
dental straggler, when appearing on our coasts. Sibbald, in his Prodromus, 
first noticed the occurrence ; afterwards in his Auctarium Mussei Balfouriani, 
p. 193., he adds, "Testudo maiiina squamosa. The Scalie Sea-Tortoise; 
the shell of it. The animal came in to Orkney, and this was sent to me 
from thence." Low does not mention this notice of Sibbald, and appears not 
to have been aware even of the occasional visits of this animal to the coast. 
I have credible testimony of its having been taken at Papa Stour, one of the 
west Zetland Islands. 

Dr Turton has recorded one instance of an individual, which, " in the 
spring of 1774, was taken in the Severn, and placed in the fish-ponds of the 
author's father, where it lived till winter." 

Genus CORIUDO. — Back-plate coriaceous, ridged, and des- 
titute of scales. 

1. C. coriacea. Leathern Tortoise. — Breast-plate imperfect. 
Back-plate pointed behind, with five longitudinal ridges. 

T. cor. Borlase, Corn. 285. tab. xxvii. f. 4. Linn. Syst. i. 350. Penn. 
Brit. Zool. iii. 7. Lac. Ov. Quad. i. 146.— South coast of England. 

Two instances of the occurrence of this species, on the coast of Cornwall, 
in July 1756, are mentioned by Borlase. 

The geographical limits of marine animals are too imperfectly known, to 
enable the naturalist to determine the true character of those occasional visi- 
tants. Uncommonly warm seasons, the more or less abundant supply of 
food, or the prevalence of storms, may bring to our shores the tortoises and 
other animals of more southern seas,\vithout enabling us to claim them as 
natives. The tortoises do not lay their eggs in such high latitudes, nor is it 
probable, that, unless by accident, they would ever visit us. They can exe- 
cute extensive migrations, and practise abstinence, otherwise, instead of oc- 
curring in a live state, they would be cast up a putrid mass on the shores. 
Examples may occur likewise, of such as may have escaped from wrecked 
vessels. Taking these circumstances in connection, it is probable that the 
Ch. caouna, or Logger-headed Tortoise, common in the Mediterranean, and the 



150 REPTILES. CHELONIA. Coeiudo. 

Ch. Mydas or Green Tortoise, may, like the two species noticed above, he 
yet enumerated among our accidental visitants. Neither is it improbable 
that the relics of the Mud Tortoise and Round Tortoise, both European 
species, may occur in some of the older members of the "• modern strata" in 
the southern parts of the island. 



** EXTINCT SPECIES. 

The tortoises of this division appear, from the relics of marine 
animals, with which they are associated in the different strata, to have 
been inhabitants of the sea. Baron Cuvier, however, ranks two of 
our extinct species in his section, " Des Emydes ou Tortues d'eau 
douce." It is probable that the relics, from the following localities, 
belong to different species, though the distinguishing characters of 
these may not, as yet, be sufficiently determined. 

1. The strata in the Isle of Sheppey (Geol. Trans, ii. 205.), regarded as ana- 
logous to the ',' London clay," contain the remains of a tortoise, which Cu- 
vier considers as approaching, in some of its characters, to his Emys expansa, 
(Recherches sur les Ossemens Fossiles, v. p. 2, 234. tab. xv. f. 12.) He is 
disposed to refer to this extinct species of Sheppey the one noticed by Mr 
Parkinson, Org. Rem. hi. tab. xviii. f. 2. This last author delineates the 
head of another tortoise from the same place, ib. f. 3. ; concerning the rela- 
tions of which Baron Cuvier offers no remark. 

2. A species of tortoise was found by Mr Mantell in the iron sand-beds of 
Tilgate Forest (Emydis des sable ferrugineux du Comte de Sussex, Rech. 
Os. Foss. v. 2. p. 232.) Baron Cuvier thinks that it bears a near resem- 
blance to the remains of a species found by Professor Hugi of Soleure, in the 
Jura limestone, on the left bank of the Aar. 

3. The argillaceous limestones, termed Purbeck beds, and which belong to 
the upper division of the oolitic series, furnish bones, and even nearly com- 
plete specimens of fossil turtles. — Geol. of England and Wales, p. 172. 

4. In the Stonesfield slate, referred to the lower division of the Oolitic 
series, remains of two or three species of tortoises occur — Geol. Eng. and 
Wales, p. 208. 

5. The Lias has furnished bones and palates of a species of turtle. — Geol. 
Eng. and Wales, p. 267- 



SAURIA. 

Gen. I. LA.CERTA. Lizard.— Tongue bifid. Palate and 
jaws with teeth. Five toes, with nails on each foot. 

1. L. ag'ilis.' Nimble Lizard. — Back with dark bands. Tail 
annulated with sharp scales. 

L. flavi coloris, Sibb. Scot. 13 — L. vulgaris, JRay, Quad. 264 — L. agilis, 
Linn. Syst. i. 363 Scaly Lizard, Penn. Brit. Zool. hi. 21 — S, Man- 
keeper;' G, Dearc luachair — In warm sandy situations. 



Lacerta. REPTILES. SAURIA. 151 

Length about 6 inches. Head triangular, depressed, with large scales, 
one on each side, forming eye-brows. Snout rounded. Jaws equal, teeth 
recurved. Toes slender. A row of tubercles along the inside of each 
thigh. Throat with a double collar of large scales. The scales of the 
belly quadrangular, and placed in transverse bands. Tail twice the length 
of the body. Belly yellowish. Colours vary with the condition of the 
cuticle which is frequently renewed. Before casting, the colours are 
brownish black ; after they change, dark green and yellow tints prevail. 
This species becomes torpid during winter, and pairs after reviviscence. 
Eggs placed at the bottom of a wall facing the south, where they are hatched 
hy the heat of the sun. It is sometimes ovoviviparous. In 1803 I kept a 
female of this species for two months, until it died in September, after giving 
birth to four young ones, perfectly formed, and measuring an inch and a half 
in length. Food consists of worms and insects, which it never seizes but 
when by motion they exhibit signs of life. Easily tamed. Irritated when 
touched on the jaw or throat. Tail brittle, and frequently broken off, but 
readily reproduced. 

Ray mentions the following varieties : 

" 1. Terrestris vulgaris venire nigro maculato. 2. Terrestris anguiformis in 
ericetis. 3. Parvus terrestris fuscus opido rarus. 4. Lacertus terrestris luteus 
squamosus Anglieus, Plot. Hist. Staff. 252. 5. Lacertus aquaticus fuscus niger." 
The history of these varieties is still involved in obscurity. 

Mr Sheppard, in the seventh volume of the Linn. Trans, p. 49., seems to 
have exalted the varieties of this animal into distinct species, chiefly from 
characters depending on the colours of its different parts. In so obscure a 
department of the British Fauna, it is possible that our opinion may not he 
well founded. The descriptions which he has given, here subjoined, will en- 
able the student to decide for himself! 

" 1. L. ag'dis. Scaly or Swift Lizard — Head, upper part, light brown, 
with a few black spots. Back, ground colour light brown ; a line of irregu- 
lar black spots along the middle ; next to this, a stripe, spotted alternately 
with black and white ; then succeeds a broad dark brown one, with a line of 
black, and white spots in it : all these lines extend from the head to the end 
of the tail. Belly, in some, of a dull white ; in others, a bright yellow. 
Tail, on the under part, dirty-white, beautifully mottled with black spots ; 
the latter, however, in some specimens, are wanting. Legs, light brown 
above, spotted with white on the sides, and beneath of the same colour as the 
behy. Feet, both fore and hind, have five toes on each, furnished with nails. 
Length 6i inches. 

" 2. L. osdura. Swelled-tailed Lizard. — Head, upper part, dark brown, 
with a few black spots ; under part, dull white, mottled with black. Back, 
on the middle, a black list, on each side of that a broad brown one, with a 
line of black spots in it ; then a narrow stripe of alternate yellow and brown 
spots ; beneath this, a broad, brownish-black stripe, with a'line of yellow 
spots in it : these lines all end about half an inch beyond the hind legs. 
Sides finely mottled with black and white. Belly of a beautiful orange (in 
some yellow, in others dirty-white), spotted with black. Tail bulging out a 
little below the base (where the lines down the back terminate), which gives 
it the appearance of having been cut off and set on again : this is of a light 
ash-colour, with a few long'black marks at the end, and a large red mark on 
the under part at the base ; the latter, however, varies according to the co- 
lour of the belly. Legs light brown above, black and white on the sides, and 
beneath, red, yellow or dull white (according to the belly), variegated with 
black spots. Feet have all five toes, with nails. Length 4| inches. — This 
species I have at different times found in vast abundance ; yet, not having 
seen it described in any of the books I have access to, I have ventured to 
call it a new species, under the name, expressive of its conformation, of 
fEdura or Swelled-taiL" 



152 REPTILES. SAURIA. Lacekta 

" 3. L. anguiformis. Viperine Lizard — Head very light brown above, 
with four dark spots; yellowish-white beneath. Back, with a black line 
along the middle, reaching from the head to about half an inch beyond the 
hind legs ; on each side of this, a broader one of dark brown (these, beyond the 
black line unite, and reach to the end of the tail) ; next to these, succeeds a 
fine yellow stripe, that extends to the end of the tail ; then a black one, which 
reaches no farther than the middle line, and afterwards a dark brown stripe, 
mixed with a few yellow spots extending to the end of the tail. A little 
above the hind legs, in some specimens, is a slight division of the scales, 
forming a transverse line. Belly yellowish-white, with a few black spots. 
Tail, under part dirty white, spotted with black as far as within an inch of 
the end; the remainder marked dengthways with long bars of black. Legs 
dark brown, spotted with black. Feet have all five toes, with nails. Length 
7 inches and upwards : I saw one specimen above a foot long, but was not 
able to catch it. — This lizard, which I think may, with propriety, be describ- 
ed under the name Anguiformis, I have once or twice found near marshes, 
but its general abode is upon heaths ; this circumstance, together with its 
viperine appearance and colours, which have more than once deceived me in 
hastily passing it, induce me to suspect that it must be the L. anguiformis of 
Ray." 

Ray takes notice of the L. viridis, or Green Lizard (Quad. 264.), as in- 
habiting Ireland. It occurs in Guernsey ; and, according to Pennant, it has 
been propagated in England. The upper parts of the body being rich, varie- 
gated green, the belly whitish, and the length being from 18 to 30 inches, 
distinguish it from the L. agilis. Pennant mentions a lizard, probably of this 
species, " which was killed near Woscot, in the parish of Swinford, Worces- 
tershire, in 1741, which was 2 feet G inches long, and 4 inches in girth. The 
fore-legs were placed 8 inches from the head ; the hind-legs 5 inches beyond 
these ; the legs two inches long ; the feet divided into four toes, each furnish- 
ed with a sharp claw. Another was killed at Penbury, in the same county. 
Whether these are not of exotic descent, and whether the breed continues, 
is what we are at present uninformed of." — Brit. Zool. iii. 22. 

In the Statistical Account of Little Dunkeld by the Rev. John Robertson, 
vol. vi. p. 361. is the following note. " A quadruped found in the moors at 
the eastern extremity of the parish, is entitled to notice as a remarkable va- 
riety of the Lizard tribe. It is about 9 inches long, the body, or trunk, is of 
an unusual length in proportion to the tail, which does not taper gradually 
from the hind-feet, as in other lizards, but becomes suddenly small, like that 
of a mouse. The back is full of small protuberances, and guarded with a skin 
almost as hard as a sea-shell. The eyes large, clear, and circular, like those 
of an ordinary trout ; the jaws more than an inch in length, and the teeth so 
strong as to be heard making a ringing noise upon the iron point of a pole at 
the distance of more than ten feet. It is believed in that part of the coun- 
try, that, about 50 years ago, the bite of this animal proved fatal to a child 
two years old. It is never seen but upon very dry ground. When irritated 
it expresses its rage by the reddening and glistening of its eyes." 

These notices, of imperfectly known species or varieties, may probably ex- 
cite those who enjoy favourable opportunities to communicate more extended 
descriptions of their characters and distribution. 



EXTINCT SAURIAN REPTILES. 

Crocodile. — The remains of several distinct species of animals 
belonging to this genus, occur in those strata which are placed 
above the independent coal formation. Of these the following 
may be noticed. 



Lacerta. REPTILES. SAURIA. 15(3 

1. In the year 1791, M. G. A. Deluc communicated to Cuvier the calca- 
neum of a crocodile from Brentford. It was found associated with the re- 
mains of the extinct elephant, rhinoceros, &c. in the Lacustrine silt of that 
district, one of the members of the modern or superficial strata. Baron Cu- 
vier seems to consider it as having belonged to a species distinct from the re- 
cent kinds. If it be also distinct from the other fossil species, and have not 
been washed out of its original repository in some older bed, it must be con- 
sidered as the most recent of the extinct species — Cuv. Recti, v. 2. p. 169. 

2. In the clay of Sheppey, the jaw of a crocodile has been found, Webster, 
Geol. Trans, ii. 194. Cuv. Rech. v. 2. 165 — In the tabular view of the fos- 
sils of the London clay, in the Geology of England and Wales, it is stated, 
" That the remains of a crocodile very nearly approaching to the characters 
of existing species, and especially to the crocodile, a museau aigu, have re- 
cently been discovered in the London clay at Islington." 

3. In the Geology of England and Wales, p. 172, it is said, " Mr John- 
ston of Bristol possesses-a very perfect head of a crocodile, found in Purbeck; 
but the character of the matrix is not quite decisive, as to whether it belongs 
to these or to Portland beds." 

4. Baron Cuvier, Rech. v. 2. 161, notices the occurrence of a crocodile in 
the iron sand of Tilgate Forest, Sussex, and refers to Mr MantelTs Fossils 
of the South Downs, p. 47- 

5. In the Geology of England and Wales it is stated, that " A well cha- 
racterised crocodile, but of a species distinct both from those now known to 
exist, from those found in a fossil state in Germany, and from one, at least, 
of the French fossil species, has been dug up at Gibraltar, near Oxford, and 
is now in the collection of that Univerisity ; it is from a bed towards the 
upper part of this oolitic system, perhaps the Cornbrash," p. 208. 

6. The alum-shale of Whitby, so fertile in organic remains, has furnished 
the skeleton of a crocodile, a figure of which has been published bv the Rev. 
George Young, in the Edin. Phil. Journ. No. xxv. p. 76. tab. i'ii. In the 
length of the snout it approaches the Gavial. Mr Young is disposed to con- 
sider the skeleton found at Whitby in 1758, a drawing and description of 
which, by Mr Wooller, appeared in the Phil. Trans. 1. p. 786. tab. xxx., as 
probably belonging to the same species. 

II. Megalosaurus. — This genus was instituted by Professor Buck- 

land for the reception of the relics of an animal of great size, 
found in the calcareous slate of Stonesheld, near Woodstock, 
Oxford. It is of a mixed character, exhibiting resemblances 
both to the Monitors and the Crocodiles. A portion of the jaw, a 
femur, several vertebra?, and other bones of doubtful character, 
have been procured. The portion of the jaw is straight. The 
teeth are compressed, pointed, recurved, with the cutting edge 
crenulated. They do not adhere to the jaw, but they are pro- 
tected externally by its elevated margin. Length probably ap- 
proaching 40 feet.— Geol. Trans. 2d Series, 1 . tab. xl.-xliv. Mr 
Mantill has found the remains of this animal (probably a dif- 
ferent species) in the ironsand of Tilgate Forest. — Cuvier Rech. 
v. 2. 343. 

III. Iguanodon. — This genus, was instituted by Mr Mantill, in a 
paper read before the Royal Society of London, February 10. 



154 REPTILES. SAURIA. 

1825, for the reception of the bones of an animal found in the 
ironsand of Tilgate Forest, near Cuckfield, in Sussex. This 
reptile appears to have been herbivorous, and to possess a close 
affinity with the recent Iguana of the West Indies. Mr Man- 
till considers the animal as having; been upwards of 60 feet in 
length.— Annals of Philosophy, March 1825, p. 223. 

ENALIO SAUKI. 

In this group of Saurian Reptiles, instituted in a paper by H. T. 
de la Beche and the Rev. W. D. Conybeare, Geol. Trans, v. 559, 
the extremities are four in number, terminating in paddles, composed 
of a series of flat polygonal bones, constituting organs fit for swim- 
ming, but incapable of executing progressive motion on the land. 
The eyes are large, and the sclerotica is strengthened by a circle of 
osseous pieces ; — a character which establishes an affinity with birds, 
lizards and tortoises, to the exclusion of crocodiles and fishes. 

IV. Ichthyosaurus. — This genus, the characters of which have 
from time to time been developed by Sir E. Home, in the Phi- 
losophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London from 
1814 to 1820 inclusive, and more recently by Mr Conybeare, 
exhibits the snout of a dolphin, the teeth of a crocodile, the 
head and sternum of a lizard, and the swimmers of a whale, 
with the vertebrae of a fish. The extremities have no distinct 
radius and ulna ; but the humerus supports immediately a nu- 
merous series of polygonal bones. The anterior extremities are 
the largest. Dentition like the crocodile, the young tooth grow- 
ing up in the interior of the cavity of the old one, and, when 
matured, splitting, and causing it to fall. Teeth numerous. 
Vertebrae from 80 to 90. The following species have been es- 
tablished. 

1. I. communis Teeth with conical summits, moderately pointed, slight- 

\y bent and deeply striated. This is the largest of the species, and occurs in 
the Lias. It is probably the one figured by Mr Young, Wern. Mem. iii. 
p. 450. tab. xxii. 

2. I. Platyodon. — Teeth with compressed summits, with a sharp ridge on 
each side. 

3. I. tenwrostris Teeth slender ; nose produced — Home, Phil. Trans. 

1819, tab. xv. 

4. I. intermedins. — Teeth more pointed, and less deeply striated, than in I. 
communis. 

These different species are distributed in the strata of the lias and oolitic 
formations. Dr Harlan has proposed to add another species to the British 
list, which he supposes to have come from the neighbourhood of Bath or Bris- 
tol. It resembles the I. communis; but he says that the teeth ai*e more 
aduncate, and the dental bone of greater relative thickness. He proposes to 
term it I. coniformis.— J ourn. Acad. Phil. iii. p. 336. tab. xii. f. 6, 7 5 8. 

V. Plksiosaurus. — This genus was instituted by Mr Cony- 

beare. With the swimmers of a whale, and the head of a lizard, 



Anguis. REPTILES. OPHIDIA. 155 

it possesses a neck resembling the body of a serpent. The 
teeth are unequal, slender, pointed, a little bent, and grooved 
longitudinally. Two species occur in the strata of Britain. 

1. P. dolichodeirus — This species is an inmate of the has at Lvme. 

2. P. recenlior. — Found in the Kimmeridge clay. 

Baron Cuvier considers the bone figured by Sir E. Home, Phil. Trans. 
1818, tab. iii., as the humerus of a Plesiosaurus ; different, however, from the 
preceding species, and more nearly related to P. pentagonus, or trigonus, two 
other species which he has instituted. — Rech. v. 2. 475. 



OPHIDIA. 

Gen. II. ANGUIS. Blind-worm. — A third eye-lid. Traces 
of scapular and clavicular bones. Tympanum concealed. 
No palatine teeth. Maxillary teeth compressed and re- 
curved. 

2. A. fragilis. — Common Blind-worm. Head covered with 
nine large scales ; dorsal scales rounded and plain. 

Typhlops, Sibb. Scot. 28 — Caecilia, Pay, Syn. Quad. 289 Anguis frag. 

Linn. Syst. i. 392. Perm. Brit. Zool. iii. 36. Lacep. Ov. Quad. iv. 
293 — E, Slow-worm ; W, Pwl dall, Needr y defaid Not uncommon. 

Length about a foot (in this country, where its growth is much reduced by 
the cold), of which the tail forms one-half. Body greyish, with two dark-brown 
stripes along the back, and one on each side from" the eye. The belly dark 
brown. Head small ; neck slender ; body larger, continuing nearly of equal 
thickness to the tail, the end of which is blunt. The scales on the head are 
placed in four rows ; the first having only one scale, the second two scales, and 
the third and fourth have three each. The other scales on the lips and body 
are small, and nearly of the same size. Eyes small. Gape extending beyond 
the eyes. Tongue notched in a crescent form. Ovoviviparous. Lives in 
holes in woods, way-sides, or heaps of rubbish. Feeds on worms, frogs, and 
mice. Becomes torpid during the winter. Brittle. Its bite not venomous. 
Borlase, however, when speaking of the " long cripple," regarded by Pennant 
as the blind-worm, says that its bite is poisonous. He, however, adds, that it 
is of the "tail-pointed kind." As the obtuse tailed kind, the true blind worm, 
also inhabits Cornwall, it is probable that some of the varieties of the viper 
were referred to. The figure which Borlase gives of the " long cripple," 
(tab. xxviii. £ 24.) tapers too gradually to a point ever to have been copied 
from a blind-worm. 

The Anguis Eryx, Linn. Syst. i. 392, or Aberdeen Serpent of Penn. Brit. Zool. 
iii. 35, appears to be no other than a variety of the fragilis, from which indeed 
it can scarcely be said to differ. It was communicated to Linnteus and Pen- 
nant by Dr David Skene of Aberdeen. In his MS. descriptions of animals 
(now before me), he notices it under the trivial name Anguis Scoticus. Two 
examples are recorded. The largest about 15 inches in length, of which the 
tail occupied 8 \ inches. In the smallest specimen, the scales on the belly 
were 124 ; of the tail 63 ; a part of the latter he conjectures may have been 
wanting. In the largest, the scales of the belly were 120 ; of the tail 137- 
Linnaeus states the number 126,-136, while his numbers for fragilis are 135,- 



156 REPTILES. OPHIDIA. Natrix. 

135. On the character derived from the number of scales either of the belly 
or tail, no reliance can be placed ; so variable are they on individuals of the 
same species. 

Gen. III. NATRIX. Snake. — Destitute of poison-fangs. 
Four regular rows of imperforate teeth above, and two be- 
low. 

3. N. torquata. Ringed Snake. — Head with nine large scales ; 
dorsal scales oval, with a mesial ridge. 

Hydrus, Sibb. Scot. 28 Nat. torq. Ray, Syn. Quad. 334 — Coluber Na- 
trix, Linn. Syst. i. 380. Perm. Brit. Zool. iii. 33— Collared Viper, 

Lac. Ov. Quad. iii. 34G E, Common Snake ; S, Water Snake ; W, 

Neidr fraith, Neidr y tome nydd.— Common in England ; rare in Scot- 
land. 
Length from 3 to 4 feet. Back dusky-brown, with two black stripes of 
spots running the whole length, crossed by numerous irregular spots. Belly 
dusky, with a bluish tinge; a spot of yellow, and another triangular one of 
black on each side the neck. Head depressed ; muzzle rounded ; the large 
scales in four rows, the first and second of two each ; the third of three, and 
the fourth of two ; seventeen scales on each jaw. Scales of the sides small 
and smooth. Belly variegated black, white, and bluish ; the plates of the belly 
about 120 ; pairs of the tail 53, or even CO. Eggs 18 to 20, deposited in dung- 
hills or hot-beds. Feeds on ants, frogs, and mice. Becomes torpid during 
the winter. Easily tamed. Frequents marshy places, and enters the water 
occasionally. 

4. N. Diimfrisiensis. Dumfries-shire Snake. — Dorsal scales 
destitute of a mesial crest. 

Coluber Dum. Sower. Brit. Misc. tab. iii. 

" Plates on the belly, 1 62. Scales under the tail about 80. This coluber seems 
to be entirely new, and was discovered by T. W. Simmons, near Dumfries. As 
only one specimen has been seen, we cannot say much with regard to its usual 
size. The figures are pretty accurately drawn, as to the size of the specimen 
(about 5 inches). The scales of the back are extremely simple, not carinated. 
It is of a pale colour, with pairs of reddish-brown stripes from side to side, 
over the back, somewhat zigzag ; with intervening spots on the side." This 
is all the information which has yet been acquired concerning this species. 
There is no mention made of the large scales on the head, though they are 
represented in the figure, and intimate that this cannot be the young of the 
common viper ; while the smooth dorsal scales indicate that it is a distinct 
species from the ringed snake. In the last character, it agrees with the smooth 
viper, Col. Austriacus of Gmelin, a species common in Germany and France, 
of which it may probably be only a variety. 

Gen. IV. VIPER A. Viper. — Maxillary bones with poison- 
fansrs, btit no common teeth. Scales behind the vent di- 
vided. Neck narrow. Head destitute of plates. 

5. V. communis Common Viper or Adder. — Dorsal scale s 
oval, carinated ; inferior lateral ones suhangular and plain. 



Tnilox. REPTILES. BATRACHIA. 157 

Anguis Sibb. Scot. 28 Vipera, Ray, Syn. Quod. 285 — Col. Berus, Linn. 

Syst. i. 377. Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 2G — W, Neidr, Neider du, Giviber; 

G, Nat hair. In heaths. 
Length from 2 to 3 feet. Colour dirty -yellow ; a stripe, on each side, of 
black triangular spots, and a dorsal stripe of confluent rhomboidal spots. Space 
between the eyes and two spots on the crown, black. The head is broad be- 
hind; edo-es of the jaws covered with large scales. Belly dusky, tinged with 
blue. Scales on the belly 142 to 148; pairs on the tail 30 to 40. Ovovivi- 
parous, producing from 12 to 25 young. Feeds on insects, frogs, and mice. 
Becomes torpid during the winter — As this species is subject to considerable 
variety in its markings, depending upon age, sex, or season, it has been mul- 
tiplied into the following species, which Dr Leach, in the third volume of his 
Zoological Miscellany has, with propriety, reduced to the rank of varieties. 

1. Black Viper, Col. Prester, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. 377 — Colour nearly black. 
Lacepede says, Ov. Quad. iii. 247, that, " in this species, the top of the head 
is not entirely covered with scales, resembling those of the back, as in the 
common viper ; but there are three scales, a little larger than these, placed 
between the eyes, one advanced towards the nose, and two immediately be- 
hind." This character, however, is possessed by the viper. 

2. Blue-bellied Viper, Rev. Revett Sheppard, Linn. Trans, vii. p. 56. In this 
the back seems more tinged with brown, and the belly with blue, than usual. 

3. Red Viper, Rev. Thomas Rackett, Linn. Trans, xii. 349 — This is sup- 
posed to be the Coluber chersea of Linnaeus. It possessed the heart-shaped 
spot on the head, and the dark spot near the extremity of the tail. Above, a 
bright red colour. ** I received the viper from the Reverend John Tregon- 
will Napier, Rector of Chettle, in Dorsetshire, who killed it in Cranborne 
Chace. It is extremely rare, but known to the game-keepers under the name 
of " The Red Viper," ib. 350. It has likewise been found by the Reverend 
Revett Sheppard, in the parish of Levington, and other places in the county 
of Suffolk, in arid waste situations." — Linn. Trans, xxii. 615. 



BATRACHIA. 

Gen. V. TRITON. Eft. — Feet four, supported by bones. 
Four toes on the fore-feet, five behind, without claws. 
Tail compressed. 

The young are produced from eggs, laid on aquatic plants; 
breathe at first by gills ; and have two claspers under the 
throat, by which they can adhere to a leaf. When the 
feet become perfect, the gills and claspers are absorbed. 

6. T. palustris. Warty Eft.— Body covered with small 
warts ; brownish-black above ; orange, with black spots below. 

Lacerta palustris, Linn. Syst. i. 370 — Warty Lizard, Penn. Brit. Zool. 

iii. 23. Shepp. Lin. Trans, vii. 52 Inhabits ponds and marshes. 

Length between 6 and 7 inches. Head depressed; snout blunt, finely 
freckled with yellowish-white. A smooth space between both pairs of legs. 



158 REPTILES. BATRACHIA. Rana. 

Tail compressed, deep, ending in a somewhat blunt point. A thin narrow 
web extends from the snout along the back (where it is notched), and upper 
and under edges of the tail, to the vent — This species is probably the " L. 
terrestris vulgaris ventre nigro maculata" of Ray (Quad. 264), though inserted 
as a variety of L. agilis. It is more frequently found in marshes, and out of 
the water, than the following. 

7. T. aquaticus. Water Eft. — Skin soft, nearly smooth. 
Back greenish-brown, with dusky stripes. Belly orange, with 
dusky spots. 

Lacerta aq. Sibb. Scot. 13 — Salamandra aq. Ray, Syn. Quad. 273 — La- 

certa aq. Linn. Syst. i. 370 L. maculata, Shepp. Linn. Trans, vii. 53. 

In ponds, especially of stagnant water. 

Length about 4 inches. Head depressed, with two lines of black dots. 
Sides spotted with brownish-black lines. Tail compressed, not so deep as in 
the preceding species, and tapers to a finer point. A similar web along the 
back, decreasing in size after the season of love — This species is probably the 
Salamandra exigua, as the former seems to be the S. platycauda of Rusconi, 
an abridgment of whose curious observations on the metamorphoses of these 
animals is given in the Edin. Phil. Journ. N° xvii. 

8. T. vulgaris. Brown Eft. — Above yellowish-brown, with 
dark spots and lines. Beneath red, with black dots. 

Lacerta vulgaris, Sibb. Scot. 13 — Linn. Syst. i. 370 — Brown Lizard, 
Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 24. Shepp. Lin. Trans, vii. 52 — Inhabits under 
stones in old walls and rubbish. 
" Head compressed ; upper part yellow-brown, marked with minute dark- 
brown spots ; on the forehead, of some, is a large dark spot ; under part yel- 
lowish-white. Upper eye-lids dark-brown ; lower ones dull yellow. Back yel- 
low-brown, with minute darker spots ; two deep-brown lines reach from the 
head to the end of the tail. Belly and under part of the tail red, with a few 
black dots. Tail, sides ribbed with dark -brown. Feet without nails ; fore-feet 
with four, and the hind ones with five toes. Length 4 inches."— Sheppard. 
The same observer adds, " L. vul. I have seen of all sizes, from one to four 
inches in length, but never in any other than a perfect state, — a sufficient 
proof that, like the rest of the land lizards, it undergoes no change ; and that 
it is perfectly distinct from L. palustris and maculata, both of which attain to 
their full growth in the larva state." Should this species really prove to be 
ovoviviparous, it will probably exhibit other characters by which it may be 
separated from the aquatic species with which it is provisionally joined. Its 
history, however, is still involved in obscurity, and is, by many, considered 
as identical with Triton aquaticus. 

Gen. VI. RANA. Frog. — Jaws and palate with teeth. Toes 

simple. 

9. R. temporar'ia. Common Frog. — A black spot on each 
side of the head. 

Rana, Sibb. Scot. 13.— R. aquatica, Ray, Syn. Quad. 247-— R. temp. 

Linn. Syst. i. 357- Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 9 — S, Paddock ; W, Llyffant 

melyn — Common. 

This common species, which requires no description, breeds earlier in the 

season than other species of the tribe. The eggs are laid in clusters in shallow 



Euro. REPTILES. BATRACHIA. 159 

ponds. The tadpoles are gregarious until they acquire the adult tonus, when 
they quit the water, only returning to it occasionaDy. 

10. R. esculenta. Edible Frog. — Middle of the back with a 

protuberance; sides, margined. 

Linn. Syst. i. 257- Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 13 — IV, Llvffant melyn cefh 
grwm Not so common as the preceding. 

Muzzle pointed. Body narrow behind, arched as if broken across- Above, 
green, with three longitudinal yellow lines ; the middle one sunk ; the lateral 
ones elevated. Below whitish, with black spots. Fore-feet with four divided 
toes ; the hind feet with five, united by webs. 

Gen. VII. BUFO. Toad. — Jaws destitute of teeth. Body 
warty. Tongue short and thick. 

11. B. vulgaris. Common Toad. — Body swollen. Head 
large, above dusky-black. Fore-feet with four divided toes ; hind 
feet with six, united by webs. 

Bufo, Sibb. Scot. 13. Ray, Syn. Quad. 252. Rana Bufo, Linn. Syst. i. 

354. Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 14 — T, Taed; W, Llvffant die, Llyffant 

dafadenog. 

This well known animal, though a devourer of worms, slugs, and wasps, and 

therefore useful in gardens, though inoffensive in its manners, and destitute 

of any venomous quality, is despised, hated, and persecuted by the ignorant. 

Few individuals, even of education, will venture to take a toad in their hand, 

or act otherwise than loath it. How surprising that prejudices so unjustifiable 

should still continue to prevail! 

12. B. Rubeta. Natter-Jack. — Above yellow, clouded with 
brown, with a mesial yellow line. 

Rana Rubeta, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. 355. Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 19. Lace- 
pede, Ov. Quad. ii. 253. 
This species, which differs from the preceding in having only five toes on 
the hind feet, is covered with porous pimples. The hind part is blunt, and 
Scattered underneath with small points. Its motion is more liker running 
than either leaping or crawling. Mr Pennant says that it frequents dry and 
sandy places ; is found on Putney Common, and* also near Revesby Abbey, 
Lincolnshire, where it is called the Natter-Jack. Its history, like that of 
many of our native reptiles, is involved in obscurity. 



Class IV. FISHES. 



VOL. I. 



( 162 ) 
Class IV. FISHES. 



Order I. CARTILAGINOUS FISHES. Bones soft, 
destitute of fibres ; sutures of the cranium indistinct. 

Tribe I. CHONDROPTERYGIOUS FISHES—Gills fixed. 

I. Lips Jilted to act as suckers. No pectoral or ventral Jins. 

a. Seven branchial apertures on each side, with corresponding ca- 
vities. 

Petromyzon. 
Ammocetes. 

a a. Two branchial apertures, with a ventral aspect, leading to six 
cavities internally. 

Myxine. 

II. Lips unjit to act as suckers. 

a. Pectorals free. 

b. Mouth under the snout, which is abbreviated and unarmed. Eyes 
lateral. 

c. With temporal orifices. 
(d. With an anal fin. Two dorsal fins. 
e. Teeth conical and pointed. 
/. The first dorsal fin placed nearly above the pectorals. 
Squalus. 
Galeus. 
ff. The first dorsal fin placed nearly above the ventrals. 
Scyllium. 
e e. Teeth blunt, closely set. 
Mustelus. 
d d. Destitute of an anal fin. 
Spinax. 
Scymnus. 
c c. Destitute of temporal orifices. 
Carcharias. 
Lamna. 
b b. Mouth terminal. Eyes with a dorsal aspect. 
Squatina. 
a a. Pectorals coalescing with the snout. 

b. Gill openings, five on each side. 

c. Tail fleshy, and of ordinary proportions. 

Torpedo. 
c c. Tail hard and slender. 
d. Tail with a long serrated spine. 

Trygon. 
dd. Tail' destitute of the serrated spine. 
Kaia. 
b b. Gill openings single on each side. 
Chimaera. 

Tribe II. — Gills free. 

Acipenser. 

.Order II. OSSEOUS FISHES. Bones hard, fibrous; su- 
tures of the cranium distinct. 



Petromyzon. FISHES. CHONDROPT. 163 



CHONDROPTERYGIOUS FISHES. 

Gen. I. PETROMYZON. Lamprey. — Maxillary ring, 
armed with teeth. Mouth ovate, longitudinal. 

1. P. marinus. Sea-Lamprey. — Marbled with black, brown, 
and yellow. The second dorsal and caudal fins disjoined. 

Lampetra, Merr. Pin. 188 — L. Rondeletii, Will. Ich. 105. — P. mar. Linn. 

Syst. i. 394. Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 76. — E, Lamprey Eel ; W, Llysowen 

bendol In the sea and large rivers frequent. 

Length between two and three feet. Body of nearly equal thickness to the 
first dorsal-fin, when it decreases suddenly to the tail. Head rounded anteal- 
ly, with a slight constriction over the eyes, and rather less than the body. 
The first dorsal-fin semicircular in its outline. The second rises gradually a 
little behind the former ; and, after reaching its greatest breadth, somewhat 
suddenly, it gradually diminishes towards the tail. The tail is rounded ; the 
rays at the end are short ; and, on the under side, from opposite the second 
dorsal-fin, there is a ridge continued to the anus. Eyes lateral, in a small 
cavity in front of the gill-openings. Nostril, or short tube, situate in the 
middle, on the hind head. The sucker is a narrow border, surrounding the 
lips, consisting of an outer row of conical papilla?, and several inner rows of 
short, compressed, digitated, fringed processes. Secondary or moveable teeth, 
short, conical, or bifid, disposed in diverging and concentric rows. Primary 
teeth two ; the one above, consisting of two contiguous processes ; the one be- 
low larger, lunate, with seven conical processes. Tongue small, with several 
rows of small teeth. Gullet short ; the alimentary canal simple. The gill- 
openings are seven on each side, ovate, transverse, having, on the ventral 
side, a minute tooth-like process. The cavities of the gills are lenticular, 
placed nearly vertically, having the gills disposed in ridges, in the direction 
of the apertures. The central apertures open into a common duct, by which 
the water entering from the mouth reaches the gills. It is probable, however, 
that while the animal is adhering to any object, and the mouth closed, water 
reaches the gills directly through the lateral or external openings. The her- 
maphroditism of this fish has been ponited out by Sir Everard Home, Phil. 
Trans. 1815, 266. The lamprey leaves the sea, its ordinary residence, and 
enters the larger rivers, during the spring months, for the purpose of spawn- 
ing. The fish, when in season, is esteemed delicious. 

2. P.JluviatiUs. River Lamprey. — Dusky blue above, be- 
neath silvery. The second dorsal-iin angular, and continuous 
with the tail fin. 

Lampetra fluviatilis, Merr. Pin. 188 — Lampetra, Sibb. Scot. 25 — Will. 

Ich. 104 P. fluv. Linn. Syst. Nat. i. 394. Penn. Brit. ZooL iii. 79.— 

E, Lampern, Lesser Lamprey ; £, Nine-eyed eel ; W, Lleprog — In 
rivers and the sea. 

Length about 10 inches. The first dorsal-fin is angular, and remote froni 
the second. The secondary teeth are less numerous than in the lamprey ; 
but, in the absence of specimens, at present, it would be difficult to say more 
on the armature of the mouth, without running great risk of error, especially 
as the descriptions of Artedi, Pennant, Bloch, Lacepede, and Donovan (which 
I have consulted), differ widely from one another. It is probable, that the 

L 2 



164 FISHES. CHONDROPT. Ammoccetes- 

number and disposition of the teeth vary according to the age of the indivi- 
dual. — This species enters the rivers from the sea, in the beginning of the 
year ; spawns in March or April ; and, about mid-summer, returns again to 
the ocean. 

The P. Jura, which Dr MacCulloch describes and figures in his " Western 
Islands," ii. J 86, tab. xxix. fig. 1. probably belongs to this species, with which 
it agrees in external characters. The differences in the teeth are at present 
of doubtful value. 



Gen. II. AMMOCCETES. Pride— Maxillary ring with- 
out teeth. Lips semicircular. 

3. A branchialis. Common Pride. — The two dorsal fins 
narrow, united with each other and with the tail. 

Lampetra parva fluviatilis, Merr. Pin. 188. Ray, Syn. Pise 36. — Petro- 

myzon branchialis, Linn. Syst. i. 394. Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 80 E 

Stone Grig In rivers in England. 

This species seldom exceeds 8 inches in length, and a quarter of an inch in 
diameter. The body is marked by numerous transverse lines, giving it an 
annulated appearance. Tail lanceolate. — Frequent in the rivers near Ox- 
ford, and other places of England, lodging ki the mud. 

Gen. III. MYXINE. Hag— A temporal orifice. Mouth 
round, the margin with eight processes, and a single large 
tooth in the palate. 

4. M. glutinosa. Glutinous Hag. — Dorsal fin narrow, con- 
tinued round the tail to the vent. 

Linn. Syst. ii, 1080. Penn. Brit. Zool. iv. p. 39, tab. xx. fl 15 On the 

English coast. 

Length about 8 inches. Body nearly cylindrical, and destitute of eyes or 
scales. Margin of the tongue, on each side, with a series of pectinated teeth. 
— This species, which seems to have been confounded with the preceding, by 
Willoughby and ltay, and which was placed by Linneus among the vermes, in- 
habits the ocean. It enters the mouths of fish when on the hooks of lines 
that remain a tide under water, and totally devours the carcase, except skin 
and bones. The Scarborough fishermen often take it in the robbed fish, on 
drawing up their lines. It is the Gastrobranchus of Bloch. 

Pristis Autiquorum. The late Dr Walker, in his MS. Adversaria for 1769, 
p. 41, when noticing some British fishes not in Pennant, adds, in reference 
to this species, " Found sometimes in Loch Long." I have not met with 
any other proof of its ever having visited the British shores. 

Gen. IV. SQUALUS. Sail-Fish. — Teeth simple, conical, 
pointed. The first dorsal fin nearly above the pectorals. 

5. S. maximus. Common Sail-Fish. — Branchial apertures 

extending nearly across the neck, in front of the pectorals. 

Linn. Syst. 400 — Basking Shark, Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 101. tab. xiii. 
Home, Phil. Trans. 1809, p. 208 — E, Sun-fish ; G, Cterban ; N, Brug- 
de.— Common on the west coast. 



Galeus. FISHES. CHONDROPT. 165 

Length about 30 feet. Body bluish above, Avhite below. Skin smooth, 
when the hand passes over it from head to tail ; rough, like a file, in the op- 
posite direction. Upper jaw longest, blunt. The nostrils open on the edge 
of the upper lip. Eyes small. Temporal orifices half way between the eyes 
and the gills. The first dorsal fin situate midway between the pectorals and 
ventrals. The second between the ventrals and setting on of the tail. Sides 
of the body, towards the tail, with a scabrous ridge. A deep transverse sulcus 
on the back, at the base of the tail, the lobes of which are unequal, the upper 
being the largest. Tongue flat. — This species is ovoviviparous. It approaches 
the shores of the western coasts in May, and continues until July. In swim- 
ming, the dorsal-fin is often above the surface of the water. This is a stupid 
fish, and will suffer boats to approach without being alarmed. When struck 
with a harpoon, it usually descends to the bottom, and is somewhat difficult 
to kill. The liver of a full-sized fish yields from 8 to 12 barrels of oil. 

Gen. V. GALEUS. Tope— Teeth notched. Tail-fin irre- 
gular. The first dorsal-fin nearly above the pectorals. 

6. G. vulgaris. Common Tope. — Branchial openings short. 

Galeus piscis, Chart. Onomasticon Zoicum, 209 Canis Galeus, Will- 

Ich. 51 — Squalus Galeus, Linn. Syst. i. 399. Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 111- 
Bloch, Ich. tab. 118. — On the coast, but rare. 

This species is about 5 feet long. The back is grey, the belly white. Nose 
produced, pointed, translucent. Teeth small, sharp, triangular, and serrated 
on their inner edge. Skin rough, when stroked from the tail towards the 
head. According to Tyson, who has given minute details of the anatomical 
structure of this species, it is ovoviviparous, Will. Ich. App. p. 13. Willough- 
by states that the flesh is tender and not unpleasant. 

Gen. VI. SCYLLIUM. Bounce. — Nostrils near the mouth, 
with a valvular lobe, and a groove leading to the lips. 
Inferior lobe of the tail-fin divided. Oviparous. 

7. S. stellare. Ventral-fins disjoined. 

Catulus maximus, Will. Ich. 63. — Squalus cinereus, pinnis ventralibus 

discretis, Artedi, Ich. gen. 69, syn. 97- — S. stellaris, Linn. Syst. i. 399 

Spotted dog-fish, Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 113 On the English coast. 

Length about 3 feet. Colour greyish, with large, rather distant, black- 
spots. Nose blunt, pierced on the lower surface by numerous pores. Eyes 
oblong. Teeth small, sharp, smooth at their sides, strait, and disposed in fur- 
rows. The first dorsal-fin placed nearly over the ventral-fins. 

8. S. Catulus. Bounce or Morgay. — Ventral fins united. 

Catulus major, Will. Ich. p. 62. cap. xv. p. 64, cap. xvii. — Squalus dorso 
vario, pinnis ventralibus concretis, Artedi, Ich. gen. p. 89, syn. p. 97- — 
Sq. Cat. Linn. Syst. i. 400. — Lesser Spotted Dog-fish, Penn. Brit. Zool. 
iii. 115, Donovan, Brit. Fishes, tab.lv. — On the English coast, com- 
mon. 

Length 2| feet. Colour brownish, with numerous black spots ; belly white* 
Teeth acute, recurved, and, according to Bloch (tab. 114) tricuspidate — This 
species is considered as differing from the former in the reddish colour, in the 
spots being of a less size, but more numerous ; the snout being shorter ; the 
nostrils nearer the lips ; the ventral fins united ; the anal fin nearer the tail. 
These characters seem to indicate specific, though they may prove only sexual 



166 FISHES. CHONDROPT. Mustelus. 

differences. Broussonnet and Lacepede consider the S. stellare as the female, 
an opinion probably correct ; but, as both species occur on the southern coast, 
ive may hope that some resident naturalist will favour us with a detailed de- 
scription of their peculiarities. Mr Donovan adds, that the lesser spotted 
dog-fish is often captured by the fishermen, in the net, while trawling for flat 
fish. 

Gen. VII. MUSTELUS. Teeth blunt, and closely set. Dor- 
sal-fins without spines. 

9- M. Icev'is. Smooth-hound. — Body greyish above, white 

below, and destitute of spots. 

Galeus Mustelus, Sibb. Scot. 23 — Mustelus laevis, Will. Ich. 60.— S. 
dentibus obtusis seu granulosis, Art. Ich. gen. 66. syn. 93 — S. Muste- 
lus, Linn. Syst. i. 400. Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 116. Leach, Wern. Mem, 
ii. 63. — S, Murloch — Found occasionally on all parts of the coast. 

Length about G feet. Nose blunt. The branchial apertures above a line 
drawn between the corners of the mouth and the base of the pectorals. The 
pavement of teeth in the mouth (like the skate), readily serves as the distin- 
guishing mark of this species. It is ovoviviparous. In the Hebrides, it is 
used as food, and esteemed a very delicate fish. St. Acct. vol. xii. 322. 

Gen. VIII. SPINAX. Dog-Fish.— Each dorsal-fin with a 
free spine at its anteal margin. Teeth small, with a cut- 
ting edge. 

10. S. Acanthias. Common Dog-fish. — Back greyish-brown, 
belly white. Nostrils not terminal. 

Galeus acanthias, Sibb. Scot. Will. Ich. 56. — Squalus pinna anali nulla, 
corpore subrotundo. Art. Ich. Decs. 102 — S. acanthias, Linn. Syst. i. 

397 Picked Dog-fish, Penn. Brit- Zool. iii. 100.— #, Sea-dog ; N, Hoe. 

— Common, on the coast. 

Length about 3 feet. The snout is long, but blunt. The nostrils are 
placed about midway between the eyes and the end of the snout, with a ven- 
tral aspect.— This common species is ovoviviparous. I ts reproductive organs 
are described by Sir E. Home, Phil. Trans. 1810, p. 205. It abounds, espe- 
cially on the Scottish coast, and is often taken in the herring-nets. Its flesh 
is not unpalatable, and is frequently salted and dried, in the Northern Isles, 
for winter food. A good deal of oil is annually obtained from this species, the 
livers of 20 individuals yielding about a Scotch pint. 

Gen. IX. SCYMNUS.— Dorsal-fins without spines. 

U.S. borcalis. Greenland Shark. — The first dorsal-fin larger 

than the second; more advanced than the ventrals. 

Squalus carcharias, Mull. Prod. Zool. Dan. 38. Fab. Fauna Gr. 1 27- Block, 

Ich. tab. 119. — S. borealis, Scoresby's Arct. lteg. 558, tab. xv. f. 3. 4 

North of Scotland. 

Length about 14, circumference 8 feet. Colour grey. Eve blue, pupil 
emerald-green. Mouth wide. Teeth in the upper jaw, broad at the base, sud- 
denly becoming narrow and lanceolate with the cutting-edges rough ; in the 
lower jaw the teeth are pyramidal, compressed, the cutting-edges cremdated, 



Carcharias. FISHES. CHONDROPT. 167 

a little convex on the fore-edge, and subangularly concave on the hind-edge. 
Tongue broad and short. Pectorals large ; ventrals elongated, the two sides 
nearly parallel This species has long been confounded, by the northern na- 
turalists, with the Carcharias vulgaris of lower latitudes, under the name Squa- 
lus carcharias. Mr Scoresby, in his valuable work on the " Arctic Regions," 
misled by having observed a parasitic entomoda attached to the eye, which he 
regarded as an appendage in organical connection, concluded, under the in- 
fluence of this mistake, that the Greenland shark had not been previously de- 
scribed. Cuvier first instituted the genus for the reception of the Squalus 
Americanus of Gmelin (Le Squale Liche of Lacepede, the S. Nicaeensis of Ris- 
so), and the S. Carcharias of Gunner and Fabricius. The figure by Bloch, 
differs from the Greenland shark, in the shape of the tail ; and from the true 
carcharias still more, in the presence of the temporal orifices. It was proba- 
bly intended to represent the former species. I am in possession of the jaws 
of an individual of the Greenland shark, presented to me by the late Mr Sim- 
monds, and which was caught, in his presence, in the Pentland Frith, in 1803. 
Mr Edmonston witnessed one 13^ feet long, which was found dead at Eur- 
ra Firth, Unst, in July 1824. 

Gen. X. CARCHARIAS. — Last of the branchial openings 
above the pectorals. Snout depressed ; the nostrils in the 
middle, below. 

12. C. vulgaris. — Teeth triangular, with straight crenulated 
cutting edges. 

Canis Carcharias, Will. Ich. 47. Sibb, Fife, 118 White Shark, Perm. 

Brit. Zool. iii. 100. Risso, Ich. Nice, 25 — Rare in the British Seas. 
Length about 30 feet. Brownish above, white below, with two rows of 
black pores on the sides. Eyes round, white, with a black pupil. Pectorals 
large, triangular. The first dorsal is rounded ; the second imbedded in a ca- 
vity. Upper lobe of the tail-fin twice as long as the lower. — This species is 
recorded by Willoughby, Sibbald, and Pennant, without details respecting the 
season or place of appearance on our shores. Grew says, " They are found 
sometimes upon our coast, near Cornwall." Rarities, p. 90. 

13. C. glaucus. — Dorsal and ventral ridge indented at the 
setting on of the tail. 

Galeus glaucus, Will. Ich. 49 — Squalus fossula triangulari in extremo dor- 
so, foraminibus nullis ad ocidos, Art. Ich. syn. 98. — S. glaucus, Linn. 
Syst. i. 401. — Blue Shark, Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 109. Watson, Phil. 
Trans. 1778, p. 789, tab. xii. — Not uncommon. 

Length about feet. Back blue; belly white. Body lengthened ; snout 
pointed. Teeth triangular, finely serrated. Pectorals pointed, Anal and 

second dorsal fins opposite. Upper lobe of the tail produced This species 

visits the coast of Cornwall during the pilchard season. 

14. C. Vidpes. Thresher. — Tail nearly equal in length to 
the body. 

Vulpes marina, Will. Ich. 54. Sibb. Fife, 1 1 9 — Vulpecula, Borl. Corn. 
205. — Long-tailed Shark, Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 110 Found occasion- 
ally on the coast. 

. Total length about 1 3, of the tail about G feet ; the upper lobe of the lat- 
ter extending nearly in a straight line. Body round, short, skin grey on the 
back, white on the belly, and smooth. Nose short, pointed. Eyes large, over 
the corners of the mouth. Teeth triangular. Borlase says, " This shark 



168 FISHES. CHONDROPT. Lamna. 

we call the Thresher, from the motion of its long fox-like tail, with which it 
strikes or thrashes its larger and less agile enemy, the grampus, whenever it 
reaches the surface of the water to respire." 

Gen. XI. LAMNA. Porbeagle. — Branchial openings in 
front of the pectorals. Snout conical. Nostrils at the 
base below. 

15. L. cornubica. — Teeth produced, slender, with two pro- 
cesses on each side at their base. 

Porbeagle, Borl. Corn. 265. tab. xxvi. f. 4. Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 117., 

and Beaumaris Shark, ib. 118. tab. xvii., and 2d edition Squalus cor- 

nubicus, Goodenough, Linn. Trans, iii. 80. tab. iii. Donovan, Brit. 
Fishes, tab. cviii. — S. Selanonus, Leach, Wern. Mem. ii. 64. tab. ii. 
f. 2 — Not uncommon. 

Length from 5 to 9 feet. Colour bluish on the back, white on the belly. 
Snout projecting. Pectorals semilunar, the first dorsal, nearly immediately 
above. Ventrals small. Posterior, dorsal, and anal fins small, opposite. 
Body contracted above and below at the setting on of the tail. Small tuber- 
cles on the lateral line. A ridge extending from the tail on each side the 
body towards the middle. Tail semilunar, the upper lobe rather largest. 
This species is said to hunt its prey in companies. Its history as a British 
fish has become much involved in error. Pennant, by adding the Beauma- 
ris shark as a new species, Avhen, with the single exception of its apparently 
shorter snout, its claims were insufficient, and by publishing an inaccurate 
engraving from an accurate drawing by the Reverend Hugh Davis, introduced 
the confusion. Donovan advanced a step towards a reformation, by having 
examined the original drawing of Davis, and found it to correspond with the 
Porbeagle. The editor of the edition (1812) of Pennant's British Zoology, 
from a re-examination of the drawing of Mr Davis, asserts, that it " corres- 
ponds exactly with the original plate ;" yet, by a management which seems 
inexplicable, the engraving in the new edition is changed in many of its most 
important features, so as to bear evident marks of differing from the former 
plate, pronounced an accurate copy of the drawing. Dr Leach seems to have 
described from a stuffed specimen of the Porbeagle his Squalus selanonius, sup- 
posing it to be Dr Walker's new species S. selanonius, and which he regards as 
similar to the Squalus maximus, The Porbeagle is ovoviviparous— It is oc- 
casionally caught in the herring-nets. 



Squalus selanoneus This species was found by the late Dr Walker, in 

Lochfyne, in Argyleshire (whence the name from Lochfyne, Smus selanoneus 
of Ptolemy), where it appears during the herring season. Stewart, in his 
" Elements of Nat. Hist. i. 320.," inserts it in the section without the anal 
fin, but with temporal orifices. In the description of this species in Dr Wal- 
ker's MS. Adversaria for 176!), p. 155., now before me, there is no notice 
taken either of the anal fin or temporal orifices, so that I am inclined to in- 
fer the absence of both. Should this be the case, it will claim to rank as 
a new genus, occupying a place between Charcharias and Lamna. I shall 
here add the description as it appears in the original. " Caput, maxilla sub- 
sequalis, superiore prominente, rostrata. Maxilla superior crassissima apice 
truncata marginata, angulo superiori obtuso suberecto. Maxilla inferior an- 
gusta. Dentes numerosi acuti. Oculi super cantham oris positi sunt. Cor- 
pus, 8-pedale oblongum, teretiusculum, cute aspera. Spiracula 5, antico 
breviore, erecta, lineari-lunata : margine postico curvato. Tria spiracula 
postica super pinnam pcctoralem positi sunt, duo altera ante pi'nnam pectora- 



Squatina. FISHES. CHONDROPT. 169 

lem versus oculum. Pinnae : dorsum suberectum muticum bipinne. Pin- 
na dorsalis antica erecta, subpedalis, circa medium corporis. Pinna dorsalis 
postica, multo minor, medium inter pinnam anticaci et caudam occupat. 
Pinnae pectorales pedem longitudine superant, et ante pinnam anticam dorsa- 
lem positae sunt. Pinnae ventrales spatiam ante pinnam dorsalem posticam 
occupant. Cauda, perpendicularis furcata segmentis subaequahbus suba- 
cutis : superiori longiori. — Sore prolato, maxillis subaequahbus ; superiore trun- 
cata emarginata. There is not a vestige of this animal in Linnaeus, Wil- 
loughby, Artedi, or Pennant." The form of the snout, the position of the 
fins, and the relation of the gill-openings to the pectorals, mark a distinct 
species, and even genus, which may be termed Selanonius Wal/ceri. 

The remains of the teeth of many species of sharks occur in the different 
strata, from those of the independent coal formation, to the more recent series 
of marine deposits. They constitute the Glossopetrae of the older writers. 

Gen. XII. SQUATINA. Monk-fish.— Body depressed. 
Temporal orifices. No anal-fin. 

16. S. vulgaris. — Pectorals large, armed in front with short 

pointed curved spines. 

Squatina, Merr. Pin. 186. Sibh. Scot. 24. Will. Ich. 79 Squalus Squa- 

tina, Linn. Syst. 398. Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 98. Don. Brit. Fish. 

tab. xvii. — Monkfish and Lewis, Couch, Linn. Trans, xiv. 90 E, 

Kingstone, Angel-fish. — On the coast. 

Length 5 to 8 feet. Body above, brownish-grey, white beneath ; the skin 
rough. Head broad, emarginate in front. Teeth numerous, broad at the 
base, pointed above. Tongue broad, sharp, pointed. Tubercles or spines 
near the eyes. A rough line down the middle of the back. Two dorsal fins 
near the tail, which is divided into nearly equal lobes. This fish keeps near 
the bottom, and is only taken in nets. It is fierce and dangerous to be ap- 
proached. The size of the pectorals, resembling wings, has procured for it 
the name of Angel -fish. 

Gen. XIII. TORPEDO. Cramp-fish.— Sides of the snout 
rounded. Furnished with electrical organs. 

17. T. vulgaris. Common Cramp-fish. — Skin smooth. 

Baia Torpedo, Linn. Syst. i. 395. Walsh, Phil. Trans. 1773, p. 461. 

tab. xix., and ib. 1774, p. 464. Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 89 On the 

southern English and Irish coasts. 

Length about 2 feet. Colour, usually brown above, and white beneath. 
Head and body nearly round. Mouth small, teeth minute. Temporal ori- 
fices with fringed margins. Eyes small. The two dorsal fins placed near the 
caudal, which is broad and abrupt. This species was first recorded as occurring 
on the Irish coast, by Smith (Hist. Waterford, 271-, Pennant), and afterwards 
noticed by Walsh, as not uncommon on the English coast. If the colour- 
markings be assumed as suitable characters for distinguishing species (in op- 
position to the testimony of Mr Tod, Phil. Trans. 1816, p. 21.), the British 
species will belong to the T. marmorata of liisso, Ich. Nice, 18. 

Gen. XIV. TRYGON. — Head uniting to form with the 
pectorals an obtuse angle. Teeth granulated. 



170 FISHES. CHONDROPT. Raia. 

18. T. Pastinaca. Common Trygon. — Tail destitute of fins. 
Body smooth. 

Aquila piscis, Men: Pin. 185 — Pastinaca marina, Sibb. Scot. 23. Will. 

Ich. 67 — Raia Pastinaca, Linn. Syst. i. 390. — Sting Bay, Penn. Erit. 

Zool. iii. 95. — E, Fire Flaire. — On the southern coast of England. 
Length between two and three feet. Body rounded ; thick in the middle. 
Nose short, pointed. Tail thick at the base, nearer to which than to the 
extremity is the spine, which is depressed, thin on the edges, pointed, and 
serrated. This spine is renewed annually ; sometimes the new one appears 
before the old one drops off, in which state it is the Cardinal Trilost of the 
Cornish fishermen.— With this spine the animal is capable of inflicting a 
severe wound. 

In the British Zoology, Mr Pennant takes notice of a fish, which he terms 
the While Ray, and of which he gives the following notice : " Mr Travis, 
surgeon at Scarborough, had, in the summer of 1769, the tail of a ray brought 
to him by a fisherman of that town : he had taken it in the sea off the coast, 
but flung away the body. It was about 3 feet long, extremely slender and 
taper, and destitute of a fin at the end. I believe it to belong to the species 
called by the BrazUians Jaberete ; and that it is likewise found in the Sici- 
lian Seas. I once received the tail of one from that island, coiTesponding 
with the description Mr Travis gave : I must also add, that it was entirely 
covered with hard obtuse tubercles," Brit. Zool. iii. 88. — The species to which 
this portion belonged, is considered by the editor of the last edition of the 
British Zoology, as the Raia aquila of Linnaeus, now the type of the genus 
Myliobatis of DumeriL The tail received by Mr Pennant from Sicily, seems 
to have belonged to the Cephaloptera Giorna, Risso, Ich. 14. 

Portions of the caudal spine of a fossil species of this genus have occurred 
at Highgate, Geol. Trans, ii. 206. 

Gen. XV. RAIA. — Disc rhomboidal. Tail with fins at the 
extremity. The males with hooked spines on the pecto- 
rals. 

* Body above irregularly covered with large deflected spines. 

19- R. clavata. Thorn-back. — Base of the spines broad, 

entire, the centre projecting, subulate and deflected. 

Thornback, Merr. Pin. 185. Sibb. Scot. 24. Will. Ich. 74. Artedi, Ich. 
Desc. 103. Linn. Syst. i. 397- Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 93. — Common. 

Length upwards of two feet. Skin shagreened, freckled above, white be- 
low. A row of sti'ong prickles down the back, and three rows on the tail, 
with numerous smaller ones. Teeth of the female granulated, of the male 
pointed. The young, termed Maids or Maiden-skate, are generally spotted 
with white, according to Montagu, who adds, that the " wings were generally 
not so rough, and sometimes quite smooth about the middle. A variety also 
of this fish had an oblong dusky spot surrounded with white, in the middle of 
each wing," Wern. Mem. ii. 417- 

20. R. radiata. Starry Ray. — Base of the spines enlarged, 
radiated. 

R. Fullonica, Fab. Fauna Gr. 125 — R. rad. Don. Brit. Fishes, tab. cxiv. 
— On the north coast. 
Front obtuse ; snout slightly prominent. The spines are of two kinds. 



Raia. FISHES. CHONDROPT. 171 

Those with a subulate extremity and a broad radiated base, cover the surface 
of the pectorals and in front of the eyes. Those which are large, conical, 
curved, with a grooved base, occur, one in front of each eye, a few imme- 
diately behind, and a prominent row along the middle of the back and ridge 

of the tail. Small spines occur in the loins and on each side of the eyes. 

This species was first announced as British by Mr Donovan, who procured 
a young one in London, from the north coast. It is evidently the R. Fullo- 
nica of Fabricius, who describes the armature with his accustomed precision. 
The teeth, he adds, are broad at the base, elevated, pointed, and recurved 
at their inner edge. 

** Central ridge of spines continued from the tail along the 

back. 

21. R. oxyrinchus. Sharp-nosed Ray. — Snout produced, 
the margins subparallel. 

Will. Ich. 71. Linn. Syst. i. 395. Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 83 S, White 

Skate, Friar Skate, May Skate, Mavis Skate Not rare. 

In the length of the body this species sometimes exceeds 6 feet, and weighs 
nearly 500 lb. The body is remarkably depressed. The skin is quite smooth, 
brown above, white beneath. Teeth sharp pointed, recurved, and broad at 
the base. Tail short, with three rows of spines, the mesial one continued to 
the head ; spines at the eyes. 

22. R. rubus. Rough Ray. — Above rough, with minute 

spines. Three rows of large spines on the tail. 

Rough [Ray and Fuller Ray, Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 85. — Block Ich. tab. 
84. — Don. Brit. Fishes, tab. xx. — E, Sand Ray ; S, Hommelin. 

Length upwards of 3 feet. Nose short. Body, above, yellowish-brown, 
with dark spots ; beneath, white. Spines around "the eyes and on the snout. 
— The spines likewise occur on the lower surface. Ventrals with only three 
rays. Teeth 1 pointed. 

23. R. niicrocellata. Small-eyed Ray. — Above, rough, with 
minute spines ; one row of small-hooked spines on the tail, con- 
tinuing along the dorsal ridge to the head. 

Mont. Wern. Mem. ii. 430. — South-west coast of England. 
Length 20 inches. Colour, above, brown, with pale scattered spots and 
lines ; below, white and smooth. Snout obtuse. Eyes very -small, a spine 
in front, several smaller ones behind. Teeth obtusely cuneiform, with a 
broad edge, that feels rough to the finger as it is withdrawn from the mouth. 
Were it not for the spines in the tail being in a single row, instead of three 
rows, a circumstance Avhich may depend on age, it might be considered as the 
R. punctata of Risso, Ich. p. 12. 

*** Middle of the back destitute qf large spines. 

24. R. Batis. Skate. — Skin rough. Three rows of spines 
on the tail ; the points of those in the lateral rows directed for- 
wards. 

R. hevis, Merr. Pen. 785. Sibb. Scot. 24. Will. Ich. 69 R. Batis, 

Linn. Syst. i. 395. Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 82 — E, Homelyn, Guilt- 
head ; S, Blue Skate, Grey Skate, Dinnen Skate — Common. 

This species sometimes reaches the weight of 200 pounds. Colour, above, 



172 FISHES. CHONDROPT. Rata. 

dark brown ; beneath, dusky grey, with dark spots. Snout conical. Teeth 
sharp, with a broad base. 

25. R. aspera. Shagreen Ray. — Skin rough. Ridge of the 
tail destitute of spines ; those in the row on each side projectino- 
outwards and recurved. 

Will. Ich. 78 — Shagreen Ray, Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 87 R. chagrinea, 

Mwit. Wern. Mem. ii. 420. "tab. xxi — E, White horse, Duncow, French 
Ray. — On the English coast. 

Length about 3 feet. Snout long, spinous. Colour, above, cinereous- 
brown with black spots; beneath, white. The whole upper surface very 
rough. Spines near the eyes. A short row of spines on the dorsal ridge, 
immediately behind the eyes. 

26. R. oculata. Mirror Ray. — Skin smooth above and be- 
low, except on the margin of the pectorals. Three rows of 
spines on the tail, the mesial one reaching a short way up the 
back. 

R. lsevis oculata, Will. Ich. 72. — R. miraletus, Don. Brit. Fishes, tab. 
ciii. — On the English coast. 

Length about 10 inches. In form resembling the skate. Aculeated near 
the eyes. A large ocellated spot on the pectorals. Colour, above, brown, 
with distant large dark spots. Montagu included this species and R rubus 
under the title R. maculata. 

**** 

27- R. marginata. Bordered Ray. — Belly white, surround- 
ed with a black margin, except at the head. 

La Raie bordee, Lacepede, Hist. Poiss. v. GG3, t. xx. f. 2. Liverpool and 
Brighton, Noel. 

This species, of which a description was communicated by M. Noel to the 
ichthyologist quoted, seems to be of a small size. The snout is pointed and 
translucent. Skin of the back yellow. Three rows of spines on the tail. A 
spine behind each eye ; a single dorsal fin on the tail, and a caudal fin. 

28. R. Cuvieri. Cuvierian Ray. — The first dorsal fin on the 

middle of the back. 

Lacepede^ Hist. Poiss. i. tab. vii. f. 1. Weill, Wern. Mem. i. 554. 

Snout pointed. Tail slender, armed with three rows of spines, the middle 
one reaching to the fin on the back. This fin is longer than broad, suboval, 
and contracted at the base. Teeth blunt. This species was first procured from 
the Seine by Baron Cuvier in 1792, who communicated a drawing and descrip- 
tion of it to Lacepede. It has once occurred on the Scottish coast in the 
Frith of Forth in 1808, according to Mr Neill, who examined a putrescent 
specimen, which had been detected among a cargo of thornbacks, and who has 
since presented to me the remarkable dorsal fin, the only portion which was 
preserved. 

Gen. XVI. CHIMERA. Rabbit-Fish.— Snout conical. 
Two broad incisors in each jaw. 

29- C. monstrosa. — Colour silvery-white, marbled with 
brown. 



- 



Chimeiia. FISHES. CHONDROPT. 173 

Galeus acanthias Clusii, Will. Ich. 57 — Ch. mon. Linn. Syst. i. 401. 
Block, Ich. tab. 124. Don. Brit. Fishes, tab. cxi — In the north seas. 

Length nearly 3 feet. Body compressed. Head blunt, the snout sub- 
ascending, blunt. A narrow crenulated grinder on each side in the lower 
jaw, and a broad tubercular one corresponding above. Nostrils immediately 
above the upper lip contiguous, each with a cartilaginous complicated 
valve. Bronchial openings in front of the pectorals. Eyes large, lateral. 
Lateral line connected with numerous waved anastomosing grooves on the 
cheeks and face. On the crown in front of the eyes, a thin osseous plate, 
bent forwards, with a spinous disc at the extremity on the lower side. The 
first dorsal fin above the pectorals narrow, with a strong spine along the ari- 
teal edge. The second dorsal arises immediately behind the first, is narrow, 
and is continued to the caudal one, where it terminates suddenly. The pec- 
torals are large, and subtriangular. Ventrals rounded, in front of each a 
broad recurved osseous plate, with recurved spines on the ventral edge. 
Claspers pedunculated, divided into three linear segments, the anteal one 
simple, the retral ones having the opposite edges covered with numerous small 
reflected spines. A small anal fin opposite the extremity of the second dor- 
sal. Caudal fin above and below, broadest near the origin, gradually decreas- 
ing to a linear produced thread. This species was known to Dr Walker as 
an inhabitant of the Zetland seas. The specimen, from which the preceding 
description was taken, was sent from thence through the kind attention of 
Laurence Edmonston, Esq. Surgeon, Unst, where it is termed the Rabbit- 
fish. 

Gen. XVII. ACIPENSER. Sturgeon.— Mouth protrusile, 
without teeth. Snout conical. 

30. A. Sturio. — Body with five rows of large osseous scales. 

Men: Pin. 188. Sibb. Scot. 25. Will Ich. 239. Linn. Syst. 403. Penn. 

Brit. Zool. iii. 124. Don. Brit. Fishes, tab. lxv Occasionally found 

in rivers. 

Length reaching to 18 feet. Body grey above, white below, pentangular. 
Snout slender, subdepressed^hard. " Mouth small, circular and tubular, be- 
tween which and the extremity of the snout are four beards in a transverse 
row. Eyes small. Nostrils double. Gill opening semicircular. A row of 
large radiated osseous scales, with a mesial crest, commences at the crown, 
and is continued to the tail ; another on each side of the body, and another on 
each side of the belly ; the rest of the skin rough. All the fins are triangular. 
The anal and dorsal fins opposite.. Upper lobe of the tail considerably pro- 
duced — This species is occasionally caught in the larger rivers by the salmon 
nets, in the summer season, having left the sea for the purpose of spawning. 

The fish referred to by Merret in his Pinax, p. 188, was probably the A. 
Huso. " Acipenseri congener, cui valde similis excepto capite saporis deli- 
catissimi, captus erat in Insula "Vecti, anno 1664. Ds. Cole, qui ipsum deli- 
neavit exsiccavitque." 

At the conclusion of this enumeration of the Cartilaginous Fishes of this 
country, the Sea Snake, an animal which was cast ashore on Stronsa, Orkney, 
in 1808, merits some notice. It came ashore dead, and in a mutilated state. 
From the affidavits of those who had an opportunity of inspecting it, it appears 
to have been upwards of 55 feet in length, and not above 5 or 6 feet in circum- 
ference where thickest. Filaments, resembling a mane, extended along the 
back, the remnants, probably, of a dorsal fin ; and three articulated members 
on each side, presented themselves, probably the remains of pectorals, ventrals, 



174 FISHES. CHONDROPT. Acipensek. 

and claspers. The whole evidence respecting this animal, as published in the 
Wern. Mem. i. 431, and the accompanying observations by Dr Barclay, ren- 
der probable the opinion, that it is a species of a genus not yet established in 
the systems of zoologists. Sir Everard Home is inclined to consider it as no- 
thing more than a Squalus maximus ; an opinion deriving no support from any 
circumstance yet published respecting it. It has been conjectured, that the 
Stronsa animal may be the same as the Sea Snake of Pontoppidan. 

The animal referred to by the Rev. Mr Maclean of Small Isles, Wern. 
Mem. i. 442, which erected its broad oval head and narrow neck above the 
water, and gave chase to the boat in which he was, may have been similar to 
the Stronsa animal ; but its motions, especially raising its head above the wa- 
ter, and viewing distant objects, intimate its want of connection with the class 
of Fishes. 



OSSEOUS FISHES. 



Tribe I. Jaws imperfect, exposed and covered with ivory. 
a. Body capable of spontaneous inflation. 
Teti'aodon. 
a a. Body incapable of inflation. 
Orthagoriscus. 
. Tribe II. Jaws perfect. 

a. Gills interrupted, in tufts. Mouth terminal. 
Syngnathus. 
a a. Gills on the arches in continuous pectinated ridges. 

Malacopterygious Fishes. Fins supported by caitilaginous articu- 
lated rays. 

AcANTHor-TERYGious Fishes. The first rays of the dorsal, anal, and 
ventral fins, supported by simple spinous rays. 



Gen. XVIII. TETRAODON.— Jaws with a suture, giving 
the appearance of four teeth in front. Body tapering be- 
hind. Belly spinous. 

31. T. stellatus. — Abdominal spines straight, arising from a 
root of four rays. 

Globe Diodon, Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 132 — T. stellatus, Don. Brit. Fishes, 

tab. 66 Rare on the English coast. 

Length about a foot and a half. Back blue ; belly white. The whole sur- 
face of the abdomen covered with distinct and rather distant spines. Dorsal 
fin of 11, pectoral of 14, anal of 10, and caudal of 6 rays. Mouth small; 
irides white, tinged with red. Middle of the tail prominent. Pennant ap- 
pears first to have described this species, from a specimen taken at Penzance 
in Cornwall. Mr Donovan mentions a second example from the Cornish 
coast, in the collection of the late Mr John Hunter. 



Syngnathus. FISHES. OSSEOUS. 175 

Gen. XIX. ORTHAGORISCUS. Molebut.— Jaws undi- 
vided. Body, retrally, as if truncated ; belly smooth. 

32. O. Mola. — Skin rough. Gill-openings oval. 

Mola Salviani, Sibb. Scot. 24 Will. Ich. 151, Borlase, Corn. 267 

Tetrodon Mola, Linn. Syst. i. 412. — Short Diodon, Penn. Brit. 

Zool. iii. 131 — T. Mola, Don. Brit. Fishes, tab. 25 Occasionally 

taken in the British seas. 

Length about 2 feet ; weight about 100 pounds. Body compressed, nearly 
round, carinated dorsally and ventrally. Back mottled, dusky, belly silvery. 
Mouth, notrils and eyes, small, Pectorals small, of 12 rays. Dorsal and 
ventral fins produced, opposite, the former of 18, the latter of 16 rays. These 
two fins are connected with the caudal fin, which contains 18 large rays. 
This species was first observed by Sir Andrew Balfour, in the Frith of Forth 
(Mem. Balf. p. 80.), afterwards by Willoughby, at Penzance. It has occur- 
red on many other parts of the coast, ltisso states that they are taken at 
Nice in great numbers, and yield much oil, but the flesh is bad^ Ich. p. 61. 

33. O. truncatus. — Skin smooth. Gill-openings semilunar. 

Sun-fish, Borlase, Corn. 267 — Oblong Diodon, Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 129. 
Tetrodon trun. Don. Brit. Fishes — On the English coast, along with 
the preceding. 

Weight from 200 to 500 pounds. Body oblong, more produced than the 
Mola. Colour on the back mottled, dusky ; on the belly silvery ; dark ver- 
tical stripes on the sides of the shoulders. Pectorals of i4, dorsal of 12, anal 
of 15, and caudal of 17 rays. 



Gen. XX. SYNGNATHUS. Pipe-Fish.— Mouth tubular. 
Gill-openings on the neck. No ventrals. 

I. With Pectoral fins. 

a. With a caudal fin. 

b. With an anal fin. 

34. S. Acus.— Body heptangular, tail quadrangular. Crown 
of the head carinated. 

Acus Aristotelis species altera major, Will. Ich. 159.— Sea- Adder, Borl. 
Corn. 267 — Syn. Acus, Linn. Syst. i. 416 — Low, Hist.Ork. 181 Un- 
der stones near low water-mark. 

Length upwards of a foot. Back brown, spotted ; belly whitish. Scales of 
the body radiated. Snout narrower than the head, depressed and compressed. 
Dorsal-fin of about 38 rays, with a black line on each side; pectorals 14, anal 
6, and caudal 10 rayed. 

35. S. Typhle. — Body hexangular ; tail quadrangular ; crown 
flat. 

Acus Aristotelis, Will. Ich. 158 — S. Typh. Linn. Syst. i. 416. Don. 
Brit. Fishes, tab. 56 — Found along with the former. 
Pennant, Montagu, and some other ichthyologists, consider these two spe- 
cies as identical, the ventral carina of the latter being only somewhat indis- 
tinct. Donovan, however, seems to have pointed out, in the characters of the 
head, sufficient distinguishing marks. " In all the specimens of Tvphle (he 



176 FISHES. OSSEOUS. Syngnathus. 

adds), which we have examined, the snout is large, broad, and subcompressed 
on the sides. It passes from the crown of the head, which is flat, to the 
mouth, in a straight line, or with very little sinuosity ; instead of which, in 
Acus, the outline from the nape over the crown of the head, rises conspicu- 
ously, then takes a curvature over the eye, and slopes considerably over the 
base of the snout." Dorsal-fin 41, pectoral 12, anal 3, and caudal 12 rayed. 

b b No anal fin. 

36*. S. pelagicus. — Body linear, heptangular. 

Linn. Syst. i. 41G. Don. Brit. Fishes, tab. 58 — Caught in the winter 
season, among sprats, on the English coast. 

Length about 6' inches. Body brown, with transverse dark bands. Dorsal 
fin 23, pectoral 14, and caudal 10 rayed. Donovan first recorded this species 
native of the British Seas. 

a a No caudal or anal fin. 

37. S. barbarus — Body hexangular ; tail quadrangular. 

Linn. Syst. i. 417. Penn- Brit- Zool. iii. 138. Loiv, Hist. Ork. 179.— 
Not uncommon. 

Length about a foot. Colour olive-brown, with numerous transverse bluish 
lines. Snout compressed. Angles of the body blunt. Dorsal-fin 40, pecto- 
ral 12, rayed. 

II. Destitute of pectoral, anal, or caudal fins. 

38. S. cequoreus. — Snout long. Body octangular ; the dor- 
sal and ventral ridges acute. 

Acus nostras cauda serpentina, Sibb. Scot. 24. tab. xix. Syn. seq. Linn. 

Syst. i. 417- Mont. Wern. Mem. i. 85. tab. iv. f. 1 Rare. 

Length upwards of 20 inches. Colour yellowish, with transverse pale lines. 
From the head to the vent of equal size ; from the vent to the tail tapering 
and round. Three-fourths of the dorsal-fin before the ventral aperture ; of 
40 rays. — This species, obviously pointed out by Sibbald as an inhabitant of 
the Frith of Forth, was more clearly characterized by Montagu from speci- 
mens taken at Salcomb. 

39- S. OpMdion. — Snout short. Body round. Skin smooth. 

Acui Aristotelis congener pisciculus, Will. Ich. 160. — S. oph. Linn. Syst. 
i. 417- — Little Pipe-Fish, Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 141. — Not uncommon. 
Length about 5 inches. Colour olive. Snout short. The lower jaw turns 
suddenly up, with a protuberance at the bend — The other.species of pipe fish 
hatch their young internally, and they escape by the rending of the skin of 
the belly ; but, in this species, the eggs, which are yellow, are excluded, ar- 
ranged in rows, and attached externally to a long groove in the belly. 

According to information communicated to Mr Pennant, the Hippocampus 
vulgaris has been found on the southern shores of the kingdom. — Brit. Zool. 
iii. 141. 



( H7 ) 



MALACOPTERYGIOUS FISHES. 



I. Furnished with ventral jins. 

a. Ventrals abdominal, or situate between the pectorals and the vent. 
b. Upper jaw formed by the intermaxillary and maxillary bones, 
c. Two dorsals, the last fleshy and destitute of rays. Salmo- 

NIDJE. 

Salmo. 

Osmerus. 

Coregonus. 

cc. One dorsal fin. Intermaxillaries harrow and short; maxil- 
laries protrusile. Belly compressed, {JLUpEADyE. 
Clupea. 
Encrasicholus. 

bb. Upper jaw formed by the intermaxillaries. 

c. Mouth wide, with strong teeth. Esocii)/e. 
d. Dorsal and ventral fins entire. 
Esox. 
Belone. 

dd. The last rays of the dorsal and ventral fins detached, form- 
ing spurious fins. 
Scomberesox. 

cc. Mouth small ; teeth minute. CYPitiNiDiE. 
d. Lips simple. 

e. Dorsal fin with a spinous ray. 
Cyprinus. 
Barbus. 

ee. Dorsal fin destitute of spinous rays. 

/. Mouth with a beard. The dorsal and anal fins 
short. 
Gobio. 
Tinea. 

ff. Mouth beardless. 
Abramis. 
Leuciscus. 

dd. Lips fleshy, fit to act as a sucker. 
Gobitis. 

act. Ventrals, thoracic or jugular; i. e. situate directly under, «r nearer 
the head than the pectorals. 
b. Sides of the body similar. An eye on each side. 
c. Breast furnished with a sucker. 
d. Sucker double. 
Lepadogaster. 

dd. Sucker single. 
Liparis. 
Cyclopterus. 

VOL. I. M 



178 MALACOPTERYGIOUS FISHES. 

eo. Breast destitute of a sucker ; and the head covered with * 
naked skin or minute scales. Gxdvsidje. 

d. Bearded. 

e. Three dorsal, and two anal fins. 
Morhua. 

»e. Two dorsal, and one anal fins. 

/. The first dorsal fin developed and entire. 
Molva. 
Physcis. 

ff. The first dorsal fin imperfect, the rays short. 
Gadus. 
llaniceps. a 

dd. Beardless. 

e. Two dorsal fins. 
Merlangus. 
Merluccius. 

ee. One dorsal fin. 
Brosmus. 

bb. Sides of the body dissimilar. Eyes on one side. Plecboneo 

TICS. 

c. Dorsal fin reaching to the mouth, and, with the anal, nearly 
continuous with the tail. 
Pleuronectes. 
Solea. 

ec. Dorsal fin reaching only to the eye, and, with the anal, dis- 
joined from the caudal. 
Platessa. 
Hippoglossus. 

II. Destitute of ventral Jins. 

a. Gill-opening small, and the gill-cover concealed by the skin. 
Anguilla. 
Leptocephalus. 

ma. Gill-opening and gill.lid apparent 
Ophidium. 
&.mmodyte& 



Salmo. FISHES. MALACOPTERYGIOUS. 179 



Gen. XXI. SALMO. Salmon. — The first dorsal fin as near 
the head as the ventrals. Teeth strong, numerous. Gill- 
flap of more than eight rays. Under-jaw of the males 
turned up. 

1. Tail forked. 

a. Migratory from the sea. 

40. S. Salar. Common Salmon. — Upper jaw longest ; teeth 

on the vomer ; anal fin with about thirteen rays. 

S. Merr. Pin. 188. Sibb. Scot. 24. Will. Ich. 189 — Salmo rostro ultra 
inferiorem maxillam ssepe prominente, Artedi, Ich. Syn. 22.— S. Salar, 
Linn. Syst. i. 509. Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 284.— W, Gleisiedyn, Eog, 
Maran Taliesin ; G, Bradan.— In the sea and rivers. 

This fish seldom exceeds 3 feet in length, and weighs from 10 to upwards 
of 70 pounds in weight. The back is of a bluish- black colour, passing into 
grey and white on the sides and belly, more or less spotled above the lateral 
line. The following is the ordinary number of rays in the fins, — D. 14, P. 14, 
V. 10, A. 13, C. 21. Salmon leave the sea, and ascend the rivers through- 
out the summer season. Having reached the suitable station, they pair, and, 
in company, proceed to excavate a furrow, in the gravelly bed of the shallow 
or running water at the top or bottom of the deeper pools. Into this furrow 
the milt and roe are simultaneously deposited, and covered. This operation 
occupies nearly a fortnight. The eggs sometimes amount to 20,000. When 
the fish have spawned, or become kelts, they betake themselves to the deep 
pools, and then proceed to the sea, the males commencing the journey earlier 
than the females. Their favourite food in the sea is the sand-eel. The fry 
leave the spawning-groove about March, retire to pools, and proceed, ac- 
cording to circumstances, in myriads along the easy water at the margin of 
the river, with their heads against the stream, until they reach the tide in 
the estuary, where, like the kelts, which frequently go down at the same 
time, they retire to the deepest part of the channel, and disappear in the sea. 
These samlets, smoults or smouts, are regarded by many as reappearing in 
the estuaries a few months afterwards in the character o( grilses, of from 3 to 
9 pounds weight, according to the lateness of the season. The reader who 
wishes to obtain accurate information regarding the habits of this species, its 
economical and commercial value, may consult with advantage the " Reports 
from the Select Committee (of the House of Commons) on the Salmon Fish- 
eries of the United Kingdom," in 1824 and 1825, and the Edin. Phil. Journ- 
No. xxiv. p. 335. et seq. 

41. S. Hucho. Bull-trout. — Upper-jaw longest. No teeth 
in the vomer ; anal-fin with about ten rays. 

Trutta fluviatilis Huch Germannis dicta. Will. Ich. 197, and the Scurf, 

ib. 193— S. H. Block. Ich. tab. 100 In the sea and rivers. 

This species is little inferior to the salmon in size. Its shape is more 
lengthened. The colour nearly the same. The flesh white and insipid. In 
the upper-jaw there is a single "row of teeth on the maxillaries, intermaxii- 
laries, and palatines, but none in the middle on the vomer. A single row of 
teeth on the lower-jaw. The tongue with a row of teeth on each side. The 
jays of the fins of one which I examined were B- 11, D. 13, P* 14, V. 10, 
A. 10. 

M 2 



180 FISHES. MALACOPTERYGIOUS. Salmo 

42. S. albus. Phinock. — Jaws nearly equal; teeth nume- 
rous, recurved. 

White, Perm. Brit. Zool. iii. 302. Whitling, Hirling — Common in the 
sea and rivers of Scotland, and the north of England. 

This species seldom reaches a foot in length. The back is nearly straight. 
The colour, above, greyish-black ; the belly silvery-white. The scales small. 
The caudal-fin is black, and the pectorals yellowish towards their extremi- 
ties, B. 11, D. 12, P. 14, V. !), A. 9, C. 24. The flesh has a reddish tinge. 
This species leaves the sea about July. It is seldom taken by nets in estua- 
ries, though numerous in the rivers which it frequents, for the purpose of 
spawning, in August and September. It seems to have been, first described 
by Pennant, and is probably the Salmone Cumberland of Lacepede. 

bb. Stationary in fresh water. 

43. S. salvel'imis. Torgoch. — -The first rays of the ventral 
and anal fins white. Belly scarlet. 

Umbla minor Gesneri, Torgoch and Red Char. Will. Ich. 197 Red 

Char, and Gilt Char. Perm. Brit. Zool. iii. 309 — S. salvelinus, Block, 
Ich. tab. xcix. Don. Brit. Fishes, tab. cxii. — G, Tarrag-heal. — In the 
alpine lakes of Wales and Scotland. 

Length about a foot. Back purplish-blue, passing into silvery-yellow and 
scarlet on the sides and belly; with red spots. 1). 11, P. 13," V. 9, A. 11, 
C. 24. The flesh is red. — Spawning season about January. 

44. S. alpinns. Case Char. — First rays of the ventral and 
anal fins plain. Belly fulvous. 

Perm. Brit. Zool. iii. 308. Block. Ich. tab. civ. Don. Brit. Fishes, 
tab. lxi — In the lake Winander Mere, Westmoreland. 

Length about a foot. Back black, sides blue ; belly fulvous, with pale red 
spots. D. 11, P. 16, V. 11, A. 10. C. 24. Spawns at'Michaelmas — Though 
the observations of Donovan have advanced considerably the history of this 
species and the Torgoch, there is yet wanting a more complete elucidation of 
their characters and manners. 

2. Tail nearly even. 

a. Migratory from the sea. 

45. S. Trutta. Sea-Trout. — Gill-flap with nine rays. Jaws 

nearly equal. 

Salmoneta, Sibb. Scot. 25.— Trutta salmonata, Will. Ich. 198 — S. trutta, 
Linn. Syst. i. 509. Perm. Brit. Zool. iii. 296 — In the sea and rivers, 
common. 

Length about 18 inches ; weight about 3 pounds. Colour, above, greenish- 
black, beneath silvery, sides with irregular purplish-black spots. D. 13, 
P. 13, V. 10, A. 11, C. 32. The flesh is red, especially in those which have 
the palate dark coloured. The migrations of this species nearly similar to 
the salmon. The Samlet or Par of Pennant, Brit. Zool. iii. 303., is now gene- 
rally considered as the young of this species or the salmon, and is distin- 
guished by the row of vertical bluish spots on each side. 

46. S. Eriox. Grey. — Gill-flap with eleven rays; the up- 
per-jaw shortest. 

Will. Ich. 193 S. Eriox, Linn. Syst. i. 509. Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 195. 

— S. Cambricus, Don. Brit. Fishes, tab. xci. — In the sea and rivers. 



Osmerus. FISHES. MALACOPTERYGIOUS. 181 

Length from 13 to 24 inches ; weight from 3 to 6 pounds. Colour, above, 
duskv-green, with numerous large, subcruciibrm spots. Belly silvery, the 
sides" frequently with a yellow tinge. The head is large and blunt, and the 
body tapers little behind the tail. "" The tongue usually with 5 teeth on each 
side*. D. 13, P. 13, V. 10, A. 10, C 40 — This fish differs from the former 
n the clumsiness of its shape, its larger and more numerous spots ; in the 
mouth having more teeth ; and in the lateness of its migration from the sea. 
The sea-trout enters rivers in the spring and summer months, while the grey 
is seldom observed before the end of July. I have taken four young herrings 
from its stomach, each upwards of 3 inches in length. 

aa Stationary in rivers. 

47. S Fario. Common Trout. — Body with red spots on 
the lateral line. Tail slightly forked. 

Trutta fluviatilis, Sibb. Scot. 25. Will. Ich. 199 — S. F. Linn. Syst. i. 

509. Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 297 — W, Brithyll ; G, Breac — In rivers 

and lakes. 
Length about a foot. Colour, duskv above, with purple and red spots ; 
beneath grey. Head blunt. D. 13, P. 13. V. 9, A. 9, C. 25. Flesh white. 
Devours the eggs of the salmon. "When it feeds on shell-fish, as the Gillaroo 
Trout of Galway (Phil. Trans, lxiv. p. 116 — Sowerby, Brit. Misc. tab. lxi.), 
the coats of the stomach acquire a thickness like the gizzard of birds — In 
the river Eynion in Cardiganshire, the trout are crooked, immediately above 
the tail. 



Gen. XXII.— OSMERUS. Smelt.— The first dorsal fin 
placed more remote from the head than the ventrals. Gill- 
flap of eight rays. 

48. O. Eperlanus. — Lower jaw longest ; back greenish- white, 
sides varied with blue, belly silvery ; head translucent. 

Experlanus, Merr. Pin. 188 — Eperlanus, Will. Ich. 202. — Osmerus 
radiis pinse ani septendecem, Artedi, Ich. Syn. 21 — Salmo Ep. Linn. 
Syst. i. 511. Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 313. — S. Spirlin — In the sea and 
estuaries. 

Length from 9 to 12 inches. Tail forked ; scales small, deciduous. D. 11, 
P. 12, "V. 8, A. 14, C. 19. Emits a particular scent, which has been com- 
pared to violets, cucumbers or rushes. This fish enters the estuaries from 
the sea in the beginning of winter, spawns in March, near the junction of 
the river with the salt water. In the Tay its principal food is the shrimp. 



Gen. XXIII. COREGONUS.— Minute teeth on the jaws, 
none on the tongue or palate. Tail forked. 

49. C. Thymallus. Grayling. — Scales in regular rows ; 
grey, with longitudinal dusky blue lines. 

Umbra fluviatilis, Merr. Pin. 189 Thymallus, Will. Ich. 187 Cor. 

maxilla superiore longiore, pinna dorsi ossiculorum viginti trium, Art. 
Ich. Syn. 20 — Salmo Th. Linn. Syst. i. 512. Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 
311. Don. Brit. Fishes, tab. lxxxviii.— In the sea, and clear and 
rapid streams. 



182 FISHES. MALACOPTERYGIOUS. Cltjpea. 

Length fiom 10 to 18 inches. Head obtuse ; the upper jaw longest. 
D. 18, P. 12, V. 11, A. 11, C. 19. The second ray of the pectorals strong 
and produced. At certain seasons said to smell like thyme. Leaves the sea 
early in spring, and ascends clear and rapid streams to spawn ; returning 
again before winter. According to Mr Low, (Ork. 224.) " This species is 
found very frequent with us ; caught with a fly, to which it rises very freely, 
and struggles hard for life. Swims very quick ? leaps much, especially when 
struck with a hook." 

50. C. Lavaretus. Gwiniad.-<— Scales large ; above blue ; 
beneath silvery. Upper lip prominent. 

Poana, Vandesius et Gevandesius, Sibb. Scot. 20 Guiniad, Will. Ich. 

183 — Cor. maxilla superiore longiore plana, pinna dorsi ossiculorum 
quatuordecem, Art. Ich. Syn. 19 — Salmo Lav. Linn. Syst. i. 512. 
Perm. Brit. Zool. hi. 316.— S, Vendice; W, Guinead Powan; G, Pol- 
lag In lakes. 

Length about a foot. Mouth resembling that of a herring. Jaws equal. 
Gill-covers silvery, powdered with black. Belly flat. D. 14. p. 18. (the first 
the longest) v. 12. (of a deep blue colour). A. 15. Belly flat. Gregarious. 
Spawns in December. — This fish occurs in the lakes of Cumberland and Wale?, 
1 1 England ; in Loch Neagh in Ireland ; and in the Castle Loch, Lochmaben, 
(Stat. Ace. vii. 236), Loch-eikin Strachur, (ib. iv. 557>), Lochlomond, (ib. xvii. 
248.), in Scotland. It is the Coregone Clupeoide of Lacepede. 

Before concluding this enumeration of the British Salmonidce, the fish 
which Pennant has referred to the Linnean genus Argentina, under the title 
Sheppy Argentine, requires to be noticed. It is thus described, " A little 
fish, which I believe to be of this species, was brought to me, in 1769, taken 
in the sea near Downing. The length was 2\ inches ; the eyes large; the iri- 
des silvery. The lower jaw sloped much ; teeth small. The body compressed, 
and of an equal depth almost to the anal fin. The tail forked. The back 
was of a dusky green. The sides and covers of the gills as if plated with sil- 
ver. The lateral line was in the middle, and quite straight. On each side 
of the belly was a row of circular punctures : above them another, which 
ceased near the vent." — Brit. Zool. iii. 327- The Reverend Mr Low refers 
to a fish which he considers as similar to the one described by ^Pennant, 
which was once brought to him in Oikney. " It was not above an inch in 
length ; seemed very delicate ; the colours good ; the back greenish, spotted 
with darker clouds ; the belly a fine silver ; but it lost all its fine colours 
when kept dry. All the fins were soft ; and the tail- membrane, as well as 
those of the other fins, was very thin." — Ork. 225. The fish referred to by 
Pennant is regarded by Cuvier (Regne Animal, ii. 169), as belonging to his 
genus Scopelus, which differs from Argentina in the mouth and gill-opening 
being larger, and in the tongue and palate being smooth. He considers it, 
and with some probability, as identical with S. Humboldti, the Serpe Hum- 
boldl of Risso, Ich. 358. tab. x. f. 38. 

Gen. XXIV. CLUPEA. Heeeing.— Mamillaries bent out- 
wards. Belly compressed, serrated. 

51. C. Harengus. Common Herring. — Anal fin about 17 

rayed ; the dorsal fin placed behind the centre of gravity. 

Harengus, Merr. Pin. 185. Sibb. Scot 23. Will. Ich. 219 — Clupea max- 
ilia inferiore longiore, maculis nigris carens, Art. Ich. syn. 14. — C. 
liar. Linn. Syst. i. 522. Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 335 — Common on the 
coast. 



Engralis. FISHES. MALACOPTERYGIOUS. 183 

Length about a foot. Dusky green above ; silvery beneath. Scales deci- 
duous. D. 17. P. 17. v. 9 Inhabits the deep water. When the spawning 

season approaches, herrings are found near the shore, in bays and estuaries. 
Their migrations to and from the Arctic Circle, given in detail by Pennant, 
have no existence in nature. The fry or sill enter the mouths of rivers, and 
have even been caught with a trout-fly. 

52. C. Pilcardus. Pilchard. — Anal fin about 17 rayed. The 
dorsal fin placed in the centre of gravity. 

Alosa minor, Merr. Pin. 185. Sibb. Scot. 23 — Harengus minor, Will. 

Ich. 223. Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 343 ; S, Crue-herring — Common on 

the Cornish coast ; rare in Scotland. 

Length about a foot. The body is rounder than in the herring ; the snout 

and under jaw shorter; back more elevated; and the scales larger. D. 18. 

P. 16. v. 8, c. 32 This fish appears in vast shoals off the Cornish coasts, 

about July. Like . the herring, however, they are capricious in their move- 
ments. 

The fry of the herring and pilchard are confounded together under the epi- 
thet Sprat. The position of the dorsal fin, in reference to gravity, furnishes, 
however, an obvious mark of distinction. 

53. C. Alosa. Shad. — Snout bifid. The mucous ducts on 
the gill-covers elegantly branched. 

Alosa seu Clupea, Merr. Pin. 190. Will. Ich. 227 — C. Alosa, Linn. Syst. 
i. 523. Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 348. Fletn. Phil. Zool. tab. iii. f. 1 — 
E, Mother of Herrings ; 5, Elf Herring. — In the sea and large rivers. 
Length about 18 inches. Above greenish-black ; sides and belly silvery. 
The under jaw longest. D. 20. (the first four short and simple) P. 16. v. 9. 
A. 21. Tail greatly forked, and on each side a large scale, with its mesial 
edge free. I have taken fine young herrings, about 3 inches in length, from 
the stomach of this fish. The shad leaves the sea in May, and enters the 
rivers for the purpose of spawning. It is not unfrequently taken by the sal- 
mon-nets. The fry is well known in the Thames by the name of White Bait, 
appearing near Blackwall and Greenwich during the month of July. 

Gen. XXV. ENCRASICHOLUS. Anchovy— Maxiilaries 
long and straight. Belly smooth. 

54. E. Encrasicolus. — Dorsal and ventral fins opposite* 

Will. Ich. app. 27. Ray, Syn. Pise. 107 — Clupea En. Linn. Syst.i. 523. 

Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 347- Don. Brit. Fishes, tab. 4 In the sea and 

a few of the English rivers. 

Length about 6 inches. Back green, semi-pellucid ; sides and belly silvery. 
Upper jaw produced. D. 15, P. 15, v. 7, A. 14, C. 24. Considerable quan- 
tities are imported from the Mediterranean, in a pickled state. 



The claims of the Lepisosteus osseus (which may readily be recognized by 
the osseous scales with which it is protected), to rank as a British fish, are 
▼ery doubtful. Berkenhout inserts it in his Synopsis, p. 81. with the habitat 
Sussex coast ; and Stewart, in his Elements, vol. i. 374. intimates its occur- 
rence in the Frith of Forth. 



184 FISHES. MALACOPTERYGIOUS. Belone 

Gen. XXVI. ESOX. Pike.— Snout oblong, rounded, de- 
pressed. The intermaxillaries, vomer, and palate-bones, 
armed with teeth. 

55. E. Liicius. Common Pike. — Body olive above, with 

yellow spots ; beneath white, with black spots. 

Lucius, Men: Pin. 100. Sibb. Scot. 25. Will. Ich. 236 — E. Lucius, 
Linn. Syst. i. 510. Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 320 — E, Pickerel, Sul. ; S, 
Ged. ; W, Penhwyad ; G, Geat-iasg. — In lakes and pools. Common. 

This fish grows to a great size. Pennant states, that the largest he ever 
heard of in England weighed 35 pounds. Dr Griersort mentions one taken in 
Loch Ken in Galloway, which weighed 61 pounds (Thomson's Annals of Phi- 
losophy, vol. iii. p. 428). Body nearly of equal thickness, suddenly decreas- 
ing behind the dorsal and anal" fins. D. 21, P. 15, v. 2. A. 18. Exceedingly 
voracious. I have found their own fry, an inch and a half long, in their sto- 
mach, in the month of July. They spawn in February or March. Accord- 
ing to the observations of' the Reverend Revett Sheppard, a migration of 
pikes " takes place yearly in spring,, in the Cam, up which river they come 
in great shoals, doubtless from the fens in the neighbourhood of Ely, where 
they are bred." — Linn. Trans, xiv. 587- There is abundant evidence that the 
pike is indigenous, though considered by some as having been introduced into 
England in the reign of Henry VIII. in 1537- 

Gen. XXVII. BELONE. Gar.— Snout produced. Teeth 
confined to the intermaxillaries. Scales on each side of the 
belly carinated. 

56. B. vulgaris. Common Gar. — Body green above, white 
below. 

Acus vulgaris, Will. Ich. 231 — Esox Belone, Linn. Syst. i. 517 — Gar 
Pike, Perm. Brit. Zool. iii. 324. Don. Brit. Fishes, tab. 64 — On va- 
rious parts of the coast. 
Length from 12 to 18 inches. Body nearly cylindrical. The belly flat. Jaws 
slender, armed with fine teeth; the lower jaw longest. D. 17, P- 13, v. 7> 
A. 19, C. 23 Leave the deep water in spring, to spawn near the shore. 
Bones become green by boiling. The fish to which Mr Couch refers as pro- 
bably the Esox Braziliensis of Linne, seems to be the young of this species.— 
Linn. Trans, vol. xiv. p. 85. 

Gen. XXVIII. SCOMBERESOX. Saury.— Teeth con- 
fined to the intermaxillaries. Belly bicarinated. 

57. S. Saurus. Saury. — Jaws subulate, waved, subrecurved ; 

the lower jaw longest. 

Skipper, Will. Ich. 232. Say, Syn. Ich. 165. Borl. Corn. 271— Saury, 

Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 325. Racked, Linn. Trans, vii. p. 60. Don. 

Brit. Fishes, tab. cxvi.— S, Gowdnook, Egyptian Herring.— On the 

coast, not rare. 

Length from 12 to 18 inches. Body slender; back changeable green; 

belly silvery. Scales small. Tail greatly forked. Finlets six above and six 



Barbus. FISHES. MALACOPTERYGIOUS. 185 

below, but apt to vary in number. D. 11, P. 11, v. 6, A. 11, c. 22 — This fish 
is gregarious ; and, in the autumn, runs up the estuaries, and frequently 
does not, like other fishes, retire from the shallows with the ebbing of the 
tide, but is found with the long snout stuck in the mud. It sometimes leaps 
out of the water, and passes over a space of 30 or 40 feet. 

A single example of the Exocetus volitans, or Flying Fish, was caught at 
a small distance below Caermarthen, in the river Towy, in June 17G5, the ac- 
count of which was communicated to Pennant by John Strange, Esq., Brit. 
Zool. iii. 333. Another in July 1823, ten miles from Bridgewater, in the 
Bristol Channel, a notice , of which was communicated to the Linnean Society, 
by the Reverend S. L. Jacob. — Annals of Phil. vol. xxii. 152. It is not, 
however, recorded in the " Extracts" of the Society, in vol. xiv. p. 582. 



Before proceeding to the indigenous species of the family of Cyprinedae, 
three naturalized species merit some notice, belonging to the restricted ge- 
nus 

CYPRINUS. Carp.— Dorsal fin long. The second ray of the 
dorsal and anal fin a serrated spine. 

1. C. Carplo. Common Carp. — Mouth with four beards; 
lateral fine bent ; tail forked. 

The carp appears to be a native of the southern lakes and ponds of Europe. 
It is usually stated to have been first introduced into England, by Leonard 
Maschal, about the year 1514, though, according to the testimony oi' Wynkyn 
de Worde, a few were in England about twenty years previous. It is tena- 
cious of life, prolific, and prized as food. 

2. C. aiiratus. Golden Carp. — Mouth without a beard. Tail 

forked, often 3 or 4 parted. 

This truly beautiful fish, so rich in colour, the body being often golden, the 
fins scarlet, is a native of China, where it is kept in porcelain vessels in the 
houses of the rich, for ornament, and for the amusement of the ladies. It was 
introduced into England about the year 1G91, where it breeds freely. 

3. C. Gibelio. Gibel. — Without a beard. Tail crescent- 
shaped. Dorsal fin with 19 rays. 

This seems to be the Crusian of the British Zoology, as stated on the au- 
thority of the late Mr Dryander, in the last edition. Indeed the figure ori- 
ginally given bears so close a resemblance to the Cyprinus Gibelio of Bloch, 
Ich. tab. xii. while it differs from the C. carasius, as to leave no room to 
doubt that Mr Pennant was originally misled in his inference. He says that 
this fish is found in many of the ponds in the neighbourhood of London. He 
considers it as a naturalized species, but that the period of its introduction is 
uncertain. 



Gen. XXIX. BARBUS. Barbel.— Dorsal fin short. The 
second or third ray spinous. 

58. B. vulgaris. Common Barbel. Mouth with four beards. 
Form produced. 



186 FISHES. MALACOPTERYGIOUS. Gobio. 

Barbus, Merr. Pin. 189. Will Ich. 259 — Cyprinus oblongus, maxilla 
superiore longiore, cerris quatuor, pinna ani ossiculorum septem, Art. 

Ich. Syn. 8 C. Barbus, Linn. Syst. i. 525. Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 357- 

Don> Brit. Fishes, tab. xxix. Gregarious — In the English rivers. 
Length from 2 to 3 feet. Body usually olive on the back, and silvery on 
the belly. D. 11, P- 13, V. 11, A. 9, c. 22. The second or spinous ray of 
the dorsal fin strongly serrated on both sides. Spawns in April. Flesh and 
eggs supposed by some to be hurtful, an opinion which Bloch refuted from 
experience. 

59. B. orfus. Rud. — Mouth without blard. Body deep. 

Rutilus ktior, Rudd, or Tinscale, Will. Ich. 252 — C. or. Linn. Syst. i. 
530. Rud, Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 363 — C. orfus, Bloch, Ich. tab. xcvi.— 
In the English rivers. 
Length from 12 to 16 inches. Body deep and thick. Head small. Irides 
yellow. Scales large. Back olive ; sides and belly of a gold colour ; ventral, 
anal, and caudal fins red. D. 10. (the first short, the second spinous, and 
slightly serrated). P. 19. (the first large), V. 9. A. 13. Spawns in April— 
This fish, according to Willoughby, is found in the lakes and rivers of York- 
shire, Lincolnshire, and Oxfordshire. Pennant and Blocb, inconsiderately re- 
fer this species, so well described by Willoughby, to the Ervthropthalmus of 
Linnaeus, which is also the ervthropthalmus of our venerable ichthyologist. 
The serrated spinous ray of the dorsal fin has induced me to place it here 
along with the Barbel, from which, however, it seems to differ, generically, in 
shape, and the absence of a beard. It may be termed, after Willoughby, 
Rubellio fluviatilis. 

Gen. XXX. GOBIO. Gudgeon— Tail forked. Upper jaw 
longest. 

60. G. Jluviatilis. Common Gudgeon. — A single beard at 
each corner of the mouth. 

Merr. Pin. 189.— Gobius fluv. Will. Ich. 265 — Cyprinus Gobio, Linn- 
Syst. i. 526. Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 361. Don, Brit. Fishes, tab. lxxL— 
Found in gentle streams in England. 
Length 6 inches. Body round. Back dusky. Belly white. A row of 
large black spots on the sides. D. 8, P. 14, V. 8, A. 11, C. 21. In winter, 
the gudgeon congregates in deep pools or lakes. In summer, frequents shal- 
lows. Flesh highly esteemed. 

Gen. XXXI. T1NCA. Tench.— Tail thick, even. Scales 
minute, slimy. 

61. T. vulgaris. Common Tench. — The back, dorsal, and 
ventral fins dusky ; the head, sides, and belly yellowish-green. 

Tinea, Merr. Pin. 190. Will. Ich. 251 — Cyprinus Tinea, Linn. Syst. i. 

526. Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 359. Don, Brit. Fishes, tab. cxiii.— In 

lakes and rivers, England. 

Weight 4 or 5 pounds. Body thick in proportion to its length. A minute 

beard at each side of the mouth. Gape ascending. D. 11, P. 17, V. 9, A. 10. 

Willoughby states that the tench spawns when the wheat is in flower. Flesh 

insipid. 



Leuciscus. FISHES. MALACOPTERYGIOUS. 187 

Gen. XXXII. ABRAMIS. Bream.— Anal fin long ; the 
dorsal fin short, and behind the ventrals. 

62. A. Brama. Common Bream. — Lateral line placed low, 
and waved irregularly. 

Cyprinus latus (Abramus) Merr. Pin. 190. Will. Ich. 248.— Cyprinus 
Brama, Linn. Syst. i. 531. Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 362. Don, Brit. 

Fishes, tab. xciii In lakes or deep rivers ; England and Scotland. 

Weight 4 or 5 pounds. Body deep, compressed*; the head small, and the 
back elevated and sharp. Back bluish black ; the sides and belly white ; the 
latter sometimes yellow or red. Scales large. Mouth remarkably smalL 
D. 11, (the second ray the longest), p. 19, v. 9, a. 27- (crescent-shaped). 
Spawn in May. Willoughby adds, " Hepar habet longum inter ventriculum 
et intestinum, in ipsa flexura eodem modo depositum quo pancreas in avibus. 
Cystis fellea in hepatis parenchymate pene latitat. Lien ei angulosus ; ap- 
pendices nullae ; intestina semel reflexa. Vesica pneumatica transversim in 
duos lobos divisa." According to the Reverend Iievett Sheppard, " There 
exist in the river Trent, in the neighbourhood of Newark, two species or va- 
rieties of bream. The common one Cyprinus Brama is known there by the 
name of Carp Bream, from its yellow colour, and has been taken of nearly 8 
pounds weight. The other species or variety, which 1 believe to be a non- 
descript, never exceeds a pound in weight. 1 1 is of a silvery hue, and goes by 
the name of White Bream." — Linn. Trans, xiv. p. 587- According to Pennant, 
the bream occurs in Lochmaben— Li</A(/bo<'s Flora Scotica, i. 63. 

Gen. XXXIII. LEUCISCUS.— Dorsal and anal fins short. 

* Ventral and anal fins reddish. 

63. L. vulgaris. Dace. — Body oblong ; slightly compressed. 
Head small. Irides pale yellow. 

Leuciscus, Merr. Pin. 189. Will. Orn. 260 — Cyprinus Leuciscus, Linn. 
Syst. i. 528. Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 366. Don, Brit. Fishes, tab. 
lxxvii. — E, Dar, Dart — In rivers in England. 
Length about 10 inches. Back dusky green ; sides and belly silvery. Dor- 
sal fin dusky ; the ventral, anal, and caudal fins red. D. 10, p. 15, v. 9, a. 9. 
Tail much 'forked. Spawns in February. Lurks near the roots of trees ; 
. frolicksome. Flesh insipid. The Graining of Pennant, Brit. Zool. iii. 367 ; 
(the Cyprinus Lancastriensis of Shaw, Gen. Zool. v. 234), is usually consi- 
dered as a variety of the dace. It is thus described : " The graining is found 
in the Mersey, near Warrington ; has much the resemblance of a dace, but is 
more slender^ and the back straiter. The usual length about 74 inches. The 
depth to the length of this is as one to five ; of the dace as one to four. The 
colour of the back is silvery, with a bluish cast. The eyes, ventral, and anal 
fins are red, but paler than those of the dace. The pectoral fin redder." 

64. L. cephalus. Chub. — Body and head thick ; snout round- 
ed. Scales large, angular. 

Capito sive cephalus, a Chub or Chevin, Will Ich. 255 — -Gyprinus ob- 
longus macrolepidotus : pinna ani ossiculorum undecim, Art. Ich. 

gen. v. syn. 7 Cyprinus Cephalus, Linn. Syst. i. 527- Penn. Brit. 

Zool. iii. 368 Cyprinus Jeses, Don. Brit. Fishes, t. cxv.— In rivers 

in England and Scotland. 



188 FISHES. MALACOPTERYGIOUS. Gobitis. 

Length 15 inches. Back dusky green ; sides and bellv silvery. Mouth 
small, the lower jaw shortest. Nostrils large. D. 9, P. 17, V. 9, A. 11. Spawns 
in May in sandy places in the middle of the stream. Lurks near the roots 
of trees in running water. Linnreus, by mistake, states that the tail of this 
fish is entire. Bloch, when describing his Le Villian, or C. Jeses, adds, 
" Pennant se tromp, quand il croit que le cephale de Linne est son chub ; 
car la figure de la nageoire de la queue, et le nombre des rayons dans la na- 
geoires de l'anus prouvent que ce sont deux poissons differens," Ich. tab. vi. 
Had this author traced the chub of Pennant to the pages of Willoughby, and 
compared the minute description of the latter with the characters given of 
the C. cephalus by Artedi and Linne, he never would have referred our fish to 
the Jeses of Linne, which is the Capito caruleus of Willoughby. According 
to Pennant, the Chub is found in the Annan. — Lightfoofs Flora Scolica, i. 63. 

65. L. ratilus. Roach. — Dorsal fin with 10 rays; body 

deep compressed. 

Rutilus sive Rubellus, Merr. Pin. 190. Will. Ich. 262— Cyprimus Ru- 
tilus, Linn. Syst. i. 529. Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 305. Don. Brit. Fishes, 
t. lxvii. — S, Braise. — In rivers and lakes in England and Scotland. 

Length about 1 foot. Back dusky-green ; sides and belly silvery. Scales 
broad, "striated. P. 13, V. 9, A. 12, C. 22.— Spawns in spring — YVilloughby 
considers the Roach as a lake fish, occasionally entering rivers. The Reve- 
rend David lire (Author of the History of Rutherglen and Kilbride), when 
describing the Roach, in the parish of Killearn, says, " Vast shoals come up 
from Loch Lomond, and by nets are caught in thousands : their emigrations 
from the loch, however, are onlv for the space of three or four days about 
the end of May."— Stat. Ac. xvi. p. 109. 

66. L. erythropthalmus. Ited Eye — Dorsal fin with 14 
rays. Irides red ; body deep, compressed. 

Erythropthalmus, Will. Ich. 249. — Cyprinus Evyth. Linn. Syst. i. 530. 
Block, Ich. t. i. Don. Brit. Fishes, t. xl. — In England. 

Length about 10 inches. Back dusky green ; sides and belly silvery. P. 
15, V. 9, A. 13 — Spawns in April. — This species claims to rank in the Bri- 
tish Fauna, on the authority of Donovan, who has neglected to state the lo- 
cality from whence his specimen was procured, and who considered it as the 
Rud. Willoughby, however, adds, " ab orfo distinguitur, 1. Pluribus in pin- 
na dorsali radiis ; 2. Macula crocea sub lingua ; 3. Volutis intestinorum." 

** Ventral and anal fins plain. 

67. L. alburnus. Bleak. — Body slender, compressed; un- 

der-jaw longest; fins pellucid 

Alburnus, Merr. Pin. 190. Will. Ich. 263 — Cvprinus alb. Linn. Syst. 

i. 531. Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 370. Don. Brit. Fishes, t. xviii E, 

Bleik, Bleis. — In rivers in England. 

Length about 6 inches. Back green ; sides and belly silvery ; scales deci- 
duous ; the lateral line twice bent. D. 10, P. 16, V. 9, A. 19. — Spawns in 
May. — The silvery scales of this species are used by artists in the manu- 
facture of artificial pearls. Sibbald inserts this species as a native of Scot- 
land : " Alburnus, an qui nostratibus the Bleis." — Scott. III. 25. 

68. L. Phoxinus. Minnow. — Body rounded ; back de- 
pressed; scales minute. Jaws equal. 

Phoxinus, Merr. Pin. 190. Sibb. Scot. 25 — Cyprinus Phoxinus, Linn- 
Syst. i. 528. Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 373. Don. Brit. Fishes, t. lx.«- 
E. Pink, Minim.— In rivers, common. 



Gobitis. FISHES. MALACOPTERYGIOUS. 189 

Length about 3 inches. Colour various ; usually the back is dusky olive> 
the belly white. D. 8, P. 14, V. 8, A. 8, C. 19, marked at the base with a 
dark spot.- This fish, well known to young anglers, is extensively employed 
as a bait, in the capture of many fresh-water fishes. 

According to Mr Stewart, the Cyprinus Idas of Linne, a species minutely 
described by Artedi, Ich. Disc. p. 6., was found in the mouth of the Nith by 
the late Dr Walker. 

Gen. XXXIV. GOBITIS. Loche.— Lips with 6 beards. 
Scales small, slimy. 

69- Gr. barbatula. Bearded Loche. — Sides cf the head un- 
armed. 

G. barbatus, Merr. Pin. 1 89. Sibb. Scot. 25 — G. fluviatilis, Will. Ich- 
265— G. Barb. Linn. Syst. i. 499. Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 282. Don. 
Brit. Fishes, t. xxii. — In slow running streams. 
Length about 3 inches. Body round, compressed towards the tail. Back 
dusky, mottled with brown, belly white. Mouth small, a beard at each cor- 
ner of the mouth, and four before the nose. D. 8, P. 12, V. 7, A. G. Spawns 
in April. 

70. G. TcBnia. Groundling. — A forked spine under each 

eye. 

G. B. aculeata, Will. Ich. 265— G. Taenia, Linn. Syst. i. 499. Block 
Ich. t. xxxi f. 2. Berk. Syn. i. 79 — In the Trent. 
Size of the preceding. Body compressed ; above brown, with black spots. 
D. 10, P. 11, V. 7-. A. 9, C. 17. — This species was introduced into the Bri- 
tish Fauna by Berkenhout, who, after giving its residence as in lakes or ponds, 
adds, " also in the Trent." Turton, in his British Fauna, i. 103, states, that 
it is " found in the clear streams of Wiltshire with the last." 

At this place it may be proper to notice a remark of Sibbald's, leading to 
the conclusion that the Silurus Giants may have occurred in his day in some 
of the Scottish rivers. At the conclusion of his list of river fishes, he adds, 
" Silurus, sive Glanis." — Scotia Jlluslrata, p. 25. 

Gen. XXXV. LEPADOGASTER. Sucker.— Head de- 
pressed ; body smooth. 

71. L. cornubiensis. Cornish Sucker. — Snout depressed, 
produced, rounded ; dorsal fin Avith 11 rays. Four cirri in 
front of the eyes. 

Suck-fish, Bor, Corn. 269. t. xxv. f. 28, 29 — Jura Sucker, Penn. Brit. 

Zool. iii. 137 Cyclopterus corn. Shaw, Gen. Zool. v. 397 — Cyc. ocel- 

latus, Don. Brit. Fishes, t. lxvi Southern coast of England and 

Hebrides. 
Length about 4 inches. Body reddish, with dusky spots. In maturity, 
there are two ocellated marks behind the eyes ; each consisting of a large obo- 
vate spot of a deep purple, inclosed within a broad pale brownish ring, and 
embellished in the centre with a brilliant blue dot. P. 17, A. 10, C. 6. This 
species, found on rocks at low water, differs from the L. Gouani and L. Balbis 
of Risso. The former of these figured by Gouan, Ich. p. 177- gen. xxxiv. t. 
i. f. 6, 7, differs in the spots behind the eyes being crescent-shaped, and the 
dorsal fin having a greater number of i - ays. 



190 FISHES. MALACOPTERYGIOUS. Cyclopterc 8 . 

72. L. bimaculatus. Bimaculated Sucker. — Snout conical ; 
body attenuated. Dorsal fin with five rays ; no cirri in front 
of tne eyes. 

Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 397- Mont. Linn. Trans, vii. p. 293. Don. Brit. 
Fishes, t. lxxviii. On the English coast. 
Length an inch and a half. Colour pink, with white spots ; pupil blue. 
Behind the pectoral fin, in maturity, on each side is a purple spot, surround. 
ed by a ring of white. P. 1 1, V. 4, A. 5, C. 12. This species was communicat- 
ed to Pennant by the Duchess of Portland, from Weymouth. Montagu ob. 
tained it, by dredging, at Forcross in abundance, adhering to stones and old 
shells. 

Gen. XXXVI. LIPARIS.— Body smooth, produced; dor- 
sal and anal fins long. 

73. L. vulgaris. Sea-snail. — Dorsal and anal fins united with 
the caudal. Sucker circular ; the mesial ligament broad. 

Liparis nostras, Will. Ich. app. 17- Cyclopterus Liparis, Linn. Syst. i. 
414. Uncteous Sucker, Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 135. C. L. Don. Brit. 
Fishes, xlvii. In salt-water, near the mouths of rivers ; common. 

Length 4 to 5 inches. Above dusky, beneath whitish ; sometimes the 
sides and back have purple stripes. D. 36, P. 32, A. 26, C. 12. When out of 
the water it soon dissolves. 

74. L. Montagui. — Dorsal, anal, and caudal fins disjoined. 
Sucker ovate ; the mesial ligament narrow. 

Cycop. Mon. Don. Brit. Fishes, t. lxviii. Mont. Wern. Mem. i. 91 — 
Coast of Devon. 
Length 2 inches. Body rounded to the vent, compressed towards the tail; 
purplish-brown, with confluent spots. D. 26, P. and v. 29, A. 24, C 12. Front 
of the head scalloped with six indentations. — This species has only been ob- 
served by Montagu, at extraordinary low tides, among the rocks at Milton, 
on the south coast of Devon. 

Gen. XXXVII. CYCLOPTERUS. Lump-fish. — Body 
deep, with ridges of osseous tubercles ; dorsal and anal fins 
short. 

75. C. Lumpus. — Back sharp, elevated ; belly flat. 

Lumpus, Sibb. Scot. 24. Will. Ich. 208 — Cyc. L. Linn. Syst. i. 414. 

Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 133 — E, Lump, Sea Owl ; S, (male) Cock Padle, 

(female) Hen Padle, Hush, Bagaty.- Common on the coast. 

Length about 18 inches. Back dusky, belly and iridis red. Skin rough ; 

seven ridges of tubercles. D. 1 1, P. 20, A. 10, C. 12. Flesh coarse and ofly ; 

seldom used as food. 

A single instance of the Echineis Remora occurring on our coast, is recorded 
by Dr Turton, in his British Fauna, p. 94, where he states, that one was 
" taken by the author in Swansea, from the back of a codfish in the summer 
of 1806." 

Gen. XXXVIII. MORHUA. Cod. — Fins large ; body 
tapering retrally. A single beard on the lower jaw. 



Morhua. FISHES. MALACOPTERYGIOUS 191 

76. M. vulgaris. Common Cod. — The first ray of the anal 
fin spinous. 

Asellus merluccius, Merr. Pin. 184 — A major, Sibb. Scot. 23. Will. Ich. 

165. Gadus Morhua, Linn. Syst. i. 436. Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 172. 

— 2?, Keeling.— Abundant on many parts of the coast. 

Length about 3 feet. Colour grey above, freckled with yellow ; beneath 
white. The lateral line straight to opposite the vent, when it bends towards 
the tail, white and broad. The tail is nearly even. The jaws equal. 1st 
D. 12, 2d 18, 3d 16 ; P. 14; V. 7 ; 1st A. 20, 2d 16 ; C. 36. Spawns in spring. 

This fish, universally esteemed as an article of food, is eagerly sought after 

on those sea-banks which it frequents. The most extensive fisheries in our 
seas are off the western isles and the coast of Zetland. 

The Morhua callarias or Torsk, first inserted in the British Fauna by 
Berkenhout, syn. i. 67, probably on the authority of a passage in Willough- 
by, (non ita dudum piscator hujus generis Assellum 4 pedes longum in sinu 
minore ad Ekrefordiam urbem cepit, raro spectaculo.— Ich. p. 172.) does not 
appear to have been noticed in our seas or estuaries by any recent observer. 
It differs chiefly from the common cod in the lateral line being spotted, and 
the upper jaw being longer. The tail is even, or a little rounded. 

77. M. Mglejinus. Haddock. — Upper-jaw longest ; tail 

forked. A spot behind the pectorals, and the lateral line 

black. 

A. Haddock, Merr. Pin. 184.— Asellus Callarias, Sibb. Scot. 23 — Onos, 
Will. Ich. 170. Gadus aeg. Linn. Syst. i. 435. Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 
179. Common on many parts of the coast. 

Length 18 inches. Back dusky ; belly white ; head sloping ; eyes large. 
Fins like the preceding. Spawns in spring. Gregarious like the cod, but 
shifting its haunts at uncertain intervals. Superstition assigns the black la- 
teral marks to the impression of St Peter's thumb and finger, when he took 
the tribute out of the mouth of a fish, supposed to be of this species, and 
which mark has been continued to the race. 

78. M. lusca. Bib. — The first ray of the ventral fins pro- 
duced and setaceous. 

Asellus luscus, Will. Ich. 169. Gadus luscus, Linn. Syst. i. 437. Penn. 
Brit. Zool. iii. 184. Not uncommon. 
Length about a foot. Body broad ; sides compressed ; back olive ; belly 
white. Scales large. Tail nearly even. One row of long recurved teeth. 
Eyes covered with a loose membrane. The 1st d. 12, (the second ray longest) 
2d 23, 3d 2 ; p. 16 ; v. 7. This species is the Beb or Blinds of Cornwall, the 
Miller's Thumb, or Deillion, in Caernarvon, and the Smeltie of Zetland. 

79. M. barbata. Pout. — Back arched; the first dorsal fin 
triangular, ending in a long fibre. 

Assellus sub mento barbatus, Merr. Pin. 184. A. mollis latus, Lister y 

Will. Ich. app. 22. Gadus barbatus, Linn. Syst. i. 437- Penn. Brit. 

Zool. iii. 183. E, Whiting Pout, Kleg. A rare species. 

Length about a foot. Colour whitish ; a spot behind the pectorals ; the 

fins and tail black. Body remarkably deep ; back carinated ; scales small ; 

tail even. Lateral line white, broad and crooked. Mouth small ; on each 

side of the lower jaw are seven or eight punctures. 

80. M. minuta. Poor. — Nine punctures on each side of the 
jaws and gill-covers. Peritoneum black. 



192 FISHES. MALACOPTERYGIOUS. Molva, 

Assellus mollis minor, Will. Ich. 171. J ago, Ray Syn. Pise. 163. Gadus 
minutus, Linn. Syst. i. 438. Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 185. Block, Ich. t. 
67- Found on the coast of Cornwall by the Reverend Mr Jago. 
Length about C inches. Back light brown ; belly whitish. Body lengthen- 
ed. Tail rounded. Lateral line narrow, straight. Anus in the middle of 
the body. 1st D. 12, 2d 19, 3d 17 ; P. 13 ; V. 6 ; 1st A. 27, 2d 17. Approaches 
the shore in spring. 

81. M. punctatus. — " Pale brown, with golden spots; be- 
neath white, thickly covered with minute dusky specks ; upper 
jaw longer." 

" Speckled Cod, (Gadus punctatus, Tur tori's Brit. Fauna, i. 90.) Taken 
frequently in the Weirs at Swansea." 

" Body 18 inches long, slightly arched on the back, a little prominent on the 
belly ; covered, above, with numerous gold-yellow roundish spots ; beneath, 
with dusky specks, which are stellate under a glass. Head large, gradually 
sloping; teeth small, in several rows in the upper jaw, in the lower a single 
row ; nostrils double ; iris reddish, pupil black ; chin with a single beard ; 
nape with a deep longitudinal groove. Lateral line nearer the back, curved 
as far as the middle second dorsal fin, growing broader and whiter towards 
the end. Upper fins and tail brown, with obscure yellowish spots, and dark- 
er towards the ends ; lower ones tinged with green. Vent near the middle 
of the body. Scales small, all of them, under a glass, minutely spreckled 
with brown ; gill-covers of two pieces. Lower-jaw with 5 obscure punctures 
on each side. Dorsal fins 14-20, 18 rayed; pectoral 18; ventral 6, the first 
ray shorter than the second, and divided a little way down ; anal 19-16; tail 
even, 36, rayed. Differs from Gadus Morhua (M. vulgaris) in not having 
the first anal ray spinous, and in the lower jaw being considerably longer ; 
from G. luscus in the first ray of the ventral fin being shorter than the se- 
cond ; from G. barbatus in wanting the 7 distinct punctures on the lower 
jaw, in its small scales, and in the first dorsal fin not ending in a long fibre ; 
and from G. Callarias, in not being spotted with brown, and in having the 
lateral line white." 

Gen. XXXIX. MOLVA. Ling.— Body lengthened ; head 
flat ; lateral line straight. The second dorsal and anal fins 
long, the rays of nearly equal length. 

82. M. vulgaris. Common Ling. — Upper-jaw longest ; tail 
rounded ; with a dusky bar. 

Asellus varius Molva, Merr. Pin. 184. Sibb. Scot. 23 A. longus, Will. 

Ich. 175 — Gadus Molva, Linn. Syst. i. 439. Penn. Brit. Z00L iii. 

197 Common. 

Length from 3 to 4 feet. Above, grey, inclining to olive ; beneath white ; 
the dorsal and anal fins edged with white. 1st D. 15, 2d 65 ; P. 15 ; V. 6; 
A. 62. Spawns in spring. When in season as food the liver is white. 

83. M. Lota. Burbot. — Jaws equal; tail oval, slightly 

pointed. 

Mustek, Merr. Pin. 190. Will. Ich. 125.— Gadus Lota, Linn. Syst. i. 

440. Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 199. Don. Brit. Fishes, t. 92 E, Eel- 

pont, Coneyfish, Birdbolt — In slow running rivers, England. 

Length from 1 to 3 feet. Colour brownish, blotched with olive or yellow. 
Teeth small. The first dorsal fin is short, with 1 1 rays ; the second extends 
almost to the tail, of 61 rays ; P. 16 ; V. 7 ; A. 50. Spawns in December. Es- 
teemed a delicate fish for the table. 



Physcis. FISHES. MALACOPTERYGIOUS. 193 

Gen. XL. PHYSCIS. Fork-beaud. Ventrals consisting of 
one produced divided ray. 

84. P. furcatus. Common Fork-beard. — Anterior dorsal 
fin triangular, the first ray slender and produced. 

Asellus Callarias, Will. Ich. 205. — Barbus major, Jago, Ray, Syn. Pise. 

163 Forked Hake, Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 193 — Blennius Gadoides, 

Risso, Ich. 136 On the south coast of England. 

Length about a foot. Eyes large ; irides white ; lateral line incurvated. 
The ventrals twice as long as the head. 1st D. 10, 2d D. 62, P. 12, A. 56. Tail 
rounded. Mr Couch states that a few spines are placed before the anal fin, 

Linn. Trans, xiv. 75 This species was first detected by the Rev. G. Jago, 

on the coast of Cornwall, where it was known by the name of the Great 
Forked Beard. 

Gen. XLI. GADUS. Gade.— Rays of the first dorsal fin 
short, partly detached. Head of the ordinary size. 

85. G. Mustela. Five-bearded Gade. — Four beards on the 

upper, and one on the lower jaw. First ray of the dorsal fin 

produced. 

Mustela vulgaris, Will. Ich. 121. — Gadus Mustela, Linn. Syst. i. 440 

Five-bearded Cod, Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 202. Don. Brit. Fishes, t. xiv. 
— E, Sea Loche, Whistle-fish, Rockling — On the English and Scottish 
coasts. 

Length 18 inches. Colour olive above; belly whitish. Two of the beards 
are on the end of the snout, and two immediately above these. 2d D. 49, P. 
14, V. 6, A. 40, C 24, rounded. 

86. G. tricirratas. Three-bearded Gade. — Two beards on 

the upper, and one on the lower jaw. AJ1 the rays of the first 

dorsal fin short. 

M. vulg. var. Will. Ich. 121. — Three-bearded cod, Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 
201. Don. Brit. Fishes, t. 11. — Common among rocks near the shore. 

Length about 18 inches. Colour reddish -yellow, with large black spots. 
These, however, according to Montagu, are not observed till the fish exceeds 
6 or 7 inches in length, previous to which the colour is rufous-brown. The 
lateral line bends in the middle, and then passes straight to the tail. 2d D. 
54, P. 20, A. 46, C. (rounded) 24 — By some naturalists this is considered as 
a variety only of the preceding species. 

87. G. argenteolus. Silvery Gade. — Two beards on the up- 
per, and one on the lower jaw. The first ray of the dorsal fin 
produced. 

Mont. "Wern. Mem. ii. 449 — Thrown ashore on the south coast of Devon 
in the summer of 1808. 

Length about 2 inches. Back bluish-green ; belly silvery. Head obtuse ; 
the upper jaw longest. Rays of the first dorsal fin numerous, short. Pec- 
torals rounded, of 16 rays. Ventrals 6 rayed, the middle ray produced. Tail 
nearly even at the end. — This species, in the condition in which it occurred 
to Montagu, in numbers, had not probably attained its full size. 

VOL. I. jf 



194 FISHES. MALACOPTERYGIOUS. Raniceps. 

Gen. XLII. RANICEPS. — The first dorsal fin obscure. 
Head depressed and very broad. Mouth wide, with regu- 
lar incurvated teeth. Rays of the ventrals produced. 

88. R. trif'urcatus. Lateral line tuberculated above the pec- 
toral fins. 

Trifurcated Hake, Davies, Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 196, and edition 1812, 
iii. 272 South coast of England. 

Length about 12 inches. Colour deep brown, the lips white. Eyes large, 
irides yellow. Body compressed, especially towards the tail. The first dor- 
sal fin consists of three slender minute rays placed in a furrow. 2d D. 62, 
P. 23, V. 6. (the three last short), A. 59, C 36. Tubercles 9 or 10 on each side, 
from the last of which the lateral line commences, is curved in the middle, 
and then straight to the tail ; caudal and pectoral fins rounded. Mr Donovon, 
in the preface to his work on British Fishes, declares that Pennant was mis- 
led when he instituted the trifurcated hake as a distinct species, as the de- 
scription was taken from a damaged skin of the forked hake ; and he adduces 
the authority of the Rev. Hugh Davies in support of his opinion. In the last 
edition of the British Zoology, the trifurcated hake is continued as a distinct 
species, and several additional facts illustrative of its history given, likewise 
on the authority of the Rev. Hugh Davies ! We cannot unravel such mys- 
terious contradictions. 

89. R. Jago. Lateral line smooth. 

Barbus minus, Jago, Ray, Syn. Pise. 164. Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 195— 
Couch, Linn. Trans, xiv. 75 — Coast of Cornwall. 
This species was first noticed by the Rev. Mr Jago, whose name we have 
adopted as its trivial appellation. It has since been observed by Mr Couch, 
who has given the following description of its peculiarities: — " Length 10 
inches. Head wide and flat. Eyes forward and prominent. Under jaw 
shortest. Teeth in the jaws and palate, sharp and incurved, and some in the 
throat. Small barb at the under jaw. Body compressed, smooth. First dor- 
sal fin triangular, and extremely small ; second dorsal fin and the anal fin 
long, ending in a point ; tail round ; ventral fins have several rays, of which 
the two outmost are much elongated, the longest measuring two inches ; the 
fins all covered with the common skin. A furrow passes above the eyes to 
the back. Stomach firm, with longitudinal folds ; no appendix to the intes- 
tines. Air-bladder large, and of unusual form. In the intestines were the 
remains of an echinus." 



Gen. XLIII. BROSMUS. Tusk.— The small dorsal and 
anal fins lengthened ; ventrals fleshy, with five rays. 

90. B. vulgaris. Common Tusk. — Fins edged with white ; 

tail and pectorals rounded. 

Brismack, Lump, Tusk, Sibb. Desc. Orkney and Zetland, p. 8.— Torsk, 
Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 203. Low, Ork. 200. — Gadus Brosme, Don. Brit. 
Fishes, t. 70. — On the sea-banks, especially off the coast of Zetland. 

Length about 2 feet. Above dusky ; sides yellowish ; belly white. Late- 
ral line a little incurvated. Body compressed behind the vent. A furrow on 
the neck. D. 49, P. 21, V. 5, A. 37, C. 35 — This fish is caught along with ling 
and cod. When salted it is deservedly esteemed. Pennant originally con- 
founded this species with the torsk or dorse, Morhua callarias. 



Meklangus. FISHES. MALACOPTERYGIOUS. 195 

Gen. XLI V. MERLANGUS. Three dorsal and two anal fins. 

91. M. vulgaris. Whiting. — Upper jaw longest; a black 
spot at the base of the pectorals ; lateral line nearly straight, 
white. 

Asellus mollis, Merr. Pin. 184. Sibb. Scot. 23. Will. Ich. 170 Ga- 
dus Merlangus, Linn. Sjst. i. 438. Penn. Brit. iii. 190 Common. 

Length about a foot. Above pale brown ; belly and sides silvery ; the lat- 
ter streaked with vellow. Teeth of the upper jaw long. 1st D. 15, 2d D. 18, 
3d D. 20, P. 19, V. 6, 1st A. 34, 2d A. 20. The whiting is caught chiefly in 
the spring and summer months, and esteemed the most delicate food of any of 
the family to which it belongs. 

92. M. Pollachius. Pollack. — Lower jaw longest. Lateral 
line incurvated, black. 

Asellus mollis nigricans, Merr. Pin. 184. — A. Huitingo Pollachius, Will. 

Ich. 167— Gadus Pol. Linn. Syst. i. 439. Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 188.— 

E, Whiting Pollach, Leets ; S, Lythe. — Common on the rocky coasts. 

Length about 18 inches. Above dusky -green ; sides with yellowish streaks ; 

belly white. Bodv sloping from the first dorsal fin. 1st D. 12, 2d D. 19, 3d 

D. 16, P. 18, V. 6^ 1st V. 28, 2d A. 17- Tail nearly even at the end. Eyes 

large ; irides of a bronze colour. Peritoneum silvery, with a few black spots. 

— This fish is frolicksome, and easily caught with a white fly. 

93. M. Carbonarius. Coal-fish. — Lower jaw longest. La- 
teral line straight, white. 

Asellus niger, Merr. Pin. 184. Sibb. Scot. 23. Will. Ich. 168 Gadus 

car. Linn. Syst. i. 438. — E, Scarborough Parr, Billets ; Rawlin Pol- 
lack — S, Podley, Sillock, Cuddy, Glassock, Cooth, Piltock, Colmey, 
Sethe, Sey, Grey Lord — Common on rocky coasts and in tideways. 
Length from 2 to 3 feet. Above, including the tail, black ; belly, ventral, 
and anal fins, white. Head small. 1st D. 14, 2d D. 20, 3d D. 22, P. 18, V. 

6, 1st A. 22, 2d A. 19. The tail is broad and forked The young of this fish 

swarm on many parts of the coast, and contribute, in a very great degree, to 
the sustenance of the population of the Northern and Western Islands. The 
full grown fish are likewise taken abundantly, especially in tideways, but are 
reckoned greatly inferior to the cod and ling. 

94. M. v'irens. — Jaws equal ; lateral line straight. 

Gadus v. Linn. Syst. i. 438. Penn. Brit. Zool. app. vol. i Not uncom- 
mon. 

This species, which was inserted in the British Fauna by Pennant, onjhe 
authority of Sir John Cullum, Bart, is less than a foot. The back and fins 
green ; the belly silvery ; the fins with numerous black dots. Teeth in the 
upper jaw numerous, strong. 1st D. 15, 2d D. 24, 3d D. 19, P. 22, V. 6, 
1st A. 27, 2d A. 22.— It is frequently taken in the Frith of Forth, during 
summer. 

Gen. XLV. MERLUCIUS. Hake.— Two dorsal and one 
anal fin. 

95. M. vulgaris. Common Hake. — The first dorsal fin tri- 
angular ; tail even. 

Asellus fuscus, Merr. Pin. 185. -A. primus, Will. Ich. 174 Gadus Mer. 

Linn. Syst. i. 439. Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 191.— On the southern coast 
of England and Ireland ; rare in Scotland. 

N 2 



196 FISHES. MALACOPTERYGIOUS. Pleuronectes. 

Length about 2 feet. Body lengthened ; grey above, white beneath. 
Head flat, broad ; the mouth wide ; the lower jaw longest ; 1st D. 9, 2d D. 40, 
P. 1 2, V. 7, A. 39. The second dorsal and anal fins are long, and the rays 
nearly of equal length. This fish is caught in vast quantities in the summer 
months, and used fresh or salted for exportation. 



Gen. XLVI. PLEURONECTES. Turbot.— Mouth entire ; 
teeth numerous, slender. Lateral line curved. Eyes on 
the left side. 

96. P. maximns. Common Turhot. — The upper and un- 
der surfaces beset with acute tubercles ; scales small. 

Rhombus, Merr. Pin. 189 — R. maximus asper, Will. Ich. 94 R. acu- 

leatus, Sibb. Fife, 119 — Pleur. max. Linn. Syst. i. 459. Penn. Brit. 
Zool. 233. — S, Gunner-fleuk, liaun-fleuk, Bannock-fleuk. — Common. 

Length upwards of 2 feet. "Weight sometimes exceeding 20 pounds. Out- 
line of the body sub-circular. Colour above, yellowish, clouded with brown ; 
below white. The tubercles are largest on the upper surface. D. 6'0, P. 12, 
V. 6, A. 43, C. 17- The flesh of this species is held in great estimation, and 
extensive fisheries, by hook and line, are conducted on different parts of the 
coast. The bait consists of portions of herring, haddock, muscles, or limpets, 
as fresh as possible. 

97. P- Rhombus. Brill. — Body broad, glabrous ; lower jaw 

longest. 

Rhombus lsevis, Jago, Ray Svn. Pise. 1C2. — Bonnet flook, Sibb. Fife, 120 

P. Rh. Linn. Syst. i. 458.-lPearl, Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 238 — Bril, Don. 
Brit. Fishes, t. 951 — E, Bril, Pearl, Kite; S, Bannet-fleuk Com- 
mon. 

Less than the turbot. Colour above fuscous, spotted with brown, yellow 
and white. The soft smooth skin is the peculiar character of the species. D. 
65, P. 11, V. 6, A. 48, C. lb". — This species occasionally enters the estuaries of 
the larger rivers. The Rhombus non aculeatus squamosus of Will. Ich. (the 
Luo-aleaf of Cornwall), is probably the same as the Brill, though the eyes are 
stated to be placed on the left side of the mouth. 

98. P. Mcgastoma. Whiff. — Body oblong. Mouth large ; 

lower jaw longest. Lateral line tuberculated, greatly arched 

near its origin. Dorsal and anal fins broadest in the middle. 

Rhombus aculeatus, Will. Ich. 93. — Passer Cornubiensis asper, magno 
oris hiatu, Jago, Ray Syn. Pise. 1G3. — Whiff, Penn. Brit. ZooL iii. 238. 
— P. meg. Don. Brit. Fishes, t. 51 — South coast of England. 

Length about 18 inches. Colour above brown, clouded with darker shades ; 
below reddish-white. Eyes large, elevated ; irides yellow. Tail slightly round- 
ed. D. 85,P. 13, V. 5, A. 61, C. 19.~This species has been confounded, by se- 
veral authors, with the following, from which, however, in many particulars, 
it is sufficiently distinguished. 

99. P. punctatus. Top-knot. — Body roundish, rough, with 
small denticulated scales. Dorsal and anal fins broadest near the 
retral extremity. Jaws nearly equal. 



Solea. FISHES. MALACOPTERYGIOUS. 197 

Block, Ich. t. 189 — Hammer, Penn. Brit. Zool. edition 1812, iii. 322. 

Flem. Wern. Mem. ii. 241 ; Phil. Zool. t. iii. f. 2 — Little known on 

the coast. 
Length 5 inches and upwards. Colour above black, mottled with brown, 
and spotted with red ; beneath white. Denticles of the scales from 4 to 8 in 
number. D. 79- (the first longer than those which immediately follow), P. 9, 
V. 6, A. 68, C 17. — This species seems first to have been observed as a British 
fish, by E. Hanmer, Esq. on the coast of Devon and Cornwall, in 1806-7- 
A single specimen occurred to myself, 18th January 1810, in Zetland, where, 
according to the testimony of the fishermen, it is not uncommon. 

100. P. Arnglossus. Scald-fish. — Body oblong. Scales de- 
ciduous. Jaws equal. 

Arnglossus vel Solea laevis — A. Lantern, Will. Ich. 102. Hanmer, Penn. 
Brit. Zool. edition 1812, iii. p. 325. t 53. — South coast of England. 
According to Mr Hanmer, " The colour of the upper side is a pale brown 
or dirtv white. The body has something of the same pellucid appearance as 
the lantern, though in a less degree. Head rather small ; the jaws of equal 
length, blunt ; the lateral line bent near the head. The dorsal fin consists of 
82 ravs, as does the anal, which reaches to the tail ; the pectorals of 10 rays ; 
a double row of rays, five in each, form the ventral fins ; behind them is one 
or more short and'sharp spines; the tail is rounded at the extremity; the 
rays of all the fins, including those of the tail, are bristly, and connected by a 
thin film or pellicle, which is easily broken. The scales are so deciduous that 
the friction of the trawl alone is sufficient to remove them ; when taken out of 
the net they are usually dead, and in that bare state which gives some propriety 
to the name they are known by of Scald-fish. They seem only to be known 
at Plymouth, and occur there very rarely. Their length is rather more than 
5 inches ; their breadth not exceeding 2 inches ; and are probably the smallest 
of the English species, and of corresponding value." Had not the shape of 
the mouth in Mr Hanmer's figure, and the position of the eyes on the left 
side been in opposition, I would have placed this species in the genus Solea. 

Gen. XLVII. SOLEA. Sole.— Mouth twisted ; the jaws 
destitute of teeth on the eye side. 

101. S. vulgaris. Common Sole. — Upper jaw longest. Scales 

rough. Tip of the upper pectoral fin black. 

Solea, Merr. Pin. 187 — Buglossus seu S. Rondeletii. Sibb. Fife 120 — 

Pleuronectes Solea, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. 457- Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 231 

Common, especially on the more southern coasts- 

Length from 1 to 2 feet, and from 1 to 7 pounds weight. Above brown, 
beneath white. Irides yellow. Lateral line arched on the head ; from thence 
to the tail, straight. Margin of the scales fringed with spines about 10 in 
number. D. 97, F. 10, V. 8, A. 83, C. 17. Flesh firm, white, and delicious ; 
in high repute in the market — This fish is gregarious, and is usually taken 
by the trawl-net. 

102. S. variegata. — " Body oblong ; pale, clouded or mar- 
bled with fuscous. Scales large."''' 

Pleuronectes var. Don. Brit. Fishes, t. cxvii. — P. Lingula, Hanmer, Penn 
Brit. Zool. edition 1812, iii. p. 313 — English coast, rare. 

This species nearly resembles the preceding in general character, but dif- 
fers in shape, being more rounded and short ; in the scales being shorter, 
broader, and fringed with more numerous spines, and in the dorsal and anal 



198 FISHES. MALACOPTERYGIOUS. Platessa. 

fins not reaching so closely to the tail. D. 68, A. 53, C. 16. According to Mr 
Hanmer, its flesh is inferior to the sole ; and he adds, it is common in the 
spring, upon the coast, near Plymouth. 

G-en. XLVIII. PLATESSA. Fluke.— A row of obtuse 
cutting teeth in each jaw. A spine at the beginning of the 
anal fin. Tail rounded. 

103. P. vulgaris. Plaise. — Body smooth. A row of six 
tubercles on the head. 

Passer aureus, Men: Pin. 187- Sibb. Scot. 24 — Passer Bellonii, Will Ich. 
96 — Pleuronectes Platessa, Linn. Syst. i. 456. Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 
228. — S, Fluke, Dutch Plaise— Common. 

Length about a foot. Above olivaceous, with reddish spots; beneathi 
white. Scales small, impressed, and adherent. Mouth small ; lower jaw long- 
est. D. 72, P. 11, V. 6, A. 54. — Spawns in February. 

104. P. Flesus. Flounder. — Body smooth. A band of 

small sharp spines on the side line, and at the junction of the 

dorsal and anal fins with the body. 

Passer niger, Merr. Pin. 187 — Lsevis, Sibb. Scot. 24. — P. fluviatilis, 

Will. Ich. 98 Pleuronectes linea laterali aspera, spinulis ad radices 

pinnarum in latere oculato. Artedi, Ich. Desc. 59 — PI. Flesus, Linn. 
Syst. i. 457. Perm. Brit. Zool. iii. 229.— S, Mayock-fleuk — Common. 

Length about a foot. Colour olivaceous, occasionally marbled with brown, 
sometimes whitish, yellowish, or rosy. Scales very small, adherent. Lateral 
line elevated and denticulated on the head ; and bent over the gills. Mouth 
small. D. 60, P. 12, V. 6, A. 42, C. 18 — This species is more frequently to be 
met with at the mouths of rivers than any of the genus. A sinistral variety 
sometimes occurs. 

105. P. Limanda. Dab. — Scales, with ciliated margins. 

Passer asper, Will. Ich. 97 — Pleuronectes squamis asperis; spina ad 
anum, Art. Ich. Desc. 58. — Pleur. Limanda, Linn. Syst. i. 457- Penn. 
Brit. Zool. iii. 230 S, Saltie — Common. 

Length seldom reaching to a foot. Colour above brownish, frequently with 
darker clouds. Scales large. Mouth wide. D. 73, f P. 11, V. 6, A. 63, C. 15. 
In season for the table in spring. Spawns in May. 

106. P. microcephalics. — Body oblong. Head small. Mouth 
diminutive. Lateral hue a little incurvated. 

Smear Dab, Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 230 — Pleuronectes microcephalus, Don- 
Brit. Fishes, t. lxii — Sand-fleuk, Neill, Wern. Mem. i. 537. 
Length about a foot. Colour above, dusky -brown ; beneath, white. Lips 
protruded. Scales small, smooth. Lateral line a little incurvated over the 
pectoral fin. D. 90, P. 7, V. 6, A. 73, C. 17- The Smear-Dab of Pennant ap- 
pears, from the description, to be similar to the P. microcephalus of Donovan ; 
but the figure of the former author, differs, in all its characters, from the one 
given by the latter. 1 1 may be stated, that, in the last edition of the British 
Zoology, the original figure of the Smear-Dab is suppressed ; while a new re- 
presentation of a fish under the same title is given, which bears little resem- 
blance to the former, while it makes a near approximation, in the shape of 
the head, to Donovan's figure. In shape, the original figure of the Smear- 
Dab in the Brit. Zool. t. Ixi. resembles the Pleuronectes punctatus. 



Hippoglossus. FISHES. MALACOPTERYGIOUS. 199 

107. P. Cyclops. — Eyes on the left side ; the left eye subver- 
tical. 

Pleuronectes Cyclops, Don. Brit. Fishes, t. xc— At Aberfraw in Angle- 
sea, Captain Merrick. 
Length lfth inches. Body broad, with dusky spots, surrounded by a 
whitish ring, smooth. Middle rays of the dorsal and ventral fins longest. 
Head protruded ; the left eye placed in the middle of the lateral edge. La- 
teral line curved over the pectorals — This is probably the fry of some of the 
preceding species, belonging to a reversed variety. 

Gen. XL1X. HIPPOGLOSSUS. Holibut.— Teeth nu- 
merous, slender, pointed. A spine in front of the anal fin. 
Tail lunated. 

108. H. vulgaris. Common Holibut. — Body lengthened, 

smooth. Lateral line bent over the pectorals. 

Passer Britannicus, Merr. Pin. 187- — Rhombus laevis, Sibb. Scot. 24 — 
Hippoglossus, Will. Ich. 99 — Pleuronectes Hipp. Linn. Syst. i. 456. 
Penn. Brit. ZooL iii. 226 — Common. 

Upwards of 2 feet in length, and in weight sometimes exceeding 200 pounds. 
Colour above dusky -brown, beneath white ; free from spots. Body tapering 
towards the tail. D. 105, P. 15, V. 6, A. 79, C. 17 — The flesh of this species 
is not held in high estimation. It is generally called Turbot in the Edin- 
burgh market. 

Gen. L. ANGUILLA. Eel. — Gill-opening under the pec- 
torals. Anal, dorsal, and caudal fins continuous. 

109- A. vulgaris. Common Eel. — Colour of the dorsal and 
anal fins uniform. 

A. Merr. Pin. 189. Sibb. Scot. 25. Will. Ich. 109 — Murana unicolor, 
maxilla inferiore longiore, Art. Ich. Syn. 39. — Muraena Anguilla, Linn. 
Syst. i. 426. Perm. Brit. Zool. iii. 142 — Common in rivers and estua- 
ries. 

Length from 1 to 3 feet. Colour, above, dark olive-brown, whitish on the 
belly. In the variety called silver eel, the belly and sides are silvery and sub- 
translucent. The head is depressed ; the lower jaw longest. Eye imme- 
diately above the gape ; irides reddish. Nostrils with two openings on each 
side ; one a simple pore near the eye, the other a tubular wart on the snout. 
Gill-opening immediately in front of the temporal fin. This species spawns 
in the sea ; for which purpose it leaves the lakes and rivers, descending 
from August to November. It migrates in greatest numbers in dark stormy 
nights. The young ones begin to appear on the shore in March, April, or 
May, and proceed in myriads towards the mouths of rivers for the purpose 
of ascending to the lakes and marshes. In their ascent, where eel fisheries are 
of value, the young are assisted in surmounting obstacles, such as the barrier 
of a mill-dam or a cascade, by straw-ropes, so placed that the young eels can 
twist themselves round, and reach the summit. The migrations of the eel 
were first pointed out with accuracy by Redi (Opus, part iii. p. 99, ed. 1729). 
Some good observations by the Rev. George Mack, are recorded in the Sta- 
tistical Account of Scotland, vol. xvi. p. 388, in reference to the eels of the 
Dee. 



200 FISHES. MALACOPT. Leptocephalus. 

Mr Pennant notices a " variety of this fish known in the Thames by the 
name of grigs, and about Oxford by that of grigs or gluts. These are scarcely 
ever seen near Oxford in the winter, but appear in the spring, and bite readi- 
ly at the hook, which common eels in that neighbourhood will not. They 
have a larger head, a blunter nose, thicker skin, and less fat than the com- 
mon sort ; neither are they so much esteemed, nor do they often exceed 3 or 
4 pounds in weight." — Erit. Zool. iii. 145. 

110. A. Conger. Conger-Eel. — Margin of the dorsal and 
anal fins black. 

Conger, Merr. Pin. 185. Sibb. Scot. 23. Will. Ich. Ill — Mursena su- 
premo margine pinnae dorsalis nigro, Art. Ich. Syn. 40 — Mursena Con- 
ger, Linn. Syst. i. 426. Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 147 — In the sea, com- 
mon. 
Length about 5 feet ; sometimes reaching to 10, and weighing 130 pounds. 
Above dark olive, beneath whitish ; the lateral line broad and white. Irides 
silvery. Upper jaw longest. The dorsal fin commences nearer the head in 
this species than in the common eel. This species resides always in the sea, 
is exceedingly voracious, and tenacious of life. It is chiefly found on a rocky 
bottom. The small eels which come up the Severn in April, noticed by 
Willoughby and Pennant, are probably not the young of the conger, but of 
the common eel. 

The two following species have long^ occupied a place in the British Fauna, 
and though their claims appear doubtlul, they deserve some notice. 

a. A. Myrus. Flat-tailed Sea Serpent — This resembles the conger, but is 
smaller, the back spotted with white, an occipital white band, and the fins 
bordered with black. This species was inserted as British by Berkenhout 
(Syn. i. 64.), without reference to any habitat. 

b. Ophisurus Ophis. Spotted Sea Serpent — This species is distinguished 
from those of the genus Anguilla by the naked pointed tail, It was first in- 
serted by Merret (Pinax, 185.), afterwards by Sibbald (Scot. 23.), and latter- 
ly by Berkenhout (Syn. i. 64.), as a British fish ; but by none of these au- 
thors were any remarks, illustrative of the time or place of capture, commu- 
nicated. 

Gen. LI. LEPTOCEPHALUS. Morris. Body com- 
pressed like a ribband. Dorsal, anal, and caudal fins 
united. 

111. L. Morisii. — Dorsal and ventral margins with minute 
black spots. 

Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 158. Mont. Wem. Mem. ii. 436, tab. xxii. 1 — On 
the southern shore of England. 
Length 6 inches, breadth half an inch, and about the sixteenth part of an 
inch in thickness. Body semipellucid. Head small, but nearly in a straight 
line with the back. Lateral line straight. Jaws equal ; teeth numerous, in- 
clining forwards. Eyes large, irides silvery. Branchial aperture small, 
transverse. Dorsal fin commences at nearly one-third of the length of the 
fish from the head. Vent a little nearer the head than the tail. Pectorals 
small This singular species was first observed near Holyhead by Mr Wil- 
liam Morris, who communicated the specimen to Pennant. Though seem- 



Ophidium FISHES. MALACOPT. 201 

ingly a rare species, it has since been found by Mr Lewis Morris, the Rev. 
H. Davis, and Mr Anstice. 



Gen. LII. OPHIDIUM. Anal, dorsal, and caudal fins 

united ; tail pointed. 

112. O. imberbe. — Lower jaw beardless. 

Linn. Syst. i. 431. Perm. Brit. Zool. iii. 398. Mcnt. Wern. Mem. i. 95. 
t. iv. f. 2 — Coast of Devon. 

Length 3 inches. Purplish brown ; bluish spots along the base of the anal 
fin. Head obtuse, body compressed towards the tail. Mouth ascending; 
lips marginated. Eyes large ; irides dark, with a silvery circle round the 
pupil. Vent near the middle. D. 77, P. 11, A. 44, C. 18. Pectorals round- 
ed ; the dorsal fin commencing immediately above them This species, as a 

British production, was first communicated to Pennant from Weymouth by 
the Duchess Dowager of Portland. Montagu has since found it on the south 
coast of Devon. 



The O. barbutum, a species readily distinguished from the preceding by the 
lower jaw having two bifid cirri, has been noticed by Berkenhout in his Sy- 
nopsis, p. 66. as a British production, without any intimation respecting the 
circumstances of its capture. He, however, takes no notice of the O. imber- 
be, which had previously appeared in the British Zoology. 

Gen. LIII. AMMODYTES. L a unce.— Dorsal, anal, and 
caudal fins disjoined. Neither coeca nor air-bag. Tail 
forked. 

1 13. A. Tob'ianus. Common Launce. — Lower jaw longest ; 
lips protrusile forwards and downwards. 

Sandils, Merr. Pin. 187 — Ammodites, Sibb. Scot. 24. Will. Ich. 113 

Amm. Tob. i. 430. Perm. Brit. Zool. iii. 156 Common on sandy 

shores. 

Length 3 to 5 inches. Above bluish-green, with a darker band on each 
side ; sides and belly silvery. Head small, pointed. Irides silvery. Late- 
ral line straight. D. 54, P. 15, A. 28, C. 16 — This species is the"favourite 
food of salmon and many other kinds of fish — M. Lesauvage, in the Bulletin 
des Sciences, Sept. 1824, has instituted another species of this genus which 
he terms A. lanceolatus, and which has probably in this country been con- 
founded with the preceding. He assigns to it the following character : " B. 
7, D. 58, P. 13, A. 30, C. 16. Lon. 9 pouces, machoire extensible se redres- 
sant verticalement, en entrainant dans sa direction l'extremite mobile de la 
machoire non extensible." 



( 202 ) 
ACANTHOPTERYGIOUS FISHES. 

Sect. I. Body lengthened, compressed, ribband-shaped, with an extended dorsal fin. 
a. Snout short ; maxillaries distinct. 

Cepola. 
aa. Snout produced ; gape wide ; teeth strong. 
Trichiurus. 
Lepidopus. 

II. Rays of the dorsal fins slender and flexible. Intestines large, equal, with, 
out cceca. 
a. With ventrals. 

b. Ventral fins united. 
Gobius. 

66. Ventral fins disjoined. 

c. Gill-opening large, the membrane continued across 
the breast ; ventrals reduced. One dorsal fin. 
Blenniusidje. 

d. Head obtuse, the front nearly vertical. Teeth in 
one row, equal, close set, with large remote 
ones in the back part of the jaw. 

Blennius. 

Pholis. 

dd. Head not sloping suddenly. 
Gunnellus. 

cc. Gill-opening small. Ventrals larger than the pecto- 
rals. Two dorsal fins. 
Callionymus. 

aa. Destitute of ventral fins. 
Anarhichas. 

III. Lips large and fleshy ; one dorsal fin, with strong spinous rays, anterior- 

ly terminating in filaments. Body oblong, scales large. 

a. Cheeks and gill-covers scaly. 
Crenilabrus. 
Labrus. 

aa. Cheeks and gill -covers smooth. 
Julis. 

IV. Dorsal and anal fins extensively covered with scales, rendering their junc- 

tion with the body obscure. 

Brama. 

V. Spinous portion of the dorsal fin capable of depression between the scales 
on each side at the base Scales distinct. 

a. Dorsal fin single. 

6. Gill lid without armature. 
Sparus. 
Pagrus. 
Dentex. 

66. Gill lid armed with spines. 
Serranus. 
Cernua. 



ACANTHOPTERYGIOUS FISHES. f203 

aa. Two dorsal fins. 

b. Head armed. 

c. Head armed with spines. 

d. Ventrals thoracic. 
Perca. 
Sciaena. 

dd. Ventrals jugular. 
Trachinus. 
Lophius. 

cc. Head armed with a coat of mail, by the extension of 
the suborbital bone : gill lid spinous. 
Trigla. 
Cataphractus. 
Cottus. 
bb. Head without armature. 

c. Ventral fins thoracic 
Mullus. 

cc. Ventral fins abdominal. 
Mugil. 
Atherina. 

Sect. VI. Scales small, often scarcely perceptible, unless at the extremity of the 
lateral line, where they sometimes form a ridge. In other cases 
this ridge is formed by a protuberance of tlie skin, supported by 
transverse processes, 
a. Two dorsal fins. 

b. The first dorsal fin entire. 
Scomber. 
Trachurus. 
Zeus. 

bb. Spines of the first dorsal fin without a connecting mem- 
brane. Ventrals consisting of a single spine each. 
Spinachia. 
Gasterosteus. 

aa. One dorsal fin, elevated at its origin and termination. No 
teeth. 
Lampris. 
Xiphias. 

VII. Mouth tubular. 
Centriscus. 



204 FISHES. ACANTHOPT. Cepola. 

Gen. LIV. CEPOLA. Band-fish. — Dorsal, anal, and caudal 
fins continuous; upper jaw very short. 

114. C rubescens. Red Band-fish. — Colour carmine, with 
waved silvery bands on the sides. 

Serpens rubescens, Will. Ich. 118— C. rub. Linn. Syst. i. 445. Mont. 
Linn. Trans, vii. 291, t. xvii. Couch, ib. vol. xiv. 17 — South coast of 
England. 

Length 10 to 15 inches. Body smooth, semipellucid, tapering from the 
head to the tail. Mouth large, sloping upwards ; jaws with one row of dis- 
tant, subulate, curved teeth ; tongue short, smooth. Eyes large ; irides 
silvery, mixed with crimson. Lateral line curved near the head in front of 
the pectorals. D. 17, P« 16, rounded, V. G, oval, the first ray short, spiny, 
with a filament adjoining longer than the other rays, and detached from 
them ; A. 61, C. 12, the middle ray longest. Two specimens of this fish oc- 
curred to Montagu on the south coast of Devon, and two from Cornwall 
have come into the possession of Mr Couch. According to Itisso (Ich. 155.), 
it is frequently caught at Nice in May, July, and December. — The C. Tania 
is distinguished from this species by the double row of teeth in the lower 
jaw, and the rough tongue, and the absence of the silvery bands. 

The Gymnetrns Hawkenii of Bloch (tab. 423.), and Shaw (General Zool. iv. 
p. 198.) here merits some notice. " It appears (says the latter) from a print 
published in the year 1798, that a specimen of this fish was thrown on the 
coast of Cornwall in the month of February in the same year. Its length 
was 8 feet 6 inches, its breadth in the widest part 10^ inches, and its thick- 
ness only 2J inches. The tail in this specimen was wanting. The colours 
the same as in the specimen figured by Bloch." In the specimens hitherto 
obtained, the caudal fin has been wanting, though in the published figures 
it has not been withheld. Indeed, the circumstance of the ventrals being fi- 
lamentous with expanded extremities, would alone lead to the conclusion 
that it was the Beyalecus glesne of Ascanius, a species found in the northern 
sea. 

Gen. LV. TRICHIURUS. Blade- fish.— Tail pointed ; 
no ventral, anal, or caudal fins. Scales indistinct. 

115. T. Lepturus. — Colour silvery ; lower jaw advanced. 

Lepturus, Artedi, Ich. Desc. Ill — T. Lept. Linn. Syst. i. 429. Bloch, 
Ich. t. 158. Hoy, Linn. Trans, xi. 210. 
Two specimens of this fish have been found dead and cast ashore in the 
Moray Frith, and examined by Mr James Hoy. The first on the 2d Nov. 
1810, after a high wind from the north, was found at Port Gordon. " Its head 
was much broken, probably by being dashed upon the rocks about low-water 
mark ; the bones of the upper part of the head still remained, and the sockets 
of the eyes were distinguishable very near tn each other : the extremity of 
the upper jaw, or upper part of the mouth, was entire; upon either side of 
which was an operculum. The length of the head could not be measured 
exactly, but was about 8 or 9 inches. The body, from the gills to the point 
of the tail, was 3 feet 2 inches long ; its greatest breadth 6| inches ; and its 
greatest thickness only an inch. The vent was 2 inches from the gills : these 
were much broken, and partly gone, so that the number of rays could not be 
ascertained. Both sides of the fish were wholly white, without a spot up- 
on them ; the dorsal fin was the only part of a different colour, being a black- 
ish-green : this fin ran all along the* back from the gills to the tail, consist- 



Lepidopus. FISHES. ACANTHOPT. 205 

ing of a great number of rays, soft, and little more than an inch long. Each 
of the pectorals had six double rays. There were no ventral nor anal fins, 
but the belly was a sharp, smooth, and entire edge. The tail ended in a 
point, consisting of three or four soft spines or bristles of different lengths, 
not exceeding 2 inches. The body was nearly of the same breadth for one-half 
of its length, and then its breadth diminished gradually till within three inches 
of the tail, when the diminution became more quick. The lateral line was 
straight, and strongly marked along the middle of the two sides." 

Upon the 12th November 1821, another individual was found upon the 
beach, nearly at the same place. " Its head had been broken off, and was 
quite gone, a small bit of the gills only remained about the upper part of the 
throat ; from whence, to the extremity of the tail, its length was 1 2 feet 9 
inches ; its breadth, 1 1 \ inches, was nearly equal for the first six feet in length 
from the gills, diminishing gradually from thence to the tail, which ended in 
a blunt point, without any of those kinds of bristles which projected from 
the tail of the one found formerly : its greatest thickness was 2^ inches. 
The distance from the gills to the anus 46 inches. The dorsal fin extended 
from the head to the tail, but was much torn and broken : the bones or 
muscles to which the pectoral fins had been attached were perceivable very 
near the gills. There were no ventral nor anal fins ; but the thin edge of 
the belly was closely muricated with small hard points, which, although 
scarcely visible through the skin, were very plainly felt all along it. Both 
sides of the fish were white, with four longitudinal bars of a darker colour ; 
the one immediately below the dorsal fin was about 2 inches broad ; each of 
the other three about f ths of an inch. The side line straight along the 
middle." 

From the preceding descriptions, which I have been induced to give in 
detail, it appears probable that the two fishes examined by Mr Hoy be- 
longed to different species. The differences in the position of the vent, the 
structure of the tail, and the condition of the ridge of the belly, seem too 
great to justify the inference of their being only varieties. The latter fish 
appears identical with the Lepturus of Artedi, and consequently of Linnaeus. 



Gen. LVI. LEPIDOPUS. Scale-foot.— Caudal and anal 
fins distinct. Two pointed scales in place of ventrals. 

116. L. tetradens. — Anal fin developed, placed near the tail, 
which is lunate ; pectorals pointed. 

Vandellius Lusitanicus, Shaw, Gen. Zool. iv. part ii. 199 — Ziphotheca 
tetradens, Mont. Wern. Mem. i. 82, t. 2, 3. and vol. ii. p. 432 — On 
the coast of Devon. 
Length upwards of 5 feet. Body silvery, without scales, and smooth, ca- 
rinated dorsally and ventrally. Lateral line straight. Head depressed, por- 
rected ; the lower jaw longest, ending in a callous lip. Jaws with an irregu- 
lar row of sharp-pointed teeth ; four larger ones in the upper jaw. Irides 
and mouth silvery. D. 105, (the first three rays spinous) ; P. 12, (the lower 
rays longest). The ventral scales behind the pectorals. A. 17- Vent near 
the middle. The first British example of this fish was taken in Salcomb 
harbour, Devon, June 1808, and measured, according to Montagu, b\ feet. 
Another, only 10 inches in length, occurred likewise on the Devon coast 
February 1810. — This species differs from the L. Gouanianiis (Gouan, Hist. 
Pise. 185, tab. i. f. 1.) in the lunated tail, and the developed anal fin ; and 
seems likewise to differ in the position of the vent and number of rays in the 
dorsal fin, from L. Peronii of Risso (Ich. 148). » 



206 FISHES. ACANTHOPT. Gobius. 

Gen. LVII. GOBIUS. Goby.— Ventral fins, thoracic, form- 
ing a concave disc by their union, but not capable of act- 
ing as a sucker. With an air-bag. 

117. G. niger. Black Goby. — Tail rounded. 

Gobius marinus, Merr. Pin. 189. Sibb. Scot. 24 G. niger, Will Ich. 

206. Linn. Syst. 1. 449. Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 213 — Groundling, 
Rock-fish — On the English and Scottish coasts. 

Length 5 inches. Body brownish above, white beneath, variegated with 
dark streaks and spots. There is usually a black spot on each side behind 
the pectorals, and at the base of the tail. 1st D. 1, 2 D. 12 to 14, P. 18, V. 
8, A. 12, C. 16. 

118. G. minutus. Spotted Goby. — Tail even. 

Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 215. Don. Brit. Fishes, t. xxxviii. Neill, Wern. 
Mem. i. 534 Taken in shrimp nets. 

Length about 2i inches. Body whitish, with ferruginous streaks ; streaks 
of dots of the latter colour across the fins. 1st D. 6, 2D. 11, P. 20, A. 11, 
C. 16. The head is flat, the eyes large and protuberant. 

Gen. LVIII. BLENNIUS. Blenny. Head furnished 

with fimbriated appendages. 

* Dorsal Jin broad, abbreviated in the middle. 

1. Head with two appendages. 

119- B. ocellaris. Ocellated Blenny. — First ray of the dor- 
sal fin longest ; crest fimbriated posteriorly. 

B. Salviani, Will. Ich. 131 — B. ocellaris, Linn. Svst. i. 442. Block, 
Ich. t. 167- Mont. Wern. Mem. ii. 443, t. xxii. f.*2 — On the coast of 
Devon. 

Length about 4 inches. Body brown, with a greenish tinge, spotted ; a 
round purple spot with a white ring on the dorsal fin. Eyes nearlv level 
with the crown; irides silvery. D. 25, P. 12, V. 3, A. 18, C. 12. "Three 
individuals of this species were obtained by Montagu from an oyster-bed at 
Torcross, Devonshire, the only examples which have yet occurred on the 
British shores. 

120. B. Gattorugine. — First ray of the dorsal fin short; 
crest fimbriated on both sides. 

Gatt. Will. Ich. 132 — B. Gatt. Linn. Syst. i. 442. Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 

207- Mont. Wern. Mem. ii. 447 Southern coast of England. 

Length about 7 inches. Body rufous. Eyes above the level of the crown ; 
irides orange. Lateral line arched above the pectorals. D. 33, P. 14, V. 2, 
A. 20, C. 12. — This species was first inserted in our Fauna by Pennant, a speci- 
men having been found on the Anglesea coast. Montagu mentions another 
taken in a crab-pot on the south-east coast of Devon. 

2. Head ivith one appendage. 

121. B. Montagui. — The first rays of the dorsal fin on the 
neck detached 



Pholis. FISHES. ACANTHOPT. 207 

B. Galerita var. Mont. Wern. Mem. i. 98. t. v. f. 2 Devon. 

Length about 2 inches. Body, above, olive-green, with blue spots ; belly 
white. Eyes approximating. Crest transverse, fleshy, fimbriated, lateral 
line curved near the head. D. 30, P. 12, V. 2, A. 18, C. 14. In some indi- 
viduals the dorsal fin had black spots, and the anal fin bordered with black. 

This species has been taken in the pools among the rocks left by the tide on 
the south coast of Devon, by Montagu, who described it as a var. of the 
Crested Blenny, from which, however, it differs in many particulars. 

** Dorsal Jin with a continuous margin. 

122. B. Galerita. Crested Blenny. — The two coronal ap- 
pendages oblique, fimbriated at the extremity. 

Linn. Syst. i. 441. Perm. Brit. Zool. iii. 206. — On rocky shores, rare. 
Length about 5 inches. Body nearly of equal depth, brown, with minute 
spots. Eyes lateral. In front of the eye, above, a fimbriated appendage, 
with an intervening conical wart ; behind the large coronal appendages, and 
on the neck, there are numerous pointed papillae. D. 50, P. 14, V. 2, A. 39 
C. 16. The anal and dorsal fins are continuous with the tail. The first three 

rays of the dorsal fin ends in short fleshy filaments This description applies 

to a specimen which I found in Loch Broom. 

Gen. LIX. PHOLIS. Shan. — Head destitute of appen- 
dages. 

128. P. Icevis. Smooth Shan. — Margin of the dorsal fin 
waved, and with the anal, disjoined from the tail. 

Alauda non cristata, Will. Ich. 133 — Blennius Pholis, Linn. Svst. i. 

443. Perm. Brit. Zool. iii. 208. — Don. Brit. Fishes, t. lxxix £,*Mul- 

granoc, Bulcard — Under stones, common. 

Length 5 inches. Colour marbled black, olive and white. D. 32, P. 13 
V. 2, A. 19, C. 12 — This species is commonly found lurking under stones 
and sea-weeds. 

Gen. LX. GUNNELLUS. Gunnel— Dorsal, anal, and 
caudal fins, united. 

124. G. vulgaris. Common Gunnel. — Body compressed ; 
margin of the dorsal fin continuous. 

G. Cornubiensium, Will. Ich. 115.— Blennius Gunnellus, Linn. Svst. i. 

443. Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 210. Don. Brit. Fishes, S. 27 E, Buller- 

fish ; AT, Swaar-fish, Swordick — Common on the coast, lurking under 
stones. 

Length 6 to 10 inches. Body yellowish-brown, the belly whitish, with a 
row of ten or twelve dark ocellated spots along the back, a"t the base of the 

dorsal fin. Gape ascending. D. 82, P. 12, V. 2, A. 43, C. 16 Mr Low, in 

his Fauna Oreadensis, p. 203., mentions a variety of a reddish-purple colour. 
" It likewise wants the spots on the back, the other has ; instead of eleven in 
the former, this has only a single one, and that placed near the beginning of 
the back fin." 

125. G. viviparus. Viviparous Gunnel. — Body subcylindri- 
cal anteriorly; the margin of the dorsal fin suddenly waved 
near the tail. 



5208 FISHES. ACANTHOPT. Callionymus. 

Mustela vivipara, Sibb. Scot, 25. Will. Ich. 122 Blennius viviparus, 

Linn. Syst. i. 43. Penn. Brit. Zoo\. iii. 211. Don. Brit. Fishes, 
t- xxxiv. — S, Eelpout, Guffer, Greenbone — Common under stones. 

Length 12 to 15 inches. Body, above, yellowish -brown, marbled with 
darker spots and streaks ; beneath, yellow. Upper jaw longest. D. 92, 
P. 48, V. 2, A. C8, C. 48. This species has been long known as an ovovivi- 
parous fish — When boiled, the back-bone is green. 

Gen. LXI. CALLIONYMUS. Dragonet.— Head depres- 
sed ; eyes approximated above. 

126. C. Lyra. Gemmeous Dragonet. — The first ray of the 

dorsal fin reaching to the tail. 

Lyra, Merr. Pin. 186 — Dracunculus marina, Bor. Corn. 270 — Cal. Lyra 
Linn. Syst. i. 433. Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 164. Don. Brit. Fishes, 
t. ix. — E, Yellow Gurnard, Rotchet, Illeck; S, Chanticleer, Gowdie. 
— Not uncommon. 

Length 12 inches. Body, splendidly adorned with blue, yellow and white ; 
rounded, smooth. Gill-covers spinous. Mouth wide. The last rays of the 
dorsal and anal fins longest. 1. D. 4, 2. D. 9, P. 20, V. 5, A. 9, C. 10.— Mr 
Neill (Wern. Mem. i. 529) having observed this fish invariably a male, was 
led to conclude, that the Sordid Dragonet, C. Dracunculus (Will. Ich. 136.) 
was the female, an opinion probably correct, since the latter differs only in 
the first ray of the dorsal fin being shorter, the body smaller, and the colours 
less brilliant. 

Gen. LXII. ANARHICHAS. Wolf-fish.— Mouth armed 
with conical incisors, and flat grinders. 

127. A. Lupus. — Body, above, greyish, beneath, yellowish, 

with irregular waved transverse bands of a darker colour. 

Lupus marinus, Sibb. Scot. 25. Will. Ich. 130 — A. L. Linn. Syst. i. 
430. Perm. Brit. Zool. iii. 151.— S, Cat-fish — Frequent in the Ger- 
man Ocean. 

Length from 2 to 3 feet. Head depressed ; body compressed, smooth. 
The dorsal fin extends the whole length of the back, 73-rayed. P, 18, A. 46, 

C. 16, rounded This species feeds on Univalve, molluscous and crustaceous 

animals, and it constitutes excellent food, when boiled. 

Gen. LXIII. CRENILABRUS. WitAssE.--The distal free 
margin of the preopercule denticulated. 

128. C. Tinea. Common Wrasse. — Back nearly straight, 

descending gradually to the mouth. 

Turdus vulgatissimus, Will. Ich, 319. — Goldsinny, Jago, Ray, Pise. 163, 
— Labrus Tinea, Linn. Syst. i. 477 — Ancient Wrasse and Goldsinny, 
Penn. Brit. iii. 244, 251. — Goldsinny, Don. Brit. Fishes, t. lxxii — E' 1 
Old Wife ; S, Brassy. — English and Scotch coast. 

Length about a foot. Body very variable in its colouring, more or less 
red, variegated with blue and yellow. Mouth ascending ; front teeth conical, 
lengthened, incurvated. D. y, P. 14, V. a, A. f, C. 18. The last rays of 



Labrus. FISHES. ACANTHOPT. 209 

the dorsal fin in the rest of the group elongated — In some varieties there is 
a black spot on the tail, and another at the beginning of the dorsal fin, con- 
stituting the Goldsinny of Jago. 

129. C. glbbus. Gibbous Wrasse. — Back arched, carinated; 
descending suddenly to the mouth. 

Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 250. — Anglesea. 
Length 8 inches. Body with blue, orange, black, and green spots and 
stripes; above each eye, a dusky semilunar spot. D. '/, P. 13, V. |, A. f v 
— Pennant is the only naturalist who has noticed this species. 

Gen. LXIV. LABRUS. Bekgil.— Margin of the preoper- 
cle entire. 

130. L. Balanus. Body oblong, red, with spots and stripes 
of blue and orange. 

Ballan Wrasse, Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 246 Labrus Tinea, Don. Brit. 

Fishes, t. lxxxiii.— -Rocky shores. 
Length about 18 inches. D. fa, p. 14, V. \, A. §. This fish, from the 
variable colour which it exhibits, has been described under different names. 
When marked on the sides with parallel longitudinal blue and olive stripes, 
it is the Striped Wrasse of Pennant (Brit. Zool. iii. 249., and of Donovan, 
t. xxi.) Those having two dark spots at the base of the dorsal, and a third 
between the dorsal fin and the tail constitute the Trimaculated Wrasse of 
Pennant, Brit. Zool. iii. 248., and of Donovan, Brit. Fishes, t. xlix. This 
variety is probably also the Bimaculated Wrasse of Pennant, Brit. Zool. iii. 
247-, found by Mr Brunich, at Penzance, and referred by him to the L. bi- 
maculata of Linnaeus — In Orkney, where this species is called Bergil, it is 
esteemed as food. 

131. L. Comber. — Beneath, and parallel with the lateral 
line, a smooth even silvery stripe from the gills to the tail. 

Comber, Jago, Ray, Pise. 163 ? Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 252 — Cornwall. 
" It was of a slender form. The dorsal fin had twenty spiny, eleven soft 
fays: The pectoral fourteen : the ventral five : the anal three spiny, seven 
soft. The tail rounded. The colour of the back, fins and tail, red : the 
belly yellow," Pennant. 

132. L. lineatus. — Body green, with numerous yellowish 
longitudinal lines. 

Don. Brit. Fishes, t. lxxiv.— Cornwall. 
Length 7 inches. D. f g, P. 14, V. 8, A. §, C 15. A specimen was taken on 
the Cornish coast, by Captain Bray, which Donovan has delineated — It is 
provincially known by the name of Green Fish. 

133. L. Coquus. Cook. — Back purple, belly yellow. 

Jago, Rag, Pise. 133 — Cornwall. 

The first notice of this species is by Mr Jago : " Dorso est purpureo et 
indico, ventre flavescente : squamosus est, et ad longitudinem 10 digitorum 
plus minus accrescit. Magna copia interdum capiuntur." In the last edi- 
tion of the British Zoology (1812), it is added: " Among the drawings of 
fishes caught near Penzance, the editor has received one of a species of 
Wrasse called at Cornwall the Cuckoo-fish, and which may probably be the Cook 
Wrasse of Ray. The head is large, and slopes rapidly to the nose ; the mouth 
large; the lips fleshy ; the teeth few and sharp ; the pupil of the eye dark, 

VOL. I. O 



210 FISHES. ACANTHOPT. Julis. 

the irides yellow ; the dorsal fin straight, the rays extending rather beyond 
the web, and are thirty-one in number, twenty-two of which appear soft, and 
are of a yellow colour ; the lore part of the fin a bright blue, tipt with yel- 
low ; the colour of the head blue, mottled with olivaceous ; the same tints 
extend to about one-third of the upper part of the back, and below the late- 
ral line to the tail, which is slightly rounded ; the remainder of the back 
deep orange, the belly of a lighter shade ; the tail azure ; the anal and ven- 
tral fins yellow, tipt with blue ; the upper part of the pectoral fin blue ; the 
lower yellow. This species is said to grow to the length of one foot," iii. 
341. 

Gen. LXV. JULIS. — Cheeks and gill-covers destitute of 
scales. 

134. J. vulgaris. — Above fuscous-green: beneath white, 
with a fulvous dentated stripe on each side ; two fore-teeth 
longest. 

Labrus Julis, Linn. Syst. i. 476. Don Brit. Fishes, t. xciv — Corn- 
wall. 
Length 7 inches. Form elongated. D. T 9 g , P. 12, V. i, A. ,§, C. 13. A 
specimen procured by Miss Pocock, on the coast of Cornwall, in 1802, was 
communicated to Mr Donovan. — It is common in the Mediterranean. 



Gen. LXVI. BRAMA. — Teeth slender, numerous ; front 
abrupt. Breadth of the dorsal and anal fins extended at 
their commencement. Tail lunate. 

135. B. marina. — Bluish silvery; two teeth in the lower 
jaw produced. 

B. mar. cauda forcipata, Johnson, Will. Ich. 17- — Toothed Gilt-head, 
Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 243. Mont. Lin. Trans, vii. 292 — Sparus Raii, 
Don. Brit. Fishes, t. xxxvii. — Bare on the English coast. — Occasion- 
ally in the Frith of Forth. 
Length upwards of 2 feet, depth about 1 foot ; slender towards the tail. 
The dorsal and anal fins extended. D. 37, P. 24, V. 7, A. 31, C 25. This 
species has received by different authors various appellations. It is Sparus 
Raii of Bloch, S. castaneola of Lacepede, S. Raii and S. castaneola of Shaw, 
S. niger of Turton, and S. denlatus of Stewart. 



As connected with this section, the Ch^todon noticed in Cornwall by Mr 
Couch, merits a place, though too imperfectly described, to permit its inser- 
tion in any of the modern genera into which that group is now divided. 
" Only one specimen of this genus has come within my notice. This was 
taken at Looe, swimming alive on the surface of the water, in August 1821 ; 
and as I have not been able to refer it to any described species, I subjoin a 
description: It was about 17 inches long, and, exclusive of the dorsal fin, 
54 inches deep ; the snout was blunt, sloping suddenly above the eyes ; the 
angle of the mouth depressed ; the teeth numerous, sharp, incurved, four in 
front of the under jaw very long ; the body deep, thin ; two dorsal fins, the 
first having flexible rays ; the second long and narrow ; tail very deeply 
lunated ; the pectorals long ; the ventrals double, or having a wing, by which 
means it seemed to have four ventral fins ; the anal fleshy, and somewhat 



Sparus. FISHES. ACANTHOPT. 211 

expanded, at the origin, obscure in its progress towards the tail ; no lateral 
line ; a broad band from eye to eye ; the colour blue, deeper on the back 
than on the belly ; covered with large scales, as well the body as the fins, so 
that the dorsals and anals seem like an extension of the body. I was unable 
to count the ravs of the dorsal fins." Lin. Trans, xiv. 78. 



Gen. LXVII. SPARUS. Gilthead.— Four or six teeth in 
each jaw, in one row ; the rest of the jaws paved with 
large round teeth, with blunt summits. 

136. S. aurata. — Between the eyes a semilunar gold-coloured 

spot. 

Aurata Rondeletii, Will. Ich. 307 — S. aur. Linn. Syst. i. 467- Penn. 

Brit. Zool. iii. 240. Don. Brit. Fishes, t. lxxxix Near bold rocky 

shores Not common. 

Length upwards of 18 inches. Back dusky-green, belly silvery ; a black 
spot at the origin of the lateral line, and another on the gill-cover. Body 
thickest over the pectoral fin. Posterior nostril ovate, oblique, and near the 
eye. D. ai, P. 15, V. a, a. T 3 f . Six conical teeth in each jaw produced. 
Inner arch of the gills with short round processes, rough on the surface. 
Stomach with three caeca. — This species seems to be more frequent on the 
southern shores than to the north. I have seen it once caught in the estuary 
of the Tay, in August. 

Gen. LXVIII. PAGRUS. Braize.— Teeth in front, nume- 
rous, in several rows. 

137. P. vulgaris. Common Braize. — Body red ; divisions 
of the tail equal. 

P. Rondeletii, Will. Ich. 312 — Sparus Pagrus, Linn. Syst. i. 469. Penn. 

Brit. Zool. iii. 242 — E, Becker, Sea-Bream ; S, Braize Common on 

south coast of England and west of Scotland. 

Length about 18 inches. A dark spot at the base of the pectorals. D. a§, 
P. 16, V. a, A. T 2 5 . Irides silvery ; mouth red within. 

138. P. lineatus. — Dusky blue, with pale longitudinal lines ; 
upper division of the tail largest. 

Sparus lin. Mont. "VVern. Mem. ii. 451. t. xxii Coast of Devon. 

Length about 15 inches. Body more compressed and arched, and the fins 
broader, and the eye smaller than in the preceding. Irides dusky and sil- 
very. This species is taken near the shore by hook or net, along with the 
preceding, in considerable abundance — This is probablv the species to which 
Mr Couch refers, under the title Spams Velula, or Old Wife, (Lin. Trans, xiv. 
79. and of which he gives the following description : — " The body is deep, 
compressed, and has a considerable resemblance to the S. Pagrus (P. vulgaris) ; 
the lips are fleshy, and the jaws furnished with a pavement of teeth, of which 
those in front are the longest ; the gill membrane has five rays ; the gill-covers 
and body are covered with large scales. The ten first rays of the dorsal fin 
are spinous ; the anal fin also has four spinous rays, after which it becomes 
more expanded ; the tail is concave. — This fish has a membranous septum 
across the palate, as in the Wrasse genus. When in high season the colour 
behind the head is a fine green, towards the tail it is a reddish orange. The 



212 FISHES. ACANTHOPT. Serranus. 

belly has a lighter tinge of the same colour. When out of season, the whole 
has a dusky lead colour. It weighs about three pounds." 

Gen. LXIX. DENTEX. — Fore-teeth produced, hooked, 
with smaller ones behind ; on the sides a row of conical 
teeth. 

139- D. vulgaris.— Body silvery, fins yellow or red. 

Sparus Dentex, Linn. Syst. i. 471. Don. Brit. Fishes, t. lxxiii — On the 
coast of Sussex. 

Length upwards of 2 feet. The back and sides have a tinge of red, the 
belly of yellow, with fuscous clouds. D. V, P. 12, V. 5, A. f, C. 19 — An 
example of this fish was procured bv Donovan from the Billingsgate market, 
9th April 1805. 

Gen. LXX. SERRANUS. (Cuvier.)— Head scaly. Mar- 
gin of the preopercle dentated ; the opercle spinous. 

140. S. No7'vegicus. — Preopercle with five teeth. Scales 

with denticulated margins. 

Perca marina, Sibb. Scot. 24. Linn. Syst. Nat. i. 483 P. Norvegica, 

Fab. Fauna, Gr. IG'7. Perm. Brit. ZooL iii. 258 — Not common. 

Length about a foot. Body oblong, compressed, reddish above ; belly 
white. Mouth large. Teeth small, numerous. Head depressed. Subor- 
bital dentated ; spines on the head above the eye ; opercle pointed, with 
two strong spines. D. ||, P. 18, V. \, A. f, C. 18. The soft rays of the 
dorsal fin produced. Taii nearly even — The late Dr Skene observed this 
fish on the Aberdeenshire coast. In Zetland, where I have found it, it is 
termed Bergylt, or Norway Haddock. 

Gen. LXXI. CERNUA. Ruff. — Head pitted, without scales. 
Preopercle dentated ; opercle with a spine. 

111. CJluviatilis. Common Ruff. — Back and sides yellow- 
ish-green, with black spots. 

Merr. Pin. 190. Will. Ich. 334 — Perca cernua, Linn. Syst. i. 487- 
Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 259. Don. Brit. Fishes, t. xxxix. — In rivers in 
England. 

Length about C inches. Scales with denticulated margins. Mouth small, 
teeth numerous. D. a*, P. 15, V. i, A. §. Tail formed with transverse 
bands. Gregarious, spawning in March, and frequenting deep water. 

The Black Fish of Mr Jago approaches the ruff in form, but the short 
description which he has left, and the manufactured figure which Borlase 
has published, render it impossible to identify the species at present. Bar. 
Corn. p. 271. tab. xxvi. f. 8. 

Gen. LXXII. PERCA. Perch. — Snout short, without 
scales. Preopercle dentated, opercle spinous. Teeth nu- 
merous. Scales denticulated. 



Sci.ena. FISHES. ACANTHOPT. 213 

142. P.Jhiviatilis. Common Perch. — Opercle with one spine : 

the first dorsal fin longer than the second. 

Perca, Merr. Pin. 190. Sibb. Scot. 25 — P. fluv. Will. Ich. 291. Linn. 
Syst. i. 481. Penn. Brit. Zoo\. iii. 254 — In lakes and pools. 

Length about a foot. Back arched, greenish-black, sides with five trans- 
verse black bands ; belly reddish-white, ventral, anal, and caudal fins, red. 
Irides golden. 1. D. li, 2. D. ]*, P. 12, V. |, A. §. Tail lunate. Spawns 
in June — This fish is occasionally found in estuaries, having been carried by 
floods from its ordinary haunts. 

143. P. Labrax. Basse. — Opercle with two spines : dorsal 
fins of equal length. 

Lupus Rondeletii, Will. Ich. 271 — Perca Lab. Linn. Syst. i. 482. Penn. 
Brit. Zool. iii. 257. Don. Brit. Fishes, t. xliii. — On the coast, and in 
estuaries, not frequent. 

Length 18 inches. Body oblong, bluish-black above, silvery below. Nos- 
trils with two continuous circular openings. Irides clouded silvery. 1. D. 9, 
2. D. Vi P. 18, V. i, A. 'gS C. 18, slightly forked. Stomach with a process 
and three pyloric caeca ; intestine with one fold. 



Gen. LXXIII. SCIjENA.— Snout produced, scaly. Pre- 
opercle dentated, opercle spinous. 

144. S. Aquila. — Scales large, oblique, silvery: dorsal, pecto- 
ral, and ventral fins, red. 

Cuv. Regne An. ii. 298 — Perca Vanloo, Risso, Ich. Nice. p. 298. t. UC. 
f. 30 — Zetland. 

Length above 3 feet. Nose rounded ; jaws equal. Teeth separate, sharp, 
hooked. Irides golden. 1st D. 10, 2d 27; P. 17; V. i ; A. f ; c. 20. The 
anal fin is small, and the tail is even. M. Cuvier states, that the air-bag is 
large, with numerous lateral processes. — A specimen of this fish, caught 
off' Uyea in Northmavine, Zetland, in November 1819, and which was sent 
to Mr Neill in 1820, is the only example of its appearance on our shores. 
This specimen was 5 feet 4 inches in length : lateral line nearly straight, and 
at its termination at the tail forming a strong central scaly ray in that organ. 
Scales on the back large, 3 to 4 inches in circumference ; of an irregular 
trapezoidal form, set on obliquely to the axis of the body. It was first ob- 
served by the fishermen endeavouring to escape from a seal. When taken 
into the boat, it made its usual purring sort of noise. Mr Neill has record- 
ed, (Edin. New Phil. Journ. No. I.) some notices respecting the capture, and 
the appearances exhibited by the specimen, which came into his possession in 
too mutilated a state to permit him to give its characters in detail. It is 
common in the Mediterranean. Is this the fish referred to by Mr Couch as 
the Stone Basse, which approaches the shores of Cornwall, following pieces of 
wood covered with Bernacles? — Linn. Trans, xiv. 81. 

Gen. LXXIV. TRACHINUS. Weaver.— Body length- 
ened; head compressed. 1 spine on the opercle; 2 in 
front of the eye : dorsal and anal fins long. 

145. T. Draco. Common Weaver. — Pectorals and tail 
rounded. Head ascending. 



214 FISHES. ACANTHOPT. Lophius. 

Araneus, Merr. Pin. 187. — Draco marinus, Sibb. Scot. 24. Will. Ich. 
288.— English coast. 

Length about a foot. Above yellowish, beneath silvery ; the sides with 
two or three longitudinal and numerous transverse yellow lines. Throat 
sloping; back straight, belly prominent. 1st D. 5, 2d 25 ; P. 15; V. 6; A. 
25 ; C. 10. The first dorsal fin is black ; and the wound made by its spines 
is said to be very painful. 

146. T. major. Greater Weaver. — Tail even; pectorals 
emarginate ; head sloping. 

Penn. Brit. Zool. hi. 171- Don. Brit. Fishes, t. 107 English coast. 

Length 11 inches. Body lengthened; scales disposed obliquely, with lines 
of yellow and black in the same direction. 1st D. 5, 2d D 32 ; P. 14 ; V. 5 ; 
A. 32 ; C. 13. This fish is occasionally brought to the London market in 
spring. 

Gen. LXXV. LOPHIUS. — Body without scales; mouth 
wide ; snout with two osseous flexible moveable tentacula. 

147. L. piscatorhts. Angler. — Head depressed, teeth nu- 
merous ; chin bearded. 

Rana piscatrix, Merr. Phi. 18G, Sibb. Scot. 24. Will. Ich. 85 — Loph. 
pise. Linn. Syst. i. 402. Perm. Brit. Zool. iii. 120. Don. Brit. Fishes, 
t. 101.— E, Monk, Toad, Nass, Devil fish, Frog-fish; ^Wide-gab; 
JV, MarooL — Common in the North Sea. 

Length 3 to 5 feet. Body broad in front, slender towards the tail ; brown 
above, white beneath. Under jaw longest. Nostrils on the inside of the 
mouth. Eyes coronal, irides white, radiated with black. Pectorals large, on 
footstalks ; the gill covers concealed, aperture small. 1st D. 4, 2d D. 14 ; P. 
27 ; V. 5 ; A. 8 ; C. 8. The sides have fleshy filaments. The skeleton is 
cartilaginous. The Mountsbay Angler of Borlase (Corn. 266. t. 27- f. 6.), 
and the one from Bristol (Phil. Trans, liii. p. 170. t. 13.), appear to be only 
the common Angler, the specimens having been more or less mutilated. 

Gen. LXXVI. TRIGLA. Gurnard. — Three detached 
rays at the base of the pectorals. 

* Pectorals large, reaching beyond the vent. 

148. T. Hirundo. Sapphirine Gurnard. — Pectoral fins rich 
green and blue ; lateral line rough. 

Hirundo, Will. Ich. 280 — T. Hir. Linn. Syst. i. 497. Penn. Brit. Zool, 

iii. 280 E, Tub.— South coast of England, rare in Scotland. 

Length about a foot. Body slender ; back greenish, belly white ; sides 
reddish ; pupil green. A row of spines on each side of the dorsals at the base, 
1st D- 9 (the second ray longest), 2d D. 18 ; P. 10 ; V. i ; A. 19 ; C. 10. 

149- T. Icevis. Smooth Gurnard. — Pectorals clouded with 
blue and red ; lateral line elevated, smooth. 

Mont. Wern. Mem. ii. 455. — E, Yillock. — Coast of Devon. 
Length 2 feet. Yellowish-brown above, tinged with red; belly white. 
Snout slightly bifid, denticulated. Back slightly serrated at the base of the 



Tkigla. FISHES. ACANTHOPT. 215 

dorsals. 1st D. 9, 2d D 16 ; P. 9 ; V. 6 ; A. 15. The 2d ray of the first dorsal 
perceptibly longest. Tail nearly even — This species is taken by the hook, 
and by shore-nets at Torcross ; and, by the fishermen, confounded with the 
preceding. 

** Body with fine transverse thread-like ridges. 

150. T. adriatica. — Lateral line with large serrated spines. 

Mullus imberbis, Will. Ich. 278 — Cuculus lineatus, Jago, Ray Pise. 165. 

T. lineata, Don. Brit. Fishes, t. 4 — T. ad. Risso, Ich. 2 — South coast 

of England. 

Length about a foot. Body red above, beneath Avhite. Transverse ridges 

pass from the back across the lateral line, and become ramose on the belly. 

Nose bifurcated with small spines. Base of the dorsal fins spinous. 1st 1). 

10, 2d D. 17 ; P. 10 ; V. 6 ; A. 15 ; C. 16 — This species, which appears to have 

been first described by Biunnich under the above title, and afterwards by 

Lacepede as T. lastoviza, is recorded by Donovan as a native of the British 

seas. 

151. T. lineata. — Lateral line simple; the second ray of the 
first dorsal fin large and produced. 

Mont. Wern. Mem. ii. 460 Coast of Devon, common. 

Length 15 inches. Body, above, red, clouded with brown ; beneath white. 
Snout slightly bifid and crinated. The transverse ridges confined to the re- 
gion of the lateral line. Base of the dorsal fin spinous. 1st D. 9, 2d D. 18 ; P. 
10 ; V. 6 ; A. 18. Taken by whiting bait, and shore-nets. First noticed by 
Montagu, who considers the great length and thickness of the second ray of 
the dorsal fin the best mark of discrimination. 

*** Pectorals and sides common. 

152. T. Gurnardus. Grey Gurnard. — Above grey, cloud- 
ed ; beneath, silvery ; nose bifurcated with three spines on each 
side. 

Cuculus, Merr. Pin. 1 86 — Lvra, Sibb. Scot. 24 — Gornatus, Will. Ich. 

279 T. Gum. Linn. Syst. i. 497- Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 276 — S, 

Crooner — Common. 
Length about 18 inches. Eyes large ; cheeks finely striated. Lateral 
line broad, and, with the base of the dorsal fin, serrated. The three first rays 
of the dorsal fin tuberculated. 1st D. 8, 2d D. 19 ; P. 10 ; V. | ; A. 19 — Easily 
taken Avith a hook. 

153. T. Cuculus. Red Gurnard. — Body red ; the first dor- 
sal fin with a black spot. 

A Rotchet, Merr. Pin. 186 — Cuculus, Will. Ich. 281 — T. cuculus, 

Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 278 Coast of Cornwall common. 

Length about 1 foot. Nose with three spines on each side. Lateral line 
stronglv serrated. The two first rays of the dorsal fin rough. 1st D. 7, 2d D- 
19; P."lO; V. 6; A. 18. The pectorals are bluish, the ventrals and anal 
white. 

154. T. Lyra. Piper. — Red ; snout divided into two den- 

tated processes. 

Tub, Merr. Pin. 186.— Lyra, Will. Ich. 282— T. Lyra, Linn. Syst. i. 
496. Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 279. Don. Brit. Fishes, i. 118 — Coast of 
England. 



216 FISHES. ACANTHOPT. Cottus. 

Length 2 feet. Lateral line nearly smooth ; base of the dorsals spinous. 
1st D. 10, 2d D. 18 ; P. 12 ; V. 1 ; A. T ' 5 . Lower jaw much shorter than the 
upper. 

Gen. LXXVII. CATAPHRACTUS. Pogge.— Body an- 
gular ; mailed with large spinous scales ; bearded. 

155. C. Schoneveldii. Common Pogge. — Snout armed with 
four recurved spines. * 

Sibb. Scot. 25. Will. Ich. 211 — Cottus Cat. Linn. Syst. i. 451. Penti. 

Brit. Zool. iii. 217 — S, Lyrie, Sea Poacher, Pluck, Noble Common 

on the coast. 

Length 5 inches. Head large, subtriangular ; chin with numerous cirri. 
Body angular, with pointed scales. 1st D. 5, 2d D. 7 ; P. 18 ; V. 3 ; A. 6 ; C. 

10. Tail rounded ; the body growing slender to its base. / 

Gen. LXXVIII. COTTUS. Hardhead.— Body smooth, 
without appendages at the pectorals or chin. Head arm- 
ed with spines. 

156. C. Scorpius. Father-Lasher. — Preopercle with two 

spines ; one in front of the eye. 

Scorpius marinus, Sibb. Scot. 24. — Scorpaena Bellonii, Will. Ich. 138 — 

Cottus Scorpius, Linn. Syst. i. 452, Perm. Brit. Zool. iii. 218 E, 

Sea Scorpion ; S, Lucky-Proach — Common near rocky coasts. 

Length 9 inches. Colour yellowish-brown, with dark spots and clouds. 
Mouth large, upper jaw longest. Opercle with one strong spine. Lateral 
line straight near the back, and rough. 1st D. 9, 2d D. 13 ; P. 14 ; V. 3 ; A. 
10 ; C 14. — This species is sometimes used as food. 

157. C. Gobio. Bullhead. — Preopercle with one spine. First 
dorsal fin small, coloured. 

Gobio capitatus, Men: Pin. 190. Will. Ich. 137 — Cottus Gobio, Linn. 

Syst. i. 452. Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 216.— E, Miller's Thumb — Rivers 

in England. 

Length 4 inches. Body dusky, clouded with yellow, belly whitish. Head 

broad and flat ; eves small; irides yelloAV. Lateral line near the middle of 

the body, smooth. 1st D. G, 2d D." 17; P. 13; V. 4 ; A. 13; C. 12 — This 

species is found in clear brooks, depositing its spawn in a hole in the gravel. 

Gen. LXXIX. MULLUS. Surmullet.— Chin with two 
beards. Gill-membrane of three rays. Head sloping, with 
large scales. 

158. M. Surmuletus. Striped Surmullet. — Sides with lon- 
gitudinal lines of yellow. 

M. major, Will. Ich. 285.— H. Sur. Linn. Syst. i. 496. Penn. Brit. Zool. 
274. Don. Brit. Bishes, t. 12 — South coast of England. 
Length upwards of a foot. Body tinged with red; white on the belly. 



Mcgil. FISHES. ACANTHOPT. 217 

Eyes large ; irides purple. 1st D. 7, 2d D. 9 ; P. 16 ; V. 7 ; A. 8 ; C. 20.— 
The tail is much forked. 

In reference to the Red Surmullet, M. barbatus, which for some time has 
occupied a place in the British Fauna, it may be stated, that its claim rests 
on the following vague remark of Mr Pennant. M We have heard of this 
species being taken on the coast of Scotland, but had no opportunity of exa- 
mining it ; and, whether it is found on the west of England with the other 
species, or variety, we are not at this time informed." — Brit. Zool. iii. 273. 
No notice, however, is taken of this fish in the list of Scottish animals pre- 
fixed to Lightfoot's Flora Scotica, and composed by Mr Pennant. 

Gen. LXXX. MUGIL. Mullet. — Suborbitals denticulat- 
ed on the margin. Middle of the under jaw with a ridge, 
with a corresponding groove in the upper. Gill-flap of 6 
rays. 

159- M. Cephalus. Common Mullet. — Sides with broad 
longitudinal lines on a silvery ground. 

Will. Ich. 274. Linn. Syst. i. 520. Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 329. Don. 
Brit. Fishes, t. 15 In the sea and estuaries. 

Length upwards of 18 inches. Back dusky ; belly silvery. Irides dusky. 
Vomer, palatines, and tongue, with small teeth. 1st D. 4 (with large scales 
at the base), 2d D. 9 ; P. 17 ; V. \ (with a triangular process on each side, and 
one in the middle) ; A. §. Tail forked ; peritoneum black. When enclosed 
in a net they endeavour to effect their escape by leaping over the edges, 
which they do with great agility. 

Gen. LXXXI. ATHERINA.— Jaws protrusile. Cheeks 
with scales. 

160. A. Hepsctus. Atherine. — Side with a silvery longitu- 
dinal stripe : margin of the dorsal scales with black dots. 

Pisciculus anguella, Will. Ich. 209 — A. Hep. Linn. Syst. i. 519. Penn. 
Brit. Brit. Zool. iii. 318. Don. Brit. Fishes, t. 87 — E. Smelt, Melet. 
— In the sea and estuaries. 

Length 5 inches. Body, above, yellowish-brown, silver}' beneath ; pellu- 
cid. Head broad, depressed, with a mesial ridge. 1st D. 8, 2d D. 11 ; P. 13; 
V. 6 ; A. 14-17 ; C. 15. Spawns in June. 

Gen. LXXXII. SCOMBER. Mackerel.— Posterior por- 
tions of the second dorsal and anal fins subdivided into 
spurious finlets. 

161. S. vulgaris. Common Mackerel.— Five spurious fins 

above and below. Second dorsal and anal fins triangular. 

S. Merr. Pin. 187- Sibb. Scot. 24. Will. Ich. 181 — S. Scomber, Linn. 
Syst. i. 492. Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 264. Don. Brit. Fishes, t. 120.— 
British Seas common. 

Length 15 inches. Body compressed, angular and slender towards the 
tail; bluish green above, with dark transverse bands ; beneath silvery. 1st 



218 FISHES. ACANTHOPT. Trachurus. 

D. 10, 2d D. 13 ; P. 13 ; V. 6 ; A. 11 ; C. 22. The tail is forked. Easily taken 
by a bait on the surface in a breeze. — A gregarious fish ; and, like the herring, 
approaches the shores to spawn. 

162. S. Thynnus. Tunny Mackerel. — Eight spurious fin- 
lets above and below. Second dorsal and anal fins falcate. 

Thunnus, Sibb. Scot. 23. Will. Ich. 176.— S. Th. Linn. Syst. i. 493. 
Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 266. Don. Brit. Fishes, t. v.—E, Spanish Mac- 
kerel ; S, Stoer Mackerel — Rare in England, frequent on the west 
coast of Scotland. 

Length about 3 to 7 feet. Body round, slender and angular towards the 
tail; black above, silvery beneath, tinged with purple. 1. D. 14, 2d D. 14 ; 
P. 34; V. 6; A. 13. Tail lunate. — This species feeds on herrings and pil- 
chards. 

According to Mr Stewart, the S. Pelamis " has been taken, though rarely, 
in the Frith of Forth."— Elements, i. p. 363. 

Gen. LXXXIII. TRACHURUS. Scad. — Dorsal and 
anal fins entire. A row of large imbricated spinous scales 
on the lateral line. 

163. T. vulgaris. Common Scad. — Body variegated, blue 
and green ; the belly white. 

Will. Ich. 290— Scomber Trach. Linn. Syst. 494. Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 
269 Horse-MackereL— Rare. 

Length 15 inches. Lower jaw longest ; no teeth; eyes large, irides sil- 
very. The lateral line with a curve ; the broad scales are produced into a 
spine in the middle of the free edge, the rest of the margin denticulated ; 
smaller scales between. 1st D. 8, 2d D. 34 ; P. 20 ; V. 6. Tail forked — Wil- 
loughby, Pennant, and Donovan, mention the occurrence of this fish on the 
English coast. I found a mutilated example cast ashore in the estuary of 
the Tay, June 1823. 

Mr Couch adds, in reference to the T. glaums, or Abacore, as a native of 
the Cornish seas ; " I believe this fish is not uncommon in the summer ; but 
keeping at a distance from the shore, and seldom taking a bait, is but rarely 
taken." — Linn. Trans, xiv. 82. 



Gen. LXXXIV. ZEUS. Doree.— Two anal fins. Jaws 
protrusile ; gape wide. The spinous portions of the dor- 
sal and anal fins divided from the cartilaginous by a de- 
pression. Ventrals thoracic. 

164. Z. Faber. — Spinous rays of the first dorsal with long fi- 
laments. 

Faber, Merr. Pin. 187. Will. Ich. 294 — Zeus Faber, Linn. Syst. i. 454. 
Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 221. Don. Brit. Fishes, t. 8 — On the English 
coast. 



Gasterosteus. FISHES. ACANTHOPT. 219 

Length 17 inches. Body oval, compressed, olive, blue, and white, with a 
round black spot on the side. 1st D. 10, 2d D. 24 ; P. 14 ; 1st A. 4, 2d A. 22 ; 
C. 14. Tail round. Spinous scales on the back and belly, at the base of the 
fins. Lateral line waved.— Willoughby mentions this fish as common in 
Cornwall. It is occasionally brought to the London market. 



Gen. LXXXV. SPINACHIA.— Lateral line armed with 
large pointed imbricated scales. Ventrals, of a single ray, 
supported by a spinous shield. 

165. S. vulgaris. — Back with fifteen spines. 

Aculeatus marinus major, Sibb. Scot. 24. Will. Ich. 340. — Gasterosteus 
Spin. Linn. Syst. i. 492. Penn. Brit. Zool. hi. 263. Don. Brit. Fishes, 

t. 45 In the sea rare. 

Length 6 inches. Snout produced ; mouth tubular ; teeth small. 2d D. 
7, P. 10, A. \, C. 12. Tail even at the end. 

Gen. LXXXVI. GASTEROSTEUS. Stickleback.— 
Ventrals of a single spine ; the bone of the pelvis forming 
an intervening shield, pointed behind. 

166. G. P. aculeatus. — Three spines on the back ; scales on 

the sides large, transverse. 

Pungitius, Merr. Pin. 189. Si b b. Scot. 25 — Pisciculus aculeatus, Will. 
Ich. 341. Gast. acul. Linn. Syst i. 489. Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 261. 
Don. Brit. Fishes, t. xi — Common in rivulets, ditches, and lakes. 

Length 2 inches. Body square near the tail. 2d D. 11, P. 10, A. §, C. 
12. A voracious fish. Spawns in April. Sometimes found in estuaries, 
after floods, where it attains a large size. 

167- G. Pungitius. — Ten spines on the back ; sides smooth. 

Piscis aculeatus minor, Will. Ich. 342.— G. Pung. Linn. Syst. i. 491. 
Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 262. Don. Brit. Fishes, t. 32 — In the sea and 
rivers. 
Length about an inch and a half; olive above, white below. Dorsal spines 
irregular in their direction. 2d D. 9, P. 9, A. \. Tail rounded. 

Mr Couch states in reference to the Centronotus diictor, or Pilot-fish, 
that " Two of this species a few years since accompanied a ship from the Me- 
diterranean into Falmouth, and were taken in a net." — Linn. Trans, xiv. 82. 

Gen. LXXXV1I. LAMPRIS. Opah.— Snout short ; ven- 
trals abdominal. 

168. L. Luna. — Fins red; body above greenish blue, with 

silvery spots. 

Piscis maculis aureis aspersus, Sibb. Scot. t. vi. f. 3. Wallace, Ork. 37- 
— Opah, Penn. Brit. Zool. iii. 223. Sower. Brit. Misc. i. p. 45. t. 22. 
Don. Brit. Fishes, t. 97 In the British seas rare. 



220 FISHES. ACANTHOPT. Xiphias. 

Length from 3 to 5 feet. Mouth small, tongue thick and rough, with re- 
flected prickles. Lateral line irregular. Pectorals long ; the dorsal and anal 
fins falcate at their commencement. D. 54, P. 28, V. 10, A. 26, C. 30. Se- 
veral examples of this splendid fish have, at different times, been captured 
in our seas, or cast ashore during storms. 

Gen. LXXXVIII. XIPHIAS. Swoudfish.— Snout sword- 
shaped. No ventral fins. 

169. X. gladius. Common Swordfish. — Snout long, de- 
pressed. Anal and dorsal fins entire. 

Xiphias, Sibb. Scot. 23. Will. Ich. 161 — X. Glad. Linn. Syst i. 432. 
Perm. Brit. Zool. iii. 160 — X. Rondeletii, Leach, Wern. Mem. ii. 58. 
Occasionally captured in the British seas. 

Length of the body from 6 to 15 feet, and of the snout from 2 to 3 feet. 
Colour dusky above, the belly white. Gape wide ; the lower jaw short and 
pointed. The dorsal fin begins over the gills, suddenly reaches its greatest, 
elevation, then becomes very low, until near the tail, when it suffers a slight 
elevation ; the intervening low membrane is frequently lacerated, and has 
led several observers to conclude that this fish possessed two dorsal fins. The 
anal fin bears a near resemblance to the dorsal in shape. On each side of the 
body, at the setting on of the tail, there is an elevated ridge. In a specimen 
which I inspected, (Brewster's Journal, vol. ii. 187-), found in the Tay, the 
ridge on the left side was much more produced than on the right, and the 
same side of the body was of a darker colour; as if the fish in swimming did 
not always preserve a vertical position. The stomach contained numerous 
remains of the Loligo sagittuta, and its mouth is so constructed as to be able 
to swallow entire objects, not to tear off morsels, — circumstances which in- 
duce me to call in question the accuracy of those who deem this fish as vora- 
cious and destructive to Tunnies in particular. Sibbald first noticed this fish 
as an inhabitant of our seas. Willoughby states his having seen them of 10 
cubits. The snout of this fish has been supposed hard enough to penetrate 
the planks of ships. Mr Scoresby, in the Edin. Phil. Journ. vol. iii. p. 411., 
states an instance of a ship from the coast of Africa, the bow of which had 
been penetrated by a bone, which he considers as the snout of the sword-fish. 
The proportions and structure of this bone, as stated, intimate, that, if it be 
the snout of a Xiphias, it must have belonged to an individual of a species 
differing greatly from the common sort. 

Gen. LXXXIX. CENTRISCUS. — Body oval; compres- 
sed ; belly carinated ; the first ray of the first dorsal fin a 
serrated spine. 

170. C. Scolopax. Trumpet-Fish. — Scales small, rigid, point- 
ed. Colour reddish. 

Scolopax Rondeletii, Will. Ich. 160. — Centriscus Scol. Block, t. 123. f. i. 

Don. Brit. Fishes, t. 63. Couch, Lin. Trans, xiv. 81), and ib. viii. 358. 

— Occasionally on the south-western coasts of England. 

Length about 4 inches. The snout occupies about one-third of the length 

of the fish. Eyes large, irides white, with a reddish tinge. 1st D. 4, 2d D. 9; 

P. 15 ; V. 7 ; A. 13 ; C. 15. — This fish may be considered as one of the rare 

kinds, but interesting as the only species we can claim to our Fauna of the 

interesting group to which it belongs. 



FISHES. 221 

In the preceding enumeration of British Fishes, I have taken notice of 
a few species which seem entitled only to the rank of stragglers, such as the 
Flying Fish, Remora, and a few others. The geographical distribution of 
these species is so far ascertained, that individuals occurring in particular 
places may, with some confidence, be regarded as having strayed from their 
ordinary haunts, and not likely either to remain permanently, or to multi- 
ply. But there are a few species, in the genera Wrasse and Gurnard, for 
example, which, though they have been seldom observed on our coasts, are 
still permitted to occupy a place in the British Fauna. The geographical 
distribution of these species is too little known to permit any accurate opi- 
nion being formed respecting their ordinary haunts. They may, probably, 
be found more frequently in our seas, as the products of our fishing boats are 
examined with more attention. In this department there is much which has 
been neglected, so that a rich harvest of discovery still awaits the zealous and 
practical cultivators of the science of Ichthyology who have access to exten- 
sive fishing stations. 

The revolutions which have taken place in the different epochs of the earth's 
duration, and which have left memorials of their influence, in the numerous 
relics of extinct species which the different strata contain, have extended 
their destructive operations to fishes ; an occurrence attested by the remains 
of teeth and vertebra?, and entire impressions of fish, exhibited by many stra- 
ta. But those parts which have been preserved, exhibit so imperfectly the 
characteristic mark of the species, as to render it difficult, if not impossible, 
in the present state of ichthyological osteology, to give notices of their his- 
tory at all calculated to interest the reader. 

The circumstances which regulate the physical distribution of Fishes, appear 
as yet to be imperfectly determined. Living in a medium, less influenced 
by changes of temperature than the atmosphere, the mere action of heat 
exercises but little control. Yet it is probable that the attachment of the 
Pilchard to Cornwall and the Tusk to Zetland, may arise from this ciixum- 
stance. Fish appear, however, to have peculiar local attachments, frequent- 
ing certain banks, shores, or tideways, in preference to others. Thus, the 
Hake and the Braize, while they are distributed along the south-western 
shores of England, and the coast of Ireland, are likewise extended, though less 
abundantly, to the Hebrides, while their northern limits on the east coast 
are much more circumscribed. Suitable food is probably the great regulator 
of these distributions. 

The migrations of fishes, in compliance with the arrangements of their 
reproductive system, exhibit the most singular movements, often complex, 
but always useful to man. Those which inhabit the inaccessible depths o'f 
the sea, in ordinary cases, approach the shores, towards the season of spawn- 
ing ; and, after depositing their eggs in suitable situations, again retire to 
their inaccessible haunts. The fry occupy for a time their littoral birth- 
place, and then follow the course of the older individuals, though in several 
cases the young seem to execute movements different from the full grown 
fish. Not a few species, as the salmon, which have their ordinary residence 
in the sea, approach, towards the spawning season, the shores, enter estuar- 
ies and ascend rivers, where, having selected a suitable place, they deposite 
their eggs, and again return to the sea. The fry, after a certain period, like- 
wise leave the fresh waters and betake themselves to the sea. Similar move- 
ments are executed by the fish which inhabits lakes. As the spawning sea- 
son approaches, several species, as the Gwiniad, leave the deep water, and 
approach the margin ; while others, as the Roach, not onlv approach the 
margin of the lake, but ascend the neighbouring streams.— With a few other 
species, as the Eel, for example, these movements are reversed ; the spawn- 
ing fish leave the fresh-water lakes and rivers, and retire to the sea to <m-e 
birth to their progenv. 



222 FISHES. 

But there are other movements executed by fishes of a more anomalous 
character, the necessary conditions of which remain to be investigated- The 
Herring, Pilchard and Haddock, for example, after frequenting certain parts of 
the coast for many years, at stated intervals, suddenly withdraw themselves to 
other stations, to which they had not been accustomed to resort. It is pro- 
bable that these shiftings of fish may depend on the movements of those 
animals on which they subsist, or on the changes in the quantity of food, oc- 
casioned by excessive consumption. 

The Fisheries of this kingdom are objects of vast importance, yet, though 
they have frequently occupied the attention of Parliament, a great deal re- 
mains to be done before they be placed in that state of improvement of which 
they are susceptible. In point of importance, our fisheries probably rank in 
the following order : 1. Gadusidce, or fisheries having for their object the 
capture of Cod, Coal-fish, Haddock, Ling, Hake, Tusk. 2. Salmonidce, in- 
cluding Salmon, Trout, Char, and Smelts. 3. Clupeadce, including Herring, 
Pilchard, Shad. 4. Pleuronectidce, including Turbot, Holibut, Flounder, and 
Sole. 5. Scomberoidw, or Mackerel. 6. Ilaiadce, including Rays and Skates. 
7- Cyprinida, including Carp, Bream, Tench, &c. 8. Anyuillada, including 
the Eel and Conger. 

To those interested in the improvement of these fisheries the following re- 
marks may not be deemed out of place. 1. The fisheries sustain much in- 
jury in consequence of the capture of fish ready to spawn. No one can wit- 
ness the exhibition of the large roes of the Cod, Ling, or Haddock, on the 
stalls of our fish-markets, without being convinced of the propriety of some 
legislative enactment (capable of application) to prevent this prodigal waste 
of our stores, by prohibiting the fishery of each species for a certain time, 
at the ordinary spawning season. 2. The fisheries are injured by the des- 
truction which takes places in the fry, in consequence of the operations being 
carried on at improper seasons, or with improper engines. The injury done 
to the salmon-fishery by the destruction of the fry has been frequently stat- 
ed to the public, but few seem to be aware of the vast extent of injury to the 
fry of many kinds of fish from the use of improper nets, by the trawlers of the 
Channel Fisheries. On this subject the reader will find some important re- 
marks in Mr Cornish's " View of the present state of the Salmon and Chan- 
nel Fisheries," Lond. 1824. 3. The fisheries might be extended and render- 
ed more valuable by enlarging the system of bounties, or rather, perhaps, by 
directing them to new objects. The Turbot and Eel fisheries are neglected 
in many places where they might be prosecuted to advantage; and hundreds 
of our fresh-water lakes, which at present are useless and waste, might be ren- 
dered productive of much wholesome food. It becomes a question of great 
national importance, whether these, and other obvious improvements in our 
fisheries, might be most effectually promoted, by public statutes, or by Boards 
furnished with suitable powers. 

The reader who wishes to consult accurate delineations of our native Fish- 
es, should have recourse to the valuable plates of Donovan. Should mi- 
nute description be the object of his search, the pages of Willoughby will not 
fail to gratify him. 



( 223 ) 



INVERTEBRAL ANIMALS 



( 224 ) 



INVERTEBRAL ANIMALS. 

[. GANGLIATA. — Brain surrounding the gullet, and 
sending out nervous filaments, which in their course ex 
pand into ganglia. 

5 Class I. Mollusca. — Brain surrounding the gullet, and send- 
ing out filaments, which separate irregularly. 

v Class. II. Annulosa. — Brain surrounding the gullet, and send- 
ing out a knotted tilament to the posterior extremity of 
the body. 

II. RADIATA. — Nervous system obscure, disseminated, 
not appearing in the form of a collar round the gullet, 
nor of a longitudinal cord. 



Although the Radiata appear here as the last of the Invertebral Animals, 
it is my intention to proceed to the consideration of the species which belong 
to the division immediately after the enumeration of the Mollusca. This 
course I am induced to follow, because an intimate relationship appears to 
subsist between certain groups of radiated and molluscous animals. Besides, 
by such an arrangement, the whole of the Annulose animals will remain con- 
nected, and occupy exclusively the second volume of this work. 



3 



( 225 ) 



MOLLUSCA. 



[Order I. MOLLUSCA CEPHALA.— Head distinct from 
the body, bearing the lips or jaws. 

Sect. I. NATANTIA. — Organs of progressive motion Jitted 
for swimming. 

( CEPHALOPODA — Fins in the form of tentacula, surrounding the 
\ mouth. Marine. 

{Nautilid.*: — With a multilocular shell. 
Sepiad^e. — Destitute of a multilocular shell. 

.Sect. II. GASTEROPODA. — Organs of progressive motion 
fitted for creeping. 

I. PULMONIFERA — Respiring in air by means of a single 
pulmonary cavity. 

Terricola. — Resident on land. 

Aquatic a. — Resident in the water. 

II. BRANCHIFERA Respiring in water. 

Nudibhanchia — Branchiae external, pedunculated, and plu- 
mose. 

Pectinibranchia. — Branchiae in the form of sessile, pecti- 
nated ridges, contained in a cavity. 

Order II. MOLLUSCA ACEPH ALA.— Destitute of a 

distinct head or neck. 



' Sect. I. CONCHIFERA.— Covering testaceous. 

' I. BRACHIOPODA — Mouth with a spiral arm on each side, 
fringed with filaments. 

Pedunculata. Shell supported by a cartilaginous stalk. 

J Sessilia. One valve of the shell cemented, fixed. 

.II. BIVALVIA — Mouth destitute of spiral fringed arms. 
Asiphonida. — Cloak open, without syphons. 
Siphonida — Cloak more or less closed, forming syphons. 

Sect. II. TUNICAT A— Covering soft. 

Dichitonida. — Inner tunic detached from the external one, 
and united only at the two orifices. 

Monochitonida. — Inner tunic adhering throughout to the 
external one. 

VOL. I. P 



NAUTIL1DJE. 

I. Partitions of the chambers with simple margins, forming harmonic 
sutures. 

«. Shell spiral. 

b. Whorls discoid. 

c. Last chambers produced. 
Spirilla. 
Spirolina. 
ce. Last chambers uniform. 

d. Sides similar, the mouth mesial. 

Nautilus. 
dd. Sides dissimilar, convex above, flat beneath, the 
mouth lateral. 
Itotalia. 
Lobatula. 
Nummulita. 
lb. Whorls globular. 
Vermiculum. 
Arethusa. 
Lagenula. 
aa. Shell produced. 
Orthocera. 
Belemnita. 
Conularia. 

II. Partitions of the chambers with waved margins forming serrated 
sutures. 

a. Spiral. 

b. Spirally discoid. 
Ammomita. 
Orbulita. 
Scaphrta. 
bb. Spirally turrited. 
Turrilita. 
ma. Shell straight or bent. 
BacuKta. 
Amplexiis* 



Spibula. MOLLUSCA. CEPHALOPODA. 227 



CEPHALOPODA. 



NAUTILIDJE. 

Gen. I. SPIRULA. — Whorls regularly involute, separate ; 
mouth orbicular ; partitions concave, perforated by a proxi- 
mal continuous pipe. 

1. S. australis. — Shell with fine smooth whorls; partitions 
slightly depressed externally. 

Nautilus exiguus, albus, pellucidus, teres, Lister, Conch, t. 550. f. 2 

Naut. Spirula, Linn. Syst. i. 11G3 — Turton, Conch. Diet. 117 West 

coast of Ireland. 

Shell about an inch in breadth. The first chambers, at the apex, are a lit- 
tle inflated ; but, as they gradually increase in size, in the outer whorls, their 
surface becomes more even, and the line of separation less distinct ; partitions 
perlacious. The last chambers are nearly cylindrical, and produced in a 
straight line. According to Lamark, (Histoire Naturelle des Animaux sans 
Vertebres, v;i. 600.), the shell is imbedded in the posterior extremity of the 
sac, a portion only of the last whorl being visible. The head is surrounded 
with eight arms and two feet. Two specimens of the shell of this animal 
were found on the strand between Kenmare Harbour and Ballyskellegs Bay, 
in the county of Kerry, by Mr O'Kelly of Dublin, in the summer of 1817. 
It is probable that the remains of many other animals, the ordinary inhabi- 
tants of the West Indian seas, will occasionally occur on the Irish coast, as 
in the present instance ; but we have to determine their capability of living in 
our seas before their right to a place in our Fauna can be established. The 
claims of the present species are doubtful. 

Gen. II. SPIROLINA.— Whorls contiguous. 

2. S. subarcuatula. — Outer margin carinated ; inner margin 
rounded ; partitions of the chambers raised on the sides. 

Naut. subarcuatus, geniculis exertis, Walker, Test. Min. t. iii. f. 73. 
Mont. Test. Brit. Sup. 80. t. xix. f. 1 — Sheppy Island, rare ; Mr 
Walker, 

Size about one-eighth of an inch. Chambers widest externally, making 
the margin of the mouth oblique ; about twelve in number, the last four 
forming the produced portion. Syphon near the inner or proximal margin. 
When the produced portion is broken off, the remaining convoluted part is 
considered by Montagu as having been figured by Walker, at t. iii. f. 06. 

3. S. semilitua, — Outer margin rounded; the partitions of 
the chambers raised on all sides. 

Nautilus sem. Mont. Test. Brit. 196. Sup. 80. t. xix. f. 3 Sandwich and 

Sheppv, Mr Bovs.— Hare. 

P 2 



228 MOLLUSC A. CEPHALOPODA. Nautilus, 

Colour opake brown. Chambers diminishing in size to the mouth, which 
is contracted. Syphon near the distal margin, produced. The partitions are 
represented in Montagu's figure as tuberculated, though this character is 
not noticed in the description. 

4. S. carinatula. — Outer margin slightly carinated. Cham- 
bers increasing regularly in size. 

N. oblongus carinatus apertura lineari ovali, Walker, Test. Min. t. iii. 
f. 72.— Mont. Test. Brit. 195. 

Colour white, transparent. Chambers seven. The first globose. Montagu 
states, that the drawing of this shell, sent to him by Mr Boys, differs from 
the figure which Walker published, — an occurrence too frequent in the same 
quarter. 

Gen. III. NAUTILUS.— Sides equal; the last whorl em- 
bracing and concealing the previously formed ones. 

5. N. crispus. — Exteriorly carinated. Spaces between the 
partitions crenated. Sides convex. 

Linn. Syst. i. 11 62. Walker, Test. Min. t- iii. 65. Mont. Test. Brit. 

187- t. xviii. £ 5 Among old shells and corals — Common. 

Size about i.^th of an inch. Chambers in the last whorl about 20; the par- 
titions flexuous, elevated, canaliculated. Mouth cordate; the aperture or 
syphon minute, near the proximal edge. In the young shells, the partitions 
are destitute of the gutter, and the margin is more rounded, 

6. N. calcar. — Exteriorly carinated. Spaces between the 

partitions smooth. Sides convex. 

Mont. Test. Brit. 189. t. xv. f. 4— N. rotatus, Turt. Conch. Diet. 118 — 
On shells and corallines on the English coast. 

Chambers in the last whorl 6 ; the partitions marked by elevated flexuous 
lines, which do not reach, however, to the carinated margin. Mouth semi- 
cordate, clasping. 

7. N. Icevigatulus. — Exteriorly subcarinated. Mouth with 
a rim. Sides convex. 

N. spiralis geniculis laevibus, Walker, Test. Min. 19. t. iii. f. 67- Mont. 
Test. Brit. 188; Suppt. 75. t. xviii. f. 7-8 — English or Scottish shores. 
Chambers about 10, glossy, smooth; the partitions marked by subelevated 
flexuous rays. Mouth triangular, with a rim which does not clasp the body 
whorl. Aperture near the distal edge. The mouth seems liable to vary in 
form, as in a specimen which I found in Zetland, in which it is rounded and 
turned to one side. 

8. N. depressulus. — Depressed, exteriorly rounded ; the cham- 
bers and partitions nearly even. 

N. spiralis utrinque subumbilicatus geniculis depressis plurimis, Walker, 
Test. Min. 19. t. iii. f. 68.— N. dep. Mont. Test. Brit. 190; Suppt. 78. 

t. xviii. f. 9 English and Scottish shores. 

Chambers about nine in number ; the partitions slightly curved, ending at 
the centre in a pellucid spot. 

9. N. iimbU'icatidus. — Depressed, exteriorly rounded ; parti- 
tions sunk, with a subtuberculated elevation in the middle. 



Nautilus. MOLLUSCA. CEPHALOPODA. 

N. spiralis umbilicatus geniculis sulcatis, Walker, Test. Min- 19. t. iii. 
f. 69 N. umb. Mont. Test. Brit. 191 ; Suppt. 78. t. xviii. f. 1 — Eng- 
lish and Scottish shores. 
Chambers ten, rounded on the sides, but nearly even on the margin, with 
a frosted appearance on the surface. Partitions flexuous, ending at the centre 
in a pellucid spot. The geographical range of this species is extensive. It 
occurs on the coasts of Devon and of Zetland, and I have even detected it on 
corallines found on the surface of the sea, about the middle of Hudson's 
Straits, in 1821, by Captain Parry. 

10. N. crassulus. — Depressed, umbilicated, and shewing part 
of the interior volution. 

N. spiralis, crassus, utrinque umbilicatus, geniculis lineatis, Walker, Test. 

Min. t. iii. f. 70 N. crassulus, Mont. Test. Brit. Suppt. 79. t. xviii. 

f. 2. — English coast, rare. 
Shell opake brown, with numerous close-set elevated joints. Sides similar. 
Mouth placed a little oblique, scarcely clasping the body, and furnished with 
a syphon The internal structure of these recent species can scarcely be sa- 
tisfactorily determined. 

EXTINCT SPECIES. 

1. N. imperialis. — " Involute, umbilicate. Aperture lunate. Septa entire, 
concave, broadest in the middle, truncated, and slightly recurved at their 
ends. Siphunculus nearest to the inside." — Sowerbtfs Mineral Conchology, 
t. i. — In the London clay, Highgate. 

2. N. centralis " Involute umbilicate. Aperture bluntly lunate. Septa 

entire, concave, not recurved at their ends. Siphunculus central." — Sowerby's 
Min. Conch, t. i. left hand figure — London clay. 

3. N. incequalis. — " Spheroidal umbilicate, aperture nearly round; septa 
distant in the inner whorls, and approaching near together in the outer 
whorls ; siphunculus near the inner margin of the septum." — Sower. Min. 
Conch, t. xl. lower figures In Chalk Marl, Folkstone. 

4. N. undulatus " Gibbose; surface largely undulated, sides rather coni- 
cal, edge flat; aperture obcordate, inner whorls concealed." Siphunculus 
near the centre Sower. Min. Conch, t. xl. In Green Sand, Nutfield, Surrey. 

5. N. lineatus. — " Flatted spheroidal, umbilicate, surface obscurely striated, 
back flat, broad, with a concave line in the interior (which appears convex 
around the cast). Aperture rather square, deeply indented by the preceding 
whorl, septa numerous, concave, siphunculus central." — Soiver. Min. Conch, 
t. xli Inferior Oolite, Comb-down, Bath. 

6. N. elegans " Gibbose, umbilicate, with numerous linear, reflexed, ra- 
diating sulci."— Siphunculus central. — Sower. Min. Conch, t. cxvi. Mantell's 
Fossils of the South Downs, p. 112, t. xx. f. 1 — In Chalk Marl, Sussex. 

7- N. Comptoni " Lenticular, carinated ; centre covered ; surface smooth ; 

keel obtuse ; aperture acutely triangular." Less than a line. — Sower. Min. 
Conch, t. cxxi In Chalk Marl, Wilts. 

8. N. simplex " Depressed, spheroidal, umbilicate, plain ; mouth lunate, 

with the angles truncate, embracing the preceding whorl ; siphuncle nearest 
to the inner edge of the septum." — Sower. Min. Conch, t. cxxii. In Green 
Sand. 

9. N. truncatus.— u Thick, flatted, plain, umbilicate; back flat, mouth 
elongated, four-angled ; siphuncle (oval) nearest to the inner margin of the 
septum." — Sower. Min. Conch, t. exxiii.— In Lias Limestone, Bristol. 



230 MOLLUSCA. CEPHALOPODA. Nautilus. 

flat; 
e near 
;rsely 



10. N. obesus — " Gibbose, unibilicate, plain; back broad, flat; mouth 
large, squarish ; septa very numerous, not recurved ; siphuncle nearly cen- 
tral." — List. Conch. 1048. ? Soivcr. Min. Conch, t. cxxiv. (transversely oval 

Inferior Oolite, Norton-under-Ham. 



11. N. bilobatus.—" Subglobose, umbilicated; septa two-lobed ; aperture 
three or four times as wide as long." Margin a little flattened ; umbilicus 
small, nearly cylindrical ; syphon central. — Sower. Min. Conch, t. ccxlix. f. 2, 
3 — In the Limestone of the Old Red Sandstone, Closeburn, Dumfriesshire. 

12. N. regalis.—" Gibbose, plain, not umbilicate; front flattish ; sides con- 
vex ; aperture rather wider than long." — Sower. Min. Conch, t. ccclv. — In 
London Clay. 

13. N. radiatus. — "Gibbose, umbilicated; surface marked with curved ra- 
diating undulations ; sides and front rounded ; aperture orbicular, deeply in- 
dented." — Sower. Min. Conch, t. ccclvi. — In Green Sand, Maltor. 

14. N. Wrightii. — "Gibbose, smooth, rounded extei'iorly, partitions distant, 
slightly waved ; syphon nearer the exterior than the centre of the chamber : 
shell increasing rather suddenly."— Flem. Wern. Mem. iii. 96. I owe the 
specimen of this species which I possess to Samuel Wright, Esq., who found 
it in the Transition Limestone, Cork. It bears a near resemblance in form to 
JV. elegans. 

In the twelve following species, the inner whorls are more or less conspi- 
cuous, in consequence of the body-whorl not clasping the inner whorls so 
completely as in the preceding species. 

15. N. discus " Depressed, edge flat, aperture oblong, volutions not con- 
cealed by each other." Outer edge of the aperture narrower than the inner 
one, and" notched by a marginal groove ; syphon near the inner edge — Sower. 
Min. Conch, t. xiii. — In Carboniferous Limestone, Kendal. 

16. N. intermedins. — " Gibbose, umbilicate, concentrically striated; back 
broad, flattened, mouth squarish : siphuncle nearest the external edge." — 
Sower. Min. Conch, t. cxxv. — In limestone in the Lias at Keynsham. 

17. N. striatus. — " Slightly depressed; umbilicate; concentrically stri- 
ated ; aperture half the diameter of the shell, nearly orbicular." — The whorls 
increase rapidly ; the front a little compressed ; the strife elevated. — Soivcr. 
Min. Conch, t. clxxxii — In Lias, Lyme ltegis. 

18. N. penlagonus "Discoid, subcarinated ; inner turns partly concealed; 

aperture orbicular, obscurely 5-angled, and impressed by the preceding whorl, 
nearly half the diameter of the shell." Sides a little flattened ; septa not 
very concave, with a central siphuncle." — Sower. Min. Conch, t. ccxlix. f. 1. 
In limestone of the Old lied Sandstone, Closeburn. 

19. N. tuberculatum " Discoid, thick, largely umbilicate; one row of large 

tubercles on each side ; front rounded ; aperture transversely elongated, 2- 

angled." Sower. Min. Conch, t. ccxlix. f. 4 — In the limestone of the Old 

Red Sandstone, Closeburn. 

20. N. Luidii Whorls apparent, rounded with longitudinal serrated striae ; 

septa concave, with the syphon placed near the exterior margin — Martin, 
Petrificata Derbiensia, t. xxxv. £ 12.— In clay in the Coal formation, Derby- 
shire. 

21. N. ingens.— Volutions three, nearly external, even, round, gradually 
tapering ; septa oblique, slightly waved — Mart. Pet. Derb. t. xli. f. 5 — In 
Carboniferous Limestone, Derbyshire. This is probably the species which Ure 
refers to in his Natural History of Rutherglen and Kilbride, p. 307. " The 



Nautilus. MOLLUSCA. CEPHALOPODA. 231 

spires of the one are smooth and round, without any depression or sulci : the 
specimen is about 6 inches broad." 

22. N. excavatus A deep central cavity ; the whorls smooth, wide, carina- 

ted, conical on the sides, and flattened or slightly emarginated exteriorly : 
chambers numerous, the syphon nearly central. The specimens which I pos- 
sess are about 3 inches in diameter, and 2 inches wide, and were given me 
by Samuel Wright, Esq., from the Carboniferous Limestone, Limerick. 

23. N. marginatum Exteriorly carinated, sides arched ; septa waved ; sy- 
phon nearest the outer margin. In young shells the whorls are more round- 
ed, the ridges on the back and sides being obsolete. This is probably the shell 
to which Mr Sowerby referred, at his N. pentagonus ; " the first specimen I 
■received of this Nautilus was found in black limestone, at Bathgate, Scotland, 
and given to me by my friend, Dawson Turner, Esq." My own specimens 
collected in the same neighbourhood, appear to belong to a species different 
from N. ■pentagonus. In Carboniferous Limestone. 

24. N. funatus Elliptical, discoid, volutions apparent, " with numerous 

transverse simple rounded risings, relieved by rather wider grooves, at inter- 
vals, a kind of constriction distinguished by a small protuberance on the in- 
ner part of the rising immediately beyond it." — Sower. Min. Conch, t. xxxii., 
where it is considered as the type of the genus Ellipsolithes. Its structure 
is unknown. — In Transition Limestone, Cork. 

25. N. compressus. — " Elliptical, flat, smooth ; margin broad, flat, perpen- 
dicular to the sides ; volutions four or five, almost wholly exposed ; aperture 
oblong, rectangular." — Ellipsolithes compressus, Sower. Min. Conch, t. xxxviii. 
Structure unknown, probably nearly similar to the following species, which, 
in the quadrangular form of its whorls it so closely resembles, as it likewise 
does the JV. complanatus. — In Transition Limestone, Cork. 

26. N. quadratus Discoid, whorls quadrangular, sides flat, smooth; outer 

edge flat, with numerous transverse concave striae, and fine longitudinal 
ridges, four or five in number near the margin : chambers shallow, the sy- 
phon near the outer edge. In the cast, the outer margin is flat in the mid- 
dle, sloping off angularly to the edge ; the sides with three longitudinal 
grooves. In Carboniferous Limestone, West Lothian. 

In the four following species, the partitions have a remarkable concave 
bend on the side, making an approach to the genus Ammonila. 

27. N. ziczac " Involute, inner turns concealed, aperture bluntly trian- 
gular, septa concave, much recurved at their ends with a deep indenture in the 
edge on each side, siphunculus nearest to the inside — Soiver. Min. Conch. 
t. i. lowest figure In the London Clay, Highgate. 

28. N. sinuatus " Thick, umbilicate, concentrically striated ; side depres- 
sed, conical ; front convex ; aperture obtusely sagittate, truncated ; the septa 
have a large sinus on each side."— Sower. Min. Conch, t. cxciv. — In the In- 
ferior Oolite near YeoviL 

29. N. complanatus " Discoid, compressed, smooth ; sides flat ; inner 

turns exposed ; aperture lanceolate. A reversed sinus in the edge of each 
septum, near the inner angle." — Soiver. Min. Conch, cclxi.— In Transition 
Limestone? at Scarlet, Isle of Man. 

30. N. ovatus.— Oval, gibbose, umbilicated, edges rounded, inner volutions 
nearly concealed by the outer ; surface smooth ; aperture obtusely sagittate. 
— Ellipsolites ovatus, Sower. Min. Conch, t. xxxvii. In some specimens in 
my possession, which I owe to the kindness of Samuel Wright, Esq., the 
septa have a deep lateral wave like the three preceding species ; the cham- 
bers are numerous, and there appear to be constrictions at intervals on th« 
larger whorL — In Transition Limestone, Cork. 



232 MOLLUSCA. CEPHALOPODA. Rotalia. 



Gen. IV. ROTALIA. — The lower disc occupied by the last 
formed whorl, the partitions of which radiate from the 
centre to the margin ; the whorls on the upper disc ex- 
posed. 

11. R. Beccaria. — Chambers nearly flat, numerous, the whorls 

dextral. 

N. spiralis, umbilicatus, geniculis insculptis, Walk. Test. Miu. t. iii. f. 63. 

— N. Bee. Mont. Test. Brit. 186. t. xviii. f. 4 On fuci and coral- 

lines. 

Volutions four or five, forming, above, a slightly convex disc ; the parti- 
tions sunk, and convex on the sides ; aperture ovate, transverse near the in- 
ner margin : the rays of the partitions of the lower disc obscure towards the 
centre. 

12. R. Beccarii-iperyersus. — Chambers nearly flat, numerous, 

the whorls sinistral. 

N. B-p. Walk. Test. Min. t. iii. f. 6. Mont. Test. Brit. 187- t. xviii. 
f. 6. 

This shell is found along with the last, and is said by Montagu to be 
equally plentiful. On the Scottish coast it is greatly more abundant, and 
grows to a superior size. 

13. R. hvflata. — Chambers tumid, few. 

Naut. inflatus, Mont. Test. Brit. Supp. 81. t. xviii. f. 3 Among sand, 

Devonshire. 

Volutions three, the last having five ventricose articulations. The upper 
disc is more tumid, and the chambers less crowded than in either of the pre- 
ceding species. In a single specimen found on corallines, Zetland, which I 
possess, the whorls are sinistral, though in other respects it agrees with the 
description of Montagu. 

Gen. V. LOBATULA. — The upper disc occupied by the last 
formed whorl, the partitions of which radiate from the 
centre to the margin ; the whorls on the lower disc ex- 
posed. 

14. L. vulgaris. — Surface of the chambers frosted ; five or 
six on the upper disc. 

N. spiralis, lobatus, anfractibus supra rotundatis subtus depressioribus, 
Walk. Test, Min. t. iii. f. 71.— Serpula lobata, Mont. Test. Brit. 515. 
— On shells and corallines, common. 

Upper disc convex, the partitions and centre slightly depressed, the cham- 
bers a little rounded. Lower disc uneven, conforming to the body on which 
it rests or adheres ; of three whorls ; aperture at the inner margin, trans- 
verse, and nearest the lower disc. A variety, with the whorls sinistral, oc- 
curs in nearly equal abundance. Both are subject to great variations of 
growth. 



Nummulita. MOLLUSCA. CEPHALOPODA. 233 

15. L. concamerata. — Surface of the chambers glossy and 

smooth. 

Serpula con. Mont. Test. Brit. Supp. 160. 

This species, found by Montagu on the coast of Devon, is thus described : 
" Shell suborbicular, compressed, flat beneath, slightly convex above, and of 
a subpellucid white colour, with three irregular volutions, and numerous dis- 
similar concamerations ; the exterior whorl has about nine glossy and tumid 
cells, of unequal size, but usually a larger and smaller alternate. Diameter 
half a line. This very minute species is at once distinguished from S. lobata, 
by possessing much more numerous and infinitely more minute chambers, 
which are smooth and glossy, and not of that frosted appearance the lobata is 
invariably found to be, when examined by a microscope." The author whom 
we have quoted, was inclined to consider the adhesion of these species to co- 
rallines and other bodies as identifying them with the genus Spirorbis. They 
are not (at least the Lobatula vulgaris), however, cemented, but seem to ad- 
here by the intervention of some animal matter. 



Gen. NUMMULITA. — Lenticular, with an internal dis- 
coidal multilocular spire, divided into numerous chambers 
by transverse imperforated septa, and covered by several 
plates, the wall of each turn being complicated, extended 
and united on each side to the other discs. 

1. N. laevigata. — Convex on both sides, and smooth. 

Lamark, Syst. Vert. vii. 629. Park. Org. Rem. iii. 152. t. x. f. 13. — In 
the London Clay, Hubbington Cliff'. 

Gen. VI. VERMICULUM.— Chambers gibbose, the mouth 
alternately at the opposite ends of the axis. 

16. V. hitortura. — Mouth compressed, with a simple tooth 
attached to the proximal side. 

Serpula seminulum, Linn. Syst. i. 1264 — Serp. subovalis umbilico per- 
vio, Walk. Test. Min. t. i. f. 1 — Serp. ovalis, Adams, Linn. Trans, v. 

p. 4. t. i. f. 28, 29, 30.— Ver. in. Mont. Test. Brit. 520 Flem. Wern. 

Mem. iv. 564. t. xv. f. 3 — Common on corallines and old shells. 

Size about ^th of an inch, a little compressed, the external margin sub- 
acute. Three chambers are usually visible on one side, and four on the 
other, slightly striated across with the line of separation distinct. The tooth 
is a triangular thin plate, a little recurved at the tip, and so persistent as 
frequently to remain after the outer side of the chamber has been destroyed. 

17. V. oblongum. — Mouth round, with a pedunculated fork- 
ed tooth. 

Mont. Test. Brit. 522. t. xiv. £ 9. Flem. Wern. Mem. iv. 565. t. xv. f. 4. 
— Common. 

Bather less than the preceding. Three chambers are usually visible on 
one side, and two en the other ; in the former the middle chamber is par- 
tially embraced by the outer ones, so that a shallow depression is formed at 
the outside of the line of junction. On the other side of the shell a similar 



234 MOLLUSCA. CErHALOPODA. Arethusa. 

depression is observable, and produced by the margin of the last chamber 
rising on the side of the second. The chambers are rounded externally. 

18. V. subrotundum. — Mouth depressed, toothless. 

Serpula subrotunda dorso elevato, Walk. Test. Min. t. i. f. 4. — Ver. sub. 
Mont. Test. Brit. 521. Flem. Wern. Mem. iv. 5G5. t. xv. f. 5.— Com- 

mou. 

Globular, chambers three, rarely four, inflated and wrinkled. The fourth 
chamber, when present, seems always imperfectly formed. 

19- V. blcome. — The last formed chamber striated longitudi- 
nally. 

Serpula bicornis ventrieosa, Walk. Test. Min. t. i. f. 2 Ver. bicorne, 

Mont. Test. Brit. 519. — Sandwich and Reculver, Mr Boycs. 

Length one line ; chambers three, the middle one small, raised or depres- 
sed ; the last chamber is suboval, compressed, striated longitudinally on the 
longer side from the aperture ; the other side is smooth : It contracts to- 
wards the mouth, which is very small and orbicular. 

These species belong to the genus Milista of Lamark, instituted many years 
subsequent to the Vermiculum of Montagu. The fossil species of France are 
numerous. 

Gen. VII. ARETHUSA ? {of Montfort). — Cells arranged 
obliquely and alternately along an axis, with the mouths 
of all the chambers having an aspect towards the same 
pole ; forming a subturriculated shell. 

20. A. lactca. — Chambers ovate, aperture circular. 

Serpula tenuis ovalis hevis, Walk. Test. Min. t. i. f. 5 Vermiculum 

lacteum, Mont. Test. Brit. 522. Flem. Wern. Mem. iv. 566. t. xv. 
f. 6. — Among corallines, English and Scotch coasts. 

Length about 5 'uth of an inch, delicately transparent, with the inner walls 
of the chambers appearing as white veins. The chambers are six or seven in 
number, well defined on one side, obscure on the other, contracted towards 
the mouth. Walker and Montagu obtained this species at Sandwich and 
Devon, Captain Laskey at Dunbar, and I have it from Leith and Zetland. 

Gen. VIII. LAGENULA— Shell with a globular body, ha- 
ving a produced neck or tube. 

* With longitudinal markings. 

21. L. striata. — Shell pellucid, with opake, fine, longitudinal 
striae. 

Serpula (Lagena) striata sulcata rotundata, Walk. Test. Min. t. 1. f. 6. 

—Vermiculum striatum, Mont. Test. Brit. 523. — Not uncommon in 

sand on the English shores. 

In shape, this species resembles a Florence flask ; rounded retrally ; the 

mouth is slender and produced, with a small round aperture ; length not 

half a line. 



Oktiiocera. MOLLUSCA. CEPHALOPODA. 235 

22. L. perlucida. — Shell with six equidistant, longitudinal 
ribs. 

Ver. per. Mont. Test. Brit. 525, t. xiv. £ 3.— At Seasalter, Mr Boys. 

Length about j\jth of an inch ; smooth ; rounded retrally with a small 
knob ; aperture very small. 

** With decussating striae. 

23. L. squamosa. — Striae undulated, giving the shell an im- 
bricated appearance. 

Venn, squam. Mont. Test. Brit. 526, t. xiv. f. 4 At Seasalter, Mr 

Boys. 

Shell minute, subglobose, the aperture a little produced. 
*** S in face smooth. 

24. L. ghbosa. — Nearly ovate, the mouth not produced. 

Serp. Lag. laevis globosa, Walk. Test. Min. t. 1. f. 8 Sandwich, rare. 

Shell white, transparent ; the aperture round. 

25. L. l&vis. — Ovate, with a produced cylindrical neck. 

Serp. Lag. laevis ovalis, Walk. Test. t. 1. f. 9 — At Sandwich, rare. 

Bluish-white, transparent ; it differs from the last in its more oblong shape 
and produced mouth. 

26. L. marginata. — Compressed, marginated. 

Serp. Lag. marginata, Walk. Test. Min. t. 1. f. 7 Verm. marg. Mont. 

Test. Brit. 524 — On the English coasts, rare. 

Shell nearly ovate ; the mouth but little produced. In a single speci- 
men, which I found in sand, from Zetland, and which, by accident, was 
broken on the stage of the microscope, appearances of internal plates, the 
partitions of chambers, were indistinctly observed. 

27. L. urna. Globular, with a produced knob retrally. 

Verm, unite, Mont. Test. Brit. 525, t. xiv. £ 1 In sand from Shepey 

Island. 

Length about a line ; slopes suddenly into a short conic neck. 

The place of this genus is far from being satisfactorily determined, and the 
minuteness of the species composing it present great obstacles to an accurate 
examination. 

Gen. IX. ORTHOCERA.— Shell (naked ?) nearly straight, 

the chambers separated by transverse perforated septa. 

a. Recent species. 

* With longitudinal ribs. 

28. O.jugosa. — Subcylindrical, slightly curved, with nume- 
rous longitudinal ribs. 

Nautilus jug. Mont. Test. Brit. 198, t. xiv. f. 4 — On the Kentish coast, 
Mr Boys. 

Length about |th of an inch ; tapering little, chambers globose, nine in 






236 MOLLUSCA. CEPHALOPODA. Oethoceiia. 

number, the first the longest, the last produced into a conical neck, with a 
round aperture. The colour brown. 

29- O. costata. — Subcylindric, straight, with four longitudinal 
ridges. 

N. cos. Mont. Test. Brit. 199, t. xiv. f. 5 — On the Kentish coast, Mr 
Boys. 
Length |th of an inch ; tapering little ; chambers subglobose, twelve in 
number ; the ribs strong ; the neck of the last chamber shorter than in the 
preceding species. A variety is recorded by Mont. ib. Supp. 84, t. xix, f. 2, 
as having only five joints and seven ribs, anteally truncate; retrally termi- 
nating in a [solid produced process. A second variety is likewise noticed at 
the same page, in which the joints are five in number. 

30. O. bicarinata. — Subcylindric, arcuated, the joints bicari- 
nated. 

N. bicar. Mont. Test. Brit. Supp. p. 86 — Sandwich, Mr Boys. 

Length |th of an inch; joints eleven, globose, the ribs on the convex and 
concave sides ; anteally the mouth is produced ; retrally there is a rounded 
point. 

31. O. linearis. — Straight, compressed, the retral half with 
faint oblique ribs. 

N. lin. Mont. Test. Brit. Supp. 87, t. xxx. f. 9 — Dunbar, Capt. Laskey. 

Length Jth of an inch, nearly linear ; the chambers are about fourteen in 
number, the septa oblique ; the anterior end smooth, terminating in a pro- 
duced mouth, the other rounded. 

** With spines or tubercles. 

32. O. spinulosa. — Spines numerous, reflected. 

N. spin. Mont. Test. Brit. Supp. 86, t. xix. f. 5 — Sandwich, Mr Boys. 

Joints three, globose, the last produced to form the mouth. Montagu no- 
tices a variety with eight subglobose joints which are tuberculated, which he 
found in the Boysian cabinet Its length T l 5 th of an inch. 

*** Chambers smooth. 

33. O. recta. — Shell nearly straight, joints transverse, cham- 
bers subcylindric. 

N. rectus, Mont. Test. Brit. 197, t. xix. f. 4. 7 — Sandwich, Mr Boys. 
Form a little tapering, length about T ' 5 th of an inch, with eight or nine 
chambers. 

34. O. radicula. — Shell straight, joints transverse, chambers 
subglobose. 

N. rad. Mont. Test. Brit. 197, t. vi. f. 4, and t. xiv. f. 6 — Sandwich. 
" This species appears to be subject to very considerable variation with 
respect to the extreme joint at each end, as well as in the number. In some 
the aperture is extended to a conic point ; in others it is only a small round 
opening on the extreme articulation, which is globose ; the smaller end, in 
some, is rounded ; in others conic, pointed." 

35. O. subarcitata. — Shell subcylindric, subarcuated, with 



Orthocera. MOLLUSCA. CEPHALOPODA. 237 

three conspicuous globose articulations at the larger end, the 
remaining joints being scarcely visible. 

N. sub. Mont. Test. Brit. 198, t. vi. f. 5 — From Sandwich, Mr Boys. 
Length T T 5 th of an inch ; aperture a small produced syphon. A variety 
was found by Mr Boys " having ten distinct articulations ; the extreme one 
at the smaller end longer than any of the others, except the anterior one, in 
which the aperture is placed." 

36. O. legumen.-— Compressed with oblique septa. 

N. rectus, geniculis depressis, Walk. Test. Min. t. hi. f. 74. N. Fig — 
Mont. Test. Brit. Supp. 82. t. xix. f. G — Coast of Kent and Devon. 

Subarcuated, -J th of an inch, nearly of equal size, ends rounded. The an- 
terior end surrounded by an oblique ridge, above which rises an obtuse sy- 
phon, with a considerable aperture near the concave side. 

How far these species possess claims to continue in the genus Orthocera, 
I have not been able to determine, as, in the course of numerous microscopi- 
cal examinations of shell-sand from different parts of the Scottish coast, I 
have not as yet detected a single individual of any of the species here no- 
ticed. The existence of a continuous syphon would alone entitle them to 
remain in this genus, otherwise they would belong to the genus Nodosaria 
of Lamark, in which genus the three following species might be included, 
though their history is at present involved in considerable obscurity. Their 
multilocular character was first pointed out to me (in the case of the imper- 
forata) by Mr Miller, the learned author of the Treatise on Crinoid Animals. 
At present, however, I shall retain them in the genus Orthocera, and give 
their characters from a single chamber, as the shells, entire, have not as yet 
been met with. 

37. O. imperforata. — Chamber cylindrie, subarcuated, and 

slightly striated transversely. 

Dentale apice imperforata transversaliter substriata, Walk. Test. Min. 
t. i. f. 15 Dentalium imp. Mont. Brit. 49(5 — On the English coasts. 

Length of the chamber |th of an inch ; aperture round, a little contracted 
at the margin, the opposite end closed, truncated and furnished with a small 
protuberance. 

38. O. Trachea. — Chamber subcylindric, and regularly an- 

nulated. 

Dent. Trachea, Mont. Test. Brit. p. 497, t. xiv. f. 10 — On the English 
and Scottish coasts. 

Length about |th of an inch, and the diameter about ^d of its length. Co- 
lour white. Rings regular, close set, sharp in a young specimen, but round- 
ed in a larger one in which those near the mouth are largest, and the whole 
are crossed by obsolete longitudinal ridges. It tapers little. The extremi- 
ty is truncated with a raised acute margin, with a lateral tubercle on the disc, 
the place of the syphon. 

39. O. glabra. — Chamber cylindrical, smooth, and glossy. 

Dent, glabrum, Mont. Test. Brit. 497 — Caecum glabrum, Flem. Edin. 

Encyc. vii. 67, t. cciv. f. 7- — English and Scottish coasts. 

The length of the chamber is about a line, and its diameter about ^th of 

its length. It is cylindrical, smooth, glossy, and transparent, the extremity 

hemispherical and submai'ginated. A variety of this shell, from Zetland, ta- 



238 MOLLUSCA. CEPHALOPODA. Okthocera. 

pers a little to the extremity, which is more obliquely placed than in the 
others, and produced into a blunt knob at the upper margin. The aperture 
is likewise a little contracted. 



b. Extinct species. 
* Surface of the shell smooth. 

1. O. Icevis — Shell conical, partitions waved ; chambers large ; syphon 
small and central. The length of the specimen which I possess is upwards 
of 3 inches. The breadth at the base is T 9 5 ths, and at the apex y^ths. The 
shell is very thin ; chambers about T 2 5 ths of an inch in depth ; partitions 
waved on both sides ; syphon in the middle of the shell about J 5 th of an inch 

wide.— O. superficie laevi, lire's Rutherglen, 30G, t. xvi. f. 3 O. Ivevis, Flem. 

Annals of Phil. v. 201, t. xxxi. f. 1. — In Carboniferous Limestone. 

2. O. pyramidalis — Shell tapering, partitions slightly waved ; chambers 
large, syphon small and central. This is longer in proportion to its breadth 
than the preceding ; the length of one specimen is upwards of indies ; 1 inch 
and T 2 5 ths at the larger end, and T 2 5 ths at the apex ; the last formed chambers 
are nearly t 3 5 ths of an inch in depth, while the oldest, towards the point, are 
scarcely T ' 3 th. A fragment found contiguous measured 2 inches in diameter. 
Flem. An. Phil. v. p. 202, t. xxxi. f. 2. — In Carboniferous Limestone. 

3. O. cylindracea — Nearly cylindrical, partitions slightly waved, chambers 
numerous, pipe minute and central. In a specimen 3|th inches in length, 
T 4 5 ths at the base, and , 3 th of an inch at the apex, the chambers are scarcely 
, l 5 th in depth. When the shell is removed, the chambers appear very dis- 
tinct, with a flat surface — Flem. An. Phil- v. p. 202, t. xxxi. f. 3 In Carbo- 
niferous Limestone and Slate-clay of the coal-field. 

4. O. convexa Nearly cylindrical, partitions thin and concave ; syphon 

large and lateral. In a specimen 4J inches long, the diameter at the base 
was l£th, and at the apex , 8 n ths. The lower chambers are about itfi of an 
inch in depth. The syphon is about i 3 ths of an inch wide, and placed about 
midway between the centre and margin — Flem. An. Phil. v. p. 202. t. xxxi. 
f.4. O. circularis, Sower. Min. Conch, t. 60. f. 0. 7- ? — In Carboniferous Limestone. 

5. O. attenuata. — Tapering, partitions nearly circular; chambers large. 
The shell of this species in one specimen is very thin, transparent, and glos- 
sy, and in some places is minutely striated across. Another specimen ^ths 

long, |th at the base, and j'gth at the apex, contains fifteen chambers In 

Slate-clay of the coal-field. 

G. O. Breynii — Conical, partitions waved on the syphon side ; the syphon 
itself is lateral, small, and cylindrical. — Martin, Pet. Derb. t. 39, f. 4. Sower. 
Min. Conch, t. 00. f. 5. — Carboniferous Limestone. 

7. O. undulata — Shell oval, thin, smooth ; partitions numerous, oblique, 
their edges rising, oval, with a wave on each side ; syphon lateral.— In Carbo- 
niferous Limestone. 

8. O. conica. — Shell long, conical, aperture oval ; chambers numerous ; sy- 
phon small, oval, nearly touching the margin. — Sower. Min. Conch, t. lx. f. 1, 
2, 3 In Lias. In the Geology of England and Wales, p. 208, this is con- 
sidered as the alveolus of a Belemnite. 

9. O. cordiformis. — " Obconical ; base contracted ; sides convex ; aperture 
round ;" septa numerous, placed directly across ; syphon not quite in the 
centre, the tube of which is inflated into a globular form between each sep- 
tum. — Sower. Min. Conch, t. ccxlvii — In Limestone of the Old Red Sand- 
stone, Closeburn, Dumfriesshire. 

2 



Okthocera. MOLLUSCA. CEPHALOPODA. 239 

** Striated transversely. 

10. O. striata. — Nearly cylindrical, septa numerous, deep ; syphon nearly 
central ; surface regularly striated transversely. — Sower. M in. Conch, t. lvii'i. 
Flem. Wem. Mem. iii. 90. — Transition Limestone, Cork. In the clay-slate of 
the same formation, at the Cove of Cork, another species occurs, the charac- 
ters of which are not established. 

1 1. O. Steinhaueri — Tapering ; chambers deep, partitions distant, even 
edged, circular ; syphon close to one side ; striae of the surface regular and 
even — Sower. M in. Conch, lx. f. 4. — In Carboniferous Limestone. 

12. O. gigantea — Shell gradually tapering, finely striated, aperture up- 
wards of 8 inches in diameter ; septa direct, numerous, deep ; syphon a small 
distance from the centre — Sower. Min. Conch, t. ccxlvi. — In limestone of 
the Old Red Sandstone, Dumfriesshire. 

*** Surface with transverse ridges. 

13. O. sulcata — Shell tapering ; ridges waved and striated ; syphon small, 
central. The length of one specimen is 2 inches and , 6 ths, diameter at 
the base T ' 3 ths, and at the apex T 9 5 ths. It contains thirty-one ridges, which 
are twice waved in going round the shell : both the ridges and intervening 
grooves are finely striated — lire's Ruth. 300, t. xvi. f. 2. Flem. An. Phil. v. 
202, t. xxxi. 6. — In slate-clay of the Coal Formation. 

14. O. undata — Shell tapering, ridges waved and smooth ; pipe small, cen- 
tral. In a specimen 1 inch and , 2 ths in length, it is , 7 ths in diameter at 
the base, and upwards of T * s tha at the apex ; witli eleven ridges, more deep- 
ly waved, and less numerous than the preceding. There is the appearance 
of an epidermis of a black colour, and obscurely striated ; where the shell is 
exposed, both the ridges and the grooves are perfectly smooth. An imper- 
fect specimen of an Eschara adheres to the shell — Flem. An. Phil. v. 203 

In slate-clay of the Coal Formation. 

15. O. annularis.— Subcylindrical ; ridges distant, nearly even and smooth. 
The largest portion of the shell which I possess is about ] inch in length, 
and upwards of T 3 5 ths in diameter ; ridges nearly ^th distant ; more obtuse 
than the preceding, with at least two chambers in the interval.— Flem. Ann. 
Phil. v. 203.— In Carboniferous Limestone. 

10. O. annulata.— Tapering, subcompressed, with strong, waved, slightly 
oblique ridges, and intervening strife : syphon sublateral ; a space near the 
aperture without ridges.— Sower. Min. Con. t. cxxxiii.— Carboniferous Lime- 
stone, Colebrookedale. 

17- Q.rugosa. — Subcylindrical; ridges waved, and tuberculated with longi- 
tudinal lines ; syphon minute, and placed close to the edge. The length of a 
specimen which I possess is 1 J inch ; the diameter T G 5 ths ; the ridges are T 2 a ths 
asunder, and contain two chambers in the interval.— Flem. Ann. Phil. v. 203. 
—In Carboniferous Limestone. 

**** With longitudinal planes or furrows. 

18. O. Gesneri — Conical, with numerous longitudinal furrows, regularly 
concave and close.— Mart. Pet. Derb. t. 38. f, 1, 2 — In Carboniferous Lime- 
stone, Derbyshire. 

17- O. angularis.— Nearly cylindrical, angular, with about 16 smooth lon- 
gitudinal planes ; syphon small and lateral. I possess about half an inch of 
this shell, which is nearly of equal thickness, scarcely exceeding the tenth of 

an inch in diameter Flem. Ann. Phil. v. 203. t. xv. f. 10 — In Carboniferous 

Limestone. 



240 MOLLUSCA. CEPHALOPODA. Conularia. 

Gen. BELEMNITA. — Apex solid, having a conical cavity 
towards the base occupied by a shell divided transversely in- 
to chambers, with a syphon. 

1. B. fusiformis — A receptacle for the alveolus exists towards the base in 
the form of a cone, from the point of which the body of the fossil again swells, 
and continues of a compressed roundish shape, with a longitudinal sulcus for 
an inch or two, when it terminates with a tapering point Parkinson's Or- 
ganic Remains, iii. 127- t. viii. f. 13 — In Lower Oolite, Stonesfield, Oxford. 

2. B. Listen. — Subfusiform, cylindrical, with one longitudinal sulcus, apex 
pointed. Siphunculus central, extending through the alveolus to the apex 
of the spathose part. — B- min. List. An. Ang. 227, f- 32. B. List. Mant. 
Fossils, 88, t. xix. f. 17, 18. 23.— In Chalk.Marl. 

3. B. coniformis — Conical or produced, pointed, with one or more longitu- 
dinal grooves Park. Or. Rem. iii. 127- t. viii. f. 15. — In Lias. 

4. B. Allani Nearly cylindrical, the apex conical, with a slender produced 

point. Alveolus conical, pointed, the point sublateral — Belemnite, Allan, 
Edin. Trans, ix. p. 407- t. xxv. Mant. Fossils, 201, t. xvi. f. 1 In Chalk. 

Many species, not yet determined, occur in the chalk lias, and interme- 
diate beds. i 

Gen. CONULARIA. — Conical, hollow, divided into chambers 
by partitions destitute of a syphon ; mouth half closed. 

1. C. quadrisuleata. — Four-sided, straight, transversely sidcated, and longi- 
tudinally striated ; the four angles sulcated. In the centre of each side, the 
sulci are bent, the spaces between these form very narrow ridges, and the 
longitudinal stride are most conspicuous within the hollows. Two of the op- 
posite are longer than the others. A curious fossil — lire's Ruth. 330. t. xx. f. 7. 
— Con. quad. Sower. Min. Con. t. ccxl. f. 3, 4, 5, 6. — Carboniferous Limestone. 

2. C. teres — Conical, round, slightly bent, transversely striated, a smooth 
space near the apex ; striae irregular, as well as the curvature ; the general 
form approaches towards cylindrical, but the smooth part near the apex is 
more conical — Soicer. Min. Conch, t. cclx. f. 12 In Carboniferous limestone. 

Gen. AMMONITA. — Sides equal, whorls contiguous and ap- 
parent. 

* Surface of the whorls smooth. 

1. A. Henslowi Discoid, sides flat, front rounded ; whorls 4, exposed ; par- 
titions with three entire tongue-shaped lobes on each side ; aperture obovate. 
Sower. Min. Conch, t. cclxii In Transition Limeston ? Scarlet,Isle of Man. 

** Surface striated or ribbed. 

2. A. acuta Depressed, whorls 3 or 4, the inner ones half exposed ; sur- 
face with straight projecting radii on the inner half of each whorl; the mar- 
gin slightly carinated, and crenated ; aperture triangularly cordate — Sower. 
Min. Conch, t. xvii. f. 1 — In the London Clay at Minister Cliff. 

3. A. cordata Depressed, whorls 4 or 5, the inner ones half exposed ; sur- 
face with angular, projecting, undulating radii, extending over the inner 
half of each whorl, the remaining half covered by diverging undulations, end- 

4 



Ammonita. MOLLUSCA. CEPHALOPODA. 241 

ing in a carinated margin ; aperture cordate. — In limestone of the Upper 
Oolite, at Shotover, Oxfordshire. 

4. A. quadrala — Depressed, whorls 4 or 5, the inner ones half concealed ; 
surface with projecting, furcate, undulating radii, extending into a crenated 
margin ; aperture obtusely square.— Sower. Min. Conch, t. xvii. f. 3. — In a 
gravel-pit, Suffolk. 

5. A. serrata — Depressed, whorls 5, the inner ones two-thirds concealed ; 
surface radiated and undulated near the circumference, keel distinct, nearly 
cylindrical, with a concavity in the shell on each side, sharply crenated, con- 
taining the siphunculus ; apertures narrow, five-angled. — Sower. Min. Conch. 
xxiv — At Worlinghame. 

6. A. Mantelli — Depressed, whorls 3 or 4, two-thirds concealed, edge three 
sided, broad and flattish ; sides flattish, ridges alternately entire, and extend- 
ing only about two-thirds across the whorl ; the outer edges of the partitions 
have five principal folds ; aperture obscurely six-sided. — Sower. Min. Conch, 
t. lv — In Chalk Marl, Ringmer, Sussex. 

7- A . planicosta — Depressed, whorls C, exposed, with transverse, obtuse 
ribs, flattened in front ; mouth circular, slightly indented by the preceding 
whorl — Sower. Min. Conch, t. lxxiii. — In Chalk Marl, and Lias? 

8. A. jugosa. — Depressed, keeled, whorls 4, half concealed, with regular, 
straight, transverse, obtuse ribs ; aperture ovate, narrowest at the front. — 
Sower. Min. Conch, f. xcii. f. 1. — In the Inferior Oolite, Ilminster. 

9. A. triplicata. — Whorls 4, exposed, ribs twice curved, alternately one 
long and three short ; a smooth line along the front ; aperture obovate. — Sower. 
Min. Conch, t. xcii. f. 2. — Upper Oolite, Portland Isle. 

10. A.elliptica — Depressed, keeled, inner whorls two-thirds exposed; ridges 
broad, slightly curved, tew, and obscure near the margin ; aperture acutely 
elliptical ; keel sharp — Sower. Min. Conch, t. xcii. f. 4. — In Lias, Char- 
mouth. 

11. A. stellaris. — Depressed, with a groove on each side of an obtuse keel ; 
whorls four, flattish on the sides, about two-thirds exposed ; ribs numerous, 
straight, two of which cross each partition ; syphon in the keel ; aperture 
longer than wide. Surface with obscure, distant, decussating strise. — Sower. 
Min. Conch, t. xciii — In Lias at Lime. 

12. A. elegans — Depressed, acutely keeled, whorls 3, the inner ones two- 
thirds concealed ; ribs numerous, equal, twice curved ; keel distinct, entire, 
aperture acutely triangular, the inner angles truncate. — Sower. Min. Conch, 
t. xciv. upper figure. — Inferior Oolite, Ilminster. 

13. A. concava. — Depressed, keeled, whorls 4, two-thirds concealed, a large 
central cavity, ribs numerous, curved, unequal in length, obsolete near the 
centre ; keel sharp, entire ; aperture acutely triangular, external angle round- 
ed, internal angles obliquely truncate — Sower. Min. Conch, t. xciv. lowest 
figure. — Inferior Oolite, Ilminster. A. t. clxvL this species is said to occur 
likewise in the Middle Oolite at Dry Sandford, Berkshire. 

14. A. splendens Depressed, front flat, with crenulated edges ; whorls 3, 

quickly diminishing, three-fourths concealed ; sides flat ; ribs alternately 

long and short; aperture long, narrow in front Sower. Min. Conch, t. 103. 

—Chalk Marl, Folkestone. 

15. A. Callovicensis. — Depressed, subumbilicate ; whorls 5, three-fourths con- 
cealed ; front flat, ribs small, numerous, alternately one long and from two 
to five short ; aperture orbicular when young, deltoid, with the angles trun- 
cated when old Sower. Min. Conch, t. 104 Middle Oolite, Kellaways 

Bridge. 

VOL. I. d 



242 MOLLUSCA. CEPHALOPODA. Ammonita. 

16. A. excavata.— -Lenticular, subumbilicate, keel sharp, crenulated; whorls 
C, in full-grown shells three -fourths concealed; ribs curved, obscure ; aper- 
ture sagittate, the inner angles truncated — Sower. Min. Conch, t. 105 In 

Middle Oolite, Shotover, Oxford. 

17- A. Walcottii. — Depressed, whorls 4, three-fourths exposed, with a con- 
centric smooth furrow along the inner margin ; the keel with lateral furrows; 
sides flattish, with obscure lunate ribs ; aperture oblong — Sower. Min. Conch, 
t. 106 In Lias. 

18. A. angulata. — Whorls 6, exposed, with an inner marginal groove ; 'ribs 
prominent, divided over the rounded front — Sower. Min. Conch, t. 107. f. 1. 
— In Lias, Whitby. 

19. A. communis. — Whorls 6, exposed, rounded, ribs prominent, divided and 
anastomosing on the outer margin ; aperture circular. — Sower. Min. Conch. 
t. 107- f. 2, 3 In Lids, Whitby. 

20. A. Nutfaldiensis — Whorls 4, half concealed, front rounded ; ribs nu- 
merous, prominent, rounded, with short intermediate ones on the front ; par- 
titions numerous ; aperture cordate — Sower. Min. Conch, t. cviii — In Green 
Sand. 

21. A. gigantea Depressed, whorls 5, exposed ribs rounded, alternately 

entire and short, sometimes bifurcated ; aperture ovate. Sometimes 2 feet 
and upwards in diameter. — List. Conch, t. 1046. Sower. Min. Conch, t. cxxvi. 
— Upper Oolite, Wilts. 

22. A. Bucklandi Depressed, whorls 5, exposed, back flattish, with two- 
concentric grooves, and an intermediate keel ; ribs large, obtuse, swollen to- 
wards the back ; aperture quadrate — Sower. Min. Couch, t. cxxx — In Lias, 
Bath. 

23. A. Conybeari Depressed, whorls 8, exposed, keel large, with a shal- 
low groove on each side ; ribs large, rounded ; aperture oblong — Sower. Min. 
Conch, t. cxxxi — In Lias, Bath. 

24. A. Greenoughi — Depressed, whorls 4, two-thirds concealed, obscurely 
undulated, back rounded ; chambers numerous ; aperture elliptical, deeply 
indented by the preceding whorl. — Sower. Min. Conch, t. cxxxii.-c-In Lias, 
Bath. 

25. A.fimbriata — Whorls cylindrical, exposed ; lines of growth obtuse or 
acute, undulated or fimbriated ; shell thin, margins of the septa with rounded 
lobes ; mouth orbicular — Sower. Min. Conch, t.'clxiv — In Lias at Lyme Regis. 

26. A. plicatilis. — Whorls 6, exposed, sides flat, front round, plain in the 
centre ; ribs numerous, equal, straight, furcate ; septa acutely sinuated ; 

aperture squarish, with rounded angles — Sower. Min. Conch, t. clxvi In 

Middle Oolite, Berkshire. 

27- A. obtnsa. — Whorls 4, exposed ; front with two slight furrows and an 

obtuse keel ; ribs large, curved, sharpest in the middle ; aperture oblong 

Sower. Min. Conch, t. clxvii — In Lias, Lyme Regis. 

28. A. Brackenridgii — Depressed, front rounded, whorls 3, exposed ; ribs 
prominent, numerous, sharp and furcate ; lip expanded into two oblong lobes. 
— Sower. Min. Conch, t. clxxxiv. — Under Oolite, near Bristol. 

29. A. Brooki Whorls 4 or 5, the inner ones half exposed, depressed, ca- 

rinated, with a sulcus on each side the keel, ribs strong, simple, arched ; aper- 
ture oblong Sower. Min. Conch, t. cxc. — In Lias at Lyme. 

30. A. Stokesi — Lenticular, depressed ; inner whorls half exposed, keel 
crenated, ribs broad, undulated, and slightly elevated ; aperture sagittate. — 
Soieer. Min. Conch, t. cxci. — Under Oolite, Dorset. 



Ammonita. MOLLUSCA. CEPHALOPODA. 243 

31. A. Herveyi — Gibbose, the inner whorl two-thirds concealed ; ribs nu- 
merous, sharp, bi- or tri- furcated ; aperture lunate, with obtuse angles. 

Sower. Min. Conch, t. cxcv — Under Oolite, near Spalden. 

32. A. Brocchii — Compressed, sides hollow ; whorls 3 or 4, half concealed, 

very round, front circular, with many obtuse ridges ; aperture lunate Sower. 

Min. Conch, t. ccii Under Oolite. 

33. A. annulata — Depressed, whorls 5 to 7, exposed, rounded ; ribs nu- 
merous, prominent, divided on the front ; aperture roundish Sower. Min. 

Conch, t. ccxxii — In Lias. 

34. A. Lamberti — Depressed, inner whorls partly concealed, front sharp 
and crenated ; ribs strong, obtuse, bent over the front, alternately long and 
short, rarely furcate; aperture lanceolate, short — Sower. Min. Conch, t. ccxlii. 
f. 1, 2, 3 — Upper Oolite, Weymouth. 

35. A. Leachii — Depressed ; inner whorls half concealed ; front sharp and 
crenated; ribs undulated, curved over the front, often furcate; aperture 
ovate ; like the preceding, but more gibbous, with fewer and more promi- 
nent ribs — Sower. Min. Conch, t. cclxii. f. 4 Upper Oolite, Weymouth. 

36. A. omphaloides.— Gibbose, whorls increasing rapidly, inner ones half 
concealed, front rounded, broad ; ribs prominent, waved, bent forward in the 

middle of the front, generally furcated ; aperture transversely oblong Soiver. 

Min. Conch, t. ccxlii. f. 5 Upper Oolite, Weymouth. 

37- A. Strangewaysi — Discoid ; whorls 5, exposed, margin flattened, cari- 
nated ; inner edges of the whorls obliquely flattened ; sides nearly flat, wich 

an obscure concentric furrow ; ribs twice furrowed ; aperture oblong Sower. 

Min. Conch, t. ccliv. f. 1, 2, 3 — Under Oolite, Ilminster. 

38. A. falcifer. — Discoid ; inner whorls half exposed, margin convex, cari. 
nated ; inner edge of the turns elevated and obtuse ; ribs numerous, curved, 
and suddenly bent in the middle ; aperture elliptical — Sower. Min. Conch, 
t. ccliv. f. 2 — Under Oolite, Ilminster. 

39. A. Goodhalli — Discoid, carinated ; both edges of the whorls gradually 
rounded ; sides nearly flat ; inner whorls two-thirds exposed ; ribs large, un- 
dulated, irregular, obscurely tuberculated at each end ; keel very prominent, 
thin ; aperture oblong — Sower. Min. Conch, t. cclv In Green Sand, Black- 
down, Devonshire. 

40. A. Karnigi — Discoid, convex, margin rounded, whorls 6, half exposed, 
marginal undulations numerous ; central undulations few, very prominent ; 

aperture cordate, elongated — Sower. Min. Conch, t. cclxiii. f. 1, 2,3 Middle 

Oolite, Kelloway. 

41. A. triplicata — Discoid, whorls 5, exposed, with two or three oblique 
contractions ; ribs straight, large, each divided into three as it passes over 
the rounded front ; aperture suborbicular — Sower. Min. Conch, t. ccxcii. 
ccxciii. f. 4 — Middle Oolite. 

42. A. biplex — Discoid, whorls 5, exposed, ribs numerous, small, obtuse, 
split over the rounded front; aperture oblong.— Sower. Min. Conch, t. ccxciii. 
f. 1, 2 — In Clay, but the formation unknown. 

43. A. rotunda — Discoid, ribs thick, numerous, split over the front, sides 
subventricose ; aperture orbicular — Sower. Min. Conch, t. ccxciii. f. 3.— 
Upper Oolite. 

44. A. decipiens — Discoid, depressed, whorls 5, exposed, rounded on the 
front, ribs large and few on the sides, numerous and small on the front ; aper- 
ture orbicular.._5owcr. Min. Conch, t. ccxciv.— In Clay, but the formation 
unknown. 

<*2 



C 2U MOLLUSCA. CEPHALOPODA. Ammonita. 

45. A. Parkinsoni Wiorls numerous, exposed ; ribs numerous, elevated, 

slightly arched, bifid near the front, which is very narrow, and plain ; aper- 
ture oblong. — Sower. Min. Conch, t. cccvii. — In Lias, Bath. 

46. A. dentata. — Whorls increasing rapidly, inner ones much concealed, 
umbilicate, front squace ; ribs prominent, and forked near their commence- 
ment, terminating upon the edges of the front. — A. serratus {Parkinson, 
Trans. Geol. v. 57-) Sower. Min. Conch, t. cccviii — Chalk-Marl. 

47. A. perampla Discoid, whorls 4, half concealed, ventricose, front 

rounded, plain ; ribs few, large, obtuse ; aperture transversely oval. — Man- 
teWs Fossils of the South Downs, p. 200. — Sower. Min. Conch, t. ccclvii. — In 
Chalk, South Downs. 

48. A. Lewesiensis. — Whorls rapidly increasing in size, depressed, the inner 
ones half exposed ; ribs large and obtuse ; front narrow, rounded, plain ; 
aperture sagittate. — MantelPs Fossils, p. 199. t. 22. f. 2 — Sower. Min. Conch, 
t. ccclviii. — In Chalk, Lewes. 

49. A. plicomphala. — Discoid, umbilicate, with eight or ten diverging sharp 
ridges, extending over a part of the sides ; front rounded, plain ; aperture 
ovate. In the young state, the front is ti'ansversely furrowed — Sower. Min. 
Conch, ccclix. and cccciv — In Sandstone (Middle Oolite ?) Bolingbroke, Lin- 
colnshire. 

50. A. Smithii Depressed, ribbed and keeled ; inner whorls few, almost 

wholly exposed ; ribs slightly curved ; keel obtuse ; sides flattened ; aperture 
oblonir. — Sower. Min. Conch, t. ccccvi. — In Chalk Marl. 

51. A. striatula. — Discoid, carinated, radiated ; sides of the whorls convex ; 
the inner whorls exposed ; radii numerous, slender, undulated ; surface co- 
vered with minute stria?, parallel to the radii ; aperture elliptical — Sower. 
Min. Conch, t. ccccxxi. f. 1 In Marly Limestone, Scarborough. 

52. A. sulradiata. — Lenticular, umbilicated, carinated, and radiated ; radii 
twice curved, obscure, excepting near the margin, where they are bifid ; 
umbilicus small ; keel entire ; aperture sagittate. — Sower. Min. Conch, 
ccccxxi. f. 2 — Oolite, between Bath and Bristol. 

53. A. parva. — Discoid; surface marked with diverging, undulating, stria?; 
inner whorls exposed ; front rounded : aperture oval — Sower. Min. Conch. 
t. ccccxlix. f. 2 Tunbridge. 

54. A. Iceviuscula. — Discoid, carinated, umbilicated, obscurely radiated ; ca- 
rina distinct ; radii waved, alternately long and short, slightly elevated ; um- 
bilicus small, exposing part ot the inner whorls ; aperture sagittate. — Sou-er. 
Min. Conch, t. ccccli. f. 1. 2 — In Oolite, Dundry. 

55. A. corrugata. — Discoid, carinated and umbilicated, strongly radiated ; 
carina distinct ; radii waved, sometimes furcated, elevated ; umbilicus broad, 
exposing parts of the inner whorls ; aperture obovate ; front obtuse. — Sower. 
Min. Conch, t. ccccli. f. 3. — In Oolite, Dundry. 

56. A. Turneri — Depressed, radiated, carinated, a furrow on each side of 
the keel ; inner whorls exposed ; radii numerous, equal, curved towards the 
front ; aperture oblong, quadrangular. — Sower. Min. Conch, t. cccclii. — In 
Lias, Wymondham Abbey and Walchet. 

*** Whorls knobbed. 

57. A. nodosa — Depressed, keeled, ribs straight for two-thirds of their 
length, then rising into a small knob, from which they extend towards the 
keel, curving upwards, rather distant, with a gentle concavity between them; 



Ammonita. MOLLUSCA. CEPHALOPODA. 245 

keel broad, obscure, crenulated within. — Sower. Min. Conch, t. xcii. f. 5.— In 
clay, Middle Oolite, Scarborough. 

58. A. Una. — Depressed, keeled, whorls 4, the inner ones two-thirds ex- 
posed ; ribs diverging in pairs from round tubercles, swelling and then turn- 
ing up towards the front, and disappearing ; aperture oblong rectangular, the 
angles rounded. — Sower. Min. Conch, t. xcii. f. 3 — Plastic Clay, Bramerton 
Norfolk. 

59. A. armata. — Whorls 6, exposed, with many annular undulations, arm- 
ed with two rows of large conical short furrowed spines ; aperture obscurely 
four sided — Sower. Min. Conch, t. xcv In Lias, Whitby. 

60. A. monilis.— Whorls 4, exposed, subumbilicate, the outer margin rather 
depressed ; ribs tuberculated, striated ; aperture transversely ovate. — Sower. 
Min. Conch, t. cxvii. — Green Sand, Folkstone. 

61. A. aurita — Depressed, whorls 5, exposed, with obscure radiating un- 
dulations, tuberculated at their origin ; back deeply channelled, bordered by 
large alternating compressed tubercles. — Sower. Min. Conch, t. cxxxiv. — In 
Green Sand. 

62. A. Duncani — Depressed, inner whorls partly exposed ; edge flat, bound- 
ed by two rows of tubercles ; ribs numerous, undulated, irregularly furcate ; 

aperture ovato-sagittate Sower. Min. Conch, t. clvii In the clay of the 

Middle Oolite. 

63. A. vertelralis — Whorls 4, inner ones partly concealed, carinated ; ribs 
numerous, prominent, tuberculate in the middle, then furcate, with a tuber- 
cle on each branch ; keel serrato-tuberculate ; aperture orbiculate Sower. 

Min. Conch, t. clxv — In Middle Oolite, near Abingdon, Berkshire. 

64. A. Henleyi — Whorls few, increasing rapidly, the inner ones exposed ; 
ribs numerous, with two compressed tubercles upon each ; the ribs usually 
divided from the outer tubercle ; aperture large, slightly round. — Sower. Min. 
Conch, t. clxxiii. — In Lias, Dorsetshire. 

65. A. rostrata — Shell depressed, carinated ; whorls 4, exposed ; ribs large, 
obtuse, with three or four tubercles, largest in front ; aperture elliptical, with 
a compressed reflected beak — Sower. Min. Conch, t. clxxiii — In Chalk Marl, 
Oxfordshire. 

66. A. varians — Depressed, carinated, whorls 3, half exposed; a row of 
large tubercles near the front, and one or two rows of lesser tubercles placed 
upon furcate radiating undulations — Sower. Min. Conch, t. clxxvi. — In Chalk 
Marl. 

67- A. i/i./?«ta.— Depressed, inner whorls exposed, carinated, sides and front 
flattish ; ribs commencing with a compressed tubercle, then furcate ; keel 
distinct ; aperture square. — Sower. Min. Conch, t. clxxviii — In Green Sand, 
Isle of Wight. 

68. A. rustica. — Depressed ; whorls 3 ; gibbose, exposed, with 6 or 8 conical 
tubercles upon the sides of each, and two rows of obtuse tubercles around the 
front, which is flat ; aperture quadrangular. — Sower. Min. Conch, t. clxxvii. 
— In the Lower Chalk, near Lyme. 

69. A. Banksii Whorls 5, exposed, sides concave, largely tuberculated ; 

front fluted, slightly convex ; aperture transverse, almost three times as long- 
as wide — Soiver. Min. Conch, t. cc Under Oolite. 

70. A. Blagdeni. — Subcylindrical, obtusely fluted, umbilicate; umbilicus 
reaching to the margin, conical, with large radii, terminating upon the edge 



246 MOLLUSCA. CEPHALOPODA. Ammonita. 

in a tubercle ; apertures transverse, quadrangular, three times as wide as 
long. — Sotver. Min. Conch, t. cci. (indistinct.) — Under Oolite. 

71. A. Sowerbii — Discoid, carinated, whorls 4, inner ones half concealed, 
about eight spiniform tubercles upon each whorl 5 keel round, entire ; aper- 
ture elliptical. Var. a. aperture circular ; keel sometimes impressed Sower. 

Min. Conch, t. ccxiii Under Oolite. 

72. A. Brownii. — Discoid, inner whorls half exposed, with large tubercles 
on each side ; marginal undulations many, central ones few, rising into tu- 
bercles ; front rounded Avith a distinct keel ; aperture cordate Sower. Min. 

Conch, t. cclxiii. f. 4, 5. — Under Oolite, Dundry. 

73. A. Birchi. — Discoid, whorls 6, exposed, increasing gradually, sides con- 
cave, front rounded, transversely and obscurely sulcated ; two involuted rows 
of spiniform tubercles ; aperture transverse. — Sower. Min. Conch, t. cclxvii. 
— In Lias at Lyme. 

74. A. lauta — Discoid, inner whorls half concealed ; front narroAV, slightly 
concave; principal ribs slender, varicose or tuberculated near their com- 
mencement, shorter ribs alternating, united in pairs, to form compressed tu- 
bercles upon the edges of the front. — {Park. Trans. Geol. v. 58.) Sower. Min. 
Conch, cccix. — Mant. Suss. 91. t. xxi. f. 11. — Chalk Marl. 

75. A. tuberculata Whorls gibbose, half concealed ; front rather flat ; ribs 

arising in threes from large round tubercles, and uniting in pairs to form 
large compressed tubercles upon each edge of the front ; aperture suborbicu- 
lar — Sower. Min. Conch, t. cccx. f. 1, 2, 3 Chalk Marl. 

76. A. proboscidea — Whorls ventricose, partly concealed ; front concave, tu- 
bercles upon the sides of the last whorl, and both edges of the front subcylin- 
drical; aperture orbicular. — Sower. Min. Conch, t. cccx. f. 4, 5 — Chalk Marl. 

77- A. Gulielmii. — Lenticular, with a narrow front; whorls exposed; ribs 
dissimilar, terminating in small tubercles, principal ribs furnished with two 
tubercles near their commencement ; aperture elliptical — Sower. Min. Conch: 
t. ccxi. — Middle Oolite. 

78. A. Davaisi — Whorls exposed ; sides nearly fiat, with numerous ribs, 
and a few distant obtuse tubercles, each tubercle connected with about 4 sul- 
ci; aperture nearly orbicular — Sower. Min, Conch, t. cccl. — In Lias, Dorset- 
shire. 

79. A. Brodicei — Largely umbilicate, gibbose; ribs radiating, large, nu- 
merous, terminating on the sides of the whorls by obtuse tubercles, front 
rounded, plicated ; aperture transversely oblong, curved. — Sower. Min. Conch, 
t. cccli Under Oolite. 

80. A. perarmata Depressed, whorls exposed ; front rounded, armed 

with two concentric rows of large pointed tubercles, connected by obtuse 
ridges; aperture nearly orbicular — Sower. Min. Conch, t. ccclii — Under 
Oolite. 

81. A. mutabilis Depressed ; outer whorls compressed, plain and smooth ; 

inner whorls two-thirds exposed, tuberculated, plicated; plicae interrupted 
over the front ; aperture ovato-sagittate. — In the young state the front is 

flattened Sower. Min. Conch, ccccv. — In Clunch Clay of the Middle Oolite 

near Horn Castle. 

82. A. subarmata Depressed, concave, ribbed, inner whorls almost wholly 

exposed ; ribs curved, often united in pairs by smooth spines ; aperture trans- 
versely oblong, arched; the spines disappear on'tlie last whorl — (Young and 
Bird's Geol. of York. 250. t. 13. f. 3.) Sower. Min. Conch, t. ccccvii. f. 1 — 
Lias, Whitby. 



Ammonita. MOLLUSCA. CEPHALOPODA. 247 

83. A- fibulata. — Depressed, ribbed ; inner whorls almost wholly exposed, 
sides of the whorls flattened, their inner margins plain ; ribs numerous, unit- 
ed in pairs by smooth solid spines. — Sower. Min. Conch, t. ccccvi. f. 2 — In 
Lias at Whitby. 

84. A. catena Depressed, furnished with two rows of short tubercles up- 
on each side ; whorls C or 8, smooth, with flat sides, the inner ones exposed ; 
front rather convex; aperture square. — Sower. Min. Conch, t. ccccxx. — 
Middle Oolite, near Abingdon, Berkshire. 

85. A. cristata Lenticular flattened ; carinated ; keel thin, deeply notch- 
ed; inner whorls concealed — Sower. Min. Conch, t. ccccxxi. f. 3. — Middle 
Oolite, Weymouth. 

86. A. Johnstoni Discoid ; whorls 6 or 8, two-thirds exposed, with nu- 
merous short straight costae upon the exposed parts ; front plain — Sower. 
Min. Conch, t. ceccxlix. f. i. — In Lias at Watchet. 

87- A. varicosa Depressed, costated ; inner volutions exposed ; carinated 

when young, and furnished with an irregular row of tubercles upon the in- 
ner edges of the whorls ; costse curved, large, obtuse, in old shells crossing 
the front ; carina distinct ; aperture oblong. — Sower. Min. Conch, t. ccccli. f. 
4, 5. — Sandstone, Blackdown. 

88. A. rotiformis. — Depressed, ribbed, carinated, a furrow upon each side of 
the keel; inner whorls exposed, many ; ribs many, strong, each terminating 
in a tubercle ; aperture nearly square. — Sower. Min. Conch, t, ccccliii. 

89. A. multicostata. — Depressed, costated, carinated, a furrow on each side of 
the keel ; inner whorls exposed, few ; ribs strong, sharp, numerous, with a 
tubercle near the end of each ; aperture oblong, — Sotver. Min. Conch, t. ccccliv. 
— In Lias, near Bath. 

90. A. Humphries iana — Discoid, thick, radiated; inner whorls exposed; front 
rounded ; radii large, numerous, rising into a tubercle on each side the whorl, 
where they branch into three ; aperture arched, oblong. Sower. Min. Conch, 
t. D. f. I. — Inferior Oolite, Sherborne. 

91. A. contractu. — Subglobose, umbilicated, radiated ; radii rising into tuber- 
cles upon the border of the umbilicus, there dividing into three or four branches 
that pass over the much rounded front ; aperture oblong, arched ; inner whorls 
almost concealed. — Sower. Min. Conch, d. f. 2. Dundry, 

92. A. Listeri. — Subdiscoid ; inner whorls partly concealed ; front convex, 
broad, crossed by numerous small ribs ; sides inversely conical, ribbed ; ribs 

terminated by tubercles.— Mart. Pet. Derb. t. xxxv. f. 3 Sower. Min. Conch. 

Dr. f. 1. — Carboniferous Limestone. 

93. A. longispina. — Discoid, thick, with two concentric rows of spines upon 
each side ; whorls few, half exposed ; front round. — Sower. Min. Conch, t. m. 
f. 2 Weymouth. 

94. A. Taylori. — rDiscoid, radiated ; inner whorl exposed; radii about 12, with 
one large spiniform tubercle upon each side of the front, and one or two slight 
elevations on the rounded sides of the whorls ; aperture nearly round — Sower. 
Min. Conch, t. D. xiv. f. 1.— In clay, Happisburg Cliff. 

95. A. hippocastanum — Gibbose, umbilicated, radiated, spinose ; inner whorls 
almost concealed ; radii ten or more, unequal, much elevated, each furnished 
with three tubercles upon the front, and most of them with two obtuse spines 
upon each side; aperture transversely ovate.— (Sower. Min. Conch, t. pxiv. 
f. 2— In chalk, Dowlands. 



248 MOLLUSCA. CEPHALOPODA. Orbulita. 

96. A. rhotomagensis. — Discoid, radiated, umbilicated ; inner whorls partly 
concealed ; radii about 20, furnished with three short tubercles upon the front, 
and two, more or less elevated, upon each side ; whorls thick, with flattish 
sides ; aperture oblong. Cuv. Oss. Foss. ii. 319. t. vi. f. 2. A. Sussexiensis, 
Mantell. Suss. 114. t. xx. f. 2. t. xxi. f. 10. A. rhot. Sower. Min. Conch, t. dxv. 
— Chalk-marl. 

97- A. Benettiana — Sower. Min. Conch, t. Dxxxix — No description as yet 
given. 

98. A.biplicatus — Depressed, slightly umbilicate ; volutions inserted, trans- 
versely radiated ; rays prominent, curved, bifurcated, arising from a row of 
oblong projections on the inner edge of the volutions, and terminating in 
tubercles on the outer margin ; carene flat, bordered by alternating, com- 
pressed tubercles.— Mant. Suss. 91. t. xxii. f. 6 In blue chalk-marl. 

99. A. Woollgari — Discoidal, depressed, volutions one-third inserted, trans- 
versely costated : costoe remote, slightly curved, inclined towards the aper- 
ture, terminating on the outer margin, in compressed tubercles, or spinous 

projections; carene acute, deeply serrated Mant. Suss. 197- t. xxi. f. 16. 

t. xxii. f. 7 — Upper chalk. 

100. A. planorbis — Discoid, smooth ; whorls two or four, two-thirds exposed 
Sower. Min. Conch, t. ccccxlviii — In Lias, at Walchel. Probably not of the 
genus, or even of the group Cephalopoda. 

It is probable that not a few of the preceding species will, upon more ac- 
curate comparison, be degraded to the rank of varieties. The following ob- 
servation by Mr Sowerby merits attentive consideration. " There appears 
to be no regular rule amongst Ammonites for their change of form, some be- 
coming more globose, and others more compressed by age ; but they generally 
lose some of the ornaments from their last whorls ; and, in their infant state, 
are also smooth, or free from tubercles." t. 405. 



Gen. ORBULITA. — Sides equal, the last whorl embracing 
and concealing the previously formed ones. 

1. O. disca. — Discoid, outer edge acuminated ; aperture sagittate, half 

the diameter of the shell in length, and one-sixth in breadth Ammonitis 

discus, Sower. Min, Conch, t. xii — In limestone of the Lower Oolite, Bed- 
ford. 

2. O. striata — Discoid, gibbose, obscurely undulated, finely striated lon- 
gitudinally; septa rather distinct, with four large angular folds. Aperture 
semicircular, with nearly parallel edges ; siphunculus marginal ; a deep cen- 
tral cavity. — Am. str. Sower. Min. Conch, t. liii. f. 1 In Carboniferous Lime- 
stone, Derbyshire. In the Min. Conch, it is stated, at t. 130, that Dr Buck- 
land has found this species in Transition Slate at Filliagh, near South Mol- 
ton, Devonshire. 

3. O. sphcerica. — Orbicular, umbilicate ; septa with four broad angular 

folds ; aperture narrow ; syphon on the inner margin Conchy liolithus 

Nautilus sphsericus, Martin, Pet. Derb. t. vii. f. 3, 4, 5. Am. sph. Sower. Min. 
Conch, t. liii. f. 2. — Carboniferous Limestone, Derbyshire. 

4. O. minuta. — Orbicular, with about 24 distant longitudinal striae ; aper- 
ture lunate, rounded at the sides — Am. min. Sower. Min. Conch, liii. f. 3 

In Chalk Marl, Folkstone. 

5. O. modiolaris — Orbicular, central cavity large, with an angular edge, 
exposing the inner whorls ; septa numerous, with five principal undulations, 



Scaphita. MOLLUSCA. CEPHALOPODA. 249 

which are repeatedly divided into many lesser rounded ones ; aperture semi, 
cir cular, truncated at the sides ; syphon at the outer margin — Naut. mod 
Luidii, Ichn. t. vi. f. 292, p. 1 9. Am. subkevis, Sower. Min. Conch, t. liv— 
In limestone, Middle Oolite, at Christian Malford and Kellaways. 

6. O. Luscombi. — Depressed, umbilicated ; front rounded ; ribs many, shal- 
low, waved, surface smooth ; aperture oblong — Soiver. Min. Conch, t. clxxxiii. 
— In Lias, at Lyme. 

7. O. Brongniarti.— Gibbose umbilicate ; ribs bent, furcate ; aperture trans- 
verse, oblong, arched, with a thick or inflected lip— Sower. Min. Conch, t. 
clxxxiv. A. f. 2 — Under Oolite, at Yeovil. 

8. O. heterophylla Lenticular, umbilicated, striated ; sinuosities of the 

septa of two kinds, small and acute-angular, or large and ovate ; front round- 
ed ; sides convex ; aperture elliptical, with a notch for the reception of the 
preceding whorl. — So»uer. Min. Conch, t. cclxvi. — In Lias, Whitby. 

9. O. Bechii Gibbose, umbilicated, concentrically striated ; with numer- 
ous thin ribs ; front rounded ; each side furnished with two rows of numerous 
small tubercles ; aperture large — Sotver. Min. Conch, t. cclxxx. — In Lias, at 
Lyme. 

Gen. SCAPHITA. — Shell commencing with a depressed volu- 
tion, the last turn of which, after being enlarged and elon- 
gated, is diminished and reflected inwards. 

1.- S. aqualis. — Involute, umbilicate, the inner whorls* concealed ; surface 
with projecting distant ribs extending all round the whorl ; outer part round- 
ed, with about two projecting striae between and equal to each of the radii ; 
outer whorl ventricose, the ribs upon it much enlarged, and abruptly ter- 
minated before they reach the edge — Soiver. Min. Conch, i. xviii. f. 1, 2, 3. 
—Green Sand, Yeovil. 

2. S. obliqua — Obliquely involute, umbilicated, inner whorls concealed, 
covered by transverse striie, dividing into two or three near the outer half 
of the whorl, which is rather flattish and broad, and uniting again on the 
other side — Park. Or. Rem. iii. p. 145. t. x. f. 10 — Sower. Min. Conch, tab. 
xviii. f. 4, 5, 6, 1.— In Chalk. In the Geology of England and Wales, p. 263 
it is stated as an inmate of the Lias beds. 

3. S. striata. — Volutions transversely striated ; striae numerous, oblique, 
annular, bifurcate ; dorsum tumid ; aperture produced, transversely ovate, 
marginate; siphunculus internal? — Mant. Suss. 119. t. xxii. f. 3. — In Grey 
Chalk Marl. 

4. S. costata.— Volutions convex, laterally compressed, transversely striat- 
ed, inner whorls concealed, inserted ; striae furcate, numerous, embracing 
the ambit : sides of the outer volutions smooth, with eight or ten distant, 
oblique, nodular projections ; dorsum broad, convex — Mant. Suss. 120. t. xxii. 
f. 8-12 — Grey Chalk Marl. 

Gen. TURRILITA. — Whorls contiguous, partitions of the 
chambers sinuous, perforated. 

* Spires sinistral. 

1. T. costata — Whorls beset with short ribs, beneath which are two rows 

of smaller tubercles — Sower. Min. Conch, t. xxxvi In Chalk Marl and 

Green Sand. 



250 MOLLUSCA. CEPHALOPODA. Baculita. 

2. T. tuberculata. — Whorls beset with one row of large obtusely conical tu- 
bercles, and three rows of smaller tubercles below them Sower. Min. Conch. 

t. lxxiv — Chalk Marl. 

3. T. undulata. — Whorls with many undulating ribs, mostly continuing 
from the upper to the lower part of each.— Sower. Min. Conch, t, lxxv. f. 1, 
2, 3 — Chalk Marl. 

** Spires dextral. 

4. T. obliqua. — Upper part of ths whorls contracted ; below the middle is 

placed a row of large oblique tubercles Sower. Min. Conch, t. lxxv. f. 4. — 

In Green Sand. 

Gen. BACULITA. — Shell hooked or bent into two parallel 
limbs ; syphon near the outer edge — Hamites of Parkin- 
son and Sowerby. 

* Without spines or tubercles. 

1. B. compressa. — "Depressed, curved at right angles; undulations sharp, 

slightly waved, most prominent at the back Sower. Min. Conch, t. lxii. f. 7> 

8. — In Chalk Marl, Folkstone. 

2. B. tenuis Slender, depressed, undulation obtuse, slightly waved, dis- 
appearing on the back of the limbs. The undulations are irregular, some 
reaching nearly to the back, others only half way ; tapering — Sower. Min. 
Conch, t. lxi. f. 1. — In clay in the Chalk Marl, Folkstone. 

3. B. rotunda. — Aperture round, undulations obtuse, annular, numer- 
ous ; the curve of the shell very gradual. — Soiver. Mill. Conch, t. lxi. f. 2, 3. 
— Chalk Marl, Folkstone. 

4. B. attenuata. — Suddenly attenuated just below the curve ; undulations 

obtuse, numerous — Sower. Min. Conch, t. lxi. f. 4, 5 Mant. Suss. 93. t. xix. 

£ 29 Chalk Marl, Folkstone. 

5. B. maxima. — " Slightly depressed ; undulations even, rounding, disap- 
pearing at the back ; curvature gradual." (S.) — Parkinson's Organic Remains, 
iii. p. 144. t. x. f. 4. Sower. Min. Conch, t. lxii. f. i — Chalk Marl, Folk- 
stone. 

6. B. intermedia. — " Depressed, undulations obtuse, annular, waved, cur, 

vature rounding." (S) — Park. Org. Rem. iii. p. 143. t. x. f. 1, 2 Sower. 

Min. Conch, t. lxii. f. 2, 3, and 4, except the right hand figure. — In Chalk 
Marl, Folkstone. 

7- B. gibbosa. — "j Gibbous, undulations acute, prominent at the front, ra- 
ther distant." Very flat at the back. — Sower. Min. Conch, t. lxii. f. 4. right 
hand figure.— Chalk Marl, Folkstone. 

8. B. Parkinsoni. — Curvature obtuse, annulations distinct. — Park. Org. 
Rem. iii. p. 144. t. x. f. 5. — In Green Sand, Wiltshire. 

The Hamites adpressus of Sower. Min. Conch, t. lxi. f. 6. " Aperture round, 
lesser limb acute, pressed close to the larger ; no undulations ; septa? distant- 
not waved," from Folkstone, is a shell still in obscurity. 



*K- 



Wiih spines or tubercles. 



0. B. armaia. — " Flatted ; undulations simple, every second or third arm- 
ed with a large thick spine on each side near the front." — Soiver. Min. Conch. 
t. clxviii. and t. ccxxxiv. f. 2 — In Chalk Marl, Oxfordshire and Sussex. 






Amplexus. MOLLUSCA. CEPHALOPODA. 251 

10. B. spinulosa. — " Depressed, undulations regular, every other one arm- 
ed with two sharp spines; ;opening elliptical; curvature very gradual;" struc- 
ture obscure Soiver. Min. Conch, t. ccxvi. f. 1 Green Sand, Blackdown. 

11. B. spiniger. — " Depressed; undulations many, slender; two rows of 
sharp tubercles upon each side, those nearest the front largest ; curvature 
gradual." — Sower. Min. Conch, t. ccxvi. f. 2. 

12. B. tuberculata "Depressed; undulations unequal, every third one 

largest, with two tubercles on each side, the lateral ones obscure ; curvature 
gradual." — Sower. Min. Conch, t. ccxvi. £ 4, 5 — Chalk Marl, Folkstone. 

13. B. turgida "Depressed; front irregularly swelled ; undulations re- 
gular, disappearing over the back ; two rows of obscure tubercles near the 
front ; curvature rather sudden."— Soiver. Min. Conch, t. ccxvi. f. 6, — Chalk 
Marl, Folkstone. 

14. B. nodosa. — " Nearly round, undulations regular; two rows of obtuse 
tubercles upon the front, each tubercle placed upon two undulations ; aper- 
ture obovate." — Sower. Min. Conch, t. ccxvi. £ 3. — Chalk Marl, Folkstone. 

15. B. pUcatilis " Slightly depressed, with numerous annular ridges ; two 

rows of large, equal, flat tubercles upon each side ; curvature gradual. — Sow- 
er. Min. Conch, t. ccxxxiv. £ 1 — Chalk Marl, Warminster. 

Gen. AMPLEXUS. — Nearly cylindrical, divided into cham- 
bers by numerous transverse septa, which embrace each 
other with their reflexed margins. 

1. A. coralloides. — Tube irregularly bent, longitudinally striated ; margins 
of the septa deeply reflected, and regularly plaited. The septa seem to have 
no perforations Sower. Min. Conch, t. lxxii — Transition Limestone, Cork. 



[The following extinct species in the genera Nautilus, Nummulita, and 
Orthocera, are here added, having been omitted at their proper places at 
pp. 229, 233, and 238.] 

1. Nautilus expansus.- Subglobose, umbilicated, finely striated; umbilicus 
small; sides of the aperture expanded — Soiver. Min. Conch, t. cccclviii. £ 1. 
— Chalk Marl, Hamsey. 

2. N. biangulatus. — Discoid, subglobose, with'a large umbilicus, and a keel 
upon each side; front rounded. — Sower. Min. Conch, t. cccclviii. £ 2. — In 
Mountain Limestone, Bristol. 

3. N. globatus — Subglobose, smooth, umbilicated ; whorls few, inner ones 
concealed, rather flattened on the front, rapidly increasing ; umbilicus deep, 
with an angular margin ; aperture very wide, arched, with a deep sinus in 
the front — Sower. Miu. Conch, t. cccclxxxi. — Probably my N. Wrightii is 
identical with this species — From Cork. 

4. N. multicarinatus — Discoid, subglobose ; inner whorls half exposed in a 
large deep umbilicus ; edge of the umbilicus angular ; front compressed with 
several carinae on each side the middle. — Sower. Min. Conch, t. cccclxxxii 
£ 1, 2 Transition, Limestone, Cork. 

5. N. carinatus — " Discoid, subglobose ; inner whorls half exposed, in a 
large umbilicus ; a keel in the middle of each side, and two ridges between 
it and the flattened front." — Sower, t. cccclxxxii. £ 3. — Identical with N. ex- 
cavatus already described. 



252 MOLLUSCA. CEPHALOPODA. Sepia. 

6. Nummulita elegans — Compressed ,smooth ; whorls about six; septa gently 

curved from the axis, numerous ; aperture rather prominent Sower. Min. 

Conch, t. uxxxviii. f. 2 — Emsworth. 

7. N. variolaria. — Very convex, minute, smooth ; edge obtuse ; whorls 
four or five, with about twenty septa, forming rays near the margin. {Len- 
ticulites variolaria of Lamarck), Sower. Min. Conch, t. Dxxxviii. f. 3. — London 
Clay — The Nautilus Comptoni is now arranged by Mr Sowerby in the genus 
Nummulita. 



Orthocera paradoxa — Lanceolate, curved, three-angled, with a flat front, 
and convex sides ; aperture an equilateral triangle ; siphuncle nearly central. 
— Sower. Min. Conch, t. cccclvii. 



sepiam:. 

1. Head surrounded with eight arms and two feet. 

Sepia. 
Loligo. 

II. Head surrounded with eight arms, but destitute of feet. The 
arms equal. 

Octopus. 

Gen. X. SEPIA.— The sac furnished with a narrow fin on each 
side throughout its whole length. 

40. S. officinalis. Cuttle-bone. — Body smooth, arms pedun- 
culated, lengthened ; dorsal plate elliptical. ' 

S. supina, Jo7ist. Exang. t. i. f. 3. — S. off. Linn, Syst. i. 1095. Amcen. 
Acad. i. 609. Penn. Brit. Zool. iv. 55. — Not common. 

Body oval, compressed, whitish, with purple dots. Arms nearly as long 
as the body, dilated towards the extremity, and covered with suckers. The 
dorsal plate, known in the shops under the name of Cuttlebone, was former- 
ly used in medical practice as an absorbent. This plate is occasionally thrown 
ashore on all parts of the coast, but the living animal is seldom found. 

Gen. XI. LOLIGO. Calamauy. — Sides of the sac only fur- 
nished partially with fins. 

* Fins united with the tail on each side. 

41. L. vulgaris. — The fins, together with the tail, forming 
a rhomboidal expansion. 

Loligo, a Sleeve, List. Conch. Tab. Anat. ix. f. s. Borl. Corn. 260. t. 
xxv. f. 27 — Sepia Lol. Linn. Syst. i. 1196. Penn. Brit. Zool. iv. 53. 
— Not rare. 
Body compressed, whitish, with dark spots ; these spots in the living ani- 
mal, and even in a portion of the skin when detached, exhibit remarkable 






Loligo. MOLLUSCA. CEPHALOPODA. 253 

contractions and dilatations, as in other species of the class. The feet are 
nearly of the same length as the body, and covered with suckers towards their 
distal extremity. There is no eye-lid. The bone is elliptical, elongated, 
produced at the upper extremity, a groove along the middle, the edges thin. 
The appendage to the stomach is straight, and the oviduct is single. 

42. L. sagittata. — The fins with the tail forming a triangu- 
lar expansion. 

Sepia Loligo, Monro, Phys. of Fishes, p. 62. t. 41. and 42. — L. sagit. 
Lam. An. sans Vert. vii. 665. Flem. Edin. Encyc. xiv. 610 Com- 
mon in the Scottish seas. 

The feet are shorter than the body, and covered with suckers nearly to 
the base. The two arms between the feet, and the two dorsal ones, are the 
smallest. The skin surrounding the mouth unconnected with the two feet 
and the two dorsal arms, though united at the base between them. Suckers 
in two rows. A duplicature of the skin round the eye forming an eyelid. 
The dorsal plate or bone is narrow, thin, expanded at both ends, and strength- 
ened by one central and two marginal ribs. The appendage to the stomach 
is spiral, and the oviduct is double. 

** Fins occurring near the tail, but not continued to its ex- 
tremity. 

43. L. media. — Body long, fins elliptical, tail pointed. 

Sepia ined. Linn. Syst. i. 1095. Penn. Brit. Zool. iv. 54. t. xxix. f. 45. 
— Rare. 

Body slender, almost transparent, cylindrical ; arms with a double row of 
suckers. Eyes large, blue. 

44. L. Sepiola. — Body short, fins thin and rounded, outline 
of the tail semicircular. 

Sepia Sep. Linn. Syst. Penn. Brit. Zool. iv. 54. t. xxix. f. 46. — Rare. 
Body scarcely exceeding an inch in length, and about |ds in breadth. 
Arms with two rows of pedunculated suckers ; those on the feet small, and 

confined to an oblong disc near the extremity This seems to be a rare 

species. Pennant obtained it from the Flintshire coast. A specimen in 
my possession was found in the Frith of Forth, and presented to me by Mr 
Chalmers, surgeon, Kirkcaldy, and another specimen has subsequently been 
found in the Forth by Dr Grant. It was observed by Captain Parry in Da- 
vis' Straits. 

Gen. XII. OCTOPUS.— Suckers sessile. 

45. O. vulgaris. — Body smooth ; suckers a little remote, ar- 
ranged in a double row. 

Sepia octopus, Sower. Brit. Misc. t. xliii.— Oct. vul. Lam. An. sans Vert. 
vii. 657. 
Body oblong, tinged with brown. Arms nearly six times the length of 
the body, and furnished with about two 240 suckers. Oviduct double ; mar- 
gin of the anus simple. — This species is recorded by Mr Sowerby as havino- 
been sent to him from Dover by Mr Richard Phillips. It occurs, according 
to the observations of Mr Neill and Dr Grant, in the Frith of Forth, not 
unfrequentlv. 



254 MOLLUSCA. CEPHALOFODA. Octopus. 

46. O. octopodia. — Body rounded, smooth, mantle connect- 
ed with the head behind ; suckers sessile, arranged in a single 
row. 

Sepia Oct. Penn. Brit. Zool. iv. 53. t. xxviii. f. 44. 

This species appears to have been confounded with the preceding. Pen- 
nant states, that it inhabits our seas ; and Montagu is said, by Mr Sowerby, 
to have communicated a specimen to him, probably from the coast of Devon. 

Dr Grant has obligingly communicated to me the following observations 
on a recent, apparently full grown specimen from the Frith of Forth, pre- 
sented to him by Mr John Coldstream. Length of the body 4| inches, of the 
head 2 inches; breadth of the body ?4 inches ; arms 12 inches long, webbed 
at the base as high as the twelfth sucker, compressed, strong, the extremities 
filiform. Suckers becoming larger to the sixth, and then diminishing to- 
wards the extremity, with a broad muscular margin; about 111 can be 
counted, with the aid of a lens, on each arm. Eyes very small, with a sub- 
dorsal aspect, and near covered with distinct eyelids, and having the iris 
white. The absence of the musky smell distinguishes this species from the 
Octopus moscliatus of Lamarck. 



The different species of Sepiadte secrete an inky fluid, differing, however, 
in the shade of colour according to the species, which they eject upon being 
pursued or captured. 



The collection of Mr Miller of Bristol is said to contain a specimen, from 
the Lias, resembling the back of one of the Sepiadse — Geol. Eng. and Wales, 
267. 



MOLLUSCA. PULMONIFERA. 255 

PULMONIFERA. 

TERRICOLA. 

Tcntacida usually round, and Jour in number. The eggs are 

hatched on land. 

I. Limacid.e. Cloak and foot parallel, enclosing the viscera. 

a. Pulmonary cavity placed near the head, covered by a thick shield. 
Arion 
Limax. 
aa. Pulmonary cavity near the tail, covered by a spiral open shell. 
Testacella. 

II. Cochleare. Cloak and foot not parallel; the viscera con- 
tained in a spiral, dorsal protuberance, protected by 
a shell. 

a. Foot with a lid for closing the mouth of the shell. 
Cyclostoma. 
Helecina. 
aa. Foot destitute of a lid. 

b. Helicidje. Last formed whorl larger than the penultimate 
one. 
c. Animal capable of retiring within the shell, the peristome of 
which, with the exception of Achatina, becomes thick at 
maturity. 

d. Shell depressed or globose. 

e. Peristome entire, raised on the pillar. 
Carocolla. 

ce. Peristome interrupted on the pillar. 
Helix. 

dd. Shell turriteil. 
Bulimus. 
Achatina. 

cc. Animal incapable of withdrawing within the aperture of the 
shell, the margin of which is thin. 
Succinea. 
Vitrina. 

bb. PuPADiE. Last formed whorl nearly of the same size as the 
penult one, or even less, giving the shell a subcylindrical 
form. 

c. "Whorls dextral 
Pupa. 
Azeca. 
Carychium. 

cc. Whorls sinistral. 
Balea. 
Clausilia. 
"Vertigo. 



256 MOLLUSCA. PULMONIFERA. Amon. 



LIMACIDJi. 

Gen. XIII. ARION. — A mucous orifice at the retral termi- 
nation of the cloak ; shield strengthened by soft calcareous 
matter. 

47. A. ater. — Tentacula and snout black ; body generally of 
the same colour. 

Limax ater, List. An. Ang. 131. Conch, t. 101. f. 102, and t. 101. a. f, 
103. Mull. Verm. Hist. ii. p. 2 — Arion ater, Ferussac, Hist. Moll. i. 
60. t. i. f. 1-3.— Common. 
Body rounded above, becoming ridged towards the tail. Shield granulated ; 
cloak with numerous anastomosing furrows, the margin with transverse pa- 
rallel ridges. Orifice of the pulmonary cavity near the anterior margin of 
the shield, with the sexual orifice underneath. Deposits its bluish eggs in a 
cluster in May at the roots of plants. Feeds on dead and living vegetables ; 
and even on the common earthworm when dead, according to Mr Power — 
Linn. Trans, ix. 323 — This species is subject to considerable variation of colour, 
being sometimes of a brownish tinge (Limax rufus) ; or with the margin of 
the cloak reddish or yellowish. 

Gen. XIV. LIMAX. — No mucous orifice ; shield strengthened 
by a shelly plate ; the pulmonary cavity and sexual orifice 
under the right tentaculum. 

48. L. cincreus. — Grey, with dark brown spots ; tentacula 
veined. 

List. An. Ang. 127. Conch, t. 101. a. f. 104. Mull. Verm. Hist. ii. p. 3. 
Fer. Hist. Moll. i. 65. t. iv — Common. 
Length 5 or 6 inches, Three black lines between the tentacula. Shield 
nearly smooth ; the cloak with branched furrows. The foot whitish. Shell 
of the shield white, smooth, depressed, and translucent. Eggs white, depo- 
sited in spring, under stones. Food vegetables. Varies much in the colour- 
ing. Lives in old damp walls, and shaded places. 

49. L. agrestis. — Grey, clouded, tentacula black. 

L. cin. parvus, List. An. Ang. 130. Conch, t. 101. f. 101 — L. ag. Mull. 
Verm. Hist. ii. p. 8. Fer. Hist. Moll. i. 73. t. v. f. 7-10.— Common. 

Length about an inch. Tentacula short. Body convex above, ending in 
a ridge at the tail. Shell of the shield oval, pellucid. When touched its 
body becomes covered with a white mucus. Lurks under stones and rotten 

timber This species is capable of forming a thread, and suspending itself 

from trees, a kind of locomotion in the slugs, first noticed by Lister An. Ang. 
3., and afterwards by other observers, Linn. Trans, vol. i. 182, and vol. iv. 
p. 85. 

M. Ferussac adds as a synonime to his L./avws, " lutescens, fusco tessera- 
tus, tentaculis cceruleis; clypeo postice rotundata," i. p. 71- 1. v. f. 1-6, a re- 
ference to Pennant's Brit. Zool. iv. 41, where, under the name Yellow Slug, 
a species is described " of an amber colour, marked with white." This is 



Testacella. MOLLUSCA. PULMONIFERA. 257 

obviously the " Limax succini colore, albidis maculis insignitus," of Lister, 
Conch, t. 101. 6., but as the letter A is not placed at the figure, which is the 
usual mark of an English species, there is no evidence of its being native. 

Gen. XV. TESTACELLA. — Vent and pulmonary cavity 
nearly terminal. Foot extending on each side beyond the 
body. 

50. T. Mcmgii. — Reddish, with scattered brown spots, and 

a stripe of brown on each side. 

Fer. Hist. Moll, i. 94. t. viii. f. 10-12. Miller, Annals of Phil. xix. 380. 
— In nursery grounds, Bristol. 

Tentacula filiform ; mouth orange. Shell ovate, lengthened, convex, co- 
vered with a dusky cuticle, striated by the layers of growth ; rounded and 
effuse anteally, ending retrally in a short spine, with a slightly prominent 
knob ; margin of the opening entire, subquadrangular. — This species was ob- 
served by Mr T. Drummond (at present engaged in exploring the Arctic 
Botany of North America) in 1812, in the nursery grounds of Messrs Sweet 
and Miller. Specimens were transmitted by Dr Leach to Baron Ferussac. 
It feeds on the earth worm, into the holes of which it effects its entrance. 
Eggs few, ovate. It inhabits Teneriffe, and was probably introduced along 
with exotic plants. 

51. T. halioto'idea. — Greyish clouded, or reddish, without 

spots. 

Draparnaud, Hist. Nat. des Mollusques, p. 121. t. ix. f. 12, 13. Fer. 
Moll. i. 94. t. viii. f. 5-9 — T. scutata, Sower. Gen. ltic. Shells, 1, 3, 6. 
— In a garden at Lambeth. 

Tentacula cylindrical ; a groove on each side, from the head to the shell. 
Shell ovate, depressed, rounded anteally, thick, brown, striated by the layers 
of growth : acuminated retrally, with an imperfect spire, in the form of a 
minute light coloured knob. — This species was found in Mr Sowerby's gar- 
den at Lambeth. The specimens obligingly presented to me by Mr J. C. 
Sowerby, incline me to consider them as identical with the species long ago de- 
scribed by Draparnaud. In the description Mr G. B. Sowerby adds, " the 
animal of this species bears a near resemblance to that of T. haliotoidea, not 
having the double row of tubercles running from the head to the anterior 
part of the shell so conspicuous in T. Maugii." 



COCHLEAD.E. 

Gen. XVI. CYCLOSTOM A.— Peristome of the shell thick- 
ened, entire. Tentacula linear, subretractile, the second 
pair minute, bearing the eyes. 

— 52. C. elcgans. — Whorls 5, ventricose, spirally and longitu- 
dinally striated. 

VOL. I. R 



258 MOLLUSCA. PULMONIFERA. Cyclostoma. 

Cochlea cinerea, List. An. Ang. 119, Conch, t. xxvii. f. 25 — Nerita ele- 
gans, Mull. Hist. Verm. ii. 177 — Turbo tumidus, Penn. Brit. Zool. 

iv. p. 128 Turbo elegans, Mont. Test. Brit. 343.— Cycl. el. Drap. 

Moll. 32 Under moss and the roots of ferns, England. 

Length of the shell upwards of half an inch, brownish, spiral striae dis- 
tinct ; a minute pillar cavity ; lid diverging, striated. The animal is brown- 
ish, with a long emarginate "snout. Some details of anatomical structure are 
given by Lister, Tab. Anat. iv. f. 1, 2, 3. 

53. C subcylindricum. — Whorls 4 to 5, cylindrical, sum- 
mit obtuse, with numerous rounded transverse ridges. 

Helix subcylindrica, Pultney's Dorset. 49 — C. truncatulum, Drap. Moll. 

40 On marsh plants. 

Length of the shell a quarter of an inch ; colour brown, mouth ovate, pe- 
ristome thick, pillar cavity indistinct : summit as if truncated, ending sud- 
denly in a small smooth button-like whorl. The animal, according to Dra- 
parnaud, is white, transparent, with a long contractile snout : tentacula 
short, little acuminated ; eyes above the retral base of the tentacula ; foot 
short ; lid thin, semioval, with bent strise. Dr Pultney found his on " water 
plants in rivers and ponds." Draparnaud states, that it is found on the shores 
of the Mediterranean, on the borders of marshes, on the earth among plants, 
and even burried in sand ; and expresses a suspicion that it may prove a ma- 
rine shell. In 1 80G I found a specimen in the cavity of a dead Spatangus 
purpureus from the Frith of Forth. This species is probably the " Bucci- 
num exiguum rufum quinque orbium" of List. Conch. 22. f. 19. — Donovan, in 
his Brit. Shells, t. lxxx, figures this species, by mistake, for Pupa muscorum. 



EXTINCT. 

Gen. HELECINA. — Peristome entire, with a callous pillar. 

1. H. compressa — " Spire flatfish, an elevated thread surrounding the up- 
per part. Mouth a little angular above." — Sower. Min. Conch, t. x. three 
middle figures In Lias limestone, Leicestershire. 

2. H. expansa — " Carinated ; above, depressed, conical, obscurely striated ; 
beneath, ventricose; callus expanded." — Sower. Min. Conch, t. cclxxiii. f. 1-3. 
— Blue Lias at Lyme. 

3. H. solarioides — " Subdiscoid, obtusely carinated ; whorls depressed a- 
bove, convex beneath." — Sower. Min Conch, t. cclxxiii. f. 4 — In Lias. 

4. H. polita — Subdiscoid, polished ; spire elevated, acute ; volutions mark- 
ed with an impressed band, depressed above, below ventricose ; callous, thin, 

expanded ; aperture nearly square — Sower. Min. Conch, t. cclxxxv At Co- 

predy, in marly sandstone of the Lower Oolite. 

Gen. XVII. CAROCOLLA. — Shell carinated, mouth trans- 
verse, not reversed. 

54. C. lapicida. — Shell convex, transversely striated ; peris- 
tome reflected, white. 

Cochlea pulla, sylvatica, spiris in aciem depressis, List. An. Ang. 127, 
Conch, t. 69. f. 68 — Helix lap. Linn. Syst. i. 1241. Drap. Moll. iii. 
Mont. Test. Brit. 435. — Woods and old walls, England. 



Helix. MOLLUSCA. PULMONIFERA. 259 

Shell depressed, fths of an inch in breadth; brown, variegated, rough. 
Whorls five, nearly flat, carinated. Pillar cavity large, exposing part of the 
inner volutions ; mouth subovate, Animal dark brown ; upper tentacula 
very long, the lower short and slender ; neck shagreened. Is not the Helix 
Somerahamiensis of the Reverend R. Sheppard, Linn. Trans, siv. 159, the 
young of this species ? The shell described by Captain Brown under the 
name Helix cochlea, Wern. Mem. ii. 528. t. xxiv. f. 10, and by Dr Turton, 
H. terebra, Conch. Diet. 61. t. xiv. f. 55, found in the garden of Trinity Col- 
lege, Dublin, by Mr Stevens, seems to be a produced variety of this shell, the 
effect of disease in early life. 



Gen. XVIII. HELIX. — Shell globose, aperture without teeth, 
transverse, lunated. 

a. With a pillar cavity. 

* Preceding whorls not exposed by the pillar-cavity. 

55. H. Pomatia. — Shell inflated, yellowish-brown, with three 
dark longitudinal bands ; wrinkled transversely. 

Cochlea cinerea, List. An. Ang. iii — Conch, t. 48. f. 46. — H. Pom. Linn. 
Syst. i. 1244. Mont. Test. Brit. 405.— Middle districts of England. 
The shell sometimes attains two inches in diameter. Whorls 5, rounded. 
Animal dusky grey. Eggs from 25 to 50, deposited in a hole in the earth ; 
when hatched, the shell has one volution and a half. — Previous to winter, this 
species retires to a cavity, which it diggs in the earth by means of its foot, aided 
by the mucus, and closes the aperture of the shell with a calcareous lid. In 
this state it remains torpid until spring. On the continent of Europe the 
animal is used as food. By some it is conjectured that this species was in- 
troduced into England by Mr Howard about the middle of the sixteenth 
century. Two varieties of the shell occur; the first has the whorls disjoin- 
ed and turrited ; the second has the whorls sinistral. 

— 56. H. Pisana. — Shell white, with interrupted brown bands; 
peristome, internally, pink coloured. 

Mull. Verm. ii. p. 60 — H. zonaria, Penn. Brit. Zool. iv. 137. t. 85. f. 
133 — H. cingenda, Mont. Test. Brit. 418 — H. rhodostoma, Drap. 
Moll. 86 — South of England. 

Shell about fths of an inch in breadth, subpellucid, minutely striated, lon- 
gitudinally and transversely ; the last band, with irregular edges, entering 
the mouth ; mouth wide, rounded, peristome rising on the side of the pillar 
cavity. Animal pale yellow ; tentacula dark coloured, with a dusky streak 
at the base of each, extending backwards on the neck of the animal. 

57. H. subntfescens. — Shell transparent, horn coloured, with- 
out bands. 

Miller, Annals of Philosophy, vol. xix. p. 379 Environs of Bristol. 

Shell of 5 whorls, separated by a deep groove ; the apex depressed, the 
edge indistinctly carinated, transversely striated by the lines of growth ; 
mouth rounded externally, narrow near the pillar, where the lip is reflected, 
in part, over the cavity. In none of the specimens in my possession, which 
I owe to the kindness of Mr Miller, ha3 the mouth acquired the peristome 
of maturity. It seems, however, to be a distinct species. 



260 MOLLUSCA. PULMONIFERA. Helix- 

58. H. albella. — Shell flat above, with a carinated edge ; gib- 
bous beneath. 

Cochlea alba, List. Conch, t. 80. f. 81 — H. alb. Linn. Syst. 1242. Drap 
Moll. 113 On the shore, St Andrew's. 

Shell dusky yellowish-white, minutely striated by the lines of growth. 
Whorls 3 or 4, the line of separation distinct, but the spire very little raised. 
Mouth rather wide at the pillar. Draparnaud states, after Muller, that three 
spires can be seen in the pillar cavity ; a mistake, probably arising from the 
latter contemplating a dead specimen of Planorbis corneus, instead of the true 
albella. By the former, that animal is said to frequent rushes on the coast. 
A single dead specimen of this shell, in my possession, was found in 1810, on 
the shore at St Andrew's. 

59- H. terrestris. — Spire conical, whorls flat, carinated at 
the base. 

Trochilus Monspessulanus, List. Conch, t. Gl. f. 58 — Trochus terrestris, 

Penn. Brit. Zool. iv. 127. Don. Brit. Shells, t. iii. Mont. Test. Brit. 

287 — H. elegans, Drap. Moll. 70 — England, rare. 

Shell whitish, striated longitudinally ; whorls 5 or G, nearly flat, divided 

by a very small depressed line, with a prominent ridge at the base»of each ; 

apex produced, but not very pointed ; mouth compressed, angulated ; base 

flat, striated from the centre This species has hitherto been found only in 

Northamptonshire by Morton, and Cumberland by Hudson. 

60. H. Trochilus. — Spire conical ; whorls rounded. 

. Buccinum parvum sine Trochilus sylvaticus, List. An. Ang. 123 — H. 
Troch, Mull. Verm. ii. 70.— H- trochiformis, Mont. Test. Brit. 427. 
—In moist situations, rare. 
Shell thin, pellucid, horn coloured ; whorls 6, rounded, and strongly divid- 
ed by the separating line ; 'apex considerably produced ; mouth transverse, 
narrow ; lip a little reflected on the pillar cavity. Montagu has found this 
species in Wiltshire and Devonshire among decayed wood. A specimen, 
found in the south of Fife, was presented to me by Mr Chalmers, surgeon, 
Kirkcaldy. 

61. H. Turtoni. — Shell flat on both sides, with a rounded 
margin. 

H. rotundata, Turton, Conch. Diet. 53. 
" Shell quite flat and level on both sides, dark horn coloured, with trans- 
verse chesnut marks or blotches, which, however, are not in a regular ra- 
diate manner, with the perforation rather large, but not exhibiting the inter- 
nal volutions ; spires 6, rounded and well defined, crossed with regular, close 
set, fine, rather oblique, raised lines ; the larger volution rounded at the mar- 
gin and without the faint keel-like appearance ; aperture large, roundish, 
crescent shaped, the margin thin and not reflected over the perforation ; dia- 
meter not a quarter of an inch." Such is the description of a singular spe- 
cies found by Dr Turton in the woods near Brecon. It is not the H. rotun- 
data of Muller, though probably a variety of his H. obvoluta, Hist. Venn, 
ii. 27- 

** Preceding whorls in part exposed by the pillar cavity. 

62. H. ericetorion. — Whorls six, rounded, subdepressed ; 
mouth suborbicular ; pillar cavity very wide. 



Helix. MOLLUSCA. PULMONIFERA. 261 

Cochlea cinerea albidave, fasciata, ericetorum, List. An. Ang. 126. — H. 

ericetorum, Mutl. Verm. ii. 33 H. albella, Penn. Brit. Zool. iv. 132. 

— H. er. Mont. Test. Brit. 437.— Sunny banks. 

Shell about fths of an inch in breadth ; white, or whitish with'dark brown 
bands, or brownish with whitish bands ; the upper band of the body whorl 
seen along the separating line of the preceding ones. Mouth rounded exter- 
nally, the lips approaching internally. 3 or 4 whorls visible in the pillar ca- 
vity. Animal with a pellucid foot, tentacula clavated ; body dusky. The 
shell figured by Lister, Conch, t. 78. f. 78, and so generally referred to this 
species, is surely widely different. 

- 63. H. virgata. — Whorls 6, rounded, a little produced; pil- 
lar cavity in part covered by the lip. 

Cochlea alba, leviter umbilicata pluribus fasciis circumdata, clavicula 

productiore, List. Conch, t. 59. f. 56 H. zonaria, var. a. Penn. Brit. 

Zool. iv. 137- t. 85. f. 133. a H. virg. Mont. Test. Brit. 415 — H. 

variabilis, Drap. Moll. 84 — Maritime pastures and dry banks, Eng- 
land and Ireland. 

Breadth about half an inch; colour whitish, with brown bands, the upper 
one [on the body whorl continuing along the separating line to the apex. 
Mouth wide at the pillar margin ; peristome brown, with a white thread-like 
elevation ; pillar cavity a little contracted by the lip, exhibiting only one vo- 
lution. This species is very common on the limestone rocks in the neigh- 
bourhood of Cork. 

" 64. H. cantiana. — Shell with 6 rounded, wrinkled, volutions, 
inner lip in part closing the pillar cavity. 

Cochlea dilute rufescens, var. List. An. Ang. 126. Mont. Test. Brit. 
422. t. 22. f. 1 — H. pallida, Don. Brit. Sh. t. 157- £ 2. 2. "Woods and 
hedges, England and Ireland. 

Breadth nearly an inch. Margin rounded with a whitish band ; the base 
of the shell and mouth rufous ; the thickened peristome white. One whorl 
only visible in the pillar cavity. 

- 65. H. rufescens. — Shell with 6 rufous, rounded, whorls, 
subcarinated on the margin, pillar cavity large. 

Cochlea dilute rufescens, List. An. Ang. 125, Conch, t. 71. lower fig. 

H. hispida, Mull. Verm. ii. 73 — H. ruf. Mont. Test. Brit. 420 Un- 
der stones and moss, common. 

Breadth upwards of half an inch ; spire little elevated ; brown, covered 
with numerous short hairs ; finely striated by the layers of growth ; mouth 
rounded externally, rather narrow at the pillar, where the lip is a little re- 
flected , pillar cavity large, rounded, exhibiting two or three volutions. Ani- 
mal dusky. 

- 66. H. hispida.—^ Shell thin ; pale coloured ; whorls five, 

rounded ; pillar cavity with steep sides. 

Mont. Test. Brit. 423. t. xxiii. f. 3. Drap. Moll. 103. — Among moss in 
England and Scotland. 

Breadth about $th of an inch ; it is covered with minute short hairs ; spire 
but little raised ; aperture lunate, rather contracted in the middle ; the lip 
a little reflected on the cavity, within which, one or two volutions are visible. 
The shape of the mouth and pillar cavity, and the absence of a subcarina, dis- 
tinguish this species from the young of rufuscens, with which it has very fre- 
quently been confounded. 

1 



262 MOLLUSCA. PULMONIFERA. Helix. 

67. H. aculeata. — Whorls four, crossed by regular membra- 
naceous ridges, which are produced into hair-like spines about 
the middle. 

Mull. Hist. Verm. ii. 81 — H. spinulosa, Light. Phil. Trans, vol. 76. 166. 
t. 11. lower f. 1, 5. Mont. Test. Brit. 426. t. xi. f. 10 — Among moss, 
not uncommon. 

Breadth about the tenth of an inch; whorls brown, thin, rounded, well de- 
fined, rather produced ; mouth rounded, the lips white, approaching ; pillar- 
cavity distinct. 

~ 68. H. nitida. — Shell depressed, transparent, glossy, green- 
ish, with a tinge of white on the pillar-cavity. 

List. Conch, t- 71- upper f. Mull. Hist. Verm. ii. 32 — H. lucida, Mont. 
Test. Brit. 425. t. xxiii. f. 4. — Common among moss and under stones. 



*& 



Breadth nearly half an inch ; whorls five or six, the lower one rounded, 
the upper ones nearly even, with a deep line of sepai'ation ; minutely striated 
by the lines of growth ; mai'gin of the mouth thin ; pillar-cavity wide, ex- 
posing two of the whorls. — The young shells of this species seem to be the 
H. nitidula of Drap. Moll. 117, and described by the Rev. R. Sheppard, Linn. 
Trans, xiv. 160. as occurring in Essex ; and the fry do not seem to differ 
from the H. pygmea of Drop. Moll. 114, described by Dr Turton as found in 
England abundantly in ditches, under leaves, — Zool. Journ. N°. viii. p. 565. 
The Helix alliaria of Miller, Annals of Philosophy, t. xix. is probably also 
only a variety of this species. He described it as " an umbilicated, depressed, 
pellucid, shining, horn-coloured shell, having no more than four volutions. 
This species never arrives to the size of II. nite)is, has one volution less, and 
is found under moss on old trees. Its inhabitant smells strongly of garlick." 
The Rev. Mr Sheppard takes notice of this fetid smell in the animal of 
nitida, which, in some instances, he adds, " is not observable till the shell has 
been immersed in boiling water." The H. nitida, hispida, and rvfescens, are 
sometimes found under water. 

69- H. urtib'dicata.- — Whorls five, rounded ; apex slightly pro- 
duced ; pillar-cavity large, exposing the whorls to the end. 

Mont. Test. Brit. 434. t. xiii. f. 2 H. rupestris, Drap. Moll, 82 — Un- 
der stones and moss, in England and Scotland. 

Breadth about a tenth of an inch ; brown ; whorls finely and closely 
striated across, deeply divided by the separating line ; mouth suborbicular, 
margin thin ; upper tentacula short ; under ones mere tubercles. Before 
reaching maturity, this species appears to be the II. Kirbii of the Rev. R. 
Sheppard, Linn. Trans, xiv. 162, which differs merely in having four volu- 
tions, and being half a line in breadth. 

70. H. crystcdlina. — Shell transparent, glossy, of four de- 
pressed whorls, the last large. 

Mull. Verm. 23. — H. pellucida, Perm. Brit. Zool. iv. 138 — H. cryst. 
Drap. Moll. 118. — At the roots of grass, England. 

Breadth about jjth of an inch ; whorls smooth,- with a deep line of separa- 
tion, and the spire depressed ; aperture wide, the margin slightly thickened. 
The specimens in my possession are from Battersea, and were sent to me by 
Dr Leach 

71. H. caperata. — Whorls six, subcarinated, with interrupted 
brown bands, and deep transverse stria?. 



Helix. MOLLUSCA. PULMONIFERA. 263 

Mont. Test. Brit. 430. t. xi. f. 11 — H. striata, Drap. Moll. 106 In dry 

situations. 

Breadth about half an inch ; convex on both sides ; a broad brown band above 
the keel, and another below it ; the keel itself white ; the brown bands are 
mottled with white; aperture rounded, thin on the margin, with a white 

raised band within ; pillar-cavity exposing the preceding whorl This species 

is probably the H. maculata of Muller. 

— 72. H. rotundata. — Whorls six, depressed, subcarinated, 
strongly striated across, with a very wide pillar-cavity. 

C. terrestris, compressa, maculata et leviter striata, List. Conch, t. 1058. 

f. 11 — H. rot. Mull. Verm. ii. 29 — H. radiata, Mont. Test. Brit. 432. 

t. xxiv. f. 3 — H. rot, Drap. Moll. 114 — Common under leaves and 

stones. 

Breadth about £th f an i ncQ ; radiated above with brown lines ; whorls 

strongly divided by the separating line ; aperture transverse ; pillar-cavity 

exposing the previous whorls. 

— 73. H. costata, — Whorls four, rounded ; the peristome thick, 
suborbicular. • 

H. cost, et pulchella, Mull. Verm. ii. 31. — Turbo helicinus, Light. Phil. 
Trans, vol. lxxvi. 167. t. iii. f. 1, 4. — H. paludosa, Walk, Test. Min. 

t. i. 23 — H, pal. and crenella, Mont. Test. Brit. 404 Under damp 

moss, common. 

Breadth about T ' 5 th of an inch ; whorls covered with a brown epidermis, 
raised into numerous transverse ridges ; colour of the shell white, slightly 
striated transversely ; margins of the aperture nearly uniting on the body- 
whorl ; pillar-cavity exposing the inner volutions. 

74. H. elegans. — Shell with seven rounded produced volu- 
tions. 

Brown, Wern. Mem. ii. 528. tab. xxiv. f. 9 — H. disjuncta, Turton, 
Conch. 61. t. xvi. f. 63. — Near Dublin. Mr Stephens. 

" Shell subpellucid, somewhat gloss} r , with seven ventricose and verv 
deeply divided volutions, tapering to rather an obtuse apex ; the first or 
body-whorl is much inflated ; a white band runs spirally from the base to the 
apex, giving it a strong appearance of being carinated, and the volutions are 
slightly wrinkled across. It is furnished with a deep and wide umbilicus, 
which, viewed directly from the base, is partly hid by the reflected lip of the 
shell ; aperture subrotund, lip very thin, and reflected on the columella. The 
colour is of a dirty white, with several interrupted dark umber-coloured 
bands, which run spirally from the base to the apex ; length fths of an inch ; 
breadth 3ieighths," Brown. — This is probably only a monstrous variety of some 
of the more common species. 

b. Without a pillar-cavity. Globose. 

„. 75. H. aspersa. — Shell brown, with white transverse stripes ; 
mouth subascending 

Cochlea vulgaris, List. An. Ang. 113. Conch, t. xlix. 47- — H. aspersa, 
Mull. Verm. ii. 59 — H. hortensis, Penn. Brit. Zool. iv. 136. — H. asp. 
Mont. Test. Brit. 408 — Gardens and old walls, common. 

Breadth about \\ inch, with four whorls, slightly striated and wrinkled 
across ; mouth elongated upwards, margin white, thickened, a little reflected. 



264 MOLLUSCA. PULMONIFERA. Helix. 

76. H. arbustorum. — Shell mottled with a single brown 
longitudinal band. 

Cochlea maculata, List. An. Ang. 119. Conch, t. lvi. f. 53. — H. arb. 
Mull. Verm. ii. 55. Penn, Brit. Zool. iv. 136. Mont. Test. Brit. 413. 
— In boggy places, common. 

Breadth scarcely an inch ; whorls slightly striated longitudinally, and 
wrinkled transversely ; mouth obliquely transverse, rounded ; margin white, 
thick, reflected. 

77. H. nemoralis. — Peristome brown ; margin next the pil- 
lar nearly straight. 

Cochlea citrina, List. An. Ang. 116. Conch, t. lvii. f. 54.— H. nem. Mull. 

Verm. ii. 46. Penn. Brit. Zool. iv. 137. Mont. Test. Brit. 411 

Shady places, common. 

Breadth about an inch ; whorls five, wrinkled across. Colour yellowish, 
without bands, with a single band, or with several bands. These varieties 
are considered by the Reverend Revitt Sheppard as distinct species, because 
they do not unite indiscriminately in the season of love ; and he adds, " from 
the one-banded and many-banded sorts I have taken the spicula or love-darts ; 
that of the former is four-sided in the middle, and perfectly straight ; in the 
latter it is also four-sided in the middle, but curved as in H. aspcrsa." 

78. H. hortensis. — Margin of the mouth invariably white ; 

even near the pillar. 

Cochlea citrina, No. 1. List An. Ang. 117. — H. hort. Mull. Verm. 52. 
Mont. Test. Brit. 412 Not common. 

This species closely resembles the preceding, of which it is considered by 
many as only a variety. It is smaller in size, and less common. 

79. H.jitsca. — Shell thin, pellucid, horn-coloured, with five 

or six whorls. 

Mont. Test. Brit 424. t. xiii. f. 1 — In England and Ireland, not uncom- 
mon. 

Breadth less than half an inch ; smooth ; mouth lunated, narrow near the 
pillar, thin, not reflected ; whorls rounded, the last large. This seems to be 
the H. fulva of Muller, No. 249 — A variety of a white colour, glossy, and 
pellucid, was sent to Montagu from Scotland by Mr Boyes. 



EXTINCT SPECIES. 

1. H. carinata. — Spire short, conoidal, of three or four turns; a raised, 
flat, ribband-like projection passes from the lateral edge of the mouth along 
the middle of the last turn, till it meets the inner edge of the mouth, whence 
it continues between the volutions to the end. Umbilicus open. — Sower. 
Min. Conch, t. x. upper and lower figures In Carboniferous Limestone, Set- 
tle, Yorkshire. 

2. H. Gentii. — Discoid, gibbose, smooth, with a spiral band along the upper 
part of the whorl; aperture large, expanded, elliptical. — Sower. Min. Conch. 
t. cxlv. — Green Sand near Devizes. 

3. H. globosa. — Globose, slightly elongated, obscurely transversely striat- 
ed ; whorls but gradually increasing in size ; outer-lip reflected. — Sower. Min. 
Conch, t. clxx. Crag Fresh water Limestone, Isle of Wight. 



Bulimus. MOLLUSC A. PULMONIFERA. 263 

4. H. striata. — Conical, depressed, subcarinated, obliquely striated, a 
rising band around tbe edge, crossed by arched striae ; columella solid, aper- 
ture subtriangular. — Soioer. Min. Conch, t. clxxi. f. 1. — Carboniferous Lime- 
stone, Derbyshire. 

5. H. cirriformis. — Conical, acute, umbilicate, decussato-striated ; with a 
band around the middle of the whorl, crossed with arched striae ; aperture 

nearly round Sower. Min. Conch, t. clxxi. f. 2 — In Carboniferous Limestone, 

Derbyshire. 

6. H. Iwvis. — Whorls three ; surface smooth ; spire elevated. — Mantell, 
Geol, Suss. 263. t. xviii. f. 19, 20.— In Plastic Clay, Bath. 

7. H. pusilla. — Depressed, smooth, umbilicated, convex beneath. Volu- 
tions round and tapering \ their number about three. Mouth roundish 

Mart. Pet. Derb. t. lii. f. 3 In a fossil pericarp, in Clay Ironstone, Derby- 
shire. 

Gen. XIX. BULIMUS.— Aperture of the shell longer than 
broad, the margin near the pillar entire. 

~" 80. B. acutus. — Whorls nine, rounded, white, with trans- 
verse interrupted brown stripes. 

Buccinum exiguum fasciatum et radiatum, List. Conch, t. xix. f. 14. — 
Helix acuta, Mull. Verm. ii. 100. — Turbo fasciatus, Penn. Brit. Zool. 

iv. 131. Mont. Test. Brit. 34G — Bui. acutus, Drop. Moll. 77 On 

dry banks near the sea. 

Length fths of an inch ; whorls strongly wrinkled across, sometimes a 
single or double longitudinal brown band on the lower side of the body -whorl. 
Margin of the mouth a little reflected on the small pillar-cavity. — Animal 
pale yellow. 

- 81. B. obscurus. — Shell brown, oblong, subcylindrical in the 

middle, with a blunt spire ; outer-lip of the mouth nearly 

straight. 

Buccinum rupium majusculum circiter senis orbibus circumvolutum, 

List. An. Ang. 122 — Helix obscura, Mull. Verm. ii. 103 Turbo sex 

anfractibus striatis apertura subrotunda marginata, Walk. Test. Min. 
Rar. t. ii.;f. 41. Mont. Test. Brit. 391 .— B. obs. Drap. Moll. 74.— Moist 
woods and rocks. 

Length fths of an inch ; breadth about one-third of its length : whorls 
from five to seven, with faint lines of growth, slightly rounded, ending in a 
blunt knob ; pillar-lip nearly perpendicular, a little reflected on the pillar- 
cavity ; peristome white. 

— 82. B. Lackhamensis. — Shell brown, oblong, subcylindrical 
in the middle, with a blunt spire ; outer- lip rounded. 

Helix Lack. Mont. Test. Brit. 394.— Bui. montanus, Drap. Moll. 74.— 
In woods, England. 

Length fths of an inch ; breadth one-fourth of the length. Similar in 
other respects to the B. obscurus except size, the lines of growth stronger, and 
the outer edge of the mouth a little more rounded. Judging from an au- 
thentic specimen sent to me by the late Mr Montagu, it seems to be only a 
large variety of the preceding species. 

~* 83. B. lubricus. — Shell glossy, horn-coloured, bluntly taper- 
ing; mouth, externally, narrow. 



266 MOLLUSCA. PULMONIFERA. Bulimus. 

Buccinura exiguum, quinque anfractum, mucrone acuto, List. An. Ang. 
122 — Helix lubrica, Mull. Verm. ii. 104. Mont. Test. Brit. 390.— 
Bui. lub. Drap. Moll. 75.—- In moist woods, common. 

Lenth |th inch ; breadth one-third of its length ; whorls five or six, near- 
ly smooth. Mouth a little oblique, margin white, or with a rosy tinge. 

84. B. tuberculatus. — Mouth with a single tubercle on the 
body-whorl, near the outer angle. 

Turton, Zool. Journ. No. vii. 363. t xiii, f. 4, — Pershore, Worcester- 
shire. 

Length J an inch ; breadth j^ths. Shell oval, oblong, with six whorls, 
rather flat, of a whitish colour ; the lower half of the body-whorl, as well as 
the slightly reflected peristome, milk-white ; a small pillar- cavity. 

* Natio-alized Species. 

1. B. Goodallii. — " A subperforated, turrited, pellucid, pale, 
corneous or almost white shell, having from six to seven volu- 
tions, and an ovate aperture. 11 

" Helix Goodalli," Miller, Ann. PhiL xix. 381 — Pine-beds, Bristol. 
Length upwards of -, 3 5 ths of an inch; the whorls rather flat, sometimes 
eight in number ; separating line distinct ; finely striated across by waved 
lines of growth. This is the Cochlicella clavulus of Ferrussac We are in- 
debted to Mr Miller for publishing a notice of this curious species. Mr 
Thomas Drummond, in a letter now before me, says, " The Helix Goodallii 
was first pointed out by me in 1810, when I was in the habit of feeding 
them, and when I wanted a supply, I merely placed a flat board upon tbe 
surface of the tan, and left two or three small worms beneath it (dead ones 
of course), and I never saw it fail of being covered with them in a few days." 

2. B. dccollatus. — Shell subcylindrical, truncated at the apex. 

Buccinum album clavicula productiore fere abrupta, List. Conch, t. xvii. 
f. 12 Bui. decoll. Drap. Moll. 76. 

Dr Turton gives the following notice respecting this species : " Bulimus 
decollatus was observed to breed in great abundance, for many successive 
years, in the green-house at Watton, in the south of Devon, the seat of H. 
Studdy, Esq., lodged in the earth, under the wood-work, whence they wan- 
dered abroad in the summer. This wood-work and the earth were removed, 
and replaced with stone, by which the colony was lost ; and all that were 

Preserved we owe to the care of Mrs Griffiths and Miss Hill." — Zool. Journ. 
fo. viii. 565. 



EXTINCT SPECIES. 

1. B. ellipticus. — Elliptical, elongated, rather obtuse, longitudinally ribbed ; 
ribs numerous, very small, straight ; aperture small, twice as long as wide, 

upon the left side. — Sower. Min. t. 337 Fresh-water Formation, Isle of 

Wight 

2, B. costillatus Ovate, rather acute, longitudinally costated ; costa? small, 

numerous; aperture elongated, acute above. — Sower. Min. Conch, t. 366. — 
Fresh-water Formation, Isle of Wight. 

3 



Achatina. MOLLUSCA. PULMONIFERA. 267 



Gen. XX. ACHATINA. — Aperture of the shell longer 
than broad ; the lip at the pillar truncated. 

85. A. acicula — Shell slender, tapering, the last whorl near- 
ly as long as all the preceding ones. 

Buccinum acicula, Mill. Verm. ii. 150.— B. turritum quinque anfracti- 

bus apertura ovali, Walk. Test. Min. t. 11. f. 60 — B. terrestre, Mont. 

Test. Brit. 248. t. viii. f. 3. — At the roots of grass and moss, England. 

Length ^th of an inch ; whorls six, white, glossy, rather flat ; separating 

line distinct ; mouth, with the outer lip thin, nearly even, ending at the 

pillar in a short gutter ; inner-lip at the extremity of the pillar subrecurved. 



The Achatina octona ; the Buccinum tenue album octo minimum orbium o 
List. Conch, t. xx. f. 15. ; the Helix octona of Dr Maton and Mr Rackett, 
Linn. Trans, vol. viii. t. v. f. 10., has been hastily considered as referred to 
bv Dr Pultney, under the title of Helix octona, Dorset, Cat. p. 49. This is 
an extra European species, and the shell of Dr Pultney is probably only the 
Lymnea octona. 

Gen. XXI. SUCCINEA. — Shell with a short pointed spire ; 
mouth longer than broad. 

86. S. putris. — Shell oblong, of three whorls, with a yellow- 
ish tinge. 

Buccinum subflavum pellucidum trium spirarum, List. An. Ang. 141. 
t. ii £ 24. ; Conch, t. 123. f. 23.— Helix putris, Linn. Syst. i. 1249. 

H. succinea, Mull. Verm. ii. 97- — H. putris, Mont. Test. Brit. 376. 

t. xvi. f. 4. — Among subaquatic plants, common. 
Length about fths of an inch, of a yellow or green tinge, finely striated by 
the layers of growth. Body-whorl very large, the other small, pointed ; aper- 
ture very wide in front, thin. Animal cinereous; the longest tentacula 
contracted in the fore part. A variety of the shell sometimes occurs with a 
thickened, expanded subreflected white lip. 

-Gen. XXII. V1TRINA. — Shell with a depressed spire; 
mouth transverse. 

87. V. pellucida. — Whorls three, glossy, transparent. 

Helix pellucida, Mull. Verm. ii. 15 — Vitrina pellucida, Drop. MolL 119. 

Hel. elliptica, Brown, Wern. Mem. ii. 525. t. xxiv. f. 8 — Vit. pell. 

Flem. Phil. Zool. ii. 459. t. iv. f. 1.— Common among moss and grass. 
Breadth nearly T 2 3 ths ; month rounded, the lip thin, slightly reflected at 
the small pillar cavity. The margin of the shield of the animal is double ; 
the upper fold divided into several lobes, which are capable of being reflected 
over the shell. In 1809, I sent this shell from Zetland, to the late Mr Mon- 
tagu, who considered it as the fry of the Helix nitida. 



268 MOLLUSC A. PULMONIFERA. Pupa, 

Gen. XXIII. PUPA. — Tentacula four, aperture of the shell 
rounded, in the direction of the axis. 

a. Aperture of the shell toothed. 

* Teeth confined to the pillar Up. 

88. P. muscorum. — Whorls six, the three last subcylindri- 

cal ; the margin of the mouth broad, reflected. 

Buccinum exiguum subflavum, mucrone obtuso, sive cylindraceum, List. 
An. Ang. 121. — Turbo muscorum, Linn. Syst. i. 1240. Mont. Test. 
Brit. 335. — P. muse. Drap. Moll. 59 — Among moss, common. 

Length about |th of an inch ; whorls six, increasing rather rapidly from 
the apex to the fourth ; separating line distinct ; finely striated across ; of a 
horn colour. Mouth with the margin white ; a single tooth on the pillar, 
even with the outer lip, and near the inflected junction of the outer lip with 
the body -whorl : pillar-cavity, behind, wide, the sides steep. 

89- P. marg'mata. — Whorls six, the three last cylindrical ; 

the margin of the mouth narrow, reflected. 

Drap. Moll. 61 Turbo Chrysalis, Turt. Conch. Diet. 220.— P. marg. 

Sheppard, Linn. Trans, xiv. 154.— Not uncommon, under stones and 
among grass, England. 

Length' about ^th of an inch ; the whorls increasing rapidly from the apex 
to the third ; separating line distinct ; finely striated across ; of a brownish 
horn colour : margin ot the mouth white ; a single tooth on the pillar, a lit- 
tle within, and nearly in the middle ; pillar-cavity, behind, small. This spe- 
cies was sent me many years ago, by Dr Leach, from Battersea, under the 
title Pupilla marginata. — Mr Sheppard states, that it is common in Suffolk 
and Essex. 

** Teeth on both lips. 

90. P. juniperi. — Whorls nine ; mouth with three teeth on 
the outer lip, and four on the pillar. 

Turbo jun. Mont. Test. Brit.— Pupa avena. Drap. Moll. 54. — Among 
moss and juniper-bushes, England. 
Length about \t\\ of an inch, opake brown ; whorls, increasing gradually 
from the apex to the fourth, and then continuing nearly cylindrical, rounded ; 
separating line distinct ; obliquely striated across ; peristome white, reflect- 
ed ; pillar-cavity, behind, small. 

91. P. sexdentata. — Whorls five ; mouth with six or seven 

teeth ; three of which are on the body lip. 

Turbo sexdentatus, Mont. Test. Brit. 337—P. antivertigo, Drap. Moll. 60. 
Turbo sex. Sheppard, Linn. Trans, xiv. 156. — At the roots of grass. 

Length about a line ; of a brown colour ; whorls increase progressively in 
size ; aperture suborbicular ; the outer lip slightly inflected in the middle. 

92. P. pygmcea. — Whorls five ; mouth with four teeth, one 
of which is on the body-lip. 

Drap. Moll. 60. — Among moss, frequent. 

Length about ^th of an inch ; brown ; whorls increase progressively ; 
peristome a little reflected ; outer lip with two teeth, and a third at the an- 



Azeca. MOLLUSCA. PULMONIFERA. 269 

teal junction with the pillar. This species was confounded with the preced- 
ing, by the late Mr Montagu, as appears from his having sent me, on two 
different occasions, specimens of P. pygmcea for P. sexdentata*— -It is not a 
rare shell. 

b. Aperture of the shell destitute of teeth. 

93. E. edentula. — Shell obtusely conical, of five or six whorls ; 
peristome simple. 

Drap. Moll. 59. — Turbo Oftonensis, Sheppard, Linn. Trans, xiv. 155. — 

Among grass in woods, England. 

Length about a line, brown, pellucid, glossy, finely striated across. In 
1 822, Mr Miller sent me specimens of this shell from Bristol, and afterwards 
informed me of his possessing a variety having six volutions, with the lip 
slightly reflected, and a very minute tooth on the pillar In the shell re- 
ferred to by Mr Sheppard, the whorls are seven in number. 

94. P. ohtusa. — Shell nearly cylindrical ; peristome thick- 
ened. 

Drap. Moll. 63.-— Among moss near old walls. 

A shell corresponding with this species, except in size and the number of 
whorls, was sent me in 1813, by Mr Chalmers, surgeon, Kirkaldy, who found 
it in the parish of Balmerino, Fifeshire. It is not a line in length, while 
Draparnaud's shell is about half an inch ; this has only five whorls, his has 
eight. The whorls increase suddenly to the third, and then continue nearly 
of the same size : they are rounded with a deep separating line ; aperture a 
little longer than broad; the outer lip inclining to straight, and anteallv 
where it joins the pillar, it is a little reflected, so as to form a minute pillar- 
cavity. 

Gen. XXIV. AZECA— Aperture of the shell oblique, nar- 
row retrallv. 

95. A. tridens. — Whorls six or seven, slightly raised ; form 
ovate. 

Turbo tridens, Pull. Dorset. 46. Mmt. test. Brit. 338. t. xi. f. 2. Shep- 
pard, Linn. Trans, xiv. 154.— In England and Scotland, rare. 
Length upwards of £th of an inch ; brown, translucent, glossy, with dis- 
tinct striae. The aperture is rounded at the pillar, becoming very narrow 
and gutter-like at the junction of the body-whorl ; this last circumstance pro- 
duces the appearance of a dark band along the somewhat indistinct separat- 
ing line ; outer-lip with one tooth, inner-lip with two long and two short 
teeth ; peristome entire, no pillar- cavity. This species was first observed 
by Dr Pultney, in Dorsetshire, and subsequently by different observers in 
other places. It is not the Helix tridens of Muller, or the Pupa tridens of Dra- 
parnaud. It was sent to me by Dr Leach, under the name of Azeca Maloni. 
The generic name I have adopted, but the specific one has been rejected as 
an unnecessary change.— Its true place will probably be found in the follow- 
ing genus. 



no MOLLUSCA. PULMONIFERA. Carychium. 

Gen. XXV. CARYCHIUM.— Tentacula two, eyes at the 
base behind, aperture oblique. 

96. C. minimum. — Whorls tive or six, rounded, smooth, 

glossy. 

Mull. Verm. 125 — Turbo, Walk. Test. Min. t. ii. f. 51 — T. Car. Mont. 
Test. Brit. 339. — Auricula minima, Drap. Moll. 57—- Among moss, 
common. 

Length about a line, of a pale white colour, the lines of growth very mi- 
nute. Aperture slightly contracted retrally ; outer-lip with one tooth, the 
inner-lip at the pillar with two teeth. Peristome thickened, reflected. — La- 
marck substituted Auricula in place of Carychium, a change in which he has 
been followed, of course, by his countrymen. 

97. C fuscum. — Whorls six, the lines of growth distinct, 
the mouth without teeth. 

Turbo quinque anfractibus striatis apertura subovali, Walk. Test. Min. 
t. ii. f. 42 — T. fuscus Mont. Test. Brit. 330. — Auricula lineata, Drap. 
Moll. 57.— Bulimns lineatus, Turton, Zool. Journ. No. vhi. 565. — 
England. 

Length about |th of an inch, glossy, brownish 3 separating line distinct, 
marginated ; aperture rounded anteally, narrow retrally ; peristome slightly 
thickened, white. Tentacula long, between which and the eyes behind are 
two jagged spots. This species was first observed at Bysing Wood, near 
Faversham, by Walker. Mr Miller, in 1822, informed me that General 
Bingham had found it about eleven miles from Bristol, and Dr Turton ob- 
serves, that " it is found abundantly in wet springy places in various parts of 
Devonshire, imbedded among the Jungermannice, constantly exposed to the 
drippings of springs. —A variety is also found of a pale yellowish colour." 



EXTINCT SPECIES. 

1. C. incrassata. — Ovate, ventricose, transversely sulcated, longitudinally 
Striated ; spine short ; mouth angular above, with very thick lips ; columella 
three-plaited — Auricula ringens, Park, Org. Item. hi. 84. t. v. f. 4. — A. in- 
crassata, Sower. Min. Conch, t. clxiii. f. 1-3.— Green Sand, Blackdown. 

2. C. turgida — Ovate acute, turgid, transversely striated, shining ; spire 
short, acute ; aperture oblong, with thickened lips; columella two-plaited ; 
outer-lip smooth within ; thickest in the middle— Auricula turgida, Sower. 
Min. Conch, t. clxiii. f. 4.— London Clay, Highgate. 

3. C. simulata. — Oval, pointed with transverse laterally toothed costa ; 
whorls slightly ventricose ; mouth angular above ; outer-lip sharp, striated 
within ; two broad plaits upon the columella. (Bulla sim. Brander, 61.) Soiver. 
Min. Conch, t. clxiii. f. 5-8. — London Clay. 

4. C. pyramidalis. — Ovate, pointed, smooth ; spine pyramidal ; volutions 
rounded above, the last subcylindrical, short ; aperture half the length of 
the shell, with a sharp outer-lip, and two plaits upon the columella— Sewer. 
Min. Conch, t. ccclxxix. — In Crag. It is probable that these three fossil spe- 
cies are marine, and belong to a different genus. 



Balea. MOLLUSCA. PULMONIFERA. 271 



Gen. XXVI. BALEA. — Tentacula four ; pillar simple. 

98. B. perversa. — Whorls eight or nine, tapering, rounded. 

Buccinum alterum pellucidum subflavum, List. An. Ang. 124. — Turbo 
perversus, Mont. Test. Brit. 355. t. xi. f. 12. — Pupa fragilis, Drop. 
Moll. 68. — In moss at the roots of trees. 
Length nearly half an inch, translucent, with minute sharp lines of growth ; 
apex blunt ; whorls tapering regularly ; mouth rounded anteally, becoming 
narrow at the retral external angle ; peristome thin on the body, with one 
tooth, slightly reflected at the pillar, forming behind a small cavity. Ac- 
cording to Lister, the individuals pair in March, a smaller with a larger — 
This genus, instituted by Mr Prideaux, has been described by Mr Gray, 
Zool. Journ. No. i. (II. 

Gen. XXVII. CLAUSILIA.— Tentacula four ; pillar with 
an attached pedunculated testaceous scale, for closing the 
aperture. 

- 99- C. bidens. — Whorls eleven, smooth, glossy ; the pillar- 
scale emarginate. 

Buccinum exiguum, List. Conch, t. xli. large fig. — Helix bidens, Mull. 
Verm. 1 16. — Turbo bidens, Penn. Brit. Zool. iv. 131. — T. laminatus, 
Mont. Test. Brit. 359. t. xi. f. 4 — CI. bidens, Drop. Moll. 68 Eng- 
land. 

Length about Jths of an inch ; whorls slightly rounded, and well defined 
by the separating line; aperture rounded, subquadrangular ; peristome ad- 
hering to the body, slightly reflected at the pillar; two conspicuous teeth or 
folds on the body, lip, and three others, concealed within the aperture. 

- 100. C. perversa. — Whorls twelve, striated, aperture entire, 

rounded ; pillar- scale entire. 

Buccinum pullum 'opacum ore compresso circiter denis spiris fastigia- 
tum, List. An. Ang. 123. Conch, t. xli. f. 39 — Helix perversa, Mull. 

Verm. 118. — Turbo bidens, Mont. Test. Brit. 357 Clausilla rugosa, 

Drop. Moll. 73 — Turbo nigricans, Maton and Rackctt, Linn, Trans, 
viii. 180 — In walls and trees, common. 

Length about half an inch, somewhat swollen in the middle, of a brown colour. 
Whorls rounded at first, becoming more flat towards the mouth ; lines of 
growth distinct ; aperture detached from the body-whorl, rounded anteally, 
narrow retrally, with a ridge on the body-whorl behind ; peristome white, 
reflected, with two teeth on the pillar-lip ; pillar-scale entire — Judging from 
specimens obligingly sent me by Mr Millar, I am inclined to consider his 
Turbo Everetti (Annals of Phil. xix. 377-) as belonging to this species. 

101. C. biplicata. — Whorls twelve or thirteen, aperture en- 
tire, compressed ; pillar-scale entire. 

Turbo hip. Mont. Test. Brit. 316. t. ii. f. 5 In Wiltshire. 

Length about f ths of an inch, brown, with distinct lines of growth ; whorls 
slightly rounded ; aperture narrow at both ends ; peristome entire, detached, 
slightly reflected, with two approaching teeth on the body-lip. This species, 
specimens of which were sent me by Mr Montagu, does not seem to corre- 
spond with any of those described by Draparnaud The Helix' papillaris of 



%T2 MOLLUSC A. PULMONIFERA. Vertigo. 

Muller (Verm. 120.), to which Montagu refers his species with doubt, is 
more probably the T. Mdens of Dr Pultney (Dorset, 46.), which he describes 
as having the " sutures of the volutions elegantly crenated," and which Ma- 
ton and Rackett (Linn. Trans, viii. 173. t. v. f. 3.) consider as the Turbo 
Mdens of Linnaeus, but a species not of British growth. 

102. C. plicaiula. — Aperture with five or six teeth on the 
body-lip. 

Drap. Moll. 72. — C. Rolphii of Leach, Turt. on Zool. Journ. No. viii. 
565. — England. 
Length about half an inch, swollen in the middle; whorls ten or more, round- 
ed towards the apex ; lines of growth well marked, those near the aperture 
wrinkled ; aperture subquadrangular, contracted on the outer retral angle. 
The teeth vary in number, one at the end of the range large, the interme- 
diate ones small. Examples of this shell were sent me by Dr Leach, as a 
new species, from Charleston Woods, Kent. I agree, however, with Dr 
T urton, in referring it to the C. plicatida of Draparnaud, although the figure 
given in his work, expresses less perfectly the shape of the British shell tham 
the one which represents C. bidens. — Dr Turton, when noticing this shell, adds, 
" At Torquay we found a perfectly formed specimen of the C. parvula, men- 
tioned by Dr Leach. It is much less and more slender than C. rugosa of Dra- 
parnaud", and is very faintly striate or smooth, except on the lower volution. 
The two possessed by the Provost of Eton, are no doubt the same. The 
aperture resembles that of C. rugosa." 

103. C. labiata. — Whorls nine, flat; the lines of growth strong, 
continuous. 

T. labiala, Mont. Test. Brit. t. 362. t. xi. f. 6 — On trees near London, 
Mr Swainson. 
Length fths of an inch, lengthened, light brown, opake ; separating line 
obsolete, not interrupting the striae ; aperture suborbicular, contracted re- 
trally ; pillar-lip with two teeth ; peristome broad, thick, white, nearly free, 
reflected This shell, which has escaped the notice of more recent collec- 
tors, is probably only a variety of C. perversa, which exhibits considerable 
modifications of growth. 



n 



Gen. XXVIII. VERTIGO.— Tentacula two, with eyes at* 
the tips ; pillar simple. 

\ 04. V. pusilia. — Whorls five ; aperture with teeth on both 

sides. 

Mull. Verm. 124 — Turbo vertigo, Mont. Test. Brit. 363. t. xii. f. 6.— 
Pupa vertigo, Drap. Moll. 61. — Ivy -walls, England. 

Length about half a line, bluntly conical ; whorls rounded, with distinct 
lines of growth ; aperture subtriangular, the base or lip on the body-whorl 
has two conspicuous teeth ; the pillar-lip has one near its i-etral extremity ; 
the outer-lip has likewise one ; besides these there are sometimes two or 
three smaller intermediate teeth ; perisome reflected at the pillar, forming a 
distinct cavity. 



MOLLUSCA. PULMONIFERA. 273 



AQUATICA. 

Tentacula two, usually Jlat, with eyes at the base. Respire at 
the surface of the water. Sexes united ; spawn deposited 
under water on aquatic plants. Phytivorous. 

a. Shell spiral. 

b. Shell turrited. 

c. Whorls dextral. 
Limnea. 
Assiminia. 

cc. Whorls sinistral. 
Physa. 
Aplexa. 

bb. Shell discoid. Tentacula filiform. 
Planorbis. 
Segmentina. 

aa. Shell simple, conical. 
Ancylus. 

Gen. XXIX. LIMNEA. — Aperture of the shell longitudinal ; 
the outer lip, in bending in on the pillar, forming an oblique 
entering: fold. Tentacula lanceolate. 
* Shell turrited. 

— 105. L. stagnalis. — Whorls six or seven ; the last large in 

proportion. 

Bucc. longum 6 spirarum, List. An. Ang. 137- Conch. Tab. 123, f. 21. — 
B. stag. Mull. Verm. ii. 132. — Helix stag. Penn. Brit. Zool. iv. 138. 
tab. lxxxvi. f. 130. Mont. Test. Brit. 367— In lakes and stagnant 
waters. 

Length nearly 2 inches ; brownish, translucent ; lines of growth distinct, 
with numerous longitudinal wrinkles ; the upper whorls smooth ; the separat- 
ing line distinct. Lister mentions having seen a variety with branched ten- 
tacula. 

106. L. fragilis. — Whorls six, diaphanous ; upper whorls 
with a shallow oblique separating line. 

Helix fragilis, Mont. Test. Brit. 369, tab. xvi. f. 7-— In canals in Eng- 
land and Ireland. 

This species is less than the preceding ; the aperture is narrower ; the 
spires increase more gradually, and the first formed ones are less rounded. 
It was observed by Montagu, in the Kennet and Avon Canal, Wiltshire. It 
likewise occurs in the Grand Canal near Dublin. The specimens I possess 
were sent to me by Dr Leach, from the Croydon Canal. 

107. L. detrita. — Shell thick, obtusely conical, of six whorls, 
with a brown band along the line of separation. 

VOL. I. S 



274 MOLLUSCA. PULMONIFERA. Limnea, 

Helix detrita, Pult. Dorst. 49. Mont. Test. Brit. 384, tab. xi. f. 1 

In England and Ireland. 

Length fths of an inch; lines of growth numerous, fine, with minute lon- 
gitudinal striae, sometimes plain or with one, two, or three brown bands ; 
whorls nearly flat ; aperture narrow ; pillar-lip reflected, forming a distinct 
cavity behind. Mr Bryer found this shell in a pool near Weymouth, and in 
a stream near Dorchester. Dr Turton adds, that it is found at Dublin. 
Judging from English and foreign specimens sent to me by the late Rev. 
James Lambert senior, Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, I am inclined to 
consider the Helix detrita of Pultney, and the Bulimus radiatus of Drapernaud, 
as distinct species, the latter being a land shell. 

108. L. palustrls. — Shell brown ; whorls six, tapering to a 

sharp point. 

Bucc. minus fuscum, List. An. Aug. 139. Conch, tab. 124. f. 24. — H. 
stagnalis, var. B., Penn. Brit. Zool. iv. 139.— H. pal. MonL Test. Brit. 

370, tab. xvi. f. 10 H. fragilis et fontinalis, Don. Brit. Shells, tab. 175, 

f. 1, 2. — In ditches and swamps. Common. 

Length about fths of an inch, with numerous lines of growth, and longitu- 
dinal wrinkles ; whorls rounded ; peristome thickened, purplish. 

109. L. octona. — Whorls eight ; shell subcylindrical, pointed. 

Helix octona, Linn. Svst. i. 1248. — Bucc. glabrum, Mull. Verm. ii. 135. 
H. oct. Penn. Brit. Zool. iv. 138, tab. lxxxvi. f. 135. Pult. Dorst. 49. 
— H. octanfracta, Mont. Test. Brit. 396, tab. xi. f. 8. — L. elongatus, 
Drap. Moll. 53 In slow running ditches. 

Length fths, breadth of the body-whorl about Ath of an inch ; yellow- 
ish-brown ; whorls rather flat, striated across ; mouth narrow ; fold on the 
pillar elevated. Animal dusky ; foot short ; tentacula narrow, flat ; eyes at 
the internal base, in a shallow cavity, covered by a small protuberance, re- 
sembling the rudiments of tentacula. This seems a very local species. Mon- 
tagu found it in Cornwall ; and it has occurred to me in several ditches in the 
upper part of Linlithgowshire. The Physa scaluriginum of Drapernaud, 
(Moll. 56), and named as British by Dr Turton (Zool.' Journ.N'. VIII. 565.) 
seems to be only the young of this species. 

— 110. L.Jhssaria. — Whorls five, rounded; pillar-lip broad, re- 
flected. 

H. foss. Mont. Test. Brit. 372, tab. xvi. f. 9. — In shallow muddy pools. 
Common. 

Length |ths of an inch ; whorls increasing more rapidly than in the preced- 
ing ; striated across, and wrinkled longitudinally ; sepai'ating line deep ; mouth 
wide ; lip, in descending on the pillar, broad and reflected, exhibiting the 
oblique fold very indistinctly — This is probably the Turbo striatus quatuor 
anfractibus apertura ovali marginata of Walker, Test. Min. tab. ii. f. 57, called 
T. rivulus, by Montagu, and Limnea minuta by Drap. Moll. 53. — This spe- 
cies and the L. octona frequently creep out of the water, and. remain for some 
time in a quiescent stale. 

** Shell vcntr'icose. 

111. L. Ihnosa. — Whorls five; the first four rounded; mouth 

slightly contracted. 

H. lim. Linn. Syst. i. 1249.— Bucc. peregrum, Mull. Verm. ii. 130.— H. 
putris, Penn. Brit. Zool. iv. 139, tab. lxxxvi. f. 137— H. peregra. 



Limnea. MOLLUSCA. PULMONIFERA. 275 

Mont. Test. Brit. 373, tab. xvi. f. 3 — L. ovatus, Drap. Moll. 50 — In 
ponds and rivers. Common. 
Length seldom exceeding an inch ; translucent, with minute lines of 
growth, and longitudinal wrinkles.— This shell, every where abundant, exhi- 
bits considerable differences in its mode of growth and forms, according to the 
places it inhabits, and has given rise to the construction of many spurious 
species. 

— 112. L. auricularia. — Whorls four, the three first minute, 

flat pointed. 

Buccinum pellucidum, subflavum, quatuor spirarum, mucrone acutissi- 
mo, testae apertura omnium maxima, List. An. Ang. 139. Conch, 
tab. 123, f. 22 — H. auricula, Linn, Syst. i. 1250. Penn. Brit. Zool. 
iv. 138. Mont. Test. Brit. 375, tab. xvi. f. 2 In stagnant pools. Eng- 
land. 

Length about an inch, thin, subpellucid, striated across, and wrinkled lon- 
gitudinally ; mouth wide ; the outer lip semicircular. — This species is often 
confounded with the preceding, from which it differs in the apex being more 
pointed, the three first spires more minute, and the outer lip more expanded. 

113. L. glutinosa. — Whorls three; the two first minute, the 
last ventricose, and diaphanous. 

Bucc. glut. Mull. Verm. ii. 12G — Helix glut. Mont. Test. Brit- 379, 
tab. xvi. f. 5. — In ponds. England. 

Length about half an inch, thin, fragile, glossy, nearly smooth ; aperture 
oval, without the fold on the pillar-lip. Animal large in proportion to its 
shell ; of a yellow colour. 

114. L. lutea. — Whorls scarcely three; the last large in pro- 
portion ; pillar-lip spreading. 

H. lutea, Mont. Test. Brit. 380, tab. xvi. f. 6. Turt. Conch. Diet. 69. 
Shepp. Linn. Trans, xiv. 169. England. 

Length half an inch, suboval, subpellucid, yellow, smooth, apex obtuse, 
aperture patulous, oval. — The two authors first quoted seem to consider this 
, as a sea-shell; while the last states that he has taken it in abundance at 
Winthorpe, on the banks of the Trent, after a flood, and at least thirty miles 
above its junction with the salt-water. He adds, " it probably inhabits the 
depths of rivers." 

115. Assiminea Grayana. — Dr Leach sent me, several years 
ago, a shell, from Greenwich marshes, constituting " a new fresh 
water genus, 1 '' under the title Assiminea Grayana. The lip is 
thickened on the pillar, and reflected over the cavity, but is des- 
titute of the oblique fold ; and the lip does not extend over the 
body-whorl. The colour is brown ; the whorls six in number, 
conical, regularly increasing in size, glossy, with minute lines of 
growth. Length about T a ths of an inch. 



EXTINCT SPECIES. 

1. L.fusiformis — Subfusiform, smooth; sides of the spire nearly straight ; 
aperture narrow, half the length of the shell, Sower. Min. Conch, tab. 169* 
£ 2, 3 — Fresh water formation, Isle of Wight. 

S 2 



276' MOLLUSCA. PULMONIFERA. Physa. 

2. L. minima. — Elongated, smooth ; volutions rather convex ; aperture less 
than half the length of the shell, ovate ; last whorl not ventricose, Sower. 
Min. Conch, tat). 169, f. 1. — Fresh water formation, Isle of Wight. 

3. L. longiscata. — Elongated, smooth ; aperture ovate, elongated ; two-fifths 
the length of the shell ; plait upon the columella obscure, Sower. Min. Conch, 
tab. 343. — Upper fresh water formation, Headon Hill. 

4. L. maxima. — Ovate elongated, rather obtuse ; whorls about six, slight- 
ly concave; aperture narrow, occupying less than half the length of the shell, 
Sower. Min. Conch, tab. 538. f. 1. — Fresh water formation, Isle of Wight. 

5. L. columellaris. — Ovate pointed ; spire short ; whorls about 5, convex ; 
aperture wide, above half the length of the shell ; columella much twisted, 
and very thick, Sower. Min. Conch, tab. 528, f. 2. — Fresh water strata, Hord- 
well Cliff. 

G. L. pyramidalis. — Ovate acute ; whorls convex ; aperture half as long as 
the shell, dilated ; plait of the pillar obscurely divided, Sower. Min. Conch, 
tab. 528, f. 3 — In the fresh water formation of Headon Hill, Isle of Wight. 



Gen. XXX. PHYSA. — Shell convoluted ; aperture longitu- 
dinal ; peristome wanting in the body-whorl ; margin of the 
. cloak loose, divided into lobes, and capable of being reflect- 
ed over the surface of the shell, near the mouth. 

116. P.jbnt'inalis. — Whorls four, increasing suddenly from 

the apex to the body- whorl, which is very large. 

Buccinum exiguum, List. An. Ang. 142. Conch, tab. 134, f. 34 Pla- 

norbis Bulla, Mull. Verm. ii. 167 Bulla fontinalis, Linn. Syst. L 

1185. Mont. Test. Brit. 226 — Ph. font. Drap. Moll. 54.— Common 
in lakes and slow running streams. 

Length about half an inch ; pellucid, glossy, horn-coloured, with minute 
lines of growth ; whorls rounded ; aperture narrow behind ; the body-whorl 
projecting. Animal pale dusky yellow ; an interesting object when viewed 
crawling against the surface of the water, and extending its delicate, trans- 
parent, divided cloak over the surface of the shell. The P. alba of Dr Tur- 
ton, Zool. Journ. vol. ii. p. 363. t. xiii. f. 3, does not appear to be distinct. 

Gen. XXXI. APLEXA. — Shell convoluted ; peristome en- 
tire ; pillar- lip with a fold ; margin of the cloak entire, and 
incapable of being reflected over the shell. 

117. A. hypnorum. — Spire lengthened; aperture rounded an- 

teally. 

Bucc. heterostrophon, List. Conch, tab. 1059, f. 5. — Planorbis turritus, 
Mall. Venn. Hist. ii. 169.— Bulla hypnor. Linn. Syst. i. 1185. — Turbo 
stagnalis, Walk. Test. Min. 15. tab. ii. f. 54,— Bulla hyp. Mont. Test 
Brit. 228. — Not uncommon in lakes and slow running streams. 

Length upwards of half an inch, deep horn-colour, glossy, translucent ; 
whorls four or five, rather flat, the last one occupying two-thirds of its whole 
length ; aperture narrow behind, the outer-lip nearly straight ; pillar-lip thick, 
reflected. 



Planorbis. MOLLUSCA. PULMONIFERA. OT 

118. A. rivalis. — Spire short, pointed ; aperture contracted 

anteally. 

Bulla riv. Maton and Racked, Linn. Trans, viii. 126. tab. iv. f. 2. Turt> 
Conch. Diet. 26. — Physa subopaca, Lamark, Hist. Vert. vol. vi. p. 2. 157* 
— In slow streams, rare. 

Length scarcely half an inch ; pale horn-coloured, glossy; whorls five, the 
last occupying fths of the whole length ; apex pointed ; aperture with the 
outer-lip more rounded than the last, and the pillar-lip more recurved an- 
teally This shell was first recorded as having been found in Hampshire, by 

Mr Hay. Dr Turton has seen it alive at Naas, in Ireland. Other localities 
have been mentioned, but they are regarded as spurious. — It is a common 
shell from the West Indies. 






Gen. XXXII. PLANORBIS.— Cavity of the shell entire, 
sinistral ; the vent, pulmonary cavity, and sexual organs on 
the left side ; tentacula filiform. 

* Whorls rounded on the margin. 

— 119. P. corneus. — Whorls four, rounded; concave above; 
mouth suborbicular. 

Cochlea pulla, List. An. Ang. 143. Conch, t. 137- f. 41 — Planorbis 
purpura, Mull. Verm. ii. 154 — Helix cornea, Linn. Syst. i. 1243. 
Penn. Brit. Zool. iv. 134. Mont. Test. Brit. 449 — In ponds and slow 
streams. England. 
Breadth about an inch ; brown, glossy ; lines of growth distinct ; whorls 
above, increasing rapidly, and forming a central cavity ; below, the whorls are 
nearly on the same plane, well defined by the separating line ; last whorl pro- 
jecting into the cavity of the aperture. When irritated, the animal pours 
forth a purple fluid from the sides, between the foot and margin of the cloak. 
The H. nana of Pennant is the young of this species. 

120. P. spirorbis. — Whorls five, rounded ; flat above ; aper- 
ture suborbicular. 

Mull. Verm. ii. 161. H. spir. Linn. Syst. i. 1244. Mont. Test. Brit. 
455, Suppl. tab. xxv, f. 2 — In pools. 
Breadth about T 3 g ths of an inch ; nearly equally flat on both sides ; of a 
brown colour ; whorls round, slender, and increasing in size very gradually ; 
deeplv divided by the separating line ; aperture nearly round, scarcely inter- 
rupted by the body-whorl. —This species is stated by Montagu as common in 
England. In Scotland it has occurred to us only in Livingstone Woods, 
West Lothian- 

121. P. contortus. — Whorls six, compressed ; flat above, con- 
cave below. 

Helix con. Linn. Syst. i. 1244 — Plan. con. Mull. Verm. ii. 162.— H. con. 
Mont. Test. Brit. 457. tab. xxv. f. 6.— In pools and ditches, not com- 
mon. 
Breadth about T 2 5 ths of an inch ; whorls compressed, rounded, even on the 
upper side, narrow, and deeply divided by the separating line ; beneath, a 
large central cavity ; aperture narrow, bent. 



27S MOLLUSC A. PULMONIFERA. Planorbis. 

122. P. albus. — Concave on both sides, striated transversely 
and longitudinally ; aperture oblique, dilated. 

Mull. Verm. ii. 164. — Helix umbilicata quatuor anfractibus apertura sub- 
rotunda, Walk. Test. Min. 5. tab. 1. l!) — Helix alba, Mont. Test. Brit. 
459. Supp. tab. xxv. f. 7 — P. bispidus, Drop. Moll. 43 — In ponds, com- 
mon. 

Breadth about a quarter of an inch ; whorls four, last whorl greatly larger 
than the preceding one, slightly depressed ; aperture entire ; lower-lip join- 
ing the body, ascending ; the upper-lip advanced. 

123. P. nautilus. — Shell flat above, concave below, with 

transverse ridges, which, on the margin, form a spinous ridge. 

Turbo Nautilus, Linn. Syst. i. 1241 — P. imbricatus, Mull. Verm. ii. 

165 Helix, Walk. Test. Min. 6. t. i. f. 20, 21.— Turbo Naut. Mont. 

Test. Brit. 466. Supp. t. xxv. f. 5 — In ditches in England, common. 

Breadth |th of an inch ; whorls four, flat, but well defined by the separat- 
ing line ; below, a deep cavity, exhibiting more rounded whorls ; aperture en- 
tire, suborbicular. As the transverse ridges are partly cuticular, they are 
liable to be rubbed off. 

124. P. nitidus. — Glossy ; a central cavity on both sides ; 

aperture interrupted by the preceding whorl. 

Mull. Verm. ii. 163 Helix fontana, Lightfoot, Phil. Trans. 1786, 165. 

t. 11. f. 1, 4. Mont. Test. Brit. 462. t. vi. f. 6 — In ditches, England 
and Scotland. 

Breadth about T e 5 ths of an inch ; nearly equally convex on both sides ; 
above, the body-whorl is highest on its central edge, sloping downwards to 
the exterior margin ; the shallow central cavity exhibits the preceding whorls ; 
below, the body-whorl is nearly flat, and the deep central cavity scarcely dis- 
plays the preceding whorl ; aperture subtriangular, the lips on both sides em- 
bracing the body-whorl. 

** Whorls carinated- 

125. P. vortex. — Whorls six or seven; slightly concave above; 

beneath flat. 

Cochlea exigua subfusca, List. An. Ang. 145. Conch, t. 138. f. 43. — He- 
lix vort. Linn. Syst. i. 1243 Planorbis vort. Mull. Verm. ii. 158. — 

H. vort. Penn. Brit. Zool. iv. 133. Mont. Test. Brit. 454. Supp. t. xxv. 
f. 3 In ditches, England and Ireland. 

Breadth §tbs of an inch ; whorls increasing gradually, narrow, broadest on 
the under side ; slightly carinated near the lower edge ; mouth subtriangular. 

In its young state, this seems to be the Helix rhombea of Dr Turton, Conch. 

Diet. 47. 

126. P. complanatus. — Whorls five, carinated at the lower 
edge ; above, nearly concave ; beneath slightly flat. 

Helix comp. Linn. Syst. 1242. — Plan, umbilicatus, Mull. Verm, 160 — 
H. comp. Mont. Test. Brit. 450. Supp. t. 25. f. 3.— P. marginatus, Drap. 

Moll. 45 In ponds and ditches, common. 

Breadth upwards of half an inch ; whorls increasing so as to form a slight 
concavity ; rounded ; line of separation deep ; close upon the under margin is 
the keel, which does not enter the subquadrangular aperture ; the whorls be- 
low slightly rounded ; lines of growth distinct ; tentacula dusky, dark in the 
middle. 



Segmentina. MOLLUSCA. PULMONIFERA. 279 

— 127. P. carinatus. — Whorls four ; keel near the middle of the 
whorl, and entering the aperture. / 

Cochlea fusca, List. An. Ang. 145. Conch, t. 138. f. 42.— Helix Planor- 
bis, Linn. Syst. i. 1242. — P. car. Mull. Verm. ii. 157-— H. car. Mont. 
Test. Brit. 451. Supp. t. xxv. £ 1 — In ditches. 
This shell chiefly differs from the preceding, in the whorls above increasing 
more rapidly, forming a larger central cavity ; in the greater flatness below ; 
in the ridge entering the aperture ; and in the tentacula being pellucid yel- 
low. 



EXTINCT SPECIES. 

1. P. ajlindricus.— Cylindrical; left side concentrically striated ; volutions 
three or four, adpressed ; aperture oblong, quadrangular. — Sower. Min. Conch, 
t. 140. f. 2. — Fresh-water formation, Isle of Wight. 

2. P. obtusus. — Depressed ; left side most concave ; volutions embracing^ 
slightly compressed on the right ; aperture obliquely and obtusely obcordate* 
—Sower. Min. Conch, t. 140. f. 3. Isle of Wight. 

3. P. lens Lenticular, subcarinated ; volutions embracing ; aperture very 

oblique, obcordate Sower. Min. Conch, t. 140. f. 4. Isle of Wight. 

4. P. hemestoma Depressed, smooth ; right side convex, umbilicate ; left 

side flat; aperture oblique, sub triangular. — Soioer. Min. Conch, t. 140. f. C. 
Plastic-clay, Plumstead. 

5. P. radiatus Lenticular, radiated ; left side umbilicate ; volutions near- 
ly concealed ; aperture obcordate. — Sower. Min. Conch, t. 140. f. 5. Green- 
sand, 

6. P. euomphalus.~— Depressed, subcarinated ; concentrically striated ; right 
side flat; left side hvrgely umbilicate; aperture subtriangular. — Sower. Min. 
Conch, t. 140. f. 1, 9. Isle of Wight — The P. rotundatus of Brongniart is 
mentioned in the Mineral Conchology as occurring in Hordwell Cliff, along 
with Limnea columellaris, t. 528. The three last species are probably marine, 
and belong to the genus Skenea. 

Gen. XXXIII. SEGMENTING— Shell divided internally 
by transverse partitions, into several chambers, which com- 
municate with each other by triradiated apertures. 

128. S. lineaia, — Shell convex above, flat beneath, with a 
central cavity on both sides. 

Helix lineata dorso convexo umbilicata margine acuto, Walk. Test. Min. 

8. t. l.f. 28 Nautilus lacustris, Lighffoot, Phil. Trans. 1786, 160. t. 1. 

f. 1, 7. Mont. Test. Brit. 191. t. vi. f. 3 — On aquatic plants in ditches, 

England. 
Breadth scarcely a quarter of an inch, glossy, horn-coloured, with a whitish 
spiral line at the junction of the whorls above ; whorls below, flat, with an 
acute margin ; aperture obliquely semioval, the lips clasping the body ; cham- 
bers distant, three in the body-whorl ; partitions of three subtriangular dis- 
tinct plates, two lateral and one on the central side ; these partitions form 
white centroperipheral lines externally. 



280 MOLLUSCA. PULMONIFERA. Segmentina, 

Gen. XXXIV. ANCYLUS.— Shell conical; foot short ; tenta- 
cula short, flat, and a little truncated. 

129- A.jluviatilis. — Aperture suborbicular ; apex lateral. 

Patella fluviatilis, List. An. Ang. 151. Conch. 1. 141, f. 39. — P. lacustris, 
Linn. Svst. i. 1260,— An. fluv. Mull. Verm. ii. 201.— P. fluv. Mont. 

Test. Brit. 482. Don. Brit. Shells, t. 147 On stones in rivulets, 

common. 

Length about fths, breadth fths of an inch ; height nearly equal to the 
breadth ; horn-coloured, with concentric wrinkles crossed by faint lines ; apex 
pointed, a little recurved. 

130. A. lacustris. — Aperture oblong ; apex nearly central. 

Mull. Verm. 199 — Patella oblonga, Light. Phil. Trans. 1786, 168. t. 111. 
f. I, 6 — P. lac. Mont. Test. Brit. 484. Don. Brit. Sh. t. 150 — On 
plants in ditches and lakes. 

Length ith of an inch ; breadth |th, height scarcely y^th of an inch, thin* 
smooth, greenish, compressed; apex low, pointed, recurved. 



EXTINCT SPECIES. 

1. A. elegans. — Convex, subconical ; aperture longitudinally obovate ; apex 
oblique, eccentric, near the narrowest part of the aperture — Sower. Min. 

Conch, t. 533 Found in dark-grey sand of the London clay, at Hordwell, by 

Charles Lyell, Esq. jun. 



MOLLUSCA. BRANCHIFERA. £81 



BRANCHIFERA. 

I. Tribe. — Nudibrancliia. 

a. Branchiae when at rest not covered by a lid. Nudibranchia. 

b. Branchiae issuing from the cloak dorsally. 

c. Body destitute of a shell. Marine. 

d. Anus situate near the posterior extremity of the back, 
and surrounded with a fringe of plumose branchiae. 
Doris. 
Polycera. 

dd. Anus on the right side unconnected with the branchiae, 
which are disposed along the back and sides, and un- 
connected with membranaceous expansions. Jaws 
corneous. 

e. Tentacula two in number. 
Tergipes. 
Tritonia. 

ee. Tentacula four in number. 
JMontagua. 
Eolida. 
ce. Body covered by a spiral shell. Lacustrine. 
Valvata. 

bb. Branchiae issuing latterly from between the cloak and the fool. 
Body protected dorsallv by a shell. Cyclobranchia. Marine. 
Patella. 
Chiton. 

aa. Branchiae single, when at rest concealed under a lid. Tectibran- 
chia. Marine. 

b. Head with tentacula. 
Aplysia. 
Pleurobranchus. 

bb. Head destitute of tentacula. 
Bulba. 

II. Tribe. — Pectinibranchia. 

a. Heart entire, and detached from the rectum. Cryptobraxchia. 

ma. Heart with two auricles, and traversed by the rectum. Scoti- 
branchia. 



282 MOLLUSCA. BRANCHIFERA. Doris. 



Gen. XXXV. DORIS. — Oral, tentacula two ; vent destitute 
of scales. 

131. D. Ar go, — Body nearly smooth ; branchial plumes 

about twelve in number. 

Linn. Syst. i. 1083. Penn. Brit. Zool. iv. 43. t. xxii. t.22 Among the 

sea-weeds and crevices of rocks near low water-mark, common. 

The usual length is about 3 inches, convex above, and rounded at each ex- 
tremity ; of a lemon-yellow colour, slightly freckled, sometimes tinged with 
brown. Spawn white, gelatinous and compressed. 

132. D. verrucosa. — Cloak closely covered with prominent 

tubercles ; branchial plumes about 24 in number. 

Penn. Brit. Zool. iv. 43. t. xxi. f. 23. Cuvier, Ann. Mus. iv. t. lxxiii. 

f. 4, 5 Common with the preceding; frequently cast ashore by 

storms. 

Length about an inch, of a whitish colour, more or less freckled with 
brown. The tubercles are rough, and of different sizes, those at the base of 
the "upper tentacula are compressed ; they are pervious at the summits. 
Margin entire, waved. Tentacula round and smooth towards the base, com- 
pressed and imbricated towards the summit. Branchial plumes arranged in 
a semicircle, those at each end shortest. 

133. D. Icevis. — Cloak smootli in the middle, slightly tuber- 
culated towards the margin; branchial plumes 8 in number. 

Mull. Zool. Dan. t. xlvii. f. 3-5— Common among the Zetland Isles. 

Length about half an inch, rounded in front, narrow behind ; of a milk- 
white colour. 

134. D. marginata. — Cloak smooth, tinged with pink ; an 
undulating membranaceous border, usually four pointed, in 
front. 

Mont. Linn. Trans, vii. Id. t. vii. f. 7-— Coast of Devonshire. 

Length about a quarter of an inch, oval, whitish ; tentacula wrinkled ; the 
branchial plumes are figured as 7 in number, and the head as slightly emar- 
ginate. 

This species is certainly distinct from the D. loevis of Muller, to which 
Montagu refers it ; though it may be no other than the D. electrina of Pen- 
nant, whose notices, however, are too imperfect to give much weight to the 
conjecture. 

135. D. nodosa. — Cloak with four equidistant papilla? on 
each side the medial line. 

Mont. Linn. Trans, ix. 107- t. vii. f. 2 — Coast of Devon. 

Length about half an inch ; white, with a tinge of pink on the back. Foot 
broad in front, pointed behind, forming a membranaceous border. Upper 

tentacula short, perfoliated towards the extremity According to Montagu, 

this species is rare on the coast of Devon. I have once observed it among 
the rocks at St Andrew's. 



Polyceka. MOLLUSCA. BRANCHIFERA. 283 

136. D. quadricornis. — Cloak smooth in the middle, with a 
row of obsolete tubercles on each side ; tentacula approximat- 
ing in pairs. 

Mont. Linn. Trans, xi. 17- 1. iv. f. 4. — Coast of Devon. 
Length |ths of an inch, mottled with brown and white ; tentacula long, 
slender ; branchial plumes about 8 in number. 

137. D. nigricans. — Cloak thickly covered with short lan- 
ceolate tubercles ; branchial plumes about 8 in number. 

Flem. Edin. Encyc. vol. xiv. p. 618 — Zetland. 
Length about half an inch, pale, freckled with dusky ; cloak emarginate 
anteally ; sheath of the superior tentacula notched in the margin. 

Gen. XXXVI. POLYCERA.— Oral, tentacula exceeding 
two in number ; branchiae, when at rest covered, by two 
scales. 

138. Y.flava. — Oral, tentacula four ; superior tentacula awl 
shaped ; branchial scales smooth, produced. 

Doris flava, Mont. Linn. Trans, vii. 79- t. vii. f. 6 — Coast of Devon. 
Length upwards of half an inch, narrow behind ; body spotted with bright 
orange yellow ; branchial plumes 7 in number, behind which are the long 
scales or fleshy appendages. 

139- P- pennigera. — Upper tentacula subclavate, perfoliate, 
with a bifid basilar sheath. 

Doris penn. Mont. Linn. Trans, xi. 17- t. iv. f. 5. — Devon coast, rare. 

Length an inch ; bifid anteally, acuminated behind ; spotted with orange 
and black ; branchial plumes 5, with two bifid appendages.— .The absence of 
the oral tentacula, and the peculiar character of the superior ones, and of the 
branchial appendage, mark this species as the type of a new genus, which may 
be termed Thecacera. 

In 1814 I observed an animal in a pool among the rocks on the shore near 
Aberbrothock, Angus-shire, which probably belonged to the genus Polycera, 
but which I was unable to secure. The oral tentacula were 6 in number ; 
the superior tentacula produced, and beautifully pinnate ; the branchial plumes 
were numerous ; body wide before, becoming very narrow behind the vent. 

Gen. XXXVII. TERGIPES— Branchise, furnished witli 
a sheath at the base, in a single row on each side, and ca- 
pable of acting as suckers., 

• 140. T. maculatus. — Branchia?, 4 on each side and 1 near 
the extremity of the body, consisting of a clavate sheath with 
a sexpartite margin, and a concave summit with a central pa- 
pilla. 

Doris maculata, Mcnt. Linn. Trans, vii. 80. t. vii. f. 8, 9.— Coast of 
Devon. 



284 MOLLUSCA. BRANCHIFERA. Tritonia. 

Length about a quarter of an inch, of a slender form, the front obtuse, ta- 
pering behind, of a pale yellow, with minute pink spots ; tentacula slender, 
filiform, with a large trumpet-shaped basilar sheath. 

Gen. XXXVIII. TRITONIA. — Branchial plumes in a 
row on each side the back, and destitute of basilar sheaths. 

141. T. Hombergii. — Branchiae forming a continuous plu- 
mose crest on each side the cloak, between which and the mar- 
gin of the foot, the body is compressed and smooth. 

Cuv. Ann. Mus. i. t. xxxi. f. 1, 2 — (Limace de mer palmifere, Diquemare, 
Journ. Phys. Oct. 1785, t. ii.)- Firth of Forth. 

Length upwards of 2 inches, sometimes approaching to 8 ; of a purplish 
colour. Cloak convex, thickly covered with unequal soft tubercles ; tenta- 
cula consisting of five plumose divisions, each surrounded at the base by a 

prominent ring This, the largest species of the genus, was first detected in 

our seas by J. G. Daly el, Esq. the learned author of the treatise on the 
PlanaricB. 

142. T. arbor escens. — Branchiae, 5 or 6 on each side, in the 
form of plumose tubercles. 

Doris arb. Mull. Zool. Dan. Prod. p. 229 — Fab. Fauna gr. 346. T. arb. 
Cuv. Ann. Mus. vi. t. lxi. f. 8-10. Flem. Edin. Encyc. xiv. 619. 
Length about an inch ; foot narrow, sides compressed ; cloak smooth, its 
margin above the mouth with four plumose appendages ; branchiae decreas- 
ing in size towards the tail ; tentacula conical, transversely striated ; the 
sheath with a divided margin. I have found this species in the Zetland 
Isles, agreeing with the characters of Cuvier, with this difference, that the 
branchiae in his are only 5 on each side, while in our specimen they appeared 
to be 6. But as the two posterior ones are very small, and as his examples 
were preserved in spirits, it is probable that they have escaped detection. It 
has likewise been found in the Frith of Forth, by Dr Grant, who, when keep- 
ing it confined in a glass vessel, observed that it possessed the power of emit- 
ing distinctly audible sounds. 

143. T. pinnatifida. — Branchiae 9 on each side, ovate and 
imbricated with conical papillae. 

Doris pin. Mont. Linn. Trans, vii. 79. t. vii. f. 2, 3 — Coast of Devon. 
Length T s 5 ths of an inch; body slender, rounded in front, tapering behind, 
of a grey colour, spotted with green. Tentacula filiform, with a trumpet- 
shaped basilar sheath. The branchiae are longer than the breadth of the 
the body, and the papillae, which have black tips, are arranged in 5 or 6 
whorls. 

144. T. bifida. — Branchiae, in a single row on each side, nu- 
merous, unequal, ovate, pedunculated. 

Doris bif. Mont. Linn. Trans, xi. 198. t. xiv. f. 3 — Coast of Devon. 
Length about a quarter of an inch ; body linear, acuminated behind, the 
front rounded, of a whitish colour, with a reddish brown line on each side of 
the back. Sheath of the tentacula broad, erect, bifid ; behind which are two 
black eyes. Branchiae, 12 on each side, 3 in each division larger than the 
rest, the club semitransparent, uniform on the surface, but complicated 
within. 



Montagua. MOLLUSCA. BRANCHIFERA. 285 

Gen. XXXIX. MONTAGUA. — Branchiae in continuous 
rows across the back ; a cluster of short papillae on the 
right side. 

145. M. longicornis. — Anterior tentacula filiform, produced, 
superior ones short ; branchiae linear. 

Doris long. Mont. Linn. Trans, ix. 107« t. vii. f. i. — Coast of Devon. 

Length half an inch ; body slender, acuminated behind, of a yellowish- 
white, tinged with pink ; eyes 2, at the base of the superior tentacula. The 
cluster of papilla? near the eyes ; branchiae, in four transverse rows, pink, 
spotted with white. 

146. M. cceruUa. — Tentacula linear, nearly of equal length; 
branchiae ovate. 

Doris coer. Mont. Linn. Trans, ix. 78. t. vii. f. 4,5 — Coast of Devon. 

Length a quarter of an inch ; of a green colour ; the eyes at the base of 
the superior tentacula. Papillae two, oval, of a pink colour, placed between 
the second and third row of branchiae, and a little inclining to one side ; 
branchiae in 5 or 6 rows, green at the bast, blue in the middle, and orange at 
the tip ; body of a linear form. 

Gen. XL. EOLIDA. — Branchiae interrupted on the back. 

147. E. papillosa. — Sides thickly covered with subulate 

branchiae. 

Doris, Baster. Op. Sub. i. 81. t. x. f. 1 — Limax papillosus, Linn. Syst. i. 

1082 Purple Doris, Cordiner, Rem. Ruins, No. xxi. f. d — Dor. pa- 

pil. Mull. Zool. Dan. t. cxlix. f. 1-4. Mont. Linn. Trans, xi. 16. t. iv. 
f. 3 D. vermigera, Turton, Brit. Fauna, 133 — Common, among sea- 
weeds, near low water. 

Length nearly 3 inches, of a brownish colour, tinged with purple. Ten- 
tacula linear, the lower ones smooth, the upper ones annulated. The bran- 
chiae appear to be disposed obliquely in rows, containing about ten in each ; 
they cease before reaching the retral extremity. 

148. E. plumosa. — A single row of simple linear branchiae 
on each side. 

Tritonia plumosa, Flem. Edin. Encyc xiv. G19. — In Zetland. 
Length about half an inch. The superior tentacula pinnated towards the 
dextral extremity ; the front ones simple. 

149. E. pedata. — Branchia collected in four tufts on each 
side. Tentacula subclavate, wrinkled. 

Doris ped. Mont. Linn. Trans, xi. 197. t. xiv. f. 2 — Coast of Devon. 

Length half an inch, body slender, acuminated, of a pink colour. The 
eyes behind the superior tentacula. Branchiae inclining to a scarlet colour, 
filiform, numerous in each tuft. Foot with a lateral fleshy expansion on 
each side. 

150. E. purpurascens. — Five bundles of branchiae on each 
side. Tentacula linear. 



286 MOLLUSCA. BRANCHIFERA. Valvata. 

Flem. Phil. Zool. ii. 470. t. iv. f. 2 — Frith of Tay. 

Length about an inch, slender, pointed behind, rounded in front, of a pink 
colour. Anteal tentacula, shorter than the superior ones, which have the 
eyes behind. Three filiform branchiae in each bundle. 

Gen. XLI. VALVATA. — Shell spiral ; aperture circular, 
operculated. Branchiae single, plumose issuing from the 
neck. 

151. V. cristata. — Shell depressed, of three or four whorls, 

nearly flat above, concave below. 

Mull. Verm. ii. 198. — Helix cornea quatuor anfractibus apertura rotun- 
da, Walk. Test. Min. 5. t. i. f. 18 — Helix exist. Mont Test. Brit. 
460. fig. i. f. 7, 8. — In rivers and ditches, England. 

Breadth about T ' n th of an inch, light horn-coloured ; whorls rounded, in- 
creasing gradually, slightly wrinkled across ; the central cavity exposes all 
the whorls ; aperture attached to the body-whorl, but not interrupted by it ; 
operculum spirally striated. Animal dusky, tentacula three, two placed in 
front, at the base of which are the eyes, and one on the right side, corres- 
ponding with the branchia, setaceous and produced. Front emarginate. 

152. V. piscinalis. — Shell turrited, whorls four or five, round- 
ed, with a large central cavity. 

Nerita pis. Mull. Verm. ii. 172 — Turbo tribus anfractibus, umbilicatus 
apertura subrotunda, Walk. Test. Min. 15. t. ii. f. 56. — Turbo fonti- 
nalis, Mont. Test. Brit. 348. t. xxii. f. 4 — In lakes and slow running 
streams, common. 
Breadth and height about a quarter of an inch. Whorls increasing rapid- 
ly, yellowish-brown, distinctly striated across ; central cavity distinct, but 
not large ; apex obtuse ; aperture orbicular, lip thin, slightly attached to the 
body-whorl ;• operculum spirally striated, with a central knob. Animal like 
the last. 

Gen. XLII. PATELLA. Limpet.— Shell entire, conical; 
snout with two pointed tentacula, with eyes at the base ; 
tongue long, strap-shaped, covered with three rows of in- 
terrupted reflected short spines. 

153. P. vulgata. Common Limpet. — Shell with about four- 
teen obsolete angles ; apex nearly central, blunt. 

P. ex livido cinerea, striata, List. An. Ang. 195. ; Conch, t. dxxxv. 14. 

P. vul. Linn. Syst. i. 1258. Mont. Test. Brit. 475 Common on 

rocks, near low water-mark. 

Shell sometimes 2\ inches long, and 2 inches broad in the aperture, and \\ 
inch in height. It is subject to great variation in the height of the apex, 
the elevation and number of the markings, the form of the aperture, and the 
thickness. Foot oval, snout subcylindrical ; margin of cloak fringed ; bran- 
chial circle complete — This species is of great value as a bait in onr fisheries, 
and even as an article of food. 

154. P. intorta. — Shell with numerous rough ribs ; apex 
prominent, submarginal, and slightly dccurved. 

3 



Patella. MOLLUSC A. BRANCIIIFERA. 287 

renn. Brit. Zool. iv. 143. t. xc. f. 148. Don. Brit. Sh. t. cxlvi. Laskey, 
Wern. Mem. i. 411. Mont. Test. Brit. Supp. 154 — Shores of Angle- 
sea, coast of Devon, and Frith of Forth, rare. 
Length three quarters, breadth half an inch, slightly depressed anteally, 
of a brown colour ; the ribs are unequal, covered, especially towards the mar- 
gin, with arched reflected scales. Montagu compares it, when at a distance, 
to a nutmeg. 

155. Y.pdluchla. — Shell ovate, thin, pellucid, with lines of 

rich azure spots from the apex to the margin. 

P. mirna, levis, pellucida, aliquot cceruleis lineis eleganter insignita, 
List. Conch, t. Dxliii. f. 27 — P. minor. Wall. Ork. 41 — P. pull. Linn. 
Syst. i. 1260. Penn. Brit. Zool. iv. 143 — Common, on the broad 
leaves of various Fuci. 

Length sometimes nearly an inch, breadth |ths, height fths ; nearly 
smooth, glossy, apex near the margin, frequently obsolete. The coloured 
lines vary in number ; in young specimens they are sometimes wanting, but 
in their place lines of brown. The branchial circle is interrupted at the 
head. The margin of the cloak is fringed with filaments of unequal length. 

156. P. leevis. — Shell concentrically wrinkled, apex tubercu- 
lar, subcentral. 

List. Conch, t. Dxlii. f. 28. Penn. Brit. Zool. iv. 144. t. xc. f. 151 

P. ccerulea, Mont. Test. Brit. Supp. 152. — On the stalks of the larger 
Fuci, common. 

Length upwards of an inch, breadth T 8 s ths, height T s 5 ths, of a brown colour, 
with purple lines from the apex. It is more or less wrinkled concentrically, 
and in old specimens ribbed longitudinally. In the young state, two small 
black spots are sometimes observable. It is distinct in its growth and habit 
from the preceding species, with which it has been frequently confounded. 

— 157. P. virginea. — Shell oval, slightly wrinkled concentri- 
cally, with numerous reddish lines from the apex to the margin. 

Mull. Zool. Dan. Prod. 237 ; Zool. Dan. t. xii. f. 2, 3 — P. parva, Mont. 
Test. Brit. 480 — On rocks and stones near low Avater-mark, common. 
Length about T 4 5 ths, breadth T 3 5 ths, and height T l s th of an inch, of a red- 
dish-white colour, translucent ; apex a little in front of the centre, obtuse. 
Old shells become opake, and cease to exhibit the coloured lines. Tentacula 
white; cloak subrufous, with an entire margin. — The P. tessulata of Zool. Dan. 
nearly resembles this species, and, perhaps on our shores has been confound- 
ed with it. It is distinguished by the coloured lines being interrupted, and 
the margin of the cloak ciliated. 



The P. Clealandi described by Mr Sowerby, in the extracts from the Mi- 
nute-Book of the Linn. Soc vol. xiii. 621., as found on stones at low water- 
mark, near Bangor, by James Clealand, Esq., is stated as possessing the fol- 
lowing characters : " Shell oval, white, with red, brown, or purple spots ; 
faintly striated longitudinally, and still more faintly transversely ; summit 
obtuse, lateral, tinged with light purple; margin entire; inside white, with 
a dark brown muscular impression — The young shells are very thin, but the 
old are nearly opake. The size of the largest specimen yet found, is 0\ tenths 
of an inch in length, T 7 g ths in breadth, and T 4 5 ths in height. There is a dark 
brown variety, with two indistinct rays from the apex, one on each side. 



288 MOLLUSCA. BRANCHIFERA. Chiton. 

It is impossible to determine, from the scanty notices which are given by 
Walker, what was the true character of his P. plana orbiculata margine re- 
gulariter dentato. The colour white and opake Test. Min. Rar. 5. t i. f. 16. 



EXTINCT SPECIES. 
I 



1. P. latissima. — Nearly orbicular, flat, smooth, thin; umbo excen trie 

Sower. Min. Conch, t. exxxix. £ 1-5.— In Slaty Clay, Lincolnshire. 

2. P. Imvior — Depressed, conical, smooth, shining ; base obovate ; apex ex- 
centric — Sower. Min. Conch, t. exxxix. f. 3, 4 Alum Clay, Whitby. 

3. P. cequalis. — Conical, smooth ; base obovate ; back nearly perpendicular. 
— Sower. Min. Conch, t. exxxix. f. 2 In Cray, Suffolk. 

4. P. rugosa — Depressed, obovate, radiated; apex excen trie, depressed, 

slightly recurved ; back concave above, with reflected undulations Patellite, 

Park. Or. Rem. iii. 50. t. v. £ 21 — Sower. Min. Conch, t. exxxix. £ 6 

In Lower Oolite, Gloucestershire. 

5. P. striata — Oblong, irregularly conical, with numerous acute radii; 

umbo forward, sharp — Sower. Min. Conch, t. ccclxxxix London Clay, Stub- 

bington. 

6. P. lata — Obovate, depressed, nearly smooth, radiated ; radii about 30. 
distant, rounded ; apex very excentric — Sower. Min Conch, t. cccclxxxiv. 
£ 1.— Lower Oolite, Stonefield. 

7. P. ancyloidis.— Convex, smooth ; apex spiral ; base oval. — Sower. Min. 
Conch, t. cccclxxxiv. £ 2 Ancliff. 

8. P. nanus — Obliquely smooth; base oval; apex obtuse Sower. Min. 

Conch, t. cccclxxxiv. f. 3 Ancliff. 

Mr Mantell notices " a small species of Patella of an oval shape, conical, 
depressed; the casts of the interior of the shell only have been discovered" 
in Green Sand, Parham Park — Geol. Suss. ^2. 

Gen. XLIII. CHITON. — Shell divided, constituting a series 
of imbricated dorsal plates, eight in number ; mouth with 
a semicircular curved membrane above, destitute of tenta- 
cula. Tongue short, armed with spines. 

* Marginal band with titfts of spines. 

158. C. fascicularis. — Shell oblong, ovate, roughly shao-- 

reened on the sides, with a striated longitudinal mesial stripe. 

Linn. Syst. i. 1106. Mull. Zool. Dan. p. 250. No. 3017. Putt. Dorset, 
25. Mont. Test. Brit. 5. t. xxvii. £ 5 — On oysters, but not com- 
mon. 

Length upwards of half an inch, breadth about a quarter ; freckled with 
green and brown. The granular tubercles are circular, with flat summits ; 
they are numerous on the sides of the plates, but not on the subcarinated 
centre. The border is rough, with a spinous margin. The tufts consist of 
cylindrical, blunt, smooth, solid, calcareous spines of unequal size ; one at 
the junction of each valve, six on the anteal margin, and two at the retral 
valve, making twenty in number.— I am inclined to think that the Chiton 



Chiton. MOLLUSCA. BRANCHIFERA. 289 

crinitus of Pennant, Brit. Zool. iv. 71- t. xxxvi. f. 1., which he describes 
" with seven valves ; thick set with short hairs ; |ths of an inch long," as 
inhabiting the sea near Aberdeen, is no other than this species. In the figure 
may be traced the tufts and the central striated ridge ; characters unnoticed 
in the description, — and, it may be added, that the figure given by Maton and 
Kackett of the Chiton fascicularis, Linn. Trans, viii. t. i. f. 1., bears no remote 
resemblance to the one by Pennant, now referred to. 

* Marginal band rough. 

159. C. marginatus. — Shell with a central ridge, regularly 

shagreened. 

Perm. Brit. Zool. iv. 71- t. xxxvi. f. 2. Mont. Test. Brit. i. Maton and 
Backett, Linn. Trans, viii. 21. t. i. f. 2. Flem. Edin. Encyc. vi. 102. 

C. cinereus, Lowe, Zool. Journ. vol. ii. p. 99 On stones about low 

water-mark, common. 

Length about fths of an inch, breadth |ths. Colour greyish or reddish, 
sometimes freckled. Anteal and retral valves with about ten notches on the 
margin of each, on the lower edge ; the intervening valves with only one notch 
on each side, the termination of a flexure in the shell, which extends ob- 
liquely to the back of the ridge, and divides each side of the valve into two 
triangular compartments, the retroJateral ones being always more elevated. 
In the last valve the lines of growth are elliptical and entire. The margin 
of the shell, around, is a little depressed. Body rough, dusky brown, some- 
times freckled with white, with a spinous margin. Branchiae about twenty 
on each side — I possess a variety of this shell, which I found under a stone 
at Newhaven in 1811, with only six valves. Is the Chiton Asselloides of Mr 
Lowe, Zool. Journ. vol. ii. 100. t. v. f. 5., any thing else than an indistinctly 
marked variety of the present species. The fringe being short and indis- 
tinct, might lead to the suspicion that it was the same as C. marmoreus of Fa- 
bricius, though that species is probably not distinct from C. marginatus. 

160. C. rube?'. — Smooth, glossy, marked by distinct lines of 
growth. 

Patella articulata cymbiformis, Wallace, Ork. 41 C. ruber. Linn. Svst. 

Nat. i. 1107.— C. laevis, Penn. Brit. Zool. iv. 72 — C. ruber. Flem. 

Edin. Encyc. viii. 102. Lowe, Zool. Journ. ii. 101. t. v. f. 2 On 

stones at low water-mark, common. 

Length about half an inch, breadth a quarter. Colour reddish, mottled 
or striped with brown and white. This is more sharply arched than the pre- 
ceding, producing a higher dorsal ridge ; valves with blunt beaks, perfectly 
smooth, except by the lines of growth, with marginal notches nearly like the 
last ; border broad, striped brown and white, with a nearly entire margin. — 
This species is very common in Orkney and Zetland : we have found it like- 
wise in abundance on the shores of Loch Broom, whence Pennant's specimens 
were obtained — Mr Lowe has found it on the Yorkshire coast. 

161. C, cinereus. — Valves short, depressed, moniliformly 
striated. 

Linn. Syst. Nat. i. 1107. Mont. Test. Brit. 3. Flem. Edin. Encyc. vii. 
102 — C. Assellus, Lowe, Zool. Journ. ii. 101. t. v. f. 3. — On stones 
and old shells at low water, not uncommon. 

Length about half an inch, breadth about a quarter. Colour greyish, with 
dusky stripes ; valves little raised in the middle, and but slight beaked ; 
markings of growth indistinct ; striae longitudinal on the anteal, and diago- 
nal on the retral compartment; under margin of the valves granulated, not 
notched. Border narrow, with an indistinct fringe. 

VOL. T. T 



290 MOLLUSCA. BRANCHIFERA. Aplysia. 



*** Marginal band striated, and like hair-cloth. 

162. C. Icevis. — Valves smooth, with distinct lines of growth. 
Mont. Test. Brit. 2. Flem. Edin. Encyc. vii. 102. Lowe, Zool. Journ. ii. 

97 On stones, not common. 

Length rarely half an inch ; breadth about a quarter, reddish, mottled 
with white. Valves arched, slightly beaked, raised at the sides ; when highly 
magnified, they appear minutely punctured ; border broad, striped brown and 
white, the margin with a short fringe — A specimen found by Captain Car- 
michael at Appin, is 1 inch and T 2 „ths in length. Montagu mentions a va- 
riety with seven valves, which he has termed Chiton septemvalvis. 

163. C. alius. — Valves minutely punctured, the first very- 
large. 

Linn. Syst. Nat. i. 1107- Fab. Faun. Gr. 422. Mont. Test. Brit. 4. 
Flem. Edin. Encyc. viii. 103. — On hills, rare. 

Length fths, breadth ith of an inch, narrow, white. Valves short in pro- 
portion to their breadth, considerably elevated in the middle, slightly beak- 
ed ; the lines of growth distinct on the sides. Border narrow, margin near- 
ly entire. 

**** Marginal band smooth. 

164. C. laevigatas. — Valves regularly shagreened, the lines 
of growth distinct. 

Flem. Edin. Encyc vii. 103. — C. latus, Lowe, Zool. Journ. ii. 103. t. v. 
f. G, 7- — Under stones, but not common. 
Length nearly an inch, breadth about half an inch, colour rufous, mottled 
with brown and white; the colouring of the front valve frequently disposed 
in transverse zigzag lines, which is the case, but less distinctly, in the other 
parts of the surface. Valves high in the middle, slightly beaked ; diagonal 
fold elevated ; border smooth, with a nearly entire margin. — This species I 
have found plentiful in Zetland, and on the shores of Lochbroom : Captain 
Carmichael and Mr Lowe have likewise found it on the coast of Argyle. 

The references of the preceding species to the Tcstacea Britannica, cited 
above, may be relied on, in consequence of interchange of specimens 
between the late Mr Montagu and the author. 

Gen. XLI V. APLYSIA. — Tentacula four ; branchia? lateral ; 
lid corneous. 

165. A. dep'dans. — Body of a purplish colour, with black 
dots. 

Linn. Syst. Nat. i. 1082. Penn. Brit. Zool. iv. 42. t. xxi. f. 21 — A. hy- 
bridal Sower. Brit. Muse. t. liii — A. depilans and mustilina, Penn. Brit. 

Zool. ii. ed. iv. 79 Not uncommon among sea-weeds a little beyond 

low water-mark. 
Length from five to six inches and upwards ; ovate, with a produced neck ; 
foot narrow ; head slightly emarginate, with a tentaculum on each side ; in front 
of the superior tentacula on the neck are two black points or eyes ; branchiae 



Pleurobranchus. MOLLUSCA. BRANCHIFERA. 291 

on the right side, under a lid, capable of expanding into a complicated plu- 
mose ridge ; within the longitudinal lips are two corneous plates or jaws. 
This animal pours out a purple fluid from under the branchial lid when taken. 

166. A. punctata. — Body brown, with numerous white spots. 

Cuv. Moll. t. i. f. 3-5. Flem. Edin. En. xiv. p. 623.— Coast of Devon 
and Orkney. 

This species resembles the last in structure, and differs in nothing but co- 
lour. Cuvier indeed states, as a distinguishing character, the naked central 
spot on the lid; but this is accidental. Montagu informed me, by letter 17th 
February 1811, that this animal was common along with the other kind (of 
which he considered it, probably justly, as a variety), and so large " as to fill 
a moderate sized tea-cup." It has only ones occurred to myself in the Bay 
of Kirkwall, though the A. depilans is common on the Scottish coast. 

167. A. viridis. — Body of a green colour. 

Mont. Linn. Trans, vii. t. vii. f. 1. — Coast of Devon. 

" With the fore-part of the body like a common Limax ; tentacula or feel- 
ers two, flat, but usually rolled up, and appear like cylindric tubes ; at a little 
distance behind the tentacula, on each side, is a whitish mark, in which is 
placed a small black eye ; the body is depressed, and spreads on each side into 
a membranaceous fin, but which gradually decreases from thence to the tail, 
or posterior end ; this membranous part is considerably amorphous, but is 
usually turned upwards on the back, and sometimes meeting, though most 
times the margins are reflected ; this, as well as the back, is of a beautiful 
grass-green colour, marked on the superior part of the fins or membrane with 
a few small azure spots, disposed in rows ; the under part with more numer- 
ous, but irregular, spots of the same ; the fore-part of the head is bifid ; the 
lips marked by a black margin ; the sustentaculum is scarcely definable, as it 
most commonly holds by a small space close to the anterior end, and turns 
the posterior end more or less to one side ; it sometimes, however, extends 
itself for the purpose of locomotion, in which it scarce equals a snail." " Al- 
though this animal does not strictly correspond with the characters prefixed 
by Linnaeus to the genus Laplysia, yet it approximates so nearly to the de- 
pilans, in its external form, that we cannot hesitate to place it with that ani- 
mal, though we could not discern any membranaceous plate or shield under 
the skin on the back." Mont. — The characters here assigned to this species 
are such as to excite the belief that it is not an Aplysia ; but they are not 
sufficiently minute to enable us to establish another genus for its reception. 
It is probably related to the Planariie. 

Gen. XLV. PLLUROBRANCHUS — Tentacula two; cloak 
and foot expanded, the former strengthened by a thin ex- 
panded subspiral shell. 

168. P. plumula. — Cloak broad, reticulated ; foot pointed. 

Bulla plumula, Mont. Test. Brit. 214. vig. 2. f. 5 ; the shell I. xv. f. !). 
— Coast of Devon. 

Length about an inch ; pale yellow ; tentacula broad, with eyes at the base 
above ; feet large, with waved edges; branchia, a plumose appendage on the 
right side. — The shell is oval, depressed, pellucid, thin, concentrically 
wrinkled, with a minute single whorl near one end. 

169. P. membranaceus. — Cloak covered with conical papilla? ; 
foot rounded, with an irregularly indented margin. 

t 2 



292 MOLLUSCA. BRANCHIFERA. Bulla. 

Lamellaria mem. Mont. Linn. Trans, xi. 184. t. xii. f. 3; the shell fig. 4. 
— English coast. 

Length and breadth about two inches ; of a brownish colour, paler above, 
and spotted with bluish-grey beneath ; tentacula subcylindric, with two eyes 
at the base ; a cylindrical snout ; shell ovate, very thin, p flat, with a minute 
lateral whorl ; silvery, tinged with pink. 

Gen. XLVI. BULLA. — Body in front with a fleshy expan- 
sion or tentacular disc ; behind with a membranaceous ap- 
pendage or lid ; shell convoluted ; aperture the whole length 
of the shell. 

* Shells with a cuticle, external. 

170. B. lignaria. — Shell ovate, spirally striated; mouth wide, 

anteally, rendering the pillar visible to the end. 

Concha veneris major leviter et dense striata, List. Conch, t. lxxiv. f. 11. 

— B. lig. Linn. Syst. i. 1184. Penn. Brit. Zool. iv. 11C B. scabra, 

Mull. Zool. Dan. t. 71 — B. lig. Mont. Test. Brit. 20G Not uncom- 
mon. 

Length upwards of 2 inches ; width 1 \t\\ of an inch ; epidermis brown ; aper- 
ture contracted retrally by the body-whorl ; the apex depressed; pillar-lip 
rounded ; outer lip nearly straight ; gullet large, tblded ; stomach fortified by 
three testaceous plates. 

■171. B. akera. — Shell ovate, smooth ; aperture wide, and ren- 
dering the pillar visible. 

Akera bullata, Mull. Zool. Dan. t. lxxi. f. 2, 9.— B. resiliens, Don. Brit. 

Shells, t. lxxix B. akera, Mont. Test. Brit. 219 — On the shores of 

Banff and Devon. 

Length about |ths of an inch ; breadth half an inch ; translucent, elastic, 
glossy, with a greenish tinge. Aperture wide anteally ; retrally it is very 
close to the body-whorl, but does not adhere until it has taken almost one vo- 
lution ; apex concave, exhibiting two or three volutions. The ltev. Charles 
Cordiner observed this shell in the Murray Frith, and transmitted specimens 
to the Duchess of Portland. — On some parts of the English coast it is not un- 
common. 

-* 172. B. liydatis. — Shell subglobular, minutely striated spiral- 
ly ; aperture wide anteally ; the pillar-lip rounded, but the pil- 
lar not visible to the end. 

Linn. Syst. i. 1183 — B. ampulla, Penn. Brit. Zool. iv. 11G.--B. hyd. 

Don, Brit. Shells, t. lxxxviii On the English coast. 

Length 1 inch ; breadth f ths ; translucent, with a brownish epidermis ; 
aperture interrupted by the rounded body-whorl ; apex concave, but not ex- 
hibiting volutions. Animal purplish-brown ; and, when expanded, double 
the length of the shell; two eyes on the tentacular disc, sunk in small white 
depressions Mont. Linn. Trans, ix. 10G. t. vi. f. 1. 

173. B. Cranchii. — Shell subcylindrical, strongly striated spi- 
rally ; aperture narrow, rendering the continuation of the pillar 
invisible ; pillar-lip straight. 
Mr Prideaux, Plymouth Sound. 



Bulla. MOLLUSCA. BRANCHIFERA. 293 

Length -^ths, breadth T 4 5 ths of an inch ; translucent, horn-coloured ; striae 
In bands, slightly waved by indistinct lines of growth ; the pillar-lip is a little 
reflected, forming a pillar cavity, and is slightly waved where it joins the 
outer lip ; the latter projects very little ; the apex is concave, without visi- 
ble whorls. The specimen from which the preceding description was taken 
was sent me, under the above title, several years ago, by my friend Dr Leach. 
The detailed description of its characters may be expected in his long wished- 
for work on the British Molluscous Animals. 

174. B. ampulla. — Shell oblong, ovate, smooth, mottled with 
brown. 

Mont. Test. Brit. ccvi. t. vii. f. 1, — In Falmouth Harbour, Montagu; Dun- 
bar, Laskey. 
Length |ths of an inch ; opake ; aperture moderately wide ; on the lower 
end of the pillar-Up the shell is thickened, of an opake colour, but the dupli- 
cature does not spread up the body of the shell. Montagu was probably mis- 
taken in referring his species to the Ampulla of Linnaeus, with which it does 
not agree in shape or form of the aperture. 

175. B. umbilicata. — Shell oblong-oval, smooth ; aperture 

narrow, a little dilated anteally. 

Mont. Test. Brit, ccxxii. t. vii. f. 4. Turton, Conch. Diet. 22. — Coast of 
England and Ireland. 

Length ith of an inch ; breadth T ' g th ; of a while colour ; apex rounded in- 
to a cavity. 

176. B. cylindracea. — Shell lengthened cylindrical ; aperture 
narrow ; pillar-lip with an indistinct fold. 

C. V. exigua alba vere cylindracea, List. Conch, t. Dccxiv. f. 70. — B. cyl. 
Perm. Brit. Zool. iv. 117- t. lix. f. 85. Don. Br. Sh. t. 120. Mont. 
Test. Brit. xxi. t. vii. f. 2 — In sandy bays, common. 

Length |ths of an inch ; smooth, glossy white ; outer lip thin, straight ; 
pillar-lip thickened with an oblique fold ; apex truncated, depressed Per- 
haps this species should be transferred to the genus Volvaria of Lamarck, as 
he has hinted. 

177. B. truncata. — Shell subcylindrical, truncated, and deep- 
ly marked with the lines of growth retrally, rounded and smooth 
anteally. 

B. crassa, Walk. Test. Min. xvii. t. iii. f. 62 B. tr. Adams, Linn. Trans. 

vol. v. 1. t, i. f. 12. Mont. Test. Brit. 223. t. vii. f. 5 Not uncommon- 

Length about the eighth of an inch, white, closely pellucid ; aperture nar- 
row, opposite the body, suddenly widening at the pillar, exhibiting the in- 
ternal volutions ; apex with a cavity. 

— 178. B. obtusa. — Shell subcylindrical ; apex exhibiting a pro- 
jecting obtuse spire of three or four wliorls. 

Voluta alba opaca longitudinaliter striata, Walk. Test. Min. 17. t. iii. f. 
61 — B. ob. Mont. Test. Brit. 223. t. vii. f. 3, common. 

Length |ths, breadth ith of an inch, with a brownish epidermis ; lines of 
growth distinct; aperture narrow retrally, widening at the pillar; outer lip 
slightly incurved in the middle. 



291 MOLLUSCA. BRANCHIFERA. Bulla. 

179. B. alba. — * Shell oval, oblong ; slightly striated longi- 
tudinally ; entirely white ; crown umbilicate ; at each extremity 
three transverse punctured stria?. 1 '' 

Dr Turton, Zool. Journ. No. vii. 3G4. t. xiii. f. 6 — British Channel. 

Dr Turton adds, " They are more elongated than the Bulla ampulla (the 
reference is evidently here intended for the B. stria/a of Lamarck, not to the 
true Ampulla), and essentially differ in having only three rather remote trans- 
verse strire at each end, whereas on the latter shell there are seven or eight 
strife on the lower extremity, and none on the upper." 

** Shells probably concealed, destitute of a cuticle, and under 

the integuments. 

~ 180. B. aperta. — Shell smooth, with indistinct lines of growth ; 

suborbicular, depressed ; aperture expanded ; pillar short. 

Linn. Syst. i. 1183, Pult. Dorset. 40. Don. Brit. Shells, t. cexx. Mont- 
Test. Brit. 208. vig. ii. f. 1, 3 Not common. 

Length 1 inch, breadth f ths, thin, pellucid, white ; apex simple ; body 
slightly involuted. Animal pellucid, white, with minute opake specks ; sto- 
mach of three testaceous plates. 

181. B. punctata. — Shell suborbicular, patulous, moniliform- 
ly striated longitudinally. 

Adams, Linn. Trans, v. 2. t. i. f. 6, 8. — B. catena, Mont. Test. Brit. 
215. t. 7- f- vii. — On the English coast, not common. 
Length about |th of an inch ; bre.adth rather less ; apex rounded, with a 
cavity exposing a volution. Montagu mentions " a variety with a more 
transparent zone, taking in eight or ten of the cateme, which are more strong- 
ly defined ; the rest of the shell appears as it were frosted, and not so glossy, 
possessing a subumbilicus ; and the outer margin of the aperture, close to the 
body, is winged, or reflected a little, forming a depression or sulcus on that 
part." 

182. B. emarginata. — Shell gibbous ; aperture emarginate ; 
pellucid, smooth ; lip subarcuated. 

Adams, Linn. Trans, v. 2. t. i. f. 9, 11. — On the English coast, rare. 

183. B. denticidata. — Shell white, pellucid, oblong, nearly 
equal, obtuse, smooth ; outer lip ending in a tooth retrally. — ■ 
Perhaps only the young of B. aperta. 

Adams, Linn. Trans, v. 1. t. i. f. 3, 6 — Coast of Pembroke. 

184. ~B.Jlexilis. — Shell pellucid, horn-coloured ; apex white, 

opake, with a single volution. 

Laskey, Mont. Test. Brit. Supp. 1C8. Wern. Mem. i. 396. t. 8. f. 6 

Dunbar, rare. 

Length half an inch, wrinkled ; flexible in a moistened state ; brittle when 
dry. — This shell probably belongs to the genus Sigaritus. 



Bulla. MOLLUSCA. BRANCHIFERA. 295 



EXTINCT SPECIES. 

1. B. convolula — Cylindrical, smooth ; aperture linear, expanded a little 
way from the base ; vertex obtuse, perforated — Sower. Min. Conch, t. 
cccclxiv. f. 1. — In Crag. 

2. B. constricta — Subcylindrical, contracted in the middle ; vertex trun- 
cated, perforated ; base obscurely striated ; aperture linear, expanded at the 
base Sower. Min. Conch, t. cccclxiv. £ 2. — London clay. Barton. 

3. B. elliptica Elliptical, elongated, transversely striated ; vertex perfo- 
rated ; aperture widest at the base — Sower. Min. Conch, t. cccclxiv. f". 6 

London clay, Barton. 

4. B. attenuata. — Elliptical, transversely striated ; superior portion elon- 
gated, truncated, perforated ; aperture curved, widest towards the base ; strife 
distant in the middle. — Sower. Min. Conch, t. cccclxiv. f. 3.— London clay. 
Hordwell. 

5. T&.Jilosa. — A fragment. " Its numerous striae and expanded lip distin- 
guish it from B. attenuata."— Sower. Min. Conch, t. cccclxiv, f. 4. 



296 MOLLUSCA. PECTINIBRANCHIA, 



PECTINIBRANCHIA. 



CRYPTOBRANCHIA. 

Heart entire, and detached from the rectum. Sexes distinct on dif- 
ferent individuals. The shells of the female more ventricose in the 
body-whorl than those of the male. 

a. Shell external. 

b. Aperture of the shell entire, together with the anterior margin 
of the cloak at the entrance of the branchial cavity. Holos- 
tomata. 

c. Foot with a lid for closing the aperture of the shell. Tec- 
tipeda. 

TuRBONiDiE. Aperture of the shell ovate or round. 

NeritadjE. Aperture semicircular, with an oblique 
straight pillar-lip. 

Trochusid^e. Aperture subquadrangular. 

cc. Foot destitute of a lid. Nudipeda. 
Janthina. 
Velutina. 

bb. Aperture of the shell canaliculated, for the reception of the sy- 
phon of the branchial cavity. Solenostomata. 

aa. Shell internal. 
Sigaretus. 



MOLLUSCA. HOLOSTOMATA. 297 

HOLOSTOMATA. 

TURBONID.E. 

* Marine. 

a. Aperture ovate, inner-lip formed by the body-whorl on which the 
peristome is spread. 

b. Pillar-lip simple, or without teeth. 

c Peristome incomplete retrally. 
Turbo. 
Phasianella. 
Turritella. 

cc. Peristome complete retrally. 
Cingula. 

bb. Pillar-lip with a tooth. 
Odostomia. 
Monodonta. 

aa. Aperture circular, peristome entire, and more or less disjoined from 
the body-whorl. 

b. Whorls with transverse ridges, the last formed one constituting a 
thickened margin to the mouth. 
Scalaria. 
Cyclostrema. 

bb. Whorls destitute of the transverse ridges, forming, in succession, 
the peristome. 

c. Shell armed with tubercles or processes. 
Delphinula. 
Cirus. 

cc. Shell destitute of processes. 
Skenea. 
Ettomphalus. 

** Fluviatile. 

a. Peristome entire. 
Paludina. 
Ampullaria. 

b. Peristome incomplete retrally. 
Melania. 






298 MOLLUSCA. PECTINIBRANCHIA. Turbo. 

Gen. XLVII. TURBO.— Shell ovoid, the body-whorl oc- 
cupying upwards of one-half of the length ; aperture with 
the peristome incomplete retrally ; pillar-lip flattened. 

185. T. littoreus. Periwinkle. — Whorls five, separating 
line shallow ; outer-lip joining the body at an acute angle. 

Cochlea fusca, List. An. Ang. 1(52. Conch. 585. f. 43— Turbo lit. Linn. 

Syst. Nat. i. 1232. Mont. Test. Brit. 301 — Common within tide-mark. 

Length about an inch ; breadth three quarters, various in colour, dusky, 

with lighter stripes, or with a white band, or orange-yello w ; apex blunt, nearly 

smooth or spirally striated ; animal striped with black, the tentacula annu- 

lated Extensively used as food. Mr Sowerby has figured a shell which he 

considers as identical with this species, and another similar to T. rudis, (Min. 
Conch, t. 71-)» as from the Crag formation. We are inclined, in this instance, 
to suspect, that some products of a deposition of modern marine diluvium have 
been confounded with the genuine inmates of the Crag. 

186. T. petreus. — Whorls five, conical, nearly flat ; outer- 
lip joining the body at an acute angle, and embracing a portion 
of the whorl. 

Helix pet. Mont. Test. Brit. 403 — South coast of England. 
Length about , 2 5 ths, breadth ^gth of an inch, of a dark brown colour ; des- 
titute of spiral striae, but is marked transversely by irregular minute lines of 
growth ; pillar-lip remarkably broad, grooved anteally ; outer-lip thin ; body- 

fip slightly convex This species, according to Montagu, lives on the rocks 

a little below high water-mark. 

-- 187. T. ?°udis. — Whorls five, rounded ; outer-lip thick, join- 
ing the body nearly at right angles. 

Maton, Don. Brit. Shells, t. xxxiii. Mont. Test. Brit. 304 T. jugo- 

sus, ib. 586. Maton and Rackett, Linn. Trans, viii. 158 Common. 

Length and breadth nearly equal ; colour yellowish or brown ; separating 
line deep. The surface of the whorls is, in some individuals, nearly smooth, 
except by the markings of the lines of growth, constituting the T. rudis; 
while, in others, the surface is grooved by spiral lines, the intermediate spaces 
flat or sharp edged, becoming the T, jugosus. The colours of the animal are 

usually plain The form and mode of junction of the outer-lip with the 

body seem the distinguishing features of the species. 

188. T. tenebrosus. — Whorls five, rounded ; outer-lip thin, 

joining the body-whorl nearly at right angles. 

Mont. Test. Brit. 303. Turt. Conch. Diet. 197 — On the English and 
Irish coasts. 

Length fths, breadth |ths ; separating line distinct ; colour dark purple, 
with yellowish spiral bands; lines of growth minute, finely or coarsely striat- 
ed spirally This species is found on mud near high water-mark, and in 

brackish marshes. 

189- T. faballs. — " Subglobular, very obtuse, smooth, with 
three hardly produced volutions, of a chesnut colour, with ob- 
scure pale bands ; pillar and throat chesnut."" 

Tin-ton, Zool. Journ. ii. 3C6. t. xii. f. 10. — On the rocks at Scarborough, 
Mr Bean. 



Turbo. MOLLUSCA. PECTINIBRANCHIA. 299 

Length about |th of an inch ; bands about twelve, apparently interrupted, 
so as to give the surface a checkered appearance ; finely striated spirally — 
Probably the fry of the preceding species. 

190. TV mammillatus. — Whorls five, slightly rounded ; spi- 
rally striated with raised dots. 

Don. Brit. Shells, t. clxxiii — Scilly Rocks. 
Length and breadth nearly equal; aperture rounded, a few ridges of 
larger dots give to the whorls a subangulated form. According to a memo- 
randum in the handwriting of Da Costa, annexed to one of the specimens 
figured by Donovan, this shell has been found by Mr Piatt on the Scilly 
Rocks. 

191. T. crassior. — Shell conical, yellowish- white, with five 
rounded and deeply divided whorls. 

Turbo lsevis, quinque anfractibus apertura subrotunda marginata, Walk. 

Test. Min. 10. t. ii. f. 34 T. crass. Mont. Test. Brit. 309. t. xx. f. 1. 

, T. pallidus, Don. Brit. Shells, t. clxxviii. f. 4 — Common in deep 

water. 
Length half an inch ; breadth i 3 5 ths ; covered with a pale epidermis, 
which rises in numerous sharp oblique ridges, beneath which are a few obso- 
lete spiral strise. The whorls are sometimes slightly flattened in the mid- 
dle ; they are thick and opake. Pillar-lip flattened anteally ; outer-lip thin, 
joining the body-whorl nearly at right angles. 

- 192. T. quadrifascmtus. — Pillar with a groove, ending re- 
trally in a perforation. Shell striated spirally. 

Mont. Test. Brit. 328. t. xx. f. 7 — T. vinctus, ib. 307- t. xx. f. 3 — T. 

canalis, ib. 309 Among sea-weeds, a little beyond low water-mark, 

common. 
Length from three to five-tenths of an inch, glossy, of a yellowish horn- 
colour, with four dark spiral bands on the body, two of which enter the aper- 
ture, and two are external ; between these pairs there is usually a whitish 
band, where the whorl bends in, rather suddenly, towards the pillar; the outer- 
lip, at its junction with the whorl, covers a portion of this white space, the 
external part, however, is usually exposed, and appears as a white band along 
the line of separation ; the whorls are more or less rounded, and subcarinated 
on the body-whorl ; but in all, the surface is marked by waved spiral strise, 
slightly decussated by the fines of growth. The outer-lip, when young, is 
thin ; but towards maturity it becomes thick, sloping outwardly to a sharp 
edge ; operculum membranaceous, smooth, yellowish. 

193. T. decnssatus. — Whorls five, rounded ; strongly striated 
transversely ; finely striated spirally. 

Mont. Test. Brit. 322. t. xii. f. 4.— Among shell-sand, rare. 

Length about the eighth of an inch, breadth one-half less ; white, glossy ; 
apex rather blunt ; aperture suboval, a little contracted retrally. 

— 194. T. margarita. — Whorls four, the first very large, pil- 
lar-cavity wide ; inside of the aperture with a mother-of-pearl 
gloss. 

Helix Marg. Laskeij, Mont. Test. Brit. Supp. 143. AVern. Mem. i. 408. 

t. viii. f. 5 Common on fuci. 

Breadth and height about one-eighth of an inch ; smooth glossy, greenish ; 
sometimes with one spiral rufous band ; when bleached, it is of a brownish-white 
colour ; whorls increase rapidly ; rounded, the spire short and blunt ; aperture 



300 MOLLUSCA. PECTINIBRANCHIA. Turbo. 

suborbicular, the outer-lip thin and prominent, retrally, where it joins the 
body- whorl nearly at right angles ; pillar-lip reflected, forming the cavity 
behind ; operculum finely striated spirally. We have little doubt in con- 
sidering the Helix fulgidus of Adams (Linn. Trans, iii. 254.), and the Turbo 
fulgidus of Montagu, as the fry of this very common species. 

195. T. nivosus. — Whorls five, smooth, rounded, slender, 
tapering to an obtuse point. 

Mont. Test. Brit. 326.— Coast of Devon, rare. 

Length about a line ; breadth two-thirds less. Whorls with the separat- 
ing line deep ; aperture suboval ; inner-lip and pillar quite smooth and even ; 
without cavity. 

The history of the remaining recent species is involved in obscurity, but 
their characters are subjoined, according to the best information in my pos- 
session. 



196. T. strigatus. — Shell white, whorls three, with three spiral ridges on 
the larger volution.— Walk. Test. Min. 11. t. ii. f. 38.— Sea-salter. 

197. T. scriptus. — Whorls three, smooth, marked with brown, letter-like 

lines: aperture suborbicular Adams, Linn. Trans, iii. 65. t. xiii. f. 11-12. 

— Coast of Pembrokeshire. 

198. T. subrufus. — Smooth, opake, dull red, the upper part of each spire 
marked with a white spiral band ; whorls five, somewhat angular above. — 
Adams, Linn. Trans, v. iii. t. i. f. 18-19 — Pembrokeshire. 

199. T. canaliculatus — Pellucid, whitish ; the whorls five, fluted across, 
and sepai'ated by an elevated line. — Adams, Linn. Trans, iii. 253 — Coast of 
Pembrokeshire. 

200. T. resupinatus Semipellucid, glossy, horn-coloured ; aperture large, 

the whorls at the tip turned backwards — Helix, Walk. ^Test. Min. 1. t. i. 
f 24. — Sandwich, very rare. 

201. T. globosus White, opake, glossy, smooth, globose ; whorls two ; 

aperture roundish. — Helix. Walk. Test. Min. 1. t. i. f. 25 — Sandwich, not 
common. 

202. T. reticulatus White, subpellucid ; one whorl ; reticulated ; a slight 

pillar-cavity ; aperture round — Helix, Walk. Test. Min. 1. t. i. f. 26 — Re- 
culvir, rare. 

203. T. striatus. — Greenish-white, pellucid ; whorls striated, reflected on 
the back ; aperture oval — Helix, Walk. Test. Min. 8. t. i. f. 29 — Sandwich, 
rare. 

204. T. coarclatus — White, pellucid ; whorls two ; aperture roundish, con- 
tracted near the pillar-cavity — Helix, Walk. Test. Min. 8. t. i. f. 30 — Sand- 
wich, not common. This is considered by Montagu (Test. Brit. 445.), as the 
fry of a Helix. 

205. T. fasciatus.-— White, pellucid, smooth ; whorls three, the first tumid, 
and marked with three spiral belts, of a rich marone colour, the middle one 
broad, the lateral ones narrow ; aperture large, a slight pillar-cavity — Helix 
fas. Adams, Linn. Trans, v. 3. t. i. f. 20-21.— Tenbigh. 

206. T. nilidissimus.— Corneous, pellucid, glossy ; whorls two, finely stri- 
ated across ; with a pillar-cavity Helix nit. Adams, Linn. Trans, v. 4. t. i. 

f. 22, 23, 24. 



Phasianella. MOLLUSCA. PECTINIBRANCHIA. 301 

207. T. bicolor. — Smooth, dull, inside white ; whorls two ; pillar-cavity in- 
distinct. — Helix bicolor, Adams, Linn. Trans, v. 4. t. i. f. 25, 26, 27. — Ten- 
bigh. 

208. T. variegatus Subpellucid, smooth ; whorls four, the first ventri- 

cose, with red lines ; margin of the aperture very much spread ; no pillar- 
cavity Helix var. Adams, Linn. Trans, iii. 67. — Coast of Pembrokeshire. 

209. T. tubidatus Whorls three, striated ; pillar-cavity produced into a 

marginated tube. Helix tub. Adams, I ^inn. Trans, iii. 67 Coast of Pem- 
brokeshire. 

EXTINCT SPECIES. (TURBO.) 

1. T. ornatus. — Conical, spirally striated ; three or four tuberculated ridges 
run along each whorl, the middle one the largest. — Sower. Min. Conch. 
t. ccxl. f. 1, 2 In Loiver Oolite, Dundry. 

2. T. carinatus Conical, with five or six spiral crenulated ridges ; whorls 

carinated. — Sower. Min. Conch, t. ccxl. f. 3. — In Green Sand. 

3. T. monilifornris. — Short, conical, spirally striated ; whorls separated 
above by a canal, their edges granulated ; pillar-cavity large, wrinkled. — 
Sower. Min. Conch, t. cccxcv. f. 1. — In Green Sand, Blackdown. Probably 
not of this genus. 

4. T. sulcatus Conical, sulcated spirally, striated transversely; whorls 

rounded, separated above by a canal ; pillar-cavity small ; aperture sulcated 
within. — Pilkington, Linn. Trans, vii. 118. t. xi. f. 9. — T. sculptus, Soiver. 
Min. Conch, t. cccxcv. f. 2. — In London Clay. 

5. T. conious Ovato-conical, acute, whorls very convex, spirally striated ; 

with a pillar-cavity — Soiver. Min. Conch, t. ccccxxxiii. f. 1. — In Green Sand, 
Blackdown. 

6. T. rotundatus. — Ovate, subglobose, pointed, smooth ; aperture rather 
longer than wide, pointed retrally. — Sower. Min. Conch, t. ccccxxxiii. f. 2. — 
In Green Sand, Blackdown. 

Ge*. XLVIII. PHASIANELLA— Shell conical ; aperture 
lengthened, contracted by the projection of the body- 
whorl ; peristome incomplete retrally ; pillar-lip smooth, 
nearly straight. 

- — 210. P. polita. — Whorls nine or more, conical, strong, flat, 

smooth, closely united. 

Helix pol. Putt. Dorset, p. 49. Mont. Test. Brit. 398 — Turbo albus, 
Don. Brit. Shells, t. clxxvii. — On the English shores. 

Length jjths of an inch, breadth ,%ths ; aperture oval, contracted retrally 
by the body -whorl. 

211. P. subiilata. — Whorls about ten, subulate ; with two 

spiral brown bands along the separating line. 

Turbo sub. Don. Brit. Shells, t. clxxii Helix sub. Mont. Test. Brit. 

Sup. 142 — On the English and Scottish coast, not common. 

Length about three quarters of an inch ; smooth, glossy, white; the two 
bands are on the retral edge of the nearly obsolete line of separation ; whorls 
nearly flat ; aperture lengthened, rounded anteally, contracted retrally : 
outer-lip nearly straight. 



302 MOLLUSCA. PECTINIBRANCHIA. Tueeitella. 

212. P. decussata. — Whorls eight or nine, strongly striated 
transversely ; minutely striated spirally. 

Helix dec. Mont. Test. Brit. 399. t. xv. f. 1 — On the shore at Wey- 
mouth, Mr Bryer. 
Length /jjths of an inch ; breadth I 1 5 th ; white, slender ; whorls nearly 
flat, the separating line extremely fine ; aperture narrow, suboval, contract- 
ed at both ends ; outer-lip somewhat expanded, and a little thickened at the 
back ; inner lip slightly replicated. 

213. P. pallida. — Whorls six or seven, smooth ; outer-lip 
arcuated. 

Turbo pal. Mont. Test. Brit. 325. t. xxi. f. 4 — In sand, Salcomb Bay. 

Length |th of an inch ; breadth §ds less ; slender, tapering to a fine point ; 
whorls separated by a well-defined line ; aperture suborbicular, a faint du- 
plicature on the pillar-lip, forming behind a small cavity. 

In the Mineral Conchology, the following fossil shells are referred to the 
genus, though it is more probable that they belong to Limnea or Paludina. 

1. P. orbicularis Conical, acute, smooth ; whorls about six, ventricose ; 

aperture nearly round. — Sower. Min. Conch, t. clxxv. f. 1.— Freshwater Lime- 
stone, Shalcomb, Isle of Wight. 

2. P. angulosa. — Conical, smooth ; whorls subcarinated ; aperture nearly 
round Sower. Min. Conch, t. clxxv. f. 2. — Along with the last. 

3. P. minuta. — Elongated, smooth ; whorls five or six ; obscurely squared ; 
aperture oblong. — Sower. Min. Conch, t. clxxv. f. 3 — Along with the last. 

Gen. XLIX. TURRITELLA— Shell elongated ; the whorls 
numerous, produced ; aperture wide ; the pillar-lip slightly 
rounded. 

214. T. terebra. — Whorls about sixteen, with numerous spi- 
ral ridges. 

Buccinum tenue, List. An. Ang. 161. Conch, t. nxci. f. 57. Turbo Ter. 

Linn. S. Syst. i. 1239. Penn. Brit. Zool. iv. 130. t. Lxxxi. f. 1 13. Mont. 

Test. Brit. 293 — Common. 
Length sometimes exceeding two inches ; breadth of the body-whorl half 
an inch, of a reddish or purplish brown ; whorls sometimes eighteen in num- 
ber, ending in a fine point ; the larger whoi-ls rounded, with five or six pro- 
minent ridges, besides smaller ones, crossed by the layers of growth. In the 
young shells the ridges are less numerous, and the anteal edge of the body- 
whorl is flattened. The aperture, in young shells, is subquadrangular ; in an 
old specimen the outer lip is round and thin, and the pillar-lip nearly straight. 
The animal is yellow, striped with dusky, with the tentacula short. — This 
species resides in deep water, but is frequently thrown ashore after storms- 

215. T. exoleta. — Whorls about twelve, spirally striated, with 

two broad rounded spiral ridges. 

Cochlea variegata, List. Conch, t. Dxci. f. 58. — Turbo exol. Linn. Syst. i. 

1239 Turbo cinctus, Don. Brit. Shells, t. xxii. f. 1. Mont. Test. 

Brit. 295. — On the English coast, rare. 



Tckritella. MOLLUSCA. PECTINIBRANCHIA. 303 

Length 2§ inches; white, purple, or variegated with brown ; whorls raised, 
deeply divided by the separating line. Lister seems to have been acquainted 
with this shell as British; afterwards Da Costa obtained it from the coasts of 
Lincoln and Lancashire ; Montagu I'eceived it from Kent. 

216. T. duplicata. — Whorls about fourteen, and spirally 
striated, with two acute spiral ridges. 

Buccinum crassum, List. An. Ang. 100. t. iii. f. 7- Conch, t. Dxci. 59. — 
Turbo dup. Linn. Syst. i. 1239. Penn. Brit. Zool. iv. 129. t. Lxxxi. f. 
112. Don. Brit. Shells, t. cxii. Turton, Conch. Diet. 216 — English 
coast, rare. 
Length about 2h inches, thick, heavy, of a brownish colour; the two ridges 
are of unequal size This species was obtained by Lister from the Scar- 
borough fishermen ; and Dr Turton announces that it was " said to have heen 
lately discovered on the western coasts by Dr Leach." 

217. T. subtruncata. — Whorls about seven, rounded, and 
obscurely striated spirally. 

Turbo sub. Mont. Test. Brit. 300. t. x. f. 1. — In sand, rare. 

Length about T %ths of an inch ; white; whorls from five to seven, and (in 
a specimen in my possession) gradually tapering to an obtuse point ; outer lip 
rounded ; pillar-lip nearly straight, a little reflected, so as to form a small ca- 
vity behind. 

- 218. T. clegantissima. — Whorls ajbout ten, flat, with numer- 
ous regular transverse grooves. 

Turbo turritus novem anfractibus striatis apertura rotunda, Walk. Test. 
Min. ii. t. ii. f. 39 — Turbo eleg. Mont. Test. Brit. 298. t, x. f. 2 In 

deep water, not common. 

Length about T 3 5 ths of an inch, breadth about |th of its length ; colour of 
the shell white, glossy ; of the epidermis brown ; ridges and grooves rounded, 
slightly oblique, separating line distinct ; outer lip slightly rounded ; pillar- 
lip nearly straight, thick, forming a slight angle anteally. It is a very strong 
shell in proportion to its size. 

219- T. truncata. — Whorls four or five, flat, decreasing sud- 
denly ; apex abrupt. 

Turbo trim. Mont. Test. Brit. 300. t. x. f. 7 Common. 

Length about T 2 D ths of an inch ; white, glossy ; whorls nearly six in num- 
ber, deeply divided by the separating line, and faintly striated transversely ; 
aperture ovate ; pillar-lip slightly rounded, and a little reflected. 

220. T. unica. — Whorls nine, finely striated spirally, with 
numerous undulated transverse ridges. 

Turbo turritus septem anfractibus strigatis apertura ovali, Walk. Test. 
Min, ii. t. ii. f. 40 — Turbo unicus, Mont. Test. Brit. 299. t. xii. f. 2 — 
Among shell-sand, rare. 

Length about T 2 5 ths of an inch ; white, glossy, slender ; whorls rounded and 
deeply divided by the separating line ; aperture ovate ; the pillar-lip rounded. 

221. T. simlU'ima. — Whorls eight, with fourteen distant 

ridges parallel with the axis of the shell. 

Laskey, Mont. Test. Brit. Supp. 136. Wern. Mem. i. 406. t. viii. f. 15. 
— Shores of Jura. 



304 MOLLUSCA. PECTINIBRANCHIA. Turritella. 

Length |ths of an inch; white, slender; whorls slightly elevated; the 
spaces occupied hy the depressions larger than those of the ridges ; aperture 
subovate. 

222. T. nitidissima. — Whorls nine, rounded, smooth. 
Turbo nit. Mont. Test. Brit. 299. t. xii. f. 1 Among fine sand, rare. 

Length |th of an inch ; slender, pointed ; brownish-white, glossy ; whorls 
much rounded and oblique ; aperture ovate, pillar-lip rounded. 

223. T. indistincta. — Whorls eight, flattened, ribbed trans- 
versely, striated spirally. 

Turbo ind. Mont. Test. Brit. Supp. 129 — English and Scottish shores, 
rare. 

Length nearly T s 5 ths of an inch ; breadth less than /gth ; colour brown, with 
darker spiral bands, glossy ; separating line deep ; transverse ridges numerous, 
rounded, waved, wanting on the lower part of the body-whorl, where the 
spiral striae are most conspicuous ; these last do not cross the ridges, but 
merely occupy, though faintly, the furrows. Montagu described this beauti- 
ful species from the Boysian cabinet. I obtained my specimen, which is 
quite fresh, from Loch Broom. 

224. T. carinatula. — Whorls seven to ten, bent towards the 

apex, with numerous transverse ribs, with a contracted margi- 

nated aperture. 

Turbo turritus carinatus, Walk. Test. Min. 12- t. xi, f. 44. — T. sub- 
arcuatus, Adams, Linn. Trans, iii. 66. t. xiii. f. 27-28 — On the English 
coast. — An obscure species. 

EXTINCT SPECIES. 

1. T. conoidea Whorls about eighteen, lower part of each angular, slightly 

projecting, longitudinal striae equally distant, seven or more, with intermediate 
smaller ones, all acutely crenulated — Sower. Min. Conch, t. xli. f, 1. 4. — In 
London clay. 

2. T. elongata. — Whorls about fifteen, flattened in the middle, lower parts 
projecting ; striae more distant near the middle of the whorls, inconspicuously 
crenulated, with some finer intervening striae — Sower. Min. Conch, t. xli. f. 2. 
— I n London clay. 

3. T. brevis, — Whorls about twelve ; spire rather short ; upper and lower 
parts of the whorls equally rounded ; striae ten or twelve, finely crenulated. — 
Sower. Min. Conch, t. xli. f. 3 — In London clay. 

4. T. incrassata. — Whorls about fourteen, flattish, with the lower part an- 
gular, and three smooth longitudinal threads ; outer lip thickened in the mid- 
dle. — In Crag, Holywell. 

5. T. edita. — Whorls about twenty, rounded, slightly depressed in the mid- 
dle ; lower parts rather prominent, with many obscure longitudinal striae. 
/Brander, Foss. t. iii. f. 48.) Sower. Min. Conch, t. xli f. 7- — In London clay. 

6. T. muricala — Whorls flattened on the upper side ; spirally striated, with 
transverse ribs rising into small spires at the outer sections. — Soicer. Min. 
Conch, t. ccccxcix. f. 1-2.— In Coral Ray, Steeple Ashton, and Robin Hood's 
Bay. 

7- T. cingenda.— Whorls with a round crenated band upon the lower edge ; 

spirally striated ; the upper whorl with transverse ribs Sower. Min. Conch. 

1,1. xcix. f. 3. — In shale with the last, liobin Hood's Bay, near Scarborough, 



Cingula. MOLLUSCA. PECTINIBRANCHIA. 305 

8. T. Uril— Elongated, striated transversely. Ure's Hist. Ruth. 308. 
t. xiv. f. 7» — Limestone of the Coal Formation. 

9. T. elongata.— Elongated, striated spirally. Ure's Hist. Ruth. 308. t. xiv. 
f. U. 

10. T. constricta. — Turrited, smooth; whorls eight or ten ; convex below, 
contracted above, with an adpressed crenated margin. Turbo con. Mart. Derb. 
t. xxxviii. f. 3 Melania con. Sower. ~Min. Conch, t. ccxviii. f. 2 — Carboni- 
ferous Limestone. 

Gen. L. CINGULA. — Aperture of the shell with the peristome 
complete, being united rctrally. 

* Outer lip thickened by a rib. 

- 225. C. cimex. — Whorls four, strong; ribbed coarsely, trans- 
versely and spirally. 

Turbo cim. Linn. Syst. Nat. i. 1233. Don. Brit. Shells, t. ii. f. 1. Mont. 
Test. Brit. 315..— Southern coasts, not common. 
Length about |th of an inch ; white; whorls with the separating line deep 
and ragged ; meshes of the ribs forming quadrangular pits, in six rows on 
the body-whorl, and two on the second. 

226. C subcarinata. — Whorls three, little produced, with 
three spiral ridges, and numerous transverse striae. 

Helix sub. Mont. Test. Brit. 438. t. vii. f. 9 — Tiochus rugosus, Bo-own, 
Wern. Mem. ii. 520. t. xxiv. f. 5. — Coasts of England and Ireland. 
Breadth about T \jtb of an inch, depressed ; glossy, frosted * two of the spi- 
ral lines are on the lower part of the body -whorl, and one on the upper ; pil- 
lar-cavity wide and deep ; aperture oval. 

227. C. calathisca. — Whorls six, with numerous transverse 
and spiral ribs. 

Turbo cal. Laskey, Mont. Test. Brit. Supp. 132. t. xxx. f. 5 — West 
coast of Scotland and England, rare. 
Length £th of an inch ; brown ; conical ; the pits formed by the intersection 
of the ribs are more numerous than the last, being in eight rows on the body- 
whorl, and four on the next ; aperture with the outer lip denticulated within. 

-228. C. striatula. — Whorls five, spirally ribbed, longitudi- 
nally striated, each terminating in a flat top. 

Turbo stri. Mont. Test. Brit. 306. t. x. f. 5 — Turbo monilis, Turton, 

Conch. Diet. 200 On the English coast, rare. 

Length T 2 5 ths of an inch ; ovate, obtuse, white ; whorls with fine spiral 
striae, which, towards the upper part of each volution, rise into three mem- 
branaceous ridges ; those near the pillar are likewise elevated and strong ; the 
transverse striae are numerous, but principally obvious in the furrows, yet 
giving to the shell a pretty cancellated appearance ; aperture suborbicular, 
angulated at the upper part. 

- 229. C. costata. — Whorls five, spirally striated, and trans- 
versely ribbed ; a groove behind the outer lip, extending behind 
the pillar to the aperture. 

Turbo crassus, clathratus, quinque anfractibus apertura rotunda mirgi- 
VOL. I. U 



306 MOLLUSCA. PECTINIBRANCHIA. Cingula 

nata, Walk. Test. Min. 13. t. ii. f. 47-— T. cost. Adams, Linn. Trans. 

iii. 65. t. xiii. f. 13-14. Mont. Test. Brit. 311. t. x. f. 6 Common on 

the English shores, on fuci ; rare in Scotland, 

Length T 2 5 ths of an inch ; bi - eadth about J 5 th ; white, glossy ; whorls a lit- 
tle rounded ; the ribs are strong, slightly waved ; on the body -whorl they end 
in a strong spiral rib, which extends from the body -lip, behind the pillar, to 
the outer lip ; this spiral rib is foDowed by a groove ; the spiral strife are most 
conspicuous between the ribs. 

- 230. C. parva. — Whorls five, strong, with transverse ribs, 
without spiral striae. 

T. quinque anfractibus subcarinatis apice purpureo apertura ovali, Walk. 
Test. Min. 12. t. ii. f. 43 — T. lacteus, Don. Brit. Shells, t. xc— T. 
parvus, Mont. Test. Brit. 310. — Among fuci, common. 

Length upwards of §th of an inch, conical ; white, brown, or tinged with 
purple ; whorls rounded, with about twelve obtuse ribs, sometimes reaching 
to the pillar, or only to the middle of the body -whorl ; aperture slightly ovate. 
Montagu, in his account of this species, refers to the Turbo aeretis and T. sub. 
luteus of Adams, Linn. Trans, iii. 65. 

231 . C. marginata. — Shell subcylindrical ; whorls six, finely- 
striated spirally, with about six transverse ribs. 

Laskey, Mont. Test. Brit. Supp. 128. Wern. Mem. i. 406. t. viii. f. 13. 
— Hitherto found only at Guernsey and Dunbar. 

Length |ths of an inch ; breadth fths less ; white ; very strong, the ribs 
gradually becoming obsolete at the line of separation ; aperture patulous. 

232. C. reticulata. — Shell conical, having six, rounded, regu- 
larly reticulated spires, with a slight pillar-cavity. 

T. subumbilicatus quatuor anfractibus reticulatus, apertura subrotunda, 
Walk. Test. 9. t. ii. f. 32 — T. ret. Mont. Test. Brit. 322. t. xxi. f. 1. 

— Among shell-sand, rare- 

Length about T 'j,th of an inch ; breadth Jgth ; white or brown ; aperture 
suborbicular ; the transverse striae do not appear on the lower part of the bo- 
dy-whorl, where the spiral striae are most conspicuous. The Turbo punctura 
of Montagu, Test. Brit. 320. t. xii. f. 2. appears to be the young of this species, 
or before the rib of the lip is formed ; the same also as Turbo retiformis, Walk. 
Test. Min. 20. t. ii. f. 37- 

233. C. conifer a. — Shell conical ; whorls six, with about 
twelve transverse undulated ribs ; the interstices at the top of 
the whorls formed into small cavities. 

T. con. Mont. Test. Brit. 314. t. xv. f. 2 — Found by Mr Bryer, at Wey- 
mouth, rare. 
Length |th of an inch ; breadth |ds less ; white ; the cavities of the top of 
the spires give the separating line a denticulated appearance ; the spiral striae 
are numerous and fine ; aperture oval, oblique, strongly marginated. 

234. C. denticulata. — Shell conical ; whorls six, with ten 
transverse straight ribs projecting at the top of each. 

Turbo dent. Mont. 315. — Weymouth, Mr Bryer.— St Andrew's, Miss Lam- 
bert. 
Length about ^th of an inch; breadth about one-half less; white, subpel- 
lucid ; no spiral striae ; the ribs join the pillar-lip, covering the whole body- 
whorl ; aperture suborbicular ; pillar-lip with one or two tubercles at the base, 
adjoining the rib?. 



Cingcjla. MOLLUSCA. PECTINIBRANCHIA. 307 

235. C. semicostata. — Shell short, conical ; whorls five, spi- 
rally striated, with abbreviated transverse ribs. 

Turbo elegans, Adams, Linn. Trans, iii. 66. t. xiii. f. 31-32. — T. sem. Mont. 
Test. 326. t. xxi. f. 5.— Coast of Devon and Dunbar. 

Length half a line ; white ; whorls rounded, well denned by the separating 
line ; neither the strice nor ribs conspicuous on the upper whorls ; the ribs do 
not extend to the lower part of the body-whorl, where the spiral striae are 
most conspicuous ; aperture suborbicular ; pillar-lip a little reflected. 

236. C. Bryerea. — Shell conical; whorls seven, with about 
eighteen transverse ribs ; destitute of spiral striae. 

Turbo B. Mont. Test. Brit. 313. t. xv. f. 8.— In shell-sand, rare. 

Length about Ath of an inch ; white, glossy ; whorls rounded, well defined 
by the line of separation, which scarcely interrupts the ribs ; aperture oval, 
patulous ; pillar-lip slightly reflected. 

237. C. stria ta.—- Whorls six, rounded, regularly striated spi- 
rally, with transverse obsolete ribs at the top of each volution. 

Turbo sex anfractibus reticulatis apertura ovali submarginata, Walk~ 
Test. Min. 13. t. ii. f. 49.— T. striatus, Adams, Linn. Trans, iii. 66. 
Mont. Test. Brit. 312— Among sea-weeds, common. 

Length upwards of |th of an inch ; cuticle brownish ; whorls with a deep 
separating line ; aperture oval, narrow retrally ; outer lip slightly thickened. 

238. C. disjuncta. — Whorls six, smooth ; with the deep line 

of separation flat or concave. 

Turbo dis. Laskey, Mont. Test. Brit. Supp. 128. Wern. Mem. i. 405. 
t. viii. f. 3. — Belton Sands, Dunbar. 

Length about Ath of an inch, slender, white ; whorls much rounded, divid- 
ed by a broad and deep line of sepai'ation ; aperture nearly orbicular ; pillar- 
lip reflected, forming a small cavity. 






Outer lip not thickened by a rib. 

-239- C. labiosa. — Whorls seven ; the three largest faintly 

ribbed transversely ; aperture patulous. 

Turbo lab. Mont. Test. Brit. 400. t. xiii. f. 7—- T. membranaceus, Adams, 

Linn. Trans, v. ii. t. i. f. 14-15 English coast, not uncommon; rare 

in Scotland. 

Length about T 4 oths ; breadth less than T - 5 ths ; subpellucid, horn-coloured ; 
whorls but little raised, the upper ones smooth, the under ones with about 
fifteen faint ribs ; aperture oval, with the outer lip thin ; the pillar-lip much 
reflected, forming a cavity behind. — This shell varies much in its thickness, 
and in the disposition or presence of the ribs. 

240. C. ventricosa. — Whorls six, tumid, smooth and glossy. 

T. quinque anfractibus ventricosis apertura subrotunda, Walk. Test. 
Min. 10. t. ii. f. 36 — T. vent. Mont. Test. Brit. 317- t. xii. f. 13.— 

English coast, common. 

Length |th of an inch ; breadth §ds less, of a horn colour, with minute lines 
of growth"; aperture suborbicular ; pillar-lip reflected, forming, behind, a small 
cavity ; lid tbin, wrinkled, and corneous. 

241. C. auricidaris. — Whorls five, rounded; aperture ear- 
shaped ; inner lip with an angle. 

Turbo aur. Mont. Test. Brit. 308 Near Southampton, rare. 

U 2 



308 MOLLUSCA. PECTINIBRANCHIA. Cingdla. 

Length |ths of an inch ; breadth about |ths ; conic, smooth, subpellucid, 
horn-coloured ; whorls deeply divided by the separating line ; apex moderate- 
ly pointed ; inner lip forming an angle about the middle, behind which is a 
narrow cavity. Montagu compares this species to Limnea fossaria, to which, 
it may be added, some of the numerous varieties of Turbo quadrifasciatus bear 
a close resemblance, and with which the present species is probably con- 
nected. 

- 242. C.putta. — Whorls five, rounded, the first large ; striated 
or spotted with pink. 

Turbo pullus, Linn. Syst. i. 1233. Don. Brit. Shells, t. ii. f. 2-6. Mont 
Test. Brit. 319.— On fuci, on the English and Irish coasts. 
Length |ths of an inch ; breadth one-half less, smooth, glossy, finely va- 
riegated with pink, purple, or brown ; strong ; whorls decreasing rapidly, deep- 
ly divided by the separating line ; aperture suborbicular ; pillar-lip reflected, 
and forming behind a small cavity ; operculum strong, thick, testaceous, very 
convex, white and smooth externally ; the interior part, when separated from 
the animal, is a little concave, and has a small and singular spiral turn near 
one end. 

243. C. ulvce. — Whorls five to seven, nearly flat ; outer lip 
even retrally. 

Turbo ulvfe, Penn. Brit. Zool. iv. 132. t. lxxxvi. f. 120. Mont. Test. Brit. 
313. — In muddy inlets, common. 
Length fths, breadth £th of an inch ; corneous, thick, opake ; whorls with 
a distinct separating line, and slightly wrinkled across by lines of growth ; 
outer lip nearly straight retrally ; pillar-lip reflected and forming behind a 
slight longitudinal cavity ; operculum radiated with arched striae from the 
inner margin. 

244. C. suburnbtlicata. — Whorls five to seven, rounded, the 
first occupying above half the length of the shell. 

Turbo sub. Mont. Test. Brit. 316 — About the roots of fuci, common. 
Length T 3 5 ths, breadth ^th of an inch ; greenish-grey, smooth, glossy ; 
whorls well defined by the separating line ; apex obtuse ; aperture suborbi- 
cular, the outer lip rounded ; the pillar-lip reflected, forming behind a small 
cavity. 

245. C. interrupta. — Whorls five or six, slightly rounded, 
with interrupted spiral brown bands. 

Turbo in. Adams, Linn. Trans, v. 3. t. i. f. 16, 17- Mont. Test. Brit. 
329. — On fuci, common. 
Length about ph of an inch ; breadth |ds less ; pellucid, glossy, pale 
brown'; the coloured bands frequently form rows of oblong spots ; aperture 
wide ; outer lip rounded, very thin ; pillar-lip scarcely reflected. 

246. C. rubra. — Whorls five, rounded, translucent, glossy, 
brown, with a fine separating line. 

Turbo ruber, Adams, Linn. Trans, iii. 66. t. xiii. f. 21. Mont. Test. Brit. 
320 — At the roots of fuci, not uncommon. 
Length |th of an inch ; breadth §ds less; the pillar distinctly visible from 
the outside ; aperture suborbicular ; pillar-lip slightly reflected. 

247. C. vitrea. — Whorls four, rounded, nearly transparent, 
white. 



Cingula. MOLLUSCA. PECTINIBRANCHIA. 309 

Turbo vit. Mont. Test. Brit. 321. t. xii. f. 3 — In Cornwall and Zetland, 

rare. 

Length |th of an inch ; breadth fths less ; smooth, glossy, subeylindric ; 

separating line deep and oblique ; aperture large ; outer lip rounded, slightly 

compressed in the middle ; pillar-lip a little reflected, forming behind a small 

cavity This seems a rare shell. Two examples occurred to me among sand 

from Bressay, Zetland. 

248. C. unifasciata. — Whorls five, smooth, white, with one 
or two spiral bands of purplish brown. 

Turbo uni. Mont. Test. Brit. 327- *• xx. f. 6 — On the English coast, rare- 
Length about |th of an inch; breadth about one-half less ; conical, thick ; 
whorls little raised, divided by a small line ; aperture wide ; outer lip slightly 
reflected. 

24-9. C. cingitta. — Whorls six, slightly raised, spirally striated ; 
the separating line deep. 

Turbo trifasciatus, Adams, Linn. Trans, v. ii. t. i. f. 12. B — T. ring. Mont. 
Test. Brit. 328. t. xii. f. 7.— T. vittatus, Don. Brit. Shells, t. clxxviii. 

f. 1 T. graphicus, Turton, Conch. Diet. 200. f. 34. Brown, Wern. 

Mem. ii. 521. t. xxiv. f. 6. — Among the roots of fuci. 
Length |th of an inch, breadth §ds less ; subpellucid ; with alternate spiral 
bands of horn-colour and chesnut-brown, becoming obsolete towards the apex ; 
the separating line appears deep, in consequence of the upper margin of each 
volution suddenly bending inwards ; aperture oval ; outer lip nearly straight 
retrally. 

250. C. alba. — Whorls six, smooth, with about sixteen trans- 
verse ribs on the body-whorls. 

Turbo albus, Adams, Linn. Trans, iii. 66. t. xiii.f. 17, 18 — Roots of fuci, 
common. 

Length about T l 5 th of an inch, breadth one-half less ; smooth, glossy, subpel- 
lucid, pale brown, when recent, or with spiral brown bands ; whorls not much 
rounded, smooth, glossy ; the ribs, which are rounded and slightly waved, 
sometimes do not reach even to the body -whorl ; the shell then appearing not 
unlike C. interrupta ; aperture suborbicular ; pillar-lip a little reflected. — This 
species has probably been confounded with C. parva, to which it bears a con- 
siderable resemblance. It is, however, more rounded in the aperture, and pro- 
duced in the spire, and the outer lip is thin. 

251. C. semistriata.— Whorls five or six, rounded, smooth in 
the middle, and spirally striated on both sides. 

Turbo semi. Mont. Test. Brit. Sup. 136 — South coast of Devon. 
Length |th of an inch ; breadth one-half less, conical ; apex obtuse ; white ; 
whorls well defined by the separating line ; the striae extend to the body- 
whorl, as far as the junction of the lip ; aperture subovate, angulated at the 
retral end. 

252. C. dispar. — Whorls four, the first large ; striated spiral- 
ly, wrinkled obliquely, and subcarinated at the base. 

Turbo dispar, Mont. Linn. Trans, xi. 195. t. xiii. f. 4 — Found at Poole, 

by the Rev. Mr Bingley. 

Length |th of an inch ; breadth very little less ; grey ; upper whorls small, 

usually worn ; aperture suborbicular, within of a dark purple, with one pale 

band near the lower extremity.— The opinion expressed by Dr Turton, that 



310 MOLLUSC A. PECTIN IBRANCHIA. Odostomia- 

the Turbo Ziczac of* Mates and Rackett, Linn. Trans, viii. 160.'t. iv. f. 14' 
found near Sunderland by Lady Wilson, is probably similar to this species, 
may be regarded as correct. 

Gen. LI. ODOSTOMIA. — Shell conical ; aperture ovate ; 
peristome incomplete retrally, and furnished with a tooth 
on the pillar. 

253. O. unidentata. — Shell smooth, whorls five, slightly 

rounded, subpellucid. 

Turbo un. Mont. Test. Brit. 324. t. xxi. f. 2.— From deep water, not 
common. 

Length |th of an inch; breadth |ds less; white, glossy, delicate; sepa- 
rating line distinct ; apex blunt ; aperture ovate, a little expanded anteally ; 
pillar-lip slightly reflected, ending retrally in a small tooth. 

254. O. plicata. — Shell smooth ; whorls seven, nearly flat. 

Turbo plicatus, Mont. Test. Brit. 325 — In deep water, not common. 

Length f 5 ths of an inch ; breadth less than T ' 5 th; white, opaque, solid; se- 
parating line distinct ; aperture ovate ; the outer lip nearly straight retrally ; 
pillar-lip reflected, with a cavity behind ; the tooth, in the form of a ridge, 
near the middle of the pillar. — The descriptions of these two species have, by 
some accident, been intermingled in Testacea Britannica. 

255. O, spiralis. — Whorls 5, the lower part of the largest 

striated spirally ; the remainder of the shell ribbed transversely. 

Turbo longitudinaliter striatus quinque anfractibus apertura subrotun- 

da, Walk. Test. Min. 13. t. ii. f. 46 Turbo spiralis, Mont. Test. 

Brit. 322. t. xii. f. 9 In Salcomb Bay, and Zetland. 

Length j^th, breadth o'gth of an inch ; pellucid, glossy, white ; whorls 
nearly flat ; the two upper spiral lines are the largest, join the outer lip, and 
are continued along the separating line ; the transverse ribs are numerous, 
and slightly raised ; aperture ovate, the outer lip nearly straight retrally ; 
pillar lip reflected, with a slight cavity behind ; the tooth or fold is minute. 

256. O. interstincta. — Whorls 5, rather flat, and finely rib- 
bed across. 

T. int. Mont. Test. Brit. 324. t. xii. f. 10 Coast of Devon, rare. 

Length one line, breadth fds less ; glossy, white ; whorls divided by a 
small separating line; apex obtuse; aperture suboval; pillar lip a little re- 
flected, with a small tooth. Montagu refers to this species the Turbo inlcr- 
stinctus of Adams, Linn. Trans, iii. Go", t. xiii. f. 23, 24. 

257. O. insctdpta. — Whorls 6, rounded, and regularly striat- 
ed spirally. 

Turbo in. Mont. Test. Brit. Sup. 129 Coast of Devon, rare. 

Length |th of an inch, breadth §ds less ; subpellucid, white ; taper, apex 
obtusely pointed ; aperture subovate ; pillar-lip a little reflected, with a small 
cavity behind. 

258. O. Sandvicensis. — " The three spired elegantly reti- 
culated turbo, with a one-toothed oval aperture, from Sand- 
wich, rare."— Walk. Test. Min. 15. t. ii. f. 55. 



Scalaria. MOLLUSCA. PECTINIBRANCHIA. 311 

Gen. MONODONTA.— Pillar-lip notched or suddenly in- 
dented, so as to exhibit an imperfect canal. 

1. M. muricatus. — Short, conical, whorls 5, with many equal muricated 
spiral ridges ; lip plaited. — Turbo mur. Sower. Mm. Conch, t. cclx. f. 4.— Co- 
ral Rag. 

Gen. LII. SCALARIA. — Spire produced ; transverse ridges 
on the body-whorl continuous with the pillar. 

- 259- S. Clathrus. — Whorls 10, pointed, crossed by about 

ten regular continuous ribs ; the intermediate spaces smooth. 

Cochlea variegata, List. Conch, t. nlxxxviii. f. 51. Bor. Corn. 276. t. 
xxviii. f. 9. — Turbo clath. Perm. Brit. Zool. iv. 129. t. lxxxii. f. 3. d. 
t. 3. a.— T. clathratulus, Don. Brit. Sh. t. xxviii. upper figures — Not 
common. 

Length about an inch and a half, breadth at the base half an inch ; colour 
usually white ; volutions rounded ; deeply divided by the separating line, 
across which the ribs are extended ; pillar behind imperforated. The body- 
whorl is destitute of the keel-like spiral ridge which distinguishes the S. la- 
mellosa of Lamarck, a species confounded with the preceding by Linnaeus. 
Animal mottled black and white ; discharges a purple dye ; snout produced ; 
tentacula slender, black ; operculum coriaceous, black and spirally striated. 

260. S. clathratulus. — Whorls 8, obtuse, crossed by upwards 

of 15 regular continuous ribs, the intermediate spaces smooth. 

List. Conch, t. Dlxxxviii. f. 51. lower figures. — Turbo clath. Walk. Test. 
Min. 12. t. ii. f. 45. Maton and Racket, Linn. Trans, viii. t. v. f. 1. — 
Mont. Test. Brit. 297 Not common. 

Length about half an inch, breadth about T %ths ; like the preceding, but 
more slender in its growth, the ribs more numerous and less elevated. 

— 261. S. Turtoni. — Whorls about 12, pointed, crossed by 
about as many ribs, interrupted by a separating line ; the in- 
termediate spaces spirally striate. 

Turba clathratus var. Don. Brit. Shells, t. xxviii, the lowest figure.— T. 

Turtoni, Turton, Conch. Diet. 208. f. 97 On the Irish and English 

coasts. 

Length two inches and a half, breadth three-quarters of an inch ; pale 
brown, with two or three spiral dark bands. Shell strong ; whorls rounded ; 
the ribs are but little raised, rounded, bent at the line of separation ; some are 
large, and longitudinally wrinkled ; lips white, pillar-lip a little reflected. 

In a paper by Mr Winch on the Geology of Lindisfarn, (Annals of Phil. 
xx. 434.) there is a notice of a recent species of this genus from the neigh- 
bouring sea, and which is there designated, " Scalaria Trevetyana, Leach 
MS." I have not seen any specimens, or met with any description of this 
species. 



EXTINCT SPECIES. 

1. S. similis.— Whorls about 7, contiguous; spire with 5 or 6 rounded trans- 
verse elevations, close to each other, and somewhat decussated, the lowest 



312 MOLLUSC A. PECTIN IBRANCHI A. Scalaria. 

most prominent. Ribs distant, circular. Length an inch and a half, breadth 

about half an inch. — Sower. Min. Conch, t. xvi. two upper figures In Crag, 

from Bramerton. 

2. S. semicostala. — AVhorls about 1, contiguous ; spire transversely striated, 
ribs numerous, but slightly raised, lower part of each volution smooth, naked. 
— Sower. Min. Conch, t. xvi. middle figure. — In London Clay, from Barton 
Cliff, and in Crag of Suffolk, (lb. t. 390.') 

3. S. acuta. — Whorls about 1, rather distant ; spire with three slight trans, 
verse risings, and a fourth very prominent one, near the lower part of each 
turn, llibbs recurved, expanded, and acutely angular at their upper ends ; 
outer lip produced retrally. — Sower. Min. Conch, t. xvi. lowest figure.— In 
London Clay, Barton Cliff. 

4. S. snbulata. — Whorls contiguous; ribs 10 or 12, thick, reflected; the in- 
tervening spaces smooth— Sower. Min. Conch, t. cccxc. f. 1 — Crag, Suffolk. 

5. S.foliacea. — Whorls separate ; ribs distant, slender, broad, leaf-like, re- 
flected in the middle. — Sower. Min. Conch, t. cccxc. f. 2. — Crag, Suffolk. 

6. S. minuta. — Whorls contiguous : ribs about 20, thin, obtuse, elevated. — 
Soiver. Min. Conch, t. cccxc. f. 3, 4.— Crag, Suffolk. 

Gen. LIII. CYCLOSTREMA — Spire short; transverse 
ridges on the body-whorl disjoined from the pillar by a 
crenulated groove. 

262. C. Zetlandica. — Shell conical ; whorls 5, ribbed spiral- 
ly and transversely, with angular tubercles at the points of de- 
cussation. 

Mont. Linn. Trans, xi. 194. t. xiii. f. 3, — Zetland. 

Length 2 lines ; white ; apex obtuse; whorls tumid; longitudinal ridges 
do not extend to the lower part of the body-whorl, where the spiral ridges 
are very prominent ; aperture nearly orbicular, and marginated. A single 
example of this species occurred to me among shell-sand at Noss, Zetland. 
It was lent to my valued correspondent the late Mr Montagu, who omitted 
to return it, so that I can add nothing to the description which he has pub- 
lished. 

Gen. LIV. DELPHINULA.— Spire depressed, produced, 
and tuberculated. 

263. D. calcar. — Whorls 4, the upper ones depressed, farm- 
ing a flat summit. 

Mont. Test. Brit. Sup. 137, t. xxix. f. 3 — On the shore of Iona, Mr 
Laskey. 

Breadth about a quarter of an inch ; of a pale pink colour; round; on the 
body and part of the second whorls are large, smooth, lanceolate spines, ra- 
diating in straight lines from the shell, about 13 in number ; base convex, 
with a central cavity ; aperture orbicular. 



EXTINCT SPECIES. 

1. D. coronata Discoid flat above, with broad flat pointed spines around 

its edge ; concave beneath — Euomphalus coronatus, Soiver. Min. Conch, t. 
ccccl. f. 3.— Lower Oolite, AnclifK 



Skenea. MOLLUSCA. PECTINIBRANCHIA. 313 

2. D. nodosa — Upper side with a nearly central ridge ; under side with a 
row of rather large nodular projections ; aperture nearly round. — Euompha- 
lus nodosus, Sower. Min. Conch, t. xlvi. — Carboniferous Limestone, Derby- 
shire. 

3. D. discors — Whorls three or four, above subimbricated, with four spiral 
projections ; beneath concave, smooth.— Euomphalus dis. Sower. Min. Conch, 
t. lii. f. 1 — Carboniferous Limestone, Colebrook Dale. 

4. D. rugosa.— Above imbricated, with four spiral projections; beneath 
plaited ; margin rather acute — Park. Or. Rem. iii. 77- t. vi. f. 7, 8 Euom- 
phalus rug. Sower. Min. Conch, t. lii. f. 2. — Carboniferous Limestone, Cole- 
brook Dale. 

5. D. angulosa — Above subimbricated, with three spiral projections ; be- 
neath striated, with five obscurely plaited spiral projections ; aperture ob- 
scurely octangular Euomphalus ang. Sower. Min. Conch, t. lii. f. 3.— Car- 
boniferous Limestone, Benthall Edge. 

6. D. tuberculata — Discoid, whorls striated spirally and transversely, with 
a row of transverse tubercles on each side— In Carboniferous Limestone, West 
Lothian. 

Gen. CIRUS. — Spire produced. 

1. Leachii. — Longitudinally striated ; whorls many, with several rows of 
tubercles crossed by numerous small ridges ; upper row of tubercles spiri- 
form, compressed— Sower. Min. Conch, t. ccxix. f. 3 Under Oolite, Dundry. 

2. nodosus. — Conical, acuminated, or discoid, with an acuminated spiral 
umbo ; spire reversed ; whorls many, with two rows of longitudinally ex- 
tended tubercles, crossed by numerous small ridges Sower. Min. Conch. 

(cast) t. cxli. f. 2. and t. ccxix. f. 1, 2, 3 Under Oolite, Dundry. 

Gen. LV. SKENEA. — Spire depressed, and destitute of 
spinous processes. 

264. S. depressa. — Whorls three or four, wrinkled across, 
with a deep groove for the separating line. 

Serpula cornea, Adams, Linn. Trans, v. v. t. i. f. 33. — Helix depressa, 
Mont. Test. Brit. 439, t. xiii. £ 5 — At the roots of fuci, common. 
Breadth one line ; colour brown ; whorls round ; beneath, a large central 
cavity exposing the upper volutions ; above, the whorls are nearly on a level, 
their central edge bending suddenly at the separating line, and forming a 
deep groove ; the transverse lines of growth are irregular and rough; aper- 
ture circular, detached from the body-whorl, sometimes slightly reflected. 

265. S. serpuloides. — Whorls three, white, smooth, and 
glossy. 

Helix utrinque umbilicata apertura rotunda unici anfractus, Walk. Test. 
Min. 7- t. i. f. 26. (the fry) — Helix serp. Mont. Test. Brit. Sup. 147. 
t. xxi. f. 3. — Not uncommon from deep water. 

Breadth about ' l5 th of an inch; subopake; whorls round, nearly on a level 
above, with a deep separating line ; beneath, with a central cavity, round 
which there are traces, under a high magnifier, of diverging lines of growth ; 
aperture circular, with the margin a little reflected. 



:314 MOLLUSCA. PECTINIBRANCHIA. Skenea. 

266. S. divisa. — Whorls three or four ; the upper half of 
each smooth, the under half spirally striated. 

Turbo divisus, Adams, Linn. Trans, iii. 254.— Common from deep water. 
Breadth scarcely a line ; white, glossy, subpellucid ; whorls round, nearly 
on a level above, with a deep separating line ; beneath, the central cavity is 
large, and exposes the superior volutions; aperture circular, and usually de- 
tached from the body -whorl. 



The following Extinct Species appear to belong to this genus. 

1. S. cequalis — Equilaterally concave, with one obscure keel on the right 
side, and two on the left ; smooth ; whorls exposed ; aperture orbicular. — 
Sower. Min. Conch, t. cxl. f. 1. — In Carboniferous Limestone. 

2. S. concava. — Discoid, involute, flat on one side, concave on the other ; 
whorls four, the last but slightly attached — Vermicularia con. Sower. Min. 
Conch, t. lvii. f. 1-5. —In Green Sand. 

3. S. umbonata Discoid, involute ; umbonated above, concave beneath ; 

whorls three, the smallest concealed in the umbo — Vermicularia umb. Sower. 
Min. Conch, t. lvii. f. G, 7 — Mr Mantell adds, that the outer volution is pro- 
duced, and marked with distant annular ridges. — Geo]. Suss. iii. t. xviii. f. 
24 Grey Chalk Marl. 

4. S. ovata Discoid, involute, rudely ovate, a little concave beneath ; 

whorls three. — Vermicularia ovata, Sower. Min. Conch, t. lvii. f. 8 Upper 

Oolite. 

5. S. catillus Depressed ; beneath nearly flat, above concave, somewhat 

contracted, crossed with oblique striae ; whorls three, externally broad, con- 
vex, oblique, transversely striated, and bordered on each side by a sharp edge. 

Helix catillus, Mart. Derb. t. vii. f. 1, 2 — Euomphalus cat. Sower. Min. 

Conch, t. xlv. f. 3, 4 — In Carboniferous Limestone. 

6. S. perangulatus. — A prominent central ridge or rising angle on the up- 
per side, within which is a flat obliquely depressed space to the separating 
line ; the other side obtusely angulated ; striae of hair-like growth ; whorls 
almost wholly exposed ; aperture obscurely pentangular, rounded on the outer 

side Park. Org. Rem. iii. 77- t. vi. f. 7, 8. — Euomphalus pent. Sower. Min. 

Conch, t. xlv. f. 1, 2 Carboniferous Limestone, Ireland. 

7. S.funata. — Conical, very short; with many spiral threads, united by 

more numerous transverse lines ; central cavity rather small Euomphalus 

fun. Sower. Min. Conch, t. ccccl. £ 1, 2 — Carboniferous Limestone, Dudley. 

8. S. carinata Discoid, smooth, whorls five ventricose, obtusely carinat- 

ed ; convex below, central cavity large ; aperture transverse, obovate. — 
Cirus car. Soiver. Min. Conch, t. ccccxxix. f. 3, 4 — Lias, Cheltenham. 

Gen. EUOMPHALUS— Spire produced. 

1. E. acutus Whorls eight, conical, sharp, with an obtuse ridge near the 

upper part of each, within which there is a flat space ; aperture round. — 
Sower Min. Conch, t. cxli. — In Carboniferous Limestone, Ireland— It is near- 
ly related to Skenea pentangularis, from which it differs in the produced 
spire, and in the Hat space on the top of each whorl not reaching to the 
centre. 

2. E. rotundatus Conical, nearly smooth, whorls convex ; central cavity 

large ; aperture round. — Cirus rotundatus, Sower. Min. Conch, t. ccccxxix. f 
I, 2.—Carbo7iiferous Limestone, Yorkshire. 



Paludina. MOLLUSCA. PECTIMBRANCHIA. 315 

3. E. plicattts.—^C 'onical, transversely striated, base angular, sides flattened, 
central cavity plaited or deeply striated ; aperture oblong.— Cirus plicatus, 
Sower. Min. Conch, t. cxli. f. 3. — Chalk Marl, Folkstone. 

4. E. perspectivus— Obtusely conical ; spirally striated, central cavity deep, 

exposing one-third of each whorl; aperture transversely oblong Cirus per. 

Mant. Geol. 194. t. xviii. f. 12, 21. Sower. Min. Conch, t. ccccxxviii. f. 1, 2. 
—In Chalk. 

5. E. depressus — Subdiscoid, concentrically striated ; central cavity wide, 
exposing a small portion of each whorl ; an angular canal runs round the 
spire; aperture obtusely angular. — Cirus depressus, Mant. Geol. 195. t. 
xviii. f. 18, 22. Sower. Min. Conch, t. ccccxxviii. f. 3 In Chalk. 

6. C» granulatus. — Conical; whorls five or six, obscurely quadrangular, or- 
namented with regular transverse granulated striae. — Mant Geol. 195 Up- 
per Chalk. 

7- C. Sowerbii. — Conical, spiral, smooth, umbilicate; inner wreaths anchy- 

losed slightly inserted ; aperture indented by the preceding volution. Ver. 

micularia Sower. Mant. Geol. iii. t. xviii. f. 14. 15. — Grey Chalk Marl. 

8. C. Bognorensis — Spiral, last volution much produced, inferior side deep- 
ly umbilicate — Verm. Bog Alant. Geol. 272. 

Gen. LVI, PALUDINA. — Shell conical, mouth a little long- 
er than broad ; pillar-lip simple. 

— 267. P. vivipara. — Whorls five or six, rounded ; separating 
line deep ; apex like a minute tubercle. 

Cochlea maxima, List. An. Ang. 133. t. ii. f. 18. Conch, t. cxxvi. f. 26. 
— Helix vivipara, Linn. Syst. i. 1247 — Nerita viv. Mull. Verm. ii. 
182,— Hel. viv. Mont. Test. Brit. 38(3 — Cyclostoma viviparum and 
achatinum, Drap. Moll. 34, 36. — In the slow running rivers of Eno-. 
land. 

Length sometimes an inch and a half, the breadth one inch ; olive-green, 
with three brown spiral bands ; whorls with an abruptly fine apex, irre<nilar- 
ly wrinkled by layers of growth; the body-whorl occupying about two-thirds 
of the length of the shell ; aperture nearly semicircular ; pillar-lip a little re- 
flected, behind which is a small cavity ; operculum corneous ; concentrically 
striated. Young about ten in number — This varies a little in the shape of 
its aperture, and in the relative size and distance of the coloured bands. 

268. P. tentaculata. — Whorls five or six, a little rounded ; 
apex entire. 

Cochlea parva, List. An. Ang. 135. t. ii. f. 19. Conch, t. cxxxii. 32.— 
Helix tentaculata, Linn. Syst. i. 1249 — Nerita jaculator, Mull. Venn, 
ii. 185 — Hel. tent. Mont. Test. Brit. 389 — In stagnant waters, Eng- 
land and Ireland. 

Length half an inch, breadth one quarter, smooth, glossy, horn-coloured, 
with fine lines of growth ; whorls increasing less rapidly than in the preced- 
ing species, the body whorl occupying about the half of the length of the 
shell; aperture ovate, slightly contracted retrally ; pillar- lip a little reflect- 
ed ; tentacula setaceous, and continually in motion. The young of this spe- 
cies constitute the Nerita sphcsrica of Muller, and the Cyclostoma simile of Dra- 
parnaud. 

269. P. acuta. — Whorls five or six, a little rounded, taper- 
ing ; apex entire. 



316 MOLLUSCA. PECTINIBRANCHIA. Paludina. 

Cyclostoma acutum, Drap. Moll. 40. t. i. f. 23. — Turbo Leachii, Shep- 
pard, Linn. Trans, xiv. 152. — Cyc. acutum, Turton, Zool. Journ. ii. 
5G5 — In stagnant ditches, England. 

Length from 2 to 3 lines, breadth nearly |ds less ; diaphanous, of a horn 
colour ; the body -whorl occupies about one-half of the shell ; aperture ap- 
proaching to semicircular; pillar-lip a little reflected, with a slight cavity be- 
hind. This shell is subject to some variety in its growth. The specimens 
in my possession from Bristol, were communicated by Mr Thomas Drum- 
mono. 



EXTINCT SPECIES. 

1. P. fluviorum. — Whorls four to six, convex ; shell about twice the length 
of the aperture ; lines of growth rather sharply conspicuous, giving the shell 
a finely striated appearance.— Vivipara fluv. Sower. Min. Conch, t. xxxi. f. 1. 
— Mantell, GeoL Suss. 45. t. xvii. f. 56. — In Limestone above and below the 
Iron sand. 

2. P. externa — Whorls four or five, subconvex, lower part rather angular ; 
inner Up swelling a little at the umbilical side, outer lip extended outwards ; 
shell about twice the length of the aperture. — Viv. est, Sower. Min. Conch, 
t. xxxi. f. 2. — With the preceding. 

3. P. lenta.— Smooth ; whorls five or six, scarcely angular ; lines of growth 
occasionally conspicuous ; aperture nearly round, entire.— Sower. Min. Conch. 
t. xxxi. f. 3. — London Clay, at Hordwell and Barton. 

4. P. concinna.— Shell rather conical ; whorls four or five ; slightly convex ; 

lower part rather angular. — Sower. Min. Conch, t. xxxi. f. 4, 5 Barton 

Cliff. 

5. P. suboperta. — Whorls five, convex, with a depressed line along the up- 
per part ; [a little wrinkled ; outer lip folding partly over the upper part of 
the aperture ; shell about twice the length of the aperture— Sower. Min. 
Conch, t. xxxi. f. 6 — Crag, Holywells. 

The three preceding species probably belong to the marine genus Cingula, 
nor is it certain that the two following are true Paludince. 

6. P. elongata.— Ovato lanceolate, smooth ; whorls five, convex ; aperture 
elongated. Sower. Min. Conch, t. Dix. f. 1, 2. — Weald Clay. 

7. P. carinifera. — Ovato-conical, smooth ; whorls four, convex, the upper 
two bounded by a linear keel at the lower edge. — Sower. Min. Conch, t. 
Dix. f. 3. — Purbeck Limestone. 

Gen. AMPUL L ARIA. — Shell globose, pillar-lip prominent 
and reflected. 

1. A. acuta Ventricose, smooth, with a small acute spire ; pillar-cavity 

small, half closed; aperture ovate, elongated. — (Helix mutabilis, Brander, f. 
58, 59.) Sower. Min. Conch, t. cclxxxiv. three upper figures. — London Clay. 

2. A. patula.-Yentricose, smooth, with a short spire ; pillar-cavity large, 
open, lined with a spiral adpressed plate ; aperture obovate,— (Helix muta- 
bilis, Brander, f. 57.) Sower. Min. Conch, t. cclxxxiv. two middle figures. — 
London Clay, Barton. — This species seems nearly related to Turbo quadrifas. 
ciatus. 

3. A. segaretina.— Ventricose, short, spire small, acute, with sharp trans- 
verse strise ; pillar-cavity covered, small, half filled by a spiral plate ; aper- 



Ampullama. MOLLUSCA. PECTINIBRANCHIA. 317 

ture suborbicular ; right lip enlarged— Sower. Min. Conch, t. cclxxxiv. two 
lower figures.— London Clay. 

4. A. ambulacrum Globose, with a canal round an acute spire ; pillar-ca- 
vity plain within Sower. Min. Conch, t. ccclxxii. — London Clay. 

5. A. nobilis Subglobose, smooth ; spire conical, composed of a few con- 
vex whorls; base very convex; no pillar cavity; aperture elliptical, sublu- 
nate, pointed above.— Sower. Min. Conch, t. Dxxii. f. 1. — Carboniferous Lime- 
stone. 

6. A. helicoidis. — Almost discoid, smooth ; spire very short, blunt ; whorls 
nearly blended, round ; base with a pillar cavity ; aperture oblong. — Sower. 
Min. Conch, t. Dxxii. f. 2. — Carboniferous Limestone, Ireland. 

7. A. canaliculata " Ventricose, whorls three or four ; transversely and 

obliquely striated ; the strife decussating each other ; spire short ; turns of 
the spire separated by a deep channel." — ManU Geol. Suss. 87. t. xix. f. 13. 
Blue Chalk Marl. — Mr Mantell likewise refers another shell to this genus, 
but with doubt, " a subglobose, ventricose, univalve," p. 111. t. xviii. f. 11. 

Gen. MELANIA. — Shell turrited; aperture oblong; pillar- 
lip smooth, and bent in the middle. 

1. M. sulcata Spire more than five times the length of its diameter, with 

spiral striae ; a concave furrow between each whorl ; whorls fourteen — Sower. 
Min, Conch, t. xxxix. middle figure — London Clay, Stubbington Cliffs. 

2. M. Heddingtonensis A shell about three times as long as the diameter ; 

whorls eight or more, the surface of each concave near the middle, with an 
obtuse angled rising near the upper part.— Sower. Min. Conch, t. xxxix. right 
and left hand figures.— Upper and Middle Oolite. 

3. M. striata Length two and a half times as long as the diameter ; whorls 

six or more, with about sixteen rounded spiral ribs, nearly equal on the outer 
part of the whorls, but widened on the concealed parts — Sower. Min. Conch, 
t. xlvii. — Lias. 

4. M. lineata Acuminated ; whorls nine, finely striated across ; aperture 

angular above — Sower. Min. Conch, t. ccxviii. f. 1.— Inferior Oolite, at Dun- 
dry. 

5. M./asciafo.— Turrited, short; whorls six, spirally striated, marked with 
three coloured bands, coronated; aperture ovate. — Sower. Min. Conch, t. 
ecxli. f. 1. — Fresh-water Formation, Isle of Wight. 

6. M. costata.— Turrited, spirally striated, transversely ribbed ; mouth ob- 
ovate. — Sower. Min. Conch, t. ccxli. f. 2 — London Clay, Hordwell. 

7. M. minima Turrited, smooth ; sides straight ; mouth ovate, pointed 

above ; base slightly produced — Sower. Min. Conch, t. ccxli. f. 3. — London 
Clay, Brakenhurst, Hants. 

8. M. truncala Conical, elongated, smooth ; whorls angular below ; mouth 

ovate, acute above, truncated below. — Sower. Min. Conch, t. ccxli. f. 4. — Lon- 
don Clay, Brakenhurst. 

With the exception of M. fasciata, it is doubtful if any of the preceding 
species belong to the genus Melania. It is more probable that they are re- 
lated to the marine Turbonidce. 

9. M. costellata.— Turrito-subulated spirally, with numerous longitudinal 
ribs ; anteal lip with a canal in the inside. — Lam, Hist. Vert. vii. 543. {Bran* 
der, Foss. Hant. f. 21-)— ManU Geol. 269. 



318 MOLLUSCA. PECTINIBRANCHIA. Nerita. 

NERITADjTC. 

* Marine. 
Nerita. 
Natica. 

•• Fluviaiile. 
Neritina. 

Gen. LVII. NERITA.— Pillar-lip flat, entering the cavity, 
entire behind. 

- 270. N. littoralis. — Whorls five, nearly smooth, the outer lip 

thin on the edge, thickened within. 

Nerita ex fusco-viridescens, List. An. Ang. 1G4, t. iii. f. 11, 12, 13. Conch, 
t. Dcvii. £ 39-44 — N. litt. Linn. Syst. 1253. Mont. Test. Brit. 467. 
— Common on sea rocks, covered with the tide. 

Length and breadth about three-quarters of an inch. Shell thick and 
strong, variously coloured ; whorls increase rapidly, spire short, depressed, 
the separating line small ; aperture semicircular, but the pillar is more round- 
ed anteally, where it joins the outer lip, than is usual in the genus; hence 
Lamarck has placed the shell in the genus Turbo (T. retusus. Hist. Vert. vii. 
48.) ; a subperforation appears on the pillar. This shell is subject to consi- 
derable variation in the shape, arising from the spire being more or less pro- 
duced ; the body-whorl round or compressed, and the outer lip retrally join- 
ing the upper or middle part of the whorl. 

271. N. Virginea, — Smooth, polished ; pillar-lip toothed. 

Nerita, List. Conch, t. Devi. f. 35. Turton's Conch. Diet. 127 — West 
coast of Ireland. 

Breadth of those found bv Dr Turton hardly the eighth of an inch, pale, 
ferruginous, with black zigzag lines running in various directions ; whorls lit- 
tle raised, a black line round the junctions. 



EXTINCT SPECIES. 

1. N. lavigata. — Pointed, smooth; spire conical, with straight sides; base 
convex Sower. Min. Conch, t. cexvii. f. i. — Inferior Oolite. 

2. N. sintwsa Obtuse, uneven ; spire short, with convex whorls ; aperture 

with a rounded sinus near the base, and an angular sinus near the middle. — 
Soiver. Min. Conch, cexvii. f. 2 — Portland Oolite at Chilmarsh. 

3. N. globosa Subglobose, transversely sulcated ; spire apparent ; one tooth 

upon the inner lip ; outer lip plain within — Sower. Min. Conch, t. ccccxxiv. 
ft 1.— London Clay. 

4. N. aperta Subhemispherical, smooth ; spire visible, depressed ; aper- 
ture orbicular, expanded ; inner lip obscurely crenated, bearing one large 
tooth Sower. Min. Conch, t. ccccxxiv. f. 2, 3, 4. — London Clay. 

5. N. minuta Hemispherical, smooth ; spire indistinct, aperture oval ; 

pillar-lip not toothed.—- Soiver. Min. Conch, t. cccclxiii. ft 3, 4. Oolite at An- 
cliff. 



Natica. MOLLUSCA. PECTINIBRANCHIA. 310 

6. N. costata. Hemispherical ; spire conspicuous, impressed ; whorls trans- 
versely costated ; costse thin, sharp, numerous ; aperture expanded, orbicu- 
lar ; columellar lip prominent, obtuse. Soiver. Min. Conch, t. cccclxiii. f. 5, 
6. Oolite, Ancliff. 

7. N. spirata. Semiglobose, smooth ; spire small, partly immersed ; upper 
parts of the whorls flat, when old, concave ; aperture transversely oval — 
.Soiver. Min. Conch, t. cccclxiii. £ I, 2. Mountain Limestone. 

8. N. I possess some imperfect specimens of a species differing 

from the preceding in size, and in the spire being larger. From the Tran- 
sition Limestone of Cork. 

9. N. striata. Spire slightly produced ; whorls flat, crossed by numerous 
narrow rounded ribs. I found an imperfect specimen of this shell in Carboni- 
ferous Limestone at Corry,lArran 5th June 1807. It bears a close resemblance 

to the recent Nerita polita. 



Gen. LVIII. NATICA. — Pillar-lip entire, not entering the 
aperture, with a cavity or callus behind. 

— 272. N. glaucina. — Whorls six, smooth, pillar-lip thick and 

reflected, forming a large and deep cavity. 

Cochlea rufescens, List. An. Ang. 163. t. iii. f. 10, Conch. 568. (.119.— 
Nerita glaucina, Linn. Syst. i. 1251. Mont. Test. Brit. 469. Inhabits 
deep sandy bays, common. 

Length about an inch and a half, breadth rather less ; whorls little elevat- 
ed ; apex pointed ; colour brownish white, with interrupted bands of brown 
on the upper volutions; outer lip considerably advanced at its junction with 
the body ; operculum divergingly striated. Mr Hog has demonstrated, that 
the substance known under the name of Flustra arenosa, is the nidus of this 
species, in the cells of which the eggs are deposited. Linn. Trans, xiv. 318. 
The Nerita pellucida and alba of Adams, ib. iii. 67- are probabl)' the fry of 
this species. 

273. N. nitida. — Whorls five ; pillar cavity half closed. 

Nerita nit. Don. Brit. Shells, 144. Mont. Test. Brit. Sup. 149. On 
different parts of the coast, not common. 

Diameter scarcely half an inch; glossy, white ; spire short ; whorls nearly 
flat, with the separating line nearly obliterated. 

274. N. riifa. — Smooth, purplish, with a white band round 

the top of the volutions, and two others on the body-whorl. 

Nerita rufa, Mont. Test. Brit. Sup. 150. t. xxx. f. 3. English and Scot- 
tish coast, rare. 

Breadth about half an inch ; pillar-lip forms a large projection over the ca- 
vity behind, producing an indenture on each side of it. The second whorl 
in this is larger in proportion than in N. glaucina. 

— 275. N. intrlcata. — Pillar-cavity furnished with two spiral 

ridges and two grooves. 

Nerita in. Don. Brit. Shells, t. clxvii. N. canrena, Mont. Test. Brit. 
Sup. 148. Weymouth, rare. 

Length about half an inch ; smooth, livid, with bands of sagittate ferrugi- 



320 MOLLUSCA. PECTINIBRANCHIA. Natica. 

nous lines ; pillar-cavity very large. This species has occurred only to Mr 
Donovan. 

276. N. tubcrosissima. — Whorls four, marked with four spi- 
ral broken tubercular ridges. 

Nerita tub. Mont. Test. Brit. Sup. 150. t. xxix. f. 5.— At Dunbar, Mr 
Laskey. 

Breadth about |th of an inch; pellucid, white; upper volutions small ; 
pillar-cavity large. 

277. N. sulcata. — Whorls four, with remote oblique trans- 
verse striae. 

Nerita sul, Turton. Conch. Diet. 124. fig. 56, 57 N. glabrissimus, 

Brown, Wern. Mem. ii. 532. t. xxiv. f, 12 — Two specimens found in 
Dublin Bay by Dr Turton. 

Breadth |th of an inch ; globular, semitransparent, bluish-white ; whorls 
swollen, well defined ; pillar-lip flat, projecting a little in the middle over 
the cavity behind, which is long and deep. 

278. N. pallidula. — Whorls three, pillar-lip with a wide 

groove leading to the cavity. 

Ner. pall. Don. Brit. Sh. t. xvi. f. i. Mont. Test. Brit. 468 Turbo pal- 

lidus and puteolus, Turt. Conch. 192.— Among sea weeds, about low 
water-mark, common. 

Length \ an inch, breadth |ths ; yellowish-brown ; whorls rounded, with 
a grooved separating line, the upper ones small, lateral, and little produced, 
slightly wrinkled by the layers of growth ; pillar-cavity deep, the retral ex- 
tremity of the lip partly folded over it ; operculum with diverging wrinkles. 

- 279- N. lacuna. — Whorls four ; pillar-lip with a narrow 

groove leading to the cavity. 

Ner. lac. Mont. Test. Brit. 428. t. xiii. f. 6 — Turbo lacuna, Turt. Conch. 
Diet. 193. t. xxv. f. 87, 89.— On the English shores, rare. 

This shell bears a very close resemblance to the preceding. Judging from 
an authentic example which I received from Mr Montagu, it chiefly differs 
in the less enlargement of the body-whorl towards the aperture, the second 
whorl being better defined, the pillar-groove narrower, and the anteal cur- 
vature of the lip more restricted : there are likewise some faint traces of spi- 
ral striae. 



EXTINCT SPECIES. 

1. N. glaucinoides.— Nearly globose spire, rather elongated ; pillar-cavity 
simple, partly covered ; upper part of each whorl slightly depressed— ■Sower. 
Min. Conch, t. v. three upper figures, and t. cccclxxix. f. 4. — London Clay and 
Suffolk Crag. 

2. N. similis. — Shell rather rhomboidal ; spire short ; pillar cavity divided 
by a spiral projection ; aperture slightly angular above. — Sower. Min. Conch. 
t. v. two middle figures — London Clay. 

3. N. depressa Nearly globose, subumbilicated ; upper part, and the side 

of each whorl, flattened, so as to appear nearly square ; columella depressed 
beneath ; aperture angular at the upper part. — Sower. Min. Conch, t. v. lower 
figures.— Crag-marl. 



Neretina. MOLLUSC. PECTINIJ3RANCH1A. 321 

4. N. patula Hemispherical, smooth, spire small, depressed ; pillar cavi- 
ty open, containing a spiral ridge. — Sower. Min. Conch, t. ccclxxiii. three lower 
figures — Suffolk Crag. 

5. N. striata Subhemispheroidal, smooth ; spire small, depressed ; pillar 

cavity open ; base concentrically striated — Sower. Min. Conch, t. ccclxxiii. 
two upper figures. — London Clay. 

6. N. cirrifornm Globose ; whorls slightly compressed laterally ; spire 

conspicuous ; pillar cavity large, deep, open ; pillar lip thick, with a sinus in 
the middle ; aperture small, oblong — Sower. Min. Conch, t. cccclxxix. f. 1. 
—Suffolk Crag. 

7- N. Iwmiclausa. — Subglobose ; spire small, conical, pointed ; cavity half 
closed by the upper part of the pillar lip ; aperture oval. — Sower. Min. Conch. 
t. cccclxxix. f. 2. — Crag. 

8. N. sigaratina — Much depressed ; pillar cavity large, filled with a lenti- 
cular callus — Sower. Min. Conch, t. cccclxxix. f. 3 London Clay. 

Gen. LIX. NERETINA. — Pillar lip broad, flat, entire ; outer 
lip patulous. 

— 280. N.Jluviat'dis.— Transversely oval, outer lip thin. 

Nerita fluviatilis, List. An. Ang. 13G. t. ii. f. 20. Conch, t. 607- f. 43 

Linn. Syst. 1253. Mont. Test. Brit. 470. — On stones in slow running 
rivers in England and Ireland. 

Length |ths of an inch, breadth §ths ; variously streaked or spotted with 
purple white and brown ; the whorls rounded, the upper ones small ; slight- 
ly striated across by the lines of growih ; pillar lip white ; lid yellow, with 
a lateral tooth behind, imbedded in the foot. 



EXTINCT SPECIES. 

1. N. concava. — Obovate, with a prominent obtuse spire ; upper part of 

each whorl concave ; aperture semicircular ; lip entire Soider. Min. Conch. 

t. ccclxxxv. £ 1-8 — In various strata from the London Clay to the Crag. 

2. N. uniplkata.— Subglobose, with a concealed spire, and one plait upon 
the rather convex pillar lip — Sotver. Min. Conch, t. ccclxxxv. f. 9. 10. — Lon- 
don Clay. 



TROCHUSID.E. 

Gen. LX. TROCHUS. — Base flat or concave; aperture 
transversely depressed. 

* Pillar perforated. 

-281. T. Magus. — Spire subdepressed ; whorls six, flattened 
above towards the deep separating line ; the last whorls tuber- 
culated. 

T. planior, List. Conch, t. C41. 31 — T. Magus, Linn. Syst. i. 1228. 
Mont. Test. Brit. 283 — In deep water, not common. 
VOL. I. v 



39£ MOLLUSCA. TROCHUSID.E. Tkochus. 

Breadth about an inch, height one-fourth less; variously marked with 
red, blue, and white ; base slightly convex ; whorls spirally striated ; the 
upper part of the two last waved or tuberculated, and a raised rib round the 
base of each; pillar cavity wide, with an open spiral groove. — Specimens of 
a shell exactly corresponding with Turbo carneus of Mr Lowe (Zool. Journ. 
vol. ii. p. 107. t. v. f. 12. and which Mr Gray has identified with the Marga- 
rita striata of Leach (Ross's Voyage of Discov. App.), Zool. Journ. vol. ii. 567.), 
which I found plentifully in Zetland, were sent to Mr Montagu in 1809, who 
pronounced them the fry of a Trochus. There can be little doubt of their 
relation to the present species. 

282. T. umbUicatus. — Spire bluntly conical ; whorls nearly- 
even, obsoletely striated at the base. 

T. ci - ebris striis fuscus, List. An. Aug. 1669. t. iii. f. 15. Conch. Dcxli. 
f. 31. — T. umbilicaris, Penn. Brit. Zool. iv. 126. — T. cinerarius, Don. 
Brit. Shells, t. lxxiv. three middle figures. — T. umbilicatus, Mont. Test. 
Brit. 286 — On Fuci near low water-mark. 

Breadth fths, height fths of an inch ; whitish, with waved purple stripes. 
Whorls five, imperfectly marked by the separating line ; striated, smooth ; 
pillar cavity with sloping wrinkled sides ; the margin of the cavity and of 
the body whorl rounded. 

283. T. cinerarius. — Spire subdepressed, with a minute 

apex ; whorls with a well defined separating line ; strongly 

striated at the base. 

Penn. Brit. Zool. iv. 12/. Don, Brit. Shells, t. lxxiv. two upper and 
two lower figures. Mont. Test. Brit. 284 — Near low water-mark. 

Height and breadth about §ths of an inch ; grey, with numerous lines of 
purple ; whorls five ; strongly striated, the striae interrupted by the lines of 
growth, giving the surface a rough feel ; pillar cavity large : the tentacula 
and lateral filaments not so dark nor so strongly marked with annular rings 
as the preceding. — I am not satisfied with the claims of this species as dis- 
tinct from the preceding. They are probably only varieties constituting the 
Trochus cinerarius of Linnaeus. 

— 284. T. tumidus. — Whorls subquadrangular, with numerous 
spiral striae slightly decussated by the lines of growth. 

Mont. Test. Brit. 280. t. x. f. 4. 4.— In deep water. 

Length about ^gths, and breadth about , 3 <;ths of an inch ; dusky white 
with spotted transverse lines of purplish-brown ; whorls five, flat at top, 
nearly even on the sides, or rather slightly concave, with the lower edge 
subcarinated ; base a little rounded, the lines of growth diverging from the 
pillar cavity, which is variable in size. — The Trochus umbilicatus of Walker 
(Test. Min. tab. ii. f. 58.) is considered as referable to this species. 

The Trochus cinereus of Da Costa (Brit. Conch. 42. t. iii. f. 9, 10.), List. ^ 
Conch. t.Dcxxxiii. f. 21. ; Don. Brit. Shells, t. civ, f. 2, has not occurred to any 
other collector of British shells. He states it as common on many parts of 
the coast. The species, however, to which he refers, is of foreign growth, 
and readily distinguished by its concave base, wide pillar cavity, and jagged 
pillar lip. 

** Pillar closed. 

- 285. T. crassus. — Whorls five, rounded, wrinkled ; the pil- 
lar lip with a blunt tooth. 



Trochus. MOLLUSCA. TROCHUSID^E. 

T. lineatus (Da Costa, Brit. Conch. 100. t. vi. f. 7-), Don. Brit. Shells, 

t. 71 — T. crassus, Mont. Test. Brit. 281 English coast, on rocks 

about mid tide. 

Length and breadth about an inch ; purplish-brown, with numerous white 
zigzag lines ; shell strong, whorls coarse and wrinkled by the lines of 
growth ; base convex ; aperture rounded ; pillar lip concave in the middle, 
in front of which is the tooth. According to!;Montagu there is a sort of plume 
behind the left eye, composed of simple contiguous fibres. 

- 286. T. papittosus. — Whorls eight, flat, with numerous spi- 
ral tuberculated ridges and striae. 

{Da Costa, Brit. Conch, p. 38. No. 20. t. iii. f. 3.) Don. Brit. Shells, 
t. cxxvii — T. tenuis, Mont. Test. Brit. 275. t. x. f. 3.— South coasts 
of England and Ireland. 

Length l|th inch, breadth rather less ; pale reddish-brown, with red spots ; 
whorls scarcely distinguished by the separating line ; the tubercles on the 
ridges are transverse, smooth, the intervening strife are slightly decussated 
by the lines of growth ; base with numerous, spiral grooves, finely striated 
across by the lines of growth ; aperture slightly angular ; pillar-lip concave. 

- 287- T. ziziphinus. — Whorls eight, flat, separated by a 
smooth circular ridge, obsoletely striated spirally. 

T. albidus, List. An. Ang. 166. t. iii. f. 14. Conch, t. Dcxvi. f. 1. 

T. ziz. Linn. Syst. 1231. Mont. Test. Brit. 274 Not uncommon, 

near low water mark. 

Length and breadth about an inch ; livid, the separating ridge with darker 
and lighter coloured spaces ; spire conical, pointed ; base smooth, spiraDy 
striated with diverging curved lines of growth ; aperture quadrangular ; 
the pillar-lip slightly concave, with an obsolete tooth at the anteal extre- 
mity — A white variety of this shell was sent me several years ao-o bv Dr 
Leach, with the name T. Lt/onsii, from Tenby. 

- 288. T. exasperatus. — Whorls seven, flat, separated by a 
tuberculated circular ridge. 

T. pyramidalis parvus, List. Conch, t. Dcxvi. f. 2 T. exasp. Penn. 

Brit. Zool. iv. 126 — T. conulus, Don. Brit. Shells, t. viii. f. 2.— T. 
exiguus, Mont. Test. Brit. 277 — Southern coasts, rare. 

Length |ths of an inch, breadth |ths ; crimson-red, with white spots ; 
whorls with four smaller slightly tuberculated spiral ridges, the intervening 
spaces pitted ; base with nearly smooth spiral striae, slightly convex where 
the body-whorl enters the aperture. 

• 289- T. striatus. — Whorls seven, flat, with an indistinct 

separating ridge, smooth on its upper surface. 

Linn. Syst. i. 1230. Pull. Dorset, p. 44. Mont. Test. Brit. 278 T. 

conicus, Don. Brit. Shells, t. civ. f. 1 — T. erythroleucos, Turt. Conch. 
Diet. 191 — On the southern coasts. 

Length |ths of an inch, breadth jjths ; grey, with transverse waved black 
lines ; spiral stria?, on the base and surface of the whorls, numerous, crossed 
by sharp oblique lines of growth, which extend across the outer edge of the 
separating ridge; base flat, the body-whorl, where entering the aperture, 
slightly concave ; aperture angulated. 

X2 



324 MOLLUSCA. TllOCHUSID.E. Tkochus. 

EXTINCT SPECIES. 

1. T. agglutinans> — Depressed, conical, smooth; base expanded, with a 
broad waved margin ; whorls externally deformed ; pillar-cavity plicate ; 
aperture oblong. — (T. umbilicaris, Brawler, Foss. Hant. f. 4-5.) — Sower. Min. 
Conch, t. xcviii. — Smaller figure. — London Clay. 

2. T. Benettice — Depressed, conical ; upper surface obliquely wrinkled ; 
base expanded, with a broad waved margin ; whorls externally irregular ; 
pillar-cavity plicate, partly covered ; aperture narrow. — Soiver. Min. Conch, 
t. xcviii. — Larger figure. — London Clay. 

3. T. anyticus.— Conical, base rather convex ; volutions squarish, with tu- 
bercles upon their angles, transversely carino-striate, and a rounding eleva- 
tion in their centres ; lines of growth decussating the three central striae ^ 
pillar imperforate — List. Conch, t. mdcccxxxvi. f. 16. Soicer. Min. Conch, t. 
cxlii. — Lias. 

4. T. Iwviyatus — Conical, nearly smooth ; sides straight ; base convex, with 
an obtuse margin ; aperture rhomboidal, with rounded angles ; no pillar cavi- 
ty. — Sower. Min. Conch, t. clxxxi. £ 1 Cray. 

5. T. similes. — Conical, sides straight, ornamented with many transverse 
lidges, two or three of which upon each whorl are granulated ; base flattish, 
concentrically striated ; aperture quadrangular ; pillar direct — Sower. Min. 
Conch, t. clxxxi. f. 2 — Crag. 

6. T. anyulatus. — Conical, sides of the whorls concave ; base flattish ; mar- 
gin carinated; aperture acutely rhomboidal ; no pillar cavity. — Soiver. Min. 
Conch, t. clxxxi. f. 3. — Inferior Oolite. 

7- T. duplicatus Conical, sides of the whorls concave ; a double deeply 

crenulated carina round the base ; pillar cavity open, with a tubercular mar- 
gin ; aperture quadrangular — Sower. Min. Conch, t. clxxxi. f. 5. — Under Oolite. 

8. T. dimidudus.— Conical, base convex, with a carinated margin ; upper 
part of the whorl concave, with an entire carina in the middle ; aperture pent- 
angular? pilfer direct and solid. — Sower. Min. Conch, t. clxxxi. f. 4 Under 

Oolite. 

9. T. punctalus — Conical, with straight sides, transversely striated ; upper 
striae upon each whorl crossed by oblique undulations ; lower ones minutely 

tranulated ; a narrow band between the two sets Sower. Min. Conch, t. cxciii. 
1. — Inferior Oolite^ 

10. T. elongatns. — Conical, elongated, transversely striated ; striae near the 
apex granulated ; each whorl slightly undulated near the upper edge, with an 

obscure band before the middle ; the inferior margin prominent Sower. Min. 

Conch, t. cxciii. f. 234. — Inferior Oolite. 

11. T. abbreviatus Conical shortened, transversely striated ; striae obscure- 
ly decussated by oblique lines of growth ; inferior margin of each whorl very 
prominent, obtuse, with an obscure band above it — Sower. Min. Conch, t. 
cxciii. f. 5 Inferior Oolite. 

12. T.fasciatus Conical, umbilicate, decussate striated; whorls slightly 

convex, with a band around their middle ; base flattish ; aperture quadrangu- 
lar. — Sower. Min. Conch, t. ccxx. f. 1 — Inferior Oolite. 

13. T. arenosus Conical, very short, granulated, whorls rather convex 

above, with a band along the middle ; base convex, in part nearly smooth. 
— Soiver. Min. Conch, t. ccxx. f. 2. — Inferior Oolite. 

14. T, wominens.— Conical, short, whorls convex, finely striated, with a 



Teochus. MOLLUSCA. TROCHUSID^. 325 

sulcus around the middle ; base flattish. — Slower. Min. Conch, t. ccxx. f. 3.— 
Inferior Oolite. 

15. T. pallium Conical, depressed, with concentric furrows, and diverging 

strife ; whorls above depressed, with many tubercular undulations ; in the 
middle flattened, with a longitudinal band ; base convex, umbilicated ; mar- 
gin largely crenulated. — Sower. Min. Conch, t. ccxxi. f. 1. — Inferior Oolite. 

16. T. tiara. — Depressed, conical, with diverging striae ; volutions obscure- 
ly bicarinated, deeply undulated above, concentrically striated beneath ; base 
convex, with a large pillar-cavity — Sower. Min. Conch, t. ccxxi. f. 2 — Green 
Sand. 

17. T. Sedgivicki — Conical, smooth ; base carinated ; whorls concave above, 
convex below ; margin and base striated — Sower. Min. Conch, t, cclxxii. f. 1. 
— Suffolk Crag. 

18. T. imbricatus .-Pyramidal, with several transverse threads upon each 

whorl, crossed by fine longitudinal striae ; whorls angular, imbricating, flat 
above, very convex beneath ; pillar-cavity closed. — Soiver. Min. Conch, t. 
cclxxii. f. 3, 4. — In Lias Clay. 

19. T. reticulatus.— Conical, transversely reticulato-striated ; whorls bicari- 
nated ; base convex. — Sower. Min. Conch, t. cclxxii. f. 2 — Upper Oolite. 

20. T. Gibsii Conical, short, umbilicated ; sides straight ; edge obtusely 

carinated ; base convex, reticulato-striated ; in the centre of the upper part 
of the whorls, is an elevated band, crossed by curved strife ; aperture rhom- 
boidal Sower. Min. Conch, t. cclxxviii. f. 1 — Chalk Marl. 

21. T. extensus Depressed, conical ; above rugged, obliquely striated ; 

beneath convex, smooth ; base expanded, with a broad undulated thin mar- 
gin ; aperture oblong ; pillar-cavity not plicated, closed when old. — Soiver. 
Min. Conch, t, cclxxviii. f. 2, 3 — London Clay. 

22. T. monilifer Conical, transversely striated ; volutions rather convex, 

with three rows of tubercles, and crenated edges ; base slightly convex, bear- 
ing six rows of granules ; aperture quadrangular ; pillar-cavity, along one 
edge of the aperture, truncated. (T. nodulosus, Brander, Foss. Hant. f. 6.) 
— Sower. Min. Conch, t. ccclxvii. — London Clay. 

23. T. linearis.—" Conical, wreaths slightly convex, transversely striated, 
with a prominent line along the centre and base of each volution ; base flat ; 
umbilicus obscured by the last volution ; aperture transversely depressed." — 
Mantell, Geol. Suss. 110. t. xviii. f. 17- In grey chalk-marl. Indications of three 
■other species, from the same formation, are given by Mr Mantell, ib. t. xviii. 
f. 7- f- 9. and 16. 

Gen. SOLARIUM. — Pillar cavity spreading, and crenulated 
at the margin of the whorls. 

1. S.patulutn Depressed, whorls smoothish; margin keeled and crenulated; 

margin of the cavity strongly denticulated. Sower. Min. Conch, t. xi. ; lower 
right hand figures In London Clay. 

2. S. discoidetim.-^D\scou\, outer edge sharply carinated ; edge of the pillar- 
cavity rounded, transversely wrinkled ; aperture obliquely elliptical, pointed 

• at each end. Sower. Min. Conch, t. xi. ; upper right hand figures — London 
Clay. 

3. S. conoideum Conical, smooth ; aperture quadrangular ; pillar-cavity 

deep, narrow Sower. Min. Conch, t. xi. ; three middle figures.— Upper Oolite. 



3£4 MOLLUSCA. TROCHUSID.E. Trochu- 



EXTINCT SPECIES. 

1. T. agglutinins. — Depressed, conical, smooth ; base expanded, with a 
broad waved margin ; whorls externally deformed ; pillar-cavity plicate ; 
aperture oblong. — (T. umbilicaris, Brander, Foss. Hant. f. 4-5.) — Sower. Min. 
Conch, t. xcviii. — Smaller figure London Clay. 

2. T. Benettice — Depressed, conical ; upper surface obliquely wrinkled ; 
base expanded, with a broad waved margin ; whorls externally irregular ; 
pillar-cavity plicate, partly covered ; aperture narrow. — Sower. Min. Conch, 
t. xcviii. — Larger figure.— London Clay. 

3. T. anglicus. — Conical, base rather convex ; volutions squarish, with tu- 
bercles upon their angles, transversely carino-striate, and a rounding eleva- 
tion in their centres ; lines of growth decussating the three central striae ; 
pillar imperforate — List. Conch, t. mdcccxxxvL f. 16. Soioer. Min. Conch, t. 
cxlii. — Lias. 

4. T. lavigatus — Conical, nearly smooth ; sides straight ; base convex, witli 
an obtuse margin ; aperture rhomboidal, with rounded angles ; no pillar cavi- 
ty. — Sower. Min. Conch, t. clxxxi. £ 1 — Crag. 

5. T. similes. — Conical, sides straight, ornamented with many transverse 
ridges, two or three of which upon each whorl are granulated; base flattish, 
concentrically striated ; aperture quadrangular ; pillar direct. — Sower. Min. 
Conch, t. clxxxi. f. 2 — Crag. 

6. T. angulatus. — Conical, sides of the whorls concave ; base flatfish ; mar- 
gin carinated ; aperture acutely rhomboidal ; no pillar cavity. — Sower. Min.. 
Conch, t. clxxxi. f. 3. — Inferior Oolite. 

7. T. duplicalus Conical, sides of the whorls concave ; a double deeply 

crenulated carina round the base ; pillar cavity open, with a tubercular mar- 
gin ; aperture quadrangular — Soiver. Min. Conch, t. clxxxi. f. 5. — Under Oolite. 

8. T. dimidialus.— Conical, base convex, with a carinated margin ; upper 
part of the whorl concave, with an entire carina in the middle ; aperture pent- 
angular; pillar direct and solid. — Soiver. Min. Conch, t. clxxxi. f. 4 — Under 
Oolite. 

9. T. punctatus — Conical, with straight sides, transversely striated ; upper 
stria? upon each whorl crossed by oblique undulations ; lower ones minutely 
granulated ; a narrow band between the two sets — Sower. Min. Conch, t. exciii. 
f. 1. — Inferior Oolite^ 

10. T. elongatns — Conical, elongated, transversely striated ; striae near the 
apex granulated ; each whorl slightly undulated near the upper edge, with an 

obscure band before the middle ; the inferior margin prominent Sower. Min. 

Conch, t. exciii. f. 234. — Inferior Oolite. 

11. T. abbreviates Conical shortened, transversely striated ; strice obscure- 
ly decussated by oblique lines of growth ; inferior margin of each whorl very 
prominent, obtuse, with an obscure band above it — Soiver. Min. Conch, t. 
exciii. f. 5 Inferior Oolite. 

12. T.fasciatus Conical, umbilicate, decussate striated; whorls slightly 

convex, with a band around their middle ; base flatfish ; aperture quadrangu- 
lar Sower. Min. Conch, t. cexx. f. 1 — Inferior Oolite. 

13. T. arenosus Conical, very short, granulated, whorls l-ather convex 

above, with a band along the middle ; base convex, in part nearly smooth. 
— Soiver. Min. Conch, t. cexx. f. 2 — Inferior Oolite. 

14- T. vrominens.— Conical, short, whorls convex, finely striated, with a 



Thociius. MOLLUSC A. TROCHUSIDvE. 325 

sulcus around the middle ; base flattish. — Sower. Min. Conch, t. ccxx. f. 3.— 
Inferior Oolite. 

15. T. pallium Conical, depressed, with concentric furrows, and diverging 

strife ; whorls above depressed, with many tubercular undulations ; in the 
middle flattened, with a longitudinal band ; base convex, umbilicated ; mar- 
gin largely crenulated. — Sower. Min. Conch, t. ccxxi. f. 1 — Inferior Oolite. 

16. T. tiara. — Depressed, conical, with diverging striae ; volutions obscure- 
ly bicarinated, deeply undulated above, concentrically striated beneath ; base 
convex, with a large pillar-cavity — Sower. Min. Conch, t. ccxxi. f. 2 — Green 
Sand. 

17. T. Sedgwicki Conical, smooth ; base carinated ; whorls concave above, 

convex below ; margin and base striated — Sower. Min. Conch, t. cclxxii. f. 1. 
— Suffolk Crag. 

18. T. imbricatus r-Pyramidal, with several transverse threads upon each 

whorl, crossed by fine longitudinal striae ; whorls angular, imbricating, flat 
above, very convex beneath ; pillar-cavity closed. — Sower. Min. Conch, t. 
cclxxii. f. 3, 4 In Lias Clay. 

19. T. reticularis Conical, transversely reticulato-striated ; whorls bicari- 
nated ; base convex Sower. Min. Conch, t. cclxxii. f. 2 — Upper Oolite. 

20. T. Gibsii Conical, short, umbilicated ; sides straight ; edge obtusely 

carinated ; base convex, reticulato-striated ,• in the centre of the upper part 
of the whorls, is an elevated band, crossed by curved striae ; aperture rhom- 
boidal — Sower. Min. Conch, t. cclxxviii. f. 1 — Chalk Marl. 

21. T. extensus. — Depressed, conical ; above rugged, obliquely striated ; 
beneath convex, smooth ; base expanded, with a broad undulated thin mar- 
gin ; aperture oblong ; pillar-cavity not plicated, closed when old. — Sower. 
Min. Conch, t, cclxxviii. f. 2, 3 — London Clay. 

22. T. monilifer Conical, transversely striated ; volutions rather convex, 

with three rows of tubercles, and crenated edges ; base slightly convex, bear- 
ing six rows of granules ; aperture quadrangular ; pillar-cavity, along one 
edge of the aperture, truncated. (T. nodulosus, Brander, Toss. Hant. f. 6.) 
— Soioer. Min. Conch, t. ccclxvii — London Clay. 

23. T. linearis.—" Conical, wreaths slightly convex, transversely striated, 
with a prominent line along the centre and base of each volution ; base flat ; 
umbilicus obscured by the last volution ; aperture transversely depressed." — 
Mantell, Geol. Suss. 1 10. t. xviii. f. 17- In grey chalk-marl. Indications of three 
other species, from the same formation, are given byMrMantell, ib. t. xviii. 
f. 7- f- 9- and 16. 

Gen. SOLARIUM. — Pillar cavity spreading, and crenulated 
at the margin of the whorls. 

1. S.patvlum Depressed, whorls smoothish; margin keeled and crenulated; 

margin of the cavity strongly denticulated. Sower. Min. Conch, t. xi. ; lower 
right hand figures — In London Clay. 

2. S. discoideum.-=-T)iscoh\, outer edge sharply carinated ; edge of the pillar- 
cavity rounded, transversely wrinkled ; aperture obliquely elliptical, pointed 

• at each end. Sower. Min. Conch, t. xi. ; upper right hand figures — London 
Clay. 

3. S. conoideum Conical, smooth ; aperture quadrangular ; pillar-cavity 

deep, narrow. — Sower. Min. Conch, t. xi. ; three middle figures.— Upper Oolite. 



S26 MOLLUSCA. TROCHUSID.E. Ianthina. 

4. S. canaliculatum.— Convex, ornamented on both sides, with granulated 
unequal lines ; edge prominent, crenated ; pillar-cavity furrowed and crenated 
within ; aperture round. — Sower. Min. Conch, t. Dxxiv. f. 1 London Clay. 

5. S. plicatum. Convex, wrinkled, concentrically sulcated ; pillar-cavity 
bounded by a more or less projecting crenated ridge. Sower. Min. Conch. 
t. Dcxxiv. f. 2. London Clay. 

Gen. LXI. IANTHINA. — Aperture triangular, pillar-lip 
straight, body-lip slightly convex and oblique. Foot with 
a buoyant spongy body. 

— 290. I. communis. — Purple, striated transversely by the lines 
of growth ; obsoletely striated spirally. 

Cochlea marina lanthina, List. Conch, t. Dlxxii. f. 24 — Helix Ian. Linn. 
Syst. i. 1246. Turt. Conch. Diet. 58 — On the Irish coasts, not un- 
common ; rare in England. 

Breadth and height about half an inch ; fragile ; whorls four, apex obtuse, 
the body-whorl subcarinated ; outer-lip thin, pillar-lip a little reflected. 
When the animal is irritated, a purple fluid is ejected from the cellular mar- 
gin of the cloak above the gills This species was added to our Fauna by 

the late Miss Hutchins, in consequence of recent specimens which occurred to 
her in Bantry Bay. It has since been found at several places on the coast of 
Ireland and west of England. 






£>- 



Gen. LXII. VELUTINA. — -Aperture circumscribed, no pil- 
lar, body-lip oblique ; foot simple. 

291. V. Icevigata. — Whorls three, transversely wrinkled, 
striated spirally. 

Helix laevigata, Linn. Syst. i. 1250. — Bulla velutina, Mull Zool. Dan. 
t. ci. f. 1, 4 — Helix haliotoides, Fab. Faun. Green. 390 — Helix laev. 

Don. Brit. Shells, t. cv. Mont. Test. Brit. 382 In deep water, not rare. 

Length ^ths, breadth ^gths of an inch ; cuticle brown, rough, with regu- 
lar equidistant spiral ridges ; two first whorls minute, rounded ; the body- 
whorl ventricose ; aperture patulous, outer-lip thin, body-lip a little thick- 
ened, and slightly reflected ; the inside of the aperture is frequently tinged 
with purple. 

292. V. Otis. — Whorls three, smooth, transversely oblong. 

Helix apertura patentissima, Walk. Test. Min. t. i. f. 17- — Helix Otis, 
Turton, Conch. Diet. p. 70 Interstices of rocks covered at high wa- 
ter, Devonshire. 

Length and breadth about a line ; semitransparent, glossy ; aperture 
transversely oblong ; body-lip a little thickened and flattish. 

293. V. stylifcra. — Whorls five, smooth, longitudinally ob- 
long. 

Phasianella styl. Turton, Zool. Journ. No. 7. 307- t. xiii. f. 11 — At Tor- 
bay, attached to the spines of Echi7ius esculetitus. 
Length one line, breadth not so much ; yellowish horn-coloured, transpa- 
rent ; the body -whorl very large, the others forming a short pointed spire ; 
aperture suborbicular, the margin thin and incomplete on the body retrally. 



Velutina. MOLLUSCA. TROCHUSIDjE. 327 

— This species differs from the genus Phasianella, in which Dr Turton has 
placed it, by the absence of the lid ; and it differs likewise from the Velutina, 
in the aperture being partly filled by the projection of the body-whorl ; in 
the body-lip being incomplete retrally, and in possessing an imperfect pillar- 
lip. In the absence of the lid, the size of the body-whorl, and wideness of 
the aperture, it claims a place near Velutina, and should probably constitute 
a new genus. — Stylina. 



EXTINCT SPECIES. 

1. V. canaliculata.—- Obovate convex, spirally striated ; whorls three, late- 
ral, adpressed, rounded ; body -lip reflected, forming a large central cavity. — 
Sigaretus canaliculars, Sower. Min. Conch. 384— London Clay. 



328 MOLLUSCA. SOLENOSTOMATA. 



SOLENOSTOMATA. 

I. Shell convoluted. The whorls are small segments of large 
circles, wrapped round the pillar, the last formed one embra- 
cing or inclosing the preceding one : aperture lengthened. 

A. Conusid;e. Shell compressedly convoluted ; aperture linear 

and simple, with a small lid. Proboscis long, tentacula 
produced, with the eyes near the summit, on the out- 
side. 

Conns. 

Terebellum. 

Seraphs. 

B. Cyvrjexdje. Shell, involute ; outer-lip incurved, plaited ; 

no lid. Cloak enlarged, and capable of folding over the 
shelL 

Cyprrea 

(Cypreovula.) 

C. Ovulad-'e. Shell involute ; both extremities of the aper- 

ture ending in a canal. Cloak enlarged, and capable of 
folding over the shell. 

(Ovula.) 

Volva. 

Calpuma. 

D. Voeutadje. Shell with a single anteal canal, not produ- 

ced ; pillar with oblique folds. 
Voluta. 
"Volvaria. 
Mitra. 
Cancellaria. 

E. Mahginellad^e. Outer-lip thickened ; pillar plaited. 

Marginella. 
Columbella. 

Y. OrivADJE. A spiral callous ridge on the base of the body- 
whorl, joining the pillar. 
Oliva. 
Ancillaria. 

G. Tornatelladj.. Canal circumscribed, effuse. 
Tornatella. 
Acteon. 



H. Bellerethon. Involute, aperture transverse, simple, 
with a sinus in the outer-lip. 



MOLLUSCA. SOLENOSTOMATA. 329 



II. Shell turrited; whorls subcorneal, slightly embracing. 

1. BucciNiDiE. Shell truncated or rounded anteally ; the canal 

scarcely produced beyond the anterior margin of the lip, and 
bent towards the left. 

2. Muricid^;. Shell acuminated at the base ; the canal produced 

beyond the anterior margin of the lip, and either straight or 
bent. 

3. Cerithiad;e. Aperture of the shell oblique ; canal short, trun- 

cated or recurved. 

4. Strombusid.e. Outer-lip spreading with age, and having a 

notch or sinus near the commencement of the canal for the 
passage of the head. 



330 MOLLUSCA. SOLENOSTOMATA. Conus. 

conusidje. 

Gen. CONUS — Convoluted, inversely conical, spire short, 
composed of the upper edges of the whorls ; aperture ob- 
lique, with parallel sides. 

1. C dormitor — Short, fusiform, spirally striated, the intermediate species 
neatly crenulated. — {Brander, Foss. i. f. 24.) — Sower. Min. Conch, t. ccci.— 
London Clay. 

2. C concinnus. — Fusiform, angular in the middle, spire ornamented with 
knobs and granulated striae ; base produced, sulcated — Sower. Min. Conch. 
t. cccii. f. 2. — London Clay. 

3. C. scabriusadus Fusiform, rather short, striated ; striae elevated, tooth. 

ed.— {Brander, Foss. f. 21.) — Sower. Min. Conch, t. ccciii. — London Clay. 

Gen. TEREBELLUM. Convoluted, elongated ; spire ex- 
posed, pointed ; aperture longitudinal, narrow retrally, be- 
coming broader and truncated anteally. 

1. T. fusiforme. — Subfusiform, cylindrical, with a visible obtuse spire; 
aperture about |ths of the length of the shell, with an adpressed straight 
canal, proceeding from its retral angle, to the apex of the space.— Sower. 
Min. Conch, t. cclxxxvii. — London Clay. 

Gen. SERAPHS. — Convoluted, elongated, spire concealed ; 
aperture longitudinal, retrally narrow, and extending to 
the apex. 

1. S. convolutus. — Subcylindrical, apex obtuse ; base truncated ; the sur- 
face even — (Bulla sopita, Brander, f. 29, a. — B. volutata, ib. f. T5.)-—Smver. 
Min. Conch, t. cclxxxvi. 



CYPRMABM. 

Gen. LXIII. CYPRiEA. — Involuted, ovate, spire concealed ; 
aperture longitudinal, narrow ; open at both ends ; lips 
dentated. 

294. C. europea. — Shell crossed by numerous smooth striae ; 
no dorsal groove ; outer-lip thickened, longer than the inner. 

Concha veneris, List. An. Aug. 168. t. iii. f. 17- Conch, t. Dccvi. f. 57. 
Cypr. Pediculus, var. Eur. Linn. Syst. i. 1180. Don. Brit. Shells, 
t. xliii.— Cy. europea, Mont. Test. Brit. 200, and Supp. 88.-2?, Nuns ; 
S, Jonny Groat's Buckie.— Common in sandy bays. 



Volva. MOLLUSCA. SOLENOSTOMATA. 331 

Length about fths of an inch ; breadth |ths ; of a pink colour with or 
without (C. arctica) dark dorsal spots ; stria? distinct, bifurcated at the sides. 
In the young state, the shell is smooth, except some appearances of striae on 
the inner-lip, and the apex exhibits two or three whorls, — in which state it 
is the C. bullata of Mont. Test. Brit, 202. t. vi. f. 1. The C. pediculus dif- 
fers from the present species, with which it has been frequently confounded, 
by the roughness of the stride, and the presence of a longitudinal dorsal 
groove. 



EXTINCT SPECIES. 

1. C. oviformis. — Egg-shapped, tumid, smooth, slightly marginate ; aperture 
widest at the lowest end, left side of the aperture obscurely toothed ; right 
lip involute, tumid Sower. Min. Conch, t. iv. — London Clay. 

2. C coceinelloides.— Ovate "sphaeroidal, transversely striated ; striae nu- 
merous, acute, not interrupted ; aperture slightly arched, not contracted in 
the middle Sower. Min. Conch, t. ccclxxviii. f. 1. — Suffolk Cvag. 

3. C. retusa. — Obovate, sphaeroidal, transversely striated ; striae elevated, 
uninterrupted, few, remote ; aperture a little curved at the narrowest end. 
—Sower. Min. Conch, t. ccclxxviii. f. 2. 

4. C. avellana. — Obovate, sphaeroidal, transversely striated ; striae nume- 
rous, remote, elevated, interrupted by a longitudinal sulcus ; aperture a little 
curved at the narrowest end. — Sower. Min. Conch, t. ccclxxviii. f. 3. 



OVULAD.E. 

Gen. LXIV. VOLVA. — Canal at each extremity, produced ; 
external lip simple. 

— 295. V. patula. — Oblong, white, spirally striated ; pillai 
with a shallow furrow. 

Bulla patula, Penn. Brit. Zool. iv. 117- 1. 70. f. 85, A. Don. Brit. Shells, 
t. cxliii. Mont. Test. Brit. 207 — North and South Britain, rare. 
Length about an inch, breadth half an inch ; outer-lip regularly rounded ; 
inner-lip protuberant in the middle, twisted and subreflected retrally ; back, 
rounded. 

GEN. CALPURNA. — Canals abbreviated ; external lip 
simple. 

1. L. Leathes'%. — Elliptical, elongated, rather ventricose in the middle ; 
smooth ; a large plait on the pillar ; outer-lip smooth, very thick, and rather 
flattened— Ovula Leath. Sower. Min. Conch, t. cccclxxviii.— .In the Crag at 
Walton. 



332 MOLLUSCA. SOLENOSTOMATA. Voluta. 



VOLUTADiE. 

Gen. LXV. VOLUTA— Pillar plaited, the anteal folds the 
largest ; extremity of the canal emarginate. 

296. V. catenata. — Shell pellucid, white, with four spiral 

bands of opake white spots, connected by rufous streaks. 

Mont. Test. Brit. 236. t. vi. f. 2. — Coast of Devon, Mr Swainson, Dund- 
bar, Mr Laskey. 

Length |ths, breadth |th, of an inch ; shell strong, spire nearly con. 
cealed ; body-whorl slightly conical ; aperture the whole length of the shell ; 
outer-lip obsoletely denticulated within ; pillar-lip thick, with two strong 
and two faint folds. 

EXTINCT SPECIES. 

1. V. luctator — Shell ovate-acute, covered with tubercular spines, termi- 
nating longitudinal ribs, transversely striated or sulcated ; whorls concave 
above, with a rounded edge; outer lip plain within; aperture oblong — 
(Strombus dubius, Brander, f. 68.) — Sower. Min. Conch, t. cxv. f. 1, and 
t. cccxcvii. — London Clay. 

2. V. spinosa — Ovate-acute, ventricose, covered with large spines, extending 
into the longitudinal ribs, and a row of smaller spines near the upper edge 
of the whorl ; whorls concave above, transversely striated below ; aperture 
ovate, elongated; outer- lip plain within — (Strombus luctator, Brander, f. 56.) 
— Sower. Min. Conch, t. cxv. f. 2, 3, 4 — London Clay. 

3. V. suspensa — Ovate, pointed, obscurely costated, transversely striated ; 
spire with a broad canal 4 around it, bounded by an erect, flat, dentated crown ; 
base produced — (Murex suspensus, Brander, f. 70.) — Soiver. Min. Conch, 
t. cxv. f. 5 London Clay. 

4. "V. coslata — Ovato- fusiform, acute, costated, striated, with about three 

plaits on the pillar — {Brander, f. 45.) Soiver. Min. Conch, t. ccxc. f. 1,2, 4 

London Clay. 

5. V. Magorum. — Ovato-fusiform, obtuse, costated, obscurelv striated; 

with many plaits upon the pillar.— Soiver. Min. Conch, t. 290. f. 3 London 

Clay. 

6. V. Aihleta. — Rhomboidal, ventricose, acute, crowned with large spread- 
ing spires ; base obscurely sulcated ; pillar with three unequal folds ; lip plain 
within.— (Strombus Ath. Braruler, f. 66.) Soiver. Min. Conch, t. cccxcvi. f. 1, 
2, 3.— London Clay. 

7- V. depuuperata — Ovato-rhomboidal, acute, costated ; crowned with one 
series of erect spines ; base sulcated ; pillar with one fold ; lip smooth within. 

— (Strombus luctator, Brander, f. 67,) Soiver. Min. Conch, t. cccxcvi. f, 4 

London Clay. 

8. V. amligua — Shell ovato-elongated ; acute, costated, transversely sul- 
cated; costa? angular above; spire rough ; pillar with three plaits; lip plaited 
within, its edge granulated, aperture narrow above.— (Strombus ambiguus, 
Brander, f. 69.) Soiver. Min. Conch, t. cccxcix. f. i. — London Clay. 



Volvauia. MOLLUSCA. SOLENOSTOMATA. 333 

9. V. nodosa. — Ovate, pointed ; obscurely costated, transversely sulcated ; 
spire with two rows of nodiform spines ; pillar with three folds ; lip striated 
within Soiver. Min. Conch, t. cccxcix. f. 2.— .London Clay. 

10. V. geminate. — Ovate, ventricose, pointed, costated ; costa? terminated 
by two obtuse connected spines ; pillar with one large and several small plaits, 
curved. — Sower. Min. Conch, t, cccxcviii. f. i. London Clay. 

11. V. Lima.— Ovato-elongated, acute, costated, and transversely striated ; 
costie numerous, dentatocrenated; upper edges of the whorls toothed; pillar 
with three unequal folds; lip smooth within, its edge crenulated — (Buccinuni 
scabriusculum, Brander, f. 71.) Soiver. Min. Conch, t. cccxcviii. f. 2. 

Gen. LXVI. VOL V ARIA. — -Spire very short, aperture nar- 
row, the length of the shell ; pillar plaited ; extremity of 
the canal effuse. 

297. V. pallida. — Shell cylindrical, smooth, glossy, with four 
strong folds on the pillar. 

List. Conch, t. Dccxiv. f. 70. outer fig Voluta pall. Linn. Syst. i. 1189. 

K Adams, Linn. Trans, iii. 253 — Bulla pall. Don, Brit. Shells, t. lxvi. — 

Vol. pal. Mont. Test. Brit. 232 — English coasts, rare. 

Length half an inch, breadth a quarter ; separating line scarcely visible ; 
outer lip straight, inner lip slightly concave at the pillar ; the four teeth 
nearly of equal size. 

298. V. alba, — Shell oval, white, faintly striate longitudinal- 
ly ; with two folds on the pillar. 

Voluta alba, Mont. Test. Brit. 235. Turton's Conch. Diet. 250.— Ire- 
land and Scotland, rare. 

Length about ^gth of an inch, breadth §ds less ; oval, tapering to an ob- 
tuse point, whorls five or six, quite flat, and not visibly raided; the first very 
large, and occupying three-fourths of the shell ; aperture narrow, oval ; pillar 
quite smooth, sometimes a little spread — This species, as described by Dr 
Turton, from specimens found in Dublin Bay, (and which, according to Mr 
Lowe, (Zool. Journ. ii. 100'.) agree with those found at Oban in Argyllshire), 
seems to differ from the specimen described by Montagu, in the Supplement 
to Test. Brit. 103. as having been found by Mr Laskey at Dunbar, and which 
is stated as having four folds on the base of the pillar, besides some slight 
ienticulations higher up. 



EXTINCT SPECIES. 

1. V. acutiuseula. — Nearly cylindrical, with a pointed apex ; spire conceal- 
ed ; strite numerous, composed of squarish impressions ; plaits upon the pil- 
lar variable. — Sower. Min. Conch, t. cccclxxxvii — London Clay. 

Gex. MITRA. — Turrited, pillar plaited, the anteal folds the 

smallest ; extremity of the canal emarginate. 

1. M. Lamberti — Fusiform, short, smooth; base elongated, obscurely trun- 
cated ; pillar with three or four plaits ; aperture acute above, outer lip sharp, 

not expanded towards the base Voluta Lamberti, Sower. Min. Conch, t. 

exxix.— • Crag Marl. 



334 MOLLUSCA. SOLENOSTOMATA. Cancillaria. 

2. M. scabra — Ovato-fusiform, rough, with decussating stria?; lip thicken- 
ed with one obtuse tooth upon its margin — This probably belongs to the 
genus Collumbella.-~ (Buccinum scabriusculum, Brander, f. 20.) Sower. Min. 
Conch, t. cccci. — London Clay. 

3. M. parva. — Ovate, fusiform, short, transversely sulcated ; upper edges 
of the whorls defined, entire ; aperture elongated, Mp plaited within ; four 
folds on the pillar.— Soiver. Min. Conch, t. ccccxxx. f. 1. — London Clay. 

4. M. pumila Ovate, fusiform, short, transversely sulcated ; upper edges 

oi the whorls defined, crenated ; sulci decussated by longitudinal costae ; aper- 
ture elongated ; lip, plaited within ; four folds on the pillar Sower. Min. 

Conch, t. ccccxxx. f. 2. 

Gen. LXVII. CANCELLARIA.— Last whorl subventri- 
cose ; aperture ovate, ending in a short canal ; pillar plait- 
ed. 

299. C. hyalina. — Whorls six, smooth, folds of the pillar nu- 
merous. 

Voluta hyalina, Mont. Test. Brit. Sup. 101. t. xxx. f. 1. — Found at 
Dunbar by Mr Laskey. 
Length a quarter of an inch, breadth nearly two-thirds less; pellucid, 
white ; whorls flat, scarcely defined by the separating line, tapering to an ob- 
tuse point ; body -whorl more than half the length of the shell ; aperture con- 
tracted retrally ; outer lip nearly straight, smooth ; folds of the pillar fine 
thread-like stria?, originating from behind the pillar-lip. 



EXTINCT SPECIES. 

1. C. quadrata. — Ovate elongated, cancellated, without either varices or 
beak ; two obtuse plaits on the pillar, besides the spiral edge ; outer lip sharp, 
entire, striated within Soiver. Min Conch, t. ccclx. — London Clay. 

2. C. Iceviuscula. — Short, ovate, pointed, furnished with varicose sutures 
and costse, crossed by numerous obtuse elevated lines ; pillar biplicated ; aper- 
ture scarcely canaliculated.— Sower. Min. Conch, t. ccclxi. f. 1 — London 
Clay. 

3. C. evulsa Short, ovate, pointed, furnished with varicose sutures and 

costae, crossed by several acute carina?, most elevated upon the costoe ; pillar 
biplicated ; aperture scarcely canaliculated — (Buccinum evulsum, Brander, 
f. 14.) Sower. Min. Conch, t. ccclxi. f. 2, 3, 4, — London Clay. 

The two last species evidently belong to the group indicated by Brander. 



Mabginella. MOLLUSCA. SOLENOSTOMATA. 3B5 



MARGINELLADiE. 

Gen. LXVIII. MARGINELLA.— Spire short ; outer lip 
with an external border ; pillar folds equal ; no lid. 

-300. M. valuta. — Whorls two, greenish, the outer lip white. 

Cyprsea voluta, Mont. Test. Brit. 203. t. vi. f. 7 — Voluta kevis, Don. 
Brit. Shells, t. clxv.— Inhabits deep water, rare. 
Length about half an inch, subcorneal, strong, smooth ; aperture linear ; 
both lips denticulated ; pillar subplicated. The Bulla diaphana of Montagu, 
Test. Brit. 225. t. vii. f. 8. is regarded as the young of this species. 

Gen. COLOMBELLA. — Aperture oblique; outer lip with 
an internal callus contracting the cavity ; pillar plaited ; no 
lid. 

1. C. Bartonensis Shell oval, contracted close to the beak, strongly reti- 
culated ; whorls about four or five, the last about two-thirds the length of 
the shell ; aperture elongated, curved, acute at both ends ; right hand lip ex- 
panded, undulated, toothed within ; left-hand lip smooth at the edge, toothed 

within Murex Bart. Sower. Min. Conch, t. xxxiv. lower figures. — London 

Clay. 

2. C. ventricosa. — Subovate, inflated, transversely striated ; spire short, 

pointed, base notched ; three sharp plaits upon the pillar ; body-lip callous r 

Auricula vent. Sower. Min. Conch. 4(J5. f. 1 — In the Crag at Ipswich. 

3. C. buctinea.— Subovate inflated, smooth ; spire short, acute ; base notch- 
ed ; three sharp plaits upon the pillar ; left lip callous ; right Up with a thick 

border Auricula buc Sower. Min. Conch, t. cccclxv. f. 2 — In the Crag at 

Ramsholt. 



OLIVADJE. 

Gen. OLIVA. — Shell subcylindrical ; aperture longitudinal, 
emarginate ; separating line canaliculated, by the inflection 
of the edge of the last whorl. 

1. O. Branderi.— Ovate, pointed, smooth ; spire prominent, last whorl con= 
vex ; mouth oblong ; right lip thickened. — (Voluta Ispidula, Brander, Foss. 
f. 72.) Sower. Min. Conch, t. eclxxxviii. upper figure — London Clay. 

2. O. Salisburiana. — Subfusiform, short, ventricose, smooth ; mouth oblong, 
both lips tumid above.— Sewer. Min. Conch, t. eclxxxv