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Full text of "History of Buchanan County, Iowa, and its people"

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HISTORY 

OF 



Buchanan County 

IOWA 

And Its People 



By 
HARRY CHURCH and KATHARYN JOELLA CHAPPELL 



ILLUSTRATED 



VOLUME I 



CHICAGO 
THE S. J. CLARKE PUBLISHING COMPANY 
1914 



IIIP; yEW YORK 
PUBLIC l.IBllARY 

AST'-".. LLNO:; AND 

TiLii:.;; r;ir:a)ATiUN3 

R 11141 L 



■~l 




I\oJaa. 





FOREWORD 



To those subscribers who have made this volume possible through their 
cooperation and interest and financial support, is this book dedicated, if not 
of so much value to themselves surely of inestimable value to their progeny, 
who will appreciate their ancestors' forethought in establishing this record of 
facts for them. 

And to those who have so ably assisted in various ways by furnishing data 
not otherwise obtainable, to both the Bulletin Journal and Conservative who 
have kindly loaned us their newspaper files and furnished us valuable data, 
to Mr. E. Little who loaned us those valuable old Guardian files, the only files 
in existence prior to 1870, and to those who have written us short sketches, 
we wish here publicly to express our gratitude. If we have failed to acknowl- 
edge any assistance which we have received, let those to whom we are especially 
indebted be assured that the omission is not due to any lack of appreciation. 
Besides this, we wish to acknowledge that we are not satisfied with this effort, 
possibly such a state of animus satisfactus could never be reached — but 
inadequate time to do some subjects justice is one vital excuse for us. 

In explanation of the difference in length of the various histories of soeie 
ties, lodges and churches we wish to say that it was not determined by their 
respective importance but by the accessibility of data. It seemed impossible 
in the limited time given for the completion of this work to collect all the 
facts. 

Another reason is that we did not have the privilege of writing the town- 
ship histories, and as no two peoples' viewpoints are the same in regard to 
essentials, and details, hence the difference in expression. A professional 
historian has credit for the township histories (as much of the early history 
is connected with the various townships, it is compiled in the general sub- 
jects, as far as possible). 

Another thing which makes the writing of Buchanan County History more 
difficult than most is that thirfy-three years have elapsed since one was written, 
which is at least fifteen years more than customary — and too, the fact that for 
a lapse of several years there are no newspaper files to consult to substantiate 
facts— they having been destroyed in the big fire of 1874. Begging these pal- 
pable excuses for your consideration and hoping that even a small per cent of 
the pleasure and profit of delving in these old records may be afforded the 
reader as it has the writers, we herewith submit for your perusal and edification 
Buchanan County History. 

iii 






1-Mc.ar K. Biiiitiiall Dr. A. U. (^Iiellito A. P. Burihus 







M. \V, llurniiiii .luliii Klliott, (.'. H. .lakwav Stewart Beatty 






W. a. KictcT 



B. F. Sto.l.lar.l 



W. .\[. Hiabee 



.MKMBEKS OF ADVI.SOItV BOAim 



INTRODUCTION 



History, properly speaking, is a systematic, written record of past events, 
particularly of those affecting a nation, institution, science, or art and usually 
connected with a philosophical reason of their causes; a true story as dis- 
tinguished from a romance, distinguished also from annals which relate simply 
the facts and events of each year in strict chronological order ; from biography 
which is a record of a person's life and from memoir which is history composed 
from personal experience, oliservation, and memory. "Histories are as perfect 
as the historian is wise and is gifted with an eye and a soul." — Carlyle. 

But this history is to be a compilation of all the different phases of history 
connected with both the individual and the physical features of this county. 

And it will be our earnest endeavor to make it as authentic as possible, to 
substantiate all that has been written in previous county histories and add to, 
all that we deem important or of interest in the development of this county 
since the last history was written. 

Undoubtedly mistakes will occur owing either to unavailable data, or to 
the erroneous perspective of individuals, it being impossible for any two 
persons to view happenings exactly alike, and another barrier in the way of 
writing local history is, that too little regard is paid to what might seem of 
minor importance, at the time, but which, in reality, may prove to be of vital 
moment in shaping the destiny of a whole community, or even that of a 
nation. 

Just as a fallen tree trunk, a broken sod, or an inconsequential stone may 
turn the course of a mighty river, so too, may some trifling incident change 
all following events. 

It is the little things that make up the sum of life, no more so with the 
individual than with a nation. 

Too often we only take cognizance of the big results, losing sight of the 
small happenings that constituted the real cause. It seems the most interest- 
ing phase of historical research to delve into tliose hidden personal histories 
of the pioneers and to thread out the motives for their courageous wanderings. 
The "why fores," so imbedded with all the yearnings, desires, ambitions, and 
dreams of our forefathers are fully as attractive to those who are somewhat 
dreamers themselves, as the realities of life. What mirage could have prompted 
that adventurous young stripling to leave all his kindred, his associates, the 
pleasures and comforts of an eastern home, to brave the hardships and priva- 
tions of this new wilderness and sparsely settled territory? AVhat dreams 
of fortune to urge him to risk his all to get "a start in the world," with always 



vi INTEODUCTION 

a hauiitiug vision of a girl to goad him ou to indefatigable labor? What 
roving spirit to entice the family man to sell out, and with his young wife and 
children in the covered wagon, face all dangers of the wild unknown, to try 
uew lands and build a new home? 

It is not strange when a sensational tind is discovered that thousands upon 
thousands should rusli in to seek their fortunes, there is something alluring, 
spectacular, iind romantic connected with, say, the discovery of gold such as 
in California in 1849 and in Alaska in the "HOs, but it does seem unaccountable 
in many instances that the pioneers should sacrifice so mucli and risk even their 
lives for but "a home in some vast wilderness,'" even though it were a virgin 
paradise. Nothing but the love of adventure, or desire of wealth could have 
prompted them. 

Fact is stranger than fiction and we have only to read the tales of the early 
l)ioneers of any time or place to be convinced of this. The minor little events, 
the strange coincidences, and unforeseen happenings prove to be the very 
pivot upon which all sub-sequent affairs revolve and the ultimate climaxes all 
woven together as intricately as the mosl elaborate (Oriental design. One inci- 
dent, as but a thread, yet that one thread may outlive a complete pattern. 
So, with our lives, does it matter — does it count the little rules, the little 
touches with other lives, nuiy not be of any particular importance, yet they 
all tend to either smootli off or roughen a career. 

A history of a county, although not of great scope, is just as important a 
factor in the nuiking of a National history or molding of American citizenship 
as any state history and often furnishes the uuUerial for much of the National 
history. Characters with only a local reputation may afterwards win National 
fame and the details of their early life might be available only in a county 
history. 

We cannot look into the future antl see our own conseiiuence, or lack of it, 
but we may feel assured that no matter how small and inconsequential we may 
be we leave behind us some influence (whether good or bad depends on us) 
but nevertheless a memory in the mind of man which camiot be effaced. Some 
one remembers — and if the life is one of public interest history makes room 
for it. No life is crowded out of history but time and space in a publication 
of this kind pi-evenfs the recording of any but happenings which had some real 
significance with county history. 

The history of a county, state, Government, war, or politics cannot be sepa- 
rated from the individuals, nor from the territory wherein they occur. And 
just so, file individual is dependant ujion his environment, to what extent is 
still a ([uestion of argument, but home ami associates certainly are great factors 
in determining tlie life of an individual, perhaps even more than heredity. 

And surely this new and unexplored country afforded a wonderful oppor- 
tunity for the development of those hardy and tenacious hereditary qualities 
of this county's |)ioncers. The pioneers of the eai'ly days are much the same 
the world over, it would seem that they were particularly endowed by a Divine 
Pi'ovidence with a superabundant amount of strength and enei'gy to withstand 
the hardships and discouragements, which engulf the conquering of a new land. 
It is a (|uestion if we, who live in these latter days and are weakened by higher 
civilization, could endui'e siu-h toil and jirivatioiis but it is a test which can 



INTRODUCTION vii 

never be made for there is no si)ot so far, nowadays, in this land of ours, but 
that more of luxury and comfort reaches it than our ancestors ever dreaiiieti. 

And the same spirit of adventure and longing for "green hills far away," 
possesses some of the young of today — those who venture far from iiome and 
even into foreign countries as the great iiiunigration of lanilseekers who 
crossed the borders into t!anada during the past few years proves, and this 
spirit is manifest in the progeny of some of the early i)ioneers of this county 
when we consider all the changes that have been wrought within the past ten 
years, right within this small area. 

Fai-ms whicli have been kept in families for two or three generations have 
now i)assed into the hands of strangers; farmers from across the river, com- 
ing from the too expensive lands of Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, and states farther 
east to these rolling prairies of Iowa where land is generally cheaper, b'et- 
ter and safer. Our farmers are seeking homes farther west and hunilreds of 
them took up land in Canada, according to the last census which explains the 
fact of the falling otf of the state's population. The newspapers all over the 
state have written all sorts of editorials, conjectures, and reasons for this, 
some accounting foi' it, to the high price of land, some to high rents, high 
taxes, climate, increase in size of cultivated farms, and not a few to the great 
prosperity of our farmers which last might seem a very good reason from the 
fact that people nowadays are just beginning to know how to live and enjoy 
life, to use to the best purpose the well eai-ned recompense of their hai'd 
labor and self denial — not alone of their own but their ancestors. Our people 
live well with what would luive been luxury and i-auk extravagance to their 
parents in actual necessities and oi-dinarj' commodities to them; they give their 
children the best educational advantages; college education and degrees in 
musical, fine arts and sciences are no longei' a rare thing among our young 
people. They travel as a matter of course, and attend all available, pi-ofitable 
and pleasurable entertainments, they own their autos, their piano jilayers and 
talking machines, and with it all, we truly believe, are not as satisfied as 
were the pioneers of the early days. Life is too complicated and too strenuous 
and with prosperity always comes a spirit of unrest — a desire for constant 
change and amusement, so it would seem highly probable that this very state 
of affairs had wrought the change among our formei'ly home staying and con- 
tented populace. Histoi'y is being made so fast in these latter days that it 
keeps the chronicler and the newspapers busy i-ecording the changes, and 
every year seems to increase the number. 

Buchanan while it may not have made (piite as important history as some 
other counties of the state, yet presumably she has done her share compared 
with the length of time of her settlement, having pi'actieally been an undis- 
covered country in 1840 when other counties, such as nubu(pie anil Delaware 
were already filled with settlers and the land undii- cultivation. 

People, generally speaking and especially in tiu' jiresent strenuous times, 
seem to greatly undei'estimate the value of historical knowledge. They 
are very little concerned with the causes, it is the effect that they are inter- 
ested in. They seem to take for granted and accept as a matter of fact all the 
pleasures and conveniences of modern life, forgetting that everything that we 
now enjoy was obtained only through struggle and sacrifice and toil, and 



VIU 



INTRODUCTION 



the vei-y necessities of our livi's were either undreamed of, or the extreme 
luxuries of our ancestors. 

The only way to apjjreciate or even know of these changes is to read of the 
pionciT life in histories or by jiersonal interviews with those early pioneers 
and till' hitter opportunity is fast slipping away. The pioneer will in the not 
far distant future be as great a curiostiy as the Indian is in the streets of a 
great nieti'opolis. And tlie details and descriptions of his life and events 
should be kept both for tlie historical value and as examples of thrift and 
energy that uiight be an influence and inspiration to the young. 

'J'hese jiioneers who endured the perils and hardships of frontier life, 
to establish civilization and an unknown wilderness, a noble, enterprising 
class of men, are entitled to monuments if not of granite and marble, of praise 
and emulation. 

Many of these receive tlieir .just recompense from a grateful people if they 
have reached the heights liut man\- more equally deserving through force of 
circiimstances can never reach. To these we dedicate the county histories. 
In tlii-m is a record of their ih-eds of public service and heroism. And may- 
hap from this lowly niche in history's page they will climb to exalted heights. 

The county history has a place for all, and it has been an endeavor not to 
omit a mime that deserves mention. To say that we have accomplished this 
is beyond our expectations, for through seventy-two years since l>uchanan 
County saw its first white settlers is no small task, and often the unrecorded 
and inaccessible facts are the ones which deserve the worthy place. To those 
subscribers of county histories can be accredited the collecting and writing of 
these facts, for without their assistance and cooperation no effort to write 
these histories would be made, and as the average demand of such works is 
small, the publishing is always a venture. 



CONTENTS 



CHAPTER I 
GEOLOGY AND TOPOGRAPHY 

THE GLACIAL EPOCH ORIGIN OF THE PRAIRIES 1 

# 

CHAPTER II 
FLORA AxND FAUNA 

AT THE BEGINNING ECONOMIC FEATURES 21 

CHAPTER III 
ABORIGINAL INHABITANTS 

THE MOUND BUILDERS — THE INDIANS 41 

CHAPTER IV 
EARLY HISTORY 

THE FIRST WHITE MEN^EARLY SETTIjERS !^3 

CHAPTER V 
ORGANIZATION 

LOCATION — COUNTY GOVERNMENT ELECTIONS 61 

CHAPTER VI 
EARLY COMMERCE 

PIONEER MERCHANTS AND MANUFACTURES THE PROFESSIONS 75 

CHAPTER VII 
AGRICULTURE 

THE VIRGIN SOIL YESTERDAY AND TODAY 89 

ix 



X CONTENTS 

CHAPTER VIII 
THE EARLY SETTLERS ASSOCIATION 

ITS OrtGANIZATION — "THE OLD PIONEER" — AN HISTORICAL ADDRESS 99 

CHAPTER IX 
BUCHANAN COUNTY IN THE WAR OF THE REBELLION 

THE CALL FOB VOLUNTEERS — THE MEN AT THE FRONT — THE WOMEN AT HOME. .109 

CHAPTER X 

SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR 

THE MILITIA — IN THE CAMPS — THE AUXILIARY 195 

CHAPTER XI 
MISCELLANEOUS MILITARY AFFAIRS 

THE ARMY AND NAVY — THE GUARDS— THE MILITIA — CAMP WOLCOTT 211 

CHAPTER XII 
EARLY HISTORY OF INDEPENDENCE 

LOCATION — INCORPORATION — GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT 217 

CHAPTER XIII 
HISTORY OF TOWNSHIPS 227 

CHAPTER XIV 
COUNTY FAIRS 

THE FIRST COUNTY PAIR — THE BUCHANAN COUNTY AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY 287 

CHAPTER XV 
INTERNAL IMPROVEMENTS 

PUBLIC HIGHW.A.YS — BRIDGES — RAILRO-VDS, MAILS AND MEANS OF COMMUNICA- 
TION — THE TELEGRAPH — THE TELEPHONE 293 



CONTENTS xi 

CHAPTER XVI 
MISCELLANEOUS 

CLIMATE — WINDSTORMS — BI-IZZARDS — ACCIDENTS — RIVERS FLOODS 317 

CHAPTER XVII 
PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS 

THE INDEPENDENCE PUBLIC LIBRARY — THE INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL THE MUNSON 

BUILDING TABOR LIBRARY Y. M. C. A. CIVIC IMPROVEMENT LEAGUEI — 

COUNTY HOME — CEMETERIES 347 

CHAPTER XVIII 
THE INDEPENDENCE STATE HOSPITAL 

THE BUILDINGS — THE EQUIPMENT — THE SUPERINTENDENTS 361 



CHAPTER XIX 
EDUCATION 

EARLY SCHOOLS — EARLY EDUCATORS — THE PRESENT SYSTEM OAKWOOD SEMINARY 

INDEPENDENCE SCHOOLS COUNTY SCHOOI-S 367 



CHAPTER XX 
FRATERNAL AND SOCIAL LIFE 

WOMAN 'S SUFFRAGE — TEMPERANCE RELIGIOUS — SOCIAL LITERARY MUSICAL 

AGRICULTURAL 401 



CHAPTER XXI 
CONVENTIONS 

FRATERNAL — SOCLA.L RELIGIOUS— PROFESSIONAL 449 

CHAPTER XXII 
PUBLIC EVENTS 

CELEBRATIONS EXHIBITIONS CARNIVALS VISITS OP NOTABLE MEN CHAU- 

TAUQUAS 455 



xii CONTENTS 

CHAPTER XXIII 
CHURCH HISTORY 

THE FIRST SERVICE — THE CHURCHES OP INDEPENDENCE CHURCH NOTES 465 

CHAPTER XXIV 
COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY 

EARLY COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL INSTITUTIONS — GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT 



OP TRADE — THE PRESENT DAY. 



.491 



CHAPTER XXV 
THE CITY OF INDEPENDENCE 

PUBLIC BUILDINGS — POSTOPPICE — PIRE COMPANIES^WATERWORKS — ELECTRIC 
LIGHTS — STREET PAVING PARKS — THE STREETS RENAMED MAYORS OP IN- 
DEPENDENCE 509 



CHAPTER XXVI 
WHO'S WHO 

IN LITERATURE — IN ART — MISCELLANEOUS 521 

1 



CHAPTER XXVII 
THE INDEPENDENCE PRESS 

THE CIVILIAN — THE GUARDIAN — THE RISING TIDE THE CRISIS — THE NATIONAL 

ADVOCATE THE COURIER — THE IOWA TURPMAN — THE SATURDAY HERAIiD 

THE BUCHANAN COUNTY SCHOOLS 525 



CHAPTER XXVIII 
THE MEDICAL PROFESSION 

EARLY PRACTITIONERS THE BUCHANAN COUNTY MEDICAL SOCIETY THE PHYSI- 
CIANS OP TODAY — INDEPENDENCE HOSPITALS 533 



CHAPTER XXIX 
BENCH AND BAR 

THE JUDICIARY — MEMBERS OP THE BAR — SOME LEGAL CASES OF NOTE 539 



CONTENTS xiii 

CHAPTER XXX 
BANKS AND RANKING 

THE PEOPLES NATIONAL BANK THE COMMERCIAL STATE BANK 557 

/ 

CHAPTER XXXI 
INTERESTING EVENTS 

AMUSEMENTS CRIMES DISASTERS 563 



CHAPTER XXXII 

REMINISCENCES 

THE PIONEER LIFE INTERESTING NOTES .■ . . . . 597 



CHAPTER XXXIII 
PROMISCUOUS PACTS 

NOTES OF INTEREST — UNUSUAL INCIDENTS 621 

APPENDIX 

HISTORY OF THE FIRST NATIONAT> BANK, OP INDEPENDENCE, IOWA 627 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 



CHAPTER I 
GEOLOGY AND TOPOGRAPHY 

THE GLACIAL EPOCH ORIGIN OP THE PRAIRIES 

The territory now comprising Buchanan County, like that of the whole 
state and in fact the great Mississippi Valley, was submerged beneath the sea, 
and marine forms of animals and plants were its only occupants, and during all 
those countless ages of submergence the sedimentary strata of these rich prairie 
lands and the vast underlying bed of rock were being formed at the sea bottom. 
The duration of thiis period of formation is absolutely incomprehensible even 
to those scientists who deal in figures of incalculable size to ordinary individuals. 
At this indefinite and remote age a small portion of Northeastern Iowa rose 
above the sea, while all the great region south and west still lay buried beneath 
the engulfing waters of that vast sea. It gradually recedes to the southward 
and the whole surface of our state was visible above the waters. Odd shaped 
fishes and a species of fern marked the highest degree reached in the evolu- 
tion of animal and plant life at that time, but later vegetation and animal life 
appear. Again waters cover the northwestern part of the state and again recede 
never to return and the water drain to the ocean forming practically the same 
great river courses through the oozing sediment which the discoverers ages later 
named the Mississippi and the Missouri. 

The sun and wind finally dried the earth's surface and forests and rank 
vegetation again appeared, animal life flourished and all the conditions are 
favorable for the advent of man but there are no evidences of his existence on 
the earth at this period. 

This state was like a tropical garden, where cypress, magnolia, cinnamon, 
fig and palm grew in a jungle-like profusion, tropical birds sang in the forests 
and huge reptiles crawled about in the rank vegetation and swamps. The drain- 
age of the state must have been much the same as now, although the altitude 
was several hundred feet lower. 

This luxuriance of a tropical climate prevailed for many ages then a change 
was perceptible; the intense heat of the long summer days was tempered by 
refreshing breezes and the nights became delightfully cool. Then a winter 
season appeared which gradually became longer and colder, snowstorms came 
and piercing winds swept over plain and forest, tropical plants succumbed to 
early frosts, ice formed in lakes and streams, the more hardy animals sought 
the shelter of wooded ravines and deep gorges. Year after year the cold in- 
tensified, the snow fell deeper and deeper and piled to terrific heights, the earth 
became frozen to great depths, the summers became too short and cold to melt 
it, so that finally all animal and vegetable life disappeared. The pressure of 
mountains of snow and percolating rains converted the mass into a solid sheet 

Vol. I— 1 

1 



2 HISTORV OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

of glacier ii'i', that not only covered nearly all of Iowa but reached over the 
northern half of North America. 

This vast ice tract extended south to a latitude some below that of St. Louis. 
It began slowly moving outward from the center of accunuilatiou, grinding- over 
the underlying rocks, crushing them into the finest powder. Fragments of 
enormous size were frequently caught in the floes and swept forward and piled 
in tumbled masses. All the boulders of crystal like rock which we find strewn 
throughout our state were carried from their native ledges in British America 
by these herculean ice floes that successively overflowed its surface. Then 
another climatic change came: slowly the ice began to melt, rivers gradually 
formed carrying on tlicir turbid waters the soil made by the gi-inding ice, which 
was deposited over the surface of the state and we are deeply indebted to these 
glaciers iind their action that have contributed to such a great degree in the 
formation of our magnificent state. Some parts of the state are in what is 
known as file Driftless Area. 

Before the glacial period, the surface had been carved into an intricate 
systems of hills and valleys; there were narrov/ gorges, hundreds of feet deep, 
and rugged, rocky cliffs and isolated buttes corresponding in height with the 
depths of the valleys, a tine example of which we see at the Devil's Backbone, 
and also in Allamakee, parts of Jackson, Dubuque, Clayton, Fayette and Winne- 
shiek counties. A person living, say in Bucluinan County, on the drift covered, 
rolling prairie land is nnich surprised when he gw^s to the driftless part of the 
state, to note the great difference in the topography. The principal streams in 
those parts flow through narrow valleys, or goi-ges, that measure from their 
summits six hundred feet or more in depth. These cliffs rise almost vertically 
from three to four hundred feet and then the land makes a gradual rise to 
their sunnnit, some three, four or five miles back from the .stream. These can- 
yons are intersected with tributary streams, and these again with others of 
lesser depth, until the entire surface- of the land is all cut up and a quarter 
section of level land would be a curiosity. This is a fair sample of what Iowa 
would have been had it not been ground and planed and leveled by the glaciers. 
This driftless area lies just north and east of Buchanan County and it is a 
miracle of Nature that she escaped it, for although it is much more scenic, it 
is not as conducive to farming, at least on an extensive scale, as the rolling 
prairie. The soil deposit in Iowa is of different depths, as is also the underlaid 
rocks, and in boring for water the great unevenness in both is shown. In Bu- 
chanan water is easily obtained at a depth of from ten to twenty-five feet. 

Our soil, formed by the grinding, pulverizing glacial process from granites 
of British America and Northern Minnesota and the limestones and shales of 
more southern regions, and mixed with infinite care and precision and in exactly 
the right proportions, and deposited at our very door, so to speak, an ideal 
.soil for both vegetation aiul cultivation. This rich material is not oxidized or 
leached, but retains the carbonates and other soluble constituents that contribute 
so largely to the growth of plants; its physical condition is ideal, rendering it 
porous, facilitating the distribution of moisture and likewise drainage, and thus 
was the beginning of these rich fertile prairies ; and then for centuries there- 
after, all the different forces of Nature, organic, physical and chemical, have 
contributed to making it the virgin soil which the explorers and early settlers 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 3 

found. The growth and decay of vegetation, and the unremitting assistance of 
burrowing animals, such as pocket gophers, and even the earthworm, is of 
inestimable value in pulverizing, mellowing and enriching the soil until now 
we have almost a perfect condition ; the most easily cultivated and highly pro- 
ductive soils iu the whole country. 

Soils are everywhere the products of rock disintegration, and so the quality 
of the soils in any locality nuist necessarily be determined, in a great measure, 
by the kind of rock frona which they were derived. Then, considering this, every 
layer, from the very oldest rocks of the Mississippi Valley and every later forma- 
tion, has contributed its quota of materials towanl nuiking the present fine con- 
dition, and the history of Iowa's soils, therefore, embraces every stage of geo- 
logical development, and almost every variety of soil. Buchanan soil is almost 
uniformly good. 

We have told something as to the geological formation of these Iowa prairies, 
but there is another question quite as interesting and more puzzling. It has been 
th(> subject of scientific investigation for many years to determine the real causes 
which have produced the great treeless plains of the Mississippi Valley. 
East of Ohio prairies are unknown, but as we go westward they increase in 
number and size. In Western Indiana and from there to the Rocky Mountains, 
west and north, prairies prevail, although groves are often seeu, and timber 
generally borders the lakes and streams. Iowa is included in this vast prairie 
land. 

In Michigan, Indiana and Illinois, the prairies are quite level, while in Iowa 
they are quite rolling, affording fine surface drainage. This absence of trees 
on the prairies is, by some authorities, attributed to the physical character of 
the soil, and especially its exceeding fineness which is averse to the growth of 
anything but a superficial vegetation, and an insuperable barrier to the neces- 
sary access of air to the roots of deeply rooted vegetation. Other authorities 
claim that the treeless prairies are the result of unnatural causes not due to the 
influence of the climate, nor the character or composition of the soil, nor to the 
character of any of the underlying formations, but to autumnal fires, which 
have left the prairies treeless, and strangely enough we do find them on every 
kind of a surface, level, hilly, and broken, and every variety of a soil, alluvial, 
drift and lacustral, and sometimes a single prairie whose surface includes all 
these varieties, portions of which may be sandy, gravelly, clayey or loamy, as 
are right here in Buchanan County. An encyclopedia article on this subject 
concludes that the continuous growth of the same species of plants upon the 
same soil with the excrements from the roots and the animal accumulation of 
their own dead foliage and stalks, become poisonous to the particular species 
though perfectly nutritious to plants of different species. Especially is this notice- 
ahle with trees which eventually become sickly and die, then forest fii-es rage 
through those sickly and dead places, and utterly destroy the remnant of vege- 
tation; after these autumnal forest fires, rank weeds and gras-ses would grow 
and they in turn would ripen and dry and be consumed by fire, and thus with 
not enough grass eating animals to feed down this luxuriant growth of wild 
prairie grass the same conditions continued until the qualities of the soil that 
had become noxious to trees had been assimilated and in Nature's rule of '"rota- 
tion of crops," the soil was again fitted for their growth. Trees were beginning 



4 HISTORY OP BUCHANAN COUNTY 

to resume possessiou of the prairies wheu the settlement began, and the increase 
of the buifalo and other grass eating animals had decreased the inflammable 
material for those ruinous autumnal tires. And this seems a very plausible solu- 
tion to this interesting <iucstion, especially since we have the records of the 
pioneers as to the awful destruction and unquenchableness of the fires that 
used to sweep through the prairies at an early day, and which they had to 
fight vigorously with every known means. But when we remember that the wild 
prairie grass was so thick in some places one covdd scarcely separate it (enough 
to see the earth beneath) and so long that it would switch a man on horseback 
in the face, tiie intensity and rapaeiousness of these fires are not to be won- 
dered at. 

Two Independence gentlemen, Jlr. E. B. Older and Dr. S. Deering, though 
not professional scientists, found time, in the midst of active business pursuits, 
to make themselves familiar with the science of geology in general and of 
Buchanan County in particular, and to them are we indebted for much of the 
data herein. Mr. Older gave the information in regard to the general geological 
features of the eounty, while Mr. Deering gave a fine account of the principal 
fossils found here. 

Both of these men, now long since gone to their eternal i-eward, were highly 
respected and prominent citizens of Independence for many years, and were 
men of wide knowledge and experience. 

Mr. Deering had at one time, about the year 1877, discovered some dark shale 
in a fine stone quarry east of town and the apprehension was that they might 
find coal underneath. He interested and assisted the state geologist. Professor 
Calvin, who made a thorough examination and in his report gave Mr. Deering 
credit as the discoverer of several new and interesting species of shales. 

The coiinnon limestone which underlies the greater portion of Buchanan 
County, lines some of the river beds and banks, and ci-eeps out in numerous 
places is what is known as Devonian rocks. About one-fourth of the county 
on the east and northeast is underlaid by the Upper Silurian. Both of these 
kinds of rock are composed largely of different varieties of limestone, mixed with 
shale. Many fine specimens of the Devonian rocks are found along the Wapsie 
and Otter Creek, and although they are easily quarried, they are not valuable 
for building stone, being too easily crumbled and too irregular, while the Upper 
Siliu-ian is excellent for building purposes and formerly was used almost entirely 
for foundations which have been substituted in late years with cement blocks. 
Buchanan is said to be one of the richest counties in the state in fossils of the 
Devonian Age. The old quarry half a mile east of Independence, near the H. T. 
Lynch home, was noted for its rare fossil shells and was \asited by many paleon- 
tologists from abroad, and at that time, Mr. Deering had proliably the best 
collection of fossils that had ever been made. What became of this collection " 
we are not aware. In descriliing his collection it says he had specimens of 
eighteen different genera anil twenty-six species. Five of the latter were pro- 
nounced by Professor Calvin "new to science." 

The finding of dark, slaty shales (that often occur in the Devonian limestones) 
in the bottom of those quarries made quite a bit of excitement in Independence. 
The quarry men thought they had discovered a veritable coal mine and penetrated 
the shales to a considerable depth but further drilling only proved discouraging 



HISTORY OP BUCHANAN COUNTY 5 

for it exposed just the same dark shale mixed with fragments of real coal, but 
nothing of any value except the discovery of these live new species. 

Writing about the probability of coal being a native "gem of these parts" 
we read in a Civilian of the early date of ]\Iarch 12, 1857, where a public well 
(and with the proverbial town pump, we suppose) was being dug on Main Street 
between the postoffice and the White House (one of the early day hotels), 
a blessing to the business men as well as the families of the upper part of the 
village. The well had been excavated to the depth of about twenty feet when 
they discovered what they supposed was coal. The item says "In appearance it 
resembles the cannel coal of Missouri and from a trial made, it appears to be 
of a superior quality." (Evidently they were mistaken or else our beautiful 
Main Street might have been a dirty mine dump long years since.) Another 
remark in that item was that the ground was frozen solid to a depth of six 
feet and that in March. Water was first drawn on May 6, 1857. Not only did 
our forebears think they had discovered a coal mine under the town pump, 
but we find (juite a lengthy article in a June, 1858, paper — substantiating the 
fact that gold was certainly and satisfactorily and positively found in this 
county — because Mr. E. Miller, who lived about three miles southeast of this 
village, had been seen liy the editor of the Civilian to wash out several speci- 
mens of genuine gold. Messrs. Clark Hedges and Meyers, on the same day 
found several specimens on the Elzy Wilson farm east of Independence (now 
the ^IcGill place'). Several nice specimens were found near Fairbank. Mr. 
Jed Lake also dug up chunks of gold (it does not state where) which would be 
considered a paying yield even in California. On ^Monday, several gentlemen 
who were still credulous, visited the diggings to see for themselves, and they came 
back perfectly satistied that gold is deposited in the soil of Buchanan County. 
It has also been found at Camp Creek, but by far the most encouraging pros- 
pects were on Otter Creek, where gold exists in (|uartz. Mr. J. S. McGary 
panned out some "color of gold" (as the Forty-niners called it) in Wilson's 
spring on the Brandon road but not in any sensational ciuantity. Rocks of this 
species from the size of a hazel nut to that of a man's head, bearing a good 
proportion of gold in quartz, have been picked up quite plentifully. E. B. 
Older bought one piece for which he paid a dollar and several other specimens 
have been sold from thirty cents to a dollar. These specimens could not have 
been brought from California as there is too much rock in proportion to the gold. 
A short time will tell us whether digging will pay as there are quite a number 
now prospecting. 

This reads like a fairy tale, but it was actual happenings and like the miners' 
mountains of gold, our prospects all panned out. 

For the scientific reader the following data is taken from the Annual Report, 
1897, of the Iowa Geological Survey prepared by Samuel Calvin : 

SITUATHW AND AREA 

Buchanan is one of the important agricultural counties in the northeastern 
part of Iowa. Its location is so near the Mississippi River that it attracted early 
attention from the pioneer homeseekers. Before the advent of the railroad the 
great watercourse was the main highway of travel, and Dubuque was one of the 



6 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

points fi'oiii which iiniiiit;raiits began the overland journey into the iuterior of 
the state. Buchanan is the third county west of the river, and its relative prox- 
imity to what was at the time the nearest market had its influence in determining 
the elioiee of many settlers; but the principal attraction was fouud in the 
beautiful expanses of undulating prairies, with soils marvelously fertile and 
easy of cultivation, in the gro\es that ilotted the prairies, and in the wide stretches 
of woodland skirting drainage streams that rau clear and full through the whole 
round of seasons. 

Buchanan County emlii'aces sixteen congressional townships. The second 
correction line divides tiie county into two nearly e<(ual parts. Delaware and 
I)iibu(|ue counties lie between Buchanan and the egsteru boundary of the state. 
Fayette and Wimieshiek separate this county from Minnesota. Buchanan is 
bounded on the west liy Black Hawk, and on the south by Benton and Linn. 

GEOLOfllCAIi WORK IN BUCHANAN COUNTY 

Previous to the inaugiiration of tlie present survey, the geology of Buchanan 
County was the sub.ject of moi'e or less study by a nundier of observers. As a.sual, 
in this part of Iowa, tlie first geologist to enter the county was Dr. David Dale 
Owen, whose parties exi)ioring the mineral lands in the autumn of 1839, exam- 
ined the townships since named ^liddlefield, Fremont, Madison and Buffalo, 
Limestone is reported at one point in .Madison Township, but in general no rock 
was seen except granite boulders, some of which are described as of gigantic size. 

The next geologist to vi.sit Buchanan County was Prof. J. D. Whitney, but no 
detailed work was unth/rtaken, and the report subsequently published contained 
only a very brief reference to the exposures along the Wapsipinieon from 
Indepentlenee to the south line of the county. No rocks were noted except tliose 
belonging to the Devonian period. In the same report Prof. James Hall 
described and figured a number of interesting fossil forms from the ((uarries 
near Independence. In Hall and Whitney's report the limestones at Inde- 
pendence are correlated wi1h the Hamilton formation of New York. 

Ill 1672 Hall and Whitfield iniblished a paper on the Devonian of Iowa, 
referring incidentally to the limestones at Independence, and correlating them, 
as had been done before, with the New York Hamilton. 

Certain coral-liearing beds at "Waterloo, now kiujwn to lie above the lime- 
stones at In<lcpcndence, were, howevei', referred by Hall anil Whitfield, in the 
report cited, lo the Corniferous or Upper Ilelderberg, while the Lime Creek 
shales, which carry a fauna intimately related to the fauna of shales below the 
Independence limestones, were correlated with the New York Chemung, 

The shale beds lying below the Independence limestones were described by 
Calvin in ISJS. The position and characteristics of the Independence shales 
were noted, and attention was directed to the fact that the fauna of these lower 
shales was very similar to that found in the shales along Lime Creek, in Floyd 
and Cerro Gordo counties. The Independence shales, however, lie near the base 
of the Devonian system, as it is developed in Iowa, while the Lime Creek shales 
lie near the summit, with at least 150 feet of limestones between the two horizons; 
and the practical identity of the two fa\inas could lead but to the conclusion that 
the whole Devonian of Iowa, as then known, belonged to a single series. 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 7 

There are some references to the roeks of Buchanan County in the report of 
the tenth census. The statistics on the quarries and building stones of Iowa 
were compiled by McGee. A brief description of the ciuality of the stone near 
Independence and Quasciueton is given, and all the Devonian strata of the state 
are referred to the Hamilton system. 

There are frequent references to the topography, drainage and rock exposures 
of Buchanan County in McGee 's memoir on the Pleistocene history of North- 
eastern Iowa. The records of a number of wells give the best sections so far 
available of the Pleistocene deposits of the county. 

TOPOGRAPHY 

The surface of Buchanan County presents little variety in the way of topo- 
graphic forms. Much the greater part of the surface is covered with drift of 
lowan age, and is diversified only by the gentle swells and broad, ill-drained 
sloughs that everywhere mark the presence of this sheet of till. Examples of 
erosion are almost entirely absent over the whole area of lowau drift, the 
topographic forms being due mainly to the eccentricities of ice molding. Only 
along the drainage courses are there any signs of erosion since the retreat of 
the lowan ice, and even here the process is in the incipient stage, for it is gener- 
ally limited to the cutting of the shallow channel and to the cai'ving of short, 
secondary trenches that extend back only a few rods from the stream. The 
general surface of the country remains about as it wa.s left by the lowan ice. 
The general drift surface is practically unmodified by erosive agents. 

In the interval between the going of the Kansan ice and the coming of the 
lowan the surface of the older drift was deeply eroded, and in many eases the 
present surface configuration is controlled to a greater or less extent by the 
inequalities thus produced. Indications of pre-Iowan topogi-aphy. only partly 
disguised by the later drift, are seen— first, in the valley of the Maquoketa, 
and, second, in the gravel ridges rising forty or fifty feet above the level of the 
valley, in the northeast corner of Madison Township. The broad, shallow 
depression followed by Buffalo Creek, is a partly-filled pre-Iowau valley. It 
may indeed be preglacial. At all events it was a drainage course at the close 
of the Kansan. for beds of Buchanan gravels laid down during the melting and 
reti-eat of the Kansan ice. and now highly oxidized, are strewn all along its 
course in Buchanan County. The same is true of Pine Creek and its valley in 
the western part of Byron Township. The same is trae to. a greater or less 
extent of every stream in the county. Their valleys, if the broad depressions in 
which they flow deserve to be called valleys, are not products of erosion since 
the retreat of the lowan ice. They were determined by the character of the 
surface before the lowan drift was deposited. This later drift simply veneered, 
without completely disguising the old valleys. Nearly all these valleys were 
waterways when the Kansan ice was melting and were partly choked by trains 
of gravel which is now recognized as the valley phase of the Buchanan gravels. 

That the lowan drift, in certain localities, is very thin, and simply mantles 
a topography developed in pre-Iowan time, is illustrated at numerous points. 
There are ridges of weathered Buchanan gravels over which the lowan till is 
limited to a few inches of dark loam. Even in the valleys the deposit of lowan 



8 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

age is not iiil'ruqueiitly less than a foot in tliiekaess. A rounded, rocky blutf, 
rising sixty-five feet above the level of the river, in the southwest quarter of 
Section 4, I'crry Township, has numerous lowan boulders strewn over the eutire 
surface, from the level of the water up to the summit, and stands as an example 
of an old topography practically unaffected by Jowan drift. Over by far the 
larger portion of the county, however, the lowan drift completely conceals the 
characters of the pi'e-Kansan surface and presents a topography peculiarly 
its own. 

Where ty|)ii'ally developed, the lowan drift plain exhibits a surface that is 
rather gently unilulating. The relief curves are low, broad and sweeping, with 
the concave portions often longer than the convex. ^Drainage of the broad, gently 
concave lowlands is imperfect, or was so before the introduction of artificial 
conditions. The only evidence of erosion is found in the narrow, shallow chan- 
nels of the drainage streams cut but little below the level of the otherwise 
unbroken plain. 

Taken as a whole Fremont Townshiji has more of the typical characteristics 
of the iowan drift plain than any other area of similar size in the county. The 
relief in general is veiy low, large areas being fiat and imperfectly drained. 
This is particularly true of the broad plain whieli is l)isected by Prairie Creek. 
Prom a short distance north of the center of the township, this stream flows in 
a narrow, shallow, trough-like ditdi ; but the gradient is so low that the sluggish 
current is frecjuently lirougiit apparently to a standstill by beds of spatter dock 
and other pond weeds tiiat choke the channel. The broad, gravelly plain east 
of Buffalo Creek, in the western part of the township, grades imperceptibly into 
the relatively high ridge of drift between Buffalo and Prairie creeks, a ridge 
that forms the watershed between the Wapsipinicon and Ma(iuoketa systems of 
drainage. Tiiis ridge would, however, be inconspicuous if set in the midst of 
topography of pronounced erosional type. 

All the other townsliips are cut by drainage streams of more or less impor- 
tance, aiul these, as already noted, follow pre-lowan valleys that give more than 
the usual amount of diversity to the surface. But over the greater part of every 
fownship the features that characterize Fremont are duplicated with only slight 
modification of details. In some instances, as over most of Newton Township, 
•he curves are slightly sharper and the amount of dry land, as compared with 
rhe sloughs or damp meadow land, is greater. Newton, on the whole, has more 
perfect drainage than Fremont. There is a large area of very gently undulating 
lard between Bear Creek and the Wapsipinicon River in Homer and Cono 
townships. Westburg is a distinctively prairie township with some moraine- 
like kno1)s and hills in Sections 10 and 15, and some dry gravelly and sandy 
ridges in Sections 5 and 6 : but in general the surface has the low, monotonous 
undulations of uneroded drift. Buffalo Townshij) is divided, almost diagonally, 
by a very broad, shallow sag in the general surface, the sag being followed by 
the west branch of Buffalo Creek; liut with the exception of some sand hills and 
rock exposures in Sections 18 and 24, the whole township is occupied by typical 
lowan drift unmodified since the retreat of the lowan glaciers. The eastern 
part of Fairbank Township is a very level, dry plateau in which a sheet of lowan 
drift varying from two or three to thirty feet in thickness overlies an extensive 
bed of Buchanan gravels. The plateau is a uni,|ue piece of prairie land, without 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 9 

Ihc usual undulations, and without any indication of imperfect drainage. The 
underlying gravel seems to ati'ord an easy means of escape for the surplus surface 
waters. 

From Section 12 of Jefferson Township to the south line of the county, Lime 
Creek tlows in an old valley, forty to tifty feet in depth, with numerous rock 
exposures along the sides, and a very meager amount of lowan drift coming down 
on the slopes to the level of the stream. 

The most anomalous piece of topography in the county is seen in the high 
hills bordering the Wapsipiuicon River, in Liberty Township, northwest of 
(juascpieton. From the west line of this township to Quasqueton the river flows 
in a gorge 130 to 150 feet in depth. The highlands indeed begin, but are at 
first not very pronounced, in Section 24 of Sumner Township, and they attain 
their greatest height in Section 29 of Liberty. The land near the river is con- 
spicuously higher than that farther back on the drift plain. The stream, as 
in the case of the other anomalous rivers of McGee, here seems to go out of its 
way to cleave a channel in the highest land of the whole region. This highland 
seems not to have been invaded by lowau ice. Where it merges into the drift 
plain there are sometimes bare stony hills and channels of pre-Iowan erosion, 
as in the west half of Section 24, Sumner Township, and in Sections 31, 32 
and 33, Liberty Township. On the flanks of the hills, a little higher than the 
level of the drift, there is a deep deposit of sand, but the sand, at still higher 
levels, gives place to true loes.s. There is a heavy capping of loess overlying 
Kansan drift on the hills north of the river gorge, in Sections 29 and 30 of 
Liberty Township. From all the data that can be gathered conceraing it, this 
area of hills and highlands seems to have projected as an island above the 
surface of the lowan ice. The region embraces an area of a number of square 
miles, lying on both sides of the river, beginning in the southern part of 
Section 24, Sumner Township, and extending southeastward to Quasqueton. It 
rises above the surface of adjacent lowan drift to a height of 100 feet or more at 
the points of greatest elevation. The larger part of the area is north of the river. 
It was while the lowan glaciers stood in the surrounding region that the loess was 
deposited over the higher summits and the beds of sand were laid down at the 
middle and lower levels. 

A curious bit of topography breaking into the general monotony of the 
lowan drift plain is seen in the south half of the northeast quarter of Section 28, 
Middlefield Township. There is here a series of prominent knobs and rounded 
hills separated by sharp, narrow valleyss the whole arrangement and aspect 
recalling a fragment of the terminal moraine of the "Wisconsin drift. The summit 
of the highest point is eighty feet above the road at the east end of the group, 
a road which follows, on even grade, the valley of Buffalo Creek. The height 
above the creek is about ninety feet. The knobs are grassed over and afford 
no opportunity to examine their structure, but numerous large granite boulders 
sprinkled in the sharp valleys suggest that they are of lowan age. Elsewhere 
the broad sag constituting the valley of the Buffalo ascends very gradually in a 
direction at right angles to the stream and imperceptibly blendb with the surface 
of the upland drift. 

■ There are numerous gravel terraces along the Wapsipinicon River between 
Littleton and the south line of the county. The gravel is in all eases pre-Iowan, 



10 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

dating from the deposition of the Buehauaii gravely A well marked terrace, 
separated from the rivei- by a sandy flood plain, passes through the center of 
Section 25, Couo Township. Another terrace of the same age and same structure 
occurs in the western half of Section 3 in the same township. There are others 
of similar type in Sections 28 and 29 of Washington Township, and in Sections 
13 and 24 of Perry. All these terraces rise abruptly to a height of ten or twelve 
feet above the swampy or sandy flood plain between them and the river, the 
height of the slope being indicative of the amount of erosion that has taken place 
since the gravels were deposited. 

DKAIXAGE 

The drainage of liueiianan County is effected chiefly by the Wapsipinieou 
Kiver and its branches. This stream flow's in a general southeast direction from 
near the northwest corner of Perry Township to near the southeast corner of 
Cono. It follows the southern or southwestern margin of its drainage basin. 
Its nuiin l)ranches flow in from the north, there being no affluents of any impor- 
tance from the south or west. Streams flowing into the Cedar River and 
draining the southwestern corner of the county have pushed their sources back 
to within two miles of the Wapsipinieou, restricting the drainage area southwest 
of the stream to a comparatively luirrow zone. On the other, or north side of 
the stream, the drainage area is much wider. The tributaries are long, and some 
of them originate within less than a mile of Buffalo Creek, which drains a very 
low and narrow valley northeast of the Wapsipinieou. The law that streams in 
Iowa seek the south side of the valleys, with longer affluents and the wider portion 
of their drainage liasins on the north side, is very generally, though not univer- 
sally, true. 

The Little Wapsipinieou enters the county at Fairbank. near the northwest 
corner, and drains the western half of Fairbank Township. The eastern half 
of this township is in general a level plateau without undulations or drainage 
courses, the surface waters apparently escaping into a betl of Buchanan gravels 
which here underlie the lowan drift. The Little Wapsipinieou joins the main 
stream at Littleton, in IVrry Township. Otter Ch-eek. whidi, with its branches, 
drains Ilazclton Township, is a stream of some importance, supplying valuable 
water power at two points, and entering the main water course in Section 19 
of Washington Township. The eastern part of Washington Township is drained 
by a numl)er of small streams, among which Ilarter Creek, that flows into the 
river above Independence, is probably the most important. Pine Creek drains 
the southwestern part of Buflfalo Township and the gi-eater part of Byron and 
Liberty. In western Byron it flows in a partly disguised pre-Iowan valley. The 
banks of the creek are not marshy, as is usually the case in prairie streams, for 
the reason that heavy beds of Buchanan gravel underlie the surface drift. In 
Liberty Township this stream cuts into the anomalous highlands described under 
the head of topogi-apliy. Owing to the thinness or total absence of the later drift 
along Its lowei' course. I'ine Creek loses the character of a prairie stream in 
section 9 of Liberty Township, and thence to its mouth runs in an old valley, 
whose sides present a great numbei' of interesting rock exposures. 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 11 

Buffalo Creek is a typical prairie stream, tiowiiig iii a shallow ehauuel cut in 
drift all the way from the north line of Buffalo Township to where it crosses 
into Delaware County, near the middle of the east line of Newton. Its drainage 
basin is very narrow and all its affluents, except the east branch in Buffalo Town- 
ship, are short, intermittent streams, usually following mere sags or sloughs, 
without definite channels. Buffalo Creek is in the main parallel to the Wapsi- 
pinicon, and is a part of the Wapsipiuicon drainage system, the two streams 
coming together in Jones County, near Anamosa. 

The drainage in the northeastern part of the county belongs to the Alaquoketa 
system. The greater part of Madison Township is drained by the south fork 
of the Maquoketa, and nearly all of Fremont Township is drained by the siuggish 
Prairie Creek that eventually .joins the Maquoketa near Manchester, in Dela- 
ware County. 

Spring Creek, Lime Creek and Bear Creek, that drain the part of the county 
southwest of the Wapsipiuicon basin, bear tribute to the Cedar River. They 
are all of the ordinary type of prairie streams except Lime Creek, which, in the 
southern half of Jefferson Township, follows a pre-Iowan vaUey, forty or fifty 
feet in depth. This old valley seems not to have been filled with lowan drift, 
and its walls are diversified with numerous low, rocky cliffs, or rounded, rocky 
prominences, covered with a scant layer of residual soil. 

GENERAL RELATIONS OP STRATA 

The geological formations of Buchanan County belong to three different 
systems — namely, the Silurian, Devonian and Pleistocene. The Devonian follows 
the Silurian in natural sequence without any considerable break; but between 
the Devonian and the Pleistocene there is a gap of immeasurable extent. The 
Silurian and Devonian systems are represented by the limestones and shales 
that make up the universally spread foundation rocks of the county. These are 
the so-called indurated rocks. They are the rocks that are worked in all the 
limestone quarries and are exposed in all the rocky knobs and ledges that 
project through the loose superficial materials or soils. All the Silurian and 
Devonian beds are more or less altered marine sediments. On the other hand, 
the Pleistocene beds are composed of loose, unconsolidated materials laid down 
by a number of different processes upon the surface of the land. Most of these 
materials were transported and spread out by glaciers. The pebble-bearing or 
boulder-bearing yellow and bliie clays, so generally distributed over the county 
and so universally recognized by well diggers and others who have occasion to 
make excavations to any considerable depth below the natural surface, are all 
of glacial origin. Glaciers transported the granite boulders that, within the 
limits of this county, are such conspicuous and striking features in evei-y prairie 
landscape. Torrents of water from melting glaciers transported, sorted and 
deposited the great beds of rust-colored Buchanan gravels that are found at 
numerous points in almost every township. The modern streams have built up 
deposits of clay and sand that are part of the Pleistocene system, and even 
winds have been instrumental to some extent in shifting and rearranging the 
loose surface material and making new deposits of Pleistocene age. 



12 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

For the term Huelianaii, as applied to the interval of time following the age of 
the Kansan drift, it may be found convenient to adopt the name Yarmouth, 
proposed by Leverett. 15ul the only recognized deposits referable to the time 
iiinnediately following the disappearance of the Kansan glaciers are those to. 
which the name Buchanan gravels is applied, and it is for this reason that the 
term used in speaking of these deposits is retained. It must be borne in mind, 
however, that the deposition of the gravels seems to have been practically coin- 
cident with the withdrawal of the Kansan ice. and from this point of view a 
strict classification might require us to regard the gravels as oidy a phase of 
deposits properly belonging to the Kansan stage. Admitting all this, the fact 
remains that the marked structural differences between the Kansan drift and the 
Buchanan gravels renders their separation for purposes of study and treatment 
a matter of very great convenience. 

A similar explanation seems necessary with respect to the use of the term 
loess for the interval following the lowan drift. The intimate genetic relation 
between lowan drift and loess is such as to require us, in a rigid system of 
classification, to look upon the two deposits as different phases representing the 
same stage ; and it is only as a convenient way of recognizing the differences in 
physical characteristics which distinguish them that the two are separated. The 
Buchanan gravels were certainly not laid down until the Kansan ice had 
retreated from the surface over which they were spread. Loess may have been 
deposited on the highlands northwest of (^nasqueton while the lowan ice was 
at its maximum, or even before file nmximum was reached. Absolute contem- 
poraneity between lowan drift and loess is much more possible than between 
Kansan drift and Buchanan gravels in the same neighborhood. 

NIAGARA LIMESTONE 

Tile Niagara limestone is found in all the outcrops in the northeastern part 
of the county. With one or two exceptions presentl.y to be noted, the rocks of 
this seiies are coarse, granular, vesiculai- dolomites, interbedded at certain locali- 
ties with large (luantities of chert. The beds all belong to the Delaware stage 
and are simply an extension of the strata exj)Osed in the northwestern part of 
Delaware County. 

Along the .Maquoketa. near the southwest corner of section 10. Madison 
Township, there are exposures of the coarse Niagara limestone in some low 
knobs boi-dering the stream. Excepting some casts or impressions of Halysites 
catenubitus, the beds are unfossiliferous. Niagara limestone is exposed over an 
ai'ia (if several acres in extent in the southern part of section 18 and northern 
pait of 1!), in the western edge of Madison Township, and there are exposures 
on the township line between sections 18 of Madison Township and 13 of Buffalo. 
The limestone here occurs in stony knobs or prominences and affords a section 
twelve or fifteen feet in thickness. The beds are quite regular, from two to six 
inches in thickness, and they have been quarried in a small way at one or two 
points, and in at lea.st one locality they have been used in the manufacture of 
lime. The drift is very thin on all the low, rounded hills of the immediate 
neighborhood, so that the stone could I'eadily be exposed and quarried over a 
much larger area, if the demand waiianted the effort. Silicified colonies of the 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 13 

corals Halysites eatemilatus and Favosites favosus are the principal fossils, and 
with these are associated a number of Stroniatoporoids, silicified, and practically 
structureless in their present condition. Near the middle of the west line of 
section 16, in Madison, there is an outcrop of Niagara, covering a small area, 
and affording silicified corals, mostly Syringopora tenella. 

In Buffalo Township there are exposures of Niagara limestone near the 
southeast corner of section 13. Where the road between sections 13 and 24 of 
this township crosses the east branch of Buffalo Creek there is a vertical ledge 
of Niagara which forms the west abutment of the bridge. Other exposures occur 
at intervals for a mile or more below the bridge. All are of the coarse, granular 
type, and all indicate a horizon about the middle of the Delaware stage, the 
equivalent of the Pentamerus and coral-bearing zone described in the report on 
Delaware County. 

Niagara limestone is exposed at numerous points along Otter Creek and its 
branches, in the northern part of Hazelton Township. The outcrops are almost 
continuous along the stream courses in Sections 2 and 10. north and northeast of 
Hazelton. In the southwest quarter of the northwest quarter of Section 10 the 
rock appears in thin, irregular beds which furnish Lyellia americana and Helio- 
lites intei'stinctus. In the southeast fourth of the same quarter section a quarry 
was opened that showed thiu layers in the upper part of the working and thicker 
lieds near the base. There was a large amount of chert interbedded with the 
limestone. Natural exposures of the same beds, much weathered and overgrown 
with moss, extend along the low bluff' east of the quarry for a distance of 500 feet. 
In the talus along the base of the bluff, and in the wash of the creek, there occur 
Lyellia americana, Syriugopora tenella, Favosites hispidus, Favosites favosus 
and Favosites alveolaris, or a species with pores in the angles of the corallites and 
closely related to F. alveolaris and F. aspera. 

All the exposures in Section 10 of this townshij^ show the coarse, granular 
facies of the Niagara dolomite ; but in the southwest quarter of Section 2 the 
coarse dolomite passes beneath fine-gi-ained non-dolomitized limestone which 
nuiy possibly represent the horizon of the evenly-bedded quarry stone in the 
upper part of the Delaware stage in Delaware and Jones counties. This fine- 
grained limestone varies in color from light drab to blue. It breaks with con- 
choidal fracture and has the grain of lithographic limestone ; but the texture is 
not quite uniform and all the pieces observed were still further rendered valueless 
as lithographic stone by numerous checks aud flaws. Some quarries have been 
worked in this horizon in the northeast quarter of the southwest quarter of 
Section 2, the largest becoming known as the John Conrad quarry. The layers 
vary in thickness from four to ten inches. The beds are light gray in the upper 
part of the quarry ; bluish in the lower part. Near Coytown, in the southwest 
quarter of the southeast quarter of Section 2, the light gray facies of these upper 
beds is exposed in a quarry that has been worked in the manufacture of lime. 
Near the top of this quarry the layers seem to lie brecciated, and thin beds of 
lithographic limestone are irregularly interbedded with a rather coarse crystalline 
dolomite. Neither at Coytown nor at the Conrad quarry were any fossils 
observed in the fine-grained limestone, nor were any found in the overlying 
residual clays to indicate that beds of the ordinary Niagara type, containing 
silicified corals and other organic remains, had ever existed above it. 



14 - HISTORY OF HMCHANAN COUNTY 

Til the bunks of Otter Creek, south of Hazleton, there are ledges of Niagara 
limestone rising above the level of the water to a height of fifteen feet, and on 
the hillside sloping to the west there are oiiteropping ledges, alternating with 
spaces coneealed by clay or sod, up to a height of twenty-five to thirty feet 
farther. Near the level of the water the layers are quite regular, and free from 
fossils so far as noted, exeept for a single cast of a small individual of Orthis 
biforata, sueh as occurs not infrequently in certain phases of the Delaware stage, 
in Cedar County. Higher up. on the slope of the hill, Lyellia americana and the 
Pavosites with pores in the angles of the corallites, which is referred to the 
species Favosites alveolaris, are not uncommon. These two, indeed, are the most 
characteristic and persistent species of the Niagara limestone in this part of 
Buchanan County. There is a small <iuarry of evenly-bedded Niagara limestone 
ca.st of the creek, in the northeast quarter of Section IS, Hazleton Township, 
but the best outcrop of Niagara in this township is seen in the hill west of the 
west branch of Otter Creek, on the road passing between Sections 7 and 18. The 
locality is known as the Miguet Hill. A section showing twenty-five to thirty feet 
of rock is here exposed. The lower beds exposed contain Halysites eatenulatus, 
Syringopora tenella and Ptychophyllum expansum. Higher up there is a larger 
assemblage of typical Niagara corals, including Heliolites interstinctus, Lyellia 
americana, Halysites eatenulatus and Favosites alveolaris. At the summit of 
the hill the beds are largely made up of thin, expanded forms of Stromatopora 
not silicifieil. One-fourth mile further west the rock is again exposed, and in 
the residual surface materials are silicified colonies of Heliolites, Lyellia, Haly- 
sites and Favosites, A few layers of soft, earthy Niagara limestone, very much 
decayed by weathering, are exposed in the railway cut in the south edge of 
Hazleton, but they show nothing of special importance. 

While no outcrops of Niagara were seen in Fairhank Township, the formation 
underlies the drift over an undetermined area, but one of considerable extent, 
in the northeastern corner. On the little Wapsipinicon River, one and one-half 
miles north of the Town of Fairbank, the Niagara limestone forms a high bluflf 
on the south side of the stream. Tlie blufE rises forty feet above the level of the 
water, and the vertical clitfs of brownish-yellow, weathered dolomite measure 
sixteen feet. On the rounded slopes above the projecting ledges the soil contains 
masses of residual Niagara chert and silicified Niagara corals, showing that the 
Niagara limestone is present np to an altitude eciualing that of the summit of 
the bluffs. This fact is of interest only when taken in connection with another 
fact — namely, that at Fairbank, only a mile and a half south, there are quarries 
opened in Devonian beds, and the level of the Devonian quarries is forty feet 
lower than the summit of the bluff of Niagara limestone, twenty-five feet lower 
than tlie lirow of the vertical cliff of massive Niagara dolomite. The later 
Devonian was deposited against the side of a steep, anticlinal fold, which lifted 
the Niagara of northeastern Buchanan much above the position it normally would 
have occupied had the strata retained, relatively, the position in which they were 
laid down on the floor of the Silurian sea. To this upward folding of the 
Niagara is due the strong reentrant angle which is made in tracing the eastern 
edge of the Devonian area from the central part of Fayette County to near the 
southeast corner of Buchanan. 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 15 

CORRELATION OP FORMATIONS 

Tlie earlier geologists of Iowa attempted to correlate the Devonian strata 
of the state with certain recognized Devonian beds belonging to the geological 
column of New York. Owen referred a part at least of the Devonian formations 
he encountered west of the jlississippi to the Hamilton series, and nearly all 
subsequent geologists have followed his example. The fact is, however, that the 
Devonian system of Iowa was deposited in an area geologically isolated from that 
in which the eastern Devonian was developed. The conditions of sedimentation 
were different in the two areas. The order and succession of faunal conditions 
were not the same. The eastern Devonian faunas, subjected to certain physical 
conditions and undergoing certain modifications, probably migrated from the 
northeast along the eastern border of the continental nucleus, while the western 
faunas of the same period seem to have come from the northwest along the 
western border of the Devonian continent. The conditions encountered were 
different and the modification of the species progressed along wholly different 
lines. Even in the case of species that are common to the two provinces, there is 
evidence that the time and order of arrival at the same latitude on opposite 
sides of the old continent were not the same. The Devonia.n fauna of Iowa is 
intimately related, in certain respects, to that at the ramparts of the Mackenzie 
River; it bears some resemblance to the Devonian fauna of the Eureka District 
of Nevada ; but, for purposes of minutely correlating strata, it would be mis- 
leading to compare it with the faunas of this period in the eastern province. 
As an illustration of the extent of the error into which even the most eminent 
and experienced of geologists may be led when attempting to correlate the eastern 
and western Devonian by means of the geological faunas, it is worth noting that 
some years ago the quarry stone at Raymond was referred to the Schoharie stage, 
the coral-bearing beds at Waterloo were called Comiferous, the limestones at 
Independence were assigned to the Hamilton, and the Lime Creek shales were 
called Chemung. Now the Lime Creek fauna is found in shales below the Inde- 
pendence limestones, and so, judging from the fauna, the Independence shales 
are also Chemung. Furthermore, the coral-bearing beds at Waterloo are younger 
than the limestones at Independence, for they lie above them, and the quarry 
stone at Raymond is still younger than the coral beds that were referred to the 
Corniferous. Beginning with the Independence shales, the actual order of the 
strata in Iowa, according to the correlation referred to. would be — (1) Chemung, 
(2) Hamilton, (3) Corniferous, (4) Schoharie — a complete reversal of the order 
observed in New York. It may be repeated, for the sake of emphasis, that the 
western Devonian cannot be correlated, except in a broad and very general way, 
with that of the east. 

All the beds of this system observed in Buchanan County are referred pro- 
visionally to the "Middle Devonian," and this notwithstanding the fact that no 
positive evidence of an erosion interval between the Silurian and Devonian is 
known to exist. 

INDEPENDENCE SHALES 

The Independence shales belong to the Wapsipinicon stage of Norton. The 
underlying "Otis beds" are not known in Buchanan County, and the shales in 



16 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

(lucstioii constitute the lowest recognized member of the Uevouian in this part 
of Iowa. Ill the eounty there are no natural exposures of the shales that show 
well their characteristics and entire thickness. The most that is known here 
concerning them was learned from shafts sunk at the old Kilduft" Quarry east 
of Independence. Tlie formation was penetrated to a depth of twenty feet and 
was found to consist of dark-colored shales, alternating with thin beds of lime- 
stone. At certain levels the shale was very dark, carbonaceous, and contained 
vegetable remains, some parts of which had been transformed into true coal. 
There are outcrops of the shales in the river bank, at the level of the water, near 
the center of the north line of section 10, Sumner Township. There is a small 
exposure of the shales in the bank of the creek in the southeast quarter of the 
southeast quarter of section 35, Washington Township ; and they are seen again 
near the bridge at Quasqueton, in Liberty Township. Running through this 
formation at a certain level is a bed of unfossiliferous, laminated, clayey lime- 
stone that splits into thin leaves one-fourth to one-half an inch in thickness. 
This phase is easily recognized, and exposures of it are seen along Harter Creek, 
in the northwest quarter of section 27, Washington Township, and along the 
Wapsipinicon, in the southwest quarter of section 24, Sumner Township. In 
general, however, the natural exposures are few and unsatisfactory, the position 
of the beds being such that the outcropping edges are either covered with talus 
or are sodded over. 

CEDAR V.VLLEY LIMESTONE 

The line of division between the Wapsipinicon and Cedar Valley stages 
of the Iowa Devonian may conveniently be drawn at the top of the Spirifer 
pennatus zone. Above this line there is a marked change in the character 
of the limestone and a still more marked change in the fauna. The rock is 
harder, at first ranging from yellow to dark gray in color, and the evidences of 
crushing and disturbance have almost entirely disappeared. The character- 
istic fauna of the lower beds ceases abruptly, and in the zone immediately 
following the S. pennatus beds corals become the predominating type. The 
most common species is Acervularia profunda, and in the beds characterized 
by this fine coral there occur Favosites alpenensis and several other species of 
Favosites, Alveolites goldfussi, Cladopora magna, Cladopora palmata, two or 
more species of Zaphrentis, Aulocophyllum, more than one species of Cyathophyl- 
lum, Ptychophyllum versiforme and Cystiphyllum Americanum. Besides the 
corals there are a number of peculiar stromatoporoids that have as yet received 
no attention from paleontologists. Near the base of this zone, but in a narrow 
band containing but few other corals, the large and beautiful Phillipsastrea 
billingsi occurs locally in consideralile numbers. 

PLEISTOCENE 

The surface of Buchanan County is very generally covered with beds of 
drift or other deposits belonging to the Pleistocene System. The Sub-Afton- 
ian or Pre-Kansan drift has not been recognized at the surface, but its pre.s- 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 17 

ence is demonstrated in numerous borings and excavations by a soil and 
forest bed horizon underneath the blue clay of Kausan age. 

KANSAN 

Kansan drift is spread almost universally over Buchanan County. In some 
cases it comes almost or quite to the surface ; in other eases it is reached only 
after peneti'atiiig ten or twenty feet, or even more, of the later lowan till, 
and in still other cases, it is buried beneath lowan till and Buchanan gravels. 

The Kansan till is normally a blue clay intersected by numerous joints 
and carrying large numbers of pebbles and bowlders of dark colored, fine 
grained greenstone. Fragments of limestone are not uncommon, and there 
are also some bowlders of light colored, porphyritic granite. The bowlders 
and bowlderets of various kinds are ((uite generally facetted and striated on 
one or two sides. Where the Kansan drift was not disturbed by the later 
lowan ice invasion there is a zone of oxidation, varying in thickness, and 
recording the changes that took place in the superficial portion of the drift as 
a result of exposure to weather during the long interval between the retreat 
of the Kansan ice and the advent of the lowan. The oxidized zone is only 
partly preserved in No. 2 of the section last above described. Fragments of 
wood, many. of which are referable to the American larch, Larix americanus, 
are distributed through the entire thickness of the blue Kansan till. Wood 
is however, more abundant in the lower part of the formation ; and it reaches 
its maximum in the forest and soil lied that marks the Aftonian horizon and 
separates the Kansan from the Sub- Aftonian drift. 

BUCHANAN GRAVEL 

In the latitude of Buchanan County the disappearance of the Kansan ice 
was attended by strong currents of water flowing away from the ice margin. 
These currents were loaded with glacial debris including fragments ranging 
from fine silt to boulders a foot or more in diameter. The course of the cur- 
rents was marked by deposits of sand and gravel more or less sorted and 
stratified, and not infrequently cross-bedded on an extensive scale. It is to 
these particular deposits that the name of Buchanan gravel has been applied. 
Beds of the gravel are strewn continuously for miles along the valley of 
Buffalo Creek in Byron and Middlefield townships. They are common along 
Pine Creek in the western part of Byron. They are conspicuous along the 
Valley of the Wapsijiinicon between Littleton and Independence. All the 
streams, in fact, are bordered more or less generally by trains of gravel. But 
the gravels are by no means confined to the stream valleys. They are found 
i|uite as fre(|uently on the high lands, and some of the highest points in the 
county are marked by the presence of coarse, ferruginous stratified deposits 
of this age. Streams may have flowed in glacial canyons along the hilltops 
while the adjacent lowlands were still occupied by heavy bodies of ice. 

The Buchanan gravel presents two phases, an upland phase in which the 
materials are relatively coarse, and a valley phase, composed largely of sand 
and fine gravel. Bowlders, ranging to more than a foot in diameter, are not 



18 HISTORY OP BUCHANAN COUNTY 

nncommoii in the upland deposits ; pebbles more than an inch in diameter 
would rank among the unusually large constituent fragments in the lowland 
phase. 

The type exposure of l>uehanan gravel occurs at the gi-avel pit of the 
Illinois Central Railroad, in the northwest (juarter of section 'S2, Byron Town- 
ship. Here the deposit is about twenty feet in thickness. A very fine exposure 
of Buchanan gravel is seen in a large pit worked for road material near the 
northeast corner of section 4, Liberty Township. In some respects it is better 
than the type exposure east of Independence. 

Another excellent exposure of Buchanan gravel occurs west of the center of 
section 83, Perry Township. A large pit is worked for material which is used 
in improving the streets of Jesup. A thickness of eighteen feet is exposed. 

About a mile east of Independence there is a heavy bed of Buchanan gravel 
presenting all the usual characteristics. It is overlain at one i)oint by 21/; feet 
of lowan drift. Tins di'posit is remarkable for the fact that it occurs on the 
highest ground between the AVapsipinicon and the Buffalo. At one point the bed 
has been worked extensively for road material, liut the gravel covers the whole 
hilltop over iiuite a large area. 

The region about Rowley is well supjilied with gravels l)elonging to the 
Buchanan stage, and there is an extensive area underlain by the.se gravels in 
the eastern half of Fairbank Township. 

Gravel is found over an area from half a mile to a mile and a half in width 
east and southeast of Littleton, and it is continued in a belt of varying width 
all the way to Independence. It extends up the valley of Ilarter Creek for at 
least two miles. 

lOWAN DRIFT 

The lowan drift is the superficial deposit over the greater part of Buchanan 
County. Since this drift was laid down the surface has been modified to only 
a very slight extent. The general aspect of a region covered with drift of 
lowan age is typically displaj'ed in Cono, Homer and Westburg townships, 
southwest of the Wapsipinicon River, and in Middlefield, Fremont and Byron, 
northeast of this stream. The surface is very gently undulating and is liberally 
sprinkled with enormous granite bowlders. Bowlders ten, fifteen or twenty feet 
in diameter, and standing conspicuously above the general surface, are common 
features of the prairie landscapes, and great granite masses, thirty feet in diam- 
eter, are known at several points. Multitudes of smaller liowlders, ranging from 
one to two or three feet in diameter, are a .serious encumbrance in many fields 
and pastures. 

The main body of the lowan drift is a yellow, highly calcareous clay. It 
shows no such differences between the superficial and deeper portions as does 
the Kansan. It has remained, even at the grass roots, practically unchanged 
by weathering since its deposition. The great stretches of undulating prairie 
without marked drainage courses remain unaffected by the agents of erosion. 
As compared with the Kansan drift or the Buchanan gravels, the lowan is very 
young, the time since its deposition being evidently only a very small fraction 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 19 

of the length of the interval between the disappearance of the Kansan ice and 
the appearance of the lowan. 

The maximum thickness of this drift sheet is unknown. It was evidently 
deposited on a deeply eroded surface, and it is, therefore, very thin over the 
Pre-Iowan hilltops and deeper in the Pre-Iowan valleys. Railway cuts, which 
of necessity are limited to the higher ridges, usually, in Buchanan and ad.ja- 
cent counties, show only a thin veneer of lowan drift resting on weathered 
Kansan. In the big railway cut east of Oelwein in Fayette County, the lowan 
stage is represented by a layer of loamy soil less than a foot in thickness, while 
in the eastern part of Fairbank Township, Buchanan County, the farm wells 
show at least thirty feet of lowan till overlying highly oxidized beds of Buchanan 
gravel. 

LOESS 

Loess is rather rare in Buchanan County, the deposits of this material l)eing 
of small importance when compared with the widely spread beds of the same 
material in Dubuque, Delaware and Jones counties. In Buchanan, true loess 
seems to be limited to some high points north of the Wapsipinicon River in 
sections 28, 29 and 30 of Liberty Township. While the loess here is typical 
in character, its thickness is not very great. It mantles an irregularly eroded 
surface that rises from sixtj' to eighty feet' above the level of the lowan drift 
plain. Rain erosion in the fields and roads has, in places, cut through the entire 
thickness of the deposit and revealed the underlying Kansan drift with its 
peculiar bowlders and characteristically weathered surface. There is no lowan 
drift on these loess-covered highlands. 

• 

POST-GLACIAL DEPOSITS 

But little change has taken place in the surface of the county since the retreat 
of the lowan ice, the date from which the postglacial history of the county 
should be reckoned. Some alluvium has doubtless been deposited along the 
stream valleys during times of high water, but in most cases it is too thin to be 
differentiated from the loam which has been developed on the surface of the 
lowan drift by the numerous agents concerned in soil-making. In the deep 
preglacial valleys that have been mentioned as occurring at a few points along 
Lime Creek and the Wapsipinicon River, there are some beds of alluvium, but 
they are thin, small and unimportant. 

In the county there are a few rather anomalous peat bogs which present the 
unusual phenomenon of being higher than the dry ground in the immediate 
neighborhood. One in the northwest quarter of section 13, Perry Township, is 
typical of all the beds of the kind observed. The peat is coarse and tilirous, 
with a total thickness of eight or ten feet. The bed occurs on a long, gently 
sloping hillside and in the center is several feet higher than the dry ground 
at the right and left. The area covered is small. The surface supports a 
luxuriant growth of coarse sedge or slough grass. A similar peat bog on rela- 
tively high ground is seen in the southwestern part of section 19, Newton Town- • 
ship, and then- is another in the southwest quarter of Section 8, Hazleton 



20 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

Township. The location of the peat beds has l)eeii detenninca l)y the presence 
of springs or "seeps" issuing from the drift on the hill slope. 

SOILS 

Soils, ill the n;iri'0\vcr scn.se which limits the term to the fine dark colored 
loam developed on the sui'face of the loose, superficial materials, are generally 
throughout the connt.v, of postglacial origin. Soils vary with the nature of 
the deposit from which they ;ire derived. Drift .soils are most common in the 
county under consideration, and practically all of the drift soils are developed 
on the lowan till. This class of soils is from six inches to two or three feet 
in depth, dark in color on account of its wealth of organic matter, more or less 
sandy, warm ami easily cultivated. Such soils contain a considerable amount of 
lime carbonate that, added to the vegetable matter with which they are so richly 
endowed, renders them capable of producing crops of cereals for inany successive 
years without showing signs of exhaustion. The small area of loess soils in 
sections 28, 29 and 30, of Liberty Townshi|». has recently been stripped of its 
timbii' and brought under cultivation. The results are more satisfactory than 
in many other areas of similar soils where the slopes are steeper and the effects 
of rain erosion are more pronounced. There are small areas of gravelly and 
sandy soils along the stream valleys, the largest being found north and north- 
west of Independence. 

DEFOBMATIOXS 

The anticlinal fold to which reference was made in tliscussing the Niagara 
limestoue, is the principal disturbance of which there is clear record in Buchanan 
County. There are some slight folds, probably, however, due to the inequalities 
of deposition, in the Devonian strata. 

UNCONFUR.MITIES 

The Devonian beds are evidentl.v unconformable on the sloping side of the 
Niagara anticline in the vicinity of Pairbank, and the relations of the several 
Pleistocene deposits to each other, and to the indurated rocks on which the 
lowest drift sheet lies, afford other illustrations of unconformitv. 



CHAPTER II 
FLORA AND FAUNA 

AT THE BEGINNING ECONOMIC FE.\TURES 

We do not deem it necessary to this history to give an exhaustive account of 
tlie flora and fauna of this county, but a description of its physical features 
would be incomplete without at least some general description of both. 

We would not try to give a scientific study along these lines, even were it 
possible, for such a treatise is only interesting to professionals and students of 
those particular sciences. 

We will, however, aim to mention and briefly describe those species of flora 
and fauna which have been the most prolific and most commonly known here, 
and in such a manner that we hope will interest lovers of nature. What infor- 
mation we will here set forth has been gleaned from our own study and observa- 
tion, from previous articles written on the subjects in an early history and 
others written by students of these sciences of the present day. 

One of the most startling reflections in regard to this subject is that such 
great changes have been produced, both in the flora and fauna of this county, 
as w'ell as of all other newly-settled regions, l\y the advent of civilization. These 
changes are utterly unavoidable although regrettable. It takes a vivid imagina- 
tion to picture a country, now so highly developed, in its wild and uncultivated 
state, where flora and fauna rivaled each other in their prolificness, but not in 
their inalienable rights. There was no contention between the kingdoms in 
those early days; each reigned absolute, in its own sphere. It was not until 
the ruthless hand of man had destroyed that some of these species succumbed. 
Nature has so arranged it that under normal conditions and left unmolested 
by man, the different species protect themselves, and will maintain a natural 
replenishing existence. But once let the average fall far short and it is difficult 
and almost impossible for any plant or animal to regain its former flourish- 
ing state. Nature can and will retrieve her losses, if given time, but she cannot 
withstand continued onslaught without at last losing the power of production. 
We see this demonstrated in the flora and fauna, as in all other of Nature's 
species. 

Many, yes, hundreds of vegetable species, and many, though doubtless a much 
smaller number of animal species, have been subdued and adapted to man's 
needs and become like liim, domesticated and cultivated. These are the food 
plants, the vegetables and the domestic animals that have become actual necessi- 
ties to his existence. To these we are greatly indebted for our material com- 
forts. Then there are other species, which, like certain song birds and flowering 
plants, are semi-domesticated ; they will dwell peacefully and contentedly in 
close proximity to man, and are never found remote from his habitat. To these 

21 



22 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

we owe much for the esthetic and sensuous enjoyment they give. But there are 
numerous noxious and tenacious weeds and vines and liarmful and annoying 
insects and vermin that infest tlie homes of man and follow him with a per- 
tinaciousness and defiance that menaces his comfort and fairly threatens his God- 
given supremacy. Then there are those species which defy all the efforts and 
advances of man to subdue and domesticate them and still retain their natural 
wild state, or gradually die from the conflict and finally become extinct. 

,Si)eaking of the pernicious weeds that have become a real, public nuisance and 
have prevailed in spite of every known precaution, safe preventive and sure 
cure, we have but to mention the dandelion and everyone appreciates what the 
words, persistent and noxious, mean. It seems improbable, but nevertheless it 
is a substantiated fact, that some of the early pioneer women, and one an ances- 
tor of the author, sent back East to procure some dandelion seed. She was 
homesick for the beautiful, bright yellow blojisoms, and they are beautiful, and 
would be considered choice, indeed, if they were scarce, but familiarity breeds 
contempt. 

Another early settler told of finding one of the plants and carefully trans- 
planting it into her flower garden. Nowadays we transplant their remains into 
the garbage pile. 

Then there are the plantago, or common plantain, stellaria or chick-weed, 
purslane or portulaca oleracea, shepherd's purse or Capsella bursa, pastoris 
and other members of the cruciferae, or mustard family, burdock, or lappa major, 
stick-weed and beggar's lice (species of Echinosperinium), several species of 
polygonium, especially those called lady's thumb and smart weed, thistles, 
tumble-weed, rag-weed, dog-fennel or wild daisy, wild morning-glory, milk weed 
or Asclepias, horse mint, and many others of which we do not know even a 
common nanae. Perhaps they are unworthy of any name. 

And where there is too much sand and too little substance for any decent 
plants to grow, the sandliur, burgrass. or cenchrus tribuloides, which very 
appropriately means thistle hedge hog, and which is the special tribulation of 
the liarefoot boy. 

None of these plants, as far as we can find, are indigenous to this country. 
The first settlers found none of them on the prairies or in the groves and it is 
an interesting study in itself to know how seeds are carried to far distant lands, 
and if the wind and the liirds were means of transportation formerly, as they 
still are, how can we definitely decide which are the indigenous and which are 
the cultivated plants, even though the hotanist arrived early on the scene, hut 
that is a question which only a scientist can answer with any degree of knowl- 
edge and really is a uuitter of ti'ifling consequence, and however it is, the pioneers 
thought they had left them all behind, but as .soon as they were well established 
in their new homes, they were astonished to find many of their old troublesome 
neighliors, the weeds, had moved in and were as tranquilly settled in the new 
home as were their previous, warlike enemies, the pioneers. How they got 
here nobody knows, and the perplexing question of how to get rid of them is as 
great a problem, hut evidently they are here to stay despite all efforts to the 
contrary. 

Of the aninuUs which accompanied the early settlers in the same unbidden, 
unceremonious manner, are the birds that sing, chirp, and twitter about our 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 23 

houses and in the fields and *oods, and with which we would not for any reason 
part; we love their soug and eompanionship so much. Among these are the 
robin, blue-jay, house-wren, song sparrow, blue bird, oriole, swallow, martin, 
meadow-lark, bob-o-link and others. All these birds that we find so common 
now, were not native to these woods. We are fortunate in having a great variety 
and great abundance of birds in this locality, the woods and meadow are full 
of them in the summer and even in town they are very numerous, but compara- 
tively few of them can stand the severity of our winters. One that braves even 
the most vigorous weather is the blue-jay and this constancy, together with his 
gay and beautiful plumage, is more than a compensation for his harsh voice, 
though even he has occasionally, a sort of "sotto voce" warble which is by no 
means unmusical, but our summer guests are the real songsters. And the 
summer residents are too numerous to give a complete list, but we will add a 
few to the dilferent ones we have already spoken of. The yellow hammer, sap- 
sucker, purple graekle, vireo, kinglet, warbler, grosbeak, goldfinch, cow bird, 
flycatcher, kingbird, flicker, snipe, mourning dove, hawk, owl, crow, kingfisher, 
whip-poor-will, chimney swift, pewee, meadow lark, humming bird, catbird, 
brown thrasher, wood thrush, veery, scarlet tanager, and many, many others, 
and most of these mentioned have several difl:'erent species, so you can imagine 
that the feathered kingdom is a vast one. 

Then there are the English sparrows, which never leave us, and become so 
nuuierous that they are a real pest — they build their nests in such annoying 
places, in the cornices of stores, barns and houses, over porches and windows, in 
the lattice work and even in the most insecure and peculiar places, and are quite 
as persistent in maintaining their selected residence as are the dandelions. We 
knew of some which built their nests over a sliding barn door. Day after day 
the door was shoved back and ruined their nests; or if the door did not destroy 
them the man of the house would rake them down. But their courage and per- 
sistency were never daunted ; they commenced immediately to work at rebuilding, 
gathering together the same material which had been scattered broadcast. Such 
tenacity and ambition surely are to be admired, even in a bird which we do not 
particularly love. But their most disagreeable trait is that they are so mean 
and annoying to other birds; they steal their nests, aggravate the mother birds 
when nesting and make life generally miserable to all of the other bird families, 
and yet one cannot help but like them as they are aggressive, saucy and law- 
defying, but withal are so independent, sprightly and courageous. 

Our other little winter birds are all such peaceful and happy little fellows. 
A former historian declared the bluejay was the only bird that could brave 
the severity of our winters, but nowadays we have quite a few kinds that are our 
constant visitants throughout the winter months. This may be accounted for 
either that the winters are not so severe (there being more protection for birds) 
or possibly these particular varieties were not habitants of this region in the 
early days. 

Some of those which are winter residents here, at least if the winter is a mild 
one, are the chicadee, brown creeper, downy woodpecker, hairy woodpecker, 
phoebe, junco, nuthatch, bluejay, snowbird, pine gi'osbeak, waxwing, shrike, 
snowflake, redpole, owl, and others. But of all the birds I would venture a guess 
that the robin is the most familiar and best liked bird that we have in our 



24 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

vicinity although the wren is a close second in popularity, and next to the English 
sparrow — that troublesome, vexatious importation — the robin is the most 
numerous. 

The instinct which leads these and other species to make their abode about 
human dwellings is a most interesting and wonderful one. Some, no doubt, do it 
because they can find their food more easily and others because of the protection 
it affords them from the attacks of hostile species, while some seem just to want 
to be friendly with man, and probably all these reasons influence them to frequent 
human habitation. It is still more wonderful that species which for the most part 
lived remote from the abodes of men, and are reckoned as the most timid and 
difficult to tame, should actually change their characteristics and manifest such 
confidence in their civilized neighbors that they move to quarters in close 
proximity. 

The red si|uirrels arc becoming so numerous and so audacious under the laws 
protecting them in the towns that they threaten to be a great nuisance; every tree 
seems alive with the frisking, chattering little animals and they have almost 
monopolized this original favorite retreat of the birds and driven them to seek 
the more extensive wootllands for their homes. These saucy scamps help them- 
selves to all the nuts and fruit they want and to all the delicacies of the garden — 
strawberries and sweet corn are their especial delight. They also are said to 
eat the birds' eggs and destroy their young and a continual warfare rages between 
these little tree dwellers. The gray rabbits, certainly one of the most timid and 
untamable of the native animals, are frequently seen around town, and will brave 
all their dangerous foes to burrow their nests under some brush pile or out- 
building in our back yards. And very occasionally in some vacant lot or on the 
outskirts of the towns, the pretty, graceful little quail is seen — but only at such 
times when the state game law enforces a closed season for his protection. A 
natural instinct, proliably inherited from a long line of his ancestors, has taught 
him that along about September 1st it is time for him to keep his distance and 
be very wary and cautious of all liipeds, especially if they are carrying anything 
resembling a ramrod. I'raii'ie chicken seem to be even more scarce than quail. 
At this late year, 1914, when there are comparatively so few quails in this county, 
it might almost be doubted that they are seen in the towns but the writer has 
known of a pair frequenting a vacant lot opposite her home for several summers. 
And the tales of the early settlers about the great abundance of native game seem 
much more improbable. ' "We have heard them tell tales that would out-distance 
Baron Munchausen and would fairly compete with Uncle Opie Dilldock of comic 
supplement fame — tales that would positively establish this as the real red man's 
"Heaven."' the "Happy Hunting (fround" for all good Indians. One tale bears 
repeating. After supper one evening one of the early .settlers of Independence 
went .just to the outskirts of the town to get a prairie chicken for breakfast. He 
saw a Hock of them j)erclied in a compact row along a fence board. He got on a 
line with them and tired — just one shot — and killed — . Oh, no, not ([uite all. 
because several hundred flew away; but he picked up birds there until it got too 
dark to see and when he got home he only had foi'ty-nine, and so many were left 
to bleach upon the ])i'airie tliat the spot was ever after known as the "bone-yard." 
Now this tale may not be absolutely true as to a few minor details such as figures, 
but the general idea is correct, because we have verified the fact that there was a 



HISTORY OP BUCHANAN COUNTY 25 

gi-eat abundance of both fish and game here in the early days. Which brings to 
mind many tish tales which far surpass even Jonah's in size, but we would not 
want to entirely risk our reputation as historians — and veracious ones — to repeat 
said tales, even for the sake of boosting our county. 

But from a real authentic source (the county newspaper of December 22, 
1863, date) we quote this interesting item: "The way the prairie chickens are 
coming into town is surprising. One man sold $350 worth yesterday, while sales 
of $50 and $100 are of fi-equent occurrence." Three or four wagonloads of 
chickens, quail and pheasants on the streets in one day was not unusual and the 
shipping of chickens had become ([uite an industrj' ; some of the stores in Inde- 
pendence were literally piled full of them ready for shipping East. And 
another item told that Tom Hunt, the l)est shot in Buchanan County, recently 
killed 157 chickens in one day with 150 shots. (Certainly a record breaker.) We 
believe the record breaker is one dated September, 1869. It told of four young 
men starting out of Independence at 3 o'clock in the afternoon, driving fifteen 
miles, hunted the remainder of that and the next day, and bagged 337 prairie 
chickens — a record which was never beaten after that in this county. 

Of the most unwelcome species which followed the early settlers to their 
western homes are the rats and mice and various insects that prey upon their 
cultivated fruits, garden truck and grain. And it is a strange fact that almost 
every tree, shrub, and plant which is necessary or desirable for man's uses has 
its peculiar insect enemy. Farmers dread the insects far more than bad weather. 
Some seasons the fruit and vegetables in particular localities have been com- 
pletely destroyed by insects and worms, and several succeeding years the grain 
crops were utterly destroyed by chinch bugs. Cut worms, potato bugs and other 
pests have at times worked havoc with crops. Farmers in this vicinity entirely 
stopped raising wheat on this account, and only recently have they resumed 
the industry. The grasshopper and locust have bothered some, but not to the 
direful e.xtent that occurred in other of the western .states. We do not seem 
to have those pernicious insect pests with which the early settlers had to eon- 
tend, but every new country has all of these things to overcome, and when that 
has been accomplished, new vicissitudes arise to be conquered. 

It is a ceaseless and relentless warfare, the beneficent forces against the 
malevolent and not always does right prevail. As in the instance of the rats 
and mice, which although they do not propagate very fast, and although man 
is continually and everlastingly fighting these abominable pests which do so 
much harm, and seem to be for no purpose but destruction and annoyance, so 
iax as we can see (to all races except the Mongolian, who are said to consider 
them a rare delicacy), they still thrive and prosper. 

And in spite of all sorts of destructive agents, such as traps and guns and 
deadly poisons being employed, and even with the assistance of other hostile 
species such as cats, ferrets and terriers, they manifest no symptoms of approach- 
ing extermination. These pernicious rodents nuiltiply and multiply and follow 
man to the ends of the earth, whether on sea or land and methinks a more dar- 
ing breed will e'en venture an aeroplane flight. 

As someone has said, they seem to repeat with ironical emphasis the affection- 
ate words of Ruth to Naomi — '"Whither thou goest, I will go, and where thou 
lodgest, I will lodge. Where thou diest will I die, and there will I be buried." 



26 



IIISTOKY OF BUCHAXAN COUNTY 



The first and inost prominent rat ever in Independence was said to liave jumped 
off a fi'eight cai-. hut as the railroad did not come through until 1859 and three 
years later, according to the editor of the Guardian, who devotes almost half 
"a column to the pernicious, vexatious rodent, they were literally overrunning 
the town, so we conclude not to lay this too, against the railroad, but are inclined 
to believe that the original ancestral .Mr. and Mrs. Rat came through in some- 
body's trunk, box or barrel, long before the days of rails and freight cars, when 
the means of transportation was horse power instead of steam. Nowadays, 
in building corn-cribs and granaries, every possible precaution is used to pre- 
vent the awful destruction of these troublesome pests, such as cement tloors and 
the buikiing elevated upon posts with inverted feowls or cups to keep out the 
intruders. 

Another vicious habit of rats and mice, so authorities claim, is to carry dis- 
ease. Hog cholera has often been spread this way. Just as now the common 
liouseHy is cbnsidered one of man's worst enemies in scattering disease germs, 
and we fight that insect as we would a poisonous snake. There was a time 
when they were considered rather a harmless and unpreventable, though most 
disagreealile and annoying adjunct to households, especially on the farm where 
they breed so prolitically, Init nowadays every place we look, in all the papers and 
magazines, and even on placards printed especially, are we warned to "swat 
the Hy," and we are led to believe they are a menace both to health and cleanliness 
and our lack of intelligence and refinement are rather estimated according to 
the number of flies we accommodate on our premises, though this is a most 
unjust methotl. 

J\los(iuitoes and ants come in for their share of the maledictions which we 
visit upon these other pests, especially the mosquito which we have in this 
locality, quite as pestiferous and rapacious though possibly not as large as the 
far-famed Jersey breed. Along the river lianks and sloughs they breed most pro- 
litically. 

Hut these we can and do evade to a great extent, the mosquitoes by avoid- 
ing their habitats, and the ants with certain simple preventatives or auuihilators. 
But the insects and pests that come periodically and ravage the grain and veg- 
etable crops and those that ruin not only the fruit, but also the trees and shrubs 
and do such incalculable damage, seem to be beyond human annihilation. 

Man with all his boasted intelligence, inventive genius and scientific research, 
seems utterly incapable of exterminating any of these pests. Thousands and 
thousands of dollars are spent every year by the Government and private con- 
cerns witli this olijiM-t ill view, but as far as being successful, the money might 
as well go up in lilue smoke, except that they are making other wonderful dis- 
coveries and proliably checking the evil to some extent, besides some day they 
may hit u])on the right thing. 

One of the most disagreeable features with which the early settlers of this 
county had to contend was the snakes which infested the swamps and prairies in 
great abundance. Some of the old settlers' stories of their companionable visits 
to the families newly installed in the log houses would raise one's hair. They 
were everywhere and the settlers would encounter them in the most unusual and 
unheard of places. In the flour barrel, under and in the bed, crawling down the 
chimney and one old settler told upon opening her oven door in the morning, 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 27 

there lay a big snake coiled up enjoying the warmth retained in the stove from 
the fire the night before. They were not only in great abundance, but great 
variety, among them, blacksnakes, rattlers, bull snakes, water moccasins, blue 
racers, adders, and the multitudinous garter snakes. 

Most of these kinds are only seen occasionally nowadays but the garter, 
moccasin, and bull snakes are still numerous. But to return to the beautiful and 
interesting flora. 

The most striking feature of this w.estern prairie country is the great variety 
and abundance of its wild flowers and different kinds of grasses. Much of the 
original prairie and slough grasses have entirely disappeared since the cultiva- 
tion of the soil. Although the scenery of Iowa is monotonous compared with 
other states, the flora ranks among the very first. From early in the spring, 
almost as soon as snow leaves the ground, the first spring flowers appear, the soft, 
pretty pussy willow, the beautiful crocus, the delicate anemone, the dainty wind 
flower, the shy, sweet violet, the modest little butter-cup and the bold, saucy, 
dandelion, all vie with each other as to who shall be first to bear the tidings that 
"Spring has come." Usually pussy willow and wind flowers are the first mes- 
sengers. Then from June on through all the summer there is a perfect riot of 
bloom ; and autumn, too, is one blaze of glory with the gorgeous yellows and 
purples of golden-rod, daisies, and wild asters until snow comes again and "pale, 
concluding winter comes at last and shuts the scene." 

To be sure, we do not have the lavish profusion of wild flowers that once be- 
decked the prairie, it is only along the railroad tracks and river banks and where 
the land seems almost untillable, that we see them in any great abundance, but 
even now we have more than most states. The strenuous cultivation of the fields 
has completely routed the original flora from their native haunts and many of 
them have become entirely extinct. 

It is to be deeply regretted that this is the case ; if only there could be some 
precautionary measure taken to prevent such extermination as in the case of our 
native game. Why not have closed seasons and flower preserves for this purpose 1 
We cannot leave this chapter without naming some of the beauties of our wild 
estate. 

Besides the flowers which we have previously named, as early spring comers, 
are the blossoms of many of our shade and fruit trees which sometimes appear 
very early, if the season is advanced. The hard and soft maple, the elm, oak, 
basswood, boxelder, walnut, scarcely worthy of notice compared with the beauty 
and gorgeousness of the fruit ti'ees, such as the plum, choke-cherry, and most 
beautiful of all, the wild crab-apple, whose exquisite blossoms bear such a won- 
derful promise of lusciousness, but "beauty is only skin deep" according to 
ancient lore, and this beauty is not even skin deep. One would scarcely believe 
it possible that such a fragrant, beautiful blossom could develop into such an 
ugly, sour, gnarly apple, called cow-crab. 

Other spring flowers ai-e the hepatiea, or liverwort, blood-root, whose dark 
red .juice .stains indelibly and w^as used by the Indians for painting their faces, — 
dogtooth violet, May-apple, Dutchman's breeches, so appropriately named, but 
sometimes called squirrel's corn because of the cluster of small yellow bulbs 
which resemble corn, true and false, Solomon's seal, so named because of the 
scars on the root which suggested the seal of Israel's wis^ king, the false Solo- 



28 IIJSTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

inon's seal is coiiimoiily called wild lily of the valley, the jack in the pulpit, a 
freakish flowei' and said to he a poor relation to the heautiful and stately calla 
lily. Harehells, those dear little flowers that grow in the crevices of rocks where 
there seems to l>e really no soil to sui)port them, the March marigold or cow-slips, 
wild ginger, wild geranium or eraneshill, bluet, Indian tobacco, bell-wort and 
lonse-wort, blue-eyed and star grass, Jacob's ladder, or wild blue-bells, Imlbous 
cress, shooting star. Creeping Charley or ground ivy, wild strawberry, bird-foot 
violet, wood soi'rel, five fiuger, (Jolumbine or wild honey-suckle, wild oats, hairy 
puccoon nr Indian ])aint, purple flebaue or pink daisies, yellow vetch, wild pea, 
golden Alexander, sheep sorrel, and the rare and extpiisite lady slipper which is 
first cousin to the orchids, and proliably dozens more are all spring flowers and 
every yeai' some twenty-five or thirty of these lovely lilossoms are classified, 
pressed, and mounted as specimens for botany herbariums. 

Then, the summer bloom is really too numerous to mention, but first of all 
and commanding most attention on account of its wonderful beauty and fra- 
grance is the wild rose, our owu state flower, the wild phloxes or Sweet Williams, 
wild sun-flowers, and so called wild daisies or Black-eyed Susans of which there 
are many varieties, bouncing Bet, white or red clover, wild pi'imrose, Indian 
plantain, wild snapdragon, or butter and eggs as the children call it, wild cucum- 
ber, horse balm, catmint, bears grass, Spanish bayonet, and the yellow and white 
pond lilies, the iris and flag and other water plants, and all the many different 
species of ferns which grow in rank profusion along the river banks are all a 
part of sununer's loveliness. And in the fall there is still no dearth of variety 
and beauty. The fall flowers are the most gorgeous and showy of all. The fields 
and roadsides are one splash of rich and gaudy color, yellows and purples 
predominating. 

At this season of the year the beautiful, feathery golden-rod flourishes, there 
are about forty different varieties of this flower and it grows in nearly all, if not 
every state in the Union, hence was selected as our national emblem and many 
ivarieties grow in this state. It certainly is one of the most satisfactory flowers 
for it blooms for so long a season and its flowers last so long, even when picked. 

The wild asters and white and yellow daisies, wild sun-flowers, yellow cone- 
flower, milk weed, fringed gentian, rosin plant, purple thistles, and prairie 
plumes lend their beauty to enhance autumn's glory. 

In speaking of flora that are extinct, or rather fast becoming so, we would 
mention the lady slipper, which is rarely found now, and the exquisite white 
pond lilies which used to grow so profusely in all the sloughs and bayous, north 
of Independence, are growing more aiul iimrc scarce; the maiden-hair fern now 
oidy gi'ows in the most secluded spot.s — and many more will soon be exterminated. 

Nothing could be more interesting than the study of birds and flowers but 
we nmst not entirely neglect the forest trees which are indigenous to this country 
— there arc many, although this is not what is known as a timber country. 

At the time of settlement, the only timber was along the streams and this was 
ruthlessly cut for fuel and building purposes as that was the only available sub- 
stance thay had to burn, or with which to liuild. Huge trees were hewn for log 
houses, it was several years before stone was utilized, and even more before 
lumber was hauled in for building, but even though the early settlers ravished 
the native timluT they liegan immediately to replenish it by planting about their 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 29 

houses trees of the quick growing species, and whole groves were planted on the 
prairies for wind breaks and for shade and shelter for stock. The soft maple, 
Cottonwood and poplar, mostly the latter, were the first trees planted. Although 
the sandy, alluvial soils of the river valleys have the most congenial conditions 
for the Cottonwood and white or soft maple, they grow with astonishing rapidity 
upon all varieties of soil found in the state, and flourish as well on the prairies 
as in the valleys as does also the willow which we see planted along the line fences 
for borders but which was not mentioned in connection with the early growth. 
The box-elder is also a quick grower and much used. The Osage orange also was 
j)lanted to some extent for hedge purposes but did not prove satisfactory. They 
become a perfect tangle and spread so that they have been destroyed more or less 
and grow but few places in the county. The catalpa is now the most popular,' 
quick growing tree used for posts, and we believe is more extensively planted 
than any other. 

From the previous Buchanan history, we quote, "although the use of coal, 
both hard and .soft, has greatly increased throughout our state, in the past ten 
years, yet it is doubtless true, now, as it always has been, that wood is the prin- 
cipal and preferred fuel of our people generally, and that if it were everywhere 
found in sufficiently large quantities, they would probably never care to change 
their established habits in the use of fuel, by discarding it for any other." And 
it further goes on to state, "that it was feared by many, that the amount of fuel 
which Iowa could be made to produce would not be sufficient to meet the wants 
of the prospective inhabitants that her fertile soil is capable of supporting in 
plenty," but that authority considered those fears were utterly groundless, in 
view of the fact that there had been recent extensive discoveries of coal and peat 
in the state, and that alone would be sufficient supply, but in addition to this 
there would be a great plenty, at least, for domestic purposes, for all the present 
and prospective inhabitants, produced from the soil alone, by the growth of forest 
trees. 

The preceding paragraphs but demonstrate the shortsightedness of humans, 
who with their little finite minds cannot estimate a future, and if perchance 
some wizard makes bold to prophesy some wonderful, startling thing that will 
transpire, his generation scoff and ridicule and .judge him to be unbalanced. But 
with all the wonderful discoveries and inventions and fulfillments of ancient 
prophecies in the past twenty-five years we are no less prone to scoff. 

The idea that Iowa could produce enough wood or even coal for fuel for all 
prospective inhabitants, was demonstrated years ago, to be utterl.y inadecjuate 
for all their needs and this is further proved by the continued high price of 
wood in spile of its abundance, the thousands of carloads of coal, both hard and 
soft, which is shipped in from other states, besides the extensive mining in our 
own state, and also the great amount of manufactured fuels, such as gas of sev- 
eral kinds, gasoline, kerosene, and electricity. To be sure, wood is on the market 
for fuel nowadays but it is the rarest exception to find anyone burning it, and it is 
considered next to electricity, the most extravagant of all fuels. Even for 
building purposes, cement and cement blocks, stucco, )n-ick. and stone are fast 
taking the place of lumber in many parts of the country. Stucco and cement 
are particularly popular other places. Either climatic conditions or a lack 
of knowledge about these materials seem to be unfavorable to an extensive use 



30 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

of thcin for building, in this iiamediate vicinity. Probably in the future they 
will constitute the chief liuilding material. 

What timber is cut oi'f is mostly used for fuel by those fortunate enough to 
own it, and some of the better kind is sawed into lumber. Undoubtedly there 
will come a time when it will be impossible to buy any of native growth. Almost 
the only timber being cut at the present time is to thin out the undergrowth, 
and for the purpose of cultivating the land which farmers deem too high priced 
to lay idle as timber land and just used for pasture purposes. 

In reading some old county papers, we found where corn had been used for 
fuel because it was so much cheaper and easier to get. The writer of this article 
referred to had burned several loads of it in the City of Independence in the 
winter of lS72-;i and found it both pleasant and much more economical, even in 
a county as well wooded as Buchanan. The editor said some conscientious 
people ob.jected to the use of a food product for fuel, but he maintained that 
corn was eaten to produce the warmth of the liody (a body fuel) and that when 
it was con.sumed in a stove the result was analogous, if not identical ; and he 
believed that when it was so cheap, it was more economical for fuel than any 
other, and that was proof suflicient, it was not needed for food, and it was better 
to bui'n it in stoves for the comfort and enjoyment of humans, rather than turn 
it into "liciuiil fire" for the destruction of human happiness and virtue and 
even life itself. 

We can scarcely imagine a time when corn was of so little value that it was 
used as fuel, when now, even though we are known as the corn growing state 
and produce more bushels than anj^ other state in the Union, and Buchanan 
County has almost one-half of her entire cultivated acreage in the production 
of this cereal — the demand elsewhere would not allow of its being used for 
such a purpose. 

In those early days, even though the supply of corn iiiigiit be great and the 
market demand just as great, the lack of any, or poor shipping facilities would 
govern the prices, and there being so little stock in the country the production 
far exceeded any demand for home consumption, so necessarily it nnist be utilized 
in other ways. 

Now, some people are thankful to have even the cobs to burn. In the country 
where the corn is shelled, the farmers burn them lavishly while in the town the 
flouring mill is the only accessible place to get them, so tliey are used more 
sparingly. '^ 

For fuel woods of course tlic hard woods are far preferable because of slower 
growth and hence more compact; the several species of oak, elm, walnut, and 
hickory are fine, both for the heat they contain and because they are consumed 
slowly. The cottonwood, poplar, liasswood, maple, etc., are popular for summer 
use, making a (luick fire and one that burns out soon. Hickory is considered 
the very best, making a fine fire and very little ash, while cottonwood is the 
poorest, a quick l)urner and much ash. The names of trees following appear 
in the order of their estimated rapidity of growth, cottonwood, white maple, 
eatalpa, willow, elm, oak. It is a noticeable and alarming fact that much of 
the native timber is dying out from some unaccountable cause. Everywhere 
this is evident along the banks of the Wapsie, especially above the first bridge 
the banks are lined with dead trees, inostlv willows and elms, but this is owing 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 31 

to the dam at Independence maintaining a iiigher stage of water than formerly 
and actually tlrowning them out. Even the ^villows which are purposely de- 
stroyed along the roads, added much to the beauty of the river and their dying 
is much to be regretted. Ants and other insects destroy many ti-ees. Just now 
many residents of Independence are employing a scientific forester to "doctor" 
their diseased trees and it is truly wonderful what methods are employed to 
save their "patients." 

But to discuss all the different woods for fuels is rather a waste of time, 
considering that we are burning less and less of it each year. In giving the 
reasons for this, one of the most important was omitted and that is the high price 
of labor. P^ven those who own timber land and would be glad to burn the wood, 
cannot atford to pay the extreme prices for both the cutting and the hauling. 

Oak wood sells for $6.00 a cord and at least $2.00 for sawing, preparing it 
for the stove and piling, making it a high priced fuel in comparison to coal, some 
varieties of soft coal being sold for $3.50 per ton, which we think extremely high. 
On consulting the records of 1862 to 1864, we find the regular selling price 
was $6.00 to $8.00 per cord for oak. One year the county contracted for wood 
at $9.00 per cord. This seems almost improbable considering the comparative 
abundance of it then and its value a short time previous, but even at that price 
it was next to impossible to get it, no teamster could be hired and no farmer 
could spare the time, labor was too scarce and too high priced ($2.00 per day) 
to pay for cutting w-ood. For months this condition existed and the town people 
would surround a load of wood as tliough it wei'e gold nuggets and the bidding 
waxed fast and furious till prices became exorbitant. One cold day in January, 
1862, a load lirought into Independence was bid up and sold for $14.00, which 
was equivalent. to $18.00 a cord but this was an exceptional case and only reached 
' this extreme price on account of the improvidence of those early settlers. The 
editor's plea for a .I'ag of wood "'claiming he had lieen burning one old gnarly 
knot for weeks and weeks" is i-ather amusing reading now. In 1865 a wood 
market and measure was established by the city and D. S. Deering was appointed 
wood "surveyor," this being a new office created l)ecause of the difficulties and 
disagreements over the size "of a cord of wood." 

The most of the wood is used for fence posts and some little lumber is sawed, 
although it is of an inferior grade. Wood sawing machines that can saw many 
cords of wood a day, now are operated in tlie country and saw up enough fuel 
in one day for an entire winter's burning. 

In the original natural growth of trees indigenous to this county, the prin- 
cipal kinds, in order of their abundance were, the oaks, several species, cotton- 
wood, elm, white majile, linden, hickory, sugar maple, and black walnut, cherry, 
butternut, ash, and others but in recent years the relative abundance in the nat- 
ural growth lia.s somewhat changed the black oak, hickory, elm, white maple, 
box-elder, cherry, black walnut, oak, sugar maple, and others. 

For artificial groves and wood lands uiuloubtedly the white maple is the most 
used, witli l)lack walnut almost as jjopulai-, while for general use especially in the 
towns, the elm is the greatest favorite exceeding the oaks in use because they 
are of tpiicker growth, although the oaks are considered the tree of all trees. 

The following catalogue is of the principal indigenous trees of this county : 
Acer dasycai'pum, white or soft maple; acer saecharinuni, sugar or hard maple; 



32 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

carya alba, hickory; earya amara, pignut hickory; celtis occideiitalis, haekberry; 

cerasus serotiiia, l)lack wild cherry: . choke cherry; fraxinis 

Americana, wliitr ash; gleditschia triacanthus, honey locust; juglans cinerea, 
butternut or while walnut: juglans nigra, black walnut; negindo aceroidea, box- 
elder; platanus occidentalis, button-ball or sycamore; populas monilifera, Cot- 
tonwood; — , poplar; populas tremuloids, aspen; quercus alba, 

white oak; (|uercus imbriearia, laurel oak; (luercus maerocarpa, bur oak; 

, red oak; quercus tinctorial, black oak; Americans, linden or basswood; 



ulmus Americana, common or white elm; ulmus fulva, slippery or red elm ; prunis 
strobus, white pine, which formerly grew along Pine Creek; shagbark hickory, 
bitternut hickory, water birch, juniperus Virginiana, red cedar, in scattered 
localities on the Wapsie ; prunus Americana, wild yellow or red plum, and the 
pryus Coronaria, American crabapple, both of which grow in great profusion 
and in almost every thicket and natural timtier, the hawthorn, blaekhaw, willow 
and bittersweet, and the Virginia creeper or common woodbine, wild grape and 
other vines, also grow in profusion in the native woods. 

GAME QUADRUPEDS 

In connection with tliis chajiter of flora and fauna, we must devote some 
space and time to the game which was so plentiful here in the early days that 
it was known as "Hunter's Paradise," but that title has long since become 
olisolete. Of the game quadrupeds, the elk, liutfalo, bear, deer, rabbit, and 
squirrel wei'e found here in more or less abundance, but all have disappeared 
except the last two named, which on account of their small size and habits of 
concealment have successfully eluded the hunter's gun and every other extermin- 
ating device. 

I5oth buffaloes and elks were lather scarce when the county was first settled, 
although in some of the surrounding counties they were quite numerous. About 
the early 'fiDs marked the entire disappearance of the butfalo in Iowa and the 
elk followed Init a little later. Asa Blood, Jr., one of the earliest pioneers shot 
a tine elk on what is now Oakwood Cemetery, in Independence, on the 2nd of 
December, 1848. Mr. Blood was the only male adult left in the settlement, all the 
others having gone off on an elk hunt, which he was prevented from joining by 
an attack of fever and ague, the prevalent disea.se of new countries. It would 
almost seem as if the animal out of compassion for the young hunter's privation 
had come of its own accord to give him a chance for a little sport, in spite of 
"Old Shaky 's" interdict. He seized his gun and after a few minutes pursuit 
came upon the animal and succeeded in killing it. It was a doe and when 
dressed weighed 600 pounds, which he distributed among the few families 
of the settlement. That same fall his father, Asa Blood, Sr., purchased a herd 
of seven buffalo and seven elk of the Quasqueton hunter, Rufus B. Clark, for 
about five hundred dollars. Clark had captured them when calves, two or three 
years before, twenty or thirty nules west of there, sometimes as far as Ackley. 
One such ti-ip w;is made by Rufus Clark, James Biddinger, and two others who 
took with them a team, one cow and horses to ride and returned with three 
young elks. Then in the spring of 184-t, Clark, Kessler and several others started 
out on a buffalo and elk hunt, taking .several cows, tents, fast horses, ox teams. 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 33 

to haul their loads and provisions to last six weeks. They returned with eleven 
buffalo and seven elks. Only one buffalo and two elks lived, it was so late in 
the season when they started they had to chase them so much they died from 
over-heat. So in the spring of 1845 the party started out earlier, and took more 
cows. They were gone seven weeks and came back with a fine drove of young 
calves, seven elks and four buffaloes lived. Clark kept the first one that was 
captured until it was three years old, but it got so cross he had to kill it. 
The others were sold to Asa Blood, Sr. He broke the elks to harness and drove 
them to a sleigh. They would go as far as you would like to hold the lines on a 
cold day but could not be taught to back. 

The pioneers' method of capturing the calves of the buffalo and elks was 
((uite a novel one. They would go out early in the spring when the calves were 
young and follow the herd until the calves got tired and lagged behind and 
then capture them with a lasso. They always took cows along on which to suckle 
the calves until they were old enough to feed on grass. After a few days they 
would follow the cows wherever they went and in this way they would bring 
their captives home or else in pens on their wagons where they soon became as 
tame as their foster mothers. 

Mr. Blood drove his herd to Milwaukee and there put them on exhibition. 
"While in Milwaukee they were fed upon malt from a still house and this, al- 
though somewhat nutritious contained more or less alcohol which intoxicated 
them if they ate too much of it. One of the buffalo cows leaped upon a platform 
where there were several open barrels of this food and ate so much that she 
became furious, broke into the pen where the elks were kept and actually killed 
three of them before she could be gotten away. 

From ^Milwaukee, they were taken to Racine and exhibited there four weeks. 
The proceeds from these exhibitions defrayed all expenses and the animals were 
afterwards sold for $1,100.00 to a IMr. Officer, who took them East. An-iving at 
Chicago at the time of some great political meeting, he killed one of the fat buffalo 
cows and gave a public dinner at which buffalo meat fried, stewed, and roasted 
was the principal attraction. It was said that the sale of tickets to this enter- 
tainment amounted to more than enough to pay for the entire herd. 

Deer, at first, were so numerous and so bold that they would occasionally 
come into the settlement. One was killed by Asa Blood, Jr., on the spot where 
the Independence Flour Mill now stands. It had swam across the river and 
landed near the saw-mill that stood near where the flour mill now is. He used 
to kill from ti'u to twenty-five every year without going out of the county, but 
after a while they began to grow scarce and they had to go further north and 
west to hunt them. Mr. Ingalls, T. J. Marinus and A. Barnes took a hunting 
trip in the early winter of 1864, went forty-five miles up the Wapsie and brought 
1iack six deer, four or five dozen partridges. Venison was often on the market 
and it was not an unusual sight to see deer hanging in front of the stores on 
Main Street in those daj's. And they had all disappeared about the year 1871. 
Asa Blood, Jr., and his brother, Amos R., killed the last that were ever seen in 
this county, in December, 1871. There were three of them, two does and a fawn, 
which were first seen about two miles southeast of Independence. They went 
after them with rifles but no dogs and killed the two does, but the fawn escaped 



34 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

for tlial (lay. Iiut was killed thy next day on a farm about two miles from the 
j)la('e where the does Were killed. 

liears wcie never numerou.s in this county, on account of the lack of native 
forests, and there have only been two killed, at least, that got honorable mention. 
Doctor Brewer, one of the oldest settlers, said that he personally knew of but one 
bear- being killed in the county after he came and that one was killed in 1843 
or 1844, by Kufus B. Clark, in the woods of the Wapsie, in Newton Township. 
There was another killed in the fall of 1859 liy Joel Allen, father of the authoress, 
in Jefferson Township, near the old John Bowder place. Joel Allen with Well- 
ington Town anil E. S. Wilson were on their way to help a neighbor thresh 
when they espied the big black bear. Town kept watch of bruin while Allen 
went to one of the neighbors for a gun. He returned with the gun and finally 
killed the bear. A detailed ilescription of this bear story was given by ilr. 
James E. Jewel, now a resident of Fort Morgan, Colorado, who, tliough but a 
young.ster at the time, .joined in the chase and was there at the finish of the 
monster. 

Bears iiad previously entirely liisajipeared from this part of the country, but 
for some unaccountable reason returned in the fall of 1859, probably like the 
Indians, to revisit the graves of their ancestors and all of the counties aroiuid 
here were visited by some members of this classic race. No doubt Mr. Bruin 
had been haunted by dreams of his dear fatherland, visions of those enchanted 
and sacred spots which goaded him to undertake this last .ionrney. It certainly 
could not have been for marauding or even just foraging purposes, else the 
farmers in the northwestern part of the county, wliere he probably entered 
along the Wapsipinicon, would luive detected his ju'esence. But he was a cau- 
tious old fellow and evade<l all human haliitation until we hear of him about two 
miles east of Brandon, on the prairie. When Joel Allen notified the neighbors, 
about forty men and boys, all without guns, but plenty of dogs, started in pur- 
suit. Bruin was so fat and heavy that a man could easily outrun him but neither 
men nor dogs ventured very near him. One dog with an unusual reputation 
for ferocity was set U])on him but when the dog got about ten feet away, the 
huge beast rose upon his hind legs, standing six feet in height, and fiercely 
showed liis teeth and claws, the canine gave one .velp of mingled friglit and 
despair and tied precipitously with his tail between his legs. 

However, the excited crowd managed to keep the bear surrounded for about 
three hours, till Joel Allen got back from J. Wilson's with a rifle and succeeded 
in killing the dangerous intruder, but not until he had fired three bullets into 
his huge carcass. 

It was found he weiglied, over three hundred pounds and its paw measured 
5Vii inches across the bottom. The meat was divided among all the neighbors. 
This is the last true Buchanan County bear story. 

GAME BIRDS 

The game birds found here by the first settlers were the wild turkey, prairie 
chicken, partridge, or pheasant, quail, wood-cock, snipe, wild goose, brant, swan, 
white erane, pelican, sand hill crane, and ducks of several species. Of these, the 
last seven are water-fowls and birds of passage and only made this place a migra- 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 35 

tory call on their flights north and south in the spring and fall, having their 
nesting plaee farther north. 

Ducks and geese visit their native haunts here in more or less abundance and 
furnish good sport for the hunters for a short season both spring and fall. 

Wild turkeys were in great abundance and were seen in flocks of as many as. 
a hundred, but they have entirely disappeared. The history of this magnificent 
bird is very remarkable; it was a native of this country and unknown to the 
eastern continent and being so well adapted to domestication and so excellent 
for food, it has been introduced into nearly every civilized country in the world. 
The wild species are black or very dark, but their color has changed since they 
have become domesticated, but its size has not increased nor the quality of it.s 
meat improved. 

The mallard ducks are about the same as the tame species, and can readily 
be distinguished from it, but the wild goose, though easily domesticated, is an 
entirely dift'erent species from our common tame goose. The quail, partridge, 
prairie chicken, snipe, and woodcock for a time after the settlement of this 
county became more plentiful but constant slaughtering by hunters, and a lack 
of safe hatching, has made all of these kinds scarce. 

Early settlers tell of enormous flocks of wild pigeons that for several years 
visited this count.y and then for some strange unaccountable reason one year 
failed to return and have never revisited these haunts since and never could be 
traced. Some said they went north and the winter was so severe, and food so 
scarce that cold and hunger destroyed the very species. In June, 1858, the sports- 
men of Independence were having rare sport shooting them, thousands having 
congregated in the fields about town, the Cobb pasture .just west of Independence 
being literally alive with them. 

An old settler told us about the sand hill cranes that used to visit this county 
every fall in their migratoi-y flights south for the winter. They would come in' 
small flocks and in their particular haunts, the sand hills, from which the.y de- 
rived their name, and perform the most peculiar and interesting dance, forming- 
a sort of circle, then balancing back and forth alamand left and circling right 
resembling the figiires of a cotillion, flapping their wings and seeming to thor- 
oughly enjoj' the terpsiehorean art quite as much as humans. Once the pioneer, 
being ciirious as.to whether sand hill cranes were fitted to edible purposes, killed 
one which happened to be an old bird. His wife undertook to prove that such 
was the case so she put the fowl into the washboiler, the only available utensil 
large enough to hold "his highness," and like the proverbial Mrs. Finney with 
the turnip, she boiled him, and boiled him and boiled him for several days, two 
or three days at least, but he still refused to yield to the piercing of a fork and 
no tooth however sharp and wolfish could masticate or even make an impression 
on his tough old hide, and all the Fletcherizing (even though it were not in- 
vented, or rather, copyrighted, in those days) could not make the meat digestible, 
so he was summarily dismissed from their intended bill of fare. The next year, 
however, the pioneer determined to see if a young bird could not be tempered 
t-o man's use, so he killed a real young one and the same coaxing fire and patience 
were tried on him but to no avail. He seemed to stiffen and congeal with every 
hour, so he succumbed to the same fate as his paternal and maternal ancestor- 
and proved a tempting morsel for the pig family. In April, 1858, Mr. Beebe, of 



36 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

Quas(|iU'toii, shot a swan near that place measuring: eight feet between the tips 
of the wings, five feet seven inches in length and weighing twenty-nine pounds. 

The fur bearing animals of this county, when the settlers came were the otter, 
beaver, mink, raccoon, nuiskrat, wolf, fox, badger, skunks, occasionally a martin, 
lynx, or wild-cat and rarely a panther. Some of these have entirely disappeared, 
but skunks and muskrats are numerous and some minks, foxes and wolves and 
occasionally a raccoon are still found. In 1880 a large gray fox was killed by 
Mr. W. W. Gilbert near Greeler's (irove. This species had seldom or never been 
seen in this region before, and the presence of this one is quite a mystery, and 
as late as 1898 there was a sort of return of the furry animals— a large fox, a 
cross between the red and gray species, was caught on Otter Creek by Dan Clark 
— and numerous mink and otter had been caught along on the Wapsie, and in 
November, 1898, a large, full grown mink was caught in the dooryard of the 
Leytze home, Second Street northeast. The family had been missing chickens, 
and by setting a trap this trouble was obviated. Beavers were quite numerous 
in this county, making their ponds by damming the small streams that emptied 
into the "Wapsie. Mr. Blood, the hunter, gave an example of their wonderful 
industry that he had personally observed. 

A short distance below Independence, near the mouth of a small stream 
emptying into the river, grew a thick grove of young ash trees averaging about 
six inches in diameter and covering an acre of ground. All these trees were cut 
down in about six weeks' time and most of the limbs were cut off and dragged into 
the beaver pond near by. The beavers were caught principally for their fur but 
some of the pioneei's ate them. The muskrat too was trapped for its fur. Mr. 
Blood had gotten as many as three or four hundred muskrat in one season, while 
if he secured ten otters, an equal number of beavers and twenty or thirty minks 
in the same time he considered he had made a good catch. In 1863, large numbers 
of muskrats were killed in their lodges north of Independence. Prime skins w'ere 
worth 20 cents then. For years different Indian tribes came here to hunt and 
trap. Often as many as a hundred of the Musquakie tribe encamped north of 
Independence and trapped muskrats. 

In 1880, both the county and the state were seeking to exterminate the wolf, 
wild cat, and lynx by offering a bounty for their destruction. The state had 
fixed the bounty at $1.00 but permitted the supervisors of any county to increase 
it to $5.00, and the Buchanan County supervisors were at that time paying .$3.00 
for each scalp, provided a sufficient proof was furnished that the animal was 
killed in the county and within a specified time before presenting the scalp. 
Besides the bounty the skins were very valuable. The lynx and the wild cat 
found here were so similar that it is doubtful if there were different species. At 
first there were three species of wolves found here (the yellow, prairie wolf; the 
gray, timber wolf; and the black wolf sometimes called the blue). The last two 
species were very numerous but soon disappeared. They were large and power- 
ful animals and quite disposed to be friendly with the settlers' dogs — sometimes 
coming right into the settlement to play with them. The prairie wolf, though 
not as numerous as at the beginning of settlement, yet as late as 1880, in spite 
of a bounty, had decreased but little in ten years. They were very trouble- 
some to the farmer's sheep fold, sometimes killing an entire flock in one night. 
As late as May. 1865. "a box of young wolf cubs was shipped from Buffalo 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 37 

Township, where they were caught, into Wisconsin. This county and Buffalo 
Township particularly had been largely stocked with sheep from Wisconsiu and 
this was a pleasant exchange, wolves for sheep." 

In June, 1873, the supervisors paid the bounty on thirty-five wolves, in 
January, 1879, on twenty-three, and in June, 1880, on forty-eight. During the 
whole year of 1880, they paid bounty on sixty-eight lynxes, and in 1863, on eight 
wild eats. 

The latest account that we have of a wild animal hunt being held in Buchanan 
County was in Jlarch, 1866, when a "Grand Wolf Hunt" was held by the 
citizens of Quasqueton. The boundaries were established and the laws and rules 
of the game made as follows : Eight captains were elected, no one was allowed 
to carry fire arms except the officers, the other hunters carried clubs, spears, and 
pitch-forks and numerous dogs were in the chase. A signal gun was fired at 
Quasqueton at 9 o'clock A. M., then one by each officer as a signal to start the 
fun. Two wolves were all that were routed out and these escaped, on account 
of lack of forces (there had been such heavy rains that many could not attend). 
But not to lose all the anticipated sport, the would-be hunters bought a captured 
wolf, and after setting about a hundred dogs upon it and they failed to kill it, 
the animal was tied up as a target and shot. ( This was in the days before the 
existence of humane societies.) 

No bounty was ever offered here for the killing of bears, foxes, or panthers. 
Bears had practically disappeared before the county was organized, foxes were 
never sufficiently numerous to make their extermination a matter of importance 
and it is doubtful if a panther was ever seen in this county, at least after the 
advent of the first white settler. Mrs. Herman Morse, now dead, who was for- 
merly ^Irs. Frederick Kessler, one of the earliest pioneers, told that soon after 
the settlement was begun at Quasqueton some of the men who had lived among 
the mountains of Pennsylvania and had heard that peculiar and unmistakable 
scream of the panther, declared that they had heard one in the timber near the 
Wapsie, but this is the only oue ever mentioned. 

Another predatory animal which the county authorities sought to exter- 
minate was that destructive little burrower, the "pocket gopher," by offer- 
ing a bounty of 10 cents for each scalp. It has afforded lots of amusement as 
well as profitable employment for the boys, who in tliose early days sometimes 
brouglit in as many as a hundred thousand scalps a year. This bounty amount- 
ing to a thousand dollars a year was too great a tax, especially as there seemed 
to be no prospect of its diminishing, so the supervisors withdrew the bounty for 
a few years, but when they increased to alarming extent they again offered a 
bounty. 

Another animal on which there is a bounty now is the ground hog. There 
has been a bounty on wolves and pocket gophers and on ground hogs for a good 
many years, and strange as it may seem, there is scarcely ever a year but that 
bounties are paid on wolves. The 1909 financial report shows $92.00 bounty on 
wolves, $186.00 bounty oh ground hogs and $233.00 on pocket gophers. The 
report of 1910 shows $25.00 bounty on wolves, $996.35 bounty on ground hogs, 
$292.70 on pocket gophers. Report of 1911 shows $124.00 on wolves, $755.35 
on both ground hogs and pocket gophers. Report of 1912, $56.00 on wolves, 



IIlSTOliY OF iiUCHANAN COUNTY 



38 

$214.00 on fjrouiid liogs. $180.00 on pocket gophons. Report of 1913 shows $71.00 
on wolves, ^2Mly>i) on ground hogs, and $149.50 on pocket gophers. 

FISH 

Fishing' lias alwii.vs been good in the Wapsie, being very abundant when the 
settler's first cauu', and eontiiiuing good until dams were built, then for some 
years before it beeame the prerogative of the Government to re-stock the streams 
it was somewhat depleteil of gajne fish at least, but since the establishment of the 
Government Fish Hatcheries we receive a fresh supply of game fish whenever 
we deem it necessary to petition for it. Since tke present game and fish law 
went into eflVct a luiiiiliei' of years ago, we have a very faithful and efficient deputy 
game warden in the [lei'son of W. ('. Ballon. He is always on the .job and is a 
conscientious and imjiartial dispenser of fines. 

The pi-inripal kinds of tish found in the county streams in the early days 
were the black bass, striped bass, pike, pickerel, mullet, or redhorse, suckers, sun- 
fish, rock bass, pullpong, or bullhead, as it is now called, catfish and m.uska- 
loiige. All of these are found here now in more or less abundance except the 
muskalonge. Aecording to '•fish" data in 1S80, the catfi.sh were so scarce in 
the Wapsie that one had not hceii eaught for three or four years, and the musk- 
alonge had disappeared ten or twelve years before, and has never been seen here 
since, but catfish weighing ten and twelve pounds and sometimes as much as 
fifteen pounds are often caught now and pickerel weighing from eight to twelve 
pounds are not infrequently eaught. 

Mr. W. M. Woodward, one of the hardware merchants of Independence, has 
made it a practice for about twenty years to give a valuable prize for the largest 
fish of certain species caught in a season — formerly he offered a prize for the 
largest bass, but for the ])ast ten years pike and pickei-el were included. This 
makes an incentive to the sport, as the prizes are always valuable and necessary 
to the joy and success of the ''Isaac Waltons. " 

Some people think those muskalonge stories of the pioneers are like the pro- 
vei-bial "big fish" tales and that probably the muskie was only a pickerel grown 
to a large proportion, which may be the facts. 

One of the largest fish tales of early days is that Charles Putney, in the winter 
of 1859, caught a muskalonge in the river near Independence which measured 
within two inches of four feet in length and weighed twenty-six pounds. In the 
■same paragraph w-hich contained the above announcement, it was stated that 
Messrs. Smilli and Cannon, of Dubu(iue, had shipped 2,300 pounds of Wapsie 
pickerel, mostly caught in Buchanan County, a few days before to the St. Louis 
market. ]'rol)ably the largest pickei-el ever caught in the Wapsie was caught by 
W. C. Littlejohn when he was a lad of ten years of age. He was fishing from a 
rock near a riffle when the big fish got out of deep water and commenced flounder- 
ing al)out in the shallow water near the shore — Will proceeded to give him a 
taste of battle and finally landed the monster fish, which, when weighed, tipped 
the scales at nineteen pounds and eleven ounces. In 1891 or '92, Will Wengert 
landed one at the mill that weighed sixteen pounds and this fish has held the 
record ever since. The largest one caught since then was landed by Chai'les 
Hathaway, September. l!tU. and weighed fourteen pounds, and that same fall 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 39 

a l)ig channel catfish, weighing twenty-one pounds, was caught in the Wapsie 
liy Will Hlondin, of Independence. A recounting ot "big fish" stories brings 
to light many of unusual size. One that is personally vouched for by an eye 
witness (IMr. Jed Snow), records that Ham Taylor, an old time fisherman, famil- 
iarly known as "Buck Ilallam," speared a thirty-three-pound muskalonge, just 
below the dam, near the mill at Independence, and this last fish tale outweighs 
the Charles Putney "first record breaker" by "seven pounds, and probably will 
have the distinction of being the largest fish for many years to come, unless the 
tales of the finny tribe grow weighty with age as do the human species. All of 
these different fish are in our river now with the exception of the muskalonge 
and the striped bass, which are substituted by the green or Oswego bass, and 
buffalo, carp, and crappies have been added. 

We have many residents who devote themselves almost entirely to fishing and 
trapping, but more for pleasure than pi'ofit. although in some parts of the county 
the trapping is quite an industry. 



CHAPTEE III 
ABORIGINAL INHABITANTS 

THE MOUND BUILDERS — THE INDIANS 

The race of men wiio first occupied the territory now embraced within the 
limits of liuchaiian County, as well as that of this entire country, is one that 
can only be answered by conjecture. 

The immediate predecessors of the present white inhabitants were the mod- 
ern Indians or i-ed men. This is the name given to the aboriginal races of 
America by Columbus, who, searching for a west passage and an ocean route to 
India, discovered a new continent and a new people, but unaware of this fact, 
called it and the inhabitants the name of the land of which he was in search. 
But even prior to the Indians was a race of men whom archaeologists, for want 
of a more complete knowledge of their history, have named the Mound Builders, 
and this because of the earth mounds which have been found all over this 
portion of North America. 

Evidences of the work of these prehistoric people are found in many of the 
eastern states and as far south as Tennessee in great abundance, and are par- 
ticularly numerous along the Mississippi valley in Iowa, extending from Dubuque 
at intervals through Jackson, Clinton, Scott, Muscatine, Louisa and other coun- 
ties, and as far west as the Little Sioux River. The Des Moines Valley is espe- 
cially rich in evidences of occupation by the Mound Builders and a good many 
mounds have been found in this county, which those well qualified to judge 
on such matters do not hesitate to pronounce the work of that ancient people. 

In an old history we find mention of a circular mound several feet high, which 
was leveled in preparing the foundation for the county jail in Independence, 
but no relics worthy of note, however, were found in it. 

Two circular mounds connected together by a straight embankment were 
found on tlie farm known as the Forrester Place, just eaist of and joining Inde- 
pendence. 

Even when that history was written, they were almast, if not quite, obliter- 
ated by the eon.stant cultivation of the field in which they were standing. Several 
earth works, mostly of a circular form, have lieen discovered along the banks of 
the Wapsipinicon, but none have ever been found of sufficient interest to attract 
the notice of archaeologists, so we cannot as yet lay claim to any such historical 
distinction. 

But that the soil of I^uchanan County was once occupied by the ilound 
Builders does not depend for its solution upon the existence here of unmistak- 
able works of that ancient race, since all evidences go to prove it — the frequency 
and continuity of their earth works along the Mississippi and throughout the 
state, as elsewhere, must be regarded as settling that question in the affirmative. 

41 



42 lliSTUKY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

Uudoubtedly this vk-h and fertile prairie land was used by them for some good 
purpose. 

Who can tell but that they tilled this same productive soil? We have conclu- 
sive evidenee, in the varied assortment of relics found iu their mounds, that 
they were a people of numerous and refined industries and accomplishments, the 
stone and co})per implements, axes, knives and awls, the pottery, pipes and altars, 
carved and adorned and tablets upon which were hieroglyphics representing let- 
ters and tigures of i^eople, trees and animals, all prove it, and that they even 
made cloth is proven by the finding of many of their implements wrapped in a 
coarsely woven fabric strangely preserved through the innumerable ages that 
hav(; elapsed. 

Whether these people cultivated the soil, erected wooden, stone or dirt dwell- 
ings, and built towns is not known, as also their number, color, habits, customs 
and forms of government, how and for what purpose were these enduring earth 
works of various kinds construrted and a tliousand interesting details of the his- 
tory of these earliest inhabitants of Iowa must forever remain a mystery. 
Whence they came, how long they possessed the land and from what cause or by 
whom i^xterminated. are unanswerable questions that will never cease to have an 
absorbing interest and to puzzle all succeeding races and generations. The old 
adage, "The survival of the fittest." does not always seem to obtain, judging 
from -the superiority of the handicraft of the ilound Builders to that of their 
successors, tlie Indians, whose work, customs, habits, and mode of life seem much 
more crude and uncivilized, but that "Might makes Right," is a human law is 
undeniable and that its dire antithesis "Right makes Might," is as inflexible a 
universal law, or providential rule, whereby "all things work together for good." 
So we shall assunu' that the Mound Builders were inferior to those who suc- 
ceeded them, and tliat they in their time were superior to a race or races which 
preceded them, we will concede. That there was a preceding race which occupied 
perhaps the entire world is claimed by ethnologists from the fact that similar 
hunuHi skulls, resemliling tlinse of the gorilla, having thick ridges over the eyes, 
and an almost total absence of foreliead, indicating a low degree of intelligence, 
have been found throughout the different countries of Europe, in the states of 
Illinois and Wisconsin, and in Johnson, Floyd, Chii-kasaw and Dubu(|ue coun- 
ties of Iowa. 

These inhabitants of the earth were low browed, brute-like, small liodied 
beings who were more like animals than humans and probably but a grade higher 
in intelligence. But they occupied these lands of ours in ages so remote and so 
incalculable to any but students of anthropology, ethnology, archaeology, and 
the other sciences pertaining to antediluvian periods, that we are not expected in 
a work of this kind to enter into an exhaustive discussion, or attempt to arrive 
at definite conclusions concerning them. 

Let other historians and scientists who have spent years in .study and reseai'ch 
figure out who our genealogical ancestors were and trace the progress of man 
from the anthropoid, tree hanging ape to the splendid physical and intelligent 
earth, sea, and sky concjuerer of the day. if he can, and it can and has been 
easily done and in more than anatomical likenesses, in certain traits and char- 
•acteristies they are undeniably similar. All of the monkey tribe are not wild, 
nor yet in cages: nor are the anthropoids confined to the lower animals; some 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 43 

liununis arc .nanlike only in form, and not even that in manners, besides some 
of the progeny of these anthropoid ancestors are still tree-hangiiig, and others 
should be : and some of our race show deeided ear marks, and occasional traits 
and tendencies of "animi folli" which are conclusive proof of, at least, dis- 
tant kinshij) to the ape. He who reads nuist not t)e offended at the comparisons, 
for it is the privilege and principal business of a writer to express his own views 
of matters, and even though it be matters pertaining to history, fact and fancy 
are often confused and the historian can but draw his own conclusions, after due 
deliberation, conscientious study and research, and with as impartial a judg- 
ment as is possibh', and even with all this painstaking and care mistakes are 
made and wrong conclusions derived. 

In reading numerous authorities on the prehistoric races of people who in- 
habited this country, we find such varied and contrasting opinions that it is 
hard to come to any conclusions. Some authorities claim that our present Red- 
men or Indians are the direct descendants of the Mound Builders with national 
customs and physical peculiarities changed through the lapse of ages and by 
various causes and not least of these incessant warfare, and that the fact that 
they do not build mounds and seem to know nothing of the origin of those .struc- 
tures is not sufHcient proof that they are entirely different races of people, as 
some etimologists insist. 

And this might seem very probable when we consider that each succeeding 
generation discards old utensils, implements, articles of furniture, and dress, 
customs, and modes of life whicli were common to former generations but which 
now exist only as curiosities and relics of the past, and adopt the modern. 
Antl, too, when we consider how family traditions and even important historical 
events become confused iii detail, and sometimes absolutely forgotten, when there 
is no written record made of them, it is not .strange that these people who had 
no very sure means of transmitting their knowledge from generation to genera- 
tion should lose all remembrance of their tribal traditions and customs. What 
would be our dilemma in this present day when history is makmg at such an 
unprecedented speed if it were not for the daily papers, the telephone, telegraph, 
wireless and cable communications and the careful and complete record kept of 
all events, local and national, even though of minor importance. No wonder 
that so much of the early history is shrouded in myth and mystery, and nothing 
seems to be absolutely authentic, when we consider the utter lack of any but 
local communication, no railroads, or modern electric inventions to transmit the 
facts. 

It therefore behooves us to make written records of family reminiscences 
and leave behind us the unmistakable proofs of our existence for the sake of his- 
torical value to futui-e generations and leave behind monuments that no con- 
quering enemy or disinterested or disloyal progeny can mistake or forget. But 
to return to the Mound Builders, it seems quite as likely that the remote ancestors 
of oui' present North American Indians were the conquerors and not the lineal 
descendants of the iMound Builders and. therefore, the vast differences in their 
mode of life, and the utter lack of knowledge of the Indians concerning them, 
although many of their implements, such as the spear, arrow-head, stone axes, 
hammers and pipes, arc much the same as those used by the present race for a 
hundred years or more in the early days after this continent w-as fii'st discovered. 



44 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

And whether eonqiiered, or disintegrated by the lapse of time or succeeded 
by a differing progeny,' the fact remains that their history is shrouded in mys- 
tery, a blank leaf in the records and chronicles of man — a missing link in the 
endless chain of evolution which shall forever be missing, unless, and it is not 
at all improbable, further research and exploration of these mounds and antiqui- 
ties may reveal additional knowledge of this race of people who preceded 
the Indians in America. And even though we dispose of that much discussed 
(juestion. there arise others to puzzle us — one quite as intangible is, "Are the 
Mound Builders descended from the antediluvian species?" If not, where did 
they come from, etc? and back and back to the origin of man. 

But we know this, that the Indians, either as lineal descendants, or as con- 
querors, or as mere chance successors to land left vacant, came after the 
Mound Builders, and are the first people of whom we have any definite knowl- 
edge. When this happened is as gi-eat a mystery as how it happened, but it 
must have been hundreds of years before Columbus discovered America. It is 
generally believed, however, that the Mound Builders were assailed by warlike 
tribes from the North and West, and that the earth works found along the rivers 
were erected as protection against the enemies, there can be little doubt. And 
after resisting these invasions for generations, they were gradually dislodged 
from their liomes and strongholds and forced southward and sought a last 
refuge in the deep gorges of the canyons of the southwest. There they were 
known as the Clift' Dwellers and the once numerous race finally perished from 
the face of the earth. The Indians, at the time of discovery and ever since, 
have been divided into numberless tribes, freijuently hostile and always migratoiy. 

The ownership of definite territories by the different tribes was a thing 
unknown. The temporary occupancy of lands favorable to hunting and fishing 
or for tile lultivation of maize (Indian corn) was usually decided by bloody 
battles, but the permanent jjossession of lands with distinct boundaries is an 
idea which none of these tribes have ever put into practice, except at the dictation 
of their civilized conquerors. 

The United States Government acknowledging, theoretically, the right of the 
Indians to this domain, has at various times entered into treaties with them, 
whereby they have ceded certain lands to the Government and accepted others 
as "reservations," in which they liave agreed to confine themselves, and the 
peaceable possession of which has been guaranteed them by the Government. 
Thus an ownership more or less permanent has been estal)lished and the dis- 
tricts thus reserved have been regarded as the special habitat of the tribes to 
whom they were assigned. 

The Government has entire supervision over the Indians and their lands and 
tries to protect them against unscrupulous land sharks, bootleggers, and confi- 
dence men. They are not allowed to sell their land without the consent of the 
Government, but even with all these precautions, there are many fraudulent 
and unprincipled transactions made and every advantage taken of these simple, 
child-like people. The gi'eedy white man after the most criiel and inhuman 
treatment and mean deception and trickery drove the Indians out of their homes 
and confiscated nearly all of the land owned by them, yet he is not satisfied 
and begrudges them their rich lands, and tries every means to defraud them. 
Shame upon .such civilization. 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 45 

Buchanan County never having been included within the limits of an Indian 
reservation, it cannot properly be said ever to have been the special home of any 
particular tribe; however, its abundant timber and fine water courses have always 
furnished such excellent facilities for hunting and fishing that the tribes dwelling 
in this vicinity undoubtedlj' must often have made it a place of temporary 
sojourn. And it seems appropriate to this chapter to give a few brief sketches 
of those tribes, which from the known historj' of their wanderings, were most 
undoubtedly at some time or other denizens of this county. 

On account of their historical prominence in giving a name both to the state 
and one of its principal rivers, although they figured much less prominently in 
the history of this region than several other tribes, we will begin with the Iowa. 
This tribe is from the Siouau stock and we first hear of them in 1690 when they 
were found in the vicinity of the Great Lakes. Their noted chief, Mau-haw- 
gaw, was then at the head of the tribe and under his leadership they migrated 
westward, crossed the Mississippi and occupied the country about the lower valley 
of the river which now bears their name, although for a long time afterwards 
it was called the Ayoua bj' the earliest French explorers. Theodore S. Parvin 
is the authority for the Indian legend about the name Iowa. He says this tribe 
separated from the Sac and Fox and wandered off westward in search of a new 
home ; crossing the Mississippi River they turned southward, reaching a high 
bluff near the mouth of the Iowa River and looking oft' over the beautiful valley 
spread out before them, they halted, exclaiming "loway," meaning "This is the 
place." Other authorities say it means "Beautiful Land" and still others that 
it was the Algonquin name "Ajawa" meaning "Across" or "Beyond." Lewis 
and Clark in the journal of their explorations, in 1804, refer to this tribe as the 
Ayonway. In later years the orthography became changed to loway and finally 
the y was dropped and we have the beautiful and euphonious name Iowa. 

The Iowa was a migi-atory tribe, having moved fifteen times back and forth 
into nearly every section of the state, into Dakota, then into Nebraska, then into 
Missouri and again into Iowa. After many fierce battles they were finally routed 
from this state by the Sac and Fox, they wandered around from place to place 
through Southern Iowa and Northern Missouri and finally were located on a 
reservation in Nebraska and the few who have survived are now in Kansas and 
Oklahoma. 

The Indians, like the gypsies, Arabs, and the Jews, are a wander-lust people 
who chase a phantom will-o'-the-wisp. They originally called themselves Pa- 
hu-cha, which signifies "Dusty Nose." The tradition about this name is that 
when they separated from the original tribe, they settled near the mouth of 
a river having large sand bars along the shore. The sand and dust from these 
were blown into their faces giving them dusty noses, hence their name Pa-hu-cha. 
A grammar of their language, composed by Rev. S. M. Irvin and Mr. William 
Hamilton, was published at the Iowa mission in 1848. Their language was that 
of the Dakota family of which they are a part. This tribe was divided into 
eight clans, known as Bear, Beaver, Buffalo, Eagle, Elk, Pigeon, Snake, and 
Wolf; each clan having a totem of the animal or fowl they represented and 
each clan had a particular method of cutting and wearing their hair. 

In 1675 their country was said to be twelve days journey west from Green 
Bay. In 1700 they were in what is now Southern Minnesota and so, judging from 



46 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

the reputation which they had gained throughout the West, as being great 
pedestrians, we can easily imagine their roaming these fertile prairies, fishing 
and hunting in our streams and forests. It is said that many of their early chiefs 
bore names indicative of their remarkable endurance in walking and they took 
great pride in their acknowledged superiority in this achievement. One of their 
later chiefs, who flourished about the year 1825, was named Manehaua, or Great 
Walker. The celel)rated Jesuit historian. Charlevoix, who gives an account of 
them aliout this period of their history, alleges that "tliey were able to travel 
twenty-five or thirty leagues a day when alone;'" figuring that up it means from 
115 to 138 miles and as we are but about si.xty miles from the Minnesota bound- 
ary it is not a stretch of imagination to think that these "seven-league booted," 
or moccasined, Iowa chiefs got up early in the morning, came down into Bu- 
chanan county for a day "s fishing or hunting and walked back home that night. 

The Iowa was in early times a very powerful and warlike tribe and often 
was in conflict with Osage, Sac, and Pox as well as those greatest of Indian war- 
riors, the Sioux. At the beginning of the eighteenth century they numbered 
about fifteen hundred, but with wars, pestilences, liquor anil natural diseases 
their numbers have been gradually reduced until in the last (the 1910) census, 
there were left but 334, 246 of whom live in Kansas and 88 in Oklahoma. But 
this report, says that they are "holdijig their own" and in the year 1906 accom- 
plished more on their allotments than at any time previous. 

In 1807 they defeated the Osage, at that time a powerful tribe, and this 
seems to have been about the last of their military successes. A few years 
later, the smallpox ravaged their settlement, destroying more than a hundred 
of their warrioi*s and nearly two hundred w'omen and children. Twelve years 
later this same dread disease carried oft' nearly two hundred more of the tribe. 
Then in 1819 they were attacked by a superior number of the Sioux and defeated 
after a desjDerate battle, in which scores of their best warriors were killed and 
many of their women and children were captured and carried into captivity. 
Their last battle was fought with the Sac and Fox in 1824. That fierce tribe led by 
their chief, Pash-e-pa-ho, assisted by the young chief, Black Hawk, who was then 
a young man unknown to fame, stole down upon the unarmed and defenseless 
Iowa, who were witnessing a horse race on the river bottom about two miles 
from their village, and scores were cruelly massacred while making a hopeless 
attempt to rescue their wives and children from their burning homes. Black 
Hawk and his division were sent to capture and burn the village and although 
the Iowa were nerved to superhuman resistance, they were so handicapped with- 
out arms, that the remnant of the band left were finally forced to surrender. 
Their power was broken, their proud spirit crushed, liy this disaster and the 
survivors never recovered from the blow. The renown of this once powerful 
tribe had departed. 

They lingered in despair about the ruins of their village and the graves 
of their kindred, gloomy and hopeless, and then began a migratory existence 
through Southern Iowa and Northern Missouri and finally ceased as an inde- 
pendent tribe, to hold any consideralile amount of land in the state to which 
their name had been given. Few of the northern Indians have shown greater 
aptitude for civilization than the Iowa, although the evil influences surround- 
ing them and other tribes have prevented their making any gi'eat progress. 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 47 

The first treaty of peace between theiu and the United States was made in 
the year 1S15. Chief Hyingwatha or Hardheart, and some of the subordinate 
chiefs were the i-epresentatives of the Indians. In 1824, another treaty was 
made, (General (Uark acting for the United States and the great chief, Mahoskah, 
or White Cloud, and llanehaua (Great Walker) representing the tribe. By this 
treaty all the lands of the Iowa iu what was then known as the Missouri Territory, 
were ceded to the Government for .$5,500.00, $500.00 down and the same sum to 
be paid annually for ten years, the United States agreeing to support a blacksmith 
at the headquarters of the tribe and to assist them witli agricultural implements, 
horses, cattle, etc. They had at that time several villages on the Des Moines and 
Iowa rivers, a part of the Sac and Fox being associated with them. As usual, 
the wliites intruded upon their land and led to trouble and complaint. By a 
treaty formed September 17, 1836, the remnant of the tribe, now numbering 
nine hundred and ninety-two, left our state forever and removed to a reservation 
located on the west bank of the Missouri, iu the valley of the Little Platte River. 
But some of them became discontented, and the very' next year abandoned the 
reservation and became vagrants, subsisting by theft or hunting upon the grounds 
of other tribes. Their numbers have diminished year by year, the chiefs taking 
the lead in the intemperance from the effects of which vice many died, and many 
others were killed iu the fatal quarrels to which it led. 

About the year 1835, the Presbyterians established a mission and manual 
labor school among these people and kept it up with commendable zeal for 
more than twenty years. Though much good was accomplished, the effort failed 
to arrest the steady decay of the tribe and by 1846, they had been reduced in 
numbers to 706. On March 6, 1861, a treaty was made by which the tribe, now 
dwindled dowai to 305 in number, ceded to the United States all their lands 
except the reservation of 16,000 acres. In 1869, they informally agreed to .sell 
this and remove south ; but afterwards retracted their agreement but consented 
to give part of their lands to the Sac and Fox, who had parted with their reserva- 
tion. A fine example of charity and forgiveness on the part of the Iowa after 
the Sac and Fox had so mistreated them. Aljout the time the Presbyterian mis- 
sion was abandoned, the tribe was placed under the care of Quakers, under whose 
influence they made considerable advance in civilization, and became more sober 
and industrious. In 1872, their school numbered sixty-three pupils, more than 
one-fourth of the entire tribe, and all clad in the garb of civilized life. They 
had 700 acres of land under cultivation, thirteen frame houses and tw^enty 
built of logs. Their produce was estimated to be worth .$2,685, and their stock 
$7,900. The Government of the United States still holds $157,500 as a trust 
fund for the Iowa ; the interest at five per cent is paid annually to the tribe. It is 
a remarkable fact and one well worthy of record that in 1864, when they 
numbered in all only 293, the Iowa loyally supported the Union, and forty-one 
of them enlisted in the United States military service (almost one-fourth of their 
entire population) and proved to be good soldiers. The military discipline 
greatly improved these uncivilized savages, they adopted civilized dress and 
customs. 

The next tribe which we will give a brief sketch of is the Sac and Fox, wOiich 
probably belong more distinctly to the state than any other and we are confident 



48 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

that they actually trod the soil of Biichaiiau Coimty — because some of the early 
settlers told of seeing them here, as late as in the year 1880. 

As the name implies, this tribe is a uniou of what were originally two separate 
tribes, and the Fox tribe of which we can find the earlier historic mention was 
also the result of a similar union between two bands, one called Outagamie, which 
means fox, and the other Musquakie, or men of red clay. 

There is evidence to show that early in the seventeenth century the Fox 
occupied the country along the Atlantic coast, now embraced in the State of 
Rhode Island. Later they moved to the Valley of the St. Lawrence River, and 
for ages resided on the south side of Lakes Erie and Ontario, and here is where 
the French first came into collision with them. They were great fighters and 
were continually hostile to the French trappers and missionaries who invaded 
their territory. They seemed to realize that the white man's gaining a foot-hold 
meant his eventual occupation of the Indian's land. They were nearly the only 
tribe with whom the French could not live in peace — and so in the year 1712 
they coiiunenced war against them with the determination to either exterminate 
or expel tliem. Several other ti'ibes had been induced to join forces with 
the French and a fierce battle ensued in which the Fox after a desperate resist- 
ance and the loss of hundreds of their brave wannors were forced to surrender. 
The French were more magnanimous than the Indians would have been and 
settled their dift'ereuces with a treaty of peace with them, but this, however, the 
restless and untamable Fox soon violated and another expedition was organized 
against them in 1728 which proved to lie a protracted and bloody struggle, 
waged with varying fortunes and occasional intermissions of truce, and lasting 
about eighteen years. At length the French and their allies gained a decisive 
victory in 1746 and the Fox were driven out of the beautiful valley of the 
river which still bears their name, a memento of their long supremacy in the 
region about Green Bay. The remnant of the tribe, reduced to little more than 
three hundred warriors, retreated to the Valley of the Wisconsin River, where 
they formed a close alliance with the Sac, in the nature of a confederacy, 
each tribe, however, reserving the right to declare war or peace without the con- 
sent of the other. The headquarters of the Fox was at Prairie Du Chien, and 
the Sac at Prairie du Sac, in Wisconsin. The Fox had villages on the west 
side of the Mississippi, in Iowa, while the' Sac remained on the east side. The 
Fox could muster about three hundred and twenty warriors and the Sac about 
three hundred. The Sac had long before occupied the region about Saginaw, 
Michigan, calling it Saukinong. They called themselves Sau-kies, signifying 
' ' Man with a red badge, ' ' red being their favorite color for personal adornment. 
The Indian name of the Fox was Musquakies signifying "Man with a yellow 
badge." The name Fox originated with the French, who called them Reynors. 
The river in Wisconsin where these Indians had their home was called "Rio 
Reynor" by the French, as will be seen on the early French maps and when 
the English wrested that country from France they gave the river its English 
translation. The early English writers called the tribe "Reynards." In the 
latter part of the eighteenth century, the Sac joined the Miami in an attack on 
St. Louis, but the Fox appear to have remained in the vicinity of the lead mines 
of Galena and Dubuque, for in 1788 they ceded to Julian Dubuque, for mining 
purposes, the right to a strip of land northward from the little INIaquoketa, in 
Iowa. 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 49 

The first treaty made by the United States with the Indians of the Northwest 
was on the 9tli of January, 1789, at Fort Harmar on the Muskiuquiu River, in 
Ohio, and the Sac was one of the tribes represented. They had two chiefs 
representing the territory which embraces Iowa. The object of the treaty was 
to fix the boundary line between the United States and the several Indian tribes. 
It was agreed that the Indians could not sell their lands to any person or nation 
other than the United States; and that persons of either party who should 
commit robbery or murder, should be delivered up to the proper ti'ibunal for 
trial and punishment. By this treaty the United States extended protection 
and friendship to these tribes. When Lieutenant Zebulon M. Pike ascended the 
Mississippi River with his exploring party, in 1805, he found four Sac villages 
and three Fox ; two of them were not far from Buchanan County 's boundaries, 
one was twelve miles this side of Dubuque and one near the mouth of the Turkey 
River, not so many miles distant but that they must have roamed through these 
prairies. He reported their entire population as 4,600 — 1,750 Fox and 2,850 
Sac. For some time they were friendly with the Iowa and occupied the same 
hunting grounds but eventually disagreements sprang up between them, which 
led up to fierce hostilities and to the final expulsion of the Iowa. 

The Sac and Fox had fierce battles with the Winnebago, subduing them and 
taking possession of their lands but their longest and most bloody war was with 
those terrible fighters, the Sioux, who had their hunting grounds mostly in Minne- 
sota. Northern Iowa and Southern Minnesota were the scenes of many bloody 
battles, and as the Sac and Fox are known to have had their villages on the 
Turkey River in the adjoining counties of Fayette and Clayton, north and north- 
east of this, it is reasonable to suppose that some of these battles extended in this 
immediate vicinity, perhaps extended over this very county. 

With a view to putting a stop to this devastating war between these tribes, 
the United States appointed as commissioners William Clark and Lewis Cass 
to negotiate a treaty with the contending tribes by which it was stipulated that 
the Government should designate a boundary line between the hunting grounds 
of the Sioux, on the north, and the Sac and Fox on the south, the Indians agree- 
ing to restrict themselves to the territories thus marked out, but as might have 
been foreseen, it failed to accomplish the end desired, both tribes infringing on 
each other 's territory, so the Government again interfered in an honest endeavor 
to establish peace, February 2-1, 1831, a treaty was ratified whereby the United 
States bought of the Sioux a strip of land twenty miles wide, lying on the north 
side of the line established by the first treaty, and on the south side of the same 
line they bought a strip of equal width which was purchased of the Sac and Fox. 
Thus, the United States obtained possession and absolute control of a territory 
forty miles wide and about 200 miles long. This tract is known in history as 
the Neutral Ground. This arrangement effectually put an end to the bloody 
encountei-s between the Sioux and the Sac and Fox, but this Neutral Ground was 
to be the common hunting ground of lioth tribes, so long as they respected and 
maintained in good faith its neutrality, and so it continued for about ten years, 
when it was made a Winnebago reservation in 1841, but they only occupied it 
about five years. This strip runs diagonally through the counties north of 
Buchanan, being only about twenty-five or thirty miles from our northern 
boundary line. 



' 50 HISTORY OP BUCHANAN COUNTY 

Afterwards several treaties were made between the Government and this 
tribe whereby the Indians relinquished almost their entire holdings and the 
Government became the owner of a vast tract of valuable land. It was then 
that the rich prairies of Iowa were first opened to the permanent settlement of 
the whites. This inunense tract is known in history as the "Black Hawk Pur- 
chase" — not because it was actually purchased of him for he was then a prisoner 
of the Government, but because it was ceded by the authority of his tribe and 
was made a part of thi' conditions of his release. By this treaty of 1832, the 
Government obtained possession of a tract of land 200 miles long and averag- 
ing fifty miles wide, lying along the Mississippi, now constituting the eastern 
part of the state. From the date of this purchase, white settlers began to pour 
into this new territory. Then about five years- later, in 1838, another treaty 
was ratified by which the Sac and Fox ceded another tract bordering on that 
on the west, aliout the same length and about twenty-five miles wide at the 
middle portion and containing a million and a (luarter acres. At the same time, 
they relin(|uished all their lands lying south of the "neutral ground" the United 
States paying them for the relin(iuishment of this territory, $160,000. Bu- 
chanan County must have been included in this last treaty, and when we con- 
sider that the value of land in Buchanan County alone, according to the 1910 
census, was estitimted at $23,772,344. or almost 14!) times as nuich and only 368,- 
000 acres, we realize the advancement in land values. 

Chief Black Hawk bitterly opposed and repudiated all these treaties witli the 
whites. He claimed tluit the eliiefs who made them had no authority to dispose 
of their lands so he determined to avenge their wrongs and connnenced warfare 
upon the whites who had doubtless deceived them, violating the terms of the 
treaty of 1804. These treaties stipulated that the Sac could remain in undis- 
puted possession of their lands until they were surveyed and sold to white set- 
tlers, but while the Indians were ort' on a hunting excursion, the whites flocked 
in, seized (heir land and cabins and when the warriors returned their women and 
children were homeless and shelterless, which made the old Sac chieftain bitter 
and revengeful. Since then other treaties have been made with the Sac and Fox 
and they have several times been removed. In 1872, they were divided into three 
or four ditt'erent bands, and were greatly reduced in numliers. The principal 
baud was located in Kansas, another, the Sac and Fox of the ilLssouri, the band 
who remained true to the Government during the Black Hawk war, occupied a 
large reservation in Southeastern Nebraska and Northeastern Kansas, and it 
w^as reported that both liands were making considerable improvement in agri- 
culture and tile raising of stock. 

The last census gives the following report: 343 in Iowa, 630 in Oklahoma, 
90 in Kansas, and that there is continued improvement. 

In 1857, a party of nearly four hundred Sac and Fox, calling themselves by 
their ancient name, Musquakie, tii-ed of being moved from reservation to reserva- 
tion, bought a large tract of land in Tama County, unaided by the Goverinnent, 
which at first refused to assist them in their idea of separate maintenance, but 
since then, however, they have given them their share of the annuities. They 
cultivate the best of their land and have raised in a single year $3,000 worth 
of produce. They also raise stock, having over $10,000 invested in the business. 
They frequently hire out to the neighboring farmers as laborers, and are thus 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 51 

becoming industrious and self sustaining and tlie.y used to often visit this eounty. 
Large bands of tlieni would encamp near town and hunt and fish along the Wap- 
sie. In 1863, a camp of one hundred Musquakie came on their hunting excursion. 
And camps of Winnebago came up from Sands Point to wage war on the Mus- 
quakie north of Independence. They were a miseralile looking set of wretches, 
and were abominable beggars. The citizens were very nuich annoyed by their 
persistent begging and "light fingered thieving." In the early days the Gov- 
ernment made several efforts to civilize and improve the Sac and Fox by estab- 
lishing schools among them ; and several religious denominations tried to estab- 
lish missions among them, but they clung to their Indian prejudices with even 
more than tlie ordinary Indian tenacity. In 1869, Rev. Percival, the writer of 
the Buchanan County History, was requested by the Episcopal Bishop to visit 
the Musquakie and ascertain if they were favorable to an Episcopal ilission 
being established among them. They firmly refused an.y interference even 
though for their benefit, alleging that if the Great Spirit had wished them to be 
like white folk he would have made them white. But now, there are Catholic 
Missions and Government schools among them. 

There are few, if any, of the Indian tribes whose history is more i-eplete 
with romantic incidents than that of the Sac and Fox. Their gi-eat Sac Chief, 
Black Hawk, was a character much to be admired. He was just to a marked 
degree, unswervable in his ideas of right and wrong as he under.stood them, 
honest in his convictions, courageous and bold, a dauntless and determined 
leader and whether copper colored or white, deserves the admiration meted a 
hero. He was said to be as brave as the great chief Teeumseh, and as eloquent 
as the orator. Logan. 

His speeches, after his capture, to General Street, another to President Jack- 
son when lie was taken liy his captors to Washington, his last speech, made at a 
4th of July celeliration, at Fort Madison in 1888, in response to a toast given in 
his honor to "Our Illustrious Guest, Black Hawk," are all evidences of his 
superiority both in intellect and comprehension. The county just west of 
Buchanan honored the old chief by its name. But in reading the tragic tales of 
the Black Hawk wars one cannot help but shudder at the inhumanity and lirutal- 
ity of the United States soldiers and to feel a deep sense of pity and admiration 
for Black Hawk and his little band of faithful followers. 

It is with remorse and sorrow that we learn that the soldiers burned the 
Indian villages and crops and massacred their women and cliildrcn and paid 
no respect to the common civilities of war. Certainly we might learn some degree 
of honor from these uncivilized savages. 

A splendid account of the Black Hawk wars is given in (iries' History of Iowa, 
where many of these sketches of the Indians were taken. In giving these brief 
sketches of the Indian tribes, who are suppo.sed to have occupied Buchanan 
Count}' 's prairies at some time previous to its settlement by the whites, we must 
make a few explanations. There are no accounts of an.v Indian villages, battle- 
fields, or permanent oecupation actually located here that might verify our sur- 
mises, but many of the old settlers relate anecdotes and incidents of these tribes 
visiting this section, either for hunting or fishing jnirposes or just begging excur- 
sions, and we will cop.v some of the personal sketches of those pioneers from an 
earlv historv. And furtiiei'more we wish to give credit to the authorities from 



52 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

which we liave gleaned our knowledge. We have been greatly aided by Percival's 
Buchanan County History, Gries' History of Iowa, and Andreas' History. 

It seein.s to be customary in writing even county liistories to give a certain 
amount of time and space to the preliistoric and Indian races, and we shall follow 
this custom, although we believe it does not pertain vitally to the history of this 
county, in any great degree. The knowledge of the facts is too vague and most 
of what has been written about these peoples in Buchanan County is purely 
assumption, so we take the same privilege and add our assumption to the rest. 

The accounts of the various historians differ gi-eatly and there seems to be no 
absolute authority on these affairs, or none that is within our reach, so we have 
tried, to the best of our ability, to give a summary of all. Often we have used 
the identical language of those historians, as wcshall have to, in the following 
early history of the county and we hope this will be excused when we offer you 
our reasons, which are. that we consider it excellent in every respect, splendid 
literary style, very authentic, and lietter than we could possil)ly do. All any 
person can do to write history is, to read every available history on that subject, 
look up the records and. if possible, consult those in any way participating, and 
then di'aw his own conclusions and that is what our aim has been. Undoubtedly 
mistakes will occur, but our intentions, nevertheless, are good. 



CHAPTER IV 
EARLY HISTORY 

THE FIRST WHITE MEN EARLY SETTLERS 

It is truly remarkable what changes are wrought in the landscape of a new 
country such as ours, in a short space of time. As we have remarked in a pre- 
vious chapter, that through natural causes, such as the fluctuation of streams, 
the gradual undermining and likewise the upbuilding of certain soils, the ever 
recurring vegetative growth and decay, the successive seasons with their trans- 
forming forces, the natural scenery is more or less affected, but these elements 
might perform their functions for years, aye for centuries, and yet the landscape 
would not make such decided and almost unbelievable changes as the hand of 
man makes in a few months' or years' time. We have but to visit the home of our 
youth, or if that pleasure is denied us, listen to some old settler, who has returned 
home after say twenty or even ten years, and note the surprise he evinces at the 
changes wrought in those few years. I might add, provided he is a Westerner, 
because it is a note-worthy fact, that there are places in our country, especially 
in New England and the old South, where things do not materially change from 
decade to decade. 

But nowhere could changes be greater or more pronounced than right here 
in our own state — when we consider its present condition compared with that of 
seventy-five or six years ago, when it was first created a territory. Contemplate 
the wonderful prosperity, the splendid institutions, the great per cent of culti- 
vated land, the enormous value of the products and the splendid character of 
the people all make this state rank among the first in the Union. And Buchanan 
has added her share toward making this state-wide prosperity, and making this 
the veritable garden spot of the whole world. Those sturdy pioneers who came 
here seventy years ago could not have dreamed of such marvelous changes as 
have taken place, because of the crude and unskilled methods which were then 
employed. Modern inventions and scientific research have been the principal 
means of these gigantic strides in civilization and cultivation. 

Just imagine this county in 1842 — a vast expanse of rolling prairie like a 
mighty sea of green, whose wild untrammeled grasses billowed like ocean waves 
with every breeze, streams whose clear, rippling waters teeming with fish life, 
flowed peacefully and tranquilly on, undisturbed except for the occasional 
rhythmic dip of a paddle and the splash of a canoe, or when some dexterous, agile 
Indian landed a fine specimen of the finny tribe ; natural wood lands, whose rank 
and luxuriant undergrowth was never trod except by some fleet-footed animal 

53 



54 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

or some stealthy inoecasiued red man on the ehase, whose only echoes were those 
of wild animals or the guttural speech or war-whoop of the Indian, a country 
whose only use was a habitat for wild animals and still wilder savages, who chal- 
lenged the advance of eivilization and fought the usurpers of what they deemed 
were thcii- inalienable rights. The old proverb "Beauty unadorned is adorned 
the most," is as true in connection with nature as it is of individuals. Dame 
Nature in her unmolested, undefiled state is far more beautiful and scenic than 
landscape gardener could conjure or dream. He could not possibly improve her 
general plan, so he does not attempt it. His duty is but to imitate her patterns 
and assist her efforts, and join her legions of assistant, correlative forces. Thus 
did the i)ioneers of 1842 select this garden spot as an ideal on which to expend 
their efforts to assist Dame Nature in her well laid plan. And thus, here, the 
face of iiature has not been greatly marred, although very materially changed 
■even in these comparatively few years. The streams have been bridged and 
dammed and the waters captured for milling purjioses, nuich of the native timber 
■which formerly flourished along their banks has been cut down, either for fuel 
or mercantile purposes, or to cultivate that rich and valuable land, and groves, 
either self-seeded or planted by the thrifty western farmer, have sprung up like 
magic to break the monotonous, far-reaching horizon of early days. 

The vast, waving prairies have given place to fenced and cultivated fields; 
roadways, bridges, houses, churches, schools, and towns dot the landscape but we 
have not as yet destroyed the scenery with any large cities, with their smoke 
begrimed manufactories to i)ollute the atmosphere, their ungraceful, ill-propor- 
tioned sky-scrapers, to olistrui/t the light and the view, their jumbled network 
of railroads to cut up and disfigure the landscape and their filthy crowded tene- 
ments to contaminate and cramp the soul. We are not han(Heai)]ied witii any of 
these, but we have the purest of air, the best of sunlight, a clear and unobstructed 
vision and room for expanding and uplifting the soul. "We have inherited all 
these material comforts from oui' foreI)ears and those licniic jiioneers who wisely 
selected this spot, Buchanan County, as their home-land. 

And so let us hand down to our posterity this native soil in as pure and un- 
"blemished a condition as that in which we inherited it. Ijet us not have vain 
.ambitions but be satisfied with the gem which we possess an<l strive to keep it up 
to the high standard of morality and iutelleetuality for which it has always been 
:noted. Let us welcome the home-comer, the new-comer, and the transient guest 
:and make his visit so pleasant that he will seek this spot as a haven of rest and 
'Comfort, and finally call it home, sweet home. 

"The habits and manners of the primeval inhabitants of any country generally 
give to it a distinctive character, which marks it throughout after ages.'' 

The lineage of a people, like the genealogy of a family, is commonly consid- 
ered a matter of little interest and not of vital consequence, except to students 
of antiquity or ethnology or physiology. 

But communities and .states and even nations, as well as individuals are the 
direct out-growth of heredity and enviromuent. AVhether considering tht life 
of an individual or a community these two vital forces, heredity and environ- 
ment, are recognized as the essential motives, the coutrolling power of the 
resulting existence. 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 55 

One certainly cannot understand the nature or significance of the customs, 
institutions, and social development of a people, or a state, nor their distinctive 
traits and peculiarities, nor comprehend those forces that determine their modes 
of life and public concerns, without first studying the sources of those controlling 
influences. We must look back to preceding generations. A people do not greatly 
diverge from ancestral characteristics nor easily discard inherited political and 
social ideas. All the races cling more or less tenaciously to traditional adages 
and doctrines. Both social and political life may be greatly Inodified by the 
necessities of new environment but heredity and ancestral traditions continue to 
exert a most potent influence. We can no more escape those incontrovertible 
and governing causes and their resultant effects of past centuries and inherited 
characteristics from preceding generations than we can escape the influence of 
our present life and surroundings upon us. Nor can we avoid influencing future 
generations. 

Therefore it is highly important to understand both the material and the 
process by which a people or community have ai-rived at their present state. 
There has always been much discussion over the question in regard to the people 
and institutions of the state, from which part of the country did Iowa receive 
her greatest number and most influential pioneers. From what source have her 
institutions, government, political and social life been derived? Are they the 
outgrowth of southern or New England influence? Have we, as a state, inher- 
ited the intense vitality, the untiring energy and perseverance, the strict adher- 
ence to ideals of government, law, morals and religion from the New Englander 
or, as some authorities claim, inherited the placidity, lack of ambition, a general 
content with things as they are, a certain inclination to take life easy and not 
to worry or fuss even if things do not satisfy, which is entirely foreign to the 
New Englander and could easily have been transmitted to us from the pre- 
ponderance of southern pioneers. Statistics of 1850 show that nearly six times 
as many of Iowa's pioneers came from the Southern States as from east of the 
Hudson and that there were more native bom Virginians than there were native 
born New Englanders altogether, and likewise the number of Kentuckians out- 
luimbered the total number coming from New England, but even those statistics 
do not convince the majority of authorities who maintain that our state is dis- 
tinctly representative of New England in its forms and ideas, its political and 
social and moral life. 

So far as this country is concerned, we are not able to give an opinion on what 
type of people have been the predominating factors in the molding of our com- 
munity, in view of the fact that numbers do not always denote force. 

No doubt, though, that a big majority of the early settlers of this vicinity 
were from the Eastern States and exerted a great influence, but the foreign bom 
and their posterity have been a very important element in its development. 

Following is a brief outline of the different nationalities from which Buchanan 
County now receives its greatest influence, that is, from a numerical standpoint, 
at least. According to the 1910 census, there are 12,534 native bom whites, 
1,996 foreign born whites or 10.1 per cent, of whom 773 are Germans, 315 Irish, 
20C English, 168 Danes, and 144 Canadians, besides 394 other foreigners in the 
county. We notice that there are over twice as many Germans as any other nation- 



56 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

ality. But we must look back to the pioneers to really find from what sources 
our political life is derived. 

The early settlers immigrating to Buchanan County from the states came, 
namely, from Ohio, Pennsylvania, New York, and the New England States, 
possibly more from Vermont than the other New England States. Then there 
were some of foreign birth, but they did not come in very large numbers until 
after 1858. They were mostly CTcrnuins and Irish, and a few Polanders and 
Scandinavians. 

According to the census of 1847, Buchanan County's entire population 
numbered but 250 with probably no foreign born. 

In 1880, at the time when the Percival History was written, the population 
was 1 8,5-46, and about one-tenth of this numVier were of foreign birth. 

While the census of 1910 recorded our population as 19,748, not much of an 
increase in thirty years, but we must admit that we have fallen oft" considerably 
in the last ten years, having lost 1,679 people since the census of 1900. 

In the southeast corner of the county, in Newton Township, along Buffalo 
Creek, is <piitc a colony of Irish. 

In Fairbank Township, in the extreme northwest corner of the county, in 
the forks of the Wapsie, there are a good many Irish, German and some Poland- 
ers, and between Independence and Quasqueton is what is known as "The Dane 
Settlement." a thrifty, energetic vicinity. At one time, there were several fam- 
ilies living in Independence, the most in the year 1900 when they numbered 
twenty-six, but they have nearly all left, either for a more equable climate or 
for the larger cities where there is more employment for their kind of labor and 
where they can have associates of their own race. 

A former historian, in recording the census, reported of the years 1875 and 
1880 and noting the very small increase in population, laments the fact that 
Buchanan had fallen considerably short of holding her own, that this five years' 
gain was hardly more than the natural increase for one year. Furthermore he ac- 
counts for it by the recent opening up of excellent farming lands in Dakota and 
other western territories. Not only had immigrants from the East passed by and 
through Buchanan County seeking homes further west, but there had been a 
considerable emigration from the county for the same purpose. "Whether 
those who have left have bettered their condition, may well be doubted. But, 
however this may be, the check this has given our county will doubtless be only 
temporary. Only the very best lands west of the Missouri can equal ours, and 
they will soon be occupied. When this takes place, we shall not only keep the 
natural increase of our own population, but emigration from the still swarming 
hive of the East will again be directed to our desirable yet unoccupied space; 
and the comparatively quiet, yet every way pleasant and prosperous times of the 
present will give place to the activity, I'utci'prise and excitement that come with 
rapidly increasing population." 

We have quoted, "verbatim." a prophecy made regarding the future of this 
county and reasons for the very apparent lack in its growth at that period. 

It is interesting to learn that the .same conditions existed thirty-four years 
ago as prevail today and that we can voice the same lament. His reasoning is 
faultless. The opening up of Indian Reservations, Government reserves, cheaper 
land throughout the West and in Canada, a more equable climate, reclamation 



HISTORY OP BUCHANAN COUNTY 57 

of arid lands hy irrigation and even an emigration baek east to reclaim those 
farms so Iteautiful and desirable, though so run down and worn-out that only a 
thrifty, energetic western farmer could see any possibilities in them and by no 
means least, tlie general lack of posterity of our citizens have all been vital factors 
in reducing our population. 

But as for his prophecy, it has held good only in a small degree. We still have 
comparatively quiet but pleasant and prosperous times and the best of land, but 
we have not reached "the activity, enterprise, and excitement" that he antici- 
pated for us, but doubtless we would have had it if the tide of immigration had 
yet been turned in our direction and we could have had the "rapidly increasing 
population," which with the best of judgment in the year 1881 would have 
seemed the inevitable outcome of such fertile and desirable land of such a county, 
of such a state, of such a nation. 

And no doul>t the time will come for it seems now to be absolutely inevitable 
considering the vast increase in population in the United States and the con- 
stantly increasing influx of foreigners, that these western countries will be 
swarming with people, that these great immense farming tracts will be divided 
into small garden patches and that only the enormously rich can aiford to be 
land owners, that every acre will be cultivated and farmed to the limit of its 
production, not the wanton profligacy and extravagance of the present day farm- 
ers with this valuable land. Every acre will be farmed conscientiously, both 
from the fact of great advancement in knowledge and improved facilities and 
from the absolute necessity for the maintenance of this thickly populated uni- 
verse. This is a prophecy, not to occur within either ray generation or the next 
and possibly not for many others succeeding it, but it seems safe to predict such 
a condition, say in the year 2050. 

SETTLEMENT 

The early history of this county is veiled in much obscurity, but from various 
sources we have gleaned the following facts, concerning the early settlement. 

The first permanent white settler of this county was William Bennett, a native 
of Maine, who had also been the first white settler of Delaware County. He 
brought his family here in February, 1842, having built a small log cabin on the 
.site where Quasqueton now^ stands. The exact spot is said to be a point on the 
east bank of the Wapsie about twelve rods above the location of the old flouring 
mill now used as a cream station. 

He, with his two hired men, erected this building and a cow stable and com- 
pleted them in nine days, a short time when we consider the work of clearing the 
site and hewing all the timber for them. Historians greatly disagree as to his 
character. One authority who was personally acquainted with him, paints him as 
a natural genius and an untiring worker, such as explore the seas and the land, 
and extend civilization and give the finish to a crude world ; while another says 
of him, "He was a rough and restless character," and goes on further and depicts 
him as a sort of desperado. Reciting an episode where "Bennett having con- 
ceived a violent grudge against the adventurer Johnson (whose arrival will be 
recorded further on) formed a conspiracy with five or six companions to waylay 
and lynch him. They tried to carry out their plot and did to a certain extent, 
whipping the man in the most shameful manner, then fear of arrest compelled 



58 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

thfiii all to flee from the settleiiieiit on the very uight after they had eoiiiiuitted 
the outrage, wliioli was in mid-winter and fearfully cold. They set out for 
Coffin's Grove, in Delaw^are County, and managed to reach it, but all of them, 
except Beunett, were in more or less frozen condition. Two of tlie company 
died from the efi'ects of their exposure and what became of Bennett and his family 
was never known. They remained in this county only al)Out a year. About the 
same time as Bennett, came S. C. and H. T. Sanford and they were soon followed 
by Ezra B. Allen. Early the same spring Dr. Edward Brewer, who resided 
many years and until his death in Independence, and Rufus B. Clark came with 
their families and settled about a mile and a half from Quasqueton. William 
W. Iladden and Frederick Kessler and family also came about that same time, 
then a nuin by the name of David Styles came with his family, during the summer 
of that same year, and for a while kept a hotel, the first one in the county. 

Bennett was engaged in improving the water power and erecting a mill and 
had several young men employed who boarded with him. Their names were 
JellVrs, Warner, Day, Wall, and Evens and at least one of these was an accom- 
plice of Bennett's in the assault on Johnson and had his feet badly frozen in the 
flight to Coffin's Grove. During the fall of that year, there came, among others, 
three young men — Henry B. Hatch, who made his home with Kessler, and Daggett 
and Simmons, who lived for awhile with Rufus ( 'lark. 

A few patches of land were broken and cultivated the first spring, potatoes 
and other garden vegetables and perhaps a little corn was planted but no wheat 
was raised until the next year. 

Some time during the fall oi- early winter of 1842 tliere appeared on the scene 
a typical pioneer ailventurer by the name of William -lohnson, who claimed to 
be the famous Canadian patriot of that name, who had lived for years among 
the islands of the St. Lawrence River. He was accompanied by a young woman 
of very attractive appeai'ance, whom he introduced as his daughter (Kate), the 
identical "Queen of the Thousand Isles" or the "Wild Girl of the Island." 
Sulisequent events, however, jn'oved that Johnson was an escaped criminal and 
an adventurer of the worst type. 

But his stay was of short duration, the cause of which we have mentioned 
previously. The opening up of a new country always attracts adventurers and 
disreputable characters, the easy life, excitement, and lack of restraint appeals 
to such, but greatly to the credit of the early pioneers of this county was their 
attitude of intolerance of crooked proceedings and evil doers were made so 
uncomfortable that they soon left. 

Another of the earliest frequenters was A. C. Fulton, who was a sailor of wide 
experience and travel and had come from the "hamlet" of Davenport into the 
frontier and located at Quasqueton and was engaged with Bennett and a man 
named Lambert in erecting the dam and mill at Quasqueton. 

This is but a brief synopsis of the beginning of settlement in the county. A 
more complete review of this and sketches of the first settlers will be given 
further along in the history. 

FIRST EVENTS 

The first store in the county was opened during the year 1842 in Quasqueton 
by William Richards, familiarly called "Bill Dick." It is written in history 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 59 

that his stock was a "general" one; the principal asset being the best brand of 
Old Bourbon whiskey obtainable. 

The first sermon was preached in the Quasqueton settlement during its first 
summer, by a minister named Clark. 

The first mill was one built on the Wapsie at Quasqueton, begun by 
Bennett in 1842 and finished by W. W. Hadden 1843. 

The first hotel was operated by David Styles in 1842. 

The first postoffice was established at Quasqueton in 1845, and "William 
Richards was appointed the first postmaster. 

The first school was taught by Dr. Edward Brewer in a small log house in 
Independence, in the winter of 1848. The building was afterwards used as a 
blacksmith shop. 

The first law office opened in the county was that of James Jamison, of Inde- 
pendence, in 1847 or 1848. D. S. Lee commenced practicing law about the same 
time. 

The first marriage was that of Dr. Edward Brewer and Miss Mary Ann 
Hathaway, which was celebrated in March, 1846. The ceremony was performed 
by Joseph A. Reynolds, then a justice of the peace for Delaware County. 

The first white child born in the county was Charles B. Kessler, son of Fred- 
erick Kessler. He was born near Quasqueton, July 13, 1842. The oldest living 
person born in this county is Rufus Brewer, still a resident of the county. He 
was born April 27, 1847. He is a son of Dr. Edward and Mary A. Brewer. 

The first death was that of a boy seven "or eight years old, a son of John 
Cordell, who died in 1843 or 1844. 

Some authorities claim that there were two deaths previous to this boy's, one, 
a man was shot to death near Quasqueton and another was frozen in December, 
1842, also that one of Buchanan's citizens was shot to death but outside of the 
county. 

The first Buchanan newspaper was the "Independence Civilian," a demo- 
cratic organ, the first number of which was issued on May 17, 1855, B. F. Parker 
and James Hilleary being the proprietors. 

The first bank (one not of issue bvit only for deposit and exchange) was 
established in the old Brewer Block on Main Street by Bemis, Brewer, and 
Roszell in 1865. 



CHAPTER V 
ORGANIZATION 

LOCATION — COUNTY GOVERNMENT ELECTIONS 

The counties of Iowa lie in very regular tiers running east and west and in 
tiers, but less regular, from north to south. Buchanan is in the third tier south 
of the Minnesota line and sixth north of the ^Missouri line, third west of the 
Mississippi River, and tenth east of the Missouri. Its central point, which is a 
few miles east of Independence, its county seat, lies very nearly in latitude 421/:.. 
degrees north and longitude 14 degrees and 50 minutes, west from Washington. 

It is sixty miles west of Dubuque and on an extension of the line which divides 
Illinois and Wisconsin. 

Buchanan County is bounded on the north by Fayette, on the east by Dela- 
ware, on the south by Linn and Benton and on the west by Black Hawk County, 
is twenty-four miles square with a correction jog. 

Independence, according to the census of 1910, embraces an area of 362,668 
acres, of which 351,498 acres or 96.9 is in farm land and 303,593 acres, or 86.4 
is improved farms, and this 351,498 acres is divided into 2,334 farms ranging 
in size from less than three to over one thousand acres, averaging 150.6 acres; 
130.1 the average improved acreage. The woodland in farms is 19,698 acres and 
other unimproved land in farms is 28,207. 

The value of all farm property is estimated at $33,867,776, an increase of 75.7 
per cent since the year 1900. 

The value of the land is $23,772,344, an increase of about 93 per cent in ten 
years and is 70.2 per cent of the value of all property. Buildings on farms are 
valued at $5,045,854, which have almost doubled in value since the last census 
and is 14.9 per cent of all property values. 

Implements and machinery, domestic animals, poultry, and bees have 
increased materially and together constitute 14.9 per cent of all property values. 
All property on farms averages $14,511, land and buildings, $12,347, and $67.63 
per acre, an average increase of about 86 per cent. 

The number of farms operated by owners is 1,456, or 62.4 per cent, a decrease 
of 193, or 5 per cent. The number operated by tenants is 850, which is 36.4 per 
cent, or 67 more than in 1900 — an increase of 4.4 per cent. 

The number of all farms operated by owners free from mortgage is 734; 711 
have mortgages and 11 have no mortgage report. 

The amount of debt is $2,049,129. or 29.8 per cent of the value of the land 
and buildings. 

61 



62 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

111 ten years the value of Buchanan County's dairy products, excluding home 
use of milk and cream, was $494,513. The receipts from sale of these products 
was $472,524. 

The value of the poultry and eggs produced was $360,280. Receipts from the 

same were $226,773. 

Value of honey and wax produced was $2,776. 

Value of wool and mohair produced was $8,075. Receipts from sale of domes- 
tic animals was $2,209,460. 

Value of animals slaughtered was $79,811. Total value of domestic animals 
was $:■;, 898,457. includes all kinds, cattle, horses, swine, sheep and goats. 

The value of all crops, im-luding cereals, and Other grains and seeds, hay and 
forage, vcgetahles. fruits and luits was $3,267,3^0. 

■ ORG.VNIZ.VTION OP BUCHANAN COUNTY 

. At its winter session of 1837-8, held at Burlington, the Legislature of Wis- 
consin Territory (which then embraced the territory now coi:istituting the State 
of Iowa), passed "an act to establish the boundary lines of the counties of 
Dubuque, Clayton, Jackson, Benton, Linn, Jones, Clinton, Johnson, Scott, Dela- 
ware, Buchanan," etc. The boundaries of Dubuciue and Delaware having been 
described in the tirst three or four sections of this act, it proceeds as follows : 

Section 5. That all the country lying west of the County of Delaware and 
between the line dividing townships eighty-six and eighty-seven, and the line 
dividing townships ninety and ninety-one, north, extended to the western boun- 
dary of the territory, shall be, and the same is hereby constituted a separate 
county, to be called Buchanan. 

Section 6. That the counties of Delaware and Buchanan shall, for tempor- 
ary purposes, be considered in all respects a part of the County of Dubuque. 

This act, which was approved December 21, 1837, merely planted the seed of 
the new county. It gave it "a local habitation and a name," but left its develop- 
ment into a living organization to the operation of time and its own internal, 
germinal forces. The subsequent development of the county may seem to have 
been slow to one who fails to realize the amount of embryotic growth which it 
had to nudve. If it takes sixteen months for an acorn to be developed from the 
blossom, and twice that number of years for a blossoming oak to be developed 
from the acorn, it ought not to be regarded as wonderful that it took Buchanan 
Comity ten years to emerge fully from its embryotic condition. Especially ought 
this fact excite no wonder, when it is remembered that all the early development 
of Buchanan County had to be made without any of that remarkable stimulus 
which railroads have since given to the growth of new counties. 

The act above cited iixed the eastern boundary of the county as it now is, 
and designed the parallels along which the northern and the southern boundary 
lines still extend westward ; but it extended those lines to the western limits of 
the territory. That is to say, it constituted as the western boundary of the county 
those portions of the Big Sioux and the Missouri rivers included within the two 
parallels mentioned. The county therefore embraced, theoretically, at that time, 
a strip of land about two hundred and forty miles long and twenty-four miles 
wide. 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 63 

The act locating Blackhawk County, was passed by the Iowa Territory Legis- 
lature, about five years after this, viz.: on the 17th of February, 1843; the 
boundaries lieginning at the northwest corner of Buchanan County. Between 
these two dates there must, of course, have been an act designating the present 
western limits of the last named county. When such an act was passed we have 
not been able to ascertain. 

As to the origin of the county's name we have also made somewhat diligent 
inquiry, without being able to obtain any satisfactory information. The pre- 
vailing opinion is, however, that the name was given through the influence of an 
ardent admirer of the Pennsylvania statesman, James Buchanan, who afterwards 
became distinguished as president of the United States. 

The act of December, 1837, attached Buchanan and Delaware to Dubuque, 
and that of February, 1843, attached Blackhawk and Buchanan to Delaware, 
for election, revenue and judicial purposes; and this latter arrangement contin- 
ued till 1847, when this county elected its own officers, and assumed an inde- 
pendent jurisdiction. 

The first election was held in August, 1847, when John Scott, Frederick Kess- 
ler, and B. D. Springer were elected county commissioners, and Dr. Edward 
Brewer, clerk, an office which the latter continued to hold for twenty-three years. 
We liave been informed by Doctor Brewer (though we have found no record 
of the fact) that S. V. Thompson was appointed by state authority, as organiz- 
ing sheriff, and that the election was called and managed by him. Doubtless 
some of the preliminaries were arranged by the authorities of Delaware County, 
under whose jurisdiction Buchanan was at the time, and by which the latter 
had been divided into two election precincts, one called Quasqueton and the 
other Centre precinct. 

The earliest record of the proceedings of the commissioner's court of the 
county, shows that certain other officers, besides those above named, were elected, 
or appointed, at or about the time of the first county election. We transcribe 
the following entries : 

Septemlier 4, 1847, John Scott (who was also one of the county commis- 
sioners), filed his liond and took oatli of office as justice of the peace in and for 
the Centre precinct of the county. 

September 8th. Thomas S. Hubbard filed his bond in this office as a justice 
of the peace in and for Quasqueton precinct, having taken the oath of office 
before Esquire Holmes of the same precinct. 

September 23d, Henry H. Baker fully qualified as constable, and Thomas 
E. ;\IcKinncy as a justice of the peace, in and for the Centre precinct of the 
county. 

September 28th, A. B. Hathaway took the oath of office for coroner of the 
county. 

On the 4th of October the commissioners held their first meeting, their official 
act being to divide the county into "three commission districts," that is (as 
we suppose), districts from each one of which a county commissioner was there- 
after to be elected. 

The first of these districts comprised the north half of tlie county; or the 
eight congressional townships lying north of the correction line. The second 
embraced the foiir southeastern townships, with the exception of the two tiers 



64 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

of sections lying on the west side of townships 87 and 88 of range 8 ; and the 
third comprised tlie remaining portion of the county. 

TOWNSUII' ORGANIZATIONS 

January ;>, 1848, the eominissioners divided tlie county into three civil town- 
ships, whose boundaries were made identical with those of the three commissioner 
districts already established. These townships, like the disti'icts, were first called 
simply from their numbers; and an eleetion for township officers was ordered 
to take place in each of them, on the first Monday in the following April. In 
township No. 1 the election was to be held "at the store in Independence"'; Isaac 
Hathaway, John Scott and John Obenchain to be judges of election. In township 
No. 2 the eleetion was to be held "at the schoolhouse in Quasqueton"; Benjamin 
Congdon. Levi Billings and ]\laleom MeBane to be judges. In township No. 3 
the election was to he held "at the house of Barney D. Springer"; and J. Monroe 
Scott, Gamaliel Walker and B. U. Springer were named as judges of election. 

In July, 1849, the boundaries of these townships were slightly changed, and 
number one was called Washington, number two Liberty, and number three 
Spring. 

From this date until 1S6() the erection of new townships and the frequent 
changes in their names and boundaries seem to have employed much of the valu- 
able time of the county authorities. We can give only enough of these to trace 
the formation of the sixteen townships as they now exist. 

The fourth township— Jeffei-son— was erected May 22, 1852; Buffalo (at 
first called Buffalo Grove), August 6. 1852; Perry was set off from Washington 
February 7, 1853; Superior (afterward called Ilazleton), July 4, 1853; Newton, 
the first made conterminous with a congressional township (the same as town- 
ship 87, range 7, which limits it still retains), was so erected May 1, 1854. 

September 19, 1854, the eight townships then e.xisting, viz. : Jett"erson, Liberty, 
Newton, Buffalo, Spring, Washington, Superior, and Peri-y, were set forth 
anew, as to their boundaries; all of them being more or less changed, except 
Newton. At this time Spring Township was very irregular in its form, com- 
prising the south half of the present territory of Fremont, sections 22, 23. 24, 25, 
26, 27, 34, 35, 36, and one-half sections 32 and 33 of the present territory of 
Byron, the west half of the present Township of Liberty, all of the present 
territory of Sumner, and about three sections of the southeast corner of Wash- 
ington. At the same time Superior Township consisted of the west half of the 
present territory of Buffalo, and all of the present Hazleton except the western 
tier of sections. 

Alton (the same as the present township of Fairbank) was erected March 5, 
1855. Prairie (afterwards Fremont) was erected March 14, 1856; and Byron, 
March 20th, of the same year. The remaining townships were erected as follows. 
Sumner, March 7, 1857 ; Madison, March 11, 1857 ; Homer, July 29, 1858 ; Middle- 
field, September 21. 1858; Cono, .same date; Westbnrg, August 6, 1860. The 
name of Prairie Township was changed to Fremont, September 5, 1859 ; that 
of Alton was changed to Fairbank June 2, 1862 ; and that of Superior to Hazle- 
ton, some time during the same year. The last two changes were made by the 
board of supervisors — all the rest by the County Court. 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 65 

We will now give, for convenience of reference, the names of the existing 
townships, in the order of the dates at which they assumed their present form. 
Newton, May 1, 1854; Fairbank (Alton), March 5, 1855; Hazleton (Superior), 
same date ; Madison, March 11, 1857 ; Buffalo, same date ; Homer, June 29, 1858 ; 
Middlefield, September 21, 1858; Cono, same date; Liberty, September 5, 1859; 
Fremont, same date; Byron, same date; Westburg, August 6, I860; Jefferson, 
same date; Perry, same date; Washington, September 13, I860; Sumner, same 
date. 

CHANGES IN COUNTY GOVERNMENT 

The commissioners' court was abolished in 1860, and the board of super- 
visors was established in its place. About the same time the office of county 
judge was given up and that of county auditor was adopted. The duties here- 
tofore perfonned by the county .iudge now fall in a great measure to the board 
of supervisors. This body consisted at first of sixteen members, one from each 
township. At present, however, the number is reduced to three, all being elected 
by a general vote of the county. The first supervisors were elected in the fall 
of 1860, and entered upon their duties January 7, 1861. Their names, with the 
township from which they were elected, are as follows: Elisha Sanborn, of 
Alton (Fairbank) ; E. P. Baker, of Byron; C. H. Jakway, of Buffalo; E. D. 
Hovey, of Cono; James Fleming, of Fremont; S. S. Allen, of Homer; John 
Johnson, of Jeft'erson ; William Logan, of Liberty; J. B. Ward, of Madison; 
James M. Kerr, of ]\Iiddlefield ; N. W. Richardson, of Xewton ; D. B. Sanford, of 
Perry; V. R. Beach, of Sumner; William C. Nelson, of Superior (Hazleton); 
George W. Bemis, of Washington ; William B. Wilkinson, of Westburg. 

TOWNSHIPS 

All of the townships in this county coincide with the national survey, except 
that the north part of Sumner, consisting of the upper tier of sections, together 
with a part of sections 12 and 13, is added to Washington partly to accommodate 
the City of Independence, which was first laid out in Washington, soon extended 
itself across the line into Sumner and partly to accommodate the people living 
near the county seat for schooling and other benefits. The names of the town- 
ships, in the order in which they are given on the map, presents a singular 
poetical euphony, which is said to have no parallel in the state and probably 
none in the entire country. The county is twenty-four miles square, and divided 
into sixteen townships, each six miles square, making four tiers each, containing 
four townships. Every township name consists of either two or three syllables 
with but one accent, so when arranged as they are on the maps they form a 
regular poetic stanza — which technically is called a dimeter quatrainthus ; and 
all the school children learn these names quite as easily as the words of a song. 
Beginning each time with the west township : 

Fairbank, Wa.shington, . Buffalo, iladison, 
Perry, Washington, Byron, Fremont, 
Westburg, Sumner, Liberty, Middlefield, 
Jeffei-son, Homer, Cono, Newton. 



66 IIT^TORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

But any otlier arr;niSfini'ii1 foi'iiis a similar poctir stanza liut not quite so 
euphonious. 

There are tifteen towns and villaiits in tliis eounty, ten of which are railroad 
stations; viz.. Independence, the county seat, in Washington Township, a town 
of 3.517 inhal>itants, situated on the hanks of the Wapsie and where the two 
railroads, the Rock Island and the Illinois Central, cross. 

Jesup, a town of 697 inhabitants, about eight nules west of Independence, in 
Perry Township, and on the Illinois Central. 

Wintliroji. a town of 529 inhabitants, situatetl about seven miles east of 
Independence, in Byron Township, on the Illinois Central. 

Hazleton, a town of 444 inhabitants, about nine miles north of Independence, 
in the township of the same name, and on the Roek Island Railroad. 

Rowley, a town of 200 inhabitants, about nine miles south of Independence, 
in Homer Towiisliip, and on the Rock Island Railroad. 

Fairl)ank. w'hose population is 618, situated on tlie Little Wapsie, close to the 
Fayette line, eighteen miles northwest of Independence, in Fairbank Township, 
and on the Chicago Great Western Railroad. 

Stanley, with a population of 200, situated right next to the Fayette line, in 
Buffalo Township, and about fourteen or tifteen miles north and east of Inde- 
pendence, and on the Chicago Great Western. 

Aurora, a town of 287 population, is situated on the line between Buffalo and 
Madison townships, on the Chicago Great Western road and about sixteen or 
seventeen miles northeast of Independence. 

Lamont, a town of 571 inhabitants, is in the northeastern part of the county, 
in Madison Township, about twenty miles from Independence, and on the Chicago 
Great Western Railroad. 

Quasqueton, a town of 394 jjopulation. in the southern part of Liberty Town- 
ship, on the Wapsie River, about ten miles southeast of Independence, and on 
the terminus of the Chicago, Anamosa & Northern Railroad. 

Brandon, whose population is 400, is- in the southwestern part of tlie county, 
in Jefferson Township, on Lime Creek, about tifteen or sixteen miles southwest of 
Independence, and on the Waterloo. Cedar Falls & Northern Railroad and Inter- 
urban Electric Line. 

Kiene, a small village of twenty-five inhabitants, is in the north part of 
Newton Township, seventeen or eighteen miles southeast of Independence, and on 
the Chicago, Anamosa & Northern Railroad. 

Doris is a small station in the southern part of Byron Township, about three 
miles east of Independence, on the Illinois Central. 

Bryantburg, a station on the Rock Island, is in the southern i)art of Hazle- 
ton Township, about six miles north of Independence. 

The other villages in the eounty are : Littleton, a place of 100 inhabitants, 
about ten miles northwest of Independence, ,iust at the .juncture of the Little 
Wapsie with the main river. 

Otterville, a small village on Otter Creek, in Washington Township, about 
four miles northwest of Independence.. 

Newtonville in Newton, Hammerville in Homer, Shady Grove in Jefferson, 
Vista in Westburg and Middletield in Middletield Township. 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 67 

With the increasing railroad facilities, these small hamlets may in time become 

towns and possibly cities. 

THE FIRST ELECTION PUBLIC SERVANTS 

The first election held in the county was on August 2, 1847, under the direction 
of S. V. Thompson, the organizing sheriff, and the following is a copy of his return : 

Quasqueton, August 10, 1847. 
Mr. Elisha Cutler, Iowa Secretary of State. 

Dear Sir: Below is a copy of tlic abstract of votes given in this county, at the 
general and special election held on the first Monday", 2d day of August, A. D. 
1847. 

STATE OFFICERS 

FOR MEMBER OP CONGRESS HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, SECOND DISTRICT 

Shepherd Leffler — Received forty (40) votes. 
Thos. ;\lcNight — Received fifteen (15) votes. 

BOARD PUBLIC WORKS 

H. W. Sample — Received thirty-eight (38) votes. 
Geo. Wilson — Received sixteen (16) votes. 

SECRETABT 

Chas. Corkery — Received thirty-eigl^t (38) votes. • 
Madison Dagger — Received sixteen (16) votes. 

TREASURER 



Paul Brittain — Received thirty-eight (38) votes. 
Pinco B. Fagiu — Received sixteen (16) votes. 



FOR COUNTY OFFICES 

FOR JUDGE OF PROBATE COURT 

Saul Sufficool 32 

David S. Davis 23 

FOR CORONER 

A. B. Hathaway 48 

Levi Billings g 



68 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

FOR COMMISSIONERS 

Malcolm McBain 27 

Isaac Hathaway 24 

Frederick Keslar 43 

Barney T. Springer 32 

John Scott 33 

CLERK DISTRICT COURT 

Edward Brewer 53 

PROSECUTING ATTORNEY 

Frederick Kesler *. 41 

FOR SHERIFF 

I. F. Hathaway 24 

Rufus B. Clark 35 

Daniel Grady 1 

RECORDER 

Edward Brewer 43 

S. P. Stoughtou 3 

Samuel Hammond 1 

COUNTY SURVEYOR 

S. S. Mullican 49 

FUND COMMISSIONERS 

Thos. S. Hubbard 15 

Levi Billings 30 

INSPECTOR OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES 

D. S. McGonigal 33 

Thos. Burr 4 

I hereby certify the above to be a true copy of the abstract of votes given in 
Buchanan County at the election on the second day of August, 1847. 

S. V. Thompson, 
Organizing Sheriff. Buchanan County. 

In April, following the first election, another was held, at which time Liberty 
Township cast thirty-three votes. Spring, 11 and Washington, 18. Thomas H. 
Benton was elected superintendent of public instruction, Elijah Beardsley, 
judge of probate, D. C. Greeley, county surveyor, D. S. McGonigal, coroner, 
and S. P. Stoughton, school fund trustee. 

In August of that year, at a general election, Rufus Clark, John Scott and 
Malcom McBain were elected commissioners, and Shepherd LefSer carried the 
county for Congress by two votes. Leffler was a democrat. 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 69 

In Au^ist, 1849, W. H. Hatch was elected sheriff; E. Brewer, recorder; D. C. 
Greeley, surveyor; T. Kesler, district clerk; G. I. Cummins, probate judge; 
Carmi Hicljs and Maleom AIcBaiu, county commissioners, and E. Brewer, com- 
missioner's clerk. 

In April, 1850, William Logan was elected school fund commissioner and 
Daniel Greeley, surveyor, both of whom were whigs. 

In August of the same year, the county was carried by James Thompson, 
whig candidate for governor. 

In 1851, 0. H. P. Roszell, democrat, was elected county judge as well as 
county surveyor. 

In August, 1852, Jeiferson Township east its first vote, nineteen persons 
voting, and in November of that year, eighty-two votes were cast in the county. 

In April, 185.3, Perry Township east twenty votes, and in November of that 
year, Buffalo east eleven votes and Superior (now Ilazleton), cast fifteen. 

In 1854, J. W. Grimes, whig candidate for governor, carried the county, 
and at the same time a proposition to build a jail lost 170 to 106. In April 
of the next year, Alton (now Fairbank) and Newton townships voted. At 
that time a proposition to prohil)it the sale of liquor in Iowa was carried in this 
county, 304 to 178. 

In April, 1856, the only office voted for was commissioner of school fund, 
but this was the first election in which Byron Township and Prairie (now Fre- 
mont) Township took part. The county went republican in August, 1856, and 
a proposition for a constitutional convention carried 104 to 13. The next Novem- 
ber, J. C. Traer was chosen delegate to the convention. In April, 1857, ^Madi- 
son and Sumner townships voted, at which time H. B. Hatch was chosen the first 
county assessor. In Hay of tlie next year, 432 votes were cast for liquor and 295 
against. 

In June of the same year, a special election was held, when 7f)4 votes were 
cast for banking laws and 289 against; 1,128 for state banking laws and 53 
against ; 357 for railroad laws and 884 against. 

In October, 1858, iliddlefield, Homer, and Cono townships voted, and on a 
proposition to build bridges, 63 votes were cast for and 1,069 against; 70 for 
repair of bridges and 1,067 against. In October, 1859, the county went for Samuel 
J. Kirkwood for governor and the entire i-epublican ticket. Westburg and 
Fremont townships voted, these being tlie new names for Spring and Prairie 
townships. 

In October, 1861, Samuel J. Kirkwood again carried the county, and the 
lepublican ticket was successful. In 1862, William B. Allison carried the county 
for Congress. 

In 1863 tlie republicans again carried the county, and a proposition for 
bridges carried, 504 to 469 against. 

The republican election for President was successful in Buchanan in 1864. 

In October, 1865, another proposition for bridges carried — and in October, 
1866, it was voted to buy a county farm — 996 for, 308 against. 

In November, 1868, the voters had changed their minds concerning the 
necessity of a jail and carried the proposition 1,405 for and 264 against. 

Until 1869 each township elected a supervisor, but the Legislature that year 
reduced the ninnber to lliree. 



70 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

111 1870, the Prohibition question was again voted upon and carried, 1,454 
for, to 737 against. A proposition to inerease the number of supervisors was 
lost, 1,149 to 641, and a proposition to restrain stock from running at large 
was lost, 1,221 to 722. 

In November. 1872, a propusition to increase the number of supervisors 
from three to seven was carried, 738 for, 579 against and in October, 1873, a 
proposition to liuild a County High School lost, 256 for, to 1,954 against. 

In October, 1874, J. M. Weart, an attorney of Independence, was a candi- 
date on the democratic ticket for Supreme Court Reporter and carried the 
county b.y 103 votes. 

In October, 1877, a proposition to bond the county for $7,500 to build a 
fire-proof building lost. 296 for, to 1.895 against.. 

In November, 1880, a proposition to amend Article 3 of the Constitution 
of Iowa, by striking out "Free White" carried, 1,625 for, to 672 against and 
a proposition to appropriate $7,500 of the swamp land fund to build a fire- 
proof office building carried, 2,155 for, to 615 against and then a crime was 
committed liy building the monstrous affair which we are still using. 

In June, 1882, a special election was held for a constitutional amendment 
prohibiting the sale of liquor. It carried in Buchanan. 1.862 for, to 1,201 
against. 

In 1889, Joseph G. Hutchinson carried the county over Horace Boies, 2,070 
to 1,964. In November. 1891. Horace Boies carried the county over Horace 
C. Wheeler, 2,292 to 2,271. 

In November, 1893, Frank D. Jackson carried the county over Horace 
Boies, 2,392 to 2,133. 

In November, 1895, a proposition to levy a tax to buy the grounds of the 
Buchanan County Agricultural Association at a cost not to exceed $4,700 was 
lost, 381 for, 2,494 against. 

In 1899 a proposition to reduce the number of supervisors from .seven to 
three carried. 

In 1900 the constitutional amendment providing for biennial elections 
carried the second time, Buchanan voting in favor of the amendment. 

In 1902 three propositions for tax levies failed of passage. One to issue 
bonds to build a county home, another to levy a tax for that purpose and 
anothi'i' to increase the levy for the county fund. 

In 1903 the election was so close on county superintendents that Anna 
Barrett, the democratic candidate, who received 2,118 votes, contested the elec- 
tion of M. J. Goodrich, the republican candidate, who received 2,140. 

The contest resulted in sustaining the return of the original canvass. 

In 1904 the proposition for biennial election carried in the county as well 
as in the state. This was the second time it had been submitted and carried 
and therefore became the law, since which time elections occur every other 
year. However, the primary which went into effect in 1908 fully satisfies the 
desires of the most ardent voter to exercise his right of suffrage. 

CIVIL LIST OF BUCnANAN COUNTY 

Buchanan County forms part of the Third Congressional District and the 
only representative to Congress elected from the county is Hon. W. G. Donnan, 
elected October 11, 1870, serving two terms. 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 71 

A hard won battle was waged at this election. When Mr. Donuan was 
nominated at the Congressional Convention at Charles City, there were eight 
candidates in the field, all worthy opponents; distinguished and widely known 
men, and after balloting all morning, afternoon and way into the night, on the 
107th ballot there were still eight candidates in the field and on that ballot 
Dubuque, which had heretofore been divided e(iually among the eight candi- 
dates, was cast solid for Donuan. This created a sensation and several counties 
asked time for consultation and on the 108th ballot, Donnan won ; the final vote 
stood, Donnan, 97 7-12; Updegraff, 62 5-12; Larrabee, 4. 

At the crossing of the Davenport & St. Paul and the B. C. R. & 51. R. R., 
in Fayette County, a postofifiee was established in 1874, and named Donnan 
in honor of Mr. W. G. Donnan. Later a little town sprang up. 

STATE SEN.\TORS 

D. C. Hastings, October, 1859 ; L. W. Hart, November, 1863 ; W. G. Donnan, 
October, 1867;_George W. Bemis, 1871; M. W. Harmon, 1875; C. R. Millington, 
1883; Ed P. Seeds, 1887; D. W. Jones, 1890; M. W. Harmon, 1891; Dan H. 
Young, 1895 ; H. J. Griswold, 1899 ; G. W. Dunham, 1903 ; E. H. Hoyt, 1908 ; 
Eli Perkins, 1912. 

REPRESENTATIVES 

1). y. Davis, Quasqueton, 1852 ; F. E. Turner, Quasqueton, 1854 ; George 
W. Bemis, 1859 ; Jed Lake, 1861 ; D. D. Holdridge, 1863 ; P. C. Wilcox, 1865- 
1867; D. S. Lee, 1869; J. M. Hovey, Jesup, 1871; S. T. Spangler, Buffalo, 1873; 
John Calvin, 1875-77-87; Isaac Muncey, 1879-81; W. H. Chamberlain, 1883- 
85-89-91; H. J. Griswold, 1893-95; T. E. McCurdy, 1897-99; L. P. Springer, 
1901-03-06; B. F. Stoddard, 1908-10; T. F. Halstead, 1912; T. E. Taylor, 1914. 

COUNTY JUDGES 

0. H. P. Roszell, August, 1851; 0. H. P. Roszell, 1855; S. J. W. Tabor, 
October, 1859 (resigned) ; W. H. Burton (to fill vacancy), 1861; W. H. Burton, 
1863-67. - 

During the latter part of Judge Burton 's term, and since, the office of audi- 
tor has taken the place of that of county judge. 

COUNTY AUDITORS 

J. L. Loomis, October. 1869-71 ; D. A. McLiesh, 1873-75 ; George B. Warren, 
1877-79-81; Clarke L. Cole, 1882-83-85; H. F. Sill, 1887-89-92-94; V. W. Davis, 
1896-98-1900; C. E. Hayes, 1902-04-06; E. E. Everett, 1908-10-12; E. A. 
Bordner, 1914. 

JUDGE OP PROBATE 

Elijah Beardsley, August, 1848 ; G. I. Cummins, 1849. 



72 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

CLERK OF THE DISTRICT COURT 

S. P. Stoughton, 1848; Edward Brewer (eleeted biennially from 1852 to 
1866, inclusive) ; D. L. Smith, November, 1868-70-72-74-76; Robert J. William- 
son, 1878: 0. :\I. Gillette, 1880-82-84-86-88; W. E. Bain to fill vacancy in 1890; 
L. F. Springer, 1890-92; A. M. Shellito, 1894; H. C. Chappell, 1896-98; M. O. 
Fonts, 1900-02-04; J. F. Stevenson, 1906-08-10; J. N. Smith, 1912; D. C. 
Hood, 1914. 

RECORDER AND TREi\SURER 

Edward Brewer, Angnst, 1848 ; Edward Brewer, 1859 ; G. I. Cummins, 1851 ; 
John Leslie, 1853; H. G. Hastings, 1855; William G. Dounan, 1859; S. J. W. 
Tabor, 1861 ; E. B. Older, 1863. 

The offices of treasurer and recorder were then separated and the recorders 
were as follows ; T. J. Marinus, 1864-66 ; John Hollett, 1868-70-72-74-76 ; Wil- 
liam J. Miller, 1878; J. W. Foreman, 1880-82-84-86-88-90; J. B. Truax,'l892- 
94-96-98-1900-02-04-06-08-10; A. L. McClernon, 1912; C. A. Kenyon, 1914. 

TREASURERS 

E. B. Older, 1865: L. A. Main, 1867-69-71; James A. Poor. 1873-75-77-79-81- 
83-85-87-89-91-93-95-97-99: D. W. Poor (to fill vacancy), 1901; C. M. Roberts, 
1901-03; A. M. Donnan, 1906-08-10-12-14. 

PROSECUTING ATTORNEY 

Elijah Beardsley, 1848- (record defective) 1850; D. S. Lee, 1852; J. S. 
Woodward, April, 1854; James Jamison, August, 18.54; J. C. Head, Quasque- 
ton, 1856. 

COUNTY ATTORNEY 

(The office of county attorney was established in 1886) 

H. W. Holman, 1886-88-90-98-1900: C. E. Ransier, 1892-94-96; M. A. Smith, 
1902-04; R. J. O'Brien, 1906-08-10-12; R. W. Hasner, 1914. 

SHERIFF 

E. D. Phelps. August, 1848; N. W. Hatch, Aug^ist, 1849-51; J. A. Guthrie, 
1852; Eli D. Phelps, August, 1853; Leander Keys, 1855; Byron C. Hale, October, 
1859; M. Gillette (died during term), 1861; John M. We,stfall, 1862-63; A. 
(Irooks, 1865: John A. Davis, 1867-69; George 0. Parr, 1871-73; W. S. Van 
Orsdol, 1875-77; E. L. Currier. 1879-81-83; W. S. Mitchell, 1885; I. N. Iliff, 
1887-89; W. M. Higbee, 1891; E. O. Craig, 1893-95; C. E. Iliff, 1897-99-1901-! 
George O. Corlis, 1903-06; 0. E. Finuf, 1908-10-12; F. H. Lehmkuhl. 1914. 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 73 

COUNTY SURVEYOR 

D. C. Greeley, April aud August, 1848; 0. H. P. Roszell, August, 1850; 
0. H. P. Roszell, August, 1851-53; George W. Beiiiis, 1855; David Merrill, 
1859; I. P. Warren, 1861; J. W. Myers, 1865-67 ; J. L. Seely, 1868-69-71; D. S. 
Deering, 1873-87-89-91; J. L. Seely, 1874-75-77; Jasper N. Iliflf, 1879-81; D. 
S. Fay, 1882-83; J. N. Iliff, 1893; I. B. Ellis, 1899-1901; A. D. Guernsey, 
1902-03; A. M. Donnan, 1904; C. E. Boyack, 1906-08-10. The office then be- 
came appointive and C. E. Boyaek secured the first appointment and was suc- 
ceeded by R. W. Gearhart. 

CORONER 

D. S. McGonigal, 1848; T. Merritt, 1849; Thomas Morgan, 1851; Thomas 
J. Marinus, 1852; E. W. Wright, 1853; T. J. Marinus, 1854; J. L. McGee, 1855; 
R. W. Wright, 1859; H. H. Hunt, 1861; L. S. Brooks, 1863; H. H. Hunt, 
1865-67-69-71-75-77-79-81-83-85-87-89-98-95; M. A. Chamberlain, 1873; M. L. 
Shine, 1891 ; F. R. Bain, 1896-97 ; P. E. Gardner, 1899 ; R. G. Swan, 1901-03- 
06-08-10-12-14. 

SCHOOL FUND COMMISSIONER 

S. P. Stoughton, April, 1848; William Logan, 1850-52-54-56. 

MEMBER OF BOARD OP PUBLIC EDUCATION 

H. N. Gates, 1858 ; S. J. W. Tabor, 1860. 

COUNTY SUPERINTENDENT OF PUBLIC SCHOOLS 

0. H. P. Roszell, 1858; Bennett Roberts, October, 1859; S. G. Pierce, Novem- 
ber, 1860-61 ; George Gemmell, 1863 ; S. G. Pierce, 1865-67-69 ; E. H. Ely, 1871 ; 
Amos Rowe, 1873; W. E. Parker, 1875-77-79-81-83-85-87-89-91-93-95; E. C. 
Lillie, 1897-99 ; M. J. Goodrich, 1901-03 ; P. C. Arildson, 1906 ; G. R. Lockwood, 
1908-10-12. 

COUNTY ASSESSOR 

H. 'B. Hatch, 1857, appears to have been the only one. 

COUNTY COMMISSIONERS 

Rufus B. Clark, 1848 ; James Collier, Malcolm JIcBain, 1848 ; Carmi Hiekox, 
M. McBain, 1849; Nathan Trogdon, 1850. 

COUNTY SUPERVISORS 

The first board met January 7, 1861, consisting of one member elect from 
each township, viz. : Elisha Sanborn, Alton Township ; E. B. Baker, Byron ; 



74 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

C. II. -Iiikway. Buffalo; E. D. Hovey. Cono : James Fleming, Fremont; L. S. 
Allen, Homer; .John Johnson, Jefferson; William Logan, Liberty; J. B. Ward, 
Madison ; James M. Kerr, Middlefield ; N. W. Richardson, Newton ; D. B. San- 
iovd. Perry; V. R. P.eaeh, Sumner; William C. Nelson, Superior; George W. 
Beniis, Washington ; William B. Wilkinson, Westburg. 

The chairmen of the board were : George M. Bemis, January, 1861-62 ; 
John Jolinson, January, 186:5; Isaac G. Freeman, January, 1864-65; N. Dickey, 
1866; J. H. Campbell. January. 1867; John Johnson, January, 1868; E. P. 
Brintnall, Jamuiry. I860; S. W. Rich, January, 1870; E. P. Brintnall, January, 
1871. 

In 1S71 the boai'd was rt'dui-ed to three members, chosen by the county at 
large. This continued for three terms, and the^ luembers were; E. P. Brintnall, 
Jed Lake. J. A. Stoddard. 1S71; Jed Lake. J. A. Stoddard, Morris Todd. 1872; 
J. A. Stoddard, ilorris Todd, Jolui D. Russell, 1873. 

In 1874 the board was increased to seven members, of whom the following 
have been chairmen: Horatio Bryant, M. D., 1874-75-76; J. G. House, M. D.. 
1877-78-79; II. Bryant, 1880; C. R. Millington, 1881-82; J. B. Pot- 
ter, 1881; H. M. Coughtry, 1881; L. B. Haskin. 1881; T. E. McCurdy, 
1882; W. II. H. Eddy, 1882; 0. S. Payne, 1883-86-89; Walter Jamie- 
son, 1884-87; E. 0. Craig, 1884-87-90; Charles TuUoek, 1884-87; W. E. 
Rosemond, 1885; W. B. Rossell. 1885-88; N. M. Miguet, 1885-1902-06; Randall 
Jacobs, 1888-91-97; Jacob Kiefer. 1888-91-94; James Van Orsdol, 1890; A. T. 
Cooper, 1890; Walter Thompson, 1891-94-97-1914; Mathew Stewart, 1892; H. 
F. Miller, 1893; Lsaac Holman, 1893; C. H. Jakway, 1893; J. W. Foreman, 
1894; J. D. Laird, 1895-98; E. F. Irwin. 1896-98; C. E. Boyack, 1896; Fred 
Eversole, 1896-98; John Elliott, 1897; John Leeliey, 1899; Elzy Wilson, 1900; 
W. II. Cooke, 1901; A. H. Farwell, to HU vacancy, 1903; J. H. Ri.seley, 1903; 
C. E. Boies, 1904; L. P. Timson. 1906-08; A. P. Miller, 1906-10; Jes.se Lyon, 
1908-14; Fred Finch, 1912. 



CHAPTER VI 

EARLY COMMERCE 

PIONEEE MERCHANTS AND MANUFACTURES — THE PROFESSIONS 

The beginuings of commercial enterprises in a rural district are always 
exceedingly crude and simple, and Buchanan was no exception to the rule. 

The pioneer merchant usually has not the capital to invest in a large, fine and 
diversified stock of goods and, even though he had the means, he would have 
no demand for the luxuries. His customers are too poor to indulge in any of 
the fineries. Their desires are simple and their wants are few. Groceries, 
embracing only the commonest necessities of life, are the first imports into a 
new country, while drugs, hardware, and dry goods of a very common and cheap 
variety and of a universal pattern and style follow. No merchant could afford 
to cater to the tastes of the exclusive few, but must satisfy the simple wants of the 
many. There cannot be extensive imports into any country, for any length of 
time, without a counter balancing amount of exports, and, of course, in a wild 
and uncultivated country there are no exports, for several years at least. In 
those days there v/aa no such thing as a regular department store, even in the 
larger cities, and in the country villages the general store answered for all 
purposes, often hardware and drugs being combined \\dth the inseparable "dry 
goods and groceries. ' ' An exclusive stock was never thought of in those days. 

The earliest merchants purchased their supplies in Dubuque and brought 
them through on wagons. Later trips were made into Chicago and New York to 
make purchases, and some bought their goods in St. Louis, and brought them up 
to Dubu(|ue on the river and thence overland on wagons. Most of the merchants 
kept one or more teams for this purpose and there were many independent team- 
sters who made their living that way. The round trip from Quasquetou or Inde- 
pendence to Dubuque and back consumed an entire week. Most of the vehicles 
used then were covered, two-horse wagons, but when the roads were particularly 
bad, four horses often had to be used. The teamsters always went in companies, 
not only for the sake of mutual assistance in case of trouble, but because there 
were so many going and coming on the road continually that they were assured 
of company. This fact seems incredililc, until one considers the immense amount 
of supplies; lumber for dwellings, household goods and furniture, as well as 
all the groceries and dry goods that just the population of this county, which 
had reached seven or eight thousand people, would consume, and that several 
other counties west of here were rapidly being settled, and that all the supplies 
for all these people must be hauled over the same wagon route, it is not surprising 
that these wagon teamsters formed rather a contiinious procession between this 

75 



76 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

new Wfst and their source of provision (their eoinniissary department.) at 
Dubuque. It was a eonimon statement that the lines of canvas-covered vehicles 
often looked like the supply trains of an army. Both of the counties east were 
far more i)Oiiulous than Buchanan, Imt at that time the railroad was an embryo 
project. For a long time most of the wagons went to Dubuque empty, since 
there was no produce to ship east, and the surplus was shipped to the settlers 
further west, hut for a few years before the railroad was tmilt, flour from the 
Independence mill, and perhaps also from the null at (^uasqueton, and corn, 
wheat and pork l)egan to be sent to Dubu(iue in the wagons, but never in large 
quantities. The usual price for freight was .+1.00 per hundredweight, and this 
alone made the cost of freighting, especially on heavy articles like salt, extrava- 
gantly high. The freight on a barrel of salt was .$3.00, and the price of the salt 
itself three or four dollars a barrel, making even salt a luxury. The best salt 
and almost the entire supply came from Syracuse, New York. 

Financial matters were managed very differently in the earl.y days than now, 
there lieing no l)anks to furnish exchange, the merchants when buying goods in 
the East, would carry their money with them generally to settle former accounts, 
for goods were bought on four to six months' credit then, money being very 
scarce. Those who bought their supplies in Dubuque, often sent the money by 
the teamsters. 

A noticeable thing about the early business firms was their frequent dissolu- 
tion of partnership, also their frequent movings. Every issue of the papers 
chronicled several business changes and removals. The population fluctuated 
greatly in those days. 

The fir.st Ijank established in Independence was located in the old Brewer 
Block, on the south side of ilain Street, just east of Third Avenue, Southeast, 
by Bemis, Brewer and Roszell aliout 186.5. This bank was not for issue but only 
for deijosit and exchange. From that time, remittances began to lie made by 
mail, and merchants going East began to take draft instead of cash with them, 
or else leave flieir money on deposit, subject to check, just as at present. 

The first Buchaium County merchant, as has been mentioned Ijefore, was 
a man familiarly called "Bill Dick," sometimes dignified with the name, Wil- 
liam Richards, for style. He opened up a store in Quas<|Ueton in 1843, and 
although his stock was not an extensive one, nor was his supply of the necessi- 
ties of life always abundant, yet his liarrel of whiskey, like the widow of Zai'eph- 
thah's cruse of oil, never failed. In for.-.er days this article was generally 
consideriHl one of the staples and no stock was complete without it, even a dry 
goods, hai'dware and grocery stock, but later it was cast out as an unfit associate 
for more respectalile merchandise, and took up an allegiance with drugs, which 
it has maintained more or less until this day. Bill Dick's only distinction rests 
in the fact that he was the pioneer in his particular line, but he has had a multi- 
tudinous following which steadily increased until education and economical 
conditions demanded reform, then the good citizens of Buchanan County ro.se 
in rebellion and ousted the offensive trafRc. But in the early days, the saloon ads 
occupied a conspicuous place in the papers, like this, in the Civilian of Octol>er 
14, 18 — , Mike's card: In our columns will lie found the card of Hike, who i^- 
prepared to do all kinds of work in his line, on short notice. 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 77 

D. S. Davis and S. V. Thompson were the first regular merchants in the 
county, starting their successful business in Quasqueton in 1845, and a couple 
of years before the beginning of Independence. 

The first merchant in Independence was Charles Cummings, who had his 
store iu a log building near the lower end of Main and just east of Chatham 
Street (just about where Sheehan Brothers Clothing Store is). 

William Brazleton came next, his store was on the corner where the First 
National Bank is now located. He put up the first building on the south corner 
of ]\lain and Walnut streets, where the Commercial Bank is, and there kept the 
first hotel of Independence, which was afterward changed to the Montour House. 
Mr. E. Purdy was the proprietor for several years. A. H. and Orville Fonda 
and R. R. Plane were among the pioneer merchants of Independence and were 
engaged in the mercantile bu.siness here for many years, in fact, the longest of 
any of the early ones. A. H. Fonda, the elder of the brothers, came from New 
York State in 1854 and opened a store in a frame building on the same corner 
where, in 1861, they erected a stone store, which was occupied by Orville for 
many years as a general merchandise store. In 1860, the old wooden structure 
wliich they first occupied was moved east to the river bank, and was used by 
Mr. Clark for a drug store. Afterwards he erected the stone building and 
occupied it until he sold out to H. W. Hovey who was in the drug business. 

Orville Fonda came from Janesville, Wisconsin, in 1853, the year previous 
t(i his brother, and for some time was engaged in the preparation of the buhr 
stones for the flouring mill, which was in the process of erection. He then be- 
came a partner with his brother in the general merchandise business. They 
were partners for six years, then dissolved partnership and A. H. kept a news 
stand and variety store in the Hageman Building, now occupied by A. S. Cobb. 
Orville bought out his brother and continued in the dry goods and grocery busi- 
ness until his death, when the building was sold to W. M. Woodward who 
remodeled it and built on an addition, and still occupies it with a hardware stock, 
and that, combined with the store building next to him on the east, which he 
bought later, forms his fine, modem department store. 

Among the merchants who were in business in Independence when the Fonda 
brothers commenced, was James Forrester, who iu the spring of 1852 opened a 
general store, groceries, dry goods, hardware and drugs, in the place afterwards 
occupied by the "Wigwam," on East Main Street, about where the implement 
stores now are. After retiring from business, he devoted himself to farming 
on East Main Street, adjoining the city, where he owned a fine farm and what 
was then considered a fine, attractive residence. E. B. and P. A. Older also 
had a store at this time, on Main between Chatham and Walnut streets. 

R. R. Plane was the pioneer hardware merchant, coming to Independence 
from Belvidei'e, Illinois, in 1854. He began business in a small way on the 
north side of ilain Street. He continued for twelve years and then purchased 
a lot in front of Chatham Street and erected a fine store, which he occupied 
until it was burned down, in 1874, which he rebuilt in the same place, where 
the Plane Hardware Store is now located. He conducted the store until his 
death and now his son, Irving, is proprietor. An old history tells that his first 
year's business amounted to about eight thousand dollars, and in 1880, to about 
forty thousand and had reached as high as seventy-five thousand dollars in a 



78 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

year. An immense liusiuess, and a most profitable one, as any merchant of today 
would agree. Competition certainly was not so great then as now. 

M. D. Smith commenced a "Foreign and Domestic Hardware" business the 
year after Mr. Plane, but did not continue it long. 

S. S. Allen, as proprietor of the "Agricultural Store," advertised all kinds 
of farm implements, among which we noticed cradles, corn and coffee mills, 
corn crackers, sausage cutters, and stuffers, fanning mills, log chains, butter 
tubs and ladles, hutchetts, sneath's lanthors, lai'd lamps, iron boot jacks, well 
wheels, rope bed cords, brush hooks, candle molds, and many other things which 
are obsolete now. He also advertised all kinds of stoves, ranging from five dollars 
to twenty -five dollars or cheaper, and churns, glass and putty, and garden and 
flower seeds, also clover, osage orange and yellow locust. 

This store was located on South Main Street, near the bridge. Many years 
afterwards his son, Andrew, also operated a fine general hardware store a few 
doors east of where his father had been in business in the early days. Previous 
to this S. S. Allen was one of a company of "Land and Exchange Brokers, 
Attorney-at-Law, and Real Estate Agents," and also one of the editors of the 
Civilian, the first county newspaper, he and Stephen J. W. Tabor, in February, 
1855, having bought out B. F. Parker and James Hillcary. He was also pro- 
prietor of the first book store in the county. His line included all kinds of books, 
wall and curtain paper, church music, sheet music, musical instruments, and all 
kinds of stationery. 

J. B. Thomas, another merchant of early times, owned a store building at 
the corner of Main and North streets, where he kept a large and general assort- 
ment of latest style goods. In his advertisements of 1857 he pledges himself 
not to be undersold by any house west of Dubuque. He also demanded settle- 
ment from his debtors, some of whom had been owing him since 1853 and further 
threatened them with the law. Same afflictions which befall merchants of today, 
but with the excuse that money was much more scarce then than now, and 
morals were then and always will be the same, and honesty does not entirely 
depend on financial standing. Mr. Thomas sold out that year to D. T. Randall. 

Another of the early places of business was the "Saving Store," Clarke, Sul- 
livan and Company were the proprietors. This store was opposite White's 
Hotel, on the corner of Main and Court streets, where the Ransier flats are 
now located. Their advertisements are interesting to read, and note the great 
changes in dress materials and styles. We further notice that our mothers and 
grandmothers were quite as subservient to fashion as the women of today. This 
firm advertises: "The largest and richest stock of fancy and staple dry goods, 
ladies' and children's shoes and perfumery ever brought into Independence, 
among which may be found, rich silks, French merinos, wool and muslin delaines, 
cashmeres, lustros, Parisian twills, white goods, embroideries, dress trimmings, 
sheetings, shirtings, denims, flannels, alpacas, Ansey's prints, tickings, hosiery, 
bonnets, ribbons, flowers, and a fine line of all kinds of shawls, including Brocha, 
Stella, Bay State, Waterloo, and other favorite styles, etc. We will give you 
more goods for a dollar than any other establishment west of the Mississippi." 

In this same Civilian of this early date, is an advertisement of a general 
store in Quasqueton, which reads, "The Quasqueton Railroad is not located 
yet, but D. S. Davis has .just received the largest and best stock of drj' goods 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 79 

and groceries, ete. I have selected my goods in New York and Boston," and so on. 

Benthall and Jennegan also had a general store at Quasqueton. 

Another, of the firm. Marshall & Sutlicool (afterwards Snfficool sold liis 
interest to John Cameron), located at Littleton, advertising a general line, 
including everytiiing in dry goods and hoots and shoes, hardware, groceries and 
ilrugs, paints, oils, glass and sash. 

Parsons and ^lellish were proprietors of a "'Drug and iledicine" store at 
Independence, and advertised everything in that line, and some things hesides. 
■■Caiiiiihene, alcohol, turpentine, hurning Huid (used for lighting purposes), 
wines and licpiors, stationery, confectionery, etc., all of which we ofifer for sale, 
from motives, neither of enlarged benevolence nor iiinninent necessity, hut on 
the prin('i])le that the interests of the buyer and .seller in all legitimale trade 
are identical. We solicit patronage on no other terms." Special notice was 
also given to all "good livers" and "appreciating stomachs," that they had ,iust 
received a hu'ge assortment of both "fresh and preserved fruits, raisins, straw- 
berries, currants, blackberries, cherries, whortle berries, plums, peaches, etc., 
beans, and asparagus, all neatly put up in hermetically sealed cans." This firm 
certainly catered to the pioneer aristocracy. Evidently there were epicurean 
tastes, even in those early days. This advertisement was a revelation to the 
authors, for we had always supposed that the early settlers were denied all but 
the coarser and necessary things of life. 

John Bogert was one of the pioneer merchants and kept drugs, hoots and 
shoes, hats, caps, and groceries, and occupied a store in the "New Jones Block" 
near the foot of ]\Iain Street. 

Sanders & Burns were the proprietors of the " People's Headquarters' Store," 
with a stock of gentlemen's furnishings, hoots, shoes, rubber goods, dry goods, 
millinery, and groceries, cash system. Lindley Alile, J. Whait, Marsh, I). T. 
Randall, Eli D. Phelps, J. W. IMelone, J. Ilirsch. T. B. BuUen, Rowse & Clarke, 
Ephraim Leach, S. Hellman, Lorenzo Moore and G. W. Counts, J. E. aiul J. B. 
Voak, Ran.som Bartle, R. W. \Yright. H. S. Chase. J. D. Meyers, S. S. McClure, 
and T. B. Bullen, and many other names, ap]K*ar as jiroprietors of stores in the 
early '50s. 

C. V. C. Post had the first furniture store. It was situated on the west side of 
the river. 

Independence could also boast three boot and shoe manufactories in those 
early days, one conducted by W. Chandler, one by J. Wiley, and one run by 
J. C. Loomis in connection with his boot and shoe store (the first exclusive 
shoe store in the county). These boot and shoe manufacturers promised, as they 
do today, "to satisfy and plea.se the public, and fit the feet." They claimed to 
be prepared to manufacture to order, every article in the line of boots and shoes 
in a neat and most substantial manner. "Buffalo overshoes" were much adver- 
tised in those days. J. C. Loomis also sold lundier wagons. Iniggies, and "democrat 
wagons." 

William Scott manufactured saddles and harnesses and also sold and boueht 
all kinds of hides and kept all kinds of saddles and harnesses, hardware antl 
shoe findings, while S. J. Hicks, E. H. Gaylord, and L. S. Hicks were manu- 
facturers of several different kinds of plows and also ke|)t all kinds of farm 



80 



HISTORY OP BUCHANAN COUNTY 



maeliiiiery. They maiuifaoturfd to order aud guaranteed every plow. They 
also were blacksmiths and horseshoers. 

Thomas W. Close kept a grocery store consisting of all kinds of groceries, 
also pork, flour, glass, paints, oils, putty, patent medicine, earthen and wood- 
ware of every description, a full assortment of the .various kinds of perfumery, 
inks and extracts and all other articles usually kept in a grocery store. C. M. 
Turner kept a meat market in the Adam's Block on Walnut Street. 

F. Bitner also conducted a meat market and bought and sold all different 
kinds of farm produce. Thomas Blondin, in 1S.37, had just a shaving and hair 
cutting saloon. Anthony Hageman, proprietor of the old "Turner House" 
(now the Fisher Hotel), for many years adv&rtised his business of blacksmith- 
ing with an original poem, certainly clever and unique, if not of much litepry 
merit. John McGready was also one of the pione^-r horseshoers and blacksmiths 
of Independence, locating here in 1857 and in the shop on North Walnut Street, 
south of Doctor McGready 's residence, which is still occupied for the same pur- 
pose. 

William C. Wright, of Fairbank, seems to have lieen the first regular horticul- 
turist. He advertised all kinds of trees, vines, and shrubbery, every article sold 
will be warranted and customers may depend upon their ])eing genuine. 

Bartle & Wright were advertising osage orange plants for sale, begging 
the farmers to cease hostilities on their timber for fencing purposes and advis- 
ing them to plant some of their two-year-old osage orange trees, wliich would 
make a good fence in three to five years, and declared that the winters here would 
not freeze them out. 

Many farmers did plant them for fencing. 

L. L. Walton owned a marble works on the east end of Main Street, and 
advertised to do eveiything in his line of business in a manner not to be sur- 
passed. 

R. AV. Wright was the original proprietor of the New York Store, a store 
thkt was continued for many years under that name. He advertises as being 
always in favor of the nimble shilling in preference to the slow dollar. 

Ingalls & McEweu, builders and contractors, manufactured hand-made doors 
and sash. 

A. H. Gillet & C. C. Welcom had located in Independence for the purpose of 
furnishing the citizens with all the latest styles of photographs, ambrotypes, 
melainotypes, sphereotypes and chemotypes. 

One of the cleverest advertisements which appeared in the ad columns was 
of the opening of a new dry goods store. It goes something like this : ' ' Grand 
show at Independence, Iowa— S. Hellman Manager and Proprietor. Doors open 
at 6 o'clock A. M. Performance to commence at 7 o'clock A. M. Prices of Admis- 
sion—Adults Free— children (under 19 years of age), Half Price, Grand Com- 
plimentary Benefit, to the Public. 

"The subscriber, thankful for past favors, respectfully informs the inhabi- 
tants that he has a splendid stock of Goods, etc., he, in return for the liberal 
patronage bestowed upon him, will present Three ilagnifieent Pieces — On 
Wednesday, April 29, 1857, and every day until further notice will be presented, 
the very popular Tragedy of Good Fits, with the following unrivalled cast: 
Fashionable, Gentlemen's Furnishings, Goods, and Boots, Shoes, Hats, Caps, 



TilK Ninv vnr;K 
PUBLIC LIBRARY 



ASTOn. LENOX AND 
TlUiBN F0i:.\DA-n0N3 



HISTORY OP BUCHANAN COUNTY 81 

etc. To be followed by the Melo Drama entitled Beauty & Fashion. An inter- 
mission of Ten Minutes to allow those makjng large purchases, time for Lunch, 
etc. 

"The whole to conclude with S. Hellman's successful Play entitled Varieties, 
the beauty of which will cause great excitement among the Ladies and Gentle- 
men. During the performance the proprietor will exhibit a fine stock of fresh 
Groceries. 

"The manager promises an entire new troupe at the commencement of each 
season — P. S. More and finer goods given for a 'Spanish Quarter' than any 
other place in town." 

The reason we printed the above and other advertisements is to show that 
advertising was an acknowledged science even in those early days, and that they 
thoroughly believed the statement, "It pays to advertise." Another thing which 
we noticed in looking over the old papers was that so many business firms, stores, 
hotels, etc., of other cities, like Chicago, Dubuque, Des Moines, and others, were 
regular patrons of our paper's ad columns. 

Besides the mercantile business, the early commerce of the county included 
the milling and shipping interests. 

The early milling interests were largely represented l)y a single name, that 
of Samuel Sherwood, who came to this county in 1847 from Jauesville, Wis- 
consin, with Stoughton and his party of pioneers. He was a millwright by 
trade, having sei-ved his apprenticeship under T. B. Hall, in Vermont. He came 
to Independence to put up a sawmill for Mr. Stoughton. The sawmill was 
built nearly on the same ground where the present flouring mill stands. Two 
years later, anotlier was built a short distance from that location. In 1857 a 
steam sawmill was erected on the east side of the river a few rods above the 
bridge by Mr. Snow of Dubuque. Already there were three mills running day 
and night to supply the demands for lumlier, and the next year records still 
another built in the north part of Indiana and operated by the Messrs. Clum- 
mings. These mills sawed a large amount of lumber, all of which was used in 
the immediate vicinity. The first flouring mill was built in 1854. In that day 
it was known as "The New Haven Mills," New Haven being the name first 
given to that portion of the town west of the river. 

Previous to this, the people of Independence had procured their flour mainly 
from Quascjueton, at which place a "custom mill" had been in operation for 
several years. A ' ' custom mill ' ' is one that only grinds the grain that the indi- 
vidual customers bring in (neither buys nor .sells in any great amount). The 
New Haven Mill, like the one at Quasqueton, did for the most part a custom 
business, though at different times did ship considerable flour to the West and 
occasionally a little to Dubuque. The mill built in 1854 did a fair liusiness for 
about fifteen years, being owned during all that time by Sauford Clark and 
Samuel Sherwood, who then thought it advisable to tear it down and build larger. 
This they proceeded to do, and the present structure of stone and brick was 
begun in the .summer of 1868 and completed in two years. It was built and 
has always been owned by a stock company. Hon. P. C. Wilcox (a former 
notable citizen, long since dead), was at first the principal stockholder. The 
Quasqueton Mill (which unfortunately was burned in 1880), was purchased by 
the Independence Mill Company and their capital stock was increased to $120,000. 



82 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

In 1880, Mr. Sherwood was the largest owner. The property was at that time 
and always had been lucrative, realizing in one of its best years a net profit of 
11 per eent to the stockholders, but later .years it could scarcely pay expenses and 
now is used more for generating light than for milling purposes, the city having 
made arrangements with the mill to furnish light whenever possible at a specified 
cost, and they gi-ind a little feed, but do not do any other milling. 

During the existence of the "Old Mill," the supply of wheat was obtained 
entirely from this county, but when wheat failed in this locality they shipped 
it in, principally from Minnesota, but largely also from Dakota Territory, which 
at that time raised the best wheat. Their best market was Chicago, then St. 
Louis and after that New Orleans. 

.In 1865 there were ten improved water-powers in the county. In June, 1862, 
Messrs. Dyre, Young & Co., built a fine flouring mill on Cotter Creek and manu- 
factured a very superior article. 

Thomas Scareliff was one of the earliest grain dealers in the county and 
pursued that business until he was the oldest representative. In 1856 he began 
buying grain in a small way. His first operation was the purchase of 500 bushels 
of oats in Linn County, which he sold here at a price ranging from 90 cents to 
$1 a bushel. The very next year the price dropped 10 cents a bushel. During 
that year he made a nice little speculation on 200 bushels of oats purchased here 
at 12 cents a bushel, shipped liy wagon to Earlville (then the terminus of the 
railroad), then taken by rail to Dubuque and then down the river to St. Louis, 
where he sold them at 75 cents per bushel. Two years later, in 1859, when the 
railroad w^as extended to Independence, he had 2,000 bushels of wheat and as 
many of oats ready for shipment by the first freight East. Mr. Scareliff at one 
time owned several granaries and an elevator at the Central Depot, but retired 
from that business several years ago. 

At one time, about 1873, the wlieat crop began to fail and very little was 
planted from then on, which made a big difference in the amount of shipping 
at first, but very soon the farmers began raising a more diversified crop of grains 
(chiefly corn, oats and flax), and an increased production of all, so that it kept 
the grain business increasing for many years. During the wheat raising years 
corn was merely a side issue, as wheat has been of late years. In 1880 it was 
estimated that 100,000 bushels of corn were annually shipped from Independ- 
ence, 200,000 bushels of oats, and 100,000 bushels of flax, while in 1879 there was 
only 40,000 bushels of flax shipped. At that time farmers had only been raising 
it three years. 

William Brown was another of the pioneer grain dealers, entered into the 
business about the same time as Mr. Scareliff, and, like him, was a successful 
dealer. He owned a fine elevator at the I. C. Depot and was in that business 
for many years. The constantly increasing production of grain which, on account 
of poor shipping facilities, necessitated its being stored at the depot, prompted 
the building of several elevators. This agitation was begun in 1861, and Messrs. 
Candee and Putnam were the first to respond to the need. They contracted with 
Sam Sherwood to build a spacious elevator with a storage capacity of 10,000 
bushels. It was divided into twenty-eight bins each holding a carload, or 350 
bushels, and could be emptied in one hour. These elevators proved a great help 
to the farmers. In 1864 a stock company of Independence business men built 





M:\h\ Street hi l^ilio 



Old s;nv ami «rist mi 




Old dam at Independence 





Old Metho.list Clnirih Old Eiiisc,)iKil Churdi 

EARLY SCENES IN INDEPENDENCE 



PUBllC LliillAlti" 



ASTOK, I.KNOX iNi, 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 83 

another fine, new elevator, and the next year Newman & Johnson built one with 
a capacity of 30,000 bushels and fitted with all the modern conveniences of that 
day, among them Mr. Ilaradon's grain distributor. Winegar & Company built 
one with a capacity of 10,000 bushels, and also J. F. Lyon. Several other elevators 
and storage houses were built in those years, and they all were kept busy. In 
1862 about three hundred tliousand dollars worth of produce was shipped from 
the Independence station. 

The value of produce shipped from Independence station for the year 1862, 
estimated at a low average : 

Wheat $97,869.00 

Oats 2,417.85 

Live hogs 76,270.00 

Dressed pork 12,554.22 

Cattle 12,480.00 

Butter 8,886.64 

Eggs 477.15 

Barley 1,518.00 

Hides 925.36 

Wool 2,298.00 



$215,697.22 



And this did not include the miscellaneous shipments of nearly half a million 
pounds, which would probably bring the total value up to nearly three hundred 
thousand dollars. Then quite a considerable amount was shipped from Jesup 
and Winthrop, and also a quantity from the lower part of the county was hauled 
to Cedar Rapids. The imports into the county amounted to about two hundred 
thousand dollars, so the balance of one hundred thousand dollars was profit. A 
fine showing for war times and a new country. In November, 1863, about seventy 
carloads of wheat and oats were stored at the I. C. depot awaiting shipment, and 
the shippers were obliged to submit to a three weeks' delay in getting their 
produce to the eastern markets. In February, 1865, a great quantity was 
detained from lack of ears. Besides the great inconvenience of being compelled 
to store their grain, and often losing on the market price, they were compelled 
to pay exorbitant prices for cartage across the river at Dubuque, and suffered 
much loss in measure as well. To overcome these obstacles, the shippers and 
merchants held a big convention at Dubuque in March, 1865, to consider the 
transfer grievances. Independence sent nineteen delegates ; P. C. Wilcox was 
elected president and L. M. Putnam and Jacob Rich were on important com- 
mittees. Mr. W. A. Jones gave a speech before the convention that brought down 
the house. 

In 1861 P. C. Wilcox shipped a ton and one-half of rags, the first shipment 
of this kind ever made. This was an indication that the county was becoming 
richer. Formerly people wore every vestige of their clothing. 

The pioneer dealer in live stock in this county was E. Cobb, who came to 
Independence in 1853 from Illinois. The first business he engaged in after 
coming here was to keep a hotel in the house which he built on West Main Street, 



84 HISTORY OP BUCHANAN COUNTY 

opposite the Hawthorne Seliool, liidi'ijeiidenee, and in which he lived until his 
death, June 3, 1914. He continued in this business about six years. In the year 
1857 he embarked in tlie l)usiiiess of buying and selling hogs and cattle. He owned 
a large farm of nearly three luindred acres adjoining Independence and here he 
kept the stock lie bought and fed them for the market. On this farm, just west 
of the city, he had one of the largest barns in the county at the time it was built, 
but this one l)urned (spontaneous combustion was thought to be the cause), and 
he built another somewhat smaller. At first he dealt about equally in hogs and 
cattle, but since about 18TU he luis dealt almost entirely in cattle and made a 
great success of this business. He shipped the tir.st carload of cattle that was 
taken from here over the Illinois Central in 185<),.and also the first over the old 
Burlington road in 1873. He never sliipped any live hogs before the railroad 
was built, always butchering and dr'essing them, but many large droves of cattle 
were driven P]ast previous to that time, sometimes being taken across the Mis- 
sissippi River on the ice and sometimes liy ferryboat. 

A Mr. J. D. ]\Iyers was connected with Mr. Cobb in Inisiness from 1860 on 
for six or seven years. He used to have his cattle yards at Independence, in the 
Thirtl Ward, where the L. W. (ioen and D. F. Logan residences are now situated. 

The circumstances which led ilr. Colil) to enter the stock liuying liusiness are 
very interesting. At that time stock buyers went through the country buying 
cattle and hogs on credit, agreeing to pay for them after they were sold, but 
very often purposely forgetting the agreement entirely. Mr. Cobb got together 
a little money anil offered to {)ay cash for stock, and this, of course, appealed 
to the farmers who had sufl:'ered at the bands of unscrupulous stock dealers, so 
he could get a trade and ))uy for less money than others. An instance showing 
how unusual were his methods is told by his son. A man from Waterloo, twenty- 
tive miles west of Independence, having heard of J\Ir. Cobb's cash business, walked 
ail the way down here to see if it were true. When he met Mr. Cobb he said, 
' ' I "ve heard that you pay cash for stock. Is it so ? ' ' Mr. Cobb replied that he did. 

The man had a very fine cow for sale and, after describing the animal, extolling 
all of her good qualities, he asked Mr. Cobb what he would give him for her. 
Mr. Cobb replied that if she were as good as he described he would pay $7.00 for 
her. The man walked back home, got his cow and drove her all the way back. 
The entire trip covered 100 miles and took four days, which goes to show the 
difference between the thrift of those days compared with present times. In 
those early days it was necessary to jirociire a license of the United States Gov- 
ernment i)efore one could engage in the live stock business. These licenses were 
good for only one year and cost $10 (a high priced tax considering the value of 
stock). We have before us one issued to Mr. E. Cobb, dated May 1, 1866, 
No. 1456. and signed by D. B. Henderson, internal revenue collector. Mr. Cobb 
until about the year 1907 was actively engaged in the live stock business. 

W^illiam A. Jones was also a pioneer in the live stock business in this county, 
commencing in 1859, about two years later than Mr. Cobb. He started on the 
completion of the Dubuque & Sioux City Railroad, now the Illinois Central. 
Like Mr. Cobb, he had been in the hotel business, not, however, in this county, but 
Fayette. He came to Independence from the State of New York in 1855, was 
engaged for a few years in general merchandise, including lumber, then opened 
a hotel in Fayette, which he conducted for about two years, then returned to 





A PioiKHT ( 'l;iiil)o:ii i| 11(11111 



Oia High School 





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Inilepenileiu-e in lS6?i 



Old luilepenileni-e Briilge 





Regal House, Early Indeiieuilein'e Hotel An Early Fire Company 

EARLY INDEPENDENCE SCENES 



TiiK V 
PU13LK; 









HISTORY OP BUCHANAN COUNTY 85 

Independence and engaged in the live stock business, which he followed for many 
years, and until he retired. At first he was in partnership with P. C. Wilcox, 
who, so history states, "furnished the capital and shared the profits," but their 
first transaction was a loss to the firm of about fifteen hundred dollars, but, 
despite these first failures, the partnership proved successful and continued from. 
1859 to 1865. (After that Mr. Jones carried on the business alone.) Their first 
shipment was of hogs, on January 3, 1861. They numbered about a thousand 
and filled thirteen ears, and was the largest drove of hogs that ever arrived in 
Dubuque. The weather turned suddenly cold about the time they reached 
Dubuque, and in forty-eight hours the river was frozen over with ice sufficiently 
thick to be crossed with teams. Over this natural bridge the whole herd of 
swine was driven, and as it was very smooth and slippery, had to be sprinkled 
over with sand to enable the porkers to skate across. From there they were 
to be shipped either to New York or New Orleans, as the markets induced. 
In 1860 he began to ship cattle, the number that year being only 200, but later 
he shipped as high as five thousand head of cattle and thirty thousand hogs, and 
he made good profits on his sales. In the early days one could start a business 
on a very little capital, as is proven by the statement that, although Mr. Jones, 
at the close of his partnership with Mr. Wilcox, had realized quite a considerable 
amount of money, but after paying up some heavy debts incurred by previous 
losses, had just $150 to begin business on his own account. 

There were several hotels advertised in the county — one called White 's Hotel, 
which was situated at the corner of Main and Court streets. This house had 
been recently (in 1857), fitted up to accommodate 100 guests, and special men- 
tion was made of the good stone stable attached for the benefit of hackmen and 
others. Thomas Sherwood was the proprietor. The building still stands and is 
what is now the Regal Hotel, and the old stone stable was still intact until last 
winter (1914), when part of it collapsed. Mr. Beaman was proprietor of the 
"Cottage Hotel," situated near the I. C. R. R. depot, at Independence, afterwards 
the Union House and now used as a store. 

Another hotel was the Montour House, situated where the Commercial Bank 
now is. Mr. E. W. Purdy was the proprietor. The old Cobb House, on West 
Main Street, was formerly conducted as a hotel by Mr. Cobb. The Baldwin 
Hotel, situated on the corner of Grove and Independence streets, Pairbank, was 
operated by N. and C. A. Baldwin. The Quasqueton Hotel, located on Main 
Street, Quasqueton, was kept by A. P. Burrhus. The Empire House was one 
of the first hotels built and Herman Morse was proprietor. Board, $3.00 per week. 
In those days there were fully as many, if not more, firms engaged in the 
real estate business than there are at present. (Land brokerage as it was then 
called.) All the law firms besides the regular agencies dabbled considerably in 
this business. E. B. Older, O. C. Lee, P. A. Older, and D. S. Lee were probably 
the largest ' ' bankers, dealers in exchange and land agents. ' ' Their listed farms 
for sale filled two columns of fine print. E. Brewer and 0. H. P. Roszell and 
Oeorge W. Bemis constituted another important real estate firm. In 1856 Elzy 
Wilson also had located here to engage in that business. P. C. Bartle and T. T. 
White was still another firm, and R. W. Wright & Company were engaged in 
the business later. 



86 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

Among the early professional men was H. S. Ward, M. D., an itinerant 
physician, surgeon and dentist, who maintained an office here for several years, 
but was a resident of Byron Township, and Dr. W. Grimes advertised as a 
surgeon dentist. Dr. Horatio Bryant, Dr. P. Tabor, and Dr. H. H. Hunt were 
among the pioneer doctors, and all three practiced here many years and lived 
here until they died. Dr. R. Clarke was a dentist of Independence in the early 
'50s. Miss C. .Marriott established a millinery store in Independence in July, 
1857, with a .splendid assortment of Paris and New York styles. She also adver- 
tised "dress and mantilla making." Dr. W. 0. Smith was also among the pioneer 
doctors. Dr. D. T. Haskell, homeopathic physician, was located at Greeley's 
Grove, Buchanan County. Besides these there were several women practitioners. 
IVIrs. J. W. Ecklee had her otBce at Doctor Tabor's. Mrs. S. W. Blood was another 
experienced practitioner. Dr. Frederick Reimer advertised as a "Praktiseher 
Arzt.," office at the Western Brewery, Independence, Iowa. Dr. John Milford 
Cox was the first regular veterinary. And the dignity of the law was upheld 
by S. S. xVllen, L. W. Hart, James Jamison, D. L. Deyo, J. S. Woodward, W. G. 
Donnan, Cornelius Hedges, D. S. Lee, C. F. Leavitt, Lorenzo Moore and C. E. 
Lathrop. 

Quasqueton in the early days could boast of more different and exclusive 
lines than Independence. Here are a few of the familiar names of that day : 
G. P. Hayslip was a hardware merchant in Quasqueton in the '50s. R. L. Thomp- 
son was a druggist. George P. Martin kept a boot and shoe store. A. B. Parkell 
was a merchant tailor and sold all kinds of gentlemen's furnishings. A. H. & 
T. Hyde were architects and builders and could perform all kinds of architectural 
drafting and building and general carpenter work; also made brick. They had 
1,000,000 brick on hand for sale and, having gotten their yard into active opera- 
tion, were prepared to receive orders for pressed and common brick to any extent. 
C. II. ilills was agent for the sale of ornamental marble work. 

These pioneer days when the iuaportation of goods was so expensive and 
difficult certainly engendered both economy and ingenuity. Much that we now 
buy, manufactured perhaps one thousand miles away, was manufactured at 
home or by the pioneer merchants. All the furniture was of home manufacture, 
except that which was brought with the pioneer from the East. In Quasqueton 
Messrs. Lewis & Kent had a furniture manufactory and had a large warehouse 
full of an excellent assortment of tables, bedsteads, what-nots, bureaus, chairs, 
washstands, etc., of every creditable style and finish. They used the water power 
to run their turning lathe and had every appliance necessary to the manufacture 
of furniture. 

In Independence, Marquette & McKensie had a similar establishment and 
had all the facilities for their trade. They also manufactured Ingall's patent 
seed sowers, at one time having a contract order for 100 of them. 

G. B. Rogers had a sugar mill foundry in Independence in 1856 and there was 
quite a demand. 

In 1864: Mr. James Forrester started quite an extensive brick plant on his 
farm adjoining Independence. He had secured the contract to furnish the brick 
for the Catholic Church and several other buildings to be erected that summer. 
About this time a lime kiln was built at Otterville by a company of the citizens. 



HISTORY OP BUCHANAN COUNTY 87 

Z. Stout was one of the first lumlier merchants. The Killfether stoue quarry, 
situated about three-fourths of a mile east of Independence, was conducted by 
Bonner & Harrold. In 1858 a pottery was started on Court Street, nearly oppo- 
site the courthouse, where all kinds of pottery was being made. The manufacturer 
considered the clay found here of a superior quality for such purposes. 



CHAPTER VII 
AGRICULTURE 

THE VIRGIN SOIL YESTERDAY AND TODAY 

The virgin soil of Bufhanaii, with Its rich black loam, its fine mixture of 
sand, its subsoil of ciay, its line drainage and abundant water courses, its wide 
expanses of prairie of undulating character, all furnish an ideal spot for farming 
purposes, as the very earliest settlers, who had come from the cramped, hilly, 
rocky and thin soil of the New England States, or the swamps of the Gulf States, 
or the worn-out, poorly cultivated negro-worked farms of the old South knew and 
appreciated. This may be an exaggerated comparison, but naturally only those 
who were dissatisfied with their surroundings and thought to better them would 
seek new and unexplored country, so we inferred they came from those barren 
spots we have described. But suffice it to say Buchanan County has proved and is 
proving all that could be expected of her, even to the most unreal dreams of a 
super-imaginative brain, as reference to the 1914 statistics will testify, and in 
contemplation of the past phenomenal progi'ess, what can we not expect of the 
future ! Not until every acre of this rich, productive, valuable soil is under culti- 
vation and made to bear fruit shall we have reached our climax ; not until this 
woeful, vdllful extravagance and undercultivation of land has ceased, shall we 
be able to estimate our resources ; not until our thousand and hundred acre farms 
are divided into small plots, as is the greater part of Europe, can we know the 
full extent of its economical and numerical support. 

But this future time is as far, if not fai'ther, distant than the time when those 
early settlers, Clark and Kessler, broke the first prairie and commenced farming 
in April, 1842. By June they had ten acres broken, which they planted to beans 
and corn, and although frost did not appear till October 10, there was not time 
enough for the crop to properly mature, but as it was their only available means 
of .support, it was a much cherished crop and all hands, men and women, worked 
diligently the day after the frost to gather it in. During that summer of 1842 
all provisions had to be brought from Ede's Grove, in Delaware County, a dis- 
tance of sixty miles, this was the nearest market. One person was sent with an 
ox team to Ijring supplies for the whole connnunity. For two or three years corn, 
potatoes and beans constituted the entire agricultural production, but soon 
the settlers began to raise wheat. At that time a mill had been built at Quasque- 
ton, where they could have it ground, so they were not in danger of being com- 
pelled to subsist on boiled corn, with venison and honey, for months at a stretch. 
Soon the wheat crop became the important crop, exceeding all others in acreage, 

89 



90 HISTORY OP BUCHANAN COUNTY 

value and production. Each year more and iiiore land was sown to wheat; in 
1862 one-third more than the previous year. 

The tirst farms were entries of Government land and constituted generally 
160 acres. This was farmed in a simple, crude manner, the only object being 
to raise enough for home consumption for the family and the few domestic ani- 
mals, and to barter or exchange for household necessities. Not until the railroad 
was built through the county were farm products raised for market. Then the 
first real impetus to farming began. Wheat continued as the principal and most 
lucrative crop until successive failures through drought, rust, and chinch bugs 
discouraged tlie farmers from raising it, and they turned their attention to other 
cereals ; then corn and oats became the most impartant crop, and now corn takes 
the lead, being the most extensively raised and the most suitable to our soil and 
climate. The tirst we read of the chinch bug in this locality was in 1861. In the 
counties surrounding Buchanan this malicious insect had completely destroyed 
large fields of wheat, but emigrated into this county too late to do much damage; 
but in the next few consecutive years the pests utterly ruined thousands of acres 
and thousands of dollars worth of wheat. In 1864 only half a crop was thrashed. 
Many of the farmers burned over their fields to protect the other crops, which 
were molested as soon as the substance was all gone in the wheat fields. Another 
method to get rid of them was to dig trenches, which were filled with kerosene 
and set afire, wlien the bugs began to look for greener fields, and even sorghum 
was used in the trenches to catch and hold them fast. But all these annihilators 
did not wipe them out of existence, and only after the farmers abandoned their 
great wheat project did they rid themselves of this pernicious insect, and for 
many years tliere was no wheat to speak of grown in this countj', and not until 
recent years has it been attempted again. This was a dreadful calamity to the 
early farmers, who had come West with but little money, and Iwught their farms 
and were heavily in debt for their land, machinery, and farm buildings, and who 
depended on the wheat crop to make payments. Wheat was the quickest crop 
to turn, sowing being done in April and harvesting last of July, in 1864, and 
prices ran as high as $1.75 to $2.00 per bushel, and only two years before 
it sold for 60 cents per bushel. What county can show an earlier, better quality, 
or higher price than this? The farmers raised quite a bit of barley after the 
wheat failure. Japanese wheat was introduced into this county during the years 
when it was extensively grown and proved to be very prolific, both in seed and 
fodder. A Mr. Reynolds of Littleton was selling enough seed for a shilling to 
produce in two seasons 200 bushels of seed. Winter wheat, too, was being experi- 
mented with in the early '60s and proved a successful venture, yielding twenty- 
five bushels per acre. 

The quality and quantity of corn raised in early times could not compare with 
our present output, which is of a superfine grade and constitutes over three- 
fifths of the entire cereal crop. It is safe to say that it commands more attention 
than any other, and perhaps all the other crops combined. The greatest amount 
of care is taken to procure the best seed and to try it thoroughly and particularly. 
Corn production has become a veritable science, requiring study and application 
to acciuire the best results, as the average acreage production and market value 
of our product proves. All over the country they are having corn contests, con- 
ducted either by agricultural schools, the Government, the state, newspapers, or 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 91 

individuals, as an incentive to the bo.y farmers, witli wonderful and unbelievable 
results. 

The value of good corn is not entirely a new idea, nor are these contests, 
for away back in 1863 it was beginning to lie appreciated, for in the county 
papers of that date was an announcement that William Winson, secretary of the 
Iowa Farmers' College, offered a premium of $15.00 for the best variety and 
<inality of corn suited for general cultivation in the north half of the state, and 
the same amount for the south half, the specimens to include not less than one- 
half bushel of ears. All facts relative to preparation of ground, sowing, culti- 
vation, etc., to be stated. Like premiums were paid for the best specimens of 
winter and spring wheat, a peck of each. In the first shipments after the railroad 
went through there was no corn, owing to lack of production. 

Corn, too, in the early days had its own peculiar pest and destroyer— the cut 
worm and corn eater — and they worked havoc in some localities, totally destroying 
whole fields : and the Hessian fly and potato bug were rampant some years and 
did untold damage, too. Nowadays every bit of com is utilized ; the stocks, which 
formerly were left in the fields and plowed under or used for pasturage, are now 
cut up and put in silos for winter feed. 

Silos are becoming a necessity and nearly every progressive farmer has one 
or several ; sometimes four are built in a group. 

We would not forget the potato crop which has always been and always will 
be one of the most necessary, being one of our fundamental foods, and was 
one of the earliest planted in this county (in the second summer). In 1865, 
57,130 bushels were raised; in 1910, 127,236 bushels, over twice as many, and 
sweet potatoes had increased from 9 to 38 bushels. Onions, cabbages, melons and 
other vegetables are raised entirely for family use and the home market. All 
the sugar beets, and most of the sweet corn, are raised for the canneries. In 
1909, 169 acres were planted and produced 836 tons of sugar beets, all sold to 
the Waverly Sugar Beet Factory, but now this industry is a thing of the past, 
the factory havnig been closed down recently. The Independence Canning Fac- 
tory takes practically all the sweet corn produced in the county. 

To estimate what were the principal crops, we have the monthly statement 
of e.xports made by the agent of the D. & S. C. R. R. depot for the year 1861, 
which totalizes 273,430 bushels of wheat, 7,218 bushels oats, 2,578 bushels corn, 
1,261 bushels barley, 764,085 pounds pork, 58,534 pounds eggs, 116,810 pounds 
butter, 135 head of cattle, 568,666 pounds miscellaneous freight. 

This is the first record of .shipments that we were able to find. The earliest 
record of prices was as follows: Wheat, 35 cents per bushel, corn, 20 cents, 
oats, 20 cents, potatoes, 15 cents per bushel, beans, 60 cents, beef, 8 cents, cheese, 
121/2 cents, butter 8 cents, lard, 10 cents, eggs, 6 cents per dozen, hay, $3.00 per 
ton, wood, $2.00 to $2.50 per cord. 

At first the only hay was the wild prairie grass, but shortly farmers began 
to see the advantages and necessity of tame grass and began to raise principally 
timothy and clover, and from a small acreage to begin with, it has increased, 
until now, it constitutes one of the principal ci-ops, and about one-fourth of the 
cultivated acreage in the county. A great amount of tame hay and some straw 
is baled and shipped to the eastern markets at prices ranging from $10.00 to 
$20.00 per ton for timothy and $5.00 or $6.00 for straw. We might think that 



92 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

the prices of liay were much higher now than ever before, but in April, 1862, 
timothy hay sold for $10.00 a ton and very scarce at that, and wild prairie 
hay was $5.00 and $6.00 per ton. The short crop of grass of the previous sum- 
mer and tlie long, hard winter, were responsible for these extreme prices. 
Prairie tires raged through the country in those early days and destroyed much 
of the wild hay, besides doing extensive damage to grain and buildings. For 
years this was one of the dreads of the settlers. Sometimes for days and 
nights at a time they were compelled to tight these fearful tires. Every fall 
dense smoke hovered over the prairies for weeks after. Precautious such as 
plowing around buildings and hay and grain stacks and burning back were 
used, but if fire ever got started in the heavy, long prairie grass there was no 
stopping it until it had spent its fury. Early settlers tell that the wild grass 
in the sloughs grew so dense and tall that the top of a man "s head, riding horse- 
back, was .just discernible, and the rank, wiry blades switched him in the face. 
Some scientists claim that the reason for these broad expanses of prairie, is that 
trees and shrubs were destroyed until the prairie soil would not generate trees, 
but this hardly seems credible in view of the fact that trees will grow luxuriantly 
all over the prairies. Maples, cottonwoods, elms, willows, nut and catalpa, 
all planted by the early settlers, lived and thrived beyond their vainest hopes. 
Some people think that if man should abandon these vast fertile prairies and 
leave them to the care of natm-e and the birds, they would become a vast expanse 
of forest, and certainly the theory has ground for credence because the soil seems 
perfectly adapted to tree culture. But this question as we have expressed in a 
previous chapter is (juestion for the dim and shadowy future to elucidate. Now 
the broad expanses of prairie are divided into farms, many of them still out- 
lined by trees planted by the pioneers, who thought a live tree fence a great 
improvement over the stone and rail fences they were accustomed to (this was 
before the days of wire fencing) . Now those same tree fences that our forefathers 
planted with such care are rapidly disappearing, being cut down; they shade 
too much of the field, take the moisture and substance of the soil and their 
spreading roots are a nuisance. The white willow was used the most extensively 
for fencing, having such a wonderful quick growth and it, above all trees, 
now elicits the most vengeance, as it is also the most persistent and enduring. 

The early county papers advertised extensively trees for fencing and several 
nurseries were supported in and about Independence, that being their principal 
output. In 1865, there were 4,73-i acres of planted timber in the county. 

Alfalfa is one of the newly introduced crops and although but a few of the 
farmers plant it, undoubtedly it is a coming crop. 

To try to describe or even imagine the processes of early fanning is rather 
difficult. It seems sort of pitiable to contemplate the vast amount of unnecessary, 
wasted labor, the hardships, privations, failures, and lack of renuuieration that 
these pioneer farmers endured, but this, of course, is only in comparison with 
modern farm life and methods, and safe to say our processes will appeal' just as 
crude and illogical as the past does to us. But when we read in a paper, dated 
1865, of an old Englishman, living in Fairbank Township, cutting all of his 
hay, 31/2 tons, as well as his oats, 1^4 acres, with a little old English case knife, 
it seems not only incredible, but pitiable. He worked from morn till dewy 
eve, literally shaving the fields blade by blade, and when the kind and sympa- 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 93 

thetif neighbors offered hiiii their "modem" scythe and cradle, he tried to use 
them liut did not succeed and returned to his little old case knife. He began 
his labor early in the spring and continued all summer, day after day, early and 
late, and by fall would have secured feed and fodder for his one cow. This is 
an extreme case, but the astounding thing was that he lived in Iowa, and in 
Buchanan County. After the days of the "scythe and cycle" came the much- 
improved "cradle" days, which not only cut the grain, but held the bundle; 
then ajipeared the first reapers, which required at least ten men to complete the 
task. I)ut modei'n invention has improved this machine until it required but 
one or two to do the work formerly requiring ten or a dozen. Just so with all 
farm implements, they have improved so much in the past fifty years that if 
the progress continues at a corresponding ratio we can almost picture all farm- 
ing being done with gasoline or steam engine attachments, or at a wider stretch 
of imagination, by a centralized plant operated by a few experts and by the 
pressure of a few buttons. And .just as the work has been improved and light- 
ened in the field, it has also been in the farmhouse, although not to such an 
extent, women being slow to adopt and demand new improved appliances. But 
nevertheless, work has diminished greatly from the time when threshing with 
the old flail required more time, if not more hands, when numberless pans of milk 
had to be skimmed twice a day, when cheese, butter, lard, candles, soap, all the 
smoked and fresh meats, sausage and headcheese, dried fruits and vegetables, 
besides the making of materials and garments, were a matter of home produc- 
tion. 

The cream separator, with the creamery for a regular customer, the mod- 
ern churn, washing machine, pump and wood saw, all operated by the gasoline 
engine, the fine up-to-date heating and lighting plants and water system now 
installed in the best country homes, surpass the luxuries of kings and queens 
of a hundred years ago. Yes, less than that. And the old ramshackle ox cart, 
the old squeaky spring wagon, and even the pretentioi;s top buggy, have now 
been replaced by the automobile and Ford. Nowadays nearly every farmer can 
afford at least a Ford. This is a meager comparison between days that were 
with days that are, and the improvement in crops and live stock on the farms 
is just as marked. Years ago the great majority of farmers paid more attention 
to wind and weather than to soil and seed. Now their first attention is to the 
soil, and secondly, although not of minor importance, is the seed, not intimating 
that the weather is not a most fundamental necessary adjunct, but here in 
Iowa, and particularly in Buchanan County, we are practically assured of the 
right kind, at seed time and at harvest, and most of our promised crop failures 
prove to be mental drought or drench. Farmers as a class, are rather inclined 
to be pessimistic about their crops and the prices they j-eceive (you will pardon 
the criticism when we acknowledge the fault), "we" know, because "we" are 
"they," invariably we are agi'eeably disappointed in the harvest, for no matter 
what failures of crops are anticipated, there is enough and to spare. The time 
of real crop failures here is past, we hope, and now could we but .stamp out 
that awful pestilence, hog cholera, we would all be literally rolling in wealth. 
Other diseases ravage the domestic animals, but nothing is so widespread and 
devastating as hog cholera, which has destroyed millions of dollars' worth of 
property, besides the millions more or less that have been .spent by individuals. 



94 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

schools and Government for preventatives and cures, and it remains the scourge 
and drawliack of this splendid, lucrative industry, which everj^ few years sweeps 
through the country, leaving death and destruction in its wake. Blessed he the 
man who first discovers a cure; everlasting monuments and eternal fame and glory 
shall he his reward. 

Oxen were largely used in former times for farm work and even for driving 
purposes, and the census reports ol' as late as 1865 show .549 in this county. Now 
they have entirely disappeared. 

Horses have always been well thought of here, and consequently are of a good 
(juality and far above the average in other parts of the country. If you are 
at all doubtful of this, just notice the splendid, strong, well-kept farm teams 
you meet on a tri]) to tlie country, compared with the small, scrawny, underfed, 
shaiiililing e(|uines you see elsewiiere. During war times horses sold vei'y high, 
prices ranging front- 4^75 to $100, caused by the great demand for the army. At 
oiu' time -iOO horses were l)ought in anil aroiuid the county at prices ranging 
from .$112 to $125, for the cavalry troops, but later years they liecame so plei\ti- 
ful that a good horse often sold for .$20 or $25. Now they are higher and 
undoiibtedly of a superior (juality. Horses, sheep and fowls, like all other farm 
products, have been greatly improved in this county, better breeds and bettei' 
care having cau.sed this condition. Just within the last few years has the value 
of superior stock been generally and thoroughly appreciated, and now the pro- 
gressive farmer studies, .selects, nurtures and improves his stock as zealously 
and carefully as he does his children, and often with more zeal and care. The 
best of housing, feeding and grooming is none too good for his fancy, high- 
priced stock. In Buchanan (bounty we have some very fine stock, as is testified 
by the l)lue ribbons awarded at the state fair to Buchanan County exhibitors. 
But to say that good stock was not at all appreciated in the early times is a mis- 
statement, for w'e read of some of those pioneer farmers who scoured the entire 
country for the quality of breeding they desiivd ; especially was this true of 
their efforts with sheep. 

In those da.ys, this county was considered perfectly adapted to sheep rais- 
ing, and many of the farmers went into it on an extensive and expensive scale, 
hundreds of head were brought in fi'om .Michigan, Wisconsin and the New Eng- 
land States. The first important flock was inti'oduced by Mr. Ephraim Leach, in 
October, 1861, w'hen he brought 640 head of fine Merino sheep from Michigan. 
Mr. C. H. Jakway, of Bnft'alo Grove, was another of the original and largest 
importers of sheep in the entire state. He owned .some very valuable stock; two 
fine ewes and three bucks he had selected from three celebrated flocks in Ver- 
mont cost liiiii $1,000. Messrs. Mills and Bryant brought 1,600 sheep from Michi- 
gan. Most of these flocks averaged about $2.00 per head. In 1864, there were 
9,830 sheep in our county which had increased to 15,858 in 1865. Day after day 
enormous flocks wei'e driven through independence for other parts of the state. 
Such was the extent of this industry that a project for a woolen mill was greatly 
agitated through the papers, and at a meeting held at Quasqueton, the farmers 
subscribed $4,000 and the proposition to lease or buy the Quasqueton water 
power by a joint company seemed a most favorable project, but the project 
never materialized. 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 95 

Ede's opened a wool carding establishment on Pine Creek whiuli turned 
out excellent work but great numbers of valuable sheep were killed by dogs and 
sometimes by wolves; sometimes owners losing almost their entire droves. Dogs 
killed $1,428 worth in one year which at $2.00 per head makes a startlingly large 
number. 

This great slaughter on the sheep folds and the eventual appearance of 
toot-rot, caused by the continued dampness of the soil, discouraged the pursu- 
ance of this industry, but in the last few years it has again come into favor. 
Our 1910 census report shows 8,097 sheep in the county and their value as 
$-10,925, worth almost three times as much per head as in the '60s. 

The poultry industry in early days was of minor importance, home con- 
sumption being the only incentive. Eggs ranged from 5 to 12 cents per dozen, 
and in the market reports poultry was scarcely ever mentioned, so we con- 
clude there was no demand for such delicacies. The only (juotations we found 
were in 1858 and 1859, 4 cents per pound ; in another $1.00 per dozen, although 
at that same time they were selling at 35 cents and 40 cents apiece in Dubuque, 
but probably the abundance of quail, prairie chicken and other wild game had 
much to do in governing the price. Quail were 60 cents per dozen and prairie 
chickens 75 cents. Eggs were shipped by the pound and in the early reports 
we have no means of knowing the number of dozens. 

Dairying has always been quite a forte of this community. In the census of 
1865, 311,801 pounds of butter and 20,097 pounds of cheese was the output. 
The prices were 8 to 10 cents for butter and 6 to 10 cents for cheese. This 
industry had not increased as might be expected, in fact, has decreased ; the 1910 
census showing 258,012 pounds of butter and no cheese produced, but 456,836 
pounds of butterfat being sold. An explanation of this might be that creameries 
have monopolized tliose industries and much of the cream is made into ice cream, 
and although the number of milch cows has increased from 4,372 in 1865 to 
18,607 in 1910, over four times as many, the dairy products have greatly dimin- 
ished. 

To be sure the largest per cent of our cattle are raised for beef, Init what 
becomes of those thousands of gallons of milk is a mystery. 

Bee raising was and is of some importance here in Buchanan County. In 
1865, there were 936 colonies of bees which produced 10,168 pounds of honey. 
This amount had increased to 1.631 colonies and 24,297 pounds of honey. 

The manufacture of sorghum was begun in this county and flourished quite 
extensively for a number of years ; some sugar was made too, although not of as 
good a quality as the syrup. The price of sugar was so extremely high that any 
substitute was greeted with cordial appreciation. Refined sugar, or granulated, 
as we now call it, sold for 12 and 13 cents per pound, crushed and pulverized, 
16V1; cents, and even brown sugar was 10 and 12 cents per pound, and molasses 
and syrups ranged from 65 cents per gallon for the poorest molas.ses, vip to 90 
cents per gallon for the best syrups. Mr. ilatthias Harter was one of the first 
experimenters and manufacturers of sorghum, syrup and sugar in the state, and 
it was his boast that he could make those articles as good as could be manu- 
factured from southern sugar cane, and sold his syrup for 50 cents per gallon. 
Mr. Harter went into it very extensively for a new venture, expending $1,500 the 
first year, most of which was a total loss owing to poor seed and production and 



96 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

buying a worthless boiling apparatus, but nevertheless he was confident in the 
eventual sueeess of the sorghum industry here, and by his perseverance succeeded 
in making 800 gallons of first-class syrup and 300 pounds of fairly good sugar 
in 1861. He also manufactured rum and alcohol from the sorghum. Prom all 
these evidences, this plant was destined to become one of the most productive 
grown in America, the seed being equal to corn for feeding stock and the stalk 
producing sugar, rum, alcohol and even an adipose substance from which candles 
could he made, but with the material decrease in the cost of sugar and sorghums, 
the demand for home manufacture became less and less and the saving in manu- 
facturing it did not compensate for the labor expended. It took a great deal 
of skill to make it right, much of the home product being of a black, rubbery 
consistency hardly fit to use. In 1861 about 10,000 gallons of sorghum and 1,000 
pounds of sugar were made. Myers Miller was the largest manufacturer, making 
960 gallons. Harter & Bush made 850 gallons, Timson 800 gallons. Ransom and 
T. C. Bartle each 700 gallons, besides many others who were in the business. This 
at only 50 cents per gallon (the price paid here) gives $5,000 — quite a material 
saving. Mr. Ransom Bartle made 200 pounds of sugar and ilr. Harter 300 
pounds, and that when it was an experiment for this county, though later the 
amount of sorghum syrup had increased to 28,815 gallons while the sorghum 
sugar had dwindled to one pound. The 1910 statistics show 55 acres of .sorghum 
cane planted and 4,057 gallons the production. 

A rash conclusion by the manufacturers of that time was that sugar and .syrup 
manufacture would be our principal industries and that in future years Buchanan 
County would produce all the sugar and molasses it used. Advertisements for 
sorghum seed were important items in the papers and great controver.sy arose 
between the various manufacturers as to methods employed. Numerous sugar 
evaporators were invented by local geniuses to promote the facilities. 

Many different articles appeared in the Buchanan County agricultural re- 
ports which have since become obsolete, such as hops, tobacco, lint, wine, and 
even "coal" of which fifty bushels were mined in Buffalo Township in 1865. 
, In 1865 there was produced -lrl5-'>4 pounds of hops. 8,073 pounds of tobacco, 
776 pounds of lint, and 177 gallons of wine. 

Besides all the other important industries was that of fruit gi-owing. This soil 
was thought to be perfectly adapted to all kinds of fruit growing and farmers 
were urged to go into it extensively — at the County Fair in 1871 E. B. Older 
exhibited ten varieties of grapes and three of pears. Dr. Warne exhibited several 
varieties of grapes and some peaches. Hundreds of apple trees were planted and 
even peaches, and pears to some extent while the cultivation of grapes was exten- 
sively engaged in : this climate was considered particularly adapted to it. 

At the First Annual Fair of the Buchanan County Agricultural Society held 
in Independence, September, 1871, the show of fruit was especially fine and at- 
tracted much attention, being a comparatively new industry in this county. 
Fifteen different collections of apples, embracing from five to thirty varieties were 
exhibited. J. S. Bouck showed over sixty varieties of apples, thirty-three of which 
were his own raising. Some 30,563 fruit trees were in the county in 1865 of which 
only 1,917 were bearing. Now there are over 38,000 but what number are bear- 
ing trees we can not state. Apples are the main crop of fruit, there being 25,717 
trees, bearing 14,551 bushels; there are 147 peach and nectarine trees which bore 



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HISTORY OP BUCHANAN COUNTY 97 

32 bushels. Small fruit, suc-h as cherries, ^apes, currants, and strawberries 
seemed to flourish and gave promise of becoming one of the principal interests 
here, but now is of minor importance and mostly grown for home consumption, 
but are nevertheless of fine quality and flavor. Many of the orchards have died 
out and although new orchards have been planted, just what Buchanan County 
can produce in this way is yet to be seen. There were several fine fruit farms in 
the county. Mrs. I. Knight, east of Independence, had a fine orchard, some of her 
varieties of apples weighed over a pound apiece ; one owned by J. S. Bouck, one 
mile west of Independence, and I. Turner, Charles Crary, George Parish, S. F. 
Searles, W. E. Hill, J. C. Neidy, Stephen Pearsall, J. G. Litts and others were 
extensively engaged in fruit growing. Mr. George Black has a fine horticultural 
farm just north of Independence and produces many excellent and rare varieties 
of fruit and flowei's. 

An item that shows that the early Buchanan County farmers were progressive 
appeared in one of the county papers thus: "In 1861, 100 reapers were sold 
in Independence at $150 apiece." This shows an expenditure of $15,000 for an 
implement new and comparatively little tried. It was estimated that $10,000 was 
expended on other farm machinery that year and the day of agricultural machin- 
ery was just commencing. Practically all of this money (as it still does) goes 
outside the state, a cause for deep concern to those zealous, ambitious people and 
this opinion was expressed in a long article by the editor of the Guardian in which 
he urged the immediate correction of this state of affairs by manufacturing our 
own implements and moreover he confidently expected that soon we would have 
manufactories that would supply not only our own need but other counties. 

The idea of these early times was to supply every need by home industries. 
We quote the above to show how far we have drifted away from this conclusion. 
Quite a bit of simpler machinery was manufactured here in the early days. A 
sulky plow ("a new and unique farm machine") had been patented by Ingalls, 
Smith & Clark of Independence and was being manufactured quite extensively, 
and although we have not fulfilled the expectations of those "pioneer boosters" 
in the way of manufacture, we must have eclipsed their most exaggerated dreams, 
and even now the science of farming is but in its infancy. In 1865 there were 
$94,786.00 worth of agricultural implements in the county. According to the 
last agricultural report $996,736 was expended in machinery in this county, 
while in 1900 the amount was $646,880, and every year sees some new invention 
and device to facilitate farm labor. 

Nowadays the new-fangled machinery, the com shredder, cutter and sheller, 
the manure spreader, the cream separator, the disc, the gasolene engine, attract 
the fancy and the pocketbook of our up-to-date farmers. Another sign of pro- 
gression and prosperity is the advanced price of land in this county, as elsewhere 
in the state. .From the time when the Government sold it for $1.25 per acre 
to the last legislative assessment of $62 average value is quite a jump, but even 
this does not adecjuately show the value. 

Fine improved farms, such improvements as were then needed, with living 
water sold from $2.00 to $3.00 per acre in the early '60s ; now those same farms 
with like improvements would sell for $75 and $100 an acre. 

In August, 1874, S. T. Spangler of Buffalo Township went to Kentucky and 
at some of the large stock sales bought eight very fine cows, paying as high as 



98 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

$500 for the one and $1,695 for the eight head, and the agi-ieultural community 
owed a debt of appreciation and gratitude to any Buchanan County breeder who 
exerted constant work and intelligent efforts for the improvement of stock in this 
vicinity. 

This was one of the first herds of blooded, shorthorn cattle imported into the 
county. This was making a good start for introducing fine stock into the county. 



CHAPTER VIII 
THE EARLY SETTLERS ASSOCIATION 

ITS OEGANIZATION " THE OLD PIONEER" — AN HISTORICAL ADDRESS 

The Early Settlers Association, as it was formerly called (later it acquired the 
name Old Settlers' Picnic), was formally organized in the autumn of 1875. 
Several of the old residents of Independence and vicinity united in a call for 
a meeting to be held on the 9th of September. 

It was intended to hold the meeting in a grove near town, but the inclemency 
of the weather prevented, so the meeting was held in the courthouse. There was 
([uite an assembly of old settlers and after they adopted a constitution they pro- 
ceeded to elect officers for the ensuing year. 0. II. P. Roszell was elected presi- 
dent ; J. S. Woodward, secretary ; James Jamison, treasurer ; and a vice president 
from each of sixteen townships. A list of the members was taken at this meeting 
in accordance with article 9 of the constitution, which read, "Any resident of 
the county who has resided therein for twenty years may become a member of 
the society by presenting his name to the secretary for record." One hundred 
names were recorded at that first meeting. For several years the meetings were 
held at various places. Often in Dickinson's Grove, on the west side of the river, 
but eventually the Courthouse Park was selected as the regular meeting place. 
These reunions were held almost continuously until 1901, when either from lack 
of interest or because the old settlers depended on the new settlers to keep up the 
enthusiasm, they were discontinued. 

The form of entertainment included a big picnic dinner, which was followed 
by a literary and musical program and speeches from the old settlers. To Mr. 
W. A. Jones belongs much of the credit for the success of these meetings. He 
served as president for many years and the reunions were always held on his 
birthday, the 24th of August. Mr. Newton Barr succeeded Mr. Jones as presi- 
dent and was one of the earnest workers for the society, lending his aid not only 
to the arrangements, but to the programs, contributing several poems of his own 
composition, one of which we insert as a true portrayal of pioneer life, Mr. Barr 
being a son of one of the earliest pioneers. 

THE OLD PIONEER 

"Another year has rolled around 
Since last we met upon this ground : 

The elderly, the young, the gay, 9976911 

Are here to celebrate today. 
99 



100 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

"They like to see the pioneer, 
Because they know his days are neai-, 
Of troubles all he never feared 
In early days, when here he steered. 

The old pioneer likes to tell 
How lonely here he used to dwell, 
Because neighbors here were so few, 
When this 'beautiful land' was new. 

' . , "He likes to tell of land he broke, 

With oxen of many a yoke ; * 
He likes to tell of game he killed, 
When at that time this land was tilled. 

"He likes to tell of flowers wild 
That used to please his little child. 
That used to fear the Indian brave 
That now lies buried in the grave. 

' ' He likes to tell of work it took. 
With cradle or reaper hook, 
To save the little crops he grew ; 
Self-binders then he never knew. 

"He likes to tell of railroads great 
That are everywhere in our state. 
On which he may ride to and fro 
When he does not want to go slow. 

' ' He likes to tell of good old times. 
When men committed no great crimes; 
Prisons and jails then were not built, 
The people were so free from guilt. 

"The poor he never did forget. 
Their little wants he always met; 
The same trait of liini now is true, 
For he always was of 'true blue.' 

' ' Old Time is fleeting every day ; 
The pioneer is old and gray ; 
He soon will lie gone to glory, 
, So now ends my little story." 

AN HISTORICAL ADDRESS 

0. H. P. Roszell, a prominent early citizen of Buchanan County, delivered 
the foUowiug address at the Centennial celebration of Independence on July 4, 
1876: 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 101 

"Beginning witli the advent of the tirst permanent settlement in the county, 
we are carried back about one-third of a century ; for the pioneer was one 
William Bennett, who settled where now is the thriving Village of Quasqueton 
in the early spring of 1842. Mr. Bennett is said to have been the first settler in 
the County of Delaware also, and had probably chanced upon the site of Quas- 
queton in some hunting expedition. The beauty of the locality captivated his 
fancy, and the rapid stream showed that its power could be utilized. He at once 
laid claim to the place and proceeded to make his claim good by erecting a log 
cabin on the east bank of the river and occupying it with his family. 

" It is almost as difficult for us to conceive the appearance which, the county 
then presented to its first citizen as it would have been for him to paint by aid 
of fancy that which it now presents to us. Approaching his new home from the 
east, he had crossed many miles of prairie, stretching away to the north beyond 
the limits of vision; looking across the stream to the southwest, still the same 
undulating prairie; and if he passed the river a little to the west he beheld 
still tlie same gently swelling sea of treeless green extending towards the north- 
west to all appearance boundless. 

"He might have caught some floating canoe drifted from its mooring far up 
the stream, and following the timber skirted river through the entire extent 
of the county, no other traces of art or industry would have met his gaze, save 
perhaps the lodge poles of some deserted Indian camp. But though he would 
have found the country a wilderness, it was not a solitude. From every thicket 
on the river's bank, the dip of the paddles woiild have startled the deer, and its 
splash been echoed by the sudden plunge of the otter or beaver, while wild fowls 
— ducks, geese and the majestic swan, rose at his approach in countless thousands 
and mingled their screams with the cry of innumerable cranes wheeling their 
flight far up in the blue ether. The whole country was as if just completed— 
fresh and new and perfect from the hand of the Creator ; an unpeopled para- 
dise. Hardly had Bennett taken possession of his cabin before he was joined by 
one Evans, and by Ezra Allen, who settled about one and a half miles north of 
Quasqueton and in April the settlement was increased by the arrival of Fred- 
erick Kessler and wife, Rufus B. Clark and family, S. G. and H. T. Sanford, a 
Mr. Daggett and Simmons and Lambert and Edward Brewer; the latter, who 
was then unmarried, made his home with Kessler. Clark and Kessler each made 
claims and built cabins about one and a half miles west of Quasqueton and near 
together and as soon as possible commenced breaking prairie, so that in June 
they had ten acres broken which they planted with corn and beans ; but though 
frost did not appear that fall until October 10th, there was not sufficient time 
for the crop to ripen. They all, men and women, went to work the day after the 
frost and gathered the crop so as to secure it in the best possible condition for 
corn and beans were important articles. For provisions during the summer of 
1842 it was necessary to go to the Maquoketa a distance of sixty miles. One per- 
son was sent with an ox team and brought supplies for the whole community. 
The land was yet unsurveyed and of course not in market. The Government sur- 
veyors were engaged that summer in making a subdivision and were encamped 
for some time near Kessler 's. The sight of these and an occasional squad of 
cavalry galloping across the prairie and fording the river at the rapids served 
to remind the settlers that they were not alone in the world. 



102 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

During that summer a man named Stiles settled at Quasqueton and to him 
belongs the honor of keeping the first whiskey shop in the country. He called 
his place a tavern and grocery. Some addition was made to the settlers aside 
from emigration, for in May, 1842 was born Charles Kessler, the first white 
child born in this county. In the autumn of 1842 there arrived Nathaniel Hatch 
and family and Henry B. Hatch, without family. Nathaniel built him.self a 
house and Henry B. made !us home at Kessler 's. Mi-. Bennett built a log dam 
across the river and raised the frame of the saw mill that fall. There were several 
young men in his employ who never became permanent settlers. This .same sea- 
son also one Johnson made his appearance and located on the east side of the 
river about half way between Quasqueton and' Itidependence. He asserted that 
he was the notorious "Canadian patriot' and that the young woman wlio accom- 
panied him as his sole companion was his daughter, Kate, and the veritable 'queen 
of the thousand islands.' His language and conduct excited the suspicion and 
hatred of the settlers and a party of them seized Johnson, administered a severe 
whipping and admonition to leave the settlement, which he soon did. This episode 
was long referred to by the settlers as the 'Patriot war.' 

"The winter of 1842-.'i proved a very severe one and the settlers endured many 
privations. On the 17th of November a terrilile snow storm coiinnenced, accom- 
panied with wind which caused immense drifts. Most of the houses having been 
hastily ert-cted that spring, of logs, were imperfectly chinked and plastered, and 
it was impossible to keep out the drifting snow. Kessler "s was in this condition 
and his family took refuge at Clark's, which was better protected. On returning 
after the storm they found their house drifted completely full and buried, even 
to the chimney, and had to dig out their furniture piece by piece. They dug a 
regular stairway from the door to the top of the snow; and the same to reach 
the water in the spring close by. through snow fourteen feet in depth. The 
storm ended in sleet, which left a hard crust on the surface, which would bear 
the weiglit of a man on the surface if not too heavy. It was almost impos-sible 
to get about except on foot, and in that way the mail was carried to and from 
the colony near Ede's Grove in Delaware County Iiy Kessler, he being selected 
for that service on account of being small and light. Deer were abundant and 
easily overtaken, as tiieir sharp feet broke through the crust ; so venison was 
plenty. Bee trees had also been found in large numbers in the fall, and there 
was a plentiful supply of honey. Some families had tliree or four barrels of 
that commodity, liut honey and venison, though each delicious, were found 
hardly adecjuate food for sole and constant use: and grain there was none, nor 
other food of any kind to be had short of a journey to the colony. 

"IT. B. Hatch was the first to veidure out after corn. He went with two yoke 
of oxen and on his return was overtaken l)y a storm of sleet so severe that the 
freezing rain blinded not only himself, but his oxen. But b.y walking on the 
oil" side of his cattle he managed to shelter himself somewhat, and after stopping 
many times to remove the ice from his eyes and those of his o.xen, he succeeded 
in reaching home with his load of corn, much to the .I'oy of the settlers, who had 
been greatly alarmed for his safety. The corn was immediately distrilnited and 
when exhausted Mr. Sanford went to the same place and brought another load, 
which he carefully dealt out, sternly refusing any applicant more than one peck 
at a time ; not from any want of kindness or generosity, but to enforce that 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 103 

severe economy in its use which was absolutely necessary. For several months 
during that winter, venison, honey and boiled corn constituted the only food 
of the settlers. Wolves were numerous and bold and often came to the springs 
within a few steps from the doors of the settlers, to drink. On the first of April, 
1853, the river was still frozen and teams crossed on the ice. 

"In the spring of 1843 the land in the south part of the county was put in 
market, and on the 13th of March of that year the first entry was made by Edwin 
R. Fulton, the entry being the west half northeast thirty-four, eighty-eight, eight, 
and eighty, which Bennett had claimed and settled upon. Fulton was never a 
citizen of this county and was probably some friend of Bennett, whom he pro- 
cured to make the entry for him. In May, 1843, Malcolm McBane and John 
Cordell — both with their families — settled in the immediate vicinity of Quas- 
queton, on the east side of the river. They entered their first land May 2, 1843. 
Sometime in the summer or fall of 1843 came James Biddinger, S. V. Thomp- 
son, and W. W. Madden ; the former settled near, and the two latter at Quasqueton. 
During the summer of 1843 a flouring mill was erected at Quasqueton by Mr. 
Stiles, but was probably not completed until 1844, about which time a Mr. Rich- 
ards settled there and opened the first store. Up to this time the place had been 
known only as ' The Rapids of the Wapsipinicon' and now it had a saw mill and a 
grist mill, a store, tavern and saloon, and had become quite a village, and was 
named Trenton, which name it retained until about 1847, when it was regularly 
laid out into lots and rechristened Quasqueton, which name was euphonized from 
Quasquetuek, signifying in the tongue of the Indian 'swift waters.' 

"The first settlers had now begun to raise wheat as well as corn, and with a 
mill in their immediate vicinity where it could be ground, were in little danger 
of again being compelled to subsist on boiled corn. Fish were abundant in the 
river, and it is told, and is undoubtedly true, that they were caught of such size 
that, tied together by the gills and thrown across a horse, the caudal fins touched 
the ground on each side. It is surmised, however, that the horse was an Indian 
pony and of not unusual height. The species of fish which attained to such size 
was the 'muskalonge' and some of the same species weighing twenty-four pounds 
were caught at Independence as late as 1854. During the year 1844 there seems 
to have been but little additional emigration to the county ; but in 1845 quite a 
number of families arrived, among them one Abbott, James Rundle, and Benoni 
and Harvey B. Haskins, and I think, David Merrill; these families all settled 
near Quasqueton. During that year also was made the first entry of land north 
of the correction line. It was on section 25, 89, 9, a part of what is now known 
as the county poor farm, and was entered by John Kimrais, December 4, 1845. 

'•Rufus B. Clark, in his hunting excursions, had early visited, observed and 
admired the site of Independence. He had no means with which to purchase the 
land, but he laid claim to the place, and in the spring of 1847 built a log house 
on the east side of the river at a spot near the present junction of Chatham and 
Mott streets, and removed his family thereto. After making the claim he visited 
Jancsville. Wisconsin, and induced S. P. Stoughton and Nicholas A. McClure to 
purchase the land. Stoughton came to Independence the same spring — April, 
1847, entered the land, and during that summer built a dam and saw mill and 
brought also a small stock of goods. With him came Samuel Sherwood, Mervin 
Dunton and a Doctor Lovejoy. In July, 1847, S. S. McClure, Eli D. Phelps, A. H. 



104 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

Trask aud Thomas W. Close arrived and all settled at Independence. In June 
of that year three commissioners, appointed by the state legislature for that pur- 
pose, visited the county, and on the 15th. of June, located the county seat on sec- 
tion ;J4, 89, 9, and called it Independence. In 1846 John Boon and Fi-ank 
Hathaway liad settled on the edge of the prairie two miles northeast of Inde- 
pendence, so that the Fourth of July, 1847, saw at Independence quite a little 
community of settlers and if the celebration here on that day was not as largely 
attended as this, it was fully as enthusiastic as this can be. The location beiug 
made at a date so near to the Fourth of July had probably a great influence for 
the selection of the name of Independence for the future city. The ovei-flow 
caused by the erection of the dam produced ma-laTia, aud most of the settlers suf- 
fered from fever and ague. Mrs. R. B. Clark and Doctor Lovejoy died in the fall 
of 1847. In June, 1848, the colony was increased by the arrival of Asa Blood, 
senior and junior, Elijah and Anthony Beardsley, and a Mr. Babbitt. Doctor 
Brewer removed to Independence also that year, having been elected clerk of the 
county commissioners the year before, and consequent!}' lieing required to l)e at 
the county seat. John Obenehain had settled in the spring of 1848 two miles 
north of Independence, ou the farm now occupied by C. Dickson. Isaac Hath- 
away also settled on section 3&, 89, 9, about two miles east of Independence; 
Thomas Barr, six miles north of Independence; Samuel and Orlando Sufficool, 
William Bunce, Daniel Greeley, and William Greeley, at Greeley 's Grove ; John 
Scott, on what is now known as the Smyser farm ; Jacob Minton, William Minton, 
and Gamaliel Walker, on Pine Creek ; a Mr. Trogden, on the west side of the 
river, about five miles above Quasqueton; and some fifteen or twenty others, 
mostly at or iji the vicinity of Quasqueton, among them D. S. Davis, George I. 
Cummins, James Cummins, Charles Rolibins, Benjamin Congdon and others, 
not forgetting to mention Hamilton Megonigle, who came from the banks of the 
Juniata, in Pennsylvania, a regular, careless, jovial, free-hearted, open-handed 
backwoodsman, who was known to everybody and loved to be called 'Old Juny.' 

' ' The tax list for 1847 shows eighty-one names as resident tax payers. Among 
them are Thomas Barr, Samuel and Orlando Sufficool, William Bunce, I. F. 
Hathaway, John Boon, Gamaliel Walker, William Biddinger, N. G. Parker, 
Samuel Caskey, Ami H. Trask, Tliomas W. Close, Samuel Sherwood aud Edward 
Brewer. The same tax list shows that there were sixty forty acre tracts of land 
entered in the county, being a little less than four sections. The valuation of all 
property, real and personal, was $21,709, and total tax $167.40. Of the eighty- 
one residents seventy-four were voters. The total moneys and credits assessed 
were $3,775. There were 249 head of cattle, 417 hogs, sixty-eight horses, forty- 
two wagons, 642 sheep, aud not one mule. Few of the settlers indulged in the 
luxury of watches, for there seem to have been but six in the whole county. The 
mills aud machinery at Quascjueton had at this time become the property of 
D. S. Dftvis, and were valued at $2000. The saw mill at Independence is put 
down at $900. W. W. Hadden paid the highest tax, the enormous sum of $22.39. 

"The first election of which I find any record was in August, 1847. The 
county was then divided into two election precincts, one called Quasqueton and 
the other Centre precinct. John Scott, Frederick Kessler and B. D. Springer 
were elected county commissioners and Edward Brewer, clerk; and it is a con- 
clusive proof of his worth and ability that he continued to jiold that office twenty- 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 105 

three years. On the 4th of October, 1847, the county commissioners held their 
first meeting at the liouse of Edward Brewer, in Independence. Their first offi- 
cial act was to divide the county into three commissioners' districts. The first 
district comprised all the north half of the county. The south half was divided 
by a line running nortli and south about li/o miles west of Quasqueton. 

"Three road jaetitions were presented, and viewers appointed at that session. 
One from Independence east to county line. One from Independence east to 
intersect the territorial road from Marion to Fort Atkinson and one from Quas- 
queton to Independence on the west side of the river. It was ordered also that a 
surveyor be employed to lay off a town at the county seat. On November 3, 
1847 the commissioners met and caused eight blocks of lots ou the southeast 
quarter of southeast quarter section 34, to be laid off as the Village of Independ- 
ence and the county seat. The land was still Government land and not entered 
by the county until January, 1849, though it was legally preempted and thus 
secured to the county in January, 1848. The lots were 10 rods in length by 
5 in width, and the price fixed for them was $5.00 each. In January, 1848, 
also the three roads first petitioned for were declared public highways. 

"Up to that time tliere liad been no regularly laid out roads in the county, 
except a territorial road from Marion to Fort Atkinson, crossing the river at 
Quasqueton, and running thence nearly north through the county, passing near 
where is now the Village of Winthrop. This was known as the Mission road. 
And another from ilarion to the north line of the state laid out in 1846, cross- 
ing the river at the same place and passing about two miles east of Independence, 
at the edge of the limber. The settlers followed such routes as suited their con- 
venience, from house to house and from neighborhood to neighborhood. Indian 
trails crossed the prairie from stream to stream, leading to fording places, and 
well worn paths led up and down the river, touching, surely, evei-y bubbling 
spring. Such trails, which recent settlers supposed to be merely cattle paths, 
can be pointed out in many places even to this day by the pioneers. 

"Though in the spring of 1848 several families came to Independence, the 
prevalence of fever and ague was so great that it discouraged not only 
them, but most of those who came earlier. IMost of tl)e latter left the place, 
either in the fall of 1848 or the spring of 1849, so that in the sununer of 1849 
only four families remained. In July, of 1849, the first entry of land was made 
in Newton Township by Joseph R. Potter. The first settlement in that township 
was by Joseph Austin, in the spring of 1847. on section 33. Reuben C. Walton 
was the next, and built his cabin on the same forty as Austin in 1848. In 1850 
William P. Harris, Aaron M. Long, Henry Ilolman and a Mr. Ogden settled in 
the same vicinity on Spring Creek, and James McCanna on section 12 on Buffalo 
Creek. Jolni Cordell entered the first land in Cono Township in 1843, and Le- 
ander Keyes and T. K. Burgess settled in that township just below Quasqueton 
in 1848. No land was entered in Homer Township till 1851, when John S. Wil- 
liams entered forty acres on section 19. The first actual settler in Jefi'erson 
Townsliip was J. B. Stainbrook, in June, 1850. and his daughter, Martha, now 
;\Irs. ^Masters, and residing in Brandon, was the fli"st white child born in the 
township. John Rouse and Abel Cox were the next settlers, and arrived in July, 
1850, and in September Nicholas Albert. Phillip Zinn and Joseph Rouse. The 
next year came John Rice, Thomas Frink, Mathew Davis and Hamilton Wood. 



106 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

"In the fall of 1S51 a state road was surveyed from Quasqueton to the county 
seat of Marshall County. Two of the commissioners were D. S. Davis and John 
Cordell. The party started from Quasqueton to look out the route, and passed 
near Brandon, or where Brandon now is. No one, even at Quasqueton, had ever 
visited Jeftersoii Township, nor did any one of the party know whether there 
was a .settler there or not. It was known that some persons from that direction 
had crossed the prairie to the Quas(iueton mill, but there was no road, not even 
a discernible track of any kind. Aided by the compass, the party made its way 
to Lime Creek, and found nestled in the brush near that stream, the cabins of 
Joseph and John Rouse, and close by them went into camp the first night out. 
^ From Rouse it was learned that there were two or three families a little south, 
and by strict search and Rouse for a guide, they found their hou.ses the next 
forenoon. 

"No .settlement was made in Westburg Town.ship till 1853; nor do I know 
who was the tirst settler; but William B. Wilkinson nuist have been among the 
first. In 1849 ilichael C4inther settled in Sumner Township and, being at a 
lo.ss to describe the land he wished to enter, he carried the corner stake to the 
land office at Dubuque, going there on foot for that purpose. The entry was 
afterward found to be on the wrong section entirely. He had intended to buy 
the land on which he had settled, and on which is the famous spring yet known 
as the Ginther Spring, about half way between Independence and Quasqueton, on 
the west side of the river, and when he found the entry he had made was really 
one mile west, and out on the prairie, he was completely discouraged, lieing a 
poor man, and believing that land so far out would never be of any value. The 
first settler in Middlefield was P. M. Dunn, who entered his land on section 34, 
April 24, 1850, followed soon after liy Daniel Leatherman and Stillman Berry. 
Fremont Township remained unsettled until 1853, when Z. P. and S. W. Rich 
located on Buffalo Creek, near the southeast corner of the township. They were 
induced to venture so far out from the timber from the fact that at that time 
the road direct from Independence to Coffin's Orove, Delhi and Dubuciue had 
begun to be considerably traveled, though almost up to that year the only 
traveled route had been via Quasqueton ; but in 1852 the few citizens of Independ- 
ence and vicinity had turned out voluntarily and built a l)ridge of split logs 
across Buffalo Creek, near the correction line, making the route practicable. 
Robert Sutton settled in Byron, on section 32, as early as 1850, if not in 1849; 
and Thomas Ozias in 1851. The first settlers in Perry Township were James IMiu- 
ton, Charles Melrose and Gamaliel Walker, in 1849. Martin Depoy and Jacob 
Slaughter entered land in that township the same year, but did not become set- 
tlers until 1850; and in the .same year Alexander Stevenson and John and Thomas 
Cameron settled in the same township, all in the northeast corner, near Littleton. 
Melrose had made an error in his entry, entering in the north part of township 
88, 10, instead of 89, 10, being near the present Village of Jesup, and not sup- 
posing land in that locality would ever be valuable, by much effort and by the 
aid of the then United States Senator G. W. Jones, a special act of Congre.ss was 
passed vacating his entry and placing it on the section intended, where Mr. Mel- 
rose now lives. Of the first settlement in Hazleton Township I have already 
spoken. William Jewell settled and made the first entry of land in Buffalo 
Towniship in 1849 where now lives C. H. Jakway. Abiathar Richard.son and 



HISTORY OP BUCHANAN COUNTY 107 

Silas K. Messenger came next in 1850 ; and Thomas and Rockwell Jewell and A. 
J. Eddy in 1851. In Madison Township Silas Ross, L. R. Ward and Seymour 
Whitney settled at nearly the same time in 1853, and were the first comers. They 
located in the east part of the township near the place now known as Ward's 
Corners. In Fairbank Township William S. Clark was the first to locate, set- 
tling in the .south part, just above Littleton, in 1848 or 184'J, and was the first 
settler in that region. He went to California about 1856, but the house he built 
is yet standing (1876) — Thomas Wilson must have found his way into the 
timber west of the Little Wapsie very soon after, for I remember finding him 
and one, McKinstry, settled there in 1850. 

"In 1849 S. P. Stoughton and S. S. McClure returned to Independence and 
with them came the writer of this sketch. There were then in Independence only 
Doctor Brewer, Thomas W. Close and F. Beardsley and a Mr. Horton, each 
with their families. Samuel Sherwood, though still reckoned a citizen of Inde- 
pendence, was absent that winter building a mill at Cedar Rapids. There was 
an unenclosed and no other building on the west bank of the river and on the 
east side, besides the building occupied by the families named, a vacant black- 
smith shop and three vacant dwellings, among them the house built by Rufus 
B. Clark, who, after the death of his wife, had sold his interest in the place to 
Stoughton & McClure and removed to the Cedar River in Chickasaw County. 

"The families in the north half of the county could almost be counted on 
one's fingers. W. S. Clark, James Newton, Charles Melrose and Gamaliel Walker 
were up the river near where Littleton now is. Jacob Minton, Thomas Barr, Jo- 
seph Ross and Isaac Hathaway were also among the early settlers." 



CHAPTER IX 
BUCHANAN COUNTY IN THE WAR OF THE REBELLION 

THE CALL FOR VOLUNTEERS — THE MEN AT THE FRONT THE WOMEN AT HOME 

The record of Buchanan County's soldiers in the Civil war, is one of which 
to be justly proud and will ever shed glory and honor on the sons and daughters 
of all of her future generations. With a mingled emotion of pride and sorrow, 
a deep sense of gratitude and equally as much reverence do we read the splendid 
records of those brave heroes. And with such a feeling of utter incapability and 
inexpressible depression, do we attempt to chronicle that tragic tale. How can 
any historian with cold pen and ink hope to describe the incidents of that awful 
time? How can he hope to justly honor the courage, patriotism, self-sacrifice, and 
loyalty that prompted these noble heroes ? It is beyond the power of human com- 
position, and utterly beggars his most aspiring eulogy. How can an artist e'en 
though with a master-hand, paint the horrors of those harrowing scenes. No 
crimson pigment ever splashed upon a canvas could portray the deep and vivid 
color of that gushing, ebbing life blood, no color so ashen to faithfully depict the 
pallor and lifelessness of those fallen heroes, no lines or shadows which can justly 
portray the intense agony, suffering and horror of that awful tragedy. No color 
so true that can follow with accurate portrayal the steadfast, loyal, courageous, 
and victorious line of blue, no pigment adequate to interpret the courage, devo- 
tion, despair, and hopelessness of that wavering line of gray. No color imaginable 
to exactly represent that rolling, blinding, choking smoke of gunpowder, no color 
so flaming to represent the fires of battle, the flash of powder, the blaze of cannon. 
Nothing to express the horrible rumble, rattle, roar, crash, and thunder of burst- 
ing bomb, rattling hail of shot and shell, and rain of bullets. 

Intense patriotism and vivid imagination have inspired the brush of painters 
to most glorious work, but even that falls far short of depicting the realities of 
such a scene. And great writers of history, novels and the drama have tried for 
over fifty years to do justice to that unapproachable subject. Man is utterly 
incapalile of expressing either through the medium of the pen or with the aid of 
brush or chisel, anything more than a semblance of the realities and actualities 
of life. I\lan is a fine imitator and does marvelous things with these finite mate- 
rials, but the infinite spiritualities, intelligences and incorporal senses are beyond 
his limitations. So to know, these extreme phases of our national history, one 
must have lived them. 

And what words, e'en though a dictionary were ransacked from cover to cover, 
what phrases though crowded with expressive meanings, what sentences, though 
teeming with voluble phraseology can but faintly describe those inexpressible 

109 



110 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

thoughts and amotions of war. The licart pangs, the sorrow, despair, bitterness, 
hatred, and brutish instincts to kill and destroy, and, contrasted with those the 
patriotic fervor, bravery, duty, loyalty, love, pity, honor, and devotion, all 
embodied in that single, awful word war. 

It i.s not even a hope with us to add any glory or luster to the patriots of '61, 
but we will try and give them their merited place in history and a just allotment 
of the prominence whicli they deserve as the preservers of the ITnion. Now, after 
fifty-three years of calm and deliberate retrospection, with all hatred, bitterness 
and enmity wiped out. and with a feeling of love, charity, and perfect fairness, we 
can view that terriltle struggle with an impartial judgment which was utterly 
impossible to those writers of that day or even for many generations after. We 
cannot in this brief history enter into any detailed account of the causes which led 
up to this horrible climax. They are too many to be recounted and historians 
differ too greatly to have even yet arrived at any definite conclusions, and our 
opinions on this subject are not even worthy of consideration or space in this 
narrative. Suffice it to say that when the first call came for volunteer troops, 
Buchanan County was not wanting in fervid patriotism and courage and sent 
her quota to the front. 

The echoes and revei'berations of that first fatal shot tired upon Fort Sumter 
by the rebellious South, had scarcely died away until the whole North and West 
were swept, as with a tidal wave of patriotic enthusiasm and fervor, which 
quenched all other baser fires of partisan and sectional strife which had been 
raging for many years and which time and again had threatened to disrupt the 
Union, and united them in one grand cause. With the admission of each of the 
several intermediate states, there had been controversy and dissension, the two 
factions, free and slave states, claiming them, and feuds. 

In the early history of Iowa we undoubtedly were a pro-slavery state, probably 
due to the fact that a very large per cent of the population of the state were 
southerners and on account of their great supremacy in holding office at that 
time. Striking evidence of this supremacy and domination of men of southern 
affiliations and antecedents in Iowa's political affairs prior to 1850 and even up 
to the outbreak of the Civil war, is afforded in the membership rolls of the early 
legislatures and constitutional conventions. 

In her territorial days all the highest offices were occupied by southerners 
appointed under a democratic administration ; in the first Territorial Legislature 
in 1838, there were twenty southerners, five New Englanders, eight from the 
middle states and five from Ohio and Indiana, and too those from the middle 
states and from Ohio and Indiana were of southern extraction. In all the sub- 
sequent sessions this predominance continued. In the Senate of the third 
general assembly, in 1851, the southerners numlwred seven, while those from New 
England were only two. But in 1854 the proportion was rapidly changing and 
the middle and eastern .states were greatly increasing in representation in Iowa, 
but nevertheless there were in the Senate ten southerners and only four New 
Englanders, and in the lower house, sixteen from the South and but nine from 
the Northeast. Likewise in the constitutional conventions that convened in 
LS-tl, 1846, and 1857, men hailing from south of Mason and Dixon's line greatly 
outnumbered the New Englanders. In the first convention, there were twenty- 
six southerners, eleven Virginians, six North Carolinians, eight Kentuckians, and 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 111 

one Tennesseean ; while New England was represented by ten and the middle 
states by twenty-tliree, of whom thirteen were from Pennsylvania, eight Ohioans, 
and Indiana and Illinois each one. In the second convention, there were fifteen 
from the South, eight from New England, four from the middle states, and five 
from the "Old" northwest states, and in the convention of 1857, the South had 
ten, New England six, the middle states eleven, and the northwest states nine 
representatives — showing a decrease in southern representation, and from this 
on the ratio of northerners increased and southerners decreased. 

Further proof of this fact is the Federal census of 1855, which shows the 
number of native born New Englanders in Iowa was only 5,535 ; pioneers from 
the middle states aggregated 2-4,516, and the total number born in the southern 
states amounted to 30,954. From the states of the old northwest territory we 
received 59,098, and the native born lowans numbered 50,380. There has been 
so much discussion about the early pioneers and the influences that predom- 
inated and moulded our state government institutions and our attitude toward 
slavery and the South previous to the rebellion, that we considered these statistics 
as very pertinent in explaining what seems to some a shocking revelation when 
they find Iowa was so decidedly sympathetic to the South. The New Englanders 
were to a man ardent abolitionists and the almost universal belief that New 
Englanders were greatly in preponderance here, and exerted the greatest influ- 
ence, is responsible for the opinion that we were a strong and anti-slavery state. 

The striking fact of this census is that the inhabitants who claimed New Eng- 
land as their birthplace did not number four to the hundred of the entire popu- 
lation, while the southerners numbered nearly six times as many. There were 
more native born Virginians alone than from all tlie New England states put 
together, also the number from Kentucky outnumbered the New Englanders. 
In the enumerations of 1856 and 1860, the New Englanders show some increase, 
but up until 1860 the southerners predominated three to one, especially in the 
southern half of the state. In the early political history party affiliations were 
not strong; former surroundings and inherited prejudices and influences eon- 
trolled the vote. But many southerners and democrats were anti-slavery and 
anited their efforts with the one common enemy. 

In 1846, when the people of the East first received the report that the whigs 
had captured the first general assembly under our new state government, even 
though by a scarce majority, they experienced a great surprise, because previ- 
ously we had been counted an overwhelmingly democratic pro-slavery state. 
Horace Greeley, in the New York Tribune of March 29, 1854, wrote: "What 
gain had freedom from the admission of Iowa into the Union? Are Alabama 
and Mississippi more devoted to the despotic ideas of American pan-slavism?" 
And was not his opinion justified when Senator Dodge boldly declared in Con- 
gress that ' ' Iowa was the only free state which never for a moment gave way to 
the Wilmot Proviso," and further boasted, "My colleague voted for every one of 
the compromise measures, including the fugitive slave law, the late Senator 
Sturgeon, of Pennsylvania, and ourselves, being the only three senators from the 
entire non-slave-holding section of the Union who voted for it." He said he 
rejoiced that Iowa had never endorsed the Wilmot Proviso, which sought to 
exclude slavery from the territories. Iowa was the only northern state which 
refused to instruct its members of Congress to support the proviso. Augustus 



112 HISTORY OP BUCHANAN COUNTY 

C. Dodge was senator from 184S to 1855, and Geoi'ge W. Jones senator from 1848 
to 1859. He was an intimate and firm friend of Jefferson Davis and this fact 
probably largely influenced his and possibly his colleague's political views and 
conduct, and which eventually caused the imprisonment of General Jones on the 
charge of treasonable conduct during the Civil war. And it was not until James 
W. Grimes was elected governor, in 1S54, that Iowa showed any manifestation of 
becoming an anti-slave state, which signified a complete revolution in the politi- 
cal control of the state and attracted the attention of the nation. Prior to that 
date, Iowa was regarded with l)Ut little interest by the people of the northern 
and eastern states, being considered a southern stronghold and grouped with 
Illinois and Indiana in the alignment of political parties in the contest over the 
extension of slavery. 

Von Hoist, the eminent Dutch historian, in his Constitutional History of the 
United States, said, "Iowa was a veritaljle hot-bed of dough-faces," but in 1854 
a change took place, tlie In'eaking of the whig party (many of its members having 
united with the "Know Nothings," and that party into two hostile factions — the 
"Silver Greys" — who were willing to let slavery alone and the "Seward Whigs," 
who were opposed to slavery), and likewise the split in the democratic party 
which was divided on the slavery issue into the "Hunkers," who favored slavei-y 
and the "Free Soilers, " who were anti-slavery — and still another, an anti-slavery 
party which nominated a full ticket for state officers that year, but were induced 
to withdraw them and support the whig candidates, all eventually uniting into 
one, an anti-slavery party, which had as its chief exponent and strongest advo- 
cate, James W. Grimes, who was nonniiated for governor by the whigs and elected 
by a majority of 2,123 over Curtis liates. Grimes received 23,325 votes and 
Bates 21.202. 

This election was the first victory and marked the ascendancy of the anti- 
slavery movement in Iowa and was the beginning of a union of all who opposed 
the extension of slavery and the forerunner of the coming repiiblicau party. 
But that election proved, too, that we were not yet united in our views, for al- 
though the whigs elected a governor and auditor, the democrats had elected the 
secretary of state, treasurer, attorney general and superintendent of public 
instruction. In the general assembly of that year, in the Senate the democrats 
had sixteen members, the whigs and free .soil, fifteen. In the House they .stood, 
whig and free soil, forty, democrats, thirty, so the democrats organized and 
controlled the Senate and the whigs the House. This assembly, after numerous 
votes, elected James Harlan, free soil whig. United States senator to succeed 
Augustus Dodge. It was pronounced illegal l>y the Senate and he was reelected 
in 1857. The assembly of 1855 also elected George G. Wright, whig, for chief 
justice, and William G. Woodward, whig, for associate justice ; also Norman W. 
Isbell as associate justice. James Harlan was the most radical anti-slavery ad- 
herent we have ever had in Congress and in fact, until his election and that of 
James Thorington as representative, no voice had ever been raised in protest 
against the extension of slavery, from any Iowa senator or representative. The 
territory and state had been controlled by the democrats, and its vote in Congress 
had with one exception (that was Daniel F. Miller, whig member of Congress 
in 1849-51) been uniformly against the anti-slavery or free soil movement which 
was rapidly growing in Iowa and all the northern states. Governor Grimes re- 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 113 

marked when Harlan was elected, "Our southern friends liave regarded Iowa 
their nortliern stronghold. I thank God it is conquered." In 1855 was the last 
contest between the democrats and whigs in Iowa — at this election the whigs 
were victorious. 

Before the next election, the whig party had been absorbed by the new repub- 
lican party. In 1856, our State Legislature passed .joint resolutions strongly 
opposing the extension of slavery and these i-esolutions were sent to the Iowa 
memliers of Congress. No more democrats were elected to Congress from Iowa 
until after slavery had ceased to exist and although the democratic party here 
never opposed the extension of slavery, thousands of its members were strongly 
against it and left the ranks, uniting with the free soil movement and finally the 
repul)lican party. With such men as Grimes for governor, Harlan as senator 
and Thorington as representative, the anti-slavery movement had strong backing. 
The thing that rankled and inflamed the northern people and united and solidi- 
fied their interest into one cause was, not so much the opposition to slavery in the 
South as to its enforced extension in the North; it was encroaching on all new 
territory, and forced the situation to its ultimate climax. In all pr-obability if 
the South had been content to let the new states and territories settle the slavery 
(juestion for themselves, the climax would not have been precipitated for several 
years. Lincoln further said, "Slavery will not cease until a crisis shall have 
been reached and pas.sed." 

No people can long remain passive and noncommittal when subjected to such 
outrages as were pei-petrated upon these new western states and territories. 
They must either submit and themselves become slaves or revolt and strike for 
lil)erty and freedom. As Lincoln said, "No nation can long endure half free 
and half slave." "A house divided against itself cannot stand. I do not 
expect the Union to be dissolved, I do not expect the house to fall, liut I do expect 
it will cease to be divided. " 

lo'wa had long been impassive and insensible to the terrible condition of 
affaii's concerning slavery in the South, but when she saw her sister states being 
coerced and despoiled, she aroused from her lethargy and at the first shot fired 
in defiance to the Union, threatening its dissolution, Iowa rose unanimously, and 
consecrated herself to its cause. Henceforth, there was no wavering allegiance 
to the Government, no divided sentiment for the Republic but only the conse- 
crated love and devotion and sacrifice of all that life holds dear to that one com- 
pelling and concentrated issue, "the preserving of the I'uion." The proud boast 
of the early settlers that Iowa was second to no state in the Union in patriotism 
and loyalty to the old flag, undoubtedly is true and seems to be justified in the 
records and public documents on file pertaining to the Civil war, but nevertheless 
the foregoing statistics show another phase of that question. 

We have given this review of early conditions in the state for the purpose of 
correcting any false impression among future generations, that our state was 
always a veritable cradle of patriotism and loyalty to the Union, a state of the 
highest ideals and sentiments, people who were foremost in advocating justice 
and freedom. We lowans have, liy the processes of education, environment, and 
location developed all those finer attributes, but it has taken years to do it. We 
should be reminded of these gi'osser beginnings so that we shall not become too 



114 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

self-righteous and arrogant. "Lord God of Hosts, be with us yet, Lest we forget, 
Lest we forget." 

We should be most lenient and magnanimous to those wlioni we can now 
safely declare were in the wrong and misguided in their judgment of right and 
wrong. They pursued their cause and their ideas of justice and principle just 
as valiantly as did the northerners ; were just as conscientious, honest, loyal, self- 
sacrificing, and brave as any hero who ever fought, bled, and died for principle, 
and today we recognize these noble traits and honor them for their unswerving 
faithfulness to duty. 

The conditions in Buchanan County just preceding the war were about as 
they were every place through the northern halt of Iowa. Of course there were 
some southern sympathizers (Copperheads, as they were called) but the great 
majority were loyal Unionists and Abolitionists and responded with alacrity 
to the first call for enlistments. To briefly summarize those last and culminating 
events which led up to President Lincoln's call for troops: On the 12tli of 
April, 1861, a cannonade from Fort Moultrie, and the batteries erected and con- 
trolled by the Confederates in Charleston Harbor, was begun upon Fort Sumter, 
that being a Federal stronghold, and under the command of Major Robert An- 
derson. The cannonading continued for two days and finally on Sunday, the 
14th. the fort was surrendered. There was no longer room to doubt the inten- 
tions of the South. She was in open rebellion, and South Carolina was the fir.st 
state to secede from the Union. The United States Government proceeded to 
act at once and President Lincoln under authority of the law of 1795 giving 
the President power to call out the militia in case of insurrection immediately 
issued a call for 75,000 men for three months' service. That call secured the 
direct promise of 92,000 men from the different states, and six days after it 
was made Massachusetts troops were in Washington. 

When Governor Kirkwood, our War Governor, received the telegram an- 
nouncing the "first call" for a regiment, he innnediately hastened to Davenport, 
where the telegraph office was (that being the only place where it was in opera- 
tion ) , in order to get the dispatches of the President and act upon them without 
loss of time. He was sick and had left Des Moines, the new Capital, which was 
then without any railroad communication and gone to his farm near Iowa City 
to recuperate. ( 'ailed from a sick bed, as he stated to an enthusiastic meeting in 
Davenport, he emplo.ved the most energetic means for the raising and equip- 
ment of troops. "Wh.v, the President wants a whole regiment, Mr, Vandever, 
Can I raise so many?" said the astonished governor to the gentleman who brought 
the telegram. That regiment was raisetl before their equipment could be pre- 
pared and ten regiments were soon offered the Government. "Ten days ago," 
wrote the governor to President Lincoln, "there were two parties in Iowa, now 
there is only one. and that one for the Constitution and the Union, uncondi- 
tionally." Money must be had to reach these emergencies and the next morning 
after Sumter was fired upon, the Graves Brothers of Dubuque said. "Draw on 
us for .$30,000." W. T. Smith, a leading democrat of Oskaloosa, Ezekial Clark, 
Governor Kirkwood himself and many other patriotic citizens practically turned 
their pockets wrong side out for the benefit of the state. The young Dutch 
colony at Amana sent the governor .$1,000, Cloth for uniforms was bought 
and the women, as loyal and true hearted as the men, made them up in short 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 115 

order. The women of Burlington, headed by Mrs. Grimes, wife of the former 
governor, made tliree hundred soldiers' coats and haversacks in six days. 

This out-riow of men and money was all the more remarkable since the state 
was only just beginning to recover from the panic of 1857 and 1858, which 
had so crippled both private and public interests, but nevertheless she did her 
full tluty. Soldiers were drafted in certain sections but this was owing to an 
error in our military credits. The real seriousness and extent of the war was 
not even remotely realized until the fearful disaster at Bull Run on July 9th, 
and a few days later Congress authorized the enlistment of 500,000 men, half 
a million heroes called from the tields, the workshops, stores, and offices, from 
every avenue and walk of life to the battlefield, the hospital and the soldier's 
grave. Not a soldier from Iowa was at Bull Run, but this disastrous defeat 
of the Federal troops just incited and urged them to wilder enthusiasm and more 
determined resolve. The effect of these events was electrical and patriotism 
was kindled into raging flame in an instant. The different papers in the county 
gave utterance to the most vehement and patriotic sentiments, such as Mr. Rich, 
editor of the Buchanan County Guardian, gave voice to, in an editorial in the 
number following the announcement of the fall of Fort Sumter. Those fervid 
sentiments, written at a time of intense and burning patriotic ardor, give a 
vivid impression of tliat true and noble heroism which animated the loyal people 
of the North to support their country, and espouse the cause of Liberty and 
Union, Now and Forever, and are so eloquent and so prophetic that we con- 
sider it pertinent with this topic to print them. They were the universal senti- 
ments of the people without respect to party ; democrats and republicans vied 
with each other in expressions of loyalty and devotion to the Government and 
were unanimous in their imprecations against the traitors who had plunged the 
country into a civil war. 

Such fine and lofty expressions serve as an incentive to future generations 
to valiantly guard and protect that flag which was first purchased at so great 
a cost and again redeemed from insult and stain with such awful sacrifice. 
Whenever the call to duty has come, the spirit of patriotism has not been wanting 
but has prompted and sustained our brave soldiers to noble and heroic deeds. 

At the outbreak, the citizens not only of Independence, but of all portions 
of the county, arose to the occasion, earnest, loyal, patriotic and united. The 
fii'st manifestation of any I'eal organized effort was an impromptu gathering at 
the courthouse on Saturday evening, April 20th, and was pervaded with such 
unanimity and concord of opinion that it must perforce culminate in some con- 
centrated and effective service. 

Party spirit was completely superseded with loftier motives. In order to 
obtain a fuller expression of feeling and definiteness of action a meeting was 
called for the following Monday evening and at the time appointed, with nothing 
but a verbal notice, the courthouse was again crowded with a calm, earnest, 
determined body of citizens, many ladies being present. Alfred Ingalls, Esq., 
was elected to the chair and Messrs. Rich, editor of the Guardian, and Warren 
Barnhart. editor of the Civilian, were appointed secretaries. 

On motion of ^Ir. Charles Lathrop a committee of five consisting of the fol- 
lowing gentlemen, C. E. Lathrop, W. S. Marshall, Edward Brewer, D. T. Ran- 
dall, and Lyman Hathaway, all men of some prominence in the affairs of Inde- 



116 HISTORY OP BUCHANAN COUNTY 

peiuleuce, was appointed to prepare resolutions. When the committee had retired 
to prepare the resolutions, Messrs. J. M. Hord and D. 8. Lee were called upon 
and made strong earnest Union speeches, urging the claims of the Government 
upon all loyal citizens, and the necessity of i^unishing treason by the overthrow 
of the traitors. 

The following resolutions were reported and unanimously adopted: "Where- 
as, The fact has been announced by proclamation of the President of the United 
States, that rebellion exists in a portion of our country, and that the flag of our 
Union has been fired upon liy tlie constituted authorities of the so-called Southern 
Confederacy ; and 

Whereas, The President has called upon tlie loyal states for troops to put 
dowji said rebellion and assert the supremacy of the laws, therefore 

Resolved, That we, the citizens of Independence, without respect to party 
distinction, will rally as one man to the support of our rightfully constituted 
Government, and pledge ourselves to respond to any call that may be made upon 
us, either for men or money, to the full extent of our ability. 

Resolved, That we regard all who refuse to stand by the Government in the 
present crisis as unworthy of the name of American citizens, and as enemies of 
the liberties of mankind. 

Resolveil, That, come what may, we will never give up that noble sentiment 
of the patriot Jackson : "The American Union — it must and shall be preserved." 

Resolved, That we approve of the policy of the national administration in 
the present crisis, believing that tlic President has acted toward the southern 
rebels in a just, magnanimous and conciliatory manner, and has afforded, by his 
conduct, no pretext for their recent warlike preparation and action ; and we will 
stand by our President while he continues to act in the strict lines of his con- 
stitutional duty. ' ' 

This was in fact a most sacred pledge to support the Union and fairly equiva- 
lent to an actual enrollment, and undoubtedly these calm, resolute, earnest men 
considered it as such, when they took upon themselves so serious an obligation. 
This was an occasion for deep and serious thought, a time when the brain and 
heart were wrenched and torn with feelings; eloipient speeches fraught witli in- 
tensely patriotic sentiments, glowing tributes, and fervid devotion to the Gov- 
ernnment and the maintenance of its authority followed the adoption of the 
resolutions from Messrs. W. G. Donnan, W. S. Marshall, Jed Lake, W. A. Jones, 
E. J. Pratt, D. T. Randall, Horatio Bryant, Sampson and Abbott. A Mr. Henry 
of St. Louis, who was called upon at the suggestion of a friend, received most 
hearty applause when he said that "he was with the people of Iowa for the 
Union;" Init when he proceeded to say that "he and the Union men of the 
border states would stand as a wall between the contending forces, saying to the 
Government you shall not cross our territory to attack the South, and to the 
South, you shall not cross our boundaries to attack the North," his prestige was 
gone. He had questioned the prerogatives and indefeasable rights and privileges 
of governments to command their suljjects and chastise them into obedience. 
His loyalty and sincerity to the Union was doubted and after some sharp cate- 
chising, which showed the speaker the displeasure of the audience with his re- 
marks and that he could not in any way regain their favor, he subsitled, although 
the hollowncss of such Union sentiments Imd only a few days before been exem- 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 117 

plified in the killing of Federal soldiers in Baltimore on their way to defend the 
Capital. There was only one other tliscordant utterance from a citizen to mar 
the complete harmony and unity of this patriotic gathering, which, in its manly 
outspoken loyalty, conferred a lasting honor on Buchanan County. One of the 
speakers called upon took a narrow, partisan view of the situation, and spoke of 
the call of the President for troops as an appeal from the republicans for 
assistance, from the opposing political party; and though he favored such 
assistance it was only upon the grounds that by that means alone could they 
gain political ascendancy in the future. It is perhaps needless to say that 
these sentiments had few adherents at that meeting. Some of the most prominent 
citizens in the county were southern sympathizers and at least in the beginning 
of the great struggle thought it but a political ruse and that they were being 
duped, but time has proved that they were unequivocally mistaken, and undoubt- 
edly realized that fact. The editor of the Guardian expressed a very charitable 
opinion of this affair, when he said "that the speaker had done himself great 
injustice, his patriotism being infinitely deeper and broader than his party feel- 
ing," and this kindness of the editor prompted the former Buchanan County 
Historian to the added charity of withholding his name from the record of those 
proceedings and from those who valiantly supported the Union; so we are com- 
pelled to do likewise, although our opinions both of history and that man's expres- 
sions are different than those of the previous writer. 

We maintain that history is history and that it should be chronicled just as 
it liappened without distinction of social standing, party or creed, and without 
prejudice or partiality to the individual concerned, and furthermore we believe 
every man is entitled to his own opinions and that he alone is entirely responsible 
for those opinions, be they right or wrong. On the principles of freedom of 
speech and thought was our Government founded. But it is not astonishing 
that during that heated period men ran the risk of all sorts of abuse and 
even life itself, to express opinions differing from the majority of people in the 
community where they lived, and for years afterwards both speech and thought 
had to be jealously guarded. Even here in Independence there were many fiery 
altercations and a few more serious troubles that eventually led to real pugilistic 
encounters. 

One citizen of Buchanan County, who was a teacher in Benton County and 
a southern sympathizer, and strongly opposed to the northern measures, whose 
name we withhold because he was a grandfather of the authoress, wrote in a 
copy book for a pupil ' ' Jeif erson Davis was a loyal citizen of the United States. ' ' 
The boy for whom the copy was made changed the verb from the past to the 
present tense and by so doing changed the whole complexion of the sentence. 
This copy was passed around to all the directors and patrons of the school and 
caused intense and hitter feeling. The school master was forced to resign and a 
lynching party was organized to hang him. For two weeks both night and day 
his good neighbors guarded his home, and finally the agitation wore itself out. 
The seliool directors refused to pay him his salary, although he had a contract to 
teach, so he sued them and the court sustained his case. Now, we personally 
know this man to have been a most ardent patriot and an enthusiastic supporter 
of the government, but his views upon the war questions differed greatly from 
the majority of the northerners' opinion. He vehemently condemned slavery 



118 HISTORY OP BUCHANAN COUNTY 

but he believed iu the sovereignty of the states and believed in pursuing a 
milder, more legislative and persuasive course, and that eventually the South 
would be convinced of her error and correct those evils without interference, and 
bloodshed. And possibly this would have transpired if the North had been con- 
tent to submit to evei-y insult and treasonable act, for there is no denying the 
fact that the South forced the situation and compelled the North to bear arms 
in self defense. And, too, we cannot help but admit that other countries, in 
fact all the European countries had and have abolished human traffic by law. 
Our country has the awful distinction of being the only country iu the entire 
world which had to settle the question in armed conflict and with such horrible 
sacrifice of life and pi'operty. But to return to that first organized meeting which 
was the spark that started the consuming fires of patriotism which raged here 
and prompted such an outpouring of actual service and resulted in so many en- 
listments. Mr. Sampson, pastor of the Methodist Church, declared his readiness 
to march in the ranks if necessary, thus showing that he would not urge others 
to a duty from which he considered himself excused. 

At a late hour the meeting adjourned, after adopting a motion made by W. G. 
Donnau, that committees be appointed to organize companies and raise the funds 
that would be required for their outfit. This meeting fully developed the fact 
of the unity of sentiment which existed iu this community and the unflinching 
loyalty of the Government, and it likewise demonstrated that, should occasion 
demand, one company of volunteers for active service and another as a contingent 
could be raised on short notice. A meeting for those desirous of forming a com- 
pany whose services should be offered at once to the governor, was appointed 
for the Wednesday evening following and the Citizens' Meeting adjourned sub- 
ject to the call of Mr. lugalls, chairman. 

Some incidents showing clearly the state of the public mind, as expressed 
at the first telegraphic dispatch announcing the cannonading upon Fort Sum- 
ter, was the raising of a flag, belonging to the citizens of Independence, upon 
the flag-staff, near the courthouse and as its beautiful folds were unfurled to the 
breeze the wildest cheers went up again and again from the assembled crowd. 
Democrats and republicans alike joining heartily in the vociferous outburst of 
patriotism. Flags were also raised and kept flying from the offices of the county 
papers, the Guardian and Civilian, nor did one excel the other iu the ardor of 
its utterances supporting the Government and the war measures. This sounds 
rather tame, but in so many places the sentiments were so divided and so bitter. 
To be sure in the Civilian we read articles not in concord with this general feel- 
ing, articles full of vitriolic remarks, and censure of the "blood thirsty" aboli- 
tionists, and decrying the view taken liy the editor of the Guardian and his ' ' No 
Compromise Editorials," accusing the republicans of "preferring party to 
peace," of having brought the Government to the brink of ruin, "Nothing will 
satisfy them but blood, blood, blood."" "Great God when will reason again 
resume control of the American people — would to God we might hear from 
every portion of this once glorious and happy land, the voice of peace, peace, 
and then and not until then, can we expect to be united, prosperous and happy. 
If we had less 'No Compromise' articles and 'sensational dispatches,' and in 
their stead sober, candid editorials, setting the truth liefore the people, we would 
in a short time, hear voices throughout the land crying for peace ; and such I 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 119 

lielicve to be the duty of every lover of this Union." These were not written by 
the editor, however, but l)y a subscriber. Anotlier incident occurred on Satur- 
day, April 14th, while a ease was on trial in the District Court, and while the 
jury was attentively listening to the examination of witnesses, someone brought 
into the courtroom a Dubuque paper containing the tirst account of the tight at 
Charleston. The news flashed around the courtroom instantaneously, and created 
great excitement. Lawyers, witnesses, and jurymen caught tlie infection, and it 
was found impossilile to proceed with the ca.se until they all had heard and dis- 
cussed the news. The jui*\' would give no attention until the war news was read 
to them, which was at length done by order of the court, a suspension of pro- 
ceedings having been ordered for that purpose. "The ease of South Carolina 
and Seces.sion, thus unceremoniously brought before the jury was of a character 
t" reijuire no cross-examination of witnesses, no special pleading of lawyers." 
The crime was premeditated, self-evident, and their rendering of a judgment was 
<|uick and impartial and the decision has never been and never will be reversed 
— or the case appealed. Patriotic enthusiasm as evinced in those public demon- 
strations and meetings was by no means confined to the county seat, but at 
various points in the county, public meetings were held, at Quasqueton, Littleton, 
and other places. 

Volunteers were daily offering their services and everywhere offers of money 
for the support of the families of volunteers were being made. An enthusiastic 
meeting of the citizens of Littleton and vicinit.y was held early in Ma.y, with the 
avowed object of organizing a military company whose services should be offered 
to the governor as soon as the organization was complete. Many ladies were 
present and were as enthusiastic a.s the men. The meeting was addressed by 
Messrs. Lewis, Leavitt, and Hord of Independence; and by Reed, Muncy, San- 
ford, and others of Littleton. Thayer's Band, from Barclay was present, and 
when the fife and drum played those stirring National airs, the patriotism of the 
people was raised to fever heat. History makes mention of the fact that no town, 
village, or hamlet, was destitute of a flag (flags were not as common then as 
now) and at the county seat whenever news of especial concern was received, 
printing offices and stores hung out flags, in such profusion as to suggest the 
thought that, unconsciously, the loyal heart of the North was striving by a double 
meed of allegiance to atone for the indignities offered elsewhere to this sacred 
emblem of the Nation's power and majesty. 

The first official word of instruction to companies was received in a letter 
from Hon. William Vandever to Mr. Rich, in which he told what the require- 
ments would be, what officers, uniforms, arms, and other equipment was needed. 
They were advised to furnish themselves with some simple style of uniform 
such as a gray tweed flannel (blouse and pants) to answer until the Legislature 
met at its extra session which met IMay 15, 1861, when it would undoubtedly 
make some provision for arming and equipping several regiments. The state 
would distribute arms as fast as they were received from the Federal Govern- 
ment. He said it was the desire of the governor to have such companies formed 
all over the state, fully equipped and prepared for any emergency, bvit not to 
interfere with their business pursuits. He further wrote, "I trust that in the 
next regiment required from the state, some of your northern companies will 
be preferred over those from the river towns. ' ' And as is usual in times of war 



120 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

the men were not only willing but anxious to go to the front and "lick the 
saucy rebel traitors to a liuish in one good round, etc.," were their boasts, as 
likewise, did the rebels boast of what they would do to the pusillanimous Yanks. 
Little did they imagine what the outcome would be, and what awful carnage 
and destruction would be endured before the end. 

Lincoln's first call had been for "■ ninety day"' enlistments, believing that 
sufficient time to establish peace and order and reestablish Government in the 
South. On Ajjril 16th he had issued a proclamation, giving the rebels twenty 
days in which to disperse ; this time expired on Sunday, May 5th, and from that 
date it was the firm resolve of the Administration, and in fact the determined 
sentiment of the entire North to crush out this infamous Reliellion. Nothing 
should intervene and no armistice, compromise, or half-way measures should 
divert them from their purpose. An editorial written by Mr. Rich appeared in 
the Guardian of May 7, 1861 — which so well sums up the situation and expresses 
the sentiments of this couniiunity that we consider it an important paper to 
preserve. 

"On Sunday night last, Ma.y Sth, the twenty days which Mr. Lincoln, in his 
proclamation, gave the rebels to disperse, expired, and from now onward noth- 
ing will intervene to jirevent the Government from pushing its movements 
actively against the traitors." F. W. Seward. Assistant Secretary of State, tele- 
graphed to New York, in rcfut;itiou of the report thiit an armistice had been 
asked by tlie Government, that tluit sort of thing ended on the -Ith of IMarch ; 
and we may therefore conclude, both from that and Mr. Lincoln's reply to the 
Maryland deputations, that the administration is fully resolved to give action 
to the determined sentiment of the whole Nt)ii:li, that this infamous Rebellion 
must not lie compromised with, but must be crushed out — crushed out so effec- 
tively that tlie nwn ;ind the system that for long years have kept the country in 
foment, shall never thereafter be able to create a disturbance. Tiie country 
demands no half-way measures. It demands of the Goverinnent no longer con- 
servative or defensive efforts, but calls for a forward, aggressive movement. 
It demands not only that Washington may be made secure, Init that every fort, 
arsenal, and Government building in the slave states, stolen by the secessionists 
shall be retaken. * * * Demands that no thought of reconstrui'tioii, no prop- 
osition of division shall be entertained, bait that the Union and the Constitution, 
as they have existed, shall be preserved intact. Since tliey have l)een forced 
to fight, they denmnd that the <juestion in issue shall l)e settled forever — that 
slavery shall no longer have the power to convulse the country as it has done 
heretofore. 

This firm determined stand of the people and the administration, has had its 
clear effect in the border states. Maryland, for a time overcome by a bold 
mob, has received a strengthening of backbone hy this evidence of the power 
and will of the great North. Again the American flag floats throughout all her 
borders. Again her people in mass meetings declare their fidelity to the Union, 
and her Legislature is forced to frown down the idea of secession. The cry of 
noi-thern volunteers, "Through Baltimore, or over it,'' has mad(> that city 
almost as patriotic as couhl be desired. Western Virginia stands boldly up, under 
the inspiration of northern firnniess, and declares that she will battle to the 
death with the secessionists of the eastern part of the state. Missouri, also, as 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 121 

well as Kentucky and Tennessee, dare not declare against the old flag, in view 
of the glorious uprising oi' the free states, and the stem determination to drive 
treason from the land. Treacherous as they were and are still willing to pi-'ove 
with secession triumphant ; with a northern army on their borders, and the free 
states united and determined, they have found it inexpedient to secede, and will 
probably so continue to find it. Virginia that demanded so much consideration, 
that claimed so much power, has gone over to the seceders, and this movement 
has had no other effect than to show how weak she really was, with all her 
vaporing. Her going has detracted nothing from the strength of the Govern- 
ment, and added nothing to the seceders. Her power is now forever broken, 
because all see that the influence she claimed in the Cimfederacy she could not 
have possessed. Her pretentions were a mere bulible, and she herself has 
pricked it. 

We hope, then, that the Government will declare, as the people have done, a 
firm determination to permit no division of our territory, no disruption of the 
Union. 

AVith that declaration as the basis of its campaign the free states will make 
short work of this Rebellion. 

These conditions occasioned Lincoln's second call, on May 14th, for 83.000. 
additional troops and this new.s was received here as everywhere with undis- 
guised satisfaction. The fact that no requisition was to be made upon the states 
for the 40,000 volunteers, for three years' service, was commented upon as being 
favorable to Iowa troops ; all regiments offering being accepted until the full 
number was enrolled. The announcement of the completion of the first Inde- 
pendence Company appeared in the same issue as Lincoln's second call for 
troops. This company had been formed with the full determination to do active 
service if possible, a solemn oath being administered to each new recruit. Quas- 
• lueton, too, had reported on the same date, a "home guarcU" of nearly one 
luuulred members, and had commenced drilling in "dead earnest,'' with the ulti- 
mate aim to do their sacred duty to their country and to its cause. Another 
company known as the "Buchanan County Light Infantry"' was formed a short 
time after the "Independence Guards," but were not mustered into service 
until some weeks later. 

On June 1, 1861. the Independence Guards having completed their roll, held, 
a meeting for the purpose of electing olfi.cers which resulted as follows : I). S. 
Lee, captain; G. C. Jordan, first lieutenant; W. S. Marshall, second lieutenant; 
C. L. White, first sergeant; R. S. IMarlin, second sergeant; T. Blondin, third 
sergeant; J. D. C. Garrison, fourth sergeant; C. J. Reed, first corporal; E. A. 
Woodruff, second corporal ; J. H. McWilliams, third corporal ; 0. J. M. Fuller, 
fourth corporal. The company being fully organized. Captain Lee and Mr. 
Rich went to Iowa City to tender their services to the governor with the expec- 
tation and desire of being accepted and sent immediately into active service. 
Meanwhile squad drills were held every evening in Morse's Hall and every 
morning between 4 and 5 o'clock on the old race grounds on the west side of 
the river, showing that they meant business and not just talk and that they 
realized the necessity for preparation, that they might do better service for 
their country, and gallantly defend their noble cause. 



122 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

Just as these strenuous preparations of war were going on, news flashed 
through the entire couutiy that Stephen A. Douglas was dead, which caused a 
general feeling of sorrow and depression to pervade the hearts of those already 
weighted with anxiety and gloom. A call was made for a meeting at the court 
house, June 5th, at 7 o'clock P. M., that the citizens might meet and show 
their respect for the dead. The court house was filled to overflowing and the 
greatest solemnity and sincerest sorrow prevailed. Every one, without regard 
to part}' affiliation, deeply mourned this honest man, true patriot, and great 
statesman. J. S. Woodward presided and L. W. Hart acted as secretary. The 
object of the meeting was stated by the chairman and a committee on resolutions 
reported through their chairman, 0. H. P. Roszell. 

After the reading of these resolutions, appropriate and elociuent remarks 
were made by 0. H. P. Roszell. Lorenzo iloore, Jed Lake. E. P. Baker, W. S. 
Marshall, W. G. Donnan, Mr. Pratt, Rev. Robert Fulton, J. H. Ilord, and L. W. 
Hart. The resolutions were then unanimously adopted. The hall was orna- 
mented with numerous flags draped in mourning and also a large portrait of the 
deceased. A motion to have the proceedings of the meeting and resolutions 
printed in the county papers and send a copy to the family of the deceased, 
carried. The meeting then closed with singing by the children and prayer by 
Rev. Sampson. Soon thereafter subscriptions were taken for the purpose of 
erecting a monument to this noble hero. C. F. Leavitt was the appointed agent 
and our generous patriotic citizens as usual subscribed liberally. 

Though assured of their acceptance, the "Guards" w-ere not assigned to a 
regiment until the last week in June, when Governor Kirkwood wrote to Captain 
Lee as follows: 

"Executive Office, Iowa City, 

"June 25, 1861. 
"Captain Lee, Independence Guards. 

"Dear Sir: Your company is assigned to the Fifth Regiment Iowa Volun- 
teers, and under the recent call of the war department will be sent to ren- 
dezvous at Burlington as soon as arrangements can be perfected — perhaps next 
week. Fill up your ranks to not less than eighty-four, not more than 101 men. 
If you can avoid it, do not go into quarters at home, as I have no money, and 
shall have none till the state bonds are sold. 

"If yoiT cannot possibly avoid going into quarters, do so, but not otherwise. 

"As soon as matters are arranged, I will send you orders to march to 
Burlington. 

"I enclose printed circular, and call your special attention to that part relat- 
ing to clothing, and hope you may be able to conform to the suggestions therein 
contained. 

"Please answer immediately. 

"Very respectfully, 

"Samuel J. Kirkwood." 

The following extract from a circular enclosed with the letter giving sugges- 
tions in regard to the outfit of volunteers is very interesting, in view of the great 
changes in military requirements, and the rank extravagance of our armies of 
today in uniforms, arms, and equipment. 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 123 

"It is desirable that, in case you be called into active service, you have a 
change of clothing. I therefore suggest that your men procure for themselves, 
with the aid of your neighbors, the following articles for each man : A gray 
or black felt hat — gray is the best ; two good gray flannel shirts ; one pair stout 
gray satinet or cloth pants, lined, with black stripe up the seam ; two pair socks, 
and one pair stout, well made brogans or laced boots. These articles will answer, 
with a good blanket, which will be furnished by the state, when you may be 
called out, until a uniform can be furnished by the state, and will continue to 
answer for a fatigue dress, or a change in case of being caught in the rain — 
and thus conduce to health. The state cannot furnish these things, but I hope 
your neighboi's will aid you in procuring them. In case you shall not be called 
out, they can be worn as ordinary dress, and thu.s no loss will be sustained by 
the men." 

As a consequence of these suggestions, a public meeting was called inviting 
all the people of the county to meet at the court house in Independence on Tues- 
day evening, July 2nd, to take steps to provide the necessary means for these 
purposes. This call was signed by sixteen of the prominent citizens. 

Both the Guardian and the Civilian had a generous tribute to the soldier 
boys and spoke in regard to their claims upon those who were to remain at 
home. They also said, with the utmost positiveness, that this company would 
be the only one to go from this county and used that as an argument for enlist- 
ment for all who wished to enter the service of the Government; that later 
enlistments would compel citizens of Buchanan to enter companies in other 
localities. 

On the 2nd of July, Captain Lee received notice from Colonel Worthington 
of the "Iowa 5th" that the "Guards" would probably receive orders to move 
to the rendezvous at Burlington on the following Monday, but owing to lack of 
transportation facilities they could not leave until Friday morning. Imme- 
diately upon receipt of this communication preparations began to be made in 
earnest and everybody seemed anxious to assist. The towTi became seething with 
life and action ; the tife and drum, the sewing machine and needle were con- 
stantly in use. 

As a result of the public meeting, held in response to the call, and of sub- 
scriptions made sut)se(iuent to the meeting, $400 had lieen raised and the mer- 
chants and others contributed ciuautities of materials which were to be made into 
uniforms. Such a stupendous task seemed formidable enough, considering there 
was only one week in which to do the work, but as in every great emergency, 
the women have nobly risen to the occasion and lended their comfort and sup- 
port, so now the Buchanan County women answered this call, and to them really 
belongs the honor of being called into active service first. History records that 
"a full company, fullj- equipped, reported at the rendezvous at the first call of 
their country." 

On Saturday, the second day, fully one hundred and twenty-five women were 
in attendance and all day Sunday, the.v continued the good work of mercy and 
necessity, "and kept it up with zeal and enthusiasm which never flagged until 
the seventh day when the work was finished and the entire company had been 
provided with uniforms, an aggregate of nearly three hundred garments." In 
addition each soldier had received from these women, a needle case, containing 



124 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

a pair of scissors and all the other necessities, needles, pins, buttons, and thread. 
As that was their last evening at home, a social meeting was called to afford 
the citizens an opportunity to bid the soldiers "God speed and Farewell." Mr. 
Leavitt presided at this Farewell meeting and words of hope and encouragement 
were spoken which doubtless cheered the hearts of those brave men in many a 
trying hour and inspired them to acts of heroism. Captain Lee, when called 
upon to speak, acknowledged the great obligation both he and his men were under 
for the many kindnesses and services received from the people of Independence 
and the county at large. 

The departure of this first company, "The Independence Guards," on the 
following morning, Friday, July 12th, was an. event which, though intensely 
inspiring, verged on being more like a funeral cortege. In the morning, at 9 
o'clock, the Guards assembled in front of the Montour House (where the Com- 
mercial Bank now stands) and were each presented with a Testament, by the 
Buchanan County Bible Association, after which Reverend Mr. Boggs, minister 
of the First Presbyterian Church, gave the presentation address. Reverend Mr. 
Fulton followed with a stirring speech and Reverend Sampson closed with an 
excellent prayer. The Guards were then dismissed to bid farewell to their 
friends and reassembled at the first tap of the drum. The town was crowded 
with people from the surrounding country and every one strove to the utmost 
to control their feelings; to bear up bravely and give the boys a cheerful fare- 
well. Many a sob was smothered, many a tear restrained, many a lip kept 
firm which was wont to tremble. 

When the time for departure came, and the drum beat that solemn, prophetic 
tattoo every soldier fell into line and started forward on that fatal march 
which led to duty for all and death for some. The Independence band led the 
way to the depot, the Benton County Volunteers who had been quartered in town 
since Tuesday followed and our Independence Guards brought up the rear. 

In an issue of the Civilian of July 16, 1861, the captain of the Benton 
County Volunteers published a list of eighteen deserters from his company, 
some of whom had enlisted twice. He offered one cent reward for each ; evidently 
these were not very valuable "strays," at least, not for war service, and evi- 
dently they only enlisted for fun or for show and lacked the stamina and back- 
bone to fight. The Vinton Eagle resented this article in the Civilian declaring 
that they had no deserters, that every man was as "true as steel" and retaliated 
by saying that one member of the Independence Company deserted, was stripped 
of his uniform, paraded through the streets, where he was threatened and 
insulted and then thrown into jail because he was owing a small board bill. 
This was only true so far as his uniform was concerned — he was told to take 
that off and get out of town — which he did. 

The scenes at the depot were even more affecting, hundreds of relatives and 
friends crowded around the departing heroes and there was enacted one of the 
most harrowing, tragical moments of life, which only those who have to undergo 
it can image "the time of parting," and on such a mission, and with no a.ssur- 
anee of return. Every soldier in the ranks was carrying a bouquet of flowers 
given him as a token of love and appreciation. Before the train arrived the 
soldiers, all of whom were too full for words and many who had given way to 
their feelings and wept, now mastered their sentiments, rose to the occasion 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 125 

and cheertHl and comforted their sorrowing friends and the spirit of patriotic 
fervor impelled tliem to cheers; cheers for "The Vinton Boys," for the wives, 
mothers, and sweet-hearts and the crowd of people, several thousand in number, 
joined in lustily, although with breaking hearts, and voices. Then Captain Lee 
proposed three cheers for the noble and patriotic ladies of Independence, which 
were given loud and long. He then proposed three cheers for the friends left at 
home, which were given with a will by the company. Soon the special train 
from the west arrived with a company from Hardin County aboard (cheerful 
and brave looking men) and cut short the fearful prolonged tension, which the 
soldiers acknowledged was much harder than facing the cannon's mouth or the 
hail of grape and canister which these brave men would face without flinching. 
The whistle sounded and the final moment of farewell came, pledges of love 
and friendship were exchanged, fond embraces and tender kisses were imparted 
and then amidst the booming of cannon, the cheers, and tears, the fluttering of 
handkerchiefs, waving flags and beckoning of hands, the train slowly moved off 
bearing away those gallant, noble hearted patriots, and with them the blessings 
and prayers of thousands, for their success and safe return. It takes courage 
to face death, but it takes more sometimes to face life with all the horrors of 
anxiety, suspense, privation, and despair which can befall mankind. 

The wives and mothers left behind that day faced a far harder situation than 
did the soldiers going to the front. 

Such a scene as we have tried to describe can never be effaced from the 
memory of those who witnessed it and we pray God that it shall never occur 
again. 

The day the soldiers departed they were given a splendid dinner by the 
people of Manchester, which was certainly a most gracious and generous act. 

An act which aroused the indignation and wrath of the people of Independ- 
ence was that Superintendent Young of the Dubuque & Sioux City Railroad 
stowed part of our company and all of the Vinton company in open cattle cars, 
rigged up with rough board seats where the hot sun and clouds of dust made 
them extremely uncomfortable, and to add insult to injury, was the fact that 
there were several new passenger cars at the command of the company at Dubuque 
and with an empty one on the train. Conductor Cawley was very considerate 
of the men and insisted ui)on placing the empty passenger car at their disposal 
after they reached ilauchcstcr. 

In the same paper wliieh tells of the soldiers' departure is given an account 
of the 4tli of July celebration. It seems strange that at such a sad and depressing 
time as this, just eight days before the first company left for war, that the citizens 
could think of celebrating, even though it were the 4th of July, but they did and 
in gi'and style, judging from the county papers. The day was ushered in by a 
national salute of thirty-four guns (one for each state) at sunrise. At 10 o'clock 
a procession formed at the Courthouse Square with bands, military companies, 
Sabbath schools, citizens, etc., a regular "old-time parade" and marched through 
the streets to the grove where they observed the usual 4th of July exercises, 
interspersed with music from the Glee Club Brass Band; W. 6. Donnan read the 
Declaration of Independence, and William Mills, Esq., of Dubuque, gave a fine 
oration, followed by a national salute, a picnic dinner, military parade, balloon 
ascension, another national salute and ending with a grand display of fireworks 



126 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

in the evening. The citizens of the county turned out en masse and participated 
in the good time, evidently feeling that if ever the day should be celebrated, this 
year should be the "capsheaf" of all others. And it was this spirit of patriotic 
enthusiasm which prompted tliem to make an extra effort for the Fourth, in order 
to buoy up their feelings and cover tiicir aching hearts. 

In the Civilian of July 23, 1861, was printed a long letter from the editor, 
who with the rest of the band had accompanied the soldiers down to Burlington 
and saw them in camp. At Duliuque all the soldiers, headed by the Independence 
Brass Band, paraded the streets and then to Union Park where they listened to 
several short, stirring patriotic sjDeeehes by Dubuque men, and then were dis- 
missed for the rest of the day. Saturday morning they assembled again in Union 
Park, had another parade and dismissed until 1 o'clock when the boat arrived 
that was to take them to Burlington. Four companies left Dubuque on the boat 
and one from Allamakee County was already aboard, the others were from Benton, 
Delaware, Hardin and Buchanan counties and at Bellevue they took on part of 
another company and two brass bands, one from Lansing and the other from 
Independence. The Lansing Iiand left at Lyons and the Independence baud was 
left all alone in its glory. Our Independence band was offered the position of 
regimental band, on condition they would raise their number to sixteen. At every 
town they passed through the soldiers were accorded .some sort of demonstration; 
music, cheering, waving flags, and some places by a cannon salute and the soldiers 
responded with music and cheers. 

The camp grounds were 2\-2 miles from Burlington and wlien these companies 
arrived there were between twenty anil thirty companies, 1,900 troops already 
there, which made 2,300 soldiers in all. All along the route the Independence 
Guards merited much praise for their tine appearance and good behavior; at 
Dubuque they were said to be the best company that had passed through Dulnique 
and the colonel of the regiment told the editors that be felt proud of the Inde- 
pendence Guards and considered them an A No. 1 Company, and they certainly 
were a credit to the town and county. The boys were feeling in the best of spirits 
and anxious to commence drilling. 

Captain Lee's company, Comjjany K of the Fifth Regiment of the \'oluuteer 
Infantry, was enrolled in Buchanan County, ordered into quarters by the gov- 
ernor of the state. June 29, 18(31 ; mustered into the sei'vice of the United States 
by Lieut. Alexander Chambers, United States Army at Burlington, July 15, 1861, 
under the proclamation of the President of the United States bearing date May 
3, 1861. 

The following is the muster roll of Company E, Fifth Regiment Iowa 
Volunteers : 

COMMISSIONED OFFICEBS 

Captain, Daniel S. Lee. 
First Lieutenant, George C. Jordan. 
First Lieutenant, Alexander B. Lewis. 
Second Lieutenant, William S. Marshall. 
Second Lieutenant, Carlos L. White. 



HISTORY OP BUCHANAN COUNTY 127 

NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICERS 

First Sergeant, Carlos L. White. 
First Sergeant, Thomas Blonden. 
Second Sergeant, Kesley L. Marliu. 
Second Sergeant, William S. Peck. 
Third Sergeant, Charles F. Putney. 
Fourth Sergeant, Alexander B. Lewis. 
Fourth Sergeant, William Bunce. 
Fifth Sergeant, William S. Peck. 
Fifth Sergeant, Jerry Rea. 
First Corporal, Cyrus J. Reed. 
First Corporal, Joseph H. JlcWilliams. 
Second Corporal, Eugene A. Woodruff. 
Second Corporal, Julius F. Phelps. 
Third Corporal, Joseph H. McWilliams. 
Third Corporal, Frank Noble. 
Fourth Corporal, Oscar J. M. Fuller. 
Fourth Corporal, Simon L. Shultz. 
Fifth Corporal, Julius F. Phelps. 
Fifth Corporal, John B. Oliver. 
Sixth Corporal, Frank Noble. 
Sixth Corporal, William Codling. 
Seventh Corporal, Leroy F. Funk. 
Seventh Corporal, John Jarrett. 
Eighth Corporal, Charles F. Putney. 
Eighth Corporal, Calvin C. Pattee. 
Musician, William H. Brown. 
Wagoner, Henry McQueen. 

PRIVATES 

David Allen, Samuel C. Allison, Joseph Anson, Madison J. Bryan. William 
Bunce, James Bell, William W. Baughman, Daniel H. Bill, Charles F. Bailey, 
William H. H. Coats, Solomon J. Clark, William S. Cushman, Elijah Chillester, 
William Crawford, William Codling, A. M. Conkling, John A. Davis, Thomas 
Donnelly. Almon J. Francis, Albert R. Goss, James B. Gaylord, John C. Geyer, 
James Harrigan, Martin Hallock, Morgan Holmes, Sanford Hamilton, John 
Jarrett, William F. Johnson, Adin B. Kinsel, Francis H. Kessler, Wilbur P. 
Kellogg, Ca.stletou Leatherman, Simmens P. Mead, John W. ilarlin, Charles 
Marsh, Charles A. Marsh, Rev. John W. McW^illiaras, Alexander ]\Iunger, James 
G. McKenzie, John B. Oliver, Levy Overhulser, Noah Porter, William R. Peters, 
Calvin C. Pattee, Peter Putnam, Thomas C. Puckett, James C. Perhain, William 
Payne, Thomas Robinson, Samuel A. Reed, Jackson Rice, John Richards, Edward 
Roderick, Jerry Rea, Moses H. Robinson, Jackson Rice, George Sellers, John 
Shay, James Stack, Rufus W. Safford, Oliver Safford, George B. Sitler, Simon 
L. Shulz, Heman Sprague, William H. Sayre, Heiiry W. Snider, Hela C. 
Sprague, John Snider, John H. Tovvle, Alvin R. Wheeler, James B. Wolf, C. W. 



128 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

Waggoner, Omar R. Whitman, Richard Whait, Nathan Wlieeler, Rynear M. 
Walker, W'estley Williams, ]\Iahlon Williams, Stephen R. W^ashhurn. Addi- 
tional enlistments up to January 1, 1863. John C. McCray. 

Three of our volunteers were not accepted — William Sherwood on account of 
a had hand, Mr. Clark, of Littleton, who was over age, and T. Flenung. of 
Fremont Township, was too young. 

The company, as mustered into service, numbered ninety-seven men aside 
from the officers. 

Wlien first heard of by their friends, they had not received their Ijlankets and 
were sleeping on straw without covering and as an nievitable conse(iuence of this 
sudden change in manner of living, diarrhoea .was to some extent prevalent in 
camp. 

We have settled "our soldiers" in camp ready to begin actual duties and 
prepare for active service, and now we must leave them and return home to 
recount other occurrences. 

80ME OP THE HOME DOINGS 

A man by the name of Noah Porter living at Good Hill, Bremer County, while 
on his way to work on Friday, June 28th, saw a notice of the acceptance of the 
Independence Guards, and a call for a meeting of the company on Saturday. He 
immediately went home, put his team in the stable, bade his wife and children 
good-bye and walked seventy-tive miles to this place, where he enrolled himself 
as a member of the company. 

Another incident of true patriotism and loyalty was exemplified when J. L. 
Loonus. who Wiis then a clerk in the iiostoffice (afterwards editor of the Bulletin) 
first heard of the great disaster to tin' Federal troops at ilanassas, iunnediately 
determined to volunteer and went to Dubuque in order to take advantage of the 
first ojiportunity to enlist. 

Such examples of heroism were not rare. 

The Dubui|ne Times spoke of tiie ])eople and soldiers of Independence: 

"JMuch praise is due to the people of Independence for the creditable manner 
in which they fitted out their volunteers. Through the liberality of the citizens 
the "boys' were enabled to go into camp with a better outfit than any other com- 
pany in the regiment. All spectators were struck by the gallant bearing and 
evident intelligence of this fine corps, and with one accord they were pronounced 
the star company of the five which left here last Saturday. Much is expected of 
them, and most assuredly they will not ilisappoint their friends." 

Before Captain Lee left for war, some of his friends presented him with a 
fine Colt's navy revolver. Lieutenant Jordan was the recipient of a similar 
compliment, and Lieutenant Marshall would have been but he was already 
])rovided with small arms. 

These men were held in the highest esteem by their fellow citizens and were 
deservedly popular with their men. 

Captain Lee came home for a visit the last week of July and reported his, 
company to be in excellent health and sjiirits. Oidy one man was in the hospital. 
After they received their blaid^ets and cooked their rations, they were very com- 
fortable, and much better fed than they previously had been. They were fast 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 129 

acquiring proficiency in drill though their arms and equipment had not yet been 
supplied. 

The conduct of the men received the highest commendation from their cap- 
tain. Not one man had been ordered under guard and their fine soldierly bearing 
and orderly behavior had won them hosts of friends. Colonel Worthington had 
not received mai-ching orders for his regiment, but everything pointed to an early, 
demand for their presence in Missouri. 

On the 25th of July, the friends of Company E sent them three large boxes 
and a barrel of delicacies "belonging to the higher departments of culinary tac- 
tics in which the boys had not been drilled. " The collation reached Camp Warren 
at Burlington on the 2d of August and on the day following, they received march- 
ing orders which took them beyond the reach of these loving ministries. 

We previously mentioned that another military company had been formed in 
Independence soon after the "Independence Guards," and was called the 
Buchanan County Light Infantry. They had their headquarters in the Allen 
building on South Main Street, near the bridge, and the Independence Guards 
had theirs in Morse's Hall (now known as the Morse fiats) just west of and 
adjoining the Regal Hotel. 

Both companies kept conscientiously drilling to perfect themselves in military 
tactics, having practiced at least three nights a week and much of the time 
every night. Captain Whitney of Quasqueton had just received word on August 
6 that his company had been accepted by the governor and ordered into one 
of the regiments which were soon to rendezvous at Dubuque. The company was 
not complete at that time but was expected to be soon. 

Still another comjjany had been organized in the early summer in Jefiierson 
Township and soon numbered over fifty men, most of whom were ready for active 
service. S. D. Joy, who was an orderly sergeant in the Mexican war, was elected 
captain, Jo.sepli Rouse, first lieutenant, George Frink, second lieutenant. 

The forming of the Light Infantry was directly due to J. M. Hord who was 
afterwards elected its captain. At the first election of officers for the "Guards" 
he was chosen as first lieutenant and K. S. Marlin as second, but this election was 
declared void by a law passed at the extra session of the Legislature, and so a 
second election was held on the 1st of June which resulted in some changes in 
the officers, both commissioned and non-commissioned. By this election G. E. 
Jordan took Herd's place as first lieutenant, and W. S. Mai-shaU took Marlin 's 
place as second lieutenant. 

Hord w'ith a promptness which showed that an honest desire to serve his 
country was paramount with him, set to work to oi'ganize a second company, and 
his success showed the respect and confidence reposed in him by his fellow citizens. 

A few weeks later. Captain Hord, accompanied the "Guards" to Burlington 
and while there tendered the services of his company to Governor Kirkwood, 
who accepted and assigned them to the Seventh Regiment which was then form- 
ing. The three first officers. Captain Hord and Lieutenants Scott and Kandy 
were highly commended to all desirous of enlisting as being competent and 
entirely worthy of confidence besides being men of experience in military 
affairs. Captain Hord had seen service in Mexico, Lieutenant Scott in the East 
Indies, and Lieutenant Kandy had for many years been an officer in the militia. 
About this time arrived home the first Buchanan Company soldier who was 

Vol. [—9 



130 HISTORY OP BUCHANAN COUNTY 

wounded in tlie war. His name was Williams, a resident of Superior Township 
and a member of the First Regiment Iowa Volunteere. He was cordially greeted 
by the citizens and Captain Herd's company, who were then about ready 
to leave. 

In an issue of the Civilian of August 6, 1861, we saw a notice of a "last 
chance to join the Buchanan County Light Infantry"" which had been so for- 
tunate as to be assigned to Hon. William Vandever's Regiment which was 
expected to leave for Washington via Baltimore about the first of September. 
And it was expected that they would be in General McClellan's Brigade but 
they were not, but were put into the 9th Iowa under General Fremont in Mis- 
souri. The governor had authorized Captain- Hord to put his company into 
quarters and as soon as the men enlisted they were allowed to draw their i-atious 
and pay. This shows the great demand for troops that existed. The company 
then only numbered tifty-five, but so rapidly were the ranks filled up under 
the inspiration of this call for troops that by August 26th, they were enabled 
to report at Dubuque with a company which numbered eighty-eight men in the 
ranks and six or seven more recruits were expected to join soon, besides the 
officers. 

Mr. Bull, proprietor of BulFs Addition to Independence, connected himself 
with this company acting as first lieutenant, and devoted himself to the further- 
ance of its interests. At the governor "s suggestion an extra session of the 
Board of Supervisors was held taking into consideration the matter of supply- 
ing the company with uniforms. Three hundred dollars was promptly voted by 
the board and a resolution was also passed, declaring their willingness to give a 
similar amount to any company of volunteers raised in the county upon going 
into active service. 

Colonel Vandever was so confident that the troops would be furnished uni- 
forms before leaving Dubuque that it was only necessary that shirts, hats, 
shoes, and belts should be provided by the county. 

And again the nol)le women of Independence arose to the occasion and 
lent their active aid and unselfish interest. Great enthusiasm for their regi- 
ment prevailed among the men on account of the high character of their 
colonel and the efficiency which marked their regimental organization. A bat- 
tery of six cannon was attached to this regiment, making it the best appointed, 
thus far, that had been raised in the state. 

On August 26th, a repetition of the sad and heart-breaking scenes of July 12th 
was enacted. Another hundred of our noble, patriotic sous had departed for 
the front, a second offering upon the altar of liberty, another tragic parting 
scene, unlike any other on earth with the sobs, the tears, the smiles, the cheers, 
the God-speeds of the hundreds of loving hearts left behind. And the fervent 
prayers that every man of them might live to return to the anns which gave 
them up to their country's cause. 

They were accompanied to the depot even at that early hour of starting by 
a large concourse of people; relatives and friends, who had gathered from all 
over the county to say farewell and God be with you till we meet again. 

The self-sacrificing, patriotic women of Independence had again demon- 
strated their loyalty and sympathy by making shirts for this company and pre- 
sented each soldier with one of those indispensable little treasures, a needle case, 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 131 

which the men certainly appreciated. A bonquet of flowers from the women and 
testaments from tlie Bible Society also were given them as to the former coin- 
pany, and all the ceremonies, the farewell sermon, by Reverend Sampson on the 
Sunday previous to their departure, the presentation speech by Reverend Fulton 
on Tuesday morning when the Bibles were given them, followed with prayer by 
Reverend Sampson. C. Heege was on hand with his cannon and gave the boys a 
parting salute as he did when the first company left. No partiality should be 
shown; every patriot should be accorded the same kind and considerate treat- 
ment by our appreciative citizens. They were a fine looking lot of young men, 
intelligent, and noble-hearted, brave, generous and true and the citizens took 
great pride in their appearance and splendid deportment. But all the pride 
and enthusiasm of such a time could not blind the friends to the painful fact 
that this parting might be forever, and this second sacrifice was even harder 
than the first, this second parting sadder and more painful because the people 
were just waking up to the fact that a terrible life-crushing, despoiling octopus 
"war" was eating into the very vitals of our country. The hope of reconciliation 
with the South had entirely vanished and although at this time the northerners 
considered the war to be a trivial affair and of short duration it certainly was 
taking on a raoi-e serious attitude, and its increasing magnitude day by day be- 
came more appreciative. Now there was no wavering or impassive sentiment 
among our patriotic sons. A great and vigorous sympathy with the cause of 
Liberty pervaded the hearts of all classes, regardless of party affiliation. This 
intense fer\'or and devotion to the Union prompted the issuance of a call for 
a Union Convention to be held in Independence, September 21, 1861, for the 
purpose of nominating sound Union men, irrespective of party for the several 
county offices to be voted for that fall. This crisis was the melting pot for all 
petty prejudices, party strife, and dif¥erences of creed — all were united and 
solidified to the one cause of the Union forever. 

The Light Infantry Company were to be encamped in Union Park, Dubuque,, 
and on the way down, they were given an ovation at every station. The Inde- 
pendence band accompanied this company and marched with them to camp as. 
they did with the first company and a long, hot, dusty march it was. Their- 
rations and cooking utensils were in readiness for them, each company was- 
divided into messes of six each, and each mess cooked for themselves and roomed 
together. They were supplied with tin cups, pewter plates, knives and forks, 
basins, one coffee-pot and a camp kettle, and drew rations sufficient for three 
meals every morning. They had fresh beef three days a week. Camp Union 
was considered the best in the state, water being close at hand and everything 
convenient. 

The Light Infantry, Ninth Regiment, elected officers at Camp Union, and the 
following is a complete list of all the members this company had during the war :. 

COMMISSIONED OFFICERS 

Captain, Jared M. Hord. 

Captain, Hiram C. Bull. 

First Lieutenant, Hiram C. Bull. 

First Lieutenant, Nathan Rice. ; 



132 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

First Lieutenant, Robert W. Wright. 
First Lieutenant, Jacob P. Sampson. 
Second Lieutenant, William Scott. 
Second Lieutenant, Nathan Rice. 
Second Lieutenant, Robert W. Wright. 
Second Lieutenant, Jacob P. Sampson. 
Second Lieutenant, Edmund C. Little. 

NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICERS 

First Sergeant, Robert W. Wright. - . 

First Sergeant, Jacob P. Sampson. 

First Sergeant, P^dmund C. Little. 

Second Sergeant, Nathan Rice. 

Third Sergeant, David V. Coe. 

Third Sergeant, Edmund C. Little. 

Third Sergeant, Hiram Holdridge. 

Fourth Sergeant, Billings Davis. 

Fifth Sergeant, R. T. Bain. 

Fifth Sergeant, Charles G. Curtis. 

First Corporal, James M. Elson. 

Second Corporal, Charles N. Bennett. 

Third Corporal, Ezra T. Rust. 

Fourth Corporal, James H. Merrill. 

Fifth Corporal, Jacob D. Sanders. 

Sixth Corporal, Fred M. Wilbur. 

Seventh Corporal, Charles W. Sarchet. 

Eighth Corporal, Edmund C. Little. 

Musician, Alpheus Losey. 

Wagoner, David Greek. 

PRIVATES 

Henry Reynolds, William Allison, E. J. Allen, Marsena Allen, Isaac Arv^ine, 
William Adams, George M. Abbott, Perry Allspraugh, Thomas J. Barber, J. H. 
Bower, Jesse Barnett, John C. Brown, Adelbert C. Bellus, Thomas Cress, L. D. 
Curtis, Isaac G. Chase, Valentine Gates, John Cartwright, Wesley Curtis, Wil- 
liam Decker, Billings Davis, J. E. Elson, Alonzo K. Engle, John Engreman, J. 
H. Ford, Julius Fureht, Edwin Fary, Enoch Fary, Reuben E. Freeman, George 
Freyberthauser, N. A. Green, William C. Gillum, Nelson Hovey, Theodore 
Hyde, C. A. Hobert, Stephen Holman, Isaac N. Holman, Vinson Holman, Eli 
Holland, Henry Jones, Silas E. King, John M. King, Benjamin Klopp, James 
Leatherman, Orlando F. Lucky, Alpheus Losey, Daniel Pangburn, E. U. Patchen, 
Enoch Piatt, B. W. Powers, William Pope, L. A. Persall, Isaiah Perdue, Philip 
Ritterman, Henry Reynolds, Russell Rouse, Reuben Rouse, G. Q. Rust, Darwin 
Rich, Aham K. Robbins, Samuel Robbius, John Rodgers, David Steele, James 
Steele, Charles W. Sarehett, George W. Sayre, R. R. Stoneman, James M. Spar- 
ling, Jacob P. Sampson, Thomas Smith, James A. Sutton, George A. Turner, 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 133 

Royal Taylor, W". D. Thayer, Albert Utterbeek, P. Vanderbilt, William Willey, 
H. P. Wilber, William ^Miisnaiid, R. M. Whitlock, Pierce Walton, Adonin J. 
Windsor, John H. Young. 

Additional enlistments up to January 1, 1863 : 

D. E. Godfrey, YVilliam A. Jones. 

Enrolled in the County of Buchanan ; went into quarters at Dubuque, July 
30, 1861 ; mustered into the service of the United States by Capt. C. Washington, 
United States Army, on the twenty-fifth of September, 1861, under the proclama- 
tion of the President dated July 23, 1861. 

On September 9th, two weeks after the Light Cavalry had left home, the 
D. & S. C. R. R. got up an excursion to Camp Union at Dubuque. Accordingly 
friends and relatives of the soldiers concluded to avail themselves of this oppor- 
tunity. It was a rainy morning so a great many who had planned to go could 
not, l)ut nevertheless two coaches full went from Independence and enjoyed 
the day wth the "boys" and witnessed the drills, mess, etc., of real army life. 
And the boys enjoyed seeing the home folks again and the bountiful spread 
which the visitors brought. 

The Friday before, a number of the local sportsmen went out to get a mess 
of chickens for "our boys" at Camp Union. They got 116 chickens which were 
shipped to them the next day. Feathers and bones were plenty and meat scarce 
after that Sunday dinner. - 

In the same issue of the Civilian in which appeared the account of the Light 
Infantry's departure is an announcement of another company being organized. 
Efforts to raise a cavalry company had already been commenced, the officers 
had sent for commissions and were only waiting their arrival. Thirty signatures 
had already been secured. 

Doctor Parsons and B. S. Rider were active in organizing this company. 
Great enthusiasm was manifested in this enterprise and many enlistments were 
being made but before the organization was completed and pending the 
acceptance of the company by the proper authorities. General Fremont issued 
an order prohibiting the acceptance of more cavalry after the completion of the 
Fourth Regiment, which was then nearly full, but through the indomitable 
energy of Doctor Parsons his men were consolidated with those of Capt. J. H. 
Peters of Delaware County and were accepted into Colonel Porter's Cavalry 
Regiment. Doctor Parsons took the rank of .second lieutenant. Between twenty 
and thirty men left Independence in the fir!5t week of October, and went into 
camp at Mount Pleasant. 

During the month the regiment was sent, as were many Iowa troops, into 
Missouri. Through some inexcusable neglect the names of the members of this 
company were not published in either of the county papers, and though the com- 
pany was afterwards recruited in this county, we are unable to find a roster. 
B. S. Rider was one of the recruiting officers for the Fourth Cavalry and came 
home the last week in October to solicit new recruits. Superior inducements were 
held out. 

Quite a number of young men from the north part of the county joined 
Captain Ainsworth's company at Manchester. On October 15, 1861, this com- 
pany left for Camp Union so that by the last of October twelve or fifteen of 
Superior (now Hazleton) Township's best and brightest young men had enlisted 



134 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

in this company. Pjiiclianan County had sent over three hundred men to the 
front — a large proportion considering the population at that time was only 
7,000. The last of October, the women of Independence formed a Soldier's Aid 
Society, its object being to furnish blankets, comforters, and other necessities 
for the Western Military hospitals. These societies were being organized 
throughout the country and Buchanan County women were not to be outdone 
in this grand, noble work of ameliorating sutt'ering and advancing the country's 
cause. They met at Morse's Hall on Friday eve., October 25th, and elected the 
following officers: Mrs. D. S. Lee, president; Mrs. J. C. Loomis, vice president; 
Mrs. 6. W. Bemis, secretary ; Mrs. G. C. Jordon, treasurer ; Mrs. Dr. Warne, 
depositary. A constitution was presented and adopted. The first two articles 
of their constitution read: "The name of this association shall be the Union 
Army Sanitary Connnission (Auxiliary to the Army Sanitarj^ Commission of the 
State of Iowa). 

"The object of the association shall be to furnish the sick and wounded of 
the soldiers who may have gone from this state, with such articles as may be 
needed in the hospitals and camps and not furni.shed by the Government of the 
United States." 

The meetings were held at the different halls: Morse's, Allen's, and the 
Masonic Temple every Saturday afternoon. The women sewed, patched, knit, 
and quilted all the afternoon, then supper was served, the gentlemen were 
invited and a social time, with conversation and dancing generally concluded 
the meetings. This aid society did a grand and noble work, devoting their 
time and energy and sacrificing and sharing their personal comforts, to aid 
the needy and sick soldiers. Their donations were lilieral and useful. A 25-ceut 
fee was charged each memlter. 

Other "aid societies" and "soldiers' relief circles" were organized through- 
out the county. One at Quasqueton oiganized and elected the following officers: 
Mrs. H. C. Kellogg, president; Mrs. (). Whitney, vice president; Mrs. H. Butter- 
field, secretary ; Mrs. D. C. Hastings, treasurer, Mrs. T. A. Jernegan, receiver. 

This society met every week on Friday afternoon and at their fourth meet- 
ing had collected quite a sum of money and articles to be shipped to the 
soldiers. 

Also steps were being taken to enroll all persons in the'state, liable to military 
duty, to act as Home Guards, to repel invaders should it become necessary. 
The authorities thought it possible that they would be compelled to fight rebels 
on their own soil, that the battlefield might be transferred from Missouri to 
Iowa. Affairs were in a seething condition in Missouri. 

Such being the case, it was necessary that thei'e should be a speedy and 
thorough military organization in every part of the state so it was suggested 
by the county papers that a company of Home Guards be formed immediately 
in Independence. If their services were not needed, they should at least learu 
■something of the art of war, an art with which every nuin, especially at such 
a time, should be in a degree ac(iuainted. In the same issue of that paper, 
October 22nd, is a local telling of l\lrs. D. S. Lee's (wife of Captain Lee) return 
from a visit to Company E of tlie I'^'ifth Iowa Volunteers stationed at Boone- 
ville, ]\Iissouri. They had taken the place of the Iowa Second Regiment. She 
reported the boys all well and with Fremont's Regiment in hot pursuit of 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 135 

General Price, who according to tlie latest dispatch had made a stand at Car- 
thage — sixty miles from Springtield. From this it was expected that the 
' ' Independence boys ' ' would soon have a chance to show their fighting qualities. 

Another incident of that date was that the Saturday night previous a mulatto 
from Missouri had arrived in town. He had been brought out here from 
Dubuque by Bert Rider of the Cavalry Company who had run across him en 
route on the boat up from St. Louis and recognized the fatigue uniform of the 
Independence Guard in which he was dressed. At first he was afraid to 
acknowledge where he came from or where he got the suit, claiming he lived 
in Dubuque but finally, realizing he need have no fear of being deported, he 
told his story. He had acted as spy by informing the One Hundred and 
Sixtieth Home Guard stationed at Booneville of the proposed attack of 800 
Rebels and then had taken refuge with the Union soldiers and in some way 
fell into Company E's hands, where he acted as cook for the officers for several 
weeks. He w-as perfectly suited and happy until he found, that in accordance 
with Fremont's proclamation, he would have to be returned to his master, so 
the officers furnished him clothes and money enough to get him out of the 
state. Captain Pickerel, of the Benton County Company, accompanied him to 
St. Louis and from there he took a boat to Dubuque. He knew all the Inde- 
pendence boys in ilissouri and was very devoted to them. He was an intelli- 
gent, appreciative negro and was delighted with the idea of being a free man. 
He was hired to work on Captain Lee's farm. This negro, whose name proved 
to be Edward Herndou, afterwards went with the Twenty-seventh as a private 
servant for Colonels Gilbert and Lake. He returned to Independence in Jan- 
uary, 1863, to recuperate his health and partly from the fact that the Rel)els were 
very severe on contraband negroes and i\Ir. Edwards feared he might get 
captured. 

In the next issue of the paper was an item telling of the promotion of 
Second Lieut. W. S. Marshall to the rank of brigade quartermaster with the 
pay of captain ; A. B. Lewis had also been advanced to sergeant major ; and 
Carl White had some position in the Regimental staff. 

In the Civilian of November 26, 1861, is a notice of the death of Charles 
Mai-sh of Pine Creek, a member of Company E of the Iowa Fifth at Jefferson 
City, Missouri, said to be the first death, but it seems there must either have 
])een two Charles Marshes or it was a mistake because in an issue of the Guar- 
dian of ;\Iareh 4, 1862, we see where Charles Marsh, of Captain Lee's. Company, 
had arrived home on a furlough. He had been sick for a considerable length 
of time and not with his company — and possibly this was accountable for the 
report of his death. In the Guardian of December 24th is a statement that R. E. 
Freeman, a brother of P. G. Freeman, a member of Captain Hord's company, 
was the first to die among those who had gone from this county to the war. 
He died in the hospital at Pacific City, Missouri. Doctor Wright had taken him 
to his own home and ^Irs. W^right had nursed him. but he had had an attack of 
bilious fever, then measles, and finally consumption claimed him as a victim. 
Two other young men were home on furloughs, afidicted with the same disease. 
Rcibert Paine of Company E was in a very critical condition and Carl White of 
Otterville was smitten with the same disease, but it was thought he would 
recover. 



136 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

Measles, inunips, and fevers wrought great liavoc in our armies. Disease 
always proves to be a far more t'ormidal)le and deadlier foe than the cannon 
balls and bayonets charge of the enemy. 

The ninth regiment of which Company C, "The Light Infantry," after 
being stationed for several months at Pacific City, engaged for the most part 
in guarding important railroad connections and bridges, was ordered, on the 
latter part of January, to break camp and move to the southwest to cooperate 
with the Federal troops under General Cui-tis, that had for some time been 
confronting the comlnned forces of Price, Van Dorn, and McCullough. Tlie 
Ninth Iowa, with its battery, was in the foremost of the chase after Price and 
did excellent service. With the rest of Curtis ^ Division, it was in the neighbor- 
hood of Fayetteville, Arkansas, and shortly thereafter took part in the battle of 
Pea Eidge, in which some of oui- nwn soldiers did sucli brave and valiant 
service. 

The lirilliant battle of Pea Ridge, Arkansas, was fought on the 6th, 7th, and 
8th of March, 1862. The Fourth and Ninth regiments and the First and Third 
Iowa batteries W'erc in the thickest of this desperate struggle, and earned for 
themselves and their state an imperishable name. This regiment of Volunteer 
Patriots, but recently from the peaceful pursuits of secular life, had shown the 
steadiness of nerve and unconquerableness of jjurpose which are looked for, 
ordinarily, only in war veterans. 

Some living yet can recall the horrible anxiety and suspense experienced 
here when news of this battle reached them. Those who had fathers, sons, 
brothers, and huisbands in the Ninth Regiment who might be numbered among 
the 248 who had attested their courage and patriotism with tlieir lives, and had 
paid their del)t of honor to their country, had but a brief season of uncertainty 
to be endured when the list of killed and wounded revealed how miraculously 
the Independence boys had escaped, only one lieing wounded, and the pall was 
lifted which threatened to shroud the victory. But other poor .souls in the county 
were called upon to sacrifice their loved ones and forget their misery in the 
joy of a Union victory. This battle claimed six victims in Company C. Young 
Nathan Rice of Vinton, Benton ('ounty, who entered the company in Jnl.v, as 
second sergeant, and had risen to the rank of first lieutenant, headed the list 
of killed. Private Julius Furcht was killed and Isaac Arwine mortally wounded, 
and after a few weeks of suffering died. W. S. Wisennand and John Cart- 
wright of Spring Grove, and A. J. Windsor of Independence also died of their 
wounds. Marcena Allen of Littleton and O. K. Engle of Hazleton died of 
disease a few weeks after the battle, no less victims of war than if they had 
fallen in the thickest of the figlit. Captain Bull, successor of Captain Hord, was 
slightly wounded, as also were Adjutant Scott, Sergt. P. Sampson, Corps. 
E. G. Curtis and J. D. Sanders with seventeen privates whose names are as 
follows: Privates — Isaac Irwine, wounded mortally; G. M. Abbott, wounded, 
died ; Jesse Barnett, wounded ; L. D. Curtis, wounded ; James Cartwright, 
wounded, died : J. E. Elsoii, wounded ; Julius Furcht, killed ; David Greek, 
wounded; C. A. Hobart, wounded; Stephen Holnian, wounded; John Leather- 
man, wounded; 0. F. Lucky, wounded; Philip Riterman, wounded; William 
Whisnand, wounded, died; A. J. Windsor, wounded; Russell Rowse, wounded; 
Samuel Robbins, wounded. 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 137 

Jolm Cartwright, a member of Company C, Ninth, died at the Fremont 
House, ])iilm(|ue. May 5th. He had been shot in the foot and did not receive 
proper medical attention, which neglect caused his death. He was a resident of 
Spring Grove and a member of Captain Bull's company. He was the third of 
nine young men who enlisted at the same time from that locality, who died 
from wounds received at Pea Ridge. Two others of the nine were wounded 
and two others were sent home disabled. This brave little band had suffered 
severely. Only two were left in an effective condition and John Leatherman was 
reported as being unable to live. 

S. B. Curtis had three sons in the thickest of the heroic fight at Pea Ridge. 
One was severely wounded in the leg, and the other slightly in the knee, and 
the third had a narrow escape, a ball cutting a strap in two on his shoulder. 
All three were afterwards in the charge of Vieksburg and although fully one- 
third of the company were either killed or wounded, they miraculously escaped. 

Orderly Sampson, Orlando Lucky, Russell Rowse, and George Abbott all 
were injured in the battle of Pea Ridge. Sampson was wounded in the head; 
Russell Rowse had a flesh wound caused by a ball passing through his thigh : 
(Jrlando Lucky also had a wound in the hip. 

For several days the town flag was suspended across Main Street, draped 
in mourning in memory of those volunteers from Independence and Buchanan 
County who fell in the battle of Pea Ridge. 

Lieutenant Marshall of Company C wrote home that he had received his 
connnission as quartermaster with the rank of captain. He was a popular, 
efficient, and favored officer with his regiment and everyone was glad of his 
promotion. Alexander Lewis had received a lieutenant's commission. By 
his soldierly ciualities, intelligence, and fidelity to duty, he had gone onward in 
the line of promotion. 

Another victim of the war was Milton Nelson who died of fever in a St. Louis 
hospital. He came from Greeley's Grove in this county and was a member of 
Captain Ainsworth's company. 

Company C, Ninth Regiment, were at Lebanon on February 8, 1862, pre- 
paring for a forced march on Springfield. All were in high spirits at the 
prospect of a fight. Lieutenant Bull was acting as commander after the resig- 
nation of Captain Hord. He had been offered a position on General Curtis' staff 
but declined, preferring the captaincy of Company C. 

James Sparling of Company C was acting as commissary at the hospital 
and liad proven so vahuible to the surgeon that he would not consent to his 
leaving. 

The Iowa troops claimed at the battle of Pea Ridge, the position accorded 
them in every contest in the West, "the post of danger, the post of brave deeds, 
and the post of death," and Company C had its full (|Uota of these distinctions. 

Another incident of the battle of Pea Ridge which depicts the indomitable 
coolness of the youthful hero E. C. Little was related by Adjutant Scott. 

In the beginning of the battle Sergeant Little, who at that time was seven- 
teen years old, had his gun blown out of his hand by a shell which exploded 
near him, whirling it so far from him that he could not recover it. AVithout 
wasting words or time he coolly possessed himself of another and this too was 
soon ruined by a shot striking it. Unmoved, at least outwardly, he was not 



138 HISTORY OP BUCHANAN COUNTY 

long in taking his place again "fully equipped"" and with this third piece 
went through the three days' battle without a scratch, although he received 
several balls in his clothing. 

In the foregoing account, it spoke of Captain Bull — (Captain Hord had 
resigned his commission as captain of Company C and was expected to arrive 
home soon). There had been considerable complaint against him, and his resig- 
nation was hailed with general satisfaction by all his men. While in the army, 
Eugene Woodruff, an Independence boy, received an appointment as cadet to 
West Point by Colonel Vandever. He was a tine, exemplary citizen and soldier 
and everyone was delighted over his good fortune. He was a member of 
Company E, Fifth Regiment, stationed at 'Booneville and came home to re- 
cuperate before reporting at West Point in June. About this time, Charles 
Lathrop. of this city, also received an appointment to a clerkship in the Navy 
Department at Washington. It was a post of much responsibility, Init Mr. 
Lathrop was full.y competent for the positinn. He afterwards became quite 
prominent in the patriotic societies at Washington and occasionally demon- 
strated his forensic abilities on tbe political platform during the exciting cam- 
paign of 1864. 

John ilarlin of Captain Lee"s company had returned home May 23rd from 
Corinth. He was discharged on account of deafness. 

A meeting of the citizens of the county was held at the courthouse on Satur- 
day afternoon. May 24, 1862, for the purpose of forming a Soldiers' Relief 
Association. Isaac G. Freeman acted as chairman and L. A. Main as secretary. 
The following officers were elected : John Fulton, president ; A. Ingalls and L. 
W. Hart, vice presidents ; W. ( !. Donnan, secretary ; George Warne, treasurer. 

The following gentlemen were selected to form, in connection with the officers 
of the society, an executive committee: Dr. W. C. Nelson of Superior (now 
Hazleton ) Township, S. B. Curtis and Henry Sparling of Washington : J. M. 
Benthall. Lil)erty ; M. t^. Satt'ord, Sumner; and George Hovey, Perry Township. 

On motion Jacob Rich, Dr. George Warne, and Rev. H. Townsend were 
appointed delegates to the state convention to be held at Davenport on Wednes- 
day, June 28, for the purpose of more concerted action. They adopted a con- 
stitution, a part of which was as follows: 

Art. ]. Title. Tbe name of this organization shall be Buchanan County 
Soldiers" Relief Association. 

Art. 2. Object. Its object shall be the relief of tlie wounded, sick and 
disabled volunteers, residents of or enlisted from Buchanan County, with sur- 
gical or other necessary aid and supplies. 

Art. 3. Members. Any person may become a member of this as.sociation 
by contributing to its funds. 

There were other articles and laws but these state the general principle of 
the association. 

A finance committee representiug every township in the county was appointed 
by the executive committee: L. D. Lewis of Alton (now Fairbank), John 
Kent of Superior (now Hazleton) ; Charles Bennett, Buffalo; J. B. Ward, 
Madison; Andrew T. Payne, Fremont; I. II. Morgan, Byron; Rev. Wm. Samp- 
son. Washington; D. B. Sanford, Perry; P. (J. Davis, Westburg; Henry Wash- 
burn. Sumner; James Rankin, Liberty; Daniel Ereatherman, Middlefield; Philip 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 139 

Pejtoii, Xewtou ; William Ausoii, Coiio ; Joseph MeGeary, Homer ; Joel Phelps, 
Jefferson. 

This organization was the culmination of a meeting held at W. G. Donnan's 
otKce on Friday evening, iMay 16, 1862, to listen to suggestions from Revei-end 
Brindle, of Dubuque, relative to the needs of the soldiers. Other states were 
making provision for their siek and wounded soldiers and Iowa men, the bravest 
in the tield, should not be neglected. 

The State Sanitary Commission, of which the women's organizations were 
auxiliaries, had done a wonderful service and had generously supplied the hos- 
pital necessities but they could not possibly meet the great want of surgeons 
and nurses and requisite hospitals and medical stores. 

The battles at Fort Donelson and Pittsburgh Landing had demonstrated 
very conclusively the dire need of these hundi-eds of our brave soldiers, whose 
wounds were scarcely serious at first, l)ut many died from them from neglect. 
So Governor Kirkwood, acting with the State Sanitaiy Committee, proposed to 
form county relief a.ssociations, through which the names of volunteer sur- 
geons and nurses might be obtained, ready to go whenever and wherever their 
services were needed. Another object was to facilitate the forwarding of the 
bodies of deceased soldiers to their friends. The efforts of the associations were 
to be directed to the relief of our own soldiers. Other states had sent steamers 
fitted up with every appliance reqiusite for the relief of their woinided and Iowa 
soldiers had a right to e.xpect the same consideration at the hands of their friends. 
The battle then impending at Corinth made prompt and active efforts neces.sary. 
Mr. Brindle explained all these points and the motion, that such an organization 
be established in this county, was carried unanimously. Therefore, on motion, a 
committee of five, consisting of Messrs. James Fulton, S. J. W. Tabor, Wm. 
Sampson, T. H. Bowers, and A. Ingalls were appointed, to take the necessary 
preliminary steps for the formation of such an association. Reverend Sampson 
acted as chairman, and Jacob Rich as secretary. 

At a meeting of the Soldiers' Aid Society which was held on Friday after- 
noon. May 2, 1862, for the purpose of reorganization, the following women were 
elected to office: Mrs. E. J. Pratt, president; Mrs. E. W. Purdy, vice president; 
Miss ilary "NVoodwai-d, secretary; Miss Louisa Bryant, treasurer; Mrs. Dr. Bry- 
ant, depositary. Directors — Mrs. Dr. Warne, Mrs. A. E. Wilcox, Mrs. R. Camp- 
bell, and Mrs. Parker. Solicitors — Mrs. Dr. House. ^Irs. A. J. Bowley, Mrs. 
Bullenc, and Mrs. E. Whitney. 

The Iowa troops were receiving unstinted praise all over the country for 
their g.dlant and fearless bravery in battle. The Chicago papers lauded them 
highly and General Curtis' official report of the liattle of Pea Ridge gave ample 
praise to Colonel Vandever and his regiment, which em])raeed the Independence 
Guards, Company C. 

During the war there was much bitter feeling throughout the Union sym- 
pathizing states toward ex-President Buchanan and in the Iowa State Register 
of March 25, 1862, in speaking of the counties named after noted traitors, it 
said Buchanan County ought to come in for a change of name ; for if the man 
from whom it received its name was not a traitor, he was at best the facile tool 
of the traitors; many of their proiidnent citizens are very anxious to have it 
changed to Lincoln. We have understood that there really was some talk of 



140 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

this nature at one time, but nothing materialized from it and the view that the 
Guardian toolf of the matter was proliably a universal one: "The name eer- 
tanily is no great credit to the eounty, but the county, we apprehend, rather 
honors the name ; and in view of the fact that there is so little that is creditable 
connected with the name, we should be opposed to the change. Let whatever 
good stands connected with men "s names remain. ' ' Afterwards the name growing 
more and more offensive, the papers advocated a change and Quasqueton, Wash- 
ington, Jefferson, Jackson, and Lincoln were suggested as substitutes. 

The Iowa Fifth had just received marching orders to the Northern Pacific 
Railroad, where they surmised they were to be moved to Leavenworth, Kansas, to 
form part of Lane's brigade, ))ut were sent t,o Commerce, Missouri, instead, 
probably to join Pope's division which was headed toward New Madrid. 

Reverend Sampson was the home treasurer for our soldier boys, who every few 
weeks sent home money to the amount of several hundred dollars. This amount 
increased until it reached several thousand at times— once as high as .$5,068, 
the savings for three or four months, and he would distribute it to their folks, 
and in that way save considerable expense. In the winter of 1862, the position 
of Captain Lee's company was changed in the regiment and was then Company 
C or the color company. Lieutenant Foley and Sergeant White, while here, 
had recruited five men for the Fifth Regiment. Four of them were from Inde- 
pendence. They were John II. Stewart, Henry Williams. Charles Brockway, 
Henry Whait, all fine young men. The other recruit was W. McCray from 
Bremer County. 

Lieutenant Jordan wrote from Cairo, under date of Feliruary 22d, tliat he 
had but fifty-seven men, having detailed twelve men on detached service at St. 
Charles, Missouri. The rest were either discharged or sick at home or in hospitals 
in Missouri. Captain Lee was still at Booneville, having been left there as in-ovost 
marshal— he was responsible for a large amount of property which he must 
guard until he could properly dispose of it. The Fifth Iowa was then in Pope's 
division in the field. 

In the battle at Fort Donel.son, the Twelfth Iowa Regiment had two killed 
and twenty-seven wouiuled. Captain Ainsworth's company of ]\Ianehester was 
in this regimeiit and had four men slightly wounded. R. C. Palmer and George 
Kint from Hazleton were among those. Recruiting officers were stationed at 
Independence and Quasqueton to receive volunteers and were receiving fresh 
recruits all the time. As we have stated, the Fifth was doing siege duty with 
Pope's brigade at New Madrid, ]\Iissouri, seeking to capture this place and thus 
break the .strength of the Confederacy. It held the place by a force of 40,000 
rebels behind a double line of fortifications, and was one of the links in that 
chain of defenses which seemed to bind the Mississippi to the South with bands 
of steel. During the siege, the fatigue and exposure, acting upon a constitu- 
tion already enfeebled by disease, prostrated the gallant Jordon and even while 
his friends at home were indulging in hopes that rest and care would fully 
restore him, a relapse took him beyond the need of human aid and in the midst 
of the rejoicing over the signal victory of our troops at Pea Ridge and Fort 
Donelson, and the wonderful escape from loss of life of the Buchanan County 
boys, came the unlooked for announcement that Lieutenant Jordon of Company 
E. Fifth Iowa, was dead. 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 141 . 

Lieut. C4eorge C. Jordan was one ol" the most popular and best loved men 
who left our county to go to the front. Kind, generous, intelligent, noble, and 
virtuous, he won all hearts and secured universal esteem. The news of his 
death was a great shock to the community and produced the deepest and most 
sincere mourning. It was looked upon as a great public calamity. Never had 
there lived here a man who was more honored and respected, or one who was 
more lamented; never had there been a death which caused such general and 
such profound grief. For thirteen years he had been a very close and intimate 
friend and business partner of Mr. Rich, editor of the Guardian, and that gentle- 
man wrote one of the most beautiful and impressive eulogies to him that it 
has ever been our privilege to read. It was full of the highest encouuums and 
praises worthy the noble hero that he was. The county papers were entirely 
devoted to the obituary ; memorials, lettei-s and resolutions concerning him, eulogy 
and adoration for his beautiful and noble life— sorrow and regret for his sad, 
untimely death. At a meeting of the commissioned officers of the Fifth Iowa 
Volunteers, at regimental headquarters, resolutions of sympathy and condolence 
to the grief-stricken wife and the sorrowing friends and relatives were drafted 
by a committee of three, consisting of Lieutenant Morarity, Captain Lee, and 
Lieutenant Caswell, and one of the resolutions was that the officers of the Fifth 
Iowa Volunteei-s wear the usual military badge of mourning for thirty days. 
Company p] also held a meeting in camp at New Madrid for the purpose of 
expressing their sorrow for the loss of their highly esteemed officer, Lieut. George 
C. Jordan, and extending their sympathies to his afflicted family and friends. 
Lieut. W. S. Marshall, Acting Adjt. A. B. Lewis, and Private Cyrus J. Reed 
were appointed to draft resolutions. 

The grandest tributes, which could possibly be given mortal man, were 
embraced in these resolutions, which were unanimously adopted and copies of 
the proceedings sent to each of the county papers for publication and also a 
copy to the wife of the deceased. 

A most eloquent, though unpremeditated tribute to the memory of this noble 
and inspiring character, was the departure of sixteen men to join Company E 
which occurred within a week after the funeral of the lamented Jordan. These 
sixteen men were recruited in Independence and the following is a list of their 

names : 

John W. Stewart, John C. McCray, William H. Williams, Charles Brockway, 
H. J. Whait, S. E. Rowse, G. M. Watson, John H. Ginther, John Bain, F. M. 
Guard, Foster Harris, William E Conway, John Minton, W. 0. Morse, S. F. 
Turner, Daniel Beckley. 

Of this number thus ready to step into the breach made by those fallen from 
the ranks of our country's defenders, John H. Ginther, a young man twenty-one 
years of age, and of remarkably sound, robust constitution, died of typhoid 
fever at Camp McClellan, Davenport, while the company was waiting for uni- 
forms, preparatory to joining the regiment at New Madrid. 

The spring of 1862 was signalized by brilliant successes on the part of the 
Union troops in the West and Southwest. But these were not achieved without 
a price. Much sacrifice of life had been made and many existing military organ- 
izations required to be filled up with new recruits, thus to keep up the army's 
efficiency and be able to retain their acquired advantages. In June of this year 



142 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

a call was made by the President for 300,000 ineu to be "enrolled without delay, 
so as to bring this unnecessary and injurious war to a speedy and satisfactory 
conclusion." 

Quite a number of recruits from the southern part of the county had enlisted 
in companies outside the county through operation of the bounty system. Be- 
tween twenty-five and thirty-tive recruited into a Linn County company and 
several in a Benton County company in this way. They properly should have 
enlisted with the home companies and joined cither Captain Noble's or Miller's 
company but the supervisors had not, as yet, offered a bounty. The Ihiited 
States (iovernment was calling for .300,000 more troops and also was ott'ering a 
premium of ^2 for each accepted recruit.. An agitation was aroused 
to get the l)oard of supervisors into action. A public war meeting was held at 
the courthouse August 2d, to take steps relative to making efforts for the further- 
ance of enlistments. L. W. Hart acted as chairman and J. Rich as secretary. 
Messrs. Woodward, Wilcox, and Tabor spoke as to the best course to pursue. 
A committee of six, which was afterwards changed to twelve, was appointed to 
wait upon the board of supervisors and present this resolution, which was 
unanimously passed: "Resolved, It is the sense of this meeting, that the super- 
visors of this county be earnestly reiiuested to vote an appropriation of from 
fifty to one hundred dollars as a bounty to be paid to each volunteer required 
to make up the quota for this county." The committee was as follows: Doctor 
House, Edward Brewer, T. H. Bowen, L. W. Hart. J. D. Myers, J. M. Westfall, 
Judge Tabor, P. C. Wilcox, C. F. Leavitt, T. Scarcliff', J. S. Woodward, and 
J. M. Miller. A finance connnittee of three was appointed to solicit subscriptions 
to assist recruiting. Messrs. Wilcox, Stout, and Woodward were appointed as 
the committee. Remarks were made by Doctor House, and Messrs. Baker, Hart, 
Roszell, Bowen, Noble, Jones, Colonel Thomas, and Reverend Sampson. 

It was ordered that the music conuiiittee, consisting of Messrs. Bowen, Ross, 
and Doctor House, as soon as possil)le, provide music for Mr. Noble's company. 
Another meeting was strongly favored and Jlessrs. BuUene, Roszell. and Doctor 
Hunt were appointed as a connnittee on arrangements and a nuiss meeting was 
voted to be held at the courthouse on the Saturday following, August 9th. at 12 
o'clock. Thereafter a petition was circulated requesting the lioard of super- 
•visors to meet on the 13th of August. 1862, and praying them to offer a bounty. 
The meeting held on Saturday afternoon, August 9, 1862, was organized with 
James Rankin, E.sq., acting as ch;iirman, and H. C. Heminway, as secretary. A 
committee consisting of Jlessrs. Fulton, Hastings, and Chandler, was appointed 
to suggest the proper action to lie taken, and resolutions were adopted, similar 
to those adopted by the first meeting, urging the imiiortauce of raising volun- 
teers to fill the entire (|uota required from this county, under the President's 
call for 300,000 volunteers and also under the order recently issued for a draft 
of a like number, requesting the l)oard of supei-visors to offer a bounty to volun- 
teers and to make adequate and permanent provisions for the support of the 
families of volunteers who had enlisted from this county. William Mills, of 
Dubuque, was to have been present to address the meeting, but was unable to be 
there. A letter from him was read. 

A dispatch from Washington, dated July 29th, says that Governor Kirkwood 
had been authorized by the secretarj' of war to make a draft for soldiers when- 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 143 

ever and wherever he should think proper, in this state. This was done to reach 
ill-disposed traitors who were discouraging enlistments. Some of the states had 
abandoned the bounty policy and had commenced drafting soldiers into the 
service, but it was thought that Buchanan, having sent such a large proportion, 
would escape their drafting policy, but if she should be delinquent, undoubtedly 
Washington Township would be called upon to make up the deficiency, but she 
did not escape. Buchanan County's quota for the first regiment from this district 
was forty-eight as a minimum and sixty for a maximum. 

Under the two calls, she was required to raise about two hundred and forty 
men, and that in a short time. Mr. Rich made a most earnest and magnanimous 
appeal to his political enemies to drop all party strife, and to unite in the further- 
ance of their country's cause. "Let them," he said, "show a genuine patriotism, 
forget party prejudice and join hands in this common cause — and make all the 
sacrifices tliat free men and patriots fighting for the glorious heritage of freedom 
are in duty bound to make and enlist in the struggle. If there must be strife, let 
it be a friendly contest as to which political party shall furnish the most means 
and the most men for the conflict." 

Alfred Ingalls had been appointed commissioner and Dr. George Warne, 
surgeon, to superintend the draft of this county. Sheriff Westfall promptly 
completed the draft and Commissioner Ingalls was ready to hear applications 
for exemption. 

Accordingly, on Wednesday, August 13th, the board of supervisors met at 
the courthouse to take into consideration the subject of voting a bounty to volun- 
teer soldiers. There were present Messrs. Allen, Beach, Bemis, Cameron, Dickey, 
Flemming, Freeman, Hillman, S. T. Hovey, J. G. Hovey, Ironsides, Johnson, 
Lillie, Logan, and Ward. 

Mr. Bemis offered the following resolution : Resolved, By the Board of Super- 
visors of Buchanan County, that there is hereby appropriated out of the county 
fund of said county, a sum of money sufficient to pay $25.00 to each actual resi- 
dent of this county, who is the head of a family, who shall be mustered into the 
military service of the United States for the term of three years or during the 
war, under the last two calls of the President of the United States ; also the sum 
of .$5.00 to each single man who is not the head of a family. 

Mr. Logan offered the following as a substitute, and advocated its adoption. 
Whereas, a pressing necessity now exists for volunteers, to reinforce our army 
now in the field, and whereas, the governor of Iowa, is calling loudly for volun- 
teers, to aid in putting down the rebellion : Resolved, That the Board of Super- 
visors of Buchanan County, Iowa, in" special session, authorize the clerk of said 
board, to issue warrants on the county treasury to be paid out of any money, not 
otherwise appropriated, the sum of $25 each, to each single man and $50 to each 
married man, of said county, who has or may enlist under the first call of 
300,000 men, or under the second call. 

Resolved, That we pledge the credit of the county, as far as absolutely 
necessary, to the families of those who have, or may hereafter, enlist under said 
calls. 

Mr. Ward made an excellent patriotic speech in advocacy of the substitute. 

Messrs. Allen, Ironsides, and Johnson opposed the proposition on the ground 
of a want of power in the board. 



144 HISTORY OP BUCHANAN COUNTY 

Mr. J. S. Woodward, on the part of a committee of the people, by permission, 
spoke ill favor of voting the bounty. 

Mr. Hart followed in a short, earnest feeling appeal to the board to do what- 
ever patriotism could pi'ompt in furtherance of the cause of that Constitution 
which before and above everything else they have sworn to support. His speech 
was right to the point, and every word, "weighed in the scales of patriotism," 
according to the Guardian, When he concluded the question was called for and 
Mr. Logan's resolution was sulistituted for Mr. liemis' and adopted. The vote 
stood nine ayes to six nays. 

Mr. Dickey offered the following resolution which was not agreed to: 
Resolved, That the clerk of the supervisors jof Buchanan County, Iowa, be 
authorized to borrow money on the credit of the county for the purpose of 
paying the appropriation made for liounty to volunteers at 5 per cent. There 
was no further business so the board then adjourned. Later it was urged that 
the board of supervisors appropriate a county bounty to volunteers who had 
enlisted previous to the l)Ounty system and had as yet received no favors from 
the county but the board refused to issue warrants when there was no basis to 
give them valuation. 

All was not perfect harmony among the soldiers at the front. Often they 
forgot the purport of the great strife in the absorbing issue 6f petty affairs. 
Lettei-s back and forth from the soldiers printed in the local papers showed 
considerable animosity at times and prove very interesting reading after fifty- 
two years. Everyone was accusing everyone else of being disloyal and unpa- 
triotic and even traitors to their country. Especially was the feeling manifest 
between the two political parties, many of the democrats criticising the methods 
of the republican administration, also questioning the motives and policies of 
the leaders and the causes for war. These certainly were awful times, the dis- 
ruption of the Union itself and the continuous wrangling and opposition to all 
its proceedings. Even the loyal men at the front, Captain Lee, for example, 
was sorely criticised and maligned for his attitude on the slavery question. 
There was so much diversified opinion about the abolition question, hut the real 
quarrel was, of course, confined to the different political parties. Between our 
own county papers, as well as in every other county, where there were strongly 
opposing political parties, there existed the most bitter and acrid antagonism. 
Every week found columns devoted to the most sarcastic and stinging criticism 
of each other and their political attitude sometimes so personal it would seem 
that only some very tangible settlement could pacify them and yet what could 
that profit them. The old quotation ' ' the pen is mightier than the sword ' ' proved 
true in this case, and retaliation with that more deadly weapon was entirely 
satisfactory and a great deal more interesting, especially to the voracious 
perusers of the Guardian and the Civilian. Each week the battle waxed more 
furious and hot, each week brought fresh, juicy morsels to the watering mouth 

of scandal. 

One particularly exciting incident was when Mr. Rich, the editor of the 
Guardian, offered himself as a target for rebel bullets and guaranteed to find 
some good republicans to go with him if Colonel Thomas and Judge Roszell. 
or either of them, would also enlist. These two men, Thomas and Roszell, were 
leading democrats and strongly opposed and criticised the administration, the 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 145 

republican partv and particularly Mr. Rich, who was agitating the further 
progress of enlistments, bounties for soldiers, etc., all of which they opposed. 
Colonel Thomas replied to the proposition in a cleverly sarcastic letter, partly 
accepting the proposition and declaring that if he were rejected by the United 
States officer, when being mustered into service, that he would go and fight on 
his own hook, and if by the regulations of the War Department he was for- 
bidden to do that, he would then go as cook to his worthy townsman, Captain 
Noble, of the company then being raised. 

In the same issue as appeared Colonel Thomas' letter was a petition signed 
by about a hundred citizens almost exclusively from Washington Township, 
begging Mr. Rich to reconsider his decision and stick by "the ship of state" 
at home, that his duty was to continue at the laborious, responsible and too 
often thankless post of conducting and publishing the paper which he had so 
ably and efficiently edited, "as an exponent of republican loyalty, as the vigorous 
defender of the war measures of the administration, as the friend and organ of 
our chivalrous volunteers, as the .supporter of the principles of freedom in our 
county, in our judicial and in our congressional districts, and as the uncom- 
promising opponent of rebellion, treason, secession, and slavery in all their 
various disguises and forms." The discontinuance of the paper would be a 
public calamity for our county. "Peace has her victories as well as war," and 
there must be those who show their devotion to their country at home as well 
as in the "tented field," etc. Several other petitions were circulated through- 
out the county and had their desired effect on the editor. He concluded to remain 
at his post of duty, not only for the sake of his subscribers, but on account of 
his duty to Mrs. Jordan, widow of his late partner, who had laid down his 
life for" the cause and in view of the fact that his enlistment meant the entire 
destruction of his business and destroyed her sole means of support. 

It was soon announced that enlistments were increasing at a rapid rate and 
as before Buchanan County was not slow in answering to the Government's call. 
Mr. J. D. Noble, a commission merchant of Independence, was the first to initiate 
steps for raising a company which at once met with encouraging success. 

Captain Bull of Company C, Ninth Regiment, had received an appointment 
of paymaster in the regular army of the United States, with the rank of major. 
He resigned his position as captain and left immediately for St. Louis, to the 
regret of his company, but every one was glad of the captain's promotion. 
Lieutenant Wright received the unanimous vote of the company to fill the 
vacancy. Word was received that Edwin Sparling of Washington Township 
and a member of Captain Power's company of the Ninth Iowa Regiment had 
died in the summer of 1862 at Batesville, Arkansas. Captain Lee sent a copy of 
a general order issued by the commander of the army of the Mississippi requir- 
ing that all absentees from their companies should send a certificate of an array 
medical officer of their inability to rejoin their regiment within thirty days, or 
they would be reported as deserters. In this vicinity passes could be obtained of 
Colonel Allison of Dubuque or A. Brown of Cedar Falls. 

There had been so many different enlistments for different periods and so 
many home on furloughs and sick leave that it was difficult to keep track of 
them, and there had been so many desertions too. 

Vol I— 1 



146 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

The Fourth this year, 1862, was celebrated in a very quiet manner; there 
was no lack of patriotic spirit but no one seemed inclined to go ahead and 
make the necessary arrangements. But the country people looked to Inde- 
pendence to furnish them the entertainment, so accordingly they tioeked to 
town in large numbers, and an impromptu program was gotten up which proved 
both profitable and entertaining. The children were well amused by the antics 
of a negro, negro band, and a young "Cadets" parade. And in the afternoon, 
there was a gathering in the grove near the Methodist Church, where fine speeches 
were made by D. D. Iloldridge and Jed Lake, Esqrs., which satisfied the grown- 
ups and reflected much credit on these gentlemen. 

Captain Heeges Artillery Company had si.K Imrses attached to the old cannon 
belonging to the city and with its mounted escort looked very imposing. They 
fired several national salutes. The Cadets looked very splendid in their white 
pants, blue caps, and red scarfs, and marched well — they numbered twenty- 
five, carried a "nice flag" and were headed l)y a drum corps of boys who 
played very well for amateurs. 

The spirit of the soldier had invaded and pervadeil every youthful heart 
and was exemplified in even the games of the tiniest youngsters. 

In the July 15th paper, we see where two more brave soldiers of Captain 
Lee's company had died, viz.: Jackson Rice of Jefferson Township and R. .M. 
Walker of Fairbank Township. These men had been sick and in the soldiers' 
hospital and died very suddenly. Both were splendid soldiers. The Fifth 
Regiment was reported as having only 300 men fit for duty ; they were then 
stationed near Rienzi, below Corinth, Mississippi, but expected to move soon. 
Simeon Jlead, a member of Captain Lct-'s com]iaiiy, was sent home on account 
of physical disability. 

Already it was mid-summer, the harvest almost past, and with the appro- 
priation of the bounty offered l\y the l)oard of supervisors, and the month's 
advance pay grantetl liy the Govei'nment, men of families were enabled to pro- 
vide for them at the beginning of their enlistment. Tliis liberality jn'oduced a 
marked effect in the rapid increase of volunteei's in this county and in fact 
everywhere the policy was adopted. 

The gooil work was soon progressing not only at the county seat, under the 
direction of Mr. Noble, but also at Quasi |ueton under the supervision of Mr. 
Whitney and in Byron Townsiiip a company was being raised by Jacob M. 
Miller. Tlic lire of patriotism had lost none of its ardor and at the first bi'eatli 
was again ablaze. Some of the most prominent men of the county responded 
to tliis urgent call : Messrs. W. G. Donnau and Jed liake being among the 
number. Lieutenant Foster was in Independence recruiting for the old Iowa 
regiments and Lieutenant Geary of the regular army had reci'uited at least 
fifty men for the regular service, from this county. 

p]leven men had ))een recruited for Comjiany C, Ninth Iowa, then stationed 
at Jacinto, Mississippi. 

Letters from Captains Lewis and Little of Companies E and C, of the Ninth 
and Fifth Iowa regiments, respectivel.v, urging men to enlist and fill up the 
old companies appeared in the Septend)er papers. Company E needed eight 
or ten and Company C twenty to fill its ijuota. 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 147 

Captain Little writes that his company had numbered 101 while at St. Louis 
a few months previous, and now, July 28th, their aggregate was only 77, and 
several of that number were disabled, probably for life. 

One of the really pleasant incidents of the war occurred on August 3, 1862, 
when in camp near Helena, Arkansas, the Ninth Iowa Regiment was presented 
with a flag of the regimental colors and one of the national flags by the women of 
Boston, Massachusetts, as an evidence of their interest in them as soldiers of the 
Union, and as a token of their grateful admiration for the valor and heroism dis- 
played by them on the memorable field of Pea Ridge. The flag was a beautiful 
thing made of white silk on one side and crimson on the other. The inscription 
on the white side was beautifully inscribed in gold letters, "Pea Ridge, Arkan- 
sas, March 7th and 8th." In the center, held by two greyhounds, was the scroll 
with the words "Iowa Greyhounds." This was over the eagle which was in the 
center of the flag, with the Iowa coat of arms; all of which was encircled with a 
beautiful gold border. On the opposite, crimson side, handsomely embellished in 
gold letters were the words, "Prom your country women of Massachusetts," with 
the coat of arms of the old Bay State, and the words, "Pea Ridge," again 
inscribed on the field under the coat of arms, with the same border. On the 
flag staff was a fine gold bronzed eagle with a splendid gold tassel in his moiith. 
The staff was so arranged that the flag could be detached by a spring and 
folded in a moment. 

The other was the national flag, witli its blue field, and its broad stripes and 
one large star in the center of the field, encircled with thirty-four more in a 
gold ring or border, and with the words, "Pea Ridge, March 7th and 8th, 
1862." inside the circle. The flag staff and tassel were the same as on the other. 
This made one of the finest stands of regiment colors in the army of the South- 
west. The "color guard" was composed of eight corporals and one sergeant, 
and was placed on the left of the right center, forming on the left of Company 
C (Captain Bull's company), and then the color company, and Sergt. Charles 
Curtis of Company C was the color .sergeant ; the corporals were taken one 
from each company. No wonder the Buchanan boys were proud of their lionor 
to carry these beautiful tokens of appreciation and esteem on to victory. 

Miss Phoebe Adams, of Boston, Massachusetts, presented the flags in a most 
gracious and beautiful manner, paying warm tributes and eulogies to the ' ' Iowa 
Greyhounds" — (we are unable to finil whence comes this name, but it has con- 
tinued or rather a semblance of it, almost up until the present). 

The State Militia Company at Dubu(|ue has always lieen known as the 
"Governor Greys," even before the Civil war. 

Colonel Vandever, on ])elialf of his regiment, accepted the magnificent gift 
and responded in a most eloquent and touching reply, paying tribute to the 
Ninth Iowa, which with a Missouri regiment and Captain Hayden's battery was 
assigned the post of honor and of danger on the morning of the first day of tlie 
battle of Pea Ridge. They were fighting greatly sujierior forces, and for hours 
were hotly pi'cssed with a terrific fire. Of the small liand of 565 of this regi- 
ment, that marched so valiantly into battle, 239 lay dead and wounded on the 
field, at the close of the contest. (We have previously told how Company C 
suffered.) And it shall not be forgotten that on the day preceding the liattle 



148 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

they performed an almost unbelievable feat of marching forty miles between 
daylight and dark to reaeh the field of anticipated strife. 

These colors were jealously guarded and cherished by the regiment all 
through the war, were borne many long weary miles, and on many a victorious 
field, riddled and torn with Ijullets, and covered with tlie many scars of battle, 
and afterwards were presented by the unanimous voice of the regiment, one to 
the origiiiid donors, and the other to Brevet Major-General Vandever, the old 
commander of the regiment, whom the men of his original command never ceased 
to hold in the warmest esteem. 

The enthusiasm continued unabated and culminated in the enlisting of two 
companies. The members of both companies- gfithered at Independence on the 
18th and 19th of August with hundreds of their friends to bid them a sad fare- 
well. Again were the sad and tragic scenes of the former pai-tings reenacted 
except perhaps with a more intense feeling, because more and more did they 
realize what this parting meant. Both companies were filled to the maximum 
number. Captain Noble had 106 men enlisted and the character of the men 
was such as to promise the highest honor to the country, the state, their county 
and themselves. Captain Miller's company had eleven men rejected, while Cap- 
tain Noble had only one, by the mustering officer at the examination and swear- 
ing in of the company at Dubuque. Jacob M. Miller was elected captain of the 
company by acclamation, lint further organization was deferred by both com- 
panies until they should be in camp at Dubuque. At first Captain Noble's 
whole company was quartered at the Grafifert House and Captain I\Iiller"s in 
three different places but hII in comfortable quarters, which would go into camp 
as soon as the Twenty-first Regiment left, which probably would be Augiist 
29th. Company H held its election at the city hall, Dubuque, August 27th, 
it being an enthusiastic and harmonious election. 

The roster of Company H, Captain Miller's, taken from the official report 
of the adjutant general is here appended. This regiment was attached to the 
Twenty-seventh Iowa Volunteer Infantry. 

COMMISSIONED OFFICERS 

Captain, Jacob M. Miller. 

First Lieutenant, Otis N. Whitney. 

Second Lieutenant, William G. Donnan. 

NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICERS 

First Sergeant, Aaron M. Wilcox. 
Second Sergeant, Wesley G. Smyser. 
Third Sergeant, Charles W. Woolley. 
Fourth Sergeant, Charles W. Evans. 
Fifth Sergeant, Mark Brownson. 
Fii-st Corporal, Joseph H. Blank. 
Second Corporal, Daniel Anders. 
Third Corporal, John G. Lifts. 
Fourth Corporal, Alonzo L. Shurtleff. 



c 






^5 



D30 

z_ 




150 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

Second Corporal, Charles H. "Wright. 
Third Corporal, Jonathau F. Gates. 
Fourth Corporal, Lewis A. Main. 
Fifth Corporal, Frederick Spragg. 
Sixth Corporal, (Jeorge Frink. 
Seventh Corporal, William P. Warren. 
Eighth Corporal, George N. Whait. 
Musician, Robert N. White. 
Musician, Harry Green. 
Musician, Oliver Bray. 
Wagoner, Byrou C. Hale. 

PRIVATES 

Eli Anderson, Hiram Abbot. Emery S. Allen, Richard H. Andrews, Daniel 
L. Brisbin, Job Barnes, (iilbert P. Brant, Eli C. Brown, William B. Burris, 
Warren Bouck, Henry M. Bailey, George W. Beaman, John Brady, Michael 
Butler, Lorin D. Carpenter, John S. Coates, Kneedham N. Crandall, Levi Dur- 
ham, Electus L. Frizelle, Erasmus B. Frizelle, Zenas R. F'ary, Franklin B. 
Fredenburg, George H. Fuller, Joel Fisher, James (". Glass, Harry Green, 
George W. Hilling, Abner B. Hoft'man, Gilbert L. Hicks, Matthias Hook, David 
N. Jewett, David F. Johnston, Martin T. King, Willard II. King, William S. 
King, John R. Laton, Abraham Littlejohn, William II. Lueder, Walter S. Munger, 
William B. Minton, Reuben G. Merrill. David McGowau, William Milligan, Carr 
W. Mosher, Joel D. Nourse, James H. O'Brien, Rezin Orput, Samuel V. Pelley, 
Gilbert R. Parish, Joseph Russell, James E. Robinson, John G. Rice, Henry H. 
Romig, Elliott V. Smith, Joel S. Smith, C.yrus E. Smith. Samuel H. Smith, Daniel 
S. Spragg, John W. Sanders, Edward H. Spalding, George II. Spalding, Benja- 
min S. Sager, Lucian Stevens, Albert Tennis, Sylvanus Taylor, N. D. Vaneman, 
John D. Van Cleave, Jesse Wroten, John M. Watson, Joseph A. Williams, Seth 
Wheaton, Thomas Watson, David E. Wheeler, Eri A. Wilson, George VVille, 
-James G. Warren, Abisha W. Washburn, Thomas Linn. 

Captain Miller's company was at first designated as Company C but this 
.-name was given to Captain Noble's company and the former Company C became 
'Company II. Both companies were in the Twenty-seventh Iowa Infantry. They 
-were ordered by (jlovernor Kirkwood to rendezvous at Camp Franklin, Du- 
buque, August 26, 1862, and were mustered into the service of the United 
States by Capt. George S. Pierce, United States Army, on October 3, 1862, 
under proclamation of the President of the United States, bearing date July 2, 
1862, as Companies C and H of the Twenty-seventh Iowa Infantry. 

All during the war. the different churches, schools and societies throughout 
the county and particularly at Independence were getting up patriotic enter- 
tainments for the purpose of raising money for the soldiers and everything that 
could be spared from the homes to add to their comfort and benefit was sacrificed. 

The Independence Women's Aid Society as usual sent numerous boxes and 
barrels to these companies while stationed at Dubuque and among the articles 
were the customary needlebooks, which elicited two very grateful acknowledg- 
ments in the form of letters from Lieut.-Col. Jed Lake and Lieut. W. G. Donnan. 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 151 

They also at this time shipped five or six barrels of eggs, onions, and fruit, firkins 
of butter, etc., to the other companies at the front, and later, to the companies 
still stationed at Camp Franklin, pails of honey, butter, eggs, and some of their 
sporting friends sent nearly two hundred prairie chickens at one time. And 
these kindly services of the dear friends left at home helped to cheer and comfort 
the poor soldiers who were sacrificing all the .joys and comforts of home life 
to fight for tile Union. The accommodations at Camp Franklin were not com- 
pleted when our soldiers arrived, barracks had not yet been constructed and 
everything was in confusion but the soldiers took hold with a will and soon had 
it in a state of completion and they were really enjoying camp fire life. 

In this same is-sue of the Guardian with the above statement is one to the 
effect that the governor had decided to officer the Twenty-seventh Regiment as 
follows: Gilbert of Allamakee County, colonel; and Jed Lake, lieutenant colonel. 
At that time Colonel Lake had been appointed, by the President, as collector of 
Federal taxes for this Congressional District, but after consulting his friends, 
he concluded to decline the civil and accept the military position. He was 
always extremely fortunate in having offices thrust upon him and filled them 
creditably and conscientiously. His commission dated from the 4th of Septem- 
ber, 1862, and he went immediately to join his regiment, the Twenty -seventh, 
stationed at Dubuque. 

In the canvass of Buchanan County in September, 1862, the number of 
persons liable to military duty was 1,116 and 514 had volunteered and were in 
the Government service, 121 were exempt and 56 were aliens, who also were 
exempt. 

At this time. Col. G. J\I. O'Brien of Dubuque, who had obtained authority from 
the War Department and the governor were attempting to raise an Irish regi- 
ment in this state, to serve in General Corcoran 's brigade. John Sexton and 
Patrick ilcGavock of Independence were engaged in getting up a company for 
this regiment. 

In Independence in September, 1862, appeared a paper called "The Crisis" 
issued from the Civilian office. It was a half sheet campaign paper edited by 
ilessrs. Roszell, Leavitt, and Glynn, and devoted to the advocacy of Dennis A. 
Mahoney, who had been nominated by some of the democrats of this district for 
Congress. He was editor of the Dubuque Herald and was considered by all 
republicans and many democrats as a traitor. He had been arrested by a United 
States Mai-shal for treasonable conduct and was even at the time of his nomina- 
tion incarcerated in the Federal I'rison at Fort Lafayette. His nomination 
caused the most bitter animosity and disgust in the democratic party and really 
caused a disruption. He had openly in every possible way and through the 
medium of his paper opposed the administration, the war measures, and bitterly 
fought all republican and Unionist principles, placing the entire blame of the 
Rebellion on the opposing political party. The republican party had nominated 
Col. William B. Allison for Congress, who was elected. Politics were I'aging 
fast and furious in the county. It would seem that the graver issues of war, 
destruction and carnage would have entirely occupied all their thoughts but as 
usual in all pulilic affairs politics was the predominating feature. 

In an issue of the Guardian of September 23rd, was a statement that the 
Iowa Fifth for the first time had seen a slight speck of war in the battle of 



152 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

luka. James Bell, a private, was captured and was then a prisoner of the 
"Secesh." 

This notice by no means conveyed the real significance of that battle, which 
proved in later reports to have been a severe one. The regiment went into battle 
with' 482 men, including officers, and had 219 killed and wounded. The Fifth 
Iowa, as might be expected-, showed tliemselves as brave and gallant as the Ninth, 
and like them, were victorious. Company E, "the Independence Guards," our 
first company mustered into service, held a very dangerous and responsible posi- 
tion, and in evei-y instance proved themselves worthy of the honor and pride 
the citizens of Buchanan County had manifested in them. 

During the battle of luka, Company E depki;^ed for four miles as skirmishers 
exposed to a murderous fire from the enemy and across open fields. Lieutenants 
Lewis and White, Sergeant Blouden, and Captain Lee all superintended diflierent 
sections of the company and each did his part nobly, but to Captain Lee there is 
especial credit due, he, in spite of a terrific fire, was here, thei"e, and everywhere, 
sustaining and encouraging his men. And when the comijany was ordered to 
charge bayonets, they went forward cheering and yelling and never for one 
moment wavered, until the enemy were overcome and routed. Lieutenant Lewis 
was severely wounded early in the engagement and John Towle, a printer by 
profession, and a young man of many brilliant qualities, was killed at the third 
or fourth volley. He had also been wounded but refused to go to the rear and 
rejoining the company in the second charge was killed. He was one of those 
noble heroes that deserve a niche in the halls of fame, whose heroism and self- 
sacrifice shall not lie forgotten. Another of our Independence boys who distin- 
guished himself in this battle was Lieut. W. S. Marshall, who was acting adju- 
tant. He was in the thick of the battle during the entire engagement and escaped 
without a scratch. In his official report. Col. C. L. Mathies complimented 
Lieutenant Marshall, with the rest of the officers, for their noble assistance and 
on the field the general personally complimented Company E. Lieutenant Lewis 
was sent home in charge of Private Peters but was unable to get any further than 
Keokuk, where Peters left him and came home. Mr. Jamieson went down the next 
week to see him and render any aid possible. He was in a bad condition from his 
wound but he was in the liest of spirits. Soon after the battle of luka occurred 
the battle of Corinth in which thirteen Iowa troops were engaged. The Fifth 
Iowa was included in tliis but occupied an unimportant position. 

Senator Hastings, of Buchanan County, had received the appointment of 
assistant surgeon of the Twenty-seventh Regiment. The Independence company, 
at Camp Franklin, were delighted and felt the Doctor would make a fine officer. 
There was an excursion to t'amp Franklin on Thursday, September 18th ; a large 
crowd, about 1,300 people, attended. It took two coaches and two engines pulling 
to accommodate the crowd and many had to ride in open cars with pine boards 
as seats. 

They found the Twenty-seventh in excellent condition as to healtli, food and 
quarters. They were furloughed home by Colonel Gilbert, October 5, 1862, for 
five days before the.y should begin active service. They were assigned to General 
Pope's division and the adjutant general had selected them for frontier service 
in Jackson County, Minnesota, to operate against the Indians. 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 153 

This was very distasteful to the regiment, but like all true soldiers, they did 
not inunimr or complain. Sunday, October 12th, was the day selected for mov- 
ing — and as scheduled, they started by boat for St. Paul. 

They received all that was coming to them in the way of uniforms, ginis, a 
month's advance pay and $2.00 bounty from the Government and also the bounty 
from the county and were extremely happy over this fact — most of the money 
was sent home to Reverend Sampson to distribute. From both companies it 
aggregated about $2,500. The soldiers were loud in their praise of the D. & S. 
C. R. R. Company, which put on an extra train and a fast one, and brought them 
out on Sunday, thereby giving them the benefit of another day's visit at home. 
Charles L. Coleman, a member of the Twenty-seventh, died at home on Tuesday 
night, October 7, 1862. He was taken sick at Camp Franklin and his father 
brought him home and he died the next day. He had only enlisted about seven 
weeks before. 

The next we hear of the Twenty-seventh was that six companies, among them 
Captain Noble's, had been ordered to Mille Lacs, a lake in Aiken County, about 
one hundred miles northwest of St. Paul, to accompany Government agents to 
transact business connected with the Indians. During their absence, the Twenty- 
seventh, with the rest of Pope's division, was transferred from the northern to 
the southern department and the four companies left Fort Snelling and departed 
immediately for Cairo, Illinois. The other six companies would follow as soon 
as they returned from the IMille Lacs expedition. Captain Miller left his company 
at Dubuque and visited home on a furlough to recruit his health, which had been 
impaii-ed by exposure ; he only stayed one week, however. The extreme cold and 
exposure worked havoc in the, camp of the Twenty-seventh and in one month's 
service they had lost three men by disease. 

Wben the regiment went South, Benjamin Sutton and Morgan Boone, both 
of Independence, were left in a critical condition with typhoid fever at Fort 
Snelling. S. Abby was sick and had gone to Milwaukee on a furlough. The 
following week the death of young Sutton was announced. Colonel Lake on his 
return from the Mille Lacs expedition, finding Morgan Boone convalescent, 
brought him and two other soldiers who were sei-iously sick. Walter H. Munger, 
of Company C, who was left at Anoka on the return march from the north, died 
at that place on the 8th of November. He received the kindest attention from 
the people of the little village, who took him to a private house, nursed him 
tenderly and turned out en masse to do honor to his remains. 

"He was an honest, upright, truthful man, and no one has gone into the 
army from purer motives of patriotism, or a nobler sense of duty. When we 
last saw him at Dubuque, he was full of life, energy, and good feeling; but now, 
alas, he is in the silent tomb. May the sod pre.ss lightly upon his bosom." We 
insert this tribute written of him by a friend, becavise should any friend or 
relative glance at this it might perchance stimulate them to emulate his worthy 
example and too, it well serves as a tribute to all the brave fellows who sacri- 
ficed themselves for their country's cause. Ex-Senator and Doctor Hastings of 
Company H received the appointment as assistant surgeon of the Twenty-seventh 
Iowa Volunteers, a possition he was eminently fitted to fill and his friends were 
delighted with his promotion. 



154 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

On the way down the river from St. Paul, the l)oys of Captain ililler's 
company in appreciation of his wortli as a man and as an officer presented him 
with a beautiful sword and sash, and a splendid Colt's revolver. They were 
valuable testimonials of respect and love for an officer who was ever alive to 
the wants of his men and untiring in providing for their comfort. Orderly 
Aaron \Vilco.\ made a tine presentation speech, and Captain Miller accepted 
witli one equally so. Doctor Sanborn, Lieutenant Whitney, and Lieutenant 
Donnan followed with short patriotic speeches. Word was received that Oliver 
Safford of Captain Lee's company had died at eamp near Corinth on October 
25th of tyjjhoid pneumonia. He was spoken of in the highest terms. C. B. 
Kaudy had been appointed sutler of the Twenty-seventh Regiment and left 
Independence November 18, 1862. The Soldiers' Aid Society were still doing 
fine work, and seemed never to tire or become discouraged with the constant, 
unceasing demands made upon them. When Colonel Lake returned to his 
regiment November 12, 1862, they sent about seven hundred pounds of "goodies'' 
to gladden the hearts of the soldier boys. 

On the evening of Wednesday, November 20th, Pope's army was ordered to 
report at Columbus, Ohio, to Brig.-Gen. T. O. Davis. They went by boat and 
arrived there at 9 P. M. of the same day. There they were ordered to report to 
General Sherman at Memphis, Tennessee. They were put in the Sixth Brigade 
under Brigadier-General Lauman, an Iowa man, and a fine officer. Quite a few 
of the men were sick and had been left behind to garrison Port Pickering. Cap- 
tain Miller and Lieutenant Donnan were among this number and had charge of 
the sick. Company E, Captain Lee's company, of the Fifth Iowa, was with 
General Grant's army then encamped near Oxford, Mississippi, ('olonel Lake 
finally located the Independence boys on the march, after a great deal of search- 
ing (Grant having fifty 7Vginients. of about fifty thousand men, in his army and 
all on the march). He wrote home how well they looked and acted and said they 
seemed to enjoy war as one of the necessities if not the luxuries of life. He 
found Lieutenant Marshall, who had been promoted to adjutant of the regiment, 
laboring through the mud (with Colonel Matthias). The Twenty-seventh was 
not long under the connnand of either Major-Geneial Sherman or Brigadier- 
General Lauman, who were assigned to new commands, Init again were ordered 
to report to Colonel Dubois at Holly Springs, Mississippi. 

Early in December, 1862, it was announced from the state's chief execu- 
tive office that Buchanan County was out of the "draft business," having fur- 
nished thirteen in excess of her quota, and ten niorc had enlisted since that 
report. Add to this the fifty or more who had enlisteil with the regular army 
and a number who had enlisted with regiments outside the state and we con- 
clude that Buchanan was exceedingly loyal. 

Morgan Holmes, who had been the correspondent of the Civilian, with the 
Fifth Iowa and had l>eeu lioiiic for several weeks, was arre.sted as a deserter, 
by order from head(|uarters, and taken to Davenport by Captain Kelsey, recruit- 
ing officer at Independence. The Government kept diligently in pursuit of any- 
one they ever suspected of desertion. He would probalily be sent to his regi- 
ment and court-martialed. Messrs. Jacob S. Travis, Johnson, Heyward, and 
Jacob S. Miller, members of the Grey Beard Regiment, then in camp at Mus- 
catine, returned home December 18, on a furlough of a few days. They all 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 155 

looked to be in excellent health and had a very soldierly bearing in their fine 
uniforms. Some time previous this regiment had been enlisted as a sort of 
Home Guard. 

About the first of the year 1863 word was received that three more noble 
heroes of the Twenty-seventh had recently died from disease. John McBane 
and John Sanders died at Cairo where they had been left in the hospital in 
November, 1862, and William Leuder died near Holly Springs. They were 
all fine young men and excellent soldiers. 

There was a great deal of sickness in the Twenty-seventh ; fifty-si.x at one 
time were in different hospitals, from Minnesota to Tennessee, and a report a 
little later from Tallahatchie, Mississippi, from Colonel Lake, said the regiment 
had only 630 men on duty, had left in ilemphis 105 sick and convalescent, forty- 
five more were sick, and all along the river going down they had left some sick. 
James Nash, a member of the Thirteenth regulars, a resident of Buchanan 
County, was killed in a fight near Collierville, Mississippi. 

Word from headquarters, January 13, 1863, was that the Fifth Iowa was in 
General Quimby's division, stationed near Memphis, guarding the Memphis & 
Charleston Railroad. January 9th, a letter stated that the Twenty-seventh had 
been in one of the two brigades which were in pursuit of General Forrest, Imt 
were too late to help General Sullivan defeat him at Red Mound. The Ninth 
Iowa, about which there had been little chronicled, were in the encounter at 
Vicksburg under Sherman. The Ninth were most of the time in reserve or sup- 
porting a battery until Monday afternoon when they were thrown forward to 
save our brigade from defeat. They advanced into a very dangerous position 
but miraculously escaped a terrible slaughter. Only six of the regiment were 
wounded and two missing and not one of Company C was hurt. Captain Wright 
and Lieutenant Little both had behaved most courageously at their posts of 
duty. General Thayer had given the Ninth Regiment praise for their conduct. 
As a bit of diversity from the horrors of war, we read a unique direction on 
a letter which passed through the Independence postoffice in January, 1863 : 
"Postmaster, loyal if you be, — Down in Memphis, Tennessee, — Please hand this, 
safe, to Capt. Lee, Who has the command of Company E, Of Iowa's Fifth In- 
fantry. In the Brigade of Gen. Quimby, And you will be blessed by God and 
me — Blessed to all Eternity. But if you are tricky in the least, Abe will call 
you to the East, Then comes Satan to your cell. And says, 'P. M., there's room 
inh— 1.'" 

The army regulations, in regard to furloughs, were becoming more and more 
strict. Captain W^right was court-martialed for coming home and remaining a 
few days without a permit, but the decision of the court entirely vindicated him, 
for he was in command at the battle of Vicksburg, as we have previously stated, 
and soon thereafter was in the battle at Arkansas Post, where the Ninth, as 
usual, seemed to have its proverbial good luck. For although about one thou- 
sand of the army were killed, the loss to the Ninth Regiment was only a few 
wounded while Company C escaped without a scratch, and every man kept his 
place throughout the* entire battle. 

Nearly every week some of the soldier boys were returning, being discharged 
from the service for physical disability. The last week in January, 1863, How- 
ard Stutson, Clinton Losure, Warren Munson, N. J. Boone, of Company H, 



156 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

Twenty-seventh Regiment, all were discharged, and George Kirkhani had been 
diseharged at Cairo, but was still there waiting for his papers. J. L. Loomis, 
who had joined the Forty-sceond Illinois, was in the very thickest of the fight 
at Murt'reesboro — where the Forty-second did much grand and glorious work — 
going into the tight with 300 strong and fully one-half were killed and wounded, 
but Mr. Loomis escaped injury of any kind. 

The Fifth at this time were stationed near Gerinantown, Tennessee, fifteen 
miles from Memphis, guarding the railroad. Adjutant ^larshall had been pro- 
moted some time. C. H. Waggoner was now (|uartermaster — both with the rank 
of first lieutenant. 

On January 31, 1863, C. J. Keed, a member of Company E, of the Fifth 
Iowa, who liad been the talented correspondent of the Guardian (and whose 
letters we have often quoted), also correspondent for the New York Times and 
ilissouri Democrat, returned home discharged on account of physical disability, 
lie liail been iucapalile of active duty in his regiment for a long time. 

Aiiotlier soldier was brought home dead — a boy by the name of Cox from 
Fairbaiik. He was a member of the Sixth Iowa Cavalry and died in camp at 
Davenport. Then later came the death of Jacob Glass, of Company II, son of 
Martin Glass of Buchanan County, a noble-hearted man and one universally 
respected. Along in 1863 the feeling of bitterness and animosity between the 
administration sympathizers and supporters and the antis or Copperheads, as 
they were called, was at white heat, even in Buchanan County — there seem to 
have been many southern sympathizers, anti-Lincoln, anti-war, anti-administra- 
tion, and more extreme in degree, anti-abolitionists. It was a most strained and 
critical condition for the poor soldiers at the front who were there sacrificing 
all the joys and comforts of life, enduring all the hardships of war, exposed to 
all conditions of weather, half clothed and half fed, under the strain and fatigue 
of long weary marches and actual warfare and subjected to the ravages of both 
battle and disease and all for the purpose of defending the country and their own 
and their neighbors' hearthstones of liberty. And to feel that they did not have 
the hearty and unanimous support of their own countrymen was, indeed, a bitter 
realization. To voice their feelings, the Twenty-seventh Iowa held a general 
ratification meeting in front of Colonel Gilbei't's tent (February 12, 1863) to 
adopt resolutions expressive of the sentiments of the regiment with regard to 
the Copperheads of the North. A lengthy and detailed series of resolutions 
composed by the field officers about Jackson were read and adopted, also a 
series of which Lieutenant-Colonel Lake was sponsor and one of Colonel Gil- 
bert's design. Both were adopted without a dis.senting voice. They expressed 
their opinion plainly in regard to these Copperhead individuals who were so 
numerous in Indiana, Illinois and Iowa, and ranked them with the rebels, as 
infamous, traitorous destroyers of our nation. Not only were the soldiers' let- 
ters full of consternation over the attitude and influence of the Copperheads 
at the North, but some of them were becoming sorely tried at the inactivity and 
treatment they were receiving; many were becoming fearfully disgruntled at 
their higher officers and the "powers that be," blaming them for not allowing 
the soldiers to forage what^'ver, wherever and whenever they pleased, and accus- 
ing these officers of showing partiality to the Secesh, or else having been bribed, 



HISTORY OP BUCHANAN COUNTY 157 

because they would not allow their men to steal or destroy everything along 
their paths. 

Other letters were equally strong in commending their officers. 

In a letter from the Twenty-seventh of this same date, February 12th, we 
read that Captain Miller had been sick for some time and First Lieut. 0. Whit- 
ney had been in command and made a fine officer — Lieutenant Donnan had been 
for some time at brigade headquarters as acting aide-de-camp on Acting Brigadier 
General Dunham's staff. He was well liked and liked the office, too. Orderly 
Wilcox had injured his foot with an ax and Sergeant Smyser was acting as 
orderly for Colonel Duuham. Soon, however, the brigade organization under 
Colonel Dunham was dissolved and they had all returned to camp with the 
exception of George Fuller, who had been detailed as clerk at district headquar- 
ters for General Sullivan. Surgeon D. C. Hastings had been ordered to Young's 
Point to report to Major-General Grant. Company H had sixty-nine men pres- 
ent, fifty of whom were reported as effective men; Company C had sixty-nine 
present, fifty of whom were effective; Company H had eighty-six in all and 
Company C had ninety-two. 

As an entire company of cavalry was not raised in this county, it is difficult 
to keep track of the many volunteers from this county who joined outside cav- 
alry troops or even to acquire an accurate list of their names. We have previ- 
ously mentioned different recruiting officers being stationed in this county for 
the purpose of enlisting recruits. Many of these were for cavalry companies 
and each one got some volunteers. The First, Fourth and Sixth Iowa Cavalry 
all had representatives from this county; the First probably had the greatest 
number, forty-eight leaving on Thursday, September 4, 1862, per rail for Du- 
buque. Their names are as follows: 

W. H. McGill, Alanson Sager, William Foote, C. Poecock, Dewit Kelley, B. 
Lotterdale, D. Brown, C. Edgecorab, C. McGill, F. W. Paine, S. H. Rose, T. 
Flennuing, J. Wentworth, H. C. Skinner, P. B. Turner, J. West, A. Palmer, 
Otter C. Anton, W. II. Baker, R. Kelley, H. P. Jones, J. Wadley, W. George, 
I. C. Jones, Ludebeck Long, F. Weik, W. G. Cummings, Levi S. Drunkwalter, 
John H. Williams, Charles Porter, Oscar Daniels, E. II. McMillen, Lyman 
Ayrault, Edgar Mills, M. D. Carpenter, Edward Brown, J. S. Thompson, Loy 
Hutchins, Howard Hall, E. L. Chickeubrend, G. Ellworth, H. Babcock, John 
Furinan, Stephen ]iurk, — Ilibby, George Carr, John Boehline, George H. 
Davis. The Fourth had between twenty-five and thirty from here. 

In :March, 1863, the Sixth Iowa Cavalry, which had been encamped at 
Davi'uport and in which Buchanan County had representatives, had been or- 
dered to Sioux City by General Pope to protect the frontier against Indians. 
News had also come of the death of Lieut. Alexander B. Lewis in a hospital at 
Keokuk on February 25, 1868. It came as a great shock to his friends here, 
because just the week previous letters from his company at Memphis rejoiced 
in the as.surance that their beloved and esteemed officer would be with them 
soon. Among the thousands of the noblest and best who had sacrificed themselves 
upon the altar of their country no one was more worthy than Lieutenant Lewis. 
He was a most extraordinary man, possessing qualities of mind and heart which 
attracted to him a host of friends, and those added to his mental abilities, intius- 
try, application and ambition would have insured him a successful career as a 



158 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

lawyer, the profession he had chosen. But when the first call came for volun- 
teers, he was almost the first to enlist in this county, and went into the ranks 
as a private soldier under Captain Lee. He soon, however, attracted the atten- 
tion of Colonel Worthingrton, who made him sergeant-major of his regiment, the 
Fifth Iowa, and afterwards, on the death of Lieutenant Jordon, insisted on 
having him commissioned as first lieutenant of Company E, to the extreme 
pleasure of the company — they tliought he would replace the noble friend they 
had lost in Lieutenant Jordan. At the victorious battle of luka, fought on 
September 19, 1862, where the Fifth Regiment made itself an honored name, 
he received a dangerous wound in the hip, and from that time until his death 
on the 25th of February, 1863, he was eonfinetl to a bed of intense suffering. 
He tried to get home the last of October, but could get no further than Keokuk, 
and there for over five months, bearing his suffering with a calmness and cour- 
age only possible to a noble, strong-hearted hero, he at last was relieved from 
duty and promoted to a far superior rank in the great army of the eternal 
realms. 

The love and esteem with which he was held, and the appreciation of his 
many virtues and capabilities were expressed in the beautiful tributes of friends 
and soldier companions and in the resolutions of difterent societies passed in 
honor of him. 

Captain Wright of Company C of the Nintli Iowa had returned home on 
Friday, March 20, 1863, having resigned his commission on account of ill health. 
We have pi-eviously mentioned his illness, and now he was forced to this end, 
much as he regretted it. Sergt. Robert Bain of Company C, Ninth Iowa, was 
killed on tlie 30th of March in the siege of Vicksburg. He was a fine young 
man and an excellent soldier, and his deatli was deeply regretted by all who 
knew him. 

The officers of the Ninth voluntarily and cordially expressed their sincere 
appreciation of him and their extreme regret at his loss in fitting resolutions. 
His company also adopted resolutions of appreciation, sympathy and regret at 
his departure. Captain Wright was naturally of a frail constitution and had 
endured the hardships and deprivations of army life for eighteen months with- 
out nuirnuir or complaint, but it had gradually demoralized his health. He had 
been a faithful and conscientious soldier and a thoughtful and considerate 
officer. 

William A. Brace, a resident of Buchanan County and a member of the 
Seventh Iowa Cavalry, had been made recruiting officer and was stationed in 
Independence in ilarch, 1863. 

In March, 1863, Governor Kirkwood issueil a sanitary circular with letters 
of Mrs. Whittenmyer, head of the Iowa Sanitary Commission, stating the terrible 
conditions of our soldier.s — the prevalence of scurvy, the fearful ravages which 
it and othei- diseases induced by the absence of a vegetable diet were making, and 
begging people to send vegetables quickly. Under this appeal of the governor 
Quas(|ueton sent a couple of loads of different things and Doctor Warne shipped 
from Independence 16 barrels of potatoes, 4 liarrels onions, 1 barrel of eggs, 1 
firkin of pickles, firkin cabbage, and a large box filled with wines, jellies, pickles, 
horsft-adish. corn, etc. 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 159 

Doctor Warne and his wife were among the indefatigable workers in the 
interests of the soldiers and deserved and received the soldiers' grateful appre- 
ciation. At a meeting of the Alton Union Club, held at the Minton School- 
house, in Fairbank Township, on March 26, 1863, resolutions were adopted 
condemning the bitter partisan spirit which was becoming so dangerously vindic- 
tive and malicious and eulogizing and indorsing the President, the administra- 
tion and the war policies, and urging upon all loyal, true Americans, without 
regard to party, to unite in a supreme effort to save the Union. 

All through the county patriotic societies, churches and school districts were 
participating in such proceedings. In Independence, Winthrop, Quasqueton, 
Hazletou and all the small communities copperhead and Union meetings were 
frequently held, often at the same time, and the bitter feeling was growing 
instead of abating. Almost every week a Union meeting was held in the court- 
house at Independence and a copperhead or democratic club meeting at Allen's 
Hall, with speakers of note to make the addresses. Often their meetings were 
conducted as a debate. This feeling even permeated the hearts of the gentler 
sex. A party of Union women whose husbands, fathers and sons and brothers 
were in the Union army talked of ducking a woman who lived on Spring Creek 
who was persistently luirrahing for Jeff Davis. The presence of her husband 
probably saved her. These loyal women would not tolerate such open treason 
in their midst. 

The President appointed Thursday, April 30, 1863, as a day of national 
humiliation, fasting and prayer, and the churches were to observe it with Union 
services. 

Captain .Miller of the Twenty-seventh returned home Saturday, April 25, 
1863, in a very feeble state of health, suffering from a spinal injury which he 
received in the service, and, being unable to continue, he was honorably dis- 
charged. He was a tine soldier; patriotic, honorable and kind to his men. He 
brought home with him .$5,272 from members of his company and $242 from 
Captain Noble's company. Reverend Sampson also received $3,617.25 from 
Captain Noble's company. Mr. Blair of Quasqueton lirought $1,000 from mem- 
bers of the First Cavalry and various other sums sent home, so in all, probably 
eleven thousand dollars nuist have been received in this county from just two 
regiments. The soldiers evidently saved their money and remembered their 
families at home. 

The next report from the front was on June 9, 1863, from Major Marshall of 
tlic Fifth Iowa, which had been in three engagements on May 11, 16 and 22, in 
the vicinity of Vicksburg, one at Jackson, one at Champion Hills, and the other 
at Vicksburg, and lost, in killed and wounded, 125 men. The list of killed and 
wounded of Company E was as follows: 

At Jackson, May 14 : Corp. William Codling, wounded severely. 

At Champion Hills, May 16: 

Killed — Sergt. Joseph H. McWilliams, Corp. John Jarrett, Corp. Castleton 
Leatherman, Privates James Bell, Levi Overhulser. 

Wounded — Corp. W^. P. Morse, slightly ; Privates John Davis, severely ; A. J. 
Francis, dangerously ; George Gray, slightly ; J. McCray, severel.y, and died 
some weeks afterwards; Julius F. Phelps, severely; S. A. Reed, slightly; W. H. 



160 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

Sayre, slightly ; John Shea, severely ; H. C. Sprague, slightly ; T. C. Pucket, 
slightly ; R. Whait, slightly ; W. Crawford, died a few weeks afterwards. 

At Vicksburg, j\Iay 22 : 

Wounded — William H. Crawford, severely ; H. W. Snider, slightly. 

Captain Lee and Lieutenant Peek miraculously escaped injury, though with 
their command through the entire battle, cheering the lioys on to victory or to 
a hallowed grave. The Captain said to them at the Battle of Champion Hills, 
"Bo.ys, follow me,'' and truly they did. every last man of them. Scarcely a 
one l)ut showed an honorable mark, either in his flesh or clothes, and it was 
wonderful how many narrow escapes there were. Indeed, it was a miracle that 
so many lived to tell the tales of suffering and privation, of their recent hard 
marclu'S, hard battles and hard fare. 

Capt. E. C. Little sent home a list of the killed and wounded of Company C 
of the Ninth Iowa, which also was in the Vicksburg encounter. All the wounded 
were in hospitals at Champion Hill. 

The killed were: Lieut. H. P. Wilbur, Corp. L. A. Persall, Private George 
Freylierthauser. 

Wounded — Capt. E. Little, Sergt. J. M. Elson, Corp. Reuben Rou.se, Alpheus 
Losey, H. H. Ford, William Willey. 

All were in the hospital at IMemphis, Tennessee. John Ford liad his right 
foot amputated, but there were no other dangerous wounds. The Captain had 
a eouple of flesh wounds, but made light of them. The Ninth Iowa had again 
distinguished itself and honored the state by its deeds of valor at Vicksburg, 
but the victory cost dearly — many of our nolilt. gallant heroes were sacrificed 
to that end. 

ilartin K. Hallock of Company E died of congestive fever at Milliken's 
Bend and Sergt. Frederick Spragg of the Twenty-seventh died in the regimental 
hospital at Jackson, Tennessee. His death was sudden and unexpected. 

Captain Little came home on a furlough Friday, June 12, 1863, and went to 
his home at Littleton, llr told a graphic tale of the Vicksburg battle. Having 
been wounded, he lay on tlie field with the bullets falling thick as hail arouud 
him, some grazing his body, one entering the flesh of his hip, but not injuring 
the bone. There he lay luitil darkness closed down upon them and hostilities 
were abandoned, and finally liis men found him and carried him from the field. 
His injuries were painful but not serious. Captain Little was of very youthful 
appearance, and at that time was but little over eighteen years. He entered the 
army as a private, Imt had been promoted to the captaincy of Company C and 
was capable in every way to fill so responsible a connuand. He was anxious to 
and expected to return to his company in two weeks. 

Captain Lee wrote home of the death of Capt. Thomas Blonden, formerly a 
meudier of Company E, Ninth Iowa. He was killed at Milliken's Bend on 
June 6, 1S6:J. He liad applied for and obtained the captaincy of a company of 
negro troops organized in (ieneral Grant's department and these negro troops 
were attacked by a considerable force of rebels at Milliken's Bend and after a 
desperate encounter these succeeded in driving back their assailants. Captain 
Blondin was shot in the In-east while gallantly leading his troops. He lived but 
a few hours and, though perfectly aware of his condition, calmly submitted to 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 161 

his fatf. He was a noble, whole-souled man, who performed his duty well and 
died as valiantly and courageously as ever a soldier did. 

Another letter from the Twenty-seventh tells of their skirmishes with the 
guerrillas, but no casualties had taken place. John Buck of Independence had 
accidentally shot himself in the leg, shattering the bone and compelling amputa- 
tion. It was feared the wound would jirove fatal. 

Judge Tabor, who had been appointed fourth auditor of the treasury, had 
at that time been performing his duties but two weeks and was perfectly familiar 
and more efficient with the office than some heads of bureaus who had grown gray 
and gouty in the service, and still had time to deliver a speech at the head- 
quarters of the Union Leagues at Washington on the 23d of June to a large 
audience. He spoke for two hours to a cordial, appreciative audience of Union 
men and women. He also was the Fourth of July orator of the Columbian College 
Hospital at Washington, District of Columbia, and his earnestness and elo- 
quence captivated his audiences. 

Independence was preparing to celebrate the Fourth and some mean, con- 
temptible individuals (probably copperheads, so the opposition said) had stolen 
the town cannon so as to prevent the firing of salutes. This was the second 
offense of that nature. Also the ropes to flagstaff's had been cut in several places 
around town. 

But evidently a cannon was obtained in time for celebrating, because at day- 
break "the deep boom and clear ring" of a new cannon startled the town from 
repose and made the copperheads feel how perfectly futile their meanness in 
stealing the old cannon had proven, in the way of a lessening Union thunder. 
This started the grandest success in the way of a demonstration that ever had 
been achieved in Independence. By 9 o'clock the delegations from the extreme 
parts of the county began filing through the main streets, headed by martial 
music and with flags and banners flying. From Hazleton, Littleton and the 
north came a delegation of sixty wagons; from Quasqueton, Sumner and the 
south came one of seventy-three wagons ; from Winthrop, Spring Creek, Jeifer- 
son and various other points came smaller delegations, all with music and 
banners. Fully five thousand people were in attendance. 

At 11 o'clock the procession was formed at the courthouse by the efficient 
marshal. Lieutenant Scott, and his assistants, and^ marched to the grove near 
the Methodist church, where seats had been provided, and there enjoyed a fine 
program of the usual Fourth of July kind — music, speaking, reading of the 
Declaration, and an excellent oration by Hon.^ Henry A. Wiltse. Then followed 
a most sumptuous and bounteous dinner. They had 400 feet of table room and 
fed over nine hundred people. The farmer and town women vied with each 
other in their generosity and excellence of their donations and there was a large 
amount of provisions left and this was distributed to needy soldiers' families 
and the poor. After the dinner toasts were responded to, twenty in number, and 
yet there was no lagging in enthusiasm to the end. 

■ The celebration ended with a fine exhibition of fireworks. The Independence 
cadets and three bands were part of the procession. Could we ever nowadays 
get up such a display? A fine arch was erected at the entrance to the dinner 
inscribed to "Iowa's Soldiers in the Field," and "Iowa's Departed Heroes," 
and tlie proceeds from this dinner was expended for some patriotic cause, prob- 



162 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

ably to buy necessities for the Iowa Sanitary Commission, and we note they 
cleared $277.49 and had heavy expense. It does one's heart good to read about 
one of these old-fashioned, genial, patriotic, spontaneous celebrations, where every- 
body is interested and all are welcome. 

A great celebration was indulged in at Indeiiendence on July 6th, upon hear- 
ing the glorious news that General Meade and his Army of the Potomac had 
achieved a signal victory over General Lee. The wildest enthusiasm was dis- 
played by the citizens, cheer after cheer greeted the reading of the war bulletins 
and soon the cannon was thundering forth a deep lioom of triumph. Directly 
a big keg of lager was on pulilic tap at the postoffice, and not a man was slighted, 
but all, particularly the copiierheads, were made to drink to General Meade 
and his brave soldiers. A packing box (dry goods box) was procured and one 
after another of the citizens was called upon to speechify. Then at night another 
glorification was indulged in. Thirty-five guns brought out nearly the entire 
population on the green in front of the postoffice, the band was out and a fine 
choir sang patriotic airs. There was a fine spirit manifested and a general good 
fellowship. Party differences were forgotten and everybody participated in the 
celebration. Speeches were made by ilessrs. Holdridge, Hart, Boggs, Fulton, 
Woodward, Reed, Bryant, Smith, Hedges, Leavitt, Ro.szell, S. P. Adams, Esq., 
of Dubuque, McCorcle of ilinnesota. These men were representative of both 
parties and this united feeling was a happy result. 

Then again when the news of the fall of Vicksburg readied Independence on 
Wednesday night, July Sth, it caused a renewal of the jubilation indulged in 
by the citizens over the victory of the Army of the Potomac. The cannon was 
brought out, lager flowed freely and eggnog was handed around by the bucket 
full. Very sedate gentlemen became very noisy and nearly every loyal man 
in town was transformed into a "high old boy." The whole of Union and 
Brewer blocks, including the Guardian office and the postoffice were brilliantly 
illuminated. The band was out, speeches were made by some dozen citizens, 
patriotic songs were sung by the excellent Glee Club of Independence. After 
the meeting, the young folks improvised a dance, in which the old folks were not 
loth to indulge. Every loyal person shouted, hurrahed, laughed, danced, or 
sung, or did something to manifest his joy. It was a time long to be remem- 
liered and deserves a place in history. 

Again the announcement of the surrender of Port Hudson and the opening 
of the Mississippi called forth another demonstration of joy from our loyal 
citizens. It was honored by a salute of thirty-five guns. 

Letters from the home soldiers in the Fifth and Ninth Iowa in the Army of 
the Northwest, under Grant, which helped achieve the surrender of Vicksburg, 
with its 30,000 prisoners, 60,000 arms, over one hundred pieces of artillery and 
seventeen generals — one lieutenant-general, four major-generals, twelve brigadier- 
generals — were burning with enthusiasm and jubilation over the victory, and the 
Twenty-seventh Regiment encamped at Moscow, Tennessee, were equally joyous 
and their army celebrated with the firing of ten or twelve shots from their artil- 
lery. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Lake, who had been connnander at La Grange, had just 
been relieved and returned to his regiment at Moscow. All of Company C's 
men who had been detailed in the various departments had returned with the 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 163 

exception of Lieutenant Hemenway, who was acting assistant adjutant-general 
at brigade headquarters, vice E. R. Wiley, who had Iteen promoted to major in a 
colored regiment. Baker of Company C had been made captain of Company 
A, and Glass, first lieutenant of the same company. 

Tliere were other affairs being celebrated in a like manner with a keg of 
lager on tap for public consumption. This seems a strange procedure for an 
Independence community, but that was in the days before temperance was so 
universal and so popular as it is now. 

A notice in the papers of July 21, 1863, shows there was no lack of patriotic 
enthusiasm. All persons in favor of forming a military company in our county 
were respectfully requested to meet at the courtliouse on Thursday eve. 

Another notice to the effect that the dearth of labor consequent upon the 
drain of young men in the army had made harvest hands so scarce that they 
had raised wages up to ^2.00 per day and every available person, old, young, male 
and female, had gone into the harvest fields. 

Everything was correspondingly high during war times, and a revenue tax 
was imposed upon all legal papers; marriage licenses, mortgages, bonds, deeds, 
leases and everything upon which a tax could be levied came under the ban. 

Lieutenant Scott had joined the Eighth Iowa Cavalry and was commissioned 
second lieutenant recruiting ofiticer stationed at Independence. One month's 
advance pay, besides a $2.00 premium for enlisting and pay commenced from 
the date of enlistment and each recruit was to have thirty days' furlough after 
enlistment, very soon Ijrought almost a full company which reported at Davenport, 
August 21, 1863. Newspapers printed on wall paper by the Confederates at 
Vicksburg were sent home as souvenirs by our soldiers. The besieged army was 
subsisting on mule meat and even the canines were threatened if the siege still 
continued and it was apt to, for at that time General Pemherton in an address 
to his soldiers said he would not surrender so long as a mule or dog remained 
whereon the men could subsist. 

The President had appointed Thursday, August 6th, as another day of 
thanksgiving, praise and prayer, on account of our "recent victories," which 
was duly observed in Independence and other towns in the county. 

At this time Buchanan County boys who joined the Iowa cavalry were off on 
an Indian expedition at Camp McLaren, Lake Traverse, then later at 
Cheyenne. 

Captain Lee came home on furlough, and while here he made a speech at the 
courthouse on Saturday evening, August 22d, 1863, to a packed house. He 
was a stanch democrat and hater of abolition when he went into the war, but 
his views had entirely changed and he was now a firm believer in abolition, 
the Emancipation Proclamation and the war policies. 

Another draft was to be made on the Third Congressional District and the 
first class liable to draft, between the ages of twenty and thirty-five, numbered 
12,421, of which Buchanan County was responsible for 673. 

In September, 1863, II. Williams of Captain Lee's company, who had been 
detailed at Keokuk, had been commissioned to raise a company in the First 
Colored Regiment of Iowa, then being organized at Davenport. He had recruited 
Edward Herndon, commonly known as "Captain Lee's Contraband,"' whom 



164 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

we have written of before. This negro had educated himself in the simple 
branches and could now read, write and spell very well. 

There were two other ex-slaves in the county who were subject and anxious 
to enlist, but who had proven so valuable to their present employers that they 
were using every means and inducement to persuade them to stay here. The 
militia company whose contemplated organization we mentioned some time 
past was perfected by the final selection of officers on Saturday, September 
12th, 1863. All the commissioned and some of the non-commissioned officers 
had seen service. Following is a list of the officers and privates: 

■. OFFICERS - . 

Captain, C. F. Herrick. First Lieutenant, T. C. Nelson. Second Lieutenant, 

C. J. Reed. First Sergeant, T. J. Marinus. Second Sergeant, George Kint. 
Third Sergeant, James B. Donnan. Fourth Sergeant, Ebinezer Little. Fifth 
Sergeant, E. L. Frizelle. First Corporal, M. W. Hurlburt. Second Corporal, 
Frank Sherwood. Third Corporal, George Patterson. Fourth Corporal, Orriu 
M. Bunce. Company Clerk, L. W. Hart. 

PRIVATES 

M. V. Adams, Thomas Abbott, J. A. Abbott, Jed Brockway, Jos. A. Bush, 
William Beardsley, G. B. Bouck. C. H. Bessey, N. A. Bassett, W. H. Bush, 
Isaac H. Carter, J. H. Campbell, T. F. Curtis, J. M. Chandler, H. S. Cole, Joseph 
Evers, Reuben C. Eldridge, I. S. Freeman, H. Fourtner, Harrison Fuller, John 

D. C. Garrison, W. II. Godfrey, F. H. Griswold, Fayette Gillett, A. Gillett, 
S. L. Greeley, Simeon Hale, L. P. Haradan, D. D. Holdridge, S. C. Horton, 
G. W. Hardenbrock, H. R. Hunter, II. W. Humes, L. 0. Hillman, L. C. Jaques, 
W. H. Kent, George L. King, E. B. King, C. P. Kingsley, George T. King, J. F. 
Lyon, John Leslie, Charles T. Montfort, 0. Marquette, J. F. McKenzie, Sr., 

.Wm. H. H. Morse, J. H. Morgan, J. F. McKenzie, Jr., E. A. North, George 
Netcott, 0. M. Pond, H. G. Palmer, S. M. Palmer, William Palmer, Jacob Rich 
(P. M.), S. E. A. Rissley, E. A. Sheldon, Wm. C. Squier, W. II. Stanley, George 
Schermerhorn, John Siewert, M. G. Taylor, C. B. Voorhees, C. R. Wallace, W. S. 

Wallace. 

A large Union mass meeting was held in Independence, September, 1863, 
and was the largest affair of its kind ever held in the cOunty up to that time. 
Senator Grimes was the drawing card. Delegations from all over the county 
came in with bands, flags, and banners, as they did for the Fourth of July 
celebration. 

Politics was waxing fast and furious and between the county papers there 
was much scathing criticism and bitter denunciation, which although it may be 
unpleasant, nevertheless is mighty interesting. Candidates for offices were 
stumping the county with much enthusiasm and no cessation of labors (quite 
different from the present quiet methods employed for political campaigning). 
Meetings were held in every available public place, groves, schoolhouses and 
picnics. Party demonstrations and torchlight processions were numerous. T)ie 
Union party was particularly active, and had a large and enthusiastic follow- 
ing in this county. 



HISTORY OP BUCHANAN COUNTY 165 

Likewise the Democratic Club or Copperheads were holding forth, but their 
followiiit;- here was much smaller than the opposition, although equally as enthus- 
iastic and strenuous. 

Lorenzo Moore was one of their big chiefs and their principal orator. He 
never lost an opportunity to indulge in bombastic vitriolic oratory and expressed 
himself freely and fearlessly in criticising the administration and its war poli- 
cies. 0. H. P. Roszell, Leavitt, Albert Clark, Sanford Clark, S. S. Allen, Henry- 
Bright, E. W. Purdy, John Smyser, also were prominent adherents of this politi- 
cal creed. 

Captain Miller, although he had denounced the Copperheads and their trea- 
sonable attitude, yet affiliated himself with them and accepted a nomination for 
treasurer for this county, but in his letter of acceptance he explains his position 
and fully vindicates himself. Claims to be a Union democrat and believes in 
supporting the Government. Later he challenges the editor of the Guardian 
to enlist. To an unbiased mind, it appears that the bitter opposition, wrangling, 
and animosity between the democrats and republicans, or the "Copperheads" 
and "Union" men, as they were usually termed, was not a matter of principle, 
hut rather of party, fealty — pure, unadulterated political partisanship. Not 
for home, country, family or friend can a real, dyed-in-the-wool politician sacri- 
fice his loyalty to his party. It seems strange, but it is a proven statement, that 
men generally are more devoted to their political party than to any other civil 
institution. Celebrations similar to those held after victorious war news was 
received were indulged in after election ; also an oyster supper was participated 
in. The soldiers were allowed to vote in camp and their vote counted. 

In letters from Colonel Lake, of the Twenty-seventh Regiment, then (Sep- 
tember, 1863), encamped at Little Rock, Arkansas, and various places thereabout, 
he reported three more Buchanan County boys dead — Thomas Magill of Buf- 
falo Grove, Isaac Gill and William Minton. Thomas Magill was killed in a 
skirmish with the enemy. Isaac Gill, of Independence, died in a hospital at 
Brownsville, and William Minton, a member of Company C, Twenty-seventh, 
died at Moscow, Tennessee. All were fine young fellows and died doing their duty. 

The Aid Society of Independence elected for the ensuing year the follow- 
ing officers: President, Mrs. N. T. Bemis; vice president, Mrs. M. P. Woods; 
secretary, I\Irs. H. 0. Jones; treasurer, Miss Carrie Curtis. Mrs. P. C. Wil- 
cox was treasurer, Mrs. A. J. Bowley, vice president, and Miss Gillispie, secre- 
tary. This society, never weary of well doing, kept constantly at their good 
work, their last shipment, in October, 1863, was seventeen barrels and a large 
box of canned fruit, all donated by the liberal, patriotic citizens of the county. 

Lieut. J. P. Sampson was at this time detailed on the signal corps, an impor- 
tant position, and S. A. Reed was lieutenant of a company in the Twelfth Louisi- 
ana (colored), being promoted to this commission over hundreds of other appli- 
cants. 

Orton 's circus was in Independence in October, 1863, and he generously gave 
the entire proceeds of one performance to the Soldiers' Aid Society, which mate- 
rially increased their funds. Orton was an Independence man and used to win- 
ter his show here. 

The Ninth Iowa was again in action, near Cherokee Station, on the Memphis 
& Charleston Railroad, on the 21st of October, 1863. They formed part of 



166 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

Sherman's advance and were attacked by rehels. These were only skirmishes, 
no l)attk' of consequence resulted. 

Early in November, 1863, Lincoln Lssued another call for 300,000 troops. 
Iowa's (juota was 8,910 and Governor Kirkvvood was urging volunteers' serv- 
ice before the draft would be made on Januai'y 5th, 1864. The Third District 
was required to furnish 1,754 and Buchanan County, 96. It was the inten- 
tion that these recruits raised would fill up tlie old regiments, and every pos- 
sible inducement was ottered to attract volunteers and hasten the recruiting. 

The bounty money had been raised from .$30(1 to $41)2, and a month's extra 
pay to those who would re-enlist (the $2.00 was the premium money), and $302 
bounty and i)remium money and one month's pay to every new recruit, and 
every volunterr would be allowed to select his own regiment. 

In December, 1863, tlu' citizens began holding war meetings again, all through 
the county, probably in an eflfort to revive enthusiasm and interest in the cause, 
which had suffered somewhat of a reaction, but was soon rampant again, and 
patriotic sentiment and loyalty was kindled anew. 

It was reported that Maj. AV. S. Marshall of the P'ifth Iowa, and six members 
of Company E, had been taken prisoners in the recent engagement of Sherman's 
division, which had been in the hottest of the fight at Missionary Ridge and 
suffered severely. They met the enemy at the point of the bayonet and routed 
them completely. No list of casualties had been received and the people here 
at home were in dread suspense. 

Later this report about Major .Marshall and his num was confirmed when 
Reverend Mr. Boggs received letters from Major Marshall, who with his men, 
were taken prisoners at Chattanoooga. He arrived at Richmond on the 8th 
of December. 1863, and was confined in Libby Prison, but the privates were 
sent to some other place of confinement. 

Those of Company E who were pri.soners were: Messrs. Morse, ^Whitman. 
Stewart. Prickett, Sayers and Whait. The remarkable escape of Madison Bryan, 
a member of Company E, was told. ]\Iajor Marshall and his men were com- 
pletely surrounded by the rebels and at his command had laid down their arras, 
but iladison. when he beheld the hated ensign of secession waving over his 
head could stand it no longer, so volubly expressing himself to the effect that 
"he didn't enlist to fight under such a rag," he started off at a pace that bid 
fair to distance all pursuers, and although a whole volley was fired at him, 
twenty balls penetrating his hat, coat, pants, and even his boots, yet none of 
them drew blood, and he made good his escape. This tale has a moral that 
sometimes it is better to run than fight an enemy. "He who fights and runs 
away, lives to fight another day." 

The reliels graciously permitted private supplies to be sent to the prisoners. 
Friends at home availed themselves of this privilege and sent thing.s to them at 
intervals, which although they seldom ever reached their intended destination, 
probably did some poor soldier good. They were treating the prisoners much 
more humanely now, and had ceased the barbarities which characterized the 
treatment of Union prisoners at Richmond, a few months since. The railroad 
companies generously carried donations to the soldiers for half fare, and the 
express companies too were genei'ous in that way. 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 167 

The last recruiting was going on slowly, although $1,400 had been raised by 
a subscription to be divided equally among the recruits as soon as the neces- 
sary fourteen were secured, probably owing to the fact that the $1,400 was 
not to be distributed until the entire number were recruited. Quas(iueton 
had fulfilled all her obligations in this matter and had given each recruit a purse 
of $50 ; this sum was raised by the citizens of that town alone. A premium of 
$15 was given to any person recruiting a soldier. In January, 1864, notice was 
given that many of the soldiers whose time had expired had re-enlisted, and they 
were expected home to recruit until spring. The Ninth Regiment, like many 
others in the state, had enlisted almost to the man. These re-enlistments had a 
tendency to inspire confidence in the new recruits. 

Companies E and C of the Fifth and Ninth Iowa Infantry, who had been in 
the service three years, were expected home about the first of the year, and great 
plans were being made to give them a royal reception and a most pleasant stay 
while at home. 

The previous call of tlie President for 800,000 troops had been raLsed to 
500,000, to enlist for three yeai-s' service or during the war, and if they were not 
forthcoming by the 10th of ]\Iarch. were to be drafted. The $400 premium 
expired the 1st of March, so speedy volunteering was urged in order to obtain 
the premium. This, of course, again raised Buchanan's quota. Governor Kirk- 
wood, on the 22d of February, issued an embargo on all persons leaving the 
state prior to the 10th of March, on account of the draft to be enforced. Many 
were flocking to the newly discovered gold fields in Montana, Idaho and at 
Pike's Peak, and this embargo by the governor greatly disconcerted their plans. 
The Unionists in Independence accused the democrats, some of whom the gold 
craze had ensnared and who had made their plans to go West, of embracing this 
as an excuse to escape military duty. 

Captain Noble had resigned and returned home the 1st of February, 1864. 
He was obliged to resign on account of ill health, a fact which everyone regretted, 
because he had been a very efficient and valuable officer. It was a noticeable 
fact that most of Buchanan County's captains were compelled to resign their 
commands and return home. 

Another death, that of Mr. IToldridge, brother of Representative Holdridge, 
occurred in Independence, in February, 1864. He was not a member of the 
Independence companies, however. 

The long-expected day and hour when "Lo, the conquering hero comes," 
arrived. For days the citizens of Independence had been on the tip-toe of expec- 
tation over the anticipated home-coming of the soldiers of the Fifth and Ninth, 
who were coming home to recruit, before the renewal of duties. 

All sorts of rumors had been prevalent as to the date of their arrival, but at 
last telegraphic dispatch settled the question, with the assurance that Company 
C, of the Ninth, would be in Independence on Saturday. February 13, 1864. 

Everyone was wild with joy. They left Huntsville, Alabama, reached 
Corinth, Tennessee, on the 10th, and arrived in Dubuque on the 12th. Here 
they met a glorious reception from the citizens, who prepared a bounteous break- 
fast, dinner and supper for them, and turned over to them hospitalities of the 
citv. 



168 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

Doctor Warne of this city had gone dowu to escort them home aud, although 
the time was exceedingly short, our citizens planned a dinner for them at Morse's 
Hall immediately upon their arrival. Old feuds and party animosities were 
buried and forgotten in the engulfing concern of giving the "boys" a grand 
reception. Harmony and good feeling and mutual pride and eagerness to assist 
in the soldiers" welcome- prevailed. Tlie winter atmosphere was warm and 
springlike, great crowds from all over the county were in town and everyone 
was happy and busy. Everything augured a splendid affair. 

The town was decorated with flags and mottoes, the town flag was suspended 
from Morse's Hall to the bell frame, a clever one suspended from the Guardian 
office bore the following motto, "Honor to whom honor is due. Iowa Ninth, 
Bully for you." Mr. Hegee heralded the return of tlie noble veterans at the 
depot with a volley from his ever ready and responsive artillery, to which the 
Yanks aboard the train responded, "Lay down, the Rebs are firing on our 
flanks. " ' Such a reception and such a banquet are not soon forgotten by the 
recipients of the favors. The boys in blue formed in line and marched to the 
music of the band with military precision from the depot to the hall, in spite 
of the disregard of military etiquette and tlie onrush and confusion of the 
enthusiastic crowd. These gallant soldiers, inured to the task of overcoming 
every obstacle, commenced a heavy onslaught upon the vulnerable array of gas- 
tronomical fortifications and kept up a continuous battle with these elements 
until they were forced to a complete and unconditional surrender. That the 
soldiers thoroughly relished and enjoyed their dinner was satisfaction complete. 
At the close of the dinner Captain Little extended the thanks of himself and 
his company to the generous citizens who had so royally entertained them, after 
which three cheers were given for Company C, the Ninth Regiment and the 
Union. Captain Little had unexpectedly accompanied Company C home, having 
but a short time previous rejoined the company, and in his impatience to be at 
the front, had gone while crutches were still a necessity, but suffered so greatly 
that he was compelled to go into the hospital at Paducah, Kentucky. 

Company C then nundjered thirty-four privates who had all re-enlisted, 
besides others in hospitals and on detached service who were expected to do so. 

The boys left their guns and accoutrements at Dubu(iue, where they were to 
report for duty after the expiration of their furlough. 

Company E also was expected home soon and the present guests were all 
cordially invited to attend the festivities which would be accorded Company E's 
return. The day's festivities closed witli a grand cotillion party in the evening 
and was a l)rilliant and successful affair. 

Company C certainly deserved this honor. They had seen hard service for 
almost three years and been in desperate and deadly encounters first at Pea 
Ridge, Chickasaw, Arkansas Post, Jackson and Champion Hills aud Vicksburg, 
and in spite of the joyousness and hilarity manifested on this occasion, yet there 
was many a heartache and l)linding tear for the noble departed heroes who had 
given their lives for their country and lay buried on many a distant battlefield. 

A ball was held on March 8, 1864, at Morse's Hall in commemoration of the 
Battle of Pea Ridge, which was fought on March 8, 1862, and Company C was 
one of the valiant companies which stood dauntless before the deadly onslaught 
of the enemy. The veterans of Company C at home certainly coidd appreciate 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 169 

dancing to the tune of tliat glorious victory wliere they had achieved great honor 
and distinction. About this time Corp. William Codling of Company E, Fifth 
Iowa Infantry, arrived in Independence, having been discharged from the service 
on account of a severe wound he received at the battle of Jackson, Mississippi, 
and I'cported news that Company E would soon be home on furlough. 

Company C of the Ninth received marching orders requiring them to ren- 
dezvous at Davenport, and they left on the 14th of March, some weeks earlier 
than tlioy expected. Their stay at home had been made so pleasant that they 
were loath to depart, yet, like good, true soldiers, they did not murmur or repine. 

Doctor Wright, who for weeks had been recruiting men throughout the county 
to tlie number of eiglity, had taken them to Davenport, where they would be 
assigned to their dilierent regiments. The following is the complete list from the 
different townships : 

WASHINGTON TOWNSHIP 

Arthur Merriman, Twenty-seventh Infantry; John Bessey, First Cavalry; L. 
Whait, First Cavalry ; J. B. Hill, First Cavalry ; Martin Stebbins, Fifth Infantry ; 
John J. IMillei-. Fifth Infantry; Harry Samuels, First Cavalry; Thomas W. 
Melody, First Cavalry ; Samuel Brayton, First Cavalry ; L. J. Hale, First 
Cavalry; Robert J. Young, First Cavaliy; Augustus Ritner, First Cavalry; 
Solomon Rufe, First Cavalry ; Henry (jummings. First Cavalry ; Thompson 
Lewis, First Cavalry; James II. Laughlin. Twenty-seventh Infantry; Hiram M. 
Thurston, Twenty-seventh Infantry; William Plevert, Twenty-seventh Infantry; 
Samuel H. Pierce, Third Battery; W. S. Wallace, Fourth Cavalry; Theodore 
Powers, Fourth Cavalry ; John Donovan, Fifth Infantry ; Charles Gordon, 
Seventh Infantry. 

LIBERTY TOWNSHIP 

George W. Wells, First Cavalry ; Andrew Brownson, First Cavalry ; Daniel 
Swartzel, First Cavalry; William Miller, First Cavalry; R. W. Bodell, First 
Cavalry ; George W. Markly, First Cavalry ; William J. Washburn, First Cavalry ; 
S. W. Hardin, Finst Cavalrj'; Amos Andrews, First Cavalry; J. T. Washburn, 
First Cavalry; B. H. Hall, First Cavalry; Ralph Ilenningan, First Cavalry; 
Silas Henningan, First Cavalry; D. W. Ring, First Cavalry. 



NEWTON TOWNSHIP 

W. T. Wallon, First Cavalrj- ; Charles Bunce, veteran. First Cavalry ; H. H. 
Ramsey, Twenty-seventh Infantry; Abraham Black, Twenty-seventh Infantry; 
James A. Waldron, Twenty-seventh Infantry. 

CONO TOWNSHIP 

Charles G. Neuele, First Cavalry; A. Sanford, Twenty-seventh Infantry; J. 
Booth, Twenty-seventh Infantry. 



170 HISTORY OP BUCHANAN COUNTY 

FAIRBANK TOWNSHIP 

H. G. Balcom, First Cavalry; S. C. Hines, First Cavalry; H. S. Hopkins, 
First Cavalry ; J. H. Kent, First Cavalry ; Allen Brant. Twenty-seventh Infantry; 
S. W. Patterson, Twenty-seventh Infantry ; William E. Cairn, veteran. Twenty- 
seventh Infantry. 

BUFFALO TOWNSHIP 

William H. Sutton, First Cavalry; Samuel H. Messenger, First Cavalry; 
Samuel Bullis, First Cavalry: T. C. Canfield, .Twenty-seventh Infantry; George 
D. Smith, Twenty-seventh infantry. 

H.VZLETON TOWNSHIP 

D. A. Todd, Twenty-seventh Infantry; A. D. Allen, Twenty-seventh Infantry; 
H. D. Barry, Twenty-seventh Infantry; Henry Hardy, Twenty-seventh Infantry; 
C. M. Wheeloek. First Cavalry ; Rufus Buiice, First Cavalry ; ]\Iartin Hayes, 
Twenty-seventh Infantry; R. llerril. Sr., Twenty-seventh Infantry; R. Merril, 
Jr., Twenty-seventh Infantry. 

FREMONT TOWNSHIP 

Peter Gilford, First Cavalry ; M. S. Malloy, First Cavalry ; James Flenning, 
First Cavalry. 

SUMNER TOWNSHIP 

' R. Metcalf, First Cavalry. 

MADISON TOWNSHIP 

Mort Smith, Twenty-seventh Infantry; Gustavus Jaekway, Twenty-seventh 
Infantry ; Ben.jamin Crocker, Twenty-seventh Infantry. 

PERRY TOWNSHIP 

Preston Reiuhart, Twenty-seventh Infantry. 

BYRON TOWNSHIP 

Robert Buth, Twenty-seventh Infantry. 

JEFFERSON TOWNSHIP 

J. F. Henderson, Twenty-seventh Infantry ; R. H. Wilson, Twenty-seventh 
Infantry; J. Dawson. Twenty-seventh Infantry. 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 171 

There were also eight men from Orau Township, Fayette County. Although 
this was guaranteed to be the last call for volunteers, and this supply of our 
quota would preclude any further draft from this county, it was not long until 
the President issued another call for 200,000 more for the military, navy and 
marine corps, and Buchanan County was again urged to her duty. No particular 
news of the Twenty-seventh had been received for some weeks past, until 
Lieutenant-Colonel Lake and Lieutenant Donnan came home the last of March, 
1864, for a two weeks' furlough and reported that the Twenty-seventh was par- 
ticipating with Sherman in the Red River expedition. A benefit ball was given 
for the veterans of Company B, Fourth Cavalry, on the 31st of March, 1864. 
Captain Parsons was director of the atfair and it was a financial and social 
success. A soldiers' sanitary fair meeting was held on the 25th of' March, 1864, 
at the instigation of the state committee for the purpose of perfecting county 
and township organizations. A state sanitary fair was to be held in Dubuque 
on the 24th of May and generous donations were requested. Several men and 
women from Dubuque and Chicago were present and addressed the meeting, 
urging the people to assist in this very necessary and humane work. Lieutenant 
Donnan also was present and addressed the meeting in a speech replete with 
patriotism and incidents of the war. A committee of six was appointed to solicit 
subscriptions of money and vegetables. Doctor Warne, Doctor Wright, C. J. 
Reed, ^Irs. Morris, Mrs. Dunham, and Mrs. Warne constituted the committee. 

Committees of two from each township were appointed to act in conjunction 
with the Ladies' Aid Society of Independence to procure and forward supplies 
to the Northern Iowa Sanitary Fair. Mrs. Bemis was president of the fair for 
Buchanan County and in a short time thirty-eight barrels had been received at 
the postoffice and were ready to forward to Dubuque. Later Doctor Warne 
shipped 100 barrels of potatoes. Every available means and opportunity were 
enlisted to raise funds and provisions for the sanitary board by the Ladies' Aid 
Society. The express companies carried all packages for the soldiers for half 
fare. 

For thi-ee years they had been actively and tirelessly at work, giving constantly 
of their time, money and energy. At the evening reception given to Company E 
they collected over one hundred dollars in voluutaiy subscriptions, raffled a 
cake and made $100.00, and yet had the cake left to donate to the Sanitary Fair 
at Dubuque. Another festival soon after that netted them $64.00. A mush and 
milk and popcorn and milk sociable was another novel feature to which the 
aid society resorted to raise funds. In all the other towns in the county organiza- 
tions were working for the Iowa Sanitary Fair. Quasqueton always was active 
and liberal in everything pertaining to the benefit of the soldiers. Hazleton had 
up to the last of ilay, 1864, raised something like $150. Fairbank, Littleton 
and Buffalo Grove were zealously at work. 

Another society known as the Soldiers' Friend Association was organized 
the last of March, 1864. It met at the JIasonic Hall. Mvs. Snow acted as chair- 
man and Mrs. Ilenshaw as secretary. In the election which followed the organiza- 
tion Mrs. P. C. Wilcox was elected president, Mrs. Purdy vice president, Mrs. 
Hedges secretary. Miss Gillispie treasurer, and Miss Homans corresponding 
secretar\'. 



172 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

The next thiug of importance was when tlie eitizens of Iiulependeneo were 
suddenly electrified by a dispatch from Lieutenant AVaggoner, dated at Daven- 
port, announcing the news that the veterans of Company E, Fifth Iowa Infantry, 
were on their way home. The time of preparing a grand reception was lim- 
ited, liut immediate and active preparations began. Tlie word was circulated 
throughout the county and when the soldiers landed there was a large and cor- 
dial crowd there to greet them. Again the cannon boomed forth its welcome 
and the band played its liveliest airs. A welcome speech was made by Hon. 
L. W. Hart, state senator from this district. In it he recalled the parting 
scene of three years ago and recounted their excellent war record, their fii-st 
great victory at New iMadrid, then the blooily.and hotly contested field of luka 
and again at Corinth, at Jackson, at Black River Bridge, on the fatal tield of 
Champion Hills and finally at the siege and snrrendei' of Vick.sburg, then later 
on that memorable and heroic niai-ch from Vicksbnrg to Chattanooga, on half 
rations, on (Quarter rations and less, half clad, bareheaded, bare and sorefooted, 
tearing up their blankets and other garments to make moccasins for their sore 
and blistered feet, but, nevertheless, joyous, happy and willing. Then after 
marching this incredible distance in so short a time, plunging immediately into 
the thickest of the fight at Missionary Ridge, hurling death like a whirhvind 
among the ranks of the foe. 

Hardly in the history of the world has there been such a stupendous under- 
taking. And so "we, the citizens of Buchanan County, bow in humble adora- 
tion for the many and great services you have rendered your beloved country, 
noble state and devoted county." More earnest and sincere praise and wel- 
come were never uttered than to these the valiant heroes of Company E, Fifth 
Iowa. 

After this effusive and elo(|uent address, the soldiers, escorted by a large 
cavalcade of horsemen, the new fire company, a long procession of citizens and 
headed by the town band, marched to the courthou.se, where a feast, equal in 
every particular to that given to Company C, Ninth Iowa, was spread. Supper 
also was given them, and an invitation to attend the Ladies' Aid Society that 
evening, where nearly all the town turned out to greet them. 

Only twenty-four of the sixty which remained in the service came home and 
were under the command of Lieutenant Peck. Captain Lee and Lieutenant 
White were both on detached service and could not get away. The captain was 
acting as division and lirigade inspector, and came home lat^r, and Lieutenant 
White as provost nmrshal at bi'igade head((uarters. Quartermaster Waggoner 
came home with the regiment. 

Thirty of the company had re-enlisted and were to be furloughed home be- 
fore beginning on their new enlistment ; six of them had stopped at various 
places on the way home. Fuller, Gray, Kinsel and Conway were in the Invalid 
Corps, Shay, who was also in this corps, had recently Iteen drowned. Six of 
the company were still held as prisonei-s liy the enemy. Fourteen were left at 
HuntsvilJe, not having re-enlisted. Thus out of the 120 or 130 who originally 
were recruited in this company but about sixty remained in the service, showing 
the direful havoc the war had wrought in just this one company. 

The Twenty-seventh Iowa, early in April, 1864, was in Alexandria, Louis- 
iana. On April 23, 1864, Governor Stone issued a call for ten regiments of the 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 173 

state militia to enlist for 100 days' service from the date of mustering in, and 
they responded by offering the Forty-fourth, Forty-fifth, Forty-sixth and Forty- 
seventh Regiments, and the Forty-eighth Battalion of Infantry, in all 3,901 
men. These troops eame from all parts of the state and were the voluntary 
offering of our people, who gave theui for the special service eoutemplated, with- 
out expectation of any credit on the general calls for volunteers. President 
Lincoln had agreed to accept 100,000 volunteers offered by the governors of the 
northwestern states, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana and Iowa. The proposition 
originated in these states in order to increase the fighting strength of the Union 
forces, and at first met with considerable hostility from the authorities, but was 
at length adopted, the term of service being established at 100 days. With this 
augmentation of the army it was confidently expected that the rebellion could 
be substantially crushed and exterminated in that length of time. These vol- 
unteer troops could relieve others on giuird and garrison duty and occupy the 
ground already taken. It served as a defensive organization while the veteran 
troops could wage an offensive campaign. It was thought that men who had 
previously served and others who would like to serve for a short time would 
readily enlist. Graphic pictures of fresh laurel wreatlLS, honors, and fame, 
which were j'et to be acquired by any who might enlist, were some of the many 
inducements held forth in the Government message. The same pay and allow- 
ance was given as to previous troops. Every company was allowed to choose 
its own officers, etc. The entire number was to be raised and report to the 
adjutant-general at Davenport within tweuty days. 

Professor Calvin and all the students of Bowen Collegiate Institute at Hop- 
kinton, who were old enough, had enlisted in this 100 days' service call. Pro- 
fessor Calvin was a former resident of Buchanan County and several of the 
students who enlisted were also from this county. (Senator M. W. Harmon 
was among the number.) 

Woi-d from the Twenty-seventh Regiment telling of the Red River cam- 
paign and the battle of Pleasant Hill and their losses was received. The regi- 
ment had four killed, one mortally wounded, seventy wounded and fourteen 
missing. Of Buchanan County companies but one, Company H, was in the 
fight. Company C being detailed as guard at General Smith's headquarters. 
The wounded of Company II were Corp. H. H. Love, H. B. Booth, A. Cordell, 
J. E. Haskins, all of Quasqueton; E. E. Mulick from Brandon and Harri- 
gan of Independence. Love and JIuliek were thought to be prisoners. In 
the same issue of the paper is a letter from C'ompany C of the Ninth Iowa, 
announcing the fact of Capt. E. C. Little's resignation. He was forced to resign 
on account of wounds received while gallantly leading his company against the 
heights of Yieksburg. In him the company lost an able and brave commander, 
a warm and kindhearted friend. He enlisted in the ranks as a private and by 
his unflinching devotion to his country and the faithful manner in which he 
discharged the duties assigned him, he rose step by step to the rank of captain, 
which he held with honor to himself and entire satisfaction to his company. He 
was made a cripple, perhaps for life, lint returned home with the assurance that 
his comrades in arms left behind pledged themselves to avenge his injuries. 

He was too touched to express verbally his high regard for his companj% so 
wrote them a letter which was read to the company amid a deep and eloquent 



174 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

silence. Nearly evei-y captain of tlie home companies had resigned. The com- 
pany was then put under the connnand of Lieut. James M. Elsou ; it then com- 
prised seventy-six men, having received twenty-three new recruits. 

Company E, which had heen home since the 9th of April, left Friday. May 
6th. for Davenport, wliei'e the regiment was in rendezvous. The evening previous 
to their departure tlu-y were entertained by the Ladies' Aid Society at a sup- 
per at the courthouse. It was a very pleasant and successful aii'air. Messrs. 
Herrick, L. S. Brooks and C. J. Reed were industriously working to get up 
another company of 100-day men. Li some places the generous business men 
were guaranteeing the support of the families of volunteers and, here in Buch- 
anan County, a liberal and patriotic feeling- \\;as manifesting itself. Two hun- 
dred dollars was ijuickly donated by a few patriotic citizens. One man oi¥ered 
■tlo and another $9 per month to the families of two volunteers and doubtless 
others did likewise. Finally this volunteer company of 100-day men had their 
(juota complete and left Lidependence on Wednesday, May 18, 1864; the num- 
ber was completed by uniting with a squad of twenty men from Black Hawk 
County ; the company numbered nearly ninety men. They held their election 
before leaving and tlu' following officers were elected : 



COMMISSIONED OFFICERS 

Captain, Charles F. Herrick. 
Captain, Lewis S. Brooks. 
Firet Lieutenant, Lewis S. Brooks. 
Second Lieutenant, Arthur E. McHugh. 

NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICERS 

First Sergeant, Sidney C. Adams. 
First Sergeant, Daniel W. Hopkins. 
Second Sergeant, Daniel W. Hopkins. 
Second Sergeant, John H. Leatherman. 
Third Sergeant, John F. Clarke. 
Fourth Sergeant, John F. Clarke. 
Foui'th Sergeant. Isaac E. Freeman. 
Fifth Sergeant, William JIcKenney. 
First Corpoi-al, Augustus II. Older. 
Secoiui Corporal, James D. Hill. 
Third Corporal, George B. Bouek. 
Fourth Corporal. John Hook. 
Fifth Corporal, Orville D. Boyles. 
Sixth Corporal, Morton J. Sykes. 
Seventh Corporal, Simmons P. Mead. 
Eighth Corporal, George S. Jackson. 
Musician, William H. McHugh. 
Musician, Hamilton Taylor. 
Wagoner, Thomas Lincoln. 



HISTORY OP BUCHANAN COUNTY 175 

PRIVATES 

Thomas Abbott, Lyman F. Bouck, Ralph R. Briggs, George P. Benton, Addi- 
son C. Beach, Jed Brockway, George Casebeer. Gustav Cain, James A. Calvin, 
Howard ^I. Craig, Francis M. Fritzinger, Orville Fonda, Lewis H. Gehnip.n, 
William H. Gaige, DeWitt Guernsey, Stephen L. Greely, Henry Holman, George 
L. Hayden, Henry W. Johnson, George T. King, Royal Lowell. Jesse H. Long, 
Lansing D. Lewis, Frank Lauderdale, Hugh JlcCullough, B. Franklin Munger, 
Theodore F. Messenger, William H. H. Morse, Tillman Ozias, Samuel E. A. 
Ripley, Alexander Ramsey, David Sellers, Alexander W. Spalding. Frank L. 
Sherwood, William S. Scott, William Stevens, Charles D. Thompson, William 
C. Vaneman, Alden R. Wheeler, Elliott Weatherbee. 

Few counties in the state responded to this last call more promptly or liber- 
ally than old Buchanan, furnishing more than double her (juota. 

At Davenport they were equipped and assigned as Compan.y D, Forty- 
seventh Iowa Regiment. The brief period of alisence anticipated and the nature 
of the service assigned to these volunteers naturally detracted much from the 
intensity of apprehension which had been a feature of former companies' de- 
partures. But although the time was comparatively short, a hundred mis- 
chances might befall and. though no one could predict the terrible ordeal 
through which this fated company was to pass, when the time of departure 
arrived the hearts of all followed them to the front, and as heretofore crowds 
of relatives and friends and both fire companies, headed by the band, escorted 
them to the depot and bade them Godspeed. John Leatherman, a veteran of 
the Ninth Iowa, who was wounded at Pea Ridge and discharged from the service 
in consequence thereof, and re-enlisted in Captain Herrick's company for the 
100-day service, met with a serious accident at the depot. He was waving his 
hand to his friends when the train started to move and his arm came in contact 
with a grain spout pro.ieeting from one of the elevators near the track, dislocat- 
ing it at the shoulder, but Mr. Leatherman insisted on proceeding with his 
company. 

The First Iowa Cavalry in which Buchanan County had some representa- 
tives were home on furlough after re-enlistment. Our contingent reached home 
on Thursday, 'Slay 19th. A few days previous the citizens heai'ing of their com- 
ing proceeded to the depot to give them a reception, but were disappointed, 
and not being warned of their arrival on Thursday, no preparation had been 
made to receive them, probably to the relief of the soldiers, for they had been 
given a continuous ovation since they left Cairo and were tired of it. 

This regiment had seen more service and been in more skirmishes and engage- 
ments than any regiment enlisted since the commencement of the war. It had 
scoured ilissouri and Ai'kansas from center to circumference and was a perfect 
tenor to the Rebs wherever they encountered them. Charles Edgeeomb, Wil- 
liam Foote. William Cummings and John Bohnlein are among the names of 
these First Cavalry heroes. 

Dr. R. W. Wright was enlisting officer for the Forty-sixth Iowa and was in 
Independence to get recruits for the 100 days' service. He was commissioned 
fii*st lieutenant of that regiment and shortly had the desired number recruited. 

A letter from the Ninth Iowa, dated Kingston, Georgia, May 22, 1864, tells 



176 HISTORY OP BUCHANAN COUNTY 

oi' tile battle at Resaca in which Company C participated and had three men 
killed, Corp. David Steele, Nelson Lines and Robert Carnes. David Steele 
joined the company at its organization and was never absent from the regi- 
ment. He had been in every battle where the regiment was engaged and had 
never missed a day's duty since his enlistment, but while skirmishing a bullet 
pierced his head and he fell dead without a struggle. Nelson Lines was a recruit 
who had lately moved to Buchanan County and joined the company in March. 
Robert Carnes of Company H was formerly a member of Company C. 

Letters from the Fourth from Camp McClellan tell of their camp life at 
that place, also announce that former Rep. D. D. Holdridge had received his 
commis.sion as ciuartermastcr of the Forty-sixlJi Regiment. 

The aid societies were actively engaged in making and collecting things for 
the Sanitary Fair, and outside help was enlisted in this noble work. 

Two concerts were given by the Lascelles Troupe at the courthouse in June, 
1864. and half of the proceeds were liberally devoted to the Sanitary Fair. 

At Greeley's Grove, Hazleton Township, they collected $139.50, besides large 
donations of vegetables, butter, eggs, eti'., for the sanitai'y commission. The 
Independence Aid Society had sent $235.00 in money, besides all the previous 
donations, 100 barrels of potatoes, boxes of fruit and vegetables, and quantities 
of fancy articles. 

The whole receipts of the fair up to Saturday, June 25, 1864, were $64,000, 
included $10,000 promised from the East. 

A soldiers' aid society was organized in Jesup, in July, 1864. The officers 
elected were as follows: President, Mrs. L. B. Goss; vice president, Mrs. J. D. 
Laird ; treasurer. Miss M. E. Cameron ; recording secretary, Mrs. R. S. Searles ; 
corresponding secretary. Miss F. A. Setchell. Directors, Mrs. G. Dodge and 
Mrs. Setchell. A similar organization in Alton Township did most efScieut work 
in donations and subscriptions. 

The Fourth of July, 1864,, was not destined to pass by unnoticed. The 
forefathers of Independence City were not the kind that forget and ignore their 
benefactions. This anniversary meant much to them and they believed in a 
respectful, grateful, and appropriate observance of that day when liberty was 
so dearly bought. And at this particular time should they refresh their memo- 
ries with thoughts of country and home. At this time when the country was 
being wrecked and devastated and our priceless inheritance of liberty lay torn 
and bleeding, a prisoner in the Rebel camp, and only to be released when the 
Union soldier could trample under foot and annihilate that venomous viper 
"treason," which stood gviard at the prison door. 

So this year was celebrated in the usual glorious manner, beginning at mid- 
night, the cannon began to boom, and the new town bell to ring. A thing not 
to be tolerated now, for fear of distui-bing the peaceful slumbers of some pessi- 
mistic ingrate, who thinks more of his personal comfort than of the bursting 
patriotism of some young Anun-ican who wishes to express his enthusiasm by 
some explosive method. 

We pray God, that the day may never be doomed to the sequestered and 
sepidchral quiet and gloom that some unsentimental and unpatriotic individuals 
would consign it. We believe in a perfectly sane Fourth but we still do believe 
in a bombastic one. One of those glorious old-fashioned Fourths with cannons 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 177 

booming: and bells ringing, and reading of the Declaration of Independence, 
with orations, speeches and parades, picnic, dinners and fireworks, and every- 
tliing else that goes with it. Not just for the fun, either, but lest we forget, 
lest we forget. This celebration of 1864 had all of these. 

At 9 :00 A. JI. the bells tolled and all the stores closed for the day. At 10 
a procession composed of the two fire companies in uniforms, with their gaily 
painted new hook and ladder outfit, the band and citizens, marched to the grove 
where the exercises were held. Reverend Mr. Boggs gave the oration and it was 
such a superb and masterful and eloquent effort that the citizens made up a 
purse of $60.00 which they presented to him in appreciation of his splendid and 
patriotic service. Sixteen toasts and speeches followed the fine picnic dinner, 
held in the gi-ove. Reverend Boggs' oration was interrupted by a bogus 
telegram announcing the capture of Petersburg. The bait took and caused great 
excitement. Cheers for Grant and the Union were indulged in to the full sat- 
isfaction of the perpetratoi-s of the joke. Both at noon and at night the cannon 
and the bell gave vocal testimony of somebody's patriotic zeal. At night a torch- 
light procession closed the public celebration. 

Our reason for writing about these Fourth of July celebrations in connec- 
tion with the Civil war history, is because they were a great support to the 
Union cause and were the spontaneous outburst of patriotic enthusiasm. The 
speeches and all the exercises pertained closely to war subjects for, of course, 
everyone 's interest was centered in that one topic. Word had been received from 
Captain Ilerrick's company of the Forty-seventh Iowa, saying that they were 
mustered in on the 4th of June, and left Davenport on the 7th for Cairo, Illi- 
nois, occupying the quarters just vacated by the Forty-fourth. From there 
they were sent to Memphis by boat, but did not stay here long but were trans- 
ferred to Helena, Arkansas. 

The first sad news that came from the Forty-seventh after they were in 
camp at Helena, was the announcement of the death of William H. Gaige, for- 
merly a clerk in Independence, and a talented young man, who died of fever at 
Helena, and a J\Ir. AVeeks had also died. This was but the beginning of a siege 
of sickness and death in that regiment. 

Company D formed the Iowa Grey Beards, stationed at Memphis, and hunted 
up the members enlisted from this county. 

There were in Iowa large numbers of men past the age for military service, 
who were anxious to serve the country during the War of the Rebellion. They 
succeeded in obtaining authority from Secretary Stanton, in August, 1862, 
through our state officers, to organize such a regiment for the performance of 
garrison and post duty, which would relieve the younger soldiers and thus add 
to the active army in the field. 

The companies were soon raised, made up of men from forty-five to sixty- 
four years of age. It was officially known as the Thirty-seventh Regiment, 
but was universally called the "Grey Beard Regiment." Iowa, alone, of all 
the states in the Union, raised such a regiment. 

They went into camp at Muscatine, but were not mustered into service until 
the middle of December. Early in January, 1863, it was sent to St. Louis, and 
as it marched through the streets, General Curtis pronounced it one of the 



178 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

fiuest looking regiim-nts he had seen in the service. Several men from our 
county enlisted in this regiment. 

The Ninth Iowa was at this time encamped before Kenesaw Mountain, 
Georgia. Company C had a detail of one sergeant and fourteen men, who were 
in a lively skirmish with the rebel forces at Dallas, Georgia, but with their 
usual good luck came out unhurt with a few bullet holes in their clothes as 
certain proof of their good and brave soldiery. 

Word from the First Cavalry tells of the death of Hiram G. Balcom, on June 
8th, at Little Rock, Arkansas. He enlisted from Fairbank, having been a resi- 
dent of Buchanan County for five years. He was a man of strict integrity, 
genial disposition and consistent Christian character. He left a wife and family. 

This added another victim to the lengthening roll of noble heroes from this 
county who were sacrihced to this atrocious war. 

August -tth. 1864, was set aside by the President for National Fast Day at 
the request of the United States Senate, to seek the blessing of God upon our 
arms. Business was suspended for a time and Divine vvorshij) was held in a 
Union service at the Methodist church in the evening, and a Union prayer meet- 
ing at the Presliyterian church. 

An item of paramount interest, particularly to the Unionists and likewise 
all readers of the Guardian, was the announcement that Jacob Rich, that tal- 
ented, efficient, fearless and patriotic literary exponent of Unionism, had sold 
his "Buchanan County Guardian," of whicii he was editor for eight years, to 
Rev. S. B. Goodenow, of Waterloo, who took charge of the paper on the 31st 
of ilay, and changed the name to the "Guardian of Independence." Mr. 
Goodenow proved to be a capable and efficient successor and the Union cause 
had a loyal supporter in him. Always the newspapers have been the exponents 
and expounders of universal knowledge, the pulse and thermometer of public 
sentiment and in those early days, when news was so difficult of access, their 
eho.sen newspaper was actually their law and creed. No wonder they looked to 
tlie weekly paper as their very deliverer and mental salvation at that time. 
The price of printing paper had more than tripled in value, and for a few 
months many of the newspapers were cut down from seven to five columns in 
size, and were printed on a cheap, yellowish paper. Almost all raised in price, 
but the Guardian did neither. The Civilian cut the size of their paper for a 
few months and raised its price. Both county papers were then $2.00 per year. 
Previous to 1S63 they were $1.50 per year. The Cliicago dailies at that time 
had raised to $12.00 per annum. 

A curiosity which some of the soldier boys sent home, was one of the first 
nuiidiers of the "Union Flag," a paper published at Rome, Georgia, with mate- 
rials seized from the rebels. It was edited by ^Matthias Harter, a volunteer from 
Independence, and was a spicy and creditable affair. A Union paper published 
in the very heart of the rebel territory was surely a novelty. 

Letters from the Forty-seventh, the last of July, 1864, still eucamped at 
Helena, Arkansas, paint a sorry picture. Sickness pervaded their entire regi- 
ment, and Company D was in a terrible plight. The officers were all sick; out of 
eighty men only sixteen were able to report on duty ; all the rest were sick and 
in the hospitals. The principal disease was bilious fever. Capt. C. F. Her- 
rick came home to recuperate. 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 179 

Another item of this date informs us tliat the Fifth Iowa Infantry had been 
transferred to the Fifth Iowa Cavalry. The Fifth was the regiment of which 
Company E was a part. It was now reduced to less than two companies. 

A general order of the governor, issued from the adjutant-general's office, 
at Davenport, on July 27, 1864, was to the effect that "the enrolled militia of 
this state will immediately organize themselves into companies of not less than 
forty, and not exceeding one hundred men." 

Another clause in the order was: "Any person neglecting or refusing to 
attach himself to a company will be directed to join a company or will be dealt 
with as the law prescribes." The enrolled men in counties named were to 
organize the numlier of companies specified l)elow. L. W. Hart, J. M. Westfall 
and R. W. Wright were authorized to organize the militia of Buchanan County. 
In this list Buchanan County's quota was fifteen companies. Washington 
Guards was the name. 

Charles B. Kessler, aged twenty-one years, died near Quasqueton, April 7, 
1864. He was the first white child born in what is now Buclianan County. 
Heeding the call of his country, he volunteered in January, 1862, and became 
a member of Company H, Thirteenth Regiment, United States Array. With 
his regiment lie went safely through several severe battles, among which were 
those of Arkansas Post, Black River. Siege of Vicksburg, and CoUierville. From 
the last-named contlict he turned to the hospital, broken down by fatigue and 
exposure, as many another youthful hero had been. Continuing to decline, he 
was brought home to die amid the loved and tender associations of his boy- 
hood. Brave and generous, he was loved by all. He sleeps in a patriot 's grave, 
anotlier willing sacrifice for Liberty and the Union. 

The parents of Charles B. Kessler were ilr. and Mrs. Frederick Kessler, 
who came to Quasqueton with the first installment of settlers in the early spring 
of 1842. His mother, ilrs. Ileman ]\Iorse, lived in Independence until her 
death. 

In the last of August, 1864, word came of the death of Capt. C. L. White, 
formerly of Company E, Fifth Iowa Infantry, at Cartersville, Georgia, whether 
of disease or wound was not stated. A short time before he had been appointed 
assistant adjutant-general, with the rank of captain. Captain White was an excel- 
lent man and a noble soldier, and was highly respected both at home and in 
the army. Also word was received that J. W. Foreman, another of our brave 
soldiers, had lost his limb, and had undergone two amputations. He had had 
to be in lied eight months, but tlirough all his intense suffering he was the per- 
sonification of In-avery and loyalty, and only regretted that he was unable to 
serve his time out. These examples of heroism were not few in the annals of 
Buchanan County soldiery. 

Up to this time the total amount contributed to the Northern Iowa Sanitary 
Fair from this county, reached $841.23. a splendid showing considering all the 
previous donations. In reading of these numerous eontrilmtions it cannot help 
but strike one what a constant drain and strain was put upon the home folks. 

As has been chronicled, the Forty-seventh Regiment was sent to Helena, 
Arkansas, where many contracted disease, from which they died at that post, or 
after their return to their homes in Iowa. The services of these men were of 
great value to the national cause, as was acknowledged by the President of the 



180 HISTORY OP BUCHANAN COUNTY 

United States, in a special executive order, returning thanks to the 100-day 
volunteers of Indiana, Illinois, Iowa and Wisconsin, for their patriotic services, 
eommending them with merited praise. 

Executive Mansion, Washington City, October 1, 1864. 
Special executive order, returning thanks to the volunteers for 100 days, from 
the states of Indiana, Illinois. Iowa and Wisconsin : 

The term of 100 days, for wliich volunteers from the states of Indiana, Illi- 
nois, Iowa and Wisconsin volunteered, under the last call of their respective 
governors, in the months of May and June, to aid in the recent campaign of 
General Sherman, having expired, the President directs an official acknowledge- 
ment of their patriotic services. It was their good fortune to render efficient 
service in the brilliant operations in the Southwest, and to the victories of the 
national arms over the rebel forces in (leorgia, under command of Johnston and 
Hood. On all occasions, and in every service to which they were assigned, their 
duty as patriotic volunteers was performed with alacrity and courage, for which 
they are entitled to, and are hereby tendered, the national thanks, through the 
governoi's of their respective states. 

The secretary of war is directed to transmit a copy of this order to the gov- 
ernors of Indiana, Illinois, Iowa and Wisconsin, and to cause a certificate of 
their honorable services to be delivered to the officers and soldiers of the states 
above mentioned, who recently served in the military force of the United States 
as volunteers for 100 days. 

Abraham Lincoln. 

This commendation of gratitude and appreciation from the beloved President, 
Abraham Lincoln, rendered "pay in full" for all the sickness and hardships 
endured. 

Never a week and scarcely a daj' !nit what there were calls, not alone for the 
soldiers at the front, but help and support for the soldiers' families at home, 
and the poor and needy in a new country are generally more numerous than 
in later years. Then, too, the ministers were almost wholly supported by 
donation. 

In August, 1864, Buchanan County was only sixty-five behind all calls, and 
Independence was out of the draft, her surplus being fifteen. 

Pursuant to the order issued by the governor in July, the Washington 
Guards of the enrolled militia met at the courthouse on Saturday, September 9, 
1864, and elected the following officers : James M. Weart, captain ; J. H. Cutter, 
first lieutenant; T. J. Marinus, second lieutenant; James B. Donnan, orderly; 
S. L. Frizelle, second sergeant; H. P. Lovejoy, third sergeant; A. E. Brooks, 
fourth sergeant ; H. R. Hunter, fifth sergeant ; S. L. Peck, first corporal ; H. H. 
Holt, second corporal; C. R. Wallace, third corporal; W. A. Jones, fourth 
corporal. 

Many patriotic societies and orders were organized throughout tiie coimtry 
during the war and Buchanan County certainly had its shai'e of such. 

An order of which we have not spoken but which had been in existence since 
the beginning of the war was "The Union of America — U. L. of A." Inde- 
pendence had a council, Quasqueton had one, and several others were in the 




C. B. KKSSLER AXL) MOTHER 
C. B. Kesslor wms the first wliitc cliiM lioiii in Biii-liaiiaii County 






•« ■ 1. 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 181 

county. Other orders were "The Patriotic Sons of America" and "The Wide- 
awakes. 

In the fall of 1864 national politics was again consuming people's time and 
attention and the two parties, union and copperheads, w-ere strenuously cam- 
paigning. Lincoln was the republican nominee for President for a second term 
and General McClellan was the democratic. In Buchanan County polities as 
usual was hot and sizzling, each party having mass meetings, with delegations 
and demonstrations. The U. L. A.'s were particularly busy. At a union mass 
meeting held September 27, 1864, rousing and patriotic speeches were made by 
Colonel Lake, Captain Lee and Rep. D. D. Holdridge, all home from the war on 
furloughs. Another union mass meeting of Buchanan and the adjoining counties 
was held in Independence, Tuesday, October 25, 1864. Several prominent speak- 
ers were on the program, among them Ex-Governor Kirkwood, Gov. William M. 
Stone, Hon. B: T. Hunt, and Superior Judge C. C. Cole. Hon. William B. Allison 
was at a previous union meeting. A torchlight procession iu the evening by the 
Independence "Wide Awakes" (another union patriotic society) was one of the 
features. 

W. C. Mori'is, a jeweler of Independence, had gotten up a fine breastpin con- 
sisting of a spread eagle bearing in his beak a medal, with the bust of Lincoln 
and the words, "Lincoln and Liberty." The design and execution were excellent 
and proved very popular with the politicians. 

In September the draft list had decreased from sixty-five to forty-three and 
the long threatened draft was to take place on Friday, September 30th, by Hon. 
S. P. Adams at Dubuque, and at that draft the deficits stood : 

Township — Enrolled. 

Perry 46 

Madison 45 

Fremont 23 

Westburg 10 

Homer 41 

Jefferson 88 

Middlefield 31 

Newton 88 

Cono 98 

Substitutes were sought by some of the drafted men, who paid as high as 
$1,000 for their services. 

On September 19, 1864, a dispatch was received from Captain Herrick at 
Davenport, saying: "We arrived yesterday: to be mustered out Wednesday." 
According to this the company would soon be home. On Friday, September 30 
the 100-day men arrived home. They were met at the depot by the fire com 
panies iu uniform and were escorted to the Baptist Church, which was not then 
completed, where an excellent dinner was served. The company looked very 
jaded from the sickness which had prevailed among them. 

As would be expected during the war times, prices of some of the principal 
commodities, particularly those imported and manufactured, were exceedingly 



)efici1 


t. Drawn 


5 


10 


2 


4 


1 


2 


3 


6 


14 


10 


6 


12 


4 


8 


6 


12 


2 


4 



182 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

high, while those of home production were very cheap compared to prices of 1914. 
The Independence retail market in January, 1865, was : 

Flour, per ewt $ 4.00 Corn, per bu., shelled $ .55 

Oats, per bu., new 48 Beans, per bu 1.75 

Potatoes, per bu ; 50 Butter, per lb 40 

Eggs, per doz 15 Lard, per lb. (none) 25 

Beef, per cwt $6 and 7.00 Steak, per lb 12 

Pork, per cwt. (none) .... 12.50 Salt, per bbl 5.50 

Syrup, per gal 1.50 Molasses, per gal 1.25 

Sorghum, per gal 1.00 BroVp sugar, per lb 28 

Refined, per lb. .35 and .40 Black tea, per lb 1.50 

Green tea, none sold, per Rio Coft'ee, per lb 60 

lb 2.25 Sheeting, per yd 80 

Dried apples, per lb 15 Tallow, per lb 14 

Prints, per yd. . . .35 and .50 Oak wood, per cord 

Kerosene, per gal 1.25 ( none) 6.00 

Shingles, per M. No. 1 7.50 Boards, first clear, per M. 65.00 

Commonest boards, per M 43.00 Flooring, per M..$48 and 62.00 

Siding, rough, per M 37.00 Wheat 1.05 

Gold 1.80 Silver 1.70 

E.xchange on New York Iniy par, sell i/o premium 

Exchange on Chicago buy i/o discount, sell 14 premium 

Buchanan County warrants sell 80 and 85 cents 

Eastern currency . sell 98 cents 

Par funds greenbacks, national bank and state banks of Iowa 

Poi'k was retailing at 18 cents per pound. Two years liefore it sold at 2 cents. 
People were wondering how they could "grease their whistles" if it still raised. 

Gold was at a premium and greenl)aeks were below par. When farms were 
sold, or any lai-ge exchanges made, gold was largely demanded and a reduction 
or per cent off allowed for it, although greenbacks were legal tender, but the 
finances in the country were rather insecure. It was a matter of public \interest 
and comment and published in the papers, when in February, 1865, Mr. Spragg 
had come all the way from New Brunswick, in the British provinces, 2,000 
miles away, and bought the William L. Clark farm near Fairbank and paid gold 
for it — !}^1,500 in gold and tlu' remaining -^2,000 he was privileged to pay in green- 
backs. The value of the .$1,500 in gold was worth over $3,000 in currency. This 
was a farm of 200 acres — 170 acres of it fenced, 45 acres under cultivation, 70 
acres of it timlier, with only a few log buildings. That was an extra good price 
for land at that early day. 

A dispatch from Vicksburg, Mississipjji, October IS, 1S64, informs the citizens 
of Independence that Lieut. S. A. Reed, acting ordnance officer. Fourth Division, 
United States Colored Infantry, was promoted to be captain of Company A, 
Fiftieth United States Colored Infantry. Captain Reed entered the services 
with the Fifth Iowa Regiment in 1861 and for meritorious conduct upon the 
battlefield of Champions Hill was appointed a first lieutenant of the Twelfth 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 183 

Louisiana Volunteers, which offiee hu held with honor to himself and the service. 
Captain Reed had been what you might call the ofScial reporter to the Guardian 
besides. 

Some of the different religious societies were becoming interested in the 
political issues of this year's (1864) campaign, and at the Cedar Valley Baptist 
Association, of which Independence was a part, they adopted very strong resolu- 
tions against slavery and "armed traitors in the South," and those who aided 
tliem in the North ; those who were crying peace at the sacrifice of/ our Union, 
etc. These resolutions strike us very much like a political platform and savor 
of political preferment, but those were times to stir men's souls to action. And 
all this agitation had a beneficial result for the Union ticket, with Lincoln leading 
it. polling the largest majority that had ever been given any President. Lincoln 
had ten times as many as McClellau. Buchanan County was decidedly Unionistic 
and Lincolnistie, giving that party 453 majority, and their entire ticket carried. 
C. E. Lathrop, formerly of Independence, was one of the marshals on Inaugu- 
ration Day when Lincoln was seated. 

Word from Camp MeClellan Hospital, Davenport, reports the death of George 
Vincent C'uminins of Company B. Forty-seventh Iowa. His father was Rev. G. B. 
Cunnuins, formerly for many years a resident of Buchanan County. George 
was born near Quasqueton and was in his sixteenth year. He died of typhoid 
fever — another sacrifice to the war god. E. B. Cook of Littleton had been drafted 
and promptly started to the front. 

In December, 1864, Governor Stone issued an appeal to all the people of the 
state to contribute for the support of suft'ering soldiers" families. The state had 
appropriated some the year before, but it was not in any way sufficient, so the 
governor proposed a general contribution of the people, setting apart for that 
purpose the last day of the year. He offered a handsome banner as a reward 
to the county which contributed the most, and an elegant engraved diploma to 
the individual who rendered the most aid. In Independence a supper was given 
liy the Soldiers' Aid Society at the National Hotel. The proceeds amounted to 
.$120, to be distributed among the needy. Friends at Jesup had received word 
the last of December, 1864, that John Rust had been killed in a battle near Nash- 
ville. Two sons of J. Shaffer also were wounded and another was taken prisoner. 
In January, 1865, still another draft of soldiers was to be made. In Wash- 
ington Township the number enrolled was 328 and twelve more was necessary, 
and throughout the county there was volunteering lieing done to escape the draft. 
E. R. Men-ill, who returned from the army to Hazleton some weeks before, on a 
sick furlough, had just died. 

On Feliruary 6th, it was announced that Major Marshall w^a.s back home. He 
escaped from the rebel prison in Georgia after being incarcerated about a year 
and a half. The body of Capt. J. D. Smith, who was killed in October, 1864, was 
brought to Independence from Bunker Hill, Illinois, for burial, and Mi-s. Smith 
and family returned here to live. 

The Twenty-seventh Regiment had come up to Cairo and then embarked 
down the Mississippi to participate in Sherman's campaign in the East. 

Inauguration Day, March 4, 1865, was celebrated in Independence with flags, 
cannon salutes, ringing of the town bell, a firemen's parade, and general rejoicing. 



184 HISTORY OF BUCIIAXAN COUNTY 

In Newton Township they celebrated with a fine big dinner for the benefit 
of soldiers' wives and widows. After dinner came the distribution of money 
and other gifts which the kind friends and neighbor had brought. Coming 
swift and fast upon the recital of the many tragedies of the war and home con- 
cerns, appertaining to and affected liy it, comes the announcement on April 9, 
1865, of the surrender of General Lee to General Grant at Appomattox court- 
house. This was the grand and glorious finale, the stupendous climax of this 
long and grievous war. April 14th was celebrated as Sumter Day and there 
was great excitement and rejoicing in every hamlet and village through the 
entire Union territory, and probably a sigh of relief, even though despondent 
from the entire South. Independence celebrated the event with a general jolli- 
fication with a great bon+ire at the corner of Main and AValnut streets, flags 
flying, banners waving, with "Our flag floats again over Sumter" embellished 
thereon, firing of cannon, bells ringing, the firemen's parade, and "speechify- 
ing" on a hogshead. Great crowds were out and tlie excitement and happiness 
reached the highest pitch. 

Then suddenly the whole country was pitched headlong from the topmost 
pinnacle of joy into the deepest and most profound depths of despair. Presi- 
dent Lincoln, the noble and honest, kind and true-hearted, to many the epitome 
of human goodness and greatness, had been foully murdered. The story is so 
vivid in the minds of even the youngest "historian" that we shall not try to 
portray the awful excitement, gloom and despair, and the spirit of vengeance 
and liitter. hatred which this horrible tragedy aroused. Feeling was intense 
and people were in a state of unreasonable prejudice and passion. Naturally 
the Southern Confederacy was held responsible for this murderous act and dire 
and awful vengeance was threatened the rebels. 

The Guardian and Conservative as all other papers got out extra editions 
heavily draped in mourning. The flags which had lieen fluttering so gaily and 
triumphantly for the Union victories were hauled down to half mast and draped 
in mourning. Editorials in the papers were a succession of expletives and 
Jaiulits for the dead executive and accusations and threats for the assassins. 
"Vengeance was the cry." Governor Stone, then at Washington, issued a 
proclamation calling upon all Iowa to observe Thursday, April 27th, as a day 
of fasting and prayer over this solemn Providence, and re(iuesting that all 
travel and business be suspended. So, in accordance with this order. Independ- 
ence observed the day with appropriate services. The first obsei'vanee was on 
Wednesday, April 19th. At 11 :30 A. M., Judge Burt adjourned court until 2 
P. M. in anticipation of the funeral services for the lamented President, as 
recommended from Washington, for that noon, all over the land. With the 
zealous exertions of Sheriff Wesffall and Reverend F^ulton they had a very 
appropriate, though extemporaneous, ceremony. At 12 the flags were put up 
at half mast, draped in deep mourning; the bell was tolled with minute peals 
from 12 A. M. to 1 P. M. Hand bills were quickly circulated and at 1 P. M. a 
large concourse of people had assembled at the courthouse where fitting services 
were conducted by the several ministers of the town and two out of town speak- 
ers. After this ceremony court resumed. Then a citizens meeting was held 
Saturday eve, April 22d, to make arrangements for funeral solemnities to be 
observed on Thursday, April 27th. Great plans were made by the committee 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 185 

appointed to properly observe the day; the program was to eommenee at suu- 
rise, with firinjr of i-aiiiioii evei\y half hour during the day ; business was to be 
suspended and all public and i^rivate houses and all places of business be draped 
in mourning. A procession of the fire companies, lodges, all patriotic and other 
societies, the mayor and city council, the clergy, the band, a hearse di-awii by 
four gray horses, pall bearers, consisting of military men, returned soldiers of 
Buchanan County and the citizens generally was to be formed at the bell tower, 
march through the city and proceed to one of the churches, where services were 
to be held. Everything was in readiness when the date of the funeral was 
changed and the plans were submerged with those of the fast day ordered by 
Governor Stone as a state memorial da3', and this day was fittingly and imi)ri's- 
sively obsei-ved in part, as they had planned for the previous occasion. J. S. 
Woodward, Jacob Rich, R. W. Wright, J. F. Hodge and H. Kinsley were the 
committee on arrangements and conformed as much as possible to the rccom- 
memUitions of the governor. A great throng of people assembled at the court- 
house where the Union services were held. Rev. John Fulton gave a most elo- 
quent address, all places of business were closed and everyone refrained from 
secular avocations and pleasures. At Littleton on Fast Day, April 27th, Rev. 
J. D. Caldwell gave a most able and eloquent discourse which, at the earnest 
request and vote of the congregation, was published in the Guardian of ^lay 
31 in full. Everywhei'e meetings were held to testify by prayer and humilia- 
tion the great grief felt at the loss of this noble life, and sorrow at the great 
calamity to the country and humanity. 

Our state representation in Washington met and passed resolutions, among 
them that the citizens of Iowa in AVashington wear the usual badge of mourn- 
ing for the period of sixty days, a custom not observed nowadays. 

The mourning seemed to be universal and sincere although the democratic 
papers all over the eounti-y and the Independence Conservative, along with the 
rest, previously had reviled, derided, abused and defamed his character, his 
ability, his intentions and his attainments as never a public man was before or 
since. It really doesn't seem possible that such bitter and venomous feeling 
could exist and such threatening and slanderous talk be used and at such a 
time. Times certainly have improved in this matter ; we believe in the freedom 
of the press, but think a respect should be accorded our President and that a 
defamation of character and slander should be utterly and entirely eliminated, 
but the degree of the offense is largely determined by the spirit in" which it is 
given, and during that period of our history there was no question as to the 
spirit, which was of the most vicious and acrid character. 

Immediately following this great national calamity came the pertinent ques- 
ti(in of punishment for the traitorous, remorseless and accursed leader of the 
Rebellion and also negro franchise'. In the diflferent states opinions were as varied 
and as intense as they had been about the war, and in Independence as every- 
where there were opposing factions. 

The democrats were supporting the lenient, forbearing, forgiving and con- 
ciliatory policy, while the republicans demanded judgment, justice, restitution 
and retribution. 

On the negro franchise (piestion the two parties were as much divided and 
sentiments swayed the public mijid more perhaps than on the other questions. 



186 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

There was iio idea of justice or duty, only a matter of sentiment and preju- 
dice. 

During these stiri'ing times eouniiunications fnim the sokliers were either 
very scarce or else iuconseciiiently eouipared with these other events and were 
crowded out, for no letters had heen i)rinted for some weeks. 

A letter came from Captain Elson of Company C, Ninth Iowa Infantry, at 
Raleigh, North Carolina, telling of their part in the capture of Colnmliia, along 
with four other Iowa regiments. 

The Thirteenth Iowa had heen given all the credit for this victory when in 
reality they were not in that brigade, hut at the oi^portune moment had rushed 
in to claim the prize. 

Our soldiers were scattei'cd all over the country. Another letter tells of 
Cajitain Gaylord's tlirilling adventures with the Indians in Dakota. Captain 
Gaylord had left Fort Berthold. where he had been stationed all winter as A. 
C. S., and was on his way to join his company at Leavenworth, Kansas. 

Formerly he was lieutenant in Company G, Sixth Iowa Volunteer Cavalry, 
but afterwards joined the United States \'olunteers. 

G. B. Sitler had arrived home from the war. He had been in prison over a 
year. Word fi'om Company G, Fifth low^a Cavalry, from Macon, Georgia, 
April oO. 1865, tells of their expected home coming. All the i-e-enlisted men of 
Company E were with this regiment and had been with them since they started 
on the march from Chickasaw Landing. 

Hon. Stephen J. W. Tabor, fourth auditor of the treasury and president 
of a society of Iowa people in Washington, formerly of Independence, and 
William Duane Wilson of the Agricultural Department visited President John- 
son and presented him, in behalf of the State of Iowa, a resolution from the 
citizens of Iowa residing in AVashington, D. C, expressing their deep sorrow 
and regret at the great national loss sustained in the death of President Lincoln, 
and being unwilling to occupy the valuable time of his successor. President 
Johnson, by a formal call, they expressed their sentiments towai'd him in a 
resolution signed by them. 

This resolution is abounding in the most flattering compliments and lofty 
praises, calling him a statesman of practical wisdom, a patriot of incorruptible 
integrity, a man of courage, firmness and energy, etc., and expressing the great- 
est respect and admiration for him and his strict adherence to his convictions; 
furthermoi-e otTering their own and the state's cheerful and heartiest support. 
This resolution was presented to President Johnson by Hon. S. J. W. Tabor 
with a very eulogistic speech, and the President replied, ex])ressing his grateful 
thanks. After this public sentiment and personal regard changed in respect to 
President Johnson, and he was impeached, but time has fully vindicated his 
honor. 

The Ladies' Aid Society, which had worked so faithfully and unremittingly 
for the past four years and whose mission really expired with the close of the 
war, reorganized into a Ladies' Christian f'ommission as an auxiliary to the 
Chicago branch of the United States Christian Commission. They met at the 
courthouse on Jlay 2.'), 1865, and adopted a constitution and by-laws and elected 
the following officers: President, Mrs. J. M. Boggs; vice president, Mrs. J. 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 187 

Fulton ; secretary, Mrs. J. C. Loomis ; treasurer, Mrs. Warne ; and a charter 
membership of thirty-six. 

June 1st, the last National Memorial Day, ordered by President Johnson and 
Congress, was observed in Independence, Quasqueton and other places, with 
appropriate services held in the churches. Addresses were made and prayers 
offered, and a deep solemnity and sincere sorrow pervaded. S. B. Goodenow, 
editor of the Guardian, delivered an eloquent and effusive eulogy on Lincoln, 
at Quasqueton, and also at Littleton, which was printed in the Guardian. 

Capt. J. P. Sampson was home this June on furlough. He had joined the 
regular army, having been on the signal corps, and at this time appointed assistant 
in the Freedman's Bureau, stationed at Mobile. 

Eli Geer, one of the last drafted men, died at Beaufort, South Carolina, 
of typhoid fever. 

The Fourth this year was celebrated at Independence, Quasqueton, and 
Fairbank with the usual excellent program — national salutes, speeches, music, 
oration, parade of different orders and Dumfuzzies, fireworks, and sumptuous 
dinner. Colonel Heege, of the "Flying Artillery," had a troop of cavalrymen — 
fifty in number — to escort the two town cannons. At Quasqueton they had a bar- 
l)eque — a roasted ox and pigs. About two thousand ate dinner there. This 
Fourth was the climax of all previous ones, in the general good feeling and rejoic- 
ing : the war was over, and peace was manifesting its benign presence. 

For some months past a great deal of agitation had been promulgated toward 
a state' orphans' home, for the special benefit of soldiers' orphans. Numerous 
speakers had been in Independence, working in its belmlf, and the ditferent patri- 
otic societies had lent their financial aid and influence to this worthy cause, 
and the Ninth Regiment, in camp at Louisville, Kentuckv-, adopted resolu- 
tions urging the positive necessity of the grand and beneficent institution. 

Iowa is recognized as being first in furnishing soldiers, and they among the 
"bravest of the brave," and tiiie to the reputation thus gained, Iowa was first 
in her efforts to provide for the orphans of her gallant dead. A soldiers' orphans' 
fair was held at Marshalltown, and there were extensive displays of all kinds 
of exhibits. All soldiers were urged to attend, and were entertained gratuitously. 
Tents, bedding, and meals were furnished to soldiers and rented to othei's. Goodly 
sums of money were contributed from Buchanan County, and numerous enter- 
tainments and suppers were held to rai.se funds. 

The Fourth Iowa Cavalry was stationed at Atlanta, Georgia, and wrote 
home of their expected pleasure in hoisting the Stars and Stripes over the court- 
house in this rebel stronghold. In the Guardian, of Wednesday, July 19, 1865, 
is a notice that the Iowa Ninth was coming home. It was in Chicago, enroute 
to Davenport, where it would be mustered out and thence home. The Twenty- 
seventh's term of enlistment expired September 13th, and this brought it within 
the order for mustering out all regiments whose time expires before October 
1st. Companies C and II, of the Twenty-seventh, disbanded the first week in 
Augu.st, and reached Independence, Tuesday, the 8th. Mr. Heege, of the heavy 
artillery, met them with the usual "loud and bursting welcome," and tried in 
vain to form a line of march, but as he expressed it — "friends, children, mother, 
frau, all there — nothing tint hug — kiss — cry ; scatter everywhere — no process — 
nothing." But happiness reigned supreme, and little else mattered. The 



Igg HISTORY OP BUCHANAN COUNTY 

Twenty-seventh elicited mueli praise from the different places where they en- 
•eainpe'd on their way home. From the Clinton Herald: "No better regiment 
ever went into service, and tlie conduct of its members while here, showed them 
to be good citizens as well as brave soldiers. The officers labored diligently on 
muster rolls and pay rolls, and promptly did their duty. The men were quiet, 
unobtrusive, and well disciplined, etc. Their deportment was not excelled by any 
regiment." The Clinton women got u]) a bounteous dinner for them, and the 
school board threw open the schoolhouses for their shelter from the rain. The 
regiment passed resolutions of thanks for their kind and generous treatment. 

The Dubuque Herald highly complimented them for their quiet, orderly, 
and gentlemanly behavior while in Dubuque. "T^o regiment that had passed 
through that city showed a greater respect for law and order than the Twenty- 
seventh." Col. Jed Lake made a very laudatory parting address, which we here- 
with print. 

Fellow Soldiers: In taking leave of you at this time, after three years' serv- 
ice in the field, I hardly know how to express myself, such varied emotions crowd 
themselves upon my mind. Sorrow at parting the associations that have natur- 
ally grown up among us during the hardships that we have suffered in the field, 
and joy at the prospect of once more rejoining our families and friends in civil 
life. But knowing that we have fully accomplished that for which we entered 
the United States military service, you are to return to your homes with the 
full consciousness of having done your duty to your country as soldiers. By 
your courage on the field of battle, your patience on long and fatiguing marches, 
your uncomplaining submission to the hardships and privations of camp life, 
you have won for yourselves an enviable reputation ; you are now about to return 
to civil life. Be as good citizens as you have been soldiers, and you will ever 
maintain for yourselves the highest esteem of your fellow-men. AVhile we mingle 
our tears and sorrows over the graves of our comrades, who lie buried, from the 
Lakes to the Gulf of ilexico, let us ever strife to maintain the integrity of the 
Republic, and the honors of lier citizen suldieiy. — Signed, Lieut.-Col. Jed Lake, 
Twenty-seventh Iowa Infantry. 

The Fifth Cavalry Regiment was mustered out at Clinton, in August, and 
Company E arrived at Dubuque, on Friday, August 18th. The fourteen men 
from Independence and vicinity came home immediately, and received a joyful 
welcome. 

They participated in the last battles of the Rebellion, and were among the last 
of the army that were mustered out. The First Iowa Cavalry, in which several 
Quasqueton men were enlisted, was still in camp at Alexandria, Louisiana. 

At a meeting of the citizens of Buchanan County,. held at the courthouse, on 
August 25th, it was determined to hold a reunion and welcome celebration on 
Septendjer 16th. in honor of our soldiers. Committees were appointed and great 
preparations were made, which were successfully carried out. The weather was 
ideal, and all the county turned out to do honor to their noble soldiery. There 
were over five thousand people on the streets. 

At 10.30, a procession consisting of bands, soldiers in uniforms, and citizens, 
started from the courthouse and proceeded to march through all the principal 
streets, to the green opposite the postoffice, where the soldiers were lined up. 
Here prayer was offered by Reverend Adams, and the address of welcome given 



> 



y. 







TKl :':r',\ viiF-K 




HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 189 

by Reverend Boggs was a most eloquent and appropriate one, and was ably 
responded to bj- Col. Jed Lake, one of the heroes of the day, on behalf of the 
soldiers. 

General Dickinson was chief marshal of the day and Lieutenant Donnan and 
Captain Weart were assistants. From the green the procession marched to 
Older 's Grove, where the bounteous and lavish dinner and speeches were en- 
joyed. 

A large triumphal arch had been erected in front of Union Block, covered 
with greens, and bore the words, "Welcome, Brave Boys." At the Guardian 
office, which was all decked in green, was displayed a twelve-foot motto, gotten 
up in artistic style, bearing these honorary- words — "HaU, All Hail to Our 
Countrj-'s Defenders." Banners and flags were everj'where displayed. Three 
hundred soldiers of the Fifth, Ninth, and Twenty-seventh, and other regiments, 
marched in gallant array, bearing aloft two large Union flags ; the citizens fol- 
lowed. The women, who followed, bore a large, beautifuUj'-ornamented ban- 
ner, bearing this inscription : 

Thus we welcome 

OUR HEROES 

Home from the wars. 

'"Dulce est pro Patria ilori." 

The translation is : 

" It is sweet to die for one 's country. ' ' 

The original vignette above this motto was an eagle with the shield and 
flags, having beneath two soldiers' graves with cannons firing salutes over them, 
and a scroll with the words : ' ' Here sleep the brave, by freedom blest. ' ' 

After the feast of food came the feat of oratory. !Mayor "Woodward acted as 
toastmaster, and seventeen toasts were responded to in a most pleasing and 
instructive manner. Among the notables who were present and participated 
in this part of the program was Major-General Vandever, the gallant ex-colonel 
of the Ninth, who responded with a toast to " " Civil Liberty. ' " and Senator Beau, 
of Wisconsin, responded to "Our Union Army" in a magnificent effect. Both 
gentlemen did themselves proud and greatly gratified their appreciative audi- 
ence. Of the local prominent speakers, the returned officers and soldiers were 
the conspicuous part ; among them, Col. Jed Lake, Capt. D. S. Lee, Capt. L. S. 
Brooks. Capt. 0. Whitney, Captain SUl, Lieut. W. G. Donnan and D. D. 
Holdridge. 

The music was excellent, and everything passed off most satisfaetorilj-. In 
the evening there was a grand ball at Morse's Hall, and by solicitation Senator 
Beau gave another address at the courthouse, and ilr. Curtis, Esq., of Kentucky, 
also spoke. 

At Independence. September 23, 1865, there was a mass convention of re- 
turned soldiers, held at the courthouse, at which resolutions were unanimously 
adopted, declaring its allegiance and support of the .republican party, and its 
ticket, in opposition to the democratic copperhead party, and refusing in any 
manner to co-operate with that party. Private George Heath acted as chair- 
m£in, Lieut. J. L. Loomis, as secretary, Lieut. W. G. Donnan, Surgeon D. C. 



190 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

Hastings and Private Emory S. Allen, were appointed the committee on reso- 
lutions. Word was received by .Mr. W. li. Scott, of Quasquetou, that his son, 
Ira C. Scott, of the First Iowa Cavali'y, had died iu Texas. He was a splendid, 
strong, patriotic. Christian soldier, as testified by the letters from his comrades. 
He had written numerous letters to the papers, which showed superior meutal 
attainments. 

The Ninth Iowa Infantry, in accordance with the arrangements made pre- 
vious to its disbandment, held a reunion of its members at Dubuque. Novem- 
ber Sth. the object being a permanent organization, by which through annual 
reunions, friendly intercourse between members might be preserved. 

Other organizations were effected later on, which finally culminated in the 
national organization, "The Grand Army of the Republic." to whose history iu 
this county, we shall try to do full justice. 

We have devoted this considerable amount of space to the War of the Rebel- 
lion, deeming it after the early settlements, the most important and the most 
interesting period of our national, state and county life, and we have tried, with 
infinite pains to give a clear, complete and impartial chronicle of those events 
in as near as possible a chronological order. 

THE women's PAKT OF THE WAR 

If there is a more trying degree of patriotism than that which sent the young 
men of the country forth to battle, and likely die for their country, or suffer the 
privations and discomforts of caiiii) life, it is the suppressed grief, too deep for 
utterance, the horrible suspense and ever-pi'esent anxiety, of the wives, mothers, 
sisters and dear ones compelled to renuiin at home. No language can portray, no 
pen describe the horrible, oppressive fear that never ceased to lirood ovrr the 
minds of the sufferers at home. The long, interminable years of waiting and 
watching nuist have taxed their human capacity for endurance to the very utmost. 
The only relief was in the necessary lalmr. ilany were left with heavy burdens 
to bear in providing for the family, and witii too nuich pride to accept assis- 
tance, struggled on with uneomplaining endurance. iNlany took the places of 
the volunteers in the fields and cai'ried on the work of thi- farm unaided. These 
humble heroisms of the patient, and long-suftVring women of the country, are 
as noble and exalted and as inspired with fervent patriotism, as ever impelled a 
soldier at the front, "to forward I ciiarge!" the enemy, and really demanded 
more endurance of faith and hope. But like the noble heroisms of the private 
soldiers, they must forever remain uui'ecorded, except in the blessed memory of 
those veterans who yet renuiiu with us, and whose suffering these "ministering 
angels," helped relieve, and except in the glorious result of that confiict, which 
we of today enjoy and nuist forever love and honor with patriotic gratitude. 

During the war there were numerous societies which had their incentive in 
the desire to aid the soldiers at the front. The Soldiers' Aid Society of Inde- 
pendence was the first of these organizations; it was founded October 25, 1861. 
These societies were organized in almost every town and i-omnumity in the 
county and did inestimable good with their liberal contributions of food, cloth- 
ing and money, and their zeal and interest never for a moment abated. Cer- 
taitdy their efforts in bringing comfort and cheer to the well and alleviation to 



HISTORY OP BUCHANAN COUNTY 191 

the sick did moi-e to keep up the courage of the soldiers at the front than all 
the Goverument provisions for them. A Soldiers' Relief Association also was 
formed in May, 1862, with many of the prominent citizens of the county in its 
membership. A Soldiers" Friend Association was organized in March, 1864, 
with the same motive as the other aid societies. A detailed account of the offi- 
cers and work of these organizations is given in the history of the Civil war. 

The women of independence started an auxiliary to the Women's National 
Covenant Society, organized in Washington, D. C, for the purpose of dress 
reform. The movement had spread rapidly over the East and many of the 
most fashionable women in New York City signed the pledge not to buy any 
more silks, satins, velvets, fine laces and other luxuries. This was one of the 
many sacrifices which the women of the country took upon themselves to help 
alleviate the dire necessities of the army. And the women in Independence no 
less patriotic and philanthropic, although they did not indulge in extravagances, 
such as those rich eastei-n women did, yet were willing to sacrifice many pleas- 
ures and every possible personal vanity to aid the soldiers ; and every woman 
certainly could deny herself something in the way of personal adornment. 

Other societies formed in the county during the war were the U. L. A's, 
' ' United Loyal Americans, ' ' of which there were several councils. Wide Awake 
Clubs and a democratic secret society called Knights of the Golden Circle had 
lodges in lioth Quasqueton and Independence, but were not in existence long. 
These societies were supposed to be antagonistic to the administration and the 
war proceedings. A W^ide Awake Club at Independence was organized in Octo- 
ber. 1864. They elected the following officers : R. W. Wright, captain ; R. 
Riddell, first lieutenant; J. M. Weart, second lieutenant; J. H. Cutter, orderly 
sergeant, and R. R. Plane, treasurer. 

An incident shows the intense feeling which existed when Lincoln was 
assassinated. On Monday P. M., the following hand bill was circulated about 
town: "A Wretch — From the Dubuque Times of this A. M., April 17, 1865, 
Saturday, a female — a Mrs. Barclay — whose occupation is that of an itinerant 
lecturess, was on the southwestern train when the passengers received the news 
of the awful tragedy at Washington. On being told that President Lincoln 
was dead, she waved her hat and expressed delight at the news. The passengers 
were horror-stricken at her conduct and could find no language with which to 
express their detestation of her act. Think of it. A woman with a heart that 
delights in assassination. Lady Macbeth had a rival at last. 

"That very woman was this morning driven out of Waterloo, whither the 
neW'S of her conduct had followed her. 

"That very woman is now in this city. Shall she here find a refuge? Citi- 
zens, what say you? Come to the mayor's office at 7 o'clock this evening and 
say. ' ' 

In pursuance of this call a large concourse of all the leading men assembled 
at the mayor's office and appointed a committee, consisting of General Dickin- 
son, Mayor Lee and Esquire Hart, to wait upon the woman at the Montour 
House and get her own statement of the facts. To them she denied waving her 
hat, but expressed the same sentiments as above indicated. By unanimous in- 
structions from the meeting another committee thereupon warned her to leave 



102 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

town by tlie Tuesday A. M. cars. And she went. Other cities woukl not house 
her and she was driven from pilhir to post. 

A strange fact connected with this incident was that this woman luid been 
in Indiana some months previous, giving medical lectures to women in the 
Presbyterian Church. She was a doctor and her name was Mrs. P. M. Barclay, 
and by her instructions and whole appearance gained great favor with the lead- 
ing ladies of the town. We are glad to see such a manly, decided manifestation 
of loyal pluck on the part of oui- citizens, etc. Let this example of just indig- 
nation be a timely warning to any among us who might be tempted to show 
secession procli\dties. Tlie next proper step should be to forbid any such paper 
as the Dubuque Herald to come into the town. * The time has come to set down 
our foot and make short work with the rebellion and all its sympathizers. We 
would .iudge the woman an anarchist, but she proved to be a southerner.' Such 
vehement expositions bespeak a time when freedom of speech and the press were 
Init a name and not an actual possession in this free land of ours. 

At Qua.squeton the Independent Sunday School adopted resolutions express- 
ing their high regards, sympathy and interest in the superintendent, J. M. 
Benthall, and other members who had gone to the war. They lauded their cour- 
age and faithfulness to duty and promised their earnest prayers to God for the 
soldiers' protection and safe return. A copy of these resolutions was presented 
to each member when he left. 

A most beautiful and touching tribute to be kept and cherished tlirough all 
those weary, awful years and for all time to come. Lewis was promoted to ser- 
geant-major. Colonel Worthington !i;id highly complimented Company E on 
its fine officers. 

INCIDENTS OF THE WAR 

During the war tlie American Express Company removed their agent at 
Independence, . Mr. Charles Taylor, and appointed Mr. Northup of Duliuciue 
to the position. This change had been made at the interposition of a nuinher 
of the citizens, who' were unwilling that a company evidencing its loyalty so 
heartily as the Amerii'aii Express Company, should be represented here by a 
man whose sympathy and influence were with the enemies of the Government. 
._ The incumbent, Mr. Taylor, denied these charges through the county papers 
and voiced a declaration of patriotic sentiment, but to no avail as far as his 
position was concenied, for he was not reinstated. 

AVhde the Fifth towa Regiment were encamped before New Madrid, their 
army rations for ten days consisted of but four crackers a day apiece, half 
rations of sugar, coffee made from water dipped up from wagon tracks and 
little puddles. Ten days of such living would certainly produce an epicurean 
taste for crackers and coffee at least, but the boys declared this muddy, slimy 
water made good cofTee, which required no particular eifort to swallow; it 
slipped down without even gulping. 

The board of supervisors made a mistake in the provision for bounty, giving 
it solely to recruits for the new regiments and not to those enlLsting in the old 
regiments. This mistake was rectified. 

Mr. Irwin of tho board of supervisors offered the following resolution which 
passed unanimously: "Resolved, P,y the Board of Supervisora of Buchanan 



HISTORY OP BUCHANAN COUNTY 193 

County, that we tender our thanks to the gallant boys of the Fifth and Ninth 
Regiments of Infantry, and all others who have received no bounty from this 
county, and that we will liberally reward them when the state of the finances 
of the county will permit." This was in lieu of the resolution offered by Mr. 
Rich to pay each and every volunteer $50. 

Parties were engaged in buying up at a discount the claims for county 
bounties some time since adjudicated by the Supreme Court as due certain 
soldiers in this county, but they were perfectly valid and would be paid by a 
tax levied in 1870. 

During the War of the Rebellion Mr. G. Dickinson offered a half acre of 
land to any children or society that wished to plant it to some crop for the 
benefit of the soldiers and under the direction of either or both the Soldiers' 
Aid and Soldiers' Frielid societies. 

Small change became so scarce in the county in the fall of 1862 that the 
merchants began to issue checks. This was in direct violation of the law and 
subject to heavy penalty. It seemed impossible to get along without some .sub- 
stitute. 

In October, 1904, occurred a reunion of the members of Company E, Ninth 
Iowa Infantry, residing in this vicinity at the home of G. B. Smeallie as guests 
of their comrade Nels Bennett. The day was pleasantly spent in recounting 
familiar experiences. A fact of special interest was that the location of their 
meeting place, the ground occupied by the old Smeallie residence in the Fifth 
Ward, was the old fair grounds, before the war, and where the soldiers first 
drilled. Out of the 175 men enlisted in that company during the war, which 
included the additional recruits, only about eighty comrades were living in 1904, 
and this number has greatly depleted during the last ten years. Only ten 
members were present for the reunion. 



Vol. 1—13 



CHAPTER X 
SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR 

THE MILITIA — IN THE CAMPS — THE AUXILIARY 

Oil Friday, April 22, 1898, Capt. H. A. Allen of Company E, having received 
orders from Adjutant-General Byers to be in readiness for immediate departure 
upon receipt of instructions by wire, called a meeting of the company and a 
physical examination was conducted by Dr. A. G. Shellito, appointed by the 
Government for that purpose. And this examination, conducted in accordance 
with the United States Army standard rules, revealed the fact that was already 
well established in the minds of the citizens of Independence that Company E 
was far above the average company. On Saturday morning, April 23d, Captain 
Allen received telegraphic instructions to lay in two days' rations. Upon receipt 
of this news everything was excitement and consternation and the town was like 
a disturbed beehive. Flags were unfurled and the national colors were displayed 
from all the business houses, so the citizens called a war meeting for that night 
at the Y. M. C. A. Building, situated in King's Opera House, where they might 
give vent to their belligerent feelings, which had been controlled and suppressed 
ever since the blowing up of the Maine and through those weeks of administrative 
ponderance and diplomatic delay which were so tedious and unbearable to the- 
excited and combative population, who felt that justice and honor and a sacred 
trust compelled us to avenge our dead heroes, the cause of liberty and freedom, 
for a struggling, down trodden people, and to uphold the dignity and rights of 
the American Government. We had been deeply and grossly insulted as a nation, 
our citizens' rights and privileges ignored and defied and their homes and busi- 
ness interests in Cuba not only molested, but destroyed, and finally, to complete' 
their list of oil'enses, the Spanish government (so the supposition was) had foully 
murdered, on shipboard, 166 of our marines by exploding a submarine mine which 
blew up the United States battleship Maine, anchored in the harbor of Havana. 
It had seemed that the deliberation and conservatism of the administration 
showed weakness and cowardice, and the President was sorely criticized and 
maligned, but after mature deliberation of years and an impartial view of the 
whole situation, it is almost universally conceded that President McKinley acted 
with the utmost wisdom and fairness, and set an example which has but recently 
been emulated by President Wilson in dealing with the Mexican situation. 

This suspense and delay had but aggravated public .sentiment and the popu- 
lace and the soldiers were almost mutinous, so when the declaration of war was 
finally announced on April 10 the pent up feelings could scarcely be restrained. 

195 



196 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

And the citizens and soldiers of Independence were no exception to the general 
public in their opinions and conclusions. 

At this war meeting feelings and opinions were vigorously expressed and 
patriotic sentiment grew in fervor and intensity. 

Capt. II. W. Ilolman called the meeting to order. Company E, in full uniform 
and armed, occupied the place of interest and honor and never presented a finer 
or more soldierly appearance. 

Col. Jed Lake was called to preside at the meeting, and when Old Glory was 
unfurled the enthusiastic crowd broke into a prolonged and inspired cheering 
such as the acoustic properties of King's old opera house had never been sub- 
jected to endure. Appropriate patriotic speeches" were made by Col. Jed Lake, 
Capt. H. W. Holman, E. E. Hasuer, Capt. W. H. Coy, ex-Senator Harmon, J. N. 
llift" and J. W. Foreman, all veterans of the Civil war and heroes of the battle- 
fields. The recounting of their army experiences and the excellent advice given 
by these men could not help but inspire and encourage them to noble service 
for their country. Captain Allen was then called upon and made a few remarks 
regarding his company in which he manifested such a laudable pride. Mr. Frank 
Jennings also made a few appropriate remarks and W. E. Jayne concluded the 
program by singing those stirring songs, "Marching Through Georgia" and 
"Rally Round the Flag, Boys," the audience joining in the choruses, at the con- 
clusion of which the war meeting adjourned. 

On Sunday evening patriotic .services were observed in all the churches. Com- 
pany E, attired in full uniform, attended the services at the Congregational 
Church in a body, where Rev. J. W. Horner delivered a very forceful and inspir- 
ing sermon. The church was profusely decorated with flags and patriotic music 
was a special feature. On Monday night, at 11 : 30 o'clock, Captain Allen received 
the final summons from the adjutant-general ordering the company to report 
at Des Moines the next day. The organization and arrangements were so com- 
plete that the Captain did not get up, and professed that he lost no sleep, nor was 
there any notice given to the men until the next morning. 

On Tuesday morning Company E, First Regiment, I. N. G., thirty-five strong, 
departed for Camp McKinley at Des Moines to report for duty. They left amid 
the waving of flags, the cheers of the populace, the boom of cannon, and with 
the sound of patriotic music to inspire them. Every place of business and the 
public schools were closed for the occasion and every man, woman and child in 
the city wlio could possil)ly do so were present to participate in the farewell 
demonstration and make it a fitting tribute to the boys who were about to go 
forth to duty, and to death, if necessary. A scene, although fraught with the 
deepest feelings of sorrow and pain, yet, to look back upon with pride, and one 
that would give them renewed courage when the monotony of camp life or the 
duties of war created an almost irrcpressable longing for home and loved ones. 
Nearly all the business places and the residences were decorated with flags and 
the streets at an early hour were thronged with people, although the train was 
not due to leave until 9 :30 A. M. The boys were at the armory early and began 
their preparations for departure with the coolness and precision born of military 
training. The company was compcsed largely of some of the best young men in 
Independence, occupying enviable positions in both business and social circles 
and representatives of prominent families. They were young, too, averaging 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 197 

soiTie years the junior of the majority of conipaiiies. A short time before the 
west bound train was due the State Hospital Band appeared on the scene and 
discoursed patriotic airs in front of the armory, while the Occidental Band 
was stationed on ]\Iain Street and rendered a number of appropriate selections. 
The company fell into line and, under escort of the two bands and the G. A. R. 
veterans, marched to the depot, and there was enacted a scene such as occurred 
some thirty-seven years before, when the first volunteer company of the Rebel- 
lion departed for the field of battle. While it was a sad scene, it was also one 
of glory. Whatever the parting may have been at home, courageous hearts beat 
true and smiling good-liys were said as only brave women know how to say them 
when they give up their beloved liusbands or offspring on the altar of their 
country, and the flood of tears came only with the departure of the last coach 
that bore them away. 

At 10 -MO they arrived in Waterloo and were met at the depot by a large 
delegation of citizens, who, through the connnittee, extended an invitation to the 
company to take dinner at the Logan House. They marched to the Chicago Great 
Western depot to dispose of their l)aggage and then reported on duty at the mess 
tal)le. where their onslaughts, if judged by their ferocity and persistency, would 
indicate an endurance and capacity for "war-fare" that even a band of Indians 
might tremble at. 

To show that these soldiers had been properly drilled and disciplined in the 
arts and artifices of army etiquette as well as iimnual of arms, they adopted 
appropriate resolutions thanking the citizens of Waterloo for their kindness and 
courtesy. They left Waterloo at 3 :55 and arrived at Des Moines at 8 : 30 P. M. 
and at their quarters at 9:30. Camp McKinley was situated at Ihe State Fair 
Grounds and four regiments were encamped there. Life at camp here was tyi^i- 
eal of all soldier's camps with its routine of camp duties, drills, physical exam- 
inations and the ac(|uiring of recruits, arms and equipTuent and even though of 
comparatively short duration proved very irksome and monotonous to the boys 
who were anxious to be off to the front. 

On April 27th. Governor Shaw issued a call for 1.200 men to fill out the 
regiments of the State Guard and authorized the sheriff to accept applications. 
The following morning he reported forty-one names to the governor, all of 
whom stood ready to respond when orders came. Many of these were from 
the smaller towns in the county. 

Lieut. Ray Snow was detailed as recruiting officer and arrived home from 
Des Moines May 5th to recruit thirty-five men for Company E. His head- 
tiuarters were at the armory and he completed his work and departed the next 
morning with thirty-five picked men, all of whom had passed the severe phys- 
ical examination demanded by our (iovernment. 

Independence is never loath to giving praise and honor to her soldiers and 
when these last recruits departed, a large crowd of people assembled at the depot 
to say good-bye and show public appreciation for the prompt and eager response 
to their country's call. The Occidental Band was out in uniform and accom- 
panied the boys to the depot where they cheered with lively patriotic airs. 

Company E now had its full quota of men and would compare favoralily 
with any C(impnny at Camp !\IcKin]ey. A report received home a few days after 
this, announced that every man and officer had passed all the examinations ami 



198 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

been accepted. Company E had the distinction of being the only company of 
the forty-eight encamped at Camp McKiuley who could boast such a record. 
This was a most gratifying piece of news to the home folks and filled them with 
intense pride in the Independence company. 

On Sunday, May 1st, the Illinois Central got up an excursion to Des Moines 
which was largely patronized all along the route. One hundred and eleven 
tickets were sold from Independence alone and every visitor was loaded with 
provisions and personal gifts to the boys of Company E. Two other escuraions 
were conducted to the camp within a mouth and all were lai'gely patronized. 
Earlier in the week a large box of provisions had been shipped to the company 
and arrived in time for a Sunday feast. A generous donation of money from the 
citizens of Independence had been sent the company by Mayor Miller. The 
people of Des IMoines were extremely kind and generous to all the soldiers and 
particularly to Company E wliich they showered with attentions. All this time 
the President was issuing calls for more troops and the soldiers in camp were 
becoming more and more restive and anxious to depart. They had a trip to the 
Philippines selected for the Iowa soldier's duty l)ut they were doomed to disap- 
pointment in this desire. The Fift.v-second Iowa had already been moved to 
Chickamauga Park, Georgia, and it was rather conjectured that the other three 
regiments would be moved there, but the forty-ninth and fiftieth were sent to 
Jacksonville, Florida, and the fifty-first to tiu- Philippines. 

Company p] then numljered si'veuty-two men but this number would be 
reduced to sixty-five men as specified by the Secretary of War as soon as they 
were mustered into the United States Service. Under a later order, each com- 
pany was required to have 106 men. The company while in camp at Des Moines 
suft'ered comparatively little sickness, one case of pneumonia and one of measles 
were the only ones. 

On June 2d, the company was mustered into the United States services as 
Company E of the P"'oft.v-ninth Iowa Volunteers. 

The following is a complete muster roll of Company E with the highest title 
attained by each member during the enlistment: 

COMMISSIONED OFFICERS 

Captain, Hubert A. Allen, Independence. 
First Lieutenant, Mitchell B. O'Brien, Independence. 
Second Lieutenant, Raymond P. Snow, Independence. 
Second Lieutenant, Frank A. Litts, Independence. 

NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICERS 

First Sergeant, II. D. Chapman, Independence. 
Sergeant, Robert T. Crawford, Independence. 
Second Sergeant, C. G. Herrick, Independence. 
Sergeant, Dolph A. Iluene, Manchester. 
Third Sergeant, YV. II. Raymond. Independence. 
Sergeant, Frank G. Romig, Independence. 
Poui'th Sergeant. E. F. Stevenson, Independence. 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 199 

Fifth Sergeant, L. M. Freeman, Independence. 
Sergeant, Frank F. Parker, Independence. 
Sergeant, Harry Voorhees, Monticello. 
Sergeant, Dan Leatherman, Independence. 
Corporal, Cliarles H. Becker, Independence. 
Corporal, Raleigh E. Buckmaster, Jesup. 
Corporal, A. F. Dunham, ilanchester. 
Corporal, L. Elgin Elliott, Brandon. 
Corporal, James J. Fitzgerald, Fairbank. 
Corporal, Ledyard M. Freeman, Independence. 
Corporal, Barney M. Gibson, Independence. 
Corporal, Jesse E. Griffith, Independence. 
Corporal, Frank Hageman, Eagle Grove. 
Corporal, William A. Houser, Manchester. 
Corporal, Clinton E. Howell, Independence. 
Corporal, James P. McGuire, Independence. 
Corporal, Guy E.' Miller, Independence. 
Corporal, Jesse H. Montgomery, Des Moines. 
Corporal, Jerald B. Paul, Manchester. 
Corporal, John W. Petrie, Independence. 
Corporal, J. Dell Skinner, Manchester. 
Corporal, Orville D. "VVescott, Gladbrook. 
Corporal, Jesse O. Young, Manchester. 
Musician, Walter Mitchell, Oelwein. 
.Musician, Bert Slaughter, Winthrop. 
■Musician, Elbert P. Trowbridge, Manchester. 
Wagoner. R. M. Dawes, Independence. 
Wagoner, Oliver D. Marquette, Independence. 
Artificer, Ray H. Thompson, Independence. 
Artificer, Arthur D. Van Eman, Jesup. 
Cook, Joseph F. Imholtz, Dyersville. 

PRIVATES 

S. N. Adams, Rowley ; W. W. Armstrong, North English ; C. R. Brandt, 
Dubuque : John Budn, Dyersville ; Frank Burns, Independence ; John Chris- 
tiansen, Independence ; J. T. Condon, Chamberlain, S. D. ; G. P. Cross, Man- 
chester; J. M. Cunningham, Bancroft; C. H. Decker, Jesup; C. A. Dickerson, 
Jesup; W. E. Dorman, Manchester; A. E. Domes, Dyersville; C. D. Elder, 
ilanchester; James Elliott, Jesup; W. M. Geist, Independence; W. E. Glenny, 
Independence; H. L. Golden, Jesup; Mons Granning, Thor; P. J. Greany, 
Independence; R. E. Guernsey, Independence; A. L. Hartman, Jesup ; C. C. 
Heath, Manchester; C, W. Helmick. Independence: Benjamin Hieber, Cedar 
Falls : G. C. Hintz, Independence ; George W. Ishmael, St. Paul, Minn. ; William 
Ives, Independence ; C. E. Jones, Independence ; J. R. King, Hazleton ; James 
Leehey, Fairbank; George D. Lepien, Fargo, ]Mich. ; Edward W. Lizer, Jesup; 
Commodore P. Lusk, JIanchester; Roy A. Luther, Independence; Frank J. 
McKray, Greeley; George H. Malvern, Manchester; William J. Malvin, Man- 



200 HISTORY OF BUCHANiVN COUNTY 

Chester; William Marks, Thorpe; Nels Martioseii, Des Moines; Walter D. Mat- 
tice, Hazleton; Curt Mellis, Hazleton ; Alvin Meiizel, Delaware; John Metzler, 
Earlville; C. A. Miller, Manchester; R. C. Moffett, Hudson; R. E. Moffit, Jesup ; 
Delos Moore, Manchester; George Muxlow, Independence; L. F. E. Nehls, Inde- 
pendence: R. W. E. Nehls, Independence; C. J. Nelson, Independence; 0., E. 
Nelson, Independence; Lawrence O'Brien, Independence; Floyd A. Peet, 
Lainont ; John R. Preble, Hazleton : E. M. Price, Otterville ; Christopher Quigley, 
Fairbank; J. W. Ray, Greeley; Max E. Rehberg, Rowley; L. V. Roberts, Inde- 
pendence; F. W. Shafer, Sunnyside, Ohio; Albert Staehle, Earlville; D. E. Tay- 
lor, Jesup ; P. L. Thomas, Independence ; H. E, Tunks, Jesup ; F. R. Washburn, 
Independence; R. S. Washburn, Independence; *A. J. Webber, Manchester; M. 
A. Wolcott. Independence. 

At the final examinations seven Independence boys were rejected and although 
they deeply regretted tlieir inability to serve they came home in good spirits. 

On the 10th of June, the Forty-ninth was ordered to Jacksonville, Florida. 
On Saturday, June 11th, a delegation of 160 jiersons from Independence went 
to Waterloo to visit with the company during tlieir hour and a half stay in that 
city on their way south. The troops were royally entertained all along the 
route to Dubuque. Again the people of Waterloo served them a splendid dinner, 
at which, the young ladies of Independence were invited to serve Company E, 
a delicious supper was served by the generous citizens of Oelwein and at Dubuque 
they were furnislied tempting boxes of lunch. They arrived at Jacksonville, 
Florida, on the 14th day of June and were assigned to the Seventh Army Corps 
under Gen. Fitz Hugh Lee. This corps was destined for the attack on Havana. 

Sergt. Eber Stevenson was left as recruiting agent with headquarters at 
Waterloo and by the last of June had secured twenty more lioys from Buchanan 
County. Immediately they left for Jacksonville, Florida, to join Company E. 
Here they remained for about sixteen weeks in probably the worst and most 
unsanitary camp which the United States Goverinnent ever maintained. Camp 
Cuba Libre as it was called was situated in a low, marshy ground near Jackson- 
ville and with the new and unusual climatic conditions with which to become 
acclimated, the recurrent rains and lack of drainage, the "medicated rations" 
furnished by the Government, and the germ laden drinking water, an epidemic 
of typhoid and malaria fevers broke out in camp. On August 18th, the camp 
was moved involving a march of a mile and one-half and with the labor of 
moving tents, etc., while this change would undoubtedly prove beneficial in 
the end. it seemed to utterly prostrate many of those with the fever lurking in 
their systems. Company E was one of the.se. 

The report came to Independence that forty of the company were sick — 
fifteen in the hospital and three could not possibly live. Naturally this caused 
intense anxiety and telegrams were hurriedly sent to the captain to inquire 
and verify or rectify the statement and his response that thirty-two were sick — 
none serious, although bad enough, was some relief to the friends and relatives. 
W. F. Miller, editor of the Independence Conservative, visited the camp to ascer- 
tain the facts and reported the conditions better than the circulated reports. 
He found the Forty-ninth Regiment Camp far better than several others that 
he visited. The reason for the three Companies, A, E, and K being the worst 
afflicted with disease was that thev had each lieen assigned to Pi-ovost duty^ 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 201 

outside of camp and despite strict orders of the regimental and company officers 
against it, many of the soldiers bought pies and fruit from the negro trucksters 
and drank the surface water and lemonade made of it. All these things hut 
aggravated conditions that were bad at best. Many were given a month's fur- 
lough home to recuperate. After such a contagion of sickness broke out the 
Government did everything in its power to alleviate the sick and improve con- 
ditions but it was too late to make amends for the havoc already wrought. 
The Government was not entirely responsible for this but as in every case of 
neglect and mismanagement somebody had failed to do his duty — somebody had 

blundered. 

The first death of a member of Company E was that of Edward Lizer. He 
having died of the typhoid fever at Jacksonville, August 24, 1898. He con- 
tracted measles and while at Camp McKinley, at'Des Moines, was seriously ill 
tiut recovered sufficiently to accompany the regiment to Florida. The change 
nf climate was too severe for his delicate constitution and typhoid fever symptoms 
developed from which he succumbed. The first Independence boy to die was 
^ilorse AVolcott who succumbed to typhoid fever Friday, September 2:3d. This 
was particularly depressing on all those who had boys sick. Morse was a gen- 
eral favorite and one of the most popular members of the company and the fact 
that he had been reported convalescing and practically out of danger but intensi- 
fied the grief and anxiety. He was buried with military honors and an escort 
of the E. C. Little Post, G. A. R. and his own comrades participated in the 
ceremonies. The Ladies Auxiliary of Company E had appropriately decorated 
the grave with flowers and flags. Otto Neilson was the next brave hero — to 
answer the last summons. He also succumbed to the ravages of typhoid fever, 
dying at the hospital at Jacksonville, Thursday, October 20, having been sick 
and left there when the regiment was moved to Savannah. 

John Herbert Tiffany, another Buchanan County soldier, but not a member 
of Company E, died October 7th, at the home of his sister at DeKalb, 111., and 
was buried at his old home in Independence. He was in Chicago when the call 
for volunteers came and enlisted in Company G, First Illinois Infantry, which 
on June 19th was sent to Santiago, where he was detailed as a nurse at Sibony. 
He served faithfully until he contracted yellow fever and was later sent home 
on furlough. After his arrival home the exertion of a march from the depot 
to the armory l)rought on typhoid fever from which in his already weakened 
condition he could not rally. We mention these four deaths because they were 
the first and possibly received more attention than the ten or eleven that fol- 
lowed in quick .succession. In October, the regiments encamped at Jacksonville, 
were ordered to Savanah, Georgia, there to await transport to Cuba. In spite of 
so much sickness and death the spirits of the boys never lagged and their 
courage and optimism were something to be marveled at, judging from their 
letters and personal interviews. The arduous monotony of camp life at Jack- 
sonville was sometimes relieved by entertainments of the soldier's own initiative. 
The Forty-ninth Regiment was' particularly versatile in their productions and 
gave several creditable affairs. A minstrel show under the direction of Captain 
Allen was decidedly clever. About four hundred of the city folks, most of them 
ladies, besides the membei's of the regiment witnessed the performance. It was 
a decided success and proved that there was much latent talent among these soldier 



202 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

boys. Thoy arrived at their new camp, October 26tli, and the beneficial results 
were noticeable immediately. The camp grounds were situated about two miles 
from the city but near a street car line. The women of Savannah with charac- 
teristic hosjjitality gave the soldiers a grand Thanksgiving dinner and as long 
as they remained there they received the kindest and most generous treatment. 
J. M. Romig on behalf of the relatives and friends of Company E wrote a letter 
in which he expressed their gratitude and appreciation of the kind and generous 
treatment accorded our soldiers by the ladies of Savannah. This letter was 
printed in Savannah dailies. 

Along about the '.id of December, the second division of the Seventh Army 
Corps consisting of about seven thousand men of which company E was a part, 
and under command of Gen. Fitz Hugh Lee, had received orders to embark for 
Cuba. Tuesday, Decemlier 6th, but this was postponed a day or two, the regi- 
ment being held to be reviewed by President ilcKinley. The regiment had 
been equipped with new rifles commonly called "Krag Jorgensons," and were 
ready to move as soon as the "lug dress paraile" was over. Six big transports 
conveyed the soldiers to Cuba, one the transport Panama was the first important 
prize captured from the Spanish during the war, and was occupied by General 
Lee, his staff, orderlies, and clerks. Company E landed in Havana on the 
23d day of December and immediately marched into camp which was situated 
in the hills about four miles from the city on account of yellow fever being 
prevalent in the city. The camp was located on a liii;h hill over-looking the 
Straits of Florida and about two miles from it. 

The roads were in a terrible condition, which made marching a hard proposi- 
tion, Imt a railroad was near by for emergencies. 

A few days later, December 26th, about the time things were getting settled, 
Company E received orders to proceed to guard some sea coast batteries near the 
city which the Spaniards had just evacuated. Their headquarters were at Vedado 
and Company E had the distinction of being the first volunteer company situated 
in the city. The impressive ceremony of lowering the Spanish flag and hoisting 
the stars and stripes over the Spanish forts and public buildings was not only 
witnessed but participated in by the Seventh Army Corps under General Lee 
and was stationed in front of the governor general's palace (which was the great- 
est center of attraction), they passed in review and paraded while the Cubans, 
although they were forbidden to parade themselves, had collected en masse and 
were exultant witli joy, crying "Vive los Americanos." 

The last day of the year, 1898, found Company E encamped in the suburbs 
of Havana detailed to guard some fifteen forts and batteries which had been re- 
cently evacuated and surrendered by the Spaniards, eight forts, among them the 
celebrated Moro Castle, Pricepe Castle, La Renie, Punta Brava, and Santa Clara, 
were included. These forts, many of them hundreds of years old and one cover- 
ing about twenty acres, built of huge stones and containing an endless chain of 
galleries, chambers, and corridors, with a perfect network of underground pas- 
sages and cells, was a revelation to the soldier boys of a new country. 

While Buchanan County was largely represented in Cuba, still it was not 
without representatives in other foreign ports. C. A. Anderson, of Rowley, a 
member of Company L, Fifty-first Iowa Infantry, United States Volunteers, was 
statioued at Manila. He left the United States November 3d, and anchored in 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 203 

Manila Bay, December 7, 1898, and was on board the transport almost all the 
time for ninety-five days. He was afterwards in a fight around San Rocjue, where 
the insurgents endeavored to lay a trap for the Americans by showing the white 
flag. 

The Fifty-first Regiment, of which his company was a part, chased the enemy 
six miles through swamp and brush seemingly impassable. The ambush and 
guerrilla warfare I'Oiitinutd for days and weeks but with very little loss of life 
to the Americans. 

Another former Independence bo}'. Ensign Harry Yarnell, was fortunate 
enough, on. his first cruise to be on board the United States Battleship Oregon, 
when she made her memorable trip from San Francisco to Key West, from there 
she was despatched to join Sampson's fleet in blockading Santiago De Cuba. 
(Admiral Schley's fleet was also stationed there doing blockading duty.) Shortly 
after this the Oregon participated in the famous battle of Santiago Bay on 
.July 3d, and to her was accredited the glory of running down and capturing the 
Spanish ship Colon. During the battle of Santiago, Yarnell had charge of one 
of the big guns on the Oregon and so experienced the thrill of real war. His 
letters to his uncle, David Neidigh, of Independence, gave a very graphic and 
entertaining account of the long, tedious trip around Cape Horn and of the excit- 
ing and brilliant battle of Santiago Bay. Lieut. Dewitt Blaraer, another Inde- 
pendence boy, was, during the war, an ensign on the United States training ship 
Alliance, stationed at Fortress Monroe, and just after was transferred from the 
ship Buffalo on service at Manila to the Boston, one of the best boats in Admiral 
Dewey's fleet which was then stationed at Iloila. 

Company E remained on duty in the City of Havana for several weeks and 
was finally relieved by a regiment of heavy artillery and from there the company 
was ordered into Camp Columbia, with their regiment. They were in camp a 
few days when the regiment was ordered on a ten days' exi^edition to Penier 
Del Rio. Their first stop was in San Antonio about thirty miles west of Havana, 
where they remained for four or five days, from there they marched to the Town 
of Alquizar and back, a distance of eighteen miles. While in Alquizar, on the 
2-l:th of February, Company E witnessed the celebration of the fourth anniversary 
of the starting of the Cuban army of Havana ( and Gomez entering the city was 
received with wild enthusiasm) the event was celebrated by a parade and general 
patriotic demonstrations all over Cuba. Saturday, the 2oth, the whole brigade 
was received before the alcalde (mayor) and other prominent citizens, a courtesy 
extended which to the Cubans was very condescending on the part of the 
Americans, so the soldiers thought. 

About the 1st of April, word was received from Company E that the Forty- 
ninth would soon-be mustered out. The eagerly awaited orders for the return of 
the Forty-ninth were soon received and the next letter home gave the exact date 
for sailing which was to be Wednesday, April 5th, but several things intervened 
and Company E unfortunately did not get off with the rest and was one of the 
last companies to leave the island. They did not get away until Saturday night 
on the leased Ward liner City of Havana. After a stormy voyage full of unusual 
disastrous experiences, they anchored in the Savannah River at Sandusky, where 
they landed on Monday night, Api'il 10th, for fumigation and from there into a 
five days' quarantine; then went into their old camp again at Savannah, Ga., 



204 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

where on Saturday. May l;ith, the company was mustered out and immediately 
were given transportation home where they arrived Tuesday, ^lay 16th. 

Immediately upon receiving the intelligence that Company E was soon to be 
expected hoiiie, the executive committee of the Ladies' Auxiliary and one ap- 
pointed by the mayor met to make arrangements tor a grand reception to be 
tendered the company upon their ai'i'ival home and the plans when completed 
included a reunion of the veterans of 1861 and 1898 at the Gedney Opera House, 
a banquet at tlie Munson Building for all the members of the company and their 
wives followed by a reception and camp-fire at the Opera House, and this to be 
concluded witli a grand ball at the Munson building. The carrying out of these 
plans was left in charge of seven committees, finance, reception and programs, 
decoration, instrumental music, vocal music and banquet, and when these com- 
mittees had completed their plans the arrangements to the simplest details were 
complete. Bright and early Tuesday morning the people of Independence began 
to decorate and get ready to welcome home Company E ; long before the train 
time not only Main Street but the whole town was embowered with tiags and 
flowers. Everyone was in a state of joyful expectancy with the exception of those 
to whom the event lirought the saddest recollections of those who had been mus- 
tered out by the hand of death, and would never be welcom(>d home again. The 
town was full of people and at 9 A. M. the crowd proceeded to the Illinois Central 
Depot to extend the ghid hand. As is usual upon such occasions the train was 
over an hour late but there was no complaint about this, everyone was too happy 
for the small difference of an hour to be noticed and the enthusia.sm of the crowd 
never for a moment abated. 

Mr. Mike Goodwin was on hand, just as Col. E. Heege had been upon a similar 
occasion thirty-fovir years before, to boom forth a resounding welcome with the 
old Independence cannon. This he kept \ip at frequent intervals, until the smoke 
of the big engine coming up over the eastern incline gave the signal for a regular 
bomliastic explosion of noise — pandemonium reigned unchecked. It has been 
claimed by persons of reliability and broad intelligence in such matters, that the 
Independence fire-whistle can or does come nearer raising the dead than any 
other instrument of torture ever invented and it never did better service. Every 
.school bell, every factory whistle, big cannon crackers and every available means 
of noise was employed to do justice to the occasion while the cannon and the 
Hospital and Occidental l)ands lent their best efforts to the cause. Three special 
cars brought besides Company E, tlie Waterloo and Charles City Companies. 
Record has it that Lieutenant Hobson's osculatory greeting by the women wasn't 
"in it" with that accorded Company E. 

The program was carried out the next day as planned. R. W. Ten-ill. depart- 
ment connnander of the G. A. R., presided, many notable men were present and 
spoke, among them Hon. A. S. Blair, Hon. Ed. P. Seeds, Col. J. H. Peters, lion. 
W. H. Norris, all of Manchester, and Dr. G. W. Bothwel, of Fairbank, and the 
local speech makers and old soldiers were a conspicuous part of the program. 

The address of welcome at the evening reception was given by Hon. T. E. 
MeCurdy, of Hazleton, and responded to by Capt. H. A. Allen. The Jesup boys 
stopped off at Independence for the day and when they reached home on Tuesday 
night, ilay 16th, a similar celebration took place. All the citizens, the G. A. R. 
and W. R. C, the school children and teachers and the band were at the depot to 




MIKE GOODWrX AND BILLY 

Ht'GHES FIRING A SALUTE ON 

DEPARTURE OF COMPANY E 




WAITING RETURN OF COMPANY 
E, 49TH IOWA VOLUNTEERS 



DKI'AKTURE OF COMPANY E, 4>iTH 
IOWA VOLUNTEERS 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 205 

give tliem a royal welcome home, the band played, the children sang and every- 
bod.y shouted. On Wednesday night a reception and banquet was held at the 
beautiful home of L. S. Hovey and an invitation was extended to Captain Allen 
and wife. 

Just the day after the company reached home a telegram was received an- 
nouncing the death of Ray Moffitt on the day previous, in the hospital at Camp 
Onward, Savannah. 

On Friday, Jlay 26, 1899, the Woman's Relief Corps of Manchester, gave a 
reception to Company E ; a large crowd composed of the soldiers, their friends 
and the Occidental Band accepted of their hospitality. 

The town was handsomel.y decorated, and did itself pVoud in the matter of 
entertaining. A fine dinner and a reception, with music and speeches, followed 
by a ball in the evening, tilled the day with pleasure. Company E gave a public 
drill in answer to requests, which showed them to be in a splendid state of 
efficiency. 

A very handsome quilt into which was worked the names of all the company 
was presented to Captain Allen by the Corps. 

During the actual period of service Company E lo.st nine men, two more dying 
very soon after the muster out, two in a few weeks after from disease contracted 
in the army, and another, Roy Guernsey, who was a member in the Signal Service 
Corps, making fourteen in all. We have mentioned only the first few deaths, as 
it grew to be almost a weekly occurrence that some member of Company E had 
succumbed to the ravages of typhoid fever; some of whom were residents of 
Delaware County, but members of Company E. Delaware County had fifteen 
representatives in Company E. 

That the company made an enviable record is attested by the fact that they 
were a jiart of the First Provost Guard that the Seventh .^rmy Corps ever had, and 
in recognition of their fine work there they were selected out of the entire Seventh 
Army Corps to receive the evacuation and surrender of the Spanish forts, where 
they guarded millions of dollars worth of pi-operty. At the ofBcial surrender, 
which took place on the 1st day of Januai-y, the company furnished moxmted 
orderlies for the commanding general of the army, and the governor general of 
tlie island, and took part in the ceremonies incident to the surrender. 

The company had on its roll during the period of service a total of 108 men 
and four officers. During the stay at Jacksonville the company suffered from an 
epidemic of typhoid fever and lost a large number of men — fourteen in all. 
Scarcely any one in the company escaped a fit of sickness, and at one time out 
of the 106 men and three officers composing the company there were eighty -three 
men sick or on sick furlough. 

This was a very trying time for the men and their people at home, as the 
Government had not made provisions for any such amount of sickness. Sick 
men were often compelled to lie on the ground while awaiting arrangements for 
a bed, and there were no nurses other than men detailed for that work. These 
men were entirely, or in a great majority of cases, without any experience 
whatever. 

It was necessary for the company commander during this period to supply 
his sick with ice, milk, eggs, and such articles as typhoid patients required, as 
the Government had made no provision for these articles until the latter i)art of 



206 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

September, when it was arranged so we could draw GO cents per day, in lieu 
of the ration, for the sick. The company commander had no fund with which 
to pay for this except such as had been contrilnited by the citizens of the home 
town and his own pocket book, neither of which was ample to meet the calls. 
There were many cases of hardship and unnecessary suffering at that time, and 
calls upon private funds which were rightfully matters which the Government 
should have taken care of. 

It was satisfactorily demonstrated in the Spanish-American war that our 
country was in a state of utter unpreparedness and that such a condition shows 
not only the rankest folly but criminal neglect is not questioned. But we do 
not think that the unprepared condition of the Government is entirely responsible 
for the direful result. We believe that the long list of ca.sualties, not of actual 
warfare but of disease proves not the necessity of more armoured cruisers, more 
standing armies and greater armament, but the demand for less red tape, more 
concerted action and less jealousy and irresponsibility among the Government 
officials and all those in authority. The whole responsibility of that lamentable 
calamity in that germ infested camp at Jacksonville rests upon the officials who 
selected such an unsanitary and unhealthy location and with those who failed 
to see the consequence or to act. It certainly would not take either an army 
surgeon or a United States army inspector to decide that the swamps of Florida 
were not a tit camping place for northern soldiers and that alligators and farmer 
boys are not homogeneous. 

But from whatever cause or condition, these brave soldiers sacrificed their 
lives to their country's cause and although it was not in the glory of battle 
with the inspii-ation and stimulus of active service to goad them on, nor in the 
gloom of death and defeat, who shall decide which is harder to endure 1 Let him 
who has witnessed the two decide — death on a glorious battle field or on a hospital 
cot — and justice and honor will demand that as much respect be shown the 
heroes of 1898 as of 1861. . . 



NAMES OF SOLDIERS WHO DIED 

Company E : Morse A. Woleott, private, September 23d, at Camp Cuba 
Libre, of typhoid. 

Charles Helmick, private, September 5th, at Camp Cuba Libre, of malarial 
remittant. 

William E. Dorman, private, September 20th, at Camp Cuba Libre, of 
t\T)hoid. 

Alonzo L. Hartman, private, September 10th, at Camp Cuba Libre, of 
typhoid. 

Edward W. Lizer, private, August 24th, at Camp Cuba Libre, of typhoid 

Frank J. McKray, private, October 13th, at Camp Cuba Libre, of typhoid. 

Otto E. Nelson, private, October 20th, at Camp Cuba Libre, of typhoid. 

Roy Guernsey (detailed in signal corps), at sea, en route to Havana, January 
15th. of pneumonia. 

Ray Moffitt, at Camp Onward, May 16th, of typhoid. 



HISTORY OP BUCHANAN COUNTY 207 

"it might have been" 

When the call to arms was issued by President MeKinley, it seemed as 
though the whole nation rose as one man, there was an embarrassment of riches 
and the ditfieulty was, not how to secure soldiers, but to choose out of the myriads 
offered — Iowa was called upon for three regiments and a most perplexing problem 
was put to Governor Shaw to solve. Which of the four Iowa Volunteer Regi- 
ments would be sent home when all were so eager to go. It undoubtedly caused 
the governor many sleepless nights and the possible effect on the coming cam- 
paign much anxiety to the politicians. And the conclusion that the Forty- 
ninth Regiment, of which Company E was a part (being under command of the 
junior colonel), should be dismissed was a terrible disappointment to the soldiers. 
But through the personal efforts of several influential men (with the as.sociate 
editor of the Des Moines Register) as prime mover, the consent of the governor 
was obtained to let them intercede on behalf of the regiment. Telegrams were 
sent bacJi and forth to the state representative at Washington, D. C, but the 
reply came back that no change could be made, as there were so many states 
asking for changes in their quotas that the War Department did not dare to 
show any partiality. That same evening, April 29th, the particular friends of 
the forty-ninth held a meeting at the Savery Hotel, at which Bernard Murphy 
of Vinton presided. Nearly all the cities which had companies in the regiment 
were represented. Governor Shaw was besought to change the ruling made by 
his adjutant general. Never were such appeals made to the governor and all 
this time the friends and relatives of the companies were praying that their 
own boys would be the ones sent home. 

The session at the hotel lasted until after mid-night and probably no more 
impassioned speeches were ever uttered on Iowa soil. Some of the speakers 
almost threatened the governor with a rebellion, but he held his ground firmly 
with the decision of the committee and the friends of the other regiments were 
just as insistent. 

Finally when all hope .seemed past, Mr. Lafe Young, who was present sug- 
gested that another appeal be made to Washington and he believed if enough 
pressure was brought to bear on the AVashington delegation that they might win 
their point. It was a desperate ease and demanded a desperate appeal, and al- 
ready pi'epared for the emergency, he pulled out of his pocket the following 
telegram which was forwarded to Washington : Des Moines, April 29, 1898, Hon. 
William B. Allison, Hon. J. A. T. Hull, Washington, D. C. "After exhausting 
every power of compromise, we find there is no possible way out of our trouble, 
except by calling for full regiments of infantry. Any other course now would 
create such a ruction as we nor you have never known in Iowa. For God's sake 
see Secretary of War at once. Pour full regiments would only exceed quota 
by 200. If necessary, di'op out call for light infantry artillery. You can not 
imagine the excitement here in the state." 

The telegram was signed largely by prominent men and had the desired result. 
Secretary Alger telegraphed accepting four instead of three regiments, and the 
work of organization began at once. 

After reading the above paragraph, with its painfully suggestive heading, the 
deplorable result of that well intentioned effort on the part of the regiments' 



208 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

friends strikes us with particular force. For while the forty-niuth lost not a 
single man in battle during that short service over sixty were sacrificed to disease 
(some few dying soon after being mustered out) over fifty of whom died of 
typhoid fever contracted from unsanitary conditions of the camp at Jackson- 
ville and impure food and water. Every company in the regiment lost from 
two to a dozen men. Of this total number. Company E had several more than 
any other company (due possibly to their youth and inexperience). 

The experiences of this company were very similar to those of Company D, 
Forty-seventh Regiment under connnand of Captain Herriek in the War of the 
Rebellion. They were part of the one hundred, day men and were stationed at 
Helena, Arkansas, where they suffered an epiderfie of fever and bowel trouble. 

Another coincidence (if the former can be called one), is that the first com- 
pany that left ludei)endenee for the front in the Civil war was also Company E. 

At the time when the Fiftieth and Fifty-second Iowa Regiments were mus- 
tered out of the service (in October, 1898), the same influential friends who had 
procured the acceptance of the forty-ninth by the Government, made intercession 
to the President to have the regiment relieved of duty and sent home. Much 
force was lirought to bear to influence this move, but evidently their good inten- 
tioned interference was not appreciated for when the regiment was notified of 
this, they sent a delegation from Camp Cuba Libre to Washington to personally 
entreat President McKinley to let them remain in the service until the war was 
over if by any possibility their sei-vices would be required. This showed real sol- 
dier spirit. President McKinley was very gratified and pleased with the attitude 
of the Forty-ninth Iowa and wrote a most commendatory letter to Governor 
Shaw, expressing his appreciation and admiration of them, which is cherished 
in the state archives. 

COMPANY E AUXILIARY 

On Friday evening. May 6th, the ladies of Independence met at the Munson 
building and organized the Company E Auxiliary, to aid not only Company E 
and the First Regiment, but to render assistance whenever and wherever it may 
be needed. The organization was completed by the election of the following 
officers : President, Dr. Georgia A. Nims ; vice president, Caroline Littell, treas- 
urer, Katharyn Allen ; corresponding secretary, Elizabeth Rodney ; recording 
secretary, Harriet Lake ; ex-offieio members, executive committee, Mesdaraes H. 
A. Allen and A. J. Klocker ; a soliciting board composed of a member from each 
ward, Kate Rodney, First Ward ; Carrie Steinmetz, Second Ward ; Kate Clarke, 
Third Ward; Mabel Palmer, Fourth Ward; and Ida Littlejohn, Fifth Ward. 
The regular meetings were held the first and third Friday evenings in eacli month. 

The initiation fee was 50 cents and was used to establish a working fund and 
any patriotic woman, young or old, was eligible to membership. Colonel Dows, 
Major Clarke and Captain Allen were informed that the services of this society 
were at their disposal. The first call for aid was from General Lincoln, through 
the Des Moines Sanitary Commission and in response to this 117 gingham pillow- 
slips, and 7.3 "housewives" or needle, thread, and button eases, were sent to 
Company E. The second request from Company E for granite plates and cups 
for the new recruits to supplement tlie tins which had already rusted was 



HISTORY OP BUCHANAN COUNTY 209 

promptly complied with, also one from Surgeon Clarke of the First Regiment 
for pillow casings and sheets to supply nine beds in the Regimental hospital. 
So far every demand made upon this society was promptly responded to and their 
powers of assistance were limited only by the funds in the treasury. The next 
donation to the army by this zealous society was 174 abdominal bands. When 
the boys left Des Moines, the Auxiliary raised .$1.50 which they forwarded to 
Captain Allen to be held as a sick fund, which fund by being economically dis- 
bursed, lasted many weeks. 

The reported sickness prevalent in Company E aroused the sympathies of 
the entire community and enlisted the Auxiliary to greater effoi-t. They made 
prompt appeal to the citizens for subscriptions and met with a liberal response. 
In a short time they had raised $79.00 which was turned over to Mayor W. P. 
Miller to forward. 

The Auxiliary did excellent and efficient woi-k all the time the soldiers were 
in the South, and finished their career with the grand reception tendered the 
company on their return home. 

This band of loyal women were tested in a small degree as their mothers had 
been before them, during the awful and trying years of the Civil war — and 
the balance scale found them not wanting in patriotic zeal and fervor. 



CHAPTER XI 
MISCELLANEOUS MILITARY AFFAIRS 

THE ARMY AND NAVY THE GUARDS — THE MILITIA CAMP WOLCOTT 

BUCHANAN COUNTY 's REPRESENTATIVES IN THE ARMY AND NAVY 

The first i-epresentative Independence had to the Government School at 
West Point and Annapolis was Eugene Woodruff. He received the appoint- 
ment while in the Union army and entered West Point July 1, 1862, and 
graduated seventh in his class in 1866, was commissioned as second lieu- 
tenant in the Engineer Corps and in about two years was promoted to first 
lieutenant. He held various important charges and in 1871 was transferred 
to Major Howell's department with headquarters at New Orleans, and con- 
tinued in that department until the time of his death. 

In the fall of 1871 he was sent by Major Howell to make a thorough sur- 
vey of the "raft obstructions" in the Red River, with the view of their removal 
if found practicable and the opening of the channel. On the strength of his 
report of the survey in the spring of 1872, Congress made an appropriation 
of $150,000 to become available for the commencement of operations on July 
1, 1872. Lieutenant Woodruff was sent North by Major Howell to organize an 
expedition and purchase a "snag boat" and the other necessary material for 
carrying on the work. He had charge of the survey and of two operations 
for the removal of the raft, making his own plans. The work of the expedi- 
tion commenced in December, 1872, with lieadcjuarters at Shreveport. Louisi- 
ana. He also had charge of the opei'ations for removing obstructions in 
Cypress Bayou, Texas, the survey of which included a chain of lakes con- 
necting this bayou witli the Red River about two miles above Shreveport. 

George S. Woodruff, brother of Lieutenant Woodruff, joined the latter at 
St. Louis in the month of September, 1872, as clerk and steward of the snag 
boat and private secretary to his brother and continued with the expedition 
until its work was accomplished. After the death of Lieutenant Woodruff' he 
was appointed lieutenant by Major Howell and remained acting in that capac- 
ity to the entire satisfaction of the department until it disbanded on April 1, 
1874. The channel was ojjened to investigation through its entire length in 
November, 1873, for the first time in thirty years. This was the last great 
work in which Lieutenant Woodruff" was officially engaged and in which he 
won an almost world wide fame as an engineer. 

At that time Shreveport was undergoing a terrible scourge of yellow fever 
and the expedition of which he had charge was some fifty-seven miles above 

211 



212 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

that ill-fatfd city. Upoii visiting the city on business, and unaware that the 
epidemic had broken out, he found the city panic stricken. The citizens, as 
many as could get away, fled for tlier lives, and hundreds sick and dying, with 
little or no attention to their wants. His generous sympathetic nature could 
not hear without heeding the appeal of suffering and dying humanity. He 
joined the Howard Association and, forgetting his business, devoted himself 
with tireless assiduity with the relief of the sick and thereby did untold good 
and in all probability saved many lives. Thus. he labored for one week, when 
he himself was taken down with the disease. After three or four days he was 
])ronounced convalescent but many patients w-ere sick and dying in the house 
whei'e he was and the excitement and exposure proved too much for his over- 
taxed system and he suffered a relapse and died on the :30th of September. 
His funeral was marked with general grieving and as though a public calamity. 
About a year after his death the citizens of Shreveport erected a beautiful 
monument to his memory. 

Others wlio have been appointed from Independence are as follows: 

Wells Woods was appointed to West Point sometime in the eighties but 
did not complete the course. 

Dewitt Blamer was a])|)ointed to Annapolis in 1887. His standings while 
at Annapolis were always high — he ranke(i foui th in a cla.ss of seventy. After 
graduation he was on a three years' cruise along the Pacific Coast. 

Harry Yarnell was appointed to Ainiapolis in 1893, graduated in June, 
1897, and began his two years' cruise around the world. He was on board 
the Oregon when she made hei' memoral)le trip around the Horn. 

On June 10 and 11, 1896, competitive examinations were conducted at 
Waterloo for the military appointment to West Point and all the honors were 
carried away by Independence boys. Out of twenty-three candidates com- 
peting, Carlos E. Jones won first honors and received the conditional appoint- 
ment. Harry E. Jones won second place and Hei'bert Higbee, third place. 

Owing to minor defects of the tir.st t^\o appointees the choice fell to Her- 
bert Higbee who availed himself of the opi)ortunity. He was one of the thirty- 
three of a class of ninety-six who passed the rigid reiiuirements. He was a 
student at tile school for two years and on account of some class trouble did 
not complete the course. 

Ernest McKee, an Independence boy, who afterwards became a resident 
of Howard, South Dakota, passed the examinations and received the appoint- 
ment in 1904, as midshipman, by Senator A. B. Kittredge and is now second 
lieutenant on Iward the Texas, which was stationed at Vera Cruz, Mexico. 

Paul (!oen was appointed to the Naval Academy in 1912 by Rep. C. E. 
Picket and has enjoyed two cruises. 

THE INDEPENDENCE GUARDS 

Company H. I. N. G., was oi'ganized in Independence in July, 1877. The 
first captain was Fred Merrill. The following officers were elected: Captain, 
F. C. Merrill: first lieutenant, E. E. Hasner: second lieutenant, E. B. Backus; 
first sergeant, H. H. Palmer; second sergeant, C. E. Purdy; third sergeant. 
Frank Megow ; fourth sergeant. Doctor Wilson ; first corporal, Charles Sher- 



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HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 213 

wood; second corporal, Charles McEwen ; third coi-poral, Sidney S. Toman; 
fourth corporal, J. L. Cilley. The officers elected of the civil department of 
the organization were : President, W. H. Baily ; secretary, C. A. Clarke ; 
treasurer, W. S. Boggs. After the election the muster roll was presented 
and received some twenty-six signers, which was increased to a full com- 
pany later, and immediately the company began regular drill practice. Then 
Capt. W. H. Thrift. These followed by 0. D. Burr, who died in office ; P. A. 
Sutkamp was then elected, LeRoy Cummings followed Sutkamp and then P. 
A. Sutkamp was reelected to the office. In February, 1891, he resigned and E. 
C. Lillie was elected ; W. F. Miller and E. S. Stroman were also captains of 
the company. Company H attended all the state encampment and were a 
very active organization in the early days of its career. 

This company was one of the crack companies of the state, winning many 
laurels in drill and rifle practice. In the fall of 1891, after fourteen years of 
existence, they disbanded. Captain Thrift after leaving Independence was 
elected as adjutant-general. 

Comjiany E, First Regiment I. N. G., was mustered into the State Militia, 
Thursday, June 4, 1896, by Adjutant-General Wright of Des Moines, Colonel 
Mahin of Clinton, and Captain Thrift of Dubuque. The following officers 
were elected: II. A. Allen, captain; C. A. Rosemond, first lieutenant; C. A. 
Rosemond, George Blamer, second lieutenant. The selection of non-commis- 
sioned officers was deferred to a later date. 

Arms, uniforms and other equipment was sent from Des Moines and the 
company started drilling. Colonel Mahin annoiinced that he had secured the 
use of the grounds at Rush Park for the annual encampment, to be held in 
August, that he considered them the best for the purpose he had seen in the 
state. At the rifle shoot, the next week after the company was organized, it 
ranked fifth and seven companies below them. 

Later in July the non-commissioned officers were chosen for efficiency in 
drill. First sergeant, Frank Lifts; second sergeant. Will Berger; third ser- 
geant, A. B. Cates; fourth sergeant, Alex. Donnan; fifth sergeant, Charles Mc- 
Clure ; first corporal, Ray Snow; second corporal, Will Poor; third corporal, 
E. H. Tyson; fourth corpoi'al, Herbert Iligbee. Encampment at Camp Jordan, 
Rush Park. 

Together with the Y. M. C. A. they leased King's Hall for an armory and 
association purposes — drills were held in ordef to get company into shape for 
encampment in August. Range was parallel with the west side of kite track. 

Baths were put in, parlors fitted up in the front rooms and the auditorium 
utilized for gymnasium and drilling purposes. 

Corporal A. L. McFarland, of Company H, Twenty-second Regulars, U. 
S. A., was detailed in Independence to drill Company E. He stayed here a 
month and evidence of his excellent work was manifested at the state encamp- 
ment which took place in August at which Company E made a splendid show- 
ing, and as a slight evidence of the appreciation of his efi'orts and the high re- 
gard in which Company E held him. Captain Allen, on behalf of the company, 
presented him a purse. 

The fine showing which the company made at the encampment in August 
was ample reward for the conscientious and untiring efi'orts made by Corporal 



214 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

McFarland aud Captain AUeu iu their behalf and the company's quick re- 
spouse and interest in the work but demonstrated the splendid material of 
which this company was composed and that their future excellent record in 
the Spanish-American war service was but a reflection of what had been their 
start, was fully demonstrated. Company E attended the state encampments, 
held numerous fairs, carnivals, field meets, gave various entertainments, ex- 
hibition drills and participated in all public affairs. 

The company always ranked high and once the highest in the regiment as 
we mention specially and boasted some particularly fine shots. 

COMPANY L 

The Iowa National inspection in the spring of 1902 placed Company B. 
of Independence in the foot ranks where it was sure to be mustered out un- 
less something iu the way of reorganization was done immediately. This was 
the company that had seen service in the Spanish-American war and which 
had gained an enviable reputation botli in the regimeut, and having had as 
they thought plenty of experience in army life and drill, many had with- 
drawn. 

The membership had been made up to some extent of boys who lived in the 
country and on account of this the weekly drills were not attended as they 
should be. The inspector general further instructed the company that they 
must provide a more adequate armory. This the company had made several 
unsuccessful attempts to do but since it had come to the point of getting an 
armory, and being mustered out, they rented the Leach factory building and 
arranged a fine club room in connection. Recruiting for the organized com- 
pany commenced immediately and their efforts were successful. 

Company L, of the Forty-ninth Regiment, I. X. G., was mustered into, the 
service by Major Allen, in August, 1902, with tlu- following officers: Cap- 
tain, R. A. Campbell; first lieutenant, W. A. Fiester; second lieutenant, Edward 
M. Sheehan. R. M. Campbell resigned in 1905, and Roy A. Cook was elected 
to the office, and served for five years when he resigned and First Lieut. Floyd 
Jones was elected captain. He served but a few months when he resigned 
.and Mr. Cook was again installed as its captain. 

The eouipany attended all the state encampments and were one of the 
prize companies in drill and at the state shoots in the regiment but later in- 
terest began to wane and the armory used by the company not proving satis- 
factory to the army officials and another not being obtainable, the company 
was disbanded in the spring of 1912. 

Company L, durmg the first few years of its existence, was one of the most 
popular organizations in the city. They were extremely active in the social 
way and participated in all public celebrations. Their Monday night dances 
at the armory were social events of the town and their public receptions and 
exhibitions were attended by enthusiastic, admiring crowds. 

All this by way of peaceful pursuits. The only real touch of soldier life that 
this company ever experienced was on June 17, 1903, when Capt. R. A. Camp- 
bell received orders from Adjutant-General Byers to assemble Company L at 
once to be ready to report at Dubuque at any time. It had been known that 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 215 

a strike on a street car line had been going on for several weeks and on Tues- 
day evening a mob of union men visited the office of the Union Electric Com- 
pany and did considerable damage. Company L of that city had been imme- 
diately called out and orders were sent to other companies besides Com- 
pany L. On Thursday Captain Campbell received orders to dismiss Company 
L as there had been no further trouble reported from Dubuque but on Satur- 
day orders came to assemble the company, take the first train to Dubuque. 
Major Allen accompanied the boys on the afternoon train as he had been 
placed in charge of the four companies ordered to keep peace in tl^e Key. 
City. On the following Tuesday evening, the street car strike came to an end 
and Company L returned to their homes in this city on Wednesday afternoon, 
after a four days' service on guard dvity in Dubuque. They experienced no 
difficulty from the strikers. 

Company L was quartered in the ball room of the Julian Hotel and their 
principal duty while there was to protect the Iowa Street power house and 
the water works at Eagle Point. Company L performed the duties assigned 
in a soldierly and expeditious manner. 

The cannon in their possession which used to guard the entrance to the 
Armory Building was presented by Company L to A. G. Beatty, commander 
of E. C. Little Post, G. A. R., and was placed on the plot of ground in Oak- 
wood Cemetery where is to be erected a splendid soldiers' monument when 
Independence awakes from its lethargy in this respect. 

It seems a pity and almost a disgrace that this city has not as yet fittingly 
paid tribute in some worthy and substantial manner to the honor and valor 
of our departed heroes of the Civil and the Spanish-American wars. The 
patriotic societies have agitated the question and appropriated money for 
this purpose but lack of public interest and positive antagonism have thwarted 
their plans. 

But their money placed on deposit is accruing interest and when the 
propitious time arrives will form a nucleus for a magnificent granite shaft to 
be raised. More the shame, because nearly every town in the county and in 
the entire country have honored their soldiers with some sort of a monument, 
a mute but inspiring testimony of their regard and devotion. 

CAMP WOLCOTT 

The Fifty-third Regiment 1. N. G. and Company E and H troops of the 
Second United States Cavalry of Fort Des Moines, together with machine gun, 
hospital corps, and the regimental band of Cedar Rapids, encamped on the 
Rev. T. E. Taylor farm. West of Independence, from July 20 to 30, 1909. The 
encampment was under the command of Col. H. A. Allen and Company L of 
Independence under the command of Capt. Roy A. Cook. Nearly a thousand 
men were in attendance. It was named Camp Wolcott in honor of Morse 
Wolcott, the first member of Company E to have had sacrificed his life in the 
Spanish-American war. The camp consisted of about seven hundred national 
guardsmen and 150 of the regulars. 

Governor's day, the Sham battle, field meet and dress parades attracted 
immense crowds of people to Camp Wolcott. The maneuvers of the Sham 
battle took place at the South Bridge, and was viewed by thousands of 
spectators. 






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ORIGINAL PETITION TO LEGISLATURE OF STATE TO APPOINT 

A COMMISSION TO LOCATE A SEAT OF JUSTICE 

IN BUCHANAN COUNTY 



CHAPTER Xll 
EARLY HISTORY OF INDEPENDENCE 

LOCATION INCORPORATION GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT 

THE LOCATION AND THE ADDITIONS 

On Decembei' 20, 1845, the citizens of the settlement where Independence 
now stands petitioned the Legislature to appoint a commission to locate and 
establish a seat of justice — a facsimile of the same appears on the opposite 
page. 

The Legislature on January 19, 1846, appointed John G. ^McDonald of Jack- 
son County, Theopholus Crawford of Dubuque County, and John W. Clarke of 
Delaware County, but for some reason they failed to act and on February 24, 
1847, Lyman Dillon of Dubuque, Thomas Denson of Jones and Sylvester Stevens 
of Jackson were appointed and on June 15, 1847, they met at the house of 
Joseph A. Reynolds and located the seat of justice on the east half of the 
southeast quarter of section 34 and the west half of the southwest quarter of 
section 35, township 89, range 9, and called it Independence. 

A facsimile of the original plat appears with this article and it will be 
noticed the name is spelled Independanee. 

In June, 1847, the three commissioners, appointed by the State Legislature, 
visited the county and, on the fifteenth day of June, located the county seat on 
sections 34, 89 and 9, and called it Independence. The location being made at a 
date so near to the Fourth of July had probably a great influence in selecting 
the name of Independence for the future city. On the twenty-seventh day of 
November, the county platted the southeast quarter of the southeast quarter of 
sections 34, 89 and 9. 

Stoughton & jMcClure's addition was platted and placed on file February 
27, 1854. The land on the west side of the river, which was originally platted 
by Stoughton & McClure, was called by them New Haven, which was, by the 
State Legislature, on the twenty-seventh day of January, 1857, changed to 
Stoughton & McClure 's second addition to Independence. Scarcliflf.'s addition, 
July 8, 1853; Melone's addition, May 3, 1854; A. & A. B. Clark & Company's 
addition, June 20, 1854; Fargo 's addition. May 7, 1859; Bull's addition, Sep- 
tember 15, 1857; Bartlet's second addition, March 5, 1858; Union addition, 
March 17, 1879; Close's addition, February 21, 1856; Harter's addition, Decem- 
ber 23, 1858 ; Fargo 's second addition, June 23, 1868 (this is a replat of Bartlet's 
second addition); Cumming's addition, January 12, 1857; Railroad addition, 
March 24, 1858; Railroad addition replatted, September 9, 1872; Mathias' sub- 

217 



218 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

division of block sixty, Union addition, August 30, 1860; Card's addition, 
November 20, 1873; Bartlet's addition, December 7, 1857; Scarcliff's second 
addition. June 15, 1870; Woodward's addition. April 12, 1869; Herrick's addi- 
tion, September 7, 1872 (this is a replat of Bartlet's second addition). 

THE FIKHT COUETHOUSE 

The first building used for a county courthouse was a suuill wooden struc- 
ture standing at the corner of Main and Chatham streets. This was in 1847. 
The small dingy front room was used as the county clerk's office and court 
room while the back end was occupied by Doctor Brewer, the first county clerk, 
and his large family. 

The first court was held in the log cabin of Rufus B. Clark, which stood just 
north of where the Gedney now stands, in the middle of the street which was 
formerly called Mort street. 

The second term of court was held in the storeroom of William Brazleton, 
then in the building whicli he erected for a sehoolhouse, just south of the 
Commercial Bank, and in various other places until the completion of the 
present courthouse in 1857. 

INCORPORATION 

The first suggestion of incorporation of the village of Independence was 
made by two early lundjer merchants in or about the year 1852. These men 
came from Dubu(pie to sell lumber and while in the city did a great deal to 
encourage the building of a mill on the Wapsipinicon. The incorporation 
when again revived in 1861 was opposed l)y a large minority. Those of the 
majority deemed it best to wait luitil nearly everyone was in favor of incor- 
poration. ISoth divisions realized thai this step to the i-ank of city meant 
a slight increase in taxes, but the majority deemed it advisable from the 
point of view that new opportunities woidd jjresent themselves after incor- 
poration. Nevertheless it was postponed until the year 1864. This time 
brought results. There was, practically speaking, no one opposed to it. 

There was a great deal of trouble in determining the amount of land to 
be included in the city limits. Thei-e was some talk of having Independence 
extend over an area of three square miles. This aroused considerable dis- 
cussion and was eventually defeated. There were also many suggestions and 
comments in favor of and opposing to a city hall which should be erected 
and opened on the day of the finst election. This plan was likewise defeated. 

The petitioners for the incorporation were ('. F. Leavitt, J. S. Woodward, 
and James Jamison and it was to these worthy gentlemen that final decision 
for the establishment of city limits was secured, as may be seen by a copy of the 
petition for incorporation which photograph appears in this volume. 

After the (piestion of city limits was settled, much of the land had to be 
redivided. Some very laughable circumstances were connected with this. 
One property owner had his barn and chicken coop in Independence and the 
rest of his property outside. Another owner was fortunate enough to have 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 219 

his front stoop, sitting room, and two bedrooms included within the city 
limits and the kitchen, dining room and another bedroom were outside the 
city limits. Thus he was relieved of paying city taxes by moving the front 
of his house to the rear of the kitchen and selling the land inside the city 
limits line. 

The boundaries of the city have been changed from time to time and each 
time becoming more and more irregular, thereby differing from the original 
intention of having the city a perfect square. 

The petition for incorporation was signed by 170 voters of the prominent 
men of the town. 

Independence was incorporated as a second class city, on August 6, 1864, 
by Wm. H. Barton, county .judge of Buchanaoi County, upon a petition signed 
by 178 of the residents of the territory composing the city. 

An election was called for the nineteenth day of December, 1864, for the pur- 
pose of electing a mayor, city mai'shal, city treasurer, city solicitor and eight 
trustees. 

At the election, 140 ballots were cast for mayor, of which D. S. Lee received 
139 and P. C. Wilcox, 1 ; for city solicitor, C. T. Leavitt received 127 votes, D. D. 
Holdridge, 1 vote and J. S. Woodward, 1 vote; E. Brewer was unanimously 
elected treasurer; H. S. Cole was unanimously elected city marshal, and for 
trustees, J. F. Lyon received 137 votes, Sam Sherwood 130 votes, S. S. Clark 
133 votes, AUiert Clarke 137 votes, R. Campbell 138 votes, 0. H. P. Roszell 121 
votes, R. R. Plane 137 votes, J. B. Thomas 123 votes, P. C. Wilcox 2 votes, 
William Scott 1 vote, James Jamison 1 vote, H. A. King 1 vote. 

The first meeting of the city council was held on December 28, 1864. 

The territory comprising the city was the west one-half of section 35, the 
south half of section 34, the northeast quarter of section 34, all in township 89, 
range 9 ; also the northeast quarter of section 4 the east half of the northwest 
quarter of section 4, the northeast quarter of the southwest quarter of section 4, 
the north half of the southwest quarter of section 3, and the north half of the 
southwest quarter of section 3, all in township 88, range 9. 

The city was divided into four wards, the First, Second and Third wards 
having the same dividing lines as at present, and all of the city west of Walnut 
Street (Third Avenue, northeast), and north of Main and Independence streets 
(First Street, east and west), constituted the Fourth Ward. 

At the first meeting of the council, fourteen motions were made, thirteen 
of which Councilman Roszell was the author, and the fourteenth, a motion to 
adjourn, was made by Councilman Thomas. 

At that same meeting Coimeilman Roszell was elected city engineer, and 
James M. Weart was elected city clerk. 

At an adjourned meeting, an ordinance was adopted, providing for wood 
markets, and creating the office of measurer of wood, to which office D. S. Deer- 
ing was elected, but he declined to act, and on February 13, 1865, Ira Alexander 
was elected to the position. 

On April 11, 1865, Perry ]\Iunson was elected the first street commissioner 
of Independence. 

On April 14, 1865, Dr. H. Bryant was elected the first health officer of the 
city, and on April 17th, he declined to act, and Dr. J. G. House was elected to 



220 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

the position. On tliat date the city council passed a resolution requesting the 
mayor to call a pul)lic meeting of the citizens, to take sueh action as might be 
deemed proper to carry out the proclamation of the governor requesting all 
citizens to meet on Thursday, the 27th of April, 1865, to appropriately testify to 
their sorrow on the death of President Lincoln. 

THE BEGINNINGS AT INDEPENDENCE 

In the year 1846, the site of the present county seat of Buchanan County was 
occupied by the i-abin of Rufus B. Clark, the well-known pioneer and hunter, who 
found amid the solitudes of this portion of the Valley of the Wapsipinicon, and 
in the deep pools of the river, abundant employment for his ritle and traps. 
He tilled ground enough to furnish his family with corn bread, relying upon the 
chase and trapping, for the chief means of subsistence, and wholly for their 
clothing. His annual or semi-annual visits to Dubuque or the lake cities, enabled 
liim to dispose of his furs and pelts, and furnished him with the means of an 
honest, if not a luxurious, living. 

Though he had chosen the banks of the Wapsipinicon as his dwelling place, 
or rather as the home of his family, probably from its proximity to eastern 
markets (for these considerations had their weight even with the western trap- 
pers), his hunting and fishing grounds were not confined to the Valley of 
the Wapsie, where his traps could be watched by the young hunters growing up 
under his training and dependent upon him for instructions in the profession 
to which they were born. Despite the Indians, then freely roaming over north- 
ern Iowa, he traversed the valleys of the Cedar, the Iowa and the Des Moines, 
as well as that of the stream on which his cabin was located. 

But this hardy pioneer, though fearing no evil from his red neighbors, or 
the wild beasts he daily encountered, found himself in peril from the greed of 
a certain class of men, appropriately called "land .sharks," who always appear 
on the confines of civilization, as soon as it becomes evident that the wave of 
immigration is setting in, ready to practice upon the simplicity of the hardy 
pioneer, and rob him of the fruits of his well-earned "pre-emption." To save 
his claim and home from the wiles of these operators, Clark sought the assis- 
tance of his firm friend and adviser, N. A. McClure, Esq.. then a merchant of 
^lilwaukee, and afterwards of Dubuque. With his assistance, he succeeded in 
entering four forty-acre lots, or a quarter section. 

Some assert that Rufus B. Clark, so far from being a mere hunter and trap- 
l)er, was the one who conceived the plan of locating a town at the point now 
occupied by the county seat of Buchanan County. In his long excursions through 
the northwest portion of low'a, though many eligible sites for future cities were 
met with, none struck him so favorably as the waterpower and surrounding 
high grounds, covered with groves of oak, on the banks of the Wapsipinicon. 
In 18.56, he was living at Quasqueton, but finding a few months later, that specu- 
lators were already attracted to this fair domain over which he had wandered, 
enjoying in anticipation the choice of locations in the entries of Government 
lands, he came from Quasqueton on the eighteenth of March, of that year, on 
the ice and commenced his house, which he had ready for occupancy early in 
April. Not having the means for further improvonents, or for entering the- 




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FIRST I'LAT OF THE CITY OF IXDEPEXDENCE 



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HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 221 

laud at Government price, he succeeded in interesting N. A. McClure (as already 
stated), in his enterprise, who recoininended X. P. Stoughton as another asso- 
ciate, and tlie latter named gentleman returned to Iowa with Clark. Being 
well pleased with the situation of the proposed purchase, he stopped in Dubuipie 
on his return, and made the entry o)' the quarter section, which included the 
waterpower, and extended some eighty rods east and west from the river, and the 
saiiu' distance north and south of Main Street. Clark's house, which was a double 
log structure, witli a hall between the two rooms (a favorite style in Tennessee, 
Kentucky, and southern Ohio, in the early part of the nineteenth century), 
stood in the middle of what is now Mott Street, at the intersection of Chatham 
Street. It was for .some time the principal house in the settlement, and, of course, 
tlu' headquarters and rendezvous of all new arrivals. 

.Mr. Stoughton, who had returned to Wisconsin, after entering the land as above 
related, was again on the ground after a lapse of a few weeks, bringing with him 
Samuel Sherwood and T. Dolton, who were prepared to proceed at once with 
the building of the dam and the mill. Doctor Love joy, the first physician of 
the place, was also one of the Stoughton party. Soon after the little com- 
munity was again nearly doubled, by the addition of A. H. Trask, Eli Phelps 
and Mr. Babbitt, who all hoarded with Clark. In the following June, Thomas 
W. Close came, who continued a resident until his death, in 1874. S. S. INIeClure, 
and some others, came during the summer, but returned before winter. 

The second building erected was a store, which stood somewhere on the north 
side of Main Street, and east of Chatham. It was occupied by S. P. Stough- 
ton, with a small stock, comprising the plainest, most common and necessary 
goods, bait sufficient for the wants of the population at that time, and doubtless 
a great convenience, as there was no other market nearer than Dubuque. The 
dam and sawmill were completed, probably during the autumn of the first year ; 
and the fir.st slabs were used in putting up the third building, but the second 
dwelling house, in Independence. This was built by Elijah Beardsley. The 
fourth house was built by Dr. Edward Brewer, and stood for many years, that 
is, considering the character of the building, which seems to have been remark- 
able principally for the multiplicity of purposes which it served at one and 
the same time — a private dwelling, a postoffice, a boardinghouse, and all the 
offices known to law and to courts, besides a real-estate and broker's office, and 
take it for granted, that in the number of its rooms it did not exceed the manor 
house (as it will be quite proper to style the residence of the founder of the 
city). 

It is believed that the persons already mentioned, with two or three young 
men, comprised all the permanent inhabitants previous to 1848. In the spring 
of that year, there were some additions, and the number of families increa.sed 
to eight, viz. : Dr. Edward Brewer, Rufus B. Clark, Asa Blood, Elijah Beards- 
ley. Thomas W. Clo.se, Almon Higley, William Hammond, and Doctor Lovejoy. 
Although there were many newcomers, and the place became of .some impor- 
tance as a trading point, little advance was made in the permanent population 
for several years. In consequence of the building of the dam, ague and other 
malarial fevers prevailed to such an extent that few had the courage to remain 
after the first season. 



222 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

In all new countries there is more or less sickness, and in this wild, unbroken 
prairie land, so rank with thick, grassy vegetation, ague and other malarial 
fevers flourished. In consequence of the building of the dam at Independence, 
which to an extent aggravated those diseases, few had the coui-age to remain 
after the first season. 

Before the fall of 1849, all the families had left, except those of Brewer, 
Close and Beardsley. and one family had been added — that of Mr. Horton. In 
the spring of the following year, Beardsley and Horton left, reducing the popu- 
lation of the embryo capital to two families, those of Doctor Brewer and Mr. 
Close. In 1848 a small log liuilding was erected a little east of the present loca- 
tion of the Peoples National Bank, in which Doctor Brewer taught the first 
school established in the county. At its opening there were twenty pupils in 
attendance, and the doctor was said to be no less successful in his attention to 
the mental needs of those committed to his care, than afterwards, in the eradi- 
cation of their physical ailments. Before the close of the first year, the school 
closed, and the temple of science became a blacksmith shop. 

Such a deterioration of status in the community, to which this historical 
edifice was subjected, can only be accounted for in some extreme necessity, 
and the numerous farms being located around both settlements seems to have 
been the incentive ; the prospective demand for equine footgear caused the enter- 
prising C'harles Robbins, the original village blacksmith, to establish therein his 
smithy emporium. But the question arises, could not a combination of these 
arts and sciences have been ef¥eeted, whereby school sessions and blacksmithing 
would not interfere with each other, and the recesses and noons could be devoted 
to file more lucrative, and, as it would appear, more necessary profession ; since 
Doctor Brewer had reconciled a boardinghouse and private dwelling in a building 
with but one room. 

Besides the prevalent diseases, the fact that a prosperous community had 
been growing up at Quasqueton, during the three or four years of the beginning 
of Independence, is largely responsible for the retarded growth of the latter 
place, and possibly the depletion of the little hamlet under the oaks, although 
we cannot find record of there being any great influx of immigrants from the 
upper rapids city to the lower, in those days. 

William Brazelton put up a small building during the summer of 1850, 
which was used for a school, taught by 0. H. P. Roszell, afterward county judge. 

The postoffice was established the second year of the settlement, in 1848, 
S. P. Stoughton being the first postmaster. Doctor Brewer succeeded him after 
a short time, and held the office for six years. The emoluments of the office were 
very inconsiderable, for the first two or three years not exceeding one dollar 
and twenty-five cents a quarter, and the amount of business accorded, as a mat- 
ter of course, with the revenue ; the mail being often carried in the vest pocket of 
the postmaster. In the autumn of 1847, the contract for carrying the mail between 
Dubuque and Independence was sub-let to Trask and Phelps, who for some time 
carried the mail matter on horseback, making weekly trips. Finding an increased 
demand for the services of a purchasing and carrying agent, they put on a 
democrat wagon, and speedily grew into favor and a remunerative business, by 
atteiuling to small commissions from all points along the route. They were even 
flattered by the deferential attentions of the Dubuque merchants, who did not 




EARLY IXDEPEiXDEXC'E HOTKL 




Photo by (Jilbtnt 



FIRST FACTORY IN INDEPENDENCE 



! 



PFELIC LIZ2:.M 



ASrOK. LE.VSX AND 



HISTORY OP BUCHANAN COUNTY 223 

disdain the increase of patronage which was connected with the trade of the 
Buchanan County mail carrier. 

In 1853, Independence contained but twelve inhabited dwellings, one or 
two stores, a sawmill, blacksmith shop, etc. At that date, Waterloo was scarcely 
a hamlet, and all the valleys of the Iowa rivers in the Northwest, were an almost 
unbroken wilderness. And yet, in six years from that time. Independence had 
grown, from the straggling collection of a dozen and a half primitive build- 
ings, to a thrifty, stirring town of 1,500 inhabitants, with mills and machine 
shops, churches, hotels, stores, a courthouse, and hundreds of beautiful private 
residences. Schools flourished and society was marked by that refinement which 
generally betokens the presence of wealth and the fixed habits of settled and homo- 
geneous communities. 

The growth of the town, since this second stage was reached, has been steady, 
but like that of most Iowa towns, at a greatly reduced rate of increase. The rail- 
road opened in 1859, though of the greatest importance to the prosperity of 
the county at large, and indispensable to the continued growth of the town, yet, 
as in its further completion and multiplying communications and connections 
in opening to the on-pressing tide of emigration, the great beyond, which to the 
average American mind has always been invested with irresistible charms, its 
rapid advance into new territory may be said to have checked eventually the 
wonderful growth which marked the first years of the assured prosperity of the 
new town. 

INDEPENDENCE IN THE FIFTIES 

Independence, for the first few years, confined its growth exclusively to 
the east side of the river, but in 1856 and 1857, the west side began to boom, and 
some eight buildings were erected on that side — New Haven, as it was then 
called, ilessrs. Ilarter & Dickey had just established a plant for manufacturing 
steam pressed brick and a turning lathe. The east side plant, ow^led by Clark & 
Stevens, had a capacity of 1,000 finished bricks of good quality per liour. The 
proprietors had a contract for 3,000,000 bricks for Independence alone, and 
this, with the output of the other plants, would probalily aggregate 4,000,000 
bricks used in Independence that year (1857). The l)rick industry in Inde- 
pendence in those days was a very promising one, with the constant building 
and prospective improvements. 

Messrs. MeClure and Counts had a large hotel, which they were remodelling in 
1857. 

Mr. Sauerbier had just completed a large stone store, which was one of the 
finest buildings in the town. It was to be occupied l)y T. B. Bullen as a general 
dry goods and grocery store. 

The second story was to be used as a public hall. This old stone store still 
stands on the north side of Main Street — the third house west of the mill. Years 
ago, it was remodelled into a dwelling house, by ilr. Sauerbier, and occupied 
by his family, and for many years has been the home of C. F. Herriek and family, 
ilrs. Herriek is the daugliter of Mr. Sauerbier. 

On the east side of the river, in 1857, a large liuilding was being erected on 
the south side of Main Street, near the bridge, conjointly by Messrs. S. S 
Allen, Thomas ('lose and H. Arrabrecht. 



224 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

In the July 22cl, 1857, Civilian, appeared this notice : A new and appropriate 
carriage lias just been purchased by Messrs. Trask and Westfall, for the use of 
the public in the conveyance of the dead to the burial ground. The want of such 
a carriage has long been felt by our citizens, and it is hoped that the town will 
purchase it, a.s it should not be owned by private individuals. Other items appear, 
which show the wonderful optimism and faith which the early settlers had in 
the future prosperity of their county and town. 

In May, 1858, a man liy the name of McKellar made Independence a visit, 
with a view to establishing a starch factoiy here. He was a starchmaker by 
trade, and said he had seen no place which he gonsidered so good as this for the 
business. ' " Such a factory would lie of great benelit, both to our town, and to the 
country around. It would give the farmer a market for his grain, and at a good 
price too, which he cannot now sell at all." 

In the fall of that year another project to start a paper mill was in progress. 
A man came here for the purpose of purchasing a waterpower. "We hope he 
may succeed in the negotiation, as there is nothing more needed in this part of 
Iowa than paper manufactories." A tannery had been erected that summer 
by Loomis & Campbell. The leather was tanned by a new process, which is said 
to answer the place of hendock and oak bark. 

INDEPENDENCE IN THE E.\RLY SIXTIES 

The streets in Independence in the early days were always in a dreadful 
condition. They were uneven and muddy, the sidewalks were a menace to 
life and limb. The first sidewalks in town were of oak, or elm boards, often 
twisted and full of splinters — when pine planks were introduced it was con- 
. sidered a great improvement. Not until 1864 was a grade established on Main 
Street; before that time the merchants had built according to their fancies and 
the inclines and declivities of the street. At the east end of the bridge, the 
street was some five or six feet lower than it is now and every time the river 
was very high that portion of the bridge and street were inundated. This was 
greatly improved after the grade was established — Main Street was ploughed 
up and leveled — excavating was done from Walnut Street east, and filling in 
from W^aluut Street west to the bridge and the bridge was raised up five feet 
at the east end. 

Away back in 1861 there was a movement on foot to macadamize one of the 
streets leading to the S. C. D. R. R. Depot; it was estimated that it would only 
cost $75 or ,$100 and it was proposed to procure this by subscription. But not 
until May, 1866, was Chatham Street opened clear through to the depot. Up 
to that time, the lots adjoining Main Street were private property and were 
covered with brush and undergrowth. For six years Mayor W. A. Jones had 
been trying to boost the project, and three years previous had bought one of 
those lots with that object in view and finally, after expending a great deal of 
energy and zeal, he accomplished his purpose. 

In 1864, Independence was a booming, thriftv village. Many families had 
been compelled to leave town because it was impossible to rent any kind of a 
place to live in. Houses were so scarce that families were living in any avail- 
able (juarters. The papers were agitating the building of more houses. 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 225 

Aside from Cedar Falls, which, being at the terminus of the railroad, had 
a mucli larger territory to draw from, Independence shipped more grain, live 
stock, wool and sundries in the year 1864, than any other town on the railroad 
between Dubucjue and Cedar Falls, the total amount being 1,463,471 pounds. 
We exceeded Manchester, the next highest, by 442 pounds. The Independence 
people in those days indulged in numerous excursions to the towns close by 
and to the soldiers' camps at Dubii("[ue. In 1864, 2,972 railroad tickets were 
sold to other stations than Dubuque, which was seventy-nine more than Water- 
loo sold that year, liut they beat us on tickets sold to Dubuque, Independence 
having sold 1,896 and Waterloo, 2,126. 

On a cold winter's day in January, 1866, the editor of the Guardian 
counted 46 carriages and 327 persons from the Montour House (corner of Main 
and Walnut streets) to the bridge and this on a Saturday afternoon when the 
majority of the population was watching a horse race which was taking place 
at the river. There was a great rivalry between the towns of Cedar Falls, 
Waterloo and Independence about their respective populations, and although 
both Cedar Falls and Waterloo boasted a larger population, the vote always 
indicated otherwise. In the fall elections of 1S64 the vote in Independence was 
468 votes, exceeding that of Cedar Falls by 35 votes and Waterloo by 26. 
The Waterloo Courier took exception to the Buchanan County papers' com- 
parison of votes and drew attention to the fact that at our municipal election 
in December, 1864, only 139 votes were cast, which, at the rate of 1 to 6 
would indicate a population of 800. But in explanation there was but one 
ticket in the field and a very light vote was cast, the mayor receiving but 139 
votes. 

Undoubtedly at this time Independence was a better town than Waterloo. 
Several women doctors were practitioners here in the early days. An innova- 
tion in the way of a regular sprinkling apparatus, in other words a wagon, was 
introduced into Independence in June, 1864, both to lay and allay the dust. 

A vinegar manufactory was located in Independence in 1865. Mr. Christian 
Heege had .just built a fine new brick ice house the same year. Many of the 
residents used to put up their own ice in those days. 

The first bakery was started in Independence in February, 1866, by Board- 
man & Unger. 

The first tobacco store was established the same year by Mr. A. Kraft. 

A Miss Pomeray and sister had a photograph gaUery in Independence for 
several years from 1865 on. 

The First National Bank was started in March, 1865. 

In 1864, ninety marriage licenses were issued by Judge Barton (the only 
legal source from which licenses were obtainable) ; in 1863 there were but 
sixty-four, showing an increase of twenty-six. In spite of the war and the 
absence of many young eligibles, Cupid was still energetically using his bow. 
Mayhap the war had a tendency to increase, or at least precipitate marriages. 
The young ladies easily succumbing to the attractions of brass buttons and 
becoming tired of waiting till the war was over, seized the first furlough for a 
honeymoon. The population of the county was 8,000 and the marriages aver- 
aged one couple out of every eighty-nine persons. 



226 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

From Mareli, 1865, to March, 1866, over half a niillion doUars of real prop- 
erty changed hands in Buchanan County, nearly fifty thousand acres sold and 
about five hundred town lots. A total of 1,000 sales in one year in the county. 

Fairbank Township led in farm sales and Independence in towii sales, which 
sales amounted to $83,000. 

In 1869 over one hundred buildings were erected at a cost of $144,690, the 
Mill Company expending $30,000 of this sum in improvements. 



; CHAPTER XIII 

HISTORY OF TOWNSHIPS 
BUFFALO TOWNSHIP 

In the year 1852 a to^wnship was formed composed of the whole of the 
present Buffalo, Madison, the north half of Bi-you and Fremont. Subse- 
quently each was set aside as a separate division of the county. The order 
establishing Buffalo Township was issued by 0. H. P. Roszell, county judge, 
on August 6, 1852. 

The first election was held in the spring of 1857 at the house of Abiathar 
Richardson and the following were elected towTiship officers. A. Richardson, 
A. J. Eddy and Mr. (_!ould, trustees; Silas K. Messenger, justice; Samuel M. 
Eddy and R. W. Bancroft, constables ; A. Richardson, clerk. 

EARLY SETTLEMENTS 

Abiathar Richardson was the first settler in the township, coming in the 
fall of 1849. He built for himself a log house on the west side of Buffalo 
Grove. He lived here alone for a year, then persuaded Silas K. Messenger 
to buy his cabin. Richardson soon after married and built the first frame 
house in the township. He died in 1872. 

Andrew J. Eddy became a resident here in June, 1851, and immediately 
built his home near Richardson's. Eddy's home became popular with the 
travelers who passed this way and desired lodging for the night. 

William JeweU settled here in 1850 and only a short time before Eddy. 
Rockwell Jewell became a settler in the township about 1852, but he only 
remained here four years. 

Samuel M. Eddy came to Buffalo Township in 1851 with his brother, 
A. J., and lived with him until 1857, when he entered some land, built a cabin, 
and took care of his mother. 

MISCELLANEOUS 

There was at one time a village in the southeast part of the township 
by the name of Buchanan, but popularly known as Mudville. It was platted 
and laid out by Abiathar Richardson in about 1857. There was a thriving 
business in this town before the construction of the railroad a few miles 
north. When this occurred, however, the town sunk to an ignominious death. 

The first store to be kept in the township was by Joseph Abbott. The 

227 



228 HISTORY OP BUCHANAN COUNTY 

first blacksmith was Caleb Fairchild. Cook Richardson constructed a saw 
mill in the south i^art of Mudville and ran the factory for several yeai-s. 
The first postmaster was the founder Abiathar Richardson. 

The first white child born here was Emeliae Jenks in September, 1852. 
Ezra Richardson was born in the fall of the next year. 

The first death in the settlement was that of Rufus Connelly. 

In the summer of 1853 a school was taught in the house of Silas K. Mes- 
senger by Emily Gaylord. This was a subscription school. The first house 
was built of logs and James Bennett was the first teacher to have a class 
therein. 

A cemetery was established here in 1868 'in the eastern part of the 
township. 

The first marriage in the township was that of Abiathar Richardson and 
Almira Noyes in 1852. 

The first frame house in the township was built in 1851 by this same Rich- 
ardson and was located in the Village of Mudville. The first frame bam was 
constructed iu 1855 by A. J. Eddy. Eddy also drew the first load of pork 
from the township, hauling them to Dubuque. 

C. H. Jakway raised the first flock of sheep in 1857. 

RELIGIOUS SOCIETIES 

The first religious meetings held in the township were at the home of A. J. 
Eddy in 1852 by a traveling pastor named Zeigler. 

The Methodist Episcopal Society was first organized in September, 1856, 
in a private residence. Schoolhouse and these homes were the places of 
meetings for a number of years after the organization. Among the early 
members of the society were: 0. Preble and wife; L. H. Smith and wife; 
J. G. Ward and wife; and others. Services were afterward held in the Free 
Will Baptist Clim-ch. The church in Aurora was constructed in 1892 and 
the one in Stanley in 1894. The former church has a membership of about 
seventy-five and the latter sixty-five. 

There is also a Union Church at Stanley. 

The Free Will Baptist Church was organized iu the township about 1857. 
The society was formed by P. M. Halleck and wife and H. M. Bailey and 
wife, they having withdrawn from the church at Madison. R. Norton was 
the fii-st pastor and his congregation consisted of eight members. The Aurora 
Church is the descendant of this society, but has never had a regular pastor. 
They are either supplied from Lamont or Winthrop. 

There was an United Brethren Church organized in the township about 
1875, but this society has become extinct and the records lost. 

CITY OF AUKOBA 

The building of the Chicago Great Western Railroad through Buffalo 
Township was also responsible for the growth of the City of Aurora. The 
town was surveyed and platted in the year 1886, the same year the railroad 
came in, and the plat was filed for record on November 1st of that year. The 




MAIN STREET OF AURORA 



Asr<:? ;,L";;;;:: ANn 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 229 

town rapidly grew when the opportunity came for shipping and receiving 
tradesgoods and the 400 people living there today are mostly well-to-do and 
thrifty. 

There are two good Iianks in the town. The first, The Aurora Savings 
Bank, was established in the year 1892. The present officers are : R. Rich- 
ardson, president; C. H. Jakewaj', vice president; W. I. Warren, cashier; and 
Pearl Durfey, assistant I'ashier. The capital stock is $10,000, the surplus is 
$4,000, and the deposits are $95,000. The Farmers and Merchants Bank was 
organized in 1898. George Spaugler is the president at this time; C. Watson, 
vice president and W. G. Elliott, cashier. The capital stock is $10,000 and the 
deposits amount to $65,000. A fuller account of these two banks may be 
found in Volume II of this work. 

The Aurora Observer is the only newspaper published in the town. It 
was established in 1894 as an independent paper by J. A. Kinney, who after- 
ward turned it over to his brother, R. D. The latter sold to Mr. Knapp, who 
in turn disposed of the paper to Mr. Tennis. Tennis is now ruiniing the same 
in weeklj' issues. It is a very substantial paper, with excellent make-up, 
and good circulation. 

Fraternal societies in Aurora are represented by the Masons, the Odd 
Fellows, and the Modern Woodmen. There are also several ladies' sewing 
clubs active. 

In the spring of 1899 the following men. Lake Harmon, P. L. Chapman, 
M. J. Brown, J. A. Kinney, M. D. Mallison, and M. T. ililler, petitioned for 
an election for incorporation. Tliis was granted and the town was incor- 
porated May 25, 1899. 

The modern schoolhouse in Aurora was built in 1909 and is one of the 
best in any of the smaller towns of the county. 



TOWN OP STANLEY 

The year 1886 ushered in the little City of Stanley, located in section 12 
of Buffalo To^\^lship. It was platted and owned by S. C. Irvine. The Chi- 
cago Great Western, of course, started the town. The postofficc was estab- 
lished in that year. 

The Stanley Exchange Bank was established in 1897, by Adam Kiefer, of 
Hazleton, with C. E. Hayes as cashier. R. R. Sherman is president of the 
bank at this time, and H. L. Ii-vine is cashier. The capital stock is $15,000 
and the deposits amount to $125,000. 

In 1905 there was a newspaper started in Stanley called the Stanley 
Gazette and was published by the Stanley Printing Company. The paper 
was of poor make-up and poor editorial quality so it lived but a year or so. 

The Town of Stanley was officially platted on August 17, 1886. On March 
5, 1914, an election was held for incorporation and the result was favorable. 
D. B. Mahoney was elected mayor; R. D. Piatt, clerk; George Hill, treasurer; 
Frank IngameU, H. W. Bird. R. R. Sherman, H. E. Garlock and R. S. Zabriskie, 
couucilmen. 

Stanley has a good school building, erected in 1902. 



230 HISTORY OP BUCHANAN COUNTY 

BYRON TOWNSHIP 

ORGANIZATION 

The Township of Byron was organized on March 20, 1S56. The court order, 
reading as folknvs, gives an idea of the details of the organization: "Comes into 
court James Lines and forty-six others praying that the court set of township 
89, range 8 north, excepting sections 13, 2-1: and 36 ; and the same is hereby 
formed into a separate precinct to be called Byron, and the court orders that an 
election be holden in said township on the tirst- Monday in April next, at the 
house of William Lines, on section 15 in said township, for the election of three 
trustees, two justices, two constables, and one road supervisor, and one school- 
house commissioner, for the county at large — 0. H. P. Roszell, County Judge." 

THE ELECTION 

This election was held on the above specified date as ordered by the court. 
T. Stoneman and C. W. McKinney were appointed judges of the election and 
William Lines, clerk. The following persons were elected at this time : E. B. 
King, John Tullock and William Potter, trustees; L. S. Brooks and Sylvester 
Pierce, justices of the peace; James Becker and Martin Hearne, constables; S. 
L. Gaylord, county supervisor: William Lines, clerk, and John C. Ozius, assessor. 
There were thirty -seven votes cast at this election. 

EARLY SETTLEMENT 

The first permanent settler in Byron Township was Henry Baker. He came 
in the year 1844 and built the first cabin, in the southwest part of the township. 
He selected a site near to a natural spring and within easy distance of the timber. 
Baker lived on this spot for nearly two years, having as his nearest neighbor 
Hamilton McGonigle, who had settled south in Liberty Township, three or four 
miles distant. The only company Baker had during these two years of residence 
was his sister. However, near the time when he departed from the township he 
married Laura Hunter. His sister married Samuel Casky and lived for many 
years in Quasqueton. Nothing more was heard of Baker after he left the town- 
ship, but it is presumed that he went to .some of the western states. 

Robert Sutton settled in the township about the year 1846 and immediately 
purchased the claim made by Baker. With the latter 's departure, Sutton was 
left the one inhabitant of the township. He and his family hunted and drove to 
mill at Quasqueton without seeing more than a dozen people on the route. Sutton 
stayed here until the year 1865, when the march of civilization began to reach 
his quarters. He was a typical frontiersman, scorning the advantages of settled 
communities and desiring the free openness of the prairie, without hindrance, 
so he packed up his belongings, and took his family to Kansas, where he kept a 
tavern. Many stories are told of Sutton, stories which do not speak well of his 
character. In the first place, he is said to have been very cruel to his family. 
At one time he tied his son, Benjamin, to a tree, fixed an ear of corn in his 
mouth, and left him there for several hours, to endure the torture and the hot 




\ IKW OF .sTA.NLKV 






L L,-..,J_.. ^ 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 231 

sun as best he might. The names of his children were : Henry, James, Benja- 
min, Jessie, Clarissa, Daniel, Nancy and Perry. Sutton was a Pennsylvanian, 
but had stopped in Illinois prior to coming to Iowa. 

Another early settler of Byron Township was an S. L. Gaylord, a native of 
New York State. Mr. Gaylord did not live long after his location in the town- 
ship, passing away on October 20, 1856. His widow moved to Independence in 
1865 and there lived until the time of her death in 1878. 

Hamilton JIcGonigle was another settler of the early township. He first set- 
tled in the county in 1848, about one mile east of Independence. He squatted 
on this land, made improvements, but while he was doing this another party 
regularity entered the land from the Government and McGonigle was forced to 
move. They moved first to a place near Quasquetou, then the largest town in 
the county. In 1853 he came to Byron Township and here remained until his 
death on April 21, 1867. 

Col. Isaac G. Freeman, a native of New Jersey, came to Iowa on April 14, 
1853, and settled on Pine Creek. During his residence here he was an active 
worker for the good of the community and for a time filled the office of justice. 
Nathan King came to the county in the year 1852, and first settled in Washing- 
ton Township, but in 1853 he became a settler of Byron and on the farm now 
owned by A. Francis. He died here in October, 1866. Amos Knig came to the 
county in 1849, settling first in Independence, but in the early part of 1851 he 
moved to Byron Township, building his cabin on the banks of Pine Creek. He 
remained here but two years, subsequently moving to Ohio and then to Chicago. 
Ezra King settled here about the same time in 1851 and stayed until 1877, then 
removed to Liberty Township and died there in 1880. 



MISCELLANEOUS 

The first cemetery to be established in the township was in 1875 and was 
called the Whitney Cemetery. 

Perhaj^s the first school to be taught in the township was in Col. I. G. Free- 
man's house in 1854 by Miss R. C. Freeman. During the next year another 
school was taught in a log house belonging to D. C. Gaylord by Lucinda Pierce. 
In this year of 1855 a schoolhouse was constructed in the Freeman district. The 
next one was in the Daws district. Among the early teachers were Mary Free- 
man, S. G. Pierce. Philip Bartle. Lucinda Pierce and R. C. Freeman. 

The first death in the township was that of Frank Freeman, a son of Col. I. 
G. Freeman, on October 23, 1856. 

The first wedding was that of Robert Copeland and Louisa McGonigle in 
1856, the ceremony being performed l\v S. G. Pierce. 

The first postmaster in the township was L. J. Dunlap in 1858. 

The first white child born here was Thomas Sutt-on in 1852. 

The first religious meetings were held in the southwest part of the township 
in the Bethel district. 

The Illinois Central Railroad was constructed through the township in 1859. 
The usual experiences were endured liy the people when this road was put 
through, experiences both pleasant and unpleasant. 



232 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

TOWN OF WINTIIROP 

The only town in Byron Town.shiii is Winthrop, located in the extreme south- 
east corner of the township. This town was first platted and laid out as a village 
in 1857 by A. P. Foster. The name of Wiiithrop was suggested by E. S. Norris, 
a friend of the man who platted the town, but the significance of the name is not 
known. The first purchase of land here was by Foster himself. He bought 240 
acres, a part of which is now included in the town. The postoffice was estab- 
lished here in 1856. 

The first two years of the existence of this toWn.were not productive of nuich 
growth. The town merely existed on paper. However, the construction of the 
Illinois Central Railroad through the site in 1859 started the growth of the town. 
A Mr. Button opened up the first store and the first hotel was kept by Henry 
Corrick. 

WINTIIROP FIRE 

On Tuesday morning, January 1. 1878. the Town of Wintlirop was visited 
by fire which destroyed about eight thousand dollars worth of property. The 
fire was discovered in the rear of a building occupied by Mrs. Phonecia as a dry 
goods store and dwelling. So fast was the progress of the fire that the occupants 
barely had time to escape. The fire spread to the ea.st and to the west, and when 
it was finally stopped, the only buildings left standing in the block were those on 
the extreme corners. However, the town was quickly rebuilt. 

From this time on Winthrop has been an important town in that section of 
the county. At the present time, there is a population of about six hundred and 
fifty people and the advent of new business and increasing importance as a trade 
center promise a substantial growth in the next few years. The people of the 
town held an election on April 19, 1886, and voted that the village be incorpo- 
rated as a town. The first mayor chosen was N. Barney and the first trustees 
were J. Palmetier, S. Braden, A. Downing, A. Uhl, W. B. Halleck and F. C. 
Norman. The mayors who have served since N. Barney have been W. C. Boyn- 
ton, C. D. Van Horn, A. C. Householder, J. Palmetier, A. Downing, O. J. Metcalf, 
N. Barney, F. C. Norman, George Spangler, M. L. Shine, A. W. Norman, E. G. 
Schacherer, and A. W. Norman. Tliis list is in the order of service. The present 
officers of the city are A. W. Norman, mayor; L. N. Norman, clerk; II. M. Lutz, 
treasurer. 

BANKS 

One of the best proofs of the prosperity of Winthrop is the excellent condi- 
tion of the town banks there. The Peoples State Bank is an institution organized 
on August 1, 1901, and opened for business five days later, with a capital stock 
of .$25,000. The first officers of this bank were : Thomas Thompson, president ; 
James McKay, vice president; and L. N. Norman, cashier. These officers are 
still active. The deposits at the present time amount to $150,000 and there is a 
surplus of $15,000. The bank bought the present building at the time of open- 
ing, but plans are under way now for the construction of a new edifice in the 
next year. 




MAIX STRKET, LOOKING EAST. WIXTHROP 



PUrilC LiDIiAllY 



L,.iI':J"r'^^ 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 233 

The Winthrop State Bank was first organized as a private bank in 1884 by 
L. S. Clark, George Spangler, W. B. Halleek, J. Palmentier, Walter Thompson 
and Samuel Bradeu. The capital stock at this date was $5,000. A small brick 
building was constructed at the same time, the building being 16 by 24 feet in 
size. J. Palmentier was chosen as the first president ; George Spangler, vice 
president, and L. S. Clark, cashier. In the month of March, 1892, the private 
bank was reorganized as a state bank, with same officers, excepting the position 
of cashier, which was taken by E. Brintnall. The present officers are : W. B. 
Halleek, president; A. J. Dunlap, vice president; and E. Brentnall, cashier. 
The capital stock is $25,000; deposits, $175,000; and surplus, $10,000. A new 
building was constructed in 1900 at a cost of $2,000, being a one-story brick. 

The present Winthrop News was first established as the Winthrop Review 
by Frank Vierth, now publisher of the Quasquetonian, about 1895. Succeeding 
Vierth came Dunlap, Bird, Scofield, Ainsvvorth, Heath and J. N. Gray, the latter 
at present in charge of the paper. Heath, in 1904, changed the name of the 
paper to the Winthrop News. The publication is issued weekly, has a good 
circulation, and is known as one of the most staple of the papers in the county 
outside of Independence. 

SOCIETIES 

Shiloh Lodge No. 247, Ancient Free and Accepted Masons, was organized in 
Winthrop on June 2, 1869, with sixteen charter members. In 1883 the lodge 
disbanded and until December, 1895, the town was without a Masonic lodge. 
On the above date Byron Lodge No. 546 was organized with twenty members. 
This lodge has prospered ever since and now has a strong member.ship of fifty-six. 
The lodge rents a hall, but has plans for the erection of a new jniilding which 
will be one of the features of the town. 

Winthrop Lodge No. 550, Independent Order of Odd Fellows, was organized 
in the year 1901. The lodge now has a membership of 125 men. There is also 
a lodge of the Modern Woodmen of America, and the M. B. A. in Winthrop at 
the present time. 

All of the lodges in the town have the women's auxiliary lodges in connection. 

DORIS 

In 1902 the Illinois Central Railroad decided to establish a station between 
Independence and Winthrop, in Byron Township. There is an elevator, a store, 
and a few homes here now. The name of the station was in honor of the 
daughter of Third Vice President M. Gillas, of Memphis, Tennessee. 

CHURCHES OF WINTHROP 

The Congregational Society was organized on May 22, 1865, with a member- 
ship of twenty-two. The place of organization was the old Brown schoolhouse, 
and services were held there for quite a long time. A regular house of worship 
was built in Winthrop in 1869, costing about three thousand dollars. Other 
authorities give the date of organization as March 11, 1865, and the first place 



234 HISTORY OE^ BUCHANAN COUNTY 

of meeting as the Brooks suhoolhouse, tive miles northwest of Winthrop. The 
charter members of the society were: G. S. Dawes, Adelia Dawes, Prosper 
Briutuall. Amy Briutuall, E. P. Briiitnall, Wealthy Briiituall, Sarah Hamilton, 
Aun L. Jletfert, Polly Pierce, James L. Cross, Mary A. Cross, I. H. Morgan, 
Clarissa :\lorgan, Robert Morris, Rebecca Morris, A. E. Stewart, Elizina Stewart, 
Pridgeon Hardy, Eliza Hardy, Frank Dawes and Cynthia Dawes. The first 
clerk was J. II. Alorgan, the tirst deacon was G. S. Dawes and the first treasurer 
was E. P. Brintnall. The first supply wa.s A. Manson and the first pastor was 
Rev. ^Villiam Spell. In PIPJ and 1!»U the old church was very extensively 
remodeled. This work was under the charge of the present pastor, Clyde S. 
Holland, and he was assisted materially by the members of the congregation. 
On November 2, 1913, the last service of tribute was held in the old church 
building and then it was vacated to make way for the new structure. There are 
at present 1811 members of this society in Winthrop and the church is very 
active in the religions work of the township and county. Castleville Church, 
Jii the same township, is also supplied by Reverend Holland. They have four- 
teen members and a small frame church building. 

A Catholic church was organized in Winthrop in 1876, with a first membership 
of eight families. Five hundred dollars was paid for a house in which to hold 
the meetings. Patrick flabby was the first visiting priest. The frame church 
building now used by the society was erected in 1888, and several years ago 
there was a (■omfortable parsonage built. After Father Clabby came Father 
.Mulligan, then Father Trum. The present pastor is Fr. John McCormick. Fifty 
families comj)ose the membership of the church. 

The :\[ethodist Episcopal Society in Winthrop had its beginning in the old 
Silver ('reek Church and is an outgrowth of this society primarily. The Silver 
Creek Church was established in 1852 as a part of the Manchester Circuit, 
composed of :Masonville, Silver Creek, Sand Creek and Portable. The church 
was originated in John McKay's house, and in 1854, Reverend Brown, a mis- 
sionary, prea.-hed to file people. About the fall of 1857 Silver Creek was made a 
preaching i>oint on the Quasqueton Circuit and Reverend Hood supplied. Then 
came Reverends Bailey, Shapper. Fosscet, Raines, Smith, Stoneman and Van 
Wick. Silver Creek was made a part of the Winthrop Church in 1866 and 
continueil for several years and then disbanded altogether. In 1886 the church 
at Winthrop was again started and continues at the present time. The present 
membership is about one hiuidred and Rev. C. G. Fort is the pastor. 

The Presbyterian Chui-ch was first organized in Quasqueton on March 26, 
1853, by Rev. J. H. Whitman. There were seven members of the original 
society. It was first organized as a free Presbyterian church and was with- 
drawn from the general eiiurch on a dispute over the question of .slavery. On 
April 26, 1867, it was taken back into the regidar church and made a part 
of the Dubuque Pres])ytery with twenty members. On October 4, 1875, a union 
was effected between the Quasqueton Clnireh ami the Byron Center Church and 
from these two a third church was formed, and was known as the Pine Creek 
Church. A house of worship was immediately constructed by this new church, 
located on Pine Creek, two miles west of AVinthrop. Thi.s church is still in 
existence and is one of the most prosperous of the countiy churches of the county. 
The membership at present is about one hundred people. 



HISTORY OP BUCHANAN COUNTY 235 

On April 7, 1853, a Chureh of God was organized in Liberty Township with 
five members. The meeting was held at the liome of Hamilton MeGonigle. For 
some time after this the services were lield in private homes and in sehoolhouses 
and the first preaclier to attend to the society was Rev. D. Gill. In 1855 the 
society built a house of worship in the southwestern part of Byron Township, 
which they designated as the Bethel Church. The present chureh has a mem- 
bership of 150 people and the church property is valued at about fifteen huudnKl 
dollars. There is no regular pastor at the present time, but the eliurch is 
supplied from several sources. 

The first Baptist meeting was held in the township by Rev. John Fullerton 
of Independence in the montli of June, year 1860. He preached tlie first time 
from the steps of the old Illinois Central Depot and later preached in a private 
residence. In 1867 a society was formed for tlie purpose of organizing a society. 
In tlie next year this liou.se was constructed and tledieated on December 28, 1868. 
The whole cost of the house at that time was about five thousand dollars. On 
January 26, 1869, tlie Quasqueton Baptists came and formed the Winthrop 
Baptist Churcli and Rev. John Fidlerton was their first preacher. Thi.s church 
has been out of existence for about fifteen years, due to tlie decrease in members 
and lack of support. 

CONO TOWNSHIP 

The name of Cono was that of a Winnebago Indian chief who, it is said, 
hunted along the W^apsipinicon River in the township in the very early days 
before the white men came. The earliest settlers knew him and said that lie 
was a "good Injun" if one ever lived. 

The Township of Cono was organized and set apart as a sepai-ate township 
on September 21, 1858. The order of the county judge to this effect follows: 
"Be it known, that on this 21.st day of September, 1858, it hereby is ordered 
that a new township be formed of tlie thirty-six sections of Congressional town- 
ship 87, range 8, in said county, and that it take the name Cono, all in accord- 
ance with the petition of Jonathan Simpson, W. McCaughty and others. Signed, 
Steplien J. W. Tabor, county judge." 

The first election was held in 1858. George Anson, J. B. Gleason and Samuel 
Hovey were elected trustees; Martin C. Glass and ]\I. Hampton, justices; W. 
McCaughty, assessor; and Edward Hovey, county supervisor. 

EARLY SETTLEMENT 

The first permanent .settlement in the township was made by John Cordell 
in 1843, on a small creek near the present site of Quasqueton. He came from 
Ohio and entered his land from the Government immediately on his arrival. 
He lived in this township only one year and then he moved to Liberty Township, 
where he resided until his death. In the fall of 1851 Cordell was one of the 
commissioners who surveyed the road from Quas(iueton to tlie county seat of 
Marshall County. This was a state road. He died at Quasqueton in the 
year 1858. 



236 HISTORY OP BUCHANAN COUNTY 

William Rounds come to this township about 1852 and built his shanty on 
Sand Ci'eek. He remained only a short time, however, having become very 
dissipated and deserted his family and went to Kansas where he died soon after. 
Mrs. Rounds went to Marion and the children were bound out. 

Leander Keys and T. B. Burgess settled here in 1845 and are credited as 
having built the first frame house in the township. Keys was a carpenter by 
trade and Burgess was a tailor, but it is said that they worked at their respective 
trades only "occasionally." Burgess married a girl from Wisconsin, then 
rented his farm and went to that state, where he lived a short time, eventually 
returning anil selling his interest in the farm,, then going to Cedar Rapids, 
where he started a livery stable. Keys went to California in 1850, and after 
two or three years in that state, came back and married Cora Anna Coftin, of 
Delaware County. Then he moved to Independence and engaged in the dry 
goods business and was elected sheriff of the county while living here. He soon 
moved back to California and stayed there until his death. 

George Anson, a native of England, came to this state in 1853 and worked 
at his trade as gunsmith in this township. The date of his departure is not 
known. 

Morris Todd became a resident of Buchanan County in 1851, and in the 
year 1863 he moved to Cono Township and settled on section 3. For over 
twelve years he served the county as assessor, and also was a member of the 
county board of supervisors. 

Jacob Kress settled here in 1856, coming from the State of Illinois. He was 
born in Baden Baden, Germany, in 1836. His marriage occurred in Cono in 
1857. He resided here for a number of years and had one of the best farms 
in the county before his death. 

Adam Gimpher came from Germany and .settled in the south part of Cono 
Township in 1857. Henry Burnham became a settler of the township in 1857 
and pursued his trade of blacksmith. He served the county once as supervisor 
and has been a director several times of tlie county schools. He possessed one 
of the good farms in the township, all of which land was built up by his labor 
and perseverance. 

W. G. Anson became a resident of Cono Township in 1853 and here fol- 
lowed his trade as cabinet maker. He was a native Englishman. He married 
a Qiuisqueton girl, Harriet Blair. He gave up his trade a few years after coming 
to this country and then became a farmer. 

MISCELLANEOUS 

Perhaps the first death to occur in tlie township was that of Allen Cordell, 
a son of John Cordell, in the summer of 1854. 

The epidemic of fever and ague which struck the community in 1844 and 
1845 seized upon nearly every person living here at that time. Dr. E. Brewer, 
living near Quasqueton, was the only available phy.sician, so he attended to 
all of the cases. 

L. Keys and T. K. Burgess raised the first wheat in the township in the 
summer of 1846. 



HISTORY OP BUCHANAN COUNTY 237 

The first white child born iu the township was Lucieu Stout. 

It is said that the first marriage was between William Burway and Jane 
A. Cooper on February 5, 1854. D. C. Hastings and Margaret A. Cooper were 
also married on August 3d of that year. 

A postoffice was established in the southeast part of the township about the 
year 1849 and H. H. Grimm was appointed postmaster. The office was abolished 
six years aftei". The postoffice at Rowley was established in the year 1873. 

An Evangelical religious society was organized in 1857 and Rodolph Deipher 
was the first pastor. There were fifteen members at this time. In 1869 they 
constructed a house of worship near the center of the township. The society 
has been disbanded for a score of years. 

FAIRBANK TOWNSHIP 

Fairbank Township was organized as a separate township on March 5, 1855. 
The county record follows : "It is ordered by the court that township 90 
north, of range 10 west, be detached from Perry Township, and that it here- 
after be and form a separate township to be called Alton and that an election 
be holden in said to\^^lship on the first Monday in April next, at the house 
of George Beatty, in said township, and that George Beatty, Miles Soper and 
Sampson George be the judges of said election. The court further orders 
that the west tier of sections on township 90, range 9, be detached from Perry 
Township and hereafter form a part of Superior Township." 

About a year after the above order was made the name of the township 
was changed to Fairbank and afterward the name Superior was changed to 
Hazleton. 

Although the election was ordered for April it was not held until August 
of that year and then in a log schoolhouse owned by Charles Cheesbrough. 
The following were elected at this time: J. M. Soper, Jacob Minton and 
William Beatty, trustees; W. S. Clark, clerk; Fred Patterson, assessor; W. S. 
Clark and Fred Patterson, justices; and Justus Durham and James Patehen, 
constables. 

EARLY SETTLEMENT 

William S. Clark made the first permanent settlement in the township 
in 1849, in the southern part, on the farm afterward owned by John C. 
Stephenson. Clark was the first magistrate of the township, also the first 
clerk, and is remembered as one of the earliest teachers. 

Alexander Stevenson settled here in September, 1850, coming from the 
State of Indiana. He was one of the founders of the Presbyterian Church 
here. 

Robert Wroten settled here in the fall of 1851. He also was a pioneer 
Presbyterian. 

Justus A. Durham settled in the township in 1852. He lived in the 
southern part of the township all of his life. 

F. J. Everett located in the north part of Fairbank Township in 1853. 
He and C. W. Bacon, who came with him built the first log cabin iu that part 



238 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

of the township. They shortly afterward built a saw mill on the Wapsie, 
where Fairbank is now located. In this business venture they were very 
successful. In 1S(J0 Everett opened a store in the community. He also filled 
the offices of justice and school director during his life here. 

Frederick Patterson came here in January, 1854, aud settled near the 
location of Everett. He assisted in Imilding the cabin owned by Everett and 
Bacon. Patterson soon erected a building which he used as a hotel, which 
tavern was probably the first one in the township. The same building, with 
additions, was later used by Jacob Myers for the same purpose. Patterson, 
with R. Conable and several other men, built a steam saw mill in 1855. In 
1859, however, he sold out his interests and moved to Michigan, thence to 
Missouri. 

Jordan Harrison became a settler, here in the autumn of 1853, coming 
from Illinois. He immediately entered the land he selected from the Gov- 
ernment and here spent his entire life. 

Jacob Minton came in 1852 and constructed his log house in the south 
part of the township. He abandoned his family in April, 1865, and went to 
Indiana, thence to Texas where he married a woman who had departed from 
this township the same time as he. His first wife continued the management 
of the place here successfully and raised her children to good standing in the 
community. 

Geoi'ge Beatty settled in the central part of the township in the fall of 
1853. He was a Protestant Methodist preax;hcr and constructed a small 
stone church at Fairbank Village. 

J. M. Soper came to the north part in 1852 and was one of the organizers 
of the township and was elected trustee at the first election. 

MISCELLANEOUS 

The first postoftice was established in this township in 1854 and C. W. 
Bacon was appointed postmaster. He kept the office in the small cabin which 
he and Everett had built when they first came. Fred Patterson was the first 
mail carrier, going once a week to Independence to get the mail. In 1866 
an office was established in the southern part of the township and named 
Kier. James M. Walker was appointed the first postmaster. This office was 
abolished on June 30, 1902. 

The first wheat raised in the township was in 1851 in the southern part, where 
the first settlement was made by Clark and Stevenson. 

A cemetery was established in the Village of P'airl)ank in 1856. It is 
now owned and controlled by a cemetery company. Another was later estab- 
lished near the old Kier postoffice. 

In the year 1855 a school was kept in the home of Charles Cheseborough 
by Enuua Connor. In the same year another was added in the north part 
of the township and taught by Miss Lou Addis. Another was added in the 
Sill district by Moody Clark. Among the other early teachers were Capt. 
H. H. Sill, N. Baldwin and J. Byron Wait. 

The first crop raised in the township was of corn by W. S. Clark in 1850. 
The first grist mill in the township was constructed by J. G. Hovey about 1854. 




i'Q* ^ i;,||ii 





SCENE IX FAIRHAXK 



T/II-; NTIV VO!;[v 

PUBlir LlliliAKY 



ASTOI!. LENOX ANO 

TiU'V.y Foi :s!iAiiii^s 

i ^ L 



HISTORY OF BUCPIANAN C0[:NTY 239 

The first death here was that of a child of Solomon Giiither in 1852. 

The first white child born in the township was Thomas Wroten. 

The first marriage was probably between Solomon Gintlier and JIis>s E. 
Phillips, the ceremony being performed by W. S. Clark in 1S50. 

In the year 1854 there was a saw mill constructed near the present Vil- 
lage of Fairbank by Bacon and Everett. It remained for two or three years.' 
A grist mill and flouring mill was put up here about 1855 by Naylor and 
Harrington and later became the property of Minkler and Nichols. John 
MeCuniff started a distillery here about 1856 on the east side of the ri-ver. 
He continued for. three or four years very successfully, then for some unknown 
reason closed up. This was the only distillery ever in the township and county. 

CITY OB" FAIEBANK 

In the year 1854 a village was laid out and platted in the north part of 
the township by F. J. Everett and C. W. Bacon and called Fairbank. After- 
wards an addition was made thereto by Frederick Patterson and at this time 
there have been three or four more additions to the original plat. The first 
store to be opened in this new town was by John McCuniff in 1855, the lumber 
of which it was built being sawed from oak logs at Everett and Bacon's mill. 

The City of Fairbank has had a rapid growth in the last few decades and 
is now one of the most enterprising and prosperous cities in the county. The 
advent of the Chicago and Great Western Railroad gave a decided impetus to 
the growth of the town, giving them a splendid trading and shipping facility. 

The fact of the town's excellent condition is attested in no stronger way 
than by the two banks which do business there. The Fairbank State Bank 
was established first in 1891 as the Citizens Bank, a private institution, and on 
May 24, 1807, was chartered as the above first named, with the following 
first officers : G. W. McNeely, president ; Charles Higbee, vice president ; and 
W. F. Treadwell, cashier. The present officers are: C. B. Everett, president; 
G. W. McNeely, vice president; W. L. ilurphy, cashier; A. II. Nieman, teller; 

F. W. Fox, bookkeeper. 

The Farmers State Savings Bank was incorporated on May 24, 1910, with 
the following officers: L. Shoenut, president; C. H. Kuenzel, vice president; 

G. F. Monroe, cashier. The present officers are : O. F. Leonard, president ; 
F. A. Klinger, vice president; V. W. Davis, cashier; H. L. Mealey, book- 
keeper. 

More detailed history of these banks may be found in the second volume 
of this work. 

Not only is the business and financial life of Fairbank well developed, but 
there is a social spirit which is commendalile. The lodges of Ancient Free 
and Accepted Masons, Knights of Pythias, Modern Woodmen of America, 
Mystic Toilers and Relief Corps are all well represented in Fairliank with 
full membership, the Ma.sons at this time being the strongest with about eighty 
members. This is Fairbank Lodge No. 148. Thei'e are also many clubs in the 
churches and several among the women of the town. 

The City of Fairbank was incorporated in October, 1891. The petition to 
the county court for right of holding an election was signed by the following: 



240 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

G. W. Bothwell, Allen Thompson, Theodore Dodge, S. J. King, and M. S. Hitch- 
cock. The election was ordered on May 12, 1891. 

RELIGIOUS SOCIETIES 

Tlie Baptist Society was organized in tlie township in the year 1859 with 
about eighteen members. Among these first members were: James Sanborn, 
J. A. Durham and wife, S. P. Cramer, Morrill Sanborn, E. Sanborn, Deacon 
Norris and wife, and Jason Nichols and wife. Sliortly after the organization of 
this society they constructed a frame house of worship. In the early '90s another 
church building was erected, wliich has been remodeled several times since. The 
present membership is about one hundred and seventy-five and the congregation 
is in charge of Rev. Arthur Woods. 

The Presbyterian Church was organized in the township in 1856 at what was 
called the Stone Church with six members, among whom were F. J. Everett, 
C. W. Bacon and James Sankey and wife. The first pastor and the one to whom 
a great deal of credit is due for the organization was J. D. Caldwell. The lack 
of members, however, has compelled the disbandment of this church. The last 
services were held some time in 1898. 

The Lutheran Society in Fairbank was organized November IS, 1868, with 
twent.y-seven members. The first preacher to attend this society was named 
Buckrer. Before the erection of their first house of wor.ship in 1865 they held 
services in the pulilic schuolhouse. This house of worship has been extensively 
remodeled and also a comfortable parsonage has been erected. The congregation 
at the present time numbers about forty people. 

The Roman Catholic Church of the Immaculate Conceptinn was oi'ganized 
here in about 1858 at the McCuniflP schoolhouse. Father Shields, the resident 
priest of Waverly at that time, was the first to attend the Fairbank society. He 
was succeeded by Father John Gosker, of Independence. In 1868 the large stone 
church was constructeil and the first priest to settle here was Eugene Sullivan, 
succeeded by G. Stack. Thomas IMurtagh came next in 1875. The present 
church has been remodeled several times and a splendid pastoral residence, all 
of which is valued at about ten thousand doUai's. 

The Methodist Episcopal Society was organized in 1865 with eight members 
at the place then known as the Stone Church. There had been preachers in the 
township before this date of organization, but the number of people of the faith 
did not .iustify the formation of the society. The first sermon in the township 
was in 1852 at the house of Alexander Steven.son by Rev. D. Gill, of Indei)end- 
ence. The chureh now possess a church structure and parsonage all valued at 
about the sum of three thousand dollars. 

There are a number of people of the Episcopal faith in Fairbank, but there 
has never l)een a definite organization of the society. IMeetings are held occa- 
sionally, however, in one of the other churches or in the school. 

FREMONT TOWNSHIP 

Fremont Township was set aside as a separate township in March, 1856. The 
order reads : ' ' Ordered by the court that township 89, range 7, excepting 




liniiiaculate Couception Sihool 

Catholic f'hurcli 

Soldiers ' Moiiuiiient 



High School 



Free Baptist Clmi.li 
Methoilist E|iisi-ii|ial ( luirdi 



VIKWS IX FAIKBAXK 



"TK ::r.v \'\':k f 
PUSLJC iliJLAKY 1 



/if: 


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T'.LIJ 


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HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 241 

sections 1. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, together with sections 13, 24, 25 and 
36, of town 89, range 8, and sections 1, 12 and 13, of town 88. range 8, and 
sections 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17 and 18 of town 88, 
range 7, be, and the same are hereby declared to be constituted as a separate 
precinct, to be called Prairie Precinct and it is ordered that an election be held 
in the said precinct on the first Monday in April next, at the schoolhonse, near 
the residence of Zenia R. Rich, in said township, for the purpose of electing one 
township clerk, two constables, two justices of the peace, three township trustees, 
one road supervisor, and one school-fund coriimissioner, for the county. Signed, 
O. II. P. Roszell, county judge." 

The town.ship was named in honor of John C. Fremont, the first republican 
candidate for President in the United States. 

There have been many changes in the township since the date of organiza- 
tion. It now consists of Congressional township 89, range 7. When the first 
petition was delivered to the court asking for an organization it was then re- 
quested that the township be given its present name, Fremont, but the court 
refused this and named it Prairie. At the time of the second election in the 
township, however, the present title was given. 

EARLY .SETTLEMENT 

The first settlers in the township were Z. R. and S. W. Rich, two brothers, 
who came here in July, 1853. They were in the county the preceding year, but 
did not locate and enter land, hence could not be called settlers in that year. 
These two men, Z. R., with his family, built for themselves a lonely log cabin 
near the stage road from Independence to Coffins Grove, Delhi and Dnbu([ue. 
Travelers on this road often stopped at the Rich cabin to spend the night or to 
rest their mounts. Their home may be called the first hotel in the to^^iiship. 
Their marketing was done in Dubuque, fifty-five miles distant. 

Alru Peck from New York settled in the township in April, 1855. He entered 
land from the Government. When he came there were in the township only the 
two Riches and James Fleming. Peck afterward became prominent in the affairs 
of the township and served as the first clerk. 

Andrew Payne settled here in October, 1855, coming from the State of New 
York. He was a brother-in-law of Alru Peek and came here with the latter. 

James Fleming .settled in Fremont Township in July, 1854, coming direct 
from Wisconsin. He was a native of Massachusetts. 



FIRST EVENTS 

Z. R. Rich built the first schoolhouse in the township in 1856. Laura Peck, 
afterward Mrs. Toogood of Independence, was the first teacher in this log school. 
She held the position for two years. The school was supported by the two Rich 
brothers, for at the time there were no settlers within four miles in this town- 
ship. In 1858 a school district was organized. The house constructed by Rich 
was rented for the first term and S. W. Rich was engaged to teach. No more 
schoolhouses were built until the closing years of the Civil war. The first one 



242 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

was in the Fleming district in the southwest part of the township. Among the 
first teachers of this latter school were Laura Peck, Ellen Payne and S. W. Rich. 

The first cemetery established in Fremont Township was in the southwest 
part, in 1855, on land donated for the purpose by James Fleming and Alru Peck. 
Quite a number of the early pioneers are buried at this place. 

The first death was that of Omer Fleming on Febraary 17, 1855. 

The marriage of S. W. Rich and Emily Gaylord was the first in the commu- 
nity, occurring in 1854. 

It is said that the first white child liorn here was Ella Rich. The birth 
happened December 29, 1858. 

The first crop was raised in the township by .Z. R. Rich during the year he 
came. It consisted of buckwheat and sod corn. The Rich brothers also raised 
the first wheat in the summer of 1854. 

Creameries were established in the township in tlie '70s by C. W. Schoville 
and W. L. Mallory. 

There never has been a town in this township, but the rich agricultural dis- 
tricts and the prosperity of the farmers residing within the township bounds 
make it one of the best in the county. 



HAZLETON TOWNSHIP 

The Township of Hazleton was organized by order of the county judge in 
April, 1853, under the name of Superior Township. The township was then 
composed of thirty-six sections. 

The first election was held on August 1, 1853. and the following is the result: 
James Ilimtington and Samuel Suffieool, justices of the peace; Nathan Peddy- 
cord, E. P. Spear and John Kint, trustees. 

The name of the townsliip was changed from Superior to Hazleton about 
the year 1862. 

SETTLEMENT 

Samuel Suffieool and D. V. Greeley made the first permanent settlement hei'e 
on February 21, 1847, and in tlie northwest part of the township. They had 
emigrated the previous year from Ohio, but stopped for a time in Linn County, 
Iowa. They came to the county the summer before and put up some hay in 
Buffalo Township. They also constructed a small shanty and spent the \vinter 
hunting and getting the place ready for spring. In tlie spring they built a 
log house with logs they had cut during the winter. Soon after this was com- 
pleted Calvin Tuttle came with his wife and moved into it and with him Greeley 
and Sufificool lived. That season they broke a tract of sixty acres and raised a 
little sod corn. 

William Bunee, with his wife and child, came in September, 1847, and built 
a log house near that of the two first settlers. 

John Kint and family settled here August 17, 1846. They located on sec- 
tion 2, which land Kint afterwards bought from the Government. With Kint 
came Gilman Greeley and wife and his two sons. W. H. and Stephen L. 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 243 

In June, 1848, Isaac Sufficool, the father of the first settler, came to the 
township and moved into the honse of Suffieool and Greeley. Orlando Sufficool 
the same year settled in the southwest part of the township upon land which 
he had entered in 1847. 

G. M. Miller came to this township in 1852 and settled npon land which 
he afterward purchased. 

A. Belt settled here in 1852. He resided in the township for several years, 
theji moved into Byron Township, this county. 

James Gii'ton came in 1851. Fayette Gillet, a New Yorker, settled in the 
west part of the township in 1854. W. C. Nelson, of Pennsylvania, settled at 
old Hazletou in 1853. He was the pioneer physician of the township. He also 
taught the tirst school established at the above village, which was then the only 
one in tlie township. E. W. Teuney settled here on September 28, 1853. Im- 
mediately upon his arrival he opened a store in old Hazleton, being the second 
man to do this in the township. L. D. Engle settled here with his family in 
1851. W. W. Gilbert, a native of Ohio, settled in the township in the spring 
of 1854. He was noted as a hunter. 

MISCELIjANEOUS 

The first wedding in Hazleton Township was in 1848, between W. H. 
Greeley and Mary Ellen Sufficool, at the bride's residence. D. C. Greeley 
performed the ceremony. 

The first white child born in the to^vuship was Wallace S. Sufficool on Janu- 
ary 29, 1849. 

The first wheat was raised bj' Samuel Sufficool in 1848. 

Allen Coy was the first postmaster. 

The first saAvmill was constructed about 1S54 by John Mooreliouse on Otter 
Creek. Before he had completed it he sold it to Isaac Sufficool, who finished 
it and operated it for a number of years. 

A tannery was started here in 1862 by E. W. Tenney, W. A. Nelson and 
S. Faulkner, which was the only one ever in existence here. 

WiUiam Bunce made the first entry of land here in June, 1847, and at the 
same time the following also made entries: D. C. Greeley, W. H. Greeley and 
Orlando Sufficool. 

After Coy the next postmaster was E. W. Tenney and at this time the office 
was moved 2i/o miles south from the first site. At the present time Jacob Kdefer 
is the postmaster, a position he has held for many years. 

The first cemetery here was established in the fall of 1849 in the northeast 
part of the township near the point of thi^ firet settlement. In this cemetery 
the earliest settlers were buried. A second burying ground was established in 
1855 in the center of the township. 

Like the rest of the county the schools of this township were at first 
largely supported by sub.seription. In the fall of 1852 a large log schoolhouse 
was built in the northeast part of the township by D. C. Greeley and John Kint. 
Elizabeth Amelia Sayles taught a class of twelve scholars here that winter. 
Some of the early teachers were Abraham Wykoof, Stephen L. Greeley and 
C. W. Lillie. 



244 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

THE CITY OF HAZLETON 

In the year 1852 a store and postoffiue were started near where Sufficnol and 
Greeley made their first settlement in 1841. The store was in charge of Allen 
Coy and he also acted as postmaster. Edward Hutehins soon bought this 
business. A small community of people lived in the vicinity of this store, but 
the phice never grew and has gradually sunk into nothing, little remaining now 
but the site. The place has been known as Coytown. 

In the year 1853 E. W. Teiiney opened a store 21/2 miles south of Coy's 
store. A postofSce was established there and. given the name of Hazleton. 
Teiiiicy served as postmaster. Three years later *C. Weistman also opened up 
a general store and this little community quickly became the center of trade 
for the township. The coming of the Burlington, Cedar Rapids & Northern 
Railroad, in 1873, however, spelled the doom of this village. The route of the 
road lay one mile west from the village. Accordingly the stores, shops and 
licarly all of the dwelling houses were moved to a position directly on the 
railroad. This site is now the present City of Hazleton. 

BIG pirf: at hazleton. 

On Friday morning. May 3, 1889. at 1:45. the inhabitants of the prosperous 
little town of Hazleton were rudely awakened from their deep slumber with 
the cry of fire and turned out to find the entire business portion of the place 
threatened with utter destruction. Having no regular organization, and but 
few facilities for fighting a fire, by the united efforts of the entire population 
the flames were soon gut undei- control with the loss of l)ut four buiklings, the 
opera house, ))arl)er shop, one store and dwelling house. A loss of $20,000 was 
caused in one hour. 

The origm of the fire is unknown, ])ut was .suppo.sed to be the work of an 
incendiarj'. The opera house, where the fire started, was a substantial frame 
building 40 by 80 feet and was erected some years previous by Mr. Pret King, 
at a cost of $3,500. The furniture and fixtures cost about eight hundred dol- 
lars more. This was a great loss to the people of Hazleton. Arrangements 
had been made for a May Pole dance on the evening of the fire. South of the 
opera house was a store operated l)y Oscar Tuttle and in this was located the 
postoffice. Everything pertaining to the postoftice was completely destroyed 
and Mr. Tuttle 's lo.ss nn stock of goods was estinmted between thirteen thou- 
sand and fourteen thousand dollars. 

Realizing the advantages of the steel road, the town soon began to pick up in 
commerce and trade and has now reached a high position iu the county. For 
a period of twenty years the town began to have more courage, and, having the 
advantage of a splendid agi'icultural district surrounding, believed that the 
business of the town demanded incorporation. So, in the summer of 1892, the 
town was incorporated and the first meeting of the council was held on August 
8, 1892. W. A. Nelson was the first mayor; W. G. Kiefer, recorder; A. W. 
Jarrett, D. N. King, E. A. Matteson, J. D. Lawi-ence and Henry Miguet, 
trustees. Following Nelson as the first mayor came in order: H. E. Searle, 
E. A. Matteson, P. E. Gardner, 0. A. Bates, James E. Friars, B. H. Latham, 




VIEW OF HAZLKTON 




OLD HAZLETON MILL 



T TiTir KCiv vf::.:K' 



:■ '■ ■ .,:■ iij;.::iJA'!'jij.';.'i 



HISTORY OP BUCHANAN COUNTY 245 

H. H. Hunt and Thomas Netcott, the latter at present in office. The other 
officers at present are: W. G. Kiefer, treasurer; George J. Wengert, clerk; 
W. y. Woodworth, T. E. .McCurdy, W. L. Miller, Henry Miguet and J. Cappel, 
L'ouucilmeu. 

Hazleton has two banks, the Iowa State Bank and the Hazleton State Bank, 
both of which are in excellent condition. The Iowa State Bank was officially 
organized on March 81, 1913, by R. B. Raines, R. G. Swan, J. B. Truax, W. E. 
Bain and M. A. Smith. Swan was the first and present head of the institution ; 
H. P. Suhr is the vice president; and J. N. Smith is the cashier. The capital 
stock is $25,000 and the amount of deposits at the present time is $80,000. The 
bank, upon its organization, bought the comer lot next to where they are now 
located and are going to move into this location very soon. 

The Hazleton State Bank was organized in the month of May, 1893. The 
incorporators were T. E. McCurdy, M. M. Miguet, 0. M. GiUett, Prank Miguet, 
A. W. Jarrett, 0. P. King and Theodore Messenger. T. E. McCurdy was the 
first president; N. M. Miguet, vice president, and Willis G. Kiefer, cashier. 
These officers have not been changed, with the exception of vice president, since 
the establishment of the bank. The capital stock is $25,000, the surplus $10,000, 
and the deposits amount to $225,000. The present bank building was bought 
at the time of organization. The bank magazine. The Pinancier of New York, 
in 1910, gave the Hazleton State Bank fourth on the roll of honor of Iowa. 
The three leading banks were old established institutions at the time the Hazle- 
ton Bank was organized. 

Another distinct feature of the Town of Hazleton is the fair which is held 
here every year. The fair is iii charge of the Hazleton District Pair Association 
and was first started in the year of 1894. This exhibit has steadily grown, 
until now it is conceded to be better in respects that the county fair held at 
Independence. G. M. MiUer and J. B. Shackleford were the men to first start 
this fair, using their own money to pay the expenses and also to give cash 
premiums. Shackleford retired after one year and then Miller operated it alone 
every year until three years ago. Tents are raised to house the exhibit each 
year, and besides this there are many amusements and entertainments for the 
people. Exhibits of live stock, vegetables, grain and all farm products are 
shown. The fair lasts one day and i^ generally held on the third Wednesday 
in September. 

KIEFER BANK FAILURES 

The Kiefer brothers moved to the City of Hazleton in 1877 and very soon after 
started a private bank in connection with their store. In the early '80s they 
moved the bank into a separate building and conducted a very extensive business 
until March, 1913, when they were forced into involuntary bankruptcy. The 
liabilities amounted to several hundred thousand dollars and what might be 
realized out of the assets has not been definitely determined. 

The Kiefer Savings Bank was organized on September 14, 1908, with $10,000 
capital. Adam Kiefer was president ; E. R. Prindle, vice president ; K. K. Kiefer, 
cashier; and William Smith, as.sLstant cashier. In March, 1913, a receiver was 
appointed and in May of the same year the court ordered an assessment against 



246 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

the stockholders. At the time of the failure Adam Kiefer was president; K. K. 
Kiefer, vice president; and William Smith, cashier. 

The failure of both of these banks is of recent occurrence and so much feeling 
exists that we deem it inadvisable to attempt any detailed account of it. 

The first newspaper to be established in Hazleton was the Hazleton Pioneer, 
begun in March, 1900, by Taylor and Armstrong. This continued about a year 
and then died. The next paper was Hazleton Advance, which was started by 
J. C. Seeley on March l-l, 1902. The life of this paper was about four years. 
The next and last sheet to be published was the Hazleton Free Press, started 
February 22, 1908, by E. S. Holmes. On Marclj 25, 1910, this paper was dis- 
continued. With the exception of the last named all of the papers were weekly. 
The last was semi- weekly. 

On March 13, 1884, Capt. H. W. Holman organized a Grand Army of the 
Republic Post at Hazleton, with twenty-seven members. Among these members 
were: W. A. Wilson, commander; B. H. Miller, T. E. McCurdy, R. G. Merrill, 
T. C. Nelson, J. A. Ward, Pret King, A. D. Allen, John Delan, C. H. Shreeve. 
These men were the early officers. The Post is still in existence, although 
greatly shrunk in numbers. 

The Hazleton Opera Hou.se was christened on June 1 and 2, 1881. The initial 
performance was that of "The Merchant of Venice," with Professor Gibney and 
Nellie Wilkins in the leads, a.ssisted by a competent cast of local talent. This 
place of entertainment is used frequently now for plays of good character and 
motion picture exhibitions. 

A new brick and stone school was started in Hazleton in the year 1914 and 
is rapidly nearing completion. The cost of the building will be close to fifteen 
thousand dollars, and when it is finished Hazleton will have one of the most 
up-to-date schools in the county. N. M. Miguet, president, and George Wengert, 
E. N. Fortner, L. Gerstenberger and Henry Suks, directors, were largely 
x'esponsible for this improvement. 

BRYANTBURG 

Bryant was the first name of the small town now known as Bryantburg. 
It was originally a flag station on the railroad between Hazleton and Inde- 
pendence on the Rock Island. In January, 1885, it became a regular station and 
was made a postofSce. Alvin Johnson was the first postmaster. 

The Bryantburg Savings Bank was organized on June 21. 1913, and 
chartered on October 11th of the same year. The capital stock is $10,000. Alfred 
Hanson is president; J. H. Menzel, vice president, and 0. B. Batcheler is the 
cashier. The bank was organized by Rich H. Smith, M. L. Batcheler, 0. B. 
Batcheler, C. V. Spezia, E. J. O'Connor, Isaac, Alf and I. L. Hanson, all of 
Oelwein except the Batchelers. 

RELIGIOUS SOCIETIES 

The Methodist Episcopal Society had their first organization about the 
year 1852. The home of A. Belt first served as a meeting house. Among the 
first members of this society were: A. Belt and wife; Nathan Peddycord and 





80LDIERS' MONUMK.XT, HAZLKTOX 



MKTIIODIST CHrKCH. HAZLKTON 




PRESBYTi:i;iA\ CIirRCH, HAZLKTOX 



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K 



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HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 247 

wife ; C. S. Belt, aud Mr. Russell and wife. Reverend Shippen preached the 
first sermon. At first the society held occasional services at the sehoolhouse 
and in private residences. In the year 1879 a building was erected and this 
structure has since been extensively remodeled. The society at the present 
time has a memberehip of about eighty people. 

The first Presbyterian Church was organized here in 1874 at the home 
of John Long by Rev. J. D. Caldwell. Their first services were held in the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. This church has a small but active membership 
at the present time. 

The Catholic Church of Hazleton was first organized in 1881 by Reverend 
Father Grady. At this time a small frame church was constructed. In the 
year 1905 the present handsome church was built, also the parsonage. Rev- 
erend O'Donnell followed Grady at this pastorate and then came Father 
McNamee, and then the present priest, N. M. Homan. There are forty- 
seven families in this church. Father Homan also attends the Lamont Cath- 
olic Church where there are sixty families. 

An organization of Free Will Baptists was formed here in Julj', 1879. 
They first held services in the sehoolhouse in district No. 9 in the southwest 
part of the township, until the building of the present church at Bryantburg 
in 1900. The church now has a membership of fifty people. 

The Methodists also have a church and a building in the northeast corner 
of the township named Prairie Center Church. There is a membership here 
of about fifty people also. 

HOMER TOWNSHIP 

Homer Township was organized on July 29, 1858. The record of the county 
court says: "Be it known that on the petition of James D. Phillips, Eli Nor- 
ton and others, the court aforesaid, this twenty-ninth day of July, 1858, con- 
stitutes and forms a new township in said county, as follows: The whole 
thirty-six sections of the Congressional township 87, range 9, in said county. 
And it is also ordered that the new township thus formed be called the name 
of Homer, in accordance with the wishes of the voters thereof. Signed, Stephen 
J. W. Tabor, county judge." 

Before this order, or from May 22, 1852, the township had been a part of 
Jefferson. The first settlements in the Township of Jefferson, that is the original 
towiiship, were along the creeks near where Brandon is now located. 

The first election in Homer Township was held at the house of Nathan Nor- 
ton in September, 1858. Twelve votes were cast, of which eight were republi- 
can. The first officers were: L. S. Allen, Joseph L. Norton and Eli Norton, 
trustees; Eli Norton and L. S. Norton, justices; L. S. Allen, county super- 
visor; James Norton and D. O. Sweet, constables; Joseph L. Norton, assessor; 
Dyer Shealy, township clerk ; John Sites and James Norton, road supervisors. 

EARLY SETTLEMENT 

Thomas Kendrick and family made the first settlement in Homer Township 
in the fall of 1853, locating on the banks of Bear Creek. For two years pre- 



248 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

vious tliej' had lived in Jefferson Township. Kendrick there coustrueted a rude 
cabin and entered upon life, a life soon to be broken by one of the saddest 
tragedies ever visited upon man. Of his thirteen ehildreu ten of them died 
in the year 1868, within eight weeks of eaeh other. Diphtheria and scarlet 
fever were the fatal diseases. Kendrick himself became insane over this blow 
and he died within a year after his ten children. Mrs. Kendrick afterward 
married Charles Kountz, of Independence. 

Price Kendrick, a brother of the first settler in the township, settled here 
in 1854. With him came- his two sisters, Mrs. Holland and Mrs. Robinson. 
His death occurred two years after his coming to the township. 

D. 0. Sweet settled here in 1855, coming from New York State. He was 
honored with the office of constable at the first election held in the township. 

Joseph L. Norton, a Pennsylvanian, settled in Homer Township in 1855, 
but subsecjuently moved to Kansas. He married Sarah Kessler, daughter of 
one of the first settlers in the county. 

Joseph McGary came from Vermont and bought a farm here in 1858 and the 
next year built the first stone house in the township, and which is still used as 
a residence on his land and there he, with his brother-in-law Murphy, kept house 
together. His family consisting of his mother and four sisters arrived within 
the next two years, one of whom was Murphy's wife. 

Lyman S. Allen, a native of Ticonderoga, New York, came with his family 
in 1834 and settled in Homer Towiiship. The frame house which he built 
there is still standing and occupied by his son Stephen M. Allen. 

Nathan Norton came to the township in 1855 from McHenry County, Illi- 
nois. The first election held in Homer Township was held at his home. 

John Bain settled in the township in July. 1858. on Bear Creek. He caiue 
from the Hoosier State. 

Eli Norton came to Iowa in 1854 and iii'st settled in Liberty Township, 
but came to Homer Township the next year. Here he bought a farm and lived 
upon it the rest of his life. 

SCHOOLS AND CHURCHES 

The hrst church society in the township was the Methodist Episcopal. A 
class was formed in 1858 by Rev. John Faweett and he served as their first 
preacher. Among the early members of this church were: Eli Norton and 
wife ; Nathan Norton, Sr., and wife ; and John D. Price and wife. They built 
a meeting house in 1868 about a half mile from the present site of Rowley, 
but tile building was lilown down in the summer of 1875. The railroad com- 
pany presented them with a lot in the Town of Rowley, provided that the church 
would erect a building upon it, which they did. This they did and the church 
still stands, although it has been remodeled a number of times since the 
building of it. The class at present numbers about a hundred members. 

The first Pi-esbyterian t'hurch to be organized in the township was in 1873, 
immediately after the building of the railroad. Rev. George Carroll was the 
first preacher and he lield services at first in the railroad depot, where with 
seven members he organized the society. In 1898 a church building was put 




COMPANY C, 9TH IOWA r^KdlMHXT IX 1901! 




G. A. ];. UECXHJX AT HAZLKTOX 






■•-y. •■■K I, SOX :c!Ti 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 249 

up at Rowley and there the society is now very strong and prosperous. The 
L'ongregation numbere about one hundred people. 

The Catholic Church was established in Rowley in the late '90s and is still 
in existence, although there is no regular pastor. A $3,000 building has been 
erected and the congi-egation is composed of altout thirty-five families. 

SCHOOLS 

The first school in the township was opened in 1856 by Mrs. Sarah C. 
Price in her own house in the eastern part of the township. Her class was com- 
posed of twelve scholai-s. The next winter a school was conducted by John 
Bain, Sr., in the west part of the township at the house of George ISoone. Thir- 
teen pupils attended this school. 

The first sehoolhouse was built near the present Town of Rowlt-y. The 
second one was constructed on land donated to the district by Joseph McGary 
and the third building was located in the Boone district. The schoolliouse 
known as the Delaware School erected on the ilcGary land is still used for 
a sehoolhouse and is the oldest one in the county. 

Since these early days the schools have attained a very superior quality. 
Efficient district schools have been erected and the schools of Rowley are excel- 
lent. The building in the latter town was erected in 1901 and is thorough and 
well eijuipped with the conveniences of the modern sehoolhouse. A connuis- 
sioned high school is maintained in Rowley, at present having about sixty 
pupils. 

Among the other early teachers of the township l)esides those mentioned 
were: Mary McGary, Betsy L. Patterson, Oscar L. Luckey and Lizzie Taylor; 
the latter afterwards married Doctor Griffin. 

MISCELLANEOUS • 

Before the advent of the railroad there was no postoffice in the township, the 
people getting their mail at neighboring offices. In 1873 a postoffice was estab- 
lished at Rowley and J. W. Cooper was appointed the first postmaster. 

The first wedding is said to have been that of Don F. Bissel and Anrelius 
Bishop in the fall of 1856. About the same time Reuben Crum was married to 
Wealthy Allen. 

The first death was that of George Boone in 1858. 

ROWLEY 

Rowley is the only town in the township and had its conception with the 
building of the Burlington, Cedar Rapids & Northern, now the Rock Island, 
railroad in the fall of 1873. The town was named in honor of D. AV. C. Rowley, 
who was secretaiy of the railroad company when the line reached the town. 

The first store opened here in this year and was operated liy J. W. Cooper. 
J. I. Prentiss in the grain, seed, cattle and hog bu.siness, C. E. Ilawley and a.sso- 
ciates in the dry goods and grocery trade, J. B. Edgell, William J. ^Miller. D. C. 
Tuttle, keeper of the Rowley House, George H. Norton, Slater and Wilson, 



250 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

Oessmer, Dr. 0. G. McCaiiley and others were among the first business men of 
the new town. One saloon was there in an early day, kept by an old German, 
but this pleasure has been ousted from the town many years hence. 

The Town of Rowley in the past twenty years has not become a city, having 
yet to be incorporated, but the l)usiness air and civic pride are well developed 
considering the size of the place. There are many business houses in operation 
and all doing uniformly well, assisted by the convenience of the Rock Island as 
a shipping point. The several lodges, including the jMasons, the Odd Fellows 
and the Modern Woodmen create a spirit of good fellowship among the people, 
also the three churches and the clubs formed among the women of the town. 
The town is surrounded by a rich agricultural district and this, in large measure, 
accounts for the success of the place from a business standpoint. 

The Rowley Bank was organized on July 1, 1902, by Mrs. Lizzie Rentz, George 
Reutz and C. Guuzenhauser. The first capital stock, as at present, was .$10,000. 
In December, 1905, George Rentz sold his stock in the bank to C. Guuzenhauser 
and on July 3, 1908, J\Irs. Lizzie Rentz sold to the same man. The capital stock 
and surplus now amount to about twenty thousand dollars. C. Gunzeuhauser 
is cashier and George Rentz is assistant cashier. The bank has no charter yet. 
The institution owns its own building, liought at the time of organization. 

THE ROWLEY FIRE 

On Tuesday evening. July 10, 1S9-1, the Village of Rowley was visited by 
fire. The fire broke out about 9 liiO in the evening and at 11 o'clock the whole 
business portion on both sides of the street was destroyed. The fire originated 
in the back room of Norton & Clayton's Hardware Store. The origin is a 
mystery, the blaze being the first intimation of the fire. 

The room where the fire started was used as an oil depot and the fire spread 
very quickly over the oil soaked floor and ignited a keg of gun powder which 
exploded. The total loss of the fire was about twenty-five thousand dollars. 

JEFFERSON TOWNSHIP 

It is recorded that the first actual settlers in Jefferson Township were J. B. 
Stainbrook and his family on June 13, 1850. He came from the State of Penn- 
sylvania, having been born there on September 29, 1823. Stainbrook 's first act 
after coming to this country was the entering of land from the Government and 
later he purchased the same land. The log house he constructed stood for many 
years as a monument to the early settlement of the county. His brother-in-law. 
Henry Albert, also came with him, but later settled in Benton County. 

In the fall of 1850 Peter Albert, the father-in-law of J. B. Stainbrook, came 
to the township accompanied by his wife and four children; Nicholas Albert and 
family; and Phillip Zinn with his wife and four children. These people com- 
posed the colony during the winter of 1850. Their supplies were obtained from 
Cedar Rapids, and the trip was generally made in three days, averaging ten 
miles per day. Once a week they sent a man thirty miles to Marion for their 
mail. Outside of these necessary excursions the only departure from the cabins 
was when the men started to hunt the wild game for food. 




Photo by Gilbert 



STREET SCENE IN ROWLEY 



PUBLIC i;;. 



ASTon. i,i:;;o:: .\ ■:'.! 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 251 

Another of the early settlers of this community is Jacob Fonts. He was born 
in the State of Ohio in 1808 and came to Iowa in 1852. He lived here until his 
death in 1874. 

William Rouse settled in Jefferson Township in February, 1851, on land 
which he afterward entered from the Government. He was a native of Ten- 
nessee. John Rouse, or Jack as he was called, father of William, came to section 
13 in 1851, where he settled a tract of twenty acres. He was noted as a great 
hunter and he spent most of his time while here in the pursuit of the pleasure. 
The game becoming more scarce he moved to Nebraska in 1862. The tirst elec- 
tion in the township was held in his house and he himself was elected one of the 
magistrates. Abel Cox, son-in-law of John Rouse, and a native of Indiana, came 
in the spring of 1851 and settled near Rouse, on the same section. 

John Frink settled in this community in 1852, coming from the State of 
Illinois. He first settled in a grove three miles north of Brandon, the place still 
bearing his name. An act of the general assembly of 1856 said that the name 
of Frink "s Grove be changed to Avon. He was one of the first magistrates in the 
township. His son, John, kept a tavern on the state road in the early days. This 
was the first and only whiskey house in the township. This grove later became 
known as Shady Grove and a postoffice was established there. The office was 
subsequently abolished. At present there is a store in the village and a few 
residences. 

ORG.VNIZATION 

The Township of Jefferson was set aside by order of the county judge on 
March 1, 1852. The record of the order is as follows: "It is ordered by the 
court that Jownship 87, range 9, and township 87, range 10, of the County of 
Buchanan, compose one precinct to be called Jefferson Precinct, and that an 
election be held in said precinct, on the first Monday in April next, at the house 
of John Rouse." A change was made in the township on July 29, 1858, when 
Congressional township 87, range 9, was severed therefrom and constituted one 
township under the name of Homer. 

The tirst election ^vas held at the home of John Rouse at the above date and 
eleven votes were cast. J. B. Stainbrook, Abel Cox and Joseph Rouse were 
elected as trustees; John Rouse and John Frink were selected as justices; Alonzo 
Prink, assessor; and John Rice, township clerk. 

The second election was held where Brandon now stands, on Lime Creek, 
with about the same number of votes. 



MISCELLANEOUS 

The first school in Jefferson Township was a private or subscription school. 
A petition was circulated around among the people of the township for the pur- 
pose of hiring a teacher and buying a stove. Enough money was raised in this 
manner to justify the opening of the class. Jacob Fonts gave them a log house, 
or the use of it, in the Village of Brandon. ^Ii"s. William Boyles wa.s selected 
to be the teacher of the new school. The first class was composed of twenty 
scholars. This was in the winter of 1854. 



252 HISTORY OP BUCHANAN COUNTY 

The first regular schoolhouse was eonstructed in liraiulon on Lime Creek by 
Ed Wel)ster. Snon after another was built in the Lizer district and also one in 
the Boone district. In the year 1880 a large modern school was constructed in 
Brandon and in the early years of the twentieth century an excellent brick edifice 
was put up for the accommodation of the grade schools and the high school. 
Among the early teachers in this vicinity were Wellington Town and R. P. 
Nelson. 

The early pliysicians were Drs. 15. F. JMucluuore, Stimpson and J. B. Darl- 
ing. The first hotel was kept by B. C. Wilson. The first blacksmith was Free 
Youndt. The first entry of land was made by. William McCay on section 28. 
The first Avedding of which there is any account'was that of Davis Pouts and 
Julia Albert on August 5, 1852. They resided here until 1877 when they 
moved to Woodbury County. 

The years 1855 and 1856 are years remembered by every old settler. In the 
former year occurred a very early frost, coming on August 31st, and the corn 
crop Wiis entirely destroyed. In the next year a teiTific hail storm, coming 
out of the north, passed through the township and again destroyed the corn 
crop. Scarcely a stalk was left standing. Roofs of the cabins were blown 
a\va\' and one or two houses were tuimed over. It is said that even the bark 
on the north side of the trees was blown off. The following winter was one of 
the most severe in the liistory of the county. The snow obtained at one time the 
depth of four feet on the level. Many of the settlei"s lived on boiled corn 
which they procured in Linn County at $1.25 per bushel. 

The first fruit was cultivated in that township by John S. Bouck. lie began 
the first fruit nursery and possessed a splendid orchard in the northwestern 
part of the township. Severe winters soon destroyed his trees and plants, 
however. 

A cemetery was established in the township in 1853 and was located on the 
farm o\vned by Mr. Beaehler, about a mile from Brandon. The first person 
buried liere was a little girl by the name of Bella, who was accidentally burned 
to death. This was also the first death in the towmship. The second to be 
interred in the cemetery was Noah Taylor, a youth of eighteen yeai-s, in 1854. 

In 1859 a second cemetery was established near Brandon and adjoined the 
plat on the west at that time. The third was located two miles east of Brandon, 
at Green Wood Chapel, under the management of the We-sleyan Methodists. 

THE CONSOLIDATED SCHOOLS OP BRANDON 

In the early spring of 11)11 an election was held in Jefferson Township, at 
Brandon, to consider whether or- not to consolidate the schools. After this 
election was over, the .judges of election discarded three ballots which were 
mutilated. The count then stootl one vote in favor of consolidation. The school 
continued as a con.solidated school the next year. In the meantime an injunc- 
tion was brought by those opposed to consolidation and in the fall of 1912 the 
(juestion was taken before the county court. The court decided that the three 
ballots which had been discarded should be coimted. As one of tliem was for 
and two of them against consolidation, it resulted unfavorably to the former 
result. The court gave the township one month to call another election. When 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 253 

this was held, it was couducted under the new law which liad passed the legis- 
lature, stating that elections in townships should be held in the town and 
township separately. School was dismissed for one month prior to this election. 

When the ballots were counted, the votes in Brandon were a majority of 
twenty-one for the consolidation and four in favor of the consolidation in the 
township, making twenty-five majority in all. 

This new method of education has done away with the numerous small 
district schools and brings the scholars of the towniship into closer and more 
general communication with each other. The old school building at Brandon 
was extensively remodeled in the year 1911. This is a new feature in 
Iowa, having gradually been coming West from the Eastern states. Three 
transportation hacks are used to carry the pupils from their homes to the 
school. There are now five teachers employed in the consolidated school, which 
school is under the supervision of the district directors as heretofore. 

TOWN OP BRANDON 

The present Town of Brandon is located in the southwestern portion of 
Jefferson Township. The village was platted and laid out by S. P. Brainard, 
Jacob Pouts and E. C. Wilson in the year 1854. 

The first store to be opened up and the first stock of goods to be put on 
sale was by S. P. Brainard. W. H. Pouts soon after became his partner in the 
business and subsequently bought the interest of Brainard and continued the 
business alone for several years. S. P. Brainard was also the first postmaster 
when the office w^as established in 1855 in the town and W. H. Pouts was the 
second. A. B. Edwards, James Romig, J. N. Bissell, Nellie Bissell and John 
Bain were other early postmasters. 

Prom a small inland town sixteen miles from the covmty seat and with no 
railroad, Brandon has made rapid strides and is one of the best towns of its 
size in Iowa. With the advent of the Cedar Valley Road, electric interurban, 
close connection with the Waterloo, Cedar Palls and within the last two months 
with Cedar Rapids, has been established. This was in 1906. There are over 
forty freight and passenger trains daily over this road and the freight ship- 
ments from Brandon exceed those of any other town on the road. As an in- 
stance, in the two months of September and October more grain and hogs were 
shipped from Brandon than any other town in Buchanan County. 

INCORPOKATION 

The Town of Brandon was incorporated in the year 1905. The first regular 
meeting of the city council w-as held on April 3d of that year. W. D. McLiesh 
was mayor; W. W. Bain, clerk; R. A. Buckmaster, treasurer; John Bain, M. J. 
Hyde, J. H. Douglas, J. E. Haines, C. C. Thompson and W. E. Jliller. coun- 
eilmen. 

In 1906 J. H. Douglas and E. Lizer were chosen as eouncilmen. On April 
2d James Bearhower was appointed marshal. W. D. McLiesh resigned his 
office as mayor on June 4, 1906, and on August 28th W. Jameson was appointed 
by the city council to fill the vacancy. On February 11, 1907, W. Jameson filed 



254 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

a bond as assessor. On April 1, 1907, Robert Shilliiiglar and W. E. Miller 
were elected councilmen. W. W. Bain was elected mayor this year. Charles 
W. MeClintick was appointed marshal, B. B. Brown was appointed street com- 
missioner and R. H. Hamer appointed clerk. On December 2, 1907, the office of 
treasurer was declared vacant by the council and V. W. Doris was elected to 
fill the vacancy. In 1908 M. Nelson was sworn in as a member of the council. 
On August 7th AV. A. Albert was appointed clerk to fill the vacancy made by 
the resignation of R. H. Hamer. At the 1909 election W. W. Bain was elected 
mayor; V. W. Doris, treasurer; E. W. Miller, assessor; C. C. Thompson and 
L. A. Bachler, councilmen. W. A. Albert was elected clerk later. J. L. Weart 
was appointed street commissioner to succeed MeClintick. J. W. Hines was 
made marshal. On December 6th Nelson and Shillinglar moved away and 
C. R. Bolton and J. S. Blair were appointed to fill the vacancy. The 1911 city 
election resulted as follows: J. S. Blair, mayor; Walter Jameson, assessor; 
V. W. Doris, treasurer; L. N. Trunk, street commissioner; James Hines, mar- 
shal; W. A. Albert, clerk; C. Bollen, J. L. Weart, W. H. Albert, W. E. Miller, 
W. II. Crumrine, councilmen. On February 20, 1912, W. Jameson resigned as 
assessor and Levi Zwinger was appointed to fill the vacancy. The subject of a 
jail was brought before the council on May 6, 1912, and they decided to con- 
struct a bastile 10 by 12 by 8 feet in size. On July 1st the council prohibited 
the firing of firecrackers in the town. The city election of March, 1913, dis- 
closed the following result : J. L. Weart, mayor ; W. A. Albert, clerk ; W. J. 
Romig, assessor ; Clair Short, treasurer ; James Hines, marshal ; W. H. Crumrine, 
street couimissioner ; J. E. Blair, A. E. Briggs, W. T. Eruster, W. H. Albert 
and M. W. Kanouse, councilmen. • 

On June 5, 1914, the town voted on the question of acquiring electricity for 
the townspeople. The election resulted 50 to 5 in favor of the new utility. 
Electricians are at present bu.sy erecting poles and wiring the homes of the 
town and by December 1, 1914, the cnirrent will be turned on. The current 
is bought by the city from the interurban company and is sold to the patrons 
at a 12 cent rate. The town is making arrangements to maintain thirty 
street lights. This is the first public utility for Brandon, but plans will be 
pushed through in the future for further conveniences for the residents. 



BANKS 



The Farmers Savings Bank was opened for business on May 12, 1913 ; the 
date of the charter is April 21, 1913. The president of this bank is J. D. 
Sweeney ; B. P. Nabholz is vice president, and E. E. Strait is cashier. The capital 
stock at the present tinu' is $16,000 and the amount of deposits is $65,000. With 
the opening of the bank the entire corner in which the office is located was 
bought and is now given a valuation of .$3,500. 

The Brandon State Savings Bank was organized on Jlarch 7, 1906, as a state 
bank. The present officers are: R. F. Clark, president; Theodore Peck, vice 
president; W. W. Bain, cashier; directors, R. F. Clark, B. W. Davis, F. P. 
Davis, Roy A. Cook, Nathan iMass, L. H. Tucker and N. E. Parker. The 
capital stock is $20,000 and the amount of deposits is $70,000. 





METHODIST KI'ISC'OPAL rHTRrH, 
BRANDON 



CHRISTIAN OHTRCH, BRANDON 




PUBLIC SCHOOL, BRANDON 



r- 



TliL V 



ArroK 






HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 255 

SOCIAL LIFE 

The people of Brandon have the reputation of upholding a very higli 
standard of social life in the town. There are many small clubs in the town and 
each is active in maintaining the proper character of the community. In 
fact, each and every person considers it his especial duty to guarantee the best 
surroundings for the children who are growing up and receiving their education 
here. 

The fraternal societies are very sti'ong, among them being the Independent 
Order of Odd Fellows, the Rebekahs, the Modern Woodmen of America, the 
Modern Brotherhood of America and the Yeomen, the latter a lodge recently 
instituted in Brandon. 

A Grand Army of the Republic Post was established at Brandon in 1888. 
This Post has not been active for several years, owing to the scarcity of members. 

CHURCHES OP JEFFERSON TOWNSHIP 

The tirst church to be started in Jefferson Town.ship was the Methodist. 
The first services were held in private homes as it was some time before the 
society could build a house of woi'ship. Schoolhouses wei-e also utilized for the 
purpose of holding meetings. In May, 1856, Rev. D. Donaldson organized the 
tirst Methodist Society at the house of J. G. AVillianis, with a fir.st class of only 
five members, namely : J. G. Williams, Caroline F. Williams, Thomas Brandon 
and wife, and daughter Maria. In 1870, the year the frame church was con- 
structed, there was held in Brandon the biggest revival service in the history 
of the church. Enoch Holland was the pastor who conducted these services. At 
this meeting the proposition for a new church building came before the people 
and J. B. Stainbrook nobly donated one lot to the church and sold an adjoining 
lot for the small sum of $25. Upon this lot the frame church was constructed, 
the church which is now the east half of the new structure. The revival meeting 
which precedetl the construction of this church was held in the small schoolhouse 
l)ack of the present meat market. Reverend Tinkham was the tirst pastor in the 
new church. This church was in the circuit formed by Spring Creek, Bear Creek, 
Brandon aiid the Cedar Vallcj-. The church is in splendid condition at the 
present time, having about one hundretl and fifty members and several active 
societies in the church. Five years ago the old frame church was extensively 
i-emodeled and additions made. This year, 1914, a handsome parsonage has been 
erected and is one of the most modern houses in the town. Rev. H. W. Artman 
is the present pastor. Before him the following named acted in this capacity : 
Reverends Tinkham, B. C. Barnes, W. N. Fawcett, Wilkinson, Albert A. Woods, 
Daniel Sheffer, 0. D. Bowles, John M. Rankin, J. B. Jones, D. N. Cooley, R. F. 
Hurlburt, Rickards, Smith, Jesse Smith, Enoch Holland, Baker, B. L. Garrison, 
Wyrick, B. A. Wright, J. J. Littleler, Jacob Haymond, Alonzo Camp, W. H. 
Lusted, W. N. Brown, F. G. Young, E. R. Leman, John Dawson, J. D. Perry, 
R. il. Ackerman, W. E. Ross, J. H. Hayward, 0. M. Sanford, J. B. Metcalf, 
Jesse Underwood, J. B. Shoemaker; these names are not in the order of their 
service as this information was impossible to discover. It is known, however, 
that all of these men served the church as pastor. 



256 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

The Wesleyan Methodist Church was organized in February, 1867, with 
about twenty-five members. D. P. Parker was their preacher at this time. 
The ehureh was known as Greenwood Chapel. This church no longer exists 
in Buchanan County, having been moved west four miles in Black Hawk County 
about twenty years ago. 

Tile Reformed Church in the United States was organized December 1, 1860, 
with twenty members. Rev. Joshua Raile was the first pastor. This church 
passed out of existence about twenty years ago. 

The Christian Church in Brandon was organized on August 3, 1856, in the 
country north of the city. John Martindale, organized the class. The first 
chh'i's in llie church were: W. H. Elliott and w?fe, Frederick Yount and Mary 
Yoiint. The other first members were: Davis Fouts, Juliet Fonts, George W. 
and Susan Short, Henry and Mary Fonts, Aunt Betsy Fonts, Elsie Fouts, 
George W. Byfield, Darah Boon, John S. and Lizzie Coats, Emeretta Steckman, 
W. E. and Isabel Bain, Rhoda E. Albert, Susan Tracy, Robert H. Elliott and 
wife, John and Eliza Bain. A frame church was constructed in 1892, costing 
$1,500. The present church society consists of eighty members and the societies 
now active in the church ai'e the Ladies" Aid, the Young People's Christian 
Endeavor, the Christian Women's Boanl of ^Missions. The pastors who have 
served this church are in order: John .Martindale, Josiah Jackson, Cain, 
.\lplii us Applegate, 0. E. Brown, Solomon Cross, John Crocker, Daniel Dunkle- 
berger, Overbaugh, Hastings, Samuel B. Ro.ss, Earl Lockhart, HoUett, Ketford, 
E. Curliss, Carroll, John McKee, Ferguson and (lUst H. Cachiaras. For a year 
and a lialf the cliurch ha.s tieen without a regular pastor. 



LIHKRTY TOWNSHIP 

Liberty Township is a regular Congressional township six miles square. In 
llie year 1S47 the enunty was divided into three precincts, namely: Washington, 
S])i'ing or Centre, and Liberty. The latter then com^jrised the south half of 
Middletield. the south half of Liberty, except sections 19, 20, 21, 30, 31 and 32, 
all of Cono except section 6, and sectioiLs 12, 13, 24, 25 and 36 of Newton. Also, 
the north half of Liberty then comprised a part of Spring Precinct. Quasqueton 
was tile voting place of the Liberty Precinct, as it had been at one time for 
the enfii'e county. 

On the 5th of September, 1859, Liberty Township was reduced to its present 
size and form. 

This township has always been recognized as one of the best in the county. 
The townslii|i ha.s an advaiitageous location, with fertile land and several small 
hills and valleys. At one time there were numerous sloughs in the township, 
but these have been largely drained, leaving the rich, black loam for the cultiva- 
tion of crops. The soil, however, vai-ies in different parts of the township. 
There are said to be three or more particular soils. When the tir.st settlers came 
to this township about half of it was covered with a dense ma.ss of timber. The 
native trees are the white oak, bur oak, red oak, black oak, soft maple, sugar maple, 
white and red elm, linden, walnut, butteriuit, hackberry, poplar, aspen, cotton- 
wood, shagbark, bitter nut, ash and water birch. 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 257 

EARLY SETTLEMENT 

The first white settler in this township, and in the county, was William 
Bennett. In February, 1842, he came to Quasqueton from Ede's Grove, Dela- 
ware County. Bennett was not a man who was liked by those who knew him, 
for he bore a bad reputation and was reputed to be dishonest. The first house 
in Quasqueton was constructed by Bennett, of logs with a bark and dirt roof. 
Here he lived with his wife and three little daughters. It stood on the bank 
of the river, .some twelve rods above the mill, and near the foot of the present 
Walnut Street. 

A few weeks after Bennett's arrival S. G. Sanford and his family came in 
and built their home a quarter of a mile south of Quasqueton on the later 
Cordell place. His brother, II. T. Sanford, a carpenter, lived with him. Ezra 
G. Allen also lived in a hut nearby. On the last day of April, 1842, a band 
of emigrants arrived, the band including seven men, two women and three 
children. Their names were : R. B. Clark, Dr. E. Brewer, Frederick Kessler, 
J. Lambert, Simmons and Daggett, Mrs. R. B. Clark, Mrs. Frederick Kessler, 
Mason and Seth Clark and Sarah C. Kessler. Clark and Brewer built the first 
house on the west side of the river. These men were native to the State of 
Wisconsin, particularly Exeter, Greene County. Brewer was originally from 
Massachusetts; and Clark of Cleveland, Ohio, or the site of Cleveland. Kessler 
was a Pennsylvanian and died several years after his coming here, in the 
mining camps of California. He built a rude house here half a mile west of 
Clark and Brewer's, on the later Boies farm. This band of settlers found 
the country green and fresh with the early spring. The following summer, 
however, was very dry and there was a frost every month in the year, which 
made it very difficult for the men to raise successful crops. Consequently they 
looked with discouraged eyes toward the coming winter; 

The first white child born in the township and in the county was born 
during this summer. It is said to have been Charles B. Kessler and the date 
of his birth Jul.y 13, 1842. He died in the Union service during the Civil war, 
in April, 1864. 

During the summer of '42 a man named Style came to Quasqueton and 
lived in a small log cabin a short distance from the mill. Soon after he added 
to his house and for a short time ran a hotel. This was the fii'st really public 
house in the township. 

Hugh AVarren, a good-for-nothing, was another resident of the community 
and sevei-al other fellows, by name Warner, Jeffers, Wall, Day and Evans, aU 
of them in the employ of Bennett. During this same summer Bennett con- 
structed a dam across the river, using logs and sod, and about the first of 
October started the building of a mill. He and his men made large claims to 
the land and it is said that at one time they claimed nearly all of the center 
portion of the county, but, as is known, they were not the class of men to stay 
long and soon moved away farther west. 

On October 5th William Haddon came to the Brewer neighborhood and 
resided with Mr. Kessler. A fortnight later there came to the same neighbor- 
hood a brother of Mrs. Kessler and Nathaniel and Henry B. Hatch. Later in 
the fall William Johnson came. He claimed to be a Canadian patriot from the 



258 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

islands of the St. Lawrence. He was accompanied by a daughter whom he 
introduced as his daughter Kate. Johnson located in the Postle neighborhood, 
about midway between Independence and Quasqueton, and here he tried to found 
a town which w'ould be the eoiinty seat. His true status as a man shortly 
became known and quite a disliking to him grew up in the neighl)orhood. 

November of that year came in with a terrifie snow storm. Kessler's poor 
shanty proved to be little better than nothing in the face of the gale and it 
was decided to move the occupants to the home of Clark and Brewer, which 
was the most modern of all the houses in the community. The men carried 
the women and children the few miles separating the houses and were thoroughly 
exhausted when they reached their destination, s'o furious was the storm. The 
stonn continued for two days and on the third the sun rose clear. The- men 
started back to the Kessler cabin to see how it had fared during the storm. 
They found the snow almost completely hiding it. The inside was packed solid 
with it. Kessler and the others dug the .snow out, broke a path to the timber 
and also one to the spring. This condition of affairs soon made the food 
question a serious one, as corn, the most needed product, was very hai'd to 
secure. H. B. Hatch finally started down the Wapsie with two yoke of oxen 
in search of corn. After going a score of miles he succeeded in getting some. 
Half way back home, however, he fell into another snow blizzard. What this 
meant in those days cannot be appreciated today. There were no paths: the 
snow drifted into unsurmountal)le heaps; there were no fences, absolutely 
nothing by which the lojie traveler could distinguish directions. Creeping along 
gradually Hatch finally reached the settlement. Living was a hard duty for 
the ne-xt six weeks; the corn soon became unpalatable, and they made griddle 
cakes out of ground coffee, with an occasional treat of slipjiery elm. Clark and 
Kessler had seventeen deer and these were unable to get food, consequently many 
of them were found dead. 

The rivalry between Beniidt and Johnson was a topic of main interest 
at this time. Both had ambitions of starting a county seat town. Finally 
Bennett took measures to rid the County of Johnson. It was known among the 
Lidians and whites that Bennett kept whiskey, which he was very free in giv- 
ing to the Indians and men who called them.selves his gang. He induced ten 
white men and five Indians to drink heavily one day and he formed them in a 
band to go to Johnson's house, taking a quantity of drink with them. They 
gained entrance to Johnson's home on pretense of being nearly frozen. John- 
son, not knowing of their true intentions, was a good host and made them 
comfortable. When time came to go the Indians and Bennett's whites fell on 
Johnson, stripped him. tied him to a tree and gave him thirty-nine lashes on 
the bare back, with the warning that if he did not leave the country within 
twenty-four hours he would be treated even more severely. John.son, with his 
daughter Kate, and his niece, left that night and fled down the river. They 
reached Clark's home twenty miles away and there Johnson's wounds were 
dressed. They traveled on and iinally reached Marion. Two weeks later John- 
son returned here, with the sheriff and a Ismail posse of men. This force, how- 
ever, was not sufficiently large to capture Bennett's gang and they escaped. 
Many perished on the way and others lost their feet and hands, but Bennett 
and a few others found safety. In January following Sheriff Taylor, with 



HISTORY OP BUCHANAN COUNTY 259 

Green and Thompson, pursued Bennett up the Turkey River, where they found 
him living with the Indians. He attempted resistanee and by mistake killed 
an Indian, whereupon lie again fled. His aeeomplices were all arrested and 
the last heard of Bennett he was in Potose, Wisconsin, where he was running 
a wliiskey tavern. 

An old authority states that in the spring of 1843 tliere were the following 
habitations on lands: Sandford's, afterward the Cordell place. Ezra Allen's at 
the Spring; Clark and Brewer's; Frederick Kessler's; Spencer's; and during 
the spring Malcolm McBane and John Cordell came to the township. McBane, 
a Virginian, entered an eighty in what is now the Village of Quasiiueton. He 
was a very public-spirited man and was a member of the second lioard of super- 
visors. Cordell was a native of Liverpool, England, and came to America when 
he was seventeen years of age. He entered a farm immediately on his arrival 
in Iowa. 

During the autumn of the year 1843 James Biddingcr came to the township 
from Tuscarawas County, Ohio, and deeded eiglity acres of land. In this year 
also came Hugh Warren, who claimed land north of Quas(|ueton, also David 
Stiles and J. A. Re.ynolds. In the ue.xt .year came Levi Billings and James 
Cummings. R. L. Thopson, a physician, settled in the township a short time 
later. Two years later Josepli Collier and Isaac and J. F. Hathaway located 
two miles east of Quas(|ueton and Sanuiel Caskey entered laud nearliy. 

The first marriage in tlie township and said to be the first one in the county 
occurred in March. 1846. l)etween Mary Ann Hathaway and Dr. E. Brewer, 
Joseph A. Reynolds, a justice of the peace from Delaware County, perfonning 
the ceremony. An interesting fact is disclosed by the account books of Dr. E. 
Brewer, a fact wiiich proves the abundance of Indians in the locality at that 
time. His accounts show that he did business with the Magotoke, Petakema, 
Apalove, Apalne, Nolloosick, Wana and others of tlie former tribe, and against 
Coeapaboe, Chuchul, Wamanoo and others of the latter tribe of Indians. 

Tlie question of food in these times, of course, was the main consideration of 
the early days. These settlers endured countless hardships to procure pro- 
visions to last them but a few weeks. Hunting was good most of the year, but 
the difScidty entailed in going after the game made it almost as hazardous as 
traveling miles to get corn. .Often the hunters would go in search of the young 
animals and bring them home alive, to be fattened for the next year. Buffalo 
and elk served this purpose most commonly. 

P0L1TIC.\L 

At the first precinct election in this township tliere were thirty votes cast,. 
and at the second in 1849 there were the same number — ten democratic, fifteen 
republican, and five anti-slavery. The fir.st township officers were: N. G. Gage, 
justice of the peace ; Clark Burnett, Galin Shurtliff and J. P. Miller, constables ; 
Morris Todd, assessor; A. Waldron, clerk; and H. B. Hatch, William Logan 
and H. M. Stephens, trustees. 

QUASQUETON 

The site of tlic present Town of Quasqueton was at one time the centering 
place of numerous Indian trails, due to the presence of a well known ford. The 



260 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

name Quasqueton means "swift running water" and was originally called 
Quasquetuek. The transformation of the suffix is credited to S. V. Thompson. 

The early settlement of this town is coincident with the early settlement of 
the township and in this way has been given on the preceding pages. William 
Bennett, the notorious, was the tirst man to settle here. 

The site of Quasqueton, located as it is on the river, with the advantage of 
water travel and water power for the mills, and being well protected by valleys 
on every side, vras a strong point in its favor in the eyes of the first comers. At 
the first temporary land sale held in Marion in the year 184.3 the land of Quas- 
queton was not sold, although numerous bids were given. However, it soon 
came into the possession of William Hadden. Hadden kept the first store in the 
new village. In the year 1844 he had the frame of the mill enlarged and com- 
pleted and installed a run of corn and wheat buhr-stones. Two years afterward 
D. S. Davis became a partner and the mill was again improved. These men, the 
same year, constructed a sawmill, which stood just below the grist mill. These 
additions were of great convenience, for prior to this all the milling was done at 
Cascade and Rockdale, Dubuque County. 

The first postoffice in Quasqueton was established in 184.5 with William 
Richards as postmaster. At this time D. S. Davis acquired the ownership of the 
greater part of the land on which the village was situated, and by the next year 
he had the greater part of the town regularly platted and laid out. 

By the time the year 1852 came around the Town of Quasqueton had not 
grown appreciably. There were half a dozen houses on the east side of the river 
and on the west side there were perhaps one or two. A bridge was constructed 
across the river during this year ; a turning and cabinet shop was put up on the 
west side by S. V. Thompson, the Ha.stings Block was erected by D. S. Davis 
and the mills, now owned by J. B. Hovey, were further improved. The Lewis 
brothers and J. M. Benthall tore down the old mill and built a larger one just 
below the sawmill. 

In the year 1856 there was organized in Quasqueton a company known as 
the Qua.squeton Mutual Protection Company, for the purpose of protecting the 
citizens from the horse thieves then in the vicinity and who had committed their 
depredations frequently. xVny citizen could be a member of this association who 
would pay the sum of one dollar as a fee. Many of the prominent men of the 
community held memliership in this organization and for several years they had 
plenty of work to do. For several years this continued and then the company 
was disbanded. The exact date of this is not known. 

The bridge previously mentioned as being constructed in 1852 was destroyed 
by the high water of 1858. A second structure was put up and in 1865 it was 
carried away with the water, also the mills of the west side. These two bridges 
had been put up and paid for by private subscription. They located just below 
the dam. In 1867 a bi-idge was built by Buchanan County. The east span of 
this bridge was carried away by an ice floe in February, 1871. This was replaced 
during the next year by an iron span and in the following year the west span 
was torn away and replaced also. 

The sawmill was torn away during the fall of 1878 and on the morning of 
January 1, 1881, the flour mills were consumed by flames. 




MfrrHODIST CHURCH, QUASQUETOX 




\'IK\V OK 71 AM^IK'I'UN 



r 



V: 



i public; lu:;.a:;y \ 






HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 261 

The early history of the Quasqueton schools is soiiiething of a mystery. It is 
known, however, that a school building was constructed in 1855 and this forms 
the base of the present building, which bears the date of 1898. In 1867 Quas(iiie- 
ton was made an independent district by election. S. W. Heath was the first 
president of the first board of directors. In 1869 a ward schoolhouse was erected 
two miles east of the town. 

Before the name Quas(]ueton was given to the town, the name Quasque- 
tuck was used as a title. Rapid City was another name of Quasqueton in the 
early days, also the name Trenton. 

At one time there was a postoffice at Gatesvillc, but this was discontinued 
on March 31, 1902. 

Phillip Bidinger, at present living in Quas((ui'ton, is the oldest living white 
person born in the county. 

GROWTH OF PRESENT CITY 

For a town which has had as many misfortunes as old Quasqueton, this 
community has made good progress. Great commendation must be given to the 
people for their courageous battle to improve the town, a battle which at many 
times has been a losing one. 

To begin with, in the year 1904, occurred the great fire which would have 
sent a weaker spirited town into oblivion. On ilonday night, May 2, 1904, 
$15,000 worth of property was destroyed by flames. The fire originated about 
10 o'clock in the agricultural implement house occupied by Daniel Arnold, on 
the north side of Dubuque Street, and quickly swept everything in that block 
as far as Main Street. As the town had no means of combating the flames, 
they rushed unchecked through the frame store buildings. The people, one and 
all, formed bucket lines to the river and continued their efforts to the blocks 
fronting onto the burning one, thus managing to hold the destruction to a cer- 
tain district. The men to suffer loss in this conflgration were : T. H. Kimball, 
Daniel Arnold, N. S. Dunlaj), William Sherretts, J. M. Swartzell, William 
Spees, Editor Heath of the Quasquetonian, Harris and Walter, C. J. Dorsie, 
Earl Stoneman, 0. D. Stapleton, H. A. Nelson, :\lr. Bidinger, L. M. White, A. P. 
Burrhus. Jonathan Wilson and Allie Webber. 

The next disaster was in 1910, when the dam over the Wapsie was crushed 
away by ice and water. The Plank brothers had kept the board dam in good 
condition and had succeeded in creating a park on the shores which was visited 
by people from all over the county, also used as a camping ground by numerous 
parties. This site was known as Riverside Park. The 1910 disaster, however, 
effectually destroyed the beauty of this location. Efforts have been made repeat- 
edly to persuade someone to build the dam again, but so far have been unavail- 
ing. Plans were drawn about a year ago for a modern concrete dam, but this 
was never accomplished. 

To turn from the bad to the good, it is well to speak of the prosper( us bank 
which does business in the city. The State Savings Bank was organized on 
July 28, 1902 and opened its doors for business on December 2d of that year. 
The following men were the organizers: II. L. Boies, E. C. Kimball, T. H. Kim- 
ball, president, Charles B. Huliliard, vice president, L. V. Tabor, Z. Stout, R. B. 



262 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

Raines, W. G. Stephmsnn, ('. E. Boies, C. J. Wiilter, 0. S. Rosenberger, R. M. 
CMinpbell, .1. Netcott. A. II. Farwell, J. H. Willey, C. D. Jones, Jed Lake, J. F. 
Bidinger, cashier. W. D. Boies. F. T. Clark, J. E. Harris. The first capital 
stock was $20,000. The present capital has increased to $25,000, the surplus 
i.s' $7,000 and the deposits amount to over one hundred thousand dollars. The 
present otficers are: L. T. Kimball, president; II. L. Boies, vice president; 
H. G. Clark, cashier. The building at present occupied by the bank was bought 
at the time of organization for $5,000. 

Perhaps one of the subjects of most interest to the people of (juas(iueton 
and the county is the present Chicago, Anamosa and Xorthern Railroad, run- 
ning from here to Anamosa, a distance of thirty-eight miles. It may be said 
that this line was completed in the year of our Lord 11112. after a period of 
twenty-eight years in the process of making. Surveys were made in 1858 for 
the "Wapsiiiinicon Valley Railroad and the Wapsipinieon Valley Land Com- 
pany issued scrip and tried to build the road. Two yeai's previous, however, 
the Illinois Central had made surveys without doing nun-h else in the way of 
getting a road completed. Surveys were then matle in 1870-1-2 and a 
large amount of grading ilone for the Anamosa & Northwestern, but still Quas- 
queton did not procure a road for herself. In April, 1880, a tax was voted 
for the Chicago, Bellevue & Northern road and also, during the latter part of 
the year 1880, a survey was made for the Chicago & ilanitoba road. Now 
Quesqueton has two trains a tlay, running on "■sun" schedule. To undertake to 
tell of all of the survi-ys which were made, the subscription lists procured, the 
land donated, and the promises given, would fill a volume, for there was some- 
thing new every year of the many years of preparation, and ndw that the road 
has rails down and the steam engines running, the town is not sure whethei' 
it feels elevated or not. One good feature, however, the road gives direct ship- 
ping connection with tlie .Xcirthwestern, so that goods billed to ('hicago reach 
there on good time. This is the I'oad's liiggest asset. The company in the 
recent past, however, have enteretl the receiver's hands, so that it nuiy not be 
long mitil old (^uasque-on-the-Wai)sie is again guiniing for a new railroad line. 
The land for the right of way of this road was ]ire.sented to the company, besides 
a substantial suliscription list advancetl. 

The newspaper history of (^iuisi|ueton is a tale of nnich interest and filled 
with examples of stubboi-n courage. The first luunbei' of the (^uasi|uetoa 
Guardian was published on December l:i, 1856, l)y Messrs. Rich and Jordan. 
Two years later this paper, although assisted materially by the citizens of the 
town, moved to Indeiiendence, fiattered with the prospects of that town gain- 
ing railroad connection with tlie Eastern States. During a part of the years 
1877 and 1878, a paper was publislied liy A. B. Vines and wa.s named The Peoples 
Papei-. This jiajier failed to live long. On January 7, 1881, J. and W. S. Caueh 
issued the initial number of a sheet called The Weekly Telephone. This went 
the way of its predecessors. The present paper, The Quasquetonian. was started 
under the name of the Mercury by a man named (Osborne. This was about the 
year 1890. Tliis was sold to a Mr. Heath in 1!)02. and he conducted it under 
its present name until the fire of 1904, when he went out of business. In Sep- 
tember of that same year Fra.ik Vierth revived the (,)uas(|uetoiiian and has pub- 
lished it ever since as a weekly paper. 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 263 

There are at present but three lodges in the city, the Ancient Free and 
Accepted Masons, the Independence Order of Odd Fellows, and the Modern 
Brotherhood of America. The dispensation for the ilasonic lodge was granted 
in 1875, but Quasqueton was then under the jurisdiction of another lodge and 
this original charter was made to a Cono Township order. In 1878. though. 
Quasqueton was given an independent lodge. The Odd Fellows lodge was 
organized in the town in 1854 as Prospect Lodge. The charter was subsequentlj' 
changed and it is known as Franklin Lodge, No. 350. The Modern Brother- 
hood was organized in 1897. All of these orders have good membership. 

Quasqueton was incorporated in May, 1902. The first meeting of the city 
council was held on the 28th of that month. The first officers were : C. B. 
Heath, mayor; M. I. Perry, treasurer; T. H. Kimball, A. T. Bidinger, A. D. 
Stoneman were councilman and the latter was also marshal. L. M. White was 
clerk. Following Heath as mayor, came T. H. Kimball in 1904, then A. P. 
Burrhus in 1909, then Kimball again in 1911. The latter resigned his office in 
March, 1914, and H. D. Boies was appointed to fill the vacancy, but he in turn 
resigned in August. J. D. Steele was asked to fill the chair, but refused, so 
A. P. Burrhus took up the reins and is now active. 

The city came into possession of their own electric light plant on December 
14, 1912, after an election on the question. 

• 

RELIGIOUS SOCIETIES 

It is said that the first religious meetings held in Quasqueton were Presby- 
terian. No services were held, however, until the coming of » Wesleyan Meth- 
odist preacher named »G. G. Cummings. Then a MethodLst denominational 
society was formed, but soon died out. This society was again revived and at 
pre.sent has a church at Newtonville. 

At an early da.y there was a Presbyterian Church formed by Rev. Joseph 
Whitam and called the Free Presbyterian Church. The main supporter of this 
society was John Merrill, who deeded them two acres of land and helped ma- 
terially to build a structure in which to hold services. This is now kno\v^l as 
Hickory Church and is located about two miles north of Quasqueton. There 
is a membership of about fifty. 

On June 26, 1853, the Congregational Church was organized by Revs. Alfred 
Wright and W. Reed. At first the services were held in the schoolhouse, but in 
1854 a brick church w-as con.structed. The church has been uniformly pros- 
perous since this time ajid now has a member.ship of about seventy-five. The 
church building has been remodeled several times and is again to be rebuilt and 
enlarged. The pastors from the first have been : Revs. Alfred Wright, Bennett 
Roberts, H. N. Gates, Albert Manson, G. H. Bissel, Charles Dame, E. G. Car- 
penter, G. N. Dorsey, W. S. Potwin, G. M. Obers, Philo Gordon, A. J. Benton, 
Salter, Slyfield. Mumley. Thum, Landhoam, and Basham, the present pa.stor. 
It was during the pastorate of Salter that the church was practically rebuilt. 
Reverend Basham has made plans for the new church, which will make it one 
of the best in the township. 

There is also a Congregational Church at Ca.stleville, organized in 1891, and 
now has a membership of thirty-five. 



264 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

The Newtoiiville Congregational Church was moved to Kiene on June 28, 
1914, and a $1,700 church erected. Reverend Basham attends tlie fifty members 
here. 

The Baptist Church was organized March 10, 1855, by the following : A. G. 
Firman, E. A. Miltimore, D. Leatherman, Permelia Leatherman, J. D. Reese, 
H. G. Hastings, E. W. Hastings, and J. W. Gagely. William Ramsey and 
A. G. Hastings were the first deacons and Daniel Rowley the first pastor. The 
first meetings were held in the Davis Block and afterward in the second story 
of the schoolhouse, in the brick Congregational Church and in the IMethodist 
Church. The Baptist Chiirch was first occupied in January, 1868. This church 
ha.s many years of prosperity, but in the last year has become inactive. Occa- 
sional meetings are held, ))ut no attempt is made to have them regular. H. 
Bellman is the present pa.stor, living in Quasqueton. His health is very poor 
and he is unable to assume active charge of the work. 

Perhaps the strongest society in the township today is the Methodist Episco- 
pal. The society was organized in 1852 by William H. Brown. The territory 
was then emliraced in a mission extending from Anamosa t" Greeley's Grove, 
now Hazleton, Pine Creek Iieing one of the appointments of that day. The 
first class was composed of William and Elizabeth Cooper and Harry Norton. 
They worshiped in the west wing of the schoolliouse at first. William Shippen 
was the next pastor. The church in Quasi|\ieton was built in 1855, under 
Reverend Ashbough. Ilii-am Hood came next and tlieii W. Bailey. At this 
time Spring Grove was discontinued and given over to the "Camjibellites and 
other vultures." In 1862 Norton Cluirch was instituted in Homer Township. 
The pastors from tliis time until the present are, in the order of their service: 
John Fawcett. George Raines, A. I\I. Smith. Shaper, H. C. Brown, W. S. R. 
Burnett, W. 0. Gla.s.sner, L. S. Keagle. Jacol) Hurll. N. Jones, W. B. Davis, 
R. Norton, G. L. Garrison, Samuel Goodsell, John Brentnall, J. B. Metcalf, 
G. B. Crinklan, E. B. Downs, A. B. Curran, Jesse Smith, A. B. Fickle, A. D. 
Foster. F. T. Heatly, T. E. Temple, Charles H. Hawn, A. C. Brackett. P. M. 
Phillips. William M. Densmore and George F. Kelley, the present pa.stor. This 
church and the Rowley congregation are luider the same organization, having 
together about two hundred iiu^mbers. Both are in the (.^uas<iueton circuit. 
The Rowley church was rcuuideled about a .year ago. 

, MADISON TOWNSHIP 

Madison Township was organized on March 11, 1857, by order of County 
Judge Roszell. The first election in the township was held at the house of 
Charles Richmond, on April 6th of the same .year, and the following township 
officers were elected: John Marsell, Silas Rass and A. D. Bradley, trustees; 
Charles Bennett and J. B. Ward, justices; Seth Paxon and S. M. Eddy, con- 
stables; D. ^I. Brown, clerk. 

FIRST SETTLEMENT 

The first settlement was made by Se.ymour Whitne.y in the fall of 1852, in 
the east part of the township near the present city of Lamont. He remained 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 265 

hire for at)out fifteen years, then went to Missouri. He was the first clerk of 
the township. 

J. B. Ward settled in the township in the fall of 1853, in the eastern part. 
He entered some land for himself and opened his farm. He also started the 
first sawmill in the township and later had two mills in his possession. 

On March 28, 1853, Silas Ross settled here. He was a native of Vermont. 

ilark Whitney settled in 1853. He assisted in forming the first Free Will 
Baptist Society here. Alden Whitney settled here in February, 1854, on sec- 
tion 24, entering the land he selected. He filled the offices of county supervisor, 
township trustee and magistrate, being one of the fii-st in the latter office. 

E. R. Jenks became a settler in the towaiship in June, 1853. He came to 
the county in 1851 and had lived for a time with A. J. Eddy in Buffalo Towni- 
ship. He finally became the owner of about five hundred acres of land in this 
townshi]!. 

MISCELLANEOUS 

In the summer of 1853, Silas Ross, Mark AVhitney and J. B. Ward })uilt a 
log schooliiouse and during the following winter Mi-s. Getty Riley taught a 
school here with aliout thirty students. The next schooliiouse was constructed 
at Ward's Corners, now Lamont, and the next at Buffalo Grove. Among the 
early teachei-s were Lucy Ticknor. Jane Bennett, Melusia Davies and Julia 
Whitney. 

CHURCHES 

The Free Will Baptist Society was organized in this township on June 27, 
1857, with seven members, namely : Peter Halleck and wife, ^Mark Whitney, 
Cyrus Bailey and wife, and N. R. Whitney and wife. The first meetings of 
the society were conducted at the home of Cyrus Bailey. The first preacher was 
Rev. S. Hutchinson. Some time after the church was organized the members 
divided and a number living near Buffalo Grove formed an organization there. 
These two societies have now been reunited at Lamont and own a substantial 
churcii building, liaving a membership of eighty people, and a regular pastor. 

The old school Baptists organized in this township some time later. There 
were ten membei's at first, namely: John Merrill and wife, J. B. W^ard and 
wife, Charles Richmond and wife, Amanda Branian and OiTin Ro.ss. The first 
preacher was Rev. George Scott. For the first six years of their existence they 
held services in the log schoolhouse. In 1871 they constructed a frame house 
of worship, also a parsonage. This society has not been active for about eight 
years. Tlie reunion of the Baptist societies has resulted in the reorganization 
inider the Free Will denomination. 

The Lutheran Chui'ch at Lamont was organized about the year 1898 and 
in 1900 a church and parsonage were built, costing about four thousand dollars. 
The church was dedicated on April 2d of that year. The memljership now 
totals seventy-five. 

The first cemetery was established at Buffalo Grove, in the southwest part 
of the township, in about 1857. A second one was located at AVard's Corners, 



266 HISTORY OP BUCHANAN COUNTY 

now Laiiioiit, in the next year. A tliird was established in the northeast corner 
of the township. 

A feed mill was constrneted here in 1856, by Whitney and Ward, on the 
Maquoketa. At the sinie time a sawmill was built, but it did not prove a 
paying investment. In 1881 a second mill was built near the site of the old one. 

The first white child born in the township w^as Hiram W'hitney, a son of the 
first pioneer, in 1854. 

The first death was that of David Cornell, in 1854. 

The pioneer blacksmith was John W. Dana, in 1857, hLs shop being about 
a half mile east of the then Ward's Cornei-s. 
, 8ilas Ross raised the first crop of wheat in 1854. 

The first store was kept by Rev. W. Durfey at Ward's Corners. 

No hotel was operated in the township until 1880, when Alfred Bush started 
a tavern. 

CITY OF LAMOiVT 

The City of Lamont is located in the eastern part of Jladison Township. The 
building of the Chicago Great Western Railroad through the township in 1886 
insured the growth of the then village into the prosperous town a-s at present. 

Prior to the building of the railroad Lamont was indeed a small village. 
Seymour Whitney deeded the laud where the village stood and built the first 
house on the spot where Mr. Retz now lives. There was a postoffice established 
in 1875 and called Erie. Mr. Ward was appointed postmaster and he imme- 
diately had the name changed to Ward's Corners in honor of himself. The 
next change in name occurred when G. M. Foster became postmaster in 1883. 
Some authorities claim that the railroad changed the name to Lamont. but the 
wiser ones concede the act to .Mr. Foster. The mail in the early day was carried 
by a line I'unning from Independence to Strawberry Point, and latei' from Por- 
restville. 

Albert Bush was the first hotel keeper in the town. Charles Richmond ran 
the first blacksmith shop. The first important step after the beginning of the 
village was the building of the Baptist church in 1867, just back of the present 
Redmond .store. It was later moved acro.ss the creek to its present location. The 
first store building was constructed by WillLs Durfey in 1872. In the next year 
a creamery was built, a fine two-story building, by John Stewart. The upper 
floor was used as a town hall. .Mr. Quick put up the next store building and 
Whitney Bush had the third. There were ten or twelve store buildings and an 
equal number of residences when the railroad came through in 1886. There 
were three fairs, or rather barbecues, held in the early days, but the practice 
has become lost. 

The first and best things in the sketch of Lamont are the banks which do 
business tho'e. Both are among the most substantial in the county. The 
Farmers Savings Bank was organized on March 3, 1910. The first officers were : 
D. J. Kenna, W. C. Falck, and M. J. Nolan. The directors were: J. H. Brown, 
Frank Dozark, Thomas Vanek, A. K. Anderson, Fred Retz, and A. L. Seeber. 
The capital stock of this institution is $15,000, the surplus .^;1 ,000 and the deposits 
amount to $100,000. W. C. Falck is the president now; Fred Retz. vice-president; 




HIGH SCHOOL, LAMOXT 




5TKKt,T bCEXE IX LAMONT 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 267 

and 0. C. Gladwin, cashier. Tlie Laiuont Savings Bank was incorporated on 
April 4, 1892. The first officers were: A. R. Loomis, president; il. F. LeRoy, 
cashier; A. R. Loomis, E. S. Cowles, j\I. F. LeRoy, E. H. Hoyt, and E. M. Carr, 
directors. The first capital stock was .i)10,00(), which was raised to $15,000 in 
August, 1899. The present officers are : John Elliott, president ; A. A. Smith, 
vice-president; C. E. Hayes, ctishier; and H. M. Fitch, assistant cashier. The 
capital stock is $25,000; undivided profits, $7,000; and deposits amount close 
to $250,000. The directors now are : John Elliott, C. R. Jenks, Henry Allen- 
stein, Henry Sharff, A. A. Smith, Thomas Kelsli, James Carr, John Kash, and 
C. E. Hayes. Prior to the existence of these two banks there was a private bank 
known as the Bank of Lamont, run by Oscar Tuttle. This institution went out 
of existence. More detailed sketches of these banks may be found in the second 
volume of this work. 

The newspaper history of Lamont has just begun practically. The first issue 
of the Lamont Reporter was published on May 17, 1893, by E. D. Alexander. 
The paper was a weekly, run every Wednesday. In 1900 J. F. Davidson came 
into control of the paper and changed its name to the Lamont Leader. This is also 
a weekly paper. 

The Cit.y of Lamont was surveyed in April, 1886, by P. H. Warner and the 
plat was filed for record December 14th of that year. A petition was presented 
to the court on October 4, 1892, by William Quick and others, asking that the 
town be permitted to hold an election for incorporation. This was granted and 
on November 22, 1892, the people voted to incorporate the town. 

The water plant of the city was procured in 1908 and was the first public 
utility. It was built bj- public subscription and cost about $5,000. 

The lodges in Lamont are very numerous for the size of town, but are all 
strong. There is a lodge of the Ancient Free and Accepted Masons, the Inde- 
pendent Order of Odd Fellows, the Knights of Pythias, Modern Woodmen, Wood- 
men of the World, and Mystic Toilers. All of these orders have the ladies' 
auxiliary. A number of clubs are maintained among the women also, the prin- 
cipal one being the Tourist Club, for the study of literature. 

The main industry of the city is the Lamont Cooperative Creamery, estab- 
lished in 1898. 

The school building in Lamont is a structure about ten years old, and is con- 
venient and adapted to the latest style of school architecture. An efficient corps 
of teachers is maintained here every year. 



MIDDLEFIELD TOWNSHIP 

]\Iiddlefield Township was regularly organized and set off as a separate town- 
ship on September 21. 1858. Following is the order of the county court: 

"Be it known, that on this twenty-first day of September, 1858, on petition 
of Philetus IMackey and Albert Risley and others, a new township in said county 
is hereby constituted and formed, consistetl of the thirty-six sections of eon- 
gres.sional township 88, range 7, and in accordance with the wishes of the inhabit- 
ants thereof, it is ordered to be styled Jliddlefield. Signed, Stephen J. W. 
Tabor, county judge." 



268 HISTORY OP BUCHANAN COUNTY 

The first elcctiou was held at one of the sehoolhouses in the fall of 1858 and 
the following (ittieers were elected: U. Smith, R. Stoneman and M. Broadstreet, 
trustees; Daniel Leatherman, assessor and constalile. 

•SETTLEMENT 

The lirst settler in JMiddletield was Patriek M. Dunn, lie located in the 
southeast part of the township on April 2, 1850. His location was in the center 
of a heavy )nass of timbei-, on the banks of Buffalo Creek. He was a native of 
Kings County, Ireland, having been born there in the finst year of the nine- 
teenth century. His companions in the forest when he settled here were mostly 
Indians and wild game. Food was the big question with him, as with hundreds 
of other pioneers, and he often traveled two weeks continuously to Quasqueton 
after meal with which to make bread for his family. 

Daniel Leatherman and his family were the next to settle in this town.ship. 
They came June '2. 1854, and settled on the prairie, living in their covered 
wagons until a home was built. A few acres were broken this year and a little 
sod corn raised, also a patch of watermelons. His was the only house built out 
on the prairie and proliably the first frame structure in the township. The stage 
road from Dulnique by way of Coffins Grove to Quasqueton passed liy their 
house, and this was the only house on the line, a distance of twenty-three miles. 
At night a light was placed in the east window of the upstairs of the house, so 
that travelcT's from Coffins Grove might be guided. It is said tliat when Leather- 
man first came to the township he put in most of his time teaming between 
Dubuque and Quasqueton, a distance of seventy miles. Most of the lumber 
with which he built hi.s house was drawn from the Town of Dubuque. Leather- 
man was one of the first magistrates of the township. 

R. Stoneman settled in the township in 1855 and was Leatherman "s first 
neighbor. He lived here about ten years and then went to Kansas. 

George Smith was another pioneer who came about the same time as Leather- 
man. He also removed to Kansas after the death of his wife, eight years after 
his coming. He was a Wesleyan minister and held the first religious services 
in the settlement. 

William Broadstreet became a settler of the township in 1854, not far fi'om 
Leatherman "s place. He afterward removed to Liberty Township. 

A Mr. MeWilliams settled in the town.ship in June, 1854, coming from the 
State of Ohio. He lived here until 1865, when he moved to the southern jiart 
of the state. His son Henry was killed in the .same battle in the Civil war in 
which Leatherman 's son met his death. 

Stillman Berry came to the state in ]\Iay, 1855, and settled first at Quasqueton, 
but in the same year bought land in IMiddlefield Township. He was a native of 
Maine. 

MISCELLANEOUS 

A eemeterv company was organized here about 1874. The grounds had been 
used previously for the l)ui'ying of the dead, but the association was not foi'ined 
until the above year. 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 269 

A postoffice was established here in about 1872 aud L. P. Stitson was the first 
postmaster. The office was called Middlefield. 

The birth of Edward L. Leatlierman on April 4, 1855, was the first in the 
township. 

The first wedding was that of Willard S. Blair and Permelia Ann Leather- 
man on June 24, 1855. 

The first religious services ever held in the township were by Rev. G. Smith 
in 1855, in the schoolhouse which had .just been built. 

The first crop raised in the township consisted of turnips, raised by Patrick 
M. Dunn, also a little sod corn and a few potatoes. Dunn also raised the first 
wheat in 1851 . 

The first school taught in the townsliii) was in a house which Leatherman 
and several others had constructed, and the first teacher was Malinda Gageby, 
later ]\Irs. Samuel Braden. The house was paid for by subscriptions, and in 
this same way the teacher received her remuneration. Henry Blank, A. Scott, 
R. Stoneman and Nancy Merrill also taught in the early schools of this town- 
ship. The second schoolhouse was built near Stillman Berry's place, in about 
the center of the township. 

The first entry of land in Middlefield Township was made by Patrick Dunn. 

NEWTON TOWNSHIP 

Newton Township was organized by the following order on July 20, 1854: 
" It is ordered by the court that township 87, north, range 7 west, in this county, 
be and is hereby set apart as a new township, to be called Newton Township. 
This order to take effect on the third Monday in July next and not sooner. 
Signed, 0. H. P. Roszell, County Judge." 

The first election was held the first Monday in August, 1854, at one of the 
schoolhouses in the south part of the township. Andrew Whisenand, Charles 
Hoover and Nathan Holman were appointed by the court as judges of election. 
The following township officers were elected: Charles Hoover and Reuben C. 
Walton, justices ; Jesse McPike, Andrew Whisenand and Charles Hoover, trus- 
tees; Charles McPike, assessor; Amos Long, clerk; and Green Ben-y, constable. 

SETTLEMENT 

The first permanent settler in the townsliip was Joseph Austin. In the 
spring of 1845 he built a cabin in the vicinity of a good spring at the timber 
edge. Austin lived here until 1853, when he moved to Cono Township. He 
fought for the Union in the '60s. 

Reuben C. Walton was the next to settle here in the spring of 1847, on 
section 33, in the south part, near Austin's home. A spring which flowed near 
to his home was afterwards known as the Walton Spring. Walton was one of 
the first magistrates of the township and is said to have performed the first 
marriage ceremony. 

W. H. Harris and \Y. Ogden, with their families, settled here in 1851 near 
the Austin place. These men remained only about two years. 



270 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

Charles Hoover first came to the state in April, 1851, and stayed for a short 
time at Quasqiieton. He then came to this township. His nearest neighbor 
lived at a distance of four miles from his home. Hoover was noted as a deer 
hunter, bagging fifty-seven in fourteen months. 

Martin C. Glass settled in Newton in the year 1849 and bought out the inter- 
ests of Austin, the first settler. He lived in this township for three years, then 
moved into Cone. 

Jesse McPike settled here on April 28, 1853. He also bought the Austin 
place, with its noted spring, and here remained until his death on August 25, 
1875. 

Heni-j- M. Holman came here in 1851, settling first in Cedar County. 

Andrew Whisenand settled here in 1851 on the property later owned by 
Reuben C. Walton. He was one of the organizers of the township and was 
one of the first judges of election. He was also a township trustee and one of 
the pioneer Methodists. 

RELIGIOUS SOCIETIES 

The first religious meetings hrld in tlie township were by the Methodists, at 
the house of Reuben C. Walton, about the year 1853. Samuel Farlow was the 
preacher. Services were held at the liouse of Jesse McPike also. 

The Christian Church was organized here in 1853 with some fifteen mem- 
bers, among whom were H. N. Holman and wife, S. Payton and wife, P. Payton 
and wife, William and Thomas ]\IcKee, and Nathan McConnell. 

These two churches liave since passed out of existence in this township. 

St. Patrick's Catholic Church was first organized in 1856. Services were 
first held in a log schoolhouse, but in 1870 a large church structure was put up 
and also a pastoral residence. These are at Monti. Among the priests have 
lieen Fathers Slattery, Shields, Ghosker, Malone and Clabby. The church no\/ 
numliers aliout sixty families and is the only church at Monti. 

The Protestant ]\Iethodist Society was organized here in 1858 at the Hoover 
schoolhouse with about twenty members. The cliun-li is now in good condition 
at Newtonville and has about sixty-five members. 



FIRST SCHOOLS 

The first schools of the township were maintained by popular subscriptions. 
The very first school was held in 1848 in the south part of the township, near the 
place of the first settlement, and was taught by Ned P)ai-tly. lie had ten 
scholars in his first class. Mr. Harris shortl.v afterwards donated the use of a 
loghouse for the school. In 1850 Reuben C. Walton and several other men 
got together and built a log schoolhou.se in which classes were held for a number 
of winters. Samuel ("alvin, later a professor in Iowa University, taught the 
first school in this house. A few years later the district built a good house on 
this old site. There was also a house built in the eastern jjart of the township. 
Besides the early teachers above mentioned there were Mrs. Geiger, Charles 
McPike, A. Henry, George PVancis and Charles Moore. 




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HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 271 

MISCELLANEOUS 

The first death in the township was that of a daughter of James Brown, and 
granddaughter of Jesse MePike, in September, 1853. 

Leonard Austin was the first white child born here, his liirth occurring in 
the winter of 1847. 

Tlie first wheat in the township was raised by Joseph Austin in the year 1846. 

The first wedding was that of Isaac Arwin and Jane Holman in 1855. Charles 
McPike was w-edded to Jane Ramsey about tlie same time. Reuben C. Walton 
conducted both of these ceremonies. 

The first store in the township was kept by J. S. Long in the south part of 
the township on H. M. Holnian's farm. 

A postoffiee was established here and named Newton Centre in the summer 
of 1855, in the south part of the township, near where the first settlements were 
made. The first postmaster here was Ulysses Geiger, and after him were R. C. 
Walton, Turner Cartright and R. Downs. In 1873 the office was transferred to 
the center of the township and Samuel Hoover was appointed postmaster. This 
office is now at Newtonville. 

A cemetery was established in the south part of the township in 1853. Jesse 
McPike donated the land. The first burial here was Mrs. Long. Charles Hoover 
had a private burying-ground near his home in the early days. In 1880 there 
was a cemetery association formed with James Ironsides as president, W. King, 
treasurer, and Samuel Hoover, secretary. A cemetery was established near the 
Catholic church in the east part of the township in 1856 and this is now known 
as the Catholic Cemetery of St. Patrick's. 

The old postoffiee at Newton Centre was afterward called Newtonville, but 
has been abolished. The Village of Newtonville Has been seriously handicapped 
by the lack of transportation facilities, and consequently has never reached a 
stage of development. There are one or two lodges thei'e and one church, the 
Wesleyan Methodist, described elsewhere in this volume. 

Tlie same might be said of Monti. There is one church there, the Roman 
Catholic, presided over by Father Donaghey. This society was organized in 
this vicinity about twenty-five years ago, but was never very active until ten 
years later. In the late '90s a church building was erected, the interior being 
one of the finest in the county. A parsonage was also erected for the pastor. 

Neither of these towns have a postoffiee at present, but are supplied by rural 
free delivery. 

PERRY TOWNSHIP 

Perry Township was organized as an independent township on February 17, 
1853, by order of the county judge. This order follows : 

"Ordered by the County Court, that townships 89 and 90 of range 10, 
Buchanan County, and also the west tier of sections in township 90, range 9, 
and sections 6 and 7 and west half of sections 18, 89, 9, be, and the same are 
hereby, separated from Washington Precinct in the same country, and shall, 
until further orders, form a separate precinct, to be called Perry Precinct ; 
and all orders, so far as they conflict witli the above order, are hereby revoked." 



272 HISTORY OP BUCHANAN COUNTY 

Several changes have since been made in the township. Township 89, 10, 
was set off l)y itself March 5, 1855, under the name of Alton, now Fairbank; 
and the west tier of sections in 90', 9 was attached to Superior, now Hazleton. 
Subsequently, the part belong-ing to 89, 9 was severed, leaving a square town- 
ship of tliirty-sex sections. 

The first election was held at the home of John Cameron, on April 4, 1853. 
Henry Bright and W. S. Clark were elected as justices of the peace; Charles 
Melrose, Gamaliel Walker and John H. Anderson, trustees ; and W. S. Clark, 
clerk. 

EARLY SETTLEMENT 

The first settler in the township is said to have been Charles Melrose, a 
Scotchman, who came from Fort Wayne, Indiana, with his family, in June, 

1849. He entered land, but some error was made in his enti-y and found that 
he had claimed land near Jesup. He did not think that land in that locality 
would ever be valuable, so he procured the aid of Senator G. W. Jones and a 
special act of Congress was passed, by the terms of which he vacated his entry 
and placed it in the section he had originally intended. 

During the same year that Melrose came, Gamaliel Walker settled in tlie 
northwest part of the township, near Littleton. He was undoubtedly the sec- 
ond settler in the township, if Melrose was the first. James Minton came with 
Walker and continued to live with him until his marriage, which happened 
soon after his arrival. He then moved to Fairbank, where he stayed for a 
number of years. He later went to the State of Kansas. 

John Cameron settled in the northeast part of the township, in September, 

1850. He came from the State of Indiana. Six daughters came here with him. 
Mr. Cameron became a very prominent citizen in the township and county. 
He assisted in the organization of two Methodist Episcopal churches, filled the 
office of county supervisor for two years, and was a member of the Masonic 
order. He was a farmer by trade. The first religious .services ever held in the 
township were conducted at his house. 

Martin Depoy and family came to the township in 1850. He had entered 
his land here the previous year. He was a Virginian, but went to Ohio when 
six years of age and while there married a sister of John Cameron. He then 
resided for several .years in Indiana, finally coming to Iowa and living at Jesup, 
where he conducted a grocery. 

H. S. Bright settled near Littleton in 1850. Jacob Slaughter was another 
early settler in this district. James Shrack came to the towaiship in 1851, 
accompanied by his family, and settled in the northwestern part of the town- 
ship. He was noted as an expert hunter and trapper. 

The life of the early comers to this township differed very little from that 
of the men in the other townships. The mill at Quasqueton, twenty-five miles 
■ distant, was the only one within reaching distance. The first store of any 
kind was kept by Siiffieool & Marshall in 1856, at the present town of Little- 
ton. Sufficool afterward sold out his interest to John Cameron. The colony 
in this vicinity once made up a purse between them and dispatched John 
Cameron to Dubuque for groceries. Upon this trip it is said that Mr. Cameron 
brought the first plow to tlie township. 




Methodist Cliuri'h Catholic Chiin-h 

Baptist rhui'ch I'li'sbytciiaii I'lnnrh 

Ili-h S.-hool 
HKill SCIIOOI. AMI t'lU'RClIES OF JK8ri' 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 273 

The first hotel was owned and operated in Littleton, by B. C. Hale, and the 
second one was a mile north of Jesup, kept by ilr. Boardman on the state road. 
The early doctors were McGonigal, Allen and James Muney. The first post- 
master was Charles Melrose and John Cameron was the first mail carrier. It 
is said that the first mail consisted of three letters. The first wedding in the 
township was held at the house of John Cameron in 1852, and the principaJs 
were ^Martin Campbell and Emeline Cameron. Squire W. S. Clark performed 
the ceremony. A daughter of Isaac Spencer was the first white pereon to die 
in the township. The birth of Nancy Melrose on April 1, 1850, was the first 
in the township. The first bridge constructed in the township was across the 
Wapsie at Littleton. It was built of wood. The first wheat raised in the town- 
ship was grown by John Cameron, Martin Depoy, Gamaliel Walker, Jacob 
Slaughter and Charles ]\lelrose. These men cooperated in raising this first crop. 
They cut the crop with cradles and sent to Clayton County for a machine 
to thresh it. J. R. Jones put up the first grain elevator in the township. The 
first school class was taught in Jesup, at the house of R. S. Searls. William 
Boss was the first depot agent. 

JESUP 

The beginning of the town of Jesup may rightly be said to liave occurred 
with the building of the Illinois Central Railroad through this territory in the 
year 1860. The small village of Barclay, located in Black Hawk County to the 
west, was relocated at Jesup at this time. 

The first store in the town of Jesup was kept by R. S. Searls and this gentle- 
man also did duty as the postmaster. He also is said to have shipped the first 
carload of stock from the town. The first blacksmith was A. Grattan. A Mr. 
Marvin probably kept the first hotel: he located before the railroad was put 
through. 

The history of Jesup has been an interesting one. The town has, with the 
exception of Independence, grown moi-e rapidly than the others in the count.y, 
due in no small part to its excellent location on the railroad and the close 
proximity to Independence and Waterloo, Black Hawk County, alike. This 
town is equally as good a shipping point as the county seat and the amount of 
trade conducted through it is larger in proportion. 

Of the earlier history of Jesup there are just a few points which stand 
out. It is true that in the "80s and '90s there was a company of militia in 
existence here. It was Companj' I of the First Iowa National Guard. The 
company was organized February 17, 1877, with F. C. Merrill, captain ; H. J. 
Wolfe, first lieutenant ; and C. C. Smith, second lieutenant. The company was 
composed of about sixty volunteers. 

A .shirt factory also existed in Jesup in the spring of 1880, owned l\v R. and 
H. Cook. 

Tlie town of Jesup was incorporatt>d as a city on ilarch 8, 1876. The first 
officers were: John Anderson, mayor; (i. E. Marsh, recorder; H. M. Gray- 
ton, G. 0. Marsh, ^lurat Sayles, E. Parker and I. A. Stoddard, trustees. Fol- 
lowing Anderson us mayor came the following: H. M. Crayton, C. Hoyt, James 
Dalton, I. C. Underwood, James Dalton, R. L. Bordner, C. L. Bright, R. L. 



274 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

Bordner, and B. F. Stoddard is the present incumbent. The other officers at 
present are: C. M. Bright, treasurer; ilonroe H. Houser, clerk; S. C. Walker, 
H. B. Ham, F. H. Lunnemacker, C. B. Ganiere and 11. J. Werling, councilmen. 

In the election of March, 1881, the people voted to abolish saloons in the 
town and this decision has never been changed. 

The water supply of the city was first established as a public utility in 1903. 
The water was at firet piunped from wells by air pressure, but in August, 1911, 
this plant blew up. The city then constructed a tank tower, from which their 
water pressure is now obtained. The electric light plant of the city is owned 
by private individuals. Young and Frush. The plant was put in during the 
summer of 1913 and now is devoted to street ligliting almost exclusively. Gaso- 
line gas is used more in the residences. 

The Jcsup State Bank was organized October 11, 1901, and all stock was 
subscribed and paid in by November 30th of that year. The capital stock was 
$25,000. The first board of directors was composed of Ed Mullaney, J. H. 
Carey, John T. Burrell, Z. A. Comfort, C. L. Bright and M. R. Considine. 
J. H. Carey was the first president. Comfort the vice president, Bright the 
cashier. J. H. Carey passed to his death in September, 1905, and was suc- 
ceeded by Z. A. Comfort. John T. Burrell died in December, 1913, and was 
succeeded by il. R. Considine. Tlie bank opened for business on January 28, 
1902. Monroe H. Houser was employed as as.sistant cashier in November, 1905, 
and in January, 1913, C. R. Miller was employed as second assistant cashier. 
In 1912 the bank building was enlarged to suit the needs of the institution. 
The capital stock is the same now as at the beginning, the surplus is $18,000 
and the deposits amount to $240,000. 

The Farmers Bank of Jesup, of which the Farmei-s State Bank is the suc- 
cessor, was organized in 1879 as a private bank. Thomas Taylor was president ; 
J. A. Laird, vice president ; and George S. IMurphy, cashier. On December 30, 
1882, the affairs of the Farmers Bank of Jesup were cleared up and on the 
same date the First National Bank of Jesup, with $50,000 capital was organized 
by the former owners of the Farmers Bank. The officers of the National Bank 
were the same. On April 15, 1886, the shareholders of the First National 
voted unanimously to go into voluntary liquidation and very soon thereafter 
the affairs of the bank were closed up, all indebtedness being paid. On April 
15, 1886, the principal ownere of the National Bank again engaged in the bank- 
ing business under the name of Farmers Bank, a copartnership, with the same 
officers as those of the old First National. The Farmers Bank continued the 
banking business in Jesup until June 24, 1903, when it was succeeded by the 
Farmers State Bank, a corporation with $25^000 capital, organized under the 
laws of Iowa. Thomas Taylor was president of the Farmers Bank until it dis- 
solved and J. A. Laird and Isaac Neely were the vice presidents. James Dalton 
was cashier from December, 1888, until 1903. James Dalton was elected presi- 
dent and L. S. Hovey. vice president. M. E. Dalton and A. M. Dalton were at 
subsequent dates elected cashier. In 1910, W. W. Blasier, the present cashier, 
was elected. L. S. Hovey, the vice president, died late in the year 1913 and M. 
G. Young was elected vice president to succeed him. James Dalton was elected 
president of the Farmers State Bank in 1903 and has held this po.sition until 
the present time. 



HISTORY OP BUCHANAN COUNTY 275 

Another interesting topic- in Jesup is the newspapers. There have been 
many, so many in fact tluit they are eonfusing. The first newspaper in the 
town was the Jesup Recorder. This was started in the spring of 1869 by Cole 
and Shinner and continued for about a year, when it was removed to Earlville. 
In about 1874, W. H. Hutton started another sheet called tlie Jesup Vindicator, 
which, in the spring of 1S79, he moved to Independence and changed the name 
to the Buchanan County Messenger. This paper shortly died. George E. 
Roberts, now prominently connected with the treasury department of the United 
States, owned the Vindicator one year before he sold to Ilutton. On October 

10, 1879, A. H. Farwell established the Buchanan County Journal, which he 
conducted for several years, in 1881 moving tlie plant to Independence and 
joining the Bulletin, of that place. 

Perhaps no paper in the country had quite so checkered a career as the sheet 
which started in the '80s under the name of the Jesup Times. It was begun by 
C. E. Phifei'. who sold it to Carver and Losey, then Fred Cornish bought, and 
he sold Fred Kimball, who changed the name to The Critic, then Grout bought, 
then to Frank Vierth, then to Hutton, then to W. H. Haines, then to L. W. 
Smith, then the paper was closed out at sheriff's sale. Phifer and Dickinson 
then came into possession of the paper and they sold to Dickinson and Moore, 
then came Rudolph and D. W. Harmon, and then Harmon sold liis interest to 
Mr. Stark. Stark was running the ill-fated paper in November, 1899, when 
Mr. F. R. Place started the Citizens Herald. Stark called his paper the Critic. 
It lasted two years more after the establishment of the Herald, then sunk into 
the depths. Mr. Place subsequently changed the name of his paper to the Jesup 
News and has run the paper very successfully ever since, publishing on Thursday 
of each week. The business conducted by the publisher is known as the Place 
Printing Company. 

Perry Lodge No. 158, Independent Order of Odd Fellows, was organized at 
Jesup on January 21, 1868, with five charter members, namely : F. C. Merrill, 
Charles A. Wattles, Jonathan Richmond, R. S. Smith, and G. Harding. The 
lodge wa.s instituted by Sanford Wells, assisted by members from the Waterloo 
lodge. Eleven people were initiated on the first night. The first officers were: 

11. C. ilerrill, noble grand; Charles Wattles, vice gi'and; S. W. Kenyon, secre- 
tary; R. L. Smith, treasurer; E. B. Cook, permanent secretary. This lodge is 
still in flourishing condition and has about one hundred and sixty members. 
There is also a lodge of Rebekahs in the city. 

Parkersburgh Encampment No. 62 was organized at Parkersburgh, Butler 
Coimty, October 2, 1873. In the spring of 1880, having obtained a dispensation 
from the chief patriarch, it was removed to Jesup. 

The Ancient Free and Accepted Masons came into existence in Jesup in 1866. 
Among the early members were : J. M. Hovey, J. N. Hovey, R. 0. Laird, R. F. 
Williams, J. R. Jones, A. N. George, C. M. Newton, W. R. Harding, C. H. 
Kenyon, A. Strong, and R. S. Searls. The membership is now 150. 

There is also now a lodge of Knights of Pythias, Modern Woodmen of 
America, ^lodern Brotherhood of America, Mystic Toilers, and the Yeomen here. 
All have the ladies' auxiliary. 

John A. Davis Post, Grand Army of the Republic, was organized at Jesup 
in August, 1881, and named after Colonel Davis of the Seventy-sixth Illinois 



276 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

Infantry. The first members of this post were : C. C. Smith, C. W. Baldwin, 
T. J. Shane, J. J. Randall, H. Bordener, M. Cone, H. S. Rich, J. A. Ross, A. F. 
Tunks, J. Elliott, D. Clubine, D. Casnar, W. H. Dobell, W. Mosher, G. B. Thayer, 
and H. P. Riee. 

LITTLETON 

The year IH.jti was the first yeai' of the existence of this village. This year 
ushered in a store, hotel, blaeksuiith shop, saw and grist mill. Alention has been 
made of these features in tlie early settlement "dgseription of the township. At 
one time early in her career Littleton was known by the name Chatham. 

Littleton was on the boom in 1864 — their weekly package of mail eontained 
some two hundred and seventy-five papers, anil new business concerns were 
opening up. The mill property had passed exclusively into the hands of II. J. 
White & Stout and they proposed immediately to improve tlie mill and to carry 
on an extensive business in .sawing and grinding. Pleasant Grove Seminary 
was .situated in the suburbs of Littleton, under the profieicnt management of 
Professor Caldwell, and it was predicted in the paper that Littleton was destined 
to be a star of the first magnitude in the galaxy of cities in the great Northwest. 

Littleton seemed to have posse.s.sed the first threshing machine or the first 
one receiving public notice. It was owned by E. B. Cook and 6. Hovey of 
Perry Township. In 1.S6-1 Charles Reynolds was appointed as postmaster to fill 
the vacancy occasioned by .Martha Mosher having resigned. In 1910 the post- 
office was discontinued and Littleton is now served by two rural routes, one from 
Jesup and one from Independence. 

The growth of Littleton has been directly contrary to the great plans made 
in the early days. Thei-e is a very substantial class of people living in the 
village and vicinity, but the town as a town has not much of whieh to boast. 
Littleton and Otterville are very similar. Mention of the ehurches is made in 
the history of the township chnrciies. 

A Methodist Episcopal society was organized in Perry Township at tlie home 
of John Cameron in 1853. There were five members, John Cameron, Rachel 
Cameron, Thomas T. and Elizabeth Cameron and Lucinda Anderson. The first 
man to pi'cach to this small congregation was Reverend Ashcouch. After a few 
years tin- cliureh was transferred to Littleton, where the church exists at the 
present time. 

A Methodist society was organized at Jesup in IStiO and held their fir.st services 
in a hall and in a convenient schooliiouse. In the year 186!) they constructed a 
frame house of worshi|). valued at .'1^4,000. and later a commodious par.sonage 
was built. The early members of the Jesup church were: John Cameron and 
wife, John (looper, Famiie Cooper, R. L. Smith and wife. Bertha Smith, Charles 
Campbell, and Nancy (Campbell. Among some of the early pastors to this society 
were: J. Ilankins, Moore, Thomas, Eberhart, ilyers. Hardy, Castor, Brennan, 
Gedwick. Reverend Elwick is the present pastor. A house of wor.ship was con- 
structed in l!)()t) and also a jiarsonage. The congregation numbers about one 
hundred and seventy-five. 

The Baptist society in Jesup was organized in September, 1866. Their first 
services were held in Fuller's Hall and afterward, for the purpose of larger 





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HISTORY OP BUCHANAN COUNTY 277 

quarters, moved to the public schoolhouse. John FuUertoii is accredited as being 
the tirst preacher for tliis society. The compositiou of this society was made up 
of part of the Barclay church, which had disbanded, and the Jesup people of 
the faith. A splendid house of worship was dedicated on February 19, 1871. 
Among the earlier members of the church were: Mr. Abbott and wife, Jacob 
Wolfe and wife, William Smith and wife, Mrs. E. Parker, and T. S. Stone 
and wife. The church is now in charge of Reverend Eastman and the con- 
gregation numbers 150 people. The church building has been remodeled several 
times and a parsonage built. 

The first Presbyterian society in Jesup was organized June 4, 1853, in the 
northeast part of the township and was named the Pleasant Grove church. 
James S. Fullerton was the first preacher. The first members of this church 
were: Alexander Stevenson and wife, Robert AVroten and wife, Martin Depoy 
and wife, and iMrs. Susan Slaugliter. This society was transferred to Littleton 
in the fall of 1856, at a time when there were but twelve members. Rev. J. D. 

Caldwell wa.s the first preacher and he served many years, until . The first 

house of worship was constructed in 1865 at a cost of $1,000. The second and 
present house of worship was erected in 1899 and has been improved once. 
Reverend Knapp has a congregation of 150 people and the church is prosperous. 
The usual societies are active in the work of the society. 

The second Presbyterian society at Jesup was established April 2.0, 1856. 
This society was composed largely of former members of the Barclay church. 
J. D. Caldwell was the first preacher and a house of worship was built soon after 
the organization which cost approximately four thousand dollars. This church 
has been merged with the First Presbyterian, the union occurring some time 
in the '90s. 

The history of the St. Athanasius Catholic Church at Jesup dates back many 
year.s, or to 1863, when Rev. G. Gosker made occasional visits to Jesup and 
celebrated mass in private houses. Rev. J. Shields later came. In 1878 Rev. P. 
Burk succeeded Father Gosker as pastor of the church at Independence, with 
Jesup as a mission, and it was during this time, in 1880, that a Catholic chm'ch 
building was erected. In 1881 Father P. O'Dowd was appointed to the charge. 
Rev. J. J. Horsfield was next and is the present pastor. In 1895 a parsonage 
was erected and in 1898 a new church building was constructed. 

The first preaching services held in Perry Township were held in Alex- 
ander's log house. This was in the year 1852. Rev. David Gill, of Independence, 
was the preacher. The Presbyterian society was organized in the log school- 
house in the north part of the township on June 4, 1853, by Rev. James S. 
Fullerton and Elder Vaughn. The charter members were : Alexander and 
Mary A. Stevenson, Robert Wroten, Nancy Wroten, Martin L. Depoy, Sarah 
Depoy, and Susannah Slaughter. The first meeting was held on June 5, 1853. 
Until the fall of 1856 the meetings were held in the log .schoolhou.se, but in this 
year they were transferred to Littleton, to the stone schoolhouse. The church 
building at present in use was erected in 1865 at a cost of $1,000. Numerous 
times have improvements been made on this building until now it is comfortable 
and adequate in size for the congregation. The supplies of the church have 
been : Reverends David Gill, James S. Fullerton, J. D. Caldwell, John M. Boggs, 
E. C. Bennett, J. C. :Melrose, Garlock, E. G. Beyer, Daniel Russell, F. C. McKean, 



278 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

P. Y. Nichols, W. B. Phelps, aud L. Kiiapp. The congregation numbers seventy- 
five people. The church is known as the Pleasant Grove Presbyterian. 

SUMNER TOWNSHIP 

Sumner Town.ship was set apart as a separate township on March 7, 1857. 
The order of the court reads as follows: "And now, to-wit, March 7, 1857, it is 
ordered by the court that township 88, range 9, excepting sections 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 
and 12, Nos. % and 381^, section 13, and No. i/o, section 11, together with sections 
30, 31 and 32 in township 88, range 8, and sections 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 of town- 
ship 87, range 9, and section 6 of township 87, range 8, be set apart and 
organized into a separate precinct, to be called Sumner; and that an election 
be holden in said precinct on the first Monday in April next, at the house of 
John Ginther in said township, for the election of township officers, county 
assessor and district .JTulge, and such other oiScers as are by law to be selected 
at that time ; and that a warrant for such election is.sue to Norman A. Bassett, 
constable. Signed. 0. H. P. Roszell, county judge." 

The townsliip was named for the famous Massachusetts senator, Charles 
Sumner. 

Several changes have been made in the boundary line of the township since 
the original planning. Several sections have been taken from it and added to 
the original congressional townships from which they came. In 1878 the county 
board of supervisors ordered that the grounds for the Independence State Hos- 
pital for the Insane be separated from Sumner Township and annexed to Wash- 
ington Township. 

The first election in the township was held as planned in March, 1857, and 
the following officers elected: John Ginther, Jube Da.y, and William Boyack, 
trustees; B. W. Ogden, justice; and Norman A. Bassett, clerk. At this election 
there were only twelve votes cast. 

SETTLEMENT 

The first settler in the township was Michael Ginther. He settled here in 
the spring of 1847. He made the first entry of land in the township and con- 
nected with this occurrence there is a story. He was an uneducated man and 
when he made his entry he was at loss as to how to describe it. Not wishing 
to be wrong in his description he carried the corner stake to Dubuque, going 
there on foot for the purpose. Tlie climax comes when it was found afterward 
that the entire placing of the entry was wrong, the land being on the wrong 
section entirely. He had intended to buy the land on which he had settled and 
on which is the famous spring known as the Gintlier Spring, about half way 
between Quasqueton and Independence, on the west side of the river; and when 
he found the entry he had really made was one mile west, and out on the prairie, 
he was completely discouraged, lieing a poor man and believing that land so far 
out woidd never be any good whatever. Mr. Ginther voted at the fir.st election 
in the county. 

John Ginther. a brother of Michael, settled here in the year 1854 on a tract 
of land in the south part of the townshii:), where he lived his entire life. John 



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HISTORY OP BUCHANAN COUNTY 279 

Giuther was of German descent. He was one of the original organizers of the 
township, and it was at his house that the first election was held, also the first 
religious services. 

B. W. Ogden settled in the northern part of the township in 1853, coming 
here from the State of Ohio. He was a native of Frederick County, Virginia. 
He had been a school teacher prior to his coming to Iowa and when he got here 
he resumed his old occupation. He taught the first school in the township in 
his own log cabin. He was one of the .men instrumental in building the first 
regular sehoolhouse in the township and also taught the first term of school there. 

Jube Day settled in the western part of the township in 1855 and was one 
of the fir.st in that section. He was a native of ilassacliusetts. His residence 
in this township extended only to 1869, when he removed to Westburgh Town- 
ship. When he came to Sumner TowTiship his neighbors were all four miles or 
over from his home, with the exception of R. R. Beach, who settled here with 
Day. Beach in later years moved to Minnesota. 

Orlando Cobb settled hei-e in 1853, about a quarter mile south of Independence 
He developed a splendid farm on this spot, a farm which is still known as one 
of the best in the county. 

William Boyack, a Scotchman, came here in 1854 from the State of Illinois. 

J. W. Wheeler settled in the township in 1856 and for many years lived on 
the farm which he settled. 

SCHOOLS .\ND CHURCHES 

The first school in the township, as before stated, was taught in tlie winter 
of 1853, in the north part of the township, by B. W. Ogden. There were twelve 
scholars, many of them adults, studying primary courses. This was entirely 
a subscription school. The next winter there was a school at Michael Giuther 's, 
also conducted by Ogden. In 1858 a sehoolhouse was constructed in the northern 
part of the township, under the supervision of Ogden, who taught the first class 
at this place. Soon after another house was built in the Ginther district. Charles 
Lewis, later judge of the Eleventh Judicial Di-strict, Ida Shutlifif, Amelia Miller 
and Mrs. Sueler, were other first teachers in this community. Mrs. Sueler had 
her school in her own home. 

There have been no regulai'ly organized religious societies in this township, 
hut in the early days meetings were held in the schoolhouses and at private 
homes, conducted by some circuit rider. 

MISCELL.VNEOUS 

The first wedding in the township was that of James Palmer and Charlotte 
Ginther in 1856 and nearly the same time Fi-ancis iletcalf was married to 
Maria Palmer. B. W. Ogden performed both of these ceremonies. 

The first wheat raised in the township was by the hand of Michael Ginther. 

It is said that the first white child born here was Austin W. Ogden, on 
February 11, 1854. 

The first death was that of Mrs. William Applegate, in the winter of 1854. 
Exposure to the hardships of the season undermined her health. 



280 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

THE king's daughters 

In 1886 a few Christian women met togetlier in a neighborhood circle, in 
the City of New York, and because they felt the need of a bond of fellowship, 
not then existing between the denominations, the thought in the mind of each 
was to form an organization that shoukl "develop spiritual life and stimulate 
Christian activities. ' ' 

From the fact of their being but ten of them and because of the idea pre- 
sented in the "ten times one is ten" series by Edward Everett Hale, then 
popular, the suggestion that they call themselves," The King's Daughters," was 
made and the order was founded. 

The badge of the order is the Silver Maltese Cross, with the initial letters 
of the watchword of the order, "In His Name," and the word "Seal" on one 
side and the date 1886 on the other, worn with or without the purple rilibon. 

The motto of the order is: 

"Look up, not down 
Look out, not in, 
Look forward, not back 
And lend a helping hand." 

Three of the young women of Sunnier Township, visiting in neighboring 
states in 1892, first learned of the order, and out of this grew a circle that has 
grown as did the original one, out of all proportion to the thought of those who 
started the suggestion. 

The Silver Cross Circle of the King's Daughters was organized in June, 
1893, with the following charter members: Lucy Tidd (Straw), deceased; 
Alma Rosmer (Palmer), Alice Warburton (Meythaler), Margaret Meythaler 
(Hood), Mary Hintz (Van Eman), Garden City, Kansas; Minnie Chapman, and 
Can-ie Warburton (Harter). 

Gertrude Cornwell, Julia Gates, deceased; Bertha and Edith Bolton, were 
also among tho.se who joined in the first few mouths. 

The circle now has a membership of thirty-five, with former members in 
Washington, Kansas, Missouri and Illinois. Its members have been instrumental 
in forming circles in Kansas and Illinois and several points in Iowa, and from 
one of these latter members grew the first Greek letter organization of the 
University of Iowa. 

The circle aims to live up to its watehward and motto and so has been able 
to help those in need, not so much by financial assistance as by sympathy and 
the helping hand. 

LINCOLN LITERARY CIRCLE OF SUMNER TyOWNSHIP 

Feeling the lack of knowledge of many country neighborhoods in curi'ent 
events and a review of the life and works of our pojtular authors and writers, 
a few of the women of Sumner Township met at the home of Mrs. W. II. 
Warburton, Februai'y 12, 1903, to talk up an organization of some kind. 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 281 

The result was the L. L. C. — Lincoln Literary Circle — so called from the 
fact of the first meeting being on Lincoln's birthday (Febniai-j- 12th). The 
motto of the circle is, "With Malice Toward None, with Charity for All." 

The first oflieers were: Mrs. Mary Oglesbee, president; Mrs. Anna Hintz, 
vice president ; ilrs. Alice Meythaler, secretary and treasurer. 

The charter members were: ^Irs. Oglesbee, Mrs. Funk, Sarah Cornwell, 
Mi-s. Cates, Mrs. Wilson, Mrs. Van Eman, Mrs. Hintz, Mrs. Alice Meythaler, 
Cora Cornwell, Misses ^linnie Chapman, Gertrude Cornwell, Carrie Warburton 
(Barter). 

Meetings are held monthly, on the second Thursday, at the homes of the 
members and during the years of its organizatinn the ciri-lc has reviewed the lives 
of many of the men and women of our country prominent in all walks of life, 
aiming to always keep uppermost our motto. Once or twice a year musical 
programs are given. During the four winter months the circle holds all-day 
sessions, a picnic dinner, the families of the members being present. 

The present officers are Mrs. C. B. Webb, president; Mrs. E. W. Johnson, 
vice president ; and Mrs. Chas. Randall, secretary and treasurer. 

WASHINGTON TOWNSHIP 

The tirst organization uf Washington Township by order of the courts was as 
early as the year 1848. It then included the congressional townships of Wash- 
ington. Hazleton, Perry and Fairbank. In the above mentioned year, an elec- 
tion was held for AVashington Township, and Isaac Hathaway, John Scott and 
John Obenchain were appointed judges of the election. No record of this elec- 
tion was kept, however, and the result has been lost as a consequence. 

Perhaps the first settlement made in territory' now comprised in W^ashing- 
ton Township was made by Isaac Hathaway in September, 1845, about two 
miles east of Independence. He entered the land upon which he settled. When 
Hathaway first came he found a rude hut constructed of poles hewn from the 
nearby timber, but as to who constructed the crude dwelling he had no knowl- 
edge, nor did he ever learn. During the winters of 1845 and 1846 they came 
to Centre Point for corn, paying twenty-five cents a bushel for it. They called 
this place Egypt. When Mr. Hathaway settled here there were no settlers north 
of him in the county, nor west in the township. His nearest neighbors at this 
time were Henry Baker in Byron Township, three miles east, E. G. AUen, 
Joseph Collier and Gamaliel Walker in Liberty Township, five miles south. 
Early in the spring of 1846 Hathaway constnicted a log house for the better 
accommodation of his family. Supplies came mostly from Dubuque at this 
time, with the exception of those brought from the one little store at Quasque- 
ton and a mill owned by Davis & Thompson, where they ground corn. The 
abundance of game, however, kept their table well supplied with meat during 
the months when travel was difficult. 

The next spring Mr. Hathaway raised his first crop of wheat, forty bushels, 
and fenced in eighty acres of land. Mr. Hathaway made other improvements 
from time to time and was fairly prosperous or as much so as the early settler 
could be. Hathaway was born in the State of New York, came to Ohio when a 
young man and married there, and from this. state went successively to Michi- 



282 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

gan, Wisconsin, Illinois and then Iowa. He lived in Iowa for about twelve 
years, then sold out and moved back to Ohio, but shortly returned to this state, 
bought a farm near Greeley's Grove, where he remained for about five years 
when he again became restless and moved to Cedar County, where he lived 
until his death in 1872. 

The first school taught in Washington Township was conducted in Hatha- 
way 's log home in the winter of 1846. 

John Obenchain became a settler in this township in the spring of 1846. 
He was the first after Hathaway and was located about three miles from his 
home. He obtained funds at the start by raising hogs and then drawing them 
to Dubuque. He built a rude shanty and began to break praii-ie with a yoke 
of oxen. He was a native of Virginia. In 1850 Obenchain went to California, 
attracted by the gold fever of the times, but came back again in 1853 and lived 
here until 1860, when he started for Oregon, where he spent the remaining 
years of his life. 

Oscar Wickham settled in the north part of the township in the spring of 
1846, and constmcted a rude cabin. He was a native of the State of Ohio. He 
left here after a few years' residence and went to Linn County, then to Fay- 
ette County, then to Kansas. His whereabouts after this are not known. 

Michael Ginther came about the same time as Wickham. In fact, they lived 
together in the same house. In 1850 he moved into Sumner and is credited 
as being the first settler in that place. 

On November IS, 1846, Thomas Barr became a settler of Washington Town- 
ship. He built his home in the north part on land which he entered from the 
Government. He lived for many years in the township and was one of its most 
honored members. 

John Boone settled in the township in November, 1846, entered his land 
and built on the site later occupied by the county poorhouse. After living here 
about one year he sold his place to I. F. Hathaway and removed one mile away, 
in the same townshii), purchased 200 acres of land, built a house and began 
the making of improvements. He and Isaac Hathaway built a log house and 
hii'ed a teacher in the winter of 1847. Boone was always noted as a hunter 
and trapper. His death occurred May 22, 1881. 

OTTERVILLE 

Otterville is the i.mly village located in the township and is located near 
Otter Creek, about half a mile from its junction with the Wapsie. This village 
was platted about the year 1857, by Robert T. Young, who owned the ground. 
One of the first industries to be established in this place was a sawmill, owned 
and operated by James Dyer in 1854. Three years later there was a gristmill. 
The former was abandoned in 1878. The year after the sawmill was established 
a wagon shop wa,s opened by Enoch and Zaehariah Hall; and a blacksmith 
shop was started by Homer Sanders. 

The postoffice of Otterville was opened about the year 1860 and the first 
postmaster was George L. Wilcox. His immediate successors were Mr. Ostran- 
der, S. H. Stanard, George Sprague and J. T. Anderson. This office was dis- 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 283 

continued on July 15, 1902 and Otterville is now served from Independence 
by a rural mail carrier. 

The first store was established in the village in the winter of 1861, and was 
kept by various parties until 1875. The store kept mostly groceries and other 
general merchandise. 

A hotel was opened to the public in 1863, by Mr. Robertson. This hostelry 
did business for about twelve years. 

The first bridge across the Otter at this point was built in 1868. 
■ The Methodist Episcopal religious organization was established in the Vil- 
lage of Otterville during the first year of the Civil war. This church is still 
in existence and has a present membership of about forty-five. The records 
of this church were not procurable, so that tlie detailed history of the society 
is impossible. This society did disband prior to the organization of tlie Pres- 
byterian, but about 1895 reorganized. 

The Presbyterian Church at Otterville was first organized on May 19, 1889. 
Previous to this time there had been no attempt at organization, due to the 
lack of members. The coming of several letter members of the Pleasant Grove 
Church at Littleton made the church possible. Among these were: J. C. 
Wroten, J. W. and Mary A. Flummerfelt, Mrs. Adelia Bright, Mrs. Elizabeth 
O'Brien, Caroline L. Smith, John Slaughter, E. J. Slaughter, S. D. Trego, 
G. L. Trego, Ida Trego, the latter three being from the Baptist Church at 
Littleton. The society having been organized, interest once more seemed to 
lag, and not until November, 1892, did the people become really active again. 
At this time renewed interest was taken and the society steadily grew. The 
new church building was dedicated on August 30, 1896, with quite elaborate 
ceremonies. The church membership at the present time, 1914, is over one 
hundred active members. 

UNION GRANGE PAIR 

In thje year 1872 the Union Grange No. 525 of Otterville, conceived the 
idea of giving an annual fair, for the exhibit of stock, cereals and other farm 
products, the same to be sectional in interest and devoted to the improvement 
of agriculture of the township and county. The first fair was given in that year 
and, with one or two interruptions, has been given every year since. No admis- 
sion is charged to the exhibit, which is shown under canvas tents, and the 
premiums, some of them cash, are paid from a sum donated hj the ones inter- 
ested. Thus, the fair in almost every respect but size, is similar to the Hazle- 
ton District Fair. The Otterville fair is generally held in the first week of 
October. 

WESTBURGH TOWNSHIP 

Westburgh Township was organized in the fall of 1860, by order of the 
County Court, reading as follows: "In the County Court of said county: 
Be it known that, on the petition of M. D. Weston and others, the court afore- 
said, this 6th day of August, A. D. 1860, constitutes and forms a new towiiship, 
88, range 10, in said county ; and it is ordered by the court aforesaid that the 



284 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

new township thus formed be called by the iiaiiie of Westburgh, in accord with 
the wishes of the voters thereof." 

The name of the township was selected when the residents met at the house 
of one of the settlers to take the steps necessary for presenting the petition to 
the court asking for township organization. M. D. Weston, who lived in the 
north part, desired to have the new township named Weston, but the people in 
the southern part of tlie township woukl not have it unless the suffi.x "bui'gh"' 
was substituted for the "on." 

The first election was held at the house of John R. Sabiu. There were sixteen 
voters in the township at that time, all of whom were there but J. W. Goen, 
who was ill. I. N. Myers was chosen clerk at this election ; John Bowder, 
assessor ; M. D. Weston, P. G. Davis and Eli Lozer, trustees ; John R. Sabin and 
D. M. Noyes, justices; Isaac A. Williamson and R. A. Whitlock, constables; and 
Eli Lozer, road supervisor. Every man was given an otifice with the exception 
of Robert Stewart, W. B. Wilkinson, J. R. Noyes, Benjamin Cain and Peter 
Cox. At the election in 1880, 150 votes were cast, showing the growth in the 
township in the intervening years. 

FIRST SETTLEMENTS 

The first permanent settlement in the township was made by Peter Cox, who 
came here in 1849 with his mother from Indiana, and built the first cabin in 
the section. About a month after settling he purchased his land from the 
Government. 

D. M. Noyes settled in the township with his family in 1S59. He was a 
prominent man in the organization of the township and served as one of the 
first nuigistrates. He lived hei'e for eight years, then moved to Michigan, but 
later returned and lived at Jesup. He was a native of Vermont. 

Peter Ham came in 1855 and settled on land entered from the Government. 
J. 11. Goen came from Indiana in 1857. His son L. W. was one of the first 
editors of the Conservative at Independence. L. B. Wilkinson and family came 
to this state and settled here in 1855 on section 31. John R. Sabin and family 
came from Indiana in 1856 and settled near the center of the township. The 
first election was held at his home on account of its central location. Philip 
Ham came in 1856, but soon after moved to the State of Illinois. Patrick Shine, 
a native of Ireland, settled in the township in 1857. ^I. D. Weston, mentioned 
in the petition to the County Court for the organization of the township, came 
with his family in 1858. About ten years later he went to Dakota and there 
died. John Bowder settled here in the year 1854. His house was the second 
that stood in the township. This home wa,s made of slabs driven down into the 
ground. A hole cut in the wall, before wliich hung a buftalo skin, served him 
as a door. Bowder lived here until 1862, when he removed to Jefferson Towii- 
ship. 

MISCELL.\NEOUS 

The first wedding in the township was that of Isaac A. Wilkinson to Mary E. 
Noyes on May 3, 1864. Rev. Edwin Champlin performed the ceremony. 




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HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 285 

The first school in the township was opened in 1861 at the house of D. M. 
Noyes, and there were ten scholars. George Fuller was the teacher. The same 
winter there was another one at the house of William H. Wilkinson, with eight 
scholars, taught by Libby Murphy. The next spring two schools were built, 
one near the residence of D. M. Noyes and another near the center of the town- 
ship close to the home of Peter Ham. Mary E. Noyes taught one of the schools 
the following summer. Among the early teachers were George Fuller, Mary E. 
Noyes. I. N. Myer and Edward Noyes. 

The postoffice at the settlement of Vista was discontinued on December 31, 
1904. 

The Methodist Church at Vista has been organized since 1878. The church 
at present has thirty-five members and is in charge of Rev. H. Wyrick, living 
east of Jesup. An old church constructed by the Baptists years ago is now 
used for services. 



CHAPTER XIV 
COUNTY FAIRS 

THE FIRST COUNTY FAIR THE BUCHANAN COUNTY AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY 

FIRST BUCHANAN COUNTY FAIR 

Tlie iiv^t uotiee of a county fair appeared in the Indepeudeiiee Civilian of 
July 23, 1857. It had been suggested by a number of individuals that the 
citizens of Buchanan County should take measures to form a "County Agri- 
cultural Fair" to be held in such town as determined upon by the committee 
appointed for that purpose, and in order to get the people interested to offer 
premiums to exhibitors for the best specimens of farm produce. It was thought 
perhaps the season was too far advanced for that year, but the meeting should 
be called and the ball put in motion for next year. Accordingly several meet- 
ings were held which culminated in a county fair being held in Independence 
October 13 and 14, 1858. In the Quasqueton Guardian of February 25, 1858, 
appeared a call "to the farmers of Buchanan County" and all others interested 
in the formation and maintenance of a county agricultural society, in view of the 
importance as well as benefits derived from a properly organized and well 
regulated agricultural society, were invited to meet at Morse's Hall, in Inde- 
pendence, on Saturday, ilareh 20, 1858, to perfect such an organization. This 
notice was signed by forty-one of the prominent business men and farmers of 
the county. Pursuant to this call, a meeting was held and an organization 
perfected and a constitution was adopted. Dr. H. S. Chase was elected president 
of the enterprise and Abiatlia Richardson, David Jlerrill, Newman Curtis as 
vice president; L. W. Hart, secretary; 0. H. P. Roszell, treasurer, and Jolui 
Smyzer, William Logan, .Rufus Conable, William H. Elliott and Charles Hooker 
were elected as directors. Committees were appointed and the officers and 
especial committees were delegated to solicit members and money for the society, 
and 200 hand bills advertising the society were published and scattered through- 
out the county. A board of managers, consisting of five members from each 
township in the county, were appointed ; this made fifty-five on the board, as 
there were only eleven townships. S. S. JlcChire was appointed chief marshal. 
Premiums were offered on much the same things as now days, on farm animals, 
field, orchard and garden produce, dairy and household manufactured articles, 
including many things which now appear in the Floral Hall premium lists and 
what was of an entirely different class was the mechanics' work department 
divided into first, second and third classes. In the mechanics' work the list 
included almost everything that ever was or could be manufactured in the 

287 



288 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

eounty — the first class offered premiums on twenty-four different articles, most 
of which were farm machinery. In tlie mechanics" work — second class — premiums 
were offered on seven articles, all of which pertained to leather industries (boots, 
shoes, harness and tlie different kinds of tanned leather comprised the list). 
This at tirst promised to be one of the most important industries of the county. 
Tlie third class offered premiums on six different industries, as follows, best 
specimen of cabinet work; best .specimen of tailor's work; best specimen of tin- 
ware, not less than five pieces; best specimen of blacksmith work, not les.s than 
three pieces; best specimen of carriage or sign painting, and best specimen of 
printing. In the household nutnufacturers' class the unu.sual premiums were 
best piece of tlannel — not less than ten yards, best five palm leaf hats, best two 
pounds of stocking yarn, best three pairs woolen socks, best three pairs woolen 
mittens, best pair of ten quarter woolen blankets, lie.st pair of shirts. One dollar 
and 50 cents were the premiums awarded on these articles. We give these lists 
so one can get an idea of what were tlie various employments and accomplish- 
ments of those early pioneers, what their necessities and lu.xuries of fine arts 
embraced, ilany of these classes had no entries and many, though having a 
small number, were exceptionally good for that early day. 

In the first class awards were given on the best two-horse wagon.s, best buggy, 
best ox yoke, best specimen horseslioeing. In the second class awards for best 
dressed calf skins, best coarse boots, best ladies' shoes. The third clas.s was 
for best specimen blacksmith's work — three pieces. The premiums were 50 
cents and $1.00 on these different articles. 

It is interesting to read these lists and compare the difference between the 
early fairs and those of today ; for instance, a premium of .$3.00 was given for 
the best 25 pounds of May or June butter. Imagine this profligacy when now 
the fair committees are glad to get entries of pound packages. One dollar and 
fifty cents for best sample of butter made in September; $1.00 for 12 pounds 
September butter; $1.00 for jar of brandy cheese. 

Premiums were offered for best sweet potatoes, best gallon of Chinese sugar 
and cane sugar; only two premiums were oft'ered on domestic cookery — best loaf 
of bread and best specimen of cooking — not designated what kind of material. 

Among the premiums for miscellaneous articles were the following: A 
premium of $2.00 was offered for map of Independence drawn with a pen; 
this was awarded to Thornton & Ross. This was a very, creditable piece of work 
and afterwards these men had copies printed and sold them throughout the 
county. Now there are only a few in existence and are treasured highly. 
Two dollars for bits, augurs and gun work ; $2.00 for 1 dozen domestic cigars ; 
50 cents for roast of beef (who wouldn't give 50 cents for a roast of beef, even 
without a premium attached). 

Seventeen awards were given on horses in fifteen different classes. Thirteen 
awards were given on cattle in nine different classes. Oxen and steers entered 
were required to be presented in the yoke with a chain to secure them, and be 
accompanied with a suitable person to take charge of them. The connnittee on 
working oxen and four-year-old steers had to try the cattle presented for 
premiums, both on wagon and chain, and award the premiums for the best 
working cattle, considering their docility, training, close matching, strength, 
size and beautv. Only one entry in sheep was made, although premiums on 



HISTORY OP BUCHANAN COUNTY 289 

eight classes were ofEered and although there were several flocks in the county. 
Five awards were given on pigs in a like number of classes. 

Only three awards were given on poultry. One field crops awards were 
given — $5.00 for the best acre of wheat, -i^S.OO best acre of corn, $1.50 best acre 
of potatoes, $3.00 best acre of Vermont eight-rowed yellow flint corn. One fine 
thing was the amounts given to the committees in chai'ge of the different depart- 
ments and authorizing them to recommend discretionary premiums upon such 
articles and animals if they deemed the same to be highly meritorious, although 
tliey might not come within the list of premiums, and such awards would be 
paid at the annual meeting in January, where all premiums were paid if the 
funds would possibly admit. The society were furnished the courthouse for the 
display of manufactured, fancy and household articles, and for fruit, vegetables, 
grain, etc. Hay would be furnished gratis during the fair for all stock pre- 
sented for premiums. 

For special attractions there was a Ladies' Equestrian Performance, three 
prizes awarded for the best exhibition of horsemanship, a silver cup worth $8.00 — 
for the second best, a $6.00 riding hat; for the third prize a ■i!4.00 riding whip. 

This exhibition was the center of interest in the entire two days' program. 
There were six entries in the contest, all popular young women of the town. 
The exhibition was to take place at the race course which then occupied the 
grounds of the West Side School Building. It was the opinion of the judges 
that the horses were generally inferior while the riding was uniformly good. 

There was a plowing match too, but this did not command the attention 
that the riding contest from the fact that plowing was a very common, every 
day occurrence. The exhibition closed with an excellent address by C. A. L. 
Roszell and the reading of the premiums by Colonel Thomas. 

The omens were not as au.spicious for a complete success as could be desired 
on account of the weather which on the first day was cold, blustering and stormy 
but the second day the weather-man clianged his attitude toward the enter- 
prise and gave his sanction to it by doling out a very propitious temperature 
and climate. The different committees generally made their awards impar- 
tially and to the general satisfaction of everyone. It was the opinion of 
some of the judges that though several fine horses were exhibited, the display 
was inferior to what the county was capable of producing ; in cattle there were 
thirty-two entries, some of them very fine, showing even at that early day 
one of Buchanan's specialties was foreshadowed. The display of swine was 
quite creditable, the finest specimens were of the Suffolk variety. The display 
of poultry was not large but the varieties exhibited were fine, among them 
some Chittagong fowls, probably an extinct variety. In sheep, as we have 
mentioned previously, there was but one entry, that a fine nn rii o buck and 
ewe belonging to C. H. Jakway, now of Aurora, one of the first importers of 
sheep in the state; an anecdote connected with Mr. Jakway was that he once 
offered a pail of fine butter in Independence for 4 cents per lb. and could not 
find a purchaser. 

The fruit and vegetable exhibit was pronounced excellent — some fine large 
sweet potatoes were exhibited by E. B. Older and a radisli 2 feet in length and 
12 in. in circumference, which was grown in Jefferson TowTiship by Jlr. Romig. 

Vol. I— la 



290 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

Mr. Romig also exhibited samples of white and yellow seed corn whieh had 
produced 75 to 80 bu. per acre that year. 

Some of the Chinese sugar cane syrup presented was pronounced equal 
to the best golden syrup tlien in market. Mr. Latbrops and Jlr. Reed's were 
especially fine. The butter entries were all of a superior (luality. The one 
entry in cheese was of excellent quality. 

This society, of which we have given a very detailed account, deeming an 
Agricultural Pair, one of the most important interests of a farming com- 
munity continued in existence hut al)out four years. A good deal of interest 
was manifest and the displays continued very ereditable considering the imper- 
fect development which had at that time been made of the agricultural resources 
of the county. It was found difficult, however, to keep up the interest, for the 
lack of funds to offer attractive premiums, and the organization therefore 
was soon abandoned. At their 4th Annual Fair, in 1862, there was a fine exhibi- 
tion of sweet potatoes and a s(|uash weighing 104 lbs., also fine specimens of 
sorghum, syrup and sugar. For several years the show of cattle and horses 
of the Buchanan Comity Agricultural Society was on the ground west of the 
Empire House. That of domestic manufactures was in the rooms of the hotel 
and the secretary had his office in the east room during the fair. 

In 1866 a second society was organized, held two fairs, very much of the 
same character as the previous ones, and was then abandoned like the other. 
Neither of these societies owned any ground or other real estate. Their means 
for defraying expenses, paying premiums, etc., were derived from member- 
ship fees ($1 annually from ^"ach member) and .1i200 contributed by the state 
for each fair held. The.se sources of revenue being found insuftieient, the 
joint stock plan of organization, then common througliout the state, was 
finally adopted. 

The next agricultural association adopting that plan was organized in 
1869, and held its first fair the following year. The first officers were as fol- 
lows: L. S. Curtis, president; J. II. Campbell, treasurer; Jed Lake, secretary. 
The capital stock originally subscribed was $6,000, to which was added soon 
after the organization $600 more. This was increased by a donation of $1,000, 
made by the county in accordance with a law of the state. All this not being 
sufficient to meet the estimated expense of an equipment that should enable 
the society to make "a fair start,"" it proceeded to borrow $1,500 — making its 
entire outfit $9,200. AVith this money it purchased about sixty acres of land, 
owned by James Burns, aliout lialf a mile west of Independence,- being a imrt 
of the northeast quarter of section 5, towmship 88, range 9 ; enclosed it with a 
close substantial board fence ; built along its south and western sides con- 
venient stalls and sheds for cattle, a stable one hundred feet in length for 
hor.ses, and an octagonal fioral hall twenty-two feet on each side, graded a half- 
mile race track, and dug four excellent wells. The aggregate expense of all 
this was .$9,100. The main hall was two stories high, with a wing on one of its 
sides 22 feet in width by 60 in length. This wing is used for the exhilntion 
of fruits and vegetables, while the main hall was devoted to flowers, articles 
of domestic manufacture, works of art, etc. 

Fairs have been held annually ever since this society was organized, A'hich 
have always been successful, pecuniarily, and for the most part creditable to 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 291 

the farming interests of the county, which should be the chief care of such 
an organization. 

The capital stock of the society is divided into 200 shares, one-half of 
which are owned by Jed Lake, Esq., the most of the other half being held by 
the farmers throughout the county. The society is still in debt about one 
thousaaid two hundred dollars. 

Eventually "the Agricultural Pair" became, honestly speaking, the "Annual 
County Races," and in the days when Independence was a veritable hot-bed 
for speed and breed in horse flesh — the races were the chief attraction of the 
entire fair and even in 1880 the former historian decries the fact tha^ racing 
was being made such a prominent feature and was the absorbing interest of 
the fair and proves his statement by saying that on Thursday, the first day 
devoted to that part of the exhibition — 1,900 tickets were sold at the gate, 
how would he exclaim if he had known the figures of the 1891-2 fair when thou- 
sands crowded every available space on the grounds to see the fast hoi"se races, 
and for no other purpose and on that memorable daj^ when Axtell and Aller- 
ton raced each other in a record breaking heat. 

A County Agricultural Society was organized in the county on March 26th, 
1886, l)y a number of prominent men. On the 27th a. meeting was held at the 
courthouse and S. T. Spangler was chosen president; L. J. Dunlap, vice 
president; F. B. Bonniwell, secretary; and F. A. Weatherbee, treasurer. It 
considered renting the old county fair grounds at the Rush Park site for the fair 
that year, and possibly to buy the grounds later. 

This Association was conducted with various degrees of success, mostly 
in a less degree. If judged from a financial standpoint although the Associa- 
tion endeavored to do its part and give the people a good fair. But a fair, 
cannot be conducted successfully on "good intentions" alone and the Associa- 
tion did not have the cooperation of the farmers either in their attendance or 
exhibits, and this fact too, did not wan-ant expensive attractions. 

In January, 1909, the Fair Association was entirely reorganized, a stock 
company formed, of which the representative farmers and business men are 
the stockholders. One hundred and fifty-four shares of stock were sold. W. JI. 
"Woodward was elected president, A. H. Farwell secretary and W. A. Tidball 
treasurer and eleven directors were named. Since this organization was per- 
fected the Fair ha.s been steadily prospering, and with the "Booster" spirit 
manifested it is expected that the Buchanan County Fair is scheduled to be one 
of the big fairs in the state. 

THE BUCHANAN COUNTY AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY 

In January, 1891, the Buchanan County Agricultural Society bought thirty 
acres of land of Thomas Scarcliff, just north of the Illinois Central Depot 
grounds, and in the spring began improving it for the permanent, County Fair 
Grounds. 

The site selected is considered to have much natural beauty, easily accessible,, 
and makes one of the finest fair grounds in the state. The society is controlled 
and almost wholly officered by farmers. Subscription papers were placed in 
the hands' of the township assessors and every one had an opportunity to show 



292 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

their good will toward the society. No one was asked to subserihe a large amount 
but all were expected to give something, from 50 cents to $5. 

In 1897 the fair attractions eclipsed all previous records, the association 
having secured the "Doctor Car-ver Combination" which consisted of Dr. W. P. 
Carver, champion rifle and wing shot of the world and the high diving horses, 
which dove from a platform forty feet high into a twenty-foot tank of water. 
An immense crowd witnessed both of these marvelous performances. 

The Buchanan County Fair of 1904 was one of the most successful for years. 
On Thursday probably 7,000 people visited the fair, the big attraction was the 
appearance of the noted Carrie Nation. She delivered her temperance address 
and had an attentive, appreciative audience. After the speech, several minutes 
were devoted to selling her souvenir hatchets and throngs of people invested in 
the trinket, the proceeds from the sales to be devoted to the temperance cause. 
The exhibitions were exceptionally good and the weather ideal. 

Other special features which have attracted immense crowds were the diving 
elks, and in 1911, Otto W. Brodie was secured by Secretary Rigby to give exhi- 
bitions with his flying machine, a "Farnum Biplane." It was rather a disap- 
pointment in some respects, the machine was so old and hard to manage that only 
one successful flight was made, that on the first day when in alighting he 
seriously injured his machine. 

But in spite of this fact it was a novel sight and well worth the money, as 
very few in the county had seen an aeroplane. In 1912, the chief attraction 
was the automobile given away to the one holding the lucky ticket — and souvenir 
spoons with each admission was another drawing card. 

In 1913 extensive improvements were made on the grounds — an addition 
equal in size to the original amphitheater was built on the north of the old one, 
new gate-ways, fences, stalls, etc., were added. 

In 1914, Micky jMcGuire, "The Wild Irish Rose," was the star attraction and 
gave three flights a day, of the most marvelous, thrilling and hair-raising feats. 
He is a fearless spectacular aeronaut and the immense crowds were spell- 
bound. Flower-decorated carriages was also a big attraction. One novel feature 
was the night fair. AU attractions were open, the grounds brilliantly il- 
luminated and besides the regular performance, splendid fireworks drew a large 
crowd out every night. 

On Thursday, the largest crowd that ever attended a Buchanan County Fair 
poured through the gates. Both amphitheaters were packed and standing room 
along the entire west half of the track was at a premium. Hundreds of automo- 
biles were crowded in the half mile. 

The following named persons have been secretaries : 

Jed Lake, C. W. Williams, George H. Wilson, T. B. Bonniwell, A. H. Far- 
well, J. W. Foreman, A. II. Farwell, C. W. Stites, Charles L. King, P. G. Free- 
man, A. G. Rigby, J. S. Bassett, and Perry J. Miller. 



CHAPTER XV 
INTERNAL IMPROVEMENTS 

PUBLIC HIGHWAYS — BRIDGES RAILROADS MAILS AND MEANS OP COMMUNICATION 

— THE TELEGRAPH — THE TELEPHONE 

PUBLIC HIGHWAYS 

All land originally belongs to the Government and is apportioned to the in- 
habitants by certain defined methods, such as lotteries, runs, claims, etc. The 
private ownership of land must necessarily be subject to the convenience of 
public need, and the rights of the individual are subservient to the just demands 
of a community. About the first and most necessary thing to claim the attention 
of the authorities, after a city or county is organized, is the establishment of 
pulilic highways. Often before the seftU'ment of a new county the State or Na- 
tional Government establishes some roads. Sometimes these are kept as or- 
iginally laid out, but more frequently, perhaps, have to be changed or given up, 
entirely. Two such roads were already in existence at the time of its organiza- 
tion. One of these was established by the authority of the Territoi-y of "Wiscon- 
sin, and extended in a southeasterly direction from Port Atkinson in Winnesheik 
County to Marion, in Linn County, that being its southern terminus. Its course 
through the county was nearly straight south, passing near where Winthrop 
is now located and cross the Wapsipinicon at Quasqueton. It was called the 
Mission Road, because it passed through an early Indian Mission in Wisconsin 
Territory and was partly designed for its accommodation. 

Another laid out in 1846, was from i\Iarion to the north line of the state, 
crossing the river at Quasqueton, but running three or four miles west of the 
Mission Road. 

In this new, unsettled country, before the state and county roads were es- 
tablished, the early pioneers followed such routes as were best suited to their con- 
venience, from house to house, neighborhood to neighborhood, and village to 
village. The Indians, too, followed their inclinations and natural intuitions. 
Their trails crossed the prairies from stream to stream, leading to easy fording 
places, and well-worn paths led up and down the rivers and touched every 
clear and bubbling spring. These Indians were visible many years after the 
country was settled, but the latter day settlers supposed them to be merely cattle 
paths. It would have been wise to have marked all these early trails, then 
all this obscurity and discussion over historical facts would not have been. As 
is evident in every phase of historical research, too little attention is paid to 
the minor things of life. The importance of these things is just now beginning 

293 



294 HISTORY OP BUCHANAN COUNTY 

to 1)e appreciated and historical and patriotic societies, like the S. A. R. and 
D. A. R. are marking tliese early Indian and wagon trails throughont tlie coun- 
try. In Buchanan County, even after the county seat had been located, and 
the Town of Jndepentlence laid out theoretically into lot.s and streets, there was 
nothing to distinguish streets from lots; even IMain Street was only a crooked 
wagon path through the brushes. One of the early settlers informs us that at the 
east end of the Main Street Bridge the street hollowed down about five or six 
feet lower than it is at present, and a slanting appi'oach was built up to the old 
bridge. All north of Main Street, was oak woods aiul hazel brush. There was 
one old sluimbling bai'n — aliont at the corner- oX Main and Chatham streets. 
Independence proper, that is, the l)usiness portion, was situated farther east, in 
tlie old King's Opera House and IMorse Block and on South IMain. There was a 
crooked wagon road cut through the timber north to the old Smyser Farm, 
crooked still, in the northeastern part of Independence, cro.ssing Malone's Creek, 
near the old Brewer and the W. H. (iift'ord places and thence east to the Elzy 
Wilson P^'arm and from there, following the timber to Qiu)si|ueton, aliout where 
the regular travelled road now is. There was another road north, up ]iast the 
Sprague Farm and across the prairie toward the old Thomas Barr place and up 
Otter Creek, but so faint as to lie scarcely discernible. There was neither road 
nor track up the river, except an Indian trail ; and not even that across the 
prairie to the west, nor to the east beyond the timber nor out toward Brandon 
or Buffalo Grove. To venture two miles west on the prairie, was about as dan- 
gerous as to venture to sea, out of sight of land, without a compass. The mail 
was carried once a week to Cedar Falls, on an Indian pony. But there were 
no marks of any kind to guide the carrier ; and, if, by careful observations, he 
"kept within a mile of the direct cour.se, it was quite a feat of prairie craft. 
The mail came once a week from Dubuque to Independence, via Quasqueton, in a 
one-horse wagon ; Imt there was not a bridge in the county, nor across any 
stream between Independence and Dubuque, nor any regidar ferry. If streams 
were too deep to be forded, they nuist be crossed in canoes, or by swimming, or 
upon rafts. Such were the means and methods of intercommunication between 
tlie different parts of the county as late as 1840. 

Several county roads, however, had been regularly surveyed and established, 
and travel in their .several directions was becoming chiefly confined to them. 
At their very first meeting, October 1, 1847, the county commissioners had re- 
ceived and granted three petitions for the establishment of as many different 
roads within the county. The first was for a road from Independence east to the 
county line, in the direction of Coffin's Grove. Rufus B. Clark, James Collier, 
and John Boon were appointed viewers of the same, to meet on the first Mon- 
day in November. The second was for a road from Independence to intersect the 
state road from Clarion to Fort Atkinson — John Obenchain, Edward Brewer, 
and Elijah Beai-dsley being appointed viewers, to meet on the date last men- 
tioned. Aiul the third was for a road from Quasqueton to Independence, on the 
west side of the Wapsipinicon River — the viewers. Rufus B. Clark. Levi Billings, 
and Jbhn Cordell. being also directed to meet on the first jMonday in November. 

At the same meeting it was "ordered to employ a surveyor to do the sur- 
veying on the above roads, and to lay off a town at the county seat." And at 
their next meeting, November 3d, F. J. Rigand was appointed county surveyor. 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 295 

The next petition for a road was presented and granted at a meeting of the 
commissioners, April 10, 1848, the route being from Qnasqueton to Otter Creek 
Settlement. The viewers appointed were James Collier, D. B. Springer, and 
John Obenchain. who were ordered to meet at Quasqueton, on Monday, May 1st, 
1848. 

The origin of a State Road in Buchanan County, which afterwards became 
the road from Dubuque to Sioux City, was as follows: 

In 1848 the Legislature appointed J. W. Clark and Clement Coffin, of Dela- 
ware County, and S. A. Stout, Buchanan County, to lay out and establish a State 
Road from Delhi to Independence. 

In 1851 Thomas W. Close and Isaac F. Hathaway, of Buchanan County, and 
Andrew Malorky, of Blackhawk County, were appointed to lay out and establish 
a State Road from Independence to Cedar Falls. At the same session of the 
Legislature, that part of the road running from Delhi to Independence which 
was west of the South Fork of the IMaquoketa River, was declared a State Road. 

In going from Independence to Brandon on the regular Brandon Road one 
wonders how it came to be laid out in such an angling fashion, and thereby 
hangs a tale. In December, 1851, seven of the citizens of Brandon heard rumors 
that the county seat town was starting up in real earnest and having a curiosity 
to .see Independence, they decided to visit the metropolis and corroborate those 
rumors. Snow lay thick on the ground and sleighing was good. The old horses 
were hitched to the bobsled and with noses pointed northeast they followed an 
unknown trail with only their intuition and sense of general direction to guide 
them. l)ut they reached their destination and found Independence, all and more 
than anticipated, although then it was but a trading point, of possibly a dozen 
dwellings, one or two stores and a saw mill and blacksmith shop. After making 
due observation of the place they started for home, across the bleak, unbroken 
jirairies. It was getting dark and with nothing to guide them, they soon became 
lost, and to be lost in those days meant sutfering and might even mean death if 
the weather was severe, wdth not a farmhouse in the whole sixteen miles. But 
in the harness ahead was hitched their salvation in the shape of a horse long past 
its foolish coltish days. So they gave the old horse free rein, depending upon 
his sagacity and intuition to bring them safely home. The faithful old beast 
realizing the dependence placed upon him took a bee line, home, and landed 
them safely at their destination. Others in traveling the road picked up the 
trail and from ever after that it was followed and thus the angling road became 
n permanent one. Eventually O. II. P. Roszell surveyed a road along that line. 
Later comers tried to square up the road and change its course, but a remon- 
strance generally stopped the proceedings. Some few changes have been made 
in the old trail, but generally it is along the line where on a cold winter's night, 
sixty-three years ago, an old horse, remembering the comforts of his stall, 
carried his master across the trackless prairies home. The names of those who 
were in this adventuresome ride were Jacob Fonts, Matthias Davis. Annabel 
Wood, John G. Rice, C. J. Tracey, M. Palmer and W. H. Fonts, all of wliom, 
with the exception of W. H. Fonts, still a resident of Brandon, have left the 
piiineer trails for the sti-eets of gold. Septendier 29. 1858, Dr. F. C. Bartle, of 
Independence, who had received the appointment from the Legislature, had 



296 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

arrived in Dubuque for the purpose of laying out a, state road from Gutenburg 
to Independeuee, and would commence operations immediately. 

Petitions for roads were constantly before the supervisors until the county 
is a network of roads, and every point is accessible. And with the constant re- 
pairing of the roads and the vast expenditure of money thereon, the county 
roads are becoming fine and among the best in the country. Iowa in the judg- 
ment of automobilists has better roads than any of the western states, and that 
the "good roads" proposition has become such a vital factor in the country's 
welfare is largely due to the demands of the automobile. 

Buchanan is traversed by two "automobile highways" — the Hawkeye Route 
cuts the county east and west, practically following the old state road. The 
North Star Route cuts the county north and south. It enters the eoLinty just 
northeast of the Town of Walker, Linn County, and leaves it. just north of 
Hazleton. 

The Quasqueton and Anamosa Road running through Newton and Spring 
Grove townships was surveyed and located in the summer of 1851. O. II. P. 
Roszell. of Iiulependence, surveyed the road through Buclianan County. This 
part of it commenced at C^uasqueton and ran in a southeasterly direction. 
No attention was paid to congressional lines, only keeping from a half mile 
to a mile north of the timber, with the exception of two or three places where 
it ran through narrow strips of timber. A great deal of his diagonal road 
has been straightened from time to time as the country became settled. 

The road crossed a good many sloughs. The longest slough over which 
the road passed was in Newton Township and was called the big slougli. It 
was a quarter of a mile wide where the road crossed it. There being but few 
to work the road, years passed by before many of the sloughs were gi-aded. 

It took a vast amount of work to make roads in the early days. The sod 
in the sloughs was almost as tough as leather and had to be plowetl with a 
breaking plow drawn by three or four yoke of cattle. After it was plowed 
the sod was cut into chunks about a foot in length with axes or spades, and 
then was either carried in the hands of the road workers or with pitchforks. 
After the sod was removed, if the gi'ound was dry enough, it could be plowed 
and scraped into the road with scrapers. Of course the grades were low 
and rough and in wet times were but little better than the sod outside of 
the grades which was often used in preference to the grades. 

The Quasqueton and Spring Grove and Newton townships roads used 
before there were any laid out roads was on better ground than the latter, 
from the fact that the people followed the ridges which often required the 
making of many curves. The country being open, there w^as nothing to 
hinder them from choosing their own ground for a road. The places to cross 
the sloughs were also selected and used. But as more settlers came into 
the country the old sod was broken up and fences built across it in many 
places. Consequently the people had to travel on the laid out road, which 
for many years made the traveling worse. 

In the early day the roads were often very circuitous owing to impas.sable 
sloughs and streams, this before the days of grading, draining and In-idging. 
The Brandon Road leading out of Independence was an example of one of 
these crooked roads. Just at the outskirts of town, at what was for years 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 297 

kiiowu as Curran's Hill, the road turned in a semi circle to avoid a slough, 
which when the river was high was completely flooded with water. For years 
this circuitous route was travelled until through the inexhaustible labors of 
Doctor Bryant, who in pursuing his profession was greatly inconvenienced 
by the terrible condition of the roads had the road built straight through the 
slough, and now there is scarcely any evidence of this former impassable mire. 
One of the old Quasqueton roads used to follow the river from Independence 
to Quasiiueton on its west bank. 

BRIDGES 

The bridges throughout the county have always caused the people a great 
decil of trouble and until recent years, when it is somewhat bettered by the 
more substantial structures, they were a source of continual trouble and 
until recent years, when it is somewhat bettered by the more substantial struc- 
tures, they were a source of continual trouble and expense — but communities 
never seem to Iniild any striictures except for present needs. Their motto was 
"the present, let the future take care of itself," which is all right in some 
ways but certainly not from an economical standpoint. These first bridges 
were poorly constructed, cheap affairs and every spring freshet damaged them 
to a more or less extent, often the loss being entire. 

In 1858, the floods took the bridges at both Littleton and Quasqueton and 
a part of the bridge at Independence, and all these had to be rebuilt.. The 
one at Quasqueton when completed was the best bridge in the county. In 1862 
the bridge was destroyed at Littleton, this had been recently built, then in 1863 
the Independence Bridge was carried off; then a freshet in January, 1866, 
demolished the bridge at Otterville, which had just been finished. This was 
a sad calamity, being the third that season. But the citizens were not daunted 
and immediately proceeded to build the fourth structure. 

When the bridge at Independence was destroyed in 1863, the supervisoi'S 
not having .sufficient means to rebuild it, and the several other bridges which 
were out, began agitation to establish a county bridge fund. Heretofore 
there being no funds available for that particular purpose the bridges had 
been built largely with public subscriptions and donated service. Accord- 
ingly the proposition was put to vote and won by a majority of twenty-one votes. 
Nine townships voted 13 to 510 against it (these were the townships not having 
liridges to build) ; that meant only five townships were for it (there being only 
fourteen townships then). This established a tax levy of 5 mills. 

A little incident about the bridge at Independence is that people used to 
hitch their teams down under it, on hot summer days. It was a cool, delightful 
place and furnished protection from the heat. The supervisors probably never 
calculated that the bridge would serve as a horseshed. The teams were driven 
down from the east side of the river where the gas house is now situated. In 
June, 1870. the Board of Supervisors let contracts for building twelve new 
bridges in the county, the most expensive of which was the bridge across 
the Wapsipinicon, just south of Independence and which cost $4,265. The 
bridge was 180 feet in length, the contract awarded to' Risely & Scott. In 
1870 the city council of Independence built two bridges within the city limits. 



298 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

one across Malone's Creek in the tirst ward — northeast and the other across 
Blood's Run (in tlie Third Ward), one block east of the Rock Island Track. 
In the last of Fel)ruary, 1871, the Main Street Bridge at Independence was 
swept away hy territie floods and ice impact against the piers. 

The liridge at Independence for months in 1862 was in a disreputable and 
dangerous condition. It had been patched and patched until it looked like the 
smallpox and rode like the rocky road to Dublin. The railing at the side 
was in an awful condition and built so high that a colt backed otl' under it and 
fell overboard, a distance of twenty feet into the water beneath. l)ut was not 
in.iured and calmly swam out. The ri'ason Of .this laxness was really not the 
road supervi.sor's fault. Everyl)ody worked out their road taxes then and 
very little money came into tlie liands of the sujiervisors with which to buy 
new lumber. Calls were issued for public meetings to consider the dangerous 
state of the lii'idge, which was becoming more dangerous and a positive disgrace. 
A horse had broken its leg by stepping in a hole and this would cost the county 
a considerable sum which might have been expended toward a decent bridge, 
and later an elephant in the Mabie Show fell through at the west end, a dis- 
tance of twenty-tive feet. This was a very valual)le animal, l)eing tlie most 
perfectly trained and most valualile in the country and it was .just luck that he 
escaped being killed. 

But this patching continued until the supervisors were finally persuaded 
that new planks were imperative. 

At Littleton the bridge wliich was built after the flood of 1858 was again 
cai'ried off with the high waters of 1862. This had but recently been completed 
at a cost of $1,000. 

.\t (.>tterville they lost three l)ridges in "periodical succession,'' but were 
not disiieartened aiul inunediately began on the fourth. 

In the winter of 1864 tlie fro.st had contracted the sti'ingers of the IMain 
Street P)i-idge at Independence and made it un.safe for teams to travel over, so 
hopes were entertained that a new bridge would have to be constructed, but not 
until the spi'ing freshet of 1865 swept it completely away, and many months 
wei-e sin'nt in argument and persuasion on the part of the citizens, was a new 
bridge built, and all those months the greatest inconvenience was experienced. 

In 1871 another Hood wrecked the Main Street Bridge at Independence, but 
it was patched up until 1873, when the splendid two-span bridi^e was built by 
a Canton, Ohio, firm foi- $18,000 or .$1!),000. This did service until 1892, when 
the present structure was erected. 

In tlie fall of 1880 a new iron bridge was built about thirty rods south of 
the one in existence at that time, having beeii condemned by the supervisors 
some months previous. The contract was let to Mr. Zinn and cost about ten 
thousand dollars. A remarkable thing in connection with the building of this 
bridge was tliat two large granite liowlders furnished enough stone to build both 
piers and abutments. 

In the year 1896 the supervisors built thirty-three bridges, three of them 
steel, at a cost of $3,598.50, and one in process of construction at Fairbank to 
cost $5,197. 

The second Iiridge ill lnile])endence was built later and in 1913 a very 



HISTORY OP BUCHANAN COUNTY 299 

liaiidsome, substantial mie was erected at Littleton. Tliis is uudoubtedly one of 
the finest and most artistic lu'idges in the county. 

Nowadays, instead of so many bridges with expensive iron superstructure, 
the supervisors are liuilding of concrete and many places using tile and making 
<-(dvcrts in.stead of the usual bridge. 

Early in ^lareli, in the .spring of 1892, the Main Street Bridge was in the 
process of construction. 

A conti'act was let to ilr. Young. For weeks the work dragged and the 
bridge was in a state of incompletion. The first long delay was occasioned by 
the discovery by Mr. George, the engineer, of a piece of faulty and dispropor- 
tionate construction which he ordered removed and something better substituted. 
The fault was not with the contractor, but with the bridge manufactory at 
Clinton. Not until June wa.s the floor of the new bridge completed and no 
railings or barriers between the roadway and sidewalks as yet. The bridge was 
finally completed at a cost of .i^l^lOUO. That the work was done well is testified 
from the fact that it is still the much traveled ilain Street Bridge. 

In tlie sinnmer of 191:3 the planking again became very much worn and was 
given a coat of asphaltic-concrete. This is but an experiment and time will 
have to prove its worth. 

At the regular June session of the board of supervisors, on June 13, 1894, 
the question of the location of another wagon and foot bridge acro.ss the Wap- 
sipinicon River at Independence was brought up. Delegations of citizens called 
on the board and urged the new structure. The princijtal reason given arose 
from the location of the electric street car line acro.ss the Main Street Bridge 
and to the fact that the cars frightened tlie horses. 

The board voted to construct a bridge across the river on First Street south 
of Main Street. A small piece of land necessai-y for the west approach was 
bought for $300. The bridge was one span, 180 feet long. The piers were 
made of tubular .steel. The structure was furnished by Dan Young of Man- 
chester for $8,999. ;\Ir. Young also constructed the JIain Street Bridge and 
other bridges i'^ *^be county. 

RAILROADS 

Ruclianan County, although not intersected with as many railroads as are 
many of the counties of the state, yet has enough, and so located as to furnish 
excellent shipping facilities to nearly every part of the county. 

Th(> Illinois Central, which wa.s fonnerly called the Dubuque & Sioux City 
Road, pa.sses through the county east and west in an almost direct line, and 
about through its middle it passes through Winthrop, Independence q.nd Jesup. 

The Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific, connnonly called the Rock Island, which 
was formerly the Burlington, Cedar Rapids & Northern, intersects the county 
from north to south. It enters the county about the middle of Ilazleton Town- 
ship, proceeds almost straight south through Hazleton, Bryantburg and Inde- 
pendence and still straight until section 21 of Sumner, when it slants diagonally 
to the southeast through Rowley and on down through the county. 

The Chicago Great Western cuts diagonally through the northeastern 
corner of the county in Buffalo and iladison townships, in a .southeasterly 



300 HISTORY OP BUCHANAN COUNTY 

direction passing through the towns of Stanley, Aurora and Lamont. And this 
same road, the Chicago Great Western Railroad, again cuts diagonally through 
a small section of Fairbauk Township in the extreme northwestern corner of the 
county. The Town of Fairbank is .situated on this road. 

Another, the Chicago, Anamosa & Northern, recently extended from Anamosa 
to Quasqueton, and the electric line through Brandon from Waterloo to Cedar 
Rapids. 

, ILLINOIS CENTRAL RAILROAD 

The first railroad built through this county was the "Dubuque & Sioux City" 
or "Dubuque & Pacific," which was the proper name, now the Illinois Central, 
having been transferred by a perpetual lease, about the year 1870. The first 
intimation of the railroad being extended through Buchanan County was the 
appearance in a paper of March, 1856, of a printed circular gotten out by the 
Dubuque & Pacific Railroad Company to the citizens of Dubuque, Delaware, 
Buchanan and Blaekhawk counties, calling on them to advance funds for the 
buikling of the second division of their road, that is, from Dyersville — it was 
tlien under construction as far as Dyersville, Dubuque County, and promised 
to be completed that far and in use by November 15th of that year. The rail- 
road company demanded that the aforesaid counties subscribe $250,000 each, in 
their corporate capacity, promising, if they were sufficiently successful in obtain- 
ing stock subscriptions (a million dollars for a basis), the division would be 
ext(»nded as far west as the Cedar River, 

The next notice was issued by Judge Roszell. in compliance with a petition 
signed by 350 citizens and voter.s of Buchanan County, ordering a special 
election to be held in each township on .July 3, 1856, to determine whether the 
county would assist in the constrm-tion of the Dubuque & Pacific Railroad by 
issuing .$200,000 in county bonds at the rate of 10 per cent, payable in 17, 18, 
19 and 20 years. The railroad company was to pay interest on said bonds until 
the railroad should be open for Inisine.ss as far as Independence and for six 
months thereafter. This proposition lost. Money was very scarce and the citi- 
zens found great difficulty in meeting the payment of taxes for the ordinary 
county expenses, as the pages of delinquencies with which the county papers 
were filled testified. So thi.s particular railroad proposition was dropped, al- 
though for several years thereafter similar propositions were voted upon. 

Again in June, 1858, Judge Stephen J. W. Tabor issued a call for a special 
election for in-actieally the same proposition. In May previous to this an in- 
formal meeting was held at Quasqueton, which was addressed by Mr. Piatt 
Smith, Esq., of Dubuque, vice president and attorney of the Dubuque & Pacific 
Railroad, and lie explained the railroad's proposition thoroughly. It was thought 
that the people had been educated up to appreciating the necessity of a railroad 
— especially since the fastly increasing production of grain and live stock de- 
manded a more available market. For the farmers to haul all their produce fifty 
miles to the nearest market, first at Dubuque and later at Dyersville, entailed 
too much labor and expense, and the establishment of a market at home not only 
would facilitate market privileges but w^ould greatly advance market values. All 
the accumulation of produce could be disposed of and create at least a demand 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 301 

at home aud by this advance in prices alone the resident taxpayers would be 
enabled to pay their quota of the tax and to those who objected to receiving the 
company 's script, if it were taken in exchange for their pi-oducts, then the com- 
pany had guaranteed to receive the script in payment of the tax, so no danger 
could be apprehended that it might not be of money value. The taxable property 
in the county at that time was but $2,550,354, and a tax of 1 per cent, which was 
the proposed levy, would give a little over twenty-five thousand dollars — fully 
one-third of which would come out of non-resident o^vners. The actual expense 
of grading alone as far as Independence would be $G0,000 and the construction 
of just this portion of the road would leave a surplus of $35,000. The benefits 
accruing from the expenditure of this sum in the county needed no demonstra- 
tion. Furthermore, it was to be expended before the collection of the tax. 
Another favorable feature of the proposition was that its adoption entailed no 
extended tax — it began and ended during the current year and could never 
act as a bug-bear to frighten away prospective settlers, but rather serve as an 
incentive to settlement. The creation of a market for produce was not the only 
equivalent offered, for the stock, until the road began to pay dividends, was to 
draw 7 per cent interest, payable in stock, and should the company in three 
years, through the earnings of the road and the sale of the land, pay a dividend 
of 20 per cent, it would give the county an income of $6,000 per annum and 
would materially lessen the burden of taxation. To this result the non-resident 
taxpayers would largely contribute, so that the county was only called upon to 
make an investment, which would yield immediately and be of great prospective 
value and advantage, and yet, for the second time, the proposition failed to 
pass. The whole object of the tax and the effort on the part of the company 
to secure private subscriptions seems to have been to make it an object to the 
people of the county, to take the script which the company must issue in order 
to proceed with the work. Now. with all these and many more pertinent reasons 
why they should vote the tax and with every passible objection answered it 
seemed as though there could be no possible chance of its passing, and yet in 
every election of every kind there should always be a wide latitude for mis- 
calculations. 

And like many another absolutely safe and sure political forecast, the plans 
miscarried. The whyfors of this particular circumstance history and the 
records fail to state and we can only conclude that like all great things it had 
to euluiinate slowly, and that it takes the average human intellect a considerable 
length of time to grasp new ideas whicli after mature deliberation seem perfectly 
tangible and reasonable. 

The board of directors of the company then published a circular endorsing 
the following plan to appraise the lots and lands belonging to the- company, 
issue land script to the amount of the appraisement and pay off the bonded and 
funded debt by offering for every dollar of debt $1 of stock and $1 of land 
script and to appraise the balance of the 460,800 acres of land which the com- 
pany were to receive when the first 100 miles of the road was built and issue 
script as before and this to be devoted exclusively to building the road to Cedar 
Falls. Then for every dollar of full-paid stock then held or thereafter sub- 
scribed, an equal amount of this script was to be issued to the holder or subsci'iber 
in addition to the certificate of .stock. In other words, as an iiulureuient for 



302 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

men to furnish means for Iniilding the road, the company donated to each stock- 
liolder $100 worth of hind for every share of stock for which lie subscribed, 
thus making the stock itself cost him nothing. 

This last proposition evidently carried weight with the citizens, for in the 
fall of 1859 appeared in the local county papers this item: "Glorious news for 
Buchanan County!! The Railroad Coming!!! On Saturday last our citizens 
were notiried by a few lines written on the margin of the Western Stage Com- 
pany's way-bill, that the contract for the construction of the Dubu(|ue & Pacitie 
Railroad to this point had been signed and that the work was to be eonuneneed 
immediately," but so sick had the people betojne by hope too long deferred, 
that it was not until Monday when the cheering news was confirmed by the 
Dubuque jiapers and b.y letters, that doubting gave way to universal .joy and 
congratulation. Tiiis was in the days when the munificent display of capitals 
and sensational headlines had not yet struck the editorial caput or the popular 
fancy, so it must not be inferred that the above newspaper item, printed in an 
inconspicuous jilace on the third ]>age and under the usual heading of "Local 
Matters," and the further top balla.st of the "Township Ticket" was not of 
vital interest and one that stirred the heart of every Buchanan Count.v citizen. 
It appeared from later intelligence that General Booth, a director of the com- 
pany, had just returned from the Ea.st, bringing the welcome news that a eon- 
tract for the continuation of the road from Dubuque to Independence had been 
signed by Oliver P. Root, of Oneida, New York: and the contract stipulated that 
work should begin at once and the road to be completed to ]\Ianchcster, then 
described as being located nine miles this side of Nottingham, by October 1st; to 
Winthrop, eleven miles further, by November 1st ; to a point fi\'e miles west 
of Independence by December 1st, and the balance of the aggregate distance of 
eighty miles from Dulmqiie by January 1st. Mr. Root was represented as a 
practical engineer, a man of energy, and of financial ability, and the utmost 
confidence was expressed in the fulfillment of the tenns of the contract. A few 
days only elapsed before work on the railroad liridge over the Wapsipinicon had 
been connnenced, the piles were arriving and the work of driving them had 
already begun. The bridge was in the jjrocess of construction .at Dubuque and 
was to be brought out ready to put up when the cars began to ran. The bridge 
was to consist of four spans of forty feet and twenty-four spans of twelve feet, 
making a total length of -148 feet, and the bridge was to escajje the high-water 
mark of 1858. 

Immediately signs of unusual activity were manifested in Independence, and 
the streets were thronged with wagons bringing in produce. There was a lively 
competition in the grain market and already a cash value for farm products was 
established. In one day the editor counted thirty-five wagon loads of grain on 
Main Street going to the elevators to store their grain, awaiting the foi'thcom- 
ing deliverance. As the time for the oi:)ening of the road approached, it seemed 
a question whether Independence might not be compelled to close her ports of 
entity, so continuous was the inpouring of her golden harvest. New elevators 
were being speedily erected and several new gi-ain and produce firms had already 
commenced operations here. An era of prosperity was fairly established. Al- 
though the road was not completed quite as soon as expected, owing to some 
defect in the title of the company, it was close enough so that it was an assured 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 303 

fact, the people in Independence making the "railroad diggings" the eulmi- 
native point of every journey, and the all-absorbing topic of conversation and 
interest. On Tuesday, November 22d, a meeting was held at the jMontour 
House for. the purpose of making arrangements to celebrate the completion of 
the road to Independence. By the 1st of December the track was laid to within 
two miles of the town and before the end of that week would be completed to the 
depot grounds, if the weather continued favorable. This was grand and glo- 
rious news to evei-yone and especially to those who liad been waiting some time 
for their pay. There was some discussion among the citizens of Independence 
over the location of the depot, many wanting it to be located on the west side 
of the river. On Sunday, December 11th, the track layers were busy all day 
(work could not be suspended even for the Sabbath day) and the rails were 
laid to the Independence depot, the turntables were brought up from Mason- 
ville and put in order, passenger and freight cars were standing at the depot, 
and all necessary preparations were made to commence the formal opening of 
the road on Monday. At 9 o'clock on the morning of December 12, 1S59, the 
first regular train left Independence depot, taking the first shipment of prod- 
uce, which was made by West & Hopkins and consisted of wheat and pork. 
From then on the shipments out of Independence station were exceptionally 
large for the size of the town and as we have told elsewhere, exceeded any other 
place. 

The station agents for several years made out monthly reports of sliipinents 
which were printed in the county papers. 

When the time set for the celebration arrived, everything was auspicious 
for a glorious jubilee. At an early hour people came flocking into town from 
all directions, the streets were soon crowded with a happy, expectant concourse 
of people who assembled at the depot to welcome the long-anticipated arrival. 
Many of the younger generation would behold the panting, puffing steel monster 
for the first time and great was their excitement when at 2 P. M., precisely, 
according to schedule, the train arrived with four carloads of guests, among 
whom were the Governor Greys, Captain Robinson of Dubuque, accompanied 
by the Germania Band. D. S. Lee, on behalf of the citizens of Independence, 
extended the hospitalities of the town, and Captain Robinson gracefully re- 
sponded on behalf of the Greys, after which the whole assembled multitude 
formed in procession, headed by the military company and the band, and marched 
through the village to the Montour House, where at 4 P. M. a sumptuous dinner 
was served to the guests by Landlord Purdy. After dinner the military company 
gave a public exhibition of military drills and manual of arms. The entertain- 
ment provided for the evening was a dance at Morse's hall and although it was 
the largest crowd ever assembled at a dance in Independence, everything passed 
off harmoniously and in good order, and the enjoyment continued luiabated 
until the summons for the return train brought to a close this pleasurable and 
memorable occasion. The Germania Band furnished the music for the dance, 
choice refreshments were served both at the Montour and tlie Revere houses. 
The hotels previous to this event were filled to their utmost capacity with people 
who had come from abroad to witness the celebration and both the hotels and 
committee on arrangements deser\'ed great praise for their unweai-ied exertions 
and the creditable manner in which they entertained the numerous guests. This 



304 IILSTORY OF BUCPIANAN COUNTY 

celebration completed the spectacular advent of the first railroad in Buchanan 
County and it now became a settled and indispensable reality, witli a bona fide 
time-table which appeared weekly in the columns of the town papers, and as a 
matter of fact this particular column of type was always a fresh source of inter- 
est aaad new information — nothing stale or antiquated about those first time- 
tables, for they changed time every issue, and it kept the prospective travelers 
busy to keep up with the latest time shifts. An item, which leads one to believe 
that the railroad company was a more generous corporation than it is at present 
accused of being, appeared in the papers extending to all of the scholars and 
teachers of the various Sunday and day schools along the route between Cedar 
Falls and Manchester, a free excursion to the latter place on August 2, 1862. 
It was a miserable rainy day Irat when the train left Independence there were 
1,500 aboard, and this number, of course, would be considerably increased by 
the time they reached their destination. This was no small item, and in those 
days before the 2-cent rate was even of greater magnitude. Another exhibition 
of their generosity is that they carried all animals and articles free of charge 
to the state fair which was then held at Dubuque. The railroad put on its 
first exclusive passengei' trains each way in the fall of 186:1 The railroad 
service for the first few years was not all that could be wished and the incon- 
veniences experienced almost sui'passed the benefits, as we have told in another 
chapter, but gradually the company improved and graded their roadbed so that 
every heavy snow or freshet could not olistruct or wash out the track and 
demoralize traffic. 

The tirst station agent at Independence was W. B. Boss, who remained only 
six or eiglit months: then two others followed who did not stay long at it, and 
in 1862 or 1863 C. I\I. Durham took charge and held the position until his death, 
a period of over twenty-five years. There have been many since his time. 

In the sunnner of 1899 County Recorder Truax recorded the lease of the 
Dubuque & Sioux City Railroad by the Illinois Central; this lease was made 
in 1895, for a period of fifty-six years — or until 1951. The lease covers the 325 
miles of track from Dubuque to Sioux City, besides several other branches. 

The lease covers several sheets of typewritten paper and contains 7,500 
wortls. A recent change in the law required that it must be recorded in every 
county through which the railroad passes. 

THE wAPsi & ST. Peter's v.vlley railroad 

Even before the Dulnique & Pacific Railroad was suggested, another road — • 
called the Wapsipinicon & St. Peter's Valley — proposed the construction of a 
road \vhieli wa.s to begin at Anamosa and run in a northwesterly direction 
through Quasqueton, Independence and Fairliank, thence north to the state line, 
where it was to connect witli a line through to St. Paul. In other words, this 
was to constitute a direct line from St. Louis to St. Paul. What their first 
proposition was we are not prepared to state, but presume it was similar to that 
of tlie Dubuque & Pacific and all those early roads. The papers contained fre- 
quent editorials greatly favoring the pro.jeet. But the proposition failed to 
carry. On May 25, 1857, the question of issuing bonds to the amount of .$250,000 
was voted ujaon and this time carried, the vote exceeding the most sanguine 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 305 

expectations; "giving a handsome majority, about one lumdred, in favor of tlie 
loan.'' (At a special election later, however, the action was rescinded.) But 
before tliis everything was apparently ready under the most favorable auspices 
to commence the con.struction of the road, but the plans miscarried. 

Again, in May, 1870, aiiother railroad project was being agitated; this wa^ 
known as the Anamosa & Northwestern Raih-oad Company. They had had 
assurance of co-operation from eastern capitalists, and with the proper assistance 
of the people along the jiroposed route, it would soon be an established fact. 
Meetings were held and special elections held in the several townships through 
which the road was to jjass. It had received local aid up to our county. Liberty 
Township had pledged .i;35,U00 of the $40,000 asked of her, Newton Township 
voted the 5 per cent tax levy down, Cono for it, and so on ; others voted for it, 
but the fact of these elections did not bring it and at last it was a dead issue. 

At the same time, or shortly tliereafter, as the Anamosa & Northwestern 
were making their propositions, the Ottumwa & St. Paul Railroad were also 
making overtures to the people of this county. Their survej^s were already under 
way ; Iowa and Benton counties both liad furnished guarantees and the counties 
were demanding a guaranty of $300 payable when the engineers reached Inde- 
pendence, so the giuiranty was forthcoming immediately. The line was surveyed 
through the county, but- this, like sevei'al other projects, was abandoned. 

On Tuesday, March 11, 1873, as per previous notice, a delegation of the 
Burlington, Cedar Rapids & Northern Company visited Independence to confer 
with tlie citizens ou the project of completing the Postville Branch of the 
B., C. R. & N. through Independence. Some five of the road's high officials 
Were present and were met by the prominent and influential citizens of Inde- 
pendence. Meetings were held for three .successive evenings and the company's 
rciircsciitatives gave a thorough exposition of the wishes and intentions of the 
company and a satisfactory explanation of the failure to complete the road 
last fall. 

In place of the tax of $30,000 then forfeited, the compan.y now asked for a 
donation of .$25,000 to be raised by sul)scription and demanded an answer in 
two or three weeks. The meeting on Tuesday evening appointed a soliciting 
committee which consisted of ten of the leading citizens. 

Liberal amounts were subscribed at the first meetings, but not enough to 
guarantee its surety. One of the arguments held over the Independence people's 
heads was that the sui-vey showed a feasible route through Quasqueton and 
Winthrop, and that if Independence did not seeiire it these localities, witli their 
rich farmers, would jump at the chance to profit by their lack of enterprise. 
The prospects of securing the road brightened as the weeks went by. The 
German property owners, after they became thoroughly acquainted with the 
merits of the subject, took an active interest and subscribed liberally, and a 
determination to secure it at any sacrifice. Public meetings were held and 
finally the required amount was secured and the day of progress and prosperity 
was dawning. The decision of this question was deemed a crisis in the history 
of the county, and after it was assured the citizens who had labored so hard 
for it were jubilant, and they confidently expected, with these added railroad 
facilities and railroad competition, that Independence would become a thriving 
city and that manufacturers would flock to so convenient a railroad center. 



306 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

At the same time, as the project for the B., C. R. & N. was before the 
Independence people, a narrow gauge road from Anamosa, through Quasqueton 
to Independence and northwest, was discussed and proposed. The route was 
pronounced as one of the best and cheapest, following, as it did, the river valleys. 
These "farmer roads," as they were called, with their cheapness of construction 
and economy of running expenses rcducpd to a minimum, were greatly favored 
by the newspapers and were destined to play an important part in relieving 
the farming connuunity from the burden of high freights, and furthermore they 
deemed it not improbable that many of these narrow gauge roads would be 
planned and built — even on roads partially or wholly occupied by other roads. 
It was urged and expected that the people of the county give it every encourage- 
ment, if the project should assume definite shape. This is but an evidence of the 
wonderful booster spirit that inspired those early newspaper men. 

WAPSIE VALLEY RAILWAY 

In the spring of 19(1-1, after a cessation of activities, petitions for Wapsie 
Valley Railroad were again circulated in Independence and Washington Town- 
ship for a 5 per cent tax to be voted and levied upon assessed value of real and 
personal property, etc. There were many signers, all of them our iiitluential 
and prosperous business men, but between 500 or 600 names were necessary to 
call the election. In two weeks over 500 names were secured and the petitions 
lacked less than 50 to call the election. On July 1st the question was submitted 
and carried by a majority of 480. The women voted on the proposition and 
gave a larger majority than the men. 

After a lajise of months and under tire of all kinds of agitation and cogita- 
tion on the jiart of the citizens of Independence, and procrastination on the part 
of the company, a finale to this nuichly sought and desired project was reached. 

At a special meeting of the directors of the Wapsie Valley Railroad Com- 
pany, held September 18, 1904. they foriiiiilly (Irclined to accept the 5 per 
cent tax whicli had been voted in July, 1904, and which the board of supervisors 
levied, and relinquished all claims to such taxes and consented to the cancella- 
tion of tile asvsessment of the same. This action was taken after it iiecame posi- 
tive that there appeared no possiljility that the road would be Iniilt. the com- 
pany finding it not expedient to construct the road under the conditions under 
which tile tax was voted. 

After all this, the vote and the subsequent deferred payment of the 5 
per cent tax by the directors of the Wapsie Valley Railroad Company, the 
District Court held, adjudged and decreed that the election was invalid and 
void and of no force and eft'ect and therefore the levying and assessment of any 
tax in favor of the West Virginia Railroad Company was illegal and invalid, 
so as far as Independence was concerned. It was just where it started from, 
everything wiped off the state. If it had been legally voted it would have barred 
the people of Independence from again exercising the right of extending aid 
of this kind for a period of ten years from the date of that election, but under 
that decree they were entitled to one at any time the promoters of any other 
railroad proposition again ask for aid. This decree was secured through the 
eii'orts of the reactionaries, who expended both time and money in endeavoring 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 307 

to defeat the proposition, and in November commenced action to restrain the 
county treasurer from collecting any part of the tax. There were sixteen plain- 
tiffs named in the petition. The reason of this decision of the court was the find- 
ing of several glaring technical errors. And thus endeth another chapter in the 
true and fictitious railroad history of Buchanan County. 

CHICAGO, IOWA & NORTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD 

A fourth that failed to materialize was the Chicago, Iowa & Northern Tacilie 
Railroad Company, a line that was to connect Independence to a junction with 
the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul in Chickasaw County to erect and maintain a 
station within the corporate limits of the City of Independence on the condition 
that the citizens of Washington Township, Buchanan County, subscribe the 
sum of $30,000 in aid of such road. The Board of Trade of Independence were 
vei-y actively interested in the proposition (and all the influential and monied 
citizens). D. R. W. Williams was the projector of the enterprise. He had pre- 
viously solicited the citizens for their cooperation to build a through line with 
Independence as the center of operations, but the citizens, not accepting the 
proposition thereby lost the golden opportunity to ' ' make Independence the most 
important city in Iowa." And after refusing the "golden brick" the citizens 
repented of their folly and requested another chance at the plum basket, but 
tlie last plum offered was only a branch road with its terminus in Independ- 
ence and its outlet the C. I. & N. P. R. Road. The citizens' meeting at the 
Opera House, October 2, 1885, lacked enthusiasm, and it was evident that the 
project had cold water over it several fathoms deep, but an adjourned meeting 
of tlie Board of Trade was held at Firemen's Hall Monday evening, thereafter, 
which evinced much enthusiasm and financial .support. The soliciting commit- 
tee reported that they had secured .$6,810 in subscriptions to the grading 
proposition and $3,580 on the completed road. At this meeting $600 more 
was subscribed. Mass meetings were held with due regularity and at every 
one the subscription list was amplified. The laboring men and mechanics held 
a meeting in regard to the railroad project, and at the conclusion thirty-nine 
men signed an agreement to pay 21^ per cent upon the assessed valuation of 
their property in Washington Township with the provision that the busines.s 
men and capitalists of Independence would subscribe aid in a proportionate 
amount, and besides the subscriptions a 3 per cent tax was voted and the rail- 
road company executed bonds in the sum of $15,000 for each mile of completed 
track. The tale is too long and full of details to devote more space to, but the 
circumstances were almost identical with other similar projects to which the 
citizens of Buchanan County had previously liberally suhscrilied. With this 
exception that the railroad company actually did construct sixty or more miles 
of grade — the evidence are still easily discernible from Ottervillp nortli through 
the county. Funds then gave out and "Sir. Williams went to New York for the 
purpose of negotiating the bonds of the company to raise money to go. on 
with the woi'k. liut time and circumstances were not pro]iitious and he was 
not successful, so the enterprise was abandoned foi- a inoi'e favoral)le oppor- 
tunity. 



308 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

Again in 1892 the project was revived by the arrival of Mr. Dudley Wil- 
liams, one of the original promoters, with fresh enthusiasm and a booster optim- 
ism, and with a much more favorable proposition. The project of the company 
had been somewhat modified. The last proposition was to start as before from 
a junction with the Northwestern Road at Anamosa and run through Inde- 
pendence and on the already graded line to Fredericksburg and thence north 
and west making various connections to Bismark, North Dakota. This visit did 
not signify any intention of asking for more financial aid but just moral sup- 
port and the "glad hand," so to speak. It was given but received no waj-m 
response. It was as before a futile attempt.^ , 



RAILWAY PASSENGER STATIONS 

The old Illinois Central Station at Independence prior to 1892 was a eoni- 
biued freight and passenger house. A long platform ran across the entire 
north side of the building and projected some distance beyond it but was a 
high one, on the level with the fioor of a freight train and was located on a 
side track between the building and the main track. This track was most of 
the time filled with cars. The facilities of passengers going to and from trains 
was not only inconvenient but dangerous. 

On August 13, 1891, the mayor, all the county officers and thirty-two citi- 
zens petitioned the railroad commissioners to have a temporary order requiring 
the company to run its trains to the platform for discharging the passengers 
during the horse association meeting. On October 22d the commissioners vis- 
ited Independence, examined the station house and tracks and found the situa- 
tion to be substantially as claimed by the petitioners and on October 27th 
' another petition was filed with the railroad conunissioners signed by the post- 
master and seventy-seven other citizens asking that the Illinois Central Rail- 
road Company be ordered to erect a passenger depot north of Market Street 
and west of Chatham Street. This petition was sent to the company and in 
December they were informed that it was the intention of the company, in 
view of the business to and from Independence to build a suitable station at 
this point. 

The new depot, according to the plans of the railroad company, was to be 
located on the north side of Market Street at the head of Chatham Street, 
facing Main Street, a new through track laid to the north side of the station 
for passenger trains on the ground between ]\larket Street and the main 
track then occupied by lumber yards and corn cribs belonging to the company. 
While this would prevent the opening of Chatham Street it was an improvement 
that the citizens were anxious to see as the completed arrangement would give 
the street a more citified appearance and do away with the annoyance of re- 
moving the elevators and buildings. 

There were some ditferences between the city council and the Illinois Cen- 
tral Railroad officials, relating to the right of way for certain streets crossing 
the tracks of the railroad and a conference of the city council and the Railroad 
Company's representatives was held in May, 1892, at which a basis of agree- 
ment was arrived at. The matters involved were discussed at length at two 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 309 

conferences of the city council with the Illinois Central Railroad officials and au 
ordinance prepared by Mr. Knight, which was in the character of a contract 
between the city and the road was passed. By the terms of this contract the 
city agreed in general terms to permit the closing of "Walnut and Madison 
streets, where they cross the railroad right of way, and cede the land involved, 
and also that part of Ross Street lying west of Nelson Street to the Railroad 
Company for its own use and ownership. Ross Street, it may be explained, is 
an out of the waj' and impracticable street 2^/^ blocks long, lying east and west 
along the north side of the railroad embankment and terminating in the river. 
It could not be used for the highway and was of no possible use to the city. 

In eonsidei'ation of these concessions the company agreed to open Nelson, 
Chatham and North streets crossing its tracks, for the use of the public and 
to keep them open permanently. It also agreed to remove all obstructions in 
the shape of buildings on Chatham Street at its own expense and to plank the 
tracks on said streets between the rails and one foot on each side, and also to 
build a first class, brick passenger depot and to have the same completed by 
September 1, 1892. The plans for the same were exhibited to the council at its 
meetings. 

It is a fine strneture of ample proportions and is so placed between Chatham 
and Walnut streets that the stoppage of trains does not obstruct the street. 
Covered platforms extend on each side of it to the line of those streets. A hand- 
some park, laid out with flower beds and small trees, make it one of the most at- 
tractive depots along the Central Line. The entire cost of this and the new 
stock yards built at that time cost $25,000. They also built a fine bridge over 
the Wapsie at a cost of $20,000, which was the one used nntil 1912 when it 
was condemned and torn down. And for two years they have been constructing 
one at that point, experiencing great diffi^culty in establishing the concrete 
foundations for the piers. It was finished in the spring of 1914 and although 
a very unattractive structure, is built to withstand all onslaughts of time and 
weather and will probably furnish data for the next historian fifty years hence. 

In 1891 a new passenger depot was erected by the Burlington, Cedar Rapids 
& Northern Railroad Company at Independence, Iowa. The ground was broken 
in May of that year and the building was rushed to completion in August in 
time to accommodate the race meet crowds. The depot is situated on Main 
Sti'eet, south of the old one, and on the east side of the track. The foundation 
is constructed of Anamosa stone and the walls of brick. The elevations were so 
made that the building has three fronts. The building is 68 feet long and 26 
feet wide at the south side, 22 feet at the north, and cost several thousand 
dollars. 

GENEROUS TREATMENT 

After the fire, the Illinois Central and Burlington, Cedar Rapids & Northern 
railroads through the efl'orts of Mayor Roszell, and C. M. Durham, depot 
agent of the Illinois Central, and Mr. M. R. Harding, the agent at the 
Burlington, Cedar Rapids & Northern depot, consented to give a rebate 
of 20 per cent upon all merchandise shipped to the sufferers from the fire, dur- 
ing the month of June, and equally as valuable concessions were made on the 
freighting of all building materials. 



310 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

This generous treatment on tlie part of tlie railroads was certainly appre- 
ciated by the people of Independence. The editors of the papers were particu- 
larly grateful to the railroad companies for considerable reductions from the 
regular rates on the transportation of the presses and types from Chicago, and 
the freight on the new Hteamer engine was deducted $4;j.()0. 

These facts do not indicate rapacious monopolies, yet at that very time an 
anti-monopoly party liad convened at the Buchanan County Courthouse and 
iioniinated a ticket iu oiDposition to those same coucerns. 

MAILS AND MEANS OP COMMJJNICATION 

It was in 1845, three years after the first settlements in the county, before a 
regular postoftice was established within its limits. 

During this time the settlers had their mail directed to the most convenient 
postoffice, and from there was brought by private conveyance, as opportunity 
afforded. 

The settlers about Quasqueton, and fartlier north, obtained their mail from 
the nearest office in Delaware County, or from Dubuque. 

In the early part of the first winter, 1842-3, there was a heavy snow, .suffi- 
ciently strong to bear uj) the weight of a man provided he was not too heavy. 
During this time, Frederick Kessler, on account of being small and light, was 
selected to bring the mail on foot once a week from a settlement in Delaware 
County, called "The Colony," near Ead's Grove. As there was no established 
postoffice in Delaware County at that time, the mail must have been brought 
there from Dubuque by private conveyance, and held for the Quesqueton set- 
tlers until they could send for it. -Most of the mail matter previous to, as well 
as after, the establishment of a postoffice in the county, came through Dubuque, 
Init some living in the southern part of the county got tlieir nmil once a week 
by William Smith of Dubuque, who had the first mail contract through the 
county, whicli he carried on horseback. Now if this be true, and he carried 
mail to Quasqueton from the commencement of his contract, he must have made 
•some private arrangement with the settlers of that place, since the postoffice 
was not established there till 1845. D. S. Davis was principally influential in 
securing it and AVilliam Richards was the first jtostmaster. It is probable that 
Davis was the second mail contractor and that Malcom ]McBane was the second 
postmaster, for early in 1847, when A. H. Trask came into the county from 
Wisconsin, he found them occupying these positions; and Davis suhh-t tlie mail 
contract to him in the fall of that year. 

The contract bound him to carry the mail from Quasqueton to Dulmque and 
back, once every week, on horseback or by any other conveyance he might 
choose. The "round trip" occupied four days, and he received as compensation 
$365 a year. He had a partner liy the name of Eli D. Phelps, a brick and stone 
mason by trade, who came from Wisconsin about the same time as Trask. They 
took turns in carrying the mail between Duhu<|ue and Quasqueton; and after a 
short time they made a contract with Davis to carry it between Quasqueton 
and Marion. At that time, there were but four postoffices between Quasqueton 
and Dubuque, one at Coffin's Grove, at Delhi, at Rockville, and one at a farm- 
house near Epwortli. 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 311 

When the traveling permitted (which was the most of the time, although 
there were no bridges and no roads kept in order by the iiublie), they went by 
wagon or sleigh, and sometimes carried a large amount of express matter, in 
addition to the mail. But sometimes, when the roads were bad and the streams 
too liigh to ford witli a wagon, they were compelled to go on horseback, and of 
course cari-ied very little besides the mails. In the winter the snow was some- 
times very deep, Mr. Trask, on one occasion, having had to break a track the 
entire distance from Quasqueton to Farley, when the snow was nearly three 
feet deep on the level. 

The early mail carriers had many adventures and some narrow escapes with 
wind and weather. 

After carrying the mail for nearly two .years, Trask and Phelps .sold out to 
Thomas W. Close, who held the contract only about a year, "carrying the mail 
and doing the count.y shopping," when the business was resumed by the original 
contractor, Davis, whose partiality for Quasqueton, led him to discontinue Inde- 
pendence as a part of the regular route ; and for some time the residents at the 
latter place had to make private arrangements to get their mail which 
w'as first carried to Quasqueton. The postoffice was established at Independence 
in 1848, S. P. Stoughton, the champion of that place, as Davis was of Quasque- 
ton, being the postmaster. After holding the place (which brought more fame 
than money and not enough of either to boast of) for one year, he resigned and 
Doctor Brewer was appointed in his stead. 

The enterprising and public-spirited doctor assumed the duties of mail car- 
rier as well as that of postmaster and sometimes made the trip to Quasqueton 
on foot, carrying the entire mail in his vest pocket. The souvenir postal, cheap 
postage and catalogue and mail houses, daily papers and cheap magazines, were 
then no burden to the mail carrier. 

Doctor Brewer paid the first quarterly to the Government with a 5-franc 
piece, his own commission amounting to 471/2 cents. He held the office for six 
years, and during no one of them did his income from commissions amount to 
$5. After a time he put into the office a few rows of letter boxes, and the rent 
of these increased his income a little. 

The meager income of the office is probably to be accounted for, not so much 
by the small number-of settlers as by their acknowledged lack of money. Their 
eastern friends and relatives showed their generous appreciation of this fact 
by prepaying their own postage, and the settlers showed their eijually feeling 
appreciation of it by leaving theirs unpaid. Thus the letters, whether sent or 
received, brought very little money into the office, although there were higher 
postage rates then than now. Pastoffice regrulations were very different than 
they are nowadays, when it takes a 2-cent stamp to budge them from the office. 

About 1850 the contest for postal supremacy, which has been waged for 
some time and with some bitterness between Quasqueton and Independence, was 
decided by making the latter a point on the regular route west, which was then 
extended to Cedar Falls, and placing the former on a side route southward. 
A man by the name of Gould was the first mail contractor on the route from 
Dubuque to Cedar Falls. 

Both the roads and vehicles began to improve, though the roads at certain 
seasons of the year continued to be almost impassable. 



312 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

Mr. Trask, one of the pioneer mail carriers, jarot, the gold fever and went to 
California in 1850. When he returned in 1854 he found regular .stage eoaehes 
running ea.sl and west thiougli Independence, and southward from that point 
through Quasqueton. 

When the railroads intersected the county, east and west, and north and 
south, it did away with these two stage coach routes, and the great improve- 
ment in the roads and the construction of substantial bridges over all the 
streams made the remaining stage routes comparatively easy. Many of these 
original routes were maintained iintil a few years ago when rural free deliveiy 
was introduced into the county. 

The Independence correspondent of the Quasqueton Guardian mentions, un- 
der date of October lit, 1857, that the people of that town were enjoying the 
luxury of a daily mail through the influence of Senator Jones. 

In 1856 there were eleven postofifices in the county — they were Independence, 
Quasqueton, Fairbauk, Chatham, Greeley's Grove, Buffalo Grove, Erie, Pine, 
Erin, Frink's Grove, and Brandon. Of these only the offices at Independence, 
Quasqueton, Fairbank, and Brandon are still maintained. In August, 185S, a 
new 7Tiail route was established between Independence and McGregor, hacks 
starting from the Judson House, Independence, every i\Ion<lay morning. On 
October 1, 1860, a direct mail route was fii-st established l>etween Fairbank 
and Independence; this was a much-needed route. J. F. Sullivan was the first 
contractor. 

In 1802, by an act of Congress, a new mail route was established from Inde- 
pendence to Vinton via Brandon, with w'eekly service. The regular Brandon 
mail route was not established until 1862, when by an act of Congress a new 
postotHce had been established on the route from Elkader to Independence and 
between Independence and Buffalo Grove. The new oftice was called Castle- 
ville and Samuel Castle was apjiointed postmaster. One was established from 
Independence to Jaiiesville, with B. L. Thompson as mail carrier; one from 
Wolf Creek, with Wm. A. Dana as carrier, who was also carrier from Inde- 
pendence to Fredericksburg, this route having increased to two trips per week. 
Another route was estidilished from Elkader to Independence, and also one 
from McGregor to Independence. Most of these were established in 1861 and 
1862. 

THE TELEGRAPH 

The people of the county thought that with the extension of the Dubuque 
& Sioux City Railroad all their troubles with delayed mails and insutilicient 
comnuuiication would be at an end, but they found to their sorrow that a 
combination of wind and weather just as .seriously affected the railroad 
traffic even to a far greater degre(> than it did the old mail routes in the early 
days as the road beds were poorly graded and there was no protection from 
drifting snow, and none of these monstrous, modern snow plows that cut 
through the drifts like gophers burrowing to facilitate matters. When the 
bridges were washed out or the snows drifted over the tracks, the mails were 
delayed often for weeks at a time, as in the great snowstorm of 1861, when mails 
were irregular from January 15th until March 1st, and most of that time 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 313 

Independence was bereft of outside communications. Tlien, at the conclusion 
of tlie winter's blockade, the spring thaws and rains washed out bridges and 
embankments and caused more trouble and took weeks to repair the damages 
sufficient for regular traffic. In the winter of 1862, in the fourteen days from 
February 13th to the 17th. only tive mails were received, two of those coming 
on the same day, although the raih'oad company had promised to bring them 
through on sleds and had contracted to furnish at least tri-weekly service. 
Then for five days after that no mail whatever was received, and so on, con- 
tinuously and not until the middle of March was the road opened up clear 
through, which caused general rejoicing. And not alone the poor mail service, 
but the great inconvenience and positive harm done the patrons, shippers and 
merchants demand that some definite measure be taken to overcome this 
difficulty. 

General dissatisfaction had been incurred by the railroad company for the 
extremely lax manner in which they had conducted their business. It seemed 
as though no great effort had been made by them to fulfill their contract. This, 
like the previous winter, was an exceptionally bad one, with heavier and more 
frequent snows, but that did not quite excuse the railroad company or greatly 
alleviate the animosity of the people against them. Letters of complaint from 
the persecuted and long suffering public, followed by letters of explanation antl 
vindication from the railroad company were of frequent oi^currence. The road- 
way was fenced the next year, which prevented the drifting to a great extent and 
the recurrent blockades. During those exciting times, with rumors of impending 
battles or those that had already been fought, only meager and unreliable news 
could be received and only in a roundabout, desultory manner, and the suspense 
was maddening to those having friends and relat'ives in the conflict. x\ll the 
war news came tln-ough Cedar Rapids. Then in July again terrific rains and 
high water did great damage; in some places the embankments were washed 
out for distances of 200 feet and 42 feet deep. For four weeks there had been 
little or no traffic and only mail and passenger trains. Consequently a va.st 
amount of freight had accumulated at every station. Mails were from three 
to five days late and it took five days going from Cedar Falls to Dubuque. 
Temporary tracks were laid, but it took months to repair the road to its fornier 
condition. These interruptions of mail service continued indefinitely, and even 
unto this present day railway mail service is not all that could be desired, 
depending wholly on the favorable or unfavorable conditions of the weather, 
but with no telephone or telegraphic communications the delays seemed almost 
unbearable, especially during war times. 

So in consequence of these intolerant conditions early in the year 1862 
agitation was begun in Independence for a telegraphic line to be built out from 
Dubuque, but the proposition made by Mr. Stimson, president of the D. & S. C. 
R. R. Company, to the people along the intended route did not meet with 
particular approval, for the reason that the railroad company expected too 
much of the local people and they refu.sed to meet with the company's demands, 
so the matter was dropped for a time, but finall.v. in the fall of 1863, a line was 
started out of Dubuque and was expected to be finished l>efore wintrf. By 
November the holes for the posts were dug as far west as Je.sup and wires were 
stretched to Independence and by the la.st of December the line was in full 



314 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

operation. This was of iuL-aloulable value to the busiuess men, as well as 
obviating the news question. 

The only letter that we found iu ironmu-ndation of the railroad company 
was written on January 20th by twenty-four of the prominent citizens who were 
blockaded in the storm some four miles east of Manchester, just five days after 
the big snowstorm commenced and the first train had .succeeded in reaching 
Independence, and at that early stage of the blockade they felt that their deliver- 
ance liome justified an acknowledgment, so resolutions were passed extending 
unqualified thanks for the gentlemanly and courteous treatment accorded them 
by the conductor and engineer, also for the kindness shown them by the citizens 
of Manchester who upon being warned of tlieir perilous situation four miles 
east of them came on horseback to their aid. 

THE TELEPHONE 

The introduction of the telephone into Independence was in JMay, 1880, when 
a temporary telephone line for the exhil)ition of the instrument had been estab- 
lished between Tabor's drug store and C. D. Jones' insurance office. "It works 
nicely and it now seems probable that a peruianent system will be established in 
Independence," as .sevei'al of the citizens had expressed a willingness to subscribe 
to the project. The charge for the use of each instrument was $36.00 per year. 
Kellogg & Ilolloway had tlie first paid line installed from Independence to tlieir 
lumber and coal yard at the li., C. R. & M. depot. The wire was stretched along 
on the tojjs of the houses and the erection of poles proved unnecessary, except 
in one or two instances. 

The Hoover meclianieal telephone was u.sed, but not proving satisfactory, 
was discarded and the Hell instrument was substituted, and a private line was 
established between their office and Oak Hall Grocery, and a line was established 
to the hospital. The office was located at Tabor's drug store. 

This first system was not .satisfactory and the phones were removed, with 
the exception of the one to the ho.spital, which had connection with Tabor's 
drug store. 

In November, 1886, a city fele]ihone exchange was reestablished, with about 
thirty subscribers. The central office was located in C. R. Wallace's drug store, 
where O'Brien's clothing store is now located. Here it remained until it was 
removed to its present quarters. 

TELEPHONES 

The first ordinance to be granted to a telephone company by the City 
of Independence was dated April 11, 1888, and was given to the Iowa Union 
Telephone and Telegraph Company, to erect poles, wires and fixtures upon 
the streets and alleys of Independence. 

The second ordinance was granted to the Wapsie Valley Telephone Com- 
pany, composed of F. Kelley, J. F. Elliott and W. P. Durham, of Troy Mills, 
Iowa, and was dated September 14, 1897. 

On July 9, 1900, an ordinance was granted to the Coxtnty Telephone and 
Telegi-am System. 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 315 

The first compau.y to opei'ate in the city was the Iowa Union Telephone 
and Telegraph Company, which company later beeame a co-part of the Bell 
Telephone System. Their office was in 1897 or 98 removed from the C. R. Wal- 
lace Drug Store on South IMain Street to the floor of the Morse Block over 
Logan's Dry Goods Store. In 1897 the Wapsie Valley Telephone Company 
erected their plant and began business in conipetitiou to the Bell System and 
at this time the first farmer lines were introduced to the local office. 

The contest reached its climax about the year 1909. At this time the 
rivalry became bitter; residents were using two telephones, one of each com- 
pany, which proved a great inconvenience and expense. Finally, a compro- 
mise was effected between the two companies, which resulted in a consolida- 
tion of both business offices, the Bell office being removed to the Corn 
Belt office over the O'Brien Dry Coods Store on South Main Street, and it is 
the popular understanding that this insured the local exchange business to the 
Wapsie Valley, or the Corn Belt Company, and all toll business was given to 
the Bell Company. This is the state of affaii's at the present time. There 
are six exchange girls employed at the present time and the office is finely 
equipped with all modern appliances. 

The first long distance connection which the City of Independence had 
with the outside world occurred in the spring of the year 1898. Local people 
were allowed to talk with their friends in distant states free of charge; and 
several calls were made to New York and San Francisco, Texas, Kansas and 
other points. A band concert held in New York City was enjoyed by many 
people in Independence. 

The telephone business is one of the most vital and prosperous in the city, 
if number of subsci'ibers and use of the phone is any criterion. Something 
over one thousand phones are on the local exchange and an average of 6,000 
local calls per day and on busy days 300 toll calls. But it is always a busy day 
in the Com Belt office. Mrs. Emma Moore has been the efficient and accom- 
modating toll operator for about fourteen years. 




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CHAPTER XVI 

MISCELLANEOUS 

CLIMATE WINDSTORMS BLIZZARDS ACCIDENTS RIVERS — FLOODS 

CLIMATE 

The weather of Buchanan County is like that of all this section of the 
country, as variable as the wind that blows, as diverse in its extremes of heat 
and cold as the thermometer can "conscientiously register," and combines every 
phase and condition of climate known to meteorologists. This may be a trifle 
exaggerated, but the weather reports prove the assertion that Buchanan County 
can boast of more different kinds of M^eather than almost any corresponding area 
in the United States of America. Possibly this can be accounted for in the 
fact that a real weather prognosticator dwelt among us, and took e.special delight 
in "variating and variegating" it so that we would not become cloyed with any 
one particular kind. We refer to Mr. John Busby, lately deceased, who had 
won an envialile reputation far and near for liis proticient weather prognostica- 
tions and was known as "The Weather Wizard — The Goose Bone Prognos- 
ticator. ' ' 

But weather has always been here and one of the strong features of this 
climate. It greeted the earliest settlers, in the winter of 1842-48, which was, 
according to those early accounts, one of the most severe on record. On the 
17th of Novemljer a terrible snowstorm commenced, accompanied by wind, which 
caused immense drifts. Most of the houses haying been hastily erected that 
spring of logs, were imperfectly chinked and plastered and it was impossible 
to keep out the drifting snow. Kessler's was in this condition and his family 
took refuge at Clark's, which was better protected. On returning after the 
storm, they found their house drifted completely full and buried, even to the 
chimney, and had to dig out their furniture piece by piece. They dug a regu- 
lar stairway from the door to the top of the snow, and also one to reach the 
water in the spring close by, through snow fourteen feet in depth. The storm 
ended in a sleet which left a hard crust on the surface strong enough to bear the 
weight of a man and this was the way the mail was carried to Ead's Grove. The 
privations which these poor, illy-pr(^pared pioneers endured would appall the 
generations of today. The spi'ing of that year was just as backward and cold as 
the winter had been severe. On the 1st of April the river was still frozen and 
teams crossed on the ice. We believe this is a record which has never been 
broken, and undoubtedly our climate has changed since those pioneer days — 
increased population and agricultural pursuitvS have greatl}^ changed and modi- 

317 



318 HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 

fied it. The winters of those days seem to liave started early and continued 
late, even more so than now and with heavier snows, or if not heavier, with more 
chance to drift and less convenience to get rid of the superabundance. 

''The great snowstorm of "61." as it is recorded in history, is as interesting 
in detail and full of dramatic incidents as a description of Cook's North Pole 
discoveries, and equal in beautiful and sublime poetical material and natural 
illustrations as Whittier's "Snow Bound." 

Tlie great storm, or more properly speaking, a series of storms, commenced 
on Tuesday night, January 1.'), 1861, and continued with intermissions of two 
or three days all through January and February up until March. During the 
first night of the storm snow fell to a depth of from eighteen inches to two feet 
on the level and being accompanied by a fierce wind, the prairies and railroad 
cuts became so drifted that an effectual embargo was laid upon all communi- 
cation between town and country, as well as between the beleagured town and 
other railroad cities. 

The circumstances that intensified the almost unbearableness of the situa- 
tion was that the Civil war was then in progress and with many of the fathei-s, 
sons, husbands and brothere at the front, and no mail for days at a stretch, and 
that containing stale news and still more harrowing accounts of battles fought 
or about to be fought and with no means of learning the details or results, the 
people were nearly distraught with apprehension. This condition existed all 
that winter and the railroads were alternately blamed, then praised. From Janu- 
ary 15th till the 26th of February, there were but two trains into the city and 
none since the 23d of January, which made over a month with only such 
communication with the outside world as the mails occasionally hauled on sleds 
to and from Manchester. 

The snow laid on the ground till into April, not a patch of green to be seen. 
But this was not so unu.sual in those days, for we found a notice where on the 
8tli of April, 1865, the thermometer registered 12 degrees below freezing. Pre- 
vious good weather had led the farmers to start putting in their crops, but 
Jack Frost chilled their ambition for an early crop. This article further states 
that a furious gale delayed the westbound train seven hours, completely stop- 
ping it sixteen times between here and ^lanchcster. This certainly must have 
been a veritable hurricane and the trains not so substantial as our present 
"Big Mogul" engines and unswervable steel cars. On the 5th of June, 1859, 
occurred a killing frost in this county. An early settler told of coming here 
by team from Dyersville and landing on the ith of June. That night ice fonned 
in the pitchers at the hotel where they were stopping. All vegetation was black 
and wilted and the loss to cmps was great, considering the small amount of 
acreage. This was followed by an unusually hot, dry summer; rain did not 
fall for weeks and the ground became so baked and dry that wide cracks were 
seen everywhere. The springs, ponds and creeks dried up and the cattle had to 
be driven sometimes for several miles to water. Fall feed was very scarce, but 
this was not such a direful calamity then with the small number of animals in 
the county, as similar circumstances would now be with thousands of head of 
stock dependent upon it. The spring of 1865 was another remarkably late one, 
snow to the depth of six or eight inches falling on the 22d of April. It snowed 
continuously for about thirty-six hours and although it did not last long, there 



HISTORY OF BUCHANAN COUNTY 319 

vvasii 't a tree budded or a blade of green grass to be seen until May, that year. 

Another most unusual spring was in 1910, when Mr. March, instead of comiBg 
in like the proverbial lion and going out like a lamb, changed his repertoire and 
was so mild and balmy that vegetation immediately hurst into leaf and bud, 
and with the continued warmth and sunshine every bud buret into full bloom. 
But this was unprecedented, unusual and unofficial weather and must, therefore, 
be summaril}-^ reprimanded for such presumption. So March took a change of 
heart and rescinded all hi.s previous good intentions, the weather turned extremely 
cold, froze all the blossoms on the trees; the fruit crop was an almost total 
failure ; every leaf fell off the trees, and a more pathetic looking landscape 
could not well be imagined. Everyone thought we would be destitute of any 
foliage that entire season but I'emarkable as it seemed the trees put forth an 
entire new crop of leaves and the foliage was not perceptibly lighter that year 
than usual. 

Several winters without snow enough to furnish one sleigh ride have been 
recorded, and it would seem that we do not have nearly the amount of snow 
fall as in earlier years, for sleighing is never long continued now. 

The winter of 1873 was one of unusual severity. In Januai-y there were terrific 
snowstorms throughout the entire Northwest. One in early January continued 
three days. A pioneer declared that during his seventeen years' residence on th^ 
prairies of Iowa he had never seen a storm of .such severity and duration. The 
railroads were effectually blocked for several days — consequently no mail. Many 
persons lost their lives in the counties in the north and west of Buchanan 
but fortunately no one did here. 

The sumer of 1863 was an exceptionally hot one. The thermometer ranged 
around 90° and most of the time 94° and 95° for two or three weeks continuously. 
All over the entire country the heat was oppressive aud the poor Northern 
soldiers under the scorching Southern skies, tramping miles upon miles in the 
dust and heat, without rest or shade, and often going hours without water, 
suffered untold agonies. 

We have January thaws, February ground-hog days, March winds, April 
showers. May .sunshine, Jmie freshets, July storms, August dog-days, September 
fair and equinoxial weather, October suushine, November frosts, and December 
snow-flurries, just as long as the "goose-bone prognosticators " and "weather 
wizards" have scheduled for us, lo these many years, and shall probably continue 
with the same varied assortment, indefinitely as we have made this our specialty. 
We, of this particular zone and belt, should liecome inured to any atmospher