(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Children's Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "History of Bucks county, Pennsylvania, from the discovery of the Delaware to the present time"



ill' 

gir: 




lii# ■■-■ 

lip •■ 

IIP"' • 

P 

^^ 

mom'-::. 



974.801 '^- Cr, 

B85da 

v.l 

1755141 



REYNOLDS HISTORICAL 
GENEALOGY COLLECTION 



Gc 



*LLENCW,l^,»|Slffilliili 



?1833 01U4 9664 



Digitized by tlie Internet Arcliive 

in 2010 witli funding from 

Allen County Public Library Genealogy Center 



http://www.archive.org/details/historyofbucksco01davi 



SU3 



HISTORY 



OF 



B UCKS COUN TY 

PENNS YLVANIA 

FROV, I flH L.'lSCO\i:RV OF TMF DhLAW.VRF TO THH .['RFSFNT TiMH 
WILLIAM vV. H. DAVIS, A .M. 

l',eM,i.ni r.f ih- Burks Countv Hislork.al So.iclv. N!e,-,:|.fcr Tt tl.c Aii.<.ri.-:ui U.sioiicJil Socie'.y. tb". nisi..:!:.; 

Sock oof P<-i.n-vlvania. li.r New Vi,:k r.,:iic.Tloci. al an<S Hiot-raphicl bociuiy, tr.c \\ eeitni R-'i.irie 

'm'.f.ncal S.:.;itcv: Ai-.il.oi of '• El f.rit!;,-i. r.r Ne» Mr-xiro ;,nn Her People^ " " HiitOi.v ::f 

<;<,ii V.lin lac.v.' "Thu Sp;i'ii>!: Con.i:i<,-[ of .\.-.v Mexiro; ■ ' Hiilory of -.he Cine 

llui.nred ano. TourtM Pciiik> Ivaiila l<on:R-enf," -liisiMiy of ihf ilai' 1 amily," 

" Li!'^ u! Ce!!. Jphu Davis;' "History of the Doyltslowii Guanis:' "1 Vn 

I'iifS I'ebcilion: " " History of Doyiestown, (Jlil anH Niw:' Ei^-. 



SECOND EDITION, REVISED AND ENLARGED 

\SlTil A 

OtNFALOCICAL AND i^EKSONAl. HISTORY OF BUCKS COUNTY 

I'lep, ie.1 Vv.Aii- llie lidiioii.d Siii'cr\isi<in 'if 

WARREN S. ELY 

eiieii.'tiM. Mfi ■>■: .^i thi ll:-;tori.-.il "M.cietv •.' Honiwyhani.i. iiiul IJbrari.ii; .>r the Bu, 
Coimtv lliM..ri.jl Soolety, 



JOHN W. JORDAN, LL.D. 

f 11 lliv K'>irii.c:il SdCietv •■! fViir.syivania. 



2L? 



\'OLr WE 1 "li.I USIRAIFD 



XKW \OKK ri!IC.\i;i) 

Til!'. I.I.UIS I'l'lU.lSiUN'i; rOMl'ANV 



EMEKEL-' AcC'.'RDINC 10 Act Of CoN&hE;,-.. 

IN THi 

l-'hFlCt (Jt 1 UK LlbK^KlAN Oh ("O.SGlJiSS, IN lliL Wak i tlO; 



l)it- Ln.is Pt^t-cifHt.-ic Coiv;? 



1755111 

XDms t!5o[uine 

IS RESPECTFULLY INSCRIBED TO THE 



OF TKt LATE 



Iboiiorablc Ibciir-^^ Cbapniaii, 

A DESCENDANT OF JOHN CHAPMAN. 
THE FIRST SETTLER NORTH OF NEV.TOWN. 



TO THE READER. 



Soon ;!iitr the iuiblicaiioi, oi tlic fu^l edition of the IJi.slory ot Bucks 
C.>i:ii!y, 1S71.. w- li.j-au c..'l!>LiinL,- r,i;.kTial for a. ..1011.1 o.hi;..n sli.niKI tliat 
1)0 rociniro.l. To as-:ist in tliij woik, wo had one copy l... .un.l in two volumes 
and uitcrloavod to niakc uur addiiions and conccliMns in. AVh.on the firft edi- 
tion was exhausted. 1.200 cv\wi. nearly the whole 'if them -oins- to subscrib- 
ers, we rnneluded to publish a second cdiliun and set abont the work. The 
M'b'cnnlion price of the tu'-t edition was ?:;. b.'t -^'d as bi-1' as Sio to nuu- 
^^i-l.^-ribers before it vras evban=!ed. Onr 'cron.l i^'sk \vas h-s= laborious Ihan 
the Hist, as wo b.id Ihe printed levt of the Hrst edhion as -nide and a founda- 
lion te; buiid upon. Our inei-a^e.l material eouipels' us ' to issue the new 
rdilion in two volnmes, but the incre:'.r-ed rrice is wn in nropi.rtion to the addi- 
tional labor and. ixix-nsc. \A'r iia\e aduled two ikw ehapiers, one, the history 
of "nrid;.;-et<.n township."' orvani/cd ^inco the'liist editi-ii appeared; the Other 
"Schools and ]".dncation.' ilie ii-o>t valuable eb.-.nter in the bock' to pcrscms 
ai-a-cd with, o, interested in. the cause of cducaiion. The illustration?.' hl^- 
tr-ric and ai^propriate. add to ilie value and inieresl. of the work and requiriiiE;- 
several vears to eo.llret, were oil-inallv intended for a diffet-ent purro=e. The 
'.Ter.nsburv jTou^e." the r.U(k< counlx honie of \\'-:Hiv.n Tonn. \vn< drawn bv 
Addisun Ilutton. np-hilee*. T'iiii-Klelphia. from a written , description nf the 
l,inldin<:, a'ler a careful ^tudv bv, the author, .'It is as. close approximation of 
lli.^ oriuinrd Tmildinq- as can be reached after ip.'re tlyin a century. At the be>t 
the manor house was a fir^t^ekiss colonial dwcllin--. and so far as we are aware, 
this is ihc1lr-t attempt lo'Vepv'nluce it;" Our^ thanks are due to a number 
•r.f persons, for the use of famih. records n:nd other data. 'and it afiVrds u- 
pleasure t.-> make the ackuow ed:;ment. and espr-eialls to 'Aarren S. LI;. 
Doylcstown, who a'-sisl^d us to unravel more tiian one knott>- point m cren- 
ealoc^r. besides l'urn;phin£{ valuable informauo-.i; Tlie -catalo-i-.e of the Flora 
of -Rucks conntv isTrom the ppu of Dr. O T). FreU. Fcller.sville ; tlio T'cirds and 
^ramma^s bv Dr. T"<=eph Thnn a=.- Oi'^'-^ >•tov^■u : ar.l the elaKoralcUabl-. -ivincr 
the declination or variation 01 the conipass needle, between t6Po and Toio, 
,va= prei-arcd for this wo,k U the irnited. Staves Coaa Survev, and Geodetic 
(nTicc, Wn.shii.s'.on, D. C, the second faveir of the kind extended to us. ... 

S'eptemh'er i, t904: ■" ' ' " ' ' ' ' ^^'- ^^*' '^^- ^^-^'^^^^- 



PREFACE OF 1876. 



Thf writing cf tlie FJ!>lory of- Fiuck"? county \va.~ more a "Lahor of Lo\"c'' 
than of gain. It was undertaken fnini a desire to prcstrvo intcroslirii;- fact^ 
connected \\'itli its scttlcmcjU and liiriory that, in a few year?, would iiavc 
been lost forever, nrd no i-ca<;onah!e compensation v.ould reward n- for 
f!ic larior lioftowcd on it. W'c Laborcil under ni;mv (lilViridties. It.s slor-v' iiad 
never been written, and ih:- malerird. in a .i,^reat mea'^'ire, liad to be first gatli- 
: ered in isolated f;icts and ib.en woven i;ito the (bread ni bisi.Try. Tiiis was the 
ir.ost difl'icu'i part of ■mh- t.i-lc. • In m"-t ca-es individ.ual? anil fainilies g:tve tip 
their pa<<-r> for exaniin.iiir.n, wb.ich |>piv.-d of .threat assistance. With the lapse 
of years the material tcri w upon onr hands beyond onr anticipation, and wc 
could have written a !nrL::er liool;, bui are content tn .ci\e the result of our 
labors in a volume not too lartje for convenient use. '3ur j^n-eatest difiicuitv 
.was in collecting- matter re'alini^ to the settlement and early history of ilie 
German townships. l)ec.T.=e tiiey were loss in the habit of prescrvinc^ f.Tuiily 
and per^'Mia! records. We consulted ilie most re!i.d>le records and andiori- 
lies to le readied, audi are .satisfied it contains as few errors as coidd rea-ivn- 
ably hi- expected hi a "Aork <A the kind. .Vs a rule, we l!a\e given the rai^inal 
spcllins; of th.c nan;i;s of h^th persons and [);a~es. which, iii many cases, win 
be fov.nd to diiTer fr.' m the present spellincr. .-m.d. in <:-.nic instances, the name 
is spelled in two wa\-~. This wns n!>.avr>idable. W'x- .acknowledije our obliga- 
tions to many gentlemii:. r.< ; only f.-^r Jlie encour.'.ging interest they took in our 
labor, but for informalii.n furnished, often nn;olic!ted. We also" acknovri edge 
the assi-iasiee derived fr'T:n the small W'^rk .-'i» the c:.uiity publi.shed twenty 
years au'.i. by Mi. Wili'. iir. J. iluck. nw.- .if sn-.r earliest a.nd most lafvjri^-'US local 
hiiti^rians. Tlfe maps and en'.;ravingi are a proper aco.mpauiment of the work 
and no doubt wdl interest '.lie rca<;cr. Tlie cata!os:iie of the I-'lora, Birds and 
.\ia;ntf5.-i|s oi the Counry v^a^ prepared e.-q-rcssly for cur work by Doctors I. S. 
Moye.-- :.r;'l los. ph Thi 'ct-. l;i (',>iM'.i;tu\v;i. jrd ar.- ttw rvsulf of v-v^w, •:-? 



PRLiACii Of j.<;:^;. vii 

carcf-.j! and laborious rv-carcli. T!ie information touching the variation of the. 
compass needle was furnislie(i at the author's request by Carlile P. Patterson. 
IC.-;t.. .Superintcmlent nf the I'nited States Coast Survey. The variation of 
'Jic cor.ip.ifs r.crdlc, as slionn by ihe United States Coast Suive}' report for 
tlie year 1855, jTiycs ^^i^, 313. has been determined more frequently at two 
stations in this ncif;hb'-irhood than elsewhere within the limits of the United' 
Stales. Early observaii'jns \\ere un.-^atisfactory, but being repeated at intervals 
.iud merged in due time as first part; in a series ending with several accurate 
'k'tenninatii ns, the law oi \-ariation, during the last two centurii^s. has been 
cleJiiced for the vjcinit\- of F'h.ilatklphia. As applicable alsii to P.ncks count'.-. 
and referable to early periods in tlie settlement, the value of the article on 
variation in tins history will be a; parent. 

(Signed) : W. W. II. DAVIS. 

DovLESrowx P.\., September i, 1876. 



CHAl^TKR I, 



lilSCOVEUV Ol- in\l D};LA\VAlvr' to TSIF- Ak!M\ .\L u!- l.n',i.:^11 1.\1.\I[- 

GR.IXTS. 



lOU!) TO 10 7S. 



Dii'.'ks .-i;! nrigi.ial (-•■niUy. — Size :niil sitiritioii. — I Li' J:> :a'.'s ■!•- :Tn\ tir-;. 

lravc:>cil by Euri.jiLaiii. — H'ili;'.nd plants ^ettli-nv^-i-ts. — l-"ir.-t ;■ ,w AHu'ju. 
— T;k- Swcclis arrivc.^The .EiiglUU apix-ar. — V;i:i Dcr D.-i'.k. — i.ui.i.-;r'.'in. — Di.lr'i 

drive out Swedes. — Tlic English sei/.e the l\-iawai-c. — Governiner.l otabHsiied. — 

Winiatu Tom. — Ovoriand coinmijiiicalion. — Richrirl Gur.>r.i i Loiii.i.: 

viriii Po'auare. — George Fox. — Sir l-Mnminl Aiuhrs. — Wii. ii. — W in - 

puDi. — Sonlei's arrive. --(■"■'r-t 'jr:'"' i:"-'.- -I '• ■;■■'. .;...■... , 

isla.'.d. 

lUicks. uiii; ui ilif iiiife original 
counties ;if }'cni!s\lvai.i:i. is Ijoui'.ilevi 
I'll i!k' •,)iiilu-,'st and ?<iiH!!e;iit by ti;c 
De-law. ■.:!". M'lilhwe.-l bv l'liiiai:l<-'l})hin. 
ami .\!o;!i'_;;i.nieTy coiiiilies, aiul, on the 
iuir;!i, ]:y LthiLrli t-.U''. Xt/rihamptnii. 
■ " "■', The suiKico is U!ie-Ve'i! ar.'i roUiiiiC, the 

si.il f'T'ii:'. It is ■:.:;<:-vx:d by several 
tributa!;- ^ .•'• i'nc ]'>A::\\.aVc. the iirili^:;- 
pal licinL;' th.c .VesliaMin) . I'ep.uyiiack, 
I uiiue'ssi^iq;. Toliickiiii, aiul a lirancli 
fi th.c I'crkiii-.sifii einiM>iti^ into th.e 
>e-lmylkiii. I.iiiK-st.iiie. in la^jj^-c ([Uan- 
litics. is f'juui! in the ex-niral rcjrion oi 
tlio ciHintv. a!i<l valnahle' I'qHisits r,t 
iron lire' in I'lK- norilieast. TIic inlialL- 
lants ;uv al;ru>st cxeln.-ixely cni;)loyc.l 
in airricultmal pnrsr.iu. in 1790 t!ie 
poj.i'huion was J5.401 -. i>\>o. J7.400; 
iSlO. ,^2..:571 : iSju. ,^7.S.i_»; 1S30, 
iih.NKY 111 !>soN 43.745: 1840. 4.^107: 1S7U. 6.^.3^^6; 

"iSSo. i.S.'>3i'; " I Si 11 1. 70.(115; I'.po, 

7i.iwit. The lenuilr i> i'"it>. miles aiul awra^e' hreaihh lifleen. L:i\iii^- it an are'a 

I't HI) square- iiiile.-. ei['.n\a!eul U> _^S'J.ikki ae-ro>. 



iiis'iORY or /:rci<s ctnw'i')' 



This vnliuiu; will c utain ll.c" I'.i^i' ■!">■ ui lliu-ks (.•uunly froni ilic (li.-covv.Ty 
of llic JX-!a\varc n.i '.In- pri.:M-iU tiiiio. 

Ik-iirv lliulsun,' ail Jii!yii>liii)aii in tlic si.i"\icL- of llie Dutch lia'^i-Iiulia 
conipanv, 'clijcuvciv.l Dilawaic I'.ay iho _'8lh of August. lOoo. but ma.U' no 
altcmiii to ascend the ri\c!'."- I ajitain Curnolins Jacobson May ascenucJ the 
rivc-r .-•■uio ili-iaiuv, in 1014. aif!. two \cars afterward, Captain iio;Klricksc.n 
discnvcR'd iiic- i'cht\\lkili. \'<'r a number of years llie hiilury of the cof.ntry 
watcrid by llie Delaware,- i.s a relaii.m of the struggles of llolland, i^wcden 
and England for cnij)iri.- on its banks, and will engage little of our attention. 
It was abof.t this period thai Knck.- cnnity was th-t traversed by Enn-peans. 
In lOiO three Dutch iradcr.s selling out from l-'ort Nassau, now Alkny, to 
exj'li re Ihc interior, struck acn>s< t.) liu: licadw atens of the Delaware, and 
traveled down it to' the Sehu\iui!!. lure they were made prisoners by tb.e 
,Minqnas, but re-eue.l by t/aj.iain i lemlrickson at tlie mouth of the river. He 
was sent round from .Manhattan in the Kolless, and, landing on tiie west l)ank 
of the Delaware, aiiovc the n-u-uth uf the Sclniylki'd, ransomed the DuLchr.ien 
bv giving in exchange lor llum ■'kelsKs, beads and other niercb.andise." .\s 
the iuteri. r of the country was whciUy unexijl'ircl. it is not ])ri.ibable tiiese 
waiidcrer.- wniM leave ti'.e bank-, of a great river and trust their steps to an 
inik'ni'wn wiiiierness. 

We have but a brief record of the success of the Hollan ler- ]i!nr.iiiig 
settlements on the Delaware. Tiiey and the jM-ench carried on a |)ni-.ii:iliic 
trade with the Indians ;iS early as ii">2r. an<l n.o doubt, now and then one of 
tliem inished liis way ini" ' ■. ' ' i- '■ ■ I'.iieks county to tra(i and trade. In 
iOj^-"- the Dutch We-t-i ited a fi.'rt where Gloucester, Xew 

ler^ev. stand.-, but affair> :■ • r ■ ■ : ihiug on the Delaware it was aban- 

.Xb'Ui 10J4-J5 the \Ve<i-India CMiipany e.-t;iblisbed a trading liouse on 
a small island, called 'A ' ;-i;ii;d." after William X'urhuisi. director 

of Xew Xetherlanil. !:•::■• ■ 're <-i the Delaware just below Trenlon 

falb. and li'cated \:\' •' ■• ' ■ familie-, of l-"rench \\'ai!oon.-. Tlie i)Ost 

wa> broken x:\> alf - • ' A;..l!oi.ns retvu-nei! to Xew ^'ork. but a 

small \i ■■•■'. \.a- r^ • in kee|) up the fur trade. Tliis i-land, 



opp 



sjiinc which- Gabriel Th.:i:nas called 



.Miss l.i7/ie 1.1 



itv. Ii:l.5 t'.ie s.-i.sH Win; bv 11o!iry Uuil- 



riviT cmpiii-. V. I 
Stn>h:itm- iii.ii;! 
iiv( r lliat \\;(- ■ . 
Jn'ttr rivir !■> '■ 

■Mackcri-kiit-.n 
By till- Vh-u-h i: 
-riv.r. 1 lie .'^W" 
knruMl ;is tl:c ! 
)t-> ircii'K-'irx-. 
<■ ..-Ml. ■yriii.Uy. .■ 
y- . .Sir l> 



;■- ■•f IKiiry Vluilson." thai l[uil<..in was 

' •'■.I' its niinuli. aiid liay iiil... wliicU the ■ 

■ . .;!*1, 1513. Jt is also elaiiued iliat ' 

Wrrazaiia aiitl Ji<ciiv<rcd a lar.tje | 

- - 111 .-inie ar;4iiniein lii iirove l!iii; 'j 

i !,■■ Iniiiaiis ealled it Nfari-fiUCt.Dn, 

'.. i.r liie .-treani et tiic Lciiapo. 

■I. I'iin>-e i f 01 1(1 rick's, .-itid Charles 

^' : ' ih. l".ni;iisli it was Seiie,-al)y 

i|.;i. -.d di-eovorer. The Ditu-h, 

::r . cidicd i( Paiilaxat. 1 lcy!:ii. lu his 

'. r at ihc Hague. 



IIISTORV 01- nCCKS COLWT]- 



"Slacic's island" sixty \i.ars laur, and iiuw known a,s "I'airvicw," is only a 
sand bar, cor.Uiiirii;^- al>ait y^ acres — with a lislK-ry iq.'!! ii. J'itly years ayo 
il was used as pasu-.re L;iMr.nd. The setilemeni vn this i>iand wa? un< linibiei.il v 
till- e;nTe>t in this e";ir:ty and state. There is lui dunlit haui^in^- eieer !t< Inca- 
tiun. Jn Aiarcli. i'.iS5. I'eter Lawrensen stated in a dei'Ositiun boiore GovernLH" 
Duii.i^an, New V(.irk-, vr.va he cair.e inti; U'.at piin-iuce ti ser\ain. ni the \\ est- 
Jndia conijiany, I'ljS; ll;,a. ii>,?'. '"^ • widi se\ei; c.ll'.eis. was .-ent U> the Dela- 
wai'e, where the conii'any luul a tradini;- house, w itii ten ur twelve servants 
attached to it: that he ,~a\v ihein seitletl there. That he also saw tlie place on 
ihe island, near the /a.Iis, an.d near ilie west hank, wliere the cuuipany iiad a 
trading- housi,- three or i'mir xeai's hel'ure; that three ur i"ur families of W'al- 
liiinis were settled there, hut had then left.' A cmisideraljle he"l_\- of Waidenses 
and liuguenots were sent to tlie Delaware, i65()-iO(.>3,' but a is luU kn.jwn wh.aL 
became of them. 

Jf the sti.iry of Now Albiun be other than an historic myth, the J^nglish 
v\ere among the earliest adventurers and settlers on the JJelawa.re. J'.elweeu 
]0_\^ an<l 1,634 — for .-everal dates arc mcntiiinod — Idiaries I granted an exlen- 
si\e territor}- to Sir .Kditunid i'lowden, cnbracing Long li^land, all oi Xew 
jersey, l.xdaware. an.d ]>ru"l^ of .Maryland, X'irginia and i'eiinsylvania. who 
formed a cC'inpany of n>ii.i!emen and gentlemen under tiio title of "The All.ii.jn 
Knights." The IXiawa.re \va.> the elKisen ground to settle, and. tlie conipariV 
(iledged itself to inti'odnce 3.000 trained men into the colony. Cuioni>ts were 
actually iiitrodiieod and made their luMiie on the Dela\vare. Vmt neither the 
numljer nor ex.act hjcali^n can he'tnld. I'lowden was Lurd I'rt.prieteir and 
C'ajitain General, \vhile i')nc l!e;uK-hani]) I'lantagenei wa.s m;ide agent of this 
con'i])any nf knigiitlv settlers. I'knvilen and I'lantagenet were here seven years, 
and, l.iecame well acquainVed with tlie country and Indian tribes. .\ y.ivern- 
nieiit was fran'ed. an.i the machini-ry of ci\'il admin.istratimi ]iiit in up^ ration, 
but its dm'ati'iu i< t'.i:knin\n. A history of the colony, publishctl Hj+S. con- 
tained the letter of ..ijc ■■.XIa.-ter iv bvri Evelin" addressed to Lady I'lowden, 
aft<.r his retr.rn to l/.r.g'an.l. lie was f 1 an' years i..n the Delaware, arid in his 
iitier st;;tes ll'.at "Cai'tn'n C.'l.i\ In 'uni. fuurteen years there trading." sustains 
wlcai he says uf the C'.'inury. iCveiin e\idently sailed np tlie river to the falls, 
tor be mentions the streams emjitying into it; nanle^ of the tribes li\-ing 
,di>ng it and their strLiigih. with some description of the C'lnitry and its jiro- 
liuciions. .*-'i.\ leagui s be!''W the falls he speaks nf "twei fair, woody i.-lan.dis. 
\"erv pleasant an 1 ft t" : jiarlss. one of i .noo acres, tl'.e i^ther of 1.400, or there- 
abouts." Tlie,-e were probably r.iulinglc:in and Xewbold's islands. Xear the 
falls hi' says i> an isle fit for a city; all the materials tltere \.o build: and. above, 
the river fair an-l navi'::;;!Me, as th.e Indians inforniedi me, foi- 1 went but ten 
nnles higher." The "isle fit for a city" refers, donlnless. to Mom's island, or 
the one abrem nf Mirri^ville. It i-; IkhvIv po.-ssible he fell into the po])nlar 
error of some e.xploiers of the jK-rind, that the Deiaw.ire br;ineheii at the falls, 
the two branches farming a large i--i;m,l .ab..ve. lie sa\ > that a >hip of 1^0 t.-ns 
CI .111 I ascend til ilu' fall.-. ;iud that "'tc'ii leagi;es hiL;lier are lead mines in ston\- 
bills." At the f;ills he locates the lndi;m town i.f KiMurpy, with ■'clear ficl<ls 
to p!:uit .■'ind sow :ind n.ear it rn"e >weei, large meads of clover or honey.suckle." 
The leiter spv.-iks of the abundant sture of tish in ilse river: of water fmvl that 
■^w, im u])i-in its surface. ;md the game, fruit and ntus to be fi imd in the wood.s 
diat line its lianl<s, ini'l nf the iu:i''nilicC'nt forest trees. l'".ve!in must ha'iC trav- 



.-, (.;:iiiru-l llu.iii;.-. .[ Win IVr Doiik, 



iiisiukv Of Jsi'CKs coi'xry. 



olcil wrll intM llir iiU'.'rini- niiil tlinniL;!! puni.nih (jf HiR-ks c<ninty. lie sijl'li'ks 
of the iK'u tiiwn ni tlu' Su~(|iulianiii_ick> a? a "rare, iK-allliy and rich place, aiul 
witli a crystal, bri'.ni ri\cr." 'I'his inu>i refer U> tlse .Sus(iuehanna, ami the 
tribe fr.-m which it ttikes its name. 

W hat hecame of I'l'jw ilea's culuiu \V(iiil(l he an iiiterestiiiL^ inquiry, if we 
liai! the lei>ure tn ]nir-ne. i r the ilata nece.'--sar\' to solve it. The late William 
Rawle. l'h)lailel])hia, \\1m |.;a\e the siihicet a careful aiiil intelli,L;ent. invesli;.,'^a- 
tion, helie\eil thai snuie. who welconuil renii lo the shi q-, > of the Delaware, 
were the siir\i\'or> of the Albi'jii Kniyhts. liistory offers no C)ediinis to solve 
the ni_\ stery.'' 

llown to Ki^S the llritch held tindisiiiHe'd sway on the Delaware, hut, for 
the next seventeen wars, and tintil the ICugiish di^placed them hoth. ll':ey 
enjoyed a joint occupancy with the Swedes. In April, I'eier .Minuit |)ianted 
a Sweelish colony near where \\'ihnint;tou stands, namiu'.;- tile creek Chri.-lina. 
after the }Oiithful (Jueen of .Sweden. They were reinforced, Hqo, and ayaiu, 
1642, under Lieutenant John I'riiitz, who came with full ])o\vers to put thi; 
machinery of iLjovernment in o[;eration, an^.l li\ed his capital on Tinicum island, 
just behjw rhiladelidiia. Tin Dutch li.-id failed to make a permanent si ti\- 
nicnt on the west hank ul the Delaw.ire, iii^r had the\ purchased a foiit of 
ground, except a small tract nearl\ i;|>])osite (iloucester, Xew Jersev, ahinil the 
nioutli of the ."-Schuylkill. Shortly after his arrival, Minuit ]iurchased of tiic 
Leimi Leiiape ludi.ans all tlie land on the w<;st hank of the Delaware from (^'ape' 
Henlopeii io Trenion I'alU, extendin^^ inland to the Susqtiehrmna, and st/.kes 
ant! otiier luark-s were set v.[) to designate the houndaries. This was the ihst 
jiurchase. h\ iun"oiiean-. of the Imlian- in the limits of I'.ncks cmnUw 'Die 
Dutch called t!',is pmchaM- in question, liui il was as \alid as an\ of thai jierio:!. 
Th.e time anii p'!;;ce of hinli C'f John I'rint/. th'j tir>t to administer justii.'c on 
the west h.ink of the Delawa.re. are n^it known, lie was enoliled !u!v 2'). 1(14:1, 
attained the rank i--i (.'olouel in ih.e Thirty-twn ^T-ar-.' wa.r, and was arrested, 
tried and disnu's-ed tlie --er\ice for surrenderiup' his post without authurite. lie 
was appointed i;ovi'rnor of Xew Sweden, i'mj; returning;- lionie, 1(153, lie was 
a]iiiOinted Colonel auii ( io\-ernor of th.e h uk-pinc;, and died, n'l'^vv wi'hout 
male issiie. He huiit the iirst lliur mill in I'enn-ylvania, at " Karakmiij." near 
the J!h;e I'lel! tavern, Delaw.are count}-. It is iie.--crili(.d as a "rme mili, which 
Qr'i'.'iUd lioth coar.-e :md fine flour." 

Th.e h.ii^iish. de-liued to he the governinc;' race on the iJelawarc, frr'iu it,<; 
nii.utli to it> .-.lurce, d,id not niake their a[ipearance until 1040. Jn 1^30 some par- 
ties, from .\e>v ll.aveu. pairch.L-ed enough kmd of the Putcli and Swedes for 
several farms'''- and colonists were sent out the lolIowinLf \ear: hut hoth nations 



5 St IM:'.i-.\iirl I'lowiiiii ua- :• '-;n.at-:4raniUeii ,1; IMuiniui !".n'.viK-n. tlit: juri-t. .•Vliout 
lOto he- niarriol MiJul. .lau-liur -t IVter Maoixr. la i(o,j. Ik iKii;i.nK-(I Khv^ Cliarks 
f'lr a yr.mi ni \:\;,i\ on the .\l;amic coa-t .u' .Xiii.rica. and July .'4, s.uiu- year, an order 
wa- i-n-.-d f..r Uwr- p.ateiit !.i Sir I'.ilui.iinl I '•■.■,■. 4. 11 f-r I.m,- IrLlaml and 40 lc,e.ines 
S'l'iarc , f tin- adiacui! cnlinent. 1.1 i>o hoid^n ".i- 01' .nir cinwn ..T Ir.l.cMd.' liy th.e name 
fl "Xew .Mhi.ei" In i'04. Capl.iiii >'eiuir_; aivl hi- pepheu. k. her: h'.wiyn, imnnieneed 
to oxi>l.'re t!-e Delaware and nihir part- of the pnninee of Xew .Vhiicm. lie rcliinieii tu 
En^jiand. I'..;? 'lluy a-emded ihe Del.iuare in .\-;t;r,-i. X'.M. and ..n the Jotli eair.e L. 
sh'.al water !" ' -'.e I'r.r.tiii h.ill- lie reiurned to Anur.ea. I'l;,-. In K'lJ I'loudeii ua- 
re-'uiini; in \'ir;j;iM.v and ii>4S relnnied i.i l"ni;l,incl ei.i llnNdm. and the s.iine ye.ir ]r.;h- 
h-lud a <'..-, o.pt!,.n nf Xew .Mh^.n !li. will i, .l.Ced Jin> Jo. 1051. and lie die.! II".;.;. 

?'.• latter- fr. in eonrt at Xew Haven t.. thi- Sv.edes on die Delaware. 



H/STORV or lU'CKS COLWTV. 



tlinw every [lossihle ob>tacle in their way. Several additional families came 
cnt the frillnw iiig- year. Tlie-e attempts not beiuQ' successful, failed in giving 
tlie l-^nglish a fnothokl on the river. In iG^C-,. .\ndreas Hudde. a Dutch Com- 
missioner on a mission to search for minerals, ascended the Delaware to the 
falls, hut the Indians wmiM n"t allow him to g^ higher. Xe\ ertheless. he drove 
in a stake with the Dutch cuat-oi-arms upon it. claiming the cciuntry for Holland. 
.\t this time there was n.it a wliite settler above the Schuylkill, and. prior to 
I04J5. there was not a white femrfle west of the Delaware." Adrian \'an Der- 
Dnnk. a Dutch traveler, visited the Delaware. 1642, and, .on his return to tlol- 
!and. puljli>hed a book about the country. The favorable 0].)inion he entertained 
"f .\\\v Xeihcrland brought it into notice, and induced many to immigrate. He 
>:i;.s; ".\bo\x- the falls, the river divides into two large ljoatal)le streams, 
which nm far inland to place-^ unknown ti") .us.'" On examining his map we tind 
how little til!.-' early ex])l'jrer knew of the stream he wrote about. The river 
is made to divide a few miles above Alorrisville. The left, or Delaware branch 
prii]ier. trends to the west in aliout its natural course, then inclines to tlie east 
and unites \\ith the Hudson in what \"an Dcr Donk calls "Groote Esi_^pus river;" 
tin other branch, which never had- an existence except in the imagination of the 
authiir. nms in a jnore direct course and unites with the main branch near 
F.s'ipus — tile tuij liranches fdrming a large lake. Campanius. a Swede, who 
came to this country. 164J. wrote an interesting account of the Delaware. 
.\bout the falls he found walnuts, chestnuts, peaches, mulberries, a variety of 
pinm trees and .grape vines, hemp and hops. The calabash was here first met 
^\ith. PAvl the rattlesnake, "a large and horrible serpent." 

Tn i!"i54, I'eter Lindstrom. a Swedish engineer, surveyed and mapped the 
l)elawnre fri'in its mouth to the falls. Tn his treatise, .accompanying the map, 
he speaks of the products of the country: "]*Iaize, or Indian corn, grows of 
various colirs — white, red. Iilue, lirown, yellow and ]iied. It is planteil in, 
hillocks nnd squares, as the Swedes do hi:>i'S. In each hill.ick they sow six 
or seven grains of corn, which grow so high as ti 1 ri>e an ell above a mnn's 
bed. Eich. stalk has six or seven cars, with long, slen'ler and pointed !ea\cs, 
uh'ch are of die same color ^\■ith the corn. Each ear is one and a h.alf (iifrier, . 
iuit mostly half an ell long. In some parts they are as thick as the thickest 
Tnan"s arm. in others smaller. They have ten. twelve, nay. fourteen row- .if 
grains from the bottom t(_> the top, wdn'ch, with ("iod's 1)lessing, make a th'iusand 
fold increase. When these are iu>t rij-ic, and the\- are broiled on hot coals, they 
are delightfid t'l eat. Out of the white and _\elli.w mai/e thm make I'rcail, but 
the blue, brown, black an'! jiied are brewed into beer, -which is very strong, l)nt 
lot renia.rkabl\- clear." Ti 'bacco grew wild in .great C|uantiiies. and -was also 
cultiv.itcd. The map. while not entirely correct, proves the Swedes to have 
ben frni'liar with the river and the countr\' on bc'th -ides a few nn'les iidand. 
Tbi n,une> of the streams, which ajipe.ar to be ;i mixiu.re of Indian. French, 
.'■nd iM-ob;d)!v ."-^u edi.-h. can not all be made ■■vt. The i'oi|ue---iug is called 
/'<.)(c/,/»i'.«f;.',;'/( : the l'ennepad<. PiJiickf-ncha: tlie falls at .Morr!sville. f.a 
i'\Tlciiict (/' .Isiiif'iitk: the ehannvl between the niaini:iiil and an islnid i'^^t 
bel'.w the fa.lls. Lo Riricr i/c Scli.iiiuits. and the i-land it-elf. Kciithiitri-k. The 
next island below is MoiaJiiilccju'lc, and the channel iin tbi^ >i le f.a Riricr ilc 
S'liu-khiikoii. What was afterward Welcome creek", on who-e bank William 
I'enn built tiis m.anor house, is La Riricr ,jf S!parssiiii;z-l\yl. and I'.urlinglon 
'.-Ian.!, opposite llristol. Mrchaiisio fiVlaiul. 'J'he Xeshamin\ is called the river 



HlS'luKY OF BUCKS COUXTV 



of Inckus. This map hkiI.Ics u^ lo fix tlic falls at Morrisville as identical \\'\\.h 
Aluiii;iii::!^liJ In Srpu ir.lcr. i'<^^. in the absence of Gn\'crnor Printz, the 
Dutch Liovernor of .\\.\\- \ "y\: sent a llect of seven vessels and seven hunched 
men into ilic Delaware, wliich rcduci-d the forts and took possession of the 
setllcnicnts. 'J'his put an end {■ 're\er {<> Swedish empire on the river. Although 
it was a hlo.jdk^s conijuv-t. the captmed Swedes were treated with severity. 
'Jdie Dutcli auihorities divid.edi the western l,>ank of the river into two jurisdic- 
tions—the West-India coniiianv and the City of Amsterdam — the latter extend- 
ing from about Wilmingt'.n Ui the falls, at Trenton. While the Dutch retained 
control immigration w;is encourai;ed, and an occasional vessel arrived from 
Amsterdam with settlers. Ai the time of the conquest the population on the 
river was about 400, n!.o^lly Swedes.' The home government sent out horses 
and catt'.e iri considerable luniihers, on condition the settlers were to return them 
in four years v.ith one-half the increase. 

In taking- leave of the Swedes wc confess to a kindly feeling toward this 
, amiable people. Although few in number, they made their mark upon the 
future of the state, an;_l their descendants are among our most respectable citi- 
zens. The^' subsisted prinoijni!ly l)y hnndng. tishing and trading witli the 
Indians, and lived in the simple.-t mann.er in lug cabins of a single room, low 
doors, and holes cut in tlie sides for windows, with sliding boards. The chim- 
ney, of stone, cla>' anil gra.ss, occupied mie corner of the room. The men 
dressed in vests and brcecdics of skins; the women in jackets and petticoats 
of the same material. Tlieir bedding was likewise of the skins of anim;ils. 
Thev tanned their leather ami made tlieir own shoes. Their condition was 
improved after the arrival ''•f the l'!ng!i>h. We are inilebiel to the Swedes 
for the introduction of domestic animals and the varinus luiropcan grains. 
They had stables for their ca:i'.e licf'Te the l^iiglish came, but, after their 
example, allowed them tn rini at large all winter. They were the first to lay 
ax to the forest. Gordon sa_\s : ".Many improvements were made by this 
industrious and temperate jiei.r'le from llenlop.en to th.e falls." They built the 
earliest ch.iu'cli, and iniro'lnoej. (jui^trm wnrship into the wilderness west of 
the Delaware. The first mini-tor 'f ilu- gospel on the Dcla^vare was Reverend 
Reorus Torkillus. a Swcdi-h ]:>'U:^^-ir ir^.m ( ii.tienberg, who died. 1643. 

jac'd) Alricks. a trade- on ih.e I )e!-,v.-;ire, was one of the earliest Dutch 
\"icc-] )irectc 'r-. comnnssii .ned ti>37. He w.as accimpanied by his wife, who 
soon died a victim to the climate. His nephew. Peter Alricks, a native of 
Groningen. Iloh.uid. wli-. jirobabiy came m America with his inicle, was llie first 
known landh' Mcr in i'.iiek- cunty, but jirob.ably never lived here. He became 
pnmiinent in. public affairs. l'.e;;inning life a.- a trader, he was Coniniissary of 
a fort i-ear Iteuleipei!. \i>yi: th.e tirst !>.ai!iiV .-ind magi:-trate of Xew Castle and 
sett!(.nx^;it> on ihc river, his ji'ri--.'.iction extendinc: t.' the fails-, Couimandant of 
the (.'"lonies iinder tlie l-'.ng'i-h. ^(<~;^: ''iie of ibe lir-t ju.-tices ci^mmis>;ioned 
hy Penn after r.is arrival: member of the fir-t .\vsi^nibiy. h.eld at Philadelphia. 
I('.S;5. .nrd v.:'- repeatediv a nitniher of th.e iVovin-ia! Council. Me livcl at 
Xew Castle, and h.-id a l.irge laniilv nf chi'-Iren. He owned an island in the 
Delaware below the momh •'{ Mill Creek, llri-i'l. near tie western shore, winch 
bore bis nan'e n-anv years 'u'.l iv. lon-^'er e\i-!s. [t w.as senarated from the 
main-lauil by d v::rTrw channei that .Indi'i-d a swamp exteni'ini: uj) the creek. 
TIk- i-'.md w.'.- u'-:''"'''! '*' A'riek-i. bv ( ;.,veT-ii.r Xirolls. K'.r',- ; bv Alricks to 



msTORV 01- nrcKs colwtv 



S.t:;iucl riordc'ii, loS^. and to Samuel Car]Hnt(.T. id^S. 'I'hc last conveyance 
iiiciiulcs two islaiiils on the \ve>l siilc oi the Delaware. "al)i}Ut s' lUihwest from 
Mntiiiniiconk ( I'.iirlingtonj i-lan.l" — the l:'.rye>i. once known as "Kinii's island," 
a.nd ti\' tlic Indian name of Kaoiiiciuilcnu-L^iiicl:. \\a< a mile long by a half mile 
wi'ie: and ihc smaller, to the north of the larL^cr, half a mile long by a quarter 
\>. ide. \o dordjt tlie.-e i.-lands have hoih been joinei''. to the main-land by drain- 
ing ihe swamp, and now form the valuable meadows below I'.ristol. In 1679 
Alricks" island was occujjied liy a Dulchni.m named Parent, llern.ianns Alricks, 
I'inladelphia, grandson of i'eler Alricks, wlien a young man settled in the 
Cimilic-rland valley, abruit 1740. When Cun'.berland comity was organized, 
1740-50. he was a member of the lirst Legislature. He tilled the ottices of 
Kegi.-tcr. Recorder, Clerk of the Courts and justice to liis dcatli. about 1775. 
lie married a voung Scotch-Irisli girl .nan^xl West, whose brother, Francis, 
w a- the grandfather of the late Chief Tnstice Cibs'.ui. Hermanns Alricks had 
several children, all of them born in Carlisle, the youngest, James. December, 
1701). Tile late Hamilton Alricks, Harrijhurg. was a descendant of I'eter 
Alricks, as probably are all v.ho bear the name in the state. 

L'n .March 1.2, 1664. Charles H granted to his brother, the Duke of York, 
"a.I! Xew England from the St. Croix to the Delaware,'' and directed the Dutch 
ic> be diisposscssecl. An expedition sailed from Portsmouth in July, and arrived 
bef.'re Manhattan, now Xew York, the last of August. The town and fort sur- 
rendered Se[)t. S, and a bloodless conquest was made of the settlements on the 
l.Vlaware. Oct. i. Among these who took the oath of allegiance to the conqueror, 
were Peter Alricks, a Hollander, and Andrios Claeseii and Claes Janzen, 
S\-. e.'.es. There was no violent shock when ixiwer passed from the hands of 
liie I'litch to the English. Sir Robert Carre was made Commander, with his 
seat of government at Xew Castle, and he was assisted by a temporary council 
of six, of wiiom i'eter Alricks was one. The laws established were substantially 
the same as prevailed in the other English colonies ; the magistrates were con- 
liu'.Kd in orVice on taking the oath of allegiance, and the inliabitaiits were prom- 
i-e ! liberty of conscience, and ])ri'tection to person and property. In a few 
eases Carre coniiscared the goods of the conquered Dutch, to reward his favorite 
t'^i! iwers. The settlers received new deed.s from tlie authorities at Xew "^'ork. 
1 i:t Some refused tl'.cm. iireferring h^ trust to the Inrliaii grant in case their titles 
Were called in queslir.n. Tiicre was but little change in altairs for several years, 
:'.!!. 1 but few immigrants arrived to swell the popidation. Colonel Richard 
Nio"lls. the first Governor, was a mild ruler, but his successors, Lovelace and 
Andros, were nn^re severe. Lovelace believed "in laying such raxes on the 
peijj-.le as might not give them liberty to entertain any other thought but how 
('"• ilischarge them." He imposed a tax of ten ];er cent, on all goods imiiorted 
into, or ex])orted from, the Delaware, the t!r--t taiiiT enforced oti tb.at river. 
l"''e rent of that <lay wa.- a bu-liel oi' wlieal l>.r every hundred acres. 'I'he 
'.!:b;!bitants livcel in great quiet and indolence, and there was neither agriculture 
'' <r triide lieyond what was necessary to snbsist tlie sparse population. 

c''a^ \\'illiam 'J'l^m was otie of the earliest English officials 

/;WfY ^/P2. '^^''''' o^ercised authority in I'.ucks county. He came to 
■^ America in the king's servi(-e. probalilv with the troojis that 

r'-'':'-.i-ed the iVnch. In \('ii,i> lie w;is appoMited Conmr'.-sary t-n the Delaware. 
^'iid in I'j'o. ci.'ikei.ir of (]i!ii-reni>. his juri^diet!"n in bnth ca>es extending to 
the I'ldl-. The killing of two of his 'servants, on nurlington island.'' by the 

9 Dd'.vii I'I ;i iiiMi-li i.itii- peiiiKl Purlin.:;!!!!! i~i;i!iil was in L!iiol<s cnuitv. 



II/SIORV OF I'rCKS COUXTV. 



Indians. n'V'iS or i'Vk), c:\uv near pnicliicin;^" an Indian war, and was the first 
blood shed liy Indian.-- in lluek- county. 

Jn 1671 W'aher Wharton was ap- 
/^^ pA-X yl^ifT^ ' / i">ir.led sur\ev..r on the west liank (jf 

(£^Cf^b'^ a/^ /l^/^^fVTi ili^' Dehiware. He married a .laush.- 

,_---— -T'-^-T : ^I " 3————' — ^L ^'^■'" '^f ("'overnor I'rintz ; was Jndtce 

" :_=:m.---.-' - ,,(■ j]^^^, (-imrt yi \ew Castle, and dieil, 

1679. He was succeeded liv Richard Xol)le,"' a settler and landdinlder of 
Bensalein ti iv.'n<hi])." 

An overland C' iniinimica.tii .n from the Delaware to M;inhattan, via Tren- 
ton falls, was i:i])ened simn after the river was settled. Tiie rontc was up the 
river in Ijoats. or, more freipiently, alon^^- the. western l.iank to the falls, where 
the stream \vas crossed, and tlience thriinL,di the wilderness of Xew Jersc\' to 
Elizabiih. and to Manhattan by water. The trip occupied two or lliree da}s. 
In iC^ifi the captain i^f a Swedish shi]) came cjver the route to ^"et pertnissii>n of 
the Dutch autlvirit'e- to land pa<^enc;ers and j^jochIs in the Delaware. The ?ame 
year, en--ii;n Dirck Smitli came overlar.d with a small jiarty of soldier^ ti qiull 
a (listurl.iance with the Indians; and .\piil, 1^^157, Captain Kryger, with a Ci'in- 
pany i.jf forty soldiers aiul a few .-ettler>, ci-i>s>ed at the falls and cjntinned 
down tlie river to Xcw Am.stel. These parlies passed down tlirouijh the woods 
of r.ucks cor.nty. It wa.s lil-:ewise the mail route of the Dutch authcjritics. aiul 
frequent letters were sent across b_\' Indian nnmers. This overland route was 
continued Ijv the Hn>^li-h as tjieir riiain cijaimel of Cdmnnmicatimi with the 
gfovcrnnient at Xew \' ^rk. 

I'y l''ro civil government had beciani.' so well estalilished on the Delaw.ire. 
and the cou-.urv was fiunid tu be so attractive, strangers began to come in and 
take up land with a view t.i j)ernianent settlement. In the ne\t ten ye.ars a 
number of immigrants located ih.emseKes alnng the river between the l'ot|nes.^- 
ing and the falls. In !C")7o-7l Richard Ci'rsi:ch |iatenied a considerable tract in 
the sonthwe-it i.iart of I'.ensaiem. and in what is no\\ Philadelphia coinit\-. ev- 
tending fnim the I'emiepack acruss the I'n(|ue^^ing. and north to a creek the 
Indians crdled ( jniatciiiuik. li'lieveil to have been the Xeshaminy. C,nverni>r 
Lovelace di-[. 'S-es-e,! Cr.r-ncli of this liaci. for in August. 1^172. he ordered 
his Survevrr- General to ^• :ii and clear the kmd for hi.-- nwn use. Lovelace, \\lio 
succeeded Xicol's as (li'vei nur. May. 1007, c.ame o\erland to visit the settle- 
ments on the Delaware. .March. 167.2. accompaiued b\ rni escort and se\eral 
private ]iersons. and Cajitain Jolni Carland. with three men. was sent ahead 
to make ;'.rrang"ments fur their entertainment. He prubably struck the river 
at t'le falls, and followed il uvn the ea>t b.ank to abwiit r.n-t.'I. where be cros^ol 
t(i the we-t bank, and cuiiiiiroed clijwn t'.' the lnuer si-itlenunts. Duriii!:; ilie 
war between I'.ni;!and and Holland, which brnke nut. i(i7_', Xew York and the 
Delaware a^a.in fell into the hands of th.e 1 »uteii. which t!ie> held about eighteen 
inontlw. but restored posse--ion to the r.ngli--li at the coiicln-ion of peace. 1074. 
Due of the earliest l-~.ng!i--li travelers .'oun the Delaware was (icorge b'ox, 
the eminent Lriend. the ia.ll of 107J. on hi^ way from Lou'^- Lland to Mar\iand. 
StartiuL;- from .Middletown barhor. Xew ler.-ev, be traveled through the woods, 



10 Ci'niiiiis<i.iii (Intefl M;uvii 15. 1670. 

11 At liii< tiim- tlic -.'.tU-nieiit^ "n tlu' \\c-,t I. .ink i.l tlu- Di-l;iuaro e\-toiu1r,l up the 
ri\.T -'\;y MiiK- .-I'linc .Ww l.",i-.;lc. and win.' nio-ily ..f Sucili.-.. Diiicli ;iiul l'inii> — 
(Ma>-,iehn-i-.t~ lli-'oriril C..11.-oli.>ii ) 



HISTORY 01- BUCKS COUXTY 



pil-lol 1)\ Indians, toward the Delaware. He rcaclicl the river the evening of 
September lo: staiil ail n:E::it t Ue h.-'se nt I'eter Je-.m. at I.easy Point, and, 
the next ninriiinsf. crossed over to nurhn,i;tiin ishuid. and then li> tlie main-land 
\::-t alio\-e llristol. Himself and friends were taken over in Indian canoes, the 
lic/rses swimming'. 

-Maj'ir. afterward Sir Ivimnnd. Andros succeeded Lovelace as Governor, 
hi'v II. 1674. and remained in office until William Penn became Pro])rietar_\', 
loSi. In his proclamation, assumino; the duties of his otiice, he ciiniirmed all 
previous fjrants of land, and all judicial i)roccedings. Sir Ednnuul was born at 
l.ondon. September, 1037. His father was master of ceremonies to Charles I, 
and the son was brought up in the royal family. He beg-an his career in arms 
(Uiriiig the exile of the Stuarts, and. at the Restoration, was appninted gentle- 
man in ordinary lo Elizabeth Stuart, queen of Uohemia. He bore a distin- 
ijuislied part in the Dutch war that closed. 16^7. and. i(')72. commanded the 
!jic:lish forces at Parbadoes. At the death of his father. i()74, he succeeded 
\<> the oftice of bailitt of Guernsey. The same year he was commissioned to 
receive the surrender of Xew York fmm the Dutch, and appointcil Governor- 
'"■.eneral of the colony. He reiru'iined here until 16S1, when he returned to 
l-".n-l:ind. ami was knighted by Charles II. He was aiipninted tn the governor- 
.-hip of ^la-sachu.sctts, i6?6. where he had a stormy and unsuccessful adminis- 
tration, n: d in T()y2. was appointed Clovernor of \'irginia and Maryland. Sub- 
sequentlv he held several other posts of trust. He was married three times, and 
die.l. without children, 1713. Andros introduced reforms in the courts, and we are 
iii'V-bted to him for the introduction of English jurisprudence on the Delaware. 
I iuvernor Andros visited the settlements on the river, the rir.st time. May. Tf)75, 
accomijanied bv a numerous retinue. He caiue overland to the falls, where he 
wa^ met bv Sheriff Cantwell on th.e 4th. Here he crossed the river and traveled 
through the woods of Falls, Bristol and Bensalem townships, down to Xew 
Castle, where he held court on the 20th. During the session of the court 11 was 
'■rdere I that some convenient way be luade passable between town and town, 
the first road law in the state. A ferry was established at the falls, on the we-t 
-■ide fif the river, a horse and man to pay two guilders — twelve pence, cur- 
reiK-v — and a man ten stivers. At this time there was no place of reliu'ious 
^\"r.-hip higher up the river than at Tinicum i.-land. and the cuirt ordered a 
church to be built at W'iccacoa. to be paid for by the peoiile of "Pa^syunk and 
so upward." but Peiin's arrival prevented this bad precedent. 

In 1073 and n'c'i ^\'illiam Piidmonson. a traveling l-Vieml from Trehnl, 
made a religious, visit to th.e brethren on the Delaware, and his journal gives 
"•"'tne account of his ii'jurnev through the county. In it he says: ".\hout nine 
in the morning, bv the good haml of God. we came to the falls, and. In- his 
Pr i\idei'.ce. found an Indian man. a woman and ahoy with a canr.e. We hired 
ii'ni f.ir s"me wampumpeg to help us (jver in the cmioc ; we swiim our horses. 
: t'<! thorch the river was br'Cid. vet gut well '.ver and. by the directions we 
■■■ 'ei\-ed trim I'riend^, travele 1 loward Delaware town'"- alniig the we-t si.le 
"I the river. When we had rode some miles, we baited our horses and refreshed 
"Urselves with such i>r(ivisions as we had. fi ^r :is yet we were not yet come to 
'■■\\\ iiiliabitant-i. Here came to us a T'inland man. well horseil. who could speak 
l.;i'.;lish. He soon pcrceivefl what we were an<l gavi- us an account of several 
I'rienls. His homo was as far as we could go that da\ : he took us there and 



^\'h^■ro was "DeLiuaro idwn' 



iiis'iORV oi- BUCKS coiwry 



loilgcd us kiii(ll\." The iK\t ihiy Air. lulmnnstin aiul party proccciled down 
tlic rivLT tn I. 'plan. 1. 'I lu- l-'inn. will) wli.iin ihcy tarried over nii,du. probably 
lived in Uristd '.r l'.LM--a!fni, and the "several Friends," of whom he spoke, 
livo'j in tliai secli'ju i.f the ermntv. 

At the tiiiic <■{ ill'- L-.n'_;li-!i eMivniest tlie eircnh'.tir,'^ nie.'iiuni on tl'.e Dela- 
ware uicluded bea\ers. the y<i\ernnieiit value Liein.!.:; lixed at 8 guilders each — 
equal to S3. 20 ctirrenoy. ll'anipuin passed as nioiicy almost down to the arrival 
of I'tun. at established values. Ivlglu white, or four black wampums were 
worth a stiver, and twenty of tlieni made a guilder, equivalent to 40 cents. The 
fir-^t land fax wc.-t of the iX-Iaw are was laiil by tlic Upland court, November. 
1677. It \vas called "poll n-iniiLV," and 26 guilders were assessed against each 
taxable jierson. which ciild In' paid in grain iir prijN'isions, at fixed prices. 

The systematic adniini.->tr;uiMn nf Gen ern. u" -.Vndros invited immigration 
to the Delaware, and cousideralile land was taken tip wliile he was in office. 
In 1675, the Governor [nircliased uf funr Indian chiefs — Mamarackickan. Anrick- 
ton, Sackofiuewaii.). and Xanneckus — for the Duke of York, a tract on the river 
extending from just alK.ve l!ri<tc>l to .-ibout Taylcrsvillc, embracing the best lands 
in the townships of i',ri>tMi, balls, and Lower Makefield. It is described as: 
"Beginning at a creek next tij tlie Cold spring somewhere above }ilattinicum 
island, al.oul ei'.4ht or nine nr.le^ be'i^w the falls, and as far above said falls 
as the other is below then, or fintlier that way, as may be agreed upon, to some 
remarkable place, for mere certain bouruis; as also all the islands in Delaware 
river within the above limit- above auil below the falls, except only one island 
called Peter Alricks' island." It inckuled ^vhat was afterward Penn"s manor. 
The deed was exeeuteil ( )eti"iiper 10. and witnessed b\- twelve white men. As 
nolhiiig fin-ther is knnwu uf this purchase, it was probably never consumn'.ated. 
The next \ear Kphraiin lleriiian wa> aiipointed clerk of L'pland court, wb.ither 



/ 



!?/ -^A/J^^^^^^. 




tlie : 

<pi:ir 

Gi .V. 

Ian I 

d.v.v 

in w 

iler 

an.i 

nati 

fad 



ew iiiii.'ibitan;- '<\ r.'iek-«.C"r.:!'. \ re>'iiiid {• 
.er aL;i'. In lu-'j i'.e ;!:;irrii-.l Klizabetll \' 
niir f\ Cuiici'.i. an i-land in llic Caribbean .' 
ir. ni .\ew \'. rk U> l!-e falls, wl^ere a Iim:: 
d bet 



r ir>nce, iwn centuries and a 

I'.iki .leiiburg. daughter uf the 

•a. lie brought his bride ovcr- 

n:< t him and, C'''n%eyed them 

1 the river, lie abaii'l. .;ied her --iKirtiy after and joined the Pabadists. a 

reli.4i''Us -eet l.s'eK >j'ru!!g \'.\>. bnl npeiiud :>.n.i returned to jiis family. 

man wa^ I'Ue '-i the c'limii-'^inniTs 10 deliver tin- jirovince to William Penn, 

held i.thor places •■{ public iru-t. \\,- was the ><^<n of Augustus Herman, a 

Prague, lH.h.i;nia. and can^e !■> .\ew .\ni-terdam ii'>47, a> clerk, or 

thi brotl'.er « ..;bri. in i'.;.. ]•■.• v..-.- -.uc .^! the Selectmen nf .Manhattan. 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COCXTV 



Ik- attcrwnrd settled in Maryland wl'.ere liis son was burn. 1654. The wife of 
L;i.n«-dict Arnold was a descendant of Herman's daughter, Anna j.Iarj^aretta, 
through \'anderhu_vden, whom she married, and of Edward Shippen, whom her 
tlaughter married. Thomas Story, proricient in Greek and mathematics and 
sWiiied in music and fencing, studied law l)cfore convng to Philadelphia and 
marrying a daughter of Edward Sliippen. 

We liave no record of settlers coming into this county, in 1676, but. the 
f. .!!r,\ving year, there was some addition to inur sparse population, and a little 
land t;iken up. In the fall of 1677 the onirt at Upland made the following 
grants of land in this county, whicii, nC' donljt. was authorized to be made by 
the authorities at New York: 300 acres, each, to Jan Claescn, and Thomas 
Jacobse, on the east side of the Xe^haminy two miles above its mouth, Bristol 
township; 417 acres to James Sanderlam.l, probably tlie same whose mural tab- 
let stands in Saint Paul's church, Chester, and Lawrence Cock, extending a 
niile along the Delaware above the mouth of Pociuessing.. and called "Poquessink 
(latent :" 200 acres next above on the river to Henry Hastings, and called 
"Hastings' Hope;" 100 acres, to Duncan \\"illiam5on,^- Pelle Dalbo. Lace Cock, 
Thomas Jacobse and William Jeacox. on the soutli side of the Xcshaminy. in 
]'.<.i!.-alem, and 100 acres to Edmund Draufton and son. \\'iHiamson and Drauf- 
10:1 \\erc members of the jury at Upland court, Xovember term, 167S, the first 
jurymen known to have been drawn from th.is county. The authorities at Xew 
YiTk directed the Upland court to purchase a tract reaching tVvO miles along 
the river al)Ove the falls, and Governor Andros authorized sheriff Cantwell and 
Ephraim Herman to, purchase of the Indians all the land below the falls, in- 
chuiing the islands, not already sold, but we hear nothing more of them. Xo- 
vember 23. 1677, a number of Swedes petitioned the court for permission "to 
settle together in a town at the west side of the river just below the falls." They 
represented they were natives of the country and brought up on the river and 
parts adjacent, and asked for 100 acres each, with a fit proportion of r.iarsh. 
and a suitable place to lay out a town. \\'hat action was taken on the petition 
is not known.'' Cn^vernor Andros ma<le easy terms in the purchase of land. 
-\ctual settlers, with families, were allowed 30 acres to each member and a 
paient was issudl on the certificate of the court, appnn-ed l.iy the Governor, 
and quit-rent on all newly seated land was remitted for three years. If the 
land were not settled upon widiin that time it vitiated the title. Tlie earliest 
lands survevc'I in this county extended back a mile from tlie -river. When 
An.lros came into authority tlie whites, who had purchased land of the Indians 
alirnit the f.-^dls, were in arrears for iiurchase money. It was found to amount 
t'> "fixe guiis, thirtv hoes, and one anker of rum." which the Governor ordered 
t" be paid, forthwitli. The earliest receipts I't quit-rent r_>n the Delaware that 
wc l'a\L- -cen are — one dated i6''iO. signcii by Gi'ivenirir T,ove!.-ice. and another 
by l-'phraim Herman. April 27, -1670. Otto Ernest Cock, who paid quit-rent. 



12 Hl- wa-; kr...w!i as Dmik Williams, but tlic iiisoriptl^.n on his tombstone was 
''■.ni(-a:i W'il'iani'^on. 

I.~, T!ic follir.viii.u' are ilic .•i.-mics f-f tlii> fK-riiioner^ : Lnwreni-c 0''ck. fsracl Helm. 
M";mis Cock. Andre.!-; rV;iic';snn. Epbraim Herman. Camper Herman. Swon Loon. John 
H;lbo. Jasper I'isk. Han; ^toonsc.n, l-"re<leriek- Rnoniy. Eriek M;:elk. Gunner Rambo. 
'1!!. :-!a^ Harwon,!. Eriek Oek. Peter JnekiiHi. Peur Coek. Jr.. Jan .-^'.ille. Jon-^ Xielson. 
Oolf Suen-ons, Jatnes Samleriins, ^b'ltliia- M.atbias. J. [>e\.'s and Wi'i'.iani Oriam 



■I-' HI STORY OP BUCKS COCXTY. 

and a rttU' scluiu.; nr wIh.-u ' '"'^'"'"' '"' ""^' '«''' ^' 'l^'i^-™^t of on. 

nnd s^Ide^tTh'';:';:; h';;:;mv^\;"'""^'^"- 't '"■'•" ^^^'-^^^ '-^°--- 

I'is wife, as enrlv -, n" "nr , u ^'";T " '^IT'^^^ ''■"'" ^^oti^^X. uith 

settled in li.nsalen,. ,r,-- ,, ,' ,: , h in ,"^' ' '"""'• "''■ ^^'^ I^™"^^'^'^- 

tract, ,.f ThM,„a. 1 ■-,!,•, .Vn ,• ' f i '^ "^ =''''''■ '"^^'j"'""^? his former 

bought „f XX-illian, iu ;:", P ;; Hi;;;r;?:r'-r! %^-- --^ Fair,.a„ 

:s^rori-:!l^-;'r:y^;^ 

and wa. proved Jatn n ^ >', - . •'•" ^^ '"'^ •'" '' 5''''f^-'l Demnlxr 15. ij.n. 
will book' Xo. , "',„^;- ';,n.i. V"""; " "■'"'""' "Wil!inn,.,„- ,n the 
left a widow and "e ^.^^ ^ ^IX^^'^^ ^T u-'n'"'- ^^" "'" ^^■""^■" 
the ,Tcat-.rrand..n „■ I .n.n : ■\"^-'''-^'"- :''';'■ ^^ ''ham a„,l IVter. IVter. 

han, Head. died, in S.leh; rv.' S ":; , \^r; , "'niT ,"'" '!— '.-:^'- 

pc.terit ■ live ■■, 't h- S , . ^. ""!""" =^'"V"=''>y ^'^'^^T-^- A lar^e nn-.nber of Irs 

fortvV^. r;;;;^';i;;;<:. :;;. ;tv:';;; '---v-ery ^.wiv. ,. ,nd no. ..en 

habitants in ail .f Pp^ >d e^, u >/ ' , ' ^^'^^''^"S^'"'^. '''"^ -^'"'^ ^^^ in- 
200 of which re.wkd --n w! -a^ ,;,- '"''"' "'' "'^' '"■^■^■'' ^'^ '''■^••■"O" ^^'■ 

ffnilders to he pa, 1 |. .r . ,ch ^-a'-. h- 1 '- • ' ^'?"'^ aulhnri;ccd fortv 

setting of tiftv-iu,, -. Jf I ' ;. ' "^'""'V/^ ^^'"-^^ the conrt ordered the 

i.i'i TIkt,- 1 1 



ah.... as „u„:), ,:,,.,■.■ /.J,. J li :;:;:'::r, ■";!/" /"""^ 'V "-^ ^•— "- '-^ 

ian,.r,„/- n.hor. -Uvi,..,,., ■ W l.-r !i-' \ , ''-^■-'.''•""^ calh„g thomselves ••Will- 
Moon. Jr.. Tr..„:,.. a .u-,..,,,: , 'i ' ;::, 'ri;,;^:::,,;- ^rr '"'"'' "^■^- °"- 

or the .;!„r,a IV, CU^.-.u p..,..,.. , ' . ,™^- ^ """^^"'- ^^ '"' "„,„,, wore n,on,I.rs 

settler v.a. l!u. i-,,. |,,./, \- U.'' '■'■ ', '..' r """■' """'' ''--^-'"'■'"t of the t^rst 

Tall, t, :wn,hi,>. tl,',. e„u,.> ' '^ '' "Mlhonauv „f PhiIa,leI„I,ia, a native of 
l-l Dr. Snirl. 



HISTORY OF BVCKS COUXTY 



I'.uiiin,i::tnn i<Iaii<l. in tlio Delaware n]i]i(.sitc Bristol, came early into notice, 
h was recoL^nizcil as belonging to the \\e--t shore from its iHscovery, and was 
inchuled in Markliani's first purchase. The Indians called it ALattinicouk, 
which name it generally bore down to I'enn's arrival. It is so called on Lind- 
>irom'.s map, i')54. W hen the English seized the_ Delaware, 1064, it was in 
the iiossessi<.in of Peter Alrick.s, but confiscated with the rest of his property 
and restored, 166S. by oriler of Goverudr Lovelace. During the confiscation 
it got into the possession of Captain J(}hn Carre. '^ probablv a brother of Sir 
Robert — and, for a time, was called Carre's island — in cdnsidcration of his 
"good conduct in st'jrmii:g and reducing f(.irt Delaware." The earliest public 
use made of the island was the establishment on it of frontier trading and mili- 
tary j)Osts. In a letter of Governor Lovelace to Captain William Tom, who had 
charge (jf affairs on the Delaware, written (jctober (i, Kiji, he recommends "a 
good work about .Mattiniconk house, which, strengthened with a considerable 
guard, would make an admirable frontier." It was liere that .Vlricks' two Dutch 
servants, Peter \'elts Cheerder and Christian Sanuiels. were murdered, 1672. 
The expense of burying the two Dutchmen, 106 guilders, was paid bv Jonas 
Xiels(.in. but the Upland cnurt refused to refimd it. 

Xovember 14. I0-^;, Sir Ednunid .Vnilriis leased the island for seven vears 
to Roliert Stacy, brother of r^lahlon, one of the first ti.' settle West Jersey, and 
Sheriff Caiitwell put him in possession two weeks after. Stacv and George 
Hutcliinson, w ho appears to have become associated with him in possession, con- 
\eyed the island to the town of liurlinyttni, but he onlv conve\Cil liis title imder 
the lease. The tleeil could never be found. Danker and Sluvter, who passed 
dowtt the Delaware. H'JO, say of Burlington island: "This island formerly 
belongeij to the Dutch CuAcrnor, who had made it a pleasure grriund. or gnrden, 
built good houses upcpu it. and sowed and planted it. He also dxkeil anil culti- 
vated a large piece of lueadow ov marsh, from which he gathercil niMrc grain 
than from any land which had been maiie from woodland into tillable land. The 
iMigiish Governor, at the Manhattons, now held it for himself, and had hired 
it out to some Ouakers. wh.o were living upon it. at present: It is the best and 
largest island in the S"Uth river." 

Anuing the eariie>t acts of .\ssembly of Pennsylvania after the organiza- 
tion of the Province, was one confirming this island to Burlingtiiu, "the proceeds 
to be a|)plied to nuiintain a free schriol for the education of \i.mth in said town." 
In 1711. the l^■gi^lativc council of Xew Jersey authorized Lewis Morris, agent 
of the \\'e-t Jersey society, to take up th.is island for Honorable Robert Hunter, 
the warrant for wliich was granted. 1710. It was surveyed by Thomas Gardner, 
and found to contain 400 acres. Hunter purchased ii the same vear. The 
people of Burlington in olden times resorted to it for recreation, ^\■]le^ Gov- 
ernor Burnett. Xew "S'ork, occujiied it. I7_'_', he cau>ed vi-tas to be cut ihrougli 
the timber from a point on it to Burlington. Bristol, and uii and down tlie river. 
In lJ2'j Peter I'.ard ani! James .\le\ander went tii Burlington ti-i e.Kamine the 
tcjwn's tith.; t'> the island., and reported it n.ot a good >.ne. The iidiabitants of 



15 A record ?as^ that Cvernor Lovclnct ^ir.TntLil tlie i-la;ul to .-Vndrow Carre, .tiuI 
Marg.Trct, his wito. 111 i(''i.); who .a<>ii;iu-(l it to .\rn.iliUi> dt' i.i tiraii^e. Id;-'; in 1(^84 
tlicy (granted 11 to Chri~l..|i!!rr T,ay]..r. who >.iid it t.i Kaliih I-'rctui-ll. Iti.'<5, wlio djid ill 
Barhadoci .May 17, Kjoj. GiHiLTt Coiic say-,_this i:oiux\ance rcfcT^ to Tniiciuii Island, 
ill Delaware cmnuv. 



14 II !S TORY OF DUCKS COi'XrV 



Burlington ousted Hunter, ij^n. When Governor Gooken, Pennsx'lvania. 
was about obtaining- the grant of tlie islands in the Delaware to this state, it 
is said the Lords of Trade excepted this as not being on a footing with tlie 
other islands.''' 



i6 Gilbert Cc'pe wrote the author ;i5 fijllows, touching his reference to Mattiniconk: 
"Thtro appears io bo iome contusion respecting tlie island of Matinicouk, and wiiether 
Burlington l.-!and was known liy that name I have not examined, but your note, pp. 32. ,^j 
(tirst edition), refers to Tinicuni island las since called) in Delaware county. Pennsyl- 
vania. I have by nie the old court record of 1683, giving an account of the suit of 
Arnoldus De La Grange to recover possession from Otto Earnest Cock, who purchased 
from Lady Xormgard Prince (Printz), who had sold it to the father of De La Grange, 
but the money not being a'.l paid, she recovered it in a suit against Andrew Carr and wife 
(widow of De La Grange). The plaintiff, showing he was under age and in Holland 
at the time of the last mentioned suit, obtained a verdict in his favor. Israel Taylor, son 
of Christopher. sub.=equcrt owner of the island, stylus himself', in liis will, "of Multini- 
cunk Island. Cchiurgeon." 



CHAl^TER II. 



ENGLISH IM.MIGRAXTS COXTIXUE TO ARRIVE. 



lere to lot-^i. 



English settlers arrivc^ — Saniiicl J-iliss. — Danker and Shiyter, — Lionel Briiton. — Samuel 
Clift. — William Warner, — Arrival of English ships direct. — William Dungan. — 
Liquor sold without license. — William Biles. — Settlement of east bank ii£ Delaware. — 
Fort Xassau. — Division of New Jersey. — London and Yorkshire companies. — Settle- 
ment of Burlington. — Chygoe's island. — Arrival of the Shield-. — Benjamin Di^iricid- — 
Thomas Budd. — Mahlon Stacy. — His account of the couniry. — WilliaTii Trent.— 
Priife^Mir Kahii's account of Trenton. — Early mills. 

The west bank ot tlic Delaware grew more into favor and ii'itice, and ininii- 
grnnts came to it. There were several grants of land by Sir Edmund AnJros 
ill 1670. among which were 200 acres to Thonias l-'airman in r!en>a;ent. below 
Xeshaminy, and 309 to William Clark on the same .stream. In the stunmer of 
1679 and spring (.if i6."^o, several English settler^ t'.'jk iiji land on the riser bank, 
just below the falls: Jcb.n Ackeniian ami sdii. 300 acres: Thomas Scb-.^iey, 105; 
Robert Scoley, joO : (iilbert Wheeler, a fruiterer 'it London, who arrived with 
wife, children and servam.-.. in the Jacb and .Marw .-September I2tli, J05, includ- 
ing an island in the river: William I'.iles. ^ni), fnmi Dorche.-ter. in County 
l~)orcst,' arrived Jtine I J. w.th wife, seven children and two servants, and died, 
1710. He was a man of talent aiid intluence. an'l a leader. Governor Evans 
^lied hint l^r ?lanilor for saving of liim. "lie is hut a /'.m.' lie Is not lit to be our 
Cozi-yiior: wc'ii L'icL- liuii out: Wf'il kich liiiii out." and recovered £300 dam- 
ages, but failed to cllect them, altli'mgh he caught i'.iles in l'hila<lelphia. and 
imiirisoned him a muntli. The Governor ?aid of him. "He very intich in- 
iluences that debauched cnuiit\ yi T.ticks, in which there is now scarce any one 
man of worth left;"' Sair.uel S\cle. possibly .^kkel ui the present generati'Mi, 
218:, Richard Ividgeway. 218. from W'elford in ih.e c unity of P.ucks. who ar- 
rived in the Delaware .\pril 27, i(>'(j, wiib his wife and two cb.ildren. and 
Robert Lucas. 145 acres, a fanner of 1 )f\ or:ii!. Lou-hbridge. county of Wilts, 
vvho c;it'ie with ii:^ wife and eii^ht children, in Septenibrr. n'No. John W'c-od. 
of .AxevcHf, couin\ of N'ork, f.irmer. the onlv known 1-jiLrlish settUr in litis 
c. itmtv. in 107S. arrived in the Shield, with five chiMreii, and took up 478 acres 
opposite the falls. Tlie~e tracts geiier;illy joined each otiier and ran b;ick from 

t I'ri.hali'v a mi-^p'iiiiiii'. 



l6 HISTORY or nCCKS COUXTV. 



the rivir.- At this ilnu- Saimifl ' r.li>> was tlic owikt of a considcrahlc :racL 
in tin.- an--!r tMnix-.l h\ Miil i.th-1; aiul llic Delaware, and covering the site of 
Bristol. There was a ^euler near the mouth of Scott's creek, in Falls — proh- 
ahly a ^iniatter — and \\ e>i Kiekels \\a^ near the nioiitji of Scull's creek, north 
side. In the fall .a' ii>j'). a liiile real e-^t.ite changed hands in Ducks county, 
James .Samlerhng and Lawrence Lock con\e\ing a lew acres, in Uensalem, to 
Walter, John and James l"ore.--t, and Henry Hastings conveyed "'iiastings' 
Hope" to the same pa.rti.es. 'I'he I'orests ])robably became residents of the 
county aljoul this time, coniing from near L'pland. 

Jasiier Danker and iVter Shi\ier. leading nieniliers of the Labidi;ts, of 
Holland, \ isited tlic JJelaw.are in the fall of 1O79, going <lo\\ii the ri\er in a 
boat to Xew Castle, their horses following them by land on. the west bank. 
At the falls they staid all m-lii w ith Alahlon Stacy. They describe the houses 
of the English along thi riser as iiuilt of clapb'jards nailed on the outside of 
a. frame, but "not u>nall'." laid so clo.se together as to prevent _\ou from sticking 
a finger l^etween them." The best people plastered them with clay. They call 
the houses built by the Swedes "block houses." but from the wav they were con- 
structed, were imly the l"g cabin fenuid on tile frontier at the present (.lav. Some 
of the niT're careful peop,ie planked the ceiling, and had a glass window. The 
chimney wns in tlie crner. ami the do. .r-- low and wide. ()ur travelers break- 
fasted with the I'rien'l' at lliirlington. whom they denominate "tlie most 
worldly of men in all ibeir de]jortmeiil and con\'crsation." Thev went hence 
in a shallop to L'jilan.l, stopping at Takany (Tacony). a village of Swedes and 
Fins, where they ilr;ink g' od beer. On Tinicuni island they saw a "Ouaker 
projihetess who tra\eled ilie C'.nr.try o\er in order to ([iialce." On their return 
up the river they stoj.ped o\ er ni:.,l.t > >n Alricks' island, then in charge of 
Barent. a DiUch.man. wlio lia.i f^r l!i'iisekee])er the Indian wife of an English- 
man of \'irginia. 1 'ne of her eliilclren was sick with the small-pe\x. prevalent 
on the river this year, .and now mentio)ied for the first time. The Dutclnnan 
consented to pilot tlieni Tie\t day to tiie falls for thirty guildeVs. Landing tlieni 
from his canoe where Hri-tol stands, he conducted them bv a footpath tliroug;i 
the woods and acre:-s die n:a;!.>r. -trikiiig the river at William Diles's planta- 
tion, where they re--ted ;m 1 were reire-lud. In the afternoon he rowed them 
across the river. l.an.iHng on ;iie site "f I'.'ir.lenlown. and th.ence th.roiii;li the 
woods to .Mahlon .-^taey's. :ind on .acro^^ Xew Jer>ey to Manhattan. 

Of the arriv.ais in the Helaware. mSo. several made tli-eir homes in Bucks 
cotmtN : among the-n were Lyoiiel Brilton. Samuel and William Darke and 
George i'.rowii.'- Ihitton, a l''riend an.l ))l:icksmith. from Almw in Bucks. Eng- 
land, tile lirst t'"" arri\e. -eltled "n jo_^ acres in tlu- lien.d of the rixer at the upper 
corner of the manor. u!::ch William I'nin p.atented to him, UiS^. A daughter 
(lied on the way up ll.e r:\er .and w:i- iiuri( d at r.in-lin-l. .n. .\nother daii-liter. 
^L^ry, born Jmie iv loS,,, v.a^. ^o f.ar as i- known, the lirst child .if l-jiglisli 
pareiUs born ni I'.uck- c..-.int\. "T i.v'b.alily in the state.' Uritton's name is 
found on the p.anel .-f the iirst grand jury drawn in Kiieks county, June ro.. 
1685. He i.roliably left ih.is county and. removed to I'hiladelphia, idSS, con- 



2 Tluir iKiiiie-i are ue.vii >'ii tile -.li:i[> I'i I'.iv.ki-r ciiiil .^hiyur. 1080. 

^ It i- iv.--i!.!e lii It r.n.wii iirrivo! it! u.,-'), 1. r he \v;i~ rcM.lni:,' .iIkhu tlio falh in 
ll'k-io. an.l w.is .1 iu-licc "i lIU' pr.u-i-. 

4 Tlu' ree..r.l ..i M .is Knn.-n'-. ljlr;!i i< i:i tlu- Kei^i^ter'- eUiec. D.iylest.-.ssii. in die 
Iiniuissri'.u.u ..I riime - I'.r ■■ :■• ■>'. 



HISTORV OF DL'CKS COUXTV. i; 



vi-\inLr his real estate in Vidh tx Stephen Jieakes. fur cpiie thiiusaiul duUars. He 
i> ii'teil, in our earl_\- annals. a> the first cmivert to Catholicism in the state. 
lie assisted in reading public mass in riiiladelpliia. 1708, and was a church 
warden the same year. Britton died, 1721, and his \vidc>\v, 1741.^ Sanitiel 
] >;irke, a calcndrer. London, arrived in the ship Content, in October, with two 
M-rvaiits, James and Mar} Craft>. He married ^\nn Knight, 4, 7, 1683, who 
diL 1 S, 13. 1O83. and then married 2\lartha Worrell, 12, 16. 1O8;. \Villiani 
J larke, probably a brother of Samuel, a grocer from Chiping, County of Chester, 
was 5S years old and his wife, Alice, 03. He arrived in the Content June, 
ii.i'^'o. and his wife, August, 1*1^4. with a son of 17. He settled in the neigh- 
borhood of Fallsington. 

In 16S0 Sir Edmunil Aiidros conveyed to Samuel Clift, a Friend living at 
r.urlington, a tract of 21 >2 acres, covering the site of Bristol, ^'-i who probably 
then, or soon after, became a resident of the county. It was bounded by Mill, 
then Bliss's, creek, the Delaware and Griffith Jones's land. When the latter 
came into the county is not known. It was sur^■eye(.l by Philip i'ocoek at the 
purchase; but again under a warrant in 1683. when it was found to contain 
J74 acres. Clift could ni.Jt wrue his name, but made his mark, thus: 
Lin the first of June Richard Xoble. surveyor of L'i>land county, laid 
out 552 acres to Ephraim Herman and Lawrence Cock, at a place called 
Hatacirockon, "lying on the \\est side of the Delaware, and on the south 
side of a creek of the same name." Un the 8th of the next ■March, 25 acres 
of marsh land were granted tei each of these parties, and to one Peter 
\'an Brug. or \'an Bra}", at "Taorackon." ■■l}ing in ye Mill creek, 
op])osite liurlington, and toward ye head thereof." This places the 
i^raiit about Pigeon swamp and to the north of Bristol. There has 
been a question as to the location of this graiit, placing it below Bristol, 
probabl}- because the marsh land is on Mill creek. \\'e think there is no doubt 
tiie main grant was in Perm's nianor. on what is now Scott's creek. There is 
no creek between Mill creek and the Xeshaminy. nor is one laid i.lown on any 
of the old maps. ( )n Lindstreni. tiie region afterward Penn's )ilanor. called 
"ilackazockan.'' and "Hataorockon.'' or "Taorackon,'' is onl}- a corruption of 
tile Indian name. The course of tlie creek Hataorackon, its southwest boundary, 
i< nearly identical with that of Scott's creek. This tract was probably never 
seated, and the authority of the Duke of York coming to an end soon after, 
no further mention is made of it. October 28 (16S0), Erick Cock was appointed 
an additional constable between the Schuylkill and Xeshaminy for one year, 
and John Cock and Lassa Dalbo overseers and \-iewers of fences and high- 
N'. ays. 

At this time ilic ileputy-jlu riff of L'pland crjunty was Wiliiam Warner, 
will', a jurisdiction to ihe falls. He was probably the ancestor of the large and 



5 Lioiiel Britton was tl;c owner of con^iderahlo land in Delaware eoiuity, as we 

■ ■-.irn from the rec'irds. Deed I'.'i'k O, pa.^e i''iO. -W u Cattle County, cmr.an.is a deed 
•I March 2S, 175,?: Fhi!i;) liready t.' ^hlthe\v Lriwher. with the ti>HM\yinu: recital: 
■■V\'i!lKini Penn. prcpritinr. etc.. to Tv liert l!ett< ;md Jnhn KiiiL,', 16S0. about 6oo acres"; 
I'^y ill [704 to Lionel llrittoii. he with ilMnia.'; riii.^Iand. uh<i claimed a riirhl therein, to 
f'i:ihii Koariuy ami Miclwui Keaincy, ■■>.>ii-;-iM-la\v of >aid Lionel I'.riUi'n," 1718. Philip 
Kearney, son and heir of Michael, conveyed ilie same 10 Alisaioni Morris, 1746, and 

■ M -.d,-ni M.rris to I'lulip Proaily, 

5'. Wiiat became of S:iniiiel l'.Ii^s's tale wliieh covered part of Ciift's grant is not 
^iiuun. 

2 



jS HISTORY 01' inXKS COUSTV. 



Tcspectnljle f;miily of llic name "in this county. The time of his arrival, and 
whence he came, are iiot definitely known. Watson, the annalist." says he was 
one of the earliest pioneers on the Delaware; that he was a "caijtain imder 
Crtimwell, and was olilit^etl to leave Iui|j;land at hi> death, i'')58; that he came 
from i'ljdcklev. in Worcestershire, and ya\ e this name to the township in 
■which he lived in Ihiladelphia count\.'' He is known to have been here 
1677, and bought 200 acres in rjIockle_\', and, about the same time, he an'! 
William Orion bought 1000 acres of the Indians f(jr three hmidred and thin\- 
five t^uilders. In the e.\[)lanalions to Reed's map of 1774, he is denominated 
"old Renter," a term applied t<j those here before I'enn bought the Province. 
He died in 1706. Thiinias Warner, late of WVightslown, said the W illiam War- 
ner from whom he descended, immigrated with his brother Isaac from Draycott. 
Blockley, where the ancestral homestead is still in the possession of a Warner. 
Hazard does not give credit to the arrival of William Warner at the time 
specified, as he is not mentioned by contemporaneous statements, because of 
the jealousy of the Dutch and Swedes. He may have left England at the 
time mentioned, and mn come to the Delaware imtil after it fell into the 
hands of the English, 1664. After that period there was no occasion "to shield 
ihis movements from ohscrvation." He was a man of note in his day ; a mem- 
ber of the first .Assembly of reimsylvania ; justice of the peace; deputy-sheriff, 
Arc, &c. When lie was deputy-sherilT it was the custom of the court to defray 
.the charge for "meat and ilrink" for the justices, jirobably their only pay, and 
■.to raise the necessary funds Warner was ordered to collect 2S. 6d. on every 
judgment. 

The first immigrants, win;) sailcii direct for Pennsylvania, left England in 
August, ]68i, in the shii) John and Sarah.. Captain Henry Smith; the Amity, 
Captain Richard Dimon, and the lui^tol I'actor, Cajjtain Robert Drew. The 
John and Sarah was the first to arrive, and I'.er passengers were called the 
"first landers" by those who followed them. Among them we find the follow- 
ing, with their families, who came int'i Mucks county: Xathaniel Allen," who 
settled in Tlensalcm. above the mouth of the Xeshaminy ; John Otter, near the 
head of Xcwtown creek, where he took u]) 200 acres, and Edmund Lovett. 
Falls. In the sanie ship caiue several servants of Willi;mi Penn. The Amity 
was blo-wn off the ooa-t. and <iid not laml her passengers until the ne.Kt spring: 
■wliile the Factor, v.hich arri\-ed 'iiiiio-ite Chester, December nth, was frozen 
Ai]) that night, and her passen.L;ers v. inlered there. .\11 these brought inimi- 
•granls lor Pucks c>>unty, but it is inip' i<sii)le to gi\e their names. The same 
year arrived Gideon C.-imbell. from C"uriiv Wili>. .>later, an<l William Clark: 
and, about the same time c:une l',dv.;ird Pennett. who took up 321 acres in 
Northampton township: John I'.eniiett, 5(1 acres, and William Standard. 274 
acres. .All of these >etller> purch;i>ed !:m<l ^f Sir F.rlmund .Andros, at the 
quil-rt 111 of a bushel of .wheat the luunlred acre>. Their lands were re-snr- 
veyed and conlirnie'l to them b\ a ^ereral warr.uit 'U" the Proprietary. June 
14, I'i8;v .\bout this time Willi:uu I nm-an. iirohuMy from Kliodc Island, and 
of the familv of l\e\ereiid Thiin);i> l)ini_;.-m. the i'.;nitist minister at Cold Spring. 
settled in Prist^'l t.-,wii.-hip. Hi> warr.mi was d.ited Augu.^t 4, 10S2, nearly 



6 W:it<'''ii -:i\- I'.c f.it \\'\- iiilMriiK-iii- 11 fr^.m "Wi.lnv \\ .Truer," ubo iln-d :!t the .it; 

.of ci.uluy. iS4,i. aii.l wliu d.-iiineil tn W 11 ik-t-i-n.laiu 1 l' Willi.-im Warner. She live 
^-)ii tlie l.rinca^ler lurninke. a mile we,t cI .M.irlvel stre.-t hri.l;^e. 

■) ()iu- of [Vim's Cniiiini^si'.iicr-i. • 



HISTORY OF HL'CKS COi'XTV. 



19 



two months before Pcnii's arrival, and the patent July 2n, 16S4. In the sum- 
mer or early fall, 16S2, the Upland court appointed William "noyles,"' William 
IJiles. who lived below M(.irrisville, surveyor and overseer of highways from 
i.lie falls to I'oquessiiig- creek, the boundary between lliicks and I'liiladLlphiu 
ci'inities. He appears to iiave I»een constable at the same time, and informed 
the- court against Gilljert Wheeler, for selling liquor to the Indians without 
license, and was fined fi'ur pounds. This appointment is said to have been 
ihc last official act of the court imder the Duke of York, and immediately 
Infore the territory was turned over to the agents of William I'enn. 

The history of Bucks county would be incomplete without a notice of the 
settlement of the east bank of the Delaware, peopled by the same race, and 
under similar circumstances as the west bank. Their interests were so closely 
connected in the early da)s, it is impossible to treat of the one and not the 
otlier. 

The first colony on the east bank was planted at, or near, Gloucester Point, 
where fort Nassau was built, about 1623. The fort was destroyed by the 
Indians, but repaired and again occupied by the Dutch, 1639. In 1643 ^^'^^ 
.Swedes erected fort Elsinborg, four miles below Salem creek. An English 
colony from Xew Haven, sixty strong, settled near Salem in 1G41, but were 
'Iriven away by the Swedes and Dutch, and this race made no further attempt 
to colonize the east bank of the river until Xew Jersey fell into possession of 
the Duke of York. It was .subsequently conveyed to Lord Berkeley and Sir 
George Carteret, the interest of Berkeley passing into the hands of the assignees 
>if Edward Eyllinge. It was divided into East and West Xew Jersey the 
fallowing year, by a line drawn across the country from Little Egg Harbor 
to the mouth of Lehigh river. The first settlers for West Xew Jersey arrived 
111 the ship Griffith, of London, in 1675. after a long passage, and landed near 
Salem. Among the passengers were John Fenwick. his two daughters and 
several servants ; Edward Champness, Edward Wade, Samuel \\'ade, John 
Smith and wife, Samuel Xicholas. Richard Guy, Richard Xolde. who sul:ise- 
■ liiently settled in this county; Richard Hancock, John Pledger, Hipolite 
I.efevre. John Matlock, and others with their families. 

Among those wJio purchased land on the river were two companies of 
f i^riends. one from London, the other from Yorkshire. In the summer, 1677, 
thfse purchasers sent out John Kinsey, John Pemford. Joseph Helmsley, 
Ivihert .'^tacy. Benjamin Scott. Richard Guy and Thomas Foulke. joint Com- 
r-iissioners to satisfy tl-.e claims of the In<lians. They came in the Kent with 
-.SO immigrants, landing at Xew Castle, August 16th. The settlers found 
temporary shelter at Raccoon creek in huts erected by the Swedes ; while the 
• "inmissioners j^rocccfle'l to the site of Burlington, and purchased of the 
Imiians all the lanil Ix-twceii the .\s^anpink and Oldnian's creek, fijr a few 
vCims. petticoats, hoes. &c. The Yorkshire Commissioners made choice of the 
■'•I'Per. and the Londou of the lower, half of the tract, but they joined in settling 
what is now Burlington, for mutual defen.se. In laying out the town the main 
-trect, running back frrmi the fiver, was made the dividing line between the 
C'linpanies. the Yorkshire men being on th.e east and the Londoners i>n the 
wt_-t .-ide. r.ut ijiie .itiier ^treet was laid out, that ah ng the river front, and 
•1 market h"ii-=e \vas I'vated. in the miildle of the main struct. The tr.wii [ilot 
v. ;ii surveyed bv Richard Xi ^le. The head lines of the river lots were orig- 
niall;,- run. i}i 111^7. wlvn their cmirses. respectively, were west and iiiirtinvest. 
Ihiy were :igain exaiiiiiu-d and run liv Jcim Watsmi. jr.. wf this ciuinty. I'eb- 
ruary _:;. 175'). wlio ii.auil the ci'Ursi- ilun WL>t, three degrees nurtherly. being 



HISTORV OF BUCKS COU'XTY 



a variation of three licgrcca in ,si\ty-nine years, or one degree in twenty-tlirLv 
years exactly. To begin the settlement ten lots, of nine acres each, were lai.i 
out on the east side of tiie main street, and, in October, some of the Keiii'^ 
passengers came up and settled there. Among the heads of families, wh. . 
came in the Kent, and settled at Lurlington, were Thomas Olive, Daniel W iiU, 
William Peachy. William Ci.'iyi<in, John Crips, Thomas Eves, Thomas Har^':- 
ing, Thomas Xosilcr. Thr'uias Fairnsworth, Morgan Drewet, William iViit. n. 
Henry Jennings, William liibes, Samuel Lovett, John Woolston, Wil'.ia:;-. 
Woodmancy, Christopher Saunders and Robert Powell. • Among them was a 
carpenter, named Marshall, v.lio was very useful in building shelter. At tir-t 
tliey lived in wigwams and had mainly to rely on the Indians for food, whu 
supplied them with corn and venison. The first house built was a frame. Ir 
John \\'oolston, and Friends' meeting was held imder a sail-cloth tent. Tl-.c 
town was first called Xcw Deverly, then llridlington, and afterward changLi' 
to its present name. Although this is the accepted history of the names I'.ur- 
lington has borne, we doubt its correctness. The original draught, as laid out. 
167S, bears tb.e name of Burlington, and, on the map of Danker's and Sluvtcr. 
1679, it is called "Dorlingtowne." This was a year after it was laid out. ar. I 
the misspelling is not to be wondered at in a foreigner. The ^lartha, of Hull. 
arrived October 15. in whicii came a number of passengers with their 
fatnilies, who settled on the Yorkshire purchase: Thomas '\\'right, William 
Goforth, John Lyman, Edward Season. William Black, Richar<l Dungwortb. 
George Miles, William Wood. Thomas Schooley, Richard Harrison. Thomas 
Hooten, Sanuiel Taylor, Marmaduke Horsman, \\'illiam O.Kley,- William Ley 
and Nathaniel Luke. In the same ship came the families of Robert Stacv. 
Samuel Odds. an. I Thomas ICllis and John Eatts, servants. The Willing Mii'ji 
arrived in Xoveniber, several of her passengers settling at Burlington and other> 
at Salem, among tb.e latter being James Xevel, Henry Sahcr, and George 
Deacon. The following spring the settlers at Burlington began to cultivate 
and provide pn-'vi^ions for their own support, and build better habitations. In 
one of these vessels came JiF.n Kin=ey. a youth, son of John Kinse\", one of rlic 
London Commi>si(>ners. Hi- father dying on his arrival, the care of the faniilv 
devolved on the sun. wh" n. 't rmly (lischarged the duty, but reached several 
positions oi (list netiun : his sun became Chief Justice of Pennsvlvania. 

Burlington was built u.p-n an island now joined to the main-land, and. tw 
centuries ago, V.ore the name of Chygoc.- How early it was settled by 
Europeans we cnnn^t tell. but. before !'»>, three Dutchmen, Cornelius Torrid- 
sen, Julian Marcelis and Jan Claessen had jiurchased all or part of it, and built 
a house or two ..n it. 'I'liey sold to I'etcr Jegou. who owned 1700 acres in a!'. 
In a note, apjieuded t.' tlu- permit. Govennir Lovelace gave to Tegou. 166S. it 
is .stated certain 1 )utch;iuii -etiiol there long before the countrv fell into tl.c 
hands of the l"ngli-h. le-..u li i;-ht part ..f Ins land of the Indians. Ho 
gave the n.-mu- to the i>l.uid. "Chygoc'' being oidy a corruption of his own. 
and not tl;;;i .1 :in Imii.-ui ehiei', a- stated by son)e authorities. In all our researcii 
no n.ame ai>pr.'ael!ing it ha- bei-n fonnd. In 1670 Jegou was driven from hi- 
land by Indi.ms an.! remair.ev! a«ay >iveral vears. When the Friends settle: 
at Burlington. iv\o ,if iluin, 'lli'mas Wright :md Godfrey Hancock, entere'i 
upon Jegou's land aii.l .Kcuiiied it. They refnse.l to vacate when notified, an.' 
suit brought in the L'pland tonrt: it was tried December, 1679, ^^'tli a verdict 



I? It wa- .-.lUi.l !•>• till- In>l;,iii- T".'5cliicli.>ii;icki, -i-niis ipi; //;,• nldcst f'ljiitrd ;r 
Tie IV;.u\:;rt- -.ifl liicir !ir-l -rti\-n;.-iit <•> i':ir i.i-t \v.i< on tlii-: i>!;m(J. 



HISTOR]' OF BUCKS COCXTV. 



i'.r Icc^ou'. He sold out to Thomas Bowmaii, Bowman to Edward Hunloke, 
i'.'jriington, ami Hunloke to John Joosten and John Hammell. The latter sale 
•A..~ cunrirmed by the town council of Burlington. In November, 1678, Jegou 
■,\;!s a deputy froin the Delaware river portion of New Jersey to the Assembly 
-t Kli^abethtown. 

The point of land made by Assiscunk creek and the Delaware on the Bur- 
;;r,.,'t';.n side, was called Leasy's point, at the period of which we write. It wa.s 
:: ni-ited place on the Delaware. In 166S, Governor Carteret granted permission 
:■> IVter Jegou to take up land here on condition that he would settle and erect 
.; li..use of entertainment for travelers. This he agreed to do, and at the point 
l-.c opened the first tavern on the river, a famous hostelry in its day. \\'hen 
('■■jvernor Lovelace visited the Delaware, 1672, it will be remembered that 
i^aptain Garland was sent forward to Jcgou"s house to make arrangements 
iV.r his accommodation, and persons were appointed to meet him there. The 
r,.:]verncDr crossed the river at this point. George Fox, wdio visited the Dela- 
ware the same year, likewise crossed at Leasy's point into Pennsylva- 
nia and thence continued on to the lower settlements. The house was subse- 
f;n:;ntly called "Point house," to which Governor Burnet opened one of his 
vi,-tas from Burlington island. There is some evidence in favor of Lcasy Point 
being on the east side of the creek, but the weight of testimony places it on the 
V. r^c. Here the land is firm down to the water's edge, while on the east side 
;!'cre is a marsh which prevents access to the point. Some antiquarians have 
!;il!cn into error by locating it on the west side of the Delaware, in the neigh- 
lurhixid of Bristol, but there is not a particle of evidence to sustain it. 

The favorable accounts written home by the first settlers in West Jersey 
•-tinuilated immigration and soon there was an accession to the population. 
The Shield, of Hull, Captain Towes, arrived November 10. 1678, the first 
Lnglish vessel that ascended as high as Burlington. A fresh gale brought 
h.or up the river, and during the night she was blown in to shore where she made 
f i-i t'l a tree. It came on cold, and the next morning the passengers walked 
.T-li'ire on the ice. .-\.s the Shield passed the place wdiere Philadelphia stands, 
••he passengers remarked what a fine place for a town. Among them were 
Mahlr>n Stacy.'''- his wife, seven daughters, several servants, his cousin Thomas 
i\'--vi-!. and William Pmley."' with his wife, two children, and four servants. The 
pr.^songers by the Shield, and other ships, that followed the same year, settled 
at Burlington, Salem, and other points on the river, a few finding their way 
i:i'o Bucks county. Among those who came with the' West Jersey settlers, in 
i'''78, was Benjamin Dufheld. the ancestor of the Pennsylvania family of that 
'■ame. By the end of 1G7S it is estimate.! that William Penn had been the 

'I'Tlio jurisdiction of tlie courts wt-t of the Delaware was extcudcJ into West 
'■ r ry. m, the iirouuil that the •;o\ ercii;iity of that c.juntry did not pass to Carteret and 
'• 'In '■•>■. wlu-n they purclia-ed the soil of the Duke of York. 

■/- Mahlon .Si.icy.— '^on of John of Rallil'icld and Cinder Green. Yorkshire, and 
■ •!:iry. d.augliter of J.'liu and Mary darland. Fulwood, his wife,— married Reliecca Ely, 
'•I Mansfiekl. 20tli, 5th r,v>.. lUi--^. Wheiher ?\Iahi.>n Stacy was .1 Friend is n.u definitely 
(-■■.'•uu, I)ut it is "-uppo^erl he u.is, from the fact that his marriage was entered of record 
in pl.Tin lanijuatce. and his hroth.cr Thomas and sister were cunvened to I'rieuds" helief 
'y Georsrc Fox's prenchini;. The wife of Mahloii Stacy was a -ister of Jo-hua lily, 
^•■■-•-nor of the Fly f;nin!y of r.ncks. who died at Trenton. I70_'. 
10 I'r.ihahly .Maidon .'^tacy's hroihcr-in-iaw. — Cope. 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COiWTV. 



means of scrnlintj sonic tiglit humlrcd settlors to this country, mostly F'riends.'"' 
(_)f the Ens^'iisli settlers who came into the Delaware, 1677, under the 
auspices of tlie tru^lces of West New Jersev, we know of hut three who settlecl 
in this county: Daniel Erinson, Membury, county Devon, England, who ar- 
rived the 28th of Seiitember, in the Willing Mind. He married Frances Green- 
land. East Jer^ey, October 8, 1O81. John Pursloir, from Ireland, a farmer. 
arrived in the rinenix, Captain Mathew Shaw, in August: Joshua Bore, ur 
Boar, of Brainfield, Derbyshire, farmer, arrived in the Mardia, in September. 
His wife. Margaret, of Horton Bavent, in Wiltshire, came in the Elizabeth 
and Sarah, May 2y. 1C178. A son was borit to them June 29, 1681, and a daugh- 
ter August 31. 16S5. Bore owned land in Falls and Middletown, but we are 
unable to say in which township he lived. I'enn confirmed his patent [May 9. 
1684. At the close of 1678 Govern(jr Andros appointed Feter Pocock surveyor 
on the Delaware, who surveyed considerable land in Bucks county for the 
immigrants, who arrived in 1679. Among those who arrived and settled at 
Burlington, 1678. \\as Thomas Budd. who became a leading nian in the prov- 
ince. He was thrice elected to the Assembly, was one of the chief promoters 
of the erection of the meeting house, and in 1683 he and Francis Collins were 
each awarded one thousand acres "about the falls." on the Xew Jersey side of 
the river, for building a market and court-house at Burlington. Budd removed 
to Philadelphia in 1685, where he died, 1698. He traveled extensively in Xew 
Jersey and Pennsylvania, and in 1685 published iiT Eondon, "A true account 
of the country." Among his descendants were Attorney General Bradford and 
Lord Ashburton. 

Mahlon Stacy, said to have descended from Stacy de Bellefield, a French 
nfticer who accompanied William the Conqueror to England. 1066. a tanner 
from Yorkshire, became interested in West Jersey. 1676, and. with four others, 
purchased a tenth of the province. He took up eight hundred acres " on the 
Delaware, covering the site of Trenton, and built a log dwelling at South Tren- 
ton, and a log grist-mill, 1680, on the south bank of the Assanpink.'- Ab(iut 
the same time Thomas Oliver built a mill on the Rancocas, and, for several 
years, these were tlie only grain-mills in Xew Jersey. Stacy's mill, the first 
along th.c Delaware, ground the grain of the early settlers of Bucks county. 
and was carried across the river in canoes. He sold the mill to William Trent. 
the founder of Trenton, 1690, who erected a two-.«torv stone mill on the ^ite. 
This was undermined by the flood, 1843. and half of it carried away. iMahlun 
Stuc> maile his mark on the Delaware and acquired large wealth. He was 
meiiiher of the As>emlily, justice of the peace, and an active minister among 
Friends, (in meeting days he paddled his canoe across the river, walked 
to l~,-d!singto.n and un'.teil with l-'rieiids in worshiji. and continued it to his 
death, T704. He left one son. and five daughters — one of whom married Joseph 
Kirkbride, I-'alls : and his granddaughter, Rebecca Atkinson, was the ancestress 
of the F.udds, of r.urlington, in the female line. From the testimony of two 
earl\- travelers'-- on the Delaware, Stacv's dwelling was neither comfrrtable 



lo'i Clark--oii. 

II Tlie tsno ;icrc lr:u-t w.is 011 bntli sides ni \hv .\~s:nipink. and embraced tlu- 
torrit.iry between dre.-n it reel ;in(! the OeLiware. and Suite anil I'erry street*, extcndnig 
intii uhat l^ now llainiltiin t'lwnslnp, si.nth of tlic Assanpink 

IJ The nil!! had the ^alile to the street, and .-.toi.d where MeCall's paper-mill stand-. 
or sliM.d, if !..rn di wn. 

1,1 Hankers and Slinier, 1671). 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUXTY. ■ 25 



nor spacious. Thtv state, in their journal, they staid over nijjht at his house,- 
and, altliough too tired to eat they were obliged to sit up all night, because there 
was not room enough to lie down. The house was so wretchedly constructed 
that unless they were close enough to the tire to burn, they could not keep 
warm, for the wind blew through it everywhere. 

In 16S0 Mr. Stacy wrote a letter to his cousin. Revel Stacy, of England, 
in vin;!icat!on of the country on the Delaware. Ht; gave a glowing account, 
but no doubt a true picture, of the fertility of the soil, health fulness of the 
climate, and of the various productions of land and water. At that early day 
there were apple orchards laden with fruit ; peaches, of the finest tlavor. hung 
on the trees "almost like onions tied on ropes ;" forty bushels of wheat were 
harvested for one sown : "great store" of wild fruits and berries : cherries, 
strawberries, etc. ; the river swarmed with fish, and the woods were alive with 
game. There appears to have been nearly everything the heart of man could 
crave. " 

14 The following is the text of Mahloii Stacy's letter: "■.^s to the strange rep^irts 
you hear of us and our country, I affirm they are not true, but fear they are spoken in 
envy. It is a country that produces all things for the sustenance of man in a plentiful 
manner, or I should be ashamed of what I have heretofore written ; but having truth on 
my side, I can stand before the face of all the evil spies. 1 have traveled through most of 
the settled places, and some that are not, and iind the country very apt to answer the 
e.xpectations of the diligent. 1 have seen orchards laden with fruit to admiration, planted 
by tile Swedes, their very limbs torn to pieces with the weight, and most delicious to 
tlie taste, and lovely to behold. I have seen an apple tree from a pippin kernel yield a 
barrel of curious cider, and peaches in such plenty that some people took their carts a 
peach-gathering. I could not but smile at the sight of it. They are a very delicate fruit, 
and hang almost like our onions that are tied on ropes. I have seen and known this- 
summer forty bushels of bold wheat harvested from one sown. We have from the time 
called .May to Michaelmas, great stores of very good wild fruits, as strawberries, cran- 
berries and huckleberries, which are much like bilberries in England, but far sweeter; 
the cranberries much like cherries fiT color and bigness, which may be kept until fruit 
comes in again; an excellent sauce is made of them for venison, turkey and great fowl; 
lliey are better to make tarts than either cherries or gooseberries; the Indians bring them 
to our houses in great plenty. My brother R.-.b^-rt had as many cherries this year as 
would have loaded several car;>. From what I have cib.-,erved. it is my judgment that 
fniit trees in this country destroy themselves by the very weight of their fruit. As for 
venison and fowls we have great plenty ; we have brought home to our houses by the 
Indians seven or eight fat bucks of a day. and sometimes put by as many, having no 
occasion for them. My cousin Revel and I. with some of my men, went last Tliird-month 
(5th-month. X. S.) into the river to catch lle^nng^, for at that time they came in great 
shoals into the shallows. We had no net, but after the Indian fashion, made a round 
pinfold about two yard.-^ over and a f<"it lui;li. but left a gap fcpr the tish to go in at. and 
made a hush to lay in the g.Tp to keep the tish in. When that was done, we tcok two 
long birches and t:ed tlieir t'lp- together, and went alMiul a stone's cast above our said 
pinfold. Then hauling these birch bduulis down the stream, we drove thousands before 
us, and as many got into our traps as it would hold. Then we began to throw them on 
shore as fast as three < r four of us could by tw(3 or three at a time, .\fier this manner 
in half an hour we could have i-lled a three bushel sack wilh as fine herring as ever I 
saw." .\fter petting thriiut;li with his ("ishin.g party, Mr. Stacy g"t.s on to -ay: ".\s to 
beef and pork tlKre is :i great pknty ..f It ;iit<l cheap; alsr, g.jnd sheep. The cciinmon grass 
of the Country f.-cds beef verv fat. 1 have seen last f.iil in I'.urlington, killed, eight or 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUXTV 



William Trent, the fnunder of Trenton, a successful merchant of Phila- 
deliiiiia, settled on the east bank of the Delaware oppo.-ite tlie falls. He pur- 
chased, of .Mahlon Slacv, the younger, his tract of eight hundred acres inherited 
from his father, lying un both sides the Assanpink, 1714. He removed thiilier 
soon afterward and laid out a town, which increased rapidly and became tb.e 
seat of the Supreme Court, 1724. Before the town was called after its founder 
it was kn. iwn as ■Little Worth." William Trent died December 29, 1724. 
His first wife, who was a sister of Colonel Coxe, died in the slate-rcof house. 
Philadelphia. The first Presbyterian meeting house was erected in Trenton. 
1712, and the countv of Hunterdon laid out, 1714, reaching from the Assan- 
pink to the northern extremity of the state. In 1694 the Assanpink was made 
the northern boundary of r>urlington county. Trenton was constituted a bor- 
ough, 1746, but a post-oftice was established there as early as 1734. The paper- 
mill on Green street, built 1741, on the site of iSIahlon Stacy's log mill of i6?o. 
rebuilt by \\ illiam Trent, of stone, 1690, and converted into a cotton mill eighty 
years ago. ^vas torn down about 1874. and the Assanpink will now flow "un- 
ve.xed to the sea." The old mill and its surroundings are classic ground, for 
imedintelv in front of it the tide in Revolutionary affairs took a turn that led 
10 \ictory. 

Professor Kalm describes Trenton, 1748, as "a long, narrow town, situate 
some distance from the river Delaware on a sandy plain." It had U\o churches, 
one Episciipal and the other Presbyterian; the houses were partly built of stone, 
though most of them were of wood or planks, two stories high, with cellar 
underneadi, and "a kitchen under ground close to the cellar." The houses 
stooil apart with gardens in the rear. The landlord, with whom Kalm stopped. 
told him that when he first settled there, twenty-two years before, there was 

nine fat oxen anil cows un a market day, all very fat." Referring to the fish in the 
Dehiuare again, he says; •■Though I have ■spoken only of herruig (lest any should 
think we ha\e little other sorts), we have great plenty of most sorts of fish that ever I 
saw in England, besides several other sorts that are not known there, as rock, cat-fish, 
shad, ^heeps-head and sturgeon; and fowls as plenty, ducks, geese, turkeys, plieasants. 
partridges, and many other sorts. Indeed, the country, lake it as a wilderness, is a brave 
country, though no place will please all. There is some barren laud, and more wood than 
some would have upon their land, neitlicr will the country produce corn without lab^^r. 
nor is cattle got wuhi.ut SMUKthing to buy them, nor bread with idleness, else it would 
be .1 brave cnintry indeed : I iiuestion not, but all then would give it a good word. 1-or 
m> part I like it so well I never had the lea^t' thought of returning to England except 
on acc.'imt of ira.ie." Under the same date he wrote to William C'>oU, of Sheffield, ami 
otlurs of his friends at home: "This is a most brave place, whatever envious and e\ 1! 
spies may -ay of it; I could wish yon all here. We have wanted nothing since we canu- 
hither Imt the company oi onr good frieiuU and aot|uaintances. All our people are very 
well, .ind ill a b..pefu! way t.. live much better th;!n ever they did. and not only sr.. but 
to pn.vidc well fur tb.eir po>teri;y. I know not one amnng the people that de-ires to be 
in England again, -ince.seiiled. I wond.cr at our Yorkshire pe-p!e that they bad rather 
live ill scrviturle. w\'rk bard all the 'year and n^t be three jience the better at the ye ir s 
end. than to stir nut of the chimney-corner and transport themselves to a place where, 
wiih the like pains, in two or three ye.ars they might know belter things. T live as well 
to my content and in as great plenty as ever I did. and in a far more likely way t.i set 
,111 estate. I Signed 1 : "Maiiio.v St\.v 

■■|"rom the falls of the Delaware in We-t Jer-ey. the JOth of 4th-moiuh, lO-i' 



HISTORY OP BUCKS COUXTY. 25 

• l;ar.ily more than one house," but at this time there were about one hundred 
'.'.u-^e-'. Their chief Ljain consisted in the arrival of numerous passengers pass- 

• i../ between Philadelphia and Xew York. At that time this was the 
.>reat thoroughfare for goods between these points, transported to Tren- 
",',n" on the "river bv water, and thence across Xew Jersey by land 
i-.-irria-e The price' of passengers between Philadelphia and Trenton, 
i.v walcr, was a shilling and six-pence Pennsylvania currency, and extra for 
la-:gage.'and passengers provided their own meat and drink. From Trenton 
t.Vxew Brunswick the price was two shillings and six-pence, and the baggage 
extra. Trenton, now a handsome and thriving city of 50,000 inhabitants, is 
the capital of the state. 

While there is no question :^Iahlon Stacy's was the first gristmill on the 
,- >t bank of the Delaware, it is impossible to locate the first mill west of the 
ri\er, in this countv. Its building could not have been long after the arrival 01 
William Penn. for'mills were a prime necessity. It is less difficult to fix the 
lir-t mill built in the state. This was erected by the Swedes in 1643 or 1^44 on 
. ,.!>!)•. creek, near the Blue Bell tavern. Delaware county, but it is not known 
..,1 which side . f the stream it stood. It is said to have been a '•fine mill, which 
err. .iind both fine and coarse ilour. and was going late and early." It has long 
since passed awav. but the spot about where it stood is well known. To itall 
the settlers, who did not care to pound their grain into flour, took their grists 
;.. be ground. In that earlv dav there was a path through the woods from up 
'.lie Delaware, north of Xeshaniinv, down to the mill, along which the settlers 
traveled back and forth. The court at Upland, in 1678, decided to have another 
mill built, which one Hans :\Ioenses put up shortlv on MM creek-, 
i!oar the present site of Marvlandville. In 1683 Richard Townsend and otners 

■ ■rected a corn-mill on the site of the Chester ^lills, on Chester creek. ab_ove 
I'pland. He was one of a company, formed in England, of which \\ ilh.am 
I'eim was a member, in 1682. The mill was erected under the care of Caleb 
I'nsev. and the materials brought from England. A mill to grind flour was 
i.uilt'at Holmesburg in 1679. and we believe it is still standing and m pretty 
f-xxl condition. \Vhen the British occupied Philadelphia they used it as a 
I'arrack. but after their evacuation, it was again used as a mill and has been 
ever since. The walls are thick and strong, and it shows very little signs r,t 

■ ivcav. In i(>:;8 permission was given to Joost, Andriansen & Compaiiv to 
build a saw and grist mill below "f urtle falls," the site for which they obtained 
frei;n the Dutch^commissarw but we have no evidence these mills were ever 
biiilt. The te^U to be taken bv the corn mills was regulated by law. 1675. ^"^ 
I'.S^ Richard Townsend erected a grist-mill on what is now Church lane, Ger- 
numtown. for which he brought the machinery and most of the wood work from 
l-.ngland. For -everal vears this mill ground the grists of the settlers for many 
r.-.des rr.und. Thev carried the grain to the mill on their back, except one 
It'.ckv Bucks cnuntian who made use of a tame bull for this purpose. The miU 
changed hands manv times, the last owner being a son of FIngli Roberts, wno 
'•■-■ught it. 1S35. The Frankford mill, late Duftield's. was used by the :>wedes 
a> a mill before Penn's arrival. 

I'crris. in a note to his "Original Settlements on the Delaware, says: 

■ Tliere is an account preserved bv .-onie of the families descended from Isaac 
'!.irri,.tt. Bristol. Pennsvlvania. that when Friends' yearly meeting was held at 
Burlngton. Xew lersev. about the vear i(',R4. the family wanting '^ome hue 
'! ur. fsaac t.",k u h.eat '■ -n h..r>ebaek w be gTMund at a mill JO iriles from his 
o -deuce." 



W- ii -,i»jJ4W » .p»»^WMfiMlJ|l.liH< l|t W ! |yWJW.^Jti,^;* l |^ g M^^^ 






^■'^ 



[i,--'<klJ^liH^rJ^', Oii^ ttiiMttA^^aVa?ii.r^ 'S^^..'*^^^. ^tiiA\A.'>l~^<. 






WILLIAM lEXN, AT THK .V.Ii Ol^ TWHXTV-TWO. 



Frnm oriiinal in p.. 
Penn^.^lvania, 



n of Historical Society or 
e<i fr. ni lit,- in \(*'A. 



CHAPTER III, 



WILLIAM PEXX BECOMES PROPRIETARY OF PEXXSYLVAXIA. 



1673 TO 1GS2. 



William Pcnn first appears. — Sketch of life and character.— Grant of Pennsylvania. — 
Why so named.— Penn writes a letter to the inhabitants. — Markham appointed deputy 
governor. — Transfer of government.— Site of Pennsbury chosen. — Commissioners tc- 
purchase land.— Silas Crispin and Thomas Holme— Site for Philadelphia selected. — 
Immigrants of 1682. — Henry Paxson, John Brock, William Yardley, et al. — Races that 
settled Bncks county.- English, Germansf Scotch-Irish, Welsh, Hollanders.— Indian 
occupants. — Lenni Lenape. — Their treatment of children. — Tammany. 

^\'il!iam 'Penn hr^t appears, in crmnoctiiin witli affairs in America in i'V'3.' 
West Xew lersev was then held by Lonl Berkeley and Sir George Carteret, but,, 
in March of that vear. Berkeley conveyed his interests to John Fenwick in trust 
for Edward Bylliuire ; btit, some difficulty occurring between them. Willam 
Penn was chosen arbitrator. In 1674 he was appointed one of the three trustees, 
into whose hands the entire management and control of West Xew Jersey 
[lassed. Through this agency he became the chief instrument in the settlement 
nf tliat country, which attorded him an excellent opportunity to collect valttable- 
infurmation concerning it. Xo doubt he directed his attention especially to the 
west bank of the Delaware, and we have every reason for believing the favora- 
ble accoiuits of it induced him to take the necessary steps to plant a colony of 
I'rieuds here. 

The founder of Pennsylvania, the son of Sir William Penn. an Admiral in 
the luiglish navy, was born in London. October 14. 1644. His mother was a 
daughter of Jnim Jasper, a merchant of Rotterdam. He was educated at 
' >\fnrd. a classmate of John Locke, and noted for his talents and diligence in 
study. While a student he attended a meeting of Friends and listened to a ser- 
n-.'in preached by Thomas Loe, wliich made a deep imiiression on his mind. ( ""n 
his return home his father tried to persuade him to give uji his religious con- 
victions: this he refused and was driven from the house with blows; but his 
fathvr relenting, thnu'igh the intercession of his mother, he was restored to favor. 
He was nov,- sent abroad with persons of rank, in the hope that gay scenes and 

1 Wlun the territory we.-t of the Udriware ciine uitr. Penn's pos-cs-,ion, lOXi. the 
Swedes. Finns and Dutch settled alont; the river wert.- estiniate<l at .^.000. few in P.ucks 
'""'inty, and fewer ICn^li-h 



28 HISTORY OF BUCKS COUXTY. 



wordly company would drive religious tliuughts from his mind. He spent two 
years in France, where he applied himself to the study of the language and 
theology, and acquired all the polish of that polite nation. On his return to 
England, 1664, he was entered a student of law at Lincoln's Inn. His religious 
■convictions returning, his father sent him to Ireland, where he spent some time 
at the gay court of the Duke of Ornioiid, and in managing his father's estates 
there. \\"hi!e thus occupied he had an' oi)portunity of again listening to the 
preaching of Thomas Loe. which interested him so deeply he became a con- 
stant attendant at Friends' meeting. In the autumn, 1667, he was arrested, with 
others, at a meeting at Cork, but was released. He now became closely identi- 
fied with the Friends, which, reaching the ears of his father, he was ordered 
home to England. Every persuasion and entreaty were used to induce him to 
give up his connection with the despised "Ouakers," but in vain. Finally, his 
father begged him, to at least take oft his hat in the presence of the king, the 
Duke of York, and himself — hut he declined to accede to the request as it in- 
volved a principle. He was again driven from home, but his mother, the ever 
faithful friend, remained true to him, and often relieved him in great need. 
Penn now became an open and avowed advocate of the religious doctrine of 
the Friends, and the following year began to preach. He did not immediately 
adopt their plain costume and speech, but, for some time, continued to wear 
his sword and courtly dress. In time these were cast aside, and William Peim 
identified himself, in all things, with the despised sect with which he had cast 
his lot. and endured with them all the pjins and penalties the bigotry of the times 
inflicted. He was only reconciled with his father at the latter's death-bed, when 
he told William that he had "chosen tlie better part." 

William I'enn was n'.arried, 1672, at the age of twenty-eight, to Gulielma 
Maria, daughter of Sir Wdliant Springett, who lost his life in the civil v,■ar^, 
a woman beautiful in person, and of great merit and sweetness of disposition. 
He now gave himself wholly to the work of the ministry, making several relig- 
ious journeys to different jiarts of Great Britain and the continent. At his 
father's death he was left w ith. an income of not less than £1,500 a year. 

The ajipearancc and ]iersonal character of William Penn are illy under- 
stood by the world. The outlamlish painting, by Benjamin West, of the apocry- 
jihal Elm-Tree Treaty re])reseiits him an old, broad-faced, very fat and clumsy- 
looking man. as if he had been born, and brought up, in an ancestral broad-br.m 
and shad-belly. Th.is picture is brought to the attention of I'ennsylvanir; chil- 
dren in their early youth, and n<ver leaves them. William Penn was an entire- 
ly different sort of- person. He was an accomplished and elegant gentleman; 
polite and refined, and conversant with the usages of the most polished society 
of that time. He was reared amid luxury; surrounded with all the appliances 
of wealth, educated to all the refinement of that polished age. He wore a 
swnrd like a true cavalier, anrl his portrait at the age of tweitty-three shows 
him to have been a very handsome young man. He is said to have excelled in 
athletic exercises. When he came to P'ennsylvania he was only 38, hardly in 
his. prime; and. in.-tead of lieing the dumpy figure West p)aints him, he \va> ta!!' 
and elegant in p^-r-on. with a handsome face and polished manners. Neither 
was he an austere ascetic, luit indulged in the innocent pleasures of life, and 
relislied all the giw.d thin-- that < l^d plnced at his hand. He was. in the truc-t 
sense, a Christian gentleman and enlightened law-giver, tar in advance ';>f his 
day and generatimi. 

.\t the death of Admir.d IVnii the British government was foun^.l indLbte 1 
to him, for >ervices rendered and on account of monev loaned about £16,000. 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUMV. 29 

In lieu of the nifnev William Pcnn propu^ed to receive land in America north 
ui Marvland and west of the Delaware. He presented a petition to Charles II, 
in Uine 1680 which uas laid before the privy cuuncil. A long and searching 
course of proceednigs was had on the petition, and, after many vexatious de- 
Iivs liis praver was cjranted, and a charter to Penn signed and issued. The 
letters patent are dated .March 4th. loSi, The charier specifies that the grant 
sliould be bounded bv the Delaware on the east, from a point twelve miles north 
of New Castle to the forty-third parallel of latitude, and to extend five degrees 
westward from the river, embracing ; — , , , ■ 

••-Vll that tract or part of land in America, with all the islands therein con- 
tained as the same is bound on the east by Delaware river from twelve miles- 
distant northward of Xew Castle town unto the three and fortieth degree ot 
northern latitude, if the said river doth extend so far northward, then by the 
said river so far as it doth extend, and from the head of tlie said river the east- 
ern bounds are to be determined b^- a meridian line to be drawn irom the head 
of the said river unto the three and fortieth degree, the said lands to extend 
westward five degrees in longitude from the said eastern bounds, and the said 
lands to be bound on the north by the beginning of the three and tortieth de- 
gree of northern latitude." , , t-, ■ 

Penn and his heirs were constituted the true and absolute Proprietary ot 
the countrv ; and he was empowered to establish laws, appoint officers, and do 
other acts 'and things necessarv to govern the country, including the right to 
erect manors, ^\■hen it became necessarv to give a name to the country covered 
bv the o-rant Penn chose that of Xew VVales, but the king objected. Penn then 
siV-cst^'ed "Svlvania," to which the king prefixed the word "Penn,' in honor 
of Ins father, and thus the countrv was given the name it bears— Pennsylvania, 
which means the high or head z.'ood-hvids. The king's declaration. ann..uncing 
the grant and letters patent, was dated April 2, 16S1, and the deea ot the Duke 
of York to William Penn was executed August 31." 

William Penn's first act, dated -\pril 8, was to wnte a letter to 
the inhabitants of Pennsvlvania. and on the loth he appointed his cousm 
William Markham Deputv Governor and Commander-m-chiet ot the Irrovuice, 
clothing him with full powers to put the machinery of the new governinent in 
operation. At what time Markham sailed for America is not known but ne 
find him in Xew York, with the king's letter, in June, ^vhlch, with his com- 
mission, he laid before the Council and Commander in the. absence ot Covernor 
Andros On the 21st the authorities at Xew York addressed a letter to the jus- 
tices and other magistrates on the Delaware notif>ing them ot the change^ 

2 W-iUiam Pcnn, under date of 5th of i£t n.o., i(.8i, wrou- as follows to his fncnd. 
Rc.hcrt Turner, eoncerning the name of the ne\v province (;ee Hazzard's Annals, y.>o1 : 
■This dav nn- enuntrv was conlirnied to me under the great seal ot England, with large 
powers and privileges, bv the name of Fennsylvania, a name the kmg would give it m 
honor of mv fallier. I chose Xew Wales, being as this, a pr.tty hilly country, but Pent, 
lein- Welsh for a head, as Pennanmoire in Wales, and Penrith in Cumberland, and 
I'cnn in Buckinghamshire, the highest land in England, called this Pennsylvama, wh.cli 
is the high or head woodland; for I propose<l, when the secretary, a Welshman, reiused 
to have it called Xew W ak-s. Sylvania, and they added Pum to it; and though I was 
much opposed. to it. and ueut to the king t,^ have it -truck ont and altered, he said it 
was past and would take it upon him: nor could twenty guineas move the under secretary 
to varv the name ; for I feared lest it should be looked on as a vanity in me. and not 
as a respect m the kmg, as it truly was, to my father, wh.om he often memions with 
praise. 



30 HISTORY OF Bi'CKS COUXTY. 



goveriinu-iit. In a tow ilays Cohjiiel Markliam repaired thither to enter u].m:,u 
his duties, bearing with iiini I'enn's letter to the iniiabitants, assuring them 
they should be governed by laws of their own making, and would receive the 
most ample protection to person and property. Markham was authorized to 
-call together a Council nf nine, which met and organized August 3, from which 
time we may date tlie establishment of a civil government for Pennsylvania. 
There was very little interference in the established order of things and the 
people found a mild ruler in the Deput\- (Governor. The seat of government 
was fi.xed at Upland, the present Chester. The old court closed its session Sep- 
tember 13, and the new Court opened the next day. Among the business trans- 
acted was the appointment of William L'.iles and Robert Lucas, who lived at 
the falls. Justices of the Peace, and pounds, shillings and pence were declared 
to be the currency of the country. But it was difficult to get rid of the guilders 
after the\- had been so kmg in circulation. Cn November 20, the Deputy Gov- 
ernor sat upon the bench and administered justice for the first time. It does 
not appear that any immigrants accompanied him to Pennsylvania. 

iMarkhani was instructed by William Penn to select a site, and build for 
him a dwelling, and it was probably he who chose the spot whereon Pennsbury 
house was erected in Falls township. We can imagine him prospecting along 
the west bank of the Delaware for a suitable location for the home of the 
Proprietary that afterw ard became historical. We have no doubt he came over- 
land from Xew York, and possibly, as he traveled along the western bank of 
the Delaware, or sailed down its broad bosom from the falls, he was struck 
■with the extensive and fertile tract still known as "the manor,'' then covered 
"with a growth of giant timber, and returned thither to fix the site of Pennsbury 
house. To hasten the work on his arrival, he brought the frame with him and 
mechanics to put it together. 

September 30. i68r, William Penn appointed William Crispin, John 
Bergar and Christopher Allen, Commissioners, to go to Pennsylvania with 
power to purchase land of the Indians, and select a site for, and lay out, a 
great city. About the same time he appointed James Harrison his "lawful 
agent," to sell for him any parcel of land in Pennsylvania of not less than 250 
acres. Penn. in a letter of Septemljcr 4. iTiSi, gives the cinnlitions upon which 
land is to be sold, and the quantity, to each purchaser. Settlers were to receive 
fifty acres fiir each servant they took out, and 50 acres for each child. Those 
tori pour til Iniy could take up land at a rent of one penny an acre, 200 acres to 
each head of a family, and 30 acres to each servant at the same rent. The rent 
of poor servants was afterward reduced to one-half penny per acre. Penn 
agreed to buy the passage of those too poor to pay their own, but they must 
pay double rent. William Penn pledged himself that this rent should never 
■be raised, and it was not. 

It is current histrirv that Penn appriinted his cousin. WilHam Crisjiin,^ the 
first ."survexor-i ieneral nf iIk- Cnl-iuv. but no proof of this has been found, his 
onl\- known comniiss'on being fi t "Cnmmissioner." It is said the vessel he 
sailed in, was lilnwn off the Cape of DeLiware and carried to the West Indies 
-where he tlied. Ibiwever this may be. Captain Thomas Holme was appointed 



3 Capt. William Cri-ipiii inarriftl lir^t, 1650. Annie Jasper, dausjliter of John Jasper, a 
merchant of RiHtertlani, H'lllanil. ami a sifter iif Margaret Ja<;per, the Wife of .\ilniiral 
Penn, and nTither <>t WilUain Pi-i;n Si.iiie aiulinrities slate that John Ta^pir was a 
n.-iti\e i.f RoUcnhini. anil riiher.~ tliat he ua- an En^lishnian liy liirlli. Had Captain Crispin 
livr.l Penn inteii'led app. lui'.inv,' hini Chief Jii-tiee. 



HISTORV OP BUCKS COUNTY. 31 



I-,!- successor April iS, 1682. He was a native of Watert'ord, Ireland, and 
ulicii a youiiij man, hafl served in Admiral Penn's fleet in the West Indies. He 
\\a> accompanied to T'ennsslvania. liy his two sons and two daughters, Silas 
I'rispin. son of .his predecessor and John, eldest son of James Claypole. There 
In a dispute as to the time Captain Holme sailed. He resided in i'hiladelphia 
b;it owned land in P.ristol township, though it is not known he ever lived there. 
His two sons died in his life time, tlis daughter Esther married Silas^ Cris- 
pin. wJio came with him to America, and their daughter, Eleanor, became the 
ancestress of the Harts, of Warminster, the Davises of Southampton, iJlackfans, 
Houghs, and other county families in the female line 

Among the earliest acts of INlarkham and the Commissioners was the 
selection of a site for a great city resulting in the founding of Philadeljjhia. 
Tiiey were instructed by Penn to make careful soundings along the west side 
of the Delaware and creeks, to ascertain "where most ships may best ride, 
of deL])est draft of water." It is not known how far up the Delaware was ex- 
amined, but there is a tradition that Pennsbury, at one time, was selected as the 
site for the capital city, but it was finally fixed where it stands, between the 
Delaware and Schuylkill- We are told that within a few months Philadelphia 
contained eighty houses and cottages, and more than three hundred farms were 
laid out and partly cleared. In the summer, 1684, the city contained three 
lumdred and fifty-seven houses, many of them large and well-built, with cel- 
lars. In 1685 the houses had increased to six hundred. Within little more than 
two years from its settlement, ninety ships had arrived, bringing seven thousand 
two hundred passengers. Oldmi.xon says that in 1684 Philadelphia contained 
i\\(,> thousand five hundred inhabitatits.' 

Pefore I'enn left England, many persons had purchased land in I'enn- 
sylvania to whom deeds were given, the surve_\s to he made after their arrival. 
-Markham and the commissioners issued a number of warrants for the survey 
of land, which may be found by consulting the records. The oldest deeds on 
record in Bucks county are those of I'enn to Thomas Woolrich, of Shalford, 
county StatTord, ior one thousand acres, dated April i, iCiSi ; and from Penn 
to James Hill, of Peckington, county Somerset, shoemaker, dated July 27, 
H'Si, for five hundreil acres. In each case it is mentioned that the r|uit-rent 
i> one shilling per one hundred acres. It is not known that either of these pur- 
cliasers settled in this county.*'- 

.4 The ■following, on the subject of the location of Philadelphia, i5 from Watson's 
Annals: '■Samuel Preston says of his grandmother, that she said Phineas Pemherton 
-urveyed and laid out a town intended to have been Philadelphia up at Pennsbtiry, and 
'■iat tl-.e people who went there were dissatisfied with the change. On my expressing 
'I"Mtit> of this, thinking she might have confused the case of Chester removal, Mr. Preston 
vun further declared, that having nearl> forty years ago (.about 1786) occasion to hunt 
through the trunks of surveys of John Lukens. Surveyor General of Pennsylvania, he and 
I-'.'.kcns tlu-ii so:.' 3 gnnind plat for the city of Philadelphia, signed Phineas Pemberton, 
>i:r\ey.ir-General. that fully .appeared to have been in Pennsbury manor; also another 
lor tlie present town of Bristol, called P.uckingham." The theory of Samuel Preston is 
'■riMly overturned by tlie two facts, that Pemberton did iiot reach Pennsylvania until after 
l':nlailelphia was laid out, and tli.n he was never "Surveyor-General." 

4'j The deed of John Hart, ancestor of the author, in the female line, is a case in 
V '■ t. Penn executed a deed to liitn tor a thousand acres at Worminghurst, England, in 
1'''"^!, and after his arrival. ui<j. lie lo^-ated live hiuiilred in P.yberry. and the same in 
^\ arminsier township. Puck-- county. 'I'lu author has the deed. 



32 lUSrORV OF BUCKS COUXTY 



Several immigTanti arrived in ioS_>, previous to William Peun, and settlcJ 
in Bueks county. Am )tij:;; these were Richard Amor, Jiuckelbury, Berkshire: 
Henry rax.-;on, Bycot !iou.->e. jjarish ot Slow, county of Oxford. He embarked 
with his family, hut his wife, sun, and brother Thomas died at sea, and his 
daughter Elizabeth only survived to reach her father's m^w home on the Dela- 
ware. He Settled in iMiddletown, and married Margery i'lumle}' August 13, 
1684; Luke Brinsley, of Leek, county Stafford, mason, arrived September js. 
and settled in Falls. He was probably a servant of William Penn, for he was 
in his employ as "ranger;" John Clows, jr., Gosworth, county Chester, with his 
brother Jciseph, sister Sarah, who married John Bainbridge. 1685, and servant, 
Henry Lingart, and settled in Lower IMaketield. Clows died, 10S3. and Lingart 
soon after his arrival. Another immigrant, named Clows, arrived about this 
time bringing three children,' Margery, Rebecca and William, and servants 
Joseph Chorley, Daniel Hough and John Richardson. Clows married Mary 
Ackerman, August 2, 16S6; John Brock, or Brockman, Stockport, County Ches- 
ter, with two servants, one named Eliza Eaton, and followed by a third in an- 
other vessel, who settled in Lower IMakefield. tie was possibly the ancestor of 
the Erocl:s of Doylestown. One authority says he came from Braniall, Chester. 
He had two grants of land, one for one thousand acres, dated I\Iarch, 16S1. 
and another March 3, 16S1, the acres not mentioned; William Venables, Chat- 
hil. County Stafford, came with his wife Elizabeth, and children Joyce and 
Francis, settled in Falls and died December, 16S3; George Pownall and Eleanor 
his wife, Laycock, County Chester, farmer, with five children and three ser- 
vants, John Breasly, Robert Saxdor and }.Iartha Worral. Pownall ^\•as killed 
by the fall of a tree, the first accidental death known in the county, one month 
and two days after his arrival, and a son, George, was born twelve days after- 
ward. These and other immigrants came in the ships Sanuiel, and Frienils" 
Adventure. The servants, who accompanied them, were indentured to serve 
four years, and, at the end of the time, each was to receive his freedom and fifty 
acres of land — the condition of all indentured servants brought from England 
at that period. 

The settlement of \\t\w countries is governed by a law as well defined as 
that of commerce or finance. From the time the human family first went abroa<l 
to found colonics to the present day, civilization has traveled up the valleys of 
rivers and their tributaries, while the wealth, developed b>' labor and capital. 
has as invariably flowed down tliese same valleys to the sea. This law was ob- 
served by our ancestors. Planting themselves upon the Delaware tli^y grad- 
ually extended uj) its valley and the valleys of the Poqucssing. Pennypack and 
Ncshaminy and penetrated the interior. At the end of the second year after 
Penn's arrival, we find settlers scattered here and there through the wilderness 
as high up as Wrightstown. Warringtiju and L'pper ^Lakeficld. 

Bucks county was settled by three distinctly-marked races, whose peculiari- 
ties are seen in their descendants — the English, the German, and the Scotcli- 
Irish. A fourth race, the Welsh, followed tlie other three, and settled some 
portions of the middle and upper sections of the county. Init their descendants 
are not so distinctly marked. They were generally Baptists, and, while they 
did not introduce that worship into the county, they added largely to its coni- 
niunion and strength. This mi.xture of peoples gives our populatiiui a very 
composite character. The first to arrive were the English, mostly Friends, \\lio 
immediately preceded, came with, or followed William Penn. and settled in the 
lower parts of Chester, Philadelphia and Bucks. They were the fathers and 
founder.-, of the commonwealth, and have left their lasting impress upon our 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUXTY. 33 



society and laws. They were followed by tlie (jernians, who transferred the 
l.iiiguag'e and customs of the Rhine to the Sclniylkill, the upper Delaware and 
the Lehigh. They were of several denominations, the Lutherans, Reformed 
and Mennonites predominating. The Germans came close upon the hcelb of the 
English Friends, who had hardly seated themselves on the banks of the Dela- 
V, are before the language of Luther was heard on the Schuylkill. As early as 
iM>^_'-83 a few settled where Germantown stands, and to which they gave the 
name. They were followed by a number of German Friends, from Cresheim,^ 
near Worms, 16S6, having been convinced by William Ames. They came in 
considerable numbers soon after 1700. In the fall of 1705, two German agents 
came to view the land, and \\-ent pretty generally through the country, but re- 
turned without buying. In the winter of 1704-5, Penn writes to James Logan 
tliat he has an hundred German families preparing to go to Pennsj-lvania, which 
will buy thirty or forty thousand acres of land. In the summer of 1709 Penn 
announces to Logan the coming of the Palatines (Germans), and charges him 
t.j use them "with tenderness and care ;" saVs they are "a sober people, divers 
.Mennonites, and will neither swear nor fight" — a great recommendation with 
tlic founder. Tender and considerate William Penn I — he wants these strangers 
treated with tenderness and care when they come to their new" homes in the 
wilderness! Between 170S and 1720 thousands of Germans arrived from the 
I'alafinate. About 171 1 several thousand, who had immigrated to New York, 
left that Province and came to Pennsylvania because they were badly treated. 
.\fter this no Germans would settle there. In 1717 James Logan deprecates 
the great number oi Germans that are coming, which he says "gives the country 
sume vmeasiness." He writes, in 1714, that Sir ^\'illiam Keith, the governor, 
while at Albany, two years before, invited the New York Germans to come to 
I'ennsylvania to increase his political influence; fears they may be willing to 
usurp the country to themselves ; and four years later he is glad the influx of 
>trangers will attract the attention of Parliament. There may have been gen- 
uine fear on the ]iart of the authorities, which complained of tlie Germans as 
l"'Id and indigent, and seized upon the best vacant tracts of land without paying 
fur it. To cUscourage their coming here the Provincial Assembly laid a tax of 
~<i>. a liead on each newly arrived ser\ant. The grivcrnment had become so 
jealous of the Germans and other immigrants, not English, by this time, that 
all attempts at naturalization failed until 1724, under the administration of 
Giuvernor Keith. 

The third race to arrive was the Scotch-Irish, as they are generally called, 
but properly Scotch, and not the offsiiring of the marriage of Gael and Celt, 
riiey were almost exclusively Presbyterians, the immigration of the Catholic- 
Irish setting in at a later period. The Scotch-Irish began to arrive about 1716- 
i"'^- Timid James Logan had the same fear of these immigrants he had of the 
' 'vrnians. They came in such numbers, about 1729, he said it looked as if 
"Ireland is to send all her inhabitants to this Province," and feared they would 
make themselves masters of it. Fie charged them of possessing themselves of 
'■•'•e Conestoga manor "in an audacious and disorderly manner," 1730. The 20s. 
liead-tax laid the year before had no effect in restraining them, and the stream 
i!"\ved on in spite of unfriendly legislation. No wonder — it was an exodus from 
a laml of oppression V^ one of civil and religious liberty ! 

The Scotch-Irish have a history full of interest. In the sixteenth centur>' 
the Province of Ulster. Ireland, which had been nearly depopulated during the 

5 Tl-.L njime "Crcsheiiii" is spelled in twn, if not, tbrec, ways. 



34 HISTORY Of BUCKS COUXTV. 



Irish rebellions in the rei5;n of Elizabeth, was peopled by imniir;;rants from Scr.t 
land. The otter of land, and other inducenients. soon drew a large population 
distinguished for thrift and industry, across the narrow strait that separates 
the two countries. They were Presbyterians, and built their first church in 
County Antrim, 1613. The population was largely increased the next fifiv 
years under the persecutions of Charles II. and James II.. in their eltori 1} 
establish the church of England over Scotland. There has been but little inter- 
marriage between the Irish and those Scotch-Saxons, and the race is nearly a> 
distinct as tiie day it settled in Ireland. In the course of time persecution fcl- 
lowed these Scotch-Irish into the land of their exile, and, after bearing it a- 
long as it became men of spirit to bear, they resolved to seek new homes ii; 
America, where they hoped to find a free and open field for their industry aiii] 
skill, and where there would be no interference with their religious belief. 

Their immigration commenced the first quarter of the eighteenth century. 
six thousand arriving in 1729; and it is stated that for several years, prior V: 
the middle of the century, twelve thousand came annually. A thousand fair.- 
ilies sailed from Belfast in 1736, and it is estimated that twenty-five thousaii>; ; 
arrived between 1771 and 1773. Nearly the whole of them were Presbyterian.-. ; 
and settled in Pennsylvania. .Many of them came into Bucks coimty in ques; 
of homes, and, in a few years, w^e find them scattered over several section- 
from Xeshaminy to the mountains north of the Lehigh. They were the found- 
ers of all the old Presbyterian churches in the county. A\'c had no class of 
immigrants that excelled them in energy, enterprise and intelligence. 

A considerable number of Hollanders settled in the lower section of thv ' 
county in the first quarter of the eighteenth century, principally on the Xe- ' 
shaminy and its branches, but their descendants have quite lost their character- ; 
istics of race, in the hotch-potch of many peoples. These several races came t- 
the wilds of Pennsylvania for a two-fold object, to better their worldly con- 
dition, and for freedom to worship God. Religious persecution in Europe drove 
to the new world the bc-st immigrants that peopled this county. The Catholic- 
Irish, now found in large numbers in the county, began their migration at .'. 
much later period, altliough from the earliest time an occasional Irishman maac 
liis home in Penn's new Province. 

Before the arrival of Europeans, Bucks county was occupied, and the s"i' 
owned by Indians known as the Lenni Lenape, or original pcol^lc, who dwelt 
on both banks of the Delaware from its mouth to its source, and reaching t 
the Susquehanna in the interior. They were divided into a number of m-w ' 
tribes, sijcaking as many dialects of the same common language. The Engli^! ; 
called thent the Delaware Indians because they lived upon that river. Tli'" 
greater portion of those who lived within the jiresent limits of the county were 
known as Xeshaminies. probably from the name of one of our largest and nio-'- 
beautiful streams. The Lenni Lenapes originally came from the valley of tii'-" 
Mississippi, whence they were dri^■en by more powerful neighbors, and sougi''- 
a quiet home on the banks of the Delaware. Europeans found them a nr.l-: 
amiable and kindly-disposed people ; and. on their first arrival, the Indians as- 
sisteil to feed them, and in some instances, the early settlers would probabl;- 
have starved without the friendly help of their red neighbors. Gabriel Thoma-. 
in his early account of Pennsylvania, says of the Indians: — 

"The children are washed in cold water as soon as b(jrn. and to harder. 
them they are plunged into the river. They walk at about nine months. '1!'-' 
boys fish until ab^ut lifteen when they hunt, and if they have given proof <'. 
their manhood bv a large return (u' .skins. the\- are allowed to niarr\', usuallv • ' 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUXTY 



33 



about seventeen or eighteen. The girls stay with their mothers and help to hoe 
the ground, plant corn and bear burdens. They marry at about thirteen or 
fourteen. Their houses are made of mats or the bark of trees set upon pole'^ 
not higher than a man, with grass or reeds spread on the ground to lie upon 
They live chiefly on maize or Indian corn roasted in the ashes, sometimes beaten 
and boiled witli water, called hominy. They also eat beans and peas. The 
woods and river furnish the greater part of their provisions. Thev eat but 
two meals a day. morning and evening. They mourn a whole year, but it is 
no other than blacking their faces." Proud says : "The Indians along the 
Delaware, and the adjacent parts of Xew Jersey and Pennsylvania, so far as 
appears by the best accounts of the early settlement of the provinces, when 
clear of the elTects of the pernicious poison of strong liquor, and before thev 
had nnich imbibed, and, to their, unnatural depravity, added such European 
vices as before thev were strangers to, were naturallv, and in general, faithful 
and hospitable." ' *175514l' 

Before the settlements along theDelaware fell mto the hands of the Eng- 
lish, the Dutch authorities prohibited the selling of powder, shot and strong 
lifiuors to the Indians, under pain of death. Isaac Still'' was a celebrated Indian, 
of good education, and the leader of the last remnant of the Delaware tribe 
adjacent to Philadelphia. His only son, Joshua, was educated at Germantown. 
In 1771 Isaac Still moved up into Buckingham where he collected the scattered 
remains of his tribe, and in 1775, he, with 40 persons, started off to the ^\'abash. 
These were mostly females, the men having gone before. He is described as a 
fine-looking man." wearing a hat ornamented with feathers. The women 
inarched off in regular order, bareheaded, each with a large pack on her back 
fa>tened with large straps across the forehead. 

Among the prominent Indians, natives of the county, were Captain Har- 
''.son, born in Buckingham and intended for the Delaware chieftain, and Teedy- 
uscung, a man of superior natural abilities, who spoke English and could read 
and write. The bones of the great Tamany, the affable, are said to repose in 
the valley of the beautiful Xcshaminy. Captain Plarrison refused to leave his 
aged mother when she was seized with the small-pox, and he fell a victim to it. 
and was buried on the Indian tract. In 1690 there were several settlements of 
Indians in Buckingham and Solebury, on the Fell, Pownall and Streaper tracts. 
They were peaceably inclined and sometimes supplied the settlers with meats 
and vegetables. Their children and those of the whites played together. On 
tlie farm of the late Henry Beans, Buckingham, is a spring that still bears the 
name of "Indian Spring," from the fact that Indians encamped about it many 
\ears after the country was well settled. Peg Tuckemony, who lived on the 
.^!ri-et road above Sand's corner, and employed herself making baskets, is said 
to have been the last of her race in Buckingham. She is remembered by the 
present generation, and she made a school basket for the late Simon Meredith, 
Doylestown. when a school-bov. Isaiah, her husband, died about 1830. 



6 In 1679 the following Fi-dian chiefs were living along the Delaware from Cold 
Spring up to about Taylo'rsville: Mapierakickan, Anrichtan, Sackoqnewano, and Xan- 
neekos. 

7 Samuel Pre>toii. 



CHAPTER IV 



PEXX SAILS 1-OR HIS NEW COLONY. 



1G82. 



Pent! sai'= for .Pennsylvania. — ArrivL\s at Xew Castle. — Meets the inhabitants. — Visits 
Philadelphia. — The Fir.-t Assemhly ^oes to New York. — The Welcome passengers, 
John Rowland, Thomas Fitzwater. William Buckman, Nicholas Wain, John Gilbert. 
Joseph Kirkbride. — Condition of the country. — First purchase from the Indians. — 
Penn buys more land. — Treaty of i6S6. — The Walking Purchase. — Tamany. — Lands 
Granted. — The Great Law. — I'oinilatinn nn Penn's arrival. — Assemlily of 1683. — Seal 
of Bucks county. — House of Correction. — The county court. — Sumptuary Laws. — 
Marking cattle. — Ear marks. — Ov.ni.r5 cf cattle in Bucks county, 1684. 

William Penn embarked fcr Pennsylvania in the \\'elconie. the Quaker 
Maxliuwer, of 300 tons, Robert (.".reeiiway, master. September i, 16S3. He was 
accomiianied by 100 immisjrant.s, mostly Friends. They had a long and tedious 
passaqe and their suffering was aggravated by the smallpox breaking out. 01 
which 30 passengers died. Penn was assiduous in his attention to the sick. 
and greatly endeared liimselt to all. The vessel entered the Capes of Delaware 
(Jctobcr J4 : arrived before Xcw Castle the 27th. wlien l^enn received possession 
of the country and stibmission of the inhabitants, lie was at Upland the 2ytli 
and from there sent word to some of the leading inhabitants to meet him at 
Xew Castle on Xovember 2, to settle the question of jurisdiction and other mat- 
ters. At this meeting he took occasion to address the people, explaining the 
nattire of his grant, etc. He desired them to bring, at tlie next court, their 
patents, surveys, grants and claim >. to have tlicm adjusted and confirmed. C>n 
Xovember 2. Penn visited Philadeliihia. with a number of Friends, to attend 
Quarterly Meeting. Traditi.on tells iis he came np the river in a boat and 
landed at the mouth of Dock creek, near a building then being erected, and 
afterwanl known as the "I'liie .Anchor Tavern." He convened an .\ssembly 
at L'pland. the 4th (-if December, at which were (iresent from P.ucks county. 
Christopher Taylor. (^rlBrih Joiu-s and William Vardley. It continued in ses- 
sion four days, passing about one hundred laws nt pressing importance, in- 
cluding the act of I'ninii which imitcd the territories nf Xcw Castle and Kent 
to Peniisyhania. .An election was ordered for the 20th of February, 16S2.' 



I Old style. 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUXTY 



for members of Council and Assembly, to meet at Philadelphia the loth of I\Iarcli 
following. In the proclamation, addressed to "Richard Noble- high sheriff of 
the county of Bucks,^ he was required to "summon all the freeholders of thy 
bailiwick to meet at the falls upon Delaware river" ;■* when William Biles, 
Christopher Taylor, and James Harrison were elected to the Council, and Wil- 
liam Yardley, Samuel Darke. Robert Lucas, Xicholas Walne, John Wood, John 
Clows, Thomas Fitzwater, Robert Hall, and James Boyden, to the Assembly, 
whose names are signed to the Great Charter.^ 

After giving some directions about the building of Philadelphia, we next 
find William Penn making a visit to New York. We know nothing of his jour- 
nev, but no doubt he took the overland route, going up the river in a boat, to 
the falls, stopping on the way at Burlington to visit the Friends' settlement, 
and view the site Alarkham had already selected, and upon which he was erect- 
ing his manor house, and thence on horseback across New Jersey to Elizabeth- 
town Point, where he took boat for New York. This was probably the first 
time the great founder set foot in Bucks county. 

Of the one hundred immigrants the Welcome brought to the wilderness 
west of the Delaware, the heads of families were generally persons of standing 
and intelligence. About one-half of all who arrived with Penn settled in this 
county, and their descendants are found here to this day, many of them bearing 
the same names and some living on the ancestral homesteads. Of the Welcome 
passengers who settled in Bucks, we are able to name the following : 

Thomas Rowland, Billinghurst, Sussex, husbandman, with his wife Pris- 
cilla, and servant Hannah ^vlogeridge, who settled in Falls and died 1705. 
John Rowdand, a brother, came at the same time ; 

Thomas Fitzwatcr, Hanworth, county of ^Middlesex, near Hampton Court, 
husbandman, with sons Thomas and George, and servants John and Henry. 
His wife and two children died at sea, on the passage. He was a member from 
Bucks, of the first Assembly, and died 1699; 

William Buckman, parish of Billingsliurst, Sussex, carpenter, with Hilary 
his wife, and children Sarah and Alary. He patented three hundred acres in 
tiie lower part of Northampton township, 16S6, which he sold to John Shaw, 
and bought a tract in Nev.'town. on the Neshaminy, of Robert Webb, 1695, and 
died diere. Fie was the ancestor of the Buckmans still living in Newtown. The 
'ic^cendants of ^^'iIliam Buckman are supposed to number two thousand souls. 
Jacob Buckman, ^^•ho died near Aloorestown, N. J., 1S69, was lineally de- 
scended in the seventh generation ; 

Cuthbert Hayhurst, Easington, Yorkshire, with his wife and four clul- 
dren, wdio took up a tract of five hundred acres near Rocksville, Northampton 
township, the farm of the late Alordecai Carter being part of it. He was a 
Friend and belonged to Middletown meeting, dying Alarch 5, 16S3, at the age 
of fifty. He was one of the earliest Friends in his native county, and was ini- 
prisrined, 1654-1666, and at other times. His daughter Alary married William 
Carter ; 

2 First sheriff of the- cmir.ty. 

3 By namiiig lliis cnunty "Bucks"' in the first proclamation William Penn issued 
sfter his arrival, it wnuhl seem lie had lixcc! upnn tlic name, pnssilily before leaving 
Knffland. 

4 The first election held in the county. 

5 It was drawn by James Harrison and Thomas Fitzwater, both Bucks county men. 



38 HISTORY OF DUCKS COUNTY. 



Richard Ingals, or Ingols, settled in Wa.shington, but we hear nothing 
UtrthiT of him ; 

Thomas Walmsly, with Ehzabeth his wife, Yorkshire, settled in North- 
ampton, where he died soon after his arrival. He had bought land before leav- 
ing England, and brought with him irnn^, and other articles, to be used in the 
erection of a mill. His wi(lo\s- married Juhii Purslone ; and his eldest sou, 
Thomas. Mary, daughter of W'illiaui Jr'axson, and settled in Bensalem, lOgS. 
The youngest son married Marv Searl. i()99. and settled in Southampton: 

Nicholas W'alne. with wife aiul three children, of Yorkshire, settled in 
Middletown, but owned land in Northampton. He became prominent in our 
history ; was a member of the first and subsequent Assemblies, and died Au- 
gust, 1721. He has numerous descendants in Philadelphia: 

Thomas \\'rigglesworth and wife. Yorkshire. He died, 1686: 

Thomas Croasclale, wife and six children, and Thomas Stackhouse and 
wife, Yorkshire, who settled in .Middletown, and Ellen Cowgill and children 
from Yorkshire ; 

John Gilbert came. 16S2. and is thought to have been a Welcome [ias- 
senger. although his name is ni_>t on the list examined by tlie author. He settled 
in Bensalem, but removed shortly to Philadelphia, where he became a prominent 
merchant, and died, 171 1. The name of Thomas Gillett'''= is on the list of \\'el- 
come passengers, but it is possible the Bensalem settler should be Thomas in- 
stead of John. James Claypole, a relative of Oliver Cromwell, through his 
daughter, who married Lord General Claypole, purchased land in this count}', 
but never lived here. He became a merchant of Philadelphia, and was a part- 
ner in the Free Society of Traders. He was accompanied by his daughter. 

Among the Welcome jjassengcrs was Joseph Kirkbride," a youth of nine- 
teen, son of Mahlon and Magdalene, of the quaint little town of the same name. 
Cumberland. One account sa_\s he arrived in the John and Sarah, 16S1, lea\-- 
ing England in August. The family records state that he came in the Wcl- 
come. He ran away from his master, and started for the new world with a 
little wallet of clothing auil a tiail. He was first employed at Pennsbury, but 
soon removed to \\ est Jersey. He married Phebe, daugliter of Randall Black- 
shaw, March 14th, 108S, and at her death. Sarah, daughter of Mahlon Stacy, 
December 17th, 1702: she died in three years, leaving a son, Mahlon. and tun 
daughters, who married .\bel Janney and Reuben Pownall. Joseph Kirkbride 
lived to become an influential an<l wealthy man, and leading minister ami.ing 
Friends: was a magistrate and member of Assemblv. He went to England, 
1699, returning 1701, visiting lii^ oM master in Cumberland and paying him 
for the services he had deprived him nf, seventeen vears before. He died, 1738. 
at the age of seventy-five. Fr'>ni his sou Mahinn have descended all that bear 
his name in this county, and u'.any elsewhere, and a numerous posteritv in tl'.e 
female line. He married Mary, ilaughter if John and Mary Sotcher, favorite 
servants of William I'enti. at the age ni twenty-one, and settled in Lower Make- 
field, where he Iniilt a stone mansion tliat stood until 1855, when torn down 
by a grandson of the same nan:e. Colonel Josepli Kirkbride, who lived opposite 
r.orflento\\ n. .■uid w.'i- prouuniiit in the count\' during the Revolutionary 
struggle, was a grand-on of the first Jo.-(.ph. and son of the Joseph who 

5' J This n.iiiK- i^ |).'v^i!i!y ii);---](elli •!. 

6 A J. <^\>\\ KirklTiiIc c:i!i!c i;i tin- iW\<>,\ F.ivtnr. landing it.s passengers in tl.c 
Dtlauari.-, 10 nn)., II, Hj."^!. 



HISTORY or BCX'KS COUXTV. 39 



ir^arrii-d Sarah Fletcher, Abington, 1724. The Liritish burnt Colonel Kirk- 
|..iile's mansion. 1771^-' Mahlon Kirkl)ri(le, Lower .Makefiekl. had in his pos- 
-;'^<i>>n, and which came from the I'enns throusjh the Scotchers. a brass candle- 
vuck, an oaken chest, and the remains of Letilia Penn's cradle, in which most 
(,! the voung Kirkbrides were rocked. Probably other Welcome passengers 
-■.ttlcd in this county, but in the absence of a list entirely correct, it is impos- 
-'lilc h> say who they were.'* 

(Jnr readers must not lose sight of the actual condition of the country when 
IVun and his immigrant Friends planted themselves on the Delaware. If we 
exce]5t the clearing of an occasional Dutchman, or Swede, or the few English 
>e;t!ers who had prcceiled the founder, what is now a cultivated and pleasing 
landscape, was then an unbroken wiklerness. The river swarmed \vith fish of 



LETITI.4 HCNN S CRADLE. 



exrollent flavor, and the forest was filled with game of various kinds and much 
will! fruit, while the Indians roamed unrestrained. These exiles, from com- 
I'Tiable English liomes. sat down in the w<:iods seeking the friendly shelter of 
a tree, a cave, or otherwise as best they could until a rude cabm could be built; 
ami wild game and native corn, both the gift of the red man. often fed them 
and their family until trees were felled and crops raised. Those who located 
near streams had a never-failing supply of fish. Mills were rare and at a dis- 

7 As early as 171S tlie a>seniMy o-tablislicd a forry at Kirkbride's laiidiiii;, which 
wa^ afterward known as llordi-ntown ferry. 

t^ The first settlers hrou.qht with them certihcatcs of good character from the meet- 
iniTs they belonged to. which, with the names of their parents, children and servants, 
the vessel they came in, and the time of their arrival, were entered in a book kept for 
'he purpose by Phinea.s Pemlierton. clerk of the court. .XinoiiK the early settlers there 
is observed an almost entire absence of middle names. They had not yet come into use. 



HISTORY Of BUCKS COUXTV 



tance, and some even carried grain on their back to the Schuylkill.'-' The coun- 
try was without roads, and those who traveled followed bridle paths throng'.; 
the woods, or in canoes along riie streams. Life was a stern, hard struggle, the 
present generation, living in at'lluence and plenty, cannot realize. At tirst thcv 
were without plows, using hoes instead, to break up the ground. In 16S7 the 
crops failed on both sides of the river, and the settlers were put to great stre.-s 
for food, some living on herbs iniiil their necessities were relieved by the arrivr;! 
of a vessel with corn from Xew England. Wild pigeons were in such abun- 
dance they furnished a supply of food, on several occasions, when other source- 
failed. 

William Penn was very favorably impressed with the Swedes he foun'i 
inhabiting the Delaware and its tributaries, and wrote to England flattering 
accounts of their treatment of himself and the English colonists. He say; 
they were principally given to husbandry, but had made a little progress in the 
propagation of fruit trees ; they were comely and strong of body ; had fine chil- 
dren and plenty of them : and he sees "few young men more sober and indus- 
trious." Some have contended there was a "Swede's line," running from Up- 
land through Philaf'elphia and part of Bucks, half a rnile from the Delaware, 
marking the western boundary of land the Duke of York confirmed to tb.e 
Swedes, and wliich Penn reconfirmed. Penn recognized every grant by the 
Duke of York, but we have not been able to discover any evidence of a con- 
tinuous line that bore this name. Wherever .mention is made of the "Swede's 
line," has reference only to the line of the land owned by one of that race, or. 
as we might say, the "Dutchman's line," or the "Englishman's line."' It wa; 
merely local to those places where the Swedes owned land that joined the lau'I 
of other settlers. Holme's map sliows no such line, nor have we ever met with 
-4t except when mentioned in an occasional old deed. 

The virgin Pennsylvania must have impressed W'illiam Penn as a most 
charming land when he arrived upon its shores. 16S2. Daniel Pastorious write> 
that Penn found the air so perfumed, it seemed to him like an orchard in full 
bloom ; that the trees and shrubs were everywhere covered with leaves, and 
filled with birds, which, by their beautiful colors and delightful notes pro- 
claimed the praise of their Creator. A few years later Erik Biork concludes a 
letter by saying the countrv mav justlv be called "the land of Canaan." Wliile 
William Penn's impressions of his new Province were not so highly wrought, 
they were equally significant. PTc is particular in his description of the fislic-- 
in the Delaware, and their excellence and abundance, stating that si.x thousanii 
shad were taken at one draught, and sold at the doors of the settlers for a hali 
pence eacli : and ovsters two shillings per bushel. If to these accounts be added 
that of Gabriel TlV.mas. who arrived in 1681, in the first vessel after the pur- 
chase, and the letter of Mahlon Stacy, written 16S0, the most credulous will be 
satisfied that Penn's new Province was a most charming country. 

It was William Penn's policv, from the beginning, to extinguish the Indini'. 
title to his grant of Pennsylvania hv jnirchase." The price was insignificant 
when we consider the value of the land, nevertheless it was such as was paid 



9 It is tho;!5l;t liad it not lieop. for the Swedes an.l Hollanders, wl'.o preccdul 
William Penn and his immicrants. some of whom had considerable farms, it would h.ive 
been ditticult for tlie t'.rst comers to subsist at all. The Friends owed much to them. 
who were the true pioneers. 

10 Cha'-les P. Kriih. in a "Syn'opsis of Pennsylvania History," published in the 
October, 1000. number of "The Pennsylvania Magazine of History," says that "Henry Conip- 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUXTY. 41 



at tliat day. Although he had no authority, WiUiam ^larkham made the first 
purchase of what is Bucks county, July 15, 1682, three months and a half be- 
fore Penn's arrival, for which he paid a little wampum, a few blankets, guns, 
ki:ttlc>. beads, fish-hooks, etc. This tract had the following metes and bounds : 

"ijeginning at a white-oak, on the land now in the tenure of John Wood, 
and by him called the Graystones, over against the falls of Delaware river, and 
from thence up the river side to a corner spruce tree, marked with the letter P. 
at the foot of the mountains, and from the said tree, along by the ledge or foot 
of the mountain west, southwest, to a corner white-oak marked with the letter 
P. standing by the Indian path, that leads to an Indian town called Plawicky,'' 
and near the head of a creek called Towsissink or Towisinick, and from thence 
westward to the creek called Xeshamineh, at the high rocks ; and along by the 
said Xeshamineh to the river Delaware, alias }vIakerickhickon (or }vlakerish- 
kitton), and so baunded by the said river, to the first-mentioned white-oak, in 
John '\\'ood's land, with the several islands in the river," etc.'- 

These boundaries are well defined by nature, and easily traced. The place 
of starting was the riverside at 3.Iorrisvi'lle, where John Wood owned land and 
lived ; the tree at "the foot of the mountain," which marked the first corner, 
stood 104 perches above the mouth of Knowle's creek, which runs through 
Upper Z^Iakefield and empties into the Delaware below Brownsburg. The 
"mountain" followed in a southwesterly direction was the rocky ridge, now 
called Jericho hill, which extends nearly across Upper ^^lakefield in a general 
southwest direction. When the course leaves the "mountain" it diverges to 
the westward, and runs in nearly a straight line to a corner white oak that 
stood on the land late of Moses Hampton, near the head of a creek about three- 
fourths of a mile northeast of \\'rightstown meeting house.''^ "Towsissink" 
creek is a branch of the Lahaska, crossing the Pineville turnpike a little below 
the .\nchor tavern. From the white oak the line runs west to the high rocks 
on Xeshaminy, about half a mile below Chain bridge, crossing the Durhim 
road near where it is intersected by the road from Pennsville. This purchase 
included all of the townships of ISristol, Falls. :\Iiddletown, Lower, and the 
greater part of Upper Makefield, Xewtown, and a small portion of Wrights- 
town, the line running about half a mile from its southern boundary. 

The next purchase of lands in this county was made by Penn in person, the 
2,v! of June, 16S3, when the chiefs Esscpenaike, Swampoes, Okkettarickon 
and Wessapoak. for themselves their heirs and assigns, conveyed to him all 
their lands, "lying between Pemmapecka" and Xeshamineh creeks, and all 
along upon Xeshemineh'^ creeks, and backwards of the same, and to run two 
days journey with a horse up into the country." The same day the chief 
Tainanen^"^ and }vletamequan released to Penn and his heirs the same territor>', 

ton, Bishop of LoiuJon, advised IV-nii to I.uy the country of tlio Indians like the Dutch and 
S-,vcdes." 

11 The exact location of the Indian town of "Plawicky" has not been defi- 
ne:. ly fixed. Dr. Smith, in his notes on Wrightstown, says that tradition has located its 
^;'.e on the land of Thomas Smith in that township, on the north side of the pubhc road 
near the residence of Jsaac Lacy, and above the line of the purchase. Here are two larjre 
and never-failing springs, and numerous Indian relics found in the neighliorliood tend to 
C'liitlrin the tradition. 

12 Tlic islands mentioned in this purchase are Mattiniconk. Sapassinck and Oreskows. 
T.? Dr. Charles W. Smith. 

i-l I'ennypiick. 15 Xeshaminy. 16 St. Tamany. 



42 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUNTY. 



omitting tlie two days jouriic}-, but July 5, 1697, they confirmed this grant, 
including the "two days jouino}." The latter deed was acknowledged in open 
court at I'hikidelphia. This purchase included the townships of Bensalcni, 
North and Southampton, Warminster, Warrington, and all west of the ma;ii 
branch of the Xeshaminy. The purchase by Thomas Holme, 1685, did not em- 
brace anv part of Bucks county, but probably touched us on the southwestern 
border after leaving the I'ennypack, up which the line ran from the Delaware. 

It is alleged that a treaty was made with the Indians August 30, 1686, sai^l 
to be the foimdation for the "Walking Purchase," but such treaty or deed has 
never been found. By it, it is said the Indians conveyed to Penn : — 

"All those lands lying and being in the Province of Pennsylvania, begin- 
ning upon a line formerly laid out from a corner spruce tree, by the river 
Delaware, and from thence running along the ledge or the foot of the mountain- 
west northwest (west southwest) to a corner white oak marked with the letter 
P. standing by the Indian path that leadeth to an Indian town called Play- 
wikey, and from thence extended westward to Xeshaminy creek, from which 
said line, the said tract or tracts thereby granted doth extend itself back into 
the woods, as far as a man can j^o in one day and a half, and bounded on the 
westerly side with the creek called Xeshaminy, or the most westerly branch 
thereof, and from thence by a line to the utmost extent of said creek one day 
and a half's journey to the aforesaid river Delaware, and thence down the sev- 
eral courses of the said river to the first mentioned spruce tree." 

The Walking Purchase treaty was begun at Durham, 1734, where John 
and Thomas Penn met two of the Delaware chiefs, but nothing was done and 
they adjourned to meet at Pennsbury in May, 1735." Here several other Dela- 
^yare cliiefs met the Proprietaries — but nothing conclusive was arrived at. 
In August, 1737, the negotiations were resumed at Philadelphia, and on the 
25th and 26th was concluded what is known as the \\'alk!ng Purchase treaty, 
about w^hich there has been so much controversy, and which, afterward gave 
great dissatisfaction to the Indians. This treaty confirms and ratifies the terms 
of tiiat of August, 16S6, and provides for the walk to be made by persons ap- 
pointed for the purpose. The treaty was executed by four chiefs, and witnessed 
by twelve Indians and several whites. The purchases made under these various 
treaties included the present territory of Bucks county, with a greater part of 
that within its ancient limits. One -of the signers to the Walking Purchase 
was Lappawinsoe, whose portrart hangs in the room of the Historical Society 
of Pennsylvania, painted in this State in 1737, and presented by Granville John 
Penn. Logan speaks of him, 1741, as "an honest old Indian." He was classed 
among the chiefs at the Forks of the Delaware, and Hackewelder says his 
name means "he is gone away gathering corn, nuts or anything eatable." 

The traditional account that Janney gives in his life of Penn, that the 
Proprietary, accomjianied bv some of his friends, began to walk out a purchase 
that was to extend up the Delaware "as far as a man could walk in three da\s ; 
that when they rcaclied a spruce tree in a day and a half, near the mouth oi 
Baker's creek, Penn concluded he would want no more land at present, ami 

17 Under date of 26th, 2d 111. >.. 17.?;, Steel writer tn Xathan W.atson, "tliat lie \v.'i.> 
disappointed tii.Tt be had not already hmi.tilu two tat eattle and some gnoj sheep." I'or 
the Indians to a;'ienil>le at tlic tre.ity at Pennslniry — and advises tliat he now sends him. 
by William Smith, "thirty pounds to buy two good midlin' fat cat:le. a score of gorrd tat 
wether sheep, and some ewes and lamhs," and direct him to send them to Pennslmry 
before the fifth dav of next month. 




HISTOrs^y OF BUCKS COUXTV. 43 



rni a line from thence to the Xeshaminy : that they walked leisurely, after the 
liiJian manner, sitting- down sometimes to smoke their pipes, to eat biscuit and 
iKi--e, and drink a liottle of wine, is a pure myth, havint;- no foundatiun in fact. 
We present two autographs of the great 
Tamanen. or Tamany, which gives ns some 
idea of the chirograph \' of one of our lead- 
ing aboriginal ciiicflriins. The first was 
made in 1(183, '*"'■' '* the chief's signature to 
the treaty of June 23, which I'enn negotiated 
{•>r the purchase of the land between the Pennypack 
anil Xeshaminy. The second is attached to the treaty 
of Tune 15, 1692. In the meantime probably the 
chieftain had changed his writing master, and had 
been taught a more modern signature. 

Bv virtue of the Royal Charter, Penn and his heirs were the absolute lords 
■ ■I the soil, after the Indian title was extinguished, and the officers of the land 
office were his agents. Large quantities of land were disposed of before he 
left England, to be surveyed afterward. One hundred pounds were paid for a 
ii;!l share, of five thousand acres, and 50s. quit-rent, which entitled the holder 
t' < one hundred acres in the city plat. Those who could settle si.K families were 
1- get their land for nothing. In the conditions agreed upon, between Penn and 
the original purchasers, July 11, 1681, it was stipulated "that in clearing the 
trround care should be taken to leave one acre of trees for every five acres 
I'icared, especially to preserve mulberry and oak for silk and shipping." Before 
ifix) the usual method of granting land was by lease and re-lease, and the 
riiit, generally, was a penny sterling per acre. The patent was to be issued 
when the purchase money was paid. The price of land increased as the country 
became more settled, and the quit-rents were slightly raised. 

Technically speaking, there were never any manors in Pennsylvania, tliis 
name being given to the tenths set off for the Proprietary, and other large 
-nrveys made for his use. There was never any attempt to enforce the customs 
'■i manorial courts, which would hardly have been tolerated by the court or 
the settlers. 

Penii's Great Law of 1682 abolished the English law of primogeniture, 
and allowed the real estate of an intestate to be divided among all his children; 
aiul authorized the right of disposing of real estate by will, attested by two wit- 
nesses. But over and above all the other blessings of civil government that 
William Penn established west of the Delaware, was the absolute freedom to 
''\"rship God, which stands out in marked contrast with the policy of the Puri- 
tan fathers. In the Great Law. was the following declaration : "Nor shall he 
' r she at any time be compelled to frequent or maintain any religious worship, 
r'ace. or ministrv whatsoever, contrary to his or her mind, but shall freely and 
Hilly enjoy his or her Christian liberty in that respect, without any interruption 
'•r refiection." 

The population on the Delaware, at Penn's arrival, mostly Dutch and 
.Swedes, and a few Finns, was estimated at three thousand. It rapidly increased. 
In all of 1682, twenty-three ships arrived, loaded with immigrants, and before 
'he end of the next year, over fiftv vessels came freighted with passengers. By 
'bis time, societies were formed at Frankfort-on-the-Main. Louisberg, Bremen, 
I-'ibec. and other places in Germany, to open trade and send immigrants to Pcnn- 
^'•Ivnnia. The guiding spirit of this movement was Pastorius, of the free city 
"I \V'indsheini, who brought over a number of German immigrants, in October, 



44 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUNTY. 



1683, and settled them at Germantown. The full fruits of the German mo\c- 
ment will be seen in subsequent chapters. 

The legislative branch of the new government was to consist of two hou.-t- 
both elective by the people, the upper one of three members from each count.. 
and the lower of six. Penn said to the settlers, "you shall be governed by jaw . 
of your own making, and live a free, and, if you will, a sober and industrior, 
people." 

At the first provincial assembly held at Philadelphia, in March, 16S3, a 
number of acts were passed necessary to put Peim's government in operaiij-;. 
The country was divided into three counties, Pliiladelphia, Bucks and Chcsur. 
and their boundaries lixed, those of Bucks beginning "at ye river Delaware, ri: 
Poaquesson creek, and so to take in the Easterly side thereof, together with ye 
townships of Southanipton and W'arminster, and thence backwards." Tlio 
county was not called Bucks until some time after its boundaries were estab- 
lished. In a letter to the Free Society of Traders, written August 6th, 16S3. 
six months after it had been formed, William Penn calls it "Buckingham." 
The name "Bucks" probably gradually grew into use in contradistinction t^ 
Buckingham. The boundary between Bucks and Philadelpliia, which then in- 
cluded Montgomery, was about the same as we now find it. On the 23d ui 
^larch the Council ordered that the seal of Buck- 
County be a "Tree and Mne." A house of correc- 
tion was ordered for each county, 24x16 feet, thai 
for Bucks being located at Bristol. The poor, who 
received relief from the county with their familie>. 
were obliged to wear the letter P. made of red or 
blue cloth, with the first letter of the name of the 
place they inhabited, in a conspicuous place upr.n 
the shoulder of the right sleeve. In that day. it 
seems the unfortunate poor had no rights the au- 
thorities were bound to respect. At the same ses- 
sion several sumptuary laws were passed, fore- 
shadowing the desire of the new Commonwealth t" 
regulate personal matters between men. The countv court was authorized t" 
fix a price on linen and woolen cloth: justices were to regulate wages of ser- 
vants and wnnien ; a meal of victuals was fixed at seven pence half-penny, aii'l 
beer at a penny a quart ; the price of flax was fixed at Sd. per pound, and hcii'i' 
at 5d. By act of i6'^4, flax, liemp, linen and woolen, the product of the count}, 
were received in i:ia\ment of debts. Each settler of three years was to sow .1 
bushel of barley, and persons were to be punished who put water in rum. 

Marking cattle was a subject that early engaged the attention of the ne-.'. 
law-makers west of the Delaware. Ear marks of cattle were recorded in Uplar.l 
court as early as June, 1681, before the arrival of William 3,[arkham. As then 
were but few enclosures, and the cattle were turned loose to graze in the wood-. 
it was necessary each owner should have a mark, to distinguish his own iv<xv 
his neighbor's. The law obliged every owner to have a distinctive mark, an I 
the alteration by anotlier was a ptmishable oft'ence. These marks were entere;. 
in a book kept for the purpose in the RcL;-ister's office. In this county Phineas 
Pemberton. the Register, prepared a book''' and entered therein the ear an! 
brand marks of the early settlers. The registr\- was begun in 1684, and ali 




BUCKS COUN'TY SEAL. 



18 Thi.s ciiriou:; old record lieli.nging to tlie Register's office, Doylcstowii. hns ht 
deposited in the Pennsylvania Historical Society for snfe keeping. 



HISTORY or BUCKS COUNTY. 



45 



aro :ii his hand writing but the last one, and all but a few were entered that 
M-ar. It contains the names of one hundred and five owners of cattle in Bucks 
c>>niitv. The first entered is that of Mr. Pembcrton, and reads, "The marks of 
!i;v cattle P. P. the lo, 6-mo., 16S4." Among others is the entry of the earmarks 
. : William Penn's cattle, as follows: 

•■William Penn Proprietary and gounir of Pennsilvania And Territorys 
1 hereunto belonging." 



"His Earmarke 

Cropped on both 

Eares." 




"His Brandmarke W p* 
on the nearror 
Sholder." p> Q- 



Delow there is the following entry: 

".Vtt the fall of the yeare 1684 there came a long- 
b'dyed large young bb cow with this earcmarke. She was 
very wild, and, being a stranger, after publication, none 
i.wning her, James Harrison, att tlie request of Luke Erind- 
!ry. the Rainger. wintered her, and upon the 23d day of the 
7tli month, 16S5, sd cow was slaughtered and divided, two 
tliirds to the Gournr, and one third to the Rainger, after 
James Harrison had had 60 lbs of her beef, for the wintering 
■ 1! her att jof." (10 shillings sterling.) In only one in- 
-t.ince is the number of cattle owned by a settler stated in the record, that of 
i'l'iiieas Pemberton ; "one heifer, one old mare, one bay mare, one horse some- 
v.liat blind, one geld:r.g, one red cow." 

We insert the following engravings of earmarks as fair samples of the 
uhole number, and belon^.r.g to families now well known in the county. 





.\.\TUu.N'V CURTOX. 






WILLI.\M YARDLEV. 



HEXRY P.\XSON. 




'.I.\S STACKHOUSE. 



JOHX E.-\STBOURN. 



46 



HISTORY Of BUCKS COUNTY. 



The following arc the names of the owners of cattle in Bucks county, io^^4. 
accor'linf; to the entr\ in the ori,L,Mnal record : Phineas Peniberton, John Ack. r- 
maii. Thomas Atkinson, Samuel Allen, William Ijiles, Nicholas Walne, Thonia, 
Brock, (.j. Wheeler, Joshua i;(.)are, Daniel Brinson, James Boyden, Jerenii;:!; 
Langhorne, John Brock, Randall Blackshaw. H. Baker, (jeorge Brown, Lyoiicl 
Brilton, Edmund Bonnet, Charles Brigham, Job Bunting, Walter Bridgnian. 
William Brian, Henry Bircham, William Buckman, Anthony Burton,' SteplKr, 
Beaks, Charles Biles, William Biles, Jr., Abraham Cox, Arthur Cook, Philii. 
Conway, Robert Carter, Thomas Coverdell, John Cowgill. John Coatesi Ed- 
mund Cutler, William Crosdell. John Crosdell, Edward Doyal. Thomas Duii- 
gan, William Dungan, Samuel Dark, William Dark. Thomas Dickerson, An- 
drew Eliot, Joseph English. John Eastbourn, Joseph Ffarror, Dan. Gardner, 
Joseph Growdcn, John Green, Joshua Htxips, Thomas Green, Robert Lucas. 
Kdmund Lovet, Giles Lucas, John Lee. Richard Lundy, James ]\Ioone, Henry 
Margerum, Joseph .Milncr, Hugh ALarsh, Ralph Milner, John Otter. Johr. 
Palmer, Henry Paxson, William Paxson, James Paxson. Ellenor Pownal. John 
Pursland,'" or John Penquoit. Henry Pointer, Richard Ridgway. Francis Ros- 
scll, Thomas Rowland, John Rowland, Thomas Royes or Rogh, Edward Stan- 
ton, \\'illiam Sanford, Thomas Stakehouse, Henry Siddal. Jonathan Scaife. 
Thomas Stakehouse, Jr.. John Smith, Stephen Sands, William Smith. John 
Swift, Thomas Tuncclif. Israel Taylor, John Town, Gilbert Wheeler, Shad- 
rack Wallcy, John Webster, William Wood. John Wood. Abraham Wharley. 
Peter Worral. Thomas Williams, William Yardley, Richard Wilson, John 
Clark, William Duncan. David Davids. William Penn and John Wharton. 



19 Probably Purslonc or Purslaiid, afterward changed to Puree! and Pursel. 



CHAPTER V. 



SOME ACCOUXT OF EARLY SETTLERS. 



1682 TO 1683. 



Holme's map. — Townships seated. — Some account of settlers that followed Penn. — Ann 
ililcomb. John Haycock, Henry Marjorum, William Beaks, Andrew Eliot. Thotna^ 
Janney, John Clows. George Stone, Richard Hough, Ann Knight, John Palmer, 
William Bennett. John Hough. Randall Blackshaw. Robert Bond, Ellis Jones. Jacob 
Hall, Sarah Charlesworth, Richard Lundy, Edward Cutler. David Davis, James 
Dillworth. Peter Worrell, William Hiscock, Christopher Taylor, George Heathcote, 
John Scarborough, Thomas Langliorne. Thomas Atkinson. William Radcliff. James 
Harrison, Phineas Perabtrton. Joshua Hoops, and Jo^eph Growden. 

Thomas Holme commenced a survey of the west bank of tlie Delaware 
soon after his arrival, in 1681, and in 1686 or 1687 published his map of the 
I'rovince, in London, giving the land seated, and by whom. Of what is now 
r.ucks County this map embraced Bensalem. Bristol, Falls, Middletown, South- 
p.nipton, Xorthamptoii, the two }v[akefiekls. Xewtown, W'rightstown, Warwick, 
and Warrington. There were more or less settlers in all these townships, and 
their names are given, but the major part were in those bordering tlie Delaware. 
Some of the names, doubtless, were incorrectly spelled, but cannot now be 
corrected. Among them are found the names of some of the most influential 
and respected families in the county, which have resided here from the arrival 
of their ancestors, now nearly two centuries and a quarter. Several who pur- 
chased land in the county never lived here, others not even in America, which 
."iccounts for their names not appearing on our records. At that earh' day not 
a single township had been organized, altliough the map gives lines to some 
nearly identical with their present boundaries. All beyond the townships of 

~>ewtown. Wrightstown. Northampton and Warrington were terra iiicO};iiifa. 
'lonel Mildway appears to have owned land farther back in the woods, but 
of him we know nothing. The accuracy of iHolme's map may be questioned. 
James Logan says when the map was being prepared in London. Holme put 
'!own the names of several people upon it to oblige them, without survey of 
'and before or afterward, but other parties were permitted to take up the land.. 

Ihis accounts for some names of persons being on the map who were never 
known to have owned land in the county. 

More interesting still, than the mere mention of the names of the settlers, 
IS a knowledge of whom and what thev were, and whence and when thev came. 







< ; 



... > 









o 

^' o 
C 
Z 

I -"l ,- 






Q 

o 

C2 



y- 



• --~i 12:: 






'i 






;^^|^^.:l>/l|, if 












^^^■^'■^>^^^S^v - :•:"/'■' r'i^l'- i'^-4Ss :5-!^ /:=^ H 'i 




X 



Part of West N£.\\c>v^^<vJarsev 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUXTY. 49 



\Vc h:ive already noticed those who preceded William Penn, and came with 
him in the Welcome, now we notice those who arrived about the same time, or 
soon afterward, and previous to 1684,^ viz. : 

Ann Millcomb. widow, of Armagh. Ireland, arrived in the Delaware. loth 
month, first, 1682, with her daughter Aviary, and servant Francis Sanders, and 
settled in Falls. There was an Ann Milcomb living in the county about this 
time, whose daughter Jane married :\Iauris Listen, August S, 1685, and settled 
in Kent County on Delaware. ■ 

John Havcock, of Shin, county Stafford, farmer, arrived 7th month, 2Sth^ 
1O82, with one servant, James ]\Iorris, settled in Falls, and died November 19, 
16S3. 

Henry Marjorum. County Wilts, farmer, arrived 12th month, 1682; with 
him, wife, Elizabeth; had a son born September 11, 16S4.- 

William Beaks, of the parish of Baskwill, in Somerset, farmer, came with 
Marjorum, 'and settled in Falls. He brought a son, Abraham, who died in 
16S7. 

Andrew Eliot. Salter, of Smallswards, in Somerset, his wife Ann. and 
John Roberts and }.Iary Sanders, arrived in the Factor, of Bristol. 

Thomas Janney. of Stial, Cheshire, farmer, and wife Margery, arrived 
7th month, 29th, 1683. and settled in Lower ]\Iakefield. He brought children, 
Jacob, Thomas, Abel and Joseph, and servants. John Xield and Hannah Falk- 
ner. He was a preacher among Friends, and returned to England in 1695, 
where he died February 12, 1696, at the age of 63. He was several times in 
prison for his religious belief."^i 

John Clows, of Gawsworth. Cheshire, yeoman, Margery his w.'fe, and chil- 
dren Sarah. [Margery and \Mlliam. and four servants, arrived with Thomas 
laniiev and settled in Lower 3.1akeheld. He was a member of Assemblv, and 
died, 1 688. 

George Stone, of Frogmore, in Devon, weaver, arrived in ]MarylaniJ, 9th 
month, 16S3, and came to the Delaware the following month, with a servant, 
Thomas Duer. He was Stone's nephew and complained of him in 1700, for not 
fulfilling his agreement. 

Richard Hough. ?vLacclesneld, Cheshire, chapman, arrived 7th month, 29, 
1683. with servants. Hannah Hough, Thomas Woods, and Mary his wife, and 
James Sutton. He settled in Lower !Makefield, and married a daughter of John 
Clows the same year. He became a prominent man in the Province ; repre- 
•^ented this County several years in the Assembly, and was drowned in 1705, on 
liis way down the river to Philadelphia to take his seat. When William Penu 
heard of it, he wrote to James Logan. 'T lament the loss of honest Richard 
Hough. Such men nnist needs be wanted, where selfishness and forgetful- 
ness of God's mercy so much abound." The original name del Hoghe. N'omian 
1 rcnch. was changed to Plough in the sixteenth century. -'- 

Ann Knight arrived in a ship from Bristol, Captain Thomas Jordan, 6th 
uionth, 1682, and 4th month 17th, 16S3, was married to Samuel Darke. 

I It must be constantly borne in mind that all these dates are old style, the year 
fniniencing the 35th of March. 

- Some account of the Marjorum family may be found in Lower Makcheld, where 
ilicy settled, nn<! arc ^ri'.l n.[)n.<eiite(l in botli ilii- male and female lints. 

2j^ See Janney, Vol. lil. this work. 

-;! .' See Hough. Vol. Ill, this work. 



50 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUXTY. 



John Palmer, of Yorkshire, fanner, arrived yth month, loth, 16S3. with Iii, 
wife Christian, and settled in Falls. 

William Eennet. of Hammondsworth, in Middlesex, xeoman, and his wife 
Rebecca, arrived November, 1683, and settled in Falls. He died Alarch 9th, 
1CS4. .\n Edmund Eennet settled in Xorthatnpton, and married Elizahetii 
Potts, lotli month, 22(\, 16S5. and his name is also among those who settled in 
Bristol township. 

John Hough, of Hough, county of Chester, yeoman, Hannah his wife, with 
child Tohn, and servants. George and his wife Isabella, and child George, 
Nathaniel W'atmaugh and Tliomas Hough arrived 9th month, 1683. \\'b.at 
connection, if any, there was between him and Richard Hough is not known. 
Randall Blackshaw, of Holinger, in Chester, and wife Alice, arrived \v. 
^larvland. 4th month, 16S2, and came to Peimsylvania with child Plitiebe, nth 
month, 15th, 1682. His wife came with the other children, Sarah, Jacob, Mary. 
Nathaniel, and ^Martha, ami arrived 3d month, 9th, 1683. One child, Abraham. 
died at sea, 8th month, 2d, 16S2. He brought several servants, some with fam- 
ilies, and settled in Warwick. In the same vessel came Robert Bond, son of 
Thomas, of Wadicar hall, near Garstang, in Lancashire, about sixteen years 
old. He came in care of Blackshaw and settled in Lower 3.rakefield : died at 
James Harrison's, and was buried near \^'illiam Yardley's. The following 
persons came at the same time in the Submissive : 

Ellis Jones, of county Denbigh, in Wales, with his wife and servants of 
William Penn, Barbara, Dorothy, Mary, and Isaac; Jane and Margery, daugh- 
ters of Thomas \\'inn, of Wales, and mother ; Hareclif Hodges, a servant : 
Lydia Wharmly, of Bolton ; James Clayton, of }iliddlewich, in Ch.ester. black- 
smith, and wife Jane, with children, James, Sarah, John, Josiah and Lydia. 

Jacob Hall, of Macclestield, in Chester, shoemaker, and Mary his wife, 
arrived in Maryland 12th month, 3d, 1684; came afterward to the Delaware, 
where his family arrived 3d month, 2Sth, 1685. He brought four servant-. 
Ephraim Jackson. John Reynolds, Joseph Hollingshcad, and Jonathan Evans. 
Sarah Charlesworth. sister-in-law of Jacob Hall, came at the same tinie. 
with servants, Charles Fowler, Isaac Hill, Jonathan Jackson, and James Gib- 
son. John Bolshaw and Thomas Ryland, servants of Hall, died in Maryland, 
and were bnried at Oxford. Joseph Hull, William Hasclhurst. and Randclj'ii 
Smallwood, servants of Jacob Hall, and Thomas Hudson, who settled in Lowi-r 
Maketickl, arrived 3d month, 28th, 1685. Other ser\-ants of theirs arrived July 
24th, and still others in September. Among them were William Thoma>. 
Daniel Danielson and \'an Beck and his wife Eleanor. 

Richard Lundy. of Axminster, in Devon, son of Sylvester, came to the 
Delaware from Boston. 3d month. 19th, 16S2. Fie settled in Falls and cail'-d 
his residence "Glossenberry."' He married Elizabeth, daughter of \\"iilia:r. 
Rennet, August 26, 1684.. Flis wife came from Longford, in tlie county <.! 
]Middlesex, and arrived in the Delaware, 8th month, i''S3. 

Edmund Cutler, of Slatcburn, in Yorkshire, wchstcr. with his wife Isabc'. 
chililren Elizabeth, Thomas and William, and servants, Cornelius Xetherwo'->i. 
Richard Mather and Ellen Wingreen, arrived Slh month, 31st, 1683. He wa- 
accompanied by his brother. John Cutler and one servant. William Warlle: 
also James, son of James Molincx, late of Liverpool, about three years of age. 
who was to .'ierve until twcutv-one. Joim Cutler retm-ncd to England, on a 
visit, 1688. 

David Davis, surgeon, probably the tirst in the county, son oi Richanl. ''• 
Welshpool, in .M. putgi .mery, arrived 9th month, 14th. if')83. and settled in 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUXTY. 



Miildletown. He married 2^Iargaret Evans, March Sth, iOS6. died the 23d, and 
was buried at Nicholas W'ahie's burying place. 

fames DilKvorth, of Thornbury, in Lancashire, farmer, arrived Sth month, 
22i\. 1682, with his son William and servant Stei^hen. 

Edward Stanton, son of George, of Worcester, joiner, arrived Sth month, 
lodi, 16S5. 

Peter Worrell and Mary, his wife, of Xorthwich, in Chester, wheelwright, 
arrived in the Delaware Sth month, 7th, 1687. 

William Hiscock settled in Falls before 16S5, and the 23d of loth month, 
same year, he was buried at Gilbert Wheeler's burying ground. His will is 
<lated the Sth. 

Christopher Taylor, of Yorkshire, arrived in 1682. He was a fine classical 
scholar, and a preacher among the Puritans until 1652, when he joined the 
Friends, and suffered much from persecution. He was of great assistance to 
William Penn, and he and his brother Thomas wrote much in defence of 
Friends in England. He was a member of the first Assembly that met ai Ches- 
ter, in December, 1682, and died in 1696. He w-as the father of Israel Taylor, 
who hanged the first man in Bucks county. He settled ';n Uristol, but took up 
a tract of five tl'oiisand acres in Xewtown toward Dolington. He had t\M-i 
sons, Joseph and Israel, and one daughter, who married John Buzvy. 

George Ileathcote, of Rittilife, in Middlesex, was settled in the bend of th.e 
Uelaware above Bordentown before 16S4. He was probably the first Frierid 
who became a sea-captain, entering the port of Xew York as early as 166 1, a;ul 
refused to strike his colors because he was a Friend. He was imprisoned 'l>y 
ihe governor of Xew York in 1672 because he did not take off his hat wIku 
presenting him a letter. He sailed from Xew York in 1675, and was back 
aL^ain the following year. In 16S3 he was fined in London for not bearii'.g 
arms. He followed the sea many years, and died in 1710. His will is en file 
ill Xew York city. By it he liberates his three negro slaves, and gave five hun- 
dred acres of land, near Shrewsbury, Xew Jersey, to Thomas Carlton, to be 
called "Carlton Settlement." He married a daughter of Samuel Groom, of 
N<-w Jersey, and left a daughter, who married Samuel Barber, of London, and 
i>\'> si-sters. In 1679 Captain Ileathcote carrietl Reverend Charles Wooly home 
tw England, who does not give a flattering account of the meat and drink fur- 
li'.-hed by the Quaker sea-captain, and says that they had to hold their noses 
V. lien they ate and drank, and but for "a kind of rundlctt of ^ladeira wine" the 
::"Vcrnor's wife gave, it would have gone worse with him." 

John Scarborough, of London, coachsnfith, arrived in ii''i82. with his son 
J'-'hn, a youth, and settled in iMiddletown. He returned to lingland in 1684. to 
bring his familv, leaving his son in charge of a friend. Persecutions against 
tb.e Frierids ceasing about this time, and his wife,-who was not a member, not 
earing to leave home, he never returned. Pie gave his possessions in this county 
■' his son, with the injunction to be good to the Indians from whom he had 
r-vfcived many favors. Paul Preston, of Wayne county, has in his possession a 
Uiink that John Searboriuigh probalily brought with him from England. On 
!'--e top, in small, ri.nnid -brass-lieaded nails, are the letters ami figures: I. S. 
i"7i. 

Ellen P'earjon. of Kirklvdam, coimt\- of Yt'rk, aged fiftv-four, arrive' in 
!...^4. 

.Ann Peacock, of Kilddale. C(iuntv of York, arrived in the Slfield with John 
' hapnian ami Ellen Pearson, in 16S4. 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUXTV 



Abraham W'harlcy, an original sfttler. rcnuived to Jamaica in i6SS, an^I 
died the next year. .Xathan Harding also returned to England. 

Thomas Langhorne. of Westmoreland, arrived in 16S4. He had been 
fre([uentlv im[)risoned. and in 1662 was fined i5 for attending Friends' meet- 
ing. He'represented this county in the first Assembly ; was the father of Ch'ef 
Justice Jeremiah Langhorne. and died Uctober 6, 1687. Proud styles him "an 
emminent preacher." He settled in .Middletown. 

Thomas Atkinson, of \ewby, in Yorkshire, became a Friend in early liic, 
and was a minister before his marriage, in 1678. He arrived in 1682 with wiir 
Jane and three children, William, Isaac and Samuel, settled in Northampti m 
township and died October 31st, 1687. 

James Radclitf probably born in Lancashire, was imprisoned as early as 
his fifteenth year for his religious belief ; came to America in 1682, and settled 
in Wright;town. He was a preacher among Friends, and died about 1690. 

Ruth F.uckman, widow, with her sons Edward, Thomas and William, and 
daughter Ruth, arrived in the fall of 1G82, and lived until the next spring in 
a cave made by themselves south of the village of Fallsington. The goods the\ 
brought were packed in boxes, and weighed nearly two thousand pounds. It 
is not known whether her husband was related to William EucRman who settled 
in Newtown. 

Among the immigrants who arrived about the same time, but the exact 
date cannot be given, were William and James Paxson, from the parish of 
jMarch Gibbon in Bucks ; Ezra Croasdale, Jonathan Scaife, John Towne, John 
Eastbourn, Yorkshire, Thomas Constable and sister Blanche and servant John 
Penquite, Walter Bridgman from county Cornwall, and John Radclift, of I.an- 
caster. Edward and Sarah Pearson came from Cheshire and Benjamin Pearson 
from Thorn, in Y'orkshire. 

James Flarrison, shoemaker, and Phineas Peniberton, grocer, Lancashire. 
were among the most prominent immigrants to arrive, 1682. They sailed in 
the ship Submission from Liverpool, 6, 7 mo, and arrived in ^laryland 2, ctmo. 
being 58 days from port to port. Randall Blacksha\\- was among the passen- 
gers. Pemberton, son-in-law of Harrison, brought with, him his wife Phoebe. 
an;l children, Abigail and Joseph, his father. ~2, and his mother 81. I^Irs. Har- 
rison accomjjanied her husband with several servants and a number of friends. 
Leaving their families and goods at the home of William Dickinson at Chop- 
tank, ^Id., they set out by land for their destination near the falls of Delaware. 
On reaching the site of Philadelphia, wdiere they tarried over night, not being 
able to get accommodation for their horses, they had to turn them out in the 
woods, and not finding them in the morning, the new immigrants had to go up 
to the falls by water. They stopped at William Y'ardley's, who had already be- 
gun to build a home. Pemberton concluding to settle there, bought three hun- 
dred acres, which he called '■("■rove FMace." They returned to .Maryland where 
they passed the winter, and came back to Bucks county with their families in 
May, 1O83. FIarris(5n's certificate from the Hartshaw monthly meeting, gives 
him an exalted character, and his wife is called "a mother in Israel.'' 

James Harrison was much esteemed by \^'illia!n Penn, who placed great 
reli."vnce on him. Before leaving England Penn granted him five thousand acres 
of land, which he afterward located in Falls, Upper }i[akcfield, Xe^\town and 
WriglU>town. He was ajipointed one of the Proprietary's Commissioners of 
property, and the agent to manage his personal affairs. In 1685 he was made 
one of the three Provincial judges, who made their circuit in a boat, rowed by 
a boatnuin paiil hv the Province. 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUXTY. 



53 



Pemberton probably lived with liarrison for a time, but how long is not 
l.iiown. He owned the ""llolton farm." Bristol township, and is sujjposed to 
have lived in Bristol at one time. Ble married I'hcebe Harrison a few years 
},(f.ire leaving England, and had nine children in all, but only three left issue: 
Israel, who married Rachel Kirkbride, and Mary Jordan, James who, married 
M.innah Lloyd, Hilary Smith and }iliss Morton, and Abigail, who married 
Stephen Jenkins. Israel became a leading merchant of Philadelphia, and died 
in 17=54. Of ten children, but three survived him: Israel, who died in 1779; 
lames in 1S09, and John in 1794, while in Germany. Phincas Pemberton was 
the first clerk of the Bucks county courts, and served to his death. No doubt 
\hc I'embertons lived on the fat of the land. His daughter Abigail wrote him 
in i('v7. that she had saved twelve barrels of cider for the family, and in their 
letters frequent mention :s made of meat and drink. In one he speaks of 
"a goose wrapped up in the cloth, at the head of the little bag of walnuts." 
which he recommends them to "'heep a little after it comes, but roast it, get a 
few grapes, and make a pudding in the bell\'.'' Phineas Pemberton's wife died 
in 1696, and he Alarch 5th, 1702, and both were buried on the point of land 
opposite Biles' island. James Logan styles him "that pillar of Bucks county," 
and when Penn heard of his death he writes : "I mourn for poor Phineas Pem- 
bertijn, the ablest, as well as one of the best men in the Province.'' He lived in . 
g'i.nl stvle ; had a ""sideboard" in his house, and owned land in several townships. 

Phineas Pemberton," who settled at first in ^Makefield, did not remain 
there very long, but removed to Falls township, where he spent his useful life 
of twenty years He was the son of Ralph Pemberton and Margaret, his wife, 
daughter of Thomas Seddon, Warrington, England, and were married June 
7. 11148. She died September 2, 1655. They had issue Phineas, born January 
30, 1650, married first Phebe Harrison, daughter of James Harrison, and by 
luT had issue, Ann, born October 22. 1677. died July 3, 16S2 ; Abigail, born 
June 14, 16S0, married Stephen Jenkins, November 22, 1750 ; Joseph, born 
May II. 16S2. died November. 1702: Israel, born February 20, 1684. married 
I\;ichel Reed, died January 14. 1754: Samuel, born February 3, 1686, died 
January 23. i<:92; Phebe. born February 26, 16S9. died August 30, 169S ; Pris- 
ciila. born April 23, 1692, iTiarried Isaac Waterman ; Ralph, born September 
20. i''>94. died November 18. 1694: Phineas Jennings, born April 17, 1696. died 
'7'>i- On the death of Phineas Pemberton's first wife he married Alice Hodg- 
.-"U, Burlington, by whom he had no children. Ralph Pemberton had a second 
-'-■:i by his wife Margaret Seddon. Joseph, born April 12, 1652. died August 3, 
I' '35. Phineas Pemberton acted a prominent part in the new Colony: he was 
a member of Assemblv from Bucks countv for several terms, and chr-sen 
^leaker, 1698. 

.As early as 1675. four brothers. Nathaniel. Thomas, Dancl and William 
'Gallon, from Eyberry, England, settled in that township, in Philadelphia 
county, which they named after their native town. They came on foot from 
•^t \v Castle, and lived in a cave, covered with bark, several months : and two 
'I them returned thitlier for a bushel of seed wheat, fifty miles. The eldest 
brother joined the Kei'thians. in 1691. but afterward united himself with All 

,^ Li^uer. in his "Patronymica Brittanica." states that the family name of Pcmbvrt'-vn 
' '!' rived from the chapclry of that name in the parisli of W'igan, in the hundred of Wc-t 
- n'hy. l.ancn»hire. England, and it is certain Pcmbortons are found at a very early 
f" rii.d a<; lords of the manor of Pemberton, in Wigan, within a few miles of Aspul. 



54 



HISTORY OP BUCKS COUXTY. 



Saints" church. At what time tlie W'altons came into Bucks county is ii._,t 
known, but earlv, a.> a son of Nathaniel was teaching school in Falls town>lii[], 
where he died in 1759.* 

Joshua Hoops, the ancestor of lhc family of that name in Chester countv, 
of Cleveland, Yorkshire, arrived 9th month. 1G83, with his wife Isabel, am.l 
children Daniel, }vlargaret and Christian. He settled in Falls, and his wife 
died April 15th, 16S4. He took an active part in affairs. His son Daniel re- 
moved to Chester county, in 1690, married Jane Worrilow, settled at Westtown, 
and had seventeen children.^ 

Like the W'altons, the Knights came into this county through Bybcrr\. 
where Giles with his wife Mary and son Joseph, arri\'ed from Gloucestershire.. 
in 16S2. They lived in a cave on the Poquessing creek, where he built a hou?c. 
He kept the first store in the township, and died in 1726, at the age of seventy- 
four. Dr. A. W. Knight of Brazil, Indiana, the fifth in descent from Giles, 
owns the gun his ancestor brought from England. They had nineteen children 
in all. Joseph marrying Abigail Antill, in 1717, and settling in Bensalem. He 
died in 1799, was a man of influence, and filled several public stations, and was 
an elegant and imposing man in appearance when in full dress. A descendant 
of a half-brother of tlic first Giles was a senator in Congress from Rhode Island. 
There were upwards of twenty of the name of Knight on the Revolutionary 
pension roll.** 

Joseph Growden, the son of Lawrence Growden, of Cornwall, England, 
came to Pennsylvania, 1682, with wife and children, and settled in Bensalem, 
where he took up ten thousand acres for himself and father. His first wife, 
Elizabeth, dying in 1699, he married Ann Buckley, of Philadelphia, in 1704. 
He died in December, 1730, leaving two sons, Joseph and Lawrence, who in- 
herited most of his real estate, and three daughters. He held many places i>t 
public trust in the infant colony ; was member of the Privy Council ; member of 
Assembly and several }ears Speaker of that body; he was frequently upon the 
bench of this county, and ajipointed a Supreme Judge in 1705. His son Joseph 
was less distinguished than the father. He was one of the first persons of now. 
in Philadelphia, who allowed himself to be innoculated for the smallpox, in 
1731. At his death, the landed estate of the Grawdens passed to his brothfr 
Lawrence: who, d\ing in 1769, left it to his daughters Elizabeth and Grace, 
the latter receiving that in this county as her portion. She married Joseph 
Galloway, of Philadelphia, and Elizabeth. Thomas Nicholson, of Trevose. 
England. 

Notwithstanding the first English settlers of this county began to marry 
soon after they came, our countv records sIkiw but twenty-three marriages the 
first four years after Penn's arrival. In the books of the Friends' monthly 
meeting there is a nuich fuller and miire reliable record, including births, mar- 
riages and deaths. 

4 Born in Bucks county, 16S4. 

5 Gilbert Cope. 

6 Dr. Kniglit. mcntiopcd .ibove.' wlio wria lir.rn in Rucks county. September 5. if^o;. 
died at V.r:iA\. Indiana, December 5, 1S77, ]le yradnatcd at tlie JetYerson Medical 
ColleRe. Philadelphia: married .-Vcbsah CroaMlale. March 4, iSjj; went to Ohio that 
fall, but removed to Indi.ma. He became a pmniinent man and at his death left a 
widow and live children. 



CHAPTER VI 



PEXN AXD PEXXSBURY. 



16S2 XO 1600. 



Markham and Harrison select a site for manor house.— The situation,— Description of 
house.— Gardens and lawns.— Written m.strnctions.- Penn's horses.— Furniture of 
house.— Table ware and plate.— Penn did not live there at first visit.— Letter post 
established.— Bucks county a Quaker settlement.— The ileeting was supreme, but 
discipline lax.— Discountenanced the use of strong drinks.— Penn returns to Eng- 
iand.— Population— Schism of George Keith.— Wages.— Farm produce.— Stock.— 
Great rupture.— Dress.— Quit-rents hard to collect. 

Deliglitful metnories linger about Pennsburv, the Bucks countv home of 
the founder of Pennsylvania. This was his rural residence, whither he 
retired from the cares of state to spend his time in the bosom of his familv, 
and where he intended to fix his permanent home and live and die in the pur- 
suit of agriculture, his favorite occupation ; but Providence interfered with his 
(lesigns, and instead of closing his eyes amid the peaceful shades of Pennsburv, 
he died in England, far away from the home of his affections. As we remarked 
m a previous chapter, William :Markham and James Harrison were commis- 
■Moiied by William Penn. before they left England, to select a site and build him 
a residence. Markham pr<)l)ably selected the site, as he was the first to arrive, 
but it is possible this was done by William Penn himself after his arrival in 1682.^ 
■liie erection of the dwelling was commenced in 10^2-83. and cost from five 
to seven thousand pounds; It stood on a gentle eminence, about fifteen feet 
above high-water and one hundred and fifty from the river bank, while Wel- 
come creek wound its gentle waters closely about it. There is not a vestige of 
tile building 'remaining, and of all its beautiful surroundings there are to be 
seen only a few old cherry trees, said to h.ave been planted by Penn's own hand, 
standing in the Crozier lane, Penn probably did not live there until his second 
visit, Tf.MjQ, when he made it his home, 

Lnfortunately, no drawing has been preserved of Pennsburv house, if one 
were ever made, nevertheless we are able to approximate its true size, arrange- 

I This location was prohahly fixed up^n, because it was near the flouri.-hing Friends- 
settlement at Burlington, and also contiguous to the fails. 






ry-.'/v^ .1 






.'- . -J i 






KiiWi-iiii: 



fri! _-»; 




PENNSBURY MANOR. 

merits and surroundings." The main edifice was sixty feet long by thirty feet 
wide, two stories high and stately in appearance, built of bricks probably burnt 
on the premises,^ as a bricklayer was sent out from England in 1685, and a 
wheelwright in 1686. The dwelling faced the river. There was a handsome 
porch, front and rear, with steps having both "rails and banisters." On the 
first floor was a wide hall running through the building and opening onto tlie 
back porch, and in which the Proprietar}- received distinguished strangers, and 
used on public occasions. There were at least tour rooms on this floor. On 
the left was a parlor, separated from the large eating-room of the servants back 
of it b_\- a wainscoted jiartition, and there was probably a room on the opposite 
side of the hall opening into the drawing-room. There were likewise a small 
hall and a little closet. There were four chambers on the second floor, one 
dennminated the "best chamber," an entry, a nursery, and a closet which seems 
to have been exclusively Mrs. Penn's. In the third story were at least two 
garrets, and the stories were nine feet. The back door of the hall Penn styled 
"two leaved." and, after hi« return to England, he ordered a new front do'ir 
because "the present one is vao>i ugly and low." The roof was covered with 
tiles from the Province, and 011 the top \\-as a leaden reservoir, to the leakage of 
which i'i niainlv chare^ed the destruction of the mansion. '■'- 



2 Consider.ible light h.is been tiiruwn on the subject by the researches of the late J. 
Francis Fisher, a close stu<ient of lucal hi'^ttry. 

3 Kc (hrectetl bricks to be uscJ wlierever it were possible, and when not. go,,,! 
timbers cased with clapboards. 

3'j The en.Ljraving of Pcnnsbiiry House, accompanying this chapter, was projected 
and drawn under the supervision of Addison Huttoii, architect. Philadelphia, from tb-: 
most exact description and mcasurehients that could lie obt.iined. even to the "shiitt^" 
that were ordered about the time the house was fini.>hed. The unsightly reservoir on 
top of the roof, and the cause of tlie mau'^ion's destruction, was omitted. So far as our 
inlormation extends, there never was any altenipt to draw, or otherwise reprodu.-c. 
Peun^bury House in the time oi its owner or subsequently, for the reason, doubtless, 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COCXTV. 



57 



Xear the house were the necessary out-huilJings, about which he gave 
.l-.rcctions in a letter to James Harrison, August, 1684. He writes: "I would 
have a kitchen, two larders, a wash-house, a room to iron in, a brew house,* and 
a Milan oven lor bakin.LT, and a stabling for twelve horses." The out-buildings 
\^cre to be placed "uniform and not uscit;" were to be a story and a half high. 
tl'.e story eleven feet. The dwelling remained unfinished for several years, and 
ill May, 1685, Penn writes to Harrison, "finish what is built as fast as it can be 
.ione." No doubt there was considerable ornamentation about the building, for, 
in 16S6, Penn again writes, "pray don't let the front be common." The brew- 
house was the last to yield to the tooth of time. It had long been in dilapi- 
dated condition, but was not torn down till the fall of 1864. It was twenty by 
thirty-five feet, and eleven feet to the eaves; chimney and foundation of brick; 
the sills and posts were ten inches square ; the weather-boarding of planed 
cedar, and the lath split in the woods. The fire-place was the most generous 
kind, and would take in a sixteen-foot backlog. 

Among the mechanics who worked at the building, and the material men, 
the following are mentioned : E. James, who was "to finish the work which 
his men had begim ;" bricks were furnished by J. Redman, and deal-boards were 
g^it of John Parsons. Hannah^ Penn writes to James Logan that her husband 
i>^ dissatisfied with E. Jaines, "he's too much of a gentleman" and "must have 
two servants to such a job of work." Henry Gibbs is called "the governor's 
carpenter." 

The house was surroun(ied by gardens and lawns, and vistas were opened 
through the forest, affording a view up and down the river. A broad walk was 




-•?!!«-, 




I 'G:^: f,i=^5--\' (: ■;f 
















PENX'S BRLW l!oL. 



'■'■at Friends of that dny did not approve of such things. \Vc believe the picture here 
prevented to the reader is as near a counterpart of the original as can be produced; a first- 
ciass colonial dwelling of ilic period. 

-} Galiriel Thomas. 

5 Second wife of the founder, daughter of Thomas Callowhill. 



58 HISTORY OF BUCKS COUXTY. 



laid out frcni the house down to the river, and in the fall of 16S5 pojilar tres.'^ 
eighteen inches in diameter, were planted on each side of it. The ground .:■ 
front was terraced with steps leading to the grounds below. The surroundii!,- 
■woods was laid out in walks at Penn's first visit, and he gave direction to lia\r 
the trees preserved, as he contemplated fencing off the neck for a park, but wr 
have no evidence it was ever done. Gravel, for the walks, was taken from the I'i:. 
near the swamp in the vicinity, as Penn would not allow that from Philadelphia 
to be used because it was red. Steps led flown to the boat-landing in front < \ 
the house, and Welcome creek was bridgeil in several places. By Penn's dirii-- 
tions great care was bestowed upon the gardens, and several gardeners wlvi- 
sent out to take charge of them, also various kinds of shade and fruit trLi.-. 
shrubbery, and the rarest seeds and roots were planted. In iMaryland he pur- 
chased many trees indigenous to that climate, and caused the most beautiful '.; 
the wild flowers to be transplanted into his gardens. A well of water supplied 
the several- offices, but how tlie tank on the roof was filled is not knowi). 

All his letters to his steward prove Penn's great love for rural life, an^i 
his desire, as he expressed it, to make his children "husbandmen and house- 
wives." iHe continually looked forward, almost down to his death, to establi--h 
his permanent home at I'ennsbury; and, after his second return to England. 
gave instructions to have the improvements go on." He directs his fields kii>i 
out at least twelve acres each. He paid considerable attention to agriculture. 
and took pains to introduce new seeds at Pennsbury. We are probably indebted 
to him for the introduction of clover and other grass seeds into this county. 
He writes to his steward in 1685, "Haydusf from Long Island such as I sowed 
in my court-yard, is best for our fields." Again : ''Lay as much down as you 
can with haydust." In the first twenty years there were less than one hundred 
acres of the manor cleared for cultivation.*' Penn appears to have located n 
tract of land in the same section for his children, for. in a letter to Williani 
iMarkham, in 1689, he writes: 'T send to seat my children's plantation that I 
gave them, near Pennsbury. by Edward Blackfan."" 

William Penn was as fond of good stock as of trees and shrubber>'. 1 *ii 
his first visit he brought over three blooded mares, which he rode during hi> 
sojourn litre, a fine white horse, not full blood, and other inferior animals, fir 
labor. At his second visit. 1699. he brought the magnificent stallion C'lr. 
"Tamerlane." by the celebrated Godolphin F.arb. from which some of the be.-t 
horses in England have descended. His inf|uiries about the mares were a- 
frequent as aljout the gardens. In his letters he frequently speaks of his ho^^e 
"Silas," and his "ball nag Tamerlane." It is quite likely these horses were 
kept at Pennsbury from the first. 

The manor house was furnished with all the appliances of comfort an'' 
convenience known to persons of rank and wealth of that day. The furniture 
was good and substantial, without being extravagant. In "the best chamber, 
in addition to the bed and bedding, with its silk quilt, were "a suit of satin 
curtains," and "four satin cushions.'' There were six cane chairs, and "tw"' 

6 He writes from England in 1705: "If renii-lniry has cost me one penny, it \y--~ 
coii nic above £5.000. and it \va< with an intention to settle there, tliough God lias h' i 
pleased to order it otherwise. I sliiuild have returned to it in 16S6, or at farthest, in i6^!q.' 

7 Grass seed, no doubt. 

S Forty acres were cliared l\v 17OT. and an atlditiona! forty acres the following year. 
9 .-^ncestur of the Bucks county Blackfans. 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUXTY. 59 



with twiggen bottoms." In the next chamber was a suit of camblet curtains, 
"with white head-cloth and testar," and a looking-glass in each. The nursery- 
had "one pallet bedstead" and "two chairs of Master John's/" Penn's little son 
Inirii at Pennsbury. In the best parlor the entire furniture was "two tables, 
line pair stands, two great cane chairs and four small do., seven cushions, four 
of them satin, the other three green plush ; one pair brasses, brass fire-shovel, 
t' ings and fender, one pair liollows, two large maps." In the other parlor was a 
leathern chair, which, no d'Hibt, was occupied by William Penn in person. In 
the great hall was a long table at- w'hich public business was transacted, and 
"two forms of chairs"- to sit at the table. In Mrs. Penn's closet were four 
chairs with needle-worked cases, and in the little closet below were four flower 
basins. The table furniture was handsome and included damask tablecloths 
and napkins ; a suit of tunbridge ware, besides white and blue china. W hile 
]u-\\ter-ware was in commoi-i use. the Proprietary's family possessed a consid- 
erable quantity of plate, including silver forks and a tea set. The tables and 
chairs were made of oak or other suitable wood, as mahogany had not then 
ci-«nie into use. Carpets were little used in Europe, and probably there were 
none at .Pennsbury. A tall, old-fashioned, clock stood in the house, which now 
stands in the Philadelphia Library. Penn brought the greater part of the 
furniture from Europe, and our list of articles is made up from the inventory 
left at Pennsbury when the family sailed for England, November, 1701. Xo 
d'lubt some of the most valuable articles were taken along. After they sailed 
the goods from the town-house were sent up to Pennsbury. In 1695 Penn 
writes to James Harrison, in charge of the manor house: "Get window shutts 
(shutters) and two or three eating tables to flap down, one less than another, 
as for twelve, eight, five (persons). Get some wooden chairs of walnut, \vith 
long backs, four inches lower than the old ones, because of cushions." 

William Penn did not reside at Pennsbury, during his first visit, because 
the mansion was not in condition to live in, but he was frequently there to 
gixe directions about the work. He probably made his home with some of the 
!->ieiids already settled along the Delaware below the falls, for he is known to 
have been in the county at various times and places, holding court, attending 
meetings, etc. He had not been a year in his new Pro\-ince. when he established 
a letter post to convev intelligence from one part to another. In July, 16S3, he 
"nlered a postoHice at "Tekony," and appointed Henry Wady,"'- postmaster. 
.\mong his other duties he was "to supply passengers with horses, from Phila- 
delphia to New Castle, or tlie falls." The rates of postage were, letters from 
the falls to Philadelphia. 3d. : to Chester. 5d. : to New Castle, jd. ; to :\Iaryland, 
od. The post went once a week, and the time of starting was to be carefully- 
published "on the meeting-house door, and other public places." This post was 
O'Htinued until some better arrangement was niade. The falls, the starting 
]>lace of the niail, was an inipprtant point in the young Province. 

We nuist not lose sight of the fact that Bucks was a Quaker county, and 
Pennsylvania a Quaker colony. Outside pressure had intensified their religious 
convictions, which they carried into politics and family. Their social and 
domestic government was practically turned over to the church, which enforced 
a discipline that would not be tolerated now. It prcscriljed the rules for dress, 
arid marked out the line of personal behavior. In 1682, male and female, old 
and \(iung..are adz'iscd against "'wearing supcrlluity of apparel," and, in 1694, 
"to keep out of the world's corrupt language, manners, and vain, heedless 

O'i Probably Waddy. 



6o HISTORY Of DUCKS COUXTV 



thing's, and fashions in apparel, and immoderate and indecent smoking,' . : 
tobacco." In 1719 the\' advaticed a step furtlier, and adi'lscd all who accn-- 
tom themselves, or .suti'cr their children, to use "the corrupt and unscriptnr;,; 
languacjc of \oh to a single" person, to be "dealt with." In 1744 it was deem. •'; 
a. "fault" not to take a certificate when removing from one meeting to another. 
The I'riends, in some rc>pecls, ignored other denominations, and held ther,,- 
sclves aloof from colonial gentiles. In 171 1 tliey were e.xhorted not to atteii 1 
the funerals of those not in communi(jn with ihem ; nor to go into any of their 
"worship-houses," nor hear their sermons. They were very strict in the matter 
of courtship and marriage. In 1705 the Bucks quarterly ordered those inlen'i- 
ing marriage to acquaint the overseers of monthly meeting before they declare 
their intentions ; and the man and woman were not allowed to dwell in the 
same house, from the time they begin to be "concerned in proposals of mar- 
riage" until its consummation.^" 

In spite of this strict discipline^ private morals were far from being 
unexceptionable. A favorite author,^^ writing of the first twenty years of tlie 
eighteenth century, says, "cases of immoral conduct were common at this 
period," which happened principally among those who "were in the practice 
of mingling with, and following, the fashions and customs of the people of 
the world." The poor colonial gentiles are made the convenient scape-goat. 

In some respects the disciphne was lax. The meeting countenanced the 
supplying of liquors at funerals and marriages from the first settlement, no 
doubt a practice brought from England. Nevertheless, when they saw it wa; 
hurtful, they took steps to correct it. In 1729 the yearly meeting recommended 
that strong licjuors be served round but once at funerals, and only to those that 
came from a distance; and in 1735. the same authority declared that "greatei 
provision for eating and drinking are made at marriages and burials than i? 
consistent with good order." In 1750 the meeting recommends the appoint- 
ment of overseers "to prevent the unnecessary use of strong drink at burials." 
A Quaker author, writing on this subject, says: "The custom long prevailed 
of converting the solemn burial service at the house of mourning into a noisy 
bacchanalian festival. "'- 

The early Friends were alive to the demands of "melting charity," and. 
from their first appearance on the Delaware, cared for their own poor. Neither 
man nor woman, within the fnlds of the meeting, was allowed to want. .\.- 
late as 1801, the Aliddleto^\•n meeting contributed $447-85 to poor Friends in 
Great Britain and Ireland. 

William Penn sailed on his return to England, from his first visit, June 12. 
16S4, having been in his new province about twenty-one months. In this brief 
period he succeeded in organizing a great Commonwealth, laying its foundations 
of civil and religious liberty so broad and deep that tyranny, from church r,r 
state, can not jirevail against them. He committed the management of public 

10 A cnrioii'; raarriaye custom prevailed in this province ;it tli.it d.iy. tli.Tt of \vi<lou-< 
being married i-;: cln>ncse to screen the second from the first husband's debts. -Kahn 
says it was a conmion occurrence when the first husband died in debt. The Friends dis- 
countenanced such marriages, which were performed by ministers of other denominations 

n Michener. 

12 In t6S,?, the yrand jury of Philadelpliia made presentment, "Of ye great rude- 
ness and wib'lnrss of ye youths and children in ye town r.f Pliiladclphia, tliat then daily 
appear up and down ye streets, gamincc and playing for money, etc." 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUNTY. 61 



.iiTairs, durinef his absence, to his Lieutenant-Governor and the Council and 
A-'^embly, while James Harrison, liis agent, who resided at Pennsbury, looked 
.liter his personal intere>t. At this time the Province and territories annexed 
^ iitained a population oi seven thousand. 

The first great trouble that came upon Friends on the Delaware was the 
icliism of George Keith, 1690. He was a preacher of great note and influence 
in the Society. Born at Aberdeen, Scotland, in 1638, and fellow student of 
I'.i^hop Burnett, he joined the Friends soon after he left the university. He 
settleil in East Xew Jersey, before Penn's arrival, of which he was Surveyor- 
(ieneral, and in ifiSg was called to take charge of the first public grammar 
scliool in Philadelphia. At this time he commenced the agitation that led to 
a division in the Society. They split nn ihe rock of the snfRcicucy of zchat cz'ciy 
vhiii has ivithin himself for the ptirf^ose of his ozun sakvtion. His followers, 
known as Keitliian Quakers, numbered about one-half of the Yearly Meeting, 
incluiling some of its most considerable men. Pie established meetings in 
vari(')us parts of the Province. Among those who joined him in this county 
were John Swift, Southaiupton, and John Plart, who moved from Byberrv to 
Warminster about this time. A Keithian meeting, the germ of the Southamp- 
t~.n Baptist church, was held at_ Swift's house, and he and Hart both became 
llaptist ministers. Thomas Rutter, a Quaker of Philadelphia, who joined 
Keidi, married Rebecca Staples, of this count}-, at Pennsbury, nth month, loth, 
1685; and was baptised at Philadelphia by Rev. Thomas Killingsworth, in 
I' '17. He began to jireach and baptised nine persons, who united in comniun- 
i'^i. June I2th, 169S. and appointed }.Ir. Rutter their minister. The society 
u:is kept up until about 1707.'" Keith returned to England about 1695. his 
fullowers holding together for a few years when most of them joined the 
I.laptists or Episcopalians. Among the signers to "the testimony" against 
Keith from this county, were Xicholas Walne, William Cooper, William Biles, 
William Yardley and Josejdi Kirkbride. and was dated June 12. 1692. 

The rate of wages in this county, and elsewhere in the province, at 
that earlv dav. cannot fail to interest the reader. From the first English set- 
tlement, down to the close of the century, carpenters, bricklayers and masons 
received from five to six shillings a day; journeymen shoemakers two shillings 
per day for making both men's and woman's shoes : tailors twelve shillings 
p'-r week, with boarrl ; cutting pine buanls six or seven shillings the hundred; 
weaving cloth a yard wide, ten or twelve pence a yard ; green hides three half- 
pence, and tanners were paid four pence per hide for dressing; brick at th.e 
kiln twenty shillings per thousand; wool twelve to fifteen cents per pounil ; 
plasterers eighteen cents per yard. A good fat cow could be bought for 
almut three pounds, and butchers charged five shillings for killing a beef, and 
their board. Laboring men received between eighteen pence and half a 
crown per day, with board ; between three and four shillings during harvest, 
anil fourteen or fifteen pounds a \car. with board and lodging. Female 
Servants received between si.x and ten pounds a year, and their wages were 
higher in proportion because of their scarcity, usually getting married before 
tliey were twentv years of age. Gabriel Thomas tells us there were neither 
beggars nor old maids in the county. 

The farmers raised wheat, rye, barley, buckwheat. Indian corn, peas, 
beans, hemp, fiax, turnips, poiatnes and parsnips. Some farmers sowed as 
high as seventv and eightv acres of wheat, besides other grain. A consider- 



13 Rutter b.iptizeii Evan Morgan, in 1697. 



62 HISTORY Of BUCKS COLW^V 



al)le iuinibt.'r of cattle was raised, individual fanners having as high as forf, 
or sixty head, and an occasional one from one to three, hundred. The countr-. 
was faviirable to stock raising, the woods being open, /ften covered with gra>-, 
and the cattle roamed at will. The wheat harvest was finished before tin 
middle of July, the yield being from twenty to thirt\ bushels to the acre. The 
f:irmers used harrows with wooden teeth, and the grc^und was so mell'i-,'. 
that twice mending plow irons sutticed for a year. The horses commonly 
went unshod. Land had increased considerably in value, and some nt:ir 
Philadelphia that could be bought for six or eight pound the hundred acre-. 
when the country was first settled, could not be bought under one hundrci 
and fifty poumls at the close of the century. This province was a liaj^py 
commonwealth : bread and meat, and whatever else to drink, food, and rai- 
ment that man required, were cheaper than in England, and wages were higher. 

Among the notable events along the Delaware, before the close of th<.> 
century, was the "great land flood and rupture" at the falls in 1687, which wa< 
followed bv great sickness. There was another great flood in the Delaware 
in April. 169:2,''' when the water rose twelve feet above the usual high-water 
mark, and caused great destruction. It reached the second story of some 01 
the houses built on the low ground at south Trenton, and the inmates were 
rescued by people from the Bucks county shore, in canoes, and conveyed to this 
side. Several houses were carried away, two persons and a number of cattle 
drowned, and the shore of the river was strewn with household goods. This 
freshet was known as the "great flood at Delaware falls. "^•' Phineas Pembcr- 
ton records, in 16S8. that a whale was seen as high as the falls that year. 

At that day people of all classes dressed in ])lain attire, conforming to 
English fashions, but more subdued in deference to Friends' principles. Even 
among the most exacting the clothing was not reduced to the formal cut 'if 
the costume of a later period. The wife of Phineas I'emberton, in a reply to 
a letter in which he complains of the want of clothing suited to the season, 
says : "I have sent thee thy leather doublet, and britches, and great stomacher." 

In the cotirse of our investigations we have met with several refere;v:e- 
to the dil^culty William Penn had in collecting cpiit-rents in this county an^l 
elsewhere. In 1702, James Logan wrote him: "of all- the rents in lUicks 
county I have secured but one ton and a half of flour." He says. "Pliilmle':- 
phia is the worst. Bucks not much better." On another occasion Logan writes: 
"Bucks, exceedingly degenerate of late, pays no taxes, nor will any one in the 
county levy by distress." The county is again meni'iined in 1704. as beini; 
"slow in i)a\inij her taxes." 



14 Pembertoii says "the nipiiirc" occurred the JOdi of May. and .some siippii?c i: 
refers lo the separatinii of tlie island rijipd-ite Morri.s\ille from tlie main-land. Thi- 1- 
nn erri^r. as the island referred to was Wirhnlsten's i-!and. where the Walloon fainilie- 
had settled nearly three-quarters of a century before. 

15 When the first settlers, about the falls on the Xew Ter>ey side, built their home- 
on the lov.- ground, the Indian- told them they were liable to be damaged by I'.'e 
freshets, but they did not heed the advice. 



CHAPTER \'ll. 



THE ORGAXIZATIOX OF TOWNSHIPS. 



FALLS, 1602. 



<Jrganization of townships. — Reservation. — Jury Appointed. — Five townships ordered. — 
I'alls.— Its early importance. — First Scalers. — ^John Acreman. — Richard Ridgeway. — 
William Biles. — Meeting established. — Fir.-t marriage. — Meeting house built. — The 
discipline. — Crewcorne. — Pennsbiiry. — Mary Eecket — Thomas Stewardson. — The 
charities of Falls. — Earliest ferry. — The Croziers. — Kirkbrides. — General Jacob 
Crown. — His appointments. — Fon: Hunter John Brown. — Anna Lee. — Manor Baptist 
church. — Falls library. — Old graveyard. — Cooper homestead — Charles Ellet. — Joseph 
White.^Isaac Ivins. — The swamp. — Indian held. — Roads. — Villages. — Surface of 
township. — Crow scalps. — Population. — Bile's island. 

Tlie organization of tlie townships, with some account of the pioneers who 
-ctt'ed them — transformed the native forest into productive farms, opened roads 
.nd Iniilt houses, with a sketch of their gradual expansion and growth in civil- 
i.'aiion. are tlie most interesting portion of a county's history. 

It is stated in one of Penn's biographies, that when he sailed, on his return 
vi'\age to England, 16S4. the Province was divided into 22 townships: but this 
c.-;nni.it have reference to Bucks county for her boundaries were not yet fixed, 
ii"r were townsliips laid out until eight years after.' There is evidence that 
\\ illiani Penii intended to lay out tliis county, according to a system of town- 
-hips. that would have .given them much greater symmetry of shape than they 
u' >w possess, and bounded tlicm by riglit lines like the three rectangular townships 
"n the Montgomery border, with an area of about five thousand acres eacli. In 
"'1^7 he directed that one-tenth in each township, with all the Indian fields.- 
-hould be reserved to him: but tliis reservation was not observed,' and the plan 
"1 laying out right-angled townships was abandoned. There were no legal 
s;ii)divisions in this comity earlier tlian 1(392. although for the convenience of 
''"Meeting taxes, and c>ther municipal purposes, limits and names had already 
'txn .eiven to many settlements. At December tenu, i('»)0. the following pcr- 
^ons were appointed overseers of highways for the districts named: "For 



I -Ml the informaliou cncerninc; tlie laying out hi tnur-hips was obtained ir 
ori;;inal records in the (Juarler Scsii..ns otiice, Doylcstnwn. 
- Patches of land cleared by the Indians. 



C4 histokj' of bucks couxtv. 



above the falls, Reuben Pownall ; fur below the falls, Joseph Chorle\- ; fi.-r •_■ 
lower part of the river, Richard Wilson; for the lower part of Neshamii-.,:;. 
Derrick Clawson : for the upper part of Nesliaminah, William Havlnirst ; t' 
middle lots,"' John Webster; for the lower end of Nesliaminah, on the sou-. 
side, \\'alter Hough and Samuel Allen; for above, south side, Thomas ilar - 
ing." Some of the present geographical subdivisions were called towiislii, . 
and by the names they now bear, several years before they were so declared 1 
law-. Southampton and Warminster were so called as early as 1685, in •' 
proceedings of council fixing the line between Bucks and Philadelphia counti - 
Newtown and Wrightstown are first mentioned in 1687. The names of oit 
early townshijis were the creatures of chance, given by force of circumstan.j: 
or location. .Falls was called after the falls in the Delaware; Newtown becar.- 
it was a ncz^' toicn or settlement in the woods, and Middletown because it w,;- 
midway between the uppermost inhabitants and those on the river belr.w . 
Others again were named after the places some of the inhabitants came fri:", 
in England, w ith which they were acquainted or where their friends lived. 

The first legal steps, toward laying off townships, were taken in i6'io. 
when the Provincial Council authorized warrants to be drawn, ' empowering: 
the magistrates and Grand Juries of each county to sub-divide them into liur-- 
dreds, or such other divisions as they shall think most convenient in collectin_' 
taxes and defraying county expenses. Bucks did not take advantage of tl::- 
act until two years later, when the court, at the September term, 1692, appointi.- 1 
a jury, consisting of Arthur Cook, who settled in Northampton and was aii- 
pointed a Provincial judge in 16S6; Joseph Growden, John Cook, Thonui-- 
Janney, Richard Hough, Henry Baker, Phineas Pemberton, Joshua Hoops. 
William Biles, Nicholas Walne, Edmund Lovet, Abraham Cox and Jamo> 
Boyden, and directed them to meet at the Neshaminy meeting-house, in Mi!- 
dletown, the 27th, to divide the county into townships. They reported, at the 
December term, dividing the settled portions into five townships, viz: Make- 
field. Falls, Buckingham, now Bristol, Salem, now Bensalem, and ^liddletowi;. 
giving the metes ami bounds. Four other townships are mentioned, but tlic;> 
are not returned as geographical subdivisions. 

The following is the text of the report: ''The uppermost township, bein:,' 
called INIakefield. to begin at the uppermost plantations and along the river t" 
the uppermost j/art of John Wood's land, and by the lands formerly belong- 
ing to the Hawkinses and Joseph Kirkbride and widow Lucas' land, and so 
along as near as may be in a straight line to in Joshua Hoops' land. 

■'The township at the falls being called is to begin at Pennsburv and 

so up the river to the upper side of John Woods' land, and then to take in the 
Hawkins. Joseph Kirkbride and widow Lucas' lands, and so the land along 
that creek, continuing the same until it takes in the land of John Rowland ami 
Edward Pearson, and so to continue till it come with Pennsbury upper land. 
then along Pennsbury to the jjlacc of beginning. Then Pennsburv as its laid 
out. 

"Below Pennsbury its called Buckingham, and to follow the river from 
Pennsbury to Nesliaminah, then up Neshaminah to the upper side of Robert 
Hall's plantation, and to take in the land of Jonathan Town, Edward Lover. 
Abraham Cox, etc., etc., etc.. to Pennsbury, and by the same to the place of 
beginning. 

"The middle township calleil Middletown to begin at the upper end of 

.1. Midflletown. 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUNTY. 65 



Ki.bcrt Hall's Irnid, and so up Xcshamiiinh to Xcwtown, and /rem thence ta 
lake in the lamJs of John Houj^h, Jonathan Scarle, the Paxsons and Jonatlian 
Smith's land, and so to take in the back part of White's land, and by these 
lands to tlie place of beginning. 

"Xewtown and Wrightstown one township. 

"All the lands between .\'eshaminah and I'oquessin, and so to tlie 'upper 
side, of loseph Gnnvden's land in one and to be called 'Salem.' 

"Southampton, and the lands about it, with Warminster, one." 

It was a feature of the townships of Bucks county that they were formed 
in groups, at shorter or longer intervals and as the wants of the settlers called 
fur them. Subsetiuent groups will be treated, as they present themselves, in 
i!ie chronological order of our work. .\t present we have only to deal with 
the hve townships formed at Xeshaminy meeting-house, more than two 
centuries ago. 

Falls, of which we first treat, is. in some respects, the most interesting 
township in the county, and may be justly called the mother township. Within 
its borders, at "the falls of Delaware" the first permanent settlement was made, 
and there the banner of English civilization was first raised in Bucks, there 
the great founder had his Pennsylvania home, and there his favorite manor 
spread its fertile acres around Pennsbury house. The feet of many immi- 
grants pressed its soil before thev took up their march for the wilderness of 
Middletown, Newtown and Wrightstown. A few settlers had gathered about 
the falls years before the ships of Pcnn entered the Capes of Delaware, and tlie 
title to considerable land can be traced back to Sir Edmund Andros, the Royal 
("iDvcrnor of Xew York. The overland route from the lower Delaware to 
Manhattan lay through this township when it was only traversed by Swedes, 
Hollanders and Finns ; anrl, while neighboring townships were trodden only 
by the feet of Indians, its territory was explored bv travelers and traders, and 
an occasional pioneer seeking a home in the woods. For a time its history 
was the history of the county, as found recorded in the interesting records 
of Falls Meeting. 

It will be noticed, that tlie report of the jury, to lay out these townships. 
Ic.Tvcs the name of Falls, blank, a matter to be determined in the future. Piut 
the location gave it the name it bears, and for vears it was as often called "the 
t'lwnshin at the Falls." or "The l-"alls township." We doubt whether its orig- 
i!i:d limits have been curtailed, and its generous area, fourteen thousnnd eight 
Iniudred and thirty-eight acres, is probably the same as when first organized. 

(~)f the original settlers* in Falls, several of them were there before tl.ie 
("i>untry came into Penn's prissession."' They ])urchased the land of Sir Ed- 
nuind Andros, who represented the Duke of York, and were settled along the 



4 N'anies of orhjinal set»lcr<: Joslmn H'-nps. Jnlin Pnlnier. John CoMins. William 
^.n.l Charles Bilc<. William I'arkt-. John Haycock. John Wheeler, Jonathan Witscard, 
John Par.'sons. Andrew Ellet. William Beaks. William Venahlcs. John Luff. Jeffrey 
Hawkin':. .-Knn Millcomh. James Hill. John ami. Thomas Rowland, Thomas .-\tkiiison, 
Th'Mnas Wolf, Ralph Smith. John Wood. Daniel I'.rind-ly, John Acrenian. Joslnia Unarc, 
!-''hcrt Lucas, Gilhcrt Whecier. Samnel Darke. Daniel (Gardner. Lyoncl Britton. Cicorye 
'■rown, James Harrison and Gtori.:c Hcatlicote. 

.=; Of tlic Kn;j;li>li sctller> who came into the Delaware, 1677. hut three are known 
t'l l;.-ivc settled in Bucks comity: Daniel r.rm^rm. Devnii. [Ciicjland. S<ji)lenil)er 28: Ji.iIut 
i'urslone. Ireland, ,\ugr.st ; and Jc'->liua Bnare, Dcrhy>hire. Septeni'Der. 



66 HISTORY OF BUCKS COUNTY. 



Delaware from the falls down: John Acrenian. Richard RidgAvay, the tailor. 
probably llic tirst in the county, William Biles, Robert Lucas, George Wheekr. 
and GcoTLje ]!rown, whose lands bordered on the river. Lucas came tro>:i 
Dcverall, Loui;hbrid;,,'e, Wiltshire, and arrived 4ih mo., 4th, 1679, with William 
I'.iles in the ship Llizabeth and Sarah from Dorchester. These grants were nni'i,- 
in iTi^Sor 1(171), that of I'.ilr,, rinbracing three hundred and twenty-seven acre-, 
for which I'enn's warrant is dated 9th. 8th mo., 16S4, surveyed 23d, samemoutl; 
and patentol 31, i ith month. William Biles was one of tlie signers of the cele- 
brated "testimony" against George Keith, and went to England on a vi^i;, 
1702. Biles became a large landowner. He sold five thousand acres in thi- 
<:ountv, near Xeshaminy, to William Lawrence, Samuel and Joseph Thorni-. 
John Tallman, an<l B. l-'ield, but the purchasers could find only two thousand 
acres. In 1718 James I^ogrin i.-sued an order to survey three thousand addi- 
tional acres, not already settled or surveyed. Gilbert Wheeler called his hou.~: 
"Crookhorn," a name long forgotten. In the bend of the river below Bile'-. 
island, Lyonel Britton" and George Heathcote seated themselves, both Friends ; 
the former an early convert to Catholicism, probably the first in the state, while 
the latter was the first Friend knnwn to be a sea-captain. Thomas Atkinson. 
Thomas Rowland and John Palmer, names yet well known in the county, 
settled in the western part of the township. James Harrison, Penn's agent. 
•owned land in Falls, adjoining the manor, ami in Lower Makefield. His son- 
in-law, Phineas Pemberton." who likewise settled in Falls, was called the father 
of Piucks county, and he and Jeremiah Langhorne, of Middletown. and Josepli 
Cirowden. of Bensalem, were relied upon as the staunchest friends of Williaip. 
I'enn, For some years the men of the I'alls controlled the affairs of the infant 
county. 

We learn fnMU subsei|Uent research, that the little settlement below the 
falls was given the name of "Crewcorne," priibably after the market town and 
]jarish of Crewkerne. S(jmer.-<etshire, near the border of Dorset, England. In 
iC)Ro official papers speak of it as "Ye new seated towne." and the first cour: 
in tile county was held there, caMed the "Court of Crewcorne (spelled Creeke- 
horne) at the Falls." April 12, 1680, the inhabitants settled aljout the fall- 
addressed the following petition "to ye worlhv governor of Xew York," viz.: 
'A\'liereas we ye inhabitants of ye new seated Town neare ye falls of Delawar.-. 
called Crewcorne. finding ourselves agrieve'l hv the Indians -when drunk, i!;- 
formetli that \\c be and have been in great (langer of our lives, of our hotui'- 
burning, of our gixxls stealing; and of oiir wives and children attrighting, etc." 
and desire that "ye selling of brandy and other strong li(|Uors to ye Indians 
may be wholly suppressed," etc. This |)etition was signed Wm. Biles, Samuel 
Grit>ield, Robert Lucas, Thomas Schooly, William Cooper, Rich. Reynersoi;. 
John Acrenian, Robt. Schooly. Darius Brinson and George Browne. 

On .-\pril 2(. Wm. Piiles. "member of the new Court at the falls of the 
Delaware." appeared at Xew York and nn that day obtained a warrant to 
summon (iilbert Wheeler "to npjiear here for >elling drink to Ye Indians." 
The same day a jjetition from "the inhabitants at tJic falls." daterl the J 2th 
and a return from the "LiMirt of Creekhonie at the falls," sendinir in the name- 



6 .Sf|iti-i;iInT i,i. i.'iSi.. P.rilti.M jii:nril wiili ntluT- in |icti[ioniiig tliL' cmirt at Nf^^' 
York, cliarsiiik' (iul)tTt \Vhi-c!er with bcllmij rum to Indians. 

7 May, i')S5. I'ciiil.crt.in cnm[jlaini tn th.- cun.-il thac tlie Imliaii- are killiiiK' li"4- 
al'.Hit the falls. 



HISTORY or BUCKS COi'XTV. 67 

Hi four for magistrates, "according to order" was read before tlie Governor and 
C'-tincil, whose names are given in the record of these transactions. September 
13 fullouing. 1680. the petiti.-.n of the "inhabitants of Crewcorne on the Dela- 
ware" was received : They charge Gilbert Wheeler with selling rum to the 
huiians and state they suspect William Kiles to sell rum himself. This petition 
was signed, by Robert Lucas, Geo. Browne. Samuel Griftield, Xancv Acreman, 
Richartl Riilgeway. Lyonel llritton and Robert Schooly. The petitioners were 
ail resideiits of Bucks county. .As the jurisdiction of Xew York govenmicnt 
only extended from the west bank of the Connecticut to the east bank of the 
Delaware, jurisdiction was assumed over all who lived on the west bank, and 
was obeyed because there was no other authority to look to. In trudi. at that 
time the settlers in Bucks county lived "nowhere" so far as legal jurisdiction 
•was concerned. 

When Ave recall to mind the first English settlers, on the Delaware, 
were men and women of strong religious convictions and had left the homes 
of their birth to worship God in peace in the wilderness of the new world, we 
appreciate their early and earnest effort to establish places for religious meet- 
ings. Before Peim"s arrival, they crossed the Delaware and united with their 
lircthren at Burlington, who met in tents and where yearly meeting was first 
l-.eld. 168 1. Friends probably met this side the river at each other's houses 
for worship as early as 16S0. and attended business meet'ngs at Burlington. 
The first known meeting of Friends, in this county, was held at the house of 
William Biles.* just below the falls. May 2. 16S3. at which were present, be- 
sides Biles. James Harrison. Phineas I'emberton. William Beaks. William Yard- 
lex. William Darke and Lyonel Britton. This was the germ of the Falls Meet- 
ings. The first business transacted was the marriage of Samuel Darke to Ann 
Knight, but as the young folks did not have the "documents." they were told 
"to wait in patience." This they declined doing and got married in a "dis- 
orderly manner" out of meeting. They were probably "dealt with." but to 
what extent has not come down to us. Thomas .\tkinson. of Xeshaminy' 
asked help to pay for a cow and calf and got it. The first Quarterly Meeting 
was held at the hoiise of Thomas Biles. l\Iay 7. 1683. The first meeting house, 
^uiit about where the present one stands, on a lot given by \\"illiam Penn. i'iS3, 
was finisheil .\priL i('«)2. The size was 20 bv 25 feet, of brick burned by 
Randall T'.Iackshaw. Th.e carjienter work was done by contract and cost £41. 
It had a "gallery below with lianisters." and one chimney lined below with 
sawn boards'". In iC)Sl'). Thomas Janney gave an additional lot. "on the slate 
pit hill," 30 yards square. .\ stable was built and a well digged. 1701. The 
meeting house was partly paid for in wlieat, 9s. 3d. per bushel. It was en- 
larged in i('K;r,-i7oo. by adding a lean-to of stone, and repaired. 1700. .V new 
house was built. 1728. at a cost of about t'looo. and the old meeting house was 



8 It is tliouiiln the lionic ot Andrew Crczier. on the river ro.nd helow >[r,rr:-ville. 
was huilt by William Bile-;, of hrick imported from England, and in it w.is held the first 
Friends' meeting. 

MiOd!eti \vn. 

10 .-X letter from Friends in Penn-ylvani.! to brethren in F.iml.ind. dated ^^ar^.■h 17. 
t^«^J, says: "Thrre is one niee'in^ .it KalK. one at the Ri.vern.T's l-.rine, rftmslmry, and 
^ne at CoIc!ie-tcr river. ?.U in Bucks county." The author plead- liini trance of the I cation 
"f "Colchester river" in Bucks countv. 



68 HISTORY Of BUCKS COU.XTV. 



fittcil up for a schuiil-housc, 1733. In 1758, a (Iwellinjj was erected fur li'.. 
school-master, a secoiul story added to the meetiuc^ house, and an additiun i 
the north end. I7'>.v -'^ "horsing hlock" was got for the meeting, 1703." 

The mother meeting of Falls watched over its flock with jealous care, a;, 
looked after both secular and spiritual atYairs. Their discipline was nece>s:ir;!. 
strict. In 16S3 Ann .Miller was "dealt with" for keeping a disorderly hi/.;-... 
and selling strong licjuor to English and Indians, and her daughter Mnr. 
for "disorderly walking," and \\'illiam Clows, John Brock and \\'illiam Eeak- 
and their wives, for "being backward in coming to meeting;" William Slui'.l- 
cross for his "extravagant dress and loose conversation;" William Gofor;ii. 
"who had frequently engaged in privateering;" Isaac Hodson for "loaiiir,.; 
money at 7 per cent., when the lawful interest was only 6 per cent. ;" Henr. 
Baker "for buying a negro;" and William Moon "for marrying his cnu.-i;; 
Elizabeth Xutt." This strictness in discipline was offset by "melting charity. ' 
In 1695 the meeting contributeil £49 toward repairing the loss of ThonKi.-. 
Jannev by fire;'- and. in 1697, £15. 6s. 6d., no mean sum at that day, for dis- 
tressed Friends in New England. When John Chapman, of Wrightsto\\!). 
was "short of corn," in 1693, he applied to the mother meeting, and no dur.l't 
got it, for it was not their habit to turn the needy away empty handed. Tlu- 
first year but one couple was married in Falls meeting — Richard Hough av. . 
I^largery Clows ; and 523 couples in the first century. 

Penn's favorite manor of Pennsbtiry, containing about eight thousai^l 
acres, lay in Falls townshi]j'". It is now divided into nearly three hundre*; 
different tracts, ranging from three hundred and eighty to a few acres ; the Ian : 
is among the most fertile in the comity, the farms well kept, and the bu;lclin,» 
good. Tullytown is the only village on the manor, in the southwest corner. 
near the line of Bristol, and it is cut by the Delaware division canal and tl'.c 
Philadelphia and Trenton railroad. In 1733, Ann Brown, of New York, 
daughter of Colonel William Markham, Penn's Deputy Governor, clainu' i 
three hundred acres in the manor. The claim was rejected, but, out of regar . 
to her, Thomas Penn granted that quantity to her elsewhere. Richard Durdin. 

11 The earliest known title coiU'cying property to Falls monthly meeting bears il.i'" 
the 4th of 4th nio.. ihgo, liy ciced of Samuel Burgess, for six acres, then supposed to i' 
the same now occupied by Falls meeting house and other improvements at FallsmL". 
but by some unaccountable mistake, the bearings and distances mentioned in the Jct . 
embraccii a plot of ground entirely beyond the ea.stern boundary of the intended C"". 
veyance. This oversight was a source of annoyance for years, and not corrected ur'.' 
17J4, when Daniel Burgess, who had inherited his father's real estate, conveyed •-!■•• 
originally intended six acres to the trustees of Falls monthly nrceting, subject to tin- 
j-early quit rent 01 one grain of Indian corn. — "George W. Brown's Historical Sketchc- 

12 The name of the tieneticiary and amount were both wrong in the first editi'':i. 
according to the original minute book of Falls monthly meeting, which reads: "At a 
monthly meeting at ye meeting house, ye 5th 12th mo., l6g5, Henry Baker reported to thv 
meeting ye loss yt Thomas Canliy had by his licjuse bemg burnt by fire, and requests ■ 
ye moetnig's assistance, whereupon there was £(0 los collected and paid to Henry Bak.' ' 
towards lii^ K.-^." 

I,? Surveviir-Cieneral Fasiluirn -urveyed the manor of Penn^bury, for the heirs ■ 
\Villiam t'eiui, I7.ij, when it c< ntained 5,f^,U' acres, exclusive of the 6 per cent, rcser'i . 
for roads. 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUNTY. 69 



wlio ouiK'd five hunilred acres of the manor land, died about 1792, when it was 
advertised at pubhc sale, July 31, 1793. 

(_)ne member of Phineas Peniberton's lionsehnld was Mar\- I'.ecket. a 
•.iiiiiig Englisli girl said to have been a descendant of the Percys of Xorthum- 
i>erland. When her mother married P.ecket she wa-^ a waril in Chancery, 
.•iid they had to fly to the continent, where he was killed in the rehgious war 
::i Germany. .Mary was their only child. Eleanor L'.ecket, whose maiden name 
«a« Horner, subsequently married Robert Haydtick.'"'- a prominent minister 
among Friends of Warrington, Lancastershire. Mary P>ecket made her appear- 
ance in the rails, 16S4, her name appearing on the passenger list of the shi]-) \'ine 
ivnn Liverpool, which arrived at Philadelpliia the 17th of 7tli month. Her imme- 
diate party consisted of Henry Baker, his wife Margaret, their four daughters, 
two sons and servants. Tliey came from Walton, Lancastershire. Robert 
Haydock. writing to Phineas Pemberton under date of the 7tli of 4th month, 
itv84. says: ".-Mong with the bearer hereof cometh daughter Mary, and by 
ye contents of ye enclosed to thy father, which, on purpose I leave unsealed, 
ihou may understand. To your care we commit," &c. &c. In all her letters 
from Haydock or his wife to Hilary Becket slie is addressed as "daughter," and in 
liers to them she calls them "father and mother."'* She continued to reside 
in Pemberton"s family until she was married at Falls meeting, 4th of 8th month, 
i'kjI, to Samuel Bowne, son of John Bowne, Long Island, well known to stud- 
ents of Colonial history, and then went to live with her husband at Flushing. 
Sh.e calleil one. of her daughters Eleanor, after her mother. '"*'- 



Ij'l" The following purports to be a copy of one of Samuel Bownc's '.e"iter> to Mary 
I'ccket while courting her, sent us by Miss Parsons, riushing. Long Island: 

"Flushing, 6th nio.. 1691. 

"Dear Miss B. — My very dear and con>tant love salutes thee in yt with which my 
'"ve was at first united to thee even the love of God; blessed truth in which my soul 
'.c-:res above ail thing-;, tliat we maV grow and increase, which will produce our eternal 
conu'ort. Dear love, these few lines may inform thee that I am lately returned home, 
where we arc all well, blessed be the Lord for it. Much exercise about the concern we 
l;.ive taken in hand and no, dear heart, my earnest desire it is, yt we may have our eyes 
to the Lord and seek him for counsel that He may direct us in this weighty concern, and 
I :im saii-lied that if it be bis will to acci-mp'ish it he in bis own time will make way tor the 
*anie, >■! my desire is yt that ye may be recommended to the will of the Lord; tb.en may 
"r cNptct the end thereof will redound to hi-; glory and our comfort forevernioro. Dear 
heart. I have ifn heard. cert;iinly, but live in great hope that it hath pleased the Lord * * 
hiMhh to our dear friend and elder, brother P. P.. to wbfini with his dear wife remember 
my very kind love, for I often think upon you all with true brotherly love as being children 
o! one father ; so dear Mary, it was not in my heart to write large, but to give these few 
line* at present. I do expect my father and I may come about the latter end of this 
month. My dear, T could be very glad to hear from thee, but not willing to press the 
ir-'uble upon thee to write, so 1 must take leave and bid farewell: luy dear, farewell. 

(Signed): "Sa.mcel Bowxf," 

14 If Mjry l!ecket were th? daughter of her mother's t'lr^t niarriace, it would 
>:4r.;ty U' thing that --be and her -econd hii>band callerl her "daughter," and she called 
'b?ni "father" and "mother." 

l-lL Lnder date of if'')><. William Stout. Lanerijbire. in hi- ruitobiography, p. 50. says: 
"In this year Robert lla.\d.ck, Liverpool, frei.i;hted a >bip f'T riiil.idelpbia t' take in 
^ll^"h pa->engers as were di<po-ed to go to settle in Penu-ylvania, etc." Was this Robert 



HISTORY or BUCKS COUNTY 



EiiDiigli has been said of Mary I'.cckft in show tlint a web of romani.- 
is woven aroinid l;er life. Who can iniravel it' We lay no claim to it. T!;:i-, 
there was an English yirl of this name livinsnf in the family of Phineas Pembtr- 
ton, who married Sanuiel iJowne, and has nnmerotis descendants in Penn- 
sylvania anij Xew York of the highest respectability is unf[uestionefl. but v, .. 
know little more. If not a descendant of the Percys, who was she? Mr 
Thomas Stewardson, Chestnut Hill, a descendant of our heroine, wrote us, wi 
response to our inquiry : 

"The origin of the curious myth that made a 'lady' of the poor niotlier- 
less child, is, I suspect, to be found in a confusion between her and anoihtr 
Mary (Horner. I rather think), many of whose descendants are also desceiul- 
ants of Mary Becket. This other Mary did possess a considerable estate, 
while the llecket child was penniless. I found that for several generations, 
nobody had ever attributed wealth to M. P... but that some ladies who were 
looking over family letters at the old Bowne home. Flushing, got the two 
names nn'xed, and wrote to their relatives, in Philadelphia, that Mary Becket 
had been an heiress. The Horners came from Yorksliire, and I once began 
a search for this Mary and her guardian, and did actually find an Eleanor 
Percy, whose period would have fitted well enough with that of Mary Horner 
( 1 am not sure of the name now), but 1 tired of the job, and have never taken 
it up since." 

When the survevor came to lay out the Manor of Pennsbury. some ui 
the grants of the Duke of York interfering with its limit, the owner consented 
to have the lines straightened, and, in consideration. William Penn, Septem- 
ber 30, 1682. ordered a tract of 120 acres to be laid ofif. for the use of the town- 
ship), near its centre. In 1784. the County Commissioners sold 20 acres ui 
this land for ta.xes. In 1807. the Legislature authc^rized the inhabitants to 
sell, or lease, die remainder, the proceeds to be applied to the education i>i 
poor children, and the fund to be managed by six trustees, two elected each 
year. The trustees named in the act were Mahlon Milnor, Charles Brown. 
Daniel Lovet. John Carlisle and William Warner. "The timber, or comiii''n, ' 
as it was called, was divideil into 21 lots and leased by public outcry to th>e 
highest bidder, from twenty-five cents to one dollar per acre.'^ In iiSjy 
"the Barnes's" brought suit to try the title, which cost the township Si 41 >.'/"' 
to defend. When the common school system was organized, tlie rents v, er^- 
paid into the school fund. The legislature, in 1S64. authorized the common i" 
lie sold at public sale, and the proceeds of it now yield about S300 aniuia'.lv. 
Falls has always been liberal in supporting her poor, and ha'^ spent as niiK'lt 
as $1,200 in a single vear for this ptirjiose. She was likewise among the 
earliest to provide for tlie education of poor children. She has yearly c"n- 
trilnited a considerable sum to the public school fund, over and above th.at 
raised by ta.xation, and the revenue arising fri'm the sale of the common. 
For all public purjwses the inhabitants have been liberal givers, and. as king 
ago as iJ'oi. the duplicate shows that S1.284.7y were raised for road-tax. 
Among the charities of Falls is a public burying-ground, purchased by sul)- 
scription, 1813, of David Brown, for S[ 18.80, containing three-quarters of 
an acre. It w as placed in the care of the trustees of the free school, and ordercil 
to be divided into three parts, "for the white inhabitants;" lor "the people 

IJayiiock the same, or any relation to the Robert Hnydock who niarricti Mary P.eckii ^ 
nioiher? 

15 Tlic survey made in iro.*^, Kive-. llie contents I05".s acres. 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COLWTV. 71 



..f color," and the third part "for strangers." Andrew Crozicr had charge of 
the grounds and digged the graves in 1817. Ten lots were leased in i8j6, 
at prices ranging fnun S1.07 to $2.07 the lot. 

The eariiest established ferry in the county was in this township, across 
l!ie Delaware just helow where Morrisville stands. After the arrival of 
William Penn it was regulated by law. by Pennsylvania and New Jersey. 
Ill 1726 the Legislature of New Jersey granted the e.Kclusive use of the east- 
ern bank, for ferry purposes, to James Trent, t\vo miles above and two 
miles below the falls. The upper ferry was at the foot of Calhoun street, 
and in use to 1857. The lower ferry was used until the bridge was built, 
in 1804. The large brick ferry house is still standing near the river. About 
1720 a ferry was established at Joseph Kirkbride"s lauding opposite Rorden- 
town. The' lower ferry at the falls was called "Blazing Star Ferry."' There 
was an effort to establish "Harvey's ferry" across the Delaware, in I'alls, 
about 1770; and to have a road opened from the post-road to it, ihrough the 
land of Thomas Harvey, but was probably not successful. The oldest act 
fi-ir a ferry at the falls, that we have seen, is dated 1718, but the L'pland omri 
istahlished a ferry there as early as 1675.^'^ 

Referring again to the name of Crozier, we find it is spelled Crozier and 
frnzer, but we do not know which is the proper way of spelling it. In the 
Morton lot, St. James graveyard, Bristol, are interred the remains of Andrew 
Crozcr, who died, 1776, Mary, his wife, who died. 17S3. and their son Samuel 
anil his children. They were of the same family as the Croziers mentioned 
aliLive. 

In the spring of 1712. Joseph Satterthwait and Hannah Albertson sus- 
tained a loss of £500 by a fire and the council gave theiu license to ask charity 
of the public to replace it. This was one of the earliest fires recorded in 
the countv. 

The Croziers. who came int<3 the township at a later day than the pioneer 
.settlers, are descended from Huguenot ancestors brought up in the Presby- 
terian faith. They immigrated from France to Scotland about 1700: thence 
to county Antrim. Ireland, and. about 1723. five brothers came to America. 
-Xndrew, Robert. Tames. John and Samuel, .\ndrew, the immediate head of the 
Bucks countv familv, settled near Columbus. Xcw Jersey, where he married Jane 
Ricliardson, about 1744. He removed to Falls, in 1758. and settled on a farm on 
the north side of Welcome, now Scotts creek, where he died in i77('). and his 
wife, 1783. Thev had nine children, the eldest. Roliert, inlieritiug die manor 
farm, whose grandson, William P., became the owner. Robert Crozicr, the 
grandson of the first Andrew, made .Morrisville his home. The descendants 
have intermarried with a number of Bucks county families. ( )f the other 
brothers who came to America. Robert settled in Philadelphia, and James. Joim 
and Samuel in Delaware county, where John P.. a grandson of James, died 
in recent vears at the age of seventy-five. The faiuily furnished four soldiers 

16 There was a ■•Hr.pkinson Ferry" on the Delaware, probably in Fail-; township, but 
we can not vmich for it. Our attention was directed to it by an extract frcni a lellcr, 4th 
n.nnth, 6th, iSjo. givinu: account of an accident tliat happened tn a party ot four while 
cro'-sing the river on the ice. in a carriai,'e. and breaking; thrnigh. Two were drowned, 
Esther Collins and .\nn i:.lwar.N. and Henry Stocker and wife were saved. The letter 
We speak of \\a> written by the wid.iw of St' cker. anil as inav be imagined, a very pathetic 
(-■r.c: This is the fl^^t and only tune we have heard of a terry of this name on the 
Delaware. 



72 HISTORY Of BUCKS COUNTY. 



to the Federal Army in tlie Civil War ; J. Howard Cox served in the 214th 1 Viii; 
svlvania rej^iment ; William Mortcjii in an lllini)i.s re£jinient: John 15. Ikiiuir;.;. 
34th Ohio, and William C. Crozier in the I04tli I'cnnsylvania. The tirst A:.- 
drcw left a large number of descendants. 

The Kirkl)ricle family is one of the oldest in the township. As we li;i\ 
recorded elsewhere, the first ancestor was Jose])h,'' who came to the countv ::•. 
1082 at tlie ai;e of twenty: married in 16S3, and in i(t>ij bought five hundri'i 
acres in I'alls of Thomas Atkinson for £35. His wife was a daughter ct 
Mahlon Stacy, the proprietor of the site of Trenton. He became a minisi.r 
among Friends; was an acti\e surveyor and business man, and at his deai'i 
left thirteen thousand four hundred and tliirty-nine acres to be divided anioiu; 
his children. His wife received twelve hundred acres from the will of lnr 
brother Mahlon, who died in 1731. His son Joseph got his three negroes. Isaac. 
Coffee and Tehmacl. The homestead farm in Falls, one hundred and one acres 
and forty-si.\ jK-rches, remained in the family until 1873, when it was sold a", 
public sale to Mahlon Z^Ioon, for S210 per acre. A small dwelling, with cellar 
underneath, used as a tool and wood-house, stands on the tract, a monument 
of '"ye oklen time," and is said to have been built by the first purchaser of tlu- 
land. 

Ceorge I'.rown, or Browne, as the name was originally spelled, of Leices- 
tershire, England, was an early settler in I-"alls township, landing at Xew 
Castle 1679, three years prir>r to Fenn. He purchased of Sir Edmund Andrf><. 
a tract on the Delaware joining F'enn's Manor as is shown by Holme's map. ai'l 
it has remained in possession of the family to the present time. He was ac- 
companied by his intended wife to whom he was married on their arrival. Tin- 
wife was also from Leicestershire: both were members of the Church of Eng- 
land, but joined the Society of Friends and became active in Falls iMonthly 
iMeeting. George Hrown. being a man of strong and cultivated mind, wielded 
considerable influence in the Colunv from the first. He was a Justice of the 
'Feacc, 1(180. He had a fanii!\- of fourteen children, and died in 172''. 
at the age of 82. His son Samuel marriefl .Ann Clark, 1717. and died 1701). at 
74. He was a ])rominent member of the As.--embly. Samuel's son, George, like- 
wise a member of Assembly, born 1720. was married twice, first to Martha 
Wiirrall. J747, who died 1748. and then to Elizabeth I'ield. born 17-.^: 
the sr.n John U'.arried Ann Field, also in the Assembl\-, both daughters of Ben- 
jamin I'ield. of MidiUetown. John and .Ann Brown occupied a large farm near 
the ])resent Tull_\town. <3vcrlo(_)king the iManor and the Delaware river, lie 
was known as "Fo.k Hunter'' John Brown. He kei)t a large jiack of iiounds and 
hunting horses after the custom of Englishmen of that ilay. and continue.! 
the practice until late in life. He carried a cane with a head made from a h'lne 
taken from the heail of a I'avi.rit./ hor>e. He luul a large family of children and 
die<I 1 niM. isl.,.1802. at 70. Hi-- familv were ;d^o members of the Societx' "i 
Friends, and his .-.on John and grands(jn David were prominent in Falls Meet- 



1 17 Dr. Thoni.-is S. Kirkl.ridc. .1 (k-cemlant of ilio Jc^cijIi Kirkliride abuve, born in 

i F;il!^, July ,ii. l>^o>j. wa- coiinccttil uilb ilic fViiiisyl\.-uii,i ll.i-pital tnr tlic Iiisam: iii>u:ir'i- 

j of forty years, aii'l difd ibcre. I.'SS.r Ik- wa-; :.;TacliiaUMl I'runi tbe .Modical Dei-.Mr:i;iciit .'f 

( the L"iiivor<ity of lV-ni>>y!vaitia. in jS,^j, and ;i nhmtb later wa-; appointed a rc^idcn: 

j physii-ian of ih,- I'ririid^' .-\-ylnin I'nr lii.' In-am- nt I'rinkf' Tt In iS.io, lif wa-; <.k->'Ud 

\ physician ni ohicf and >upcriiucndcnl .i P'-nn-ylvania llospil.il, ju<t cir^anizod. He .-.pt-nt 

i hi-; liTc thiTf and mad;.- it n-'.-fnl to iuniiainty. 






m 



' -*'*^ *'H'""^i&irianMitf ■^iih^fi■'- TirmV^riT^^ 



■?^"^"— t^V^'-'*'"-— — '-^' 




JACOB BROWN. 
Commanding General, United States Army. 



74 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUNTY. 



ing. The latter was 2j years treasurer of the "Bucks County Contrihiii- 
ship." He was the fatlier of General Jacub IJrown, conimaiulinq' general rii • 
United States Ami}', and renioved to Jeti'erson county, Xew York, with ; 
family. 

General Jacob Brown was born in the house lately occupied by W'il!;;; , 
Warner, about three and a half miles below Alorrisville on the Delaware, M:, . 
9, 1775. where his father li\ed until the general was grown, and they reni«.v. 
to New York at the close of the century. After the war of 1S12-15 had beg-:;;. 
and then but a plain citizen, he presenterl himself to General Armstrong, t' 
secretary of war. He said his name was Jacob Brown ; thai he was a full-M. 
Bucks countv Quaker, but had an inclination to enter the military service, wlr :: 
he would do if the secretar}' would give him the command of a brigade: that :. 
kiiczi' notliiii^ of military, but believed he possessed every other requisite :> •■ 
a soldier ond on ofHeer. The secretary, without hesitation, offered him ;: ■, 
command of a regiment, which he declined, saying: "I will be as good as n ; 
word ; give me a brigade, and you shall not be disgraced : but I will aco; • 
nothing less." He afterward received the commission of brigadier-general tr' : . 
the Governor of Xew York, and with that, began his military career, rising. 
stej; by step, until he became ciMiimanding general of the United States An;'.. 
General Brown died at the city of Washington. February 24. 1828, and \\.i- 
buried in the -Congressional burying ground, where a monument was erectui 
to his memory, with the following inscription : 

"Sacred to the memory of General Jacob Brown. He was born in Buck^ 
County. Pennsylvania, on tlie 9th of May, 1775, and died at the City of Wash- 
ington, commanding general of the Army; 

"Let him who e'er in after days 
Shall view this monument of praise. 
For honor heave the patriot sigh. 
And for his Country learn to die." 

The father of General Brown died at tirownsville, Xew York. Septeniher 
24. 1S13. The widow of General Brown was a daughter of E. Williams. ■ : 
Wilhamstown. Xew York, and died in the spring of 187S. at the age of n.v 
She retaincfl her memory almost to the last. 

About 1773 -^'■"la Lee. with her embryo sect of Shakers, eight or ten 
in number. pas>ed through halls and stO|)ped at the house of Jonathan Kirk- 
bride, uliile himself and wife were at Yearly Meeting at Philadelphia. 1 i-' 
children, seeing a number of friendly-looking ]ieo])le ride u\>. invited them : "^ 
spend the night. Anna took possession of a chamber and the others 01 i-^ 
kitchen, where they ccmimcnccd to iron a quantity of clothing from their saddle- 
bags. .\t a given signal all dropped their work, to the astonishment of the:r 
young hosts, and. falling intci ranks, went round and round the room in nieii^- 
urcd tread, shouting 

As David danced before the Lord, 

So will we, so will we : 
There was a woman sent from God. 

Her name is Anna Lee. 

This was several times repeated during the evening, resuming their w^'t'i^ 
meanwhile. The next nvirtiing they (piietly rode away in single file. 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUXTy. 75; 



About 1790, the Reverend Peter Wilson, of Hightstown, Xew Jersey, or- 
v;,mizcd a small Baptist congregation in the ^^lanor. but we do not know at 
ulint point, nor whether a house was ever erected. He supplied them several. 
\c.irs. In 1798 the Rev. Alexander Magowan. licensed to preach in 1784. was 
called to the Man(Tr. where he labored seven years and baptized one hundred 
.i!id ten persons. When he left in 1805, the field appears to have been absorbed 
.,n,l nothing more is heard of the congregation. It was probably by the First 
i'.aptist church, of Trenton, which was organized about that time. The society 
..uned a lot at Fallsington. but never built upon it. Mr. Magowan was killed 
111 lune, 1S14. by the upsetting of his wagon, while on liis way to Ohio. 

The Falls Library Company was organized and the constitution adopted, 
.Vnvember 26. 1800. but it was not incorporated until 180^. The constitution 
1- signed bv Daniel Trimble. Mahlon Kirkbride, John ]Mott. John Kirkbride, 
.<tcphen Comfort, and John Palmer, secretary. The first article of the consti- 
nition prohibits the introduction of any book into the library "which shall have 
lieen written with an intention to discredit the Christian religion, or bring into 
disrepute any society or denomination thereof."' Among the earliest patroiis 
of the library are found the names of Allen, Burton, Brown, Buckman. C.irl- 
i-le. Comfort, Clymer. Crozier. and Cadwallader. The number of volumes is 
marly ten thousand. In 1874 Isaiah Y. Williamson, a merchant of Philadel- 
phia,' gave $5.ocxD to the library, and it received further assistance from his 
oiate. 

In Falls township are three old graveyards, one of which, the Pemberton 
Rr.iveyard, has become historic. It is situated near the bank of the Delaware, 
opposite the lower end of Biles's island, and in Penn's time was known as 
■riie Point." where Henry Gibbs "the governor's carpenter." was buried in 
i"85. There appears not to have been more than twelve or fifteen persons 
buried there, and of all these only two stones could be found in modern times 
!■> tell who sleep beneath. They consisted of two pieces of slate, about ten by 
sixteen inches, and half an inch thick. On one were the letters P. P.. and on 
ilie other Phe. P. The two graves are close to.gether. and we have no doubt 
arc the resting places of Phineas Pemberton and his first wife, Phoebe, the- 
daughter of James Harrison. Probably his immediate family were all buried 
in tins yard. The \\'atson graveyard, on the road from Langhorne to Tully- 
t<nvn. about half a mile from Oxford \'alley, is on the farm of Joseph H. Satter- 
tlnvait. It was given by die Watsons, large land-owners'''= in that neighbor- 
In "nl in early times, as a public burial place, but no burials have taken place there 
for about half a century. It contains less than half an acre, and is surrounded 
by a strong stone wall. The little yard is nearly filled with graves, m.jstly 
\wthout stones. The oldest date is 1732. It is held in trust b\ the Friends, 
who keep it in repair. There was formerly a graveyard two miles from Tully- 
t"wn on the same road, on what is known as the "old Burton tract,'" in which 
slaves were buried. .\ road has run thmugh it for more than half a century. 

The (lid Co..iper Inimcstead. on the Trenton turnpike, half a mile above 
TiiUytown. was built by Thomas, son of Samuel Cooper, of Philadelphia, 17S9, 
the timbers being .-ent up in a sloop to Scott's wharf. He died at the age c>f 
4.-.. leaving four sons and one daughter. Plis .son Thomas lived 6;) years at the 
b imestead. and died there. i8o(), at the age of 72. He raised eleven children, 
and on the i^th of February, each year, the eight survivors had a reunion at 



17 ''j Thom.-i5 Wation owntJ a tract of three hundred and tifty-seven acres in I-alls, 
^y tlic re-siirvev. 



-j6 HISTORY OF BUCKS COUXTY. 



their mother's hnnio, lJri>to!, for many years. During the war of 1812 Thomas 
Cooper'^ hauled his wheat ti) New Unuiswick. and got S3. 00 a bushel for it. He 
was the grar.dfather of Jnhn S. Cooper. Phdadelphia. This family claim de- 
scent from William Conper, 'T'ine Point." from whom J. I-'enimore Cooper, 
the great novelist, descended. 

A century and half ago a considerable trade in boards, shingles, lime, etc., 
wa.s carried on with Llordeniown, through lalls. They were brought down on 
this side from some twenty-five miles above, and crossed over at the Borden- 
town ferry, which was then reached by a jirivate road through the fields from 
the River road. In 1761 it was made a public road on petition of the inhabit- 
ants. ' 

Falls township was the birthplace of Charles Ellet, Jr.. one of the most 
distinguished Federal officers in the Civil War. He was born January i. 
1810: adopted the profession of engineer, and went to France at the age of 
nineteen with a letter to Lafayette. He finished liis education in Paris, and 
afterward traveled over Europe on foot, studying bridges, canals and other 
improvements. He constructed several railroads, and the wire-suspension 
bridges at Fairmount. Niagara and \\'heel;ng. He married a daughter of Judge 
Daniels, of \'irginia. He was the first to recommend the use of steam-rams 
•on the western waters, and proved their efficiency by destroying th.e enemy's 
fleet. .May 12. i8'<2. at the cost of his life. He was buried from Independence 
Hall with civic and militarv honors. At his death his brother Alfred M. took 
command, and when he was given the Marine brigade, his nephew. Charles 
Rivers Ellet. succeeded to the Ram fleet. The latter died suddenly. 1863. Three 
other members of the faniilv served with the Ram fleet, and behaved with con- 
spicuous gallantrv, Lieutenaiit-cijlonel Tohn A., and Lieutenants Richard and 
Edward C. Ivllet.' 

Joseph White, a distini,niished nfinister amcng Friends, was born in this 
township, 1712. He l>ecame a minister at 20: traveled extensively and preached 
in this county, and. about 175S, made a religious visit -to England. He re- 
moved to Lower Makefield toward the close of his life, and died there. T777, 
frfim the eftects of a paralvtic stroke in Falls meeting while preaching on Sun- 
day. Richard iNlajor. e<iual!y distinguished in the P.aptist denomination, was 
br.rn in Falls. T722. He was brought up a Presbyterian, but became a Baptist. 
1744. Although without scholastic learning, his vigorous nfind rose above all 
impediments, and he became an able and etiectivc speaker. He removed to 
L<iud(in county. X'irginia. 17^/1. where he labored in the niinistr\-. and died at 
the age of 80. It is related, that on one occasion a man maile a violent attack 
on him with a club, when Mr. iMajor. wh<> possessed great presence of mind. 
1 said, in a solemn tone of v^ice. "."->atau, I comman<l thee to come out of the 
i man." when the ruffian dnipj.ed his club, anrl became as quiet as a lamb. 
■ In the first letter Penn wn^te to L(jgan. after his return to England. 1701. 

j is this paras.^'-rapli : "There is a swamji between the falls and the meeting- 
\ house; I gave the Falls peoi'ile, formerly, leave to cut the timber in it for their 
! own use. which they have almi'st sjxiiled. cutting for sale, coopery, etc., which 
'now, or in a little time, would be worth some iliousands. Phineas Pemberton 
j knows this business: let all be forliid to cut there any more, and learn who 
1 have been the wasters of timber, that hereafter they may help to clear the rub- 
jbish parts that may be fit f<>r use. or give me tree for tree, when I or my order 

j l.S The only Thnnui-; ni.irk<.(! on tlie Pine I'oiiit tree was a son of James Cooper, 
iborn 17,^') anil whose wife was Sarali Kruin. 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUXTV. 



shall demand it." What about tliis swamp at the present day ? Is it still a 
swamp, or long since drained? 

Near Pennsbury was the "Indian iield," where Indians dwelt after they 
liad generally left the vicinity of the settlements. It was the custc^ni of Indians 
to bnrn the underbrush, which made it easier to travel through the woods ; and 
DO doubt "Indian tieMs" were onlv localities where the timber had been burnt 
oft". 

Our treatment of roads in a sejiarate chapter under a general head, leaves 
but little for us to say of local roads in the respective townships. They were 
opened as called for by the necessities of the inhabitants. In Falls were the 
earliest roads opened, there being a thoroughfare through the township long 
before Penn's arrival, although it was neither well opened nor kept in repair. 
In 1703 the inhabitants of "Middle-Lots," now Langhorne. petitioned for a 
road from Falls meeting-house to Bristol, via Anthony Burton's. In 1709 a 
road was opened from the main road to the river, below the falls, to enable 
people to cross the river to ]^Iahlon Stacy's mill. The road from the river, 
opposite the falls to Langhorne, then called "Cross lanes." was opened, 17 lO- 
In 1723, at the instance of Sir ^^"illiam Keith, a road was laid out from the 
ferry below the falls to Sir William's plantation. This was probably the upper 
river road, as it led to Thomas Yardley's mill. In 1744 the inhabitants of .Make- 
field and W'rightstown petitioned to have this road re-opened, as it had beea 
closed in several places. To the petition was the name of John Beaumont. In 
1752 a lateral road was opened from the Yardley's mill road across to the one 
that ran via Falls meeting-house to Bristol, and, 1769, it was extended across 
to the road from Xewtown to the meeting-house. 

Falls township has five villages, none of any size, but all pleasant hamlets. 
Fallsington. in the northern part, is on the road from Kirkbride's ferr\- to 
Hulmeville, and was first called a village in Scott's Gazetteer, 1795. Tulh town 
is in the southwest corner on the turnpike and close to the Bristol line. It 
was named after one Tully, who owned land here. In i8i(xlots were laid out,, 
one being reserveil for a cliurch anfl another for a school-house, and was sub- 
sequently described as "a small town on the westermost side of the ^^lanur,, 
near and adjoining Martui's lane end." The population of Fallsington, 1870, 
was 211 and Tullytown, 150. but uoth have grown meanwhile. Here is a 
famous tavern, the "Black Horse." of which more will be said in the chapter 
on "Old Taverns." Tyburn, about the middle of the township on the Bristol 
turnpike, was laid out more than three quarters of a century ago and was doubt- 
less called after Tyburn, England, where public execution took place in early 
days. It is thought the first man executed in Bucks county was hanged here. 
hence the name. ( )xford X'alley. on the road from Fallsington to Lang- 
horne, partly in Middletown, wilt be noticed in the latter township, and Eniilie 
near Fallsington. The latter, formerly called "Centleville," has a church and 
school house", and was in i)art Iniilt un land that belonged to "Fox Hunter" John 
l>rown. In a petition to the court dver a century ago. mention is made of a 
"late settlement at Penn's Manor," but what reference this had is not known. 

The surface of the manor portion of the township is level, while the- 
residue has a gentle declivity toward the Delaware. The northern part is 
somewhat broken by the Edge Hills, which cross the county from the Delaware 
to the Schuylkill, and in the southwestern part is Turkey hill, a slight elevation 
abov'e the surrounding level comitry. It is watered by Mill. Scutt's. ;ind other 
creeks. Falls township has a river fn.nt .u' ten or twelve miles, which aflurds 
several valuable fi.-^herie-, and, lying un tide-water, has all the facilities given by 



78 HISTORY OF BUCKS COUXTY. 



river navigation. Xo township in the county has a richer or more procUicii', ■: 
soil, or less waste land. Some years ago the farmers turned their attention i^ 
the cultivation of tobacco, anil large crops were raised and sold. JJile>>, 
r^Ioon's and Savage's islands belong to I'alls. 

In the olden time l-'alls and the neiglihi->ring townships must have bi.i.:i 
a good range for crows, judging from the number killed and paid for bv tb., 
county. In 181O the county treasurer paid out S2C->4.y8 for crow-scalps, taki.:! 
in Falls and Lower Maketield. which, at the rate of three pence per head, makr- 
the number killed 7.946. An article on the subject at that period, conclude?: 
"Those who annually receive considerable sums from the county treasury, are 
in a state of alarm, lest the Breeders should have been all destroyed." 

When Congress had in contemplation the locating of the seat of Govern- 
ment on the west bank nf the Delaware at the falls. 1789, the proposed Federal 
district fell mostly in this township, covering the site of Morrisville. The plat 
was surveyed by William Harvey and Isaac Hicks. 

Falls is among the most populous townships in the county, but we are 
not able to give the population earlier than 17S4, when it was 908 whites and 
61 blacks, nor can we give it at each decade since that time. In 1810 it w.is 
1.649; 1820, 1.880; 1830. 2,26^1, and 397 taxables ; 1840, 2.068 :'~'= 1850. 2.271 ; 
i86)0, 2,316; 1870, 2.2g8.'' iif which 194 were of foreign birth; 1880. 2,385. 
1890, 2,463: 1900. 1.850 : Tull_\towii Lioro. 528. 

But few. if any. agricultural districts in the state have a more intelligent 
and cultivated population than F'alls township. The postoffices are Fallsingtoii. \ 
established. 1849. <i''"l James Thompson appointed postmaster: Tullytowii. 
1829, and Joseph Hutchinson postmaster; ancl Oxford \"alley, 1849, whe" John 
Ci. Spencer was appijinted postmaster, and held the office to his death, March 
31. 181^7. at the age of 1)4. He was born in Xi^rthampton township, and re- 
moved to I'alls after arriving at manhood. Few postmasters in the count} 
have been longer in commission. 

The Ellets were early settlers in both Xew Jersey and Pennsylvania, hut 
we do not know at. what time they came into the former colony. Andrew i-lK t 
was in Bucks county as early as 1700. and on 14th of 21I month. John Hictt 
conveyed to him 220 acres in Lower Makefield, bounded by Richard Hough. 
Acreman and others. William Ellet. probably lived and died in l-'alls, executed 
his will 20th of 1 2th mo., 1714, and was admitted to probate September 15. 
1721, leaving his plantatiim to his son-in-law, James Downey, after the death 
iif his wife. He had children. .\nn Shallcross, Elizabeth Dowdney (prohabl> 
Downey), Mary Hawkings and Sarah Bidgood. Charles Ellet, X. J., married 
Hannah Carpenter 1 daughter of Sanuiel Carpenter) born 1743, died 1820, mar- 
ried. 1765. and had six children; Jnhn, born i7Cig, died .May 10, 1824, married 
Mary .Smith. Salem count). X. ].. Sarah. Charles. Willian). Rachel Carpenter, 
and Mary. Hannah Carpenter Ellet. daughter of John and Mary Pallet, Iir.rn Xo- 
vember, 17^3. died April 20. i8'i2; Charles F.llet. sun of I'harles and Hannah 
Ellet. burn 1777. died 1847. married. 1801. .Mary, daughter of Israel Israel. 
I'hiladelphia. .she was living. 1870, at the age of 91. They liad 
fi>ur children, and their >nn Charles, and grandson. Charles Rivera, 
jierformed signal ser\-ice on the Missi^sijipi in the C'ivil War. Chark- 
I'.Ilet was the father of the ram svstem. The President and Cont^ress 



18' j We can nnt accrmnt for this falhiiK off eoiiip.Trcd with iS.io. 

ii.) In \>'--o tlic census ■ 1 Tiillyti'Wii w:i> taken separately from the township 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUXTY. ' 79 



niu^cil to listen to his rcconimciidatioiis until driven to it by stern neces- 
• its. The Ellets were potent factors with Admiral Porter in clearing the 
■.M-stern rivers 01 the Confederate iron clads. William Ellet, only son 
,.i Charles Ellet, Jr., graduated at an early age, from the Cniversity of Virginia, 
\v cnt to Germany to comiilete his education and committed suicide there. The 

civil engineer's daughter married the eldest son of Cabell, Xelson 

iMiinty, Virginia. 

fhe Ivins family were later settlers in Bucks county coming in through 
.\'ew Jersey, but we do not know at what time. Isaac Ivins, the immigrant, was 
r'.arried three times, his first wife being Sarah Johnson, their marriage certi- 
i-.cate bearing date 4 mo., 26. 171 1. The name of his second wife was L.ydia, 
:iii(l the third, Ann. He died, 1768. He mentions all the wives in his will. 
11.- lived and died in Mansfield township. Burlington county, and was a store- 
keeper by occupation. His children were Ann, Diadema. INIoses, Aaron, born 
,^. 30, 1736, and died 6, 2. 1799. Isaac, Joseph and Levi. In 1792, Aaron 
Ivins. son of Isaac, Burlington county, hut we are not informed whether the 
junior or senior, but as he married Ann Cheshire. 1764, he was prob- 
ati'.v son of Isaac the second, brought his wife, Ann, and chil- 
dren, Sanniel. Ann. Mary and liarclay. and settled in Falls, to 
which meeting he brought a certificate. In 1796 he purchased 389 acres of 
l.anghorne Biles on the Delaware for £5.835 or $15,560 equivalent to S40 per 
acre. The earlier descendants of Aaron Ivins intermarried with the families 
■ •f Middleton, Cook, Comfort, Buckman, Smith, Taylor, Green and others 
Well known in the lower end of the county. The late Dr. Horace I'remont 
lvin<. born in Fenn's manor, October 30, 1856, and died at Easton, Pcnnsyl- 
\ania. January 8. 1S98. \\as a descendant. He was graduated from the Hahne- 
n'.ann Medical College. Philadelphia. 1S79. then spent a year in Euroj)e. the 
",;reater part of his time in the hospitals of London and \"ienna. L'pon his re- 
turn he settled down in practice and became prominent in special bratiches. 
William H. Ivins. Camden. X. J., is a descendant of the Burlington county's 
i;n!iiigrant. 

Biles's island, in the Delaware, a mile below the falls, containing 300 
acres, was sold t<i William liiles about 1680. by Orecton, Xannacus. Xenem- 
hl.'ihocking and Patelana, free native Inilians, in consideration of £10. but was 
ni't actually convened by deed. (Jn March 19. 1729, Lappewins and Captain 
' unil)ansh, two Indian ""Sachems,'" heirs and successors of the Indians above 
r.anied, confirmed the island to William Bites, Jr.. son of William Biles the 
fldt-r, now deceased, in consideration of £7 in Indian gonds. The deed cntained 
a warrantv against the ijrantors, their heirs and all other Indians.-" 



-O In l7J,i tlie i-^laii.I in tlie Di-laware .at the upper end ot I'alls tnwnship \va> callrd 

.l"<fpli \Vood'> i-I.iml." aiul ci>ntainfd .^I'l' acre-;. Joseph Woi.d's tract oppoMtc, in I-'alls, 

'l!"n contained (.»Xj acres, iiichiding the island. This was according to Cutler's resiirvey. 



CHAPTKR VIII. 



MAKEFIELD. 



1602. 



I'lrst named in report. — Origin of name. — ilacclesheld. — Falls of Delaware objective point. 
— Order of settlers on river. — William Yardley's tract. — Richard Hough.— Old mar- 
riage certificate. — Briggs family; Stockton: Mead. — Friends' meeting. — Old graveyard. 
— Henry Marjorum. — Two Makefields one. — Daniel Clark. — Livezey family. — The 
Briggses. — Three brothers Slack.— Reverend Elijah and General James Slack. — The 
Janneys. — Edge wood. — Dolington. — Yardleyville. — First store-house. — Wheat She^f. — 
First lock-tender. — Xegro killed. — Yardley of today. — Stone quarries. — Oak (jro\e 
school-house. — Area of township. — Taxes and population. 

Makefield is tlie first townshii) named in the report of the Jury that sub- 
ili\ided the county, i6y2. We give it the second place in our work becauses 
l-'alls is justly entitled to the first. It was the uppermost of the four river town- 
ships, and not only embraced what is now Lower }ilakefield, but extended to 
the uttermost bounds of civilization. All beyond was then an "undiscovered 
ruuuiry."' whose exploration and settlement were left to adventurous pioneers. 
l.'-i\vcr Makefield is bounded on the land side, by Falls, Newtown and Upper 
Makefield, and has a frontage of five miles on the Delaware. 

There has been some discussion as to the .origin of the name "^lakefield." 
\vhich the jury gave to this township, and which it bore until Upper Makefield 
was organized manv years afterward. There is no name like it in England of 
t"'.\n, jiarish, or hundred. When Ji.'hn Fothergill, minister among Friends, 
I.'.udoii. visited tile townshi]). ij2i. he wrote the name "Macclesfield" in his 
.'"iinial. It is just possible that Makefield is a corruption of I\Iacclesfield. or 
'.lint the latter was pronounced ^^lakeheld by the early English settlers, and the 
spelling made to accord with the pronunciation. In the will of Fletiry 31ar- 
."'Tum. an early settler, the name of the township is written "Maxfield." but 
'■!ie remove from Macclesfield.' But all this is mere conjecture, in face of the 

I In the manuscript book of arrivals. library Historical Society of Pennsylvania, 
.•i.icclesneld is written "Ma-xficld,'' and ail historians of Clieshire state this fact. Tysons 
^■lys: "The chapelry of Macclesfield" is frequently called in ancient records "Ma.vlieid," 
r r.U- Richard Hough came from "Maxfield" and being one of the principal men 
•■"•IT'ointed to lay out the township, it is pos-ible it was called Maxlield. or Macclc-heUi, out 
' '■ deference to hun. .\t Maccleslield, England, is a qiuiuit old church, the oldest part 
6 »l 



82 HISTORY OF DUCKS COUNTY. 



fact that the jury, wliich laid ott the township, spelled the word, plain enoii^ 
MakeRcld. 

The "falls of Delaware" was an objective point to Penn's first imniig;r,-iii 
for a little colon\- of English settlers had gathered there several xears bei'.ri 
whither inanv directed their footsteps uprjn landing, whence they spread '.■- 
into the wilderness ])eyond. Several settlers pushed their way into the w.jm,';, 
of Makeheld as early as 1682. Richard Hough, in his will made about 17. ,. 
gives the following as the order of the land-owners along the river from li 
falls up: John Palmer. Richard Plough, Thomas Janiiey, Richard \'ick<.r-. 
SanuiLl Overton, John Brock, one thousand acres; John Clows, one thousai. 
acres; William Yardley, five hundretl acres; Eleanor I'ownall, Thomas D"i!l. 
James Harrison. Thonia- Hudson, Daniel 2vliInor, two hundred and fifty acrc>. 
Josejjh Milnor, two hundred and fifty acres; Henry Pond and Richard H'Xi.;'- 
five iiundred acres, warrant dated September 20th. 1685. patent July 30tl-,. 10^7. 
Harrison owned in all live thousand acres here and elsewhere, and Bond wa- .i 
considerable proprietor. The usual quantity held by settlers was from two hun- 
dred an^l fifty to one thousand acres.- The parties named held nearly all tin- 
land in the township in 1704. The tract m William Yardley covered the site ' ' 
Yardley, and, after his death, his son lliomas established a ferry t'uT-. 
called "Yardley's ferry," which the Assembly confirmed to him in 1722. ''!'.:■ 
soon after became an important point, and, later in the century, when the tli^cc 
great roads leading to Philadelphia, via the Falls, Four Lanes end, now I,a;i^- 
home, and Xewtown terminated there, the ferry became a thoroughfare of traw! 
and traffic for a large section of East Jerse\-. 

Richard Plough, fmm Maccle?fieid, county Chester, England, arrived in 
the ship Endeavor, of I,on<!un, 7th mo. 21/h. 16S3, with four servants, or >!e- 
pendants. Pie settled on the river front, Bucks counfv, taking up two tracts i-: 
land, one two miles below the site of Yardley, the other joining Penn's manor ■■! 
Highlands; the upper having a width of half a mile on the river, and rnnn ti.: 
back a mile and three quarters, the lower extending inland nearly three mi!'- -. 
with a width of a quarter of a mile. Richard Hough married Margery 
daugliter of John Clows, ist mo.. 17. i'j^,V4. in th.e presence of many frirf'i- 
This was one r.f the earliest marriages among the English settlers, and Will-.a:'' 
Yardlev and Thonias Janncy were apjiointed to see that it was "orderly d-"'- 
and performed." Five cluldren were born of this marriage; Mary. Sarah. K'.-''i- 
ard. J(.ihn and J'iseph. wli<i intermarried with the families of P.ainbridge. Sh:'- ;■ 
cross, Brown, (lumblv. Taylor and West, and left many descendants. Pr. 
Silas Plough, son of Isaac IPiugh and Edith Hart, was a great-grand- m "i 
Richanl Hough, the innnigrant and his wife; a descendant of T'jhn Hart. .1 
minister among p-rieivls from Witney, Cixfordshire, England, who settled '■'■'■ 
Bybcrry. Philadelphia county, 1682. John Hough, Cheshire, England, w!' > 
arrive<l the same year as Ricliard Plough, with his wife Hannah, was probab ;■ 
a cousin. 

Richard TPiugh early became pr(~)niinent in the new colony in political. - '■ 
cial and religious affairs. He was a leading member in Falls- meeting, and i^'- 

dating b.iok tn xhr thirtcoiitli century, niul O'Mit.iiii'; *omc curious ton!'/=! of the ?i^--- 
family. Tlio curfew i^ >til! runt; at 8 p. 111. 

2 Tlu- f'.'l^'wiui: were the laud-owners in .Makefieli! in ifvS^: Ricliard Hoii£;li. I<t" "' 
Baker, Jf.seph Milnor, Daniel Milnor, Tlionia-; Hu<lsi)ii. James Harri-ion. T!;n-.7'a.-; I'"' 
Henry Sidw-I',. F.dward PutTe, Klcanor Pownall. \Villi;mi P.nvnall, John Clows. ]""-' 
proek, San'U'.I O'.srliu. TlMnias Janney, Kicliard X'ieker^. 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COi'XTV. 83 

joro the meeting house was built, iCxjo. his house was one of the meeting places 
..f the Bucks county quarterly .meeting. He was one of the jury tiiat laid out 
the original townships of the county, lOfjJ ; represented the county in the Provin- 
cial Assembly of 1684, 1688, 1690, 1697, 1699, 1700, 1703, 1704, and was a 
ir.einber of the Provincial Council, 1693, and 1700. He was active in both 
bodies, and left his impress on the early legislation of the Pro\-ince. He held 
.'ilier public otiices, including that of justice of the county, and, 1700, William 
Penn appointed Richard Hough, Phineas Pemberton and William Biles, a 
court of inquiry to investigate the state of his (Penn'sJ affairs in the Province, 
while in the meridian of his usefulness, Richard Hough met an untimely death, 
being drowned in the Delaware, ^larch 25, 1705, on his way from his home to 
i'hiladelphia. His will is dated 2^Iay i, 1704. Among the old marriage certi- 
ficates that have fallen into our hands, is that of "Robert Smith, ^Makeheld town- 
>liip. Carpenter,"' and Phcebe, daughter of Thomas Canb}'. Solebury, married at 
Ijuckingham Meeting, September 30, 1719. It was formally drawn on parch- 
ment, and the signature well executed. It bears the names of Bye. Pearson, 
Eastburn, I'ell, Paxson, and many others, whose descendants still worship at 
the meeting. 

The Yardleys are supposed to have come into England with \\'illiam the 
Conqueror, but the name is not met with tmtil 1215, when \\'illiam Yardley 
appears as a witness at the signing of Magna Charta. From that date all 
trace of the name is lost until 1400, and after that, the trace is complete. The 
first immigrant of the name to come to America was Williani Yardley, of 
Lansclough, Staffordshire, who, with wife Jane, sons Enoch. \\'illiam and 
Thomas, and servant Andrew Heath," arrived at the Falls, Bucks county, 
September 28, 16S2. Pie located 500 acres on the west bank of the Delaware 
covering the site of Yardley, Lower JMakefield township. The homestead was 
called "Prospect Farm," a name it still retains, and is in possession of a member 
of the family.* The warrant was dated October 6, 16S2. and the patent Janu- 
ary 23, 1687. William Yardley, born 1632, and a minister among Friends at 
twent\-tive, was several times imprisoned. From the first he took a prominent 
part in the affairs of the infant colonx'. He signed the Great Charter, repre- 
sented Bucks county in the first Assembly, antl was a mcmlier of the Executive 
Council. He was an uncle of Phineas Pemberton, one of Penn"s most trusted 
friends and counselors, but in the midst of his usefulness, William Yardley 
died. i6j3. and his wife and children soon followed him. Thomas Janney 
wrote of him, about the time of his deatli : '"Tie was a man of sound mind and 
good understanding." William Yardley and his family being dead, his prop- 
erty in America reverted t" his heirs in luigland, his lirother Thomas and 
nephews, Thomas and .Samuel. S(jns of Thomas. In 1694, Tliomas, the _\-ounger 
son, came over with ])<)wer of attorney to settle the estate. "rVos])ect Farm" 
became his property by purchase, and he settled in Lower Makefield, spending 
liis life here, 12 month, 1706. Thomas Yanllev married .\nn. daughter of 
William Biles, the wedding taking place at Pennsbury, an., they had issue 
ten children: Marv. Jane, Rebecca, Sarah, jovce, ^\"iIliam, Hannah. Thomas, 
Samuel, and Samuel second. Tluis Tli<niias Yar<lle\- ijecame the ancestor of 



3 They came in tlie ship "Fricmrs Adventure," and .Xndrew Heath m.irried the 
■vvidow of William Venablcs. 

4 Dr. Riicknian irive^ it a-; hi-; opinion that the ori'jin.-d hr.n^e of William Vardlcy 
"vsas on the Dolington r^'ad. a mile from the village of Yardley. 



84 HISTORY OF BUCKS COUNTY. 



all that bear the name in Bucks county and many in other parts of the counir.. 
with a numerous posterity in the female line. There is another Yardley fairij, 
in Bucks descended from a Richard Yardley of Solebury township, supposed i.> 
he of the same ancestry as the Lower ^[akefield Yardleys, but it has not ^x; 
been established. Samuel Yardley, Doylestown, who married Mary Houg'i, 
belonged to tlie Solebury family. 

Of the old !Maketield families, the Briggscs trace their descent, on the pa- 
ternal side, back nearly two centuries, through the Briggses, Storys, Croasda'e^. 
Cutlers and Plardings, to Ezra Croasdale, who married Ann Peacock, 10^7. 
On the maternal side the line runs back through the Taylors, Yardleys, etc. :•> 
John Town, who married Deborah Booth, 169 1. Barclay Knight's male line 
on the paternal side, in so far as the Z^Iakefleld family is concerned, runs back 
three generations to Jonathan Knight, who married Grace Croasdale, 174'^. 
while his mother's ancestrv, on the paternal side, runs back to Job Bunting, win. 
niarried Rachel, daughter of Henry Baker, 16S9, and on the maternal to \\'illiar.: 
and Margaret Cooper, through the Idens, W alnes, the Stogdales and W'oo!- 
stons. The Stocktons, more recent in the township, are a collateral bran.;h 
of the Princeton family. The first in this county was John Stockton, born 
June 15, 1768, who was the son of John, a New Jersey judge, a nephew of Rici-.- 
ard Stockton, the Signer. The latter descended from Richard, a Friend, w]v> 
came to America between 1660 and 1670, first settled on Long Island and after- 
ward purchased a large tract of land near Princeton. John's father and brot'i- 
ers, owning large landed estates, remained lo_\'al to the crown in the Revolu- 
tionary struggle, and lost their lives in the war and their property by confisca- 
tion. John Stockton settled near Yardleyville, in Lower Makefield, and marrie.'i 
?vlary \'ansant. in 1794, who died August 19, 1844. They had ten children, 
Ann, Joseph, Sarah, Eliza, Mary Ann, John B., Charity, Isaiah and Eleanor, 
who intermarried with the Hibbses, Leedoms, Derbyshires, Browns, Palmers 
and Houghs. The descendants are numerous in the lower end of the county, and 
among them was the late Doctor John Stockton Hough, of Philadelphia. He wa.- 
a son of the late Eleanor, who married William Aspy Hough, of Ewing, Xo\'. 
Jersey. The Meads were in r\Iakefield as early as i'/-\-\. when Andrew Ellet 
conveyed, to William Mead two hundred and twenty acres on the Delaware, 
adjoining Richard Hough. Pie sold his land to Hezekiah Anderson in I74r' 
and left tlie township. Ellct was also an early settler, and his patent is dated 
September 2f\ 1701. 

Makefield had been settled near three-quarters of a century before tlie 
P"riends b.ad a meeting house to worship in — in all those long years going dowTi 
to Falls. In 1719 tile "upper parts" of Makefield asked permission of Falls t'"' 
have a meeting on first-days, ior the winter season, at Samuel Baker's, John 
Baldw ;n's ancl Thomas Atkinson's which was allowed. In 1750, the Falls 
monthiv gave leave to the Makefield Friends to hohl a meeting for worship 
every other Sunday, at the houses of Benjamin Taylor and Benjamin Gilbert. 
because of the difficulty of g'ling down there. A meeting-house was built, in 
1752, twenty-five 1>> thirty feet, one story high, which was enlarged in 1764. 
by extending the n^rth citil twenty feet, at a cost of £120. 

The town>hip presents us a relic of lier early days, in an ancient buri;i! 
place, called th.e "old stone graveyard," half a mile below Yardleyville.' The 



5 One account ."lays the deed was executed i nio., 7, 1686, to William 'V'ardley an'! 
otlitrs, in tru>t. 1: was tlien called "Slate Pit Hill." Down to 1800 it was the principa'- 
buryinv; gr.".ind for Fricn.ls in the township. 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUXTV. gz 



i;roiin(i was gT'^fn, Jurre 4, 1690, to the Falls ]\Ionthh- 2\Ieeting, by Thomas 
l.iiiiiey, before his return to England, where he died. Tliere is but one stone 
.-tanduig', or was a few years ago, to mark the last resting place of one of the 
"ruile forefathers" of the township, a brown sandstone, twenty-seven inches 
l';;^li, eighteen wide and six thick, the part out of the ground being dressed. 
Uu the face, near the top, are the figures "1692," and the following inscription 
below : "Here lies the body of Joseph Sharp, the son of Christopher Sharp."' 
l-or upward of a half century the two Alakefields were included in one to^vn- 
>li;p organization, and known by the name of Makeheld. They were still one, 
1742, but for the convenience of municipal purposes they were divided into 
two divisions, and called "upper" and "lower'' division. 

Adam Hoops, of Falls, owned three hundred and twenty acres along the 
river, in Lower ]\Iakefield. He probably died 1771, as his will is dated the 7t'.i 
of June of that year. Flis daughter, Jane, married Daniel Clark, the uncle of 
Daniel Clark, jr., first husband of Mrs. Gaines." The heirs of Adam Hoops 
sold the plantation to Clark, who disposed of it by sale in 1774, when he prob- 
nhlv left the county. David \'. Feaster, a captain in the Third Pennsylvania 
Kc-erves, Civil War, 1S61-65, spent tlie latter years of his life on this farm, 
Lower ]\Iakefield, dying there December 6, 1894. 

The Livezcy family, of Lower [\Iakefield and Solebury, of which the late 
Doctor Abraham Livezey, of Yardley, was a member, came to Bucks county at 
an early day. Jonathan, the immigrant, settled in Soleburv soon after Penn's 
second visit, where he 'took up a tract of land that included the old Ste[>hen 
Townsend farm— or. which was built a one-story stone house, 1732, and torn 
down, 1S48 — and the farms of Armitage, Paxson and William Kitchen. He 
married Esther Eastburn, and had children Jonathan, Xathan, Benjamin and 
Joseph, and was the great-great-grandfather of Robert Livezey. father of the 
present generation. The great-grandfather married a Friend named Thomas; 
the grandfather, Daniel Livezey, married Margery Croasdale,- whose eldest 
Sun, Robert, burn February 22, 1780, married Sarah Paxson, who died at the 
age of niufty-three. Robert Livezey lived with one wife the whole of his mar- 
ried life of sixty years on the old Stephen Townsend farm. His chiklreti are 
Cyrus, Elizabeth, Ann. Albert, Allen, Elias, Abraham, and Samuel, wItj liied 
in I .'^63. Previous to Samuel's death tliis familv exhibited the remarkable fact 
that both parents, at the ages of eighty-three and eighty-four, and the entire 
family of eight children. li\-ii!g, the \'oungest being aged fortv. Robert Livezey 
died, 1864, at the age of eighty-four. He was a Friend, and many years filled 
the i.ffice of justice of the peace. 

Henry Marjoram (present form Margerunri and wife Elizabetli. county 
^\ ilt. England, arrived in the Delaw are, i mo. 2, 1682, anil settled on a 330-acre 
tract two miles below Yardley. Fie then bought 281 acres in Falls. They had 
tui' children. Sarah born. 7. 17, 16S5, and Henry born 12. 7. 10S3. On the death 
•■I hi- wife, 8, 2, 1693, he married Jane Riirg?. a widow, the first marriage in ISur- 
::iii;tiin outside the meeting; we ilo not knuw when he died. l)ut liis will \\as 
ri-eorded 1727. The name of Henry Marjorum ap]icars as the owner of cat- 
tle. 1084, and the earmark given ; and one of the same natne. son or gran.lson, 
\\as one of the first directc^rs of the Newtown Library. 1760. The same 
.^_ear. he. or another Henry, went on a "voiage" to South Carolina with a cevti- 
'icate from FalU Monthly Meeting; but there being no monthly meeting tuar 

C> Oil the .niitliority nf GillK-rt Cnpo, Mrv D.-iiiu? is tlion;,'lit tr. h.ive hecii tiie d.iir^h- 
tT of Daniel Cl.irk, Jr., and ili.il her first hu^band was \V. W. Wliitney. N\\v York. 



86 HISTORY OF BUCKS COUNTY 



where he was he "could not deHver his certificate nor get an endorsement :' 
his behavior." In 1765 John Margeruni "was much overtaken and disordcri,'; 
with strung drink in a piibHc manner;" and 1766, a committee was appoint- ; 
to treat with Henry Margerum, who was accused of "unlawful conversatir.n 
with a young woman. Both were dismissed from meeting because they were ::. 
"an indit'ferent and unconcerned'' frame of mind. They needed disc:plinii\' 
and got it. The homestead was occupied by William Margerum, who .!;•.; 
there October 9, 1S30. His wife's name was Elizabeth, and their son, Enr,-. 
born June 30, 1782, married Rachel Vansant, whose brother John was an 
Ensign in the Pennsylvania Line of the Revolution. The latter had tiir^v 
sons, Reading, a second son, born February 18, 181 1, died December 20, i^'i~. 
and Garret, born January 22, 1813, went south in his youth, led an active bu-'- 
ness life and was killed at Memphis. Tennessee, 1891. The Rev. Willian 
Allibone Margeruni, Ocean Grove, N. J., a prominent ^lethodist Episcoj):-.! 
minister, is a ilescendant of the pioneer, and his youngest son, Winfield L., bcTn 
1861, is engaged in business in Philadelphia. Several members of the fami'.y 
served on the side of the colonics in the Revolution, Joseph and William \v. 
Capt. Stillwell's company. Colonel Keller's regiment. Bucks county mili- 
tia. I'he names of Benjamin and Jonathan Margeruni were on the rolls at 
difffrent periods. 

The Slack family of Makeficld are descendants of John and Abraham 
Slack, grandsons of Hendrick Cornelisse Slecht, who emigrated from Hol- 
land in 1652 and settled on Long Island. Abraham, born 1722. 
settled in Lower Makefield. He first occupied the farm in the northeast 
corner of the township, on the Delaware, subsequently owned by William Pfaff. 
deceased, but afterward m.ovcd to the farm immediately north and adjoining. 
recently owned by a Smith. He lived there many years and died, 1802. Slack - 
island, in the Delaware, was named after him. He probably married soon after 
his arrival, and his children were Abraham, Cornelius, James and Sarah, all ' i 
whom niarricd anil left descendants. .Abraham, the elder son. left but three chil- 
dren, who are deceased, and their descendants live in Philadelphia. The secoi;-! 
son, Cornelius, die<l, 1828. leaving a number of children, some recently livinLT. 
among them Mrs. James Larue. Lower Makefield, Mrs, Charles Young, Ed.ge- 
wood. and Mrs. Ealderston, Xewtown. James, the third son, born in 175'''. 
died on his farm. 1832, at the age of seventy-six, leaving one daughter, .-M'.ce. 
and three sons, Abraham, Elijah and James. Sarah, the daughter of .\brahair, 
tiie elder, married Moses Kelley, whose descendants are to be found in Xew- 
town, Fallsington and' Philadelphia. The late Mrs. Jane Harvey, wife of !>"- 
seph Harvey, of Xewtown, and Doctor Lippincott, Philadelphia, husband 'if 
Grace Greenwood, were two of her descendants. Abraham, the elder son 01 
James, died, 1835. leaving a large family of children, several of whom reside 
in Bucks count\-. .\mong them are .Samuel M. Slack. L'pper 'Nfakefield. Ji'hn 
Slack Keith, Xewtown, and' Elijah T, Slack, Philadelphia. .Abraham's de- 
scendants married into the families of Rich. Stevens, Torbert, Emerv, "McXair. 
etc. Elijah .^lack, second son of James, graduatcri at Princeton, studied divin- 
fty, was licensed as a Presbyterian minister, and removed to Cincinnati, 1817, 
where he died. i8ri8, leaving a large family of children, most of whom live in 
the southern states. The {laughter .Mice married David McXair. X'ewtown 
townsliip. and dicil 1830, leaving six children, a number of whose descendant- 
live in tlie ciiunty. James, the youngest son of .Abraliam the second. familinrl\' 
known in the 1o\\(.t end of the countv as Cai)tain Slack, resided on the farm 
where his father flied until l'^37. wIk-u he immigrated to Indiana, and setilc'i 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUNTY. 



,11 White river, Delaware county, where his wife died in 1845, •!"*' 'i*^ i" ^^47- 
He left six sons and three daughters, of whom but three survive: Doctor 
licorj^'e \V. Slack, of Delaware county, Indiana, Anthony T. Slack, Independ- 
iiiee. Missouri, and James R. Slack, Indiana. The latter went to Huntingdon, 
Indiana, 1840, with his license as an attorney in his pocket, and began life in 
ihe wiUlerness. In turn he was schoolmaster, clerk in the county-clerk's office, 
cinintv auditor, and State Senator. On the breaking out of the Civil War, he 
c>p<'Used the cause of the L'nion. raised the forty-seventh Indiana regiment, of 
wiiich he was appointed Colonel. He participated in most of the campaigns 
and battles in the West, from Island Xo. 10, in March, 18G2, to the surrender 
of Mobile, April, 1865. He was appointed brigadier-general, 1S64. and brevet 
major-general, March. i8('>5. for gallantry in the field. In October. 1873, he 
was elected judge of the Twenty-eighth Judicial district by eight hundred ma- 
j»-rity, in a district in which the Republican candidate for President had one 
thousand two hundred majority, in 1872." 

The Janneys, PJucks county and elsewhere, are descended from Thomas 
Janney, and Elizabeth his wife, Cheshire, England, where he was born, 1633, 
and died 12 nm., 17, 1677. His son Thomas joined the Society of Friends 
shortly after it was organized, and was frequently punished for attending meet- 
ing. He became a minister about 1654. In 9th mo., 24, 1660, Thomas Janney 
was married to Margery Heath, of Horton, at the home of James Elarrison, his 
brother-in-law. The}- came to Pennsylvania in the Endeavor, with four chil- 
dren, landing at Philadelphia 7 mo., 29, 1683. Jacob. Thomas, Abel and Jo- 
seph settled in Lower Maketield on the river below Yardley. He located a 
five hundred acre patent here, and another of one thousand acres near the 
Newtown line. He was a member of the Provincial Council and returning to 
England, 1695, died there, 1696. at the age of sixty-one. He has numerous 
ilescendants in this county. Stephen T. Janney, who died in Xewtown town- 
ship, November 12, 1898, at the age of eighty-one, was the son of Jacob and 
Francenia Janney. and the fifth in descent from the immigrant. His father 
had ten children and there was no death among them for the period of fifty 
years. In 1842 Stephen T. Janney married Harriet P. Johnson, daugiiter of 
William H. and Mary ( Paxson ) Johnson, and is survived by five chihlren. Tliis 
branch of the family made their home in Newtown township, and the liome- 
stcad farm is still in their possession. 

There are but two villages in Lower Makefield— Edgcwood, on the road 
fri'm Yardley trv Attkliorough. criiisisting of a store, postoffice. established 
1858, and Samuel Tomlinson aiipointed postmaster, and a dwelling; and Yard- 
leyville on the Delaware, at the site of Thomas Yardley's ferry, of 
ye olden time, now incorporated into a borough named Yardley. 
Dolington, on the line between Lower and L'pper Makefield. will be noticed 
in our account of the latter township. Yardlevville began to develop into what 
Americans call a village about 1807. An old map of the place of that date 
sIkjws a number of luhMing lots, anrl streets laid out above the mouth of the 
creek, and running back from the river, and on the south side were several loisat 
the intersectirin of the Ne',\ti>wn and l'n])er River roails. The onlv buildings 

7 (ieneral Slack iJii-J r.t Cliicago, smldenly, July 28, 1S81, from a stroke of paralysis. 
He was buried at Hiimnitjcloii. lii? home, the following Suiulay. July ,-?r. followed to the 
prave by a very large concourse of mourning relatives and friends. Distinguished men 
Were present from all parts of the state and the sermon and eulogies pronounced over his 
remains bespeak the higli eieeni in which General Slack was held. 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUNTY. 



there were tlie old tavern near the ri\rr hank, and tlie dweUincrs nf rirnwn. f'i, 
cock. Easthurn and Depue. At this time the ferry was lialf-a-niile helnw t';. 
bridge, and boats landed npjjoiite tlic farm house of Jolly L-om^shore. One I low,' 
kept the ferry on the Xew Jersey side, and it was as often called Howell's ;; 
Yardley's ferry. The hrst store house in tlie place was built by the widow ■■: 
Thomas Yardley. An old tavern stood at this side of the ferry, kept bv \'Mv, 
Jones, and subsequently. P.cnjamin Flemniing. When the ferry was mow 1 
up to the site of the bridge, a tavern, now the "W hite Swan," was built ther. . 
and first kept by one Grear. The house was refused license. 1892, and siuvx 
then has been kept as a suinmer boarding house, and a "'Cyclers'' roadliouso. 
N'eill \'ansant bought the old Yardley mansion, with mills and some two hun- 
dred acres of land, whicli then included the whole of the village. The mansir.'.i 
and the mills were subsequently owned bv Richard ^Mitchell. Atlee and Mahl":i 
Dungan. The latter sold the property to William Yardley,- whose heirs ^till 
own it. Among the earliest houses in the place, were the small frame tenement 
on John Blackfan's laml near the creek, the three-story stone house calleil tlic 
"Wheat Sheaf," because there was a sheaf of wheat cast in the iron railing in 
front of the second story, and a small frame and stone house east of the cana' 
above Bridge street. Charles Shoemaker was the first lock-tender on clio 
canal at Yardleyville, appointed in 183 1. In 1S93. a county bridge was Innlt 
across the canal at the fnot of College avenue. The third stcDre was kein by 
Aaron LaRue in the "Canal storehouse." He joined church, emptied his lic|Uiir 
into the canal and set it on tire. His son, James G. LaRue, killed a negro in t!ii> 
storehouse for abusing his nindTcr and the grand jury ignored the bill. A gen- 
eral store was once kejn in this house by the late Josiah B. Smith of Newtown, 
but was burned down in 1801. The great freshet of 1S41 carried the brid,L;c 
away. The Yardley of today is a much more pretentious village than it< 
ancestor of seventy-five years ago. and the word "ville" has been knocked nil 
its name by the age of improvement. It now contains several industrial estcilv 
lishments. made up of a steam spoke and handle factory, steam sawmill, plate 
and plaster mills, steam felloe works, two merchant fiour mills, several drv 
goods stores and groceries, coal and lumber yards, four public houses, a gr,"dc ! 
school, three churches and Friends meeting house, and a Catholic congrega- 
tion worship in the Odd Fellows Hall. The Bound Brook railroad from Phila- 
delphia to Xew York crosses the Delaware just south of the village. A post- 
otTice was established in iSj8, and Mahlon Dungan appointed postmaster. 

In the immediate vicinity of Yardley are two valualde stone quarrie-, 
from which many valuable building stones are quarried and shipped to variriii-; 
parts of the country. In a letter written by James Logan to Phineas Pember- 
ton. about 1700, he mentions that William Penn "had ordered a memorandnni 
entered in the oftice that ye great quarry in R. Hough's and Abel Janne\ ■^ 
land.s be reserved when thev come to be confirmed, being for ye public good 'U' 
ye county." What about "ye great quarry," and who knows about it now : 
Does it refer to the quarries at Yardley? In the same letter Logan asks Peni- 
bertcin where he can get "three of four hundred acres of good land and pf'- 
portii'inable meadow, in yrjur innocent county.'' In olden times, the children 
from the vicinity of Yardley went to school at the Oxford school house: bn.t 
in the course of time, an eccentric man. one Brelsfor<l. a famous deer hunter of 
that section, built an eight-square on the site of the present Oak Grove scln" 1 
house on the lot left bv I'homas Yardlev fi^r school purposes. At one time .1 
general store was kojit in this house by Josiah B. Smith of Newtown, and wa- 
burned down in 1S91. 



HISTORY Of DUCKS COUNTY. 89 



In 1S97. the "Oak Grove Iinprovcniciit Company" was organized for the 
purpose of planting- ornanK'ntal shade trees on the school lot, about one hun- 
<lred di 'liars being raided an. I expended by a few persons, resulting in a well 
shaded, cool and convenient park of three acres, and frequently used for relig- 
v'us. political and otlier public meetings. (3ther desirable improvements, are a 
public road along the Bound Brook railroad just south of the borough, and 
tlic formation of "Hampton Lake" covering ten acres, by damming a small 
creek and using the water for the engines of the trains shipping at Yardley 
station. It is convenient for boating, fishing and getting ice. Besides the im- 
provements mentioned, others have been made at Yardley in recent years, no 
ass important. In 1S76 a new Episcopal church, St. Andrews, was erected on 
the site of the old one built 1S37 ^"d used as a free church. The following year 
tl'.e Rev. John \V. Stephens' n. colored, collected funds and built an African 
Methodist Episcopal church, the corner stone being laid September 9. and dedi- 
cated November 4. In 1SS9-90 the Yardley National Bank was organized and 
built ; and opened for business with a capital of $50,000, January 20, of the lat- 
ter year. The comptroller's certificate was dated January 13, 1S90. The bank 
building is a tasteful structure in the center of the village. Buckmanvilie. a 
hamlet of a few dwellings, a store and post ofiice, is on the road from Pinc- 
ville to Dolington. The population of Yardley was 820 by the census of if^So, 
but at the present time is about a thousand. 

Yardleyville's name was changed to Yardley about the time of its incor- 
poration as a borough. 1S95, but we do not know the date. The same year the 
]>ul)lic lighting of its streets was introduced, first by naphtha lamps, which were 
replaced the following year by an electric light plant, which supplies IMorris- 
ville with a four mile current. The borough is connected with Doylestown, 
Newtown. Bristol. Trenton and other points by trolley. In 1897 the Yardley 
Delaware Brid.ge was repaired and strengthened, and the Philadelphia and 
Heading Railroad filled up the great tressel of the Bound Brook railroad across 
■tlie Delaware from the canal to the river, on the Pennsylvania side, requiring 
one hundred twenty-two millions, three hundred sixty-two thousand cubic feet 
I'f earth. The gap to be tilled was twenty-two hundred and thirty-five feet 
1-ng. fiftv-five feet high, thirty feet wide at the top and three hundred at the 
b..ttoni. The late Ge':irge Yardley of the William and Thomas branch, had a 
liandsonie place called "Linden" below the village in the long past, but its 
remains are owrthrown and ruined by the embankment of the Reading rail- 
road approach.. 

The surface of Lower Makcfield is gently rolling, with scarce a hill that 
<".e.;erves the name. The eastern end of Edge Hill, reaching from the Schuyl- 
kill to the Delaware, runs along the southern line of the township, and marks 
the northern limit of the priniary formation, tiere the surface is somewdiat 
broken. It is not so well watered as most of the townships, and has but few- 
crocks. The largest is Brock's creek, named after John Brock, an original 
si tiler. wliiKc laud lav along it. and empties into the Delaware at Yardley. Core- 
creek rises in the northwest corner of the township, but soon enters Newtown, 
thence flows through Midilletown to Neshaniiny. Rock run. which flows 
through FalU and empties into the Delaware below Pennsbury, rises in the 
southern fiart. The township is traverscil by numerous local roads, which ren- 
''■•■r all pc.ints accessible to the inhabitants. The soil is fertile and .well-culti- 
\ated. and the population is almost exclusively employeil in agriculture. The 
area is nine thousand nine iuindred and fortv-seven acres, with but little waste 
land. 



90 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUNTY. 



In 1693, the next year after the township was np^aiiized. the assessi ■ 
taxes of Maketield amounted to in. 143. 3d. In 1742. sixty years after it. 
settlement, it had seventy-six taxable inhabitants, among' whom were eleven 
single men. The next year there were only tifty-seven, but had increased !• 
ninety-four in 1764. In 1742 the poor-rate was three pence per pound, and nine 
shillings on single men. Thomas Yardley. the heaviest tax-payer, was assesse I 
at £100. In 17S4 the population was 74S, of which twenty-six were black-. 
and one hundred and one dwellings; 1,089, iSio; 1,204, 1820; 1,340, 1830, with 
taxables ; 1,550, 1840; 1.741. 1850; 1,958, i860; and 2,066, of which tW'^ 
hundred and twenty-seven were foreign-born, in 1870. In 1786 tlie joint com- 
missioners of Pennsylvania and New Jersey confirmed to Lower ]MakefieM 
Dunn's, Harvey's lower, and Slack's three islands in the Delaware. 

The first loss by fire in the township of which we have any record, was 
1736. when John Schotield had his dwelling burned. Collections, to cover the 
loss, were taken up in the monthly meetings. 



CHAPTER IX. 



BRISTOL TOWNSHIP. 



1602. 



Interesting township. — Only seaport in county. — Original name. — Present name appears. — 
Richard Noble. — Reverend Thomas Dungan. — Cold Spring. — Elias Keach. — His- 
History. — Thomas Dungan's descendants. — Samuel Carpenter. — Bristol mill. — Bristol 
island meadows. — Fairview and Belle meadow farms. — Captain John Clark. — Ferry 
to Burlington.^ — Act to improve navigation of Neshaminy. — Bessonett's rope ferry.— 
Line of stages. — Christopher Taylor.- — Captain Partridge. — The Dilworths. — The 
Taylor family. — Anthony Taylor. — .\nthony Xewbold. — Bristol College. — Captain- 
John Green. — China Retreat. — \'an Broom Houckgeest. — Bath Springs. — Pigeon 
swamp. — The ''Mystic well." — Daniel Boone. — William Stewart, his schoolmate. — 
Bolton farm. — Landredth's seed-farm. — Hellings's fruit establishment. — Newportville. 
— Bela Badger. — Surface, area, population. 

I 
Bristol, next to Falls, is the most intcrestioij township in the cotintv. It 
played a leading part in the settlement of the Province, and here was located 
the first conntv seat, and justice administered for forty years. Being the only 
seaport in the criuntv, many of the early immigrants landed here, either conving 
up the river in boats or crossing over from Burlington, where some of the ships 
discharged their living cargoes. As there was sufficient depth of water, possi- 
bly some of the smaller vessels landed on the bank at Bristol. 

In the report of the jury, tixing the boundaries of the five townships laid 
out, i6<;)2, Bristol is located below Pennsbury, and was "to follow the river to 
Neshaminah, then up Xeshaminah to the upper side of Robert HalFs planta- 
tion, and to take in t'.ie land cif Jonathan Town, Edmund Lovet. .Abraham L'ox, 
etc., to Pennsbury, and by the same to the place of beginning." The name given 
to it was "Buckingham." no doubt after the parish of that name in England, 
and was so called iil the court records as late as 1697, and "Xew Buckingham" 
in the meeting records as late as 1705. Its present name first appears 1702, 
when a constable was appointed for "Bristol." The reason for dropping the 
original name and asstiming one less jileasant m the ear. is not known, pn .iiaiily 
because the township gradtially came to be called by the name of the borough 
growing up witiiin its borders. If we except the few '"Id renters" from the- 
time of .-Vndros. and still a few others who came when the Swedes and Dtitch' 



•02 HISTORY OF DUCKS COUXTY. 



held rule on the E'elaware, the original settlers of Bristol township were Engli-li 
Friends.' 

Our knowledge of the first English settlers is not extensive, and possih!\> 
not always aecurate. Thomas Hulnie, Penn's surveyor-general, owned land in 
this and other townships, but he never lived in the county. H:i 
occupation enabled him to pick up tracts worth having, and he apijear- 
to have availed himself of the opportunity. Richard Xoble, the first 
sheriff, apjiointed in 1682. uwneii an extensive tract on the Xeshaminy, above 
its mouth. William White, Richard Xoble and Samuel Allen owned tracts on 
■that stream in the order they are named, and eight proprietors owned all ti-.e 
land bordering on the Xeshaminy, from its mouth up to the Middletown lii:,'. 
Thomas Holme being the largest owner, tive hundred and forty-seven acre;, 
whose land lay on the stream hut a short distance, and then ran along the ?\Iid- 
dlctown line nearly to Falls. Jr.hn Clark, husband of Ann Clark, received his 
grant from GoveruDr Andros. .May 12, 1679. embracing tliree hundred and nine 
acres, and dying. 16S3. left it to his widow. The court took charge of Clark"s 
•estate at his death, and sold one hundred acres to Richard Xoble. which Penti 
confirmed to him in 1689. Samuel Allen's daughter, ?vlartha. was married to 
Daniel Pegg. of Philadelphia, at her father's house, Bristol township, April 
22,i6S6. Her husband gave the name to Pegg's run, and a street in Phila- 
delphia. 

The Dungans came from Rhode Island, and some of them were in Brisp:-! 
before Penn arrived. William, who was probably the eldest son of the Rev- 
erend Thomas, who came in advance to the Quaker colony where there was 
neither let u'lr hindrance in freedom to worship God, had two hundred acre; 
granted him in Bristol, by William iMarkham, 4th of 6th month. 1682, and con- 
firmed by Penn the 5th of 5th month, 1684. He is denominated an "old renter." 
About the same time there came a small colony of \\'elsh Baptists, from Rhoile 
Island, who settled near Cold Spring. This spring, one of the finest in the 
•county, is near the river bank three miles above Bristol, and covers an area of 
about fifty feet square. It is surrounded by a stone wall, is well shaded and 
constantly discharges abruit ( ne hundred and fifty gallons per minute. In 1684 
the Welsh immigrants were followed by the Reverend Thomas Dungan and 
his family, who settled in the immediate vicinity. He soon gathered a congre- 
gation about him and organized a Baptist churcli, which was kept together until 
1702. But little is known of its history. If a church building were ever erected 
it "has entirely disajipeared, but the graveyard, overgrown with briars and trees 
and a few dilapidated toml.)sti')ncs. remains. It is fiftv feet square, and near the 
turnpike. The land was probably given by Thomas Stanaland. who died March 
16, 1753. and was buried in it. Thomas Dungan. rhe pastor, died in 16SS, and 
was buried in the yard, but several years afterward a handsome stone wa; 
erected to his memory at Southampton. ''= Two pastors at Pennypack were 

I Xanies of origln.-il sctlicrs: Thomas Holme, John Spencer, John Boyden, Samutl 
Allen, J.jhn Swart, Jacob Pclisson. Richard Xoble. Ann Clark. Samuel Clift, William 
Dun.L^an, Mordecai Bowden. John Tully, Tli^^'mas Dungan. Clement Dungan. Ricliard 
Lundy. TIinma= Bmvnian. Thrnia^ Rvideyard, William Ilaucrc. Christopher Taylor. Franc;- 
■Richardson, ririlntli Joins and Edward Benne:. 

T'j The Rev. lli'mia- r)imgan wa< born in Lond^m. Entriand, about l6,u. and ni 
1637 came uilh hi; iii";t;er and stcp-fatlur. Jerennali Clarck. to Xew England, settling at 
iS'fwpori, R. I., where young Dimgan doubtless spent hi> boyb.o.jd anil youth. He probably 



HISTORY Of BUCKS COi'XTV. 93- 



l/,;ri(.'d in this old graveyard, the Reverend Samuel Jones, who died December 
It,, 17J2, and Joseph Wood. September 15, 1747. 

The Reverend Elias Keach, the first pastor at Pennvpack. was ordainel 
bv Mr. Dungan. The history of this able minister of the gospel is full of in- 
lerest. He came from Lonclon, it)!^6, representing himself as a minister and 
v.a.N asked to preach at Pennypack. ^lany tlockcd to hear the young London 
divine. In the midst of his sermon he suddenly stopped as if attacked by sick- 
ness, burst into tears and confessed that he was an impostor. He dated his 
conversion from that moment. He now retired to Cold Spring to seek counsel 
and advice of 3.[r. Dungan. where he remained a considerable time. He prob- 
ably studied divinity with Mr. Dungan, who baptised him. He became the pas- 
ter at Pennyjjack, 16S7, but returned to England, lOoi. whore he preached 
with success until his death. 1699. He married a daughter of Judge More, 
after whom Moreland township was named. His only daughter, Hannah, 
married Revilt Harrison, of England, whose son, John Elias Keach Plarrison, 
came to America about 1734. settled at the Crooked Billet, now Hatboro. and 
was a member of the Southampton Baptist church. The Reverend Tliomas 
Dimgan left five sons and three daughters, but divided his real estate between 
Thomas. Jeremiah and John, after the deatli of their mother, tliey paying their 
sisters, ^lary, Rebecca and Sarah, five pounds each. The sons and daughters 
married into the families of Wing. Drake. West, Richards. Doyle and C'ar- 
rtU.- William, the eldest son, married in Rhode Island, probably befoie he 
emigrated to Pennsylvania. We have the authority of Morgan Edvv'ards for 
saying that by 1770 the descendants of Reverend Thomas Dungan numbered 
between six and seven hundred. The 2nd of April, 1698, Clement, Thomas, 
Jeremiah and John Dungan conveyed two hinidred acres, above Bristol near 
the Delaware, to Walter Plumpluey. They probably left Bristol at that time, 
and removed to Xorthampton township, where the descendants of the family 
still reside. In March. 1774. the Cold Spring farm was sold at public sale by 
Thomas Stanaland. Samuel Clift .was an "old renter,", of whom more in 
another place. 

.^amuel Carpenter, born in Surry. England, who came to the province fr.im 
the island of Barbadoes, in 1683. and now a wealthy shipping merchant of 
Philadelphia, was the largest land-holder in Bristol township at the close of 

recvived part of his education .it Roger Willianii' CL-lebrated school. He became a freeman 
<i the colony, 1656. Having embraced the Baptist faith, he entered the ministry, and, 
shortly after Monmouth county, New Jersey, was settled by the English, Mr. Dungan 
took up land there, but sold it, 1674. After Pemi received the grant of Pennsylvania he 
removed to the Dela\vare and setdcd at Cold Spring, founded the first Baptist church 
in the colony and died. 1688. Penn granted 400 acres to Thomas Dungan and son Clement. 
The Rev. Thomas Dungan married Elizabeth Weaver, of Rhode Island, and she died, 
1690. They had issue: William, born about 165S, married Deborah Wing, died i/i.V. 
Clement, died in Northampton township, 1732; Elizabeth, married Xatbaniel West. New- 
port, Rhode Island; Th6mas, born about 1670, married Mary Drake, died June 23. 17591 
Rebecca, married Edward Doyle; he died 1703. and. in his will, names wife, Rebecca, and 
sons Clement and Edward, both of New Britain ; Jeremiah, born about 1673, married 
Deborah Drake, died .\pril 6, 1761; Mary, married a Richards, and had issue: John, died 
unmarried and without issue, and Sarah married James Carrell and had issue. 

2 The Doyle and Carrell the Dungan daughters married, were members of the 
families of the same narm; living in Warminster and Doylestnwn, respectively. 



■94 



HISTORY or BUCKS COrXTV. 



■the century. lie purchased some two thousand acres contiguous to Eri.-.t-_ ; 
includhig the site of the borough. Among the tracts he bought were th':— ,• 
of John LHler, Samuel Llift, Edward JJennet and Griffith Jones, ruiniing dmwi 
the Delaware nearly to the mouth of Xeshaminy, and afterward that of 'i'honui:, 
Holme, running back almost to the ^liddletown line, about one thousand f'.".- 
hundred acres. He likewise owned two islands in the river. He probabi. 
built the Bristol mills which stood on what is now Mill creek, a quarter of :i 
mile from the river, and up to whose doors small vessels came to load anj 
unload freight. The saw-mill was seventy feet long by thirty-two wide, aiii 
able to cut about fifteen-hundred feet in twelve hours, while the flour-nii:! 
had four run of stone with an undershot wheel. We do not know at what 
time Mr. Carpenter built the mills, but, in 1705, he speakes of them as bein;^' 
"newly built." They earned a clear profit of £400 a year. The mill-pond ihei: 
covered between 200 and 300 acres. The pine timber sawed at the mill wai 
brought from Timber creek, Xew Jersey, and the oak cut from his own k:nil 
near by. At that day the mills had about fifteen feet head and fall, and there 
was water enough to run about eight months in the year. About i7io-i_'. 
Mr. Carpenter removed to Bristol, making his summer residence on Burlingt.:ii 
island, his dwelling standing as late as 1828. He was the richest man in the 
province, 1701, but lost heavily by the French and Indian war of 170JS; 
and, 1705, he offered to sell his Bristol property to his friend Jonathan Dickin- 
son, island of Jamaica.^ He married Hannah Hardman, an immigrant frcni 
Wales, 1684, and died at Philadelphia, 1714. His wife died, 1728. His son 
Samuel married a daughter of Sanuicl Preston, and granddaughter of Thomas 
.Lloyd. Samuel Carpenter was largely interested in public affairs ; was a mem- 
ber of the Council and Assembl_\', and Treasurer of the Province. He ".s 
spoken of in high terms by all his contemporaries.* The Ellets, who dis- 
tinguished themselves in the late Civil war, were descendants of Sainnel Carpen- 
ter through the intermarriage of the youngest daughter of his son Samuel with 
Charles Ellet. 

The Bristol island meadows, on the Delaware below Bristol, forming a 
tract of rich meadow land, were patented to\Samuel Carpenter. They were 
then called liurden's island, said to contain eight hundred and fifteen and a 
quarter acres, and were described as lying between Mill creek and Hog run. 
In 1716 Hannah Carpenter and sons conveyed the island to a purchaser. In 
1774 an island near this, containing about forty acres, called Lesser island, 
was conveyed by John Clark to John Kidd. In 1807 Bela Badger bought the 
Fairview and Belle meadow farms. King south of Bristol, and afterward Bristol 



3 At one time Mr. C.TrpL-iitcr offered to ;cll bis I'.ristol mills to his friend William 
l^cnn. 

4 Samuel Carpenter had a bmther. Joshua, who probal)ly came to America with hiin. 
His wife's name was Elizaheth. ami their first chiUI was Sai7Uiel. liorn August 14, 16S6. 
and married Mary Yates, wlio wa- hurn at Che-tor. 1700. dauiihter of Jasper Yates. TItctr 
children were: Ju-hua. borji l-'ehruary ij. 1720: Elizabetli, horn Xoveniber 15, l/J; > 
Sanuicl, born May i(i. ijjS (on Carpenter'- 1-land) ; Mary, burn .April 2. 1730; Catharine, 
born July 10. T7.V ( '"^u Carpeulcr'- 1-land 1; J;;-per. born (October 14. 1734. married and 
hail one dauijlitcr. nii/abcth, born Aui;u-t 27. 17(13. \v'i>3 married .-Vbr.iham Cook. January, 
T'VO; Joshua Carpenter, first born of Jo>hua and Elizabeth, married and had one child, 
b.irn July 22. 1753. and married Hilary Roan. — Letter from Jasper Carpenter Cook. Phila- 
•delphi.i. May 24. 1S77 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUNTY. 95 



island, then called Yonkin's and subsequently Badger's island. The tide ebbed 
nnd flowed between the island and mainland. j\lr. Badger, at great expense, 
banked in about three hundred antl fifty acr^s of the meadow, making one of 
the most productive islands in the Delaware. The portion not banked in is 
covered with water at every high tide. A small part of the meadow adjoining 
Bristol was wb.arfed in to f<:irm the basin of the Delaware Di\ i>ion Canal." Be- 
fore the Revolution. Captain John Clark, of the British army, came to America 
fcpr his health, and lived on the Fairview farm, where Badger died. When a 
partv of British horse came from Philadelphia to Bristol, 177S, to burn the 
i;Tist-mill, word was sent to Captain Clark, who rode into the village and for- 
bade the distraction of property, on the ground that he was a British officer and 
iiart owner. The mill was not burned, and he soon attcrward resigned his com- 
niission. He was the worshipful-master of tiie Bristol lodge of Masons, and 
remained a member to his death. 

A ferrv across the Delaware, from Bristol to Burlington, was first estab- 
lished by the Provincial Council, 1709. A petition from the county-magis- 
trates was presented by John Sotcher, who then owned the land on this side of 
the river, and on which the landing was to be. In 1714, an act of similar 
import was passed by the New Jersey assembly, which fixed the rate for 
ferrving over, and prohibited all but the licensed ferryman acting, under a 
fine of twentv shillings. C)f course people crossed the river between these two 
jioints many years before it was a recognized ferry. It is not known that 
the landing of the original ferry was on the spot of the present one. About 
1721) Samson Carev petitioned to be granted the ferry from Burlington to 
Bristol. 

Christopher Taylor, mentioned elsewhere — one of the early pioneer set- 
tlers of Bristol township, is supposed to have been born near Skipton, York- 
shire, England. There he officiated as a Puritan preacher until he joined 
the Quakers. 1652. He taught a classical school at various places ; came to 
America, 16S2. and obtaine<l the grant of 5,000 acres in this county. He 
represented Bristol in the first Assembly : — was a member of the first Execut- 
ive Council, after Penn's arrival, and was also Register-General of the 
Province. At one time he taught a classical school at Philadelj/nia. His 
son Israel was sheriff of Bucks county, au'l his daughter married Jona Sander- 
lands, Chester county, 1^393. At the time of his death he was a resident 
of Tinecum island in the Delaware, and practiced surgerv. He died 1696. 

.\n act of Assembly was passed in 1771, to improve the navigation of 
Xeshaminy creek, which bounds Bristol township on the southwest. The 
stream was declared a public highway as far up as Barnsley's ford, now 
Xewportville, but the navigation was not much improved. At certain stages 
of tile water vessels of light draught can come up to that point. In olden 
tnnes there was a floating bridge and rope ferry across Xeshaminv about 
a hundred yards above the tuni])ike bridge at Schenck"s station, tlie foundation 
of which can still be seen. They were owned by Charles Bessonett," who then 



5 Posfilily tlu-sc ishiul meadows are the >:imc as Aldricks' inland of two centuries and 
a half agi). Xcxt M William I'cun. Samuel Cariiciitcr \va^ tlie riolie^t iiian in the Province, 
lb- owned tlic 'Si.ite Ronf IFmum'," Pliiladelpliia, in ^liicli Pcnn resided. 1700. Watson 
^■\V5 Samuel Carpenter was the Stephen Giravd of his period, in weahh. 

6 The Bessoiietts wiTe in Uensalcni as I'arly as 17JQ, and nn JaTni.iry ('k that year, 
John Rodman made .? c-invi yancc- to Jo]ni I!e-.-.onett. His will was e.xecuted March 4, 



96 



HISTORY OP BUCKS COUXTV 



ran a linu of stages from Philadelphia to Xew York, and kept tavern in Bri-i. '. 
In 1/^5 he and Gershani Johnson were authorized to 'ay out a road, from li;-,- 
sixteenth mile-stone, on what is now the Philadelphia and Trenton turnpik.;. 
through the lands of J. N'andegrift and William Allen, to and across Xeshair.- 
iny; thence through land of John Edgar and Joseph Tomlinson, and on to th.c 
nineteenth niile-stune, and to build a bridge and establish a ferry. These were 
the floating bridge and rope ferry. As early as 1700 the Grand Jur_\- pre- 
sented the necessity of a bridge over this stream, and William .Moore \v:i> 
appointed to view and select a site, the expense to the county was not 10 
exceed iSo. Whether it was built, and if so, where, the author is not informed. 
An early act of Assembly sought to open lock navigation from tide-water !■ ■ 
Bridgetown, but nothing came of it. The bill provided for the incorporati'jii 
of the "Xashaminy Lock & Navigation Company." 

On the bank of the Delaware, three miles below Bristol, stands what is 
known as "China Retreat" and Bristol College." About 1787 the farm be- 
longed to one Benger, an Irish sporting gentleman, who imported the famor.s 
horse "Messenger," he purchased of a brother of the Duke of \ork. It wa^ 
then called "Benger's Mount." He sold it to one Andre Everade \'an 
Braam Plouckgeest, governor of an East India island, who retired to this 
county, and erected an elegant mansion, calling it "China Retreat." The mar- 
ble used in its construction was brought up the river by Samuel Plibbs. Ben- 
salem, in a shallop. He sold the property, 179S, 361 acres and 3 perches, to 
Captain Walter Sims, for £10,706, whose son-in-law, Capt. John Green, was 
the first sea cajjtain to carry our flag to China. He made tlie round trip in 
about a year, going through the Straits of Sunda. He was the first to inip'Tt 
a full set of China-ware direct from China into the colonies 1772. and 
Shanghai chickens from a cross which makes our celebrated "Bucks Count\ 
chickens." Captain Green died September 24, 1796, at the age of 60, and wa^ 
buried in St. James church yard, Bristol. 

Andre Everade \"an Braam Houckgeest, builder of China Retreat, has an 
interesting history. He was born in Holland. 1739, and after serving in the 
Dutch Navy, in which two of his brothers were Admirals, he took service in 
the Dutch East India Company, in China. Amassing a fortune, he came to 
America and settled near Charleston, S. C, bought a nice plantation and be- 
came naturalized. Losing four of his five children and much of his fortune he 
again accepted service in the Dutch East India Company, and returned to 
Canton as Chief Director. He gained the confidence and esteem of the 
Emperor, and, b}- study and travel, became a recognized authority on Chinese 
manners and custotns. He wrute an interesting liook. dedicating it to Wa.-h- 
ington. He returncil to America at the end of nine years, and to his surviving 
daughter, who, meanwhile, had married Major Richard Brooke Roberts, L'. S. 



1774, and prrived Octoher 26, 177S. His children were: Daniel. Jolin. Cliarlcs. Catharine. 
Anne, ^hl^tha and Elizabeth. Charles, who lived and died in Bristol, was depnty pn~t- 
inaster, 1776. A settlement of his estate was filed, Oetober 2-. 1S07, but w-as not tinaliy 
settled until 1812. Charles Bessonett, probably the innkeeper at Bristol, was the 'son of 
Charles. 

7 Prior Ui this, the propi.-rty belonged to Thomas Clifford, and was known as "Rocky 
Point," fr.>ni the reef of rock in the river still visible at low tide. AhcT Clifford's death it 

p,'i5scd to the descendants ci hi> daiiiihter, SmitTi. and then to the Phillips family. 

Anthority of Israel Peniberton ; see aKo ".Mias Eves' Journal," Peiina. Magazine, iSSl. 



m-w 



,j.*ft^i _ 




;„ :i! miiid 



[ 




CHINA RETREAT, l?yO. 



A., upon landing at I'hiladelphia. April J4, 1796; bringing with him a great col- 
lection of Chinese curiosities, including a L'huiese coachman and footman. He 
now bought the "Lienger ^Nlountl" farm near Bristol on which he erecteil a 
jirincely dwelling, in the prevailing colonial style, surmounted by a pagod.i iroi;i 
which were suspended silver hells. The rooms were large and elegantly furn- 
ished ; the music room for his daughter was the width of the house, with xar.lted 
ruof, gilded and frescoed, and was noted for its. fine acoustic qualities. Here 
\ an Ijraam dis])ensed a generous hosidtalily. numbering among his distin- 
guished guests Washington, Lafa}ette and Prince Tallyrand. then in exile, the 
latter spending much of his time at China Retreat. On a festive occasion, it is 
said, Washington and Lafayette planted the two pine trees that stand in front of 
the house. Being a man of education and scientific attainments, he became a 
member of the Philadelphia Philoso]jhical Society, and of tlie leading societies 
"f Europe. His wife was a daughter of Baron \'an Recile \'an Oudtshorn, 
<iovernor of the Cape of Good Hope. His daughter on the death of r^Iajor 
Roberts, her first husband, married Ca[)t. Staats Morris, son of Lewis .Morris, 
signer of the Declaration of Independence. The oldest son of Major 
Roberts was named Lucius Ouintius Cincinnatus. after the Society oi the 
Cincinnati, of which his father was an original member. After the tleath of 
Major Roberts, and the death of his widcnv. \'an Braam sold China Retreat 
and returnetl to Plolland, his fine collection of Chinese curiosities being lost at 
sea. The family of the distinguished Hollander keoi'js up its connection with 
Bucks countv bv the great grandson, Erasmus Roberts, marrving, iSq.^. Helen 
Chambers, daughter of Major TlKmias Chambers, Xewtcjwn, anil grand- 
daughter of the late John Barnsley, 



.98 HISTORY OF BUCKS COi'XTV 



China Retreat was next occupied as a seat of learning under the name < f 
"Bristol College," in charge of the "Episcopal Education Society of I'e!iii>\'.- 
vania." The leaders in the enterprise were Rev. G. \V. Ridgeway and l)r^. 
Twyng and IJedell. The farm of ^>k:) acres, with improvements, was purcha-i..! 
in Slarch, 1833. for S20.OOO, and Si 5.000 additional were raised by subscrip- 
tion, the subscriliers contributing .'?75 a \ear per scholarship as a loan t.i 
students. The tnnldings were only sutticient to accommodate 15 or 20 stml- 

. ents, but the College was npeiieJ 1S34, the Rev. Chauncey Colton, D. D., llie 
first and only president the institution had, delivering an address. The niottf) 
on tlie ^eal was "Pray ye the Lord of the harvest to send forth laborers iiuo 
the harvest." The board of trustees was composed of the Rev. James Alilnur, 
D. D., N. v.. Rev. Dr. Smith, afterward Bishop of Kentucky, Dr. Henshaw, 
later Bishop of R. 1.. Rev. Levi Bull. Chester Co., Pa., Erancis S. Key. auth'.r 
of the Star Spangled Banner, Rev. S. H. Twyng, Jr., D. D., i'hiladelphia. Rev. 
John S. Stone, D. D., Rev. James May. John C. Pechin and John I'arr. Es.i. 
Lambert Day was Secretary, Edward C. Thurston, Actuary and Superintenil- 

. ent of Manual Labiir, and Jacob Lex, Treasurer. The President of the hoard 
was Dr. Bedell. 

As China Retreat ( rir Hall) clid not furni.--h proper acconimodations. a brick 
building was erected facing the Delaware, four stories, wich two wing>, 

.at a cost of $80,000. The main building was calleil White Hall, in honor i.^f 
Bishop White, and the two wmgs Pennsylvania and Clifton Halls, respective!\-. 
Its capacity was from 100 to 125 students, and, in the near future, there were 
about 100 in the college and preparatory schools from various parts of the 
country, all boarding in the building. Th.ere were only a few dav scholars. 
The faculty was com])Osed. in part, of the fnllowing: Dr. A. R. Packar^'i. 
Professor of Chemistry ami Natural Elistory : l^r. G. S. Pattison, lecturer and 
teacher of Languages: William .S. Serell and T. Alexander Todd. assistant>, 
and Robert Rose. Alexander F. Dobb and James Elulme, tutors. The Rev. C. 
S. Henry was on the staff in some capacity. For the support of the institu- 
tion a system of private subscriptiiin was organized and considerable mr:nev 
raised. The Bible was tbe text, and labor in the shoj). garden and on the farm 
the key note of the curriculum. In 1834. Francis S. Key delivered an addre.--; 



-*■ Vi a'a s ' .1 a B a =! . ^. (s? ■?■ rr 'if 1 i »,e ■ 1 1 1 a 

J3^s use , '•! c I '.\ .', j^ ."iJ- -J- » s » -* s » « a * : > 

JL , "vii. ■*..'*•=' ■^^*V**t«f ^3-^ ■■'-'.• '1; r;-: •!— -J* -■- ^••K-<".,Vi i*.j' , 



BRISTOL COLLEGE. ls:W. 







' .-" ,L_:"i t' 



^SFsKi 



,Ji^^ 



BATH SPRING NEAR BRISTOL. 



before the Philogean Society on the "Power of Literature." The attendance 
ihictuated; one catalogue contained the names of i^o students, another 156, 
including preparatory pupils. The names of several clergymen are on the 
catalogue. The students established Sunday School at several points, includ- 
ing Eddington and Hulmeville. the latter being the germ of Grace Episcopal 
church at the place. Bristol College came to the end of its career. 1839. many 
(if the students going to Trinity College, Hartford. The president was after- 
ward a professor at Gambier Theological Seminary, C)hio. After the college 
closed, tutor Alex. F. Dobb. who had formerly conducted a school at Lang- 
horne, opened a boarding school there the same }ear. calling it "St. James 
Hall." The farm was cut up and sold by the sheriff. 

In 1S43 Ca]itain Alden Partridge, a graduate and one of the earliest Sujier- 
ititendents of West Point, opened a military school in the China Retreat build- 
ing. At a meeting at the Tremont House. Philadelphia. May 23. 1843. the jiro- 
priety of e5tablish;ng a '"Literary, Scientific Military Institute"' there, was fully 
considered and favorably acted upon and a committee, of which General John 
l-'avis was chairman, was appointed to see the wishes of the meeting carried 
out. The school was put in charge of IVof. tlenry \'illiers ^^hirr s, a graduate 
of Norwich L'niversitx. and a jirofessor there. He was a civil engineer by 
profession, and subsequently assisted in laying out and building some of the 
leading railroads of the west. He was an officer in the Civil War, and breveted 
for meritorious services. He was born at Amherst count\-, \'irg'nia, April 7, 
18111, and died at St. Louis, May, i8y8. The school was closed in three years 
an(l removed to Harrishurg. The buildings were used for a hospital during 
the Civil ^\"ar, and snbse(|uently for a state school lor the education of chil- 
dren of colored soldiers.'' 

The Bath Springs, known from the earliest settlement of tlie county, and 
for years a fashionable watering place, are situated on the eilge of the borough 
r>f Bristol, TlTe waters are chalybeate and liad celebrity as early as 1720, when 
they were a summer resort. In 1773 the distinguished Doctor Rush read a 



S T!ie .-u'.thor is 
I'.ristol Collrge. 



Kl]tecl to the Rev. S. F. Hotclikiii for inf. iriii.atiim ri.-l.ntive to 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUSTY. 



paper on the mineral waters of Bristol before the Philadelphia Philosoijliu-.:! 
Society and the following year a Philadelphia newspaper says, "the Ijri>t' 1 
baths and clialyheate wells are completed in the most c<:>mniodious manner. 
Before bnildiii,s,^s were erected the visitors boarded in Bristol, most of the fam- 
ilies taking boarders, and walked out to drink the waters. General Miftlin aii'! 
familv Were among those who frequented the springs, and visitors even cau.c 
from Europe. The present buildings were erected in 1810 by Doctor ^linniek."'- 
who laid out a race-course on the western part of the tract. Alore fashionali'c 
and attractive summer resorts have turned the tide of visitors in other di- 
rections.- ' 

There were, originally, three swamps in Bristol township, covering nn.re 
than a thousand acres of her territory. The most considerable of these s 
'■p'igeon" swamp, probably named after Joseph Pidgeon, Falls, who died. ijjs. 
extend.ing from the head of }ilill pond to within two luiles of Morrisville. I: 
is three hundred yards wide, and contains about eight hundred acres. A> it 
cannot be drained and made productive, without heavy outlay of money, it i- 
kept in bushes and used as a pasture ground. It is crossed b\- several countr\ 
roads. In 1772 the Legislature chartered "The Pigeon Swamp Gompany, ' 
when some etiftprt was made to drain it. Hugh Hartshorne antl Joseph Haii. 
Bristol, were appointed to view and stirvey the swamp, and Christian ^ilinnick. 
Aaron \\'rii;ht and William Bidgood, managers for the owners. At this time 
it appears that one hundred and fifty-two acres and one hundred and eiglu 
perches were divided among the owners of contiguous lands, of which Thomas 
Middleton received forty-six acres, Benjamin Swain, seventeen acres, William 
Bidgood, thirty-two acres and seventy-two perches, .\aron Wright, sixteen 
acres and twenty-seven perches. Christian iMinnick. thirteen acres and one 
hundred and thirty perches, Thomas Stanaland. four acres and sixty-nne 
perches. Israel Pemberton, sixteen acres and fifty-nine perches, and \\'illiam 
Bidgood, Jr.. six acres and seventy-three perches. The other two swamps 
were Biding's,'' two miles northwest of Bristol, and Green's, three miles south- 
west, which have been drained and cleared, and are now good farm land. In 
IiScm:) a niad was opened across Pigeon swamp, and as early as 1723 a road \'.a- 
laid out from Green's swamp to Bristol. On the edge of Pigeon swamp, near 
the Mill pond, is what is known as the "Mystic well,'" whose discovery, it i- 
claimed, was brought about by spiritual influence. It is related that Danii-! 
B. Taylor, Lower ^Fakefield, was directed by the spirits to purchase a farm 
owneil bv Malachi Wliite. on which he would find a spring of wonderii:! 
medicinal properties, by digging down at a certain spot, just one hundred and 
one feet six inches. The farm was bought, some obstructions cleared away. 
the digging commenced in September and completed the following December 
They dug sixty feet through loam, gravel and sand, and bored forty-one iV^t 
nine inches through a har<I blue rock, ^\■he^ water, chalybeate in character, wa- 
reached. The well was tubed with an eight-inch iron pipe to the rock. Mr. 

8'-C Proliably ihe son of Cliristian Minnick, owner of the ferry on the Delaware, of that 
name, who died 17S7. 

8">4 The "Bath Spring?" have been closed many years, the house torn down and nmK 
built to replace tlie old buildings. A street has been opened between the site of the \\<>»-'- 
and springs, the springs fillod up. and the mill pond not used since 1888. The proper'y 
belongs to a private estate. The mill site is one of the oldest in the county. 

9 This spelling is probably rot correct. 



HfSTORy OF FUCKS COi'XTY. 



Tayliir built a boarding-house near by, at a cost of $13,000 and, for a time, 
!':;<.rc was some demand for the water, at fifty cents per bottle, and a few 
\;-iiors came to the well. In ii>('*j the water was subjected to chemical anah- 
.-is by Doctor Gaunt, of Piiiladelphia, and one gallon was found to contain the 
!, .iluwing: Carbonate of the protoxide of iron, 3.60, sulphate of the protoxide 
of iron, .25, carbonate of lime. 1.40, sulphate of lime. .75. carbonate of mag- 
r.csia, .57, sulphate of magnesia, .51, sulphate of potassia. .46. hydrated silica, 
.,<(>. organic matter, a trace; total 8.40. Several parties certified that the water 
had benefited them, and one old lady went so far as to say that it seemed to 
be "both meat and drink'"' to her. 

The Dilworths were early settlers in Bristol township, where James Dil- 
w'Ttli died. 1699. He came from Thornby, Yorkshire, with his wife Anna, 
a sister of Nicholas Wain. Si.>me of the descendants drifted over to Chester 
county and gave name to Dilworthtown. 

The Tayliirs, of Bristol township, are descended front Samuel Taylor, 
husbandman, of the parish of Dore. county Derb\shire, England. In the sum- 
mer of 1677 he immigrated to America, and landed where Burlington, Xew 
Jersey, now stands. He was one of the proprietors of \\'est Xew Jersey, and 
owned one thirty-second of seven undivided ninetieth parts. In the spring of 
I'^S he settled upon twelve hundred acres in Chesterfield township. Burlington 
county, the whole of which remains in the family. To his second son, Robert, 
he gave five hundred acres of the tract, now known as Brookdale. From him 
;t came to his son Anthony, an ardent patriot during the Revolution, 'who dieil. 
1785, and from Anthony to his eldest son, Michael. CHir Taylors are immedi- 
ately descended from Anthony, the third son of Anthonv. who was born at 
Brookdale farm. 1772. In 1789 he was apprenticed to John Thompson, an 
iKtensive shipping-merchant. Philadeljjhia. and 1793, entered into the same 
business with Thomas Xewbold, under the firm name of Taylor & Xewbol.l. 
In 1802 he married Alary, daughter and tenth child of Caleb Xewbold. S])ring- 
field. Xew Jersey. He retired from business, 1810, to Sunlniry farm. Bristol 
t'lwnship. which he had purchased, 180S, where he resided t':i his death, 1837. 
1 lie family from Samuel Taylor down have been Friends. He took great 
interest in farming, and was the largest land-owner in the county. Upon the 
failure of the Farmers' bank of Bucks county. Hulmeville, he, with others, 
restored its cajjital and caused its removal to Bristol. He was elected president, 
and continued such to his death. Anthony Taylor had eleven children, all 
■■f whom grew up. nine survi\-ing him: Robert. Sarah. William, Eilward L.. 
Michael. Caleb X.. Thomas X.. Emma L.. and Franklin. Caleb X. Taylor, 
die sixth son of his father, was horn at Sunburv. where he reside! nearl\- all 
his life. He was an active jiolitician of the Whig and Republican schools, 
.Ttul elected to Congress, 1866 and 1868. having been defeated^'' at three prev- 
!"us elections. He was succeeded as president of the Bristol bank bv hi-^ 
ui-phew. Benjamin F. Taylor. Michael Xewbold. the ancestor of Caleb Xew- 
b'lld. whose d.'iughter Anthimy Taylor married, and likewise an English Friend. 
immigrated from Xewbold manor, county Derbyshire. t68o. He settled near 
the Taylors. S])ringfield township. Burlington countv. where he bought a 
th'^iNand acres of land, still held bv the family. TlKniias X.. the sixth smi. A-.k-i\ 
'11 Philadelphia. 

10 Calcl" X. T.nyliir laliorcil tianl, for years, to diviilc Iluok- county, ami tlio questinn 
w:ii conielinic in doulit. Init h\i offiirt<; wi-re finally dcfcatcfl. 1S5J. wliiii lie seemed 01; the 
r''int of sucee,-^. Tlii< ended ;1ie Tigl:! 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUXTV. 



About 1830-31, Anthony Morris, I'hiladclphia, founded an agricul;:;: ; 
scho<3l at tht Uolton tariii. on the road from Oxford \'alley to TullytMv.n, , 
mile and a half from th.e former place. It was placed under the superinti.;i .- 
ency of F. A. I~mar. a pupil of the celebrated school of Hofwyl, Prussia, in i . 
conducteil on the Fdlenberg system. The school did not prove a success an' 
was soon abandoned. (Jn the same farm is the "Morris graveyard.'' a roiir..; 
plat of groun<l, surrounded by a stone wall and shaded by a grove of fine trec>. 
Several of the Morris and I'emberton families have been buried in the I'id 
yard. This farm was originally the Pcmberton homestead, and fs vet in tlv.- 
family. The farm adjoining is called W'igan, and both that and Bolton wltc 
named by the original proprietors, after towns of the same names they can.e 
from in Lancashire, England. '^ 

Bela Badger, for thirty years a prominent citizen of Bristol, came frr.;;> 
Connecticut, 1807. He bought the Hewson farm in the township, just ovlt 
the borough line, the Island farm, opposite Burlington, and the Marsh fanr. 
adjoining. He owned eight hundred acres, in all, fronting on the Delaware. 
He spent several thousand dollars in banking out the river from parr 
of his land, and recovered three hundred and fiftv acres of very fiii'.- 
meadow-land, and also spent a large sum to iinprove his fishery, known a- 
the Badger fishery, which he made one of the best on the river, Mr. Badgrr 
was a breeder of blooded horses, and dealt largely in fast stock. He made the 
first match against Eclii)5e with Sir Walter, and was beaten. He was con- 
nected with Colonel William R. Johnson, Virginia, in the famous match cf 
Henry against Eclipse, for 820,000 a side, run on Long Island, in ]\Iay, iSj,;. 
and others of equal note. He was the owner of Hickory, the sire of some I'f 
the finest colts since ^lessenger's day. He imported the celebrated horM- 
\'alentine. and was interested in the ownership of some of the best blooded 
horses of that day. r^Ir. Badger stood high in the sporting-world, and wa-^ 
considered b>" all as a man of integrity. He was a brother of Samuel Badger. 
of Philadelphia, and died. 1835. without family. 

The only village in the township, except the incorporated borough nf 
Bristol, is Xewportville. a mile and a half below Hulmeville where the Dur- 
ham road strikes the Xeshaniiny. The creek is spanned by a wooden bridcre. 
one hundred and ninety feet long, resting on three stone piers. The site "f 
the village was laid olt into town-lots as early as 1808, but it has not grown 
to great propnrtions. It was calletl "Xewport" at first, but somebody, with 
the American genius for naming places, added the s\ liable "ville," and the jn'-t- 
ofifice, when established, 1836, was given this name, which it bears to this day 
and is likely to bear to the end of time. There is properlv an upper and lower 
town, a ])ortion of the houses being built along the creek, and others on tlie 
liigh griiund aliove. It has a large saw anrl grist-mill, extensive carriage- 
works, a hall that will seat about three hundred persons, a public library, tire 
company, two >tiires. and a tavern. The population is about two hundred. 
Li the earl\- days oi the county, the crossing of Xeshaniiny at this place wa^ 
known as Barnsley's ford. A little cluster of houses, in the south-east corner 
of Middletown, on a road running froni the Delaware to Xewtown, lying partly 
in Bristol townshiii, is called Centerville. 

Bristol, like all the lower townships, has little broken land, neither is it 
level, but has the gentle uuilulaling surface, after you leave the river bott'Mi!. 

II ri.ihiiii f.Tnn i^ <;iil in the family, liclniiging to HfHnghani B. Morris, Philadelplii^i. 
to wlioiii ii caiiic I'v inhernar.ce. 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUNTY. 



best suited to farming'. It is watered by a few small tributaries of the Xesham- 
iiiy, and Mill creek and its branches, the main stream taking its rise at the base 
of the primary formation in Middletown. The farmers of the lower part of 
Bristol turned their attention to raising tobacco, and there and in Falls a large 
cro]) was produced yearly. According to the government return, made in 
1S71, Ihieks counly had within its limits four hundreil and seventy manufac- 
tories of cigars and one snuff-mill, the latter being at Bristol. These factor-, 
ics employed from thirty to fifty hands each and paid a duty of Si8o,ooo a 
year to the government. Since that period the cultivation of tobacco has been 
very much reduced. For a number of years, and until one was establi>hed 
in the borough of Bristol, the Friends of this township went to the Falls meet- 
ing, which many of them still attend. 

So far as we have been able to learn, the area of Bristol township has 
neither been enlarged nor decreased since its organization, in 1692, and con- 
tains now, as then, nine thousand four hundred and fifty-nine acres. The 
earliest enumeration of ta.xablcs. we have met with, was 1742, when they num- 
bered eighty-three, of whom fifteen were single men. By 1763. a period of 
twenty-one years, they had increased to one hundred and four. At the same 
time the heaviest assessment against any one man was that of Lawrence 
Growden, who was taxed on £130. The average- valuaticin was from five to 
ten pounds, evidence there was but little wea,lth in the township. In 1784 
Bristol had a population of seven hundred and sixteen whites and forty-one 
blacks, and one hundred and fourteen dwellings. In 1810 it was 1,008; 1S20, 
1,667"'=; 1830' I-532. and two hundred and two taxables : 1840, 1,450; 1850. 
I.810; i860, 2,187: 1870. 2.040, of which two hundred and four were of foreign 
birth, and one hundred anil twenty-seven colored ; the population of Bristol 
borough has largcl_\- increased of late years, and extensive manufactories 
erected. 

Bristol township. Bloomsdale farm, has one of the most valuable shad- 
fisheries in the county, that known as the Badger fishery. It was established 
as early as 1790. and was rented for a numloer of years at $1,800 for the season. 
As high as seventeen luuulred shad and twenty thousand herring, beside a 
laige number of smaller fish, have been cauglit in one day. On one or two 
occasions sharks, of the shovel-nosed species, have been caught. The rent for 
some years past has not exceeded S800. Anthony Burton's fishery has rented 
tor $1,000 the season, but of late years, for not over S400. Cash Point fishery, 
later Doctor Sallman's. adjoining Burton's rents for S300 a year. Barclay 
Ivins's, in Falls. S500. Betty's Point, owned by C. Ellis. S300, Birch fishery, 
S. Collins. S300. John Thompson's, $200. David Moon's fishery, where the 
largest shad have been taken, is known to have been caught in the Delaware. 
Weighing fciurtecn j.ounds. rents fcjr $400.'- 

1 1 1 J Prcbably an error. 

12 ProI)ati1y the oldest ash tree in the county, a vcnernlile many-ringed patriarch of 
the forest, was on the .\ndre\v SchatTcr farm. Brisiul township, and recently cut down. 
Many historic memorK-; clustered about its ancient lunvs. and its age is known to Iiave 
bren over one humlred years. Just before tlie company of Bristol Reserves inarched to 
the battle field ut the Civil war. a (licnic and banquet, a good-bye offering, wa.s held in its 
shade, but only four ot the one hundred composing the company lived to see the old 
patriarch laid low It w.i~ twenty feet in circumference and six feet in diameter. The tree 
produced ten cords of wnod. 



I04 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUNTY 



\o sketch of ]!ri.'-ti)l township would he complete without proper mentinn 
of IJloomsilale l-'ariii. the seed-gruwing ])lant of David Landreth and Sons, one 
of the most extensive industries of its kinds in the world. The reputation is 
international. It is I'u the Delaware, a short distance ahove Rristol, stretching 
nearly two miles alnng the ri\er. The tract, originally containing i.ooo acres, 
was cuuveyed to .Xndrew Rohinson, 1OS5, by Peini's Commissioners of Prou- 
.criy. Jn 1752 it helnnged to Colonel Alexander tiraydon, father of Captain 
Alexander (irasdon. wlio erected the lUoomsdale house that year at the north 
end of the tract. The son was an officer in Colonel Shea's continental regi- 
niem. and was made prisoner at the fall of Fort Washington, 1776. A suli- 
sequent owner was Leopold Xotnagle, son of the head forester of the King <n 
Bavaria, who, taking part as an officer in one of the German Revolutions, 

was compelled to 



r 



-JWf^ff^l^ « 



"^ 



■.^•t?'' 



Vi-X ' 



flee the country 
and settled on the 
Delaware. In 1807 
he erected a stone 
barn on the prem- 
ises, one of the 
largest in the 
State, and still in 
good preser\a- 
tion. S t e p h e n 
Girard was in- 
terested in the 
settlement of his 
estate. In the 
thirties. during 
the Moms Miilti- 
canhis craze, the 
farm was largely 
planted widi mul- 
berry trees, the 

sion,. barn turned into a cocoonery, and some silk produced, but to no profit. 

leu the .Merino sheep fad struck Ducks county, the owner went into that spec- 



HLOu.MSUAl.E I- ARM. 



bi; 

w 

ulation. 

David Lamlreth. the 2' 
the >ce 1 raising industrw 
I.aiidrrih nurserv. estalili 
knowledge fiir the busiin 

He planted an arli. ireirm that was net excelle 
of its rare eonifera and i\-<-idunt's trees, the 1 



, purchased the Bloonisdale Farm, 1847. '^"'^ began 
He uas brought u[) amid the plantations of the 
led I7.'^4. and was well e(|uipped by taste and 
s. He improved the estate in every particular. 
11 \ariety and developemeiit 
St noted being the gigantic 



growth of Rhododendrons. Kalmias and Azaleas. The system of culture tor 
vegetable crops fi>r seed jiroduction was interesting, the area broad, the expanse 
great : while the trial grounds. f^T the annual testing of ^1.000 to 7.000 samples 
of seed of vegetables, and grasses, to determine their relative purity and merit, 
afforded an interc-^tinc;' school of bntanic-al and pbysiolngical research. In 187^. 
steam plowing, by direct traction, was' inaugurated at Pdoomsdale. and steam 
flip.i.rint; and ste:ini chopj'ir.g experimented with in i8t^8, but were not found 
profifible. 

In lSSr)-OJ intrre-^ti"r,r experiments were conducted in the cultivation of 
the ( liiriese fibre pl.-mt. I\:iinie. but without success. David Landreth died at 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUNTY. 



Uloonisdale, Februarv 22, 18S0, having' passed a long life in developing and 
iinproving- -one of the most useful branches of practical agriculture. He was 
the son of an Englishman, who settled at Philadelphia, near the close of the 
eighteenth century, and was born there, 1802. At the father's death, 1836, 
the son succeeded to the business and made it his life-long occupation. Since 
David Landreth's deatii his sons have conducted the .extensive business with 
success, and are recognized among the most extensive seed producers in the 
world. Burnet Landreth, one of the surviving sons, makes his home in the 
lUoomsdale homestead. He served as a captain in the civil war. and has re- 
ceived many recognitions from foreign societies, for his services to Agricul- 
ture. Horticulture and Forestry, and possesses several diplomas and decora- 
tions. 

P.loomsdale farm has interesting historic associations apart from its in- 
dustrial repute. On December 25, the day previous to Washington's attack 
on the Hessians at Trenton, General Cadwallader made an attempt to cross 
the river with his division, probabh" at the Bloomsdale farm, but was obliged 
to abandon the design by reason of the floating ice. That evening about 
8 o'clock all the troops in and about Bristol marched down to Dunk's ferry 
three miles below.'= Oi ^^ay 9, 1778. while the British occupied Philadelphia, 
their flotilla returned from an attack on Bordentown, fired several shot at 
Blounisdale house, but without injuring it. On July 4. 1804. Aaron Burr, 
wliM had recently killed Alexander Hamilton in a duel, crossed the Delaware at 
the ferry on the Bloomsdale farm to avoid arrest. Joseph Bonaparte made 
two attemins to buy this estate, before purchasing at Bordentown. the first 
in T8t6. The ferry here was one of the earliest on the river above Philadelphia, 
and wacons and horses were set across in flat boats, propelled by poles and oars, 
signaling between the tv,-o shores bv a system of flags." 

On the banks of the Delaware, below Bloomsdale, are extensive estab- 
lishments for the preservation of fruits, rccentlv owned by Nathan Hellings. 
The main building, 50x80 feet, with thick walls, is so constructed as to avoid 
outside change of temperature, and is maintained at from 30 degrees to ''o 
degrees within, while a current of dry air passes constantly through the build- 
ing to prevent moisture. A large ice bed, under the center of the buiMing, 
cook the atmosphere in summer. Here great (|uantitics of fnreign and domes- 
tic fruits, in season, are stored for preservation.' The storage capacity of the 
establishmeiu is 10.000 barrels. 



1.3 Tliere is ?omc uncertainty as in tlie military operatirms at thc' Blnonisdale farm 
at this eventful period in our ivcvnlutionary history. Our reference in the text is from 
Genera! Stryker's exhaustive history of the "Battles of Trenton and Princeton." excellent 
authority in such case. Another authority, which we have lor.siotten. says "Cadwallader's 
division here t Rloonisdale ferry') crossed the Delaware into New Jersey. December 27. 
17~6. and heing ignorant of Washington's reaching tlicrc that evening. niarclie<l his force 
to Burlington, reaching there thnt evening. Here he received a letter from Washington. 
informing him of his victory at Trentrm oti the Ji'ith." Burnet Landreth. writing to the 
author on the suhject. says "General Cadwallader's crossing was the ferry tine mile above 
Bristol, called 'Miiinick's ferry.'" and cited letter of Col.inel R"dney. ai<l to Cadwallader. 

14 The Bloomsdale ferry, over a century ago. was called Mmnick's ferry, after 
Christian Minnick, its owner, and the name was changed. I7'15. Cliristian Minnick wa? 
a member of the Rucks C<nmty Committee of Safety. 1774-75-76. and the ferry was prob- 
■ablv named after him. 



CHAPTER X. 



BENSALEM. 



1G92. 



Beiisalcin the fnurtii township. — Origin of name. — Bacon's fiction. — "Manor of Bc;.- 
salem."— Original land-owners. — "Tathani's House." — Growdcn's tract. — Joseph Gr^w- 
den. — Trevosc. — Grace Growden. — Nathaniel Allen. — Samuel Allen. — The Vaiidc- 
grifts. — Old graveyard. — The Vanhornes. Vansaiits. et al. — The Tomlinsons. — Th.e 
Rodmans. — Rodnianda. — Large tree.- — Joseph Galloway. — Joined the British army — 
Confiscation of estate, etc. — Richard Gihbs. — James Benczet. — The Willetts. — Ricliara 
Bachc. — The Sickel family. — Xicliolas Biddle. — Dunk's ferry. — Slave Alice. — Tciwn- 
ship tax. — Presbyterian church. — r^fethudiit and other cinirches. — The Kings. — Major 
Barnslty. — Bridgewater. — .\ndalusia college. — Death of Doctor Chapman — Roads.— 
Oldest taverns. — Population. — Fisheries. 

Rens.-ilem. the fourth township of the grotip of 1692, and the last that 
bordered the Delaware, was to include '"all the lantls Ijetween Neshaminah anu 
Poquc.ssin, and so to the upper side of Joseph Growden's land." On throe 
sides these boundaries have never been disturbed, and the line with Southamp- 
ton is dotibtless the same as wheti the township was erected. 

The origin of the name this township bears has given rise to some dis- 
cussion, liiit, like stich questions generally, remains unsettled. Some prole.-; 
to iuid the solution in Lord Bacon's ingenious fiction of the Xew Atlantis, 
wherein he calls an inia,c:inary island in the ocean by the name of "Bensaleni, ' 
and the word itself is said to be a Hebrew compcviind, but as there is no such 
Hebrew compound, the Baconian origin of the name is. doubtless, without 
foundation. It will be remembered tliat the jury that laid it out said, in their 
report, the name of this township was "Salem," meaning peace, or peacefiti- 
The wonl Bensalem is found in otir county records as early as November o. 
1686,^ six years liefore the township was laid off. and in ifi88 the Growden; 
called their five thousand acres the "manor of Bensalem."- From this it would 
appear the name was first applied to the manor and not to the township, an>. 
that when the township was erected it was called "Salem" instead of Bensa- 



1 George Martin to J.ifcph Growden. 

2 Deed of Joseph Gr.juilcn to Stephen Xoll, for two hundred and two acres, "part 
of the Manor of Bensaleni," February u, lOSS. 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUXTY. 107 



Km. We are, therefore, left much to conjecture as to the origin of the name,, 
but there is no question the township borroweil it from the manor. Joseph 
(.iiiiwiien fixed the site of his homestead near the northwest Hne of his manor 
and the township, whence he could overlook a wide scope of wilderness country 
f.illing to the Delaware and Xeshaminy. Being a Friend and prone to peace, 
the word Eensalem fitly e.xpresse<l his thoughts and feelings. We believe the 
iinine^ was first applied to the spot he had chosen for his residence — the Hill of 
I'eace, or Peaceful }vlount— and then to the manor: and when, in the course of 
time, it was gi\-en to the township, he changed the name of his homestead tO' 
Trevose, which it bears to this day. It was an easy matter for this cultivated 
Friend, by the union of a Gaelic with a Hebrew word, to form a new word that 
conveyed to mind the delightful tranquility he enjoyed in his new home in 
the wilderness along the Keshaminy. After all. this is only a theory, but is 
quite as plausible as the one that borrows the name from Bacon's fiction, and 
invents a Hebrew compound. 

There were twelve original land-owners in the township, according to 
tlie map of Thomas Holme. 1684."' of whom one. at least. Lawrence Growden, 
\sas never an inhabitant of the county. The Growdens owned nearly one-halt 
the township and Gray or Tatham was the next largest land-owner. On or near 
the Neshaminy, aljove Rodman's creek, then called 3.1itl creek, was 
"Tatham's house," the resiclence of Tatham, a dwelling of some preten- 
sion, no doubt. He owned a large tract running from the Xeshaminy 
back to the center of the township.-' Waller Forest owned the point 
between the Poquessing and the Delaware, and John Bowen the point formed 
by Xeshaminy and the river. The ("Irowden tract embraced all the upper part of 
the township to the Southampton boundary, above a line drawn across it from 
Xewportville to the Poquessing. Joseph Growden also owned a considerable 
tract extending across from the river to the Poquessing, above and adjoining 
Walter Forest. 

Joseph Growden, a Friend, was not only tlie most influential man who 
settled in the township, but one of the first men in the county and Province. 
He wielded a large influence, and filled several important positions. Soon 
after his arrival he built himself a heautifid residence on the northern part of 
his manor in Bensalem, near the X'eshaminy. and opposite Hulmeville, which 



3 The word is composed of Ben, Gaelic, meaning a Iicad, a hill, and Salem, Hebrew, 

4 Lawrence and Jn>ep!i Growden, Tohii Gilbert, Waher Forest. John Bowen. Na- 
thaniel .^llen, Duncan \^■illianuon, Xathaniel Hardin, Samuel Allen, Sanniel Walker, 
Ckuw Jonson, and John Gray, alias Tatliam. 

5 Subsequent investigation satisfies us John Gray, spelled "Grey" in the ineeting' 
records, ami ",\ls Tatham" were one and the same person, ".Vis," a prefix to Tatham's 
name, as given on Holme's map, i6."^4, being an abbreviation of the word "alias." An 
entry in the Middletown Meeting record-;. ~. 4 mo. ifi,S8, mentions a controversie between 
Tfilin Grey (alias Tatham) and Joseph Growden. Doth were called before the meeting; 
• irouden declined to res[)ond because he belonged to another meeting. Gray afterward 
removed to New Jersey and appears as John Tatham. livin.g at Burlington, in what the 
early records term a "lordly and princely style." William Pcnn. in a letter written 
to his commissioners, 16S7, throws light on his character by instructing them "to put a stop 
to ye irregular grant': made to John Gray, alias Tatham. now discuvered to be a Bene- 
dictine Munk of St. James Convent, as ibey call it, commaniKd over by ye King." 



io8 



IlfSTORV OF BCCKS COCXTV. 



he named Trovosc, after the homesteail. in England. It was rather baronial- 
lookinc;- for aicountry dwelhng nf that period. An engraving of 1687 represents 
a large tW'Vstory stone h^ni-e. with attic, divided by a haU throngh the middk-. 
portico at the front door, pointed stone, pitch roof, and nine windows ai'..l 
■door in front. At either end was a wing containing dining-room, kitclun. 
■servant's quarters, ottice. etc. The lawn in front was adorned with a few trees 
of large growth, while the background appear.? to have been an unbroken forest. 
A small hrc[>roof office to the right contained the public records of the county 
for many years, and its injii door still bears marks of British bullets fired by 
a plundering party, in 1778. The walls of the main building remain, but it h:i> 
been greatly changed by its recent owners. The interior has been remodeled bv 
■jemoving the heavy banisters, wainscoting, corner-cupboards, etc., while the out- 



n 







'' -.'^l ' fee' 




GROWDKN M.i.NSlO.N, BENS.\LEM: KE.iR VIEU'. 



■1 
-i 

. 'i 



I 

.■:i 
. «i 

.'jl 
. I 



side has been covered witli a coat of plaster, and a story added. The noble trees 
forming an avetuie that led to the man.sion have nearly all disapjieared. Gabriel 
Thomas speaks of the (>nn\den residence, in i6<)6. as "a very noble and tine 
hou>e. very jika-^antly situated, and likewise a famous orchard, wherein are 
contained aliove a thousand apple trees."' In 170.8 Oldmixon bears testimony to 
the worth 01 Joseph Griiwdeu, and his great services in jilanting this county 
with English ci'lmists. Dying in 1730, his son 'Eawrence tciok his place. He 
was a man of ability and attainments ; was a member of Assembly, and Speaker, 
in 17.V.'): and a Commissioner, witli Denjamin I'.astburn and Richard Peters, ti' 
run the lir.e between l\-nus\ 1\ ania and .Marvland. .\t his death, in 1770, his 
real estate ilescendi-.! tn his datiglitcr ( I race, the wife i.f Josi-|ih ("'i;ill<n\a\-. 

Joseph ( irriwdvii'^i'' danu'uer (ir.ace marrieil Da\id l.lnvil. a I'riend and 
leading man in ihe IV^vince. He was burn in Wales in id^fi. and came ti> 



The c! 



HISTORY OF DUCKS COUXTV. 109. 



I'ciinsylvania, 1686. Ho lo^t a promising- little son, seven or eight vears old, 
under painful circmnstances. A relative, in whose eare he was left, in tht 
absence of his mdlier, [lut him into a closet in the cellar for a trivial offense, 
which frightened him into tits, of which he died. William Penn. who was in 
the province at the time, writes to a friend, "poor Grace has borne her affliction 
to admiration." She is spoken of as "a very tine woman, of great piety, good 
sense, excellent conduct, and engaging manners," a good endorsement of a 
Bucks county woman of the early day. Her husband died in 1731, but she 
survived him many years, and was buried beside him in Friends' graveyard, 
near Chester.' 

An old diary, giving an insiglit into colonial life at Trevose, says : "The 
Galloway family lived in great style and were looked upon as "great folks" by 
the neighborhood. Grace and her daughter Elizabeth would ride out in her 
coach and four horses and pay their visits, which were select. Jane Collison, 
Grace Kirkbride, ^lary Richardson, and her daughters. Mary and Ruth, were 
the only persons in the neigliborhood they visited, and them but once a year. 
They would stay and take«tea ; the horses must not be taken from the coach, 
but stand before the door, and the driver stands by and mind them until they 
were ready to go home. Harry W. Watson. Langhorne, in a paper read before 
the Bucks County Literary Society, January 19, 1S99. says of the old home and 
its guests in colonial days : "The man>ion is as solid as when built. 200 years 
ago. There has been but slight change to alter the outside appearance. This 
old house, in its day, saw many a distinguished guest. Here Penn held council, 
and laws were formed for the better government of the colony : here Franklin 
discussed the laws of electricity, whereby he brought from the heavens the power 
that moves the mechanical world : here the eminent but erratic Gallowav lived, 
who opposed the separating of the colonies, and whose influence was so strong 
with congress that the members who favored independence recognized his 
force and took urgent measures against him. This old mansion is worthy of 
consideration by those interested in historic research."' 

Nathaniel Allen arrived frtmi Bristol. England, December. 16S1. with wife 
Eleanor, and children Xehcmiah. Eleanor and Lydia. landing at Robert Wade's, 
Chester creek. He was one iif the three Commissioners Penn joined with 
Governor ]\Iarkham, to confer with the Indians about the purchase of land. He 
held the office of Crown Inspector of wooden measures, and had to attest their 
capacity as fixed by law. and affix a stamp before they could be sold. He took 
up a tract of land on Xeshamin\-. extending to the Delaware, and adjoining that 
of Joseph Growden, ''=. dying there in 1692. The blood of these earlv pioneers 
of Bucks county mingled in the fourth generation. In a previous chapter we 
have taken notice of Duncan Williamson, one of the pioneer settlers of Bensa- 
1cm. Samuel .\llen. also from near Bristol. England, with Mary, his wife, and 
children Priscilla, ^Martha. Ann. Sarah and Samuel, arrived at Chester in the 
Bristol Factor, December 11. 1681. In the spring he took up a tract of land on 

7 The Growden homestead is now owned and occupied by the sons of Charles \V. 
Taylor. 

714 Growden was a man of large wealth for the time and the inventory of his property 
is in the Register"* office. Doyk--to\vn. Ann mil: others Sij.ooo was in bonds and notes: 
$0,CXX) in stork, farm implements. :inc1 tiirnif.ire; :o head of cattle, a chariot, three car- 
riages, two sleighs, an ox wagon, and ten ploughs. His mowing was done with nine- 
.sickels. His home was tilkd uith I'ine furniture, and wines, rum and other drinkables were 
stored in his cellars. 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUXTV. 



the west bank, of tlie Xeshaminy, in Densalem. where he died 20lh of i;'!; 
month, 1702, and was buried on the homestead farm. The place was afterwari 
used as a family burying-grouiid. The homestead was occupied by Samuc! 
Allen Stackliouse in recent years. The first Samuel Allen conveyed, in his 
lifetime, a considerable portion of his real estate to his children, his son Samr.ci 
getting the homestead and two hundred and sixty acres, and two hundred acri> 
additional near John .Swift's mill on the Xeshaminy. in 1696 three hundrt.d 
acres on the east side oi the Ne^haniiny were conveyed to his son-in-law. Jr.jin 
Eaklwin. The following year he procured an act of Assembly establishing- a 
ferry over Xeshaminy at what is now Schenck's station, and was called Bald- 
win's ferry. The second Samuel Allen died in 1735. leaving his land to his sons. 
Samuel and William, and legacies to his other children. The one hundred and 
sixty acres of Samuel lay on the north side of the "King's highway," and re- 
mained in the family through six generations, and until 1871. Two generations 
of Pauls owned the tract. The homestead property is situated near Bridge- 
water. 

Among those wh(i settled in Bensalem, at a lat«»r dav than the first English 
colonists, were the \andegrifts.~ \'ansants, X'anhornes. Tomliusous, Rodmans. 
Galloways, Gibbses. Benezets, Kingstons, Jameses, ^^'iIlets and others. Sonic 
of these names became ]ironiinent in public affairs, and were of the higlicst re- 
spectability, and some C'f the families retain a leading position in the township. "'•! 

In 1697 four bmtliers \'andcgrift. Xicholas, Leonard, Johannes and 
Frederick, came to F.iick.s count\ and settled in Bensalem. The first of July 
they purchased of Juseph Growden. respectively, two hundred and fourteen. 
one hundred and thirty, one hundred and six and one hundred and six acres 
of land h'ing on the Xeshaminy. Johannes died }.larch. 1745. On the Bristol 
turnpike, just above Andalusia College, is the N'andcgrift graveyard, where 
rest the remains of many members of the family. The ground, half an acre. 
was given by Fulkard X'andegrift, 1775, and is part of the two hundred acres 
that Joseph Growden convened to Xicholas \'andegrift, in 1697.'"'"' Among 
others are stones to the mennjry of .\braham \'andegrift, who died February 
20. 1781. aged eighty-three \ears, and his wife, Charit\-, Julv 6, 17S6, aged 
cight\-tive \ears and six nv.ntlis. and |ohn \'andegrift. the husbaml of Aim, 



S .Mir.iliain Windcsirift uas constalilc. 1777- 

S' 2 The d:itc L,t arrival of the X'andeyritt i.rntlicrs is in doulit. -In the first cditu'i; 
it was 1670. liut was cliaiiced t>i Mi'ij. In the I.auipcii family, which iiuennarried into the 
Vandegrifts. is an heirlo.ini in [he -iiape rif a ylass Ha^k liniiii;ht from Holland hy the 
brothers, hearing a date of wli'ch tlie tii-t tluet- ligures are clear and di>tinct. the fourth 
no longer legible. They are I'v — hut whether they >tand Inr date of sailing, or the h'ltlles 
manufacture, the family cmii. 4 iio.-nively say, hnt was al\va\s suiipn^ed to be the latter. 

S-V4 The following hit of n.tnance is told of the wife of William \'andegrift, son oi 
Ceirnelius, and probably a descendant I'f Xicl^'las \':mdegrift. (•ne of the innnigraiit^ 
He married Lncy W'ilgus. Dutchess county, X. V.. daughter of a rich fath.cr. She lived 
at home until >eveineen. w hen >he and a eirl friend, wishin.a; to 'see the world" went down 
the Hud?i:in to Xew Vork on a raft, and tlieiice across the cinnitry to the Delaware. 
<;rowinC' tired oi wandering. :ti;d a-hanuil lo return home, they settled duwii near X'ew- 
|)'irtvdle. and ^U|iportcd themselves by spinning and dre->m.iklng. Here Lucy Wiigus 
bee.ime Mr.s. Wnidegrif;. .lime jo. 1707. and the n.other of f-.e children. The husband 
was born January. [70;. died Jimc 17. iS.u; the wife born March. 1773. died March J4. 



HISTORY OP BUCKS COUXTY 



who <lie<I August 2j. 1765. aged seventy-eight years. No doubt these were 
^iuldreii of tlie first comers of the name, and John was born Iiefore the family 
-eiiled in the county. Among other tenants of this old graveyard is Edward 
i'lter Aublay, a name nriw e.xtinct in the township, born June 8, 1767, and died 
.May 30, 179O. The X'ansants came about the same time as the V'andegrifts. 
jibruary 12, iGrjS. Joseph Growden convened one hundred and fifty acres to 
< ".urrett \'ansant,'' and the same quantity to his son Cornelius, on the Xeshaminy. 
I'lie will of Johannes \'ansant, of Bensalem, is dated October 30, 1714, and he 
priiliably died the following December. The Garrett Vansant, who died in 
Wrightstown in 1746. where he owned real estate, was probably son of the 
I'.ensalem Garrett.'' The \"anhornes came into the township at a little later 
] eriod. but after they had already been settled in the county. April 20, 1722, 
J.'hn Baker, of Bensalem, conveyed one hundred and seven acres and fifty-two 
I'lTchcs in this township to Johannes Vanhorne, of Warminster, and on the 6th 
I'f May. same year. Bernard Christian, of Bergen, New Jersey, conveyed two 
innidred and nine acres to Abraham \'anhorne, and. Jime 7, one hundred and 
seventy-six acres to Isaac Vanhorne. both of this county, which land probably 
lay in Bensalem or Southampton. John \'anhorne died in Bensalem, February 
15. 175S. at the age of sixty-six years. ^^ These families came from Long 
l>iand. a great storehouse of Dutch immigrants in the early days of Penn- 
sylvania. '- 

The Tomlinsons were probably in the township the first quarter of the 
eighteenth century. John died in Bensalem. where he had lived most of his life, 
in 1800. at the age of seventy-nine. He kept a journal, for half a century, in 
which he recorded many common-place events, and a few of interest. Among 
"ther things, we learn there was a slight shock of an earthquake felt there 
Hctolier 30, 1763. and a very white frost the nth of June, 1768. He liad a 
good deal to say in his journal during the Revolutionary war, calls the Ameri- 
cans rebels, which does not speak well for his patriotism, heard the cannonading 
at Trenton, and mentions frequent depredations by both armies. The summer 
• if 1780 was a remarkably dry one, and crops sufifered for want of rain. He 
records two shocks of an earthquake in Bensaleni the 29th of November, the 
same year. 

9 Then spelled Van^.^nd and Van Zandt. See Van^ant. \'o\. III. 

10 Ilarman V'ans.mt died Xoveniher Sth. 1815. aged eighty years. 

It The Van Horne-; arrived at Xew .Xinsterdani. 1650, and John, son of Peter, was 
one of the earliest of the name to settle in Bncks, 1708-10; he was a farmer, as were 
most of the race, and a nieniher of the Bensaleni Church, and afierwanl a vestryman of St. 
J.Tnies Episcopal, I!ri>tol. 

12 Nathaniel Vui-ant. a Captain in the Continental .-Vrmy. lived and died on the home- 
-•(ead in liensalem. near the village of Brownsville. He was tall and sinewy and excelled 
in rongh and tumble exercises of the day, such as running, jumping, etc. When the 
Kev.'liition broke out he raised a company for Colonel Masraw's regiment and was captain 
at Fort Wa-hiimton on the IUkNoh. lie was kept a prisoner a long time, but served 
ai;ain after his exchange. S^inie of his war papers are in the Bucks County Historical 
?.eiety. He built the hridL;o over the Poqnessing. 1S05, on the .\ttleborough and Bustleton 
road, subsequently piked Captain V'ansant died .Xuuvi^t S. 1SJ5. aged ei,ghty and was 
tuiried at the F'.ensaUin churchyard. Hi', wife, llaniinli I'.ritian. died .\itgust 9, 1818. 
.\moiv< the descendants are the l.a Rues. Vaiiart-dalens, Dungaiis. Rhoads. Ilogelands, 
Knights, Randalls, Shoemakers, et al. ' 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUXTV. 



The first of the Ku'hnans. whM owned land in this county, was Doctor Job:- 
the grandson oi ]nh\\ who imniii^ratcil from England to I'.arhadoes. \\\-; 
Indies, and died there in i6S6. Uoclor John Rodman settled at Burlini^'tMU. 
New Jerse\-, where he ])racticed medicine, to his death, 1756. He was an act:,. 
I-'ricnd. lie and Th.onias Richardson owned a larg^e tract of land in Warwick 
townshi]) as early as 1712. Doctor Rodman purchased land in Bensalem. i.n 
the Xe.--haminy, about the same time, on which he erected a dwelling-. 1715. 
On this tract his son William, born on Long Island, May 5, 1720, and marrir.i 
Mary Reeve, of Burlington, subseciuently settled. lie inherited it from hi.-, 
father and resided there until his death in 1794. The plantation was at fir.~t 
called Rodmanda, but the name \vas changed to Flushing, his birthplace."'- 
This is one of the most notable homesteads in the county, and the old dwelling 
that had weathered the storms of one hundred and forty-six years, was torn 
down, 1861, to make room for a more modern structure. William Rodman 
held several places of public trust. In 176S he was appoiiited one of five com- 
missioners to treat with the Indians at Ft. Pitt, but declined on account of 
ill-health. He was in the Assembly several years, and in 1774 was a member 
of the Committee on Correspondence. His son William, born in Bensalen;. 
October 7. 1757, and married to Esther West, in 17S5, was a man of mark in 
his day. He was an earnest and active patriot in the Revolution, voluntarily 
taking the oath of allegiance in 1778, for which he was disowned by the Middde- 
town meeting, and served under General Lacey and in the militia in 17S1. He 
was a justice of the peace for seyeral years, member of the State Senate, com- 
manded a troop of horse in the "Fries Rebellion" in 1799.'* and was elected 
to Congress in 1812. His children married into the families of Ruan, Mcll- 
vaine, Cilden and Jones. All the Rrulmans were friends of the struggling C"l'> 
nies. and Gilljert. father of the late Mrs. John Fox, of Do_\lestown. elder 
brother of William, was disowned by meeting for serving as Major in the 
second Bucks county battalion in the Amboy campaign of 1776. John Rodman 
owned nine hundred and sixty-seven acres in Amwell township, Hunterdon 
county. New Jersey, within three-fourths of a mile of the Delaware. By his 
will, dated June 3. 1756. he left this tract to his son \\'illian'! : and the latter. 
by his will. December i, 17S9, left it to his sons William and Gilbert. On a 
re-survey. 1751. the tract was found to contain an overplus of five hundred aii'! 
fift_\'-five acres, which was secured to John Rodman, by virtue of the "righ.ts \>i 
propriety." purchased by him. The land was originally conveyed to him by 
lease and re-lease, June 17 and 18, 1735^^ 

Bensalem is noted for its large trees, probably two of them the largest in 

13 Tra'l'.tir.n .-ays that in a log cabin at Flushinc:. lived and died Jean Franc^'i-. 
a soldier of Xapoleon's '"Old Guard." who wa? with, the Emperor at Mo-cow and \Vater!o'">. 
and became an exile in America when the Emperor was sent to St. Helena. He was K'nc 
a gardener in the Taylor family, and after his death, was buried in Becchwood Cemetery. 
Hulmeville. 

14 W'lliam Rodman was ist Lieutenant of the troop, but the Captain re>ri;n'.i:i 
about the time it was ordered into service, he toeik command and retained it until the 
trouble was over. 

15 Rutly's Histr.ry of the Quakers in Ireland; p. 36C, published- 175:, s.ays : "In 
the year 1655. for wearing his hat in the Assize in New Ross, was John Rodman com- 
mitted to poal by Judc;e Louder, kept a prisoner three months, and then banished th.it 
country." This was doubtless the ancestor of the Bucks county Rodmans and was sm: 
trf Barbadoes. New Ross is a seaport of County Kilkenny. 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUNTY. 113 



i!iL' county, and among the largest cast of the Rocky Mountains. About one 
iuuulrcd aii'J sixtv \ears ago, W'ilham Ruihnan, mentioned in a previous para- 
L:raph. on his return from a horseback ride, stuck his buttonwood riding switch 
!u the ground by the side of a tine spring near the dweUing. It commenced to 
j^row and continued, and, in the more than a century and a half intervening, 
its roots have absorbed the waters of the sprin,g and the tree become a giant. 
'I'he plantation is still known as "Flushing.'' It was owned many years by 
.\. Murry r^Icllvain, but is now the property of E. W. Patton, member of the 
city council and superintentknt of I'airmount Park. The tree is measured once 
a vear, ]May i, and, at the last measurement, the circumference was 29 feet 10 
inches four and one-half feet from the ground. In the same vicinity, a mile 
from the buttonwood, on the farm of the late Walter Johnson, on the road 
leading from Xewportville to Bcechwood cemetery, near Hulmeville, but there 
is no record of its age, is a famous chestnut, whose measurement is 25 feet 6 
inches four and one-half feet from the ground. I'.oth of these trees are healthy. 
The Galloways came from ^Maryland, where Joseph was born, of respecta- 
ble parentage, about 1730. He removed to Philadelphia in earl\' life and estab- 
lished himself in the practice of the law, but, niarrv ing Grace Growden, fixed 
his country home at Trcvose. in Bensalem. He was much in public life, and was 
many years member of the Assembly, and Speaker. He was active in all the 
colonial measures against the I'ritish crown._ was a member of the first Ameri- 
can Congress, 1774. signed the "non-importation," "non-consumption," and 
"non-exportation" acts, and, at that time, no man in the Province stood in 
greater favor. In 1776 he abandoned the Whig cause, joined the British army at 
New York, ^^ent to England. 1778, and was examined before a committe of par- 
liament, 1779. Pie now became very bitter toward his native country, and during 
the war, wrote much in defense of the crown. Plis estate, valued at £40,000, 
was confiscaietl,''' but as it came through his wife, it was restored to his only 
daughter Elizabeth, a beautiful girl -who was quite the toast, as "Eetsv Gal- 
loway." She married William Roberts, an Englishman, but the match was 
an unhappy one. They separated, and she gave her husband £2,000 for the 
privilege of retaining their only child Grace Ann, who was allowed to see her 
fath.er in the ]H-esence of a tliird person. The daughter married Benjamm 
Burton, of the Briti.sh army, and died in England, 1837, leaving several chil- 
dren, her younge^t son. Adolphus Dcsart Burton, taking the Durham estates 
under his mother's will. The real estate in this county, principallv in Bensalem 
and Durham tHwn.ships, was sold, 184S. That in Ben.salem. containing one 
thousand two hundred and ninety-five acres, was divided into eight tracts: 
Trevose. the old family seat, east Trevose. south Trevose, Belniont,"mentioned 



16 The act of .Assembly forfeiting Galloway's estate, was parsed March 6, 1778. 
Smith's Laws, 451. The persons named, and whose estates were forfeited were: Joseph 
Calloway, menil)er U. S. Congress. Jolm .\llen, memlier of Committee of Inspection and 
(Jh-ervation for the city of Philadelphia, .\ndrew Allen, member of Congress, William 
-M'en, the youii;.^er. captain, afterward Lient. Col. of a regiment of foot in the U. S. 
service, James Rankin. Yeoman, 'i'ork county (his heirs tried to have this .Act of Forfeiture 
removed by the Pennsylvania Legislature, session of 1879. See .Mien Craig's speech 
r^g.iinst it), James Duche, Chaplain of Congress and F^ector of Chri-t Church, Philadel- 
phia. Christian Fonts, Lient. Col. .if Militia, Lancaster county, Cdlbert Ilickv W^man. 
Pucks county. Nathaniel \'crnon. shcritT of Chester county, and Samuel Shoeiuaker, alder- 
man, Philadelphia. He died in Fii'.4lan<l The ca<e of the restoration of the Galloway 
f'tate to his daughter, is reported in i I'nincv, page i, Lessee of Pcnibtrton ct al vs 
llxks. 



a 14 HISTORY OF DUCKS COUNTY. 



as carl}' as 1700, \\i.st Hclniont, Ricliflicu, soiitli Richelieu, west Richelieu, aiul 
Richelieu foro>t. Tiiesc tracts lay in the northeastern part of the townsiiiii, 
fom- of them bordering the Xeshaminy. A ridge, called Belmont, crossed the 
•£stale, running- from tlie Lristol road to the Xeshaminy, and down that stream, 
j^fter .Mr. Gallnway had deserted to the British, his office at Trevose \\a> 
."broken open an! the documents and records scattered about. The late Abraham 
Clia];nian bouglit a number of his law books. He was a man of great talent, 
and a I'lolitician by nature. After his defection he became a mark for the shafts 
of wit and anger of the period, and Trumbull lampoons him in his ^IcFingal. 
Just before liis escape a trunk was sent to him, which, on being opened, con- 
tained onlv a halter to hang himself. His path in life was filled with troubles 
and vexations. ''■'-■ 

l-iichard Gibbs, sheriff of the county before the Revolution, and otherwi.-e 
prominent in ]>ubHc affairs, lived and died in Bensalem. He was born in Wilt- 
shire, England, 1723, of a good family, and received a good education. Being 
a v-ounger son he was destined for a maritime life, which he did not like, and, 
arriving- at Philadelphia abotit 1746, left his ship. Falling in with ^Ir. Stevens, 
a farmer of Bensalem, he accompanied him home in his market wagon on the 
promise of a school to teach. While teaching he became acquainted with Law- 
rence Growden, county clerk, who gave him a clerkship in the office at Trevose, 
v.'ln'ch he held several years. He was afterward elected sheritt. In 1770 he 
purchased a farm on the Bristol turnpike whicli he called Eddington, after a 
jilace of that name in his native county, in England, where Alfred the Great de- 
feated the Danes. He inherited a handsome estate by the decease of his ehler 
brother. He was a warm friend of the colonies in the Revolutionary struggle. 
exhibiting his zeal in many ways, at one time loaning a large sum of money 
which Congress was not able to refund. The British troops frequently visited 
his house, and he was obliged to seek refuge in the upper end of the county 
while they occupied Philadelphia. He was married at Bristol, in 1753. to }^liss 
Margery Harri-oii. of Xew York, and had several children. Pie resided at 
Eddington until his death, in 1798. Mr. Gibbs was the maternal grandfather 
of the late ?i[rs. John Fox, of Doylestown. Tliere is a family burying ground 
on the Eddington farm. 

James Benez.et was the eldest of the three sons of John Stephen Benezet. 
a Protestant refugee from France, who came to Philadelphia in 1731, and 
settled in liensalem. jirior to the Revolution, where he died. He was proth- 
onotary and clerk nf the quarter sessions, while the seat of justice was at 
Newtown. Ilis son Samuel was a Continental ^ilajor in the Revolutionary 
army, and afterward a justice of the peace and ])rothonotary of the comity. 
Anthony, the ynmigcst son of John Stephen Benezet, became a philanthropist nt 
world wide renown. Cii the Kingstones. who were in the township earlv in the 
last century. Abel was a worthy minister among Friends, and died, 1749, leaving 
several daughters. George James, a tailor who followed his trade at the Kings- 
tone homesteail. married Sarah Townsend for his second wife, in 1738. 

The Willetts. an old family in Bensaiem. are descended from Dutch an- 
cestry of Long Island. Samuel \\'illett. great-grandfather of the late Charles 
Willett, deceased. ]nu-chased ]iart of the Growden tract in the northwest part 
of the to\\ii.-,bip. ]li^ wife was Elizabeth Lawrence. His -on. Augustin 
Willett. was a man of note in his d,ays. and married Elizabeth, daughter of 

if|i., I(wc).li (;.Tlif'w:iy (lir.l .it W'.itfnnl. C"nnty Ilcrtf.inl. linulaiul. .\iit:iist 20. iSo.!- 
Ilis will liciii.c il.T.ed June 20th. He was scvcnty-tlirfc years nf age. 



HISTORY Of BUCKS COi'XTV. 



Gill)<-Tt Ilicks, of Four Lanes End. At the outbreak of tlie Revolution he took 
the oath of allegiance, laised a company at hii own expense and joined the 
annx'. He is said to have been at the battles of White i'lains, Trenton, Ger- 
mantown, Brandywinc and Monmouth. He became prominent in military 
alYairs after peace; was lieutenant of the county, 1791, captain of the Bucks 
(uunty Dragoons, 1793, was several years Brigade Inspector, Brigade Ma- 
j.jr of General Murray's brigade, Pennsylvania militia, in the whiskey insur- 
rection, 1794. and commissioned Brigadier General, iSoo. In 1797 he com- 
manded the troops which received Washington on crossing the Delaware, 
i..n his return South, and escorted him to the I'hladelphia county line. Gen- 
eral Willett was born, 1751, died 1824, and buried at Friends' burying ground, 
.Attleborough. His grandson, Charles Willett, lived and died on a portion of 
the homestead tract. One or more of the descendants of Samuel \\'illett sett- 
tied in Southampton, Obadiah living and dying on the handsome farm on the 
n,>ad between the Buck tavern and Langhorne. 

We do not know at what time the Sickel family came into the township, 
but they were residents here many years ago. They are also descendants of 
Holland ancestors who settled at New York while it was Xew Amsterdam, 
whence a portion of them went into New Jersey. At the Revolution they were 
fijund on the side of their country. Philip Sickel came into Pennsylvania and 
settled in Philadelphia before the middle of the eighteenth century, and his son 
John was born, in Bensalem. in 1753. His son John, grandson of Philip, whose 
date of birth we do not know, married Elizabeth \'andegrift. Their son Ho- 
ratio G. Sickel, born 1S17. was the most prominent member of the family. In 
his early youth he learned the blacksmith trade, and carried it on at Davisville 
and Quakertown, but having great fondness for military affairs, commanded 
one or more volunteer companies. The Civil war found him engaged in busi- 
ness in Philadelphia. He raised a company to serve three years and joined the 
Third Pennsylvania Reserves, of which he was elected and corn-missioned 
colonel. On the expiration of this term of service, he raised the One Hundred 
and Ninety-eighth regiment, serving with it to the close of the war. on all 
occasions proving himself a courageous and reliable officer, and was breveted 
a lirigadier. and major-general, for meritorious service. For several years he 
filled the oftice of Pension .\gent. Philadelpliia. In 1842 General Sickel married 
Eliza \'ansant, of Warminster township, and was the father of several children. 
In 1794 Richard Bache, son-in-law of Doctor Franklin, and grandfather 
of William Duane, bought a plantation in Bensalem of Bartholomy Corvaisier, 
containing two hundred and sixty-eight acres and seventy-eight perches, which 
lie called Settle, after the town, Yorkshire. England, whence the family came. 
It lay along the Delaware about the third of a mile, nearly opposite Beverlv, 
extending back to the Bristol turnpike. It is said the land was bought with 
money received from Rol)ert [Morris, the last he paid before his failure. At 
the death of Mr. Bache. in 1811, the plantation fell into the hands of his young- 
est son. Lewis, who sold it to Charles Marquedant. and died at Bristol in 1819. 
The mansion, with a few acres, belonged to John Mathew Hummell twenty 
>ears ago. and the remainder of the tract was owned by Jonathan Thomas. 
Richard Bache. who carried Franklin's silver bull's eye watch, mislaid it in 
Philadelphia, and it turned up twenty years later in the possession of a Lewis 
Groff, of Lancaster county, who had obtained it by purchase.'" 

17 The Bristol turnpike was tlie western houuilary r>t Mr. Baclie's plantation, and 
cne day wliilc walking in th.it dinctimi lie ^aw a woman pulling down I'.i-; fence for tire- 






»ig^ .<.w jJBg ' Vj ir vwtvy'f ''»'■' '- '' "' I " ' .'■'■ ' ■y!tV«.*iV'.V( 



■ ; 



MCHOI-AS BirULH 



r 



Un tlie bank of tlic Delaware, three niiiles above I'oquessinq- creek, is sit- 
ualeel Aiiilalusia, the home of tlie late Xicholas IJiddle. ami is still riwncd by his 
descendant.-. The Biddies have long been settled in renns\lvania. The tirst 
ancestur. William Biddle. one of the original proprietrirs of West Jersev, came 
from London in ii.i.Si. His grandson. William, settled in Tennsylvania and mar- 
ried the daughter i.if Xicholas Scnll. Surveyor-General cif the I'mvince. The 
children of this marriage all became dislingui.shed in the annals of our conntr_\'. 
James, the eldest, was a judge; Edward served as a Captain in the War of 175'^. 
and was subsef|uently a member of Assembly and elected to the first Continent:d 
Congress: Xicholas was a Captain in the navy and jierishcd with iiis vessel, the 
frigate I\anduli)h. of thirty-two guns, in a l)attle with the P.ritish ship Yarmoutl 
of sixty-four guns; and t/liarles. the father of X'ic' ' "" ■-.•,.. 

the State wliilc I'.eniamin I'ranklin was Presiden 
purchased, 1795. by John Craig, one of riiiladelphia 



It. Th. 



was \'ico-President o: 
r.ensalem ])ropcrty was 
ijld merchants, who. in 



\vi '-id. Xatiir.illy uliicciiiis; to this liliertv he cxpiKtulatcd with her wlien she rcplii-il. 
"There's no friciiiUhiii without frctdoin. rnor m.Tn ! Wliat will yon do when yon die' 
Yiv.i'l! not be alile to take your fence with y^ui to heaven." Tlie author received tln> 
little anecdote from Mr. Diuir.e in a ItUer dated Xe.venihcr ;,■;. 1870. 

nii 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUXTV. 117 



iiieiiiory of his successful veiiturus to Spain and her colonies, called his country- 
home Andalusia. In iSii Nicholas Uiildle married the eldest daughter of this 
gentleman, and henceforth spent much of his time there. He removed to 
.Vndalusia, permanently, 182 1, determined to devote his time to agricultural 
pursuits. At his marriage he was a member of the Legislature, to which he 
■was returned for a numlier of years. In 1823 he was made president of the 
L.'nited States bank, which he lield until its charter expired, 1S30. On the 
bank being re-chartered by the Legislature, he was again elected its president, 
but retired in 1839. The bank failed, 1841, anrl his own fortune, then very 
large, went in the general wreck. He died at Andalusia, Februarv 26, 1844. 
Air. Biddle was an accomplished scholar, and of refined tastes. He 
courted the muse, and his "Ode to Bogle," the great Philadelphia waiter and 
xmdertaker. lives to the present day, having been republished again and again. 
As a farmer he ^vas the first to introduce Alderney cattle, and the cultivation 
of the grape, while to his efforts the country is indebted for one of the most 
beautiful structures of modern times, the Girartl college. It was a saying of 
his. there were but two truths in the world, "the Bible, and Greek architec- 
ture," and his intluence was generally exerted m favor of that order for public 
buildings. \\'hen it became necessary to enlarge his house at Andalusia, he 
added to it the beautiful Doric portico that now adorns it. The late Governor 
William F. Packer wrote : "Whatever may be said of Nicholas Biddle as a 
politician, or a financier, all agree that on questions of internal improvement 
and commerce he was one of the most sagacious and far seeing statesmen of 
the L'nion. His fault was. if fault it be, that he was twenty years in advance 
of the age in which he lived. "'^ 






■m' 



AN"D.\LL"SI.\. Kh^UJi.NCK OF THE I.^TE NICHOLAS lUUDLE. 



18 Jiidcre Craii; I'.iiMlc. l'liil.i.|rl|ilii;i, .timI tin; l;iic Cl\ar!cs Biddle. a captain in the 
Mexican War. wcrt- >Mn- ni Xicluha^ I'.iiidli.'. 



Ii8 lllSIOIiY Of BUCKS COUXTV 



Early in the settlement of the colony, a number of persons in Philadelphia 
made their licMi-.e in iJen^alem. and spent a part or more of their lives in the 
township, ^ome of these I'.uniesteads not mentioned elsewhere, are still in 
existence, niL'ist of them nnicli imjjroved or wholly rebuilt. Several are in 
the Valle-,- of Xeshaminy. The "l-'arley" estate, the ancestral home of tlic 
Shippen faiiiil\'. i^ nfuthv, est of r.ridge\\ ater. and now owned by James Moore, 
The old mansion n-as destroyed bv lire, but ihe present owner has built a han^l- 
some modern residence on the site. In the old cemetery many members of the 
family were buried. ^larjjaret Shippen, who married Benedict Arnold, while 
he was yet a patriot, spent much of her youno- life there, was i)Ossibly born in 
the old liouse, and whose sad fate was so deplored. On a bluff to the east, is 
the handsonie residence of ilenry L. Gaw, a banker of Philadelphia : net far 
removed is Lansdowne, the country home of the Johnson family, the late Law- 
rence Johnson being the founder of the great type foundry that bore his naine. 
and \\hich intermarried with the Winders, Taylors, Morrises and other well- 
known faniiles. In the same neig-hborhood is the Grundv estate, the tir^t 
owner an Englishman, wdio married },[iss Hulme, Hulmeville ; one of whose 
sons. Joseph, read law with Benjamin Harris Brewster, the same who was .-Vttor- 
ney-General. United States, and another Joseph, grandson of the first, is the 
owner of the Bristol Woolen [Mills. The Rodman homestead, of which more 
is said in another place, was famous in its day, but is now cut up into several 
farms. The present owner is Edward Palton, member of Select Council. Phila- 
delphia. The "Sunbury Farm," on the north side of Neshaminy, for three 
generations the home of the Taylors, is now occupied by a daughter of Captain 
Anthony Taylor and wife of Bromly Wharton. He is a descendant of Joseph 
Wharton, Philadelphia, on whose plantation below- the city, th.e officers of the 
British army. 1778. held their famous ^lischianza, of which Major Andre 
was the chief promoter. At other points in various parts of Bensalem wealth 
and a cultivated taste have built elegant homes. Among these is the hand- 
some resitlence of the late Dr. Schenck, now occupied by his son, near the 
Pennsylvania Railroad crossing of Xeshaminy. It commands a fine view of the 
Delaware and the neighboring towns that line the Xew Jersey shore. 

Four miles below Bristol is Dunk's ferry, a notable crossing of the Dela- 
ware. Jt was established by Duncan William.son. one of the earliest settlers, 
and retains a corruption of his christian name. It was called the same on the 
Xew Jersey side until Beverly was founded, 1S48. His son. -William William- 
son, died in Bensalem, 172 1, leaving by will six hundred acres lying on the 
Dekuvare. Claus Jonson, who died, 1723, ow^ned seven hundred acres. 13aniel 
Bankson, an early settler, died 1727. At that day upland along the river was 
called "fast land." 

Alice, a sla\e woman, wlu) sjjcnt nearly the whole of her life in Bensalem, 
died diere, 1802. at the age of one hundred and sixteen years. She was liorn 
at Philadeliihia, of parents who came from Barbadocs, but removed with her 
master to near Dunk's ferry at the age of ten. At the age of ninety-live 
she rode on horseback to church : her sight failed her at one hundred and tw". 
and just liefore lier death her hair turned while, and the terth drojined out of 
her head, pi:rfectly s'lund. She veniemborc'! seeing William Pemi. at his second 
visit, and thi^i'^e '.\hn ;iided hiMi in fnundiu'.: the Commonwealth, and wotdd 
often intere-t her hearers by talking of tluni. 

The t(nvn>hip records go back onl\- tii 1700. when Peter Jnlmston and 
Francis Titus were supervisors, and the road-tax was £30. 3s. 8d. The town- 
ship auditors were William Ko.hnrni. Tl'.^'nias Barnsly, Henry Tomlinson and 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUXTY. ] uy 



John \';uulcjj;rift.''' In 1776 the aniuiint oi mad-tax on the dupUcate was 
£^~, i8s. In 17S0. while the continental currency was at its greatest depression, 
the amount on the duplicate was t^.^ij. 17s Od, but it fell to £45 the following 
year. The duplicate sinjw s the following amount of road-tax, respectively, in 
the years mentioned : 1790. £35 ; 1800, $451 ; iSiO, $865 ; 1820, S704.29 ; 1830, 
$776.52; 1840, S519.21; 1S50, S758.43 : 1S60, S934.74; i80y, 83,681.56. In 
one hundred years the road-ta.x increased forty-fold. 

The Bensalem l're.--h_\ terian church is proljably the oldest religious organ- 
ization in th.e Couniy, if we except the society of I'riends. Its germ was 
planted b}' the Swedes before the close of the 17th century. In 1697 the Swed- 
ish settlers south of Xeshaminy were included in the bounds of the congrega- 
tion at W'icacoa,-'" Philadelphia, while Reverend A.ndrew Rudman was the 
pastor, and he probably visited that section occasionally to minister to the spirit- 
ual wants of the people. In 1698 Reverend Jedediah Andrews, a Presbyterian 
minister from New England, rode from Philadelphia up to Bensalem to preach 
and baptise. In 1705 the ""upper inhabitants,"'" those living between the Schuyl- 
kill and Xeshaminy, made application for occasional service in their neighbrir- 
hoods in the winter season, because tliev were so far from the cluirch at W ica- 
coa, and no doubt their wish was gratified. 

It is impossible to tell the exact time a church organization was effectcil, 
but IjetAvecn 1705 and 1710. The church was opened for worship May 2, 1710, 
and Paulus A'an \'leck was chosen the pastor on the 30th, who preached there 
the same day. The elders at Bensalem at this time were Plendrick \'an Dsk, 
Leonard \'an der Grift, now \"andegrift, Stofi'el \'anzandt, and Nicholas \'an 
der Grift. This was probably the first church built, but, before thut time, 
services were held in private houses. ""^ The church was now Dutch Reformed. 
\"an \'leck was a native of Holland, and nephew of Jacob Phcenix, New York. 
He was in that city, June, 1709, when he was ordered to be examined and or- 
dained, so as to accompany the expedition to Canada, but the Dutch ministers 
declined for want of power. 

While \"an Meek was probably the first settled pastor at Bensalem, other 
ministers preached there at irregular periods. In 1710 Jan Banch, a Swedish 
missionary from Stockholm, came to this countrv and preached at various 
places. He was at Bensalem. Januar^• 21, 17 10, where he baptised several, 
among them the names of \'ansandt, \'an Dyk, \'an der Grift. Larue, and 
others, whose descendants are living in the township. Johan Blacker, a 
Dutch minister, preached there about the same time. A record in his hand, 
made January 10. 1710, declares that Sophia Grieson and Catrytje Browswef 
are members of ""Samninnx"' church.-- In Decemlier. 1710. there were nine- 
teen members at Bensalem: Hendrick Van Dyk and his wife. Lambert \'aii de 
Grift, Cristoft'el Van Zand, Nicholas \'an dc Grift, Herman \'an Zand, Johan- 
nis Van de Grift. Gerret \'an Zand. Jacob Elfenstxn, Jonas \'an Zand, janette 



19 A mcnilior .^f the =aiTie Vandcgril't family wa? nnc of the township auditors, 
1S69. just a CL-r.tury ff m the time the first hail 5cr\ed in the same capacity. 

20 .\n Indian word, fr.>7n ]\'i:klins, dwellina:. and Chao. a fir tree. See Clay's 
History of Swedes. 

21 There are records of hirths and marriages liefore the church was built. 

22 Was ne.ir the P-ixk. in Southampton, and now known as the North and S^iuth- 
ampton Ref'rmcd church, witli one place if wur-hip at Churchville and another at Rich- 
borough. 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUNTY 



Reniiersc, Trintje Rcniicrse, Geertje Gybcrt, Lea (^rcesbeck, and Catclvinji.- 
Van DcnsL-n. \'an \'k'ck was likewise pastor at Sammany and Six Mile Rmi, 
a locality not now known.-'" September 21, 1710. a committee was appointed Ir- 
the I'hiladelphia Presbytery to inquire into .Mr. .Morgan's and Paulus \'an 
Vleck's aft'air, and prepare it for the Presbytery. In the afternoon the commit- 
tee reported on Mr. r\Iorgan, and after some debate he was admitted. The 
case of \'an Meek gave them greater trouble and was more serious, for then- 
"was serious debating" before he was received. In 171 1 Van \'leck was rep- 
resented in the Presbytery by his elder, Leonard Vandcgrift, of the Bensalem 
church, but he fell under a cloud and left, in 1712, and was not heard of after- 
ward. As himself and wife were witnesses to a baptism that took place at 
Sammany, January i, 1712. he must have left after that time. His wife was 
Janet \'an b_\cke, daughter of Hcndrick. above mentioned, and dieir daughter 
Susanna married Henry \"an Plorn, and has numerous descendants in the 
county, ^\'c find Jan .Andriesc, of Philadelphia, pastor at Bensalem, Sep- 
tember II, 171 1: but the exact time of his advent is not known, nor the 
reason of it. It is possible \'an Meek was dismissed about this time, or tliat 
he resigned at Bensalem to devote all his time to Samman_\- and Six Mile Run. 
It is not known how long Mr. .\ndricse continucil pastor, but prol)ably until 
the calling of Reverend Maligns Sims, who was there .\pril, 1719, when tlie 
church had but twelve menibers. 

Mr. Sims was probably succeeded by Reverend \Mlliam Tennent. \\\\n 
took charge of the Bensalem church about I7_'i, Tlie latter is said to ha\e 
remained until he was called to the Xeshaminy church, in Warwick townshi]). 
1726, but he must have left before that time, for we learn, from the churcii 
records, that Reverend Robert Lenig was the pastor at Bensalem in 1724. \t 
a session, held July 12. that year, it was ordered that a book be kept for names 
of communicants, marriages, and christenings. The fee for marriages at the 
minister's quarters was fixed at ten shillings, and partes were to be published 
on four previous Sabbaths. The clerk was to receive two shillings for each 
marriage, and nine shillings frir cacli child baptised. .Vs there are no church 
records from iJ2h to 1772. the names of the pastors who officiated during that 
period are not known. The latter year Reverend James Boyd was called, wlv-> 
preached there and at Xewtown, until 1817. He left no record of his labor-. 
In the next fnrty-five years there were but eleven, of pastoral labors, the church 
relying mainly on supplies. Th.e Reverend ;\lichael Burdett, D. D., was called, 
and installed, January. 1S71. During his pastorate die church was in a pros- 
perous conditirm, a chapel built, and the church Iniilding repaired. Doctor 
Burdett preached in the new church below Schcnck"s station, Sunday after- 
noon^. The church lot ^\-as the gift of Thomas Stevenson, .August 24, 17 ti, 
and was conveyed in a deed of trust to Johannes \'andygrift, Herman \'ari- 
zaiidt, Johamies N'anzandt.-* and Jacob \\'eston, the first trustees. The old 
building was torn down about three quarters of a century ago. 

2T, Tlif clmrcli at tliis plncc was finished Xovciiibcr ijtii, 1710. and the wanloiH 
e'crteil were: .Vilrinii P.cniiet. Charles Fontyii. Bareiu de Wit, and .-\bra1iam Eeiinct. 
When tlie inission.iry. Jan Daneh. visited the eliureh in Ani;ust. 1712. it hail twenty-seven 
mcMiiliers. and amim;.,' them are ftinnd tlie names of iiennet, \'an Dyk, Densen, Peterson, 
De Hart, K'ein, ae. 

24 We have -pellcd the names >A those early settlers as tliey are written in. tin 
rerorjs, varying' s.iniewhat fmm present spelling; and they were spelled differently at 
difl'ercnt pfrio.ls. 



HISTORY or BUCKS COUNTY. 



The Eensalem Methodist Episcopal church is a flourishin!^ organization. 
When the congrei^ation was first organized we do not know, but down to iSio 
the meetings were held at private houses. For several years previous they 
held an annual camp-meeting in one of the pleasant groves oi the township, 
holding it in Jacob HeUings" woods, 1804. The congregation was strong enough 
by iSio to ertct a church, and a house was built that year on a lot given by 
Joseph Rodman. The timber for the frame was the gift of General W'illett, 
cut from his woods. At that early day there was no settled minister over the 
church and congregation, but the Reverends James Fisher and Richard Sneith, 
in charge of a circuit six hundred miles in extent, preached there at stated 
periods. Sinc<j then the church has been altered and repaired more than once. 
It is situated in about the middle of the township, on the ]\Iilford road. 

Kcsidcs the churches named. Densalem has two other places of religious 
worship. Chri-t Church, Eddington, and the chapel of the Redeemer, Anda- 
lusia, bodi Protestant Episcopal. The former is the elder of the two. A lot 
was purchased. 1842. and the following year, a neat stone chapel erected and 
consecrateil by Rishop Onderdonk. March 7, 1844. For ^ t'm^ service was held 
every Sunday afternoon by the rector at Holmesburg. In 1845 a parsonage 
was built ; enlarged and improved, 1852, and a Sunilay-school room fitted up 
in the !>asement. A new church building was erected, 1S54-55, at a cost of 
Si 3.000. the congreg'ation occupying it Mav 29. About the same period a new 
Sunday-school building was erected. A belfry w^as added to the church, 1S80, 
and the bell first rung on Christmas day. After almost forty years of mission 
work, Christ chapel was constituted a parish, and from that time, has had 
its own rector, the first being the Rev. Edwin I. Hirnies, followed by Rev. 
George A. Hunt, now in charge. The chapel of the Redeemer was founded, 
1861, and a stone building 51x25 erected, mainly by efforts of Mrs. Jane S. 
Biddle and her two sisters. Si. 400 being the receipts from a fair, and Sjooo 
by individual subscrijjtions. The deed for the lot wa.s executed to All Saints' 
Church. A parish school-house was built. 1867, and 1877 Dr. Charles R. 
King, at his own expense, enlarged and handsomely decorated the chapel. It 
was dedicated by Eishop Stevens. September 29. and given the name it bears. 
Dr. H. T. Wells, in charge of an Episcopal school at Andalusia, for some time, 
gave his services gratis to the chajH-l, and was followed as pastors, by the Revs. 
Thomas W. Martin. William M. Morsell, J. V>. Bunck and others. Connected 
with the chapel is the '"King Library." the gift of Dr. King.='' The building 
is 30x40 feet, built of fire-proof brick with red sand stone trimmings and faces 



J5 The Kinij family, rcpre'^cnted by Dr. Cliarlcs R. King, aliiioft 50 years a resident 
of Bensaleni. i< ilistiiisui^lKil in the country's annals. They settled in Xew England, but 
subsequently made Xew Vurk their Imme. Rufus King, the grandfather, born l~55, was 
a conspicuous tignre in the Revolutionary period and subsequently. He took hi-5 seat 
in the Continental Congress. T7t^4. was member of the conve]ition that formed the Federal 
Constitution. 17S7: twice minister to England, the first appointment by Washington; 
served three terms in the United Stales Senate, and was candidate for President against 
Mr. Monroe. He died. iSj6. John .-\. King, his son, and father of Dr. Charles R., born 
I7fv''. died if't'c. eduL-nted in F.ii.clan.l while his lather was American minister there, was 
member of Ci'ngre-s and the first Governor of Xew York elected by the Republican party, 
1S56. Dr. King took deep intere-t in the public schools and the church, giving his 
leisure to literary pursuits, having recently written and published the ''Life and Corre- 
spondence of Rufiis King," his grandfather, covering a period from 17S4 to lS_'6. Dr. 
King died .April 5, igv-vr. 



IlISTORV Of BUCKS COUXTY. 



the Dristol tunipkc. The interior i.-- a single rouni rising to the roof. It \v;i-> 
opened December 2S, 18S6, with api.r.ipriatc services by Uishop Stevens. Ii 
contains ^.O'YO vohures. and is free lo all. 

The onlV collections of dwellings in the township that deserve the name 
of villages, are : I'.ridgewater, on ti'.e Xeshaminy, at the crossing of the 
Bristol turnpike, Edilingion, on the I'hiladelphia anti Trenton railroad, Oak- 
ford, in the northeast corner of the township, and Andalusia, a stragglin:^ 
hamlet, on the turnpike, all post-villages. They contain but few dwellings 
each'. Richelieu and Centreville are ambitious to reach the village state, and 
Brownsville is a small hamlet on the Southampton line, with a majority of the 
dwellings in that township. Anthony Taylor built a fulling-mill at Flushing, 
on the Xeshaminy, and the following spring it was occupied by James Wilson. 
There is now a steam saw-mill at this place.-'' 

The murder of Dr. Chapman, Bensalem, by his wife and a vagabond 
Spaniard, by poison, created a profound sensation. This occurred in the sum- 
mer of 1831. He was taken in for the night, but die wife, becoming infatuated 
with him. had him remain and murder was the result. The trial, convictiim 
and execution of the Spaniard attracted great attention at the time. Chapnrm 
was an Englishm.an, and his wife a Winslow, of New England. The following 
concerning the family of this woman from Hereditary Descent, publisheil by 
O. S. Fi:)wler, 1848. will no doubt interest the readers: The Barre (Mass.) 
Patriot says that a box containing one hundred and twenty-five dollars in C';inu- 
terfeit bills was discovered in the cellar wall of Thomas Winslow of that t'jwn, 
^vho was ordered to find bail in the sum of one thousaml dollars. He had for 
many years been suspected of dealing in counterfeit money, and had been once 
or twice arrested for the ottense, but escaped for want of sutTicient evidence. 
The family with wliich he is connected is not a little notorious in the annals 
of crime. His broth.er, ]\Iark Winslow. was a noted counterfeiter, and prob- 
ably the most ingenious one known in the state. About twelve years ago he 
was sentenced to the state prison for life, and, on the eve of removal, committed 
suicide by cutting his throat. Edvs-ard, another brother, was also a counterfeiter 
and for that and other otTenses has been an inmate of the state prison, and of 
nearly half the jails of the state. Lucretia, sister, was coimected with the 
same gang and signed the bills. She was wonderfully expert with the [en, 
and skillful in imitating signatures. She inarried a man by the name of 
Chapm.an, \\hi) was murdered in Pennsylvania some years since. Site lived 
as the wife of a noted impostcr, Mina, and they were both arrested and tried 
for the murder. Mina was hung, but she was acquitted, although not without 
very strong evidence of having prompted or connived at the death of Chapman. 
She subsequently wandered througli the South, connected with a strolling 
threatrical com;)any, and died a few years since. One of her children is now 
in Barre. She was a woman of great talent, if it had been honestly applied. 
and of singtdarly winning maimers, .\nother sister of the Winslows married 
Robert Green, and still r.nother married Jesse H. Jones, and both Green and 
Jones were connectei! with the gang of counterfeiters that used to infest that 
region."' We have been told by good authority that at the time of her arrest 
for poisoning her husband, Mrs. Chapman was under the surveillance of liio: 
police, and wouM soon have l.ieen arrested for her connectiem with this gang 
of counterfeiters and forgers. 



26 Tliese vill.igcs and h.nmluts h.ive felt the =ijirit of improvoiiieiit the past tweiu 
ye.irs ,'iikI kept pace -..i'h tiieir nspeelive nei,'-;hh. rhriods. 



HISTORY Of BUCKS COCXTY 



About 1S59. Rev. H. T. Wells, of the Protestant Episcopal churcii, bought 
the Dr. Chapman property, Andalusia, where Dr. C. formerly kept a '"stam- 
mering school,'' made some impro\ ements and opened a boys" boarding school. 
A charter, authorizing the conferring of degrees, was obtained and the school 
called "Andalusia College." A new building called 'Totter Hall" was subse- 
quently erected, in which a preparatory school was opened. At Dr. \\'ells' 
death, 1871, A. H. Fetteroll, head master at Andalusia, now president of Girard 
College, reopened the school, but gave it up after a time. The property was 
then sold and a number of cottages built on part of it, the old school building 
being turned to other purposes. 

In Bensalem. on Xe^haniiny, opposite Xewportville. stands a colonial 
mansion, the ancestral home of the Barnsley family. It was built by I\Iaior 
Thomas Barnsley, an officer of the British army, who came from England 
with Lord Loudun, 1756, and served with him in the I'rench and Indian war. 
At the close of the war, 1760, he resigned his commission and settled at Phila- 
delphia. In 1763 he purchased the estate of James Coulter, five hundred and 
thirty-seven acres, and built the mansion, importing the brick and other mate- 
rial from England. The house is still in a good state oi preservation. }daj'"r 
Barnsley died, 1 77 1, and was buried in the aisle of St. James Episcopal church, 
Bristol. He adopted his nephew. John Barnsley, who, after his uncle's death. 
sold the estate and removed to Newtown, then the county seat. He married 
Elizabeth Van Court, purchased land adjoining the town, and built the house 
which, since that time, has been owned and ciintinuously occupied b\' the 
Barnsley family, a period of nearly a century and a quarter. It was the home 
of the late John Barnsley, who died, i8?o, and is owned by his children. John 
Barnsley married Hilary, youngest child of Benjamin and Hannah Simps'in 
Hough, Warrington township. The deed for the property, on record at Doyles- 
town, calls for six hundred and lifty-two acres, and is spoken of as the 
"Tatham Plantation," but ^Major Barnsley called it "Croydon,"' probably after 
his birth place. The original dwelling is said to have been erected by the 
Tremain family, but when we are not informed. Elegant grounds surrounded 
the house, .in 1 lirr't^ and barges plied upon the water. Tradition savs that 
Major Barnsley hail a retinue of servants and followers, kept open house, 
dressed in scarlet coat, bull breeches, gold knee buckles, and wore a cocked hat 
and dress sword, all in keeping with retired army officers of the period. 

The proximity of Bensalem to Philadelphia induced the British troops to 
make several incursiiais into the township while they held that city, 1777-78, and 
durirg the war the inliabitants sulTered from the depredations of both armies. 

Of the roads through the township, that from the Poquessing creek, 
crossing the Street road below the Trap tavern, the X'eshaminy above Hulme- 
ville and thence to Bristol, was hid out by order of Council. 1697. John 
Baldwin was appointed to keep the ferry over the Neshaminy on Eriving 
security. When the Hulmeville dam was built the ferrv was discontinued, 
and a new road laid out, leaving the old one at right-anc;les near Trevose. and 
crossing tie Xeshaminy at Xewportville. About the time this roail was laid 
oi't Bu'-l--s ;m"I i'lrl-'delphia counties built a bridge over the Por|Ucssing. prob- 
ably where the pike crosses. A second bridge was Imilt there. 1757. and .i 
thinl. 1701. The rond from the I'.ri-^tol ]iike at Scott's corner to T'-wn-end"s 
mill r::^ tl'... l'.viiK--sing, was o|-ened. T7ri7, and from the pike to "White Slicet 
bay," I7fig. .\s early as 1697 a petition was presented to the court to lay out 
a road from Crowden's plantation to Dunk's ferry, but we do not know that 
it was gr.'inte.l. In 1700 a road was openi'd from Growden's to the King's 



124 



HISTORY or BUCKS COUXTV. 



highway leading lo the falls. This highway at that time was probably thi- 
road from Poquessiiig, crossing the Xeshaminy about llulmcville, and which. 
at one time, was a thoroughfare from the falls to Philadelphia. Galloway"> 
ford is on Xeshaminy above Hulnieville, and was destroyed when the dam w::- 
built, because it backed up the water so it could not be crossed. At A] in! 
term, 1703, the courl directed a jury to lay out a road "from the upperniu^t 
inhabitants ailjacent to Southhanipt(-in to the landing commonly called John 
Gilbert'.^ landing."-' 



; . V ,'* VS. 









RED LION INN. BKNSALEM. 

The two oldest ta\erns in the town.-hip are the Red Lion, on the turnpike, 
at the crossing of the !'( -(luessing, and the Trappc. on the Street road, a mile 
above where the old King's highway crosses it on its way to the falls. The 
former is of .-unie histurical interest, and will be mentiiMied in a future chapter. 

Acrr^ss the i'<jqf.essing. Philadel]ihia county, is the old P.yberry meeting 
grave yard, near the i>resent one, and which the Keithians retained on the 
separation, 1690. In it are two marble gravestones, one "To the memory "i 
James Rush, who departed this life .March ye 6, 1726-7, aged forty-eiglit 
years and ten months, grandfather of Dr. Benjamin Ri\sh, the Signer" ; the 
other to Crispin Colleit, who died September 3, 1753, aged thirty-seven years. 
All the other stones in the yard are the common field stone. Daniel Long- 
streth, Warminster, whn visited this grave yard, 1843. accompanied by his 
wife, remarked in his diary: "John Hart, the noted Quaker preacher, who 
joined Geiirge Keith at the lime rif the separation, lived wiiere Caleb Kniglit 
now resides, the ne.xt farm but one above the grave yard. It was the son >'i 
John Hart, the preacher, that settled on the five hundred-acre tract to the 
north of my residence in Warminster. The family jihied tlie P.aptists in 



27 Jnlm f;illnTt «:!■; one nf tlic c.Trlicst settlers in r.cn--:ili.-ni, bnt tlic plncc of liis 
laniling is n.it knuwn to tlic prc-cnt ptncr.Ttinn. 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUNTY. 



125 



Sonthnniptoii meeting." Mr. Loiigstreth, on the same or a subsequent visit 
to JJyberry, was told by Charles Walmslcy that his uncle had a cart 
whuse hubs were usc<l in a vehicle that hauled baggage for Eraddock's armv 
in the French and Indian war, 1755-57. They were then in good condition 
and in use. The vehicle they belonged to, at the time, were pressed into service 
fur the use of the army. 

Mary Xeuman Brister, nee Fry, born at the Trappc, June 8, 1780, was liv- 
ing at Washington, i'a., 1880, in good health, and had never been sick until the 
year previous. She was married to George Erister, in Philadelphia, who 
died in Washington, 1850. He was in the war with England, 1812, and fought 
at Xew Orleans. George Fry. Mrs. Brister's father, was born in Bucks countv. 
1730, and died, 1833. He served in the Braddock campaign, 1755; and, at 
the age of 103, walked from I'hiladelphia to Cincinnati, C)hio, but was never 
heard of afterward. 

In 1892, the order of the "Sisters of the Blessed Sacrament," for Indians 
and colored people, established the "Alother House"' in Bensalem, near Corn- 
well, on the line of the Pennsylvania railroad. The order is known as "St. 
Elizabeth's Convent am.! the Holy Providence Home." The sisterhood was 
founded under the auspices of Miss Catherine M. Drexel, who took the veil 
as a nun of the Roman Catliolic church, under the name of 2\lother M. 
Kalhrine. The organization was effected, 1891. In the chapter on "School 
and Education,"' the scope and purposes of this institution are set forth. 

Bensalem is a rich and fertile township, with little waste land, and the 
surface has a gradual slope from its northwest boundar\- to tlie Delav.are. It 
is bounded on three sides by water, the Delaware river. Xeshaniin\-, and 
Poquessing, and it is well-watered by numerous tributaries. The nearness of 
this township to I'hiladel]ihia. and' the facility with which it can be reached 
by rail and boat, have induced many of her rich citizens to make their homes 
within its limits. In consequence numerous elegant dwellings line its main 
highways and the banks of the Delaware, and large wealth is found among 
the inhabitants. The Pennsylvania railroad, formerly Philadelphia and 
1 renton railroad, runs across the township a short distance from the river, w ith 
stations at a number of [joints, and passing trains take up and set down 
passengers every few miiuiies. while the through line of the North Pennsyl- 
vania railroad to Xew York crosses it near the Southampton line. 

The township contains an area of eleven thousand six hundred and fifty- 
six acres, and itsMioundaries have not been disturbed since its organization, 
i'H}2. In 1742, sixty years after its settlement by the English, it had but 
seventy-eight taxable inhabitants, and the highest valuation of any one person 
was £50. In 1744 the taxalilcs had fallen ott to seventy-two. but they had in- 
creased to ninety, in 1755. and to ninety-eight in 1765. In 1784 the popula- 
tion of the township was u-^t, whites, 175 blacks, and 131 dwellings. In 1810 
it was 1.434; 1820. 1.667: 1830, 1.811, and 345 taxables : 1S40, 1.731 : 1S50, 
-•239; i860, 2.336; 1870, 2.;},^^,. iif which 296 were foreign-born, and 169 
black: 1880. 2.217; ''^^P- ~-?i'^i'- 1900, 2,829. The township has two shad- 
ti^heries. one known as \'a.ndegrift"s. the other as "Frogtown."" and now the 
property of Doctor Markley. The fisheries we have mentioned in the river 
townships are all shore fislieries and have been long estaltlished. In fi irmer 
limes the catch of shad and herring was much greater than of late years. The 
rent of these two fisheries, for a number of vears. has not exceeded 85<K) a vear. 
.\ po>t-riffice was csta1)lished at Andalusia, 1816, and Thomas Morgan appointed 
postmaster. 



CHAPTER XI. 



.MIDDLETOWN. 



Original name. — Xicholas W'alne. — Richard Amor. — John Cutler, Thomas Slackliouse. — 
John Eastburn. — Thomas Janney. — Simon Gillam. — Great mixture of blood. — William 
Iluddleston. — Abraham and Christopher \'anhorne. — John Richardson. — The Jenks 
family. — Middletown meeting. — Story of Lady Jenks. — Jeremiah Langhorne. — The 
Mitchtlls. — Charles Plum!e> — Langhorne. — Four Lanes End. — Joshua Richardson. — 
The High School. — The Hulme family. — The Cawlcys. — Dr. White. — Hulmeville. — 
Memorial trees. — John Hulme. — Josiah Quincy. — Extract from daughter's memoirs. — 
Mill built. — Industrial establishments. — Oxford Valley. — Origin of name Eden. — Early 
ii,l!ls. ^Trolley roads. — Early roads. — Peter Peterson Vanhorne. — Taxables — Popula- 
tion. — Death of Robert Skirm and wife. — Farley. — The inhabitant farn^.ers. — Gallo- 
way's and Baldwin's fords. — Dr. Longshore. 

.JiliddlctONvn is tlie last of the original townships. In the report of the 
jury that laid it out, it is designated "the middle township" of the group, 
btit was frequently called "middle lots" down to 1703, and "middle township" 
as late as 1724. Gratlually it came to be called by the name it bears. 

A fc'.v of the original settlers came in the Welcome with William I'enn, 
while others preceded or fijllowcd him. l!y 1684 the land was generally 
taken up, a good deal of it in large tracts, and some by non-residents.' Some 
of these settlers purchased land of the Proprietary before leaving England. 
Nicholas \\'a!ne, Yorksliire, came in the Welcome, and took up a large tract 
between Langliorne and Xeshaminy. He was a distinguished minister among 
friends, and held a lea.ding part in the politics of the county, which he repre- 
sented several yeais in the Asseiubly. His son died, 1744. Nicholas Waliic. 
his descendant, prohabh- grandson, was born at Fair Hill, Philadelphia, 1742; 
studied law at the Tcmiilc. London, returned and practiced seven years in this 
county and elsewhere. I.iniiev savs that after he had been engaged in a real 



I Land-owucrs in Middlcti'iun in iG^^: Walter Bridgcman, Thomas Constable. Widow 
Croa-idalc. Rnl-.crt Holdi;;!!^. .Mexandcr Biles. Widow linnd. Robert Hoaton, Thomas 
Slackh.Mwe. Jr., Thomas S;ackbou-i-. James DiKvorth, \\ idi.w Hurst, Riciiard Thatcher. 
John Si-arbor.iu- 1 Scarl>. .fnrjh 1, Xicbola^ Walnc. Jonathan Towno, Joshua Boar, Thomas 
Marie. Wilbam Pa\>Mn. .Ia;iiv~ I'ax-^on. J,>na;li.in Flocknc. WiUi.mi B.ri.-.n. Robert Carter, 
Franci-i Dow. 1 b-nrv I'.iv-.iu, Wiii-iini Wiauui an. I FMward Samway 



HISTORY Of BUCKS COUXTV 



tstatc case at Xewtown, Mr. W'alnc was asked, by a Friend, on his return to 
tin citv, how it was decided. He rephed : "1 did the best I could for my 
client ; gained the case for him, and thereby defrauded an honest man of his 
d.ue.-." He then rehnquished the law, on the ground that its practice is incon- 
.•~i>ient with the principles of Christianity, settled up his btisiness, and returned 
the lees of untinished cases. He now became a devout attendant on religious 
meeting, and afterward a minister among Friends. 

Richard Amor.- I!erk~hire, located two hundred and fifty acres on 
Xe^haminy, beluw Hulmeville, but died a few months after his arrival. He 
brought with him a servant, Stephen Sands, who married Jane Cowgill, 10S5, 
and kft children. Henry t'axson, from Uycothouso. ( )xfiirtlshire, who located tive 
lumdred acres on the Xeshaminy, above Hulmeville, lost his wife, two sons, 
and a brother at sea, by disease, and married the widow of Charles Plumley, 
Xorthampton, 1684. He was a man of influence and a member of Assembly, 
lames Dilwortli, of Thornley, Lancashire, arrived with son William and a 
servant, October, 16S2, and settled on a thousand acres on Xeshaminy, below 
.-Vtileborough, the ])resent Langhorne. Richard Davis came from Wales, in 
Xovember, 16S3, with his son David, who married ^Margaret Evans, in Alarch, 
I0>'6, and died lifteen days after his arrival. He is supposed to have been the 
lir^t surgeon in the county.^ The land taken up by John Scarborough in 
^.liddletown came to the possession of his son John, by his father returning to 
England to fetch his family, but failed to come back.'' Thomas Stackhouse 
and his son Thomas were the proprietors of a large tract in the lower part 
of the township. Richard Thatcher took up one thousand acres, and Ralph 
Ward and Ralph Alford one thousand and twenty-five acres each. Robert 
Hall, whose name is not on Holme's map, but was one of the earliest settlers, 
owned a tract that joined Bristol township. Robert Heaton. one of the earliest 
.•settlers and a land owner on Holme's map, but built the first mill in the township. 
Its e.xact situation is not known, but was probably on the X'eshaminy, abi.nit , 
where Comfort's mill stands. He died, 1716." William Paxson's tract 
extended from near the present Eanghorne. back of Oxford. He was a 
member of Assembly, 1701. Among others, who were original settlers and 
land owners, were George and John White, Francis Andrews and Alexander 
Giles. Thomas Constable owned a considerable tract in the upper part of the 
township, bordering on Xewtown. John Atkinson embarked, 1699. with a 
certificate from Lancaster monthly meeting, but died at sea; also his wife. 
Susannah, leaving children, William, Hilary and John. Thomas Atkinson was 
also an early settler, but probal)ly not until after Holme's map was made. 
Before 1700, Thomas Musgrove owned five hundred acres in the township, 
patented to Hannaii Price, and after came into jiossession of Thomas Jenks. 

The Cutlers were e'lrly settlers in r>ncks county, John and Edward, from 
Yorkshire, England, landing at Philadelphia from the Rebecka. James Skinner, 
master. 8th month, 31st. 16S5. John, who probably arrived single, 1703. married 
ALargery, daughter of Cutlibert Ifayhurst, Xorthampton, and had children, 

- 2 His name is n.>t on Ilolnic''; map, 

3 Thert wns a "barlier,"' as snri^cons were then called, on the Delaware as earU- as 
if-r'.X. Imt it is nut km.nvn that he lived in the county, or tliat his practice even extended 

intM i:. 

4 A inrtlicr aconmt of Ji.hn ScnrhiToiigh will be t'onnd in another chapter. 

5 He liad one hundred and ci;4lity-ei!,'ht acres surveyed to him in Muldktown. 



128 HISTORY OF DUCKS COUXTY 



Elizabeth, !Mary and JJcnjaniin. The two brothers brought with them in. Ma- 
tured servants, Cornehus Xcttlewooii, Richard Mather, Ellen Wingri.cii, 
William Wardle, James Moliner, son of James ^loliner, late of Liverpoul. 
John Cutler settled in Middletown ; was county surveyor, 1702-3, and made 
the resurvev of the county, laid out Ijristol borough, 1713, was coroner, I7ii_;. 
and died, 1720. Edmund Cutler, brother of John, was married before leaving 
England from the date of his children's birth, who were Elizabeth, born I4tli. 
7tli month, 16S0; Thomas, lOtli, 9th ni'inth, loSi, and William, born lOili, 
loth month, 16S2. PZdnumd Cutler's wife, whose name is given both as Jane 
and Isabel, died 4th month, 1715. Edmund Culler probably settled in South- 
ampton, and his son John was a school teacher in Middletown, 1705. an.I 
coroner of the county, 1718-19. Lawrence Cutler, a descendant of one of 
the brothers, married Xaomi Brown, Penn's Manor, and another a Stackhouse. 
Both brothers were surveyors, and John is understood to have been in Penn's 
employ before leaving England. Edmund was a farmer. 

Among the earliest settlers were Nicholas and Jane W'alne. Thomas and 
Agnes Croasdale, who came with six children; Robert and Elizabeth Hall. 
two; James and Ann Dihvorth, one: William and Mary Paxson. one; James 
and Jane Paxson, two; James and Hilary Radclilt, four; Jonathan and Anne 
Scaife, two; Robert and Alice Heaton, five, and r^Iartin and Aime W'ildman. 
six. John Eastburn came from the parish of Eingley, county York, with a 
certificate from Bradley meeting, dated July 31, 16S4. Johannes Searl was in 
jMiddletown prior t.-> 1725, from whose house a road leading to Bristol was laid 
out that year. Bef'jre 1700, Thomas ]\Iusgrove owned five hundred acres 
in the tow nship, patented to Hannah Price, and afterward came into the posses- 
sion of Thomas Jenks. 

We are able to trace the descent of several of the present families of long 
standing in Middletown with considerable minuteness, but not as much so as we 
would desire. The Buntings were among the earliest settlers. In 16S9, Job 
Bunting married Rachel Baker, and starting from this couple the descent is 
traced, in the male line, through .^anuul. born 1692. and married Priscil'a 
Burgess, ■1716; Sanuiel, second, born 171S, married 1740; William, burn, 
1745. married Margery Woulston. 1771 ; William, married Mary W. Blakey. 
1824. parents of Blakey Bunting. Jonathan Bunting, from a collateral 
branch, is the sixth in descent from the first Job Bunting. In the maternal 
line they descend from John Sotclier and Mary Lofty, inaternal ancestor "t 
the Ta\Iors and Blakeys. Thomas Yardley, who married Susan Brown, I7''^5- 
had tlie Sotcher and Lofty blood from both lines, through the Kirkbrides an.; 
Stacys in the paternal, and the Clarks, the Worrells and Browns in the ma- 
ternal. 

C»iie branch of tlie Croasdale< are descended from Ezra and Aim f Peacock ) 
Croasdale. who married, iCfi-j. through Jeremiah, Ruliert and Robert sec.ui.l. 
on the paternal side, and on the maternal, from William, son of James ami 
Jane Paxson; bi.rn i''>33. came to America. ir)82. and married Mary Packing- 
ham. Robert .M. Croasdale, deceased, in the female line, was desceii.led 
through the Waisons, Richardsons, Pre.^trns. etc. 

The maternal aneolors oi [sruah Wat-<^n trace their descent back t.i 
W illi;iin and Margaret C...>iier. Bl.ikey, the faniilv name of the maternal >ii!e. 
first ajjpear in William Blakey about I7'\i: and alt. .lit tlie same |Hri.>d the 
Watsons erne ujwn the stage in the jierMm of TImuuis Watson, the pp .genii. >r 
of those who bear th;..t name iti Mid.Hei. .\\ n. 

Thomas [annev is ihc sixth in dc-j.-ent from the first Thomas and his wife. 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUNTY. 129 



Margaret, who came from Cheshire, England, 1683, through the famihes of 
Iloiicfh, Mitchell. Briggs. Penquite, ?Iarding, Carr, Croasdale and Euckman. 

Simon Gillam, the great-grandson of Lucas Gillam (who was a grandson 
of Anna Paxson, and descended from James and Jane Paxson), who married 
Ann Dungan, 174S. On the maternal side the male line runs back through 
li\e generations of W'oolstons, to John, who married Hannah Cooper, 1681. 
Jonathan W'oolsion married Sarah Pearson, Burlington, New Jersey, 1712, 
and is thought to have been the tirst of the name who came to ^Middletown. 
Joshua Woolston, so well known in the lower and middle sections of the 
county, was the fifth in descent from John and Hannah. His mother, a Rich- 
ardson, married Joshua Woolston, in 1786, who could trace his descent back to 
W'i'liam and Mary i'axson, the common progenitors of many families of this 
coimty.'' 

In tracing the descent of families in the lower end of the county we find 
great commingling of blood. Several of them start from a common ancestor, 
on one side or the other and sometimes both, and, when one or two generations 
removed they commenced to intermarry and continued it. Thus we find John 
and Mary Sctchcr, and William and r^iargaret Cooper, the common ancestors 
of tlie families of Ijunting, Plakey, Taylor, Yardley, Croasdale, Knowles, Swain, 
Iluzby, Watson, Knight, Wills, Dennis, Burton, \\'arner, Stapler, Gillam, 
Kirkbride, Palmer, Jenks, \\'oolston, Griscom, Sattcrthwaite, Gummcre, Pax- 
sun, and Deacon. These families have extensively intermarried, and Pierson 
Mitchell came of the blood of the Piersons, the Stackhouses, the Walnes and 
Hestons, and was the fifth in descent from Henry Mitchell. 

William Huddleston was an early settler where Langhorne stands, his 
land extending north of the village, iie was a shoemaker by trade and lived 
in a log house back from the road on the lot lately owned by Absalom 
Michener. The house was on the side of a hill near a spring. In moderate 
weather he worked with the south door open to give him light, as he had no 
^iass in the windows, but bits of parchment instead. Doctor Pluddleston, of 
X'Tristown. was his descendant, but the family has run out in this county.^ 

Abraham and Christian \'anhorne, Hollanders, took up land on the south 
side of the Buck road, part of it within the limits of Langhorne, but the time 
is not ktiown, and lived in a small log house in the middle of their tract. It 
is told of one of the brothers, that, on one occasion, while he was gone to mill, 
liis familv went to bed leaving a candle burning upon the bureau, and, on his 
return, found his dwelling in fiames. Gilbert Hicks came from Long Island, 
linugh: forty acres of land at Four Lanes End, and built the hou*e owned by 
James Flowers, at the southeast corner of the cross-roads, 1763. He was a. 
■loyalist" in the Kevoluti'jii. and tied to the British armv.* 

Joseph Richardson, great-grandfather of the late Jo>hua Richardson, 
settled at Langhorne, 1730, and, six years later, bought the land of the \'an- 
hornes. At his death he paid quit-rent to Penn's agent for over twelve 



ti .Xmoiig tlicm are ihe f.imilics of Jenk?. Crnasd.nle, Palmer. Eri;;^-;. Kiii'^^'ht, \Vill>. 
Stackliouse. and Carr. bcsiflos tbr.^e aln-aily meiitidiieil. Malilmi Stacy, the pioneer miller 
•■t West Jer^cy, was ancestor to the Ducks comity fannhe-, i.i Tayior, Vanlloy, Croaidale, 
Stapler. Ea^ihiim and Warner. 

7 Possibly he wn-; liie WiUiani 1 riiddleston who married a danghier of William 
Cooper, of Ihickingltani. befnre 1701), 

S .-11 further acciimt oi' (;,ll,.rt llick^ will be found eUewhere. 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUNTY. 




hundred acres in MiddleUnvn, North and Southampton, only two hundred 
of which remained in the family at the death of Joshua, the homestead tract 
at the former Attleborougli. lie married a daughter of William Paxson, 1732, 
and had six children: Joshua, born November 22, 1733; IMary, July 25, 1735; 
William, October 3, 1737: Ivachel, ]\Iay 29, 1739; Rebecca, I\Iarch 27, I7.i_>, 
and Ruth, October 31, 174S. 

The Jeiikses are Welsh, apd the genealogy of tlie 
family can be traced from the year 900 down to 1669, when 
it becomes obscure. The arms, which have long been in 
possession of the family at Wolverton, England, descend- 
ants of Sir George, to \\ horn they were confirmed by Queen 
Elizabeth. 15S2, are supposed to have been granted soon 
after tlie time of William the Conqueror, for bravery on 
the field of battle.^ The first progenitor of the family in 
America was Thomas, son of Thomas Jenks. born in Wales, 
/ December or January, 1G99. When a child he came to 
Pennsylvania with his mother, Susan Jenks, who married 
Benjamin \\'iggins,"' Buckingham, by whom she had a 
■ y son, born, 1709. She died while he was young, and \sas 
buried at Wrightstown meeting. Tliomas Jenks, brouglit 
up a farmer, joined the Friends, 1723, , married }*Iercy 
\\'ildman, .Middlctown, in 1731, and afterwards removed 
jESKs COAT OP ARMS. {q ^^Jiq); towushlp, whcrc he spent his life. He bought ^ix 
hundred acres coutheast of Newtown, on which he erected his homestead, 
which he called Jenks' Hall, and built a fulling-mill on Core creek, running 
through the premises, several years before 1742. He led an active business life, 
lived respected, and died ?^Iay 4, 1797, at the good old age of ninety-seven, lie 
was small in stature, but sprightly, temperate in his habits and of great physical 
vigor. At the age of ninety he walked fifty miles in a week, and, at ninety-two, 
his eyesight and hearing were both remarkably good. He had lived to sec the 
wilderness and haunts of wild beasts become the seats of polished life. 

Thomas Jenks left three sons and three daughters: Marv. Elizabeth. Ann. 
John, Thomas and Joseph, who married into the families of '\\'cir, Richardson, 
Pierson. Twining and Watson. His son Thom.as, a man of abilitv and cniii- 
manding person, became prominent. Pie had a taste for politics, was a nunilier 
of the Constitutional Convention. 1790. and afterward elected to the ."^encite, 
of which he was a member at his death. The descendants of Thomas Jenks. 
tb.e elder, are very numerous and found in various parts, in and out of the state, 
although few of the name are now in Ilucks county. We have not the space 
nor time to trace them, for they are verv numerous. Among the families of 
the present and past generatii'iis, with which they have allied themselves by 
marriage, in ad'lition to those already named, are Kennedy. New York. Stiuy. 
Carlisle. Fell. Dix^on, Watson, Trimble. Murray. Snvder fgr)vernor of Penn- 
sylvania). Ciillingham. Hutchinson. Justice. Coliins, of New York, Kirkbride. 
Stockton, of New Jersey, Canby, Brown, Elscgood, Davis, Yardley, NewboM, 



9 The C'lTifiriu.itinn in the patint clo^crihes them as ".\r.t;int. throe Boars Ileaili"? 
Coupee, atirl Ou-t-fe indented salile?. with this crest r.r cognizance, a Lione rampant, 
with a Boar's ileade in his pawcs," as copied from the records in tlie college of arms. 
London. iS.uv 

10 The \\'i>:,L;ir.ses came from Xew Eny'and. 



HISTORY OF BCCKS COUXTY. 



131 



Morris, Earl, Handy, Robbiiis, Ramsey (former governor of Minnesota), 
Martin, Randolph, etc. DiKtor t'hincas Jenks and Michael H. Jenks, XewtowiT, 
deceased, were descendants of Thomas the elder. 

The story of "Lady Jenks," as written in Watson's Annals, has been too 
closely associated with the family of that name in Middletown to be passed 
in silence. The allegation of Watson is, that when Thomas Penn came to this 
country he was accompanied by "a person of show and display called Lady 
Jenks," who passed her time in the then wilds of Bucks county ; that her beauty 
and accomplishments gave her notoriety ; that she rode with him at fox hunt- 
ing and at the famous "Indian walk'" of 1737, and that it was well under- 
stood she was the mother of Thomas Jenks, .Middletown. Watson gives "old 
Samuel Preston"' as authority for this story, but adds that it was afterward 
confirmed by others. Ihis piece of Watson's gossip and scandal must stand 
upon its own merits, if it stands at all. Let the voice of History be heard in the 
case. Susan Jenks, a widow, came to America with her young son, Thomas 
(born 1700), married Benjamin Wiggins, of Buckingham, 1708 or 1709, died a 
few years afterward and was buried at Wrightstown. Thomas Penn was born, 
1703 or 1704, about the time Susan Jenks came to this country, which would 
make him three or four years younger than his reputed son. As Penn did not 
come to America until 1732, several years after Susan Jenks was dead, he 
could not have brought her with hira ; and as he was not at the "Indian walk," 
1737, she could nrjt have accompanied him. living or dead. These simple facts, 
which are susceptible of proof from family and church records, are sufficient 
to disprove the romantic story of Watson. A story so idle is not worthy of 
investigation. "Lady Jenks'' may be set down as an historic myth, made out 
of the whole cloth. The only foundation for a story of this kind is the alleged 
liaison of William Penn, Jr., with a young lady of Bucks county, when here, 
1703. Of this James Logan writes : " 'Tis a pit\- his wife came not with him, 
for her presence would have confined him within bounds he was not too regular 
in observing." 

The ^litchells, early settlers of Middletown, were descendants of Henry 
Mitchell, Marsden Lane, Lancashire, England, carpenter by trade, who married 
Elizabeth l-'oulds. 3d month. 6th. 1675. Both were members of the Society 
of Friends and he \vas imprisoned for his religious conviction, 16S5. On i2Lh 
month. i6th, 1699, T^Iarsden monthly meeting gave a certificate to Henry 
iMitchcll, wife and four children : they embarked in the Britannica for Penn- 
sylvania, and arrived in the Delaware August 25, after a voyage of fourteen 
weeks. The vessel was overcrowded and there was great sickness on board, 
fifty-six dying at sea and twenty after landing, among them being Henry 
Mitchell and one son. The widow and three children settled near the head of 
tide water on Neshaminy, and Middletown has been considered the home of the 
family. Of the children, Richard built and run the first grist mill in Wrights- 
town, and became a prominent man; the daughter Margaret married Stephen 
Twining: Henrv remained at the Middletown homestead, and married Sarah, 
a daughter of Richard (^ove. London. Elizabeth Mitchell, widow of Henry, 
the immigrant, dieil in Miildletown, where her death is recorded in the Meeting 
record. Pierson. smi of Jrihn. married Rebecca .Allen, daughter of John Allen, 
and also remained at the h.nniestead. In 1^04. Gove Mitchell, son of Pierson, 
bought a farm in Moorl'iu'l. Montgomery county, at the intersection of the Yor'tc 
road and county line, ha'f a mile above Hatl)Oro. He studied medicine and 
spent his life here practicing hi> profi.-s.--ion. .\t his death the farm passed to 
his eldest son. Liei.'rge Iu~ticc .Mitchell, and from liim to his ^on, f. Howard 



13= 



HISTGRV OF BUCKS COUXTV. 



Mitchell, who hves there with his chiUhen and grand children. The late Pierson 
Mitchell. .Mi'l'!l-to\vn. was a descendant of Henry Mitchell. 

The Carters trace their descent to William Carter, who settled in Phlia- 
delphia, but located six hundred acres in this county, east of the Xeshaniinv. 
near Hulnieville, im a deed <^iven to him by Penn before leaving England. Carur 
was an alderman of the cit_\', and elected mayor, 171 1. On the expiration oi 
his term of ciftiee he removed to his tract. INIiddletown, where he spent the 
remainder of his da_\s. Me has numerous descendants in this county und 
in Byberry. The family is in possession of an old clock that has belonged to it 
since 1711." 


















MIDULETOW.N .MEKTlNu HOUSE, .MAPLE AVENUE, LANGHORNE. 



The Middktown meeting, next to Falls, is the oldest in the county. Meet- 
ings for worship were first licld at the houses of Xicholas ^\■alne. John Otter an<i 
Robert Hall. KuSj. The fir-t niontlily meeting was held at Walne's, Decemb', r 
I, 1684, and tlie next at llaH'.-. where h'riend.^ were to bring the dates of their 
births and marriages. They met sometimes at widow Hayinirsfs. who lived 
across Xeshaminy in Xorthamiiton. Xicholas Walne and Thomas Atkinson were 
the first delegates chosen from Middletown to the yearly meeting, Sejitemher -'. 
1684. It was called Xeshaminy Meeting until 1706. The first meeting-h' u-' 
was built by Thomas Stackliou.se. 1690. at a cost of £26 iQs jd. and £10 
additional f. .r a stable. One light of glass was put in each lower window, if'^'. 



II \Vi;i,rini C.-irter. Plnlailelpliii. pr'ili.-ilily ncvor livcil in Iliuk^ comity, .•md I'.ncs !i' 
appe.ir to l-.ave U-t't ilc-cenci;iiii> [n his will lie nK-nii.iis his rohilivcs, Robert Carlr 
Bticki rruir.-y. ilco-a-ec.i. A Cirtor ilied prior to lOSS. Kaviiiij chililrcn. I'.rKv.ird. J" 1 



Margaret, Jiiui ami Jane, .a!! 



ClLllKKT Ci: 



HISTORY OF DUCKS COUXTV. 133 



iiiuilin or oiled paper being probaljly ii?ecl in the others. Martin W'ildman was 
ajipMinted to clean the house and make the tires at an annual salary of 20 
^liillir.gs t'cr the first xear. and six shillings additional for the next. The first 
marriage recorded was that of Henry Faxson, whose wife died at sea, to 
Margery Plumley, August 13, 1684. There were only forty-seven marriages 
at Middletown from 1684 fi 1700, less than three a year.^- Evidently the battle 
of life was too hard to allow much indulgence in matrimony. In the first 
fiitv vears there were three hundred and fifty-nine births in ilie bounds of the 
ir.eeting. the earliest being a son of James and Jane Paxson, born July, 16S3, 
and thirty deaths to 1731. The sixth person buried at .Middletown was 
Susannah, daughter of John and Jane Xayl'>r. who died September 27, 1699. 
The quarterly meetings at Falls and Middletown were the only ones in the 
county, and held alternately at each place until 1722, when a third was held at 
Wrightstown. The Friends at ^iliddletown brought certificates from the 
nmnthly meeting of Settle, Coleshill, Lucks and Lancaster, Westminster, 
JJrighouse, in York, etc. 

Charles Plumley, Somersetshire, England, married ]\Iargery Page, 12, 
II. it'>65. settled in Middletown. 16S2, with wife and sons, William, James, 
Charles, John and George ; and purchased land on the Xeshaminy. He died in 
i')83. His widow married Henry Paxson, 6, 13, 1684. Of the sons, William 
born TO. 7, 1666, married Elizabeth Thompson, 1688; James, born 6, 22, 1668, 
married Mary Budd, settled in Southampton, and died 1702; Charles, born 12, 
9, 1674. married Rose Budd. and died in Philadelphia, 170S; John, born 7, 8, 
lO/J, married Mary Bainbridge, daughter of John and Sarah 01 X. J.. 170S, 
settled in Middletown. and died 1732: George, born 4, 14, 16S0, married Sarah, 

• , died at Philadelphia, 1754. and his widow, 1759. without issue. The 

later Plumleys were descended from Charles and John, sons of Rose (Budd) 
Plumley. 

Among the early settlers in Middletown were the Cawleys, who probably 
came sometime in the first quarter of the eighteenth century. The first of the 
name we have met with was Thomas Cawley, who was married at Christ 
cl"'.rch, Philadelphia, July i, 1720, to Mary Moggrage. In 1721, Thomas 
C.-iv.lcy was witness to the will of E\-an Thomas. Philadelphia county, yeoman. 
John Cawley. of Yate House Green. ^liddlewicii. county Chester, England, was 
in Middletown, Bucks county, in March, 1729. and on the 2Sth bought real 
e-tate "in Great Egg Harbor. X. J. He was probably the same John Cawdey 
who died in Middletown, 1761. at a very great age. He was twice married, first 
to Elinor Earle. Burlingti'U, X. J.. April 12, 1729, and the name of his second 
wife was ^largaret, as we learn from a deed executed May i, 1754, to which 
it was attached as a witness. In one place he is spoken of as a "tatmer." in 
another "yeoman." . He had a son John, in England, when he mafle his will, 
1705. but was at home in Middletown, April 22. 1768. w hen he executed a power 
of attorney to Thomas Cawley. John Cawley. tiie elder, had also a daughter, 
Elizabeth Pratt, a grand-daughter. Sarah Cawley. and grandson, John Cawley, 
the younger, who lived and died in Xorthampton township, whose will was 

12 Amont; the earliest ni.irriacre^ in Midilli-t(-iun were: Ilcnry B.nkcr to Mary 
Rade-liff, lit mo. 7!h, Kxi.', F.diuuiid Bennett tn Elizabeth Potts, ist mo. Stli, 1685, Walter 
Eriflgnian to Blanch (^i iistahle. 1st nio. jih. idSd. John t)tter to Mary Blinston. jnJ mo. 
rth, 1686, Abraliam Wharloy to D.unarias Walley. 61I1 mo, ."^ih, io.'^7, Thonuis Stack- 
li'V.ise to Grace lliaton, 5th mn. 3th. lU'^'^, William Croa_-.ilale tip Eli.'abeth Hayhurst, 
6;h n:o. i.nh, lu^'.j. 



134 



HISTORY OF Bi-CKS COi'XTV 



maJ.e August 23, 176S. His widnw, Sarali Cawley, was married to Joshua 
Dungan, April 3, 1773. and anothtr Sarah Ca\vle\ , proluiljly his sister or 
daughter, married John I'enton, Northampton township, June 20. 1773, at the 
Southampton I'.aptist church. From the data at hand it is impossible to trace 
the descendants of father or son. A Thomas Cawley settled in Xorthampton 
county, and died there August 5, 1806. John R. Cawley, born 181 1, lived at 
Allentown in recent year-, ami Dr. James 1. Cawley is n<jw living at Spring- 
town, Bucks county. Alfred C. Willit, a descendant of John Cawley, the elder, 
lives at Holmesburg, Philadelphia county. 

Thomas Langhorne, a minister among Friends, came from Westmoreland, 
England, with a certificate from Kendall monthly meeting, and settled in Afid- 
dlctown, 1684. He took uji a large tract below what is now Langhorne, running 
to Xeshaniinv, and died in 16S7. His son Jeremiah, who became Chief Justice 




M.iXSIOX or JEREMI.iH LASGIIoRXE. 

of the Province, was a man of mark and note, and died October 11. 174^.'^ 
He was a large land owner, his homestead tract on the Durham road and con- 
taining eight hunvlred acres, being known as Langhorne Park. He owned two 
thousand acres in Warwick and New liriiain, purchased of the Free Socictv of 
Traders, two thousand at Perkasie, and a large tract on the IMonococy, no^v in 
Lehigh county, then in Bucks. In his will, dated May 16, 1742, he made liberal 
provi-ii'-.n for his negroes, of whom he owned a number. Those who had 
reached twenty-four years of age were manumitted, others to be set free on 
arriving at that age. A few received special mark of favor. Joe, Cudjo and 
London were to live at the Park until his nephew, Thomas Biles, to whom it 
was left, came of age. with the use of the necessary stock, at a rent of £30 per 
annum, and were to supjiort all the women and children on the place. Joe and 
Cudjo were given life estates in certain lands in \\'arwick township after they 



coiiinii^.-.iriiKil .1 jii-tice of the peace. May JO, 1715. and 
conimissiorifr to erect a now jail and court house at 



13 Jeremiah La!ic;hnrne w 
again Scpteniiier 17, 171"; wa 
Ntwtown, 172.) ; was speaker of tlie Colonial Council ; succeeded Robert Asheton, third 
justice of the Supreme ccuirt. Scptenihor ij. l~jf^: \vi= appointed second justice, .\pril 8, 
1731, and chief juilice, Aueust 0. 1739. which he held to hi< death. 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUXTY. 135 



left the Park. Langhorne flirocted honsei to he built for some of his negroes, 
with fifty acres and stock allotted to each, during their lives. He was careful 
to !-pecify that the negroes should work for their support. 

The Langhorne mansion stood on the site of the dwelling late of Charles 
("ishorn. two miles above Hulnieville. The old road from Philadelphia to 
Trenton, crossing Xeshaminy just above Hulnieville, made a sweep round by the 
Langhorne liouse, and thence on to Trenton. The part of the road from 
Xeshaminy to Langhorne was probably vacated when the Durham road was 
opened down to Bristol. The Park embraced farms of the late Charles Osmond, 
George Ambler, Caleb X. Taylor and probably others. The mansion was built 
witli two wings. The furniture in the parlor in the west end, in the chamber 
overhead, and in the closet adjoining, was not to be removed, but pass with the 
real estate as an heirloom. The Park was advertised in the Pennsylvania 
Packet, Philadelphia, May 3, 178S, to.be sold at private sale, and a full descrip- 
tion of the pro])erty given. "It contains nine hundred and twenty-nine acres 
of excellent land, arable and meadow, abounding with several streams of water, 
an.; rcmarkabl}- fine springs. The mansion house, kitchen and out offices, suit- , 
able to accommodate a large and genteel family ; the prospect delightful and 
capable of the first improvements ; nineteen miles from the city of Philadelphia, 
and five from Newtown, the countv seat." The buildings were sold with four 
hundred and fifty-two and one-half acres, to a committee of tlie Philadelphia 
meeting of Friends, Henry Drinker, Samuel Smith and Thomas Fisher, for the 
purpose of estiblishing there a Friends" Boarding and Day School, but, not being 
pleased with the situation, the property at Westtown, Chester county, was se- 
lected for this purpose, 1794. The Langhorne property was subsequently sold 
by the meeting at public sale to Andrew Kennedy for a low price. The part 
unsold was the portion, forty-seven acres, called "Guinea." About 150 acres in 
the southwest corner of the tract, were enclosed by a stone wall, long since 
removed to build stone fences. On the top the stones were set on edge. 
"Fiddler Bill," the last of the Langhorne slaves, lived some time among the ruins 
of an old house on the premises, but w as finally taken to the poor house, wliere 
he died. 

The villages of Middletown are Langhorne, formerly Attleborough, Hulnie- 
ville, Langliorne JNIanor, Oxford Valley and Eden, all post villages. Langhorne, 
the oldest and largest, is at the intersection of the Durham, Philadelphia, and 
Trenton roads, four miles southeast of Xcwtown, and seven from Bristol. Tlie 
latter road branches just south of the village, one branch leading to Philadel- 
phia via Feastcrville, the other crossing the Xeshaminy at Oregon, runs via the 
Trappe tavern to meet the F.ustleton pike. .\ third important road, that from 
Yardley, falling into the Durham road at the upper end of the village, afforded 
the earliest outlet for the .settlers of Lower ^Lakefield to reach Philadelphia. '''- 
Langhorne, located at the intersection of these roads, was an important point 
in the lower section of the county at an early day. It was called "Four Lanes 
End," for many years, because four roads ended there. It is not known when 
the name "Attleborough" was given to it. In old documents, where the name 
is met with, it is written "Attlebury." which we believe to be the correct 
spelling. It is built on a broad plain from which Uiere is a fine view on all sides. 
and is ap[)roached on the east and south and west up a considerable rise." The 

13' !■ ''Jpcni'd 1721. 

14 Three of these bnroiiK'hs, Langhorne Manor, Langhorne and Eden are within 
less than two iniUs of each other. 



136 HISTORY Of BUCKS COl'XTY. 



Philadelphia & liound lircok railroad runs at the I'ui't ui I.anghomc hill, kss 
than a mile east of the village, and at die foot of the hill to the -west, is a public 
drinking- f'Mintain dedicated to "railh, Hope and Charity." Langhorne is con- 
nected by trolley with Xewtown and ilristol, while the Pennsylvania Ciit-Oft 
road connects it with Trenton and Xorristown. 

While the Ilulnic family, Aliddletown, are of undoubted English ancestry, 
their descent from the Seiguor de H.ulmc, who came over with William the 
Conqueror, and their birtli place in England, are not so clear. The first of the 
family to settle in Ducks County was George Hulme and his son George Huluu-, 
Jr., who took up 200 acres in this township and were members of Ealls r\Ieet- 
ing. George liulnie, Jr. was twice married, first to Naomi Palmer, 10 2, 170S, 
and then to her sister Ruth Palmer, 10 mo., 1710, the first wife dying IJOO- 
The Falls Meeting, objecting to the second marriage, it was referred to the 
Quarterly 3.1eeting which reported against it, but they married in spite of this. 
George Hulnie, the elder, died 1714, and George, Jr., 1729. whose will was exe- 
cuted June 9, and proved January 8, 1730. The children of George Ilulme, 
Jr., by his second wife, were Eleanor, Naomi. John, who first married Mary 
Pearson, daughter of Enoch Pearson aiid ^Margaret Sniith, and for second 
wife. Elizabeth Cutler, daughter of John Cutler, 1796; and Hannah, who m.'ir- 
ried John >,Ierrick. Ruth, widow of George Hulme, married \\'illiam Sliall- 
cross, 1732, and was '"dealt with for frivolous dress." The children of John 
and .Mary Pearson Hulme were, Rachel, born 10, 15, 1745, John, Elizabeth, 
(^leorge and Hannah. John Hulme, Jr., married Rebecca ;Milnor, daughter of 
William Milnor, Falls township, and lived for a time on his father-in-law's 
farm on the northern boundarv of Pennsbury ]\Ianor, but subsequently purchased 
a part of Israel Pembertou's tract near Fallsington, upon which he lived until 
i7'-)6. when he exchanged the farm with Joshua Woolston for the !\lilfor(l 
mills, and sixty-eight and three-fourths acres of land belonging thereto am.l 
removed there. He afterward acquired other considerable tracts adjoining the 
mill property in the growing village of Milford, which was soon called Huhno- 
ville. At his death, 1S18, he and his sons, George, Isaac, Samuel, Joseph anil 
sons-in-law. Joshua Canby and George Harrison, practicallv owned tlie whole 
town, but his son Joseph, who was the storekeeper, failed, 1839, and ruined his 
brother who was the miller. William, eldest son of John Hulme, died i8nw, 
leaving a son. Joseph R. and two daughters. He was commissioned justice of 
the peace, January i, 1806. His father, John Hulme, was commissioned justice 
of the peace, September i, 1789, for seven years. John Hulme was one of the 
most prominent, wealthy and intUiential men of his time in Bucks county. 

Thomas Stackhouse anil wife Margery arrived in the Welcome, K'jSj. an.d 
settled on three hundred and twelve acres on the Neshaminy, where Langhorne 
standi. He was born at Stackhouse. Yorkshire. 1635. His wife, a Heahurst, 
d\ing II mo. 15. ir)82. he married Margaret. Christopher Atkinson's wideiw. 
I mo. 1702, and removed to Pensalem where he died 1706, without descendant^. 
The Stackliouses of Pucks are flesccniled from Thomas and John, nephews of 
the Welcome immigrant, who came over prior to 16S5. Thomas married Grace 
Heaton. daughter of Robert and Alice, of Middletown Meeting, 7 mo. 27, Ki^^S; 
second wife .\nn, widow- of Edward Ma\OP, i mo. i, — —and third wife Doroth}'. 
widow of Zebiilon Heston, Wrightstown. Thomas Stackhouse was the father 
of fourteen children and died 4 mo. 26. 1744. John Stackhouse married 1-^liza- 
beth Pearson or Pier.son, 7 1110. 1702, and had nine children. She died 1743 and 
he. 1757, anil both were buried at Middletown. The children of Thomas and 
John Stackhi'UNe, in tlie fir>t generation intermarried with the families of Clark, 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUXTY. lyj 



Stone, Wilson, Longshore, Copeland, Gilbert, Watson, Plumley, Cary. Haring, 
Janney, ^litchell, Stephenson, Tomlinsbn and others and their descendants are 
almost legion. The Baileys of Buckingham, are descended from Jacob, second, 
son of Thomas Stackhouse, and Ann Alayos, born 8 mo. 25, 1713, married 3 
mo. 25, 1742. Hannah Watson, daughter of Amos and Mary (Hillborn) 
Watson, had four children. 

As we have already remarked. Christian and Abraham \'anhorne and Will- 
iam Huddleston were among the earliest settlers in the township about where 
Langhorne stands. About 1730-35 Joseph RichardsoTi opened a store in the 
west end of the buikling now the tavern, then a small hipped-roof brick and 
stone house, where he kept until 1738. He then erected the stone house on the 
southwest corner, where the late Joshua Richardson lived and died, where he 
opened a store in the southeast room. The goods were brought by boat to 
Bristol, and then hauled up the Durham road. This store commanded a large 
country trade. The new dwelling was a costly and fine house in its day. It is 
related that when partly finished Xix. R. took a friend to look at it. As he was 
about to go away without saying anything, Mr. R. ventured to remark : "Thee 
does not say what thee thinks about it;" to which the friend replied, "all I 
have to say is, take care thee does not get to the bottom of thy purse, before 
thee gets to the top of thy house." I\Ir. Richardson died, 1772, the owner of a 
large landed estate. Tlie brick house, on the southeast corner, was built by 
Gilbert Hicks, 1763. After his flight it was sold, with the forty acres of land 
attached, to William Goforth, During the Revolution^''^i the house was used as 
^n hospital, and about one hundred and tifty dead bodies were buried in the lot 
opposite Joseph Stackhouse's, then a common. The ground was frozen so 
hard the graves could not be dug the proper depth, and when spring opened the 
stench was so great the lot had to be tilled up. In 17S3 a tract on the east side 
of the village was laid off in building lots, one- hundred in all, and streets 
projected through it. It was called "\Vashington \''illage," and lots were do- 
nated to the three denominations of Baptist, Episcopalian, and Presbyterian. 
Among the streets were Lamb, Montgomery, \Iacpher50n, MacDougall and 
Willett, with a few alleys."'^ The hopes of the projectors were never realized 
and ■'Washington \'illage" is now principally occupied by negroes. 

The Newtown, I.anghorne and Bristol trolley railway was chartered, 1S95, 
and a section built the following spring from the upper end of Langhorne to 
the r.ound Brook railroad, about a mile. The cars began to run April 15. 1896, 
and the track was shortly extended to Hulmeville and Bristol; In 1897 Lang- 
horne \,as connected with Newtown, and in the spring of 1900 the road was 
finished and opened to Doylestown and the connection is now completed between 
the enmity scat and Bristol, and the travel increases. In 1898 considerable 
industrial improvement set in at Langhorne. Frederick Rumpf, formerly of 
Philadelnhia, erected a linen factory, 402 by 40. a portion of it three stories 
liigh. Several kinds of goods are manufactured, and employment given to a 
number of hands. Mr. Rumiif has also built houses for his employes, and 
dwellings of a most costly style. 

While Langhiirnc was known as Attleborough, about sixty vears ago. a 
flourishing high school was opened. It had its birth in the "Middletown Board- 



14^4 Probably in tbo winter of 17713-77. 

l.t'4 On the map nuule of this projected .uMition to "Four l.ants F.iul," it is c.-i!Icd 
"Wasliington Villacso m .-\ttlchury." and Gufonh, its originator, styled Itiinself "Pro- 
priet'ir :ind Layer Out." See deed Iii.uk. pp. .U'O. ,l.(i. 



138 HISTORY OF DUCKS COUXTV 



iiig Scliool Association." the first rccorilcd meeting being heUl July lo. 1S34. 
when steps were taken to erect suitable buildings. Lots were bought in August, ot 
Henry Athcrton, Waller M. JJatemaii and C. L. Richardson, at a cost of S450 
and contracts made. The carpeiUer work was done by Thomas Dakcr aiiii 
Thomas Blakey, Attlcborough, the mason work by Evan Groom and Hazel 
Scott, Southampton, for sixty-two and onedialf cents a perch, and the brick 
work by GiUingham & Small, Bristol, for three dollars per thousand. The di- 
mensions of the building were 70x50 feet, three stories high. The view from 
the top is very fine, over a beautifull\- variegated and highly cultivated coimtry. 
The school was incorporated, 1S35. In 1837 an effort was made to get an ap- 
propriation of two thousand dollars from the State for the "trustees of the 
Aliddletown School Association" but failed because, in former years, the 
Newtown Academy liad received four thousand dollars. Ikfore 1862 the school 
was known as the "Attleborough Academy,"' although called "Minerva Semin- 
ary" on the books. The property was sold by the sheriff, 1846, and bought by 
four of the stockholders, who had claims of three thousand dollars against it. 
They sold it to Israel J. Graham, 1S62, who re-established the school and called 
it "Bellevue Institute." William T. Seal bought it, 1S67, and maintained a 
school there several years. The buiKling, now owned by Winficld Scull, Phila-* 
delphia, is occupied as a summer boarding house. .Among the pup!l.-> educated 
at this school, in early years, were John Price ^\'etherill, Dr. Samuel Wcthtrili 
and the late Hon. Samuel J. Randall. The building was mainly erected through 
the exertion of Dr. Thomas Allen, Arnold Alyers and Aaron Tomiinson, all 
of ^iiddlet(nvn, at a cost of six thousand dollars, and was first opened for a 
school 1836 by the Rev. Alexander T. Dobbs, who was succeeded by the Rev. 
William Mann and James Anderson. Langhorne has a flourishing Friends' 
school, estalilished about 1792, in charge of a committee of INIiddlelown Pre- 
parative meeting. The village, also, has a public graded school in a two story 
brick, erected for the pur[iose. I-^ew county towns of the size are sujiplied with 
better schools.''* 

Attleborough was incorporated into a borough and before the name was 
changed, Deccnilier 7, 1874; John W'ildman was elected the first Chief Burgess, 
ani.l Harvey G. Wells, James \\'. Xcwbold, Joseph K. Harding. Dr. James U. 
Canby, Joseph R. Hibbs and Edward C. Xield, councilmen. After the Bound 
Brajk railroad was opened for travel, June 15, 1S76, the station was called 
"Langhorne," and the name of the village changed to the same shortly after- 
ward. The borough has an estimated population of 1,500; contains a number of 
handsome private dwellings, two Friends' meeting houses, Hicksites and Ortho- 
dox, three churches. ?\Iethorlist built 1829. and rebuilt 1S52 ; Presbyterian, 1893, 
and African : a flourishing library ; a pubHc inn ; several stores ; newsj-iaper ; Odd 
Fellows Hall, with lodge rooms; public hall, etc. The library was organirred 
iSoo, and incorporated 1802, to which Afiss Williamson has given an income 
from four thousand dollars for. the purchase of books. A post office was opened. 
1805, and Robert Croasdale was appointed postmaster. 

Hulmeville, on the left bank of Neshaminy where the road from Trenton 
to Philadelphia intersects that from isewtown to Bristol, takes its name from 

15 Anna E. Dickenson, who achieved distinction as platform orator and teacher, 
taught lier first school in Middlctown at W'ildnian's Corner. She was e.xamined by 
County Supirintendent W'ni. 1(. Jnlin^on, for te;;i:her's ctrlificile at Laurel Hill. Bri'itol 
t iwnship, .Xpril, iSfe: aiul made her first effort as a public speaker by lecturini:; at Xew- 
town and Vardley in Xoveniber same year. Mi^s Dickenson was then but 17 years obi. 



HISTORY OF DUCKS COUXTY. 139 



John Hulmc. lie settled there about the close of the eighteenth centur}-, ]_)ur- 
cliiisiiig a tract of land with water privileges, taking possession, 1792. The place 
was tiien called Milfortl and had only one house. The town site was laid out 
1-96-99, a post otlice opened with a weekly mail, and the name of the place 
changed to that of the new owner. It was called Hulmeville Landing, 1812, by 
nianv. Additions were made to the corn and grist mills ; lulling mill, merchant 
tlmir and saw mills erected, followed by a machine shop. In a few years the 
village had grown into a place of thirty dwellings with stores, work shops, 
etc., etc., and a stone bridge was built over Xeshaminy. As ^\t. Hulnie's 
sons grew up he taught theni practical business habits and mechanical pursuits, 
gave them an interest in all that v>'as carried on and settled them around him. 
l'"or several years ^Ir. Hulme would not allow a public house to be 
ojiened, entertaining travelers at his own dwelling, but when the growth 
of the village forced him to change his policy, he built a tavern but 
prohibited a bar. After the war with England. 1812-15,-a crash came, and dis- 
aster overtook the sons. The population of Hulmeville was 376, 1S80, and 41S 
1890. A new iron bridge was erected here. 1899, the spans making 430 feet. 

The author is indebted to Edmund G. Harrison"' for the following incident 
connected with Hulmeville, his birthplace. About 1S34, two little girls, of six 
and seven years, respectively, lived in the village — one, Martha Crealy, an or- 
phan child, adopted by Mary Canby, widow of Joshua Canby, who lived in the 
dwelling lately owned and occupied by Elisha Praul ; the other, Mary Parsons, 
who lived with her aunt, }ilary Nelson, on the site of William Tilton's residence. 
The girls pla\ed in the yard, around the house, at toss and catch with acorns : 
both died before they reached ten years, leaving monuments to their memory 
without knowing it. In each yard a little oak sprang up and in the years that 
have intervened, developed into splendid specimens of trees ; that in Mr. Til- 
ton's yard being a red oak, twelve feet eight inches in circumference and ninety 
feet high ; the one in Elisha Praul's a Spanish oak, ten feet three inches in cir- 
cumference and ninety-six feet high, measured four and one-half feet above 
ground. The trees are seventy feet apart, and the lower limbs intertwine, 
forming an arch over Xeshaminy street, the Doylestown and Bristol trolley 
running uinler it. What more lieautiful and suggestive memorial? The trees 
are named Martha and Mary, respectively. 

In the autumn, 1809. when Josiah Ouincy, Boston, with his family, was on 
his v.ay to Washington to attend Congress, he stopped over night at Hulme- 
ville. and was entertained by !Mr. Hulme. Mrs. Ouincy made a flattering notice 
of Mr. Hulmc in her journal, and afterward spoke of him as one of the nm^t 
practical philosophers she had ever met. and that "his virtues proved him truly 
wise. ' Mr. Hulme rose from poverty to wealth and influence by the force of 

16 Eilmuiul G. Harrison, son of George Harrison, was born at Hiilnieville, M.ny 2. 
iSiS, and his mother a daugliter of John Huhue, who established industrial work on the 
Xeshaminy one hundred years ago. The father of Edmund G. was a prominent man, 
and twice elected to the Assembly. The son spent several years at Asbury Park, on the 
Jersey Coast, and from tlKTe went to Washington to take charge of the Roads Division 
of the Agricniti'.ral Department, where he died F'ebrnary 6. igoi. In the sunrner of 1900 
he put down a specimen road from Doylestown to the F.irm School. Mr. Harrison 
founded the Dclan'orc Valley Advance, 1877; was deputy collector of Internal Revenue, 
and during the Civil War served a tour of duty in Capt. Burnett Landreth's state miiitia. 
His first public honor was a s-at in the legislature, to wliich he was elected, 1S54, at tlie 
age of twentv-six 



140 HISTORY OF BUCKS COUXTY 



his own character. He became one of the most respected men in the county, 
was several times elected to the Legislature, first president of the Farmers' 
bank of Bucks cmmty, and held other positions of honor and trust. He die:!, 
1817. ' '' 

The following extract from the "'Memoir of the Life of Eliza S. Quincy," 
Boston, dausrhter of Jcsiah Quincy, tells of the visit to Hulmeville. "In the 
autumn of iSog, Mr. and Mrs. Quincy left Boston for tlie City of Washington, 
with two of their children and three servants. They traveled in their carriage 
with four horses and in passing through New Jersey (Pennsylvania) they 
stopped over night at Hulmeville, a town situated on the Xeshaminy, four miles 
from the Delaware. In the evening 'Mr. Hulme, the proprietor of the place, a 
venerable man in the Quaker dress, visited them, attended by two of his sons. 
He informed Mr. Quincy that he had often read his speeches in Congress, and 
came to thank hin: for the views and principles he supported. In reply to in- 
quiries, Mr. Hulme said: 'When I purchased the site of this village, fourteen 
years ago. there was only one dwelling house upon it ; now there are thirty, 
besides stores and workshops, a valuable set of mills, and a stone bridge oNcr 
the Xeshaminy. Here I have established a numerous family. I might have 
educated one of my sens as a lawyer, or set one up as a merchant, but I had 
not propertv enough to give them all such advantages : and I wished to make 
them equally attached to each other, and useful members of society; one of 
them is a miller, another a storekeeper, a blacksmith, a tanner, a farmer, a 
coachmaker, all masters of their respective employments and they all assist one 
another. I have been rewarded by their good conduct and grateful affection. 
No one envies another. I have never heard an expression of discontent. W e 
live like one family and my children and grandchildren are the comforts of my 
old age.' 

"The ne.xt morning ^.Ir. Hulme attended Mr. and I\Irs. Quincy to see his 
mills and improvements. They were delighted with his arrangement, and. when 
the hour of ])arting came, took a reluctant leave of their new friend, \vho hatl 
highly^ excited their admiration and respect." 

The descendants of Mr. Hulme kept up a correspondence with Josiah 
Quincy and family for many vears. numerous letters passing between them. 

.According to Holme's map, the site of Hulmeville was covered by Penn's 
grant to Henry Paulin, Henry Paxson, and William Carter. The original name 
was Milford. derived from "mill-ford." the mill at the ford across the Xeshaminy, 
the first erected on that stream and driven bv its waters. The mill, of stone. Iniilt 
prior to 1725. stood just below the wing-wall of the present bridge. "''^ A plaster- 
mill \\ as connected with it, and subsequently a woolen-mill. The erection of the 
dam across the stream prevented shad running up which greatly offended 
the Holland settlers of North and Southampton who -made several attempts 
to tear it away. The town site was first laid out into building lots in 1799. and 

l6'< Prnh.-ihly the oldest mills on the lower Xeshaminy, erected .at Hulmeville ahoiit 
1 7 JO, both grist .ind saw. The old foundation.-; \vere exposed many years ago, when Silas 
Barkley made e.tcavations for a x.ew mill. The old mills were burned down, 1829, flonr 
and plaster mills and woolen factory. The saw mill ceased mnniiifj, i8,?4. In di.cr.Ejiiit; for 
the foundations of the new mill the water wheel of the old one was f"Und. The present 
brid.cc over the Xeshann'iiy at Hulmeville replaces the last of the structures, built 1865, 
af'.cr the prcat flood. Henry Mitchell was one of the original owners of Milford milis, 
in partnership with .Tereniinh L.-iuyhorne. Stnffcll \'ansant. John Piuniley and r.arthoK>- 
mcw Jacobs, and a-sisted in )>uildinij them. 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUXTV. 141 



ncraiii in 1S03. Its incorporation into a boroug'h, in iSjJ, gave it an impetus 
forward, and since then the improvements have been quite rapid. Among the 
industrial establishments of Hulmeville are a cotton factory, erected 1S31, two 
vears after the old woolen factory and grist and merchant-mills were binned, 
wiierc one thousand pounds of cotton yarn" were turned out daily, a grist-mill, 
antl large weaving shop and coverlet factory, and the custcMnary mechanics. 
In the village there are two churches, the Episcopal, founded 1S31, and ^vlcthod- 
i.-t, 1S44, ^ public and a private school, lodges of Odd Fellows, Knights of 
I'Nthias, and Good Templars, Young IMen's Christian Association, two build- 
ing associations. Fire Insurance company, organized, 184.2, a manufacturing 
company, etc. Johnson's building contains a handsome hall that will seat three 
hundred and fifty persons, with stage, drop curtain, etc. The bridge across 
Xeshaminy, four hundred and twenty-five feet long, rebuilt after the freshet of 
1SO5, is said to have been the highest bridge spanning the stream. Stage and 
trolley connect with the Philadelphia and Trenton, and Philadelphia and Bound 
Brook railroad. Beechwood cemetery, a handsomely laid out burial place, is lo- 
cated on the brow of the hill on the south bank of Xeshaminy. 

Grace Episcopal church, Hulmeville, was formerly a mission station of 
St. James" church, Bristol. A Sunday-school was organized about 1826. and 
occasional service held in the old school-liouse. A subscription, to raise funds 
for "aa Episcopal church edifice," was started July 18, 1S31, naming George 
Harrison, G. W. Rue, and William Johnson trustees. The principal subscribers 
were Reverend Greenbury W. Ridgeley, who studied law with Henry Clay, 
George Harrison, Elizabeth and Hannah Gill, and Estlier Rodman, each one 
Inmdred dollars, besides many others of fifty dollars, and less. The building 
\vas commenced September 16. 1831, finished Oct. 21, a plain stone structure 60 
by 40 feet, and consecrated July 3, 1S37. In 1866 the church was remodeled 
and enlarged, a two-story Sunday school-room erected in the rear, and a tower 
added to the church the following year. The cost of irapro\ements was about 
four thousand dollars. Mr. Ridgeway was the first rector. A post-ofiice was 
established at Hulmeville, 1809. and Isaac Hulme appointed postmaster. A 
public library was organized the winter of 1877. 

The third village of Mitldletown, Oxford Valley, a place of twenty-five 
families, is situated at the intersection of the roads leading from Bristol to Dol- 
ington, and from Langiiorne to Trenton, on the south side of Edgehill. It was 
originally settled by the Watsons, who owned a large tract of land around it, 
but all except one of the name have disappeared and their broad acres fallen 
into other hands. The ancient name was O.xford, supposed to have been so 
(.ailed from a primitive-looking ox on the tavern sign, and a bad ford over the 
creek that runs through the place, ^\■hen the post-oftice was established. 1844, 
the hamlet was called C)xford Valley. Of late years there has been considerable 
improvement, and a number of new buildings erected. Two of the old houses, 
one hundred and fifty years old, are still suiniling. Among the buildings are 
a sclnKil-house, church, public hall and a mill. This locahtv, or near it, was 
proliably "Honey hill." the original home of the Watsons. 

The excellent water'privileges along Xeshaminy led to the carlv erection 
of mills. Tliere was a mill in the township as early as about 1703. but its loca- 
tion is nnlai'.^v.n. although it is probably the ruins of the mill on the farm of 
Moses Knight, a mile below Langhorne. are the remains of it. Heaton's was 
one of tlie earliest mills on this stream, and supposed to have stood on or about 
the site of \'ansant"s mill. Timothy Roberts owned a fiour niiU on Xcshaniin\- 
some years before tiie nii.MIe of the eighteenth centur\. and 1749 belonged to 



142 HISTORY OF BUCKS COUXTV. 



Stephen Williams. Williams iiad a wharf and store-house at [Margaret yr.hii- 
soii's landing on the creek, whither he hciuled tlour to be shijiped in boats t-r 
tlats. In dry times the ])eople of Llrisiol hauled their corn to this mill t(/ he 
ground.'' ^litchell's mill, on Xeshaminy opposite Oregon, then called L'^u\- 
fort's ford, was an early one, and rebuilt, 1795. William Rodman rebuilt Grow- 
den's mill," I7''''4. Jes>e Comfort's mill at iiridgetown, between Newtown and 
Langhonie, r;aii<i among the old mills in the lower end of the county, having 
been built about 173 1 or 1732. 

Samuel Stockton White, born in Ilulmeville, 1S22, became a distinguishc 1 
dentist and manufacturer of dentists' supplies. He began life poor, worked 
bis way to distinction and died worth a mdlion. He learned his trade with his 
uncle J. Wesley Stockton, on \'ine street, and carried on business in Phila- 
delphia. He died December 30, 1899. 

At the settlement of the county, two important fords were opened across 
Xeshannny, and in use for many years, Galloway's ford and Ualdwin's. The 
former and upper one led across the stream from the Growden place, Densaleni, 
to the Langhorne [Manor House, 2\lidciletown ; the latter lower down near the 
head of tidewater below NewportN'ille, near b'lushing, where the Bristol roail 
cro>.-ed extending through eastern and northern Bensalcm, thence northwest 
])arallel to the [Montgomery Co. Line and Street road. At an early day a stage 
road crossed Galloway's ford, from Philadeljihia to Trenton via Bustleton, Four 
l.anes End, Oxford to Kirkbride's ferry on the Delaware. The Galloway 
ford road was vacated forty years ago, but shortly reopened for the purpose of 
bridging the stream, but this was never done. In the course of time these 
fords and others in the cuuiU\- were superceded by bridge^;. One of the earliest 
.'\cts of Congress declared Xe^haminy a navigable river from its mouth to 
Baldwin's ferry. 

Middletown was well provided with local roads at an early day, and in- 
creased according to the wants of her inhabitants. In 1712 a road was laid out 
from John Wildman's to the Durham road. The King's highway, from Lang- 
horne to Scott's ford on Poquessing, was widened to fifty feel, 1753. There was 
a jury on it, December, 1748, probably to relay and straighten it. In 1795 the 
court was asked to siraigluen it from the falls to the Xeshaminy via Lang- 
horne. A road frrmi Yardley's ferry to the bridge over Xeshaminy, was laid 
out. 1767, but probably it was only the relaying and straightening of the road 
already running between these (joints. The old road, Philadelphia to Xew \ork 
via Kirkbride's ferry on the Delaware, passed through Hulmeville. crossing 
the Xeshaminy at Cialloway's ford, and by Langhorne and Oxford X'alley. In 
1749 a road fifty feet wide, and used as a stage road, was laid out from the 
Ciiicken's-foot, half a mile abi>ve I""allsington, through Huliucville and acrr>ss 
Xeshaminy to the Bristol ])ike at Andalusia, shortening the road between 
Philadelphia and Xew Vurk abnut four miles. What is now Main street, Hulme- 
ville, was laid out, 171J9. The bridge across Xeshaminy was built soon after ihc 
road was laid out from Cliicken's-foot, 1794. Several roads concentrated at 
Hulmeville in early times. ([)n the eastern edge of the borough, near the Meth- 
odist church, was a deposit of imn ure (piite extensively worked a hundred years 
agn by a i^hiladelphia ci.inipany. whither it was shijiped and smelted. In T702 



17 Xcitiicr the location ot the mill, ii.-.r tlio wharf and kindiiig, arc known. Gallo- 
'- ford u.TS bau-oen UreiJnn ami 1 iiihiicvillt;. 
iS On N\-h,Tniiiiv. 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUXTY. 143 



Julin Hulme had a direct road laid out from Kirkbride's ferry on the Delaware 
via Hulmeville, to the King's Highway, now the Frankford and Bristol turn- 
••ike. This became the short line stage road from Philadelphia to New York 
via Trenton and Xew Brunswick. 

Among the natives of this township, who gained prominence in the world, 
was i'eter Peterson \'anhome, a son of one of the two Hollanders of that name 
w hu settled near Langhorne, becoming a noted Baptist minister. He was born 
August 24, 1719, bred and educated a Lutheran, but embracing the principles 
of the Baptists, was baptised September 6, 1741, ordained pastor at Pennypack 
June iS, 1747, removed to Pemberton, Xew Jersey, 1763. and to Cape Mav, 
1770. He returned twice to Pennypack, and was pastor at Dividing Ridge and 
balem, 1789. He married ^^drgaret Marshall, and had eight children. His 
eldest son, \\'illiani, was pastor at Southampton, and chaplain in the Continental 
army. 

In 1825 Arnold reivers, a gentleman from London, bought the old Simon 
Gillam farm, IMiddletown. and settled there. He was a cultivated, scholarly man. 
lie was engaged in mercantile pursuits at Naples and Trieste, where he was 
"agent for Lloyds" several years, married in Antwerp, and, after residing there 
a considerable time, came to the United States. His son, Leonard Myers, several 
years member of Congress from Philadelphia, was born in INIiddletown. Mar- 
don Wilson, born in Byberry, 17S9, and died near Wilmington, Delaware, 
1874. spent the greater part of his life in Middletown, carrying on milling at 
Xcshaminy crossing, on tlie road from Langhorne to the Buck tavern. He was 
a man of ability, integrity and energy, and an advocate of all the reforms of the 
day. 

Among other prominent sons of Middletown, who live in history, J(^seph 
S. Longshore, born 1809 and died 1879-80, is entitled to a niche. He lost the 
partial use of one leg when a boy and was lamed for life. Turning his atten- 
tion to the medical profession he graduated in medicine from the Universitv of 
Penns_\lvania at the age of twenty-four, and practiced for several years at Attle- 
borough. In 1850 he established a medical college in Philadelphia for women, 
the first of its kind in the world. He was also an ardent advocate of total 
abstinence, and an active Abolitionist, at a period when it required no little 
courage to declare oneself. 

In 1742 there were about one hundred ta.xables in the township, of whum 
seventeen were single men. William Paxson and John Praul were overseers 
of the poor, the poor-rate being two pence per potnid, and six shillings a head 
for single men. The amount of poor tax collected that year was £21. 2s. 6d. 
In 1760 the taxablcs had increased to 131, and there were 122 in 1762, a slight 
lalling oft'. In 17S4 the population of Aliddlctown was 60S whites and 43 
blacks, and 124 dwellings. It was 1,663 i" iSio; 1,891 in 1820; 2,178 in 1830; 
and 424 taxables; 2,124 in 1840; 2,223 '" 1850: 2,265 "^ i860, and 2.360 in 
1870. of whom 122 were foreign-born; 2.360 in 1880; 2,028 in 1890; 2,214 in 
irjoo. 

.\mong the accidents recorded in this township was that which happened 
to Robert Skirm and wife, in .\]iril. 1809, on their way \.n Philadelphia. In 
crnssing Mitchell's bridge over Xcshaminy, the horse leajicd over the railing, 
killing Mr. Skirm and badly ininring his wife, .\mong the deaths of aged per- 
sons in the past century, in Middlet'nvn, was Sarah Carey, relict of Samuel 
Carey. June 7, 1808, in her ninetieth year, .\mong the real estate at "Four 
Lanes En<l." belonging to Cilbcrt Hicks at the uutlireak of the Revohuion, and 
was conh-cated f'T his ■>pp.i~iti"u to the cau>e of the colonies, was a tavern 



144 ' HISTORY Of BUCKS COUXTV. 



property. In the advertisement of its s:i!e, it was described as "an old an 1 ac- 
customed inn" but nothing- n:ore. It was j)urchased by Gershon Jolinson, \vh"> 
applied for license at bi-iilemher term, 1780. The location of this tavern decs 
not seem to be known. 

On rising; ground near Xeslianiiny, and on the farm formerly the proper:-,- 
of Doctor Shippen, and now called l-arley, is the old Williamson bur\iiK-;'- 
ground, where lie many of the descendants of ancient Duncan Williamson, \\i;o 
settled in Bensalem years before William Penn landed on the Delaware. 

Middletown, like the other townships of the group of 1692, is devoted 1j 
agriculture, and her intelligent farmers live in independence on their well-culti- 
vated farms. The Neshaminy and its tribtitaries water her fertile acres, which, 
slope gradually to receive the warm rays of the southern sun.^'-' 

19 In ilidcllctown town^liip. January. 1S03, a negro man, named "Jack," ihe properly 
of Colonel William Chambers, died at the age of one hundred and si.xteen. He was 
born, 1699, at the time William Penn was making his second visit to his infant coloiiv, 
and as he did not return to England until November, i/or, the negro, while a child, );;jv 
have lookeu upon the founder, and there arc a very few people, in Bucks county, oM 
enough to have seen negro "Jack," 7i7it> may have actually seen William Penn. 



CHAPTER XII. 



PEXN' RETURNS TO PEXX5VLVAXIA AND LIVES IN BUCKS COUNTY.— 

RE-SURVEY. 



1GQ9 TO 1T02. 



IVnin sails for Peimbylvaiiia. — James Logan. — Pciin and family live at Pennsbury. — 
Expenses nux.lerate. — IJutter from Rhode Island. — Ale, beer, wine. — Tea and coffee.— 
The Swedes furnish pork and shad. — Servants emploj'ed. — John Sotcher, Mary Lofty, 
Ralph. Nicholas, et al. — Method of traveling. — His barge. — Articles of dress. — Do- 
niesUj?^ife. — Marriages at Pennsbury. — Arrangements to return to England. — Great 
Indian council. — Indians explain their iilea of God. — Peim and family sail for London. 
— Pennsbury left in ch.nr.^e ' f John Sotcher and wife. — Their descendants. — Lord 
Cornbury. — William l\'n:i. Jr. — Pennsbury hou>c. — Unhealthy years. — Cutler's rc- 
surveys. 

William Penii. accompanied by his w it'e. ilaiighter Letitia and James Logan, 
private secretary, sailed from England on his second visit to Pennsylvania, 
September 3, i6;t9. The vessel reached Philadelphia September 10, and after 
^topping there a few days they i)roceeded to Falls township, though Pennsbury 
house was not vet finished, t^enn and his family made this their home during 
their stay in the colony, while James Logan remained at Philadelphia to attend 
to public affairs and look after the interests of the Proprietary. 

James Logan, who was destined to play an important part in the early his- 
tory of the Province, was the son of Patrick Logan, Liirgan, Ireland, and de- 
scended of Scotch ancestry. Bis father was educated for the church, btit, 
joining the Friends, his son followed his footsteps. He was a good Latin, 
Greek and Flebrcw scholar at thirteen, instructed himself in mathematics at 
sixteen, and, at nineteen, was familiar with French, Italian and Spanish. He 
was jire-eminent as a man of learning, and his leisure time was devoted to the 
sciences. He was a friend to the Imlians, a true patriot and a benefactor to 
Pennsylvania. He held several public oftices, incltiding Chief Justice, and he 
managed the affairs of the Province with great fidelity and good jtidgment. 
His gift of eight hundred acres of land in tliis county to the Loganian library 
company, of Philadcl])hia, was m. ire valuable at that day than Aster's to New 
York. He died at Stenii^n, near t^iermamr.wn, fJctober 31, 1751, in his seventy- 
seventh year. 

While the Proprietary and his family lived at I'ennsbury. they were well 
siipfilicd with the g.iiul things ..f jjic. There was good cheer at tiie niamuial 



146 



HISTORY or DUCKS COUXTY 







ARMS OF Pt.NN. 



mansion for all comers. The sfcward Ijonirju 
tlour by the ton, molasses by tlie liog>iit::,';. 
>liLTry and canary wines by tiie dozen, cr.iii- 
Ijorrio In the bnshel and cider and olives liv 
the liarrcl. Tl'.e candles came from Dostun. 
anrl butter from Rhode Island. The cellar \v:is 
stoeked with several kinds of spirituous and 
malt liquors — beer, cider, sherry, Madeira, Ca- 
nary and claret. Jn 1861, the year before his 
first visit to Pennsylvania, he wrote to Janics 
Harrison : "By East goes some wine and stmi!:; 
beer. Let the beer be sold; of the wine, some 
ma} be kept for me, especially .sack or sue!) 
like, which will be better for age," He bought 
a little brand\' or rum f(jr the Indians, 
on the occasion (if a treat_\- or ofticial 
visit. Small-beer was brewed at Penn.-- 
bury, and now and then a "runnell of 
afe" was fetched from Philadelpliia. There was an orchard on the premises, ami 
cider was made for family use. Penn was temperate in all his habits. He was 
the e-pecial enemy of tobacco, anil ve know of his expending but ten pence for 
tile weed while at Pennsbury, probably for an Inrlian visitor. His expenditures 
were not extravagant for a gentleman of his rank, his whole ex];enses for two 
years lie lived there being but £2,049, P<^nnsylvania currency, \\hile he lived 
in elegance, he maiTitained his own ma.xim that "extravagance destroys hos- 
[litality and wrongs the poor." He practiced a wise economy in all things. 

\\'hile tea and cotlee were not in general use at the beginning of the seven- 
teenth century, the family at the manor influlged in these luxuries, sometimes 
sending to New York to get them. The Swedes at Philadelphia supplied Penn 
with smoked venison, pork, shad, and beef, and the beef at Pennsbury was 
roasted in a "dog-wheel."' at least so wrote good Hannah Penn. August (>. 
i7iX). William Penn writes James Logan to send "a flitch of our bacon, choco- 
late, a cask of middling flour, and some coffee berries, four pounds. .Some tlat 
and deep eartherti pans for milk and liacon, a cask of Indian meal. Search i^r 
an ordinary side saddle and pillion, and some coarse linen for towels." In Sep- 
tember he again writes: "We want rum here, having not a (piarter of a pint 
in tlie house among so many workmen ; best, in bottles sealed down, or it mav 
be drawn and niixi-d." The great founder knew how to prevent interlopers 
poaciiing on the contents of his bottles. Hannah Penn wants "Bettv Webb," 
who appears to have had charge of the town liDUse, to send her "two mops to 
wash house with, four silver salts, and ihe two hamlle norringer," besides "tl e 
piece of dried I)ecf." The leaden tank at the top of the house and the pijies 
gave great trouble, and Penn writes to Logan, "to send up Cornelius Empson's 
Tjian speedily if he has tools to mend them, for die house suiters in great rains." 
.\ number of servants were employed at Pennsburv to keep up the state 
the Proprietnr\ {■.•\uu^ it ne-cssary to maintain, but we have onlv been able to 
learn the names of a few of thcni. James Harrison was the chief steward, and 
trusted friend of I'emi. from i6.'^2 to his death, in }('<>^7. .\t the close of T('>84, 
Penn sent trom rr>i';Td fi^tir servant-, a 'T-.rdcner and three carpenters, one 
of the latter j.robably being Henry Gibli^, who u;,s buried at the "Point." 



I A wheel in a \,-)x. turned by a dcg. 



HISrORV OF BUCKS COUXTV. 



14; 



November 9, 16S5. Next in importance to Harrison was John Sotcher, who 
liUc'l his place after JVnii's death, and Afary I.nfty, the hijiisckeeper. Tlie 
i;,irileiier was Ralph Smitli, who died in 1685, and was succeeded by Nicholas, 
lull his place was afterward filled by another sent out from England, who re- 
ceived his passage and £30 in nione\-, and sixty acres of land at the end of three 
\cars. He was to train a man and a bo\'. At tlie same time came out a Dutcii 
j. liner and a carpenter. Among the gardeners was a Scotchman, recommended 
a? "a rare artist,"' and Hugh Sharp, who received thirty shillings a week while 
I'enn was at Pennsbury. Penn directed that the Sc(jtcliman should have three 
men under him, and that if he cannot agree with the old gardener, Ralph, he is 
to leave to the latter's charge tlie upper gardens and court vards, and to take 
charge of the lower grounds himself. In 1700 Penn's coachman was a negro 
named John. Among other employes of the manor house were Ann Nichols, 
the cook, Robert Leekman, man-servant, Dorathy Alullers, a German maid, 
Dorcas, a negrine, Howman, a ranger, who, 16S8, was complained of "for 
killing ye said Luke Watson's hogg's," James Reed, servant, Ellis Jones and 
wife Jane, with children Barbara, Dorothy, ]\Iary and Jane, who came from 
Wales, 16S2, and took up a tract of land near the present village of Bridge- 
water, Jack, a negro, probabl}- a cook, whose wife, Parthena, was sold to Bar- 
badoes because Hannah Penn doubted her honesty, otherwise she would liave 
her up at Pennsbury "to help about washing." There was a "Captain Hans," 
with whom Penn had a difficult}', which had been "adjusted" and he "stays." 

In the fall, 1701, Penn got a new hand, and writes Logan that he can 
"neither- 'plow nor mow," is good-natured, but swears — a heinous offense with 
the great founder. Hugh was steward while John Sotcher was in England 
1702, and Peter was assistant gardener, at £30 per annum. Between Penn"s 
first and second visits some negroes had been purchased for him, and placed at 
Pennsbury as laborers. "Old Sam" was a favorite negro, and "Sue" was prob- 
ably his wife. In April, 1703, Penn purchased two servants in England of 
Randall Janney, one a carpenter, the other a husbandman and sent them to 
Pennsbury. About the same time he sent over Yaft, "to be free after four years 
faithful service." and Joshua Cheeseman, an indentured apprentice for two 
_\ears. Penn loved him because he was "a sober, steady young man, and will 
not trifle away his time," and, had he returned to Pennsylvania, Joshua was 
to have been made house steward. Logan was advised that he should "be kept 
close to Pennsbury." We learn that old Peter died in August, T702, and Hugh 
was married that fall and left as soon as his i)lace could be filled, that one W. 
G'lot left in the summer, and Barnes "was good for ncithing." The "distemper" 
prevailed that fall, and Logan writes Penn they were short of hands. One, 
named Charles, left before his time was up.-' Stephen tiould, whose mother was 

2 The Gentleman's MiV^iijinc. of a forgotten date. cont:iins tile follnwing: "Died at 
Tluladelphia in iS>5. in Ikt 'uie luimlred and nintli year. Susa-mah Warden, formerly 
wife of \'ir:.,;il Warden. i'Wq oi the hon-;e servants of the Kreat William Pciui. This aged 
■ttonian was born in William Penn's honse. at T'ennslniry ntanor, March, Ijor, and has 
of late been snpported by the Penn family.'' We dmilit the enrrertness of part of this 
■statement. In 17.-!,^ Thomas Penn pnrchased, of J. Warder, of lUicks county, a negro, 
altcrwarda known a? \'ir!.;il. He wa~ tlien twenty years of aijce, havin;.; been born in 
1713. and was ver\ ■■■Id when lie died. He and his wife lived in the kilelicn at Sprin^etts- 
biiry. The death referred to, in the Gcntlcinan's M(ii:<i:iiir. was no donht the wife of 
'iiis old negro. Vitgil conld not have b^.en :'. hon.^e .--ervant of Wdliam Penn, for he was 



,48 HISTORV OF BUCKS COUXTY. 



a Penn, was clerk to the Governor, and is spoken of as "an ingenious lad, a gouj 
scholar, anil sunicthing of a lawyer." 

P'roni the correspondence uf James Logan with Hannah Penn we learn 
something of tlie history of William Penn"s servants after his death. In a letter 
to her, dated .May 1 1, 1721, he says : '"Sam died soon after your departure hence 
(.1701), and his hrother James very lately. Chevalier, by a written order from 
his master, had his liberty several years ago, so there are none left but Sue, 
whom Letitia claims, or did claim as given to her when you went to England. 
She has several children. There are, besides, two old negroes quite worn out, 
the remainder of those which I recovered near eighteen years ago, of E. Gil- 
bert's estate." He concludes his letter by asking for some orders about the hou^e 
"which is very ruinous.'' 

When William Penn and his family had occasion to go abroad, they trav- 
eled in a style benefitting their station. He was a lover of good horses, and 
kept a number of them in his stables. He had a coach in the city, a cumbersome 
affair, but he probably never used it at Pennsbury on account of the badness of 
the roads. He drove about the county, from one meeting to another, and to 
visit friends, in a calash which a pamphlet of the times styles "a rattling leathern 
conveniency." In August, 1700. he writes James Li>gan to urge the justices to 
make the bridges at Pennepecka and Poquessin passable for carriages, or he 
cannot gc to town. In his visits to the neighboring provinces and among the 
Indians, he traveled on horseback, and as three side-saddles are inventoried 
among the goods at Pennsbury, no doubt his wife and daughter accompanied 
him sometimes. The. cash-book tells us of the expense of himself and family 
going to lairs, and Indian canticocs.. probably gotten up to amuse the Proprie- 
tary. His favorite mode of travel was by water, and at Pennsburv he kept a 
barge for his own use, boats for the use of the plantation, and smaller boats 
used probably for hunting and fishing along the river. The barge was new in 
1700: it had one mast and sail, and six oars, with officers and crew, among 
whom were George Markham, boatswain, and Michael Larzilere cockswain. It 
had an awning to protect the passengers from the sun. and no doubt a jiennant 
with the Penn arms, or some other device on it. After he returned to England 
it was preserved with great care, and Logan had a house built over it at the 
landing. It was only used once again before the arrival of William Penn. Jr.. 

1703- 

W illiam Penn generally made his trii^s between Pennsbury and Philadel- 
phia in his barge, and he frequently stopperl on the way to visit his friend 
Governor Jennings, at P.urlington. It is relateil in lanney's life of Penn, tint. 
on one occasion. Jennings anr! some of his friends were enjoying their pipes. 
a practice which Penn disliked. On hearing that Penn's barge was in sight. 
they put away their pipes that their friend might not be annoyed, and en- 
deavored to conceal from him what they had been about. He came upon them. 
however, unawares, and pleasantly remarked that he was glad they had sufficient 
sense of propriety to be ashamed of the jiractice. Jennings, who was rarelv at 
a loss for an answer, rejoined tiiat they were not ashamed, but desired "to a\-oid 
hurting a weak brother." 

It would be interesting to know how William Penn dressed while he re- 
sided at Pennsbury. a quiet ciii/en of Bucks county, but we have little light on 
this subject. The cash-bo. ,k menlic.n.■^ but few articles purch.ased for th'- 



only tivc yeari 1 !<1 wluii tlic rn.pricUTry died in England. Ills wife mny liave been hon- 
at Peniislmrv, 



HlSrORY or BUCKS COCXTV. , 149 



Troprietary's personal use, but among them are enumerated, "a pair of stock- 
iii<js," at eight ^hillings, and a pair uf "gamboches," or leathern overalls, at 
ij. 2S. He incurred the expense of periwigs at four pounds each, and there 
is a charge "for dressing the governor's hat.'' The cut of his coat is not given, 
but we are warranted in saying that it was not "shad belly." 

The heart and hand of \\ itliam Penn were both open as the day, and he 
was noted for his deeds of charity. He distributed considerable sums to those 
who were needy, and several poor persons were a constant charge on his gen- 
erosity. At the manor he kept open house, and entertained much company. 
His guests were distinguished strangers who visited i'ennsylvania, the leading 
families of the Province, and frequent delegations of Indian chiefs. In July, 
1700, Penn was visited by the governors of Alaryland and \'irginia, whom he 
entertained with great hosijitality. Logan was directed to prepare for their 
arrival, and to notify the sheriffs and other officers of the counties through 
which they would pass, to receive them in state. They were probably enter- 
tained both in the city and at Pennsbury. Among the visitors at Pennsbury was 
Deputy-Governor Hamilton and Judge Guest. In August, 1700. the daughter 
of Edwin Shippen was a visitor at the manor, returning to Philadelphia in a 
boat with John Sotcher. 

The contemporaries of Penn have left but little record of domestic life at 
the manor. Isaac Norris says, in a letter written while the Penns resided at 
Pennsbury : "The Governor's wife and daughter are well ; their little son is a 
lovely babe ; his wife is extremely w'ell-beloved here, exemplary in her station, 
and of an excellent spirit, which adds lustre to her character, and she has a 
great place in the hearts of good people.'' And again : "Their little son has 
much of his father's grace and air, and hope he will not want a good portion of 
his mother's sweetness." The "lovely babe" was John Penn, the eldest son of 
the founder, by his second wife, and was called "the American," because he 
was horn in this country, at the manor house, the 31st of nth month, 1699. 
Mrs. Deborah Logan says : "A traditionary account, heard in my youth from 
an aged woman, an inhabitant of Bucks county, has just now occurred to my 
memory. She went, when a gi'"l, with a basket containing a rural present to 
the Proprietary's mansion, and saw his wife, a delicate and pretty woman, sit- 
' ling beside the cradle of her infant." In the summer of 1700 the Provincial 
council met at the manor house ; Penn had hurt his leg and could not go to 
them, hence he caused them to be met with a boat at Burlington, and brought 
to him. His wife wrote Logan to get "a little more oil from Aim Parsons," to 
apply to the injured limb of the Governor. This was probably the occasir-n of 
an Indian treaty, as he orders rum and match coats to be bought for it. There 
is a tradition, that when the Indians came to visit at Peimsbury. William Penn 
joined them in their sports and games, and ate hominy, venison and roasted 
acorns with them. He is said to have matched them in strength and agility, and 
no less than nineteen Indian treaties were concluded, and conferences held at 
Pennsbury. When William Penn. jr.. was there. 1703. a large deputatic^n <>f 
chiefs came to see him. Thonias and John Penn had several conferences with 
them at the manor house before the treat)' at Durham, T734, and in AIa\', r735' 
they again met the Indians there t^i consider the terms of the "Walking Pur- 
chase." 

We have record r.f sevor.-d niarriaQcs at Pennsbury. The tirst was that 'if 
A\'illiam P.err\-. Kent county, Delaware, to Xaomv Wally, the daughter of Shail- 
rack Wally. Xeutoun. the otli of Soptembrr, KiSo ; the second was that of Jolm 
-■^otcIuT to Marv Lofty. 1701, and the thinl and la-t of which we have account 



i50« 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUXTY. 



was tlie mnrriagc of Clcnicnt-riumstcad, I'liiladclphia, to Sarah Riglit'^n, 
tornicrly Riddle, .March, 1704. The latter was attended by WilHam Penn, jr., 
And Judge Monipesson. About the ist of September, 1700, William Penn sciit 
a couple of young- tame tuxes to John Askew, a merchant of London. No doubt 
Chey were Bucks county foxes, and possibly their descendants yet contribute 
to the sport of England's nobility and gentry. In the summer, 1701, Penn visited 
tlie Susquehanna to confer with the Indians, no duubt passing up through the 
county and crossing the Lehigh between its mouth and ]jethlehem or in tliat 
region. He returned by way of Conestoga. The manor was not free from the 
'depredations of horse thieves, and while Penn resided there one John W'al.-h 
drove off his roan mare and colt and a brown gelding, which gave him occasion 
to write to John IMoore, to get the thief indicted, for "it is too much a practice 
to think it no fault to cheat the Governor." 

William Penn was much interested in agriculture, and loved a rural life. 
He designed the island neighboring to Pennsbury, now Xewbnld's or Biddle's 
island, for feeding young cattle an;] a stud of mares. In the conveyance of an 
island to Thomas Fairman, it was stipulated that Penn should mow it for his 
own use, and keep hogs on it until it was drained and improved. 

The presence of the Proprietary was now required in England, and he 
made his arrangements to return in the fall of 1701, and John Sotcher was to 
bring him from Philadelphia, among other things, "his hair trunk, leather 
stockings and twelve bottles of r^iadeira wine." He thought at tirst of leaving 
his wife and daughter behind, but they protested and he took them with him. 
"Previous to embarking for England, William Penn assembled a large com- 
pany of Indians at Pennsbury, 10 review the covenants they had made witli Jiim. 
The council w as held in the great hall of tlie manor house. The Indians declared 
they had never broken a covenant, which they made in- their hearts and not in 
their heads. After the business had been transacted Penn made them presents 
of match coats and other articles, and afterward the Indians went out into the 
court}-ard to perform their worship. John Richardson, a distinguished English 
Friend, who was traveling in Pennsylvania, spent two or three days at the 
manor liouse and witnessed the council, etc., and thus described their worship : 

"First they made a small fire, and then the men without the women sat 
down about it in a ring, and wliatever object they severally fixed their eyes on. 
I did not sec them move them in all that part of tlieir worship, while they sang 
a very melodious hymn, which afi'ected and tendered the hearts of many who 
were spectators. When thev liad thus done they began to beat upon the ground 
with little sticks, or make some motion with sometliing in their hands, and pause 
a little, till one of the elder sort sets forth his hynm. followed by the company 
for a few minutes, and tlien a pause ; and the like was done by another, and so 
by a third, and followed by the company as at the first, which seemed exceed- 
ingly to affect them and others. Having done, they rose up and danced a little 
abriut the fire, and partaking with some shouting, like triumph or rejoicing." 
When asked what they understood by eternity or a future state, they explained, 
through the interpreter, that those who had been guilty of theft, swearing, 
lying, murder, etc., went into a very cold country, where they had neither good 
fat venison, nor match coats, but those who died innocent of these offenses went 
into a fine warm country where they had good fat venison, and good match 
coats. They explained their idea of God by making several circles on the 
grc>und, each succeeding one being ^ni:dler, when they jjlaeed Penn in the mid- 
dle circle so that he could see over all the others. He w:is made to represent the 
Almighty overlnoking all the earth. 



HISTORV OF BUCKS COL'XTV 



When William Peiin was makint^ his arrangements to return to Engi^.nd, 
he proposed leaving" Pennsbury in charge of John Sotcher and Mary Lofiy.^ 
John came to America with I'enn, 1701, and sti;od [o him in the double rehiti. ^n 
of servant and friend. He and ^lary equally enjoyed the confidence and 
respect of the great founder, and I'enn wrote him repeatedly with directions for 
the management of the estate. He said they are "as good servants as any in 
America." At Falls meeting, September 4. 1701. John announced his intention 
of taking Mary to wife, and Joseph KirkbriJe and 2^1ary Sirket were appointed 
to examine the matter and report at the next meetmg. William Penn, pre-eiit 
at the meeting, stated that as he proposed leaving his attairs at Pennsbiiry in 
their hands, and, as the season hurried his departure, he desired to see the mar- 
riage accomplished before he left the country. The meeting was adjourned one 
week to give the committee time to examine the case and report, and Phineas 
Pemberton, Joseph Kirkbride, Richard Plough and Samuel Dark were ap- 
pointed to draw the certificate. The committee making a favorable report, and 
a certificate from Penn and his wife being read, the monthly meeting, held the 
Sth of October, gave its consent to the marriage. The certificate bears date 
October 16, and is witnessed by sonie of the leading men of the Province, inclui.l- 
the Governor, wife and daughter.* The marriage took place at Pennsbury. and 
is the only one William Penn is k!iown to have attended in this county.^ Letitia 
made the bride a present of a chest of drawers that cost £y. Penn and his wile 
took a certificate from Falls meeting, while their daughter Letitia took h.ers 
from Philadelphia. The latter set forth, that to the best of their knowledge 
"shcj is not under any marriage engagement.'' 

'John and Mary Sotcher" had four children, Hannah, Mary, .\.nn and 
Robert. Hannah married Joseph Kirkbride, 1720, Mary, }iIahlon Kirkbrile, 
1724, Ann married Mark Watson, 172S, and Robert married }.Iercy Brown out 
of meeting, 1731, and was dealt with. They were the great-grandparent? >'i the 
mother of the late Anthony Burton, Bristol, who had preserved the marriage 
certificate. The wife of the late Doctor Cernea, Buckingham, was a descen '.ant 
through the Kirkbrides. John Sotcher went to England, 1702, to receive a 
legacy left him by his brother, leaving his wife in charge of Pennsbury. He was 
a member of Assembly, 1722, and. died, 1729. He was in T'enn's service a'l'jut 
ten years, and on leaving, 1709. probably moved onto a jilantation near by in- 



.3 This name is found written Lofty, Lottie, and Loftus. hut Lofty i; proiiai>!y t'le 
correct spelling:. 

4 In ad<litir,n to tlie Pcnns were the following ~i;4naturcs : Samuel Jennings. P'.\m- 
cas Pemberton. Joseph Kirkbride, Joseph Langdalc, Richard Gore, Joseph Shippen. Salo- 
mon Warder, William Hackett, Richard Cocks. Richard Hough, James Logan. Peter 
Worrell, Job Hnnting. Samuel Durges. John Burgcs, and several women. 

5 Watson, in his ".Vnnals ot Philadelphia." says that Amor Preston, the ancestor of 
the Prcstons of Bucks county, married his wife at or near Pennsbury. in the presence of 
William Penn and many Indians, and gives her statement of his appearance and beha-. lor. ' 
This account has been accepted, but on investigation I find it not true. In Dece!v.l>er, 
1710. .-\nii'r PrL-ti.n married Esther Large, on authority granted by Falls meeting, ar.d as 
Peim h.iil then bt-en nine >ears in England, he could not have been present at the ceren; ny. 
As the marriage is on record in the meeting, the date no doubt is correct. The ernr in 
this statement throws doubt on all Mr. Watson says about Mrs. Preston. We sii.ill 
have iniTc to say on thi^ subject in a future chapter. 

6 She probably cann- frijin Bn-td. England, where she had a brother settled in trade. 



152 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUNTY. 



tended tor John Penii, Jr. When Sotcher and Losjan had theii first settlement, 
1705, tluro was due the former £65, lVnn>\ Ivania currency. 

William I'cnn took pas.-^aye in the ship Dolmahoy, for London, Novemher. 
1701, after a residence of nearly two years ai Pennsbury manor house. Hi- 
engaged the whole of the cabin for himself and family, at fifty guineas. They 
went down the river in a yacht to New Castle, where the ship lay, accompanied 
bv James Logan and other friends. They w^ere safe on board the 3d, whence 
Penn addressed his parting instructions to his faithful secretary. Logan was 
charged to send all the goods at the town house up to Pennsbury, except enoui;li 
to furnish a room for himself ; and he was rc(|uested "to give a small treat" in 
the Proprietary's name to the gentlemen uf Philadelphia for a beginning to a 
better understanding. His lovely seat on the Delaware was in the thoughts 
of William Penn to the last, for at the foot of these instructions he writes : 
"Remcmlier J. Sotcher and Pennsbury." Had he realized at that moment that 
lie had left his home in Bucks county forever, sadder yet would have been liis 
thoughts as he sailed down the Delaware. The Dolmahoy had a safe passage, 
reaching Portsmouth in thirty days. Among the bills Penn left unpaid, fur 
Logan to settle, were the butcher's £Go and the baker's. £So. so nuich was he 
straitened for money. Among the articles Penn left at Pennsbury, were two 
pil)es of r\Ladeira wine, and, in a letter to Logan, dated September 7, 1705, lie 
wants one of them sent to him in England. 

Among the distinguished persons who visited Pennsbury after Penn hail 
left was Lord Cornbury, Governor of New York, June, 1702, who came to 
Burliugton to proclaim Queen Anne. Governor Hamilton and party met him at 
Crosswicks, and invited him to visit Pennsylvania. Logan, who was up at 
Pennsbury, hastened down to Philadelphia to provide for his entertainment, 
and a dinner, "'equal to anything he had seen in America," was prepared for 
him and his retinue. He lodged at Edward Shippen's, and the next day he 
dined there with his company. On his return up the river from Burlington to 
tlie falls, on the 24th, he paid a visit to Pennsbury. Logan sent up wine and 
"what could be got." and was there to receive his guest. Lord Cornbury was 
attended up the river by four boats besides his own, including the Governor's 
barge, and arrived about ten in the morning with a suite of fifty persons. James 
Logan, in a letter to Penn. says of the dinner: "With Mary's' great diligence 
and all our care, we got leally a handsome country entertainment, which, though 
much inferior to those at Philadelphia for cost, etc., yet, for decency and gond 
order, gave no less satisfaction." In September, 1704, Lord Cornbury again 
visited Pennsbury accompanied by his wife, when they were entertained by 
William Penn. jr. At this period the manor was noted for its apple orchard, 
and the quality of its "pearmains and golden pippins." Within recent years 
the owner exhibited "Pennsbury pippins" at our agricultural fairs. 

In 1703. William Penn sent his son William, a wild youth, to Pennsylvania, 
hoping the associates of the fatlier would have a good influence over him. He 
came commended to the care of James Logan, to whom Penn wrote: "Take 
liim immediately away to Pennsbury. and there give him a true state of things, 
and weigh down his levities, as well as temper, his resentments, and form his 
understanding >;ince all depends ui'-^n it. as well f^ir his future happiness, as in 
measure th.c ["mr country. Wal.-h him. outwit him, and honestly over-reach 
him for his own gooil. r'i>hinL:'. little journeys 1 as to see the Indians, etc.). 
will divert him; no rambling 10 New Vcrk, umt mongrel corresi)ondence." 



Mary SotcluT, the liousckfcper. 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUNTY. 



153 



Logan carried out the instructions, and younp: Ponn was soon under the peace- 
ful roof at I'einishury. He brought t%vo or three couple of choice hounds, "for 
deer, foxes and wolves,"' and his father wrote to have John Sotcher quarter 
them about "as with young Biles, etc." Young Penn received the congratula- 
tir'us of his father's friends; an<i. when the Indians heard the young Proprietary 
had arrived, they sent a deputation of an hundretl warriors, with nine kings to 
Pennsbury, to lender their welcome. They presented liim sonie belts of wam- 
pum in proof of their good will. He must have made a favorable impression, 
for Samuel Preston wrote Jonathan Dickinson, "our young landlord, in my 
judgment, discovers himself his father's eldest son ; his ];erson. his sweetness 
of temper and elegance of speech are no small demonstrations of it.'' He spent 
most of his time in Philadelphia, where he played some wild capers. Neither 
the devotion of Logan, the interest of his father's friends in his welfare, nor the 
pure atmos[)here of Pennsbury, had the desired eftVct. He fell again into evil 
habits, and returning to England in the fall. 1704. died in disgrace in France, 
a few years later. The waywardness of this favorite son almost broke his 
father's heart. 

After Penn's return tn EnsTJand, Pennsbury was an ever abiding presence in 
his mind, and for years he looked forward to his return and making it his per- 
manent residence. It was evidently the home of his affections. It was the text 
of much of his correspondence with Logan. He wrote him. June 4, 1702: 
""■ Pennsbury ! I would be glad to hear how things are there; the family, fruit, 
corn ^nil improvements." He wants Logan to keep up things at Pennsbury, 
and orders fruit and other trees planted in the fields, at the distance of forty 
or fiftV feet ajiart, so as not to hurt the grass nor corn. He continued to send 
ou'. shrubs and trees and gave directions how to plant them. In 1705 he writes 
to Logan, "not so much neglect the gardens at Pennsburv as to let them run to 
ruin ;" and again, not to let him be put to anv more expense on account of 
Pennsbury. but onlv "to keep it in repair and that its produce ma_v maintain it." 
The manor could not 
have been ver\ profit- 
able as a farm. fiir. 1705. 
John Sotcher cnuld not 
make his own wages out 
of it. though Logan 
wrote IVnn that with 
that excei)tiiin it cleared 
itself. IVnn evidently 
expected to return as late 
as 1708. when he wrote 
to James Logan, "let 
William Walton, that 
comes from P.ristol. keep 
ali in ririler till we 
come." 

Penn did n- <t live to re- 
turn to hi^ bell >ved I\-nn- 
s\lvania. fur which he 
li'tigcd fur yi.'ir-. t)Ut 
spent the remainder "i 

liis da\-- in l-'nelanil. siu'ruunded b\' a sea of troubles and 1 
ti.ms. Ill- ilied betwei-n t\\ ■ and three o'clock on the mornins: 



c -'■'-''^.■■. .. ' , : ■■ ■ 




■;.Kv^S.:.i.-..>-..i 



HENNS HIRIAI, y\,.\C\:. 



154 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COCXTV 



30tli of Tnlv, 17 18, ami his body was brought from Rnshbc to 
Jordan's, iii lUicks, on 5th of August, and there buried in the presence of a kir^ 
concourse of siiectators. His grave is marked by a stone with his name an.l 
date of death. His second wife, Hannah Callowhill. was buried in the sanv,- 
grave. In close proximity are ten otlier tombstones marking the resting pkux-s 
of his family and friends, with them Isaac Pennington, the son of a Lord-M:iy, r 
of London, and Tliomas Eliwood. who read i" .MiUun in the cottage at Chali lU. 
after he was struck with blindness, and who suggested to him the writi.ig .'i 
"Paradise Regained." It has been thought their persecutions while in lii\ 
i),duced these I'riends to select this quiet place for burial. 

Pennsbury house was kept up several years after Penn went to Englanl. 
1701, waiting his return to spend the remainder of his days there. The furniture 
was long preserved," but was finally sold and distributed through Bucks county 
and elsewhere. But few pieces can be traced at this late day. Samuel Coats. 
Pliiladelphia, purchased William Penn's secretary of John Penn, but we d" 
not know what became of it. After the death of James Logan many of the 
gfoods at Pennsbury were sold at public sale by an agent of the family. .V 
gold-headed cane that belonged to the Proprietary was bought by a farmer of 
Bucks county. The clock that marked the time in the great hall at Pennsburv 
stands in the Philadelphia Library, while Penn's chair is at the Pennsylvania 
Hospital. ^Irs. Alfred Elaker, Newtown, has one of the parlor chairs, elab- 
orately carved, with a high, straight back, and a venerable look. One chamber, 
in particular, was kept handsomely furnished and hung with tapestry, for the 
accommodation of tiie family descendants should any of them return. This 
room came to be looked upon with curiosity and suspicion, and was called "a 
haunted chamber." It became musty from non-use, and the rich hangings 
covered with dust and cobwebs. Another room was kept furnished for the 
agent of the family when he visited the estate, anrl the beds and linen are 
described as having been excellent. Visitors generally carried away some relic 
of the jilace. and bits of curtains and bed covers may yet be found in the collec- 
tions of the curious. ?\Irs. Deborah Logan" remembered visiting the house on 
one occasion, with her mother, and bringing away a piece of old bed-spread of 
holland, closely wrought with the needle in green siik, and said to have been 
the work of Penn's daughter Letilia. For manv \ears !'enn?!n;ry was a place 
of resort for strangers who wished to view the home of the founder of Penn- 
sylvania, who spread their refreshments under the large walnut trees that had 
shaded Penn and his family. The building fell into [jremature decav from injury 
received from leakage of the leaden reservoir on the roof. It was pulleil down 
to rebuild just before the Revolution, but the war prevented it. 

When John .Sotcher left Pennsylvania, I70<), James Logan entered into an' 
agreement to lease it to Colonel Quarry, an officer of the customs. Philadelphia. 
The term wa« for seven years, at L40 a \ear. and he to keep the buildings in 
repair with the condition that in case William Penn should return. Colnnel 
Quarry was to have six months' notice to leave. He was to buy the stock and 
hire the negroes, if he and Logan could agree upon terms. The lease fell 



8 Uiulcr ihiti' nt M.-iy ir. i/jr. Logaii writes ti> H;iiinah Penn. "I have lately 
for the books Iiilher. Imt the ^'r.,,ih. after about twenty years ai,'e ad. led to tbeni. ! 
may assure tbyscll are imL iinich iniproee'l.'' 

9 Daughter of Charles Xurrii, whose first wife was Margaret, d.uighter of I")' 
Rodman, of Bncks coimtv. 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUXTY. 



tliroiigh on account of Penn's controversy with tlie Fords, who claimed the fee. 
t._> the territorv. The place at this time was somewhat out of repair, if we may 
judi^'e by what was to be done before Colonel Quarry moved in. Logan was "to 
repair the windows and make new door to the lower chamber at the foot of 
the stairs, and to lay the upper tlnnr of the outlniuse, and run one partition : to 
repair the garden fence, and xo l)uild up the wall before the front at the 
descending steps."" The falling d>iwn of the wall in front of the house had 
allowed the rains to wash away the earth hauled to raise the yard. 

The years 1702 and 1703 were unhealthy. In the winter the small-pox^" 
prevailed with severity in Ihicks county, and the following summer a "■dis- 
temper""" broke out. which carrietl off a number of the inhabitants. The sum- 
mer, 1704. was the hottest and dryest since the Province was settled, yet there 
were good crops. The previous winter is noted for deep snows and cold 
weather, unknown to the oldest inhabitants. 

Within a few years, after the settlement of the Province, great trouble and 
inconvenience were found in the transfer of real estate, by reason of the dis- 
crepancy between the quantity called for in the warrant, and that returned in 
the survey. To remedy the difficulty, the Commissioners of Property ordered 
a re-survey of all the lands taken up, and a warrant was issued to John Cutler. '-' 
surveyor of Bucks count)-, August 11. 170.?. In the warrant he was directed 
to re-survey only the lands of Bristol and Falls township, but, by this and sub- 
sequent warrants, he re-surveyed all the seated lands in the county. A\'e liave 
not been able to find a complete record of this work, and v.hat we give below 
is only a partial return of all the townships except Bristol, one of the two- 
mentioned in the warrant of August 11. The "land adjacent"' to Wrightstown 
embraced the territory now Buckingham and Solebury, and those "afljaccnt" to 
Southampton and Warminster were Xorthampton. \Varwick and Warrington, 
none of tliem vet organized into townships. The surveyors were ordered to make 
their surveys according to the lines by which the lands were granted by the 
Proprietary. A number of new surveys were reported without the names of 
the townships being mentioned, which we suppose were made in territory not 
yet organized. The following were the surveys made by Cutler : 

Fall-;. Jeffrey Hawkins 355. Jii^e]>h Wood 590, and Robert Lucas 322 
acres; Maketfeld, .Miller"s heirs i.roS. Thomas Janney. 4,450. Henry 3.[arjarum 
350. John Snowden 421. Peter Worrel 232. Enoch Yardley 51S, and Thon.ias 
Ashton 236 acres; Middletown, John Stackhouse 312. Thomas Stackhouse 507. 
Robert Heaton 1,088. and Thimias .Musgrave 440 acres: Xewtown, Thomas 
Hillborne 96S, Jonathan Eldric.ge 289, Margaret Playworth 27S, Shadriek 
Walley 1.54S. and Ezra Croasdale 530 acres; Wrightstown and lands adjacent, 
Samuel Baker 43S, William Parlet 144, William Dirrick 148, John Pidcock 505, 
and John Chapman 480 acres ; Bensalem, Samuel Allen 262. Tobias Dymock 
302. and Joseph Kirle 400 acres; Southampton, Warminster and lands adjacent, 
Isabella Cutler 2^2^, William Wait 103. Joseph Kirle 543. John Morris. 572, 
George Willard 447. John Fastliorne 305. John Swift 580. Abel Xoble 697, 
Jasper Lawrence 4''io. William Garret 225, Christopher Wetherill 236, Ralph 
Dracot 250. John Scarboniugh 304. John Large 107, am! William Say T07 
acres; re-survey by general warrant. Anthony Burton 142. William Bucknian 



10 Three of the Vard!cy> dieil of ?m,-il!pox. 

11 Supp^'seJ to have been the yell'^w fever. 

IJ Ills commission was dated Marcli 10, 1702. 



1=6 HISTORY OF IJi'CKS COUXTV. 



550. Stephc-n Twining 550, Saniuel Cariicntur 547, Henry Paxson (Tinker's 
Point) 300, William Gregory 225, Jonathan Coupor 355, John BalcKviu 139, 
Ezra Croasdalc 220, Roljcrt Ifcaton 925, J^lin and Gyles Lticas 216, John Xav- 
lor 445, William Hammer 100. Daniel Jackson 390, Thomas Constable 5511. 
Walter Bridgeman 220, William Croasdale 151, Thomas Coleman 248, Josepl; 
Janney 347, and Robert Heaton, jr., 152 acres; new surveys, Daniel Jaeksnn 
500, Richard Hough 475, widow JNlusgrave (two warrants) 980, Gcorgr 
Howard 450, Edward Hartley 300, Paul Woolfe 300, Jedediah Allen 2311. 
Thomas Cams 450. Randall Blackshaw 500, Alartin Zeale 100. Thomas ]',\.- 
(two warrants) 43S, William Croasdale 250, Samuel Beaks 350, Ezra Croas- 
dale 200, Randall Speakman 500, Thomas Bye Goo. Henry Paxson 100, Robert 
Heath (two warrants) 1,000, George Brown 200. Francis \\'hite 250, Jeremiah 
Langhorne 250, Randall Speakman 500, Henry Child (tw-o warrants) gS^. 
Francis Plumstead (four warrants) 2,500, Elizabeth Sands 500. Joseph I'aul 
492, Tobias Dymock 220, and Joseph Pike (two tracts) 1,000 acres. 

A number of these new surveys were in Buckingham, Solebury, and some 
in Plumstead, which were then filling up with settlers, but had not yet been 
organized into townships.'" James Logan says they were well supplied with 
surveyors in Bucks county, and he wrote iu the spring, 1703, that the surveys 
"are in a good state of forwardness," and hope to have them finished in the 
summer. Among the tracts surveyed in Wrightstown was one of five hundred 
and seventy-five acres to Benjamin Clark, joining the town square on the south- 
■east side. It will be noticed that many of the names mentioned in the surveys 
are no longer to be found in the county. 



13 Buokini;!iani and Solelniry were organized about that time. 



CHAPTER XIII, 



SOUTHAMPTON. 



1703. 



Second group of townships. — Pickets of civili^ntion. — Southampton first named. — Sepa- 
rated from Warminster. — Original settlers. — John Swift. — Meeting granted. — Addi- 
tional settlers. — Thomas Callowl'.ill a land-owner. — Town plat. — Holland settlers. — 
Krewson, Vanartsdalen, Hogeland et al. — Still later settlers. — John Purdy. — Curious 
dreams. — The Watts family. — The Dufificlds, Folwells, Beanses, Searches, McXairs. — 
Ralph Dracot. — The Davises. — Moravian church. — John Perkins. — Taxables and 
population. — Southampton Baptist church. — Old school house. — Quaint inscription. — 
Davisville church.^ — Dutch Reformed. — Its early name. — Paulus Van Vleck officiates. 
— ^Portius the pastor. — Schlatter settles trouble. — Jacob Larzelere. — Location of South- 
ampton. — Roads. — Villages. — Turnpikes. 

Our second group of townships is composed of Southampton,^ Warminster^ 
Newtown. Wrightstown, Buckingham and Solebury. They were settled about 
the same time, and immediately after the townships of the first group, and we 
purpose to tell the story of their settlement in detail. The territorial limits of 
this group reach to the central section of the county, and throughout it much 
land was taken up prior to 1700. Among the pickets of civilization, which early 
pushed their way up thruugh the woods from the Delaware, in advance of the 
tidal wave, may be mentioned John Chapnian, John and Tl'oinas Bye, William 
Cooper, George Pownall, and Edward and Roger Harlly. For several years 
the supplies for a part of this region were drawn from Falls and ^.liddletown, 
and transported tlirough the forests on horseback or on the shoulders of those 
who did not ov.'u horses. When Gwins mill was built on the Pennypack, their 
bread supply was drawn from a mcire convenient point untn mills were erected 
nearer home. 

In the proceedings of the Provincial Council. 16S5. fixing the boundary 
line between Bucks and Philadelphia counties, Southamiiton and Warminster 
are called by tlieir present names. At that earlv day those townships were not 
organized subdivisions, btit only settlements v.ith English names." The report 

1 .'Southampton is a iiarli.unont.iry nuniicipal boroiigii and seaport of England, 
county Ilamiishirc, at the uMuth of :ln.- Itclun. -i miles southwest of London. 

2 As ni-ilnie's map. 1(1.^4. gives the bound. iries of South.'uiipton and Warminster as 
they now e.xist. it is barely iinsiible the^c two tnwn^hip^ were alreidy laid out and nauieil. 
but tliere is no direct teslinmny to support it. 




§ !1 b.- »i 

H 3 S p 

ill' 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUMV. 159 



.:! the iurv laying out the group of townships, 1692, concludes: "Southampton 
;i!ul the lands about it, with \\'arminster, one,'"-* which means that these two 
I..V. n^hijis, with the unorganized lands adjoining Northampton and probably 
Warwick should be considered one township. For several years South- 
i.iiipion and Warminster were one for all municipal purposes, and it was 
III It until 1703 diat the court recognized Southampton as a township, and 
auihorized it to elect its own supervisor of higiiways. We take this date as the 
time of its organization, but it does not appear from the records that the two 
Uiwnslups were entirely separated until a later period. At its March term, 
171 1, the inhal)itants of Southampton petitioned court to be separated from War- 
minster in the county assessments and collection of taxes ; whereupon it was 
ordered that the said petitioners and the lands of James Carter, Ralph Dracot, 
and Joseph Tomlinson may be in future, one township and have a constable ap- 
pointed to serve therein. It is stated, in the court records, that the inhabitants 
of Southampton petitioned at ?klarch term, 1712, to be allowed to remain a 
township by themselves. Among the names signed to the 'petition are Edward 
i'.ohon, John Morris, Ralph Dunn, John Xaylor, Thomas Harding, Daniel 
Robinson, Mar\- Po}"nter, Richard Lather, and William Beans. 

When Thomas Holme made his map of the Province, 1684, there were 
thirteen* land owners iif what is now Southampton ; probably the greater part 
were settlers and some of them had purchased land before leaving England. 
<- )f these early settlers John Swift, ^ one of Penn's pioneers, owned five htindred 
acres that lay near Feasterville between the Street road and county line. He was 
a Friend, but went olf with Keith, 1692, and ultimately became a Baptist min- 
ister. He was called to the ministry, 1702, and, although never ordained, 
preached nine years in Philadelphia as an assistant. For some unknown cause 
he was excommunicated, 1730. and died, 1732. He represented Bucks county 
in the Assernbly, 1701 and 1707. The lands of John ^Martin, Robert Pressntore 
and John Ltiffe were situated in the upper part of the township touching War- 
minster and extending to the county line. Robert Bresmal was a settler in 
.'Southampton as earlv as 1683, in which vear he married IMary Webber, "of 
John Hart's family." 

Soon after the settlement of the township, the Friends of Southampton 
rcijuested to have a meeting settled among them, which was granted April i, 
16S0. and a general meeting for worship, once a week, was ordered at the house 
of James Dilworth. Previous to that Friends had met at each others houses 
for worship, and as they have never been strong enough in the township to 
warrant the erection of a meeting-house, they attend meetings elsewiiere, gen- 
erally at .Aliddletown and Byberry. 

As the location and soil were inviting, settlers flocked in rapidly, and by 
1709, we find the additional names of Stephen Sands, John \'ansant. Thomas 
Cutler, James Carter, John Xaylor, Joseph Webb, John Frost, John Shaw, 

3 John Gillicrt. Tlimnas Hould. Thomas Grnoni. Joseph Jones, Robert ^[:lrsll. John 
Swift, Enoch Fl.nvers. Jonathan Jones. Mark Bctris, Kicliard Wood. John Luffe, J^Min 
-Martin, ami Rrlurt IVes^nvire. 

-l 'Ihe will of R'lhcrt Marsh. ".Smuh Hampton." Bucks county, was dated Jnly ^5, 
i^-'v. and pruned, at Philadelphia. 17, 3 mo.. May, 1(189. .\s this was fourteen years before 
■thf ti'wn-hiji was oreani^ed. it is additional evidence, if that were needed, that tlic locality 
was given its present name before organization. 

5 In i^a^ John Swif: paid his tp.iit-rent "in goods and chattels." to Lawrence Johnson 
a-.;d Oi.arles HraJ'e. nt I\iins!iurv. 



i6o HISTORY OF BUCKS COU.MY 



Clement Diiiigan, Jeremiah Dungnii, Jamcb Carrell. Juhn Morris, Thonia.-; 
Duiigan, Juhn Clark, David Griffith, Christt'piicr Day, Nathaniel \\\.->i. 
William (_ircgory and Samuel Selers. The Dungans were sons uf Revercn.i 
Thomas Dungan, who emigrated from Rhode Island, and organized the Bapti^l 
church at Cold Spring, near Bristol, 1O84. Joseph Dungan, grandson of the 
Reverend Thomas, died August 25, 1785, in his 78th year, and was buried at 
Southampton. We tind no further mention of Thomas Cutler, but William, 
who was an early settler there, died in 1714. They were probably brothers of 
John Cutler, who made the re-survey of the county, 1702-3. James Carter died. 
1714. John .Morris bought five hundred and eighty-two acres of James Plumley, 
1698, which lay in the upper part of the township, between the Street road and 
county line, and a considerable part, if not all, north of the .Middle road. When 
the re-survey was made, 1702, Thomas Harding was one of the largest land 
owners in the township, his acres numbering six hundred and eighteen. Joscjih 
Tomlinson was there early, and died, 1723. April 20, 1705, four hundred and 
seventeen acres were surveyed by warrant to Thomas Callowhill, the father-in- 
law of William Penn, situated in the upper part of the township, and boundetl 
by the Street road and Warminster line. It covered the site of Davisville. 
John, Thomas, and Richard Penn inherited this tract from their grandfather, 
Callowhill, and January 20, 1734, they conveyed one hundred and forty-nine 
acres by patent to Stephen Watts. The land of John Morris bounded this tract 
on the southwest. 

On Holme"s map is laid off, in about the middle of tlie township, a plat one 
mile square, similar to that in Xcwtown and Wrightslown. As in those town- 
ships it was, no doubt, intended for a park, or town plat, and to have been 
divided among the land owners in the township outside of it, in the proportion 
of one to ten. But as we have not met with it in any of the .Southampton con- 
veyances, it probably had no other existence than on the map. 

At an early day, and following the English Friends, there was a consid- 
erable influx of Hollanders into the township, and the large and influential 
families of Krewson, \'anartsdalen, \'andcventer, Hogeland, Barcalow, \'an- 
horne, Lel'ferts, \'ansant and \'andeveer descend from this sturdy stock. Other 
families, which started out with but one Holland ancestor, have become of 
almost pure blood by intermarriage. The descendants of Dutch parentage in 
this and adjoining townships have thus become very numerous, but both the 
spelling of the names, and their pronunciation, have been considerably changed 
since their ancestors settled in the township. 

Derrick Krewson'' was a land-holder, if not a settler, in Soutnampton as 
early as 16S4, for the nth of September, 1717, he paid to James Steele, receiver 
of the Proprietary quit-rents, £9. iis. 4d. for thirty-three years' interest due on 
five hundred and eighty acres of land in this township. In March, 1756, Henry 
Krewson paid sixteen yearb' quit-rent to E. Phv'sic on two hundred and thirty 
acres in S"uthampton." The will of Derrick Krewson was executed January 
4, 1729, but the time of his death is not known. He probably came from L.ong 
Island, the starting point of most of the Hollanders who settled in Bucks 
countv.^ 



6 Origiiml spellinij Kni^cn. 

7 Down to 1756 tlie I'roprietnry quit-roTits ui-rc paid at Pennibiiry. but we do not 
know hiiw iiiucli later. 

8 Ib-lena Temple. Churclu illc. who died. February. lS;-!4. wiai'd have been one 
hundred years old had she lived to June 10. She was of Low Uiiteh stock, daughter of 



HISTORY OF Bi'CKS COUXTV, . i6r 



The X'anartsdalcns of Southampton and Xorthainpton are descended from. 
Simon, son of John \'on .\rsdalen, from Ars Dale, in Holland, who immigrated 
to America, 1O53, ^"^^ settled at Flatbush, Long Island. He married a daughter 
of Peter Wykott, and had two sons, Cornelius Simonse and John. The former 
became the husband of three Dutch spouses," the latter of two. Our Bucks . 
C'unty family comes mediately from Xicholas and Abraham, sons of John, who 
settled in Southampton. Nicholas married Jane Vansant and had seven 
children, and John V'anartsdalen, Richborough, was a grandson. Simon, tlie 
eldest son, died, 1770, and a daughter, Ann, married Garret Stevens. The \'an- 
devcnters,'" X'anhorncs, \'andeveers and V'ansants,^^ are descended from 
Jacobus \'an de Venter, Rutgert \''anhorne, Cornelius Vandqveer, and William 
\'an Zandt, who came from Xethcrland, 1660. There are but few of the \'an- 
deventers, and \'andeveers in the township, but the \'anhornes and \'ansant£ . 
are numerous. 

Dirck Hanse Hogeland,'- the first of the name who came to America, com- 
manded the vessel that brought him from Holland to New Amsterdam. 1655. 
He settled at Flatbush. and, 1662. married Anne Bergen, widow of Jan Clerq, 
by whom lie had six children. He built the first brick house on Manhattan 
island. His grandson, Dirck, son of William, born 1698, and married 2Jariah 
Slot, New York, with others of the descendants, had settled in Southampton 
before 1729. They had a family of ten children, from whom have descended 
a numerous progeny. As a rule both sons and daughters married into Holland 
families, and the blood to this time has been kept comparatively pure. The 
distinguishing features of thg Hogelands are large families of children, 
longevity and stalwart sons.''' The youngest son of Dirck. Derrick K.. was long 
a justice of the peace in Southampton, but resigned about 1820, on account of- 
age. He was the grandfather of Elias Hogeland. late sheriff of this countv. 
Some of the family have wandered to Kentucky, where the members occup\- 
positions of honor. 

In the spring. 1662, William Hanse \"on Rarkeloo" and his brotlier, Har- 

Garrct Krewsen, Soiithaniptoii. a patriot of the Revolution, who died. 185-'. She was 
baptized September 2j, 1784. by the Rev. Simeon \'an Arsdalen, who had been dead 
ninety-eight years when <he died, and tlie pastor of her middle life, Jacob Larzelere, had 
been decea«;cd fifty years. She lived to see three generations born, live and die. At ninety- 
six slie walked to church. .At ninety-nine and within a week of her death, she kept her 
own house and table, and was busy with home duties. In her long life she was sick in 
bed but a single day. She was a fair e.vample of the sturdiness of the Holland settlers in 
Bucks coiuity. 

9 Tjelletzi Reiners Wizzlcpenni^;. .\ihic Willems Konweiiliovcn. and Marytzi Dirks. 

10 The correct name is Van de \'entcr. n Van Zandt. 

12 Hogeland, or Hoogland, is the Dutch for highlands. In 1746 Indians lixing among 
the highlands on the Hudson were called the Hogeland Indians. 

13 Tlie will of Dirck Hogeland is dated December 7, 1775. and proved August l, 
1778. ■ He left his six daughters £J20 each, a considerable sum in that day. and a large 
landed estate to them and his sons. Four hundred acres are specified in the will, and other 
lands tiot described. His youngest son, Dirck. afterward called Derrick, got two hundred 
and fifty acres. 

14 Tliis name has been variously spelled, r.orculo, Barckelloo. I'.urkiloo and Barke- 
loo. liv ditTerent branches of the family. The family came from Borkclo in the earldom 
of Zutphcii, and province of Guilderland. HuUaud. 



iG2 HJSTORV Of Bi'CKS COCXTV. 



man Jan>(.'ii \ i in Ijarkvloij, uitli wife and lun children lamlcil at Xcw ^^l|■■K. 
wlierc llarnian died prior to December, 1O71. William married Elizabeth lam- 
Claessen, iOO(.i, antl died. 10^3, leaving eii;'b.i children. His .son Dirck married 
Jamelia \'on Ars Dale Sciitember 17, 1709, and settled at b'reehold, Xew Jersey. 
Conrad, born iJecember 4, lOSo. died 1754, settle. 1 on the Raritan. and married 
a danghter ol Jacob Lacs, Aiinimomh. It was their son, Conrad, who settu\l 
in this county, and was the immediate ancestor of the ilarcalow.^. Southamiii. 11. 
Com-ad's son, Liarret, married Elizabeth, daughter of the Hrst Dirck Hos^eiaiid 
and iiad a family of nine cliiKlren, who intei married with the l"inne_\s, Cornell-, 
Mitchells, l;anr.-.es, Ste\enses, and .Mc.Masiers. Jdie de.-^cendants of Garret 
Barcalow are numerous in Southampton. 

The Stcven>e^ are En^li^h on the male side, the ancestor, Aliraham, ci.iniiii^ 
to this county slu-rtly after William I'eim. Hi-- son John married Sarah Stom- 
holf, and their son .\nn X'anartsdalen, a daur^hter of Xich<jlas, one of the two 
brothers of the name who t'lrst settled in Southampton. The Henjamin Stevens, 
who married Elizaljeth I'.arcal'jw, was a SL>n of .Vbraham Stevens and Mar\ 
liogeland, daughter of Daniel, who was brother of tlie Dirck who settled in 
this county bef.ire iJ-0. The mother of the late JSeiijamin Stevens was a sister 
of Abraham. i>aac and William Hogelantl, and Carret ]J. Stevens of the I'.erks 
coimty bar is a s.m of iJenjaniin. 

The ancestor of the Letierts familv . I.effen J'ieterse, inimigrateil from 
Xorlh Brabant, [blland. K/io, an<l settled at l-"Iatbush, Long Island, flis 
grandson, Leffert LefTeri. the son of Peter Lelfertzc'"' anfl Ida Suydam, canie 
into the county. 173S. with ilie Cornells, on a pros])ecting tour. He returne-d 
the following year and settled in Xortham]iton i.iwnship, on a f(5ur hundreil 
acre tract, ^''' biiuulit of Isaac Pennington, Ijeing i)art of six hundred and fifty- 
one acres that William Penn granted to Edmund Penningt(jn, his father. The 
deed is dated June 7, 1731;. the consideration. £4^)2. His will was executed 
<,\-tober 6, 1773. and he probably died soon after. His wife's name was Ann. 
He left five sons and two daughters, but the greater jjart of his estate went to 
his s(jns. The hue venerable John LelTert>. S. iiit!iami)ton, who died at about 
ninety-hx-e, wa> the grandson of l.etl'ert Leffert. 

The \"aiihornes came into the township earU, )nit tlie time is not kiinwii. 
On May 6 and 7, 1722. Bernard Cliri.-tiaii. Bergen. Xew Tersev. conveyed two 
hundred and ninety acres to his son Abraham N'anliorne. b\' deed "f lease and re- 
lease, which w a-- 1 ribably situated in Southampton, t Jther Holland families set- 
tled in this and the adjoining township of Xorthamjjton about the same jjcriod, 
among whom wc find the names of Staates, now of P,en>alem. Pieiinet. Rhodes. 
Johnson. I'enion. Wright, etc. They were generally large slaveholders, while 
the "institution" cxi>ted in this state. They were universallv ])atriotic and 
loyal during the Re\-olution. and often the slaves accompanievl their masters 
to the field. The>e oUl Hollaiiil fanniies have a tradition that at one time Wash- 
ington passed tlin.u^h Southaminnn and stop])ed at the hnu.-e> nf some of their 
patriotic ancestors, and their descendants still cherish the tables he ate at. the 
mugs he drank from, and the chairs he sat upon. These families liave become 
-so thoroughly .\iiglicized. m) trace is left of their ancestry. 



15 Ttic l.cinily oil Lc'iiK Island ret.nn the nana- ■;[.etTcn,-o." Imt tiu- first gciieratii'ii 
1i..rii in this is'iint> ilrwiip-d the "/" and rinal "r." .nid -i;li,;iinted "s " 

16 It was l,.iMiMK-d hy land- '.f lU-rnard VanhMmc, Naac Vanhornc. .\drian Cnrnoli. 
Henry Kreu-on. I -.i.u- I'a-nnel, J..hii .Sh.aw, .and Juc ; i.ili l)iin;;aii. lie (nvned a planta- 
(lon in Xeutown 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUXTY. 



163 



At a still later periixl tlu' families of I'urdy. Watts. FoKvcll. Search, -Miles, 
nutfield. Davis, and others, well-known, settled in SnuthainiUnn, of s(jnie of 
ulueh we have been ahle to collect information. 

John rurdy.'" an immigrant frcjin Ireland, in 1742, settled on th.e Penny- 
pack, .Moreland townshi]), married (irace Dunlap, and tlicd, 1752, leaving- a 
>. n, William, and three daiis^dners. The sun married .Mary Roney, whose fa- 
ther came from Ireland, 1733, and served in tlie Continental army. In 1797 the 
family removed to western New York, except the son, William, who married a 
daughter of Tlnmias FoKvell, of Southamptoii. whither he removed and where 
he sjient his life. He becanie a ])rominent man. commande;l a companv of 
volunteer rillemen in the war of 1812-1^; was several times elected to the As- 



'««55J5w**^^55j?rasw;5C?5?! 



OLD S.\WMU.I. AT DA VISVI LI.IC. 



sembly, and subseciuently Prothonotary of the Court of Common Pleas. His 
son. Thomas, was elected Sheriff of the countw 1S42, and !:is grandson. 
John, was elected to the same office, 1872. The family that bear the name 
no longer reside in tiie county or townshi]) with the exce]ition of John, 
the son of Thomas. The family recorrls relate singular dreams of the first 
John and their remarkable fuIhUment. He dreamed (ine night that while going 
to Philadelphia on a large white horse, as lie passed through .Vbington the 
animal turned into the graveyard and rolled, and about the same time his wife 
d.reamed "a large white h'lr-e came and pidled down half her house." The ful- 
fillment riuicklv followed, for. a few da\s after, while the husband was attend- 
ing the election at Xcwtown. where they were running- hnr>es down the main 
street, he was run against by a large white lu.irse and killed, aiul the accident 
was equivalent to pulling down, half the wife's house. 

Among the new cmners into SouthamiUon township, about 1730. was 



I" The ri.iiTif is .^ngln-lri^ 
If Punldf, ami is ni'iyc cimiiiii'ii 



aiui diiHiglu t" lie a iiviilificatinii dt PanlfU'. Pardee 
F.nviland aii.l Sentland than Irelaml. 



i64 HISTORY OF BUCKS COUNTY. 

Stephen Watts from Lower Dublin, Philadelphia county, who purchased iiio 
hundred and fifty acres from Thomas Callowliill. It covered part of the site uf 
Davisville and ran across the township line into Warminster. The deed bears 
date of 1/33- He improved the premises and made it the home of his lifetime. 
It embraced what is known as the "sawmill" property, long in the possessiuu 
of the late General John Davis. 

StL-phen Watts was a descendant of the Reverend John Watts, second pas- 
tor of the Lower Dublin Baptist church, Philadelphia County, who was a sun 
of Henry and Llizabeth Watts and grandson of Gregory Watts, born at Leeds, 
county Kent, England, Xoveinber 3, 1661, immigrated to Pennsylvania abuit 
1686, baptized in the Baptist faith November 21, 1686, the following year 
connected himself with the Penncpck or Pennypack church, and married Sarali 
Eaton (born 1655) in 16S7-88. He entered the ministry, 168S, became the 
pastor of the church, 1690, and had charge to his death, August 27, 1702." 
The following were the children of the Reverend John and Sarah Eaton \\"atts: 
Ehzabeth Watts, born April 15, 1689, died October 11, 1756; John Watts, born 
December 3, 1693, died 1771 ; Sarah Watts, born December 8, 1693, ]\Iary 
Watts, twin of Sarah, December 8, 1693 ; Deborah Watts, born February 6, 
1695 ; Silas Watts, born }tlarch 7, 1697, died August 16, 1737 ; Stephen \\ alls, 
born February 6, 1700, died 17S4. 

Stephen \\"aits, the youngest son of the Reverend John Watts, and llic 
fourth in descent from Gregory, married Elizabeth Melchior, born 1707, and 
died ]\Iarch 16, 1794. Mr. Watts was an influential man in the community and 
prominent in tlie Southampton Baptist church, of which he was a ruling 
elder for many years. The farm Stephen Watts purchased of Thomas Callow- 
hill, in 1733, is still in the family, being held by Rodney A. Mercer, Esq., 
through his mother, a great-great-granddaughter of the said Stephen Watts. 
The following were the children of Stephen land Elizabeth (Melchior) W'atts : 

Hannah \\'atts married, June 14, 1750, James Smith, of Philadelphia. 
.Arthur Watts, ^'' born October 29, 1733, died (Dctoher 9, 1809, married Sarah 
Folwell ; Rachel \\'atts, born June 29, 1736. died Xovember 11, 1765, married 
as first wife, her cousin John Watts; Elizabeth Watts, born August 23, 1738. 
died Angust 22. 1S24, married. I\Iay 29, 1764, Thomas Folwell, of Southam|i- 
ton, Bucks county, liorn October 7. 1737. died Septciiibcr 13. 1S13, son of Will- 
iam Folwell by his wife .\nne Potts; Stephen Watts, b^rn February 5, 1741. 
died in 178S. married Francis Assheton ; Sarah Watts, married Shaw. 

Several of the Watts family, by descent and intermarriage were prominent 
in their day and generation. John Watts, son of Stephen, the elder, was a cele- 

18 John Watts is jpoken cjf as a man of good understanding, and a fine speaker. 
Morgan Edward? -iaid lie was an English scholar. He \sas active against the Kcilhi.m 
movetiient. and held a piihlic discnssion with one of their preachers, coining off the victor. 

19 Arthur Watts was the lather of two children. \>y his tir.^t wife, William, born 
Septembtr S. 1765. and died, iS.^.S, and .Ann. horn October 5. 1759. married Josiah flart, 
January 11, 1776, and died at Doylcstown, March 2, 1815, of typhus fever. The son attained' 
some prominence, was major in a ride regiment, war of 1812-15, Associate Judge and 
clerk of the court. He inherited the Watts homesttad. In the advertiseniejit for the 
sale of this farm. iS,!.?, it was staled that "tlie same head and tail races were made several 
years ago. with a \irw of Injilding a grist mill, whieli w.is not dcMie owing to the death uf 
the then owner." It is claimed that on this dam John I'"itch made a trial of his steamboat' 
models. 



^mrm 












>'::t:?r' 







i?ii ^y m -Site ;.wm 






If 













Ffif 



^^■^-t'-' 









^■\i' 



Aw--..- :...lf.,^i.t./'- /'- 









1. ,/ 



i66 HISTORY OF BUCKS COUNTY. 



bratcil survL-Nor and cinvcyanccr, and wmte a wnrk nn survt'viny;, 17(15. li-;. 
brotlur Silas was al.-.i) a ]M-aclical svirvL-vdr. Arthur Watts, son of Sleplu'ii ili. 
elilcr, was a privatf in (."aptain Jnhii i'nhvcirs cmiipany uf Assriciators in 177;- 
76. a delegate to the Lancaster convention, Jidy 4. 177O. tn choose two Lirii^aditr 
Generals, to command tlie l'enns_\-lvania militia in the Revolution, and alsM a 
member of the Bucks County Committee of Safely and the Committee of 
Correspondence. William Watts, the si-)n of Arthur, was one of the Assiiciate 
Judges of Bucks county, and the clerk of the courts, and second ]\Iajor of L'"\- 
onel Humphrey's regiment of ritlemen, in the war of 1812-15 with Eni;lantl, 
Josiah Han, husband of Anne Watts, daughter of Arthur Watts, was a colonel 
of militia in the Revolution. Stephen W'atts. the younger, son of Step'hen 
Watts, tlie elder, born February 5, 174 1, was graduated at the college of Phila- 
delphia, now the University of Pennsylvania, in 1762, and was a tutor there f^r 
a time. In 1766 he was the author of an "Essay on Rccijirocal Advantages" nf a 
perfect union between Great Britain and her American colonies ; he read law. 
was admitted to the Bar and practiced for years. About 1770, he moved t'> 
Baton Rouge, Louisiana, where he became .Master in Chancery, recorder nf 
deeds for the English on tlie Mississip])i. and King's Attorney for JJaton Rouge, 
dying in Louisiana, 17S8. His daughter, }ilargaret Cyrilla Walts, married 
Manuel Ga_\aso de Lamns, l!rigadier-( leneral and (governor of the Spanish 
colony at Natchez, until 17^7. when he succeeded the Baron de Carondelel as 
Governor of L<iuisiana. Stephen W'atts. ALirch 10, 17O7, married France--, 
daughter of Ralph Assheton, of Philadelphia, and granddaughter of Robert 
Assheton, both, members of the Prfivincial Council of iV'unsylvania and kir.s- 
men of William Penn. 

It is not known when the I'olwells came into the townshi]), but shortly 
after the middle of the eighteenth century, possibly before. A branch of the 
family lived in Philadelphia county, neiw Montgomery. The brothers, Thunia^ 
and John I'olwell. owneil farms in Southampton, the furmer that of the late 
Cornell Hobensack, the latter the Roberts farm un the road to Southanipt'in 
church a few hundred x\ards from Davisville. Thomas b'olwell. whi:).--e wile 
was a daughter of Stephen Watts, had five 'children, a son, William Watts 
Folwell, horn January 13. 1768. who graduated with honor from the Cniver.-iiy 
of I'enns}lvania, and sub.-ei|uently a tutor in the institution, and four daughters. 
The son married Jane l)inigan. bcjrn Seiitember (). 1776. removed to Seneca 
county, X. Y., 1807, and died there lea\-ing numenms descendants. (Jf the 
dau.ghters of Thomas Fnlwell, Ann married Juseph Hart, of Warmin.-ter. .Mar\ 
married William Purdy. Jilizabeth marrie.l Joshua Jones, b'lth nf Southamiitnn. 
and Rachel married \\'illiam Reeder, of .Mercer county, .\ew Jersey. i'heir 
daughters were famous for their beauty, and iFnnestic and womanly virtues. 
On the date stone of the old l-'olwell mansion wdien taken down. 1874. to make 
way for a new dwelling, were the letters and figures ".\. .M. M. 1710-" 

Tl-e Dutiield.--' can lie tr.'iceil back to il;c reign of F.ilwavd II. when Richard 
I-'luftield was bailiff of Yxvk. 1 3,;;5. The hrst of tlie name is said I" 
have come to I'.ng'iand with William the Coni|ueror. Tl-;e Peimsvlvania Put- 
fields are docen 'ed from I'.eiij.nnin. the >on of ivolcrt and Pridget, l)orn iodi. 
who Ian. led at lli-.rlingtou, X. ].. \()ji). and is said to have iieen one of a dete- 

20 ■Ilic'n.TMK- 1. i,r.ii,.il.|y X. rinr.n I'r.iirh :ni.l i~ v:innii>l.v -;h1K ,1 -Pil Fi.-Kl-j. De 
nulTcM. iJnt'uM ,11. ,1 I iiif.'ii-: 1. it - f .'ml nuvv^ the no.r.!- .f kiii.in Catlie.lral. wacre 
thf name i, DnllM.!. I ailt.,;! U', DiJiycId ;!ml 1 )iitiuld Williruii (lul1k!<l wa^ Arc!) Di-aeoii 
of CK-\a-lan.l. Uv-. an. I ,1r.1 145J. 



HISTORY OP BUCKS COUXTV. iGj 



•^atitiii wlio came acrnss tlic river tn welcome William reiiii nn his arrival. He 
aUerwanl settled in l.mver I)ulilin. marrieil a <laiiL;lner of Arthur Watts, anil 
was the father of thirteen chiMren. He died at I'hiladelphia and was biirie<l at 
C'hri.-t church. The late Alfred T. Dnffield. Snuthani|)ti)n. was the tifth iiT 
de>cent frc.m llenjamin. and the son uf Jacoli. wlin died at Sackett's Harbor, 
1S15. while in tie militarv service of the country. Edward Dutficld,-' the 
};i\milson of lienjamin, was distins;iiished for his scientific acquirements, tl'.e 
a>siiciate and friend of Rittenhouse and one of the executors of Franklin. 
Dcnjnmin Dufifield lias a mmierous posterity 

The r.eans or Banes family, Buckingham, Southampton ami Warminster. 
were descendants of Mathew JSaines. of Wyersdale. Lancashire. Knuland, wh.o 
married MargTiret. daughter of William Hatton. of Bradley, 10 mo., 22, 1672, 
and had issue : 

Thomas, born 11 mo.. 1 1. 1675. married 4 mo., 21, 1718, Ehzabeth Ellison : 
Elinor, born 8 mo., 22. 1(177. married (at I'ails) 7 mo., 26, 1694. Thomas Duer ; 
Timothy, born 1 mo., 1678, married 1710. Haimah Low; William, born 3. 14. 

1681. married 1707, Ijiizabeth : Deborah, born i, i, 1683, married, 170S 

(at Falls), Thomas Ashton. 

In i('j8(3 ^Nlatliew Baines, with children, Elinor and William, left England 
for I'ennsvlvania. the father dving at sea. When the children landed, they were 
taken charge of by Friends of Chester monthly meeting. The father's dying 
request, as shown by a letter of Phincas Pemberton to John Walker, 1688, was 
that his children should be placed in care of James Harrison, but Harrison hav- 
ing died before their arrival, his son-in-law, I'emberton, went to Chester to 
look after them, and finding them in good hands they were allowed to remain. 
As the record of the times puts it : "The boy was put with one Joseph Stidman 
and the girl with one John Simcock, and bath 40 or 50s wages per annum. 
the boy to be w ith said Stidman, who is said to be a very honest man, until 
he comes to ye age of 20 years, which is ye customary way of putting forth 
orphans in these parts." 

When the children of Mathew Baines came of age they settled in B.ucks 
criunty, married, raised families and died here. Eliiuir was married at l-'alls 
}>Ieeliiig. 7 mo. 2(>. i(<04. to Thomas Duer, and became the ance^t<lrs of the Duers 
of ■VLakefield. The name of William's wife is not known, but he settled in 
Southampton near the line of Warminster, where he died, 1729. leaving a 
widow, Elizabeth and nine children. Joseph. Mathew. James, Thomas, Eliza- 
beth, Timothy. William. Jacob and Elinor. They married and settled in Bucks 
county, except Elinor, who died single. Three of them, James. Thomas and 
Elizabeth, allied themselves with the Sands family. Four removed to Buck- 
ingham and took up land there, Mathew and Timothy marrying Paxsons. and 
Jacob, a Hartley. Timothy lived fiT a time in Solebury and Tinicum. then re- 
moved to Fairfax, \'irginia, and some r,f his descendants are said to have sub- 
sequently removed to Cuba. The other three Beans brothers, of Buckingham. 
lived to a good old a.ge, and raised large families of children, whose descendants 
are found in several states. The only child of Timothy, that remained in I'.ucks 
county, married Daniel Doan, Jr. 

Joseph, the eldest son of William .aid ElizabeUi, married. 3 nio.. 17. 17,^.^ 
Esther I'.van and ilierl in Southam])ton, 1771, onlv a few months after his 



Jr It is said the- fir^t cnn^iiltnlinn held l.y KfTer^on and others mi the siih.iee: I'f 
in.Ui>iiidi.nee was at the Ime.-L- nt Kdward Dutiuld. iiurlhwest coriuT of I'ifth and Marker 
.Mi.et>, Phlladelplna. 



,68 HISTORY OF DUCKS COUNTY. 



mother, leaving four sons. Jtiliii, Jostpli, ^Fatlu-u- and Sclh. James, the tli'rj 
son of W'ilUani and Elizabetli, was a bhicksniith and (hed 1749. His widow, 
Elizabeth, married a Roberts, and had three children, i'hebo, Jesse and Eliza- 
beth, who survived him. Thomas, the fourth son. who married Jane Sands, had 
five children, Xathan, Isaac, Thomas, Stephen and James, the latter marrying 
Griftith Miles, the elder. On the death of his first wife he married Elizabeth 
Ilollinghead wliu survived hini. Isaac, the second son of Thomas and Jane, 
married Christine Johnson, a de^ceuda^t of the old Xew Amsterdam "Jansens." 
was the ancestor of J. Johnson Pieans, Doylestown. William Baines, the au- 
cestijr, marr_\inc;- out of meeting, his family became associated with the South- 
ampton and Pennypack churches. The Buckingham Beanses of later years were 
descendants of William Beans, sixth son of William and Elizabeth Beans, among 
which was the late Joshua Beans of Doylestown. The late Colonel Charles 
Banes, Philadelphia, was one of the most prominent members of the family, al- 
though it pnjduced several in the past.-- 

Charles Search, the first of this family to settle in Bucks coimty. came 
from England about 1750, but it is not known where he settled : we have the 
names of but two of his children, Christopher and Lott. The former settled on 
a farm he purchased on the Street road half a mile below Davisville. where he 
died. He was married twice, his first wife being a Torl)crt, and his second 
wife being a Corson. Lott Search married Sarah Davis, and owned and 
li\ed several years on the farm now the property of J. Davis Duf- 
fic!d. on the Warminster township line road, just above Davisville. 
Abrmt 1830, himself and family removed to Avon, western Xew York, where 
he and his wife died, leaving sons Lott and William, and probably 
other children. They are both deceased. A son of William lived at Batavia. Xew 
Vork.-^' Theodore C. Search, son of Jacob, and grandson of Christopher, 
Search, is a successful business man of Philadelphia and founder of the "Tex- 
tile School of Art," a very prosperous institution with eight hundred pupils. 
He has achieved distinction on other lines. 

John ]\IcXair, son of Samuel McXair. Horsham. Montgomery county, set- 
tled in .Southampton. 1794, living in the hip-roof house on the Buck road below 
Churchill, where he died. 1833. He followed milling. He was a man of sonie 
prominence, holding the offices of jtistice of the peace, county treasurer, county 
cr>mmissloner. and member of Assembly. While commissioner 1811-13, the new 
public buildings were erected at Doylestown, and it is related that while the 
Court house was being built, one of the workmen enli.sted for war with England, 
v.hich so enraged the others, tb.ey were on the point of tearing down the re- 
cruiting office, hut Commissioner McXair ap]icased them. His son Samuel 



JJ It is ilifricnlt to account for tl;c cliange of t!ie iKinie to P.can^. which is peculiar to 
Hn-ks timiuy. Of I'lc seven sons of Willl.ini ami 1-^liznlieth. only iwo, Joseph and James, 
re; iincil tlie name of Hancs. thoni;h some of the de-cendants of Thonias returned to the 
name in the ihird and fonrtli generati.ms. .As nothiiis is known of Deborah Banes' arrival 
in Amirioa. she prohahly died in Kntrlaiul prior to ilie luisliatid sailing witli the children. 

2,i Lott Search was livine;.in Southampton. T.'-Soj. where he conveyed twenty acres 
to \V;lli,an Harneiley, in Xewti'wn. His wife's n^'nio wa^ then Sar.ih. evidence tliat lie 
lia.l marrn d Sarah l)avis prior to that time. He wa^ then a "cor.per" In iSt5 he was 
in Warnnn>ter. and on .\prd .;. hini-elt ami wife. Sarah, conveyed tw eiity -four acres to 
l-.: c Warner. He wa- <tiU m Warnv.n'iter, iSjj. wlicn 1-aac l.oni;^treth. John Long- 
streili and Saiuucl Miie^ conveyed three lots of land to him. forty--even acres. The author 
rememhers wdien he In id on the Warminster farm. 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUNTY. 



169 



was liviiiij at Davisville, 1877. -^^ '^''"^ ■'S'^ o^ sevcnty-scvcn, but we do not know 
tlic ilatc uf his death. Anotlier son, John, settled at Xorristown, at one time 
Kept a llDurishing; bi~'arding- school, then read law and practiced, and subse- 
quently represented Montgomery county in Congress, prior to 1S50. His son, 
F. \'. McXair, an officer of the United States Navy, sers'ed with distinction 
under Farragut on the Mississippi, in the Civil war ; more recently he was super- 
intendent of the Naval Academy, Annapolis, but was relieved on account of ill 
health. He was subsequently promoted to Rear Admiral and died suddenly 
at Washington. 

The Davis family of Southampton, of which the late General John Davis 
was lung the liead and representative member, are descended from William 
Davis, a Welsh immigrant, who settled in Solebury, or Upper Makefield, Bucks 
county, about 1740, and married Sarah Burley, daughter of John Burley, Upper 
Makefield. 1756. He died near the close of the century, his widow surviving 
him until May 15, 1819. at the age of eighty-four. They had born to them seven 
children: Jemima. December 25. 1758. married John Pitner ; John, born Septem- 
ber 6, 1760, married Ann Simpson. June 26, 1783. died January 22, 1832 ; Sarah, 
horn October i. 17(^3. married Lott Search; \\'illia;m, born September 9, 17G6; 
Joshua, born July 6, 1761) : Aviary, born October 3, 1771, and Joseph, born ^ilarch 
I. 1774. A sister of Sarah Burley married James Torbert. Upper Makefield. 
and other members of the family connected themselves by marriages with the 
Slacks. IMcNairs, Searches, Simpsons, Houghs, Harts and other well known 
county families. 

J(ihn Davis, the eldest son of William 
Davis and Sarah B.urley, almost sixteen 
when the war tr.r Independence broke 
out. immediately took \\\> arms in defense 
of the colonies, his first service being in 
th.e Andioy expedition 1776, as a private 
in the companv of Captain William Hart. 
In January, 1777. he enlisted in Captain 
Tliomas Bu.tler's companv, Third regi- 
ment. ]''ennsylvania Line, and in turn, 
served in the Second. Third, Eighth 
and Ninth Pennsylvania regiments, the 
change of commands being causeil by 
consolidation and reorganization as the 
service required. Pie al.-.o served in Cap- 
tain Ji->sepli McClellan's company of 
Light Infantry corps, cnmmandcd bv La- 
fayette, in all about t"ve years, from 
177S tn 17^1. He was at Brandywine, 
Ciermantowii. I'aoli. Monmouth, passed 
the winter at \'alley Fijrge. was wounded 
at the Bkiek Plouse on the Hudson, as- 
si-teil to carrv Lafayrite to a place of 
s;ii(.t\ at l;r,-md\ wine wlien wounded, 
and was nne i;f the guard at the gal- 
knvs when Maim" Andrr was hanged, the 
"\'orktii\\ n. 

If further e\'idiiice were wanting to pruve 
Tiihn Davis, the elder, it is found in the f(jllnwinL 









1 

1 

.1 




- »-«aiii3^ij6S- 


^aJt:iiii- 





GEN. JOilN DAVIS. 

storming of Stony Point and at 

the Kevolutionary service of 
declaration under oath, made 



170 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUXl'V. 



Sfi>tciiil)cr 1. i8ji). tlirt'c years hclnrc his <!i.-ath, in his applicatiini for a ijciwi. iv 
under Ihr hiws of lVTiii.-~yl\ aiiia : 

"I |olin Davi-. il". "H nr. oath, testify and declare that 1 enlisted in the ar:;,\ 
of the kevohuion in 1777. in Captain I'.utlcr's Conii)any, Colonel liutler's rv - - 
mcnt, Pennsylvania IJne; afterward v.a- transferred in:o Captain .McClell:::i - 
company of I.ij;ht Infantr\-; that I served in the Line until somctiine in 17S1. 
when 1 was honoral)l_\ discharged, which discharge is lost. [ further tesiif\ 
that I was wounded in niv foot while in service at a block house near 1-". ri 
Lee, on the Hudson river, from which 1 was and continue to \>i^, nuich disable 1," 
etc. (Sii^ned.) John Davis." 

After John Davis was discharged from the Continental army, he was ap- 
pointed and commissioned an ensign in the second battalion, Bucks con!U> 
militia, and with it was called into service on two occasions. This commissi' n 
is in possession of the autlior ; also the certificate of John Chapman, who admin- 
istered the oath of allegiance to John Davis, tlie 18th day of October, 1770. 
Under the act of Assembly of Pennsylvania of Alarch 24, 17S3. ailoting land 
to those who had servetl in the Revolution, John Davis drew lot Xo. 1,167. '" 
the sixth donation district, 200 acres, for which the patent was issuetl to him, 
Septeml)er 29, 1787. It was located in Crawford county. 

Peace having been declared, John Davis, the Revolutionary veteran, 
returned to Iiis father's home and took up the laboring oar whicii he had laid 
down seven years before. As he had been brought up on a farm, he resolved 
to resume that occupation, but before doing so, took unto himself a wife, in 
the person of Ann Simjison, daughter of William Simpson, of Buckingham 
townshi[). til wlioni he was married June 26, 1783. They had issue, Sarah, born 
October 12. 1784, ^^'illia^l. born August 22, 1786. John, born August 7, 17SS. 
died -April I, 1878, Aim. born, Xovember 6, 1790, Joshua, born June 27, 1790. 
Samuel,- born. September. 1798, Joseph, born January 27, 1803, and Elizabetlt, 
born Xovember 18, 1S05. John Davis continued farming in Solebury until 
1795, wdien he removed to Montgomerv county, Maryland, settling near Rock 
Creek fleeting House, scjuic twelve miles fr'"'\n Washington. In 181') he made 
a second removal, this time l<i ( )hio. locating on the east bank of the Sciota river. 
ten miles above Columbus, tlie capital, where he spent the Ijalance of his life. 

In the meantime John Davis" seci'n.l son and third child of the foreg;'ing, 
having married .\m}- Ha'-I. daughter of Josiah Hart, and niece of William 
Watts, of Southampton. M;'.rcli 13. 1813, settled at what became DaN'isvilie, 
^vhere he speiit his life, farniing, store-kee])ing and saw-un'lling, d_\ing within 
four n:->r.ths "f ninety. He was a central tigure in that communitx', and ti«'k 
an interest in i)>ilitics au'l military matters, representing the district in Ciingress, 
filling the lattice of surve>or of the port of l'hiladcl])hia for four years, and hold- 
ing ci'iiimisvi, .ns f ri mi ensign to mijor -general in the volunteer militia. In the 
war of 1S12-13 'i*-' served a tour of dntv as lieutenant in t'nlonel Humphre\'s 
rille regiment. Jr.lin and Amy Davis had a family of seven children, one dying 
in infancy, the remaimler marrying into the families of {•"rwin, Dufficld. t.ir- 
penter. Mercnr and Sells, the luisliaiul of the daughter Sarah, Ulysses Merc\ir, 
becoming chief justice of the State Suiireme Court. 

The Moravians made a lodgment in .Southampton abmit 1740, [lurchastd 
a lot and erected a meeting house, where the intinerants Owen Rice, h hu 
Okely and others of I'.ahlehem, ]>reached in English initil 1747."* The site i>f 
this early Miira\-ian cluirch was proliably on the lot of dindeltown sclinoj 



-'4 Rev \VilIi;un C. Rcicii.-I. „f Bcthl.I 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUXTY. iji 



h'lU^v. where tlic remains uf an old fciumlation wall can be traced, and this lo- 
cation is sustained by tlie tradition of the ncii;hborhood. The lot is on the 
IJristol road and the title is traced back to Thomas I'hillips, before 1687. 

Among- the early families in the township, we omitted to mention that of 
Uracot, or Dracket. probably of French descent, Ralph Bracket was there 
before 1712. About 1750, one of this name, who lived on the Xewtown road 
l)elow the I'.uck, discovered black lead on the farm of John Xaylor,-"' He kept 
the secret to himself for some time, (piietlv extracting the lead, which he sold 
in I'hiladelphia. and when the owner found it out, generously allowed him to get 
what he wanted. Dracket died in 17S0. The mine was worked in the memory 
of the author, but has been long abandoned. The lead was said to be of a good 
quality. 

(jne of the most remarkable persons that liveil in Southampton in the past,. 
was John Perkins, who died August 8, 1838, at the age of eighty-four. He was 
blind for more than seventy years, but was enabled by his industry, to earn a 
living and lay enough up to support him in his old age. His principal occupa- 
tions were threshing- grain with a flail and dressing flax, and he was so well ac- 
(juainted with the roads, he could travel alone in all directions. He was a 
member of the Soudiampton Baptist Church for about sixty years and a regular 
attendant in all kinds of weather. 

The earliest record of taxables we have met in S'luthampton, is 1742, when 
(hey numbered forty-three, the largest paying ten shillings on a valuation of 
£60. The rate was two pence per pound, and nine shillings for single men. By 
1762 the taxables had increased to eighty-tive. In 17S4 the population was five 
hundred and sixty-eight, of whom thirty were negroes, and there were eighty- 
four dwellings. The population 1810 was 739; 1820, 907; 1830, 1,228, of wliich 
234 were taxables: 1840, 1,256: 1850, 1,407: i860. 1,356; 1870, 1.303. of wb.ich 
fifty-eight were of foreign birth, and in 1900, the population was 1,637. If tlie.--e 
figures be correct the township gained but one. hundred and sixty-five in papu- 
lation in fortv years, and the pnpulatinn was fourteen less in 1S70 than in 1850. 
The area is 8,119 acres. 

In Southampton there are three churches, the Southampton Bajiti-t church, 
the Davisville Baptist, the Low Dutch ReformeiJ, 

The first named is on the Midille Road half a mile below SjiriiigN ille, and 
was founded in 1731. It was the seventh in the I'ruvince. It had its origin in 
a small band of Keithian ]-"riends, which commenced their meetings at the house 
of John Swift, forty \-ears before. The first pastor was the Reverend Joshua 
Potts, since whr>se time eleven other jiastors have ministered at its desk.-'' and 
several generations of the inhabitants of the surrounding cfiuntry lie buried in 
its grave\ard. In the rear of the church is the grave of the Rev. John \\'atts.-' 

J5 Was owned liv tiio estate of Isaac Ilnsicland. a few years aRo. 

JO .-\ more exteiuled accuint of the S"iithamiit.in Baptist Cliiireh will he found 
in tile Chapter on "lli-toric Chiirehcs." 

27 There is some confliet concenihiR Jolm Watt";, both in life and death. The 
in-crip:iiin, on his tonih-stone, argne; that he was buried there, but, it is positively as- 
serted, that he was buried at Cold Spring near Bristol, this county. This we believe 
to liave been the ca-e. for at that period, there was neither church nor graveyard at 
Sottthamplon. It is also a>serted, in the old record, that lie u.as both for and against 
the Kelihian niovenieni. but we cami..t .^t 'p t-. \nira\el it. Wc were told in the hui.tr a^o 
that the gravestones were only erected at Sontbanipton to mark the re-peet that tlu^ 
church bad for his memory. 



A-jz HISTORY OF BUCKS COUXTY. 



■one of the preachers to the Keithiaii band, on whose tonibstune is the followiiig 
inscription : 

''Intered h<:-re I be 

O that you could now sec, 

How unto Jesus for to flee 

Not in sin still to be. 

Warning in time pray take 

And peace by Jesus make 

Then at the last when \uu awake 

Sure on his right hand yon'l partake." 

Among the pastors tliere have been some able and eminent men and in its 
time, the Southampton Baptist chtirch was one of tlie most inlUiential of that 
body. 

The Davisvillc Baptist cluircli. an offshoot of Soutliampton church, was 
organized March 31. 1S49, at the house of Jesse L. Booz, in that village. It 
began with thirty-three members, who left the mother church because of a want 
of harmony. The seceders were accompanied by the pastor, Alfred Earle, who 
became the first pastor of the new organization, with John Potts and Bernard 
Vanhorne as deacons. A meeting-house thirty-six by forty-five feet was erected 
at an expense of Si, 500, and was first occupied January r, 1850. The pastors 
from that time to the present have been the Reverends Messrs. F. Kent, Charles 
Cox, James H. Appleton, and William H. Conrad, who was installed Sep- 
tember 1st, 1S62, witli eighty-four members, and thirty-tive children in the Sun- 
day school, followed by the Reverend S. V. Marsh, Philip Berry and D. W. 
Sheppard, the present pastor. Since then the church building has been much 
enlarged and improved, and a handsome parsonage erected. There are now 
about two hundred and fifty members, with nearly as many scholars in the Sun- 
day school. The money collections, 1S73, for all purposes, were $1,436.22. The 
church is one of the most tlourishing of the denomination in the county, and 
exercises a wide influence for good in the surrounding neighborhood. 

The Low Dutch Reformed-"'^ congregation of Xorth and Southampton 
whose place of worshiji is at Chiirchville on the Bristol road, is probably the 
third, if not the second, oldest rk-u' niinatii iiial organization in the county. It was 
originally called Xeshaminy church, or. as it was written in the old Dutch rec- 
ords, "Sammany,'' and ".'-^haninii 'n\-."' It is not known just when, nor where, 
the first church was Vjuilt. but no dotibt near the creek that gave its name, and, 
at an early date, churches were erected on the .Street road, .Southampton, at 
what is now Feasterville. and at Richborough. Xorthampton. These churches 
were necessary to accommodate the Holland settlers in these two townships. 
Reverend Paulus \'an Meek,-- who was chosen pastor at Bensalciii. r\Iay },o. 



27' 2 This denomination was fom-.erly kn.nvn as the ■■Reformed Protestant Dutch 
■Church in Xonh .America." but the name was changed in recent years to "The Re- 
formed Church in Amcr.cn" It is Prc-byteriau in ,L;overnment and Calvinistic in 
doctrine. It is the oldest branch of the Pre;liyteriau cluirch in .America by nearly a 
hundred years, being planted on th.ese shores in 1610. v.!iei< the ILilhrnders settled at 
.M;inhattan. In the petition for the orcrani.?a:i..n of Xorthampton town-hip. December. 
i;2j, this cliurch is called the "Xeshaniiny meeiing-house." 

-?8 PauliK \'an VIeck. tlie probable f.um.Ier ..f the Low Dutch Church. Xorth and 
■Southampton, about 1710, was a schoolmaster and presenter at Kinderli-.-k. X. V.; tlien 



HfSTORV OF BUCKS COUXTV. 173-. 



17 10, nfticiated at •■Slianiniony" until he left his charge in 1712. Jan Banch, 
a Swedish missionary from Stockholm, visited this church, January, July, Xo- 
veniber and December, 1710, and was there again in April, 171 1, and January, 
1712. At his second visit he baptised a child of Jacob and Catalinda Wclfen- 
>i(.in, the witnesses being \'an \ leek, the pastnr, his wife Janett, Rachael Coar- 
sen, and Stoffel Van Sand, a deacon. 

Samuel Hesselius, one of the pastors at W'icacoa, officiated there in 17 19 
and 1720. and afterward preached there in coimection with Kalkonhook-''- and 
Matson's ford on the Schuylkill. He was there in 1721, but how much longer 
is not known. This congregation and Ecnsalem were probably branches of 
Wicacoa at first, and the people of "Shammony" had the privilege of burying 
on the north side of the \\'icacoa graveyard. At what time it was given the 
name of the church of North and Southampton is not known, but probably when 
a church was erected in each township. 

After Mr. Hesselius, there is an interregnum of several years until the pas- 
torate of Reverend Peter Henry Dortius,-'' wdio came about 1730."" He preached 
in Dutch and German, and frequently traveled a considerable distance to preach 
to destitute German congregations. In September. 1740. he baptised several 
children of the Egypt church, north of Allentown, in Lehigh county. He was 
called "Herr Inspector," and probably had a commission to inspect the German 
churches and report their condition to the authorities in Europe. In the latter 
year of his pastorate he was involved in troubles with his congregation on ac- 
count of his falling into dissipated liabits. The Reverend ]\Iichael Schlatter.^' 
the ruling-elder of the Reformed churches in .Xmerica. was called upon by the 
pastor to settle the trouble between him and his congregation. He made sev- 
eral visits to "'Northampton, in Schameny," as he calls the place, to allav the 
strife but was not successful. Dtjrtius left about 1748, and is supposed to have 



a chaplain of the Dutch troops under Colonel XichoUon. in the French and Indian wars. 
For eighteen year? after Van \"leck's departure, 171J, the Rev'd Frelinghuysen of X. J. 
supplied the church. Feeling at need, the congregation called a supply from Leyden, 
and Rotterdam. Xetherland, in 1730. through the consistory, and we suppose got one. 
The official document read: "Done in our Congregational meeting, May 3, 1730, by us, 
your Revd. humble servants, Elders and Deacons of the above named church in Buck? 
county." The salary was fixed at £60 ''proclamation money," to be counted from his 
first sermon, with "free dwelling and firewood and free ship's passage." 
28;<:. Darby creek. 

29. His wife was Jane, daughter of Dirck Hogeland; they had three children. 

30. An authority states that Mr. Dortius was called January ist, 1744, to receive 
^40 a year salary in "gold money," house, land, fire-wood, and saddle hotbe, to preach 
twice on Sunday in summer and once in winter. .-Vbraham Van de Grift, and Garret 
Wynkoop were then elders. The year is wrqng. probably because the entry was not 
made until that year. He was pastor there as early as March, 1739, and no doubt the 
date given in the text is correct. 

31. .\ n.itive of St. Gall, Switzerland, where he was born July 14th, 1716, and came 
to .\merica in 1746 to inspect the Reformed churches. .-\t one time he was chaplain in 
the British army, and was imprisoned because he was a patriot in the Revolution. He 
died between October 22d and Xovember 23d. 1790. Schlatter says that when he landed 
in Xew York he received especial proofs of irier.d>hip from Father DuBois, who hail 
labnred in the ministry with great success more than fiftv years. 



1174 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUXTY. 



retiiriR-J tu liollanil. During- ilic vacancy .Mr. Schlatter pruached to the cmi- 
^repation > >iicc a iiuiiuh on a \\ Oct: day. 

The Reverend Jonaihaii Dlli'■oi^■- was called t(j succeed Mr. Durlius, nu 
rcconimeudatinii of Mr. Schlatter, Xuveiuljer ii, 1752. and installed the ne.xi 
day. lie was to receive £50 a year, a house and seventeen acres in Uyberry, a 
saddle horse, and eitjlit ."^inidays in each year to himself. In the call the ciders 
and deacns style him "'yuur honor. " Me was ti' serve the church in each town- 
ship on Snnda_\' when the days were lonu;. It i> stated in the life of the Rever- 
end Hcnrv M. .Muhlenberg, that he visiteil the remnant of Dutch Lutherans, at 
Neshaminy, twenty miles from Philadelphia, in 1754. They had been served 
some time by 3.1r. \'an Doran, who preached to them in a barn. Mr. Z^luhk-n- 
bcrg visited them every si.K weeks in the summer, and preached three sermons 
each Sunday, in Dutch, German and Ent^lish. He says the Dutch Reformed 
had a church. The Lutherans were scattered by death, removals, etc. In the 
distributicin of charities from the classes of Amsterdam, April, 1755. "Mr. Du- 
ijois, of Northampton," received £21. 5s., and Mr. Dortius £5. 8s. In 1739 
£20 were given to Mr. DuJiois. In 1760 the congregation maintained a school 
of sixty boys. ]\Ir. DuiJois otficiated for this congregation until his death. De- 
cember 16, 1772, a period of nearly twenty-two years. 

There is no record of a successor to Mr. Duilois, until 1777. when he was 
succeeded by Reverend William Schenck, who was driven out of Xew Jersey 
by the British. He was born in Monmouth county. October 13, 1740, graduated 
at Princeton, 1767, married 176S. and studied theology with Mr. Tennent. He 
was chaplain in the arinv fur a time. He came to Southampton Alarch 3, 1777. 
and moved to the parsonage, then the farm recently owned by Stephen Rhuad> 
on the road to Churchville, a quarter of a mile from Buck tavern, the 24th of 
Ajiril. It is not known how long he staid, but he was at Pittsgrove in 17S3. and 
probaljly left Southanijitoh that year or the year before. Mr. Schenck died at 
I'ranklin, Ohio, September ist i827,-''= wliere he had settled in 1817. After- 
ward, in succession, were Reverends Zvlathias Leydt. who died November 24. 
1783, aged twenty-nine years, Peter .Strykcr, in 178S, who resigned in 1790, 
Jacob Larzelere, who came October 13. 1798, and resigned in 182S, on account 
of declining years, A. O. Halsey, 1829 to 1867, an able man and minister, who 



jj. J<..n^:l-,aii DiiBoii was the son of Barnet DiiBois, and both he and his cousin 
John, son of l.nni,. wtre cduc.-itcil tor tht inin^try by voluiuary sulis^-ription. the father 
of Jonathan carrying round tlie ^uliscripiion paper, which was drawn liy David Evans. 
pastor of tile ri!l>t;nive chiircli. Salem conniy. Xew Jersey. John died in Xew Londnn. 
in 1745. while piir>u:ng hi> >'.ndK> with Doctor .Miison. The wife of Jonathan DuHois 
is >aid til have lieen .\niy, >i-ur nf Reverend Xehemiali Greennian. 

3,?. The Sehencks trace their ancotry liack to Colve DeW'nie, the founder of the 
hou^e. a llnllandir who was killed in luittle with the Danes, in Xj.S. Christian, the 
tir^i I if tile lUiine. Imtler to the Cunnt of (nilic. cp.lled by him Sehenek in 1225. was a 
ynunjjer ^mi uf one of the liiri!> of Tontenlnira:. The name means eiii)-iiearer, butier, 
or wine ^er^er. We have mcii a cupy of the hangman's bill of expenses attendnig the 
execution nf Sir Martin Schenck. in Hi.illand. abuut 15S9. He had some sort of "on- 
!)le:i>.antne^-" with tl-e powers lh::t be. and to prevent further trouble he was turned 
■<iv<-r to the public executioner. The cii>t nf pnttiiiii him and three of his faithful 
soldiers out nf the way was iwenl>-li\e guiMei^ .and I'ifteen stiver-. It is a quaint old 
dneumeiu. Ibe I\e\erend W:!ii;iui ile-eer.d-- frnui Peter Sclieiiek. win eai.ie to Inn:.; 
Kl.ind in lO^o. While Mr. Schenck was at Sniuhainptnn his ^on Jnhn Xoble was bnrn, 
January _'.S. 177S. 



HISTORV OP BUCKS COUNTY. 175 



K-i't his mark nii the ci'nininiiity, Wilhain II. Dfllarl. i8()S to 1870, and H. M. 
\ (irlicvs, < )i:tiil)L'r. 1S71. fnliowed by I'.. C LipiK-ncutt, Samuel Strciig and H. 
r. Craii;-. 

The church \va> cl-.artered by the legislature September 20, 1782, the con- 
.-iNtory being then composed of .Mr. Leydi. president, GilHam Cornel! and Henry 
Wvnkoop, elders, and William I'-ennet, .\rthur Letlerts and Daniel liogeland, 
deacons. The first parsonage was in iiyberry, Philadelphia county, but in 1775 
tile assemblv authorized the trustees, Henry Krewson, Gilliam Cornell, John 
Krewson and William JJennet, to sell it and buy a new one. They bought one 
hundred and twenty acres" of the estate of Thomas Harding, deceased, South- 
ampton, for £805. i6s. 

During the pastorate of >dr. Larzelere. the church buildings at the ex- 
treme ends of the parish, Kichborough and Feasterville, being out of repair, a 
new church was built at a central point. A lot of three acres was bought of 
John .Mc.Xair, Churchville.--"' and the corner-stone laid June 16, 1814. The 
original building has been much enlarged and improved within recent years. 
The old church at Feasterville stood in the graveyard about on a line with the 
front wall, was small, old-fashioned, of stone, and was torn down soon after 
the new edifice was erected. That at Richborough stood just outside the grave- 
yard, about on the site of the present school-house. In tlie front wall of the 
old graveyartl in Southampton we find, among others, the following inscrip- 
tions : ■"G. K. I738."--'' "D. K..-' 1738." The oldest gravestone that gives an ac- 
count of itself bears the inscription. "A. S. 1760," Abraham Staates. Chie 
sti^mc records that Garret Krewson died in 1767, aged eighty-two years. There 
is a large number of stones that tell no story of those who sleep beneath. Three- 
quarters of a century ago the minister preached in Dutch and English. Sunday 
about. The cngregati'in generally spoke Dutch, and the late venerable John 
Lefi:'erts reuiembcrs when he learned to speak English of the black cook in the 
kitchen. The people went to church in ox teams, and the girls without 
stockings in \\arni weather. ( >n the Street road, a short distance above the site 
of the old church, is a burial-gnnind, free to all, and known as Har<ling's gra\e- 
yard. The flourishing Reforiued Dutch church at Richborough is the child of 
the old church of North and SouthamiHon. 

Probably the oldest school house in the townslii[), and ])ossibly in the ci'un- 
ty, when it rendered its final account, was at the Southani|non Ilaj^tist church. 
a mile east of Davisville ; and was thought to have been built as early as 1730, 
A school house was there in 17*15, ^'iJ doubtless a log one, when Thomas I'ol- 
well leased the let to Gilliam Cornell. Joseph I'.eans and Richard Leedom. "in 
trust for the people of the neighborhood, for the use of a sciiool, and no otlier 
use whatever, so long as said house shall remain tcnantable with small repairs." 
The house then on tlie lot was an old one or one was to be built on it. In 
1771. Thomas Folwell and I'Tizabeth, doubtless h.is wU'e, and son William, con- 
veyed an acre to the Pajiti^t church, including the scli>>ol lot of twelve S(iuare 
perches, "on which the new sclinol house stands." This is evidence a previous 
school house had been taken down. As the first church was erected, 1732, no 
<lonbt a school house si k 'n followed. The>e lots were part of one hunclred and 
sixty acres Thomas I'ohvell granted to h.i> son William, 1702. The school was 



,U- Farin of StcplKii RIio.tcU nii CluircluiUc ro:\(\. iioar tlic Buck tavern. 

.55. Then callfii Sninkctown. 

j6. Garret Krewson, 

J/. Derrick Krew^cii. 



176 niSTORV Of BUCKS COUXTY 



classical anJ iiiathcniaiical. W'c know the name of luil two of the earlv teachers. 
Rev. Isaac Eaton and jCsse }vioore, a hrolher of IJr. Moore, who was snljse- 
qucntly a tutor in tlie L'niversiiy of iVnns\lvania, then read law and became 
a jud^e in one of our western counties, lie taught Latin at Southampton. 
At a later day Robert Lewis taught there, eightv years ag"0, and was paid feiiir 
dollars i)er quarter for each pupil. Among Moore's pupils were Doctors Wil- 
son, Ramsey, Hough, Rev. Uliver Hart, a distinguished IJapiist minister, and 
Joseph Ciales, one of the proprieif>rs of the National IntclUi^cnccr, W'ash- 
ington."''- 

Southampton lies in the southwest jjart of the county, adjoining Pliila- 
delphia and ^kintgomery, is six miles long, two wide, and in the shape of a 
parallelogram, except a ragged corner next to ^Nliddlctown and Xorthampton. 
The ujiper part is quite level with occasional gentle swells, but more broken 
and rolling in the middle and lower end. Edge Hill crosses the township, about 
its middle. It is well watered by the Peniiypack, Loquessing, Neshaminy ancl 
numerous smaller streanis: the soil is fertile and well cidtivated, with little waste 
land. The township is well provided with roads. The Street road runs through 
the middle its entire length ; the Z\Iontgomery county line bounds it on the 
southwest, the Bristol road on the northeast, while a number of cross roads cut 
them at nearly right-angles. In 1700 the inhabitants stated to the court tliey 
had no public roads to market, mill or church. In IMarch, same year, they peti- 
tioned for a road "from the Queen's road in South.ampton down to Joseph Grow- 
den's mill,""'* and in September ask the Court to open a road "towards the new 
milP" on the Penn}-pack, which is likely to be our chief market.'' As late as 
1722. the inhabitants complained they had no regularly established roads, and 
as earlv as 1699 a road was laid out fnim the King's highway to Peter \\ cbster's 
new dwelling.'"' The Buck road to the Philadelphia county line was relaiil fifty 
feet wide, 1790, and the old road vacated,- 1797; the road from the Buck^' 
to Churchville was laid out, 1795, and that from Uavisville to Southampton 
Baptist church, 1814. The oldest inhabitants of Southampton, we have any 
account of. was a colored woman, named Heston, who died November 15. i8ji. 
in her one hundred and fifth year, which carried her birth back to 17 16- 17. 
Sarah Bolton, daughter of Isaac, of Southampton, 150 years ago, became a 
minister among Friends and preached in Bsberry, 1752. 

This township was the birthplace of Dr. John \Vilson, who became one of 
the most distinguished physicians of the county. He was born in the vicinity of 
Feasterville, sent to the classical school at Southampton Baptist church, grad- 
uated at the Philadelphia }ilcdical Scl'.ool, and spent the greater part of his 
professional life in Buckingham, where he died. He was accomplished and ele- 
gant in manner. The township is crossed by three railroads, built in the past 
twenty-live years. The first was that from I'liiladelphia to Xewtown, inlendin.g 

37' 2 The niithor leanu-d his .\. P.. C's in this old school house, stone pointed 16-16 
feet, and has a distinct recollection of attending a school commencement there when a 
child. That and the stnne ilied and quaint sexton's home wxre torn down nearly seventy- 
years ago. 

3S Old Buck Road. 

r,0 Prr.l.aHy Guin's null. hclo«- Hathnr... 

.40 The location of Webster's dwelling is not known. 

41 The "Buck" was so named from the head of the annual that graces its sign' 
hoard. 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUXTV. ' 177 



10 be continued to Xcw York, but ne\-er finished. It crossed the Street road 
at Southampton, which it has been the means of greatly improving and was 
!i;;i^hcd in the early spring of 1S78. The Bound Brook mad from Philadelphia 
to New York, shortl}- followed, forming connection at Bound Brook, and thence 
running over the Xcw Jersey Central tracks to jersey City. It leaves the 
North Penn, track at Jcnkintown, crossing the Street road at the township line. 
Tl-.c third is the "Pennsylvania Cut-Oft",'' from the Schuylkill below Xorristown 
to the Delaware at ^lorrisville, and is used by heavy through freight. It, too, 
crosses the Street road half a mile above Feasterville. The tow nship has like- 
wise two turnpikes crossing it from northeast to southwest, one on the bed of 
tiie }vliddle or Oxford road, giving a continuous pike from Philadelphia to Kew 
llupe, via Centcrville; the other from Richborough via the Buck, Somerton,. 
etc., to Philadelphia. These roads were early arteries of trade and travel, the 
laUer one the first pike in the county. A branch turnpike a mile long runs from 
the Fox Chase, Richborough pike to Davisvillc. There are five post cilices, 
in the township, Davisville, established 1827, Feasterville, 183 1, Churchville,. 
1S72, Southampton and Cornell of more recent date. 

Southampton has six villages, in former times all ending in ville, the 
American weakness. Davisville, die oldest in name, at the Warminster line : 
Feasterville, four miles below, also on the Street road; Brownsville, two miles 
below that ; Church.ville on the Bristol road : Cornell on the same road, a mile 
above it, and Southampton, the youngest and largest, named after the township. 
Davisville was named after the late General John Davis, and we may say was 
founded by him, 1S27, when he erected a store house and dwelling at the cross 
roads, and the post office was moved down from Jose[ih Warner's over the line 
in \\"arniinster, the head waters of one branch of the Pennypack, taking its 
rise in the meadows a few hundred yards above. It was the seat of a sawmill 
for nearly a century, and in former years the center of very considerable busi- 
ness. A county bridge built 1S43, spans the old sawmill dam, now almost filled 
with mud. Flere five public roads meet, and the village contains twenty dwell- 
ings, with a store and some minor industries.-*- A school house was erected 
tifty-five years ago, and dedicated to public use with the following inscription, 
cut on a marble slab in the gable, by the late Daniel Longstreth, 11 mo., 1843: 
"Davisville .'Seminary, built by voluntary contribution : lot the gift of Richard 
Benson. The buiUhng committee were, David Marple, James M. Boileau, 
Thomas Montanye, Samuel Xaylor, and Jesse Edwards." A day school was 
kept in it until the township accepted the school law, when it was turned over 
to the public school board and occupied until recently. The first school in Davis- 
ville was a select school for girls, opened by Miss Isabella ^IcCarren, 1834, 
and kept there several years. She subsequently married and spent manv years in 
Philadelphia, but now lives at Southampton, a mile below, in her ninety-second 
year. Her mind is good and she takes an interest in current events. 

The village of Southampton, a mile below Davisville at the junction of 
the Street and Middle road, contains one hundred dwellings with the usual 
complement of stores, mechanics, etc. In 1S41 there were but three houses here 

VJ Seventy-five years ago tliere were but fmir dwellings in the inmiediate vicinity 
"i Davisville: the Watt=; hoin<-le;ul. Jc-ih Hart's dwelling and sawmill property, John 
Folwell's honse. recently Roherts', and the John While dwelling on the Duffield farm. 
I'or a number of years. c-peeiaMy during the active life of the late General John Davis. 
the village was a political and military center. The volnnteer system was in its prime, 
p.'iuu-s warm and sp'cy. and the Kadcrs of bi<th made frequent visits hither tor orders. 
\'2 



178 " "' HISTORY OF BUCKS COUNTY. 



■ — Elijah Danes, Edward Eoileau, and tlie store with dwcUing attached. The 
store house was built by Thomas Banes for his son William, 1793, and prob- 
ably occupied by him until his death, 1803, being accidentally killed in Phila- 
delphia. He was born, 1770, and married Xanc\- Miles. Thomas Canes died, 
i8jS. The storehouse was left to his daughter, Lydia Lukens, who sold it to 
Dr. Joshua Jones, 1S27, and since that time, it has had a number of owners and 
occupants. A smithy and wheelwright shop was located here early in the 
century. In the early day this place was called the "Lower Corner," in con- 
tradistinction to the "L'pper Corner," now Johnsville, a mile above Davisville, 
and later took the name of the storekeeper for the time being, as "Hicks' Corner," 
"Fetter's Corner," etc. Among the occupants of the store in the past sixty years 
were Watts Jones, 1841 ; James Hicks, 1845; Casper Fetter, 1853; George W. 
Boileau, 1868; Alfreil Boileau, 1S74; John Woodington, William Sharp, Frank 
Buckius, Jacob Euckman, George Wolf and others. Woodington removed to 
Kansas some years ago. In the field at the northeast corner of the two roads, 
Capt. William Purdy's rille company assembled, Sept., 1S14, previous to set- 
ting off for Camp Dupont, Delaware, the Rev. Tiiomas B. iMontanye preaching 
an appropriate sermon. A Baptist camp meeting held in a wood near here, 
1835, on the Baptist parsonage farm, gave birth to the Hatboro Baptist church. 
Feasterville, a hamlet of a few houses on the turnpike leading from Rich- 
borough to Philadelphia, is in the midst of a highly cultivated country. Plere is 
the only tavern in the township, the historic "Buck," and on the turnpike, a mile 
from Churchvillc, the only flour mill. In the old liip-roofed house near bv the 
iafe James Carter, Byberry, was born, 1778. Spring\-ille, a hamlet of about the 
same number of dwellings and two or three farm houses, with a post othce 
called "Cornell," a smithy and a store at the intersection of the Bristol and 
Jiliddle road, make up the complement of Southampton's villages. Tradition 
tells us that in the "long ago," whereof the memory of man "runneth not to 
the contrary," Springville had a tavern called "The Blue Bell," on the site of 
the store on the Bristol road, but of its history we know nothing. 



CHAPTER XIX-- 



WARMINSTER. 



1703. 



Warminster the twin of Southampton. — One of the earhest settled. — John Rush, — John 
Hart. — Bartholomew Longstreth. — Henry Comly. — Tlie Nobles. — Their family mansion 
— Noble burying ground. — The Cravens. — The Yerkes lamily.^ — Rev. Thomas B. !Mon- 
tayne. — John Fitch. — Comes to Bucks county. — Mends clocks. — Goes west and re- 
turns. — Builds model of steamboat and tries it on Southampton creek. — Cobe Scout. — 
A notable character. — The Vansant graveyard.— Dr. William Bachelor. — The Log 
College. — Johnsville. — Hart's school-house. — Harts ville. — Schools. — Public inn. — Horse 
racing. — No gristmills. — Roads. — African and Indian school. — Earliest enumeration of 
inhabitants. — Present population. — First postoffice.— Hatboro. — John Dawson. — David 
Reese. — Battle of Crooked Billet. 

Warminster,^ the twin township of Southampton, Hes immediately north- 
west and adjoining. The two elected but one constable and overseer for several 
years, and were not entirely separated in their municipal administration until 
about 171 2. On the other three sides it is bounded by Northampton, Warwick 
and Warringrtoit townships, and Montgomery county, from which it is separ- 
ated by public roads. Its boundaries are the same as when laid out and its area 
is 6,099 acres. 

Warminster was one of the earliest townships settled, and judging from 
Holme's map, the greater part of the land was taken tip in 16S4, generally in 
large tracks.- Some of these land-owners were not residents of the township 
at this time nor afterward. Of these was John Rush, connected with the early 
Harts by marriage, who settled in Bybcrry, where he lived and died. He was 
the ancestor of all bearing this name in Pennsylvania. He commanded a troop 
of horse in CroniweH's army, and, after the war. married Susannah Lucas, of 
Oxfordshire, 1648. In 1660 he embraced the principles of the Friends, and, 

1 The name is probably'a compound of war and minster, both of Saxon origin, the 
tirst meaning a fortress, tiio hitter tho church of a monastery. Warminster is a market 
town and pnrisli in r..i<;lr!nd, County Wih?, ,it the wcsUrn extremity of Salisbury Plain, 
on the Wiiiey. .'i mi!c^ W. X. W. of Salisbury. Population, 1S51, 4,:.'J0. 

2 LamllioUlers in 1(^-^4: Willi.im niid Mary Binglcy, Jolni Rush, Sr., Jnlm Hart, 
Nallianu-l Allen, ticursf K.Mulnll. J.ii.ies Potter, Julin Jones. Henry Conily, Sarah Wool- 
mar., llfiirv EmuII^i anil .Vbel Noble. 



iSo IIISrORY OF BUCKS COUXTV. 



i68j, imiiiigralc.l to IV-nnsylvania with bis wiie and children. Himself an.d 
family became Keithians, i6yi, and, in 1697, they joined the Baptists. John 
Rusli died in i6g<). He o\sned five liraidred acres in Byberry, and the same 
quantity in \\'arn)in>ter. 

Joiin Hart and h.lin Rush were firobahly neighbi:irs in England, both com- 
ing from Oxfordshire, wh.erc Mr. Hart was horn at the town of Witney, Xov<.m- 
ber 16, 1651. Witney is sitnated on the Windrush river, five miles above its 
junction with the Isis, twenty-nine miles from Oxford. There was a town tb.cre 
at the time of the ancient Britains, and the population is now 3.000. The church 
dates back to the twelfth century, and is one of the liandsomest of its class in 
England. Flt se\eral centuries it was the seat of extensive blanket manufac- 
tories. V.v. Hart came to Pennsylvania in the latter part of the summer, or 
early fall of 16S2, preceding William Penn a'couple of months. The nth of 
October, iGSi, he purchased one thousand acres of the Proprietary for the con- 
sideration of £20"', and, on his arrival, he located five hundred acres in Byl'crry 
and the same quantity in Warminster."* He settled on the banks of the Poquess- 
ing, in Byberry, Philadelphia county, and, 1683, married Susannah, the daughter 
of his friend. John Rush." ^Iv. Hart was a distinguished minister among 
Friends, but went off with George Keith, and subsequently became a Baptist. 
He preached to a small congregation at John Swift's, in Southampton, where he 
laid the foundation of the Southampton Baptist church. About 1695, Mr. Hart 
removed from Byberry to his tract in Warminster between the Bristol and 
Street roads, adjoining Johnsville, where he lived the rest of his life, dying 
there, 1714. Proud sa}s he was a man "of rank, character and reputation, and 
a great preacher." His eldest son, John Hart, married Eleanor Crispin, By- 
berry, 170S. ( )n the matern.a! side she was the granddaughter of Thonias 
Hcilme. surve}-or-gcneral of the Province, \\hilc her paternal grandfather was 
William Crispin, a captain under Cromwell, and an officer in the fleet of 
Admiral Penn. his brother-in-law, and would have been the first chief justice 
had he lived to arrive. John Hart's wife was a descendant, on the maternal 
side, of a sister of William Penn's mother, who was ?ilargaret Jasper, daughter 
of a Rotterdam merchant. John and Eleanor Hart had a family of ten 
children, whose descend.'.nts number thousands, and are found in all the 
states south and west of Pcnns_\lvania. Two of their sons reached positions of 
distinction; Oliver, who studied theology with William Tennent at FreehoM, 
New Jersey, and became a distinguished Baptist minister in Soutli Carolina. 
and Joseph, of Warminster, this county, who was a colonel in the army of tlie 
Revolution, and filled many prominent places in civil life. The South Carolina 

3 The author has tlic deed of William Pciin to Jolin Hart, executed i6.Sr, at Wonu- 
inghurst. conveying 1,000 acres to him. 

4 Return of survey is dated May 2, 1709. 

5 There has been some confusion as to John Hart's wife, wliether she was the daugh- 
ter of William or John Rush. Tliat he married Susannah Rush there is no question. A? 
John Rush was not married until 164S, he could hardly have a son old enough to have a 
daughter of niarriagealile age -in 16S5. The Rushes, father, son William and wife Aurelia. 
widi three rliildren, came over, jtS2. doubtless at the same time as John Hart and may 
have come in the same ship, a-i lliey lived nciglibors in Oxfordshire, and it is possible t;e 
may have courfed Iiis future wife on the voyage. Joseph C. Martindale, in his "History cf 
Byberry and Moreland," speaks of John. Rush as "an elderly Friend," As there is no 
evidence he l>roiight a wife with him, slie may have been dead. We get our information 
frnm the Mart family paper? and believe it to be correct. 




IH ';T^• 






■> fjn.*< 




HART HOMESTEAD. WARMINSTER; BUILT ITM. 



Committee of Safety appointed Oliver Hart, in conjunction with Hon. William 
Dravton, to visit the western part of that state to reconcile the inhaljitants to 
the new order of things in the Revohition. A descendant of John Hart, Samuel 
Preston Moore, Richmond, Virginia, was surveyor-general of the Confederate 
army during the civil. war, and his brother, Stephen West JNIoore, a graduate 
of West Point, was inspector-general of Louisiana, and both were officers of 
the United States army prior to the war. The Hart homestead in Warminster 
remained in the family one hundred and seventy years, descending from father 
to son. John Plart, the elder, was one of the first men in the slate to write and 
publish a book. While living in Byl-)erry, 1C92, he and Thomas Budd published 
an "Essay on the Subject of Oaths." We have never seen a copy and do not 
know that one is in existence. The Hart tract, in recent years, in Warminster, 
was owned by the families of Wynkoop, Twining, Kirk, Hobensack and others. 
The Bingley tract lay in the southeast corner of the township, adjoining John 
Hart's five hundred acres, and probably extended southwest of the Street road. 
The village of Ivyland is built on the Hart tract. The Hart mansion, the 
second on the site, built by John Hart the second. 1750, is still standing and in 
good condition. On the west end is a date stone of the following shape and 
inscrijition. The initials stand for Jolin and Eleanor Plart, and he imdoubtedly 



1750 



actual life, and did not die 
inside and the half-tone illus- 
ai)pearance. At the time it 
best house in the neighbor- 
the home of Colonel John 
Hart of Revolutionary mem- 
the homestead tract, but is 
the family. He was born 
April 0. iri^J. died June 18. 1S40. He was a prominent man, v.as a member of As- 
sembly, and served an enlistment in the war of 1S12-15. Two of his sons served 
in the civil war; Janio 11.. a maj.ir in the First Xew Jersey Cavalry, was killed, 
and Thompson U., licnunant-C'lunel of the One Hundred and Fourth Penn- 
sylvania. 

The following are the first three generatiims of the Hart family of War- 
tninster, including the first two after their arrival in Pennsylvania : Christopher 



built it, as he was there in 
until 1763. It was wainscoted 
tration shows the |)resent 
was built it was jirobalsly the 
hood. The mansion was 
Hart, son of Colonel Joseph 
ory, and was built, 1817, on 
not owned bv anv member of 



i82 HISTORY OF BUCKS COUXTV. 

and Mary Hart, of Witney, Oxfordshire, England, had issue, John, born X._- 
vcmber i6, 1651, died September,. 1714; Robert, born August i, 1655, -'^'^^j, 
born April i, 1658, Joseph, born October 24, 1601. 

lohn Hart, "i.Ide>t son of Christopher and .Mary Hart, married Susanna':, 
Rush, and had issue : 

John, born July 16, 1684, died March 23, 1763; Thomas; Joseph, did 
1714; Josiah; Zvlary, died 1721. 

John Hart, eldest son of John and Susannah, and Eleanor, his wife, had 
issue : 

John, born September 10, 1709, died June 11, 1/43; Susannah, born April 
20, 1711, died March 30, 1733; William, born Z^Iarch 7, 1713, died October o. 
1714; Joseph, bom September i, 1715, died February 25, 17S8; Silas, bora 
May 5, 1718, died October 29, 1795 ; Lucretia, born July 22, 1720, died Decem- 
ber 15, 1760; Oliver, born July 5, 1723, died December 31, 1795; Edith, born 
May 4, 1727, died iMarch 27, 1805 ; Seth, born June 11, 1731, died October 31, 
1740; Olive, born July 3, 1734, died August 13, 1734- 

Joseph Todd, one of tlie early settlers of Warminster, took up a tract C'f 
two hundred and twenty-four acres, and was conveyed to him by patent, 1701. 
It lay on the Street road where the York road intersects it. The considerati'Mi 
was £30 IDS. We know nothing of Joseph Todd, whence he came or whither he 
went, but his descendants are probably in the county. Since then the prop- 
erty has changed hands several times, and been considerably reduced in acreage. 
It was in the Todd family for sixty-eight years, they building a stone house on 
it 1719, two of the rooms remaining in good condition, with the date stone. 
The subsequent owners were Samuel Lloyd, 1769, consideration £955 ; the Wal- 
tons, the Reverend John r^Iagoffin, Thomas Dixey, $6,500, and after passing 
through several additional hands to J. Johnson Beans, who sold it, 1897, to 
Edward W. Adams, of New York. The latter sold the property, 1900. to 
Richard H. Chapman, of Chestnut Hill. ]Mr. Chapman has entirely remodeled 
the old homestead, skilled architects converting it into an elegant, modern man- 
sion. The original building was erected, 1719, but by whom is not known. 
While owned by Mr. ^Magotiin, seventy-five years ago, he made some alterations. 
while the present owner has preserved some of the old walls and timbers. There 
are few superior dwellings in the county. 

Bartholomew Longstreth.'"* a Friend and a son of Christopher Longstreth, 
was born at Longstreth Dale, Yorkshire, England, August 24, 1679, and im- 
migrated to Pennsylvania, 1698. He purchased three hundred acres on Edge 
Hill, which he began to improve, but soon sold it with tlie intention of return- 
ing to England. Changing his mind he bought five hundred acres of Thomas 
Fairman, in Warminster, for £175, and came into the township, 1710. This 
tract lay in the square bounded by the Bristol, Street, Southern line, the town- 
ship and Johnsville roads. He added to his acres, and at his death, owned a 
little over one thousand. He immediately built a log home, and subsequently a 
stone one, the second in the neighborhood, the joist being sawed out on the 
pnemiscs with a whip saw. In 1727 he married Ann Dawson, Hatboro. then 
the Crooked Billet, his age forty-nine, she twenty-three, and after spending a 
useful, active life, died suddenly August 8, 1749, and was buried at Horsham. 

5'.; It i? snid that r'.,irtl'.ulomc\v I.one-tretli ..pencd the ro.id from the C-oimiy Lino 
across to the Street ro.nd, thence by liis own l.-ind to the Bristol road. Subsequently, and 
while supervisor of Warminster, he opened the York road from the County Line to 
Hartville and dov.'n to Hatboro. 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUNTY. 183 



His widow married Robert Thomjikiiis. \\'arrin,c:ton. She died 17S5. 
r.arlliokiniew Lcm.q^stretli had ele\en- children, aiul at his death, left 
tlie hnnle^tcad farm to Daniel, the eldest son living, burn 1732. 
He occu|iicd tlie father's place in society and was twice married, 
the first time to Grace Michener, the second to ^vlartha Bye, Buckinf:^ham. 2d 
month, 2Sth, 1779. He had nine children by his first wife, and died. 1803. 
Rachel, daughter of Daniel Longstrelli, married Thomas Ross, son of John 
Ross and Mary Duer. Solebury, and grandson of Thomas Ross, the Quaker 
])rcacher. Thomas Ross was a distinguished lawyer and was usuallv called 
"Lawyer Tom." He settled in West Chester, but practiced extensively through- 
out the eastern circuit. By his first wife. Rachel Longstrcth. he had a daughter, 
Rachel, born 3d month, 23d, 1782, died 7th month, 6th, 1S75, who married 






\ "If ^i* ■» '- i' 




LO.NGSTRETH HOMESTEAD. 

Richard Maris. The late George G. Maris, Buckingham, was a son of this mar- 
riage. Lawyer Thomas Ross' second wife was Alary Thomas.- They had sev- 
eral children. 

His son Joseph, born 1765, inherited the homestead, but, learning the hat- 
making business, followed it several years at the Crooked Billet. He married 
Sarah Thomas, 1797, had six children, and died in the house wherein he was 
born, 1S40. Daniel, the eldest son of Joseph Longstrcth, born iSoo, and died 
1846. was a man of culture and intelligence and a useful citizen. He was twice 
married, first to Elizabeth Lancaster, I'hiladolphia, 1827, and then to Hannah 
Townsend, 1S32, and was the father of nine children. In 1840 he opened a 
boarding school in his own dwelling, which he conducted several vears success- 
fully. A majority of his pupils were from adjoining counties, among them 
David :VI. Zook, I^Itintgomcry, brother of General Samuel Ivosciusco Zook, who 
fell at the battle of Gettysburg. Daniel Longstreth's sister Anna, who subse- 
quently married Charles Rabb, kept a school for boys and girls in the homestead 
about the close of the 2o's, and the author was one of her pupils. Daniel Long- 
strcth, who de%-oted much of hi- time to surveying and convevancing, had a good 



i84 HISTORY OF BUCKS COUXTY. 



knowledge of the sciences, wrote considerably for the county press, and died in 
tlie home of his ancestors March 30, 1S46.'''- Daniel Longstreth was quite a 
mechanic and methodical in his habits. He recorded, in a book kept for the 
purpose, the deaths of the neighborhood from 181S to his own, 1,035 in all. 
Among them were Reverend Thomas V,. 2vlontanye, September 27, 1829. aged 
sixty; Thomas Purdy, F.si.juire, sh.eriiY, Xovemiber 10, 1844, aged forty-four; 
Dr. Isaac Chapman, l'"ebruary 17, 1837, aged seventy-seven ; Dr. John- Wilson, 
Buckingham, October 16, 1835, aged sixty-three; Reverend Jacob Larzelerc. 
July_ 19, 1834, aged seventy ; Enos IMorris, Esquire, Newtown, February 18, 
1831 ; Dr. John H. Hill, Hatboro, January 3, 1831. The Longstreths were ad- 
vanced farmers. Joseph using the first hay rake in the county, 1812-13. Daniel, 
the elder, used lime on his land about 1775, and Daniel's uncle, John, and great 
uncle, Joseph, were among the first to sow clover seed and plaster on it. Of 
his five children four, John, Sanuiel, Edward L. and Anna, live in Philadelphia." 
The old homestead, owned by five generations of Longstreths, passed out of the 
family many years ago. It was built at three periods : the middle part bv 
Bartholomew, 1713, the east end by his son Daniel, 1750, and the west end by 
the same, 1766, by Philadelphia workmen, and wdien finished was considered 
the finest home in that section of country. The farm was sold to Isaac Rush 
Kirk, 1850, and was owned for several years by his widow. In 1873 she had 
the middle and eastern parts taken down, and erected a new dwelling on their 
site. The Longstreth family retain the metal-moulds in wdiich Bartholomew 
run his pewter spoons like other farmers of the day, and also the iron old John 
Dawson used to smooth beaver hats. Bartholomew Longstreth was a man of 
influence in his generation. The Longstreths owned land in other townships. 
The land located by John Rush was probably not confirmed to him, or he 
may have sold it to Bingley, to whom it was patented, for the tract of the latter 
covered what is in Rush's name on Holme's map. Henry Comly, wdio came 
with wife and son from Bristol, England, 16S2, located five hundred acres 
in the northwest corner of the township, between the countv line and Street 
road, and adjoining Warrington. The grant was made to him by William Penn 
before leaving England. Comly died, 16S4, and his wife, who re-married, 16S5, 
died 1689. His son Henry married Agnes Heaton, 1695, "^""^ soon after jnir- 
chased five hundred acres in ^ilorcland, near Smithfield, wdiere he died, 1727. 
leaving eleven children. He is thought to have been the ancestor of all who bear 
the name of Comly in this state. Sarah Woolman's tract of two hundred and 
fifty acres joined that of Henry Comly, but we do not know when she came into 

fj'j In a commonplace book, among the Lonijstreths' manuscripts, we find the fol- 
lowing stanza, one of several verses written after Daniel Long-treth's death, by Elizabeth 
Hutchinson, liis wife's sister: 

And dearest .Daniel, art thou gone 
To travel o'er the spangled lawn, 

With pleasure and delight ; 
Where one perpetual blaze of day 
Shines forth with luidiminislied ray 

Kor sees the fall of night. 

6 Departed this life in I'liiladclpliia. on t!ie evening of the rth of 3d month, iS.lj, 
Margaret Longstreth, at the advanced age of 97 years, .3 months and 14 days, having 
outlived the innst of her contemporaries. She was the widow of Daniel Longstreth. War- 
minster, Ducks countv. 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUNTY. 



tiie townsliip, but prior to 16S4. Xatlianicl Allen was also a large land-owner 
in Bristol township, but probably never lived in Warminster. 

The Nobles were ani.nig the very earliest settlers in Bucks county. We 
find Richard Noble'''-' on the Delaware, 1675, where he held a local office under 
the Uuke of York. He settled in Bristol township, and took up a tract of land 
on the river above the ni.juth of Neshaniiny and was a surveyor. His son Abel 
was an original purchaser in Warminster, where he owned six hundred and 
nineiy-tlve acres at the resurvey, 1702.'-'- The original Noble tract lay on both 
sides of the York road, that on the upper side running up the county line, not 
reaching the Street road, and that on the lower side extending down it to within 
half a mile of Johnsville. In 1743 Abel Noble conveyed one hundred and sixty- 
five acres to his son Joseph, who, in turn, sold it and a few acresmore, 1763, 
to Harman Y'erkes, the first of that family in WarnVmster. Abel and Job Noble, 
sons of the first purchaser, were owners of considerable of the ancestral tract 
at that time. Job was a man of many peculiarities. He left the grain uugath- 
cred hi the corners of his fields for the birds. At the family mansion, built in 
English style with hip-roof, on the site of the dwelling of the late Andrew 
Yerkes on the Y'ork road, he built a stone apiary with the back to the road, and 
intended to have cut upon it the ten commandments, but it was never done. The 
story is told of one of his Irish servants, who, discovering a tortoise in the field, 
ran breathless to the house and reported that he had found "a snake in a box," 
nor would he return to his work until some one went to "demolish the craiture." 
Noble died, 1775, leaving two daughters, one marrying a Gilbert, the other a 
Moland. A daughter of the Alolands married a Wood, and their daughter was 
the wife of Barzilla Gregg, Dovlestown, who was a well-known school teacher. 
Descendants of the Gilberts live in Philadelphia. Job Noble's father joined 
George Keith and became a Seventli Day Baptist. The remains of the Noble 
family huning-ground are below the York road, near the coimty line, on the 
Justice ^Mitchell farm on a knoll that overlooks a meadow in front. Half a 
dozen graves, with a few feet of the old wall, are all that mark the final resting 
place of these Warminster pioneers. The Nobles were related to the Long- 
streths. 

Jolm and Isaac Cadwallader were in the township quite early, and John 
bought two hundred and fifty acres on the county line. Isaac died, 1739. W^ar- 
minster had a sprinkling of Hollanders at an early day, who probably came 
from I.ong or Staten Island instead of direct from Holland. Among them we 
find the Cravens, Vansants, Garrisons. Corsons and other families. The Cravens 
probably came first, and James was a owner of land in the township as early 
as 1685, for we find that the 9th of April, 1740, he paid to James Steel, receiver 

C'/i He came from Eiigl.and in the Joseph and Mary, Captain Mathew Payne, the 
first vcssi-1 that landed passengers at Saleni, New Jersey. May 13, 1675. 

6''. Abel Xoble was a son of William and Frances Xohle. of Bristol, England. 
In T752 lie owned ;oo acres in Warminster llie tract bcinc: cut by the York road and 
cxtendinK fr"'" the county line to the Street road. In 1750 Herman Yerkes bought land 
•of the No!)ies. Abel Noble married Mary Garrett, dauglitcr of William and Ann Kirke 
Garrett. William Garrett lived at Harby, County Leicester, England, 1672-1684. In 
l(i>!4-&S Abel Koble bad land surveyed to him between Second pnd Third streets, Philadel- 
phia. He landed at Salem, X. J,. 1675. May 13, and was the owner of lands in Bristol, 
near the confluence of Nesbaminy and the E)elaware. Mrs. .■\nna Longstretli Tilney. 

Alicl Noble's only daughter. .Anna, married David Thomas, a blacksmith from 
W.'ilcs, wiio settled at Darby. Delaware county, am! removed to Providence. 



iS6 HISTORY OF BUCKS COUXTY. 



of taxes for the I'roprietaries, '■four pounds, two shillings, and six-ijcncc. in 
full for tifty-livf } cars" quit-rciit due on one hundred and tifty acres of land iu 
Warminster. The Cravens were living- in the township, 1712, and James and 
Thomas were there, 1730 and 1737.' In 1726 one of the name came into War- 
minster from Richmond county, Statcn Island. In January, 1725, he bought a 
farm of one hundred and fifty acres of William Stockdell, adjoining lands of 
Peter Chamberlain and Bartholomew Longstrcth, for £290. Possession was 
given the 1st of June, 1726. The Corsons came from Long Island, the first of 
the name being Benjamin, whose receipt of July i, 1723, states that he had re- 
ceived £7 6s. of one ^^'essells, "on acconnt of Jacob Kraven." Harman Van 
sant was Brigadier-Inspector, 1821, afterward Brigadier-General, and died 
September 13, 1S23, aged sixty-six years. 

The Yerkcs* family made their first appearance in Bucks county about 
one hundred ;uid lifty years ago, settling in Warminster, where Herman, or 
Harman, bough-t one hundred and eighty-one acres of the Noble tract on the 
Street road. 

About 1700, Anthony Yerkes, wdth wife IViargaret, and sons Herman, 
Adolphus and John, came from Germany and settled on the Schuylkill. He 
was one of the Burgesses of Germantown, 1703 and 1709, bought of John 
Plolme three hundred acres at Shclmire's mills on the Pennypack, in the manor 
of 2iIoreland, Philadelphia county, now I^.Iontgomcry. After the death of his 
first wife, Anthony Yerkes married Sarah Eaton, widow of Rev. John Watts, 
who died June 27, 17.^5. Anthony Yerkes had three children, Herman, born 
16P9, died 1750-1, Adolphus, living, 1744, and John who probably died un- 
married. Herman, who doubtless came with his fatlier from Germany, married 
Elizabeth, daughter of Rev. John Watts, February 11, 171 1, becoming the 
son-in-law of his step-mother. They had ten children, and at the father's 
death, he divided eight hundred acres on the Pennypack among them. Silas 
sixth child, born February 15, 1725, died September 25, 1795. married Hannah, 
daughter of Thomas Dungan, Warminster, and for a time lived there. They 
had ten children, from one of wdiich, the late William L. Elkins, of Philadelphia, 
was descended, and was buried at Southampton. His brother Plerman born 
January 18, 1720, and died about 1800, was the first Yerkes to settle in Bucks 
county, about 1750. He married Mary Stroud, daughter of Edward Stroud. 
Wliitemarsh, IVlontgomery county, March 26, 1750, who died in Warminster, 
1770. .All his children were by her. For his second wife, he married Mary 
Ploughton, widow of Ricliard Clayton, New Britain, September 30, 1773, who 
died January, 1785. In her will she left money to build' a wall around the 
Southampton graveyard which is still standing. For his third wife he married 
Elizal.icth Ball. v.i<low of John Tompkins, and died 1819. Herman had eight 
children, Elizabeth, Catharine, Edward, Sarah, Stephen, Mary, Harman and 
William. Elizabeth married John Hufdale, April 14. 1770, and has descendants 
in Western Pennsylvania. Catharine, born June 19, 1755, married Reading 
Howell, I^Iarch 28, 1782, who was born in Hunterdon county. New Jersey, 
1743, and died November 26, 1827, in Warminster. He was a noted engineer. 

7 In Warminster, M.iy I'l, 1835, Isaac Cravens, aged 76. He was born on the prem- 
ises where lie died and was a soldier of the Revolution. He was probably born and died 
on the farm, on the co-Lin;y line, where the British burned General Laeey's woimded, at 
the battle of the Crooked Dillet. 

8 The name is cf German oritjin and has been variously spelled, Terghcs, Jerghas, 
Gcrkes, Gerghes, GLiyehas, Gcikes, Yerkas. 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COL'XTV. 187 



and served in the Revolution as quartermaster of the Second Regiment, Hunter- 
don county militia. He was prominent in several walks of life ; a commis- 
sioner to surve\- the Delaware and Lehigh rivers, projected the map of Penn- 
svlvania bears his name, 1792, surveyor of Philadelphia, 1804, to his death, 
and built the first railroad in the United States, 1S09, from Leiper's quarries 
to Ridley Creek, Delaware county. Reading Howell and his wife Catharine 
Yerkcs were the parents of eight children, of whom the youngest, Catharine 
Augusta, born August, iSoo, married Brigadier General Tliomas Flourney, 
United States Army, War 1812-15, of Augusta, Georgia, and died in Phila- 
delphia, Xovember 21, 1900, aged over one hundred years, the last of the family 
of that generation. 

Stephen Yerkes, son of the Warminster Herman, born October 20, 1762, 
and died 1823, spent his life in this township, and married his cousin Alice 
Watson, granddaughter of John Yerkes, son of the first Herman. She was born 
November 17, 1787, and died November 17, 1859, on her seventy-second birth- 
day. Their children, born in Warminster, all became prominent ; Edward, died 
1825, major in a Bucks county regiment. War 1S12, \yith Samuel D. Ingham, 
was a man of wide influence. Pie married ^lary Shelmire, who became the 
wife of Moore Stevens. John W. Yerkes, born December 22, 181 1, died Jan- 
uary 24, 1SS4, was a miller and in 1875 was elected Prothonotary of ]\Iont- 
gomery county, serving two terms. I\Iary Yerkes daughter of Stephen, born 
September 27, 1815, and died July 15,' 1896, married John IVIcNair, born June 
8, 1800, died at Aquia Creek, Virginia, August 12. 1861. At one time he was 
principal of a famous school for boys in [Montgomery county ; then read law, 
was admitted to the bar and subsequently practiced at Norristown. He was 
elected to Congress in the JMontgomery district and served two terms, 1851-55. 
His son, F. V. McXair, born January 15, 1839, a graduate of the x\nnapolis 
Naval Academy, served with great distinction through the Civil War, 1S61-65, 
a portion of the time on Admiral Farraguf's flag ship in the Mississippi, became 
the senior Rear Admiral of the U. S. Navy, and died at Washington, D. C, Ne- 
vembcr 28, 1900. He is credited with having prepared the Asiatic fleet for the 
naval victory Admiral Dewey achieved at Manila Bay, which he turned over to 
his successor shortly before the Spanish-American war. The remaining chiW 
of Stephen Yerkes, the Rev. Stephen Yerkes, born June 27, 1817, died March 
28, 1896, was educated at Yale, became a Presbyterian clergyman, removed to- 
Kentucky, where he acquired distinction as Professor of Greek in the Transyl- 
vania University, and occupied the chair of Hebrew and Oriental languages in 
the Theological Seminary for forty years. His son, John W. Yerkes, was the 
Republican candidate for Governor of Kentucky, 1900, and was recently ap- 
pointed by the President, commissioner of Internal Revenue. Harman Yerkes, 
son of the third Harman, born July 25, 1767. died February 12, 1857, married, 
1790, Margaret, born January 8, 1771. died March 4, 1849, daughter of Capt. 
Andrew Long, second son of Andrew and Mary Long, born about 1730, and 
died in Warrington township, November 4, 1812. He served in Colonel Samuel 
[Miles's regiment. Continental Army, and in 1779 was appointerl a justice of 
the Bucks county court, 'serving several years. 

Of the ten children of Plarman and Margaret Long Yerkes, Vv'illiam, b^^rn 
July 8, 1792, married Penelope, daughter of Giles TVlcDowell. a noted school 
teacher of ye olden time. Their daughter married William H. Force. Andrew 
L. Yerkes, born .-\ugust 25, T795, died Julv 14, 1862, a soldier in the war of 
1S12. married Eliza Everhart, iSoo. Thev had seven children, one of whom. 
Dr. H. P. Ycrkcs lives in Dovlostown. Eli;:abcth Yerkes, born ^Lav 26, t?oo. 



i8S HISTORY OF BUCKS COUXTY. 



died ^laj- 24, 1S75, married John C. Beans, and were the parents of nine cliil- 
d.ren, mostly living in Warminster township. Their son, J. Johnson, was elected 
sheriff 1S90, and served one term. Clarissa Yerkes, born October 12, iSo::, 
died Decemi)er 12, 1S75, married Samuel Montanye and had six children, Ed- 
win H. Yerkes, born November 26, 1804, died June 26, 1864, married Catharine 
Williamson, and died without children. Harman Yerkes, born ^larch 9, 1S07, 
died i88q, married Rebecca \'a!entine and had eleven children. Stephen Yerkes, 
youngest son of Harman and ^largaret Long, born in W^arminster, jMay 19, 
1809, died July 25. 1S65. married January 13, 1831, Amy Hart Montanye, daugh- 
ter of Rev. Thomas B. ?vIontayne, of Southampton. She was born October 23, 
181 1, died ]\Iarch 22, i860, and was the mother of Judge Harman Yerkes, 
Doylestown. Another son of the third, or Warmister settler, Herman Yerkes, 
was William, born in Warminster, June 29, 1769, and died there 1823. He 
married January 2, 1795, Letitia Esther, daughter of Captain Andrew Long 
and sister of .Margaret, the wife of his brother Harman. Of their sons, Harman 
died in Washington, D. C, 1S60, aged sixty-five. Joseph Ball Yerkes, 
born .A.pril 29, 1797, and died at Hatboro, was the father of Judge William H. 
Yerkes, I'hiladelphia. major of 199th Pennsylvania regiment. Civil war, died 
October 10, 1885, and of Rev. David J. Yerkes, a distinguished Baptist divine. 
Andrew Long Yerkes, son of William, died in Cecil county, Maryland, 1889. 
The daughter of William married John Thornton, and their son is a prominent 
journalist in Illinois. He learned the printing trade in the office of the Doyles- 
town (Pa.) Doiiocrat. 

The Yerkes family furnished several soldiers to the Revolution, and on the 
rolls are found the names of John, Silas, Herman, Elias, George, Anthony. 
Jonathan and Stephen, of Philadelphia, and Harman, Henry and Edward of 
Bucks. A son of Stephen married Sarah Purdy, descended from the common 
ancestor of the family of this name of Bucks and IMontgomery counties. In 
1799 several of the descendants of Stephen Yerkes, son of the first Herman, 
and some of the Purdys, removed to Seneca county, New York, and thence to 
Michigan. 

The celebrated John Fitch, to whom justly belongs the honor of inventing 
the method of propelling boats by steam, spent several years of his life in War- 
minster, and was his heme until he took up his residence in Kentucky. Fitch 

was born in Connecticut, January 
21, 1743, inherited a fondness for 
reading and study from his father, 
who had a genius for astron- 
omv, mathematics and natural 
FiTCHS ALTOGR.^PH. history. Hc Icamed clock mak- 

ing after marrying a woman older 
than himself at twenty-four, whom he deserted, 1769, and came to Trenton. 
New Jersey, where he established himself as a silversmith. On the breaking out 
of the Revolution he turned his talents to gunsmithing. The British destroyed 
his tools and other property, valued at £3,000, when they t(X)k possession of 
Trenton, DecemlnT, 1776. He afterward made his home in Bucks county, fol- 
lowing the trade of a silversmith, frequently traveling through the country. He 
was a patriot and an otiicer of the first company raised at Trenton ; he held the 
same rank in the army at Valley Forge, and was afterwards a sutler in the army 
in the west. At one time he served as armourer or gunsmith. He led an un- 
settled life. He went to Kentucky in 17S0, to survey public lands and located a 
large tract, but afterward lo^t the title to it and was captured by the Indians in 




HISTORV OF BUCKS COUNTY. 1S9 



IJS2, while preparing to make a trip to New Orleans with flour. He visited 
I. on Jon in 1793, and died in Nelson county, Kentucky, about 1798. In person 
Fiich was tall, six feet two inches, straight and spare, with tawny complexion, 
black hair and piercing eyes. His countenance was pleasing, and his temper 
quick. He was a man of good morals, and truthful and honorable in all his 
dealings. He was the father of two children, a son and daughter; the former, 
bhalcr Filch, died in Trumbull county, Ohio, 1842, and the latter, Lucy, mar- 
ried Colonel James Kilbourne, Franklin county, Ohio. 

When John Fitch was driven from Trenton by the British, 1776, he came 
into Bucks county, first to the house of John JNIitchell, Four Lanes End, now 
Langhorne, and afterward to Charles Garrison's, Warminster, half a mile west 
of Davisville. During his sojourn in this township he earned a livelihood by 
repairing clocks and silversmithing, making his home at Garrison^s or in the 
neighborhood. He was recognized as a man of genius and associated with the 
most intelligent people. Fie was on intimate terms with Reverend '^^Ir. Irwin, 
pastor at Nesahminy, who took great interest in his mechanical contrivances 
and encouraged him. Fitch frequently walked four miles to hear him preach. 
One of his intimates was Cobe Scout, a man as eccentric as himself, a wheel- 
wright, gunsmith and silversmith, who was 

"Everything by turn. 
But nothing long." 

It was at Scout's shop I'itch suddenly appeared one rainy Saturday afternoon, 
on his return from his captivity among the Indians. After a glance of recogni- 
tion they rushed into each others arms in tears, and the next day went together 
to the Southampton Baptist church, where public thanks were returned for 
Fitch's safe delivery by the Rev. David Jones, former chaplain in the Continental 
army. While living at Charles Garrison's, Fitch engraved a map of the 
"Northwestern part of the United States" in Cobe Scout's shop and printed it 
on Garrison's cider press. 

The first model of a steamboat, that ever floated, was made by John Fitch 
in Warminster in a log shop where Sutphin ^IcDowell carried on weaving on 
the farm lately owned by Alitchell W^ood, four hundred yards east of the Mont- 
gomery County line. He said the idea of a steamboat first occurred to him as 
he and James Ogilbee were walking home from Neshaminy church on a Sunday 
and were passed by a Mr. Sinton and wife in a riding chair at the intersection 
of the York and Street roads." After pondering the matter a few days he 
made a model and submitted it to his friend Daniel Longstreth, the Rev. Na- 
thaniel Irwin and others.'''-. \Mien completed the machinery was of brass, the 
paddle wheels of wood made by the late N. B. Boileau,^" who lived on the county 
line road near by, a student at Princeton college, but at home at that time. The 
late Abraham JMcDowell, of Warminster, who claimed to have witnessed the 

9 In April, 1902, the liiicks County Historical Society erected a granite monument 
to mark the spot where John Fitch conceived the idea of propelling boats in the water 
by steam. The monument stands at the southwest corner of the York and Street roads, 
Warminster township. 

gli The late Daniel Longstreth, Jr., thinks this was in .\pril, 1785. 

10 John L. Longstreth, son of Daniel, Jr., told the author in recent years that, on 
one occasion, when, a boy, walking with his father, they tnet Nathaniel B. Boileau, then 
living at Hatboro, who said he made the paddle wheels fur Fitch's model. 



it 



FITCH'S STEAMBOAT. 



trial tri]) of the model, said it took place on a pond, or dani, below the present 
Davisville, in Southampton townsliip, and that the party consisted of Fitch, 
Cobe Scout, Abraham Sutphin, Anthony Scout, John jMcDowell, William Vaii- 
sant and Charles Garrison. A couple of hours were spent in the experiment; at 
the end (if the time the little boat was declared a success, when the witnesses to 
the trial returned home. Since that time the application of steam to the pro- 
pulbion of vessels has revolutionized commerce and naval warfare. In 17S6-7 
Fitch built a steamboat that made several successful trips on the Delaware, be- 
tween Fhiladelphia and iBurlington. This was done with the assistance of a 
number of public-spirited citizens who subscribed to the enterprise. The 
"Indenture of Agreement," after being executed was deposited in the archives 
of the Philadelphia Fliilosophical Society, where the author saw it recently. It 
is (lateil die ninth of February, 1787, and to it are signed the names of the fol- 
lowing subscribers for stock w'ith the number of shares each one took, although 
the value of the siiare is not given : Samuel \^aughan, one share ; Richard 
Well-;, one share; Benjamin \\'. }iIorris, one share; Rich. Stockton, three 
shares; J. Morris, one share; Joseph ljudd,,one share; Benjamin Sny, two 
shares: J. H. Hart, one sb.are ; Mags. Miller, one share; Isaac W. Morris, one 
share ; (j. Hill Wells, one share ; Thomas Hutchins, one share ; Richartl Wells, 
one share: Ricliard Stockton, for John Stockton, one .share: Israel Isr:iel, one 
^hare : William Rubel, one share; Edward Brooks, Harve}- \'oighl, five shares; 
Henry Tciland, one share ; Tho. Palmer, one share. 

In the proceedings of the Philosophical Societv of the date of September 27, 
1785, Tuesday, a "sp^ccial occasiiin.'' at, which Benjamin Franklin and eighteen 
other members were present, we find the following entry: 

"The model, with a drawing and description, of fl machine iV.r working a 
boat against the stream by means of a ;-tiam engin.-, was laid Inf. ire the si.iciety 
by Mr. John Fitch." This was iimbalily the model ihat is still there. 

Daniel Long-treth writes in his di.iry. under date of 2 mo.. 18, 1843: "I 
visited u.ncle Isaac Longstretii, who tnid nie that Robert l'"ult<in was apprenticed 
to tlie person that built John iMtch's large steambnat. and was then in his 
twentii-th vear." 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUNTY. ' 191 



Wliile there is no dispute as to whom conceived and built a model of and 
inade a successful experimental trip with it, there is a ditterence of opinion as 
to the exact spot where the model was first tried, and although it is not important 
whether the boat was first tried here or there, we give it consideration by ex- 
amining the question. The witnesses all agree the trial was not made in War- 
minster, but on the creek known as Southampton run, in the vicinity of the 
present Davisville. I'he Longstreth manuscript and the articles written by 
l)aniel Longstreth, the younger, for the Bucks County Intelligencer of February, 
12, 1845, agree in saying that "It was first tried in Southampton run a short dis- 
tance east from Cobe Scout's wheelwright shop were it was built." When the 
author of "Watson's Annals" made inquiry of Mr. Longstreth for information 
on the subject, he made the same statement. In a letter John L. Longstreth 
wrote the author, he claims the initial experiment was made in "Southampton 
Run about half a mile below Davisville in Joseph Longstreth's meadow. }ilr. 
Longstreth was living in Southampton township as late as 1792. His farm of 
two hundred and sixty-seven and one-half acres fronted the County Line and 
the road to Davisville, and subsequently belonged to the Rev. Thomas B. ]\Ion- 
lan)e." On the other side, Abraham ^McDowell, a boy of about eight years, 
claimed that he accompanied the party, and the trial experiment was made in 
a dam, then on the Watts farm, fed by the Southampton Run, and a few hun- 
dred yards nearer Davisville. We repeat, it makes no ditterence where, in that 
same creek the first and successful trial was made of Fitch's model of a steam- 
boat. It was made thereabouts and was a success, and all who furthered its in- 
terests are equally honored. But for the encouragement Fitch received f{om the 
Longstreth family, we doubt if his invention had proved a success. 

iMr. Longstreth, Daniel the elder, says the Fitch family came originally 
from Saxony, crossed the channel into England, and settled in Essex, where it 
was respectable, if not noble, each branch having a coat of arms. He gives the 
arms of John Fitch as follows : "A chev between three leopards heads, or, crest 
a leopard's head embossed or, in his mouth a sword proper hilt or." In a letter 
written by r\lr. Longstreth about this period, 10 mo., 11, 1791. he says: "I have 
jiaid John Fitch for the surveying instruments and maps, about iio, or £12. 
15s.'' One of these mai)s is said to have been worked ot"f on Charles Garrison's 
cider press, in Warminster township, and is in the Pennsylvania Historical 
Society. 

The Longstreth manuscript tlirows additional light on the personal history 
of John Fitch. Mr. Longstreth was on intimate terms with the family and 
whatever he says of this remarkable man may be relied on implicitly. As we 
have already remarked. Fitch came into Bucks county after the British took 
possession of Trenton, and made his home in Warminster until he went West. 
After the British occupied Philadelphia, Fitch buried his gold and silver imdcr 
a large chestnut tree on Charles Garrison's farm at night. He was watched by 
a negro, who dug up the treasure and divided it with the son of a respectable 
farmer. After the British had left, Fitch went to get his money, but was sur- 
prised to find it had been stolen. The young man's father agreed to refund 
part of it which Fitch accepted on condition the rogue should leave and never 
return. While the Continental army lay at Valley Forge, the \\ inter of 1777-78. 
I'itch assisted to keep it sui-jilied with provi.-ions, receiving his pay in continental 
money, which he kept until Si.cv.rw wire tmlv worth $100 in specie. .-Vfter the 
armies had left this scciiou. I'itch rct.urncd to Trenton. gathere<l up the tools he 
had left there, brought them over to Cobe Scout's shop at Charles Garrison's 



192 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUNTY. 



where lie carried un business until the spring of 17S0, when he went West." 
The l^ung-.-ireih manuscript describes the personal appearance of John Fitch as 
follov.s: "lie had a piercing <z\c, tall and thin, six feet in his stockings, could 
outwalk a Ik r^e a long or short distance, had a shining face, of tawny compiex- 
ion, very black short liair, walked with a great swing, pitched forward, was a 
smiling, not a grum ni:in, c|r.i!ck tempered, but soon over, honest in his dealings 
and free Idjui falseh.uod." \\'hile at Charles Garrison's Fitch joined the }kIasonic 
Lodge at Treucon." 

"Cobe'' Scout, mentioned in connection with Fitch, his friend and intimate 
companion, was an eccentric character in Warminster, made his home part 
of the time with Charles Garrison, who lived on the road from Davisville 
to the JMontgomery county line in the first house on the west side. Fitch taught 
Scout the art of silversuiithing to which he added gunmaking. Occasionally a 
few of his silverspoons, or one of his long rilies, turn up in some old homestead. 
Three quarters of a century ago the good housewives of Warminster and South- 
ampton held Scout's silver spoons in higher estimation than any other make, and 
a few have been handed down from mother to daughter as precious heirlooms. 
His rifles were equally celebrated, one of which he carried in the Revolution. 
While ihc American army lay on the west bank of the Delaware, 1776, and the 
enemy occupied Trenton, Scout shot a Hessian dead across the river, in punish- 
ment for some insulting gesture, and John Davis, grandfather of the author, 
witnessed it. This added greatly to Scout's reputation. He died 1829, at the 
age of ninety-three, and was buried in the \'ansant graveyard, Wanninster, and 
many ^cars after the late Josiah Hart, Doylestow n, erected tomb stones at tlie 
grave. Scout's Christian name was James, or Jacobus. 

The first steamboats on the Delaware after John Fitch's experiment of 
1788, carrying passengers between Philadelphia and Trenton, were the Phoenix 
and Philadelphia. The Phoenix, built at Hoboken, N. J., by John C. Stevens, 
1807, made her first trip to Bristol, Sunday, July 30, i8og. She was commanded 
by Captain Davis, or Davidson, and the engineer, Robert Stevens, son of the 
builder. She was the first steam vessel to navigate the ocean between Xew Yorlc 
and Philadelphia. Her speed on the river was eight miles an hour with the 
tides. After running a few years her machinery gave out, and was taken out of 
her. She was laid up and finally rotted down on the Kensington flats. Hundred* 
of people at Bristol went down to witness the first arrival, among them the late 
William Kinsy. The Philadelphia, familiarly called "Old Sal.'' also built by 
Stevens, commenced running between the same points, 1815. She was com- 
manded by Abisha Jenkins, leaving Trenton at 7 a. m. and Philadelphia on her 
return trip at 2 p. m. Her speed, with the tides, was ten miles an hour, and on 
her arrival at Bristol and Ijurlington, she fired a small brass cannon mounted en 
Jier forward deck. It bur.-t on one occasion, killing one of the hands, and after 
that, a gun was dispensed with. Burlington and Bristol were the only stopping 
places, and passengers were received and landed in small boats by signals from 
the shore. Many people believed there would never be a boat built that could 

II B.TrthoIoniew L. Fu^sell, nephew of Danii-1 Lons^treth. tlie ..Idcr. and Jolin Fitcli, 
made brass wire from old kettles belonging to Joseph I.ong^trcth, as wire could not be 
bnncrht durliii; the Rcvoliilii-Miary war. They n'^ed it for making button!:. They also made 
wooden buttons at Joseph Lon^strctli's. Fussoll. in conversation willi Daniel Longstretii, 
the younger, wh.i dieil. 1S4C), slated that he turned out, polished and shanked a gross of 
buttons one niorninc: by 11 o'elock. This "points a moral and adorns a tale," in evidence 
of tlie deprivations our fatlur^ luul to endure in tlu; times that "tried men's souls." 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUNTY. 



193 



make better time. The Philadelphia was followed in the early thirties by a 
bi.'ai called the "New i'hiladelphia," which had the same run. 

IMany etYorts have been made to rob John Fitch of the honor of inventing 
or discovering the art of propelling boats on water by steam, but they have 
bignally failed. Recent investigations show that John l-'itch made a successful 
c.Kperiment of propelling a model boat by steam, on Collect Pond, New York 
city, in 1796. It was called the Perseverance and the experiment was 
\\itne:>sed by Robert P'ulton and Robert Livingston. In 1846, John Hutchings, 
who was present, made an affidavit of the facts attending this experiment. This 
was six years before Fulton made his experiment on the river Seine, and ten 
\ears before he put his boat, the Clermont, on the Hudson. A model of Fitch's, 
boat was recently found in the New York Historical Society, New Y'ork City.. 
It is to the credit of Robert Fulton that he never claimed the discovery of steam 
propulsion, but only made use of it for commercial purposes. 

There is a private graveyard near Johnsville, on the farm lately owned by 
Eliza Vansant, deceased, to whose family it had belonged. In it lie the reir.ains. 
of "the rude forefathers," the early Holland settlers of that section, the Van- 
saiits. Garrisons, Cravens, Sutphins, AIcDowells, Vandykes, and others, rela- 
tions or immediate friends. The oldest stone marks the grave of Harman Van- 
sant, who died, 1769, in his S4th year, and Giles Craven, September 8, 1798, in 
his Soth year. A handsome marble slab is erected to the memory of Dr. William 
Bachelor, a native of ■Massachusetts, and surgeon in the army of General Gates, 
who died September 14, 1823, at the age of seventy-five. His wife was a daugh- 
ter of Silas Hart, Warminster. He lived and died at Hatboro and had a large 
practice. It is related of him tliat, on one occasion, when called to visit a man 
whose leg was badly hurt, he wanted rum to bathe the injured limb and a quart 
was sent for. After the wound had been dressed, the patient, who was fond of 
a "drop," was told by the doctor he might take a little internally, whereupon he 
smiled his blandest smile, remarking: "Doctor, I always did admire your judg- 
ment." 

The famous "Log College" was in Warminster township, on the York road, 
half a mile below Hartsville, on a fifty acre tract given by James Logan to his 
cousin, William Tennent, 1728. When Mr. Tennent first went there, Logan 
sent him provisions from 



Philadelphia, evidence the 
congregation provided him 
a slim living. He occupied 
the property lately Corne- 
lius Carrell's. and the col- 
lege was on the George 
llanna Icits.^- In tlie fire- 
filace of the oUl Canvll 
house is the fire crane used 
by Mr. Tennent, and part 
of the old wall, two feet 
thick, runs across the end 
of the kitchen. Three Eng- 
lish pennies bearing dates 
premises some years ago. 




trom 
Mr. 



-■tt 



1.11 his personal property 



LOG COLLEGE, 17iU. . 

1710 to 1719, were found on the 

Tennent, who died May 6, 1746. 

to his wife, Kathren, and at her 



More recently owned by J. W. Gwyii. 
1.3 



f94 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUXTY. 



"death, the real estate was to be sold, and the proceeds divided among his heirs. 
■On September 5, 18^*9, the founding of the Log College was celebrated on the 
-farm that formerly belonged to it, under the auspices of the "Presbytery of 
rhiladelphia, North."' The presiding officer was the Reverend Thomas 
JMurphy, D. D., and the exercises consisted of sacred music, reading of the 
Scripture, prayer and addresses, followed by a lunch. Among the speakers 
^vas Benjamin Harrison, President of the United States, and Postmaster-Gen- 
eral Wananiaker. The audience was large. '^ 

The most famous school of tlie period, next to the Log College, was 'kept 
at '"Hart's School Plouse," Warminster, on the road from the Street to the 
Bristol road, half mile from Johnsville. Three buildings stood on, or near, 
the same site, and took its name from an influential family living near, and 
active in establishing it. The first house was erected early in the eighteenth 
century, probably of logs. It was an old building in 1756, for, at a meeting of 
the patrons, held September 13, it was resolved to build a iieiu school house, as 
the one "in which James Stirling death now teach, as it is too small, dark and 
otherwise insufticient to accommodate the scholars that do at present attend 
the same, so as to answer the purpose intended (to-wit) the learning of Lating, 
Greek, etc., as well as English." It was to be 33 by 18 feet, one story high, with 
a good partition through the same, a good fire-place in one end, and a stove in 
the other, Joseph Hart and Daniel Longstreth being appointed "sole managers." 
The house was probably built on a new site, as a lot was bought of Longstreth. 
The deed was executed ]\lay 2, 1757, and acknowledged before Simon Butler 
August II, 175S, and the house erected that fall. The conveyance was made 
to William Folwell, Southampton, John Dungan, Northampton, Anthony Scout, 
Warminster, and John Vanosdale (Vanartsdalen), Northampton. A third 
school house was erected there, 1S31, at a cost of S320.28. This was torn down, 
1860-61, when three new houses were erected for the public schools, at a cost 
of $1,315.65, on the Street road. James Stirling, the first teacher we know of, 
probably quit teachir.g in the spring of 1765, when a new contract was made 
with Thomas D. Ilandcock for the ensuing year, from June 4, for £63 
($173.33). Elijah Beans and William Maddock. who taught several years in 
the I S3 1 school house, were not new teachers. The subscriptions for building 
the 1757 school house were as follows: Joseph Hart £8, John Dungan £3, 
Dcrick Kroesson £3, James Stirling £2, \\'illiam Ramsey £1, and James Spencer 
£2. "Hart's School House" was the centre of a good deal of the nientai 
activity of the township in the eighteenth and part of the nineteenth centuries. 
In 1793-94. and how long continued we know not, the "floral Societv" nut 
there for debate. Fourteen names are signed to the constitution, including 
those of Longstreth, Eyre, Rees and ^latlack. Spectators were not admitted 
and each member was obliged to deliver "one sheet of paper, one candle or one 
penny, for the use of the .society." In 1S11-13 a new society sprung up in the 
hands of new men. It likewise met for debate, the questions taking a pretty 
wide range, and. among the members, we find the well-known names of Hart, 
Longstreth. Mile:;. Craven. Ramsey, Prior, \'ansant, Crawford, Daniel, Long, 
Yerkcs, Shelmire and l'.rad\-.'* 



13 .A. full r.ccninn of the Log College and it'; clistir.guijlied graduate-; will be loiiiid 
in CliajHer on Historic Chtirclics. 

14 In addition to the schools alrcndy mentioned in Warminster, there was a log 
schoi)l lif.nse on iho Street road a few li'undrcd yards above the Yi.irk road, and another 
on the York road hall ;i nnle below the Warminster tavern at Jnhn C. Beans' gate. 



HISTORY OP BUCKS COUXTY. 



^95 



Warminster has three villages, Johnsvilie, at the junction of the Xewtown 
anil Street roads, a mile from the lower line of the township, Hartsville, on the 
■^'.irk road, where it crosses the Warwick line, and Ivyland, on the Northeast 
I'oiuisylvania railroad, half a mile south of the Bristol road. The foundation 
(if Johnsvilie was laid, 1814, when James Craven built a store house for his son 
ji ';n on the only corner of the cross roads not covered with timber, and a store 
iia; been kept there from that time to the present. The village contains twenty 
d\\ ellings. Almost fifty years ago Robert Leans, son of Stephen I'.eans, War- 
minster, established an agricultural implement factory there, and carried it on 
successfully until burned down and not rebuilt. The greater part of Hartsville 
is in Warminster, the store and tavern being on opposite sides of the township 
line. The old name was "Cross Roads," and occasionally an old-fashioned 
citizen still calls it by this name. It was only called Hartsville in the last fifty 
years, after the Hart family lived there. The tavern, in Warwick township, 
was kept for many years, at the close of the eighteenth and begiiming of the 
nineteenth century, by William Hart, and a human lieart was painted on the 
sign board. In 1818 it was known as the '"Sign of the Heart,'' and owned by 
Joseph Carr. William Hart died, 1831, at the age of eighty-four. The post 
utlice was established, 1826. The old stone bridge, half a mile above, spamiing 
the Xeshaminy where it crosses the York road, was built 1793, and had a heart 
cut on the date stone. Ivyland, the youngest village of Warminster, was 
founded by Edwin Lacey, 1S73, and he built the first dwelling. Several shortlv 
followcd, streets were opened, named and lighted ; station and freight houses 
were built and the first train stopped there 2\larch 29, 1S91. The population 
has increased to over two hundred and fifty. The 25th anniversary of its found- 
ing was observed August 12, 1S98. Among Ivyland's improvements and organ- 
izations are a Presbyterian chapel, Christian Endeavor Society, two lodges, 
and truck and ladder company. Breadyville, at the crossing of the Bristol 
road by the Northeast Pennsylvania railroad, is a hamlet of half a dozen dwell- 
ings, tavern, store and station. 

Hartsville has played a more important part in the social, religious and 
educational world than any village of its size in the county. The Hartsville 
Presbyterian church is known as the "Xeshaminy Church of Warminster," and 
the constituent members originally belonged to the "Neshaminy Church in War- 
wick." In consequence of the choice of Reverend fames P. Wilson, as pastor, 
by a small majority of the congregation in Xovember, 1838, one hundred mem- 
bers withdrew in a body, Saturday, February 10, 1839, and held service, for a 
time, in the school house in the graveyard, claiming to be "the Nesaminy Church 
and Congregation." On that day Reverend Mr. Howard preached for them as 
a su]jply. They worshiped for a time in private houses, and then, in a tem- 
porary frame structure called the "Tabernacle," erected in the woods at the top 
'if Long's lull on the Bristol road. The question of title to the original church 
property was trieil in the court of Bucks county, but finally decided b\- a com- 
i>romi3e in the winter of 1 84 1-42. It was sold and bought by the congregation 
then -worshiping there. The pastors, in their order, have been Reverends 
Thomas B. Bradford, installed April 29, 1S39, resigned March 9, 1841 ; Henry 
R. Wilson, from 1842 to his death in 1849; Jacob Belville, from 1850 to- iSoo; 
Alexander ^I. Woods, i860 to 1870; (Icrshani \\. Nimmo, 1870 to 1891, when 
he was called to the Torre-idaie cluirch, where he died. 1898. "Wr. W^ood went 
friini Hartsville to Mahanoy City. wJiere he died. The present pastor is the 
Reverend \\'. R. Preston. The building was erected. 1842, and the congrega- 
tion is large. The most pleasant feature, in connection with these congrega- 



196 HISTORY OF- BUCKS COUXTY. 



tions, nioihcr ami dauglitcr, is that tliere is entire liannony between them, anj 
the bitterness cf sixty \ears ago has been buried deeper than plumniit ever 
sounded. 

Hartsville and vicinity was an educational centre ahiiost from the time oi 
the Log College. The schools of the Reverend James R. Wilson, Robert Uel- 
villc, Jacob Belville, D. K. Turner, and the Messrs. Long and others, gave 
it a wide reputation, and partially or wholly, educated many prominent and use- 
ful men. Samuel Long, principal of a classical school, met a sad end, being 
killed by the limb of a tree failing on him while giving directions to some wood 
choppers, killing him instaiilly. This occurred in December, 1835. A Friends' 
meeting house was erected nearly tlft)- years ago on the Street road half a mile 
above Johnsville. Gideon Pryor, who died in Warminster, February 14, 1S54, 
was one of the last Revolutionary soldiers to die in the county. He was born 
in Connecticut, August 5, 1764, served in Rochambcau's army at the siege of 
Yorktown, 1781, and witnessed Cornv,-a!lis' surrender. After the war lie fin- 
ished his education by graduating at Dartmouth College. He started south on 
foot, but was taken sick near Hartsville. and spent his life there. He lived and 
died in the first stone house, north side of tlie Street road below the York road. 
One son, Azariah, became a minister of the gospel, and died at Pottsville. 
Gideon Pryor was a very fine scholar. 

In so far as we have any means of knowing there had been but two taverns 
in Warwick since its settlement, until in recent years, a third one was licensed. 
The oldest was probably on the site of the present one, known as the "War- 
minster tavern," on the York road just below where the Street road crosses it. 
As early as 1730 Thomas Linton petitioned the court for a recommendation fr.r 
license "to keep a house of entertainment for man and horse." In the petition 
he states that he is an inhabitant of Warminster, "Coiinty de Bucks," and owns 
a house and good plantation on the York road near the cross roads. In 173J 
Thomas Davids, Northampton, attorney in fact for Thomas Linton, sold his 
farm of one hundred acres to David Howell, Philadelphia, whereupon Lint. p. 
removed to Xew York. This old hostelry became much more noted and popular 
in later years. In the twenties of the last century a JNIasonic Lodge was insti- 
tuted aiifl held its sessions in the attic of this famous old inn, where such \s dl- 
known :\Iasons as Dr. John H. Hill and Jolin Kerr officiated. It was forccil to 
the wall by the anti-Masonic crusade growing out of the ]\Iorgan. affair. Its 
existence had been almost forgotten until a few years ago, when the ^vlasonic 
Lodge at Hatboro was instituted, the late William' Williamson, of Davisvillo, 
appsrared and presented to the new lodge the jewels and habiliments of the old 
one. He had cherished them carefully for over half a century. Three quarters 
of a century ago. when horse racing was much more common than now, this 
tavern was frequented by those who indulged in racing. It was then kept by 
Thomas lieans."'-' a famous horseman. At elections and militia training a half 
mile track was cleared on the Street road, where favorite nags were put on their 
speed. Mr. Beans had a fine circular half nude track laid out on his farm hack 
of the buildings. The death of a rider at one of the races down the Street road 
did much to break up the practice, which was wholly discontinued manv vears 
ago. Warmister is the only township in the county without a grist mill. lior is 
it known that it ever had onoV This comes from its surface being level ; there 
is no stream of sufficient size an.l fall to drive a mill wheel. Manv vears ago 



15 In 1769 Thomas Beans owned 200 acres on the north side of the Street r.^ad. 
extending from Johnsville iipwaid. 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUNTY. 197 



Kubcrt Darrah built a saw mill on his farm near Hartsville, which is still in 
11 ;o, the present owner being- John ]\I. Darrah. The west branch of Neshaminy 
cuts across its northwest corner, near the Warrington line, and affords a good 
inill '-itc in the latter township, where a mill was built near a century ago. 

Warminster is well provided with roads, having one on each of its four 
reciilincal sides, three of thrm, the Bristol and Street roads and the ]\Iontgom- 
cry county line, being part of I'cim's system of great highways laid out on 
northwest lines. These are intersected by lateral roads laid out and opened as 
tliev were recjuired. Of these cross roads that between Warminster and War- 
rington was opened about 1785, by one of the Longs who had lately built a grist 
mill, and was then building a saw mill where this road crosses Neshaminy. The 
roail that crosses the township half a mile above Johnsville, and at that time 
the line of travel between Horsham and Wrightstown, was opened in 1723. 
and the one on the Southampton township line in 1769." As early as 1709 a 
road was viewed and laid out to allow the inhabitants of Warminster to reach 
the new mill on the Pennypack. The road across by Johnsville \vas probably 
opened about 1724. 

An institution for the education of male orphan children of African and 
hidian descent was located in Warminster on a farm of one hundred acres on 
the Street road, a mile below the Warrington line. It was known as the "Enilen 
Institute," and was founded about fifty years ago by Samuel Emien, Burling- 
ton, New Jersey, who gave $20,000 to trustees for this charity. The institution 
was first organized in Ohio, soon after the founder's death, but removed to a 
farm of fifty-five acres in Solebury. In 1872 it was again removed to Warmin- 
ster. By careful management the original fund had been increased to $30,000, 
several thousand of which have been expended on the present property, improv- 
ing the buildings, etc. The pupils are instructed in the mechanic arts, and other 
useful pursuits. The income was sufficient to maintain and educate about 
twenty pupils.''' 

The earliest return of the inhabitants of \\'arminstcr that has met our 
notice was made over a century and a quarter ago, but the exact date is not 
given. It comprises a list of housekeepers and single men, with the quantity 
of land owned by each, the acres in with corn, with the cattle, .^.heep, etc. There 
were then but fifty-eiglu housekeepers and twelve single men in the township. 
Joseph Hart was the largest land-owner, four hundied and thirty-five acres, 
uitii three hundred acres cleared and sixty in with corn. He owned twenty- 
four cattle, eight horses and thirty-live sheep. Daniel Longstreth was the next, 
who owned four hundred and ten acres, tv.'o hundred cleared and forty-four in 
with corn. He was the owner of thirteen cattle, three horses and twenty-three 
slux-p. This return gives two thousand, eight hundred and one acres of cleared 
land, of which six hundred and seven were planted with corn. The whole num- 

16 This rond was resurveyerl, and the direction probably somewhat changed, Decem- 
'iT 10. 1816, the following being the new line: Beginning in the Street road at the corner 
between Harman Ycrkes and William Craven, thence between their land south 39 degrees 
wc?t 160 perches, thence tliro' Henry Puff's land, south 44 degrees, west no perches, and 
the same course thro' I-aac Cravens' land to the county line, 50 perches. The jury was 
composed of Samuel GiHinghani, John Watson, Andrew Dunlap, Thomas Hutchinson, 
.loM.nh Shaw and .\aron Hastburn. John Watson was the surveyor. 

17 Tlie Institute was ringed if^U, and the properly sold to James Keitli, Newt'-'Wii: 
then to a Mr. Gartenlaub. and he to a syndicate of Episcopalians. Philadelphia, who in 
lS97 est.ililishpj on it a cliaril.v known as "St. Stephens' Orplianage." 



198 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUNTY 



bcr of <J(jm(.'stic animals was two huiulr(.-(l ami thirty-six cattle, sixty-five horses. 
sixty-seven mares, and twrj hundred and seventy-eight sheep. There were but 
eleven ncj;ro slaves in the township. In 1784 the township contained 368 whitt- 
inhabitants and :28 blacks, v.illi 66 dwellings. The population at stated periods, 
since 17S4, was as follows: 1810, 564; 1820, 695; 1830, 709, and 155 taxables ; 
1840, 934; 1830, 970; 1S60, 987; 1870, 840, of which thirty-two were foreign 
birth; k^8o, 1.061 ; 1891, 969; 1900, 973. 

The first postotlice in the township was established in 1S23. .and Joseph 
Warner, who lived on the Street road jnst above Davisville, was appointed post- 
master. The office was removed to Da\'isville about 1827. Among the aged peo- 
ple ^\•ho have deceased in ^\'arnli^ster during the last half century, may be men- 
tioned Mary, the widow of Andrew Long, who died January 17, 1821, aged 
ninety-five years, and John Harvey, who died the 31st of the same month, at 
the age of eighty-seven, ^^'arminste^ is the middle of the three rectangular 

townships bordering the ^Montgomery 
line, and is four miles long by two wide. 
After rising from the valley w'here some 
of the headwaters of the Pcnnypaek 
have their source, the surface of the town- 
ship is generally level, with but little 
broken or untillable land. There is nut 
better land in the county than tlie plains 
of Warminster, which extend eastward 
to the hills of Xeshaminy, and the inhab- 
itants are employed in agricultural pur- 
suits. It can boast of good roads, rich 
and well-cultivated farms and an intelli- 
gent, happy population. 

Just over the southwest border of 
Warminster, in !Moreland township, 
jMontgomery county, is the flourishing 
village of Hatboro, lately incorporated 
into a borough, Avith a bank, weekly 
newspaper, an academy, two churches, a 
valuable library" and a population of one 
thousand. It is thought to have been 
of London, who, with his wife Dorothy, daughter 
and possibly two sons, immigrated to Pennsylvania 






m 



,1- 



kj5«:viV--4^''f,'sia».vjj 



':^^-.it* J v rf gyjo 



LOLLER ACADEMY. 



first settled by John Dawsf 
Ann, then five vears old. 



18 The lilirary was or.5a!iized, 1755, and some of the most active men in the work 
were of Warniin.^ter, including Joseph Hart and Daniel Longstreth. During the Rev'Ui- 
tion the books, for safety, were stored in the Longstreth garret. This is said to have been 
the first country district library established in Xorth Ainerica. 

The library building was erected in 181 r, on a bequest for that purpose, in the 
v.\\\ of Robert Loiler, was nan.ed "Loller Academy," after him. and is still standing. In 
it a classical scliool was kept many years, and became quite famous. The first teacher 
was Gcrge Murray, the same who subsequently kept a boarding scliool in Doylestown. 
Rev. Robert flrlville. many years pallor at Xeshaminy, and father of Rev. Jacob Eclville, 
taught at Loller .Academy. iSio. T!ie building wa= u>;ed for public ilebates, and some 
di^tinguish^■d men have measured political and polemic swords there. In 1S44, during the 
Folic and Clay campaign, General Jolm Davis and Ib'ii. Josiah Randall discoursed in the 
pan. 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUXTV. . 199 



111 1710. He was a hatter, a Friend, and carried on his trade there several years. 
The ])lace was tlien called "Crooked Billet," from a crooked stick of wood 
painted on the tavern sign where he kept nt one time. He erected a stone house, 
liis daughter Ann carrying the stone and mortar for him in her apron. It is 
said she was engaged in this occupation when Bartholomew Longstreth decided 
to marry her. He had more courage than the modern swain is credited with 
possessing. She rode to Horsham meeting on a pillion behind her father, and 
after the marriage rode behind her husband to his house in Warminster. Ben- 
jamin, the youngest child, established the iion works at Phoenixville, and died; 
1798, of yellow fever. John Dawson had seven children. In 1742 Dawson 
lived at the southwest corner of Second street and Church alley, Philadelphia, 
in the first house erected on that site. The present name, Hatboro, is said to 
have been given to the village out of regard to the occupation of the earliest 
inhabitant. On the evidence of William J. Buck, the earliest name given to the 
place, when hardly a hamlet, was "Hatboro," and is found on Lewis Evans' 
■'.Map of the Middle Colonies," published at Philadelphia, 1749. Doubtless the 
village took the name of "Crooked Billet" from the sign tliat swung at the 
tavern door, a crooked billet of wood. John Dawson, a maker of hats, was there 
soon after 1700, and his occupation had something to do with the name. Botli 
names were probably applied to it at the same time. In 1759 the public house 
was kept by David Reese, whose daughter, Rebecca, born 1746, married John 
Hart, of War!llin^te^. The village was the scene of a spirited contest between 
American militia, under General Lacey, and a detachment of British troops, on 
May I, 1778. The retreating militiamen were pursued across Warmisier Vj 
the Bristol road, killed and wounded, on both sides, marking their route. ^^ 
The descendants of John and Dorothy Dawson number about two hundred per- 
sons. The Dawson family is an old one in England. The first of the name. 
Sir Archibald D'Ossone, afterward changed to Dawson, was a Norman noble- 
man, who accompanied William the Conqueror to England, 1066, and received 
the grant of an estate for services rendered in battle. It is not known that John 
Dawson was descended from him, and probably was not. 

The Longstreth manuscrijits give additional information on the Crooked 
Billet fight of an interesting character. John Tompkins" tavern on the York 
road was British hcadiiuartcrs. This was in the stone house, still standing, on 
the west side of the road about three hundred yards below the county line as 
we enter the village. Wc believe it is used as a dwelling. It is the tradition 
that Robert Iredell piloted the enemy, and that Isaac Dillon and a ''Colonel" 
William Dean had something to do with it. They were probably Tories. Captain 
Isaac Longstreth commanded a company of militia and Abraham Sutphin stood 
guard on the bridge at the lower part of the village the night prior to the morn- 
ing of the attack on Laccy. Lacey and his aid-de-camp quartered at the house of 
Jiihn Guilbert. a sti me dwelling recently taken down on the west side of the turn- 
pike, about half way from the county line to where the monument stands, and 
occupied an end room next the road. The night was moonlight and Mrs. Guil- 
bert, not being uble to sleep, got up and on looking out one of the back windows; 
saw British soldiers in the ai)i)le trees. She dressed, went down and awakened 
Lacey and his aide, who gr.t their Imrscs and rode to. camp. The refugees \vere 
cruel and gave no nuartor. An English officer had his thigh broken near the 
Longstreth gate, and two soldiers were seat for a blanket to sling him between 



19 Wiili.-im CarnrilKui, a Revolutionary solrlier, diet! in Warminster township, 1S39, 
aged ninety- I'nur, iu„,il,ly a ■^nrvivor nf tlic Crookcil Billet figlit. 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUXTV. 



horses. The soldiers began to phuiilcr and an officer who was sent after them 
■took Daniel Longstreth up the lane to point out his goods. A refugee demanded 
his silver shoe buckles, and dismounted to take them off, threatening to run him 
through unless he gave them up, but Longstreth appealed to the soldier's two 
■comrades, who shamed him and he rode away. 

Safety Maghee, of Northampton township, at the age of ninety-three, 
■rehted to the author, 1858, what he knew of the battle of the Crooked Billet. 
He said: "In 177S I was Ii\'ing with my uncle, Thomas Fohvell, in South- 
-ampton, where Cornell Ilobensack lives, on the road from Davisville to South- 
ampton church. On the morning of the battle I heard the firing very distinctly, 
and a black man named Harry and myself concluded we would go and see 
what was going on. I was then about thirteen years old. W'e started from the 
-house and I went directly toward where the firing was. When we came near 
to where Johnsville now stands we heard a heavy volley there, which brought 
us to a halt. The firing v.'as in the woods. The British were in pursuit of our 
militia and charged them from Johnsville to the Bristol road, and also through 
the fields froni the Street road to the Bristol road. They overtook the militia in 
the woods at the corner of the Street road and the one that leads across to the 
Bristol road. When the firing had ceased we continued on to the woods, where 
we found three wounded militiamen near the road. They appeared to have 
been wounded by the sword, and were much cut and hacked. When we got to 
them they were groaning greatly. They died in a little while, and, I understand, 
•were buried on the spot. They appeared to be Germans. We then passed on, 
-and, in a field near by, we saw two horses lying dead. They were British. One 
of them had been shot in the head and the gun put so close the hair was 
scorched. While we were in the field, liarry picked up a cartouch box, that 
had been dropped or torn off the wearer. Shortly after we met some of the 
militia returning, and, when they saw the black fellow with the cartouch box, 
thev became verv indignant, and accused him of robbing the dead, and took 
it away from him. Three dead horses were on the farm of Colonel Joseph Hart. 
Soon after tins we returned home. The last man was killed on the Bristol road 
at the end of the road that comes across from Johnsville." 

Tlie first Sunday-school at Hatboro was opened September 5, 1824, in 
Lollcr Academy. At that time there was no church there. The Baptist church, 
the first to be organized, grew out of a woods meeting held in the summer of 
1835, in a grove halt a mile below Southampton, and a mile from that church. 
During the meeting, the Rev. L. h'letcher, one of the officiating ministers, 
preached one evening in the Hatboro Academy. Several converts having been 
made at the woods meeting, and the Southampton Baptist church not being 
in sympathy, a question arose as to wliat v/as to be done with the new converts. 
Mrs. Yerkes, wife of the late Joseph B. Yerkes, who had recently come to Hat- 
boro, solved the problem by suggesting that a church be organized. The sug- 
gestion was accepted and, out of this muvemcut, the prosperous church at Hat- 
boro grew. 



CHAPTER XV. 



NEWTOWN. 



1703. 



Main stream of settlement.— Called Newtown, 16S7.— Lands taken up, 16S4.— Christopher 
Taylor. — John Mariindale. — Thomas Hillborn. — The Lintons. — Wiliiam Buckman. — 
Map of 1703. — Townstead. — The common. — Joseph Briggs. — Durham and other roads. 
— John Harris. — James Hanna. — Charles Stewart. — First site of church. — Area of 
township. — Population. — Tradition of borough's name. — What called in 1795. — 
Newtown in 17J5. — Laid out in 1733. — Tamer Carej-. — Samuel Hinkle. — Newtown in 
1805. — James Raguet.— Newtown library. — Academy. — Brick hotel. — Joseph Archam- 
bault. — Romantic career. — Death of Mrs. Kennedy. — Edward Plummer. — Doctor 
Jenks.— The Hickses. — Isaac Eyre. — Oliver Erwin. — General Francis ^lurray. — Pre-- 
byterian church.— Episcopal. — Methodist, and Friends' meeting.— Newtown of to-day. 
incorporated. — Population. — Pa.xson Memorial Home.^First temperance society. 

It will be found, on investigation, that the main stream of English settle- 
ment tlowed up tlie peninsula formed by the Delaware and Xeshaminy. For 
the first forty years, after the county was settled, the great majority of the in-imi- 
grants settled between these streams. West of the Xeshaminy the territory i; 
more circumscribed, and the current of English Friends not reacliing above \\ ar- 
minster. The pioneers, attracted by the fine rolling lands and fertile valleys of 
Newtown, Wrightstown, and Buckingham, early pushed their way thidier, 
leaving wide stretclies of unsettled wilderness behind. Newtov>-n lay in the track 
of this upward current east of the Neshaminy, and the smoke of the English 
settler was hardly seen on the Delaware before the sound of his ax v\-as heard 
in the forest north of !Middlctown. 

It is not knov.n when Xewtown township was laid out. or the name first 
given to it, but it is possible it was so known and called some years before the 
date given to it at the lu.-ad of this chapter. It was probably surveyed by 
Thomas Holme, and on his map, 1684. its boundaries are nearly identical with 
those of the present da^-. This district of country was called "Xewtown" as 
early as 16S7, in the inventory of Michael Hough, near which he had two 
hundred and fifty acres of land, valtied at £15. Samuel Paxson was appointed 
"overseer of liigh^\a}-5" for Xewtown. 1691. In the early day it was called 
"Xevv township." a new township laid out in the woods, and no doubt the orism 
of its name, and it is probable the ?\l!ab!e "ship" was dropped for convenience, 
leaving it "Xewtown" as we now have it. 



HfSTORV OF BUCKS COUXTV. 



In 16S4 its lands were pretty well apportioned anion;; proprietors, some to 
actual settlers, and others to non-residents. Richard Price owned a tract that 
ran the whole len;^th oi the 2^Iiddletown line. Thomas and John Rowland and 
Edward Braber (probably a misspelling) along Xeshaminy, Thomas Revel, 
Christopher Taylor, and William Bennet, on the Wrightstown border, Arthur 
Cook, John Otter, Jonathan Eldrey, Abraham Wharley, Benjamin Roberts, 
Shadrack Walley, William Sneed, Israel Ta\lor, and a tract laid out to the 
"governor," along wliat is now Upper Maketield. All these several tracts 
abutted on the townstead. Some of the parties had land located for them before 
their arrival. Of these early proprietors we know but little. William Bennet, 
of iMiddlesex, England, came with his wife Rebecca, November, 1685, but he 
died before the year was out, and she was left a widow in the woods of New- 
town. On the 9th of September, 1686, Naomi, daughter of Shadrack Walley, 
was married at Pennsbury to William Berry, of Kent county, r^Iaryland. In 
1709 AN'alley owned twelve hundred acres in the township, probably the extent 
of his original purchase. 

Christoph.er Taylor was an early settler, coming sometime in the '8o's, and 
owned five thoiisand acres in the county in several townships, a considerable 
tract in Newtown near Dolington. He died on the estate leaving two sons and 
one daughter, Israel, Joseph and 2vlary. In 1692, two hundred and fifty acres 
were patented to Israel Taylor, doubtless the son of Christopher, on the south- 
east side of Newtown borough. This he sold to James Yates, who, dying, 1730, 
the land went to his heirs, and soon after 1736, Samuel Cary became the owner 
of the greater part of the tract. Cary built a stone house on the premises, 1741, 
and called die place "Retirement." Pie died there. 1766, leaving the homestead 
to his son Samuel, who srild it to Nathaniel, father of Nathaniel P. Burrows, 
1801, for $5.8(>o. It then contained one hundred and forty-six and one-lialf 
acres. It was next o\\ ned by Thomas Porter, and a school kept there, known as 
"Porter's Academy." Tlie next owner was David Roberts, father of the late 
Stokes L. Roberts, and there the son was born. The daughters of the family 
were remarkably liands(5nie women, Eliza being often spoken of as the "hand- 
somest woman in Bucks county." She married Colonel Peter Ilirie, Easton. 
Twenty years ago the farm belonged to John B. Tomlinson, who pulled down 
tlie old house, built 1741. and erected a nev,- one, 1878. He called the place 
the "Fountain I'arni." The James Yeates who owned this farm after Israel 
Ta}'lor, is said to have walked the Indian purchase of 1684, and it was subse- 
quently Owned by his son, James, who was one of the walkers in the "Walking 
Purchase," 1737, but gave out the morning of the second day and lived but 
three da}s. These facts make the place of histcpric interest. 

The five hundred acre tract of Thomas Rowland, extending from New- 
town creek to Neshaminy, probably included the ground the Presbyterian 
church stands upon. It was owned by Henry Baker, 1691, who conveyed two 
hinidred and forty-eight acres to Job Bunting, June, 1692, and, October, 1697, 
the remainder, two hundred and fifty-two acres, to Stephen Wilson. In 1695 
Bunting cfmveycil his acres to Stephen Twining, and 1698 Wilson did the 
same, and Twining now owned Thomas Rowlan-l's whole tract. In 1757 part 
Or the whole of this land was in the possession of Benjamin Twining. In 1702 
Stephen Twining owned six hundred and ninety acres in New town, which John 
Cutler surveyed March 10. 

Twining, a ccinimon i]ame in Great Britain, of Anglo Saxnn origin, one 
authority says is composed of Saxon words meaning "two meadi'ws." The name 
of John Twining, an Abliot. of Wincho"'nib, Glr)ucestershirc, make^ its appear- 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUXTV. 



ance the middle of the tifteenth century. W'iUiam Twining was a freeholder at 
Yarmouth, Cape Cod, .Mass., 1643, and liis son W'iUiam. witii his family settled 
in Newtown. i6';5, dying there Nov. 4, 1703, and his wife Elizabeth Dean, 
daughter of Stephen, December 28, 170S. From that time Newtown has been 
considered the home township of the family, from which the members have 
gone forth to make their way in the world. Stephen, son of William Twining, 
born February, 1659, married Abigail, daughter of John and Abigail Young, 
and had eleven children, and died Feb. 18, 1720. The first of the Twining 
family to be born and live in Bucks county were the children of Stephen, fifth 
son oi Stephen 3d, born December 30, 1684, married Margaret Mitchell, Octo- 
ber, 1709, and died at Newtown, June 28, 1772. The wife died July 9, 1784, 
in her ninety-ninth year. Their issue was : William ; Elizabeth, born April 30, 
1712, married Isaac Kirk : .Abigail, born December 24, 1714, married Samuel 
Hillborn; Stephen, born February 20, 1719, married Sarah Janney; [Nlary, 
married John Chapman, October 8, 173S; \ViIliam, born April 7, 1723; 2\Iar- 
garet. married Thomas Hamilton, and had a large family. 

John Martindalc, born in England, 1676. settled in Newtown before 1700, 
and married Mary Bridgeman, daughter of Walter Eridgeman and Blanch Con- 
stable, 3.Iiddletown. She died, in 1726, leaving six children, from whom liave 
descended a numerous family. Of these descendants we can trace John, of the 
second generation, born in 1719, and married ]\Iary Strickland. Amos, of the 
third, born 1761, married ilartha Merrick, Charles, of the fourth, born, 1801. 
married Phrebe Comly. and Doctor Joseph C. the fifth in descent from the 
progenitor, born 1833, in Philadelphia county. The latter achieved considerable 
distinction. Witliout the advantages of early education he took a respectable 
position in the walks of literature and science. Flis active life was spent in 
teaching and practicing medicine. In his hours of leisure he wrote, A Historv 
of the United States, for schools, of which seventy thousand were sold in the 
first six years; History of Byberry and MoreUmd,' A Scries of Spelling Books. 
First Lessons in Natural Philoso'phy, and a volume on Anatomy, Physiologx 
and Hygiene. He left unpublished, at his death, 1S72, "A Catalogue of the 
Birds, Animals and Plants" found in the vicinity of Philadelphia. Doctor 
Martindale was a man of great industry and accomplished much under adverse 
circumstances. 

A map of Newtown township, as surveyed and laid out by John Cutler, 
1702. gives us the 
names of the land 1 ■ — r^ 



owners_at that ! ^ ^'^•V^"^/' ^ .v^^V'-.- . -^ 



time. They had 
c h a n g e d since 
l68j. with some 
new-comers ; Ste- 
phen Twining, al- 
ready mentioned, 
William Buck- j 
man, who died in | 
1716, Michael and 
Samuel H on gh. 
Ezra Croa^ciale, |,.„^ ; . 
Henry Pax-on, Iro^^^^ 
Israel Morris, 
Thomas IIillh..ra. 



7^ 



\: 



i'jyy ^'^sia^'u.itjL. 



v.\Tts nmsi:. Ni.'.vrow.s. 



204 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUNTY 



who died in 17-3, James Eldridge, Mary Haywortli, and James 
Ycales. i!y this lime Shadrack Wallej', who had become the largest 
hmdowner in the township, owning one thousand three hundred and 
ninety-seven acres, liad absorbed mos't of the land that Richard Price 
owned on the JMiddletown line, 16S4. A small portion of Price's land 
was now owned by Yeates. Israel Morris was the smallest land-owner in the 
township, one hundred and sevents'-cight acres, if we except Edward Cowgill, 
who owned a few acres adjoining the north-west corner of the town common. 
James Yeates died in 1730, and was probably the father of the James Yeates 
who took part in the Great Walk of 1737. John Frost, who gave the name to 
Frost lane, on the northern edge of the borough, was there in 171 1, and died in 
1716. There were either Germans or Hollanders settled in the township as 
early as 1724, for in the survey of the road from Newtown to Falls meeting- 
liouse, of that >oar, there is mention made of "the Dutchman's plantation." 

Thomas Hillborn, ancestor of the Bucks county family bearing this name, 
was an English F'riend, who came to Newtown from Shrewsbury, N. J., in the 
spring of 1702. The year previous he had purchased seven hundred and fifty 
acres adjoining JNIakefield, including twenty-five acres in the Newtown town- 
stead. August 20, 1702, he purchased one hundred and thirty acres additional, 
making in all, per Cutler's resurvey, nine hundred and eighty acres. On De- 
cember 12, 1688, Thomas Hillborn married, at her mother's house, Shrewsbury, 
Elizabeth Hutton, at an appointed meeting of Friends. Twelve children were 
born of this marriage, the first six at Shrewsbury, the rest at New town, viz : 
Samuel, born 8 mo. 20, 16S9; Robert, born 5 mo. 31, 1692; Mary, born 10 mo. 
7, 1694; Elizabeth, born ist mo., 2, 1697-98; Katharine, born i mo., 30, 1699; 
l)eborah, born 3 mo. 25, 1701, died 1703; Thomas, born 1703; John, born 
1705; Joseph, born 170S, died 1731, unmarried; Amos, born 1710, died 1710; 
Rachel, born 1711 ; Hannah, born 1714, died 1714. 

Thomas Hillborn died at Newtown, 1723, leaving a will dated 1719, his 
wife surviving him several years. Her will, dated 1728, now in possession of 
one of her descendants at Omaha, Nebraska, does not seem to have been pro- 
bated. Elizabeth Hillborn, widow of Thomas, had purchased of Richard Sun- 
ly, a farm in W'rightstown, and bv the above will, she devised it to her son, Jo- 
seph, subject to his maintenance of her aged mother Elizabeth Hutton, but she 
subsequently sold the farm. Thomas Hillborn, Sr., in his lifetime, conveyed 
two hundred and twenty-nine acres to his grandson, Samuel Hillborn (son of 
Samuel, deceased) 6 mo. 7, 1717, which Samuel conveyed to Thomas, 1739, 
Thomas to his son Robert, 1779. and Robert to his son Amos, by will, 1793. 
On October 22. 1717, Thomas Hillborn, Sr., conveyed two hundred and fifty 
acres to hi? son Roliert, and Robert I'ying 1720. devised it to his son Thomas, 
who, in 1741, having removed to Kurlington, N. J., sold the whole tract to 
Feter Taylor. The balance of the tract was devised to his son Thomas and to 
the widow Elizabeth, and they conveyed the same, separately, to John Hillborn, 
1726 and 1737, respectively. 

Samuel Hillborn, eldest son of Thomas and Elizabeth married. 171 1, Mar- 
garet, daughter of Christopher and J^Iargaret Atkinson, who came here from 
Yorkshire. England. Cliristophcr dying on the passage, or soon after his arrival. 
Sanuicl HiUhnrn died. 1714. leaving an only son. Samuel, who married Abigail, 
daughter of .Stephen Twining, and had bv her eight children: Samuel, who re- 
moved, to Du.rham t nvii^hip : Jo^cph. who married .'Xnii \Vilkin5on, and settled 
in Smithfield. Philadelphia county: Mary; Elizabeth: Juhn, said to have been 
captured by Indians, 1775. and carried to Canada, but returned to Peimsyl- 



HISTORY or BUCKS COUXTV. 205 



vania; Thomas, married Sarah Bruniinage, removed to Canada, 1S06-7, his 
son. KH H. Hillborn, Hving at Toronto ; Wilham and David, died without issue ; 
Marv, married lames Paxson; Elizabeth married Thomas Millard. Robert, 
second son of Thomas and Elizabeth, married Hilary, daughter of Thomas 
liarJintr, 1715, tlicJ ij-'o, leaving two children, Tliomas and Alary, the former 
removed to ilurlingion. New Jersey, 173S-39, where he was living, 1741 (see 
deed of record Bucks county), and later removed to Lower Dublin township, 
and was a member of Byberry meeting, and died about 1770. Robert, his eldest 
son, born 2 mo., 6, 1740, in New Jersey, removed to Portland, Aiaine, 1775-76, 
where he enlisted in United States service, married and settled and has numer- 
ous descendants in New England. In an affidavit made in 94 to establish his 
claint to a pension, he said he was born in New Jersey. The other children of 
Thomas and Alary Hillborn were Thomas, born 10 mo., 23, 1741 ; Alary born 
9 mo., 10, 1744; Joseph, born 2 mo. 12, 1743; Benjamin, born 8 mo. 30, 1746, 
and Elizabeth. 

Mary Hillborn, eldest daughter of Thomas and Elizabeth, married Amos 
Watson; Elizabeth married Abraham Darlington, Chester county; Katharine 
Hillborn was unmarried, 172S; Deborah, born 1701, died, 1703; Thomas, born 
1703, married 1726, Ann Ashton, daughter of Thomas and Deborah Baines 
Ashton, had sons Robert and Samuel ; Robert died at Newtown, 1793, leaving 
sons, Amos, Thomas, Robert and John ; daughters, Rach.el Beans, Elizabeth 
Saylor, Fanny and Mercy. Of these, Thomas, who married Rachel Haj'hurst, 
was the father of Isaac Hillborn, Philadelphia; John Plillborn born 1705, 
married 3 mo., 1730, Rachel Strickland, and removed to Philadelphia and died 
there, 1747, leaving five children, Amos, Allies, Joseph, Elizabeth and Frances. 
When the tov.nship was laid out there was reserved and surve3-ed, at 
about the middle of it, a "townstead" of six hundred and forty acres on which 
the borough of Newto'.vn stands. To encourage purchasers, Penn allowed each 
one to locate a lot in the townstead equal to ten per cent, of the quantity he took 
up in the township. There was left of this reservation, lying on both sides of 
Newtown crock and nearly one half within the present borough limits, a \-acant 
strip containing forty acres, and known as the '"common." The i6th of August, 
1716. this piece 01 land was ])atentcd to Shadrack Walley, William Buckman 
and John Frost, for tlic use of themselves and other inhabitants of the township.' 
These parties died without perfecting their title, and the vacant strip of land 
lay as common imiil the close of the century. The ist of April, 1796, the in- 
habitants authorized William Buckman, Francis Afurray, James Hanna, Thomas 
Story, William Linton and John Dormer Alurray to procure the title to this 
property from the state, with autliority to sell or lease, and the proceeds to be 
equally divitled between the academy, a free scliool in the village, and schools 
in the township, in such manner as the trustees miglit direct. The patent was 
issued July 8, 1796, and the consideration was of £79. 6s., with a reservation of 
one-sixth of all the gold and silver found on it. The following were the metes 
and bounds of the common: "Beginning at a stone, an original corner, etc., 
thence crossing Newtown creek, along lands of Aaron Phillips, formerly James 
Yeates, south eighty-three and one half degrees cast thirty-five perches to a 
stone in Bristol road, in line of Joseph A\'orstairs lot. thence along the same 
and sundry lots of said town, of lands originally of Shadraclc Walley, Mary 
Hayworth and Jonathan Eldridge, north eight and a quarter flegrccs, east two 



I It was conveyed to the inlnbitants of Newtown townsliip "tor tlic convenience of 
ronils, passages to ye water, and other btnefits to ye said township.'' 







, j^. 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUNTY. 207 



luiiuired and eleven and four-tenllis perches to a stone set as a corner of Samuel 
C'arev, originally Thomas Ilillborn, and a corner of the seven acres belonging to 
and snrveyed to Francis Murra\', thence by the same, re-crossing the creek, north 
eighty degrees ^vest twenty-nine eight-tenths perches to a stone, now set as 
another corner thereof, on the westerly side of Taylor's ferry road, at its inter- 
section of the Durham road about the corner of Aloses Kelly, originally Ezra 
Croasdale, and Jacob Bnckman, originally Samuel Hough's, thence by said 
IJuckinan, James Hanna, Esq., Thomas Buckman and Jesse Leedom, and others, 
originally Aiichael Hough's, William Buckman and Stephen Twining, south 
nine degrees thirty-eight minutes west two hundred and thirteen and four- 
tenths perches to the place of beginning, containing forty acres and ninetv-sevcn 
perches." The common was two hundred and twelve and three-tenths perches 
and two hundred and twelve and five-tenths perches on tiie east and west lines, 
respectively, and twenty-nine and nine-tenths perches and thirty-tive and five- 
tenths perches on the north and south lines. It was divided into fifty-five lots, 
of unequal size, thirty-seven, fifty-five and one hundred and thirty feet front, 
and from one himdred and sixty-eight to two hundred and forty-two feet in 
<.Ie]jLh, which were put up at public sale August i, 1796, and most of tliem sold. 
Those numbered from one to twelve, inclusive, were sold in fee-simple, and the 
remainder on ground-rent, payable on the ist of August, forever, with the right 
of redemption. Those sold in fee brought from £32 to ±104, while those on 
ground-rent ran from £5. 12s. 6d. down to i8s. Cd. The common embraced all 
that portion of the present borough of Newtown lying between 2\Iain street on 
the east and Sycamore on the west, and Frost lane on the north down to a line 
a little below Penn street on the south, and the titles are held under the several 
acts of Assembly relating thereto. As many of the purchasers under the act of 
1796 did not comply with the conditions of sale, and the old trustees being dead, 
with no persons capable of acting in their stead, the legislature cured the defect 
in 1818. By this act Enos },Iorris, Thomas G. Kennedy, Jacob Janney, Phineas 
Jcnks, Joseph \\'orstall, Jr., and Thomas Buckman were made "trustees of the 
Newtown common." They had power to sell and lease, previous titles were 
confirmed, and the same disposition was to be made of the proceeds as under 
the act of 1796.- W'h.en the common lots were sold Alain street was left o'pen, 
but in 1798 a jury laid, it out along the east side of the common sixty-six feet 
wide, and likewise Bridge and another cross street forty-nine and one-half feet 
wide. In 1795 ^'^"^ common was called "graveyard field." Main street was de- 
clared a public road in 1785. 

The Lintons were early settlers in Bucks county, but we have not the date 
of the famil\'s coming. They were here before the middle of the eighteenth 
century. \\"illiam Linton, one of the trustees for selling the New- 
town Common, was the si.n of John and Elizabeth Hayhurst Linton, of 
Wrightstown, and born 1742. He married, first, 1766, Sarah Penquite, daugh- 
ter of Samuel, Wrightstown ; second, 17SS, Alary Janney, daughter of Thomas 
Janney, Newtown township, a iK-.scendant of Thomas Janney, Provincial Coun- 
cillor : third. Letitia (Harvey) l-Illicott, widow of Nathaniel EUicott. Bucking- 
ham. He had two children by his first wife, John and Elizabeth, none by his other 
wives. William Linton bought fr,r himself at the trustees sale, lot No. 8. and 
shortly erected on ii facing .Main .--treet. one of the finest mansions then in the 
town, and which is still (1901) standing. The property is shown on the map 

i In i/td ten ."icrcs wore Kr.TntcIl to Thoni.is Mayberry. out of the "vacant land in 
the townsteail ■.•I Xfuion, in the cunitv "i Ilnok^." for a settlement to carry on his trade. 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUXTV. 



of 1S12 in his name, adjoining the north hnes of the county property and the 
Academy lot. ThL'se two lots, being nm^.tly open ground, gave Linton's house a 
fine uninterrupted view, and with its central location in the town and the court 
house nearly oi'poiite, made it a most desirable situation for a residence. }<It. 
Linton lived in this house, in colonial style behtting his position, until his deadi, 
1S02, and his widow maintained an establishnKui of some pretention until her 
decease, 1S17. They both belonged to v. ealtuy and prominent families for the 
time. The property was inherited by William Linton's daughter Elizabeth, wife 
of Joseph Luckman, 1S19, who sold it to iNlaria H. Wirtz, and she conveyed it 
to Dr. Reading Beatty,-'- 1S23. Dr. Beatty lived here until his death and left 
it to his son. Dr. Charles C. Beatty, who, 1S32, sold it to Joseph P. Norris, Jr., 
Philadelphia, trustee for Anna iNIaria, wife of ^Morris Buckman. In 1842, after 
twenty-three years cf outside ownership, this house came back into the Linton 
connection, and on ^vLarch 7, after two transfers, the property was conveyed to 
Joseph Briggs, in whose family it has remained. At this time IMr. Briggs lived 
in the old Court Inn, which we have mentioned elsewhere. Modern improve- 
ments and the encroachment of business have shut of? the pleasant outlook from 
this semi-colonial mansion. 

Down to 1723 t!ic Durham road appears to have been the only traveled 
highway by which the inhabitants of the township could reach the outside world. 
Necessity was now fell for wagon communication with their neighbors east and 
west. The road to Taylorsville, via Dolington, was opened in 1723, and that 
from Newtown to Fallsington via Summerville, 1724. At the June term, 1730. 
the court w-as petitioned for a road "from Thomas Yardley's mill and the ferry 
at the said Yardley's landing."^ This road was opened, 1734,^. and tliat to Ad- 
disville about the same period. ° In 1760 a road was laid out from ^vIcKonkey's 
ferry" to Newtown. In 174S several of the inhabitants of Newtown and Make- 
field petitioned for a- road "from William Croasdale's lot'' along the line of 
John Croasdale and others into what is now the Durham road. This road prob- 
ably started about Dolington, or in that vicinity. The road to the Buck tavern 
was laid out in iSog, and ordered forty-five feet wide. 

John Harris came to Newtown and settled at the townstead, probably as 
early as 1750. Seven years later he was keeping store there, when be purchased 
sixty acres of Benjamin Twining, part of the Thomas Rowland tract on the west 
side of the creek, which cost him £320. September 21, 1767, he purchased of 
Nelson Jolly what was called his "upper farm," on the west side of the common. 
The Presbyterian church stands on tlie south-west corner. The greater part 



2yi Dr. Reading Bentty, born Dec. 23. 1757, son of Rev. Charles Beatty by his wife 
Ann. daughter of Governor John Reading, Xew Jersey. He ^vas a student of medicine at 
the outbreak of the Revolution, but went into service as ensign in Captain John Richard- 
son's Company, Colonel Magaw's battalion, 5th Pennsylvania; prisoner of war, 1776-177S; 
May, 1778, appointed cn?ign, 6ih Pennsylvania regiment, Continental line; May i, 17S0, 
surgeon l6lh Pennsylvania regiment, Continental line; September, 17S1, transferred to 
Proctor's .Artillery and served till end of war. He afterward settled in Bucks county and 
practiced medicine, his residence,, after 1S21, being the Linton house, Newtown, where 
he died October 29, 1831. He married .'Xpril 20, 17S6, Christiana, daughter of Judge Henry 
Wynkoop. 

3 Now Yardlcy. 

4 It was re-laid in 1705 two poles wide. 

5 Rclaid thirty-three feet wide in 17S7, 

6 Formerly called B.iker's ferry. 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUXTY. 



209- 



, f this tract is now owned by Alexander German, and the old yellow lionse, 
known as the ""Washinijjtcin headquarters," was the homestead of Harris, 
liradiially Joiui Harris became a cunsiflerahlc lanil-owner, owning- over five 
hundred acres in all. Two hundred and fifty-seven acres lay in Xewtown, ami 
as much in Upper ^lakefield, jiart of which was bought of the trustees of the 
L^'udon company, the remainder from the manor of Highland. He grew to 
he a man of note among his fellows and before 1770, was written "John Harris, 
merchant" and "John Harris," Esqr." He died August 13, 1773, in his fifty- 
sixth year, and his widow administered on his estate. 

John Harris married Hannah, daughter of Charles Stewart, Upper Make-- 
field, and had seven children: John, Ann, Sarah, Elizabeth, Mary, Kachel, and 
Hannah. Of the children of this marriage, Ann, sometimes written Anne, was 
married twice, the first time to Dr. Hugh Shicll, riiiladelphia. He was a native 
of Ireland, took his degree in medicine at Edinburgh, settled in Philadelphia at- 



■^.x^.;.^ 









the beginning of the Revolution, was a personal friend of Robert Morris, and 
subscribed L^,oo<:> sterling to establish the bank of Xorth America. Dr. Shielf 
first met Miss Harris at Mr. Morris's lionse. The mother opposed the match, 
but the young people went to church and settled the matter for themselves. 
He was a man of fine education, good iiianners and full of humor. They had 
but one child. Catharine Harris Shiell. born .\ugust 19. 17S3, who married and 
died at Lexington, Kentucky. June 24. 1S41. aucl her husband, June 11, 1833, of 
cholera. At the death of i)r. Shiell. his wid-iw niarried Judge Harry Innes, 
Kentucky.''-- Their child. Maria Knox, first married her cousin. Judge 

7 John Harris \v.-\s .1 taiuier as well as a mcrcliaiit, and fifty years after his death, 
in dipping the foundation fo.r a milk-house on the German farm, they came to an old 
wall, vats, hark, and other remains of the tannery. The oldest inhahitant could tell nothing 
ah. lilt them. 

7'j hi the "J^nirnal of a Jiinriicy Thrnnsli the I'nited States, iyn}.--n6," by ThoTnas 
Chapman. F.^q.. an Enijlishman, we find the follnwint; reference to the Inncsscs -while at 
rranktnrt, Ky. : "On Wednesday evenin's. Decemhcr 2. I went out and --Ippt ai Judv;e 
Ir-ines's, who has pot a plantation about five miles from Frankfort, where I staid all night 



210 HISTORY OF BUCKS COUSTY 



Harris Toihl. and at liis death became the second wife of Hon. John J. 
Crittemien." 

Sarali Harris married Captain Charles Smitii, of Wayne's army; Elizabeth, 
Judge TlKJmas Todd, L'nited States Supreme Court, whose second son, Charles 
Stewart Todd, was aid-dc-camp to General Harrison, war of 1S12-15, and 
represented the L;i>vernuient at St. Petersburg- and Colombia, South America. 
]\Iary Harris married James Hanua, a lawyer of Newtown, and had four chil- 
dren. Commodore Spotts, of the navy, was a grandson. Jack Harris married 
Jane Hunt, New Jersey. His son \Villiam, a commander in the Navy, was 
drowned off \'era Cruz during the Mexican War, trying to save the life of a 
brother officer.' After the death of Charles Stewart, Mrs. Stewart with her 
daughters. Mrs. Hunter. Mrs. Harris, and Mrs. Shiell, a daughter of Ivlrs. Har- 
ris, all widows, with their children emigrated to Kentucky, where their de- 
scendants are aim'ng the most distingxiished people of the state. Charles Stew- 
art, the father of }ilrs. Harris, had other children ; Robert, who died unmarried 
at Trough Springs, Kentucky ; William, a schoolmate of Daniel Boone, who 
accompanied him on his second visit to Kentucky, and was killed at the battle 
«f Lilue Lick: Mary, who married James Hunter, and Charles, who died at 
Newtown, 1773, at the age of thirty-seven. Charles Stewart, the father, died 
September 16, 17^4. aged seventy-five, and was buried in the Presbyterian 
church yard. He was born in Scotland, 1709. His wife was Sarah Lawcll. 
widow of David, born 1 709, and died in Kentucky. iSoo. When Charles 
.Stev.-art caine to America is not known. In 1787. Hannah Harris went to 
"Kaintuckee,"- to get her share of her brother William's estate. The following 
is a memoranda iif her disbursements and expenses: "Trip from Newtown, 
Bucks county, I'ennsylvania to Danville, Kentucky. £70; boat to ascend the 
Ohio river £18; supplies for myself and family for two years and expenses of 
return to Newtown, Ducks county, Pennsylvania, £350; expenses of a negro 
man in Kentucky, ami going and coming, £36. 5s. lod; Thomas Lowrie, service 
in Kentucky and on my return, £45. 14s. 3d. ; loss sustained in horses in my 
journey to. stay at, and return from Kentucky, £80; making a total of £0io. id." 

John llurrows, the grandfather of Charles P. Burrows, of Pineville, came 
to Ijucks count\- from New Jersey. He settled about Morrisville, where he 
lived in a cave, and, on selling his property to Robert Morris, removed to New- 
town township, on the road to Yardleyville. When the Revolutionary war 
broke out, John Burrows carried the mail from Philadelpliia, but the mail 
carrier from Princeton to New York siding with the British, Burrows was 
ap[)ointed to carry the mail through to New York. Great dit^culty was ex- 
perienced, and sometimes his son carried the mail in a little bag around his neck, 
frequently swimming the Delaware. aTid creeping thniugh the .grass to esca['e 
enemies. Burrows was elected either door-kee]5er or Sergeant-at-Arms of 
Congress, when it sat at Philadelphia. He accompanied it to Washington, 

and was highly ciitLrtaincl hy the pohte and affable beliavior of the Judtje and his lady. 
Mr. Innes 15 a Fedi-ral Judije with a salary of i.ooo dollars per annum." 

8 Mrs. Innes. tlic mother of Mrs. Crittenden, was visited at her home near Frank- 
fort. Ky . June. 1S40. hy the Rev. Robert D. Morris, who was iii^trnnieiitat in her conver- 
sion anil baptized her. lie also bapiti:'ed Mrs. Crittenden's early friend, Mrs. Hapcnny, 
at the ase of seventy five S!ie was a dau.cjhter of .-Vinos Strickland, who built the old end 
■of the brick tavern. .Vmlwwn 

9 Hannah and Rarhel Il.irris died unmarried. The Ifannas lived near N'ewtown, 
bclon^jcd to the i're>liy;erian eluireh anil rrkewi.-.e removed to Kentnckv. 



HISTORY OF DUCKS COUNTY. 



vl'crc lie died at the age of ninety-six, after many years service. His son, Xa- 
tluuiiel lUirrows. was born at Newark, in 1756, and came to the county with his 
lather. He married Ann, daughter of Lamb Torbert, Xcwtown township, and 
died, 1840, at the age of eighty-four. He was a soldier in the Revolution, and 
he and his father both drew pensions to their death. X'athaniel Burrows had 
eiglit children, Sanuiel, William, John, Joseph, George. Margaretta, Charles 
and Mary. Charles and one sister are still living. The wife of Xatlianiel Bur- 
rows died, 1838, at the age of seventy-nine, and she and her husband were both 
buried in the P'resbyterian graveyard, Xewtown. 

The original I'resbyterian church of Xewtown stood on the "old Swamp 
road" a mile west of the village on the farm owned by Alexander German, and 
was probably founded before 1740. A new church was erected near the borough 
limits, in 1769, on a lot given by John Harris, when the old frame building was 
abandoned. It 'was afterward sold and converted into a wagon house at the 
John Thompson farm near the Chain bridge, in Northampton. A number of 
tombstones are still in the old grave yard, bearing dates from 1741 to 1756, 
some of them of quite elaborate workmanship. There is a tradition that a 
wicked sinner, named Kelley, hired a negro to fetch him a marble slab from 
the old grave yard to use for a paint stone, and that when liis act of vandalism 
became known, public opinion drove him from the neighborhood. About 1750 
sixty acres of land on the west bank of the Xeshaminy, below N'ewtown, with 
a dwelling upon it, were given to the Presbyterian church for a parsonage. It 
was sold about the breaking out of the Revolutionary war, and the proceeds 
invested in six per cent, state warrants. These were stolen from the house of 
John ThcMiipson, the treasurer, and lost to the church. ^lany years ago the fol- 
lowing lines on the "old grave yard,'' were suggested by a remark of the late 
Doctor I'liineas Jenks, in a lecture before the Newtown Lyceum, and published 
in the NciL'tozi-n Journal: 

Overgrown and neglected, deserted, forlorn, 

A thicket of dogwood, of briar and thorn. 

Is that home of the dead, that last place of rest 

For the mouldering clay of the good and the blest. 

Where once, up to heaven, upon the still air. 
Rose the music of praise and the murmur of prayer; 
Where crowds came to worship, from valley and hdl. 
Rests a silence like death, 'tis so cjuiet and still. 

Not a vestige remains of the temple, whose roof 
Echoed oft to the loud earnest preachings of truth — 
Time's pinions have swept every fragment away. 
And the people who listened, oh where now are they? 

The stones which affection once placed o'er the dead. 
Their names- to preserve, and their virtues to spread; 
Displaced and disfigured, the eye should, to see, 
Have the aid of thy chisel, "Old .Mortality." 

Soon the plough will o'erturn the root and the blade 
Of the sod once upheavctl by the mattock and spade; 
And the place, once so sacred, will then be forgot. 
With the beings who wept and rejoiced on this spot. 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUXTV. 



Among- the iiiliabitants of Xewtown township, of a past generation, v,a> 
one who attempted to shuflk otif this mortal coil by jumping down a well forty 
feet deep when a little deranged in his mind. He repented the act when he 
reached the bottom, cried lustily for help and was fortunate enough to be drawn 
out alive. Some people were uncharitable enough to say that his insanit) wa> 
a dispensation ui Providence in ininishment for driving off his neighbor's cattle 
to the r.riti>h di'.riiig the Revolutionary war. 

Xewt(.)wii t^jwnship is bounded by the Xeshaminy on the west, which sep- 
arates it from Xorthani[)ton, north by W'rightstown, east by the two Makt- 
fields and soutli by ]\liddletown. The area is six thousand two hundred and 
forty-six acres, a. trifle more than ten times the quantity in the original townsteacL 
We believe the boundaries to be the same as when it was first laid out. The 
surface slopes to the soutli. and the soil is productive. It is .watered by Xesh- 
aminy and its tributaries, Xewtown creek running the entire length of the town- 
ship, and Core creek flowing through its southeast corner into Lower }ilake- 
field. On the Xeshaminy is a valuable quarry of brown stone, used extensively 
for ornamental building purposes. The main industry is farming. Jenks's 
'ulling-mill, two miles southeast of Xewtown, is probably the oldest mill of its 
Oia^s in the county, and was raided by the British during their occupancy of 
Philadelphia in the Revolution. 

The first enumeration of inhabitants of Xewtown that we have seen, is that 
of 1742, when there were forty-three taxables and nine single men. The tax 
raised was £12. 18. gd., and Samuel Carey the heaviest payer, was taxed ten 
shillings. In 1754 the taxables were 59; So in 1761, and 82 in 1762. In 17S4 it 
contained 497 whites, 28 blacks, and 84 dwellings. The population in 1800 was 
7S1 ; iSio, 982: 1S20, 1,060; 1830, 1,344, and 2t,t, taxables; 1S40, 1,440; 1850. 
765 whites, jj blacks; i860, 933 whites, 67 blacks, and in 1S70 the number 01 
the whites was the same, of whom 95 were foreign-born, and 50 blacks; iSSo, 
970; 1890, 759: 1900, 715. The apparent falling of? in the population after 
1840 was caused by the incorporation of the village of Newtown into a borough, 
and the separate eiunneration of its inhabitants. 

The borough of Xewtown has possibly borne its present name longer than 
any other village in the county. The exact time of its founding, and the origiiT 
of its name, are both involved in doubt. Tradition tells us that, on one occasion, 
as William Penn, with a party of friends, was ridijig through the woods where 
the village stands, he remarked to those about him, "this is the place proposed 
for my new town ;" and a ncxv tonii in very truth it was, to be founded and 
built in the depth of the Bucks county wilderness. Whether the village took 
the name of the township, or the township of the village, we are left to con- 
jecture, but the probability is in favor of the latter. The last course in a tract 
of two hundred and twenty-five acres, laid out to Shailrack Walley, October 25. 
16S3. nuis nortlua^t by east by "Xew Town street, twenty-eight perches,'' and 
twenty-five acres in "Xew Town-stead." In the patent to Thomas Rowland, 
dated I2th of 12th month, 1684, for four hundred and fifty acres, on the "east- 
ermost side of Xoshaminoh (Xeshaminy) creek," calls for fifty acres in the 
"village or townslead," one side of which is "bounded on the street or road of 
said village." The 12th month, 17th. 169S, Stephen Twining, carpenter, of 
Piurlington. Xew Jersey, sold two hundred and tiftv-two acres of the Rowland 
tract to Stephen Twining, yeoman, "being in the countv of Bucks, at a place 
called Xew Town." These are the earliest mention of the name we have been 
able to find, and thev carrv us back to within a vear after the arrival of Willian: 



lUSTOliY OF DUCKS COUSTY. 213 



I'cnn. On the map of Oldniix'iii, 1741, it is spelled "Xewtnwne," and "Xew- 
t.>n" in Scott's Gazetteer uf 1705- 

On the authority of John Watson, in a communication to the I'hilosophical 
Society, there was a white man, named Cornelius Spring-, livini^ at Newtown in 
ltti)2. He was possibly une of the very oldest and earliest inhabitants of this 
ancient village, but ])robabl_\- he and others were there before that time. The 
farmhouse of lohn Tomlinson is supposed to have been built near the close of 
the century, but the dwelling of Silas C. Bond, in the lower part of the village, 
is thought to be the oldest house in it. The kitchen, more modern than the 
main building, was built in 1713. As late as 1725," when the county seat was 
removed from Bristol to Xewtown, it consisted of a few log huts built along 
the Durham road, now State street. This event gave it an importance not 
hitherto enjovcd, and for almost the. ninety years it remained the shire-town it 
was considered the tirst village of the county. The five acres bought of John 
Walley to erect the public buildings on, and for other county purposes, lay on 
the east side of State street, and extended from Washington avenue down to 
I'enn street, forty perches, and twenty perches east. The present Court street 
cut the lot in twain from north to south. In 1733 the ground was laid out into 
-six squares of equal size, one hundred and ninety by one hundred and forty- 
two and a half feet, and streets opened through it. The court house and prison 
were erected on square number one, bounded by land of John \\ alley, that ex- 
tended to Washington avenue. State, Sullivan and Court streets. The same 
year the commissioners sold a lot in the fifth sciuare, sixty feet on Court and one 
hundred and forty-two and a half on King street, to Joseph Thornton, on which 
the Court inn was subsequent!}- erected. Gradually the whole of the five acres, 
not occupied by the public buildings, were sold to various parties long before the 
county seat was removed. When that event took place there was only that por- 
tion of plot number one where the court house, jail and little old oflice stood to 
be disposed of. The five acres are now in the heart of the town and covered 
with buildings. We have no means of even gfuessing the population of 
Xewtown when it became the county scat. Eighty years ago it contained 
about fiftv dwellings, and tradition tells us that at that time one house in ten 



10 Newtown was made the seat of justice of Bucks county in 1725, by an act nf 
Assembly of 1723; and William Biles, Joseph Kirkbride, Thomas Watson, M. D. and 
Abraham Chapman were appointed commissioners to purchase a piece of land in Newtown 
township, in trust, for the use of the county and build thereon a court house and prison. 
The same act provided for holding the elections at Newtown. The trustees were author- 
ized to sell as much of the land purchased as would not inconvenience the 
•court house and other public buildings. The prison proving too small, a m-w 
one was built uiultr an act passed. 1743-45. The tire-proof office was not built until 
1772. It was designated a "strong and commodious house," was 12 by 16 feet in size, of 
•stone masonry two feet thick, brick arch 12 inches deep, with chimney and fireplace in 
west end. Prior to this the ooiinty records were kept at the private homes of the officers. 
The act for building the fireproof provided that "the papers and records shall be deposited 
and kept in the said house under a penalty of £300. any usa.ge or cu<tnni to the contrary 
notwithstandin.g." One of tlie jailors at Newtown was "Paddy" Hunter, who kept a bar 
and sold rum in the prison oftioc. and prisoners and others who Iiad tlie money C' uld 
rilways huy the .irticle. .\s:i Carey -luccecded "P.nddy" .-it the lattcr's dcatli and stoppoil ;''.e 
Siile of rum ami the escape of jiri-oucr-i. lie \\:is the la^t jail^ir at Newtown and tlie 
lirst at D'lylcstowii On returning to Xewtown he married Tanior Woorstall, celelirated 
for lier cakes ami |iie-. 



214 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUXTV 



had license to scU liiiiuir, lit-sicks ihe keeper oi the jail, and the only kiiuwn 
buildings along the \\est side of ^lain street were the academy and that occu- 
pied bv the National bank. The built-up portion of the town was on the east 
side of Main street, between Penn street and Washington avenue. Ruiiert 
Smock's estate owned all the land on that side of the street, including the Brick 
hotel, from the aveiuie u\> to the Iiridge across the creek, except one lot. A map 
of that period gives but nineteen building lots on the east side of Main, between 
Penn street and Washington avenue, and only twenty real estate owners on 
that side as far as the street c.Ktends, not including the county. Of the streets, 
that on the west side of die creek was known as the '"Other"' street, while those 
crossing the common, from the lower to the upper end, bore the names of 
Lower, Bridge, ^'iddle, now \\'asliington avcmic, Spring, Yonder, and Upper 
streets. At that day Newtown had four taverns. The property on State street, 
in recent years. T. \\'ilson [Miller's, was ownetl by John Torbert, and kept bv 
Jacob Kessler, who married Doctor DeNormandies' widow. It next came into 
the possession of Asa Carey, who called it '"Bird in Hand,"" then to his widow 
Tamar, whose ginger cakes gained great celebrity. To his duties as landlord 
Mr. Carey added tiiose of postmaster. The temperance house was kept by one 
Dettero, then by Samuel Plealli, and next by Samuel Hinkle, a German, who 
was the standing court-interiireter, and, in his al.isence, his wife officiated."'* 
The property at one time belonged to General Murray but the name under which 
it was kept is I'jst. Hinkle moved from there to the Brick hotel, whose history 



Wil: ^'?^ 









--^■Mt 



UKICK UOTEl.. NEWTO\SN. 



I! 'Ihir. hnu^c 1^ called in iimiciU iMiucyanccs "Old Uucni" ,iiid tlic "Old liouje." 
Tile h..ii-v noxt m rth ..i it is c.iIIlmI "the Ju-^ticu's lu.iisc." in oldon tnm-;. "Bird in Fliind" 
occurrid anionij; the trades token^, nnd represented the [irn\erb "r.ne hird in the hand is 
worth two ill tin liiidi/' h wa~ liuraliy rendered hy a hand liuldiii'.; a bird. 

Il'j When HinkU made applie-atiim tor liceii-e iVir thi> hun^e, An^-nst term. iSji. it 
wa.s Sjiiikeii of as "The- •^igii of Cuacli and. hor?e." The western end had net yet beer, 
built and the ea-teni o-r main part was only two siorits hi'^jh. 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUNTY. 215 



V. ill l)e given (.-Ijewhcre. The fourth tavern stood on the cast side of Court 
vtreet, near the court-house, and is now a private dweUing. It was huilt, 179J, 
.Mid called "Court Inn." It helon<;vd at t<ne time to Joseph Thornton, but the 
last keeper was a Wilkinson, who gained celebrity in nicking and setting horses 
tails. One large room, known as the "Grand Jr.rv Jvouni." was used as a ball 
room, and in it the late loluucl Elias Gilk>son first met the lady he married, 
loseph J-iriggs bought the Court Inn, 1817, and used it as a dwelling; though 
large, his family found it none too large, as he had five or si.x children of his 
own, two unmarried sisters and one of his wife's lived with him. 

In early life Joseph I'.riggs owned a hat manufactory, possil)ly left him by 
his father, but while quite young, had retired with a comfortable fortime. and 
the rest of his days lived tlie life of a country gentleman. He was sotnediing 
of a student, spending much of his time in reading, and for his day, had quite 
a good library, the books relating mostly to the Society of Friends. Besides 
several other town lots, he owned farm lands in Newtown township, which he 
kept in charge of overseers. He was a son of John and Letitia Buckman 
Briggs, and descended from several prominent families of the neighborhood, 
the Croasdalcs, Hardings, Penquites, etc. His wife, Martha Dawes, was a 
daughter of John and .-Mice (Janney ) Dawes, of Lebanon township, Hunterdon 
county, New Jersey, but of Bucks county descent, among her ancestors being 
the Wilkinsons, Coves. [Mitchells, etc. Tlie Court Inn was sold after his death, 
by his heirs. In his time the lot ran along Bridge street, afterward Sullivan, 
now Centre avenue, the eastern end, beyond Court street, being then called 
"Back Lane," by those living along it up to Congress street. The Inn, itself, 
was subsequently usdl for a school room, but within the last ten years, was 
turned into a store. 

Ninety years ago Newtown was still the county seat, with the stone jail, 
court-house, and "row ottices" on the green. It was the polling-place for the 
middle and lower end of the county, and the second Tuesday of October was 
made a day of frolic and horse-racing, accompanied by many free fights. The 
streets were lined with booths, where cakes, pies, and beer, large and small, w ere 
freely sold. Newtown in early times, was the sent of public fairs, at which the 
whites and Llnrl^s from the surrounding country gathered to make merry, in 
large numbers. Isaac Hicks, justice of the peace for many years, lived on 2^lain 
street below Carey's tavern, and dressed in breeches. Charles Hinkle kept tl:e 
Brick hotel, and was succeeded by Joseph Archambault about 1825. The two 
principal stores were James Raguct's,"'^ a French exile, who died suddenly in 
J'hiladelijhia in 1818. and Josejih Whitalls. who kept where Jesse Hcstc« «Hd. 
and failed before 1820. Count Lewis, another l-'rench exile, died at Raguet's 
house in 1818. James Raguet's son Henry. Imrn February 10. I7(i'>. died at 
Marshall, Texas. December 1. 1877. He setiled at Cincinnati. TMiio, early in 
life and u:is a merchant several \ears. He went to Texas. 1832. and settled at 
Natchitoches. When the Texrm war broke out with Mexico, 1835, he was jirom- 
inent in the movement in Eastern .Texas, and General Houston's celebrated 
letter of Ajiril K), u's^f'i, annouticing his intention of meeting the enemy, was 
addressed to Raguet. This was on the eve of die battle of San Jacinto, the 
decisive acti(in of the war. He was one of the leading and must patriotic citi- 
zens (.f l!u- sl.Ue. and 11. ''el f.ir his geiienisily and enterprise. He left a willow 
and several cliiMren. .'\t ,-i laler period Jolly Longsl'.oiv became a fann ms New- 



K;i^;uct was in Wwtdwn a^ e.Arly as 17S5 He marrifd .\iiii.i Wyiikoop, August 



2i6 HISTORY OF BUCKS COUXTY. 



town storekeeper. lie h^niL^ht out Rai^uel's sons ininiediately after the war of 
1812, and continued in the business many years. The Raguet store was in tlie 
two-.story brick where I'a.xson Purscll ke]it, and what was later known a> the 
"Middle store'' was Kayuct's wagon-house, on the opposite side of the street. 
The leading physicians were Doctors Jenks, Moore, I'lunily, and Gordon, all 
■men of note in their day. Moore was as deaf as an adder, Plumly fond of 
spirits, and Gordon, who li\ed tvvcj miles from town, and was a tall, handsijme 
man, was a zealous advocate of temperance. Doctor Jenks practiced medicine 
in Newtown about f(irt\' \ears, and died there. 

The Xewtown library, one of the oldest institutions in the village, was es- 
tablished, 1760. August 9. a meeting was held at the public house of Joseph 
Thornton, and Jonathan DuDois, Abraham Chapman, Amos Strickland. David 
Twining and Henry Margerum were cliosen the first board of directors, with 
John Harris, treasurer, and Thomas Chapman, secretary. The books were first 
kept at Thornton's house, and he was made librarian. On the list of original 
subscribers, twenty-one in number, who paid one pound each, is the name of 
Joseph Galloway. The library was incorporated March 27, 1789, under the 
name of the "Newtown Library Coiiipan}," and it is still kept up. In 1824, a 
new building was erected at an expense of $106.66. by subscri]3tion. the bal- 
ance appropriated from the treasury. Dr. David Hutchinson was the most 
active man. The mason work was done for ninety cents a day. and Edwari' 
Hicks, whose bill was one dollar, doubtless painted the sign with Franklin's 
likeness on it, and a latin motto over the door. The latter we have not been able 
to find. It is thought the books were kejH in the old court house, and when 
that was taken down necessity compelled the erection of a new library building. 
A new one was erected, 18S2, at a cost of S1.600. By the will of the late Jo5e[)h 
Barnsley, the library company will receive $r5,ocx) at the \\i(lnw's death for the 
purpose of Cbtablishing a free reading roum; S5.000 ti> be used for the 
■erection of the building. In 1897 the librarv comjjany held its one hundred and 
thirty-seventh annual meeting, attended b\' one hundred an;l forty-one share- 
■holders. A Masonic lodge was instituted March 4th, 1793. by authority of the 
Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania. The officers were Reading Bcatty. master; 
James Hanna, senior, and Nicholas Wynkrio]), junior warden. The members 
numbered fifty-seven. Authorit}- was given to hold the lodge at Newtown, or 
within five miles of that place. 

The Newtown acadcmv jjlayed an inipnrtant jiart in tlie cause of education 
in that section, and was the fir^t school of a high grade established in the 
county.'- It educated inany teachers, and for a number of years, with the 
Presbyterian jKistor at its head, was the rigln arm of the church." It is said 
the first teacher of grammar in r.uckingham tow nship was educated there. The 
pastor and other friends r)f education applied for a charter, 1794, the site was 
bought, 1796, and the building erected, 1798, at a cost of four thousand dollars, 
The charter was surrendereii: 1852, and the building sold. Previous to its 
erection the public buildings were used for scho(jl ynirposes. The Academy lan- 
guished in the first thirty \ears of its existence, but it was revived about 1S20. In 



!-> Ilio \'rut.)\vn .•n-ri(li:iiy sw-i- th'- n'nuli in lliv state, ami $-|.(XKi uurc appropnati^il 
tnuard Its trfili 111. 111.,- char-rr pr i\ id-.-d tlial the triisli-t.-s shall cause ten poor children 
to he taiielil Kf '''■^ ■U ""e time, 

I.-! 1-^rom the eliureli .iiid -.eh. ol there \<-eii'. tMrtli ahmit 25 ininisters of the gospoJ. to 
;ill parts of the eoiiiilry . 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUXTV. 



iSo6 it Nv.is in charge of one P. Steele, who made great pretensions to teach 
elocution, hm it amounted to little. Tlie Reverend Alexander Boyd was prin- 
cipal for several years, and among other names who taught there may be u'.en- 
tioned Messrs. Nathaniel Furman, Doak, Fleming, Trimble. McKinney, Wil- 
liam Ij. Keyser, Lemuel I'arsons, James L Bronson,^^ president of Washington 
(I'ennsylvaniaj college, and others. Three quarters of a century ago the 
teaclier of Latin was Josiah Scott, a young graduate of Jefterson college, but a 
-distinguished lawyer, and a judge of the supreme court of Ohio. Josiah Chap- 
man opened a select boarding-school for girls in Xewtown, 1S17. July 10, 1829, 
lohn Taylor Strawbridge, student at the Academy, was drowned in Xesha- 
miny while swimming across with his preceptor, ^Ir. Fairfield. ^"^ 

The land of Amos Strickland, an early owner of the Brick hotel, lay out 
along Washington avenue, then called Strickland's lane, a well-known race 
course when the courts and elections were held at Xewtown. In 17S4, after his 
<leath, eight acres of his real estate, divided into twenty-seven lots, were sold at 
public sale by Sheriff Dean. They embraced that part of the town south of 
Washington avenue and east of Sycamore street. Strickland was a farmer in 
Xewtown township several years. He bought the Brick hotel, tlien called Red 
Lion, iy(jo. and 1763 built a two-story brick, which he kept. 

Joseph .Archambault, many years owner and keeper of the Brick hotel, 
which he bought of Joseph Longshore, an e.K-ofificer of the great Napoleon, 
came to Xewtown about 1821. At first he worked at the trade of tin-smith in 
the old Odd Fellows' hall, but afterward studied dentistry and practiced it sev- 
eral years while he kept the hotel. He -ivas an eitterprising business man, and 
ac(|uired considerable real estate in the village, including the large square 
bounded by ^^Lain. Washington avenue. Libertv, and the street that runs west 
over the upper bridge. In 1S35 he laid out this square into building lots, fifty- 
three in number, and sold them at public sale. On it have since been erected 
some of the handsomest dwellings in the village. He gave the land on which 
old Xewtown hall stood, and was instrumental in having it built. It grew out 
of the excitement that attended the preaching of Frederick Plummer in the 
lower part of the county in 1830-35, whose followers were called "Christians" 
and "T'lummerites." li was built for a free church. '° and was maintained until 
recent years, when it was taken down and a public hall built on its site. Fred- 
crick Plummer tirst made his advent in this county at Bristol, coming by in\-ita- 
tion of Edwaril Badger, father of Bela Badger, who was acquainted with him 
in Connecticut and was one of his followers. This was about 1817. About 1820 
a church was built for him half a mile above Tullytown. He first preached in 



14 The Rov. T,->.nics L Bpmson. D. D.. LL. D.. was horn nt Mcrccrsbiirg, Pa.. .March 
14. 1817, ami (hcd at Wa-^l:; 11,51011, Pa., July 4, iSoQ. He stiuliej divinity at Princeton, and 

■came to teach at tlic Xewtown academy, iS,!7-.3S. remaining nearly a year. He was a 
distinguished minister and wliile at the Xewtown academy very popular. 

15 Whvn tlic academy was sold. i.'^^52, at pul.lic sale, hy virtue ot an act of .-\sseniMy. 
it was houi;ht hy the Rev. Robert D. Morris, who. after givintr ?r.00O and puttiuii it in 
"fder. raised $5,000 addirional hy suhscripti.'n to euahle the rresbytcrian church to own 
it. He was a former pastor of the Xewtown church 

16 The fir.-t mcctinii in the interest of the free church. Xewtow!i. was held in Joseph 
.\rchanihault's brick tavern. June 5. iS.^o. Thomas Uiickinaii was cliairmaii and Sami:;! 

■Sny<ler secretarv. J oserh .\rchanihault, Amos Wilson .ind WilHani Brown were ap- 
pointed.-, conimif.c; to ^olicit subscriptions. .\u adjourned meeting was held the I'.'ih. 



2i8 HISTORY OF BUCKS COCXrV. 



BailgcrV liouio. I'.risii'l townshi]), ju=t o\ cr the borough line. Caiitain Arch- 
ambault retired from ti.e hotel lo a fanii near Dovlejl'.'wn. and then to Phua- 
deli>hia, where he died.'" 

Newtown was the ^cene of a very ],ai;;ful occurrence the 2Sth of Jul)-, 1817. 
A little son of Thomas (1. Kennedy, then sheriff of the county, while amusing; 
himself lloating- on a board on the creek at the upper end of the village, fell ott 
into deep water. His niuiher, hearing Ids cries, ruslied into the water to hi^ 
rescue and sunk almo.-t immediately. Mr. Keiuiedy was exhausted in his attempt 
to save them. He and the child were rescued by the citizens, who flocked to the 
spot, but the body of iiis wife was not recovered luilii life was extinct. She was 
Violetta, daughter of Isaac Hicks.'''* 

Among the leading citizens of Newtown in the last century were Docb^r 
Phineas Jenks and ^^lichael H. Jenks, who were probably the most prominent. 
They descended from a d mimon ancestry, the former being a grandson and the 
latter great-grandson of Thomas Jenks, the eldcr.'''= Phineas was born in Alid- 
dletown May 3. 1781, and died August 6, 1851. He studied medicine with Doc- 
tor Benjamin Rush, graduated in 1804, and practiced in Newtown and vicinity.'' 
He was twice married, his first wife being a daughter of Francis Alurray, and 
his second, Amelia, daughter of Governor Snyder. He served si.K years in the 
Assembly, was a member of the constitutional convention of 1838, and active in 
all the reform movements of the day. He was the first president of the Bucks 
County ^ledical Society, and one of the founders of the Newtown Episcopal 
church. .Michael H. Jenks was born 1795, and died 1867. Brought up a 
miller and farmer, he afterward turned his attention to conveyancing and the 
real estate business, and followed it to the close of his life. He held several 
places of honor and public trust.- was justice of the peace many years, commis- 
sioner, treasurer, and associate-judge of the countv. and member of the twenty- 



17 Joseph .\rchnnil)auh had a romantic career. He wp-> born nt Fnntrinbleau. near 
Paris, August J2. 1796. and educated at the military ?chuol at St. Cyr. Being left an 
orphan, he became a ward of the Empire through family influence and was attached to 
the Emperor's household. After Elba he \va=; again attached to the Emperor's suit and 
followed his fortunes. He was wounded at Waterloo and left upon the field, but rejoining 
the Emperor, himself and brother were among the number selected to acconipany him to 
St. TIclcna. Rcfusins; to give up his ^^word. he broke it and threw the pieces into the sea. 
Landing in New York May 5. 1S17, he spent tlie ne.-ct four jears with William Cobbctt 
at his model farm. L'-ng Island, with Joseph lionaparte. Borden.town. and at other places, 
coming to Xcwtovvn. iSji. where he lived until about 1850. He died at Philadelphia, 
July 3. 1S74. nuanwb.ile living a few years on a farm at Castle Valley. Buck; county. H<' 
served in the cavalry tor a tiine in the Civil war. 1S61-65. 

17'i In 17'/) a riot took place at ririLig's null, near Xewtown. supposed to have been 
on the site of the present Janney's mill. The cau-c is not known, but several persons wlia 
took part in it were indicted and brought to trial. Tlie ringleader was probably John 
Hagerman. as he is the I'.rs; mentioned in the subpa'nas, wliich are signed by Lawyer 
Growdcn. "then the leader of o^r bar and clerk of the court." 

17! 1' George .A. Jenks. Jeli'erson county. Pa.. Democratic nominee for Governor I'f 
Pennsylvania. \i^j^, is a liner'' descendant of the Piucks county Jonkscs. 

tS His thesis on graJv.ating. '''An investigation endeavoring to sh^iw the similarity 
in cause and effect of the yellow fever of American and the Egyptian plague," wtis pub- 
lished by the university and re-published in Eur..pe. 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUNTY. 219 



cii^lnli Consre^s. He was married four times. His youngest daughter. Anna 
F.arl. was the wife of Alexander Ramsey, the first Governor of Minnesota, 
sen;'.tor in Congress from that state, and a member of President Hayes' cabinet. 
\\<! lately deceased. 

The Hickses of Newtown were descended from John Hicks, born in Hng- 
lanJ about 1610. and inunigrated to Long Island. 1643. His great-grandson. 
("lilbert. born 1720. married 2^Iary Rodman. 1746. and moved to Bensalem. 1747- 
4S. He built a two-story brick house at Attleborough. 1767, and moved into 
it. He was a man of ability, education and of character, but made the fatal mis- 
take of clinging to the fortunes of Great Dritan in 1776. His fine property was 
confiscated, and he died in exile by the hand of an assassin. Isaac, son of Gil- 
iK^rt. and the first Xcwtown Hicks, born in Bensalem, 174S. and died. 1S36, 
married his- cousin Catharine, youngest daughter of Edward Hicks, a merch.ant 
of Xew York.- Her sister was the wife of Bishop Scahury, Elaine, and of her 
brothers, William studied at the Inner Temple. London, and was afterward 
Pnithonotary of Bucks county, while Edward was an officer of the British 
army, and died in the West Indies. Isaac Hicks held several county offices. Ele 
was a man of great energy of character. His marriage docket contains the 
record of six hundred and six marriages in forty-seven years. Edward Hicks. 
the distinguished minister among Friends, whom some of this generation 
ren>eniber, was the son of Isaac and born at Four Lanes End, now Langhorne, 
4th month, 4th, 1780. He was brought up to the trade of coach painting, mar- 
ried Sarah Worstall, 1803, and joined the Society of Friends. He removed to 
Newtown. 181 1, where he established himself in the coach and sign-painting 
business and was burnt out, 1822. He had a taste for art, and his paintings of 
"Washington Crossing the Delaware" and "Signing the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence" were nuich noted in their day. A few of them are preserved as 
relics of great value, one of them, "Washington Crossing the Delaware," being 
owned by the Bucks County Historical Society. He became a popular preacher, 
and had few equals in persuasi\ e elociuence. He died at Newtown August 23. 
i849.''"'-" Thomas Hicks, one of the most distinguished artists of Xew Yi-rk. is 
a nejjhew of Edward Hicks, and descendant of Isaac. He was born in Newtow!i, 
and in his boyhooii was apjirenticed to his uncle Edward to learn the painting 
trade, but. exhibiting gre.it iVindness for art. left his trade before manhood, 
and went to New York to receive instruction. He subsequentiv spent several 
>ears in It;dy and in other parts of the continent, and on his return home touk 
high rank among artists as a jiortrait painter. 

Francis Murray, an Irishman by birth, and born about 1731, settled in tliis 
county quite early. He was living at Newtown before the Revolution. He 
owned several farms in the vicinity, was the possessor of considerable wealth 
and occupied a highly respectable standing in the community. He was mai-ir 
".n a Pennsylvania regiment, in the Continental armv. and his c 'mmission, signed 
by Jr-hn IL'inc'ick, bears date l-'eliruary 6, 1777. ^^c was justice of the peace, 
and held other local offices, including that of general in the militia. In 1790 he 

iS-< It is said tiio f.ithcr of Kdwru-il Hick? wi^licd liim to bo .t l;uvyer. .and because 
'no would not, bound liim appreniice to the co.icli- paintiiis; trmlc to r-iic Toniliiison. and lu- 
ric^inirid a high rL-putatinn. He began lnisino-;<; at Hiilmcville. but removed to Xewtowii. 
iSiT. He was the first of the family to join lh<- SoeiLiy of Frii-nd^. Hi- -^on. Tlioniai W. 
Hicks, who died at Newtown. March J').- lS.S"<. in lii-; nnietioth year, \va? born at Huhne- 
ville. Jannary 20, 170.''. 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COi'XTY. 



bought the dwclhiii; opposite the court house, later Jesse Lecdom's, where he 
died, iSiO. Tile late Francis .M. Wynkoop, who cuimnanded a reg-iment, and 
(listinguiihed hiniscli in the Mexican war, was a native of Xewtown and granil- 
son of Francis Murray. In its day the Wynkoop family exercised considerable 
local intluence, and always held tlie highest position for integrity. 

Isaac Eyre, Xewtown. 15 a descendant of Robert Eyre, ancestor of that 
family in I'ennsylvania. Fie came from England. t(>So. and settled on the site 
of Chester, Delaware count}-. Isaac, a grandson of Robert, removed to iNIiddle- 
town, 1762. on marrying Ann. daughter of Jtinas Preston, who erected the first 
grain mill in the townshijj, at Bridgewater. F'reston's wife was a Paxsou from 
near Oxford \'alley. Isaac, a son of Isaac, born at Chester, 1778, a ship builder 
at Philadelphia, assisted to build gunboats for the government, on the Ohio, 
at the beginning of the century. He married Eleanor Cooper, daughter of 
William and Margaret, abi.nit 1801, removed to Bucks county, 1S28, on a farm 
he bought in Middletown. and died at Langhorne, 1831. On his death the farm 
<i\mt to his son Isaac. Xewtown. who sold it to Alalachi White, Jr., 1854, and 
purchased the Jenks farm, same township, 1862. This was part of the one 
thousand acres surveyed to John Shires, 1682, of which John Drake bought five 
hundred acres, 16S3. The farm came into the Jenks family, 1739, when Toby 
Leech sold it to Thomas Jenks. and got a patent, 1744. It was called "'Walnut 
Green." The original family name of Ayre or Air, was "True Love,'* as will be 
seen by references to the deeds of "Battle Abbey." One of the family was a fol- 
lower of William the Conqueror, and was near him when thrown from his horse 
at the battle of Hastings, and had his helmet beaten into his face. True Love, 
seeing this, pulled the helmet olt his face and assisted William to remount, 
when the Duke said to him, ''Thou shalt. hereafter, be called Eyre or Air, for 
thou hast given me the air I breathe." The Duke finding his friend had been 
severely wounded in the battle, having his leg and thigh cut off, gave him land 
in Derby. The crest of the family in England is a "cooped leg." 

At the close of the eighteenth century Oliver Erwin, from Donegal, Ire- 
land, came to this country and settled at Xewtown within the present borpugh. 
As one of his decendants put it. he was a "hard-headed Scotcli-Irishman." 
Presbyterian in faith; had emiihasized his conviction by taking a hand in the 
rebellion of 179S-09. ami doubtless "left his country f-a-'his country's good." 
The new immigrant. 1812, took to wife Rachel Cunningham, and became the 
father of five children : James, married Ann FI. Davis, and died, 1844. Mary, 
.A.nn married John Trego. Ixith dving yomig.John never married, Sarah mar- 
ried Lewis B. Scott, both dccease<l. leaving a son and daughter, and William, 
married- — — , and dieii about i8go. John Erwin went into the war for Texan 
Independence, and was either killed or died suhsequentK. He was in the attack 
on Mier, Mexico, was captured with the party and compelled to draw beans, 
but drew a white one. William Erwin was for several years civil engineer of 
construction at \\'est Point, and erected several public buildings. Judge Henry 
W. Scott. Easton. is the m'U of Lewis B. and Sarah Scott, nee Erwin; his .son 
is a graduate of .\nnapolis. and served on Admiral Dewey's flagship, the 
Olympia. at the battle of .Manila, ("iliver Erwin liad anoiher son. .\lexand-r, 
but all trace of him is lost. 

Xewtown has tour organized churche- anil the Erieiiils' meeting, Presby- 
terian, I'lpiscopal. Meihodi-t. and Africau Metliinlist. The r'resbyierian church 
'was erected in \~<'^. and is a kirge and iiiihiential organization, of which ;l more 
particular account will bo given in a tulnrc chapter. .\n effort was nuule to 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUXTV. 



Liiiltl ail Episcopal church at Xtwtown as early as 1766. Thomas Barton^ 
iindiT dale of November 10, that year, writes to the society for propagating the 
gospel in foreign parts : "At Newtown, in Ducks county, eight miles from 
iJristol, sunie members of the- church of Englaml, encouraged by the liberal 
and generous benefactions of some principal (Juakers, are building an elegant 
brick church." Mr. Barton wants an itinerant si-nt to supph' Bristol, Newtown 
and other places. The 22d of October, 176S, William Smith enclosed a letter 
to the secretary, ■'fr(,>m-the churcli wardens of Bristol, and another congrega- 
tion now building a church in Bucks county, about twenty-five miles from Phila- 
delphia." He repeats Barton's story that they were much encouraged by the 
Friends, and adds that they are "desirous of seeing the church flourish froni a 
fear of being overrun by I'resbyterians." We know nothing of this early 
effort beyond this record. The present Episcopal church was founded in 1S32 
by Reverend George W. Ridgely, assisted materially by Doctor Jenks and 
James Worth, \vhose daughter Air. Ridgely married. Air. Ridgely was likewise 
instrumental in founding tlie Episcopal churches at Yardleyville, Centreville 
and Hulme\ille. He was then pastor of Saint James" church, Bristol. The 
Methodist congregation was organized and the church built about 1840. 
Friends' meeting was established in 1S15. and service held in the court house 
until 1817, when the first meeting-house was built. ^^ 

Sixty years ago Newtown was a stated place of meeting for the volunteers 
of the lower and middle sections of the county to meet for drill. The spring 
trainings alternated between this place and the two Bears, now Addisville and 
Richborough, and were the occasion of a large turn out of people of the sur- 
rounding country to witness the evolutions of a few hundred uniformed militia. 
These musters brought back the jolly scenes of fifty years before when it was 
the general election ground for the county. The streets were lined with booths, 
on either side, where pea-nuts, ginger-cakes, etc., were vended, and the music 
of the violin, to which the rustic youths of both sexes ''tripped the light fan- 
tastic toe," mingled with the harsher notes of the drum and fife on the drill 
ground close by. The scene was seasoned with fights, and foot-races aud jump- 
ing matches, and not a few patriotic politicians were on hand to push their 
chances for office. Tlie frequenters of these scenes cannot fail to rementber 
Leah Stives, a black woman, vender of pies, cakes and beer. Her husband 
hauled her traps to the ground, early, with his b' iny old mare, that she might 
secure a good stand. Leah was a great gatherer of herbs, and noted as a go.jd 
cook. .She died at Newtown in 1872. 

The first "First Day School" in the countv among Friends was kept at New- 
town by Dr. Lettie A. Smith, in her own dwelling, t868. Tlie early First Day 
Schools, conducted v^'holly. or in part, bv Friends, were missionary schools and 
date back over one hundred years. The present organization of this class of 
schools, by the Society of Friends, was begun. 1861, in Green street meeting 
house. Philadeliihia. Martin Luther was probablv the father of Sunday schools. 
being originally opened for the benefit of children who could not attend week- 
day schools. 

19 In 1886 .T Presbyterian cli.ipel was erected at a cost of $8,000; iSg.v St, Luke's 
Protestant Kpiscnpal congregation Iniilt a parish bnililin.e at an expense of S5.000 ; 18-/) 
the Mctlioflists l)nill a new liroun stone chnrch, cost ?i.i,ooo: ami i8()S, the .-Kfrican M. K. 
congregation erected a brick bnilding that cost $3,oai. Few conntry villages arc better 
supplied with churches. 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUXTV. 



In 1893 an institution of learning- called the "George School,"' of high 
grade, was erected on the soutli side of tlie Durham road, half a mile below the 
borough of Xcwtown. It was founded under the will of the late John M. 
George, who left the bulk of his fortune, some $600,000, for the purpose, with 
the proviso that it be named after the family. For a more lengthy account of 
this school see cliaiitcr on "■Schools and Education.'" \'ol. ii. 



t 
/5\ 






1 






L_ 



GEORGE SCHOOL. XEWTOW N. 

The Xewtown of tvvjay differs materially from the Xewtowu of half a cen- 
tury, or even thirty years, ago. It i,-^ a pretty and flourishing village, the seat 
of wealth an.l culuire, ami possesses all the appliances for comfort and con- 
venience known to the period. The dwellings of many of the citizens display 
great neatness and taste. Among the public institutions may be mentioned two 
banks and a lire insurance company, with a capital of S350.000, a national bank, 
organized 1S64, a buiMing and li>an association, and (Jdd l-'ellows' hall, built 
for a hotel three-quarters of a century ago, and the academy and library 
already mentioned. There are lodges of Masons and Odd I'ellows and Good 
Templars, and a literary society known as the Whitlier Institute. Of industrial 
establishments, there are an agricultral imj'lcnKui lactoiy, a f'.undry of nianv 
vt-ars standintr. carria^'e l.icturv. tan-vard. whrrt- the W'orstalls-'' have carried 



JO Kdw.-ird Wor.-tall. Xewtown, is the fiftli in tlosceiit from John Wor^t.^ll, who 
ni.-irricil F.lizabctli W'ihhtian. T7J0 In liis veins he carrifs the bhiod of the Hestons. 
lIiM.H-^. il.-ilU., W.irnors an.J .-\iu!rcw^c.. 



HISTORV OF BUCKS COUXTV. 223 



on tannine; nearly a hundred years, gas works, steam saw-inill, and steam sash 
and door lactory, a brick and' tile-kihi and wholesale cigar manufactory. The 
"Enterprise" and "Triumijli" buildings, handsome brick structures, with man- 
sard roof, erected some years ago, are occupied by various branches of business. 
Newtown has a newspaper, and the usual complement of shops, stores, mechani- 
cal trades, and professional men. It su[)port5 two public inns. .\ railroad was 
constructed between Philadelphia and Newtown, and may be e.Ktended to New 
'^'ork. The road was formally opened to Newtown Saturda\-, February 2, 1S78. 
Two trains, with about one thousand excursionists came up from Philadelphia, 
the people of the village entertaining them at lunch in the exhibition building. 
The late General John Davis, then in his yoth year, who had digged the hist 
barrow load of earth when the road was begun, six years before, made an open 
air address in the snow storm that prevailed. It was a day of rejoicing for the 
villagers. A trolley road has recently been built from Doylestown, via Newtown. 
.-V railroad from Bristol to Newtown was chartered, 1S36, but never built. 

The residence of the late widow of the late Jslichael H. Jcnks, one of the 
few ante-Revolutionarv landmarks at Newtown, was formerly called the "Red 
house," from the color it was painted. It is said to have been built by the 
Masons for a lodge, before the war, and who sold it to Isaac ?Iicks for a dwell- 
ing. Since then it has been occupied, in turn, for school, store, and private 
resklcnce.-^ 

Ninety years ago. while the courts were still held at Newtown, Enos 'Morris 
was a leading member of the bar. He was a grandson r)f Morris ?i[orris, who 
came to the county aliout 1735. and settled in New P.ritain. ]Mr. Morris studied 
law with Judge Ross, of Easton, and was admitted to the bar about 1800, at the 
age of twenty-five. He was tw ice married to widows of great personal beauty, 
Mrs. Elizabeth Hough and Mrs. Ann Lccdom. He was a member of Sontii- 
ampton Baptist church, where he was buried. 

We have no means of giving the population of Newti^wn borough before 
1S50, when it was 546 white and 34 black inhabitants. In 1S60 it had gro\vn 
to 652. and S59 in 1S70; 1880, i.oot ; 1890, 1.213; 1900. 1.463. The population 
is slowly but steatlil}' increasing. Eleven public roads lead to Newtown, nearly 
all of them opened at an early day, evidence alone that it has been an 
important centre in that section of the county. There is probably not another 
point in the county in which there is access by the same number of roads. 

Newtown was incorporated- in 1838. There have been several newspapers 
printed there the past century, but none earlier. Ani'jng these were the Bucks 
County Bee, 1802. Fanners' Gacettc and Bucks County Rc^^istcr, 1S05, Herald 
of Liberty. 1814, The Star of Freedom. 1817, Xezi'tozcn Journal, 1842, Xe:^- 
tozvn Gacette, 1857, and the Xeivtoivn F:nterprisc, 1868, the \oungest, and onlv 
living of all the newspajiers established there, the others having gone, one bv 
one, to that undiscovercil country, the last resting-i^lacc of defunct journals. 
The postoftice was established in 1800, and Jacob Fisher api)ointed jjostiuaster. 
Newtown \\as one of the most im])ortant points in the county during the 
Revolutionary war. It was. at one time, the hcadc|uarters of Washington, sev- 
eral times trr.ops were stationed then.', and it was a depot for military stores. 
The captured He>-ians weie brought diiect from Trenton to Newtr.wn the same 
(lay of the battl.-. 'I'lic robherx of Jrjhn Hart, at Newtown, while county treas- 
urer, by the D.ian- an! their cnfederates. in ( ictf'ber. t7.'^:, was an event that 

21 \V.Ts po-siiily Iniilt liy tlio joilge nrgani^ctl. 179,^. 



224 HISTORY OF BUCKS COUXl'Y. 



made great stir at the time. After they had taken all the money they 
could hnd at his dwelling, they went tu the treasurer's ottice tit the court 
house, where they got much more, iiie rubbers divided their plunder at the 
Wrightstown school house. In a subse(juent chapter there w ill be found a more 
extended account of this affair. 

There are but few, if any, of the descendants of the original land owners in 
the town.-'hip at the present day. Of the present families, several are descended 
from those who were Settled diere in 1703, among them the Buckmans,-- Hill- 
borns, Twinings and Croasdales. The draft of the township at that date will 
show to the reader that several of the old families ha\e entirely disappeared. 
The old public buildings were pulled down about 1830. 

The i'.ridgetown and Xewtown turnpike was organized at the Temperance 
House, Xewtown, March 3, 1S53, and work begun in April. Samuel Buckman 
was the first president; Michael H. Jenks surveyed the road for $3, and labnr- 
ing men were paid Si per day and worked from 6 to 6. The number of shares 
was two hundred and eighty-four, yielding S7.100.00; cost of the road, S7.- 
121.34; old tools sold for S21.82, leaving a net balance of 48 cents. When fin- 
ished the Go\ernor appointed Antliony Burton, Joseph C. Law and iMalachi 
White to examine it. 

The Buckmans were early settlers in Xewtown, no doubt before 1700. 
William, the ancestor, was an English Friend, who owned six hundred and 
si.xty-eiglit acres in the township and fifty-nine acres in the townstead of Xew- 
town at the time of Cutler's re-survey, in 1703. He died about 1716, leaving 
sons, William, David and Thomas, and daughters, Elizabeth and Rebecca. The 
oldest son, William, died about 1755, the owner of considerable land, leaving 
six sons and one daughter, Jacob, William, John, Joseph, Thomas, Isaac, and 
Sarah. Thomas, the youngest son of tlie first William Buckman, married 
Agnes Peiiquite, of Wrightstown, had three children, Thomas, Rebecca and 
Agnes, and died about 1734. Elizabeth Buckman, the oldest daughter of the 
progenitor, was married to Zcbulon Heston. at Wrightstown meeting, in 1726. 
Her husband became a famous minister among Friends and was the uncle of 
General John Lacey. The Buckmans were members of ]vIiddletown meeting 
until a monthly meeting was established at Wrightstown, in 1724. The family 
is now large and scattered and the descendants numerous. They have always 
been large land owners, and a ccinsiderable percentage of the land owned by the 
first William IJuckman in the township is in the possession of the present gen- 
eration of Buckmans. The late Monroe Buckman, of Doylcstown, was a de- 
scendant of the first William. 

The map of Xewtown appended to this chapter gives the distribution of 
land as it was at Cutler's re-survey, 1702-3. 

The most ancient relic at Newtown was in the possession of the late Mrs. 
Alfred Ekiker. in the shape of a very old Bible. At the beginning of the Xew 
Testament is the following: "The Xew Testament of our Lord Jesus Christ. 
Translated out of Greek Ijy Theodore Beza. with brief summaries and exposi- 
tions by J. Tomson, London. 1599." This Bible was brought to .\merica in 1775 
by Susannah Gain, of Belfast, Ireland, who became the grandmother of Mrs. 
Blaker. Miss Gain married Tames Kennedv, an Irishman, the father of Thom.as 



22 Buckmnn is proliably a compotiiKj worH, and had its origin in "Bock," which, in 
S.-ixon, mcnnt a [rcchnUi. and with the addition of man. makes Bockm.^n, changed ta 
B\ickinan, the Iiolder of a freehold, or a frcctiuiii. 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUSTY. 



225 



iSi. Kennedy. In the old book is the memoranda: "Thomas Hunter bought 
tiR- book," "Edward Hunter, 1745," and "David Hunter," witliout date. 
I'ossiljly the grandfatlier of Miss Gain was a Hunter. Tlic old Bible has 
descended on the maternal side, and will so continue. 

Un July 4, iSj6, the fiftieth anniversary of American Independence, a civic 
and military celebration was held at Xewtown. The troops were commanded 
by John Davis, then colonel of the first regiment of Bucks county vohniteers. 
'i'lu- e.xercises were held in the Presbyterian church, of which Reverend Mr. 
iJMvd was pastor, and afterward a dinner was given at Hinkel's tavern. The 
company was quite large, and among those present was the Honorable Samuel 
D. Ingham. The band of sixteen pieces was led by the late Aden G. Hibbs, 
a prominent citizen of Ohio and the only survivor of it, at his death a few 
years ago. 

Xewtown has made ver}- decided progress in pcipulation and otherwise in 
the past two decades. In 1883, old Newtown hall was rebuilt, improved and 
enlarged, and is much resorted to on pviblic occasions. In 1888 the "Newtown 
Building and Loan Arsociation" was incorporated, capital $100,000, which has 
added a number of dwellings to the borough, and the same year the "Newtown 
Artesian ^^'ell Company,'' with a capital of S30.000. and "Newtown Improve- 
ment Company," with a capital of Sio.ooo. were incorporated and put in opera- 
tion. In }ilay, the following year, an "Electric Light and Power Company" 
was incorporated, with 820,000 cajntal, and a "Fire Association" in the fall, 
which was soon equipped with a "Silsby steam fire engine" and a hoc>k and lad- 
der truck. Xewtown made one of its most advanced steps. 1897. by incor|ioratiiig 
a "Street Railway Company." and buiMing a trollev road to Langhorne, four 
miles, and C(^nnecting with Bristol. The capital stock is ^loo.ooo. and the road 
was opened ill December. The same \ear a comjian}- was organizeil to build a 
trolley' line to Doylestown, the countv seat, fourteen miles, and was completed in 
1899. , This will be an important improvement for middle and lower Bucks. 
In the matter of public schools, Xewtown keeps abreast of her sister boroughs. 
In the summer, 1S94, the schcxil building was remodeled by the School Board 



P'"»''#'7t''^';\*rp5?7^^:)2P:^?*^4r^"^''^'^^^ 








A^a 



bllAKON. Kl£SlDt.\CH Ol' JAMbS WORTH, NtWTONVN. \>M. 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUNTY. 



at a cost of $10,600, and, iS^jJ, tlic old Methodist church was purchased and 
remodeled for school purposes at a cost of $2,000. The schools are graded and 
under good control. A new building was erected for the National bank, 1883, 
at an expense of $14,000. In 1891 tlie streets of Newtown were macadaniued 
at an outlay of $iO,ooo and 4 per cent, bonds issued to pay for it. 

The hrst temperance society in the county was organized in Friends' meet- 
ing house, Newtown, September 25, 1828, under the name of the "Bucks County 
Society for the Promotion of Temperance;" its object to discourage the use of 
ardent spirits except for medicine, and the members pledged themselves to 
abstain from its use. At that day the brandy and whiskey bottle were seen ou 
.every side-board, and the first salutation on entering a neighbor's house w.'is, 
"Come, take something!" To refuse was almost an insult. The following 
persons signed the constitution and may be considered the pioneers of tem- 
perance in the county : Aaron Feaster, Jonathan Wynkoop, J. H. Gordon, M. 
D., Joseph Flowers, Joseph Brown, M. B. Lincoln, Isaac VV. Hicks, Reverend 
J. 1'. Wilson, Docti3r i'hineas Jenks, John Lapsley, Joseph Eriggs, David Tag- 
gart, Charles Lombart, Thomas Janney, O. P. Ely, Charles Swain, and the Rev- 
erend R. B. Bellville. The otticers chosen were Aaron F^easter, president ; 
Joseph Briggs, vice-president ; John Lapsley, corresponding secretary ; Doctor 
.J. H. Gordon, recording secretary, and Jonathan Wynkoop, treasurer. The 
first annual report of the society was made in September, 1829. In January, 
1831, the membership of all the societies of the county was three hundred. The 
parent society was reorganized, 1832, and the same year a general convention 
.of all the local societies was held at Doylestown, the Honorable John Fox pre- 
siding. The interest was kept up for a few years, but then began to decline, 
the stringent resolutions prohibiting members giving alcoholic drinks to 
mechanics and others in their employ, being objectionable to many of the mem- 
bers. Women first appeared at the Bucks County Temperance Conventions at 
Buckingham school house. August 29, 1840, and all die real temperance work 
of value was done by them after 1850. The last record in the books of the 
Biicks County Temiierance Society was made April 29, 1874. About this 
time the first teini)erance nev.s])aper was issued in the counlv, the OH: c 
Branch, by [•"ranklin P. Sellers, at Doylestown. but its violence injured its 
usefulness. 

The first public meeting lield in the county, to take action on the approacii- 
ing quarrel between Great Britain and her colonies, was at Newtown. It was 
the proper place lor such actic^n. as it was the county capital and necessarily 
the political centre. This was on January 9, 1774, and Gilbert Hicks, Esquire, 
was chairman. The announced purjjrise of the meeting was "to consider the 
injury and distress occasiimed by numerous acts of the British Parliament, 
oppressive to the colonies, in which they are n^t represented." 

Among the public buildings recently erecterl in Xewtown is "The Pa.Kson 
Alemtirial Home," built in 1899. by the Honorable Edward M. Paxson. as a 
nicmoiial to his jiarcnts, anrl npene<l in the spring nf k^qo. It is intended as a 
home for aged l-'riends trf both sexes, and is proviilcd with every apjiliance tliat 
contributes to comfort and convenience. Tl^e style of architecture — colonial — 
presents a lian Nome api)earanoe. and is finished throughout in the liest manner. 
The outer v>aHs are built <»f Xev.town brown ^tone. It is not a charital)le insti- 
tution in any sense. The society h:is raise'd an endowment for its partial suio 
port, but those having the means will be allow eil to rent rooms and pay iKiard. 




; -jK ; iW I* ^"^ 'i-^'^ ' -1 



It will accommodate about fifty guests and the requisite help. The followiiUT 
inscription is engraven on a bronze tablet in the hall ; 

'"This building was erected in 1899, 

In memory of 

Thomas and Ann Johnson Paxson, 

By their son, 

Edward M. Paxson." 

"Honor thy father and thy mother that thy days may be long upon the 
land which the Lord thy God giveth thee." 

We have mentioned, in a previous chapter, that Washington recrossed the 
Delaware the next day after his victory at Tr(.'nton, and took quarters at New- 
town, with his army, and remaining there until the 29th of December, when he 
recrossed into New Jersey. Among the officers with Washington at Xewtown, 
but did not recross the Delaware into New Jersey, remaining at Xewtown, was 
Culonel Williaui Palfrey, paymaster-general of the Continental army. On the 
5tli of January, 1777, Colonel Palfrey wrote the following letter'--' to Henry Jack- 
^'ln,-* to be opened by IJenjainin Hickbourn, the letter being carried bv Cap- 
tain Goodrich : 

Dear Sir : — Colonel Tudor-'" acquainted me that he had received a letter 
from you and other Gentlemen of ISoston, reqiresting that we would furnish 
\ou. from time to time, with intelligence from our Armv. You mav be assured 
\\ e will do this with the greatest pleasure, and as often as we can find a proper 
conveyance. 

"You have doubtless before this time had the particulars of the action at 
Trenton, in which we took about r.ooo Hessians Prisoners. Seven Standards, 
Six brass Cannon. i.2<x) Stand of Arms, 12 Drums and several wagons with 

J3 Tlie letter i-; in pr)>sos>ion of ihc Burks C'"i'ny TTi-turical Society, .md w.ns inund 
ip. a house in VirK'nia by a geneml ofTieor of the l'iii'">ii .nriny. It is undoubtedly szeiuiine. 

J4 Henry j;u-!<-on uas a O'louel in llie C'iut:ueul;d service .lud iii.ide .1 I!riL;:idicr- 
General ncir the close. 

25 Colonel Tudiir. of Massachusetts, w.ts Jud.ye Advircate of the Contiueutal army. 



22% HISTORY OF BUCKS COUNTY. 



Baggage. This glorious Affair was cffL-ctcd with the loss of but 6 or 7 uil-u 
on our Side. The iiexi Day the General and the Annj returned to this side the 
Delaware, wheie he remained two or three days. (Jn the 29th he passed the 
Delaware again and joined General Cadwallader. who m the meantime had 
entered Trenton with the Brigatle under his Conmumd. 

■'The time fi t which the o.M Army had enlisted being near expired, the 
General prevailed \vith them to slay Six W eeks longer for a Bounty of ten dol- 
lars pr. Man, wiiicli they almost all accepted. On the 2d instant at noon advice 
was brought that a large Body of the Enemy were ad^•ancing from Princeton 
to attack us, according in the Afternoon they appear'd, when General Washing- 
ton quitted the Town and formed on the Heights near it. The British Troojis 
attempted to enter it by passing over a bridge, when they were so gall'd by a 
iieavy tare from our Cannon and ]\Iusquetry that (they) were twice repulsed, 
w^ith very great slaughter. They however entered the Town. In the Night 
General Washington made one of the grandest Manoeuvers that ever was beard 
of. He ordered his I\Ien to kindle up large Fires that would burn all Xight, 
and then march'd off in the most Secret manner towards Princctown ; at S 
in the Morning at a place called Stony Brook about two miles this side of 
Princeton he met with two Regiments, the 17th and 55th, who were on their 
March to reinforce the British Troops at Trenton. These he immediately 
engaged and cut them all to pieces, the 17th especially. I have seen a Prisoner 
belonging to that regiment who was taken since the Action, and informs me 
that he does not think live of the wh(jle Regiment escaped. In this Action it is 
said the General took five pieces of Cannon, a nuinber of Prisoners and twenty 
Baggage \\'agons. Our Army then went to Princetown where the 40th Regi- 
ment remained and pass'd through there in the forenoon, but we have as yet 
received no certain intelligence respecting the 40th, tho' it is reported they were 
all made Prisoners. That part of the British Army which was at Trenton 
quitted it and marched to Princetown where they arrived about five hours after 
General Washington had marched awa)-, so that we imagine he intends to touch 
at them when he returns. 

"Upon the whole our People behaved most nobly, and ga\'C the Eneni}' 
convincing proofs that we are able and willing to fight them in their own way. 
In the action at the Bridge a \'irginia Regiment marched up within 40 yards 
of the Front, and having some Rilleman posted on the Flanks made terrible 
Slaughter. 

■A\'e are in expectation every miunent of receiving further intelligence, 
which I shall Conmumicatc to you by the very first opportunity. I beg you will 
let me hear from you by every ojifjortunity. My love to Xed and family and 
comjilinients to all friends. I am most Sincerelv, Yours, 

(Signed). ' WILLIAM PALFREY. _ 

"I forgot to mention our Friend Knox^'" liehaved most nobly, and did him- 
self and his Country great Honour — he is made a Brigadier General. 

"Dr. F.dw.-irds-' writes from Trent'Mi that Generrd W.-i-liington"" is slii^iitlv 
wounded, and that Gen'l ^ifcrcer is missing. Suppose either killed or made 
Prisoner. We have ccrtainlv taken all their Baggage at Princetown." 

j6 "Our friiMul Knox." u.ns ilu' (li<;lil^^'l•.i^h<■■(^ General Ftt-nry Knox, rif the Ui.voIiri'ii 

2' Of Doctor l-'dwards we find no lucntlnn. 

.38 The wmindincr of Washinprton cvid.-ntly refers to the IktuIc of Priiicetnn, where 

he ni.iy h:ivc been strnck by a 'Jpcnt Iiall. 



CHAPTER X\T, 



WRIGHTSTOWN. 



1703. 



A .-mall township. — John Chapman first settler. — Ralph Smith. — First house erected. — 
Dcaih of John Chapman. — William Smith. — John Penquite. — Francis Richardson.-^ 
James Harrison. — Randall Blackshaw. — The Wilkinsons. — Township organized. — 
Townstead. — When divided. — EtTort to enlarge township.— Richard ^^litchel!. — Set- 
tlers from New England. — Friends' meeting. — Meeting-house built. — .\nn Parsons. — 
Zehulon Heston. — Louisa Heston Pa.xson. — Jesse S. Hcston. — Thomas Ross. — Im- 
provements. — CnjajJaie. — Warner. — Charles Smith. — Burning lime with coal, — Puie- 
ville, Peim's Park and Wrighlstown. — The Anchor. — Population. — Large tree. — 
Oldest house in county. — Firrt settlers were encroachers. 

W'rightstown, one of the smallest townships in the county, lies wedged in 
between liiickingliani,, Ujiper Makefield, Newtown, Northampton and War- 
wick, with Ncshaniiny creek for its southwest boundary. The area i.^ ti\e 
iliL",i-:uid eight hundred and eighty acres. It is well watered by a number of 
^niall .-iireanis which intersect it in various directions, the surface rolling and 
the siijl fertile. A ridge of moderate elevation crosses the township and sheds 
the water in opposite directions, toward the Delaware and Neshaininy. The 
gpnmd was originally covered with a fine growth of heavy timber, with little 
nndeibrush, which greatly reduced the labor and trouble of clearing it for 
cultivation. At tirst the settlers did little more than girdle the trees, plant the 
cfirn and tend it with the hoe. The favorable location, the good quality of the 
S"il, and its easy ctiltivation had much to do, no doubt, with its early settlement. 

Two years and three months after William Fcnn. and his imiiierliate fol- 
I'Hvors, landed upon the ljank>- of the Delaware, John Chapman, of the small 
town of Stannah.- in Yorkshire, TCngland. with his wife Tane and children Mara. 



I We acknowledge the assistance received from Doctor C. W. Smith's history of 
N'i'ri;.;litstown township, and from the Chapman MS. kindly loaned us by Judge Chapman. 

J There is ntitlier town, nor parish, by the name of Stannah" in England at tlie 
I'niuit day. It is th.uu;lit ihat llii-; place is identical with tlu- present Stanhope in tl'.e 
\.'.Hoy of the river Wear, in Durham county. The church records o; Stanhope show tliat 
'■■ I Chapman-i belnnged to that parish before John joined the Friend^, and there he wa> 
'.ri;iMd, .\s ihc f.iurlv record- :,'i\e Vnrk-hire as tin- la-t countv he re-idcd in before 



tllSIORY OF BUCKS COUNTY. 



Ann and John tcjck up liii residence in the woods of ^\'rig"htsto\vn, the firsL 
white settler north of \ewtown. Being a staunch I'ricnd and having suffered 
numerous persecution- iV.r opinion sake, including loss of property, he resolved 
to find a new honu- in the wilds of Pennsylvania. Of the early settlers of 
Wriglitstown, the names of John Chapman, William Smith and Thomas Croas- 
dale are mentioned in "Jlcssies" Collections," as having been frequently fined and 
imprisoned for non-con fimnity to the established religion, and for attendance 
on Friends' meeting. Leaving home the 2tst of June, 16S4, he sailed from 
Aberdeen, Scotland, and reached Wriglitstown sometime toward the close of 
December. Before leaving England, Mr. Chapman bought a claim for five 
hundred acres of one Daniel Toaes, which lie located in the southern part of the 
township, extending from the park square to the Xewtown line, and upon 
which the village of Wrightstown and the Friends' meeting-house stand. A 
portion of this land lay outside of the purchase made by William ^larkham. 
16S2, and to which the Indian title had not been extinguished, when John 
Chapman settled ^pon it. Until lie was able to build a log house himself and 
family lived in a cave, where twin sons were Ijorn February 12, 16S5. Game 
from tlie woods supplied them with food until crops were grown, and often 
the Indians, between whom and the Chapmans there was the most cordial 
friendship, were the only reliance. It is related in the family records, that on 
one occasion, while riding through the woods, his daughter ]Mara overtook a 
frightened buck, chased by a wolf, which held quiet until she secured it with 
the halter from her horse. The first house erected by him stood on the right- 
hand side of the road leading from Wrights'town meeting-house to Pennsville. 
in a field formerly belonging to Charles Thompson, and near a walnut tree by 
the side of a run. After a hard life in the wilderness John Chapman died about 
the month of Mav, i('),)4. and was buried in the old graveyard near Penn's 
Park, whither his wife followed him in Utyiq. She was his second wife, whose 
maiden name was Jane Saddler, born about i''i.^3. and married to John Chap- 
man. June 12. ihjo. and was the mother of five of his cliildren.-'' A stone, 
erected at his grave, bore the following inscription : 

■'llfliolil Joliii Cliapni.Tii. that ii'.ri4ian man, wlio first began. 

To settle ill this town; 
From worMly c:irc- :niil doubtful tfars, ;;nd Satan's snares. 

Ts here laid do\vi> ; 
Ili* soul dutU rise, above the skies, in Paradise 

There to wear a lasting crown."* 

The children of John Chapman intermarried with the families of Croas- 
dalc. Wilkinson, fjlden, Par.sons and Worth, ami liave a large number of 



ccmini; t" America, be probably changed his dwelling place after he became n Friend. 
rJnrha.m and Vnrk-bire are adjoining counties. .\s Stanhope is in Durham, and not in 
Yorkshire, the confusion of locality remains. 

.-^ M:.ra. b.>rn iJth month. 2, 167 r ; .Ann, born oth month. .-(. \''<y6; John, born Tith 
montli. TI. V'lj^. .Xbrabam and Tij epli. t.vin-, Ijtli month, tj. KiS^;. 

4. "B. W.," in an ailicL- written to the Doylestown Dfiuocrat. says John Chapman 
and wife had a long stone at the head of their graves and ''no statement was ever made 
that it bore any inscription.'" Our authority for the verse was the MS. verse loaned us 
by the Lite Judge Chapm:in. 



HISTORY OP BUCKS COUKTY. 



231- 



(kbcciiilnnts. The late Doctor Isaac Chapman, of W'nglitstown, and Abraham 
( hapman, of Dovlestown, were grandsons uf Jusepli, one of the twins born in 
liic cave.^ The descendants of jolni Chapman have held many places of public 
trust. We find them in the Assembly, im the Ijench. at the liead of the loan- 
I'tVice, county surve\-ors, cimnty treasurers, etc.. etc."' In the early history of 
the county they did nuicii to mould its public affairs. Ami Chapman, the 
datijrhter of John, became a distinguisheil minister airiong I'Vicnils. She 
traveled as early as 170O, and made several tri]>s to England. Tlie familv added 
larj^ely to the real estate originally held in W'rightstown and elsewhere, and 
alxjut 1720 the Chapmans owned nearly one-half of all the land in the town- 
ship. In 1734 John Chapman's son John bought one hundred and ninety-five 
acres on the Philadeljjhia road adjoining the reiiquite tract, which was subse- 
quently owned by John Thompson, the grandsun of the first settler of that name 
in the township.' 

.\lthough John Chapman was the first to penetrate the wilderness of 
W'rightstown. he was not long the only white inhabitant, for within two years. 
William Smith, of Yorkshire, came to dispute with him the honors and hard- 
ships of pioneer life. He bought one hundred acres of Mr. Chapman and after- 
ward patented several hundred acres adjoining, extending to Newtown and 
Ncshaminy. His dwelling stood near where Charles Reeder lived. He was 
twice married, first to Mary Croasdale, of Middletown. in 1690, and afterward 
in 1720, and was the father of fourteen children. ?Ie died iti 1743. His se>n 
William, who married Rebecca Wilson, in 1722. purchased nearly all the 
original tract of his brothers and considerable in L']iiier Makefield, and died 
wealthy, 17.S0. The land remained in the family down to 1812. The original 
tract embraces several of the finest farms in that section. He was the ancestor 
of Josiah B. Smith, of Xewtown. John Penquite, who came over. September, 
16S3, and died, 1719, was the third settler in the townshi[). where he took u]3 
three hundred and fourteen acres between the jiark and Ncshaminy. It was 
originally patented to riiineas Pemberton. in 1692, but secured to Smith, 1701. 
In 1690 he married Agnes Sharp who probably arrived in 1686, and died in 
1719, his wife dying 175S. upward of one himdred years of age. He was a 
minister among Friends for nearly seventy years. His son John inherited his 
estate, and at his death, it was divided between his four daughters. Jane mar- 
ried William Chapman, who built Thompson's mill. 

In 1763 Ralph Smith, son of William Smith, the immigrant, with his three 
srvns, William, .\aron an.l Zopher. went to South Carolina, and settled in the 
Sfiartan.sburg district. He held the office of justice of the peace under King 
Ceorge III. but resigi\ed when hostilities with the colonies Ijroke out, and en- 
tered the army. He and his young son. Samuel, were arrested and confined in 
tlie loathsome prison at Ninety-Six. His son .Aaron was killed at the battle 
of the Cowpens. and Zopher fought at the same battle. 

William .Smith, eldest son of Ralph, burn in WriglUstown. September 2T. 
I75i> became a di.stinguislied man, his militarv career beginning against the 



.s Some rt'itiaiiT; rf t'lciii were to be seen as late as 1768. 

fi In iSii .Se'.li rb.ipnian. XeutdUii, was niPii.iiittd |>resi(!ent imlKO "f the Ki^lith 
disirict. 

7. Sc-ver.il of the pioneers of \V'ri[;IU';to\vii. tile Cbapn'.ans. Vi'ariicrs. and others 
were buried at ilie obi rrioids' Meelint; ITous,-. west of llic present Wriglitstown, a one- 
Mi ry bniM iiK' .1 mile below Peun's Park. 



232 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUSTY. 



Cherokee Iiulian^, 1775; when the Rcvnlutinn lirnkc out he entered the service 
and remained to llie close, reaching the rank of major, ile took part in sevend 
battles inchiding Guilford Court House, one of the severest in the State, and 
saved the dav at Musgrove Mill by disabling the JJritish commander. He wa.-, 
an iinconipreaiiising patriot in the darkest hour in South Carolina, when others 
were seeking Royal protection. He was equally distinguished in civil life. After 
the war he was elected county judge, member of Congress, 1797-99, and a mem- 
ber of the state Senate for twenty years, and he died June 22, 1837, in his eighty- 
sixth year. Josejih M. Rogers, the historian, sa} s of him : "He was leader of 
the House, a solid man of some eloquence, and had he remained longer in Con- 
gress, would have become a leading figure in American politics." Simon C. 
Drafier summed up liis eulogy in these words: "Few men served the public 
longer of more faithfullv than Judge Smith." 

William Smith was the father of fourtec:n chiMren, and four of his sons 
became prominent in State politics: Colonel Isaac was a state senator for many 
years : l")r. William, a physician, was a state senator and memlx-r of the House of 
Representatives; Major Elilui served eight terms in the Legislature, and Dr. 
Eber Smith, an eminent physician, was also a member of the Legislatiu-e. .An- 
other son, Eliplias. who removed to Alabama with his family, was a captain in 
the Mexican war, and upon his return, was appointed judge of the Circuit Court. 
Daniel Smith, the boy imprisoned at Ninety Si.x, served in the war of 1812: 
David Smitii, the brother of Ralph, subsequently settled in South Carolina, but 
removed with his family to Indiana, and his descendants are li\-ing at luiiicm- 
apolis and Terre Haute. 

In 1684 five liundred and nineteen acres, patented to Francis Richardson. 
were laid off for him in the east corner of the township, but he never settled 
upon it. Richardson owned twelve hundred acres in all, some of which is said 
to have been in the southwest corner of the township on the line of Xewtown, 
and some, or all, of it was conveyed to Thomas Stackhouse in 1707. In a few 
years it fell into the hands of other persons, John Routlige getting ojie hundred 
and seventy, and Launcelot Gibson one hundred and seventeen acres. Two 
hundred acres were patented to Jose])!! Amliler, in the northeast part of tlic 
township in 16S7, which descended to his son and then fell into the hands of 
strangers. Some years ago the Laceys owned part of this tract. The same 
year two lumdred acres, adjoining Ambler, were patented to Charles Briggham, 
which, at his death, descended to his two daughters, Mary, who married 
Nicholas Williams, and Sarah, to Thomas Worlhinglon : Amos Warner subse- 
quently owned part of this tract. Briggham's tract harl a tannery on it. in 174^- 
but there is no trace of it now. William Penn granted one thousand acres to 
John and William Tanner, t68i. who sold the grant to Benjamin Clark, Lon- 
don, iCS'}^. and. three vcars afterward four lumdred and ninety-two acres were 
laid out to his .son Benjamin, of Xew Jersey, on the northeast side of the town- 
sliip. extending from the Briggham tract to the Xew Hope road, which con- 
tained five hundred and seventy-five acres by Cutler's re-survey. Clark did not 
settle in the township, and. in 1728, the land was sold to .Abraham Chapm.an 
for £350. .'^oir.e vears ago it was owned liv John F.astbnrn. Joseph Warner and 
Timotiiv .Xtk'inson. 

Tames Harrison located i>ne tliriur;and acres in Wrightstown by virtue of a 
patent fnim William Penn. dated the utii monih, 1082. but he never became a 
settler. He s.vld two h\indred acres ti > J:une- RadclilY, a noted jiublic Frien.l 
who removed to Wri''ht^town. lO'^o, liul the remain^ier, at his de:ith. descended 



HISTORY OF DUCKS COUXTV. 233 



to liib daughtt-T riiLicbej wile of i'hincas i'L-nibcrloii. Uy 1718 it had all come 
iiiio the possession of her son Israel by descent and purchase. .\t dilterent 
tiu'.es lie sold three hundred and seven acres to John Wilkinson, two hundred and 
muety to William Trotter, and the rest to Abraham X'ickcrs, in 1726. This 
tract lay on the s<.'uthweit side of the township, running from the park to the 
Xc-linminy. then dnwn to the mouth of Randall's creek and from Randall 
Dlacksliaw's to Radcliffs tract. Harrison mubt have owned other lands in 
W riglUstown. fur Henry Baker, Makefield, bought four hundred acres 
of him before 1701. This lay in the northwest part of the township; prob- 
ably Harrison had never seated it, for it was patented to ]jaker's son 
Henry, who sold it to Robert Shaw in 1707, for £100. Subsequent survey made 
the quantity four hundred and ninety-four acres. Shaw sold it to several per- 
sons before 1723. It does not appear that Shaw received a park dividend in 
17 19, although he dien owned one hundred and twentv-one acres. Randall 
Dlackshaw, an original purchaser, took up two hundred in the west corner of 
the township, which, 1713. was owned by Peter Johnson, who came in 1697, 
and at his death, 1723, it descended to his son John. Garret \"ansant came into 
the township in 1690. and settled on a tract in the northwest corner. He sold 
two hundred acres to Thomas Coleman in his life time, and, at his death, sub- 
sequent to 1 711;. the remainder was inherited by his sons, Cornelius and Garret. 
The \ansant family lies buried in the old graveyard on the Benjamin Law 
farm.' Richard Lumley and Robert Stucksbury came about 1695. In 1709. 
one hundred and tifty acres were surveyed to Stucksbury, which afterward 
passed to the possession of Thomas Atkinson. 

The Wilkinsons of Wrightstown are descended from Lawrence Wilkin- 
son, of Lanchester, county Durham. England, a lieutenant in the army of Charles 
1, and taken prisoner at the surrender of New Castle, October 22, 1644. He 
settled at Providence, R. I., about 1652. John Wilkinson, second son of Samuel 
Lawrence, and a descendant of the immigrant, settled in Wrightstow^n, 1713, on 
307 acres on Xesiiaminy, purchased May 27, near the present Rushland. It lay 
in tile three tuwnships of Wrightstown, W^arwick and Buckingham. He v,-as a 
ju'lge of the cuirt of common pleas for some years, and a large holder of real 
estate His will is dated 1751, and proved April 23. Ichabod Wilkinson, an- 
other son of Samuel Lawrence and also a descendant of the immigrant, settled 
in Solebury. 1742. and married Sarah Chapman, 1743. John and }.Iary \\ ilkin- 
son had seven children, :\lary born July, 170S. married Joseph Chapirian, Au- 
gust, 1730; Kissiah married Thomas Ross, and was the mother of Judge John 
Ross: John married .Mary Lacey, daughter of John Lacey and sister of Gen- 
eral Lacey. May 27. 1740, and Joseph moved to Chester county, 1761. The 
second wife iif Juhn Wilkinson was Hannah Hughes, daughter of ]\Iatthe\v 
Hughes. John Wiikinson became a prominent man and was much in public 
life. He was a memlxr of Assembly, Judge of the Cnurt of Common Pleas: 
member >>i the Pr.ivincial Conference. July 15. 1774. Lieut. Col. 3d regiment, 
Bucks county Associators ; member of the C' mimitlee of Safety and of the 
Committee of Correspondence: member of the Constitutional convention. 177O. 
■and held other iiublic trusts. He ehed. May 31, 17S2. the Pennsylvania Goccifc 
of June 9. paying a high tribute to his personal worth and patriotic .service m 



8. Ilchne'? maii r.'!ii,iin> die iiainc< i.f tlu- fnllnvinp; rcil e-t.ltc "\vner> i". Wriyhts- 
iMwn, i(k^4: Chn-iMpIur Uarnn,!. lloi-.ry [lakL-r. I'linuia^ riickcr-^on, Kan.lall I',l;.ck4iaw. 
Jaiiit^ Harri-Ti. .l.ii'.u^ Uack-lilY. ami llcrlicrt Sprini;ot. 



234 HISTORY OU BUCKS COiWll . 



tlic Kcsi-ilmion. Hi.- was the father nf nine cliibhen, who iiUurmarricd with 
the 'J"v, iiiiiig.-, Chapniaiis, liuyhes. Smiths and other well-known families. 
Hli^ha Wilkinson, y._.i;iigcst child i>i Colonel John W'ilkmson, \\a> the most 
prominent member of the family the j.ast century, lie was born 1774, and died 
at Philadelphia, 1840. He developed a fondness for military affairs in early life. 
In 1807 he was Lieutenant Colonel of the 31st regiment of militia, and Assistant 
yuartermaster in the campaign on the Lower Delaware, 1814. Ho was also 
prominent in civil life, being sheriff of the county for two terms. He was popu- 
lar ani.f ■>'":dcly known ; a great sportsman, fond of good stock and did much to- 
improve it. In 1814 he purchased tlie tavern property- at Centerville, and kept 
it several years. Here he was visited by many of the leading men of the period. 
The late Ogdcn D. Wilkinson, and liis brother-in-law, Crispin Blackfan, built 
tiie Delaware-Rariian canal between Trenton and New Brunswick, 1S32. Colo- 
nel Elisha Wilkinson tvas twice married, his first wife being Ann Dungan, a 
descendant of Rev. Thomas Dungan, of Rliode Island, who settled at Cold 
Spring, Bristol townsiiip, 1683, and founded the first Baptist church in the 
Province. Walter Clark, half brother of Thomas Dungan, was governor of 
Ivliode Island, 1696 to Hjgj. 

We have n'lt been able to find any record giving tlie date when Wrights- 
town was organized into a township, or by whom laid out. It was called by 
this name as early as 1687 in the will of Thomas Dickerson, dated July 24th, 
wherein he bequeaths to his kinsman, Thomas Coalcman. "two hundred acres 
of land lying and being at a place called Writestown." Iti the deed of Penn's- 
Commissioners to Phineas Pemberton, in 1692, it is called by its present name. 
The mile square laid out in it was called the "village'' or ''townstead'' ot 
Wrightstown. Land was surveyed in the township as early as 1685. 
It was hardly a rec'^gnized subdivision at these early dates, but the 
name was probably apjdied to the settlement, as we have seen was the case in- 
other townships. It will be remembered that the first group of townships was 
not laid out until 1G92, and Wrightstown was not one of them, and we are 
safe in saying it was not organized until some time after. We have i)laced the 
date 1703, because that was the time of the re-survey by Jolin Cutler, and we 
kn()w- that it was then a recognized townshi]i. 

When Wrightstown was laid out. a mile square townstead.. aljout in the 
centre, was reserved bv the PYoprietary. whose iiilcnlii'in is thought to have 
been to devote it to a puiilic park for the use of the township. It was .-.urveyed 
i-" i''i95. At the end ■-<! thirteen years the inhabitants became dissatisfied with 
the reserv'iti'iii. and. t-n jietition of the land-owners, the Proprietary allowed 
it to be divided amon^ fifteen men who owned all the lanrl in the township. 
This was according to the terms of a deed of partitirin executed in 1719. These 
fifteen laiul-owners were Smith. Penijuito. Parsons. Lumley. Stuckliury. \ an- 
sant, Johnson. Pemhcrt'-in. Ambler, Trotter. Clark, John. Abraliam and Joseph 
Chayiman. and Nicholas \\"illiams. James Logan agreed to the terms for tlic 
Penns an.l Jolm Cha[)man surveyed the square, whicli was found to contain 
six htniilrei.l and fifty-eight acres, one-tenth of the area of the township, In 
1S33 Doetr.r C. W. Smith made a survey of the original boundaries of the 
s(|iiare. which he found to he as follows: "Beginning at the east corner of 
the park at a hickory tree in the line between Benjamin Lacey's land and Isaac 
Cliatiman's land : thence south forty-three- and a quarter degrees west along the 
said line-fence, to Edward Chapman's land: crossina: said land and crossing 
the Durham rond north of his house: ci>'S-ing the farms of Charles Thompson 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUXTY. 23s 



and Garret D. Percy; following the line between the lands of Charles IlarL 
a;ul Mary Roberts to a stone, the corner of Mary Roberts' and Albert Thomp- 
son's land, this being the south corner of the park ; thence north forty-six and 
three-quarters degrees west, along the line between }\Iary Roberts' and Charles 
Gain's land, crossing the I'ineville and Richborough turnpike road about one- 
fourth of a'niile below Pennville; crossing Charles Gain's land following the 
iiiirth-west line of the old graveyard lot; crossing }iIahlon \V. Smith's land, 
ir'ining in with, and following, the public road in front of his house and cross- 
ing lands of Abner Reader and John Everitt ; then following the public road 
leailing to Carver's mill to an angle in said road, the corner of Sackett \\'eth- 
erill's and Jesse Worthingtiju's land, this being the west corner of the park ; 
thence north forty-three and a quarter degrees east, crossing lands 
of Jesse W'orihington, Benjamin Lair and Edmund S. Atkinson, and 
following the line between Ednnind S. Atkinson's and Thomas 3.1artinda!e's 
land, crossing the land of William Smith north of his buildings, to a point 
between William Smith's and Thomas Warner's land, this being the north 
corner of the park : thence south forty-six and a quarter degrees east, across 
Th.omas Warner's land, south of his buildings, across William' Smith's land, 
crossing the Durham road near the Anchor tavern, following the line between 
I ':e<.irge Uuckman's and Thomas Smith's lands, thence crossing lands of Thomas 
Smith, Joseph ^lorris, and Benjamin Lacey, to the place of beginning." 

At the time of the division of the townstead all the land in the township 
was located, but it was sparsely populated, and only a small portion had been 
brought under cultivation. One account gives the township proprietors at 
seventeen, but tlie names of only sixteen can be found, of which seven were 
non-residents. John, Abraham and Joseph Chapman received a park dividend 
of one hundred and forty acres, all the other residents one hundred and ninety- 
six acres, and the non-residents, who owned half the land in the township, three 
hunderd and twenty-two acres. At a later period the Chapmans owned about 
three-fourths of all tlie land in Wrightstown. Before 1789, Henry Lewis, of 
Westmoreland county, had come into possession of one acre and ninety seven 
jjerches of the park, through the Pembertons. Penquites. William Chapman anil 
others, and which he sold October 17th. that \ear, to Robert Sample, i^f Buck- 
ingham, for £30 Pennsylvania currency. 

In 1720 an ettort was made to enlarge the area of Wrightstown, by adding 
to it a portion of the manor of Highlands adjoining, in what is now L'pper 
Makefield. The petitioners from Wrightstown were John Chapman. Jose[>h 
Chapman, James Harker. William Smith. William Smith, jr.. Thomas Smitli. 
John La>crick. Launcelot Gibscin. Abraham Chapman. John Wilkinson. Richard 
Mitchell. Nicholas Allen. Edward Milnor, Peter Johnson. Garrett Johnson, John 
Parsons, and John Johnson. John Atkinson and Dorothy Heston were t!ie 
only two petitioners from the manor. The territory proposed to be added was 
about one-half as large as Wriglitstown. and the reasons given for the annexa- 
tion were because a certain road tlirough the m.anor was not kept in repair, am! 
that the interests of the people to be amicxed were more closely united with 
those of Wriglitstown. The strip of lanil wanted was nine hundred and thirty 
perches lon'j liv four hiindrLil and ^e\■e^t\•-h'nr wide. 

In 171S. Richard r^liLchell I)OUght seventy acres of Joseph Wilkinson on 
the east side of Mill creek wliei'e he built a mil!, long known as Miicliell's 
mill, which fell into disuse when the Elliotts built one lower down cm the 
stream. Mitciiell wa- a man nf high ^tanding. and iliod in 1750- Eor several 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUXTY 



years tliis mill supplied the settlers (if a larn^e scij])e of country to the north 
with tlour. In \J2J the inhabitants of I'erkasie petitioned for a road to be laid 
out to this mill which also opened iheni the wa\ to Bristol. The mill, and 
farm belonging, of two hundred and tifty acres, were purchased by Watson 
Welding, in 1793, and contiiuied in the family near half a century. The mill 
is now o\\'ned by Hiram Reading, of Hntborough, INIontgomery county. The 
Sacketts came into the township from liuutcrdon county, Xew Jersey, Joseph, 
the first comer, settling there about 1729 and purchasing two hundred and 
twenty acres of John Hilborn, a portion of the I'emberti.in tract. He kept sture 
for several years. Part of the property is held b\- his descendants. John La\- 
cock, a minister among Friends, piu-chased one hundred and twenty acres of 
John Chapman, in 1722, and died in 1730. Joseph Hampton, a Scotchman, 
settled in 1724 on t\\-o hundred and fifty acres he purchased of Zebulon Heston. 
It w as on his land, still owned by his descendants, that stood the "corner white 
oak."' near an Indian path that led to Flaywicky mentioned in the Indian pur- 
chase of 16S2. It is a singular fact that of all the original settlers in Wrights- 
town, the families of Chapman and Smith are the only ones of which an\' de- 
scendants are now living in the township. 

About 1735 there was an influx of settlers from the East, a few families 
coming from Xew Englan<l, among whom were the Twirdngs, Lintons and 
others. The \\'arners were there ten years earlier. Joseph, bi;>rn in 1701 and 
married Agnes Croasdale, of Middletow'n, in 1723, settled there in 1726, and 
afterwaril purchased one hundred and fifty acres of Abraham Chapman, part 
of the original Clark tract. The old mansion is still standing, one himdred and 
seventy-five years old. An addition was built to it, in 1769. He was grandsovi 
of the first \\'illiam who died at Elockley in 1706. The ancestral acres were 
in the family in recent years owned by Thomas Warner, the fifth in descent 
from Ji.'seph ^\'arner. It is thought one thousand seven hundred persons 
have descended from Thomas Warner, one of the first settlers in 
Wrightstown. 'I'hey \vho came into the township at this period \inv- 
chased Land of the original settlers sometimes with the improvements. With 
few exceptions the early settlers were of English or Irish descent, although 
there were some from other European couiUries. In 1750 Joseph Kirkbridc, 
of Falls, patenie.i t\\o hundred and five acres :i<liijining James RadclitY, and e.K- 
tending from the park tii Neshaminy. but we cannot learn that he was ever 
a resident of the tllwn^hip. Robert Hall, an early settler, came with his wife, 
Elizabetli and a son and daughter, but the time we do not know. John Thomp- 
son came early, acquired large i)roperty and became prominent and influentia!. 
He was elected .Sheriff of the comUy and filled the office with great acceptance. 

The first meeting of Friends was held at J'^hn Ch:i|inian"s. in iTiSG," ruvl 
afterward at John Penqnite's, an accejjted mini^ter, Meetings were held at 
private houses muil 1721. These early I'riends were members .n' Middlet<i,\n 
monthly that met at Xicholas Walne's. In 1721 Falls (Juarterlv gave permis- 
sion to WriglUst'iwn to build a meeting-house, which \\as erected on a four- 
acre I'.t the gift cii Jcjhn Chapman. The first gra\evard was nu the road fri-m 
^\'ri^lltstrlwn nieeling-liouse to Rusji \-alIev, just bevond Penn's ]*ark and \\:i~ 
recently kni^'wn as '•the schnoMiouse lot." It is now owned bv Charles Gain. 

') The first nui-;iiif; fiT wr-liip -iv.k in lie lu-ld once a ninntli. ''to lioeiu next First 
d.ir. cnnK- Wfck .ti'i.t .iil, 4:li nionlh. Kk^i." Ijut .'il \\\c rci|Ufst nf Jnliii CI\:ipni,-in. f6i)0, 
it \v,T, Ik!.! ivtiv ihr.H- \vt,,ks. . 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUNTY. 



'-37 



IfefctJih^-^^jtR-jy 



WRIGHTSTOWN MEETING HOUSE. 



and was sold to his father ,~~ ~ .»■;-.;_• v> ■•■5*v?.'W3| 

a quarter of a century j ' ■•.?;..' '' ' '' .; 

ago. Tlic liji \\;'.s walled | •■!''. ^\ 

ill, but fifty year.- asjo | '"' .-• - ;>; 

Amos Dijauc used the 1^ -. . "-"ri 

stiMie to build a wall on !*'' '■ ; 

his farm. This graveyard ;. -..- _^;; 

was on the llarker iract. • '' ., 

purchased of \\'illiaiii ,V, -.i 

Trotter, and, at his death. '._, ; 7* 

Harker.^" gave it to the " :^ 

W'riglustown m o n t h 1 y 

meeting. There have not ^ j 

been any burials tliere 
within the memory of 
the oldest inhabitants. 
The lot was reserved from cultivation, but the graves of the first settlers were 
nnitilated by the plow years ago. In 1734 W rightstown was allowed a monthly 
meeting. The first marriage recorded is that of Bezeleel \Mggin5 to Rachel 
Ha}hurst, of ^liddletown, May, 1735. Down to the end of the century there 
Were celebrated three hundred and thirty marriages, the names of the parties 
being those of families well-known at the present day in the middle and lower 
sections of the county. The meeting-house was enlarged, 1735, by an addi- 
tion of twenty feet square, an.l the Bucks Ouarterl}- meeting was held there for 
the first time that fall. Afterward it rotated between V\"rightstown, P'alls, ]\[id- 
dletown and Bnckingham. A wall was built around the graveyard. 1770, at 
a cost of $506.50, and, in 17S7 the present house, seventy by forty feet, was 
erected at an expense of S2,io6. An addition was made to the graveyard to 
bury strangers in, 1791. In 1765. Friends adjourned ^Monthly meeting because 
it fell on the day of the general election. W'rightstown meeting has produced 
several ministers among Friends, some of whom became eminent. Of these 
may be mentioned Agnes Penquite. who died in 175S aged upward of i?ne 
hundred years, Ann Parsons, born 1685, died 1732, David Dawes, Ann Hamp- 
ton, Zebulon Flestent and Thomas Ross. Doctor Smith says but one riding 
chair came to W'rightstown meeting, 17S0, that of Joh.n Buckman. The women 
were good riders, and generally came on horseback but some of them came on 
foot several miles. 

Zebulon lieston removed from New Jersey to Falls, where he remained 
until 171 1, when he came up to Wrightstown with his wife and children. Of 
his seven chili'.ren, Jacob was the only one born in the township. His son 
Zebulon became a noted preacher and in his seventieth year made a missionary 
visit to the Delaware Indians on the !\Iuskingum river, Ohio, accompanied by 
his nephew Joint, afterward General Lacey. ^Ir. Heston died ?vlay 12, 1776. 
in his seventv-fourth vear." The meeting-house of Orthodox Friends was 



10. Ihirker was elected poiin(l-kei-|ier of the township. i7.vS, "the pound to he kept 
on his I.iikI ni.-ar the hichway."' prc'b.TliIy in die vicinity of PLnnivillc. 

11. Mr>. L'.ni^a Hciion P.ix-oi;. p;re:it-t:r.nn<ld,uiL;liii r of ^iluiton Heston. and 
Crnndilinshtcr of lii> con IMw.Trd. (lied .it I le^tom i!le. I'bihidelphu Cvuiiuy, March 26. 
1S90, in Ikt i>'~^tli year. Her fatlier was proniiiient in the Revolution, and served in the 
Continental army, rearliiii^ tlie rank of Lieiitenant-CuJonel. He was sul'sei]uently a jud^e 



23S HISTORY OF BUCKS COUNTY. 



torn down, 1S70, when the few families which had worshiped in it joined the 
meeting at Cuckingham. The buriaUground was enlarged in 1S56 by adding 
a lot from George Warner, and the whole surrounded by a substantial stone 
wall. It is more than one-fourth of a mile in circumference. During the last 
thirty years nearly one tlmusand perMUis have been liurietl in the yard.'- 

A spirit of impruvement s<.t in about 1720, which gradually put a new 
phase on the apjiearance of things. Down to this time the town.ship was entirely 
cut oil from the outside world by the want of road.s. The opening of a portion 
of the Durham road down toward tlic lower Delaware, and the one now 
known as the 2^Iiddle road, leading from Philadelphia to Xew Hope, which 
meets the former at the Anchor tavern, near the centre of the township, de- 
stroyed its isolated situation. A number of new settlers now came in. Those 
without money took improvement leases for a term of years, and were the means 
of gradually bringing large tracts of non-residents under cultivation. Some of 
the large tracts of the original holders were also passing to their children and 
being cut up into smaller farms. About this period was ccmimenced that 
■wretched system of farming which cultivated a single field until it w as farmed 
to death, when it was turned out for exhausted nature to recuperate. This 
retarded the clearing of land and was almost the death of agricultuia! improve- 
ment. The opening of the road to Philadelphia was an in\itation to the 
farmers of \\'rightstown to take their produce there to sell, of which they grad- 
ually availed themselves. Instead of wallets slung on horses, simple carts 
now came into use to carry marketing, and the men began to go to market 
instead of the women. At this time the inhabitants lived on what their farms 
produced, w"ith a small surplus to sell. The men dressed principally in tanned 
deer-skins, and the women in linsey and linen of their own manufacture. 

About 1756 Croasdale \\"arner, son of Joseph, bought a tract of land ad- 
joining Joseph and Timotliy Atkinson, on which he built a pottery and carried 
on the business for several years. It was accidentally burned dow"n, 1812, and 
not rebuilt. This was probably the earliest pottery in central Bucks county, 
or possibly anywhere in the county. The inhabitants of W'rightstown took an 
interest in the cause of temperance at an early da\' and discountenanced the 
general use of intoxicating liciuors. The I2tli of June, 1746, thirty-one of 
her citizen^ petitioned the court to "suppress"' all public houses in the township, 
because of the great harm they were doing to the inhaljitants. To this peti- 
tion is si!;iie(l tlie name <>i Thomas Ross, ancestor of the Rosses of this county. 
Charles Smith, of Pinexille, a cleseendant of Robert Smith, of Buckingham, 
was the first person to burn lime \\itli hard coal. His experience in burning 
lime goes back to 1706. and he was engaged in it niLire or less all his life. Plis 
fust allem])t, and the fir^i in the county, was in 1S26 when lie used coal on the 
top of the kiln, and continued it until 1S35. The method of arching the kiln, 
and arranging the wood anil coal so as to burn lime to the best atlvantage, was 



•nil the Coniinoii Plens ln-mh. I'iula<l'jlphi:i. .TinI ,-\l!<o a member of tlie Sl.ite Sen.ite. Mr*. 
I'ax^on wa5 a n.nl "Daiv.;lUiT of tlie Revolution," and a few years ago the National Society 
|jre<cnti.il lu r a iiold soiiver.ir. 

\2 In iS.'V) the Iiuok^ County lli-torical Society erecteil a ni<imimi-m near the corner 
<if the WriglU'^towu Lrra\ey:iril to mark the -trirtini; \h,un nf the "\\':ilkiii>; I'urcha^e." 
17, '7 M-irlha Chapn;.in '.^ue tlie gi' imil, and Ok- ni..nnii'ent s'.amls in the sniuhea-t 
con er of th.e r. .ad from rtini'< Park make-; uitli the Diiriiani road, i-s the ^ite of tlie 
;he-tnui tree mentioned in the "urdk "' 



HISTORY OF DUCKS COUXTV 



239 



txiicriniciitcd upon several year->. In 1835 'i^' l^^'-t ^ l^'l'i to hold thirty-hve 
hundred bushels, and burned in it twenty-tive hundred and fifty-three bushels 
L'i luiie. in another he burned twenty-two hundred and four bushels with wood 
and coal, which cleared liini one hundred dollars, and the same month, he 
hiirned a third that yielded him twenty-three hundred and ninety-eight bushels, 
i he >ame year he constructed a kiln at Faxson's corner in Solebury, to burn 
ci>al alone, and in May, 1830, he burned a kiln that yielded him twenty-eight 
lunidred bushels, and another in October that produced three thousand and 
i, .riy-one bushels. Contemporary with Charles Smith in e.Kpcriments was 
James Jamison, a successful and intelligent farmer and lime-burner, Bucking- 
ham, and he and ^^Ir. Smith frequently compared their plans and consulted 
togetlier. 2^Ir. Jamison was killed in his lime-stone quarry by a premature 
explosion. 

In W'rightstow n are three small villages, Pineville in the norlhcrn, Wrights- 
town in the southern, and Pennsville, more frequently called i'enii's Park, the 
name given to the post-office, near the middle of the townsliip. Pineville was 
known as "The Pines" a century ago, and was called by this name for many 
years, from a growth of thrifty pine trees at that point. One iumdred years 
ago it was called "Pinetown," and consisted of a stone store-house adjoining 
a frame dwelling, kept by Thomas Betts, near the site of the late Jesse P. 
Carver's store. The dwelling house and tailor-shop of William Trego stood 
on the point between the Centreville turnpike and the Buckingham road. Ies^e 
S. Heston kept store in the bar-room of the present tavern. Soon after that 
period Thomas Belts removed to Lahaska, where he kept store many years in 
the building recently ticcupied by R. R. Paxson. Ileston went from Pineville 
to Xewtown and formed a partnership with John Tucker, where they carried 
on for many years under the firm name of Heston & Tucker. .Mr. Heston re- 
moved to Bristol, went out of bu.siness and died there. He was the father of 
Dr. George Hestrm, Xewtown. Heston wa? succeeded at Pineville by Kinsev 
r>. Tomlinson, who removed h.ence to Xewtown, and for man\- vears kept the 
store subsequently occupied b\- Evan Worthinglon. Tomlin.>on was president 
of the Xewtown Xatioual Bank. Isaac Colton, a bound boy uf Jesse Heston, 
grandfather of Jesse S. Heston, Xewtown. was the last person to wear leather 
breeches in the vicinity of Pineville. This was about 1S00-1810. \\'hen he 
wore them to school he was the butt of the other boys. Another dwelling and 
David Stogdale's farm hi>usc. with a school house near llie present store, re- 
moved, 1842, completed the village at the period of Nshich we write. It had 
neither snu'th shoi). tavern nor wheelwright shop. The post-office was estab- 
lished after 1831), with Sanuie! Tundinson postmaster, when the name was 
changed til Pineville. The hr.-t ta\ern. licensed 1833-31), wa< kept by Tomlin- 
son after ha\ing been a temperance house fur several vears. The village now 
contains 25 dwellings. Joh.h Thompson kept store at the Pines l.iefore the Revo- 
linicin, and also owned a mill on tiie Xeshaminw 

Pennsville, or Penn's Park, is Ijiiilt on land that James llarker bought of- 
^\'illiam Trotter within. the park in. 1752. It is situated in the southern part 
of the town-liip. 'm th.e Pine\-i!le and Richljornngh turnpike, and within the 
iriLjinnl i)ark "r !■ iw n-siiu;!rr I'liil oui liv direction of William Penn. The popu- 
l:'ti'>n is I ;o. wiih 35 due'.lin.;-, one churcli. Methoilisl Pjiisciiprd: store, post- 
ofiioe. e^lalili-he 1 in 1^^'''_'. and T. .O. .\tkinsi>n apii''inted pi ■-ini.i-.ier. and \ari- 
ous mechanics' sh'ips. Penn's I'ark was originallv called "I.-ogiown." .\mong 



■i 

._ ■ .- - -._ ;aisa!»dfc^ 

EIGHT S'jL'AKi; SCHo'iL Hoi SE. PhNNS PARK. WKlGHT.-,TO\VN. 
Now used as a Jwelline. 

ihe dwflling'.^ at Peon's Park is an old eight-square school house at the toll- 
gate on the I'ineville and Richborougli turnpike, but a school has not been kept 
in it for many years. The land was lea^ed by the Uursons for a term of ninety- 
nine years for schoijl purposes. This lease, having expired, places the building 
in the nineteenth century. We do not know wlien it was buUt, but the half- 
tone illustration will give the reader its present appearance. Wrightstov.n is 
only a small hamlet, with the meeting house, store and three or four dwellings, 
and takes its name froni the town^liiji. It was built on the original tract of 
John Chapman, on the road to Xewtown, originally the Durham road. Tlie 
township has three taverns, at Pineville, I'ennsville, and the Anchor, where 
the Middle and Durham road intersect. The township is traversed by these two 
highways and a number of roads that intersect, or lead into, dicm. The road 
from the river side at DeauniontV to the Durham road, near \Vrightsto\vn 
meeting-house, was opened 1763. Among the aged men who died in Wriglus- 
town, possibly within the rceulleciion of some of those now living, were W'ill- 
liam Chapman, grandson of tiie first settler, July 1, 1810, aged 93, and An- 
drew Collins. I'eljruary 28, 1817, aged 92 years. 

The earliest enumeration of taxables is that of 1704, when they numbered 
67. \N"e do not know the poi)uIatiou earlier than 1810, when it was 56:? : in 
1820, 618; 1S30, 060. and 14S taxables; 1840. 708: 1850, 812 whites: i860, 
853 whites and 9 blacks, and 1870. 811 whites and 12 blacks, of which 771 
were native-t)orn and 52 foreign; 18S0. JJ^; 1890, 838; 1900, '^j^. 

The large huttonwood that stands in front of Thomas Warner's house 
grew from a riding-switch his father brought from Hartford county, Maryland, 
in the spring of 1787. and stuck in the ground. It measures eleven feet in 
circumference twelve inches above the ground. An ash, planted in the same 
yard. 1S32, measures nine feet around it. 

It is well known to all who ha\'e examined the subfect, that the original 
white settlers ab'ive Xewtown were cncri\acher> on the country owned by the 
Indians. The 1 'rii]irietary was censured for fiermiuing this intrusion on the 
Indians, and ih.e Latter made mild prote'-t against it. Tlie ujiper line of Mark- 
ham's inirchase. Jul\- 15. 1A82, ran through Wrightstown, a short distance 
below the Anchor, and therefore all the settlers in this towiisiiip north-west 

240 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUNTY. 241 



vi il were intruders. The same may be said of those who first settled in Buck- 
nghain and Solebury, and all above. In truth, all the land settled upon north 
01 Xewtown prior to tlie "Walking Purchase;' 1737, belonged to the Indians, 
and tr.e whites were really trespassers. John Chapman settled on land to 
\sliich the Indian title had been extinguished before he left England, but some 
1,1 the early settlers were not so careful to observe treaty obligations. 

Some light is thrown on the origin of the name "W'rightstown," by which 
it was called soon after it was settled, by the following extract from a letter 
vi I'hineas Pemberton to William Penn, in England, dated 27th, nth month, 

"The land I have in \\ rightstown is twelve hundred ackers, and only 
one settlement upon it. I lately oft'ercd to have given one hundred ackers it 
he would have seated there, and he has since bought at a very great price, 
rather than go so far into the woods. There is about five hundred ackers yet 
lo lake up in the townc. The people hereabout are much disappointed with sd. 
Wright and his cheating tricks he played here. They think much to call it 
after such a rimagadoe's name. He has not been in these parts for several 
vcars, therefore I desire thee to give it a name. I have sometimes called it 
Ccntrelown, because it lyes near the center of the county, as it may be sup- 
posed and the towne is layd out with a center in the middle of 600 ackers or 
thereabouts. " 

The Wright, here referred to in Pembcrton's letter, is thought to have 
^)ccn Thomas Wright who was associated with William Penn in the West Jer- 
sey venture. He arrived in the JNIartha 1677, and settled near Burlington. In 
1O82 he was a member of Assembly. The name was first applied to the settle- 
ment and intended for the prospective township, but, at the time Pemberton 
wrote, there was no townsliip organization. When he speaks of the "towne" 
he evidently refers to a settlement in the middle of the townstead. W'illiam 
Penn did not see fit to change the name, although it was called after a "run- 
agado." 

When Abraham Thompson tore down his old dwelling, 187S. erected back 
in the eighteenth century, he found, under the roof, an assessment paper dated 
.'\liril I. 1809. It was made out in the name of Amos Warner for the tax on 
that farm, assessed at $21 per acre. The assessor was Jesse Anderson. 

Xcar the Windy Bush road, running from the Anchor tavern, W'rights- 
ti^wn. stands an old stone school house in which, about 1845. Charles C. Bur- 
leigh was rotten-egged while advocating the abolition of negro slavery. The 
person who threw the eggs subsequently perished in a snow storm. 











1.1' ?;'^^^ ^^ i §v' 







--J1 




i?^^4,-^4 1 i^ ^'1 






-I, 



^■l- 












f'.'yyrtr:'-/.-' 



//t 



^-?T^-- 



CHAPTER XVII, 



BUCKLXGHAM. 



1703. 



'1 he empire township. — Vale of Lahaska. — Surface broken. — Diirh.-im and York roadi. — 
Origin of name. — First settlers.— 'Amor, Paul and Samuel Preston.- — James Streator 
aiid Richard Parsons. — The West and Reynolds tracts. — Robert Smith. — The VVorth- 
intrtons. — Windy Bush. — Gen'l A. J. Smith. — Thomas Canby. — William Cooper. — 
Thomas Bye.— Edward Hartly. — The Paxson family. — The Watsons. — John Watson, 
the surveyor. — Matthew ilughes and others. — Joseph Fell. — Jesse Fells burns hard 
coal in a grate. — Gillingham Fell.— The Carvers. — Meetings for worship. — Meeting- 
hoi!.=e' built — Burned down. — Used as hospital. — Births, deaths, marriages. — The 
Laceys. — General John Lacey. — Old house. — Taverns. — Cross Keycs. — Lenape Stone. 
— Ann Moore. — Earliest boundary. — Old map.^ — The Idens. — Doctor John Wilson. — 
Schools. — Amos Austin Hughes. — Justice Cox. — Doctor Cernea.— Buckingham library. 
— Nail factory. — Big Ben. — James Jamison. — The villages. — Population. — Caves anj 
sink holes. — African church. — William Simpson. — Scythe and a.\ factory. — Catching 
pigeojis. 

Tlie central location of Buckingliaiii, it.^ productive soil, valuable quarries 
'-'i limestone, its wealth, inlclligence, population and area, eighteen thousand four 
lumdred and eighty-eight acres, entitle it to be considered the empire township 
of the county. The stream of immigration, that brought settlers into the 
woods of W'rightstown. carried them up to the "Great mount.iin,"^ and they 
sirndnally spread over Iluckingham and Solebury, originally one township. It 
is well watered by the Lahaska creek and tributaries, which meander th.e town- 
ship in several directinns. and branches of Pine run, Pidcock's creek, and 
Pannacussing." which rlrain its east and north corners and along the north-east 
b..rdrr. 

.-\ n'lte to tlic "\'rdc of I^ha-ka.'' written by Samuel Johnson in 'i^^^, 
says Lahaska was the name of wiiat is now called Buckingham mountain. Tins 
i~ an error. On an old manuscript map of part of the township, drawn in 
iy2i''. the name is written, "the Great mountain, called by the Indians Pepa- 



r C.'illod by the Iniii.Mis l.alri-kcki'-c. S.Tnuiel T're.^tnn saiii the Inilian name was 
"I-1-keek." In an old pa[icr it is writtcu ''Lclioskuk" hill. In iSi; it was called, by 
some. "Lackawissa." 

3. The Iiid an nniv.o was Pannanissiiu-k. 

3i:l 



244 HISTORY OF BUCKS COUNTY. 



eating," probably I'cpacatck, as "ing" is not an Indian terniinatioD 'fijc 
moiuuain must have been named after the townsliip at a later date. It lies 
in tlie lap o£ one ot the loveliest valleys in the county, running nearly north- 
east and south-west and about two miles long. It is rich in agricultural anil 
mineral wealth, and. in the middle of it, is a natural well around which the 
Indians cleared off the timber, and built a village for the sake of the water. 
The poet of the valley drew a true picture when he wrote : 

"From the brow of Lahaska wide to the west, 

The eye sweetly rests on the landscape below ; 

'Tis blooming as Eden, when Eden was blest, 

As the sun lights its charms with the evening glov/." 

The surface is broken by Buckingham mountain. -'-^ A vein of limestone begins 
back of the Lahaska liills, widens as it extends into Solebury, the many lime- 
kilns it feeds adding greatly to the productive wealth of the township. The 
soil in all parts is naturally fertile and the famous valley is unsurpassed in fertil- 
ity. The population is well-educated and intelligent. The original settlers 
were almost exclusi\ely English Friends, whose descendants form the bulk of 
the population. Two of the main highways of the county, the Durham and 
York roads, pass through the township in its entire length and breadtli, inter- 
secting at Centreville, while lateral roa-ds run in every direction. Before Sole- 
bury was cut oft, about 1703, Buckingham contained thirty-three thousand 
acres, but with its present area is the largest township in the county. 

The name "I'uckingham" is of English origin and in Etigland is borne 
by several localities. We have Bushing from bcccii, the beech-tree, then Becen- 
ham. then Bushingham, the village among the beeches, and lastly Buckingham. 
Probably it was given this name from a desire to retain it in the county, after 
that of Bristol had been changed from Buckingham to what it now bears. 
In 1706 the township was called New Buckinghain, probably to distinguish 
it from Bristol which was still callctl "Buckingham." It is possible the nan:o 
had not been given to it in 1700, for in the return of survey of James Strcatcr's 
land it is said to be laid out in Bucks county, township not mentioned. Jcjhn 
\\'atson records, that in cutting down a white oak, in 1769, there were found 
in it several large marks of an ax, which the growth of the tree indicated must 
have been made some tifty years before the Province was granted to Penn. 

It is impossible to say who was the first settler in Buckingham, or the 
time of his arrival, but it could not have been more than a year or two after 
Jolin Chapman had seated liimself in the wooils of \\'rightstown. It is prob- 
able all the first settlers of this region made a halt in Falls, or the neighboring 
settlements, liefnre they push.ed tlieir way back into the woods about the grtat 
momitain. They were mostl}' members of Falls meeting, and it is said some 
of them walkeil all the way down there to attend Hicetings before they had per- 
mission to hold them in Buckingham. These settlers were of a better class, 
many of them were intelligent and educated, and the energy required in the 
settlement of a new country developed their he'-t mental and physical qualities. 
Surveys were made as early as 16S7, and. before 1702, nearly all the land was 
located. This was before the Indian title had been extinguished to an acre 



2;', On the finuniit, and near the niiddle of the range, is a rocky cavern, called 
''Wolf Rock*;." '^aid to have had its hermit, and some romantic stories are fold about it. 
The mo\intniTi is much frequented in tl.c spring of the year by young people. 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUNTY. 245 



if. tin; lowiiship.^ Until grain encaigh was raised to support the pioneers of 
i'-iL-kinLjliani and Solcbiiry a supi>ly was fetched from Fails and Middlctown. 
At the lime Buckingham was svntled there was no store north of Bristol, and 
• >riur to 1707 grain was taken to Morris Gwin's mill, on the Pennypack, to be 
^T'jf.nd. 

It is claimed that Amor Preston was the first white man to settle in Bnck- 
iiic^l'.am, but the time of his coming, or whether he was actually the earliest 
scaler, is not positively known. He is said to have followed his trade, a tailor, 
.'.t W'iccaco where his cabin was burned, whereupon • the Indians, who lived 
aiiout the Buckingham mountain, invited him to move up to their village. 
I lis wife, the child of Swedish parents who lived on the Delaware above the 
ir.iiuth of Xesliaminy, was brought up in the family of James Boyden, who had 
live hundred and forty-one acres surveyed to him in Bristol township, in 1682. 
'I'lieir eldest son. Nathan, erroneously said to have been the first white child 
1.. irn in Buckingham, was born. 171 1, married Mary Hough in 1737, died, in 
177S, and was buried at Plumstead. His widow died in 1782. The descend- 
nnts of Amgr Preston claim he married his wife at Pennsbury in the presence 
of William Pcnn; but as they were not married until 1710 or 1711, several 
years after Penn had left the Province not to return, this claim is not well 
founded. His widow died in 1774, at the house of her grandson, Paul Pres- 
t'ln. in Buckingham, aged upward of one hundred years.* She used to relate 
tiiat she saw William Penn land where Philadelphia stands. ° 

This family produced an eccentric, and. to 
some extent, a distinguished member in the pcr- 
M>n of Paul Preston. By close application he 
became a fine mathematician and linguist, study- 
ing in a small building he erected off from his 
duilling. He led an active life until upward 
of sixty, dressed in homespun clothes and 
Icatiiern apron, ate off a wooden trencher and 
<iied from a fall into a ditch at the age of eighty- 
four. His widov.-. Hannah Fisher, whom he 
r.inrricd in 1763. lived to her ninety-fourth year. 
He Vvas county surveyor, tax-collector, and trans- 
later of German for the courts. He was six 
f' et six and three-quarters inches in height. Paul 
Preston was the friend and associate of Franklin. prestos coat-of-akms 



i^^H- 




1 •. 


■'A 



3 Among the original settlor.^ were John and Thom.is Bye, George Pownall, Edward 
Henry, Roger Hartley, James Streater, William Cooper, Richard P.urge.-^s. John Scarbor- 
"■J'.4h, flenry Pax.-;on, John and Richard Lundy, John Large, James Lenox, William 
l-icey. J(,hn Worstall. J.-icob Holcomb, Joseph Linton, Joseph Fell, Matthew Hughes, 
Tl-'nias Weston, Amor Prc^on, Joseph George, Lawrence Pearson, Rachel Parsons, 
IXiiiiel Jackson and Joseph Gilbert. Some of these settlers did not come into the town- 
ship until after 1700. 

4 The Preston homeslc.id was the farm owned and occupied by Benjamin Goss. near 
tl.e east line of the township. 

5 The Preston Bible says that Amor Preston was born at Frankford, Philadelphia 
Co., Feb. 7, iCfi^-s. In it is the followincj made by the f.-ither. Willi.mi Preston: "I 
left old England, with my wife and children, the loth, 4th month. 1683. We arrived in 
i'cnnsjlvani.i joih, 6th month, 16S3." Wiili.ini Preston's wiie, the mother of Am.ir, 



246 HISTORY OF BUCKS COUNTY. 



who esteem him hiqlilx'. It is related, tliat a frieivl of Franklin. 
about to CO to Cdiirt at XewtiAvn. a'^ked for a letter of introductirin 
to Preston, but the d'.ictor declineii ii.i L'ivc it. sayincT he would know him 
easy enougii, as he will be the tallest man, the liomeliest looking man and the' 
most sensible man he would meet at Xewtown. His son .Samuel"^ born in ijjf'i. 
and died in 1834, was the first Associate Judge of Wayne county, where his 
descendants reside."'- Samuel Preston used to relate of liis grandmother that * 
when a little girl, tending cows in the swamp near Xeshaminy, she discovered the | 
dead body of a white man in the water, a peddler who had been seen the day | 
before. She was sent to the nearest house, one Johnson's, to give the alarm. | 
and that as she entered a little girl said her father had killed a man the night 1 

before and a woman was then wiping up the blood.' 1 

James Streater, of Alsfre, England, and Richard Parsons each owned \ 

five hundred acres they located soon after 1683. The former bought | 

the tract which Penn granted to George Jackson, of Wellow. in Sejitembcr, i 

l68l, and by the latter to Streater. in 16S3. wliich Penn confirmed March 5. | 

1700. He sold it to Edmund Kinsey, 1714, and, at his death, it passed to his- I 

heirs. The meeting-house stands on this tract. It was a parallelogram in 1 

shape, and lay on both sides of the York road from the township line to about | 

Greenville. In 1714 Streater styles himself, '"practitioner in physic," but as he | 

was a grocer in 1683, he must have studied the healing art between these dates. \ 

Perhaps he practiced without study, and exclaimed with Shakespeare, "Throw \ 

physic to the dogs." Parson's tract, above Streater's, was granted in 16S2. 
He conveyed it to Thomas Nicholas, New Castle, 1727, and at his death, 1746, 
three hundred and thirty-four acres were bought by Stephen Perry, of Phila- 

was Ann Taylor. The will of William Preston, Frankford, Philadelphia Co., is dated 
5 month, 29, 1714, and probated Oct. o. 1717 — witne":;, Thomas Canby and Morris Morris. 
The children mentioned are Amor, Abell, Paul, Priscilla and Sarah. The executor* 
were the widow and Paul Preston. 

6 E.\tract from the Journal of Samuel Preston, Surveyor, 17S7: ''June 12. 17.^7- 
I set out on my journey about eiglit o'clock in the morning. Traveled up Durham road 
to the sign of the Harrow, where I fed and cat dinner; from thence by Burson's and 
Brackenridge's to Valemine Opp's tavern, where I fed and rested about two hours.'' 
This extract is from the "Journal to the frontier of Northampton county for Henry 
Drinker," to survey lands for Drinker and .Abil James, merchants, Philadelphia. 

6;/ The Preston coat-of-arms is almost identical with that of the Preston family of 
England, and llie motto nearly the same, assumed, by royal license, by Thomas Hulinii. 
a descendant of the Prestons, who was created a baronet in 1S15. The family seat is at 
Beeston, St. Lawrence, Xorfoi'K. The name of Preston is one of great antiquity in 
Nortli Britain. 

7 We find it impossible to reconcile the conflicting statements concerning Mrs. Pre=- 
tou. If she were a "little girl" when she found the dead man (who v.as killed in May, 1692), 
she could not have been over an hundred years when she died, in !774- If she were 
married at Pennsbury, while the Manor house was building, and Penn at the wcddincr, 
it must have taken place at his second visit, 1600- I/OI, for she was too young at his first 
visit. The throry that her son Xathan was the first white child born in the township 
is .spoiled by the fact that he was actually born in 1711, and as he was the eldest chiUl 
of his parents we have the right to suppose they were married within a year of tl'.at tini'' 
The Buckingham Meeting records contain tl'.e date of birth of seven children of William 
and Jane I'restim, of Bradley. F.nK'and, all born lictuicn jfoyi and I7T,V 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUXTY. 247 



ikllilii'i- The farm of Joseph Fell was part of it. In 16SS, a tract of a thousand 
acres was confirmed to Richard Lundy, and at the close of 1684 a warrant for 
icveral thonsand acres was issued to Thomas Hudson. The land was located 
ill Ijuckingham and elsewhere, but not being taken up regularly it was finally 
cuvereil with warrants to other persons. In 172J, two hundred and twelve 
acres, lying on the Street road, were surveyed to Joseph Worth. 

The 2ist of June, 16S7, nine hundred and eighty acres were surveyed to 
Edward West, and nine hundred and eighty-four to John Reynolds, on the 
south side of the mountain, the two tracts joining each other' and extending 
to the Wrightstown line. The original purchasers never appearing, the land was 
settled upon by others at an early day, without any color of title, and the im- 
provement rights sold, down to 1769. The Proprietaries took bonds from the 
tenants against waste. Im 1742 they sold five hundred acres of the W^est tract. 
l-"roni 1752 to I7()0 there were ninnerous suits for the possession of these lands, 
anil litigation was continued down to within the present generation. At various 
times those in possession took out w-arrants to locale by actual survey. In 17S1 
the Reynolds tract was declared an escheat to the Proprietaries, and the claim- 
ants, under the escheat, were permitted to take out patents at the rate of £15 per 
hundred acres. Those claiming to be the heirs of the first purchaser filed 
caveats against issuing the patents, and, about 178S. one Reynolds, from Ire- 
land, brought an action of ejectment, but was non-suited. The caveat claimants 
afterward brought suit, but were defeated. In 1808 John Harrison Kaign 
made claim to the property for himself and others. The last suit about these 
lands was terminated within a few years, in which the late Thomas Ross was 
engaged as counsel. The absence of Reynolds was accounted for by his alleged 
loss at sea, and the Revolution was given as the cause of delay in bringing suit. 
There are two traditions, one that he was lost at sea returning to England, the 
other that he was lost coming to America to take possession of his tract which 
had been located by an agent. On the trial several old letters were produced, 
one purporting to be written by Joh.n Re}-nolds in England to his brother in 
Chester county, stating his intention to sail for Pennsylvania to take possession 
of the land. The absence of West was not accounted for. 

Some steps were taken in more recent years to recover the Reynolds tract 
for the heirs, but nothing came of it. The editor of the Doylestown DcniacrcJ 
received a letter at the time, stating that the tract "descended to the late Samuel 
Reynolds, Philadelphia, but three years of age when' his father, James Rev- 
nolds, died, 1767; who was heir in common with two brothers, Nathaniel, the 
elder, who possessed the land, 1794, and Chicestcr, the younger. They were the 
sons of Reverend James Reynolds, rector of the Parish of Denertogney in the 
P.arony of Inishanc, County Donegal, Ireland : that the Reverend James Rcy- 
nnlds was the eldest son and heir-at-law of Nathaniel Reynolds, which Nathan- 
iel Reynolds was the eldest son and heir-at-law of the original purchaser, who 
came in the "Welcome" with Penn. The original patent of this land is in the 
Land Department at Harrisburg, and the title is now in the heirs of the late 
.'-■anniel Reynolds. 

Robert Smith, the first of his family in P.uckinghnm, was the second son 
of his father, who died on his passage from England. He arrived before 1699. 
and in bis minoritv. His mother married a second time, and, on arrivinsj at 



8. The two fr.icts were re-surveyerl by Cutler in 1703 by virtue of a warr.int dated 
llth month, 5, 1702, and found to cont.iin two thouf.ind four hundred and fifty acres. 



248 ; IllSTORY OF BUCKS COUNTY. 



age, lie left the maternal home bare-footed. He took up five hundred acres of 
land, lie made his way well in life, married, 1719, and died, 1745, possessed 
of seven hundred acres in Uucl^ing-hani, Makefield and Wrightstown. He had 
six sons, and John Watson, the surveyor, said they were the six best penmen 
he had ever met in one family. He was the grandfather of Robert Smith, sur- 
veyor and conveyancer three quarters of a century ago, and the ancestor of 
Carey Smith, of Spring X'alley. About the time of Robert Smidi's purchase, 
came W'illiam Smith with his son Thomas and purchased five liundred acres 
adjoining Robert. When the township lines were run the latter's land fell 
into Upper Makefield, and was known as the "Windy bush" tract. These two 
families were not related. Joseph Smitli, who introduced the use of anthracite 
coal into this county, and Charles Smith, of Pineville, the first to burn lime 
with hard coal, were both descendants of Robert Smith, the elder. Robert 
Smith, but from which of tlie original Smiths descended we do not know, was 
one of the pioneers in burning lime, having burnt a kiln as early as 1785. It is 
uncertain wiien die first kiln was burnt in this county, but probably as early as 
1761."'- The account book of Samuel Smith, grandfather of the late Josiah 
B., Newtown, who lived on the Windy bush farm, shows he paid John Long 
and David Stogdale for "digging limestone," June, 1761. This work was prob- 
ably done in F.uckingham. In 1774 he charged Timothy Smith iifteen shillings 
"for hauling five loads of lime." and about the same date, with one hundred 
and eighty bushels of lime at eight pence a bushel. January 2. 1819, the lime- 
burners of Buckingham and Solebury met at Xewtown to petition the legisla- 
ture for an act to establish a bushel measure for lime. Buyers and sellers of 
lime were invited to attend. Thomas Smith, the elder, of Buckingham, planted 
the seed that grew the tree that bore the first Cider apples raised in America, 
on" the farm where the first Robert Smith settled. This now excellent apple 
began its career as natural fruit. The name, "Cider apple," was given to it 
by an Irishman who lived at Timothy Smith's. }ilahlon Smith said he remem- 
bered the tree as a verv large one. At one time there were ten Robert Smiths 
in the same neighborhood in Buckingham. Samuel Smith, a soldier and officer 
of the Revolution, was not of this family, but a son or grandson of Hugh Smith, 
a Scotch-Irisli settler on the Reynolds tract in Buckingham. He was born Feb- 
ruary I, 1740. and died September 17, 1835. He entered the Continental Army in 
1776, and served to the end of the war. He rose to the rank of captain, and was 
in some of the severest battles. Fie was an officer in Lafayette's brigade. After 
the war he married a daughter of John Wilkinson and settled down as a farmer. 
In the war of 1S12-14 he commanded a brigade of militia at Marcus Hook. He 
\vas the father of General Andrew J. Smith," of the United States Army, who 
distinguished himself in the Civil \\'ar. 

S' J. Linjo^tone \va.^ quarried, and probably burnt, in Bucldngham as early as I/OJ. 
In a dLcd frt.ni Lawrence Pearson to his brother Enoch Pearson, for lOO acres of the 
I'lX) bou.dit by Lawrence of John Burgess in the Lundy tract, conipriiins the western 
p.'.rt of ilie farm of Samuel E. Brnadhurst and the Anderson farm, the 100 acres to be 
taken off next the Lundy, or Eastern side, and dated March 8, 1703-.). is this reservation: 
''Except the privili-!,'c of gcttinij liincstonc for the said Lawrence and his cliihiren's own 
use with full egress and regress for fetching the same." Deed Book No. 3. pg. iSr. 

9 .\iiilrew Jackson SmitlV was l)orn in l'>uckintih:im towii<l:ip. Ilncks Co-. I'c~ . 
iSts. ai:d died at St. Louis, Mo., January 30, l?97. lie entered West Point. 1S34. gradu- 
ated, iS.vS; on recrnitiiiK service. i.'^.;rj-45: promoted l~t lieutenant and served in Mexican 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUNTY. 249 



Samuel A. Smith and wife, UxforJ, Chester county, rennsylvania, son 
«.f General Sam.uel Smith, celebrated their golden wedding, November 6, 1877. 
Ihere was a large comiKiny present, embracing four generations of the Smith 
iiiinilv. At that time Samuel A. Smith had three brothers living, George A., 
Zion Hill, Maryland; Andrew J., United States Army, and Jenks Smith, Fhila- 
.li-lphia. .\mong the guests was a JMrs. Waddleton, New York, a sister of ^Irs. 
Smith, and bridesmaid at the wedding tifty years before. The occasion was one 
vi great family interest. George A. Smith died at Zion Hill, January 7, 1879, 
111 his 85th year. The deceased was a member of the Society of the Cincinnati. 

Thomas Canby, son of Benjamin, of Thorn, Yorkshire, .England, born 
.-ibuut 1667, came to Penns) Ivania in 1683, as an indentured apprentice of Henry 
ilaker, and was in Buckingham before, or by, 1690. He bought part of the 
I.undv tract, near Centreville, and married Sarah Jarvis, in i'X)3. He was mar- 
ried three times, and was the father of seventeen children. Selling the Lundy 
]iropertv to Samuel Baker, he purchased pan of the Scarborough tract in Sule- 
bur\-, including the Stavely farm, which he sold to his two sons, Thomas and 
Benjamin, and afterward bought Heath's mills 011 the Great Spring creek, near 
Now Hope, where he died in 1742. His descendants are nearly numerous 
enough to iicoplc a stale. Among the families who have descended, in part, 
from this ancestry are the Laceys, Hamptons, Smiths, Elys, Fells, Staplers, 
(.iillinghnms, Paxsons, \\'ilsons, Eastburns, Johnsons, Watsons, Pickerings, 
Parrys, Newbolds, ]\Iagills, Duers, Prices, Tysons, etc., etc. 

\\'illiam Cooper,"'^ one of the earliest settlers of Buckingham, was descended 
from an ancestor of the same name, of Nether, sometimes called Low Elling-. 
ton, a hamlet on the river ^'re, in the North Riding of Yorkshire, England. 
He was born August 16, 1649, and in the registry of his marriage at Masham 
the name is written, '"Cowper." He immigrated to Pennsylvania, 1699, and 
jirobalily came first to Falls, but settled in B.uckingham the same year. His 
wife's name was Thomasine, whom he married about 1672, three years 
briMfe he joined the Friends, by whom he had eight children, all 
<'f whom came to America witli him. He purchased five hundred 
acres from Christopher Atkinson, who died before the deed was 
made, but, under the will, the title was confirmed by his widow, Margaret, "'of 
Belmont, of Bcnsalem." In this conveyance the name is Nvritten Cowper, as it 
is in the parish record of England. Friends' meeting, in Buckingham, w^as 
lirsi held at his house. This early settler died, 1709. His children mar- 
ried into tlic families of Euckman, Huddleston, Hibbs, Pearson and Bond. 
Tile famil}- here recorded is not identical with that of Cooper, the novelist. 
His ancestor. James Cooper, settled in Philadelphia in 1683, and then owned 
the lot on which the deeds office stood on Chestnut street, opjiosite the custom- 
house. He was probably a brother of \\'illiam Cooper, of Coleshill. llertford- 
?hire, England, born 1632, died 1710, who settled at Pine point, now Camden, 
New Jersey, in 1679, with his wife Margaret and five children. Some of his 
<lesccndants and relatives married into Bucks county families, his daughter 
Hannah to John Woolston. i6Sr. and his nephew, William Cooper, to Mary 
Groom, of Southampton. Their .son James married Hannah Hilibs in 1750, 



w.ns. C.npt.xiM, iS+S. and soi vcj !linn!.:;h the Civil wnr re.ichinc; the rank of brevet major- 
Roiieral. l[i_' was appointed colonel ;ili U. .'^. Cavalry al'ier the war, and was retired 1SS9. 
0'.' In "Bcs^ics' Sufrerjnt:'^." vol. j. p. 771. wc read that in Ki'jo \\'iHiani Cooper, of 
Yorhsiiirc, was fined "S, 6d. Tins was our Buckingham William. 



so IIISTORV OF BUCKS COUXTY. 



and anoihcT ni ilu-ir suns. Thomas, niarricil I'lia'bc Ilililis. and lived ni.any year- 
in Solfbur}-, wiktc Ik- died at the clnse of the ninetfi-ntli century. Hainiali 
Hibbs \\a^ the yraiuhnother of James I'enimore Cor.per. who thus dcsceuds 'jf 
a Bucks county family in the maternal line. In 17^3, and for some years fol- 
lowing, his ancestor owned one hundred and fifty acres of land near Quaker- 
town. James Cooper, the grandfather of Fenimore, took by bequest, under 
the will of his uncle Sanuiel, in 1750, "ye plantation att Buckingham that 
Nathan Preston did claire out of ye woods ;" and his brother Thomas took by 
the same will "the plantation that William Breston did claire out of ye woods." 
These were grandsons of James Cooper, who died in 1732, having lived fifty 
years after his arri\al in America, and descendants of two Bucks county 
mothers. The first wife of James Cooper, of Philadelphia, was Sarah Dunning. 
of Southampton. 2^Iore recent inquirv proves that the ancestor of the novelist 
was probably born in 1645, ^^ Bolton, in Lancashire." 

The ISyes were in the township before the close of the century. In 1699 
Thomas Bye bought some six hundred acres of Edward Crews, Nathaniel 
Park and others, laid out by John Cutler, October 6, 1701, It ran down to the 
mountain. The land Crews and Park conveyed to Bye was granted to ihem, 
1681, but they were probably never residents of the township. He received 
two hundred and fifty acres from each of them, and one hundred acres from 
Samuel Martin, part of three hundred acres that Park conveyed to him. The 
Bye tract was bounded by lands of Richard Lundy, James Streater, John 
Scarborough, and vacant lands. The 5th of March, 1702, Nathaniel Bye, son 
of Thomas, bought two hundred and fifty acres of Edward Simpkins, of Soudi- 
wark, England, for £9, lying in Buckingham, and. in 1706, Thomas conveyed 
the six hundred acre tract to his son Nathaniel, but it was not to be sold during 
the lifetime of the grantor and his wife. The grandson of the first Thomas 
Bye. also Thomas, died in Buckingham, December 27, 1827, in his 88th year. 

Plezekiah Bye married Sarah, daughter of William Pettitt, who owned the 
mill at, or near, the Ingham spring. Some years after they removed to 
Centre county, where their daughter, Charity, bom 1780. married James 
Packer, and became the mother of several children, one of whom, William F. 
Packer, was elected Go\ernor of Pennsylvania, 1857. Hezekiah Bye was a 
noted hunter. Late in life he and his wife removed to Ohio, where they died. 
A daughter of Governor Packer married Elisha Ellis, member of the Easton 
bar. The late ^lary Bye, of Buckingham, was thouglit to have been a lineal 
descendant of Thomas Bve, the immigrant. 

The 3d of ^fay, 1702, three hundred acres were laid off in Buckingham to 
Edward Ilartly, by virtue of a warrant dated December 31, 1701. This was 

10 Tiie Oswego (New York) Times, of Alay 3, 1849, contains the following obi- 
tuary nolice nf a Buck'; county Conpcr : "Jainc; Co.ipcr ilicil at cii,'lit o'clock last even- 
ing at tlie resilience of liis son, C. C. Cooper, esquire, of this city, after a sh.ort illness, in 
the ninety-seventh year of his age, having been born in Bucks county, Pennsylvania, on 
the 6th of Marcli, 175.1. lie was a brother of the late Judge William Cooper, and uncle 
of James Fenimore Cooper. Till within a few days Mr. Cooper retained in a remarkable 
dci^ree the powers and faculties of an athletic frame and strong intellect. He emphati- 
cally belonged to the iron race of the Revolution, to an age gone by, and was the friend 
and intimate .acquaintance of Washington. At the cnmmcnccinent of the Revolution he 
served in the navy of Pennsylvania, and subsequently in the militia of his native state, 
p.iriic'pating in the hard fought battles of M.,iunouth and Gcrnianto%vn." 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUXT)'. 



j«,irl ff a twenty-five hundred aero tract that Pcnn coineved to John Rowland, 
V. till, (I\ing intestate, hib brother took tlie land and conveyed to Harlly. Before 
170J Panl Wolf, Stepl'.en Beaks and John Scarborough were landholders in 
the township. A thousand acres were surveyed to Isaac Decow'^ as early as 
:sliout 168S, which bounded Richard Lundy's land on the eastern line at its 
Duper corner, and, lOSy, three hundred acres were surveyed to Henry Pauiin, 
under a warrant dated .May 3, 16S6. 

Tlie Paxson family came into Buckingham from Solcbury, where the an- 
cestor. Henry, ^- settled in 1704. His father, William Paxson, from Bucking- 
hamshire, settled in INIiddletown in 1682, whence the son removed. Thomas Pax- 
sun, of Buckingham, was the fifth in descent from Henry, who settled in Sole- 
bury, through Jacob, his fourth son and second wife, Sarah Shaw, of Pknn- 
stead, whom he married in 1777. But two of Jacob Paxson"s large family of 
children became residents of Bucks county, Thomas, who married Ann. a 
pranddaughter of William Johnson, and was the father of ex-Judge Edward 
M. Paxson, of the State Supreme Court, and -Mary, who married William H. 
Johnson and died, 1S62. William Johnson was born in Ireland, and received 
a good education. He came to Pennsylvania after his majority, bringing with 
him an extensive library for the times, settled in Bucks county, married Ann 
Potts, and removed to South Carolina, where he died at the age of thirty-five. 
His sons were all cultivated men, Thomas becoming an eminent lawyer, and 
dying at New Hope, 1S38. Samuel, the youngest son, spent his life in Buck- 
ingham, married Martha Hutchinson, and died, 1843. ^^^ '^'^'^^ ^ po*-'*^ *^^ con- 
siderable distinction. 

The Watsons came into the township the beginning of the eighteenth ceTi- 
tury. Thomas Watson, tlie first of the name, a malstcr from Cumberland, 
England, settled near Bristol, at a place called "Ho;iey Plill," about 1701, with 
his wife and sons Thomas and John. He brought a certificate from Friends' 
meeting at Pardsay Cragg. dated 7th month, 23d, 1701. He married Eleanor 
Pearson, of Robank, in Yorkshire. In 1704 he removed to Buckingham on four 
hundred and fifty acres bought of the sons of John Hougli (who were devisees 
of Francis Rossil, the Philadelphia merchant), bounded on the northwe.st by the 
York road.'-'= Being a man of intelligence he turned his attention to medicine, 
and there being no physician within several miles, he grew into a large practice 
before his cjeath, in 1731 or 1732. He was interested in the education of the 
Indians, and, it is said, kept a scheiol for them, but lost his most promising 
pupils by small-pox. Of his sons, John, a man of strong and well cultivated 
intellect, and of greater medical knowledge, took his father's place, was a suc- 
cessful practitioner, and died in 1760. He was sixteen years a member of As- 
sembly. Thomas, the eldest son, died before his father. His son John, born 
about 1720, finished his education at Jace^b Taylor's Academy, Philadelphia, 
and became one of the most eminent men in the Province. He was a distin- 
guished mathematician and surveyor, and assisted to run the line between 
Pennsylvania, Delaware and Maryland, and was noted for his elegant penman- 
sliip. He died. :76i, in his forty-second year, at William Blackfan's. and was 
buried at Buckingham. The newspapers of the day expressed great regret at 

II Probably a miinomer. Surveyed by Chri-itophcr Taylor. 
I-! W.is in the Assembly in I7P3-I70-. 

iJ'j He refused to survey tlic tr.ict on Peiin's w.irr.int without consent of the 
Indians. 



252 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUXTV 



his death. '^ John Watson was secretary for Governor ?vIorris at the Indian 
treaty, Easton, 1756. Franklin had promised to find the Governor a good ptjn- 
man, and mentioned 'Mr. Watson. When the Governor's party passed up the 
York road, JNIr. Watson was out mending fence, barefooted, but, on invitation 
to accompany them, threw down his ax and walked to Easton without prepara- 
tion for the journey. He engrossed the treaty on parchment, and his penuian- 
sliip elicited great admiration. Franklin says that after the treaty was engrossed 
the Governor took off his hat to W atson and said to him : ''Since I first saw 
you I have been trying to make out what you are. I now have it. You are tlie 
greatest hypocrite in the world.'' He was a large, heavy man, with a forbid- 
ding appearance. He was both a scholar and a poet and spoke good extempore 
verse. It is stated that on one occasion an Irishman, indicted for stealing a 
halter, asked Mr. Watson to defend him, who consented. The testimony was 
positive, but he addressed the jury in fine extempore poetry, beginning: 

"Indulgent Nature gtncrously bestows 
All creatures knowledge of their mortal foes," etc., 

and the fellow Vvas acquitted. A memorandum of John Watson states that 
he grafted two apple trees w ith the "Xew York syder apple" in February, 1757, 
on his farm in Buckingliam. Thomas Penn wanted him to accept the office of 
Surveyor-General, 17O0, but he declined. 

C3n the back of one of the sheets of "Cutler's Survey," 1703, found ainong 
the papers of John Watson, Jr., was the drawing of a bee hive with a recijie 
to keep millers from the bees — "induce them to light on the end of a pole," but 
nothing more; also a recipe to preserve the taste of cider — '"put four ounces of 
pearl ash into a barrel of cider when pretty well worked, and it v.ill not turn 
sour." Watson also made use of the back of a surveying book for a good deal 
of general scribbling, and, on one of them, we found a copy of Dr. John Wat- 
son's famous pastoral of the ''Jolly Boatman:" 

'"T!ie jolly boatnicin, down the ebbing stream. 
By the clear moonlight, plies his easy way. 
With prosp'rous fortune to inspire his theme, 
Sings a sweet farewell to the parting day." 

These were among the Longstreth papers ])laced in our hands while pre- 
paring the revised edition of Bucks county. The Longstreths and Watsons 
were warm friends.'^ 



13 The coast-survey oflice is now engaged in collecting material to publish the 
biography of the surveyors who run Mason and Dixon's line, of which John Watson 
was one. He had previously run the line between the Penns and Maryland, but while 
engaged on the Mason and Di.xon line he contracted the influenza that proved fatal. lie 
caught a severe cold on a warm day, and such was his anxiety to reach home he dropped 
cvrr\ thing and hastened to William Blackfan's. Solebury, riding over 60 miles in one day, 
whore he died. His will is dated 5th, nth month, 1760, and probated Sept. I, 1761. There 
was a pathetic side to John Watson's last illness. He was engaged to Mr. Blackfan's 
datishicr, Hannah, and his anxiety to see her induced him to make the lide that hast- 
ened his death. He left to her a Iar;.;e share of his estate, out of a sincere friendship, 
ani.1 hoiir.rable esteem he entertained for her.'' 

14 In Buckingham. May 5. 1S16. Euphcmia, wile of John Watson, and daughter of 
the late Dr. Jonathan Iiiyhain, aged 40 years. 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUNTY. 253 



Among those \vho came into the township about the time of Thomas Wat- 
suii were Matthew Hughes, Joseph Fell, the Lintons, John Hill, Ephraim Fen- 
luu, isaac Pennington and William Pickering. JNIatthew Flughcs was in the 
Assembly for several years, was a member, 1725, and commissioned a justice 
in 1738. Fie was a man of ability and great integrity of cliaracter, and much 
esteemed. 

Joseph Fell, ancestor of the Fells of this county, son of John and Margaret 
I'ell, was born at Longlands, in the parish of Rockdale, county of Cumber- 
land, England, October 19, i66S. His father died when he was two jears old. 
lie learned the trade of carpenter and joiner with John Bond, of Wheelbarrow 
hill, near Carlisle, and worked at it as long as he remained in England. Fie 
married Elizabeth Wilson, of Cumberland, at the age of thirty, and in 1705 
immigrated to America with his wife and two children. They sailed in the 
Cumberland, making the capes of Virginia in twenty-nine days from Belfast. 
Landing at the raouth of the Potomac, they made their way by land and water 
via Choptank, Frenchtown and New Castle, where they took boat for Bristol 
in Ibis county. He lived in Upper Makeficld a few months, and then removed 
to Buckingham. 1706, where he died. About 1709 he married his second wife, 
Elizabeth Doyle, of Irish and New England-parentage, but born in this county, 
with whom he lived the rest of his life. He was the father of eleven children, 
and left thirty-five grandchildren, his children marrying into the families of 
Scarborough, Kinsey, Watson, Haines, Kirk, Church and Heston. He was the 
ancestor of Joseph Fell, of Buckingham. 

J. Gillingham Fell, long a resident of Philadelphia, where he died October 
27, 1878, was born at }^Iechanicsville, Buckingham township, November, 1S16. 
Fie was the son of \\'illiam Fell and Mary Gillingham. At his father's death 
his mother married Dr. John Wilson, who was a father to the two orphan 
children of William F'ell. After receiving his education, Gillingham Fell 
turned his attention to civil engineering, and, among his early work, was estab- 
lishing the lines and grades of Doylestown at its incorporation, 1S38. After 
spending some time on the Island of Cuba, he went into the Lehigh coal 
region, and formed a business connection with the late Ario Pardee, which 
continued to !^Ir. Fell's death, and resulted profitably. He accumulated large 
wealth, and was highly esteemed. His private charities were numerous. ^Mr. 
Fell married Amanda, daughter of John Ruckman, Solebury, and they were the 
parents of two children, a son and daughter. The former is deceased, the lat- 
ter is the wife of the son of the late Bishop Flowe. iNIrs. Fell died February 
7, 1900, in her 8 1st year. 

Jesse Fell, son of Thomas and Jane, and a 
descendant of Joseph Fell, the elder, born in Buck- 
ingham, April 16. 1 75 1, was the first person to 
make a successful experiment of burning anthracite 
coal in a grate. About 1700 he removed to Wilkes- 
Barrc, Luzerne county, where he became a respected 
citizen, held several c-unty offices, including Asso- 
ciate-Judge, and died August 11, 1830. He had crest of the fells. 
burnt hard coal in a nailery, and was satisfied it 

would burn in a grate if it were properly constructed. He atid his nephew, 
Edward Fell, made an iron grate, that \vas set in tlie fire-place of his bar-room 
the afternoon of February 11. i^oS;. His attempts had attracted considerable 
attention, and created no little merriment aini.nu;- his neighbors. He invited 




254 HISTORY OF BUCKS COUNTY. 



several of them to ciiiiic and witness the experiment, hut cinlv two came Irnni 
fear of being hoaxed. Among otliers he invited tiie irlonorablc Thomas Couper, 
then I'resident-Judge of the Courts, and afterward president of South Carolnia 
College, to stop at his tavern on his way home. He did so and saw a nice coal- 
fire Inuiiing in the grate. Judge Cooper, it is said, became angry on seein"- 
he had been anticijiated in the discovery, and walked the floor, muttering ti 
himself, that it was strange an illiterate man like Fell should discover what lie 
had tried in vain to hnd out. Mr. Fell made a memorandum of the successful 
experiment on the lly-leaf of "The Mason's ^lonitor," which he signed with 
his name and date. 

The Carvers, who came into the township early, are probably descended 
from William, the second of three brothers who came over, 16S2, and settled 
in Jjyberry, I'hiladelphia county. John, tlie eldest brother, took up six humlred 
and ninety acres on Poquessing creek, in the northeast part of the township. 
The liLimestead remained in the family for six generations, until 1864. It is 
claimed that his eldest daughter, ^lary, was born in a ca\ e on the site of Pliila- 
delphia, the first white child born of English parents in the Province. John 
Carver planted two pear trees which he brought with him from England, which 
are said to have been standing a few \ears ago. Several of John Carver's 
descendants married into Bucks county families, his grandson John to Rachel 
Navlor, Southampton, one great-grandson, John, to j\Iary Buckman, Wrights- 
town, and another, ]\lahlon, to Amy Pickering, Solebury. The latter was born, 
1754, and kept the Anchor tavern at one time. William Carver traded his farm 
in Bvberry to Silas \\'alm^ly for land in Buckingham, near Bushington. His 
eldest son, William, married a daughter of tienry Walmsly and removed to 
Buckingham, but wc do not know whether the father did. The latter's wife 
dying, 1692, he married again and had four children. Either the lather or son 
is supposed to have built the Green Tree tavern at Bushington. Among the 
descendants of William Carver and Elizabeth Walmsly is Elias Carver, of 
Doylestown. Thomas Parsons took np five hundred acres, which were sur- 
veved to him April G, 1700. George Claypole owned eleven hundred acres, 
mostlv in Buckingham, wdiich formerly belonged to one Mary Crap. This tract 
probablv extended into the eastern edge of Doylestown township. 

In 170C) the quarterly meeting granted leave to the Buckingham Friends to 
hold a iTieeting for worshi],i, which was first held at the house of William 
Cooper, alternating at John Gillingham's, James Streater's and Nathaniel Bye's. 
In 1705 Streator conve_\ed ten acres, in trust, to build a meeting-house on, and 
for a burying gmund, with the privilege of roads to get to it. This was the l';>t 
where the meeting-house now stands. On the west side of the road that wound 
up the hill, and near the lower side of the graveyard, a small log mccting-house 
was soon afterward built.'' C'n the establishment of a monthlv meeting. 1721, 
a new frame house was built a little further up the slope nf the hill. In 1731 
a sliine house, with a stone afldition one story high for the use of the women, 
was built still higher up the hill. Some wanted to build w here the present luiuse 
stands, but prejudice fc^r the old spot was too strong. In this house, 173^. 



T5 III Juno, 1705, r,-,u-kitii;!Kim FriciiiU in'tir.ed P-'nll^ nico'.iii:.; tluv iir.cn. In! to l>n:M 
a in',ciinuc-linu-c, and a.-ki-rl tlnir advice, wlicii S;cplicn \Vil':nn ,ind T^'lni Watsiin were 
.■i|>I)c'niicd til collect money an'.onc I'ricnd-; ..t T'.nckin.uh.im, Tlu- li.n'.-c wa-; cnnnncnoid 
liiat year, but not bcincr fmi'^lioil liy Scpleraber, i;nS, Falls nicctinfr ,-ppointed Tlioni.-; 
S'r-nicr and Thnnias \Vat<nn "to '.ia d^nc witli >;pccd." 



■ "'..■'>" 


-^.^ 


'%■ 


i 


•1 ■ 


4 




BUCKINGHAM MtETIXG HOUSE. 

liuckingliam Friends held their first monthly meeting. Jt caught fire April 8, 
i/OS. from a stove during meeting, and was burned down. The present house was 
erected the same season at a cost of iy^O, 14s, ijjd., a fine old-fashioned stone 
edifice, forty bv seventv feet, two stories high, with a panel partition to separate 
the women from the men.^" Until the new house was built and ready to occupy, 
I"irst-dav meetings were held at the house of Benjamin \\'illiams, near b\'." 

The meeting-house was used as a hospital a portion of the Revolutionary 
war, and several soldiers were buried about where the turnpike crosses the hill, 
some of whose remains were uncovered when the pike was made. On meeting 
davs tlie soldiers put one-half the house in order for Friends, many of them 
attending service. The 1 >nlv monthly meeting held out of the house during the 
war was February i, 1777, in Thomas EUicott's blacksmith shop. Buckingham 
Friends were among the earliest to see the evil effects of the use of whiskey 
at vendues, and the monthly meeting of April. 1724, re])orted against the prac- 
tice. In 1756 the meeting bore testimony against war by advising all Friends 
'"not to he concerned in a military match, by attending in jierson or pa\ing 
toward it." Two years afterward ]<Am Love was "dealt with" for enlisting as 
a soldier in the king's service. The two old horse blocks remaining, one at each 
end of the meeting-lKUise. were Idiilt at the linie the house was, 1768. Then the 
young )>eople of both sexes went to meeting on horseback, the general way of 
traveling from home. 

The record of births, deaths and marriages go back to 1720. From 1725 
1i> I7.vt Buckingham and Wrightsluwu had a joint meeting at the house of the 
former, where the marriages of the two meetings were celebrated. The first 
\\a> that of Thomas Lancaster to I'luebe Wardell, both of Wrightstown, Oc- 
tober IQ. T725, and the sec'md. Zebulon ] leston. uncle of General Laccy. to 
Elizabeth Euckman. Newtown. During these ten years there were fift\-five 
marriages, and. among the parties, arc the familiar names of Large. Paxson, 

I'l Thi' nia^on work niiil iil.iMcriii'.r wrrc dmip liy >raMii.n=: Hntchin^nn, of Snlilinry, 
.-ciul the carpenter work l.v F.lwc.r.I Cvn]. ,,f Plr.nr^toa.l, t.ilhrr nf \allian G0...I. 

I" "I i.e fariii licl'iiiuin^' in rn'int \vir< tn R.'i'rvt .\:-li. an.l an liiiiiilrcil yrar> a'^o 
ti-> I'n'iiian-i!! Kiu-cy. ui.- ii.irt "f lIi- I'.iV- m:> trac;. it is rcLitcd t!iat a wild dcor nno d.iy 
■.\.i!kod -.ii'.o llic <ild meeting diiiiHc. !■» kiil roiuid at llic people and walked out asaui. 



2S6 HISTORY OF BUCKS COUNTY. 



Fell, Chapman, Preston, Janney, etc, etc. Among the menibers of this meet- 
ing, who were active in the ministry in former times, may be mentioned John 
Scarboroii;,'h. born in Utickingham, abont 1713, and died, 1769, |ohn 
Simpson, born in Falls, 1739, removed to Uuckingham wlien an infant, and died, 
181 1, on a ministerial visit to Ohio; Samuel Eastbuni, Benjamin Fell. 
Elizabeth Fell, Phcebe Ely and Ann Schofield. Ann }.Ioore, a native of 
Bucks county, but we do not know that Buckingham was her birthplace, liv- 
ing in Byberry, about 1750, was one of the most celebrated preachers of the 
day. She was brought up without much education, and married unfortunately, 
but she conquered all difliculty in the way and became a pozverfiil preacher. 
Doctor John \\'atson said of her that the "truths of the gospel flowed from her 
tongue in language, accents and periods somewhat resembling the style of the 
poems of Ossian." She and her husband moved to Byberry, 1750, where they 
resided four years when they removed to 2^Iaryland. 

\\hile the yellow fever prevailed in Philadelphia, 1793, Jesse Blackfan and 
Benjamin Ely, merchants of that city, brought their goods up to the Bucking- 
ham school-house, still standing on the meeting-house lot, in the second story 
of which they opened and kept store until it was safe to return to the city. 
The meeting to form the first agricultural society organized in the count)- was 
held in this school-house. 

William Lacy, the immediate ancestor of the family in Bucks county bear- 
ing this name, was an early settler in Buckingham near the line of Wrights- 
town. He came from the Isle of W'ight. England, but we neither know the 
time of his arrival nor where he first settled. He was a member of the Society 
of Friends. In 1701 William Penn granted to William Parlet and William 
Derrick, a tract of 292 acres, but this grant not havitig been confirmed, and 
Parlet and Derrick meanwhile dying, Penn granted the land to William L.icey. 
the son-in-law of Parlet, the conveyance being dated 171S, and the land was 
surveyed to him. The original order of Penn, to Parlet and Derrick, dated at 
Pennsbury located the '"tract" near '"Wrightstown." Their names appear on 
Cutler's resurvey, 1703. In 1718 W'illiam Lacey conveyed to his son jolui, 
seventy-three acres, and an additional one hundred and twenty acres 1733, and 
in 1736. one hundred acres to his son Thomas, making in all two hundred and 
ninety-three acres. The stream known as "Randall's Run,'' runs through the 
tract. We are not informed as to the names of other children of William 
Lacey, if he had any besides the two sons mentioned. A mill was built on the 
property, 1743. by John and Thomas Lacey and is now known as the ''Vande- 
grif!" mill. It was owned many years by the Carver family. 

In 1718. John Lacey. son of W'illiam, married Rachel fleston, of New Enu- 
land descent, whose familv had come to Bucks county a few )ears prior. Jolin 
and Rachel 1 Meston) Lacey had a family of eleven children, five dying in their 
minority and three marrying: Rachel to John Terry, 1738, John to Jane Chap- 
man, 1746, and Jo?eph to Esther Warner. December 7, 1748. Ji>hn Lacev. son 
of John and Jane (Chapman) Lacey and grandson of John and Rachel Laei>. 
was the most consjiicuous member of the family. During the Revolution he 
was in both the military and civil service of the Colonies, being a captain in 
the Continental army, and Brigadier General of militia in active service, and. 
member of A>-cnih!;,\ ami of the State F.xeciuivc Committee, and held, other 
place? of pulilic trust. He m.arricd a daughter of Colonel Tlionias.Reyni'M-^. 
Burlington ciiunty. New Jeisey. and one of thiir daughters. Kittv, became lii'" 
wife of Dr. William Darlingt.)n, the distinguished botanist of Cliester couniy. 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUXTV. 



257 



('.ciicral Lacey was born in r.uckingham, 4th of 12th month, 1752, and died at 
New Mills, iJurlin^on county, New Jersey, February 17, 1814. 

The Lacey homestead, built cither by William Parlet, William Derrick, or 
William Lacey, was in the Lacey family until within about fifty years. It was 
>tanding until 1 877, on the farm of Charles T. Bewley, part of the original tract, 
and at tliat time 
was probably the 
(West house in 
(lie county. It was 'C 
built 1705 or 1706, J; ';, 

was still used as '■*''', - 

a dwelling;, and ■ 

qr.ite comfortable. ^^,, 
It was built, of ~"^ 

l^j^s clapboarded, :■•_-,■ ' /' 

with a great cliim- .-.'\ ' ■ ' . ■ 

neystack in the '{ . , . ■ 

middle, the eaves '' '-■ 

coming down al- '.. .,■,-■'' 

most to the ground rr'..,\ i_„; , ^^.i.. ' r .^.^'i'+j 

and all the rooms — — -_^4^-^_- - \ ____ ■^.^i 

on one floor. Mr. '"'-'^ .' .^r- ^ ";^ ■ — -' — ^'--; 

Bewley, a descend- '----^^ ■> . , \. . ; - ..,,——-. — .-rr- 

ant of William La- "■ " t - ' " ' _:"—.,. 0. 

ccy, was the owner olukst house in bicks cou.stv. wkightstown, 

of the old family 

bitile printed at Cambridge, England, 1630. If this old dwelling had possessed 
"the gift of tongues." it could have told a more interesting story of the past than 
an}- pen can write. This venerable dwelling was taken down on a Saturday after- 
noon in the spring of 1877. Air. Bewley invited a number of his neighbors to as- 
sist at the obsequies, and after it had been laid low, a lunch was served. The 
main timbers were of black oak, and the boards, used inside, of the toughest red 
cedar. The timbers were generally sound. The property is now owned bv 
.h;'hn E. ]\Ialloy. I visited the Lacey house twenty years ago accompanied bv 
the late Thomas P. Otter, artist, who made a correct drawing on the spot, 
painted it on canvas from which the picture that illustrates this page was 
i:iade. In this house General John Lacey was burn. 

The carlie.-t boundary of Buckingham that we have seen is that entered of 
record the 15th of September, 1722, atid was subslantiall_\- as at present. How 
l<ing the township had been laid out w ith this hoimdary is not knc^wn. The only 
charge noticed is on the southwest side by the formation of IJovlestown. and 
th.e taking in of some lands across Little Xeshaminy. The following is the 
boundary given : 'Tt sl'.all begin at a corner by a street which lies between the 
said Buckingham township and Solebury township, and to run from thence .S. 
\\ . by line of niarked trees, i .493 perches to a corner by Cliiypolc's land ; 
tlunce X. W. by the said Clayiiole's 430 jierches to a corner; thence S. W. 210 
perches to a corner; thence X. W. bv John Rodman's lanil i.oGo perches to a 
c.inuT by the Sc'cieiv laml : tlunce X. ]•".. b\- the s'lid Seu-iety's land 390 perches 
to a corner; thcucc X. W.. by the same, 547 ]>erclus ti> aiinib.er cnrncr ; thence 
X. E. by Riduird. Hill's anc'i Cliri-t-i'her Dav'; land 053 perches to anc'thcr 
cnrncr; thence X. W. 8n percbe< to a C'Tuer li\- Tlnruias l'.rnwn'> land; thence 
X. K. 300 pcrcl'.e- t(' another ciirner; thence by the said street 2.1S4 percr.'s to 



258 • HISTORY OF BUCKS COUNTY. 



the first-mcntionod corner, the place of beginning." W'e met with an old map 
of Jiuckinghani, dated 1726, which embraced tlie whole of the township from tlie 
Solebury line to the west end of the mountain. On it is marked the York road, 
"falsely so called," tlie Durham road to "Ephraim Fenton's land" above Centre- 
ville, and a few other things of no special interest. All but a single tract of 
land is marked with the owners' name, twenty in all.^" Another old map, 
drawn a few years later by John Watson, tlie surveyor, of the Israel Pembertun 
tract, embraces the territory from about Bushington to the Warwick line. Tlie 
only two enclosed portions are those of A. McKinstry, three hundred and 
twenty-seven acres and twenty-eight perches, and Air. Watson's, four hundred 
and seventeen acres and one hundred and thirty-four perches. The tract is now 
divided into twelve or fifteen farms. Doctor John Rodman bounded it on the 
_ Warwick side, and William Corbet and Ely Welding in Wrightstown. The 
quality of the soil is marked in several places, and the map has on it "a branch 
of Hickory Hill run," and Roberts' now Robin run. Like all of Mr. Watson's 
work, the map is elegantly drawn. The Street road which separates Buckini;- 
ham from Solebury, was projected about the time the lands on the line of the 
two townships were surveyed, and vras probably run by Phincas Pemberton, 
county-surveyor, 1700. 

The Idens had been in the county many years before they made their ap- 
pearance in Buckingham. Randall Iden, the first of the name we meet with, 
was probably married as early as 1690. In 1710 his daughter Dorothy married 
William Stogdale, an ancestor of the Buntings on the female side, and, on the 
i6th of June, 17.24, a Randall Idcn, Bristol township, probably the son of the 
former, married Margaret Greenfield, "Middle townshij)." Randal! Iden, grand- 
father of the late James C. Buckingham, son of Jacob, Rockhill. married 
Eleanor, daughter of Samuel Foulke, Richland, March 9, 1772. Their mar- 
riage certificate contains the names of twelve Foulkes and thirteen Robertses. 
The great-grandiathcr of James C. Iden, on the maternal side, was John Chap- 
man, of Wrightstown. 

The Wortliingtons^' claim descent from three brothers, John, Samuel and 
Thomas, who settled in Byberry about 1705. John married IMary Walmsly, 
1720, who died 1754, and he 1777. They had eleven children; Elizabeth, born 
I, 15, 1721 ; Mary; Thomas; Hannah; John; William; Isaac, Jo^cph, Martha, 
Benjamin, and Esther, who married into tlie families of Tomlinson. Duuca!i, 
Homer, Carver, Malone and others. William, Isaac and Joseph \\'orthingtnn 
removed to Buckingham, where William died, 1S16; Isaac went to Chester 
county. 1783 ; and died there 1800, and Joseph, born 1737, died 1S22, and his 



iS Names of l.-iiu!-owncrs : EphrRim Fenton, Saniiicl Hough, John Prc-;toii, Gc'iriic 
Ilijv.in!, Joseph Fell, T. W'orral, I<aac Pennington, Mercy Phillip?;, John Harford. JacoS 
Holc.'inl). Thomas GilSert, Thomas Parsons, John Fell, Joseph Large, F.dnuind Kin~ey, 
Matthew Hewes. lames Lenox, Richard Lundy and Nathaniel Rve. 

19 The name ''Worthington" in an old one in Lancashire, Ensrland, whence the 
family came. The etym.'locty is said to be three Saxon words, \\'onh-in-ton, i'. c. Farm- 
in- Town. Thtre is a town of W'ortbin.ccton in Lancaster, 20 miles north of Liverpool, 
where the family lived many generations. It can be traced to Worthington de Worthing- 
ton, _'C>;h of Henry i'L There arc many Wortbingtimi in Ohio. p..s<il]Iy descendanis 
of Thi'inias, son of Richard, who sealed there. The i.iwn of Wortbiiiglon, a icw 
miles from Cohinihns. was intended !■) dje the Siate cijiital, but iinhieiicc located it 
on tb.c bank of the Sciota. 



HISTORV OF BUCKS COUXTV. 



259 



wiic, Esther, 1S2S. The Buckingham Worthingtons claim immediate descent 
If. 'HI Richard, who settled in the township, 1750, purchased land of Thomas 
l,;LCLy and died 1806. Their children were -Vlahlon, born 12, 19, 1750, John, 
Joseph, Mary, Thomas, Sarah • Elizabeth, Tamer, John, tiannah, Letitia, 
\\ illiani and Isaac, born i, 20, 1773. The will of Ricliard Worthington, dated 
.March 21, 1803, was probated August 26, 1806. A Samuel Worthington 
brought his certiticate to Buckingham meeting from Abington, 1736, and settled 
in Xew Britain, where he died, 1775. In his will, probated ^Nlarch 20, are men- 
ti'jiied his wife JNlary, sons, Jonathan, David, and Samuel, and daughters, Sarah, 
Hester Kimble, Rachel Rue, and Pleasant Lnp. The descendants of Samuel 
Worthington are known as the "Plumstead Worthingtons," the late Aaron 
Worthington being a grandson of Jonathan. Thomas Worthington \vas re- 
ceived as a member of Buckingham monthly meeting, 1732, but shortly removed 
to Abington. 

Doctor John V\"iIson, one of Buckingham's most distinguished citizens, 
three c|uarters of a century ago, was the son of Thomas and Rachel Wilson, 
Southampton, ^s■here he was born, 176S. After leaving the ordinary country 
school, he went to I'hilailelphia, then taught and after attended a classical school 
at Southampton Baptist Church kept by Jesse ]\Ioore, subsequently a Judge in 
IVnnsylvania and where Judge John Ross and Doctor Charles ^leredith were 
pupils. Here he was a close student, studying eighteen hours out of twenty- 
four. He next taught classics in a school where the late Samuel D. Ingham 
was a jiupil, uhere a friendship was contracted that lasted through life. He 
graduated at Dickinson college, 1792. He commenced reading medicine with 
Doctor Jonathan Ingham. aiuU after his death by yellow fever, 1793, entered 
himself a student with Doctor Casper Wistar, Philadelphia, and attended lec- 
tures at the Uni\ersity of Pennsylvania, where he graduated, 1796, being one of 
the first medical graduates from I'ucks county. He worked his own way 
through college and his medical studies by teaching and surveying, his father, 
being averse to his studying medicine, refused to assist him. After graduating 
he married iMargaret Mitchel. daughter of Richard IVlitchel, iliddletown, and 
settled at the place known as "Walton's mill," ju-t below Ingham's paper-mill. 
Within a year he purchased, of the late Samuel Johnson, the place known as 
I'llm Grove, Buckingham, where he resided until liis death. October, 1835. His 
first wile died in 1821. In 1S24 he married 'Sl^ivy I-'ell. the widow of ^\'illinm 
hell, and daughter of Joseph and Phcebe Gillingham. By these two marriages 
he left four children. Ricliard and Sarah were chP.dren of his first wife. Rich- 
ard studied mediciiw and settled in St. Jago de Cul)a, where he acquired a large 
estate, and died in I'hiladelphia during a visit in 1S54. Sarah married Elias 
Ely, New Hojie. and died of cholera, 1850. By his second wife Doctor Wilson 
had two sons, Elias and Henry. The first is supposed to have been mur<lered 
Deccmlier 24, 1868, at the head of tlie Red sea, while making a visit to the 
"Fountain of Moses,'' in Arabia. 

Doctor A\'iIson possessed a rare combination of desirable qualities. In 
stature he was tall and straight, light Imt vigorous, and with an excellent phy- 
sique. In all out-(li-/i->r exercises, of which he was ^■ery fond, he had few su- 
fieriors. He was a fine horseman, as rider, driver, and judge of the animal, and 
in his youth was celebrated as a skater and swimmer. He hail great quickness 
of perception, an intrei>i(! spirit, aiul \sas equal {'< any eniergi ncy in his profes- 
si'in ov out of it. He was a tiuo surgeon, and iicrfrirnicd cafiital operations 
v.ith great success. Put few nicii equalled liiui in the best comliination of learn- 



26o 



HISTORY or BUCKS COUNTY. 



ing, praclicnl ?kil! and common seiibC. The late Lewis S. Corvcll, a shrewd 
oliseiver nf human naiure, and an extensive ac(iuaintanee with prominent men of 
liis da_\, once i\:;r;.rkeil i>t him : "Doctor Wilson knew more, from a potato-hill 
up, than any other man I «ver knew.'" He was handsome and courtly, his wives 
elegant and graceful women; and, for many years, his home at Elm Grove was 
the siat of a rethie<l and generous Imsjiitality. 

I'.uckingham ha> been fortunate in the quality of her schools, some of which 
were well endowed befr.re the common school system was adopted. In 1755. 
Adam Ilarkcr, a benevoli-nl and prominent Friend, left £40 by his will toward 
settling and maintaining a free school in Buckingham, under the care of the 
monthly meeting. In 17S9, Thomas Smith conveyed to the township a lot of 
laJid for a school hou^-c, on the northwest side of Hyrl's run, for a term of thirty 
vears at an annual rent 01 a pepper com. This was on condition that the town- 
ship build a house tweniy-tw o by twenty feet, on the lot before the expiration of 
tlie year, the school to be governed by a committee of four. This was known as 
Ihe '"Red school house," which stood on the Street road, one himdred yards 
northwest of the creek. A new house was erected on the northeast side of the 
road manv vears ago. and is now used as a dwelling. Toward the close of the 
last century, the Buckingliam meeting raised a school fund of $2,072, by subscrip- 
tion, the interest to be api-ih'ed to educating children of members of monthly meet- 
ing ill the first place, tiien 10 the children of those in straitened circumstances, 

and afterward all other 
children of members of 
the meeting. The heav- 
iest subscribers were 
Andrew EUicott and 
Oliver Paxson, twenty- 
five dollars each. When 
the society divided the 
money w^as loaned in 
small sums, to the two 
divisions. A school is 
still supported by the 
fund.='' About 1S08 the 
school fund of Bucking- 
ham and S o I e b u r y 
amounted to £758, los, 
near $3. 000, but we are 
not informed of its pres- 
ent amount and condi- 
tion. In 1790, several of 
the inhabitants of the 
township subscribed 
£99, iSs. 3i<d. for 
building and furnishing 
TYKo HALL. .\ i-AN!-0LS .SCHOOL. =' school house crcctcd 



r '/% 






I 



JO J(ii!:i',h,ui LdiiKNiretli, \\'arniins;cr, laiiglit tin's scliool 1705-''). tlie contract hiiiv,' 
ex(ciin->1 J ..(1 nioiUh. for 3 iDotnhs at 12^. 6(1. per scholar. At first he had only four 
^ubscrihcri, Malliias Ilutcliiii-;on. Joseph Wilkinson, Thomas Bye and Thomas Black- 
!<-ilt;c, 6] 2 .-ichDlars. Th.crc \va> some friction between Longstreth and Joseph Harold, a 
patron. The latter wrote him I-"eb. 15, 1700: 'i have ^ent my 5on to pay you fjr hi< 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUNTY. 261 



oil the cross road just ahove Greenville, on a lot given by David Gilbert 
in trust.-' It was governed by three trustees elected by the contributors. 
.\ eonslitution for the government of the school was adopted May 16, 179.2. 
it was <;iven the narne of Tyro Hall, and was at one time in a flourishing condi- 
iii.n. The building is still standing, but the school was closed in 1859. The last 
lu.ard of trustees was Jesse Haney, John C. Shepherd and Joseph lieans, in 
1S54. Some good scholars were graduated at Tyro Hall. Among those who 
Janght there were \\'illiani H. Johnson. Joseph Price. Albert Smith, afterward 
a member of the bar. and died about 1S33, and Joseph b'ell. 

.\ noted school in Ijuckingham in the past was the boarding school for 
girls at Greenville, now Holicong, established 1S30. by Alartha Hampton and 
llannali IJoyd. sisters. Boarding schools were then rare in the county, and this 
\enture by two women comparatively little known, one a widow with four chil- 
dren and slender means, was an enterprise of great risk. They bought the long 
wliitc house still standing on the northwest corner of the cross roads, opened 
>clii)(->l and went to work, one taking charge of the household, the other 
the school, each eminently fitted for her task. The school soon became 
a success and the house was filled with pupils from Bucks, ^Montgomery, Phila- 
'■leljihia and New Jersey. A day school was subsequently opened in connection 
and Elizabeth and Sarah Ely, sisters of the late State Senator Johathan Ely, 
Siilebury, were given charge. A few boys were admitted to the dav school, 
among them the late Judge Richard \\'atson, e.K-Chicf Justice Edward ^.l. 
j'axson, John Ruckman, Albert S. Pa.xson and Samuel E. Broadhurst, presum- 
ably the "gilt-edge" boys of the neighborhood. The school was discontinued 
iijion the death of Hannah Lloyd at the end of several vears. 

Amos Austin Hughes, at his death, 181 1, left, by his will, the plantation on 
which he resided in Buckingham, and the remainder of his personal estate, 
amounting to S4.000, and S.'.ooo more, at the death of his sister, to create a 
fund for the erection and maintaining a school, to be called "Hughesian free 
school." It was to educate the poor children of the township, and such others 
as stood in need, forever, and, when necessary, they w'ere to be boarded and 
e'lOihed. A charter was obtained. 1812, and a building erected soon afterward, 
in which a school is still maintained, governed bv a board of trustees. The 
amount of funds, held in trust, is 821,450. Mr. linghes, \\dio died at the early 
age of forty-four, was an invalid from his youth. lie was a quiet, patient suf- 
ferer, was contined to his room for many }ears, and spent his time chietly in 
reading and meditation. He contributed freely to the relief of the poor and 
aillicted during his life, while his generous bequests are evidence he diil not f'lr- 
get them at his death. 

It is said that when the Hughsian school house was built the townshi|] was 
canvasse<l to make up a school of '"poor children" to be educated in it, but none 
cMuld be fMund, and, Ijy advice of counsel, a public school was opened. This was 
in 1 85 1. Tlie first board of trustees was composed of John Ely. Nicholas 
Austin, John Watson, Jr.. V.'m. Ely, Thomas Bye, John Wilson, M. D., Sanuiel 
Johnson, Joseph Shaw. Isaiah Jones, Joshua Anderson, Joseph Watson and 
Stephen Wilson, all of lruckin:;ham. When Pennsylvania passed the public 
school law the will of Amos Austin Hughes became inoperative, as it was in- 
schooling-, but not for whipping him." Loiissireth replied tlint he considered himself 
"p^^scsscd of full powers, both legislative and executive, to deal with his scholars for 
«iii<;be!iavior in school, and referred the matter to tlie committee.'"' — Lonc;streth MS. 

21 The deed i< m pn,ic.-~i..M of die family of tlie laie Wai-^on Fell, Buekinsluun. 



262 HISTORY OF BUCKS COUNTY. 



tended that his estate should only beiieht those who could not afford to go t.. n 
pay school, and there was none such now in the township, all being free. What 
action was taken to change the direction of the bequest we are not infornuii. 
but the school was reorganized, 1841. This resulted in an increase of schol.ir> 
and the doing of better work, the trustees cquipi)ing the school to meet niodcru 
requirements. The school is graded in three departments, primary, inter- 
mediate and grammar, with an average of forty scholars in each, or one hundreil 
and twenty in all. It has three teachers, two paid by the trustees, and one bv 
the township school board. The branches taught include Latin, German, Bn^k- 
kce]:ping, higher Algebra, Geometry and Astronomy. The candidates for gr:id- 
uation are examined by the county superintendent. In 1897, the graduates *•{ 
the Hughesian l-'ree School, thirty in number, organized an association at the 
dwelling of Charles P. Large, Buckingham, and completed it, January 3, iSij><. 
Only four males were eligible. Annual reunions are held. A leaflet, published 
12, II, 1841, says the middle room of tha Hughesian Free School was rented 
of the trustees, furnished and school opened by Miss Burson. the 12 day, i mu.. 
1842. The teachers were paid 3 cents per scholar per day, and $15 per moniii. 
and later increased to $20, the teachers furnishing pen and ink, the pens maile 
of quills. Joseph Fell was the first teacher paid by the trustees, 185 1, and to 
December 31, 1898. there had been twenty-six principals and eighteen assistants 
connected with the school. 

Although Justice Cox came into the township at a recent date, he can trace 
his ancestry back among the earliest in the state. He is a descendant of that 
Peter Cock who settled between the Delaware and the Schuylkill in 1660. who 
was commissioner on the Delaware in 1662, a counsellor, in 1667, and in in"). 
Governor Lovelace confirmed to him the patent for Tiniciim island. In the 
course of centuries the name has been changed from Cock to Cox. 

Doctor Arthur D. Cernea. a prominent practitioner of medicine, as well as 
a leading citizen of Buckingham, was a resident of the township over forty 
years. His history is an exceeding romantic and interesting one, sufficiently so. 
we think, to warrant the sketch of his life and adventures found in the \v>\c 
below.-- Thomas Cornea, son of the Doctor, was one of the most skilled arclu- 

22 Doctor Cernea was born in Philadelphia, of Freiich parentage, about 1S06. I!i> 
father, an officer 01 the French army, came to the United States near the close of the 
lylh Century with his wile. Site wa? likewise of a French family, v.hich had lost a iarijc 
portion of their estate? in the West Indies during the Revolution of I79r. Contemplatii-g 
a visit to France, from which they intended to return in a short time, they placed their 
eldest ion, Arthur, a lad nine years of age, at the Moravian school at Nazareth. To th? 
present time no tidings of them have been received, except information obtained from tlie 
records of a lodge of French Masons lately discovered in the possession of the Historic:! 
Society of Pennsylvania. It is there stated that his father arrived in Philadelphia about 
1703; the time of his departure on his visit to France, a few years later, his mother": 
name before marriage, parentage, etc., etc. The anxiety felt by the over-absence of tli'- 
parents was kept from the son until discovered by the failure to receive his regular stipend 
of spending money. It was the opinion of those to whom young Cernea had been en- 
trusted tliat the vessel had been lost at sen. or some other unknown calamity befallen them. 
It was supposed he would remain at the school until cared for, but the spirited boy, 
«ensitive that a portion of his dues remained unpaid, left the school unknown to tJte 
faculty, with a small sum of money in his pocket renli.red from the sale of a box of 
paints. Thus alone in the world he started on foot for rhiladelphia in search of his 
parents, stopping for the night at the inn Jcnkintown. Here he met one who provei? 



HISTORY OF DUCKS COUXTY. 263 



ti-ct- I if Philadelphia, and planned a number of handsome buildings, including 
l.ci.ipe building, Do_\lesto\vn, 1874. 

d"lu- Buckingham librar) was organized October 31, 1795, and the hy- 
I.ivvs revised in 1S20. For a number of years it was a flourishing institu- 
i: 'u. and the means of disseminating intelligence throughout the neighborlK jnd, 
I'lt interest in it gradually decreased until 1S53, when the corporation was dis- 
.-•.Ive 1 and tlie books sold at public sale. In this connection we must mention 
t!;c "Cuckingliam lyceum," a literary society of some local note sixty-five years 
ago. and which enabled many a fledgling in literature to get his productions 
before the public. 

In a letter Joseph Erwin, Tinicuni. wrote to Geo. Wall. Solebury. under 
dale of September 10. 1801. he says that Mr. Smith (prolwbly Joseph Smith, 
v,l',o founded Smithtowni, tells him "Goodwine's Political Justice," that had 
liLea jiurchased for the Buckingham library, had been condemned to the flames 
bv the board of directors, "as containing damnable heresies, both in religion and 
)"jlitics."' 

In 1S06 Moses Bradshaw had a nail factory near Pool's corner, a mile 
from Doylestown, but in 1807 it was removed to Thomas Fell's smith-shop, on 
the road between what was then Rodrock's and \'anhorne's tavern, now Centre- 
\ille. In 1S17 a peace association was formed in Buckingham, with William H. 
J.'Ini.'ion as president and John Parry secretary. In June, iStq, the farmers held 
a meeting at Euckingham school house to fix wages for hay and har\esting. 

a kind friend, Elcazer Shaw, Plumstead, on his way to market, widi whom he rode to the 
city, and to whom -he related his story. After a fruitless search for his parents his kind 
friend persuaded him to go home with him, which he did. At this titne young Cernea 
w.is about thirteen years old, having been more than four years at Nazareth. There he 
had acquired a taste for study, and he now devoted his leisure to self-improvement, 
encouraged by those with whom he had found a home. By his own exertions he 
qualified himself to instruct others, and at eighteen commenced teaching at the "eight 
S!iu;ire'" school-house. Plumstead, which, from its quaint appearance, was a landmark 
an'....n,:; the places of instruction in the olden time. He taught, in turn, at the Mennonite 
meeting-house, Tinicuni church, and at Quakertown. At the latter place he coinmcnced 
'^i.- study of medicine with Dr. IL-.mptcn Watson, afterward Judge Watson. Kansas. 
l:i 1831 he graduated at the University of Pennsylvania; soon afterward married Sarah 
Lester, daughter of Thomas Lester, Richland; and removed to Buckingham where he 
associated himself in the practice of medicine with Doctor Wilson, an eminent and well- 
known physician. .At the death of Doctor Wilson, a few years later, he continued the 
practice, removing to Ccntrcville, a more convenient location. Here he lost his wife, 
a most estimable woman, and afterward married Sarah Taylor, daughter of William 
Taylor, a minister among Fricr.ds. Although no doubt of Catholic parentage. Doctor 
Cernea was naturally drawn to the Friends, from their great kindness to him in his 
tr..ublo5, and he joined this religious body, of which he was a useful and active member. 
During the busy years of an arduous practice, aside from being a diligent student in 
his own profession, he foup.d time to devote to literature and the sciences, for which he 
had a natural fondness. He gave much attention to botany. He was an industrious con- 
tributor to the Buckingham lyceum, a liteary society of some merit in its day. When 
the subject of anti-slavery and temperance began to agitate the public mind. De>ctor 
Cernea, a/man of strong convictions, became an earnest advocate of these reforms. This 
was at a time when such advocacy was at the expense of personal interest. He lived 
to see the principle he advocated recognized. In his retirement he looked back upon a 
well-spent and useful lift, colurcd with ennugli romance to make it interesting to others. 



264 HISTORY OF BUCKS COUNTY. 



Samuel Ilaniii, a dibtinguishcd, suU'-tauyht niailuniatician, died in 1820, at tlic 
age of seventy-six. Of ihc rciads in the township, not already mentioned, tliat 
from tlu; Tnhickiin through Greenville over the nuamtains, was laid out in 1732, 
and from Wilkinson's ford, on Xcshaniiny, to Durham road in 1771. 

Xot the least imijortant resident of Buckingham fifty years ago was a giant 
black man, known the county over as "Big Ben." He was a slave of \\'illiani 
Anderson, of Baltimore county, .Maryland, from whom he escaped when young 
and settled in this township. He was arrested by his master, 1844, on John 
Kitchen's farm, Solcbury, after a hard fight and sent back to slavery, but the 
citizens of Buckingham raised money to purchase his freedom, when he 
returned. His arrest caused great excitement in the county. Ben spent the last 
years of his life in the Bucks county alms-house, where he died in 1875, aged 
oyer seventy. He was a man of immense strength and great size, his foot 
measuring sixteen inches from heel to toe. 

Isaiah Michcner, who died in Buckingham, !\[ay 25, 1S99, son of Thomas 
and Sarah Bradshaw Michcner, was born January 25, 1812. He was tlie grand- 
son of Meschach, eighth child of William Alichener, who settled in Plumstead, 
1723. Isaiah Michener was probabh- born in Plumstead, but went to Horsham 
with his father, and afterward settled in Buckingham, living with an uncle. 
This was in 1830. He married Esther Good, Plumstead, 1836, and at her death, 
Rebecca Scott. He stuflied at Dodd's \'eterinary College, Boston, subsequently 
graduating at Penn College, Philadclpha. He became prominent in the profes- 
sion ; contributed much to veterinary medical literature; was a member of the 
national society and the oldest practitioner in the State. Pie was prominent as 
a citizen and held many public functions, including the ofifices of president of 
the Doylestown Agricultural Society and Mechanics' Institute, and Carversville 
Normal Institute. He was a member of the Society of Friends and left nu- 
merous descendaiUs. 

The county is more indebted to the late James Jamison, Buckingham, than 
to any other one man, for the introduction of the present method of burning lime 
in fixed kilns. He found, by repeated experiment, that by putting lime and coal 
in the kiln in alternate la\ers from top to bottom, the whole supported by grates, 
with space underneath tor wood to kindle the lower layer of coal, the manu- 
facture of lime was much expedited and cheapened. Before this, wood had been 
exclusivelv used, liut the cost of lime was now reduced about one-half. The con- 
sequence was it came into extensive use as a fertilizer, and was hauled twelve 
or fifteen miles in wagons for tliat pur])ose. Of course, coal was more exten- 
sively used to burn lime after the Delaware Division canal was opened. \\'hiic 
it was burned exclusively with wood, lime was too dear to be generally used as a 
fertilizer, nnirli to the detriment of agriculture. 

There are nine villages in Buckingham : Cenireville. MechanicsviUe, 
Lahaska. Hi>licong. fMrmerlv Greenville. Mechanics \'allcy. formerly Spring 
\'alley. Furlong, formerly Bushinglon. ?\Iozart, formerly Concord, Bucking- 
ham Vallev and Forest Gro\-e. fornierlv I-'orestville, all post villages. Buck- 
ingham (formerlv Centreville-^). at the crossing of the York and Durham 



2.? Tl'.e initi.il stcp^ toward firganizing a parish and croctinc; an F.phcopal clmrch at 
Centrcvi'.le. were taken in iS.V by Rev. G. W. Rulnly. roiM.ir at Xcwtnwn, holding open air 
meetings, followed by service in lla>lct Gili^^n's coach .sliop. A public meeting was hchl 
in April, iS.iQ. Mr. Rid^ly prcsi.'.ing-. to cmim.Ut the propriety of creeling a cluirch bmld- 
ing. The subscriptions warranting the. expense, work was liegnn the same fall, and the 
duirch finished in July, 1840. The lot was the gift of Joseph Anderson and wife, and 



HISTORY Of BUCKS COUXTY. 26; 



r<i:id>, is the largest, liaviny an l'',pisciipal clnirch, the Hughcsian Free 
Scli'iols, two taverns, etc, and t\\enty-ti\e dwellings. Une of the inns, 
jainoiis in its day and called "Bogart's tavern," in the Revohition, is over 
a century and a quarter old. Under its roof the Bucks County Com- 
i.iittes of Safety met, 1775, and in it Lieneral Green, for a time, had his 
inaili[uarters during one of the nii'St trying ])eriods of the Revolution. 
JJucWitigham postottice was established here in 1805, and Cornelitis \'anhorne 
appointed postmaster. Three-quarters of a century ago Greenville was called 
"Grintown," which name, we are told, was given it in this wise: A flock of 
geese, driven by a Jerseyman down the York road to Philadelphia, becoming 
unmanageable at this point, the people flocked to the doors to witness the poor 
nian'.'t disconihture. On seeing these witnesses of his sliame, he yelled out in 
his agony, "this is Grintown." The name stuck to the unfortunate village sev- 
eral years. About iSio a number of young people were passing a social after- 
noon at the dwelling of Josiah Shaw, when the name was spoken of in not very 
respectful terms, and it was suggested that the state of society required a 
change. Eliza Johnson, daughter of the late Samuel Johnson, was called upon 
for a new name, when she proposed '■Greenville," which was adopted unanim- 
ously and the company was pledged to support it. The other villages named 
are pleasant little hamlets of a few dwellings each, some with public houses, 
others without. At Lahaska is a Methodist Episcopal church, built 1853, rebuilt 
in 1868. The postoftice at Mechanicsville was established in 1830, and Peter 
Lester appointed postmaster. The hamlet of Cross Keys, on the Easton pike, 
a mile from Doylestown, is partly in Buckingham. In 1804 Daniel Stradling 
kept store there in a house opposite James Dunlap's tavern. He had formerly 
been a partner c>f Joseph Morton at Willow Grove. 

A Presbyterian church was built at Forest Grove, 1S55, and dedicateil 
November 21. As early as 1846 the Reverend Robert D. JMo'rris, then pastor 
at Newtown, began holding services here at the home of John Gray, and was 
subsequently assisted by other clergymen. The first pastor was the Reverend 

Henry E. Spayed, elected September 11. , installed November 11, , 

and resigned in 1S67. The church now had sujiplies until the winter of 18619, 
when the Reverend Jacob Krewson was called and ordained ]\[ay 20. Pic is 
still pastor, one of the longest in continuous charge in the county. A postofflce 
was established at Forest Grove, December 12. 1S77. and William Kirk ap- 
p)ointer jiostniaster. One of the first meetings in the State in favor of internal 
improvements was hcLl at Ceiitreville about 1S22-23. Samuel D. Ingham, 
chairman, was the leading spirit, anil one of three delegates to make favor with 
the Legislature. John \Vatson, father of the late Judge Richard Watson, was 
one of the warmesi friends of internal improvements in the county. 

The township records do not extencl back nmch over one hundred years. 
In 1722 the tax-rate was two-pence half-penny per poiuul, and seven shillings 
six-pence a head on single 'men. Thomas Brown, Jr.. was the collector."* In 

cost of building ?640. llie first rccior was Rev. W'iltlicrgcr, called September, lS-).l, 
and preacliLd his first sernnjn October lo. On the resignation of Mr. Wiltberger, 1S53, ' 
tlie Centreville and Doylestown parishes were served by the saine rector for the next 
20 years. Tlie late William Stavely. lUiekini,'h.ini, was a liberal contribiitur to Trinity 
•church and parish. :\\\ inleresting history of tlie church was recently written by Albert 
S. Pa.xson. 

24 In 1710. Jolin Dawson boiii;Iit a cow of John Llye for £,3. los., t!ie low price heiiii; 
in keepiiiij with tl'.c times. 



rC6 HISTOKV OF BUCKS COUNTY. 



1767 a throc-pcnny tax raised £22, 5s. 6d. in tlic township, and John Lacey, Jr., 
was one of tlio auditors. About double the amount raised was expended on tiie 
roads. From 1776 to 1781, the Revohilionary period, tlicre is no account of 
money spent ior the lowiiship. The latter year, the period of greatest depres- 
sion of Continental money, a tax of one penny raised £6,767, 8s. 8d. in the 
township, which was al-o expended on the roads. The duplicate for 1797 
amounted to £269, 13s. od., but to only £48, lis. gd. the following year. Since 
1800 there has been a gradual increase in the amount of tax levied and collected 
in Buckingham, being $179.50 for that year, and S455.90 for 1810. In 1820 
the townsliip expenses were S706.72 ; in 1830, S483.12; 1840, ?925.68; 1850, 
$972; i860, $957.26, and $741.56 in 1870. In 1722 there were fifty-three tax- 
ables in the township, of whom nine were single men. The heaviest tax-payer 
was Richard Humphrey I^Iorris, £1, 3s. gd., taxed for one thousand nine hun- 
dred acres of land. Tlie taxables, 1761, were one hundred and fifty-five, and 
one hundred and seventy-eight in 1764. In 1771 the householders were one 
hundred and seventy-eight, showing considerable increase in population if the 
figures be correct. The population of the township at different periods since 
then was as follows: 1810, 1.715; 1820, 1,862; 1830, 2,193, and 467 taxables: 
1840, 2,482; 1850, 2,596 whites, 171 blacks; i860, 2,960 whites, 128 blacks, and 
1870, 2,910, of which lot were foreign-born and 143 blacks; 1880, 2,850; 1890, 
2,544 ; 1900, 2,506. 

Caves and sinks are common in limestone valleys, the former frequently 
of great magnitude, while depressions or basins, occasioned by subterranean 
water courses or other causes, are more frequent but limited m dimensi'^ns. 
Several of these sinks are found in the valley extending from Rushington, in 
Buckingham, to Limeport. in Solebury, and two or three are worthy of especial 
notice. The castermost one, known as Large's pond, near CentreviUe, was never 
known to go dry until within recent years. It was thought to be bottomless, 
and a young man named Gilbert was drowned in this pond a century ago. The 
washings from the turnpike and the diminished rainfall have exerted their in- 
fluence m drying uji this once beautiful little lake. On the line between the 
farms of Benjamin Smith and Amos Corson, a fourth of a mile southeast of 
Greenville, is a locally celebrated sink, which the Indians gave the name of 
"Holy cong." Init known to the inhabitants of the township as the "Conky hole." 
It is a nearly circular, tunnel-shaiied basin, about forty yards in diameter, and 
from forty to sixty feet down to the water. The water rises and falls in this 
funnel ; formerly it at times was twenty feet across the surface, and then would 
fall until it appeared to be not more than two. Several unsuccessful attempts 
have been maile to fathom its depth, but the projecting limestone has proved 
an insuperalile barrier. Tradition tells us that chaff thrown into this hole has 
been known to come out at the Ingham spring. In former times it was con- 
sidered a great natural curiosity, and many strangers visited it. It is known 
the Indians frequently collected here to hold their councils and jollifications. 
"Grintown pond" is tlie name of a basin of water in the valley nearly opposite 
Greenville. Ninety vears ago it was the resort of all the I)oys of the neighbor- 
hood who were ambitious to have a swim. Here the young Elys, Larges, Gil- 
berts, Beanscs, Williamses, Joneses, Parrys, Linburgs, Johnsons. Byes, Shaws, 
Fells, Hellvcrs. Watsons. Pax-ons, and others, resorted on Saturday evenings, 
making the air ring with their hikirirx-. r^lany horsis were taken there to be 
washed, and evcrv one th.-it went into the water had a boy on its back and an- 
other on its t:ul. Tw.i old mm living 'in the neighborhood .some years ago. be- 
tween seventy and tight) verirs <>\ age, were capering in the (lond one Saturday 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUNTY. 267 



when one saved the other from a watery grave. As he was sinking for the 
l:i>t time his friend dove after him and hrouglit him up. 

On top of Buckingham mountain is the ^[ount Gilead African MethocHst 
I'.jiiscopal clnirch, built of logs, 1835-36, and rebuilt of stone, 1852. It is quite 
a snug edifice, and near by is a graveyard enclosed by a neat pale-fence. The 
Orthotlox Friends' meeting-house, Buckingham, was built in 1830, the date 
being cut by Joseph Fell on a stone and placed in the front wall. 

Sometime before the Revolution William .Simpson, from the Xorth of 
Ireland, came into Bucks county and settled in Buckingham or Soleburv. The 
vear of his arrival is not known, but on January 15. 1766, he made application 
lo purchase one hundred acres, and the deed was executed by John Penn. May 
23. 1767. He married a Hines, probably prior to that time. He had two sons 
and two daughters, Ann, ]\Iary, John and Afatthew. John lived and died ia 
Bucks county, and was the father of Mrs. Ann Jamison, Buckingham. Matthew 
removed to Ohio, near Zanesviile, about iSio. Ann married John Davis about 
1782. who moved to ^vlaryland. T795, and to Ohio, i8t6, settling on the Sciuta. 
near Columbus. W'illiam .Siriipson was a soldier in the Revolution, and at the 
battle of Trenton. On one occasion, when he came home to visit his family, 
his house was searched by his tory neighbors, but failed to find him, as he was 
in the cellar with a hogshead turned over him. James Simpson, son of Job.a 
and Hannah, not related to the foregoing so far -as we know, spent part of his 
Hfe in Buckingham, and became quite a celebrated preacher among Friends. 
He was born in Solcbury. May 19. 1743. He was full of eccentricities and 
widely known. He kept school for a while in Buckingham, but dreaming how 
to make brooms he commenced and followed that business. He removed to 
Hatboro. 1789. and marrierl Martha Shoemaker, a widow, and died at Frank- 
ford, t8ii, at sixty-eight. He left some sermons and other wTitings. 

There were other Simpsons in Bucks county besides those named in the 
preceding paragraph, among them James Simpson and his wife Mary, who 
lived in I3uckingham. Their son John, born in Buckingham or Newtown abort 
1744, went to Lancaster, now Dauphin county, 1769-70, married Margaret, 
dauglUer of James Murray, son. of ^Major Francis Murray, Newtown. 1776. and 
sul>.sequently removed to Himtingdon county, where he died February 3, i8o<). 
He was a lieutenant in Captain James Murray's Company of Associators in the 
Amboy expedition the summer and fall of 1776. and is sai<l to have participated 
in the battle of Trenton and Princeton. Of the other children of James Simp- 
son, Martha married William Kerns, and lived in Northampton county ; James 
married and was living in Botetourt county, \'irginia, 1783; Samuel, who died 
in Wilkes county, Georgia, October 13, 1791, and William, who probablv re- 
mained in Bucks county. The parents of James and Mary Simpson were living 
in Rowan county. New Jersey. August 23, 17S3. In 1785 they removed to 
Georgia, and were living in Wilkes county, April 10, 1793- William Simpson, 
Jr., in letters to John .Simpson, dated respectively, October 27, 1773, and 
August 7, 1796, and written at Buckingham, Bucks county, addressed him as 
"cousin," evidence he must have been the son of a brother of James Simpson. 
Benjamin anfl Jane Simpson, in a letter written at New Britain, Bucks county, 
Pennsylvania. October 9. 1803, addressed John Simpson as "dear uncle," states 
they were married December 2, 1802. and were then living about eighteen 
miles from "Uncle William Simpson." These family letters are quite con- 
clusive that William Simpson. Jr., was a son of James Simpson's brother 
William, and that Janie-' S"n William reiuarried in Bucks cc^unty or its vicinity 
as late as 1803. John .'^inipson. tlie eldest son of James, was the grandfather 



268 HISTORY OF BUCKS COUNTY. 



of the late J. Simpson Africa, president of the Union Trust Company, Phila- 
delphia. William Siirijison, Jr., was a justice of the peace. -■^ 

In olden times Edmund Kinsey had a scythe and ax factory about two miles 
northwest of Laha^ka, where he had a tilt or trip hammer operated by water- 
power. The remains of the race could be traced in recent years. Kinsev, 
esteemed one of the first mechanics of the county, was born in Euckinghani. 
There was also a s;r,', -mil! on the pro])erty of Paul I'reston, near his study, 
where a part of the dam was to be seen a few years ag'O on the stream that 
crosses the York road near Greenville. Three quarters of a century ago Jacob 
Walton and Philip Parry were noted for their dexterity in catching pigeons. 
Walton was quite a famous hunter as well. He dressed in buckskin Ijreeches 
and vest, tanned after the Indian fashion, from deer-skins his own trusty rifle 
had brought down. The garments were made up by himself and wife. Every 
fall the old man made a trip to the mountains, and returned loaded with game. 
Pigeons were formerly verv numerous in Buckingham. Walton and Parry kept 
their stool pigeons and flyers in cages ready for the sport. When the time 
arrived they would erect their bough-houses, of cedar limbs, in the fields most 
frequented by these birds, set their nets in position, place the stool pigeons near 
the net on the ground, liberally sprinkled with buckwheat, fasten a long string 
to one or more pigeons, called llyers, and then retire to their bough-houses. 
When a flock of wild birds was seen, the llyers were thro\vn into the air, keep- 
ing them on the wing until observed by the flock, which approached and settled 
down with the stool pigeons, when the net is sprung and hundreds of them cap- 
tured. Those old men were also as fond of fishing as Izaak Walton is reported 
to have been, frequently going to the Delaware, and to places renowned for 
trout, and always returning heavily laden with their piscatory treasures. They 
were both Friends, belonging to Buckingham meeting, and left numerous 
descendants in the township. 

There are five taverns in Buckingham, two at Centreville, and one each at 
Bushington, Lahaska and the Cross Keys. The latter is the oldest of the group. 
It was first licensed at June term, 175S, the applicant for license and new land- 
lord being Alexander Brown, son of Thomas Brown, Plumstead. It is set forth 
in the petition that he '"had settled by the side of the road that leads from the 
Great Swani]) to Xcwtown, which crosses the road that leads from Durham to 
Philadelphia." Among the names signed to the petition are : Henry Taylor, 
William Foulke, \Villiam Thomas, John I. ester, Cephas Child, John Child, 
Isaac Child, Henry Child, William Yavdly, Jonathan Fonike, Edward Thomas, 
Thomas Thomas, Samuel Shaw. Thcophiius Foulke, John Thomas, Abel Rob- 
erts, and Benjamin Chapman. The "Swamp Road" was the traveled highway 
from Richland and other section of the northwest part of the county to New- 
town, the then county seat. This brought the new inn considerable custom. It 
has been a licensed house in all the one hundred and forty years since then, 
with the exception of an interregnum of a few months, and the Keys of Saint 
Peter have swung on its sign board. Its history would be worth writing up 

25 The late J. Sinip.'on Africa, of IIiintini,'ilon, Ta., was a (k-sccn'lant of John Znv\<- 
son. of Biickint;h.-ini. Ilis father was Daniel Africa, and the son was horn September 15, 
lS,?2. anil 'Hc<! there in .-\u'ni-.t, 1900. lie was edncatefl for a civil engineer, which he 
made I'.is profe.=,>ion. He became con.-:piciions in political, Ma'nnlc and financial circles 
having fervcd one term as .Secretary of In^crnal .•\iTairs, and was many years president 
of the Union Trust Company, Philadelphia. 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUNTY. 269 



t \\\,\ it begotten at. Its location is on the Easton road, one mile above Doyles- 

t All. 

it was in Buckingham township the somewhat famous "Lenapc Stone'" 
\,.i5 found by Bernard Hansell, the son of a farmer, while plowing in one of 
■;.:- father's fields. It was in two pieces, the first found in the spring of 1872, 
■: c -econd, 18S1, about four and a half miles east of Doylestown. Both pieces 
sm:c [)icked up in the same field and near the same spot. When the pieces 
■,'. ere put together they fit. The length is one inch and three eighths, one inch 
^•I'i ti\o eighths wide in its widest part, and covered with rude surface draw- 
i:!;:;s of what purports to be an aboriginal mammoth, and other designs. It was 
\\xA given to Henry D. Paxson, Buckingham, who had a taste for such things, 
but subsequently fell into the possession of Henry C. IMercer, of the Bucks 
County Historical Society, who published quite an exhaustive volume on 
!!;c subject. He and others pronounced it an Indian "Gorget" and genuine. 
When submitted to foreign archoeological experts it led to wide discussion, 
some pronouncing it a fraud. This opinion, however, cannot be accepted as 
correct, unless we are prepared to say the tinder, and others, into whose pos- 
session it first came, were swindlers. As the motive is wanting for respectable 
persons to become cheats and frauds on the public, the author, for one. cannot 
accept their diagnosis. A single breath, sometimes, ruins the title to the most 
valuable real estate, but more is required in this case. If an unlettered youth 
could ])roduce so good a counterfeit, it seems strange he should close his factory 
after the production of a single specimen. To continue the work would pay 
belter than farming. 



CHAPTER XVI H. 



SOLEl'.URY. 



Origin of name unknown. — Buckingham and Solebury one township. — Land located 
beturc 170J. — Early settlers. — Henry P;i.s>ou. — The Holcombs. — The Pellars. — James 
Pellar ^Jalcolm. — Joseph Pike. — Gilt-edge butter. — Great Spring tract. — Jacob Hol- 
coiub. — The Blackfan.s. — Inghams. — Easlburns. — Jonathan Inttham. — Samuel D. 
Ingham, rcsigninir from Jackson's Cabinet. — The EUicotis. — Kichard Townsend. — John 
Scholicld. — Thi. Elys. ^ Hurleys. ■ — Rices. — Williams. — Riches. — Hutchinsons. — 
Neeieys. — Genera! Pike. — The Kendcrdiiies. — Ruckmans. — John Kugler. — Roads. — 
The Scbring grave yard. — The villages. — Lumbcrville. — The Heeds — Luni- 
berton. — Centre Bridge. — Reading's Ferry. — Carversville.— Milton, iSoo. — Excelsior 
Normal Institute. — Post office established.- — Home of the Ellicotts. — Coppernose. — 
View from top of it, — The Cuttalossa. — Spring and fountain. — Kenderdine's verse. — 
Bucknian's tavern. — Old mine at Neeley's. — Dr. John Wall. — Dr. Forst. — Friends 
Meeling. — Wni. B. Leedum. — School fund. — Charles Smith. — Ingham Springs.— Popu- 
lation. 

Solebury i< washcvl by the Delaware on its eastern border, and joins tlie 
townshiiJS of I'luiriStead. Ihickincjliam and Upper jNIakefield. The area is four- 
tfcn thiuisund and seventy-three acres. The origin of the name is unknown, 
nor have we. been alile to liiid it elscwlicrc. In 1703 the name w-as written 
■"Sonlbury." The surface is moderately hilly, witli a variety of soils; has good 
building stone, and abundance of limestone: is well watered with numerous 
creeks and springs, the most celebrated of the latter being the Aquetong or 
Ingham's spring, three miles from Xcw Hope. Its farms are well cultivated 
and productive, and its water-power is i)robably superior to that of any other 
townshi]) in the cottnty. Tiie great body of the inhabitants are descenrlants of 
Englisli Friends, the first settlers, and, in many respects, the}' retain the lead- 
ing traits of tlicir ancestors. 

We stated, in the jirevij.nis cha))ter. that Solcburv and P.uckingham were 
originally one townsliip. Init divide<l abtiut 1700, the e.\act time nut being 
known. The first mention of Sulebury we have met was in 1702. and it may 
or may not have been a. separate townsliip at that time. These two townsliips 
were settled about the snmc period, the immigrants reaching the hills of Sole- 
bury throui^h W'rightstown and Buckingham, coming up from the Delaware.' 



I -Vt the midsummer mcetin.e of the' Bucks County 1 listoricil Society, .'\ugu-it S, 
iftjy, an cxli.in.^tive p.npcr on tl;e "Early Settlvrs of Solebury." wr, i read by Easihurn 



HlSrORY OF DUCKS COUNTY 



271 



Tlie greater pari of the land was taken up before its rc-survey by John Cut- 
ler, generally in tracts of consideralile size, but it is imjiossible to say who was 
rie tirst purchaser or settler in the township. One of the earliest was George 
White, who owned fifteen hundred acres lying on the Delaware, who, dving 
loS", left one thousand acres to his four sons in equal parts. The farms of 
W illiani Kitchen and John Walton are on this tract. The 14th of April, 16S3, 
William Penn conveyed three htmdred acres to one Sypke Ankes, or Sipke 
.Aiikey, or Aukoy, a dyer of Haarlingin, in Friesland, \\ho located it in the 
nortiicrn part of the township. The 16th of August, 1700, he sold it to Renicr 
lansen, and he, in turn, conveyed it to Paul Wolf, a weaver of Germantown, 
Se])tember i, 170.2. In April, 1700. one thousand acres were granted to Thomas 
Story. He sold it to Israel Pemberton, but it was surveyed by mistake to 
Robert Heath, and the same quantity was given to Pemberton elsewhere. By 
warrant of 17, 7th month. 1700. three hundred acres were surveyed to Erlward 
and Henry Hartly, part of John Rowland's five hundred acre tract granted by 
IViin. By virtue of a warrant dated loth, nth month. 1701, four hundred and 
fifty acres were surveyed to Thomas Cams on the Street road, and the same 
i;iu ntity in Buckingham, and four hundred and ninety-two acres to John Scar- 
borough.- In 1702 five hundred acres were granted to James Logan, 
known as the Great spring' tract, joining Scarborough on the north, and 
ii'iv, owned in part by >drs. T. T. Eastburn. and five hundred acres 
'to Randall Blacksliav,-, part of fifteen hundred acres which Richard Blackshaw 
bought of James Harrison's five thousand. William Beaks had a grant of thir- 
teen hundred acres from William Penn, five hundred and eighty of which were 
laid out in Solebury on both sides of tlie Cuttalossa.'' At his death. 1702, it 
• Icscetuled to his son Stephen, and by re-survey was found to contain si.x hun- 
dred and twenty-four acres. It joined the lands of Edward Hartly, Paul Wolf, 
liandall Speakman'" and ^Villiam Croasdale. In 1702 Samuel Beaks Ijought 
three hundred acres, which he sold to William Chadwick, which next passed 
to his brother John, then to Jonathan Balderston and down to the late owners, 
of \s hom W'. J. Jewell and Nathan Ely were two. The remainder of the Beaks 
tract was convevcd to William Croasdale. 1703, a son of Thomas, who came 
from Yorkshire the same year and was sherifi' of the county, 1707. By the 
same survey Joseph Pike is given two tracts in Solebury, one of three hundred 



Reoder. It embraced 41 tracts, some of them containing several hundred acres, one 
as high as 5,000. Among the real estate holders we find the names of George Pownall, 
James Logan, Henry Paxson. John Dalderston, William Blackfan, Thomas Ross, Ben- 
jamin Canby, John Simpson, Samuel Eastburn, Randall Blackshaw, Stephen Townsend, 
James Ptllar and others. The paper was afterward printed in an S mo. pamplilet, making 
57 pages with an index and appendix. The latter contains. the marriages that took 
place at Falls Meeting, Middictown, Buckingham and elsewhere, where one or botli 
I'f the parlies were resident ot Solebury, from 1686 to 1S49. The paper was prepared 
with great care and gives mucli valuable information, obtained from deeds, wills, and 
tlie records of Friends Mei tings. 

-' Died in 1727. 

,^ The Indians callc'l it .Aciiueiong. 

4 "At Quati-.b.ssy." 

5 The land wn^ laid out in .S|.(.aknian's name ns '■Daniel Smith'.; .-Xdmini^tralor " 
The Spcakman holding now comprises the lands of the P.I.iekfans, Elys and other 
tracts. 



272 HISTORY OF DUCKS COUXTV 



and seventy-six acres, the other six hiimlred and tv,ent\-ioiir, one thfuisand 
acres in all. 

In 1704 Henry Paxsun, son of William, who settled in Middletown in 
i6S^, and anix-stor of tl'.e Bucks county Paxsons, bought William Croa'sdale's 
two hundred and fifty acres in Solebury. William Paxson lost his wife, two 
sons and a brother on the passage, and in 1684 married Margery, widow of 
Charles Plumluy, of Xortham[)ton. In 1707 Henry Paxson bought Jeremiah 
Langhorne's tracts in Solebury, some of which is still held b)' the family.' 
Jacob Ilolconib and his brother John, Devonshire, England, born 1670-75, came 
to Penn's Colony about the close of the century, the former settling in Sole- 
bury in the vicinity of the Great spring", where he took up twelve hundred 
acres. He probably took up another tract, as a patent was issued to him, April 
12, 1712, for five hundred acres. He was one of the heads of Buckingham 
meeting, and died about the middle of the century. He raised a family of chil- 
dren. John settled in Philadelplda, and married Elizabeth Woolrich, Abing- 
ton, and removed to Xew Jersey, where he purchased a large tract, on part of 
which the city of Lambertvilie is built. The descendants of John live in 
New Jersey, and the family is quite numerous in this county. 

Thomas Canby was an original settler, whose eleven daughters, by two 
wives, left numerous descendants. Esther, born April i, 1700, married John 
White, and became an eminent minister among Friends. Slie traveled exten- 
sively in this country, and went to England, IJ42- Tradition tells the .story, 
that, on one occasion, Lydia, yoimgest daughter of Thomas C'anby, a small but 
active child, mounted the black stallion of Thomas Watson, while he was on a 
visit to her father. A noise calling them to the door, tliey saw the girl astride 
the horse, with his head turned toward home. Mr. Wats^ni exclaimed, "the 
poor child will be killed," to which Canby replied, ''if thee will risk thy horse. I 
will risk my child." The horse and child reached ]Mr. Watson's, near Bushing- 
ton, lie white with foam, but gentle, when Lydia turned his head and rode back 
to her father's. She died at the age of one hundred and one years. The old 
cedar tree in the lower part of the Buckingham graveyard was planted l5\ her 
at the grave of one of her children. 

Tames Pcllar, whose family name is extinct in the county, of Bristol. Eng- 
land, was one of the earliest settlers in Solebury. Several hundred acres, in- 
cluding the farms of John Ruckman, Charles \Vhite. Eredei-ick Pearson, and 
Tohn Betts, were survevcd to him on the upper York and Carvcrsville roads, on 
which he built a dwelling, 16S0. It was torn down in 1793. His son James 
was a conspicuous character in Bucks county. He was a great lover of poetry, 
had a wonderful mcmorv and was exceedingly entertaim'ng. Franklin admired 
and esteemed liiin. and spoke of him as a "walking library." He was the frit-nd 
and companion of Ji>hn \Vatson, the surveyor, who said he had never seen any 
other man who could "speak so well to a subject he did not imderstand." He 
repeated Jijhn Watson's poetrv on all occasions. He was a large and slovenly 
man, in dress, habits and about his farm. He carried Watson's chain and died 
February 16, 1.^6, at the age of seventy-seven. His father, born in 1700, and 
died in 1775. became an ICpiscopalian. On the female side the families of 
Betts, Reynolds and Wilkinson are amoug the descendants of James Pellar the 
first. James Pcllar Malcolm, an English artist of celebrity, was a grandson 01 



(> We have two .Tcci'iinls 01 tlic P.nx^.-m^. n;i,' t'.Tit I'lKv came fr.iin Dycot Iioii>o. O.x- 
f'Ttl-i'.irc. I'ttQ o-.Urr tliat \\vy came from Biickinpham^liirc. 

7 There i.s a tradilion that this is the birthplace of Tcdyiiscung. 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUXTY. 



273 



James Pcllar. His father, a Scotch.innn, went to tlie West Indies, and then 
came to Philadelphia, where he met and married ^liss Pellar, and died. His 
son was born Au^u>t, 1767. Mis mother resided at Pottstown during the 
Revolutionary war, where her son was partially educated, but returned to Phila- 
delphia in 1784. They went to England, where he .'•tudied three years at the 
Kuyal Acadcni}-, and became distinguished. Malcolm visited his mother's 
relatives in this county about 1806, and was gratitied to find numerous rich 
farmers among the Pellar descendants. He died at Somertown, England, April 
15, 1S15, at which time his mother was about seventy-two. John Letch, v.ho 
had the reputation of being a most monstrous eater, was the friend and associate 
of the Pellars. Mince pies were his favorite diet. On one occasion, when indulg- 
ing his passion at Robert Eastburn's, near Centre Hill, whose wife was cele- 
brated for her hospitality and turn-over minces, Mrs. Eastburn expressed fear 
lest he should hurt himself, but the incorrigible feeder said if she would ri.^k the 
pies he would risk the stomach. On anoiher occasion, when eating a mince pie. 
baked in a milk-pan, at a Mrs. Large's, of Buckingham, he was overcome by 
the task and fell e.xhausted in the ettort. 

Joseph Pike settled in Solebury before 1703, and took up six hundred and 
twenty-four acres, which a re-survey increased to si.x hundred and sixty-five. 
It was not patented imtil 1705. The meeting-house and burial-gromid are upon 
this tract. Daniel I-^mith, from Marlborough. England, located five hundred 
acres immediately north of the Pike tract, which his son John, of London, sold 
to Owen Roberts in 1702, and within recent years was divided between William 
M. Ely, one hundred and forty acres. Daniel Ely, one hundred and forty. Isaac 
Ely, oiie hundred and twenty-two. Charles Phillips and Joseph Balderston. 
William Penn had five hundred acres laid out to himself before 1703. of which 
fine hundred acres were sold to Roger Hartley in 1737. and the remainder to 
Gysbert Bogart. which afterward passed into the hands of Samuel Pickering 
and James and Isaac Pellar. The Pike tract, within sixty years, was divided 
into the following farms: Oliver Paxson, one hundred acres, Joseph E. Reeder. 
one hinidred and thirty acres. Merrick Reeder, one hundred, W. Wallace 
Paxson, one hundred and eighteen, Amos Clark, eighty-five, Rachel Ely, 
forty. Thomas H. IMagill, sixty-two. V\'illiani .S. Worthington, sixteen. 
David Balderston. fiiurteen. In 1763 the attorney of Richard Pike sold the 
one hundred and thirty acres to Josejih Easiburn, junior, at public sale, for 
^414. 25., lod., who erected the first buildings upon it, and commenced its 
cultivation. It remained in the family until 1812. when it passed to Joseph 
E. Reeder, a descendant of the purchaser, whose son, Eastlnirn Reeder, still 
owns it. It is now known as Rabbit run farm, and quite celebrated for herd- 
registered cattle, whose occupant. Eastbum Reeder. indulges his fancv for 
gilt-edged butter, an article that costs more than it comes to. The 26th of 
June. 1717, five hundretl acres, extending from the Logan tract- to the Dela- 
ware, were patened to John Wells. In 1721 Wells conve\ed one hundred 
and fifty acres to William Kitchen, who died. 1727. and was the first of the 
name in Solebury. John Wells left tlie land for the graveyard on Hutchin's 
hill, and his will jirovided for a wall around it. 

The two contiguous five humlred aero tracts, survex'ed by mistake to Robert 
Heath, in T700, adjoined the Crcat .'^firing tract, extending to the Delaware, 
and embracing the site of Xew ILipe. 'i"hc >in\eys ar": da1e<l 1703 and 1704. 
and the patent 2d month, nth. T7ip. Heaih had agreed to erect a "grist or 
corn support mill" on the Crcat .Spring stre.im. and it was covenanted in the 
patent that if he built the mill according to agreement he shiiuld have the ex- 



274 HISTORY OF DUCKS COUNTY. 



elusive use of the water so long as he kept it h\ repair. The mill was built in 
1707, the first in that section of country and was resorted to for miles. .\t 
Robert Heath's death th.e real estate vested in his son, and by the latter's wi'I, 
dated 7th of Sth month, it was left to his five sisters, Susannah, Anna, Elizabeth. 
Hannah and 2\Iary. From them it passed into several hands. In 1734 John 
Wells bought one hundred acres of it lying on the river. The fulling-mil! u;: 
this tract was built before 1712 by Philip Williams. Joseph Wilkinson bought 
part of the mill tr;icl about 1753. The first, saw-mill was erected about 1740. 
In -1790 Nathaniel and Andrew Ellieott bought one hundred and fifty-five 
acres of what had been the Heath tract on which was the Pilaris mill. Before 
1745 Benjamin Canby owned two hundred and thirty— five acres, in twu 
tracts of one liundred and one hundred and thirty-five, on the latter 
■of which he built a forge. There were now on the stream flowing from the 
Great Spring a grist mill, saw and fulling-mill, and a forge. The forge was 
sold by the sheriff in 1750 or 1751, after Canby's death. His widow lived at 
the ferr}' until her death, about 1760, when that part of the property was sold 
to John Coryell. The old grist-mill continued to enjoy the exclusive right t'j 
use the water for grinding until about 1828, when William "Maris bought it. 
He took the water from the stream to run his factory during the dry season. 
which was considered a forfeiture of the right, and other mills were erected 
lower down, ^^'hen he dug the foundation for his factory, recently belonging 
to the Huffnagle estate, a log cut off with an ax, was found fifteen feet below 
the surface. 

The Blackfans arc descendants of John Blackfan,' of Stenning, County 
Sussex, England, whose son Edward married Rebecca Crispin, Kinsale, Ire- 
land, second cousin of William Penn, 1688. At the wedding were William 
I'enn, his wife, son and daughter, whose names are on the marriage certificate, 
now in possession of the Blackfan family, of Solebury. Edward Blackfan, con- 
cluding to come to America, died before he could embark, about lOgo," but his 
widow, with her yomig son. William, arrived about 1700. and was appointed to 
take charge of the manor house, Pennsbury, at a salary of ten pounds a year,'" 
paid by the council. They lived there many 3-ears, In 1721 the son married 
Eleanor ^^'ood, Philadelijhia, and, 1725, the mother was married to Xeheniiah 
Allen, of that city. .\b' ut this time William Blackfan removed to a five hun- 
dred acre tract in Snklniry, surveyed to him, 1718, and confirmed. 1733. He 
had six children, the two eldest being born in Pennsbury. -At his death. 1771, 
at the age of eiq-hly, his real estate was divided between his sons, Crispin and 
William, the former marrying Martha Davis, had nine children, and the latter, 
Esther Dawson,' ' had the same number. All these children but two lived to 



8 Wi. uuist Ikivc I)i.cn a zealous Friend from his rough treatment. In 1639 he was 
pro<cfutfd f"r non-payment of tithes, 1662, sent to jail for refusing to pay toward 
repairing a "steeple-liousc" ('church), and, 1663 and 1681 was prosecuted and ex- 
conmuniicated for not attending public worship. 

9 From the frequent mention, in I'enn's letters, 16S9, of Edward Elackfan beini:; 
about to fetcJi otVicial docinncnts to the Council, he was probably on the point of sail- 
ing when dcatli arretted him. 

10 James I.ocjan wrilr? to Hannah Penn, under date of May 3r, 17J1: "Tliy cousin, 
lllackf.'.n. is still at I'mn-hiuy." 

ir Slie was the Hranddaiii^htcr ofjohn Dawson, SnfTolk, F.n'-rlami. horn about 1660, 
who wa"". a soldier at the lloyne, lOtjO, married Catharine Fox, T'lO*^, catuo to .\uicrica, 
1710. and iC'.tled on a 501 acre tract, Si.U-btiry, I/iy. His will was proved May :>'\ I7-'Q. 



HISTORY OP BUCKS COUXTY. 275 



.•■.irrv .'ukI left niinieri;>us descendants. John Blackfan, Solebury, born in 
■ - ,), and married Elizabeth K. Chapman, Wrightstown, 1S22, was the son 
,.i l.ilin, the eldest son of William, and the fourth in descent from the first 
i'.ucks county ancestor. '" 

i'lie first i)rog;enilor3 of the Eastburns are believed to have been Robert 
.■i;<i .'^arah Eastburn, wb.o came to America with William Penn at his second 
\isit, 1699, or abmit that lime, and settled in Philadelphia. In 172S their son 
.<anniel married Elizabeth Gillingham in Abingtun meeting, and soon afterward 
removed to Solebury on a farm near Centre Hill. Among their children were 
two sons. Robert and Joseph. Joseph married rvJary \Vilson, Buckingham, 
1753, and purchased a portion of the Pike tract, on which he lived to his death, 
lluy had nine children, seven sons and two daughters, ^-'^ whose descendants 
^re numerous in both male and female line. The Inghams, who made 
dieir home in Solebury for a century and a quarter, were descended 
frdui Jonas, an English Friend who came from Old to New England aljout 
1703, thence to Solebury, 1730. His son Jonathan succeeded to the farm and 
fulling-mill at the Great Spring, and became an influential citizen. The latter 
left three sons, John, a religious enthusiast, Jonas, a student of the exact scien- 
ces and author of many useful inventions, who died at the age of eighty-two, 
and Jonathan Vidio became a distinguished physician. He devoted his leisure to 
the languages and paid court to the muses. During the Revolutionary war he 

ij Wiiliaiu Crispin, the ancestor of this family, came into England at the Norman 
conijiicst, and bore an important part at the battle of Hastings. Sir William Crispin 
took part in the strife betv.-een Robert, Duke of Normandy, and his brother, where he 
.ittackcd the king and cut through his coat of mail. For his feats in horsemanship, 
he had three horse shoes for his coat-of-arms. In the contest between Charles I. and 
t!ie Parliament, William Crispin was one of Cromwell's train band, and afterward 
captain of his guard. He served with Admiral Penn (they having married sisters), 
in his attack upon Hispaniola and Jamaica. Subsequently Cromwell gave Crispin a 
f>rfeitcd estate in Ireland, near the Shannon, not far from Limerick. When William 
IVnn received the grant of Pennsylvania from Charles I. he appointed his cousin, 
%\iniatn Cri'ipin, one of the three Commissioners to scUle the Colony. The vessel he 
>aiIod in reached the Delaware, but finding contrary winds went to Barbadoes, where he 
sh'irtly died. Penn appointed to the vacancy, Thomas Holme, who had been living with 
^\ ilii.Tm Crispin in Ireland. Holme had been a Tnidshipman in the West India expedition. 
'Ili'tni.is Holme brought wiih him to Philadelphia, Silas, the eldest son of William Cris- 
pin, who married Holme's eldest daughter soon after their arrival. They settled on a 
ir.-ict of 500 acres in Byberry, on the Pennypack, given him by William Penn. Their 
lifit ciiih!, a son, was l)orn in the wigwam of an Indian chief. By a second wife he h.id 
six children, Joseph, Benjamin, Mary, Abigail. Mercy and Silas. One of the daughters 
n-.arried John Hart, ancestor of the Harts of WarmiiKter. Silas Crispin, the son of 
V\"i!liam, first appointed s-.irveyor-general, had a sister, Rebecca, wlio married Edward 
r.'ai-kla'i, the ancestor of the family of this name in Bucks county. There are numerous 
<!escendants bearing the name of Crispin, in this State and elsewhere. 

I2j'j Edward Eastburn, a member of this family, bicame prominent in business 
and amassed a large fr.rtune, estimated at half a million. He was a son of Samuel 
and Mary Eastburn, and born in Solebury, January o, l<^.Si. }i<^ went to Texas, 1850. 
anil became cngageil in mercantile pursuits and 5ul)SeC|uer,tly interested in real estate, 
br.ikrra.iie anil banking. It was his custom to spend liis summers in the Xonh. He 
'bed at Philaddpliia, .-\\;gust 27. 1900, and was burieil at the Friends Buckingliam Meet- 
uu; h nwc. .Mr l'-i<;iiurn luvor married. 



270 



HISTORY or BUCKS COUXTV 



11- 



gave his {'.rofc-ssional services to the army, when needed, and, 1793 he laborcij 
among the veUow fever at Philadelphia. Catching the disease, he started for 
Schoolev',-, mountain, accompanied by his wife and faithful slave Cato, but did 
in his carriage r.n his way, at Clinton, Xew Jersey, October i, 1793,'^ and wn-; 
burietl in the e '.go of the graveyard. The most distinguished member of the 
family was Samuel D. Ingliam, son of Doctor Jonathan, born on the farm near 

Xcw Hope, September 6, 1770. 
The death of his father inter- 
. „5_^^_ ..„^„..-, _.,,._ ruptcd his classical studies at tlu- | 

_^v "{ age of fourteen and he was in- : 

•"■C. i- A dentured to learn the paper- 

'■'^'!15i'**i".;"'}i1 making business at the mill 0:1 

Vif -jT^^"' ..'.■> V-"'! the Pennypack. He was a close 

';'■''" '5 student during his apprentice- 

■ 1 ship, being assisted in his studies 

.'I by a Scotch immigrant in the 

•d neighborhood, named Craig.'* 

: -'.J At twenty-one he returned home 

and took charge of the farm and 
■ ■'"■■j mills. He was nmch in public 

'-^^ life. Pic was elected to the .\s- 

"fl senibly, 1805-6-7, was in Con- 

; ' •' gress from 1812 to 1829, except 

-^: — . - - _'.' three vears while Secretary of 

~^ the Commonwealth and was a 

I "•: leading member during the war. 

' . 3 He was secretary of the Treas- 

l- i ury under General Jackson, till- 

''^' ' * '^ ing the office with distinguished 

INGHAM iiorsE. SOUTHWEST CORNER. ability. He died at Trenton, 

Xew Jersey, June 5. i860. The 
homestead of the Inghams. until within recent years was owned by Andrew 
J. I'.eaumont. and is the same winch James Logan granted to Jonathan Ingham 
-May 15. T747.'-' 

]\\v political events of that day created greater excitement than the 
quarrel l>etween President Jackson and Mr. Ingham, his Secretary of the Treas- 
ury, followed by the latter's resignation in May, 183 1. He returned to Bucks 

ij His death from l!ie fevt-r, created great consternation in the neighborhood, and 
tlic nia-ons. building the wall around the graveyard, left and would not return until 
cold weather set in. 

14 On one occasinn young Ingham walked to Philadelphia and back the same niK'.it, 
30 miles, to obtain a much coveted book. 

15 This tract was granted by Pcnn to Logan, on ship-board in the Delaware. Xo- 
vembvt J. 1701. for 500 acres, but the survey made it $96}i. and was confirmed to hiiii 
September 12. 17.15. J'nathan, higliam received 3<j6l;J acres at a ground-rent of £ji sterlii^g 
a year lor seven years, and then £25 >ter!ii!g a year for 100 years afterward; a new vaUia- 
tion to be put upnn tlie property at the end of each hinidred >ears. The remaining _>oo 
acres conveyed to Jacob Dean. Mr. Ii:-!iam's brother-in-law. at the same time, on 
ground rent. liy liis will. James Loiian lift the income !>■ ni this property to tl-e 
Logjiniaii library C"mpapy. Philadelphia, and limited the office of lihrariati to his elde-t 
male Iieir. pn.bably the only hcreihtary olTice in the country. 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUNTY. 277 



coiiMty, where his friends gave him a royal reception. He was met at Phila- 
•Ii-liiliia, on the 25th, by Judge John Fox and John JL'ugh, Esqr., who accom- 
j..iuied hini the next day to the Sorrel Horse tavern, Montgomery county, on 
ti'.c .Mid<!lo road, half a mile below the Bucks county line. liere he was received 
].> p. number of his personal and political friends on horseback and escorted to 
:i;.: county line, where he was welcomed by a large assemblage. A procession 
was now formed of many horsemen and vehicles with General William T. 
Ki'gers and Colonel John Davis as marshals, and the distinguished guest was 
••scurted to the Black Bear tavern, Northampton township. His carriage was 
>:irronnded by outriders, and in that immediately in front rorle General Samuel 
Smith and Captain Francis Baird, revolutionary veterans. A large crowd 
;i\vaited Mr. Ingham's arrival at the Bear. After a sumptuous dinner in the 
.-liade of the trees in the tavern yard, >.Ir. Ingham was presented with a 
fiirmal address by Henry Chapman, Esqr., and Captain Baird, to which an 
;ili])ru[iriate response was made. Thence the committee escorted the distin- 
'^iii.shed guest to his home in Solebury township. 

.-Vndrew Ellicott, descendant of a respectable family, Devonshire, England, 
frnin the time of William the Conqueror, settled in Solebury about 1730. He 
J''lk>\ved farming and milling. About 1770, his three sons, Joseph Andrew and 
Jnhn, ]Mn-chased a large tract of land in ^Maryland, at what is now Ellicott's 
.Mills and removed thither,^" taking with them mechanics, tools, animals, 
wagons, laborers, and several settlers and tlieir families. Tliere in the wilder- 
ness they built mills, erected dwellings, stores, opened roads, quarries, built 
school houses, and established the seat of an extensive and profitable business. 
'1 hey became wealthy and influential, and occupied prominent positions in the 
■comnnniity. They and their sons were men of sterling merit ; they introduced 
tlio use of plaster of Paris into ^^laryland ancl were the authors of several use- 
fid inventions. They first advocated the ir.troduction of a good supply of water 
into Baltimore. John Ellicott died suddenly, 1795. Joseph, the eldest brother, 
was a genius in mechanics, to which he was devoted from boyhood. About 
1700, he made at his home in Soleburv a repeating watch without instruction, 
wliich lie took to England. 1766, wliere it was much admired and gained him 
i;reat attention. After his return, 1769. he made a four-faced musical clock, 
the wonder of the times, which played twenty-four tunes, and combined many 
"tiler woui.lerful and delicate movements. This clock is now in Albany. Joseph 
I'.llicott died. 1780, at the age of forty-eight. His son Andrew, born in Sole- 
bury, 1754. became a distinguished engineer. He was surveyor-general of the 
I tiiicd Slates. 179J. adjusted the boundary between the United States 
and Spain, 1796. laid out the towns of Erie, Warren, and Franklin in 
Ibis state, and was tlie first to make an accurate measurement of the falls 
"I Niagara. He was the consulting engineer in laying out the city of W'ashing- 
t'Mi and com|)leted ihe work which ?\Iajor L'Enfant planned. He was appointed 
I'rofessor of mathematics at West Point, 1S12, where he died in 1820. George 
b.llicntt, a son of Andrew, was one of the liest mathematicians of the times, 
and died in 1832. The EUicotts owned the mill at Carversville, and what was 
known at Pettit's mill, Buckingham. Thcv were Friends.'' 



16 .Andrew did not permniienlly leave Bucks county until 1794. 

17 .-\ndrc\v Ellicott w.is .nppointed cninniis^ioner on beli.ilf of the ITnited St.ntcs. 
to determine the boundary between tlieni and Sp.iin, 1796. returning home the spring 
ot iSoo alter an absence of nearly four 'years. Upon his arrival at rhiiadtlphia he 
wrote tlie following letter to his uncle, Colonel George Wall, of Soleburv: 



278 HISTORY OF BUCKS COUNTY. 



Richard Townscnd, a celebrated minister among- Friends, of London, a 
\\'elconie passenger, and carpenter by trade, settled near Chester, 1682, with his 
wife, and a son born during the voyage. lie removed first to Germantown ami 
then to near Abington, whence his grandson, Stei)lien, came to Solebury about 
1735. He was a carpenter and miller, andassisted Samuel Armitage to erect 
the first grist-mill built on the Cuttalossa. One end of the old Townsend house, 
probably the oldest in the township, was built 1756 by Stephen Townsend, an<l 
the other end some thirty of forty years later. The windows had broad sash 
and small folding shutters, the lire-place was wide and capacious, and the out- 
side door garnished with a wooden latch. It was taken down, 1S48, by the 
father of C_\rus Livezey, who erected a handsome building on the site. It was 
on this farm that the celebrated Townsend apple is said to have originated. 
Tradition says this apple took its name from Richard Tc-wnsend, who, hearing 
of a w^ondcrful apple tree, got the Indians to take him to it, which he found 
standing in a large clearing near Lumberville. He bought the clearing, but th.e 
Indians reserved the free use of apples to all who wished them. Samuel 
Preston said that in his time Stephen Townsend owned the original tree from 
which he, Preston, cut grafts, 1766. 

]-)aniel Howell, who settled in Solebury, was a son of Thomas Ilowell. of 
Plaxleston, county StalTord, England, born about i6(5o, and came with his 
father to America in the Welcome, 1682. He first settled on a plantation on 
Gloucester creek, now Camrlcn county, New JerseVj given him by his father. 
This he sold to his brother IMordecai Howell, 1687. ITe married Hannah Lak- 
in, Philadel])hia, September 4, 16S6, whither he removed, 1690, and served on 
the grand jurj-, 1701. He subsequently removed to Solebury, Bucks county, 
where he resided until his death. September, 1739. Just at what time he canie 
to Bucks county is not known, but prior to 1734, for, on June 10, that year, he 
conveyed to his granddaughter, Elizabeth Howell, two hundred acres of his 
projirictary land in Xew Jersey. His wife probably died before him, as she is 
not named in his will, which was executed April 14, 1739, and proved Septem- 
ber 28. One of the witnesses to it was Chris. Search, and was recorded at Doy- 
lestown. Daniel and Hannah Howell had live children ; Daniel, born about 
1688, married Elsie Reading, and died 1733; Hannah, married Job Howell: 
Benjamin, married Catherine Papen, died September 6, 1774; Joseph, married 
Gertrude , died 1776; Catherine, married \\'iliani Rittenhouse, of German- 
town, and died at Amwell, Hunterdon county. New Jersey, 1767. His will. 
dated August 27, 1761, was proved October 19, 1767, and in it, names his wife. 
Catharine, sons, ^^'iHianl, Isaac, Lott, Moses and Peter, and daughters, Pri — 
cilia, Susan, Hannah and Anna. Catharine Howell is thought to have been the 
second wife. William Rittenhouse was of the same family as David Ritten- 

Dcar Uncle: Philadelphia, May 25th, iSoo. 

It is with pleasure that I acquaint you with my safe arrival, and return to my family 
and friends, after an absence of three years and eight months. Since I saw you last. I 
have been exposed to hardships and daiiirers, and constavitly surrounded with diti'icultii.-, 
bill, owing to ray good constitution and perseverance, I have completed the arduous task 
entrusted to me by my coiintry. 

I wisli murli Xr\ see ynu. and family, and intend payincr a vl^it to my friends in 
Bucks in a few weeks. At present, I am indisposed with ague and fever, I expect 
Doc'r Rush to sec me after breakfast. Please to give my respvcts to your family and 
believe me to be your affectionate nephew. 

Col. George Wall, (Signed") : .Xndrew EUicott. 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUXTY. 279^ 



house, the distinguished astronomer. Of this family of Howclls was dc-s.-ciiiled 
l.icut. William liowcU, father of Jefferson Davis's wiilow. 

lohu Scoficid, Buckinghamshire, England, settled in Solebury when a 
\._'Uiil; man probabl}' beiure 17,30. He was married at the Falls meeting to Ann 
ixno'.re, a I'rench Huguenot lady who had been banished from Acadia. They 
had nine children, from whom have descended a numerous offspring in this and 
odicr statt.-?. In this county we find their descendants among the Williamses, 
Scliofields, Fells, and other respectable families. A grandson married Rebecca, 
sister of the late John Bcanniont, and his daughter Sarah, who married P.cn- 
jamin Leedom, was the mother of the late Tdrs. JM. H. Jenks. John Schofield 
was the great-grandfather of Joseph Fell, Buckingham, who descends in the 
tnaternal line from Samuel, the fourth, son of the first progenitor in the country. 
It is related of John Schofield, that hearing his dog barking down in the meadow 
one evening, he took his axe and went to see what was the matter. He saw 
diere a large animal up a tree, and the dog a few feet ofif. Striking the tree 
with the ax, the animal leaped down on the dog, and while they were struggling 
he struck the varmint on the back with the ax and killed it. It proved to be a 
large sized panther. 

Th.e EI>s, of Bucks county, are descended from Joshua Ely, Dunham, Not- 
tinghamshire, England, who came over 1684 antl settled on the site of Trenton, 
New Jersey, on a four hundred acre tract he bought of Mahlon Stacy, his 
brother-in-law. He was married twice, the first time to Mary Senior, who 
bore him six children — Joshua and George born in England, John at sea, Hugh 
1689, Elizabeth and Sarah after their arrival. Upon the death of his first wife, 
he married Rachel Lee, 1698, by whom he had two chrldren, Benjamin and 
Rulh. twins. Joshua Elv was a prominent man in the comnumity, h.oMing the 
office of justice of the peace, and dying at Trenton, 1702. Of the children of 
Joshua Ely, George, born 16S2, married Jane Pettit, 1703, daughter of Nathan- 
iel, lived on the paternal estate and died there 1750. He left three sons and three 
daughters, John, George, Joseph, Alary Green, Sarah, wife of John Dagworthy, 
Rebecca, wife of Eliakin .Anderson, and a grandson, George Price, son of a 
deceased daughter. Elizabeth. Joshua, the second son of George, born March 
16. 1704. and married Elizabeth Ijell, New Jersey, removed to Solebury, Bucks 
county, 1737, and settled on three hundred and seventy-five acres he purchased 
betiveen Centre Hill and Phillips mill, the greater part of which is still in the 
family. Of his children, Joshua married Elizabeth Hughes, George, Sarah 
Magill ; John, tlugh, .Sarah, Haimah and Jane. The late Jonathan Ely, several 
years member of Assembly, was a grandson of Joshua. George Ely was a 
member of the Provincial Assembly, 1760. Hugh Ely, son of Joshua, the im- 
migrant, born in New Jersey, 16S9, removed to Buckingham, 1720. purchasing 
four hundred acres on the cast end of the "Lundy tract," extending from the 
York road to the mountain,, and from Greenville to Broadhurst's lane. His 
children were Plugh, born 1715. married Elizabeth Blackfan, Thomas married 
Sarah Lowther, .\nna married John Wilkinson, and Ann married Peter Mat- 
son. In 1773, Thomas removed to Harford county, ]\raryland, with his six 
younger children. William, Joseph, ^Nlahlon, Afartha, Rachel and Ruth; his 
sons. Thomas and Hugh, and daughter Aim, who married Thomas Ellicott. 
following him, 1774. General Hugh Ely, Baltimore, a distinguished soldier 
and statesman and several years president of the Maryland senate, born, 1795.. 
and died 1S62, was a son of Mahlon Ely abo\'c mentioned. 

Thomas Ross, born in cojmty Tyrone, Ireland, of Episcopal parents, 
T708, immigrated to Bucks county and settled in 172S. He located on the 



28o HISTORY OF BUCKS COUNTY. 



Manor lands outside the London Company tract. lie probably brought a sister \\ 

with him, or she may have followed, for Elizabeth Ross was married to Thomas JJ 

Bye, 9th mo., 1732. Thomas Ross joined the W'-riglitstown Meeting February ^ 

12, 1729, and l.ici-ame a, distinguished minister among Friends. He took great fl 

interest in the welfare of the young. He married Kesiah Wilkinson, July or t-j 

August, 1731, Abraham Chapman and James Harker being appointed to attend m 

the wedding and "see it decently accomplished." He passed his long life mostly ^ 

in ilucks county, devoting much of his time to religious work. He paid a \ 

religious visit to England, 1784, accompanied by several of his male and female || 

friends, embarking in the siiip Commerce, Captain Trenton, the same who |j 

subsequently became a distinguished officer in the United States Navy. They 
were anxious to reach their destination in time for the Yearly Meeting, but 
the captain said it was impossible. It is related, that one day, while ]\Ir. Ross 
was seated beside Rebecca Jones, he said to her "Rebecca, cans't thou keep a 
secret?'' She replied in the affirmative, when he added, "We shall see England 
tliis day two weeks."' Land was seen the morning of that day, and it is said the 
ca[)tain acknowledged that had not the passengers been able to see what the 
officers and sailors could not, the vessel would have gone on the rocks, and 
been wrecked. Alter attending the Yearly Meeting at London and trav- 
eling in Ireland and the North of Scotland wliere he attended many religious 
meetings, 2\Ir. Ross reached the home of Lindley r^lurray, Holdgate, near 
York, where he was taken sick and died June 13, 17S6, aged seventy-eight. 
The letter announcing his death to his widow, was written by John Pember- 
ton, who spoke of the deceased in high terms. Among his last words were, 
"\ see no cloud in my way. I die in peace with all men."'' Among his de- 
scendants were Judge John Ross, of the State Supreme Court, Hon. Thomas 
Ross, Judge Henry i'. Ross, and State Senator George Ross, all of Doylestown, 
deceased. William Ross, probably a grandson of the immigrant, and a native 
of this county, was a merchant of Philadelphia, and died on the island of 
Saint Domingo, 1807. 

iS Thomas Rn^s. Jr., vi.n of Thomas, Sr., was a stanch friend of the Coh:inies during 
the Revolution, and he and the U'riyht^town meeting clashed, that body "reading him out," 
Of this transaction tin.- meeting record, of /di of 12th mo., 1779, contains the following: 

"Whereas, Thomas Ross, Jr., having had his birth and education among Friends, but 
li.ivipg so far disregarded the testimony of truth against war and lighting as to pay a fine 
demanded of him for not associating to learn the art of war, and Friends having treated 
with him in order to bring him to a sense of his misconduct; yet he continues to justify 
himself in so doing; therefnre, we give forth this as a tesiiniony against such practices, 
and can have no furth.er inii'.y with him as a member of our Society until he comes to a 
scn-.e of his error, and cuiidenm the same to the satisfaction of Friends, which he may 
do is our sincere desire fur him. Signed in and on behalf of the said meeting by 

(Signed) ; "J. Chapm.\n, Clerk." 

When the clerk had iinishcd reading the above testimony, Mr. Ross stood up and read 
• the fi'llouing declaration to the meeting: 

"Wliercas, the Socirty of tlic peojile called Quakers in North .Vmerica, in several 
important particulars in both theory and practice, have deserted their ancient creed, and 
inasmuch as in their ecclesiastical decisions and transactions, they have become extremely 
partial, inconsistent and hypocritical, I do therefore give forth this, my testimony, against 
their present practices and innovations, and can have no farther unity with them as a 
member of their Society, until tliey shall add to a profession more consistcjit with 
Christianity, a practice more agreeable to their profession. Signed on behalf of himself by 

"TiioM.\s Ross. Jr." 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUNTY. 281 



The Rices came into the townsliip ahout one hundred and fifty years SLgo. 
Edward Rice, the great-grandfather of Samuel 11. Rice, was horn in the parish 
of Kiliaman, countv Tyrone, Ireland, where he lived until he immigrated to 
Pennsylvania. He brought with him a certificate of grxnd character signed by 
the rector ami church wardens, and a protection or passport from the proper 
authority, Ixith dated June 12. 173''). It is presumed he came immediately after- 
ward, and made his home in riuckingham. 

The Riches are descended from John Rich, who purchased land at the head 
of Cuttalossa creek, 1730. He could trace his decent, it is alleged, to Richard 
Rich, who came to America in the Mayflower, and settled at Truro, on Cape 
Cod, Massacluisetts. In 1740, John Rich bought a large farm in Plumstead 
township, south of the meeting-house. He had several sons, only one of whom. 
Joseph, is known to have any descendants in Bucks county. He married Eliza- 
beth Brown, and had one daughter, Alary, who married Jonathan Wells, and 
removed to Chester county. Of his five sons who lived to manhood, Alexander, 
Jonathan, John, Joseph anit Josiah, Alexander married ]\Iary Michener and had 
three sons, John, Joseph and William ; Jonathan married Rosanna Kemble, and 
had one son, Anthony, and. after her death, he married INIary Snodgrass. and by 
her had two sons. Doctor James S., and Josiah : John married Mary Preston, 
and had one son. Closes, and three daughters, Susan, jMartha. and Elizabeth ; 
Joseph married Elizabeth Carlile, and had two sons, John and Joseph, and two 
daughters, Sarah and Elizabeth : Joseph, youngest son of Joseph Rich, married 
IMartha Preston, had one son. William, and two daughters, Elizabeth and Mary. 
The descendants of these <!everal families are quite numerous, living mostly in 
Bucks county. 

We do not know when the Hutchinsons came into Solebury, but early In the 
eighteenth century. Matthias, a descendant of the first settler, born, 1743- was 
a remarkable man in some respects, and wielded much influence. He carried on 
mason-work and plastering extensively, walking twenty miles to his work in the 
morning and the first man on the scaffold. Such energy brought its reward and 
lie became wcalthv. He enjoyed the confidence of his fellows, and was appoint- 
ed justice of the peace and afterward Associate-Judge, which he resigned about 
tSi2. Ahout 1765 he married Elizabeth Bye. whose mother was Elizabeth 
Ross, sister of Thomas Ross, the preacher. Mr. Hutchinson owned the fine 
farm subsequently WilliaTU Siaveh's. where he died. 1823, at the age of eighty. 
He was a soldier in the French and English war and near Wolfe wdien he fell on 
the Plains of Abraham. 

William Neeley, the first of the name in the county, born in Ireland, 
August 31, 1742, came to this country when a small boy with his widowed 
mother. She married Charles Stewart, Upper Makcfield, with whom her son 
lived in his minority. He learned the milling business with Robert Thomp- 
son," Solcburv, and married his daughter June 24. 1766. His father-in-law 
erected buililings fur him <-'n his tract, where he lived and died. While Wash- 
ington's army was encamped in that neighborhood, 1776. several officers quar- 
tered at his house, and lames Alonroc spent some time there after being wound- 
cd at Trenton. William, Xceley died July 10, iRt8. and his widow. February 
13, 1834. in her eighty-sixth year. He had two children, a son and daughter; 

19 Robert Thompson had the rcr>ut;iti<Mi of never tiirniiiK a poor man away frnm 
liis mill witli Ills t>at; empty, wliether \\e liad money or not. The old Tliompson-Xecley 
mill stands near tlie Delaware canal, but was ruined wlien that improvement was 
made. 



282 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUNTY. 



the son, l\obcrt T., marryinof Sarah Beaumont, from whom deicendeil John T. 
Neeley, Solehnry. and tlie daughter, Jane, married Jolin Poor, princii>al of the 
first youuij laihes' seminary e5tabHsl^(^d in Philadelphia.-" 

The distingui>hed Zebulun M. Pike, who fell at York, Canada, 1813, spent 
several years of his life in Solebury, if not born there. As will be remembered 
the Pikes w ere early land owners in Solebury. Joseph owning land there before 














m 






GEN. ^UbULON .M. HIKE. 



20. hi l!<53 R. J. and \V. Xccley establi.slied tliciiisclvc5 in the lumber business 
of Trcnto.i,-' New Jersey, January 5, 1779, and that his father, Zebulon Pike, 
with his family soon afterward removed to Lumbcrton, where he resided several 



20 In 1853 R. J. and W. Keely establislicd thcniselvc?: in the lumber business 
in Virginia. They were sons o£ John T. Ncclcy, and their venture proved a siicces.^. 
In 1891, John Xicley, a son of one of them, succeeded to the busiiuss, which he carries 
on in Port'^nionth. \'a., on a large scale. 

21 There i'; no positive evidence that General Pike was horn in Solebury, but 
likely sotncwhcrc in that vicinity, but ccrtajniy in Bucks county, where his father resided 
several vears before hi'; son's birth. 



IIISrOKY OF BUCKS COiWTV. 283 



vcars."- That was his Iionie, 1786, when himself and wife conveyed to Jonathan 
Kinsey, Solebury, a tract of land in Nnrtlinniberland county. In the deed he is 
styled "Captain." General Pike probably received hi.-, school edncation in Sule- 
bury. The family lived in a red frame house, torn down, 1S34, on the site of 
I'axson's mill. While living there the father subscribed the oath of allegiance 
to the Colonies. He was a soldier in the Revolution, served in St. Clair's expe- 
dition, 1791, commissioned captain in the regular army, JMarcli, 1792, lieutenant 
colonel, 1812, and died near l.awienceburg, Indiana, 1S34, at the age of eighty- 
three. General Pike entered the army as lieutenant, March 3, 1799, and his 
military life is too well known to be repeated. Among his services to the gov- 
ernment were several valuable explorations, that to discover the headwaters of 
the Arkansas and Red rivers, 180O, leading to his capture and imprisonment in 
Mexico. Tlie author has been in the old adobe building at the north end of the 
palace where he was confined at Santa Fc.-^ A distinguishing feature of Gen- 
eral Pike was a fine head of bright red hair.-'' 

The Kenderdines,-^ a prominent family in Solebury for many years, came 
into the township less than a century ago, although much longer in the state. 
The name is rarely met with. The family is supposed to have been driven from 
Holland to \\'ales by religious persecution, sometime in the seventeenth century. 
Several of the name are now living in the vicinity of Stafford, England, near 
where the Holland refugees settled. The tradition of descent runs down through 
two branches of the family, and is believed to be correct. Thomas, the ancestor 
of the American Kenderdines, immigrated from Llan Edlas, North Wales, about 
1700, and settled at Abington, Philadelphia county. Of his three children, 
Mary married a Hickman and probably went to Chester county, Richard settled 
on the property lately owned by Jolm Shay, Horsham, as early as 1718, and 
Thomas on the Butler road half a mile below Prospectville, whose dwelling is 
still standing with the letters T. and D. K. cut on a stone in the gable. The late 
John E. Kenderdine, fourth in descent from Thomas, was born in 1799 and died 
in 1868. He removed to Lumberton 1834, and spent his life here in active 
business pursuits — milling, farming, lumbering, erecting buildings, etc. Pie 
was identified with all improvements, and gave the locality a greater business 
repute than it had enjo_\ed before. Pie was an active politician. In 1843 he 
was defeated for the State Senate by two votes, and again in 1866 for Asso- 
ciate Judge, with his whole ticket. His two sons, Thaddcus S. and Robert, 
served in the Civil war, the latter being killed at Gettysburg. Watson Ken- 
derdine, son of John E. Kejiderdine, succeeded his father in business on his 
death, and filled his place in social and political life. Pie was born at Horsham, 



22 There is a tradition that General Pike was born on the farm owned by 
Ezekiel Evcritt, Solcbnrj', and a furtlur tradition among the old men, that wlicn 
a boy he was noted for his crnelty, 

23 The roof of the old hnilditiR, in which Lieut. Pike was confined, at Santa Fe, 
fell in the day David Meriwether, the newly appointed Governor arrived there, lSs3, the 
somewhat superstitions Mexicans considering this a good omen. 

24 It is claimed that the family of Pikes, from which the General was descended, 
was settled at Newbnry, Massachusetts, as early as 163S, whence a member removed 
to Middlesex county. New Jersey, wlure his father -was born, 1751. 

25 The distinguished English authoress. Miss Muloch, makes use of the name for 
two of her heroines in "Woman's Kingdom," Edna and Lcttie, out of respect for a 
\'cry intimate friend of her mother's, named Kenderdine. 



^84 HISTORY OF BUCKS COUNTY. 



1830, four years prior to his father's removal to Bucks county, and married a 
daughter of Nathan and ^larthii Preston, I'hniistead. He died March 19, 1900, 
leaving- a widow and three daughters, two married and one single 

Tiie Kuckmans settled earl) in I'lunistcad, where tlie late John Ruckman 
of Solcbury was born, 1777. The family trace the descent back to John Ruck- 
man, who immigrated from England to Long Island at a very early day. Thence 
they removed nito New Jersey, where John's grandson, Thomas, was born, 
1721. John Ruckman's father, James, was born, 1748, married ]Mary, sister of 
Colonel William Hart, of l'lum.--tcad, whither he removed, and died there, 1834. 
John Ruckman moved into Solebury on his marriage and probably settled at 
Lumberville, where he was living, 1807, which year he removed out into the 
township on th.c farm where his family now reside and where he died, 1861. 
He was prominent in politics, and was Associate-Judge of the county several 
years. 

William Siavely, a prominent resident of Solebury, many years, died at his 
residence "Partridge Hall," ^larch 22, 1877. He was a descendant of John 
Stavely, who settled in Kent county, Maryland, 16S0, and was born in F'redcr- 
ick county, June 24, 1800. Pie learned priming in Philadelphia, and carried on 
the business there several years. He established the Episcopal Recorder. In 
1839, 1^^ purchased the Guy Bryan plantation in Solebury, and there spent tlie 
remainder of his useful life. His estate was one of the finest in the county, and 
he did nmch to iinprove agriculture. It \vas largely through j\lr. Stavely's 
efforts Trinity Episcopal church, Centreville, was built, and he was a liberal 
contributor to all its necessities. 

The first flour-mill in Solebury was undouljtedly that of Robert Heath, on 
the Great Spring stream. 1707; before that time the inhabitants getting their 
supply of flour from },liddletowu and the Pennypack. About 1730 Ambrose 
Barcroft and John Hough erected a "water corn-mill'' on the Paunacussing, 
at Carversville, which in 1765 was known as Joseph Pryor's. Besides this there 
were Phillips's mill, 1765, Canby's in 1762, and Jacob Fretz's fulling-mill in 
1789. The ElHcotts owned the mills at Carversville several years. The Armi- 
tage mill, on die Cullalossa, was among the early mills in the township, built by 
Samuel .\rmitage, who immigrated from Yoi"kshire, England, to Solebury, be- 
fore 1750. It is still standing and in use, but it and the fifty acres belonging 
passed out of the family, 1861, into the possession of Jonathan Lukens, Hor- 
sham. Two hundred acres adjoining the mill property were recently in posses- 
sion of the family. Samuel Armitage died, i8or, at the age of eighty-five. The 
first mill at Lumlierton was built in 175S by William .Skelton, who continued in 
possession to 1771, when he snld it to John Kuglcr. lie rebuilt it berween that 
time and 178 J, when he soil it to George Warnc. It was subsequently used for 
a store, dwelling and cC)Oper-shop, and taken down 1828. 

John Kuglcr came to .\mcrica. 1753. when a boy of thirteen, landing at 
Philadelphia. Being unable to pay his passage his time was sold to a Mr. East- 
burn, who lived near Centre Hill. Solebury township, who brought the young 
immigrant up. Kuglcr afterward learned the milling trade; married a Miss 
Worthingtou and had one son, Joseph. He married Elizabeth Snyder, who bore 
him four sons. John Kuglcr married twice, his second wife lieing Mrs. Rambo, 
of South Carolina. He purchased tlie tavern [irnpcrty at Centre Bridge, and 
while living there, bought the Luinbcrton mill. His grandsr.n. John, also a 
miller, was the owner of four hundred and sixty-three acres on the east bank of 
the Delaware, and the villa-je of Frenchtmvn was laid out and built upon it. 
This bind was conveyed to him. 1782-83. We know of no person living in the 




KL'GLER'S MILL. UMBEKTON. 



county bearing the name of Kiigler. Some of the descendants oi John Kugler 
are said to be Hving above Frenchtown, New Jersey, and also of Mrs. Rambo- 
Kugler, bv her first husband. Kugler removed to New Jersey soon after his 
purchase and passed the remainder of his life there. He was a man of great 
enterprise, built a sawmill, burnt lime, farmed and freighted goods on the 
Delaware to and from Philadelphia, in a Durham boat. 

In Solebury, as elsewhere, the early settlers clung to the bridle paths 
through the woods until necessity compelled them to open roads. We cannot 
sav when the first township road was laid out. There was a road from the river 
toDarcroft's mill, and thence to the York road, 1730. About the same time a 
road was laid out from Coryell's ferry to the Anchor tavern, WrightstL.wn, 
v.'here it united with the ^liddle or Oxford road, thus making a new contiiuKuis 
highway from the upper Delaware to Philadelphia. It was reviewed, 1801. In 
173G a road was laid put from John Rose's ferry, now Lumberville, to "S'ork 
road, and from Howell's ferry, now Centre Bridge, 1765, and from Kugler's 
mill, Luniberton, to Carvcrsville and thence to the Durham road, 17S5. Al- 
though the Street road beiv,-een Solebury an<l Piuckingliam, was allowed about 
1702, it was not laid out by a jury until Septemljer 2, \/',<'>.''^ It was viewed by 
a second jury August 6. 1748. In 1770 it was extended from the lower corner 
of these townships to the road from Thonijjson's mill to Wrightstown. The roa<l 
from the river, at the lower end of Lumberville to Ruckman's was laid out and 
opened 1S32. Owing to the ojiposition an act was obtained for a "state road" 
from Easton to Lumberville, thence across to Ruckman's and down the Y«jrk 
road to \\'illow Grove, which gave the local road desired, with but trilling al- 
teration in the old roads. The late James ^I. Porter, of Easton, was one of the 
jurymen, and Samuel Plart the surveyor. The "Suggin" road is probably the 
oldest in the township ar.il originally a bridle path, along whicli the settlers of 
Plumstead took their grain to the Aquetong mill, above Xcw Plope, to be ground. 
It left the Paunacussing creek at Carvcrsville, running northeast through Will- 
iam R. Evans's and Joseph Robert's farms, crossing the present n.iad near Jo- 
seph Sachet's gate, thence through Aaron Jones's wonds to meet the present 
road near Isaac Pearson's, and by Armitage's mill, Centre Hill and Solebury 
meeting-house to New Hope. 



26 The jury were Rolicrt .Smith, Franci'! lloutjh, John Fisher, Jolin Dawson, and 
Henry I'.ixicn, and it was surveyed by John Chapman. 



286 



HISTORY Of BUCKS COUNTY. 



Half a mile southeast of Carvcrsvilie, on- the road to Aqneton^, is an old 
graveyanl known as tlie "Sebring-"' graveyard, and in it were buried the former 
owners of the four hundred and fifty acre tract of which it ^vas a part. The 
tract is now surrounded by jmlilic roa'ls; ou the northeast by the road above 
mentioned, the Luniber\ille road on the southeast, the Street road on the 
southwest, and tlic.r":ul froni the Street road to Mahlon Carver's corner 
on the northwest. It was laid out li- Thomas Carnes in 1702. He devised 
it to his aunt Ellen Saunders of Yorkshire, England, the same year ; she to 
George Parker, Yorkshire, same year, late of Philadelphia; he to Ambrose 
Piarcroft, Talbot county, ^Maryland, in 1723. In 1724-25 Barcroft was 
drowned in the' Delaware, when the property descended to his three 
sons, Willianij Ambrose and John. The second Ambrose Carcroft and 
John Hough were the builders of the Carversville mill, about 1730; and William 
and John P.arcroft conveyed their share of the four hundred and fifty acre tract 
to John Sebring in I74''i. Eater the tract was found U< contain but four hundred 
acres. The Sebring family of Dutcli ancestry, came from Province of 
Drcntiie, Holland, and settled on Eong E-land prior to 1700. JMajor Cornelius 
Sebring was a large landowner on Eong Island and a member of Assembly in 
i^)95-i7_'3. The family subsequently removed to Xew Brunswick, or rather 
Roelof, a member of it did, settling at the Raritan, where he married a daughter 
of the Rev. Joliannes Thcodorus Polhenuis. His son, Jan, or John, Sebring, re- 
moved to Solcbury in 1742, where he died in 1773. in his seventy-second year, 
leaving four sons, Roelof, John, Fulkerd and Thomas, to whom the land de- 
scended. The son, Thomas, was a captain of militia during the Revolution. 
Probably the oldest stone in the Sebring graveyard is that marked "A. B." sup- 
posed to be the grave of Ambrose Barcroft. Sr. There also are found the tomb 
stones of John Sebring, Sr., 1773. John Sebring, Jr., 1777, Hugh McFall, 1786, 
John Leasman, 1793, and a number of others, ranging in dates from 1766 to 
1779. Among the clescenilants of John Sebring are Judge William Sebring, 
Easton, William .^ebring Kirkpatrick. late member of Congress from North- 
ampton county, and the widow of the late General John F. Hartranft. 

The villages of 
Solcbury are, Eum- 
berville and Lum- 
berton lying con- 
>,.^ tiguous on the iJel- 
^ii^'.v aware. Centre 
*->'■•' Bridge below on 
, -;i.^ the ru'cr, Leiitre 
' .~>''l Plill in the interior 
sT:-' of the township, 
- ~" Carversville on the 
--?y Paunacnssing, Cot- 
'.'~;, tageville, and New 
"-.-J.7: Hope, an incorpor- 
:^'V;. ated borough. 
;.-—-- .Ybnut 1785 the 

site of Eiunberville 
\vas o\viu<l bv Col- 
■' ■' onel George ' Wall 

and William I laniblet'^n. We know but little of HamMei.'n. but W'M was an ac- 
tive patriot of the 1\'-V' lutioii. and .a u-aw of inilui i.cv. Ik- built twi^ saw-mills 




HISTORY OF BUCKS COUXTV. 287 

and carried on the lumber business, was justice of the i)eace, and followed sur- 
veying and conveyancing. His dwelling and office stood on the site of Lukens 
Thomas's new house. At one time he kept a school to instruct young men in 
surveying, and died, 1804.-' Hambleton's dwelling was oiipositc Coppernose, 
;it what was called "Temple bar," probably from a gravel bar in the river, and 
w.'.s taken down, 1S28, when the canal was dug. He died about 1797, leaving 
his estate to his son Thomas, who sold it in 1807. The place was known as 
Wall's sawmill and Wall's landing as late as 1814, when the name was changed 
to Lumberville b)' Heed and Hartley who carried on the lumber business there. 
In 1810 there were a few dwellings, a store and tavern and other improvements 
were made in subsequent years. The road then ran near the river, with the 
houses on the upper side, but the canal destroyed it and the present road was laid 
out. The tavern was burned down about 1828, and rebuilt. Since then several 
new buildings have been erected, including a Methodist church, and a substan- 
tial bridge across the river. The church was built, 1S36. and re-built on the 
o])posite side of the road, 1S69, with a frame basement thirty by fifty feet. The 
bridge was commenced in 1S54, and finished, 1857, built by Chapin and .An- 
thony Flv at a cost of SiS.ooo. The Lumberville library was founded in the 
fall of 1823, the first meeting on tlie subject being held at the Athenian school 
h<>use near the village, which \\"illiara L. Hoppock, Samuel Hartley, Aaron 
\\ hite, Joseijh Heed,-' and Cyrus Livezey attended, among others. Tlie shares 
were five dollars each. }vlr. Hartley was the first librarian, and the library was 
kept in his ottice. The b^oks were sold at public sale, 1833, because there was no 
]i!acc to k'ccp the three hundred and fifty volumes that had accumulated. During 
its short existence it did considerable to improve the literary taste of the neigh- 
borhood. The post-office was established, 1835, and William L. Hoppock ap- 
pointed postmaster. 

Lumbcrton, less than a mile below Lumberville, was known as Rose's 
ferr)-'-' before the Revolution, when there was a grist and sawmill belonging to 
William Skelton. Jacob Painter and Reuben Thorne became the owners, 1796. 

27 George Wall was one ot tlie must proniineiit men in the county during- tiiat 
Revolutionary struggle. In l~7S lie was appointed lieutenant of Bucks with the rank of 
colonel, and his commission is signed by Thomas Wharton and Timothy Matlack. In 
17S7, George Wall invented and patented a new surveying instrument called a 
" Trignometcr." The Legislature granted him a patent for 21 years, the act being 
signed September 10, 1787. Among those who recommended the instrument were John 
Lukens. Surveyor General of Pa., David Rittenhouse. the astronomer, and .Andrew 
Ellioolt, subsequently surveyor general of the United States. In 17SS Wall published 
a pamphlet descriptive of tlie instrument. George Wall, Jr. and David Forst were the 
accnt^ for the sale of coniiscated estate in I'ucks county. "George Wall" and "George 
Wall. Jr." were one and the same person. He was the son of George Wall, his mother 
Dcin.g the widow of .\ndre\v EUicott and daughter of Thomas Bye. 

28 The Heeds were early settlers in Solebury but we have not the date of their 
.-irrival. Abraham Heed, who died May la 1S43, at the age of 102, was a remarkable 
ni.iii. Beginning life as a farmer, by indolent habits he became bankrupt in a few years. 
This dill not discourage him and he started anew as a gunsmith, his trade; then bought 
re.il est.iie, built borne and inill. run linio kilns, carried on lumbering and other occupa- 
li'iiis. being successful in all. He held the office of justice of the peace, and at his death 
V.e left 142 descendants. 

j'l The right of landing wa~ reserved to Jolni Rose in the deed of William Skeltuu 
of Kngb.T, 1771. 



288 HISTORY Ol' BUCKS COUA'TV. 



The l.iUcr kept llie icrry, and the place was called Painter's ferry and had a 
tavern and a sture. It was a favorite crossing for persons going- from upper 
Jersey to I'hiladelphia wIkj fell into the \ ork road at Centre Hill. Painter, who 
died, 1805, probably built a new mill and the subsequent owners were Joseph 
Kugler, John Gillingham, Jeremiah King, Thomas Little and John E. Kender- 
dinc. Tlie canal co\ers the site of the hrst mill, a long, low and narrow stone 
building. Gillingham rebuilt the tavern, 1816 or 1817, about which time it had 
fallen into bad repute, and was called '"Hard Times."-"''- A tavern has not been 
kept there since 184:.'. When I\lr. Kenderdine enlarged his mill, 1S34, he pulled 
down the old Pike dwcllnig. Luiiiberlon contains a lew dwellings and a grist- 
mill. Here is a valuable quarry of light-colored granite, owned and worked by 
a company, developed when the canal was constructed and the stone were used 
to build abutments and wingwalls of bridges. The new locks at Xew Hope 
were built of it. The quarry was bought by John E. Kenderdine, 1833, and sold 
by his administrator, 186S. On July 12, 1877, a blast of twenty kegs of pov/der 
made at this quarry, threw down a ledge 63 feet long, 27 feet high and 39 feet 
deep containing about 60,000 feet of stone. The stone trimmings for the new 
court house, Doylestown, came from this quarry. Mr. Kenderdine gave the 
place the name of Lumberton. The Indian name of the island in the Delaware 
opposite Lumbervillc was Paunacussing, which it retained until 1721, when John 
Ladd and R. Bull bought a large tract in that vincinity, which soon fell into 
the possession of Piull, and was then called Bull's island. Paxson's island, 
lower down the ri\tr, took its name from Henry Paxson, an early settler 
in the townshljj. PI is nephew, Thomas, inherited two hundred and nine 
acres along the Delaware including the island, which contained one hundred 
acres. The island was the cause of much trouble to the Paxsons, the Indians 
claiming the title to it on the ground that they had not sold it to Penn. About 
1745 they offered to sell it to Paxson for £5, but he refused to buy with the 
Proprietary's sanction, in the first deed it is called a "neck," and 1745, ^^■as 
an island only about three months in the year. 

Centre Bridge, four miles below Lumberville, was called Reading's ferry 
soon after 1700, from John Reading, who owned the ferry-house on the New 
Jersev side, and afterward HowcH's ferry from the then owner. It was so 
called, 1770. It was knuwn as ^Nlitchel's ferr\- before the present century. In 
1810 it had but one dwelling, in which John Alitchel, the ferryman, lived, who 
kept the tavern there for many \ears, and died, 1824. At one. time he repre- 
sented tlie county in the Assembly. The bridge was built across the river, 1S13, 
when it took the name of Centre Bridge half way between Lumberville and Xew 
Hope. Since then several dwellings and two stores have been erected. The 
posl-olhce was established at Centre Hill, 1S31, and John D. Balderston post- 
master, but changed to Centre Bridge, 1S45,. 

Carversville was originally called Milton, which name it bore in 1800. .-\t 
the beginning of the century it contained a gristmill, store, smith-shoii, etc. 
About 1811, Jesse Ely. built a woolen factory, oil-mill, and taimery ; the factory 
was burned down, iSt(). and re-built. Isaac Pickering opened a tavern here 
1813-14, and kejH it to his death. 1816, when it. and the property of Jesse Ely 
were bought by Thomas Carver who carried on business to his death, 1854. A 
po^t-o^^lce was established 1833, ai!<l the )>lace called Carver.sville. Since then 

jo; J TIic siijn blew ilcwii .-md tlic Irin.TiOrd pul up a \vlnt^v^,^ll^^l winilow sluittcr in 
its stc.Tl, on which iio wr. ae with ;;ir the words "Hard Times," and limos did Jock 
hard enoimh l!icrcal)Otil<;. 1 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUXTY. 289 



tiic village has considerably iniprovc-d, several dwellings, Free and Presbyterian 
clmrclics, a large schuul building, a store, etc., erected, and a cemetery laid out. 
'i'lie I'resbytenan congregation was organized about 1870, and the church, a 
pretty Gothic structure, that will seat about three hundred, was built, 1874, at 
a cu>t of $4,500. In 181 1 a woolen factory was built at Fretz's mill, on the road 
iium Carversville to the Delaware, and run until abuut 1819 or 1820. A clover- 
niill was afterward biult, and burned down, 1S33, when a gristmill was erected 
on the site. Centre Hill, known as the "Stone school-house" a century and a 
half ago, contained only a store, one dwelling, and an old school house, in 18 10, 
but, within more recent years, several dwellings have been erected, an additional 
store opened and mechanics established. Cottageville has several dwellings, and 
.1 schoolhouse. The Solebury Presbyterian church was organized, 181 1, mainly 
through the efforts of ^vlrs. Rebecca Ingham, I\Irs. Johanna Corson, and ]\[rs. 
Elizabeth Neeley, of the Xewtown congregation. It has about one hundred 
members, and the yearly collections amount to nearly one thousand dollars. 
The church was repaired in recent years by \\'illiam Xeeley Thompson, of New 
York, but a native of Eucks, and is now one of the most beautiful in the county. 
It is now known as the "Thompson Memorial church," after Thomas JNI. Tliomp- 
son in whose memor_\- it was re-built by his son. It contains four very fine mem- 
orial windows, to commemorate the virtues of two men and two women, one of 
the former a loved pastor, the Reverend Doctor Studiford. The present pastor 
is the Rev. Adolphus Kistler. The Solebury Baptist church grew out of a meet- 
ing of twenty-one persons of this faith held at Paxson's Corner, now Aquetong, 
the 6th of }ilarch, 1843. They resolved to organize a Baptist church, and it was 
constituted the 2Sth of the same month with thirteen constituent members; 
Charles F. Smith, Joseph Evans, Leonard Wright, Ann Walton, Catharine 
Xa_\lor, George Gathers, Xelson H. Coffin, Jacob Naylor, David R. Xaylor, Ira 
Hill, ^Margaret Smith and Susan Smith. The membership was increased to 
thirty-one by the middle of the following May. The Reverend J. P. Walton 
was the first pastor, serving the church to 1845, when it was supplied, until 1849, 
by Reverend W. B. Srope, Lambertville, Xew Jersey. The Reverend Joseph 
Wriglu was now called and remained until 1S54. In 1S51 an addition was 
built to the church. The pastors in succession afterward were, Joseph N. Fol- 
well, 1854, W. W. Beardslee, 1S56, Samuel G. Kline, 1859, ?\lartin ^L King, 
iSCo, and Silas Livermore, 1863. The church was closed in Septeinber, 1866, 
on account of the reduction in membership by death and removal, and was not 
reo])eiicd for worship until October id, 1809. In November of that year George 
H. Larison, M. D., a deacon of the First Baptist church of Lambertville, was 
called to the pulpit, and served the church several years. He is now deceased. 
He was ordained pastor in 1S72. Under his pastorate ninety-three were added 
to the church bv baptism, and many others by letter. The house was repaired, 
187 1, at an expense 01 S2.oeX), and is now a commodious place of worship. 

In response t(.i a long-felt want and urgent need of a school for higher edu- 
cation in middle Bucks, the Excelsior Normal Institute was established at Car- 
versville, 185S, and a charter- obtained. The movement secureil tlie co-opera- 
ti'in of the Rev. F. R. S. Hunsicker. then principal of the l-'reeland Seminary, 
( 'r.lK.<rcville, Montgomery county. Mr. Hunsicker was appointed principal with 
\\'illiaiu W. Fell. Mary Ilamplon and William T. Seal as-i.-taiits. The school 
w;is opened in October. 1S59, with a good attendance, occuiiying a convenient: 
building erected for the purpose. It was popular frum the rir>t and the most 
prominent families became its warm supju^rters and |i:ttrons. Mr. Ilinisicker 
retired in iShJ, and Iron.i that time in iSO^ the schni.'l in succession was in 



.?90 HISTORY OF BUCKS COUNTY. 



charge of William T. Seal, William R. Evans, Air. Fish, Dr. G. P. Bctts, and 
Samuel B. Carr. In 1S67 Air. Hunsicker again assumed charge, being suc- 
ceeded by Simeon S. Overholt in 1872. The Normal Institute proper was 
closed, 1874, but the academic department was continued a year longer under 
Henry O. Harris.-"" The property was now sold to William R. Evans, who re- 
modeled the building, and for a time was a popular summer resort. Among 
•the popular instructors in the institute, besides those named were A. M. Dickie, 
John Peoples, William G. White, William P. 2^1. Todd, George P. Belts, :\l! 
D., iM. F. Bechtol and Lizzie Hunsicker and others. Alany of the pupils have 
reached positions of honor, among them Judge D. Newlin Fell, State Supreme 
x:ourt, Judge Pancoast, Camden, N. J., Judge Henry Scott, common pleas, 
Northampton county, I'ennsylvania, county superintendents, Eastburn and 
Slotter, and others in the learned professions. l"he "Excelsior Normal Insti- 
tute" made its mark on the community. 

On the banks of the Delaware, at the lower end of Lumberville, rises a 
headland fifty ftet high called Coppernose. Local antiquarians say it was so 
called because copperhead snakes were found there in olden times, and William 
Satterthwaite, an eccentric poet and schoolmaster of the township, has the 
credit of being the author of the quaint name. From the top of this bold 
promontory is obtained a fine view up and down the river, with tlie islands, the 
bold shores on cither side, with the hamlets of Lumberville and Lumberton 
nestling at the declivity of the western highlands. Half a mile below, the Cutta- 
lossa,^^ in a tortuous course of three miles, empties into the Delaware after 
turning several mills. It is a romantic stream and its beauties have been herald- 
ed in both prose and poetry.^- John G. \Miittier, the poet, lived on the banks 
of the Cutlalossa during parts of 1839 and iS.;o, on the \\'atson Scarborough 
premises. 

Opposite the old grist-mill, and in hearing of the patter of its dripping 
wheel, a beautiful fountain bearing its name has been erected. A never-failing 
spring gushes out from underneath the roots of a large tree, on the summit of 
a wooded knoll thirty yards west of the woods and twentv feet above the level 
of the creek. Years ago the late John E. Kenderdine placed a wooden trough 
to catch the water after it came down the gully, and utilized it for the traveling 
public, and, in the summer of 1873, ^ f^^^' hberal persons, in and out of the 
neighborhood, contributed money to erect the beautiful stone fountain that now 
adorns the locality. A leaden pipe conveys the water down the hill and under 
the road to the fountain where it falls into a marble basin four feet square. 
A figure stands in the middle of the basin surmounted by a shell through which 
the water escapes in threadlike jets to the height of twelve feet, and an iron- 
fence protects it from intruding cattle. At the roadside near the spring is a sub- 

30 Mr. Hnrrii and Mr. Eastburn are both members of the Bucks county bar settled 
at Dnylc^t.^WU. 

jt In 1S97 William J. Bvick issued a publication of ninety pages — originally printed 
in the Bucks County Intclligcnci:r, 1^7-;, entitled "The Cuttalossa and its Historical, TraJi- 
tior.al and Poetical Association." It is replete with matter of a highly interesting char- 
acter, hut \vc have not space to inrlulire in quotations from it. 

32 Tradition, not of the most reliable character, says it received its name from a 
strayed Indian child, named Quattie, meeting a hunter in the woods and cryin.t; "Qunttie 
lossa," meaning tliat Quattie was lost, .and from that the name was gradually chan.geJ 
to its present. CutJalossa. It is called "Quatielassy" and "Quctyelassy" in a deed of 
1702. 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUNTY. zgi 

.-.triiitial stone watering trough, flanked by a wall. At the two extremities of the 
wall are columns, two feet square and six high, with a marble slab set in each. 
I 111 one is the inscription: ■'Cuttalossa fountain, erected 1S73, by admirers of 
ji-.e beautiful," and the other: 

"Are not cold wells, 
And crystal springs. 
The very things. 
For our hotels?" 

A flight of steps ascends the steep, wooded bank at each end of the wall, 
.-■.nd graveled paths lead to the grounds surrounding the spring. On the slope, 
water, from other fountains supplied by branches from the main pipe, leaps up 
from the ground and falls into miniature basins and a rustic bridge spans the 
>treain just above. The grounds about are pleasantly laid out, seats placed in 
inviting spots and hilching-posts for horses. During the summer it is a great 
:-csort for croquet, and other parties, which spend pleasant hours in the shades 
<■! the romantic Cuttalossa.^" The beauties of this locality have been sung by 
i^olebury's sweetest poet.'* 

"While Ciittalossa's waters 

Roll murmuring on their way, 
'Twixt hazel chimps and alders, 

'Xcath old oaks <iuarled and gray,'* 
While just across the valley 

From the old, old grist-mill come 
Tlie water-wheel's low pauer, 

The niilhtone"s drowsy hum.'"' 

Here sparkling from its birthplace. 

Just up the rifted hill, 
In tiny cascades leaping 

Comes down a little rill. 
Till ill a plashing fountain 

It pours its crystal tide 
Jn^t where the road gnes winding 

To tlie valley opening wide. 

Thy beeches old and carven 

Willi names cut long ago ; 
Thy wooded glens, dark shadowed. 

Beside thy murmuring flow, 
Thy spice-wood fringed meadows, 

The hills that sloped beyond, 
The mills that drank thy waters 

From many a glassy pond.^' 

T-,3 We have the authority of William J. Buck for saying that there was an Indian 

village called Qualyelossa about the present dam of Armitage's old mill as late as 
1705, and it probably gave the name to the stream. 

34 Thaddi-us S. Kenderdine. 

35 Referring to the upper end of the valley. 

36 Alluding to the old mill, built 1758. ; 

37 Referring to the foiint'in near the mill. 



292 HISTORY OF BUCKS COUNTY. 

Thy rivulets, laurel-shaded, 

Thy hemlocks, towering high; 
My home beside thy waters. 

Thy river rolling by. 
All crowd into my memory, 

Called up by the conjuring Past, 
Oh, I'll foryct them, never! 

W'liile life and memory last." 

At tlie middle of the last century there were three taverns in the townsliij), 
at each of the three ferries, Rose's, lioweU's and Coryell's, principally to accom- 
modate foreign travel. The hostelry at Rucknian's was opened at a later day, 
but a public house has not been kept there for many years. At what time it was 
first licensed we do not know, but was kept by one Da\-id Forst in 17S9, and 
probably several years earlier. 

In 1854, accident led to the discovery of an old mine on the farm of John 
T. Keeley, two and a half miles below New Hope, the mouth covered with a 
large flat stone. The drift, with an opening through solid rock, seven feet by 
four, runs into the hillside about si.xty feet, where it meets a chamber fifteen 
feet square and eight or ten feet high, with a pillar in the centre hewn out of 
solid rock. Here is a shaft about forty feet deep, and to the riglit of the cham- 
ber is an oblique shaft about ten feet wide and from thirty to forty high, and 
opens further up the hill. The drift terminates in the solid rock. There are no 
other evidence of mining operations, and no minerals found except a few pieces 
of copper picked up among the debris. There is no tradition as to whe-n, or 
by whom, the exca\'ations were made, but it must have been at the early settle- 
ment of the country for large trees are now growing over the old excavations. 
The Proprietaries sold the tract to William Coleman, and by him, about 1730, 
to James Hamilton, Langhorne Uiles, Joseph Turner, William Plunistead, 
William .Allen and Lawrence Growden. Three years after they sold it to Robert 
Thompson, reserving to themselves the right to dig and search for metals. As 
these gentlemen were interested in the Durham works, no doubt they purchased 
the property to secure the supposed minerals and caused the excavations to be 
made. Alany years ago the late John Ruckman leased the property and em- 
ployed an engineer from New York to superintend the excavations. He tni- 
covcred the jiassage and shafts. mentioned but did not find copper in sufticient 
quantities to justify working it. The engineer decided that the original exca- 
vations had been made b)- German miners. The location is on the west side of 
Bowman's hill. 

Among the physician:^ of the past and present generations, of Solebury, 
wonh.y of notice are, John Wall, the son of Colonel Wall, who 'was 
born, 17S7, and studied with Doctor Jnhn Wilsr^n. He appeared to be a physi- 
cian by intuition, and would prcscrihe lor the most difficult case and conduct it 
successfully without being able to tell why he u.^ed this or that remedy. He had 
a large practice, and was popular and successful, but drank to excess, and died 
at Pittstown, New Jersey, i8_'6. at the early age of fortv; David Forst, tlie son of 
the host at Ruckman's, b..rn 17S9, a fellow student' of Doctor Wall, located 
at kingwocxl. 1807. and .lid. 1S21. aged thirtv-fivc vears : Charles Cowdric 
wasjiorn m 7833, siudicl with Doctors O. W. C. and L. L. Huugh. practiced 
at Red Hill and hVer.chiowii. and dicil at tlu- latter place, Deccmiier -, 1 , i.'s;7r, 
when he bid fair to become a ]ihysician of emiiKuce. Wc have alluiled else- 
where, to the Doctors Ingham, father an,l sn,,, whr, ranked anK.n<' the fir^t 
physicians of their day, botii l)orn in Soleburv. 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUNTY. 293 



When the Solebury Friends separated from Buckingfham, in 1808, and 
l.'.:ilt a meeting-house, tlic joint school fund was divided, the former townsliip 
i;itting $4,500 as lier share. Since the establishment of public schools this fund 
I'.as lain idle. Before 179 1 Samuel Eastburn conveyed a lot to John Scarbor- 
. ■ui^fh and others for a school-house, but we do not know where it was situated. 

On the farm of William E. Leedom, near Lumberville, stands a white oak 
twenty-three and one-half feet in circumference, beneath whose roots flows a 
>]iring that supplies the farm stock with water. Under it is a cavern that affords 
shelter to the hogs and poultry, when it storms. From this farm the spire of the 
IVesbyterian church, Doylestown, may be seen with a glass on a clear day. 
\'r\ov to the Revolution tlie farm is said to have been owned by a stock com- 
]);uiy for mining purposes, but was bought by Colonel George Wall, who occii- 
])ie(l it during the war. He sold it to Malhias Cowell about the close of the 
century and removed to Lumberville where he died. 

The Great Spring, likewise called bv the names of Logan and Ingham, three 
miles from New tlope, is one of the most remarkable in the State. It pours a 
volume of cool, pure water from a ledge of redshale anl limestone and flows to 
the Delaware in a stream that turns several mills. It was a favorite resort of 
the Indians and is said to have been the birthplace of Tecdyuscung. The small- 
f>ox broke out among the Indians at the spring soon after the country was set- 
tled and great numbers died. Not knowing it was infectious, many Indians 
visited the sick, contracted the disease and carried it home with them. Their 
treatment was sweating which was fatal. Believing it was sent by the whites 
lor iheir ruin, it came near breaking Indian confidence in the white man. The 
last Indian children in Solebury and Buckingham, went to school at the Red 
school house on the Street road, 1794, with the father of the author, then a 
small boy. Tlie late Charles Smith, Solebury, disputes with James Jamison, 
Buckingham, the honor of inventing a lime-kiln to burn coal. He is said to 
have built the first coal burning kiln, and that all others were fashioned after 
his invention. 

The first paper mill in the county was built about 1790, by Samuel D. Ing- 
ham on the stream that flows from the Great Spring. He learned the trade of 
l)aper making at the mill on the Pennypack when young, and when out of his 
time, returned home and erected the mill. The paper was made by hand, for 
several years, and hauled to Philadelphia, and on it was printed the early Bucks 
county newspapers. In 1836, a Fourdrinier machine was jnit in, the first mill 
in the state to use one. At this mill was made the first wrapping paper manu- 
factured from manila rope and bagging in Peimsylvania, bv Anthony Kelty, 
who rented it. It is still in operation. It was once destroyed by fire and re- 
built. The second mill was nearer the Delaware at Wells' falls, just below New 
Hope. A third mill, erected tliere, tSSo, manufactured manila paper for wrap- 
ping. 

We know but little of tlie population of Solebury at early periods. In 
1761 there were 138 taxablcs. In 17S4 there were 9S0 whites, but no blacks, 
166 dwellings and 150 outhouses. In 1810 the population was 1,659; 1S20, 
2.or)2\ 1S30, 2,961,^' and 503 taxablcs; 1840, 2,038; 1850, 2,486 whites, 148 
colored; 1S60, 2,875 whites, 139 colored; 1870, the population was 2,791, of 
which 156 were of foreign birth, and 125 blacks ; 1880, 2.648 ; 1890, 2,371 ; IQCO, 
2,082. 

38 The he.Tvy incrc.isc over 1R20, is evidently an error in tlie census figures. 




/ 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUNTY. 295 



llic map of New Hope, the largest village in Solebury township, drawn 
a:ul L-iigraved from one of 179S, gives the names of all the owners of real estate 
:ii it at that time. W'e insert it in this chapter, with the following explanation 
<■! the numbers upon the map, viz.: Xo. i, mills of B. and D. Parry; 2, stables, 
>iitto; 3, store and stone stables, ditto; 4, cooper shop, ditto; 5, orchard, ditto; 
0, liouse and garden, ditto; 7, ditto, ditto; 8, Beaumont's hatter-shop; 9 and 
10, Beaumont's tavern and barn; 11, house of Cephas Ross; 12, house of O. 
Hamjfton; 13, house and barn of J. Pickering; 14, house of J. Osmond; 15,, 
\'nnsarit's saw-mill ; 16, house; 17, house of B. and D. Parry; 18, house of B. 
Parry ; 19, Vansant's house ; 20, house and shop of A. Ely ; 21, B. and D. Parry ; 
22, Martha Worstall; 23. D. Parry's shop; 24, house, ditto: 25, Eli Doan's 
house ; 26, Enoch Kitchen's house ; 27, John Poor's house ; 28, barn, ditto : 29, 
Oliver Paxson's house ; 30, barn, ditto ; 31 and 32, Paxson's salt store and stable ; 
33, Coolbaugh's house; 34, William Kitchen's house. In a subsequent chapter 
will be found a lengthy account of the settlement of New Hope, with its present 
condition.^" 

39 Prior to 1745, there was not a two-horse wagon in Buckingham or Solebury, now 
among the riehest and most populous townships in the county. 



CHAPTKR XIX. 



HISTOKIC CHURCHES. 



1710 TO 1744. 



Population previous to 1710. — Cb.urches bi-tween 1710 and 1720. — St. James' Episcopa!. — ■ 
The graveyard. — W'hitefield and Zinzendorf. — Churclies established. — Whiteiield at 
Neshaminy. — Second visit. — The "Great Awakening." — David Brainard. — The "old" 
and "new side."— Division at Neshaminy. — Ihe Log CoUcge and William Tcnnent. — 
Samuel Blair. — Charles Bealty. — Neshaminy church founded. — Nathaniel Irwin. — 
Mr. Bclvillc. — Southampton Baptist church. — John Watts, Samuel Jones.- — Mr. Van- 
hornc, Mr. Montnnyo. — Deep Run church.^Francis McHenry.- — James Greir. — New- 
town church. — Hugh Carlisle. — James Boyd.— Revolutionary. — Robert D. Morris. — 
New Britain Eajnist church. — Child of a religious quarrel. — Growden gives ground. — 
Joseph Katon. — Reconciliation with Montgomery. — Strength of church. — Ministers' 
names. — Tohickon Reformed church. — Founded 1740-43. — Rev. Jacob Ries?. 1749.— 
John .Andrew Strassburger, most famous pastor, — Twelve pastors in 122 years. 

The population 01 lUicks county was composed almost exclusively of 
Englisii Friends previous to 17 10, if we except the feeble settlement of Rhode 
Island Baptists at Cold Spring, Bristol townshi]). Other sects and denominations 
came in at a later period; in their order, the English Episi-opalians, the Dutch 
Prolestanls, Scotch-Trish rresb_\terians, Welsh Baptists, and German Luther- 
ans and Reformed. Each denomination marked a difi'erent people, and intro- 
duced a new element into provincial civilization. Between 1710 and 1720 three 
den(3minational churches were established, St. James' I'.piscopal, r)ristol, what 
is now the Bcnsalem Presbyterian church, and the Low Dutch Reformed 
church of Xorthampton and Southampton. 

The St. James' E[n.-co|}al church, built 1711, and dedicated July 12, 1712, 
owes its fotmdaiion to the ".Society for the propag'ation of the gospel in foreign 
parts." The lot was tlie gift of ''.Anthony Burton, gentleman," and Queen Anne 
interested licrsclf enough in the feeble parish to give it a solid silver communion 
service, stoUn in after \ears. The first pastor was Reverend John Talbot, 
chaplaiit in the Engli?h navy and attached to the ship in which George Keith 
first came to America. lie and Talbot frunidcd St. Hilary's church, Burlington, 
and the latter used to cotne across the river to preach at Bristol before that 
church, was buill. lie ofticiated until 1727. and was succeeded by the fallowing 
rectors; Robert W'vnian, I7'^^, William Lindsav, 1739, C'olin Campbell. 1741, 
Mr. Odell, 1768, Mr. Lewis,' 1776, Henry Waddelf, 1806, Richard D. Hall, 



HISTORY OF BUCKS COUNTY. 297 



1813, Mr. Jacquetto, 1822. Albert A. Miller, J. \'. E. Thorn. William H. Reese, 
1S25, Grcenbury W. Ridgely, Thomas J. Jackson, William S. Perkins, 
1S33. Mr. Uartow. 1S55, Joseph W. Pearson, 1857, D. W. W. Spear, i86i. 
Doctor John H. Drunim, 1S63 to 1875. John C. ]^)rooks. 1876 to 1877. Joseph 
W. Lee, 1878 to 1SS5. William Leggett Kolbe, 1887 to 1891, and William Brice 
Morrow, 1892. DiKtor Drumm was a chajilain in the arni_\- during the Civil 
war, serving in the campaign on the Peninsula, and was subsequentlv rector 
of a parish in Rhode Island. The parish of St. James suffered during the Revo- 
lutionary war. The church was dismantled and turned into a cavalry stable, 
tiie graves trodden under foot, the congregation scattered. After the war it 
was used for a barn. It was without a rector, or regular service for thirty-one 
years until Mr. Waddell, Trenton, was called to ofticiate twice a month, 1806, 
for £50 a year. This venerable jwrish has passed through many tribulations 
but survived them all. The gifts of its early patrons have been mostly squan- 
dered yet it possesses valuable temporalities. The church edifice cost thirteen 
thousand dollars. 1857, and the congregation owns a comfortable rectory. 
Anthony Burton was one of the most active in the organization of the churcli, 
and John Rowland gave a lot on Mill street, 1715, to build a rectory on. Some 
o\ the early rectors received but £100 a year. The grave yard is one of the old- 
e>t in the county, and in it lie the remains of some of Bristol's earliest inhabit- 
ants. Near the grave of Captain Green, who carried the first American tlag to 
China, was buried Captain Sharp, Tenth United States infantry, who, while 
stationed just above Bristol, fell in a duel with the quartermaster of his regi- 
ment, 1798. Sharp was courting Miss Sarah McElroy, whose father kept the 
Cross Keys tavern. Bristol, many years. The duel grew out of a difficulty in 
relation to the lady and was fought on the farm owned by the late Charles T. 
Iredell just outside the borough limits. Sharp fell at the second fire. The lady 
never married. 

The next thirty-five years were marked by unusual religious excitement 
and activity. It was during this period that the celebrated Whitefield visited 
America, and stirred up the hearts of the people to their lost condition, and 
Zinzendorf and his disciples from Hernhutt settled in the wilderness on die beau- 
tiful Lehigh. The religious fervor j^rcvailing throughout the provinces mani- 
fested itself in this county and churches multiplied rapidly. The Neshaminy 
Presbyterian church was founded about 1720, possibly before. Southampton 
Baptist church. 1730. the Presbyterian church at Newtown in 1734, the church 
in the midst pf the Scotch-Irish settlements along the Deep run, Bedminster, 
about the same time, and the New Britain Baptist church, an offshoot of }>Iont- 
gomery and the child of a religious quarrel, 1744. In the establishment of 
these early churches, the parents of denominational religion in this county, we 
read in plain characters the history of the immigration of the period, for places 
of religious worship only kept pace with the spiritual wants of the population. 
It was during this period that the Brainards, with courage and self-denial 
equal to the early Jesuit missionaries, labored among the Indians at the Forks 
of Delaware, and now and then came down into the more settled parts of the 
county to preach, at Neshaminy. Newtown and elsewhere. In 1726 Reverend 
William Tcnncnt, one of the great lights of his generation, was called to the 
Neshaminy church, and sul)scc|uently established the Log College on the York 
mad, half a mile below Ilartsvillc, which, for years, was the only school south 
of New England at which young men could be fitted for the ministry. 

The visit of Reverciul George Whitefield to America. T730. gave a new 
impetus to tiie religious enthusiasm, alreadv prevailing. Me lan<lcd at Pliila- 



29S , HISTORY OF BUCKS COUNTY. 



delj)hia Xovcmber 2. and a week afterward. Mr. Tennent rode down from | 
Nesliaminy, oti horseback, to welcome the great evan!:jenst. who writes in his \ 
diary tliat he was "much comforted by the coming- of one Jilr. Tennent, an old | 
gray-headed disciple and soldier of Jesus Christ, who keeps an academy about | 
twenty miles from Philadelphia." On his return from New York, near the j 
close of the month. ^.Ir. Whitefield came by way of Neshaminy to visit }vlr. | 
Tennent. Leaving Trenton on the morning of November 22, he traveled across \ 
the country on horseback, in company with several friends, arriving at the ! 
church about nor.n. He was announced to preach there, and, on his arrival, I 
found about three thotisand people gathered in the meeting-house yard. He \ 
addressed them in words that melted the great auilience, and caused many to \ 
cry aloud. The meeting was closed by an exhortation by Gilbert Tennent. the \ 
singing of a psahn and a blessing. ]\ir. Whitefield. who went home with Mr. j 
Tennent and staid all night, writes in his diary: '"He entertained us like one 5 
of the ancient patriarchs. His wife to me seemed like Elizabeth, and he like | 
Zachary ; both, as far as I can find, walk in all the ordinances and comtnand- | 
ments of the Lord, blameless." In the morning he started for Philadcl])hia 1 
where lie arrived that afternoon, stopping long enougli at Abington to preach to 1 
two thousand people from a porch window of the meeting-house, and, "al- \ 
though tlie weather was cold, they stood very patiently in the open air." He i 
returned to Abington in April, and preached to between three thousand and 
four thousand people.^ 

April 23, 1745. Mr. Whitefield made a second visit to Neshaminy. Leaving 
Philadelphia about eight a. m.. accompanied by several friends, he arrived at 
three, having "baited at a friend's in the midway." That afternoon he preached 
in the meeting-house yard to about five luuulred people, and "great numbers 
were nnich melted down." That evening he rcxle to IMontgomery, eight miles, 
where he staid all night and. the next morning continued on to Skippack, 
sixteen miles further, where he preached to two thousand persons, passing 
through what "was seemingly a wilderness part of the country." T\Iay 7, 
Mr. Whitefield again came into the county, crossing the river to P.ristol. where 
he preached to about four hundred people and then returned to Philadelphia. 
At this time Whitefield is described as "of middle stature, slender body, fair 
complexion, comely appearance, and extremely bashful and modest. His de- 
livery was warm and aft'ectionate, and his gestures natural, and the most beau- 
tiful imaginable." Franklin, who attended his sermons, said: "He had a loud 
and clear voice, and articulated his words so perfectly that he Hiight be heard 
and understood at a great distance. 1 computed that ho might well be heard 
by thirty thousand." 

In 1745, a religiotis revival and excitement, called the "Great Awakening." 
broke out in various parts of the country, extending into this coiuitv. It was 
noted for several marvelous instances of persons being thrown into contortions, 
called "jerks," while under the influence of preaching. Some fainted, others 
saw visions, and manv were moved in various other ways. It broke out in the 
Neshaminy congregation in the spring of the year. and. in June, David P.rain- 
ard. the great missionarv. among the Indians, came down from the Forks to 
assist ls\r. Beatty the pastor. He tells us. in his jou