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Full text of "History of Buchanan County, Iowa, with illustrations and biographical sketches"

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• 1842 



HISTORY 



OF 



BUCHANAN COUNTY, 



IOWA. 



WITH 



Illustrations and Biographical Sketches. 



WILLIAMS BROS., 



PUBLISHERS, 



1881. 



m 





^m 



FROM PRINTING HOUSE OF W. W^. WILLIAMS, CLEVELAND, OHIO. 



-62-7 






ii 



Prefatory Note, 



The following history is the result of the joint 
labor of its two editors, for about ten months; 
together with that of several assistants in certain 
departments of the work. W'ith two exceptions, 
the editors hold themselves responsible for every 
thing herein contained, for which no other author- 
ity is expressly given. The first exception is that 
of Township Histories. All of these but two were 
prepared by a gentleman of indefatigable industry 
and undoubted truthfulness, who spent several 
weeks in visitinj the different townships, and col- 
lecting from all accessible sources, but mostly from 
the lips of old settlers, the material for his sketches. 
That these are as reliable as anything based upon 
human memory can be, we have no doubt. The 
gentleman referred to has had considerable literary 
experience; but in these Township Histories he 
has aimed rather at brevity and clearness of state- 
ment, than at anything like literary ornamentation. 
The other exception is that of the Township Bio- 
graphical Sketches. These were prepared by the 
subscription canvassers, and were of course written 
under great inconveniences and difficulties. They 
came into our hands for revision. A few redundan- 
cies were pruned away; some grammatical erroi^s, 
incident to hasty composition, were corrected ; and 
that was all the revision which, under the circum- 
stances, was found practicable. We trust, however, 
that few, if an)-, important errors have gone into 
print, and that those specially interested in these 
sketches will find them, on the whole, satisfactory. 
The sources from which our information has been 
derived for the preparation of this work have been 
perhaps sufficiently acknowledged in those portions j 
of the worl: in which the various items of information I 



are embodied. But we desire here to make more 
especial acknowledgment to the publishers of the 
Consei~i'ative and the Bulletin for their kindness 
in granting us free access to the files of their papers ; 
to the clerg\-men who so cheerfully furnished us 
with historical sketches of their several churches; 
to all the county officers, not only for the unob- 
structed use of their records, but frequentl}- for 
their valuable assistance in examining them ; to 
Mr" Charles H. Little for the use of the entire file 
of the Buchanan Guardian of which he is the 
fortunate owner; and to the Hon. Stephen W. V. 
Tabor for admission, at all times cordially granted, 
to his magnificent private library. If through 
inadvertence, we have failed to mention, either 
here or in the body of the work, an>- kind helpers 
to whom we are specially indebted, let them be as- 
sured that the omission is not due to any lack of a 
grateful appreciation of their kindness. 

Of the fidelity (or the want of itj with which we 
have performed our work, our readers must be the 
judges. Of one thing only are we at all inclined 
to boast: we think we may safely say that no 
count}', whose history- has as yet been written, can 
point to so full and complete a record of the doino-s 
and sayings of its heroes in the war for the sup- 
pression of the Rebellion, as that contained in the 
present volume. That no other county could fur- 
nish the materials for such a record, we would not 
presume to sa\- ; but certainlj- we know of no 
county among \\hose soldiers there were so man}- 
Xenophons, equally capable of wielding the pen 
and sword, as among the .soldiers of "Old Bu- 
chanan." 

C. S. Perciv.a.1., It-,. 

\ Edi 



Eliz.\beth Pekcival, j 



iitors. 



CONTENTS 



HISTORICAL. 



GENERAL HISTORY. 






PAGE. 


CHAPTER. 

I. — The Aboriginal Iiidabitants . 


PAGE. 
12 


XIX.— The Buchanan Press . 
XX. — General Biography 


218 
219 


II. — Physical Features ..... 


23 


TOWNSHIPS AND VILLAGES. 


III. — Historical Address .... 


42 


'. Independence .... 


230 


IV. — Settlement and Population 


48 


Washington 


281 


v.— Early Mails and Means of Communication . 


50 


Liberty ..... 


29s 


VI.— Early Commerce ..... 


53 


Perry .... 


311 


VII. — Hunting, Trapping and Fishing 


56 


^ Fairbank .... 


332 


VIII. — Erection and Organization of Buchanan county . 


61 


Hazleton .... 


337 


IX.— The County Seat War 


63 


Buffalo ..... 


352 


X. — The Court and the Bar of Buchanan County 


64 


Madison .... 


362 


XI. — Interesting Cases .... 


71 


Byron ..... 


369 


XIa. — County Societies ..... 


80 


Fremont . .' . . 


377 


XII.— Railroads ..... 


93 


Westburgh .... 


384 


XIII. — Provision for the Poor .... 


98 


Sumner .... 


389 


XIV.— The Hospital for the Insane . 


59 


Jefferson .... 


404 


XV. — Buchanan County in the War of the Rebellion 


103 


Homer .... 


413 


XVI.— Buchanan County Schools 


210 


Cono ..... 


423 


XVII.— Civil List of Buchanan County . 


213 


/Newton .... 


430 



ILLUSTRATIONS, 



Insane Asylum 
Map of Buchanan County 
Residence of Z. Stout . 
Portrait of Thomas Scarcliff 
" Moses Little 



facinj 



PAGE. 
: Title page 
facing 9 
facing 230 
facing 271 
facing 314 



Portrait of Charles Melrose 
" Prettyman King 
Portraits of John and .\nn McCny 
Residence (with portraits) of John B. Potter 



PAGE. 

facing 320 
facing 341 
facing 432 
facing 437 



BIOGRAPHICAL, 



Barnharl, .■\. J . . 
Barton, William H. 
Bemis, Hon. George W. 
Blood, Asa, jr. 
Boggs. Rev. John M. 
Boon, J. R. . 
Brown, Mrs. Mary E. . 
Cates, Valentine 
Chamberlain, W. H. 
Clark, O. B. 
Clark, S. S. 
Cobb, E. 

Coy. Captain J. F. 
Curtis, Simon B. 
Curtis, Thomas F. 

Deering, David S. 

Durham, Charles M. 

Ensminger Brothers 

Few, William 

Forrester, James 

Frank, A. H. . 

Herrick, C. F. 

Hitchcock, M. S. 

Holloway, Hon. John C. 

Jones, William A. 

Jordan, Lieutenant George 

Kandy, C. B. . 

King, Prettyman 

Little, Captain E. C. 



PAGE. 
279 
223 
224 
220 
219 
278 
268 
272 
270 
276 

275 
271 
256 
219 

275 
267 
267 
271 
272 
273 
279 
272 
266 
269 
225 
226 
280 

34 1 
226 



Little, John A. 
Little, Moses 
Luckey, Samuel C. 
Morse, W. H. H. . 
McCoristin, P. 
McCay. John 
Melrose, Charles 
Myers, .August 
Naylor, Samuel . 
Patrick, C. L. 
Poor, James A. 
Potter, John B. 
Ross, Edward 
Scarcliff, Thomas 
Sherwood, Thomas 
Sherwood, Samuel . 
Stewart, W. H. & Co. 
Stout, Z. 
Tabor. S. J. W. 
Trask, A. H. 
Travis, Judson J. 
Turner, Hon. Thomas E. 
Wallace C. R. . 
Walker, Daniel 
Warren, G. K. 
Wilcox, Phineas C. 
Wiley, John 
Wackerbarth, Jacob 
Woodruff, Lieutenant E. A 



274 

3'4 
273 
276 
279 
. facing 432 
facing 320 
277 
272 
278 
268 

437 
,266 
280 
277 
270 
275 
following 272 
223 
278 
269 
219 
274 
277 
276 
222 
274 
280 
228 



INTRODUCTORY. 



ALL history is local. Even the strictest biography 
interests itself, more or less, in the birthplace and 
early home of its subject, and in all the scenes of his 
later achievements. Every man is closely identified with 
his surroundings. He becomes a part of them, and 
they of him ; and it would be as easy for him to exist 
separate from space as for a historian to write a history of 
his life entirely disconnected with that of the place in 
which he lives. 

As with the history of individuals and peoples, so with 
that of all popular movements, whether in civil, relig- 
ious, military or political affairs. The history of a gov- 
ernnient or a war, of a reformation in religion or a 
revolution in party politics, can not be written separate 
from that of the territories in which they occur. All 
events are local, and so must their history be. But the 
most of the great histories of the world are local in 
name, as well as in fact. The history of France, of 
England, or of America, pertains, if we follow the literal 
sense, even more to the territory than to the nation. 
We may say that the chief interest attaches to the peo- 
ple; but it is only as the soul is more interesting than 
the body. If the two could be separated, the history of 
both, together with all human interest in them, as constitu- 
ting a living entirety, would come to an end. But though 
all history, strictly speaking, is local, yet the name "local 
history" is applied exclusively, we believe, to those his- 
torical collections which have of late become so com- 
mon, and which are limited to small territories — those of 
towns corporate, townships, or separate counties. 

Local histories, therefore, do not differ from others so 
much in kind as in extent. The history of a county 
contains, or should contain, all the elements which enter 
into that of a State, or of a nation. Every history per- 
taining to a limited territory, whether great or small, 
should contain a description, more or less minute, of its 
physical features and natural advantages; an account of 
its aboriginal inhabitants, of its settlement and subjuga- 
tion by the people who now occupy it, of its gradual 
development of its resources, of the growth and 
extent of its internal improvements, of its advance- 
ment in art, science, literature, morality and religion ; in 
short, of the progress which its people have made in all 
that goes to make up that complex social condition to 
which we give the name of Christian civilization. As 
subsidiary to all this, it must contain an account of its 
civil divisions, and biographical sketches of those who 
have occupied, within its borders, prominent positions 
in social, financial, civil or military affairs. And if it 
isillustrated with portraits of its deserving citizens and. 



views of its finest edifices and most picturesque scenery, 
these illustrations will aid the descriptions of the histo- 
rian in producing their most vivid impression upon the 
mind of the reader. 

The history of a State can contain little, if any thing, 
more than the expansion of the elements thus briefly 
sketched; and the history of a county should contain 
nothing less. There are, however, certain characteristic 
differences between county histories and those which 
embrace more extensive territories; but they are such as 
should commend the former to the especial regard of 
the people at large. All these differences, which it is 
worth while to mention here, may be comprised in this 
one statement : County histories can descend to a mi- 
nuteness in details which is quite impracticable in Nation- 
al or State histories. And this fact, we repeat, should 
give to the former an especial value in the estimation of 
the people. 

In such histories there is room for descriptions and 
illustrations of much interesting scenery, which State or 
National historians, on account of limited space, must 
necessarily pass unnoticed; for narratives of pioneer life, 
which are of great interest to the descendants and suc- 
cessors of those to whom they relate, but which, were it not 
for the pen of the local historian, must slumber in oblivion ; 
for biograpical sketches of many who were true 
heroes in their limited sphere, who nobly wrought for 
the good of their neighborhood, their town, or their 
county, but who, nevertheless, would have gone down to 
the grave and been forgotten, but for the local history 
which, in preserving the memory of their deeds, has per- 
petuated the beneficent influence of their example. 
Local history, therefore, is emphatically the people's his- 
tory. 

But, though it is thus seen to be the peculiar province 
of local history to preserve, in comparatively small local- 
ities, the memory of events which more pretentious his- 
tories must necessarily leave unnoticed, it must not 
thence be inferred that the former is essentially less dig- 
nified and important than the latter. It is a very com- 
mon, but, nevertheless, a very great mistake to suppose 
that only the history of the so-called great is worthy to be 
written. Even the authors of the great world histories 
are compelled to recognize this fact by the necessity they 
are under of giving immortality to many subordinate 
characters, from the mere accident of their coming in 
contact with the more prominent actors in the great 
events which they narrate. 

But the difference between the great and the small, the 
important and the unimportant in human history, is, to a 



INTRODUCTORY. 



great extent, fectitious. No human life is devoid of in- 
terest. An eloquent modern writer has truly said: "It 
is interesting to reconstruct any genuine life drama, to 
pluck from time and oblivion the most inconspicuous 
story that has a human soul for its basis." Every human 
life is important, either as an example or as a warning; 
and, painted in such colors as the touch of genius could 
throw around it, every human life would be found 
replete with incidents of historic, and even of romantic 
interest. The possibility of everi what the world calls 
greatness, lies hidden in every soul whose strength is un- 
fettered, and whose light is unobscured, by some of the 
various forms or degrees of idiocy. The influence of 
what we call accident (which is but one of the forms of 
divine providence), not only in developing human char- 
acter and fixing human destiny, but also in lifting obscure 
names into the sudden light of historic prominence, is 
too often lost sight of. Of the many thousands of men 
in the United States, who are capable of filling respecta- 
bly the office of President, it is not unusually the one 
who has the most prestige before the people, and in 
whose behalf the most earnest, persistent and direct ef- 
forts are made, that succeeds in securing the nomination. 
And the influences which combine at last to secure it for 
the fortunate candidate, are, for the most part, at least, 
such as cannot be controlled and concentrated by man- 
agement and foresight. And the favorite Presidents 
have been those who have sprung up from among the 
people, whose early lives were spent in the obscurity of 
rural homes, and who, in the self-training which fitted 
them for their high position, have literally been led, "by 
a way that they knew not." 

But not only the means of preparing for a high posi- 
tion and the opportunities of securing it come through 
the intervention of what we call accident. Almost every 
page of history reveals the fact that combinations of 
circumstances, entirely fortuitous, as far as the actors in 
them are concerned, have often brought into permanent 
celebrity the names of those who never enjoyed either 
the necessary training for an exalted station, or the 
opportunities for obtaining it. Williams, Paulding, and 
Van Wert, the captors of Andre, were common militia- 
men, who would never have been heard of in our Revo- 
lutionary annals, but for the accident which placed them 
in the path of the returning spy, just as he was on the 
point of making good his escape within the British lines. 
But the constancy and fidelity which prompted them to 
spurn the offered bribes of their captive, and thus made 
their names immortal among those of their country's 
saviors, would have given their souls the stamp of genu- 
ine heroism, even had no opportunity been offered for 
rendering themselves famous. In the humble sphere 
which they were called to fill, those noble qualities would 
have found ample scope for exercise ; and their example 
would have been just as beneficial to those who witnessed 
it as it is now to the multiplied number who read it. 

And herein is seen one of the important offices of 
local history — and that is, to perpetuate the examples of 
worthy men and women, in the locality in which those 
examples were set. It aids the children of worthy parents 



in obeying that most touching of all the Commandments: 
"Honor thy father and thy mother," and affords thejn 
the finest opportunity of securing the promised reward — 
the prolongation of their days in the land which God 
has given them, by the perpetuation of their own names 
along with the memory of their parents' examples. 
These observations, of course, apply generally to all 
times and eras in a county's history. There is no genera- 
tion that does not produce some men in every county 
whose character and position justly entitle them to his- 
toric commemoration, and give both to contemporaries 
and posterity the right to demand that such commemora- 
tion shall be made. In every generation too, there will 
be, in every county, many events in all the departments 
of human activity and interest, well worthy to be placed 
on record by the pen of the historian. Striking events 
in social life will occur. Important political crises will 
be passed through. The march of improvement will be 
kept up. New commercial thoroughfares will be opened. 
Financial enterprises "of great pith and moment" will 
be undertaken and carried on to success, or end in fail- 
ure. Schools, churches, and charitable institutions will 
be established. The great battle between right and wrong 
will be fought and won; or lost and renewed again. Im- 
migration and emigration will continue, and populations 
will change. And all this is the stuff' of which history is 
made. 

As often, therefore, as once in forty or fifty years at 
the most, the history of every county should be thor- 
oughly written. Copies of every such work should be 
preserved in all the public libraries and offices of the 
county, and in all private houses whose owners can by 
any means afford the necessary expense. No sentiment 
of mock modesty should prevent prominent and wealthy 
citizens from furnishing, for the illustration of such 
works, both portraits, views of residences, and materials 
for biographical sketches. The most generous encour- 
agement should be extended to those who undertake the 
labor and incur the risk of such publications, provided 
ample guaranty is given of ability and fidelity in the ex- 
ecution of the work. Local histories, thus patronized 
and executed, to whatever era they may refer in the his- 
torical development of the locality described, must be 
regarded as second in importance to none that can be 
written. 

But the observations made above, in regard to the im- 
portance of local, or county histories, refer especially to 
those which are written first, while some of the early set- 
tlers or their immediate descendants survive — or, at 
least, while all the facts worthy of record concerning the 
first settlement of the locality, are easy to be obtained. 
The people have an instinctive desire to know as much 
as possible concerning those who first opened up the 
region in which they dwell, to the occupancy of civilized 
men. The pioneers in the settlement of any unculti- 
vated region, woodland or prairie, are always men of 
mark. None but brave, hardy and energetic men would 
undertake such a work. And it is the record of deeds 
which spring from these qualities, that constitutes the 
romance of history. It is true that the pioneers may 



INTRODUCTORY. 



not have possessed these quahties in a higher degree, in- 
herently, than their successors; but the circumstances 
surrounding them — the very necessities of their position 
— were calculated to develope these traits in an extra- 
ordinary degree, and thus to produce a type of charac- 
ter not to be looked for in later and more quiet times. 
But even if pioneers were commonplace men, the ac- 
cident which made them pioneers would give them a 
prominence justly entitling them to historic mention — 
just as "the first white male child" born in a county, 
though he may never do any thing worthy of fame, never- 
theless becomes famous by the mere accident of his 
primogeniture. 

In speaking of the importance of local histories, we 
must not omit to mention the fact that they often afford 
valuable material for those more extensive historical 
works, which pertain to the State or the nation at large. 
Characters with only a local reputation, entithng them to 
biographical sketches in county histories, may afterwards 
win a national fame; and the subsequent historian, called 
to write of their life and times, may be able to find in 
such histories alone the record of their early career. 
Events also having at first only a local significance, and 
recorded only in local histories, may subsequently, by 
their connection with later events, become of national 
importance. And yet, if they had not been rescued from 
oblivion by the local historian, no authentic accounts of 
them would ever have been transmitted to posterity. 

We will add but one other consideration showing the 
importance of county histories, and that is the very obvi- 
ous one that such histories, if written even with a 
moderate degree of fidelity and ability, will increase more 
and more in value, the older they become. Of most 
other histories this is true only to a very limited extent ; 
and of very many others it is not true at all. The history 
of Ancient Rome, or of any modern nation, written at 
the present time, will be no more valuable on account 
of its age forty or fifty years hence than it is now. Any 
such book, when it becomes very old, or very scarce, 
may increase in value as a curiosity; but the history 
which it contains will probably be no more highly prized 
a hundred years from now than it is at the present time. 
But the history of a county, going back to its first set- 
tlement and organization; containing the names and 
personal history of its early settlers, and a record of the 
most interesting events that marked the first half century, 
or so, of its progress, will be much more highly prized 
by succeeding generations than by that to which, in part 
at least, it relates. 



'Tis distance lends enchantment to the view. 

Events which occur at or near our own time, are 
commonplace as history, with whatever eagerness they 
may have been devoured as news; and it is not until 
they have become surrounded by something of the halo 
of antiquity that we begin to appreciate their full value. 
The writer of this might not, perhaps have set a very 
high value upon a history of his native county ("Old 
Oneida,'' in Central New York) if written thirty-five 
years ago, while he was still a resident within its borders; 
but if such a work had been written then, on the plan 
and in the manner already described, containing sketches 
of the county pioneers (among whom were his own an- 
cestors) and embellished with portraits of individuals and 
views of scenery familiar to his boyhood, he would now 
consider such a work, if still accessible, cheap at double 
the price set upon the present volume. A natural desire, 
therefore, to gratify, instruct and benefit posterity, as well 
as that (already mentioned) to bestow honor upon ances- 
try, should induce all the citizens of a county to encour- 
age, by every means in their power, any timely and 
trustworthy effort to perpetuate, in a suitable form, the 
history of the locality in which they live. 

It cannot be denied, however, that this species of writ- 
ing is the subject of a very common popular prejudice. 
This fact is due partly to the lack of a proper apprecia- 
tion of the importance of such works, and the general 
repugnance toward all enterprises which are thought to 
place the people under contribution — and partly, ic must 
be confessed, to the well-nigh worthless character of 
many of the works put forth under the name of "County 
Histories." It is probably too much to expect that either 
of these causes of the existing prejudice of which we are 
speaking, will very soon disappear. But an intelligent 
examination of the subject, in the light of the considera- 
tions therein set forth, could hardly fail to prove an anti- 
dote to the first ; and the second could not long survive 
if every citizen would thoroughly scan both the creden- 
tials and the antecedents of any parties proposing to is- 
sue a county history, before giving them his sanction. 

These remarks, by way of introduction, have seemed 
to us important, in order to remove from the minds of 
our readers at the outset, if possible, any indifference or 
prejudice with which they may have been preoccupied, 
in regard to the dignity and importance of a local his- 
tory. Whether or not the present volume has to any ex- 
tent realized the picture which we have drawn of such a 
history, we shall leave them to determine. 



HISTORY 

OF 

Buchanan County, Iowa. 



CHAPTER I. 

THE ABORIGINAL INHABITANTS. 

The question, '"What race of men first occupied the 
territory now embraced within the Hmits of Buchanan 
county?" is one that can be answered only by conjecture. 
The immediate predecessors of the present white inhabit- 
ants were the modern Indians or red men. The predeces- 
sors of the latter, here as in the whole Mississippi valley, 
if not throughout the entire central portion of North 
America, from ocean to ocean, are now supposed, by 
nearly all archaeologists, to have been a separate race of 
men; to whom has been given, on account of the 
works which have survived them, the name of "Mound 
Builders." But whether they were really a different race 
from the Indians; or, if they were, whether they were 
actually the first human beings that ever occupied the soil 
of our country, can never be certainly known. After 
having read all the leading arguments in favor of the 
commonly received hypothesis, we frankly confess that 
we have never been fully convinced that the Mound 
Builders were a different race from the modern Indians. 

It is true that warlike instruments and domestic uten- 
sils that are not now in use by the Indians, are found in 
the mounds. But many of the implements found (no- 
tably the spear and arrow heads, stone axes, hammers, 
etc.), are the same as those used by the present race of 
Indians for a hundred years, or more, after the continent 
was discovered by Europeans ; and perhaps, by certain 
tribes, even at the present time. And circumstances of 
which we can know nothing may have caused the race 
to give up the use of certain implements — just as many 
articles of household furniture in common use among 
the whites of this country a hundred years ago, now exist 
only as curiosities. 

It has always seemed to us that too great stress has 
been laid upon alleged anatomical differences — in the 
matter of stature, cranial peculiarities, etc — between the 
Mound Builders and the Indians. It is known that the 
modern tribes have often used the ancient mounds as 
places of sepulture ; and hence it has often happened ■ 
that exhumed skeletons which some experts have pro- 
nounced to be those of Mound Builders, have by others, 
equally skilful, been declared to be those of modern 
Indians. This, of course, proves conclusively that there 
are no anatomical differences between the two alleged 



races, which can serve as infallible tests of race identity. 
But even if these differences were so radical and com- 
prehensive that no expel t could ever be deceived in de- 
ciding to which people any given skeleton belonged, that 
would be no absolute proof that the modern Indians are 
not the lineal descendants of the Mound Builders; since 
all such differences may have been produced by natural 
causes — such as changes in personal habits and modes 
of life — operating through long periods of time. 

Again, the fact that the present race of Indians have 
never been known to construct mounds, since the dis- 
covery of the continent by the whites; and that they 
have no knowledge, nor even any national tradition as to 
the origin of such structures, is regarded as a proof that 
the Indians and the Mound Builders are different races. 
But whoever constructed these works, ceased to construct 
them when there was no longer any occasion for their 
CQUstruction — just as log-cabins and "dug-outs" cease 
to be built by pioneers, as soon as the pioneer days are 
over. And it is entirely certain that the Indians would 
have been quite as likely to know something about the 
origin of the mounds, if their ancestors had driven out 
or exterminated the Builders, as they would if the mounds 
had been built by those ancestors themselves. But 
where no written records are made, and no poetic narra- 
tives are transmitted from sire to son, the memory of 
events soon dies out. Thus we read that "the tribes of 
the lake region so soon forgot thevisit of the Jesuit Fathers, 
that their descendants, a few generations later, had no 
tradition of the event." And a similar fact has been put 
on record concerning the Indians of the Mississippi 
valley, who soon lost all recollection of De Soto's expe- 
dition, which, as Dr. Foster remarks " must have im- 
pressed their ancestors with dread, at the sight of horses 
ridden by men, and at the sound of fire-arms, which they 
must have likened to thunder." 

It is also stated by Sir John Lubbock that "the New 
Zealanders, at the time of Captain Cook's landing upon 
their island, had forgotten altogether Tasman's visit, 
made less than one hundred and thirty years before.' 
Whoever the Mound Builders were, therefore, it is not 
to be wondered at that the present Indians have no 
knowledge and no coherent traditions concerning them. 
For these reasons the argument in favor of the theory 
that the Mound Builders were of a different race from 
the Indians has never seemed to us conclusive. 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



«3 



But there are positive objections, which shift the bur- 
den of proof, and put that theory upon the defensive. 
The weightiest of these objections clusters about the 
question, "What became of the Mound Builders?" This 
is a fair question, and one to which the theory is bound 
to give a reasonable answer. But we confess we do not 
see where any such answer can be found. Did they re- 
tire of their own accord, and leave their beautiful and 
fertile country (the fairest and richest country that the 
sun ever shone upon) to be taken possession of peace- 
ably by another race of men? Such a migration from 
such a region would find no parallel in history; and we 
cannot conceive of its taking place in prehistoric times. 
Were they driven out by the ancestors of the present In- 
dians? All the relics of the Mound Builders go to show 
that they were much more civilized and powerful than 
the red men who now occupy their places. And, unless 
the latter are themselves the Mound Builders, degener- 
ated during the lapse of ages, there is no reason to sup- 
pose that they were ever any more powerful than they 
are to-day. It is, therefore, contrary to all that we know 
of the results of the collisions between opposing races 
to suppose that the Mound Builders were conquered and 
driven out of their territory by the Indians. But if, con- 
trary to all that history teaches in regard to ethnic move- 
ments, they were expelled by the Indians, or emigrated 
of their own accord, the question still remains; Where 
did they go? They have left no traces of their peculiar 
civilization in any other region; nor has there ever dwelt 
upon this continent any other known people to whom 
they bore a closer resemblance than to the present race 
of Indians. We are aware that an effort has been made 
(notably by Mr. John T. Short, of Columbus, Ohio, in 
his ingenious and very readable work, published during 
the present year, 1880, on "The North Americans of 
Antiquity") to show that the Aztecs of Mexico were the 
descendants of our Mound Builders. But this hypothe- 
sis presupposes that a conquered people, retiring to a re- 
gion and climate less adapted (as all history shows) than 
the one they left to the elevation and improvement of 
the human race, nevertheless made a rapid advance in 
civilization; building immense cities and establishing a 
well-ordered government; while their conquerors, occu- 
pying the more favorable territory upon which they had 
seized, continued for untold centuries a nomadic and 
barbarous race, without manifesting any desire or dispo- 
sition to improve their condition. Of course this is pos- 
sible; but it requires some degree of boldness to pro- 
nounce it probable. 

And beside all this, it is not consonant with the teach- 
ings of history to suppose that a great and powerful race, 
such as the Mound Builders are represented to have 
been, either migrated en masse, or were expelled by a for- 
' eign foe. Small tribes migrate, and great nations or 
races colonize foreign territory; but the latter, even when 
conquered in war, are never expelled or exterminated. 
On the contrary, if the conquerors settle in the lands 
they have subdued, both races ordinarily dwell together, 
coalesce, and eventually form a new race. Thus, when 
the barbarians of the north, the Goths and Vandals, over- 



ran southern Europe, the nations which they conquered, 
were not driven out, but became virtually the masters of 
their conquerors; since the latter were forced to adopt 
the civilization and the religion of the former, and so lost 
not only their national characteristics, but also, in the 
end, their identity. This must be the normal result when 
the conquering race, though superior in physical vigor 
and prowess, is inferior to the conquered in mental and 
moral developinent. It is only when a powerful race, 
highly developed morally and intellectually, takes pos- 
session of a region occupied by rude savages, that its 
former occupants disappear before the invaders, either by 
emigration or extinction. And as this is not the kind of 
collision that is supposed to have taken place between 
the Indians and the Mound Builders, it is highly im- 
probable that the latter disappeared at the approach of 
the former. It therefore seems much more difficult to 
guess what became of the Mound Builders, than to ac- 
count for the differences between them and the Indians, 
supposing the latter to be th? lineal descendants of the 
former; since abundant examples might be cited of ex- 
isting nations that differ as much, both in national cus- 
toms and physical characteristics, from the races or tribes 
from which they are known to have descended within 
historic times, as the Indians differ from the Mound 
Builders. 

But there is another question to which, as it seems to 
us, the advocates of the commonly received theory are 
in duty bound to give a plausible answer, and which 
nevertheless, we think will be found quite as difficult to 
answer as the one just considered; and that is, "Where 
did the Indians come from?" When it isborne in mind 
that the Mound Builders are supposed to have occupied 
nearly, if not quite, all the territory now embraced within 
the limits of the United States, with the exception of the 
Pacific slope, it will be found difficult to imagine in what 
other part of the continent a people could have been 
found sufticiently numerous and sufficiently vigorous not 
only to defeat in war but actually to expel from this mag- 
nificent domain such a race as the Mound Builders are 
represented to have been. If we can imagine the pres- 
ent race of Mexicans invading the same territory now, 
and driving its inhabitants before them beyond the lakes 
into British America, it will perhaps seem probable that 
a race existed in the last named region (for, if not there, 
surely nowhere) capable of driving the Mound Builders 
out of their lands, across the Rio Grande and beyond the 
Mexican Gulf 

We have no theory of our own in regard to the early 
inhabitants of this country ; but we deem it much more 
reasonable to suppose that the Indians are the hneal de- 
scendants of the Mound Builders, with national customs 
and physical peculiarities changed through the lapse of 
ages, by the operation of causes which we can never ex- 
plain — but among which fractional or sectional wars may 
have played a conspicuous part — than to suppose that 
such a race as the Mound Builders must have been, were 
driven out of such a country as they occupied, by any 
people then living north of the Gulf of Mexico. Theo- 
ries, against which insuperable objections can be urged. 



14 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



are not of much importance, whether in archeology or 
any other science ; but so long as such theories are ad- 
vanced, and books are written in their support, the ob- 
jections can never be out of order. This, we trust, will 
be a sufficient justification for the space we have given to 
the theory under discussion. 

But whoever the Mound Builders may have been, and 
in whatever age of the world they may have lived, they 
were, so far as we have any means of knowing, the first 
occupants of the territory now embraced in Buchanan 
county. We might properly say this, even though no 
trace of their works had been found here. Their an- 
cient works are scattered so generally throughout the 
Mississippi valley that there can be no reasonable doubt 
that the people who built them once occupied the entire 
country drained by the Father of Waters. But we are 
not left to a mere inference, even though it be a necessary 
one, to establish the fact that we here tread the soil of 
the Mound Builders. A good many mounds have 
been found in the county, which those well qualified to 
judge of such matters do not hesitate to pronounce the 
work of that ancient people. A circular mound, several 
feet high, was leveled in preparing the foundation for 
the county jail, in Independence. No relics, however, 
worthy of note were found in it. Two circular mounds, 
connected together by a straight embankment, were 
found on the farm now owned by Mr. James Forester, 
near Independence. Standing in a cultivated field, they 
are nearly, if not quite, obliterated by constant plough- 
ing. Several earthworks, mostly of a circular form, have 
been discovered along the banks of the Wapsipinicon; 
but none have been found of sufficient interest to attract 
the notice of archaeologists. Some of the older inhabi- 
tants have even doubted that these works were really 
artificial. Not having seen them ourselves, and being 
unskilled in the science of archaeology, we express no 
opinion of our own, but give the facts as they have been 
communicated to us by those whom we regard as com- 
petent judges. As already stated, however, the question 
whether the soil of Buchanan county was once occupied 
by the Mound Builders, does not depend for its solution 
upon the e.xistence here of unmistakable works of that 
ancient race; since the contiguity of such works along 
the Mississippi and elsewhere, and their general distribu- 
tion throughout the western and northwestern States, 
must be regarded as settling that question in the affirma- 
tive. 

THE INDIANS. 

These, either as lineal descendants or as conquerors, 
or as mere chance successors to lands left vacant, came 
into the place of the Mound Builders. When this hap- 
pened is as great a mystery as how it happened. It 
must have been, at the very least, several hundred years 
before the discovery of America by Columbus. At the 
time of the discovery, and we know not how many ages 
before, these people were divided into almost numberless 
tribes, frequently hostile and always migratory. The 
ownership of definite territories by the different tribes 
was a thing unknown. The temporary occupancy of 
grounds favorable for hunting, or for the cultivation of 



maize, was often decided by bloody battles; but the per- 
manent possession of lands, with metes and boundaries, 
is an idea which none of these tribes have ever put into 
practice, except at the dictation of their civilized con- 
querors. The United States government, acknowledg- 
ing theoretically the right of the Indians to the soil, has 
at various times made treaties with them, whereby they 
have ceded certain lands to the Government, and accept- 
ed others as "reservations," to which they have agreed 
to confine themselves, and the peaceable possession of 
which the Government has guaranteed to them. Thus 
an ownership, more or less permanent, has been estab- 
lished, and the districts thus reserved have been regard- 
ed as the special habitat of the tribes to whom they were 
assigned. 

But as Buchanan county was never embraced within 
the limits of any such reservation, it cannot properly be 
said ever to have been the special home of any particu- 
lar tribe. Its abundant timber and fine watercourses, 
however, have always furnished such excellent facilities 
for hunting and fishing that the most of the tribes dwell- 
ing in this vicinity must often have made it a place of 
temporary sojourn. 

As appropriate to this chapter, therefore, we will give 
here brief sketches of a few of those tribes which, from 
the known history of their wanderings, were most un- 
doubtedly, at some time or other, denizens of this 
county. And, on account of their historical prominence 
in giving a name both to the State and its principal river, 
(although they figured much less prominently in the his- 
tory of this region than several other tribes) we will be- 
gin with 

THE io\v.\s. 

This tribe is said to belong to the Dakota family, the 
principal representatives of which have had their meeting- 
grounds west of the Missouri. Unlike many of the other 
tribes, therefore, that have inhabited this region, their 
migrations were from the west instead of the east. They 
originally called themselves Pahucha, which signifies 
"Dusty Nose" — though from what peculiarity they were 
thus called, we are not informed. They were first men- 
tioned by Father Marquette, who, as early as 1673, 
speaks of them "as the Pahoutet, back of the Des 
Moines." Some of the tribes called them Mascoutin 
which name is said to signify "Prairie," and which is 
perhaps perpetuated in the name of the county and city 
of Muscatine. They were divided into eight clans, 
all named from different animals, of which the eagle, 
wolf, bear, and buffalo still exist — the other four, which were 
named the pigeon, elk, beaver, and snake, having become 
extinct. 

In 1675 their country was said to be twelve days' 
journey west of Green Bay. In 1700 they were in what 
is now Southern Minnesota, and, like the Sioux, were at 
war with all the western Algonquin tribes. The cele- 
brated Jesuif historian, Charlevoir, gives an account of 
them at about this period of their history. He says that 
the great pipestone quarry was then embraced in their 
territory, and speaks of their celebrity throughout the 
west as pedestrians, alleging that they were "able to 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



IS 



travel twenty-five or thirty leagues a day when alone." 
It is said that many of their early chiefs had names in- 
dicative of their remarkable endurance in walking, and of 
the pride which they took in their acknowledged supe- 
liority in this respect. And one of their later chiefs, who 
flourished as recently as 1825, was named Manehans, or 
Great Walker. The name of their greatest warrior and 
chief, Mahaska, or White Cloud, who flourished about 
the same time, has been perpetuated in the name of the 
county of which Oskaloosa is the county seat. 

In early times the lowas were powerful and warlike, 
and often came into collision with those greatest of Indian 
warriors, the .Siou.N. At the beginning of this century 
they numbered about fifteen hundred souls; but, what 
with wars, smallpox and "fire water,'' their numbers have 
been gradually reduced until 1872, when the last pub- 
lished enumeration took place, the tribe consisted of only 
two hundred and twenty-five. In 1803 they defeated the 
Osages, at that time a powerful tribe, and this seems to 
have been about the last of their military successes; 
although their hostility to the Sioux continued as late as 
1825, when Generals Clark and Cass made an attempt, 
only partially successful, to establish peace between the 
two tribes. 

Few of the northern Indians have shown greater 
aptitude for civilization than the lowas, although the evil 
influences surrounding them have prevented this dis- 
position from bearing very abundant fruits. The first 
treaty of peace between them and the United States was 
made in the year 18 15 — Wyingwatha, or Hardheart, and 
some of the subordinate chiefs acting on the part of the 
Indians. August 4, 1824, another treaty was formed; 
General Clark acting for the United States, and the great 
chief, Mahaskah, or White Cloud, and Manehana, or 
Great \\'alker, representing the tribe. By this treaty all 
the lands of the lowas in what was then known as the 
Missouri territory, were ceded to the government for five 
hundred dollars down, and the same sum to be paid an- 
nually for ten years — the United States agreeing to 
support a blacksmith at the headquarters of the tribe, and, 
to assist them with agricultural implements, horses, cattle, 
etc. They had at this time several villages on the Des 
Moines and Iowa rivers — a part of the Sacs and Foxes be- 
ing associated with them. As usual the intrusion of the 
whites upon their lands led to trouble and complaints ; 
and the influence of liquors, following that of war and 
disease, was fast reducing the numbers of this once 
powerful tribe. 

By a treaty formed September 17, 1836, the remnant 
of the tribe, then numbering nine hundred and ninety-two, 
was removed to a reservation located on the west bank 
of the Missouri, above Wolf river. But a part of them 
bec'ame discontented, and, the very next year, abandoned 
the reservation and took up the life of vagrants, subsist- 
ing by theft, or hunting upon the grounds of other 
tribes. Their numbers dwindled year by year, the chiefs 
taking the lead in intemperance, from the effects of which 
vice many died, and many others were killed in the fatal 
quarrels to which it led. About the year 1835 'he Pres- 
byterians established a mission and manual labor school 



among these people, and kept it up with commendable 
zeal for more than twenty years. Though much good 
was accomplished, the effort failed to arrest the steady 
decay of the tribe. By 1S46 they had become reduced 
in numbers to seven hundred and six. At this time 
their territory was bounded on the east by the Missouri, 
and on the noith by the Great Nemahaw. 

On March 6, 1861, a treaty was made by which the 
tribe, then reduced to three hundred and five in number, 
ceded to the United States all their lands, except a res- 
ervation of sixteen thousand acres. In 1869 they 
informally agreed to sell this and remove south ; but 
afterwards retracted their agreement, but consented to 
give part of their lands to the Sacs and Foxes, who had 
parted with their reservation. 

About the time the Presbyterian mission was aban- 
doned, the tribe was placed under the care of the Qua- 
kers, under whose influerice they have made considerable 
advance in civilization, and have shown an increasing 
disposition to become more sober and industrious. In 
1872 their school numbered sixty-three pupils — more 
than one-fourth of the entire tribe — and all clad in the 
garb of civilized life. They had seven hundred acres of 
land under cultivation, thirteen framed houses, and 
twenty built of logs. Their produce was estimated at 
two thousand six hundred and eighty-five dollars, and 
their stock at seven thousand nine hundred dollars. The 
Government of the United States holds fifty-seven thou- 
sand five hundred dollars in trust for the lowas, the 
interest upon which is paid annually to the heads of 
families; and the almost useless ''Indian goods" formerly 
furnished, are now replaced by articles af intrinsic value. 

It is a remarkable fact, and one well worthy of record, 
that in 1864, when they numbered in all only two hun- 
dred and ninety-three, the lowas had forty-one men in 
the United States military service — almost one-fourth of 
their entire population! What white community at the 
north could show any such ratio of soldiers as that? It 
is said that these forty-one men were much improved by 
our military discipline, and that they all adopted civilized 
dress and customs. We greatly regret our inability to 
give any personal incidents in the military record of 
these men, or to trace their history since the war. It is 
devoutly to be hoped that some of them, at least, re- 
ceived the appropriate reward of citizenship in the nation 
which they helped to defend. 

A grammar of the Iowa language, composed by the 
Rev. S. M. Irvin and Mr. William Hamilton, was pub- 
lished at the Iowa mission in 1848. 



THE WINNEBAGOES. 



This tribe, like the lowas, belong to the Dakota fam- 
ily, and, like them, migrated eastward from beyond the 
Missouri, meeting the Algonquins in the region of the 
lakes. The name which they have always borne in 
history was given them by the last named Indians, and 
signifies men from the fetid or salt water, whence the 
name Puants, given to them by the French. They were 
styled by the Sioux, Hotanke or Sturgeon. The Hurons 
and Iroquois called them .\wentsiwaen, but they called 



i6 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



themselves Hochungara. Of these last two appellations 
we have never heard any signification given. In the 
earliest historic times they were numerous and powerful, 
and usually defeated the Algonquin tribes, with whom 
they came into frequent collision. 

Soon after the commencement of the French traffic 
with the west, in the early part of the seventeenth cen- 
tury, an alliance of the Algonquins and other tribes was 
made, and the Winnebagoes were attacked by an over- 
whelming force. They were besieged in a single town, 
where they were greatly reduced by want and disease, 
and, besides the women and children that died, over five 
hundred warriors perished. Compelled to surrender, 
and greatly reduced in numbers, they nevertheless con- 
tinued haughty and turbulent. They recovered a part 
of their prestige by making an alliance with the French, 
fighting in their wars, and receiving protection in return. 

During the Revolution the Winnebagoes were the 
allies of the EngHsh. They were active in the Miami 
war, taking part in the attack on Fort Recovery, in 1793. 
After being defeated by the great Indian fighter, "Mad 
Anthony Wayne," they made peace with the United 
States. They, however, adhered to Tecumseh, the 
Shawnee warrior, and sided with the English during the 
war of 181 2, aiding in the reduction of Prairie du Chien, 
in 1 814. Their number was then estimated at four 
thousand five hundred. In 1820 they had five villages 
on Winnebago lake, and fourteen on Rock river. After 
the close of the last war with England, they made a 
treaty of peace and amity with the United States, June 
3, 1816; but, notwithstanding, they levied tribute on all 
whites passing up Fox river, which, for some time, was 
included in their territory. Treaties made in 1826 and 
1827 fixed their boundaries, from which the whites were 
by law excluded. But a portion of their lands were rich 
in minerals, and this fact led to intrusions, and these to 
murders, for which Red Bird and other members of the 
tribe were arrested, tried and convicted. This led to ill- 
feeling, and when a portion of the Sacs, under Black 
Hawk, began the war for the recovery of their ceded 
lands, on Rock river, in 1832, the Winnebagoes, or at 
least a part of them, took the side of the hostile Sacs. 
This led to an importunate demand for their removal. 

In 1829 they had ceded to the United States their 
land from the Wisconsin to the Rock river, for thirty 
thousand dollars in goods, and an annuity of eighteen 
thousand for thirty years. Finally, by the treaty of Fort 
Armstrong, made in September, 1832, they gave up all 
their lands lying south of the Wisconsin and Fox rivers, 
amounting to two and a half millions of acres — the 
United States agreeing to give them a reservation on the 
west side of the Mississippi, in that part of the Wiscon- 
sin territory which now forms the State of Iowa; and 
also to pay them an annuity of ten thousand dollars for 
twenty-seven years, and maintain schools among them, 
free of expense. Here they became unsettled and ex- 
travagant, and contracted a debt (though for what pur- 
pose and to what party we are not informed) of a 
hundred and fifty thousand dollars — for the payment of 
which they were ready to cede more land to the Govern- 



ment. It can well be imagined that their frequent re- 
movals had had no tendency to check the nomadic dis- 
position which they inherited from a remote ancestry. 
They became restless and roving, and separated into 
j small bands. In 1842 there were seven hundred and 
fifty-six on the Turkey river, their new home in Iowa, 
with as many more in Wisconsin, and smaller bands 
elsewhere. All had become lawless and wandering. 

By the treaty of Washington in 1846, they surrendered 
their former reservation for eight hundred thousand acres 
north of the St. Peters, and a hundred and ninety-five 
thousand dollars. The site to which they were removed, 
it is said, was not that which was promised them; and 
it proved to be very unhealthy. They lost many by 
disease and want, but were kept there by force. At 
length, in 1853, they were again removed to Crow river. 
Here schools were revived, attempts were renewed for 
their improvement, but by the treaty of February, 27, 
1856, they were once more removed to Blue Earth, 
Minnesota. The climate here proving healthy and the soil 
fertile, they began to habituate themselves to agriculture, 
building houses, and sending their children to school. 
To foster this disposition the Government formed a new 
treaty with them in 1859, by which land was to be 
allotted to them in severalty — eighty acres to a family 
and forty to a single man. Several had taken up lots in 
accordance with this plan, when most unfortunately the 
Sioux war broke out, and the panic-stricken people of 
Minnesota demanded that the poor Winnebagoes should 
again be removed.. Though some of the tribe may, per- 
haps, have sympathized with the Sioux, or even have 
joined in the revolt, yet there can be no doubt that the 
great majority were entirely loyal to the Government. 
Yet such was the prejudice against them, and so pressing 
was the demand for their removal, that the Government 
at last felt constrained to yield. They were disarmed in 
April, 1863, and removed to Crow creek, in the Dakota 
territory, near the Missouri river, above Fort Randall. 
The change proved to be very disastrous. The locality 
was unsuited to their semi-civilized habits. It was im- 
possible for them to make a comfortable subsistence, and 
they were constantly exposed to the incursions of wild 
and hostile neighbors. An attempt was made to keep 
them here by force; but rendered desperate by famine 
and disease — more than one third of the nineteen hun- 
dred and eighty-five who came from Minnesota having 
died — they left in a body and made their way to the res- 
ervation of the Omahas, a friendly tribe, half civilized 
like themselves, who gave them temporary shelter. 

In May, 1866, they were again removed to lands as- 
signed to them at Winnebago, Nebraska, where the sur- 
roundings were favorable to their improvement, but 
where every thing had to be commenced anew. In 1869 
they were assigned, as were the lowas mentioned above, 
to the care of the Quakers. The next year the agent, 
finding it impossible to carry out his plans under the old 
chiefs, forcibly set them aside and appointed twelve new 
ones of his own selection — making the office thereafter 
elective by the tribe. Lands were again allotted in sev- 
eralty to such as wished to take up farms; and, in 1874, 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



17 



they numbered in Nebraska fourteen hundred and forty- 
five cultivating their farms, living in cottages, dressing 
like the whites, and sending their children to the schools 
— of which there were three, very well sustained. 

AVhen the tribe removed from Minnesota, a hundred 
and sixty of their number, chiefly half breeds, who had 
taken up lands, were allowed to remain. These received, 
as their share of the tribal funds, eight hundred dollars 
each. But many of them spent this, lost their land, and 
jomed the tribe in Nebraska. Besides these, portions of 
the tribe had been left in different parts of Juneau, 
Adams, and Wood counties, Wisconsin, who had become 
self-supporting and remained unmolested. They num- 
bered nearly one thousand; and, in the winter of 1873--4, 
the most of them were removed to Nebraska, where a 
smaller tract, near the Winnebago reservation, had been 
purchased for them. 

In the present condition of tliis tribe, as of the others 
that have allowed the advancing tide of white emigration 
and civilization to flow around them, after having for 
some time receded before it, we may read the final des- 
tiny of the Indians on this continent. The remnants of 
the race are doubtless to become civilized; and then to 
be gradually absorbed as one of the component parts of 
the new race that will one day dominate the western 
world. 

THE POTTAWATOMIES. 

This tribe, unlike the Winnebagoes, belong to the Al- 
gonquin, or eastern family of Indians. Though warlike, 
they are said to have had, at the advent of the whiles, a 
less stable form of government and a ruder dialect, than 
the rest of their race. At the beginning of the seven- 
teenth century they occupied the lower peninsula of 
Michigan, in scattered and roving bands, apparently in- 
dependent of each other — there being at no period of 
their history any trace of a general authority or govern- 
ment. They lived, like the other tribes, mainly by hunt- 
ing and fishing, and the occasional cultivation of maize. 
Notwithstanding their scattered condition and nomadic 
habits, whenever a common danger threatened them the 
more influential leaders of the independent bands 
seemed to find little difficulty in uniting them for the 
common defence. They thus maintained their position 
for a long time, often coming out victorious in their war- 
like collisions with neighboring tribes. At last, however, 
they were driven west by the united tribes of the Iro- 
quois family, and settled on the islands and shores of 
Green Bay. Here they were favored by the Jesuit 
Fathers, who established a mission among them. Perrot 
acquired great influence over them, by which they were in- 
duced to take part with the French against the Iroquois. 
Onanguice, their most prominent chief, was one of the 
parties to the treaty made at Montreal, in 1701 ; and the 
bands united under him, actively aiding the French in 
their subsequent wars. Tlieir connection with the 
French greatly increased their power, and they gradually 
spread over what is now southern Michigan and north- 
ern Illinois and Indiana — a mission on the St. Joseph 
river being a sort of a central point. 

The Pottawatomies joined Puntiac, the Ottawa chief. 



in his great conspiracy against the English, in 1763. 
They were prominent in the surprise of Fort St. Joseph, 
on the twenty-fifth of May in that year, when the garri- 
son was routed and the commandant, Schlosser, was cap- 
tured. During the Revolution, and the Indian wars that 
followed, they were hostile to the Americans; but, after 
Wayne's victory, they joined in the treaty of Greenville, 
December 22, 1795. The tribe was at this time com- 
posed of three bands, each under its own chief, but all 
united in a strong confederacy. These were called the 
St. Joseph, the Wabash, and the Huron river bands. 
There was, besides, a large scattering population, gener- 
ally called the Pottawatomies of the prairie, who were a 
mi.xture of many Algonquin tribes. From 1803 to 1S09, 
the various bands sold to the Government a portion of the 
lands claimed by them, receiving an equivalent in cash 
and the promise of annuities. Yet, in the War of 181 2 
they again joined the English, influenced by the Shaw- 
nee ^arrior, Tecumseh. A new treaty of peace was 
made in 18 15, followed by others in rapid succession, by 
which nearly all their lands were at length ceded to the 
Government. A large reservation was assigned to them 
on the Missouri; and, in 1838, the St. Joseph's band was 
removed by a military force, on the way losing a hun- 
dred and fifty persons out of eight hundred, by death 
and desertion. The whole tribe then numbered about 
four thousand. The St. Joseph, Wabash, and Huron 
bands had made considerable progress in civilization, 
and adhered to the Catholic church, having been con- 
verted by the Jesuit missionaries; but the Pottawato- 
mies of the prairie were, for the most part, pagan and 
roving. A part of the tribe was removed with some 
Chippewas and Ottawas, but they subsequently joined 
the rest of their tribe, or disappeared. 

In Kansas the civilized band with the Jesuit mission 
founded by DeSmet and Hoecken, made rapid improve- 
ment, good schools having been established for both 
sexes. The Baptists more than once undertook to estab- 
lish a mission and a school among the less tractable 
Prairie band; but meeting with little success, it was 
finally abandoned. The political disturbances in Kansas 
brought trouble to the Indians, as well as to the whites, 
and made the Prairie band more restless and the civil- 
ized portion of the tribe more anxious for a quiet and 
settled abode. A treaty, proclaimed April 19, 1862, 
gave to individual Indians a title to their several tracts of 
land, under certain conditions; and, although the execu- 
tion of this treaty was delayed by the progress of the 
civil war, yet the policy was subsequently carried out in 
the treaty of February 27, 1867. Of a population then 
numbermg twenty-one hundred and eighty, nearly two- 
thirds elected to become citizens and take lands in sev- 
eralty. Some of the Prairie band were absent, and not 
included in this arrangement. The experiment met 
with varied success. Some did well and improved; 
others squandered their lands and their portion of the 
funds, and became paupers. Many of these scattered 
in small bands, one company even going to Mexico. In 
1874, the largest tompany of the Prairie band, number- 
ing four hundred and sixty seven, occupied a reservation 



i8 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



of seventeen thousand three hundred and fifty-seven 
acres, in Jackson county, Kansas, held in common. 
They, like the other tribes above-mentioned, were under 
the control of the Quakers, who had established schools 
among them, and reported considerable advancement. 
There were, at that timid, sixty Pottawatomies of the 
Huron in Michigan on a small tract of a hundred and 
sixty acres, with a school and log houses ; a hundred and 
eighty-one 9f the same tribe in Wisconsin, and eighty in 
Mexico and the Indian Territory. 

The history of this tribe affords much encouragement 
to those who are looking and hoping for the civilization 
of the remnants of the Indians in this country. So long 
as any do well, there is ground for hope. That some 
should turn out badly is no more than might reasonably 
be expected. Let the Government persist in this plan 
of conferring lands in severalty upon those who are will- 
ing to become citizens ; but it might be well for the 
Government to make these lands inalienable, except to 
Indians, and to retain a reversionary right to them in 
case they should be abandoned or sold to whites. This 
would thwart the cupidity of white settlers, and tend to 
the permanence of Indian occupation. 

Although there is no mention in any of the accounts 
we have seen, of the occupation of Iowa soil by any of 
the Pottawatomie bands, yet the fact that the writer of 
this once knew of a company of this tribe who made oc- 
casional visits to the Iowa river, near Marshalltown — and 
the further fact, stated above, in regard to their extensive 
wanderings and their known occupation of lands in Wis- 
consin on the north and Kansas on the south — these 
facts, we say, fully justify us in reckoning the Pottawato- 
mies among the tribes that doubtless, in historic or pre- 
historic times, made occasional hunting grounds of the 
woods and prairies now embraced in Buchanan county. 

THE .SIOUX. 

There is no western tribe of Indians, except possibly 
the Shawnees, that have figured so largely in history as 
the Sioux, and none whose history is more replete with 
tragic and romantic incidents. They belong to the great 
Dakota family, and so prominently do they represent that 
family that they are sometimes called the Dakotas. 

When first known by the whites they had their hunt- 
ing grounds about the headwaters of the Mississippi. It 
was in 1640 that the French were first informed of them 
by the Algonquins, who called them Nadowessioux, 
whence the name Sioux, given them by the French. The 
meaning of the Algonquin name we have never heard. 
About the year 1660 they became involved in war with 
the Chippewas and Hurons, which continued, with only 
occasional and comparatively brief interruptions, into the 
present century. In 16S0 a French officer, Jean du 
Luth, (from whom is named the Minnesota town Duluth) 
set up the French standard at Izatys, near the St. Peter's 
river; and the next year he rescued Father Hennepin, 
the celebrated missionary and explorer, whom they had 
captured during his explorations of the upper Missis- 
sippi. Nicholas Perrot, in the name of France, took 
formal possession of their domain in 1689, erecting a 



fortification near Lake Pepin. About the same time Le 
Sueur visited this tribe, which he describes as being com- 
posed of fifteen sub-tribes, seven eastern and nine west- 
ern. They joined the Foxes against the French; and, 
in war with the Chippewas, many were forced down the 
Mississippi and, driving other Indians from the buffalo 
plains in Iowa, took possession of them. Several bands 
wandered into the plains of the Missouri, and some re- 
mained at or near the St. Peter's. The English emissa- 
ries secured the services of the Sioux in the War of 181 2; 
but most of the bands soon made peace. The treaties 
then made were renewed in 1825 by the Tetons, V'ank- 
tons, Yanktonais, Sioune, Ogallalas, and Oncpapas. At 
this time the entire nation was estimated at twelve thou- 
sand seven hundred and fifty, of whom five thousand 
were located near the St. Peter's, and seven thousand 
seven hundred and fifty near the Missouri. They were 
divided into the following bands: the Aldewakantonwans, 
or Spirit Lake village; the Wahpetonwans, or village in 
the Leaves; the Sisitowans, or village of the Marsh, also 
called Isantis; the Yanktonwans, or End villages; and 
the Tetonwans, or Prairie village, which includes the 
Ogallala and Oncpapa bands. Their territory extended 
from the Mississippi on the east to the Black Hills on 
the west ; and from Devil's lake on the north to the 
mouth of the Big Sioux on the south. These confeder- 
ated tribes ceded to the United States, September 29, 
1837, all their lands east of the Mississippi for three 
hundred thousand dollars down, and some minor subse- 
quent payments. The Indians, however, did not for 
many years retire from the lands thus ceded. 

Few tribes have been the subjects of more persistent 
missionary labors than the Sioux. The American board 
began missions among the Wahpetonwans, near Fort 
Snelling, in 1835, and the Methodists in 1836. Schools 
were established among them, and elementary books 
were prepared for them in their own language. As great 
results, however, were not produced by these missions as 
by some that were established later, and that will be brief- 
ly mentioned farther on. 

In 1 85 1 the Sioux nation ceded to the United States 
all their land east of a line from Otter Tail lake through 
Lake Traverse to the junction of the Big Sioux and the 
Missouri, retaining a reservation a hundred and forty 
miles in length by twenty in width. The Government 
thus acquired thirty five millions of acres for three mil- 
lions of dollars. But the neglect of the Government to 
carry out the provisions of these treaties caused bitter 
feeling among the Indians; which feeling awaited only 
an exciting cause to break out into a warlike flame. 
Such a cause was furnished in 1854, when Lieutenant 
Grattan, attempting to arrest one of the tribe for some 
misdemeanor, attacked an Indian village, but was cut 
off with his whole party. Some of the warriors thereup- 
on commenced a series of hostilities; but General 
Harney defeated them on Little Blue Water, September 
3, 1855, and a general council, held at Fort Pierce, con- 
sented to a treaty of peace. But in 1857 the band of 
Inkpadutas massacred forty-seven whites near Spirit 
lake, Minnesota, and other murders of a like character 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



19 



were committed at other places during the four or five 
years followina; — five whites being killed at Acton, Min- 
nesota, August 17, 1S62. Enraged by the failure of 
annuities and the frauds practiced on them, the Sioux 
then made a general uprising, and killed nearly a thous- 
and of the settlers. The people of that district still 
shudder when they speak of the horrors of that bloody 
time. New Ulm, a town of fifteen hundred inhabitants, 
was abandoned and almost destroyed. Fort Ridgley 
was besieged, and was saved with difficulty. The Sioux 
of the Missouri and the plains also became hostile, and 
were reduced to submission by General Sibley, of Min- 
nesota, and General Sully, of the United States army. 
After a severe struggle, a number of white women and 
children, who had been captured, were rescued, and 
many Indians were captured and sent to Davenport. 
Of more than a thousand Indians thus taken, many were 
tried and condemned; but only thirty-nine, convicted of 
specific crimes, were executed. The others were finally 
released. Many bands fled into Dakota territory; and 
the war, together with disease and want, greatly reduced 
the nation. In 1863 the Minnesota Sioux were removed 
to Crow creek. .About 1S66 treaties were made with 
nine bands, promising them certain annuities, to be in- 
creased as the Indians should give greater attention to 
agriculture. An act of February it, 1863, had annulled 
all previous treaties with the Sioux; but to the innocent 
bands a part of the amount pledged was restored, the 
Government reset ving compensation for damages. The 
most guilty bands fled north, and are still in the British 
territory. A few bands continued longer in hostility, 
cutting off Lieutenant Fetterman and his party in Decem- 
ber, i856, and besieging for a lime Fort Phil Kearny. 

In 1873, the Government liabilities, to the different 
bands of Sioux Indians, including payments not yet due, 
were estimated at over ten millions and a-half of dollars, 
with annual payments for their benefit of twenty-seven 
thousand, four hundred dollars. A treaty, hastily made 
by General Sherman, April 29, 1868, did not prove satis- 
factory to either side ; and as gold had been discovered 
in the Black Hills, the United States wished to purchase 
the tract, and induce the Sioux to abandon their hunting 
grounds south of the Niobrara, or even to emigrate to 
the Indian territory. The Sioux were very reluctant to 
treat. Sitting Bull, Red Cloud, and Spotted Tail, with 
other chiefs, visited Washington in May, 1875, but Pres- 
ident Grant could not induce them to sign a treaty. 
Commissioners appointed by him met an immense 
gathering of the Sioux at the Red Cloud agency in 
September; but as the Indians set an exorbitant price 
upon their lands, the negotiation failed. Hostile feelings 
were excited by alleged frauds at the Sioux agencies, 
which were investigated; but no results, satisfactory to 
the Indians, were reached. The feeling of discontent 
increased, and finally broke out into open war. After 
the expenditure of much blood and treasure, the Indians 
were at last subdued — their principal warrior. Sitting 
Bull, being defeated and escaping into the British terri- 
tory, where he still remains. The Black Hills, which 
were so long the bone of contention, have become the 



peaceable possession of the United States Government, 
which, as usual, proved the strongest dog in the fight. 

In 1874 the Sioux nation was composed of the follow- 
ing sub-tribes : The Santee Sioux on the reservation at 
the mouth of the Niobrara, Nebraska, numbering seven 
hundred and ninety-one, with five schools, principally 
under the care of the Episcopalians, conducted by the 
distinguished missionary, the Rev. S. D. Hinman; the 
Yankton Sioux on the Missouri, with the same mission- 
aries; the Sissetons and the Whapetons at Lake Traverse 
and Devil's lake; the Oncpapas, Blackfeet Sioux, Lower 
and Upper Yanktonais, Sans Arcs, Upper and Lower 
Brule's, Two-Kettles, Minneconjous, and Ogallalas in 
the Crow creek, Grand river, Whetstone, Cheyenne river, 
and Red Cloud agencies — in all, forty-six thousand, three 
hundred and forty-two, in Dakota territory: together with 
the Santee, Yanktonais, Oncpapa, and Cuthead Sioux in 
Montana, numbering five thousand three hundred and 
nine. 

Much attention has been given to the Dakota lan- 
guage. A very good grammar and dictionary, prepared 
by Mr. Riggs, have been issued by the Smithsonian in- 
stitute. The missionaries have also supplied the Epis- 
copal liturgy; portions of Scripture, hymns, catechisms, 
and educational works in the language, and newspapers 
issue lighter reading. The Rev. Mr. Hinman, who is 
thoroughly familiar with the language, has probably been 
most successful in his labors for the christianization and 
civilization of this remarkable people. 

THE S.^CS AND FOXES. 

This tribe, which is the last of the Iowa Indians that 
we shall notice, belongs to the State more distinctly than 
any other tribe, and is the one of which, more positively 
than the other, we can assert that some of its members 
have trodden the soil of Buchanan county; since the 
writer of this saw some of them treading its soil in the 
city of Independence, during this very year, 1880. As 
the name implies, the tribe is a union of what was orig- 
nally two separate tribes. And the Fox tribe, of which 
we find the earlier historic mention, was also, in ancient 
times, the result of a similar union between two bands — 
one calling themselves Outagamies, which means foxes, 
and the other, Musquakinks, or men of red clay. It is 
a notable fact that, although probably more than two 
hundred years have elapsed since this union was formed, 
and all lineal traces of the two clans thus united must 
have been obliterated by intermarriages and by the sub- 
sequent union with the Sacs, yet the small remnant of 
the tribe of Sacs and Foxes now living on their own 
lands in Tama county, about fifty miles from Indepen- 
dence, call themselves Musquakies, which is evidently a 
revival of their old ancestral name. But how little reli- 
ance can safely be placed upon popular stories may be 
seen in the fact that many intelligent people living in the 
neighborhood of this band of Indians have been made 
to believe, though probably not by the Indians them- 
selves, that the name Musquiakies signifies men that 
won't fight; and that this name was applied to them as a 
term of reproach by the rest of the tribe, because they 



26 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



refused, on a certain occasion, to take part in a war upon 
which the majority had resolved. 

About the close of the seventeenth century, before 
the union of the Sacs and Fo.xes, the French came into 
collision with the latter in the region about Lake St. 
Clair. The Foxes were great fighters and were hostile 
to the French, who found them the most troublesome 
of neighbors. It was in the year 17 14 that a war of 
extermination or expulsion was commenced against them 
by the French — several other tribes having been induced 
to make common cause with the French against the 
Foxes. The command of the allied forces was first 
given by the governor of Canada to De Louvigney. The 
Foxes intrenched themselves on an elevated position 
near the Fox river, which has ever since been called 
Butte des Morts, or Hill of the dead, on account of the 
slaughter which occurred there at that time. After a 
desperate resistance they were forced to surrender; and 
the victors, more magnanimous than the vanquished had 
any reason to expect they would be, made a treaty of 
peace with them. This treaty, however, the restless and 
untamable Foxes soon violated; and another expedition 
was organized against them in 1728, under the command 
of a French officer by the name of De Lignerie. It 
proved a protracted and bloody struggle, waged with 
varying fortunes and occasional intermissions of truce, 
for about eighteen years. At length, however, the 
French and their allies gained a decisive victory in 1746, 
and the Foxes were driven out of the beautiful valley to 
whose river they had given their name, which it still 
bears as a memento of their long supremacy in the region 
about Green Bay. 

When first known in Iowa the Foxes were found per- 
manently allied with the Sacs, both tribes being united 
under one government. When and upon what terms the 
union was effected, is a matter of tribal history, which 
has never been recorded. The fact that the name of the 
Sacs stands first in that of the united tribe, may be taken 
as a proof that they were at least as powerful as the 
Foxes at the time of the union. Both tribes were a 
branch of the great .■\lgonquin family, and must have 
been closely related in language and habits of life, or 
the union which finally absorbed the two could never 
have been formed. 

The Sacs, like the Foxes, came from the far east, 
where they had many a warlike struggle with the Six 
Nations. We first hear of them from the French writers, 
by whom they were called Sauks ; but the meaning of 
the name has not been transmitted to later times. The 
union of the Sacs and Foxes made them a powerful 
tribe, and they had many desperate conflicts with other 
tribes of the west. Their first great war after the union 
was established, was with the Illinois. United with the 
Sacs and Foxes in this war were the Ottawas, a friendly 
tribe, whose favorite chief, Pontiac, was killed by a 
drunken Indian of the Illinois tribe, in 1796, at Caho- 
kia, opposite St. Louis. This murder was the exciting 
cause of the war, in which the Illinois were almost exter- 
minated, and their hunting grounds were taken possession 
of by the tribes that had been leagued against them. 



The Sac and Fox nation, about this time, occupied a 
large portion of the territory now embraced within the 
two States of Illinois and Iowa. Some of their villages 
were on Rock river, in the former State, and some on the 
Des Moines, in the latter. Two of them were not far 
from the present limits of Buchanan county — one being 
about twelve miles this side of Dubuque, and one on the 
Turkey river. Of course, Buchanan county was at that 
time a part of their hunting grounds. 

The Sacs and Foxes were for some time friendly to the 
lowas, and occupied the same hunting grounds with 
them. But after a while disagreements sprang up between 
the two tribes, which at length led to hostile collisions. 
The principal village of the lowas was on the Des Moines 
river, where the town of lowaville is now situated, in 
Van Buren county. Here was fought the last great battle 
between the lowas and the Sacs and Foxes. The fol- 
lowing account of the battle is quoted by W. W. Clayton 
in his History of Iowa, as contained in the Iowa State 
Atlas; but we are not informed from what work the de- 
scription is taken: 

Contraiy to a long established custom of Indian attack, this battle 
was brought on in the daytime, the attending circumstances justifying 
this departure from the well settled usages of Indian warfare. The 
battlefield is a level river bottom, about four miles in length, and two 
miles wide, near the middle, narrowing down to a point at either end. 
The main area of the bottom rises, perhaps, twenty feet above the 
river, leaving a narrow strip of low bottom along the shore, covered 
with trees that belted the prairie on the river side with a thick forest, 
and the immediate bank was fringed witli a dense growth of the willows, 
and near the lower end of the prairie and near the river bank, was 
situated the Iowa village, and about two miles above the town, and 
near the middle of the prairie, is situated a small natural mound, 
covered at the time with a tuft of small trees and brush growing on its 
summit. In the rear of this mound lay a belt of wet prairie, which, at 
the time spoken of, was covered with a dense crop of rank, coarse grass. 
Bordering this wet prairie on the north, the country rises abruptly into 
elevated broken river bluffs, covered witi; a heavy forest many miles in 
extent, and portions thickly clustered with undergrowth, aflfordmg a 
convenient shelter for the stealthy approach of the foe. 

Through this forest the Sac and Fox war party made their way in the 
night, and secreted themselves in the tall grass spoken of above, in- 
tending to remain in ambush during the day, and make such observa- 
tions as this near proximity to their intended victims might afford, to 
aid them in their contemplated attack on the town during the following 
night. From this situation their spies could take a full survey of the 
village, and watch every movement of the inhabitants, by which 
means they were soon convinced that the lowas had no suspicion of 
their presence. 

At the foot of the mound above-mentioned the lowas had their race 
course, where they diverted themselves with various amusements, and 
schooled their young warriors in cavalry e\olutions. In these 
exercises mock battles were fought, and the Indian tactics of attack 
and defence carefully inculcated — by which means a skill in horseman- 
ship was acquired that had rarely been excelled. Unfortunately for 
them this day was selected for their equestrian sports; and, wholly un- 
conscious of the proximity of their foes, the warriors repaired to the 
race ground, leaving most of their arms in the village, and their old 
men and women and children unprotected. 

Pashapaho, who was chief-in-command of the Sacs and Foxes, per- 
ceived at once the advantage this state of things afforded for a com- 
plete surprise of his now doomed victims, and ordered Black Hawk 
(who, though but a youth at that time, was in command of one divis- 
ion of the attacking forces) to file off with his young warriors, through 
the tall grass, and gain the cover of the timber along the ri\er bank, 
and with tlie utmost speed reach the village and commence the battle; 
while he {the commander-in-chief) remained with his division in the 
anibush, to make a simultaneous assault on the unarmed men, whose 
attention was engrossed with the excitement of the races. The plan 
was skilfully laid, and most dextrously executed. Black Hawk, with 
his forces, reached the village undiscovered, and made a furious on- 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



slaught upon the defenceless inhabitants, by firing one general volley 
into their midst, and completing the slaughter with the tomahawk and 
scalping-knife, aided by the devourmg flames with which they envel- 
oped the village as soon as the fire-brand could be spread from lodge 
to lodge. 

On the instant of the report of firearms at the village, the forces 
under Pashapaho leaped from their couchant position in the grass and 
sprang, tiger-like, upon the astonished and unarmed lowas in the 
midst of their racing sports. The first impulse of the latter, naturally, 
led them to make the utmost speed toward their arms in the viltage to 
protect, if possible, their wives and children from the attack of a merci- 
less assailant. The distance from the place of attack on the prairie 
was two miles; and a great nuniberfell in their flight by the bullets and 
tom.ihawks of their enemies; and they reached their town only in time 
to witness the horrors of its destruction. Their whole village vvas in 
flames, and the dearest objects of their lives lay in slaughtered heaps 
amidst the devouring elements; and the agonizing groans of the dying, 
mingled with the exulting shouts of the victorious foe, filled their 
hearts with a maddening despair. Those of their wives and children 
who h.ad been spared in the general massacre, were prisoners, and, to- 
gether with their arms, were in the hands of the victors; and all that 
could now be done was to draw off their shattered and defenceless 
forces, and save as many lives as possible by a retreat across the Des 
Moines river, which they effected in the best possible manner, and 
took a position among the Soap Creek hills. 

The date of this battle is not given, but it must have 
been previous to 1824, since it was in that year, as we 
have staled above, that the lowas ceded to the United 
States Government all their lands east of the Missouri, 
and accepted a reservation on the west side of that river. 
The lowas and the Sacs and Foxes had, as we have seen, 
long been friends; and this battle jjroves, what all his- 
tory verifies, that there is no hostility so fierce and re- 
lentless as that which springs from alienated friendship. 
But it is worthy of note that, implacable as the Indian 
character has the credit of being, the two tribes thus 
bitterly alienated actually became friends again. The 
lowas had several other villages which the Sacs and 
Foxes left unmolested; and it is probable that the pris- 
oners who had been taken were eventually restored, and 
that a treaty of peace was renewed. At any rate, nearly 
fifty years later, we find these same forgiving lowas actu- 
ally sharing their lands with their ancient enemies, who 
had been left homeless by parting with their reservation, 
without securing suitable hunting grounds in its place. 
Let us hope that even the northern and southern States 
will, byand by, consent to learn from these untutored 
savages the sadly needed but hitherto unheeded lesson of 
reconciliation and forgiveness. 

The Sacs and Foxes had also a fierce collision with 
the Winnebagoes, subduing them and taking possession 
of their lands on Rock river. But their longest and 
most bloody war was with those terrible fighters — the 
Sioux. The latter had their hunting grounds, in early 
times, mostly in Minnesota, while those of the former 
lay to the south and east. Northern Iowa and southern 
Minnesota were the scene of many bloody battles ; and 
as the Sacs and Foxes are known to have had villages 
on the Turkey river, in the adjoining counties of Fayette 
and Clayton, north and northeast of this, we may reason- 
ably suppose that some of these battles occurred in this 
immediate vicinity — perhaps in this very county. 

With a view to putting a stop to this devastating war, 
the United States appointed as commissioners William 
Clark and Lewis Cass to negotiate a treaty with the con- 



tending tribes, by which it was stipulated that the Gov- 
ernment should designate a boundary line between the 
hunting grounds of the Sioux on the north and the Sacs 
and Foxes on the south, the Indians agreeing to restrict 
themselves to the territories thus marked out. The line 
designated by the Government is described as follows: 

Commencing at the mouth of the Upper Iowa river, on the west 
bank of the Mississippi, and ascending said Iowa river to its west 
fork; thence up the fork to its source; thence crossing the fork of Red 
Cedar river in a direct line to the second or upper fork of the Des 
Moines river; thence in a direct line to the lower fork of the Calumet 
(or Big Siou.x) river, and down that river 10 its junction with the Mis- 



souri river. 



This line commences in the northeast corner of what 
is now the State of Iowa, and extends from the Missis- 
sippi to the Missouri, on an average (we should judge) 
of about twenty miles south of the present northern 
boundary of the State. The treaty establishing this line 
was made at Prairie du Chien, August 19, 1825. As 
might have been foreseen, it failed to accomplish, for 
any great length of time, the end desired. Complaints 
were made of infractions on both sides, and the Govern- 
ment again interferred with a well-meant endeavor to 
keep the peace. This time, by a treaty ratified February 
24, 1 83 1, the Government bought of the Sioux a strip of 
land twenty miles wide, lying on the north side of the 
line above described, but extending only to the Des 
Moines river; and, on the south side of the same line, 
a strip of equal width was purchased of the Sacs and 
Foxes. The United States thus obtained possession and 
absolute control of a territory forty miles wide and about 
two hundred miles long. This tract is known in history 
as the "Neutral Ground;" and while the United States 
undertook to prevent the hostile occupation of it by 
either of the belligerent parties, both were allowed to 
use it for hunting and fishing so long as they respected 
and maintained in good I'aith its neutrality. This arrange- 
ment effectually put an end to the bloody encounters 
between the Sioux and the Sacs and Foxes. The "Neu- 
tral Ground" continued the common hunting ground of 
the tribes for about ten years, when it was made a Win- 
nebago reservation, and the principal portion of that 
tribe was removed to it in 1841. They occupied it, how- 
everj but about five years, when, as we have seen, they 
were again removed. 

The borders of the "Neutral Ground" were but a short 
distance north of Buchanan county; and, doubtless, all 
the Indians that were allowed the free use or occupancy 
of the former, were at least occasional visitors to the 
beautiful woods and streams of the latter. The Sacs and 
Foxes, however, were here "on their native heath," and 
the lands of this county were a part of the great tract 
which they ceded to the United States after the close of 
the Black Hawk war, and which first opened up the rich 
prairies of Iowa to the permanent settlement of the 
whites. 

The tract here alluded to is known in history as the 
"Black Hawk Purchase," — not because it was actually 
purchased of Black Hawk (who was then a prisoner in 
the hands of the Government), but because it was ceded 
by the authority of his tribe, and was made a part of the 



22 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



conditions of his release. The treaty by which this tract 
was ceded to the United States was made on the spot 
where Davenport now stands, September 21, 1832, Gen- 
eral Scott and Governor Reynolds, of Illinois, acting as 
commissioners on the part of the Government, and Keo- 
kuk, Pashapaho and several other chiefs representing the 
tribe. This treaty was ratified during the next session 
of Congress, February 13, 1833, and went into effect the 
first of the following June. The boundaries of the Black 
Hawk Purchase were as follows: 

Beginuing on the Mississippi river, at a point where the Sac and Fox 
boundan- line, as established by the second article of the treaty of 
Prairie du Chien, July, 1830, strikes said river: thence up said boundary 
line to a point fifty miles, measured on said line; thence in a right hne 
10 the nearest point on the Red Cedar of Iowa, forty miles from the 
Mississippi; thence in a right line to a point in the northern boundary 
of the State of Missouri, fifty miles measured on said boundary line 
from the Mississippi river; thence by the last mentioned boundan- to 
the Missisippi river, and by the western shore of said river to the place 
of beginning. 

By this treaty the United States obtained possession 
of a tract of land nearly two hundred miles in length, 
and averaging about fifty miles in width, lying along the 
west side of the Missisippi river, and now constituting 
the eastern part of the State of Iowa. For this tract the 
Government stipulated to pay the Sacs and Fo.xes an 
annuity of twenty thousand dollars for thirty years, and 
to cancel the debts of the tribe which had been accum- 
ulating with certain traders for the previous seventeen 
years, and which amounted to forty thousand dollars. 

From the date of this purchase white settlers rapidly 
poured into the new territory ; and about five years 
later, that is, in 183S, another treaty was ratified, by 
which the Sacs and Foxes ceded to the Government 
another tract bordering this on the west, of the same 
length, about twenty-five miles in width at the middle 
portion, and containing a million and a quarter of acres. 
At the same date they relinquished all their lands lying 
south of the "neutral ground," the United States pay- 
ing them for the relinquishment of this territory one 
hundred and sixty thousand dollars. 

Since then other treaties have been made with the 
Sacs and Foxes, and they have several times been re- 
moved. They are now divided into three or four bands, 
and are greatly reduced in numbers. In 1872, the 
principal band, who had ceded their lands in Kansas to 
the United States, first in 1859 and again in 1868, num- 
bered only four hundred and sixty-three. They occupy 
a reservation of nearly five hundred thousand acres in 
the Indian country, between the North fork of the 
Canadian river and the Red fork of the Arkansas. The 
Sacs and Foxes of the Missouri, the band who remained 
true to the Government during the Black Hawk war, are 
reduced to eighty-eight, but occupy a large reservation 
in southeastern Nebraska and northeastern Kansas. 
Both these bands are making considerable improvement 
in agriculture and the raising of stock. 

In 1857, a party of nearly four hundred Sacs and 
Foxes, calling themselves by their ancient name, Mus- 
quakies, tired ot being moved from reservation to reser- 
vation, bought a large tract of land in Tama county, un- 
aided by the Government, which at first refused to assist 



them in their separate condition. Since then, however, 
they have received their share of the annuities. They 
cultivate the best of their lands, and have raised in a 
single year three thousand dollars' w-orth of produce. 
They are also employed in the raising of stock, having 
over ten thousand dollars invested in that business. 
They frequently hire out to the neighboring white farm- 
ers as laborers, and are thus becoming industrious and 
self-sustaining. It is said that the farmers who at first 
laughed at the idea of employing them now find them 
good workers. 

The Government has made several efforts to civilize 
and improve the Sacs and Foxes by establishing schools 
among them; and several religious denominations have 
made overtures for the organization of missions in their 
behalf. But they have clung to their Indian prejudices 
with even more than the ordinary Indian tenacity. 

In 1869, the writer of this was requested by the late 
Bishop Lee, of the Episcopal diocese of Iowa, to visit 
the Musquakies and ascertain how they would look upon 
an effort to establish a mission school among them. He 
complied with their request, but they firmly withheld 
their consent to any such effort, alleging that if the Great 
Spirit had wished them to be like white folks, he would 
have made them white. 

There are few, if any, of the Indian tribes whose his- 
tory is more replete with romantic incidents than that of 
the Sacs and F'oxes. Their great chief, Black Hawk, 
was as brave as Tecumseh and as eloquent as Logan. 
His address to General Street, after his capture in 1S32, 
is well worthy of being preserved along side of that 
which was delivered by Logan in very similar circum- 
stances, and immortalized by Jefferson. The speech of 
Black Hawk was as follows : 

Mv warriors fell around me. It began to look dismal. I saw my 
evil day at hand. The sun rose clear on us in the morning; at night it 
sank in a dark cloud, and looked Uke a ball of fire. This was the last 
sun that shone on Black Hawk, He is now a prisoner of the while 
man. But he can stand the torture. He is not afraid of death. He 
is no coward. Black Hawk is an Indian. He has done nothing of 
which an Indian need be ashamed. He has fought the battles of his 
country against the white man, who came year after year to cheat us 
and take away our lands. You know the cause of our making war. It 
is known to all white men. They ought to be ashamed of it. The 
white men despise the Indians and drive them from their homes. But 
the Indians are not deceitful. Indians do not steal. 

Black Hawk is satisfied, he will go to the world of spirits contented. 
He has done his duty. His father will meet him and reward him. The 
white men do not scalp the head, but they do worse; they poison the 
heart. It is not pure w iih them. My countrymen will not be scalped; 
but they will, in a few years, become like the white man, so that you 
cannot hurt them; and there will be, as in the white settlements, as 
manv officers as men, to take care of them and keep them in order. 
Farewell to my nation! Farewell to Black Hawk! 

His proud salutation to President Jackson, on being 
presented to him at Washington, has become famous — - 
"I am a man and you are another." That he had a ten- 
der place in his heart, notwithstanding liis many deeds 
of cruelty, is evinced by his parting words to Colonel 
Eustis, who was commander at Fortress Monroe during 
the old chiefs confinement there — "The memory of your 
friendship will remain till the Great Spirit shall say, 'It is 
time for Black Hawk to sing his death song.'" 

After his release, in 1833, he returned to Iowa, and 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



23 



.emained with a portion of his tribe on the Iowa river res- 
ervation until that was sold, in 1836. He then removed 
to the Des Moines reservation, where he died October 3, 
1838, aged seventy-one. He was buried on the bank of 
the river in a sitting posture, after the manner of his tribe. 
We. here bring to a close our sketches of the Indian 
tribes whose contiguity to this county render it pretty 
certain that, at some period previous to its settlement by 
the whites, these tribes must at Last temporarily have 
occupied its soil. We have no accounts of any Indian 
villages having been located here, or battlefields, or per- 
manent occupation by any of the tribes. Since the whites 
began to settle here, companies of Sacs and Foxes, and 
occasionally of other tribes, have been in the habit of 
visiting the county, either for hunting and fishing, or in 
making journeys from one part of the country to another. 
The old settlers still relate anecdotes and incidents of 
these visits, some of which may be found farther on in 
connection with personal sketches. But here our Indian 
history must terminate. 

Note. — The most of the facts contained in the foregoing sketches 
were found in the American Encyclopaedia. In transferring them to 
our history we have sometimes employed the identical language of that 
work. But so frequent have been the changes, additions and omissions, 
that we could not in all cases have indicated this sort of transfer with- 
out greaUy marring the appearance of the text, and putting the printer 
to unnecessary trouble. We trust, therefore, that this acknowledgment 
will be considered all that the equities of the case require. In piepar- 
^ni the sketch of the Sacs and Foxes we have also been indebted to W- 
W. Clayton's history in Andrea's Iowa State Atlas. 



CHAPTER II. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES. 



GEOGRAPHY. 

The counties of Iowa lie in very regular tiers, running 
east and west, and in tiers less regular (especially in the 
southern half of the State) running north and south. 
Buchanan is in the fourth tier north of the Minnesota 
line, and in the fifth north of the Missouri line. It is the 
third county west of the Mississippi River, and the tenth 
east of the Missouri. Its central point, (which is a few 
miles east of its capital, the city of Independence,) lies 
very nearly in latitude forty-two and a half degrees north, 
and longitude fourteen degrees and fifty minutes west 
from Washington. It is a little over si.xty miles due 
west of the city of Dubuque, and in an extension of the 
line which divides Illinois and Wisconsin. Its latitude 
is about the same as that of Beloit, Wisconsin; Allegan, 
in the State of Michigan; Chatham, Canada West; Al- 
bany, New York; Boston, Massachusetts; Leon, in 
Spain; Perpignan, in France; Porta, in the Island ot 
Corsica; Civita Vecchia, Italy; Sophia, in European 
Turkey; Sinope, Turkey in Asia; Derbend, in southern 
Russia; Khiva, Tartary; Tchontori, (a little north of the 
latitude of Pekin) China; Chickadado, Japan; and Jack- 
sonville, Oregon. 



This "girdle" (which we have beaten Puri- in putting 
"round about the earth" in something less than "forty 
minutes," and in which Independence, though one of the 
least, is by no means the least glittering gem) fairly 
marks the golden mean between the too freezing north 
and the too burning south. Of the five million-peopled 
cities of the world, the two largest, London and Paris, are 
north of this tine, and the other three, Pekin, Canton 
and New York, are south of it. And, among the re- 
maining great cities of the Northern Hemisphere, Vien- 
na, Berlin, St. Petersburg and Liverpool are on the north 
and Calcutta, Constantinople, Chicago and San Fran- 
cisco are on the south of the same line. It would 
seem, therefore, that the human race, whose in- 
stinct in such a matter may be regarded as in- 
fallible, have come to the conclusion that the line 
passing through Independence and the centre of 
Buchanan county, is a very good one to cluster about; 
and that, consequently, they have determined to fight 
out the great battle of life as near as possible to this for- 
tunate line. We know of no one that desires to emigrate 
from this fair and fertile county; but if there is such a 
one, and he is detennined to gratify that preposterous de- 
sire, we advise him to steer his course due west or east, 
if he expects to be in luck. 

As to its immediate neighbors, Buchanan is surrounded 
by a beautiful septer of sister counties, as follows: Bre- 
mer (named for the genial and talented Frederika) on 
the northwest ; Fayette, on the north; Clayton, on the 
northeast; Delaware, on the east; Linn and Benton, on 
the south; and Black Hawk, on the west. Such a 
county, thus surrounded, may truly, if not quite originally, 
be called "a beautiful gem in a beautiful setting." 

A bird's eve view 

of the territory, now comprising Buchanan county, must 
have been a rare sight, during the season of vegetation, 
even before the advent of its civilized inhabitants. Its 
numerous streams revealed by the silver sheen of their 
serpentine currents, by the white lines of sand drift, or 
the beetling bluffs along their margins, and still more by 
the wide belts of luxuriant timber by which they were for 
the most part bordered; its limitless prairies, mostly un- 
dulating, but sometimes stretching away in a broad and 
level expanse, covered with grass and flowers, gleaming 
in sunlight or flecked with shadow, and dotted here and 
there with herds of buffaloes, grazing upon the slopes or, 
perhaps, stampeding before pursuing wolves or Indian 
hunters — all this afforded a picture which, if there had 
been an artist's eye to behold it, would have filled his 
soul with delight. 

But civilization came, and a change has passed over 
the scene, as if produced by the waving of an enchanter's 
wand, or the utterance of a magical incantation. The 
main outlines of surface and stream and forest belt con- 
tinue, though the latter has been broken up in many 
places to make room for human dwellings or cultivated 
fields. Much of the original forest, too, has been re- 
moved for fuel or building material ; but on a large por- 
tion of the space thus cleared a second growth has been 



24 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



allowed to spring up, which has become as beautilul and 
luxuriant as the first ; and this, together with the almost 
numberless groves and orchards that have been planted, 
probably makes the present number of trees in the 
county more than twice as great as when it first began to 
be settled. 

The multiplication of cultivated groves is, indeed, one 
of the principal characteristics in the settlement of a 
prairie country ; but, from a bird's eye view, there are 
dthers which have, perhaps, even a more marked effect 
upon the landscape. Such are the breaking up of the 
soil, the enclosing of fields and their cultivation in vari- 
ous kinds of grain, the multiplication of flocks of sheep 
and herds of cattle, the erection of dwellings, school- 
houses, churches, bridges, and other architectural struct- 
ures, and the grouping of these together in hamlets, 
villages and towns. All these have so changed the face 
of the country now composing Buchanan county, that 
the "century-living crow" which may have flown over 
it fifty years ago, on one of his migratory flights, would 
hardly recognize it were he now, for the first time since 
that not very remote day, to fly over it once more. The 
historical account of these changes will be given in its 
appropriate place farther on; but we desire to present 
here, a little more in detail, a picture of the ]iresent feat- 
ures of the country, both natural and artificial, as seen 
from above. Word-painting is not our forte, but if the 
reader will accompany us in an imaginary balloon ascen- 
sion, we will see what we can see. 

Here we are, then, directly over the central point of 
the county, at an altitude of two or three thousand feet; 
from which the entire surface of its sixteen townships 
lies clearly revealed to our vision, which has been sharp- 
ened up for this special occasion. The point over which 
our aerial car is suspended, is near the corners of the 
four townships — Washington, Byron, Liberty and Sum- 
ner, and would have been exactly the point where those 
four townships would have touched each other, had it not 
been for the "correction line " and the recent enlarge- 
ment of Washington, made for the sake of allowing the 
ambitious city of Independence to expand without cross- 
ing a township line. 

If the reader is as simple-minded as the writer, it has 
seetned to him that we ought to be able to discern, from 
our present lookout, those boundary lines and colors 
which are so striking upon maps, and become so identi- 
fied with all our notions of geography. The lines do, 
indeed, exist, and are sufficiently visible to the imagina- 
tion; but we now perceive, more clearly than ever before, 
that, like the equator, tropics, parallels and meridians, 
they are fw/y "imaginary." 

It is an interesting coincidence that, from our lofty 
altitude, we are looking directly down upon two objects 
which stand as the principal symbols of American civiliza- 
tion, and of the moral improvement and elevation of our 
people. These two objects are a church and a school- 
house. The former is the Bethel Presbyterian church, 
situated on the main road, about three miles east of 
Independence, in the southwest corner of Byron town- 
ship; and the latter, located upon adjoining ground, is 



one of the district school buildings with which, as we 
can see at a glance, the whole surface of the county is 
dotted over, there being seven or eight, on an average, 
in every township. The location of these two structures 
in such close proximity, at the very centre of the county, 
is not only symbolical of the general intelligence and 
virtue of the people; but it also seems to imply that 
religion and learning are here regarded as the central in- 
fluences to which all other beneficent influences are sub- 
sidiary, and upon which the people are chiefly to rely for 
securing their highest prosperity and happiness. 

But we came here, not so much to moralize about the 
people of Buchanan, as to study and enjoy the physical 
features of their county. In furtherance of this design 
let us direct our attention for a few minutes to 

THE PR1NCIP.\L STREAMS, 

by which, paradoxical as it may sound, the county is 
both drained and watered. Drainage is here, of course, 
the principal object of the streams; for imported as are 
numerous living watercourses in a stock growing region, 
still, in a territory like this, where the average annual of 
rain-fall is forty inches, if there were not a sufficient 
slope, and a sufficient number of stream-valleys to af- 
ford timely escape for the surplus water, the whole sur- 
face of the country would be one continuous marsh, 
breeding pestilence for the destruction of men, rather 
than furnishing arable fields for their support. As it is, 
there are very few marshes in the county; and the most, 
if not all of these can be artificially drained, and doubt- 
less will be as soon as land becomes sufficiently valuable 
(as it will some day), to insure a compensation for the 
neces^arv expense; while on the other hand, there are 
probably still fewer places which, except in very unusu- 
al seasons, are ever seriously afflicted by drouth. 

The general trend of the land in Buchanan county, 
like that of the State at large, is from the northwest to 
the southeast. Its principal valley, that of the Wapsipin- 
icon river, stretches directly through its centre, in the di- 
rection stated, receiving and carrying off all its waters, 
with the following exceptions; Those of Jefferson and 
Westburg, and of a part of Peiry, Sumner and Horner, 
in the southwest corner of the county, flow into the Ce- 
dar; while those of a part of Madison and Fremont, in 
the northeast corner, make their way into the Maquo- 
keta. 

The most conspicuous object below us (for we hope 
the reader will not forget, even if the writer should, that 
we are "up in a balloon") — is, of course, the "VVapsie" 
with its magnificent belt of timber, the largest originally 
unbroken forest of which lies a little southeast of us, in 
Liberty township. If we let our eye follow up the me- 
andering course of the river till we come to the little 
town of Littleton, in the northern part of Perry town- 
ship, we find at that point the principal fork made by the 
river in this county. The river a[)proaches the village 
from the west, having entered the county at the north- 
west corner of Perry township; while the stream with 
which it forks (very respectable in size and named the 
Little Wapsie) flows down from the north, having come 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



25 



in from the county of Fayette, about a mile and a half 
east of the northwest corner of Fairbank, and passes 
completely through that township in a southerly direc- 
tion. We are not certain but that the Wapsipinicon 
might justly lay claim to the title, "Father of waters," 
since we know of at least two Little Wapsies — there be- 
ing, besides the one here mentioned, another formed 
very much in the same way in Howard and Chickasaw 
counties. Our Little Wapsie receives several small 
streams after entering the county — the largest, being on 
its western side and named Buck creek, entering Fair- 
bank township in section seven, and emptying into the 
Little Wapsie in thirty-two of the same township. 

Now let us retrace the course of the river from the 
fork above described and note the streams that flow into 
it. The first we come to is scarcely more than a brook, 
flowing from the south and emptying into the river in 
section fifteen, in Perry township. It looks like a thread 
of silver winding through the green carpet of the prairie. 
We consult the map, which we have not forgotten to 
bring with us, and find that it has no recorded name. 
As our eyes glance over the county they will fall upon 
many such streams — some of them considerably larger 
than this. And we desire here to say, that when we 
come to the township histories, if we find any names of 
streams that have been left hitherto unrecorded, we shall 
see to it that the nameless ones are duly christened. 

The next that we come to is a fine, large stream flow- 
ing from the north through Hazletown and Washington 
townships, and joining the river in section nineteen of 
the latter. This is Otter creek, one of the most beautiful 
streams in the county, and more copiously wooded than 
any other, except father Wapsie himself. As our eyes 
wander up through its charming valley, they discover 
four branches emptying into it, all unnamed on the map. 
Three of these are quite small, flowing from the east and 
joining the creek in Hazleton township. The other is 
larger, rising on the west side of the creek, a little north 
of the county line, flowing almost due south through the 
western part of Hazleton (the most of the way parallel 
with the creek) and emptying into it in section six of 
Washington. 

Resuming our survey down the river we come to two 
small streams which enter it about a mile apart, the first 
in section twenty-eight, and the second in section thirty- 
four of \\"ashington township, a little above Inde- 
pendence. Neither is named on the map, but the one 
nearest the city is called (so we are informed) Harter 
creek. They both rise in the northern part of Washing- 
ton, and flow nearly south. 

Next passing down the rapids through Independence, 
we come to the mouth of Malone creek, just below the 
city, in section three of what was at first Sumner town- 
ship, but is now a part of Washington. It also rises in 
Washington (in the northeast corner) and flows in a 
southwesterly direction. Two little streams, so small 
that we can hardly discern them even with our sharpened 
bird's-eye vision, rise almost directly below us — the first 
in. section thirty-one of Byron, and the second in section 
one of the addition to Washington. They are each 



about two miles in length, flow southwest and empty into 
the Wapsie, in section ten of Sumner. 

Still passing on down the river, we see no entering 
stream worthy of note till, about seven or eight miles be- 
low those last mentioned, we come to the mouth of Pine 
creek, not more than two miles above Quasqueton, in 
section twenty-eight, Liberty township. This is a fine 
stream flowing from the north like nearly all those which 
empty into the Wapsie. It rises nearly in the centre of 
Buffalo township, and flows south through Byron and 
Liberty. It receives many small tributaries, mostly 
through its left bank, like the Wapsie and all the other 
streams in the county. It is about fourteen miles in 
length — its lower half being well timbered, but the 
upper half flowing through an open prairie region. 
"Pilot Grove" which we see gleaming through the hazy 
autumn atmosphere, seven or eight miles away to the 
north, is about two miles from the source of this stream. 
Although less than a quarter of a mile in diameter (on 
an average) this grove is a very striking object, from the 
fact that there is no timber within about five miles of it 
in any direction. 

But a few rods from the mouth of Pine creek is that of 
Halstead's run, which has for an "occasional contribu- 
tor" Dry creek; and about a quarter of a mile from the 
mouth of this run is that of Nash creek, in section 
twenty-seven in Liberty township. Each of these streams 
is about five miles in length, rising in the southern part 
of Byron and running nearly south. From the mouth 
of Nash creek, which is about half a mile above Quasque- 
ton, to the point where the Wapsie leaves the county, 
we can count by close inspection eight tributaries to that 
river — all but two on its left (that is its eastern bank. 
None of these creeks are named on any map that we 
have seen. The larger of the two on the right bank is 
the largest entering the river on that side in its whole 
course through the county. Yet it is only about four 
miles in length, rising in the northwestern part of Cono, 
and joining the river in section fourteen of that town- 
ship. The largest and the last of these lower tributaries, 
on the other side, is about eight miles in length, rising in 
the southern part of Middlefield, flowing nearly south 
through the centre of Newton nearly to the county line, 
then turning abruptly to the west and entering the river 
in section thirty-one of the last mentioned township. 

But the largest tributary to the Wapsie (though it does 
not enter the river within the limits of the county) re- 
mains yet to be noticed. If the reader (still up in the 
balloon, remember) will cast his eye toward the east, be- 
yond Pine creek (as far east of that creek as we are west 
of it, that is about three miles), he will observe a stream 
flowing in a very straight course about south southeast, 
parallel with Pine creek and the Wapsie, and bordered 
by a very narrow belt of timber. That stream is Buffalo 
creek, the longest branch of our Father of Waters, and, 
with the exception of the river, the longest stretch of 
water in Buchanan county. It rises in the southern part 
of Fayette county, flows in the direction indicated above, 
entering our county in section three of Buffalo township, 
and continuing till, at about twelve miles from its source, 



26 



HIS1X)RV OF BUCHANAN COUNTY. lOAVA. 



it reaches the northwest corner of section thirty-one in 
Madison township. There it turns abruptly to the west, 
makiug nearly a right angle, and continuing in that course 
for about two miles, when it receives a branch which has 
flowed parallel with it almost from its beginning. Then 
it makes another sudden turn to the south southeast 
again, taking the line of the branch, which it holds with 
very little variation till it unites with the Wapsie in Jones 
county. 

This apparent turning aside from their own valley to 
make a sudden debouche into that of one of their branches 
is a frequent and singular freak of streams, both small 
and great. There are no less than three other examples 
of it in this county. The Little Wapsie does it when it 
receives its Buck creek branch. Otter creek does it when 
it receives that branch, unnamed on the map, which has 
flowed parallel with it for six or seven miles. And Father 
Wapsie himself does it, when he unites with Pine creek. 
In the case of the first three pairs of streams mentioned 
above, there is the singular additional coincidence that 
the parallel streams, in each case, are just about two miles 
apart. 

Almost numberless examples of the above mentioned 
fteak of watercourses might be given if we chose to go 
out of the county; and we will do so just to mention 
those of a single river — which we can do without lower- 
ing our balloon. We refer to the Missouri, which per- 
forms this freak at least five times: first, when it receives 
the White river; second, when it receives the Niobrara; 
third, when it receives the Jaiues ; fourth, when it receives 
the Big Sioux; and last, but not least, when it receives 
the Mississippi — for everybody knows that it is the Mis 
souri that receives the Mississippi, and not the ^Nlissis- 
sippi that receives the Missouri. To call the united 
streams the Mississippi was the most stupid of geograph- 
ical misnomers — was, indeed like setting the tail to wag- 
ging the dog, instead of letting the dog wag his own tail. 

In regard to the scientific explanation of these singu- 
lar fluvial performances, we will state simply that they 
are attributed by the learned to the action of the ice dur- 
ing what is termed, in geology, the "glacial period.'' 
But their explanations, though plausible in certain cases, 
are beset with difficulties. 

To return (as the French say) " to our sheep" — that 
is, to the streams of Buchanan county. If the reader 
will turn his eye to the northeast, some five or six miles 
beyond the abrupt bend in Buffalo creek, he will per- 
ceive a large, isolated grove of native timber, with a 
stream of considerable size passing through it to the 
southeast. This stream is the south branch of Maquo- 
keta river. It rises in the southern part of Fayette 
county, and the part of it belonging there (being about 
six miles in length) is called Prairie creek. Why this is 
thus we are not informed. Sufl^ce it to say that this is 
the unmistakable Maquoketa, which passes through 
Manchester, in the adjoining county of Delaware; and 
there, at the distance of twenty or twenty-five miles from 
its mouth, proves to be an industrious and serviceable 
mill stream. Its length in this county is about six miles, 
passing through the northeast corner of Madison, the 



northeast township, entering in section five and going 
out in section twenty-four. It has several small branches. 

South of the stream last described, and nearly east of 
us, we perceive another and much smaller one, flowing 
in the same general direction, through prairies and fields 
entirely destitute of native timber. It rises in section 
four of Fremont township, flows some nine miles in a 
sort of circuitous course, and passes out through section 
thirty-six of the same township into Delaware county. 
It is there called Coffin's Grove creek, from the name 
of an isolated body of timber through which it passes; 
but whether or not it has that name in this county, the 
mapmaker has not informed us. 

If now we turn our eyes to the west and southwest, 
beyond the watershed of the Wapsipinicon, we shall see 
several small streams flowing in a southwesterly direction, 
and also gel a glimpse of the Cedar river, which just 
touches this county at its southwest corner, the same 
being the corner of Jefferson township. Of these small 
streams, the two that we see directly west are a couple of 
small branches that unite to form Spring creek, which 
lies wholly beyond our county, in Black Hawk. The 
farthest of these small branches barely touches Perry 
township. The other rises m section twenty of Perry, 
flows south into Westburgh, and out at section seven of 
the latter. 

Passing south, the next that we come to is Little 
Spring creek, a branch of the former, rising in sixteen, 
Westburgh, flowing southwest and leaving the county at 
six, Jefierson. Then comes a small stream unnamed, 
rising in eight, Jefferson, and passing out at thirty-one of 
the same. Turning east we come to Lime creek, which 
rises in fourteen, Westburgh, flows south (with a slight 
circuit to the east and then to the west) and passes 
through Jefferson, leaving it at section thirty-three. Next 
and last we come to Bear creek, which rises in seventeen 
of the adjoining township of Sumner, makes a circuit 
quite similar to the former, passes through a part of 
Homer, enters Jefferson at twenty-five, and leaves it at 
thirty-six. 

Thus ends our survey of Buchanan waters. The bird's- 
eye view would be improved with a lake or two, but they 
are not needed for any other than esthetic purposes. 
We fear the reader will think we are staying up in the 
air a long time; but we are not yet quite ready to come 
down. 

FLUXIAL NOMEN"CL.\TL"RE. 

Before we leave the subject of Buchanan streams, 
however, we desire to say a few words in regard to their 
names. All names are more or less significant; and it is 
probable that no one was ever given without there being, 
in the mind of the giver, a definite reason why that par- 
ticular one, and not another was assigned to the object 
named. The reason may never be announced, or, if 
once made known, may become forgotten ; or it may be 
thought too trivial to remember. But the fact remains, 
that every object named must have both a namer and a 
reason for its name. And the reason may continue to 
be known long after the namer has been forgotten. 
Thus it is probably at present unknown who first gave 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



27 



the name of Bear creek to the stream last mentioned; 
but there can be no reasonable doubt as to the reason 
why that name was given. As it would be bare nonsense 
to call a stream Bear creek if no bears had ever been 
found upon its banks, so we may safely take it for granted 
that the name was given to perpetuate the memory of 
the fact that bears were once found there. This stream, 
therefore, and also Buck, Otter, and Buffalo creeks, are 
standing (or rather running) monuments to a fauna 
which, in this county, has become extinct. And we 
cannot help thinking that, if certain other species that 
once abounded here, but have now disappeared or are 
fast disappearing) such as the elk, beaver, muskrat, wolf, 
wild turkey, grouse, etc.), could have been commemor- 
ated in a similar way, it would have been a very graceful 
thing to do. 

What the names of the streams above mentioned have 
done for the fauna of the county, the name of Pine 
creek has done for the flora — that stream being so named 
on account of the white pines which grow along its banks. 
They are found mostly in Liberty township, with the de- 
ciduous trees. It is believed that no native pines are 
found anywhere in the county, except along this stream. 

The name of Lime creek does not seem specially sig- 
nificant, since limestone is the principal outcropping rock 
found in the county. As a name, however, it probably 
serves its purpose as well as another. The personal names 
given to several of the streams are those of prominent j 
individuals now or fortiierly living in their vicinity. These j 
individuals will be suitably mentioned in the sketches of 
their several townships. The name of the Mayuoketa 
is evidently of Indian origin, but we have not as yet 
been able to ascertain its meaning. 

As to the Wapsipinicon, the Indian legend, said to be 
connected with its name, is sufficiently romantic to satisfy 
the most sentimental of novel readers. Wapsie and 
Pinicon (so the story goes) were a brave Indian youth 
and a beautiful girl of the same race, but of a different 
tribe. We may suppose (for the location favors the sup- 
position, and there is nothing in the legend to contradict 
it) that Wapsie was one of the warlike Sioux, and that 
Pinicon belonged to the equally warlike and hostile tribe 
of Sacs. Love laughs at tribal prejudices; and so this 
ill-fated pair, who had thus far resisted all amorous 
attractions within their individual tribes, having met by 
chance, the usual way, up somewhere on the neutral 
ground, fell desperately in love with each other at first 
sight. Both had the blood of a long line of chieftains 
in their veins — which circumstance, while it gave a 
heroic intensity to the ardor of their passion, interposed 
a mountain of obstacles in the way of its gratification. 
Love may laugh, as we have hinted, at tribal and family 
prejudices, but parental authority is very apt to make an 
inflexible religion out of those unamiable sentiments. 
Thus it was in the present instance. When Pinicon's 
father discovered that his daughter had turned a favor- 
able ear to the addresses of a scion of a hostile house, 
his rage knew no bounds, and he sternly forbade her to 
have any further communication with the presumptuous 
and impudent young warrior, or even to think of him 



again as a desirable or possible husband. The law of 
love, however, is stronger than that of a parent's will; 
and the lovers still found means to continue their corres- 
pondence — but with a circumspection that entirely eluded 
the father's vigilant eye. 

At length, weary of the long frustration of their hopes, 
and despairing of the paternal consent, they determined 
upon an elopement. Pinicon, though she could not tell 
a lie, had not hesitated to let her father believe that she 
had yielded to his wishes, and given up her ill-starred 
attachment. By this he was led to relax his accustomed 
vigilance, and he set out upon a hunt of several days, 
without leaving anyone specially charged with the duty 
of watching her movements. The faithful Pinicon con- 
trived to inform her constant Wapsie of this favorable 
opportunity, and he hastened to avail himself of it to 
bear her away to his northern home. But as bad luck 
would have it, the father returned unexpectedly, just as 
they were preparing for their flight. Finding the hated 
Wapsie under his roof, he exclaimed in a towering rage : 
"Wah beh jobangunk! Kommen sie in diesen ort nicht 
zuriick, wenn sie auch nicht hangen wollen, wo die 
vogel ihre hirnschalenhaut picken werden!" Which ' 
means, freely translated, "Get out of this! And if you 
ever darken the door of my wigwam again, I'll hang 
your scalp on a crabapple tree for the birds to pick at!" 
The brave Wapsie, though taken by surprise, was not at 
all frightened; but he was too magnanimous to fight her 
father in the presence of his adorable Pinicon. So he 
retreated backward, bowing like a courtier as he went, 
and calmly saying, as he left the door: "Auf wreder- 
schen! Yach goonic Filippimini weeho!" That is 
"good bye! We'll meet again at Philippi!" 

We will not attempt to describe the scene which fol- 
lowed — the angry rebukes of the father and the speech- 
less grief of the daughter. Suffice it to say that the 
former, when the storm had spent itself, apprehending no 
further trouble, at least for the present, and remembering 
his daughter's skill in the preparation of venison, bade 
her in a kinder tone to dry her tears and get him his 
supper. He was very hungry and very tired, and as 
night had set in before the repast was over, it had not 
long been finished when he lay down in his blanket and 
went to sleep. The dusky Pinicon, with eyes red with 
weeping, also retired, but not to sleep. She thought of 
many things; but especially she thought of the trysting 
place where she and her lover had so often met, and it 
occurred to her that, led by the sacred associations of 
the place, and perhaps by an undefined presentiment that 
she would follow him, he might now be awaiting her in 
that hallowed spot. At any rate it would not take her 
long to visit it herself, as it was but little more than a 
mile, partly through the oak openings and partly across 
the prairie. If she found him not, it would at least af- 
ford her a melancholy pleasure to be there alone, as she 
had so often been ; and she could easily return to the 
wigwam before her father would awake. So she arose, 
wrapped her blanket around her and went quietly out. 
The October moon was shining brightly, and she had no 
difficulty in making her way to the well known spot. It 



28 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



was just on the border of the grove where, in the shad- 
ow of a spreading oak, lay a huge rock, on which they 
were accustomed to sit in the deepening twilight, bewail- 
ing their unhappiness or discussing plans for bringing it 
to an end. 

As soon as she came in sight of the tree she beheld a 
dark object beneath it, which she soon recognized as the 
form of her lover, the noble Wapsie. Almost at the same 
instant, he, too, beheld an indistinct figure gliding in and 
out among the shadows. At first he suspected that it 
might be a deer, and immediately became convinced that 
he was not mistaken — that it was his dear deer, Pinicon ! 
He flew to meet her, and clasped her in his arms, ex- 
claiming: "Not even death shall ever part us more. Let 
us fly to my northern home, where parental tyranny can 
never separate us." And so, looking to the north star 
for guidance, as many duskier fugitives have since done, 
they set out upon their flight. 

But they had not proceeded far when ominous sounds 
were heard in the distance behind them. They paused 
and listened, and soon distinguished angry voices. They 
turned and looked, and at first could discover nothing; 
' but a moment after they discovered four tall forms emerg- 
ing from the grove. " It is my father and the other 
chiefs," exclaimed the frightened Pinicon. "The river! 
the river! Let us die rather than be taken!" The stream 
was about a mile to the west of them, and toward it they 
turned in eager flight, as if to reach it were life instead 
of death. Their pursuers perceived them at the same 
moment, and redoubled their speed. About half the 
distance was across the open prairie, and the rest through 
a grove of straggling trees. When the fugitives reached 
this grove the pursuing chiefs were so near that the trees 
afforded no concealment; and when the former arrived 
at the bank of the river, the latter were hardly a rod be- 
hind them. There was no time for the young hero (who 
is said to have been the best soloist of his tribe) to sing 
his death song, nor was any needed. The mui muring 
river was singing it even then, and, without waiting for 
encores, it was going to repeat it through all the coming 
days. 

With one backward glance of mingled despair and 
forgiveness at the angry faces glaring upon them in the 
moonlight, the devoted lovers, clasped in each other's 
arms, leajjed into the stream. The enraged father 
reached the bank only to behold them sinking, rising, 
struggling in the waves. At once his anger was changed 
to sorrowing love. 

"Come back! come back! " he cried in grief, 
"Across the stormy water; 
And I'll forgive your Highland chief — 
My daughter! O, my daughter ! " 

Too late ! too late ! The eloquent Indian words, 
reproduced centuries later in passable English by a 
Scotch poet, had scarcely died upon the air, when the 
two devoted lovers, casting another and more melting 
glance of forgiving love at the poor old despairing 
chief, weeping on the shore, sank in the engulfing waters 
to rise no more. The broken-hearted chief returned to 
his wigwam, a sadder and a wiser man. But his sadness 



got the better of his wisdom, and end^-d his days. He 
never smiled again. A settled melancholy took posses- 
sion of his mind. The medicine men could do nothing 
to arrest his malady, and before spring bloomed again 
upon the prairies he sickened and died. But he left a 
will (no copy of which, we regret to say, has been pre- 
served) requiring that a memorial mourd should be 
erected on the bank of the river, near where the lovers 
perished; and that the stream itself should forever after 
bear their united names, Wapsipinicon. The mound, 
we believe, has been carried away by some of the tre- 
mendous freshets which characterize the stream; but the 
name, barbarous as it sounds to some fastidious ears, has 
come down to the present day, and will probably never 
wash out. 

As this legend will suit any river whose name contains 
the requisite number of syllables, we suggest that it may 
be applied to the Maquoketa. We have not been able 
to find any interpretation of the Indian name given to 
that stream; but we have only to imagine that two Ind- 
ian lovers, Maquo and Keta, drowned themselves in 
its waters, and all the reasonable demands, both of ro- 
mance and of etymology, will be met and satisfied. 

We hope the reader will not get impatient: we will 
try and let our balloon down in time for dinner. But 
as we are speaking of rivers, we cannot think of leaving 
the subject without saying a few words about 

THEIR FREQUENT VARIATIONS. 

What we have to say in regard to this matter will refer 
principally to the Wapsipinicon river, but will, of course, 
apply, imiiatis mutandis, to all the other streams. The 
features of every landscape are always changing more or 
less rapidly, under the action of its watercourses. Every 
stream is liable to fluctuations. When rains are heavy, 
and general and long continued, it rises, overflows its 
banks or washes them away, changes its direction, makes 
new bends or cuts off old ones, covers green fields with 
beds of sand or gravel, washes away dams, bridges and 
other artificial structures, and scatters their debris along 
its banks. All of these changes, of course, tell upon the 
landscape. If we could take an accurate photograph of 
the scene that lies below us, and return again, in only a 
year's time and take another, we should find the two very 
perceptibly diflerent, in consequence of the fluvial chan- 
ges brought about in that short interval. 

Changeable as are streams in general, we think the 
Wapsipinicon is exceptionally so. The soil through 
which it flows is, for the most part, sandy, and there- 
fore drifts readily with every overflow. This fact makes 
it difficult to bridge in many places where bridges are 
very necessary. The first crossing of the river below In- 
dependence, is a place of this character. The stream, 
before reaching this point, makes a sudden deflection 
toward the east; and since the present bridge was built, 
the stream has changed its bed to such an extent, and 
the detrition of the bank has been so great at the south- 
ern extremity of the bridge, that it has been thought 
necessary (now that the old structure has become dilapi- 
dated, and a new and more substantial one is about 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



29 



to be built), to cross the river forty rods below — al- 
though the road will have to turn that distance out of its 
direct course in order to reach the new crossing. 

The contrast which the Wapsie presents, between its 
usual condition in midsummer, with the water shrunk far 
within its banks; the cattle standing in the shade in the 
middle of the current; and the entire stream passing 
through mill-flume on its way — and the condition in 
which it often finds itself in early spring, in the "June 
rise," or in the "January thaw," — is about as great a con- 
trast as can be imagined. The Wapsie "with his back 
up" is always an imposing, and sometime seven a terrible, 
sight. If the stream freezes in a time of high water, 
and breaks up with heavy rains, look out for fearful 
floods, and much damage from floating ice. The writer 
of this will neter foiget the spectacle he witnessed at In- 
dependence, in the spring of 187 1, in precisely such a 
conjecture as the one above mentioned. It had been a 
very cold winter, and the ice had formed to the thick- 
ness of three feet or more; consequently, when the 
"break up" came, the masses of ice that came crashing' 
down the stream, were like floating islands. 

The water was so deep that it made only a ripple as it 
passed over the mill-dam, which is some ten or twelve feet 
in height. Three or four ice breaks, placed above the 
dam, and consisting of large cribs filled with bowlders, 
were cut away by the immense ice shears that passed 
over them, as if they had been so many muskrat houses. 
The huge ice cakes, as they slid over the dam, just showed 
their thick edges as a token of their power, then dipped 
themselves gracefully, but majestically beneath the wave, 
lifted their monster forms again to the surface, and hurled 
themselves like battering rams against the piers of the 
bridge below. These, like the ice breaks mentioned 
above, were cribs built of large timber and filled with 
bowlders. The principal attack was upon the pier near- 
est to the eastern abutment. This, like the other (we 
believe there were but two), was protected by a wooden 
guard, built of heavy timbers and extending out into the 
water in the form of an angular inclined plane. Against 
this the huge masses of ice were hurled with such force 
that, sliding up the inclined plane to its summit, they fell 
back into the chaotic mass, sometimes with a dull, leaden 
thud, and sometimes with an explosive sound, like that 
of heavy ordnance. The guard was soon worn away, 
and then the giant rams came butting directly against the 
pier. The whole bridge trembled with every concussion. 
A cry goes up from the vast crowd of people gathered on 
the banks of the river, that the bridge is doomed. A 
breach is made in the crib. The bowlders begin to tum- 
ble out. The upper part of the pier settles down, and 
the floor of the bridge tips in that direction. The whole 
structure becomes more and more askew till suddenly the 
rest of the pier gives way, and that part of the bridge 
comes down with a tremendous crash. As the other 
pier and the abutments stood their ground, less than half 
the bridge was washed away; but the authorities wisely 
decided to remove the rest of the old structure and re- 
place it with another more substantial, and likely to be 
permanent. The result is the present iron bridge of two 



spans, strong and graceful, resting upon two abutments 
and one immense pier, all of solid masonry, which, it is 
reasonably believed, no ice rams will ever be able to bat- 
ter down. 

Having studied the Wapsie in his varying moods, all 
of which, from the peaceful to the furious, are both pic. 
turesque and poetic, we trust we shall be pardoned, even 
by the prosaic reader (if we have any such) (or embody- 
ing our impressions and recollections of those moods in 
a rhyme which shall at least have the merit of appropri- 
ateness. 

SONG OF THE WAPSIPINICON. 
When vernal rains descend no more, 
And summer skies are luminous; 
He glides along each verdant shore 

With murmurs softly fluminous. 
The children sport upon the brink. 

While sultry noontide hies away: 
The thirsty kine go in to drink, 

."^nd stand and whip the flies away. 
The love-boats kiss the water's cheek, 

When moon-lit nights begin again; 
And rustic joys play hide and seek 
Along the Wapsipinicon, 
The sliding Wapsipinicon — 
The gliding Wapsipinicon: 
The rolly-poly, cheek-by-jowly, strolly Wapsipinicon. 

But when the lowering clouds come back. 

And o'er the green earth frown again; 
And all along his winding track 

The summer rains come down again; 
The waters, gathering from the hills 

And upland pr.airies far away, ^ 

Descend in thousand swollen rills 

That bear each hindering bar away. 
The farmers round in terror wake 

To hear the deluge din again, 
.■\nd see a spreading, surging lake 

Where rolled the Wapsipinicon, 
The welhng Wapsipinicon — 
The swelling Wapsipmicon: 
The washy, swashy, splishy-sploshy, sloshy Wapsipinicon. 

But winter comes with icy chain 

To bind the north-land fast once more; 
.•\nd Boreas, in a wild refrain. 

Breathes forth his bugle blast once more. 
Then Wapsie dons his cloak of ice. 

Set round with snowy fur above; 
And ne'er an ear, however nice, 

Can hear the water stir above. 
The skaters, shod with flashing steel. 

Glide circling out and in again; 
And joy, as sweet as summer's feel. 

Broods o'er the Wapsipinicon. 
The white-bound Wapsipinicon — 
The tight-bound Wapsipinicon: 
The snowing, knowing, stealthy-flowing, blowing Wapsipinicon. 

But when he feels the touch of spring 

Through all his kindling pores again, 
.■\nd vernal clouds their treasures fling 

.^long his loosened shores again; 
Upspringing from his wintry lair 

He hurls his frosty chains abroad. 
Which tierce destruction madly bear 

Through vale and flooded plains abroad. 
In aspect wild, in gesture grand, 

A blustering giant Finnegan, 
With ice shillelah in his hand. 

Goes forth the Wapsipinicon, 
The roaring Wapsipinicon — 
The pouring Wapsipinicon: 
The dashing, clashing, wildly smashing, thrashing Wapsipinicon. 



30 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



And thus, while seasons come and go. 

Through all the years voluminous. 
He marks their ever-changing flow 

With his own changes fluminous. 
The red men owned his verdant banks 

But shortly after time began, 
Which white men took with little thanks 

Not long before this rhyme began. 
But while the tide of time flows on, 

Still, as old Saturn's minikin, 
Till earth, sun, moon and stars are gone. 
Shall flow the Wapsipinicon, 
The changing Wapsipinicon — 
The ranging W'apsipinicon; 
The swopsy, whopsy, flipsy-flopsy, slopsy Wapsipinicon. 

We fear that the reader may be getting a little weary 
of being kept so long "up in a balloon;" but, before de- 
scending to ierra Jirma, we desire to take a cursory 
glance at the Buchanan 

RAILROADS, VILLAGES AND TOWNSHIPS. 

For a county whose chief town contains less than four 
thousand inhabitants, Buchanan possesses more than 
ordinary railroad facilities. The Dubuque & Sioux City 
road, now a division of the Illinois Central, passes 
through the centre of the county from east to west; and 
the Milwaukee division of the Burlington, Cedar Rapids 
& Northern passes through north and south, the most of 
the way a little west of the Central line. These roads 
furnish a convenient outlet for the surplus products of 
the county; and a person wishing to make a journey in 
any direction, has but a short ride by private conveyance 
to reach one of these great public thoroughfares, which 
make direct connection with others leading to all parts 
of the country. In going from Independence, and parts 
adjacent, to Chicago, the great metropolis of the west, 
the traveller has choice of two competing routes — the one 
by way of Dubuque, and the other by Cedar Rapids. 
There are four ipassenger trains a day, two east and two 
west, on the Illinois Central, and several freight and 
mi.xed trains in each direction. On the Northern road 
there is one passenger and two or three regular freight 
trains each way. Besides all these regulars, there are 
frequent "wild trains" on both roads; so that there are 
not many minutes together, during the entire day, when, 
from our aerial lookout, we should not be able to see a 
train of cars, like some huge articulate animal, "dragging 
its slow length along," in one direction or another. We 
say "slow length," for, however swiftly a train may move 
as it dashes past one standing upon the border of the 
track, yet when the beholder is elevated, as we are, so as 
to take in many miles of the space over which the train 
is moving, its motion is retarded in proportion to the 
distance — just as the motions of the planets, though im- 
perceptibly rapid, are quite imperceptible across the in- 
terstellar spaces. 

While we are speaking a train of about thirty cars, 
some of them loaded with produce and some with stock, 
leaves the Independence station, about three miles west 
and a little to the north of us. The huge engine comes 
on puffing, wheezing and panting with its Brobdignagian 
load. We hear the rumbling of the countless wheels, 
like "the voice of many waters," and the squeals of the 



poor hogs, crowded into their narrow and uncomfortable 
encampments. The steam whistle, that agglomeration 
of unearthly sounds, yells out its alarm as it crosses the 
road below us; and vast clouds of stifling gas, belched 
forth from the huge smoke stack, rise through the air 
and envelop us in their sickening stench. Bah I We 
wonder if the Lunarians smell it. If they do, they must 
regard the earth as the very centre of the Stygian do- 
minions. 

The Illinois Central road, entering the county from 
the east, passes through the southern tier of sections in 
Fremont, Byron, Washington and Perry townships — 
making a curve to the south, while passing through 
Byron, so as to run, for about a mile, just below the 
north line of Liberty. The Burlington road, as you en- 
ter the county from the north, passes through the centre 
of Hazleton, Washington and Sumner; deflecting toward 
the east as it leaves the last-named township, cutting off 
the northeast corner of Homer and the southeast corner 
of Cono. 

■ All the townships in this county coincide with the 
national surveys, except that the north part of Sumner 
(consisting of its upper tier of sections, together with a part 
of sections twelve and thirteen) is added to Washington — 
partly to accommodate the town of Independence, which 
having first been laid out in the latter township, soon 
extended itself across the line into the former — and 
partly to accommodate the people living near the county- 
seat. 

The naming of the townships in this county presents 
a singular poetic coincidence, which has no parallel in 
the state; and probably none in the entire nation. The 
county, twenty-four miles square, is divided into sixteen 
townships, each six miles square. Hence there are four 
tiers, each containing four townships. Every township 
name consists of either two or three syllables with but 
one accent ; hence, when arranged as they appear on the 
map, they form a regular poetic stanza — what would 
technically be called a dimeter quatrainthns : 

Fairbank, Hazleton; Buffalo, Madison, 
Perry, Washington; Byron, Fremont; 
Westburgh, Sumner; Liberty, Middlefield; 
Jefferson, Homer; Cono, Newton. 

Of course, if these names are arranged in any other 
order of fours, a similiar stanza will be formed ; but, after 
ringing all the possible changes upon them, we are con- 
vinced that the order in which they are found on the 
map is the most musical. Surely, those who had the 
charge of the township nomenclature in this county were 
skilful prosodists, or else "they builded wiser than they 
knew." 

There are twelve villages in the county, including 
towns corporate, and cities so called. Five of these rail- 
road stations: viz.. Independence, the capital in Wash- 
ington township, where the two roads cross, nestled among 
the oaks of the Wapsie, just below us; Winthrop, in 
Byron, toward the east, and Jesup in Perry, toward the 
west; Hazleton station, in the township of that name, on the 
north, and Rowley in Homer, on the south. Afar to the 
northwest in the township of Fairbank, situated on the 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



31 



Little Wapsie close to the Fayette county line, we see 
the smart village of Fairbank, which is getting sufficiently 
ambitious to look for a railroad in the near future. Let- 
ting the eye turn toward the east, passing over the well- 
wooded Otter creek, we come to the village, situated in 
the midst of the timber, growing small by degrees and 
beautifully less, from its contiguity (only about a mile 
away) to the railroad station, which has stolen its name, 
and is fast stealing its life. Passing on still to the east 
across Buffalo township, we come to the village of 
Buffalo Grove, situated in a fine belt of timber thus 
named, extending along Buffalo creek. We reckon the 
buffaloes must have been pretty thick here in early times. 
At any rate they are so now; and the present herd, though 
buffaloes only in name, will effectually prevent their 
shaggy precedessors from ever being forgotten. 

Turning again toward the west, and tracing up the 
Wapsie from Independence for about ten miles, we come 
to the little village of Littleton, just below the mouth of 
the Little Wapsie. This is in the township of Perry. 
Retracing the course of the river, we come to Otterville, 
in Washington township, situated on Otter creek, about 
a mile from its mouth. Perry and Washington are the 
only townships that have two villages apiece, since Ha- 
zleton and Hazleton Station can hardly be considered 
two permanent and separate villages. Far down in the 
southwest comer of the county, in Jefferson township, 
near Lime creek, we espy the lonely little village of 
Brandon, which is separated farther from neighboring 
villages than any other in the county. And finally, 
sweeping with our vision across the open prairie, past 
Rowley Station on the Burlington road, in an eastly- 
northerly direction, we come to the oldest and next to 
the largest town in the county — the goodly village of 
Quasqueton, picturesquely located on the Wapsie in the 
township of Liberty, just within the southern border of 
the finest body of timber in the county. Thus, in our 
enumeration and location of the villages of the county, 
the first is last. 

There are seven of the townships (lacking but one of 
being half of the entire number) that have as yet no 
villages — at least, none with plats duly laid out and re- 
corded. These are Westburgh, Sumner and Cono, and 
the whole of the eastern tier, viz: Madison, Fremont, 
Middlefield and Newton. Probably the time will come 
when every township will contain one or more of these 
centres of population and business. That time may be 
somewhat remote, since at present the population of the 
county is increasing very little, if at all; owing to the 
vast quantities of excellent, but unoccupied, land now 
being opened for settlement in the territories west of the 
Missouri. When the desirable lands west of us are as 
fully occupied as those of northern Iowa, the large 
farms in Buchanan county will begin to be subdivided, 
and the population will rapidly increase. Then the vil- 
lages already existing will increase in size and impor- 
tance, and new ones will_be established as centres of 
commerce and manufactures, for the accommodation of 
the rural districts. Additional facilities for the transpor- 
tation of produce, and for intercommunication with oth 



er parts of the country, will be needed; and the era of 
free turnpikes will dawn upon Iowa, as it has already 
dawned upon Ohio. New railroads will be built, some 
of them crossing, as do the present ones, in the goodly 
little city below us, which will have assumed by that 
time metropolitan dimensions. The surface of the 
county will be much more thickly dotted over with farm 
houses and barns, half hid among their sheltering groves. 
The State hospital for the insane, which now looms up 
in such striking proportions on that fine eminence, a 
little southwest of the city, will be no less conspicuous 
an object then than now; but the trees about it, which 
are as yet hardly perceptible in the distance, will have 
grown into a leafy screen, which, though partly conceal- 
ing, will only enhance, its beauty. The prairies will all 
have become enclosed fields, and the prairie fires, once 
so characteristic of Buchanan autumns, and now seen 
but rarely, will then be only a matter of historj-. 

Just how long it will be before all these changes will 
occur, we would not undertake to predict ; but, proba- 
bly, if we should return to our present serial out-look at 
the end of fifty years, we should be as much at a loss to 
recognize the landscape we should then see below us, as 
an aged Indian would be were he now with us, to recog- 
nize in the picture upon which we have been so long 
gazing, the scenery with which he was familiar fifty years 
ago. 

The history of the railroad enterprises of the county 
will constitute a chapter by itself farther on ; and addi- 
tional notices will be given of the streams, townships 
and villages when we come to the township histories. 
But, for the present, we leave them, and relieve the 
reader, by letting out gas from our balloon and descend- 
ing once more to terra firma. 

THE LAND SURVEYS. 

The division of Buchanan county into townships is, 
as we have seen, immediately connected with the origi- 
nal survey of the land. A description, therefore, of the 
method by which the United States land surveys are 
made, will not be out of place in this chapter on the 
physical features of the county. 

For the description which follows we are indebted, in 
part, to an article in the American Encyclopaedia, but 
still more to an arlicle by Mr. C. W. Irish on the Gov- 
ernment Surveys of Public lands, published as an appen- 
dix to Dr. C. A. White's Report on the Geological sur- 
vey of the State of Iowa. We have adopted the lan- 
guage of each of these articles, whenever it has suited 
our purpose; but changes and additions are so frequent 
that we have not thought it worth while to disfigure the 
page by the constant use of quotation marks. Some of 
the changes alluded to are rendered absolutely necessary 
in order to render the description intelligible without 
the very instructive figures which accompany Mr. Irish's 
article. And some of the additions are made for the 
purpose of showing the relation of Buchanan county to 
the base, meridian and correction lines. But, of course, 
the most of the present section was only a general refer- 
ence to the county. 



32 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



The practice of the "Mother Country," says Mr. Irish, 
in the manner of deahng in lands which she saw fit to 
"sell and convey" to individuals, in the shape of "grants," 
was initiated by the colonies, and afterwards by the 
States. These grants had no definite shape, but were 
of all sizes and bounded in all manner of ways. The 
boundary lines were made to conform to the windings 
of any stream that happened to be favorably situated; 
and in the absence of such convenience, the track of an 
ancient highway, or any other landmark, natural or arti- 
ficial, was taken as a boundary. The courses of the 
boundary lines were magnetic, that is to say, the angles 
or bearings of the lines were referred to the magnetic 
meridian for direction. This system of surveying by 
magnetic bearings had its origin at a time when the 
belief was general that the direction of the magnetic 
meridian, or, if you please, the direction of the compass 
needle, was invariable. This, however, is not the case. 
The direction of the needle is constantly changing ; 
and as a consequence the magnetic bearing of to-day 
from one given point to another, will not be the bearing 
between the same points ne.xt year. Thus the attempt 
to fix the boundaries of a tract of land by the use of 
such variable means as those above described, resulted 
in assigning variable boundaries, and consequently pro- 
duced much perple.xity and vexatious litigation. 

We have been informed that the Government is 
indebted to General William Henry Harrison, afterward 
President of the United States, for the convenient ingen- 
uous, yet very simple method of land surveys which is 
now in use, and which, for the past fifty years or more, 
has taken the place of the old and cumbrous method 
introduced by the English surveyors. Whether this credit 
is really due to President Harrison or not we cannot 
say; since neither of the articles above named contains 
any allusion to the matter; and none of the authorities 
that we have been able to consult, throws any light upon 
the question. But, whoever he was, the man that con- 
ceived the idea, involving the principles of the present 
system of United States surveys, was indeed a public 
benefactor, as well as a thorough scholar; for he brought 
order out of the chaos of perplexities and vexations 
involved in the plan of surveying just described. In 
doing this he laid astronomy, mathematics, and mechan- 
ics under contribution; and, at the same time that he 
gave to the United States a regular system of surveying, 
at once accurate and simple, his plan for getting the 
direction of the lines used in bounding the lands sur- 
veyed, necessitated the invention of a new surveying 
instrument, the solar compass, the most accurate kind of 
a compass used by surveyors. This new plan adopted 
by the United States Government, has for its basis the 
invariable direction of the true meridians. All bearings 
taken from these meridians are called true bearings, to 
distinguish them from magnetic bearings; and in their 
direction are invariable as is the meridian from which 
they are measured. 

The parallels of latitude are also used in the new 
system, as a basis from which to measure distances. 
Consequently the United system of ])ublic surveys, con- 



sists in the use of the true meridians from which to 
get directions or bearings, and the parallels of latitude 
from which to measure distances. It is called a rectan- 
gular system — that is, all its distances and bearings are 
measured from two lines which are at right angles to 
each other; the two lines or bases being always a true 
meridian, and a true parallel of latitude. 

The piincipal lines used in government surveys are 
five in number, and are called, in the order of their 
establishment, base lines, principal meridians, township 
lines, section lines, and correction lines. There are 
several other lines used, but they are of interest only to 
surveyors, and do not properly come within the limits of 
this explanation. 

By the rule, all north and south lines must be run 
upon true meridians, and all east and west lines upon 
true parallels of latitude. In locating the base (or east 
and west) lines, and the meridians (or north and south 
lines), which is the first step in a government survey, the 
initial point, or the place from which the lines start, is 
generally located at or near some natural landmark, 
merely for the purpose of ready identification. But the 
position of the starting point does not depend upon the 
invariability of such landmark for its stability. For in 
case of the removal of the landmark, the starting point 
can be readily identified by its latitude and longitude,- 
and the reference marks made near it. Hence the land- 
mark, be it the mouth of a river or the top of a moun- 
tain, is merely a reference point; but, whatever point is 
chosen, the base line and the meridian start from that 
point — the base running east and west, and the meridian 
north and south. 

The Government has established certain lines whose 
intersections are to be regarded as starting points in all 
government surveys. These lines are called principal 
meridians and principal base Xxnti. There is, of course, 
no absolute necessi/y of establishing more than one mer- 
idian and one base, since all surveys could be reckoned 
from the intersection of two such lines. But, if only one 
starting point were used in all the United States, the 
number of ranges — or rows of six miles squares, extend- 
ing north and south of that point — and of townships or 
rows east and west, would soon become inconveniently 
large. Therefore several meridian and base lines have 
been established by the Government. Of the meridians 
thus established there were, in 1S75, as stated in the 
American Encyclopsedia, twenty-four. Six of these, be- 
ginning with the one furthest toward the east, are num- 
bered, first, second, etc. The other eighteen have special 
names, but all are designated by their longitude. The 
first meridian is the boundary line between Ohio and 
Indiana, longitude eighty-four degrees fifty-one minutes 
west from Greenwich ; and the one further to the west 
passes through Humboldt, Nevada, longitude one hun- 
dred and twenty-four degrees, eleven minutes. 

The number of principal base lines which had been 
established at the date above mentioned, were twenty- 
one — the northernmost being in latitude forty-five degrees 
forty-six minutes twenty-seven seconds, which is about 
the latitude of Minneapolis: and the southernmost, in 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



33 



latitude thirty, twenty-five minutes, which is that of Tal- 
lahassee, Florida. 

The meridian from which the Iowa surveys are reck- 
oned, is that which passes through the mouth of the 
Arkansas river, in the State of Arkansas — being the 
same as longitude ninety degrees fifty-one minutes. This 
is the fifth principal meridian, which, being extended 
north, passes through the eastern part of Iowa, about 
twelve miles west of Dubuque. 

The principal base line, from which also our surveys 
are reckoned, is the parallel which passes through the 
mouth of the St. Francis river, in Arkansas — about 
thirty-four degrees, thirty minutes — a little south of the 
line dividing the States of Mississippi and Tennessee. 

The mouth of the St. Francis is about thirty miles east 
of the meridian line passing through the mouth of the Ar- 
kansas; and the base line drawn west from the former 
point, crosses that principal meridian forty-eight miles 
north of its starting point. The point at which these 
two lines cross each other is the one from which the 
Iowa surveys are numbered. And as our southernmost 
tier of townships is numbered sixty-eight, there are sixty- 
seven townships or four hundred and two miles from the 
principal base to the line of Iowa's southern boundary. 

After the establishment of the base line and meridian, 
they are measured into half-mile, mile and six-mile 
spaces, which are respectively the sides of quarter- 
sections, sections and townships. The points at the 
ends of these divisions are well marked, that they may 
be identified and distinguished from each other years 
after, and serve as starting points of other surveys. 

The next step in the process is to divide the country 
lying along these lines in spaces six miles square. This 
is called townshipping the land; and all the townships 
thus formed begin at the end of the six-mile spaces, on 
the base and meridian, and are run parallel to these two 
guides. 

The law establishing this system, while it required that 
the north and south lines should be run on true meridi. 
ans, also required that each of the townships should be 
six miles square. Exactly to satisfy both these require 
ments is manifestly impossible. It is well known thaj 
the meridians of the eanh are not parallel to each other • 
for they begin at the equator, with a definite width be- 
tween them — say sixty-nine and a half miles to a degree 
— and gradually converge until they meet in the poles. 
Now, these north and south township lines, being run on 
true meridians, as a matter of course must converge ; and 
in consequence the north side of a township must be less 
in width than its south side. This is not the case with 
the east and west lines, for they being run on true paral- 
lels of latitude do not converge, but remain at equal 
distances from each other, however far from the merid- 
ian they may be traced. Then, for the want of parallel- 
ism between the east and west sides of the townships, an 
allowance must be made, as it amounts to about forty- 
three feet to the township, between the parallels of 
forty-one degrees and forty-two degrees north latitude. 
That is to say, the north side of a township, between 
forty-one degrees and forty-two degrees of latitude, 



measures forty-three feet less than its south side. This 
is partly allowed for by the use of "correction lines" 
which are new basis run for about every tenth township, 
parallel to the principal base. Upon each of these new 
basis the half mile, mile and six-mile points are again 
established, and from these points a new set of north 
lines are measured. 

Surveyors have been instructed that each range of 
township should be made as much over six miles in 
width, on each base and correction line, as it will fall 
short of the same width where it closes on to the next 
correction line north : And it is further provided that, in 
all cases where the exterior lines of the townships shall 
exceed or shall not extend, six miles, the excess or de- 
ficiency shall be specially noted and added to, or 
deducted from, the western or northern sections or half 
sections in such township, according as the error may be 
in running the lines from east to west or from south to 
north. In order to throw the excesses or deficiencies on 
the north and on the west sides of the township, it is 
necessary to survey the section lines from south to north 
on a true meridian, leaving the result in the north line of 
the township to be governed by the convexity of the 
earth and the convergency of the meridians. 

There are two correction lines in Iowa, the second or 
upper one passing through the centre of Buchanan 
county, and constituting the southern boundary of the 
townships Perry, Washington (as originally constituted) 
Byron and Fremont. 

Theoretically the townships are all six miles square, 
and divided by lines running parallel with their sides 
into thirty-six equal parts called sections. The dividing 
lines being one mile apart each way, the sections are, of 
course, one mile square and contain six hundred and 
forty acres. The sections are always numbered from one 
to thirty-six in regular order, beginning with the one in 
the northeast corner, from thence to the west, thence 
back to the east and so on — the southeast corner section 
being always numbered thirty-six. The lines bounding 
each section are called "section lines," to distinguish 
them from the other lines used in the survey. They are 
marked at the corners of each section by what are called 
"section corners." 

In subdividing a township, the measurement begins at 
the northwest corner of section thirty-six, and progresses 
northward and westward. This proceeding throws all 
the errors of measurement (as we have seen) into the 
lines adjoining the north and west sides of the townships, 
giving what are called "anomalous sections " — they being 
either greater or less than one mile square, by the 
amount of the erior of measurement. These anomalous 
sections, being on the north and west sides of the town- 
ship, are numbered i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 18, 19, 30 and 31. 
The rest of the sections in a township are taken to be 
one mile square. 

The government makes no smaller subdivision than 
forty acres (the fourth of a quarter-section) except where 
errors of measurement produce such a result, in the 
anomalous sections. 

Before concluding this brief, and necessarily imper- 



34 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



feet, account of the manner of making government 
surveys, it may be well to explain the different kinds of 
corners used in running the various lines. They are the 
"Initial Monument," "Township Corners," "Section 
Corners," and "One-fourth Section Corners," each having 
its own peculiar marks. 

Township corners, when located in timbered lands, are 
marked by a post. This post is about five inches square, 
and set in the ground so as to project above the surface 
about three feet. The corners of the post are set to the 
north, south, east and west, each corner having six 
notches cut in it, that being the number of miles, in 
each direction, to the next township corner. Two trees 
are then marked with a blaze facing the post — the bear- 
ing and distance of each from the post being taken and 
put in the notes. If the township corner is located in 
an open field, with no timber near. A post is set as 
above described, and a mound of earth, three feet high, 
having a base, five feet square, and the top, two feet 
square, is raised around it. The earth for this mound 
is taken from two pits, one to the north, the other to the 
south of the mound. They are square in shape, and, 
like the mound, have their four corners directed to the 
north, south, east and west. 

Section corners, in a timbered tract, are marked by a 
post, three inches square, and two feet high. The 
corners of the post are set to the cardinal points, the 
same as township posts; but the corners are notched so 
as to show the number of miles which the post stands 
from the township lines next north, south, east and west 
of it. The position of the post is also marked by two 
trees, as described for a township corner. In open 
ground, with no timber near, the section corner is marked 
by a post, as above described, and also by a mound of 
earth. The pit from which the earth to form a section 
corner is taken, is situated on the south side of the 
mound, at a distance somewhat less than that in the case 
of a township corner. The mound is also less in size 
than a township corner mound, being at the base four 
feet square, and two and a half feet high. 

The post for a quarter section corner is only flattened 
on two opposite sides, and, in timber, its position is 
denoted by two bearing trees, and on open ground the 
corner is marked by a pit and mound of the size used in 
marking a section corner. The position of the pit differs 
from that used in marking a section corner, by being 
placed to the east of the mound. Its distance from the 
mound, however, is the same as the pit from a section 
corner mound. 

Upon the sides of the stakes used in marking a town- 
ship corner will be found the numbers representing the 
adjacent townships. Upon the section corner stake will 
be found the numbers of the adjoining sections; while 
upon the quarter-section stake is marked simply ")^ S." 

By the method of surveying thus imperfectly set forth, 
a piece of land however situated within the bounds of 
the United States surveys, can be referred lo and de- 
scribed with the greatest certainty, and its dimensions, or 
area in square miles or acres, be ascertained with all the 
precision that the skill of the surveyor will warrant. 



And further, the manner in which the boundaries are 
marked and perpetuated, is such as to make the lines es- 
tablished as immutable as the earth itself. 

FLORA AND FAUNA. 

We have neither the space, nor time, nor ability, to 
give an exhaustive account of the flora and fauna of 
Buchanan county; but a description of its physical 
features would be imperfect, without at least some 
general notices of both. We will therefore give, in a 
desultory manner, such a description of them as we may 
be able, relying partly upon our own study and observa- 
tion, partly upon the accounts of early settlers, and partly 
upon published scientific reports. 

One of the most obvious reflections in regard to this 
subject,, relates to the changes which have been produced, 
both in the flora and fauna of this county (as of all other 
newly settled regions), by the advent of civilized man. 
These changes, which were quite unavoidable, have put 
a new face upon almost every landscape. Hundreds of 
vegetable species, and very many (though doubtless a 
smaller number) of animal species, have become the 
constant attendants of man in his improved condition, 
and follow him in all his migrations. The most of these 
(as the food plants and the domestic animals) he carries 
with him, by design and of necessity, for the supply of 
his various wants. A few (as certain song birds and 
flowering plants) become his voluntary but welcome at- 
tendants, and are never found remote from his dwellings, 
which they cheer and gladden by their melody and 
beauty. But many other (such as noxious weeds and 
pestiferous vermin) throng about his pathways and 
homes, and follow him with a sort of impish persistence, 
in spite of all his efforts to shake them off 

There is in these facts much that is mysterious, much 
that is touching, and almost pathetic; and not a little 
that is very humiliating and vexatious. Along the village 
streets and country roads, and about dwellings, in gardens 
or uncultivated places, may be found almost everywhere 
throughout the county, the following, among other im- 
migrating plants: The velvet leaf, or abutilon avicen- 
nm; two or three species of mallow; the Jamestown 
weed, or datura stramo7)ium ; several species of poly- 
};onu/n, especially those called lady's thumb, and smart 
weed; soapwort or bouncing bet; mag weed, or ma- 
ruta cotula; several species of plaiitago, or common 
plantain; stellaria, or chickweed; linaria, or toad 
flax; purslane, or portulaca ohracea (of which Henry 
Ward Beecher said, in one of his sermons, that he had 
often ejected it from his garden "with maledictions" — 
though what right he had to curse an innocent plant, 
simply because it has a troublesome way of dying hard, 
he has not yet informed the world); shepherd's purse 
capsella hursa-pastoris) and other members of the 
crucifera, or mustard family; burdock, or lappa major, 
which has a most clinging affection for colts' tails; 
stickseed and beggar's lice — species of eihinospermum, 
which the amiable botanist, Professor Gray, calls "a vile 
weed;" bur-marigold, or bidem frondosa, which the 
children call pitchforks; and (where there is too much 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



35 



sand for decent plants to grow) the sand-bur, burgrass, 
or cenchrus tn'ludoides, which means, very appropriately, 
thistle hedgehog, and which is the special tribulation of 
barefooted boys and lady pedestrians. 

None of these plants are indigenous in this county. 
The first settlers found none of them on the prairies or 
in the groves. They thought they had left them all be- 
hind; but when they had got their houses built, their 
gardens made, and their roads laid out, they awoke one. 
morning to find them all here. How they came nobody 
knows. The settlers would have been very glad to keep 
the most of them away — though the chickweed, plan- 
tain, knotgrass, and other humble and harmless little 
weeds, so familiar in the olden times, did look natural 
and friendly about the doorstep. As for the plants 
themselves, they were all very much at home. They 
seemed to say: "Thank you for getting things ready 
for us. We have taken possession, and have come to 
stay. Get rid of us if you can." 

Of the animals which accompanied the early settlers 
in the same unbidden and unceremonious fashion, the 
birds that chirp or twitter or sing about the houses and 
barns, and enliven the meadows with their beauty and 
melody, are always welcome; notwithstanding the depre- 
dations which a few of them make upon the fruit trees. 
Among these we may enumerate the robin, the blue-jay, 
the house-wren, the song-sparrow, the blue-bird, the ori- 
ole, the swallow, the martin, the meadow-lark and the 
bobolink, the finest of American songsters. Of these 
the blue-jay is the only one who braves the severity of 
Buchanan winters; and this constancy, together with his 
gay and beautiful plumage, is more than a compensation 
for his harsh voice — though even he has, occasionally, a 
sort of soito voce warble which is by no means unmusical. 
The instinct which leads these and other species to make 
their abode about human dwellings, is not only interest- 
ing, but wonderful. Some of them do it, probably, be- 
cause they can find their food more readily there; others 
because they are more safe from the attacks of hostile 
species; while with some (or all) both these reasons may 
have an influence. But it seems still more wonderful 
that species which, for the most part, live remote from 
the abodes of men, and are reckoned the most timid 
and difficult to tame, occasionally manifest the same sort 
of confidence in their civilized neighbors. The shy lit- 
tle quail, regardless of the missies of boys and the guns 
of older people, are frequently seen around our village 
streets; and the brown rabbits, certainly the most timid 
and untamable of our native quadrupeds, sometimes 
brave not only these enemies, but their still more dan- 
gerous foes, the dogs and the cats, by making their bur- 
rows and rearing their young in our very door-yards ; and 
yet, so secretive are they that they are seldom discov- 
ered. 

Of the more unwelcome species that followed the 
early settlers to their western homes, are the rats and 
mice and the various insects that prey upon their culti- 
vated fruits, garden vegetables and grains. That almost 
every plant necessary or desirable for the use of man, 
should have its peculiar insect enemy, often becoming a 



sort of epidemic, bringing poverty and distress upon 
extensive agricultural districts by the total destruction of 
some vegetable product largely depended upon for the 
support of the people, is certainly a very great mystery. 
The believer in Divine Providence and revelation can 
hardly fail to see in this a proof of the reality of the 
primal curse pronounced upon nature, as a penalty for 
man's apostasy. But what a blow human pride must 
experience whenever it is brought face to face with the 
fact that, with all his boasted ingenuity, it is found utter- 
ly impossible to exterminate one of these pests ! Scien- 
tific societies and legislative bodies busy themselves 
anxiously with projects for obviating the plague of grass- 
hoppers. Prizes are offered, and the money paid for 
costly inventions, having that object in view. But the 
plague comes and goes; and when it comes again, it 
finds them as unprepared as they were before. But if it 
be thought less surprising that so small a creature, prop- 
agating itself in such inconceivable numbers, and, for 
the most part, in places so remote from those in which 
it commits its worst depredations, and spreading with 
such rapidity over large districts of country — if, I say, it 
be thought less surprising that such a creature should 
escape extermination by any means that man can devise, 
who can avoid a feeling of surprise, mingled with humil- 
iation (and perhaps just a trace of indignation), when 
he contemplates the apparent impossibility of getting rid 
of rats ? Here is an animal of comparatively large size, 
propagating itself slowly (when compared with insects) 
and always in the immediate locality of its depredations, 
and surrounded by all sorts of destructive agents. 
Against this animal man wages a ceaseless and relentless 
warfare, exhausting his inventive genius in the production 
of all sorts of traps and guns and deadly poisons, and even 
allying himself with other hostile species, such as cats, 
ferrets and terriers, whose hatred of race and power of de- 
struction have been sharpened by ages of careful and inge- 
nious training; but all to no purpose. Many individuals 
have been killed — though not all on the side of the com- 
mon enemy, for thousands of human beings have been de- 
stroyed by rats — but the species thrives and manifests 
no symptoms of approaching extermination. It multi- 
plies quite as fast as man, and follows him, with a sort 
of sarcastic fidelity, in all his wanderings, both by sea 
and land ; and seems to repeat, with ironical emphasis, 
the affectionate words of Ruth to Naomi: "Whither 
thou goest I will go, and where thou lodgest I will lodge. 
Where thou diest will I die, and there will I be buried." 
Man may as well give up all idea of success in his efforts 
to exterminate the rats; and may think himself fortunate 
if he is able to construct a cellar or a granary which the 
cunning and persistent rodents are not able to get into. 
But the new species, both animal and vegetable, which 
were brought in by the settlers, and which have done 
most toward changing the physical features of the coun- 
ty, are, of course, those which they brought by design, 
for their own sustenance, convenience, or pleasure. 
They brought grains and grasses, esculent roots and 
vegetables, and that sweet little conqueror, white clover, 
which not only displaces most native weeds, but even 



36 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



exterminates that odious usurper, May weed; and 
these are now cultivated on the prairies and are fast 
usurping the places of the wild species that once flour- 
ished there. They brought many new species of flowers, 
and these now decorate the grounds about their dwell- 
ings, which are also adorned and shaded by ornamental 
trees and shrubs, the descendants of those which once 
adorned their ancestral homes in the east. Many of the 
native groves have disappeared, to furnish fuel or timber: 
but a still greater number, composed partly of native and 
partly of foreign trees, have been planted here and there 
for shade and protection from winds, and these now di- 
versify and decorate the landscape, which but a few years 
ago presented only an unbroken and monotonous ex- 
panse of herbage in summer, and of snow in winter. 

The settlers also brought with them their domestic 
fowls — the common hen, the turkey, and (more sparing- 
ly) the Guinea fowl — and these are taking the place of 
the wild turkey (once so abundant in the timber, but now 
seldom found there), and are fast taking the place of the 
prairie hen, which for many years was the delight of our 
sportsmen, but is now becoming comparatively rare 
within the limits of the county, and may soon cease 
to be considered game any longer. And they also 
brought with them their domesticated quadrupeds, 
their horses, mules, cattle, hogs, and sheep — as also 
their dogs and cats — and these have usurped the places 
of the buffaloes, elks, deer, and bears, once so numer- 
ous, quite as completely as the white men have usurped 
the places of the Indians. If any of the last mentioned 
quadrupeds are now seen in this county, they have been 
tamed and brought here as curiosities, just as any of the 
Indian race that may now chance to stray across these 
prairies, once the hunting grounds of their sires, are 
tailie enough in comparison with those wild and warlike 
progenitors. 

It is sad to contemplate the extinction of a species, 
whether animal or vegetable. The death of an individ- 
ual, except one of our own race to whom we have borne 
some intimate relation, affects us slightly. We look upon 
it as a necessity, and have become reconciled to it. But 
the death of an entire species, when once we grasp the 
idea of it, seems something almost appalling. And the 
nearer such an event comes to our own times, the more 
sensibly we are affected by it. Thus we take a much 
deeper interest in the remains of the mastodon, whose 
era must have come very near, if, indeed, it did not over- 
lap that of man, than we do in those which belong to the 
earlier geological eras. And that interest measures the 
regret we feel at the loss of a species. Much greater, 
therefore, is our regret at the prospective extinction of 
any species with which we have been familiar, or which 
has lived during our own times. We suspect that even 
the total extinction of rats would give us a pang of re- 
gret, however much we might be glad to get rid of their 
annoyance. However this may be, there is certainly no 
man of sensibility who does not experience a genuine 
sorrow at the almost certain prospect of the ultimate ex- 
termination of the buffaloes, those shaggy lords of the 
plains, who, with the Indians, for countless centuries held 



joint empire in this western world. As they do not seem 
to possess the qualities that would render them service- 
able in a state of domestication, and as they cannot (or 
will not) live in the midst of civilized surroundings, their 
total e.xtinction seems to be only a question of time. 

And that other species, both animal and vegetable, 
that once flourished on the prairies, are doomed to fol- 
low the buffaloes into a state of annihilation, seems only 
too probable. The prairie hen is as incapable as the 
buffalo of being domesticated, and may linger a little 
longer than he on the borders of civilization. And 
doubtless many of the prairie flowers and grasses will 
also disappear before the plow and the cultivator and in- 
truding species that accompany them. The legislature 
seeks to protect certain animals, and prolong the duration 
of their species, by the enactment of game laws. And 
it seems almost a pity that the law could not accomplish 
something in the same direction for wild plants — perhaps 
by setting apart small tracts of land in favorable locali- 
ties, as a sort of "preserves" or "reservations," in which 
our aboriginal flora might find an unmolested home, and 
there perpetuate itself through all coming time. But as 
this idea would probably be thought "too sentimental for 
anything," we have often looked with an eye of hope (if 
not of faith) to the railroads, now so rapidly multiplying, 
as a possible means for accomplishing this desirable end. 
As we have been whirled along one of the earlier of these 
tracks, through some of the cultivated portions of our 
State, and have looked out upon the well-tilled fields, 
smiling in the verdure of grains and cultivated grasses 
which had completely usurped the place of the original 
flora ; it has been with a feeling of actual delight that we 
have observed on each side of the track, within the rail- 
road fences, the strips of ground which have been kept 
uncultivated and free from the inroads of cattle, still 
covered with the native grasses and flowers, in all their 
wild luxuriance and beauty. And it has seemed to us a 
most interesting thought, that these steam ways, the type 
and representative of modern progress, and prophecy of 
still greater achievements in the future, should prove, at 
the same time, the most efficient conservator of those 
touching mementoes of a vanishing age. And when we 
have seen a cabin set up on one of these strips of ground, 
with its thread of a garden patch extending for rods in 
each direction ; with all our sympathy for the poor, we 
have not been able to repress a sort of indignation ; and 
we have almost been led to think that if a man cannot 
make a living, in a country like this, without invading 
such a reservation as that, his continued existence in this 
sublunary state, is a matter of less importance than that 
of the aboriginal flowers which he thus lends himself as 
a tool to exterminate. 

The two railroads which now pass through this county, 
contain about two hundred acres of ground in the strips 
(as above described) along the sides of their tracks. If 
all this ground could be reserved for the jiurpose we have 
briefly hinted at, it would be sufficient to preserve from 
extermination all the herbaceous plants which belong to 
the original flora of the county. And the native trees 
and shrubs, growing, as they do, in localities which will 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



37 



be brought latest into cultivation (and some of which 
will never be cultivated at all) require less care for their 
preservation. Most of them, in fact, will be able to fight 
their way unaided. 

CH.\R.\CTERISTIC I-R.AIRIE FLOWERS. 

To one coming to this State from the east, the first 
sight of a prairie, with its most characteristic plants in 
blossom, is a pleasure long to be remembered. Their 
most attractive season is in early June; but midsummer 
and autumn have also their peculiar blossoms, so that, 
from early spring till "pale, concluding winter comes at 
last and shuts the scene," the prairies are never devoid 
of interest. If the newcomer is at all scientifically in- 
clined, the sight of so many new floral faces will be likely 
to stimulate his botanical curiosity to such an extent, that 
he will not be able to rest contented till he has learned 
their names and been formally introduced. This was pre- 
cisely our case, and the most of the little we know 
about botany, was learned from the prairies of Iowa — a 
part of it from the prairies and groves of Buchanan 
county. 

As appropriate to this part of our history, we will give 
here the names of a few of the plants which are most 
characteristic of the Buchanan prairies, and whose blos- 
soms, in the different seasons of bloom, do most to di- 
versify and adorn them. Some of these are found 
only on the prairies, while others are also found in forest 
regions. To a professional botanist, the list we give 
would seem very meagre. But we are not writing for 
professional botanists. 

The following are the most conspicuous flowers in 
May and the first part of June: 

Lithospcrtnitm caiiesans, with the common name of 
Hoary Puccoon or Alkanet. A low plant, from six to 
fifteen inches high, with large flowers of a deep orange 
color. 

Astragalus caryocarpus, or ground plum. Flower vio- 
let purple. 

Dodecatheon maedia, or shooting star. 

Bapiisia lencophoea, or false indigo. Flowers cream 
color and very showy. 

Ranunculus r/w?nboideus, a species of crawfoot. 

Delphiniun aziireum, or blue larkspur. 

Froximon cuspidatuni, a low plant with large yellow 
flowers. 

Rosa blanda, the early wild rose — more attractive to 
the botanist, in its simple beauty, than the finest double 
rose of the gardens. 

Mertensia rirginica, or lungwort, a low plant with 
fine purplish blue flowers, often cultivated. 

Two or three species of wild phlox, equal in beauty to 
the cultivated varieties. 

During the summer months the following characterif- 
tic plants are in blossom : 

Cacalia tuberosa, the tuberous Indian plantain, grow- 
ing from two to six feet in height, and bearing large 
heads of composite flowers, of a whitish color. 

Cirsium altissimu/n, a showy thistle, sometimes ten 
feet high. 



Hieracium longipilum, or longbearded hawkweed — a 
tall plant with yellow flowers. 

Lilium philadelphicum, the wild orange — red lily — a 
very conspicuous and beautiful flower. 

Oxybaphus 7iyctagines, the only member of the Nycta- 
ginaceae, or four-o'clock family, found in the north- 
ern United States. It is represented in our gardens by 
the common four-o'clock, or marvel of Peru. 

Spiraea lobata, the "queen of the prairie." 

One or two species of tradescantia, or spiderwort 

Verbena stricta, or wild vervain, and perhaps one or 
two other species of the same genus. 

Petalostemon, or prairie clover. Two species, rose — 
purple and white. 

Amorpha canescens, or dead plant — the common 
name having been given to it, from the early notion that 
it indicated the presence of lead ore. 

Calystegia, a plant resembling the morning glory. 

Silphium laciniatum, commonly called rosin weed 
from its copious resinous juice — also compass plant, 
from being said to present the edges of its stalk (which 
is of an eliptical shape) in a north and south direction. 

Echinacea, or purple coneflower. Two species, tall 
and showy. 

Coreopsis palinata, a near relative of the showy species 
commonly cultivated in gardens. 

Liatris pychnostachia, commonly called button snake- 
root, or blazing star. It is a tall plant, crowned with a 
long spike of purple blossoms. It flowers, for the most 
part in August, but frequently continues in blossom dur- 
ing the following month. 

The autumn prairie flowers are mostly yellow; and 
though this color is not a favorite with the florists, it 
seems most in harmony with the glorious sunshine of our 
western autumns. The following are a few of the more 
conspicuous flowers that adorn our prairies, just before 
"the growing year is over:" 

Rudbeckid, or yellow cone-flower — two or three species 
belonging to the order of compositae (as do the most of 
the late summer and autumn flowers) with very graceful 
long and drooping rays. 

Solidago, or golden rod, also of several species. 
A showy, plum-like flower, common at the east; where 
"we boys" were accustomed to use it in the olden time, 
in "playing trooper." 

Vernonia fasciculata, or iron weed. 

Aster sericeus, which Professor Gray describes as "an 
elegant silvery species; the large heads with twenty to 
thirty rays, of a half inch or more in length." The last 
named flower is blue — the one next previous, purple. 

Boltonia glasiifolia. The rays white or purplish, and 
the disk yellow — resembling some of the asters. 

Heliantlius, or sun flower, several species, tall and 
conspicuous — near relatives of the mammoth plant of the 
same name, cultivated in gardens. 

Nabalus, or rattlesnake root, several species. — Powers, 
greenish-white or cream-color, often tinged with purple. 

Gentiana, or gentian — also several species — among 
which are the celebrated gentiana crinitia, or fringed 
gentian ; and gentiana andrewsii, or closed gentian. 



38 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



Moiiarda punctata, or horse mint; "corolla nearly 
smooth, yellowish, the upper lip spotted with purple — 
very odorous and pungent. " This plant is also common 
at the east. 

As every way appropriate to the subject now under con- 
sideration, we present here some reflections upon the 

ORIGIN OF THE PRAIRIES. 

These reflections are taken from the "Report of the 
Geological Survey of the State of Iowa," published in 
1870, by Charles A. AVhite, M. D., State geologist,— with 
a very few modifications to adapt them to our use. 

The question of the origin of the prairies, has become 
more hackneyed, perhaps, than any other of the specula- 
tive questions which North America geology affords; and 
yet it seems to be no nearer a solution, satisfactory to all, 
than when it first began to be discussed. It is not 
proposed to discuss this question at length, nor to even 
to present the different views that have been published 
by different authors; but only to state a few facts, offer 
a few suggestions, and perhaps leave the subject as un- 
settled in the minds of others, as it was before. 

By the word prairie we mean any considerable surface 
of land that is free from forest trees and shrubbery, and 
covered, more or less thickly with grasses and other 
plants which, if not annual, survive the winter only in 
their roots. This is also the popular understanding of 
the term. It is estimated that about seven-eighths of the 
surface of Iowa is prairie, or was so, when the State was 
first settled. And that is about the ratio of prairie to 
timber land in Buchanan county. 'I"he prairies are not 
confined to the level surface, but are sometimes even quite 
hilly and broken; and it is well known that they are not 
confined to any particular variety of soil, for they prevail 
equally upon alluvial, drift and lacustral soils. Indeed, 
we sometimes find a single prairie whose surface includes 
all these varieties, portions of which may be respectively 
sandy, gravelly, clayey, or loamy. Neither are they 
confined to the region of any particular geological forma- 
tions which may underlie them, nor does their character 
seem at all dependent upon any such formations; for 
within the State af Iowa they rest upon all formations, 
from those of the azoic to those of cretaceous age 
inclusive, which etnbrace almost all kinds of rock — such 
as quartzite, friable sandstone, magnesian limestone, 
common limestone, impure chalk, clay, clayey and sandy 
shales, etc. Southwestern Minnesota is almost one 
continuous prairie upon the drift, which rests directly 
upon, not only the hard Sioux quartzite, but also directly 
upon the granite. 

Thus, whatever the origin of the prairies may have 
been, we have the positive assurance that their present 
existence, in Iowa and its immediate vicinity, is not due 
to the influence of climate, to the character or composi- 
tion of the soil, nor to the character of any of the un- 
derlying formations. It now remains to say, without the 
least hesitation, that the real cause of the present exist- 
ence of the ijrairies in Iowa, is the prevalence of the an- 
nual fires. If these had been prevented sixty years 
ago, Iowa would now be a timbered instead of a prairie 
State. 



Thus far we have stated facts and what are deemed to 
be legitimate deductions from them. The following 
statements are offered only as suggestions: We have no 
evidence to show or intimate that any of the prairies 
ever had a growth of trees upon them — notwithstanding 
the fact that those, at least, of the eastern part of the 
great prairie region, will support an abundance of timber, 
after it is once introduced, if protected from the fires. 
There seems to be no good reason why we should regard 
forests, any nore than prairies, as the natural or normal 
condition of the surface. Indeed, it seems the more 
natural inference that the occupation of the surface by 
the forests has taken place by dispersion from original 
centres; and that they encroached upon the original sur- 
face until met and checked by the destructive power of 
the fires. 

Then arise questions like the following, which are not 
easily answered, and for which no answers are at present 
proposed: When was fire first introduced upon the prair- 
ies, and how? Could any but human agency have in- 
troduced annual fires upon them? If they could have 
been introduced only by the agency of man, why did the 
forests not occupy the prairies before man came to intro- 
duce his fires; since we see the great tendency of forests 
to encroach upon the prairies, as soon as the fires are 
made to cease? The prairies, doubtless, existed as such 
almost immediately after the close of the glacial epoch. 
Did man then exist and possess the use of fire, that he 
might annually have burnt the prairies of so large a part 
of the continent, and thus constantly have prevented 
the encroachment of the forests? As the ice of the 
glacial epoch extended across the continent, why was 
the east covered with forests and the west with prairies ? 

It may be that these questions will never be satisfac- 
torily answered; but nothing is more evident than that 
the forests would soon occupy a large proportion of the 
prairie region of North America, if the prairie fires were 
made to cease, and no artificial efforts were made to pre- 
vent the growth and spread of trees. 

We will bring to a close our chapter on the physical 
features of the county by inserting here the article on 

FOREST TREES, 

taken from the work mentioned above, with still more 
changes and additions than were found necessary in the 
previous article, to adapt it to our use. 

Although the use of coal, both hard and soft, has 
greatly increased throughout our State, in the past ten 
years, yet it is doubtless true now, as it always has been, 
that wood is the principal and preferred fuel of our peo- 
ple generally; and that, if it were everywhere found in 
sufficiently large quantities, they would probably never 
care to change their established habits in the use of fuel, 
by discarding it for any other. It has been feared by 
many that the amount of fuel which Iowa could be 
made to produce would not be sufficient to meet the 
wants of the prospective inhabitants that her fertile soil 
is capable of supporting in plenty. But it is believed 
that the discoveries already made of coal and peat have 
demonstrated the groundlessness of such fears, even if 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



39 



no other sources of supply were considered. In addi- 
tion to these, however, it is proposed to show in this 
place that a sufficient amount of fuel, at least for 
domestic use, for all the present and prospective inhabit- 
ants of the State, may be produced from the soil alone, 
by the growth of forest trees. 

It has been shown that the growth of forest trees can 
be cultivated as successfully as a crop of corn, upon all 
the varieties of our soil ; and, this question being settled 
in the minds of those interested in the subject, it be- 
comes necessary to consider the time within which the 
result may be practically accomplished ; because, to meet 
the wants of the rapidly increasing population, it is 
necessary that some almost immediate supply be provided 
in the case of the broad prairie districts. Some such 
districts are upon, or adjacent to the coal fields. Some 
are adjacent to considerable bodies of woodland, and 
others have important deposits of peat; from all of which 
sources immediate supplies of fuel may be obtained. 
But besides these, there are other broad and fertile tracts 
that have none of the advantages just named, and those 
who occupy them must rely for their supply of fuel upon 
distant sources or upon its production from the soil. 
Railroads are being rapidly constructed which will carry 
coal from distant coal fields to a large part of these prairie 
regions; but a large proportion of the inhabitants of Iowa 
must depend mostly for their ordinary fuel upon the 
growth of trees. 

As several years must elapse before even those trees 
which grow most rapidly could become serviceable for 
fuel, the question arises: "What could be done, in the 
meantime, by those districts which should essay to de- 
pend for their fuel upon the products of the soil?" To 
this it may be answered that, even in as well wooded 
a county as Buchanan, corn has more than once been 
found to be cheaper fuel than wood. The writer of this 
burnt several loads of corn in the city of Independence 
in the winter of 1872-3, and found it both pleasant and 
economical. Many conscientious people object to the 
use of corn for fuel on the alleged ground that it is 
wrong to burn up anything produced for food. But corn 
is eaten to maintain the warmth (inseparate from life) of 
the body; and when it is consumed in a stove, the ob- 
ject is closely analogous if not identical. When it is so 
abundant and so cheap that it can be economically used 
for fuel, there is the best reason to believe that it is not 
needed for food ; and, in any case, it cannot be so bad 
to burn it up for the advancement of human comfort as 
it is to turn it into a "liquid fire" for the destruction of 
human happiness and virtue and life itself, in this world 
and the next. And, besides, wood is as much a vege- 
table product as corn. Sugar is a necessary article of 
food; and hard maple, one of the most a]jproved trees 
for fuel, produces an excellent sugar. If, therefore, it is 
wrong to burn corn because it may be used for food, it 
must be wrong, for a similar reason, to burn the sugar 
maple. And so the argument against the use of corn 
falls to the ground. 

It is also said that the mammoth sunflower can profit- 
ably be cultivated for fuel; and we see no reason to doubt 



the truth of the statement. Of this, however, we cannot 
speak from observation, and therefore proceed to consider 
the subject already introduced, namely, the production 
of fuel by the cultivation of trees. 

By first planting those trees which have the most rapid 
growth, to be followed immediately by those of the slower 
growth and greater detisity of wood, one not acquainted 
with the subject would be surprised to see how quickly a 
supply of fuel may be obtained, and how a future supply 
of the best kinds of wood can be established. The 
principal kinds of trees indigenous to the State, which 
are or may be used as fuel, are the following, given in 
the order of their estimated relative abundance by natural 
growth at present in the State at large: oaks — several 
species — cottonwood, elm, white maple, linden, hickory, 
sugar maple, black walnut. 

The oaks form the greater part of the firewood now 
used throughout tlie State. In some parts cottonwood 
is scarcely used at all for fuel; but in others, better wood 
being scarce, it constitutes the greater part of the fuel 
used by the inhabitants. Other trees, such as hackberry, 
ash, honey-locust, slippery elm, butternut, etc., are occa- 
sionally used as fuel ; but they are comparatively so few 
in number that they hardly deserve mention as varieties 
of fuel. In the new natural growth of these trees the 
relative abundance is somewhat changed, the black oak, 
hickory and black walnut increasing. The trees named 
as follows are those which will probably be most used for 
cultivation — the names being given in the order of their 
estimated rapidity of growth: cottonwood, white maple, 
black walnut, oaks, sugar maple, and hickory. 

The relative value of these kinds of wood for fuel is 
estimated to be in the same order, cottonwood being the 
poorest and hickory the best ; or in other words, the 
slower the growth of the tree, the more valuable it is for 
fuel. But taking into account the necessity that exists 
for immediate supplies of fuel in many parts of Iowa, the 
cottonwood becomes one of our most valuable trees, 
because of its rapid growth. As soon as it has performed 
this valuable pioneer service it should be laid aside to 
give place to more solid and useful varieties. 

The most congenial habitat of the cottonwood is upon 
the sandy alluvial soils of the river valleys; but it grows' 
with astonishing rapidity upon all varieties of soil in the 
State, and flourishes as well upon the prairies as in the 
valleys. Instances are numerous of the growth of this 
tree from the seed, or from a riding stick stuck into the 
prairie soil, to the size of from twelve to fifteen inches in 
diameter, a foot above the ground, within the space of 
ten or twelve years. So rapid is its growth that those 
well acquainted with it, estimate that ten acres planted 
with the seeds or young shoots will, at the end of five 
years, supply a large family continually with all necessary 
fuel — the wood being allowed to grow up again as fast as 
it is cut away. Indeed a large number of persons have 
practically proved the correctness of these estimates. 

Cottonwood may be propagated either from the seed, 
from cuttings, or by transplanting the young trees. The 
seed, which is very light, and almost microscopic in size, 
is sometimes scraped up from the sandy surfaces along 



4° 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



the streams where it has fallen from the trees, the seed 
and sand mixed together and sown broadcast upon ground 
prepared for it, as small grain is sown. Sometimes the 
slender poles are cut from the dense growth that often 
springs up near the streams, trimmed of their branches 
and notched with the a.xe at intervals of a few feet along 
their entire length, then placed end to end in furrows at 
proper distances from each other, and covered with soil 
by the plow. Sprouts quickly start from the sides of the 
notches and rapidly become thrifty trees. 

The most congenial habitat of the white maple is also 
upon the lowlands, but it thrives well upon the prairies. 
For rapidity of growth it ranks next to the cottonwood, 
and makes better and more durable fuel. It succeeds 
well upon all varieties of soil, and may be readily propa- 
gated from the seed, or by transplanting the young trees 
from the places of their natural growth. The seeds 
must be planted soon after ripening, as they will not 
germinate if allowed to become dry. 

The black walnut has been found to succeed well 
upon the prairies by artificial propagation. It is raised 
from the seed with certainty and little labor. 

These three kinds of trees are now most commonly 
used for the production of artificial groves and wood- 
lands throughout the State since the failure of the black 
locust, in consequence of its destruction by the borers. 
It is well known that all the other indigenous trees may 
be artificially cultivated, but these seem to have been 
wisely chosen for the rapidity of their growth and the 
small amount of labor required in their propagation and 
cultivation. These tests, which the people have made 
extensively in all parts of the State, prove beyond the 
possibility of doubt that a sufficient amount of material 
for fuel and fencing may be produced from the soil alone, 
in any portion of Iowa. 

People have hitherto been in the habit of regarding 
the great proportion of prairie surface in our State as a 
calamity; but, with a knowledge of the facts just stated, 
it is evident that views directly opposite should be taken, 
because the labor and expense of procuring all necessary 
fuel by the means just explained is but a tithe of what 
would be necessary to prepare the land for cultivation, 
if it had originally been covered with forests, such as 
formerly prevailed over a large part of the States of Ohio 
and Indiana. In a prairie region like ours, the farmer 
selects the finest lands for cultivation, every acre of 
which is ready for the plow, and sets aside the more 
broken and less tillable portions for his future woodlands. 
Thus he may not only choose the location of his fields 
and woodlands, but also the kinds of crops, whether of 
grains or trees, that shall be grown upon each. 

I'he following catalogue of the principal indigenous 
forest trees of Iowa is here inserted as a matter of record, 
taken from the same Geological Report from which we 
have just made copious extracts: 

Acer dasycai-pum. — A\'hite maple. 

Ace}- saccharinum. — Sugar Maple. 

Aesculus glabra. — Buckeye. 

Beliila nigra. — Water birch. 

Carya alba. — Hickory. 



Carya amara. — Pig-nut hickory. 

Carya olivaformis. — Pecan. 

Celtis occidentalis. — Hackberry. 

Cerasus serotina. — Black wild cherry. 

Fraxinus Americana. — White ash. 

Gleditsihia triacanthus. — Honey locust. 

Gyinnocladus Canadensis. — Kentucky coffee-tree. 

Juglans cinerea. — Butternut or white walnut. 

Juglans nigra. — Black walnut. 

Negundo aceroides. — Box elder. 

Platanus occidentalis. — Button-ball or sycamore. 

Populus monilifera. — Cottonwood. 

Populus ttemuloides. — Aspen. 

Querciis alba. — White oak. 

Quercus imbricaria. — Laurel oak. 

Quercus macrocarpa. — Bur oak. 

Qmrcus tinctoria. — Black oak. 

Tila Americana. — Linden, or basswood. 

Ulnins Americana. — Common elm.. 

Ulmiis fulva. — Slippery elm. 

All but three or four of these species are found in Bu- 
chanan county. The list, however, does not profess to 
give a complete view of the arboreous flora of the State, 
and at least four species might be added that are also 
found in this county. They are the following — the first 
being found along Pine creek, the second in scattered 
localities on the Wapsie, and perhaps one or two other 
streams, and the second in the thickets or among other 
trees everywhere: 

Pinus strobus. — White pine. 
Juniper us Virginiana. — Red cedar. 

Pry us coronaria. — American crabapple. 

Prunus Americana. — ^Vild yellow or red plum. 

We close this chapter with a thought suggested by the 
presence of so many species of oak growing together in 
groves of this county, and of the State at large — a thought 
which seems to justify a strong statement in the Teachers' 
Institute address, inserted in another part of this volume, 
to the effect that "all nature fairly swarms with the most 
convincing arguments to disprove the truth of Mr. Dar- 
win's theory of development." 

One of the fundamental principles of that theory is 
that species are not original and fixed creations, but that 
they have been developed from what we now call varieties 
— in other words, that what we now call genera were 
once species, and what are now species, grouped together 
under the names of the several genera, were then only 
varieties which, in process of time, have become, so to 
speak, hardened into species. According to this theory 
the oak genus was originally a species, and all the kinds 
of oak now existing were only varieties of that one species. 
But we know that, at present, varieties mingle freely; and 
that, unless they are propagated separately, their varietal 
character is soon lost, and they revert to the original 
form of the species. As the laws of nature are confes- 
sedly uniform, there is no reason to suppose that this 
rule with regard to varieties was ever different from what 
it now is. But the four species of oak above mentioned 
now propagate themselves in close proximity, and never 
mingle; or, if hybrides are ever formed, they are sterile. 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



41 



and never perpetuate themselves at all. That there was 
ever a time when these four species were not found in 
the same proximity as now is very improbable, if not in- 
conceivable. But if they had ever been mere varieties, 
propagating themselves as now, they must, according to 
the law above stated, have become mingled, thus losing 
their character as varieties, and becoming absorbed into 
the original species. 

In the nature of thing?, therefore, the different species 
of oak now growing together in Buchanan county could 
never have been varieties, and the Darwin theory of de- 
velopment cannot be true. 

GEOLOGY. 

We had made arrangements with a gentleman familiar 
with the subject, to prepare, for this chapter of our work, 
a section on the geology of Buchanan county. Circum- 
stances prevented him from fulfilling his engagement; 
and now, in the hurry of finishing up the general history, 
we are thrown largely upon our own resources (which are 
by no means extensive) for the collection of a few facts 
upon a subject which, if left untreated, would leave our 
chapter on the physical features of the county sadly de- 
ficient. 

We have, however, been so fortunate as to obtain 
some valuable suggestions from two gentlemen, who have 
been long resident in the city of Independence; and 
who, though not professional scientists, have found time, 
in the midst of active business pursuits, to make them- 
selves familiar with the science of geology in general, 
and with the geology of Buchanan county in particular. 
We refer to Messrs. E. B. Olden and Dr. S. Deering, to 
the former of whom we are indebted for information in 
regard to the general geological features of the county, 
and to the latter for an account of the principal fossils 
found here. Mr. Deering has also placed in our hands 
a pamphlet, of which we have made copious use, con- 
sisting of an article extracted from the "United States 
Geological and Geographical Survey," and entitled as 
follows : 

"On Some Dark Shale Recently Discovered Below 
the Devonian Limestones, at Independence, Iowa; With 
a Notice of its Fossils and Description of New Species. 
By S. Calvin, Professor of Geology, State University of 
Iowa." 

This pamphlet, as will be seen, makes honorable men- 
tion of Mr. Deering as an original discoverer in the do- 
main of Paleontology. 

The principal portion of Buchanan county is underlain 
(in many places somewhat too near the surface) by the 
rocks of the Devonian age. About one-fourth of the 
county, however, on the east and northeast, is underlaid 
by the Upper Silurian. Both of these groups of rocks 
are composed largely of different varieties of limestone, 
intermixed with shales. The different varieties receive 
different names, from the different localities where they 
were first observed — as the Hamilton and Chemung 
shales, in the Devonian; and the Clinton limestone, 
Niagara Group, and Trenton limestone, in the Upper 
Silurian. Of the latter, however, there are few, if any, 

6 



outcrops in the county; while of the former there are 
many, and some very striking ones, along the Wapsie 
river and Otter creek. 

The Devonian rocks, in this county, though easily 
quarried, afford no valuable building stone — the most of 
them being too friable, and all of them too irregular in 
fracture. 

The stone steps at the court-house in Independence 
are of this rock, quarried near Littleton ; but after a few 
years use they are fast going to pieces, and will soon 
have to be replaced. The Upper Silurian abounds in 
excellent stone for building purposes — the celebrated 
Anamora stone (supposed to correspond with the Tren- 
ton limestone) occurring in that deposit. But if, as is 
possible, that same stone underlies the eastern part of the 
county, it is too far beneath the surface to be available. 

Buchanan is one of the richest counties in the State, 
in the fossils of the Devonian age — the quarry about 
half a mile east of Independence having become quite 
noted for its rare fossil shells, and been visited by many 
distinguished paleontologists from abroad. D. S. Deering 
has probably the best collection of Buchanan fossils that 
has ever been made. The specimens in his cabinet em- 
brace eighteen genera, and twenty-six species, five of the 
latter being pronounced by Professor Calvin, "new to 
science." The following are the names of the genera, 
with the number of species here represented in each: 

Spirifer, four species; Orthis, three; Atrypa, Acervu- 
laria, and Strophodonta, each two: Gypidnea, Produc- 
tus, Euomphalus, Zaphrentis, Rhynconella, Pleuroto- 
maria, Cyrtina, Conularia, Gomphoceras, Lituites, Cyrto- 
ceras, and orthoceras, each one species. The four last 
named are shells of very large size. 

As the Devonian and Upper Silurian rocks are all 
geologically below the coal measures, and even below 
the sub-carboniferous group, it is as certain as anything 
in science, that no coal beds can ever be found in Bu- 
chanan county. But the dark, slaty shales that occur 
in the Devonian, have often been taken by the unscien- 
tific, as a sure indication that coal was near; and for- 
tunes have been spent in a vain search for it, when "a 
little knowledge" (not in this case "a dangerous thing") 
would have shown the explorers the futility of their 
efforts. 

A similar misapprehension led to an attempt to dis- 
cover coal under the quarries near Independence, about 
the year 1877. No coal, except the merest trace, was 
found; but, as so often happens, the honest elTort of 
ignorance led to valuable scientific results. 

We will let Professor Calvin tell the story in an extract 
from the pamphlet above alluded to : 

The Devonian deposits of Iowa as now known, may be roughly rep- 

3 




42 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



resented by the annexed diagram, in which i indicates the position of 
a member of the group recently discovered at Independence, consist- 
ing of a dark argillaceous, with some thin beds of impure, concretion- 
ary limestone. It has been explored to a depth of twenty or twenty- 
five feet. No. 2 represents all the beds of what have been termed 
Devonian limestones in Iowa, and is made up largely of limestones, 
with associated beds of light colored shales; estimated thickness, one 
hundred and fifty feet. No. 3 is a bed of argillaceous shales exposed 
at and near Rockford, Iowa, and is referred to in this paper as the 
Rockford shales. It abounds in fossils, and weathers, on exposure, 
into a stiff clay, that has been utilized in the manufacture of brick; 
observed thickness, seventy feet. 

Until quite recently Nos. 2 and 3 of the above section weie supposed 
to make up the entire thickness of Devonian rocks in Iowa. No. 2 not 
only varies, as already indicated, in lithological characters, but the 
grouping of fossils differs widely in different localities, so much so that 
competent geologists have referred certain exposures — for example, 
those at Waterloo — to the Corniferous, and others — as at Inoepend- 
ence and Waverly — to the Hamilton. Such leferences of the above- 
named exposures will be found in the Twenty-third Report on the 
State Cabinet of New York, pages 223-226; and in the same article 
Professors Hall and Whitfield declare the Rockford shales to be the 
equivalent of the New York Chemung. On the other hand, Dr. C. A. 
White — Geology of Iowa, 1870, volume r, page 187 — is of opinion 
that all the Devonian strata of Iowa belong to a single epoch. 

Thus matters stood until a year or so ago, when D. S. Deering called 
attention to the interesting fact-that a dark shale had been exposed in 
working out the layers in the bottom of one of the limestone quarries 
near Independence. The quarrymen penetrated the shale to a consid- 
erable depth in the hope of finding coal. The shale varies somewhat 
lithologically, but where it presents its most characteristic features it is 
argillaceous, fine grained, and highly charged with bituminous matter. 
In some of the beds there are numerous remains of plants — stems of 
loepidodendron and sigiliaria that made up the forests of the Devonian. 
The plants, however, are very imperfect; the form only is partially pre- 
served, and that mamly by iron pyrite that replaced the original stem. 
The woody tissue of the plants has been converted into coal that occu- 
pies thin irregular seams among the laminae of pyrite. The little bands 
of coal vary in thickness, but none of those observed exceed a quarter 
of an inch. None of the plants are perfect enough to render either 
generic or specific identification possible. 

The discovery of shale charged with the carbonized stems of plants 
below the Devonian limestone of Iowa is a matter of much interest. 
Frequent reports have gained circulation of the discovery of coal in 
drilling wells in regions occupied by Devonian rocks. 

From Jessup, Janesville, Marion, Davenport, and 
other places, such rumors have gone out. In one or 
two cases, shafts have been dug at considerable expense, 
necessarily ending in disappointment and failure. 

The discovery at Independence accounts for these reports. In drill- 
ing through the limestones, the lower shales, with their carbonized 
plants, were reached, and the dark color of the borings, mi.xed with 
fragments of real coal, naturally enough gave rise to the impression 
that a veritable coal mine had been found. 

It is 10 be noticed that all the places from which such reports have 
come, stand near the eastern outcrop of the Devonian, where its en- 
tire thickness could be pierced at a very moderate depth. The num- 
ber and position of such localities would show that the shale in ques- 
tion IS not a mere local deposit, but is distributed all along the outcrop 
of Devonian rocks in Iowa. 

The researches of Mr. Deering and myself have brought to light 
quite a number of finely preserved Brachiopods, representing fourteen 
species. Of these two are not determined and five are new to science, 
but the chief interest attaches to certain species that have hitherto been 
known only from the shales of bed No. 3, near Rockford. It will be 
convenient to arrange the specimens in three groups, as follows : 

I. Species limited in Iowa, so far as is known, to the Independence 
Shales: Strophodonta variabilis, new species; Gypidula niunda, new 
species, Othis in/era. nevi s\^iee\e^\ Rhynchon/lla amhigua, new spe- 
cies ; Spiripera subumbona. Hall ? 

II. Species ranging throughout the entire group, and so common to 
beds I, 2, and 3 : Atryparcticularis, Lime. 

III. Species common to beds i and 3, but not known to occur in 
the intervening limestones: Strophodonta quadrata. new species; 5t 
arcuata, Hall; .S. canace. Hall & Whitfield; 5. rcversa. Hall ; Atrvna 
hystrix, Hall ; Productus {Productella) dissimilUs, Hall. 



It is an interesting fact th.it of the twelve determinable species six 
occur only in the shaly deposits at the opening and close of the Devo- 
nian, notwithstanding these deposits are separated by one hundred and 
fifty leet of limestone. Only one species is known to pass from the 
lower shales into the limestones above, and even there it appears 
under a form so altered that specimens from the two beds may be dis- 
tinguished as really as if they were distinct species, if we take form 
and surface markings into account, the Atrypa reiiculacs of No. r, 
also finds its nearest representative, not in the limestones immediatelv 
above, but in the shales at Rockford, 

Obviou.sly, then, the Independence shales are more nearly related to 
the Rockford beds than to any other formation in Iowa. The species 
in group i, seem to have disappeared with the ushering in of conditions 
under which limestones were formed; they maintained themselves in 
some locality which has not been discovered, or from which the shaly 
deposits have been entirely swept away, and returned with the condi- 
tions favorable to their existence during the deposition of the Rock- 
ford shales. 

The intimate relation between the two extremes of the group, is 
certainly a most interesting one, and can but strengthen the conclusion 
of Dr. White, that all the De\'onian strata of Iowa, belong to a single 
epoch. 

Then follows a minute description of the individual 
fossils mentioned above, for which we have no space, 
and which would not have much interest for the general 
reader. VVe will therefore omit it, and call our brief sec- 
tion on Buchanan geology, finished. 



CHAPTER III. 

HISTORICAL ADDRESS.- 

[As the author of the following address was a promin- 
ent citizen of Buchanan county, and as the occasion of 
its delivery forms an important landmark in the history 
of the county, we have concluded to insert it entire; al- 
though some of the details, given in other parts of the 
work, will necessarily contain repetitions of many of the 
facts herein recorded. 

That this sketch may be read and heard on such an occasion, without 
weariness beyond endurance, it is necessary to study brevity rather 
than rhetorical effect. With scant space for facts, there is still less for 
fancy, and many interesting incidents and individual experiences must 
of necessity be omitted. 

Beginning with the advent of the first permanent settlement in the 
county, we are carried back aljout one-third of a century; for the 
pioneer was one William Bennett, who settled where now is the thriv- 
ing village of Quasqueton in the early spring of r842. Mr. Bennett is 
said to have been the first settler in the county of Delaware also, and 
had probably chanced upon the site of Quasqueton in some hunting ex- 
pedition. The beauty of the locality captivated his fancy, and the 
rapid stream showed that its power could be utilized. He at once laid 
claim to the place, and proceeded to make his claim good by erecting 
a log cabin on the east bank of the river, and occupying it with his 
family. 

It is almost as difficult for us to conceive the appearance which the 
county then presented to its first citizen, as it would have been for him 
to paint by aid of fancy, that which it now presents to us. .Approach- 
ing his new home from the east, he had crossed many miles of prairie, 
stretching away to the north beyond the limits of vision; looking across 
the stream to the southwest, still the same undulating prairie; and if he 
passed the river a little to the west he beheld still the same gently swell- 
ing sea of treeless green extending toward the northwest to all appear- 
ance boundless. 

He might have caught some floating canoe drifted from its mooring 

* By Hon. O. H. P. Roszell. Read at the Centennial Celebration at 
Independence, July 4, 1876. 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



43 



far up the stream, and following the timber-skirted liver through the 
entire extent of the county, no other trace of art or industry would 
have met his gaze, save perhaps the lodge-poles of some deserted Indian 
camp. But though he would have found the country a wilderness, it 
was not a solitude. From every thicket on the river's bank, the dip of 
his paddles would have startled the deer, and its splash been echoed by 
the sudden plunge of the beaver and otter, while wild fowls,— ducks, 
geese and the majestic swan, rose at his approach in countless thou- 
sands, and mingled their scieams with the cry of innumerable cranes 
wheeling their flight far up in the blue ether. The whole country was 
as if just completed— fresh and new and perfect from the hand of the 
Creator; an unpeopled paradise. Hardly had Bennett taken posses- 
sion of his cabin before he was joined by one Evans, and by Ezra Allen 
who settled about one and a half miles north of Quasqueton, and in 
April the settlement was increased by the arrival of Frederick Kessler 
and wife, Rufus B. Clark and family, S. G. and H. T. Sanford, a Mr. 
Daggett and Simmons and Lambert and Edward Brewer; the latter, 
who was then unmarried, made his home with Kessler. Clark and 
Kessler each made claims, and built cabins about one and one-half mile 
west of Quasqueton and near together, and as soon as possible com- 
menced breaking prairie, so that in June they had ten acres broken 
which they planted with corn and beans; but though frost did not appear 
that fall till October loth, there was not sufficient time for the crop to 
ripen. They all, men and women, went to work the day after the frost, 
and gathered the crop so as to secure it in the best condition possible, 
for corn and beans were important articles. For provisions during the 
summer of 1842 it was necessary to go to the Maquoketa— a distance 
of sixty miles. One person was sent with an ox team, and brought 
supplies for the whole community. The land was yet unsurveyed, and, 
of course, not in market. The government surveyors were engaged that 
summer in making the subdivisions, and were in camp for some time 
near Kesslei's. The sight of these and an occasional squad of cavalry 
galloping across the prairie and fording the river at the rapids, served 
to remind the settlers that they were not alone in the world. 

During that summer a man named Stiles settled at Quasqueton ; and 
to him belongs the honor of keeping the first whiskey shop in the coun- 
ty. He called his place a "tavern" and "grocery." Some addition 
was made to the settlers aside from emigration, for in May, 1842, was 
born Charles Kessler, the first white child born in this county. In the 
autumn of 1842 there arrived Nathaniel Hatch and family and Henry 
B. Hatch without family. Nathaniel built himself a house and Henry 
B. made his home at Kessler's. Mr. Bennett built a log dam across the 
river and raised the frame of a saw-mill that fall. There were several 
young men in his employ who never became permanent settlers. This 
same season also one Johnson made his appearance and located on the 
east side of the river, about halfway between Quasqueton and Inde- 
pendence. He asserted that he was the notorious "Canadian Patriot," 
and that a young woman who accompanied him as his sole companion 
was his daughter, Kate, and the veritable "Queen of the Thousand 
Isles." His language and conduct excited the suspicion and hatred of 
the settlers and a party of them seized Johnson, administered a severe 
whipping and an admonition to leave the settlement, which he soon did. 
This episode was long referred to by the settlers as the "Patriot War." 
The winter of 1842-3 proved a very severe one, and the settlers en- 
dured many privations. On the seventeenth of November a terrible 
snow storm commenced, accompanied with wind which caused im- 
mense drifts. Most of the houses having been hastily erected that 
spring, of logs, were imperfectly chinked and plastered, and it was 
impossible to keep out the drifting snow. — Kessler's was in this condi- 
tion, and his family took refuge at Clark's, which was better protected. 
On returning after the storm they found their house drifted completely 
full and buried — even to the chimney, and had to dig out their furniture 
piece by piece. They dug a regular stairway from the door to the 
top of the snow ; and the same to reach the water in the spring close 
by, through snow fourteen feet in depth. The storm ended in sleet, 
which left a hard crust on the surface, which would bear the weight of a 
man if not too heavy. It was almost impossible to get about except 
on foot, and in that way the mail was carried to and from the "Col- 
ony," near "Edes' Grove," in Delaware county, by Kessler, he being 
selected for that service on account of being small and light. Deer 
were abundant and easily overtaken, as their sharp feet broke through 
the crust ; so venison was plenty. Bee trees also had been found in 
large numbers in the fall, and there was a plentiful supply of honey. 
Some families had three or four barrels of that commodity, but honey 
and venison, though each delicious, were found hardly adequate food 
for sole and constant use ; and grain there was none, nor other food of 
any kind to be had short of a journey to the "colony." 



H. B. Hatch was the first to venture out after corn. He went with 
two yoke of oxen and on his return was overtaken by a storm of sleet 
so severe that the freezing rain blinded not only himself, but his oxen. 
But by walking on the off side of his cattle he managed to shelter him- 
self somewhat, and after stopping many times to remove the ice from 
his eyes and those of his oxen, he succeeded in reaching home with his 
load of corn, much to the joy of the settlers, who had been greatly 
alarmed for his safety. This corn was immediately distributed, and 
when exhausted, Mr. Sanford went to the same place and brought an- 
other load, which he carefully dealt out, sternly refusing any applicant 
more than one peck at a time ; not from any want of kindness or gen- 
erosity, but to enforce that severe economy in its use, which was abso- 
lutely necessary. For several months during that winter, venison, 
honey, and boiled corn constituted the only food of the settlers. 
Wolves were numerous and bold, and often came to the springs within 
a few steps from the doors of the settlers, to drink. On the first of 
April, 1843. the river was still frozen and teams crossed on the ice. 

In the spring of 1843, the land in the south part of the county was 
put in market, and on the thirteenth of March of that year the first 
entry was made by Edwin R. Fulton, the entry being the west half 
northeast thirty-four, eighty-eight, eight, and eighty, which Bennett 
had claimed and settled upon. Fulton was never a citizen of this 
county, and was probably some friend of Bennett, whom he procured 
to make the entry for him. lu May, 1843, Malcom McBane and John 
Cordell— both with their families— settled in the immediate vicinity of 
Quasqueton, on the east side of the river. They entered their first 
land May 2, 1843. Sometime in the summer or fall of 1843, came 
James Biddinger, S. 'V. Thompson, and W. W. Hadden ; the former 
settled near, and the two latter at, Quasqueton. During the summer 
of 1843, a flouring-mill was erected at Quasqueton by Mr. Stiles, but 
was probably not completed until 1844, about which time a Mr. 
Richards settled there and opened the first store. Up to this time the 
place has been known only as "The Rapids of the Wapsipinicon," but 
now it had a saw-inill and grist-mill, a store, tavern and saloon, and 
had become quite a village, and was named "Trenton, " which name it 
retained until about 1847, when it was regularly laid out into lots and 
rechristened Quasqueton, which name is euphonized from Quasquetuck, 
signifying in the Indian tongue "Swift Waters. " 

The first settlers had now begun to raise wheat as well as corn, and, 
with a mill in their immediate vicinity where it could be ground, were 
in little danger of being again compelled to subsist on boiled corn. 
Fish were abundant in the river, and it is told, and is undoubtedly true, 
that they were caught of such size that, tied together by the gills and 
thrown across a horse, their caudal fins touched the ground on each 
side. It is surmised, however, that the horse was an Indian pony and 
of not unusual height. The species of fish which attained to such size 
was the " muscalonge," and some of the same species weighing twenty- 
four pounds were caught at Independence as late as 1854. During the 
year 1844 there seems to have been but little additional emigration to 
the county; but in 1845 quite a number of families arrived, among them 
one Abbott, James Rundle, and Benoni and Harvey B. Haskins, and, 
I think, David Merrill; these families all settled near Quasqueton. 
During that year, also, was made the first entry of land north of the 
correction line. It was on section 25, 89, 9, a part of what is now 
known as the "County Poor Farm," and was entered by John Kimmis, 
December 4, 1845. 

Rufus B. Clark, in his hunting excursions, had early visited, observed 
and admired the site of Independence. He had no means with which 
to purchase the land, but he laid claim to the place, and in the spring 
of 1847 built a log house on the east side of the river, at a spot near 
the present junction of Chatham and Mott streets, and removed his 
family thereto. After making the claim he had visited Janesville,^Wis- 
consin, and induced S. P. Stoughton and Nicholas A. McClure to pur- 
chase the land. Stoughton came to Independence the same spring- 
April, 1847— entered the land, and during that summer built a dam and 
saw-mill, and brought also a small stock of goods. With him came 
Samuel Sherwood, Mervin Dunton, and a Dr. Lovejoy. In July, 1847, 
S. S. McClure. Eli D. Phelps, A. H. Trask, and Thomas W. Close ar- 
rived, and all settled at Independence. In June of that year three 
commissioners, appointed by the State legislature for that purpose, 
visited the county, and on the fifteenth of June located the county seat 
on section 34, 89, 9, and called it Independence. In 1846 John Boon 
and Frank Hathaway had settled on the edge of the prairie two miles 
northeast of Independence, so that the Fourth of July, 1847, saw at 
Independence quite a little community of settlers, and if the celebra- 
tion here on that day was not as largely attended as this, it was fully as 
' enthusiastic as this can be. The location being made at a date so near 



44 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



t.) the Fouith of July had probably a great influence in the selection of 
the name of Independence for the future city. The overflow caused by 
the erection of the dam produced malaria, and most of the settlers 
suffered from fever and ague. Mrs. R. B. Clark and Dr. Lovejoy died 
in the fall of 1847. In June, 1848, the colony was increased by the ar- 
rival of Asa Blood, senior and junior, Elijah and Anthony Beardsley, 
and a Mr. Babbitt. Dr. Brewer removed to Independence also that 
year, having been elected clerk of county commissioners the year be- 
fore, and consequently being required to be at the county seat. John 
Obenchain had settled m the spring of 1848 two miles north of Inde- 
pendence, on the farm now occupied by C. Dickson. Isaac Hathaway 
also settled on section 36, 89, 9, about two miles east of Independence; 
Thomas Barr, si.v miles north of Independence; Samuel and Orlando 
Sufiicool, William Bunce, Daniel Greeley, and William Greeley, at 
Greeley's Grove; John Scott, on what is now known as the Smyser 
farm; Jacob Minton, William Minton, and Gamaliel Walker, on Pine 
creek; B. D. Springer, half way between Independence and Quasque- 
ton, on the place vacated by Johnson; Thomas E. McKinney, on Pine 
creek; a Mr. Trogden. on the west side of the river, about five miles 
above Quasqueton; and some fifteen or twenty others, mostly at or in 
the vicinity of Qtiasqueton, among them D. S. Davis, George I. Cum- 
mins, James Cummms, Charles Robbins, Benjamin Congdon, and 
others, not forgetting to mention Hamilton Megonigle, who came from 
the banks of the Juniata, in Pennsylvania, a regular, careless, jovial 
free-hearted, open-handed backwoodsman, who was known to every- 
body, and loved to be called "Old Juny." 

Theta.ic list for 1847 shows eighty-one names as resident ta.x payers. 
Among them are Thomas Barr, Samuel and Orlando Sufficool, Wil- 
liam Bunce, I. F. Hathaway, John Boon, Gamaliel Walker, William 
Biddinger, N. G. Parker, Samuel Caskey, Ami H. Trask, Thomas W. 
Close, Samuel Sherwood and Edward Brewer, who are still living and 
residents of the county. The same tax list shows that there were then 
si.\ty forty-acre tracts of land entered in the county, being a little less 
than four sections. The valuation of all property, real and personal, 
was twenty-one thousand, seven hundred and nine dollars, and total 
tax one hundred and sixty-seven dollars and forty cents. Of the eighty- 
one residents seventy-four were voters. The total moneys and credits 
assessed were three thousand, seven hundred and seventy-five dollars, 
of which W. W. Hadden had two thousand, six hundred and seventy 
dollars. There were two hundred and forty-nine head of cattle, four 
hundred and seventeen hogs, sixty-eight horses, forty-two wagons, six 
hundred and forty-two sheep, and not one mule. Few of the settlers 
indulged in the luxury of watches, for there seem to have been but six 
in the whole county. The mills and machinery at Quasqueton had at 
this time become the property of D. S. Davis, and were valued at two 
thousand dollars. The saw-mill at Independence is put down at nine 
hundred dollars. W. W. Hadden paid the highest tax, the enormous 
sum of twenty-two dollars and thirty-nine cents. 

The first election of which I find any record was in August, 1847. 
The county was then divided into two election precincts, one called 
"Quasqueton" and the other "Centre" precinct. John Scott, Freder- 
ick Kessler and B. D. Springer were elected county commissioners, and 
Edward Brewer clerk ; and it is a conclusive proof of his worth and 
ability that he continued to hold that office twenty-three years. On 
the fourth of October, 1847, the county commissioners held their first 
meeting at the house of Edward Brewer, in Independence. Their first 
official act was to divide the county into three commissioner's districts^ 
The first district comprised all the north half of the county. The 
south half was divided by a line running north and south about one 
and a half miles west of Quasqueton. 

Three road petitions were presented, and viewers appointed at that 
session. One from Independence east to county line. One from Inde- 
pendence east to intersect the territorial road from Marion to Fort At- 
kinson, and one from Quasqueton to Independence on the west side of 
the river. It was ordered also that a surveyor be employed to lay off a 
town at the county-seat. On November 3, 1847, the commissioners 
met and caused eight blocks of lots on the southeast quarter of south- 
east quarter section thirty-four, to belaid off as the village of Inde. 
pendence, and the county-seat. The land was still Government land 
and not entered by the county until January, 1849, though it was legal- 
ly pre-empted, and thus secured to the county in January, 1848. The 
ots were ten rods in length by five in width, and the price fixed for 
them was five dollars each. In January, 1848, also the three roads 
first petitioned for, were declared public highways. 

Up to that time there had been no regularly laid out roads in the 
county, except a territorial road from Marion to Fort Atkinson, cross- 
in" the river at Quasqueton, and running thence nearly north through 



the county, passing near where is now the village of Winthrop. This 
was know as the "Mission" road. And another from Marion to the 
north line of the State laid out in 1846, crossing the river at the same 
place and passing about two miles east of Independence, at the edge 
of the timber. The settlers followed such routes as suited their con- 
venience, from house to house and from neighborhood to neighbor- 
hood. Indian trails crossed the prairie from stream to stream, leading 
to fording places, and well worn paths led up and down the river, 
touching, surely, every bubbling spring. Such trails, which recent 
settlers suppose to be merely cattle paths, can be pointed out in many 
places even to this day by the pioneers. 

Though in the spring of 1848 several families came to Independence 
the prevalence of fever and ague was so discouraging that not only 
they, but most of those who came earlier, left the place, either in the 
fall of 1848 or spring of 1849, so that in the summer of 1849 only four 
families remained. In July, 1849, the first entry of land was made in 
Newton township, by Joseph B. Potter. The first settlement in that 
township was by Joseph Austin, in the spring of 1847, on section 
thtrty-three. Reuben C. Walton was the next, and built his cabin on 
the same forty as Austin, in 1848. In 1850 William P. Harris, 
Aaron M. Long, Henry Holman and a Mr. Ogden settled in the same 
vicinity on Spring Creek, and James MeCanna on section twelve on Buf- 
lalo creek. John Cordell entered the first land in Cono township in 
1843, and Leander Keyes and T. K. Burgess settled in that township 
just below Quasqueton in 1848. No land was entered in Homer town- 
ship till 1851, when John S. Williams entered forty acres on section 
nineteen. The first actual settler in Jefferson township was J. B. 
Stainbrook, in June, 1850, and his daughter, Martha, now Mrs. Mas- 
ters, and residing in Brandon, was the first white child born in the 
township. Mr. Stainbrook yet occupies the same farm he first settled 
upon, and the first cabin he built is still standing. John Rouse and 
.Abel Cox were the next settlers, and arrived in July, 1850, and in 
September Nicholas Albert, Philip Zinn and Joseph Rouse. The next 
year came John Rice, Thomas Frink, Mathew Davis and Hamilton 
Wood. 

In the fall of 1851 a State road was suiveyed from Quasqueton to 
the county-seat of Marshall county. Two of the commissioners were 
D. S. Davis and John Cordell. The party started from Quasqueton 
to look out the route, and passed near Brandon, or where Brandon now 
is. Xo one, even at Quasqueton, had ever visited Jefferson township, 
nor did any one of the party know whether there was a settler there or 
not. It was known that some persons from that direction had crossed 
the prairie to the Quasqueton mill, but there was no road, not even a 
discernible track of any kind. Aided by the compass, the party made 
its way to Lime creek, and found nestled in the brush near that stream, 
the cabins of Joseph and John Rouse, and close by them went into 
camp the first night out. From Rouse it was learned that there were 
two or three families a little south, and by strict search and Rouse for 
a guide, they found their houses the next forenoon. 

No settlement was made in Westburgh township till 1833; nor do I 
know who was the first settler; but William B. Wilkinson must have 
been among the first. In 1849 Michael Ginther settled in Sumner 
township, and, being at a loss to describe the land he desired to enter, 
he carried the corner stake to the land office at Dubuque, going there 
on foot for that purpose. This entry was afterward found to be on the 
wrong section entirely. He had intended to buy the land on which he 
had settled, and on which is the famous spring known yet as the "Gin- 
ther Spring," about half way between Independence and Quasqueton, 
on the west side of the river; and when he found the entry he had really 
made was one mile west, and out on the prairie, he was completely dis- 
couraged, being a poor man, and believing that land so far out would 
never be of any value whatever. The first settler in .Middlefield was P. 
M. Dunn, who entered his land on section thirty-four, April 24, 1850, 
followed soon after by Daniel Leatherman and Stillman Berry. Fre- 
mont township remained unsettled till 1853, when Z. P. and S. W. 
Rich located on Buffalo creek, near the southeast corner of the town- 
ship. They were induced to venture so far out from the timber from 
the fact that at that time the road direct from Independence to Coffin's 
Grove, Delhi and Dubuque, had begun to be considerably travelled, 
though almost up to that year the only travelled route had been via 
Quasqueton; but in 1832 the few citizens of Independence and vicinity 
had turned out voluntarily and built a bridge of split logs across Buf- 
falo creek, near the correction line, making the route practicable. — 
Robert Sutton settled in Byron, on section thirty-two, as early as 1850, 
if not in 1B49; and Thomas Ozias in 1831. The first settlers in Perry 
township were James Minton, Charles Melrose and Gamaliel Walker, 
in r849. Martin Depoy and Jacob Slaughter entered land in that 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



45 



township the same year, but did not become settlers till 1850; and in 
that same year Alexander Stevenson, and [ohn and Thomas Cameron 
settled in the same township, all in the northeast corner, near Littleton. 
Melrose had made an error in his entry, entering in the north part of | 
town eightv-eight, ten, instead of eighty- nine, ten, being near the pres- 
ent village of J essup, and not supposing land in that locality would 
ever be valuable, by much effort and the aid of the then United States 
Senator, G. W. Jones, a special act of Congress was passed vacatmg 
his entry and placing it on the section intended, where Mr. Melrose 
now lives. Of the first settlement in Hazelton township I have already 
spoken. William Jewell settled and made the first entry of land in 
Buffalo township, in 1849, where now hves C. H. Jakeway. .Abiathar 
Richardson and Silas K. Messenger came ne.vt, in 1850; and Thomas 
and Rockwell )ewell and .A.. J. Eddy, in 1851. In Madison township, 
Silas Ross, L. R. Ward, and Seymour Whitney settled at nearly the 
same time, in 1853, and were the first comers. They located in the 
east part of the township, near the place now known as Ward's Cor- 
ners.' In Fairbank township, William S. Clark was the first to locate, 
settling in the south part, just above Littleton, in 1R48 or 1849, and 
was the very first settler in that region. He went to California about 
1856, but the house he built is yet standing.— Thomas Wilson must 
have found his way into the timber west of the little Wapsie very soon 
fter, for I remember finding him and one McKinstry settled there in 
1850. Robert Wroten located near Clark, in 1850. 

In 1849, S. P. Stoughton and S. S. McClure returned to Independ- 
ence, and with them came the writer of this sketch. There were then 
in Independence only Dr. Brewer, Thomas W. Close and E. Beards- 
ley and a Mr. Horton, each with their families. Samuel Sherwood, 
though still reckoned a citizen of Independence, was absent that winter 
building a mill at Cedar Rapids. There was an unenclosed saw-mill, 
and no other building on the west bank of the river. On the east side, 
besides the buildings occupied by the families named, a vacant black- 
smith shop and three vacant dwellings, among them the house built by 
Rufus B. Clark, who, after the death of his wife, had sold his interest 
in the place to Stoughton & McCIure, and removed to the Cedar river, 
in Chickasaw county. 

The families in the north half of the county could almost be counted 
on one's fingers. W. S. Clark, James Newton Charles Melrose and 
Gamaliel Walker were up the river near where Littleton now is. Jacob 
Minion, Thomas Barr, Joseph Ross and Isaac Hathaway, on the creek 
five miles north of Independence; the Greeleys, William Bunce, John 
Kint, and Samuel Sutficool, still further north in Hazleton township; 
William Jewell, A. Richardson, and Silas K. Messenger, at Buffalo 
Grove; and John Obenchain, Carmi Hicko-i, Frank Hathaway, John 
Boon, Isaac Sufficool (who had bought the Isaac Hathaway farm), and 
H. Megonigle, located around the edge of the timber north and east 
of Independence, and that completes the list. 

Quasqueton had become quite a village. It had a flouring-mill, to 
which came settlers from the west and southwest with their grain, for 
sixty or seventy miles; also a saw-mill, a store, grocery, hotel, and 
blacksmith shop, and really was a growing, prosperous town. But In- 
dependence was a forlorn looking place, indeed. Four families only, 
and they anxious to leave, but too poor to get away; an idle saw-mill, 
and not a store or shop of any kind and little prospect of either. The 
county had laid out forty acres into lots, and Stoughton and McCIure 
a few blocks on each side of Main street. There was nothing to dis- 
tinguish streets from lots; even Main street was only a crooked wagon 
path through the brush. There was a wagon road cut through the 
timber to the Hickox farm (now known as the Smyser farm), and one 
more crooked still, out to the prairie east, which crossed the first little 
creek near the Brewer place, and the next at the old Sufficool place 
(now occupied by Elzy Wilson), and from it followed the edge of the 
timber down to Quasqueton, about wheie the travelled road now runs. 
There was also a track north, z-Za of the Obenchain farm and thence 
across the prairie toward Thomas Barr's and up Otter creek, but so 
faint as to be haidly discernible. Neither road nor track up the river, 
except an Indian trail, and not even that west across the prairie, nor 
east beyond the timber, nor to, or toward Brandon or Buffalo Grove 
To venture two miles west on the prairie was about as dangerous as 
to venture to sea out of sight of land without a compass. Thomas 
Close carried the mail once each week to Cedar Falls, on an Indian 
pony. There were no marks of any kind to guide him, and if by care- 
ful observation he kept within a mile of the direct course, it was quite 
a feat of prairie craft. Wolves prowled about the houses, and bands 
of them made night vocal with their howling. The east bank of the 
river was where is now the middle of the bridge, and large trees were 
growing where now stands the centre pier. 



The assessment roll for 1849 shows ninety-seven resident taxpayers 
of which about thirty lived in the north half of the county. That Of 
1850 shows only eighty-three resident taxpayers in the county, thirty- 
three being in the north half. .At the August election in 1848 Washing, 
ton township polled twenty-three. Spring fifteen, and Liberty thirty-two 
votes; and in August, 1850, Washington nineteen. Spring nineteen, 
and Liberty thirty, in all sixty-eight votes. The tax book of 1850 
shows the total valuation of property, real and personal, to have been 
forty-six thousand nine hundred and fifty-eight dollars, and total tax 
assessed, three hundred and seventy dollars and twenty cents. Twelve 
thousand six hundred and eighty-one acres of land were entered — 
about twenty sections in all. The total value of merchandise was 
nine hundred dollars, and that was all at Quasqueton. Mills and ma- 
chinery were valued at four thousand three hundred dollars; three 
thousand dollars at Quasqueton, one thousand one hundred and sixty- 
seven dollars at Independence, and five hundred and thirty-three dol- 
lars at Pine Creek. There were six watches, valued at one hundred 
and eighty-eight dollars; forty-three wagons, valued at one thousand 
six hundred doll.irs; seventy-four horses, valued at three thousand 
seven hundred and sixty dollars; two hundred and forty-one cattle, 
assessed at three thousand six hundred and seventy dollars; two hun- 
dred and eighty-eight sheep, valued at four hundred and three dollars, 
and five hundred and fifty-five hogs, valued at eight hundred and sixty- 
four dollars. 

There was a post office at Quasqueton and at Independence, and the 
mail came from Dlubuque once a week, via Quasqueton, in a one-horse 
wagon. There was not a bridge in the county, nor across any stream 
between this and Dubuque, nor any regular ferry. If streams were too 
deep to be forded they must be crossed in canoes, or by swimming, or 
by rafts. All houses in the county were of logs, save a few at Quas- 
queton and at Independence. .Almost every farm thus far selected was 
so located as to embrace prairie for tillage, and timber for fencing, fuel, 
and shelter, and on some little stream, and a spring near which to 
build. No special pains were taken to construct warm houses, and 
fuel was used as prodigally as though the whole country had been tim- 
bered. Pork and bread were abundant, and honey, venison and wild 
fruits, in their season. There was no market for surplus produce, and 
little surplus produce to market, except pork, and if that was hauled 
to the Mississippi it would bring two dollars per hundred. But every- 
body had plenty of good wholesoine food to eat, and they didn't 
trouble themselves about luxuries. Everybody in the county knew 
and was neighbor to everybody else, no matter how far apart they 
lived. 

In 1849, the California gold excitement prevailed, and the fever 
siezed many of the settlers here, and in the spring of 1850 several of 
them crossed the plains to that ElDorado. -Among them were William 
Bunce, John Obenchain, Kessler, B. D. Springer, Trask and Phelps 
and Stoughton. Some of them returned, others remained, and some 
died there. Among the latter was Kessler. Stoughton returned the 
next year, but died shortly after, of consumption, in the south, where 
he had gone hoping to benefit his health. In .May or June, 1850, Hor- 
ton and Beardsley left the place, and there remained but two familes. 
Close and Brewer, and two young men, McCIure and Roszell, to keep 
the village alive. McCIure caused the land belonging to Stoughton 
and McCIure, on the west side of the river, to be surveyed into lots, 
and named the place New Haven. In July of that year, William 
Brazelton moved to Independence from Jones county, and soon after, 
James .A. Dyer, and a young man, George Counts; and in September, 
Thomas Denton and family arrived. John Vargason and James Bige- 
low came to the county also that summer, and McCIure tried to induce 
them to settle in Independence, offering to give them any lots they 
might select, if they would build on them and remain there; but the 
inducement was not sufficient, and they settled five miles north. 

In June, McCIure traded fractional block number one and the east 
half of block number two, on the west side of the river, to Andrew 
Mullarkey for a barrel of gin and a bo.x of cigars, and thought it a 
good trade. With this assistance, we had a grand celebration on that 
fourth of July. Samuel Sherwood, Samuel S. McCIure, Dr. Brewer, 
Alexander Hathaway, and O. H. P. Roszell were oflficers, orators and 
procession. 

Henry Sparling and family settled near the county poor farm that 
autumn, and Philander French and Ephraim Miller and J. C. Neidy, 
in the timber, between Independence and Quasqueton. John W. Me- 
lone came during the winter of 1850-51; also William B.Wilkinson. 
Melone entered the quarter section of land immediately east of Inde- 
pendence, and Wilkinson the quarter section northeast. 

In the spring of 1851 came Casper Rowse and family; and in the 



46 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



summer, Charles W. Cummiiigs and family, and several others. 
Among them, Francis Girten, Byron C. Hale, Amos B. King, Jacob S. 
Travis, and one Evans, who settled where Lyman J. Curtis now lives. 
In June, 1851, the river rose twenty-one feet above low-water mark — 
the highest point it has ever been known to reach. The saw-mill on 
Pine creek was washed away, and some injury done the fences. No 
bridges were carried away, for there were none— and no great damage 
done, for there was but little to be damaged. That summer, Samuel 
Sherwood commenced the erection of a flouring mill at Independence, 
and completed it the ne.\t season. The timbers were cut above Little- 
ton and floated down the river, with incredible labor, such as none but 
men of iron constitution and steel resolution could or would have per- 
formed — Samuel Sherwood had both. 

In the spring of that year, a State road was surveyed from Indepen- 
dence to Cedar Falls, and persons crossing the prairie were enabled, 
by following the line of stakes, to keep the same route, so that a visi- 
ble trace was soon formed. The line of the route was a little north o( 
where Jesup now is, and through Pilot Grove. 

In 1851, William Brazleton erected a frame building on Main street, 
in Independence, where now stands the First National bank building, 
and opened a general variety store; and in 1852 built the first hotel, on 
the opposite corner, where so long stood the "Montour house." C. 
W. Cummings also brought a stock of goods here in the fall of 1851. 
All goods were hauled from Dubuque, generally by ox teams. The 
roads were in such wretched condition that it was no unusual thing for 
teamsters to be compelled to unload their wagons and carry their pack- 
ages singly across the sloughs, and even to take their very wagons 
apart and carry them across in the same way. Such roads would now 
be considered absolutely impassable. The price paid for hauling was 
seventy-five cents to one dollar and a half }ier hundred weight: yet 
goods were fully as cheap, and many of them cheaper, than now. 
Brown sugar could be bought here at twenty pounds for a dollar, and 
seven or eight pounds of coffee for the same amount. 

From 1852 the village and county settled very rapidly, and it will be 
hardly practicable to particularize individuals. In August, 1852, Jeff- 
erson township was carved out of Spring, and in April, 1853, Perry 
from Washington, and in August, 1853, Buffalo and Superior (now 
Hazleton) were set off as separate townships. 

In September, 1854, Messrs. Parker & Hillery commenced the publi- 
cation of the first newspaper in the county, and named it the Indepen- 
dence C/i77/ff«. In 1855, Samuel Sherwood built the first bridge in 
the county, across the Wapsipinicon, at Independence. It was of 
wood and paid for by subscriptions of the citizens of the county. In 
April of that year, Newton and Alton (now Fairbank) townships were 
set off; and at the election that year the county polled five hundred 
and twenty-four votes. 

In that year also, the first stage coaches were run from Dubuque to 
Independence. Heman Morse had settled here in 1853, and bought 
the hotel built by Brazleton, which he enlarged and kept until 1856. 
One Gould commenced running a line of two horse hacks in 1854, and 
during the years 1854-5-6, the "Montour" was crowded to its utmost 
capacity with travellers, and its capacity being gauged more by the 
number and necessity of the guests than by the size of the house, was 
truly marvelous. 

Coaches ran night and day, and were sometimes forty-eight hours 
making the journey from Dubuque to Independence. Passengers were 
fortunate if, in addition to walking across the sloughs, they were not 
compelled to carry their baggage, and the coaches too, over the bad 
places. 

In 1855 W. H. Gifford & Brother commenced the erection of the 
hotel now known as the Merchants hotel; completed it in the spring Oe 
1856, and during the summer sold it to Carl White and Thomas Sher. 
wood, who gave it the name of the " White House" and occupied it as 
a hotel for several years, when they sold it to Leander Keyes. It was the 
first brick hotel erected in the county, and gave the city quite a metro, 
politanair. 

In April, 1856, Byron and Prairie (now Fremont) townships were 
set off, and at the spring election of that year seven hundred and eleven 
votes were cast in the county. That spring also, the Dubuque & Pa- 
cific railroad was projected, and efforts were made to induce this county 
to issue two hundred thousand dollars m bonds to aid its construction. 
The question was submitted to the people at a special election in May 
and defeated; re-submitted in July and again defeated. 

Speculation, especially in lands and town lots, ran wild. Gold 
seemed a drug. The land office was crowded with purchasers. Any- 
body could go to Dubuque, give their note for two hundred and eighty 
dollars, due in a year, and get a bond for a deed for one hundred and 



si.xty acres of land, on payment of the note. The county was full of 
such bonds, and they were bought and sold as valuable property. The 
most worthless \agabond could give his notes gel such a bond or bonds, 
and trade it or them for goods stock, watches, jewelry, and sometimes 
money. The last foot of land in the county was entered; lots and land 
were bought and sold in many cases for more than they will bring now, 
after the lapse of twenty years. In 1857 the bubble collapsed, and al- 
most every business house failed in consequence. Expedients innumer- 
able were devised to stay the disaster. "Wild Cat" companies were 
organized, that issued "shinplasters" in the shape of bank notes, for 
circulation in place of money. Early in 1857, a company was orga- 
nized, with a project for a railroad up the Wapsipinicon, called the 
W^apsipinicon \*alley railroad company. They, like the Dubuque & 
Pacific company, asked the county to take two hundred thousand dol- 
lars of stock, and issue bonds for the amount. The question was sub- 
mitted at a special election in May of that year, and carried; but re- 
submitted in June and defeated. Some members of the company then 
organized what they called the Wapsipinicon Vallley Land company" 
and issued scrip in the shape of bills, for circulation, absolutely 
worthless, yet quite extensively circulated for a time, as money, such 
were the desperate straits to which business men were driven. 

The rapid influx of people, from 1834 to 1857, is shown by a com- 
parison of the vote, which, in April, 1854, was only three hundred and 
fifteen, and at the special railroad election in June, 1857, was twelve 
hundred and sixty-eight, an increase of over nine hundred and fifty 
votes, or four hundred per cent, in about three years. 

The township of Madison was set off in April, 1S57, and also the 
town of Sumner. That spring also, the erection of the first court house 
(the same now used) was commenced by O. H. P. Roszell, who had 
control of the county business from August, 1851, at which time he was 
elected county judge, up to August, 1857, when he was superseded by 
S. J. W. Tabor, who was appointed fourth auditor of the United States 
treasury, in 1861, which position he now holds. The county finances 
were in a healthy condition notwithstanding the general crash, there 
being about six thousand dollars surplus county fund in the treasury* 
The court house was completed by Judge Tabor in the fall of 1857. 
The lumber was hauled by ox teams from Dyersville, that being then 
the terminus of the Dubuque & Pacific railroad. 

In December, 1856, Rich & Jordan commenced the publication of a 
weekly newspaper called the Quasqueton Guardian, at Quasqueton, 
and continued its publication there till June, 1858, when they removed 
it to Independence and changed its name to the Buchanan county Guar' 
dian. 

In October, 1858, Cono and Middlefield were set off as separate 
townships, and the boundaries of all the townships arranged about as 
they now are. The population of the county continued to increase 
with remarkable rapidity; so that in i860, at the Presidential election, 
there were polled sixteen hundred and ten votes. 

The Dubuque & Pacific railroad was completed to Independence the 
last of December, 1859. 

When the war of the Rebellion broke out Buchanan county was 
among the foremost to respond to the call for troops, and continued 
to respond with volunteers to every call during the war, raising her full 
quota without draft. The first company was organized in June, 1863, 
and was commanded by Captain D. S. Lee, who settled here in 1852, 
and was the first regular professional lawyer who located in Indepen- 
dence. His company was one of those composing the Fifth Iowa regi- 
ment and infantry. I would like to honor this sketch by inserting therein 
the names of the many brave citizens of the county, who risked and lost 
their lives in defence of the national flag, but the list is too long; and 
to make selections from the number would be invidious. Notwith- 
standing the war, and the drain upon the population for troops, the 
county continued to prosper and to increase in numbers. The Dubu- 
que 6t Pacific railroad extended its line westwaid through the county. 
The village of Winthrop on the railroad eight miles east of Inde- 
pendence, which had been laid out by A. P. Foster in 1857, and in 
which the first building had been erected by A. E. Dutton in 1859 
grew to be a thriving town, with stores, shops, grain warehouses and 
elevators, and a population of several hundred. Nine miles to the west 
of Independence, on the same road, sprung up the village of Jesup in 
the same manner. 

On the night of March 16, 1864. the office safe of the county treas- 
urer was broken open, and robbed of about twenty-six thousand dol- 
lars in money. Two men — Knight and Rorabacher — were accused of 
the crime, arrested and convicted, but no part of the money was ever 
recovered. This loss, together with the large expense incurred in dis- 
covering and trying the burglars, proved a serious inconvenience to the 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



47 



county, and is the only loss ever occurring to the county through rob- 
bery, or through defalcation of officers. In August, 1864, Independ- 
ence was incorpoiated as a city, and Daniel S. Lee chosen its first 
mayor. In 1868 an act of the legislature provided for the erection of a 
hospital for the insane at Independence, and the erection of the build- 
ing was commenced in 1869. In the summer of 1873 the Mihv.nukee 
division of the Burlington, Cedar Rapids & Minnesota railroad was 
completed through the county, and on the line of that road there at 
once sprung up the flourishing village of Hazleton, nine miles north of 
Independence, and of Rowley, about the same distance south. No 
great disaster, either by fire or flood, occurred to mar the prospect of 
the county, or any part of it, until 1873. In November of that year 
quite a serious fire occurred in Independence, destroying nine buildings 
on Main street, most of which were of wood. But on the twenly-fiflh 
of May, 1874. a disastrous conflagration broke out which destroyed 
about forty buildings, nearly all of brick, on Main and Chatham 
streets, and mostly stores, filled with valuable goods. The total loss 
on buildings and goods amounted to ne.ir half a million dollars; but 
before the close of the year nearly all were rebuilt and the traces of the 
conflagration almost obliterated. 

I have now in a manner, necessarily imperfect, sketched the history 
of the settlement and growth of this county. I( it were practicable 
within the limits prescribed by time, space and your endurance, I 
would add a more particular account of the schools, churches, etc. A 
brief mention is. however, all that can be allowed. 

The first school taught in the county was at Quasqueton, in 1844, by 
Alvira Hadden. Some of her pupils are still living in the county, 
among them Mrs. Norton, daughter of Frederick Kessler. The first 
school taught in Independence was by Edward Brewer, in 1848-9. In 
1850 there were not more than three school-houses in the county, all 
log buildings. One of them was near John Boon's, built in 1848. and 
a Miss Ginther taught there in the winter of 1848-9. The first houser 
built in Independence for school purposes was in i85t, and William 
Brazelton erected it at his own expense. It was of hewn logs, and 
about fourteen feet by eighteen in size. O. H. P. Roszell taught the 
first school in it. In 1852 a school-house was erected in Hazleton 
township, at the place now called "Coy town." where the first white 
men in the township — Samuel Sufficool and Daniel C. Greeley— had 
located in 1B47. 

At Spring Grove, in Newton town.ship, a school-house was built in 
1853, near R. C. Waltons; and Ward, Ross and Whitney built a 
school-house in the timber between their cabins, in 1853, the very first 
year they settled in Madison township. In fact, the pioneers of this 
county had hardly got a roof on their cabins to shelter their families, 
before they began to think about schools for their children. These 
first houses were all built either by some single individuals or by sub- 
scription of communities, and the first schools were maintained in the 
same way. Until 1847 there were no regularly defined school districts, 
and up to 1859 the schools were supported by private subscription or 
by rate bills against the patrons. In i860 there were about thirty 
schools in the county. In 1875 the number of school-houses was one 
hundred and thirty-si.x, valued at one hundred and fourteen thousand 
dollars, and the last log house had disappeared, or ceased to be used 
as such. The first union or graded school in the county, was organized 
at Independence in 1867, with Professor Wilson Palmer, as principal; 
the first building for that purpose being completed at the same date. 
There are now two graded schools at Independence, one at Winthrop, 
one at Jesup, and one at Quasqueton. 

Of churches it is not easy to obtain statistics; but the first chtirch 
building in the county was at Independence, and built by the Methodist 
Episcopalians in 1855. and the next at Quasqueton in 1856. There 
are now twenty-eight chuich buildings in the county, of which two are 
in Newton township, one in Homer, three in Jeff'erson, three in Liberty, 
two in Winthrop, eight in Independence, three in Jesup, two in Fair- 
banks, and three in Madison. Three of them are Catholic — Fairbanks, 
Independence and Newton having one each. The value of these 
buildings is not less than one hundred and fifty thousand dollars. 

Of mills and manufactories. I have stated the value in 1847 to have 
been two thousand nine hundred dollars, there being then but one 
flouring-mill and two saw-mills. In 1848, another saw-mill was built 
on Pine creek; in 1852 Daniel Greeley built another on Otter creek, in 
Hazleton township; the same year Samuel Sherwood, a flouring-mill at 
Independence. In 1854 Messrs. White & Little erected a saw-miU at 
Littleton, and in 1863 a flouring-mill was erected at Littleton, and 
about the same time one at Fairbanks and one on Otter creek. There 
are now eight flouring-miUs in the county, and their value probably 
about one hundred and fifty thousand dollars; one in Independence, 



built in 1867, valued at seventy-five thousand dollars. Among other 
manufactories there are cheese factories in Fairbanks and Byron town- 
ships, and one near Winthrop; also three creameries in Madison town- 
ship. 

The mercantile interests has increased in a still greater ratio; for. 
while in 1850. there was but one store in the county — that at Quasque- 
ton — kept by S. V. Thompson, and with a stock of goods not worth 
more than five hundred dollars, there are now mercantile houses 
scattered all over the county, at least a hundred in number, and the 
value of goods kept in stock must exceed half a million dollars. 
Besides these, there are dealers in lumber, grain, stock, farm machinery 
and produce, in Independence, Winthrop, Jesup, Hazleton, and Row. 
ley, and each of these places have elevators and grain warehouses. 
There were shipped from Winthrop during the past year five hundred 
and seventy-four car-loads of grain, and one hundred of stock; and 
from Jesup nearly as many, and as many more from the two stations of 
Hazleton and Rowley; from Independence about one thousand cars of 
grain and stock, one dealer, W. A. Jones, having shipped during that 
time nearly three hundred cars of stock, mostly hogs. 

Of the professions. Dr. Edward Brewer was the first practicing phy- 
sician in the county; Dr. Lovejoy the first at Independence, and died 
there in 1848. Dr. R. W. Wright was the third, having settled in 
Independence in 1851. Dr. H. H. Hunt comes next in order, and has 
practiced medicine in the county for over twenty years. 

The pioneers among the lawyers were Captain D. S. l^e, in 1852; 
James Jamison and J. S. Woodward, in 1853; Colonel Jed Lake, in 
1855, and Vi. G. Donnan, in 1856. All are still residents of Inde- 
pendence and practicing their profession. 

In the ministerial profession the Methodists were, as usual, the first 
in the field. I have not been able to learn what missionary earliest 
penetrated the wilderness to this county. George I Cummings, Wes- 
leyan Methodist, was one of the eailiest at Quasqueton, and was the 
pioneer preacher in Independence. Rev. Mr. Brown was the first reg- 
ular Me.hodist Episcopal preacher located here, and the Rev. William 
Poor, whose son now fills the responsible office of county treasurer. 

Of secret, social and benevolent societies, the first organized was Cf 
Odd Fellows, in 1855 or 1856. at Quasqueton; and the next of the 
Masons at Independence in 1856 with John Bogart as W. M. The 
first chapter of Masons was organized at Independence in 1857, with 
George Warne, H. P. There are now lodges of Odd Fellows and 
Masons at Quasqueton and Independence; of Masons, at Independence, 
Winthrop, Jesup, Fairbanks and in Cono township; of United W^ork- 
men, at Winthrop and Independence; and of Granges, being organiza- 
tions of farmers for mutual protection, improvement and enjoyment, in 
every township in the county except Newton, having a membership of 
over seven hundred and fifty. The first county agricultural society 
was organized in 1858, dissolved and reorganized in 1870 as a joint 
stock company, since which time it has been in successful operation 
and holds annual fairs, and now owns forty acres of land and buildings 
thereon, near Independence, valued at ten thousand dollars. 

The earliest organization of fire companies in the county, was in 
1862, when two hook and ladder companies were formed in Independ- 
ence. One of them composed exclusively of Germans soon purchased 
a hand engine, and became an Engine Co., but after a few, years dis- 
banded and donated their engine to the city, but reorganized in 1874, 
and now have charge of the same engine. The other, organized as 
"Hook & Ladder Co., No i." maintained their organization till June. 
1874; when, the city having in the previous month purchased a steam 
fire engine, they reorganized as a Steamer Company, and have now 
charge of the steam fire engine. 

The first bank of issue in the county, was the "First National bank 
of the City of Independence," which began business in December, 
1865, with a capital of fifty thousand dollars, since increased to one hun- 
dred thousand dollars. A second, "The People's National bank," was 
organized in the fall of 1874. The first bank of exchange was that of 
Brewer, Bemis & Roszell," in 1854, and "Older. Lee & Co." in the same 
year, both of which were drawn into the whirlpool of speculation in 1855. 
-6.-7. and perished in the general wreck of 1857. -8. 

The first post oflice in the county was at Quasqueton, established in 
1843; the next, at Independence, established in 1848, with S. P. 
Stoughton as postmaster. The total proceeds of the Independence 
office in 1850, did not exceed six dollars. Now. there are fifteen offices 
in the county, and the salary of the single office at Independence is 
over two hundred times the total postage received in 1850. 

Gas was first introduced into Independence in the winter of 1874--5. 

In addition to the newspapers I have mentioned, both of which are 

now published in Independence, one as the Independence Coiueri'ative 



48 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



and one as the Buchanan County BiiUclin, a third is now published 
at Jesup, styled The V'indicator. 

In 1820, there was not a bridge of any description in the county. 
Now, the Wapsipinicon is spanned with wrought iron bridges at Quas- 
queton, built in 1874; Independence, built in 1872, and Littleton, 
built in 1876. Besides these, there are two other, wooden, bridges 
across the main river; and an iron bridge at Fairbank, andOtteiville; and 
every stream in the county is substantially bridged at each highway 
crossing. 

The population of the county in 1846, wns one hundred and forty- 
nine; in 1848, two hundred and hfty; in 1850, five hundred and seven- 
teen; in i860, seven thousand nine hundred and six; and in 1875, 
seventeen thousand three hundred and fifteen. 

The total valuation of all property in 1850, was forty-six thousand 
nine hundred and fifty-eight dollars; and in 1875, four million eight 
hundred and twenty-ninethousand nine hundred and ninety-nine dollars. 
The total taxes levied in 1850, were three hundred and seventy dollars 
and twenty cents; and m 1870, one hundred and twelve thousand four 
hundred and sixty-four dollars. 

I would be glad to have written with more particularity of the 
settlement and growth of the several townships and villages in the 
county; but it wns impracticable in the time and space allotted. I 
would that I could have graced these annals, not alone with the names, 
but with a personal sketch of all those pioneers whose brave hearts led 
them to this wilderness of prairie, which their sturdy hands have 
converted into a garden of cultivated fields, glowing with golden grain, 
— whose industry, intelligence, and taste have changed the very face 
of nature, so that this endless expanse of treeless plain which they found 
spread before them like a sailless sea. is now green, not only with the 
verdure of meadow and the waving corn, but with the groves that the 
hands have planted around each dwelling of the thousands which 
every where adorn the lovelv landscape. I would I might have space to 
write of the Menills, the Morgans. McKinneys, Beckleys, N'eidys, Wil- 
sons, and Logans, whose dwellings were among the first along Pine 
creek, and between here and Quasqueton; of Davis, Hadens, Thomp- 
sons, Cummings and Parker, and Hastings and Mowrer, who wrought 
so faithfully to build up the thriving village which marks the spot where 
stood the cabin of the first settler in the county; of Foreman, and Glass, 
and Hoover, and Holland and Carson and Cooper, who thirty years ago, 
and more, settled where they or their children now reside, in the 
township called Newton; of Everett, and Patterson, and Myers, 
and Conable, and Wright, who created the village of Fairbanks, 
and Clark, whose name leads all the rest in B'airbanks township; 
and Melrose, whose name and speech reminds us of the ancient Abby 
■ in "Old Scotland," where he was born, whose little dwelling of one 
room above and one below, used, a quarter of a century ago, to accom- 
modate twenty weary tiavellers and more, of a night, as I can testify; 
and had it been as large as his heart, creation could not crowd it; 
of Little, whose memory is perpetuated in Littleton village, and not 
less worthily in the sons and daughters who have succeeded him. Of 
the Greeleys, and Kints, and Bounce, and Phillips, and Barr, and Ross, 
and Mintons, and Curtises, whose hearts and hands, and cabin doors, 
were never locked; of Smyser and of Sparling, and of Isaac Sufficool 
and his good wife, just gone together to a better land to receive their 
records for the glorious virtues which their lives so nobly illustrated; 
of Richardson, the sturdy representative of the pines of Maine, and 
of Richmond, the compeer of Sevmour and Ross and Ward in the 
early settlement of Madison ; of Elliott, whose shanty was the first 
in the prairie sea in the north of Fremont ; of Leatherman and Rise- 
ley, who were first to brave the mid-ocean of Middlefield ; of the 
Greys, William and Henry, the hardy borderers the smoke from whose 
cabins first floated over the timber of Spring creek in Jefferson; 
of Day and Beach, whose dwellings first relieved the loneliness of 
the road to Brandon; and of the Notions, who for twenty-three years 
have tilled the soil of Sumner, Homer and Liberty townships ; of the 
Boones, noble representatives of the family from which they sprung, 
so famous in the early annals of Kentucky ; of Sherwood, as true and 
trusty and indomitable as the granite of his native State ; of S. S. 
Allen, and Olders, and Whaits, and P. C. Wilcox, and the Clarkes; 
of S. S.|McClure, whose opulence in intelligence and wit and gener- 
osity and frankness made every man his friend, yet whose poverty in 
that worldly wisdom which acquires and retains wealth leaves him, in 
middle age, a homeless wanderer from the city which he founded in his 
youth, and fostered faithfully and fondly in his young and vigorous 
manhood; and of many others, whose skill and labor and energy de- 
serve a better monument than this, but it may not be. 

The personal history of some of these early settlers would fill a vol- 



ume, and read like a romance. Rufus B. Clark, who first settled at 
Independence, was the first white child born in what is now the city of 
Cleveland, Ohio. He wandered to the mines of Wisconsin: then here; 
then northwest toward the head waters of the Cedar; thence farther 
northwest into the wilds of Minnesota; thence across the continent to 
the west of the Sierra Nevadas, and at last lies sleeping in death on 
Whitby's island, in far-off Puget sound. 

John Obenchain, bred among the mountains of Tennessee, imbibed 
the wildness of his native surroundings; here in 1847; then across the 
plains to California in 1850; back again in 1853 to find neighbors too 
many and near to be endured; again to California; and now away in 
the wilds of Oregon, with his cattle and savage bear dogs, his hair 
long and white: a patriarch as rough and rugged and intractable, and 
honest and sincere, as the mountains which surround him, and with 
their friendly frown scare back intruders. 

But mto this enticing field I must not enter. .A single glance dem- 
onst."ates its extent and its romantic interest, and must suffice. The 
brief outlines which I have sketched of the settlement, growth and 
present condition of the county, is all that is possible, and will enable 
us to note the progress we have made; and it may be the historian of 
the day when the children of our children's children shall meet to com- 
memorate the falling of another century from " His hand whence cen- 
turies fall like grains of sand," may, in these annals, find material for 
one page of his. 



CHAPTER IV. 

SETTLEMENT AND POPULATION. 

There are those who profess to beheve that the coni- 
monlv received chronology of the Bible, which represents 
the entire human race to have sprung from a single pair, 
created about six thousand years ago, cannot be true; 
because, as they allege, there has not been time enough 
according to that chronology, for the race to have 
multiplied to its present e.xtent; nor to have accomplished 
what their present condition, and the records and monu- 
ments of the past, prove that they have, in fulfillment of 
the command to "replenish the earth and subdue it." But 
let any man, of ordinary observation and reflection, pass 
through Buchanan county and witness its present condition 
— its thousands of cultivated farms and commodious 
farm-houses, many of them already, wearing the look of 
age and surrounded by the large trees that were planted 
for their protection — let him drive over its well-built 
roads and across its many streams, everywhere substan- 
tially bridged — let him note the school-houses that dot 
its surface and the troops of children that gather there for 
instruction — let him visit its score of villages, all vocal 
with the sounds of industry; and especially its capital, 
now a thriving city of nearly four thousand inhabitants — 
let him observe its well-kept streets and side-walks; its 
elegant public and private buildings, business houses, 
churches and schools, which would do credit to any town 
of its size in New York or New England — let him see all 
this, and remember that it is less than forty years since 
the first white settlers came to this county — that hundreds 
of people are now living here who had passed their 
majority before the first furrows had broken the virgin 
soil af these prairies — and that many of these old settlers 
assisted in laying the first foundations of the marvelous 
civilization that everywhere meets his gaze — let him 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



49 



remember all this, and, at the same time, recall the fact 
that this astonishing change is only a sample of that which 
has taken place, and is now taking place, throughout atl 
our northwestern States and territories — a region greater 
in extent than that of some of the most powerful empires 
of the old world — and, while recalling this, let him not 
forget that no country has been depleted to furnish 
population for this vast region, and that a great majority 
of the people now occupying it were born less than fifty 
years ago — and he will be a willing skeptic indeed, if he 
doubts that six thousand years are a period long enough, 
not only to have produced from a single pair, all the race 
of men that now exist; but long enough also to have 
enabled them to produce all the wonderful works of 
power and skill by which they have so far replenished 
and subdued the earth. 

History repeats itself; and the human race is doing 
to-day, here in Buchanan county, and throughout the 
west, only what it has been doing ever since the great 
dispersion, four thousand years ago. Westward "the 
star of empire" has ever taken its way, and when there 
remains no more land "to be possessed" in this direction, 
some new and startling crisis in the history of the world 
will doubtless have been reached. 

FIRST SETTLERS. 

From Andreas' Historical Atlas, and from personal 
information, we have gleaned the following facts concern- 
ing the early settlements of this county: 

The first white man that came here to reside, was 
William Bennett, who had been a resident of Delaware 
county, and had there also been the first white settler. 
He brought his family here in February, 1842; having 
built a small log cabin on the site of the present village 
Quasquetown, at a point on the east side of the Wapsi- 
pinicon, a short distance above the location of the flour- 
ing mill recently destroyed by fire. 

Bennett is believed to have been a native of New 
England. He was a rough and restless character, and 
remained in the county only about a year. Having con- 
ceived a violent grudge against the adventurer Johnson, 
whose arrival is recorded further on, he formed a con- 
spiracy with five or six companions to waylay and lynch 
him. They carried out their plot, whipping the man in 
the most shameful manner. Fear of arrest compelled 
them all to flee from the settlement on the very night of 
the outrage, which was in the dead of winter, and fear- 
fully cold. They set out for Coffin's grove, in Delaware 
county, which they managed to reach — but all of them 
except Bennett in a more or less frozen condition. Two 
of the company died from the effects of their exposure; 
but what became of Bennett and his family is not known. 

About the same time with Bennett came S. G. and H. T. 
Sanford and Ezra B. Allen. Early the same spring Dr. 
Edward Brewer, now residing in Independence and the 
oldest living settler in the county, came with Rufus B. 
Clark and family, and settled about a mile and a half 
from Quasqueton. William W. Hadden and Frederick 
Kessler and family also came about the same time. A 
man by the name of David Styles came with his family 



during the summer of the same year, and opened a hotel 
at the settlement. 

Bennett was engaged in improving the water-power 
and erecting a mill, and had several young men employed 
who boarded with him. Their names were Jeffers, War- 
ner, Day, Wall and Evens. At least one of these, 
namely Warner, was an accomplice of Bennett's in the 
lynching outrage, and had his feet badly frozen in the 
flight to Coffin's Grove. 

During the fliU of the same year there came, among 
others, three young men — Henry B. Hatch, who made 
his home with Kessler, and Daggett and Simmons, who 
lived for a time with Mr. Clark. A few patches of land 
were broken the first spring and cultivated for potatoes 
and other garden vegetables, and perhaps a little corn ; 
but no wheat was raised until the following year. 

Some time during the fall or early winter of the first 
year, a man by the name of Johnson settled at a point 
about midway between Quasqueton and the present site 
of Independence. He claimed to be the famous Cana- 
dian patriot of that name, who had lived for years among 
the islands of the St. Lawrence river. He was accom- 
panied by a rather attractive young woman whom he 
spoke of as his daughter Kate, the identical "Queen of 
the Thousand Islands." Subsequent events, however, 
proved that he was "an escaped criminal, and an adven- 
turer of the worst sort." His stay was of short contin- 
uance. The opening up of a new settlement always 
attracts some disreputable adventurers; but it is greatly 
to the credit of the first permanent settlers of Buchanan 
county that they soon made it so uncomfortable for such 
characters as to compel them to seek a more congenial 
abode. 

This chapter is designed to give one the commencement 
of settlement. The settlements in the several townships, 
and sketches of the first settlers, so far as materials for 
them can be found, will be given in the several township 
histories. 

FIRST EVENTS. 

The first store in the county was opened during the 
first year, and in the first place of its settlement, by 
"Old Dick" — that being all that is now remembered of 
the name belonging to the first Buchanan merchant. 
His stock was very "general;" one item being the best 
brand obtainable of Old Bourbon whiskey. 

The first sermon was preached in the Quasqueton 
settlement, during its first summer, by a minister named 
Clark. Let us hope that it proved something of an anti- 
dote to Old Dick's influence. 

The first mill was one built on the Wapsie — begun by 
Bennett, in 1842, and finished by W. W. Haddon, 1843. 

The first hotel was opened for the accommodation of 
the first settlement, during its first year, 1842 — David 
Styles being the proprietor, as stated above. 

The first death in the new settlement was that of a boy, 
seven or eight years old, who was a son of John Cordell, 
and who died in 1843 or 1844. 

The first post oflSce in the county was established at 
Quasqueton, in the year 1845 ■ ^"d William Richards 
was the first postmaster. 



so 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



The first marriage was that of Dr. Edward Brewer 
and Miss Mary Ann Hathaway, celebrated in March, 
1846. The ceremony was performed by Joseph A. 
Reynolds, then a justice of the peace, for Delaware 
county. 

The first white child born in the county was Charles 
B. Kessler, son of Frederick Kessler. He was born 
near Quasqueton, July 13, 1842; and his mother, now 
Mrs. Heman Morse, still resides at Independence. 

The first law office opened in the county, was that of 
James Jamison, of Independence, recently deceased. 
He commenced practice here in 1847 or 1848 — D. S. 
Lee commencing about the same time. 

The first school was taught by Dr. E. Brewer, in a 
small log house in Independence, in the winter of 1848. 
The building was afterwards used as a blacksmith shop. 

The first Buchanan newspaper was the Independence 
Civilian, a Democratic organ, the first number of which 
was issued on the seventeenth of May, 1855, — B. F. 
Parker and James Hilleary being the proprietors. 

SOURCES OF POPUL.\TION. 

The settlers immigating to Buchanan county, have 
come mainly from Ohio, Pennsylvania, New York, and 
the New England States. There are, at present, a good 
many persons of foreign birth in the count)', but they 
did not come in very large numbers till after 1858. They 
are mostly Germans and Irish ; but there are a few 
Polanders and Scandinavians. 

In the southeast corner of the county, in Newton 
township, along Buffalo creek, there is quite a colony of 
Irish. In Fairbank township, in the extreme northwest 
corner of the county, there are a good many Irish and 
Germans, and some Polanders. About one-tenth of the 
present population is of foreign birth; but the foreign 
element is fast becoming assimilated with the native, and 
it would be difficult to find a more intelligent, enterpris- 
ing, moral, and industrious class of people, than those 
constituting the present population of Buchanan county. 

The winters are too vigorous to be very attractive to 
the colored people; but there are about half a dozen 
families of that race now living in Independence, who 
are honest, frugal, and industrious people, enjoying in a 
good degree the confidence and respect of their neigh- 
bors. 

The Iowa census of 1875, taken by State authority, 
gives Buchanan county seventeen thousand, three hun- 
dred and fifteen inhabitants. The national census just 
taken, gives it seventeen thousand, nine hundred and 
seventy-two — an increase, in five years, of only si.\ hundred 
and fifty-seven souls. If both these enumerations are 
correct (and, of course, they must be accepted as such), 
Buchanan has fallen considerably short of holding its 
own, in the matter of population; for this five years' gain 
is hardly more than the natural increase for one year. 
This is to be accounted for by the recent opening up of 
excellent farming lands in Dakota, and other western 
territories. Not only have immigrants from the east 
passed by or through our county, seeking homes further 
west, but there has even been a considerable emi- 



gration from the county for the same purpose. 
Whether those who have left us have bettered their con- 
dition, may well be doubted. But, however this may be, 
the check thus given to our noble county, will doubtless 
be only temporary. Only the very best lands west of the 
Missouri can equal ours, and they will soon be occupied. 
When this takes place, we shall not only keep the natural 
increase of our own population, but emigration from the 
still swarming hive of the east will again be directed to 
our desirable, yet unoccupied, space; and the compara- 
tively quiet, yet every way pleasant and prosperous times 
of the present, will give place to the activity, enterprise, 
and excitement that come with rapidly increasing popu- 
lation. 



CHAPTER V. 

EARLY MAILS AND MEANS OF COMMUNICATION. 

It was three years after the first settlements began to 
be made in the county before a regular post office was 
established within its limits. During this time the settlers 
had their mail matter directed to the most convenient 
post offices, and thence it was brought by private con- 
veyance, as opportunity afforded. The settlers about 
Quasqueton, and farther north, obtained their mails from 
the nearest office in Delaware or Dubuque county. In 
the early part of the first winter (1842-3) there came a 
heavy snow storm followed by sleet, which left a crust 
over the deep snow, sufficiently strong to bear up the 
weight of a man, if not too heavy. During this time 
Frederick Kessler was selected, on account of being 
small and light, to bring the mail on foot, once a week, 
from a settlement in Delaware county, called "The Col- 
ony," near Ead's grove. As there was then no post office 
in the county of Delaware, the mail must have been 
brought to this place from Dubuque by private convey- 
ance, and the matter directed to the Quasqueton settlers 
was held for them till they could find some means of 
sending for it. The most of the mail matter, as well be- 
fore as after the establishment of post offices within the 
county, came by way of Dubuque; but some of the set- 
tlers south of Quasqueton, previous to the location of 
the post office at that place, were accustomed to getting 
their mail from Marion, in Linn county. We are in- 
formed that the first post office in Delaware county was 
established at Delhi, in the fall of 1843 : and that it "was 
supplied with mail once a week by William Smith, of 
Dubuque, who had the first mail contract through the 
county, from Dubuque via Delhi to Quasqueton, in Bu- 
chanan county, which he carried on horseback." But if 
he carried the mail to Quasqueton from the commence- 
ment of his contract, he must have made a private ar- 
rangement with the settlers of that place, since the post 
office was not established there till 1845. D. S. Davis 
was principally influential in securing it, and William 
Richards was the first postmaster. 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



SI 



It is probable that Davis was the second mail con- 
tractor, and that Malcom McBane was the second post- 
master, for, early in 1847, when A. H. Trask came into 
the county from Wisconsin, he found them occupying 
those positions; and he himself "sublet " the mail con 
tract of Davis, in the fall of that year. The contract 
bound him to carry the mail from Quasqueton to Du- 
buque and back, once every week, on horseback or by 
any other conveyance he might choose. The "round 
rip" occupied four days, and he received, as compensa- 
tion, three hundred and sixty-five dollars a year. He 
had a partner by the name of Eli D. Phelps, a brick and 
stone inason by trade, who came from Wisconsin about 
the same time with Trask. They took turns in carrying 
the mail between Dubuque and (Quasqueton ; and after a 
short time took a contract (this also from Davis) for car- 
rying it between Quasqueton and Marion. 

There were, at this time, but four post offices between 
Quasqueton and Dubuque, viz., Coffin's Grove, Delhi, 
Rockville and a farm house near Epworth. When the 
travelling permitted (which was the most of the time, al- 
though there were then no bridges and no roads kept in 
order by the public) they went by wagon or sleigh, and 
carried sometimes a large amount of express matter, in 
addition to the mail. But sometimes, when the roads 
were bad and the streams too high to be forded by a 
wagon, they were compelled to go on horseback, and of 
course carried very little besides the mails. In the win- 
ter the snow was sometimes very deep — Mr. Trask hav- 
ing, on one occasion, broken a track the entire distance 
from Quasqueton to Farley, when the snow was nearly 
three feet deep on a level. 

A NARROW ESCAPE. 

Some time in March, 1848, about the breaking up of 
a hard winter, which is said to have resembled that of 
1880-81, Mr. Trask was returning from Dubuque in a 
sleigh, with the mail and the customary amount of ex- 
press packages. Henry Biddinger, of Quasqueton, a 
harncssmaker who had been at Dubuque during the win- 
ter, working at his trade, was returning home with him. 
A thunder storm came up just as they reached the divid- 
ing ridge between Elk creek and the Buffalo. It had 
been thawing and raining a little, but the sleighing was 
yet quite passable. As the road turned to go toward the 
creek, there came a vivid flash of lightning, followed 
instantly by a terrific clap of thunder. The bolt must 
have struck in the immediate vicinity, as both of the 
men were stunned and momentarily prostrated. Mr. 
Trask fell out of the sleigh, dropping the lines; and Mr. 
Biddinger fell over backward, but remained in the sleigh. 
The horses were frightened, and ran as if they thought 
the lightning was after them. Both men, however, re- 
covered in a moment. Mr. Biddinger first gathered up 
himself, then gathered up the lines, and succeeded in 
stopping the horses. He lost no time in turning them 
about, and starting back to find the missing driver, seri- 
ously apprehending that he should find him dead in the 
road. He had proceeded but a rod or two, however, 
before he saw him running toward the sleigli, as fast as 



his legs could carry him. Almost doubting his senses, 
Mr. Biddinger called out, as soon as the other came 
within hearing distance, "Aren't you killed?" Mr. 
Trask, though but partially recovered from his fright, 
could not help laughing at the oddity of the question, 
and replied: "You must, at least, admit that I'm pretty 
lively for a dead man ! He then resumed his seat and 
the lines, and proceeded toward Quasqueton, where they 
both arrived without further mishap. This was thirty- 
three years ago, the present month ; and both the men 
are still residing in the neighborhood of their adventure, 
and often take pleasure in relating to their friends the 
incidents of their narrow escape. 

After carrying the mail for nearly two years, Trask and 
Phelps sold out to Thomas W. Close, who held the con- 
tract only about a year, "carrying the mail and doing 
the county shopping," when the business was resumed by 
the original contractor, Davis, whose partiality for Quas- 
queton led him to discontinue Independence as a part of 
the regular route; and for some time the residents at the 
latter place had to make private arrangements to get their 
mails carried to Quasqueton and back. 

The post office was established at Independence in 
1848, S. P. Stoughton (the champion of that place, as 
Davis was of Quasqueton) being the postmaster. After 
holding, for a year, the place which brought more fame 
than money, and not enough of either to boast of, he re- 
signed, and Dr. Brewer was appointed in his stead. The 
enterprising and public-spirited doctor assumed the 
duties of mail carrier, as well as of postmaster, and some- 
times, it is said, made the trip to Quasqueton on foot, 
carrying the entire mail in his vest pocket. He paid the 
first quarterage to the Government with a five-franc piece 
—his own commissions amounting to forty-seven and a 
half cents. He held the office for about six years, and 
during no one of them did his income from commissions 
amount to five dollars. After a time he put into the 
office a few rows of letter boxes; and the rent of these 
coming into his pocket, instead of the more capacious 
pocket of the Government, increased his income a little. 

The meagre income of the office is probably to be ac- 
counted for, not so much by the small number of settlers, 
as by their acknowledged lack of money. Their friends 
at the east showed their generous appreciation of this 
state of things by prepaying their postage; and the set- 
tlers showed their equally feeling appreciation of it by 
leaving theirs unpaid. Thus the letters, whether coming 
or going, brought very little money into the office. 

About 1850 the contest for postal supremacy, which 
had been waged for some time and with some bitterness 
between Quasqueton and Independence, was decided by 
making the latter a point on the regular route west, which 
was then extended to Cedar Falls, and placing the for- 
mer on a side route southward. 

A man by the name of Gould was the first mail con- 
tractor on the route from Dubuque to Cedar Falls. Both 
the roads and vehicles began to improve, though the for- 
mer continued to be, at certain seasons of the year al- 
most impassable. Mr. Trask, who, carried off by the gold 
fever, went to California in 1850, found, on his return in 



52 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



1854, regular stage coaches running east and west through 
Independence, and southward from that point through 
Quasqueton. The two railroads, passing through the 
county east and west and north and south, have since 
done away with the through lines of stage coaches; and 
the improvement in the prairie roads, and the construc- 
tion of substantial bridges over all the streams at every 
crossing point, have made the short stage routes that re- 
main comparatively safe and expeditious. 

EARLY ROADS. 

The private ownership of land is necessarily subject to 
the convenience of the public, which demands that some 
of it shall be given up for common highways. And one 
of the first things claiming the attention of the authori- 
ties, after a county is fully organized, is the laying out of 
such highways, with due regard of course to private 
rights, as well as public convenience. The State or Na- 
tion often establishes roads through unsettled territory; 
and these, when counties come to be organized, are 
sometimes retained as originally laid out, but more fre- 
quently, perhaps, are changed or given up altogether. 
Two such roads were already in existence in Buchanan 
county at the time of its organization. One of these 
was established by the authority of the Territory of Wis- 
consin, and extended in a southwesterly direction from 
Fort Atkinson, its southern terminus being Marion, in 
Linn county. Its course through the county was nearly 
south, passing near the place where the village of Win- 
throp now stands, and crossing the Wapsie at Quasque- 
ton. It was called the "mission road," because, as w-e 
are informed, it passed through an early Indian mission 
in Wisconsin, and was designed in part for its accommo- 
dation. The other was a State road from Marion to the 
north line of the State, crossing the river at Quasqueton, 
but running some three or four miles west of the mis- 
sion toad. 

The state of things which existed before the lands 
were enclosed and county roads established, is pictures- 
quely set forth in Judge Roszell's historical address. 
"The settlers," he says, "followed such routes as suited 
their convenience, from house to house and from neigh- 
borhood to neighborhood. Indian trails crossed the 
prairie from stream to stream, leading to fording places; 
and well worn paths led up and down the river, touching 
surely every bubbling spring. Such trails, which recent 
settlers suppose to be merely cattle paths, can be pointed 
out in many places, even to this day, by the pioneers. 
Even after the county seat had been located, and the 
town of Independence laid out, theoretically, into lots 
and streets; there was nothing for sometime, as we learn 
from the same address, to distinguish streets from lots; 
even Main street was only a crooked wagon path through 
the bushes. There was a wagon road cut through the 
timber to the Hickox farm (now known as the Smyser 
farm) and one, more crooked still, out upon the prairie 
east, crossing the first little creek near the Brewer place, 
and the next at the old Sufiicool place. From there it 
followed the edge of the timber to Quasqueton, about 
where the travelled road now runs. There was also a 
track north, by the Obenchain farm and thence across 



the prairie toward Thomas Barr's, and up Otter creek, 
but so faint as to be scarcely discernible. There was 
neither road nor track up the river, except an Indian 
trail ; and not even that across the prairie to the west, 
nor to the east beyond the timber, nor out toward Bran- 
don or Buffalo Grove. To venture two miles west on 
the prairie, was about as dangerous as to venture to sea, 
out of sight of land, without a compass. The mail was 
carried once a week to Cedar Falls, on an Indian pony. 
But there were no marks of any kind to guide the car- 
rier; and if, by careful observation, he kept within a mile 
of the direct course, it was quite a feat of prairie craft. 
The mail came once a week from Dubuque to Indepen- 
dence, via Quasqueton, in a one-horse wagon; but there 
was not a bridge in the county, nor across any stream 
between Independence and Dubuque, nor any regular 
ferry. If streams were too deep to be forded, they must 
be crossed in canoes, or by swiramir>g, or upon rafts. 
Such were the means and methods of intercommunica- 
tion between the different parts of the county, as late as 
1849. 

Several county roads, however, had been regularly 
surveyed and established, and travel in their several di- 
rections was becoming chiefly confined to them. At 
their very first meeting, October i, 1847, the ceunty 
commissioners had received and granted three petitions 
for the establishment of as many different roads within 
the county. The first was for a road from Independence 
east to the county line, in the direction of Cofiin's Grove. 
Rufus B. Clark, James Collier, and John Boon were ap- 
pointed viewers of the saine, to meet on the first Mon- 
day in November. The second was for a road from In- 
dependence to intersect the State road from Marion to 
Fort Atkinson — John Obenchain, Edward Brewer, and 
Elijah Beardsley being appointed viewers, to meet on 
the date last mentioned. And the third was for a road 
from Quasqueton to Independence, on the west side of 
the Wapsipinicon river — the viewers, Rufus B. Clark, 
Levi Billings, and John Cordell, being also directed to 
meet on the first Monday in November. 

At the same meeting it was "ordered to employ a sur- 
veyor to do the surveying on the above roads, and to lay 
off" a town at the county seat." And at their next meet- 
ing, November 3, F. J. Rigand was appointed county 
surveyor. 

The next petition for a road was presented and 
granted at a meeting of the commissioners, April 10, 
1848, the route being from Quasqueton to Otter Creek 
settlement. The viewers appointed were James Collier, 
B. D. Springer, and John Obenchain, who were ordered 
to meet at Quasqueton, on Monday, May i, 1848. 

From that time down to the present, the laying out of 
new roads has occupied much of the time of the county 
commissioners, and, after them, of the supervisors; so 
that now, roads have been established on a large majori- 
ty of the section lines — besides a great many that do not 
follow those lines. Some of these are kept in very good 
condition the year round. Others, in the rainy seasons, 
and at the breaking up of winters, are still well-nigh im- 
passable. 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOW.\. 



53 



The happy era of good roads has not yet dawned up- 
on the county— an era which abundant gravelbeds and 
outcropping ledges of friable limestone arc waiting im- 
patiently to usher in. Let us hope that it will not much 
longer be delayed. 



CHAPTER VI. 

EARLY COMMERCE. 

The beginnings of commerce in a rural district, newly 
settled, are usually marked by much rudeness and sim- 
plicity. The pioneer merchant has not the capital or 
the credit which would enable him to import a large, 
diversified, and elegant stock of goods ; and his custom- 
ers are too few and poor to purchase them, if he had. 
Groceries, embracing only the commonest necessaries of 
life (among which pioneers too often reckon a supply of 
whiskey) take the lead; and dry goods, drugs, and hard- 
ware follow as settlements increase — for money begins to 
come in with the later settlers. There cannot be exten- 
sive imports without exports to counterbalance them; 
and for the first few years, pioneers have little or nothing 
to export. 

The beginnings of commercial enterprise in Buchanan 
county were no exception to the general rule. At first 
there was no attempt to separate, as now, the different 
classes of commodities; since no one class could com- 
mand sufiicient custom to support a separate dealer. It 
was, therefore, not unusual to find even hardware and 
drugs associated with the inseparable "dry goods and 
groceries." The earliest dealers purchased their supplies 
in Dubuque. Later, trips were made to Chicago and 
New York for the purpose of making purchases. Some 
bought their goods in St. Louis, from which place they 
came to Dubuque by the river. From Dubuque they 
were hauled to this county in wagons. The merchants 
themselves often kept one or more teams, which were 
constantly employed in hauling their own goods. The 
independent teamsters, however, constituted quite a 
large class of laboring men. 

The round trip from Quasqueton or Independence to 
Dubuque and back consumed an entire week. Most of 
the vehicles were covered two-horse wagons; though in 
bad weather, four horses were often attached to one wagon. 
The teamsters always went in companies, not only for 
the sake of mutual assistance in case of necessity, but 
because there were so many of them that they could not 
well go otherwise. When it is borne in mind that before 
the railroad was built the population of Buchanan county 
had reached seven or eight thousand, that Delaware and 
Dubuque counties, between here and the city were still 
more populous, that several other counties west of here 
were rapidly filling up, and that the supplies for all these 
people — largely the lumber for their dwellings, and their 
household goods and furniture, as well as their groceries 



and dry goods, were hauled over the same wagon route; 
when all this is borne in mind, it will not be difficult to 
fancy the number of men and teams and wagons that 
must have been employed in this extensive carrying 
trade. And no one will regard as extravagant the com- 
mon statement that the lines of canvass-covered vehicles 
often looked like the supply trains of an army. 

For a long time most of the wagons went to Dubuque 
empty, since there were no manufactures to ship to the 
east, and the surplus products of the farms were either 
consumed here or shipped to the settlers further west. 
For a few years, however, before the railroad was built, 
flour from the mill at Independence (and perhaps also 
from the one in Quasqueton) and corn, wheat and pork 
from the farms began to be sent to Dubuque in wagons, 
but never in large quantities. 

The usual price for freight was one dollar per hundred 
weight. This, of itself, made the cost of heavy com- 
modities very high. The freight on a barrel of salt was 
three dollars; and the price of the article (including 
freight) six or seven dollars. The best salt, as at present, 
(and in fact, almost the entire supply) was brought from 
Syracuse, New York — one of the principal salt centres 
of the world. 

Financial matters were managed quite differently then 
from what they now ars. There being no banks to fur- 
nish exchange, large sums of money were sent east 
whenever goods were to be paid for. Dealers, paying 
for their supplies in Dubuque, would often send money 
by teamsters. And when they went to New York or 
other eastern cities to make purchases, large sums were 
taken with them — not to pay for the goods then pur- 
chased, but to settle former accounts. For goods were 
purchased upon four or six months' credit, instead of 
thirty days, as at present. 

The first bank (not of issue, but only for deposit and 
exchange) was established in the old Brewer block on 
Main street by Beemis, Brewer & Roszell, about 1856. 
From that time remittances began to be made by mail; 
and merchants going east, began to take with them drafts 
instead of cash, or else leave their money on deposit, 
subject to check. 

THE PERSONNEL OF BUCHANAN'S EARLY COMMERCE. 

If men need not be ashamed to own, according to the 
teachings of Darwin and company, that they have been 
developed from the monkey, the present dignified race of 
Buchanan merchants need not blush to be informed that 
they have been developed, so to speak, from " Bill Dick," 
sometimes called William Richards for long, who opened 
the first store ever seen in the county, at Quasqueton, in 
1843. His stock was not extensive, nor was his supply of 
the minor necessaries of life always abundant; but his barrel 
of whiskey, like the better barrel of the widow of Zare- 
phath, "failed not." 

We need not regret that this peculiar variety of the 
genus merchant did not perpetuate itself. Unfortunately 
the barrel of whiskey still lasts, and seeks to maintain a 
respectable alliance with drugs; but it was, years ago, cast 
ofT as an unfit associate for dry goods, groceries or hard- 
ware. 



54 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



D. S. Davis and S. V. Thoinpson were the first regular 
merchants in the county, commencing their successful 
career at Quasqueton about 1845 — a couple of years be- 
fore the first beginnings at Independence. 

The first merchant at the county-seat was Charles 
Cummings, who had his store in a log building near the 
lower end of main, just east of Chatham street. Wil- 
liam Brazleton came next, in a store on the corner where 
the First National bank now is. He put up the first 
building on the corner south of the bank, and there kept 
the first hotel of Independence, which was afterwards 
changed to the Montour House. 

Among those who may properly be called pioneer mer- 
chants, the only ones (except R. R. Plane, to be mentioned 
further on) who are still engaged in mercantile business 
are the two brothers, A. H. and Orville Fonda, the former 
of whom has a news stand and variety store in the Hage- 
man building (Bulletin block), and the latter a dry goods 
and grocery store at the corner of Main and River streets, 
west of the bridge. Orville Fonda came from Janesville, 
Wisconsin, in 1853. He was for sometime engaged in 
the preparation of the buhr stones for the flouring mill, 
then in process of erection. A. H., the elder brother, 
came from the Stale of New York in 1854, and opened a 
store in a wooden building, on the same corner where the 
stone store of O. Fonda now stands. About 1856 the 
two brothers went into business together, at the same 
place. F'or some six years they were associated under 
the firm name of A. H, Fonda & Co. 

In i860 the old wooden building was moved east to 
the bank of the river, where Mr. Clark's building now is, 
and the present stone building was erected in its place. 
After this Orville was out of the business for some years; 
but, in i860, he bought out his brother, and has been 
doing business there by himself ever since. 

Among the merchants who were in business in Inde- 
pendence when the Fonda brothers commenced, was 
James Forrester, who, in the spring of 1852, opened a 
general store (groceries, dry goods, hardware and drugs) 
in the place where the "wigwam" now stands. He still 
lives near the city limits, on Main street, east, where he 
has a fine farm and attractive residence. 

E. B. and P. A. Older also had a store at this time, on 
Main, between Chatliam and Walnut streets. They, too, 
are still living in town, but have retired from business. 

R. R. Plane is the pioneer hardware merchant of the 
county, coming to Independence from Belvidere, Illi- 
nois, in 1854. He began in a small way on Main street, 
where Davis' meat market now is. He was there about 
ten years, then two years in the Wilcox block, then pur- 
chased a lot in front of Chatham street, on which he 
built a fine store. He was burnt out in 1874, and re- 
built on the same lot the store he now occupies. His 
business amounted to about eight thousand dollars the 
first year, last year about forty thousand, and has reached 
as high as seventy-five thousand dollars a year. 

Mr. D. Smith, still living on the west side, commenced 
the hardware trade about a year after Mr. Plane, but he 
has been out of the business for several years. 

The early commerce of the county embraces, besides 



the mercantile interest, thus far mainly considered, the 
milling interest and 'the shipping of grain and live stock. 
The milling interest has from early times been largely 
represented by a single name — that of Samuel Sherwood. 
He came to the county in 1847, from Janesville, Wis- 
consin, with Stoughton and his co-pioneers. He had 
previously been engaged in the milling business, a mill- 
wright by trade, having served his apprenticeship under 
T. B. Hall, of Vermont. He came to Independence to 
put up a saw-mill for Mr. Stoughton. The saw-mill was 
built nearly upon the same ground where the present 
flouring-mill stands. Two years later another was built, 
a short distance lower down. These mills sawed a large 
amount of lumber, all of which, of course, was used in 
the immediate vicinity. 

The first flouring-mill, the "old mill," as it is now 
called, was built at Independence in 1854. The name 
by which it was known in its own day and generation 
was "The New Haven mills" — New Haven being the 
name first given to that portion of the town west of the 
river. Previous to this the people of Independence had 
procured their flour mainly from Quasqueton, at which 
place a custom mill had been in operation for several 
years. The old mill, like the one at Quasqueton, did for 
the most part a custom business, though it did at differ- 
ent times ship considerable flour to the west, and occa- 
sionally a little to Dubuque. The mill built in 1854 did 
a fair business for about fifteen years, being owned dur- 
ing all that time by Sanford Clark and Samuel Sherwood, 
who then thought it advisable to pull down and build 
larger. The present fine structure of stone and brick 
was begun in the summer of 1868 and completed in two 
years. It was built and has always been owned by a 
stock company, the Hon. P. C. Wilcox, now deceased, 
being at first the principal stockholder. A few years ago 
the mill at Quasqueton (unfortunately burned last fall) 
was purchased by the Independence company, and the 
entire stock was increased to one hundred and twenty 
thousand dollars. Of this, Mr. Sherwood is now the 
largest owner. The property has always been lucrative, 
realizing in one of its best years a net profit of eleven 
per cent, to the stockholders. During the existence of 
the old mill the supply of wheat was obtained entirely 
from this county. But since the failure of wheat here, 
their supplies have been obtained principally from Min- 
nesota, but largely also from Dakota, from which terri- 
tory the best wheat is now obtained. Their best market 
is Chicago, the next St. Louis, and after that New Orleans. 

Thomas Scarcliff is probably the oldest representative 
of the grain trade in the county. He came through 
this part of the country, on a prospecting tour, in 1851. 
At that time he entered two hundred and forty acres in 
Washington township; one hundred and sixty acres adjoin- 
ing the original town plat of Independence, on the north, 
and now called Scarclifls's second addition; the other 
eighty acres one half mile east. He came from England 
in 1847, spending two years in the State of New York, 
thence two years in Janesville, Wisconsin, from which 
place he joi.ied the caravan of immigration to Buchanan 
county. 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



5S 



Having returned to Janesville, after locating his land 
he came again in the spring of 1852; but there was so 
much sickness (chiefly fever and ague) that he remained 
only ten days. The next year he came and spent the 
entire summer, but he did not locate himself here 
permanently till 1854. 

In 1856 he began grain buying in a small way — his 
first operation being the purchase of five hundred bushels 
of oats in Linn county, which he sold here at a price 
ranging from ninety cents to a dollar a bushel. The 
very next year the price dropped down to about ten 
cents a bushel. During that year he made a nice little 
speculation on two hundred bushels of oats, purchased 
here at twelve cents a bushel; shipped by wagon to 
Earlville, then the terminus of the railroad; thence taken 
to Dubuque by rail, and thence by river to St. Louis, 
where they were sold at seventy-five cents a bushel 
Two years later (1859) when the rails were extended to 
this place, he had two thousand bushels of wheat, and 
as many of oats, ready for shipment by the first freight 
train east. 

The wheat crop began to fail about seven years ago — 
and for the past five, very little has been sowed. Yet, 
from the increased production of other kinds of grain 
(chiefly corn, oats and flax seed) the grain trade is now 
about as good as ever; while the profits of agriculture, as 
a whole, from the more diversified pursuits upon which 
farmers have entered (especially in the raising of cattle, 
horses and hogs, and the manufacture of butter) have 
become greater than ever before. Mr. Scarcliff now 
ships about two thousand car-loads of corn per year; 
whereas, during the wheat years, corn was hardly taken 
into the account. He estimates the amount of corn now- 
znnually shipped from this place, at a hundred thousand 
bushels, that of oats two hundred. Flax seed began to 
be raised, on a large scale, about three years ago. The 
quantity shipped from here in 1879 is estimated at 
forty thousand bushels — in 1880, at one hundred thou- 
sand. 

Mr. Scarcliff owns two warehouses, just east of the Illi- 
nois Central Railroad station— both of them taken down 
and brought h€re from the east, on the completion of the 
railroad to this point — one from Dyersville, and the other 
from Earlville. He thinks that, on the whole, these 
warehouses, though involving much greater amount of 
hand labor, have been more profitable, during the transi- 
tion through which the grain trade has passed, than an 
elevator '-'with all the modern improvements;" since they, 
easily adapting themselves to the fluctuations of the trade, 
have been kept constantly open and doing business; 
while the elevators, owing to the heavy expense involved 
in running them, have had to be shut up a good deal of 
the time. Encouraged, however, by the revival of 
business, he has recently purchased the elevator just west 
of the depot. 

William P. Brown, entered into the grain trade here 
about the same time with Mr. Scarcliff; and, like him, 
has been a very successful dealer. He owns a fine ele- 
vator next east of Mr. Scarcliff's warehouses. 

The pioneer dealer in live stock, in this county is 



E. Cobb, who came to Independence in 1853, from Illinois 
The first business he engaged in, after coming here, was 
hotel-keeping in the house which he built and still occu- 
pies, on Main street, west side, opposite the present public 
school building. He continued in that business about 
six years. Before quitting it, however, (that is to say, in 
the year 1857,) he embarked in the business of buying, 
feeding and selling cattle and hogs. His farm, which is 
now mostly in grass for pasturage and meadow, consists 
of nearly three hundred acres, adjoining the town on 
the west. His cattle barn is a comfortable and commo- 
dious building, forty-two feet wide by two hundred in 
length. At first he dealt about equally in hogs and cat- 
tle, but since about 1870 he has dealt in cattle mostly. 
He shipped the first car-load of cattle that was taken 
from here over the Illinois Central road, in 1859; and 
also over the Burlington road, in 1873. He transported 
no live hogs before the railroad was built, but many 
large droves of cattle were driven east previous to that 
time, sometimes being taken across the river on the ice, 
and sometimes by ferry boat. 

He has an effective and ingenious method of enrich- 
ing his meadows and cultivating the grass, by a process 
called "brushing," by which their productiveness is con- 
tinued year after year without re-seeding. One of his 
largest meadows has been constantly in grass for twenty- 
six years. 

J. D. Myers, now living in Nebraska, was connected 
with Mr. Cobb in business for six or seven years, from 
about the year r86o. 

William A. Jones is also a pioneer in the live stock trade 
in this county, commencing in that business about two 
years later than Mr. Cobb — that is to say, in the year 1859 
— on the completion of the Dubuque & Sioux City rail- 
road. Like Mr. Cobb, he had been in the hotel business; 
not, however, in this county, but Fayette. He came to 
Independence from the State of New York in 1855; was 
engaged for a few years in general merchandise, including 
lumber; then opened a hotel in Fayette, which he con- 
ducted for about two years more. Then he returned to 
Independence and engaged in the live stock business, 
which he has followed ever since. He was at first in 
partnership with the late P. C. Wilcox, who, we are told, 
"furnished the capital and shared the profits." These, 
however, for the first transaction, were "a total loss to 
the firm of about fifteen hundred dollars." But, on the 
whole, the partnership proved successful; continuing 
from 1859 to 1865, since which time Mr. Jones has 
carried on the business alone. 

His first shipment was of hogs, late in the fall of 
1859, about a thousand in number, filling thirteen cars. 
The weather turned suddenly cold about the time they 
reached Dubuque, and, in forty-eight hours, the river 
was frozen over with ice sufficiently thick to be safely 
crossed with teams. Over this natural bridge the whole 
herd of swine were driven, and, as it was very smooth 
and slippery, it had to be sprinkled with sand to enable 
the "porkers" to keep their perpendicular. At the close 
of his partnership -with Mr. Wilco.x, Mr. Jones had real- 
ized sufficient money to pay off, dollar for dollar, some 



56 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



heavy debts incurred by previous losses, and to begin 
business on his own account "with just one hundred 
and fifty dollars in money." 

He has dealt chiefly in hogs, but sometimes quite 
largely also in cattle. He commenced shipping the lat- 
ter in i860, the number that year being only two hun- 
dred. The largest number since, in any one year, was 
about five thousand. The largest number of hogs 
shipped in one year was thirty thousand, in 1877. For 
the first twelve years his average business was about sev- 
enty-five thousand dollars annually; since then, about 
two hundred thousand a year. 

A more full biographical sketch of Mr. Jones (as of 
some others mentioned in this chapter) will be given 
elsewhere, those facts only being given here which serve 
to illustrate the history of the early commerce of the 
county. 



CHAPTER VII. 

HUNTING, TRAPPING AND FISHING. 

Buchanan county constitutes a part of the great game 
region lying between the Mississippi and the Missouri 
rivers, whose plentiful supply of game, and I'ur animals, 
and fish, won for it, in early times, the sobriquet of "The 
Paradise of Hunters." Portions of this region may still 
claim the old title as their chief glory; but Buchanan, 
perhaps not without some regret, has given it up — for a 
better. 

THE GAME QUADRUPEDS, 

(that is, the quadrupeds hunted for their flesh as well as 
for their skins) that were found here at the first advent 
of white men, were the elk, buffalo, bear, dear, rabbit, 
and squirrel. Of these all have disappeared, except the 
two last named, which, on account of their small size and 
their habits of self-concealment, will doubtless resist suc- 
cessfully all exterminating causes. The buffaloes had 
already become somewhat "few and far between" when 
the county was first settled, and the same is true of elks. 
They were, however, quite plenty no further away than 
Blackhawk county and throughout the northwestern por- 
tion of the State. It is reckoned only about fifteen 
years since the buftalo disappeared entirely from Iowa, 
and the elk followed but a little later. 

Asa Blood, jr., shot a fine elk on what are now the 
cemetery grounds in Independence, on the second of 
October, 1848. Mr. Blood was the only male adult left 
in the settlement, all the others having gone off on an 
elk hunt, which he was prevented from joining by an 
attack of fever and ague. It would almost seem as if 
the animal referred to, out of poor compassion for the 
young hunter's privation, had come of its own accord to 
give him a chance for a little sport, in spite of "Old 
Shaky's" interdict. Be this as it may, when he heard 
that the animal had been seen in the neighborhood he 
shook off the shakes, seized his gun and went out in 



pursuit. He had not been gone many minutes before he 
came across his game in the locality just mentioned, and 
succeeded in bringing it down. It was a doe, and 
weighed, when dressed, six hundred pounds. By the 
help of the boys who discovered it he managed to get it 
up to the village and distribute it among the few families 
which then constituted the population. The flesh of the 
elk is said to be a very savory meat, resembling the best 
two-year old beef 

It was during the same fall that Asa Blood, sr., pur- 
chased of the Quasqueton hunter, Rufus B. Clark, a herd 
consisting of seven buffalos and seven elks, for about five 
hundred dollars. Clark had captured them when calves 
two or three years before, some twenty or thirty miles 
west from here. His mode of operating was to go out 
in the early part of the season, when the calves were 
young, and on finding a herd, whether buffalos or elks, 
to follow them till the calves got tired and lagged behind, 
and then capture them with a lasso. He would take cows 
with him on which the calves were suckled till they were 
old enough to feed upon grass. After a few days they 
would follow the cows wherever they went, and so he 
would bring his captives home, where they soon became 
as tame as their foster mother. Mr. Blood drove his 
herd to Milwaukee and there put them upon exhibition. 
To drive them across the country it was necessary to 
lead in advance a couple of the cows with which they 
were familiar. While in Milwaukee they were fed upon 
malt from a still-house. This, although tolerably nutricious 
food, contained more or less alcohol which intoxicated 
them if they were isermitted to eat too much of it. One 
of the Buffalo cows leaped upon a platform on which 
were standing several open barrels full of this food, and 
ate so much that she became furious, broke through the 
fence into the pen in which the elks were confined, and 
actually killed three of them before she could be got 
away. From Milwaukee they were taken to Racine and 
there exhibited four weeks. The avails of these exhibi- 
tions fully defrayed all expenses, and the animals were 
subsequently sold for one thousand one hundred dollars 
to a Mr. Officer who took them east. Arriving in Chi- 
cago at the time of some great political gathering, he 
slaughtered one of the buffalo cows, which was very fat, 
and gave a public dinner at which buffalo meat fried, 
stewed and roasted was one of the principal attractions. 
It is said that the sale of tickets to this entertainment 
amounted to more than enough to replace the eleven 
hundred dollars paid for the herd. 

Deer were at first so numerous and so bold that they 
would occasionally come into the settlement. Asa 
Blood, jr., killed one on the spot where the Independ- 
ence flouring-raill now stands. The animal had just 
swam across the liver and landed near a saw-mill which 
was then standing close by the site of the present mill. 
He used to kill from ten to twenty-five every year, with- 
out going out of the county. After a while, however, 
they began to grow scarce and hunters had to go further 
north and west to find them. 

It is about ten years since deer disappeared entirely 
from the county. Asa Blood, jr., and his brother, Amos 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



57 



R., killed the last that were seen in this region in De- 
cember, 187 1. There were three of them — two does 
and a fawn, first seen in Ezra Wilson's fields, about two 
miles southeast from Independence. The brothers 
heard that they were there and went out after them 
with rifles, but taking no dogs with them. Coming in 
sight of them the two hunters, choosing each an animal, 
fired, bringing down the two old ones; but the fawn es- 
caped for that day. They returned the next day and 
followed the track of the fawn — finally overtaking and 
killing it on the premises of Ephraim Miller, about two 
miles from the place where the others were taken. These 
animals, it is believed, were the remnants of the native 
deer of the county, and the last that have been killed 
within its limits — unless one or two stragglers may have 
been taken since, just across the northern line. 

Bears were never numerous in this county. A forest- 
covered land is the favorite habitat of bruin; and, when 
found in a prairie region at all, he confines himself to 
the larger bodies of timber. The flesh of the bear has 
always been considered a great luxury by old hunters. 
Dr. Brewer says that he knew personally of the killing 
of but one bear after he came into the county; and that 
was killed in 1843 or 1844 by his fellow-pioneer, Rufus 
B. Clark, in the woods of the Wapsie, in Newton town- 
ship, just below Quasqueton. Of course his old friend 
sent him a nice portion of the steak. His father hap- 
pened to be with him at this time, on a visit from the 
east. As the father Iiad never tasted bear's meat, the 
son contrived to have it brought upon the table without 
his being aware of what kind of meat it was, that he 
might see if he would notice any pecuharity in its flavor. 
The meat was, therefore, brought upon the table and 
served without comment. The old gentleman partook 
of it heartily and with evident relish ; and, when he had 
finished the first piece, inquired: "Is this the kind of 
pork you raise here? It is the finest I ever tasted." 
And when they told him it was bear's meat, he replied, 
smacking his lips: "Very well; give us another slicei" 

THE GAME BIRDS 

found here by the first white settlers, were the wild tur- 
key, prairie chicken, partridge or pheasant, quail, wood- 
cock, snipe, wild goose, brant, swan, white crane, pelican, 
sandhill crane, and ducks of several species. Of these, 
the last seven are water fowl, and birds of passage. They 
fly north in the spring and south in the fall, usually be- 
yond gunshot range; at which seasons their cries (espec- 
ially those of the goose and swan) have a peculiar, weird 
effect, more particularly when heard in the night. 

The pelicans probably never had their nesting grounds 
here, and are now never known to light. Still they pass 
over, more or less, every season, and sometimes fly so 
low as to be reached by bird shot. An acquaintance of 
ours in Marshall county, being out hunting with his bird 
gun, in early spring a few years ago, fired at what he took 
to be the leader of a flock of geese. To his great sur- 
prise he brought him down, and to his still greater sur- 
prise, he found on reaching the place where he fell, that 
instead of a goose, he had actually killed a magnificent 



white pelican, measuring full eight feet from tip to tip of 
wings. Probably none of the other water fowl mentioned 
now breed here, except some of the duck species; but 
they all occasionally light in our waters for rest and food. 

The wild turkey is getting scarce, and will probably 
disappear in the course of a few years. The history of 
this magnificent bird is very remarkable. It is well 
known to be a native of this country. But so well 
adapted is it to domestication, and such are the excellent 
qualities of its flesh for food, that it has been introduced 
into nearly all the civilized countries of the world; the 
only game bird of America that has become cosmopoli- 
tan. Its color has become variable by domestication 
(the wild bird being black or very dark) but its size has 
not increased, nor the quality of its flesh improved. 

The mallard duck is the same as our principal tame 
species, and can hardly be distinguished from it; but 
the wild goose, though easily domesticated, is an entirely 
different species from our common tame goose. And 
when the two species cross, as they sometimes do, the 
product, like the mule, is incapable of reproduction. 

The quail, partridge, prairie chicken, snipe, and wood- 
cock, are said to be more plentiful now than when the 
county was first settled; but the prairie chicken is now 
rapidly disappearing, both from a lack of safe hatching 
grounds, and from the fearful slaughter to which it has 
been subjected. 

THE FUR ANIM.iLS 

of this county, when the white settlers first came, were 
the otter, beaver, mink, raccoon, muskrat, wolf, fox (rare 
then but more frequent since) badger, occasionally a 
fisher, lynx or wild cat, and (rarely) a |ianther. 

Of these the only ones that remain, are the muskrat, 
mink and wolf — with an occasional otter, wild cat, rac- 
con and badger. 

The otter is a short legged, long bodied animal — the 
legs being about five inches, and the body about thirty 
or forty in length, from tip to tip of nose and tail. It 
lives on fish almost exclusively — which it must take alive 
— pursuing its game by swimming under water; and out- 
swimming (it is said) any fish that ever swam in the 
Wapsie. 

The otter is taken in a steel trap, that has to be made 
for his especial accommodation. The jaws of the trap 
mu.=t be low (about two and a half inches) on account of 
the animal's short legs. The trap must be heavy, and 
furnished with a stout spring, as the otter is as strong as 
a bull-dog. Its fur is of the finest and most valuable — 
eight dollars being the average price for otter skin. 

An "otter slide" is a place where an otter habitually 
brings its fish out of the water to eat them, and then 
slides down into the water for more. It is generally on 
a bank three feet high. Here the traps are set, buried 
in sand, dried leaves and grass. To bring the animal 
more certainly to the place where the trap is concealed, 
it is frequently scented with the perfume of the skunk, 
diluted with alcohol — an odor which seems to have an ir- 
resistible attraction for the otter. The trap is fastened 
by a long and strong chain to a small sapling, from six to 
ten feet high, cut down and thrown into the water. Ash 



58 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, lOAVA. 



is preferred for this purpose, since it is easily split at the 
but and then wedged, after the ring of the chain is 
slipped over it. 

When taken in the trap, the otter plunges at once into 
the stream, dragging the trap after him. By the weight 
of the trap and his entanglement in the chain, the 
animal is very soon drowned. The sapling seldom gets 
out of reach from the bank; and, by means of it, the 
trap and its occupant are drawn safe to land. 

The beaver is a much larger animal than the otter, 
and • frequently weighs eighty or ninety pounds. Its 
shape is almost precisely that of the muskrat. Its tail 
is from ten inches to a foot in length, an inch in thick- 
ness, and five or six inches wide— the appendage being 
flattened horizontally. They live on the bark of the 
willow, ash and aspen trees. They cut down these trees 
when from four to six inches in diameter, trim off the 
tender branches and drag them away to be stored up for 
food in the pond, about which their homes are con- 
structed, much in the manner of muskrats. The Bu- 
chanan beavers made their ponds by damming the 
small streams emptying into the VVapsie. Their dams 
were constructed mainly from the branches of the 
trees which they had cut down for food. These they 
placed across the stream in a very scientific manner, mix- 
ing in moss, leaves, mud, and even stones — some of the 
latter weighing as much as twenty-five pounds. 

The force of the adage, "Working like beavers," may 
be appreciated by considering a fact vouched for by Mr. 
Blood from personal knowledge. But a short distance 
below Independence, near the mouth of a small stream 
emptying into the river, stood a grove of young ash trees 
averaging about six inches in diameter, and thickly cov- 
ering about an acre of ground. All these trees were cut 
down in about six weeks time, from the middle of August 
to the end of September; and the most of the limbs 
were cut off" and dragged into the beaver pond near by. 
Mr. Blood's method of catching beavers was as follows: 
He would cut holes in the dam to let out the water; and 
about these holes he would plant his traps, prepared in 
the same way as for otters. The beavers would come in 
force to mend the dam, and some of them would be sure 
to get caught. 

The legs of the beaver are even shorter than those of 
the otter. The trap, therefore, has to be made after the 
same general fashion as that of the otter trap, though it 
must be about twice as heavy, on account of the greater 
weight and strength of the animal to be caught in it. 

Although the beaver is caught principally for its fur, 
which is much sought after and of great value, yet its 
hind quarters (and especially the tail) are regarded by 
epicures as a great luxury. 

The mink, whose fur is highly prized, especially for 
muffs and boas, burrows in the ground on the banks of 
streams. Each individual has its own peculiar home, to 
which it adheres with great tenacity. It lives on fish, 
frogs and small birds; and sometimes, like the weasel (to 
which it is nearly related) it is bold enough to invade hen 
roosts. 

In catching the mink a small trap, with only one spring 



is ordinarily used. A place is cut in the mouth of its 
hole (or burrow) and the trap is placed in it, covered with 
leaves and grass. The mink is easily caught, as it has 
no cunning to avoid the trap. Small as the animal is, 
compared with the beaver or otter, its skin is very valua- 
ble, having been sold as high as six dollars. 

The fisher is an animal somewhat resembling the mink, 
of similar habits, and taken in the same way. It is much 
more rare, and its fur is quite as fine. 

The muskrat sometimes burrows in the banks of 
streams, having the entrance to its burrow beneath the 
surface of the water, and coming up into the bank above 
high water mark; and sometimes it builds conical houses, 
composed of grass and weeds, in shallow ponds, the en- 
trance, as in the case of a burrow, being below the sur- 
face, and the house being built high enough to afford the 
animal a dry nest above the water. It lives on roots, and 
the trap in which it is taken is set near its burrow or 
house, and baited with parsnip, of which it is very fond. 
The animal is very prolific, and, like its troublesome 
namesake, hard to exterminate. Its fur is common and 
cheap, but profitable to the trapper on account of its 
abundance. Mr. Blood has taken as many as three or 
four hundred muskrats in this county in a single season; 
while if he secured here, in the same time, ten otters, as 
many beavers, and twenty or thirty minks, he thought he 
was doing pretty well. 

THE PREDATORY ANIMALS 

which the county is at present seeking to exterminate by 
offering a bounty for their destruction, are the wolf, the 
wild-cat and the lynx. The State fixes the bounty at one 
dollar, but permits the supervisors of any county to in- 
crease it to five dollars. The Buchanan county supervis- 
ors are at present paying three dollars for each scalp 
("with the ears attached") of any one of the above named 
species, provided sufficient proof is furnished that the 
animal was killed in the county, and within a specified 
time before presenting the scalp. The skins of these an- 
imals are very valuable, especially those of the lynx, 
whose fur is highly esteemed for muffs, etc. Wolf skins 
are much sought after for sleigh robes and winter over- 
coats. 

It is doubted by some whether the lynx and the wild- 
cat, as found here are really different species. Many 
maintain that they are only different varieties of the same 
species. However this may be, it is certain that the 
names are frequently confounded. 

At first there were found here three species of wolves; 
the yellow, prairie wolf (much the smallest), the gray, 
timber wolf, and the black (sometimes called the blue) 
wolf The last two species were never numerous, and 
have almost entirely disappeared. They were large and 
powerful animals, and quite disposed to be friendly with 
the settlers' dogs— sometimes coming among the houses to 
play with them. The prairie wolves are much less 
numerous than at the first; but, in spite of the bounty, 
they have decreased but little, if any, during the past ten 
years. In June, 1873, the supervisors paid the bounty 
on thirty-five wolves; in January, 1879, on twenty-three; 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



59 



and, in June, 1880, on forty-eight. During the whole of 
the last mentioned year, they paid the bounty on sixty- 
seven wolves, two wild cats and one lynx. In 1862 
bounty was paid on eight lynxes; and, in 1863, on eight 
wild-cats. These animals are sometimes killed with 
poison; sometimes they are caught in traps, and some- 
times (which is by far the most huntsman-like) they are 
shot with rifles. 

No bounty was ever offered here for the killing of bears, 
foxes, or panthers. The first of these disappeared before 
the county was organized. The second never became 
sufficiently numerous to make their extermination a 
matter of importance; and it is doubtful if an individual 
of the third-named species was ever seen in the county, 
after the advent of the first white settler. Mrs. Heman 
Morse, who, as Mrs. Frederick Kessler, was one of the 
earliest pioneers of the county, states that, soon after the 
settlement was begun at Quasqueton, some of the men 
who had lived among the mountains of Pennsylvania, 
and had there often heard the scream of the panther 
(said to be unmistakable by any one that has ever heard 
it) declared that they had heard one at night, in the 
timber near the Wapsie. This is the nearest we can 
come to a panther story — but the animal was never seen. 

The supervisors also attempted, for a number of years, 
to exterminate those destructive little burrowers, the 
"pocket gophers," by offering a bounty of ten cents each 
for their scalps. It afforded a good deal of fun, as well 
as profitable employment, to the boys, who sometimes 
brought in as many as a hundred thousand scalps in a single 
year. But a thousand dollars a year was quite a tax — 
especially as there seemed to be no prospect of its dimin- 
ishing. So the supervisors, concluding that the gophers, 
like Sampson, were more destructive in their deaths than 
in their lives, withdrew the bounty. We have never heard 
that gopher skins were ever turned to any economic 
account. 

FISHING IN THE WAPSIE, 

was most abundant at the time the settlers first came, and 
continued good until dams were built, interrupting the 
free passage of the fish. 

The principal kinds of fish at first found here, together 
with their usual weight, were as follows : Black-bass, from 
two to eight pounds; pike, from two to eighteen pounds; 
pickerel, from one to twenty-five; mullet (or red horse), 
from one to ten pounds; suckers, two pounds; sunfish, 
half a pound; rock-bass, from one-half to a pound; bull- 
pout, from a half to a pound and a half; catfish, ten 
pounds; striped-bass, from one to two pounds; muskal- 
longe, from five to forty pounds. These are all found 
here now (in reduced numbers) except the catfish and 
muskallonge. One of the former was taken three or 
four years ago; but it is ten or twelve years since the lat- 
ter disappeared. 

The usual method of taking all these kinds of fish, is 
with a hook. The spear, however, is sometimes used; 
and formally many were taken in nets. But as this 
threatened extermination to the fish, it is now forbidden 
by law. For taking the bass, pike, and pickerel, the 
hook is usually baited with a minnow — or an artificial 



minnow, or fly, or "spoon," may be used. These all 
dart upon their prey, and seize it when in motion. The 
sucker and mullet take their food from the bottom of 
the stream. The hook therefore, is usually baited with 
a worm and dropped down before them. 

Some have regarded the catfish as a large bullpout, 
and the muskallonge as a large pike. If this were really 
so (and we are not scientific enough to say whether the 
theory is correct or not), the fact would account for the 
disappearance of those large fish — the only ones, in fact, 
that have disappeared. From the constant capture of 
the fish, it may be that those two species, the pike and 
the bull-pout, do not get time enough to develop into 
muskallonge and catfish. 

Rufus B. Clarke, whose name appears so often in this 
narrative, who was one of the pioneers of the county at 
Quasqueton, and the first settler in Independence, was, 
so far as we can learn, the only man in the county that 
ever devoted himself so exclusively to the business of 
fishing, hunting and trapping. He made a good deal of 
money at these callings, but beyond supporting, in toler- 
able comfort, his family consisting of himself, his wife, 
and two children, he had little to show for it all. He 
was a born pioneer, and felt like a fish out of water as 
soon as the institutions of civilized life began to cluster 
about his home. It would seem that he came naturally 
by his love of frontier life; for as Judge Roszell informs 
us, he "was the first white child born in what is now 
the city of Cleveland, Ohio." The same writer graphi- 
cally draws the following outline of his wanderings: 
From Ohio "he wandered to the mines of Wisconsin; 
then here ; then northwest toward the headwaters of the 
Cedar; thence further northwest into the wilds of Min- 
nesota; thence across the continent to the west of the 
Sierra Nevadas, and at last lies sleeping in death on 
Whitby's Island in far Puget Sound." While here his 
reputation as a pioneer sportsman had become known 
far and near — as may be seen from the following ac- 
count of 

A HUNTING, TRAPPING AND FISHING EXCURSION. 

As Stated in the sketch of his life, which is given 
elsewhere, Asa Blood, jr., first came to Iowa in the fall 
of 1844, just after reaching his majority. He came from 
Wisconsin, accompanied by a party of five other young 
men, of similar tastes and about the same age, named 
as follows; A. Brown, Charles Abbott, Leander Keyes 
(afterward sheriff of Buchanan county), \Villiam Ham- 
mond, and Titus Burgess, who subsequently became a 
settler at Quasqueton. They had heard of the fame of 
Rufus B. Clark, the great pioneer hunter of that place, 
and came there to secure his services as guide and cap- 
tain of the party. He consented to accompany them ; 
and they set out, the latter part of October, the captain 
on horseback and the rest of the party in a two-horse 
wagon, carrj'ing their necessary utensils. 

They proceeded as far as Clear lake, in Cerro Gordo 
county, hunting, trapping and fishing along the streams 
and lakes, and capturing, in about four weeks, nineteen 
beavers, si.xteen otters, thirty or forty raccoons, and 
plenty of other kinds of game for the sustenance of ihe 



6o 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



parly. On their return, they struck the Cedar river in 
Bremer county, near the place where the town of Wav- 
erly now stands. Here the party divided. Clark 
returned home with his horse; Blood and Keyes followed 
with the wagon, and the rest of the party decided to 
come down the river in canoes, which they had managed 
to secure, and which they intended to abandon at the 
point of the river nearest to Quasqueton. But soon 
after this separation, the weather grew suddenly cold. 
The ice became so thick in the river that our four roj- 
agetirs were compelled to abandon their boats and take 
to the Kind. Game di-wppeared, and, in addition to tlie 
intense cold, they suffi.red all the pangs of hunger. For 
two entire days their only food consisted of a few fresh- 
water clams, which they succeeded in digging from the 
edge of the stream. Luckily, no snow fell; and with 
vigorous exercise by day and files and blankets at night, 
they managed to keep themselves from serious freezing, 
though their noses, lingers and ears were badly frost- 
bitten. At length, after five days' heroic endurance, 
they reached Sturgis' rapids (now Cedar Falls) in a hall"- 
famished condition. As good fortune (or, rather. Provi- 
dence) would have it, Mr. Sturgis had just slaughtered 
a fine beef, and had left the quarters hanging from the 
limbs of an oak tree near his house. The feelings of 
the boys, on suddenly coming in sight of this plentiful 
supply of meat, can better be imagined than described. 
With a yell which made the frightened Sturgis think 
that the Indians were coming, they rushed forward and 
surrounded the prize with the most grotesque antics and 
cries of grateful exultation. As soon as the proprietor, 
having assured himself from a window that they were 
not really savages, presented himself at the door, one of 
them called out, with a tone of mingled supplication 
and command: ''Cook us some of this, as soon as the 
Almighty will let you!" This the hospitable man, see- 
ing and comprehending their starving condition, was not 
slow to do ; and the thankful boys were soon regaling 
themselves right sumptuous!)'. 

The next day, anxious to put an end to the painful 
suspense of their friends, they set out for Quasqueton, 
and were met at Pilot Grove, a little west of the Black- 
hawk county line, by two men with a team sent out by 
Clark for their rescue. The coldest night was that of the 
twenty-fourth of November, and the one previous to the 
arrival of Blood and Keyes at Quasqueton. They made 
a fire and wrapped themselves in their blankets under the 
wagon. By these means they managed to keep them- 
selves from freezing, but got very little sleep. It was a 
joyful meeting, we may well believe, when the friends all 
got together again, safe and sound, at Quasqueton. In 
a few days they started on their return to Wisconsin, and 
all reached their homes without further mishap or ad- 
venture. 

Thus ended an exciting and meinorable excursion. It 
was undertaken mainly from the love of adventure, but 
proved to be quite remunerative in a financial point of 
view, for the furs taken during the trip were disposed of 
at Fort Atkinson for about three hundred and fifty dol- 
lars. 



IN AFTER YEARS, 

Asa Blood, jr., and his brother, Amos R., together with 
T. J. Marinus and Alexander Hathaway, all of Buchanan 
county, constituted a sort of 

OLD hunters' guild, 

the members of which, for more than twenty years, never 
failed on each recurring autumn to make a long trip to 
gether, north or west, for the purpose of hunting and 
fishing. Their last excursion of this sort was made in 
1877, a little while before Mr. Blood removed to Colo- 
rado to reside. They went north, and spent several 
weeks roaming over the prairies, through the forests, and 
about the lakes and streams of Minnesota. While out 
they killed thirty-two deer, and took three thousand three 
hundred pounds of fish. All this was sent by express 
from St. Paul to Independence. It was stored in what 
is now Asa Clark's grocery, and was disposed of at 
wholesale and retail, realizing for the hunters about four 
hundred dollais. 

We will finish up our general chapter on Buchanan 
game, with a brief section on 

THE RETURN OF THE BEARS. 

As an evidence that bar-barism is not easily uprooted, 
and that savagery often lingers in the lap of progress and 
enlightenment, may be mentioned the fact that in the 
autuinn of 1859 several visits from members of the bruin 
family were reported in different portions of northern Iowa. 
Two were arrested and stopped short in their porcine 
pursuit in Delaware county; one in Fayette; a fourth 
was killed near Dyersville, Dubuque county, by a Mr. 
Sinith; and the fifth, weighing over two hundred pounds, 
met the fate which, sooner or later, is sure to overtake 
all who set at defiance the principles which underlie the 
institutions of civilized society, in Jones county, near 
Anamosa. The historian regrets to be compelled to 
acknowledge the truth of the assertion, if it should be 
made, that no positive testimony exists that either of 
these animals ever trod the soil of Buchanan county; 
but, as no one will venture to claim that there is, on the 
other hand, the least evidence to the contrary, and as 
this county cannot well afford to lose the distinction en- 
joyed by her sister neighbors, of having been favored in 
this farewell visit from members of this classic race, so 
long renowned in song and story, there seems to be the 
utmost propriety in assuming that at least the last named 
did pass through Buchanan on his way to Jones. The 
reasons on which this probability is based may be briefly 
stated thus: Bears are only one species of northern 
barbarians. An incursion of Goths, Vandals, or bears, 
from any other point of the compass would be an anomaly 
in history, or in any other department of literature. The 
bear is also remarkable for longevity, for a tenacity of 
memory, and for a preference for night operations and 
the additional protection afforded by a proximity to rocky 
forests, not often ventuiing far from their sombre re- 
cesses. In the vicinity of Anainosa, Jones county, which 
lies to the southeast of Buchanan, and shares with it the 
Wapsipinicon river, just such a region exists, and that, 
too, in a continuation of a belt of woodland bordering 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



6i 



the river, which takes its rise far to the north. This ro- 
mantic and broken country was, no doubt, a favorite re- 
sort if not the home of the ancestry and immediate fam- 
ily of the individual in question. Here, probably, 
clambering about these rocky defiles, his days of uncouth 
gamboling had been spent; and when, in 1838 or 1840, 
the presence of the hunters and trappers, and following 
them the' pioneer settlers, had made his hitherto safe fast- 
nesses no longer safe, instinct led the bear tribe to re- 
treat, not in the direction of the flowing water, which 
would have carried them into the very camp of their 
enemies; but to return, ascending the streams to the 
sources from which the water flowed, was their wisdom 
and their safety. 

Many moons had waxed and waned, and bears had 
disappeared from the valleys and hills of Northern Iowa, 
but in the autumn of 1859 they reappeared as far south 
as the fourth tier of counties; and why? We cannot 
answer for all; but, to the subject of this brief notice, it 
is evident that this excursion southward was not for pur- 
poses of marauding, or even foraging, else the suffolks of 
the farmers of Fairbank would have proved too enticing, 
and his progress south would have ended where it began, 
so far as Buchanan is concerned, in the northwest corner 
of the county. No; that hypothesis is not to be enter- 
tained for a moment. This aged bruin was drawn irre- 
sistably, as the Indian often is, to revisit the graves of his 
ancestors. Entering the county by following the Wapsi- 
pinicon, at its northwest boundary, and studiously avoid- 
ing the abodes of men, and eschewing his fondness foi' 
roasting pigs and "tame" honey, keeping within the 
friendly shelter of the woodlands, and travelling at night, 
he at last entered once more the enchanted wilds of rock 
and river, which had visited him in dreams and compelled 
him to undertake his last journey. How else should he 
have been found in that spot? He did not come from 
the south. To have reached the locality from either the 
east or west, he must have crossed a long stretch of open, 
thickly settled country. No; he was a Wapsipinicon 
bear, and returned to end his life where it began. 

We are encouraged to hope that none will feel called 
upon to assail what they may choose to call the weak 
points in this chain of evidence we adduce, as, after 
patient research of early records, we have not been able 
to discover any other ground for the claim, that Buchanan 
county was not overlooked in this last incursion of the 
northern barbarians. 

Note. — " Since the above was in type." as ilie printers say, we have 
learned that one of those northern marauders was intercepted and 
killed in Jefferson township. The bear facts are stated in the history 
of that township ; but Mr. James E. Jewel, who, though but a mere 
boy at the time, joined in the chase and was " in at the death" of the 
monster, has given us some additional particulars. 

This bear was killed in October, 1859, about two miles east of Bran- 
don, on the open prairie. About forty men and boys, all without guns, 
joined in the pursuit. He was so fat and heavy that a man could 
easily outrun him. But neither men nor dogs ventured near enough to 
attack him. One dog, with an unusual reputation for ferocity w.as set 
upon him; but, when at the distance of about ten feet, the huge planti- 
grade rose in fierce majesty, standing si.t feet in height without stock- 
ings, and showing his deadly teeth and claws. The canine, seeing that 
death was brewing, and that bruin was death, gave one velp of mingled 
fright and despair, turned and fled precipitately with his tail between 
his legs. 



However, the excited crowd managed to keep his beaiship in check 
for about three hours, till Joe Allen, hurrying off to ]. Wilson's, bor- 
rowed his rifle, and with it succeeded in despatching the dangerous in- 
truder, though not until three balls had been fired into his huge carcass. 
He weighed over three hundred pounds. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

ERECTION AND ORGANIZATION OF BUCHANAN COUNTY: 

At ITS winter session of 1837-8, held at Burlington, 
the legislature of Wisconsin Territory (which then em- 
braced the territory now constituting the State of Iowa) 
passed "an act to establish the boundary lines of the 
counties of Dubuque, Clayton, Jackson, Benton, Linn, 
Jones, Clinton, Johnson, Scott, Delaware, Buchanan," 
etc. The boundaries of Dubuque and Delaw.are having 
been described in the first three or four sections of this 
act, it proceeds as follows : 

Section 5. That all the country lying west of the county of Dela- 
ware and between the line dividing townships eighty-si.x and eighty- 
seven, and the line dividmg townships ninety and ninety-one, north, 
extended to the western boundary of the territory, shall be, and the 
same is hereby constituted a separate county, to be called Buchanan. 

Section 6. That the counties of Delaware and Buchanan shall, 
for temporary purposes, be considered in all respects a part of the 
county of Dubuque. 

This act, which was approved December 21, 1837, 
merely planted the seed of the new county. It gave it 
"a local habitation and a name," but left its develop- 
ment into a living organization to the operation of time 
and its own internal, germinal forces. The subsequent 
development of the county may seem to have been slow 
to one who fails to realize the amount of embryotic growth 
which it had to make. If it takes sixteen months for an 
acorn to be developed from the blossom, and twice 
that number of years for a blossoming oak to be de- 
veloped from the acorn, it ought not to be regarded as 
wonderful that it took Buchanan county ten years to 
emerge fully from its embryotic condition. Especially 
ought this fact excite no wonder, when it is remembered 
that all the early development of Buchanan county had 
to be made without any of that remarkable stimulus 
which railroads have since given to the growth of new- 
counties. 

The act above cited fixed the eastern boundary of the 
county as it now is, and designated the parallels along 
which the northern and the southern boundary lines still 
extend westward; but it extended those lines to the 
western limits of the territory. That is to say, it consti- 
tuted as the western boundary of the county, those 
portions of the Big Sioux and the Missouri rivers included 
within the two parallels mentioned. The county there- 
fore embraced, theoretically, at that time, a strip of land 
about two hundred and forty miles long and twenty-four 
miles wide. 

The act locating Blackhawk county, was passed by the 
Iowa Territory legislature, about five years after this, viz.: 
on the seventeenth of February, 1843 — the boundaries 



63 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



beginning at the northwest corner of Buchanan county. 
Between these two dates there must, of course, have 
been an act designating the present western limits of the 
last named county. When such an act was passed we 
have not been able to ascertain. 

As to the origin of the county's name we have also 
made somewhat diligent inquiry, without being able to 
obtain any satisfactory information. The prevailing 
opinion is, however, that the name was given through 
the influence of an ardent admirer of the Pennsylvania 
statesman, James Buchanan, who afterwards became dis- 
tinguished as the last Democratic President of the United 
States. 

The act of December, 1837, attached Buchanan and 
Delaware to Dubuque, and that of February, 1843, at- 
tached Blackhawk and Buchanan to Delaware, for elec- 
tion, revenue and judicial purposes; and this latter ar- 
rangement continued till 1847, when this county elected 
its own officers, and assumed an independent jurisdiction. 

The first election was held in August, 1S47, when 
John Scott, Frederick Kessler, and B. D. Springer were 
elected county commissioners, and Dr. Edward Brewer, 
clerk — an office which the latter continued to hold for 
twenty-three years. We have been informed by Dr. Brewer 
(though we have found no record of the fact) that S. V. 
Thompson was appointed by State authority, as organ- 
izing sheriff", and that the election was called and man- 
aged by him. Doubtless some of the preliminaries were 
arranged by the authorities of Delaware county, under 
whose jurisdiction Buchanan was at the time, and by 
which the latter had been divided into two election pre- 
cincts, one called Quasqueton and the other Centre 
precinct. 

The earliest record of the proceedings of the commis- 
sioners' court of the county, shows that certain other 
officers, besides those above named, were elected, or ap- 
pointed, at or about the time of the first county election. 
We transcribe the following entries: 

September 4. 1847, John Scott (who was also one of the county com- 
missioners) filed his bond and took the oath of office as justice of the 
peace in and for the centre precinct of the county. 

September 8th, Thomas S. Hubbard filed his bond in this office as 
a justice of the peace in and for Quasqueton precinct, having taken 
the oath of office before Esquire Holmes of the same precinct. 

September 23d, Henry H. Baker fully qualified as constable, and 
Thomas E. McKinney as a justice of the peace, in and for the centre 
precinct of the county. 

September 28th A. B. Hathaway took the oath of office for coroner 
of the county. 

On the fourth of October the commissioners held 
their first meeting — their first official act being to divide 
the county into "three commission districts" — that is (as 
we suppose) districts from each one of which a county 
commissioner was thereafter to be elected. 

The first of these districts comprised the north half of 
the county; or the eight congressional townships lying 
north of the correction line. The second embraced the 
four southeastern townships, with the exception of the 
two tiers of sections lying on the west side of townships 
eighty-seven and eighty-eight of range eight; and the 
third comprised all the remaining portion of the county. 



TOWNSHIP ORGANIZATION. 

January 3, 1848, the commissioners divided the county 
into three civil townships, whose boundaries were made 
identical with those of the three commissioner districts 
already established. These townships, like the districts, 
were first called simply from their numbers; and an elec- 
tion for township officers was ordered to take place in 
each of them, on the first Monday in the following 
April. In township number one the election was to be 
held "at the store in Independence;" Isaac Hathaway, 
John Scott, and John Obenchain to be judges of elec- 
tion. In township number two the election was to be held 
"at the school-house in Quasqueton;" Benjamin Cong- 
don, Levi Billings and Malcolm McBane to be judges. 
In township number three the election was to be held 
"at the house of Barney D. Springer;" and J. Monroe 
Scott, Gamaliel Walker and B. D. Springer were named 
as judges of election. 

In July, 1849, t'i6 boundaries of these townships were 
slightly changed, and number one was called Washing- 
ton, number two Liberty, and number three Spring. 

From this date until i860, the erection of new town- 
ships and the frequent changes in their names and 
boundaries, seem to have employed much of the valu- 
able time of the county authorities. We can give only 
enough of these to trace the formation of the sixteen 
townships as they now exist. 

The fourth township — Jefferson — was erected May 22, 
1852; Buffalo (at first called Buffalo Grove), August 6, 
1852; Perry was set off from Washington February 7, 
1853; Superior (afterward called Hazleton), July 4, 
1853; Newton, the first made conterminous with a con- 
gressional township (the same as township eighty-seven, 
range seven, which limits it still retains), was so erected 
May I, 1854. 

September 19, 1854, the eight townships then exist- 
ing, viz.: Jefferson, Liberty, Newton, Buffalo, Spring, 
Washington, Superior, and Perry, were set forth anew, 
as to their boundaries; all of them being more or less 
changed, except Newton. At this time Spring township 
was very irregular in its form, comprising the south half 
of the present territory of Fremont, sections twenty-two, 
twenty-three, twenty-four, twenty-five, twenty-six, twenty- 
seven, thirty-four, thirty- five, thirty-six, and one-half of 
sections thirty-two and thirty-three, of the present terri- 
tory of Byron, the west half of the present township of 
Liberty, all of the present territory of Sumner, and about 
three sections of the southeast corner of Washington. 
At the same time Superior township consisted of the west 
half of the present territory of Buffalo, and all of pres- 
ent Hazleton except the western tier of sections. 

Alton (the same as the present township of Fairbank) 
was erected March 5, 1855. Prairie (afterwards Fre- 
mont) was erected March 14, 1856; and Byron, March 
20th, of the same year. The remaining townships were 
erected as follows: Sumner, March 7, 1857; Madison, 
March 11, 1857; Homer, July 29, 1858; Middlefield, 
September 21, 1858; Cono, same date; Westburg, Au- 
gust 6, i860. The name of Prairie township was 
' changed to Fremont, September 5, 1859; that of Alton 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



63 



was changed to Fairbank June 2, 1862; and that of Su- 
perior to Hazelton, some time during the same year. 
The last two changes were made by the board of Super- 
visors — all the rest by the county court. 

We will now give, for convenience of reference, the 
names of the existing townships, in the order of the 
dates at which they assumed their present form: New- 
ton, May I, 1854; Fairbank (Alton), March 5, 1855; 
Hazelton (Superior), same date. Madison, March 11, 
1857; Buffalo, same date; Homer, June 29, 1858; Mid- 
dlefield, September 21, 1858; Cono, same date; Liberty, 
September 5, 1859; Fremont, same date; Byron, same 
date; Westburgh, August 6, i860; Jefferson, same date; 
Perry, same date; Washington, September 13, i860; 
Sumner, same date. 

CHANGES IN COUNTY GOVERNMENT. 

The commissioners' court was abolished in i860, 
and the board of supervisors was established in its 
place. About the same time the office of county judge 
was given up and that of county auditor was adopted. 
The duties heretofore performed by the county judge 
now fall in a great measure to the board of supervisors. 
This body consisted at first of sixteen members, one 
from each township. At present, however, the number 
is reduced to seven — all being elected by a general vote 
of the county. The first supervisors were elected in the 
fall of i860, and entered upon their duties January 7, 
1 86 1. Their names, with the township from which they 
were elected, are as follows: Elisha Sanborn, of Alton, 
(Fairbank); E. P. Baker, of Byron; C. H. Jakway, of 
Buffalo; E. D. Hovey, of Cono; James Fleming, of Fre- 
mont; S. S. Allen, of Homer; John Johnson, of Jeffer- 
son; William Logan, of Liberty; J. B. Ward, of Madison; 
James M. Kerr, of Middlefield; N. W. Richardson, 
of Newton; D. B. Sanford, of Perry; V. R. Beach, of 
Sumner; William C. Nelson, of Superior (Hazelton); 
George W. Bemis, of Washington; William B. Wilkin- 
son, of Westburgh. 

PRESENT COUNTY OFFICERS. 

The present officers of the county are as follows: Au- 
ditor, George B. Warne; clerk of courts, O. M. Gillet; 
treasurer, J. A. Poor; recorder, J. W. Foreman; sheriff, 
E. L. Currier; school superintendent, W. E. Parker; sur- 
veyor, J. N. Iliff; coroner, H. H. Hunt. 

SUPERVISORS. 

C. R. Millington, of Washington, chairman; H. M. 

Coughtry, of Byron; G. M. Miller, of Hazelton; A. H. 

Grover, of Homer; T. E. McCurdy, of Buffalo; W. H. 
L. Eddy, of Liberty; W. H. Gates, of Perry. 



CHAPTER IX. 

THE COUNTY SEAT WAR. 

It is said that an early History of Ireland contained a 
chapter entitled: "The Snakes of Ireland"— the whole 
of which consisted of six short words, as follows : 
"There are no snakes in Ireland." 

To those who have never written a history, there may 
be nothing in that announcement but the cool, unimpas- 
sioned statement of a historical fact. But to us who 
have " been there" — i.e., not in Ireland, but in the his- 
tory business — it is the laconic expression of an almost 
inexpressible regret. We think that we can read between 
the lines" — or, rather under the line; for there was but 
one hne written — the confession of a sad disappoint- 
ment. 

We can fancy that historian — who was probably not an 
Irishman, though he had learned to manage the vernac- 
ular like a native — setting out upon the composition of 
that chapter with high hopes of pleasurable excitement, 
both for himself and his readers. With what marvelous 
"snake stories" he was about to garnish his work! 
Monsters of fabulous length and fleetness were to rush 
out upon the defenceless inhabitants, from the reeds 
along the banks of the Shannon, or from the peat bogs 
of Kildare. Pitiless as an English landlord, they would 
make nothing of distraining the last pig of some widowed 
Kathleen; and only the valorous spades of the paternal 
Patricks would save the infant Pats from a like tragic 
fate. 

He sharpens his well-worn pencil {we always write his- 
tory with a pencil) sets down the heading of his chapter, 
and then he thinks himself to consult authorities in 
regard to the herpetology of the Emerald Isle. As he 
reads, the fine (renzy disappears from his eye; and when, 
at last, the utter snakelessness of his condition becomes 
apparent, he closes the encyclopedia in despair. How- 
ever, "what is writ is writ." The heading must stand; 
and the few brief words written under it, while they em- 
body an interesting historical fact (or fiction), shall, at 
the same time, record his own grievous disappointment : 
Alas! "there are no snakes m Ireland." 

And so, when we recall the thrilling, warlike incidents 
which, in so many counties, have attended the removal 
of the county seat — the harsh clashing of pecuniary and 
sectional interests — the vigorous political campaigns — 
the fiery eloquence of orators, subsidized by the friends 
of removal on the one side, and by its enemies on the 
other — the gathering of the hostile clans around the 
ballot-box — the frequent defeat and the final victory at 
the polls — the refusal of obstinate (though obsolete) of- 
ficials to deliver up the county archives — the siege of the 
old court house by the new sheriff, with his comic posseiatus, 
bearing the decree of the court as their banner with 
its strange device— the defiance of the besieged who, 
with guns in their hands, stand at the port-holes and hurl 
back, as their war-cry, the legend on the banner of their 
foes: "mandamus, if we yield!"— when we recall all this, 
and think of the opportunities for fine writing which the 
scenes thus hinted at afford, it is with a teeling of regret 
similar to that of our Irish historian, that we find our- 



64 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



selves compelled to set down, as the pith and marrow of 
this chapter, an announcement which is only a parody of 
his : 

"There was never any county seat war in Buchanan 
county." 

Independence has been the capital ever since the 
county was organized ; and there is not now, and prob- 
ably never will bp, any other place that will be either able 
or disposed to compete with it for that honor. The 
county archives are there, and, in the language of the 
immortal Webster, "there they will remain forever." 



CHAPTER X. 

THE COURT AND THE BAR OF BUCHANAN COUNTY. 

In the year 1847, there stood a small wooden building 
on the corner of Main and Court streets, in the city of 
Independence, the spot where what is called the Brewer 
block now stands. The small, dingy front room of this 
building was used as the county cleik's office and court 
room. The back end was occupied by Dr. Edward 
Brewer and family. 

In the fall of that year, a gruff-looking man, in a one- 
horse buggy, drove up to the front door of this building 
and from his seat called for the clerk of the court to ap- 
pear. Dr. Brewer modestly stepped to the door, when 
the following colloquy took place: 

"Is this the clerk of the court?" 

"It is." 

"I am Judge Grant. Are there any cases on the 
docket?" 

"Yes; there are two. One an original case; the other 
an appealed case from a justice of the peace." 

"Bring the docket out here." 

The doctor carried the docket out to the buggy. Says 
the judge: 

"Do you know anything about these cases?" 

"I do. One is an original case against myself; that 
is to be dismissed. The other is an appeal from a jus- 
tice by the defendant. I am counsel for the plaintiff. 
That is to be affirmed." 

"All right. Enter them up accordmgly." 

And the judge drove off. Thus ended the first court 
ever held in Buchanan county. 

Dr. Brewer had just been elected county clerk, the 
first clerk of the county, and a position which he held 
continuously for the next twenty-one years. 

Couit was held the following year by Judge Grant, in 
a log building just south of the Dr. House dwelling, in 
what is now the street. The year following, it was held 
in an old building occupying the ground where the First 
National bank now stands. It was at this place that a 
scene occurred which illustrates the practice of the 
times, likewise the peculiarities of Judge Grant, and the 
summary manner of dispensing with justice. 



Two men from Black Hawk county were here on trial 
for disturbing the peace. As was usual in those days, a 
large number of neighbors and friends of the parties, 
and a host of witnesses, were on hand. As the skirmish 
was about to commence, the judge said to Dr. Brewer: 

"Call out all the men from Black Hawk county, and 
have them stand in a row." 

This was done, and enough stood in the row to make 
a good-sized militia company. 

"Now," says Judge Grant, "put all those men under 
bonds to keep the peace." It was done at once, and 
court adjourned. 

The next year T. S. Wilson was elected judge of the 
district court. His first term was held in the old Meth- 
odist church, just back of the present church. This 
building resembled a nine-pin alley, and was just about 
as large. The year following, it was held in the upper 
room of the stone building now occupied by Tom Cur- 
tis as a livery stable, and in a school building where the 
jail now stands. It was altei wards held in a wooden 
building just south of Orville Fonda's store, on the west 
side of the river, and afterwards, in 1856, in the new 
court house. 

The first judge of the district court of this county 
was James Grant, who held his position from 1847 to 
1S53. The second judge was T. S. Wilson, of Du- 
buque, who held his first term in June, 1S53, and his 
last term in September, 1862. The third judge was 
James Burt, of Dubuque, who held his first term in 
April, 1863, and his last term in October, 1870. The 
fourth judge was J. M. Brayton, of Delaware county, 
who held his first term in April, 1871, and his last term 
in April, 1872. The fifth judge was D. S. Wilson, of 
Dubuque, who held his first term in October, 1872, and 
his last term in September, 1878. The sixth and present 
judge is S. Bagg, of Waterloo, whose term commenced 
January 1, 1879. 

The first term of the first circuit court of Buchanan 
county was held in March, 1869, S. Bagg, of Waterloo, 
judge. The first case tried in this court was D. D. Hol- 
dridge vs. Andrew Nicolia. 

B. W. Lacy was appointed circuit judge to fill the 
vacancy caused by the resignation of S. Bagg to fill the 
position of district judge, and held his first term in Feb- 
ruary, 1879. He was reelected in the fall of 1880 for a 
term of four years, commencing January i, 1881. 

The first sheriff was Eli Phelps, term commenced Jan- 
uary I, 1S49, expired January i, 1850. Second sheriff, 
H. W. Hatch; term commenced January i, 1850, ex- 
pired January i, 1852. Third sheriff, O. B. King; term 
commenced January i, 1852, expired January i, 1853. 
Fourth sheriff, Norman Picket; term commenced Jan- 
uary I, 1853, expired January i, 1S54. Fifth sheriff, 
Eli Phelps; term commenced January r, 1854, expired 
January i, 1856. Sixth sheriff, Leander Keyes; term 
commenced January i, 1856, expired January i, 1858. 
Seventh sheriff, William Martin; term commenced Jan- 
uary I, 1858, expired January i, i860. Eighth sheriff, 
Byron Hale; term commenced January i, i860, expired 
January i, 1862. Ninth sheriff, John M. Westfall; term 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



65 



commenced January i, 1862, expired January i, 1866. 
Tenth sheriff, A. Crooks; term commenced January i, 
1866, expired January i, 1868. Eleventh sheriff, John 
A. Davis; term commenced January i, 1868, expired 
January i, 1872. Twelfth sheriff, George O. Farr; term 
commenced January i, 1872, expired January i, 1876. 
Thirteenth sheriff, VV. S. Van Orsdol; term commenced 
January i, 1877, expired January i, 1880. Fourteenth 
sheriff, E. L. Currier; term commenced January i, 1880. 
Dr. Edward Brewer was elected clerk of the court in 
1847, and served until 1868; D. L. Smith was elected 
in 1868, and served until 1878; R. J, Williamson was 
elected in 1878, and served until 1880; O. M. Gillette 
was elected in the fall of 1880. 

BIOGR.\PHICAL SKETCHES OF LAWYERS. 

James Jamison was born, February 14, 1828, in the 
county of Armstrong, Pennsylvania. Of his father we 
can learn but little, except that he was very poor, and 
died when James was two years of age, leaving a widow 
and two children. James was given to his uncle with 
w-hom he lived until he was eighteen years of age, work- 
ing on the farm summers and attending school winters. 
At eighteen he cut loose from his uncle and commenced 
the struggle of life alone and unaided. 

Like so many others, in the vast army of self-made 
men, he gained discipline and money by teaching district 
school winters. His summers were devoted to study. 
In 1850 he entered Alleghany college, at Meadville, 
Pennsylvania, where he remained for two years, working 
his way. He then cotnmenced the study of law with 
the Hon. David Derickson at Meadville, and was admit- 
ted to the bar, Aug'ist 18, 1853. He immediately took 
his diploma and started for the west. With no particu- 
lar point in view, he threw himself into the great wave 
sweeping toward the west, trusting move to chance than 
to design, as to where he should land. 

Independence was the place, and without hesitation, 
but with an assurance that success awaited him, he at 
once opened an office. His first law case was tried for 
Orrin Lewis, October iS, 1853, for which he received a 
fee of three dollars. His business for the first month 
amounted to five dollars and seventy-five cents. 

A more uncouth, awkward, unpromising young man, 
in personal appearance, than Jamison was at that time, 
never threw his shingle to the public. Tall and angular, 
with light hair, a face not molden for beauty, awkward in 
every move, a gesticulation that defied all rules, a hesi- 
tancy of speech that was painful, he was at once, by su- 
perficial observers, set down as a failure. To the young 
men he was a subject of ridicule; to the young ladies a 
curiosity. 

The public soon began to observe that, from early 
morning until late at night, he never left his office except 
for meals. People soon learned that if they ever should 
want anything of Jamison, they would always know 
where to find him. The value of the adage, "Keep 
your office and your office will keep you," was well 
known and appreciated by him. Clients began to drop 
in. Their business was dispatched with wonderful 



promptness and accuracy. His knowledge of the law, 
his sound judgment, and his keen insight into the affairs 
of men, amazed the people. Beneath that ugly exterior, 
a broad, comprehensive mind was discovered. Clients 
thickened around him; business accumulated, and he 
was soon in the midst of an extensive and lucrative prac- 
tice. Fortune and fame increased. But few cases were 
tried in our county in which he was not interested. He 
was largely engaged in the real estate transactions of the 
county. As a counselor he had but few equals in the 
State. The quaint and witty sayings of Jamison would 
fill a volume. One must be preserved. One of his ob- 
jections was overruled by the court in a trial of a case. 
Jamison very drily remarked "your honor is right and I 
am wrong, as your honor most always is." 

As a citizen he was just and honest. He set a noble 
example of filial attachment. His widowed mother 
presided over his home (for he never married), and her 
lite was made happy by his constant love and devotion. 
But for one enemy Jamison would have been living to- 
day; have been in the front ranks of his profession, and a 
highly honored and wealthy citizen. Having no family 
to call forth and cultivate his domestic nature, his social 
qualities gradually found relaxation in the society of 
those whose tendencies were downward. The sequel 
need not be told. It is useless to follow him down the 
road we have all seen so many travel. It is the same 
old path ; once entered it is seldom forsaken. It leads 
all classes to the same goal. The talented, noble James 
Jamison, died a victim to intemperance the second day 
of August, 1878. 

Captain D. S. Lee was born in Genessee county, 
New York, October 16, 18 17. When he was sixteen 
years old his mother died. The family was scattered, 
and young Daniel was left to shift for himself. He was 
employed as a farm hand summers, and attended school 
winters, until he was twenty-one, when he entered Leroy 
academy, where he remained for two years. The follow- 
ing winter he taught school and, with his earnings, 
started, in the spring of 1842, for the west. He made 
his way to Akron, Ohio, where he studied law in the 
office of the Hon. William C. Dodge, at the same time 
teaching, until the fall of 1846, when he was admitted 
to the bar. He practiced his profession at that place 
until the summer of 1851, when he came to Dubuque, 
Iowa, and in the winter taught Dubuque's first free 
school. March 3, 1852, he was admitted to the bar of 
the Iowa supreme court. In the same spring he com- 
menced the practice of law in connection with the real 
estate business at Independence. In 1855, in connection 
with P. A. and E. B. Older, he established the first bank 
in Independence. The latter business was very success- 
ful until the year 1857, when the firm went down with 
so many others in the general crash. All of Mr. Lee's 
ample fortune was swept away, and financially he never 
recovered. Lee attested his patriotism and fidelity to 
the Government by being the first man to volunteer from 
this county in the late war. On the organization of 
company E, of the Fifth regiment Iowa infantry, he was 
unanimously elected captain, which position he held for 



66 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



three years. He was almost constantly engaged in active 
campaigns, and participated in many hard fought battles. 
On the field he was brave as a knight, in camp tender 
and kind, beloved by all his men. In the fall of 1864, 
immediately after his term of office expired, he was 
elected the first mayor of the city of Independence, and 
was reelected the year following. In the year 1869 he 
was chosen a member of the Iowa legislature, and per- 
formed the duties of that office with much ability. At 
the close of the session he resumed the practice of law, 
and continued in the same until he was prostrated by 
disease in 1875. After a lingering illness he died. May 
25, 1878. Captain Lee was married to Miss Fannie L. 
Brooks, who is still living. In physique, the captain 
was of medium height, straight as an arrow, with a well 
developed head, and was a strikingly handsome man, 
easy and graceful in every movement, affable and kind; 
he was, in every sense, a gentleman. As a speaker he 
was easy, fluent, and forcible. Had he confined himself 
strictly to the profession of law, and applied himself 
more closely to its study, he would have had but few 
equals in the State. 

O. H. P. RoszEi.L. — One of the most conspicuous and 
remarkable characters identified with the history of our 
county was the Hon. O. H. P. Roszell. With his com- 
manding presence, superior ability and strict integrity, he 
would have been a marked character anywhere. He was 
born December 21, 1827, in Canandaigua, New York. 
His father died when he was nine years of age. His 
education was completed at the Cary Collegiate semin- 
ary, where he attended for several years. When he was 
twenty-one years of age he determined to find himself a 
home in the great west. His first summer was spent 
with a Government surveying party in Wisconsin. De- 
cember, 1849, found him in Independence, where he 
remained until his death. The first few years of his 
western life were spent in various pursuits, principally in 
teaching and surveying. In 1851 he was admitted to 
the bar. In 1854 he was elected the first county judge 
of Buchanan county, which position he occupied for six 
years. The county judge at that time was a very impor- 
tant functionary. His powers, in reference to all business 
pertaining to county matters, were almost exclusive and 
unlimited. In 1858 Judge Roszell was elected county 
superintendent of public schools, holding the position for 
two years. He was, also, in the same year, elected a 
member of the State school board of education, and was 
a member of that body when the present free school 
system was adopted, and one of the committee who 
drafted the original bill. He was elected mayor of the 
city of Independence on three different occasions. He 
was married in Independence, in 1852, to Miss Mary 
E. Whait, by whom he had nine children. Judge Ros- 
zell was of extraordinary personal appearance, tall, dig- 
nified and commanding. The expression of his face 
was always grave and thoughtful, but good humored. 
His fine presence and brilliant talents at once commanded 
respect, even among strangers. In his speeches he was 
clear, logical and forcible, rather than abounding in 
rhetorical embellishment. He was a strong partisan. 



always taking great interest in political affairs, and always 
an ardent Democrat, of the old school. Yet such was the 
esteem in which he was held by his fellow-citizens, that 
he was rarely beaten in a political race, although his 
party was in a hopeless minority. As a lawyer, he did 
not meet with brilliant success. His life was so much 
taken up with other matters that others, with less ability, 
outstripped him at the bar. Probably no man in Bu- 
chanan county did so much for popular education as he. 
He was always an enthusiast in advancing the efficiency 
of our public schools. He died the fifth day of October, 
1877. Avast concourse of people, from all parts of the 
county, gathered at the funeral to shed a tear over the 
remains of one of Buchanan county's greatest and best 
men. He is one of the few, comparatively, who have 
left their impress for good in the community in which he 
lived. 

Albert Cl.\rk.e was born in Conway, Massachusetts 
in 1810. He was brought up in the old-fashioned New 
England style, on his father's farm, with fair school ad- 
vantages, until the age of eighteen, when, exhibiting 
more than ordinary aptitude for an education, he com- 
menced the study of the languages, preparatory to en- 
tering college, which he did in 1830, when he entered 
Amherst college, and was in the same class with Henry 
Ward Beecher and Fowler, the phrenologist. His stand- 
ing as a scholar was good, being most distinguished in 
those branches that require close thinking and deep re- 
search. He graduated in 1834. He was then principal 
of the academy in Oswego, New York, one year, and af- 
terwards filled a similar place in l)unkirk, where he also 
gave considerable attention to the law, and filled for 
some time the office of justice in that young and grow- 
ing village. He then moved to Virginia, where he 
taught in several institutions of learning, principally in 
Smithfield, for about ten years. He then returned to 
Massachusetts and completed his law studies in West- 
field, with ^^'illiam G. Bates, and practiced several years 
in his native town. He then for several years owned a 
drug store in Worcester, Massachusetts, and from thence 
moved to Dubuque, Iowa, where he went into the land 
business, (emigration then being nearly at its height), en- 
gaging at the same time, more or less, in the law. Hav- 
ing been interested, to a consideralile extent, in lands in 
Buchanan county, in 1S54 he moved to Independence, 
and gave his attention to its interests, and also to agen- 
cies of land belonging to eastern men. and attending to 
various public interests with which he was intrusted. 
He accumulated a fair property, and was considered as 
possessing good financial abilities. Being possessed of 
stern integrity and good judgment, he was often called 
upon to give counsel and aid to those who had come to 
this land of promise with little means, and were strug- 
gling to obtain a foothold; and he is still held in grateful 
remembrance by many who have risen to prosperous cir- 
cumstances. He took great interest in the growth and 
development of the county, especially in its educational 
and religious interests, and was one of the principal 
founders and supporters of the First Presbyterian church 
of Independence. He was married in 1847 to Miss 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



67 



Elizabeth Adams, and left one son, who lives in Inde- 
pendence. He died in the year 1868, aged fifty-eight 
years. 

J.AMES W. Weart was born in Hopewell, Mercer county, 
New Jersey, in a house occupied by General Washington 
as his headquarters during a period of the Revolutionary 
war. He was lieutenant in the Twenty-first regiment 
New Jersey volunteers. He came to Independence De- 
cember 25, 1863, and at once coinmenced the practice 
of law. He was city clerk for a number of years; also 
clerk of the Iowa senate for three terms. He came to 
his death by the accidental discharge of a gun while 
hunting, on Thanksgiving day, which badly mutilated 
both of his hands. He survived the accident about one 
week, dying in December, 1874. He was married to 
Jennie E. Taylor, of Philadelphia, in 1866, by whom he 
had five children. We are very sorry that we are not 
able to give a more complete history of this interesting- 
young man, but the data are not at hand. He was ex- 
ceedingly popular with all classes, especially the young, 
and is held in grateful remembrance by the citizens of 
Independence. 

S. S. Allen", one of the oldest and most respected citi- 
zens of Buchanan county, was born May i, 1828, in 
Franklin county, Massachusetts. He resided there until 
he was about nineteen years of age, when he came west, 
stopping in Waukegan, Wisconsin, and engaging in teach- 
ing. In 1S51 he entered the law office of Bennett & 
Hudson, Janesville, Wisconsinsin, where he studied two 
years. He was admitted to the bar in 1853. and imme- 
diately came to this county and settled at Independence, 
where he practiced law three years, exclusively, though 
he was engaged in law and real estate business until 1875, 
when he left Independence and moved to Homer town- 
ship, upon the farm where he is at present. He has the 
largest farm in the township, consisting of six hundred 
acres of excellent land. He is principally engaged in 
stock raising, keeping from one hundred to two hundred 
head of cattle, and about the same number of hogs. He 
has a pleasant and beautiful home surrounded by a "Cen- 
tennial grove," set out by himself in 1876. Mr. Allen 
was an early proprietor of the first newspaper in Inde- 
pendence, the Civilian, with which he was connected 
from 1855 to 1859. He built the first three-story brick 
block west of Dubuque, also established the first broker's 
office west of that place. Mr. Allen was in business as 
a merchant from 1856 to 1859. He had a drug store, 
hardware store, dry goods store, and a book store, the 
latter the first in Independence. He dealt quite exten- 
sively in real estate for many years, and many acres of 
land passed through his hands. 

Mr. Allen married Miss Martha Smiley, of Rock 
county, February 21, 1854. They have had seven chil- 
dren, six of whom are living: Emery S. S., born July 5, 
1858; Charles, born February 2, i860, died when about 
four years old; John B., born February 15, 1865; Willie 
H., born December 15, 1866; Andrew J., born August 
27, 1868; Mattie, born January 10, 1874; Augusta M. 
W., born April 2, 1877. Mr. Allen is a member of the 
Independent Order of Odd Fellows. He is a firm Demo- 



crat, and has held several local offices, though he never 
sought them. 

J. S. Woodward, esq., was born in Middleburgh, 
Schoharie county. New York, in 1830. He lived until 
he attained the age of seven years at Hanover, New 
Hampshire, the home of his father, Stephen Woodward. 
He then went to Tunbridge, Vermont, where he lived 
until he came west. His father died in 1865 ; his mother 
is still living at Albany, New York. She is at present 
over eighty years of age, and is healthy and active. 
Mr. Woodward was educated at Kimball Union Aca- 
demy, Meriden, New Hampshire, one of New England's 
first-class schools. He fitted for Dartmouth college, 
but he did not pursue the course, as he had made up his 
mind to follow Horace Greeley's advice to young men. 
When about twenty years old he went to Wisconsin, 
where he read law in the office of George B. Ely, of 
Janesville; and in August, 1853, was admitted to the 
bar in that place. He came to Buchanan county the 
same fall, and located at Independence, then a place of 
perhaps twenty or thirty inhabitants. At the time of his 
arrival his entire capital consisted of a yankee ninepence 
and six law books. Of course his business was very 
'• small at first, but by diligently attending to it, Mr. Wood- 
j ward gained the confidence of the people, and rose rapidly 
j as the county became more thickly settled. In 1854 he 
I was elected prosecuting attorney, and from that time 
j onward his business steadily increased. In 1857 he was 
I elected a member of the State legislature, and represented 
his district with much credit. In 1864 he was a delegate 
to the Baltimore convention. He has twice been mayor 
of the city of Independence. Mr. Woodward has done 
a large business for many years. He has practised law 
six years longer than any other lawyer in the city. Many 
of the prominent lawyers of this vicinity have been students 
in his office, as well as several who are now practising 
in other States. Mr. Woodward has always been a 
constant worker, and is at present doing as large business 
as any lawyer in the county. It is unnecessary to add 
that he stands high in the community, and possesses the 
highest esteem and confidence of his fellow-citizens. In 
physique Woodward is a little below the medium height; 
sparely but well built ; coal black eyes and hair to match. 
He has untiring energy, is ever active, never caught 
napping, always on the alert and diligent. His char- 
acteristics as a lawyer may be gathered from the above. 
He is untiring and ceaseless in the cause of his clients, 
and never forsakes them until he is victorious or hopelessly 
defeated. In speaking, his whole body is in motion. 
There is no circumlocution, no hitching and hesitating, 
to pick out smooth and elegant expressions: the only 
object is to hit the mark. If he sometimes scatters, 
his shots are so rapid that some are sure to hit. When 
Jamison was living, there was rarely a case in which both 
were not engaged, and generally on opposite sides. A 
detailed history of the legal contests between these two 
men would fill a volume with rich and rare reading. 
Woodward is the prince of good fellows, social, genial and 
generous. His humor is proverbial. His organ of mirth 
Is developed to such a degree that it has been said of him 



68 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



that he would smile the longest and loudest of any man in 
Iowa. Woodward's high standing at the bar, his integrty 
as a citizen, his sparkling wit and social qualities would 
have commanded for him almost any otificial position. 
He has never asked, but steadily refused political prefer- 
ment. Last year Mr. Woodward commenced building a 
splendid residence, which, when completed, will be the 
finest house in this county. It is very tastefully planned, 
and is both beautiful and convenient. Mr. Woodward 
was married, in 1855, to Miss Caroline Morse, who was 
born at Rochester, New York, in 1835. They have 
three children living and two deceased. Anna died 
when nine months old; Jerome when nineteen months 
old. Agnes was born March 26, 1861. Will M. was 
born June 29, 1865; Katie, born March 21, 1872. All 
are at home with iheir parents. Mr. Woodward is a 
member of the Odd fellows and the Knights of Pythias. 
He has been a staunch Republican since the organization 
of the parly. 

Hon. W. G. Donnan is one of the small number of 
men whose names are not only woven into the history of 
their own county, but of the State and Nation also. He 
was born at West Charlton, Saratoga county. New York, 
June 30, 1834. His parents were Scotch, and he inher- 
ited all the strong, sturdy qualities of that people. At 
seventeen years of age he entered Cambridge academy. 
Two years later he commenced his collegiate course at 
Union college, New York, and graduated in 1856, the 
fourth in his class. He immediately started for the west, 
and selected Independence for his future home. Here 
he studied law with J. S. Woodward, and was admitted 
to the bar in 1857. He has practiced law in this city 
ever since, except when occupied with official duties. In 
the fall of 1857 he was elected treasurer and recorder of 
Buchanan county, was reelected and continued in that 
office until 1862. In August, 1862, he enlisted as a 
private in the Twenty-seventh regiment, Iowa infantry 
volunteers, was promoted to the rank of first lieutenant, 
and was brevetted captain and major, and served until 
the close of the war. His meritorious conduct while in 
the army received special mention on several occasions 
from his superior officers. In 1867 he was elected to the 
State senate for the term of four years. He was a very 
popular and influential member of that body. It was 
through his efforts, while senator, that Independence se- 
cured the location of the State hospital fur the insane at 
this place. He originated and drafted the bill which se- 
cured us that great institution. A man of much ability, 
who was in a position to know, thus writes of Mr. Don- 
nan; 

His services in the legislature were exceptionally noteworthy and 
creditable. His practical good sense, fine social qualities, and thor- 
ough knowledge of human nature, rendered him alike popular and in- 
fluential with both houses. In council and debate his opinions were 
sought after and respected. During his first session he originated and 
was largely instrumental in securing the passage of an act locating a 
State hospital for the insane at Independence. His peculiar fitness for 
legislative woik, developed during his career in the State senate, so 
recommended him to the favor of the Republicans of his district that 
in the fall of 1870 they made him their candidate and elected him to 
the Forty-second Congress by a majority of about five thousand votes 
over the Democratic candidate. 



Mr. Donnan's services in the Forty-second Congress 
were so eminently satisfactory to his constituents that he 
was renominated for the second term without opposition, 
and was elected by a large majority. He could undoubt- 
edly have been nominated for the third term, but he pos- 
itively refused to become a candidate. At the end of 
his second term he was offered a foreign mission to South 
America, but declined. Mr. Donnan was a member of 
the National convention at Cincinnati in 1876. He has 
been treasurer of the Iowa hospital for the insane at In- 
dependence, Iowa, since January, 1877. M""- Donnan 
has performed the duties of all the high positions in which 
he has been called to act, with eminent ability and satis- 
faction to his constituents. He has developed an aptness 
for legislative work rarely excelled. Physically he could 
vie with the old Scotch Bruces and Wallaces, being six 
feet in height, broad-shouldered, erect, strong, and 
healthy. As an orator Mr. Donnan ranks high, being 
always clear, logical, and forcible. Intellectually he is 
strong and vigorous, grasping at once the main points 
and the details of the question involved. Socially he 
has no superiors. He ardently loves his home and fam- 
ily, as well he may. He was married October i, 1857, 
to Miss Mary E. Williamson, who was born in Kentucky. 
His family consists of two boys — William W., born Au- 
gust 20, 1859, and Donald D., born August 7, 1862. 

Col. Jed Lake was born in Virgil, Courtland county, 
New York, November, 18, 1830. His father, Jedediah 
Lake, was the son of Henry Lake, of Montgomery 
county, New York, who. served under General Washing- 
ton in the Revolutionary war. He enlisted when seven- 
teen years of age, and served four years. Jedediah 
Lake settled in Virgil in 1822, at the age of twenty-four, 
and was married to Patience Church, of the adjoining 
town of Marathon. They had two sons and two 
daughters. Our Jed Lake was the second son. His 
father died when he was three years old, leaving his 
widowed mother with four children, the oldest seven, 
and the youngest less than one year old. The mother 
kept the family together, and carried on the farm until 
the oldest son was of age, when he took charge of it. 
This threw Jed on his own resources. He had received, 
at this time, no education except from common schools. 
He hired out to a neighboring farmer for the summer, 
but after working a month a disagreement arose, and Jed 
left. While on his way to find employment he met a 
man going to Ithaca to start for New York, with a canal- 
boat. To him Jed hired out to drive a team on the Erie 
canal at thirteen dollars per month. The Colonel says 
he has always felt a little diffidence about telling this part 
of his history, but since the election of Garfield he 
speaks of it with pride. He laid up some money that 
season, and the next spring went to the New York 
Central college. By teaching and working on farms he 
supported himself for two years at this institution. At 
this time he would have been ready to enter college, had 
he been prepared in Latin and Greek, but in his youth 
he had been taught to despise these studies, and it took 
him these two ye."irs to get over the prejudice. At this 
time the Courtland academy was in the full tide of its 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



69 



prestige. Here Jed took Mathematics under Pro- 
fessor Lawrence, the author of Mathematical works, and 
English Grammar under S. W. Clark (also author of a 
text book), and German under Professor Maasburgh, and 
Latin under Professor Sanford. In May, 1855, he was 
taken with billious fever and paralysis of the right side, 
and by the advice of physicians quit school. In the 
fall of that year he engaged to travel with William Swift, 
a cousin of the noted Professor Swift, of Rochester ob- 
servatory. This Swift was giving lectures on electricity, 
electro-magnetism, and an expose of spirit rappings, 
which had just then come into notoriety. In this 
capacity he traveled until 1855, visiting New York, Penn- 
sylvania, Maryland, Virginia, and Ohio. At this time, 
desiring to settle into permanent business, he packed 
his satchel and started for Des Moines, Iowa, but landed 
in Independence, in October, 1855, where he has 
since resided. His health would not permit his engag- 
ing in a profession, so he spent two years on a farm. At 
the end of that time his cousin persuaded him to pur- 
chase a half interest in a saw-mill, and then lit out 
between two days, leaving Jed the sole proprietor. Jed 
has not seen his cousin since. After a little he blew up 
the boiler, sold the remnants, sold all he had and paid 
his debts, as for as he could, came to town and com- 
menced the study of law. He sometimes tells that it 
looked awful dark to him, after he blew up his mill, but 
he is now satisfied that it was the best thing that ever 
happened to him. He was admitted to the bar in the 
spring of 1859. He was examined by Honorable F. E. 
Bissell, and D. S. Wilson, of Dubuque, and John H. 
Pierce, of Anamosa, and they gave him a flattering 
recommend to the court. Honorable George W. Bemis 
tells that one day, meeting Jed, he said to him: "Jed, 
I understand you are admitted to the bar. Now my ad- 
vice to you is to go west and grow up with the country. 
You can make something out there." Said Jed with 
clinched fist, "I brought one thousand dollars in gold to 
this place, and I'm not going to leave here until I can 
take away as much as I brought." Mr. Lake then set- 
tled down to the practice of the law. In the fall of 1861 
he was elected to the State legislature. The following 
summer he enlisted in a company then being raised by 
Captain Noble, and was elected first lieutenant. He was 
commissioned lieutenant colonel of the Twenty-seventh 
regiment, Iowa volunteer infantry, by Governor Kirk- 
wood. He served with his regiment during the w^ar. 
Several of Mr. Lake's interesting war letters will be found 
in another chapter of this work. His regiment was in 
very many battles, and lost a large number of men. At 
the close of the war he was colonel of his regiment. He 
then returned to Independence and resumed the practice 
of law. He has been urged by his friends to accept 
many official positions, such as representative, senator, 
and judge of district court, but he has positively refused 
to accept any office that would take him away from his 
business. He served as alderman for six years, as a 
member of the school board for seven years, and was a 
member of the board of supervisors two years. He per- 
formed the duties of the above offices with admirable 



skill and ability. He now holds the positions of Direc- 
tor and attorney of the First National bank of this city; 
also director, attorney, and chairman of the executive 
committee of the Independence Mill company. In his 
law practice he has been eminently successful, and has 
secured an abundant competence. His firm, of which 
he is the senior member, is now engaged in defending 
about one hundred and twenty of the citizens of this 
part of the State in the celebrated drive well suits. In 
personal appearance the Colonel is a solid, well-built 
man, weighing two hundred and twenty-five pounds; has 
grey eyes, and coal black hair. By a strict observ- 
ance of the laws of health he has preserved a re- 
markably fresh and youthful appearance, for a man 
of his years. As a lawyer he has but (ew equals in 
this part of the State. He has a strong analytical mind 
and a very retentive memory. Is a close student, not 
only of law, but of general literature. He is not given 
to ostentatious show and glitter. Everything is business 
and matter of fact. His fine judicial mind and com- 
manding presence, well qualify him for the bench. Jed 
Lake was married June 2, 1861, to Miss Sarah E. Meyer. 
He has two children. Rush C, born April 13, 1862, and 
Hattie I., born February 7, 1S70. 

Other attorneys in Independence are worthy of special 
and lengthy notice, but space will not permit. 

We have given a more extended liistory of the three last 
mentioned, for the reason that they were among the 
pioneer lawyers of the county, each having practiced 
here for more than a quarter of a century. 

The brief sketches following, of later attorneys, will be 
as nearly as possible in the order of their residence in 
Independence. 

D. D. HoLDRiDGE was born in Madison county. New 
York, September 3, 1835. He was educated at the 
Cazenovia seminary, New York, and then studied law 
two years with D. W. Cameron, at that place, after tak- 
ing a full law course at the Law university at Albany. 
He was married at Cazenovia, New York, March 16, 
1858, to Miss Mary L. Loomis. He moved to Inde- 
pendence, Iowa, in March, 1862, and immediately com- 
menced the practice of law. He was elected to the 
Iowa legislature in the fall of 1S63. He was afterwards 
quartermaster of the Forty-sixth Iowa infantry volunteers. 
During the war he received a commission from Abraham 
Lincoln as captain and commissary of subsistence, but 
declined to serve. He was three times mayor of the 
city of Independence, twice by election and once by 
appointment. He has four children — Fannie L., Mary 
B., Kate P., and Harry H. 

J. B. DoNNAN was born in Saratoga county. New 
York, December 13, 1840; was educated at the Fort 
Edward institute. New York. He came to Indepen- 
dence in May, 1862. He was graduated at the law 
department of the Iowa State university in June, 1868. 
He had previously formed a partnership with his brother 
Hon. W. G. Donnan in 1865, and they have continued 
in partnership ever since. He was married in June, 
1868, to Martha J. Ross; has four children — Lillian E., 
Ale.xander M., Abbie R., and Mary B. 



7° 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



Hon. M. W. H.i^RMON was born in Seneca county, 
Ohio, June 25, 1844. His parents removed to Ingham 
county, Michigan, in 1849, to Dubuque county, Iowa, 
in March, 1855, to Hopkinton, Delaware county, Iowa, 
in June, 1S56, where they now reside. In the fall of 
1859 he entered the Collegiate institute at Hopkinton, 
where he remained three years. July 28, 1S62, he en- 
listed as a volunteer from Delaware county, Iowa. His 
company was mustered into United States service 
August 23, 1862, as company K, Twenty-first Iowa vol- 
unteer infantry; was private eight months, corporal two 
months, and sergeant. He served during the war and 
was discharged with his regiment July 26, 1865. He 
went south in the fall of 1S65 and lived a year at Mobile, 
Alabama. He came to Buchanan in November, 1866. 
Here he taught school two years, reading law at the same 
time. He was deputy postmaster at Independence 
under Captain Little, from April i, 1868, to April i, 
1869. He then entered the law office of Hon. W. G. 
Donnan and was admitted to the bar in October, 1869. 
July I, 1870, he formed a partnership with Colonel Jed 
Lake, with the firm name of Lake & Harmon, which 
partnership still continues. Mr. Harmon .was married 
in December, 1872, to Miss M. C. Carter of Independ- 
ence. Iowa, by whom he has one son, Ray. At the gen- 
eral election in 1875, Mr. Harmon was elected State 
senator from Buchanan county for four years, and was 
reelected in 1879. 1^'s present term expires January i, 
1884. 

J. E. Cook, esq., was born in Grafton county. New 
Hampshire, July 8, 1847. His parents removed to this 
county in 1856. Young Cook graduated at the Iowa 
State University in 1870; studied law with O. Miller, at 
Watertown, and was admitted to the bar in 1871. He 
practiced at Jes/ip until 1877 when he came to Inde- 
pendence. He formed a partneiship with J. S. Wood- 
ward February i, 1879. He was married to Bessie P. 
Johnson, from Decovah, Iowa, September 3, 1874. He 
has one child — Roy. Mr. Cook and wife are members 
of the Presbyterian church. He is a member of the 
Masonic fraternity. 

D. \V. Bruckart, Esg., was born in Lancaster county, 
Pennsylvania, April 23, 1851. He was one of a family 
of eight boys. At the age of twelve he commenced to 
work in the iron mines. He was afterwards newsboy on 
the streets of Lancaster. He began teaching when 
fifteen years of age. In the fall of 1869 he entered 
Lafayette college, Pennsylvania, remaining there two 
years. He graduated at the law school of the Iowa 
State university in June, 1872, and the following fall 
opened an office at Independence. He was married 
May II, 1875 to Miss Sarah Williams, of Independence, 
and has one child living. 

M. R. Eastman was born in Hopkinton, New Hamp- 
shire, in 1839. He was graduated from New Hamp- 
shire seminary, July 20, 1859. He was admitted to the 
bar in New Hampshire in April, 1864. He removed to 
Waterloo, this State, in 1865; practiced law there until 
1868, when he removed to Jesup, this county. He prac- 
ticed in Jesup until the ninth day of May, 1874, when he 



came to Independence, and has practiced here ever 
since. 

C. E. Ransier was born in New Woodstock, Madison 
county. New York, April 4, 1854. His parents removed 
to Indeijendence October 9, 1867. He took the full 
course in the high school of this city; commenced to 
read law April 4, 1874, on his twentieth birthday, with 
James Jamison; was admitted to the bar in May, 1S76, 
and has practiced law in this city ever since, being the 
successor of James Jamison. He was married March 
8, 1881, to Miss Delpha Tryon. He was city solicitor 
for three years, and is a member of the Masonic fra- 
ternity. 

Daniel S.mvser was born May 29, 1839, in Wayne 
county, Ohio. He removed with his parents to this 
county in 185 1. He studied law with James Jamison, 
and was admitted to the bar September 10, 1877. He 
was married July 9, 1878, to Miss Arvilla McFadden. 
They have one son — Walter B. 

Seth Newman was born in Herkimer county. New 
York, December 7, 1836, and was educated at Fairfield 
academy; studied law two years with Horace Boies, 
and two years with Lawing & Lockwood at Buffalo, and 
was admitted to the bar November 15, i860. He 
practiced with Boies at Buffalo until 1861, when he was 
compelled, by disease of the lungs, to relinquish the 
practice for several years. Having recovered his health, 
he returned to the practice in Independence in 1876, 
and was elected justice of the peace the same year, which 
position he held until January, 1880, when he resigned 
and entered into partnership with W. H. Holman. He 
was married March 14, 1866, to Miss Laura F. Hewell, 
and has but two children, Sarah F. and Lizzie B. 

John J. Ney, esq., was born at Sandusky, Ohio, June 
8, 1852. He was educated at Notre Dame, Indiana, 
graduating in 1875. He afterwards pursued a law course 
at that institution. In 1875 ^^ came to Independence, 
and entered into partnership with Lake &: Harmon. 
He continued in that firm until the following year, when 
he formed a partnership with D. VV. Bruckart. 

In the spring of 1879 he withdrew from that firm, and 
opened an office alone. 

He was city attorney for Independence in the year 
1876. In the spring of 1877 he was elected mayor of 
the city by the Democratic party. 

He was married October 3, 1878, to Miss Emily F. 
Colby, of Chicago. They have one child, Marion F. 

Captain H. W. Holman was born in Erie county, 
Pennsylvania, August 22, 1841. He was in the army 
from April, 1861, to August, 1865, enlisted as a private 
and rose to lieutenant and signal officer. He removed 
to Allamakee county, Iowa, in 1865. Was admitted to 
the bar in 1868, and practiced at Wankon for two years, 
then removed to Waterloo, Iowa, and formed a law part- 
nership with Lichty, which continued for two years. In 
1872 he was appointed reporter of the district court of 
the nineteenth judicial district, which position he held 
until April, 1877. He then resigned and commenced 
the practice of law at Independence. In 1881 he was 
elected captain of the Independence guards. He was 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



71 



married October 22, 1867, to Miss Harriet Smith, by 
whom he has three children, Gracie, Leta and May Bell. 

J. E. Jewel was born in Montgomery county, Ohio. 
October 19, 1847. Came to this county in June, 1854. 
He enlisted as a private at the age of seventeen years, 
and served as such to the close of the war, in company 
C, twenty-seventh Iowa infantry volunteers. He attend- 
ed Western college in Iowa for two years, and Cornell 
college for two years. He was graduated from the law 
department of the Iowa state university in 1877. Com- 
menced practice in Independence in September, 1877. 
He was married March 5, 1S71, to Miss Hala E. Ros- 
zell, of Benton county, Iowa, her native place. They 
have two boys, Fred B. and Jed Lake. 

Fr.\nk Jennings, esq., was born in Pittsburgh, Penn- 
sylvania, July 3, 1836; was educated at St. Vincent col- 
lege, Cape Girard, Missouri. He studied law with H. T. 
McNulty, at Dubuque, Iowa, and was admitted to the 
bar in February, 1856. In the year 1859 he was elected 
city recorder of Dubuque, which position he held two 
years. He was afterwards deputy clerk of the county for 
three years. The balance of the time he practiced law 
in Dubuque county, until 1877, when he removed to In- 
dependence. Mr. Jennings was married January 22, 
1872, to Eliza J. Dow. They have three children living, 
Charles B., Blanche and Edith. 

J. H. Williamson was born February 7, 1855, at New- 
burgh, Orange county, New York. He graduated at the 
Lenox collegiate institute, in the same class with his 
brother, in June, 1878. He was graduated from the 
same department of the State university, June 21, 1880, 
and was admitted to practice in all the courts of the 
State and the federal courts. He commenced practice 
at Independence in September, 1880, and entered into a 
partnership with his brother, R. J., in January, 1881. 

R. J. Williamson was born in Newburgh, Orange 
county. New York, February 3, 1857. He graduated at 
the Lenox collegiate institute, at Hopkinton, Iowa, in 
June, 1878. In the fall of that year he was elected clerk 
of the district court of Buchanan county, Iowa, and 
served until January i, 1881. He was admitted to the 
bar in November, 1880. He formed a law partnership 
with his brother, J. H., in January, i88r. 

O. M. Gillette was born March 12, 1850, in Bergen, 
Gennesee county. New York. He first came to Inde- 
pendence in 1865 ; was educated in the high school of Ba- 
tavia, New York. He studied law with Lee and Weart, 
and was admitted to the bar in 1875. He was first 
elected justice of the peace in 1876, and held that posi- 
tion until January i, 1881. Was elected clerk of the 
court in 18S0. Was married November, 1873, to Miss 
Emma Dyer, of Independence. Has one child, Mabel. 

E. E. Hasner was born February 21, 1848, in Onan- 
daga county, New York ; graduated at the Iowa state 
university; was admitted to the bar in 1873; was city 
attorney one term. He was married December 25, 
1876, to Miss Nettie E. Bain. 

Francis W. Comfort was born in Cook county, Illi- 
nois, 1853. He was educated at Wheaton college, and 
was admitted to the bar in 1880. He was married on 



the third of June, 1878, to Miss Ella G. Aborn, of Inde- 
pendence. 

F. W, CJiFKORD was born March 8, 1854, in Manches- 
ter, Vermont. Came to this county in 1858. He grad- 
uated at Madison university, Wisconsin, in 1875. Studied 
law with Lake .Sc Harmon, and with O. M. Gillette. 
Was admitted to the bar in November, 1877 ; was elected 
justice of the peace in the fall of 1880. 

E. S. Gavlord. — This gentleman was admitted to the 
bar three or four years ago, since which time he has been 
practicing in Winthrop. A remarkable fact in his history 
is the age at which he commenced his legal studies. 
After having been a farmer till he was over fifty years 
old, he became convinced that he was born to be a law- 
yer. He therefore gave up his farm, studied law, was 
admitted, and is said to be having an excellent practice. 

Stephen Paul Sheffield. — This gentleman, who has 
an office at Hazleton, was born at Palmyra, Wayne coun- 
ty. New York, F'ebruary 27, 1833; received his early ed- 
ucation at Walworth academy; studied law with the Hon. 
Stephen K. Williams, and was admitted to the bar of the 
supreme court of New York in June, 1855. He came 
to Iowa the same year, but remained at that time only a 
year and a half. He has been a great rover, and has 
followed many avocations, among which, besides that of 
the law, are those of civil engineer, newspaper corre- 
spondent and novelist. He is a very graceful writer. He 
returned to Iowa in 1873, ^"d in 1880 he settled in Hazle- 
ton with his family, consisting of his wife and two daugh- 
ters. Having fairly settled down to business he expects 
to make Hazleton his permanent home. 



CHAPTER XI. 

INTERESTING CASES. 

So.me of the legal cases that have come before the 
courts in this county, or been taken from it to others by 
change of venue, are sufficiently interesting to be included 
among the "causes celebres" of the French bar. We 
will give a brief account of a few of the most striking of 
these, commencing with the 

COVEY MURDER CASE, 

which furnishes a remarkable instance of the failure of 
justice, through the mere technical inability to prove 
what the lawyers call the corpus delicti, or substance of 
the crime. That a murder had been committed nobody 
doubted. Who the murdered man was, and who the 
murderer everybody knew. The corpus of the latter was 
lying in jail — that of the former, nobody knewvvhere; 
and so, the corpus delicti not being proven according to 
the technical requirements of the law, the murderer 
escaped unpunished. 

A murdered human body has usually been regarded 
as a very difficult thing to conceal, and a very easy thing 
to find; but a few cases like the following would go far 



72 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, lOAVA. 



to establish the contrary notion, viz., that, of all things, a 
murdered body is the easiest to conceal and the most 
difficult to find. 

The principal part of the following statement has been 
kindly furnished by our friend Jed. Lake, esq., one 
of Buchanan's best known lawyers; but we have added 
some interesting facts derived from other sources — 
especially from the verbal narrative of another friend, 
Mr. D. W. Hammond, one of the pioneer settlers of the 
county, and for many years in the employment of the 
United States Government, as head clerk in the railroad 
postal service. 

Among the early settlers in and about Buffilo Grove, 
or Upper Buffalo, as it was called, was a somewhat 
numerous family by the name of Jewell. There were 
the father and mother, who were then very old people, 
and several sons who were married and had families, and 
who had taken up land in that vicinity. One of these 
sons was J. R. Jewell, who was then commonly known 
as Rock Jewell, and who had taken a fine tract of land 
on the west side of the grove, in what is now Byron 
township. 

In the spring of 1855 one J. N. Covey came here from 
Vermont and made some kind of a trade with Rock 
Jewell for this land. Covey had a large house built there 
the same year, and moved into it in the spring of 1856. 
lewell and his family still lived in a small shanty on the 
place. Some time in May, of the same year. Covey fore- 
closed a chattel mortgage that he had on a span of horses 
owned by Jewell, and bid them in himself 

It may throw some light upon the subsequent portions 
of this history if we state, in passing, that Jewell con- 
sidered himself wronged by Covey in these transactions, 
and was harboring a sort of grudge against him, though 
no open rupture had taken place between them. It may 
also be proper to say that Covey and the Jew^ells ("Rock" 
and "Tom,'" who figure in the story) were rather rough 
and intemperate characters; but no one suspected them 
to be capable of such a terrible crime as that of which 
the two latter now stand convicted in th? popular esti- 
mation. 

On the first Sunday in June, 1856, Covey started with 
the team above mentioned to go to Dubuque, avowing 
his intention (as was alleged) of going from there to Ver- 
mont, and of returning in about two weeks. As he was 
about to start Rock Jewell came out. of his shanty and 
asked the privilege of riding over to his father's, who 
lived some two miles distant, in a northeasterly direction, 
on the other side of the grove. The privilege was 
granted, as from one neighbor to another, and the two 
set out, crossed a bridge over Buffalo creek, and disap- 
peared in the timber. 

This was the last that was ever seen of J. N. Covey, 
except by those who are believed to have put him out of 
sight, effectually and forever, on that fatal morning. 

At the time of which we are writing D. W. Ham- 
mond, another settler at the grove, was boarding at the 
house of a widow by the name of Watson, who lived on 
the opposite side of the grove from Covey's, and about 
a mile farther north. Mr. Hammond, who had been 



recently married, and had made arrangements for going 
to housekeeping, was expecting his wife at Dubuque 
about the middle of the week following the events above 
narrated, and had engaged to meet her there and return 
with a load of household goods. Covey, ascertaining 
this, persuaded Hammond to go with him that Sunday 
morning instead of waiting till Monday or Tuesday, as 
he had intended to do. Hammond, although he dis- 
liked to make the trip on Sunday, yet, for the sake of 
having company, consented to the arrangement. Covey 
was to come up to Mrs. Watson's and they were to start 
together from there about 7 o'clock in the morning. 

At about 6 o'clock, while Hammond was getting ready 
to start, Tom Jewell, who also lived on the east side of 
the grove, some distance north of Mrs. Watson's, came 
by on the horse of his brother-in-law, Starkey, going 
south, with a spade on his shoulder. A few words were 
exchanged, Hammond mentioning that he was going to 
Dubuque with Covey, and Jewell passed on. 

Seven o'clock came and Covey did not appear. After 
Hammond had waited a half hour or more, Tom Jewell 
returned without the spade, bare-headed, riding the same 
horse at a full gallop. As soon as he came near Ham- 
mond he called out: Havn't you gone yet?" Ham- 
mond replied that he was waiting for Covey. "Why," 
said Jewell, "he went nearly an hour ago. He told me 
to come and tell you, and I forgot it He had to go by 
the south road, and wants you to go on to the crossing. 
Perhaps he'll meet you there. If he don't, you keep on 
to Coffin's grove, and wait for him if he hasn't got there. 
If he gets there first he'll wait for you." Having said 
this, Jewell went back, and Hammond started on as di- 
rected. 

The road he took was about a mile north of the one 
he supposed Covey had taken — the two running parallel 
for soiiiC distance, then converging, and finally crossing 
each other on a ridge about three miles east of the 
grove. 

Hammond had not gone far when he saw Covey's 
team on the south road, driven very rapidly. He 
recognized them distinctly, notwithstanding the dis- 
tance, by the flowing silver tail of the sorrel 
horse on the near side. He supposed it was Covey 
that was driving, but noticed that he sat crouched down 
in the wagon in an unusual attitude. Thinking at first 
that the rapid driving was a challenge to see which 
should reach the crossing first, he put whip to his own 
team and run them for some distance. But the other 
gained upon him so fast that he soon gave it up, rather 
than run tlie risk of injuring his horses. 

Just before reaching the ridge Covey's team had to 
cross a slough, which retarded them so much that when 
they reached the crossing Hammond was not more than 
fifty rods from them. The driver was still crouched 
down in the wagon, as if desirous to avoid recognition; 
and, instead of taking the road toward Dubuque, as 
Hammond expected him to do, he turned directly north 
and drove off over the open prairies as fast as the horses 
could go. And as the wagon receded in the distance 
Hammond saw distinctly that a buffalo skin was spread 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



73 



over the bottom, and that some large, loose object be- 
neath it was rolling or bounding from side to side. Much 
puzzled, and not a little vexed by what he had seen, but 
still supposing that the driver was Covey, and that he 
had hastened off across the prairie to see an acquaintance 
living somewhere in that direction, and that he had 
driven so fast simply to gain time and not retard their 
journey too much, Mr. Hammond went on to Coffin's 
grove, and there waited several hours for Covey to come. 
But, having waited in vain, he at last gave him up, and 
started on to Dubuque alone. 

He was there till the latter part of the week, his wife 
not arriving till Thursday, and every day he looked and 
enquired for Covey; but no Covey came. The latter had 
said nothing to Hammond about going to Vermont; but 
the understanding between the two was that they should 
return together — each expecting to have a pretty heavy 
load — that they might assist each other in case of neces- 
sity. Mr. Hammond and his wife, however, returning 
alone, reached the grove in safety. 

Two weeks rolled around, and still Covey did not 
return, nor were any tidings heard of him. Rock Jewell 
was absent — no one knew where — and suspicion of foul 
play began to be aroused, and search began to be made. 

About the first of July, 1856, Charles H. Jakway, 
then and now residing in Buffalo Grove, happening to 
be in Dubuque on business, came across Rock Jewell, 
sitting behind a pile of wood on the levee, with his hat 
drawn over his face, as if not wishing to be recognized. 
Mr. Jakway went up to him, and addressing him called 
him by name. He looked up at Jakway and said, with 
an oath: "I don't know you." Then another person 
came up and inquired of Mr. Jakway if he knew that 
man? whereupon Jakway received a warning from Jew- 
ell, in an undertone, to say he did not. But when he 
openly avowed his knowledge of him, Jewell, in a great 
rage, and with many oaths, protested that he had never 
seen Jakway before. No time was lost in sending back 
word that Jewell was in Dubuque, and in having him ar- 
rested by the officers on the charge of murder. 

It was afterward found that Jewell had sold the team, 
wagon and harness, with which Covey had started from ' 
home, at Potosi, Wisconsin; that he had tried to sell 
two watches which Covey had with him when he left ; 
and also tliat he had on many of Covey's clothes when 
seen in Dubuque. It was to get these watches priced 
by a jeweler that he had come to that city, under an 
assumed name, along with the man who was going to 
purchase them. 

The whole neighborhood about the grove was aroused 
when it was learned that Mr. Jewell had been arrested 
with Mr. Covey's clothing on, and that he had the other 
property in his possession. Letters were written and 
telegrams sent to Covey's relatives in Vermont, and ans- 
wer returned that he had not been there. After a while, a 
large searching party turned out, and went up and down 
through the timber and out on the prairie, and examined 
every place where it was thought a body could be con- 
cealed, but no trace of it was found. In a short time, a 
smaller party of men, consisting of E. B. Older, R. J. 



Thornton, Jed. Lake, W. S. Church, and some others, 
started and followed the route which they supposed 
Jewell took after leaving the grove, as far as Elkader, 
searching through the bluffs and woods about Volga 
City and in that region, spending several days in the 
search, and going into caves and all sorts of out-of-the- 
way places, and making inquiries of the settlers wherever 
they went. All their searching, however, was in vain. 

The feelings of Mrs. Covey, while all these events 
were transpiring, can better be imagined than described. 
^\'hen she saw Mr. Jewell going off with her husband, 
she thought (as she afterwards declared) that something 
was wrong. She had a presentiment that there would 
be a murder. There were then boarding at her house 
William S. Church, H. A. Robertson, and Jed. Lake, 
who owned a sawmill situated near by. These men, 
after breakfast, and before Mr. Covey had started away, 
had gone to the mill. When she saw Mr. Jewell in the 
wagon with her husband, and this presentiment came over 
her, she started for the saw-mill, with the intention of in- 
ducing them to follow the team and see what was done. 
When she got to the mill, the men were all gone and off 
on the prairie, some half a mile away. So she went back to 
the house and remained there, with this terrible feeling 
hanging over her. When, therefore, Mr. Jewell did not 
return to his family, and her husband failed to come 
back at the time he was expected, she persisted in saying 
that Jewell had followed her husband and killed him. 
But it was not until after Mr. Jewell was found in Du- 
buque that people generally believed that Mr. Covey 
had actually been murdered, so slow are people ordina- 
"rily to believe others criminal. 

After Mr. Jewell had been arrested in Dubuque, and 
it had been ascertained that he had sold the horses, wag- 
on and harness in Potosi, Wisconsin, D. S. Lee, esq., and 
Jed Lake went to Potosi to recover the property. 
The man who had purchased it attempted to secrete 
what he could of it, but, after search, it was found and 
the matter was compromised. The wagon, when found, 
had a stain on the bottom of the box, about in the mid- 
dle, that looked very much like blood; but so long a 
time had elapsed that it could not be definitely proven 
to be so. 

Mr. Jewell had a preliminary examination at Indepen- 
dence, when all the facts in regard to his going away 
with Covey — his being in possession of the team, cloth- 
ing and other property of the missing man — his sale of 
the same, and his actions when discovered in Dubuque 
— were brought out in evidence before the magistrate. 
On this evidence Mr. Jewell was committed to jail to 
await the action of the grand jury. That body, at its 
next meeting in the fall of 1856, indicted him for mur- 
der in the first degree, and he was again committed to 
jail to await his trial. 

While Jewell was in jail he was kept at Delhi, then 
the county seat of Delaware county. At that time a 
tnan by the name of Manchamer was confined with 
him. This KLinchamer, on being released from jail, de- 
clared that Jewell admitted to him the killing of Covey, 
and told him where the body was buried. He also pre- 



74 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



tended that he could go where the body was, if he should 
be led into the woods and shown the route that was 
followed by the team. This was done in the spring of 
1857. Mr. Lake went with him, but on getting out into 
the grove the latter was unable to recognize the place. 
There were so many little clumps of timber, all so nearly 
alike, that, after a half day's travel through the woods 
he gave it up, and declared that he could not designate 
the spot. He stoutly affirmed, however, that Jewell ad- 
mitted to him the killing, and that Covey was buried 
within a half mile of his own house. 

The fact that all attempts to discover the body were 
unavailing will not seem so wonderful when we bear in 
mind that the deed was committed when the grass 
and leaves had just started, and the search was not com- 
menced until some four weeks later. Thus the rapidly 
growing vegetation aided to conceal the place where the 
ground had been disturbed so long before. 

When the searching first commenced the people gen- 
erally thought that Jewell went with Covey down beyond 
Delhi in the timber, and committed the deed there: and 
that, consequently, it was useless to search about Buffalo 
grove. But when it was ascertained that, instead of 
going east, the team had gone north on the prairie, to- 
ward Taylorville, in Fayette county, and had then turned 
toward Volga city, they concluded that the body had 
been taken in that direction. 

It may be proper to state here that what Mr. Ham- 
mond saw, on the morning of the tragedy, convinced 
him that Covey was shot by Rock Jewell while passing 
through the grove; that Tom Jewell, and probably one 
other confederate, were to have buried the body there 
while Rock Jewell made off with the team; that for some 
reason they changed their plan about burying the body, 
thinking it would be more safe to leave it in the wagon 
covered up in the buffalo skin, to be carried off and se- 
creted in some unfrequented place upon the prairie; that 
Jewell waited as long as he dared to for Hammond to 
get out of sight, and that when he saw him on the north 
road he ran the team to avoid being intercepted at the 
crossing. That a conspiracy was formed for the murder 
of Covey he thinks is rendered well nigh certain by the 
fact that the two Jewells, and their brother-in-law, S. 
Starkey, are believed to have been together at the house 
of the latter till a late hour of the night previous to the 
murder. 

Another fact in connection with this matter is that 
when Jewell was arretted, he had in his possession a re- 
volving pistol, known as a Deringer, which Covey brought 
with him from Vermont, and which he had loaned to 
Jewell not long before the date of his disappearance. 
However, some say that this pistol had never belonged 
to Covey, but was loaned to Jewell by Samuel Burns on 
the very Sunday morning on which the tragedy occurred. 

Jewell was kept in jail about a year; when, as it ap- 
peared to the court that the body had not been found, 
and that there was no prospect of finding it, he was 
released from jail and the case stricken from the docket, 
so that, if the body should ever be found he could be 
rearrested and tried. The law requires that, before a 



man can be tried for murder, it must be proved absolutely 
that the person supposed to be murdered is dead. In 
this case, convincing as were the circumstances pointing 
to the murder of Covey, there was still a doubt as to his 
death. He might have given up his property and left 
the country, although no cause for such a course and no 
probability of it could be shown. There is, of course, 
a necessity for the law to be thus stringent, in order that 
men may not be convicted of a crime while there is a 
doubt as to whether a crime has really been committed. 
The principle has long been well established, that the 
body must, save in very exceptional cases, be shown to 
be dead before the accused can be convicted of murder. 

Some people have thought that Jewell ought to have 
been punished for murder, any way ; that the circum- 
stances were so strong against him, and so long a time 
had elapsed since the disappearance of Covey, that there 
ought to have been a legal presumption that the latter 
was dead. 

On the other hand rumors have been started that 
Covey has been seen in different places since the sup- 
posed murder. So that, even in this case, it would seem 
that all are not agreed that the missing man is really 
dead. 

At the same time the editors of this strange history 
must be permitted to say that the common instinct of 
human justice demands that one found in the possession 
of the personal effects of a missing man, who was seen 
with him the last time he was seen on earth, should al 
least be kept in prison until he can give a satisfactory 
account of the manner in which the property came into 
his hands. 

Mr. James Jewell, a brother of the two men whose 
names are so unfortunately connected with the mysteri- 
ous disappearance of J. N. Covey, still lives at Buffalo 
grove; and it gives us pleasure to state that he has never 
been suspected of having any knowledge of the crime 
which is commonly laid to their charge. He enjoys in 
the highest degree the confidence and respect of the 
community. 

M.^IL ROBBERY. 

John M. Boyd, a young man of good family and of 
pleasing address, came to Quasqueton from Montgomery 
county, Pennsylvania, in the spring of 1857. After a 
time, having made a most favorable impression upon the 
community, he was employed as deputy postmaster, and 
continued to act in this capacity to the entire satisfaction 
of the people of Quasqueton until about the first of 
September of the same year, when he left for Nebraska. 

A letter was mailed at the Quasqueton post office about 
the last of August, by a Mr. Potterf, containing a draft 
on a Boston bank for five hundred dollars, and one on a 
New York firm for one thousand dollars. Mr. Potterf, 
learning that they were not received at Pella, Ohio, to 
which place they were directed, wrote to New York and 
Boston, and was notified in answer that the five hundred 
dollar draft had been ])aid. It was learned by inquiry in 
Dubuque that the five hundred dollar draft, endorsed by 
Boyd, had been sold to Taylor, Richards & Burden, 
bankers, of Dubuque. In possession of these facts, 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



75 



Sheriff Martin, of Quasqueton, was dispatched with a 
warrant for the apprehension of Boyd, in Nebraska. He 
was brought back, to Quasqueton about the first of De- 
cember, and, after an examination, in default of two 
thousand dollars bail for his appearance at the next term 
of the United States district court, was committed to 
jail. Boyd freely admitted, as of course he must, hav- 
ing the five hundred dollar draft cashed, but said it was 
sent to him by a friend in Wisconsin. The friend not 
appearing to substantiate this statement, it fell to the 
ground. About the middle of December Boyd was 
transferred to the custody of Marshal Pierce, of Du- 
buque, and taken to that city. A hearing was had before 
Commissioner McKinley, who remanded him for trial at 
the next term of the United States district court, on the 
fourth of January, 1S5S. 

Brought before the court at that date, he was, after a 
somewhat lengthened trial, convicted of the crime with 
which he was charged. He was ably defended by his 
counsel, Messrs. Samuels, Allison, Adams, and Lovell, 
Judge Love presiding. The testimony against him was 
clear and convincing, and the sympathy which his youth 
and previous good character were calculated to excite, 
was neutralized by a bold attempt to implicate Mr. Har- 
din, the postmaster at Quasqueton, a man held in uni- 
versal esteem. The vindictiveness with which he pursued 
this scheme, and the stolid indifference which he mani- 
fested after his arrest, went far toward convincing many 
that Boyd was not the tyro in villainy which his years 
and manner would indicate. A most pitiable attempt 
to extricate himself from the toils into which his own 
folly and wickedness had betrayed him was made in the 
court room, when asked if he had aught to say why sen- 
tence should not be passed upon him. During his whole 
trial his statements were contradictory, and proved their 
own falsity; but with this privilege from the court, he 
rose, and, weeping during the whole recital, gave the fol- 
lowing account of his connection with the robbery: He 
asserted his innocence of the charge, notwithstanding the 
verdict of the jury, declaring that on the night of the 
robbery he went into the office and found two men in the 
act of appropriating the contents of the letter. He could 
not tell where one of those men was, but the other was 
in court. These men, when they found that they were 
caught in the act, proposed to buy him off with the five 
hundred dollar certificate. He refused it, saying he did 
not want to be bought off, but they insisted on his ac- 
cepting it, not as "hush money," but as a gift. In accept- 
ing it he enquired whether they had come honestly by 
it, and they assured him that they had. He counseled 
them to destroy the one thousand dollar draft, as 
he did not wish the parties to be losers by it. He left 
Quasqueton and came to Dubuque to see a sick cousin, 
and while in the place had negotiated the certificate of 
deposit. He was innocent of the theft, and if the man 
who was guilty had the spirit of a man in him, he would 
never let another suffer by incarceration in the State 
prison, but would confess the charge he then made. He 
respected the man's family; they had nursed him when 
sick in Quasqueton, and he didn't like the task imposed 



upon him. Here, depending no doubt upon having made 
a favorable impression upon his hearers, Boyd looked 
around the court room until his eye rested on the post- 
master at Quasqueton, S. W. Hardin, and pointing at 
him, exclaimed, "There tits the man, brazen-faced, who 
committed the crime for which I am to suffer." It is, 
perhaps, needless to say that this weak and wicked har- 
angue had an influence quite the opposite from that in- 
tended by the unhappy culprit. It was indeed a sad sight 
to all thoughtful persons — a young man endowed with so 
many natural advantages prostituting them to the com- 
mission of crime, when, rightly used, they would have 
secured him a high place among the honored of the 
land. 

The jury having recommended him to the mercy of 
the court, on account of supposed extenuating circum- 
stances, he received the lightest sentence known to the 
law for the offence — two years' hard labor in the State 
prison. 

AN ATTEMPTED MAIL ROBBERY. 

The principal interest attaching to the following inci- 
dent, at the present time, lies in two somewhat curious 
coincidences — the locality being the same as that of the 
more successful operation of Boyd, nearly three years be- 
fore; and the sum which the last robber came so near 
securing, being the same in amount as that realized by 
Boyd. Since two coincidences suggest another it does 
not seem improbable that the robbers were identical. 
We do not know that this indeed was suggested at the 
time of the latter occurrance; but, as this was several 
months after the time of Boyd's sentence had expired, 
the idea is by no means chimerical. Truth is stranger 
than fiction, it is said; and what sometimes passes for 
fiction, has more truth than that which sometimes passes 
for history. 

On Thursday, the fourteenth of June, i860, near the 
hour of noon, the post office at Quasqueton was robbed 
of several letters, by a stranger stopping temporarily at 
the Hardin house, in the office room of which the mail 
matter was kept. It is supposed that he secured them 
by reaching through the delivery window; some of the 
boxes being accessible from it; and, being in the house 
for the purpose of effecting the robbery, the opportunity 
for which he was waiting at length offered itself to him, 
in the temporary absence of the postmaster. One of the 
letters was addressed to a Mr. Smith, and another to Dan- 
iel Stratton, a third to Mr. Sales, and one was from Ger- 
many; having safely traversed the ocean, and two-thirds 
of the continent, to be purloined by a petty villain, just as 
it was to be placed in the hands of those who were wait- 
ing for tidings from, "fatherland." These four, it is sup- 
posed, he took first; carried them into a clump of 
bushes several rods from the house, and opened them. 
Finding no money, he twisted them into a roll and threw 
them into the bushes, where they were afterwards found. 
It is thought he then returned and took from another 
box four letters belonging to B. G. Taylor, of Quasque- 
ton. Mr. Taylor thought that in one of these there 
might have been a small sum of money sent in payment 
of taxes, but neither of the others were of special value. 



76 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



In the same box, however, probably leaning close to 
the side nearest the delivery window, so as not to be ob- 
servable, was another letter which the thief did not se- 
cure — and fortunately, as it contained a draft for five 
hundred dollars. The robbery was discovered about 
two o'clock p. M., and the thief had not been seen for 
two hours; having left the place immediately, it is prob- 
able, upon securing the second quartette of letters, which 
he must have taken with him, fearing to risk another 
opening in the near vicinity. Mr. Hardin made imme- 
diate and active pursuit, tracing his quandom guest to 
Independence. About eight o'clock in the evening he 
was seen leaving that place, going north; and though 
chase was made at once, he managed to reach the woods 
and escape. 

A NOVEL PROSECUTION. 

On a pleasant morning in the early part of July, 1859, 
a singular cavalcade passed through the streets of Inde- 
pendence. The cortege was headed by Sherifif Martin, 
whose air was not that of an officer who realized in his 
demeanor the majesty of the offended law. Following 
the sherifif came a large number of open wagons, filled 
with men and boys of all ages, and at the rear rode the 
deputy sheriff, his p3sition evidently designed to suggest 
the idea of a rear guard. The apprehended zwd. witnesses 
numbered over fifty persons, residents of Jefferson town- 
ship, and parties in an action before Esquire Glynn — the 
defendants being charged with disturbing a religious 
meeting. The particulars, as they were developed dur- 
ing the examination, were as follows : 

Religious services had been appointed to be held on 
the Sunday previous, in a grove in the aforesaid township. 
Seats had been prepared, and the people, on assembling, 
seated themselves as had been their wont, promiscuously, 
or, more properly speaking, and with great propriety of 
custom, families were seated together. The preacher, 
whose name and denomination are not matters of record, 
doubtless a well-meaning man, but possessing a zeal not 
according to knowledge, insisted that the sexes should 
occupy seats on the opposite sides of the speaker. This 
"Shaker habit" not commending itself to a majority of 
those assembled, the request met with a tardy compliance 
on the part of some, and a positive refusal on the part 
of others. The person who was to conduct the exercises 
not being able to overlook so flagrant a departure from 
what he esteemed of the gravest importance, the congre- 
gation was dismissed; and, subsequently, the above 
action was brought against some seventeen or eighteen 
of the offenders. 

The action was not sustained, however, and the pris- 
oners were discharged. They left town as they had 
entered it, singing with great heartiness, but, it is to be 
feared, not in a frame of mind to be profited by the min- 
istrations of one disposed to elevate matters of minor 
importance into the ranks of fundamental doctrines. 

As a matter of courtesy, we do not doubt that a sim- 
ilar gathering of intelligent citizens of Jefferson at the 
present day (which, as history repeats itself, may occur,) 
would comply with the request, or even a demand, 
though the inicard protest against the unwisdom of the 



proceeding might be just as stout as that in the breasts 
of the unyielding heroes of the novel trial of 1859. 

COUNTY SAFE ROBBERY. 

On the night of the seventeenth of March, 1864, the 
safe of the county treasurer's office was blown open and 
county, State and private funds to the amount of twenty- 
six thousand dollars were stolen. The robbery was one 
of the boldest and heaviest ever committed in the State, 
and its announcement was a shock to the entire com- 
munity. Everything indicated that the nefarious crime 
was the work of a gang of old offenders. 

The safe, which was one of the old Lilly Chilled Iron 
patent, was a complete wreck ; the ponderous door was 
thrown completely off, and fragments of the lock scattered 
about the room. Cases of record books were thrown 
down, and deeds, mortgages and other valuable papers 
scattered over the floor. Under the debris were found 
the implements used to effect their purpose, which had 
been stolen from a blacksmith shop on Walnut street — 
a sledge-hammer, tongs, punch and cold chisel. The 
building was doubtless entered by skeleton keys, and the 
safe opened by drilling a hole in the door and applying 
a slow match to powder. 

Five hundred dollars was picked up from among the 
rubbish. None of the records or other papers were in- 
jured. The money taken was principally county funds 
and State taxes. The night chosen was exceedingly 
cold, with a high wind prevailing, which, with the isolated 
situation of the court house, prevented the explosion 
from being heard. 

E. B. Older, county treasurer, promptly telegraphed 
to all available points, and one thousand dollars was 
offered for the apprehension and conviction of the 
thieves, or the restoration of the .money; and later the 
sum was increased to three thousand dollars. Chicago 
detectis'cs were employed under the direction of Cap- 
tain Yates, but it was not until about the middle of the 
July following that any arrests were made. Four pris- 
oners were lodged in the county jail at that time, 
charged with the great county safe robbery. One (Jones) 
was discharged at the preliminary examination. In the 
time which had elapsed between the robbery and the 
arrest of these men. Captain B. C. Yates, of Chicago, 
had been pursuing the matter with ceaseless vigilance, 
travelling hundreds of miles and assuming all sorts of 
disguises. He had been plow-boy, wood-sawyer, flat- 
boatman, log rafter, and fisherman, following one of the 
suspected parties in a skiff over one hundred miles. 
The difficulties were greatly increased by the fact that 
the three robbers pursued widely different routes after 
the robbery. Such were the evidences that the right 
clue had been taken which led to the apprehension, that 
from the first, great confidence was felt that the true 
culprits were in custody. 

The prisoners were arraigned on Monday, July 2 5ch, 
before Justice Barton, at the court house in Indepen- 
dence. They gave their names as Christian A. Roher. 
bacher (arrested at his home, near Pilot Grove, Black 
Hawk county), William H. Knight (arrested in Du- 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



77 



buquc), and Wallace R. Pollard (arrested at Marathon, 
Cortland county, New York). C. F. Leavitt, esq., ap- 
peared as counsel for the defendants, and Wednesday 
following was assigned for an examination. The bail 
was set at fifty thousand dollars, and the prisoners were 
recommitted to the custody of the sheriff. The three 
prisoners were brought before W. H. Barton, justice of 
the peace, for examination, on Wednesday, the twenty- 
seventh of July, the examination lasting nearly four days. 
The State was represented by Messrs. Woodward, Jamison 
and Chandler; and the prisoners had Messrs. Barker, of 
Dubuque, and Leavitt, of Independence, as counsel. 
The e.xamination ended in holding the prisoners for trial 
in the sum of fifty thousand dollars each. 

Near the last of the month, the prisoners had evi- 
dently resolved upon effecting their escape, thus adding 
to the evidence already strongly confirming their guilt. 
Knight not only slipped out of his irons, but had escaped 
through a window, and was discovered only in time to 
prevent him from making good his escape altogether. 
The other two were found during the same week with 
their_irons off. Pollard showed himself a skilful mech- 
anician in this line. 

The trials took place in April and May of 1865, and 
resulted in the conviction of Roherbacher and Knight, 
each being sentenced to the State prison for the term of 
six years. Pollard was acquitted, and returned to the 
State of New York, where he is now living. Knight, 
who was suffering from pulmonary consumption, was 
pardoned after about nine months' imprisonment ; went 
south in the vain hope of recovering his health, but 
remained only a few months, when he returned to Inde- 
pendence; died at the Montour house, and was buried 
by the county. He died, it is said, protesting his inno- 
cence of the crime for which he had been imprisoned. 
Roherbacher was also pardoned, about six months after 
Knight. He went to Kansas soon after regaining his 
liberty; and there, as we are informed, established so 
favorable an opinion as to his honesty and intelligence, 
as to be elected to the legislatnre of his adopted State. 

The fact that these men, to all appearances, never en- 
joyed the money which they were supposed to have 
stolen, joined to the further fact that they were convicted 
mainly upon the testimony of paid detectives, who, how- 
ever honest they may have been, could hardly fail to be 
strongly prejudiced against the men whom they had fol- 
lowed so long — these facts, it cannot be denied, caused 
a strong reaction in the minds of many, after the excite- 
ment of the trial was over. It is probable that a large 
proportion of the community now have serious doubts 
if the convicted men were really guilty. On this point 
we have no opinion, but state the facts as they have 
been stated to us. 

SUSPECTED POISONING.* 

In the year 1868 one Daniel Thomas purchased a farm 
in the town of Hazleton, of Albertus Gillett, and moved 
onto it. About the same time a Mrs. Fay, a widow 
with a large family, moved onto a farm that she had 

* Communicated by Jed. Lake, esq. 



purchased from Mr. Thomas. The neighbors were not 
long in coming to the conclusion that there was an un- 
due intimacy between Mr. Thomas and the widow. 
But as Mrs. Thomas made no complaint, and none of 
the old residents of the neighborhood had any previous 
knowledge of either party, nothing was said or done by 
them, except to keep as far from them, in a social point, 
as possible. Things went on in this way for about two 
years. Mr. Thomas had received considerable money 
due him from Wisconsin, and Mrs. Fay built a new 
house, and fences, and outbuildings on her place. 

Mr. Thomas and Mrs. Fay came to Independence to- 
gether quite frequently, and purchased goods to a con- 
siderable extent, for which Mr. Thomas paid. About 
February, 187 1, Mrs. Thomas was taken sick with cramp- 
ing in the stomach, and severe spasms. A physician re- 
siding at Otsego in Fayette county, was sent for ; and, 
at the time of his visit, he discovered no alarming symp- 
toms, but thought she would get along in a few days. 
In a day or two after this, however, Mrs. Thomas died. 
She was buried in due course of time. On the day of 
the funeral, it is reported, Mr. Thomas took the widow 
Fay out for a ride. The neighbors became aroused, and 
sent for the county coroner. Dr. H. H. Hunt, and filed 
before him an information alleging, in substance, that 
they believed Mrs. Thomas had been poisoned. Dr. 
Hunt had Thomas arrested, his house searched, and 
found in it a bottle containing sulphuret of strychnia. 

He then had the body exhumed; a post mortem ex- 
amination made; and the stomach taken out, placed in a 
glass jar carefully sealed, and sent to a chemist for 
analysis. 

The coroner's jury spent some time in their examina- 
tion, and finally found that Mrs. Thomas was killed by 
poison administered by her husband. 

An information was filed against Mr. Thomas; and, 
after an examination that lasted about four days, the 
justice held him to answer for the charge of murdering 
his wife by administering poison, to wit: strychnine. On 
the preliminary examination it was shown by the prose- 
cution, that when Mrs. Thomas was first taken sick, she 
and her husband were at home alone ; that he gave her 
some chicken broth that had been prepared by some one 
for her; that she complained of its bitterness, and shortly 
after, went into spasms, and that he called in some of the 
neighbors to assist in taking care of her. To them she 
stated, on coming out of the spasms, that the broth was 
very bitter. The physician that w^as called to see her 
the next day, testified that Thomas told him that she had 
these spasms and had been subject to them for some 
time; that she would die in a spasm some day; that it 
was no use to doctor her, as nothing could cure her, and 
told the physician that he need not come again. The 
doctor who made the post mortem examination, testified 
that there were no indications that she died from disease ; 
that her symptoms were those tetanoid convulsions. 
That strychnine poison would produce tetanus, and the 
convulsions as testified to by witnesses present when she 
died, and as shown by the condition of the body when 
e.xhumed, and by her general appearance. 



78 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



The chemist, Professor Hinrichs, of Iowa State uni- 
versity, who analyzed her stomach, testified to finding 
strychnine that would indicate that she had taken about 
one-half grain of the poison. The witnesses also testi- 
fied to the facts as to the intimacy between Mr. Thomas 
and the widow Fay: thai he gave her money frequently, 
and built her house, and improved her farm. Others 
that he ordered merchants at Independence to sell her 
goods that she might want, and he would pay for them; 
and the fact that he did pay for large amounts of goods 
that she purchased. 

Messrs. Lake and Horman, and Mr. Jamison were 
employed on the defence by Mr. Thomas. They ex- 
amined the facts of the case, aside from what was proved 
on the preliminary examination. After a careful ex- 
amination, ihey came to the conclusion that delay was a 
good defence; and therefore, were not ready for trial. 
The evidence for the prosecution was mostly circumstan- 
tial, and the small amount of strychnine, as shown by 
Professor Hinrich's analysis, left the case in some doubt; 
so that the prosecuting attorney was not anxious to urge 
the case to trial. 

Mr. Thomas was confined in the county jail, but, be- 
ing an old and feeble man, was allowed large liberty by 
the jailors, and had a fail ly comfortable time. He was 
in the jail where a large number of very tough customers 
were confined then. They desired to try to break jail, 
but did not dare to try to get Mr. Thomas to go with 
them. So they contrived, in some way, to stupify him 
in his cell. But their plan was frustrated by some other 
means. They succeeded in getting out of jail, but were 
all recaptured in a short time. After that, Mr. Thomas, 
at another time, put the sheriff on the watch for tools 
that had been prepared by a noted burglar, then confined 
in jail, to get out. This so enraged the other prisoners 
that it was deemed unsafe fir him to be with them, and 
Mr. Thomas was removed to better quarters in the jailor's 
house. His case, in the meantime, was not called for 
trial, but was continued by consent of counsel. In the 
spring of 1872 he was taken sick, and, in a short time, 
died. 

Thus the facts, as they might have been found by the 
jury on a full trial, will never be known. If innocent, 
the man was most unjustly dealt by. If guilty, he ought 
to have been tried and punished. He has, however, 
gone to his reward; and to be judged where all truth is 
known. The willingness of his attorneys to allow his 
case to linger on the docket, is evidence that they did 
not have the most unbounded faith in his innocence. 

DEADLY ASSAULT, MURDER, AND SUICIDE. 

On Sunday evening, February 17, 1878, Mr. Sidney 
Toman and Miss Matie Sherwood were returning to In- 
dependence from Fairbank township, where the latter 
had been stopping two or three days, visiting friends. 
They were in a covered buggy, and it had become dark 
(or rather, moonlight) before they reached town. Near 
the southwest corner of the Catholic cemetery young 
Toman stopped the horses for a moment to adjust the 
buffalo robe, when some unknown person leaped upon 



the back part of the buggy, thrust his hand through the 
cover and discharged a pistol. The discharge not taking 
effect. Toman attempted to whip up the horses, but 
could not make them move — the supposition being that 
an accomplice of the ruffian was holding them. There- 
upon, resolved to sell his life as dearly as possible, if 
killed he must be, Toman jumped from the buggy and 
seized the man who had fired the pistok A scuffle 
ensued, during which several more shots were fired, two 
of them taking effect on the left side of young Toman's 
head and face. One was slight, though causing the 
blood to flow profusely. The other was more serious, 
the ball lodging among the muscles of the face, where 
it remained until removed by the physicians. 

The would-be assassin, having emptied all the cham- 
bers of his revolver, succeeded in releasing himself from 
his intended victim; who though weak from his struggle 
and the loss of blood, managed to get into the buggy 
and drive into town. Strange to say, the assailant, as 
the buggy started, leaped again upon the back part of 
it and remained there until it arrived near the Central 
depot, when he jumped down and disappeared. Whether 
or not he tried to reload and finish his work, will never 
be known. 

The first suspicion, so far as the public knows, con- 
cerning the perpetrator of this diabolical outrage, fell 
upon a roving and dissipated character, named Jim 
Strohl; who, with an unknown companion, was seen 
near the Central railroad station, on the afternoon before 
the occurrence. He had recently been in the peniten- 
tiary, and it was said, was harboring a grudge against 
young Toman for some things that had been said about 
him in the Independence Bulletin, of which ])aper Mr. 
Toman was local editor. One of the suspicious circum- 
stances implicating Strohl and his companion, was the 
finding of some wet handkerchiefs, one of them stained 
with blood, in the pockets of their overcoats, which had 
been secreted under the plank-way at the Independence 
mill. Considering all the circumstances, it was thought 
best to have them arrested on a charge of vagrancy, that 
the authorities might have time for further investigation. 
This was accordingly done, and they were sent to jail 
for ten days. Before the ten days were up, it was thought 
that sufficient facts had been discovered to implicate 
them in the attempted murder. Being rearrested on 
that charge, they waived examination and were recom- 
mitted to await the action of the grand jury. 

That body met about the middle of March; and, after 
a three days' hearing, the two accused boys (for Strohl 
had haidly reached his majority, and the other, Rourke, 
alias Henderson, was only seventeen) were held in the 
sum of three thousand dollars each to appear at the next 
term of the district court. The chain of evidence which 
led to this result was about as follows: 

The boys left Raymond, the second station west of 
here, between twelve and one o'clock, Sunday p. m. 
While there they were seen to have in their possession a 
pistol known as a "four shooter." They arrived here, 
and were seen on Main street bridge about half past five. 
About six, three persons were seen near the central 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



79 



crossing, one of them identified as Henderson, and 
another wearing a coat and cap similar to those shown 
in court as the property of Strohl. About dusk three 
persons (supposed to be the same) were seen going in a 
northwesterly direction up the slough. Mr. Hayes saw 
three persons, a little later, near the place where the 
shooting occurred, but could not identify them. Mr. 
Morse, living in that vicinity, heard the shooting — "four 
shots in quick succession, and only four were fired." 
This corresponds with the four-shooter shown by the 
boys at Raymond, but not with the recollection of young 
Toman. These circumstances, with the threats made by 
Strohl against Judge Toman and family, made a bad 
looking case for the boys. Still, many puzzling questions 
were asked by those who doubted that the boys were the 
guilty parties. Two things were evident: First, that the 
motive of the assault was a grudge of some sort ; and 
second, that the person or persons wOio planned and 
perpetrated it, knew that Toman was to [jass that way 
about that time. If, therefore, Strohl and his companion 
knew it (arriving in town late as they did Sunday even- 
ing) they must have been informed by some third party. 
But no such party was ever found. 

The case was called for trial at the next session of the 
district court, on the seventh of May. Rourke had been 
bailed by his friends, and was not to be tried at this 
session. The case was managed, on the part of the State 
by District Attorney Powers, assisted by Mr. Holman, 
of Independence; and on the part of the defence by 
Charles Ransier and an attorney by the name of Gannon, 
of Davenport. The trial lasted four days — that is, until 
Saturday night, the tenth of May, when the case was 
given to the jury. After being in consultation over it all 
night, they brought in a verdict of guilty. Strohl re- 
mained in jail until the June session of the court, when, 
on Saturday, the twenty-second of that month, the appli- 
cation for a new trial having been overruled, he was 
sentenced to five years imprisonment in the penitentiary 
at Anamosa. 

THE SEQUEL 

of this strange trial is too tragic, the events which com- 
pose it are too recent, and the living whose hearts bled, 
and still bleed in consequence of it, are too numerous to 
justify a minute description here. But this history would 
be imperfect, and its patrons would have some right to 
complain of injustice, if all allusion to these events, as 
notorious as they are sad, were to be avoided. While, 
therefore, any mention of them must doubtless be pain- 
ful to some, we will endeavor to make our comments 
upon them so brief, and withal so charitable, that none 
shall have just occasion to censure us. 

Miss Matie Sherwood, the young lady who was with 
Sidney Toman at the time of the assault related above, 
and who was commonly understood to be engaged to 
him in marriage, had another lover, Clarence Shaw, who 
seemed to be completely infatuated by her many attrac- 
tions; and who, on the other hand; seemed to exercise 
over her a strange sort of spell. It is not our intention 
to give anything like a history of this ill-starred attach- 
ment; but we cannot forbear to say that the terrible re- 



sults of it should prove a warning to all young people to 
keep the sentiment of love within the strictest bounds 
of honor, morality and religion. Especially should 
everything like love-making between two parties, either 
of whom is affianced to a third party, be frowned upon, 
not only as dishonorable, but as an actual crime against 
society, by all, both old and young, who have the good 
of society at heart. 

It is not known that the rivalry of the two young men, 
in regard to the young lady in question, had ever pro- 
duced any open rupture between them ; but both must 
have been either more or less than human, if it did not 
cause at times, on the part of both, a pretty strong feel- 
ing of jealousy. 

During the trial, and after it, the feeling was general, 
even among those who believed Strohl to be guilty, that 
there was a third party yet undiscovered more guilty than 
he. This feeling was so much intensified after Strohl's 
conviction, that a detective was employed to f&rret the 
matter out. Suspicions began to point to young Shaw 
as this third party, and these suspicions coming to his 
ears, annoyed and disquieted him greatly. His conduct 
became more and more strange, and many of his actions 
and words, on the day of the fatal deed, partook strongly 
of the character of insanity. 

But whether, or not, he was guilty of the shooting of 
Toman, it is not probable that remorse, or the fear of 
apprehension, alone, impelled him to the terrible act 
which he finally committed. Toman was alive and well. 
A frank confession that he had assaulted him in a mo- 
ment of frenzied jealousy, accompanied by an openly 
avowed resolution to atone, as far as possible, for his 
crime, by a future course of virtuous living, would un- 
doubtedly have saved him from the penitentiary, and re- 
gained for him at length the good opinion of the com- 
munity; whereas, the double crime with which he left 
the world, would be looked upon by many as a confes- 
sion of the smaller crime of which he was suspected. 
No, the infatuation of a misplaced and hopeless love, 
was probably the principal cause that goaded poor Shaw 
to the commission of murder and suicide. 

What little we have to say in regard to this fearful 
tragedy, will be taken mainly from a long account of the 
affair, published in the Independence Conser-daiive, of 
July lo, 1878 — the Wednesday after the act was com- 
mitted 

To lay before the readers of the Conservative an account of the re- 
cent sad occurrence, is, indeed a painful task. Last Saturd.iy night, 
at ten o'clock, Clarence Shaw, aged nineteen years, and an employe of 
this office, shot Miss Matie Sherwood, twenty years old, daughter of 
Thomas Sherwood, and then shot himself. The shooting was done at 
the residence of W. S. VanOrsdoI, sheriff of this county. They had 
gone thither after tea, by appointment, to meet Miss Minnie VanOrs- 
doI, and Mr. John Evers. After conversing for a while, the four start- 
ed out for a walk. They had not gone far when the two couples sepa- 
rated — Clarence and Matie proceeding to the river for a boat ride 
During the walk the strange actions of both had ex-cited the 
apprehensions of Mr. Evers and Miss VanOrsdoI ; and, after the for 
mer had gone to the river against their expostulations, the two latter 
hastened to the store, where Charlie Sherwood, a brother of Matie, 
was employed, and informed him of their fears concerning his sister 
and Clarence. 

Charlie hastened to the river and got there just as Clarence was 
pushing the boat off. Charlie rushed into the water and pulled the 



8o 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



boat to shore. He then told his sister to go home, and she started, 
Clarence accompanying her and Charlie following behind. They 
passed directly along Genesee street until they arrived on the corner at 
Dr. Hunt's. Clarence then said that they must go to Mr. Van 
Orsdol's and get their things. 

The narrative does not say whether anything had 
really been left there, or whether this was merely a ruse 
for the sake of carrying out the fatal programme. 
However this may be, the three returned to Mr. ^'an 
Orsdol's. Clarence and Matie went in and Charlie re- 
mained at the door. After being admitted Clarence 
asked Miss Van Orsdol t'or some water to wash his 
hands, "as the rope on the boat had dirtied them." He 
was shown to a bedroom, which he entered — Miss Sher- 
wood following. Miss Van Orsdol, after pouring some 
water into a bowl, stepped out for a moment, but scarcely 
had she gone six steps when she heard the report of a 
revolver twice. Charlie Sherwood rushed in and found 
them both lying across the bed, shot through the head. 
Matie lived about twenty minutes, and Clarence about 
an hour after. Physicians were summoned, but nothing 
could be done. 

Messengers were sent to mform the parents of the unfortunate young 
persons. We forbear to dwell on the sorrowful scenes witnessed when 
tidings of the terrible tragedy were imparted to the parents. The 
bodies, after being cared for, remained at Van 'Orsdol's until Sunday 
morning, when they were taken home. 

The funeral of Shaw took place Sunday afternoon at five o'clock; 
that of Miss .Sherwood on Monday afternoon at two o'clock. 

How the thouglits crowded in upon our minds. Two days before 
who would have thought of such an event? Saturday evening on earth; 
Monday, the souls in eternity and the bodies in the cold grave. Sad 
the thoughts; sadder the scenes; saddest the stern reality. 

Miss Matie Sherwood was a pleasant, interesting and engaging 
young lady — romantic, sympathetic. She moved in the best society, 
and had many warm friends. Her death, and the terrible tragedy con- 
nected therewith, will long be felt in this community. 

Of Clarence Shaw we wish to say a few words. Having been in 
our employ for four years, we believe our opportunity for knowing his 
character was better than that of any other person, excepting his par- 
ents. He came to us a boy, in September, 1874. .\n almost daily 
intercourse with him from that time forward, has led us to regard him 
only with the kindliest feelings. He was stricUy honest and temper- 
ate, and withal intellectual; and had he not become enmeshed in the 
toils of an infatuated love, we believe he would have made more than 
an ordinary man; but a morbid sentimentalism got the better of him, 
and one thing led to another until he struck down himself and the girl 
he worshipped. It was in this that he showed a sveakness that surprises 
us. 

Here ■we close our extracts from the Conservative, and 
let the curtain drop upon the awful tragedy. Whether 
it was Shaw who made the deadly assault upon Toman — 
whether Matie Sherwood was consenting to the sacrifice 
of her own life with his — whether he was of sound mind 
when the dreadful act was committed, and what amount 
of guilt rests upon the souls of both for its commission — 
are solemn questions upon which the grave has set its 
seal till the great day of final account. We shall not 
attempt to forestall the decisions of that day. 

Mainly on account of the evidence adduced before the 
coroner's jury, Strohl was released from prison on his 
own recognizance, pending an appeal which had been 
taken to the supreme court. That court reversed the 
decision of the court belov?, and sent the case back for a 
new trial. But the district court dismissed the case 
without a hearing. Rourke, of course, was never brought 
to trial. 



CHAPTER XI. 

COUNTY SOCIETIES. 

This chapter will comprise the history of all the asso- 
ciations of a public character, whose membership ex- 
tends over the entire county. 

We begin with the 

EARLY settlers' ASSOCI.ATION, 

not because it is first in the order of time, but because 
it seems more nearly related than any other to the first 
settlement of the county. 

Owing to the comparatively recent date of its organ- 
ization, we are enabled to give our readers a fuller ac- 
count of the meetings held, addresses delivered, etc., 
than would be practicable if its history extended over a 
much longer period. 

The first formal organization of the pioneers of the 
county took place in the autumn of 1875. Several of 
the old residents of Independence and vicinity united 
in a call for a meeting, to be held on the ninth of Sep- 
tember. It was intended to hold the meeting in a grove 
near the town, but, the weather proving unfavorable, it 
was held in the court house. Quite a good number of 
the early settlers came together, and unanimously adopt- 
ed the following 

CONSTITUTION : 

We, the pioneers in the settlement of Buchanan county, assembled 
at Independence in said county, this ninth day of September, 1875, 
having resolved for our mutual interest and happiness to imite ourselves 
into a permanent organization, do hereby, for that purpose, make, or- 
dain and adopt the following constitution, to wit : 

Article I. This organization shall be known and desingated as 
"The Early Settlers' Association of Buchanan county, Iowa." 

.Article II. The officers of this society shall consist of one presi- 
dent, one secretary, one treasurer ; and also one vice-president from 
each township having resident members of this association. 

Article HI. .•\11 officers shall be elected annually, at the regular 
meeting of the association, as hereinafter provided; and shall hold 
their office until their successors are elected. 

Article IV. The president shall perform the usual duties apper- 
taining to that office; shall countersign all orders drawn upon the treas- 
urer; and, in case of his absence or inability to act, the duties of presi- 
dent shall devolve upon the first on the list of the vice-presidents able to 
act. 

Article V. The president and vice-presidents shall constitute an 
e.xecutive committee, whose duty it shall be to make all necessary ar- 
rangements for meetings of this society; examine and audit all claims 
against this society, and attend generally to all business thereof, not 
otherwise provided for. 

Article VI. The secretary shall keep a record of all proceedings of 
the society and of the executive committee; also a record of all deaths 
of members of the society, so far as shall come to his knowledge, and 
attend to all necessary correspondence of the society, and draw orders 
on the treasurer for the payment of all claims allowed by the executive 
committee, keeping a record thereof; receive all money paid to the 
society, and hand the same over to the tieasurer, keeping an ac- 
count thereof. 

Article VII. The treasurer shall receive all the money from the 
secretary, belonging to the society, safely keep the same, and pay it out 
only on orders of the secretary ; report to the executive committee, at 
each annual meeting, the amounts received and expended, and pay 
over to his successor in office any and all moneys remaining in his 
hands, belonging to that society. 

Article VIII. The society shall also report annually; and both 
secretary and treasurer at any time when requested by the executive 
committee. 

Article iX. .Any resident of the county, who has resided therein 
for twenty years, may become a member of the society by presenting 
his name to the secretary for record. 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUN TV, IOWA. 



8i 



Ahticle X. The expenses of the society shall be paid by voluntary 
subsciiption, unless the society shall, at a regular meeting, provide 
some other method. 

Article XI. The annual meetings of the society shall be held on 
the first Thursday of September of each year, at some place near the 
centre of the county, designated from time to time by the executive 
committee. 

.•\rticle XII. The executive committee shall meet annually, at the 
time and place of the meeting of the society, and shall hold such 
special meetings as may be called by the acting president, or by a ma- 
jority of the members of said committee. 

Article XIII. This constitution, or any by-laws or rules adopted 
thereunder, may be altered or amended at any annual meeting of the 
society, by vote of a majority of the members present and voting. 

After the adoption of the above constitution, the so- 
ciety proceeded to the election of officers for the ensuing 
year, which resulted as follows; 

O. H. P. Roszell, president; J. S. Woodward, secretary: James 
Jamison treasurer; J. B.Ward, Madison township; C. H. Jakeway, Buf- 
flalo township; Samuel Sufficool, Hazleton township; Francis Pingree, 
Fairbank township; Charles Melrose, Perry township; Ephraim Miller, 
Washington township; S. G. Pierce, Byron township; James Fleming, 
Fremont township; A. Risley, Middlefield lownsliip; S. Swartzell, 
Liberty township; A. C. Blakely, Sumner township; Peter Ham, West- 
burgh township; George Frinke, Jefferson township; Eli Norton, 
Homer township; John Newell. Cono township; Charles Hoover, 
Newton township; vice-presidents. 

The following names of members were taken at this 
meeting, in accordance with article nine of the constitu- 
tion: 

William A. Jones, David Cill, B. C. Hale, S. Swartzell, E. A. Cam- 
eron, C. Jakeway, J. G. Litts, C. Wilson, John Carson, D. L. Lee, 
John Cameron. John H. Anderson, L. D. Ingall, Charles Melrose, 
Jesse Ozias, B. B. Warren, A. C. Blakely, Joel Fisher, Thomas Scar- 
cliff, D. Robinson, J. Slaughter, David .\gnew, S. M. Eddy, Peter 
Ham, Harvey Norton, Ell Ozias, Thomas Ozias, Eli Norton, S. G. 
Pierce, H. Sparling, W. O. Curtis, M. A. Glass, J. C. Glass, E. Cobb, 
E. B. Older, Eben Little, J. J. Travis, M. Burbridge, J. M. Blakely, 
John Logan, E. Miller, B. W. Ogden, J. W. Plumerfelt, A. M. Bryant, 
Rebecca Chitistei. J. C. Neidy, Lovina Sparling, J. S. Woodward, O. 
H. P. Roszell, James Jamison, Mary Jamison, John L. Frinke, J. R. 
Megonigan, J. L. Norton, Charles Hoover, Rufus Brewer, F. W. Car- 
don, E. Mosher, diarlotte Minton. Alice J. Burroughs, Charles A. F. 
Roszell, Mrs. S. C. Little, C. H. Little, F. M. Curtis, Charles Kautz, 
J. C. Wroten, James Poor, E. B. King, S. S. Allen, John .S. Bouck, 
C. Gideon Ginther, Lyman R. V'arguson, George McFarland, William 
Bunce, .Alexander Risk, J. Wiley, G. Walker, William Slaughter, Wil- 
liam H. Gifford, A. E. Morphy, S. G. Gifford, Mrs. J. Wiley, Asa 
Blood, W. G. Cummings, Z. P. Rich, Mailha Hoover, W^arren Chase, 
Thomas Edie, D. G. Dunlap, Don F. Bissell, Samuel H. Miller, John 
O. Cummings, William Waggner, Margaret .■\. Waggner, Mrs. Almina 
Miller, J. C. Stevenson, Lovinia Edie, Mrs. E. M. Sampson, Lydia 
Rich, Janet Glass. 

The next year (September 7, 1876) the association 
met in Dickinson's grove, on the west side of the river. 
The meeting was called to order by O. H. P. Roszell, 
president, and Z. P. Rich, of Byron township, was elect- 
ed secretary Jiro ton., in the absence of J. S. Wood- 
ward, secretary of the society. The weather was un- 
favorable and the attendance consequently small. 

The election of officers for the ensuing year, resulted 
as follows: 

O. H. P. Roszell, president; J. .S.Woodward, secretary; W. A.Jones, 
treasurer. 

The vice-presidents for the several townships were all 
reelected. 

W'. A. Jones, A. Risk, Elder Brintnall, IJr. H. Bryant, 
and Judge Roszell, made brief addresses, replete with 
interesting reminiscences ot f)ld times. Owing to the 



small attendance, no additions were made to the mem- 
bership of the association. 

September 6, 1877, the society met on the same 
grounds, and was called to order by B. C. Hale, of Perry 
township. The president. Judge Roszell, was present 
but too feeble in health to preside. This was the last 
meeting of the society that he ever attended, his death 
occurring before the close of the year. The weather 
being propitious, the attendance was large; and the re- 
sult, as will be seen further on, was a goodly number of 
accessions to the society. 

The following officers were elected for the ensuing 
year: Henry Sparling, jjresident; J. J. Travis, secretary; 
Byron C. Hale, treasurer. 

The vice-presidents were all reelected, with the follow- 
ing exceptions: Gamaliel Walker was elected for Perry 
township in place of Charles Melrose, deceased ; James 
Fleming for Fremont township; and A. Risley for Mid- 
dlefield. 

Colonel Jed. Lake, David Gill, Henry Sparling, Z. P. 
Rich, and Mrs. B. N. Morse (the latter having been a 
resident of the county for the past thirty-five years), made 
appropriate addresses; and Samuel Harvey, an old resi- 
dent of Delaware county, favored the society with a song, 
entitled, "Thirty Years Ago." The following names were 
added to the list of members: 

Curtis Morgan, Mrs. N. Moshier, John McMillan, Mrs. J. McMil- 
lan, J. F. Hathaway, Sarah Jane Hathaway, Jesse Kitch, Maftha 
Jakeway, John Merrill, Moses Litts, John Slomens, Mrs. Mary Gates, 
Mrs. Mary Edgell, Mrs. Dora Gregory, Mrs. Nancy Sheldon, Mrs. 
Charlotte Potter, Mrs. T. M. Hunt, Mrs. Mary E. Kitch, Mrs. .Anna 
Wagner. Mrs. Rebecca Miller, Mrs. Sarah E. Menshaw, Henry Bnrn- 
ham, Mrs. M. C. Burnham, Norman Boyce, Rachel Boyce, Willi-im 
Ramsey, Elizabeth Ramsey, Mrs. C. A. Ridinger, James Henry, Jesse 
Merrill, Jube Day, George A. Jakeway, Mrs. Martha Logan, Mrs. 
Ellen Stevens, Mrs. Elmira Hunt, J. B. Edgell, W. G. Miller, T. M. 
Hunt, Amos R. Blood, M. V. Miller, Kate Frank, N. E. House, S. L. 
Hastings, Mrs. .Amy Hastings, Sarah Biddinger, Elsa Biddinger, Lo- 
vina Hathaway, Josiah Brace, Leonard Curley, James .Saunders, W. 
W. Norton, Hugh Hursay, Enos A. Sheldon, Nathaniel Walker, J. E. 
Cook, William Morgan, Z. P. Stoneman, Mrs. C. H. Stoneman, John 
Moor, Sophia Moor, A. D. Stoneman, Mrs. Samantha J. Litts, Ella 
Wilbur, M. S. Ozias, Mrs. J. Day, Mrs. Lovina Sparling, Maltha 
Ozias, Mrs. Huldah Sherwood, Mrs. B. N. Morse, Mrs. Hannah 
Phelps, Joseph E. Jewell, Mrs. Joseph E. Jewell, J. B. Potter, E. Dick- 
inson, E. W. Purdy, Charles E. Purdv. Mrs. E. W. Wilson, Mrs. 
Margaret Mann, Mrs. B. Slomers, S. H. Pierce, Mrs. Nancy A. Litts. 

The meeting for 1878 (September 5) was held in the 
same place (Dickinson's grove) and was opened with 
prayer by William A. Jones. The exercises were enlivened 
by music by the Independence cornet band. After the 
reading of the minutes of the last meeting, the constitu- 
tion of the society, and the list of members previously 
enrolled, the Hon. W. G. Donnan was called out and 
addressed the meeting at considerable length, giving 
many interesting reminiscences of the early settlement of 
the county. After some stirring music by the band, 
Messrs. Asa Clark, Dr. H. Bryant, John C Neidy, Asa 
Blood, and William A. Jones also made appropriate re- 
marks. The following names were then reported, and 
entered on the list of members: 

G. W. Smyser. Susan C. Smyser, Mrs. George O. Farr, E. Zinn_ 
Mrs M. Zinn, Mrs. A. Zimmen, .Adolph Leytze, Mrs. C. Leytze, Louis 
Melzmier, Mrs. .A. L. Metzmier. Charles Swartz. Mrs. B. Swartz. J. L. 



82 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



Bigelow, Mrs. Harriet Bigelow, J. R. Freeman, Mrs. Cora E. Free- 
man, Mrs. Emily M. Rich. Mrs. D. M. Moore, Mrs. E. Ogden, G. 
Dickinson, G. R. Smitli, Mrs. Elizabeth Heron, Mrs. Hannah Hay- 
wood, Mrs. Cynthia George, R. J. Williamson, Mrs. Belle Fonda, C. 
G. Woodruff, P. H. Goen, Mrs. S. Bitner, Mrs. L. C. Bryant, Mrs. 
Mary Hathaway, Nicholas Bornheim, G. Walkins, Valentine Gates, 
Alden Whitney, Mr. G. M. Goen, A. B. Black, Horatio Bryant, L. 
Fonst, Mrs. .Amanda Cutler, Mrs. Susan Brace, .Alexander Brace, A. 
S. Munshaw, John Briggs, Mrs. Ann Briggs, Mrs. Mary Jamison. D. 
C. Hastings, Mrs. E.- D. Whitney, Charles L. Patrick, Mrs. M. A. 
Patrick. 

The following are the names of the old settlers that 
died during the year: 

Hon. O. H. P. Roszell, Captain D. S. Lee, James Jamison, Henry 
Mead, Thomas W. Close, Mrs. Gaylord, Mrs. Frisell, Mrs. R. R. 
Plane, Mrs. Baton, Mrs. Apple. Mrs. Beach, Mrs. Blood, Mrs. Croma ' 
—all of Washington township— and Mrs. Charlotte, of Perry. 

The election of officers resulted in the following choice : 

Dr. H. Bryant, president; J. J. Travis, secretary; Henry Sparling, 
treasurer; J. B. Ward, Madison township; Nelson Bennett, Buffalo 
township; Samuel Sufficool, Hazleton township; Charles Higby, Fair- 
bank township; Gamaliel Walker, Perry township; A. H. Fonda, 
Washington township; James Hamilton, Byron township; Joseph 
Fleming, Fremont township; A. Risley, Middlefield township; Solo- 
mon Swartzell, Liberty township; A. C. Blakely, Sumner township; 
Peter Ham, Westburgh township; George Lauterdale, Jefferson town" 
ship; Eh Norton, Homer tow-nship; John Newell, Cono township' 
Charles Hoover, Newton township, vice-presidents. 

The fifth meeting of the society, September 4, 1879, 
in Dickinson's grove, was called to order by the presi- 
dent. Dr. H. Bryant, and opened by prayer by Josiah 
Brace. The Independence cornet band was again in at- 
tendance. After the preliminary business several mem- 
bers addressed the meeting, the last speaker being Perry 
Munson, who related incidents in the early settlements 
of the county, dating as far back as 1842, when he first 
came here to reside. 

The following names were added to the list of mem- 
bers : • 

Henry W. Oliver, George Mann, George Harriman, 
Mrs. Antre Ring, Mrs. Doritha Mann, Mrs. Arvilla 
Gregory, Mrs. Elizabeth Palmer. Mrs. Lucinda Bright. 

The deaths of members reported for the past year 
were as follows : 

William Ramsy, September 23, 1878, having been a 
resident of the county twenty-five years; Mrs. Merrill, of 
Liberty township, and Adolph Leytze, of Washington. 

The following poem, composed by Mrs. E. A. Wood 
and dedicated to the society, was read by the secretary: 

TO THE OLD SETTLERS OF BUCHANAN COUNTY. 

Old settlers, wlio to-day have met 

To take each other by the hand, 
Whose hearts have never known regret 

For all your toils in this fair land — 

We welcome you to our glad throng. 
Who, in the months and years gone by. 

Have battled manfully and long — 
Have bravely stood to do or die. 

Strongmen, brave women — true hearts all — 

A great State blesses you to-day. 
That, from beginnings crude and small. 

For empire you have cleared her way. 

From eastern homes, with plenty blest. 
By mountain-side, or sea, or rill, 
* You left your dearest and your best, 

The prairie soil untouched to till. 



These prairies, as of old, to-d.iy 

Spread their green bosoms to the sun; 
But bearing, as they ever may. 

The honest homes that toil has won. 

Each year the harvest time pays back 

For all the days of toil and pain; 
And never is there any lack 

Of stores of fruit or golden grain. 

.And many a stream that winds its way 

To join its "Father" of the west. 
Is taught by skilful hands to stay 

And turn a mill at their request ; 

While daily, all the season round. 

The yellow grain its hoppers fill. 
There's nuisic in its cheerful sound — 

O never may that sound be still ! 

Old friends, your monuments, to-day, 

.Are scattered wide o'er all the land; 
And you have built in such a way 

That they forever more shall stand. 

Your cities, manufactures, schools, 

.And church spires pointing to the sky, 
.All show that education rules. 

And teaches how to live and die. 

May coming years to you but bring 

New scenes of joy and gladness. 
Like the return of nature's spring 

From out a winter's sadness. 

And when your days on earth are o'er. 

From far across Death's river, 
May angel hands stretch from the shore 

To help you home forever. 

Last year, September 2, iSSo, the sixth meeting of 
the society was held in the public park, east of the court- 
house, Independence. The old settlers from all parts of 
the county came together with baskets filled with choice 
eatables from their well-stored pantries; and the usual 
exercises were prefaced by a pic-nic, which was highly 
enjoyable, not only as an occasion of gustatory pleasure, 
but as a social reunion of old friends. The proceedings 
of the meeting were, as usual, enlivened by favorite airs 
from the cornet band, and, what was quite unusual, by 
songs from a well-trained choir, under the leadership of 
Mr. D. D. Holdridge. 

The death of the late treasurer, Henry Sparling, was 
announced, after which the society proceeded to the 
election of officers for the ensuing year, with the follow- 
ing result: 

William .A. Jones, president; J. J. Travis, secretary; Colonel |ed 
Lake, treasurer. 

The vice-presidents elected from the several townships 

were as follows ; 

Madison, Alden Whitney; Buffalo, Charles Jakeway; Hazleton, 
Samuel Sutficool; Fairbank, Charles Higby; Perry, Gamaliel Walker; 
Washington, David Gill; Byron, James Hamilton; Fremont, James 
Fleming; Middlefield, A. Risley; Liberty, John C. Neidy; Sumner, 
George Wilson; Westburgh, Peter Ham; Jefferson, George Lauter- 
dale; Homer, Eli Norton, Cono; John Newell; Newton, Charles 
Hoover. 

Mrs. Chandler, of Independence, read an appropriate 
essay, dedicated to the society, after which addresses 
were made by the following members: J. C. Neidy, 
Charles Jakeway, James Ptaniilton, Martin Glass ("who 
is never known to miss a meeting of the society"); Mrs. 
Brooks, of Byron township; D. D. Holdridge (whose 
humorous remarks about the establishment of the Inde- 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



8£ 



pendence churches proved conclusively that the "D. D." 
prefixed to his name must have a different signification 
from what those letters ordinarily have when used as a 
suffix); Colonel Jed. Lake, and the Rev. Henry \V. 
Bailey. 

The Hon. S. J. W. Tabor, an honored pioneer of the 
county, who had been absent at his post in the treasury 
department, at Washington, ever since the organization 
of this society, and who had returned during the past 
year to take up again his permanent residence in Inde- 
pendence, was present for the first time at this meeting 
with his fellow pioneers, who naturally looked to him for 
an address. It is no disparagement to the others to say 
that his was the principal rhetorical attraction of the oc- 
casion. The speech was without manuscript, and largely 
extemporaneous, but the speaker having kindly consented 
to write it out for our use, it will be found in full a little 
further on. 

At the close of Judge Tabor's address, the Rev. C. S. 
Percival, county historian, who happened to be present 
as a guest of the society, was called out and made a brief 
extempore speech, the substance of which may also be 
found after that of Judge Tabor. 

The address of Mrs. Chandler was in manuscript, and 
was quite brief, owing to the very limited time given her 
for preparation. It has been kindly placed at our dis- 
posal, and we insert it here. When it is borne in mind 
that Mrs. Chandler is in her seventy-fifth year, the merit 
of her address will be all the more highly appreciated. 

Friends and Old Settlers; — It is with pleasure that I meet you 
here to-day: and, as I look around, I see many old familiar faces that 
brighten up this pleasant scene as with the last rays of the setting sun. 

Time, with his silent footsteps, has led us down the long pathway of 
our western life together: and, consequently, this friendly gathering 
seems more hke a family reunion than like a public festival, and awak- 
ens thoughts that perhaps have long been slumbering — thoughts of old 
times, when this place was new. Many changes have occurred as the 
years have glided along, with their burdens of life's heaiy cares. 
Memory recalls the scenes of the past when we meet, as to-day, for 
social enjoyment: and it recalls, too, painful hours of sickness and sor- 
row, when death touched many a loved one with its iron finger, and 
left its impress on form and feature, and a vacant chair stood by the 
fireside, and we found 

" That ties around our hearts were spun 
That cannot, will not, be undone." 

Many of the old settlers have passed away. We were with them at 
the bridal and the burial, and still remember the warm pressure of the 
hand as our tears were mingled together with words of sympathy. 
They are gone: but their memory still lingers around us, and their 
good works are embalmed in the hearts of their survivors. And many 
of those sur\'Uors are here to-day, while the frost of old age lies while 
upon their heads: but their faces are like autumn's ripened fruit set on 
dishes of silver. Leaving the land of steady habits, they came, they 
saw, they conquered. They saw that this was a goodly land, and 
much to be desired. They found it lying like an infant asleep, while 
the gentle Wapsie sang its lullaby. But while they tended this infant 
soil, almost before they were aware, it became to them as a nursing 
mother. 

And these men went to work and built their shanties, saying by that 
act, "We mean to possess this land. " Then they sent for their wives 
and little ones. That was well : for it is these wives and little ones that 
keep the hearts of men tender and true. But they found them true 
helpers; and, by their aid, they at length conquered the difficulties that 
invest pioneer life. 

Most of these pioneers were manly and independent men; and so 
they christened this young child of the west — this infant city which 
owed its life to their energetic toil, "Independence." It grew so fast 
that some said it came up in a night, like Jonas' gourd. But look 



over this beautiful city, now so thickly dotted with comfortable and 
elegant homes on its many pleasant streets, echoing with the footsteps 
of the busy workers. Listen to the voice of the successful mechanic 
and merchant. See the churches and fine school-houses and business 
blocks. Listen to the rattle of the type in the prosperous printing- 
oflices, and the pompous array of lawyers' signs, and the doctors' 
mortars beside them, and all the other indices of civilized life — and then 
say if it looks like magic or the work of a night. Does it not look 
more like work done by energetic men who brought their brains with 
them, when they left the old eastern States, and set their hands to work 
under the direction of the brain, that skilful alchemist that transformed 
this place into a thing of beauty, and we trust "a joy forever." Now 
these old settlers are reaping their reward; for country and city have 
flourished like a green bay tree. 

"And the place has grown human in all the long years, 
Has been brightened by happiness, hallowed by tears, 
By the brides on the hearth, that bless it no more, 
By the cradles kept rocking like boats on the shore, 
By the touchlngs of hands and the whispers aside — 
AH the charms that survived, when Paradise died." 
All the events that have since transpired to make this a queen among 
the many pleasant cities of the west, and have given it character and 
prosperity, have come to pass through the guiding hand of the Supreme 
Ruler of cities and of nations, who has guided heart and hand in all the 
affairs of our social and religious life, up to the present time. Let us 
render to Him, therefore, the tribute of prairie and thanksgiving which 
is justly His due. 

We are passing away, one here, another there; and soon the last of 
the old settlers will be gone. Let us then plant around our homes the 
fragrant Asphodel, that shall say to us here, and of us when we are 
here no more, in eNpressive symbolical language — "Remembrance be- 
yond the tomb." 

The following is 

JUDGE tabor's address. 

Mr. President, L.\dies .\nd Gentlemen: An "old settler" who 
has not only reached the age of three score, but has passed beyond 
that boundary, is not so much given to blushes as when he was in his 
vouthful prime. This being the case, I have heard with a comparative 
decree of composure the encomiums which our presiding officer has so 
generously showered upon me. He seems to follow the proverb of 
judging others by himself, and in that manner discovers qualities in me 
which are his own characteristics. We all know how excellent a repre- 
sentative he is of the enterprise, the business tact, and the social amen- 
ity of the county: and, knowing this, we have made him our president, 
notwithstanding his easy elocution deals out compliments with the 
same profusion as his purse scatters its contents among so many of 
our farmers and stock-raisers. 

It is with pleasure that I greet the assemblage around me. I see 
many faces that are strange, but I also see many that are "familiar as 
household words" — faces that carry me back to the old times, and re- 
mind me of the great changes that have taken place among us during 
the last twenty-five years. Now I see here a flourishing town, with a 
thrifty, prosperous and enterprising population, and throughout the 
county, fine residences, cultivated farms, good roads, numerous 
schools, and many villages, full of activity, business, and all the 
requirements of future growth and success. — I see the various Christian 
sects represented, all with convenient houses of worship, and, some of 
them of such elegance as would be no discredit to metropolitan congre- 
gations. I see all these denominations living in the greatest peace and 
harmony with each other. I see, too, the Israelite and the heretic 
have here entire freedom of thought and liberty of speech, and that 
equal rights are accorded to all, without social ostracism or theological 
denunciation. Every man can truly sit under his own vine and fig 
tree, and there is none to molest or make him afraid. This religious 
brotherhood and this religious toleration has, indeed, ever been most 
marked in Buchanan county, as none can be better witnesses than more 
than one of us now in this assembly, who can gratefully testify that 
neither heterodo.xy or orthodoxy were made texts by our citizens in 
State or national politics, or in our civil government. But the mate- 
rial prosperity of the various denominations, and of the community at 
large, has increased and developed to an extent which is very gratifying 
and which promises to be permanent and yet greater. 

I came here from a busy, thriving, manufacturing village and county 
in Massachusetts, where manners and customs were stereotyped, and 
where precision and etiquette were the order of the day. The barber's 
trade was there very flourishing, and tailors found plenty of employ- 



84 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



ment for needles, shears and goose. A smooth-shaved face overtopped 
an unexceptionable coat and a pair of fashionable pantaloons. A full 
beard and moustache were unknown in that Massachusetts region, and 
if an individual had made his appearance in the streets with his coun- 
tenance so garnished and adorned, he would have frightened the child- 
ren and been a spectacle of wonder to the adults. It would have 
been doubted whether he wr.s Lorenzo Dow resuscitated, whether one 
of the old Hebrew prophets was on a voyage of discovery, or whether 
Satan himself was again going about, to and fro, and was hiding his 
cloven foot in a well-shaped boot. What was my surprise, then, on 
getting to Independence, to find four-fifths of the men with beards of 
flowing luxuriance, and with mustaches worthy of a Hindoo devotee ! 
But, alas ! there is a certam book which tells us most truly that " Evil 
communications corrupt good manners," and what is true of vice is 
true of custom: "We first endure, then pity, then embrace." So it 
was with the well-shaved Yankee who had always abhorred a full beard 
and mustache, like a Roundhead in the time of Cromwell; but was 
now viewing the unsightly enormity for the first time with his own eyes, 
and was making his first acquaintance with western men and western 
manners. He became a renegade. He joined the Philistines. He 
enlisted in the army of Esau. Verily, he became a hairy man, and, 
what is more, though twenty-five years have since passed over his 
head, a hairy man he still remains, and now stands before you the 
same, and yet changed. The "silver threads" are not the exception, 
but the rule, m his locks; and his beard and mustache have taken that 
hue which they will never lose. The fact of my so immediately adopt- 
ing the full beard and mustache is a proof that I heartily relished 
western comfort and western disregard of fashion, which interfered 
with ease or business. 

I found the same western style in regard to dress. While the ladies 
—as a good Catholic on certain occasions always bows his head and 
crosses himself, so when the fairest part of creation is mentioned, I al- 
ways have an exclamation, "Bless the dear souls!" — the ladies did 
then, as they do now, dress most bewitchingly, but the men were as in- 
dependent of tailors as of barbers. It was almost a fact that every 
raascuUne garment from the lime of Adam down to 1856 could be 
found in Buchanan county. The craniums of the citizens weie adorned 
by every variety of hats and caps — bell-crowned, peaked, broad- 
brimmed, narrow-brimmed, beaver, felt, round, square, white, black 
brown, and grizzled — and every man considered himself a Beau 
Brummel in style and outfit. There were "long blue coats,'" like that 
of old Grimes; there were short, jaunty coats, like that of an Irishman 
at Donnybrook fair; there were tight coats, loose coats, swallow tails, 
blouses — all sorts, and every one just fitted for the man who wore it, for 
the time, and for the occasion. Other garments were after a similar 
fashion — every man for himself, and God for 'em all. 

Oh, you old settlers, those were the days worth livmg ! Those were 
the days of hearty frankness, downright friendship, absolute equality, 
and contempt of shams. Oh, how I enjoyed it! Freed from the restraints 
of New England formality and staid exactions, I fairly rioted in the 
universal sociability which here united one to another, where ceremoni- 
ous introductions were unnecessary, where sight was acquaintance, and 
acquaintance was friendship. For myself, though not "a native here, 
nor to the manner born," if I may quote Shakespeare with a little vari- 
ation, yet I took to these free and easy ways, this unostentatious and 
cordial intercourse, as a duck takes to the water, or the red man to his 
native woods. Yes, old settlers, I became one of you at once, and in 
manners, garments, thoughts, and feelings, I was emphatically a pio- 
neer. Never before had I enjoyed myself so well; never again do I 
expect to experience the beatitude of being 

"As free as Nature first made man." 
Those were days that could not last. The increase of wealth, the 
prevalence of comforts, the influx of newcomers, the greater and 
greater number of persons with whom we had no intimacy, our appor- 
tionment more and more into a larger number of sects, our devotion to 
business, and various other social interests have assimilated us nearly 
to the habits and customs of our eastern kindred and progenitors. 
Farewell to the old pioneer days ! They are gone. But for one I am 
glad that I participated in them, and if i cannot say with .^neas, 

"£/ guorit}n pars magna ftii — " 
"In which so large a part I bore — *' 

I know that I was an Arcadian, that I was one that helped to develop 
the resources of the county, and to aid in its culture, its affluence, and 
prosperity. 

I have some curious reminiscences of those old times which sharply 
illustrate the difterence of then and now. W'helher my earnest and 



cordial love of my pioneer environments, and my intuitive acceptance 
of their social exactions — whether nature had no power to mold me 
into a fashionable man — and so my fellow old settlers instinctively re- 
cognized me as one of themselves, I know not; but I do know that 
without solicitation or expectation on my part, and to my surprise as 
well, they made me the recipient of their official confidence for a num- 
ber of years, and in fact until our relations were terminated by Presi- 
dent Lincoln assigning me to new duties and with greater responsibilities. 
But as an example of the thoroughness of my pioneer habits, and of 
the ways of those with whom I lived, I will relate a curious circum- 
stance wjiich happened to me while I was county judge. 

1 then lived on the north side of the railroad, in the house now 
owned and occupied by Heman Morse, and which I built. It was a 
warm summer afternoon, very near sunset, that I was out in search of 
my cow; for I was then my own master, servant, chore boy, and man 
of all work, from helping my wife to wash on a Monday morning to 
milking my cow, sawing and splitting my wood, feeding my pig, and 
looking after things generally. I had on a broad-brimmed palm-leaf 
hat, a good honest shirt and a pair of blue overalls, warranted not to 
fade in color, and like Washington's buckskin breeches, not to rip in 
the seat. My feet were guiltless of shoes and stockings, and I was 
striding off with the ease of a man untroubled with corns. While thus 
engaged I noticed a handsome barouche approaching, drawn by two 
fine bay horses, and occupied by an elegantly dressed gentleman and 
lady. When the carriage came up with me the gentleman said: 
"Can you direct me to the county judge? " 
"Oh, yes sir; I can." I answered, "1 am the county judge." 
" You the county judge !" exclaimed the gentleman in a tone of sur- 
prise, and exchanging comical and rather astonished glances with his 
female companion. 

"Yes. sir," said I, " I am the man. according to the record." 
"Well." said he, "my name is Griffith. I am a teacher of elocution, 
and wish to procure the court-house for a series of lectures. Can I 
have it?" 

"Of course you can." I replied, "and I presume you will have a suc- 
cessful course." 

It was soon arranged, and Mr. Griffith proved a very excellent elo- 
cutionist, and was the first man who ever made me really appreciate 
the power of good reading. In fact, I have always given him the 
preference of any elocutionist I have heard. Before he left he was 
satisfied that blue-jeans and bare feet did not absolutely preclude some 
knowledge of literature, and some acquaintance with books. But the 
comical figure I cut on the prairie, among the hazel bushes, and in my 
primitive costume, has always made me laugh whenever it has came 
into my mind. The Griffiths doubtless thought they had reached the 
outer-pos'.s of civilization. 

Another similar, but more annoying occurrence, happened the sum- 
mer before, when I was living in what had been Wilkinson's carriage- 
shop, and which then stood about where the Tabor & Tabor drug 
store is now located. I had been over the river to bring up my cow, 
in the same identical costume I have described, and as I had waded 
through the romantic and picturesque W^apsipinicon, I had taken an 
evening bath suitable for a warm day; but the blue overalls were de- 
cidedly bedraggled, and clung to my limbs with a tenacity not very 
flattering to proportions thai I never considered "A glass of fashion, 
and a mould of form." Desirous of changing my wet habiliments for 
dry ones, I boiled unceremoniously into tKe only apartment we had 
for kitchen, parlor and reception room, and there I was astounded to 
find an elegantly dressed lady, who was making her first call upon my 
wife. I own I did then wish for shoes and stockings, and consigned 
the sticky, wet, clinging overalls to a place which has a reputation for 
excessive heat. But there was no help for it. I was very politely in- 
troduced by my wife to our visitor, and she, being a real lady, con- 
trolled herrisibles, made only mental comments on the staturesque ap- 
pearance of my limbs, comprehended the situation fully, and having 
a fund of wit and sociability, soon placed me as entirely at my ease as 
if I had been clothed in tiie purple and fine linen so noted in the days 
of King Solomon. Perhaps it will not be too impudent for me to add 
that I see the lady who then called on us now in this audience, and 
many a hearty laugh have we had over our first introduction. 

Such were the incidents of these old pioneer days, incidents full of 
interest with the present improved state of things. Every man and 
every woman was aUve then, all woiking with their own hands, and no 
one feeling dispirited or degraded thereby. Every winter morning 
when I went to my office I used to see the district attorney out-o'-doors, 
axe in hand, cutting up wood for his stove, and taking it from a pile 
where it lay sled length. Lawyers, merchants, doctors and ministers 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



8S 



not only had ench a stalwart pair of hands, but they used them, and 
honest hibor was respectable everywliere. But I cannot dwell longer 
on the old scenes, which, however, have been more impressed upon me 
than the rest of you, because I sojourned away from you for many 
years, and have at length returned, as I hope, to spend the remainder 
of my days among you. 

I miss many old faces that would be with us were they alive. Judge 
Roszell, my predecessor as county judge and my frequent competitor 
in political contests, has gone to his long home. Never were we other- 
wise than friends, and after our first canvass of the county, during a 
political campaign and each evening a political discussion, I think we 
each had a greater respect £br the other than ever before. I honor his 
memory and mourn his loss. The Rev. Mr. Boggs is another who 
comes vividly before me. Theologically we differed greatly, but our 
personal friendship was never for a moment disturbed; and it is a 
pleasing recollection with me that on one occasion, when his health 
would not allow him to walk to the polls, he yet rode to them in order 
to give me his vote. Samuel Parker, an old and honored citizen, has 
recently left us, and so has Mr. .Sparling, both carrying with them our 
tender memories and filling us with sorrow at their loss, .^mong those, 
too, who were formerly my tried and true friends, I must speak of Mr. 
S. B. Curtis, whose native good sense, strict integrity, and sterling 
qualities would have done honor to any station in life. 

But I must draw my desultory and disconnected remarks to a close, 
and as hardly ever a man reaches the age of sixty without thinking 
himself competent to give advice, I intend, old settlers, to exemplify 
this fact. Yes, my friends, we are old, and even at the longest we can 
maintain our hold on life but a short lime. Let us then, by cheerful- 
ness, neatness and good temper, by a cultivation of youthful feelings, 
by a constant interest in public affairs, by a love for progress and im~ 
provement, by resolutely banishing fault-finding and querulousness, by 
abstaining from unreasonable laudations of the times when we were 
young, and by duly appreciating all that is now better and more per- 
fect than in former days — let us, I say, by these means, and by being 
amiable both in our families and in public, endeavor to be happy our- 
selves and to contribute to the happiness of those around us. Let us 
keep our intellectual faculties bright by using them. Let us remember 
that books are a great comfort for the aged and those deprived of gen- 
eral conversation. Let us. one and all, be prepared for death. Let 
us be so assured in our own minds in relation to that inevitable debt 
that we shall be as ready to meet it now as to-morrow — at this 
moment as at any future time. "So live," as I will quote in conclus- 
ion what has been quoted before, but which will bear repetition, 

"So live, that when thy summons comes to join 
The innumerable caravan which moves 
To that mysterious realm, where each shall take 
His chamber in the silent halls of death, 
Thou go not, like the quarry slave at night, 
Scourged to his dungeon, but sustained and soothed 
By an unfaltering trust, approach thy grave. 
Like one wly wraps the drapery of his couch 
About him and lies down to pleasant dream.s. 

MR. perciv.\l's address. 

The remarks made by the Rev. Mr. Percival at this 

meeting of the Old Settlers' association were substantially 

as follows : 

Pioneers of Buch.\nan Cou.ntv:— My friend, the president of 
your society, has introduced me as the "county historian." It is not a 
title that I am ashamed of, and yet I am almost sorry that he has ap- 
pUed it to me on this occasion, for, above all things, I should have liked 
to avoid the suspicion that I came here with an axe to grind. At the 
same lime I may as well confess that, in a certain sense, the suspicion 
would do me no injustice. It is not an entirely disinterested motive 
that brought me here. It would not have been that, if I had come 
merely to have a good time — to enjoy the pleasant excitement of ming- 
Ung in a crowd — to gratify a natural curiosity to see, with my own eyes, 
of what stuff the yeomanry of old Buchanan is composed — to avail my- 
self of the rare opportunity of listening to the eloquence of your county 
orators. All this was, in part, the attraction that brought me here. But 
if I confess that my principal motive in coming was apparently more 
sordid than that — that I had an eye to business, even more than to 
pleasure — that I hoped to gather inspiration from what I should see and 
hear on this occasion, that would render the task I have undertaken 
(that of writing the history of your noble county) easier for myself, and 
more satisfactory to those who may honor the work with their patron- 



age, in short, if I own up. fiirly and squarely, that I did come here 
"with an axe to grind," I trust you will judge me as leniently as the 
demerits of the case will permit. 

.^s I have been sitting here, listening to the graphic sketches which 
the various speakers have given of eariy times in this county, and cast- 
ing my eye over this assembly composed so largely of men and 
women who weie actors in the scenes described, I have realized, as 
I never did before, how noble it is to be a pioneer— to take the lead in 
the great work of transforming a wilderness to a fertile and cultivated 
land, and to assist in laying the foundations of a new empire. I feel a 
sort of envy of these fortunate men, and a sort of humiliation when I 
remember that I was never a pioneer anywhere, or in anything. It is 
true that my parents were among the eariy settlers in central \ew York 
in "old Oneida," which has sometimes been called the Empire county 
of the Empire State; and if I had remained there until the present 
time, I might perhaps have been admitted to the old settlers' associa- 
tion of that county (should one still exist there) because I once lived in 
a log cabin, helped to roll and bum log heaps, and planted and hoed 
corn among the stumps. 

But I was born too late to be considered a pioneer in my native 
county, and I left it too soon to become an old resident in it; and were 
I to return now, I should perhaps be looked upon only as a deserter. 
Since leaving it. I have lived in four States; but they were al| 
settled before 1 came, and, although I have been an old man in three 
of them, I was never an old resident in any. Neariy ten years ago I 
became a resident of your county and of this goodly town. Had I re- 
mained here from that time to the present, I should now have, accord- 
ing to your terms of admission, but about ten years more to stay before 
I might enjoy the coveted honor of being enrolled in an old settlers- 
society. But, alas, my nomadic habits had become too strongly fixed; 
and so, after a two years' stay, I folded my tent like the Arabs, and as 
quietly stole away! And now, although I should remain with you for 
the remainder of my days, there is little probability that I should live 
long enough to be reckoned as one of your "old settlers." 

Since, therefore, this boon is denied me, I must content myself with 
the best substitute that lies within my reach. Since the fates deny that 
I shall ever be a pioneer myself, I will do what I can to perpetuate the 
memory of them and of their noble achievements. Though I cannot 
be remembered as an old settler. I will try to be remembered as the old 
settlers' historian. 

I deem myself fortunate in finding such an organization as this in ex- 
istence here. It is a pledge beforehand, of public interest in the work 
I have undertaken; and it will simplify and lighten my labor, by giving 
me more ready access to the materials I need. 

The county is fortunate in having such an organization within its 
borders. It will do more than to furnish an annual festival, that shall 
serve as the source of great social enjoyment to its members and their 
friends; though that, of itself would be no unworthy object. But 
what is far better, it will keep alive the old, healthful, vigorous pio- 
neer spirit, and an honest county pride, both in yourselves and in your 
children, which will prove, the sure promoter of material, social and 
moral improvement. 

And finally, my friends, you are, as a society, fortunate and worthy 
of congratulation on more accounts than I have now time to enumerate, 
but especially on these— that you have so goodly a heritage as this fair 
land to transmit to those who are so soon to come after you — that you 
have, within your own membership, so goodly a number with ready 
wit and ready tongue to instruct and entertain you when you come to. 
gether on occasions like this— and last, but not least, that you have a 
president capable, energetic and public spirited; magnetic in imparting 
his enthusiasm to others; skilful in arranging a bill of fare for an in- 
tellectual festival, and well knowing when it is best (as in the present 
instance) to observe that ancient rule, so often violated, viz., to reserve 
the poorest wine until the close of the feast. 

COUNTY AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY — FIRST ORGANIZATION. 

The following "call" appeared in the Quasqueton 
Guardian of February 25, 185S: 

To the farmers 0/ Buchanan county, and all others interested in the 
formatiou of a county agricultural society: 

We, the undersigned, in view of the importance, as well as benefits, 
derived from a properly organized and well regulated agricultural soci- 
ety, would invite all persons who are willing to cooperate in such an 
organization, and aid in sustaining the same when organized, to meet 



86 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



at Morse's hall, in Independence, on Saiurday, March 20, 1858. at lo 
o'clock, A. M., to perfect such an organization. 
February 18, 18 = 



David W. Gould, 
R. Campbell, 
Charles Crane, 
L. B. Mellish, 
S. S. McClure, 
C. F. Leavitt, 
J. H. Campbell, 
H. S. Chase, 
P. A. Older, 

B. S. Rider, 

C. 'W. Sellis, 
S. "W. Cook, 
L. Keys, 

D. S. Lee, 

S. V. Thompson, 

E. A. Alexander, 
J. M. Benthall, 
T. A. Jernegan, 
E. W. Whitney, 
G. C. Jordan, 
A. O. Davis. 



E. B. Older, 

S. J. 'W. Tabor, 

C. 'W. ■Wilson, 
Thomas Sherwood, 
\V. D. Fisher, 

A. J. Bowley, 
William Miller, 
John Burns, 

G. P. Hayslip, 
G. R. Smith, 
Charles E. Kent, 
J. Rich, 

F. M. Lewis, 

D. S. Davis, 

E. J. Pratt, 

S. W. Hardin, 

B. F. Clark,- 
James C. Henry, 
M. N. Timson, 
George P. Martin, 



Pursuant to the above call, a meeting was held at the 
court house on Saturday, March 20th, for the purpose set 
forth in the call for the meeting, viz: The organization of 
a county agricultural society. At 11 o'clock a. m., the 
meeting was called to order by choosing Dr. H. S. Chase, 
as chairman, and L. W. Hart, secretary. 

A committee of five was then appointed by the chair 
for the purpose of drafting a constitution for such a so- 
ciety. The committee consisted of L. W. Cook, D. S. 
Lee, M. Harter, H. S. Chase, Samuel Braden, and John 
Merrill. The meeting then adjourned until i o'clock 
of the same day, and at the same place, to hear the re- 
port of the coinmittee. At i o'clock the committee 
reported the following constitution : 

Article I. — The name of the society shall be the Buchanan county 
Agricultural society. 

Article II. — The object of the society shall be the promotion of 
agriculture and the mechanic arts. 

Article IH. — The officers of this society shall be, a president, 
three vice-presidents, a secretary, a treasurer, and five directors, all of 
whom shall constitute an executive committee, with such other ofiicers 
as shall be appointed by the society. 

Article I'V. — The secretary shall keep ^record of the proceedings 
of the society and of the executive committee, and make report thereof 
at the annual meeting, or when requested by the society. 

Article V. — The treasurer shall keep all moneys belonging to the 
society, and pay out the same on a warrant of the president, counter- 
signed by the secietary; and tnake an annual report to the society of 
the finances thereof. 

Article VI. — The e.\ecutive committee shall superintend and direct 
the affairs of the society, from one meeting to another, and perform 
such other duties as the by-laws shall direct. 

Article "VII. — The officers of this society shall hereafter be elected 
at the annual meeting, by ballot, and shall hold office one year, and 
until their successors shall be elected. 

Article VIII. — The annual meeting of said society shall be held on 
the first Tuesday in January of each year. 

Article IX. — Any citizen of the county may become a member of 
this society upon the payment of one dollar into the treasury annually, 
and having his name registered by the secretary. 

Article X. — The society shall have power to adopt such by-laws 
as may be deemed necessary to carry out the object of this constitution, 
and to change the constitution and by-laws at any annual meeting of 
the society. 

This report was received and the committee was dis- 
charged. 

A motion was then made and carried unanimously, to 
adopt the constitution as reported. 



The following persons were then appointed a commit- 
tee to report names for officers of the society : W. O. 
Smith, O. H. P. Roszell, D. S. Lee, \Villiam Logan, H. 
H. Hunt, who, after a short session, reported the follow- 
ing persons to hold the various offices of the society, to- 
wit: H. S. Chase, president; Abiathas Richardson, Da- 
vid Merrill and Newman Curtis, vice-presidents ; L. W. 
Hart, secretary; O. H. P. Roszell, treasurer; John Smy- 
zer, William Logan, Rufus Conable, William Elliot and 
Charles Hoover, directors. 

The report was received and the committee discharged. 
The motion to adopt the report was then put, and car- 
ried without dissent. The following persons were then 
appointed a committee to draft by-laws for the society, 
to-wit: J. B. Thomas, S. S. Allen, Charles Kinckerbocker, 
who were to make report at the next meeting. W. O. 
Smith, D. S. Lee, and C. S. Leavitt, were appointed a 
committee to enquire into and report what should be 
done by this society to entitle it to share in the agricul- 
tural fund. The secretary was instructed to notify ab- 
sent officers of their election, by mail, or otherwise. A 
motion was then carried to publish the proceedings of 
the meeting in the Independence Civilian^ and the Quas- 
queton Guardian. The society then adjourned to meet 
on the second Saturday in June, at 11 o'clock a. m., 
at which time the several committees are to report. 

With this brief account of the organization of the first 
agricultural society, we pass at once to a description of 
its first fair, held in October of the same year. 

FIRST AGRICULTURAL FAIR. 

From the columns of the Guardian of October 21, 
1858, we condense an account of the "first fair." The 
weather of the first day, October 13th, was cold, blustering 
and somewhat stormy, and the entries and attendance of 
that day was limited. The "fickle goddess," who, since 
that time, has "poured cold water" on many a similar 
enterprise, smiled propitiously on the second day, and 
the influ.x of both entries and visitors was characteristic 
of Buchanan outpourings of that early tinie. 

The different committees were generally prompt and 
attentive to their duties, making their awards iinpartially, 
and to general satisfaction. It was the opinion of the 
writer in the Guardian, that though several fine horses 
were exhibited, the display was inferior to what the 
county was capable of making. In cattle there were 
thirty-two entries, some of them very fine, so that even 
thus early one of Buchanan's specialties was fore- 
shadowed. In sheep there was but one entry, a fine me- 
rino buck and ewe, belonging to Mr. C. H. Jakway, of 
Buffalo township; the man who once offered a pail of 
fine butter in Independence, for four cents per pound, 
without finding a purchaser. The display of swine was 
quite creditable; Mr. Martin exhibiting the finest speci- 
men of the Suffolk variety — the other exhibitors show- 
ing crosses of that stock. 

The display of poultry was not large, but the varieties 
exhibited were fine. L. W. Cook showed a brace of 
Chittagong fowls; which we mention in the interests of 
science, fearing the name might become extinct as we 
suspect the family has. 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



87 



In fruits and vegetables the exhibit was pronounced 
excellent; but, in looking over the list, we are com- 
pelled to notice a very remarkable omission — not a single 
specimen of fruit being mentioned; unless the "large 
and splendid looking sweet potatoes," displayed by Mr. 
E. B. Older, and Mr. Romig's radish — two feet and 
seven inches in length and twelve inches in circumfer- 
ence, were thought by the committee worthy to be re- 
garded as standard bearers, if not "standard fruits" of 
Buchanan county soil. Mr. Romig also exhibited sam- 
ples of white and yellow seed corn which had produced 
seventy-five to eighty bushels per acre for him that year. 
Some of the Chinese sugar-cane syrup presented was 
pronounced equal to the best golden syrup then in mar- 
ket. Mr. Lathrop's and Mr. Reed's were especially line. 
In butter the entries seemed alike superior. Only one 
sample of cheese was entered and that of excellent qual- 
ity, made by Mrs. James Brooks. 

THE PLOWING .\ND RIDING MATCH. 

Passing over the notices of other departments, which 
will sufficiently appear in the list of premiums which we 
copy entire, a few words in regard to the plowing and 
riding matches will suffice, with the list, to perpetuate the 
memory of an event, which, at the time of its occur- 
rence, was regarded by all classes of the population as 
one of special interest. Not a household in the county, 
if is safe to say, was not plea.santly and profitably stirred 
from the dull monotony of ever recurring toils. 

THE RIDING MATCH. 

The great point of interest in the entire exhibition, at 
least to the more youthful portion of the visitors, was 
the riding match which came off at the race-course, 
which then occupied the grounds of the west side 
school building. About ten o'clock of the second day 
a tide of men, women, and children, in wagons and on 
foot, began to pour over the bridge towards the place of 
exhibition. The plowing match had but a feeble attrac- 
tion, except to the few. Farmers' wives and sons could 
see plowing on their own broad acres at home; while 
the element of novelty drew a large proportion of those 
not personally interested in the awards, irresistably to 
the race-course. 

The entries for the riding contest were Mrs. Edge- 
comb, Miss Freeman, Misses Clara and Mary Kipp, Miss 
Clark and Miss Coleman. It was the opinion of the 
judges, as well as of the spectators, that the horses were 
generally inferior, while the riding was uniformly good. 
Mrs. Edgecomb and daughter were awarded the first and 
second prizes, Miss Freeman, of Byron township, taking 
the third. 

The exhibition closed with an excellent address de- 
livered in the grove on the west side, by C. A. L. Roszell, 
and the reading of the premiums by Colonel Thomas. 
Mr. Roszell's address will be found in another part of 
this chapter. The Quasqueton band was in attendance, 
and enlivened the exhibition with their excellent music. 
As a primary one, the exhibition was exceedingly credita- 
ble. When it is remembered that Buchanan was then 
in its adolescence, wanting a full decade of its legal ma- 



jority, the following list of premiums will demonstrate 
the fact that, though the county was but a robust youth, 
its first farmers were already in th'e full tide of successful 
experiment. 

LIST OF PREMIUMS, 

awarded at the first exhibition of the Buchanan coun- 
ty agricultural society, held at Independence, October 
13 and 14, 1868: 

Horses. — Best stallion, five years old or upwards, D. S. Lee, $5.00; 
second best. H. S. Chase, $3.00: best stallion, three years old and less 
than five, C. B. Jakway, $3.00; second best, H. H. Lathrop, $2.00: 
best breeding mare, E. .Miller, J2.00; best four-year-old do., J. Hunt- 
ington, $2.00: best sucking colt, S. B. Brooks. $1.00; best trotting 
horse, H. Edgecomb, $2.00; best pair matched geldings, A. F. Wil- 
liams, $3.00; best yearling colt, F. Pingiee, $2.00; matched carriage 
team, W. B. Kipp, $2.00; breeding mares, D. S. Lee, $4.00; single 
buggy horse, J. Boone, $2.00; three-year-old mules, C. Hoover, $2.00. 
Two-year-old do. , J. Smyser, $1.50; three-year-old mare, F. Hatha- 
way, $1.00; two-year-old stallion, S. F. Searle, $1.50. 

Cattle — Best yoke of oxen, five years old and upward, S. Sherwood, 
$2,00: best yoke of steers, four years old, F. S. Loy. $1.50; best full- 
blood short-horned Durham bull, two years old and upwards, D. Mer- 
rill, $3.00; best full-blood Devon cow, D. Merrill, $2.00; best do. Dur- 
ham do..,D. Robertson, $3.00; best cow, native or crossed, S. B. Curtis, 
$2.00: best yearling heifer, Edward Cobb, $1.50; best calf, John Car- 
penter, $1.00; two years old Devon bull, J. Carpenter, $1.00; two year 
old heifer, D. Merrill, $r.oo; full-blooded Devon calf, the same, 50 
cents; four years old grade Devon bull, O. Cobb, 50 cents; second best 
Durham bull, three years old, D. Robertson, $1.50. 

Sheep — The committee on sheep did not report. C. H. Jakway 
made the only entry, and was entitled to the premiums offered. Best 
full-blood Merino buck, $3.00; and best do. do. ewe, $3.00. 

Swine — Best full-blood Suffolk boar, one year old or more, William 
Martin, $3.00: best do., less than one year old, B. W. Ogden, $2.00; 
best boar of any breed, one year old or more, Samuel Sherwood. $2. 00; 
best litter of pigs, not less than five in number, S. Sherwood, $2.00; to 
J. M. Bryan, for crossed Suffolk, $1.00. C. Lane and Smyser present- 
ed fine specimens of Suffolk pigs; also James Brown, Leicestershire 
and Suffolk pigs. 

Field Crops — Best acre of wheat, J. M. Miller, $5.00; best do. corn, 
J. F. Romig, $3.00; best do. potatoes, H, S. Chase, $1.50; best acre of 
Vermont eight-rowed yellow flint corn, H. S. Chase, $3.00. 

Vegetables and Fruits — Best bushel of potatoes, Baxter Adams, 50 
cents; best beets, .H. S. Chase, 50 cents; best bushel carrots, H. S. 
Chase, 50 cents; best bushel turnips, J. F. Romig, 50 cents; best sweet 
potatoes, E. B. Older, 50 cents; best three pumpkins, Solomon Swartz- 
ell, 50 cents; best two traces of seed corn, J. F. Romig, $1.00; best 
ten pounds of honey, D.ivid Gill, $1.00; best gallon of Chinese sugar 
cane syrup, H. B. Lathrop, $1.00. 

Poultry — Less than one year old — .Shanghai, best three fowls, cock 
and pair of hens, J. M. Miller, $1.50; best pair of ducks, Edward 
Chase, $1.50; silver grey fowls, John Rcekhemmer. $1.00. 

Butter and cheese — Best twenty-five pounds May or June butter, 
Mrs. H. S. Chase, $3.00; best sample of btitter made in September, 
Mrs. John Symser, $1.50; twelve pounds September butter, Mrs. J. 
Gould, $1.00; jar of brandy cheese, J. M. Brooks, $1.00. 

Mechanics' work — first-class — Best two-horse wagon, .Aaion Sher- 
wood, $1.00; best buggy, Aaron Sherwood, $1.00, best ox yoke, S. 
Sherwood, 50 cents; best specimen of horse-shoeing, W. Scott. $1.00. 

Mechanics' work— second class — Best dressed calf-skins, J. C. Loo- 
mis, $1.00; best coarse boots, John Wiley, $1.00; best ladies' shoes, 
John Wiley, 50 cents. 

Mechanics' work — third class — Best specimen blacksmith's work, 
three pieces, W. Scott, $r.oo. 

.Articles of household manufacture — Best twenty-five yards of car- 
peting, Mrs. G. W. Fo.\, $1.00; best two bed quilts. Mrs. J. Gould, 
$1.00; one white quilt, Mrs. S. Parker, 50 cents; one knit counterpane. 
Mrs. Thomas Scarcliff, 50 cents. 

Domestic cookery — Best loaf of bread, .Mrs. L. W. Hart. 50 cents; 
best specimen of cooking, Mrs. Purdy, 50 cents. 

Miscellaneous articles — One bushel timothy seed, J. M, Miller, $2. 00; 
map of Independence, drawn with a pen, Thornton & Ross. $2.00; 
bits, augurs and gun work. Aaron Barnes, $z.oo; one dozen domestic 
cigars.J. M, Chandler. $1.00; one roast of beef, C:-.rr & Co.. 50 cents. 



88 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IO^VA. 



[It is evident that the controlling influence with the 
awarding committee was decidedly Sir Walter Raleigh-an; 
inasmuch as one cigar was esteemed equal to two and 
one-twenty-fifth yards of carpeting. The world, it is to 
be feared, has not moved greatly since that time, unless 
it may be in the wrong direction. In iSSo, it is quite 
probable that a roll of the fragrant and flagrant weed 
would outweigh an entire roll of "regular stripe," or "hit 
and miss," which has been wrought with so much patient 
labor, and was destined to redeem some home from the 
barrenness which marks the dwellings of stolid plodders, 
who have no aspirations beyond the wants of the body. 
And in such dwellings the pipe reigns pre-eminent. 
Truly, in society as in philosophy, "extremes meet."] 

Fancv articles— Sample of worsted work, L. B. Mellish, 50 cents; 
fancy pin-cushion. Mrs. J. J. Whait, 50 cents; mona-chromatic paint- 
ing, Emma Butterfield, 50 cents; Oriental do., the same, 50 cents; Gre- 
cian do., the same, 50 cents; embroidered collars, the same, 50 cents; 
leather-work stand, Mrs.R. B. Wright, $1.00; fancy bead basket, Mary 
V. Randall, 50 cents; two pictures, H.Kinsley, 50 cents; leather-work 
picture frame, Mrs. W. Scott, 50 cents, also specimen of crayon draw- 
ing and embroidery, 50 cents each; one .shoe-bag, Mrs. A. J. 
Bowley, 50 cents; one swinging book-case, Mrs. E. B. Older, $1.00; 
specimen of silk embroidery. Mrs. D. Robertson. 50 cents; embroid- 
ered cap, Mrs. E. C. Ecklee, 50 cents; one lamp mat, Mrs. O. H. P. 
R05zell,5O cents. 

Plowing — Best plowing with one span of horses, J. Smyser, $2.00; 
best plowing with one yoke of o.\en, E. Miller, $3.00. 

Giving "especial praise" to the committee of arrange- 
ments for zeal and industry, in making the necessary 
preparations for the exhibition in the short time allowed 
them, and acknowledging the indebtedness of the socie- 
ty to the following gentlemen, for the loan of lumber, 
viz: Messrs. J. D. and D. B. Myers, M. D. Smith, T. 
B. Bullen, Samuel Sherwood and Sanford Clark, the 
account of the first exhibition of the Buchanan County 
Agricultural society closes with the following notice and 
call, signed by the secretary, L. W. Hart : 

"The annual meeting of the society will be holden on the first Tues- 
day of January, 1859. It is hoped that every person interested in the 
advancement of agriculture and the mechanic arts will be present and 
take part in the proceedings. The officers for the next year are to be 
elected, and other important business transacted." 

An address delivered at the close of the first annual 
fair of the Buchanan County Agricultural society, at In- 
dependence, October 14, 1858, by C A. L. Roszell: 

Mr. Pkesiuen't, L.vdies .\nd Gentlemen: This is an agricul- 
tural fair, and I am invited to deliver you a brief address, more as a 
matter of form than from any knowledge I am expected to impart- 
more as a characteristic of fairs, to have a separate show — to enlarge 
and give variety to the general exhibition by the introduction of a new 
animal. A person may sometimes criticise an art without being an 
artist himself ; and it is said of the learned Dr. Johnson, of England, 
that he was no more a poet than a sheep is a goat, yet he spent a large 
portion of his time reading poetry, and gained something of a celebrity 
as a critic of that art, though it is now admitted that he was scarcely 
ever right, if not always wrong. -And in some respect I am like the 
great doctor, for, being no farmer, though I myself may be dull — yet, 
by stating some facts connected with agricultuie, I may operate as a 
whetstone to sharpen the farmer's energy, if not his practical ideas. 

Whether a man be a mechanic, an artist, a doctor, or a lawyer — 
whether he has spent a successful life toiling in a country village or in 
pent up cities, regarding every other occupation as inferior to his own 
— when he first steps into the great valley divided by the "Father of 
Waters," bordering a land of the richest fertility, of unsurpassed 
beauty, of the finest climate— when his eye wanders over the grassy, 
interminable prairies, watered by springs, lakes, and majestic rivers — 
he feels his mind expand, his own profession is lost in insignific.ince, 



and the vocation of the humble agriculturist rises into the noble and. 
sublime. In this great region, which the plow has hardly scarred, lies 
our own State, spread out like a table for a feast of the gods, possess- 
ing all the natural advantages of a salubrious climate, strength, variety, 
and richness of soil — almost an agriculturist in itself — it needs but to 
be touched by the creative thought and energetic action of man, and 
its luxurious soil yields the harvest. With this immeasurable field for 
agricultural enterprise before them — we think our farmers should at 
least enquire what ought to be done to secure their own individual hap- 
piness and prosperity, and a permanent argicultural importance to 
their county and State. It is almost presumptuous for me to under- 
take to tell you anything about it, but if we look at the eastern States, 
many of them had a primitive fertility of sail equal to our own — but, 
the farmers hasting to get rich, and deeming the strength of the fields 
inexhaustible, crop followed crop in rapid succession, and they have 
raised their millions of bushels of grain, that have filled their own and 
foreign markets for three-quarters of a century, by impoverishing the 
soil, and replacing but little equivalent — by sapping and not replenish- 
ing. They have been industrious — building up magnificent internal 
improvements — but not pnident; and to-day their agricultural statistics 
show a rapid decrease in produce for the last few years. They have 
moved fast, but now move slower, for want of breath; and they admit 
that there has been a radical mistake in cultivation. 

Many of our Iowa farmers are from the east. They have come 
where land is cheap, to seek a wider field for their labors, to establish 
a permanent home, to amass wealth. Their old honisteads were too 
limited, and, worn out by old age and debility, the soil failed to pro- 
duce, and it was thought out of the question to infuse into it new life 
and vigor. They are here, certainly, not to repeat the old system of 
decay that is urging the soil of the east into sterility, but to grow lux- 
uriant crops, and yet retain the pristine vigor of the fields by nourishing 
them with proper aliment. Yet, with all the prudence and foresight 
exercised, with all the accuracy of geological conclusions, and chemical 
combinations, the exact depth of plowing, and precise time of sowing, 
the farmer's occupation has its ups and downs, its calamities and de- 
pressions — the seeds do not germinate, and in spite of the barometer, 
by which a man can get a little start of time, and look forward a week 
or two into the weather, the ripening crops are cut off by the frost, 
wind and rain. The effects of these accidents can be in part counter- 
acted by devoting a portion of the attention to growing horses, cattle, 
sheep and swine — which is a concomitant of agriculture, and may be 
said to be comprised under that general term. 

In this State, where pasture and meadow land is immeasurable, and 
grass nearly as free as the air we breathe, a fine herd of live stock 
must certainly be a source of immense profit. I am not intending to 
recommend any particular breed, for whether the best breed of cattle 
is the Durham or Devonshire, the short, long, rough or smooth horn. 
1 can not tell. 

A good breed is always desirable, but many are under the mistake 
that because it cost, for instance, ten dollars to fatten a hog of a poor 
breed, it will cost twice that amount to fatten a good one. The reverse 
of this proposition, however, is always true; for while a swine of mis- 
erable breed is decidedly the most consumate hog in the world, so far 
as eating is concerned, it is at the same time the most contemptible as a 
porker. 

I know there are many so-called aristocratic people in our capitals, 
who regard the farmer's calling as beneath them, and their refined sen- 
sibilities are shocked at the mention of hogs and sheep. There prob- 
ably always will be such a class, but to you there is nothing discourag- 
ing in it. Your opulence is in the line of their stupidity. Turn your 
attention then as much as you please to growing live stock; that same 
aristocratic class of hungry men will keep your millions of swine in a 
perpetual squeal. The delicate appitites of those exquisite ladies will 
keep your countless lambs in an eternal bleat. But some of you may 
not like the idea that you are the class upon which other classes de- 
pend, thinking it a menial position. The sun is our planet's source of 
light and fecundity; the moon and planets glow and stars twinkle with 
its hght; the morning borrows from it its tints of silver, crimson and 
gold; yet, as it moves in brilliant mystery through the heavens, 1 im- 
agine no one can say it occupies an ignoble position in space. 

Raising grain and stock is a source of emolument to the agriculturist 
— it results in a profit to be counted in dollars and cents. But there 
are other elements than those of gain, intimately connected with his 
calling. 1 take it for granted that most of our first-rate farmers have 
found a permanent home, for I believe it to be admitted that those who 
continually move from State to State are more itinerants than agricul- 
turists. However this m.iy be, a farmer wants a home. Castles and 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUN'IV, IOWA 



89 



palaces, surrounded with grand parks and extensive lawns, may not at 
first be built; but, by enclosing his grounds with neat fences or hedges, 
planting shrubbery and fruit trees, and cultivating a tasteful garden, he 
may give his home, however lowly, an air of beauty and cheerfulness 
while in its youth, and when developed an air even of luxury, elegante, 
and grandeur. If the farmers children become averse to the farmer's 
employment, it is perhaps because too little attention is given to mak- 
ing home attractive; and where its general features show a want of life 
and energy — a sort of monotonous decay — you must admit there is 
nothing inviting in it. To be sure, kindness and harmony, at this day, 
reign in the household of the farmer, and no one can take exceptions 
to his calling on that account. But it has not always been so. I find 
what was formerly considered the height of domestic economy — disa- 
greement and dissimilarity of taste --expressed in the old English 
ballad— 

"Jack Sprat could eat no fat, 

His wife could eat no lean, 

And so, betwi.xl them both, you see 

They licked the platter clean." 
But the old regime of economy has passed away, and it is now ac- 
knowledged that harmony and union contribute most largely to eco- 
nomical power, and henceforth, throughout the limits of the domestic 
and general management of the farmer, new elements will be brought 
to bear — farming must be done on more wise and scientific principles. 
Scientific — a word with a sharkish-looking Latin head; but it is as good 
natured as modern Anglo-Saxon, and W'On't harm anybody, and it is 
becoming deservedly popular in agriculture. Our material world moves 
about the sun now in the path it described thousands of years ago, and 
the stars chase each other in the same circle round the pole; but the 
world of science has been advancing in a straight line, and agriculture 
at last begins to feel its influence. I say at last, for the most important 
de\'elopments in agricultural science belong to the last half century. 
The fields of heaven had been largely explored. Planets, constella- 
tions and satellites had their places on the maps of the astronomer ; 
masses were weighed and orbits defined ; the fine arts attained a high 
degree of perfection ; paintings and statues adorned the cathedrals 
and temples. The Grecians had their national exhibitions of physical 
strength ; the Romans had their r/>Y//.f //t a x tin us and gladiatorial shows; 
but no crystal palaces were built where the agriculturist might exhibit 
to the world the products of the soil. The Helots of Greece and the 
Roman plebeians could follow tilling the soil from day to day, and per- 
lorm all the physical functions recjuired in sowing .and reaping ; but 
they understood no law that governed matter, and knew nothing of the 
elements that produced the han-est. Fetteied in ignorance and scourged 
by crazy despotism, they were worked, rather than working, trailing 
after them their fetters, and gnashing their teeth. There was no stim- 
ulus to encourage investigations of animal or vegetable life. There 
has been enough of these kinds of farming, and we all admit that they 
are the ones which, with an iroii arm, have held our grandest art in 
thrall, contributing not a penny-worth, not a grain of sand, to the 
temple of human knowledge and industries. 

The genius of modern Yankee progress alone is the conjurer that 
must fully unlock the spell and startle up this agricultural science from 
its sleep of centuries. This spirit of improvement declares that the 
world has been too much occupied with heroes and conquerors; that 
the strife of gieat men has been too long a terror to the earth, and not 
a benefit — coming like a whirlwind, or like conflagrations that consume 
cities, rather than seeking those truths which bless mankind. There is 
no longer a field for such ambition — we have no more need of mighty 
conquerors — the dust of the Caesars is blown away, and to-day it is 
more a matter of praise to be an Alexander in the science of raising 
grain, horses, cattle and sheep, than to desolate the empire of an in- 
nocent people with a victorious army. 

Many of the countries of Europe have made great advancement in 
scientific agriculture, their governments sustaining colleges where the 
deductions of science are applied to the piocesses of agriculture in all of 
its departments. England, Russia, Belgium and several of the German 
States have taken the first steps toward elevating agriculture to the 
place which, from its importance and inherent dignity, it should right- 
fully occupy. In Belgium, it may be said that farming is fashionable, 
and there they //// the earth — joori it over just as ladies do their butter; 
and this is quite possible to them, for the quantities are nearly equal. 
In other countries the labor of farming is done by the lower classes. 
England is one of these; and she sometimes laughs at our country 
with its nineteen millions of agriculturists, saying, the Yankee is 
shockingly practical; that he gazes on Niagara's cataract and exclaims. 
What a stream to turn a mill ! —on the variegated and gorgeous land- 



scape, and cries. What a splendid pasture for cattle, swine and sheep ! 
— that his speculative genius being engrossed in enterprises and con- 
quests for the almighty dollar, all National refinement is lost sight of 
— and last, that he is unmilitary. 

It does not follow, however, that because we are practical we may 
not be theoretical; practice is the natural sequence of theory — the 
thought of the thinker taking palpable shape; and the aim of our insti- 
tutions is to make men both theoretical and practical. To a monarchy 
that loves old forms, and clings to the decaying spirit of the feudal 
system, our country appears weak in a military point of view. We 
maintain no standing armies to make pompous displays, as suction 
pumps to drain with an onerous tax the purses of an industrious 
people; yet, if made the object of foreign assault or foreign levy, this 
people, so practical, so strongly agricultural in its natural unpampered 
strength, is instinctively a military giant, which, when it moves its 
limbs and turns itself about, can cause earth to tremble, and make 
thrones totter. The possession of a vast body of intelligent agricul- 
turists is not, then, a National weakness, but rather a bulwark of un- 
told strength. And manly toil under the blue sky, in the bright 
sunshine and pure atmosphere of heaven, is it disgraceful? If the 
mind loves philosophy, it can there grasp nature in its widest extent ; 
if the soul is poetic, the muse's voice is heard in the rippling rills and 
the rushing river, and romance lurks around the dewy meadows. Is 
there, then, anything degrading in agriculture? It is the vital element 
of internal improvement, creating a want that builds railroads through 
swamps, and canals over mountains — the enchanter that lifts up cities; 
it withdraws its hand from them, and they sink into insignificance; it 
extends it. and the choicest treasures of the earth are thefe piled up, 
and commerce is the breath of its nostrils. 

If agriculture, then, is not degrading, but ennobling— if it is the 
leading interest of our State, why not educate men for scientific re- 
search in this art? Why should not the farmer be taught to study 
propee fertilizers by analyzing earths adding and combining varieties 
containing those elements necessary for growing certain products, that 
they may be scientific and therefore skilful farmers? Let us place the 
plow boy at least on an intellectual and social level with the sleek fel- 
low who cuts lace behind the counter, or sells candy and cigars in a 
confectionery — on the same platform with him also, who depends so 
largely upon the magnitude of his client's pocket ; and let learned ag- 
riculturists be sent to legislate in Congress in the interests of this great 
industry, and of those of his constituents, who, like himself belong to 
a class which the citizens of this great Republic will always hold in 
especial honor. 

Farmers of Buchanan county, you can aid in bringing about these 
results, and to this end the instituting of an annual agricultural fair is 
of no idle importance. It shows a desire to improve which must lead 
to great advances in all that pertains to agriculture. There is the crust 
of the earth. Millions of years have passed over it. Mathematically 
it cannot be measured ; agriculturally, it is but partially explored ; for 
its profound depths are fathomless as the caverns of the sea. It is a 
field for the loftiest intellect, the most scientific experiments and the 
most inventive genius. Do not siooJ> to farming, then, but elevate 
it. with yourselves, to a plane of commanding dignity-, by com- 
bining intellectual capacity with physical energy. Thus you will 
not only enhance your individual wealth and happiness, but you 
will contribute to the high consideration in which your county 
and State will be held, both at home and abroad ; and for 
innumerable years to come, every freight car that rolls from west to 
east, and every American trade ship that plows the sea, shall bear to 
other peoples and climes, some tribute to the wisdom and industry of 
the great agricultural people of Iowa. 

LATER AGRICULTURAL SOCIETIES. 

The first society to whose organization and first fair 
we have deemed it proper to devote considerable space, 
continued in existence but about four years. A good 
degree of interest was manifested, and the displays were 
very creditable considering the imperfect development 
which had, at that time, been made of the agricultural 
resources of the county. It was found difficult, how- 
ever, to keep up the interest, for the lack of funds to 
offer attractive premiums. This organization, therefore, 
was soon abandoned. 

A second society was organized in 1866, held two 



9° 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



fairs, very much of the same character as the previous 
ones, and was then abandoned Uke the other. Neither 
of these societies owned any ground, or other real estate. 
Their means for defraying expenses, paying premiums, 
etc., were derived from membership fees (one dollar an- 
nually from each member) and two hundred dollars con- 
tributed by the State for each fair held. These sources 
of revenue being found insufficient, the joint stock plan 
of organization, now common throughout the State, was 
finally ado[)ted. 

THE PRESENT SOCIETY, 

adopting that plan, was organized in 1869, and held its 
first fair the following year. The first officers were as 
follows: L. S. Curtis, president; J. H. Campbell, 
treasurer; Jed Lake, secretary. The capital stock origi- 
nally subscribed was six thousand dollars, to which was 
added soon after the organization six hundred dollars 
more. This was increased by a donation of one thou- 
sand dollars, made by the county in accordance with a 
law of the State. All this not being sufficient to meet 
the estimated expense of an equipment that should 
enable tlte society to make "a fair start in life," it pro- 
ceeded to borrow fifteen hundred dollars -making its 
entire outfit nine thousand two hundred dollars. With 
this money it i>urchased about sixty acres of land, owned 
by James Burns, about half a mile west of Indepen- 
dence, being a part of the northeast quarter of section 
five, township eighty-eight, range nine: enclosed it with 
a close substantial board fence, too high to be scaled, ex- 
cept by long ladders; built along its south and western sides 
convenient stalls and sheds for cattle, a stable one hun- 
dred feet in length for horses, and an octagnal floral 
hall twenty-two feet on each side, graded a half-mile race 
track, and dug four excellent wells. The aggregate ex- 
pense of all this was nine thousand one hundred dollars. 
The main hall is two stories high, with a wing on one of 
its sides twenty-two feet in width by sixty in length. 
This wing is used for the exhibition of fruits and vegeta- 
bles, while the main hall is devoted to flowers, articles of 
domestic manufacture, works of art, etc., etc. 

Fairs have been held annually ever since this society 
was organized, which have always been successful, pecun- 
iarly, and for the most part creditable to the farming 
interests of the county, which should be the chief care of 
such an association. It cannot be denied, however, 
that, for the past few years, the race-course has been 
assuming too great a prominence as an object of attrac- 
tion. We are not Puritanical in regard to the morality 
of public exhibitions of the speed of horses, but we 
cannot help thinking that the chief value of agricultural 
fairs will be lost if such exhibitions ever come to be 
regarded as the principal means of attracting the masses 
to the fair grounds. There are those who think that, 
even now, as many of our county fairs are conducted, 
they ought, in strict honesty, to call themselves the 
"Annual County Races." We hope that the exhibitions 
of this society may still be called, without a figure of 
speech, "agricultural fairs." But the "truth of history" 
compels us to say that, if what we saw last fall is a sam- 
ple of the present tendency of its affairs, and if that ten- 



dency cannot by some means be effectually checked, the 
time is not far distant when it, too, will require a change 
of name. 

-In companv with a friend we rode out to the grounds 
during the progress of the fiir, It was the morning 
before the races; but, so deserted did the place appear, 
that it almost seemed as if we had come "the day after 
the fair." In fact our friend jocosely remarked, as we 
drove in at the gate, that we must have mistaken the 
day, and come on Sunday instead of Thursday. Noth- 
ing brought in for exhibition had been removed; but the 
stalls and sheds were nearly all empty, and the space 
devoted to farm machinery might have been used by the 
boys as a base ball ground. Had it not been for the 
very creditable exhibition in Floral hall (mainly under 
the energetic and skilful direction of Mrs. C. M. Dur- 
nam) the fair must have been pronounced a failure, as 
to all the objects that have hitherto been regarded as 
germane to an agricultural fair. 

The Independence Bulletin, in its next issue after the 
fair, contains the following notice of the exhibition: 

Tlie tenth annual fair of the Bitchanan County Agricultural society, 
which was held near this city last week, was not in all respects the 
success of former years, yet was not without a certain degree of inter- 
est to the visitor. In all that went to make up the display in the 
departments of live stock, farm products, fruits, etc., the exhibition 
was only partially successful, as it was observed that these divisions 
were lamentably deficient. \ number of the old veteran stock growers 
of the county did fully their share toward filling up, but were poorly 
supported. 

The ladies came forward in their usual enthusiastic manner, and 
metamorphosed rough old Kloral hall into a wilderness of beauty, with 
their paintings [several of which were by the talented Buchanan county 
artist. Miss Hattie Freeman] their embroideries, ornamental and useful 
needle work, and other products of feminine skill; and the visitoi was 
constrained to obs«rve that, had the community in general manifested 
the same zeal as the ladies in particular, the fair would have been all 
that could be desired. 

The absorbing interest manifested in the races, is 
shown by the fact that, on Thursday, the first day devo- 
ted to that part of the exhibition, "one thousand nine 
hundred tickets were sold at the gate!" 

The capital stock of the society is divided into two 
hundred shares, one-half of which are owned by Jed 
Lake, esq., the most of the other half being held by the 
farmers throughout the county. The society is still in 
debt about one thousand two hundred dollars. 

The present officers are as follows: C. H. Jakway, 
president; L. J. Curtis, vice-president; J. H. Wilson, 
secretary; W. R. Kenyon, treasurer; Jed Lake, R. 
O'Brian, J. H. Campbell, executive committee. 

The board of directors at present are as follows : J. H. 
Campbell, W. R. Kenyon, R. O'Brian, L. J. Curtis, 
Clinton Wilson, J. B. Patton, G. M. Miller, C. H. Jake- 
way, Jed Lake, G. H. Wilson, and W. O. Curtis. 

COUNTY lilBLE SOCIETY. 

This association, auxiliary to the American Bible 
society, was organized July 26, 1S57. The meeting 
called for this purpose, was held in the Presbyterian 
church, Independence. After an address by the Rev. 
S. P. Crawford, agent of the American society, it was re- 
solved to organize an association to aid in the circulation 
of the Holy Scriptures. A constitution was adopted. 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



91 



which has since been two or three times amended — the 
last time in 1875, when it was put into the following 
form : 

CONSTITUTION OK THE BUCHANAN COUNTY BinLE 
SOCIETY. 

Article I.— This society shall be called the Buchanan County 
Bible Society .'\uxiliary to the American Bible Society. 

Article II.— The object of this society shall be to promote the 
circulation of the Holy Scriptures, "without note or comment," and, 
in English, those of the commonly received version. 

Article III.— All persons contributing one dollar to its funds, shall 
be entitled to one common, forty cent Bible, or its equivalent in Test- 
aments, for gratis distribution if called for during the year. Those 
contributing Jivt' dollars, shall be members for life, and entitled to one 
common Bible, each year, for the purpose, and subject to the condi- 
tions, named above. 

Article IV. — AH funds, not wanted for circulating the Scriptuies 
within this society's limits, shall be paid over annually to the Parent 
Society, to aid distributions among the destitute in other parts of the 
country, and in foreign lands. 

Article V. — The officers of this society shall consist of a president, 
one or more vice-presidents, secretary, treasurer, and three directors, 
who shall constitute an executive committee, to whom shall be in- 
trusted the management of this society, and who shall have power to 
fill vacancies in their own body in the interval of annual meetings. 
The ministers of all co-operating churches within our bounds shall be 
members of this committee, cx-officio. 

Article VI. — There shall be a general meeting of this society each 
year, at which time the officers shall be elected, and such other business 
transacted as may be necessary. Should the society fail of an annual 
meeting, the same officers shall be continued until an election does oc- 
cur. .-Ml persons sustaining this society by their influence or means, 
shall be entitled to vote at this general meeting. 

Article VII.— It shall be the duty of the executive committee to 
meet soon after each annual meeting, for the purpose of attending to 
the following items of business; First. — The report of the secretary 
for the past year. Second. — Appointment of an auditing committee 
of two or three persons who shall serve during the year, and to whom 
shall be referred all reports involving finances. Third. — Report of the 
depositary and treasurer. Fonrlk. — The election of a depositary for 
the ensuing year. Fifth. — The adoption of necessary measures for 
the supply of the field. Sixth. — Miscellaneous business (reports of 
committees, etc.) It shall also be their duty to meet frequently on call 
of the president, or, any duly authorized agent of the Parent Society; 
to see that their depositary is suitably located and well supplied with 
books; to see that collections aw; made annually in every congregation, 
and that all funds are forwarded promptly to the Parent Society. 

Article VIII. — Any branch society or Bible committee formed 
within the bounds of this au.\iliary, by paying over its funds annually, 
shall receive Bibles and Testaments from this society's depositary for 
the supply of their field. 

Article IX. — No alteration shall be made in this constitution, ex- 
cept at a business meeting, and by the consent of two-thirds of the 
officers present. 

After the adoption of the constitution, an election was 
held for the choice of officers for the ensuing year, which 
resulted as follows: Rev. J. L. Kelly, president; Mr. 
Newman Curtis and Mr. C. C. Cadwell, vice-presidents- 
Rev. John M. Boggs, secretary; Mr. William C. Morris, 
treasurer; Mr. J. C. Loomis and Mr. A. C. Blakeley, 
additional managers. 

The organization being thus completed, the society ad- 
journed. 

As appears from the records, there have been but 
seventeen annual meetings of the society held since the 
first — none having been held in i860, 1862, 1865, 1878, 
1879 and 1880. There have also been several years 
when no meeting of the executive committee has been 
held; but, through the wise provision of the constitution, 
requiring the officers previously elected to hold over, in 



such cases, the society has maintained its existence ; the 
depositary has always been kept open and supplied with 
Bibles; and no year has passed without more or less 
having been disposed of 

The books of the treasurer and depositary show that, 
on an average about a hundred and sixty dollars' worth 
of Bibles have been purchased from the parent society 
and distiibuted throughout the county each year since 
1857. The largest amount in any one year was in 1869, 
when tlie distribution amounted to three hundred and 
fifteen dollars and eighty six cents. In cases of inability 
to purchase, the distribution has sometimes been gratui- 
tous; but the most of those found by the canvassers un- 
supplied with a copy of the Holy Scriptures, have been 
both willing and able to pay the small price charged by 
the American Bible society, which, for those sold here, 
averages about one dollar for Bibles and twenty cents for 
Testaments. Of course the principal number of books 
distributed have been in English; but a few have been 
in French and Norwegian, and still more in German. 

Since 187-6 the operations of the society have largely 
fallen off — the entire distributions, since that time, 
amounting only to two hundred and twenty-one dollars 
and fifty-seven cents. What has been the actual cause 
of this we are not informed. It may be because the de- 
mand is not as great as it was previous to that time — 
immigration (as we have seen) having materially de- 
creased since then. Or it may be that the people, being 
in better circumstances, have supplied themselves, 
through other channels, with more expensive Bibles. At 
any rate let us hope that it is not because the interest in 
the Bible is waning, either among the classes that need 
to be supplied with it, or in the church that has under- 
taken to supply them. 

Those who have been elected to the office of presi- 
dent of the society since its first organization, are the 
following: Rev. J. L. Kelly, Rev. D. Poor, Rev. Harris 
Kinsley, Rev. William Sampson, Mr. L. N. Putnam, 
Rev. John Fulton, Dr. Horatio Bryant, Hon. W. G. 
Donnan, Mr. D. L. Smith, and Mr. J. B. Jones. 

The following are those who held the office of vice- 
presidents: Mr. Newman Curtis, Mr. C. C. Cadwell, 
Rev. R. H. Freeman, Rev. W. H. Sparling, Mr. J. C. 
Loomis, Dr. J. G. House, Mr. W. A. Jones, Dr. H. 
Bryant, Mr. L. A. Main, Rev. Harris Kinsley, Rev. J. 
G. Schaibel, Rev. W. B. Phelps, Rev. A. Beeles, Rev. C. 
S. Percival, Mr. J. B. Donnan, Mr. A. B. Clark, Mr. E. 
W. Purdy, Rev. H. S. Church, Rev. F. A. Marsh, Rev. 
L. W. Brintnall, Rev. I). Sheffer, Rev. James Patterson, 
Rev. F. M. Robertson, Rev. T. B. Kempt, and Rev. M. 
Knoll. 

The following have held the office of secretary: Rev. 
John M. Boggs, Rev. John Fulton, Rev. Hale Town- 
send, Mr. J. B. Donnan, Mr. D. B. Sanford, Mr. George 
R. Warne. 

The office of treasurer and that of depositary (or person 
to keep the depository of books) have always been united 
in one and the same individual. These two important 
offices have been held by only five members of the so- 
ciety, as follows: Mr. William C. Morris, Mr. H. O. 



92 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



Jones, Rev. William Sampson, J. P. Sampson, and Mr. 
S. Waggoner. 

Thirty-three members have held the office of director, 
as follows : Mr. J. C. Loomis, Mr. A. C. Blakely, Mr. 
E. Curtis, Hon. W. G. Donnan, Dr. H. Bryant, Mr. L. 
N. Putnam, Mr. W. C. Morris, Rev. Harris Kinsley, Dr. 
J. G. House, Rev. H. H. Fairall, Mr. H. W. Sparling, 
Mr. C. C. Cadwell, Mr. M. H. Sanford, Mr. S. Wag- 
goner, Mr. William Few, Mr. W. Hart, Mr. G. S. 
Woodruff, Mr. S. W. Noyes, Rev. W. B. Phelps, Rev. 

C. H. Bissell, Rev. G. M. Preston, Mr. J. B. Jones, Mr. 

D. Elwell, Mr. L. A. Main, Mr. J. F. Coy, Mr. J. Kitt- 
ridge, Rev. J. G. Schaibel, Mr. B. S. Brownell, Mr. E. 
Zinn, Mr. W. E. Kellogg, Mr. George Keifer, Mr. C. F. 
Herrick, and Mr. W. F. Kellogg. 

The following have been the preachers at the annual 
meetings of the society, some of them on two or more 
occasions, and all, except Rev. Messrs. Roberts and 
Phelps, agents of the American Bible society; Rev. S. 
P. Crawford, Rev. B. Roberts, Rev. Mr. Byon, Rev. D. 

E. Jones, Rev. Landon Taylor, Rev. Z. D. Scobey, Rev. 
W. A. Chambers, Rev. J. N. Williams, Rev. E. C. Con- 
dit, Rev. W. B. Phelps. 

The following are the present officers of the society, 
having been elected in 1877, and holding over, accord- 
ing to article six of the constitution : J. B. Jones, presi- 
dent; Rev. W. B. Phelps, Rev. James Patterson, Rev. 

F. M. Robertson, Rev. Dr. T. B. Kemp, Rev. M. Knoll, 
Kev. J. G. Schaibel, vice-presidents; George B. Warne, 
secretary; S. Waggoner, treasurer; William P'ew, R. S. 
Brownell, E. Zinn, W. E. Kellogg, George Keifer, C. F. 
Herrick, and W. F. Kellogg. 

BUCH.-\NAN COUNTV MEDIC.XL SOCIETV. 

The physicians from Independence were, from early 
times, accustomed to hold meetings for consultation, ex- 
change of views, the establishment of fee-rates, etc.; but 
no society was formed, embracing the entire county, till 
1878. On the eighth of May, in that year, upon a call, 
issued by some of the leading physicians of the county, 
a meeting was held and an organization effected, with 
the name of "the Buchanan County Medical society." 

This organization has never comprised all the regular 
practitioners of the county; since some do not regard 
the benefits of association as fully compensating for the 
slight sacrifice of freedom and independence which mem- 
be:rship in the society imposes. 

Meetings are held on the third Thursday of May, 
August, November, and February, at which discussions 
are held in regard to miscellaneous matters connected 
with the interests of the profession; and interesting cases 
are reported, that are met with in the practice of the 
members. 

The membership has thus far embraced the following 
names — all being those of present metnbers, except 
Doctors House and Fisk, deceased: Doctors John G. 
House, George Warne, H. C. Markham, S. G. Wilson, 
and H. H. Hunt, of Independence; L. M. Johnson, 
of Winthrop; A. L. Clarke, now of Bazille Mills, 
Nebraska; G. H. Hill, hospital for the insane, Indepen- 



dence; J. A. Fisk and F. A. Weir, of Jesup; and Dr. 
A. W. Trout, of Quasqueton. 

Dr. House died on the first of January, 1880. He 
was a member of the Iowa State Medical society; at a 
meeting of which body, held at Des Moines, January 
29, i88o, eloquent memorials of his life and character 
were read by Dr. Warne, of Independence, and by Dr. 
A. Reynolds, of the hospital for the insane. As a bio- 
graphical sketch of Dr. House, containing the substance 
of these memorials, is presented in another part of this 
volume, they are omitted here. 

Dr. Fisk died August 10, 1880; and at a meeting of 
the county society, held on the nineteenth of the same 
month, the following resolutions, expressive of the esteem 
in which he was held by his professional brethren, were 
unanimously adopted: 

Rscolvcd, That we have found in Dr. James A. Fisk, a co-laborer of 
good ability, genial disposition, and strict integrity. We testify that 
our association with him has been both pleasant and profitable. We 
cherish his example and deeply regret his early death. 

Rcsotvtd, That we express to the bereaved relatives and many friends 
our sympathy and grief. One dear to them has been called away in 
the prime of life. In him they lose one eminently worthy of confi 
dence and love. We commend the sorrowing family to one who has 
promised to be a companion to the widow and a father to the orphan. 

The present officers of the society are as follows: G. 
H. Hill, president, hospital for insane; H. H. Hunt, 
vice-president, Independence; I.. M. Johnson, secretary, 
\Vinthrop; H. C. Markham, treasurer, Independence; 
Drs. Wier, Trout, and Markham, censors. 

GR.\NGES. 

These are secret societies, organized among the 
farmers, for social enjoyment and instruction; and for 
counteracting the influence of monopolies and "rings" 
which have proved deleterious to the farming coim- 
munities. No discussions that involve religious sectari- 
nnism or party politics, are allowed at their meetings; and 
whatever political power the "grangers" have exerted, 
has been generated and directed by machinery never 
operated inside of the lodge rooms. 

The "Patrons of Husbandry" (as the order at large is 
called) was first organized in 1867, by O. H. Kelly, of 
Boston, and William Saunders, of the Agricultural 
Bureau, at Washington, District of Columbia. For three 
or four years the order increased slowly; but irom 187 1 
to 1874, inclusive, it spread over the country like a 
prairie fire. In the former year only one hundred and 
twenty-five granges were established; in 1S72, one 
thousand one hundred and sixty; in 1873, eight thousand 
six hundred and sixty-seven; and in 1874, forty thousand 
six hundred and eighteen. The whole number of patrons 
(or "Grangers") in the last named year, was estimated at 
one million five hundred thousand, since that time the 
order has diminished almost as rapidly as it increased. 
In some States it has almost ceased to exist. In Iowa, 
although there are not half as many granges as there 
were at one time, yet, at the present, the number is 
thought to be slightly increasing. 

The first grange was established in this county in 
1S73 or 1874. No grange can be established within five 
miles of another. There were, a few years since, thirty- 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



93 



five in the county. Now there arc not more than twelve. 
There was formerly a county grange, which sent delegates 
to the State grange, as that does to the National. The 
county grange, however, was given up some three or four 
years ago. But all the granges in the county unite in 
sending delegates to the State organization. 

Membership in a grange is restricted to practical 
farmers, or horticulturists — together with their wives and 
their children over fourteen years ofage. 

The officers of a grange are the master, the overseer, 
the cha|)lain, the lecturer, the steward, the assistant 
steward, the gate-keeper, the secretary, and the treasurer. 
Any or all of these officers may be ladies; but there are 
four offices which none but ladies can fill — viz., those of 
ceres, pomona, flora, and stewardess. 

A deputy grand master for each county is appointed 
by the grand master (/'. e. the master of the State grange) 
who has the general oversight of all the granges — settling 
all questions of order or jurisdiction, organizing new 
granges, etc. 

Thomas S. Cameron, of Otterville, is the present 
deputy for Buchanan county. 

At Hazleton the "Patrons" own a warehouse for 
handling grain, and shipping directly from the producers. 
The upper story is a hall in which their meetings are held. 
Elsewhere they meet in school-houses and private dwell- 
ings. At Otterville they have a store at which goods 
(mostly groceries) are sold only to members of the order, 
at first cost. The goods are kept in the house of J. W. 
Plumerfelt, who acts as the agent of the grange in their 
purchase and sale. 



CHAPTER XII. 

RAILROADS. 



Two railroads only have thus far been built in the 
county — the first built by the Dubuque &: Pacific railroad 
company, and transferred, by a perpetual lease, to the 
Illinois Central railroad company, about the year 1870; 
and the second built through this county in 1873, by the 
Burlington, Cedar Rapids & Northern railroad company. 
The charm of novelty being with the first, we shall give 
a pretty full account of the discussions and negotiations 
which preceded its commencement, and of the events 
which accompanied its completion as far as the county 
seat. The other we shall pass over with a comparatively 
brief mention. 

Of the abortive railroad projects, which at one time 
seemed promising, we shall barely allude to that of the 
Wapsipinicon & St. Peter's Valley road. 

THE DUBUQUE AND PACIFIC, ALIAS THE IOWA DIVISION OF 
THE ILLINOIS CENTRAL. 

No apology is needed for the introduction into this 
volume of farts relative to the movement resulting in the 



building of a road which has aided so materially in the 
rapid development of the entire county. 

The corporation of the ^Vapsipinicon & St. Peter's 
Valley railroad, though atone time (/. e., in 1851) appar- 
ently ready, under the most favorable auspices, to com- 
mence the construction of a road, which was to begin at 
Anamosa and run in a northwesterly direction through 
Quasquelon, Independence and Fairbank, and thence in 
the same direction to the north line of the State ; and 
which, with its connections, was to constitute an almost 
air line between St. Louis and St. Paul, had finally mis- 
carried, leaving the farmers of Buchanan county for 
several years with little prospect of an outlet which 
would furnish a market for their surplus products. It 
was not until the spring of 1858 that another proposi- 
tion was made to them, looking to the supply of this 
long felt need. An informal meeting, held at Quasque- 
ton in May of that year, was addressed by Piatt Smith, 
esq., of Dubuque, vice-president and attorney of the 
Dubuque & Pacific railroad. 

Mr. Smith first gave a brief history of the organization 
of this company, and spoke of the original intent and 
primary expectations of the incorporators. They had at 
first, he said, no expectation of receiving a grant of 
land to aid them: and yet, taking the experience of the 
Chicago & Galena road as a basis, they calculated un- 
doubtingly upon the investment being a paying one. 
The reasons which justified an e.xpectation were fully 
stated, and the event had proved the soundness of their 
deductions. 

The Chicago & Galena road had, from the first of its 
operations, been considered one of the most remunera- 
tive in the entire country ; and yet, while that road, with 
forty miles in operation, paid but one thousand, nine 
hundred dollars per annum, the Dubuque & Pacific road 
from only thirty miles earned from the eleventh of May 
to the thirty-first of December, at the rate of two thou- 
sand, six hundred and ninety-six dollars per mile per 
annum. 

A comparison was then instituted between the natural 
and artificial advantages of the two roads, to show that 
while the former road rapidly advanced in its earnings as 
it advanced in length, until it reached in 1856, with one 
hundred and eighty-eight miles of road, ten thousand 
dollars per mile per annum; there was abimdant evi- 
dence that the earnings of the Dubuque & Pacific road 
would increase in even a greater ratio. This part of 
Iowa, it was claimed, was fully equal to Illinois in agri- 
cultural capacity, and was not inferior as regards water 
power. The country, too, was better settled, and more 
fully developed, than was that along the line of the Chi- 
cago & Galena road at the period of its construction in 
1849. The value of the jjroperty in the counties border- 
ing the line of this road, from Chicago to Dunleith, 
one hundred and eighty-eight miles, was seventeen mil- 
lion dollars, while in the counties through which the 
Dubuque & Pacific road passes, from Dubuque to Fort 
Dodge, one hundred and ninety miles, the value of the 
property was, in 1856, three million dollars. Illinois, it 
was stated, had at that time one mile of railroad for 



94 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



every five hundred inhabitants, while northern Iowa, 
with a population of two hundred and seventy-five thou- 
sand, has but one mile to every six thousand. 

As another advantage of the Dubuque & Pacific road 
over the former, it was demonstrated that the latter road 
would not suffer from the competition of water carriage 
by the MississiiJpi. The vast gypsum, coal and iron de- 
posits of the interior of the State, if ever brought to 
market, must be brought by railroads, as our rivers offers 
no facilities for transportation. Lumber, too, must be 
freighted west, and these facts demonstrated that their 
road would be a better paying road than the other, which 
had heretofore yielded dividends of twenty-two per cent. 

In setting forth the resources of the company, it ap- 
peared that the grant of land from the State comprised 
an area of one million, two hundred and fifty-one thousand 
and forty acres, which, at an average of six dollars and 
twenty-five cents per acre, would more than pay for the 
building of the road. 

Contracts had already been made with Messrs. Mason, 
Bishop & Company for building the road without ecjuip- 
ments, but witli the necessary buildings, shops, etc. For 
a first-class road from Dyersville to Cedar Falls, the sum 
of twenty-three thousand, five hundred dollars per mile 
would be required : and from Cedar Falls to Fort Dodge, 
twenty-three thousand dollars per mile. Besides, there 
had been donated to the road, in the different towns 
through which it was to pass, seven hundred lots, with 
an average value of one hundred and forty-five dollars 
per lot. In Dubuque, the company owned about eighty 
acres of property, with a river front of nearly three-fourths 
of a mile, worth fully another half million of dollars. 
This property was nearly all donated to the company, or 
else procured in exchange for property given to them. 

The lands of the company were shown to be valuable, 
as well for their mineral as for their agricultural resources. 
The projected road ran through and would open the 
northern portion of the great Iowa coal fields; the com- 
pany's lands also contained inexhaustible stores of coal, 
iron and gypsum. Professor Owen, then United States 
geologist, had estimated the area of the Iowa coal fields 
at twenty-five thousand square miles — sufificient to sup- 
ply the world with fuel for a thousand years. Pennsyl- 
vania, it was stated, was receiving from New York and 
New England seven million dollars per annum for her 
coal ; and why, it was asked, will not this vast deposit 
become a like source of wealth to the people of Iowa, 
having tributary to them for their supply of this indis- 
pensable article of consumption, the immense territory 
occupied by Wisconsin, Minnesota, Dakota, Nebraska, 
and, indeed, the whole region north to the British pos- 
sessions ? The immense value of the gypsum beds was 
dwelt upon, and the statement made that the value of 
this article of commerce was then, in the eastern markets, 
equal to that of flour. Millions of tons could be re- 
moved from veins varying in thickness from twenty to 
forty feet, without a perceptible impression upon the 
quantity. The iron deposits, it was claimed, W'ere equally 
valuable and inexhaustible. These minerals and the 
manufactures to which they must give rise, must of ne- 



cessity pay rich subsidies into the treasury of the rail- 
road then being pushed towards these buried treasures. 

The financial condition of the company was also un- 
reservedly discussed. Under assurances of the English 
loan, they had gone considerably into debt in the prose- 
cution of some parts of the enterprise which, otherwise, 
the company would not have attempted. The negotia- 
tions for that loan finally failed, having been delayed un- 
til the financial panic of 1857. This indebtedness, how- 
ever, as was shown, was neither ruinous or pressing, as 
the mortgage on the road had thirty years to run. The 
impossibility of negotiating bonds, e.xcept at ruinous 
sacrifices, had induced the company to return to their 
original plan, which was to build the road by the help of 
the people along the line. It was easy to show that it 
was bad policy to allow the work to stop where the road 
then was; bad, not only for the company, but for those 
who needed the road and had been impatiently awaiting 
its construction. The company must extend it; and to 
do it they must have the cooperation of the people inter- 
ested. Cash subscriptions, in the then deranged state of 
the finances of the country, were not looked for, nor 
were they necessary. For the construction of the road, 
almost every marketable product of the farm was indis- 
pensable. Flour, corn, oats, cattle, hay, meat, stone, lime, 
timber, ties, etc., the people along the line of the 
road had a surplus of, for which they had no market. 
The gist of the proposition of the company was, to buy 
these surplus articles, build the road, and pay in stock. 
The farmers were shown that in so doing they would 
turn their unmarketable material into a reliable specie 
paying investment. There was no doubt that the road 
would pay a good dividend as soon as completed to Ce- 
dar Falls; and, as a result of the road being owned at 
home, its revenue would be retained at home to add 
to the further development of the country, and thus 
increase the business of the road; but, if built upon bor- 
rowed capital, every dividend which the company de- 
clared would be a drain upon the finances of the coun- 
try. If Buchanan county owned one million dollars in 
stock, then dividends of twenty per cent, per annum 
would throw yearly into her lap twenty thousand dollars 
in clean cash, sufficient to make a decided impression 
upon the local finances. Every farmer holding a thou- 
sand dollars worth of stock would be sure of cash returns 
of two hundred dollars yearly. This revenue would, of 
course, be derived principally from the local population; 
and, if the road was owned by them, would, to a large 
extent, return to the owners and patrons of the road. 
But, otherwise, it would be a drain upon them to that 
extent. 

The incentives to secure the stock were apparent, and 
the facilities offered, all that could be desired. If the 
road progressed, the company would be compelled to 
issue their scrip to the contractors; and this they could 
not do unless it would buy the articles enumerated as 
indispensable to the carrying on of the work; and, to in- 
sure this, it was necessary to make it an object to the 
farmers and others to secure it. For this reason they 
wanted the people of the county to subscribe for stock 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



95 



for which they could pay in this scrip. This would 
make the scrip current and cause it to answer the end of 
the advancement of the road almost as well as money. 
Instalments would not be called for oftener than once 
in every three months, and for not more than five per 
cent, at a time; thus giving five years in which to pay 
for stock; while the company allowed seven per cent, 
interest on all instalments, as a means of placing on an 
equality the full paid and partly paid stock. It was the 
expectation that not more than twenty-five or thirty per 
cent, of instalments would ever be called for. The 
company's lands would doubtless soon be in demand, 
and when sold, the receipts would probably be sufficient 
to prosecute the work as fast as advisable. 

The company had then a title to two hundred and 
thirty thousand four hundred acres of land, and had 
perfected a plan by which their sale was sure to be ac- 
celerated, and at the same time their development in- 
sured. This was to sell them to actual settleis at five 
dollars per acre, one dollar and twenty-five cents in cash 
and the remainder in instalments, the last in five years 
from the date of purchase. This price would, when 
deemed advisable, be increased so as to bring the mean 
price to that at first proposed, viz: six dollars and twen- 
ty-five cents per acre. 

Mr. Clinton, who had long been conversant with the 
operation of the western railroads, gave to the meeting 
some sound views, both abstract and practical, of the 
benefits of railroads. This much-needed information, 
given in his off-hand, humorous and, at the same time, 
convincing style, influenced many minds favorably to- 
ward the project so ably presented by Mr. Smith. 

The farmers and capitalists of Buchanan were not slow 
in perceiving the advantages to be secured by this prop- 
osition. Indeed, with the accumulated quantity of un- 
saleable products then on their hands, it was impossible 
not to see that the proposal was one of reciprocal benefit, 
while the advantage resulting from a large amount of 
stock held in the county, appealed strongly both to the 
public spirit and private interest of all classes of citizens. 
The next link in the presentation of this matter to the 
people of Buchanan county, will appear in the following 
proclamation of the county judge: 

Statk of Iow.a, j^ 
BucHAN.'^N County, ) ^^' 

The undersigned, county judge of said county, in pursuance of the 
code of Iowa in sucli cases made and provided, hereby orders an 
election by the qualified voters of said county, to be held on the 
twenty-eighth day of June, eighteen hundred and fifty-eight, at the 
several places in said county where the last .April election was held , for 
the purpose of voting upon the following, to wit: 

Whether the county of Buchanan in its corporate capacity will lav 
a one per cent, tax upon the taxable property of said county, to aid 
the construction of the Diibutiue & Pacific railroad in said county — 
said tax to be expended within the limits of said county and not else- 
where; — and the means thus collected shall only be paid for work done 
after said vote shall be taken, and before the payment of said tax. 
Said tax to be collected before the first of November next, and for the 
amount of the same the Dubuque & Pacific railroad company shall 
issue to said county an equal amount of the capital stock of said com- 
pany at par. 

The form of the vote shall be, "for the railroad loan " or, "against 
the railroad loan." 



.Ml votes in the affirmative shall be considered as adopting the prop- 
osition entire. 

Stephen ]. W. Tabok, 

County Judge. 

To meet the objection on the part of the taxpayers, 
that it was then found dilticult to meet the payment of 
taxes for ordinary purposes, whereof the long lists of 
delinquencies with which the county papers were filled 
at that time, attested, an able editorial appeared in the 
Guardian, of which the following is an abstract: Admit- 
ting the burdens that were pressing so heavily upon the 
farmers especially, the writer showed that though the 
vote would increase the taxes, it would at the same time 
increase the capacity to pay them. With overflowing 
graneries, and thousands of tons of produce, there was 
not money enough in the county to pay taxes; and why? 
Simply because, having no railroad, the producers 
were without, or outside of, a money market. Parties 
were at that moment contracting with the Dubuque & 
Pacific, and Clinton railroads, for the transjiortation of 
hundreds of thousands of bushels of wheat, for which 
they were paying cash. But these markets were created 
by these roads, and through them the people in prox- 
imity were reaping a great, solid, and timely advantage. 
But the farmers of Buchanan could not afford to send 
wheat thirty or forty miles to a* depot, at the present 
prices, even though it brought gold or currency. But 
were the road in operation within the county, this market 
would be available, and would place in the hands of 
farmers the relief so much needed. What man, it was 
asked, could not well afford to pay ten dollars out of 
every thousand he owned, for the privilege of that market 
now? Confidence was expressed, that, as soon as the 
work commenced in the county, produce would take a 
material rise. Wheat would advance from thirty to fifty 
cents per bushel ; potatoes, which were now unsaleable, 
would become marketable at paying prices; butter, which 
in trade would scarcely cominand a sixpence per pound, 
would sell at a shilling, and corn, oats, beef, pork, and 
other articles with which the home market was glutted, 
would largely advance in price. By this rise alone the 
resident taxpayers would be enabled to pay their quota 
of the tax, and therefore would not feel it. To those 
who objected to receiving the company's scrip, he 
answered that, if the scrip was taken in exchange for 
their products, the company had, on their j.iart, guaran- 
teed to receive the scrip in payment of the tax. No 
danger need, therefore, be apprehended as to the pro- 
curement of the means to pay the tax. The construc- 
tion of the road would bring not only this, but a large 
surplus with it. 

The amount of taxable property in the county at that 
time, 1858, was but two million five hundred and fifty 
thousand three hundred and fifty-four dollars. The tax 
one per cent, would give a little over twenty-five thou- 
sand dollars, fully one-third of which would come from 
non-resident owners; while the actual outlay of the 
company, in grading alone as far as Independence, 
would be sixty thousand dollars. The construction of 
this jjortion of the road would leave in the county a 
surplus of thirty-five thousand dollars. 



96 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



The benefits accruing from the expenditure of this 
sum, in exchange for articles of which there was a sur- 
plus, everywhere needed no demonstration. And then, 
too, it was to be remembered that this sum must be 
expended before the collection of the tax. As, in the 
words of the proposition, the product of that tax, if 
voted, is to be applied in payment of work done since 
its voting and previous to its collection, it would seem 
all fears as to the capacity to pay the tax were relieved, 
and the means insured for other purposes — means of 
which all felt ihe urgent need, and which were not to be 
secured in any other way. If the tax was voted, work 
would commence at once; if defeated, there would be 
loss to the county through the disadvantages which its 
want would entail, treble the amount asked by voting 
the tax. 

Still another favorable feature of the proposition was 
pointed out. Its adoption entailed no extended tax — 
it began and ended during the current year and could 
never act as a bugbear to scare away settlers from the 
county, but would act rather as an incentive to settle- 
ments. The creation of a market for produce was not 
the only equivalent which was offered. The stock, until 
the road began to pay dividends, was to draw seven per 
cent, interest, payable *in stock, which would gradually 
increase ; and should the company in three years, through 
the earnings of the road and the sale of land, pay a 
dividend of twenty per cent., this would give an income 
to the county of six thousand dollars per annum, which 
would lessen materially, the burden of taxation. To this 
result the non-resident taxpayers would largely contrib- 
ute, so that, in fact, the county was only called upon to 
make a timely investment, yielding immediately and 
prospectively great advantages. 

It will he seen at a glance that the whole object, both 
of the tax and of the effort made by the company to 
secure private subscriptions, was simply to make it an 
object to the people of the county, farmers and dealers 
of all classes, to take the scrip which the company must 
issue in order to proceed wiih iheir work, and to pur- 
chase the produce and materials necessary in its con- 
struction. The following resolution of the board of 
directors of the Dubuque &: Pacific raih'oad company, 
pledging the company to receive the scrip issued in pay- 
ment of the tax or for stock, was published in the papers 
of the county, contemporaneously with the other matter, 
from which our article has been drawn : 

Office of the Dubuque & P.vcific Railroad Comi-anv, i^ 
Dubuque, low.^, First of June, 1858. I 

\VnERE.\s the county judge of Buchanan county has issued a pro- 
clamation to the qualified voters of said county, to lake a vote upon 
the question whether the said county will levy a one per cent, tax on 
the ta.xable property of said county, which said vote is to be taken on 
the fourth Monday of June, instant, for which tax the Dubuque & 
Pacific railroad company agree to issue to said county full paid stock ; 
and whereas it has been represented to the said county judge and the 
people of said county that, in case said tax shall be voted, the company 
will receive payment therefor, from the proper authorities in said 
county, any script or paper which shall be paid out and put in circula- 
tion for the purpose of doing work in said county by said company. 
Now, therefore, 

Rfsoh-cd, That, in consideration of the premises, said railroad com- 
pinv hereby [iledges itself to said county of Buchanan, to receive in 



payment for such stock, any paper or scrip which may be paid out to 
the contractors or men for work done in said county, or any other 
obligations of the company; and that the proceeds of such tax shall 
be expended in good faith within said county of Buchanan, and not 
elsewhere. 

We certify that the above is a true copy of a resolution passed by 
the board of directors of the Dubuque &' Pacific railroad company, at 
their meeting on the first of June, 1858. 

Witness our hands and the seal of the company, 
J. P. Farley, President. 
J.\MES M. McKiNLAY, Secretary /ra /iv«. 

HISTORICAL PROBABII.rrV. 

And now, with this array of fact and argument before 
us, let us ask this young friend of ours, just now jubilant 
over his accession to the .glorious privilege of the ballot 
(his natal day and the celebration of the opening of the 
Dubuque and Pacific railroad being coincident) about 
this vote, which had been so ably presented before the 
people. 

What was the result of the vote? Was it "for the rail- 
road loan" or "against the railroad loan?" 

"Let me see — that was in 1858 was it? Oh, it was 
for the loan of course. It couldn't have been otherwise 
— and then the road was opened in 1859, for I have 
heard my mother say a hundred times" — 

Not so fast my dear young voter. Doubtless your 
answer would be that of ninety-nine out of every one 
hundred voters, except those who voted on that (juestion 
in Buchanan county in 1858; and why it is not the cor- 
rect answer it may be the special duty of the historian in 
1880 to inform you. But, in regard to the reasons of 
the failure of that vote, the records of that day, like the 
Sphinx, preserve a sullen silence. Had the vote gone 
as you think it ought, the road, without doubt, would 
have been opened at least a year sooner, and you would 
have lost the distinction of connecting your natal anni- 
versaries with so important an event. 

Should you so distinguish yourself in the future as to 
make your name an honor to your native town, and 
should the Dubuque & Sioux City railroad justify its 
first ambitious cognomen and become really the Dubuque 
& Pacific, the future historian may guess that he has 
read the riddle of the lost vote of 1858. 

EVIDENCE OF ENTERPRISE AND FRUITFULNESS IN RE- 
SOURCES. 

Not many weeks after the adverse vote in regard to 
the railroad loan, the board of directors published a cir- 
cular, setting forth the following plan by which they 
hoped to secure the means to proceed with tlie building 
of their road. The proposition was as follows: 

To appraise the lots and lands belonging to the company, issue land 
script to the amount of the ai>praisement, and pay off the bonded and 
funded debt by offering for every dollar of debt one dollar of stock and 
one dollar of land script, with which scrip any unsold land of the com- 
pany can be located and paid for. Also to appraise the balance of the 
four hundred and sixty thousand eight hundred acres of land which 
the company were to receive when the first hundred miles of the road 
was built, and issue scrip as before. This was to be devoted exclus- 
ively to building the road to Cedar Falls. For every dollar of full paid 
stock then held, or thereafter subscribed, an equal amount of this scrip 
was to be issued to the holder or subscriber, in addition to the certifi. 
cate of stock. In other words, as an inducement for men to furnish 
means for building the road, the company donated to each stockholder 
a hundred dollars' worth of lands for every share of stock for which he 
subscribed, thus inikiii'' the stock itself cjst him nothing. 



HISTORY- OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



97 



GOOD NEWS. 

The munificent display of capitals and wide-spread 
head Hnes, which at the present day go so far towards 
excusing the editorial caput from exhaustive mental effort, 
had hardly gained, so recently as the close of the year 
1859, a very general following. When, then, the local 
press of Independence, in the autumn of that year, in- 
dulged in three head lines, of small capitals, prevented 
from expanding into unbecoming obtrusiveness by their 
location on the third page and under the usual heading 
of "Local Matters," and the further top ballast of the 
"Township Ticket," it must not, after all, be doubted 
that the subject matter of the announcement was one that 
stirred every Buchanan county heart with intensest delight, 

"glorious news for Buchanan county!! the rail- 
road COMING ! ! ! 

On Saturday last our citizens were notified by a few lines written on 
the margin of the Western stage company's way-bill, that the contract 
for the construction of the Dubuque & Pacific railroad to this point had 
been signed, and that the work was to be commenced immediately. "' 

But so sick had the aforesaid heart been made by hope 
too long deferred, that it was not until Monday, when the 
cheering news was confirmed by the Dubuque papers and 
by letters, that doubting gave way to universal joy and 
congratulation. 

It appeared from later intelligence that, General Booth, 
one of the directors of the company, had returned from 
the east, bringing the welcome news that a contract for 
a continuation of the road from Dubuque to Indepen- 
dence was signed the Thursday previous, the contractor 
being Oliver P. Root, of Oneida, New York. The con- 
tract stipulated that the work should begin at once, and 
that the road should be completed to Manchester, then 
described as being located nine miles this side of Not- 
tingham, by the first of October; to Winthrop, eleven 
miles further, by the first of November; to a point five 
miles west of Independence, by the first of December, 
and the balance of the aggregate distance of eighty 
miles from Dubuque, by the first of January. Mr. Root 
was represented as a practical engineer, a man of energy 
and pecuniary ability, and the utmost confidence was 
expressed in the fulfillment of the terms of the contract. 

A few days only elapsed before work on the railroad 
bridge over the Wapsipinicon had been inaugurated. 
The piles were being delivered and the work of driving 
them had also commenced. The bridge itself was in 
process of construction in Dubuque, and was to be 
brought out in pieces after the cars began to run. It was 
to consist of four spans of forty feet, and twenty-four 
spans of twelve feet, making a a total length of four hun- 
dred and forty-eight feet. In the centre of the nver^ 
where the rock bottom prevents the driving of piles, there 
were two bents ; and the bridge was to be four feet above 
the high-water mark of the great freshet of 1858. 

Already the impetus upon the movement of grain was 
felt, and an unusual and constantly increasing number of 
wagons were to be seen in town daily, loaded with cere- 
als, for which cash was being paid by merchants and grain 
buyers. A few weeks later, and the city press chronicled 
the presence of throngs of wagons on the streets, bring- 



ing in grain, and active competition among buyers. A 
cash market had at last opened in Independence ; and, 
as the crop had been fully an average one, hopefulness 
sat serene upon every countenance, and an unwonted 
activity was visible in every department of business and 
trade. As the time for the opening of the road approached, 
it seemed a question whether the capital of Buchanan 
might not be compelled to close her ports of entry and 
cry, "hold," so continuous was the golden stream which 
was filling her storehouses to bursting. One of the city 
editors informs his readers that, on the twenty-second of 
November, he counted thirty-five teams moving on Main 
street, loaded with grain, or returning after having dis- 
charged a similar freight; and still they came. Several 
new grain and produce buyers had already commenced 
operations in the place, and a new era was fairly estab- 
lished, in expectation of a speedy outlet for the accumu- 
lating stores of cereals and other produce. 

preparations for the opening. 

A call for a meeting of those interested in celebrating 
the advent of the iron horse was published early in No- 
vember, and arrangements were perfected to give fitting 
welcome to the long desired steed with his attendant 
train of cars, and manifold train of advantages. 

The first of December arrived, and though the road 
was not completed to the county seat, all were ready to 
acknowledge that the utmost energy had characterized 
Mr. Root's operations; and the only surprise felt was that 
he had overcome so many obstacles incident to opera- 
tions in a new country, and was so near the completion 
of this section of his contract. 

The second week of the month created a perfect 
furor among the youthful portion of the community, by 
sending the shrill echoes of the voice of the approaching 
motor vibrating through the oak groves of the Wapsie; 
a voice heard by many born on Buchanan soil for the 
first time. At last the iron horse (we wish somebody 
would invent a name more worthy of him) was within 
two miles of the town, and, within a few hours, would be 
seen tossing his billowy mane at the new station on the 
east bank of the Wapsipinicon. 

The track layers were busy during the whole of Sun- 
day, the eleventh of December, the contractor doubtless 
justifying the de.secration of the day on the plea that he 
was nearly two weeks behind the time specified in the 
contract. The rails were laid to the depot grounds, the 
turn-table brought up from Masonville, and \m\. in order, 
passenger and freight cars were at the depot, and all nec- 
essary preparations made to commence the formal open- 
ing of the road on Monday. At 9 o'clock on that 
day, December 12, 1859, the first regular train left the 
depot at the county seat of Buchanan county, taking the 
first shipment of produce, which was made by West & 
Hopkins, and consisted of wheat and pork. 

railroad celebr.\tion. 
The day was all that could be desired, the entire au- 
tumn having been of exceptional mildness and bright- 
ness. At an early hour, people came flocking into town 
from all directions, and Main and Chatham streets we e 



98 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



filled with teams and people. A large concourse was at 

the depot to welcome the train, which came in punctual 
to time, at 2 o'clock p. m., with four car-loads of 
guests, among whom were the Governor Greys, Captain 
Robinson, of Dubuque, accompanied by the well-known 
Germania band. 

After a brief and appropriate address, welcoming the 
guests to the hospitalities of the town, by D. S. Lee, 
esq., on behalf of the citizens of Independence, and a 
graceful response from Captain Robinson on behalf of 
the Greys, the large concourse formed in procession, 
headed by the military company and lead by the band, 
and marched through the village to the Montour house, 
where the guests were quartered. About 4 o'clock, 
an elegant dinner was served to the invited guests by 
Mr. Purdy, which was pronounced by all to have been, 
in quality and style of serving, worthy of the occasion. 
After dinner, the Greys paraded and went through vari- 
ous military evolutions, with admirable skill and pre- 
cision. 

At night there was a ball at Morse's hall ; and, though 
the company was the largest ever assembled ?h the place, 
harmony and good order reigned supreme, and the tide 
of enjoyment flowed on with undisturbed current, until 
the summons for the return train, during the "wee sma' 
hours," brought the fete, long to be remembered by some 
who participated in it, to a close. The "Germania" 
furnished the music for the evening, and choice refresh- 
ments were served at both the Montour and the Revere 
houses. The committee of arrangements were restricted 
in their invitations by the unusual rush of persons from 
abroad, which, for several weeks previous to the celebra- 
tion, had filled the hotels to their utmost capacity; and 
it was only through the most unwearied exertions of 
both the hotels and committee that the guests were suit- 
ably entertained. 

But the opening ceremonies and festivities were over. 
Independence had a railroad; and the columns of the 
town papers were enriched by a bona fide time-table. 
We linger a moment in sympathy with those editors. 
With what ecstatic self-gratulation was the carefully pre- 
pared schedule placed in the hands of the compositors ! 
Only two events in their previous history could approach 
this acme of exaltation: the first pair of boots, and the 
first ballot. Who shall tell which of the triumvirate 
should bear away the palm ? 

STATIONS k^Vi AGENTS. 

Winthrop — The cars reached this place but a few days 
before they arrived at Independence. There have been 
seven station agents at this point. Their names and the 
order of their terms of service are as follows : R. B. 
Crippin, S. ^^'. Rich, Samuel Leslie, Frank Ward, W. T. 
Kendall, M. J. Flanigan, and G. M. Nix. The present 
incumbent is W. T. Kendall, re-appointed. 

Independence — The first agent at this point was W. 
B. Boss, who remained only six or eight months; the 
second, Z. Stout, now of ihe lumber yard near the sta- 
tion, one year; the third, J- W. Markle, about nine 
months; and the fourth, C. M. Durham, who still holds 



the post, a veteran in the service, having occupied the 
position over eighteen years. 

Jesup — The cars reached this point shortly after arriv- 
ing at Independence. Four agents have served the 
company (or, rather, companies) here, as follows: J. R. 
Jones, W. Mosier, H. H. Smith, and W. C. Smith, the 
present agent. 

BURLINGTON, CEPAR RAPIDS AND NORTHERN RAILROAD. 

This road was constructed through this county during 
the summer of 1873. I' has done much toward devel- 
oping the resources of the county, but its historical inter- 
est, as well as its material value, is, of course, somewhat 
eclipsed by its cross-wise neighbor. 

Rowley — The station at this place was opened for 
business June 17, 1873. There have been three agents 
here, as follows: R. R. Harding, J. E. Wyant, and the 
third, and last to date, A. Allen. 

Independence — The cars reached here about the first 
of July, 1S73. Five agents have served the company at 
this point: Mr. Harding, Mr. Tuthill, J. Hough (or 
Hoff), J. A. Vincent, and G. W. Hallock, who "holds 
the fort" at present. 

Hazleton — The road was completed to this point in 
September, 1873. J. E. Bennett was the first agent, 
retaining charge till May, 1880, when the present incum- 
bent, W. G. Hogue, took charge. 



CHAPTER XIIL 

PROVISION FOR THE POOR. 

The trustees of the several townships are by law em- 
powered to furnish all necessary relief for the poor within 
their jurisdictions, at the expense of the county. In the 
case of families, this is done at their homes. Applica- 
tions for assistance can be made either by the families 
themselves or by neighbors who are aware of their neces- 
sities. When the application is made the case is exam- 
ined by the trustees, and whatever is needed is supplied. 
In winter it is very commonly fuel, and at all seasons it 
may be flour, or meat, or house rent, or clothing, or 
medical attendance. No family, except in rare instances, 
and for short periods (as in case of sickness), ever re- 
quires its entire support from the county; and, of course, 
it is the aim of the trustees to stimulate the self-respect 
of the poor, and encourage them to industry by furnish- 
ing them employment, whenever that is practicable. It 
is thought that, in some of these ways, about fifty fami- 
lies in Washington township were aided by the county 
last winter; and that in no other township were there 
more than half as many aided, while in some there were 
very few. 

This was the only method of aiding the county poor 
until 1 86 1, when the "poor farm" was purchased, mainly 
to afford the means of relieving those who are homeless, 
as well as in want. The farm consists of one hundred 
and ninety-four acres, in the eastern part of Washington 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



99 



township (25, 89, 9), one hundred and twenty acres 
bought of the Hathaway estate and the rest of Mr. Van- 
etten, for about four thousand dollars. Of this land, 
one hundred and sixty acres are prairie, and the rest 
woodland. The farm had on it, when purchased by the 
county, a substantial stone dwelling house and such out- 
houses as were common at that time. Since the purchase 
a two-story frame addition has been joined to the dwell- 
ing, and a large and commodious barn has been built. 

The poor farm is under the control of the county su- 
pervisors, who appoint of their own number a poor farm 
committee, who hire a steward to take charge of the farm 
and a matron to manage the domestic establishment and 
look after the comfort of the inmates. The committee 
meets every month at the farm-house, and reports annu- 
ally to the supervisors. The steward purchases every- 
thing needed, and disposes of all farm produce, reporting 
at stated times to the committee. The joint salary of 
steward and matron at present is five hundred dollars, to- 
gether with the entire living of themselves and family, 
and all needed help. Some of the inmates occasionally 
assist about the house and garden. The house has ac- 
commodations for twenty inmates, but the largest num- 
ber thus far is seventeen, and the average number is 
nine or ten. At present (June, 1881) there are but seven 
inmates, four men and three women, none of them re- 
lated to each other. The present steward and matron 
are Mr. and Mrs. William Hamilton, who are now on 
their second year. Previous to Mr. Hamilton's time 
there had been but three stewards, viz : Gideon Ginther 
(who served twelve years), A. G. Beatty, and John Lock- 
head. 

The following is the "annual report of the poor farm 
committee, January i, 1881, to the board of super- 
visors :" 

Gentlemen: Your committee on poor farm would respectfully sub- 
mit the within report : 

Number of paupers January i, 1880 11 

Added during the year 11 

Died : I 

Number at date 1 1 

(Four adult males; three adult females; three minor males; 

one minor female). 

Average number of paupers during the year 10 

Number in steward's family 5 

Total cost of maintaining farm $1,964 35 

Deduct for permanent improvements 197 62 

$1,766 73 
Average annual cost, per pauper, for entire maintenance, in- 
cluding products of farm $ in 11 

The same, excluding farm products 43 80 

Your committee take pleasure in reporting having hired William 
Hamilton, and May Hamilton, his wife, as steward and matron for one 
year from the dale hereof ; and also in testifying to their faithful and 
efficient conduct in their respective positions during the year last past. 
Mr. Hamilton exceeding our expectations. 
G. M. Miller, "j 

Edward Black, sPoor Farm Committee. 
A. H. Grover, j 

SCHEDULE OF POOR FARM PROPERTY. 

Farm and buildings ($30 per acre) $5, 820 00 

Stock 778 00 

Produce on hand 913 00 

Sales during year 679 97 



CHAPTER XIV. 

THE HOSPITAL FOR THE INSANE. 

During the winter of 1867 and 1868, the Honorable 
W. G. Donnan introduced in the State legislature a bill 
for the erection of a hospital for the insane, to be located 
in or near the city of Independence. 

The hospital at Mt. Pleasant was already overcrowded 
and many insane persons in the State were deprived of 
the benefits of hospital treatment. The bill passed the 
senate without a dissenting voice, and easily passed the 
house, together with the first appropriation of one hun- 
dred and twenty-five thousand dollars. The bill created 
a "board of commissioners for the erection of buildings 
for an insane hospital," and appointed as the members of 
said board, Maturin G. Fisher, of Clayton county; E. G. 
Morgan, of Webster county, and Albert Clarke, of Bu- 
chanan county. Mr. Clarke died before the expiration 
of the first year, and the Honorable George W. Bemis 
was appointed by the governor to fill the vacancy, and 
took his seat in the board January 21, 1869. 

The bill passed by the legislature required the donation 
to the State of three hundred and twenty acres of land 
within two and one-half miles of the city. Several tracts 
were offered and the money for the purchase was raised 
by subscription among the citizens of Independence. 
The lot of ground selected by the commissioners is situ- 
ated about a mile west of Wapsipinicon river and the 
city of Independence, and about the same distance from 
the Dubuque & Sioux City (branch of Illinois Central) 
railroad. It is about one quarter of a mile wide at the 
east end; widens northward to the width of half a mile 
in the middle, and narrows again to a quarter of a mile 
on the west quarter section. The tract is on an elevation, 
rising by a gradual ascent from the banks of the river to 
a height of from fifty to one hundred feet, and the hos- 
pital building is on about the highest point of the 
prairie for some miles around. It is certainly well- 
placed to be seen of men. The tract was unbroken 
prairie, without a tree or shrub (to use the words of one 
of the commissioners, who seemed to think that a recom- 
mendation), and furnished, on digging, an abundant sup- 
ply of soft water free from any foreign substance. 
It was also discovered that the tract contained a bed of 
good brick clay, which proved of great value to the State. 

Having obtained the land, the next step was to pro- 
cure plans and specifications for the buildings necessary 
for said institution. In order to qualify themselves with 
the knowledge necessary for discharging intelligently the 
trust committed to them, the commissioners visited sever- 
al hospitals, reputed to be most complete in their ap- 
pointments, and consulted eminent physicians who had 
made the care and cure of insanity their specialty. They 
decided on what is known as the corridor form of hospital 
as offering the greatest advantages in convenience, 
abundance of light, separation of wards, etc. The com- 
missioners engaged Colonel S. V. Shipman, of Madison, 
Wisconsin, to prepare plans and specifications, and he 
presented a plan nearly identical with that of the old 
Kirkbride hospital, of Philadelphia. The plans were 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



accepttd, but were so far modified and improved by the 
superintendent of construction, Mr. George Jossclyn, en- 
dorsed by Dr. Ranney, superintendent of the hospital, at 
Mount Pleasant, as to become almost new plans. 

It will not be amiss here to state the opinion of the 
commissioners, as expressed in their first report, that 
they "esteemed it fortunate that they were able to secure 
the services of a superintendent so experienced and so 
competent," has been more than justified by subsequent 
events. Mr. Josselyn had been employed in a responsi- 
ble position during the whole construction of Mount 
Pleasant hospital, and was afterwards steward of that insti- 
tution for several years. In addition to these cjualifications 
he has been found to possess sound practical sense, and 
an integrity so rare that it may be doubted whether the 
history of the erection of public buildings, in this coun- 
try, will show a similar work so economically done, and 
so absolutely free from any suspicion of jobbery. 

Among the changes in the plans, made by, or at the 
suggestion of, Mr. Josselyn, were: ist. The substitution 
of mansard roof for ordinary pitch roof, on the main 
centre and on the transverse section; thus affording ac- 
commodation for about two hundred more patients. 
2nd. The removal of cupolas from the roofs of the trans- 
verse section, and the addition of projecting towers to 
the longitudinal sections. These towers are pardy 
rectangular and partly semi-octagonal, and increase the 
ornamental appearance of the building, while affording 
means of ventilation. 3d. The addition, entire, of the 
rear centre building, containing, among other things, the 
laundry, kitchen, etc. 4th. Increase in the fire-proof 
qualities of the structure by the substitution of iron 
stairways for wooden; of masonry for wood in ventilating 
flues, and in other ways. 5th. Improvement in the means of 
ventilating. In the original plan the domitories were to 
be provided with ventilating registers, leading (as now) 
from the bottom of the rooms, but connected by ducts 
with ventilating towers not provided with any means of 
producing the upward draft, which experience has proved 
to be necessary for this purpose. 

Mr. Josselyn's original plan was to connect all the 
ventilating ducts with shafts heated by steam radiators of 
the kind used in heating the building, and this plan has 
since been adopted in the newer wings. The principle 
was at once adopted, but in a different manner — as will 
be stated in its proper order. 

GENERAL PLAN. 

The plan contemplated a central building four stories 
high and two wings three stories high; one extending 
north and the other south, and exhibiting an eastern 
front of seven hundred and twenty-six feet. The two 
win^s were to consist each of three transverse and three 
longitudinal sections, so arranged that the front, as a 
whole, constantly receded from the front line of the 
main centre, in all about one hundred feet from the line 
of the front center. The main centre building is sixty 
by one hundred feet, four stories high and with Mansard 
roof. The wings are of the following dimensions : First 
section— longitudinal, forty-five by ninety-two feet; a 



transverie section thirty-six by eighty-seven and one-half 
feet; longitudinal section twenty-six by fifty-six feet; 
transverse section thirty-five by seventy-two feet. The 
main centre was originally intended to contain the 
kitchen, laundry, etc., in the basement, but the plan was 
changed by the addition of a rear centre building, the 
front section of which is forty-two by sixty feet. The 
upper story (equivalent in height to second and third) 
contains the chapel. The rear section of this building is 
forty-four by forty-nine feet, and contains in the base- 
ment the kitchen and laundry. The upper stories con- 
tain a dining-room, sitting-rooms for patients, general 
storage rooms and sleeping-rooms for female employes. 

The hospital as a whole is intended to be fire-proof. 
The walls of the basement story are built of granite from 
the prairie boulders found in the vicinity. The upper 
walls are of brick, with a facing of Farley and Anamosa 
limestone. The roofs are of slate and the cornices of 
galvanized iron. The framework of the Mansard roofs 
in the portions lately constructed, is of iron and brick 
arches. In the attics under the roofs the arches are 
leveled up and paved with brick. On the ceiling of the 
basement, and the first and second floors, wire cloth has 
been used instead of lath. 

The engine house is built entirely of boulder granite, 
cut in rectangular form but of irregular shape and size, 
and is an ornamental building. It is fifty-five by one 
hundred feet in size and has an attic which contains 
some sleeping-rooms and furnishes storage room for 
some valuable machinery. It is situated directly back of 
the rear centre building, and is connected with it by the 
fan room. It contains the engine and boiler for supply- 
ing steam for heating the entire building, and also for 
doing the greater part of the cooking in the kitchen. 
The boilers, at present, are four in number. Three are 
thirteen feet by fifty-four inches, and one about the same 
length and forty-eight inches in diameter. There is also 
a pump for forcing water into the supply tanks through- 
out the building. Back of the engine-house is the 
chimney, or rather ventilating shaft. It is one hundred 
and thirty feet high, including the base which is of 
granite, twenty-two feet and six inches in diameter. The 
shaft is octagonal or star-shaped, fourteen feet in diame- 
ter, and is of brick, of which two hundred and fifty 
thousand were used in its construction. Within is the 
true chimney, of iron, and this heats the air in the shaft, 
causing a strong current through the air passages which 
lead into it from different parts of the building. The 
ventilation of the most distant parts of the south wing is 
by means of perpendicular shafts heated by steam radia- 
tors. 

THE HEATING 

of the entire building is accomplished by the use of 
steam radiaters, all of which are placed in the basement 
and enclosed in a brick passage way. This latter is sup- 
plied with fresh air through a duct connected with the 
"fan tower." It is intended to have large fans to force 
the air over the radiators. The hot-air registers in the 
extreme ends of the building, where the patients are kept 
closely confined, are placed in each sleeping room ; but, 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



in most parts of the building, they are in the central pas- 
sages, and the heated air passes into the sleeping-rooms 
through the transoms over the doors. The oldest air, 
which in winter is also the coldest, is drawn out through 
the ventilating registers at the base of each sleeping- 
room by small ducts connected with the large flues 
leading into the heated ventilating shafts, before men- 
tioned. The main duct constantly increases in size as 
it passes every additional smaller duct, until near the 
great chimney it is large enough for several men to walk 
in. The offices of the medical superintendent and stew- 
ard have fireplaces. 

THE LIGHTING 

of the building is now done with gas, which is manufac- 
tured from naptha, in a building erected for the purpose 
on the premises. The building and apparatus were 
completed in 1879, and during the winter gas was manu- 
factured from coal, but the results were unsatisfactory 
and the apparatus was changed so as to manufacture the 
gas from oil products. The result has been entirely sat- 
isfactory. 

WATER SUPPLY. 

An abundant supply of water is of the greatest impor- 
tance in an institution of this kind. A full supply is at 
the rate of about thirty gallons a day for each patient. 
This includes the amount used for drinking culinary pur- 
poses, baths, cleaning of building, and for laundry and 
heating apparatus. 

During the summer of iSSo, when water was abun- 
dant, and the weather very warm, about one thousand 
barrels a day were used, being about two barrels to each 
patient. 

The principal source of supply is a well, ten feet in 
diameter, from which water is brought by a siphon, a 
distance of about three thousand feet. During parts of 
the year this well would furnish more than is needed; 
while, during the dry season, the supply is insufificient. 
In order to utilize all the water, a storage cistern was 
built in 1880, with a diameter of eighty feet, and depth 
of about fourteen feet, and capable of holding about 
fourteen thousand barrels. Into this will be pumped 
daily all the water which the well will yield after supply- 
ing the building. 

There is a cylindrical cistern, seventy-four feet long by 
twelve feet in diameter, and holding about two thousand 
barrels; also another, holding about three hundred bar- 
rels. These receive water from the roof of the buildings. 

The water is distributed throughout the building by 
gravity from two iron tanks in the attic of the main 
centre building, which are filled by the pump in the en- 
gine house. These tanks are twelve and sixteen feet in 
diameter, respectively, and hold about si.xteen thousand 
gallons. Water is supplied to each bath-room and water- 
closet. 

GENERAL ARRANGEMENT, CONVENIENCES, ETC. 

Each ward is on a single floor, and comprises one 
longitudinal and one transverse section. The promenade, 
or general hall, in each ward, is lighted at the end and 
a "bay" at right angles with the end of the transverse 



sections. All dormitories and the dining-rooms have 
large windows. There is a dining-room in each ward, 
one above another. The cooked food is carried from 
the kitchen by a railroad through the basement to the 
dumb waiters, which connect with each dining room. 
Speaking tubes and bell wires lead from each dining- 
room to the foot of the dumb waiters; also bells from 
the superintendent's room to different parts of the build- 
ing. Each ward is provided with a dust flue and with a 
soiled-clothes-slide, leading to receptacles in the cellar. 

The water-closets are of the most approved patterns, 
and provided with downward ventilation through special 
flues. The bath-rooms are floored with marble, and 
provided with every convenience for supply and waste. 
All waste pipes lead to a six-inch drain pipe of cast-iron, 
laid below the cellar bottom, and provided with the 
necessary stench traps. The rooms are plainly but com- 
fortably furnished. Most of the dormitories are provided 
with plain iron bedsteads with woven wire mattresses and 
straw beds. The dining tables are set attractively with 
stone-china ware, casters and all the conveniences usual 
in good families. No wall paper is used about the 
building, and all walls and ceilings are hard finished. 

In short, every means has been used to insure the 
health and comfort of the inmates, and to economize in 
labor. 

APPROPRIATIONS. 

The amounts appropriated for the building and furnish- 
ing of the hospital up to the present time have been by 
the Twelfth assembly, $125,000; by the Thirteenth as- 
sembly, $165,000; by the Fourteenth assembly, $200,000; 
by the Fifteenth assembly, $93,900; by the Sixteenth as- 
sembly, $99,000; by the Seventeenth assembly, $48,000; 
by the Eighteenth assembly, about $33,000. 

DIETARY. 

The bill of fare is varied, by a regular system, every 
day in the week. Coffee is served every morning and 
tea at supper. Roast beef or corned beef, or beefsteak, 
are furnished once or twice daily, and fish on Fridays. 
White and Graham bread are always on the table, and 
butter at breakfast and tea. Potatoes are used daily, 
and cabbage, onions and beets often. All garden vege- 
tables are in abundance, in their season', and large quan- 
tities of tomatoes and green corn are kept for winter use, 
and pickles are put up. Dried fruits and green apples 
are used in abundance, atid berries in season. Hot grid- 
dle cakes are furnished for breakfast twice a week dur- 
ing winters, and hot corn-cake throughout the rest of the 
year. Crackers are kept on hand for those who prefer 
them. On Thanksgiving day the whole household has 
turkey for dinner, and either turkey or chicken on two 
other days in the year. Fresh strawberries and rasp- 
berries are served to all the patients several times in 
summer, and melons in their season. The sick are 
provided with various delicacies when they are unable to 
partake of the regular diet. 

In 1877, when the number of patients was three hun- 
dred and twenty-two, and of employes sixty, the one 
baker baked about twenty-six hundred loaves of bread 
per week, consuming about fourteen barrels of flour. 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



Two cooks and five assistants prepared the food; two 
men conveyed the food when prepared to the wards, at- 
tended to the storage-rooms, and assisted in the kitchen; 
one butcher dressed and prepared all the meat, took the 
entire care of all the stock cattle, hogs and poultry, and 
made the soap used in the laundry; two girls, with the 
help of one male patient, did the washing for the entire 
household ; three girls, aided by female patients, did 
the ironing; one carpenter did the repairing, making 
coffins, etc. ; three chambermaids and waiters do the 
housework in the main building, wait on table and at- 
tend door ; the gardener, with the help of patients, dur- 
ing the summer, cultivated fifteen acres of garden, be- 
sides attending to the flowers and yards; one man took 
care of the cows, fourteen in number, and was employed 
part of the day about the farm ; three teamsters were 
employed, two at farm work in summer and hauling coal 
in the winter, while one drives the hospital wagon, takes 
care of the barn, harness, carriages, etc. 

For that number of patients twenty-seven attendants, 
male and female, were employed in the wards, and a 
male and female watch. The attendants are under the 
immediate supervision of the male and female super- 
visors, who administer all medicines, and are responsible 
for the clothing of patients; and the male supervisor 
does the work of the apothecary. The seamstress does 
all the mending for male patients, makes new clothing, 
etc.; the engineer attends to the engine and the heating 
and cooking apparatus, and does all necessary repairing 
to steam and water pipes. Two firemen are under his 
immediate supervision. 

According to the last biennial report of the superin- 
tendent, dated October 2, 1880, the number of patients 
in the hospital was four hundred and fifty, of whom two 
hundred and twenty-seven were men and two hundred 
and twenty-three women. The whole number admitted 
since the opening of the hospital had been one thousand 
four hundred and thirty-three. Of this number there 
had been discharged, improved, three hundred and fifty- 
eight ; recovered, two hundred and forty-nine; unim- 
proved, one hundred and ninety-six; died, one hundred 
and eighty. 

The cost of caVe and board of patients has varied from 
sixteen dollars per month, in 1878, to ten dollars in 
1879, at which price it remained at the time of the re- 
port. The w^hole number of employes was eighty-three. 
The number of patients in May, 1881, was five hundred 
and twenty, and of employes, including officers, one 
hundred. 

RELIGIOUS SERVICES 

have been held in the chapel on Sunday afternoon, be- 
ing conducted by the pastors of the Presbyterian, Epis- 
copal, German Presbyterian and Methodist churches in 
turn. Attendance is voluntary, but is always good. 

AMUSEMENTS AND RECREATION. 

Concerts, reading, magic lantern exhibitions, etc., are 
continued during the fall and winter months. But the 
most popular amusement is the dance. The music is 
all furnished by the household. Two of the male at- 



tendants play the violin, one calls the figures, a female 
attendant plays the organ, and latterly one of the patients 
plays the bass viol, an instrument which he made during 
his stay at the hospital. Quite a number of newspapers 
have been contributed, and some books for the forma- 
tion of a library. 

OUT-OF-DOOR EXERCISE, ETC. 

Many of the male patients are at times employed on 
the farm and garden, in the various out-buildings, laun- 
dry, boiler-room, etc. It is not unusual for twenty female 
patients to be employed at one time in the kitchen, 
laundry and sewing-room. A large amount of ward 
work is done by the patients. Nearly all male patients 
go out of doors daily in summer when the weather is not 
wet. 

THE FARM. 

Of the three hundred and twenty acres belonging to 
the institution about thirty acres are occupied by the 
brickyard, one hundred and twenty are in corn, oats, 
potatoes, beans and garden stuff. The remainder is in 
meadow and pasture lands. The value of farm and 
garden products in 1878 was five thousand six hundred 
and forty-three dollars and forty-nine cents, and in 1879 
six thousand and seventy-seven dollars and seventy-eight 
cents. The wheat grown on the farm for the two years 
was valued at nine hundred and thirty-six dollars, and 
plants in the green-house at eighty-two dollars and eighty- 
five cents. 

The current expenses for the year ending October i, 
1879, were sixty-six thousand five hundred and fifty-six 
dollars and sixty-three cents. 

The farm stock and implements are valued at four 
thousand dollars, and the current expenses of the hos- 
pital for the year ending October, 1880, were seventy- 
one thousand and seventy-one dollars and ninety-two 
cents. 

OPENING OF THE HOSPITAL. 

The original board of trustees of the hospital con- 
sisted of the persons named as follows: 

Maturin G. Fisher, Farmersburgh, president; Rev. 
John M. Boggs, Independence, secretary; George W. 
Bemis, Independence, treasurer; E. G. Morgan, Fort 
Dodge; Mrs. Prudence A. Appleraan, Clermont; C. C. 
Parker, M. D., Fayette; T. VV. Fawcett, Chariton. 

The board of commissioners appointed to superintend 
the erection of the hospital, called the first meeting of 
the trustees to take place at Independence, July 10, 
1872. 

In pursuance of that call they met and organized the 
board and took the preliminary steps for organizing the 
local government of the institution. A circular was 
issued to the several institutions for the care and treat- 
ment of the insane in the United States and the British 
Provinces of North America, giving notice that this hos- 
pital was soon to be opened, and inviting applications 
and recommendations of some suitable person for the 
office of medical superintendent. The board adjourned 
to meet on the first Wednesday in September, the time 
fixed by law for the regular quarterly meeting. A few 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



days before this meeting the Rev. John M. Boggs was 
seized with a malignant fever and died on the day be- 
fore that appointed for the meeting. Without transact- 
ing any business the board, after passing resolutions of 
regret and condolence, adjourned to meet October 2d. 
The governor appointed Dr. John G. House to fill 
the vacancy. 

From a number of physicians highly recommended, 
Albert Reynolds, M. D., of Clinton, Iowa, was elected 
superintendent of the hospital. 

Dr. Reynolds, after having received a finished medical 
education, was employed for a considerable time as as- 
sistant physician in the Kings County Lunatic asylum, 
Flatbush, New York, under the superintendency of Dr. 
Edward R. Chapin, where he had an opportunity to pur- 
sue his studies and practice in the special department of 
his profession to which he was devoted. He afterwards 
travelled in Europe and visited the principal institutions 
for the insane in Great Britain and Ireland. 

Mr. George Josselyn, superintendent of construction, 
was elected steward, and his wife, Mrs. Anna B. Josselyn, 
was elected matron. Mr. and Mrs. Jossleyn were steward 
and matron of the hospital at Mount Pleasant for several 
years, and had ample e.xperience to qualify themselves 
for their respective offices. 

Dr. Willis Butterfield was elected assistant physician 
on the fourth of September, 1873. 

The hospital was opened for the reception of patients 
on the twenty-first day of April, 1873. 

The number of patients received up to December 13, 
1873, was one hundred and seventy-eight, and the num- 
ber remaining at that tiuie was one hundred and fifty- 
two. Only one had died. 

In December, 1874, Dr. Butterfield resigned his posi- 
tion, and Dr. G. H. Hill was appointed in his place. 

Dr. Reynolds' term of office expired on the first day 
of February, 1878, and he was reelected. 

Mr. and Mrs. Josselyn resigned their positions as 
steward and matron in May, 1877, and George B. 
Smeallie, and Mrs. Lucy M. Gray were appointed to 
their places. 

Dr. Henry G. Brainerd was appointed second assist- 
ant physician in May, 1878. 

Mr. Noyes Appleman succeeded Mr. Smeallie as 
steward in January, 1878, and has retained his position 
ever since. 

Mrs. Gray also retains the position of matron. 



CHAPTER XV. 

BUCHANAN COUNTY IN THE WAR OF THE REBELLION. 

The record of Buchanan county, Iowa, in that struggle 
for the life of the Nation, places her shoulder to shoulder 
with those who were foremost in throwing themselves into 
the deadly breach made in the union by fratricidal hands. 
The reverberations of the first cannon fired upon Fort 



Sumter had not yet died away among the hills and forests 
of the north and west, when a tidal wave of patriotic en- 
thusiasm, bearing high its majestic crest, swept with 
resistless force from the shores of the Atlantic to break 
with murmurs upon the coast of the Pacific. The baser 
fires of partisan and sectional strife which had cast a 
baleful light over the darkening horizon, and in which 
the enemies of the Government had a powerful ally, were 
quenched, no more to be rekindled, and in their stead 
the pure flame of patriotism burned with a clear and 
cheering light. 

Henceforth there was no wavering allegiance to the 
Government, no divided love for the Republic, but only 
the loftiest exhibitions of National pride and devotion, and 
the sternest resolve to defend the Nation's life and to 
"repel force by force." 

If it should be remembered that treason essayed to 
lift her hydra head, and even to hiss forth her hatred of 
the Government to whose leniency she was indebted for 
envenomed power, it can be answered that the antidote 
of fervid patriotism was so all pervading and so potent, 
that the malignity of these feeble manifestations, served 
only to bring out in more vivid contrast the steadfastness of 
the true patriot. 

To attempt to trace the causes which led to this 
memorable civil contest is far beyond the humbler task 
allotted to the local historian, whose narrower sphere 
limits him to a record of facts and events, in their chrono- 
logical order, leaving the higher walks of historic com- 
position to him — the philosopher, statesman, and historian 
in one — who in the fullness of time having gathered into 
one broad reservoir, these quiet rills flowing onward with 
the lapse of years, shall distil from their mingled volumes 
that wisdom which shall serve for the future guidance of 
the Nation. 

Some one gave an author credit for a "little of the true 
Shakespearean secret," in that he let his characters show 
themselves without obtruding unnecessary comment. 
To merit such a criticism might satisfy the most ambitious. 

The ample material found in the contemporary press 
of the county, during the four years' progress of the great 
Rebellion, with slight adaptation, will, therefore, be allowed 
to tell the story so honorable to Buchanan county pat- 
riots, whether at home or in the field. 

A few words will suffice to give to the home scenes of 
that wondrous drama the needed continuity. 

On the twelfth of April, 1861, a cannonade from Fort 
Moultrie, and the batteries erected by the confederate 
authorities in Charleston harbor, was opened upon Fort 
Sumter, which was still in possession of the United States, 
and under the command of Major Robert Anderson. On 
Sunday the fourteenth, the fort was surrendered. There 
was no longer room to doubt the intentions of the South 
— she was in open rebellion. The action of the United 
States Government was prompt. Immediately, under 
authority of the law of 1795, 8'^'i"g the President power 
to call out the militia in case of insurrection. President 
Lincoln issued a call for seventy-five thousand men. 
The effect of these events has already been described ; 
hut in the editurial columns of the Buchanan County 



I04 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



Guardian, in the number following the announcement of 
the fall of Fort Sumter, the editor, Mr. Rich, gives utter- . 
ance to the following graphic sentences. Thrown off at 
a white heat of patriotic ardor, they give a most vivid 
impression of that fine heroism which animated the loyal 
people of the north, and are well calculated to awaken 
in the young men of the present day — sons of the patriots 
of 1861, a like noble enthusiasm: 

We devote our paper, to the exclusion of everything else, to the details 
of the war news. The taking of Fort Sumter, however, distasteful to 
those who hoped never to see the stars and stripes trailing in the dust, has 
proven the salvation of the country. By it freedom has been saved. 
Through it men have had their patriotism and love of nationality 
aroused, and now, where the traitors fondly hoped to find divided 
counsels, political prejudices, obstructing elements, they see nothing 
but the greatest unanimity, the most intense love of the Republic, the 
most exalted exhibitions of national feeling, the sternest determination 
to repel the attack made upon the Government. . . . Almost as 
soon as the telegraph had conveyed the intelligence of the call of the 
country, the people had proffered an army twice as great, and means 
sufficient for its support for a campaign. Pennsylvania, alone, offers 
more than the contingent, and New York and Ohio will do as well. 
Our own governor leaves a sick bed, and travels to Davenport in order 
the sooner to obtain the proclamation, and offers to mortgage his 
property to obtain the money for the arming and equipping of the 
troops. Chicago alone proffers the quota of men for Illinois, and Illi- 
nois proffers nearly the whole number required from the Union. Who 
dares to say, after this, that money-getting has swallowed up the loftier 
aspirations of our people? 

The contest can have but one end. With us is the power and with 
us is the right. The issue is emphatically slavery or freedom. The 
question is as stated by the vice-president of the southern confederacy 
— whether we shall live under the constitution of our fathers, based on 
the idea of liberty, or whether we shall exist under that of Jefferson 
Davis and his coadjutors, founded on the doctrines of slavery. 
Whether we shall still hold to the vital principle of democracy, the 
right of the majority to rule, or whether we sh.all submit to the des- 
potic doctrine of the secessionists, that the minority, the few are to 
govern. Northern freemen will soon give their answer — will soon set- 
tle the question in favor of liberty and the majority. 

We can glorify the result at Sumter, in view of the grand develop" 
ment of patriotism which it has elicited. With the sentiments of the 
civilized world against them ; with no credit, and the great champion 
of repudiation at the head of their government , with no navy; with a 
scarcity of provisions ; with but few if any manufactories of arms ; 
with a servile population of several millions to be kept in check; 
with a disparity of men and resources ; with large numbers of union 
men among them ; with nothing to depend upon but the bravery of 
their people — when met as they are by a people equally brave, how 
can the result be other than against the traitors? It must be against 
them. They may by their boldness and promptness meet with tem- 
porary success : but with the north fully in the field against them, they 
must go down. They must fall before northern power, northern bra- 
very, and northern love of freedom. God grant that with their fall, 
the villainous system of human slavery may be dashed to atoms. • • 
• In to-day's paper (April 30), will be found a call for the formation 
of a company of volunteers. Although there seems to be but a poor 
prospect of being called into active service immediately, (but one regi- 
ment being called for from the State and four already offering), it is 
highly probable that additional quotas will yet be drawn from the 
States, when, if organized and ready, the company may be accepted. 
It is plainly the duty of every lover of his country to prepare himself 
for the conflict. The question is one of life or death for the Republic, 
for free institutions ; and every friend of the Republican idea, every 
lover of the principles of free government, should prepare to battle on 
the side of his imperilled country. It is a glorious cause in which to be 
enlisted — the cause of justice and right — the cause of democracy 
against aristocracy — the cause of the masses against an oligarchy — the 
cause of freedom against slavery. It is the old battle of the Revolu- 
tion over again. Mothers never gave sons to a nobler cause ; husbands 
never separated from wives to go forth to do nobler battle ; hands 
never grasped swords, nor voice shouted battlecry in a more holy fight 
than this on the part of the Government. Let us emulate the spirit of 
1776, and, oblivious of self, give onrselves to our country — to human- 



ity. Let us be ready when the next call comes. There are men 
enough in Buchanan county willing to go where there is need of them. 
Let us be ready to report when that need is indicated. We can organ- 
ize, get commissioned, become familiar with the necessary drill, arm 
and equip ready for instantaneous movement. If we are needed, well; 
the steps taken will not be unprofitable. If we are needed we shall 
have all the advantage of preparation. Let us make everything sub- 
ordinate to our duty to our country. We are all heartily for the Gov- 
ernment ; let there be no delay in making a public indication of this 
feeling. 

These are the fervid utterances which shall give to the 
youth of Buchanan county in 1881, the key by which 
they may translate the heroism which moved their fathers 
and elder brothers, into the prosaic, if not sordid lan- 
guage, now current. Or better, the glowing words may 
so stir their hearts as to lift them into an atmosphere in 
which the language of that heroic, and now historical 
time, is the vernacular. Thus inspired, they will be pre- 
pared to preserve inviolate that which has been, first pur- 
chased, and again redeemed, at so great a price. 

C.\LL FOR VOLUNTEER REGIMENTS. 

In the meantime telegraphic news from the east, 
showed that troops were in motion from all points tow- 
ards Washington, and that so simultaneous had been the 
rush to arms, at the call of the President, that no doubt 
was entertained that the whole number of troops called 
for was already at the disposal of the Government, and 
that an equal or larger number stood ready to march, 
at the first intimation of their acceptance. 

Governor Kirkwood, of Iowa, was not, however, idle. 
Called from a sickbed, as he stated to an enthusiastic 
meeting in Davenport, he had left Des Moines, which 
was, as yet, without railroad communication, and had 
hastened forward to meet the dispatches of the Presi- 
dent at that point, that he might act without loss of time. 
Realizing, with all thoughtful men, that "the end was 
not yet," he inaugurated, as soon as he was clothed 
with the proper authority, the most energetic means for 
the raising and equipment of troops. The citizens, not 
only of Independence, but of all portions of the county, 
responded with alacrity to the call for enlistments. The 
patriotic language already quoted from the columns of 
the county press, was the universal voice, without re- 
spect to name or party. 

An impromptu gathering at the court house, on Satur- 
day evening, the twentieth of April, was pervaded with 
such unanimity and sternness of feeling against the plot- 
ters of treason, as could not fail to culminate, when the 
hour arrived, in men and means for the defence of the 
Government. Party spirit seemed to be annihilated, and 
Democrats and Republicans vied with each other in ex- 
pressions of devotion to the Government, and in male- 
dictions upon the heads of the traitors who had plunged 
the country into a civil war. 

In order to obtain a fuller expression of feeling and 
definiteness of action, a meeting was called for the fol- 
lowing Monday evening. At the time appointed, with- 
out other than verbal notice, the large hall of the court 
house was again crowded with a calm, earnest and de- 
termined body of citizens, many ladies also being pres- 
ent. Alfred Ingalls, esq., was called to the chair, and 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



105 



Messrs. Rich and Barnliart appointed secretaries. On 
motion of Mr. Latiirop, a committee of five was ap- 
pointed to prepare resolutions, consisting of the follow- 
ing gentlemen: C. E. Lathrop, W. S. Marshall, Edward 
Brewer, D. T. Randall and Lyman Hathaway. While 
the coi.imittee were out, Messrs. Hord and Lee were 
called upon, and made strong, earnest union speeches — 
urging the claims of the Government upon all loyal citi- 
zens, and the necessity of punishing treason by the over- 
throw of the traitors. The following resolutions were 
reported and unanimously adopted. 

Whereas, The f.ict has been announced by proclamation of the 
President of the United States, that rebeUion exists in a portion of our 
country, and that the flag of our Union has been fired upon by the 
constituted authorities of the so-called Southern Confederacy; and 

Where.as, The President has called upon the luyal Stales for troops 
to put down said rebellion and assert the supremacy of tlie laws, 
therefore 

Resolved, That we, the citizens of Independence, without respect to 
party distinction, will rally as one man to the support of our rightfully 
constituted Government, and pledge ourselves to respond to any call 
that may be made upon us, either for men or money, to the full extent 
of our ability. 

Resolved, That we regard all who refuse to stand by the Government 
in the present crisis as unworthy of the name of American citizens, and 
as enemies of the liberties of mankind. 

Resolved, That, come what may, we will never give up that noble 
sentiment of the patriot Jackson: "The American Union — it must and 
shall be preserved." 

Resolved, That we approve of the policy of the national administra- 
tion in the present crisis, believing that the President has acted toward 
the southern rebels in a just, magnanimous and conciliatory manner, 
and has afforded by his conduct no pretext for their recent warlike 
preparation and action; and we will stand by our President while he 
continues to act in the strict line of his constitutional duty. 

Such pledges made by such a body of men, calm, 
earnest and determined, were equivalent to the enroll- 
ment of every able-bodied man, taking upon himself 
such serious obligation, and was doubtless so considered 
by every one actively concerned in this public expression 
of allegiance to the Government of the United States. 

Speeches breathing the utmost devotion to the Union, 
and the most earnest determination to support the Gov- 
ernment in its struggle to maintain that Union inviolate, 
followed the adoption of the resolutions from Messrs. 
Donnan, Marshall, Lake, Jones, Pratt, Randall, Bryant, 
Sampson and Abbott. Only one dissonant utterance 
from a citizen grated upon the harmony of this patriotic 
gathering, which, in its manly, outspoken loyalty, con- 
ferred lasting honor upon Buchanan county. One of the 
speakers called upon took' a narrow, partisan view of the 
situation, and spoke of the call of the President for 
troops as an appeal from Republicans for assistance from 
an opposing political party; and, though he counseled 
such assistance, it was upon the ground that only in so 
doing could they hope for political ascendency in the 
time to come. It is, perhaps, needless to say that these 
sentiments had few sympathizers, and the charitable 
opinion expressed by the editor of the Guardian, "that 
the speaker had done himself great injustice, his patriot- 
ism being infinitely deeper and broader than his party 
feeling," suggests the added charity of withholding his 
name from this record of the war, and those who sup- 
ported it. 

A Mr. Henry, of St. Louis, who was called out at the 



suggestion of a friend, received hearty applause when he 
said that he was with the people of Iowa for the Union. 
But when he proceeded to say that he and the Union 
men of the border States would stand as a wall between 
the contending parties, saying to the Government you 
shall not cross our territory to attack the South, and to 
the South you shall not cross our line to attack the 
North, his prestige was gone. The hollowness of such 
Union sentiments had only a few days before been ex- 
emplified in the killing of Federal soldiers in Baltimore, 
on their way to defend the Federal capital, and the true 
patriots of Buchanan would have no more of it. Some 
sharp catechising showed the speaker that he could have 
little hope of pleasing himself again en rapport with his 
audience, and his address did not progress beyond the 
exordium. 

Mr. Sampson, pastor of the Methodist church, declared 
his readiness to inarch in the ranks if necessary, thus 
showing that he would not urge others to a duty from 
which he considered himself excused. At a late hour 
the meeting adjourned, after adopting a motion made by 
Mr. Donnan, for the appointment of committees to or- 
ganize companies and raise the funds that should be re- 
quired for their outfit. The meeting had fully developed 
the fact that but one sentiment existed in the community 
— that of unflinching loyalty to the Government; and it 
had likewise demonstrated that, should occasion require, 
a company of volunteers for active service could be 
raised in a few hours, and another be left at home as a 
guard, or ready as a contingent. A meeting lor those 
desirous of forming a company whose services should be 
offered at once to the governor, was appointed for Wed- 
nesday evening, and the citizens' meeting was adjourned 
subject to the call of the chairman. 

INCIDENTS SHOWING THE STATE OF THE PUBLIC MIND. 

At the first telegraphic dispatch, announcing the 
opening of the cannonade upon Sumter, the fine flag be- 
longing to the citizens of the place was raised upon the 
flag-staff near the court house. As the folds of the Na- 
tional emblem were lifted by the breeze, and the glorious 
stars and stripes shone out, the wildest cheers went up 
from the assembled crowd — given as heartily by Demo- 
crats as Republicans, and again and again renewed. 
Flags were also raised and kept flying from the offices of 
both Guardian and Civilian, nor did one differ to the 
other in the warmth of their utterances for the Govern- 
ment and the Union. On Saturday, April 14th, while a 
case was on trial in the district court, and while the jury 
was attentively listening to the examination of witnesses, 
some one brought into the court room a Dubuque paper 
containing the first account of the fight at Charleston. 
The news flashed around the court room instantaneously, 
and created great excitement. Lawyers, witnesses and 
juryman caught the infection, and it was found impos- 
sible to proceed with the case, until all had heard and 
discussed the news. The jury would give no attention 
until the "war news" had been read to them, which was 
at length done by order of the court, a suspension of 
proceedings having been ordered-for that purpose. . 



io6 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



The case of South Carolina and Secession, thus un- 
ceremoniously brought before the jury, was of a char- 
acter to require no cross-examination of witnesses, no 
special pleading of lawyers. The crime stood confessed, 
and the judgment was quick, and will never be reversed. 

THE TWENTY DAYS OF GR.^CE EXPIRED. 

Under date of May 7th, appeared another column of 
terse sentences from the vigorous pen of Mr. Rich. Its 
succinct summing up and grouping of the elements 
which then constituted the "situation," both for the 
Government and the people, make it a paper which the 
citizens of the county may well be proud to transmit to 
her latest posterity: 

On Sunday night last, May 5th, the twenty days which Mr. Lincoln, 
in his proclamation, gave the rebels to disperse expired, and from now 
onward nothing will intervene to prevent the Government from push- 
ing its movements actively against the traitors. F. W. Seward, As- 
sistant Secretary of State, telegraphed to New York, in refutation of 
the report that an armistice had been asked by the Government, that 
that sort of thing ended on the fourth of March; and we may there- 
fore conclude, both from thut and Mr. Lincoln's reply to the Maryland 
deputations, that the administration is fully resolved to give action to 
the determined sentiment of the whole north, that this infamous Re- 
bellion must not be compromised with, but must be crushed out — 
crushed out so effectively that the men and the system that for long 
years have kept the country in foment, shall never thereafter be able to 
create a disturbance. The country demands no half-way measures. 
It demands of the Government no longer conservative or defensive 
efforts, but calls for a forward, aggressive movement. It demands not 
only that Washington may be made secure, but that every fort, arsenal 
and Government building in the slave States, stolen by the secessionists 
shall be retaken. . . . Demands that no thought of re- 
construction, no proposition of division shall be entertained, but that 
the Union and the constitution, as they have existed, shall be pre- 
served intact. Since they have been forced to fight, they demand that 
the question in issue shall be settled forever — that slavery shall no 
longer have the power to convulse the country as it has done hereto- 
fore. 

This firm determined stand of the people and the administration, 
has had its clear effect in the border Stales. Maryland, for a time 
overcome by a bold mob, has received a strengthening of b.ickbone by 
this evidence of the power and will of the great north. Again the 
American flag floats throughout all her borders. Again her people in 
mass meetings declare their fidelity to the Union, and her legislature is 
forced to frown down the idea of secession. The cry of northern volun- 
teers, " Through Baltimore, or over it," has made that city almost as 
patriotic as could be desired. Western Virginia stands boldly up, un- 
der the inspiration of northern firmness, and declares that she will 
battle to the death with the secessionists of the eastern part of the 
State. Missouri, also, as well as Kentucky and Tennessee, dare not 
declare against the old flag, in view of the glorious uprising of the free 
States, and the stern determination to drive treason from the land. 
Treacherous as they were and are still willing to prove with secession 
triumphant: with a northern army on their borders, and the free States 
united and determined, they have found it inexpedient to secede, and 
will probably so continue to find it. Virginia, that demanded so much 
consideration, that claimed so much power, has gone over to the seced- 
ers, and this movement has had no other effect than to show how weak 
she reallv was, with all her vaporing. Her going has detracted noth- 
ing from the strength of the Government, and added nothing to the 
seceders. Her power is now forever broken, because all see that the 
influence she claimed in the confederacy she could not have possessed. 
Her pretensions were a mere bubble, and she herself has pricked it. 

We hope, then, thai the Govenmient will declare, as the people have 
done, a firm determination to permit no division of our territory, no 
disruption of the Union. 

With that declaration as the b.asis of its campaigns the free States 
will make short work of this Rebellion. 

ENTHUSIASM EVERYWHERE. 

Nor were these Union demonstrations by any means 
confined to the country seat. Union meetings were be- 



ing held at various points in the county. Quasqueton, 
the pioneer town of old Buchanan, was true to her early 
record as a place of undaunted enterprise. Volunteers 
were offering daily at that place and at Littleton, and it 
was soon apparent that the entire county was a unit for 
the defence of the Government. Everywhere offers of 
money for the support of the families of those volun- 
teering in the defence of the right, testified to the earnest 
patriotism which swayed the public mind. 

An enthusiastic meeting of the citizens of Littleton 
and vicinity was held early in May, with the avowed ob- 
ject to organize a military company, whose services should 
be offered to the governor as soon as the organization 
was complete. Many ladies were present, giving con- 
vincing evidence, by their warm interest in the great 
questions before the people, that they were worthy daugh- 
ters of the heroic mothers of the Revolution. The 
meeting was addressed by Messrs. Lewis, Leavitt, and 
Hord, of Independence; and by Reed, Muncy, and San- 
ford and others of Littleton. Thayer's band, from Barc- 
lay, was present, and the music of the spirit-stirring fife 
and drum, as they struck up "Hail, Columbia," "Yankee 
Doodle," or the "Star Spangled Banner," aroused the 
pattiotism of the people to fever heat. 

Another meeting was appointed to be held on the 
following Saturday evening at Lester. No town, village, 
or hamlet, was destitute of a flag, and at the county seat, 
on days of especial interest, such as the reception of war 
news, or the announcement of Government measures, 
printing offices and business blocks displayed the stars 
and stripes in such profusion as to suggest the thought 
that, unconsciously, the loyal heart of the north was 
striving by a double meed of allegiance to atone for the 
indignities offered elsewhere to this sacred emblem of 
the nations power and majesty. 

A LETTER FROM THE HON. WILLIAM VANDEVER. 

The following letter of instructions appeared in the 

Guardian of May 7, 1861: 

Dubuque, May 4, 1861. 
J. Rich, esq., 

Dear Sir, — . . Companies when formed should elect officers 
— one captain, two lieutenants, etc. The muster roll should then be 
forwarded to Adjutant General Bowen, who will see that the officers 
are commissioned. It is the desire of the governor that such companies 
should be formed all over the State, and placed in such a state of prep- 
aration — without interrupting the usual avocations of the men — as will 
enable them to respond promptly to any call which may hereafter be 
made for additional troops. The State will distribute arms as fast as 
they are received from the General Government. It would be well if 
men would furnish themselves with some simple style of uniform, say a 
gray tweed flannel blouse and pants. The legislature, at its session 
(extra, which met May 15, 1861), will undoubtedly make some provision 
for arming and equipping several regiments. Companies now formed 
will have a preference in being called into the service. 
Preparation is what is needed, for any exigency that may arise here- 
after. I trust that in the next regiment required from the State, some 
of our northern companies will be preferred over those from the river 

towns. 

Truly yours, 

William Vandever. 
THE SECOND CALL. 

The second call for troops was received here as every- 
where with undisguised satisfaction. The fact that no 
requisition was to be made upon the several States for 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



107 



the forty thousand volunteers, for three years service, was 
commented upon as favorable to Iowa troops — all regi- 
ments offering being accepted until tiie full number was 
enrolled. 

The first Independence military company was an- 
nounced as on a firm footing, in the same issue as the 
second call of the Government for eighty-three thousand 
additional troops, May 14th. The company was organized 
with a view to active service, the oath being administered 
to each recruit as he presented himself Quasqueton 
was reported at the same date to have enrolled a home 
guard of nearly one hundred members, and to have com- 
menced drilling with an earnestness of spirit which 
showed that their ultimate aim was a more serious one 
than cannonading the effigies of the enemies of their 
country. 

On June i, 1861, the Independence guards, having 
completed their roll, held a meeting for the election of 
officers, which resulted as follows: D. S. Lee, captain; 
G. C. Jordan, first lieutenant; W. S. Marshall, second 
lieutenant; C. L. \Vhite, first sergeant; R. S. Marlin, 
second sergeant; T. Blonden, third sergeant; J. D. C. 
Garrison, fourth sergeant; C. J. Reed, first corporal; E. 
A.Woodruff, second corporal; J. H. McWilliams, third 
corporal; O. J. M. Fuller, fourth corporal. 

The company being fully organized. Captain Lee went 
to Iowa City to tender their services to the governor, 
with the expectation of being accepted and sent inmie- 
diatcly into active service. Meanwh le squad drills were 
held at Morse's hall every evening : and on the race 
ground, on the west side of the river, every morning be- 
tween 4 and 6 o'clock; thus rising up early, and late 
taking rest, that they might honor themselves and the 
county which they represented; but, most of all, the 
sacred cause which, taking their lives in their hands, they 
were to go forth to defend. 

LETTER FROM THE GOVERNOR. 

Though assured of their acceptance, the guards were 
not assigned to a regiment until the last week in June- 
as appears from the following letter of Governor Kirk- 
wood : 

Executive Office, Iowa City, ) 
June 25, 1861. J 

Captain Lee, Independence Guards. 

Dear Sir ; — Your company is assigned to the Fifteenth Regiment 
Iowa volunteers, and under the recent call of the war department will 
be sent to rendezvous at Burlington as soon as arrangements can be 
perfected — perhaps next week. Fill up your ranks to not less than 
•ighty-four, nor more than one hundred and one men. If you can 
avoid it, do not go into quarters at home, as I have no money, and 
shall have none till the State bonds are sold. 

If you cannot possibly avoid going into quarters, do so, but not 
otherwise. 

As soon as matters are arranged, I will send you orders to march to 
Burlington. 

I enclose a printed circular, and call your special attention to that 
part relating to clothing, and hope you may be able to conform to the 
suggestions therein contained. 

Please answer immediately. 

Very respectfully, 

Samuel J. Kirkwood. 

The following extract from the circular comprises the 

suggestions in regard to the outfit of volunteers: 

It is very desirable that, in case you be called into active ser\'ice, you 



have a change of clothing. I therefore suggest that your men procure 
for themselves, with the aid of your neighbors, the following articles 
for each man; A gray or black felt hat — gray is the best; two good 
gray flannel shirts; one pair stout gray satinet or cloth pants, lined, 
with black stripe up the seam; two pair socks, and one pair stout, well 
made brogans or laced boots. These articles will answer, with a good 
blanket, which will be furnished by the State, when you may be called 
out, until a uniform can be furnished by the State, and will continue to 
answer for a fatigue dress, or a change in case of being caught in the 
rain — and thus conduce to health. The State cannot furnish these 
things, but I hope your neighbors will aid you in procuring them. In 
case you shall not be called out, they can be worn as ordinary dress, 
and thus no loss will be sustained by the men. 

The following call takes its place naturally, as the re- 
sult of the publication of the governor's letter and cir- 
cular : 

PUBLIC MEETI.NG 

As the Independence guards have been accepted by the governor of 
this State to form part of the Fifth Regiment of Iowa volunteers, and 
as the governor has recommended the people of the county to give the 
cmopany a temporary uniform, which may hereafter be used as a 
fatigue dress, and conduce to the comfort of the men; and as it will 
also be necessary to provide for the keeping of many of the members 
of the company until they are ordered to the rendezvous at Burlington, 
we therefore invite the people of Buchanan county to meet at the court 
house, in Independence, on Tuesday evening, July 2d, to take steps to 
provide the necessary means for these purposes. 

H. S. Chase, J. Rich, 

C. P. HiNSLEY, J. S. Woodward, 
James Jamison, L. Moore, 

M. GlLLLTT, C. F. LEAVITT, 

W. Chandler, O. H. P. Roszell, 

D. S. Dunham, E. W. Purdy, 
T. B. BuLLENE, J. D. Myers, 
A. INCALLS, ]ed Lake. 

The Guardian had a generous tribute to the " boys,'' 
and spoke out in regard to their claims upon those who 
were to remain at home. It spoke also with the utmost 
positiveness as to this company being the only one to 
go from the county, and used it as an argument for en- 
listment, with all who wished to enter the service of the 
Government. A later enlistment would compel citizens 
of Buchanan to enter a company from some other lo- 
cality. 

PREPARING FOR THE START. 

July 2d the announcement is made that Captain Lee 
had been notified by Colonel Worthington (of the Fil'th) 
that the guards would probably receive orders to move to 
the rendezvous on the following Monday. And now the 
notes of preparation were heard on every hand, and 
everybody seemed anxious not only to send the brave 
fellows into the field as comfortably equipped as possible, 
but with hearts so warmed by kindness and attention, as 
to cheer them on to noble deeds for friends and for 
country. 

As the result of the meeting held in response to the 
call, which we have given above, and of subscriptions 
made subsequent to the meeting, four hundred dollars 
had been raised; and this, with contributions of mate- 
rial, by merchants and others, had accumulated a mass of 
goods at the company's depot in Morse's hall which 
looked sufficiently formidable, when it was remembered 
that but one short week remained in which to fashion it 
into garments required by the gallant men, who were so 
soon to stand as the defenders of a beneficent Govern- 
ment, assailed by those of its own household. 



io8 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



But where was the corps which could be detailed to 
make an advance movement in the face of this breast- 
work of satinet? And where was the money to pay 
them if they were found? It was evident that the War 
Department had neglected to provide a much needed 
pioneer force, and therefore it turned out, that in Bu- 
chanan county, the honor of being first "called into 
active service" fell to the ladies. It is but a simple act 
of justice to the heroines of the hour, whose names 
should grace the page of history, that a full company, 
fully equipped, reported at the rendezvous, at the first 
call of their country. The second day, Saturday, fully 
one hundred and fifty were in attendance. Sunday was 
given to the "work of mercy and necessity," and with an 
industry, zeal, and even enthusiasm which knew no flag- 
ging, the work went on until the seventh day, when at 
evening, the entire company had been provided with 
uniforms — an aggregate of nearly three hundred gar- 
ments. In addition, each soldier had received from the 
ladies a needle case containing a pair of scissors and a 
full supply of pins, needles, buttons, and thread. As 
this was the evening of their last day "at home," a 
social meeting was improvised at the court house, to 
give the citizens and the citizen soldiers the opportunity 
for a friendly and farewell greeting. 

Mr. Leavitt presided at this interesting gathering, and 
words were spoken which, it may be hoped, cheered the 
hearts of those brave men in many a trying hour of the 
future. Captain Lee was called out, and in a few ear- 
nest words acknowledged the obligation of himself and 
his men, for the many kindnesses and services received 
at the hands of the people of tlie county at large, and 
from the citizens and ladies of Independence. 

THE DEPARTURE. 

The departure of the Guards on the following morn- 
ing, Friday, June 12th, is best described by the pen of 
the editor, an eye witness of the scene. 

Friday, the day of departure, came, and a sad day it was to most of 
us. In the morning, at nine o'clock, the guards drew up in front of 
the Montour House, and were each presented with a Testament by a 
committee of the Buchanan County Bible society. Rev. Mr. Boggs 
made a presentation address, and was followed in a stirring speech by 
Rev. Mr. Fulton. Rev. Mr. Samson, at the close of the addresses, 
made an excellent prayer. The boys were then dismissed, that they 
might take leave of their friends. The town was crowded with people 
from the country, who had come to give a parting greeting to the 
noble fellows. Mothers, wives, daughters, sisters, clung to sons, hus- 
bands, fathers, and brothers, with the tearful energy of a fearing affec- 
tion. On nearly every countenance were traces of tears, and everyone 
seemed too full for words. Hands were shaken in silence, the lips 
refusing to speak the blessings that each knew were in the heart. A 
more solemn occasion we never witnessed, and hope never again to 
witness a similar one. 

But the time for departure came, and at the tap of the drum the 
boys fell into line. The Independence band led the way to the depot, 
the Benton company followed, and our own noble fellows brought up 
the rear, surrounded by many hundreds of friends, of both se.ves. At 
the depot, while waiting for the cars, another scene of leave-taking 
occurred. All along the line friends and relatives were clinging, with 
tears and sobs, to the soldiers, while they, in their turn no less affected, 
were trying to impart comfort to the objects of affection so soon to be 
left behind. Pledges of love and friendship were exchanged, and 
nearly every man in the ranks carried a pretty bouquet of flowers. The 
boys pronounced this leave-taking more unmanning than marching up 
to the mouth of cannon. 

But gradually these manifestations of feeling were mastered, and 



before the train arrived they took to cheering " The Vinton Boys," 
"Soldiers' Wives and Sweethearts," etc.; and the great crowd sur- 
rounding the depot, several thousand in number, responded with 
cheers for the soldiers. But the friendly arrival of the train cut short 
this prolonged tension upon the feelings of the brave fellows and their 
friends. The cars brought the Hardin county company, and the Ben- 
ton and Buchanan boys were soon on board. The whistle sounded, 
and amid the firing of cannon, the waving of handkerchiefs, and the 
wildest cheers from both soldiers and friends, the train moved off 
taking away many courageous hearts and leaving thousands of heavy 
ones, but equally courageous, behind. 

At Manchester a splendid dinner was given to tlie soldiers by the 
people of the town. We are assured that it has never been surpassed 
in the State. This reflects the greatest credit upon the people of that 
enterprising town, and entitles them to the heartiest benedictions of the 
soldiers and their friends. 

A reluctance to transcribe the closing paragraph of 
this interesting article has given way before the convic- 
tion that the indignation expressed in it is, under all the 
circumstances, most generous and natural. That the 
brave men, who were leaving all that the heart holds 
dear, save the love of country, should have met with 
anything like an indignity, and that, too, in the presence 
of their weeping wives and mothers, fathers and brothers, 
was too much to be borne with equanimity. The good 
soldier must indeed be inured to hardness, but stern 
necessity soon enough brings the inevitable discipline, 
and there could be no excuse for such unseemly haste in 
anticipating it, and honor the -warmth of sympathy which 
dictated the outspoken reproof: 

We cannot refrain from a word of animadversion upon the course of 
the superintendent of the Dubuque & Sioux City railroad. With sev- 
eral new passenger cars at the command of the company at Dubuque, 
and with an empty one on the train. Superintendent Young stowed a 
part of our company and all of the Vinton company in open cattle 
cars, rigged with rough board seats, wheie the hot sun could play upon 
them and clouds of dust cover them. It does not suftice that Conductor 
Cawley, to whom all praise is due for his attention to the boys, insisted 
upon placing the empty passenger car at their disposal after they 
reached Manchester. The fact is patent that Mr. Young, with abun- 
dant means at his command to secure the comfort of the soldiers, in- 
sisted upon treating them as cattle, forcing them to ride in cars that 
were in every way comfortless. Such a niggardly spirit is worthy of 
all reprobation, and receives it from the friends of the volunteers in this 
county. Superintendent Young has neither done himself nor his com- 
pany any good by this treatment of our friends. 

MUSTER ROLL, "INDEPENDENCE GUARDS," FIFTH REGI- 
MENT, IOWA VOLUNTEERS. 
COMMISSIONED OFFICERS. 

Captain Daniel L. Lee. 
First Lieutenant George C. Jordan. 
First Lieutenant Alexander B. Lewis. 
Second Lieutenant William S. Marshall. 
Second Lieutenant Carlos L. White. 

NON-COMMISsIONED OFFICERS. 

First Seargeant Carlos L. White. 
First .Sergeant Thomas Blonden. 
Second Sergeant Kelsey S. Martin. 
Second Sergeant William S. Peck. 
Third Sergeant Thomas Blonden. 
Third Sergeant Charles F. Putney. 
Fourth Sergeant Alexander B. Lewis. 
Fourth Sergeant William Bunce. 
Fifth Sergeant William S. Peck. 
Fifth Sergeant Jerry Rea. 
First Corporal Cyrus J. Reed. 
First Corporal Joseph H. McWilliams. 
Second Corporal Eugene A. Woodruff. 
Second corporal, Julius F. Phelps. 
Third Corporal Joseph H. McWilliams. 
Third Corporal Frank Noble. 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



109 



Fourth Corporal Oscar J. M. Fuller. 

Forth Corporal Simon L. Shultz. 

Fifth Corporal Julius F. Phelps. 

Fifth Corporal John B. Oliver. 

Sixth Corporal Frank Noble. 

Si.vth Corporal William Codling. 

Seventh Corporal Leroy F. Funk. 

Seventh Corporal John Jarrett. 

Eighth Corporal Charles F. Putney. 

Eighth Corporal Calvin C. Paltee. 

Musician William H. Brown. 

Wagoner Henry McQueen. 

PRIVATES. 

David .Allen, Samuel C. Allison, Joseph Anson, Madison J. Bryan, 
William Bunce, James Bell, William W. Baughman, David H. Bill, 
Charles F. B.iiley, William H. H. Coats, Solomon J. Clark, William 
S. Cushman, Elijah Chiltester. William Crawford, William Codling, 
A. M. Conkling. John A. Davis, Thomas Donnelly, Almon [. Francis, 
Albert R. Goss, George Gay, J ames B. Gaylord, John C. Geyer, James 
Harrigan, Martin Hallock, Morgan Holmes, Sanford Hamilton, John 
Jarrett. William F. Johnson, Adin B. Kinsel, Wilbur F. Kellogg, 
Castleton Latherman, Simmeus Mead, John W. Marlin, Charles 
Marsh, Charles A. Marsh, Rev. J. W. McWilliams, .\lexander Mun- 
ger, James G. McKenzie, John B. Oliver, Levi Overhulser, Noah 
Porter, William R. Peters, Calvin C. Pattee, Peter Putnam, Thomas 
C. Puckett, James C. Perham, William Payne, Thomas Robison, 
Samnel -A. Reed, James Rice, John Richards, Edward Roderick, Jerry 
Rea, Moses H. Robinson, Jackson Rice, George Sellars, John Shay, 
James Stack, Rufus W. SafFord, Oliver Saflford, George B. Sitler, 
Simon L. Shultz. Heman Sprague, William H. Sayer, Henry W. 
Snider, Hola C. Sprague, John Snider, John H. Towle, Alden R. 
Wheeler, James B. Wolf, Cres. W. Waggoner, Ormar R. Whitman, 
Richard Whait, Nathan Wheeler, Rynear M. Walker, Weelley Wil- 
liams. M.ihlon Williams, Stephen R. Washborn. -Additional enlist- 
ments up to January i, 1863, John C. (or W.) McCray. 

Captain Lee's company (company E, of the Fifth regi- 
ment of the volunteer infantry) was enrolled in the 
county of Buchanan, ordered into quarters by the gov- 
ernor of the State June 29, 186 1, and mustered into the 
service of the United States by Lieutenant Alexander 
Chambers, United States Army, at Burlington July 15, 
1 86 1, under the liroclamation of the President of the 
United States, bearing date May 3, 1861. From the 
place where the company was enrolled to its rendezvous 
is three hundred miles. 

A poetic tribute to the guards appeared in the same 
number of the GuarJian as that containing the above 
chronicle of their departure; and, though without a name, 
it honors both the writer and those to whom it is in- 
scribed. It would, therefore, be a manifest wrong done 
to "Our Brave Boys of the West" if it were not trans- 
mitted as one of the fragrant blossoms which make up 
the chaplet offered them by a grateful people. 

THE INDEPENDENXE GU.\RDS. 

What golden glory doth the sun 

Flood over all the west, 
A farewell greeting to the earth. 

And blossoms on her breast. 
The cricket chirps its evening tune, 

Its homely, cheery note, 
And one last song is trilling forth 

From out the robin's throat. 
But oh, upon our aching hearts, 

Earth's music sadly swells; 
W'c hear through all her perfect choir 

The echo of farewells. 

We've seen our loyal men go forth 

To plant the flag, wiiich waves 
Triumphant over Northern arms, 

Upon the traitors' graves. 



W^e know whose hands shall bear unsoiled 

The eagle's golden crest; 
Whose hands uphold the stripes and stars— 

Our brave boys of the west. 
Give cheers for our devoted band, 

Our men of words and actions; 
.And groans, aye three times three, for those 

Who bear the flag of factions. 

May he who counts the ocean's sands. 

And marks the sparrow's fall, 
Spredd His almighty, loving hands, 

In mercy, over all. 
And nerve their arms to strike aright. 

Such hearts have never f.iiled; 
They'll teach the world how men can fight 

When freedom is assailed. 
Where're they .stand in battlefield. 

With mingled pride and tears, 
Our hearts shall follow on to pray 

God bless our volunteers. 
Friday, June 12, 1861. 

INCIDENTS, PRESENTATIONS AND DON.ATIONS. 

Mr. Noah Porter, living at Good Hill, Bremer 
county, while on his way to work on Friday (June 28), 
saw a notice of the acceptance of the "guards," and a 
call for a meeting of the company on Saturday. He 
immediately went home, put his team in the stable, bade 
his wife and children good bye, and walked seventy-five 
miles to Independence, where he lost no time in enrol- 
ling himself as a member of the company. 

S. Hellman, of Independence, accompanied a dona- 
tion of one dozen pairs of shoes, and as many of socks, 
for the use of the company, with the wish that the wearers 
of them might march to victory, for the glory of the 
country. 

Dr. Chase, of Byron township, as soon as the news 
of the acceptance came, gave the conijjany ten dollars. 
Had this example had a general following, and had the 
resulting fund been invested in rubber blankets, how 
many lives, sacrificed by sleeping on the damp ground, 
might have been saved. 

G. \V. Doiinan presented the company with ninety 
pairs of woollen socks, making, at the same time, a speech, 
which was received by the company with repeated cheers. 

Mrs. William Scott also made a liberal donation of 
woollen socks — articles of prime importance to the health 
and comfort of camp life. 

COM.MENTS AND INCIDENTS. 

The Dubuque Times thus speaks of the people and 
soldiers of Independence: 

Much praise is due to the people of Independence for the creditable 
manner in which they fitted out their volunteers. Through the liberal- 
ity of the citizens the "boys" were enabled to go into camp with a 
better outfit Ih.in any other company in the regiment. .All spectators 
were struck by the gallant bearing and evident intelligence of this fine 
corps, and with one accord they were pronounced the star company of 
the five who left here last Saturday. Much is e.vpected of them, and 
most assuredly they will not disappoint their friends. 

The "guards" arrived in Burlington on Sunday after- 
noon, and were mustered into .the United States service 
on the following day, Monday, July 15, 1861. There 
were between twenty and thirty companies at Camj) War- 
ren, and none, it w'as said, presented a finer appearance 
than the Independence company. Three of the volun- 



no 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



teers were not accepted — William Sherwood, owing to a 
deformed hand; a Mr. Clark, of Littleton, who was 
above age, and T. Fleming, of Fremont township, who 
was too young. The company, as mustered into service, 
numbered ninety-seven men, exclusive of officers. 
When first heard from by their friends, they had not 
received their blankets, and were sleeping on straw 
without covering. As an inevitable consequence of 
this sudden change in manner of living, diarrhoea was 
to some extent prevailing in the camp. The Indepen- 
dence band accompanied the guards to Burlington, and 
were offered the position of rtgimental band, on condi- 
tion of raising their number to si.xteen. 

PRESENTATION. 

A number of the friends of Captain Lee presented 
him with a fine Colt's navy revolver. Lieutenant Jordan 
was the recipient of a similar compliment, and Lieuten- 
ant Marshal escaped by being already provided with 
small arms. 

These officers were held in the highest estimation by 
their fellow citizens, and were deservedly popular with 
their men. Captain Lee paid a visit to !iis home in the 
last week of July, reporting the company in excellent 
health and fine spirits. Only one was in the hospital, as 
after they received their blankets, and cooked their own 
rations, they were living much better than at first. They 
were fast acquiring proficiency in drill, though their arms 
and equipments had not yet been supplied. The con- 
duct of the men received the highest encomiums of their 
captain. Not one man had been ordered under guard, 
and their fine soldierly bearing and orderly behavior had 
won them hosts of friends. Colonel Woithington had 
not received marching orders for his regiment, but every- 
thing pointed to an early demand for their presence in 
Missouri. 

OFF TO THE WAR. 

The following incident shows not only the stuff" that 
one brave heart was made of, but it also shows how 
defeat itself, in our case, furnished the impulse that made 
our final victory the more complete and decisive. 

On recei[)t of news of the gieat disaster to the Federal 
forces at Manassas, J. L. Loomis (afterwards editor of 
the Bulletin) who was then employed as a clerk in the 
post office, in Independence, and who was known to his 
friends as an intelligent, quiet, but determined young 
man, immediately resolved to volunteer, and, leaving at 
the earliest possible moment, went to Dubuque in order 
to take advantage of the first opportunity to enlist. 
Such a spirit and such promptness and decision in its 
manifestations, gave a sufficient guarantee that, whatever 
post was assigned him, he did his duty well. He went 
to the aid of the Government in the time of its greatest 
peril. 

ANOTHER COMPANY. 

A military company was organized in the early sum- 
mer, in Jefferson township, and soon numbered over 
fifty men; most of whom were ready for active service. 
S. D. Joy, who was an orderly sergeant in the Mexican 
war, was elected captain, Joseph Rouse first lieutenant, 
and George Frink, second lieutenant. 



THE HEARTS AT HOME FOLLOW THE BR.WE HEARTS IN 
CAMP. 

On the twenty-fifth of July, the friends of company E, 
Fifth regiment, in camp at Burlington, shipped to said com- 
pany three boxes and a barrel, filled with delicacies be- 
longing to what might be styled the higher departments 
of culinary tactics, in which the "boys" had not been 
drilled. The collation, which was enjoyed as one spread 
by loving hands, reached Camp Warren on the second 
of August, and, on the following day, the company re- 
ceived marching orders, which took them beyond the 
reach of these loving ministries. 

ORGANIZ.\TION OF A SECOND MILITARY COMPANY IN IN- 
DEPENDENCE. 

The first election of officers by the "guards" having 
been made void by a law passed at the extra session of 
the legislature, a second was held on the first of June, 
which resulted in some changes in the officers, both com- 
missioned and non-commissioned. By the new election 
Messis. Jordan and Marshall took the places of Hord 
and Marlin, as first and second lieutenants. Lieutenant 
Hord, with a promptness which showed that a desire to 
serve his country was paramount with him, set to work at 
once to raise a second company, and his success showed 
the confidence reposed in hmi by his fellow citizens. 
I'he following notice which appeared in the Guardian 
of June 25th, speaks for itself. 

ATTENTION COMPANY ! 

The Buchanan County Light Infantry will meet at their headquarters 
on Tuesday, Thursday and Friday evenings of each week, for the pur- 
pose of drill. J, M. Hord, captain. 

William Scott, orderly sergeant. 

A few weeks later. Captain Hord accompanied the 
guards to Burlington; met Governor Kirkwood, and se- 
cured the acceptance of the Light Infantry into active 
service. The company was assigned to the Seventh 
regiment, which was then forming. Captain Hord and 
Lieutenants Scott and Randy were commended to all de- 
sirous of enlisiing, as every way worthy of confidence. 
The captain had seen service in Mexico, and Lieutenant 
Scott in the East Indies, while Lieutenant Randy had 
for many years been an officer in the militia. 

In the early part of August the company went into 
quaiters; and so rapidly were Ihe ranks filling up under 
the inspiration of the second call for troops, that no 
doubt was felt that the Light Infantry would be in readi- 
ness to report by the time required, August 25th. Mr. 
Bull, proprietor of Bull's addition to Independence, con- 
nected himself with this company, and devoted himself 
warmly to the furtherance of its interests. An extra session 
of the board of supervisors was held to take into con- 
sideration the matter of supplying the company with a 
uniform. Three hundred dollars was promptly voted by 
the board, and a resolution was also passed, declaring 
their willingness to give a similar amount to any company 
of volunteers raised in the county, upon going into active 
service. 

The company was so fortunate as to be assigned to 
Colonel Vandever's regiment, the Ninth Infantry. As the 
colonel had expressed great confidence that the troops 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



collecting at Dubuque at that time, would be furnished 
with uniforms before leaving that city, it was necessary 
that shirts, hats, shoes and belts only should be provided 
by the county. .'\nd again, the noble women of Inde- 
pendence exemplified their patriotism, by coming forward 
to contribute by their active sympathy and unselfish 
labor, to the formation of that esprit de corps, so essential 
to the efficiency of military organizations, and so char- 
acteristic of the troops from "old Buchanan." 

Great enthusiasm prevailed among the men, in view of 
the high character of their colonel, and the efficiency 
which marked their regimental organization. A battery 
of si.x cannon was attached to the regiment, which made 
it the best appointed that had been raised in the State. 

DEPARTURE OF THE LIGHT INF.\NTRY. 

Another month had rolled by, and the leave-taking of 
July 1 2th was repeated. As the magnitude of the great 
struggle, into which the country had been plunged, came 
day by day to be more adequately appreciated, there was 
no sign of wavering or drawing back, on the part of the 
patriot sons of our smitten country; but, with ever in- 
creasing numbers, they were pressing forward to her 
defence. A great sympathy for the cause of liberty 
assailed, and for countrymen tearing themselves from all 
that is most precious in life, save liberty, to offer their 
lives upon the altar of patriotism, pervaded the hearts of 
all classes, and varying parties and sects became of one 
kindred. 

And so again, in the early morning of August 27th, 
a large concourse was gathered — fathers, mothers, 
brothers, sisters, husbands and wives, friends and neigh- 
bors — for a parting unlike any other on earth. Already 
had more than one battle-field been drenched in patriot 
blood, and who should say if these, going out in all the 
strength of manhood's prime, should again clasp the 
hands that cling to them now? But the words of an- 
other must not displace the tribute, warm from the heart 
of one who was himself swayed by the overmastering 
enthusiasm of the hour, and who was proud to claim 
these heroic men as his friends. The Guardian of Au- 
gust 27th speaks thus of a scene which had just been 
enacted, at the departure of Buchanan's second offering 
of a hundred lives upon the altar of Liberty: 

Another company of noble-hearted men have left us for the war. 
Buchanan county has given up another hundred of her brave sons to go 
forth and battle with this unholy rebellion. They have just started, 
amid the sobs, the tears, the smiles, the cheers, the God-speeds of hun- 
dreds of loving hearts left behind. May every man of them live to re- 
turn to the arms which now give thern up for their country's cause. 

They were accompanied to the depot, even at the early hour of 
starting, by a large concourse of people, many of whom had come ten 
and fifteen miles to be at the parting. The scene was veiy aflfectmg, 
mothers and sisters and wives clinging to many of the soldiers with 
tears and sobs, and fathers, sons and brothers grasping hands in si- 
lence too full for utterance. The men mastenng their emotions, like 
true soldiers, went off in excellent spirits, cheering heartily as the train 
moved away; while the sad crowd behind could do little more than 
wave their adieu. 

Our self-sacrificing, patriotic women went bravely to work to pro- 
vide uniforms for the men, in the latter part of last week, and soon had 
the necessary number of shirts made for them. Not satisfied with that, 
they made each of them a needle-case, filled with buttons, pins, nee- 
dles, etc. Yesterday tliey were presented to the men, who enthusias- 
tically acknowledged the kindness of the ladies. 



Clad in their blue woollen shirts, felt hats, with eagle and handsome 
belt, and decked with that most touching parting gift, a boquet of 
bright but perishable flow'ers, these stout, robust men, bronzed with 
the labors of the harvest, and full of m.inly vigor and energy, were a 
sight to send the proud blood surging through the heart of every be- 
holder. What, then, must it have been to those tender ones, whose 
lives, until this sad mom, had grown "upon one twin stem" with those 
now so rudely torn asunder ? 

On the Sunday previous to the departure of the Light 
Infantry, the Rev. Mr. Sampson preached a sermon to 
them, appropriate to the circumstances, both of the 
country and ot the men about to go forward in her de- 
fence. On Tuesday morning, before leaving, each of 
the coinpany was presented with a copy of the New 
Testament by the Buchanan County Bible society. Rev. 
Mr. Fulton making the address, and Rev. Mr. Sampson 
offering a prayer. 

The election of officers took place at Camp Union, 
Dubuque. The following is a complete list of the offi- 
cers and men of the company: 

COMMISSIONED OFFICERS. 
Captain Jared M. Hord. 
Captain Hiram C. Bull. 
Captain Robert W. Wright. 
First Lieutenant Hiram C*. Bull. 
First Lieutenant Nathan Rice. 
First Lieutenant Robert W. Wright. 
First Lieutenant Jacob P. Sampson. 
Second Lieutenant William .Scott. 
Second Lieutenant Nathan Rice. 
Second Lieutenant Robert W. Wright. 
Second Lieutenant facob P. Sampson. 
Second Lieutenant Edmund C. Little. . 

NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICERS. 

First Sergeant Robert W. Wright. 
First Sergeant Jacob P. Sampson. 
First Sergeant Edmund C. Little. 
Second Sergeant Nathan Rice. 
Thiid Sergeant David V. Coe. 
Third Sergeant Edmund C. Little. 
Third Sergeant Hiram Holdridge. 
Fourth Sergeant Billings Davis. 
Fifth Sero'eant R. T. Bain. 
Fifth Sergeant Charles G. Curtis. 
First Corporal James M. Elson. 
Second Corporal Charles N. Bennett. 
Third Corporal Ezra T. Rust. 
Fourth Corporal James H. Merrill. 
Fifth Corporal Jacob D. Sanders. 
Sixth Corporal Fred M. Wilbur. 
Seventh Corporal Charles W. Sarchet. 
Eighth Corporal Edmund C. Little. 
Musician .\lpheus Losey. 
Wagoner David Greek. 

PKIV.-\TES. 

Henry Reynolds, William .Allison, E. J. Allen, Marsena Allen, Isaac 
Arwine, William Adams, George M. .'\bbott. Perry Alspraugh, Thom- 
as J. Barber, J. H. Bower, Jesse Barnett, John C. Brown, .Adelbert 
Bellus, Thomas Cress, C. Corbert, L. D. Curtis. Isaac G. Chase, Val- 
entine Cates, John Cartwright, Wesley Curtis, William Decker, Bill- 
ings Davis, J. E. Elson, Olinzo H. Engles, John Engerman, J. H. 
Ford, Julius Furcht, Edwin Fary, Reuben E. Freeman, Enoch Fary, 
George Frerberthauser, N. A. Green, William C. Gillum, Nelson Ho- 
vey, Theodore Hyde, C. A. Hobert, Stephen Holman, Isaac N. Hol- 
man, Vinson Holman, Eli Holland, Henry Jones, Silas E. King, John 
M. King, Benjamin Klapp, James Leatherman, Orlando F. Luckey, 
Alpheus Losey, D. Pangburn, E. U. Patchen, Enoch Piatt, B. W. 
Powers, William Pope, L. A. Persall, Isai.ah Perdue, Philip Ritter- 
man, Henry Reynolds, Russell Rouse, Reuben Rouse, G. Q. Rust, 
Darwin Rich, Ahal H. Robbins, Samuel Robbins, John Rogers, David 
Steele, James Steele, Charles W. Sarchet, George W. Suyre, R. R. 
Stoneman, James M. Sparling, Jacob P. Sampson, Thomas Smith, 



112 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



James A. Sutton, George A. Turner, Royal Taylor, W. T. Thayer, 
Albert Utteibeck, P. Vanclerbilt, William Willey, H. P. Wilber, Wil- 
liain Wisennand, R. M. Whitlock, Pierce Walton, Adonin J.Windsor, 
John H. Young. 

Additional enlistments up to January i, 1863: 

Dorr E. Godfrey, William A. Jones. 

Enrolled in the county of Buchanan; went into quar- 
ters at Dubuque, July 30, 1861; mustered into the ser- 
vice of the United States by Captain C. Washington, 
United States army, on the twenty-fifih of September, 
1 86 1, under the proclamation of the President dated 
July 23, 1861; from place of enrollment to rendezvous, 
fifteen miles. 

CAVALRY COMPANY. 

Early in September, following the raising of these two 
companies of infantry, a call was made for recruits for a 
cavalry company, which, as Dr. Parsons had been active 
in its organization, it was expected he would com- 
mand. R. S. Rider was associated with Dr. Parsons in 
proiTioting the interests of this new enterprise, in which 
great enthusiasm had already been awakened, and en- 
listments were being freely made. Before the organiza- 
tion had been completed, and pending the acceptance 
of the company by the proper authorities. General Fre- 
mont issued an order prohibiting the acceptance of more 
cavalry after the completion of the Fourth regiinent, 
which it was then understood was nearly full. Through 
the indomitable energy of Dr. Parsons his men were con- 
solidated with those of Captain A. F. Peters, of Dela- 
ware county, and were accepted into Colonel Porter's 
cavalry regiment. Dr. Parsons took the rank of second 
lieutenant in the consolidation, and the company of be- 
tween twenty and thirty men left Independence in the first 
week in October, and went into camp at Mt. Pleasant. 
During the month the regiment was sent, as were many 
of the Iowa troops, into Missouri. Through some ine.x- 
cusable neglect the names of the members of this com- 
pany were not published in the county papers, and though 
the company w^as afterwards recruited in Buchanan 
county, no roster has been met with in the preparation of 
this record. 

Quite a number of youn.; men from the north part of 
the county joined captain Ainsworth's com|iany during 
the months of September and October, so that, by the 
close of the latter month, Buchanan county had sent in- 
to the army over three hundred men. 

The death of R. E. Freeman, of Captain Hord's com- 
pany, Ninth regiment, was announced in the Guardian 
of December 24th, with the statement that his was the 
first death among those who had gone from this county 
to the war. He died in the hospital at Pacific City, Mis- 
souri. 

The Ninth regiment, of which company C was enlisted 
in this county, after Jying for some months at Pacific City, 
engaged for the most part in guarding important railroad 
connections, was ordered near the last of January, to 
break camp and move to the southwest to cooperate with 
the Federal troops under General Curtis, that had for 
some time been confronting the combined forces of Price, 
Van Dorn and McCuUough. The brilliant battle of Pea 



Ridge, Arkansas, was fought on the sixth, seventh and 
eighth of Match, 1862. The Fourth and Ninth Iowa 
regiments and the First and third Iowa batteries were in 
the thickest of this desperate struggle, and earned for 
themselves and for their State an imperishable name. A 
regiment of volunteer patriots, but lately from the peace- 
ful avocations of secular life, had shown the steadiness 
of nerve and unconquerableness of purpose which are 
looked for ordinarily in veterans only. There are many 
now living throughout the county who, after the lapse of 
nineteen years, can recall the shuddering with which the 
first news of the victory was received. All had friends 
among those who were known to have gone into the bat- 
tle — some had fallen. Whose fathers, sons, brothers, 
and husbands were those two hundred and forty-eight 
who had attested their courage and their patriotism with 
their lives? Only a brief season of uncertainty, and the 
list of killed and wounded came to tell how singularly 
had the thick flying shafts been turned away from our 
households, and the pall was lifted which threatened to 
shroud the victory. 

The youthful Rice, of Vinton, Benton county, who 
entered the company in July as second sergeant, and had 
risen to the rank of first lieutenant, thus vindicating his 
claim to rank among that galaxy, who fulfilled the glori- 
ous promise of their early career by giving up their lives 
when that was all they could do, headed the list of killed 
in company C. Private Julius Furcht was killed and 
Isaac Arwine mortally wounded. W. S. Wisennand and 
John Cartwright, of Spring Grove, and A. J. Windsor, of 
Independence, also died of their wounds. Marcena 
Allen, of Littleton, and O. K. Engle, of Hazleton, died 
of disease a few weeks after the battle, no less victims of 
the war than if they had fallen in the thickest of the fight. 
Captain Bull, successor of Captain Hord, was wounded 
slightly, as were also Adjutant Scott, Sergeant J. P. Samp- 
son, Corporals E. G. Curtis and J. D. Sanders, with sev- 
enteen privates whose names are given elsewhere. 

"The Iowa troops claimed, at the battle of Pea Ridge, 
the position accorded to them in every contest in the 
west — the post of danger, the post of brave deeds, and 
the post of death." 

Lieutenant Colonel Herron, of the Ninth, was wounded 
arid taken prisoner. It was related of him that, though 
wounded and surrounded by his enemies, he seemed 
determined to die rather than fall into the hands 
of the rebels. He had already killed more than one of 
his assailants, and was making desperate efforts to defend 
himself with his sword, after he had been unhorsed, 
when his arms were seized and resistance made imjjossi- 
ble. A southern major saved his life by shooting an In- 
dian who was on the point of butchering him after his 
arms were bound with a handkerchief. 

Among other incidents of the battle, one showing the 
indomitable coolness of the youthful hero, E. C. Little, 
was related by adjutant Scott. Early in the action Ser- 
geant Litile, who was at the time about seventeen years 
old, had his gun taken out of his hand by a shell which 
exploded near him, whirling it so far from him that he 
could not recover it. Without stopping to waste words 



HISTORY OF UUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



113 



or time he coolly possessed himself of another, and this, 
in a few moments, was ruined by a shot striking it. Out- 
wardly, at least, unmoved, he was not long in taking his 
place, again "fully equipped," and with this third piece, 
he went through the three days' battle without a scratch, 
though he received several balls in his clothing. 

DE.\TH OF LIEUTENANT JORDAN, OF THE FIFTH KECU.MENT. 

It will be remembered that company E, of the Fifth 
Iowa volunteers, was raised in Independence, and com- 
posed almost exclusively of Buchanan county men. 
From the time of its entering the service, the regiment 
had been stationed at various ]5oints in central, northern, 
and southwestern Missouri. In March, 1862, it was in- 
corporated with one of Pope's brigades then investing 
New Madrid. This place was held by a force of forty 
thousand rebels, behind a double line of fortifications, 
and was one of the links in that chain of defences which 
seemed to bind the Mississippi to the confederacy with 
bolts of iron. During the siege, fatigue and exposure, 
acting upon a frame already enfeebled by disease, pros- 
trated the gallant Jordan; and even while his friends at 
home were indulging in the fond hope that rest and care 
were doing a work of rapid restoration to health, a re- 
lapse bore him with fatal celerity beyond the reach of 
care and skill; and, in the midst of the rejoicing over 
the signal victory of our arms in Arkansas, and a signal 
e.xemption from loss of life among the sons of Buchanan, 
came the unlocked for announcement that he was dead. 

Let the tributes poured from hearts bleeding from a 
sense of irre|)arable loss, attest the sincere esteem — the 
admiring, affectionate regard, in which Lieutenant George 
C. Jordan was held by his comrades in arms, and by 
the friends of his early years in the community where, 
until he went forth at his country's call, had been his 
home. He was (it will be remembered), a business 
partner of Mr. Rich, of the Buchanan county Guardian. 

EDITORIAL TRIBUTE OF THE GUARDIAN, APRIL I, 1862. 

Our friend is gone ! We cannot realize it ! And yet we remember — 
when the first bright, warm sunshine of spring was flooding the earth, 
when everything seemed awakening into beauty and life, when hope 
was buoyant and our spirits bright and cheerful — A'e remember how 
suddenly there came a blow, blotting out the brightness, dashing aside 
hope and cheerfulness, and loading our heart and frame with a weight 
of sorrow unutterable. .-\nd we remember the atlas-load of agony 
thrown upon her who was all in all to him. And then comes a vision 
of him who has so long been our friend — the same slight frame, the 
same fair countenance, the parted lips wearing the genial smile we had 
seen so often, .^nd when we remember this, and feel the load of sor- 
row al our heart, and mark the we.alth of woe in our household, we 
know that he who has been our closest companion is no more. For 
thirteen years we have stood by his side — working hand-to-hand with 
him, eating from the same board, sheltered by the same roof, enjoying 
a more than brotherly confidence, knowing his every aspiration, almost 
his every hope. In our business the same kind of confidence existed. 
There were no accounts between us, but each shared the success and 
deprivations of the other. None knew better than we, then, the gen- 
erous hopes thai animated him — the brave spirit with whicli he was en- 
dowed, the purity of his life, the kindness of his heart, the fidelity of 
his friendship, the nobleness of his manhood. None know better than 
we how pure and unselfish the motive which led him to leave a wife and 
home he loved better than anything on earth, to go forth at his 
country's call, and lay upon her altar the sacrifice of his valued life. All 
that love and friendship could proffer, was offered to induce him to re- 
main at home, but he declared that he could never stand an idle spec- 
tator of the contest and be happy. He went forth in the discharge of 
what he deemed a sacred duty. How well he performed that duty we 

15 



know, for we have watched the tearful eye of his men, who have come 
back enfeebled by disease, as their grateful lips acknowledge the obli- 
gation of his kindness and faithfulness. He loved his men, and when 
we urged him but a little while ago, to get a furlough and come home, 
he wrote that he could probably get detailed for recruiting service ; 
but as it would take him sometime from his men [and at a time when 
there was much sickness in the regiment], he would not think of it. 
" I shall stand by the company" he said, and that ended the contro- 
versy. Alas that he should be the first that should fall ! Alas that the 
golden bowl of his life should be the first broken at the fountain ! 

Since the first of March, fatigue and exposure had worn upon him. 
Care and rest, however, brought recuperation. On the march to New 
Madrid, he improved and was daily gaining strength. Rut his regi- 
ment was ordered out to support a battery that was playing u[)on the 
enemy. Too weak to go, he was yet too eager to stay. In spite of 
the expostulations of his men, he went. To avoid the shells of the 
enemy the troops were ordered to lie down on the damp ground. He 
obeyed, caught cold, had a relapse, lingered a few days and died ; 
sinking away calmly and quietly without a perception of the loosening 
and breaking of the golden thread of his life — died with the green of 
spring carpeting the earth with beauty, the buds and blossoms opening 
around him, and when life and honor and usefulness must have seemed 
to be opening before him with a promise fair and bright, as that be- 
tokened by nature's reawakening — died as he always wanted to die, if 
the sacrifice was needed, in the harness of the faithful soldier, and the 
booming of the deep-mouthed cannon, and the crash of shells sound- 
ing in his ear. "We shall listen long and anxiously for his coming, 
while our hearts must grow sick as we remember that never more shall 
we meet his pleasant greeting. Shade of all noble virtues rest thou in 
peace ! " Dear friend ! brave heart ! hail and farewell ! " 

IN MEMORI,\M.* 

Tears for the dead, though unaiding, will flow, and grief for departed 
friends will be felt , and its poignancy is only the greater because it 
cannot unclose the portals of the tomb. This grief now pervades the 
whole community ; these tears bedew every eye. Lieutenant George 
C. [ordan is no more. In the bloom of manhood, and in the full use- 
fulness and efficiency of the noblest effoits for his country, he has laid 
down his life as a sacrifice for liberty, and the preservation of this re- 
public. 

.After the bloody and memorable battles of Pea Ridge and Fort Don- 
elson, battles which for courage and heroism will compare with any 
of Grecian or Roman history, and which the people of Buchanan 
county watched with an interest and anxiety indescribable, because 
they had precious and noble sons among those gallant troops- 
after those battles, when we learned that one out of every three 
was either killed or wounded, we waited with breathless suspense 
to know who were the brave men that had shed their blood to 
preserve our liberties, our honor and our nationality. The news came 
— the load of dread was lifted from our spirits. While many were 
wounded, but three of our beloved soldiers were killed , and among 
our fearless officers, none were slain. We exchanged congratulations 
with ardor, and the gloom was dispelled from all our countenances. 
We exulted in the indomitable courage and the unconquerable bravery 
of those whom our own county had sent to the field. 

.Alas ! this joy was of short duration. In the midst of our rejoicing, 
like a burst of thunder in a clear sky, the terrible news pervaded the 
community, that George C, Jordan was brought into tlie village a life- 
less corpse. It was even so. That noble heart had ceased to beat. 
His family, his friends, his country have lost him forever ; save as his 
example and his deeds live after him. Never, in this community, has 
a death produced such general and such profound grief. The aspect 
of our village was as if a great calamity had befallen it, and no coun- 
tenance but bore the marks of sorrow. The mournful topic absorbed 
all others, and all felt as if they had lost a son or a brother. 

Well did the departed deserve these tributes of respect, affection, 
and grief. Wherever he was known he was beloved. Kind, generous, 
intellit'ent, unassuming, free-minded, benevolent, and virtuous, he won 
all hearts and secured universal esteem. No wonder, then, that the 
pang was so great when he was lost to us. No wonder that we all felt 
that a good citizen, a brave soldier, a true patriot, had taken his de- 
parture. It is not too much to say that he has not left an enemy be- 
hind him. His life was a succession of worthy actions, and it may be 
emphatically said that he was incapable of an ignoble one. He was 
eminently just and honorable, of gentle deportment and engaging 
manners. Yet he had firmness when it was required, unflinching cour- 

*For the Guardian. 



114 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



age where it was demanded, and, when duty called, a tenacity of pur- 
pose that was fixed as fate. 

We do well to weep for him. He deserves our tears, and our ex- 
pressions of heartfelt sorrow were simultaneous and spontaneous. The 
flags which were before waving so proudly for our recent victory, were 
weighted with the emblems of woe, and badges of mourning were dis- 
played throughout the village. Friends met and exchanged greetings 
in hushed voices, and it seemed almost a profanation that business 
should go on, when his great heart had ceased to throb — when he had 
been brought back dead. 

Notwithstanding high streams and almost impassable roads, and the 
great difficulty of diffusing intelligence, people from remote parts of 
the county flocked to the funeral. The citizens of the place vied with 
each other in paving respect to one so honored for what he was in 
himself and for what he had become in dying in so noble a cause. The 
funeral services were conducted by the Rev. Messrs. Boggs, Fulton, 
Sampson, and Caldwell. The funeral sermon was preached by Mr. 
Boggs, at the Presbyterian church, which was densely packed. The 
speaker was at times much affected himself, and tears and sobs per- 
vaded the audience. The discourse abounded in eloquent bursts of 
patriotism, just tributes to the virtues and unblemished life of the de- 
ceased, indignant rebukes of the treason which has produced such 
dreadful evils in our land, pathetic sympathy with surviving kindred 
and friends, and exhortations to imitate the noble conduct, the courage 
and patriotism of him for whom we mourned. 

Touching testimonials to the worth and excellence of Mr. Jordan, 
and respect for his memory, and grief for his untimely death, are found 
in the resolutions passed by his comrades in arms, regimental officers 
as well as members of his own company uniting in the warmest expres- 
sions of regard. These resolutions, which have been placed in our 
hands, are appended to this tribute to our departed friend. 

Farewell, noble and heroic patriot ! Your memory will live perpet- 
ually in our minds. And if his loss is so great to the community, what 
must it be to those who were nearest and dearest to him? On the lone- 
liness and desolation of the wife of his bosom, and the sad loss to his 
most intimate friend and associate in business, I cannot, dare not, 
touch. I feel utterly unable to describe or console their affliction. lean 
only commend them to the feeble and remote consolations of resigna- 
tion and time, and to the certain con\'iction that with such a noble and 
virtuous soul it must, beyond all peradventure, be well. 

S. J. W. T. 

In Camp, before New Madrid, Missouki, 1 
March 21, 1862. ) 

At a meeting of the commissioned officers of the Fifth Iowa volun- 
teers, at regimental headquarters, Lieutenant Colonel Mathies an- 
nounced the decease of Lieutenant George C. Jordan, of company E, 
Fifth Iowa volunteers. Whereupon Major Robertson was called to 
the chair, and Captain Sampson appointed secretary. On motion the 
chairman appointed a committee of three, consisting of Lieutenant 
Moriarty, Captain Lee, and Lieutenant Caswell, to draft resolutions of 
condolence, expressive of the sense of the officers of the regiment on 
the loss of our late associate and brother officer. Lieutenant Jordan. 

The commitee reported the following resolutions, 
which were unanimously adopted: 

Whereas, It becomes our painful duty to announce the decease of 
Lieutenant George C. Jordan, of company E, Fifth Iowa volunteers, 
who died March 20, 1862, in camp near New Madrid, Missouri, after a 
brief illness, with typhoid pneumonia, as a testimonial of the respect 
and esteem of the officers of the Fifth Iowa volunteers it is unani- 
mously 

Resolved, That in the death of the late Lieutenant Jordan we have 
lost a brother officer of unblemished character as a gentleman and offi- 
cer, whose kind disposition, unassuming deportment, and clear-sighted, 
intelligent discharge of every duty, rendered him beloved by his men, 
cherished and respected by all. While we deeply and sincerely deplore 
his loss, we bow with reverence and submission to the will of the Great 
Disposer of life and death, and say in our hearts: "Thou art the 
source and fountain of life — in thy hand are also the arrows of death. 
Thy will be done." 

Resolved, That the Fifth Iowa volunteers, in the death of Lieutenant 
Jordan, has lost one of its most accomplished officers, whose ability 
and patriotic zeal in the service of his country, high moral worth and 
unblemished integrity as a man, enshrines the memory of his virtues in 
our hearts, which we will ever cherish as worthy to be our example. 

Resolved, That the officers of the Fifth Iowa volunteers wear the 
usual military badge of mourning for thirty days. 



Resolved, That our unfeigned sympathies and condolence are ex- 
tended to the friends and relatives of our brother officer, and to his 
sorrow-stricken wife we send our heartfelt assurance of sympathy in 
this her great bereavement. 

W. S. Robertson, Chairman. 

E. S. Sampson, Secretary. 

New Madrid, Missouri, March 21, 1862. 

At a meeting of the members of company E, Fifth Iowa infantry, 
held in camp at New Madrid, Missouri, March 21, 1862, for the pur- 
pose of expressing their sorrow for the loss of their esteemed officer. 
Lieutenant George C. Jordan, and of extending their sympathies to 
his afflicted family and friends. Captain Lee was called to the chair, 
and Wilbur F. Kellogg appointed secretary. 

On motion Lieutenant W. S. Marshall, acting adjutant, \. B. 
Lewis and Cyrus J. Reed, were appointed by the chair a committee to 
draft resolutions expressive of the sense of the meeting. 

The following preamble and resolutions were reported and unani- 
mously'adopted: • 

Where.\s, Our much loved and worthy officer, Lieutenant George 
C. Jordan, has been suddenly taken from us by death whilst far from 
home and kindred, in the faithful performance of his duty as an oflficer 
and a patriot, enduring the hardships and braving the perils of the 
field; therefore 

Resolved, That we deeply deplore the loss of our devoted officer and 
beloved companion, whose brave heart and generous disposition had 
endeared him to us all. and to whose energy and perseverance as an 
officer, we are chiefly indebted for our merit as a company and our dis- 
cipline as soldiers. 

Resolved, That in his official career we have had a worthy example 
of every virtue that constitutes a true patriot, an officer and a gentle- 
man; that in his social character were combined a generous disposition, 
a sterling integrity, a purity of heart, and a nobleness of purpose sel- 
dom excelled; and that we will ever cherish the recollection of his 
many virtues as the most sacred tribute to his memory. 

Resolved, That in this our irreparable loss we recognize the ordering 
of Him " Who doeth all things well." and that we bow with reverence 
and submission to His divine will. 

Resolved, That we deeply sympathize with his afflicted wife and rela- 
tives in this their sad berevement, and assure them that their heartfelt 
sorrow is truly shared by us all. 

Resolved, That a copy of the proceedings of this meeting be sent to 
each of the county papers of Buchanan county for publication, and 
also that a copy be sent to the wife of the deceased. 

D. S. Lee, President. 

Wilbur F. Kellogg, Secretary. 

A most eloquent, though unpremeditated tribute to 
the memory of the lamented Jordan, was the departure 
of a band of sixteen men to join company E of the Fifth 
regiment, which occurred within a week after the scenes 
so graphically described in the eloquent "In Memoriam" 
of S. J. W. T. They were recruited in Independence, 
and the following is a list of their names: 

John W. Stewart, John C. McCray, "Wiliiam H. Wil- 
liams, Charles Brockway, H. J. Whait, S. E. Rowse, G. 
M. Watson, John H. Ginther, John Bain, F. M. Guard, 
Foster Harris, William E. Conway, John Minton, W. 
O. Morse, S. F. Turner, Daniel Beckley. 

Of this number, thus ready to step into the breach 
made by one fallen from the ranks of our country's de- 
fenders, John H. Ginther, a young man twenty-one years 
of age, and of a remarkably sound, robust constitution, 
died of typhoid fever at Camp McClellan, Davenport, 
while waiting for their outfit, prejjaratory to joining the 
regiment at New Madrid. 

In obedience to an impulse which must be shared by 
all who worthily appreciate the restored unity of our 
common country — the impulse to withhold no moiety of 
praise due to one of those whose lives were the price of 
our present peace and prosperity, we cannot think this 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



115 



chaplet for the hero's brow complete without the added 
fragrance of an offering which cannot fail to reach the 
heart, because it is the language of a generous affection, 
inspired by many noble qualities. Were an apology 
demanded, it would be for its omission. 

New Madrid, Mo., March 21, 1862. 

Dear Sir:— Before this reaches you, you will have learned the sad 
intelligence that Lieutenant Jordan is no more. He died precisely at 
12 o'clock last night. Painful as the news must be to his "dear 
ones at home, " and his many friends iu Independence, they are not the 
only ones who mourn his loss. A general gloom this morning per- 
vades the camp of the Sixth Iowa, We have just passed through one 
of the most affecting scenes which our regiment has ever been called to 
witness. A soldier's funeral is at any time a most solemn sight, as the 
escort, with arms reversed, and procession following in the rear, slowly 
wend their way with measured tread to the plaintive music of fife and 
muffled drum, with all the associate reflections of hardships, depriva- 
tions and perils, death in the field, far from home and friends, and the 
thought of loving parents, wife or family, ignorant of the scene which 
is passing, and still an.\iousIy hoping and praying for the return of one 
who shall never again gladden their sight— all these come crowding 
upon the mind. But the scene of to-day was one of more than 
ordinary solemnity. The character of the man gave importance to the 
occasion. Frank, generous and humane, and a man of sterling integ- 
rity and honesty of purpose, he had won the love and esteem of every 
officer in the regiment, while his unassuming manner, and his readiness 
to share the toils and deprivations of the most humble, endeared him 
to the men of his command, and made him esteemed and admired by 
all. He had distinguished himself by a willing, energetic application 
to the discharge of his duties, which resulted from no vain desire for 
honor or distinction, but from a conscientious sense of obligation. 

The same perseverance and industry that characterized his efforts in 
the organization of the company amid the difficulties and obstacles 
that were thrown around it, were displayed to the last, in his care for 
the wants of his men, and his diligent attention to their discipline and 
drill. The declaration made to the writer before leaving home that " he 
considered his hfebut nothing, if demanded in the service of his coun- 
try," and that "he would willingly offer it up if necessary in the dis- 
charge of any duty that might devolve upon him," was nobly verified 
in his subsequent career. His life has been offered up, a pure and will- 
ing sacrifice upon the altar of his country. He proved himself one of 
the rare exceptions, who under all circumstances and amidst trials and 
difficulties was still the same true, unselfish patriot, in whom perfect 
reliance and confidence were never found to be misplaced. With a 
small and delicate frame, but with a brave heart and iron will, he 
struggled resolutely against difficulties and dangers, until fatal disease 
had laid him low upon the bed of death, when he sank to rest, "not 
as the setting sun, behind the darkened west, but like the morning star, 
which gradually disappears in the bright sunlight of Heaven." 

We have paid our last honors to his mortal remains, but it is difficult 
to realize that he is gone; and though his gentle presence shall no more 
be greeted amongst us, the memory of his many virtues will remain en- 
shrined in our hearts, and be cherished with love and admiration. 
"Peace to his gentle shade." May his memory live forever. 
I remain , 

Respectfully yours, 

W. S. Marshall. 

THE SIMULTANEOUS RAISING OF TWO COMPANIES. 

The Spring of 1862 was signalized by brilliant suc- 
cesses on the part of the Federal troops in the west and 
southwest. But these were not achieved without a price, 
and many existing military organizations required to be 
filled up by new enlistments, in order to be certain of re- 
taining the advantages already gained. In June of this 
year a call was made for three hundred thousand men to 
be "enrolled without delay, so as to bring this unneces- 
sary and injurious war to a speedy and satisfactory con- 
clusion." 

It was soon announced that enlistments were going 
forward with much energy throughout the State, and Bu- 
chanan county, as heretofore, was not long in placing 



herself in the front rank in this prompt response to the 
call of the Government. Mr. J. D. Noble, commission 
merchant. Independence, was the first to initiate steps 
for raising a company, which met at once with encourag- 
ing success. Already midsummer, another harvest 
would soon be passed, when, with the bounty offered by 
the board of supervisors, and the advanced pay from the 
Government, the families of enlisted men could be pro- 
vided for. This liberality produced a marked effect in 
the rapid increase of volunteering in all parts of the 
county, as indeed wherever the policy was adopted; and 
thus enlistments were confidently expected to render 
drafting a dead letter. The good work was soon pro- 
gressing, not only at the county seat, but also at Quas- 
queton under the supervision of Mr. Whitney; and in 
Byron township a company was being raised by Jacob M. 
Miller. The fire of patriotism had not lost its ardor, and 
at the first breath it was again ablaze. Some of the 
most prominent business men of the county had soon 
given their names; the legal profession being represented 
by such men as W. G. Donnan and Jed Lake. 

We make the following extract from the Guardian of 
August 19th: 

The enthusiasm apparent at the time we went to press last week has 
continued, and has culminated in the enlisting of two companies of ex- 
cellent men from this county. The rolls of these companies show the 
names of some of the best citizens of our county, and better material 
for soldiers cannot be found anywhere. 

The members of both companies were at the county 
seat on Monday and Tuesday, eighteenth and nineteenth 
of August, with hundreds of their friends, thus giving the 
town another faint ripple from the utmost verge of that 
angry sea into which our unhappy country had been 
plunged. Again were the sad parting scenes re-enacted 
— the same clinging, tearful farewells on the part of those 
left, and most to be pitied — the same heroic mastery of 
self on the part of those who had given themselves to 
their bleeding country. The companies were both filled 
to the maximum number, and the character of the men 
was such as to promise the highest honor to the county, 
their State and to themselves. Captain Miller was 
elected by acclamation, but further organization was de- 
ferred by both companies until they should be in camp at 
Dubuque. The roster of company C, Captain Miller's, 
taken from the adjutant general's report, is here ap- 
pended: 

COMMISSIONED OFFICERS. 

Captain Jacob M. Miller. 

First Lieutenant Otis N. Whitney. 

Second Lieutenant William G. Donnan. 

NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICERS. 
First Sergeant .Xaron M. Wilcox. 
Second Sergeant Wesley G. Smyser. 
Third Sergeant Charles W. Woolley. 
Fourth Sergeant Charies W. Evans. 
Fifth Sergeant Mark Brownson. 
First Corporal Joseph H. Blank. 
Second Corporal Daniel Anders. 
Third Corporal John G. Litts. 
Fourth Corporal Alonzo L. Shurtleff. 
Fifth Corporal Henry Silker. 
Sixth Corporal Thomas S. Bunce. 
Seventh Corporal John S. Frink. 
Eighth Corporal George Kirkham. 



ii6 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



Musician Sidney C Adams. 
Musician George W. Heatii. 
Wagoner Benjamin Miller. 

I>RIV.'\TES. 

William C. B. Adams, Sylvester Abbey, Samuel Beckley, John M. 
Blank, John Buck, Nelson J. Boone, Morgan Boone, Amos R. Blood, 
Sylvester W. Bovvker. Mathias Buro, Hamilton B. Booth, James Camp- 
bell, Columbus Caldwell, William Casebeer, Warren Chase, Charles 
Conlon, Francis M. Congdon, Dcvolson Cormick, Erastus Campbell, 
Alford Cordell, Moses Chase, Albert Cordell, Benton F. Colborn, 
Charles H. Coleman, William Crura, Henry E. A. Diehl, Levi H. 
Eddy, Hamilton Evans, William B. Fleming, Henry French, Jacob 
Glass, George G. Gaylord, Isaac Gill, James C. Haskins, Newton 
Hammond, Hiram H. Hunt, Michael Harrigan, George Hathaway, 
Ezekiel Hays, jr., Adam Hoover, Charles Hoover, William J. Hen- 
dricks, Clinton H. Losure, Harrison H. Love, Charles H. Lewis, 
William N. Loy, James A. Laird, Edward P. Lewis, Walter B. Lan- 
fear, William McKenney, Alvi McGonigil, Edward E. Miilick, John 
Mulick, Louis A. McWilliams, Bartimeiis McGonigil, Abraham S. 
Monshaw, John McBane, Charles W. McKenney, William Morgan, 
Stewart McKenney, Emanuel Miller, Warren Munson, Jose|5h Moore, 
Augustus P. Osgood, John Olar, Edward T. Potter, Austin W. Per- 
kins, George A. Patterson, William T. Rich, John Slavin, Philip C. 
Smyser, Benjamin .Sutton, Howard T. Stutson, Thomas Sproull, Henry 
H. Turner, Joseph Turis, John A. Tift, Myron H. Woodward, Eman- 
uel Warden, William ^L Winkley. 

It was mentioned as a matter of interest, that forty- 
nine of these men were single and fifty married. This 
roll, first copied from the Guardian, was afterward cor- 
rected by comparison with the roster found in the offi- 
cial report of the adjutant general. Captain Noble's 
company took the letter name C, in the Twenty-seventh 
infantry, and Captain Miller's became company H in 
the same regiment. 

The roll of Captain Noble's company (company C) 
though reviewed at the Guardian office, and acknowl- 
edged with the promise of an early insertion, through 
undesigned omission did not appear. 'J'he following 
roster is taken from the report of Adjutant General 
Baker, published January i, 1863: 

COMMISSIONED OFFICERS. 

Captain Joseph Noble. 

First Lieutenant Henry F. Snell. 

Second I^ieutenant Herman C. Hemenway. 

NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICERS. 

First Sergeant James A. Poor. 
Second Sergeant Joseph F. Jackson. 
Third sergeant Enoch R. Fary. 
Fourth Sergeant Edward P. Baker. 
Fifth .Sergeant William H. Vanderbilt. 
First Corporal Albert M. Green. 
Second Corporal Charles H. Wright. 
Third Corporal Jonathan F. Gates. 
Fourth Corporal Lewis A. Main. 
Fifth Corporal Frederick Spragg. 
Sixth Corporal George Frink. 
Seventh Corporal William P. Warren. 
Eighth Corporal George N. Whaite. 
Musician Robert N. White. 
Musician Harry Green. 
Musician Oliver Bray. 
Wagoner Byron C. Hale. 

PRIVATES. 

Eli Anderson, Hiram Abbott, Emery S. Allen, Richard H. Andrews, 
Daniel L. Brisbin, Job Barns, Gilbert P. Brant, Eli C. Brown, William 
B. Burris, Warren Bouck, Henry M. Bailey, George W. Beaman. John 
Brady, Michael Butler, Lorin D. Carpenter, John S. Coats, Needham 
N. Crandall, Levi Durham, Electus D. Frizell, Erasmus B. Frizell, 
Zenas R. Fary, Frank B. Fredenburg, George H. Fuller, Joe! Fisher, 
James C. Glass, Harry Green, George W. Hilling, Abner B. Hoffman, 
Gilbert L. Hicks, Matthias^Hook, David N. Jewett, David F. Johnson, 



Martin T. King, Willard H. King, William S. King, John R. Laton, 
.Abraham Littlejohn, William H. Lender, Waller S. Munger, William 
B. Minton, Reuben L. Merrill, David McGowan, William Milligan, 
Carr W. Mosher, Joel D. Nourse, James H. O'Brien. Bezin Orput, 
Samuel V. Pelley, Gilbert R. Parish, Joseph Postel, Joseph Russell, 
James E. Robinsot:, John G. Rice. Henry H. Romigs, Elliot G. Smith, 
Joel S. Smith, Cyrus E. Smith, .Samuel H. Smith, Daniel S. Spragg, 
John W. Sanders, Edward H. Spalding, George H. Spalding, Ben- 
jamin .S. Sager, Lucien Stevens, .Albert Tennis, Sylvanus Taylor, N. 
D. VanEman, John D. VanCleve, Jesse Wroten, John NL Watson, 
Joseph A. Williams, Seth Wheaton, Thomas Watson, David E. 
Wheeler. Eri .\. Wilson, George Wille, James G. Warren, Abisha W. 
W'ashburn. Thomas Linn. 

CAV.ALRV. 

As an entire comjjany of this arm of the service was 
not raised in Buchanan county, it has been difficult to 
secure accurate lists of cavalry recruits. Frequent men- 
tion was made in the county jiress during the progress 
of the war of the presence of recruiting officers for dif- 
ferent cavalry organizations, as the the First, Fourth, and 
Sixth, and also of the departure of squads of enlisted 
men ; the following, however, is the only one met with 
in which the names are given, and these left the county 
seat early in September, 1S62, to join the First Iowa 
cavalry, viz : 

W. H. Mcgill, Alanson .Sager, William Foote, C. P«cock, Dewit 
Kelley, E. Lotterdale, D. Brown, C. Edgecomb, C. McGill, F. W. 
Paine, S. H. Rose, T. Flemming; J, Wentworth, H. C. Skinner, P. B. 
Turney, J. West, A. Palmer, Otter C. Anton, W. H. Baker, R. Kel- 
ley, H. P.Jones, J. Wadley, W. George, L C. Jones, Ludebeck Long 
F. Weik, W. G. Cummings, Levi S. Drunkwalter, John H. Williams, 
Charles Porter, Oscar Daniels, E. H. McMillen, Lyman Ayrault, Ed- 
gar Mills, M. D. Carpenter, Edward Brown, J. S. Thompson, Loy 
Hutchins, Howard Hall, E. L. Chickenbrend, G. EUworth, H. Bab- 
cock, John Furman, Stephen Burk, Hibby, George Carr, John 

Boehline, George H. Davis. 

But to return to the Buchanan men at Camp Franklin, 
to which rendezvous they were ordered by the governor 
of the State, Samuel J. Kirkwood, August 26, 1862, and 
mustered into the service of the United States by Cap- 
tain George S. Pierce, United States Army, at Dubuque, 
Iowa, October 3, 1862, under proclamation of the Presi- 
dent of the United States, bearing date July 2, 1862, 
taking their places as companies C and H, in the Twen- 
ty-seventh Iowa infantry. 

As related in the correspondence from this regiment, 
almost immediately upon being mustered into the service 
of the Government, its active service commenced with a 
march into the northern woods, attended with hardships 
which might well tax to its utmost the endurance of vet- 
erans. To some, it may seem trivial, after the lapse of 
nineteen years, to make mention of the kindly offices 
which were maintained between the " friends at home'' 
and those who had relinquished home; but who, for a 
short six weeks, were yet within reach of the love which 
soon, in vain, would yearn for the solace of relieving the 
privations so heroically borne, that at least they should 
never be forgotten. And when, too, it is remembered 
that the oldest survivor of those companies is not yet a 
very old man, while the youngest is still a young man^ 
who will doubt that to them, next to the enjoyment of 
fighting their battles o'er again, the pleasantest reminis- 
cences connected with their soldier life are those which 
recall the many evidences in their past experience, that 
their self-devotion to the cause of our country made 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



117 



thLin objects of peculiar interest, and gave them a claim 
upon the sympathy and the gratitude of all true patriots. 
The cold, hunger, and e.xposure, followed by wasting dis- 
ease and death to many of these brave men, invest 
every circumstance connected with these last efforts to 
contribute to their enjoyment with an interest it would 
not otherwise possess. With these thoughts in our minds, 
what heart will not glow with a warm satisfaction at tiie 
glimpse of comfortable times at Camp Franklin, opened 
up by the following acknowledgment? 

Camp I-'ranklin, Dubuque, ^ 
September 10, 1862. j 
Editor Gu.-vrdian: — Permit us, in behalf of Captain J. M. Miller's 
company, to return our sincere thanks to our friends at liome who have 
furnished us so many "good things." 

We would especially remember Mr. Hoover for two pails of honey 
T. H. Bowen and others for a barrel of eggs, our sporting fiiends for 
nearly two hundred prairie chickens; and Mrs. Gill and others for a 
nice supply of butter. 

Communicated. 

THE EXCURSION. 

Later in tlie month an excursion to Camp was projected 
which proved in every respect highly successful. And 
here, it is with great reluctance that a record is made 
which may seem at first thought to detract from the 
prestige of the "Light Infantry," the recipient (about a 
year before) of a like compliment while at the same place, 
then called Camp Union. This first excursion was con- 
veyed to Dubuque by a train of nine cars, and its seven 
hundred excursionists were met at the depot by a fine 
band, and marched into the city, not with flags flying, but 
yet with colors hailed with ardeiit pride by chivalrous 
men the world over; not under artns, for the brave men at 
"Eagle Point" were, for the most part, already parolled 
prisoners, and were not likely to offer resistance to the 
invading force to which they had surren,dered at dis- 
cretion, and against whose mild sway they had no thought 
of becoming rebels. It is not to be supposed that this 
army from the dominion of home came empty handed, 
though this they might have done, without abating one 
jot the enthusiasm of their reception. 

Let no flippant, gossiping pen attempt to put into 
common phrase the cominunings of such a region — let us 
leave them the undisturbed enjoyment of that glorious 
autumn day, overlooking that wondrous panorama spread 
at their feet, which, intersected by the grandly flowing 
river, stretches away into the fading distance whichever 
way the gaze may turn. 

A year has passed and two companies of Buchanan 
county's best were awaiting orders at the same rendezvous, 
now Camp Franklin. Is it strange, now that battles had 
been fought, and some who took the parting hand then, 
were sleeping in southern graves,, that a deeper estimate 
of what was due to our heroes had been gained by the 
loyal heart of Iowa? The demonstration of 1862 was 
not confined to the immediate friends of the soldiers, but 
all claimed the privilege to do them honor. Twenty-one 
cars deposited their crowded inmates at the Dubuque 
depot — in all else this outpouring of patriotism was a 
transcript of the subdued enthusiasm of that of Septem- 
ber, 1 86 1. 

A few days later, having been mustered into the United 



States service, and having received their advance pay and 
a furlough from Colonel Gilbert, in view of their speedy 
transfer to the field, the Dubuque & Sioux City rail- 
road company called forth loud and hearty praise from 
the men of the Twenty-seventh, by putting on a train 
and bringing them through to Independence on quick 
time, thereby giving them the benefit of another day 
with the friends at home. The following week the regi- 
ment left their camp and State and reported at Fort 
Snelling, Minnesota. Six companies were detached to 
accompany government agents to Millie Lacs for the 
transaction of business connected with the Indian 
agencies. During the absence of this portion of the regi- 
ment, it was transferred from the northern to the southern 
department, and the four companies still at Fort Snelling 
left immediately for Cairo. Captain Miller, of company 
H, left his regiment at Dubuque and visited home on a 
furlough to recruit his health impaired by exposure in 
Minnesota. Benjamin Sutton and Morgan Boone, of 
Independence were left in a critical condition at Fort 
Snelling, and Nelson J. Boone had been detailed to 
attend upon the sick. S. Abby was sick, and had gone 
to Milwaukee on a furlough, and John G. Litts was sick, 
but still with his company. And this is the record of 
one company after one month's service, of not exceptional 
hardship. Captain Miller allowed himself but a short 
respite, as the following notice, which appeared the week 
after his return, will show: 

Any persons wishing to send letters or likeness to their friends in 
company H, Twenty-seventh regiment Iowa volunteers, can have an 
opportunity to do so, by leaving the same at my residence, or at the 
book store of Rev. Mr. Sampson, Independence, until Thursday even- 
ing of this week. J. M. Miller. 

The following week, the death of young Sutton at Fort 
Snelling, was announced. He died of typhoid fever. 
Colonel Lake on his return from the Mille Lacs expedi- 
tion, finding Morgan Boone convalescent, came to In- 
dependence, bringing him, with Oliver Bray and" Joseph 
Russell of company C, seriously ill. Walter H. Munger, 
of company C, who was left at Anoka on the return 
march from the north, died at that place on the eighth 
of November. He received the kindest attention from 
the people, who took him to a private house, nursed 
him tenderly, and turned out en masse to do honor to his 
remains. 

One who speaks of him as his friend, pays this tribute 
to the fallen soldier: 

He was an honest, upright, tnithful man, and no one has gone into 
the army from purer motives of patriotism, or a nobler sense of duty. 
When we last saw him at Dubuque, he was full of life, energy and good 
feeling; but now, alas! he is in the silent tomb. May tht sod press 
lightly upon his bosom. 

THE LADIES .4ND THE .SOLDIERS. 

The lady friends of our boys in the Twenty-seventh sent to them, in 
care of Colonel Lake, three boxes weighing six or seven hundred 
pounds, filled with chickens, turkeys, preserves, cakes, cookies, and 
other good things, which will gladden the hearts of the brave boys im- 
mensely. God bless our patriotic ladies, will be their prayer, as it 
certainly is ours. — From the Buchanan Guardian. 

During the months of January and February, 1863, 
the deaths of five members of the Twenty-seventh regi- 
ment were announced in the Guardian. John McBane 



iiS 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



and John \V. Sanders died at Cairo, where they had 
been left in the hospital in November of 1862. Jacob 
Glass and William H. Leuder died with the regiment 
near Jackson, Tennessee, and C. W. Mosher, of Little- 
ton, a member of Captain Noble's company, died at 
Memphis. All were highly esteemed by their comrades 
in arms, as well as by their acquaintances at home. 

TRIBUTE TO LIEUTENANT A. B. LEWIS, OF THE FIFTH IOWA 

VOLUNTEERS, Vi^HO DIED AT KEOKUK 

FEBRUARY 25, 1863. 

Lieuten.int .Alexander B. Lewis has sunk into a soldier's grave. But 
last week we were all rejoicing in the assurance of his recovery and 
return to active duty. But alas! it was not to be. He was destined 
to leave his bed of pain, only to lie down in the narrow bed of death. 
Here, where the cords of sympathy, of friendship, of respect, of admira- 
tion for him ramified throughout our whole community, there is every- 
where pam. .Among his companions in arms, in whom his patriotism, 
his bravery, his nobleness of character, had induced a warmth of affec- 
tion more than brotherly, there must be the poignancy of grief ine.i- 
pressible. At his home, where the ties of kindred were strengthened 
by pride in his manhood and mental promise, there must be the very 
depths of woe. 

.Among the thousands of the noble and brilliant, who have given 
themselves up as sacrifices on the altars of country, few were more 
worthy than Lieutenant Lewis. Frank and social, he drew around 
him hosts of friends, while his mental abilities, his industry, his appli- 
cation, his ambition gave every promise of a successful and brilliant 
career in his chosen profession as a lawyer. But when the war came, 
imbued with as true a spirit of patriotism as ever prompted man to 
action, he without hesitation threw himself into the contest. He was 
almost the first to enlist in this county, and went into the ranks as a 
pri\ate soldier under Captain Lee. He soon, however, attracted the 
attention of Colonel Worthington, who made him sergeant major of 
his regiment, the Fifth, and afterwards, on the death of Lieutenant 
Jordan, procurred his commission as first lieutenant of company E, to 
the infinite satisfaction of the company, who knew that as far as a man 
could he would replace the noble friend they had lost in Lieutenant 
Jordan. At the glorious battle of luka, September, r86z, where the 
fifth made itself a most honored name. Lieutenant Lewis while fighting 
as each fought, like a hero, received a dangerous wound in the hip. 
From that time he lay upon a bed of suffering. He tried to reach 
home, but was only able to get as far as Keokuk. There he lay for 
months, suffering all that acuteness of pain possible to a sensitive, 
nervous organization, but bearing all with calmness, with true courage. 
On the twenty-fifth of last month he died, bringing home to us by his 
loss a new appreciation of the terrible price the Nation is paying for the 
great crime of slaveholding. He rests in the patriot's grave, sleeps the 
patriot's sleep — "Lost, loved, lamented." — Editor Guardian. 

FROM A COMPANION IN ARMS. 

After the intimacy that existed between us for the 
last ten years, my regard for him resembles more that of a brother than 
a stranger. For three years we sat together in the same class, met to- 
gether in the same societies, roomed and ate together, shared the toils 
and enjoyed with each other the pleasures of youth, and all the bright 
anticipations of the great unknown future thai lay before us. Together 
with hearts buoyant with hope, and with spirits light and free from 
care, we launched our frail barks on the ocean of life. In all places, 
on all occasions, and under all circumstances, he proved himself the 
same true and tried friend; a noble, proud spirited and honorable man. 
M'ith a full knowledge of the dangers and privations he 
was about to incur, we see him relinquishing the promise of distinction 
in his profession, the pleasures of home and society, and, refusing po- 
sition, taking his place in the ranks of that company to which he con- 
tributed so much labor and means, and in the welfare of which he felt 
such a deep interest. Together with Lieutenant Jordan, whose noble 
spirit preceded his to brighter realms, we see him labor day and night 
for the success of that cause in which his heart and soul was engaged. 
■We follow him to the "tented field" and see him endure disease and 
pain until brought almost to the brink of the grave. Again restored to 
health and vigor, and chosen to take the place of the lamented Jordan, 
we see him discharging every duty of his office with promptness and 
fidelity; an honor to the regiment and the pride of his company. 
Much improved in health and appearance, after his severe illness, he 



continued in the faithful discharge of his duties up to that fatal day 
when his regiment was called upon to pass through the first ordeal of 
battle. From the early part of that day until evening, beneath the 
burning sun, through fields and swamps, and under the fire of the ene- 
my, he advanced with the line of skirmishers until he reached the bat- 
tle-field of luka. A few minutes more and everything was swallowed 
up in the heat of battle. Well do I remember the last time I saw him 
during that terrible struggle. I never saw him look so well as he did 
at that moment. A volley of musketry had sent a shower of bullets 
through our ranks, but he stood at his post with a proud and fearless 
bearing, calmly discharging his duty. Conscious of the danger he was 
in, but nerved by the justice of his cause, and flushed with the desire 
and assurance of victory, he defied the missiles of the enemy. .A half 
hour later, and what remained of the regiment, amidst clouds of smoke 
and in the shades of nightfall, emerged from the woody battle-ground 
and formed in line of battle in the open field. Companies reduced to 
squads began to count their loss and enquire for the missing. Among 
many others Lieutenant Lewis was absent. Many inquiries were made, 
but none there could answer. About nine o'clock it was ascertained 
that he had been wounded and carried to a house near by where he had 
received proper medical attention. The nature of his wound, and the 
manner in which he improved for a few days, gave hope that he would 
speedily recover. It, however, proved the prolongation of a life but 
for a few months of intense suffering. All that was mortal of him now 
slumbers in the tomb, but his spirit lives in the region of eternal bliss. 
It is not all to say that he lived and that he died, but it may in truth 
be added that he lived uprightly and died happily. — L^ieutenant Mar- 
shall. 

LATER BUCHANAN RECRUITS, ASSIGNED TO VARIOUS REGI- 
MENTS. 

The following list of recruits was published in the 
Guardian of March 15, 1864. The enlistments were 
made by Dr. R. W. Wright, and left Independence for 
Dubuque under his charge the week previous to the pub- 
lication of tlie list. 

WASHINGTON TOWNSHIP. 
Arthur Merriman, Twenty-seventh infantry; John Bessey, First cav- 
alry; L. Whait, First cavalry; J. B. Hill, First cavalry; Martin Steb- 
bins. Fifth infantry; John J. Miller, Fifth infantry; Harry Samuels, 
First cai-alry; Thomas W. Melody, First cavalry; Samuel Brayton, 
First cavalry; L. J. Hale, First cavalry; Robert J. Young, First cav- 
alry: Augustus l^itner. First cavalry; Solomon Rufe, First cavalry; 
Henry Cummings, First cavalry; Thompson Lewis, First cavalry, 
James H. Laughlin, Twenty-seventh infantry; Hiram M. Thurslon- 
Twenty-seventh infantry; William Plevert, Twenty-seventh infantry; 
Samuel H. Pierce, Third battery; W. .S. Wallace, Fourth cavalry, 
Theodore Powers, Fourth cavalry: John Donovan, Fifth infantry; 
Charles Gordon, Seventh infantry. 

LIBERTY TOWNSHIP. 

George W. Wells, First cavalry: Andrew Brownson, First cavalry; 
Daniel Swartzel. First cavalry; William Miller, First cavalry; R. W. 
Bodell, First cavalry; George W. Merkly, First cavalry; William J. 
Washburn, First cavalry: S. W. Harden, First cavalry; Amos Andrews, 
First cavalry; }. T. Washburn, First cavalry; B. H. Hall, First cavalry; 
Ralph Henningan, First cavalry; Silas Henningan, First cavalry; D. 
W. Ring, First cavalry. 

NEWTON TOWNSHIP. 

W. T. Wallon, First cavalry: Charles Bench, veteran, First cavalry: 
H. H. Ransey, Twenty-seventh infantry; Abraham Black, Twenty- 
seventh infantry; James A. Waldron, Twenty-seventh infantry, 

CONO TOWNSHIP. 
Charles G. Neucle, P'irst cavalry; S. Bourres, Twenty-seventh infan- 
try; A. Stanford, Twenty-seventh infantry; J. Booth, Twenty-seventh 
infantry. 

FAIRBANK TOWNSHIP. 
H. G. Balcom, First cavalry; S. C. Hines, First cavalry; H. S. Hop" 
kins. First cavalry; J. H. Kent, First cavalry; .Allen Brant, Twenty 
seventh infantry; S. W. Patterson, Twenty-seventh infantry; William 
E. Cairn, veteran. Twenty-seventh infantry. 

BUFFALO TOWNSHIP. 
William H. Sulton, First cavalry; Samuel H. Messinger, First cav. 
airy: Samuel Bullis. First cavalry: T. C. Canfield, Twenty-seventh in- 
fantry; George D. Smith, Twenty-seventh infantry. 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



119 



HAZLETON TOWNSHIP. 

D. A. Todd, Twenty-seventh infantry; A. D. Allen. Twenty-seventh 
infantry; H. D. Barry, Twenty-seventh, infantry; Henry Harpy, Twen- 
ty-seventh infantry; C. M, Wheelock, First cavalry; Rufus Bunce, 
First cavalry; Martin Hayes. Twenty-seventh infantry; R. Merril, sr., 
Twenty-seventh infantry; R. Merril, jr.. Twenty-seventh infantry. 

FREMONT TOWNSHIP. 
Peter Gelford, First cavalry; M. S. Mallory, First cavalry; James 
Flenning, First cavalry. 

SUMNER TOWNSHIP. 

Runsbe Metcalf, First cavalry. 

MADISON TOWNSHIP. 

Mort Smith, Twenty-seventh infantry; Gustavus Jackway, Twenty- 
seventh infantry; Benjamin Crocker, Twenty-seventh infantry. 

PERRY TOWNSHIP. 
Preston Reinhart, Twenty-seventh infantry. 

BYRON TOWNSHIP. 

Robert Buth, Twenty-seventh infantry. 

JEFFERSON TOWNSHIP. 

J. F. Henderson. Twenty-seventh infantry; R. H. Wilson, Twenty- 
seventh infantry; J. Dawson. Twenty-seventh infantry. 

There were also eight men from Oran township, Fayette county. 

RETURN AND WELCOME OF THE VETERANS OF COMPANY 
C, NINTH REGIMENT. 

Company C, of the Ninth regiment, though not so 
early in the field as company E, of the Fifth (the latter 
leaving Independence early in July, 1861, and the for- 
mer only a month later), was, for reasons of military 
expediency, the first to be furloughed as veterans after 
the reenlistment under the orders of the ^^'ar Depart- 
ment, in the early part of 1864. 

Early in February, the "friends, countrymen and 
lovers" of the Buchanan boys in blue, began to be 
stirred by rumors that soon the heroes, toward whom all 
eyes were turned, would "come marching home." All 
this and the final outcome, is well set forth in the article 
given below, which appeared in the Guardian of Febru- 
ary 16, 1864. We give it substantially as it first ap- 
peared : 

"glorious RECEPTION OF COMPANY C, OF THE NINTH." 

For days our citizens have been on the tip-toe of expectation over 
the news that many of the gallant soldiers who first enlisted, were 
returning to their homes once more, for the purpose of recruiting and 
paying their friends a visit. The streets were full of rumors as to the 
time when they might be expected; but, at last, the telegraph settled 
the question with the assurance that company C, the Ninth Iowa, 
would be in our town on Saturday without fail; and everybody was 
crazy with joy over the welcome intelligence. They had started from 
Huntsville. Alabama; reached Cairo on the tenth instant, and arrived 
in Dubuque at three o'clock A. M. , on Friday, the twelfth. Here they 
met a glorious reception from the citizens, who prepared them a break- 
fast, dinner, and supper, in the best style, and laid before them the 
hospitalities of the city. 

Dr. Wame had gone down to escort the soldiers to Independence; 
and, as they were to come on the regular train of Saturday last, very 
little time was left our citizens in which to make the necessary prepara- 
tions. It was resolved to give them a dinner at the hall, immediately 
on their arrival; and soon all parlies were at work in earnest. .AH 
personal and political animosities were forgotten; the reader of the 
Herald and the admirer of Horace clasped hands in a fraternal grasp; 
old feuds and past differences were dropped by mutual consent; unity 
and harmony per\-aded all' classes, and the prevailing sentiment that 
animated the public heart was to give the boys a cordial, whole-souled 
welcome. Saturday morning in point of loveliness was all that could 
be desired. The atmosphere was almost of summer warmth, while a 
gentle and refreshing breeze blew softly from the southwest. 



The ladies, with their accustomed independence and assurance of 
leap-year privileges, took the lead; and soon the obedient lords of 
creation were seen flying hither and thither in the performance of 
duties connected with the carrying out of the programme of the day. 
Committees ad hifiiilcm, walked up and down the streets, peered into 
every nook and corner where "good things" might be found, ransacked 
the stores, and waylaid every luckless individual who was suspected of 
having withheld a half dime from the last assessment. Teams loaded 
with bo.\es, lumber, and baskets of provisions, jostled each other on 
their way to the hall— draymen, for once, were compelled to acknowl- 
edge that they had a surfeit of business; while unsuspecting farmers 
were amazed to see some Jehu jump into their vehicles and convert the 
same into baker's wagons. Hegee with his artillery was early at his 
post, amply provided with levers, swabs, and sledge hammers, with 
which to load; and soon the thunderous echoes of his piece proclaimed 
that the spirit of '76 was to be revived again. Large numbers of 
people in carriages, in wagons , on horseback, and on foot, began to 
arrive from the country: and by 12 o'clock M., Main street pre- 
sented an animated spectacle of moving humanity. 

The town flag was suspended from Morse's hall to the bell-tower; 
while at the Guardian office another was displayed, bearing upon its 
folds the following motto: 

" Honor to whom honor is due — 
Ninth Iowa, bully for you. " 

Numerous other flags were displayed with appropriate mottoes and 
devices. Suffice it to say that our town presented a very happy and 
picturesque appearance, and one tliat must long be remembered. Hand 
bills were distributed, by which the people were notified that the sol- 
diers were to be met at the depot, where a procession would be formed 
led by the band, to escort the veterans into town. 

As train time approached, the crowd moved to the station, and soon 
the platform and everp available inch of standmg room was occupied. 
The excitement was intense, but suppressed. Here waited fathers, 
mothers, brothers, sisters, wives, with all the unrest of anticipated joy, 
for the return of those whose names were never mentioned without 
bringing a thrill of grateful pride, not only to their immediate friends, 
but to their countrymen everywhere. How slowly the moments flew ! 
Had some accident befallen the train? How eagerly every eve was 
Strained and every ear inclined, to receive the first token of its coming ! 
Hark ! a rumbling sound is heard; a white puflT of steam, like a mes- 
senger of peace, circles above the tree tops; the whistle screams; the 
bell rings; and, with a puff and a roar, the cars, with their precious 
and an.xiously-e.xpected freight, are at the depot. Hegee now opened 
with his ponderous artillery, and the echoes of the discharge had hard- 
ly died away, before it was responded to by the soldiers on board 
shouting as if in command: "Lie down, boys; the Rebs are firing on 
our flank !" 

To attempt a description of the scenes that now ensued would be 
impossible. Such meetings do not often take place, and the embrac- 
ings and hand-claspings were unlike those of the common, prosaic, 
every-day life. Captain Little— no one expected to see him with the 
company, but there he was, looking healthier and happier by far than 
when he went away. fCaptain Little had, but a short time previous, 
rejoined his regiment after a visit home, and in his impatience to be 
again at the front, had gone while crutches were still a necessity to 
him. — E. P.] And then the boys in blue, the boys of whose deeds we 
had read and wondered, the same gallant spirits who stood in battle- 
hne at Pea Ridge, .-\rkansas Post, Jackson and Champion Hill, filed 
slowly out of the cars and formed in company on the tracks, as regu- 
larly as though going out to the parade ground (although the crowd 
that surged around them sadly interfered with the command, "Right, 
dress I") 

"■Why, boys, how well you look ! " was heard from all sides; and, 
indeed, they were nearly all pictures of perfect health, though finely 
bronzed by a southern sun. The boys never broke ranks, but the out- 
siders, who had not studied Scott or Hardee, were utterly regardless of 
military etiquette, and rushed m upon them from all quarters; but the 
gallant fellows, inured to the task of overcoming every obstacle, worked 
their way through to the hall, and filed around tables that were fairly 
groaning under an endless profusion of delicately-prepared viands. 

. -At the close of the repast. Captain Little, in a neat little 
speech, extended the thanks of himself and company to the donors of 
the entertainment, after which three cheers were proposed and given 
"with the spirit and with the understanding," for company C, the 
Ninth regiment, and the Union. 

It was announced that company E, of the Fifth, would soon be in 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



our midst, and a cordial invitation extended to the guests of the day to 
participate in the festivities of that occasion. Company C now num- 
bers thirty-four privates, who have all re-enlisted; besides others in 
hospital and detached service, who are expected to do so." 

[There are, doubtless, some of the Ninth "boys" who have not for- 
gotten that, owing to the shortness of their own furlough, which ter- 
minated early in March, and the delay in the return of the veterans of 
the fifth, they were not permitted to participate in the reception festiv- 
ities of the latter, in accordance with the above invitation from their 
fair entertainers. — E. P.] 

WELCOME TO THE FIFTH. 

Soldiers OF THE Iow.\ Fifth: I am selected, on behalf of the 
citizens of Independence and Buchanan county, to greet you and wel- 
come you home again to the embraces of your friends and relatives. 

It is now almost three years since we passed along your lines, on 
nearly the same ground where you now stand; gave you the parting 
hand, dropped the silent tear, saw you aboard of the cars and away to 
the battle-field. Since that day, what changes have taken place ! 
What perils and trials you have undergone we all know well; and, be- 
lieve me, soldiers, we have not been unmoved spectators of 4II that has 
befallen you; and be assured that although we have been absent from 
you in body, we have been with you in spirit. Our sympathies were 
with you during your many marches the first winter from home; as you 
journeyed through rain and sleet and mud, nearly all over the trouble- 
some Slate of Missouri. We were with you, too. in the first great 
victory at New Madrid, and rejoiced with you over that great success. 
From New Madrid we followed you to the bloody and hotly-contested 
field of luka, and again at Corinth. We were with you in warmest 
sympathy in your many wanderings up and down and across the Mis- 
sissippi, in peril, not only from the lurking foe, but from death in many 
forms; and especially wa^ the heart of this people with you in the late 
and ever memorable campaign of 1863. We crossed the ri\'erwith you 
at Fort Gibson; we followed you in your rapid march through that 
State; we saw you filing in around Jackson, its capital; then at Black 
River Bridge and the fatal field of Champion Hill; then to Vicksburgh 
Itself, and one continued victory all the way around. And could you 
then, at the surrender of Vicksburgh, have heard the shouting and 
seen the leaping and weeping for joy, that was everywhere the sponta- 
neous expression of the great northern heart, you would have been sat- 
isfied, if never before, that the heart of this people was in the right 
place, and with you in all you were doing to save our unhappy coun- 
try. And let me here assure you, soldiers, that your victories are our 
victories, that your sufferings are our sufferings, that your country is 
our country; and permit me humbly to acknowledge the fact that to 
the soldiers of the Union we owe our national existence — yes, our con- 
tinued salvation as a nation; and you, soldiers of the Iowa Fifth, have 
stood as a wall of adamant between all we hold dear and the most un- 
relenting and cruel foe that ever drew the sword of war. And while 
we have enjoyed peace and plenty at home, you have stood in battle 
array against such a foe. that we might in safety enjoy the privileges 
handed down to us by our forefathers. 

There are no mealy-mouthed people among us now. Theie was a 
time when some of us would quake and turn pale at the announcement 
of a Union victory, lest slavery was in peril; but, thank God, that time 
is fpassed. Those people have disappeared; we are now united; we 
are now one — one in heart, one in mind, one with the soldiers for the 
suppression of the rebellion; and, soldiers, we say, now always, "Strike 
till the last armed foe expires," till the rebellion is crushed, till the 
country is saved. 

And let me. soldiers of the Iowa Fifth, revert to another short 
chapter in your history. I refer to the ever memorable, the ever to be 
remembered, march from Vicksburgh to Chattanooga, to relieve that 
division of the Union army. Hardly in the history of the world has 
been another such an undertaking performed with such alacrity and 
cheerfulness. We imagine, now, we see you on that march, on half 
rations, on quarter rations, then on less — half clad , bare-headed, bare- 
footed, sore-footed, tearing up your blankets and other garments to 
make moccasins for your sore and blistered feet and legs, and at the 
same time joyous, shouting, onward the "Battle Cry of Freedom." 
Then, after marching this incredible distance in so short a time, plung- 
ing at once into the thickest of the fight on Mission Ridge, hurling 
destruction and death like a whirl-wind among the ranks of the foe. 

Soldiers ! for these deeds we honor you, and teach our children to 
honor you, and will ever do so. Around our hearth stones shall your 
praises ever be sung. 

Again we welcome you home to the bosom of your families, the em- 



braces of your friends, to the hospitalities of the citizens and fair ladies 
now awaiting you at the court house. And here let me remind you, 
the ladies of our county have ever been thoughtful of you, and have 
'continued to labor earnestly for your comfort; and thus will they do, 
for, be assured, if true patriotism is to be found, it is among the Amer- 
ican women. 

Soldiers, welcome home I welcome home ! 

The "veterans," numbering about thirty, had already 
re-enlisted, and had returned, after an absence of nearly 
three years, to spend a furlough of thirty days with their 
families. The citizens of the county seat, and the 
friends of the men from all parts of the county who met 
them at this place, united to make their reception an 
expression of the warm admiration which was every- 
where entertained for them. After the reception at the 
depot, and the address of welcome, they were escorted 
by a large concourse of people to the court house, where, 
as in Dubuque, a table had been spread and was served 
by fair hands ; where culinary art and refinement of 
taste had done their utmost to please the eye and tempt 
the palate. To honor the brave men, who were the 
guests of the people of the county, and to charm them 
into a brief forgetfulness of the hardships through 
which they had passed during those years of absence, 
was the one impulse that swayed the entire community. 

We copy from the Independence Conservative of 
April 12, 1864, the names of these returned heroes: 

Quartermaster C. Waggoner, Commissary C. Noble, Lieutenant W. 
S. Peck, Orderly M. S. Bryan, Sergeant William Bunce, S. C. .Allison, 
Joseph Anson, J. Donnivan, J. B. Gaylord. E. Chittester, J. G. Mc- 
Kenzie, P. Putnam. J. C. Perham, James B. Wolf, J. Rea. J. F. 
Phelps, M. Williams, J. Richards, F.Johnson, F. Paine, H. McQueen, 
H. Whaitc, C. Brockway, S. Rouse, H. A. Sprague, C. Brooks, R. 
Safford, W. H. Brown, T. Robinson. 

We are glad to append here the 

LAST MUSTER ROLL OP THE "INDEPENDENCE GUARDS." 

The veterans rejoined the brigade at Decatur, Ala- 
bama, May 14, 1864. On the thirtieth of July follow- 
ing, the non-veterans of the regiment were honorably 
mustered out of the service, and the veterans were after- 
wards transferred to the Fifth Iowa cavalry, in which 
organization it remained as company (J, Fifth Iowa vet- 
eran volunteer cavalry, until the close of the war. 

On the ninth of August, 1S65, the following names 
(we take them as we find them), formerly members of 
company E, Fifth infantry, were mustered out of the 
service, at Edgefield, opposite Nashville, Tennessee: 

COMMISSIONED OFFICER. 

Second Lieutenant William H. Peck. 

NON-COMMISSIO.MED OFFICERS. 

Sergeant William Bunce. 
Commissary Sergeant Madison J. Bryan, 
Corporal Moses H. Robinson. 
Corporal Edward Rhoderick. 
Corporal Heeley C. Sprague. 
Corporal Mahlon Williams. 

PRU ATES. 

William H. Brown, Charles Brockway, Elijah Chittester, John 
Donovon, D. Donovon, William F. Johnson. Henry McQueen, Peter 
Putnam, John Richards, Samuel E. Rouse, Thomas Robinson, Jerry 
Rae, Rufus W. Safford. Herman Sprague, Henry J. Whait. 

Commissioned officer i 

Non-commissioned officers 6 

Privates 15 

Total 22 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



ONE HUNDRED DAYS MEN WHY CALLED INTO THE FIELD 

HOW MANY RAISED BY BUCHANAN COUNTY. 

Under the head of one hundred days men, we are to 
speak of the last efifort, on the part of the Government, to 
add to the strength of the Union forces by enhstment. 
"In the summer of 1864" (says Ingersoll, from whose 
volume our resume of the history of those regiments con- 
taining Buchanan county companies is drawn,) General 
Grant in \'irginia, and General Sherman in Georgia, 
being actively engaged with large armies against the 
enemy, the governors of the northwestern States proposed 
to the General Government, to send into the field a con- 
siderable number of troops for a short term of service, 
who might relieve others on guard and garrison duty at 
the rear; and thus be the means of adding largely to the 
force of drilled and disciplined men at the front. It was 
thought that, of those who had served for some time in 
the army against the rebellion, but had been discharged 
for good reason, and of others who would like to serve 
for a short period, a large army might be speedily raised 
to our posts and take care of our communications in rear 
of the theatre of the war, and thus enable veteran soldiers 
of equal number to reenforce the armies actively engaged 
in the field. The proposition at first met with consider- 
able hostility from the authorities, but was at length 
adopted; the term of service being established at one 
hundred days. 

Governor Stone accordingly issued his proclamation, calling on tlie 
State to contribute, of its citizens, troops for the service proposed; and 
they responded by offering the Forty-fourth, Forty-fifth, Forty-sixth and 
Forty-seventh regiments, and the Forty-eighth battalion of infantry; 
in all three thousand nine hundred and one men. These troops came 
from all parts of the State, and were the voluntary offering of our people 
who gave them for the special service contemplated, without expectation 
of any credit on the general calls for volunteers. 

Few counties of the State responded to this last call 
more promptly or more liberally than Buchanan; furnish- 
ing, as she did, more than double her quota, had the 
aggregate been drawn equally from all the counties; or, 
had all the counties equalled her in the number furnished, 
the aggregate would not have fallen nuuh below double 
the number actually raised. 

The enlistments were mainly made in May ; many of 
the companies leaving for their rendezvous during that 
month, and being mustered early in June. Charles F. 
Herrick, of Independence, who had taken an active 
interest in the formation of the company, was elected 
captain; and, increased by the addition of some twenty 
men from Blackhawk county, the one hundred days men 
of Buchanan county left Independence for Davenport, 
on Wednesday the eighteenth of May. 

At Davenport they were equipped and assigned as 
company D, to the Forty-seventh regiment. The brief 
period of absence anticipated, and the nature of the 
service assigned to these men naturally detracted much 
from the intensity of apprehension which had been a 
feature of former leave-takings between the soldiers de- 
parting for the war and their friends at home. But 
though the time was comparatively short, a hundred 
mischances might befall; and though none could predict 
the terrible ordeal through which the fated company was 
16 



to pass, when the time of departure arrived the hearts of 
all followed the departing defenders of their country's 
rights; and, as heretofore, crowds of relatives and friends 
attended them to the depot and bade them "God-speed." 

John H. Leatherman, an old member of the Iowa 
Ninth, who was wounded at Pea Ridge, and discharged 
froin the service in consequence thereof, and who had re- 
enlisted in Captain Herrick's company, met with a serious 
accident, as the cars were moving away from the depot. 
He was waving his hand to his friends, when his arm 
came in contact with a grain-spout running out from one 
of the ware-houses near the track, dislocating it at the 
shoulder. But it would seem that the stuff of which 
heroes is made is somewhat tougher than the sinew that 
"strikes out from the shoulder" as Mr. Leatherman in- 
sisted on proceeding with his company. 

We copy, from the report of the adjutant general, the 
roster of the officers and Buchanan men of company D, 
Forty-seventh regiment. 

COMM[.SSIONED OFFICEK.S. 

Captain Charles F. Herrick. 

Captain Lewis S. Brooks 

F'lrst Lieutenant Lewis S. Brooks. 

Lieutenant Arthur E. McHugh. 

Second Lieutenant Arthur E. McHugh. 

NON-COMMISSIONIiU OFFICEKS. 

First Sergeant Sidney C. .'\dams. 
Sergeant Daniel W. Hopkins. 
Second Sergeant Daniel W. Hopkins. 
Sergeant John H. Leatherman. 
Third Sergeant John H. Leatherman. 
Third Sergeant John F. Clarke. 
I-'ourth Sergeant John F. Clarke. 
Fourth Sergeant Isaac E. Freeman. 
Fifth Sergeant William McKenney. 
First Corporal Augustus H. Older. 
Second Corporal James D. Hill. 
Fourth Corporal George B. Bouck. 
Fourth Corporal John Hook. 
F'ifth Corporal Orrville D. Boyles. 
Sixth Corporal Morton J. Sykes. 
Seventh Corporal Simmons P. Mead. 
Eighth Corporal George S. Jackson. 
Musician William M. McHugh. 
Musician Hamilton Taylor. 
Wagoner Thomas Lincoln. 

PRIVATES. 

Thomas Abbott, Lyman F. Bouck, Ralph R. Briggs, George 1'. 
Benton, Addison C. Beach, Jed Brockvvay, George Casebeer, Gustav 
Cairo, James A. Calvin, Howard M. Craig, Francis M. Fritzinger, 
Orville Fonda, Lewis H. Gehman, William H. Gaige, Dewitt Gurnsey, 
Stephen L. Greely, Henry Holnian, George L. Hayden, Henry R. 
Johnson, George T. King, Royal Lowell, lesse H. Long, Lansing D. 
Lewis, Frank Landerdale, Hugh McCullough, B. Franklin Mungcr, 
Theodore F. Messenger, William H. H. Morse, Tillman Ozias, Samuel 
E. A. Ripley, .Alexander Ramsey, David Sellers, .Alexander W. Spald- 
ing, Frank L. Sherwood, William S. Scott, William Stevens. Charles 
D. Thompson, William C. Vaneman, Alden R. Wheeler, Eliott 
Weatherbee. 

The Forty-seventh regiment was sent to Helena, Ar- 
kansas, where, as will be seen from the correspondence 
of Lieutenant Brooks, many contracted disease from 
which they died at that post or after their return to their 
homes in Iowa. The services of these men were of great 
value to the National cause, and they were acknowledged 
by the President of the United States in an appreciative 
order, couched in terms which must have been \ery grat- 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



ifying to those to whom it was addressed, and which, we 
feel sure, will be read with deep interest by their children 
at the present day, for whom it is transcribed into these 
pages: 

Executive Mansion, i 
Washington City, October i, 1864. j 
Special cxtriitive order, returning thanks to t/ie volunteers for one hun- 
dred days, from the States of Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, and Wiscon- 
sin: 

The term of one hundred days, for which volunteers from the States 
of Indiana, Ilhnois, Iowa, and Wisconsin volunteered under the last 
call of their respective governors in the months of May and June, to 
aid in the recent campaign of General Sherman, having expired, the 
President directs an official acknowledgement of their patriotic sersices. 
It was their good fortune to render etiftcient service in the brilliant oper- 
ations in the southwest, and to the victories of the National arms over 
the rebel forces in Georgia, under command of Johnston and Hood. 
On all occasions and in every service to which they were assigned, their 
duty as patriotic volunteers was performed with alacrity and courage, for 
which they are entitled to, and are hereby tendered, the National 
thanks through the governors of their respective States. 

The Secretary of War is directed to transmit a copy of this order to 
the governors of Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, and Wisconsin, and to cause 
a certificate of their honorable services to be delivered to the officers 
and soldiers of the States above mentioned, who recently served in the 
military force of the United States as volunteers for one hundred days. 

Abraham Lincoln. 

THE FINAL TRIUMPH AND REJOICING. 

A few brief revolving months, crowded with brilliant 
successes, followed the return of the one hundred days' 
men ; and the great struggle, which had so long filled the 
land with mourning, was over. How suddenly were the 
sorrow and darkness changed to light and laughter. 
Youths and maidens, you whose fathers, mothers, and 
elder brothers it may be, passed through that time of 
fiery trial, ask them to describe to you some of those 
demonstrations of a joy that knew no bounds, which 
filled the universal heart when the announcement of 
Lee's surrender was flashed over the land. In the happy 
heyday of your youth, you shrink from the contemplation 
of the pain and sorrow that had gone before; try, then, 
to gain some adequate conception of the peril and an- 
guish from which your fathers and mothers were then 
delivered, by dwelling upon the intensity of their trium- 
phant rejoicing when the assurance came that war should 
be no more, and that the precious inheritance bequeathed 
by the founders of our beneficent Government was saved 
from the machinations of traitors, to be transmitted to 
their children. The joy was as all-pervading as the air 
or the sunlight. From ocean to ocean, everything that 
symbolized with exaltation and exultation was made the 
medium of expressing a satisfaction too great for expres- 
sion. When you have heard what was done in this hour 
of triumph at Independence, or any other place, be sure 
that the same or similar manifestations were being made 
everywhere. By midsummer of 1865 the disbanding of 
the troops commenced, and in a few weeks the defenders 
of their country in her sanguinary struggle for National 
existence, had returned to their homes. Everywhere 
were they received as heroes worthy of the highest meed 
of praise. 

As soon as suitable arrangements could be made after 
[he return of all the Buchanan soldiers, a reunion and 
welcome was tendered them by the citizens, on which 
occasion they were the honored guests of the people, 



and but one desire animated the entire population of the 
county, which was to give expression to the estimation 
in which the services of these heroic men were held by 
all true patriots. On the day appointed, Saturday, the 
sixteenth of September, which proved to be most auspi- 
cious, three hundred, of the four companies and subse- 
quent enlistments, were gathered at the county seat. 
Five thousand of their fellow citizens, it was estimated, 
attended in the capacity of hosts and entertainers. A 
triumphal arch had been erected with suitable mottoes 
and decorations, and the principal blocks on Main street 
were gay with wreaths and flags. Ladies joined in the 
procession which followed the brave three hundred bear- 
ing their battle flags. At their head was borne a beauti- 
ful banner, displaying the inscription, 

"thus we welcome our heroes home from the wars." 
'■'■Duke est pro patria mori." 
Among the distinguished guests from abroad, none 
were more welcome or more honored than Major 
General Vandever, the former gallant colonel of the 
Iowa Ninth. In the eloquent address which he 
delivered, he almost justified a slight change in the oft 
quoted line of the poet, which would make it read, 

"The tongue is mightier than the sword," 

A most eloquent and appropriate address of welcome 
was delivered by the Rev. J. M. Bogg, and was ably re- 
sponded to by one of the heroes of the day. Colonel 
Jed Lake, on behalf of the military. 

A feast, fit for the occasion, for the people's guests, 
was spread in Mr. Older's beautiful enclosed grove, 
where it was evident that every resource of the culinary 
art had been taxed to bury hard fare and hard-tack for- 
ever from the sight and memories of those whose deeds 
all delighted to celebrate. The delicate viands amply 
discussed. Mayor Woodward, as toast master, introduced 
many glowing gems of sentiment, which elicited noble 
thoughts clad in eloquent words — as their worthy setting. 

Our record of Buchanan county in the Rebellion, may 
be already too long — we are glad that the bulk of the 
matter contained in it is simply a transcription of the 
current war literature of the times, and we close with one 
of the sentiments offered at the soldiers' reunion and 
welcome in 1865, which, after a lapse of sixteen years, is 
still the aspiration of every patriot heart: 

The north and the south — may they be reunited by cords that no 
traitors hand can sever. 

HONORS PAID TO THE MARTYRED PRESIDENT. 

Here, as everywhere, the news of the assassination of 
the lamented President Lincoln, broke in upon universal 
and jubilant rejoicing. Main street had been made gay with 
flags in honor of the restoration of the National emblem 
to its rightful place over Fort Sumter, in obedience to 
the murdered President's order, and throughout the 
country, on the fourteenth of April, at 12 o'clock m., 
flags had been given to the breeze and cannon had 
thundered the Nation's joy. The flags still floated on 
Saturday morning, but the overflowing joy was changed 
to overwhelming grief 

The next issue of the city papers appeared with 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



123 



columns draped in mourning and with full particulars of 
the tragedy which had shrouded the Nation in gloom. 

A meeting was called by authority of the mayor of 
Independence, D. S. Lee, esq., that the citizens might 
consult upon the proper action to be taken to carry out 
the recommendations contained in the proclamation of 
the governor of the State. Arrangements were made at 
this meeting of the citizens to observe the day set apart 
by the governor, the twenty-seventh of April, 1865, as a 
day of humiliation and prayer, in view of the recent 
great National calamity. It was also recommended that 
places of business should be closed on that day, and 
that the citizens refrain from all secular vocations and 
enjoyments, and meet to testify, by prayer and humilia- 
tion, the great grief felt at the loss of the noble life that 
had fallen — their profound sorrow at this great calamity 
to the country and to humanity. 

Preparations were also made for proper e.xercises on 
the day President Lincoln was to be buried at his old 
home, at Springfield, Illinois. The programme provided 
for the firing of cannon every half hour during the day, 
commencing at sunrise; the suspending of all business 
between the hours of 10 o'clock a. m. and 2 o'clock p. 
M., and the draping of all business houses and private 
dwellings in mourning. 

On Wednesday following the assassination, the day 
fi.xed for the moving of the funeral cortege from Wash- 
ington at noon, Judge Burt adjourned the court at half- 
past 1 1 A. M., in accordance with recommendations from 
Washington that such observance should be made all 
over the land. 

Owing to the limited time after the arrival of this rec- 
ommendation, no formal observance was made. By 
means of handbills, however, a large concourse of the 
leading citizens and ladies of the place was called 
together at the court house. The bell was tolled with 
"minute peals" fronr 12 to i o'clock, when the services 
at the court house commenced. Rev. Mr. Boggs 
of the Presbyterian church presided, and Rev. Mr. 
Fulton of the Baptist church opened the exercises with 
prayer. Rev. Mr. Eberhart, Baptist minister from Cedar 
Falls, was then introduced and enchained the audience 
with an eloquent address which was received with deep, 
silent, and tearful attention, broken only by occasional 
subdued but irrepressible applause. Mr. Eberhart's 
address was marked by "thoughts that breathe and 
words that burn," and none who were so fortunate as to 
listen to his eloquent and patriotic utterances will ever 
lose the remembrance of them. He was followed by 
brief and appropriate addresses from Rev. Mr. Fulton 
and Judge Burt. 

The Rev. Mr. Bambo, of St. James' Episcopal church, 
and the Rev. Mr. Boggs of the Presbyterian church 
preached memorial sermons on the death of President 
Lincoln in their respective churches on the Sunday fol- 
lowing his assassination, and memorial and patriotic res- 
olutions were passed by the various religious societies 
and social organizations of the place. 

On the fast day appointed by State authority, all 
places of business in Independence were closed, and a 



more than Sabbath stillness pervaded the streets. The 
union services which were held at the court house were 
attended by such a concourse as was never before seen 
in the town at a religious service. The tragic death of 
President Lincoln, who had so endeared himself to the 
American people, had deeply impressed all classes ; and 
every occasion was gladly embraced to do honor to his 
memory. 

AFTER THE RETURN. 

The following historical sketch from the Bulletin will 
be found interesting, and will explain itself: 

SKETCH OF COMPANY H, TWENTY-SEVENTH IOWA. 

QuASQUETON, August 14, 1865. 
Mr. Editor ; — In answer to your favor of the eleventh instant, de- 
siring a complete history of company H, Twenty-seventh Iowa 
infantry, I reply that my time is so occupied that I cannot furnish 
you with a full history of the company, but I will give you a brief 
sketch which you are welcome to do with as you please. 

Company H, Twenty-seventh Iowa infantry, was organized on the 
twenty-seventh of August, 1862, and mustered into the United States 
service on the twenty-ninth of the same month, at Dubuque, Iowa. 
[The list of officers is omitted here, being already given in the roster of 
the company, taken from the adjutant general's report. — E. P.] 

The company was mustered out at Clinton, Iowa, on the eighth day 
of August, 1865, numbering, all told, forty-two. The term of service 
w.as twenty-one days less than three years. 

The company has been in fifteen engagements, in which but one man, 
Charles Canton, was killed and seventeen wounded. Corporal Low, 
and Edward E. Mulick, color bearers, were severely wounded at Pleas- 
ant Hill, Louisiana, April 9, 1864, and fell into the hands of the rebels. 
John Buck, died at Moscow, Tennessee, July 22, 1863, from an acci- 
dental gunshot wound received while on picket duty. Twelve died 
from disease, as follows: Joseph H, Black died in convalescent hos- 
pital, Memphis, Tennessee, December 4, 1864; two days thereafter his 
discharge papers were received; Charles Coleman died at Independence. 
Iowa, October 14, 1862; Isaac Gill died at Brownsville, Arkansas, Sep- 
tember 8, 1864; Jacob Glass died at Jackson, Tennessee, February 15, 
1863; George Hathaway died at Holly Springs, Mississippi; Walter 
B. Lanfeer died at Cairo, Illinois, December 8, 1863; John McBain 
died at Mound City, Illinois, December 9, 1862; Joseph Moore died at 
Jackson, Tennessee, March 14, 1863; Bartemas McGonigil died at 
Jackson, Tennessee, March i8, 1863; John Older died at Memphis, 
Tennessee, May 12, 1865; Benjamin Sutton died at Fort Snelling, 
Minnesota, October 28,- 1862; John A. Tift died at Memphis, Ten- 
nessee. November 30, 1862. 

There were forty discharged previous to the mustering out of the 
company. George G. Gaylord was discharged to enable him to ac- 
cept a commission as lieutenant in a battery of heavy artillery. Our 
surgeon, Sylvander W. Bowker, was discharged at Jefferson Barracks 
September 24, 1864, and died two days thereafter while in the hospital. 
Four, Matthew T. Brown, Jeremiah Irwin, Isaac T. Lee, and Christian 
Waller, the only drafted men in the regiment, were discharged in June, 
1865, their term of service expiring September 30, 1865. The remainder 
were discharged for physical disability. 

Thirty-two were transferred; thirteen of whom, being recruits, were 
transferred to the Twelfth Iowa Infantry. Two, Charles H. Lewis and 
Dr. H. H. Hunt, were transferred to the non-commissioned regiment 
staff, and were soon after discharged to enable the former to accept a 
commission of first lieutenant and adjutant, and the latter to accept a 
commission of assistant surgeon to the Twenty-first Iowa volunteer 
infantry. 

The following is a list of officers, non-commissioned officers and 
privates who were finally mustered out of the service: 
COMMISSIONED OFFICERS. 

Captain O. Whitney. 

First Lieutenant W. G. Donnan. 

Second Lieutenant G. W. Smyzer. 

NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICERS. 

First Sergeant Charles W. Evans. 

Sergeant James \. Laird. 

Sergeant Daniel .Andrews. 

Sergeant Emanuel Miller. 



I 24 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



Sergeant Henry E. A. Diehl. 
Corporal Harrison H. Love. 
Corporal William Morgan. 
Wagoner Benjamin Miller. 

PRIV.\TES. 

William C. B. Adams, Samuel Beckley, ]ohn M. Blank, Hamilton 
B. Booth, Francis M. Congdon, Columbus Caldwell, William Case- 
beer, William Crum, James Campbell, Albert Cordell, Devolson Cor- 
nick, Moses Chase, Hamilton Evans, William B. Fleming, Michael 
Harrigan, Adam Hoover, Charles Hoover, jr., James C. Haskins, 
George Kirkham, William J. Hendrick, Charles W. McKinney, Alvi 
Megonigal, Edward E. Mulick, Augustus P. Osgood, Austin W. Per- 
kins, WilHam T. Rich, Philip C. Smyzer, Alonzo Shurtliff, Henry H. 
Turner, Joseph Tures, Myron H. Woodward. 

The company has furnished eight commissioned officers — Jacob Mil- 
ler, captain to April 9, 1863; O. Whitney, captain at the time the com- 
pany was mustered out of the United States service; W. G. Donnan, 
first lieutenant; George W. Smyzer, second lieutenant; C. H. Lewis, 
adjutant; Dr. H. H. Hunt, assistant surgeon Twenty-first Iowa infantry; 
George G. Gaylord, lieutenant of artillery; and Lieutenant A. M. 
Wilcox, whose resignation was accepted to enable him to accept the 
commission of captain and commissary of subsistence of United States 
volunteers. 

As near as I can estimate, from the data I have on hand, the com- 
pany has travelled by steamboat over eight thousand miles, by railroad 
two thousand miles, and marched three thousand miles. The company, 
with the regiment, has visited the capitals of seven different States, 
and three times have built comfortable winter quarters without being per- 
mitted to occupy them, except for a few days. It has never been sur- 
prised on picket or whipped in battle; has burned a fair proportion 
of cotton; and its doings will compare favorably with any other com- 
pany in the legiment, or among General .^. J. Smith's guerillas, in the 
number of pigs, sheep, turkeys, and chickens it has, from military ne. 
cessity, appropriated to personal use. 

I am, very respectfully yours, 

O. Whitney. 
A RESUME 

of the history of the three regiments, Fifth, Ninth, and 
Twenty-seventh, which contained the four companies 
raised in Buchanan county, being selections and adapta- 
tions from three chapters of "Iowa and the Rebellion," 
by Lurton Dunham Ingersoll, published in 1866. 

FIFTH INFANTRY. 

The companies which formed the Fifth Iowa volunteer 
infantry were organized in their respective neighborhoods 
immediately after the receipt of intelligence of the fall of 
Fort Sumter; but the General Government, not then ap- 
preciating the magnitude of the conflict which was to 
ensue, gave no authority for their regimental organization 
till some time afterward. The companies were enrolled 
in the counties of Cedar, Jasper, Louisa, Marshall, Bu- 
chanan, Keokuk, Benton, Van Buren, Jackson, and Ala- 
makee, but other counties contributed to swell their 
numbers. They were organized into the Fifth regiment, 
and as such sworn into the service of the General Gov- 
ernment at Camp A\'arren, near the city of Burlington, 
on the fifteenth, sixteenth and seventeenth days of July, 
1861, at which time the command numbered nine hun- 
dred and eighteen robust men. William H. Worthington, 
of Keokuk, was appointed colonel; Charles L. Mathies, 
of Burlington, lieutenant colonel; William S. Robertson, 
of Columbus city, major; John S. Foley, adjutant; 
Charles H. Ranson, surgeon ; Peter A, Carpenter, assist- 
ant; Robert F. Patterson, quartermaster; and Rev. A. 
B. Madeira, chaplain. At the time of his appointment 
as second in command of this regiment. Lieutenant Col- 
onel Mathies was serving as captain of one of the com- 



panies of our First regiment, then making forced marches 
from Boonville to Springfield, Missouri. The other offi- 
cers were taken directly from civil life. 

The Buchanan county company took the letter of the 
alphabet corresponding with the order in which the coun- 
ty is named in the above list, and was known as company 
E. Remaining at Camp Warren, in the performance of 
drill and guard duties, about two weeks, the regiment 
proceeded to Fort Madison by steamer, and thence to 
Keokuk by rail. From this point, though not yet fully 
equipped, but using in part arms furnished by the city, 
a portion of the regiment, under Lieutenant Colonel 
Mathies, was engaged in an expedition into northern 
Missouri against the rebel leader, Mart Green. Colonel 
Moore had already routed the forces of Green, who was 
understood to be in retreat southward. Hoping to inter- 
cept and capture him, Colonel Mathies made a rapid 
march toward Di.xie with his fresh recruits; and, though 
unable to overtake him, they achieved the glory of a first 
experience in real campaigning — bivouacking during the 
night in an open field, and receiving for their breakfast a 
peculiar cracker, which, though possibly not entirely dis- 
tasteful as a novelty and as a part of their initiation into 
the art of war, became, from too great familiarity, most 
undeniably prosaic, under the name of "hard-tack." 
The detachment returned to Keokuk the following day, 
and proceeded by steamer to St. Louis, reaching there 
on the twelfth of August. 

At Jefferson barracks the men received their arm,s, and 
having been ordered to Lexington in company with other 
troops, commenced their voyage up the Missouri without 
loss of time. Three days afterwards, when some forty 
miles above Jefferson City, the troops upward bound 
were met by a regiment of three months' men whose time 
had expired, and from them received such urgent repre- 
sentations of the inadequacy of a force being sent into a 
country literally overrun by guerilla men and beset with 
masked batteries, that Colonel Worthington decided to 
return to Jefferson City and await further orders. Here, 
in response to his telegram to General Fremont, he was 
ordered to disembark and go into camp. A few days 
later, at Camp Defiance, the first instalment of the Gov- 
ernment uniform was received, as also cartridge boxes, 
canteens, camp equipage, etc. 

From this time until near the middle of October, when 
the march on Springfield commenced, the headquarters 
of the regiment were sometimes at Jefferson City, some- 
times at Boonville, while much of the time was spent in 
the field, moving in various directions, a detachment be- 
ing kept for many weeks at the railroad crossing at 
Osage, some ten miles south of the capital, to protect a 
valuable bridge. 

During this time a detachment under Colonel \\'orth- 
ington proceeded by steamer to Boonville, seized the 
confiscated stock of a shot tower, and other property, 
including a printing office, bringing the same to Jefferson 
City, with the specie from Boonville bank. Another ex- 
pedition ascended the river some thirty-five miles to 
Rocheport, and, in conjunction with several companies 
under Colonel Worthington, advanced from different 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



125 



points on Columbia, the object being to capture a body 
of rebels collected there under Major Harris. No enemy 
was found, and the regiment marched across the country 
to Jefferson City, having gained at least some wholesome 
experience in carrying knapsacks on .the march. 

Drilling and camp duties filled up the time until again, 
on the fourteenth of September, the regiment moved up 
the Missouri by steamer to reenforce a small body of 
home guards at Boonville, who had been attacked the 
day before by a considerable force of rebels under Colo- 
nel Brown. On the arrival of the regiment, on the 
morning of the fifteenth, they were met with the gratify- 
ing intelligence that the home guards had repelled the 
attack, killing and wounding some sixty of the enemy. 
Colonel Brown being among the killed. Ten days were 
spent here, adding to the duties of the camp, drill, and 
scout, much hard labor in improving and completing the 
fortifications which had been commenced by the lament- 
ed Lyon early in the summer. On the twenty-fifth the 
regiment moved up to Glasgow, where there was an easy 
crossing of the Missouri, to prevent the passage of forces 
to join Price, who had captured Lexington a few days 
before. This duty done, they returned to Boonville, 
where the regiment remained until the march toward 
Springfield commenced. 

During the Springfield campaign the Buchanan men 
were attached to Colonel Kelton's brigade, in General 
Pope's division, which made a rapid march over wretched 
roads to Springfield, and returned to Syracuse, reaching 
there November 17th, having marched more than three 
hundred miles. During the remainder of the winter, 
Colonel Worthington was in command of a brigade with 
headquarters at Otterville, Lieutenant Colonel Mathies, 
with seven companies at Boonville, quartered comforta- 
bly in houses, and three companies at Syracuse, in an 
encampment of tents, patrolling the railroad day and 
night, until the close of January, 1S62. On the first of 
February the three companies from Syracuse joined the 
other companies at Boonville. A week later the regi- 
ment crossed the Missouri, and after a day or two, took 
up the line of march for St. Charles. The weather was 
bad and the roads worse, but the march of one hundred 
and fifty miles was performed in ten days. Crossing the 
Missouri again, the regiment proceeded at once to St. 
Louis by rail. Reaching St. Louis, the men marched 
from the depot to the river, and were soon on their way 
southward. Landed at Cairo, remained a few days, then 
ascending the river debarked at Commerce, some thirty 
miles above Cairo. Here they received new tents, but 
halted in them but one day, marching on the twenty-sixth 
to Benton, nine miles distant, where the army of the 
Mississippi was concentrating under Pope. The march 
on New Madrid was commenced on the first day of 
March, the Buchanan troops being in the First brigade; 
Colonel Worthington commanding, Second division, Gen- 
eral Schuyler Hamilton. The army came in sight of 
New Madrid at noon of the third, the march having 
been over roads obstructed by the enemy, through 
swamps and drenching rains. In the operations which 
succeeded against New Madrid, Island No. 10, and 



(after the brilliant success at these places) against Fort 
Pillow, the Fifth Iowa took an active part. Included in 
the onward movement by (ieneral Pope to reenforce Hal- 
leck at Corinth, our friends were embarked in a leaky 
steamer for Cairo, but making an exchange at that place, 
went on up the Ohio and Tennessee without note — 
worthy incident, and debarked at Hamburgh Landing on 
the twenty-second of April. 

In the dull duties of this slow campaign and in the 
occasional reconnoissances which, under the direction of 
division commanders, relieved the monotony of the 
snail-like advance, our regiment bore its part, with be- 
coming resignation in the one case, and with distin- 
guished valor in the other. On the twenty-second of 
May the regiment and the Nation met with a heavy loss 
in the accidental death of Colonel Worthington. 

Meantime, the regiment moved slowly from Farming- 
ton toward Corinth, which was evacuated by the rebels 
on the morning of the thirtieth of May, and entered the 
same day by General Halleck. A pursuit was at once 
instituted by Pope's division, but the Iowa Fifth, though 
one of the best marching regiments in the command, 
was delayed by rivers and creeks, the bridges over which 
had been destroyed, and by other obstructions, so that 
its progress was exceedingly slow, as the following state- 
ment will show: It marched but five miles on the day of 
the evacuation, but eight the next, and then, halting a 
day or two to receive Whitney rifles in exchange for its 
old arms, moved a dozen miles to near Rienzi, and the 
day afterward to Boonville, Mississippi, eight miles fur- 
ther south, where it went intg bivouac and there re- 
mained until the tenth of June. 

From this date, the time passed in marching and 
countermarching, drilling being the principal duty, until, 
on the fifth of August, the division marched to Jacinto, 
where it remained till the day before the battle of luka. 
Meantime Major Robertson had resigned. Lieutenant 
Colonel Mathies had been promoted to the colonelcy. 
Captain Sampson to the lieutenant-colonelcy, and Cap- 
tain Banbury was promoted to the rank of major. 

The part of Iowa troops in this battle need not be re- 
peated here. The regiments which had particularly distin- 
guished themselves were the Sixteenth and the Fifth. 
"The glorious Fifth Iowa" says Rosecrans, "under the 
brave and distinguished Mathies, sustained by Boomer 
with part of his noble little Twenty-sixth Missouri, bore 
the thrice repeated charges and cross-fires of the rebel 
left and centre with a valor and determination seldom 
equalled, never excelled by the most veteran soldiery." 

The Fifth Iowa, General Hamilton says in his official 
report, "under its brave and accomplished Mathies, held 
its ground against four times its number, making three 
desperate charges with the bayonet, driving back the foe 
in disorder each time, until, with every cartridi'e ex- 
hausted, it fell back slowly and sullenly, making every 
step a battle-ground and every charge a victory." And 
the correspondent of the Cincinnati Commercial says 
that, "most of our troops engaged behaved in the most 
gallant manner; particularly the Eleventh Missouri and 
Fifth Iowa. These two regiments stood the brunt of 



126 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



the battle, as their lists of killed and wounded testify." 
Colonel Mathies, in his report, states that high praise 
is due to all his officers and men, without exception. 
"In commanding my regiment before the enemy, he 
says, "I was nobly assisted by Lieutenant Colonel Samp- 
son on the right, Adjutant Patterson, acting major, on 
the left, and Lieutenant W. S. Marshall, acting adjutant, 
all of whom behaved most gallantly, repeating my com- 
mands, and steadying and cheering on my brave boys 
throughout the engagement." For his own gallant and 
meritorious conduct. Colonel Mathies was afterward 
promoted to the rank of a brigadier general. Of the 
four hundred and eighty-two officers and men of the 
Fifth Iowa, who were engaged in the battle, more than 
two hundred and twenty were killed and wounded. 

Three days after the battle, the regiment reached its 
old camp near Jacinto, and there rested (if working upon 
fortifications can be so called) during the remainder of 
the month. On the first of October it marched to 
Corinth, and though, on the first day's battle which soon 
followed, it was so posted as not to be brought into ac- 
tion, it was engaged on the fourth day, from early in the 
morning till the defeat of the enemy about noon, but be- 
ing posted behind natural defences, it suffered but a 
trifling loss, though rendering valuable service, especially 
in the repulse of a charge on the Eleventh Ohio battery, 
which it was supporting on the left. To repel it, one 
regiment marched on the double-quick step to the threat- 
ened point, fired four volleys into the enemy, and drove 
them off in admirable disorder. In the pursuit of the 
rebels, after their terrible defeat, the regiment made some 
rapid marches, and returned to Corinth, going into camp 
on the evening of the eleventh, the men worn out with 
fatigue, many of them entirely without shoes, and scarcely 
one with suitable clothing. Here a brief season of rest 
was granted, before the regiment was again engaged, this 
time in conjunction with (General Grant's forces organiz- 
ing to take Vicksburgh in the rear. No good, but much 
suffering resulted from this campaign. From the first of 
February, 1863, to the second of March, the division. 
General J. F. Quinby's, remained in camp near Mem- 
phis, a single day's scout, so far as the Fifth was con- 
cerned, bemg the only interruption of its quiet. On the 
second of March the regiment commenced its work in 
the Vicksburgh campaign; and, from that time till the 
capitulation of Pemberton, more than one hundred and 
twenty days afterward, its history forms a creditable part 
of the memorable events of that period, crowded with 
the most momentous achievements of the war. After 
the fall of the gallant Boomer, Colonel Banbury, pro- 
moted, took command of the regiment, and Adjutant 
Marshall was promoted to the rank of major. 

In the campaign under Major General Sherman, which 
followed the capture of Vicksburgh, the brigade to 
which the Fifth belonged, performed valuable service, 
and was handsomely complimented by that general in his 
official report of the operations which resulted in driving 
Johnston out of the State, and in bringing the whole of 
it under the power of our armies. In the marches and 
countermarches of this active campaign, the Fifth Iowa 



encamped two different times on the memorable field of 
Champion Hills, remaining there after the retreat of 
Johnston, from the seventeenth to the twenty-second of 
July. It then proceeded by leisurely marches to Vicks- 
burgh, and encamped within the works on the twenty- 
fourth, where if remained, in the performance of light 
garrison duties, for nearly two months, in common with 
the whole division. 

On the twelfth of the following September, the division 
moved to Helena, Arkansas, for the purpose of reenforc- 
ing General Steele. That officer, however, had captured 
Little Rock on the tenth, and needed no more troops. 
While these troops were awaiting transportation back to 
Vicksburgh, General Rosecrans met with the reverse at 
Chickainauga. General Sherman commanding the Fif- 
teenth corps, was ordered to reenforce the army of the 
Cumberland; and, that he might do so the more 
promptly, the division of the Seventeenth corps at 
Helena was exchanged into his command, in place of 
one of his divi.sions near Vicksburgh. The Fifth accord- 
ingly moved with the division to Memphis by river, and 
thence by rail to Corinth, reaching that place of varied 
associations on the afternoon of October 4th, — just one 
year from the great victory which it had helped to win. 
Here it was employed for a month in rebuilding the rail- 
road toward luka, and in other ways preparing for the 
march to Chattanooga, which began on November ist, 
and ended on the twenty-fourth, with the division, now 
the Third, Fifteenth corps, in face of the enemy on 
Missionary Ridge. 

In the remarkable contest which ensued, called 
in history the battle of Chattanooga, which was in fact a 
series of grand combats from the banks of the Tennessee 
to the tops of mountains above the clouds, our regiment 
well performed its part near the northern extremity of 
Missionary Ridge. Here, near Tunnel Hill, frowning 
with rebel batteries, the regiment fought the afternoon of 
the twenty-fifth, but was overcome near evening by an 
overwhelming force of the enemy. Many were captured, 
including Major Marshall and Adjutant Byers. The 
colors also fell into the hands of the enemy, whilst the 
men who escaped, passed through a shower of balls, and 
were heedless of the rebel yells to "halt." The regiment 
went into the action with two hundred and twenty-seven 
men and twenty-one officers, and lost in killed, wounded, 
and captured, one hundred and six, of whom quite a 
large proportion were captured. 

Colonel Banbury thus closes his official report: 

I can not feel justified in closing this report without bearing testimony 
to the uncomplaining manner in which my brave men have performed 
the hard labor, and endured the severe deprivations of the campaign 
just closed; especially during the week ending November, following 
immediately upon the long fatiguing march of over two hundred miles. 
They were up at midnight of the twenty-third fortifying, and manoeuvr- 
ing for battle all day of the twenty-fourth. On picket-guard in the face 
of the enemy on the night of the twenty-fourth, fighting the enemy on 
the twenty-sixth and twenty-seventh {without rations or blankets, 
shivering around their camp fires during the nights, and marching 
through rain and mud during the days), and returning to camp— twenty- 
two miles — on the twenty-eighth. All this in the Qead of winter, and 
without a murmur. 

When the regiment on the third, fourth and fifth days 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



127 



of December marched to Bridgeport, Alabama, many of 
the men had nothing but parched corn in their haver- 
sacks. The command remained at Bridgeport, which is 
in the extreme northeastern part of the State, until the 
twenty-second, when it marched to Laikinsville, forty-five 
miles distant. Having halted there a day or two, it 
moved a few miles south to a mill, and remained there 
on guard duty, and engaged in the milling business for a 
week. On the seventh of January, 1864, the line of 
march for Huntsville was taken up. The command 
reached that place on the ninth, and there spent the re- 
mainder of the winter. Whilst at Huntsville, about one 
hundred and fifty members of the regiment, being the 
most of those present for duty, reenlisted under the 
orders of the War Department for the formation of an 
army of veterans. 

The history of the veterans from this date has already 
been given in connection with the account of their recep- 
tion on their return to Independence in April, 1864. 

The history of the gallant Fifth Iowa infantry as a dis- 
tinct command, virtually closed when the non-veterans 
were mustered out on the thirtieth of July, 1864. The 
term of its service was therefore, a little over three 
years. During this time it had marched, on foot, over 
two thousand miles in the States of Missouri, Arkansas, 
Louisiana, Kentucky, Tennessee, Mississippi, Alabama 
and Georgia, participating in Fremont's campaign of one 
hundred days in southwestern Missouri in the fall of 
1861 ; in the campaign against New Madrid, Island No. 
10, and Fort Pillow, in the siege of Corinth, in the 
battle of luka, and that of Corinth soon afterward, in the 
campaign in central Mississippi under General Grant, 
the Yazoo Pass expedition, in the grand campaign against 
Vicksburgh, in that of Chattanooga, closing an eventful, 
honorable history with its ranks so thinned that it was 
compelled to yield up its separate organization — retired 
from the records of the war for the future, but with a past 
so well secured by many glorious services, undimmed 
by the shade of any unworthy act, that its memory 
will be kept green among our people till luka and Chat- 
tanooga shall have passed from their recollection, and 
much of the noblest heroism of the war have been for- 
gotten. 

NINTH INFANTRY. 

In July, 1861, on the day of the battle of Bull Run, 
the Hon. William Vandever, then a representative in 
Congress from the second district of Iowa, which at that 
time embraced the northern half of the State, went to the 
Secretary of War and tendered a regiment of volunteers, 
to be recruited and organized by himself in his district. 
His proposition was accepted at once by Mr. Cameron, 
and Mr. Vandever speedily returned to Iowa and went 
energetically to work in the matter. Early in August the 
first company went into rendezvous at Dubuque, and in 
a few weeks the regiment was fully organized. It was 
mustered into the service on the twenty-fourth of Sep- 
tember, with the following oflScers: William Vandever, 
colonel; Frank J. Herron, lieutenant colonel; William 
H. Cayle, major; William Scott, adjutant; F. S. Win- 
slow, quartermaster; Benjamin McClure, surgeon; H. 



W. Hart, assistant surgeon; Rev. A. B. Hendig, chap- 
lain. Company C, Buchanan county. Captain J. M. 
Hord. 

The regiment remained in rendezvous but a day or 
two after being sworn into the service. From Dubuque 
it went directly to St. Louis, where, at Benton barracks, 
it went into camp of instruction. By the middle of 
October its camp was advanced to Pacific City, on the 
Pacific railroad, and the duty of guarding the southwest- 
ern branch of that road, between Franklin and Rolla, 
was assigned to it. Here, during the next three months, 
all of the troops composing the armies of the west, so 
designated for convenience and not officially, were pre- 
paring for that grand forward movement, which, com- 
mencing soon afterwards, swept with irresistable force, 
not often long retarded, over the whole domain claimed 
by traitors, and at last hurled them to destruction. 
Many of the Union troops engaged in this glorious work, 
in aid of its complete accomplishment, marched, skir- 
mished, fought the entire circuit of the confederacy; and 
among these, the Iowa Ninth holds honorable rank. 

On the twenty-second day of January, 1862, the vari- 
ous companies of the command left their camps along 
the railroad and joined the army of the southwest, con- 
centrating at RoUo, under Brigadier General Samuel R. 
Curtis. Marching to Lebanon, some sixty miles south- 
west of Rolla, a week was there spent in organization and 
preparation. The army was composed of four divisions: 
the first, commanded by General F. Siegel ; the second, 
by General A. Ashboth ; the third, by Colonel Jefferson 
C. Davis; and the fourth, by Colonel E. A. Carr. The 
troops were from the States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, 
Iowa and Missouri. Colonel G. M. Dodge, Fourth 
Iowa, commanded the First brigade, Fourth division, con- 
sisting of his own regiment, the Thirty-fifth Illinois and 
the First Iowa battery. Colonel Vandever was in com- 
mand of the Second brigade, consisting of the Ninth 
Iowa, Twenty-fifth Missouri, Third Illinois cavalry, and 
Third Iowa battery. Two battalions of the Third Iowa 
cavalry, Colonel Bussey, were also in the army, but not 
assigned to any particular division, so that all the Iowa 
troops participating in the campaign were in Colonel 
Carr's division. 

Thus organized, the army marched after the rebel 
Price, and on the fifteenth of February entered Spring- 
field from all sides, hoping to find the enemy there; but 
Price shrewdly "allowing" that it "wouldn't pay," was 
rSpidly making his way to a warmer climate, though 
Curtis had succeeded in making that of Southern Mis- 
souri "too hot" for him. General Curtis marched in 
pursuit, and for several days the retreat and pursuit were 
equally rapid. Carr's division, containing the Iowa 
troops, had the advance, and skirmishing daily was the 
rule until Price was joined by McCuUoch, eighteen miles 
south of the Arkansas line, at Cross Hollows, and the 
southward movement was continued by the rebels. Gen- 
eral Curtis took possession of advantageous ground at 
Cross Hollows, and determined to await an attack. It 
was in one of the skirmishes during the pursuit at Sugar 
creek, near the boundary, line between Missouri and 



128 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



Arkansas, that the Ninth Iowa was first under fire. The 
command behaved like veterans on this, to them, im- 
portant occasion, charging and driving before them a 
rebel force outnumbering their own, after receiving with- 
out flinching the fire of a battery of artillery and its in- 
fantry supports. 

For convenience of forage and subsistence, the different 
divisions were posted at considerable distance from each 
other, but not beyond the reach of mutual support in 
case of the approach of the enemy. Colonel Carr's 
division was at Cross Hollows, headquarters of the army. 
On the fourteenth of March, Colonel Vandever, with a 
picked portion of his brigade, consisting of a battalion of 
cavalry, a section of the Dubuque battery, and a large 
detachment of his own regiment, moved from the camp 
of the division and marched fifteen miles in the direction 
of Huntsville. The command reached that place on the 
afternoon of the next day, and found it to be a dilapi- 
dated village which had just been abandoned by a body 
of rebel cavalry. From the bewildered citizens informa- 
tion was received ot the advance of the rebel army, now 
under the command of Major General Earl Van Dorn, 
and heavily reenforced. Colonel Vandever received this 
information with the utmost apparent indifference, and 
allowed his command to remain in town some two hours, 
while he appeared to be attending to matters which 
naturally fell under his attention as a Union officer. 
Toward evening he leisurely marched his force out of 
town, and pitched camp some miles distant. During 
the night a courier arrived witli dispatches from (Jeneral 
Curtis, confirming the intelligence of the afternoon and 
ordering him to march with all possible dispatch to Pea 
Ridge, where the army was being concentrated for battle. 
To avoid the rebel army. Colonel \'andever was com- 
pelled to take a route which involved a march of forty- 
one miles, and across the pathway lay the White river 
and other streams of smaller size, which had to be forded. 
To add to the difficulties of this forced march, snow fell 
during the night, making walking most disagreeable and 
laborious. At 4 o'clock on the morning of the sixth, the 
little column was in motion, and steadily the march con- 
tinued — tramp, tramp, all day long was the only sound 
that was heard, and that was heard as regularly as the 
ticking of a clock. Not a moment's time was lost 
throughout the day. At 6 o'clock in the evening, having 
marched for fourteen consecutive hours, the command 
reached the army. The famous march to Talavera of 
Wellington's light division was no more remarkable than 
this, in which some of the sons of Buchanan county took 
jjart. Napier enthusiastically relates how that division, 
which had been trained by Sir John Moore himself, 
crossed the field of battle after its great march, in com- 
pact order, and immediately took charge of the outposts. 
The column under Colonel Vandever fought throughout 
a pitched battle of two days' continuance, immediately 
after its great march. 

The army under General Curtis numbered ten thou- 
sand five hundred men, cavalry and infantry, with 
forty-nine pieces of artillery, including four mountain 
howitzers. It is perhaps impossible to give the rebel 



numbers with any exactness, authorities differing widely 
on this point. Pollard, the rebel historian, admits that 
they numbered sixteen thousand — but their own officers 
admitted to Captain McKenney, of General Curtis' staff, 
that they numbered thirty thousand; and this accords 
with the estimates current at the time, which made the 
rebel force engaged three times that of the Union. 

Of this battle our author says: "Whether considered 
in reference to the skill with which the troops were 
manceuvred, or the valor with which they fought, this 
must be placed among the most memorable and honor- 
able victories of the war. The field was far removed 
from General Curtis' base of supplies; in a country 
much better known to the enemy than to him ; that 
enemy outnumbered him, I think, three to one. Yet he 
defeated him so thoroughly and absolutely that his scat- 
tered squads were driven in panic for leagues — far away 
to the south — like leaves before a tempest. Among 
their killed were Generals Mcintosh and McCuUoch, 
while Generals Price and Slack were severely wounded. 
The American Almanac and Annual Record puts the en- 
tire rebel loss at one thousand one hundred killed ; two 
thousand five hundred wounded, and one thousand six 
hundred prisoners. Our own loss, in killed, wounded 
and missing, numbered one thousand three hundred and 
fifty-one." 

General Curtis, in his official dispatch, very justly says 
that "Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Ohio and Missouri, may 
proudly share the honors of the victory which their gal- 
lant heroes have won over the combined forces of Van 
Dorn, Price and McCulloch at Pea Ridge, in the Ozark 
Mountains of Arkansas." 

His detailed report of the battle closes in language 
which all must feel to be that of just eulogium, and not 
of mere formal compliment. "To do justice to all," he 
says, "I should spread before you the most of the rolls 
of this army, for I can bear testimony to the almost uni- 
versal good conduct of officers and men, who have 
shared with me the long march, the many conflicts by 
the way, and the final struggle ' at the battle of Pea 
Ridge." 

The part borne by Iowa in the struggle was most con- 
spicuous. The commanding general was from our State, 
and any description of the battle must be most lame if it 
does not show him to have been a consummate tactician 
and obstinate fighter. Colonel Dodge and Colonel Van- 
dever commanded the two brigades which stood the 
brunt of the battle, which were handled with the most 
admirable skill and coolness, and which fought with a 
valor never surpassed in the history of wars. "The 
Fourth and Ninth Iowa," says General Curtis, "won im- 
perishable honors." There were innumerable acts of 
special bravery performed by Iowa troops during the 
battle; and there never was an engagement, perhaps, in 
which good conduct was more universal. General 
Curtis especially commends Colonels Dodge and Van- 
dever, while these colonels, in their official reports, give 
long lists of regimental and company officers who dis- 
tinguished themselves for coolness and valor, "while all 
did well and fought nobly." 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



129 



In fine, all the Iowa troops behaved with that high 
degree of valor which distinguished their conduct 
throughout the war, and their losses were more severe 
than those of any other troops. The casualties of com- 
pany C, the Buchanan county company, were as follows: 
Killed — Lieutenant Nathan Rice, Private Julius Furcht. 
Wounded — Sergeant Jacob P.Sampson, Corporal Charles 
C. Curtis, Wagoner David Creek, Privates Isaac Arwine 
(mortally), George M. Abbott (mortally), Jesse Barnett, 
L. n. Curtis, John Cartwright (mortally), J. E. Elson, C. 
A. Hobart, Stephen Holman, Orlando F. Luckey, James 
Leatherman, Philip Riterman, Russel Rouse, Samuel 
Robbins, ^Villiam Wisennand (mortally), Adonain J. 
Windsar (mortally). 

Having buried the dead and cared for the wounded, 
the army moved from Pea Ridge a few days after the 
battle, and, encamping in the vicinity of Bentonville, had 
there a short rest. After this our regiment took up the 
line of march with the army, and moving through a part 
of Missouri and across Arkansas, arrived at Helena 
about the middle of July, after a campaign of unusual 
hardships. At Helena the regiment had its first and last 
permanent encampment, and there it remained in quiet 
for a period of five months. The history of the regi- 
ment up to this time had been one of almost constant 
activity, of movements in the face of the enemy; of 
severe marches, terminating in a sanguinary battle. It 
had been impossible, however, to give that attention to 
drill and discipline which had been desired by the offi- 
cers. There was a fine opportunity now to make up for 
any deficiencies in these respects, and it was improved 
by both officers and men, so that, when the regiment 
again commenced its active operations, which continued 
with but short intermissions of rest, it was one of the 
best drilled and best disciplined regiments in the service. 

The fame of the army which won the victory of Pea 
Ridge, soon spread over the country and over Christen- 
dom. The Ninth received a most gratifying evidence of 
their own good name and fame, whilst at Helena, in the 
presentation to the command, by the hands of Miss 
Phoebe Adams, in behalf of a committee of ladies of 
Boston, Massachusetts, a stand of beautiful silk colors, 
elaborately embroidered in gold. Miss Adams presented 
the magnificent gift with the pleasing assurance that it 
was a testimonial of the appreciation on the part of 
many of the ladies of Boston of the conduct of the 
regiment in the battle of Pea Ridge. These colors were 
guarded and cherished by the command with religious 
care and afTection. After they had been borne many 
long miles and on many a proud field, riddled and torn 
with balls, and covered with a thousand scars of battle, 
they were presented by the unanimous voice of the regi- 
ment, one to the original donors, and the other to Brevet 
Major General Vandever, the old commander of the 
regiment, whom the men of his original command never 
ceased to hold in the warmest esteem. 

The regiment having been assigned to Thayer's bri- 
gade, of Steele's division, joined the army under Sher- 
man, which moved down the Mississippi to attack Vicks- 
burgh. In the battle of Chickasaw Bayou, where the 

'7 



Fourth Iowa gained such unfading laurels, and where 
many Iowa regiments were engaged, the Ninth was under 
fire during the greater part of the twenty-eighth and 
twenty-ninth of December; but was not itself actively 
engaged^ except for about half an hour on the latter day. 
The attempt on Vicksburgh by Chickasaw Bayou having 
failed, the army slowly and sorrowfully reembarked and 
steamed down the dark sluggish waters of the Yazoo to 
the Mississippi, and to Milliken's Bend, where Major 
General McClernand assumed command. During the 
year just closed, the Ninth had lost, by death, discharge, 
and otherwise, three hundred and twenty five men, and 
had gained, during the same period, fifty-six by enlist- 
ment so that, when it commenced the year 1863, it 
numbered seven hundred and twenty-six, rank and file. 

The regiment commenced the new year by taking an 
active part in the brilliant campaign of Arkansas Post, 
which resulted in the capture of a large number of pris- 
oners, and an immense quantity of supplies and arms. 
From this point the troops again embarked, and, moving 
down the Arkansas and Mississijipi, disembarked at 
Young's Point, Louisiana; Steele's division moving down 
and going into camp below the mouth of the canal, 
which had been dug the year before. Here, near Young's 
Point, the army lay encamped many weary weeks, which 
formed the darkest era of the whole year to the troops 
who endured it. The encampment was a vast swamp. 
In front was the Mississippi, flowing moodily by, ever 
threatening to burst from its banks and engulf the half 
submerged army. Beyond, and in plain view, were the 
hills of Vicksburgh with their frowning batteries. From 
the oozy encampment vapors and fogs arose, which 
caused the sun to shine with a feeble, sickly power, whilst 
much of the time it rained, day in and day out, without 
cessation. The army was like an army of drowning rats. 
The troops sat gloomily within their tents in sullen silence, 
or moved about from place to place in the performance 
of necessary duties, like soulless, voiceless animals. 
Driven from one encamjjment to another, and to another, 
and still another, till the army at last "roosted on the 
levee of the Mississip[)i." The men moved with a list- 
less indifference, plainly showing that they cared very 
little whether their camps and lives were saved or swept 
away together by the floods. Death was holding high 
carnival in every encampment, and acres of graveyards 
were soon visible in these most dismal swamps. The 
dying increased as the flood increased, till at length the 
dead were buried on the levee, whither the army had 
been driven. There they continued to be buried till, it 
is not too much to say, the levee was formed, near its 
outer surface, of dead men's bones, like the layers of 
stones in a work of masonry. When, after more than 
two months' stay in this vicinity, the army moved away, 
it left the scene of its encampments, the Golgotha of 
America. Major Abernethy, in speaking of this period 
in the history of the Ninth, says the ordeal of these 
unpropitious months was the more grievous, because it 
had all the evils of the battle-field, with none of its hon- 
ors. And, as it was with the Ninth, so it was with the 
arge army of which it formed a part. 

I 



13° 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



Meantime, Colonel Vandever having been promoted a 
brigadier general, Captain David Carskaddon was elected 
and commissioned in his place. The first active cam- 
paigning in which the regiment was engaged after Col- 
onel Carckaddon took command, was in the expedition 
of General Steele into central Mississippi, by Greenville, 
which consumed about a month. Returning, the com- 
mand encamped for a short time at Milliken's Bend, and 
then joined the grand campaign against Vicksburgh. 
Leaving their tents standing, one regiment put themselves 
in light marching order, and, on the second of May, 
started for Grand Gulf, as fully inspired by hope and 
enthusiasm, as they had been depressed by despondency 
and sorrow, two months before. Rapidly marching by 
Richmond to the landing opposite Grand Gulf, and there 
crossing the river, the division joined the corps, and 
marching on Jackson, took part in the capture of that 
capital. Then facing about, it moved in the direction 
of Vicksburgh; and, on the eighteenth, took position on 
the right of our lines before the enemy's works. On the 
nineteenth there was an irregular assault, in which our 
regiment lost a number of killed and wounded; among 
them Captains Kelsey and Washburn, and Lieutenants 
Jones, Wilbur, and Terrell, killed. The position of the 
regiment during the siege was a good one, well covered 
by the crest of a hill, strengthened by works, but the 
rebel sharp-shooters occasionally picked off a man, never- 
theless. The regiment lost, during the siege, from the 
eighteenth of May to the fourth of July, one hundred 
and twenty-one in killed and wounded. 

But even now there was no rest for the weary troops. 
Before daylight, on the morning after the capitulation, 
the expeditionary army under Sherman moved after Joe 
Johnston, and, following him to Jackson found him 
there strongly intrenched behind heavy works. In this 
campaign the Ninth fully participated; and, after its 
successful termination, went into camp in a beautiful 
grove near Big Black river; and here, not far from the 
scenes where, for so many months, nothing but the 
wrinkled front of grim-visaged war had been seen, had a 
long period of rest. But it was not one of enjoyment, 
for, added to the discomforts of the hot weather, the 
effects of the confined life during the siege began now 
to be visible on the troops, many of whom became sick 
outright, and others unfit for service. During this period 
General Steele, commanding division, and General 
Thayer, commanding brigade, were ordered to another 
department of the army, being succeeded by General 
Osterhaus in command of division, and by Colonel J. A. 
Williamson, Fourth Iowa, of the brigade, which was com- 
posed of Iowa troops, and which remained under the com- 
mand of that accomplished officer throughout the cam- 
paigns of Chattanooga, Atlanta, and Savannah ; at the 
close of which last, being appointed to the rank which 
he had so long and so honorably actually filled, he 
received orders which called him into another field of 
usefulness. 

On the twenty-second of September orders to move 
were received, and, before night, the regiment was in the 
cars moving to Vicksburgh. Moving by steamer to 



Memphis, and by train thence to Corinth, after some de- 
lay occupied in the repair of the railway, and some skir- 
mishing with the enemy under Forrest, the march to 
Chattanooga was commenced ; and, on November 23d, 
after a march of three hundred miles, the regiment 
pitched its tents at the foot of Lookout Mountain. 
Twenty-four hours later it was taking gallant part in the 
"Battle Above the Clouds," under the dashing General 
Hooker. The enemy evacuated Lookout Mountain on 
the night of the twenty-fourth, and, on the following 
day, the battle of Mission Ridge took place. So far as 
our regiment was concerned this was rather a contest of 
legs than of arms; the enemy running to escape, and 
our troops to catch them. And thus, for miles on the 
summit of the mountain, they had a running fight, which 
closed with the enemy being captured in large numbers, 
and the rest fleeing from the field. The regiment con- 
tinued in the pursuit, under Hooker, to Ringgold, where 
the enemy made a stand, and for some time contended 
with no little success against our arms. The Ninth 
joined in the charge up the hillsides on the twenty- 
seventh, but the enemy had now become exhausted and 
discouraged, and retired without serious opposition, leav- 
ing us in full possession of the position. The loss of 
the regiment, during the three engagements, was three 
killed and sixteen wounded. 

From Ringgold General Osterhaus marched to rejoin 
Sherman, from whom he had been separated by reason 
of the accidental breaking of a pontoon bridge over the 
Tennessee; and, the junction having been made, the 
division marched by Chattanooga, Bridgeport and Steven- 
son, to Woodville, Alabama, and went into winter quar- 
ters but a few days before the close of the year. 

New Year's day was spent by the regiment in reenlist- 
ing. The number of men had by this time been re- 
duced to about five hundred, of whom all were not 
eligible as veterans under the rules of the War Depart- 
ment. Nearly three hundred reenlisted, and the Ninth 
became a veteran regiment. The consequent privilege 
of a furlough was granted, and the veterans returned to 
Iowa early in the following month. On arriving at Du- 
buque they were met by the citizens of that hospitable 
city en masse, and welcomed home with a cordiality 
which must have been in the highest degree gratifying. 
Their reception here was a magnificent ovation, worthy 
of Dubuque and of them; and, best of all, it did not 
end with speechifying, but with a supper in comparison 
with the luxuries of which, those of the Georgia prom- 
enade were flat, stale and unprofitable. Moreover, fair 
hands, which would not have condescended to wait upon 
the princes of the best blood of Europe, gladly waited 
on these war-worn heroes. As the men went to their 
homes in northern Iowa, they were everywhere met with 
as warm and cheerful a reception as is within the heart 
of man to conceive, or his hands to bestow. And thns 
the thirty days' respite from the toils and hardships of 
war, passed like a brief dream, too peaceful and happy 
to last. 

The men, at the close of their short furlough, accom- 
panied by many recruits, went by railway and steamer to 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



131 



Nashville, whence they marched to Woodville, arriving 
on the tenth of April, 1864. Here twenty days were 
spent in procuring supplies of clothing, equipage and 
arms. The old Dresden rifles, which had done such 
execution from the beginning, were returned to the 
Government, and new Springfield rifled muskets drawn 
in their stead. Though the regiment had been pre- 
sented by the ladies of Boston with another magnificent 
stand of colors, to replace those worn out in the service, 
these were now kept rather for ornament than use, and 
a stand of regulation colors drawn from the Government, 
were carried in the line throughout the subsequent career 
of the regiment. 

On the first of May Colonel Carckaddon, just re- 
turned from sick leave, in command, took line of march 
for Chattanooga, and at once entered upon the campaign 
of Atlanta. For the next four months the regiment par- 
ticipated in all the labors, marches, skirmishes, battles, 
and sieges of this great campaign, in which the Fifteenth 
corps took part. It marched, during that campaign, a 
distance of four hundred miles, much of it by night; 
built forty different lines of works; crossed three large 
rivers and many streams of a smaller size, in the face of 
the enemy; and took honorable part in the engage- 
ments, many of them heavy battles, of Resaca, Dallas, 
New Hope, Big Shanty, Kennesaw Mountain, Chattahoo- 
chee River, Decatur, Atlanta, Jonesborough and Love- 
joy. In two of the severest of these conflicts it had the 
rare pleasure of fighting behind entrenchments, suffering 
but little loss itself while inflicting terrible punishment 
upon the enemy. There is no doubt that the regiment, 
in the course of the campaign, placed many more rebels 
hors dc combat than the command itself numbered. The 
losses of the regiment were fourteen killed, seyenty 
wounded, and six captured. A tabular statement of the 
casualties in the regiment, during its term of service, 
furnished by Lieutenant Colonel Abernethy, shows that 
in its various engagements, numbering more than a score 
of battles, the Ninth Iowa lost eighty-seven officers and 
men slain, forty-six wounded mortally, three hundred 
and sixty-four wounded, and ten captured by the enemy, 
making a total loss during the war, on the field of bat- 
tle, of five hundred and seven. 

With the termination of the campaign, the regiment 
went into regular encampment, with the expectation of 
having a considerable period of rest. The same ex- 
pectation was shared by the generals, as an order was 
issued permitting five per cent, of the men to be fur- 
loughed, which order was soon countermanded in con- 
sequence of the interruptions of our communications 
and the threatening attitude of the rebel General Hood. 
Our regiment joined in his pursuit, breaking camp for 
that purpose early in October, and in one month made a 
march and countermarch of three hundred and fifty miles 
without having seen anything of the rebel forces but 
their heels. But before this march commenced, the 
original term for which the regiment entered the service 
expired, and the nonveterans, numbering more than one 
hundred, were honorably discharged. 

During the march on Savannah, the regiment was com- 



manded by Captain M. Sweeney, company B, who con- 
ducted it through that excursion without the loss of a 
single man. .-Xfter a few weeks' halt at Savannah, the 
regiment sailed to Beaufort, South Carolina, where it 
awaited the completion of General Sherman's prepara- 
tions to march through the Carolinas. Here Colonel 
Carckaddon returned to the regiment and was honorably 
mustered out of service by reason of expiration of term. 
He had faithfully served his country for more than three 
years. The command of the regiment now devolved 
upon Major Alonzo Abernethy, one of the most modest, 
as well as most meritorious of Donna's field officers, pro- 
moted from Captain of company F, in place of Major 
Granger, who died in the hospital at Nashville, Tennes- 
see. The march northward began on the twenty-sixth of 
January, and on the nineteenth of May our regiment 
pitched its tents on the heights of Alexandria, in plain 
view of the dome of the National capital. It had, on 
this, its last, campaign, marched through many miles of 
swamps, built many miles of road and many miles of 
intrenchment, especially near Bentonville; participated 
in the dangerous movement which resulted in the capture 
of Columbia, for which achievement the Iowa brigade, 
under Colonel Stone, received the personal compliments 
of General Howard, and fought with bravery wherever 
there was fighting to do. At Columbia, the regiment 
drew rations for the twenty days' march to Fayetteville, 
North Carolina. They consisted of one half pound hard 
bread per man — neither more nor less. Nevertheless, 
the command found plenty of food and fared sumptuous- 
ly every day. This was different indeed from the 
parched corn era of Arkansas, or the week of rice diet in 
the swamps, near Savannah. 

Taking part in the great review of the twenty-sixth of 
May, the regiment moved into camp near Crystal Springs, 
a short distance north of Washington, whence, early in 
June, it proceeded to Louisville, where it was mustered 
out of service on the eighteenth of July, 1865, then 
numbering five hundred and ninety-five officers and men. 
From Louisville the regiment moved by rail to Clinton, 
Iowa, for final payment. 

The regiment brought from the field four flags, of 
which two — the National colors and the regimental blue 
— were placed in the office of the State adjutant general. 
One bearing the names of the principal engagements in 
which the regiment had taken part — Pea Ridge, Chicka- 
saw Bayou, Arkansas Post, Jackson, assault and siege 
of Vicksburgh, siege of Jackson, Brandon, Cherokee, 
Lookout Mountain, Missionary Ridge, Ringgold, Resaca, 
Dallas, New Hope, Big Shanty, Kennesaw Mountain, 
Chattahoochee river, Atlanta (July 22nd and 28th), 
Jonesborough, Lovejoy, Savannah, Columbia, Benton- 
ville — was deposited with the State Historical society. 
The fourth, voted to the regiment at the northern Iowa 
sanitary fair, held at Dubuque, in May, 1864, was re- 
tained by the regiment to be disposed of as the regi- 
mental association, formed at the disbandment of the 
command, may direct. 

And thus endeth the history of the Ninth Iowa volun- 
teers. When their distinguished career was closed, and 



132 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



their banners furled, they returned to their homes with 
the gratified homage of the State upon which they had 
conferred so much honor, and which will ever and anon 
unfurl those banners, to read the proud blazonry, in 
colors of living light, of their unsurpassed achievements 
in the war for Union and liberty. 

TWENTY-SEVENTH INFANTRY. 

The Twenty-seventh Iowa volunteers had nearly as 
varied an experience, in the matter of climate, as the 
distinguished explorer after the remains of Sir John 
Franklin, who received his orders to the polar regions 
whilst bathing in the gulf of Mexico. The Twenty- 
seventh performed its first active service in northern 
Minnesota, in about the latitude of Quebec; and before 
it closed its career of usefulness and honor, its hardy 
troops liad made a voyage on the gulf, from Balize to 
Mobile bay. They had seen the Mississippi river where 
it looked like an insignificant stream; and again where, 
having received the waters of a continent, it swept by 
many channels into "the far-resounding sea." 

The regiment was recruited in the northern part of 
Iowa, from the seven counties comprising the Third 
congressional district. The different companies went 
into camp of instruction at the Dubuque rendezvous in 
the latter part of August, where, in Camp Franklin, near 
that city, they were engaged in taking the usual lessons 
in the military art, until the third of October, when they 
were mustered into the service of the United States as 
the Twenty-Seventh Iowa volunteer infantry. The rolls 
at that date bore the names of nine hundred and 
fifty-two enlisted men and forty officers. 

The command, thus fully organized and in the service 
immediately commenced battallion drill; and thorough 
discipline, the result in part of the high character of the 
men comprising the companies, was at once inaugurated, 
though the time for preliminary training did not long 
continue. Within a week after entering the service, the 
regiment was ordered to report to Major General Pope, 
commanding the department of the northwest, to take 
part in the campaign against the hostile tribes of Indians 
who were, at that time, threatening the frontier generally, 
and were especially waging their savage warfare, indis- 
criminately murdering men, women and children, in 
Minnesota. The Twenty-seventh regiment hastened to 
the assistance of General Pope, moving by transports to 
St. Paul, and going into quarteis at Fort Snelling, near 
that capital. Shortly afterward Colonel Gilbert was or- 
dered to Mille Lacs, a village on the lake of that name, 
a hundred and twenty-five miles north of St. Paul, there 
to superintend a payment of annuity to certain Indians. 
Taking six companies of his regiment. Colonel Gilbert 
marched rapidly northward, over roads cut through a 
wilderness and made almost impassable by the autumn 
rains, performed the duties assigned him, and returned 
to St. Paul on the fourth of November. 

In the meantime, Colonel (soon after brigadier gener- 
al) Sibley had defeated the Indians in a severe encoun- 
ter, and they were reported so far subdued that only 
Minnesota troops would be required in that department. 



While Colonel Gilbert was absent on the march to Mille 
Lacs, Major Howard, commanding the four companies 
stationed at Fort Snelling, received orders to report 
with his detachment at Cairo, Illinois. Upon his return, 
Colonel Gilbert received similar orders, and immediate- 
ly proceeded to Cairo, going to Prairie du Chien, Wis- 
consin, by river, and thence by cars, by way of Chicago. 
The united command remained but a few days at Cairo. 
Embarking on transports, it proceeded down the river to 
Memphis, where it reported to General Sherman, and, 
on the twenty-second of November, went into camp near 
the city. 

A few days later, the regiment was assigned its place 
in General Sherman's force, about to move as the right 
wing of General Grant's army, on the expedition into 
central Mississippi, to take the stronghold of Vicksburgh 
by that way. Before the regiment started on this march, 
the men complained loudly of the quality of their arms, 
which were old Prussian muskets, poor at best, and 
many of the pieces absolutely unserviceable. They had 
been promised better arms, and, as they were about 
entering upon a campaign which they had a right to sup- 
pose would be both active and dangerous, they thought 
it high time that the promises should be fulfilled. Colo 
nel Gilbert had the tact and nerve satisfactorily to 
silence all complaints, so that when the march began, 
every man and ofificer able to go was in his place. In 
this campaign, the regiment marched to the Tallahatchee 
river, and was assigned the duty of guarding the Missis- 
sippi Central railway between tliat stream and the town 
of Waterford. 

When news of the capture of Holly Springs by the 
rebels was received, six companies of the regiment (in- 
cluding a portion of the Buchanan county men), with 
other forces, marched on that place. But the rebels 
having left the place immediately after the destruction 
of the cotton and government stores, they returned 
almost immediately to the vicinity of the Tallahatchee, 
and soon after joined the army in its march back to 
Tennessee. 

The regiment went into camp at Jackson, and, on the 
last day of the year, being a part of the brigade under 
command of Colonel Lawler, marched in great haste 
eastward to reenforce General Sullivan, then fighting 
the rebel Forrest beyond Lexington. The reenforce- 
ment marched rapidly through the cold and mud until 
midnight, and then bivouacked without shelter of any 
kind or protection from the bitter weather. On the 
morning of the new year, the command was aroused by 
an early reveille, and, without even a hasty plate of soup 
for breakfast, started on the chase after the rebel troop- 
ers, who had been whipped the day before by Sullivan, 
and were now beating a retreat in the direction of Clif- 
ton, a town on the Tennessee river about twenty-five 
miles south of west from Lexington. To thai point the 
Union troops were moved in hot pursuit, but arrived 
too late to prevent the passage of the rebels. They 
then returned to Jackson by Bethel. The roads over 
which our regiment marched were horrible; the men 
were entirely without tents, and many of them without 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



133 



blankets, and the weather was most inclement. The 
command was without rations, except such as Quarter- 
master Sherburn procured by buying corn of the inhab- 
itants and grinding it into meal at the mills near the line 
of march. Thus the men were enabled to get a meal 
of "corn-dodgers" a day, faring almost as miserably, 
notwithstanding the efforts of the staff in their behalf, 
as our prisoners at Libby, in Richmond. The conse- 
quences of this march of only about one hundred miles 
were suffering, sickness and death. The regiment re- 
mained, during the rest of the winter and till beyond 
the middle of April, 1863, at Jackson. Until spring 
fairly opened, the camp was a scene of constant suffer- 
ing and almost daily death. The surgeon's call was at- 
tended much of the time by more men than that for 
dress-parade. Every company lost men by the score, 
and several officers were compelled to resign in order to 
save their lives. In fine, the consequences of the march 
to Clifton and return may truthfully be said to have been 
a greater loss to the regiment than the loss it sustained 
in all its engagements with the enemy — not excepting 
the bloody field of Pleasant Hill, where the command 
was among those "immortal few" regiments which 
formed the shield for the army under Banks, and saved 
it from inglorious defeat and destruction. 

About the eighteenth of April the command moved 
from Jackson to Corinth, held that post during the tem- 
porary absence of General Dodge's forces, till the close 
of the month, and returned to Jackson. The campaign' 
against Vicksburgh, under General Grant, was now fully 
inaugurated, and whilst many Iowa regiments were ac- 
quiring renown in the active operations of that campaign, 
others were performing less brilliant but not less valuable 
services, in guarding our lines of communications, and 
in preventing a rebel incursion across the frontier into 
territory which had been wrenched from rebel authority 
by the victories of 1862. Among the latter was the 
Twenty-seventh. The regiment was posted in detach 
ments at various places on the railway, not far from Jack. 
son, Colonel Gilbert being in command of that post. 
The colonel here won the high commendation of Gen- 
eral Oglesby, commanding the left wing of the Sixteenth 
corps, for his wise and energetic administration, which 
was distinguished for the unrelenting system whereby 
rich rebel inhabitants were compelled to contribute to 
the support of indigent Union people who had been 
driven from their homes and sought protection within our 
lines. 

On the fourth of June the regiment moved by cars to 
La Grange, and thence by march to Moscow, where, and 
in its vicinity, it spent two months in the performance of 
duties similar to those it had performed at Jackson. The 
monotony of camp life was frequently interrupted by the 
attacks of guerilla men, but upon the whole, the period 
was one of general and uninteresting quiet. Officers and 
men chafed under the enforced inaction, and earnestly 
wished to be taken directly against the enemy. 

Marching orders were received on the twentieth of 
August, and their wishes seemed in a fair way to be grati- 
fied. Joyfully the regiment broke camp and marched to 



Memphis to join Colonel True's detached brigade, which 
went to the support of General Steele, then moving on 
Little Rock, Arkansas. The command w-ent by trans- 
ports from Memphis to Helena, whence it marched by 
Clarendon to Duvall's Bluff. There it joined the army 
under General Steele, and with it took part in the cam- 
paign which resulted in the capture of Little Rock, on 
the tenth of September. This campaign, though highly 
creditable to General Steele and the troops under his 
command, being sandwiched between that against Vicks- 
burgh and that which sent the rebels whirling out of 
Tennessee, it did not receive the eclat which otherwise it 
would have received. The regiment remained opposite 
Little Rock about two months, on guard and picket duty. 
Colonel Gilbert, the most of the time being in command 
of the brigade. On the fifteenth of November he moved 
his command by rail to Duvall's Bluff, and, going thence 
by steamers down the White and up the Mississippi river, 
reported to General Hurlbut, commanding the Sixteenth 
corps, at Memphis, near which city our regiment went 
into quarters and there remained until near the close of 
January, 1864. 

Though the regiment did not actively take part in any 
battle during the year 1863, its losses were considerable, 
the great majority taking place during that period of suf- 
fering already described. By death, discharge, and trans- 
fer to the Invalid corps, since called Veteran Reserve 
corps, the command lost one hundred and eighty-eight 
men during the year. Before it left its quarters in Mem- 
phis, which was before its term of service was half ex- 
pired, it had ceased to bear upon its rolls the names of 
two hundred officers and men, which were on them at 
the organization of the regiment. Of these sixty-four 
had died during the year 1863; one hundred and eight 
had been discharged for disability, and sixteen had been 
transferred to the Invalid corps. 

On the twenty-sixth of January, 1864, the regiment 
went aboard of transports and moved down the river to 
Vicksburgh; and, as a component of the Second brig- 
ade. Third division. Sixteenth corps (Colonel W. T. Shaw, 
Fourteenth Iowa, commanding brigade), it took a part in 
General Sherman's grand raid across the State of Missis- 
sippi to Meridian, often skirmishing with the enemy, but 
never having the opportunity fairly to fight him, and re- 
turned to Vicksburgh on the fourth of March. 

Halting a few days at Vicksburgh, it next moved by 
transport with General A. J. Smith's detachment of the 
Sixteenth corps, to take part in the Red River expedition 
under Major General Banks. In many of the skirmishes 
and general engagements of this unfortunate campaign, 
our regiment took part. In the battle of Pleasant Hill, 
in particular, where a brigade, composed almost exclu- 
sively of Iowa troops, rolled back the tide of disaster 
which might otherwise have engulfed the whole army, 
the regiment was long and heavily engaged. "In look- 
ing at that battle from the standpoint of actual observa- 
tion," says a correspondent, "it would seem as if Gen- 
eral Banks, alarmed at the disaster of the preceding 
day, had concluded that some portion of the army must 
be sacrificed for the preservation of the remainder; and 



134 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



as if the grim old Shaw and liis Iowa brigade (for it was 
composed of Iowa troops, except the Twenty-fourth Mis- 
souri, which was partly made up of Iowa men) were se- 
lected as the victims. The old hero, with a command of 
less than one-tenth of the force in the field, met with 
fully one-half the entire loss of the day, losing nearly one- 
third of his entire command in killed and wounded, but 
saved the army, and covered its retreat that night and 
next day to Grand Ecore. Colonel Gilbert was wounded 
in the hand during the afternoon, but remained on the 
field throughout the engagement. Lieutenants Frank A. 
Brush and S. O. Smith were severely wounded and taken 
prisoners. Lieutenant Granger was also wounded. 
Captain J. M. Holbrook, though twice severely wounded, 
led his men with great gallantry. He lost an arm from 
one of his wounds, but will never lose the admiration of 
his men and fellow ofificers, who fought with him on that 
day of carnage." 

On the retreat from Grand Ecore to Alexandria, the 
Twenty-seventh Iowa, as a part of the forces under Gen- 
eral Smith covered the retreat of Banks all the way, dur- 
ing which time it had several brisk engagements with the 
enemy. On the last of April it moved to the rear of 
Alexandria, near Governor Moore's plantation, and was 
there engaged in continuous skirmishing with the enemy 
for some ten days. Alexandria was burned and evacu- 
ated on the thirteenth of May. The enemy constantly 
annoyed the retreating column, and at Marksville a sharp 
engagement, lasting two or three hours, took place, in 
which the Twenty-seventh was under fire, but suffered 
no loss. The battle of Bayou de Glaize, or Yellow 
Bayou, as it is more commonly called, was fought on the 
eighteenth of May. The engagement, which the rebels 
admitted resulted in the severest defeat, for the number 
engaged, which had befallen them west of the Missis- 
sippi, continued nearly five hours, during the whole of 
which our regiment was actively engaged, and suffered a 
loss of four killed and thirteen wounded. 

With the day after this combat closed a campaign 
which was as remarkable for its ill success as any of the 
war, but which exhibited the courage and indomitable 
obstinacy of our troops — fighting by detachments, "on 
their own hook," without a general capable of manoeu- 
vring the whole army — in the highest possible degree. On 
this day the regiment fired its farewell volley at a few 
rebels hovering near the scene of the previous day's 
fight, and crossing the Atchafalaya, moved to the mouth 
of the Red river. The command here embarked on 
steamers, went up the river to Mcksburgh, and there 
went into camp for a few days' rest. 

On the fourth of June it again left Vicksburgh as a 
part of the forces under General A. J. Smith, to dislodge 
the rebel Marmaduke, who, taking advantage of a bend 
in the river similar to that at Vicksburgh, was blockadmg 
the river at two points, close to each other by land, but 
many tmies as far apart by water. By means of batteries 
posted at Point Chicot, Greenville, about half way be- 
tween Vicksburgh and Memphis, he was doing much 
damage. He could attack a fleet passing up or down 
the river twice from nearly the same line, fronting in 



different directions. General Smith, disembarking his 
forces at Sunnyside Landing, on the Arkansas shore, on 
the sixth, marched through a drenching rain and attacked 
Marmaduke, delivering his attack so suddenly and ener- 
getically that the noted trooper was soon routed, and the 
blockade of the river raised. In this spirited affair, in 
which the losses were about one hundred and twenty-five 
on each side, Colonel Gilbert commanded the brigade. 
His regiment, being on the left of the line, where there 
was but little firing, met with no loss. 

Again the regiment went into camp at Memphis, 
whence it moved, with the rest of the command, toward 
the last of the month, on the Tupelo campaign, through- 
out which Colonel Gilbert commanded a brigade, and 
his regiment bore its full share of the labors, skirmishes, 
battles, and hard marches of the expedition. In the bat- 
tle of Tupelo, fought from 6 o'clock in the morning 
till about noon of July 14th — a contest remarkable 
among the battles of the war for the disparity of losses 
to the contending forces, the Unionists sufifering compar- 
atively little, whilst inflicting immense loss upon the en- 
emy — the Twenty-seventh was heavily engaged, as it was 
also at the battle of Old Town Creek, the next day. 
The loss of the regiment in both engagements, was one 
killed and twenty-five wounded. 

Returning from this successful expedition to Memphis, 
where a rest of nearly a fortnight was enjoyed, the regi- 
ment next joined in the Oxford expedition under the 
same commander; and, after considerable marching and 
some skirmishing with the enemy, but no battle, it re- 
turned to Memphis near the end of August. 

Early in the following month the command moved 
with General Smith's army to Cairo, and, after a short 
stay, to Jefferson Barracks, Missouri. The twenty-fifth 
regiment was ordered to Mineral Point, to meet the 
■ rebels under Price. Thence, after a slight skirmish, it 
was ordered to De Soto, toward St. Louis, and soon af- 
terwards to Jefferson Barracks. Thence it marched 
with other forces in pursuit of Price, starting October 
2nd. Major General Curtis, of Iowa, had the honor of 
again defeating and demolishing his old enemy. Price; 
and the Twenty-seventh, with the rest of the command, 
returned to St. Louis, arriving on the eighteenth of No- 
vember, having marched nearly seven hundred miles in 
forty-seven days. It was a campaign of forced marches. 

On the twenty-fifth the regiment moved again with 
General Smith's forces, by transports to Cairo, and thence 
to Nashville, Tennessee, where the command disem- 
barked on the first of December, and was ordered to the 
front, three miles from the city, to oppose the rebels 
under Hood, defiantly moving against the capital. Gen- 
eral Smith held the right of Thomas' forces, and the 
Twenty-seventh was on the extreme left of General 
Smith. On the fifteenth, Thomas moved from behind his 
works, and attacked the enemy in his chosen, fortified 
position, bringing on the battle of Nashville, which, con- 
tinuing two days, was one of the most remarkable and 
glorious victories that ever crowned the American arms. 
In this engagement the Twenty-seventh, Lieutenant Col- 
onel Jed. Lake commanding (Colonel Gilbert being in 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



135 



command of a brigade), took a prominent part, entering 
the rebel works as soon as any troops on their part of 
the line, capturing guns and prisoners, and doing its 
whole duty with a bravery and efficiency unsurpassed. 
The regiment was the pivot of General Smith's army, 
which, making a grand left wheel, swung round the ene- 
my's left flank, fighting splendidly all the way, capturing 
every fortification in its front, several lines of works, and 
large numbers of prisoners. Colonel Gilbert and his 
brigade won great edat; and, not long afterwards, the 
colonel was promoted to the rank of brigadier general. 

The regiment joined in the pursuit of Hood and 
marched southward as far as Pulaski. From thence it 
proceeded to Clifton, on the Tennessee, arriving on the 
second day of January, 1865. During the year just 
closed there had been many changes in the regiijient. A 
number of officers had resigned, whilst the command 
had lost by death, discharge, and transfer, more than 
eighty of its members. It had also received quite a 
large number of recruits, so that it had on its rolls the 
names of about eight hundred officers and men. 

After a short stay at Clifton, the Twenty-seventh em- 
barked on steamer and moved up the river to Eastport, 
where it went into encampment. Nothing noteworthy 
occurred during their stay here, save a reconnoissance to 
luka and return. The ninth of February the tents were 
again struck and the troops embarked for New Orleans. 
Moving down the Tennessee, the Ohio, and the Missis- 
sippi, the command disembarked at Chalmette, a short 
distance below the Crescent city, on the twenty-first. 
Having remained in camp a fortnight, it again embarked 
and sailed down the river and across a part of the gulf 
of Mexico to Dauphin Island, Alabama, on the sands of 
which it went into encampment March 8th, to await the 
concentration of troops for the campaign against Mobile, 
under Major General Canby. 

On the twentieth the regiment moved by transports 
across Mobile bay, and ascending a river flowing in from 
the east some twenty-five miles, disembarked, and on the 
twenty-fifth was marching northward, with the troops com- 
posing the Thirteenth and Sixteenth corps, moving 
against Mobile. The march was enlivened by skirmishes, 
and made laborious by what General Sherman would call 
villainous roads. Reaching Sibley's Mills, the regiment 
remained guarding the flank of our army investing Forts 
Alexis and Spanish, till the second of April, when it was 
sent out with the brigade. General Gilbert commanding, 
on a reconnoissance, with the object also of opening up 
communication with Major General Steele, about to in- 
vest the works at Blakely. It was on this march that 
General Gilbert narrowly escaped death from a torpedo, 
which was buried in the road, and which was exploded 
by his horse tramping over it. The incident is thus re- 
lated by the correspondent of the Cincinnati Gazette: 

I had just crossed the brook when a loud explosion on the opposite 
eminence, and at the head of the column, attracted my attention. I 
supposed the enemy had opened on us with artillery, and that Captain 
Rice would soon have an opportunity to try the range of his guns. 
Pushing forward to the point where the explosion had taken place, I 
saw a group of excited officers and men collected around General Gil- 
bert. Several members of his staff were there with faces scorched by 



heat and partially blackened with powder. Their hats and uniforms 
were covered with sand. One horse lay dead beside the road, his belly 
torn open and his bowels frightfully protruding; another, standing by, 
had one leg broken and mangled, and was quivering with agony; two 
or three other animals were more or less injured. Immediately in the 
road, close by a pine stump, was a large hole, from which had been 
scooped apparently a couple of bushels of sand. The cause of the 
noise 1 had heard was now evident. \ torpedo had exploded in the 
very midst of the group composed of the general and his staff, just as 
they had commenced to move forward, after a temporary halt upon the 
brow of the hill. The general's own animal had exploded the infernal 
machine with his hind feet. A stunning report followed, and the whole 
party were at once shocked, confused, and enveloped in a cloud of 
dust. The horse upon which Lieutenant L. G. Stevenson, Fifty-eighth 
Illinois, was riding was almost instantly killed, and the lieutenant 
extricated himself with some difficulty from beneath the dying animal. 
Lieutenant Eisenhart, Twenty-seventh Iowa, aide-de-camp to General 
Gilbert, had his horse's leg broken, and was himself hurt and disfigured 
by sand and powder diiven into his face. The horse of Lieutenant 
George Childs, Tliirty-second Iowa, A. A. Q. M., was badly injured, 
and himself scorched and stunned. Others were slightly hurt; and 
others still (among whom your correspondent was conspicuous, although 
at a considerable distance when the explosion took place) were badly 
scared. General Gilbert, I am glad to say, was entirely uninjured, al- 
though the sand was driven with such force against his horse as to start 
the blood all along his sides. You may be certain that, in our further 
movements that day, there was an air of caution and circumspection 
not frequently observed. 

General Gilbert moved with General Garrard's divis- 
ion to the left of General Steele, now besieging Blakely. 
The regiment did excellent service during the siege — 
skirmishing by day, extending the parallels by night, all 
the while under the fire of the enemy. These opera- 
tions lasted until April 19th, when, with one company on 
the skirmish line, the others in the main line of assault, 
the regiment. Major Howard commanding, joined in the 
charge, before whose impetuous onset the rebel works 
and garrison fell into our hands, and the great rebellion 
fell into irretrievable ruins. In this fine success General 
Gilbert's brigade captured eight pieces of artillery and six 
hundred prisoners, with a loss to itself of less than thirty 
men, killed and wounded. General Gilbert, for his gal- 
lant, skilful conduct of this brilliant operation, was again 
recommended for promotion, which, no doubt, he would 
at once have received, but for the cessation of hostilities. 
He was brevetted a major general soon afterward. 

In a few days the brigade was released from the duty 
of garrisoning the fort, to which it had been assigned, 
and joined the Sixteenth corps, marching on Mont- 
gomery. This march, of two hundred miles, was rapidly 
performed, and the regiment went into camp at the old 
rebel capital on the twenty-seventh. Here the command 
remained, awaiting orders for muster out more, than two 
months. The twenty-third of June, General Gilbert is- 
sued an elegant farewell order to his troops, and departed 
for the north, bearing with him the benediction of all his 
old comrades in arms. The regiment, having mean- 
while transferred its recruits to the veteran Iowa Twelfth, 
departed on the sixteenth of July; and, moving by 
Selma, Meridian and Jackson, to Vicksburgh, there took 
steamer, homeward bound. It was disbanded at Clin- 
ton, Iowa, in the early part of August, Lieutenant Col- 
onel Lake's farewell address being dated the eighth; 
and the members of the Twenty-seventh separated after 
journeys and marches of more than twelve thousand 
miles, guarding their ever unfurled colors through sun- 



136 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



shine, and storm, and battle, never once furling the hon- 
ored emblem of our nationality, till the power of that 
nationality had been everywhere restored by means of 
the valor and endurance of the patriotic volunteers, such 
as composed this, command. 

LITERATURE OF THE WAR — SOLDIERS' LETTERS. 

Buchanan county was exceptionally fortunate in the 
literary, as well as military, character of its soldiers. VVe 
fearlessly challenge any county history, published since 
the war, to show a collection of war letters at all com- 
parable with the following, either in quantity or quality. 
Some of these letters would do no discredit to Russell, 
or any other war correspondent that ever followed an 
army. But it is their chief glory that their authors went 
to the field not to write, but to fight. Like ,^'^neas, 
Xenophon and Cresar, they told of scenes — "all of which 
they saw, part of which they were." 

CORRESPONDENCE OF THE GUARDIAN — LETTER NO. I. 

Camp W.\rrkn, July 19, 1861. 

Dear Gi'ARDI.\n: — Leaving Independence on the twelfth instant, 
wearrived at Burlington on the following Sunday, and were immedi- 
ately marched to the camp, which is about two miles from the city, on 
the fair grounds. There are three regiments encamped here — Colonel 
Lanman's, Colonel McDowell's, and last, though not least. Colonel 
Worthington's, the Fifth. I think our regiment will compare favorably 
with any that has been raised; and, when fully uniformed and drilled, 
will be unsurpassed. The men composing the regiment are mostly 
from the northern counties; and, among the officers, are some veterans 
of long ser%ice and experience. Our colonel is a graduate of the 
Lexington, Kentucky, military academy, and is a gentleman as well as 
a soldier. 

In a few days we hope to move to another ground, where bathing 
and washing will be more convenient than at present. The regiments 
are quartered in huts, each hut containing bunks for one hundred men 
and a small hut immediately in the rear for the officers. In the morn- 
ing, at 5 o'clock, the reveille is beaten from the colonel's quarters, 
when the companies "fall in " for roll call, after which the men break 
ranks, and wash and clean up the quarters. Next conies breakfast 
call, and the companies are again formed and marched in two ranks to 
breakfast. The dining-room is a rather extensive one. There are 
about fifteen long tables, each capable of standing one hundred men. 
Each man has a tin plate, cup, and knife and fork. The fare consists 
of coffee, without milk or cream, bread, and meat for breakfast; the 
same for dinner, minus the coffee, and adding bean soup; supper the 
same as breakfast. 

Drilling is going on constantly. There are officer drills, company 
drills, and squad drills. Each company in our regiment drills four 
hours a day in company, and the officers are drilled each day by the 
colonel. 

The first two or three nights the weather was pretty cold, and our 
men, having no blankets, suffered somewhat; but yesterday the wel- 
come intelligence came that some four hundred blankets had arrived, 
and were to be immediately distributed. We obtained sufficient to 
make the men comfortable, and hope to obtain the balance before 
long. As soon as our arms and tents arrive we are to move and en- 
camp in good shape. On our route hither we were well cared for. 
Messrs. Allison and Conger did everything in their power to make the 
boys comfort.able; and, on our arrival here, the captain of a company 
which had preceded us, whose name I did not learn, generously gave, 
up his dinner table to us. On the whole, I think our boys are doing 
well. They are improving in drill, and are in good spirits. Some 
few have been ailing, caused principally by change of water; but at 
present there are only two, I think, at all sick, and there is no doubt 
of their early recovery. As soon as we "get into the hang of things," 
1 will try and keep you posted in regard to our movements. 

LETTER NO. II. 

Camp 'Warren, July 24, 1861. 
Dear Gu.aruian: — Since my last letter nothing of consequence has 
transpired, with the exception of the change in the citing department. 
The men now receive their rations, and cook them themselves. The 



way we manage this is as follows: Every morning, at 5 o'clock, our 
orderly reports to the quartermaster's department, and draws for the 
use of the company the following provisions, being reckoned as one 
hundred rations: One hundred and twenty-five pounds of fresh beef, 
eight quarts of beans or ten pounds of rice, fifteen pounds of sugar, 
one and one-fourth pounds of candles, four pounds of soap, one gallon 
of vinegar, and two quarts of salt. These rations are for one day, and 
are delivered to the cooks who superintend the cooking of them. Each 
man is expected to take his turn as cook. The cooks for the present 
week are Messrs. Bunce and Francis, and no better ones could be ob- 
tained. No complaints have been made since they commenced, and 
they should feel well satisfied that such is the case. After a meal, the 
dishes are to be washed; and this is performed by squads, who take 
turns according to their number. 

Every other day we have to furnish from nine to fourteen men for 
guards around the camp. They repair at the call to the place where 
the guard is formed, each detachment as it arrives taking post on the 
left of the preceding one, in open order. After the whole guard is 
formed, which consists of ovei one hundred men, they are inspected 
by the non-commissioned officers and the ranks closed, and marched 
to relieve the old guard, who are drawn up at the guard, house. As 
they arrive they take post on the right of the old guard, and the new 
officer of the guard and the old officer of the guard advance and salute. 
The new guard is then divided off into three reliefs, and the first sent 
to relieve the sentries. The men are relieved in succession, commenc. 
ing at the guard-house, and going around the entire camp. The meals 
for the guard should be sent to the guard-house at a time when they 
are relieved, or they stand but a poor chance of getting anything 
to eat. 

There are in this camp three regiments; whether full or not I have 
not ascertained. Two companies came in this morning. Several of 
the companies were not full on their arrival here, and it created a great 
deal of trouble. I should advise no company to go into camp unless 
they have the full complement of men. It is the height of folly to 
expect to fill up in the river towns on the way. 

Some of our men have no change of shirts, and it would conduce 
to health, cleanliness, and comfort if these could be furnished. I hope 
the citizens of Buchanan county will send enough to make up the bal_ 
ance. 'V\'e ha\'e been well provided for by them — better, I think, than 
any company in the State, and we shall never forget their kindness and 
thoughtfulness. 

The disastrous news of the defeat of McDowell has caused a general 
feeling of sorrow; but, in my opinion, it will only cause a renewed en- 
ergy to manifest itself, and a firmer determination to push forward our 
columns, and bring the war to a speedy close. God grant that it may 
be done with the least possible bloodshed. But let the Government be 
sustained, though it be at the cost of millions of lives and treasure. I 
understand that the Sixth regiment is now organized. The colonel, 
McDowell, who, by the way, is a brother of General McDowell, now 
in Virginia, is a courteous and whole-souled gentleman, as you know; 
and, what is of more importance at this time, a competent oflicer. 

If our friends wish to send us the "good things," tell them they will 
be received most thankfully. I can assure you our company is the 
most orderly on the ground, as the report from the guard-house daily 
shows. I will write as soon as anything transpires. 

LETTER NO. III. 

C.\MP 'W.VRREN, July 28, 1861. 
Dear Guariii.-\n: — Hot, dry and dusty. Not a particle of moisture 
have the clouds distilled for the past two weeks; and the earth, parched 
and burnt, sends up volumes of dust to fill the eyes, ears, clothing, and 
obstruct the respiratory passage of the pedestrian. With a strong 
wind from the south, the nuisance acquires a tenfold intensity. Noth- 
ing escapes it — books, papers, blankets, and the whole paraphernalia of 
camp furniture speedily assumes a grayish hue. The cooks, poor fel- 
lows, hang down their heads in a state of perfect despondency; for the 
choice soup, over which they have made such great preparation, is apt 
to be very strongly seasoned with a substance unknown to Mrs. Leslie 
or Delnionico. Really, it would be quite a privilege if the God ^Eolus 
would withhold his gentle breezes during dinner hour, and give us a 
chance to eat without swallowing an unlimited quantity of dirt at every 
meal. But there is nothing like campaigning to give a good appetite: 
and though there might have been some fastidious individuals at first, 
with squeamish stomachs, they can now walk boldly up to the hos- 
pitable board, and bolt their food with the gale blowing its biggest 
guns. We have already eaten our peck of earth, and shall make quite 
a hole in another if we stay here much longer. But we are gradually 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



137 



petting habituated to our new mode of life, and find that many evils 
with which we were threatened, have no existence but in the imagina- 
tion. The greatest difficulty we have experienced is to overcome the 
sense of loneliness one feels when separated from the gude folks at 
home. But we shall enjoy their society all the better when we return. 
Nearly all the party have regained their buoyancy of spirits, and are 
ready and eager to get sight of a secesher. Whether the wish will be 
gratified very soon or not, remains to be seen. 

On Friday, the twenty-si.xth instant, our regiment was reviewed by 
the governor, who expressed great satisfaction at our appearance. It 
was quite an imposing sight. Immediately behind us were drawn up 
the Si.xth and Seventh regiments, in battalion, extending in long parallel 
lines from north to south, and commanded by their respective colonels. 
The governor passed in front of each battalion, receiving the military 
salute, which was maintained by all until he had passed the distance of 
six paces. -As soon as the review was completed, the parade was dis- 
missed, and the companies marched to quarters under the command 
of their sergeants. There are so many flying and contradictory re- 
ports iu camp, that it is safe not to place too much confidence in any 
of them. The latest one is that the colonel will march us to Keokuk 
as soon as our tents and blankets arrive. Quite probable; for our 
crowded condition here renders a removal to some more advantageous 
place highly desirable. New companies are arriving continually. 
One from Eddyville came last night. The Seventh regiment now lacks 
but one company of their full complement, and that will be here shortly. 
With such a crowd in camp, you may be sure we have lively times. 
The most interesting spectacle is to see the scramble every morning and 
evening at the commissariat department for rations. Here struggles a 
soldier with a heavy quarter of beef. There another is smiling with 
delight at having procured his regluar supply of coffee and sugar — an- 
other more fortunate than the rest, has mounted the shoulders of 
his comrades, and, thrusting his mess-kettle in at the door, yells loudly 
for beans. None are compelled to wait long, and everything passes off 
with the best of humor. Indeed, taking into account the number of per- 
sons here assembled, of different tastes and dispositions, 'tis miraculous 
that there has not been more rows and fights in general. I have not 
yet heard of a single instance. Liquor is strictly prohibited from being 
brought upon the ground, a most beneficent and salutary measure; for 
with the dreaded firewater free for all to partake, we should have a 
pandemonium in earnest. 

There are several beautiful residences near our camp, occupied by 
some of the oldest and most respectable families in the State. One, a 
large brick mansion situated about a mile west of us, is a model in 
point of external decoration. Flowers of the rarest and most beauti- 
ful hue, fill the air with their fragrance, while apple and pear trees bend 
beneath their load of luscious fruit. It is a general stopping place for 
our company; and, by some means, we chance to be great favorites with 
its inmates. This, I suppose, may be attributed, in a great measure, 
to the efforts of a young ma.i in our behalf, who. becoming tiled of the 
hum and roar of camp, went up there one sultry afternoon to write 
some letters. By what means he succeeded in ingratiating himself and 
company, none can tell; but certain it is that we were treated the next 
day to a couple of pailfuls of iced buttermilk, with the promise of hav_ 
ing more whenever convenient. Our reputation is established, in camp 
and country, as being quiet, orderly and chivalrous; and I hope that 
we may maintain it. 

While I write, "Old Sol" is darting down his fiercest rays, render- 
ing our tent of boards anything but a cool place. O, for just one good 
blast from the north pole, to revive drooping nature, and freeze up a 
few of these accommodating musquitoes; which magnanimous insects 
are ever ready to greet your ears w ith a serenade, the moment the shades 
of night begin to fall. Last evening we were full of expectation. A 
large, portentous cloud arose in the northwest, which seemed to promise 
rain. After remaining stationary for awhile, and tantalizing us with its 
broad proportions, which contained the liquid fountains we were ihirst- 
ing for, it slowly passed over to the east, giving to the parched and 
burning earth beneath it, "nary drop." I have finally come to the 
conclusion that rain is not necessary to the maintenance of animal or 
vegetable life, and that washing the face and hands is a superfluous act, 
which can be dispensed with without injury to the health or beauty of 
any person. Most of the boys have gone to church, leaving me and 
three or four others, to guard tent and write letters. As to me, I feel 
satisfied with a discourse I heard yesterday. The speaker, an intelli- 
gent minister belonging to the Seventh regiment, took his position near 
the door of our tent, and was listened to for nearly an hour by the men, 
with rapt attention. The exercises closed by the singing of Old Hun- 
dred, that grand, majestic anthem, which to me never sounded so well 



before. Tears were in the eyes of many as they caught up and swelled 
the noble strain, and thoughts of friends and dear ones far away came 
over my mind thick and fast, as when a child I had listened to the same 
plaintive air in the village church of my eastern home. 

News has just arrived that General Lyon has made a requisition 
upon the authorities of this State for troops — but how shall we be able 
to comply without arms? Yours truly, 

C. J. R. 
LETTER NO. IV. 

Lamp Warren, August 2, 1861. 

Mr. Editor. — Still in the same old quarters, hotter than ever, and 
the dust gradually on the increase. Muttered grumblings, low and 
deep, are heard among the men, at the not very pleasant prospect of 
being confined here two or three weeks longer, with a scarcity of water, 
and nothing of an exciting character to do. 

Last Monday was a period of great excitement. We had just re- 
turned from company drill, ready to hear and believe anything that 
promised to break up the monotony of this eating, sleeping, drilling 
life, when we were informed that the colonel had given us orders to be 
ready to march for Keokuk by four o'clock the next morning. To say 
that we were pleased would be using a very tame expression. The 
guards fairly shouted in the exuberance of their joy, and commenced 
packing up their "duds" in double-quick time. Those who had been 
at the trouble of putting up shelves, as a depository for various arti- 
cles, were but too glad to take them down again, consign the whole 
within paper wrappers, and label them for Keokuk. But alas for the 
uncertainty of human expectations! The fates had ordained that we 
should not leave this camp, with its beautiful surroundings and clouds 
of dust so soon. Besides the beef contractor has still some pretty 
tough specimens of superannuated cattle, which, when served up for 
the table, demand our utmost energy and perseverance to conquer ; 
and it will not answer to leave an unsubdued enemy in the rear. 

On the evening parade the colonel stated that it would be impossi- 
ble to make the necessary arrangements for marching in so short a 
time, but that we should probably leave in a few days. In the mean- 
time we are to drill, and arrive at as great a degree of proficiency as 
possible. We shall have no time to spare ; for, judging from present 
indications, we shall soon be called into active service. The guns have 
not arrived, but they are daily expected. Report says they are to be 
rifles. 

Wednesday, the thirty-first, was a gala day in camp. The sun rose 
in all his brilliancy, and the drums beat their liveliest reveille from the 
colonel's quarters. Fligs innumerable waved from tents, and officers 
arrayed in blue broadcloth with shining buttons, tripped quickly to 
and fro. Something unusual was on the tapis — perhaps an unruly 
secesher had been caught, and was about to be made an example of, or 
a homesick youth had broken guard, and struck out with his "tallest 
licks" for home— but no; a party of excursionists from Mt. Pleasant, 
situated about twenty-five miles west of here, had come with the amia- 
ble intention of paying us, benighted heathen, a visit. Through the 
gate and over the ground they poured in a long continuous stream of 
young and old, short and tall, men and women, girts and youths. 
Some carried on their arms huge baskets, which our voracious appe- 
tites, sharpened by the weir and tear of masculine beef for two weeks, 
readilv detected as conveying odors that could proceed only from fried 
chickens, currant jellies, and other nice "fixins." Of course the wind 
could not resist so tempting an opportunity to blow, and blow it did, 
with a force and fury which that venerable personage, "the oldest in- 
habitant," never saw surpassed. Dust rolled triumphantly through the 
passages and into the tents, converting the immediate whiteness of the 
ladies collars into a pepper and s.alt mixture, and interfering, in a most 
audacious manner, with their favorite hoops. Faces, which but an 
hour ago could rival the lily in purity, were reduced to a dubious gray . 
while silks and satins no longer gleamed and rustled in the sunshine. 
"Ah I then and there was hurrying to and fro, 
And gatherings of distress" — 

not to the battle-field, however, but to the old fair building, there to 
mourn, and counsel themselves over the wreck of dilapidated hoops, 
broken parasols, and the mutability of things in general. I kindly of- 
fered to assist a rosy damsel with her shawl, just out of pure benevo- 
lence, you know, but her " lovyer, " a great strapping fellow, looked 
daggers at me, and intimated that my services were not needed. Con- 
cluded that they weren't, and "sloped." But, despite these inconven. 
iences, they appeared to enjoy themselves, and in their interest in their 
soldier friends, crumpled muslin, soiled silks, and all other discomforts 
were forgotten. It was a joyful meeting between many — mothers em- 



138 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



braced sons, and pulled out, from the deep recesses of their pockets' 
many a little keepsake, from the household pets at home. Fathers 
tried to preserve their selfpossession, but the moistened eye and husky 
voice betrayed them. Sweet angels in calico would recognize among 
the soldiers a cousin or a brother, and rushing forward with a cry .of 
delight, bestow on them a hearty kiss. And lovers there were, who 
exchanged any quantity of !es doiix _iv«-v— and why not? " It is ever 
the bravest in war, who are fondest and truest in love." This was the 
hardest of all to bear. Our boys could take the double-quick for half a 
day, and never tire ; sleep on straw, and rise in the morning ready to do 
or dare as much as any other men ; but to see so many bright eyes and 
smiling glances, and know that none of them were intended for us, 
was too much for our nature. At least, so I felt, as I sought my bunk 
and vainly endeavored to compose my mind to read a tract which 
some anxious friend had left me, entitled: "The way to do good." 
Read for a while and came to the conclusion to go and divide my to- 
bacco among the boys, as most of them were out, and 1 wanted to do 
a little good. But we, too, had been remembered, and were not, after 
all, the neglected and dejected company we imagined. One of the 
boys rushed up to me, half frantic, with a splendid cake in his arms, 
to which was appended a note, requesting him to distribute it among 
the guards. Yes, the good folks of Independence had again taxed 
their generosity, and here were the fruits. Butter and cheese, cakes 
and pies, and other things too numerous to mention, were brought to 
light. Last, but not least, came tobacco ; and the way the boys 
shouted and poured forth thanks, was a convincing proof that they 
had no particular ill-will toward the donors. We had a royal dinner 
for that day, at least. Cake and cheese were placed at each plate, 
with now and then a dish of yellow butter. The sergeants kindly vol- 
unteered to act as waiters, and when everything was ready, and the 
word given to charge, you ought to have seen the firm and intrepid 
manner in which they came up to the board and demolished the eata- 
bles. Many thanks, also, for the papers. They were as refreshing as 
a shower upon the desert. Even the love stories of the Ledger proved 
quite interesting, and served to wile away many an hour. .Anything in 
the shape of reading matter is acceptable. 

Five deserters were arrested the other day, and brought into camp. 
There were two sergeants, two corporals, and one high private. They 
escaped from the second regiment now stationed in Missouri. They 
were securely bound and taken to the guard-house. I was unable to 
learn their names, but they were fine, intelligent looking men. They 
complained bitterly of hard fare and harder treatment. The example 
appears to be infectious. Two of our— I wont say men— gave us the 
slip last night. A squad was detailed to search for them, but returned 
with no tidings. Telegraphic dispatches have been sent, and the po- 
lice are on the alert. I have not time or space to go into particulars. 
Their names are Sanford Hamilton and Wesley Williams. • • 
Yours, 

C. J. R. 

LETTER NO. V. 

BUKI.INGTON, August 3, 8}< P. M. 

Friend Rich: — The Fifth regiment started this evening at dark for 
"Dixie's Land," and at this hour we are in Burlington, awaiting a 
boat to convey us thitherward. I seize the present moment, simply to 
inform you of the fact, not intending to write you a lengthy letter. 

At 2 o'clock this afternoon we received marching orders, since 
which time the camp of the Fifth has been a scene of unusual hurry 
and bustle. Upon receiving thcabove orders the tents of the Guards 
rang with deafening cheers, which increased in intensity up to the 
time of leaving Camp Wairen, at which time the camp presented a 
scene of the wildest enthusiasm that I ever witnessed; and this not 
only in our own regiment, but through the Sixth and Seventh, which, at 
our departure, saluted us with the most deafening cheers, heartfelt 
wishes for our success, and earnest desires for a speedy reunion with 
our columns in a more southern clime. 

We expect to stop at Keokuk for two or three days, or possibly one 
week, but not longer; when we are to advance into Missouri to take 
the place of the First Iowa regiment, whose term, as you are aware, 
has almost expired. In proficiency of drill we are, of course, far 
inferior to the First, but as to patriotism and ardent devotion to the 
cause in which w^e are engaged, that is excelled by none in the service. 

Our "boys" are in excellent spirits, and are only anxious to push 
forward the work which we have so much at heart — the crushing of the 
rebellion. There are only two cases of slight indisposition in the 
company, and all are with the regiment except two, viz: Sanford 
Hamilton and Wesley Williams, of Spring Creek, who yesterday 
basely and cowardly deserted the company— of whom more anon. 



The company learned with regret of Captain Lee's sickness, and all 
join in wishing him a speedy recovery and early reunion with our ranks 
We yesterday received the splendid present of luxuries from the ladies 
of Independence; but, in the hurry of to-day, have failed to acknowl- 
edge the receipt of the same. It will be attended to at our earliest 
leisure. Meantime tender to the liberal donors, grateful and sincere 
thanks from the Guards. 

Very truly, your friend, 

A. B. L. 
LETTER NO. VI. 

Keokuk, August 4, 1861. 
Deak Gu.^KDl.^N: — In my last I stated that our regiment had just 
received marching orders for Keokuk. Many of the boys were dis- 
posed to consider it a hoax, as we had been deceived' so often before. 
But it was true, and at eight o'clock p. M. we struck tents and left 
Camp Warren for Burlington, where we were to take boat for Fort 
Madison. A large amount of our equipage, consisting of cartridges, 
uniforms, etc., had already arrived, and before that and the rest of our 
baggage could be conveyed on board, it was twelve o'clock. Two 
large barges w^ere attached to either side of the steamer, and the troops 
filed on board, filling the boat from stem to stern. Reached Fort 
Madison at half past three A. M., and took the cars. The train was 
so heavily loaded that it was next to impossible for the engine to move 
it. Finally succeeded in reaching Keokuk without any serious acci- 
dent or loss other than our breakfast, and went into quarters. We are 
now stationed in a large store room, with good conveniences for cook- 
ing, and manage to make ourselves comfortable. The boys were over- 
joyed at leaving Camp Warren, and appear to be well suited with their 
present quarters. The sixth regiment arrived last night. The kindest 
courtesy is extended to us all by the citizens. A report was circulated 
yesterday that a party of secessionists have caused trouble on the 
Keokuk & Des Moines railroad, eighteen miles from here. They are 
getting quite troublesome in the northern part of Missouri, and it is 
probable that we shall be called there as soon as our guns arrive, which 
will be by the first of the week. Weather is excessively hot, but I have 
not heard of much sickness among the men. 

In great haste, yours, 

■ C. I. R. 
LETTER NO. VII. 

Keokuk, August 7, 1861. 
Since my last, we have had a slight touch of grim old war, but have 
passed through the ordeal safe and unharmed, and are ready to report 
all what we did or saw on the momentous occasion. Rumors to the 
effect that a large party of Missourians had assembled for the purpose 
of making an attack on Athens, a small town on the Keokuk, Des 
Moines ».^- Missouri railroad, had been some time in circulation, but 
were generally discredited. On Monday, the fifth instant, news came 
that severe fighting was going on, and that the Union forces were hard 
pressed and required help. We had as yet received no arms, but suc- 
ceeded in procuring the loan of some old cap-lock muskets, which were 
kindly lent us by the State until we could get rifles. By 9 o'clock nine 
companies from the Fifth and Sixth regiments were on board of the 
cars and steaming away for the land of Secessia. Many citizens, some 
with double shot .guns and revolvers, accompanied, also a brass band. 
We were cheered tremendously at starting, and on the route maidens 
fair smiled upon us. Old ladies tottered to the doors and waved their 
night caps, or any other articles that they could get hold of, vigorously, 
while cheer upon cheer, caught up and prolonged by a thousand 
throats, were wafted over the waters of the Mississippi. We passed 
up the valley of the Des Moines river, through a low and broken coun- 
try, but sparsely timbered and poorly watered, and but little of the 
land in a state of cultivation. . . . Not a farmer did we 
see in the fields, not a carriage upon the roads; but, in lieu thereof, 
sentries and squads of cavalry. At every turn it looked warlike. Ar- 
riving within two miles of .\thens, the train stopped and the five com- 
panies of the Fifth regiment, with citizens, left the train, while the com- 
panies belonging to the Sixth proceeded at once to Athens. We forded 
the Des Moines at this point, and marched up the left bank, while the 
Sixth was to outflank the rebels if possible, attacking them both in 
front and rear. We had gone but a short distance when we were met 
by a party of horsemen, who informed us that the Missourians, sixteen 
hundred strong, under the lead of McGofiin, it was supposed, had at- 
tacked them at 4 o'clock that morning, but had been repulsed by Col- 
onel Moore, and were then in retreat towards the south. Lieutenant 
Colonel Matheis, who had command of one division, gave orders for 
immediate pursuit, as the seceshers wers supposed to be encamped at 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



139 



no great distance. We marched five or si.x miles, and finding no 
traces of them, bivouacked for the night on a smooth, open prairie, 
and awaited new developments. Here we learned from reliable author- 
ity that the rebels were si.\teen miles distant, and in full retreat. As 
most of their force was mounted, it was folly to think of continuing the 
pursuit. In the morning we returned to .Athens and rejoined the Sixth. 
Here we saw- many evidences of the fight that had taken place. . . 
The Si.xth regiment will remain here for a time. The Fifth returned to 
Keokuk, and will probably start for St. Louis in a few days. I find I 
have omitted many important particulars, but have no time to write 
further. 

Respectfully yours, 

C. J. R. 

LETTER NO. VIII. 

On Board STE.'VMiiR W.\r E.\gle, ) 
August 14, 1861, opposite St. Louis. ) 

Editor Gu.^RDIAN:— Left Keokuk on the steamer Di Vernon Sun- 
day morning, the eleventh instant, for St. Louis. There were five com- 
panies of men, and one hundred mules on board, the latter bemg des- 
tined for baggage service. Our trip down was as pleasint as could be 
e.\pected, though the crowded condition of the boat did not offer many 
comforts. The hard sea biscuit and raw ham galled the conscience of 
many of the soldiers. In the evening we had a violent shower, the 
rain pouring down in torrents, running in miniature floods from the 
quarter and forecastle decks, and completely deluging many a luckless 
fellow, who was awakened by a stream of water pouring around his 
ears. Owing to the low stage of the river, our progress was but slow, 
being compelled to take a sudden turn every few moments to avoid 
some treacherous sandbar. Reached St. Louis the ne.xt day, and in- 
stead of being marched to quarters, as we expected, were immediately 
transferred to the Jennie Dean, a Government packet, and started for 
Jefferson Barracks, twelve miles below, where we remained all night on 
board. The next day we landed on the river bank, with the expecta- 
tion of staying a couple of weeks, at least. But no; we were ordered 
to hold ourselves in readiness for marching at a moment's notice, and 
this morning took to the water once more for Boonville. 

Looking over the Daily Bulletin, a secession sheet, I saw this morn- 
ing a notice of a great battle fought in the southern part of this State, 
in which the Federal forces were reported completely routed, and Gen- 
eral Lyon killed. We hardly believe it as yet. Should it prove true, 
however, the most of the troops in the northern part of the State, with 
the exception of the Fifth regiment, will be withdrawn to support Gen- 
eral Sigel. General Fremont is now at St. Louis, and is using the most 
vigorous measures. 

Our boat is dismantled of all her furniture, and everything put in 
order. 

The officer of the day has just come into the cabin, saying that we 
are bound for Lexington, distance three hundred and fifty miles from 
here. . . . The boys are all well — everyone. Mail just going, so 
good bye. 

C. J. R. 
LETTER NO. IX. 

Jefferson City, Missouri, .August i6th, ) 
On board the steamer War Eagle. J 

Friend Rich: — . . . This is our third day out, and we are 
still steaming over the turbid waters of the Missouri. Of all the dirty, 
ill-looking streams I ever saw. this is the worst. A pailful of water will de- 
posit a sediment an inch in depth. We are compelled to use it, however, 
for drinking and culinary purposes, and in justice, I must say that it is 
far better than it looks. It is healthier and pleasanter to the taste than 
that furnished by its illustrious brother, the Mississippi. The banks in 
places are low, and fringed with a thick undergrowth of vines and 
willow bushes, which make a jungle almost impenetrable for man or 
beast. In other places the banks rise in rocky bluffs to the height of a 
hundred feet or more from the surface of the water, and are covered 
with a heavy giowth of cottonwood and sycamore trees, which are the 
principal timber. 

The chief towns between St. Louis and Jefferson City, are Washing- 
ton and Harmon, each containing between four and five thousand white 
inhabitants, and any quantity of negroes. The latter class, as far as I 
have seen, appear to be well dressed and to enjoy a certain degree of 
independence, for which they may thank Claiborne Jackson, and others 
of a like stamp, who, in seeking to pin them forever to a southern con- 
federacy, have brought in a set of fellows to aid the Goveminent in 
their unconditional liberation. Said an intelligent darkey to me the 
other day : 



"We hab easier times now, massagwine to give us our freedom be- 
fore we be contrabens. Uis chile fights for de Union, you see." 

And away he went humming the "Star Spangled Banner." Many 
of them since the war began are thrown out of employment, and hang 
heavily upon the hands of their masters, who would be heartily glad to 
dispose of them if they could. A good, whole-souled Christian slave 
trader in St. Louis has an advertisement in to-days paper, in which he 
kindly offers to sell a couple of fat, bacon-fed niggers at a loss of forty 
per cent., stating as his reason for so doing, that business of an imper- 
ative nature demands his immediate presence south. 
The Missouri & Pacific railroad here follows the river for the whole dis- 
tance, and must have been constructed at great expense, there being 
heavy grading and blasting through solid rock. Three different bridges 
have been burned by the secessionists on this route, but they are now 
all rebuilt stronger and more substantial than ever, and guards are 
stationed at the distance of every mile. At the towns we passed, the 
"Stars and Stripes" were waving, and cheers for the Union were given. 
All appeared overjoyed at the appearance of our troops, while not a 
single representative of Jeff Davis appeared. Union men are becom- 
ing inspired with confidence in the power and determination of the 
Federal Government, and the reign of tyrants and terrorism that has 
hitherto held the good and loyal citizens of the State in restraint is 
drawing to a close. The disunionists either leave or preserve a respect- 
ful silence. Many of them are still in St. Louis, but the presence of 
General Fremont with a large military force, and the fact that he has 
proclaimed the city to be under martial law since the fourteenth instant, 
has had a most salutary effect. I caught a glimpse, and a glimpse 
only, of the general while we were lying at St. Louis. He was sitting 
in a carriage, watching the embarking and departure of the troops. I 
was not near enough to get a distinct view of his features, but contented 
myself with gazing long and fixedly upon the stovepipe hat that graced 
his head. 

Much grief is manifested at the death of General Lyon. His noble 
efforts in behalf of the Government, and the wisdom he displayed in 
preparing the campaign, have enshrined his memory in the heart of 
every patriot citizen. Instead of becoming discouraged at our recent 
defeat at Springfield, for you can call it nothing else, the War Depart- 
ment is making more gigantic preparations than ever. It is hkely 
that General Fremont will start soon with a fleet of gnn-boats down 
the Mississippi to Bird's Point, while General Siegel and other com- 
manders will cooperate from different portions of the State. 

LETTER NO. X. 

Jefferson Citv, August 17, 1861. 
Bright and beautiful is the opening day. and the sun, as he gently 
rises from behind the bank of fog that is curling upward in fantastic 
wreaths from the bosom of the broad Missouri, lights up with a mild 
radiance hill and valley, and falls with a golden lustre upon the cupola 
of the capitol, from the dome of which is suspended in proud triumph 
the stars and stripes. ... The principal objects of inter- 
est in Jefferson City are the capitol and penitentiary buildings. The 
former stands upon a high bluff, commanding a fine view of the sur- 
rounding country, and is built of limestone. The Second lUinois brig- 
ade is quartered there with two pieces of artillery. The long and lofty 
senate chamber no longer echoes the sounds of violent political discus- 
sions, the rustling of papers, and the beat of the speaker's mallet. 
They have given way to the tramp of the sentry, the click of the mus- 
ket, and the ringing sound of the bayonet. In the rooms once occupied 
by the tr.iitor Jackson and his confreres, plotting the dissolution of the 
Union, are now quartered the volunteer defenders of their assailed 

'°""''>'' Sunday, August i8th. 

Started this morning for Lexington, but had proceeded but a short 
distance when we were met by the steamers McDowell and White 
Cloud, having on board the Fifth Missouri regiment. They had been 
fired into about two miles above, and one of their number killed. After 
a short consultation our boats returned with the others to JeB'erson 
City, where we are now stopping. 

The young hero who was " off for the war " already in the harness. 
LETTER NO. XI. 
Camp Douglas, Chicago, August 17, 1861. 
Friend Rich; — Everybody now-a-days is supposed to be interested 
in the welfare of "our boys, " and everybody wants to know all about 
them. There are, of course, two sides to a soldier's life, and when a 
glowing picture is painted there is a natural curiosity to see the con- 
trasting shades. As I am not under restrictions, I shall endeavor to 



140 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



present the truth unvarnished. Let me say, at the start, that a soldier 
in camp has no time to pohsh his letters, and were I not aware of the 
charity of your readers, I should hesitate to comply with your request 
to write occasionally for the Guardian. 

I have now been in barracks with the Douglas brigade two weeks. 
How 1 came here need not be detailed. A personal iiarative is not my 
object, and would not interest your readers. This regiment, called by 
license the Douglas brigade, has been collecting for several weeks, and 
comprises at present nine hundred men. These are divided into four- 
teen companies, only a few of which are full. The smaller companies 
will probably combine, and the regiment be fully organized next week. 
Our camp is beautifully situated in an oak grove, three and a half miles 
south of Lake street, and near the lake shore. We are quartered in 
rough board shaiities, having two rows of bunks, one above the other 
on each side, each shanty large enough to accommodate a full com- 
pany. The bunks are hlled uith good, sweet hay, and for those of us 
accustomed, from choice, to lie on the floor during the summer months, 
are positively luxurious. I have no complaints to make of our quar- 
ters. We have been furnished with warm blankets, and no one need 
suffer from exposure. I will here state that the regiment is organizing 
under the auspices of the General Government. The requisition for 
arms and uniforms was made some time since, but we have not been 
able to discover much of what the papers term "characteristic energy," 
so far as supplying them is concerned. We have received our blankets, 
and shoes for those entirely destitute; but we otherwise present every 
characteristic of the "ragged regiment." We hear rumors that our 
uniforms are about to be contracted for in Chicago, which does not 
look like an immediate provision. The boys are very patient, how- 
ever, and I am surprised that there are so many noble souls here. As 
a general thing the boys seem inspired by a devoted patriotism, and 
conduct themselves accordingly ; but it must be confessed that there 
are here a large number who are actuated by baser motives ; and it is 
among these that the grumblers are almost invariably found. 

We have plenty to eat. To be sure the coffee is sometimes dis- 
covered to be compounded of burnt beans, acorns, and vanous other 
untropical ingredients, and the bread is occasionally a little sour, but 
we all know it to be the fault of the virtuous contractors, and not of 
our officers, and so we grin and bear it. One great fault in the com- 
missary department of the army generally is the failure to supply fresh 
vegetables in line place of some of our salt meat rations. We cannot 
even get good potatoes, and are hereafter to be confined to regular 
rations, which consists of meat, bread, rice or beans, sugar, coffee, 
soap, salt, vinegar and candies. The above list includes all our allow- 
ances, with the exception of a little pepper and wood. We are not 
even to be allowed, as heretofore, to trade off a portion of our villain- 
ous salt pork for molasses and sugar. We expect the scurvy in a few 
days, but we shall endure it all without grumbling — if we can. The 
temptation is certainly very strong when one is fortunate enough to 
get a pass for town, to spend one's money simply to get a change of 
diet. But I expected all this, and have no fault to find so far as I am 
concerned ; but it makes my heart ache to see men suffering from sick- 
ness caused by the want of food which could be provided without ex- 
pense to the Government; for we would willingly give half of our meat 
rations for good new potatoes alone. This letter is already too long, 
and I will close with the statement, that the name of this regiment 
seems not to have been taken into consideration at all by the men en- 
listing. I suppose there are as many known as Republicans as there 
are of Douglas Democrats composing it. We are all of one name — 
Americans. 

J. L. LoOMis. 

LETTER NO. XII. 

Jefferson City, August 27, 1861. 

Friend Rich : — In your last issue, that is, the last received here, I 
noticed among the telegraphic items a statement in regard to our 
being fired into while coming up the river. This is a mistake. The 
much-looked-for pleasure of smelling " Secesh" powder has not yet 
been given us. After travelling nearly, or quite, one thousand miles, 
and enduring some, at least, of the privations of a soldier's life, we 
have yet to tell that we have had ' 'nary scratch" of "real fun." How 
soon we may is uncertain, but the prospect is good at present. 

The mistake above mentioned occurred on this wise; While on our 
way up the river, about fifty miles above here, we met two steamers 
carrying the Fifth Missouri regiment of three months' volunteers, whose 
time was out and who were going home. They said they had been 
fighting all day, the rebels firing from the timber which lines the shores, 
and running away on any landing being made for the purpose of en- 



gaging them. The Fifth Missouri lost one man killed .and four or five 
wounded. 

Not having any artillery, our officers deemed it best to return here 
and send to St. Louis for some. On arriving at this place the next 
morning (Sunday, i8th), our orders to proceed to Lexington were 
countermanded, and we have remained here since. Tents have been 
distributed to six companies of our regiment, E being one of the lucky 
ones. The other four are quartered in houses. The health of all is 
good, and we are as happy a set of fellows as you would find on a 
summer day. Postage stamps are in great demand, many of the boys 
being utterly unable to obtain any, and therefore can not write to the 
"girl they left behind them." And, in fact, I should be very unwilling 
to narrate the manner in which I drew the one which will ornament 
the outside of this letter. Nothing is ever stolen, begged, or borrowed 
here, but if a man wants anything which is comeatable, he is sure to 
"draw" it. 

The blankets furnished us are very warm and comfortable, but no 
protection against rain. Indeed, the principles of capillary attraction 
are not better illustrated by the sponge. Money is generally looked 
upon as filthy lucre, unworthy the notice of "brave soldiers." We 
have to-day drawn each a pair of new pants, a cap and a canteen. The 
pants and cap are blue, and a fair specimen of swindling contracts. 
The giay ones are generally much the worse for wear, and will soon 
be laid aside. I shall not part with mine without regret, they being a 
perpetual reminder of scenes gone by and friends far away. 

But my letter is already too long — so long I fear you will not find 
space for it. But if you will publish the part of it relating to the kill- 
ing, you will much oblige all of us, as we wish it to be distinctly under- 
stood that we are all here. 

O. J. M. Fuller. 
LETTER NO. XIII. 
Camp Os.^ge, Missouri, August 31, 1861. 

Editor Guardian: — Fortune favors the brave, they say, but I am 
consoled in the thought that there are exceptions to the general rules, 
or 1 should not have been placed upon picket guard to-day, to with- 
stand the scorching rays of the sun. Companies B, C, E, and F, o' 
the Fifth, are at this post for the purpose of guarding the Osage bridge, 
which has been twice burned by the secessionists. The bridge is a 
noble structure, a quarter of a mile in length, well worth guarding. 
The otherportion of the regiment is at Jefferson City. We left there 
on Wednesday, the twenty-eighth, with three days' rations, and expect 
to return to-morrow, as our time will be out and some other companies 
will be called in our place. At the risk of being called particular, 1 
will say that this is a miserable hole, where grim-visaged musquitoes be- 
set us at every turn, and an army of fleas are in league with Claib 
Jackson in trying to drive us from the land. There is only one redeem- 
ing feature here, and that is the fruit, of which there are great quantities. 
.\pples, peaches and pears are not considered a luxury with us. 

There can be no secession force near here, as the country has been 
thoroughly traversed by scouting parties. Yesterday I was out on a 
scout under Corporal Woodruft'. We went up the Missouri several 
miles, to the timber, to the plantation of an old secesher. Came in 
contact with his orchard, but not with him. The orchard, of course, 
was a part of Secessia, and putting a large quantity of apples under 
guard, was doing our duty. We saw one of his negroes who was 
mighty free to express his opinion on the impending ciisis. He said 
he was thirty-five years old; had lived where he was ever since he was 
born, and withal appeared to like to be a nigger. 

The boys are in excellent spirits, and, with two or three exceptions, 
are all well. Tuesday Uncle Sam furnished us pants and caps toward 
our unifoim, which was very much needed by some of the companies. 
The Fifth regiment receive their pay to-day or on Monday next. 
Yours, etc., 

S. A. Reed. 

LETTER NO. XIV. 

Camp Defiance, Jefferson City, Missouri, September 7, i86r. 

Friend Rich; — A copy of the Guardian, dated August 27th, lies 
before me, and you may be sure its contents were read with pleasure. 
Nothing is sought after with more avidity by the company than a 
perusal of its columns; and it becomes almost necessary, at times, to 
have a guard stationed over one in order to keep it. By it we learn 
that Captain Hord has left with a gallant company for the seat of war. 
May they ever sustain the high expectations that have been formed of 
them; and nobly vindicate the cause of truth and liberty. . 
Camp life, as well as every other, has its different phases or classes of 
society. First, there's your sober, sedate peace-loving fellows, who 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



141 



smoke their pipes, read papers, nnd spin mojt intermii.able yarns of 
an evening, by the niess-fires. They are quite sensitive in regard to 
forming new associations, and allow none but a favored few to come 
within their circle. Between meals, the time that is not consumed in 
reading and smoking, is usually devoted to inventing some new and 
savory stew, where\\i[h to tempt their own appetites, or gain the ap- 
probation of some commissioned officer; number two are perfectly con- 
tented to take things as they are, and never trouble themselves to go 
beyond the list of luxuries provided for them by the commissary gen- 
eral and sutler. To wash their faces, comb their hair, and groan for 
the sight of an orchard tilled with peaches and apples, is their principal 
employment when off duty; number three differ from both of these. 
It is immaterial to them whether they eat more than once a day or 
not, while washing and other refining processes are by universal con- 
sent regarded as barbarous piactices, and never to be indulged in, ex- 
cept when the colonel foolishly insists on their performance. Their 
acme of human felicity is attained when in possession of a pack of 
cards, a plug of tobacco, and a five cent ante. This class is generally 
styled the fancy me=s, and though many of them are whole-souled fel- 
lows, they are generally let alone by all those who wish to get the best 
end of a joke. . . . To be sure, the inmates of sundry hen- 
roosts, cry out for vengeance against them, but the broth of their con- 
fiscated and slaughtered companions has served to invigorate the 
weakened frame of many a homesick fellow, and it certainly must be 
right in the sight of all who like to see foraging done up on the square. 

August 28. — Four companies of our regiment received orders to 
march down to the Osage, eight miles below here, to guard the railroad 
bridge, which had been threatened by the rebels. We went aboard 
the cars and reached our destination at 12 M. Our arrival released a 
detachment of the Illmois Irish brigade, which had been on duty at 
this point, and they returned to town while we pitched our tents, cooked 
dinner, and detailed guard as soon as possible. An attempt, which 
was partially successful, was made by Jackson's minions last spring, to 
burn this bridge. Eighty feet of the western end of the bridge was de- 
stroyed, and the telegraph wires torn down its entire length. The 
bridge is now rebuilt, but m a rtide and imperfect manner, and is hard- 
ly safe for a heavy train. I have read of many bad, mean-looking 
places, heard stories of others, dreamed of some, and seen a few, but 
nothing that imagination can conjure up, or memory recall, compares 
with the sot distant town of Osage. . . .As for the few peo- 
ple who are compelled by poverty to live here, they bear the indelible 
marks of fever and ague. They would come into camp, bringing small 
quantities of corn and potatoes, which were eagerly exchanged for 
coffee and sugar. . . . Young men from eighteen to twenty 
years of age, do not know the first letter; for schools appear to be un- 
known. , . Quite an incident occurred on the night of the 
twentieth ultimo. The discharge of a sentinel's gun was heard, fol- 
lowed by the cry of "corporal of the guard, No. 9." All haste was 
made for the spot, where the sentry was found with his right hand 
hanging shattered by his side. He stated that a person approached 
hiin from the railroad track, and on being challenged, drew a revolver 
and fired, and then ran into the bushes. Search was made but no man 
was found. 

Five days was the time assigned to us for our stay at Osage, and on 
Monday we returned to Jefferson City, and were immediately placed 
under marching orders; but no one knew our destination. Our knap- 
sacks and clothing, which had that day arrived, were distributed among 
the companies. The coats or blouses are black, with brass buttons, 
and single breasted; pants blue, and warranted to lip well; the cap is 
black and sm.all crowned. I understand that these are only intended 
for a fatigue suit, and that the regular military uniform will be gray. 
Each man was directed to supply himself with five day's rations, which, 
with our knapsacks , canteens and cartridge boxes, would make quite a re- 
spectable load for a mule. I could not refrain from laughing at some of 
the boys who had stuffed their knapsacks full of every conceivable thing 
that they would ever need, and went staggering along under the enormous 
weight. Dr. M., in particular, had his knapsack swelled to aldermanic 
proportions, and at sight of the bulky mass the sweat started from every 
pore; but he bought that he should get used to it. Owing to the lateness 
of the hour when we returned to camp, the numerous offices to be per- 
formed, and the insupportable heat, it was nine o'clock p. M. before we 
left the grounds for the boats, two miles distant, and our orders were 
were to be ready at eight. We were to embark on the steamers Satan 
and War Eagle for some point up the Missouri. The night was Of 
pitchy blackness, the roads rough, and the knapsacks tremendous 
heavy. Our march to the boats was anything but agreeable, but, 
reaching them about 10:15 P. M., we filed on board, five companies on 



each, A heavy thunder shower arising and the rain pouring down m 
torrents, the boats were made fast to the shore and remained until 
morning. The boys got what sleep they could in the interim by bunk- 
ing down on deck, and into every corner and cubby hole that was free 
of access. So tired were they that, once couchant, all human threats 
and persuasions were unavailing in geUmg them up again. Once a 
troop of cavalry horses was actually led over a squad of eight, who 
slept on, regardless of hoofs, threats, and expostulations. 

The day dawned at last, and we were on our way up the river. The 
trip was as pleasant as could be expected, though the scenery was 
rather monotonous — nothing but the low, level banks on either side, 
covered with brush, with now and then a rocky bluff. Arrived at the 
town of Rocheford, a small place situated below Boonville, at 5 P. M., 
and after a little delay the troops were landed. The Satan had stopped 
below to intercept all communication in that direction, and had sent a 
part of her troops ashore to approach the town from the opposite side, 
while we were to march straight through, and rejoin the other compan- 
ies at Columbia, the county seat of Boone county, thirteen miles dis- 
tant. The colonel here impressed a number of horses and wagons into 
the baggage service, and, i believe, took one or two prisoners. No 
hostile demonstrations of any kind were made, but the inhabitants 
particularly the ladies, looked daggers. They evidently considered us 
as belonging to another race, and our unceremonious advent into their 
very midst was not calculated to gain their warmest love. It was re- 
ported that a strong body of rebels was stationed at Columbia, and 
would probably cause us a little trouble. Our division, consisting of 
five companies, was commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Mathies, and 
took the main road, while Colonel Worthington, with the rest of the 
command, took another to the right, with the view of surrounding the 
enemy, should there be one, and falling upon the town of Columbia as 
the common centre. By 8 P. M. we commenced filing out from the 
town of Rocheford, and took up the line of march. The recent rain 
that had fallen had swollen the streams and rendered the mud of almost 
fabulous depth. Up one hill and down another, through bogs, holes, 
ruts, and ravines, we stumbled, without even the faint glimmer of a 
star to light our path, or a sound to cheer us, except now and then a 
bray from the weak lungs of some antiquated mule. Knapsacks, that 
had been filled with varieties suflScient to set up a Dutch pedlar in bus- 
iness, began to grow intolerably heavy, and haversacks loaded with 
crackers and meat were voted a nuisance before we had well begun our 
march. The baggage wagons were crowded with soldiers who were too 
tired to walk further, and had thrown themselves upon the tender mer- 
cies of the surgeon. .As for your humble correspondent, he was revolv- 
ing mentally the difference between the real and the ideal of a soldier's 
life, envying the folks at home their warm beds, and heaping any 
amount of anathemas upon Missouri roads. I was aroused from my 
reflections by the voice of Lieutenant Jordan, shouting, "Keep to the 
left, boys, keep to the left !" Being naturally of a very inquisitive turn 
of mind, I wanted to see what was at the right— and the next moment 
found myself sinking in a hole that would compare favorably with the 
Slough of Despond, and still going down. By the most vigorous ex- 
ertions I succeeded in extricating myself, and struggled out upon the 
bank where I was greeted with a shout of uproarious laughter by the 
tender-hearted boys. 

Here we were overtaken by Sergeant Peck and a squad of ten men, 
who had been detailed to remain behind and act as guard. The good 
man in his anxiety to catch us had been practicing the double-quick 
every step, and himself and men were puffing and blowing like por- 
poises. The delicate feet of the sergeant, only eight inches by fifteen, 
were loaded with mud enough to start a brick yard, and he was free to 
■admit that he thought this a little worse than hunting .Mexican Greasers. 
Owing to the bad condition of the roads, we went but a short distance 
further, and bivouacked. Wrapping up in our blankets, we sank down 
upon the ground, and were soon in a deep sleep, from which we were 
aroused by the cry of "Fall in." The grey light of the morning was 
fast appearing, and, by ten A. M., we were in sight of the spires and 
white houses of Columbia. This is the most tasteful place we have 
seen in northern Missouri, being situated in a beautiful farming country, 
and laid out with considerable taste. Instead, however, of meeting an 
armed foe. with glistening bayonets, the women and children came 
pouring out in great numbers, and we were smiled upon in the most 
flattering manner by the beautiful damsels. Secession has quite a 
number of votaries here, but through humane motives, no doubt, they 
refrained from appearing. We were marched up and quartered on the 

State university grounds. The building of this institution is quite fine 

a brick structure, in the Doric style of architecture. Here the pants 
made for us by the ladies of Independence, were jerked out of various 



142 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



knapsacks, and distributed to tlie "Union Home Guards," who, 
though neither wounded (unless by the smiling eyes aforesaid) nor half 
dead, were in pressing need of the garments bestowed. Only one ac- 
cident happened during the expedition: and that, it is hoped, not a 
serious one. A member of the Home Guards w'as shot through the 
shoulder, while leaning on his gun. The wound was promptly dressed, 
and the wounded man is doing well. Reached Jefferson city again, 
Friday, the si.xth mstant, and found all well. Morgan Holmes, all 
honor to his culinary skill, had prepared for us a splendid supper, to 
which we did ample justice. More Anon. C. J. R. 

LETTER NO. XV. 

Camp Worthington, ) 

Jefferson City, Mo., September lo, 1861. f 

Raining! All day the dull leaden clouds have been gathering in the 
southwest like a mighty host, ready to pour down their chilling contents 
upon us. Under such circumstances the most desirable virtue a person 
can possess, is patience. No matter if the water does loin across the 
floor of his tent in small rivulets, converting his comfortable bed of 
straw and leaves into a steaming mass, it must be borne, and borne 
heroically. To be sure the soldier is apt to look out into the gloom, 
and contrast his present situation with that of those who are enjoying 
the comforts of home, which he, through motives of patriotism volun- 
tarily resigned, and lo wonder if the happy faces and warm hearts 
clustered around the fireside of home, have a thought to bestow upon 
him. Certainly there must be something in the sound of the rain 
pattering on the tents very suggestive of feelings like these, for many 
have abandoned their usual pastime of card-playing, and have betaken 
themselves to silent reflection, or singing sacred songs. A singular 
little world is this same camp of ours. On a fine day, with the trees 
waving in the breeze, and the gorgeous sunshine pouring a flood of 
light over the landscape of hill, valley, and tented field, all is mirth and 
jollity. Flags are flying in all directions, and files of soldiers, in gay 
uniforms, and with countenances beaming with content, are striving 
with a generous emulation to give animation and enjoyment to the in- 
spiring scene. But let Dame Nature relapse from this genial sum 
mer mood into one of these sighing dismal autumn rains, and its effect 
will soon be noted in the darkened brow of the soldier. He no longer 
has that reckless or don't care sort of appearance, but his manner, as 
he meets his comrade is warm and feeling. With an.\ious solicitude he 
inquires about tbe state of his health, and shows a deep interest in the 
latest news from home. Recollections of letters hitherto neglected and- 
unanswered, come over his mind, and it will be strange if he does not 
proceed to his quarters, draw out the old knapsack for a writing desk, 
and commence inditing a missive to the friends at home. If the 
orderly's box is not filled by the morrow's noon, it will be because there 
are no pens and paper to be found. 

One necessity exists in the most of our western regiments, which 
should be supplied; that is, the want of some person capable of im- 
parting thorough moral and religious instruction. He should be, by 
natural sensibilities, as well as by education, fitted for the post, and 
should devote to it his highest and noblest energies. The chaplain 
should be of a practical turn of mind, ready at all times to associate 
himself with the ranks of the privates, and to pour words of consola- 
tion and Christian hope into the ear of the sick and weary sufferer, 
who, removed from all friends, and perhaps from former associates, 
and beyond the pale of woman's angelic influence, is longing for some 
kindly word of sympathy. Let him be free to reprove the profligate 
and abandoned, whose example, unchecked by a warning word, may 
lead scores of young men, previously well educated by fond and 
faithful parents, to the lowest depths of degradation and misery. One 
word from a minister who. by his daily life illustrates what he professes 
to teach, will have more restraint upon the evil passions of such men, 
than all the fears of a corporal's guard. In this advanced stage of the 
world's history, with the many examples that have been set before us 
it ought to be understood that army life is very demoralizing, and that 
many powerful influences emanating from the Christian mind and press, 
must be set to work to counteract the host of vices that creep by in- 
sensible degrees into camp. . " . Of course, the chaplain 
must have the sympathy and support of the officers of the regiment in 
his behalf. On them, and them alone, rests the responsibility: and 
they should be held by the world strictly accountable for the conduct 
of the army. When the officers are in the habit of using profane oaths, 
and obscene language, nothing but a storm of the most horrid vitipura- 
tion and abuse is heard from the ranks. . . . The first 

great maxim that should be observed and enforced in military life, is 
cleanUness. A large body of men, when left together without some 



controlling spirit to induct it into a rigid system of order, is apt to be- 
come very negligent. 



Wednesday, nth. 

Orders have been given, I understand, from General Fremont, posi- 
tively prohibiting all information in regard to the numbers and move- 
ments of troops stationed here. So, for the present, you will have to 
rest contented with what news you can receive from priyate sources, 
and wild telegraphic dispatches. It is rumored that Jackson is ap- 
proaching with a large army, and that he boasts of his intention to eat 
his dinner here, a week from this date. Said dinner may not prove 
very palatable, but, of course, he will order his own seasoning. 

But three of the guards are now in the hospital; the rest are aU enjoy- 
ing themselves finely. Our present location for camping is very good, 
being situated two miles from the city, on a piece of meadow ground 
slightly sloping to the east. I think we shall be quartered heie for 
some lime to come. Two members of our company have been honor- 
ably promoted. H. S. Marlin, M.D., of Barclay, has received the 
post of assistant surgeon to one of the regiments stationed here; and 
Lieutenant Marshall has been appointed to the captaincy of company 
I, in place of Captain Langg, who is sick. This latter, it is probable, 
will be temporary. . . . There go the drums beating for 
roll call, so good night. C. J. R. 

LETTER NO. XVI CORRESPONDENCE OF THE GUARDIAN. 

Headquarters Fifth Iowa Regiment, ) 
BooNViLLE, MissoL'RI, September 15, 1861. j 

If recollection serves me rightly, I predicted quite confidently in my 
last letter that we should remain at Camp Worthington for some time. 
Every tiling had been arranged, messes divided off, time set apart for 
company drill and inspection, and a course marked out which seemed 
to promise rest from more active service. 

But, on the morning of the thirteenth instant, orders came for us to 
hold ourselves in readiness to march at a moment's notice ; though for 
what point we were ignorant. Some, relying on the demand which 
has been made from the east for ten regiments from the western divis- 
ion, asserted that we were to go immediately to Washington; others 
declared that we were bound for St. Lewis, while one individual of 
gigantic frame and nose of flaming hue gave us as his private opinion 
publicly expressed that the regiment was destined for Boonville via 
Patagonia — that the rebel generals Price and Rains had an enormous 
battery a few miles below on either side of the river, and that we should 
all get sent to Satan's dominions. Having thus delivered himself on 
the vexed question he proceeded to refresh his creature wants from a 
huge canteen that hung by his side, the contents of which, if subjected 
to chemical analysis, would have been found to contain one gill of water 
to three quarts of whiskey. The morning of the fourteenth came and 
with it a violent rain storm. Mud was soon at a discount, and clean 
pants and diy feet a novelty. The reveille was beat at three o'clock in 
the morning, when all turned out, ate a hastily prepared breakfast, 
struck tents, shouldered knapsacks, and fell into ranks with alacrity, 
impatient to board the good steamer War Eagle and away for our des- 
tination, wherever it might be. The rain still kept pouring down in 
torrents, wetting many a luckless fellow to the skin, and causing us 
all to look anxiously for an ark of safety. At last the storm cleared 
aw.ay; the muttering thunder died in the distance, and Old Sol favored 
the half drowned earth with his genial rays once more. At 8:25 A. M. 
we started; and after rounding a long sandbar the prow of the boat 
was turned up stream, which said we were bound either for Boonville 
or Lexington. We had gone but a short distance when we met the 
steamer Sioux City, freighted with furniture of every description, and 
having a number of families on board. A shot across her bows from 
the twelve-pounder soon brought the damsel alongside, when all sorts 
of inquiries were made concerning the movements of the rebels. They 
stated that Boonville had been attacked on the previous morning by a 
force of eight hundred men under the command of Colonel Brown, but 
that the Home Guards of Boonville, only one hundred and fifty strong, 
had repulsed them with great loss to the rebels. General Price, with 
sixteen thousand troops, was advancing rapidly upon Lexington, 
while Rains with another large division was marching to Glasgow with 
the intention of cutting off all communication between Lexington and 
Jefferson City. They were quite sanguine in the opinion that we 
should have some hot work to do; and giving three hearty cheers we 
parted. Nothing worthy of note transpired, and at midnight we made 
fast to the shore opposite to the fair grounds of the far-famed town of 
Boonville. This morning, after partaking of a hearty breakfast con- 
sisting of coffee and crackers, the company was marched ashore and 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



143 



quartered in the fair building. Tine fair grounds, comprising from 
twenty-five to thirty acres, rise with a bold and regular slope from the 
river bank, and after attaining quite an elevation descends quite as 
regularly on the other side. On the top are situated the intrench- 
ments, constructed of earth and built in the form of an elongated 
square with obtuse angles. Prior to our arrival not a single piece of 
artillerj- graced the works, a defect which is now somewhat remedied 
by our Iwelve-pounder. This kind persuader is placed in an embras- 
ure of the northeast angle, commanding the range of all the ap- 
proaches, and describing the arc of a circle that will sweep the town 
itself. The battles of yesterday was quite a serious affair, resulting in a 
repulse of the enemy, with a loss of twenty-six killed; while the number 
of wounded is not accurately known. The Home Guards lost but two 
killed outright, and si.x wounded, two of whom have since died. 
Colonel Brown and his brother, captain of one of the companies, were 
shot while gallantlv endeavoring to rally their troops. The contest 
did not last over fifteen minutes, but was sharp and decisive. . . . 
The fire of the Union men was hot and deadly — the discharge of mus- 
ketry unceasing; and when the rebels saw their leader fall they fled in 
confusion. The following description of the battle was given by one 
of the sergeants : "We war not e.vpectin' the enemy quite so soon; 
and when I seed a lot of the sneakin' whelps a crawlin' behind that 
house thar" — pointing to a large brick building — "I began to feel a 
little streaked. At the same time another gang of 'em was comin' 
through the orchard, while the colonel was tearing along in the most 
obstreperous manner, right in front. They didn't come in large num- 
bers but small squads, and kept dancing about like ducks in a gale of 
wind. We never waited fur orders, but poured in our fire as fast as we 
could, and I tell yer stranger, it wasn't slow. Every time I pulled 
trigger I thought of Betsy and the children at home, and Old Abe. 
Right whar you see them two trees standin' together Colonel Brown 
was shot, and about five rods to the left his brother fell. One of our 
best men was killed right here. Ho had just gave a cheer for the 
Union, and was drawin' up his gun to shoot, when a ball struck him in 
the forehead. But they paid dear for his death, I reckon." 

Wednesd.w, i8th. 

"Say, Massa, hab you a position in the Iowa Fifth?" 

"I believe I have that honor, uncle." 

"Well, dese people roun' heah fraider ob you dan de berry ebil one 
hisself. When dey hears ob you comin dey jes packs up an' travels 
for dey say dar is no use fighlin' a lot ob fellers dat won't run." 

"What makes them fear us so much? " 

" Dunno; but eber since dat fight in Springfeel, dey rather meet most 
anybody dan de Iowa regiments." 

"When did you get away from your master?" 

" Night afo' las' Massa say he gwine to knock me in de head 'fore I 
fall in de bans ob de aberlilionists; an' I thought I'd hunt my pussunai 
convenience." 

' 'But ain't you afraid he'll catch you again?" 

"Not as long as I'se wid de I'wa boys'" 

The facility with which the gallant confederates get out of the way 
upon our approach gives some coloring to the statement of my contra- 
band brother. 

We are now quartered quite comfortably in tents on the fair ground. 
Company C has gone nine miles above here to assist the Irish brigade? 
who had a slight skirmish with the rebels the other night , and were ap- 
prehensive of an attack from a larger force. . . . The 
Indiana Eighteenth and Twenty-second regiments arrived here yester- 
day. If reports are to be relied upon, the secessionists are concen- 
trating all their energies for an attack on this place or Lexington. I 
will want but one decisive battle to still rebellion forever in this section. 

C. J. R. 
LETTER NO. XV 11. 

Camp Douglas, Chicago, September 20, 1861. 
Fhiend Rich,— During the progress of this war, much has been 
said about the propriety of appointing civilians to high military posi- 
tions. So pliable had the public become, under the manipulation of 
skilful and unscrupulous politicians, that their willingness to risk the 
lives and reputations of our soldiery in the hands of men, who, how- 
ever expert they may have become in the arts of wire-pulling and log- 
rolling, could not properly load a musket, should be no matter of sur- 
prise. But experience is teaching us different ideas of military science, 
and people are beginning to understand that adaptation will, in part 
only, supply the place of a scientific education in the art of war. Snob 
politicians are no longer toler.ated, and first class lawyers can no longer 
be considered as necessarily first class commanders. 



\ little experience serves sometimes to convince lawyers themselves 
of this fact, as has been demonstrated in our own regiment. The first 
regiment of the Douglas brigade was organized on the twenty-ninth 
ultimo. David Stewart, a talented lawyer of this city, and mainly in- 
strumental in the organization of the brigade, received a complimentary 
election to the colonelcy; but, not being a military man by education, 
he had the good sense to resign, at the same time recommending Cap- 
tain W. H. Webb, an officer of long experience in the regular army, 
for the position. Captain Webb received a unanimous vote, and his 
election has given unbounded satisfaction to the men, and has inspired 
them with a confidence they could not have felt under the command of 
any civilian. Mr. Stewart was elected lieutenant colonel, and G. W, 
Roberts, major. With these officers the men are ready for any reason- 
able undertaking, and we are all determined to gve an honorable ac- 
count of ourselves. 

I have been trying to analyze the material in this camp, and have 
separated it into three distinct and nearly equ,al classes: First, those 
who enlisted from a love of adventure, or for the purpose of obtaining 
a lazy livelihood; second, men of moderate intelligence, who hastily 
comprehend the meaning of this contest, and choose to be on the right 
side, but are here mainly because it is the fashion: third, the real no- 
bility of the land — men with large hearts, wholly devoted to their coun- 
try, and with arms nerved by the inspiration of duty and honor. The 
first class comprises nine-tenths of the grumblers — the other tenth be- 
long to the second — and to its ranks may be traced nearly all derelic- 
tions of duty, such as failure to appear at roll calls, drills, etc. It has 
been observed, however, that their seats at the table are seldom vacant, 
although they are constantly complaining of every ailment in the calen- 
dar, from a sore toe to general debility. They are, in short, a good- 
for-nothing set of drones, and could well be spared from the regiment. 
Efficiency does not altogether he in numbers. 

Those of the second class will make passably good soldiers; though 
their efficiency will depend much upon their humor. Should every- 
thing go to their liking; should their officers suit them and their rations 
be well served, they would be reliable in an emergency; otherwise they 
could not be depended upon, though they would scarcely prove mutin- 
ous, unless under the strongest provocation. 

But the life, soul and support of the regiment rests with the third 
class. .Actuated by the deepest sense of duty, and inspired with an 
almost religious zeal for the sacred cause, they are ready to meet every 
priv'ation, and to overcome every obstacle. Without them, the regi- 
ment would be worthless; with them, it will return from victorv with 
the beautiful colors, presented this day, unsullied by a stain of dis- 
honor. 

I suspect that the divisions above noticed will apply to our army gen- 
erally. It is not composed entirely of disinterested patriots; and a 
thorough extirpation of weeds, cutting it down at least a third, would 
just about double its efficiency. 

There are a thousand things in camp life to write about — matters in- 
significant, perhaps, in themselves, but invaluable as an inde.x to the 
general character of our people; but I will not intrude much further 
upon your space, so valuable in these exciting times. The amusements 
practiced in camp, are not particularly elevating or invigorating. 
Card playing is the staple, and seems to be with many a passion 
amounting to folly. Its effects are seen in their disinclination for duty, 
and restlessness under restraint. Card playing, equally with whiskey 
drinking, unfits men for military service, and should be equally inhib- 
ited throughout the army. There is, however, little drunkenness in our 
camp. Of course, the sale of liquors upon the grounds is prohibited, 
and it is only occasionally, when his habits are known, that a drinker 
is passed outside the lines. We pride ourselves on this feature of camp 
discipline, and also on the good behavior of our men at the chaplain's 
service. 

The regiment is soon to remove to Missouri, and I may have some- 
thing of more interest to communicate. 

j. l. loomis. 

letter no. xviu. 

Heaoql'.vrters Fifth Iowa, Boo.nville, Missouri, 1 
September 22, i86t. ) 
* * * I can not describe the misery and confusion that everv-- 
where prevail. Law and order are abolished, and a miserable horde 
of Ishinaelites are roving the country, burning bridges, stealing prop- 
erty, and slaughtering or driving away all those who are suspected of 
having the least particle of love for the Union. Too cowardly, or too 
sensible of their inability to meet the Federal troops in a fair engage- 
ment, they are content to lie in wait, like the cunning savage, and 
strike a blow at some unguarded point. 



144 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



On the eighteenth instant, companies E and H r;turned from a suc- 
cessful scouting expedition, fifteen miles up the river. The spoils 
brought into camp consisted of a gang of six negroes, and property to 
the value of five thousand dollars. I was prevented by sickness from' 
accompanying the p.arly ; but, from accounts related by the boys, 
many rich scenes must have occurred. Company E was commanded 
by Lieutenants Jordan and Marshall, who were nothing loth to give 
the men a touch of adventure. . . . What if the shoe 
did pinch, or the knapsack hang heavily, all was sure to be compens- 
ated for when resting from their toil in the house of some broad plan- 
tation. . . . One of the scenes of the drama was the 
taking of a horse and carriage from a couple of strong-minded ladies. 
They were grandly dressed in silks and satins, and made no pretence 
of concealing their hatred of "old Abe" and his soldiers. They had 
overtaken the company on the main road, and were permitted to ride 
quietly along till they arrived at their own residence. The soldiers then 
politely informed them that the horse and carriage must be delivered 
np as contraband property; that having reached their home they could 
have no further use for it, while, on their part, it would prove very ser- 
viceable in conveying knapsacks and tired soldiers. 

At this stage of aff.iirs an old lady appeared at the gate, protesting 
vehemently that she had used both parties alike, and she thought it 
mean, yes, outrageously mean, to be treated so. As for the young 
ladies, they poured down the vials of their wrath in rich profusion. It 
rained, hailed, snowed and lightened all manner of choice expletives, 
but no one was hurt. Two soldiers were detailed to take charge of 
the property in dispute, and it is to be hoped, that when next these 
ladies rode, they were, if occasion required, civil, even to Federal 
soldiers. . . . Time would fail me to relate all the ad- 
ventures that befell the boys. How Sergeant Peck succeeded in get- 
ting his small feet planted under a table and eating until the mistress 
of the house stood aghast at the prospect of a famine; how orchards 
were entered, and the golden fruit confiscated for present necessity, 
while well-filled haversacks provided against future need. All these, 
and more, are stored up in retentive memories, to be related by the 
boys when safe at home by their own firesides. 

A fatal and most disgraceful blunder was made by members of the 
Indiana Eighteenth, on their way to Lexington. The steamer had 
been made fast to the shore, and scouting parties thrown out, when 
two of these met, and, through mistake, fired into each other, killing 
and wounding quite a number. The whole affair was the result of 
mismanagement on the part of the lieutenant colonel, who was in com- 
mand, and who could not be persuaded that the firing did not proceed 
from rebels in ambush. Had it not been for the captain of the boat, 
this valiant specimen of a Bakertown militia captain would have re- 
treated, leaving three hundred of his own men, scattered on shore in 
different directions, to shift for themselves. If such officers could be 
remanded to the sphere in which it is possible they made a respectable 
figure, it were better for them and the army. . . . Every- 
thing passes off smoothly in our regiment. The commissariat depart- 
ment is well supplied with an abundance of meat, coffee and sugar, 
more than is used, which enables the men to dispose of the surplus for 
vegetables. We are attaining a good degree of proficiency in com- 
pany and battalion drill, and gradually becoming accustomed to the 
regime of the camp, and necessary sanitary regulations. 

On the twentieth instant reports came that the bridge spanning the 
Lamine river, nine miles above, had been burned, and that a body of 
rebels were encamped in the vicinity. Five companies from our regi- 
ment were called upon, and ere five minutes had elapsed from the first 
roll of the drum, they were ready to march, company E being the first 
in line. Many of the boys had left their dinners warm upon the table, 
and had tallen into the ranks, not without a sigh of regret on the part 
of those who had been at the trouble of procuring potatoes and other 
delicacies. It was 12 o'clock precisely as we passed out of the en- 
campment, and struck the main road leading to the bridge. The 
division was under the command of Major Robinson and .Adjutant 
Foley, who are well qualified and possess the unbounded confidence of 
the whole regiment. The country is hilly and badly cut up into deep 

ravines and gullies, and in places heavily timbered 

Many fine private residences abound — models of taste and elegance — 
invariably surrounded with groves of maple or butternut trees, and 
with nice, smooth-shaven lawns extending in front. At the rear of the 
family residence are situated the whitewashed cottages of tue blacks, 
always clean and neat ; and still further back the orchards, bending be- 
neath their load of luscious fruit. Missouri may safely challenge any 
State in the Union, as far as the raising of fruit is concerned. The 
fabled gardens of the Hesperides could not equal an orchard we 



stumbled into while out on a foraging expedition. Great, rosy-cheeked 
peaches, pendant from branches bending to the ground, while ap- 
ples! — well, there is no use talking; the earth was fairly covered with 
them for rods around ; and, for once, you felt that the folks at home 
might envy the soldier boys. ... A dense cloud of 
smoke directly in front, showed plainly where the work of destruction 
had been consumated. A tew miles farther — our march being at a 
quick step, pausing now and then for rest and water — and a sudden 
turn in the road revealed to us the black and smouldering ruins of the 
bridge. The torch of the incendiary must have been applied early in 
the forenoon, for the frame work was all consumed, and there remained 
only the three grim, silent, stone abutments. It had obviously been 
burnt for the purpose of preventing communication between Lexing- 
ton and Jefferson City, it being the programme of the secessionist to 
hem in and secure this place and Lexington, and then turn their united 
forces on Jefferson City, which they are anxious to take the present 
month, in order to pass an ordinance of secession declaring the State 
of Missouri free from the parental authority of Uncle Sam, and en- 
titled to pass her own laws and regulations. . . The 
banks of the Lamine river resemble those of the Osage, being fringed 
with a thick growth of dwarfish timber, and affording a safe asylum to 
multitudes of nameless insects. As to the few people who manage to 
eke out here a scanty living, they bear a close resemblance to all other 
Missourians of the same class; being dressed in butternut colored 
pants, loose frock coat and broad brimmed hat, and possessing a 
cadaverous cast of countenance. We stacked arms and proceeded to 
gather up materials for dinner, but with rather poor success, as none 
of the baggage wagons had arrived. Toward evening a woman came 
to the guard's quarters, bearing upon her arm a large basket well filled 
with meat, potatoes and warm biscuit. It was soon surrounded by a 
hungry, clamorous crowd, humbly entreating for a small piece of 
crust. . . . Lieutenant Jordan and company were de- 
tailed to act as outside picket guard for the evening, and set out on 
their wearisome tramp. Nothing of importance transpired; no traces 
or signs of an enemy being seen. Brother Sam, aided by the nimble 
fingers and willing heart of Corporal Woodruff, succeeded in drawing 
a fine bowl of butter from an isolated spring-house, which helped 
amazingly in setting out our breakfast table the next morning. No 
one asked any question, but all felt inspired with veneration for the 
magic virtues hidden in that one small word "draw." The 
next day we were ordered back to quarters. It is probable that 
the bridge was fired by a small party that could place itself 
immediately out of danger. Its destruction can result in no great 
inconvenience to the transportation of troops, as they have kindly left 
us the Missouri river, and a ferry a few miles above in possession of 
the home guard. Twenty-fourth — Startling news reached us last night 
to the effect that Colonel Mulligan, of the Irish brigade, and an Illi- 
nois cavalry company, stationed at Lexington, had surrendered to the 
rebels under General Price. Lane, with his six thousand reinforcements, 
was too late to render assistance, and after a contest of five or six days 
the Federal forces, having exhausted their amunition and suffering for 
water, were compelled to submit. Great loss of life on both sides. 

Of course the greatest excitement prevails now, and the most 
extraordinary exertions will be made to retrieve the lost ground. By 
this disaster the strongest entrenchments and most complete military 
stores on the river are turned against us ; and all this happened when 
the Iowa Fifth, the Indiana Eighteenth, Twenty-second and Twenty- 
seventh regiments were only forty miles from the scene of action. 
Lexington will be made a grand military depot, from which rebej 
armies can be fitted out to descend the Missouri, cutting off our sup- 
plies Irom Jefferson City and completely corralling us. This is a grand 
scheme of the rebels — they have had a mortal hatred of this place ever 
since their deleat by the Union home guards, and they are determined 
to have it at all hazards. If so, they will have a fine chance to dis- 
play their agility in scaling breastworks, for we have a splendid line on 
the most advantageous ground, four feet high, and ten feet in thick- 
ness. Four steamers are now lying at the landing, and another fleet 
is expected this evening. The Indiana Eighteenth regiment left for 
Georgetown to-day. about forty miles south of this. 

To-day noon, six of the border ruffian rangers, whose regiment is 
stationed seven miles above, arrived in camp. They stated that the 
story about the capture of Lexington was all false, and that Lane, 
with fifteen hundred men. had cut his way through to the relief of Mul- 
ligan, while the rebels are cornered on every side and can't run. Our 
regiment is now under marching orders, probably for Lexington, where 
the courage of the boys will be no doubt tested. C. J. R. 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



145 



[The glaring contradiction in regard to the burning of 
the bridge over the I^amine, which will be noticed in 
reading letters Nos. XVIII and XIX, suggests several 
serious questions, as: Which of the writers was the 
more voracious? VVho burned the bridge? Was the 
bridge burned? Why was the bridge burned? etc. His- 
tory is said to repeat itself; so also does it illustrate 
itself. Some light may be shown upon the last of these 
questions (the first three being measurable), by the fol- 
lowing incident of the late war, known to have occurred 
at Chillicothe, the old capital of a state, young in years, 
but old in renown: 

Morgan's raid had thrown the southern portion of the 
above mentioned State into a condition of constant ex- 
pectancy. Morgan and his troop were on the outskirts 
of every considerable town in the whole breadth of the 
land; from the furthest east to the Queen City of the 
west. Home guards rode through the streets every- 
where and with gauntleted hand shook defiance at the 
bold intruder. At the old capital a picket guard was 
stationed near a splendid bridge, which had cost the 
municipality many thousands. Some horsemen were seen 
in the distance — the guard set fire to the bridge, beneath 
which murmured a silver, shrunken stream eight inches 
deep, and dashed into town shouting, Morgan! Morgan I 
The horsemen, some neighboring farmers, who had 
thought to ride into town and get the latest news, asked 
innocently, as their horses hoofs were cooled by the laps- 
ing waters: "Why was the bridge burned?" And, now 
that we look at it, telling the story is not answering the 
question, which, for aught w^e can see, must go down 
through the ages, vainly questioning. — E. P.] 

LETTER NO. XIX. 

C.vmpLyon, Boonville. Missouri. September 22, 1861. 

Friend Rich : — Having drawn one more stamp, and fished up a 
sheet of paper, I thought I would drop a line, just to let you know we 
are all alive and well. One of our boys received a letter from home a 
few days since, informing him that he and two other of the boys had 
been killed, and several wounded in a fight with the rebels. But as 
they show no sign of being kilt, we await confirmation of the report. 

We arrived at this place one week ago to-day, at i o'clock A. M. 
News reached us that the Union Home guards were being cut to pieces. 
On arriving here we found the facts to be, that on the Friday before 
there had been a hard fight between one hundred and si.xty of the 
guards and eight hundred rebels with a loss of forty killed and several 
wounded. Colonel Brown, commanding the rebels, and his brother, 
a captain, were both killed. The guards had the advantage of a small 
earthwork, built by General Lyon after his victory here. One of our 
boys asked a member of the guard why the rebels did not storm the 
works. He replied in effect, that there was such an incessant hail of 
shot, that they kept behind the trees in an opposite grove. We are 
now pleasantly encamped on the battle ground, amidst a fine gro\e of 
butternut and walnut trees. 

Tuesday morning companies E and H were ordered to march with 
two days' rations. News had come in that the rebels were trying to 
burn the bridge over the Lamine, nine miles west of us. Away we went 
in high spirits. But we were again doomed to cruel disap- 
pointment, for, on reaching Sulphur Springs, two miles beyond, 
we found that the rebels had been gone fifteen minutes, and 
they being mounted, pursuit was, of course, useless. 

. Friday noon, while sitting in my tent trying to write 
a letter, I was interrupted by the beating of the long roll, and the fall- 
ing in of men. A report had come that the enemy was approaching 
from the direction of the Lamine. Word was given that the first five 
companies out would be sent to meet him. Company E was the first 
on the ground. Four others were soon in ranks, and we started at a 
rattling pace. When about one mile out, we halted and loaded. Our 
■7 



good-natured major now rode along the line saying: "Now, boys, 
keep perfectly cool, don't break ranks, and don't waste one iota of 
powder. " .\11 being ready, scouts were sent out on each side of the 
road, and we again moved forward. When about two miles from the 
bridge, a courier met us with the information that Price's army of twelve 
thousand men was only a few miles across the river. Acting upon this 
advice, (he major sent several mounted men forward to burn the bridge. 
Preparation having been made many days since, this was easily done, 
and, a short time after we arrived, the noble structure, which, a few 
days before, we had made a forced march to protect, was one smoking 
mass of ruins. The march of nine miles was made in two hours, which 
we think was pretty good time. 

I forgot to mention that the most of our men came off without their 
dinner. As soon, therefore as we camped, this became the all-absorb- 
ing question. But the boat is getting up steam, and I must close or 
lose the chance of sending this. I meant to have told you about draw- 
ing the hoe-cake, the scene in the milk house, the mysterious disap- 
pearance of the jar of butter, coupled with the condition of Corporal 
Ws. haversack, and of the visit to the peach orchard; but the Satan 
will not wait. We returned safe and sound the next day. and are now 
ready for the next job. 

Our fair patrons at home are ever remembered with gratitude, and 
they may rest assured that the thought of them will make the weakest 
strong. With kind remembrances from all, to all, 1 remain. 
Yours, etc., 

O. J. M. Fuller. 
LETTER NO. XX. 

Gl.^sgow, Missouri, September 29, 1861. ) 
He.\dquarters Io\v.\ Fifth, j 
Our regiment left Boonville on Wednesday, the twenty- 
fifth instant, and arrived at this place on the following day. Came up 
the river on the War Eagle. But little sickness e.xists in the regiment, 
and all are quiet and orderly. E. J. R. 

LETTER NO XXL 

Benton Barracks, St. Louis, Mis.souri, \ 
October 3, 1861. j 

Friend Rich: You doubtless have correspondence from Benton 
barracks, but your readers may be interested to know what is thought 
of the Iowa Ninth by disinterested spectators. Belonging, as I do, to 
a regiment recruited mostly from Illinois, I have better opportunities 
to hear impartial judgments than members of the Independence com- 
pany. I have heard but one comment, and that of entire commenda- 
tion. We have been quartered here for ten days, and have witnessed 
the arrival and departure of many regiments, but none to equal Colo- 
nel Vandever's. I have had occasion before to feel proud of Iowa, as 
the State of my adoption; but especially now of our own county Bu- 
chanan. Her part has been nobly performed. .\ little figuring will 
convince any one that in numbers she has far exceeded her proportion; 
and, in the efficiency of her men, probably no county in Iowa excells 
her. Her first company will, doubtless, soon have an opportunity to 
test its quality, as, at last accounts, it occupied the advanced post of 
Glasgow, on the Missouri. Let us hope that the Fifth may deserve 
equal glory with the gallant First, and the Ninth greater than both. 
But what queer, tall, brass-emblazoned black hats the boys are sport- 
ing ! Already we have nick-named them the " Hawkeye stovepipers," 
and we only wish the enemy may wear "the like" when within shoot- 
ing distance — a better mark could not be provided. Brass bugles and 
eagles are all very fine, but precious heads ought not to be made prom- 
inent targets without cause. Altogether, the regiment seems to have 
been as well provided for as any other western troops — far better than 
many. 

Our regiment— that is, the First regiment of the Douglas brigade, 
now classed as the Forty-second Illinois— left Camp Douglas and Chi- 
cago without one feeling of regret. Every day here increases our sat- 
isfaction with the change. Strange as it may seem, our commissary 
arrangements heie, almost in the enemy's country, are vastly superior 
to those of Chicago. There it was impossible to obtain vegetables or 
anything beyond the old army rations; here we have the new army ra- 
tions and are enabled to exchange for vegetables of every description. 
We are living luxuriously now. but the boys of the Irish brigade tell a 
different story of their fare further west. We shall make the most of our 
."■ew days of grace here. But, after all, this detention here is not grat- 
ifving. We are anxiously awaiting our arms. Companies A and B 
are already provided with Colt's revolving rifle, a splendid arm; but 
the rest of us (our's is company G) expect the regulation rifled mus- 
kets, manufactured at Springfield. They are certainly a simpler and 



146 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



lighter gun than the revolving rifle, and their range is two hundred 
yards longer. I understand that a movement is on foot in the Iowa 
Ninth to provide themselves entirely with the Colt gun, the cost to be 
subtracted from their bounty, they of course to retain the gun after the 
close of the war. The experience of the French, the most accom- 
plished and the most scientific fighters in the world, has taught them 
that the simplest gun of the longest range is the most effective in active 
warfare. It is to be feared, therefore, that the Ninth will have cause 
to regret the step should the effort be successful. 

Benton Barracks afford splendid accommodations for the thousands 
of soldiers quartered here for the completion of their organization and 
equipment. The magnificent parade is just receiving its finishing 
touches, and is said to have no superior in the country. Brigadier 
General Curtis, of our own State, is in command, and is universally 
esteemed. There are piobably ten thousand troops in this camp alone. 
It would be folly (if not treason) for me to give any estimate of the 
number within the line of fortifications that surround St. Louis. We 
certainly feel perfectly secure. 

Universal indignation is expressed among the soldiers at the villain- 
ous efforts of Blair and his adherents to procure the removal of Fre- 
mont, who has the entire confidence of the .Army of the West. A few 
days will show that hopes in him are well founded. We are satisfied 
to serve under John C. Fremont, and our cry is : "Death to sleepless 
and meddlesome politicians." J. C. LooMis. 

LETTER NO. XXII — NINTH IOWA REGIMENT.* 

Benton Barracks, St. Louis, Missouri, ) 
October 5, 1S61. J 

Friend Rich: — Thinking that perhaps a few lines from this camp 
would not be uninteresting to some of your readers, I take it upon 
myself to give you a short account of our company. Since we left 
Dubuque we have seen rather hard times. We left there with five 
other companies on board the Canada. As we were very much 
crowded, and had hardly half enough to eat, the situation was well 
calculated to beget homesickness. But when we left the boat and 
marched through the city of St. Louis without a single cheer, it was as 
solemn as a funeral. We finally got to the camp, which is in a most 
beautiful situation, and are now in very good barracks. We have si.t 
cooks to prepare our victuals, and, of course, live on the top shelf 
Five or si.x men are furnished daily by our company to act as guards. 

Nearly every day men are killed here. Three men were sent to their 
eternal home yesterday — one was shot, one was stabbed, and the other 
was thrown from his horse, or supposed to be. The first two were 
killed by a member of the Irish brigade that surrendered at Le.xing- 
on, and he is now under arrest. 

We have received our uniforms at last, and the most of the company 
needed them badly. Our coats, or rather blouses, are of dark blue 
and rather short; our pants are light blue, fitting to a charm; hats of 
the most beautiful style, black, one story and a half high, with a beau- 
tiful leather. 

By the way, the report that the Ninth regiment were all killed com- 
ing down the river, must be false, although it was current when we got 
here, for 1 believe we are all right. 

We have not yet received our guns, but expect some in a day or 
two, to practice the manual of arms with. We are anxious to try our 
pluck on the battle-field, but there is no doubt we shall have enough to 
do yet. There is a report that the enemy is within thirty miles of here, 
but little confidence is placed in it, as the air is full of rumors. Some 
twenty-two thousand men are here now, while more are coming every 
day. Regiments are also constantly leaving, having completed their 
equipment. The weather has been very pleasant until to-day, but now 
it is raining very hard. Our company is the color company of the re- 
giment, company C. This is all that would interest our friends at this 
time, and if you think it worth publishing, please do so. 
Yours, etc., 

E. C. Little. 
LETTER NO. XXIII. 

Camp near Boonville. Missouri, ) 

October 5. 1861, headquarters Fifth Iowa regiment, j 
We left Glasgow for this point on Wednesday last, and arrived here 
at 8 P. M. the same day. It appears that the colonel entertains fears 
of being cut off from supplies by some of Price's wandering hordes, 
who, since the surrender of Lexington, fill the country in all directions, 
and thought it more prudent to drop back and rejoin the main body, 
prior to making an advance movement. 

*From another correspondent. 



Glasgow is an isolated place, destitute of defences of any kind, and 
nothing would have been easier than for the Secesh to have surrounded 
and held us at their mercy. But, in justice to the town, I will sav that, 
so far as kindness and liberality are concerned, the people are above 
reproach. The fire of liberty still burns brightly in the breasts of many, 
and they are not backward in expressing their love for the Union, at 
every opportunity. . . . The Ninth Missouri and Thirty-seventh 
Illinois regiment. Colonel White, are stationed here. The Illinois re- 
giment is well uniformed, their guns are of improved pattern, but they 
are poorly disciplined. They have been but six weeks in service, and 
need practice. 

.As for the Missourians, they have seen, judging from appearances, 
hard service. Their uniforms are old and soiled — guns of an inferior 
quality, while the utmost confusion reigns in the subsistence depart- 
ment. General Pope arrived here, with his body guard, to-day. The 
command of the post has devolved temporarily upon Brigadier Gen- 
eral Kelton, who is an energetic, eflficient officer, and much respected 
by all. You have heard, ere this, of General Fremont's departure from 
St, Louis. He brings with him an army second to none in the field. 
Despite the number of his personal enemies among his former political 
associates, the hearts of the loyal citizens here are with him, while the 
conduct of Blair and his supporters is condemned in the strongest 
terms. There is no doubt that Price has evacuated Lexington, with a 
part of his command, at least, for some point southward, perhaps 
Georgetown. Trouble is apprehended, for we leave for that spot to- 
morrow morning. A dispatch has just arrived, stating that Sigel had 
encountered Price and repulsed him, but it needs confirmation. 

C. ]. R. 

LETTER NO. XXIV. FROM THE NINTH IOWA.'* 

Camp Herkon, Franklin, Missouri. October 14, 1861. 

Mr. Editor: — Last Friday afternoon. October 11, we left Benton 
barracks and marched through St. Louis to the Fourteenth street depot 
of the Pacific railroad company. Bouquets and cheers were showered 
on our regiment in the streets of St. Louis. After waiting a couple of 
hours until the train was made up, and the stores, including ten days' 
rations, were loaded, we moved forward. The train consisted of 
twenty-fi\'e cars, and proceeded rather slowly to this point, ninety-eight 
miles from St. Louis, where we arrived at 10 o'clock at night. Thanks 
to the moon, we were enabled to pitch our tents on the new camping 
ground the same night. Our camp is situated on a gently sloping 
ground on the southeast side of the small town of Franklin, called also 
Pacific City. .As the tents are new, and the camp itself is laid out as 
near as possible according to the ' ' rules and regulations of the United 
States army," the appearance of the sam; from the foot of the hill, or 
from the town itself, is rather pleasant and picturesque. 

The days have been rather warm and very bright since we arrived 
here. The nights, however, are cold and frosty, and the dew heavier 
than I have ever seen before. Last Sunday, while at the depot, a train 
from St. Louis came in carrying Simon Cameron, the secretary 
of war; the adjutant general, Lorenzo Thomas, and their suite, on 
their way to meet General Fremont, at Tipton. A very humorous 
scene occurred while the train was waiting. As Mr. Cameron stepped 
out upon the platform he saw some four or five of our boys near him, 
and addressed one of them jokingly, "Do you belong to Vandever's 
regiment?" "Yes, sir." ' 'Are they all as good-looking fellows as you 
are?" the secretary asked. The soldier thus addressed, E. C. Little, 
of Buchanan county, answered in a dry, humoious way, " We are the 
worst looking of the whole lot, but I guess they anyhow look about as 
well as you do." This was received with a hearty laugh by the by- 
standers, in which the secretary and his friends joined. Mr. Cameron 
reentering the car. General Thomas told the boy that he had been ad- 
dressing the secretary of war, which information did not move the boy 
at all. He continued standing with folded arms, the only one looking 
serious in the whole crowd. Presently the secretary returned and said, 
"Why. boy, you ought to be mide captain. What is your name?' 
"Never mind about my name," was the answer; but the secretary in- 
sisting upon knowing it and his place of residence, he said in the same 
cool, humorous way, "My name is E. C. Little, and I come from 
Buchanan county, Iowa, if you ever heard of such a county. They 
say it is called so after President Buchanan, but he is no relative of 
mine." 

This brought them all down again; but they gave it up entirely when 
he added in the same dry way, "I guess my folks live up tV.ere yet, and 
if you come up that way you had better call in and see them." 

* Correspondence of the Dubuque Times. 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



147 



I am telling you this incident because I saw some of the gentlemen 
of the party making notes of the scene, and it probably will appear m 
pnnt somewhere else ; and. as I stood next to the inperturbable boy, 
and heard the conversation, I looked upon myself as a perfectly relia- 
ble reporter. 

We left a few sick at the hospital at Benton Barracks. Captain 
Harper, from Jones county, remained behind to attend to them. I am 
sorry to report that one of the sick, thus left behind, has since died of 
typhoid fever. His name is Amor Winsiow, of Scotch Grove, Jones 
county, and he belonged to Captain H.irper's company. A small de- 
tachment of our regiment is guarding a railroad biidge, half a mile 
west of us ; but beyond this everything seems as peaceable as at Old 
Camp Union. There may be a good deal of seceshdom around us. 
but if there is, it appears to keep as prudently silent and invisible as 
at dear old Dubuque itself. ScRIBBI.KR. 

LETTER NO. XXV. 

Camp Near Booneville, Missouri, October i6th. 

Our marching orders, of which I spoke in my last, were counter- 
manded on Monday, the seventh instant, and we still remain here. A 
violent storm from the northwest, however, as usual brought with it 
marching orders, and we are once more in readiness to sail out for 
some point unknown ; probable Georgetown. Price is reported to be 
within twenty-five miles of the latter place, with an army of thirty 
thousand men. This notorious personage has the marvelous faculty of 
honoring twenty different places with his presence at one and the same 
time. * ■ To my mind it is quite certain that we shal' 

meet no larger force of the enemy for sometime in these parts. Price's 
army at Le.xington was composed of a heterogeneous mass, w^hich dis- 
persed itself over the country, the moment the conflict was over, only 
to organize when summoned to the attack of some weak point. 

Well, this is one of the days, decidedly. How the rain dashes and 
splashes on our frail tents, shaking the foundations thereof, and caus- 
ing the votaries of Mars within to quake with fear and dismal forbod- 
ings. Our lodge presents a picture worthy the pencil of an artist. By 
my side Sam is snoring in blissful unconsciousness, while the rest of 
our comrades in arms are disposed in the most picturesque attitudes. 
At length Sam awakes, opens wide his small mouth, yawns, and, as 
clearer consciousness dawns, e.xclaims, "wonder if I can't get my 
squash on in time for dinner." While speaking he slowly unfolds his 
blanket, and displays a fine .specimen of that vegetable, which he had 
in camp parlance, drawn, from a neighboring garden. ' ' How are you 
going to cook it?" "Well, I s'pose in the usual manner, and, in the 
usual mannei, let you fellows eat it." "I think, Sam, you had better 
lie down and take a nap. You hav'nt slept but fourteen hpurs, and 
must be sleepy. As for squashes, we have plenty of 'em (tho' too 
green to cook) without going so far." "It's a wonder that you've not 
been picked," retorts the squash hunter, as he adjusts the blanket 
around his shoulders, and settles down to another snooze. 
Friday. — Still at the old quarters, havmg delayed marching on account 
of the rain and the bad ro.ads. The camp is in a flurry of excitement. 
The mail and paymaster have just arrived from Jefferson City, on the 
steamer Northerner, bringing plenty of news. No one can imagine 
with what eagerness the letters were seized, and their contents de- 
voured. To be sure, they were all old, but none the less welcome. 
We have had no late papeis for three weeks, and have been reduced to 
the most deplorable shifts for re.iding matter. Our letters showed that 
all were well, aU thriving, all wishing for our success, and safe return, 
aiid after reading them over and over again to see if there was any 
obscure expression that had escaped us, we went to supper, feeling 
better. The captain's wife and Lewis, who had been a long time con- 
fined in the hospital, came up to-day. Lewis is improving, and I hope 
that he may soon be able to bear his new fledged honors, for it is un- 
derstood that he is to be appointed sergeant-major. Mrs. Lee will re- 
turn home, and will probably be the bearer of this and other letters. 
We all hate to have her leave, for the whole company are in love with 
her quiet, unassuming manners and noble grit ; for she would stick by 
the company through thick and thin, if possible. May success attend 
her. 

The boys are half crazy at the prospect of receiving a little money. 
The colonel is in a quandary, and favors the expediency of paying off 
part at a time, so as to have a guard for the other half How many 
good dames will be gladdened by the sight of a little money from ab- 
sent husbands. Here comes one rushing up in breathless haste. — 
"Boys, 1 am going to sen^ mine back by Mrs. Lee, every cent of it. 
If I should full into the hands of the secesh, I don't want them finger- 
ing it out of my packets." 



We shall not go to Georgetown, but to Syracuse, twenty-five miles 
distant, and are to leave as soon as paid off. 

C. J. R. 
LETTER NO. XXVL 

Harlan Barracks, t 

Mt. Pleasant, Iowa, October 18, 1861. ) 

Friend Rich:— Knowing that your readers feel some interest in the 
men enlisted in the army, from Buchanan county, I take the liberty to 
give you some of the details of an incident with which some of the 
Buchanan boys and myself were connected. Night before last, as three 
of our men were riding into camp from town, with one Bob McCuUoch, 
an altercation occurred between them, commenced on his part, by call- 
ing them d — d Lincoln men— rugger sted/ers, and ending by his driving 
them out of his wagon, and chasing them with a volley of stones; the 
boys suffering an ignominious flight, rather than quarrel with a citizen 
of the vicinity. But learning afterwards that he was a noted seces- 
sionist, and the nephew of General McCulloch, of the would be " con- 
federacy," they became clamorous for his arrest. Accordingly a detail 
of twenty men was placed under my command, by Captain Peters, with 
orders to arrest him, and bring him into camp. 

We marched to his residence, a distance of about four miles, and si- 
lently surrounding the house, placed guards in a close cordon, and 
thought the bird safely caged. But we were doomed to disappointment, 
as we learned from the family that McCulloch had gone to one of the 
neighbor's, and their description of the locality of the neighbor's house 
was not remarkably lucid. Learning that one of his boys, who was at the 
stable when we arrived, had made a hasty exodus through the timber 
to the west, I detailed a squad of men to guard the house, and with 
the rest of the party gave chase to the boy, whom we met at the dis- 
tance of half a mile on his return. The country, in that vicinity, was 
thoroughly ransacked, but without success. Concluding, and rightly, 
as was afterward proven, that the boy had met the father and given him 
the alarm, we returned to the house, and withdrew the guard; but, with 
skilful manoeuvring, placed a concealed picket in a situation to com- 
mand the approaches to the house, and give notice of the buzzard's 
return to his roost. We then, apparently, marched back to camp. 
Ill reality, however, we sought a heavily timbered defile and bivouacked. 
About an hour after, another detachment arrived iVom camp, sent by 
Captain Peters and Captain Rector, whose company quarters adjoin 
ours, to reinforce us and learn the cause of our prolonged absence. It 
was finally decided to return to camp, leaving our watch on duty. 
While eating breakfast we received notice that our game was housed. 
We marched back, you may believe, in high spirits; but alas! only to 
meet a repetition of our failure. One of our guards had imprudently, 
and against positive orders, allowed himself to be seen by the family, 
and again the bird had flown to the woods, and nothing was left for us, 
but to return to camp, hanging our heads, (instead of the traitors) with 
shame and vexation at our want of success, and bearing the taunts <j{ 
our comrades as best we might. The afternoon following Lieutenant 
Lee, of Captain Rector's company, thinking no doubt to win laurels 
for his company by success where we had failed, started an expedition 
for the same purpose, of which I took the lead as guide. By making 
a detour through the timber, we succeeded in surrounding the house, 
without being seen by the inmates, and again was that house made 
historic by being enclosed in a military cordon, embracing a circle of 
about one half mile in diameter. Leading the party on horseback, 
and seeing the chain uncoil itself behind me, as they were sent off by 
Lieutenant Lee, one at a time, at a distance of about fifteen rods from 
each other, tightening its huge folds in silence around its supposed 
unconscious victim, inspired a feeling of confidence in the success of 
our expedition, and also brought to mind similar exploits of "Marion 
and his men " in Revolutionary times. After we had completed our 
circuit, twenty men were sent to beat the cover; but, beat as they 
would, "Bob' was not, and there was the end on't. 

Lieutenant Lee, in chagrin at his failure, determined to strain a 
point, and ordered under arrest, a son of Robert McCulloch, esq., 
nephew of a secession general, a lad about fifteen years of age. A file 
of men started for the woods; taking the boy with them a coil of rope 
hanging ostentatiously from the arm of Sergeant Kelley. Taking him 
to the darkest corner of a heavily timbered ravine, he was ordered 
peremptorily to disclose all he knew of the whereabouts of his father, 
which he refused to do. There upon the rope was ordered to be 
thrown over the nearest stout limb, and a noose prepared. The boy 
took in the arrangements at a glance and yielded, agreeing to lead them 
to where his father was; whici'. he said was at a house some four miles 
away. The party immediately proceeded to the place designated, and 



148 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



found— not the game, but a "sign," announcing that he had been there, 
but had left for parts unknown. (We must be allowed here to leave 
on record a suspicion that the "boy" got the best part of the joke, in 
this transaction; and that he has doubtless many times related to 
admiring circles, "how he led those Hawkeye Jayhawkers, a wild goose 
chase, through brush and brambles, on a cold morning in October, 
1861." E. P,) 

Thus ended our first hunt for secessionists; and we came home ready 
to admit, that one secesher, in this instance at least, was more than a 
match for two companies of Cavalry. 

There are but two companies in camp at this time, but the full 
number are accepted, and will be here as fast as buildings can be 
completed to receive them. Three more companies will be here by 
Wednesday next, and the balance in a few days. I have nothing more 
to add, except to say to any persons who are wishing to enlist, that 
this company yet lacks a few men of the maximum number, and if 
they wish to join us, they can do so by applymg to Lieutenant B. S. 
Rider, who is commissioned for that purpose. 
Yours truly, 

George B. Parsons. 

LETTER NO. XXVII. 

Pope's Division, Headqu.^rters Fifth Iowa Regiment, near ) 
Otterville, MissoiRi, October 19, 1861 j 

Friend Rich: — Our regiment left Boonville at an early hour on 
Monday, the fifteenth instant, for Otterville, thirty miles distant, trav- 
elling a road, the roughness whereof the imagination of man never 
conceived. The Illinois Thirty-seventh regiment. Colonel White, 
brought up the rear. At Syracuse we were to rejoin the Missouii 
Ninth, which we had left the day previous, and proceed together to 
Otterville, which is General Popes headquarters. Mr. Weis, our 
scout, leaves to-morrow morning for St. Louis, and I must send this 
by him, or never; so I will insert a few extracts from my diary, and let 
it go. We have not had any mail, or received a Guardian for a long 
time, I had almost forgotten to say that Lieutenant Marshall has 
been honored with the post of brigade quartermaster. In his promo- 
tion our company loses one of its most gentlemanly and efficient offi- 
cers. All the boys are strong and hearty as lions, and eager for an 
engagement. This amiable wish may soon be gratified, for the enemy 
are reported to be gathering in strength upon the Osage. No doubt 
Price has been successful in his long cherished hope of effecting a 
junction with McCuUoch, and their united forces amount to thirty-nine 
thousand, at least so say the scouts. General Fremont is at Warsaw, 
and it is highly probable that he will advance and give him battle, if 
the latter gentleman can be persuaded to overcome his inordinate love 
for running, and stand fire. 

The country through which we passed after leaving Boonville, in a 
southerly course, is strikingly picturesque. Noble houses and well 
kept lawns beautify the roadside. The second day's inarch was more 
fatiguing than any we had previously experienced. The roads are 
rough, and m many places very muddy. Wagons sink to the hub, and 
mules disappear entirely, except their ears. The second night we 
camped one and a half miles from Syracuse, and I had the pleasure of 
serving as corporal of the guard. To render the duty still more agree- 
able, it rained all night. Lieutenant Marshall, who was officer of the 
guard, and myself crawled into a small tent and managed to keep 
tolerably dry. At ten o'clock A. M. we started for Otterville, distant 
eight miles. The night's rain had rendered the roads awful. Our 
regiment took the lead, the Ninth Missouri, which joined us at Syra- 
cuse, next, the Thirty-seventh bringing up the rear. The train lined 
the road for two miles. Reached Otterville, a small straggling town, 
at five o'clock P. M. , marched two miles further and camped on the 
prairie. No less than ten thousand are stationed here. The country 
looks as if a swarm of locusts had been through it. C. J. R. 

LETTER NO. XXVIII. 

Camp Huron, Missouri, October 20, 1861. 
Friend Rich; — Since my last but little of interest has transpired. 
On the tenth instant we were ordered to pack knapsacks and prepare 
to leave St. Louis, The day previous we had received our arms, old 
muskets, which were undoubtedly in the Revolution, and perhaps have 
not been shot since. Nevertheless we took them and started for the 
cars. Our knapsacks being heavy, and the sun shining rather warm, 
many of us were ready to rest when we got to the depot. We finally 
got into first-rate cattle cars and moved off slowly, one engine serving 
for a train of over twenty cars. We arrived at this place. Pacific City, 
about twelve p. m., and were marched to our camp ground, thirty or 



forty rods from the village, " by the light of the moon." We are sta- 
tioned here to guard the place, for it is an important post, the roads 
forming a junction here. A great many soldiers pass over this road 
for Rolla and Jefferson City. Seven companies of the Ninth left last 
Wednesday for the west or southwest, to guard bridges and to act as 
scouting parties. 

We are glad to hear through your columns the election news. We see 
there is a Republican administration over our county, which has served 
and is serving our country so well. Our company is getting along 
finely, all of the boys enjoying themselves. But one or two are in the 
hospital. We are afraid of the ague, if we stay here long, for the 
region is a malarial one. The patriotic spirit among our boys seems 
to be firmer than ever. Life is sweet, but not so sweet but that we 
are willing to risk ours to replace the stars and stripes which have 
been trodden in the dust. We are bound to ^ e that emblem of our 
country's power floating again in the plac .rom which it has been 
torn, to be trailed under rebel feel. 

E. C. Little. 

The memory of the youthful hero who uttered these noble senti- 
ments, and who descended to an early grave, from wounds received in 
their defense, will live in the hearts of the noblest and purest, not only 
of those who knew him, but of all who shall ever claim citizenship in 
Buchanan county. 

E. P. j 

LETTER NO. XXIX. 

Camp Herkon, Pacific City, Missouri, October 21, 1861. 

Friend Rich. — The Buchanan County Light infantry are still 
among the living, though almost dying for a fight. The boys are all 
very much dissatisfied at having to stay at this place; but we suppose 
it is all right, as, being at the junction of the Rolla and Jefferson rail- 
roads, we can be sent in either direction at short notice. At present 
four companies are twelve miles west on the Rolla road guarding a 
bridge over the Merrimack; two more companies are six miles distant 
at another bridge; Captain Powers, with his company, two miles away 
at another. The light infantry remain in camp, with two other com- 
panies, to guard the city; or, more properly, the railroad. It is one of 
the most dismal, forsaken looking places I have seen since I left home. 
Almost every able-bodied man has joined either the rebel or Union 
army, and if those that are left are fair specimens of those that have 
gone, one of our men could chase a thousand, and two could put ten 
thousand to flight. You have no idea what a yellow-skinned spindle- 
shanked set of goslings they are. Half of the home guards and home 
enemies are so ignorant that they can't tell you to what regiment they 
belong, or where they came from. They are very much like an old 
lady I saw here the other day. She said she didn't "keer as wich on 
'em got beat eout," if they would let her "a leavin." Like Jeff. Davis, 
she wanted to be let alone. Is it to be wondered at that these ignorant 
creatures who know nothing of, and of course care nothing for, their 
country, are imposed upon by the designing traitors who ha\'e told 
them that, if they do not rise and drive the Union men out they will all 
be hung and their property taken. But, thank Heaven and Federal 
cannon, they are fast coming to their senses. 

We have, at present, some eight prisoners who have been taken by 
our scouts. While Captain Powers and his men were in pursuit of one 
the other day, he eluded them and got away. But having strong sus- 
picion that he was secreted in a house near by. they made a military 
search, placing a guard at each door, and one in each room. The 
ladies of the house declared that no such man was in the house, and 
offered their services as an assurance of the fact. But somehow our 
military men lack confidence, even in the ladies down here, and they 
were not satisfied until they had gone from cellar to garret. When 
they were about giving up the search the captain thought he saw a pair 
of boots through a broken ceiling. Drawing a revolver, he demanded 
if there was anything alive in them; if not, there was no harm in try- 
ing his skill at a mark. The boots soon began to move, and in less 
time than I can tell it, a full grown secesh stood before them. And 
then the ladies — but we spare you. It would be quite needless to tell 
you that the gallant captain did not avail himself of the privilege of 
bayoneting them, which they dared the " black-hearted villain" to do. 
He simply assured them that he was not there to harm them in any 
way, and, having secured the hero of the boots he bowed himself out. 

October 22d, Tuesday night, dark and blustering. Quite .an exciting 
affair occurred about 8 o'clock. James Waldon, of company D, one 
of the picket guards, saw some one coming toward him, and ordered 
hinT to stand; but the person came directly on, at the same time raising 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY, IOWA. 



149 



a gun. The guard cried, "Hold, don't shoot!" but raised his own 
gun and fired, calling, at the same time, for the corporal of the guard, 
double quicl<. Before the corporal could get to the scene of 
action bang went another shot. By this time about fifty men had 
assembled, and scouts were sent out to bring in the supposed Ijleeding 
rebel, hut nothing could be heard or seen. Soon all was quiet, and the 
guard was doubled to make all safe. The quiet was of short duration, 
however. Halt! halt! halt! and another bang and call for the corporal 
of the guard came in quick succession. I stood in the door of the hos- 
pital, saw the firing, and ran immediately to the place. Before I came 
up another "halt! halt! halt!" by the next, and off went his gun when 
I was within ten feet of hmi. By this time we began to think that the 
bushes were full of rebels. The colonel was on hand, and, m his usual 
prompt manner, five minutes found the companies all in line. At the 
word "load!" such a,j:clanking of arms ! The rammers sounded like 
the beating often thous>>-l triangles. But, as usual, no enemy was to 
be found. So much for our first attack. We are happy to slate that 
none were killed on our side, and shall pro' ibly be able to state the 
number missing on the other side ne.\t week. Our men exhibited the 
best courage; not a man held back, but all were ready for the fight. 
Mr. Voung, in his hurry, forgot to take out a paper he kept in the muz- 
zle of his gun to keep out the dirt, but put in the charge and rammed 
the whole down together. Of course he did not shoot anybody, and 
in that he w'as not peculiar. R. W. W. 

LETTER NO. XXX. 

C.^MP Herron, Ninth Regiment, Iowa Volunteers, 1 

October 24, 1861. j 

Friend Rich :— Thinking that a few lines from this, the land of 
secesh and the home of the homely, might perhaps not be uninteresting 
to the readers of your excellent paper, I will note down a few items and 
incidents which are common and peculiar to a soldier's life. We left 
Benton barracks on the morning of the twelfth, and took the cars at 
St. Louis about 3 o'clock p. M., for Camp Herron, arriving here about 
10 o'clock at night. The road was very rough and uneven, and having 
probably the hea\ iest load the old iron horse ever drew, he travelled at 
a snail's pace, and we were somewhat astonished when we were in- 
formed that we were only thirty-seven miles from St. Louis. Along the 
line of the load the country is very broken and uneven, with timber in 
abundance: while here and there could be seen farm houses that beto- 
kened thrift and prosperity, with a plenty of fruit, that recalls scenes 
that have tr,anspired in youth among the hills of the old Granite State. 
Camp Herron is situated between two bluffs that rise in splendid mag- 
nificence, the tops enveloped in dense ague fogs, while along their sides 
are huge rocks, enormous stumps and clumps of bushes. 

The boys are enjoying themselves, passing away the leisure time in 
approprKiting apples and other delicacies belonging to those whose 
loyalty is not above suspicion, and in scouting by parties of three or 
four up to fifty, according to the game we are in pursuit of. Five of 
our companies are stationed along the railroad, guarding the bridges 
from rebel incendiaries, and visiting those who are known to be enemies 
to their country. The sergeant that guards the bridge a mile from the 
camp arrested two last week, and brought them into camp. 1 had the 
pleasure of assisting in their capture, and, as pursued and pursuers 
were mounted, we had an exciting time. But finally they were headed 
and taken into camp for inspection. The colonel dismissed one of them 
after administering the oath, but the other is still a prisoner. We have 
seven of the "critters, " and the number is still increasing. I would 
like to give you a description of a regular secesh, but that is an impos- 
sibility—to do him justice would be out of the question. One who has 
been here any length of time can tell one, almost to a dead certainty, 
by their downcast, forsaken, yellow, and jaundiced countenances, occa- 
sioned in part, no doubt, by their close proximity to the Iowa Ninth, 
knowing, as they must, that the day of retribution is at hand unless 
they repent. They have none of that noble manliness that can stand 
before the world and say, " I am an American." 

I am one of a party that is going out to-morrow, and 1 think we 
shall have some sport before we return. There are a considerable num- 
ber of home-guards in this vicinity, and also a good many Missouri 
boys who are in the service for the war. I have conversed with quite a 
number of them, and they say we are too easy with those taken pris- 
oners. They think death, for traitors against such a government as 
ours, is far better than they deserve. The Union men see and feel the 
effects of this monstrous rebellion, and a great many have been forced 
to join the army to save themselves from the cowardly rebels. The 
army, they say, is the safest place for a Union man. 

There was an alarm last night, occasioned by some of the guard 



imagining that they heard or saw some one in the bushes near by 
where they were stationed. They discharged their pieces at the imag- 
inary something, gave the alarm, and in a very few minutes every com- 
pany was drawn up in line of battle, ready to meet the enemy. It 
turned out to be a false alarm. The only spy that could be found was 
a